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Full text of "Biljana Sikimic - Skrivene manjine"

SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS 
INSTITUTE FOR BALKAN STUDIES 



SPECIAL EDITIONS 82 



HIDDEN MINORITIES 
IN THE BALKANS 



Editor 
Biljana Sikimic 

Editor in chief 

Ljubinko Radenkovic 

Director, Institute for Balkan Studies 




Belgrade 

2004 



CPnCKA AKAflEMHJA HAYKA H yMETHOCTH 
EAJIKAHOJIOLUKM HHCTHTYT 



nOCEBHA H3flAH>A 82 



CKPHBEHE MAEbHHE 

HA BAJ1KAHY 



YpeauHK 

EHJLaHa CHKHMHh 



O^roBopHH ype^HHK 

Jby6HHKO PafleHKOBHh 

ZlHpeKTop EajiKaHOJioiiiKor HHCTHTyTa CAHY 




Eeorpa^ 
2004 



ype^HBaHKH o/i,6op / Editorial board 
Taaa ITeTpoBHh, Christian Promitzer, BnjbaHa ChkhmhIi 

Peu;eH3eHTH / Reviewers 

AonncHH HJiaH CAHY Manopajx PaztoBanoBMh 

^onHCHH HJiaH CAHY BoJHCJiaB CraH0B4Hh 



npHXBaheno na ccahhuh OAejbeHba hctophjckhx HayKa CAHy 

31. MapTa 2004. 



Kbpaay h uiTaMnaEbe 36opHHi<a c[)HHaHCHpajiH cy MnmiCTapcTBO HayKe h 
3auiTHTe >KHBOTHe cpe,u,HHe Peny6jiHKe CpGnje h AycTpnjcKH cJDOtm 3a 

HayKy (FWF). 

The publication of this collection of papers was financed by the Ministry of 
Science and Environment Protection of the Republic of Serbia and the 

Austrian Science Fund (FWF). 



36opHHK ce o6jaBji>yje y OKBHpy paaa Ha npojcKTy 6poj 2167, no,n Hacjio- 
bom „ETHOJiHHrBHCTHHKa h couHOJiHHrBHCTHHKa HCTpa2KHBaH>a h H36erjiHLi;a 

H MyjlTHeTHHHKHX 3aje,ZXHHUa Ha BaJIKaHy", KOj'h 4>HHaHCHpa MHHHCTapCTBO 

3a HayKy h 3auiTHTy >KHBOTHe cpeAHHe PenyGnHKC Cp6HJe; Kao h pa^a Ha 
npojeKTy 6poj 15080, no,n HacjioBOM „CKpHBeHe Man>HHe H3Mel)y CpeflH>e 
EBponc h EajiKaHa", aycTpujcKor <DoH,n;a 3a yHanpel)eH>e HayKe (FWF). 

The collection is the result of the Project N<> 2167 entitled "Ethnolinguistic 
and sociolinguistic research of refugees and multiethnic communities is the 
Balkans" financed by the Ministry of Science and Environment Protection of 
the Republic of Serbia, and the Project Jfe 15080 entitled "Hidden Minorities 
between Central Europe and the Balkans'' financed by the Austrian 

Science Fund (FWF). 



CAfllOKAJ 



Bu/bana CukumuH 

CKPHBEHE MAH>HHE 7 

Kristijan Promicer 

(NE-) VIDLJIVOST SKRIVENIH MANJINA NA BALKANU. 

NEKA TEORIJSKA ZAPAZANJA 1 1 

Topdana AneKcaea 

CTATYCOT HA MAKEAOHU.HTE BO AJ1BAHHJA .... 25 

CiuoJKa EoJKoecKa 

CTATYCOT HA MAKE^OHCKHOT JA3HK BO PEnYEJIH- 

KA FPHHJA H BO PEnYEJlMKA EYEAPHJA 33 

Cuiauucnae CiuaHKoeuh 

MAKE^OHHH H MAKE^OHCKH JE3HK Y PEnYEJIHHH 

CPEHJH - PRO ET CONTRA 41 

Christian Voss 

LANGUAGE USE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF A 
PHANTOM MINORITY 51 

IJemKo Xpucmoe 

TPAHHUHTE HA «IUOnJIYKA» H/HJIH IIIOnH EE3 

TPAHHHH 67 

Can>a 3AaiuaHoeuh 

„inonoBH" y kocobckom noMOPABjty 83 

Maja ByKuh 

TETEBEHCKH EYrAPH Y HCTOHHOJ CPEHJH 95 

Klaus-Jiirgen Hermanik 

COLONIZING A (HIDDEN) MINORITY REGION - A CASE 
STUDY OF MULTICULTURAL PATTERNS IN THE SOUTH 
SLOVENIAN VILLAGE CRMOSNJICE/TSCHERMOSCHNITZ 107 

Zoran Janjetovic 

SVABE U VOJVODINI 121 

Thede Kahl 

CUVANJE JEZIKA, GUBLJENJE IDENTITETA: MEGLENSKI 
VLA SI 135 



6 CKI'HBEHEMAILMHEIIABA/IKAHy 

Zoran Plaskovic 

STATUS I ETNICKI IDENTITET CINCARA IZMEDU oce- 
KIVANJA I STVARNOSTI 147 

JoeaHKa Tbopfjeeuh Joeanoeuh 

tpuh y BEorPA^y 157 

Muxaj H. Padau 

y3POHH KOJIEEAIBA KAPA11IEBAKA nPM ETHHHKOM 
OnPEAEJLHBAH>y 177 

Ana Xo(pMctH 

nPOBJIEMH My3HHKOr H^EHTHTETA ByBEBA^KE HA- 
UHOHAJIHE 3AJE#HMHE y 3AriAAHOJ EAHKOJ .... 191 

Marija Vuckovic 

KAJKAVCI U BANATU: LINGVISTICKA SITUACIJA I POL- 

NA DIFERENCIJACIJA 199 

Tanja Petrovic 

LINGVISTICKA IDEOLOGIJA I PROCES ZAMENE JEZIKA 

NA PRIMERU SRBA U BELOJ KRAJINI 217 

Ferenc Csortan 

ALTERNATIVES OF IDENTIFICATION FOR A "HIDDEN 
MINORITY": THE CATHOLICS OF MOLDAVIA (EASTERN 
ROMANIA) 229 

Padueoje Mnadenoeuh 

CJIOBEHCKA JlHHrBHCTHHKA nPMnAflHOCT, KOHOE- 
CHOHAJIHA nPHnA^HOCT H ETHFRKH TPAHCOEP y 
CBETJiy CKPHBEHHX MAH>HHA HA jyT03AnAAy KO- 
COBA H METOXHJE 245 

Sikimic Biljana 

ETNOLINGVISTICKA ISTRAZIVANJA SKRIVENIH MANJINA 

- MOGUCNOSTI I OGRANICENJA: CERKEZI NA KOSOVU 259 

Mapunua HKUMoea 

BBJirAPCKATA TPAAMHAPCKA EMMrPAHHil B ABCTPH5I 

- CKPHTO MAJIHHHCTBO HJIH - ? 283 



AyTOPH 



293 



Bu/baua CuKUMuh 



CKPHBEHE MAH>HHE 

36opHHK CKpueeue Maibime na BajiKany caApacn paAOBe ca MeljyHa- 
poAnor HayHHor CKyna kojh je noA hcthm HacjiOBOM OAp>Kaii 25. h 26. cen- 
Teivi6pa 2003. y Beorpaay Kao pe3yjiTaT capaAH,e BajiKaHOJiouiKor HHCTnry- 
Ta CAHY ca HHCTHTyroM 3a HCTopnjy jyroncTOHne EBpone y Tpauy. I^hjl 
OBor HayHHor CKyna 6njia je AaJta pa3pa#a HAeja h 3aKJBynaKa jxo kojhx ce 
Aoihjio Ha paAHoiiHUH y PaflenuHMa, y Cjiobchhjh, MapTa 2001. roAHHe, 
noA HacjiOBOM „(CKpnBeHe) Marine: je3HHKH h cthhhkh HAeHTHTera y 
ajincKO-jaApaHCKOM peraoHy". y BeorpaAy je (j)OKyc noMepeH Ha npocTop 
caBpeMene jyroHCTOHHe EBpone ca jkcibom Aa ce yKa>Ke Ha SajiKancKe cne- 

HHC[)HHHOCTH CKpHBCHHX MaftHHa. HHane, TCpMHH „CKpHBeHe MaFLHHe" 3a 

caAa je caMO paAHH TepMHH 3a Mane eraHHKe, oahocho eTHorpa4)CKe rpyne 
Koje HHcy (f)opMajiHo npH3HaTe Kao MaitHHe y Ap>KaBaMa y KoJHMa >KHBe. 
Flo npaBHJiy, CKpHBeHe MaitHHe HeMajy HHCTHTyuHOHajmy noApuiKy 3a 
o6pa30Ba^e Ha MaTepn>eM je3HKy hhth 3a pa3JiHHHTe o6jihkc KyjrrypHHx 

aKTHBHOCTH. V CaBpCMeHHM ApyUITBeHHM H XyMaHHCTHHKHM AHCUHnJlHHa- 

Ma OBaj TeopnjcKH KOHHenTJom yBeK je KOHTpoBep3aH h npoBOKaTHBaH, na 
je h OBaj 36opHHK pe3yjiTaT acejte Aa ce o ibeiviy AHCKyTyje. Ochobhh nnjt 
HayHHor CKyna h OBor 36opHHKa paAOBa jecTe Aa ce pa3JiHHHTH, ajin Mel)y- 
co6ho ynopeAHBH acneKTH je3HHKor n eTHHHKor HAeHTHTeTa OBaKBnx rpy- 
na pa3MOTpe y HHTepAHCunnjiMHapiiOM KOHTeKCTy, H3 nepcneKTHBe cohho- 
jiHHrBHCTHKe, eTHOJiHHrBHCTHKe, HCTopnje, connojiorHJe, eTHOJioraje, aH- 
Tponojiornje, eTHOMy3HKOJionn'e n npaBHo-nojiHTHHKHX HayKa: „cKpHBeHa 
MaHbHHa" je CBaxaKO TpaHCAHcnnnjiHHapHH TepMHH. 

nonHTHHKe npoMeHe y jyroHCTOHHOj EBponn HMajy 3a nocjieAHuy 
npoMeHy OAnoca npeMa OBaKBHM MaitHHCKHM 3ajeAHHnaMa, ajin h npoMe- 
Hy cTpaTernja HAeHTHTeTa koa npnnaAHHKa caMHx 3ajeAHnna. Iipo6jieMa- 
THKa eTHHHKor h je3H4Kor HAeHTHTeTa 3axTeBa noce6Hy na>KH,y h y AOMe- 
Hy nojiHTHKe, a Ha HaynHHM HCTpa^HBaHHMa ocTaje Aa npeAJio>Ke HOBe 
TeopnjcKe nocTaBKe h MeTOAOJiornje paAa. 



8 CKPHBEHE MAH.HIIEHA EAJIKAHY 



OBaj 36opHHK paziOBa OKynHO je CTpynitaKe pa3JiMHHTHx npo^HJia 
kojh ce 6aBe aKTyejmnM, no npaBHjiy TepeiiCKHM HCTpa>KHBaH>HMa cKpn- 

BeHHX MaitHHa y pa3JlM4HTHM KOHTeKCTHMa M y pa3JIHHHTHM ACJIOBHMa jy- 

roHCTOHHe EBpone. Pa3MeHa MCKycTaBa, MHimteita h npHCTyna, Kao h 
HdHxobo cynpoTCTaBJbatbe, Haj6ojbn cy HanHH 3a eBajiyanHJy oHora iuto je 
AO cazia Ha obom nnaHy yparjeiio, i<ao h 3a OApel)HBaH>e Moryhnx npaBaua 
GyAyhnx HCTpa>KHBaH>a. 

PeziocjieA npnjiora y 36opHHKy yraaBHOM cjicah opraHH3an.HOHy 
cxeMy CKyna: noKa3ajio ce m je npoGjieMCKa KOHnennnja nejiHcxoAHHJa 
oa Moryher reorpacj)CKor npHHunna y peAOCJieAy npuriora. IlpHJi03H cy 
TaKo ocTajiH MaxoM rpynncaHH y Tpw TeMarcKe uejiHHe: — TepHTopnje h 
rpaHHue, — CaM00Aper)eH>e h OAperjeae on, CTpaHe Apyrnx, h — PenHinja, 
ajiH H3Mel)y obhx ycjioBHHx uejiHHa nocroje H 3HanaJHa npo>KHMaH>a. 

YBOflHa CTyAHJa KpHCTHJaHa IIpOMHHepa, CBOJeBpcxaH OMa>K 3aneT- 
HHUHMa eTHOJioraje y Cp6HJn — MaHojjiy CMHJtaHHhy h JoBaHy Ubhjh- 
hy, npo6;ieMaTH3yje nHTan>a BHAJbHBoerH h HeBHAJbHBOcrn ckphbchhx 
MaitHHa Ha BanKaHy, oTBapa hh3 hobhx nHTan>a Koja caA nenajy azieKBa- 
TaH o,aroBop, Ha npnrviep — Aa jih cy MHrpaHTH HCTa eTHHHKa Man>HHa h 
nocne 2-3 reHepauHJe huh cy aiviopc})Ha Maca Kojy rpe6a acHMHJioBaTH? 
CKpHBeHe MaftHHe cy SpojnaHO Majie nonyjiaunje ca 3ajeAHHHKHM nope- 
kjiom h HepemeHHM CTaTycoM npeMa Ap>KaBH y kojoj >KHBe (6hjio m caMe 
Hehe m Tpa>Ke MaitHHCKa npaBa hjih Aa hm to Hnje AonyniTeHo), 6e3 con- 
CTBeHe HHTeneKTyauHe ejinxe, necTo He nacrynajy Kao hojihthhkh cy6jeK- 
th h cnojta cy jiojajiHH npeiwa Ap>KaBH y kojoj Bouse (npeMa oniHTeM, 3a- 
naAHoeBponcKOM MOAeny HaHHOHajine xoMoreHH3annje). IIoctojh yny- 
Tpauifiba KOMyHKannja yHyxap caMe rpyne: 3ajeAHHm<H je3HK, pejinrnja, 
o6HHajn; H»eH AynyrpaJHH OTiiop acHMHJiauHJH H3BHpe H3 jioKajnie Tpa/ni- 
HHje. TTpoMHuep CMaTpa Aa he ci<pnBeHa MaibHHa BepOBaTHo Ha Ay>KH pox 
6hth acHMHUOBana, ann Hcrpa>KHBaH ne CMe 6hth HOCTajirHHaH (6e3 06- 
3Hpa Ha fteroBy no3Hnnjy HHcaJAepa hjih ay-rcaJAepa). Ha OBa eTHHKa nn- 
TaH>a HaflOBe3yje ce nnraKbe BH3ye.nH3an.HJe ckphbchhx MarbHHa h H>HxoBe 
nojiHTHHKe HHCTpyMeHTajiH3auHje jep caMH npnnaAHnnn necTO Hucy 
ocTaBHjiH nncaHe TparoBe o ce6n, na o itHMa ca^a roBope Apyrn. H caMO 
HayHHO HCTpa>KHBan>e CBOJeBpcHa je BH3yejiH3aHHJa. ripoMnuep yKa3yje 
Aa je CKpHBan>e, eTHHHKa MHMHKpHJa, 6hjio cpeACTBO npe>KHBJbaBaH>a y 
OApel)enoM BpeMeHy, na je cthhkh 3annTaTH ce — Aa jih je HeonxoAHO 
yivieniaTH ce y er3HCTeHnnjy Hexc CKpHBeHe MaibHHe? Ethojio3h ce Beh 
Ay>Ke Bpeivie 3ajia»y 3a aAeKBaTHy penpe3eHTauHJy Apyror (Aajy mac ohh- 
Ma Koje HCTpa>Kyjy), AaHac h JiHHrBHcra (ripe CBera y OKBHpy JinnrBH- 
CTHHKe aHTponojiornje) y hctom CMHCJiy ncxHHy npnunnn „pecxH- 
Tyunje", oahocho „noBpaTHe cnpere" (aHrjiocaKCOHCKn: gratuity), uito je 
join jeAaH KOHiienT (h repMHH) kojh Tpaaca nayqHy npoBepy. 



EmbaHa ChkhmhIi: Ckphbehe mah>hhr 



CouHOJiHHrBHCTHHKe TeopHJci<e nocTaBKe y npncxyny ckphbchhm 
MaitHHaMa HHTajy ce y pa^y KpncTHJana $oca Kao: uymnmm h rpaHHHHe 
MatbHHe, Kao JiHHrBHHH3aM h pacH3aM, Kao Bepn>KHO npeACTaBJBaite cTa- 
Tyca MaH,HHCKHx je3Hica: npoxH6nnHJa - TOJiepaHUHj'a — HeflHCKpHMHHa- 
nnja — ,no3BOJia — npoMonnja — npecKpnnnnja. 

rpaiiHue Ha BajiKaHy h rpaHMue BanioHa y 36opHHKy cy KJtyHHa Te- 
Ma: BanKaH ce Tpaacn Taiwo rae aaHac rase 6ajiKaHCKe MattHHe. 36opHHK 
npe^CTaBJta aKTyejiHa TepeHCKa JiHurBHCTHHKa HCTpa>KHBaH>a cjiobchckhx 
roBopa y TpnKoj, Ajr6aHHJH, EyrapcKoj (npHJio3H TopAaHe AneKCOBe, Ctoj- 
kc BoJKOBCKe h KpHCTHJaHa 3>oca), no KOJHMa je3H4Ka, oahocho ^HJajieKaT- 
ci<a npHnaaHOCT He Mopa yBeK m ce noicjiana ca cthhhkom HweHTH<j>HKaim- 
jom, iiito je jacHo Ha npHMepHMa Hainija nacTannx na 4>OHy jy>KHOCJiOBeH- 
CKor je3HHKor KOHTHHyyMa. Ha TeMy rpanHna cjiobchckhx je3HKa h e-raoca 
Ha EajiKany roBOpH ce o MaKcaoHCKHM KOJiOHHCTHMa y Banaxy nocjie ^py- 
ror CBeTCKor paTa h IlIonHMa y hobhm Ap>KaBHHM ipammaMa (npHJio3H 
CTaHHCJiaBa CraHKOBHha h neroa XpncTOBa). Ahtpoiiojto3h h HcropHnapH 
npeflcxaBJtajy HajiiOBHJa HCTpaacHBaita MerjieHopyMyHa, IjHHuapa h Tpra 
(npHJio3H Teaea Kajia, 3opaHa rijiacKOBHna h JoBaHKe T>opI)eBHn JoBaHo- 
BHh). BaH reorpaapcKHx rpaHHna BajiKaHa h jyroHCTOine EBpone npo6jieM 
CKpHBeHHx Manwma je npe^CTaBJteH Ha npHMepHMa cjiOBeHaHKo — He- 
MaiKor MyjiTHeTHHHKor Mo^ejia y CjiOBeHHJH h 6yrapcKHx 6awTOBaHa y 
AycTpHJH (npnji03H Kjrayca JHpreHa XepiviaHHKa h MapHJaHe JaKHMOBe). 
ripo6jieMH caMoo;j,pel)HBaH>a 3ajeAHHHKH cy npHDiosmta o UIonHMa Ha Ko- 
coBy h TeieBeHCKHM ByrapHMa y okojihhh 3ajenapa h CBHJiaJHua (npnji03H 
CaH>e 3jiaTanoBHh h Maje ByKHft). Ca eTHOMy3HKOJioiHKor cTaHOBHiiiTa 
npHCTyna ce npoSjiCMy H^eHTHTeTa 6awKHx EyiteBaua h iJjOKycHpa h3mh- 
uiJLaHbe Tpa^HUHJe, o^hocho hohobho 0TKpHBaH>e H^eHTHTeTa (npHJior 
AHe Xo(j)MaH). Je3HHKa cmpt npara ce Ha npHMepHMa HecTajan>a KaJKaB- 
CKor roBopa y BaHaTy h HecTajaita roBopa Cp6a y Bejioj KpaJHHH (npnjio3H 
Mapnje ByHKOBHn h TaH,e rieTpoBHh). H Ha Kpajy, pejinraja Kao MapKep 
CTHHHHTeTa pa3Maxpa ce ca je/me CTpaHe Ha npHMepHMa KapameBaKa h 
HaHroa y PyMyHHJH h TopaHa h HepKe3a na KocoBy (npHJi03H Mnxaja Pa- 
AaHa, <E>epeHu.a HopTaHa, Pa^HBoja MjiaAeHOBnha h BnjbaHe ChkhmhIi). 

noKa3ajio ce Aa nocTojn hh3 sajeflHHHKHX KJtyHHHx TeMa, CBojeBp- 
chhx „HfleojioniKHx je3rapa" HaynHor ^HCKypca o ckphbchhm MaH>HHaMa 
Ha BajiKaHy. Pa^OBH no3HHHOHHpajy yjiory Hcrpa>KHBaHa — HHcaj^epa 
hjih ayTcaJAepa, ajTH h sHanaj HCTopnjcKe ^HCTaHne. BeoMa je Ba>KHa 
HCTopHJcKa BepTHKajia npoynaBaita ckphbchhx Man>HHa, HHJe CBejcuHo 
koj'h ce flHj'axpoHH npeceK y3HMa y pa3MaTpan>e, o^hocho kojh ce MO)Ke 
y3eTH. CTaTyc CKpHBCHC Ma^HHe na BajiKaHy 6htho je oflpeljen h ono3H- 
nnjoM ce/io : apad, oahocho ypdauo : pypanno. JeziHaKo je Ba>KaH h couh- 
jajino-eKOHOMCKH acneKT CKpHBeHHx MaftHHa, 3aTHM nojiHa h reHepaunj- 



10 CKPHBEHEMAHjHHEHA Eajikahy 

cica AHC^epeHUHJauHJa, ojx Koje ahpcktho 3aBHCH jesuHKa KOMnexeHunja. 
Oa JiHHrBHCTHHKHX MapKepa aanac je kor ckphbchhx msb*kb& nepcneK- 

THBHO HCTpa>KHBaH>e MyjTTHJlHHrBH3Ma, aHTpOnOHHMCKOr h iipyrHx OHO- 
MaCTHHKHX CHCTeMa. 

nopO^HHHH (|)aKTOp y OffpXSSSOby CKpHBeHe MatbHHe TOBOpH o caMO 

xpw reHepauMJe j\o acHMMJiauHJe, caMO je nHTaH>e y KOJeM BpeivieHCKOM 
OKBMpy ce jaBJta Apyra reHepauMJa y LJeHxpaiiHOJ EBponn, a Ka^a ce to 
AemaBa Ha cthhhkm komrjiskchom BaiiKaHy? BepoBaTHO HeiiJTo KacHMje, 
36or 3aKacHejie HauHOnajiHe xoMoreHH3auHJe Ha BanKaHy npeMa IJeii- 
TpanHOJ EBponn, Koja je onex, ca cBOJe CTpane 3aKacHHJia y o,miocy na 
Hnp. OpaHuycKy. To #ajbe nocxaBJba nHxan>e HfleojioiiiKor cMHona h CBp- 
xe nponeca xoMoreHH3auHJe y HOBOBpeMeHoj EBponH. Mo^eji „xpn 
reHepauHJe" mows ce npnMeHHXH h y anynajy ayTOXTOHHX „CKpnBeHHx 
MaifcHHa". A npoiHHpHBaibe eBporiCKe 3aje,itHHue — no#pa3yMeBa h hcto- 
BpeweHO npoLUMpHBaibc MajiMM eTHHHKMM rpynaMa. 

ITapaMeTpH kojh yxHHy Ha cxaxyc cxpHBCHe Maibnne cy csaK&KO h 
nocTOJaH>e/HenocTojaH>e MaxHHHe 3eMJi>e, npecxH>KHOcx MaxMHiie 3eMJbe 
(H>eH nojio)Kaj Ha CKauH npecxH>Ka), h ,naji>e CTaB MaxHHHe 3eMJte (aKxn- 
BaH, nacHBaH o#hoc, He3aHHTepecoBaHOCT) npeMa KOHKpeTHOj CKpHBCuoj 
MaH>HHM h H>eHa Me^HJCKa npoMOUMJa. 

ripaxehH „CBOJy" CKpMBeHy Mai-bHiiy pa^OBH y 36opHHicy y3rpeAHO 
OTKpHBajy 6ap join ABa^ecexaK Apyrnx, MaH>e-BHiue CKpHBeHHx MaH>HHa 
(noMHH>y ce, Ha npniviep: JypyuH, IToMauH, Jan>eBUH, UIokuh, EoLUH>au,H, 
JepMeHH, PycHHH, HaHro y Bojbo^hhh, KapauiCBUH y Bojbo^hhh, Apsa- 
hhth, Cp6n KaTOJiHU,H). Pomh, Kao npH3HaTa Man>HHa Ha BajiKaHy, ocxajin 
cy BaH BH^OKpyra 0B,ne OKynjteHHx npHJiora, ann ce exHHHKa MHMHKpnja 
nojeflHHHX PoMHMa cpoahhx eTHMHKHx rpyna (cxhhhkhx rpyna Koje caivie 
ce6e ^pyraHHJe Oflpe1)yjy 5 ajin hx okojiho craiiOBunuixBO civiaxpa PoMHMa) 
oflJiHHHO yKJiana y OBaj 3a#axH xeMaxcKH OKBHp. 

LLIxa ocxaje 3a KacHHJe? Ako pa3MHUDbaM0 y exHHKHM KaxeropwjaMa 
HayHHe pecxHxyuHJe, HMaMO npaBO ^a ce sanHTEMO — mxa xo BajiKaH mo- 
">kq fla fla EBponn? V CKJia^y ca nocxaBKOM ,na roBopehn o ApyroM yBeK 
roBOpHMO h o ce6n, 3aKJLynyjeMo: o CKpHBeHHM MaH>HHaMa y obom 36op- 
HHKy nniuy jihhfbhcxh, exH0Ji03H, i<yjixypoji03H, HCxopHnapw, HCxopHna- 

pH KH>H>KeBHOCXH, HCXOpHHapH yMCTHOCXH, reOrpa(j)H H eXHOMy3HKOJ103H. 

TTopeA xyMaHHCXHHKHX HayKa, OBa xeMa MO>K,na h BHiue npnna^a flpy- 
LuxBeHHM HayKaMa, tbOMe 6h ce MorjiH no3a6aBHxn w cou,hojio3h, ncnxo- 
jio3h, npaBHHUH, nojiHXHKOJi03H. riope^ peacJ)HpManHJe aKxyejiHHX xepeH- 
ckhx MCTpa>KHBaH>a h H>HXOBor BHiiier Bpe^HOBaH>a y 6ajiKaHCKHM Ha- 
yHHHM KpyroBHMa, ycBajan>e OBor HHTep^HciiHnjiHHapHor HMnepaxwBa 
CBaKaKO je HaJBaacHHJH uhjl 36opHHKa „Ckphbchc MaaHHe na BajncaHy". 



Kristijan Prom icer 



SKRIVENIH MANJINA NA BALKANU 
TEORIJSKA ZAPAZANJA 



I. Pitanje skrivenih manjina u odnosu na nacije 

i nacionalne manjine 

Pitanje etniciteta je od devetnaestog veka mucno pitanje srednje, is- 
tocne i jugoistocne Evrope. Vec skoro trideset godina teoreticari, kao et- 
nolog Ernest Gelner i istoricar Holm Zundhausen, pokusavaju da objasne 
proces stvaranja nacija u istocnoj i jugoistocnoj Evropi. Po njihovom mi- 
sljenju, nacija kao velika socijalna grupa, plod je kolektivne konstrukcije, 
koja je ipak imala dalekosezne posledice na istoriju moderaog sveta. Oni 
smatraju da su nacije srednjeevropskog, istocnoevropskog i jugoistocnoe- 
vropskeg tipa stvorene na osnovu navodnog zajednickog porekla, dok su 
nacije zapadnoevropskog tipa u vecoj meri odredene pojmom „gradanina" 
(Gelner 1997; Sundhaussen 1993). 

Ukoliko su nacije konstrukcije, sta to znaci za etnicke grupe uopste, 
a sta za male etnicke grupe posebno? Istina je da se fenomen etniciteta 
moze posmatrati vec u staro doba, kao sto znamo na osnovu pisanja helen- 
skog istoriografa Herodota, koji razdvaja svet na Helene i Varvare (Stoja- 
novic 1994:122). Isto tako je, medutim, istina da etnicki princip do devet- 
naestog veka nije bio dominantan u toj meri da bi se stvorile drzave na na- 
cionalnoj ili etnickoj osnovi. Do tada su one bile vise multietnicke nego 
nacionalne drzave. Nacionalne manjine se, dakle, javljaju kao odjek na 
stvaranje nacija i nacionalnih drzava, tek sa nastankom prvih nacionalnih 
drzava. Moze se reci da tek sa Pariskim mirovnim ugovorima posle Prvog 
svetskog rata nacionalne manjine ulaze u kanon medunarodnog prava; ta- 
ko se ucvrscuje i pravni termin „nacionalna manjina" kojim se oznacavaju 
etnicke grupe koje su ostale unutar granica tudih nacionalnih drzava. Uko- 
liko malo detaljnije osmotrimo te nacionalne manjine, videcmo da su po 



12 CKPMBEHE MAlbMHE IIA EA.nKAHy 

mnogim osobinama slicne nacijama: cesto imaju svoj standardni jezik, 
svoju kulturu, skole i druge kulturne institucije, jednom recju, imaju svoju 
kulturnu i mozda i politicku elitu, koja omogucava da nacionalna manjina 
nastupa kao politicki subjekt. 

Postojanje nacija i nacionalnih manjina je, prema tome, posledica 
istorijskog organizovanja teritorija po nacionalnom principu. Taj je prin- 
cip, milom ili silom, asimilacijom ili proterivanjem, umanjio sarenilo i ra- 
znolikost evropskog kontinenta. Ali taj isti princip, koji priznaje samo dva 
moguca oblika nacionalnog i etnickog postojanja — nacije i nacionalne 
manjine — iskljucuje postojanje drugih etnickih grupa, koje nisu priznate 
kao nacionalne manjine. Teskoce se javljaju posebno sa pojavom migrana- 
ta modernog doba. Da li migranti iste etnicke grupe mogu i treba da budu 
tretirani kao nacionalna manjina? Ili to mogu postati posle izvesnog vre- 
mena boravka u tudoj drzavi, znaci posle dve, tri gcneracije? Ili su oni sa- 
mo amorfna masa, koju se ne samo da treba integrisati, nego u krajnoj li- 
niji i asimilovati? 

Pored toga, predmoderno doba je ostavilo veliki broj malih etnickih 
grupa, koje su jednom takode bile migranti — bilo u toku kolonizacije terito- 
rije bivseg Osmanskog carstva od strane Austrijske imperije, kao na primer u 
Vojvodini, bilo na teritorijama koje je Osmanska imperija najkasnije napusti- 
la, kao na primer u Republici Makedoniji ili na Kosovu. Te grupe, koje cesto 
nisu bile tretirane kao priznate manjine, zeleo bih da oznacim kao „skrivene 
manjine". Ove skrivene manjine nisu posebnost jugoistocne Evrope. Ali bas 
na ovom prostoru na njih nailazimo skoro na svakom koraku. 

Nacije — priznate manjine — skrivene manjine: uspostavljanjem 
ovakvog redosleda moze se odrediti mesto malih etnickih grupa kojima se 
ovde bavimo. Ali time jos nije objasnjeno sta mozemo podrazumevati pod 
skrivenim manjinama. To ce biti prva tacka u drugom delu ovog clanka. 
Dalje ce biti analiziran pojam skrivenih identiteta kao posledica delimicne 
asimilacije skrivenih manjina. Diskusijom o znacaju pojma skrivenih ma- 
njina za prostor jugoistocne Evrope zavrsava se ovaj deo clanka. U njego- 
vom poslednjem delu razmatrace se sledeca pitanja: kakva je bila percep- 
cija skrivenih manjina tokom dvadesetog veka i kako se mogu istrazivati 
skrivene manjine? Clanak se zavrsava diskusijom o pokusajima ozivljava- 
nja skrivenih manjina do kojih dolazi u poslednje vreme. 



II. Problem definisanja predmeta i prostora 

1. Sta su skrivene manjine 

Definisanje predmeta istrazivanja iskljucivo je zadatak samog na 
ucnika. On se ne moze osloniti na izjave sagovornika iz redova samih pri 



Kristijan Promicer: (Nn-) vidljivost skrivenim manjina na Balkanu ... 13 



padnika etnicke grupe, jer se skhvene manjine same tie defmisu kao takve. 
Pojam „skrivena manjina" je, dakle, konstrukcija a posteriori. 

Svaki pojam koji je uveden u nauku ima svoju, makar i kratku, isto- 
riju. Pojam „skrivene manjine" je bio zapravo terminus technicus koji je 
pre tri godine izmisljen od grupe mladih naucnika na Univerzitetu u Gra- 
cu. Ta grupa je ovim terminom zelela objediniti nekoliko sluzbeno nepri- 
znatih malih ctnickih grupa na prostoru Austrije, Slovenije i Hrvatske. To 
su bili bugarski bastovani u Austriji, autohtoni Slovenci u austrijskoj Sta- 
jerskoj, ostaci nemacke manjine u Sloveniji, srpska sela u slovenackoj Be- 
loj Krajini i katolicki Srbi kod Dubrovnika. Ta naucna gupa je uporedila 
zajednicke osobine ovih raznolikih grupa i na kraju, po predlogu dr Klau- 
sa-Jirgena Hermanika, odlucila da je izraz „skrivena manjina" najpogod- 
niji da bude njihov zajednicki imenitelj. 1 Taj terminus technicus godine 
2002. Preispitivan je na medunarodnoj radionici u slovcnackim Radenci- 
ma, koju je organizovao prof. Eduard Staudinger. Ucesnici su se tamo ba- 
vili razlicitim malim etnickim grupama na prostoru izmedu Alpa, Jadran- 
skog mora i Dunava. Tokom diskusije u Radencima, dr Biljana Sikimic 
ponudila je mogucnost primene ovog pojma za slicne fenomene u celoj ju- 
goistocnoj Evropi, sto je rezultiralo organizacijom ovog naucnog skupa 
(Hermanik/Promicer/Staudinger 2002). 

Sve dosadasnje diskusije projektne grupe mogu se svesti na sledece: 
izraz „skrivene manjine" pokusava da opise male populacije ili grupe, ko- 
je misle da je njihovo zajednicko poreklo od znacaja za njihov identitet. 
Ocigledno je da te grupe imaju zajednicke unutarnjc kulturne uzorke, koji 
ih razgranicavaju od okoline. I ta okolina percipira te grupe kao razlicite. 
Medutim, za razliku od priznatih nacionalnih manjina ili narodnosti, 2 sta- 
tus ovih grupa prema drzavi je neresen. One ili ne zahtevaju da budu od 
strane drzave priznate kao nacionalne manjine, ili im to nije dopusteno. 
Pogled unatrag pokazuje da je skrivenim manjinama tokom istorije nedo- 
stajala „kriticna masa" koja bi im otvorila mogucnost da budu sluzbeno 
priznate kao manjine. Za razliku od priznatih manjina, dalje se moze reci 
da skrivenim manjinama nedostaje sopstvena intelektualna elita: ili zbog 
malobrojnosti, ili iz nepovoljnih nacionalno-politickih prilika u sredinama 
u kojima se one nalaze. 

1 Ta naucna grupa — Klaus-Jirgen Hermanik, Marijana Jakimova, Tanja Petrovic, 
Kristijan Promicer, Ivica Sarac i Eduard Staudinger - formirala je naucno-istrazivacki 
projckat „Skrivene manjine izmedu Srcdnje Evrope i Balkana / Hidden Minorities between 
Central Europe and the Balkans", koji pod brojem P- 1 5080 od 1. 7. 2001. do 30. 6. 2004. 
finansira austrijska Fondacija za unapredcnje nauke FWF. 

2 Na primer, na prostoru bivse SFRJ, status narodnosti imale su etnicke grupe koje 
nisu uzivale status naroda. 



1 4 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

Sa istorijskog stanovista, skrivene manjine se mogu opisati kao neu- 
speli pokusaji malih etnickih grupa da se afirmisu kao vidljivi etnicki enti- 
teti u procesu formiranja nacija i nacionalnih manjina. Vec je i sam izraz 
„neuspeh" ustupak jednodimenzionalnom misljenju da na polju etniciteta 
cgzistiraju samo narodi i nacionalne manjine — i nista vise. Mozda je pri- 
mernije postojanje skrivenih manjina okarakterisati kao rezultat dugo- 
rocnog otpora malih etnickih grupa prema nacionalnoj ili etnickoj homo- 
genizaciji. I bez vlastitih intelektualnih elita, one su do sada uspele sacu- 
vati temeljnc uzorke neophodne za organizaciju unutrasnje komunikacije, 
a da pri tome nisu u potpunosti preuzele dominantan model nacionalnog 
identiteta sredine u kojoj zive. Te grupe, dakle, zele da sacuvaju svoj je- 
zik, svoju religiju ili svoje obicaje koji su razliciti od onih koji karakterisu 
vecinu, ali ne zele da pri tome nastupaju kao politicki subjekti. Zelji za 
odrzanjem sopstvenih unutrasnjih komunikacionih struktura na lokalnom 
planu odgovara spoljasnja lojalnost prema drzavi u kojoj te grupe zive. 

2. Skriveni identiteti 

Sa istorijskog stanovista je jasno da ce vecina skrivenih manjina na 
kraju biti asimilovana od strane dominantne nacije. Skrivene manjine su 
uglavnom fenomen prolaznog karaktera. Ukoliko se asimilacija odvija 
mirnim putem, naucnik ne sme biti nostalgicni branilac necega sto pripad- 
nici skrivene manjine sami vise ne zagovaraju. Ovo nacelo vazi cak i za 
situacije koje autsajder definise kao puku kolonizaciju od strane vecin- 
skog naroda. Jedna stvar je opisivanje nepravednih odnosa i nacina na ko- 
je su ljudi na njih reagovali, a druga je — i to nije vise nauka — naredivati 
ljudima, da moraju da reaguju na te nepravedne odnose. 

Veoma su vazni sagovornici pripadnici starije generacije iz redova 
skrivenih manjina. Oni su tokom asmilacije sacuvali nekakav skriveni iden- 
tet, dok su se pripadnici mladc generacije vec prilagodili novoj situaciji. 
Razumeti i intervjuisati te starije osobe znacajno je iz vise razloga. Pre sve- 
ga, tako se mogu bolje razumeti uzroci bilo otpora, bilo asimilacije. S druge 
strane, upravo iskazi takvih sagovornika mogu pruziti odredena objasnjenja 
o funkcionisanju principa etniciteta uopste, cija se fluidnost ne moze tako 
lako „uhvatiti" kod pripadnika mlade generacije. Na taj nacin, istrazivac 
moze bolje razmeti socijalnu ulogu koju igra takozvana „tradicija" kod 
funkcionisanja fenomena etniciteta kod etnickih grupa uopste. 

3. Definisanje prostora ili zasto je jugoistocna Evropa od posebnog 
znacaja za istrazivanje „ skrivenih manjina" 

Kao sto je poznato, istorijski proces stvaranja nacija na Balkanu bio 
je vrlo kompleksan. Umesto nacionalno homogenih drzava — sto je, ba- 



Kristijan Promicer: (Ne-) vidljivost skrivenih manjina na Balkanu ... 15 



rem nominalno, bio slucaj kod drzava zapadne Evrope - ta regija je istorij- 
ski multikulturalna i multietnicka. Jedan od uzroka za (o je bastina Osman- 
skog Mileta, koja je potpomagala siru lokalnu samoupravu. Time je Balkan 
postao, prvo, zahvalan teren za primenu nemackog principa stvaranja naci- 
ja, koji teziste stavlja na zajednicko poreklo, a ne na gradanski princip kao 
sto je to bio slucaj u zapadnoj Evropi (Sundhaussen 1973, Sundhaussen 
1993). Da je to zajednicko poreklo cesto mit, pokazala su istorijska 
„metanastazicka kretanja", koja su po Jovanu Cvijicu (1 865-1927) cesto re- 
zultirala time da je jedna sadasnja populacija sastavljena od elemenata razli- 
citog porekla (Cvijic 1987:127-129). Drugo, moze se postulirati da su skri- 
vene manjine na Balkanu cesto nesavladani ostaci nepotpunog procesa stva- 
ranja nacija. Ti ostaci su bili previse mali da bi dobili siru paznju svojih mo- 
gucih „maticnih nacija", ukoliko one uopste egzistiraju. 

Mada je pojam skrivenih manjina nov, ima dokaza da su one pod 
drugim imenima bile predmet proucavanja vec od druge polovine devetna- 
estog veka. Tako se, na primer, ceski istoricar Konstantin Josef Jirecek 
(1854-1918) bavio malim etnickim grupama na Balkanu, posebno na pro- 
storu Bugarske i danasnje Republike Makedonije. Pisao je o Vlasima i 
Morlacima, muslimanskim Arumunima, ali i o ostacima Pecenega i Ku- 
mana, kao i o Gagauzima, pravoslavnim Turcima (takozvanim Surgucima) 
i Cerkezima na prostoru danasnje Bugarske. Dalje, izucavao je katolicke 
Bugare (Pavlikjane) i muslimanske Pomake koji govore bugarski. Poseb- 
no su interesantni za njega bili Sopi, koje je imao priliku da posmatra na 
setnjama u okolini Sofije, ali i u samom gradu. Prema njegovom shvata- 
nju, radilo se o grupama koje su sacuvale svoji maternji jezik, ali su pro- 
menile svoju veru. Jirecek jos nije pravio razliku izmedu naroda i nacio- 
nalnih manjina. Tako je Gagauze, Cerkeze i Kumane oznacio kao narode. 
Ali je, sa druge strane, uveo pojam „elnografskih grupa". Te „etnografske 
grupe" po njemu imaju ili posebnu veru ili posebno narecje, posebnu na- 
rodnu kulturu ili poseban nacin zivljenja (na primer, zive kao pastiri), ili 
se mogu izdvajati samo na osnovu svoje svesti o zajednickoj pripadnosti i 

posebnom fizicko-antropoloskom tipu (Bockova 1992-1993:227-229 
237-240). 

Srpski etnolog i geograf Manojlo Smiljanic (1870-1906) je 1905. 
napisao clanak o „Etnografskom grupisanju naroda Balkanskoga polu- 
ostrva". I Smiljanic upotrebljava termin „etnografska grupa": 

Na zemljinoj lopti [...] malo je oblasti [...], a u Evropi osim Austro-Ugar- 
ske i istocne Rusije nema ih vise, koje bi imale na tako srazmerno maloj 
povrsini toliki broj raznih naroda kao sto je to slucaj s nasim poluostrvom. 

Od najstarijih vremena pa do nasih dana redali su se ovde narodi jedni za 
drugima, gospodarili su neko vreme i po torn silazili s politicke pozornice, 



16 CKPMBEKE MAIkHHE HA BaJIKAHV 



ali su po bregovima i dolinama ovog poluostrva ostavljali svoje raskomada- 
nc delove, koji sc pod zastitom plastike njegovog zemljista stotinama i hi- 
ljadama godina u ctnografskom pogledu uporno odrzavaju. Nestajalo je da- 
kle naroda samo u politickom a u ctnografskom pogledu oni su i dalje zivcli 
opominjuci time na svctlija vremena svoje politicke proslosti. (Smiljanic 
1905:102) 

Smiljanic opisuje takozvani „rodopski sistem", koji obuhvata juznu 
Bugarsku i Makedoniju i tvori idealan teren za cuvanje raznih etnografr 
skih grupa: 

Srbi, Bugari, Turci, Grci, Aromuni, Albanezi, Cerkczi i drugi narodi zive 
cesto zajedno u istom selu. Ponckad je svaka od ovih narodnosti odvojena i 
zivi u kakvoj planinskoj kotlini, na padini planinskoj ili na prostranoj doli- 
ni. Njihov rasporcd i mesavina odgovara potpuno raznolikosti i raskomada- 
nosti orografskih oblika ovoga sistema. Samo zcmljiste bilo je glavni uzrok 
da se ovde stvori poznati makedonski etnografski konglomerat [...] (Smi- 
ljanic 1905:116) 

Smiljanic pominje i Juruke i Pomake rodopskog sistema. Narocitu 
paznju poklanjao je Arumunima (Cincarima) i ostacima Turaka, koji su zi- 
veli u raskomadanim ostrvima. Dok su prvi ziveli na planinama, Turci su 
se mogli naci u dolinama. Koristeci primer Cincara i Turaka, Smiljanic 
opisuje prelazni karakter skrivenih manjina: „Njih dve imace i jednaku 
sudbinu u buducnosti: da prve isceznu s etnografske karte Balkanskog po- 
luostrva. Turska narodnost davace pod danasnjim politickim prilikama i 
zbog verskc razlike veceg otpora, ali posle njene politicke propasti doci ce 
i etnografska propast" (Smiljanic 1905:123). 

Istoriografija i geografija su dakle postale prve nauke, koje su se po- 
drobnije bavile skrivenim manjinama. Geograf Jovan Cvijic hteo je da ob- 
jedini oba pristupa. On se nije samo koncentrisao na plastiku i geomorfo- 
logiju, nego je hteo i da istorijski objasni etnografsku raznolikost Balkan- 
skog poluostrva tako sto je uveo pojam „metanastazickih kretanja". To su: 

Velike i bezbrojne male scobe, koje su se izvrsile na Balkanskom poluostr- 
vu pocevsi od turske najezde, od kraja XIV vcka, a nisu prestale ni posle 
oslobodenja balkanskih zemalja. (Cvijic 1987:126) [...] Nastala su ukrsta- 
vanja stanovnistva, koje se usled migracija izmesalo, izvrsili su sc razno- 
vrsni etnicki i etno-bioloski procesi, koji su u mnogome izmenili etnicki tip 
jcdinih oblasti. (Cvijic 1987:127) 




Kaojedan od mnogih primera „metanastazickih kretanja", Cvijic na- 
vodi migracije iz zapadne Bosne u hrvatski Zumberak i slovenacku Belu 
Krajinu, gde su se ocuvali pravoslavni Srbi u selima Bojanci i Marindol. 
Njih oznacava kao „egzoticne oaze stanovnistva" koje su upravo tamo na- 



Kristijan Promicer: (Ne-) vidljivost skrivenih manjina na Balkanu ... 17 



stale, jer je planinski bedem Zumberackih planina bio prirodna odbrana 
prema osmanskim napadima (Cvijic 1987:133, 143-144). Po njegovom 
misljenju, posledice tih „metanastazickih kretanja" bila su razna prilago- 
davanja u etnickom i socijalnom smislu, ali i „formiranje novih etnickih 
grupa, varijeteta i tipova" (Cvijic 1987:167). 

Citiranjem pogleda Jireceka, Smiljanica i Cvijica na etnicke odnose 
na Balkanskom poluostrvu, autor ovih redaka nije hteo reci da je fenomen 
„skrivenih manjina" ogranicen samo na ovu regiju. Osim toga, on zastupa 
misljenje da bi istrazivanje tog fenomena bilo od jos veceg znacaja ako bi 
se primenilo na delimicno asimilovane pripadnike inace priznatih etnickih 
manjina. U odnosu na svoju okolinu, ti ljudi zele da ostanu skriveni, dok u 
unutrasnjoj komunikaciji medu sobom jos uvek cuvaju distinktivne osobi- 
ne koje se mogu tretirati kao etnicke. Slican odnos prema vecinskom naro- 
du uocavamo i kod migranata novog vremena. To vazi, na primer, za prvu, 
drugu i mozda trecu generaciju bugarskih bastovana koji su se nastanili u 
srednjoj Evropi. 



III. Vizuelizacija „skrivenih manjina 



a 



1. Kakvaje bila percepcijia skrivenih manjina tokom dvadesetog veka? 

U dosadasnjem izlaganju vec smo naveli nekoliko istorijskih prime- 
ra percepcije skrivenih manjina i buduci da na ovom mestu iscrpnost nije 
moguca, detaljnije cemo osvetliti samo neke primere dodatne vizuelizacije 
malih etnickih grupa. Vazno je istaci da skrivene manjine same o sebi nisu 
ostavile mnogo pisanih izvora. Tog fenomena su svojevremeno postali 
svesni intelektualci. U takvim etnickim grupama uglavnom su videli pro- 
blematican element svoje sredine, koji se opire stvaranju homogene naci- 
je. U torn smislu je fizicka antropologija, koja je tada bila shvatana kao 
„rasna nauka", odigrala zlokobnu ulogu. Tako je, na primer, bugarski an- 
tropolog Stefan Vatev pocetkom dvadesetog veka utvrdio „rasni tip" ra- 
znih etnickih grupa na tlu knezevine Bugarske, sto na prvi pogled ne iz- 
gleda zlonamerno. Tek kada se uzme u obzir da je Vatev takode ustanovio 
„rasni tip" etnickog bugarskog stanovnistva u knezevini i izvan nje, name- 
ce se sumnja da se radi o naucnom poduhvatu koji ima za cilj da utvrdi ko 
je „s nama", a ko nije (Vatev 1901 ; Vatev 1902; Vatev 1903). U torn smi- 
slu je i srpski etnolog Tihomir Dordevic „rasno" odredivao Rome (Ciga- 
ne) Kraljevine Srbije prema njihovim fizickim i psihickim osobinama 
(Dordevic 1904). Tokom tridesetih godina su takozvani „rasni naucnici" 
pokusali dokazati da se po krvnoj grupi Romi razlikuju od etnickog srp- 
skog stanovnistva, ali su sa razocaranjem morali da zakljuce da takvih raz- 
lika nema (Markovic 2001:623). Posle Drugog svetskog rata, socijalisticki 



lg CKPMBEIIE MAIbHIIE HA BAJ1KAIIY 



rezimi su potiskivali takve pristupe. AH danas, u periodu postsocijalizma, 
opet se uocavaju pojedini napori te vrste, potpomognuti problematicnim 
razumevanjem gcnetike. Tako u americkom casopisu „Mankind Quar- 
terly" mozemo citati da se bugarski Romi genetski razlikuju od etnickih 
Bugara (Buhvarova 1995), dok su genetske razlike izmedu pomacke i aro- 
munske populacije i vecinskog grckog stanovnistva u centru istrazivanja 
antropologa Nikolaosa Xirotyrisa (Trubeta 1999:127). 

Ni dobronamerna primena rasne nauke nije bila od vece koristi. Ta- 
ko je, na primer, slovenacki antropolog Niko Zupanic svojevremeno tvr- 
dio da su stanovnici sela Hrvati (danasnji Pallini) kod Atine po „rasnom" 
sastavu slovenskog porekla, mada su govorili albanski iliti arbanaski i po 
nacionalnoj svesti se defmisali kao Grci (Zupanic 191 1:93, 100, 145). On 
je, isto tako, pokusao da dokaze da su stanovnici pravoslavnih sela u slo- 
venackoj Beloj Krajini po svom „rasnom" sastavu cisto zapadnohercego- 
vackog kova (Zupanic 1912:6, 10-11, 16). 

Dok je rasna nauka u prvom slucaju tretirala skrivene manjine kao 
nesto tude, sto za sopstvenu homogenu naciju predstavlja potencijalnu 
opasnost, takav pristup je u drugom slucaju pokusavao da skrivene manji- 
ne konceptualizuje kao „nacionalne dijaspore". Time je pokusavano da se 
odgovori na nacionalisticki obojena pitanja kao sto su „kako su se one 
odvojile od maticne loze" i „kako su mogle preziveti u stranoj sredini"? 
Slicni pristupi su prisutni i kod pojedinih savremenih proucavalaca skrive- 
nih manjina koji koriste metode etnologije. Na primeru istrazivanja pravo- 
slavnog stanovnistva Bele Krajine tako nesto se uocava kod nekoliko pri- 
loga u zboraiku „Srbi u Sloveniji" (Petrovic 1997). Drugi primer su istra- 
zivanja pravoslavnog sela Peroj u Istri. Tu se cesto radi o romantizovanoj 
nostalgiji, iza koje se pokusava sakriti nacionalisticki poduhvat raznih 
autora (Barjaktarevic 1991). Ta nostalgija ne uzima u obzir aktuelno sa- 
morazumevanje i identitet takvih skrivenih manjina. Na politickom planu, 
to moze dovesti do toga da se pripadnici pojedinih skrivenih manjina mo- 
raju braniti od namera svojih navodnih zagovornika. To se desilo u slucaju 
pravoslavnih sela u slovenackoj Beloj Krajini krajem osamdesetih i pocet- 
kom devedesetih godina; njihovi su stanovnici energicno odbili insinuaciju 
da su u Sloveniji zanemareni u nacionalnom smislu. Hteli su ostati skrivena 
manjina i time su se odbranili od „vizuelizacije" kroz politicku instrumenta- 
lizaciju (Promitzer 2002:192-195). Time se otvara sledece pitanje: 

2. Kako se onda moze ostvariti ncmcno istrazivanje skrivenih manjina? 

Vazno je uzeti u obzir sledece dve cinjenice: svaki predmet moze bi- 
ti objekt naucnog istrazivanja; s druge strane, svako naucno istrazivanje 
skrivenih manjina je neka vrsta „vizuelizacije" i time se skrivenoj manjini 



Kristijan Promicer: (Ne-) vidljivostskriveniii manjina na Balkanu ... 19 



uskracuje status skrivenosti. Da li to znaci da je — sa stanovista naucne 
etike — istrazivanje „skrivenih manjina" nesto lose? 

Autor licno misli da je ovo pitanje od velikog znacaja. Ono mora da 
se postavi pri svakom pojedinacnom istrazivanju odredene skrivene ma- 
njine. Ipak, potrebno je dati i konkretan i uopsten odgovor na to pitanje. 

Pokusaj odgovora se sastoji od dva koraka: 

1 . Kako je ovde pokazano, skrivene manjine su vec od druge polovine 
devetnaestog veka bile predmet naucnog istrazivanja, mada nisu bile 
u centru paznje. Sa naucnog stanovista se, dakle, ne radi o „skrive- 
nom" fenomenu nego, bolje receno, o necemu sto je bilo „precuta- 
no". To znaci da je taj fenomen ipak bio prisutan, ali samo na rubo- 
vima naucnog istrazivanja. Moze se, dakle, zakljuciti da nije pogre- 
sno u aktuelnim istrazivanjima skrivenih manjina preispitivati sve 
sto je do sada napisano o torn fenomenu da bi se dobila bolja pred- 
stava o njemu. Ali to ne iskljucuje istrazivanje do sada neistrazenih 
manjina. 

2. Drugi korak u odgovaranju na postavljeno pitanje u vezi je sa samoi- 

dentifikacijom: te male etnicke grupe zele da sakriju nesto sto im je 

vazno. Svima im je zajednicko da je upravo sakrivanje sluzilo kao 
sredstvo prezivljavanja u cesto neugodnoj politickoj situaciji. Zelele 
su ostati skrivena manjina i na taj nacin su se odbranile od „vizueli- 
zacije" kroz politicku instrumentalizaciju. Za naucnika je, dakle, va- 
zno da, ukoliko hoce nesto doznati o unutrasnjim strukturama odre- 
dene skrivene manjine, ne ide na terenski rad sa unapred formiranom 
slikom o tome kakav treba da bude njihov identitet i da nema name- 
ru da ih politicki iskoristava, cak ni i u smislu da dobronamerno zah- 
teva da budu priznate kao nacionalne manjine. 

To je, medutim, samo pocetak stvarnog naucnog razumevanja skri- 
venih manjina: ukoliko naucnik namerava da istrazuje ovaj fenomen i pise 
o njemu, mora racunati na to da ce se na taj nacin neizbezno umesati u nji- 
hovu egzistenciju, bez obzira na to koliko to bilo efemerno. To „mesanje" 
je neophodno, a takve neophodnosti naucnog istrazivanja bile su stalni 
pratilac svakog terenskog rada, o bilo kojoj skrivenoj manjini da je rec. 
Tom problematikom se na opstem planu bavi etnologija vec dvadesetak 
godina. Etnolozi su nasli, mozemo reci, provizorno resenje tako sto se za- 
lazu za adekvatnu reprezentaciju drugog {representation of the other). To 
znaci da oni pomocu razlicitih metoda „daju glas" onima koji su predmet 
istrazivanja (Berg/Fuchs 1995). 

Time je samo jedno pitanje ostalo otvoreno: 



2Q CKPMBEHE MAftHHE HA EAJ1KAHY 



3. Da li postoje pokusaji ozivljavanja skrivenih manjina? 

Vec smo napomenuli da skrivene manjine nemaju svoje intelektual- 
ne elite, koje bi delovale na politickom planu. Kako se ostvaruje etnicko 
ozivljavanje ovih grupa? Odgovor na ovo pitanje cu svesti na dva primera. 
U prvom primeru ta elita se ipak razvijala iz sredine manjine, dok je drugi 
primer drugaciji. 

U severnoj Grckoj aktivisti su osnovali takozvanu „partiju duge" 
(„Rainbow party"), koja se zalaze za dugorocno priznanje slavo-makedon- 
ske manjine. Ta partija je uspela da za svoje ciljeve zainteresuje samo ma- 
nji deo mogucih adresata. Vecina takozvanog „etnickog korpusa" grcke 
slavo-makedonske manjine radije ostaje u anonimnosti, iako to znaci da ce 
se objektivni proces kolonizacije od strane vecinskog grckog stanovnistva 
i grcke vlasti mozda nastaviti (Voss 2003). Prema tome, postavlja se pita- 
nje sta je sadrzaj pojma „emancipacija" u slucaju skrivenih manjina? Ko 
ima privilegiju definisanja pojma „emancipacija"? Mozda adresati sami 
pod emancipacijom razumeju nesto sasvim drugo nego dobronamerni na- 

ucnici i politicari... 

Drugi primer je takozvana „manjina" Slovenaca u austrijskoj Stajer- 
skoj. Istina je da se duz granice prema Sloveniji mogu naci enklave gde se 
kod kuce jos uvek upotrebljava slovenacki jezik (Promitzer 1999). Dobro- 
namerni intelektualci, delimicno iz podrucja te male etnicke grupe, krajem 
osamdesetih godina osnovali su „Kulturno drustvo clan 7 za austrijsku 
Stajersku" („Artikel-VII-Kulturverein fur Steiermark") koje se zalaze za 
ustavna prava te manjine (i autor ovih redaka je bio do 2001. godine clan 
ovog drustva). Ta prava su zaista garantovana sedmim clanom Austrijskog 
drzavnog ugovora iz 1955. godine. Ali, od pocetka je bilo ocigledno da je 
misljenje Drustva, u kojem je inace razgovorni jezik nemacki, potpuno 
drugacije od misljenja ciljnog stanovnistva, koje kod kuce jos uvek govori 
slovenacki. Umesto da se suoci sa misljenjem ciljne populacije, Drustvo je 
svoju aktivnost svelo na postavljanje politickih zahteva za priznavanje te 
„skrivene manjine". Promocijom svojih namera i politickim vezama, Dru- 
's'tvo je zaista uspelo dobiti finansijsku podrsku od Republike Slovenije i 
delimicno od austrijskih vlasti. Pomocu dobijenih sredstava izgraden je 
Kulturni dom Drustva. Rezultat tih napora svodi se na to da je taj dom po- 
stao srediste urbanih austrijskih, slovenackih i madarskih umetnika. To si- 
gurno predstavlja nesto pozitivno za razvijanje medunarodnog sporazuma 
regionalnih kulturnih elita preko granica. Ali izvorno ciljno seljacko sta- 
novnistvo, takozvana „manjina austrijsko-stajerskih Slovenaca", tu insti- 
tuciju, taj kulturni dom, ne posmatra kao nesto sto postoji radi njih, ili bo- 
lje receno, kao svoju instituciju. Naprotiv — ono tu instituciju bojkotuje. 



Kristijan Promicer: (Ne-) vidljivost skrivenih manjina na Balkanu ... 21 



Na kraju treba istaci da nesumnjivo postoje i mnogi drugi primed 
skrivenih manjina. Ali, vaznije od zadovoljenja zahteva za potpunoscu 
jeste sledece senzibilno i seriozno pitanje, na koje autor ovih redaka do sa- 
da jos nije nasao zadovoljavajuci odgovor. To pitanje nije znacajno za ce- 
sto samoproklamovane advokate skrivenih manjina nego i za naucnike ko- 
ji se bave ovom osetljivom tematikom. Pitanje glasi: kada je razotkrivanje 
Routing") skrivenih manjina emancipativni cin, a kada samo puka instru- 
mentalizacija? 



Bibliografija 

Barjaktarevic 1991: Mirko Barjaktarevic, O poistovecivanju verske i nacionalne pri- 
padnosti, uz 335. godisnjicu odseljavanja Crnogoraca u Peroj (Istra), Glasnik 
Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu 54-55, 257-265. 

Berg/Fuchs 1995: Eberhard Berg/Martin Fuchs (eds.),Kultw; soziale Praxis, Text. Die 
Krise der ethnographischer Reprasentation, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. 

Bockova 1992-1993: Helena Bockova, Ethnische Gemeinschaften und ethnische Pro- 
zesseauf dem Balkan im WerkcKonstantin JirecQks,EthnologiaSlovacaetSla- 
WcaXXIV-XXV, 225-244. 

Buhvarova 1995: Maria Buchvarova, Rates of growth of Gypsy children from birth to 
one year of age compared with Bulgarian children, Mankind Quarterly 36 2 
179-192. *■■■>* 

Cvijic 1987: Jovan Cvijic, Balkanskopoluostrvo, SANU-Knjizevnenovine-Zavod 
za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd. 

Dordevic 1904: Tih[omir] R. Dordevic, Fizicke i dusevne osobine Cigana Kraljevine 
Srbije, Srpski knjizevni glasnik 13, 44-53. 

Gelner 1997: Ernest Gelner, Nacije i nacionalizam, Matica srpska, Novi Sad. 

Hermanik/Promicer/Staudinger 2002: Klaus-Jurgen Hermanik/Christian Promit- 
zer/Eduard Staudinger, (Hidden) Minorities: Language and Ethnic Identities in 
the Alpine-Adriatic Region, Radenci (Slovenia), 20-24 March 2002. Scientific 
Report. 

Markovic 2001 : Predrag Markovic, Die „Legitimierung" der Konigsdiktatur in Jugo- 
slawien und die offentliche Meinung 1929-1939, Erwin Oberlander (ed.), 
Autoritdre Regime in Ostmittel- und Sudosteuropa 1919-1944, Ferdinand 
Schoningh, Paderborn — Munchen - Wien — Zurich, 577-63 1 . 

Petrovic 1997: Vladimir Petrovic, Srbi u Sloveniji, Zbornikradovasakonferencijeodr- 
zane 8. i 9.juna 1996, Svetska srpska zajednica, Beograd. 

Promitzer 1999: Christian Promitzer, „A bleeding wound", how border-drawing 
affects local communities: a case study from the Austrian-Slovene border in 
Styria, Hans Knippenberg/Jan Markusse (eds.), Nationalising and Denationali- 
sing European Border Regions, 1800-2000. Views from Geography and His- 
tory, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht — Boston — London, 107-130. 

Promitzer 2002: Christian Promitzer, „Gute Serben": Ethnologen und Politiker iiber 
die Identitat der Serben in der slowenischen Bela krajina, Ulf Brunnbauer (ed.), 



29 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

Umstrittene Identitdten. Ethnizitat und Nationalitdt in Sudosteuropa, Peter 

Lang: Bern - Bruxellens - Frankfurt am Main - New York, 173-199. 
Smiljanic 1905: Manojlo B. Smiljanic, Etnografsko grupisanjc naroda Balkanskoga 

poluostrva, GodisnjicaNikole CupicaXXW, 102-123. 
Stojanovic 1994: TraianStoianovich, Balkan Worlds. The First and Last Europe,M.E. 

Sharpe, New York — London. 
Sundhaussen 1973: Holm Sundhaussen, Der Einfluss der Herderschen Ideen auf die 

Nationsbildung bei den Volkern der Habsburger Monarchic, Oldenburg, 

Miinchen. 
Sundhaussen 1993: Holm Sundhaussen, Nationsbildung und Nationalismus im Do- 
nau-Ba\kan-Raum, Forschungenzurosteuropdischen Geschichte 48, 233-258. 

Trubeta 1999: Sevasti Trubeta, Die Konstitution von Minderheiten und die Ethnisie- 
rungsozialerundpolitischerKonflikte. Eine Vntersuchung am Beispiel derim 
griechischen Thrakien ansdssigen MoslemischenMinderheit, Peter Lang, Bern 
— Bruxellens - Frankfurt am Main - New York. 
Vatev 1901: S[tefan] Wateff, Anthropologische Beobachtungen an den Schiilern und 
Soldatcn in Bulgarien, Coyrespondenz-Blatt derdeutschen GesellschaftfurA n- 
thropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte XXXII, 4, 29-30. 

Vatev 1902: S[tefan] Wateff, Anthropologische Beobachtungen der Augen, der Haare 
und der Haut bei den bulgarischcn Schulkindem in der curopiiischen Turkei, 
Correspondenz-Blatt derdeutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic, Ethnolo- 
gie und Urgeschichte XXXIII, 3, 23-24. 

Vatev 1903: S[tcfan] Wateff, Anthropologische Beobachtungen der Augen, der Haare 
und der Haut bei den Schulkindern von den Tiirken, Pomaken, Tataren, Armeni- 
cr[n], Griechen und Juden in Bulgarien, Correspondenz-Blatt derdeutschen Ge- 
sellschaft fur A nthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte XXXIV, 7-8, 58-60. 

Voss 2003: Christian Voss, Sprachdiskurse in minoritaren Ethnisierungs undNationa- 
lisierungsprozessen - Die slawischsprachige Minderhcit in Griechenland, 
Sudosteuropa. Zeitschrift fur Gegenwartsforschung 52, 1-3, 116-135. 

Zupanic 1911: Niko Zupanic, Hrvati kod Atinc, Prilozi antropologiji i istorijskoj etno- 
logiji, Starinar- Organ Sipskog A rheoloskogDrustva, nova serija VI, 95- 1 52. 

Zupanic 1912: Niko Zupanic, Zumbercani i Marindolci. Prilog antropologiji i etnogra- 
fiji Srba u Kranjskoj, Separat [Prosvetni Glasnik], Beograd. 



Christian Promitzer 



(In-) Visibilities of Hidden Minorities in the Balkans. Some Theoretical Remarks 

The paper in its first part tries to give some theoretical insight into the issue of Hidden 
Minorities (HMs). In its second part it deals with the perception of HMs in Southern Central 
Europe (i e Austria, Slovenia and Northern Croatia) and in the Balkans proper. It will tackle 
this issue by a catalogue of questions whose answering is supposed to get a better understanding 
of the phenomenon of HMs. 



Kristijan Promiccr: (Ne-) vidljivostskriveniii manjinana Balkanu ... 23 



I. The issue of Hidden Minorities 

1 . What are Hidden Minorities? 

This is apparently the most difficult question, since HMs do not identify themselves as 
such. The term MM has been recently introduced by scientific research and can therefore only be 
a construction a posteriori. It tries to describe small (in-) groups which consider their common 
descent relevant; they tend to have both the same cultural traits and the same boundaries with 
their surrounding as officially recognized ethnic minorities. But, as a matter of fact, HMs either 
do not want to identify themselves as ethnically different from their surrounding in public or 
there does not exist an intention for their recognition as ethnic minorities by the state they are 
living in. In many cases both options are true. The reasons for such a situation, among others, 
may be sought in the smallness of HMs and/or the lack of intellectual elites of their own. 
Historically, one can describe HMs either as failed attempts of in-groups to constitute 
themselves as visually different ethnic groups during the historical process of nation building. 
Their existence can be viewed as a consequence of their (often only initial) reserve to fully 
comply with the dominant nation building of a given region or state also in private life: this 
concerns the different language, religion, rituals etc. which shape the intrinsic communication 
structure of the given in-group vis-a-vis its surrounding. 

2. What are Hidden Identities? 

From a historical viewpoint, at least in Central Europe, HMs, because of the dominant 
tendencies of assimilation, only seem to be a phenomenon with transient character of the 20 lh 
century. Their "resistance 11 — which has nothing to do with courage, but with the cohesion of a 
given local in-group - apparently has lost its power; nowadays identities tend to be multiple, 
especially under the influence of intermarriages and of modern media. If a submerged identity is 
still of meaning, then it is only at an individual level among the older generation; therefore one 
can often speak only of individual hidden identities in those cases where one or two generations 
ago HMs — as a vivid social phenomenon for the protection of the in-group — still existed. Such 
a process must not be interpreted in terms of nostalgia, however; it should be connected with the 
social role of the term — tradition within a given local community. 

3. Why are Hidden Minorities of special interest for the regions of Southern Central 
Europe and the Balkans? 

The course of nation building in these regions was very complex: instead of national 
homogeneous states — something which in Western Europe had been at least nominally 
achieved in an earlier historical period — these regions were constitutionally multicultural and 
multiethnic. For the Balkans, among others, the reason for the persistence of varieties can be 
found in the Ottoman Millet System which fostered self governance at the local level. Secondly, 
national and ethnic affiliation here was treated according to an alleged common origin — due to 
the German model of how to define a nation — and not according to the Western European 
principle which constituted a member of a nation by its citizenship. HMs in Eastern and 
Southeastern parts of Europe therefore seem to represent unsurmounted remnants of incomplete 
nation building. These remnants, however, were too small to get broader political attention from 
their possible referential "mother nations" (if there were any), other than was mostly the case 
with officially recognized ethnic minorities after the First World War. One has to take into 
consideration, though, that HMs are not restricted to the Balkans or to Southern Central Europe; 
their pendants can be observed in the whole of Eastern Central Europe and in the successor 
states of the Russian Empire/Soviet Union. 

Potentially, the term of HMs could be of even greater relevance, if we apply it to the 
second and third generations of migrants to the countries of the European Union. That cultural and 
ethnic difference can play the role of a persistent factor. It can be exemplified with the case of the 
Bulgarian migrant gardeners which can be viewed as forerunners of later migration processes to 
the EU. 



24 CKPHBEME MAIfcHHE HA BAJIKAIIY 



II. The visualization of Hidden minorities 

4. How were Hidden Minorities perceived in the course of history? 

HMs did not leave many written traces by themselves, since they lacked intellectual 
elites of their own. But intellectuals of the surrounding nations became aware of that 
phenomenon: they either saw them as a problematic element which was resistant towards the 
dominant process of nation building, or — if a HM lived outside the state, but by terms of 
tradition could be affiliated to it — as small Diaspora groups which deserved some sympathetic 
attraction. There are even some examples of HMs which simply became the object of exotic and 
romantic considerations. But all these considerations were overwhelmingly part of an often 
highly ideologized hegemonic and colonial discourse towards HMs. Even modern scholars, 
engaged in the issue of HMs — be they aware of it or not — potentially could contribute to a 
nostalgic discourse of that phenomenon, if they would not consider the actual identity patterns 
of the populations in concern. 

The methods by which HMs were discovered and visualized were mainly those of 
ethnography and physical anthropology ("racial science"), but also historical considerations 
("What was their origin?", "How could they survive?", etc.) and linguistic approaches have to 
be taken into consideration. 

5. Which examples of Hidden Minorities can be used to demonstrate such discourses? 
At this place a catalogue of samples neither can be exhaustive nor complete; as an input 

some arbitrarily selected examples from Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
Serbia and Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria will be presented in the paper. 

6. Are there any attempts to revive Hidden Minorities? 

This is a problematic issue, since existing identities of members of HMs often do not 
coincide with the identity management of their various advocates, be they part of the respective 
in-group or not. It is true; the stcp-by-step assimilation of HMs — which often was not a result 
of intention, but of neglect — has to be treated critically; in most cases it was only a specific 
form of modern national colonization. But the often self-appointed advocates of HMs also have 
to be confronted with a sensible and serious question: when is the political "outing" of a HM 
something which can be considered as a real emancipative act, and when it is only some kind of 
instrumentalization? 



fopdana A/iexcoea 






CTATYCOT HA MAKE/JOHLJHTE BO AJIBAHHJA 

HauHOHannHTe MajiuHHCTBa Ha HCTopHCKaTa cueHa ce nojaByBaaT 
bo BpeMe Kora ce nojaByBaaT Haixmrre w Kora ce C03^aBaaT /nmaBHTe Bp3 
HannoHajiHa ocHOBa. Bo coBpeMeHHOT cbct peHHCH HeMa jjp>KaBa uito 6h 
Gnjia HauHOHajiHO xoMoreHa, apaeaBa bo hhh rpaHHUH He 6h nocToe.no Ha- 
HHOHanHO ManuiHHCTBO. Cnopea reorpa^cKMOT KpHTepHyM AejioBH or ea- 
Ha HauHJa Moace aa aojKHBeaT cy^6HHa Ha HauHOHajiHO MajiuHHCTBo bo 
rpaHHUHTe Ha coce^HHTe apacaBH hjih Ha apvKSLBu koh (|)H3hhkh ce MHory 
o/majieHeHM oa HHBHaTa MaranHa 36MJa. ripHHHHHTe 3a OBaa nojaBa ce 
pa3JiHHHH. HepeTKO e^eH oa (f)aKTopHTe sokh bo nojiHTHHKHTe npeBHpa- 
H>a Ha AP>KaBHTe HH3 HCTopHJaTa. Pe3yjrraT Ha oboj (J)aKTop e h nojaBaTa 

Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HaUHOHaJlHO MaJHHlHCTBO bo TpH coceAHH ap^caBH Ha 

Peny6jiHKa MaKeaoHHJa: bo Eyrapnja, bo rpinija h bo Aji6aHHJa. 

OopMHpaHbeTO MaKe^OHCKO HaUHOHaJIHO MaJlHHHCTBO bo Aji6aHHj"a 

ce Bp3yBa co 4)opMHpaH,eTO Ha au6aHCKaTa ap>KaBa bo 1912 roa. Kano pe- 
3yjiTaT Ha nperoBopHTe oicojiy rpannuHTe Mery Aji6aHHJa, KpajiCTBOTo 
JyrocnaBHJa h TpHHJa, npouec hito Tpaeji #o 1925 roa., hckoh o6jiacTH 
HaceneHH co MaKeziOHCKH pozteHH roBopHTejiH BjieryBaaT bo cocTaBOT Ha 
HOBaTa zip^aBa Ha BajiKaHOT. 

MaKeziOHHHTe bo Aji6aHHj'a >KHBeaT bo pa3JiH4HH o6nacTH h bo He- 
KOJiKy aji6aHCKH rpaaoBH, a He Ha e^HHCTBeHa TepHTopHja. KaKo CTapoce- 
aejiUH h KaKo MaKe^OHCKH po/teHH roBopHTejiH MaKeziOHHH >KHBeaT bo 
o6jiacTHTe: Tojto EpAo, KopnaHCKO, Mana npecna h riorpa^euKO. Maice- 
AOHHHTe bo HeKOH au6aHCKH rpa^OBH (BepaT, Kopna, rieiiiKoneja, Florpa- 
rgu,, THpaHa) ce Hauuie KaKo pe3yjiTaT Ha MHrpauHH bo tckot Ha TypcKO- 
to BJiafleette, Ha npHpo^HaTa MHrpauHJa bo paMKHTe Ha AP^aBaTa h Ha 
CBecHo pacenyBaH>e. 

CooziBeTHaTa jiHTepaTypa noKa>KyBa zieKa He MO>Ke m ce zioj,ae no 
tohhhot noAaTOK 3a 6poJHocTa Ha MaKe^OHCKHTe poaeHH roBopHTejiH 



26 Ckphbehe mah>mhe ha Bajikahy 

iiito ^cHBeaT bo OBaa ApacaBa. CnopeA jyroaiiOBeHCKH h MaiceAOHCKH h3bo- 
pH oa nocjie^HHTe neuemm Ha ABaecerraoT BeK 6pojoT Ha MaiceAOHijHTe 
bo Aji6aHHJa ce abhxch oa 60 000 npeKy 45 000 ao 27 500, a cnopeA aji- 
6aHCKH H3Bopn — ro 4500. CnopeA oc[)HUHJajiHHTe noAaTOiiH oa nonncH- 
Te Ha HacejieHHeTO bo An6aHHJa, 6pojoT Ha MaiceAOHijHTe bo 1960 roA- 
H3HecyBa 4235 hjih 0,30% oa HacejieHHeTO, bo 1979 roA. — 4097 (0,16%) 
h bo 1989 rofl. — 4697 (0,15 %). Ha HeKOH oa HHTepHeT-CTpaHHijHTe uito 
ro TpeTHpaaT cbctckhot npo6ueM Ha HaiiHOHajirorre MajmHHCTBa HaHAOB- 
Me Ha cueAHOBo: 

Bo H3BeiuTajoT 3a 2001 roA. noAHeceH oa Peny6jiHKa An6aHHJa ao 
CoBeTOT Ha EBpona (bo: Framework Convention for the Protection of Na- 
tional Minorities — 2001, www. coe. int) ctoh Aeica bo 1989 toa- HauHO- 
HajiHHTe MajmHHCTBa bo Aji6aHHJa coHHHyBaaT caMO 2% oa Hej3HHOTO 
HacejieHHe, a 6pojoT Ha MaiceAOHUHTe bo OBaa 3eMJa ACHec e 4878. 

CnopeA Organization for the European Minorities (www.euromino- 
rity.org) bo Aji6aHHJa )KHBeaT 30.000 MaKeAOHitfi. 

Ha CTpaHHUHTe Ha US Department of State (www.state.gov) bo Co- 
untry Reports on Human Rights Practices — 2002 bo acjiot 3a Aji6aHHJa 
HeMa noAaTOUH 3a SpojHocTa Ha HacejieHHeTO Ha MajmHHCTBaTa, ho h no- 
Kpaj Toa uito nHiuyBa ACKa „YcTaBOT Ha Peny6jiHKa Aji6aHHJa th npH3Ha- 
j Ba eTHHHKaTa, KyjrrypHaTa, BepcKara h ja3HHHaTa npHnaAHOCT Ha Maji- 

j uHHCTBaTa", Kano h „npaBOTO as ro ynaT h a& ce uiKOJiyBaaT Ha cbojot 

MaJHHH ja3HK h jxa, ce o6eAHHyBaaT bo opraHH3auHH h acoitHJauHH 3a 3a- 
ttiTHTa Ha CBOHTe HHTepecH h Ha hachthtctot", jacHO ctoh h Toa AGKa no- 
\ nHCOT oa anpHJi 2001 roAHHa npeAH3BHKaji „hckoh cthhhkh Tpun Aa ro 

I 6oJKOTHpaaT npouecoT". HHaKy, cnopeA H3BeniTajoT, eTHHHKHTe TpuH 

| „ce HajroneMaTa rpyna ManuHHCTBo" bo Aji6aHHJa, a „hcto Taica HMa Ma- 

i jih rpynn MaiceAOHUH, LJpHoropijH, Bjiacn, Pomh h EranKaHn". 

Bo The Macedonian Minority in Albania — MHRMC Report to the 
OCSE 2003 Human Dimension Implementation Meeting (www. macedoni- 
ansinalbania. org) ce BenH ACKa nerapHTe MaiceAOHCKH opraHH3auHH bo Aji- 
6aHHJa: Mnp, EpaTCTBO, ME,ZJ h npecna ro 6oJKOTHpajre nonncoT oa 2001 
roAHHa, 6nAeJKH bo nonncHHTe jihcth ja HeMajio onunjaTa „MaKeAOHeu", 
Kano h Toa ACKa aji6aHCKaTa BJiaAa npoAOjrayBa co HaMajiyBaH>e Ha aicryeji- 
HaTa 6poJHOCT Ha MaKeAOHUHTe h Ha npnnaAHHUHTe Ha ocTaHaraTe Maji- 
UHHCTBa. CnopeA AcouHj'aqHJaTa Ha MaKeAOHUHTe bo AjiGaHHJa 6poJHOCTa 
Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HauHOHajiHO MajmHHCTBO bo OBaa 3eMJa e noMery 120 000 
h 350 000. Hh3 CTpaHHUHTe Ha Macedonians in Albania — Official site of 
the Macedonian Associations in Albania aojaobmc h ao noAaTOKOT Aeica 
MHCHJa Ha CoseTOT Ha EBpona ja nocerajia Aji6aHHJa bo 2002 roAHHa h bo 
TnpaHa o4)opMHJia LJeHTap 3a cthhhko HCTpaxcyBaH>e, npn uito Mery aji- 



ropAaHa AjieKcoBa: Ctatycot ha Makeaojiuhte bo Aabahhja 27 



6aHCKOTO HaceneHHe hh3 nejiaia 3CMJa 6HJia cnpOBeAeHa aHKeTa co 33 npa- 
iuaH>a. IIo OBa HCTpa^cyBaiie AHpeicropOT Ha LJenrapoT, Khmct OeTaxy, H3- 
jaBHJi KaKO „pe3ynTaTHTe riOKa>KyBaaT xtena OKony eAeii mhjihoh, hjih 35% 
oa ceBKyrmoTO HacejieHHe bo 3CMJaTa ce npHiiaAHHUH Ha ManuHHCTBa, a 
Toa ja npaBH Aji6aHHJa Myji-raeTHHHKa Rpmsma.". IloHaTaMy ctoh AeKa cno- 
pefl npBHHHHTe pe3yjiTaTH bo Aji6anHJa >KHBeaT npeTeraBUHUH Ha ce/jyM 
eTHHHKH ipynH ManuHHCTBa, oa koh naj6poJHH ce MaKeaoHUHTe h TpuHTe, 
AeKa bo Aii6aHHJa nocTOj'aT 5 opranH3auHH Ha Mai<eAOHUH, #eica opraHH3a- 
UHHTe na MajmHHCTBaTa 6eAHO copa6oTyBaaT co cpeACTBaTa 3a HH(|)opMH- 
paH>e, co nojiHTHHKHTe napTHH h co HeBJiaAHHHTe opraiiH3anHH bo Aji6a- 
HHJa, pfiKa bo oahoc Ha MajuniHCTBaTa bo rojieMa Mepa hoctoh ahckphmh- 
HaTopcKa no^HTHKa or CTpaHa Ha ajiGaHCKaTa BJiaAa Ha iuiaHOT Ha niKOJiy- 
BaH>eTo h Ha Bpa6oTyBaH>eTO h AeKa ce oneKysa OBHe noAaTonH Aa 6nAaT 
BKJiyneHH bo toahiuhhot H3BeniTaj Ha Aji6aiiHJa ao Cobctot Ha EBpona Ha 
KpajoT or cenTeMBpH 2002 roA- 

nono»6aTa Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HauHOHanHO MajiuMHCTBo bo A/i6aHHJa 
HH3 HCTopHJaTa 3aBHcejia oa BHaTpeuiHHTe coctoj6h h or oahochtc Ha OBaa 
Ap>KaBa co JyrocjiaBHJa, a bo thc paMKH h co Mai<eAOHHJa. Bo nepMOAOT oa 
1912-1944 tor. nocToejia nejiocua oGecnpaBCHOCT h nonHTHKa Ha fleHam-i- 
0HajiH3auHJa h acHMHiiauHJa, iuto AOBeAysajio #o Toa o6pa30BHHOT nponec 
fla ce o^BHBa HCKJiynHBO Ha au6aHCKH ja3HK, Kaxo h Aa ce OHeB03MO>KH 
0/tp)KyBaH>eT0 Ha HanHOHajmaTa TpaflHUHJa, Ha (^ojikjiopot h Ha o6HnaHTe. 
HapoAHa Peny6;iHKa A;i6aHHJa, ocpopMeHa bo 1944 roA., ro npH3HaBa no- 
CToeaeTO Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HauHOHanHO MajiuHHCTBO, Ha Koe My e obo- 
3MO»ceHO ochobho o6pa30BaHne Ha MaJHHH ja3HK. MaKe^OHCKH yHMTejiH ce 
HcnpaK&iie bo peraoHHTe Majia npecna, KopnaHCKO h Tojio EpAO co ueji Aa 
ja H3Be^yBaaT HacTaBaTa na MaKeaoHCKH ja3HK. OBa Tpaejio ao 1948 roA., 
oflHOCHO ao npeKHHOT Ha OAHOCHTe noMery JyrocnaBHJa h Aji6aHHJa nopa- 
m Pe30JiyuHJaTa Ha HHtJiopMaraBHOTO 6npo Ha KOMyHHCTHHKHTe napTHH. 
Ofl 1948 vojx. MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK KaKO HacTaBeH ja3MK 3a MaKeAOHUHTe 
ocTaHan caMO bo o6jiacTa Majia npecna, KaKO iuto e h AeHec. MaKeAOHnn- 
Te bo Aji6aHHJa or 1948 r. ja AeJiene cyA6HHaTa Ha an6aHCKHOT HapoA bo 
Pokhmot iuto ro co3AaBajia aji6aHCKaTa /nmaBa, a ocoSeHo bo npBaTa rq- 
ueHHJa OTToraui, Kora MHory MaKeAOHun 6HJie MajiTpernpaHH, 3arBopaHH 
h HcnpaicaHH no Jioropn caMO nopaAH nanHOHajiHaTa npHnaAHOCT. J3pnx&- 
H.CTO Ha Mai<eAOHUHTe bo h oa norpaHHHHaTa 30Ha (Majia npecna) 6hjjo 
dporo KOHTpojiHpaHo h oipaHHHeHo, a ao 1991 toa. hm 6hji oneB03MOJKeH 
KaKOB 6hjio KOHTaKT co MaKeAOHHJa. 

H noKpaj Toa uito o(J)MUHJajiHO c iipH3HaTO nocToen-eTO Ha MaKe- 
Aohckoto HannoHajiHo MajinwHCTBo bo o6jiacTa npecna, ajiSaHCKaTa aA- 

MHHHCTpaUHJa Ha CBOJ HaHHH TH TpeTHpa JIHHHHTe HMHH.a Ha MaKeAOHUH- 



28 CKl'HBEHE MAIkMHE HA BAJIKAHY 



Te h reorpa^CKHTe hmhm oa cjiobchcko noTeKJio, t. e. rae ce an6aHH3H- 
paHM. Tana, cejioTO riycTeu, cera e JlHKeHac, 3phocko e 3aponiK, nio6o4e- 

HH e r0J10M60H HTH. ripe3HMHH>aTa CO KapaKTepHCTHHHHTe MaKe^OHCKH 

HaCTaBKH -cku h -cm a^MHHHCTpaTHBHO ce perHCTpnpaaT CO aji6aHCKH 3a- 
BpiuouH, na I^BapKOCKH CTaHyBa U,(j)apKy, TeMejiKOCKa — TeMenKO hth. 
Bo npeTCTaBHHUH Ha Tpn reHepauHH bo e^HO ceMejcTBO Moaee Aa ce 3a6e- 
jie»CH AeKa OHHe oa HaJMJiaAaTa ce co aji6ancKH HMHH>a (ApnjaH, JIhhah- 
Ta, ^amaMHp), a hhbhhtc poAHTeuH, 6a6HTe h AeAOBunxe hm ce BHKaaT 
BeiiHKa, 3apKO, BopHc, JoBaH, Cnaca, Py>Ka, ^a^MHa HTH - 

HHai<y, BocnHTyBatf>eTO bo aTeHcranKH Ayx, luto 6hjio bo conia- 
choct co BJiaAeanKaTa HAeonorHJa bo An6aHHJa ao 1990/91, oa CBOja 
CTpaHa HMajio npHAOHec bo HaAMHHyBatteTO Ha pa3JTHKHTe noiviery npa- 
BOCJiaBHOTO h MycjiHMaHCKOTO HaceneHHe. 

AKTyejiHaTa cocTojGa noKa>KyBa ACKa MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK Kano Ha- 
CTaBeH npeflMCT h Kaxo ja3HK Ha HacTaBaTa Ha MaKeAOHHHTe bo Aji6aHHJa 
e OAo6peH bo ochobhoto o6pa30BaHHe (cnopeA 3aKOHOT 3a o6pa30BaHHe 
Ha P. An6aHHJa 70% oa HacrasaTa bo oboj CTeneH oa o6pa30BaHneTo mo- 
tkc Aa ce H3BeAyBa Ha MaJHHH ja3HK) w bo npBHTe ABe toahhh oa cpeAHOTO 
o6pa30BaHHe. Oa pa3JiHHHH npHHHHH toj e 3acTaneH caMO KaKO HacTaBeH 
npeAMeT bo ochobhoto o6pa30BaHHe, a Toa caMO bo o6jiacxa Majia ripe- 
cna. Mefy npHHHHHTe, cnrypHO e AeKa Tpe6a Aa ce cnoMeHe h ocnoco6e- 
HOCTa Ha HacTaBHHOT KaAap, koj ao6hji cooabctho o6pa30BaHHe Ha an- 
6aHCKH ja3HK, KaKO h npaiuatteTO co yqe6HHUHTe. Mopa Aa ce HCTaKHe 
noAaTOKOT AeKa MHory oa yne6HHUHTe 3a MaKeAOHCKHTe yneHHUH ce npe- 
BCAeHH oa an6aHCKH, ho Hiwa h opHrnHajiHH yne6HHLiH 3a npeAMeTOT Ma- 
KeAOHCKH ja3HK HanHiuaHH Ha MaKeAOHCKH oa TaMOEiHH nacTaBHHUH no 
MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. HeKOH o^, yne6HHUHTe, KaKO h 6H6jmoTeHHHTe 4>oh- 
AObh Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK bo OBaa o6uacT ce noAapOK oa MaKeAOHCKHTe 
KHHroH3AaBaHH, oa MarauaTa Ha ncejieHHUHTe Ha MaKeAOHHJa, oa AM6a- 
caAaTa Ha P. MaKeAOHHJa bo Aji6aHnja h cji. 3a6e;ie>KJTHB e Kaj yHHTejiHTe 
oa o6:iacTa Mana ripecna, noToa bo yqe6HHu,HTe, KaKO h bo eMHCHHTe Ha 
MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK nanpeAOKOT bo nomeA Ha npH6jra>KyBaH>eTO koh MaKe- 
Aohckhot cTaHAapAeH ja3HK, ho jacHO e AeKa Tpe6a yuiTe Aa ce pa6oTH Ha 
oboj njiaH. 

Bo o6jiacTHTe Topa h Tojio BpAO MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo iiHicaKBa 
4)opMa He e 3acraneH bo hhcach creneH oa o6pa30BaHHeTO, TaKa iiito toj 
e CBeAeH Ha jiOKaneH roBOp co (j)yHKUHJa Ha cckojahcbho onurrefte h bo 
HeroBaTa roBopeHa ^opMa. Oa 1990/91 toa. ce 3a6cne>KyBa MacoBHO pa- 
cejiyBatte Ha MaKeAOHUHTe oa nacHBHHTe npeaejiH Ha Topa h Ha Tojio 
BpAO bo rpaAOBHTe HH3 Aji6aiiHJa, co uito ce HaMajryBa MO>KHOCTa 3a yno- 
Tpe6a Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK. 



TopAaHa AneKcoBa: Ctatycot ha Makeaoi iuhte bo Ajisahhja 29 



MaKeAOHUHTe bo Peny6jiHKa Aji6aHHJa He ce opraHH3HpaHH bo no- 
jihthhkh napTHH. CnopeA noAaTOUHTe iiito th ao6hbmc oa MaKeAOHHH 
oa Majia npecna bo Aji6aHHj'a nocTojaT ABe MaKeAOHCKH opraHH3au,HH: 
„Mnp" — nojiHTHHKO ApyuiTBO bo Koe HJieHyBaaT MaKeAOHHH oa Tojio 
BpAO, Topa h oa AP- AejioBH Ha Aji6aHHJa h ,,/JpyiiiTBo npecna" — co 
HJieHOBH MaKeAOHUH oa o6jiacTa Mana npecna. H ABeTe opraHH3anHH 
HMaaT cboh BecHnnn: „Mnp", uito H3JieryBa bo TnpaHa h ce nenaTH h Ha 
aji6aHCKH h Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK h „npecna", uito ce nenara noBpeMe- 
ho, a Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. Oa noHOB AaTyM bo mcctoto Bp6hhk aej- 
CTByBa h /JpyiHTBOTo na MaKeAOHHH oa erejcKHOT Aeji Ha Aji6aHHJa 
(ME.ZJ). Bo CBOHTe nporpaMH ApyuiTBaTa ch nocTaByBaaT HH3a 3aAann 
Bp3aHH, npeA ce, co npomnpyBaite Ha ynoTpe6aTa Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja- 
3hk bo ochobhoto h bo cpeAHOTo o6pa30BaHHe bo npecna, a luto ce oAHe- 
cyBa ao Topa h ao Tojio BpAO, aKTHBHOCTMTe Ha ApyniTBOTO Mnp ce Ha- 

COHeHH KOH CTOnaHCKHOT pa3BHTOK, KOH HyBafibe H pa3BHTOK Ha MaKeAOH- 

CKaTa KyjiTypa, o6nHaHTe, (pojiKJiopoT h MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK, KaKO h koh 
rpaAen>e Ao6pococeACKH oahoch noMery ABeTe ApacaBH. KaKO pe3yjiTaT 
Ha aKTHBHOCTMTe Ha noMjraAHTe reHepanHH MaKeAOHnn bo o6jiacTa Majia 
npecna AejcTByBaaT h t. h. ckojiohjkh ApyniTBa h rae ce rpn>KaT, npeA ce, 
3a KyuTypHHOT nanpeAOK Ha HacejieHHeTO oa OBaa o6jiacT. 

Ha nporpaMHTe Ha Ap>KaBHaTa TejieBH3HJa HeMa cmhchh Ha MaKeAOH- 
CKH ja3HK, a bo 1992 toa. e OAo6peHa eMHcnja Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK Ha Pa- 
AHO Kopna. Bo noneTOKOT ce eMHTyBana TpnnaTH HeaejiHO no 15 mhh., ho 
6pry noToa BpeMeTpaetteTO h 6hjio HaMajieHo Ha 5 mhh. Oa CKopo bo mc- 
ctoto nycTen pa6oTH npHBaTHOTO paAHO PaAHO npecna, Ha Koe nporpaMa- 
Ta ce H3BeAyBa 30% Ha an6aHCKH, a 70% Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. 

H noKpaj Toa uito HapoAHHTe npHKa3HH, npeAaHHJaTa, aHerAOTHTe, 
HapOAHHTe necHH h cji. ce npHcyran bo kojickthbhoto noMHeite Ha Ma- 
KeAOHHHTe uito JKHBeaT bo Aji6aHHJa h ce Aeji oa ceKoJAHeBHHOT >khbot h 
Ha HaJMJiaAHTe reHepanHH, He MO)Ke Aa ce 36opyBa 3a 6oraTa Kynryp- 
Ho-yMeTHHHKa aKTHBHocT oa opraHH3HpaH h 0(j)HnHJajieH KapaKTep. 

Tpe6a Aa ce HCTaKHe AeKa KaKO pe3yjiTaT Ha rpnacaTa Ha MaKeAOH- 
CKaTa Ap>KaBa bo noHOBo BpeMe ce 3anecTeHH aKTHBHocTHTe bo npaBen Ha 
KyjiTypHaTa, HayraaTa, o6pa30BHaTa h CTonaHCKaTa copa6oTKa noMery 
MaKeAOHHj'a h AjiGaHHJa. Toa, hccomhcho, boah koh noAo6pyBan>e Ha 
CTaHAapAOT Ha MaKeAOHnnre bo OBaa coceAHa Ap>KaBa. Oa noneTOKOT Ha 
AeBeAeceTTHTe toahhh, Kora ce BocnocTaByBaaT AHnjiOMaTCKH oahoch 
noMery OBHe ABe 3eMJH, 3anoHHyBa KOHTHHynpaHO CTHneHAHpan>e Ha ABa- 
eceTHHa CTyAeHTH — MaKeAOHHH oa Aji6aHHJa Ha yHHBep3HTeTHTe bo 
Qconjc h bo BnTOJia. II o AHnjioMHpaH>eTO OBne MJiaAH jiyre ce BpaicaaT h 
ce BKjrynyBaaT bo onurrecTBeHHOT >khbot Ha P. Ait6aHHJa. BaKBHTe an- 



30 CKPMBEHE MAFbHHE HA BaJIKAHY 

thbhoctm npn/jOHecoa bo yneSHaTa 1995/96 rofl. Ha ynHBep3HTeTOT bo 
THpaHa, a bo paMKHTe Ha cryAHHTe no cnaBHCTHKa h 6ajiKaHHCTHKa aa 3a- 
noHHe co paGoTa h jieKTOpaT no MaiceAOHCKH ja3HK, koj ro boah e^eH oa 
AHnjiOMHpaHHTe CTy^eHTH Ha Ohjiojioujkhot (JjaicyjiTeT bo Cnonje. 

KaKo 3aKjiynoK Ke Ka^ceMe Aeica npoSjieMOT Ha HauHOHajiHHTe Maji- 
UHHCTBa e oa CBeTCKH paMKH. Ce Ha^eBaMe AeKa aKTHBHOCTHTe Ha Mery- 
HapOAHHTe opraHH3auHH lhto ro TperapaaT oboj npoSjieivr bo paMKHTe Ha 
npaiuaH>eT0 3a hobckobh npaBa ice AOBeAaT ao noAo6pyBan>e Ha hhbhhot 
CTaTyc HaceKa/ie bo cbctot, oahocho ceicaAe Ka/ie ihto toj ne e Ha hhbo 
ihto My flonHKyBa Ha moaophhot h AGMOKpaTCKH CBeT Ha flBaeceT h npBH- 

OT BeK. 

JlHTepaTypa 

AjieKcoBa EoJKOBCKa 2001 : T. AjieKCOBa, Or. EoJKOBCKa, HacTaBaTa no MatceAOHCKH ja- 
3hk Ha MaKeziOHUHTe bo Aji6aHHJa, XXVII Haynua Kou(pepeni{uja net XXXIII 
Mezynapoden ceMiwap 3aMaKedo}tCKujci3UK, miiuepaiuypa u Ky/iiuypa, CKonje. 

A lbania2001, FIRST REPORT submitted by the REPUBLIC OF A LBANIA under A r- 
ticle 25, paragraph 1 of the Council of Europe 's Framework Convention for the 
Protection of National Minorities 2001 \ www.coe.int. 

A Ibania 2002, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices — 2002 Released by the Bu- 
reau of Democracy , Human Rights and Labor, March 31, 2003; www.state.gov. 

Council of Europe: Albania is multiethnic state, www. macedoniansinalbania. org. 

KaTapuneB 1983: H. KaTapyneB, Eopda do uodeda, CKonje. 

Macedonians in A Ibania, Organization for the European Minorities; www.euromino- 
rity.org. 

MnHOBa-fypKOBa 1996: JI. MnHOBa-fypKosa, CraTycoT Ha MaiceAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo 
Peny6nHKa Aji6aHHJa,XA7/ 7/oywa ducKycuja na XX VIII Mezynapoden ceMu- 
uap 3a MaKedoncKu J03UK, Auiuepauiypa u Kynuiypa, CKonje. 

MnHOBa-fypKOBa 1998: JT. MuHOBa-fypKOBa, MaiceAOHCKOTO HaijHoiiajiHO ManuHH- 
CTBOBoPeny6jiHKa An62LHH}a > Najnowszedziejej$zik6wsiowianskich, Opole. 

IlonoBCKH 1 98 1 : T. nonoBCKH, MaxedoHCKoiuo Hanuonanuo Ma/iijUHCuieo eo Eyeapu- 
ja, Fptfuja u Andanuja, CKonje. 

The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, www.odinn.pnjp.blueyonder.co.uk. 

The Macedonian Minority in A Ibania— MHRMC Report to the OSCE 2003 Human Di- 
mension Implementation Meeting, www.macedoniansinalbania.org. 



TopAaHa AjieKCOBa: Ctatycot ha Makeaohumti- bo A^ibahmja 3 1 



Gordana Aleksova 



Macedonians in (he Republic of Albania 



The presence of the Macedonian minority in Albania is connected with the formation of 
the Albanian state in 1912. The Macedonians in Albania do not inhabit a compact territory, but 
live in several regions and in the Albanian towns. Old settlements with Macedonian native 
speakers are found in the regions: Golo Brdo, Korcha, Mala Prespa and Podgorica. The presence 
of Macedonians in some Albanian towns (Berat, Korcha, Peshkopcja, Podgradcc, Tirana) is a 
result of their migrations during the Ottoman period, natural migration within the state, and as a 
conscious migration. 

The position of the Macedonian minority in Albania through history has depended on 
both the internal conditions and on the relation between Albania and Yugoslavia. The federal 
Republic of Albania, founded in 1944, recognized the presence of Macedonian minority, and 
allowed elementary education in their mother tongue. This was permitted until 1948, when the 
relations between Yugoslavia and Albania grew cold due to the dissolution of the informational 
bureau of the communist parties. From 1948, Macedonian is a school language only in the 
region Mala Prespa. 

The movements of Macedonians in the border zone (Mala Prespa) are strictly controlled 
and limited, and until 1991 any contact with Macedonia has been impossible. 

Personal names and toponyms of Slavic origin were albanized. 
_ Today, Macedonian can be the language of instruction in school and also a subject of 
study in elementary and high school in Albania. However, for different reasons, it is the subject 
of study only in Mala Prespa. In Gora and in Golo Brdo Macedonian is a local dialect 
functioning in everyday communication in its spoken form. From 1990/91 there has been a large 
migration of Macedonians from parts of Gora and Golo Brdo to towns throughout Albania. 

Macedonians in the Republic of Albania are not organized in political parties, but there 
are two organizations: "Mir" — a political organization whose members come from the regions 
of Golo Brdo, Gora and some other parts in Albania and "The Organization Prespa" — with 
lembers from the region of Mala Prespa. The two organizations have their own newspapers: 
Mir" — published in Tirana in Albanian and Macedonian and "Prespa" — published 
occasionally and only in Macedonian. 

From 1995/96, a lectureship in Macedonian has functioned at the University in Tirana as 
part of the Slavic and Balkan Studies department. 

There are no Macedonian language programs at the Albanian state television yet. In 1992 
there was a Macedonian language program broadcasted on Radio Korcha. At the beginning, the 
program lasted 15 minutes three times a week, but soon after it was shortened to 5 minutes. 



m 



CutoJKa EoJKoecKa 



CTATYCOT HA MAKE/JOHCKHOT JA3HK BO 
PEnYBJlMKA ITIJHJA H BO PEnYBJIMKA BYrAPHJA 

^npe^MeT Ha oboj pe^epaT e npeTCTaByBaite Ha coBpeMeHHTe co- 

ctoj6h no oahoc Ha npamaH>eTO 3a CTaTycoT Ha MaiceflOHCKHOT ja3HK Ha 

Mmwomme bo TpHHJa h bo ByrapHJa. IJejiTa Ha HameTO H3JiaraH,e K e 

6HAe, npea ce, Aa ce noconaT HaABopeniHoja3HHHHTe 4)aKTopH, pema- 

BaHKH 3a CTaTycoT na MaKe^oHCKHOT ja3HK Kaj MaKeflOHHHTe bo obhc ABe 

coce/iHH apacaBH Ha Peny6jiHKa MaKeAOHHJa bo BTopaTa nouoBHHa Ha 
20-ot BeK. 

HMeHo, koh KpajoT Ha 20-ot BeK, Kano hito e no3HaTO, HacTaHaa tjio- 

6aiIHH nOJIHTHHKH H OHUITeCTBeHH npOMCHH. npeMHHOT OR e^eH CHCTeM BO 

Apyr OHHrjie^HO H3MecTH MHory HeiHTa bo npaBeu, Ha no6p3HOT nporpec Ha 
MHory npamaita oa CHTe cc|)epH Ha >KHBeeH>ero Ha HauiHBe npocTopH. Ho- 
bhot, ce yuiTe Ha hobhaok, AeMOKparcKH npou.ec co3AaAe mojkhoct ceKoj 
rparaHHH, ocoSeHo bo nocTconHJajiMcraqKHTe 3eMJn, Aa ro H3pa3yBa cuo- 
6oaho CBoeTO nojiHTHHKO y6eAyBan>e, HauHOHajiHa npnnaAHOCT, KaKO h 
CBojaTa BepCKa noce6HocT. IlorojieMHOT Aeji oa nporpecHBHHOT cbct OBHe 
npoMeHH rn AoneKa co rojieMa Bep6a, 3auiT0 toj hctophckh hob momcht e, 
BcyuiHocT, h HecnopeH nporpecHBeH npecBpT uito hoch hobh hack h nep- 
cneKTHBH 3a KpearaBHOCT, co CTpeMeac koh onuiToeBponcKH cojkhbot h 
npocnepHTeT. ToKMy 3aToa HauHonajiHHTe npauiaita h cyniTHHaTa Ha hhb- 
hoto TOJiKyBaae, npamaH>eTO 3a HauHOHajiHHTe MajiiniHCTBa, 3a eTHHHKHTe 
3aeAHnnH h npamaiteTO 3a 3anyByBaH>eT0 Ha HanHOHajiHHOT HAeHTHTeT Ha 
eAeH HapOA, ce HaJBajKHa h raaBHa KOMnoHeHTa bo pa3BHT0K0T Ha noHaTa- 
MoniHHTe 3aeMHH oahoch Mery HapoAHTe, bo hhbhoto nocaKyBaHO npn- 
6jiH>KyBaH,e koh coBpeMeHa h o6eAHHeTa EBpona. 

ripH o6pa6oTKaTa Ha OBaa TeMa ce OAJiynHBMe Ha npo6jieMOT m My 
npnJAeMe noBeKe oa coBpeMeH/peaneH acneKT. 3eMeHH ce npeABHA, 3a ej\- 

H0 BaKBO npeTCTaByBaibe H OApeAeHH HCTOpHCKO-nOJIHTHHKH h couho- 



34 



Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 



J1HHTBHCTHHKH (J)aKTOpH Ba)KHH 3a CTaTyCOT Ha MaKeAOHLlHTe H HHBHHOT 
ja3HK BO paMKHTe Ha 06jeKTHBHHTe SaJIKaHCKH peaJTHOCTH BO TeKOT Ha 

^BaeceTTHOT BeK. Oboj nepHOA e oco6eHO BaaceH TOKMy nopaAH H3pa3MTO 

AHHaMHHHHTe npOMCHH KOH Ce CJiyHHJa BO HCTOpHCKHOT pa3BHTOK Ha Ma- 
KeAOHCKHOT ja3HK BO 6ailKaHCKH KOHTeKCT. 

„MMeHO HeMHHOBHHOT 6hOJ10UIKH H KyjlTypeH pa3BHTOK Ha MaKeAOH- 

ckhot HapOA/HauHJa bo ycjiOBH Ha nocToefte Ha eAHa HCTopncKa TepHTopH- 
ja h co eAHopoAHa eTHHHKa KOMnaKTHOCT (Kaxo h ceKOJa Apyra HauMJa), co 
nopa3BHeHa hjih, Ha momchth, naManKy pa3BHeHa KyjiTypHa TpaAHinija, co- 
3AaBa momchoct bo, 3a Hero, iiobojihh hctophckh ycjiOBH Aa pemaBa caM 3a 
CBOJara HCTOpHCKa BHCTHHa" (Khccuhhobckh 1987:16). A npaiuaftero 3a 
Toa KaKBa 6eme h KaKBa e coCTOj6aTa co MaKeAOHinrre h MaKeAOHCKHOT ja- 
3hk bo TeKOT Ha HeroBOTO hctophcko nocToeite, bo HayKaTa e aobojiho no- 
3HaTO. MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HKJ a 3a4>aKa jy>KHaTa nepH^epnja Ha cjiobchckh- 
ot ja3HMeH CBer, a TaKBaTa HeroBa nocTaBeHOCT, naK, Hauina OApa3 bo Hero- 
BHTe cneHH^HHHOCTH HacnpeMa ApyrHTe cjiobchckh ja3HHH. 

CocTOJ6HTe bo norjieA Ha CTaTyCOT Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT jasmc bo CHTe 
coceAHH Ap^aBH (rjieAaHO oa AeHeuieH acneKT) 3aBHcaT, npeA ce, oa oa- 
hocot Ha oBHe Ap^aBH koh MaKeAOHUHTe, HHBHaTa HCTopHJa h KyjiTypa, 
ho h oa MOKTa Ha caMHTe MaKeAOHHH Aa ce n36opaT 3a npaBOTO Aa ro 
ynoTpe6yBaaT cbojot MaJHHH MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. IlocTOJaT, bo Taa cmh- 
cjia, pa3JiHKH bo oahoc Ha CTaTycoT Ha MaKeAOHUHTe h hhbhhot ja3HK 
nooAAeJiHO bo ceKOJa oa coceAHHTe AP^aBH. 



CTaTycoT Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo Peny6jiHKa TpuHJa 

Bo oboj Aen oa pe(|)epaTOT Ke ce 3aAP>KHMe Ha hckoh momchth bo 
oncTOJyBaH,eTO Ha MaKeAOHUHTe h MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo cme c$epH 
Ha hhbhoto >KHBeeH>e bo TpuHJa. 

Kora 36opyBaMe 3a CTaTycoT Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo Peny6jiHKa 
TpHHJa, h noKpaj rpHKO Herapatbe Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HainiOHajiHO Maji- 
Uhhctbo bo cBOHTe rpaHHUH, Ke th HaBeAeMe, HaKO nepnoAHHHH, npHMe- 
pHTe Kora HMajio HeKaKBO o(})HHHJajiHO npH3HaBaH>e Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja- 
3hk. TaKa, bo 1925 toa- bo AraHa e o6jaBeH Adenedap, 6yKBap HaMeHeT 

3a MaKeAOHCKOTO HaHHOHaJlHO MaiIU,HHCTBO, ho 6yKBap CO KOJ MaKeAOH- 

CKHTe Aeua Tpe6aiue Aa ja ynaT jiaraHHuaTa KaKo CBoe nncMo/a36yKa h co 
Toa Aa MO)KaT Aa ce OAAaJienaT uito e mohcho noBeice oa CBOJaTa TpaAHUH- 
ja. A6eifedapom e HannuiaH Ha MaKeAOHCKH co KapaKTepncraKH Ha jie- 
Phhckh h Ghtojickh roBop. Ha npHMep: „#acKajio He yHH Aa 36opBaMe, Aa 
neHMe, Aa nniuHMe, Aa 6pOHMe h Aa nrpaMe..." Ho oboj 6yKBap HHKoram 



Crojica BoJKOBCKa: Ctatvcot ha makeaohckhot JA3HK bo PEnyBJiHKA ... 35 



He flojfle ao paneTe Ha MaiceAOHCKHTe ^ena, a ycnoBOT Ha hhbhhtc poflH- 
TenH — 6apan>e HacTaBa Ha MaKe^oHCKH ja3HK — He 6eiue HcnojiHeT. 

MaKezioHUHTe bo TpuHJa, hcto TaKa, Ha flBanaTH ycneajie m ce H3- 
6opaT 3a npaBOTO Ha jaBHa ynoTpe6a Ha MaKefloncKHOT ja3HK, h Toa: bo 
ynHJiHiirraTa, bo nenaTOT, Kano h bo ^pyraTe fleJHOcra oa o6;iacTa Ha Kyji- 
TypaTa. HajnpBHH, Toa 6hjio bo 1944 Kora MaKexiOHUHTe 6HJie BKJiyneHH 
bo aHTHtJiauiHCTHHKaTa 6op6a bo TpuHJa, a noToa bo 1947/48, bo tckot Ha 
TpafaHCKaTa BOJHa bo Tpunja, bo Koja aKTHBHO ce BKJiynHJa MaKeaoHnn- 
Te Ha CTpaHaTa Ha nporpecHBHHTe rpqicn chjih (J\kT). Bo 1942 r. bo Bo- 
aeHCKo 6eiue $opMnpaHa MaKenoiiCKaTa aHTH^aiiiHCTHHKa opraHH3auHJa 
(MAO), a bo 1943 h CraaBJaHOMaKeAOHCKH HapoflHoocjio6oflHTeneH 
(})poHT (CHOd>) bo KocTypcKO h JlepHHCKo. OBHe opraHH3auHH, naK, H3- 
flaBajie HeKOJiKy Becmmn Ha MaKeflOHCKH: „IlpecnaHCKH rjiac", „IJpBeHa 
SBe3^a", „CnaBj'aHOMaKeflOHCKH rjiac", „rio6e^a". Efo ocjio6oayBaH>eTO, 
bo eceHTa 1944 bo OBHJe KpaHiirra Ha Tpunja noHHajie #a ce OTBopaaT Ma- 
KeAOHCKH yqHJiHiDTa. OrKaico ce HanpaBHJie noziroTOBKH 3a cocTaByBae>e 
6yKBap n HHTaHKa, napajiejiHO noHHau n Kypc 3a yHnrejiH. rtpeaaBaitaTa 
6njie Ha MaKeziOHCKH ja3HK, a hm ce npe/jaBajio 3a HcropnjaTa Ha Maice- 
flOHCKHOT Hapofl, KaKo h 3a ocHOBHHTe noMarana 3a ynefibe Ha ja3HKOT. 
Be^Hain no 3aBpmyBae>eTO Ha o6yKaTa, or oktombph 1944 noHHane m 
pa6oTaT yHHjiHurra bo KocTypcKO h JlepHHCKo (KHpja30BCKH 1987:201). 
Bo oboj nepnofl 6njie ocJDOpMeHH noBeKe KJiy6oBH h KyjnypHoyMeTHHHKH 
ApyuiTBa. Bo HCTOBpeMe noHHyBaaT #a C e jaByBaaT h npBHTe BecHHUH Ha 
MaKeziOHCKH ja3HK: bo JlepHH ce H3flaBa „3eMJo^ejicKO 3HaMe", a no c|3op- 
MHpaH>eTo Ha HO® bo 1944 n BecHnnHTe BuAiueu, HeuoKopeu, 3opa, 
EduHcuieo, Flodeda, Oc/io6oduiueA, Hoea MaKedoiiKa Ha MaKe^OHCKH ja- 
3hk. TaKa, bo TeKOT Ha TpafaHCKaTa BOJHa, MaKeflOHUHTe bo rpnnja, 
OTBopaaT MaKe^OHCKH ynnjiHuiTa (ztypn 87 co 10.000 yqeHHUH, 257 Ma- 
KeaoHnn yHHTejin ro noceTyBajie KypcoT 3a o6yKa Ha yHHTenn), peryjin- 
paHo co aKTOT 6p. 5 Ha DiaBHHOT uiTa6 Ha J\KT or 10 aBrycT 1947. Ho, 
no nopa30T Ha J\kT, npeflBnayBaJKH ro tckot Ha HacTaHHTe, MeryHapoa- 
HHTe xyMaHHTapHH opraHH3annH OB03M05KHJie MacoBHa eBanyannja Ha 
noBeice or 8000 #ena bo 1948, a bo 1949 hw 50.000 MaiceflOHnH eMnrpH- 
pajie (KHpja30BCKH 1987:345). Ilo3HaTH ce or noHOBO BpeMe, or 70 h 80 

rOflHHH Ha 20 BeK, flHpeKTHHTe TepeHCKH flHJaJieKTOJIOIHKH H COUHOJIHH- 
TBHCTHMKH HCTpa>KyBan>a BO OBOJ RZJ1 OR TpUHJa (CTpaHCKH H MaKeflOHCKH 

flHJajieKT0U03H) koh KOHCTarapaaT coceMa noHHaKBa cnTyannja no oahoc 
Ha MaKe£OHCKHOT ja3HK. 3HaeH>eTO n KopncTeiteTo Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja- 
3hk or CTpaHa Ha MaiceflOHCKHTe pOAeHH roBopHTejin bo TpnHJa Moace #a 
ce cneAH h reHepanncKH n or connojiHHrBHCTHHKH acneKT. Ke uHTHpaM 
caMo qrho co3HaHHe Ha e#eH repMaHCKH jiHHrBHCT-6ajiKaHOJior h cjia- 



36 CKPMBEHE MAH>HHE HA BAJ1KAHY 



bhct, PojiaHfl UlMHrep (1996) koj, no caho HeroBO HcnMTyBan>e Ha Maice- 
AOHCKHOT ja3HK bo rpijHJa, Ke 3aKjiyMH: „Kaxo ujto ce rjie^a oa OBHe er- 
3eMnjiapHH pa3nneAyBaH>a Bp3 ocHoea na TcpeHCKHOT MaTepHJaji oa Ko- 
CTypcKO, ja3M4iiaTa cHTyauHJa Kaj MaKeAOHUHTe bo TpiiHJa e oa col^ho- 
jiHHrBHCTMHKH HHTepec bo Taa CMMCJia ujto TyKa „bo hchbo" ce Ha6jtyAy- 
Ba npouecoT Ha nocTeneHO 3aMenyBaFbe h noToa HanojiHO HCTHCHyBaH>e 
Ha eaeH ja3HK oa Apyr" (MnHOBa-fypKOBa 1998:235). MaKeAOHUHTe h 
noHaTaiuy th ynoTpe6yBa(jie)aT cjiobchckhtc HMHH>a h npe3HMHi±>a, cjio- 

BeHCKHTe TOriOHHMH, TO HeryBaaT CBOJOT (j)OJIKJIOp, CBOHTe TpaAHUHH, ro 

yiiOTpe6yBaax cbojot ja3HK, ho HeMaaT opraHH3HpaHH (})opMH 3a HeroBa 
a<j)HpMauHJa. 

Kora caKaivie Aa 36opyBaMe 3a aKTyenHaTa codoj6a Ha MaKeAOHun- 
Te bo TpuHJa, Ke ro uHTHpaM HCKa>KyBan>eTO Ha apxHMaHApHT Hhkoahm 
U,apKH>ac 5 koj no cepno3HHTe nonHTHHKH OMajioBaacyBaifca oa CTpaHa Ha 
rpqKaTa BJiacT, cenaK BejiH: „Bo oahoc Ha 0CTBapyBan>eT0 Ha npaBaTa Ha 
MaKeAOHUHTe bo Tpunja AysaaT nonpnjaTHH BeTpnuiTa. 3a Hac AeHec bo 
TpitHJa e HeniTO noAo6po, ho hhc MaKeAOHUHTe, caKaMe TpUHJa HauiHTe 
MajiuHHCKH npaBa Aa ra npH(|)aTH h ycTaBHo" („HapoAHa BOJija", (J)eBpya- 
pH, 2003, 6p. 2). Elo cyACKHOT npouec uito 6eiue BOAeH npoTHB Hero, toj 
oa 1994 roA- e npH^aTeH KaKO CBeurreHHK Ha Apyra npaBOCJiaBHa upKBa 
oa CTpaHa Ha TpuHJa, a MaKeAOHiprre bo TpuHJa noHHysaaT noonoGoAHO 
Aa ce H3JacHyBaaT 3a CBOJaTa HauHOHajma npnnaAHOCT. CnopeA JI. M. 
£eH<j>opT (1966), naK, bo Tpawja HeMa orpaHHnyBaH>a bo BpcKa co yno- 
xpe6aTa Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK, HHTy bo npHBaTHHTe HHTy bo HecJDop- 
MajiHHTe jaBHH CHTyauHH, TaKa lqto jiyreTo oa JiepHHCKO-KocrypcKHOT 
Kpaj HajnecTO 36opyBaaT Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. OBHe co3HaHHJa Ha JI. M. 
^eH^opT Mo^caM h HOxeMe Aa rn noTBpAHMe n co HauieTO jihhho C03Ha- 

HHC H npO(J)eCHOHaJIHO HCKyCTBO. MOHTC JIHHHH KOHTaKTH CO MaKeAOHUH- 
Te oa Tpunja, peanH3HpaHH yuxre bo ceAyMAecerraTe toahhh, KaKO hc- 
Tpa^yBan Ha MaKeAOHCKHTe roBopn bo MerjieHCKO, ro noTBpAnja nocToe- 
FbeTO Ha MaKeAOHCKaTa peajiHOCT bo oboj acji oa Tpunja, ho h roneMaTa 
3acTpameHOCT h HCCHrypHocT Kaj MaKeAOHCKOTO HacejieHne TaMy, Hacne- 
AeHH oa MHHaTOTO. HMa MHory npwKa3HH, ce pa36npa TasKHH OKOJiy pe- 
npecHJaTa, AHCKpHMHiiaiinjaTa h acHMHJiaijHJaTa koh MaKeAOHUHTe. 

HaKO TpuHja ja paTH<J)HKyBa EBponcKaTa KOHBeHUHJa 3a 3aniTHTa Ha 
HOBeKOBHTe npaBa, bo 1963 r., cenaK Taa paTH(![)HKauHJa He ja c4>aTH KaKO 
rojieMa oGBpcKa 3a ce6e. Bo 1985 r. TpuHJa noTnHma eAeH EIpoTOKOJi Ha 
KoHBeHUHJaTa co koj hm ce A03BOJiyBa Ha noeAHHUH (pecn. MaKeAOHun) 
Aa ce )KajraT Kaj EBponcKaTa KOMHCHJa 3a hobckobh npaBa 3a eBeHTyajiHH 
npeKpmouH oa OBaa o6jiacT. Co Toa ce co3AaAoa ycnoBH 3a nojaBa Ha 
ABH^ceH>a 3a hobckobh npaBa h Kaj npeTCTaBHHUHTe Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO 



CTOJKa BoJKOBCKa: CTATYCOT HA MAKEflOHCKHOT JA3HK BO PEIiyBJIHKA ... 37 



McUiuhhctbo bo rpnnja. TaKa, MaKeAOHnnTe or rpnnja npeKy cbocto 
ABH>KeH>e 3a hobckobh npaBa 6apaaT npeA ce: npn3HaBaH>e AeKa nocTojaT 
KaKo Hau,HOHajiHO Majiij[HHCTBo; npaBO na ro conyBaaT cbojot ja3HK, CBOJa- 
Ta KyjiTypa, m rn conyBaaT cbohtc jihhhh HMHita, Aa ce conyBa ce 0Ha 
iiito e H3Jio>KeHo Ha HCHe3HyBan>e nopaflH CTaBOT Ha rpHKaTa nojiHTHKa; 
Aa ce CTaBH Kpaj Ha AHCKpHMHHaTopcTBOTo bo o6jiacTa Ha o6pa30BaHHero 
h Bpa6oTyBaH>eTO. CeBO OBa ro 6apaaT bo paMKHTe Ha rpHKaTa Ap^aBa, 
H3JacHyBaJKH ce npOTHB KaKBO 6hjio MeHyBaite Ha rpaHnnn. Erqh oa bo- 
AanHTe Ha ABnaceiteTO 3a hobckobhtc npaBa, bo 1990 roAHHa, BaKa ra 
^opMynnpaji ocHOBHHTe 6apan»a Ha MaKeAOHnnTe bo rpnnja: „HHe cana- 
Me cjio6oaho Aa Ka>KeMe koh CMe MaKeAOHnn, CuaBOMaiceAOHUH. Hne 
HMaMe hct ja3HK KaKo MaKeAOHUHTe bo JyrocjiaBnja" Bo nocxreAHOBO 
AeceTjieTHe ce co3AaBaaT hobh ycjioBH koh BOAaT koh HaAe^HO peuieHHe 
Ha CTaTycoT n Ha MaKeAOHnnTe h Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo Peny6;iHKa 
rpnnja. Hmcho, bo 1991 bo rpnnja e (J)opMHpaHO MaKedoncKoiuo deuotce- 
we 3a 6cuiKdHCKu upocuepuuieui. OBaa ABH>KeH>e ynecTByBaiue Ha H36opn- 
Te 3a EBponcKHOT napjiaMeHT bo 1994 toa, noA hmcto „Bhho>khto" (Ma- 
cobho eBponcKO ABH»ceH>e iiito rn 3acTanyBa HHTepecHTe Ha ja3HHHHTe h 
Ha KyjiTypHHTe MannnHCTBa, oahocho OpraHH3annja Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO 
eTHHHKO Ma^qHHCTBO bo Peny6jiHKa rpnnja). OBa ABH»eH>ee ro H3AaBa h 
cnHcaHHeTO „Kk)Ba 30pa", nojiHTHHKO cnncaHne, a ce nenaTH ABOj'a3HHHO 

(Ha rpHKH H Ha MaKCAOHCKM ja3HK). 



CTaTycoT Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK bo PenySjiHKa ByrapHJa 

Bo nepnoAOT HenocpeAHO no BKJiynyBaH>eTO Ha rinpnHCKa MaKeAO- 
HHJa bo rpaHHnHTe Ha Byrapnja ce BjiomyBaaT onniTHTe ycjiOBH 3a acnBee- 
H,e Ha MaKeAOHCKOTO HaceneHne oa noBene npnqnHH. IThphhckhot Aen 
6eine TperapaH KaKo cocTaBeH AeJi oa 6yrapcKaTa Ap^aBa, ce cnpOBeAy- 
Baua nejiocHa nojinraHKa h HannoHanHa o6ecnpaBeHOCT Ha MaKeAOHnnTe 
bo Byrapnja h nenocHa acnMHJiannoHa nojiHTHKa koh hhb. 

H3BecH0 noAo6pyBaH,e Ha nojio»6aTa Ha MaKeAOHnnTe bo Byrapnja 
ce 3a6ejie>KyBa bo nepnoAOT no IlpBaTa CBeTCKa BOJHa (1920-1923) bo Bpe- 
MeTO Ha AeMOKpaTCKaTa BuaAa Ha AjieKcaHAap CTaM6ojincKn. BjioinyBaae 
Ha cocTOJ6nTe bo nepnoAOT 1924-1934, na noBTopHO y6jia>KyBaH>e Ha oa- 
hocot koh MaKeAOHnnTe n hhbhhot ja3HK bo Byrapnja (1934-1941), ho co 
npoAOJDKeHo Henpn3HaBaH>e Ha HannoHanHHTe npaBa. no BTopaTa CBeTCKa 
BOJHa, nojiHTHHKHTe npoMeHH bo Byrapnja ce OApa3nja, hcto TaKa, n Ha oa- 
hocot koh MannnHCTBaTa, niTO ce 3a6eue>KyBa n bo nonncoT oa 1946 n 
1956 Kora KaKo MaKeAOHnn ce H3JacHnjie 252.908 oahocho 178.862 bo Iin- 
pnHCKa MaKeAOHHJa na ce ao HeMaite MaKeAOHnn bo Byrapnja (nonncoT 



3 § CKPMBEHE MAH>HHE I IA EAJIKAHY 



oa 1975). Bo nepnoAOT 1944- 1948 rofl., bo BpeivieTO Ha KOMyHHCTHHKaTa 
BJiacT bo ByrapHJa h bo TorauiHaTa <DHPJ, Aoara ao cnorofl6aa 3a co3flaBa- 
H>e Ha nojiHTHHKH ycjiOBH 3a npH3HaBaH>e Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT napoA, na He- 
toboto npaBO Ha caMOonpeAenyBaite. CnopeA Taa cnoroASa ByrapHJa ce 
o6Bp3a #a hm Aa^e Ha MaKeAOHUHTe oa riHpHHCKa MaKeAOHHJa Aa ro H3y- 
nyBaaT cbojot MajnnH MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. Toraiu Aoara ao npH3HaBan>e Ha 
nocroeHbe Ha MaKeAOHCKaTa Haunja ihto AOBeAe ao AaBaH>e eAeH bha Kyji- 
TypHa aBTOHOMHJa: ce A03BOJiyBa H3yHyBatbe Ha npeAMeTHTe MaKeAOHCKH 
ja3HK h MaKeAOHCKa ncTopnja bo 6yrapcKHTe ynnjiniHTa bo IlHpHHCKa Ma- 
KeAOHHJa, co ynHTejiH (96) HcnpareHH oa HP MaKeAOHHJa, a TopHa Uyiviaja 
(BjiaroeBrpaA) 6hjt nporjiaceH 3a rjiaBeH rpm Ha nnpnHCKa MaKeAOHHJa. 
„KaKO yneHHK bo rHMHa3njaTa bo rpaAOT CaHAaHCKH jac, hcto TaKa, yneB 
MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK h HCTopnja. HP MaKeAOHHJa noAroxBH m ncnpara ynn- 
TenH koh npeAaBaa Ha MaKeAOHCKH" 3aKJiynyBa JaH nHpHHCKH, maBeH h 
OAroBopeH ypeAHHK 11a bcchhkot „Hapoflna BOJija" („HapoAHa BOJija", <J>e- 
Bpyapn, 2003). Toram 6eme OTBopeH MaKeAOHCKH HapoAeH TeaTap; ce pac- 
Typame MaKeAOHCKn nenaT, a bo b. ,,Hhphhcko AeJio" ce oojaByBane npn- 

JI03H H Ha MaKeAOHCKH ja3HK. OAHOCOT KOH MaKCAOHHHTe H HHBHaTa Kyn- 

Typa h HAeHTHTeT noBTOpHO ce BpaicaaT „Ha CTapo" (no 1958), Kora CTaBOT 

Ha ByrapHJa e: MaKeAOHHH HeMa — hh bo ByrapHJa hh bo HP MaKeAOHHJa. 

Ha Kpaj, Ke ro H3HeceMe 3aKJiy i ioKOT 3a cTaTycoT Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT 

ja3HK (cTaHAapAeH) Ha MaKeAOHUHTe bo Byrapnja e: KOHTaKTOT co Hero 

npeKy o6pa30BaHHeTO, nenaTOT, TeaTpoT n npeKy KHHraTa Tpaeuie mho- 

ry Kyco BpeMe. HacnpeMa toj Kyc nepHOA, (JDyHKunoHnpa o$nunjajiHOTo 

H3ynyBaH>e Ha 6yrapcKHOT ja3HK, koj e HCTOBpeMeHO h ja3HK Ha o6pa30- 

BaHHeTO h Ha MaKeAOHUHTe oa nnpHHCKa MaKeAOHHJa h nomnpoKO bo 

Byrapnja. OniuTecTBeHO-nojiHTHHKHTe npoMeHH bo noneTOKOT 11a AeBe- 

AeceTTHTe toahhh bo Byrapnja He AOBeAoa ao hckoh norojieMH npoMe- 

hh bo oahoc koh MaKeAOHCKOTO npamaFte. MaKeAOHUHTe ce yurre HeMa- 

aT CTaTyc Ha MauunHCTBO. HaJHOBHTe co3HaHnja 3a CTaTycoT Ha MaKe- 

AOHckhot ja3HK Ha MaKeAOHUHTe bo Byrapnja noKa>KyBaaT AeKa, n no- 

Kpaj Toa ihto He nocTojaT opraHH3HpaHn n 0(|)nuHJajin3npaHn 4>opMH Ha 

H3yHyBan>e Ha MaKeAOHCKHOT ja3HK (co ncKJiynoK Ha BecHHKOT „Hap0A- 

Ha BOJija" — MaKeAOHCKH bcchhk 3a Teopnja, Hcropnja, KyjiTypa n yMeT- 

hoct, perncTpnpaH KaKO „nepHOAHHen bccthhk 3a Teopnja, ncTOpnja ; 

KyjiTypa n H3KycTBo", a H3JieryBa bo BjiaroeBrpaA- BecHHKOT ce nena™ 

Ha 6yrapcKH ja3HK, ho HMa n CTaTnn, na n jinTepaTypHH TBOp6n n Ha- 

yHHH TCKCTOBH, Ha MaKeAOHCKH CTaHAapAeH ja3HK. POAeHHTe TOBOpHTe- 

jih bo nnpHHCKa MaKeAOHHJa bo rojieMa Mepa ro no3HaBaaT MaiceflOH- 
ckhot CTaHAapAeH ja3HK. 



CroJKa BoJKoecKa: Ctatycot ha makfjiohckhot ja3hk bo fmrysfflKA ... 39 



JIuTepaxypa 

ACfeqe&ap — Jy6umjko wdame — AtHHa 1925, CKonjc 1985. 

flen^opr 1966: JL M. ,ZJeHCJ)opT, MciKedoncKuout KO/up/niKui, Ciconje. 

KHpja'iOBCKH 1987: P. Kitpja-iOBciai, MaKedoucKu Hatfuauajmu tmcffiuffiytfm eo ezej- 
CKiioui de/i na MaKedonuja (1941-1961), CKonje. 

Khccjiuhobckh 1 987: Ct. KucejiHHOBCKn, Ciuauivcoiu naMaKedoHCKuoiuja3UK60 Ma- 
Kedoituja (1913-1987), CKonje. 

MaKedoHCKoiuo upcuuatbe na cffipauunuffie od „ PiaocuaciTmc " Ateey deeiue eoJHU (m- 
6op h pc^aKUMJa Ha Jocm^ IIoiiobckh), CKonje 1982. 

MHHOBa-fypKOBa 1998: JI. MmiOBa-fypKOBa, MaKCuoncKH jaSHK, Najnowsze dzieje 

jgzykow stowiariskich, Opole. 

Hosa sopa — IIo^hthmko cnncaHHc na „Bhho>khto". 

Hapodua aoAJa — MaKcaoncKH bcchhk 3a reopnja, ncxopHJa, KyjiTypa h yivieTHOCT. 

FIonoBCKH 1981: T. HonOBCKH, Ma/<edoiic/<oiUo naijuoua/ino Mcumwtcmeo so Eyeapu- 
ja, rpifi/ja u i A/i6amtja y Ciconje. 

^Iatuyjic 1970: B. Hamyjie, Od upmnmatbe do Heeupawe* Ckoiijc. 

LLJMHrcp 1 996: P. LUiunrcp, 3a CHTyauHJara na MaKC^OHCKHOT ja3MK bo rpioija, 22. ua- 

ywa ducKycuja na 28. Meeynapoden ceMwtap 3a MaxedoncKit ja3UK t numepa- 

iuypa u Kynuiypa, CKonje. 



Stojka Bojkovska 

Status of Macedonians and Their Language in Republic of Greece 

and Republic of Bulgaria 

In the paper's introductory part, brief information on Macedonia as geographic and 
ethnic notion is given, as well as on the Macedonian language, which covers the Southern 
periphery of the Slavic linguistic world (which left traces on its specific structure compared with 
other Slavic languages). 

The status of the Macedonian language in all neighboring states depend on the one hand 
on the attitude of the respective countries towards Macedonians, and on the other hand on the 
ability of Macedonians themselves to achieve the right to use their native language. In this 
sense, the status of Macedonians and their language is different in each of the countries. 

For a better insight of the situation, the status of the Macedonian language in the 
Republic of Bulgaria will be particularly considered. 

In the period between 1944 and 1948, the Macedonian nation was acknowledged and 
given cultural autonomy: classes of Macedonian language and history were introduced in 
Bulgarian schools in Pirin Macedonia, and 96 teachers were sent from the Republic of 
Macedonia, while Gorna Dzumaja (Blagocvgrad) became the capital of Pirin Macedonia. The 
Macedonian national theater was open, and newspapers in Macedonian were published, while in 
the "Pirinsko delo" newspaper texts in Macedonian started to appear. The altitude towards 
Macedonians, their language and identity in Bulgaria changed negatively again after 1958, when 
the common statement that there are no Macedonians, neither in Bulgaria nor in the People 
Republic of Macedonia started being vchiculated. 



40 CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA BaJIKAHY 

The conclusion is that the contact of Macedonians in Bulgaria with the Macedonian 
(standard) language through education, press, theater, and books has lasted for a short period of 
time. Contrary to that, official imposing of the Bulgarian language to Macedonians in Pirin 
Macedonia has lasted for a long time. Sociopolitical changes in Bulgaria that took place in the 
beginning of 1990s have not influenced significantly the attitude towards the Macedonian 
question. Macedonians in Bulgaria are still not recognized as a minority. The recent findings 
about the status of the Macedonian language in Bulgaria show that there are no officially 
introduced forms of education in Macedonian. The only exception is the "Narodna volja ' 
newspaper, registered as "periodicen vestnik za teorija, istorija, kultura i izkustvo" ('periodical 
for theory, history, culture and art'), published in Blagoevgrad. The newspaper is published in 
Bulgarian, but there are texts in the Macedonian standard language as well. Natives in Pirin 
Macedonia are well acquainted with the standard Macedonian. 



Cuianuc/iae CutaiiKoeuh 



MAKEflOHUH H MAKE/JOHCKH JE3HK 
y PEnyBJIHLtH CPEMJH - PRO ET CONTRA 

Ha noApynjy Peny6jiHKe CpGnje, KaKO y h>chhm py6HHM 30HaMa 
npeMa PenyGjiHUH MaKeAOHHJH (Ha ncyre3y ojx nnntfeCKe jxo uiapnjiaHHH- 
CKe o6jiacTH), TaKO h y ocTajiHM H>eHHM aejiOBHivia (hch. Popis 1981; Ilo- 
nnc 1991), HeMa ayTOXTOHora MaKezjOHCKor CTaHOBHHiijTBa. 1 Mel)yTHM, 
Henocpeflno nocjie Apyrora CBCTCKor paTa y HP Cp6njy, MaxoM Ha Hany- 
uiTeHa HeMaHKa HMan>a y jy>KHOM Eanaxy (y okojihhh Bpuma, naHneBa h 
njiaHflHiuTa), H3 pa3JiHHHTHx Kpajesa HP MaKefloiinje floimie cy noBefce 
xeTeporeHe rpyne TaMoiuH>era >KHBJi>a (Trifunoski 1958:5-6). y zipyroj 
nojiOBHHH XX BeKa BHiue xHjta.ua CTaiiOBHHKa MaKe^OHnje HacTaHHJio ce 
h y Eeorpaziy, h y /jpyrHM bcuhkhm HHflycTpnjcKHM h KyjiTypHHM ueH- 
TpHMa CpGnje; 2 y sHaTHO Man>eM 6pojy AOcejLeHHKa je Ghjio h y ocTajiHM 
BapoiHHMa h cejiHMa r^e cy ce (3ajeflHO ca MJiaHOBHMa cbojhx nopoflnua) 
6aBHjTH yrjiaBHOM Tpa^HUHOHajiHHM 6anKaHCKHM 3anaTHMa. Tpa^aHH 

1 npCMa KailHTaJlHHM CTHOrpa(})CKHM, HCTOpHOrpa(])CKHM H AHJa/ieKTO/lOlIlKHM CTy^HJa- 

Ma, y XIX CTOJiehy BejiHKH 6poj MaKejioiiCKHx GnoBCHa, „y nauMOHaxiHOM norjieay $JiOTaiiT- 
na Hapo/ma Maca Koja MMa eTHHMKy npeAHcno'JHUHJy aa nocTaHc Cp6wivia hjih EyrapnMa" 
(UBHJHh 1906:13), MHrpHpa npeMa HOBOOCJio6oI)eHHM KpajeBHMa CpGwje „yHecTByjyhn y cHa- 
3KHoj h nocTojanoj MHrpauHOHOj CTpyJH, no'inaToj y Hayun Kao eapdapcKo-Mopaecm, wmjy- 
otcna McraHacTa3HHKa crpyja" (PaAHh 2003:228). A;im h nopea Tora uito cy y 3Haraoj wepH 
yTHuajiH „na ctuhmko h AHJaueKaxcKO npo(j)HJiHcaH>e npe cBera y o6jiacrH flaHaunte jy>KHe h 
jyroHCT04iie Cp6HJe" h uito cy hm&jih bcjihkm yneo m „y ckohomckom CTan>y 3aHaT/iHJCKHX 
ecna<J)a y Ta,aaiiiH>HM cp6HJaHCKHM ueHTpHMa (1815-1839), m y ynemhy y ApyurrBeHOM m tcyji- 
lypHOM 3K.HB<ny Cp6HJe" (Pa^nh 2003:228), MaKCAOHCKH Cjiobchh cy ce jiaKo yranajiH y je- 
3hmkh h y KOH(})ecHOHajiHO cpoaaH cpncKH Hapo^. 

2 y apyroj nojiOBHHH XX BeKa mhojni MaKe^OHUH cy ce Hana3HJiH Ha pyKOBoaehHM 
nojiO)KaJHMa y ApacaBiiHM HHCTHTyunjaMa OHPJ/COPJ m bhcokhm TCJiMMa KI1J/CKJ, Kao 
h na hhmchm cjiy3K6enHHKHM MecTHMa y OAejben,HMa ApacaBHe h napTHJCKe ajiMHHHCTpa- 
UHJe. Ohh cy ca cbojhm nopo^Hua.Ma >KHBejiH y Eeorpaay. 



42 CKPHBEHEMAIfcHHEHAEAJIKAHy 

HP/CP MaKeAOHHJe y Cp6njy cy ce AOceibaBajiH h 36or 4)opMHpan>a 
6panHe 3ajeflHHij;e ca npnnaAHHnHMa cpncKe huh (pel)e) hqkq Apyre Ha- 
Poahocth (Trifunoski 1958:16-19). 

IIpeMa 3BaHHHHHM CTaTHCTHHKHM noAannMa, 1953. roAHHe y HP 
Cp6nJH je >KHBejio 27277 MaKeAOHana (hjih 0,4% yKynHora CTaHOBHH- 
uiTBa); Te roAHHe y EeorpaAy hx je nonncaHO 8733, y okojihhh IlaHHeBa 
6368, a y BpnianKOM Kpajy 2022 (Popis 1953). Tpn AeceTJieha AonHHJe y 
Cp6nJH je 6hjio 48986 npnnaAHHKa MaKeAOHCKe eTHHHKe 3ajeAHnne (hjih 
0,5% yKyrmora CTaHOBHHuiTBa y Peny6jinuH); y EeorpaAy hx je jkhbcjio 
15881, y onniTHHH ITaHqeBO 10421, y Hnmy 1352, y Hobom Ca^y 1195, y 
onniTHHH IIjiaHAHniTe 1027, y Bopy 1018 h y oihiithhh Bpuiau 717 (Po- 
pis 1981). ToflHHe 1991. y Peny6jiHUH Cp6nJH nonncaHO je 46046 rpal)a- 
Ha MaKeAOHCKe HauHOHajiHOCTn; y EeorpaAy hx je TaAa 6hjio 12576, y on- 
uiTHHH IlaHHeBO 8488, y onniTHHH IljiaHAHniTe 1502, y Hnmy 1277, y 
Hobom Ca^y 1205, y Bopy 1013 h y onniTHHH Bpman 676 (nonnc 1991).. 
npeMa CTaTHCTHHKHM noAannMa H3 2002. roAHHe, AaHac y Cp6njn (6e3 
TepHTOpHJe KocoBa h MeTOxnje) >khbh 25847 MaKeAOHana hjih 0,34% 
nonncaHora CTaHOBHHuiTBa; y neHTpajmoj Cp6nJH je perncTpoBaHO 
14062, a y An Bojboahhh 11785 npnnaAHHKa OBe eTHHHKe 3ajeAHHne 
(Raduski 2003:431-433). 

Kao uito ce H3 CTaTHCTHHKora nperjieAa bhah, ochm y jy5KHo6aHaT- 
ckom AeJiy Peny6jiHKe Cp6nje, MaKeAOHUH cy y BetieM 6pojy HacraiteHH 
h y BeorpaAy, Hnmy, Bopy h Hobom CaAy. Y obhm rpaAOBHMa ohh npn- 
naAajy yp6aHOJ nonyjianHJH, ajiH noHerAe cy h y H>HMa Aeo pypajiHora jio- 
KajiHor CTaHOBHHniTBa; TaKaB je, Ha npHMep, cjiynaj ca MaKeAOHUHMa ko- 
jh >KHBe y nepH(j)epHHM oGjiacTHMa BeorpaAa. 3a MaKeAOHCKy eTHHHKy 3a- 
jeAHHny y Peny6jiHnn Cp6nJH KapaKTepHCTHHHa je TepHTOpHJarma ahc- 
nep3HBH0CT, ajiH h 3HanaJHa KOHneHTpncaHOCT h>chhx npHnaAHHKa Ha 
noApynjy jy^KHora BaHaTa h TpaAa BeorpaAa. 

Me^yTHM, conHOJiHHrBHCTHHKO HCTpaacHBaite Koje je y Ja6ynn (y 
onniTHHH naHHeBo) BpmeHO cpeAHHOM nocjieAH>era AeceTJieha XX CTOJie- 
fra noKa3yje Aa 3HanajaH Aeo noTOMaKa HeKaAauitbHX AocejteHHKa/KOJio- 
HHCTa H3 MaKeAOHHJe AaHac npnnaAa cpncKOM eraocy, roBopn cpncKH je- 
3hk h He >KejiH Aa hm Aena noxa^ajy niKOJie Ha MaKeAOHCKOM HacTaBHOM 
je3HKy, hhth, naK, Aa y nncojiaMa ca HacTaBOM Ha cpncKOM je3HKy (J)aKyn- 
TaTHBHO yne MaKeAOHCKH je3HK (BejijaHOBCKa/CTaHKOBHK 1995). TaKO je, 
Ha nHTan>e: J\a /iu cxceAuiue da Batua deifa ciauny v,e/ioeumo o6pa3oeawe 
ua MaKedoHCKOMJe3w<y? — AeBeAeceT oacto HcnHTaiiHKa OAroBopnjio oa- 
Phhho; oa npeocTajiHX AeceT nponeHaTa, jeAHa nojiOBHHa acejin Aa ce 
MJiaI)H HapauiTaj y npeAuiKOJiCKHM, a Apyra (AaKjie, caMO neT oacto oa 
yKynHora 6poja HcnHTaHHKa) h y npeAuiKOJiCKHM, h y ochobhouikojickhm 



CraHHcnaB CraHKOBHh: Makeaohuh h Makeaohckh JE3hk y PEiiyEAHUH Cpehjh 43 



ydaHOBaMa o6pa3yje Ha MaiceAOHCKOM HacTaBHOM je3HKy. Cbh ncnnTaHH- 
UH cy oa6hjih (y obom nHTaay caApacaHy) BapHJaHTy nenoBHTe HacTaBe 
Ha MaKe^OHCKOM je3HKy y cpe^ftHM h y bhcokhm uiKOJiaivia. Y Be3H ca nn- 
Tan>eM: ffa nu 6uciue xiuenu da Bama deifa y woxy ceoea lUKO/ioeawa yne 
u MaxedoHCKU je3UK? — noHy^eHe cy ABe MoryhHocra a) Kao o6aee3au 
upedmeiu h 6) Kao (paKy/iiuamueau UpedMeiu. /JeceT npoueHaTa HcnnTa- 
HHKa 3aoKpy»cHJio je npBy a me3AeceT oacto apyry BapHJaHTy yneita; 
ajiH, KaKO cy caMH HCTaKHH, HCKJtyHHBO y ochobhoj uikojih. 3auiTO cy ao- 
6HJeHH oBaKBH pe3yjiTara? /J,a jih je Mer)y nocjiepaTHHM KOJiOHHCTHMa h 
AOcejLeHHUHMa H3 MaKeztOHHJe 6hjio h „ckphbchhx" cthhhkhx Cp6a? /J,a 
jih ce h kojihkh ce aeo 0Be AaHaimte eTHOJioniKe, hojihthhko-cohhojio- 
niKe h coHHOJiHHrBHCTHHKe eHHrMe, H3Mel)y ocTajiora, Kpnje h y cTepeo- 
ranHOJ HauHOHajiHOJ h je3HHKoj nojiHTHUH Kojy cy npeMa cpncKOMe erao- 
cy y HP/CP MaiceflOHHJH y apyroj nc-JioBHHH XX BeKa no AHKTaTy 
Knj/CKJ (a OHa, naK, npeMa nocTyjiaraMa Taaa Beh pacnyuiTeHe Komhh- 
TepHe) BOflHJie jyrocjiOBeHCKe, cp6HJCKe h MaKeflOHCKe BjiacTH, a Ao6pnM 
AejiOM h cpncKe HaijHOHajiHe ycTaHOBe. y CTBapH, kojihko ce npHJMKOM 
KOHCTHTyHcaH,a MaKeziOHCKe HauHje h Ap>KaBe y TOKy u y npBHM AeueHH- 
jaMa nocne JJpyrora CBeTCKor paTa nourroBana HHit-eHHna m nopeA Ma- 
KeztOHana, Aji6aHana, TypaKa h Bjiaxa y ceBepc-3anaAHHM, ceBepHHM h 
ceBepoHCTOHHHM ^enoBHMa HP MaKeflOHHJe acHBe h npnnaAHHnH ay-rox- 
TOHora cpncKor CTaHOBHHUJTBa, 3 tc Aa ce TparoBH (noce6HO cpeAH>OBe- 
KOBHe) cpncKe MaTepnjajiHe KyjiType cpehy no HHTaBoj MaKeAOHHjH 
(CTaHKOBHh 1998:295-299)? A ynpaBo npnjiHHaH 6poj cnoMeHyrax ko- 
jioHHCTa noTHHe H3 ceBepHHx Kpajesa AaHaunte Peny6;iHKe MaKeAOHHJe 
(Trifunoski 1958:5-19). 

HaJHOBHJH CTaTHCTHHKH nc-AaTaK (2002) o 6pojy ManeAOHana y Pe- 
ny6jiHUH Cp6nJH, tj. h>hxob npenonoBjLeHH 6poj y OAHOcy Ha pe3yjiTax 

3 KoMHHTepHa (oa ocHHBatba 1919. no pacnyiirraifca 1943) h KELT cna>KHO cy npo- 
narapajie h noApacaBajie ycTonHHeite MaKeAOHCKe HaiiHOHajiHC h je3HHKe nocc6nocra (Pa- 
OTh 2003:237). OopMHpaite MaKeAOHCKe HaiiHJe h Ap*aBe, Kao h a<j>HpMaiiHJy hckhx Apy- 
rax cjiobchckhx HauHJa Ha npocTopMMa HeKa^aiiifte COPJ, nojeAHHH HCTopHHapn h AaHac 
CMaTpajy pe3yjiTaTOM OHAaunte aKTyejme KOMyHHCTHHKe HAeo;iorHJe: „Marksisticki inte- 
lektualci snose deo odgovomosti za zalosni razvoj nacionalnog pitanja u Jugoslaviji: [...] 
priznanje i podrzavanje zasebnog (slovensko)-makedonskog pisanog jezika i nacionalnosti 
cetrdesetih godina, priznanje zasebne muslimanskc (tj. bosanske, odnosno slovenske mu- 
slimanske) nacionalnosti tokom sezdesetih i pocetkom sedamdesetih godina" (Stojanovic 
1997:339). O obomc hciiito uinpe bhah koa n. PaAHha (2003:237-238), B. XauneBa 
(1996:191-228), C. MnjiocaBJieBCKora (1992:7-256). O nacejbHMa h nopeioiy cTaHOBHH- 
niTBa y npeAejiHMa AaHamae ceBepo3anaAHe, ceBepue ii ceBepoHCTOiHe MaKeAOHHJe ro- 
Bope C. ToMHh (1905:413-415, 507-508), J. IiBHJHh (1906:22-23, 29-34, 41 62) C 
CTaHKOBHh (1998:295-299) h ad. ' 



44 CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA BAJIKAHY 

H3 npeTXOAHora nonnca CTaHOBHHiuTBa (1991), BnaAHMHp CTaHKOBHh, 
noMohHHK ^HpeKTopa 3aB0ji,a 3a cTaTHCTHKy Peny6jiHKe Cp6nje, o6ja- 
chho je Kao nocneflHiiy pacnaAa COPJ, y CTBapH, HcejteH>eM MaKeAOHana 
H3 Peny6jiMKe Cp6HJe y Peny6jiHKy MaKeAOHHJy. — Mo^ce jih ce OBaKBa 
TBpflita npHXBaTHTH 6e3 BanHflHHX CTaTHCTHHKHX h HayHHHX pa3MaTpa- 
H>a? npeMa tom caonuiTeKby, y npBHM roAHHaMa Tpefrera MHJieroijyMa 
6poj MaKeAOHau,a HacTaiteHHX y Cp6HJH 6e3 TepHTopHJe KocoBa h Mero- 
XHJe CMaiteH je 3a 41,3% (BeibKOBHh 2003:3). Obac Tpe6a HarjiacHTH ^a 
paHHJH CTaTHCTHHKH noAaun o HaijHOHajiHOM cacTaBy CTaHOBHHiuTBa Pe- 
ny6nHKe Cp6nje noKa3yjy Aa je Ha noApynjy oBe noKpajHHe y OAHOcy Ha 
ocTane AenoBe Cp6HJe >KHBeo ManH nocTOTaK MaKeAOHana, h to yrnaB- 
hom y KOCMeTCKHM rpaAOBHMa (noHaJBHine y ripHiiiTHHH) h MaxoM y Me- 
iuobhthm cpncKO-MaKeAOHCKHM SpaKOBHMa, Te ce h ohh (npeTeacHo Kao 
paceibeHa jiHu,a ca KocMeTa) #aHac Hana3e y neHTpajiHoj Cp6HJH h An 
Bojboahhh. ^aKjie, nonnc npeocTajinx h pacejteHHx KocoBCKOMeTOXHJ- 
ckhx MaKe,noHau,a He 6h 3HanaJHHJe h3mchho cnoivieHyTH pe3yjiTaT. 

TBpAH>a B. CTaHKOBHha Aa je „pacnaA COP J yonoBHO &a MaKenoH- 
HH H3 CpGnje KpeHy Ka MaTHHHOJ AP^aBH" (Hcto) BepoBaTHO je npoH3- 

BOJLHH CyA O OBOM COUHOJIOIHKOM ^eHOMCHy H He MO^Ce HMaTH BpeAHOCT 

HayHHora pe3yjrraTa. ripnuHKOM aHanH3e hjih TyManeH.a ApacraHHora 
CMaH>eH>a, a caMHM thm, h AaHauntera nojioacaja npHnaAHHKa MaiceAOH- 
CKe HauHOHajiHOCTH y Peny6jiHHH CpGnJH, y o63Hp ce Mopajy y3eTH cjie- 
Aefte HCTopHorpa(J)CKe HHH>eHHue. 

IJpeo. MoAepHa cpncKa/cpGnjcKa Ap^KaBa je npe iue3AeceT roAHHa 
(J)aKTHHKH npBa npH3Hana noerojarfce ManeAOHCKe Haunje, je3HKa h ayTO- 
HOMHJe/Ap>KaBe; AeBeAeceTHx roAHHa npouuiora BeKa npH3Hajia je h ca- 
MOCTajiHy Peny6jiHKy MaKeAOHHJy noA h»chhm ycTaBHHM hmchom h ca 
h>om cKjionnjia MefjyApacaBHH cnopa3yM o Mel)yco6HOM TepHTopHJajiHOM 
pa3rpaHHHeH>y h peunnpoHHOJ 3auiTHTH HenoKpeTHHX KyjrrypHHX Ao6apa 
(XauHeB 1996:200). 

ffpyzo. )KHTejLH CpGnje MaKeAOHCKora eraHHKor nopeKJia y cbhm 
nonHCHMa CTaHOBHHuiTBa nocjie /Jpyrora cBeTCKor paTa cjioSoaho cy ce 
H3JamH>aBajiH o cbom HaqHOHajTHOM HAeHTHTeTy h cbom MaTepaeM je3H- 
Ky; y 0Apel)eHHM BOJBoljaHCKHM cpeAHHaMa noxal)ajiH cy ocHOBHe uiKOJie 
Ha MaiceAOHCKOM HacTaBHOM je3HKy h HManH cy CBoje paAHO eMHCHJe h 
CBOje HOBHHe hjih noAJiHCTKe y HOBHHaMa, y cjio6oaho opraHH30BaHHM 
yApy^eftHMa cjio6oaho cy HerOBajin CBoje KyjiTypHO Hacjiel)e (BenjaHOB- 

CKa/CTaHKOBHK 1995). 

Tpehe. V Cp6nJH, h nopeA BeoMa 3HanaJHe BapAapcKO-MopaBCKe mh- 
rpanHOHe CTpyje (I^bhjhh 1987:131-132), HeMa ayTOXTOHora MaKeAOH- 
CKor ^HBJba; AaHauntH cp6hjckh MaKeAOHHH cy MaxoM kojiohhcth h ao- 



OranHcnaB CraHKOBHh: MAKEJlpHW h Make^ohckh JE3HK y Pummmm Cpbhjm 



45 



cejteHHUH (h/hjih fbhxobh iiotomum) kojh cy y CpSnjy aohjjih nocjie Jlpy- 
rora CBeTCKor paTa. 

Weiuepffio. To^HHe 1981. ojx noriHcaHHX 48986 MaKeflonaua caivio 
29421, a 1991. oa 46046 caMo 27879 yiiHcajio je MaxegOHCKH Kao cboj 

MaTepHbH JC3HK. 4 

Ueiuo. Mel)y cnoMenyTHM KonoHHCTHMa 6hjio je cnoBeHOMaKea,OH- 
CKora 3KHBJLa H3 cbhx xpajeBa HP MaKcaoHnje, na h m Aii6aHHJe (h3 oko- 
;iMHe Kopne). Mel)yTHM, nonaJBinne nx je zioujjio H3 ccBepo3ana^HHx, ce- 
BepHHx h ceBepoHCTOHHHx MaKeflOHCKHx o6nacTH (Trifunoski 1958:5-19), 
tj. H3 ohhx noflpynja Peny6iiHKe Maice^oHHJe y Kojwvia h flaHac >khbh 
ayTOXTOHO cpriCKO CTaHOBHuniTBo; Ty, npe CBera, cna^ajy /lenoBH CKoncne 
UpHe Tope, KyMaHOBCKe h TexoBCKe perwje. 

Illecwo. y pacnpaBaMa o cthmmkom nopeKJiy .zjocejbeHHKa H3 
HP/CP MaKe^oHHJe 036hjbho ce Tpe6a no3a6aBHTH CTaBOBHMa Komhh- 
Tepue h KFIJ/CKJ o MaKefloncKOM nauHonajiHOM nHTatty, Kao h OHAa- 
iiiBbHM, nocnepaTHHM, nojioacajeM cthhhkhx MaibHHa y HOBonacTajioj 3a- 
je^HHUH. Mopa ce npoyHHTH Hapo^HOCHH CTaTyc TaMoimbHx ayToxTO- 
hhx Cp6a h iBHxoBora KyjrrypHor Hacjiel)a, tc oahoc cpGujcxe /nmaBe H 
cpncKHX nauHonajiHHx ycTaHOBa (a noroTOBy HHre/ieKTyajiana, iiojihth- 
napa h cpncKHx KOMynHCTa) upeMa toj peajiHOj HCTopHorpa^CKoj m-nte- 

HHU.H. 

O noTpe6H H3Bol)eH>a KOMnueKCHHx h mctoaojioiukh BajiHfliiHx nc- 
Tpa>KMBaH,a y Be3H ca apacTHHHHM cMaibeiteM 6poja npnnaflHHKa MaKe- 
AOHCKe HauHOHanHOCTH h HOCHJiaua/roBopHHKa MaKe/jOHCKora jc3HKa y 
PenySjiMUH Cp6njn rc-Bope join neKOJiHKa (j)aKxa. 

IJpeo. ToAHHe 1948. y DioroHby, y jvhchom BaHaTy, kohohhcth h3 
HP MaKeAOHHJe HHcy xtcjih- #a hm ^ena yne Ha MaKeflOHCKOM HacTaBHOM 
je3HKy. O TOMe J. TpH(|)yHOCKH OBaKO riHiiie: „na osnovu trazenja samih 
doseljenika ukinuta [je] skolska nastava na makedonskom jeziku. Treba 
ovde pomenuti da u Glogonju vise od jedne polovine cine doseljenici iz 
okoline Kumanova. Proces o kome je ovde rec, mnogo je napredovao i u 
Kacarevu. U ovom naselju krajem skolske 1955/1956 godine samo mali 
broj ucenika pohadao je u skoli nastavu na makedonskom jeziku. U Jabu- 
ci, medutim, ovaj je proces nesto sporiji: tamo zivi najveca grupa doselje- 
nika iz NR Makedonije (oko 80%), od kojih neki poticu iz najudaljenijih 
jugozapadnih makedonskih oblasti (okolina Struge, Prespa, Demir-Hisar i 
dr.)" (Trifunoski 1958:21). 

Mpyao. CouHonHHrBHCTHHKO HCTpa>KHBaH>e Koje cy K. BejLaHOBCKa 
h C. CTanKOBHh cnpoBejiH (y Ja6yun, 1995) Mel)y AOcejteHHu,HMa (h h>h- 

4 ripetvia ncaauHMa CaBe3Hora/Peny6/MMKora 3aBOfla 3a CTaracTHKy y Eeorpaay. 



46 CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA EAJIKAHY 

xobhm noTOMqHMa) H3 MaKeAOHHJe noKa3ajio je Aa BHtiie oa nojiOBHHe 
HcriHTaHHKa (pa3JiHHHTora nojia, y3pacTa h CTeneHa o6pa30Ban>a) AaHac 
npnnaAa cpncKOM eraocy, roBopn cpncKH je3MK m He ^cejiH Aa noxal)a y 
ihkojih HacTaBy Ha MaKeAOHCKOM je3HKy. 

Tpehe. Y3pOKe KOJie6aH>a npn caBpeMeHOMy eraHHKOMy onpeACJLH- 
BaH>y, KaKO MaKeAOHau,a y Cp6wJH, TaKO h Cp6a y MaiceAOHHJH, Tpe6a 

Tpa^KHTH H y CpOAHOJ je3HHKOJ, H y HCTOJ KOH(J)eCHOHaJlHOJ npHnaAHOCTH, 

Kao h y ycjioBHMa 3ajeAHHHKora >KHBjLeH>a. H MaiceAOHijH y Cp6HJH h Cp- 
6h y MaKeAOHHJH acHBejin cy h >KHBe y H3MemaHHM HacejbHMa. Y BeheM 
6pojy cnynajeBa ca KOMiiiHJaMa ycnocTaBjtajy npHCHe cyceACKe h npnja- 
TejLCKe OAHOce, na He H3oerajy hh mcuiobhth GpaKOBH, iiiTaBHiue to je h 
y Cp6HJH, h y MaKeAOHHJH BeoMa necra nojaBa. ,3,aHac, ohh y o6eMa Ap- 
^caBaMa yrjiaBHOM yne y hcthm HiKonaMa h Ha hcthm (j)aKyjrreTHMa, 3a- 

jeAHO Cy H Ha paAHHM MeCTHMa. Y TaKBHM COIIHOJIHHrBHCTHHKHM npHJIH- 

KaMa jaBJBa ce jaK ynmaj je3HKa BeliHHe, Te ce oh totobo peAOBHO jaBJLa 

KaO jeAHHH KOMyHHKaitHJCKH KOA- 

JeAHO oa ochobhhx nHTaH>a Koje ce HaMehe HCTpa^cHBaHHMa Hauno- 
HajiHora HAeHTHTeTa KOJiOHHCTa h AOcejLeHHKa H3 HP/CP MaKeAOHHj'e y 
HP/CP Cp6njy jecTe: Aa jih cy h y kojihkoj cy Mepn MaTHHHa cpncKa Ap- 
^caBa h cpncKe HaqHOHajiHe ycTaHOBe HenocpeAHO nocjie /Jpyrora cseT- 
CKor paTa noAcrauajie h noMarajie cJiOBeHOMaKeAOHCKe Cp6e y HeroBaay 
cbojhx eTHHHKHx oGene^KJa, Te y OTBapaH>y h oncTajan>y cpncKnx npo- 
CBeTHHx, KyjrrypHHX h BepcKHx HHCTHTyijHJa Ha TJiy MaKeAOHHJe. Ha 
ocHOBy ca3Han>a ? CTeneHora npHJiHKOM AHJaneKTOJiouiKHX h couhojihh- 
tbhcthhkhx TepeHCKHX HCTpa)KHBaH>a ? KaKO y CKoncKoj UpHoj Topn, Ta- 
KO h y jy^cHOM BaHaTy, Kao H H3 HeTpHaecToroAHUJH>era HCKycTBa H3 ne- 
pnoAa KaAa caM 5KHBeo, CTyAHpao h paAHO y CP/P MaKeAOHHJH (oa 1980. 
AO 1994. roAHHe), Mory pehn Aa o eTHHHKHM Cp6HMa h h>hxobhm hhcth- 
TyuiHJaMa y HeKaAa 6paTCKOJ a caAa cyceAHOJ Ap>KaBH CpGnja hh Majio hh- 
je 6pHHyjia ? hhth cy, naK, aobojlho 6pnre o H>HMa h h>hxobom KyjiTypHOM 
Hacjie^y noKa3HBajie cpncKe HaiiHOHajiHe ycTaHOBe. 5 TaKo, Ha npHMep, y 
KyneBHCTHMa, 3a TaMoniH>e npHJiHKe noBenHKOM cpncKOM ceuy y CKon- 
ckoj U,pHOJ TopH, CBe ao AeBeAecrax roAHHa XX BeKa HHJe OTBopeHa mo- 
AepHa niKOJia Ha cpncKOM HacTaBHOM je3HKy. 6 y KanHTajiHOM A^Jiy cpn- 



5 YcaMJBeHO HHTepecoBaite h Gpnry o CTaTycy cpncKora je3HKa h ycaBpuiaBaH>y 
cpGwcTa Ha Ohjiojioiiikom 4>aKyjrreTy YHHBep3HTeTa y CKoruty noneTKOM ACBeAeceTHx 
roAHHa npouijiora Bexa noKa3ajia je ByKOBa 3a^y>K6HHa H3 Beorpa.ua. 

6 y noHeKHM HacejbHMa CKoncKe UpHe Tope join y npBOJ xiojiobhhh XIX CTOJieha 
OTBopeHe cy iiiKOJie CBeTOBHora KapaKTepa. KpajeM MCTora BeKa y oboj >Kynw cy pa^HJie h 
cpncKe h 6yrapcKe iiiKOJie. no ABa yHHTejta HMajie cy cpncKe iiiKOJie y Ean>aHy, Ky4eBH- 
CTHtvia, rio6y>KJy h Hynepy, no je^Hora y Bpouy, DiyBy h MHpKOBuy; flBa yHHTejta HMajia 



CraHHCJiaB OraHKOBHh: Makeaohuh h Makeaohckm JE3HK y PEiiyGJiHUM Cpbhjh 47 

CKe JieKCHKorpac})HJe y PemniKy cpucKoxpeautcKoz Ktbuztceenoz u napod- 
hoz je3UKa (HHCTHTyr 3a cpncKH je3HK CAHY, Eeorpaa) HCMa jieKCHHKe 
rpal)e H3 CKoncKOupHoropcKHx h znpyrax ayTOXTOHMx cpncKHx roBopa Ha 
MaKe^OHCKOMe -niy, kojihko je Menu no3HaTO, rpal)a je npHKynjteHa ajiH 
ce pe^OBHO H30CTaBJBa (ncn. CthjobhIi 2000:1122); y cpncKHM AHJajreK- 
tojiolukhm CTyAHJaMa, yuGeHHijHMa h npupynHHUHMa, ochm y peTKHM h 
HecHrypuMM Ha3HaKaMa peajiHora CTaita Ha TepeHy (imp. y: n. HbhIi, flu- 
janeKiuoAOZuja cpucKoxpeaiucKoz jesuxa, Yeod u luuiOKtiecKO napenje, 
MaTHua cpncKa, Hobh Can, 1956V1985 2 ), jyacHa rpaHHija npn3peH- 
cko-thmohkhx roBopa H^e jihhhjom HeKaaa a/iMHHHCTpaTHBHHM a ca,aa 
xip>i<aBHHM cp6HJcKO-MaKeAOHCKHM Mel)aiiiHMa. TaKo ce y noTnyHocra y 
ueHTpajiHOMe aejiy BajiKaHa saneMapyje cpncKH ctuhmkh h flujaneKaTCKH 

KOHTMHyyM. 

MaKeAOHUH, Kao iiito noKa3yjy pesyjuam y obom TeKCTy no6poja- 
hhx nonnca CTaHOBHHiiiTBa, hhth cy 6huh, hhth cy, naK, ppsas „CKpH- 
BeHa" MaH^HHa y Peny6jiHHH Cp6nJH. y Apyroj nojiOBHHH XX BeKa ohh 
cy y nojeAHHHM BOJBol)aHCKHM HacejtHMa HMajiH HiKOJie Ha MaKeaoiiCKOM 
HacTaBHOM je3HKy, paflHO cmhchjc h hobhhc, ocHHBajiH cy h CBOJa Kyji- 
TypHO-yMeTHHHKa ApyuiTBa. /JoHeioie bojbom caMHx MaKeziOHaua, a/iH h 

CTHIjajeM HaJHOBHJHX nOJIHTHHKHX OKOJ1HOCTH Ha npocropHMa 6HBiue 

COPJ, ohh flaHac y Peny6jiHUH Cp6HJH ne ocTBapyjy CBoja MaH>HHCKa Ha- 
HHOHajiHa npaBa. nocne#H>Hx jigc&tslk roAHHa y Cp6nJH HeMa Hnjeime 
iiiKOJie Ha MaKeAOHCKOM HacTaBHOM je3HKy, HeMa pa^no h TejieBH3HJcxora 
nporpaMa h HOBHua Ha MaiccuoHCKOM je3HKy. MnaK, Maice,aoHCKH CTaH- 
AapziHH je3HK (ca ejieMeHTHMa H3 EberoBe HCTopnje h AHJajieKTOJioraje) 
Kao je,aaH oa~ paBHonpaBHHx jy>KH0CJi0BeHCKHx je3HKa npcuaje ce na cbhm 
ApacaBHHM yHHBep3HTeTHMa y PenySjiHHH Cp6nJH (y Hobom Caay, Beo- 
rpa/jy, KparyjeBuy, npnurraHH, oahocho y Kocobckoj Mhtpobhhh, h y 
Hniuy). 

nHTa^e npenojiOBJbeHora 6poja npnnaflHHKa MaKezjOHCKe HaHHO- 
HannocTH y Peny6jiHHH Cp6nJH ocTaje OTBopeno. y obom H3Jiaraity noKy- 
uiao caM %a yKaxKeM Ha Tpn Moryhe CMepHHue H>eroBora pa3peujeH>a: upea 
npoH3Jia3H H3 TBpaH>e B. CTaHKOBHha m cy ce upHnaAHHUH MaKeztOHCKe 

je SyrapcKa uiKOJia y JBy6anuy, a no je;uiora 6yrapCKe uiKOJie y Epa3AH, DiyBy, Mhpkob- 
uy h no6y>KJy. Y JtyGoxeHy Taaa hhj'c 6hjio hjko;ic, .ueua oHAauiibHx ereapxHCTa Huuia cy 
y Jby6aHaMKy HJKOJiy. flaHac y Jby6aHu,y, KyneBHCTHMa, CaHAeBy h JbySoTCHy paae ocmo- 
roAHiuibe, a y rio6y>KJy HeTBoporoAHiuita ocHOBiia wKo/ia. Y CaHAeBy, JLy6anny h Ilo- 
6y»:jy HacTaBa ce mmw Ha MaKcaoncKOM je3HKy; y KyqeBHCTHMa Ha MaiceAOHCKOM h Ha 
cpncKOM je3HKy (y AeceT nocjiCAibHx roAHHa); a y JLySoTeny Ha aji6ancKOM je3HKy. Cpczt- 
ibc h bhcoko o6pa30BaH.e MJiaaoK H3 CKOncKe UpHe Tope cthhc y CKon/by na MaKeaon- 
ckom h AOueKJie Ha an6aHCKOM je3HKy (CranKOBHh 1998:298-299). 



48 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

eTHHHKe 3aje^HHine H3 Peny6jiHKe CpSnje hccjimjih y Peny6jiHKy MaKe^o- 
HHJy; dpyza H3 HCKa3aHe cyMH>e y pa#y fla ce Met)y KOJiOHHCTHMa H3 Ma- 
KeAOHHJe Hajia3wo m 3HanajaH ^eo Tazia „CKpHBeHHx" cthhhkhx Cp6a; 
iupeha H3 Ao6poBOJBHora h ca couHOJiouiKora acneKTa oneKMBaHora Ha- 
LjuoHajiHor yTanan>a noTOMaKa HeKa^aiiiH>Hx MaiceAOHCKHx KOJiOHHCTa h 
AOcejLeHHKa y cpoziaH h BefiHHCKH cpncKH eTHHKyM. 



JlHTepaTypa 

BenjaHOBCKa/CTaHKOBHK 1995: KaTepHna BenjaHOBCKa, CraHHCJiaB OraHKOBHK, CTa- 
TycoT Ha MaKeztOHCKHOT ja3HK bo Cp6nja h bo UpHa Topa 1 945- 1 995, XXII na- 
ynna ducKycuja, XXV III Mezynapoden ceMunap 3aMaKedoncKuja3UK, /luiuepa- 
iuypa u KyAiuypa, YHHBep3HTeT „Cb. Khphji h Mcto^hj" — Ciconje, OxpH,a, 
1995 (caonurrenbe). 

BejtKOBHh 2003: /Jparaua II. BejLKOBHh, CBaKa nraua y cbom jaTy, Benepwe uoeo- 
ciuu, Beorpafl, 12. jaHyap 2003, 3. 

Mn^ocaBJieBCKH 1992: CjiaBKO MnnocaBJiCBCKH, Coifuosioauja na MaKedoucKawa na- 
ifuoHoaHa ceecui, Kymrypa, CKonje, 7-256. 

Popis 1953: Popis stanovnistva 1953, VIII, Savezni zavod za statistiku, Beograd. 

Popis 1981 : Nacionalni sastav stanovnistva SFR Jugoslav ijepo naseljima i opstinama, 
I, Savezni zavod za statistiku Beograd. 

IIonHC 1991: IIouuc ciuanoeHuuiiuea, doMahimciuaea, ciuanoea u uojhoupuepednux 
ea3duHCiuaea y 1991. zodunu (ciuaHoeHuuiiueo, naifuona/iHa upuuadnocxu — 
dexua/bna miacu(puKai(uja), 3, CaBe3HH 3aBO,a 3a CTaTHCTHKy, Eeorpafl. 

PaflHh 2003 : IIpBOCJiaB Pa#Hh, H3 HCTopHJe cpncKor nHTaH>a y MaKe^oHHJH, Kyjrrypo- 
jioniKH acneKT, Balkanika, XXXII-XXXIII, Eeorpa/j, 227-252. 

Raduski 2003 : Nada Raduski, Etnicka homogenizacija stanovnistva Srbije krajem XX i 
pocetkom XXI veka, y: Demokratija i multikulturalnost ujugoistocnoj Evropi, 
Centarza istrazivanje etniciteta, Beograd, 425-434. 

OraHKOBHh 1998: CraHHanaB CTaHKOBHh^HJajieKTOJiouiKasanaKaifca CBeT03apaTo- 
MHha y CBeray hobhj'hx HCTpa>KHBaH>a roBopa CKoncKe LJpue Tope (Ca 6ene- 
tQKaMa o C. ToMHhy h CKoncKOJ Upnoj TopH), CpiicKuje3UK III/ 1-2, Beorpa^, 
293-3 12 + KapTa. 

CthjobhIi 2000: Pa«a CTMJOBHh, PenHHK cpncKOxpBaxcKor KH>H)KeBHor h Hapo^Horje- 
3HKa CAHY m ^HJaneKaTCKa JieKCHKa, JyotcnocAoeencKu (ptmonoz LVI/3-4, 
Eeorpaa, 1121-1127. 

Stojanovic 1997: Trajan Slojanovic, Balkanski svetovi: Prvai poslednja Evropa,Eq\xi- 
librium, Beograd, 1-552. 

ToMHh 1905: CBeT03ap ToMnh, CKoncxa UpHa Topa (aHTponoreorpac[)CKa h erao- 
rpa4>CKa cTyAHJa), CE36 VI, Beorpaa. 

Trifunoski 1958: Jovan F. Trifunoski, O posleratnom naseljavanju stanovnistva iz NR 
Makedonije u tri banatska naselja — Jabuka, Kacarevo i Glogonj, Matica srp- 
ska, Novi Sad, 5-43. 

XaijHeB 1996: Batta XayneB, 3a UMeiuo MaKedomija u MaKedonifu so ucuiopujaiua, 
JLy6oTeH, Ciconje, 5-247. 



OraHHCJiaB CraHKOBHh: Makerohum m Makeaohckh je3hk y PEnyi>;inun Cpbmjh 



49 



IjBHJnh 1906: Joean LjBHJHh, ITpoMaiupatba o eiuHoepcupuju MCtKedoucKUX C/ioeena, 
Kn>H>Kapa Teije KoHa, Eeorpaa, 1-70. 

U,BMjHh 1 987 : EaAKancKo uonyociupeo, Ca6paHa acna, 2, CpncKa aKa^eMHJa Hayica h 
yMeTHOcra — „KH>H>KeBHe noBHHe" — 3aeofl 3a yuGeHHKe h HacTaBHa cpea- 
CTBa, Beorpaa, 13-550. 



Stanislav Stankovic 



Macedonians and Macedonian language 
in the Republic of Serbia — Pro et contra 

There is no autochthonous population of Macedonia on the territory of the Republic of 
Serbia, neither in its border zones with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia nor in 
other parts. Immediately after the end of the Second World War, quite a big number of 
Slav-Macedonians migrated from different parts of the People's Republic of Macedonia to the 
People's Republic of Serbia, mainly to abandoned German farms in the Southern area of Banat. 
Then, in post-war decades, a certain number of Macedonian citizens moved to Belgrade and 
other big administrative, cultural and industrial centres in Serbia. According to official statistics, 
there were 27,277 Macedonian nationals (or 0.4 % of the entire population) in the People's 
Republic of Serbia in 1953. In the Socialist Republic of Serbia, there were 48,986 Macedonians 
in 1981, and 46,046 in 1991. At present (according to the statistical data from 2002), there are 
25,847 Macedonian inhabitants (or 0.35% of registered inhabitants) in the Republic of Serbia 
(without the territory of Kosovo and Metohija). 

Current sociolinguistic research shows that a great number of descendants of old 
immigrants from Macedonia belong to Serbian ethnos, speak Serbian and do not want their 
children to attend schools in Macedonian or even to learn this language as an optional subject. 
Why is this so? Were there hidden ethnic Serbs among the post-war colonists from Macedonia? 
Is the part of this sociolinguistic enigma hidden in the stereotypical national and language policy 
in the second half of the 20th century led by the authorities of Yugoslavia, Macedonia and 
Serbia and dictated by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and Langue of Yugoslav 
Communists? If so, how big is this part? The fact that the number of Macedonians who live in 
the Republic of Serbia has been reduced by half is explained by a representative of the Republic 
Office of Statistics as a consequence of disintegration of the Socialist Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia, that is of moving of Macedonians from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Serbia to 
the Republic of Macedonia. Can this statement be accepted without any valid statistical and 
scientific results? 



Christian Voss 



LANGUAGE USE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDES 

OF A PHANTOM MINORITY 



Bilingual Northern Greece and the concept of "hidden minorities" 

In the following I will try to examine the applicability of the model 
of "hidden minorities" as developed by Christian Promitzer to my case 
study of the Slavic-speaking community in Northern Greece. 

Is the term "hidden minorities" an oxymoron which automatically 
tends to connotate minorities ethnically? If we define minorities on the 
sociological level, i.e. primarily by an impeded access to political, 
economic and social resources and at the same time by endogamy, then 
the existence of "hidden minorities" should be impossible. A look at the 
Greek situation will support this argumentation: It is exactly the only 
legally recognized minority (i.e. the Muslims in Western Thrace) that 
corresponds to the sociological criterion of an economically disadvantaged 
and socially discriminated community (Trubeta 1999), whereas the 
Slavic-speaking hidden minority stands on the same level as the majority 
population — this applies especially for the rich plain between Edessa and 
Thessaloniki. 

Another aspect in favour of the link between hidden minority and 
prosperity is the fact that it is exactly the poorest part of Greek Macedonia 
that openly declares its ethnic alterity. The crucial question here is: What 
was first — economic underdevelopment or open ethnonational 
Macedonian consciousness? Does poverty set off ethnicity, or is it exactly 
the other way round? The hidden minority in the region East of Edessa, 
which can be defined only as a linguistic group, is much better off than the 
declared Macedonian minority in the Fiorina district. 

To sum up: Hidden minorities are "hidden" on the socioeconomic 
level as well. Does this mean that legal recognition of minorities in societies 



52 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

dominated by ethnocentric national discourses is a negative privilege, 
automatically leading to categorisation and economic disadvantage? 



"Internal colonisation", minorisation and language shift 

The case of the Slavic-speaking minority, whose existence has been 
officially denied until today, in a comparative perspective is very strange, 
especially in view of their large number. The Slavic dialects in Aegean 
Macedonia — a territory of about 35,000 square kilometres — have 
approximately 200,000 potential speakers. Since only one third of them 
makes active use of the vernacular, which for 30-40 years has not been 
the primary code any more, the term "Slavic-speaker' presents a more or 
less ethnic categorization, which is supported on the sociological level (cf. 
Voss 2003:116-117). 

The demographic development in the region is determined by several 
waves of ethnic cleansing under the form of population exchange between 

- 

Greece and Bulgaria (Neuilly 1919) and Greece and Turkey (Lausanne 
1923), as well as under the form of expulsion (during the Balkan Wars 
1912-1913 and at the end of the Greek Civil War 1948-1949). As a result, 
the indigenous Slavic-speaking population, which until 1912 constituted 
the majority in Aegean Macedonia (with 30-40%), became minorised — 
except for the Western part, i.e. the prefecture of Fiorina, where they are 
still the majority and where many villages had no settlement of Asia 
Minor and Pontos refugees (Voss 2003a:62-64). 

My survey of 270 villages in Northern Greece, where until today 
Slavic dialects are spoken, results from fieldwork conducted in the area 
between 1999 and 2003 (Voss 2003d): 112 of them are in Western 
Macedonia (i.e. the prefectures Kastoria, Fiorina, and the Northern part of 
Kozani), 121 of them belong to Central Macedonia (i.e. the prefectures 
Pella, Kilkis, Thessaloniki and the Northern part of Imathia), 38 of them 
in Eastern Macedonia (i.e. the prefectures Serres and Drama). 

The acute threat of language death in Eastern and partly in Central 
Macedonia has to be explained primarily by the fact that 90% of the 
villages in Eastern and 66% in Central Macedonia have been affected by 
the huge wave of refugees during the 1920s, whereas in Western 
Macedonia the majority of Slavic-speaking villages (59%) remained 
ethnically homogeneous. In the Fiorina district 68% of the Slavic-speaking 
villages did not receive Greek-speaking population in the 1920s. This 
makes clear that the size of refugee settlement can be considered the 
crucial factor for language maintenance and, at the same time, that the 



Christian Voss: Language use and language attitudes... 



53 



refugee settlement fits the description of "internal colonialism" (by 
Hechter 1975), leading to ethnic activism of the local population. 



villages where Slavic dialects are spoken: 



Eastern Macedonia: 



Central Macedonia: 



Western Macedonia: 



here: prefecture of Fiorina: 



38 



121 



112 



59 



and without Greek-speaking settlement 



4 (= 1 0%) 



41 (=34%) 



66 (=59%) 



40 (=68%) 



"Imagined territory" and "national homeless" 

borderland minorities 

The question that emerges is how was it possible for such a huge 
ethnolinguistic group to be officially treated for over 80 years as a 
phantom. I will try to explain this using the concept of "imagined 
territories" (Haslinger 2000:23-26). 

The Slavic-speakers in Greek Macedonia represent a typical 
borderland minority in a typical European "space in between" (to give a 
translation of the term "europaische Zwischenraume" coined in the 
anthology of Ther/Sundhaussen 2003 and which refers to Alsace, Southern 
Tyrol, Transylvania or Upper Silesia), exposed to merciless Bulgarian-Greek 
national bipolarity. The region's integration in the nation state after 1912/13 
failed because the two nationalising parties prolonged the conflict during 
the two World Wars. 

The historical region Macedonia was constructed after 1870 by 
Serbian, Bulgarian as well as Greek nationalist discourses as a genuine 
national and indispensable territory, at the same time deconstructing the 
existing demographic features - above all the strong presence of Muslims. 
Territory was therefore given preference over population, who was 
thought to be mobile and flexible enough to adjust to the location of 
borders (cf. Haslinger/Niehoff-Panagioditis/Voss 2000/2001). 

The discourse on the non-existence of such borderland minorities, 
like in our case, is a consequence of radical waves of ethnic cleansing 
tending to declare the success of the allegedly reached ethnic homogeneity 
in a triumphant way: In the Greek case this formula ("all elements with 
alien consciousness left the country") has become common since the 
expulsion of the defeated communist partisans after 1949. The same could 
already be heard after the Bulgarian-Greek population exchange (Neuilly 
1919), when 90,000 Slavic-speakers emigrated to Bulgaria. 



54 CKPHBEHE MAH>HHE HA EAJIKAHY 

As a consequence of the Bulgarian-Greek antagonism, the local 
Slavic-speaking population began to develop a strong Macedonian 
indigenous consciousness that became even stronger after 1912/13. It did 
not constitute an exclusive identity, but the basis for typical multiple 
border identities described by Wilson/Hastings (1998:1-30). After 1991 a 
new bipolar constellation occured with the Greek-Macedonian national 
rivalry escalating into the controversy over the symbolic heritage of 
Alexander the Great. The tricky thing here is that one of the nationalist 
parties, the Macedonian side in Skopje, uses the same name the 
Slavic-speaking locals in Greece use for their regional consciousness, that 
was coined hundred years ago to evade nationalist involvement. 

Borderland minorities like the Slavic-speakers in Greece use the 
term "national homeless" (Karakasidou 2002:149). The terminology of 
self-ascription is symptomatic in this regard: They call themselves 
"dopii", the Greek term for "locals" (in Slavic this is "tukasni"). Their 
language is called "po nase", whereas the non-locals are simply labeled 
"madziri" (from Turkish muhaceri), that means "the strangers, non-locals". 
All these terms possess an exclusively local frame of reference without 
any ethnic semantics. 



"Linguicism" and language shift 

"How threatened is threatened?" asks Fishman (1991a:81). Since the 
integration of Aegean Macedonia into the Greek state, in 1912/13, 
"linguicism" aims at the language death of the Slavic dialects. 
"Linguicism", by the definition of Phillipson/Skutnabb-Kangas (1996:667), 
is "an analogous concept to racism, sexism, classism", and "has been 
defined as ideologies, structures and practices which are used to legitimate, 
effectuate and reproduce an unequal division of power and resources (both 
material and immaterial) between groups which are defined on the basis of 
language". This concerns the modification of Slavic names and toponymies 
since the 1920s, and especially the prohibition of Slavic language use 
implemented in an incredibly brutal way. 

In the diagram of overt and covert minority rights (cf. Phillipson/ 
Skutnabb-Kangas 1995:490) leading from one extreme (i.e. prohibition), 
via toleration, non-discrimination, prescription, permission, to the other 
extreme (i.e. promotion), the Slavic dialects in Greece are obviously 
situated under the category "overt prohibition", with a slight tendency 
towards "overt toleration" after the liberalisation starting in the late 1990s. 
The Greek case study teaches us that language suppression does not 
automatically lead to language death. Therefore it is not appropriate to 



Christian Voss: Language use and language attitudes... 55 

equate suppressed languages with threatened languages, because language 
loyalty and prestige are important factors for language maintenance. 

In our case, the strong pressure exerted on the Slavic speakers in the 
Fiorina district has granted the so-called "covert prestige" to the Slavic 
vernacular. The dialect has become a kind of subcultural code that 
constitutes group solidarity. Its "covert prestige" is attractive especially 
for men (Voss 2003a:65). 

On the other hand, there are villages with traditionally Greek 
national consciousness which make active use of their Slavic dialect. This 
makes clear that language does not inevitably have to function as central 
symbol of ethnic boundaries. The non-congruence of ethnic and linguistic 
group membership has already been pointed out by Trudgill 1 977 for the 
Arvanites in Greece, as well as by Minnich 1988 for Slovene-speakers in 
Austria. Both authors deal with hidden minorities. 

Hidden minorities depend on categorisation from outside ("Fremd- 
zuschreibung") much stronger than other minority groups. This implies 
the fact that their language, too, has been in the focus of political 
manipulation (cf. Voss 2003b:343-344). That explains why the language 
of hidden minorities does not have the normal symbolic function of 
identification ("link with the glorious past", "paternity", "patrimony") as 
described by Fishman (1972:44; 1977:17-22). 

Let's compare the status of the Slavic dialects in Greece with 
Fishman's "graded intergenerational disruption scale" (1991a:l 12-1 14). 

On this scale (between the poles 8 as very high and 1 as very low) 
the situation corresponds to degree 7: "most users of Xish are a socially 
integrated and ethnolinguistically active population", but without 
intergenerational continuity. The ethnic revival in the Fiorina region has 
made the Slavic dialects again the language of family interaction and of 
the neighbourhood, which corresponds to degree 6. Greek Macedonia 
shows the typical situation of language shift and decreased proficiency in 
the Slavic vernacular: households with almost monoglot Slavic-speaking 
grandparents, bilingual parents, and monoglot Greek-speaking children 
with a passive knowledge of Slavic (comparable case studies can be found 
in the anthology about language obsolescence of Dorian 1989). 

Intergenerational continuity in conveying the mother tongue at home 
is considered a conditio sine qua non for language maintenance which 
cannot be substituted or compensated by instruction in school. In this aspect 
the Lower Sorbian example is relevant. Although this minority language in 
the former GDR has a developed literacy and its own media, it is more 
threatened than the suppressed and illiterate Slavic vernacular in the region 
of Fiorina. This refutes the Soviet language planning, whose ideology was 



56 CKPHBEHE MAIbMHE HA BAJIKAHY 









that the simple codification of the so-called "mladopis'mennye jazyki 
would be the irreversible step towards language maintenance. Without 
being the home language, minority languages cannot stand the open 
competition in the case of official recognition and the use in school and in 
mass media, according to Fishman 1991a. In bilingual situations, which 
inevitably are asymetric, with a dominating and a dominated language, 
only prestige and loyalty of the speakers themselves can guarantee 
language vitality. This is definitely not the case in Greek Macedonia 
where the complex of speaking a Gypsy, mixed idiom is widespread and 
very strong. An immediate recognition of the Slavic dialects therefore 
involves the danger of an even faster language death. 

In the process of EU enlargement, the public understanding has 
discovered language diversity as an ingredient of European identity, which 
led to the activities of the "European bureau for lesser used languages", 
which could open a branch even in Greece in February 2002. The growing 
interest of the last years is documented by three surveys published in 2000, 
i.e. the monographies of Crystal, Nettle/Romaine and Hagege. 



The phenomenon of "semi-speakers" 

The language situation in Northern Greece suggests the application 
of sociolinguistic methods regarding language death, especially the 
concept introduced by Dorian 1981 of "semi-speakers", developed during 
fieldwork research in the Gaelic community in Scotland, as well as 
Tsitsipis' concept (1998) of "terminal speakers", where the Arvanite 
community in Greece sets a good example. Dorian's innovation was to 
bring the youth into focus and to study their command of a dying 
language, what she labels as "proficiency continuum" (Dorian 1981:117; 
cf. Rivera 1983), trying to elaborate a typology of interference, formal 
syncretism and analogies (cf. Lambert/Freed 1982). 

I will give some examples collected in Greek Macedonia among 
young persons under 18 years (cf. Voss 2003c:9-10): 

1) He BepBaM bo ji>y6oBTO ("I don't believe in love"): gender 
confusion, since unproductive categories like historical soft feminine 
stems are not known (correct form: JL.y6oBja), 

2) Ke caKauiaM m nnjaM ("I would like to drink"): analogy between 
the first person singular and the paradigm of conditional (the correct form, 
in the dialects East of Fiorina, would be: Ke caicauie), 

3) e^Ha aeHa ("one day") instead of correct emm ^eH: The so-called 
brojna forma in Bulgarian and Macedonian following cardinal numbers 



Christian Voss : Language use and language attitudes ... 57 

(flBa fleHa, T pH jxcna, "two/three days") is used here in the singular, 
interpreting the ending -a as feminine. 

4) In the following ethnonymes, Greek interference annuls the 
so-called Second palatalisation: BjiaxH ("vlachs", from Greek (3Xd%oi 
instead of the correct form BJiacHV or noMa™ f'Pnmak" 



from Greek 



form 



At the same time, the language competence of the Fiorina youth is 
surprisingly high, since they are able to translate future, perfect, past 
perfect, as well as conditional forms, into their dialect. However, the 
passive lexical knowledge is not activated easily. At the age of 20 to 30, 
many of them acquire their ethnic self-identification, and this new 
self-awareness activates the lexical competence passively acquired during 
childhood. I recorded adolescents who are even perfecting their Slavic 
phonology, learning to spell specific Slavic sibilants difficult to pronounce 
for every primary Greek speaker (cf. Hill 1990). 

In this way, the Slavophone community has developed a perfect 
mechanism of indirect conveying their ethnic language. Since parents as 
well as grandparents know that teenagers immediately connect the Slavic 
dialects with provincialism and backwardness (cf. Vassberg 1993 for the 
Alsatian example), they never coerce the children to speak this language, 
but nevertheless use it very often in their presence. This voluntary and 
indirect teaching of the Slavic vernacular makes it possible for the next 
generation to negotiate their linguistic identity on their own. 



Language use of the Slavic-speaking minority 

Let's have a look now at the language use of "hidden minorities". 
Due to the absence of any kind of language planning, we have to expect a 
vacuum of purism. There are no initiatives of linguistic revitalisation 
which are usually characterised by a conservative language purism 
tending to nativise the lexicon, i.e. eliminating all elements of the 
dominating language. Since purism derives from the fear to loose one's 



own 



minority languages. Such puristic enterprises are sentenced to fail because 
of the difficulty to impose linguistic norms on speakers of non-official 
languages (Dorian 1994). 

At the same time, the absence of every kind of Slavic lexicographic 
tradition, as well as the 80 years of Greek influence (greek being the 
umbrella language), have led to various techniques of linguistic 
interference (for the parallel Arvanite case cf. Sasse 1985). After 1912/13 
any Slavic "roofing" of the dialects was stopped. As a consequence, 



5? 



5 8 Ckpmbehe mah»mhe ha Eajikahy 

numerous relexifications from Greek (known as well by the Arvanites and 
the Vlachs) are integrated into the Slavic dialects as borrowings or 
so-called nonce loans (the following examples are taken from 
Minkov-Bodancki 1998). 

Within the three-generation families we notice situational code 
switching, whereas the degree of conversational code switching, always 
adding semantic values in comparison to monolingual speech, depends on 
the ethno-political self-identification of the speaker. 

HeMaM aiianni yT-Te6e (< Greek avdjKv() 
"I have no need of you (I don't need you). 

apinica fla-o/i;e y-acTHHOMHJTa (< Greek apvrjGrjKa; aaTi)vop,(a) 
"He refused to go to the police (station)." 

cy rpuKO fljaeaTHpHO ca ineTa ny-CBeTO (< Greek 5iaPaxr|pio) 
"With a Greek passport you can make trips around the world." 

HeMaMe HHKaKBa chhchohch (< Greek a , ov£vv6r[ar|) 
"We don't have any understanding/agreement" 

Jl'yr'a cejiaHH! YT-cypBH^KTa ec|)opiia (< ecpopia) Ha luomicaa (< 
ei5o7coir|aav) Aeic' yT-yTpe y-cejiTO kh npHCTHrHe e^opTO (< ecpopoq), 
4>opo (< cpopoq) fla-6epe, koj HMa 3a-,n;a nuaTe HeK' aoe aojio Ha njiaTeJTa 
(< nXaTzia), koj HeMa mo fla nnaTe opMaHO #a 4 )aTe - 
"Village people! The inland revenue office infoimed us that tomorrow the 
revenue officer will arrive in our village to collect taxes. Those who have 
something to pay should assemble on the village green, those who don't 
have anything to pay should hide in the forest. 



55 



Such code-switching, as well as borrowing, is often introduced by 
comments as "as we use to say ...", "in our language ...". This indicates 
that the speakers have a very affectionate relationship to their mixed 
linguistic idiosyncrasy (concerning the pragmatic functions of 
code-switching cf. Blankenhorn 2003:229-233). The multiple and shifting 
identities of those who are "national homeless" are negotiated through 
language practices (cf. Blackledge/Pavlenko 2001:248-251), in this case 
the linguistic interplay of codes. 

Language attitudes of the Slavic- speaking minority 

Language attitudes of the hidden minority are determined by the 
inexistence of any official language policy and language ideology. This 
exposes the minority to one-sided influence of the dominant language 
group, in our case the Greek ethnocentric discourse. 



Christian Voss: Language use and language attitudes... 59 



Parts of the minority have even lost the sense of speaking a dialect 
that does not belong to the Greek diasystem (called in German "Eigen- 



sprachlichkeitsbewusstsein ). This is a consequence of the Greek national 
discourse propagating that the Slavic dialects of Macedonia are only 
allegedly Slavic (the label in use being "Slavic-seeming idiom", in Greek "to 



•>> 



." 



slavofanes idioma ) — a parallel to the so-called Windischen-Theorie, 
which states that the Slovene dialects in Carinthia are closer to Germanic 
than to Slavic (Voss 2003d). 

Until recently, the absence of a politically neutral, scientific 
discourse about linguistic diversity in Greece, as well as the official denial 
of the ethnic alterity on the Greek state territory, made the minority's 
ethnic self-ascription strongly dependent on categorisation by the Greeks, 
who used to label them with the Greek compounds "palaiovoulgaroi 
("dirty Bulgarians"), and after 1991 "gyftoskopianoi" ("gypsies from 
Skopje"). At the same time, the absence of an official label indirectly 
supports the fragmentation 1 of the minority, which is historically marked 
by a switch from Bulgarian to Macedonian orientation. 

Mark Mazower stated that after 1945 the Greek state persecuted 
communist partisans more than former collaborators with the Germans 
(cf. Karakasidou 2002:135). This general assessment holds especially true 
for the Slavic speakers who were punished for communist tendencies (in 
the Western region of Aegean Macedonia), as well as for pro-Bulgarian 
tendencies (in the Eastern region). The experience of social exclusion and 
open or covert discrimination has hampered a successful assimilation and 
has led to a subjective perception of otherness, which is not articulated 
openly. As a consequence of the political history of Greek Macedonia 
today there are three different regions: 

1 . the prefectures of Serres and Drama, which in World War I and II 
were under Bulgarian occupation. Although these dialects are close to 
Standard Bulgarian, the locals fiercely deny any genetic relationship of their 
dialects with Bulgarian. This can be considered a symptom of 
hyperassimilation, where the radical denial of one's own ethnic difference 
has already led to language death. Sociolinguistic quantitative studies, e.g. 
questionnaires, are absolutely impossible to conduct in this region. The 
basic problem of data gathering, i.e. the fact that the observed people adjust 
their behaviour to accommodate the observer, has been called the 



1 As Kloss points out, segregation within the minority group is a wide- 
spread phenomenon, for example within the German-speaking community in Bel- 
gium, the Slovene-speakers in Carinthia, or the Bretons, Corses (Kloss 1969: 
64-65). 



60 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Ba^kahy 

"observer's paradox" by Labov, the pioneer of modern sociolinguistics. In 
our case study, this methodological problem sometimes seems 
insurmountable due to the intimidation of the disadvantaged community of 
Slavic speakers. 

2. the region between Salonika and Edessa: Since this region has 
never been under Bulgarian occupation and was not involved in the Greek 
Civil War, the allegedly political, but in reality ethnic discrimination was 
not as strong as in the region of Kastoria or Fiorina or in the Bulgarian 
occupation zone to the East. The main reasons for language shift here are 
the quantitative minorisation reached with the settlement of 600,000 Asia 
Minor and Pontos refugees in the 1 920s as well as the new social mobility 
since the 1980s and the nearness of the melting pot Salonika. 

3. the prefecture of Fiorina, where the Slavic speakers represent over 
60% of the total population (50,000 persons). Since even here the 
population is split into Graecophiles and Macedonophiles, we can 
estimate the Macedonian minority in Greece at about 15,000 persons. 

How to explain the emergence of a Macedonian national minority? 
More than 30,000 Slavic speakers from the Fiorina and Kastoria region 
fled to the Eastern block after 1949. In contrast to the mass emigration to 
Bulgaria, of the 1920s, where family ties have been lost quickly mostly of 
fear, the contacts to these refugee relatives are very vivid and helped at 
creating a global ethnic network described by Danforth 1995. This is one 
crucial aspect of the cross-border cohesion connecting Bitola with its 
historical hinterland, the district of Fiorina. 



Are the Slavic speakers in Northern Greece Macedonians? 

Macedonians in Skopje writing about minorities tend to make the 
following mistake: They transform the high degree of ethnification of the 
Albanian minority in the Republic of Macedonia into an absolute and tend 
to offset them against their "own" Macedonian minority in Albania, 
Greece and Bulgaria. This means ignoring the specifics of Yugoslavian 
history: Tito's principle of ethnic tolerance "Bratstvo i jedinstvo 
("Brotherhood and unity") has not at all led to the monopolisation of a 
new Yugoslavian national identity, but, on the contrary, to a forced 
ethnification of different nations (narodi) and ethnic groups {narodnosti). 
Constitutional and ethno-statistical experiments have been an integral part 
of the Tito- Yugoslavian system. Especially the federal constitution of 
1974 speeded up an open competition for nation building and exclusive 
identity management in the different republics and autonomous provinces. 
The transfer of Yugoslavian ethnopolitics to countries like Greece is not 



Christian Voss: Language use and language attitudes. . . 6 1 



appropriate, since Greek nationalism, on the basis of religion since the 
19 th century is supported by ethnic non-Greek activists (Arvantes, 
Aromunians) whom we are to define today as "ethnic minorities". In 
succeeding to convert Christian-Orthodox millet-identity into national 
consciousness, Greek nationalism stands in sharp contrast to Yugoslavian 
ethnopolitics during the 20 th century. 

One of the main reasons of the Greek-Macedonian conflict on the 
diplomatic level after 1991 is exactly the fact that the historical region 
Macedonia, i.e. a homogeneous region of ethnic coexistence and 
multi-optional identities, after 1912 has been divided by culturally highly 
ambiguous political borders which brought Vardar-Macedonia and 
Aegean Macedonia into totally different contexts of nationalism and 
minority policies. 



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Christian Voss 



Sprachgebrauch und Sprachattituden einer Phantom-Minderheit 

Die Slavischsprecher in Griechisch-Makedonien 



Im sog. Agais-Makedonien, das erst 1912/13 Teil des griechischen Staats geworden ist, 
leben auf einer Flache von ca. 35.000 qkm 2 heute ca. 200.000 potentielle Slavischsprecher, die 
im europaischen Kontext die wohl grofite „hidden minority" darstellen. Da nur noch ein Drittel 
von ihnen den Dialekt verwendet, der seit ca. 30-40 Jahren nicht mehr Primarcode ist, 
bezeichnet der Begriff „Slavophoner" eine quasi-ethnische Kategorie, die auf soziologischer 
Ebene (minority building) gestiitzt wird. Hier werden Ergebnisse von zahlreichen 
Feldforschungsaufenthalten in Nordgriechenland resumiert. 



64 



Ckphbehe mabhhb ha Bajikahy 



Zahlenmafiige und raumliche Erfassung der Minderheit 

Die Bevolkerungsentwicklung der Region ist durch (nur mit Polcn vergleichbare) 
mehrere ethnic cleansing-Prozes.se in Form von Bevolkerungsaustausch (bulgarisch-gnechisch 
1919 tiirkisch-griechisch 1923) gepragt, als deren Ergebnis die autochthone slavischsprachige 
Bevo'lkerung nur noch im auBersten Nordwcsten Griechisch-Makedoniens die Bevolkerungs- 
mehrheit bildet und viele Dorfer dort keine Zusiedlung von Kleinasien- und Pontosfluchthngen 

erfahren haben. 

Von den mehr als 270 Dorfern in Nordgriechenland, in denen noch heute slavische 
Dialekte gesprochen werden, liegen 112 in Weslmakedonien (d.h. in den Prafekturcn Kastona, 
Fiorina, und im Norden der Prafektur Itozani), 121 in Zentralmakedonien (d.h ir i den 
Priifekturen Pella, Kilkis, Thessaloniki und im Norden der Prafektur Imathia) und 38 m 
Ostmakedonien (Prafektur Serres und Drama). Der drohende Sprachlod in Ost- und z.T in 
Zentralmakedonien ist primar dadurch zu erklaren, dass hier 90% (Ostmak) bzw. 66/« 
(Zentralmak.) der slavischsprachigen Dorfer von der Ansiedlungswelle der 1920er Jahre 
betroffen wurden, wahrend in Westmakcdonien 59% (im Raum Fiorina gar 68%) der 
slavischsprachigen Dorfer bis heute weitestgehend ethnisch homogen sind. 

Bedrohtheitsgrad der slavischen Dialekte 

Grundsatzlich ist der Fall der Slavischsprccher, die als Konsequenz des bulga- 
risch-griechischen Antagonismus urn Makedonien nach 1913 aufgrund sprachheher Altentat als 

national deviant" stigmatisiert wurden (vor allem nach 1949 war „slavisch synonym nut 
^kommunistisch"), nicht vergleichbar mit den bciden zahlenmaBig vergleichbaren 
Sprachgruppen der Aromuncn (Vlachen) und Arvaniten. Da diese den griechischen Staat seit 
1832 mitgetragen haben und erfolgreich vom griechischen Nationalisms absorbiert worden 
sind zahlen das Aromunische und das Arvanitische (als letztes Uberbleibsel einer ungewol ten 
Ethnizitat) heute zu den am schnellstcn aussterbenden Sprachcn Europas. Demgegenubcr erlebt 
ein Teil der Slavischsprccher in den 1990er Jahren ein ethnic revival, das durch grenzuber- 
schreitende Kohasion in die Republik Makedonien und globale ethnic networks verstarkt wird. 

Anhand von Fishmans graded intergenerational disruption scale (1991) kann 
Griechisch-Makedonien gcnerell in Stufe 7 eingeordnet werden, wobei nur im Raum Fiorina 
und einigen isolierten, rein slavischsprachigen Dorfern Zentral- und Ostmakedon.ens die 

intergencrationelle Kontinuitat wiederhergestellt worden ist (d.h. Stufe 6). 

Bilingualismusphanomene im Sprachverhalten 

ErwartungsgemaB ist der Sprachgebrauch durch die Tatsache gepragt, dass 1912 die 
slavische Uberdachung weggebrochen ist, was die zahllosen Relexifizierungen aus dem 
Griechischen erklart, die als borrowings und nonce loans in die slavischen Dialekte integncrt 
werden Vor allem im familiaren Sprachgebrauch zwischen drei Generationen herrscht 
situational code switching vor, wahrend das AusmaB an conversational code switching immer 
starker von der ethnisch-politischen Selbstzuschreibung des Sprcchers abhangt. Gencrell ist eine 
(biographisch durch politische Emigration, Arbeitsmigration oder Grenzkontakte bedmgte) 
enorme Diskrepanz in der Sprachkompetenz der Einzelsprecher festzustellen. 

Vom Konzept der terminal speaker ausgehend, ist die Sprachkompetenz von Jugend- 
lichen im Raum Fiorina iiberraschend, die Futur-, Perfckt- und Plusquamperfekt- wie 
Koniunktivformen spontan und korrekt in ihren Dialekt ubersetzen konnen, ihren passiven 
slavischen Wortschatz hingegen nur miihsam aktiv verwenden. Im Alter von 20-30 laBt sich bei 
vielen Sprechern beobachten, wie im ProzeB der ethnischen Selbstidcntifikat.on die wahrend der 
Kindheit gewonncnen passiven Sprachkcnntnisse bcwuBt aktiviert werden, wobei s.e ihre 
slavische Phonologie, speziell die Sibilanten, perfektionieren. 

Hier einige typische semispeaker-Phanomcne (Formensynkretismus, Analogic 
Intcrferenz) im Sprachgebrauch Jugendlicher: 

1) ne BepBaM bo Jty6oBio („ich glaubc nicht an die Liebe"): Genusfehler in der 
Nichtbcherrschung historisch wcicher Femininstamme (korrekt: jty6oBia), 

2) ke caKauiaM fl a nnja M („ich wurde gerne trinken"): Analogie der ansonsten 
durchgiingigen Endung der 1 . Ps. Sgl. in das Konjunktivparadigma (korrekt im Dialekt osthch 
von Fiorina: ke caKauie), 



Christian Voss: Language use and language attitudes... 



65 



3) cuHa aena („ein Tag") anstelle des korrekten qjxhh jxqh: Die im Bulgarischen und 
Makcdonischen vorhandene, historisch genitivische Zahlform nach Kardinalzahlen (jxuq. Aeiia, 
TpH Aena „zwei/drei Tagc") wird hier auf den Singular angewcndct, so dass der a-Auslaut zu 
einer Genusumdeutung fuhrt. 

Griechische Interferenz, die die Palatalisierung riickgangig macht, liegt bei folgenden 
Ethnonymen vor: BJiaxn („Vlachen", von griech. pXdxoi anstelle des korrekten BjiacH) oder 
noiwaKH („Pomaken", von griech. nojiaKOi anstelle des korrekten noMaiiH). 



Sprachatti tiide 

Die Slavophonen Griechenlands bilden den siidlichcn Rand des ostsiidslavischcn 
Dialektkontinuums, dessen Zuordnung zum Bulgarischen oder Makedonischen eine politische 
oder zumindest rein soziolinguistische Frage ist. In historischer Sicht sind sie so zwischen zwei 
Sprachnationalismen aufgeteilt und waren potcntiell durch die bulgarische wie auch die 
makedonische Standardsprache uberdachbar. Die politische Geschichte des Region im 20. Jh., 
speziell die bulgarische Besatzung Ostmakcdoniens im 1. und 2. Weltkrieg sowie die massive 
Verstrickung Westmakedoniens in den Griechischen Biirgerkrieg 1946-1949, hat zu einer 
starken Fragmentierung des Mindcrheitensprachraums gefuhrt: Je naher man der bulgarischen 
Grenze kommt, desto heftiger bestreiten die Slavischsprecher eine genetische Sprach- 
verwandtschaft mit dem Bulgarischen. 

Fiir das Zentrum des ethnic revival der 1990er, Westmakedonien, ist bezeichnend, dass 
radikales makedonisches Bewusstsein nicht primar durch sprachliche Alteritat, sondern als 
Wahrnchmung der eigenen sozialen Exklusion definiert wird: Der Dialekt verkommt somit zu 
einem gruppenkonstituierenden Code, dessen subkulturell anmutendes covert prestige gerade 
bei mannlichen Dorfbewohnern greift. Dem stehen Dorfer mit traditionell griechisch-nationalem 
Bewusstsein gegeniiber, die ihren slavischen Dialekt dennoch aktiv pflegen. 

Diese Nichtdeckungsgleichheit von sprachlicher und ethnischer Gruppenzugehorigkeit 
cntspricht Trudgill 1977 {Why Arvanites are not Albanians) ebenso wie Minnich 1988 
(Speaking Slovene — Being Slovene). 



IlemKo Xpucmoe 



rPAHHIJHTE HA «IUOnJiyKA» 
H/HJIH UJOnH BE3 rPAHHLJH 

Ome npe3 BTOpaTa nojiOBHHa Ha XIX Ben uioncKama hcto- 
pHKO-KyjiTypHa o6jiacT, H3BecTHa b 6a;iKaHCKaTa eTHorpac|)CKa jiHTepa- 
Typa KaTO UIonjiyK/UIonn-bK, e npHBJiHKJia BHUMaHHcro Ha H3cneAO- 
BaTeuHTe h b B-bJirapHH, h b CtpGiui, a HanocneABK — h b MaKeAOHHH, ot 
raeflHa Toxica Ha reorpa(J)CKOTo pa3npocTpaHeHHe, noTeiaioTO, AHajieicra h 
KyjuypHHTe oco6chocth Ha mccthoto HacejieHHe. H Maicap 3a cthmojio- 
rHjrra Ha eTHorpa<J)OHHMa iuon { Aa e ci>3AaAeHa Bene 3HaHHTejma 
KHTepaTypa, Bee ome e Tpy^Ho CTporo HayHHO m 6i>AaT onepTaHH 
rpaHHHHTe, AHajieKTHaTa BapHaTHBHocT h eTHO-KyjrrypHHTe xapaKTe- 
pncTHKH Ha uionume, o6o3HanaBaHH b 6i>JirapcKaTa eTHOJioraa KaTO 
eTHorpa^cKa rpyna, nacT ot HenoKynHaTa 6i>jirapcKa HapOAHOCT 
(BaKapejiCKH 1942:236-258). To3H $aKT, no Moe MHeHHe, npoH3THHa ot 
HeeAH03HaHHaTa HCTopHHecKa ci>A6a Ha TOBa poACTBeHO (a b MHHajiOTO 
BepoflTHo h Tb^AecTBeHo) b eTHO-KyjiTypeH cmhct>ji HaceneHHe, Hacejia- 
Banj,o HeHTpajiHaTa njiaHHHCKa tiacT b cipueTO Ha BanKaHCKHH nonyo- 
ctpob, KBAeTO AHec ce cb6HpaT Atp^aBHHTe rpaHHUH Ha BiJirapua, 

1 CnOpeA aHOHHMHHa aBTOp Ha ptKOIMCHaTa HCTOpHfl OT XHneHflapCKHS MaHaCTHp 

(cbCTaBeHa cjica 1826 r.) Ha3BaHHCTO «uionH» npoH3HH3a ot TypcKOTO cona (= Toara). H. 

UJa(j)apHK H M. ^pHHOB TbpCOT npOH3XOfla Ha HMeTO «UJOnH» B Ha3BaHHeTO Ha CTapOTO 

TpaKHHCKO n^eMe caneu, a n. P. CnaBeHKOB ro cBtp3Ba h c ayiviaTa con (icaHa, 
BOAonpoBOA), kosto b Co(|)hhcko ce npon3Hacs KaTO tuoriKa. B. flo6ypcKH, J\. TeKejia, H. 
HBanoB H3Be»flaT «iuonH» ot Ha3BaHHeTo Ha nenenoKKOTo nJieMe U,onon (x^orcov), 
3acejieHO npe3 XI BeK b Te3H perHOHH. B. TpHropoBMH h IO. Tph(J>ohob cBT>p3BaT 
Ha3BaHHeT0 Ha mccthoto HacejieHHe c esHKa Ha KOJioHH3HpaHHTe Tyx npe3 cpeflHHTe 
BeKOBe pyaapn-cacw — ot meadu, ot hcmckhtc Ha3BaHHa 3a nepneM (tuonfi) hjih KOJiH6a 
(monen/ luyneu), t.c KaTO Ha3BaHHe 3a «KOJiH6apH». B HayxaTa Bee ome HHMa yTBtpfleHO 
eflHHHO MHeHHe 3a (caMO-)Ha3BaHHeTO uionu — cpB. no/ipo6HO y: Xazi>KHHHKOJiOB 
1984:15; CecJrrepcKH 1984:55-56). 



68 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



MaKeflOHHfl h Ci>p6hh. B 6ypHaTa ch HCTopna 3a nocjieAHHTe 125 rojxami 
TOBa HacejieHne neT nvra e npoMennjio CBOJrra flT>p>KaBHa «npnHa- 
AJie^cHOCT)); hhkoh ot ocoSeHOCTHTe Ha AwajieKTa n HapoaiiaTa Kyjuypa 
Ha MecTHOTO HacejieHHe, kocto £Hec e no,nejieHO MOKAy TpHTe 6ajiKaHCKH 
.a^p^caBH h HauHOHajiHO ce caMOonpe/jejifl Kaxo nacT ot Tpn Haunn, ca 
H3noji3BaHH 3a iiponaraHAHO-cneKyjiaTHBHH ucjim b pasjiHHHHTe 6ajiKaH- 
ckh CTOJiHUH ome npe3 70-Te ro^HHH Ha XIX bck (Hristov 2002:65-80). 

B StJirapcKaTa eTHorpac})CKa JMTepaTypa ot HanajiOTo Ha XX BeK, 
MaKap m ce roBopn 3a eflHHHaTa «moncKa eTHorpa4)CKa ipyna» KaTO 3a 
nacT ot 6"bJirapCKaTa Hapo^HocT, ce pa3rpaiiHHaBaT pcnnija JioKajiHH 
rpynn ci>c cboh eTHo-KyjiTypHH ocoGchocth: coGctbcho uionu (hjih 
dhpeenu uionu) b Coc|)hhcko, epaoetfu b FlepHHiiiKO h Bpe3HHiiiK0, 
3Jteno/iifu b Tpi>HCKO, Hutuaeiju b U,apH6po^CKO h rinpoTCKO, euconanu 
(hjih n/iaHuitifu) b ToAeHKo h HcKpeuxo, MpaicaHifu b PaziOMHpCKO, 
Khifaeiju b KiocTeHAHJiCKO, Kexaetfu b ^ynHHiiiKO, Kycaifu b CaMOKOBCKo, 
tuapeHodpewKoeiju b HoBOcejiCKO w t.h. ToBa e TaKa, 3amoTO nopa#H 
H3BecTHaTa ch b MHnajiOTO neiiopaTHBHa KOHOTaun^, 2 b Ei>jirapH>i 
eTHorpa4»OHHMi>T uionu ce ynoTpe6#Ba KaTO caMOonpe^eneHHe h 
caMOHa3BaHHe e^HHCTBeHO ot HacejieHneTO b cejiaTa okojio CTOJinuaTa 
Co(J)hh. rio ctmMH HanHH b MaKcuoHHfl 3a ce6e ch roBopn KaTO 3a uionu 
caMO HacejieHneTO Ha hhkoh cejia okojio KpHBa najiaHKa h KpaTOBo, 
KaKTO h npecejiHHUHTe ot Te3H cejia (MannnoB 2001:21-39), a b 
H3Toqna C%p&an necTO CMecBaHHTe (ot H3CJie#OBaTejiHTe!) Ha3BaiiHH 
mop/iatfu h wonu HHMaT hcho onpcaejieHH jiOKycn (U,BHJHh 1922:231; 
no-no#po6Ho 3a TOBa — Kpcraft 2003:73-80). Eto 3amo, cnopea mch, e 
no-KOpeKTHo zia ce roBopn 3a LUonnyK) Ulon/vbK KaTO 3a cpe/jnmHa 
HCTopHKO-KyjiTypHa oGjiacT b ueHTpajmaTa nacT Ha EajiKaiiHTe, nneTO 
HaceneHHe e H3BecTHO b 6ajiKaHCKaTa eTHorpa(j)HH h c e^Ha zipyra cbom 
oco6choct: nopa/in ockt^hha ch arpapeH noMHH'bK b poflHHfl Kpan, ome 
npe3 irbpsaxa nojiOBHHa Ha XIX bck ivn^eTe ot tc3h pernoHH e^ero^HO 
ce «H3JiHBajiH» b cbce^HHTe no-6^H3KH h no-AajienHH oSjiacTH Ha 
OcMaHCKaTa HMnepna no TpaAHitHOHHHTe eypdemnuucKu/ nenandapCKu 
MapuipyTH, necTO 6e3 #a ce ci>o6pa33Ba c H3KycTBeHHTe KOHCTpyKiinn 
Ha Hoboto BpeMe, HapeneHH «,n.bp>KaBHO-nojiHTHHecKH rpaHHun» 
(Xphctob 2003a). 

B 6ajiKaHCKHTe eTHOJiornn HHMa eztH03HaHHO CTanoBnme He caMO 
no OTHomcHHe Ha HacejieHneTO, o6o3HanaBaHO KaTO tuonu^ n HeroBHH 



2 3a npimoGnjiOTO nenopaTMBeH xapaKTCp Ha3BaHHe «uion» h CBT>p3aHOTO c Hero 
o6h£ho «TopnaK» rmuiaT omc b Kpaa aa XIX BeK n. P. GnaBeHKOB (C/iaBeHKOB 1884:122), 
K. HpeneK (Hpeneic 1899:67), Cbmo h H. Ubhhh (UbmjhIi 1906:180). 



neTKO Xphctob: Tpahhuhte ha «iuonjiyKA» h/hjih monH BE3 tpahhuh 



69 



npoH3xoa h eTHoreHe3HC, 3 ho h no othocho epamnjume Ha Ulon/iyKa. B 
6i»JirapCKaTa eTHOJiornfl B. Xa.ipKHHHKO.noB o6o6maBa npe3 80-Te roflHHH 
Ha XX BeK pa3JTHHHHTe rjie/mma 3a reorpa<J)CKHTe rpaHHUH Ha uioncKama 
emno-Ky/imypHa 06/iacm no cjieztHna HaHHH: «ABTOpHTe rn (rpaHHHHTe — 
n.X.) pa3rjieacflaT b #ocTa mnpoK cmhcbji Ha /jyMaTa, K aTO 3a tuonu 
CM^TaT HacejieHHe-ro Ha uajia CeBepo3ana,o,Ha BtJirapHH. Ha BpeMeTO ch 
n.P. CuaBeHKOB nocTaBH rpaHHnaTa Me)K^y monH n HacejieHHeTO Ha 
CeBepoH3TOHHa B^jirapna Ha p. Bht. Jl. Mmjicthh a Typa npn c. Menna, 
MQTKay ILieBeH h HnKonoji. Xp. BaKapejiCKH cMjrra 3a LUon/iyK b 
niHpoKHH cMHCbn Ha ^yMaTa TepHTopHjrra c rpaHHun: aojihoto TeneHHe 
Ha p. HcK-bp, Ha ior EoTeBrpaflCKO, kt>m h3tok Co(J)hhckoto none, najio 
CaMOKOBCKO, ^ynHHuiKO, KiocTeH^HJiCKO, H3TOHHa MaKeaoHHH. no 
TaK-bB HanHH monume >KHBeaT He caMo b Co(|)hhcko (KT>^eTO ce caivio- 
onpeflejurr KaTO TaKHBa — n.X.) h ct>ceflHHTe paHOHH, ho cbmo h Ha 
ceBep ot Qrapa njiaHHHa — B-bB Bhohhcko, BpanaHCKO, BepKOBCKO h 
Aopn JIomcko.» (Xa/pKHHHKOnoB 1984:1 1-12). 4 CnopeA Hero inoncKaTa 
eraoKyjiTypHa o6nacT h cbOTBeTHaTa n eraorpa^cKa rpyna o6xBamaT 
CocpuucKo, IJepHuiuKo, TptncKo, Epe3HuiuKO, U,apu6podcKo, Pado- 
MupcKo, flynnuiuKO, KwcmeuduficKO, KpamoecKo, Oeneno/iCKO, IJana- 
newKo u omnacmu KyManoecKo. TaKOBa pa36npaHe 3a rpaHHiniTe Ha 
UIonnyKa e yTB-&p#eHO h b yne6HHHHTe no eTHorpa^na Ha 6tJirapHTe: 
KaTO «cpe,zmme Ha monHTe» ce CMjrraT Co(puucKo, TptucKo, Epe3HuuiK0, 
PadoMupcKo, 3anadno KjocmenduACKo, BocuaezpadcKo, KyManoecKo u 
KpamoecKo, a b 6htobo OTHOuieHne h no HapoziHH cxBainaHHH 3a uionu ce 
roBopn naK no p. /JyHaB npn ycTneTo Ha p. Hciebp, b EoTeBrpajrcKO, 
CaMOKOBCKO, Ha 3ana# 3a^ rpaHHnaTa etc Cbp6Hfl, a Ha roro3ana^ no 
Bejiacnna (KojieB 1987:73-74). Bchhkh aBTopn ca e/iHHHH othocho 
6i»JirapcKHH HapoAHOCTeH xapaKTep Ha HacejieHHeTO b Te3H pernoHH h 
nnrapaT H3BecTHH3 h3boa Ha roneMna 6-bJirapcKH eTHorpa<}) h KOMeflno- 
rpacf) Ct. JI. Koctob ot npe^H nonoBHH BeK, ne «KaKtBTO h fla e 
npoH3xoatT Ha ^yMaTa «mon», hcho e, ne TOBa He e pacoBo np03BHine, 



3 CtmecTByBamHTe TeopHH ce pa-jjiHHaBaT othocho 6poa h 3HaneHHeTO Ha 
pa3/iHHHHTe eTHHMecKH eneivieHTH, ynacTBajiH b eraoreHe3Hca Ha mccthoto HacejieHne — 
poMaHH3HpaHo MecTHo aHTHHHO HacejieHne, onaBKHH, neHene3H, a cuopeA nocjie^HHTe 
TeopHH h npa6-bJirapH — cpB. noflpo6Ho y CecjrrepcKH 1984:55-65. CmenncKmm 
xapaKTep Ha Hapo/maTa KyjiTypa Ha HacejieHHeTO b uioncKama HCTOpHKO-KyjiTypua 
o6jiacT, o6ane, He ce ocnopBa ot hhkoix). 

4 06o6meHHeTO y XaA>KHHHKOJiOB 1984:11 e Ha 6a3aTa Ha cjie^HaTa jiHTepaTypa: 
CjiaBefiKOB 1884:106-123; Mhjicthh JI., Cmapomo Gwaapcxo nacenenue e Ceeepo- 
usmoHna E-bmapun, Co<})Ha, 1902, c. 26; TpH(})OHOB K)., no npoH3xo,aa H a hmcto «mon», 
Cnucanue na BAH, Kh. 22, 1921, c. 133-134; Koctob, rieTeBa:12-13. CpB. h BaKapejiCKH 
1942:236-258. 



70 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

T.e. CB-bp3aHO c pacaTa h npon3xoAa Ha uionHTe, kohto KaKTO bch4kh 
Apyrn 6i>JirapH ca ch cjiaBHHH c hhct cjiaBHHCKH e3HK» (Koctob, IleTeBa 
1935:28). 

Pa36npaiieT0 3a UlonnyK BKJifOHBa h hakoh peraoHH b CeBepo- 
H3TOHHa MaKeflOHHH h K)roH3TOHHa Ct>p6hh. 3ana,aHaTa rpaHnua Ha 
nioncKaTa HCTopnKO-KyjrrypHa o6nacT h b MHHajiOTO He e 6MJia hcho 
onpeAcneHa, aokojikoto cnopeA H. LJbhhh: «Mnoro e tokko, noHTH 
HeBi>3MO)KHO, a& ce npeKapa TaicaBa rpaHHija, 3amoTo Cbp0H h 6kJirapH no 

MHOrO CBOH OC06eHOCTH Ca eflHH H CbllJH Hapofl. OcBeH TOBa IIOMe^CAy 
TeXHHTe OCHOBHH HapOflHOCTHH fl#pa Ce HaMHpaT rOJieMH 30HH CbC 

npexoAHO HacejieHHe» (L^bhjhIi 1991 :209). 5 KaTO «uioncKO AApo» U,bhhh 
pa3rjie)K#a oGjiacrra ot Obhc none jxo nnpoTCKHH Bhcok ci>c «crapo- 
cbpGnHHCKHfl UlonnyK)) (pa36npan rioHuiuaeuemo c LJapnGpoACKHH Kpan 
n 3nenone b Bi>JirapHH — n.X.), cocJwhckha, paAOMnpcKHH h 6pe3HHniKH5i 
tcpanma (IjBHJHfi 1906:180). OGlijoto MHeHne Ha aHTponoreorpa(j)H5rra b 
Cbp6Hfl, ne 3ana^HHH mui Ha nioncKaTa oGjiacT 3anoHBa ot denona- 
/laneHKO-enacuHCKO'ii'bpHompaecKO-nHUHCKume cejia (cpB. h HhkojihIi 
1912:223), HanocjieAT>K 6e ocnopeiio b caho MHTepBK) ot aicaA. Bji. 
CroflHHeBHH, cnopeA kototo {iUonuiuaeuemo h HeroBOTO HacejieHMe h 
eTHorpa^CKH, h HCTopn^ecKH, h no e3HKa h o6nHanTe ch 3HaHHTejmo ce 
OTjinnaBa ot t. Hap. UIonnyK», kohto ce npocTHpa cnopeA Hero Ha h3tok 
ot BpesHHK h PaAOMnp, o6xBamaHKH Co4)hhckoto nojie ao ETponojie, 
3jiaTHua, nnpAon h H3BopnTe Ha p. Mapnua; ome no-HeTomio cnopeA 
Hero e Ha3BaHHeT0 Topnax 3a rinpoTCKHfl Kpan (Jlnjinh 2000:9). 

B MaKeAOHCKaTa eTHOJiorna HanocneAT>K ce noHBnxa hhkojiko 

pa3pa6oTKH othocho oco6eHOCTMTe Ha AHajieKTa, Hocusra w THna cejinma 
Ha o6o3HanaBaHOTO KaTO «MaKeAOHCKH uionn)) HacejieHne b CeBepo- 
H3TOHHa MaKeAOHHH. IIoa MaxedoucKU UlonnyK ce pa36npaT, cnopeA 
tax, pernoHHTe Ko3hhur, CpedopeK, KpamoecKo, KpueonanaueuiKO, 
Oco2oeuR t IIuxHeif, Maneweeo h A^OBe ot 3jieTOBCKO h TopHa IIhhidl 
Han-K»KHaTa TOHKa b MaKeAOHHH, k'lacto ce ynoTpe6#Ba eTHorpa- 
4)Ohhmt>t uionn 3a o6o3HanaBaHe Ha mcctho HacejieHne, ca cenaTa 
Cthhhk, EaAHJieH, Bap6apeBO h EanKOBO b Orpa^AeH, b h3tohhhh ahji Ha 
CTpyMHLUKOTO none (noApo6HO y: MaiiHHOB 2001:23, 29). 

ToBa, KoeTO oGeAnwraa b eTHO-KyjiTypHa uhjioct HacejieHneTO Ha 
Te3H peraoHH, e o6luoto Ha3BaHne iuonu y c KoeTO ro HapnnaT ocTaHajiHTe 



5 Othobo H. LIbhmm, ho Be4e KaTO npe&cesaTeji Ha HCTopHKO-eTHorpa^CKaTa 
ceKUH« Ha KoH^)epeHUH»Ta 3a Mnp b llapHHc npe3 1918 r., npe/yiara no am 6a Ha UJoimyKa 
Ha «Tpw noflca»: etc cp"b6cKO HacejieHMe, cbc cmcccho Hace^CHHe h c HacejieHMe, «6jih3ko 
jxo 6-bJirapHTe» — IjBHJHh 1989:213. 



riCTKO XpHCTOB: TPAHHUHTEHA «UIOn^yKA» H/HJIH IHOnHEE3 TPAHHUH 



71 



rpynn HacejieHHe b E-bjirapna, CBp6nfl h MaKe/jonna. KaKTO 6eme 
noconeHO, nopaflH nenopaTHBHHH ch xapaKTep o6ane, c pe/jKn h3kjik> 
neHHH, to hc ce npneMa i<aTO caMOHa3BaHHe ot MecTHOTO HacejieHHe n b 
TpHTe KbpyKajm. Cbiuoto ce OTHaca n 3a pa3JWHHHTe KOMGnHannn ot 
e3HKOBH (^HaneKTHH) n KyuTypHH MapKepH, nocpe^CTBOM KOHTO H3CJie- 
AOBaTejiHTe (jinHrBHCTH, reorpa^n, eTHorpacpn, ncTopnnn) ce onHTBaT #a 
H/ieHTH(j)HUHpaT enHH nun .apyrn rpynn ot HacejieHHe b ueHTpajiHaTa 
HacT Ha EauKaHHTe KaTo uioncKo — TaKHBa ejiHHHH KpnTepnn, noKpn- 
BamH bchhkh H36poeHH pernoHn b EtJirapna, Ct>p6hh h ManezioHHfl 

npOCTO HHMa. OnHTHTe B MHHaJIOTO HflKOH OT OC06eHOCTHTe Ha HapozjHa- 

Ta KyjiTypa #a 6-b^aT pa3no3HaTH KaTO HannoHajmn MapKepn n AOKa- 
3aTejiCTBO 3a Hapo;iHOCTHa npnHaAJie>KHOCT (cpB. 3a 3adpyaama u 
cnaeama y: LjBnjnh 1931:151-152; KpHTHKaTa y: Hristov 2002:73-75), 
KaKTO h m ce oGocHOBe H3(f)a6pHKyBaHaTa no nojiHTHnecKH ntT Te3a 3a 
CbmecTByBaHe Ha «moncKa HannH», pa3JiHHHa ot 6-bJirapn h Cbp6n, 6 He 
H3fl-&p»caT cepH03Ha HayHHa KpHTHKa. no Moe MHeHHe, He BHHarH ce 
npaBH pa3JiHKa MOK/ry HOCHTejiHTe Ha Hapo^HaTa Kyjnypa Ha ziazieHa 
eraorpacpCKa oGnacT h eraorpafpcKaTa rpyna; rpynnpaHeTO Ha Hace- 
jieHHeTO no eraorpacpCKH oSjiacTn ce npaBH ot H3CJienoBaTejifl h TOBa ca 
KJiacH^HKauHOHHH rpynn, onpe^ejieHH otbt>h, bt>3 ocHOBa na HHKaKBH 
o6eKTHBHH npn3Hann na KyjiTypaTa h ncHXHKaTa. CaMoonpeaejiaHeTO h 
pa3rpaHHHaBaHeTO npn eraorpa^CKHTe rpynn OTpa3HBa rjie^HaTa TOHKa 
Ha caMHTe rpynn, T.e. OTBBTpe; 3nannTe 3a OTrpaHnnaBaHe, Ha3BaHneTO n 
caMOHa3BaHneTo, ca pe3yjiTaT ot cy6eKTHBHHfl H36op Ha rpynnTe (cpB. 
no^poSHO y: CnMeoHOBa 1993:42-143). He ce OTwra n JiHHaMHKaTa Ha 

eTHHHeCKOTO pa3BHTHe — He3aBHCHMO OT BpeMeTO Ha Bt3HHKBaHeTO en, 

KOHKpeTHHTe eTHorpacpcKH rpynn npeMHHaBaT npe3 Tnnojiorwmo cxoahh 
eTann Ha pa3BHTne b^b BpeMeBHTe rpaHnnnTe Ha cbocto CbmecTByBaHe 
ot noaBaTa ro H3>KHBflBaHeTO en (ot H30JiannH n eHJioraMHH, npe3 
HapymaBaHe Ha roojiannjrra jxo ujuiocthoto h OTna^ane). IIpnMepHTe Ha 
o6pa3yBaHHTe b BtJirapna cjie# I Cb. BOHHa rpynn Ha deoicam^ume 
(ochobho ot MaKeAOHHfl) h Ha npuodanifume cneA connanncTHHecKaTa 
nHflycTpnajin3annH (n yp6aHH3annfl) He^BycMncjieHO noTBBpacjiaBaT 
Te3nca, ne Ha bcckh CTajjnn ot HCTopnHecKOTO en pa3BHTne emHoctm 
peajmo (pyHKnnoHnpa Hpe3 BtTpeniHo-eTHnnecKOTO en HJieHeHne Ha 
eTHorpa(J)CKn rpynn, hhhto CBCTaB n xapaKTep Ha Bt3HHKBaHe e npo- 
MeHJinB BtB BpeMeTO (CnMeoHOBa 1993:140, 145). ToBa nocTOJWHO (bbb 
BpeMeTO) HJieHeHne Ha eraoca na eTHorpatpCKn rpynn, 3ana3Bamn o6ane 
caMOCB3HaHneTO en 3a HeoT^ejinMa nacT ot Hero, ce OKa3Ba CBoeo6pa3eH 



6 Hafi-HOBH ynpa»<HeHHH b Ta3H nocoKa cpB. y: Kolev 2001:168-177. 



72 CKPHBEHE MAtbHHE HA EAJIKAHY 

MexaHH3i>M 3a caMoo6oraTHBaHe, ycjio^CHHBaHe m BapnaTHBHOCT Ha 
HeroBaTa Kyjnypa, T.e. MexaHH3i>M 3a nocTHraHe Ha KyjuypHO mhoto- 
o6pa3He. Ome no-HHTepeceH 3a H3CJieAOBaTeji5i e npo6jieMtT KaK 
BapHaTHBHOcira Ha HapoflHaTa Kyjnypa, bkji. h (J)yHKUHOHHpaHeTO h KaTO 
6ener 3a jioKajiHO-peniOHajma (caMO-) HfleHTH^HKauHH (cpB. BtjiHHHOBa 
1999:100-120) ce pa3BHBa b yonoBHHTa Ha apammnocm, KaKTO e b cjiynan 
c luoncKama HCTopHKO-KyjiTypHa o6jiacT. 

IloHflTHeTO «rpaHHLta», aneA 6a3HcriOTO H3oneABaHe Ha OpextepHK 
BapT, b eTHOJiorHHHa nepcneicraBa Moace a& 6i>Ae HHTepnpeTHpaHo Ha 
pa3JiHHHH HHBa — KyjnypHO, eTHHHHO, nojiHTHHecKO (Bart 1997:213-259). 
rpanuHHoemma b to3h KOHTeKCT e CbCTOHHHe h npoijec, hhhto cthhhhh 
(no-TOHHO eTHO-KyjrrypHH) H3MepenH^ ce npenjiHTaT clc couHajiHO-HKO- 

HOMHHeCKH 4)aKTOpH H npOljeCH B XOZia Ha KOHKpeTHOTO HCTOpHHeCKO 

pa3BHTHe. CaMHTe noH^THH naijun (KaTO KOHKpeTHO-HCTopHHecica npoHBa 
Ha emnoca) w HfleHTH^HUHpamaTa ce c He« Kynmypua mpaduifux MoraT aa 
6i>AaT nomeAHaTa npe3 npH3MaTa Ha nponaraHAHOTO KOHCTpynpaHe, KaTO 
e^Ha ot H3CJieflOBaTencKHTe nepcneKTHBH e BT^MO^HOCTTa 3a 
AeKOHCTpyKiiHH Ha npoueca Ha ci>3AaBaHe Ha «Bi>o6pa3eHHTe» o6ilihocth 
h «H3o6peTeHHTe» Tpa^HUHH b Ayxa na aHanH3HTe Ha B. AHAepcoH h E. 
Xo6c6ayM (Anderson 1998; Hobsbawm 1983), Ot TaKaBa rjie^Ha TOHKa 
HaceneHHeTO Ha HCTOpHKO-Kyjrrypi-iaTa o6nacT UIonnyK h HeroBaTa 
KOHKpeTHa jiOKajiHa (caM0-)H,aeHTH4)HKaLiHH npeACTaBJiHBa oco6eH 
HHTepec. B HacToamaTa pa6oTa me 6i>AaT npeACTaBeHH caivio nacT ot 
np*bCHaTHTe H3 pa3JiHHHH pernoHajiHH c6opHHUH eTHorpa4)CKH MaTe- 
pnajiH, njiOA Ha ycHjiH^Ta Ha peAHija aBTopn ot EuirapHH, Ct>p6hh h 

MaKeAOHHH, OTHOCHO TpaAHUHOHHOTO M1>)KK0 Zyp6emHUUCYYieO H3 

nojiyocTpoBa Ha HacejieHHeTO ot njiaHMHCKHTe paHOHH Ha UlonnyKa^ KaTO 
e^HH ot cbmecTBeHHTe HCTopHnecKHTe BapHaHTH 3a TpaHcrpaHHHeH 
o6ivieH Ha BajiKaHHTe. 

Ce30HHHTe 3aHaHTHHHCKH MHTpaUHH H3BT>H pOAHHfl KpaH («IIO 

ny^c6HHa» — cpB. apa6.- Typ. gurbet = 6 Hy>K6HHa'; onyK cnopeA H. TepoB 
«me H^e Ha ryp6eT»= «me HAe b ny>K6HHa», a eypdemnuH = «ny>KAe- 
Heu» 7 ) ca 3acBHAeTejicTBaHH b HCTopHHecKHTe H3B0pH ome ot cpeAaTa Ha 
XIX BeK KaTO TpaAHUHOHHO neHcmdapcmeo: cnopeA OTnenaTaHHfl bt>b 
BneHa npe3 1853 r. AOKJiaA Ha $oh MapTpHT, aBCTpHHCKH BHueKOHcyji b 
Co4)hh, xpHCTHHHHTe — ^cHTejiH Ha Kaa3a M3ue6o/i (T.e. 3neno/ie b 
Bi>jirapHH), «ca TOJiKOBa 6eAHH, ne eABa MoraT Aa ch H3njiaTHT AaHtuHTe; 



7 TepOB H., PennuK ua OhmapcKun e3UK> 4. 1, C, 1975 (IIjiobamb 1895), c. 260; 
floixbJiHeHHe Ha 6i>JirapCKHa pemiHK ot H. TepoB. C, 1978 (ITtiobahb 1908), c. 83; 
Mjia^eHOB C, Ermmo/iozunecKu u npaeonucen pennuK na 6-bmapcKun KHuotcoeen 63uk. C, 
1941, c. 114. 



IleTKO XpHCTOB! TPAHMUMTE HA «IJJOnJiyKA» H/HJ1H lliOriH BE3 TPAHHUH 73 

nopaAH TOBa no-rojwMaTa nacx ot tax HanycKaT npe3 npojieTTa pOAHnre 
en MecTa, 3a Aa TbpcHT neHaji6a b HcTaHSyji h aa^ce b Mana A3hh, 
otkbacto ce Bpi>maT o6paTHO npe3 3HMaTa hjih Aa>Ke cjiqr no-fl-wiro 
BpeMe» (uht. no Mmxob 1943:331-332).s XopaTa b Tp-bHCKO pa3Ka3BajiH 
Ha K. HpeneK, ne «b TypcKO BpeMe xoahjih npe3 jihtoto peAOBHO no 5000 
MB>Ke b Ct>p6hh KaTO AK)JirepH». H toh aon-bJiBa: «TyK (b Tp-bHCKO — 
n.X.), Kaicro h b CeBepHO-PaflOMnpcKo h b Kpanme, HMa noKpanHHHH 
c-bc ckhthhuh AKmrepn, kohto pa6oTjrr noBene Ha Tafi^H ot 40 ao 50 
Aymn...» (HpeneK 1976:559). ToBa npHABH>KBaHe Ha pa6oraa ptKa ot 
njianHHHTe (30hh, xapaKTepun cnopeA O. EpOAeji «c apxaH3Ma h 
HeAOHM , bKa» en) klm 6oraTHTe paBHHHn n penHH aojihhh, a b no-HOBo 
BpeMe n kbm rpaAOBCTe, opraHHHHO ce BnHCBa b xapaKTepHHTe 3a uejiHa 
BajiKaHO-CpeAH3eMHOMOpCKn apean nponecn (EpoAeji 1998:30, 40-43, 51). 

BcflKa upojieT maucpume/maueume na nenandapume Hocejin tokkhh 
en ryp6eTHHHCKn KptcT no npauiHHTe ApyMHiua Ha nonyocTpoBa «ot 
GraM6yjia ao Bejirpafla»; KaTO JiTaTa Ha npeneTHHTe riTHnn Te ce npn- 
6npaT no pogpnre aomobc e^Ba b Hana/iOTo Ha 3HMaTa. JlereHAH ce 
pa3Ka3BaT Aa yMeHn^Ta Ha Te3n xopa, cnocoSnH «n 6-bjixaTa Aa noAKOBaT, 
n rsoHa Ha acbct Aa pa3nenHT» (LjBnJHfr 1906:194). 3a MaHCTopnTe - 
dyn'zepu ot cejiaTa Ha L^pHa TpaBa b CtpSna ce pa3Ka3Ba KaK ca 
nocTponjin BeurpaA n nana IIIyMaAna, a 3a Te3n ot Tp-bHCKO b B-bJirapna 
— CTOnnnaTa Cocpnji. Ce30HHnre. rypSeTHHHCKH Mnrpaunn Ha nena/i- 
6apume, Ao6pe 3acBHAeTejrcTBaHH b nepnoAa cjieA KpnMCKaTa BOHHa, ca 
CBtp3aHH ochobho c ynpa>KHflBaHeTO Ha CTpoHTejiHHJi 3aHa^T (dym 'otcep- 
cmeo) n rpBHHapcTBOTo: M&aceTe oGnKajurr «ot paHHa npojieT ao KbCHa 
eceH» H3 uejnw BajiKaHCKn nojiyocTpoB KaTO dym'oicepu (cTponTejin), 
3HAapn, i^uzjiapu (KepeMHAHnn), Kcuweifu (rp-bHHapn) n ijpenapu (npaBe- 
inn noAHnnn/ ijpenHbu 3a H3nnqaHe Ha xjw6a), a ot onpeAejieHH cena — n 
KaTO KaMeHOAejinn. Eh>npeKn cbiuecTByBamnTe CTaHOBnura, ne TpaAH- 
murra Ha CTponTejiHOTO ryp6eTHHHCTBO b Te3n pernoHH ce KopeHH b 
ntTHO-yKpennTejiHHTe pa6ora, c kohto mccthoto HacejieHne e 6hjio 
o6B-bp3aHO b paMKHTe Ha OcMaHCKaTa HMnepna no cnjiaTa Ha CBoa 
eounyzano-depeeHdoicuucKu CTaTyT (cpB. MnpOHOBa-naHOBa 1971:64), 
no-npaBAonoAo6HO e HanajioTo Ha ce30HHaTa Mnrpauna Ha mukkoto 
HacejieHne ot Te3n miaHHHCKH pernoHH Aa e kt>cho ABJieHne, ot HananoTO 
Ha XIX BeK (Toaopob 1940:462). reHe3nctT Ha ryp6eTHnncTBOTo Mo>Ke 
Aa 6i»Ae TBpceH b ynaAi>Ka Ha Ao6pe pa3BHTOTo OBneBi>ACTBo (cfcnjara 

8 TpH roflHHH no-KtCHO (1856 r.) non MnaaeH EycHHCKH me 3anHme b npHriHCica 
kim BycHHCKOTO EBaHrejme: «...rpafleme ce Hhui, UapH6po/j h CjiHBHHua. 3jio BHfle 
po^a xpHcraaHCKH...» (uht. no MnpoHOBa-llaHOBa 1971:65), KaTO OTrjiac 3a Te*KHTe 

CTpOHTeJIHH nOBHHHOCTH Ha MeCTHOTO xpHCTHHHCKO HaceJieHHC 



74 CKPMBEHE MAlhHHO HA EAJIKAHY 

npHHHHa 3a 3anaAna MaKCAOHHH nocoHsa h L^BHJHh 1931:34, 162, 
169-170, 199), opraHH3npaHO h noompHBaHO b paHHHxe BeKOBe Ha 
ociviaHCKOTO rocnoACTBO ot A^p^aBaTa c orjreA Ha Hy^c^HTe Ha apMH$rra. 
3a pa3JiHKa ot flpyrn pernoHH Ha BajiKaHHTe (Hanp. CLcezuia IIIyMaflHfl b 
Ct>p6hh), r^acto no-ceTHeniHHHT CTonaHCKHH Hanpc^tK c CBi>p3aH etc 
CBHHeBt/iCTBOTO, to b ueHTpajmaTa nacT Ha nojryocTpOBa xypCKHTe 
perHCTpn ca (JwKcnpajiH ome npe3 pasoou ocm3hckh nepnoA (XV-XVII b.) 
e^Ha MHoro Ao6pe pa3BHTa wpeaca ot dDtce/ienKeiuanu-OKUfiB'hjitt, CHa6- 
AHBamn A-bp^aBaTa, apMHaxa m CTOJinuaTa HcTaHGyji (noApoSHo y: 
ATaHacoB 1987:27-34). 

Pa3naaa Ha arpapHaTa CHCTeua b OcMaHCKaTa HMnepna AOBOKAa b 
n^aHHHCKHTe perHOHH ao HaMajineaHeTO Ha nacHinaTa h nycTeemHTC 
3eMH, yBejiMnaBaiieTO Ha HaceneiiHCTO m y#i>ji>KaBaHe Ha uHKi>Jia na 
KOMnneKCHOCT b ceMeHHo-poflOBHTe TtoMaKHHCTBa {3adpyeu). Te3H 
npouecH aasaT ocHOBaHHe Ha M. ToAopOBa aa apryivieHTHpa Te3aTa, ne 
3adpyaama KaTO cuna ot (JjopMnre na KOMnneKCHOCT Ha ceivieHCTBOTo/AO- 

MaKHHCTBOTO e KT>CeH (J)eHOMeH, IIOHBHJI Ce KaTO HOB (hJIH UHKJTHHCH) 

OTroBop Ha cneuH(J)H4HHTe oco6ciiocth b pa3BHTHeTO Ha OcMaHCKaTa 

HMIiepH^ CJieA XVIII BCK (BtB Bp'b3Ka C MaCOBH3HpaHeTO Ha HUCp/llilUKOmO 

3eMeBJia#eHHe) h b cnem«j)H4HHTe eKOJioniHHH hhuih Ha nacTHpcKHTe h 
CMeceHH ()KHBOTHOBT>,ii;Ho-3eMeflejTCKH) perHOHH Ha BajiKaHHTe, KaTO 
«reorpacj)CKaTa necTOTa Ha pa3npocTpaHeHHeTO h HeH3MeHHO cueABa 
KpHBaTa Ha njiaiiHucKHTe perHOHH Ha BajiKaHHTe, npeHe6perBaHKH 
eTHHHecKHTe rpaHHUH» (ToAopOBa 2002:146, 156). CnopeA mch b TOBa 

CneiJH^HHHO pa3BHTHe Ha COUHaJIHO-HKOHOMHHCCKHTe yCJIOBHH B OcMaH- 
CKaTa MMnepHA ce KOpeHH h nocjieABanoTO MacoBH3HpaHe Ha mt>)kkoto 
ryp6tTHuPiCTBo/ nenaAdapcmeo b ueiiTpajiriaTa nacT Ha nonyocTpoBa cjieA 
m>pBaTa HeTB'bpT Ha XIX BeK. Ce30HHaTa Mnrpaunn na nuaHHHCKOTO 
mi>}kko HaceneHHe «y neHan6y»/«y paooTy» Kbu ApyrHTe perHOHH Ha 
BajiKaHHTe, Ha cboh peA AonpHHacfl 3a ycTOHHHBOCTTa bi>b BpeMCTO na 
KOMnjreKCHHTe AOMaKHHCTBa {3adpyeume) h nocjiOBHHHaTa 3ApaBHHa Ha 
ceMenHO-poACTBeriHTe Mpe>KH b tc3h Kpanma. 

nocoKHTe, MapmpyTHTe h xapaKTepa Ha ce30HHM# TpyA na ryp- 

6eTHHHCKHTe MTOKKH rpynH Ce CM6HHT HHKOJIKO TTbTH npe3 XIX H ITbpBHTe 

AeceTHjieTHH Ha XX bck b CBOTBeTCTBne c npoMeHjiHBaTa h HeeAH03HaHtia 
HCTopHnecKa ci>A6a Ha Ta3M nacT ot BajiKaHHTe (MaHOJiOBa-HwKOJioBa 
1997:159-173). J\o Ocbo6o/kachhcto ot ociviaiiCKa BjracT (1878) ochobhh 
npHTeraTejiHH qeHTpoBe 3a nenandapcKume maueu ot LUpHOTpaBCKO, 
TptHCKO, LJapnGpoACKO, TlnpoTCKO, JlecKOBaHKO, BpancKO h JIy>KHiiiKO 
ca CBo6oAHHTe no TOBa Bpeivie KHH^KecTBa Ci>p6hh h BjiauiKO, a b 
rpaHHUHTe Ha OcMaHCKaTa HMnepwa — oGjiacrra 3azope (okojto Bmahh h 



rieTKo XpHCTou: rPAHHUHTE ha «iuoruiyKA» H/Hjui uiohh r.E3 tpahhiui 75 

JTom), ^o6py/i>Ka h CTOJiHuaTa HcTan6yji. Ochobhmmt noTOK Ha CTpoH- 
TejiHTe e noTennjiJi 3a CmaM6yn. KbM cmnHuaTa Ha HMnepnaTa ca 
TpbrBajTH na hjikoh ot rojieMHTe npo.neTHH npa3Hnnn — Mnadem^u (Cb. 
40 M-bneHHUH), floieypdzieoed-bH (TcprbOBAeH), a ot Tp-bHCKO — Ha Hucm 
nouede/iHUK cjieA Hofwadu; ao Ce. nap Kocmadun (Cb.Cb. KoHCTaHTHH h 
EjieHa) Te Bene ca «y pa6oTy» (nerpoBHh 1920:14). 3a «B.naiiiKO» 
nena/idapume ce cbonpajiH b Toach h npe3 JleTpoxaHCKHJ! npoxoA, JTom h 
npHCTaHHinaTa Typny CeBcpHH h Hera™ Ha pyi\n>HCKHji 6par Ha AyHaBa, 
ce 030BaBa;iH b cejiaTa Ha AHenma IO>KHa PyMbHna. TyK Te CTpoeiiH 
H3BecTHHTe «6HenHHH» — K-bmn ot TpaM6oBana npT>CT, oco6eHo 
rionyjTapHH cpeA mccthoto BJiaiUKO HacejieHHe (MMpoHOBa-llaHOBa 
1971:69-70). B pe^Hua cejia b Thmouqko, 9 Saz/iaeaK, Bucok (HnKOJinh 
1910:28), UapH6po£CKO h To/teHKo b Kpaa na XIX Bei< mt^koto 
HaceneHHe cbo6oaho e npnKa3Ba.no pyM^HCKH, HayneH Ha ryp6eT. 

B Obp6nfl npeaH 1 878 r. c6opHHTe nyHKTOBe ca 6hjih CMeaepeBO, 
rtapaHHH, tfroAHna h Hionpnfl, or KbACTO no-ceTHe dym'epwne ce 
pa3npeaejiHT na rpynn H3 wsia. UlyMaAHJi. B 3Henojie TpbHnaHH- 
Tt-nencui6apu H3 CBo6oAHa Obp6n5i 6hjih HapnnaHH «iuyMajiHHUH», 3a 
pa3JiHKa ot «CTaM6ojiflHCHHTe», hhhto rypGeT 6hjt no cejiaTa okojio Hc- 
TaH6yji (TleTpHHeB 1940:150). Eahh ot n-bpBHTe KpynHH ctpohtcjihh 
iipeAnpneMaHH b Ct>p6hh h b cTOJinnaTa EenrpaA ca ot cejiaTa Ha UpHa 
TpaBa (AHec b Obponfl) h 3ueno/ie (Tp-biicKO, AHec b E-bJirapHa) (noApo6- 
ho y neTpOBHh 1920:14). JlereHAapuHHT MancTop-CTponTeji Tp03AaH 
MjineB HacaneBCKH (HapnnaH cneA ocBo6oAHTejiHHTe bohhh «KanHTaH 
rpo3Aan»), poaom ot c. HacajieBUH, TpbHCKO, e boahji Bcai<a roAHHa 
mausu ot no 500 ao 1000 Aymn dym'epu b Cbp6Ha. Mhoto ot Te3H 
MancTOpn n TexiiHTe ctpohtctthh rpynn B3eMaT aKTHBHO ynacTne b 
HannoHajiHO-ocBo6oAHTejiHHTe 6op6n Ha mccthoto HacejieHHe: hmchho b 
^lonpna npe3 1862 r., HacKopo cjreA o6pa3yBaHeTO Ha n-bpBaTa 
6-bjirapCKa nerna b EejirpaA, no MOJi6a Ha T.C. PaKOBCKH, Tpo3AaH 
HacaneBCKH ccj)opMHpa Tpn 6i>jirapcKH ao6pobojihcckh orpjiAa ot 

Tp-bHHaHH-CTpOHTe^H, KOHTO Aa Ce BKJlfOHaT b npeACTOJimaTa cpbScKo- 

-Typcica BoflHa (FIcTpHHeB 1940:140). Hakoh ot BOAannTe Ha Te3H 
nenan6apcKU mausu nojiynaBaT n BoeHHH HHHOBe b cpi>6cKaTa apMHH, 
BKjnoHBaHKH ce aKTHBiio b Cpb6cKO-TypCKaTa BOHHa ot 1876-77 r. KaTO 
Ao6poBOjrn.H b Kopnyca Ha pycKHH reH. M. MepHJieB. Hmchho mccthhtc 
CTpouTeim-nena/idapu ca ocHOBHaTa ABnraTejma cwjia h Ha p-bKOBOAeHOTO 
ot Apyr BHAeH -rpbHHaHHH — Chmo Cokojiob, pycKH ocpnnep Ha cpb6cKa 

9 neua/idapume or Thmoujko xonejiH y BjiaruKO iipaziHMHO kuto cejiCKOCTonancKH 
pa6oTHHUH h paTan — cpB. ripBaiiOBHh 1963:141. 



76 CKPHBEHE MAIfeHHE HA BAJIKAHY 



cjiy>K6a, UIohcko (Tpi>HCKo) Bi>CTaHHe (neTpnneB 1940:163-171), aobciio 
AO ocBo6oHc,naBaHeTO Ha poAHHTe hm Kpanma npe3 1878 r. 10 Te B3eiviaT 
aKTHBHO ynacTMe m b M36yxHajiOTO cjie/t HecnpaBeflJiHBH^ BepjiHHCKHH 
KOHrpec (1878 r.) npoTecTHO KpecueucKo-Pa3Jioo\CKO BT>CTaH*ie b 0He3H 
6i>jirapcKH perHOHH, ocTaHajiH b npeAejiHTe Ha OcMaHCKaTa HMnepwH 
(HjineB 2000:94-114). 

E>Kero^HHTe nena/i6apcKu m/ryBanHH Ha MbM&TQ ot ueHTpajiHaTa 
nacT Ha BajiKaHHTe pa3BHBaT npe3 aeceTHJieTHHTa cneuwcJjHHHH 
oco6eHOCTH Ha npa3HHHHO-o6peAHaTa CHCTeMa h (J)OJiKjiopa (nccHHTe ot 
THna «ny^6HHa hacm, ocTaBHM paw») Ha HaceneHHeTO b Te3H peraoHM. 
HapeA c rpynHpaHexo Ha Han-Ba^cHHTe ceMefmo-poAOBH npa3HHUH (ot 
THna Ha ceemhit) b nepHOAa ot /Jhmhtpobach (Mumpoedtu) ao 
HBaHOB^eH {Hoeauoedhu)^ cbc pHTyanHO-caKpajieH Bpi>x Ha Pando^enoe- 
dtn (Cb. ApxaHreji MMxaHJi), HuKynd-bu (Cb. HHKOJia) h Eooicun 
(Po^AecTBo) (nemeBa 1960:739; Hristov 2001:187-199), HapeA c 
KOHij;eHTpauHHTa Ha CBaTGnTe b 3hmhhh KaneHAapeH uhkt>ji, MecTHaTa 
HapOAHa Tpa^HUHH noKa3Ba e^HH ycTOHHHB «ryp6eTHHHCKH» o6peAeH 
KOMnjieKC, CB'bp3aH c H3iipamaHeTO m nocpemaHeTO Ha CTpoHTejiHHTe 
rpynw imaueu) Ha Mi>m&TQ-ne t ia/i6apu. 1J )KeHHTe H3npamajiH cBOHTe 
M-b^ce h cHHOBe AaJien H3BT>h nepTHTe Ha cejiOTO — ot 3neno/ie AOpH ao m. 
fl-bcnau KaadhH-bif (MHpOHOBa-IlaHOBa 1971:65-67), k^a^to MHHaBana 
CTapaTa cpB6cKO-TypcKa rpaHHija npeAH 1878 r. Bepo^THO CBi>p3aH c 
TpaAHUHOHHHTe ryp6eTHHHCKH MapiupyTH Ha HacejienHeTO ot UIonnyKa w 
c pHTyajiHTe Ha nocpemaHe/H3npamaHe e npoH3XOA't>T Ha CTapoTO HMe Ha 
Kyp6emcKama n/iatuma, pa3Aenflma Uonuiuaeuemo ot AOJiHHaTa Ha p. 
MopaBa (hoapo6ho y Hpeneic 1978:48). 

CneA OcBo6o)KAeHHeTo Ha BtJirapHH (1878 r.) HOBonpoBi^rjiace- 
HaTa CTOJiHua Co(J)hh, HaMHpama ce b ueHTbpa Ha utoncKama hcto- 
pHKO-KyjiTypHa o6iiacT, ce npeBptma 61^30 b npHTeraTejieH ueHTbp 3a 
CT^o\YYtj\wTQ~neHaji6apu ot TptHCKO h IJapnGpOACKO (ToraBa b Ei>Jira- 
Phh), ot perHOHHTe Ha Upua TpaBa m rinpoT (b CbpSHfl) h ot ocTaHajiHTe 



10 Chmo Cokojiob e po^eH npe3 1848 r. b tpi>hckoto ccjio rpo3naTOBUH, jihcc b 
rpaiiHUHTe Ha CtpGH* (jxo 1919 r. — b rpaHMUMTe iia E-bJirapHa). B xo,aa na 
PycKo-rypcKaTa BOHHa ptKOBO/tenHTe ot aero BtcTaHHMecKH otpham, AeKcTBamM 
cbrjiacyBaHO h c pycicaTa, h cbc cpi>6cKaTa apMHfl, ocBo6o>K;iaBaT iipe'3 1877-78 r. 
nocjieAOBaTCJiHO Tpi>ncKO (^nec b EtJirapHfl), BpaHCKO (zmec b Ci>p6Hfl) m 
CeBepOM3T04iia MaKe^oiiMH no jiHHH>rra BpaHa-KpHBa FlajiaHKa-KpaTOBO. 

11 H3iipaujaHeTO y padomy craBa/io no cjicahmm aa4Mn: ot rbqtg CTpaiiH na 
AOMaiuHaTa nopTa, c anOTponeHHa ueji, Han-crrapaTa >KCHa ot Ki>maTa nocnnBa >Kap ot 
ornMmeTO, npe3 kohto Mi>>KeTe Tpn6Ba#a npe.MMHaT (MnpOHOBa-riaiiOBa 1971:181), T04iia 
TaKa, KaKTO Ha Tpa^HUHOHHaTa CBaT6a b T03H Kpaw 6HBaT H3npamaHH CBaToapMTe ot 
Mi>>KKa GTpaHa {oznednui^u), 3a m B3eMaT HeBecTaTa h HefiHaTa py6a. 



IleTKO XpHCTOB: TPAMHUHTE HA «UJOnJiyKA» H/HJ1H UJOI1H BE3 rPAHHUH 77 



b rpaHHUHTe Ha OciviaHCKaTa HMnepHM perHOHH Ha CeBepoH3TOHna 
MaKeaoHHH. no npH6jiH3HTejiHH H3HHCJieHH« npe3 nocne^HOTO Aecera- 
jieTHe Ha XIX h nipBOTo na XX BeK (ao 1912 r.) b Co<}>hh ot Ct>p6hh ca 
HflBajiH e^ceroAHo no 8000 jiymn, ot kohto okojio 2000 — caMo ot 
riHpoTCKH OKp-br (ITeTpoBHh 1920:28). B pe^Hua cena Ha IOroH3T04Ha 
ObpGnfl ao V4 ot mt>>kkoto HacejieHHe e 6hjio b BbJirapHH «y nenaji6y» — 
flo 1890 b OiHBHHua, a aiieA TOBa — Han-Bene b Cocjdhh. 3a pa3Mepa Ha 
neHan6apcmeomo b Te3H pafioHH mojkcm m ct>ahm no HHTepecHHH cbaKT, 
He b n-bpBOTO AeceraneTHe Ha XX BeK (cjica 1 905 r.) b riHpoTCKHTe ceua 
ca 6hjih b paBHO o6pi>meHHe h StJirapcKHTe, h cpi«6cKHTe 6aHKHOTH 
(rieTpoBHh 1 920:27). 12 EtJirapcKaTa crojinqa e «3ajuiTa» ot TptHCKHTe 
MaftcTopH h ot dym'epu ot norpaHHHHHTe njiaHHHCKH pernoHH; KaTo 
CTpoHTejieH npeanpneMan b CoqbHa, 3aeAHO c ypbwmmm& LJb. PaAKOB, ce 
noABH3aBa npe3 roAHHHTe na npHHyAHTejmo H3rHaHHnecTBO cneA 
3aiiHapcKama 6yna, h tojicmmht cp-b6cKH no/iHTHK HHKOJia TiaiiiHH 
(XpncTOB 20036). 

Hapefl C Tp-bHHailH, HaH-H3BeCTHHTe MaHCTOpH H CTpOHTeJIHH 

npeflnpneManH b CoiJ)hh b Kpaa Ha XIX h nipBOTO AeceTHJierae na XX 
BeK, ca MaKcaoHUHTe (rieTpoBHh 1920:23). TTbTaT ot MaKeAoroia npe3 
KpHBa najiaHKa 3a CocpHH no onoBa speue c npaBo e HapnnaH «neHaji- 
6apcKH ApyM», 3ainoTO BCflKa npojieT no Hero noBene ot 1 000 MB>Ke ot 
MaKeAOHHH nocejiH rypSeTHHHCKHH ch KptcT kim CTOJiHnaTa Ha Bt»ji- 
rapHA (IJ^BHJHh 1906:197); caivio ot KpnBonajiaHeniKHTe cena Te ca Ghjih 
okojio 3000 (TleTpOB 1896:593). nenandapume w npecejiHHHHTe ot 
H3TOHHP. MaKeAOHHa ca pa3BHBaiiH b 6BJirapCKaTa CTOJinna Hapea etc 
CTpoHTejiHH^, h peAHna Apyra 3aHajmi — xjie6apcTB0, 6o33a>khhctbo, 

XajIBaffJKHHCTBO, XaHA>KHHCTBO (l^BHJHh 1931:136), AOKaTO Te3H OT 

njiaHHHCKHTe Kpanma na 3ana#Ha MaKeAOHHH (Tctobcko, /JeG-bpcKO, 
Khhcbcko, KocTypcKo) ca opneHTHpajiH cbohtc ryp6eTHHHCKH Mapmpyra 
noBene ki>m Cspfefl, otkojikoto KtM EtJirapHH (ITeTpOB 1896:416, 
477). 13 Ot HanajiOTo Ha ABeTe EajiKaHCKH h no BpeMe Ha n^pBaTa 
CBeTOBHa BOHHa MHoro ot Te3H nencuidapu ot ueHTpanHHTe pernoHH na 
BajiKaHHTe eMnrpnpaT b AMepnKa, 3a Aa H36eraaT BoeHHa-ra noBHHHOCT; 
nacT ot «aMepHKaHHHTe» ce 3aBpT>inaT no pOAHHTe ch MecTa npe3 20-Te 
toahhh, ho noBeneTO ocTaBaT b AMepHKa KaTo CMnrpaHTH. 

12 ToBa CTaBa hoboa 3a aKTHBHH aaMHHHcrpaTHBHH MepKH or CTpaHa na cptScKure 
aflMHHHCTpaTHBHH BJiacra b peraoHa (rieTpoBHh 1920:27). 

13 PI wee b CTOJiHHHHTe KptHMH ce nejrr pa3JiHHHH necHH ot «MaKeaOKCEna» 
ryp6eTHHHCKH penepToap: b 6e/irpa,acKHTe Kacj)aHH ca nonyjiHpHH «TeTOBCKHTe», a B 

CO(})Hfl — TC3H OT H3TOMHa MaKeflOHHH. 



78 CKPHBEHE MAH.MHE HA EAJIKAHY 



OpraHH3HpaHH Ha pozicTBeH h/mjim na cejiHineH npHHunn, neua/i- 
dapcKume maueu pa3BHBaT cboa cneaH(J>HHHa cy6Kyjnypa b rojieMHH rpaa 
(HcTaH6yji, Bejirpa.ii, Co^hh). TyK Te ce npeBpi>maT b «monH», hhhto 
otjihkh Ha HapoflHOTO oSueKJio (b no-CTapo BpeMe Tpa^HijHOHHOTO 
6eAodpeiuuo)^ KyjrrypHHTe CTepeoTHnH h flwajieKTHH oco6eHOCTH rn 
o6oco6nBaT b 3aTBopeHa o6iuhoct ct>c cboh xapaicrepHCTHKH h cneuH- 
(^HneH (J)OJiKJiop. TleHCui6apume MMaT cboh nocTOifflHH MecTa 3a cpemn h 
o6myBaHe (naTO H3BecTHH5i xotcji «3Henojie» h KptHMHTe no yji. «I~Ih- 
poTCKa» b Co4)hh), a cneuH(])HKHTe Ha #HajieKTa hm ro npeBpibma b TexeH 
C3MKOB Mapxep (h cBoeo6pa3eH saHaaTquHCKH «TaeH» e3HK) KaKTO b 
BtJirapHH, Taxa h b GbpGHfl (cpB. U,BHjHh 1922:219). KaTO cneuM^MHHa 
3aTBopeHa o6iijhoct rexHKTe AK)jirepcKH rpynn ca BtsnpHeMaHH ot 
okojihoto HacejieHHe h ot AseTe crrpaHH Ha rpaHHqaTa: h ifbpnompaeifu b 
GbpSHH, h mp-bUHauu b E-bjirapHH ca HapHHaHH TpaflHi^HOHHO KtpKaeifu — 
anaji. Ha3BaHHe 3a 5KepaBH (HhkojihIi 1912:231; MnpoHOBa-ElaHOBa 
1971:65), a TexHHTe ce30HH0 npHABH>KBamH ce rpynn («ot paiiiia nponeT 
Aa Ki>CHa eceH») ca cpaBHHBaHH c ATaTa Ha npeueTHHTe hthuh. Te3H 

M1>}KKH 3aHaHTHHHCKH oSlUHOCTH Ca TpaflHUHOHHO 3aTBOpeHH H B CBOflTa 

cneuH^HHHa npocj)ecHOHajiHa cy6Kyjrrypa; npoHHKBaHeTO Ha AKmrepH ot 
Apyrn perHOHH b CTpoHTejiHHTe hm rpynn e roJiflMO H3KjnoHeHHC ixopn 
npe3 40-Te toahhh Ha XX bck: 3Hae ce, ne ot Tpi>H4aHH 3aHanTa Moxce 
caMO Aa «ce OTKpaAHe». 

BoHHHTe Me»ay 6ajiKaHCKHTe A^p^aBH ot Kpan Ha XIX h m>pBHTe 
AecerajieTHfl Ha XX BeK CTaBaT noBOAH 3a H3cejiBaHe Ha nencuidapume h 
TexHHTe ceMeflcTBa ot poahhh UIonnyK, nofleneH ot hobhtc nojiHTH- 
necKHTe rpaHHUH, ki>m rojieMHTe rpaAOBe h BtTpeinHOcrra, KaTO ce 
3a6e:m3Ba HHTepecHa 3aBHCHMOCT Me>KAy AOMHHHpamHTe MapiupyTH Ha 
rypGeTa hm h nocoKHTe Ha 6e>KaHUHTe-npecejiHHu;H: m>pB0na4ajiH0 aneA 
OcBo6o>KAeHHeTo (1878 r.) TptH/U,apH6poA h rinpoT ch pa3MeHjrr 
HacejieHHe c npo-cpi>6cKa hjih npo-6i>JirapCKa opneHTaunn (Hristov 
2002:72-73), a no-KtCHO ot KyMaHOBCKo h CxoncKO ce H3cejiBaT npeA- 
hmho b nocoKa Ci>p6hh, a ot KpaTOBCKO, KpHBonauaHeuiKO h ManeiiieBo 
— ki.m BtJirapH^ (U,BHJHh 1906:197). ripecejieHH b rojieMHH rpaA, 
nenajidapume ot Te3H pernoHH 3ana3BaT fltjiro BpeMe cneun^HKHTe Ha 
pernoHajiHaTa ch cy6KyjiTypa h H3rpa>KAaT nocTeneHHO noarioBHHHO 
e^HKacHa poAHHHCKO-3eMJiHHecKa Mpe^ca 3a bsehmho noAnoMaraHe. B 
noBeneTO cjiynan Te ce h 3acejiBaT KOMnaKTHo: ome b HanajiOTO Ha XIX b. 

AOUIJIHTe OT HHUI, BpaHH H IlHpOT 6e^CaHUH <J)OpMHpaT H3BeCTHHTe etc 

CBOflTa KOHcepBaTHBHOCT, KyjrrypHO-AHajieKTHa 3aTBopeHOCT h Gpa^Ha 
eHAoraMH^ «TopjiauiKH» cejia EaHHua, ^HHue, PaKOBHija h MoKpn Jlyr b 
OKOJiHOCTHTe Ha Bejirpa^; npecejTHHUHTe ot Tpi>HCKO («ot 6i>jirapcKH>i 



EleTKo XpHCTOB: Tpahhuhte ha «ujon;iyKA» h/hjih morm BE3 fpahhiih 79 



fljui Ha IUonjiyKa» no IJbhhh) ca o6pa3yBanH b CMezjepeBCKWi OKp-br (b 
Ci>p6H5i) c-bmaTa 3aTBopeHa o6uihoct (LtBHJHh 1922:175, 219). B CocpHH 
npe6poflBaHeTO b Kpaa Ha 1920 r. noKa3Ba, ne ocHOBHaTa Maca 
npecejiHHim/6e>KaHU.H (o6mo 24 076 nywn) ca ot EreficKa (32,8%) h 
BapjjapcKa (48,9%) MaiceflOHHfl, ho h xe, KaKTO h Tp-bHnaHH, ce 3acejiBaT 
KOMnaKTHo: b kb. «Pa3ca^HHKa» — ot BejieuiKO h IIpHJiencKO, b kb. 
«BaHHiuopa» — ot CrpyMHiiiKO h MajieuieBHHTa, Ha yji. «llHpOTCKa» h b 
«l^apH6po^cKHH» KBapTan — ot nnpoTCKO h UapHSpoACKO, a b «KpacHo 
ce;io», «Hafle»cfla» h okojio 3axapHaTa (pa6pHKa — ot Tp-bHCKO 
(reopraeB 1983:74, 90). 

IIocTeneHHo o6ane, oco6eHO cjie^ rojieMHTe npoMeHH Ha BajiKaHHTe 
ot cpeAaTa Ha XX BeK, cjiefl 6ypHaTa «cou.HajiHCTHHecKa» unjiycTpu- 
ajiH3ai|HH h yp6aHH3auHH, npouecHTe Ha HHTerpauHa Ha rpynHTe 
HacejieHHe ot (BepoHTHo) eflHHHaTa HHKora tuoncxa HCTopHKO-KyjrrypHa 
o6nacT ce 3acHJiBaT h Te ca ce npeBTbpHajiH b HeaejiHMa nacT ot Haero- 

JHUHTe HaiJHOHaJIHH o6lUHOCTH, B KOHTO Ca Ce BnHCaJIH. Il0 T03H HaHHH, 

MaKap h pa3fleneH b nojiHTHKO-fl-bpjKaBHO oTHomeHHe npe3 HCTopHnecKH 
npoMeHJiHBHTe rpaHHUH Ha 6ajiKaHCKHTe #bp>KaBH, «HIonjiyKT>T» aeceTH- 
Jieraa HapeA «H3JiHBa» ot cbpuero Ha BajiKaHCKHH nonyocTpoB Hacejie- 
HHe, KoeTo ce npeBp-bina nocTeneHHO b HanajiOTO Ha hobhh XXI Beic (h 
XHjiHflOJieTHe) ot noBOfl 3a koh^jihkth b TpaHcrpaHHneH moct — 

nOCpeAHHK MGMJty CpOflHHTe K»KHOCJiaBflHCKH HapoflH (a AHec — H 
JTtpJKaBH). 



JlHTepaTypa 

ATaHacoB 1987: C. ATaHacoB, Hacaneem, Cofyux. 

Bpoaen 1998: O. Bpoacji, CpedmejUHo Mope u cpedmeMHOMopcKitnm cenm no 
epejuemo na &UAun II. Kh. I, CocJ)hh. 

BaKapencKH 1942: Xp. BaKapejiCKH, TpynH Ha 6-bnrapCKaTa HapoflHocT ot 6htobo 
rjie/iHine, H3eecmun ita EhAzapcKomo zeozpcxpcxo dpyjtcecmeo 10, CoAhji 
236-258. ' 

B-bJiHHHOBa 1999: T. BtniHHOBa, 3nenoACKu noxecuiu. JIokoaho penuzun u uden- 
xuuHHocw e 3auadna B-bAzapun, Cocjmfl. 

TeoprHCB 1983: T. reopraeB, Cocpun u cotpuxHifu 1878-1944, Consul 

UnwzB 2000: H. HuHeB, Kanuman Cumo Cokoaob. TptHCKomo e-bcmanue om 1877 ' z., 
Cocfwa. 

HpeneK 1899: K. HpeneK, KHncxcecmeo Ewizapm, Kh. II, IljiOBflHB. 

HpeneK 1976: K. Hpeneic, Jlhmyeanux no E-Mzapux, Co$bx. 

HpcneK 1978: K. HpeneK, Mcmopun na 6hAzapume, Co^ma. 

KojieB 1987: H. KoiteB, EtAzapcKa enwozpatpun, Co<})hji. 

Koctob, ITeTeBa 1 935: Ct. JI. Koctob; E. IleTeBa, Ccacku 6um u u3Kycmeo e Cocpuucxo, 

CoCJDHfl. 



80 CKPMBEHE MAH>HHE HA EAJIKAIIY 



KpcTHh 2002: J\. Kpcrnh, Topjiaun y Cp6HjH, YlupoxucKu s&ovhuk 27-28, TlnpoT, 
73-80. 

JlHjiHh 2000: B. Jlnjinh, rinpoT y cBeTJiy hctopmjckc HayKe (Pa3roBop ca aKaACMHKOM 
Bjia/iMMHpoM CTOjaHHeBHheM), UupomcKu 36opnuK 25-26, IlHpoT, 5-16. 

MaxiHHOB 2001 : 3. MajiHHOB, Jy^cHaTa h 3anaflHaTa rpaHHija aa uionHTe bo Peny6jiHKa 
MaKeAOHHJa, The Border. rpaHuifama. T. 1, Co(})Hfl, 21-39. 

MaHOJiOBa-HHKOJiOBa 1997: H. MaHOJiOBa-HHKOJiOBa, Cpe/iHa 3anaflHa'Bi>jirapHH 
1877-1879 r. ripexofltT Me>K,ny abc enoxH b Tpi>HCKO-Bpc3HHiiiKHH Kpafi, 
Poduna III-IV, Co$ks, 159-173. 

MHpoHOBa-ITaHOBa 1971: C. MHpoHOBa-IlaHOBa, Tp-bucKunm Kpaii, Co^hh. 

Mhxob 1943: H. Mhxob, Upunocu m>M m\>pzoecKama ucmopun net EtsizapuH. H. II. 
AecmpuucKu KoncyncKu dofoiadu. T. 1, Co(J)hh. 

HHKOJinh 1910: B. HhkojihIi, H3 Jlyxxasafi h HnmaBe, CE3 16, Eeorpaa. 
HHKOJiHh 1912: P. HnKOJinh, KpaJHiiiTe h BjiacHHa, CE3 18, Eeorpaa. 

TleTpHHeB 1940: JI. IlcTpHHeB, BjiacHHCKHHT (Tp-bhckhht) peBomouHOHeH komhtct, 
Tp-bHCKu Kpau, Co4>hh, 138-146. 

IleTpHHeB 1 940: JI. TleTpHHeB, Tp*bHCKHTe £o6poBo:mH b CpT>6cKO-TypcKaTa BOMHa — 
1876 ro^HHa, TptncKu Kpau, Coc[)hm, 146-162. 

IleTpHHeB 1940: JI. IleTpHHeB, UIoiickoto Bt3CTaHHe npe3 1877 ro/uiHaHaTp-bHCKOTO 
on-bnneHHe, TptncKu Kpau, Coc{)hh, 163-173. 

TleTpoB 1896: [r. FleTpoB] Mamepua/m no mynmanemo na MaKedonun, Cocjwfl. 

neTpoBHh 1920: J. rieTpoBHh, TJena/idapu, napoHuiuo U3 oKonune IJupoiua, Eeorpa/j. 

rieuieBa 1960: P. TleiiieBa, E#hh dapHHen ceMeeH npa3HHK (npa3HyBane Ha «cBeTeu» 
b CeBepo3ana,aHa h 3anaflHa BtJirapHH), E3UKoeedcKo-emnoepa(pCKu 
mcAedeanun e naMem na amd. Cm. Pomcihcku, Co^hh, 73 1-754. 

IlpBaHOBHh 1963: C. ripBaHOBHh, Tumok u TuMonanu, 3ajenap. 

CetJrrepCKH 1984: P. CecJrrepcKH, Co4)HHCKHTe uioiih KaTO HCTopHKO-eTHHHecKa 
4)opMauHa b CBeTjiHHaTa Ha nocjieAHHTe H3CJieABaHH*. — B: Hapodnama 
Kynmypa e Cocpun u CocpuucKo, Cocj)Ha, 55-65. 

CHMeoHOBa 1993: T. CHMeonoBa, ETHorpa^CKHTe rpynn h T^XHaTa Bpi>3Ka c 
eflHHCTBOTO h MHoroo6pa3HCTO na eTHHHecKaTa Kyjuypa, Eyyihoaozur 1, 
Co4wa, 139-152. 

CjiaBeHKOB 1884: n. P. OiaBeftKOB, Hmkojiko /jyMH 3a uionHTe, FlepuodunecKo 
cnucanue na EKh. JJ-eo 9, Co<j)Ha, 1 06-123. 

ToflopoB 1940: P. To/iopoB, Tp-BHHaHHHvr KaTO CTpOHTeji, Tpbuem Kpau, Co4>hh, 
462-464. 

ToziopoBa 2002: M. To,aopoBa, EaAKaucKomo ceueucmeo. HcmopunecKa deMOzpcxpun 
na 6-bmapcKomo odufecmeo npe3 ocMaucKun nepuod, Coc^hji. 

Xa/pKHHHKOJioB 1984: B. Xa^^cHHHKOJiOB, Ilpo6^eMH Ha eTHorpa4)CKOTO H3ynaBaHe 
na Coc|)hh h Coc[)hhcko, Hapodnama Kynmypa e CoSuh u Co<fruucK0 9 Co<})hh, 
11-30. 

XpHCTOB 2003a: IT. Xphctob, Typ6cTHHMcrBOTo/neuaA6apcm6omo b ueHxpajiHaTa 
nacT na Ea^KaHHTe KaTO TpaHcrpaHHHen oGiweH, fla otcueeem maM t da ce 
chuyeaiu myK. EMuzpatfuoHHU npoifecu e nananomo ua XXI eeK. Ccnjwfl (in 
print). 

Xphctob 2003b: n. Xphctob, HHKona IlaiuHH h HeroBaTa ^chhoct b eMnrpauHH b 
Co())hji, Pa36uiuaK, 3ajenap (in print). 



JleTKO XpucTOB: Tpaiihuhte ha «ujonjiyKA>> h/ruh uionw BE3 tpahpium 8 1 



LJbhjhH 1906: J. LJbhjhH, Ocnoee 3a eeoepacpujy u zeonozujy Maxedouuje u Cwape 
Cpduje, Eeorpafl. 

LJbhjhH 1922: J. U,BHJMh, BaAKancKo uoAyociupeo u jyotcnoc/ioeehCKe 3CM/be. Kh>. 
npBa, Beorpa^. 

LI,BHJHh 1931: J. L(BHJHh, Eoakcihcko uonyocmpeo u jyoteHocnoeencKe 3eMA>e. Kh>. 
Apyra, Eeorpafl. 

U,BMJHh 1989: J. LtBHJHh, roeopu u H/ianifu, Ca6paaa aena. Kh>. 5 (T. II), Beorpa^. 

U,BHJHh 1991 : J. Up\i)\i%AHUipouoeeo2pa(l)CKucuucu, CaSpaHa^ena. Kh>. 4, Beorpa^. 

Anderson 1983: B. Anderson, Imagined Communities: reflection on the origin and 
spread of nationalism , London. 

Bart 1997: F. Bart,Etnickegrupeinjihovegranice,Putinja,F.; Stref-Fenar,Z. Teorijeo 
etnicitetu, Beograd, 211-260. 

Hobsbawm 1983: E. Hobsbawm, Introduction, Hobsbawm, E.; Ranger, T. (eds.) The 
Invention of Tradition, Cambridge U. P. 

Hristov 2001 : P. Hristov, Ahnenkult in Westbulgarien: das Fest des Schutzheiligen. — 
In: Brunnbauer, Ulf ; Karl Kaser (Hg.) Vom Nutzen der Verwandten. Soziale 
Netzwerke in Bulgarien (19. und 20. Jahrhundert), Bohlau, Wien, 187-199. 

Hristov 2002: P. Hristov, Use of the Holiday for Propaganda Purposes (the «Serbian» 
slava and/or the «Bulgarian» sabor), Ethnologia Balkanica 6, 69-80. 

Kolev 200 1 : D. Kolev, Sopi kao etnografska grupa, Vere m anjina imanjinske vere, Nis, 
168-177. 



Petko Hristov 

Frontiers of "Shopluk" and "Shops" without Frontiers 

The Shop cultural zone, known in Balkan ethnographic literature as Shopluk / Shopl'k, 
attracted attention of Bulgarian and Serbian researches, and also of those of from Macedonia, 
already in the second half of XIX century. Those researchers were interested in the geographical 
area settled by Shops, their origin and the cultural characteristics of local population. Although 
there are numerous studies exploring the etymology of the ethno-graphonym "Shop", it is still 
quite difficult to delimit "borders", dialectological variations and ethnocultural features of the 
Bulgarian ethnic group of Shops. Such difficulty comes from the unjust historic destiny of these 
populations inhabiting central mountain area in the heart of the Balkan Peninsula, where 
nowadays borders of Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Serbia meet. In the last 125 years, these 
populations have changed their state affiliation for even five times. Some of the vernacular 
particularities of these people were used as a means of propaganda in some of Balkan capitals 
already during 1860s. 

Although the Bulgarian ethnographic literature from the beginning of the XX century 
deals with unique "Shop ethnographic group" which is considered part of the Bulgarian nation, 
it differentiates series of local groups having their own ethno-cultural characteristics: sopi 
'Shops' (or d'rveni sopi 'wooden Shops') in the area of Sofia, graovci in areas Pernisko and 
Breznisko, znepolci in the area of Trnsko, nisavci in the area of Caribrod, visocani (or planinci 
'Highlanders') in the areas of Godecko and Iskrecko, mrakanci in the area of Radomirsko, 
k'cavci in the area of Kjustendil, kekavci in the area of Dupnica, kusaci in the area of Samokov, 
sarenodreskovci in the Novoselsko area, etc. The notion of 'Shopluk' also includes some 
regions of North-East Macedonia and South-East Serbia. The feature unifying the populations of 
these regions cthno-culturally is their common nomination, Shops (sopi), which is used by other 



82 CKPHBEHE MAlfcHHE HA BAJIKAHY 



groups of Bulgaria, Macedonia and Serbia to designate these populations. Since this nomination 
possesses a pejorative character, it is not used for self-identification, except in villages 
belonging to Sofijsko pole. 

In the Balkan ethnography, these populations are well known due to another specific 
feature: since agriculture is underdeveloped in this area, there were extensive emigrations to 
neighboring areas of the Ottoman empire already in the beginning of the XIX century. This kind 
of migration is known as gurbetcijstvo. Every spring, tajfs {tajfite) of pecalbars (pecalbarite) 
were going "from Istanbul to Belgrade" to come back home at the beginning of winter. In the 
legends, they are described as very skillful people. For cmotravci in Serbia it is believed that 
they built Belgrade, and for trncani in Bulgaria thet they built Sofia. Lots of these migrants took 
part in the national liberation movements in Serbia, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. At the beginning 
of the XX century, in the Pirot area Serbian and Bulgarian currency earned "in pecalba" was 
equaly used, while the road from Kriva Palanka to Sofia was known as pecalbarski drum, 
because the fast developing Bulgarian capital was attracting more than 10,000 men from 
Macedonia each spring. In big cities such as Istanbul, Belgrade, and Sofia, they became sopi 
(Shops). Their folk costumes and dialectal specifics (frequently used as "secret artisan 
languages ), as well as formed cultural stereotypes, made them a closed society with its own 
peculiarities and characteristic pecalbar folklore. Although they were living in big cities, they 
managed to preserve their own subculture and endogamy for several decades. This way they 
built a network of relatives and fellows widely known by its effective functioning and healthy 
relations. Despite the fact that it is politically divided by the unstable borders of Balkan states, 
the Shop area has been for many decades inhabited by a population whose role gradually 
transformed from the cause of conflict to a trans-border bridge among related South-Slavic 
nations. 



Cawa 3/iauiaH06iih 



„UIOnOBH" y KOCOBCKOM nOMOPABJty* 

Pa/j ce 3acHHBa na TepeHCKHM HCTpa>KHBaH>HMa, o6aBJtaHHM tokom 
2003. roflHHe Mel)y paceibeHHM JiHUHMa ca KocoBa h MeTOXHJe y CMe^e- 
peBy, Bpae>y h BpaitCKOj Ean>H h y emuiaBH BHTHHa ca okojihhm cejiHMa 
(Bp6oBaq, TpHHap, EnHan h Kjiokot). Ha caMOM noneTKy HCTpa»HBae>a, 
y HecTpyKTypHpaHHM pa3roBopHMa, HaMerayo ce npo6jieM o^HOca ciua- 
pocede/iaifa h doce/benum („IIIonoBa"), caMOH,neHTH(j)HKaHHJe h H^eHTH- 
^HKauHj'e oa CTpaHe flpyrax. OrapocefleouH H AocejbeHHijH H3 KocoBCKor 
IloMopaBJta (o6yxBaheHH h H3Je,zmaHeHH CHHTarMOM „pacejteHa jinua"), 
Kao h ohh KOJH cy odajiH TaMo m >KHBe, npHHajyhn o >KHBOTy y paceja- 
iby, paiy, cjiaBaMa h CBa/i6aMa, o,apel)HBajiH cy jeflHH apyre, noBJianehH 
rpaHHuy mh / ohh. 

Arpapua pe(J)oprvia, KOJioiiH3auHJa h HaunoHajma cTpaTeraja 

HaKOH oano6oI)eH>a KocoBa h MeToxnje oa TypcKe BjiacTH 1912. ro- 
AHHe, Ha noApynje KocoBCKor noMopaBJba (AaHainiter KocoBCKO-noMO- 
paBCKor peraoHa, onurrane HtHjiaHe, BnTHHa h YpoineBau) flocejtaBa ce 
CTaHOBHHUiTBO H3 .ZJajiMauHJe, BocHe, LJpne Tope, pa3JiH4HTHx KpajeBa 
Cp6nje h H3 MaKeAOHHJe. 3a BpeMe EIpBor cBeTCKor paTa HacTaje npeKH^ 
y HacejtaBaH>y, oho ce, janHM HHTeH3HTeTOM, HacTaBjta nocjie 1918. ro- 
AHHe y OKBHpy arpapHe pe<})opMe. TlpoznacoM pezenma AaeKcaudpa Ka- 

* IlpMJior je H3pal}eH y OKBMpy npojeKTa CaepeMena ceocm u epadcxa Ky/Mypa - 
Uyffieeu iupmcfiopMatfuje (6p. 1868), kojm 4>nnaHCHpa MHiiMCTapcTBo 3a Hayxy w mamry 
>KHi30THe cpeflHue Peny6jiHKe CpSnje, a peajiH3yje E™orpa(j)CKM HHCTHTyT CAHY. 

TcpencKa MCTpa>KMBaH>a o6aBJi>aHa cy y OKBHpy npojeKTa Mcuipaoicueaibe aioeen- 
ckux eoeopa net Kocoey u Meiuoxuju, kojm je pea;iH30Bao HHCTHTyT 3a cpnCKH je3HK 
CAHY, a (})HHaHCHpao YHECKO. HaJBehu aeo eMriHpHJCKor MaTepMJajia, kojm je Kopn- 
iiihen y obom paziy, y ayaHO 4>opMM, Hajia3M ce y HacTHTyry 3a cpncKM je3MK CAHY. 



84 * Ckphbehe mahjHhe ha Eajikahy 

pafyopljeeuha 21. AeueM6pa 1918. toahhc (Cji. hobhhc, 6p. 2/1919, uht. 
npeMa JleKHh 2002:100, 222), yKa3aHO je Ha HeonxoAHOCT arpapHe pe- 
$opMe Ha qejioj TepHTopHJH yjeAHH>eHe KpajteBHHe y UHJLy yKHAan>a 
ocTaTaica (J)eyAajiHHx OAHOca h AOAene 3eMJbe OHHMa kojh je o6pal)yjy, 
Kao h paTHHM AoGpoBOJBUHMa. ^aHa 25. (J)e6pyapa 1919, Acmoce ce 
ripeiuxodue odpedde 3a upuupemy azpapue pecpopMe (Cji. hobhhc, 6p. 
1 1/1919, uht. npeMa JleKHh 2002:100, 223-225) y KOJHMa ce nopeA pa3- 
peuieH>a hhbhhjckhx OAHOca npe/tBH^a h HaceibaBaEbe. HacejLaBae>e oa- 
pe^eHHJy (|)opMy h (^HHaHcnjcKy noApmKy Ao6nja YpeddoM o uace/baea- 
H>y uoeux jyotcnux Kpajeea 24. cenTeM6pa 1920. (Cji. HOBHHe, 6p. 
232/1920, uht. npeMa JleKHh 2002:155, 288-292). 3a HacejbaBatte cy oa- 
pe^eHa cjio6oAHa Ap^aBHa 3eMJLHuiTa, ceocKe h onniTHHCKe yTpHHe, Kao 
h 3eMJi>a Koja je HanyuiTeHa. YpeASoM je 6hjio npeABnl)eHO #a CBaKa nopo- 
AHua flocejBeHHKa AoGnje no nerapn hjih neT, a y okojihhh rpa^CKHx ueH- 
Tapa He Man>e oa ABa xeKTapa 3eMJBe. V 3aBHCHOCTH oa KBajiHTeTa 3eMJi>e 
nocTOJana je MoryhHOCT Aa ce aoacjth h Bnuie. YpeASoM cy kojiohhcth ao- 
6hjih h Apyre noroAHOCTH: 6ecnjiaTaH npeB03, npaBO Ha KopHniheH,e rpafje 
H3 Ap^aBHHX h oniHTHHCKHx inyMa 3a noAH3an>e Kyha h cji. ArpapHa pe- 
4>opMa, Kao h KOJiOHH3auHJa yHyiap H>e, TeKJia je, Me^yTHM, BeoMa TeuiKO. 1 
Jl,p^aBHa noMoh je 6njia HeAOBOJbHa, kojiohhcth cy Hajneiuhe caMH kphh- 
jih yTpHHe, npnnpeMajiH 3eMJLHiUTe h noAH3ajin Kyhe. KojiOHH3aunjy cy 
npaTHjre 6poJHe HenpaBHJiHOCTH, cna6a opraHH3aunja h hcaocjicahoct 
(JleKHh 2002:136-139). 

^ocejLeHHUH (yrjiaBHOM H3 JlHKe, XepueroBHHe, /JajiMaunje, Up He 
Tope, MeTOXHJe h jyroncTOHHe Cp6nje) HacejtaBajin cy ce TaMO rAe hm je 
to AP>KaBHa BJiacT OApeAHJia, Hncy motjih Aa 6npajy MecTO Kao ohh kojh 
cy ce AocejiHHH npe npBor cbctckof paTa (YpouieBnh 1935:81). Ohh cy 
HacejBaBaHH npeTe^cno y ohhm cejiHMa y KOJHMa je >KHBejio aji6aHCKO CTa- 
hobhhlutbo. KaKO o6jauiH>aBa ATaHacHJe YpomeBHfr (YpoineBHft 
1935:81-82) AocejteHHKa HMa „caMO y ACJiOBHMa obhx o6jiacTH rAe je 
BJiacT Hauuia 3a cxoaho Aa Tpe6a Aa 6yAy. OTyAa h>hx HaJBnuie HMa y 3a- 
naAHOM A^Jiy TopH>e MopaBe (3anaflHO oa rio^cepaH>a h Bhthhc), rAe je 
Ao Ocjio6ol)eH>a totobo jcahho 6ho ap6aHauiKH ^cHBajt. IIopeA Tora ce 
boahjio panyna h o ocnrypa^y rjiaBHHX ApyMOBa. 3aTO cy kojiohhcth Ha- 
cejLeHH oneT y 3anaAHOM A^Jiy Topite MopaBe Ha H3BecHHM pa3MauHMa 
nopeA caMora ApyMa oa YpomeBua na CBe ao no^cepan>a... Ekohomckhm 
y3pouHMa, kojh cy obo CTaHOBHHiiiTBO HarHajiH Ha HceibaBaH>e H3 cbojhx 



1 Yn. YpoiiieBHh (1937:819-833); JleKHh h3hoch AOKyrvieHTa h apxHBCKy rpal)y o 
arpapHoj pc4)opMH h KOJiOHH3auHJH Ha TepHTopHJH JyrocjiaBHJe y nepno^y oa 1918. ao 
1941. roAHHe (2002:221-579). 



Caita 3jiaTaH0BHh: , 3 llIonoBH" y Kocobckom flOMOPABJty 85 



KpajeBa, BJiacT je OBAe npHAOAajia h hojihthhkh MOMeHaT. IIpeMAa hobh- 
ja HCTopHorpa4)CKa jiHTepaiypa Hernpa HaunoHajiHH KapaKTep KOJiOHH3a- 
UHJe (JleKHh 2002:197-198), cbh HHCjpopMaTopn, KaKO AoceibeHHijH, TaKO 
h CTapoceACOUH, Hacejt>aBaH>e cy o6jauiH>aBajiH ynpaBo HaijHOHajiHOM 
CTpaTerHJOM. KaKO je (^opMyjiHcao je^aH or HH^opMaTopa: „To th rb.o 
t'a, mh xa^ceMO Kpaib, r& AOTepa cpncKH HapoA, aa Gy^eMO y BehHHy, He 
m 6yfleMO ca Aji6aHUH..." 

AjrGaHCKo CTaHOBHHiiiTBO HHJe SjiaroHaKJioHO rjie^ajio Ha kojiohh- 
3auHJy h Aeo6y npHBpe^HHx pecypca, Ha npHcycTBO Cp6a, y3 to AOcejLe- 
hhx H3 Apyre cpeAHHe, y cbojhm xoMoreHHM cejiHMa (YpouieBMh 
1935:153). Hh Cp6H CTapoceAeoun HHcy 6jiaroHaKJiOHO raeAajiH Ha Aoce- 
jBeHHKe apyraHHJer roBopa, noHaniaH>a, oSnnaja, kojh cy ao6hjih 3eMJty 
(KaKO h aaHac HarjiaiuaBajy - „ua6e"), a Kojy cy, KaKO o6jauiH>aBajy, h>h- 
xobh npeuH CTeKJiH KpBjBy. CBe AoceibeHHKe (He caMO OHe H3 iHHpe oko- 
jiHHe BpaH>a, Beh h UpHoropue h XepijeroBue) Ha3HBajiH cy nejopaTHBHO 
UIouiju hjih LLIouoeu {IIIou - m. pozi, UIouKa/UlouKe - tk. pOA, Ulou- 
He/UIouHUKu - ,neTe/fleu;a), ne Mapehn 3a reorpa^CKy BepoAOCTOJHOCT. 
HHC^opMaTop H3 cejia Bp6oBija to o6jauiH>aBa Ha cjieAefrn HaHHH: „Oniirre 
hhcmo ra Aejrajie. H H3 Bpan>e h orayA Aoinue, mh cmo ra cbh BHKane Te 
'Bpuapn' Te 'UIonoBH'. Hcto." Ha nHTaH>e: „3HaHH, 3a Bac cy cbh ro- 
inibaijH 6hjih 'HIonoBn'?", oh o^roBapa: „Cbh AOiujLauH, cbh 'UIonoBH 9 , 
cbh 'BpijapHV y okojihhh BnraHe Ha3HBajiH cy hx h Bpijapu, 36or Tora 
hito cy ce hckh oa AOcejteHHKa 6aBHJiH npoH3BOAH>oM y^caAH (epija - 
y^ce). AyTOXTOHO CTaHOBHHUiTBO 3ajeflHHMK0M HAeHTH(J)HKauHJOM o6je- 
AHH>yje AocejBeHHKe, kojh Mef)yco6HO ona^cajy h 3a#p>KaBajy jacHe Kyn- 
TypHe rpaHHue. y ohhm cejiHMa y KOJHMa cy CTapoceAeoijH >KHBejiH 3ajeA- 
ho ca CTaHOBHHHiTBOM nopeKJiOM H3 BpaH>CKHX KpajeBa, pa3JiHKOBajiH cy 
hx or flocejteHHKa H3 UpHe Tope, XepueroBHHe h Rp. 

HMeHOBan>e AocejLeHHKa HMajio je nep(J)opMaTHBHy Moh. 2 Ca Apyre 
CTpaHe, AocejLeHHUH cy CTapoceaeoije Ha3HBajiH OHaKO KaKO cy H ohh ce- 
6e - Ciuapocede/ii^u {CuXapocedenau, - m. pOA, CulapocedejiKa - y&. poR). 

HcTpa^cHBan>e je (JjOKycnpaHO Ha AocejteHHKe H3 mnpe OKOJiHHe Bpa- 
H>a, Tj". H3 cnpoManiHHX Gpackhx h nuaHHHCKHx cejia OKOJiHHe CypAyjiHLie, 
BjiacHHe, BjiaAHHHHor XaHa, Bpan>CKe Ban>e h TlHHH>e, kojh cy HacejLaBaHH 
Ha noApynje AaHamtber KocoBCKO-noisiopaBCKor pernoHa, y cejiHMa: Bjia- 
LUTHLiia, )Kerpa, IJepHHaa, no>KapaH>e, Tpne3a, TpMOBO, JJpo6eui 9 Ka6am, 
Hobo Cejio, TaHKoenh h Rp. Bhjio je h AOcejteHHKa H3 cena y HenocpeAHOj 
okojihhh Bpae>a kojh cy y HtHjiaHy KynoBajin Kyfte h HMaH>a oa MycjiHMaH- 
CKor CTaHOBHHuiTBa (yponieBHh 1931:48-49; ChmohobhR 2000:81-102). 



2 Yn. Putinja/Stref-Fenar 1997:162. 



86 CKPHBEHE MAIhMHE HA EAJIKAHY 

Ohm cy cede, no AOJiacKy y HOBy cpe^HHy, Ha3MBajiH BpahbautftiMa, flOK cy 
CTapoce^eouH itux npBeHCTBeHO 03HaHaBajiH Kao Ulouoee. 



IIIonoBM h/hjih „IUonoBH" 

IIIounyK hjih UIoucko je o6jiacT njiaHHHCKor MacHBa ueHTpaiiHor 
Aejia BajiKaHCKor nojiyocTpBa. TpaHHue UIoiuiyKa HHcy npeiiH3HO OMei)e- 
He, y jiHTepaTypH nocrroje pa3JiHHHTa o,upe^eii>a. TpaHnue je TeuiKO oapc- 
Ahth 36or Tora luto CTaHOBHHUH o^6HJajy fla ce H^eHTH^MKyjy Kao Illo- 
noBH; 3 yBeK ce LQoriOBHMa Ha3HBajy Apyra, ohh kojh >KHBe Her^e ^ajLe, 
^y6jibe y miaHHHH. 4 Hrvie hoch H3pa3HTO nejopaTHBHy y KOHOTauHjy, nofl- 
pa3yMeBa BeoMa npocTor HOBeKa, nuaHHHua. 

Ochm ujto UlowiyK HeMa npeuH3H0 TepHTOpHJajmo OApeI}eH>e, no- 
ctojh h BHLue Teopnja o nopeKJiy h eTHoreHe3H UIonoBa, Kao h BehH 6poj 
upeTnocTaBKM o nocTaHKy w 3Hanen>y H>HxoBor HMena. 5 OopMHpan>e LQo- 
noBa je cjioaeeH npouec; pa3JiHHHTe TeopHJe o h>mxobom nopeKJiy (^OBO^e 
hx y Be3y ca Tpa4KHM nneivieHOM Sapei, neneH>e3HMa, py/iapHMa CacHMa, 
HTfl.), He jjOBOfle y nHTan>e cjiOBeHCKy KOMnoHeHTy. 

UlounyK ce AaHac npocTHpe Ha Ap>KaBHoj TpoMel)H Cp6HJe, MaKe^o- 
HHJe h ByrapCKe (noTpe6HO je HMaTH y BH^y HHfteHHuy #a cy .ap^caBHe 
rpaHHue BHine nyTa MeEbaHe); H>eroB HaJBehH aeo je y ByrapCKOJ. LLIono- 
bh npwnaAajy TpHMa jy>KHOCJiOBeHCKHM Hapo^HMa h Kao TaKBH ce H3ja- 
niH>aBajy. 



3 CaMO CTaHOBHHUH y cenHMa oko Co(J)HJe y ByrapCKOJ ce6e Ha3HBajy UIonoBHMa 
(XpHCTOB 2004) h y nojeAHHHM cejiHMa oko KpHBe llajiaHKe h KpaTOBa y MaKe^oHHJH 
(MajiHHOB 2001). 

y Cp6nJH, y ropn>HM aeJioBHMa Flycre PeKe, y cejiHMa Koja ce Ha;ia3e y nojuKMKJy 
nuaHHHe Pa^aH h TleTpoBe Tope (EynyMeT, GiutiiiaHe, EopHHue h ap.), CTaHOBHHUiTBO je 
nopeKjioM ca noapynja BjiacHHe, LJpHe TpaBe h TopH>e I~lHHH>e h ce6e 03HanaBa Kao LQo- 
noBe. EBhxobh npeun cy ce obac HacejiHJw nocjie oano6ol)eH>a ojx TypcKe BJiacTH 1878. ro- 
AHHe, £OiuaBiiiH Ha norayHO npa3an npocTOp, kojh cy tokom cpncKo-TypcKor paTa 
1877/78. HanycTHJiH Ap6aHacn. Hhjc 6hjio crapoceflejiaua, Hnje 6hjio HHKaKBor craHOB- 
HHuiTBa. y h>hxoboj 6jih3hhh cy ce HacejmjiH jxocQjhennu,H H3 Apyrwx KpajeBa (KpHBe Pe- 
Ke Ha KocoBy, ceBepHe MeTOXHJe, TopH>er TwMOKa, LJpHe Tope, hctohhc XepueroBHHe, 
hta.)- y AajbeM >KHBibeH>y, npe.acTaBHHu.H obhx AoceJLeHHHKHx CTpyja HMCHyjy je^HH 
Apyre OHaKO KaKO cy ohh caMH ce6e Ha noneTKy Ha3HBajiH. GnHHHa je CHTyaunja h y cy- 
ceflHHM KpajeBHMa, TopH.oj Ja6;iaHHUH h Toiuihuh. (06jauiH>eH>e h no^aTKe Ao6nJia caM 
ojx Ap MHJioma JlyKOBHha, HayqHor capa^HHKa BajiKaHOJiouiKor HHCTHTyTa CAHy, Ha ne- 
My My h obom npnjiHKOM 3axBajtyjeM). 

4 Illon je yBeK hcko Apyrn, na h AaneKO oa rpaHHua IIIonjiyKa. CraHOBHwun Cpe- 
AanKe ^cyne CnpHHHhaHe c noACMexoM Ha3HBajy UIonoBHMa (HnKOJinh 1995:179). 

5 OniuHpHHJe: OiaBefiKOB 1884:106-123, TpH(j)OHOBT> 1919:122-158, KocTOBt/TIeTe- 
Ba 1935:11-28, X3a>khhhkojiob 1984:11-30, Ce^TepcKH 1984:55-65, XpncroB 2004. 



Caita 3jiaTanoBHh: „lUoriOBH" y Kocobckom FIOMOPABJLy 



87 



nocTaBJta ce nHTaite m jih cy kojiohhcth H3 iiinpe okojihhc Bpatba 

6HJIH UIonOBH, C 063Hp0M Ha TO m Cy KaO TaKBH HAeHTH^HKOBaHH OJX 

CTpaHe ayToxTOHor CTaHOBHHuiTBa, npH neMy ohm caMH TaKBO OApeI)eH>e 
HHcy npHXBaTanH. EyAyhn Aa cy rpaHHue IHoiLaym y CpGnjn (h yonmTe) 
Heo,E(pef)eHe h pacTerjtHBe, OAroBop MO>Ke 6hth pa3JiHHHT. 

IlpeMAa rpaHHue IIIounyKa HHcy npeijH3HO oupTaHe, JoBaH IjBHJHh 
Kao UIonoBe noMHH>e CTaHOBHHKC bhiiihx AeJiOBa IiHHH>e, BjiacHHe, Jly- 
>KHHue h IlHpoTa (LtBHJHh 1906:179). PHCTa HhkojthIi o6jauiH>aBa m rpa- 
HHu;a H^e oa 6ejionajiaHaHKe h nnpOTCKe KOTJinne, oGyxBaTajyhn BJiacnH- 
CKa, LtpHOTpaBCKa h nHHitcKa cena. LQonoBH HacejtaBajy njiaHHHCKe 
o6jiacTH, HeMa hx Ha cnjia3y y rioMopaBJte (HhkojihIi 1912:222-223). 
HMajyhH y BHAy HaBeAeHa OApel)eiba, MOme ce 3aKjbyHHTH Aa je Aeo kojio- 
HHCTa cBaKaKO noTHHao ca TepHTopHj'a xoje ce 03HanaBajy Kao moncKe. C 
o63HpOM Ha to Aa ohh OA^HJajy Aa ce Kao TaKBH HAeHTH(j)HKyjy, y AajteM 
TeKCTy, KaAa ce roBopn o OAHOcy CTapoceAejiaua h KOJiOHHCTa, obh Apyra 
he 6hth 03HaneHH Kao „LLIonoBH" (ca 3HauHMa HaBOAa). 



CTapoceAeouH / AocejbenHUH: caMOHAeHTH(|)HKauHJa 
h HAeHTH^HKauiHJa oa CTpaHe Apyi hx 

ByAyhn Aa je npnnaAHOCT jeAHOj cthhhkoj rpynn yBeK pe3yjiTaT hh- 
TepaKHHJe H3Mel)y caMOAe(^HHHcaH,a HJiaHOBa h Ae(J)HHHcaH.a Koje HHHe 
Apyra (Wallerstein 1960, cit. prema Putinja/Stref-Fenar 1997:60), erapo- 
ceAeoHH h AOcejteHHHH cy, y nponecy y3ajaMHor 03HanaBaH>a, jeAHH Apy- 
rHMa ocnopaBajiH Aa cy „npaBn" Cp6n. 

TaKo, Ha npHMep, cTapHJa 5KeHa, Ha nHTaH>e „Bh CTe CTapoceAeji- 
HH?", oAroBapa „JecTe, npaBH Cp6n". HH(J)opMaTop, CTapoceAenan, o6ja- 
uiKbaBa: „Hhcmo ce TaKo ca h>hx TKemuiQ, hhcmo ce yAaBane, jep cmo CMa- 
TpajiH Aa he noKBapHMo Bepy." flpyrn HH^opMaTop eKcruiHUHTHHJe H3pa- 
>KaBa rpaHHuy h Ka>Ke Aa cy y 6paK CTynajiH „Cp6n cac Cp6n, IllonuH cac 
UIohhh". 

Ca Apyre CTpaHe, AocejteHHHH HMajy CBOJy npnny. CrapHJa >KeHa o 
CTapoceAeoHHMa roBopn: „H AaH-AaHac cy ApyKuiH. M HeKa npnpOAa hm 
Aol)e ApyKiua. H CBe ce HCKyjiTypHJiH, ajin hchito HMa oneT." H>eH chh 
HacTaBJta: „H>hxob Ayx... Kao uito cy HeKaA 6hjih UJnnTapH h caA... Ta- 
KaB je 6ho Ayx, MajiTeHe, nouiTO cy ohh, MajrreHe, jkhbcjih oa pol)eH>a h 
H.HXOBH cTapH, oho CBe uito ce KayKQ, KopeH hm je >KHBeo ca IlInnTapHMa, 
3HaHH npHMajiH cy Taj h>hxob Ayx." CaroBopHHua Aaibe o6jauiH>aBa Aa je 
Ha CBaA6n CTapoceAejiana, y npouuiocTH, MjiaAOJKeitHHa nopoAnna Gnna 
y o6aBC3H Aa Aaje HOBau 3a AeBojicy h AOAaje: „H koa IlInnTapH TaKo h 
3aTO mh hhcmo hh HiHJiH koa h>h Aa y3HMaMO. llInnTapcKH ohh AaBajy Ae- 



88 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



BOJKy. ^pyra HH^opMaTopKa Ka>Ke: „Ohh cy AOCTa HManH Ayx oa join 
npHxeaTeH oa TypcKO, TaKO cy 2KHBejiH." „IHonoBH u , onHcyjyhH CTapoce- 
AeoLje, noABJiane a& cy ohm Ay>Ke oa Bpan>aHaua 6hjih noA TypcKOM Bjia- 
inhy (ao 1912. roflHHe, a BpatbCKH Kpaj je ocjio6oI)eH 1878), Kao h to j\& 
cy ^(HBejiH 3ajeAHO ca Aji6aHijHMa, na hx 36or Tora 03HanaBajy Kao 
„Apyre", aTpnGynpajyhH hx Kao KyjrrypHO 3aocTajie. 

CrapoceAeoun h „LLIonoBH", HaKO hctobcthh no cthhhkoj npnnaA- 
hocth, pejiHrHJH, je3HKy h AHJajreKTy (npH3peHCKO-THMOHKor rana), caMO 
c pa3JiHHMTHM jiOKajiHMM roBopnMa, ^KMBejiH cy Kao ABe eHAoraMHe rpy- 
ne, ca H3pa>KeHOM MeljycoGHO HeraTHBHOM cTepeoTHnH3aiiHJoM. Hapo^M- 
to je noHauiatte h OAeBaH>e )KCHa 6hjio Ha yaapy CTepeoTHnH3auHJe h jeA- 
He h Apyre CTpaHe. 

OrapoceAeoijH 3aMepajy „IIIonoBHMa" jj,a HHcy hhcth, iuto ce npBeH- 
CTBeHO oahoch Ha >KeHe. Ykojihko 6h ce HeKo oa CTapoceAejiaqa o^cchho 
„LUoiikom" ? H>eroBH cpoAHHijH cy je AO/KHBJbaBajin Kao ripjtaBy h HepaAO 
cy jenH xpaHy Kojy OHa npnnpeMa. „UIoriKe" cy onncHBaHe h Kao >KeHe 
CJio6oAHHJer noHaiuaH>a. 6 OHe cy 6hjic OAeBeHe y (JjyTe, BpcTe pyHHO TKa- 
hhx cyKH>H TaMHHJe 6oje, 7 3a pa3JiHKy oa cutapocedenKu Koje cy Hocnjie Be- 
OMa AyraHKe 6ene KomyjBe. Cbojmm cneijHc[)H4HHM cyKK>aMa, „UIonKe" cy 
npHBJiaHHJie na>KH>y. CTapHJH HH(|)opMaTop npnna: „Hame >KeHe rn ce CMe- 
jane, ao KOJieiia k'a OHa OAroneHa 5KCHa. 'KyKy, LIIonKa, bhah ry, CBe KOJie- 
Ha ry ce BHAy.' Hame nceHe cy HMajie KOinyjLe ao kocth AOJie, ao oGyhy. 
Ila 6oniHa, 8 Kao c'a KHijeiba, t'a 6Hjia Gouina TKaHa. ria obo Mopa jx<x ce 
oniiiHJe, Aa ce obac 6yTOBH He BHAy. 3HaHH, OHa je 3aKJioH>eTa. na HOCHJia 
nojec, na HaTKaHHijy... H ^ceHe ce CMejy, 3a MyniKapuH, mm jec\ Hero h tkg- 
He: 'KyKy, KyKy, Ka>Ke, bhah, bhah, hc ry cpaM, ao KOJieHa, 6pe\" 

„IUonoBH ct cy ce, naK, nyAHJin luto koa CTapoceAenaua Ha CBaA6a- 
Ma, Kao h Ha ApyrnM ApyuiTBeHHM OKynji>aH>HMa, >KeHe h MyniKapijH ceAe 
OABOjeHO h He nrpajy 3ajeAHO y KOJiy. 06janiH>aBajy, Aajte, Aa cy CTapo- 



6 Yn. YpoiueBHh 1935:154. 

7 Oyma je npaBoyraoHH KOMafl TKaHHHe, 3-4 MeTapa uiHpHHe h 80-90 ueHTHMeTa- 
pa Ay>KHHe, pyHHe H3paAe, ca yraHKHM BepTHKajiHHM npyraMa. OyTa ce o6,MOTaBa oko no- 
jaca, rycTo ce HaGHpe Ha y3HijH kojom ce Be3yje, npH neMy ce KpajeBH npeioianajy je#aH 
npeno Apyror ^opMHpajyhn cyKH>y. y BpaaCKOM Kpajy nocTOJH BHine BpcTa (J>yTa y 3aBH- 
chocth or MaTepHJaJia (ByHa, naMyK...) h 6oje (upHa, upBeHa, TaMHoruiaBa). OnuiHpHHJe o 
$yTH: OHJiHnoBHh 1960:159-169; HHKOJiHh-CrojaHMeBHh 1974:288-294. (j)yHKUHJH 
(J>yxe y CBa,a6eHOM pHTyariy b. 3naTaHOBHh 2003. 

8 Eouina je BpcTa nperane Behnx AHNieH'jnja, npaBOyraoHOr oGjiHKa, pyHHO M3pa^e- 
Ha. OHa je cacraBHH jxco KaKO CBaKO^HCBHe, TaKO h npa3HHMHe oAehe, naK h HeBecTHHCKor 
KOCTHMa. OGhhho ce Be3yjy no rbq 6om4e, je^Ha npeKO Apyre. Boiiine cy Soraxo yKpauie- 
He, a 6oja h THn uiape 3aBMce oa npHJiHKe, Kao h or ApyuiTBeHor cTaTyca oco6e Koja hx 
hoch. OnuiHpHHJe: Dekic 1989:21, 31, 36; MaiccHMOBHh 2003:75-82. 



Caita 3;iaTaH0BHh: „LLIonoBH" y Kocobckom FIOMOPABJby 



89 



ceAeouH Beoivia CTporo BacnnraBajiH H<eHCKy pfiay. Ciuapocede/iKa, KaAa 
6h HeKor cpena Ha nyTy, Myimcapua hjih >KeHy, CBejeAHO, carayjia 6h ma- 
By h He 6h ce jaBHJia. Y3 to, Gniia je OAeBeHa y BeoMa AyraHKy Koiuyjty, 
Ha ruaBH je HOCHJia no ztBe MapaMe, on kojhx je je/jHa HanpeA HCTypeHa 
(npeMa onncy „HIonoBa"), Aa ce Jinue He bhah, 36or Hera cy hm ce 
„UIonoBH" CMejajiH. 

Pa3JiHKe y >KeHCKOj oAehH (a oAeha je HHane noroAHa 3a „njiaKaTH- 
paite" H#eHTHTeTa 9 ), ynoTpe6jbaBane 3a 03HanaBaH>e rpaHHua, nocTajy 
ejieivieHTH kojh hx hhhc nponycHHM h (j)jiyHAHHM. Oa me3AeceTHX roAHHa 
ABa^eceTor BeKa ciuapocedeAKe noHHFby #a H3pal)yjy <])yTe h aa hx Hoce y 
CBaKOAHeBHHM npHJiHKaMa. H>HX0Be $yjc cy TKaHe HCKibynHBO y upHoj 
6ojh, a pa3JiHKOBajie cy ce oa „uioncKHx" no 6ojn Ae3eHa, Kao h y HaHHHy 
npHHBpiuhHBaKba y3 Tejio. CTapHJe >KeHe Ha ceny h AaHac cy OAeBeHe y 
$yre. CBOjy Hounty, pacKoiuHO yKpameHy h cnojeBHTy, ubmjubso nyBajy 
h o6iiaHe Ha CBaA6aMa h y ApyrHM CBenaHHM npnjiHKaMa. Ca Apyre erpa- 
He, „UIoiiKe", a HaponnTo CBeKpBa, yKOJiHKO cy y MoryhHocra Aa Ha6aBe, 
Ha CBaA6aMa paAO oGnane HouiH»y CTapoceAenKH, HHJy JienoTy BeoMa XBa- 
Jie. OyTa je noTnyHO ncnajia H3 c(|)epe npa3HHHHor. 

^oceibeHHHH H3 BpaH>CKHx KpajeBa, HAeHra^HKOBaHH Kao „IIJonoBH" 
oa CTpaHe ayTOXTOHor CTaHOBHHiHTBa, Hncy npnxBaTanH HaivieTHyTy 03Ha- 
Ky. 10 y HenocpeAHoj KOMyHHKanHJH, CTapoceAeouH cy hm ce o6pafranH nn- 
TaH>eM: „rAe ch, Illone?" JeAaH oa HH(j)opMaTopa je Hcnpnnao Aa cy Apy- 
tobh CTapoceAeoHH y AeraiBCTBy, KaAa 6h ce oh nojaBHO, roBopnnn: „EBe 
ra, Hzie, ApHTOH Ulon , luto je itera Bpel)ajio. HH^opMaTop, cpea&HX ro- 
AHHa, npHHa: „TaMO rae caM pa/tHO, raMO cy Me 3Ba/iH 'Ulon' h flaH-,zjaHac 
Me 30By 'Ulon'... YonuiTe, CBe HacejLeHHKe ca BpaH>CKHx TepHTopHJa, He 
caMO MeHe, He MeHe H3 Mp>KH>e Kao HOBeKa, Hero yomirre Kao HacejteHHKa 
Ha Kocobo - 'LLIon'... A mm h>h cmo 3BajiH 'KoHonjLapH', 3aT0 uito, 6aBH- 
jih ce y3rajan>eM KOHonjLe, a to je 3a Hac Ghjio hciiito npocTO, OBaj, raJHra 
KOHoniby, noTana-ra TaMO, uiTa ja 3HaM, no ohhm BnpoBHMa. H OH/ia, ohh 
MeHe 30By c UIone', a ja h>h 30BeM 'KoHonjLapn'" 11 FIpeMa HH(J)opMaTopy, 



9 O bh£jbhbhm 3iiauHMa, iionyT OAefie, noroAHHM 3a HCTHuaae HAeHTHTeTa b. Puti- 
nja/Stref-Fenar 1997:189. 

10 y pa3roBopHMa Koje caM BOAHJia ca „HIonoBMMa u o h>hxobom nopeKJiy h kojio- 

HH3aUHJH, OHH HHKaKO HHCy nOMHH>aJIM J& Cy HX CTapOCe^eOUH Ha3HBaJlH „UIonoBHMa u . 

KaAa 6h ce tokom pa3roBopa CTBopnjia noBOJtHa aTMOccj)epa, iiHTajia caM: „A 3auiTO cy 
Bac 3Bajm 'LLIonoBH'?" Ybck 6h ce Ha to Harvio rprjiH hjih OApearoBajin eMOUHOHajiHO Ha 
HeKH apyra HaHHH, noKa3yjyhn Aa hm je 36or TaKBor MMeHa BeoMa HenpnjaTHo. 

11 CxapoceAeouH cy raj hjih KOHOnjby Kao jcjxny oa maBHHx Kyjnypa. Oa H»e cy 
npaBHJiH OAehy h npeKpHBane. floceibeHHUH cy, TaKol)c, iipoh3boahjih KOHonjby, ajin 
3H3TH0 Maii>e. 



90 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

y TaHKoenhy: „Mh cmo 6hjih jeAHa BpcTa UJonoBa, a HaA Hac je na 6njia 
Apyra BpcTa llJonoBa kojh cy aolujih jxecer roAHHa nocjie Haiiinx, na cy oh- 
fla ohm 6hjih BefcH UJonoBH oa Hac" h ohh cy Ha Kpajy cena (})opMHpajiH Ha- 
cejbe oa ABaHaecT Kyha, Koje ce 3Bajio „UIon-Majia". 

y Bpeivie KaAa cy ce kojiohhcth HaceibaBajiH, CTapoceAeoun cy 6hjih 
opHJeHTHcaHH Ha CTonapcTBO h npoH3BOAH>y Kyxypy3a h nuieHHije, Ha ne- 
My hm je h wcxpaHa Gnjia 3acHOBaHa. /JocejbeHHUH cy ce 6aBHJin CTonap- 
ctbom, ajiH cy Ghjih BeuiTH h y noBpTapCTBy, BohapcTBy, BHHorpaAap- 
CTBy, a 3najiH cy h MHore 3aHaTe, na ce o h>hxobom paAy CTapoceAeoitn 
noxBajiHO H3pa>KaBajy. Ka^cy Aa cy „IIIonoBH" 6hjih BpeAHH, Aa cy cbc 
nocjiOBe y noji>y Ha BpeMe 3aBpuiaBajiH, Kao h to Aa cy 6hjih HanpeAHHJH 
oa h,hx y noBpTapcTBy. Ohh cy npnnpeMy mhothx jejia oa noBpha Haynn- 
jih oa „lUonoBa". BHiue nyTa caM on CTapoceAejiaua nyjia npnny Aa cy 
ohh jejiH caMO 3ejieHH napaAaJ3, kojh cy nemiH, aok cy 3pejie, upBene 
njioAOBe Sauajin, CMaTpajyhn hx TpyjiHM. OHAa cy oa „UIonoBa" Haynn- 
jih ynoTpe6y 3penor napaAaJ3a. 

Oa uie3AeceTHx roAHHa ABaAeceror Bexa, npeMAa BeoMa peTKO, noHH- 
H>y Aa ce CKJianajy mcujobhth 6paKOBH. CTapHJH (h Ha jeAHOJ h Ha Apyroj 
CTpaHH) y thm npHJiHKaivia o6hhho cy H3pa>KaBajM HeroAOBan>e. „LLIoiiobh", 
kojh cy jeAHOM HoroM ocTajiH y 3aBHHajy, 6panHor napTHepa cy necTO TaMO 
Hajia3HJiH. Oa ocaMAecerax roAHHa CKJianaH>e mchjobhthx SpaKOBa nocTaje 
HeiiiTO y4ecTanMJe, ajin cy ahcthhkthbhh HAeHTHTeTH h AaHac 3aAp^aHH. 
MHorH oa h>hx, naKO pacejbeHH ca KocoBa h MeToxnje, HarjiauiaBajy m cy 
ohh, Ha npHMep, crapoceAeonn, Aa hm je chh 0/Ken>eH ciuapocede/iKOM h cji. 
Rem H3 6paKOBa CTapoceAejiaua h „LLIonoBa" HasHBajy ce mmesu. V hcko- 
jihko cjiynajeBa Koje caM yno3Hajia, ohh ce ocehajy CTapoceAeouHMa. 

ByAyfin Aa cy „IIIonoBH", ynnaBHOM, >KHBejiH y cejiHMa 3ajeAHO ca 
aji6aHCKHM CTaHOBHHiuTBOM, noA h>hxobhm npHTHCKOM, oa ine3AeceTHx, 
a HHTen3HBHHJe oa cpeAHHe ocaMAecexHX ro#HHa ABaAeceTor Bena, nonn- 
H>y Aa ce ncejLaBajy y Bpan>e huh y Apyre KpajeBe y^<e Cp6nje. Ha h>hx 
cy An6aHUH bphihjih sehn npHTHcaK Hero Ha CTapoceAeoue, ca KOJHMa cy 
^KHBejiH BeKOBHMa h jiaKuie Hajia3HJiH 3ajeAHHHKH je3HK. „UIoriOBe" cy 
AO)KHBibaBaJiH Kao Ty^HHue kojh cy aoiiijih Aa hm y3My 3eMJty. 12 JeAaH 
oa HH^opMaTopa to o6jaiiiH>aBa Ha cueAehH HannH: „Ha h>h UlnnTapn 
Apyrannje rjieaajy, a Apyrannje rjieaajy Ha Hac. HaMa je yBeK 6hjto npe- 
heHO KaKo cmo mm ao6hjih ua6e 3eMJLy, ija6e he h Aa je ocTaBHMo. Ybck 
cy Ha Hac bpihhjih Behn npHTHcaK, Hero Ha h>h, mhcjihm Ha CTapoceAeoue 
ca KocoBa." OBaKBa h arinmia o6jauiibeH>a AoGnjajra caM h oa CTapoceAe- 



12 O OAHOcy nporpaMa KOJiOHH3auHJe npe\ia AjiGanuHMa, yn. Malcolm 
1998:264-288. 



Caifea 3jiaTaH0BHh: „LIIonoBH" y Kocobckom noMOPABJty 91 



nana h off, „lUonoBa . Ochm Tora, CTapoceAeoHH cy, 3a pa3JiHKy oa Aoce- 
jLeHHKa, jkhbcjih y bcjihkhm nopOAHuaMa, Mel)yco6Ho cpoahhhkh noBe3a- 
hhm, uiTO hm je AaBano cnrypHOCT y HecnrypHHM BpeMeHHMa. 

CrapoceAeonH, BeoMa noHOCHH Ha cboj CTapoce^ejiaHKH hachth- 
TeT 13 , onncyjynH „llIonoBe", Kao itnxoBy OApel)yjyny oco6nHy, HaBOAe 
ffa ce ohh HenpecTaHO cejie, Aa hm je to y reHHMa h m He Mory Aa ce yKO- 
peHe Ha je^HOM MecTy, Ben hm je orajiHO „neBaH Ha KOJia". 36or Tora hx 
Ha3HBajy h IjHraHHMa ^eprapHMa. 3aMepajy hm to uito cy npBH nonejiH 
Aa Hanyurrajy Kocobo h MeToxnjy. Ha noApynjy Kocobckot IIoMopaBJba, 
npeMa penHMa jeAHor CTapoceAeoHa kojh je TaMo ocTao, „LLJonoBa caAa 
HeMa hh 3a Jieic". Cejia y KoJHMa cy jkhbcjih npnnaAajy AnSaHHHMa. 

Tokom HCTpa)KHBaH>a, y okhbjlchhm cehaH>HMa h eMonnjaMa, oahoc 
CTapoceAejiana npeMa „lUonoBHMa" Kpefre ce oa HCKa3a „Mp3HM lllono- 
bh, Aa He bhahm", ao Ay6oKor yuajbeiba. uito ce ca HbHMa HHcy opofjaBajra 
h ca>KHBCJiH, jep 6h y tom cjiynajy ohh ocTann, na 6h noApynje KocoBa h 
MeTOXHJe 6hjio canyBaHO. CTapoceAeoHH noMHH>y h to Aa cy ca 
„liIonoBHMa" HMajiH 6jiH>Ke OAtioce, Hero ca AocejbeHHHHMa H3 Apyrnx 
KpajeBa, uito ce HapoHHTO oahoch Ha XepueroBue. 

„I1Ioiiobh", Kao pacejbeHa Jinua, ocTajy y TpaJHO jiHMHHanHOM CTa- 
H>y. Oa CTapoceAejiaua HHcy 6hjih npnxBaheHH, a 3ajeAHHqa H3 Koje cy 
noTeKjTH He npeno3Haje hx BHiue Kao cbojc 

TTpeACTaBa o KocoBy h Mctoxhjh caMo Kao o npocTopy cpncKO-aji- 
GaHCKHx cyKo6a ynpouiheHa je h norpeuiHa, a Ha ocHOBy H>e h3boah ce 
3aKJtynaK o mohojihthocth ABajy HapoAa h ABajy je3HKa (MnaAeHOBHh 
2004). Mel)y npnnaAHHHHMa cpncKor HapoAa nocTOJane cy h oncrajajie 
KyjiTypHe rpaHHne h eHAoraMHJa. y Kocobckom FIoMopaBjLy cBaKa oa Ao- 
cejteHHHKHX rpyna, na h CTapoceAeoHH, Mory ce nocMaTpaTH y Teopnj- 

CKO-MeTOAOJIOUIKOM KOHTCKCTy CKpHBeHHX MaH>HHa. 



JlHTepaTypa 

l^BHJnh 1 906: J. IJbhjhIi, Ocnoee m aeoapacpujy u zeonozujy MaKedouuje u Ciuape Cp- 
6uje, kh>. I, Beorpa^. 

Bekic 1989: M. Dekic, SrpskanarodnanosnjaKosova- Gnjilane, Kulturno-prosvjetni 
sabor Hrvatske, Zagreb. 

OHJTHnoBHh 1960: M. <I>HJiHnoBHh, BejieiiiKe o ceocKOJ hoihh>h y Bpan>CKOM rioMopa- 
BJty, rnacnuK EiuH02pa(pcK02 My3eja 22-23, Eeorpa/i, 159-169. 

Xa^^cHHHKOJioB 1984: B. XaaacHHHKOJiOB, ripo6jieMM Ha craorpa^cKOTO H3ynaBaHe 
na Co(J)hh h Coc^hhcko, Hapoduama Kynmypa e Cocpun u Co^uucko, Bi>Jirap- 

13 y pa3rOBopy, c iiohocom cy HcrauajiH Aa cy CTapoceAeouH h aa cy ce h>hxobh 
npeuH Ha toj 3eMJtH HacejiHJiH npe xHjba^y h BHiue roOTHa. 



92 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

CKO HCTOpHHCCKO #py>KeCTBO, CeKUHH „ETHOrpa4)HH", ETHOrpa(j)CKH HHCTHTyT 

h My3efi kt>m BAH, CocJmh, 1 1-30. 

XpHCTOB 2004: II. XpHCTOB, TpaHHUHTe Ha „IUoruiyKa" h/hjih UIoiih 6e3 rpaHHUH (y 
oeoM 36opnuKy). 

KocTOBWIIeTeBa 1935: Ct. JI. Koctobt>, E. IleTCBa, Ccacku Sutttb u u3Kycmeo 6"b Co- 
(puiicKo, MaTepnajiH 3a HCTopnaTa Ha CojJjhh, kh. VIII, Cocj)Hfl. 

JleKHh 2002: B. JleKHh, Azpapna pecpopjua u Ko/iomaaifuja y Jyeocnasuju 1918-1941, 
y,npy}KeH>e paranx noSpOBOJbaija 1912-1918, Cny>K6eHH jihct CPJ, Eeorpaa. 

MaKCHMOBHh 2003: 3. MaKCHMOBHh, Hckc KapaKTepncTHKe cpncKe 6ouiMe rrc>HjiaH- 
CKor Kpaja, Jluiuepapnu oiuucctK 2, HkHJiane, 75-82. 

MajiHHOB 2001: 3. MajinnoB, Jy/KHaTa h 3ana£Ha rpannua aa IlIonHTe bo Peny6jiHKa 
MaiceflOHHJa, The Border, rpanuifama, tom 1, Cocjdhh (y iirraMrm). 

Malcolm 1998: N. Malcolm, Kosovo, A Short History , New York University Press. 

MjiaaenoBHh 2004: P. M.na,aeHOBHh, GnoBencKa jiHiirBHCTHHKa npHna^HocT, KOHcfje- 
CMOHajiHa npHnaAHOCT h cthhhkh TpaHC(j)ep y CBeTjiy cKpHBeHHX MaitHna ua 
jyro3ana^y KocoBa h MeTOXMje (y obom 36opnuKy). 

HHKOJiHh-CTOjaHHeBHh 1974: B. HHKOJiHh-CTOjaimeBHh, BpawcKo IToMopae/be, 
CpncKH eTHorpa4)CKH 36opHHK CAHY LXXXVI, )Khbot h oGnnaJH Hapo^HH, 
Kih. 36, Beorpaa. 

HHKOJiHh 1995: JX. HHKOJiHh, EraoKyjiTypHH CTepeorann cTaiiOBHHKa Tope h Cpe^a- 
HKe >Kyne, UlapuAanuHCKe oicyue ropa, Ouojbe u CpedcKa — aniupoiiozeo- 
epacpCKo-eiuHOAOiUKe, deMoepacpcKe, coifuoAOtuKe u KyAiuypOAoiuKe KapcxKiue- 
pucuiuKe, reorpac})CKH HHcnnyT „JoBaH LjBHJnh" CAHY, noce6na H3aan>a, 
kh>. 40/11, Eeorpaa, 167-185. 

HmkojihR 1912: P. HHKOJiHh, KpaJHiirre h BjiacHHa, Hace/ba cpucKux seMa/ta VIII, 
CpncKH eTHorpa(|)CKH 36opi-iHK 18, Beorpa^, 1-380. 

Putinja/Stref-Fenar: F. Putinja, Z. Stref-Fenar, Teorije o etnicitetu, XX vek, Beograd. 

CecfrrepcKH 1984: P. CecjrrepcKH, Coc^hhckhtc IIIonH KaTO HCTopHKO-eTHnnecKa (})op- 
MaijH b CBeTJiHHa Ha nocjie^HHTC racjieABaHHfl, Hapodnama KyAmypa e Cocpun 

U CoCpUUCKO, B'bJirapCKO HCTOpHHCCKO ^py>KCCTBO, CCKUHM „ETHOrpa(J)HH", Et- 

Horpa4)CKH HHCTHTyT h My3efi kt>m BAH, Co4>hh, 55-65. 

CHMOHOBHh 2000: C. ChmohobhIi, JJy6nux\a u$y6nmam 9 A npono, KpyuucBau. 

CnaBeHKOB 1884: n. P. CrraBCHKOB, HeKOJiKo^yMHsaLLIonHTe^ejywo^wvec/coc^wca- 
nue ua E-bAzapcKomo KHUOtcoeuo dpyofcecmeo IX, CpeAeut., 106-123. 

TpH(f)OHOB'b 1919: K). TpH(})OHOB'fe, no npoH3xo^a ua hmcto „UIon", Cnucanue ua 
B'bAzapcKama axadeMUH ua nayxume, XXII, Co(j)Hfl, 122-158. 

YpomeBHh 1931: A. YpouieBHh, TH^HjiaHe, TAacHUK cpiicKoz eeoepacpCKoa dpytuiuea, 
XVII, Eeorpaa, 38-51. 

YpomeBHh 1 935: A. YpomeBHh, TopH>a MopaBa h H3mophhk, Hace/ba u itopetcao ciaa- 
Hoenuiuiuea 28, CpncKH eTHorpacj)CKH 36opHHK LI, Eeorpa,n, 3-242. 

YpomeBHh 1 937: A. YpomeBHh, ArpapHa pcc|)opMa h HacejtaBaibe, CuoMenuifa deade- 
ceiuueiuozoduuijbuife ocAo6oJ)eiba Jyotcite Cp6uje 1912-1937, CKonjbe, 
819-833. 

Wallerstein 1 960: 1. Wallerstein, Ethnicity and national integration in West Africa, Ca- 
hiers d'etudes africaines 3, 129-139. 

3jiaTaHOBHh 2003 : C. 3jiaTaHOBHh, Cead6a - upuna o udeHiuuiueiuy, Bpawe u OKOAuua^ 
FIoceGHa H3.aaH>a ETHorpa())CKor HHCTHTyTa CAHY, kh>. 47, Beorpa^. 



Caiba 3jiaTaH0BHh: „UIonoBH" y Kocobckom noMOPABJty 93 



Sanja Zlatanovid 



"Shops" in the Region of Kosovo Pomoravlje 



The article is based on fieldwork conducted in 2003 among displaced people from 
Kosovo and Mctohia currently living in Smederevo, Vranje, Vranjska Banja, and in the enclave 
of Vitina and neighboring villages (Vrbovac, Grncar, Binac and Klokot). 

After the liberation of Kosovo and Metohia from Turkish rulership in 1912, populations 
from Dalmatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia were settled in the area of Kosovo 
Pomoravlje (present-day Kosovo-Pomoravlje County with municipalities of Gnjilane, Vitina 
and Urosevac). After the First World War, settling in the area was intensified as a part of the 
agrarian reform that was taking place. Newcomers were predominantly settled in the villages 
inhabited by Albanians. Although the contemporary historiography neglects the national 
character of this colonization, all the interviewees were explaining it as a national strategy. 

Albanian population, living in ethnically homogeneous villages, was not approving the 
colonization and division of resources, and the attitude towards the Serbs settled from remote 
areas was negative. Similar attitude towards newcomers had the autochthonous Serbian 
population, due to differences in language, behavior, customs, as well as the fact that those 
newcomers "got the land free of charge' , as they stress it today. 

The research focused on migrants coming from the Vranje area, from poor mountainous 
villages close to Surdulica, Vlasina, Vladicin Han, Vranjska Banja, and Pcinja. They were 
colonized in the area of Kosovo Pomoravlje, in villages such as Vlastica, Zegra, Cernica, 
Pozaranje, Trpcza, Grmovo, DrobeS, Kabas, Novo Selo, Tankosic, etc. After coming into the 
new setting, those people were calling themselves Vranjanians {Vranjanci), while the 
autochthonous population depreciativcly marked them Shops (Sopovi). 

Despite the fact that Sopluk area (Sop area), covering mountains of the central Balkan 
peninsula, does not have well-defined frontiers, one can argue that certain number of migrants 
came from the Sop area. Considering that they refuse to identify themselves as Sops, the term 
"Sops" (with quotation marks) was used in the article to designate newcomers as opposed to 
autochthonous populations. 

Since belonging to an ethnic group is always the result of interactions between 
self-ascription and the way a group is marked by the others, both autochthonous population and 
newcomers were neglecting one another the right to consider themselves "real Serbs". The 
autochthonous claimed that they are Serbs while according to them the newcomers were Sops. 
And vice versa — "Sops", speaking about the autochthonous inhabitants, would always stress 
that they were under the Turkish rulership longer then "Vranjanians" (until 1912, while the 
Vranje area was liberated in 1878), as well as the fact that they (autochthonous) have lived 
together with Albanians and adopted their culture; therefore they mark them as "different" and 
"culturally backward". 

The autochthonous population and "Sops", although belonging to the same ethnicum, 
religion, and speaking the same language and dialect (the one of Prizrcn-Timok type, with small 
local differences), have lived separately as two endogamous groups, forming negative 
stereotypes about each other. Way of behavior and women's clothes were particularly suitable 
motifs for stereotypization. 

Intermarriages occurred in 1960s, but the two distinctive identities are still kept. 

Since "Sops" have mostly lived in villages together with Albanians, under the pressure 
of latter they start leaving to Vranje and other parts of Serbia. The pressure on "Sops" was 
stronger than the one on the autochthonous populations with whom Albanians have lived 
together for centuries as they have understood each other better. Villages once inhabited by 
"Sops" are today Albanian. 

Being displaced persons, "Sops" nowadays remain in a constantly liminal state. They 
were never fully accepted by the autochthonous population, while the community they are 
coming from does not recognize them as its part anymore. 



Maja ByKith 



TETEBEHCKH BYrAPH Y MCTOHHOJ CPEHJH 



noTOMUH ohhx Byrapa, koj'h cy y XVIII Beicy aoiujih H3 TeTeBeHa h 
OKOJiHHe y HCTOHHy Cp6Hj'y, ycnejiH cy ao AaHac y pa3JiHHHT0J MepH jxa. 
canyBajy cboj jesHK, ajiH hc h cbcct o cthhhkoj npHnaAHOCTH tom Hapo- 
Ay. y obom pa^y Sjuhe p&m o y3pou.HMa ceo6e, o h>hxobhm HacejtHMa, 
roBopy, o OAHocy npeMa MaTeptbCM je3HKy h npHnaAHOCTH HauHJH. 

no^pyqje Hcroica maam&G CpSnje — 3ajeHapa h okojimhc — jaKo je 
pa3iiOBpcHo y ,aeMorpa(JDCKOM norjieay. Ako ce nociviaTpa caMO nepHOA oa 
TypcKe BJiaziaBHHe HaoBaMO, mgjkc ce h3abojhth BHine Tanaca HaceibaBaH>a, 
aiiH h nycTouieita cme peraje, Koja jc CBe ao 1833. 6njia y CKJiony Typcne 
ap^caBe. HajcTapHJHM CTaHOBHHiiiTBOM OB^e ce CMaTpajy Cp6H THMOHaHH 
(CTaHOj'eBHh 1937:57), a ocTaxin ^cHTejbH npHna^ajy pa3JiHHHTHM er- 
hhhkhm CTpyjaMa: kocobcko-mctoxhjckoj, ^HHapcKoj, moncKoj; npncyTHH 
cy BjiacH YurypjaHH, BnacH IJapaHH... 

H3y3eTHO neiiOBOJLHH ycjioBH 3a xcMBOT noneTKOM XVIII Bena y Ey- 
rapcKOJ noA TypuHMa HaBejiH cy Aeo eraHOBHuiiiTBa Aa Hanycra aomobc l 
BeuHKH 6poj nopc-AHija H3 TeTeBeHa h okojimhc nc-ByKao ce Ha 3anaA h Ha- 
cejiHO HeKOHMKO cena 6jiH3y AaHamae Gyrapcxe rpaHHue ca CpGnjoM, 2 a 
Aeo h>hx npeuiao je Bpiuicy nyi<:y h 3aycTaBH0 ce y TpjBaHy, 3ajenapy h Be- 
jihkom H3Bopy. IIoHeTKOM HapeAHor Bexa 3HanajaH 6poj ibyAH OTHiuao je 
H3 BejiHKor H3Bopa y ynyTpaiuiBOCT Cp6nje. 

1 Ha to cy yXHu&ne (IjBHJHh 1966: 149), nopeA CTajiHHx Heaafca H3a3BaHnx or cxpa- 
He TypcKe BJiacra, nycT0meH>a TaTapcKwx xopflH, Koje cy npH3HaBa;ie Typcxy BpxoBHy 
Bnacr, h KpuajiHJe, Koje cy mtaHKajie no 6ajiKancK0M acny Typcne, HapoHHTO no ijjoiickoj 
o6nacra. 

2 To cy cejia: TojieMaHOBo, LUmuenuH h Bojunua y okojihhh Kync. 



96 



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KpeTan>e npecejbenHHKe CTpyje H3 TereBCHa h okojihhc Ha 3anafl 

Obom npHJiHKOM ocBpHyheMO ce caMO Ha MecTa y CpSnJM Hacejte- 
hhm TeTeBeHLiHMa. TepeHCKa HCTpa>KHBaH>a BpuieHa cy H3Me^y jyjia 2002. 
h Maja 2003. ro^HHe. 3 



MecTa y CpSHJH Hacejbena TexeBeimHMa 



IlpecejLeHHUH M3 ByrapcKe 3aTeKJiH cy y MecTHMa AaHauiH>e hc- 
TOHHe Cp6wje CTapo CTaHOBHHuiTBO h HacTaBHJiH >khbot MeiuajyhH ce ca 
h>hm y Maiboj hjih Behoj MepH. 

y 3aje*iapy zWHac, npeMa HauieM HCTpa^cHBaH>y, HeMa noTOMaica Te- 
TeBeHaua kojm HyBajy je3HK h oGnnaje MecTa H3 kojhx cy aollijih tLHxoBM 
npeuH, HaKO je 9 npeMa HeKMM H3BopHMa (A^UOB 1884:4), 6yrapcKO CTaHOB- 
hhujtbo 6hjio 4aK m BehwHCKo cpeziHHOM XIX BeKa, KaAa je rpaa HMao He- 
uito Maite 0^ 4.000 CTaHOBHHKa. Ha noTnyHy acHMHjiauHJy yMHoroMe cy 
yTHu,ajiH nojiHTHHKH ycjioBH nocjie M3ABajatba OBor rpa/ia m H^eroBe okojih- 
hc H3 BH^HHCKor nauiajiyKa 1833. h npHcajeAHH>eH>a CpSnJH. KHe3 Mh- 



3 Herpa>KHBaii»a Ha TepeHy BpuieHa cy y OKBHpy npojeKTa „ETHOJiHHrBHCTHMKa h 
couHOJiHHrBHCTHMKa npoynaBaH>a H36eriiHua h MyjiTHeTHHHKHx sajeOTHua Ha BajiKaHy" 
BajiKaHO^omKor HHCTHTyTa CAHY. 



Maja ByKHfr: Tetebehckh ByrAPH y hctomhoj Cpehjh 97 



jiohi je 3ajenapy OAMax &ao CTaTyc OKpy>KHor rpaAa, a CBa aAMHHHCTpaHHJa 
h iiikojictbo cny>KHJiH cy ce caMO cpncKHM jesHKOM. Pa3Boj rpaAa yranao je 
Ha MHrpauHJe cpriCKor CTaHOBHHiiiTBa Ka hobom pernoHanHOM ueHTpy, a 
ByrapH cy ce nocTeneno acHMHJiOBajiH ao norayHor yTanae>a. 

Ceno BejiHKH H3Bop (5 km hctohho oa 3ajenapa) npBH nyT ce no- 
MHHbe 1784. koa d>. rioKopHor (OraHojeBHn 1937:57) h 6hjio je 3a OHna- 
iiiH>e noJMOBe BejiHKO Haceibe (150 AOMOBa). Hacejta oa kojhx je Haera.no 
ceno noMHH>y ce 3HaTHO paHHJe, y XVI BeKy. GraHOBHHiuTBO B. M3B0pa 
hhhhjih cy Kocobhh, MajiH 6poj CTapoceAejiana Cp6a THMonaHa h TeTe- 
BeHUH. ByrapH cy aoihjih noneTKOM XVIII BeKa h HacejinjiH Kocy H3HaA 
cejia, a H3Mef)y ibhx h Apyror Aena ceua Ayro je noerojao npa3aH npo- 
CTOp. Totobo HHTaB bck 6hjih cy eHfloraMHH, a yicojiHKO neKO HHJe Morao 
Aa ce o^ceHH y caMOM cejiy, AeBojxy je Tpa>KHO y 6yrapcKHM cejiHMa 6jih- 
3y rpaHHue. To je noMorjio TeieBeHHHMa j\a. canyBajy cboj je3HK h o6HHa- 
je. O oboj AHCTaHHH roBopn h to uiTO BejiHKH H3Bop HMa ABa rpo6jta, 3a- 
AyujHHHe h ypaHHH cjiaBe ce y pa3JiHHHT0 BpeMe. 4 Jane npH6nH)KaBaH>e 
3anoHeno je >KeHHA6aMa MOMarca H3 do/inuja xpaj AeBOJKaivia H3 zopnuja 
Kpaj. H>hxobh noTOMHH yHHJiH cy je3HK MaJKH, TaKo Aa ce BpeMeHOM je3HK 
AoceibenHKa HaMeTHyo uenoM cejiy, ajin je npeTpneo h AOCTa yrauaja 
cpncKor, HapOHHTO y noraeAy jickchkc MHiiutefte Aa je Ha Hamera&e je- 
3HKa AocejteHHKa uejiOM ceny yTHua.no to uito je Bhahh 6ho aAMHHH- 
CTpaTHBHH ueHTap ripe 1833. h Aa cy TeTeBeHHH 36or je3HKa 6hjih (f)aBO- 
pH30BaHH oa CTpaHe BJiacTH h caMHM thm ycneiiH Aa ra jane HaMeray 
(KajiHHh 1971:49) HHJe 6e3 ocHOBa, asm to cnrypHO HHJe 6hjio upecyAHO 
HMajyhH y BHAy AHCTaHuy Kojy cy ByrapH OApncaBajiH y oflHOcy Ha ocra- 
TaK cejra. BejiOKOH3BopqH 3a cboj roBop Ka>Ky Aa hhjc hh 6yrapcKH hh 
cpncKH Beh H>HX0Ba MemaBHiia h Ha3HBajy ra eenuKomeopcKu. y eT- 
hhhkom noraeAy H3JaniFtaBajy ce Kao Cp6n, HMajy cpncxa npe3HMeHa h 
CJiaBe cnaBy h ceocKy 3aBeTHHy, ann h AaJte OAp>KaBajy Be3e ca por)auHMa 
H3 Kyjie h OKOJiHHe, naponHTO H3 cejia Pi3Bop Maxajra. KaAa je 1833. yc- 
nocTaBJteHa HOBa rpaHHua H3ivier)y CpGnje h Typcne, Aeo 3CMJbe BejiHKo- 
H3Bopaua ocTao je ca Apyre CTpaHe (ITeTpoBHh 1897:317), 3aTO ce h6ko- 
jihko nopoAHua, HHJa je HMOBHHa ocTajia y TypcKoj, hcctihjio h ocHOBano 
cejio H3B0p Maxajia (y AaHauntoj ByrapCKOJ). 

BejiHKH H3Bop A^Hac HMa oko 2680 CTanoBHHKa, a ocHOBHa AeuaT- 
hoct je nojtonpHBpeAa. 

y TpjtaHy (5 km jy?KHO oa 3ajenapa) Byrapn cy 3aTeKJiH Bjiaxe h 
CMecTHJiH ce ca Apyre CTpaHe pennue Koja AaHac npecena cejio. Taj Aeo 



4 „^on.OKpajuH opraHH3yjy ypaHaK Ha E/iaroBecTH „koa Be3flaHHua", a „ropii.o- 
Kpajiin" Ha U[BeTH „y ApJia, npn .ny^a". 



98 GCPMBEHE MAIbHHE HA BAJIKAHY 

FpjbaHa Ayro ce 3Bao ^EtJirapHn". 36or BenHKe 6jiH3Hiie pyAHHKa ynn>a 
BpiuKa uyKa, y TpJbaH ce y pa3JiMMHTO epeMe aoccimjio mhoto Jbynu H3 
pa3JiHHHTHx KpajeBa. Memaibe CTaHOBHHiuTBa OBAe je 3anonejio paHHJe h 
6hjio MHoro jane Hero y Bcjihkom H3BOpy. O tomc CBeAone MeuioBHTH 6pa- 
kobh, kojh Aonnpy ao nerapn reiiepauHJe yna3aA- Bpoj noTOMaKa CTapHX 
TeTeBeHaqa OBAe je TeuiKo yTBpAnra jep Aanac y cejiy, npeMa HauiHM hc- 
Tpa)KHBaH>HMa, He nocTOJH HHJeflHa nopoAHua hhcto 6yrapcKor nopeKJia. 
36or thx Be3a h h>hxob je je3HK npeTpneo BHine yrauaja cpncKor Hero y 
B&jihkom H3Bopy, a mjwah ra, ochm y Kyhn, mirae He roBope. HHTepecaHT- 
ho je to iiiTO ohm je^HHH oa npHnaAHHKa OBe MnrpaunoHe CTpyje cboj ro- 
Bop na3MBajy Oh/iaapcKu. TeTeBeHue OBAe 30By 6y2apduiu h to OApefyetbe 
HMa HeraTHBHy KOHOTaunjy, ihto ce BHme oceha y pa3FOBopy ca CTapnJHM 
BjiauiKHM CTaHOBHHUHMa, Hero ca ocTajiHM, noceGHo MJiaAHM rpJtaHUHMa. 

y Bpeivie oko IIpBor cpncKor ycTaHKa, TaHHHJe 1798. toahhc (Kan- 
MHh 1 977:49), 5 TpHAeceTaK nopoAHua m BejiHKor KbBopa hccuhjio ce y 
PecaBy h nopeA CBHjiaJHua ocHOBano ceno ,3,y6jbe. Oho AaHac HMa oko 
1630 CTaHOBHHKa, Cp6a h HeniTO Buaxa, yrjiaBHOM acena yAaTHX y to ce- 
jio. H OBAe je, i<ao y Bcjihrom H3B0py, Ayro Gnjia 3acTynjLeHa eHAoraMH- 
ja ycjiOBjbeHa OHHraeAHO cthhhkom pa3HHHHTomfty y OAnocy Ha cyceAe 
(llaHTejiHh 1965-1966:169). CrapoceAeouH, npecejteHHUH H3 BejiHKor 
H3Bopa, H3Jauiii>aBajy ce Kao Cp6n, cjiaBe cuaBy, a caMO ce CTapnjn cehajy 
CTapnx oGnnaja. CrapHJe reHepaunje roBope dyd&aucKu, aok MJiaAH ro- 
Bope caMO cpncKH. 

IlocToje noAauH (/JauoB 1884:35; CraHOJeBHh 1937:58) m HMa no- 
TOMaKa H3 OBe MnrpaunoHe CTpyje h y ApyrHM pernoHHMa y CpGnjn: y 
JleneHHLtH, y okojihhh CMeAepeBa, ann ohh cy, npeMa HaiiiHM ca3Han»H- 
Ma, noTnyHO acHMMJiOBann. 



ToBop AOcejbeHHKa ca noapy*ija TeTeBeHa 

AHanH30M 3annca ca Tpn HCTpa^ena nyHKTa Mo>Ke ce 3aKJByHHTH m 
ce paAH o hctom y ochobh GyrapcKOM HAHOMy, kojh je y KOHTaKTy ca cpn- 
ckhm AHJajieKTHMa H3 HaJHenocpeAHHJer OKpy>Ken>a npeTpneo pa3JiHHHTH 
CTeneH npoMeHa. ^Bpinha Be3a nocTOJH H3Mel)y BejiHKOH3BopcKor h Ay- 
GjLaHCKor, uito ce HajjiaKme MO>Ke BHAera y cncTeMy jihhhhx 3aMeHHua. Y 
HOMHHaTHBy y BejiHKOH3Bopci<OM oh rjiacn: ac, TH, TOJ / T'a / TO, nne, BHe, 
tc; y Ay6ji>aHCKOM: ac / a3e, th, toj / T'a / to, HHe, BHe, Te, aok je y TpjLaHy 
: ja, th, oh / OHa, ohh, mh, bh, ohh. Beha Gjihckoct H3Mei)y roBopa TpjtaHa 
h cpncKor nocjieAHua je mhoto (^jieKCHGnjinHJer OAHOca TpjbaHaua npeMa 



5 EIpeMa M. OraHqjeBHhy (CTaHOJeBHh 1937:58) cejio JXyQjht je ocHOBaHO H3Mel)y 
1807. h 1809. roAHHe. 



Maja ByKnh: Tetebehckh BvrAi'ii y hctomiioj Cpbiuii 99 



HenocpeziHHM cyce^HMa kojh npiinaxtajy Heicoj Apyroj eTHHHKOj rpynn, 6 He- 
ro uito je to cjiynaj y BejiHKOM M3Bopy. y J\y6iby naic nojio>Kaj cejia vthhc 
Ha CTaH>e je3HKa AOHeror H3 BejuiKor H3i?opa npe jxbsl Beica. HaMMe, to je 
cejio octpbo y KOCOBCKO-pecaBCKOM h BJianiKOM roBopiiOM OKpy>Keiby, luto 
je zto6ap npeflycuoB 3a onyBatbe je3HKa axo 3a to nocTOJH >icejba kojx caMHx 
roBopHHKa. Tokom pa3roBopa Ha rcpeny jiai<o ce Momo npHMCTHTH ^a je Ta 
>nejba cbc Maita, HapOHHTO koa MJiaflHX. 

Ha ocHOBy oco6Hna roBopa OBa TpH cejia Momo 6h ce peliH hcihto 
bhihc o MecTHMa y ByrapcKOj" m kojhx noruMy AaiiaunbH h>hxobm CTanoB- 
hhiih 6yrapcKor nopeKJia. Buiue ayropa (IiaHTejinh 1965-1966:169; 
Hbh& 1991:257; KpcTHh 2002:77) roBopn TeTCBeHy 11 okojihhh Kao hc- 
xoflHiuTy OBe MHrpaunone CTpyje ca iiOHCTKa XVIII Bena, am 6e3 HaBO- 
l)eH»a npHMapHHx hctophjckhx H3Bopa. ITpeivia 6yrapcKHM (jwjiojiosHMa 
(BacHJtoB 1883:148; Ctojhcb 1915:23; MjiaaeHOB 1930:1 12) TeTeBCHCKH 
je cneuH(})H4aH roBop HCTOHno6yrapcKor AnjajieKTa, a H>eroBa Hajxapaic- 
TepHCTHHHHJa upTe jecTe: CTapo /K, L, T> noA ai<u,eHTOM > e 1 ' {Ke c 'iuuia, de°iu, 
de a H); HCTy bpcuhoct HMa h 0Apcl)enH qjian HMCfuma m. poAa ica^a je nojx 
aKueiiTOM (zpade") h OApel)eHH njiaH HMcnnua >k. poAa icoje ce 3aBpmaBa- 
jy Ha cyrjiaciiHK (iiou(uie a ). 7 Ilocjie BHiue oa iiona BeKa XpHCTO Xojthoji- 
neB 8 6ejie>KH p,a ce uiMpoxo e ry6n nofl yTHuajeM K&isxssmr jeSHKa h y 
toj no3HUHJH jaBJba ce t>. 9 OncKHBajio 6h ce Aa eesiuKomaopcKu, dyd/bau- 
cku h zp/bdiiCKu 6yrapcKH Kao CBOJeBpcHH HsojiaTH (Hajia3e ce y Heno- 
cpe^HOM OKpyjKeiby cpncKor h BJiauiKor) TaKolje noceAyjy OBy oco6HHy 
hjih Aa cy ce y thm no3HinijaMa jaBHjie oHe BpeAHOcra Koje ce cpehy y 
cpncKOM. Met)yTHM, OHa ce He jaBJba hh y jeflHOM oa obhx roBopa, hhth 
ce OB^e cpehy cpncKe BpeAHocra (yK > y, Tb, b > a) Kao AOMHuaHrae, B eh 
ona Kojy noce^yje BetiHHa 6yrapcKHx AHJajieKaTa: K, b, 1>, > t> (rcbiifa, 
ckh, d-bii). KaKO npei<o perHOna TeTeBeHa npejia3H CHon H3onnoca, KOJHMa 
ce OBaj roBop pa3ABaja oa cyceAHHx 3anaAHHx, jy^KHHx h hctomhhx tobo- 
pa (XonHOJineB 1981:21), obo Moace HaBecTH 11a noMHcao Aa Ty MHrpauH- 
OHy CTpyjy HHcy hhhhjih caMO TeTeBeHUH, Beh h Byrapn H3 Apyrnx Meera 
neuiTO AaJbe oa TexeBeHa, hhjh iobop He npHna^a hctom xHijajieKTy. 



6 Ha to je yxnuao mhoix> pa3HOBpcniijn cthhmkh cacraB TpjLaHa, kojh ce Ha;ia3n y 
Henocpeanoj 6jih3hhh sell noMenyTor pyzuiHKa yr\ri>a. 

7 Kao ocTajie KapaKrepHCTHHHe ocoohhc TeTeBenci<or HaBoac ce: nocrojaitc P, JI 
(npc, cnnue); jiHiBa saMeHHma 1. ft. ]n- rjiacn ac, ase\ cyrjiacHHK X Hwa ocna6jT>eny apni- 
KyjiauHJy hjih cc ry6H (/1 'ail, Puciuo, ecftau) ma.. 

8 Xomiomcn 1981:23. 

9 Mcth ay-rop (Xojihojihcb 1981 :23) noMHite m P h JI CBe Mai-ue HMajy cjioroTBop- 
ny (j)yiiKunjy, Beh #a ce iia ibnxoBOM Mecry nojaB/byje i>p, m, ph, m>, TaKofe won. yTnua- 
jeM KtbH>i<eBHor je3Hi<a van. 



100 CKPMBEHE MAIbMHE HA Ea/IKAHY 



Oahoc upeivia je3HKy h eTHMHKOJ npunaflHOCTM 

Oahoc noTOMaKa TcTCBenaua y Cp6nJH upeivia cbom BepHaKyjiapy 
HHJe hcth y CBa TpH nocMaTpaHa cejia. BexiHKOH3BopuH h ^y6jbaHuw oa- 
6njajy Aa Ka>Ky %<x je h>hxob roBop GyrapcKM, Beh ra CMaTpajy 3a HeiUTO 
je^HHCTBeHo: hm cpncKH, hh 6yrapcKH, no caMo „h3bopckh" h „Ay6ji>aH- 
ckm". y nopoAHuaMa rzie Hnje 6mjio MeiuaHHX 6paKOBa h r^e cbm HJiaHOBH 
roBope thm hcthm hahomom, oh HMa CBojy GyAyhnocT h y cjie^ehMM re- 
HcpauHJaNia. Mcto je h ykojihko je MaTepH>H jesHK neKor oa npHAOuuiHx 
4jiaH0Ba (cuaja hjih 3eT) hckh oa je3HKa cthmhkhx Maiwuia, 10 MeljyTHM ca 
AOJiacKOM y nopoflHuy roBopuHKa BehHHCKor cpiiCKor je3HKa CTBapa ce 
join je^an moacji yHyTpauiH>e KOMyiiHKauHJe, a H3nie,aH 3a npe>KHBJi>aBa- 
H>e GyrapcKor HAMOMa y aneAehoj rcnepauHJM 3naTHO ce CMan>yjy. Pa3.no- 
3M 3a obo ne>Ke y ApymTBenoM npecTH>Ky kojh hoch je3MK Befiirae y oaho- 
cy Ha MaitHHCKH mahom. Oahoc npeMa 6yrapcKOM BepHaKyjiapy y TaKBMM 
nopoAHijaMa Kpefre ce oa napajiejiHe ynoipe6e ca cpncKHM, a;iH caMo y 
KOMyHHKaijHJH y KyhH, ao 3a6pane acu.h Aa roBope Ha GyrapcKOM Aa He 
6h aolujio ao je3HHKe HHTep(|)epeHiiHJe m rpemaKa npn ynoTpe6H cpncKor. 
Taxo ce AOJia3H ao CHTyaunje Aa cy y AOMahHHCTBHMa ca Tpn, na h hctm- 
pn reHepaqHJe HajcTapHJH HjianoBH GyrapCKH mohotjioth, cpeAH>a reHcpa- 
uwja ynoTpeSjLaBa 6yrapcKH y Kyhn, a cpncKH y ApyuiTBy, a HaJMJiaI)H ce 
CJiynce caMo cpncKHM y3 nacwBHO 3Han>e 6yrapcKor. Tpe6a TaKot)e Hama- 
chth Aa je je3HHKa KOMneTCHUHJa y cpiiCKOM 3HaTH0 Bcha KOA CTapHX H 
MyuiKapaua cpeAH>Hx roAMHa, Hero koa aceaa HCTe crapocne ao6h, llito 
Tpe6a noBe3aTH ca Hajneiuhe BehiiM o6pa30BaHJeM, cjiy>KeH>eM BOJHor po- 
Ka h 3anocjreH>eM y rpaAy, Aok cy tkcuq mhoto pel)e Hanymxajie cejio. Koa 
MJia^HX reHepauHJa y obom cMHCJiy caMo ce cxeneH o6pa30Baa>a mohcc Ha- 
BecTH Kao KpHTepHJyM. 

Bhah ce Aa je, AaKJie, 3HanajHa yjiora o6pa30Biior cwcTeivia koa na- 
nyuiTaH>a BepHaKyjiapa h npenacKa Ha cpncKH Kao je3HK BehHHCKor CTa- 
HOBHHiiiTBa h yjeAHO cjiy^K6eiiH je3HK. HapoHHTO nocjie /Jpyror CBeTCKor 
paTa noBehao ce 6poj Aeue Koja cy nacTaBHjia iiiKOJiOBatLe h najia3HJia no- 
cao y rpaAy h caMHM thm GHjia CBe Ay>Ke OABOJeHa oa nopoAHije h y Be- 
heM KOHTaKTy ca cpncKHM. Bnuje o6pa30BaH>e y AnpeKTHOJ je Be3H ca Be- 
hHM ApyuiTBeHHM npecTH^coM, a oh je HepacKHAHBO riOBe3aH ca ynoTpe- 
6om CTaHAapAHor je3HKa. Ha CBe to Tpe6a aoflara CBe pa3BHJeHnje MeAHJe 
m ibnxoB BejiHKH yrauaj Ha pa3Boj omnxe, a caMHM thm h jesfiraiee KyjiTy- 
pe. riopeA He3aneMapjLHBor yrauaja cbhx obmx MMHHjiaua CMaTpaMO Aa 
oncTaHaK BepHaKyjiapa y HapeAHHM reHepaunjaMa HaJBHme 3aBHCH oa 
CTaBa h cacTaBa nopoAHije, oah. AOMahwHCTBa. 



10 OB,ae MMaMO HaponnTO y BH^y BjiauiKu y /ly6ji>y h fpjbaHy. 



Maja ByKHh: Tetebehckh ByrAPH y hctohhoj Cpbhjm 1 q i 



y Vpjhmy 36or bcjihkof 6poja Meniaunx 6paKOBa HMa Ma:io nopoAnna 
y KoJHMa ce ynoTpe6jtaBa GyrapcKH Kao moacji yHyTpaume KOMyHHKaHHJe h 
H>eroBa je 6yAynH0CT Hen3Becna. MaKO je oh hoa BehHM yrauajeM cpriCKor, 
Hero dyd/bancKu h eeniiKomeopcKu, iteroBH roBopiwuH ra HasMBajy 6yrap- 

CKHM, I1IT0 HaBOflH Ha 3aKJtyHaK m Cy BeJIHKOH3BOpiIH H /ty6jLaiIUH CBeCHH 

Aa ce pa3JiHKyjy oa HenocpeAHor oi<py>KeH>a, ajiH He acejie Aa ce to aoboah y 
Be3y ca ByrapCKOM h EyrapHMa, aok y TpjtaHy ca 3HaTHO xeTeporenHJHM cr- 

HHMKHM CaCTaBOM CTaHOBHHLUTBa nOMHIbaH,e 6HJIO KaKBC 03HaKe Ca KOHOTa- 

uhjom o eTHHHKOJ npnnaAHOCTH Mrpa MHoro MaH>y yjiory. 

ITocTaBJBa ce nnTaite KaKo je oBAe aoihjio ao ry6HTKa cBecra o eT- 
iiHHKOj* npHnaflHocTH. O/iroBop Ha to Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH y ABa ocHOBHa civie- 
pa: y OAnocy HcejteiiHKa npeMa Maraud h y cTaBy caMe MaTHHHe Ap^aBe 
npena cbojoj cthhtooj MaiBHHH. Hotomiih nopoAHua H36erj7Hx H3 TeTe- 
Beiia h OKOJiHue He nernpajy HHiteinmy Aa cy mm upeiiH aouijih H3 Eyrap- 
ci<e, ajiH cc eTHHHKH AeKJiapHmy i<ao Cp6n. Ilocjie BHine oa TpncTa toah- 
na oa npeccjteH>a ohh cbom nopeiory ne npnAajy bcjihkh 3nanaj h He no- 
Ka3yjy HHKaKBy >KejBy 3a hckhm bhaom HHCTHTynnoHajiHor noBe3HBaH>a 
ca nocTOj'6HHOM cbojhx npeAaKa hjth opraHH30BaHOM 6yrapcKOM eT- 
hhhkom MaitHHOM y Cp6HJH. C Apyre CTpaHe, BejiHKOH3BopnH, a ocTajin 
y MaH,oM MepH, 0Ap>KaBajy npHBaTHe Be3e ca pol)an,HMa c Apyre CTpaHe 
AP>KaBHe rpaHHue. Ohh ce He ocehajy h He >Kejie Aa 6yAy TpeTHpaHH Kao 
eTHHHKa MafbHua h y caAaumcM TpcuyTKy cBaKH noKyuiaj o>KHBJtaBaH>a 
nenor ocehan,a o ermmKoj npnnaAHOCTH 6yrapCKOj naqHJH Haninao 6h na 
OTnop h Mel)y cTapHJHM CTaiiOBHHHHMa, a HapoHHTO Me^y MjiaAHMa, 6hjio 
Aa HHHUHJaTHBa noTeKHe ca CTpaHe, 6hjio Aa ce 3anHe Mel)y itHMa'caMH- 
Ma. BepoBaTHo 6h h>hxob oahoc npeMa ByrapcKoj 6ho apykhhjh Aa je 
it-eH ckohomckh h nojiHTHHKH no/io>Kaj noBOJLHHJH. Ykojihko ce caAaume 
c-raae npoMeHH y ho3hthbhom cmhcjiy, oho MO>Ke noByhn h npoMeHy 
CBecTH o eTHHHKoj npnnaAHOCTH koa noTOMaKa iiOMenyTe npecejLeHHHKe 
CTpyje. y obom TpeHyTKy BejiHKOH3Bopnn, rpjbanuH h JJ,y6jbmu,H 6yrap- 
CKor nopexjia Hncy HHCpxpnopHH y ckohomckom h hojihthhkom CMHCJiy y 
OAHOcy Ha ocTajio CTaHOBHHiiiTBo y hctohhoj Cp6HJH na He noKa3yjy hh- 
Tepec 3a hckhm bhaom a^HpMannje TaKO ihto 6h ce noBe3ajin ca 3aBHqa- 
jeM npeAaKa, Beh, HanporaB, nHTa^a: Aa jih ce ocehajy Kao Byrapn; Aa jih 
6h Tpe6ajro yBecra 6yrapcKH Kao npeAMeT y ocHOBHy iHKOJiy hjih noKpe- 
Hyra jihct Ha 6yrapcKOM je3HKy AOKHBJtaBajy totobo Kao yBpeAy. 11 

11 OBaKBa peaKunja ne \io>Ke ce H3JeAHaHaBa™ ca kccho(})o6hjom npeMa ByrapHMa 
npiicyraoM h Aa H ac y jyroHCTOHHoj h jyacHOj C P 6hjh Kao noc/ieAHua paxoaa Ha obhm npo- 
CTOpuMa, Ka^a cy Byrapn h Cp6w no npa B H/iy 6hjih H a cynpoTHHM CTpaHaMa. Hh y jcahom 
oa cejia y KoJHMa flawae jkhbc iiotomuh TeTeBenaua tokom nocjieAiter, Apyror cbctckoi- 
paTa hhjc 6hjio 6yrapcKHx Tpyna (MnjioBaHOBMh 1995:192). 



1 02 CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA EA/IKAHy 



Hh CTaB MaTHHHe zipxKaBe HHJe 6e3 3Hanaja. 3acaaa HaM HHJe no3HaT 
HHJeaaH noKyiuaj ByrapcKe zia ycnocTaBM Hene TpaJHHJe h HBpuine Be3e 
H3Me^y CTaHOBHHKa HCTor nopeK/ia ca o6e cTpaHe OBor AeJia #p>KaBHe 
rpaHHue. 12 



* * 



nocMaTpajyhH CTaHOBHHiiiTBO HCTOMHe Cp6HJe nopeKjioiw H3 TeTe- 
Bena h okojihhc 3aKJtyHyjeM0 j\a ce OBAe pa#H o MaitHHH Koja he h AaJte 
odaTH CKpHBena H3 concTBeHe acejte 3a HeacJwpMauHJOM. H>hxob je3HK, 
Kao HaJH3pa3HTHJe ahcthhkthbho o6ejie>KJe, nocrreneHO ry6n npHMaT naK 
h y KOMyHHKamiJH yHyTap nopoAHije. Ha to y-raqy o6pa30BHH chctcm, 
MeflHJH, ajiH HaJBHiue noTpeSa, noce6HO koa MJiafjnx reHepaunja, Aa ce 
6y^e npuxBaheH y ApyuiTBy. 

Ohh 3Hajy j\a. cy hm npeuM aoihjih h3 Byrapcxe, ajiH nocjie TpH Bei<a 
y cpncKOJ Ap^KaBH cthhhkh ce6e civiaTpajy Cp6HMa h He noica3yjy aceiby 
3a nOBe3HBan>eM ca HHCTHTynnjaMa HCxoAHiime Ap>KaBe. 

TpaHCKpniiTH 3anHca ca Tepena y eejiHMa rpjfcan, 

BejiHKH H3Bop h Ay^Jbe 

Kora ce poAH AeTe, ohh ra KperaT. 36npaT Tyica MajiKO naHy^a. Tana 
ce BHKajio, caa ce Kaace poA'eHAaH, a ToyraBa naHyaa. KpcTar flerero h 
nocne... Ha BaeitJi' 3hmh, HoBa roflHHa KaA e, crapa HoBa roAHHa. HAe ce c 
AeTCTO, HMa 6a6Hna Kofia ra hoch, KyMHua h 6a6Hua ra, acena hoch TBona, 
koh th e naH-6jiH-^H poA'aK. Oh ro hoch AeTeTO y HpKBa, icyMHua ro Bpma 
H3 HpKBaTa KaA ra kjScth. H nocjie OHa HAe, ... Ha BacHJi' h h6 3HaM Ha koh 
houi° Ha CBera HobKh h ToyraBa ce hoch npn Ta"a MoniHKa, OHa ce BHKa 
MOiiiHKa Taa mo e 6a6HH,a Kao, ona My Bp>Ke niirtK h HAeui npn nea. H6kh 
GoraTauiH ho-hmothh HAaT, ohh HAaT "cac CBHpaHe, cac Becen'e, BHKaT 
ceAaM-ocaM AyuiH c h'h. Koh HeMa c Koro, oh ch HAe c AeTeTO. OHa ra 
AHra rope Ha npar ot TyKa: Aime 3a MJioro toahhh as mm Ao fi Aem. JSfira ra 
OHa AeTe ot npBa roAHHa na ao ceAaM-ocaM toahh; act6 cb6 ra hochhj 
TaMO Aa ra..., Ha TH fi a ABa-rpn npa3HHKa... ToBa ce BHKa MOuiHKa. (...) 
MouiHKa BHKaMe na Taa mo hoch actcto, mo e MoiHHKa Ha actcto, mo My 
Kao Bp3ana ninaK. B3eMe Kocara ot MafiKaTa ot rattB&ra. Cac BJiaKHO ot 
MaiiKa" ot Koca 1 * na My Bpace rrb'naic. (Cac KaKBO pe^ce?) Ha HHcaM pe3ajia, 
He 3HaM, HHcaM hh BHAeAa. (A Ha tbohtc Aeua?) na He 3HaM, TaBa >KCHa OHa 
ra KHHana na ch oh nocjie OTiiaAHe, TypHein My Boca^K Ha nynaKa KaA ra 



12 HHc})opMaTop CTaHa AyKHh H3 Tpjbana oriHcana je opraHH30BaHH cycpeT pol)aKa 
H3 rpjbana h cejia H3 okojihhc Kyjie Ha rpaHHUH oko 1970, ajiH TaKaB AoraI)aj HHJe noHo- 
B^.eH. 



Maja ByKHh: Tetebehckh ByrAPH y hctomhoj Cpshjh 103 



noBHem h... HeMa KaTO cira naMnepe h fl'aBOJie. Mafeo, cnpoMawHo 6hjio, 
CHpOMauiHo! H TypHe My Tana napqeHne ot BOcaK h 3a Hezte- 
ji'a-£Be-TpH-qeTHpH, koh KaKO e na Meco, Ha paiiy h OTnaAHe, h OTnaAHe 
My nynaKa. H koh e Bp3aH no-HaBvrpe, oh ce ne bhah, a koh He, oh bhch 
ManKO Ha nina h, na ce noBJiene i<oa rqt&to Hapaere. 

^ecaHKa CTaHKOBHh, pol)eHa 1916, Fpjhan 

A3 ct>m rn AOHjia. Toa Mn/ie Tpn roAHH TaHHo; h cir KpaKara Tai<a 
e. H^eMe Ha HHBaTa. Axe Kona, a toh mh 3eMe MOTHKaTa na (})aHe 3a 
AP>KajieTO TaKa, na na (J)ira h hoch mh cto Aa ceflH'a: H'yVn, n'yVH, 
MaMO, aa uhhh, jxi nnnn, MaMo. Ha ceaHa y cp'ag HHBaTa h Aoa. Th mh 
Kaeui c-bM ra nyBajia y AOMaTa, ce^'ajia ct>m y AOMara KaTO cera?! He ce 
TOBa /taBano TyraBa. Tan e#HH dm, Tan Ma naMTa Moa cBCKb-p. Taa ApTaTa 
mh Atniepa acto y OpaimycKy, a Toa Moa mobck toh MaHryn He hit 'an Aa 
Hfle na HHBaTa, ne pa6oTHJi. Ton ch Haftae OB^e KaKBO n'dmo HMa, h caMO 
m ne H^e Ha HHBa. Ako HAe, toh HAe 3a MaiiKoy h e Bene; eAHH ni>T H3Ji'e 
6ajioHH c Bo,aaTa: Ao, HeMa BOAa! Ahac Aa ch HAa, Aa AOHeca BOAa h Aa 
AaM Ha nHJieTaTa Aa HaA^T h MaHKa My ro nyiHH. A3 KaKBO Aa npaa, a3 
Kona c OHHa CTapnn, Kona ch h noHeca AeTCTo, Bp»a ji'yjina 3a eAHO 
ApBO, Ji'yjiKaTa OTBp3BaM, Bp3BaM h u'aji ach chVo ji'yjia h chh Ha 
HHBaTa, a3 Konana, ia'aMa TO°Ba Aa nyBam y AOMa ch act6. Hok, 6paTe! 
ToBa He HMano, Hero Ha HHBaTa, Konaeui... A3 ro noAoa h ocTaBa ro h 
3HMam MOTHKa. To Ma;iKO njiane h norvieAHa acto 3acna.no. TypaM My 
c'aHHHqa, czma Kpna My TypaM; c'aHHHua, Aa ro He naAiT MyiHHHH. 

,fl,eca CTeBaHOBHh, potjeHa 1926, J\y6jbe 

KaKBO ch HanpaBHii, 6pe? LUto ch naAHaji TyKa? Toh peKifai: 
MinHo mh e. CaMo TOBa peKaMi. Mb'nHO mh e, a rae&a, BHKa, b mchc h 
caMO TOBa pcKa^ji, m^hho mh e h BHuie ne npopoT'aji hhlijo h T'a TyraBa 
OTHiHJia na BHKana Bnojiera h BjiaTKa. H3k6hhjic h 6p30 BnoneTa Aonuia 
Ha Tejinc[)6H'a Aa Anpn Ha QoMoh, j\a AOAe xuiuna uomoPi m bhah TyKa, a 
BjiarKO ro Tpi<aji, BHKaji, TpKan, BHKaji, aok BHca THHana TaMe no niT'a 
Aa th nocpcume. AopAe Tnna Aa AOAaT h toh, BnojieTa Ka>Ke: TaMaH 
KonaTa CTHTHaT na BpaTHHKa h toh caMO ce nyuj;H AyuiaTa. Pene caMO 
TaKa yyy-yyy-yyy, Tpn na^ra h totobo. (KtAe oraBa AyuiaTa?) BaA'nM 
AymaTa HAe Ha He6eT0 (...) I^Ma MHorOBa ca BHKajie, ne H'aKOH ce 
yBeMiinpH. (Koh?) ITa 6ar'nM Tnna acto yMpaT. (Bchhkh jih?) He 
CHHKHTe, Hero koh ih He JieKyBaT. Hne Kora Bohiko yMp'aji, HHe CMe My 
Typnajie, 3Haeiu Konne ot naHTanoHe? (J\a.7) E, HHe CMe My TypHajie HaA 
e3HK OTrope. (3aujo?) Typa ce, qe e mm 9 ho ejiH Aa My 3a6oAeni, Ka>Ke, 
aMa koh HAe, koh me th, Aa My 6oAe hjhui b MeniHHaTa. 

MnjieBa KhthR, po^ena 1917, Bcjihkh H3Bop 



104 CkPMBEHE MAIbHHE HA BAJIKAHY 



JlHTepaTypa 

BacHjr>0B 1 883: ToMaBacnjihOB, Hjikojiko 6cjtc>kkh Btpxy TeTeBencKHW roBop.Uepu- 
odunecKO cnucaitue 6, BKJX, Coc{)hh. 

/JauoB 1884: C. )Kmbkob ^auoB, 3aimap u nezoeomo nace/tenue, HtpHcaBHa ncHaTiin- 
ua, Cpcjxon. 

HbhIi 1991: llaBJie Hi$Hh, MwrpauMJc GajiKancKnx GnoBeHa y cbctjioctm jihhtbh- 
cthhkc reorpac|)HJc, O cjioeertcKUM je3uifit\ta u duja/ieKuiuAta (H3a6paHH orjie- 
m I), IlpocBeTa, Hhlu. 

KajiMwh 1 977: CeprHJe KajiMHh, Be/mm M3eop Kpo3 eeKoee, Paflno-HOBHucKa ycTano- 
Ba Thmok, 3aje i iap. 

KpcTHh 2002: /JejaH Kpcrnh, TopnanH y CpGnJH, UupomcKu 36opnuK 27-28, rinpoT. 

MHjiOBaHOBHfrl995: CnoGonaH MMJiOBai-iOBHh, IleTap KanascHAa, BeKoeu Cp6a. Cp- 
6u, cpcKe dpoicaee u3eM/be 9 „^anKOMcpu" eKcnopT-HMnopT, Fopii»H MMJiauo- 
Bau. 

Mjia/jeHOB 1930: CTCc[)aH MnancnoB, EtJirapcKHTe HapoflHH roBopn bt> JloBMancKO, 
TponucKO it TemeeencKO, JJoeeu a /loenaiiCKo. FeoepcHpcKo, ncmopunecKO u 
Kynmypno omtcanue, kh. 2, Coc|)Ha. 

nairreJiHh 1965-1966: HHKOJia nanTCJiHh, Ce.no, cpo^cTBO h nopo^Hua, DiacHUK Eui- 
HozpaxpcKoa My3eja y Eeoapady 28-29, EeorpaA. 

IleTpoBHh 1897: MuTa fleTpoBMh, &uH&HCUje u yciucmoee odnoe/ijene Cpduje I, Eeo- 
rpaa. 

CraHOJeBHh 1937: MapHHKO CTaHojeBHh, 36opnwc ripunoza 3a tio3Haeanje Tumohkc 
Kpajune IV, 3ajcnap. 

Ctojhcb 1915: Kptcro Ctohhcb, Tctcbchckh roBop, C6opmiK3a napodnu yMomeope- 
huh u napodonnc XXXI, Coc})hh. 

XojiHOJiHeBl981 : XpHCTO Xojihojtmcb, TemeeencKu eoeop, Cmpamnju om Miinanomo 
na TemeeencKun Kpaii, H3flaTCJicTBO Ha 0Tc i iccTBCHHjb <j)poiiT, Coc^hh. 

U,BHJHh 1 966: JoBan UBHJwh, BcuiKaucKO uonyocwpeo ujyotcnoMopaecKe 3eMA>e, 3aBO/t 
3a H3^aBaite yu6eiiHKa CPC, Eeorpaa. 



Maja Vukic 

Teteven Bulgarians in Eastern Serbia 

Unbearable life conditions at the beginning of the 18 century in Bulgaria under the 
Turks determined a part of the population to leave their homes and move West. Thus many 
families from Teteven and the neighbouring villages withdrew and settled in several villages 
near the present Bulgarian-Serbian border, while some of them crossed Vrska Cuka and 
remained in Grljan, Zajecar and Veliki Izvor. At the beginning of the next century many of them 
left Veliki Izvor and moved to central Serbia. The Teteven newcomers found the old population 
in the places of today's East Serbia and mingled with them to different extents. 

Today there are no Teteven descendants in Zajecar who preserve the language and the 
customs from their original settlements. This was largely influenced by the political conditions 



Maja ByKHh: Tetebemckh ByrAPH y hctohiioj Cph 



mjm 



105 



after the separation of this town and its surrounding from the Vidin Pashadom in 1833 and its 
annexation to Serbia. 

For that time Veliki Izvor (5 km East of Zajecar) was a big village even before the arrival 
of Teteven people. The old population was Serbian. For more then a century there were no 
marriage links between the Bulgarians and the Serbs. That helped the Teteven population to 
preserve their language and customs. 

Their gradual disappearence started with the marriages of young men from donji kraj 
with the girls from gornji kraj. Their children adopted their mothers' tongue, so that in time the 
language of the newcomers has imposed itself to the whole village, but it has also suffered the 
Serbian influence. They find themselves Serbs, they have Serbian surnames, they celebrate the 
feast of the patron saint (slava), but they keep in touch with their relatives from Kula, Izvor 
Mahala and surrounding villages in Bulgaria. Veliki Izvor has about 2680 inhabitants, and the 
basic occupation is agriculture. 

In Grljan (5 km South of Zajecar) Bulgarians found the Vlachs and settled on the other 
side of the small river which divides the village today. That part of Grljan has been called 
B'lgarija for a long time. Because of the closeness of the coalmine Vrska Cuka, a lot of people 
came to Grljan from different regions at different times. The mingling of people started here 
earlier and it was much stronger than in Veliki Izvor. The Teteven people are here known as 
bugarasi and it is difficult to determine their number because today in the village there is not a 
single family whose origin is strictly Bulgarian. That is why their language suffered from 
greater Serbian influence than in Veliki Izvor. Young people do not use it, except in the house. 
They are the only members of this migration wave who call their language b'lgarski. 

At the time of the First Serbian Uprising several families from Veliki Izvor moved to 
Resava and founded the Dubljc village near Svilajnac. Today the village has about 1630 
inhabitants. The first inhabitants, the newcomers from Veliki Izvor, declare themselves Serbs, 
celebrate the patron saint, and only the elders remember the old customs. Older generations 
speak dubljanski, while the young speak only Serbian. 

When we examine the languages of these three villages, we normally notice some 
common features, but also a certain number of phonological and morphological differences. A 
greater number of similarities exists between the languages of Veliki Izvor and Dublje than 
between the language of Grljan and the previous two. 

Several historical documents mention Teteven and the surroundings as source of this 
migration wave from the beginning of the 18 th century. Teteven is a specific form of the East 
Bulgarian dialect and its most characteristic trait is : JR, B, t under accent > e a . One would 
expect that velikoizvorski, dubljanski and bdlgarski of Grljan, as some kind of isolated 
languages (they are encircled by Serbian and Vlach), also have most of the Teteven 
characteristics, but it is not like this. We do not find instead of this any Serbian traits, but those 
which can be found in most Bulgarian dialects. The Teteven dialect is in contact with other East 
and West Bulgarian dialects which points to the fact that not only Teteven people,' but also 
Bulgarians from other places, not far from Teteven, who spoke other Bulgarian dialects, were 
part of this migration wave. 

The attitude of the Teteven descendants in Serbia towards their vernacular is not the 
same in the three observed villages. The inhabitants of Veliki Izvor and Dublje refuse to say that 
their language is Bulgarian; they consider it as something unique: neither Serbian, nor 
Bulgarian, but simply izvorski and dubljanski. In families without mixed marriages, and where 
all the members speak this idiom, it will be preserved by the next generations. The same thing 
happens if the mother tongue of a new member is one of the languages of ethnic minorities, but 
with the coming into the family of a speaker of Serbian (majority language), another model of 
internal communication is created, and the survival chances of the Bulgarian idiom are 
decreased in the next generation. The reasons for this arc to be found in the social prestige 
connected with the majority language. 

Therefore, it is our opinion that the future of this vernacular in the next generations 
depends mostly on the attitude and the structure of the family, but also on the school system, 
media etc. 

At this moment, the inhabitants of Veliki Izvor, Grljan and Dublje do not feel like, and 
do not want to be treated as ethnic minority, and any attempt of revival of some awareness of 



106 CKPHBEHE MAlhHHIZ HA EAJ1KAHY 

ethnic belonging to the Bulgarian nation will face opposition among the older inhabitants, and 
especially among the young ones, regardless of the origin of the initialivc. Their relation 
towards Bulgaria would probably be different if its economic and political positions were any 
better. If the present state improves, it would probably bring about the change in the awareness 
of ethnic belonging to the descendents of this migration wave. At the moment, the people of 
Bulgarian origin from Veliki Izvor, Grljan and Dublje are not economically and politically 
inferior to the rest of population in Eastern Serbia, and they do not seek any affirmation by 
means of establishing contact with the homeland of their ancestors, but quite the opposite: they 
consider issues like their Bulgarian identity, or whether Bulgarian should be introduced as 
school subject or the publishing of a Bulgarian journal, almost insults. 

Observing the population of Tetcvcn origin from Eastern Serbia, we can conclude that 
this is a minority which will remain hidden behind the wish not to affirm. Their language, as 
their most distinctive feature, is gradually losing its priority even in communication within 
family. The descendents of those Bulgarians who came to Eastern Serbia in the 18th century 
succeeded more or less to preserve their language and customs, but not the awareness of 
belonging to the Bulgarian nation. Under the influence of school system, media, but also 
because of their own need to be accepted by the society, they replace their mother tongue with 
Serbian. They know that their ancestors came from Bulgaria, but they consider themselves as 
ethnical Serbs. 



Klaus- Jiirgen Herm anik 



COLONIZING A (HIDDEN) MINORITY REGION 

A CASE STUDY OF MULTICULTURAL PATTERNS 

IN THE SOUTH SLOVENIAN VILLAGE 

CRMOSNJICE/TSCHERMOSCHNITZ 



Introduction 



Why has this region been selected? 

The colonization after World War II of the Slovenian Kocevje region, 
especially of the small village of Crmosnjice, resulted in a kind of 
(ex-)Yugoslavian multiethnic structure, which we can normally find only in 
towns or suburbs. The very specific attributes of this village, where national 
attitudes and racism do not play any considerable role, are a positive 
example of social life in the countryside and furthermore represent 
counterpoints to Balkan stereotypes of the different nations and ethnic 
groups of former Yugoslavia — but without any yugonostalgic revival. 
Among them one can find remnants of the Gottscheeans, who are of 
German ethnic origin. Until 1942 the Gottscheeans were the largest ethnic 
group in this region but after the times of resettlement in 1941-1942 and 
expulsion from 1944-1946 they became a hidden minority. 1 



The case study of Crmosnjice in the Kocevje-Gottschee region 

in Southern Slovenia 

Kocevje-Gottschee is the name of a wooded region in Southern 
Slovenia of about 860 square kilometers (330 square miles), reaching 

1 The case study on the village of Crmosnjice is part of FWF-projekt P 15 080 
„Hidden minorities between Central Europe and the Balkans." 

c . f . www. esf. org/gen eric/1 3 63/0009 HR epon.pdf 



1 08 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

from the Krka river in the North down to the Croatian border at the 
Kolpa river in the South. 2 The village of Crmosnjice, on which the focus 
of this paper will be laid, is situated in the valley of the Crmosnjice 
creek, at the Eastern edge of the large forest Kocevski Rog-Hornwald, 
which dominates the whole Kocevje region, both geographically and 
economically. 

Questions of interest were a) the historical circumstances leading to 
this unique way of colonization, on the one hand, and to hidden minority 
structures of the Gottscheeans, on the other; b) the present situation of 
living together in Crmosnjice and the shared neighbourhood between 
people of different nations and/or ethnic origins. 3 

In order to get answer to these questions, in October 2002 I conducted 
field work 4 in Crmosnjice: the comparison of basic ethnic markers 
(language, religion, customs, symbols, etc.) intended to render possible a 
historical and ethnological approach towards the complex identity- 
-construction of each (migrant-)family. A second focus was laid onto the 
actual process of adaptation, which takes place in Slovene elementary 
schools as well as in everyday life, where the high degree of code-switching 
of all non-Slovene migrants lead unmistakably to hidden identity structures. 
Finally the specific national-ethnic village structure of Crmosnjice was 
briefly compared with two neighbouring villages: Srednja Vas and Obcice. 



Kocevje region - state of research 

During the period of Yugoslav Communism, German and Austrian 
historians approached research on Kocevje region differently. The 
research of Slovenian historians concentrated on the connections between 
national-socialist Germany and the former 5 German minority in Slovenia 



2 Kocevje is also the name of a small town in Southern Slovenia which was the 
former administrative center of Kocevje region, and was populated by a German ethnic 
group, who called the region Gottschee and themselves Gottscheer. 

3 When I arrived for the first time in this region in autumn 2001, together with another 
Austrian ethnologist, we were invited by the Gottscheer A Itsiedler-V erein. The secretary 
Maridi Tscherne guided us through this region. In Crmosnjice she informed us about the 
present multiethnic structure and this awoke our historical and ethnological interests. 

The society Gottscheer A Itsiedler-V erein/Drustvo Kocevarjev staroselcev tries to 
preserve the remnants of the Gottscheean tradition in language and customs. 
See www.gottscheer.net/dejavnost-nem.htmt 

4 Together with Tanja Petrovic, a Serbian sociolinguist, who lives in Ljubljana. 

5 The SHS census from 1931 gives a number of 28,998 Germans in Slovenia — the 
Yugoslavian census from 1948 gives a number of 2,406. (Karncr 1998:26). 



Klaus-Jurgen Hermanik: Colonizing a minority REGION A case study ... 109 

(Biber 1966; T. Ferenc 1968). German and Austrian historians tried 
mainly to reconstruct the Gottscheean history from the latter' s point of 
view, including Gottscheean resettlement in the winter of 1941/42 and the 
expulsion of the German minority after 1945 (Egger 1983; Janko 1982; 
Wehler 1980). After the independence of Slovenia in 1991 the situation 
eased and the scholarly German/Austrian-Slovenian collaboration 
increased (Necak 1998; Jesih et al 1994, Karner 1998). 

Nevertheless, the colonization of the Kocevje region after the 
exodus of the Gottscheeans remains to be analyzed. In brief, there exists a 
lot of literature on the history, language and customs of the Gottscheeans, 
but nearly all of it ends with the resettlement of the Gottscheeans in 1941 
(Petschauer 1980; Hutter 1994; Krauland 1994; Kren 1980; Wolfram 
1980; Tschinkel 1973-1976). 

A monograph on the colonization of the Kocevje region 6 starting 
from 1941, needs to be written. This is, of course, necessary for the 
integration of the post-war colonization of Kocevje region within the 
general context of post-war colonization of Europe during the 2 nd half of 
the 20 th century. The researcher therefore has to realize a complete survey 
of the archives and extensive cultural-anthropological field studies. This 
paper focusing on Crmosnjice provides only an introduction. 

Historical and cultural background of colonization 

in Kocevje-Gottschee region 

The Gottscheeans 

The Kocevje region is part of the Balkan-Karst area and it has typi- 
cal limestone formations: plains, hollows, grottoes and caves. All these 
characteristic geological features cover 160 square kilometers (62 square 
miles) and occur throughout the large forests of Kocevski Rog: 

The forests of Gottschee are among the most beautiful in Central Europe. 
Stands of oak, beech and linden are interspred with spruce, hemlock and fir. 
The trees stand tall, their trunks clean from the ground up, and spread their 
canopy of leaves and branches 20 meters (over 65 feet) above (Schemitsch 
1976:69). 

In the 14 th century, around 1330, the German colonization of 
Kocevje began under the House of Ortenburg, which ruled over the terri- 

6 There is one remarkable Slovene monograph from Zdenko Cepic covering the 
years from 1945-1948 including Kocevje-region - Zdenko Cepic: Agrarna Reforma in 
Kolonizacija v Sloveniji (1945-1948), Maribor 1995. 



1 1 Ckpwbiziie maim-ihe ha Bajikahy 

tories of Upper Italy, Krain and parts of Carinthia down to the Drava river. 
Count Otto von Ortenburg had a strong interest in colonization, since 
without population the land was of no real value. The Kocevje region was 
inhabited by newcomers of German ethnic origin, from East Tyrol and 
Upper Carinthia, who were attracted by the special privileges offered to 
those willing to move to an uncleared forest area. 

In over 600 years the number of settlements increased to 172. The 
Kocevje region was divided up into 25 communities, 17 parishes with 90 
churches. There were 35 schools using German as the language of instruc- 
tion, (cf. Erker 1992:869) In 1880 the Gottscheean population reached its 
highest level, with 26,000 inhabitants, "but since not everyone could find 
work or make his livelihood at home, many Gottscheer had to go abroad. ' 
(Schemitsch 1976:98) After WW I the Gottscheeans no longer belonged to 
a multiethnic, polyglot Austria, but to the newly formed Kingdom of the 
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS), which ignored the interests of the 
Gottscheeans. 7 The SHS constitution guaranteed the protection of minori- 
ties and minority rights based on the treaty of St. Germain (10.9.1919) (cf. 
Karner 1998:29-31), but the administration and the schools were placed 
under national Slovene administration. 8 Only civil servants and teachers, 
about one third of the Gottscheeans, "who were able to show proof of pro- 
ficiency in the Slovenian language were allowed to keep their positions" 
(Schemitsch 1976:100). In 1921 the Gottscheeans even lost their munici- 
pal voting rights, but these were granted to them again in 1923 (cf. Karner 
1998:33). 

Additional German-Slovene nationality conflicts during the 1920s 
and the 1930s caused a new wave of Gottscheean emigration. 9 Many 
Gottscheeans migrated to Germany, Austria and the United States. The 
Kocevje region was still influenced by German nationalism. Between 
1936-1938, the Slovene administration dissolved the local branches of the 



7 "Gottscheeans living in the United States petitioned the American Government to 
intercede on behalf of their homeland, so that they get permission to become a small, 
independent country, a republic or duchy. But their efforts were in vain. In Gottschee the 
people were not idle, and cherished the same fervent hopes. In October 1918 the leaders of 
the deutscher Volksrat published a pamphlet, entitled Gottscheerland: Merkblatt zu den 
Friedensverhandlungen, in which they stressed the possibility of an independent Gottschee. 
Ibid, pp. 98 f. 

8 After the border-drawings in 1 91 9/20 a Slovene-national spirit was enforced, but it 
must be shown in a detailed way how these activities were realized, because between WW I 
and WW II the influence of the Ciiil-&-Method~$ociety was very strong in Slovenia, 
especially in regions with mixed Slovene and German ethnic structures. 

9 The census of 1941 shows 12,498 Gottscheeans (about 2754 families), which is 
less than half of the German-speaking population from 1880 (cf. Ferenc 1993:31). 



Klaus-Jurgen Hermanik: Colonizing a minority region a case study ... Ill 



Schwabisch-deutscher-Kulturbund, the largest German national-cultural 
society in Yugoslavia, which at that time served as the strongest link to 
Nazi organisations in Germany and Austria. But between 1939-1941, 
during a short period of reapprochement between Yugoslavia and Nazi 
Germany, the formerly dissolved local branches of the 
Schwabisch-deutscher-Kulturbund received permission to function again 
(cf. Karner 1998:45-46; Petschauer 1980:115). 

In April 1941 Yugoslavia was invaded and defeated by the 3 rd 
Reich, Slovenia was occupied by German, Hungarian and Italian troops. 
The Kocevje region became part of Italy and therefore, in the autumn and 
winter of 1941-42, nearly all Gottscheeans left their homes during the 
period of the so-called Gottscheean resettlement into German-occupied 
Slovenian territory near Brezice and Krsko. 10 This move was planned and 
executed by the Nazi government, whose propagandists slogan was: 
,Jfeim ins Reich" (cf. Karner 1998:93-105; see Frensing 1970). 

The resettlement of the Gottscheeans outside the old homeland [...] was 
followed by another injustice. Slovenians of the Rann region [today 
Brezice] were evacuated from their houses to various camps in the German 
territory. [...] After the resettlement in a new place, in which we [the 
Gottscheeans] were foreigners, and which could never be a new homeland, 
we had to accept, in May 1945, the even worse, bitter fate of leaving 
everything behind and fleeing in the desperate hope of reaching the 
Austrian border (Schemitsch 1976: 101). 

In the Kocevje region, the Slovene population and those few 
Gottscheeans, who did not follow the German resettlement order, were 
confronted with the violence of the Italian war offensive during 1942 and 
of Partisan warfare until 1945. A Partisan map, which was drawn up in the 
winter of 1944-45, shows that from a total of 149 villages before WW II, 
93 were burned and destroyed totally and 13 were destroyed partly, (cf. 
Ferenc 1993:65) Even the end of "WW II on May 8 th , 1945 did not end the 
Gottscheean repression. During the era of revanchism Gottscheeans 
continued to be expelled until 1946 (cf. Bahovec 2001:466-469). 



Colonization after WW II & the case of the village 

Crm osnjice/Tscherm oschn itz 

Until 1932, when the first Slovenian family settled in the village, 
Crmosnjice was populated only by German speaking Gottscheeans, who 

10 The German names were Rann for Brezice and Gurkfeld for Krsko. 



1 12 CKPHBEHE MAIbHHE HA BAJ1KAHY 



named it Tschermoschnitz. 11 During the period of resettlement 1941-42, 
all the Gottscheean families left Crmosnjice and only one Gottschecan 
woman remained. 

The specific post-war situation in the Kocevje region was enforced 
by the Slovenian Commission for the administration of the National 
Wealth, under the presidency of SNOS (Slovenski Narodnoosvobodilni 
Svet, National Council of Liberation). By autumn 1945, this Commission 
had dealt with the colonization of those villages in the Kocevje region 
where roads were not destroyed and were permitting the survival of the 
workers in the forests, mines or in state-run farms. The lack of a defined 
land register made land distribution harder, even for Slovene land owners, 
since the Italian wartime administration of their Emona district had not 
systematically registered changes in land ownership. 12 In the Kocevje 
region concrete preparations for colonization did not begin before the 
summer of 1946, while in other parts of Slovenia the agrarian land reform 
and colonization were nearly completed. Colonization at that time 
established collectivization and co-operatives, zadniga, in Slovenia. 

The first period of colonization ended in November 1947, when a 
local farmers co-operative {Kmecka Delovna Zadruga - KDZ) was 
established, under which all Slovenian families from other parts of Slovenia 
received houses and land, up to a maximum of 2.5 hectares. The land 
legally belonged to the state, (cf. Cepic 1995:199) Many colonists of that 
time had been farmers, but lost their possessions during collectivization, 
others were farm-hands or workers who wanted compensation for their 
participation in the communist revolution. Colonists drastically altered the 
age-structure in the village. There was no need to enlarge the old cemetery 
of Crmosnjice until the middle of the 1950s. 

However, the reality did not reach their expectations and only a few 
people found a new home and settled for good. The economic progress of 
Yugoslavia from the 1950s to the 1970s did not really affect the area. 
Most of the post-war Slovene colonists in Crmosnjice eventually migrated 
to cities (cf. M. Ferenc 1993:72). Responding to the social development 



11 "As the center of the Mosche region, Tschermoschnitz had a three-room school, 
the Gemeindeamt, a rectory, shops and inns, all of which lent importance to the village. 
Having electricity and constant water supply from an early date, this village was in a 
fortunate position. The nearby forest brought modest prosperity to the many waggoners in 
this region, since lumber had to be hauled to the sawmills on the Wildbach, as well as other 
materials to the railroad station in Rudolfswerth [today: Novo Mesto]. Agriculture also 
yielded good harvests." (Schemitsch 1976:78) 

12 From a total of 2532 houses in Kocevje region, 1 143 were totally and 200 partly 
destroyed. A number of only 997 were still fit for living, (cf. Cepic 1995:197-198) 



Klaus-Jurgen Hermanik: Colonizing a minority region a case study ... 113 



needs of the Yugoslavian government, the voluntary colonization of 
migrants from other parts of Yugoslavia was supported. Houses and farms 
were offered at low cost. Thus, up to the present, Croats, Bosnians and 
Kosovo Albanians have been living in Crmosnjice together with Slovenes. 
Among them there is one Roma and one half -Gottscheean woman. 

Crmosnjice today - (ex-)Yugoslavian multi ethnicity 

in a small village 



Field work examples 

The following sequence of examples avoids ethnic ranking, I present 
them relative to the chronology of the settlement: 

A) The mother of Mrs. Slavica^ M. was Gottscheean. She was the 
only Gottscheean who remained in Crmosnjice after 1941, because she 
was married to a Croat. Slavica was born in Crmosnjice in 1935, and 
attended the village school, which closed in 1975. At that time she was 
taught only in Slovene; she used her Gottschee-German at home or with 
her Gottscheean neighbours. She told us that even German Christian 
names were lost by the older generations and her own Croatian first name, 
Slavica, was an example. In public she was always speaking Slovene, but 
she finds her way easily within the multiethnic neighbourhood. She does 
not wish to participate in the community. Slavica holds the belief that 
everyone lives their lives independently from one another. 

B) Mr. Victor T. is of Slovene origin. His family was the first 
Slovenian family who came to live in Crmosnjice before 1941. When they 
arrived in 1932, from Slovenske Toplice, Viktor T., who was born in 1929, 
and his whole family learned the Gottscheean-German dialect in order to be 
able to speak with their neighbours, since it was the dominant language in 
the village until 1941. Before WW II the school of Crmosnjice was 
bilingual, Slovene and German, a situation that he welcomed. 

At the time of the interview, Mr. T. mentioned that everyone in 
Crmosnjice understands one another but everyone has his own customs. 
Before, the differnces between Gottscheean and Slovenian customs were 
not differing that much, but he remarked that interethnic marriages 
between Gottscheeans and Slovenes were rare. 

C) Family V. is of Croat ethnic origin and Mr. V. told us that he 
considers himself a "real native Crmosnjican", because he came here with 
his mother, who was from Zagreb, 35 years ago. Therefore he wanted us 
to understand that his mother tongue and, of course, the mother tongue of 
his family and his children now is Slovene. But, if necessary, he is also 



1 1 4 CKPHBEHE MAFbHHE HA EAJ1KAHY 

able to switch to Croatian. He has good contacts with his neighbours and 
they help each other in various situations: house-building, repairing cars 
etc. Although everybody has his own customs, he added, there is no 
emphasis on nationality and/or ethnic origin in Crmosnjice. 

D) In 1976 family M. arrived here from Bosnia, from a village near 
Prijedor. The father has been a migrant worker in Southern Slovenia. They 
are Muslim and they have preserved their muslim belief. They have also 
kept their bosanska kuhinja, their Bosnian kitchen. They remarked, 
however, that they sometimes drink rakija or eat bosnian Salami. At home 
they speak Bosnian and, in public, Slovene. They and their neighbours 
understand one another well. They rennovated a big old-fashioned house 
and Mr. M. showed us a film which was taped in 1936, by a Gottscheean 
emigrant living in the U.S., who visited the Kocevje region at that time. In 
this film the house which now belongs to family M. is shown, and Mr. M. 
was very proud of this documentation. 

E) Family A. is of Albanian origin. They came to Crmosnjice in 
1996 from Prizren because of the war in Kosovo. At home they speak 
Albanian, with the Croatian and Bosnian neighbours they use Serbo- 
-Croatian, and in the rest of the cases Slovene. They have good contacts 
with all their neighbours and they visit each other, but Mrs. A. added that, 
unfortunately, there is not much time for visits. Albanian festivals are 
celebrated only in her family. When Kosovarian family A. came to 
Crmosnjice, they opened a small shop with everyday goods, food and a 
small bar, but the village was too small to bring profit and they had to 
close the shop two years later. 

(Ethnic) identities in the village 

The evaluation of the identity (Heckmann 1992:30-58; Keupp et al 
1999:153-181) of migrant families in Crmosnjice leads to very complex 
results: 

a) Bilingual immigrants do not aim at differentiating between us and 
them. They had and still have fears of belonging "only" to an 
(ex-) Yugoslav minority instead of being part of the Slovene majority; b) 
distinctive aspects of a minority culture (Hall 1999:83-122) are avoided in 
public and are reduced to the sphere of private life. Because of conflicts, 
anthro- pologists use the term identity switching, which describes the 
oscillation, in this case, between Slovene assimilation and own ethnic 
identity maintenance; c) links to the native culture (relationship, wedding, 
double possession) were made more difficult after 1991, when Slovenia 
became independent; e) the influence of the national state and of 
supra-regional political institutions is very strong in border regions or 



Klaus-Jurgen Hcrmanik: Colonizing a minority region a case study ... 115 

regions of cultural boundaries (Wilson/Donnan 1998:7-8); f) bilingualism 
(Croatian-Slovene, Albanian-Slovene, Romanes-Slovene) is the most 
significant cultural sign distinguishing the immigrants, but their native 
language is in many ways restricted to the domestic sphere. 

Crmosnjice: An example of adaptation? 

After the separation from Yugoslavia in 1991, the minority status in 
Slovenia was denied to almost all ethnic groups from former Yugoslavia, 
although the number of Serbs, Croats or Bosnians in Slovenia is much 
higher than the number of autochthonous Italians or Hungarians, who 
have official minority rights. Slovene people of Roma origin did not 
receive the minority status according to the European rights for ethnic 
groups either (Tretter 1995). 

In the same way, the importance of the Serbo-Croatian language 
decreased in elementary schools, which are one of the most important 
places of language and cultural adaptation. Schools do not offer bilingual 
education classes. 

The Roman-Catholic parish of Crmosnjice is now administrated by 
Priests and Chaplains from Semic, who conduct masses and provide 
pastoral care, including all private clerical acts, such as weddings, funerals, 
baptisms, in the Slovene language. Only Bosnian Muslims are granted the 
possibility to have their religious services in Bosnian, but everything must 
be arranged from a distant location. Mr. M. told us that today there are only 
a few cemeteries for Muslims in Slovenia and therefore many of the 
Muslim immigrants want to be buried in Bosnia. 

In everyday life in Crmosnjice we may observe an increase in 
code-switching at all non-Slovene migrants, leading to hidden identity 
structures: "On the one hand - mainly in private atmosphere - they remain in 
various (hidden) ways attached to their group, while on the other hand they 
seek to organise their lives and careers in accordance to the norms and 
practices of the majority population. Their fear(s) to attract suspicion of being 
different should be mentioned as one starting point for this vacillation." 
(Hermanik et al 2002: www.esf.org/generic/1363/0009HReport.pdf) 

Crmosnjice in comparison with Srednja Vas/Mitterdorf 

and Obcice/Krapflern 

Further new colonization during the last decades of the 20 th century 
gave each village in Crmosnjice valley new ethnic patchwork structure 
and they differ in many ways from each other: 



1 1 6 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikaiiy 



Srednja Vas, which was called Mitterdorf by the Gottschccans, is 
situated just a few kilometers South of Crmosnjice. In former times the 
social connection between these two villages had been very close. The 
pupils of Srednja Vas went to school to Crmosnjice; the church Srednja Vas 
was administrated by the priest and chaplain of Crmosnjice and people from 
Srednja Vas were buried in the cemetery of their neighbouring village. 
Things have changed and only the cemetery has kept a unifying function. 

Today in Srednja Vas there are only a few families. The majority 
population is of Roma ethnic origin. They were resettled during the 1980s 
with the assistance of the Yugoslav government, which offered them free 
empty houses and small pieces of land. 

Before 1941 Srednja Vas was inhabited by Gottscheeans and only 
one woman, the mother of Mrs. J., remained, because she was married to a 
Slovene. Mrs. J. is still able to speak the Gottscheean dialect, but with her 
Roma neighbours she speaks Slovene. Roma families from Srednja Vas 
even speak Slovene with one another and only rarely Romanes, but they 
do use Romanes e.g. when they visit their relatives living in the Roma 
settlement near the small town of Crnomelj. The cultural stereotypes of a 
gypsy life-style cannot be applied to this Roma population. Although in 
Slovenia the percentage of unemployed people is much higher among the 
Roma population than among Slovenes, most of the Roma from Srednja 
Vas were lucky and found jobs and, in that way, social acceptance. The 
only Roma woman living in Crmosnjice, Mrs. R., who grew up in a Roma 
settlement in Prekmurje region, in North-Eastern Slovenia, near the 
Hungarian border, describes the Roma families from the neighbouring 
village Srednja Vas as "najbolj civilizirani Cigani po svetu", which means 
"the most civilized Gypsies on earth . 

North of Crmosnjice is Obcice, which was called Krapflern by the 
Gottscheeans. The distance from Obcice to Crmosnjice is equal with the 
distance from Srednja Vas to Crmosnjice, but the social connection 
between Obcice and Crmosnjice has never been so close. Since the people 
of Obcice did not have their own church or cemetery, they were very 
strongly connected to the Catholic parish of Kocevske Polanje, which was 
called Pollandl by the Gottscheeans, and not to Crmosnjice. Before, pupils 
from Obcice went to school in Kocevske Polanje, but after the school was 
closed they had to go to Dolenjske Toplice. 

The Slovene district administration magnified the local circumstances. 
The border between the large communities, Slovenske Toplice in the North 
and Semic in the South, runs between Crmosnjice and Obcice today. 

In the small village of Obcice only six families have remained until 
today. Families coming after WW II were all of Slovene origin and in 



Klaus- Jiirgen Hermanik: Colonizing a minority region a case study . . . 



117 



Obcice everybody speaks Slovene. Only the mother of Mr. K. was a 
Gottscheean, but she was married to a Slovene and therefore she remained 
in Obcice in 1941. Mr. K. - who is able to understand the standard German, 
as well as the Gottscheean dialect - is not very optimistic about the future 
of Obcice, because the major part of the younger generation(s) left and in 
his opinion there is almost no chance for an economic survival in this 
village. He mentioned further that only the Gottscheer Altsiedler- 
-Verein/Drustvo Kocevarjev staroselcev, which is located in a house at the 
entrance in the village, brings vitality to Obcice, because even Slovene 
children like to go there to German language classes or to singing lessons 
of the children's choir. 



Conclusions 

This study shows that the colonization of Kocevje region between 
and after WW II was not a linear process. The case of Crmosnjice is an 
example of the various changes in migration to and from this area, the 
coming and going. The local colonization of the village led to a 
multicultural structure consisting of different nations and ethnic groups 
from former Yugoslavia living now close together without any national or 
ethnic conflicts. This social development is/was, of course, influenced by 
the smallness of the village and the survey of the countryside. The village 
contrasts with Slovene towns and suburbs where each of the different 
national, ethnic, and group dynamics of former Yugoslavia remain much 
more distinct. 

^ One focal point in this coloured picture of various ethnic identities 
in Crmosnjice is on the hidden minority of the Gottscheeans, who 
predominantly see their leading role in colonizing the Kocevje region as 
part of history and sometimes as collective memory. Today they are 
assimilated to the Slovenian language and culture and, without any legal 
minority protection and financial support from the Slovenian government, 
the Gottscheeans - their language, customs and traditions - will disappear 
within the next generations. 

The two short comparisons of Crmosnjice with their neighbouring 
villages are meant to illustrate that social and cultural dimensions in this 
local area are mainly determined by colonization and, further, that 
colonization can also give new impulses: the immigrant families of 
Crmosnjice are far more optimistic than Mr. K. from Obcice, who painted 
the economic situation of his village in gloomy colours. The new 
immigrants of Crmosnjice are not that pessimistic. Maybe they are aware 



1 1 8 CKPHBEHE MAIhHHE HA EAJIKAHY 



that matters could be worse. Many of them come from (ex-)Yugoslav 
regions which suffered during the war in the 1990s. 



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edition, Landskron. 

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rechU (= Osterreichische Volksgruppenhandbucher 8), Hermagoras/Mohor- 
jeva, Klagenfurt. 

Tschinkel 1 973- 1 976: Walter Tschinkel, Wdrterbuch der Gottscheer Mundart, 2 nd vol, 
Bochlau, Vienna. 

Wehler 1 980: Hans-Uirich Wehler, Naiionalitatenpolitik in Jugosiawien. Die deutsche 
Minderheit 1918-1978, Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Gottingen. 

Wilson&Donnan 1998: T. Wilson, U. Donnan, Nation, state and identity at interna- 
tional borders. In: T. Wilson/H. Donnan (eds.), Border Identities, University 
Press, Cambridge, 1-30. 

Wolfram 1 980: Richard Wolfram, Brauchtum imd Volksglaube in der Gottschee, Aus- 
trian museum of Ethnologie, Vienna. 



klaus-Jiirgen Ilermanik 



Colonizing a Former German Minority Region 

A case study of local multicultural patterns in the South-Slovenian village 

Crmosnjice/Tschermoschnitz 

The village of Crmosnjice is situated in the valley of the Crmosnjice creek at the 
Eastern edge of the large forest Koccvski Rog, which dominates geographically and 
economically (he whole Koccvje region in Southern Slovenia. Since the 14™ century this region 
has been settled by a population of German ethnic origin. During their 600 years of presence in 
the region, which they called Gotischee, the number of their settlements increased to 170. 

The village of Crmosnjice was populated only by German speaking Gottscheeans. who 
named it Tschermoschnitz y until 193 1, when the very l sl Slovenian family settled down. In 1941 
Yugoslavia was defeated by the 3 rd Reich and Slovenia was occupied by German and Italian 
troops. Therefore in 1941/42 nearly all Gottscheeans left Crmosnjice and resettled in the 
German occupied Slovenian territory near Krsko, action planned and executed by Nazi 
government, because Koccvje Region became part of Italy. The exodus of Gottscheeans left 
empty houses, farms and sawmills and only one old lady from the regional Gottschecan 
population remained in Crmosnjice. 

After WW II the new Yugoslavian state settled Slovenian families in Crmosnjice. Since 
the economical progress of Yugoslavia from 1950 (o 1970 did not really affect the area, many 
families migrated to the cities. 

Since that time the government has been supporting the voluntary colonization of 
migrants from other parts of Yugoslavia. They bought houses and farmyards at low prices and 
today there live Croats, Bosnians, Kosovo Albanians together with Slovenes, among them one 
Roma woman. This resulted in a special kind of ethnic structure, which we can normally find 
only in towns or suburbs. 

The comparison of basic ethnic markers (language, religion, customs, symbols etc.) 
allows a historical and ethnological approach towards the complex identity construction of 
each family. A 2 nd focus is laid upon the living together of people from different nations and/or 
ethnic origins. In this specific village, national attitudes and racism do not play any 



120 Ckphbeiie mah>hhe haEajikahy 



role. The author analyzes the actual process of adaptation, which takes place in Slovene 
elementary schools, and the increase of code-switching of all non-Slovene migrants leading also 
to hidden identity structures. Finally the specific national and ethnical village structure of 
Crmosnjice arc briefly compared with two neighbouring villages, Srednja Vas/Mitterdorf and 
Obcice/Krapflcrn. 



Zoran Janjetovic 



SVABE U VOJVODINI 



Medu mnostvom razlicitih narodnosti koje su u poslednjih 300 godi- 
na naselile Vojvodinu, samo su Jevreji i Nemci na tragican nacin nestali, 
mada pod razlicitim okolnostima. U ovom radu cemo se ukratko pozabavi- 
ti dvoipovekovnim postojanjem Nemaca na nasim prostorima. 

Nemce u Ugarskoj su njihove komsije Srbi, Madari i Rumuni odu- 
vek zvali Svabama, iako vecina njih to po plemenskom poreklu nije bila. 
Taj naziv cemo i mi ovde zadrzati, naravno bez pogrdnog prizvuka koji on 
ponekad u nasem jeziku ima. Iz ovog narodskog naziva nemacki geografi 
su dvadesetih godina proslog veka skovali naziv Podunavske Svabe (Lei- 
densweg II, 1993:16). Same Svabe prihvatile su ovaj naziv, ali on obicnim 
Nemcima ne govori mnogo. Obicnim Srbima on zvuci jos nejasnije. Naziv 
Folksdojceri, koji se kod nas dosta koristio, potice iz nacistickog zargona i 
oznacava Nemce van teritorija vilhelminske Nemacke. Buduci da se on, 
ne samo kod nas, odomacio i u nauci, koristicemo i njega — svakako bez 
ideoloskih prizvuka. 1 

Svabe su naseljavale prostore nekadasnje Kraljevine Ugarske jos od 
kraja XVII veka, pre nego sto je Veliki becki rat (1683-1699), kojim je 
zavrsena 150-godisnja osmanska vladavina, okoncan. To doseljavanje, 
medutim, gotovo da nije dotaklo danasnju teritoriju Vojvodine. Samo mali 
broj zanatlija, trgovaca i vojnika naselio je pojedina mesta kao sto je Pe- 
trovaradin (Jordan 1967:21; Jankulov 1961:7). 

Sledeci, Austro-turski rat (1716-1718), Habzburgovcima je doneo i 
Banat i severnu Srbiju, potisnuvsi (privremeno) Turke ka jugu. Pravo na- 
seljavanje Ugarske pocinje tek pod Karlom VI, ali ni ono nije imalo velike 

1 Engleske kovanice Ethnic-German, Ethnic-Serb itd. bukvalan su prevod ovog na- 
cistickog termina, i danas su prevashodni termini za oznacavanje pripadnika odredenog na- 
roda ukoliko oni zive van svoje nacionalne drzave kao nacionalna manjina. 



1 22 CKPMBEHE MAftHHE HA BaJIKAHY 

razraere. Tek je za vreme vladavine Marije Terezije (1740-1780), zbog 
velikih ratova koji su zahtevali povecanje broja ljudi i vece prihode, doslo 
do vece kolonizacije. Nju je sprovodila Dvorska komora, Ugarska komora 
i privatni veleposednici razlicitih nacionalnosti. Doseljeni su pripadnici 
mnogih naroda. Sa juga su dolazili Srbi koji su bili pogodni pre svega za 
vojnike; sa istoka su se sa brda postepeno spustali Rumuni — podesni, tako- 
de, za vojnike (iako ne tako pouzdani kao Srbi) i stocare; iz seveme Ugar- 
ske su dovodeni stedljivi i marljivi Slovaci i Ruteni; iz Italije i Spanije je 
dosla manja grupa uzgajivaca svilene bube i proizvodaca svile, ali oni su 
uglavnom stradali zbog lose klime i bolestina; iz Alzasa i Lorena dosao je 
izvestan broj Francuza koji su se vremenom germanizovali ili izumrli. Ma- 
darsko plemstvo i Ugarska komora dovodili su Madare. Pored njih doselja- 
vale su se i grupice katolickih Bugara, Jermena, Jevreja, Grka, Cincara itd. 
Uz ove narodnosti glavni kolonisti su bili Nemci — poglavito iz zapadne i 
jugozapadne Nemacke, kao i Alzasa i Lorena. Oni su imali nekoliko vrlina 
zbog kojih su ih vlasti rado naseljavale: bili su vredni, stedljivi, dobri ze- 
mljoradnici, a s druge strane, zbog bede, francuskih upada, eksploatacije od 
strane svojih knezeva, spremni na iseljavanje iz zavicaja. 2 

Ne mozemo se ovde detaljnije baviti svim fazama kolonizacije koja 
se, uz jaci ili slabiji intenzitet, odvijala tokom celog XVIII i prvih decenija 
XIX veka. Treba samo skrenuti paznju na neke njene crte. U nacelu, kolo- 
nizovane su prvo teritorije uz reke, tada jedine saobracajnice, a onda i one 
u unutrasnjosti. Pri torn su Srbi i Rumuni bili primorani da ustupe svoju 
zemlju Nemcima. Pridoslim Nemcima morali su da grade kuce, oru njive 
ili da ih primaju u stanove dok ovi ne izgrade svoj krov nad glavom. Ove 
mere nisu bile popularne, ali su Srbi za te poslove obicno dobijali i materi- 
jalnu naknadu. Buduci da su srpske kuce bile od slabog materijala, a veci- 
na Srba dosta pokretljiva, preseljavanje verovatno nije ljude toliko poga- 
dalo kao moderne migracije stanovnistva. 3 

Srbi su bili prvenstveno stocari, svoju stoku uglavnom su prodavali 
srpskim i cincarskim stocnim veletrgovcima koji su je gonili na trzista 
srednje Evrope. Doseljene Svabe su bile uglavnom zemljoradnici, ali je 
bilo i dosta zanatlija. Zbog razlicitih potreba stocara i zemljoradnika dola- 
zilo je do sukoba oko zemlje. Vlasti su na terenu nekad pomagale jedne, 
nekad druge, zavisno od mesta i vremena. Ipak, opsta tendencija je bila da 



2 Up. Bischof 1940; Bukurov 1970; Celap 1961; Celap 1962; Gavrilovic 1975; Hal- 
ler/Bischof 1940, Jordan 1967; Milleker 1923; Milleker 1926; Petrovic 1967; Popovic 
1935; Roth 1988; Schiincmann 1935; Senoa 1914; Wellmann 1980; Wild 1970. 

3 Up. Jankulov 1961:23; Jordan 1967:90; Popovic 1990 11:43-44; Seewann2001. 



Zoran Janjetovic: Svabe u Vojvodini 123 



se srpski i rumunski stocari potisnu u korist profitabilnijih zemljoradnika 
(Janjetovic 1999:119-122). 

Glavni motivi kolonizacije (ne samo Nemaca) bili su ekonomski: 
trebalo je opustele krajeve privredno podici radi prikupljanja poreza i dru- 
gih dazbina, ali i vojnika {Handw orterbuch des Grenz- und Auslandde- 
utschtumsl, 1933:220; Dammang 1931:10; Paikert 1967:16). Da bi sto pre 
stali na noge, kolonisti su dobijali niz olaksica i povlastica. Napredak nije 
bio lak zbog bolesti, klime, ratova, pljackasa i drugih faktora, ali je bio 
stalan. U torn procesu Svabama je bila namenjena uloga predvodnika i 
ucitelja pod dirigentskom palicom habsburske administracije. I zaista, vre- 
menom su pripadnici drugih narodnosti od Nemaca naucili modernije po- 
ljoprivredne tehnike, a nemacka materijalna kultura ostavila je dubokog 
traga u svim sferama zivota. I doseljene Svabe ponesto su preuzele od su- 
seda — gajenje kukuruza, na primer. Cuvene kuce kolonista bile su zani- 
mljiv domaci izum usavrsen od strane svapskih dosljaka, a onda vracen 
srpskim izumiteljima. Sto se duhovne kulture tice, sem u jeziku, uticaji ni- 
su bili veliki jer doseljeni svapski seljaci, zauzeti zivotnom borbom i ze- 
ljom da bolje zive, nisu imali vremena ni mogucnosti da se bave visokom 
kulturom: visoka nemacka kultura stizala je kasnije drugim kanalima. 

Uprkos onome sto se ponekad moze procitati kod pojedinih istorica- 
ra, glavni motivi kolonizacije nisu bili politicki, vec privredni. Odnosno, 
bili su privredno-politicki, a ne nacionalno-politicki. Postojala je ideja da 
se Nemci iskoriste da „razblaze buntovnu madarsku krv", ali ona nije bila 
dominantna, a iz vise razloga nije sprovedena (Paikert 1967:19). U sva- 
kom slucaju, kolonizacija Nemaca, iako ponekad sprovodena na stetu Sr- 
ba, nije sprovedena protiv Srba: do nje je doslo jer Srbi nisu bili ni dovolj- 
no brojni, i sto je jos vaznije, ni dovoljno ekonomski produktivni za potre- 
be habsburskog dvora i ugarskog plemstva (Seewann 2001). 

Posle pocetnih sukoba, poceo je miran zajednicki zivot razlicitih et- 
nickih grupa. Do konflikata je dolazilo i dalje, ali ne samo izmedu Srba i 
Svaba. Konflikti su uvek bili posledica lokalnih prilika i konkretnog suko- 
ba interesa, a ne meduetnickih sukoba velikih razmera, pogotovo ne suko- 
ba zbog nacionalnog pitanja. Pravi nacionalni sukob izbio je tek za vreme 
revolucije 1848/49, a i tada je to bio prvenstveno sukob Srba i Madara u 
kome su Nemci samo statirali. 4 U toj borbi cesto je dolazilo do konflikata 
sa Svabama, onih na strani Madara koji su propovedali gradanske slobode 
i jednakost. Nemci, nacionalno nesvesni, a zeljni brzeg ekonomskog raz- 
voja i drustvenog uspona, prihvatili su madarsku propagandu. Manje prak- 

4 Ne treba zaboraviti da je na madarskoj strani bilo takode dosta Srba, posebno pie- 
mica. 



124 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



ticni, ali zato nacionalno svesniji Srbi vise su obracali paznju na ocuvanje 
nacionalnosti nego na drustveno-ekonomski razvoj, sto ih je dovelo u su- 
kob sa Svabama. U nekoliko mesta, ovi sukobi su se pretvorili u prave kr- 
vave bitke. 5 Srbi nisu uspeli da za svoju borbu pridobiju druge narodnosti 
Vojvodine, a slaba discipline, posebno srbijanskih dobrovoljaca, nije do- 
prinosila pridobijanju ne-Srba. Sve cesce su izbijale pobune u ne-srpskim 
selima u srpskoj pozadini. Da revolucija nije ugusena, neizvesno je kakvi 
bi postali medunacionalni odnosi na terenu. 6 

Gusenjem revolucije doslo je do zblizavanja Srba i Madara (koji su 
na razlicite nacine bili jednako porazeni), ali i do zahladenja odnosa sa 
Nemcima, koji su bez dobrog razloga poistoveceni sa beckim apsoluti- 
zmom. Posle ukidanja apsolutizma, zahladneli su i odnosi sa Madarima, a 
da se Svabe pri torn nisu mogle pridobiti za saveznike u nacionalnoj borbi 
koja se sve vise razbuktavala: njihova niska nacionalna svest je tome bila 
najozbiljnija prepreka. Pored toga, postojalo je i stalno ekonomsko rival- 
stvo (Markovic 1901:34, 62, 64). 

Prvi nacionalno svesni svapski politicari i intelektualci pojavili su se 
tek krajem XIX veka, ne slucajno bas u multietnickoj juznoj Ugarskoj, sa 
manjim brojem Madara nego u centralnim delovima Ugarske, ali zato sa 
nacionalno vrlo svesnim i borbenim Rumunima i Srbima. I dok su srpski 
intelektualci svapske seljake smatrali uzorom u obradi zemlje, stedljivosti, 
trezvenosti i usvajanju novih tehnika, (malobrojni) nacionalno svesni 
svapski intelektualci svojim nacionalno usnulim sunarodnicima postavljali 
su nacionalno svesne i borbene Srbe i Rumune kao politicki uzor. Krajem 
XIX i pocetkom XX veka, doslo je do nekoliko zajednickih nastupa ma- 
njinskih politicara (ukljucujuci i nemacke), ali do trajnije i obimnije sarad- 
nje nije doslo: vecina Svaba bila je jos uvek nacionalno neosvescena 
(Senz 1977). 

Tako je ostalo do kraja Prvog svetskog rata. Kod dela podunavskih 
Svaba doslo je do odredenog nacionalnog osvescivanja i to u kontaktu sa 
nemackom vojskom i vojnom sluzbom u dalekim krajevima gde je bilo i 
Nemaca ili bar ljudi koji su znali nemacki. Neki od njih su poceli da uvi- 
daju da su deo mnogo vece zajednice nego sto su izolovana svapska sela i 
da je nemacki jezik svetski jezik koji razume dobar deo Evrope, za razliki 
od madarskog, koji su oni do tada smatrali vrhuncem gospostine. 



5 Paradoksalno, srpski napad na pretezno nemacki gradic Bclu Crkvu u Banatu usac 
je u istoriju madarske revolucije kao jedna od najslavnijih epopeja. 

6 Up. Kapper, 1851; Janjetovic 1999:122-126; Popovic 1990 III: 207-304; Stcge: 
1982:54-60. 



Zoran Janjetovic: Svabe u Vojvodini 125 



Tokom prevratnih sedmica 1918. svapska sela su po pravilu bila 
oaze mira u mora anarhije, socijalnog i nacionalnog bunta u kome su 
prednjacili Srbi i Rumuni, a delom i Madari. Videvsi da se stara Ugarska 
raspada, svapski intelektualci, od kojih nisu svi bili nacionalno svesni, 
razvili su vise koncepcija o daljoj buducnosti podunavskih Svaba. Jedni su 
zagovarali ostanak unutar reformisane Madarske. Treba reci da je ova 
pro-madarska grupa sigurno govorila u ime vecine Svaba, iako to nikad 
nije verifikovano na referendum^. Drage grape su predlagale nezavisan 
Banat (sa Backom ili bez nje) pod protektoratom velikih sila, prikljucenje 
celog Banata Rumuniji ili Jugoslaviji u nastajanju, pripadnost Banata (i 
mozda Backe) onoj zemlji koja mirovnim ugovorom dobije glavni grad 
Banata, Temisvar, itd. (Annabring 1954:10-11). Sve tri zainteresovane 
strane: Srbi, Rumuni i Madari, trudile su se da na teritorijama pod svojom 
kontrolom pridobiju Nemce i da ih organizuju da „spontano" na skupovi- 
ma traze pripajanje jednoj od tri zemlje. Iako je medu inteligencijom po- 
stojalo vise ideja i opcija, vecina svapskog stanovnistva bila je za ostanak 
u Madarskoj (Annabring 1954:4; Wehler 1980:26). Decenije madarizacije 
su ucinile svoje. Madarsko nize plemstvo uspelo je da ubedi svapske selja- 
ke u velicinu i sjaj madarske istorije i kulture, tako da su mnogi skolovani 
svapski seljacki sinovi bili ponosni kad su putem skolovanja postali pravi 
pravcati Madari — sto je bio sinonim za gospodu. Okrenuti materijalnom 
sticanju i drustvenom usponu, Folksdojceri nisu mnogo pazili na nacional- 
nost; zarad drastvenog uspeha odricali su se maternjeg jezika, narodnosti, 
pa cak i nemackih prezimena koja su menjali u madarska (Paikert 
1967:45). Zato ugarske Svabe nisu prakticno dale ni jednog velikana ne- 
mackoj kulturi, izuzev Nikolausa Lenaua i Franca Lista. Prvi je samo ro- 
dom bio Svaba, a veci deo zivota i rada je proveo u Nemackoj. List je do- 
duse bio madarski patriota, ali nije znao ni rec madarskog, simbolisuci ta- 
ko prvu fazu asimilacije koja je pocinjala asimilacijom srca, da bi zatim 
isla preko jezika, do promene prezimena i potpunog utapanja u madar- 
skom mora. Svi dragi velikani svapskog porekla delovali su unutar madar- 
ske, hrvatske ili slovacke kulture, dajuci ovim narodima neke od najvecih 
velikana. 

U takvim uslovima, nove jugoslovenske vlasti potradile su se da uz 
pomoc malog broja nacionalno svesne svapske inteligencije pomognu na- 
cionalno budenje vojvodanskih Nemaca da bi ih na taj nacin odvojili od 
Madara koji su posle 1918. bili pod stalnom sumnjom za iredentu. Dobar 
deo madarskih skola je zatvoren, a umesto njih su otvorene nemacke. 
Omoguceno je organizovanje Kulturbunda kao centralne nemacke kultur- 
ne organizacije, osnivanje Stranke Nemaca, privrednih organizacija, itd. 
Ova politika, iako nije dugo trajala, omogucila je da se postave temelji na- 



1 26 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

cionalnog razvoja Folksdojcera u Vojvodini (Janjetovic 2000:34-35). U 
Slavoniji, hrvatske vlasti nisu bile tako predusretljive (granice Slavonije 
prema Madarskoj nisu bile sporne, a slovensko stanovnistvo je imalo znat- 
nu vecinu u odnosu na Nemce i Madare), tako da do veceg nacionalnog 
budenja dolazi tek sredinom tridesetih godina. Posto su granice nove drza- 
ve medunarodno priznate i posto se ona ucvrstila, nacionalistickc partije 
na vlasti nisu smatrale da i dalje treba voditi politiku predusretljivosti — 
tim pre sto su u manjinskoj politici presedani tezili da budu zarazni. 

Nemacka nacionalna manjina u Jugoslaviji, u celini uzevsi, delila je 
neprijatnu sudbinu ostalih manjina. Ono sto ju jc izdvajalo bila je nesto 
veca ekonomska moc — kako u Vojvodini, tako i u Slavoniji, a posebno u 
Sloveniji, 7 kao i oslonac na mocnu maticnu drzavu. Ovo je postalo vazno 
tridesetih godina, kada pod Hitlerom Nemacka ponovo postaje jedan od 
kljucnih faktora evropske politike. Tradicija oslanjanja na Nemacku razvi- 
la se jos dvadesetih godina zbog slabosti nemacke nacionalne manjine da 
se izbori za bolji polozaj i nespremnosti jugoslovenskih vlasti da taj polo- 
zaj samoinicijativno poprave. Vremenom ce ovo oslanjanje prerasti u za- 
visnost od nadleznih organa u Rajhu, koje su sa Folksdojcerima — u Jugo- 
slaviji i drugde — imale svoje planove koji nisu uvek isli u korist Folk- 
sdojcerima. 

Od pocetka tridesetih godina dolazi do prodora nacistickih ideja koje 
su donosili omladinci sa vec nacifikovanih nemackih i austrijskih univer- 
ziteta. Nezadovoljstvo mladih je bilo podstaknuto ekonomskom krizom i 
besperspektivnoscu za folksdojcersku inteligenciju za koju nije bilo mesta 
u drzavnoj sluzbi, ali ni u manjinskim organizacijama gde su polozaj e vec 
godinama drzali predstavnici stare garde manjinskih voda. Mladi nacisti 
su se organizovali u pokret Obnovitelji i pokusali da preuzmu rukovode- 
nje Kulturbundom i nj ego vim razlicitim ograncima. To im je uspelo tek 
posle duge borbe, kada su, u sklopu opste radikalizacije nemacke unutra- 
snje i spoljne politike, nadlezni organi u Nemackoj presudili u njihovu ko- 
rist 1938/39. (Biber 1966:43-93, 167-269). 

Od tada se nemacka nacionalna manjina „glajhsaltuje" — u organi- 
zacionom i pojavnom smislu, a njene vode medu clanovima razvijaju ose- 
caj sudbinske vezanosti sa nemackim narodom, njegovom drzavom i Fire- 
rom. To, naravno, dovodi usijane svapske glave u sukobe sa srpskim naci- 
onalistima, ali i levicarima, sto situaciju u svapskim naseljima do April- 
skog rata cini napetom uprkos pokusajima voda „narodne grupe" (kako se 
nacionalna manjina pocela nazivati) da stvari drze pod kontrolom. Pri torn 



7 Nemci u Sloveniji nisu pripadali grupi Podunavskih Svaba vec su bili nastavak 
austrijskog nemackog stanovnistva uz prilican broj slovenackih asimilanata. 



Zoran Janjetovic: Svabe U Vojvodini 127 



ne treba gajiti iluzije da je nacisticka ideologija duboko prodrla u svapske 
mase: ona je bila suvise konfuzna, a oni suvise materijalisti i prakticari da 
bi svarili takav ideoloski buckuris. Oni su uglavnom bili navikli da slede 
vode i da ne razbijaju mnogo glavu politickim fmesama. Nezadovoljstvo 
manjinskim polozajem s jedne, i uspesi Nemacke sa druge strane, probudi- 
li su njihov nacionalni ponos, ali to ne znaci i da su, sem uniformi, simbo- 
la i organizacionih formi, mnogo toga preuzeli od nacizma (Janjetovic 
1999a).s 

Nemacki napad na Jugoslaviju izveden je a da Folksdojceri o njego- 
vim pripremama nisu bili obavesteni. Tokom napada paravojne folksdoj- 
cerske grupe, koje nisu bile predvidenc nemackim planom napada, na vise 
mesta su razoruzavale jugoslovenske vojnike i zauzimale strateske objek- 
te. Iako o njihovom postojanju ima naznaka vec 1939, izgleda da ove gru- 
pe nisu imale jedinstvenu organizaciju i da se u dobrom delu slucajeva ra- 
dilo o ad hoc scoskim strazama nalik na one iz doba prevrata 1918. Ipak, 
bilo je i slucajeva da su nacisticke usijane glave prcduzimale cisto ofan- 
zivne akcije (kao sto je bilo zauzimanje zemunskog aerodroma) koje se ni- 
kako nisu mogle podvesti pod samoodbrambeno samoorganizovanje gra- 
dana u vreme kad se drzava raspadala (Janjetovic 2000:53-58; Kacavenda 
1991:25-27). 

Gde god je bilo Svaba, trupe Vermahta docekane su s odusevlje- 
njem. Narasli nacionalni ponos koji se osecao vec nekoliko godina pred 
rat, nezadovoljstvo dotadasnjim manjinskim statusom, snazna propaganda, 
olaksanje zbog uverenja da je, eto, rat gotov bez mnogo gubitaka, doveli 
su do takvih izliva odusevljenja. 

Podela Jugoslavije posle kapitulacije dovela je i do podele Vojvodi- 
ne. Backa (i Baranja) ponovo su pripojene Madarskoj, Srem je postao deo 
NDH, a zapadni Banat ostao je autonoman u sastavu okupirane Srbije. U 
Backoj i Baranji Nemci su ostali nezadovoljna nacionalna manjina, uglav- 
nom suprotstavljena madarskim vlastima. Odusak svom nezadovoljstvu 
dali su delom i, nekad vise, nekad manje dobrovoljnim, javljanjem u Waf- 
fen-SS — pokazujuci da bi, ako vec moraju u vojsku, radije isli u nemacku 
gde su bolje tretirani, placeni i opremljeni, nego u madarsku, gde su 
uglavnom delili nezavidnu sudbinu drugih manjina (Mirnic 1974; Kaca- 
venda 1991:54-61). 



8 Izuzetak, naravno, cine usijane glave kojih ima svuda. Verovatno je najjaca dodir- 
na tacka sa nacistickom ideologijom bio antisemitizam. Ali antisemitizam je i kod Svaba 
bio stariji od pojave nacizma, a bilo ga je i kod drugih naroda — ukljucujuci tu i vojvodan- 
ske Srbe. 



1 28 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

U Sremu su se na mnogo mesta Folksdojceri otimali o vlast sa usta- 
sama. Jevreji su pri torn stradali, ali su Srbi neretko imali koristi od usta- 
sko-svapskih nesuglasica. U vise mesta Nemci su stitili Srbe od ustaskih 
pogroma — delom zeleci ih za saveznike protiv Hrvata, a delom istinski 
zgrozeni postupkom ustasa prema Srbima (Kacavenda 1991:48-54). 

U Banatu su Folksdojceri dosli na rukovodeca mesta u upravi, ali je 
veliki deo cinovnistva ostao srpski. lako se nekima cinilo da Svabe imaju 
vlast, oni su samo bili izvrsni organi okupacione uprave iz Beograda, od- 
nosno Berlina, u krajnjoj liniji. Nemci su imali veca prava, ali i vece oba- 
veze — sto u ratnim uslovima nije bilo prijatno. I tu, kao i u Sremu, strada- 
li su vise Jevreji nego Srbi. Od svih jugoslovenskih oblasti u kojima je iz- 
medu dva svetska rata izvrsena agrarna reforma i kolonizacija, samo u Ba- 
natu tokom Drugog svetskog rata njeni rezultati nisu bili ponisteni. Pa 
ipak, i tu je bilo Svaba koji su se zamerili Srbima kao cinovnici, pomocni 
policajci, cuvari zatvora ili koncentracionih logora (Volkl 1999; Kacaven- 
da 1999:29-48). 

U sve tri oblasti Folksdojceri su morali da pomazu ratni napor Rajha 
i njegovih saveznika. Oni su bili duzni da proizvode za potrebe Rajha, ali i 
da daju vojnike, policajce itd. Ovaj teret su oni isprva rado poneli, ali kako 
je rat odmicao i kako su stizale vesti o gubicima i porazima, nemacko sta- 
novnistvo je pocelo da se trezni. U Sremu i Slavoniji bilo je sve vise slu- 
cajeva da se ljudi, koji su se do rata izjasnjavali kao Hrvati, a u aprilu 
1941. se setili svog nemackog porekla, u poznijoj fazi rata ponovo izdaju 
za Hrvate. Istovremeno su se odnosi izmedu folksdojcerskih i ustaskih du- 
znosnika pogorsavali. 

Vojno angazovanje vojvodanskih Svaba jos nije detaljnije istrazeno. 
Poznata je Sedma brdska dobrovoljacka Waffen-SS divizija Princ Eugen, 
koja se optuzuje za zlocine po Bosni, Dalmaciji, itd. Nije, medutim, rasve- 
tljeno koliko je zrtava tih zlocina zaista bilo (kao sto nije uopste rasvetljen 
broj zrtava Drugog svetskog rata na tlu Jugoslavije), pod kojim uslovima 
je do njih doslo, koji su konkretni komandanti, odnosno, konkretne jedini- 
ce za njih odgovome. U samoj Vojvodini spomena vrednog partizanskog 
pokreta nije bilo, tako da je tu i broj zrtava u represalijama i poternim ak- 
cijama bio srazmerno mali. Sem toga, za zrtve su u Backoj uglavnom bile 
krive madarske vlasti, a u Sremu prevashodno ustase. Pravi udeo Folks- 
dojcera u tim akcijama (sem za nekoliko slucajeva) takode nije blize osve- 
tljen. 

Kraj rata je poceo da se nazire kada je 23. avgusta 1944. Rumunija 
promenila stranu i pustila Crvenu arrniju da preko njene teritorije krene ka 
jugoslovenskom Banatu. Detaljni planovi evakuacije su napravljeni u 
NDH i u Banatu, ali ne i u Backoj — da se ne obeshrabri „poslednji save- 



Zoran Janjetovic: Svabeu Vojvodini 



129 



znik. ' U Banatu su ljudi ncdeljama sedeli na spakovanim koferima oceku- 
juci odobrenje da krenu. Kada je odobrenje najzad stiglo 1. oktobra, So- 
vjeti su vec bili prodrli u jugoslovenski deo Banata. 9 Dobar deo Svaba vi- 
se nijc mogao, a dobar deo vise nije ni htco da se evakuise. Backe Svabe 
su profitirale od nesto zapadnijeg polozaja svog zavicaja. Posto nije bilo 
nikakvih planova evakuacije, ona je pocela spontano, kao bezanija, na- 
vrat-nanos, po odlasku madarskih organa vlasti. Polovina backih Nemaca 
je htela i uspela da se na vreme evakuise. Srem je, buduci jos zapadnije, a 
i zahvaljujuci uspostavljanju odbrambene linije, u potpunosti evakuisan, 
ukljucujuci i veliku kolicinu materijalnih dobara. Ostali su samo starci ko- 
ji nisu hteli da napuste zavicaj. Naravno, svi koji su bili kompromitovani 
blagovremeno su otisli iz sva tri dela Vojvodine, tako da partizani i Crve- 
na armija nisu uhvatili prakticno ni jednog od vaznijih folksdojcerskih vo- 
da iz ratnog razdoblja (Janjetovic 2000:121-177). 

Civilno svapsko stanovnistvo koje je palo pod vlast „oslobodilaca" 
bilo je od pocetka izlozeno masovnim streljanjima, silovanjima, zlosta- 
vljanjima i pljackama. Pored toga ukinuta im je sloboda kretanja, kao i 
javna upotreba nemackog jezika i natpisa. Od samog pocetka, nemacko 
stanovnistvo je terano na prinudni rad (za ostalo stanovnistvo rad je bio 
samo „obavezan"). Radi bolje upotrebe radne snage deo svapskog stanov- 
nistva je uskoro potrpan u koncentracione logore. Ovi logori su do sredine 
1945. godine obuhvatili prakticno sve folksdojcersko stanovnistvo. Logori 
su bili smesteni u svapskim selima ili njihovim delovima. Ljudi su bili 
smesteni po ispraznjenim kucama gde su spavali na podu, bili lose hranje- 
ni, bez osnovnih higijenskih uslova i lekova, lose odeveni, maltretirani i 
terani na tezak fizicki rad. Predsednistvo AVNOJ-a im je 21. novembra 
1944. oduzelo svu imovinu. Krajem te i pocetkom naredne godine, oko 
20.000 uglavnom zena deportovano je na prinudni rad u Ukrajinu, dok su 
radno sposobni muskarci bili sa vojskom u okviru velike akcije sprovede- 
ne u svim istocno-evropskim zemljama pod sovjetskom kontrolom. Sve 
ove mere imale su za cilj ne samo da iskoriste svapsku radnu snagu, nego i 
da oslobode prostor za kolonizaciju porodica partizanskih boraca (Leiden- 
sweg II, 1993; Janjetovic 2000:256-294). io 

Nove jugoslovenske vlasti htele su da preostale Folksdojcere (od ko- 
jih je ogromna vecina zivela u Vojvodini) isele u Nemacku. Saveznici, 



9 Do danas je ncpoznalo ko je i zasto odlagao pocetak evakuacije Banata: visi SS 
policijski sef u Bcogradu Berends, Himler ili Hitler. 

10 Kolonizacija Vojvodine posle Drugog svetskog rata bila je dugorocna investicija 
u buducnost novog rezima. Koliko je ona bila uspesna pokazuje cinjenica da su jos sredi- 
nom devedesetih godina bivse svapske, a sada kolonisticke opstine, prctezno glasalc za So- 
cijalisticku partiju Srbije. 



1 30 CKPHBEHE MAH.W-IE I IA BAJIKAHY 



medutim, imajuci vec ogroman broj izbeglica i raseljenih lica u svojim 
okupacionim zonama, kao i dosta nerasciscenih racuna sa Titovim rezi- 
mom koji se sve vise profilisao kao sovjetska ispostava, nisu bili spremni 
da prihvate jugoslovenske Nemce. Zato su Folksdojceri do proleca 1948. 
morali da umiru u koncentracionim logorima. Njihov broj se smanjivao 
umiranjima, povremenim pojedinacnim ubistvima, ali i bezanjem u ino- 
stranstvo — koje su jugoslovenske vlasti, posebno tokom 1947, blagona- 
klono tolerisale u zelji da se otarase sto veceg broja Folksdojcera. 

Konacno, u prolece 1 948, preziveli su pusteni na uslovnu slobodu: 
morali su da potpisu da prihvataju dodeljeni posao u odredenim mestima 
na tri godine. Tamo su dob ij ali platu kao drugi zaposleni, ali nisu imali 
mogucnost da se udalje iz mesta stanovanja. Pored toga, buduci da im je 
1944. sva imovina oduzeta, uglavnom su ziveli u skoro istoj bedi kao rani- 
je u logorima. Sto se ostalog tide, vlasti su postepeno pocele da im daju 
ista prava kao i pripadnicima drugih nacionalnih manjina: otvorene su 
skole, osnovana kulturno-umetnicka drustva, pokrenuto je nekoliko listo- 
va (Stefanovic 1997:202-226). Medutim, zbog bednih uslova zivota, roda- 
ka koji su vec ziveli u Nemackoj ili Austriji, secanja na strahote logora, 
nemirenja sa represivnim komunistickim sistemom, vecina prezivelih Sva- 
ba je resila da iskoristi legalne mogucnosti iseljavanja koje su se postepe- 
no otvarale od pocetka pedesetih godina i da se iseli. Taj proces je tekao 
postepeno, tako da je do sredine sezdesetih godina u Jugoslaviji ostala sa- 
mo sacica ljudi nemackog porekla i nemackog maternjeg jezika (Janjeto- 
vic 2000:343-346). 

Po poslednjem popisu u Srbiji ima oko 3900 Nemaca. Nije iskljuce- 
no da je taj broj i nesto veci, ali svakako ne znatno veci. Kao etnicka ma- 
njina oni ponovo pocinju da zive tek od pocetka devedesetih — kad su sru- 
seni mnogi komunisticki tabui, pa i onaj o „zlim Svabama". Terenutno u 
Vojvodini postoji 5-6 11 udruzenja Svaba koja pokusavaju da ozive stare 
tradicije i da ih prenesu na malobrojnu, dobrim delom iz mesovitih brako- 
va proizaslu, mladu generaciju. Poslednjih godina ucestale su i posete vre- 
mesnih Folksdojcera iz celog sveta starom zavicaju, a postavljeno je i ne- 
koliko spomen-obelezja na mestima folksdojcerskog stradanja. Uprkos to- 
me, Nemci su na nasim prostorima kao nacionalna manjina gotovo nestali 
— sto je veliki civilizacijski gubitak za nasu zemlju. Nacin na koji su ne- 
stali pak, predstavlja jos jednu od istorijskih nepravdi kojima ovi prostori 
obiluju. 

Ono sto je od nekada veoma brojne nemacke manjine u nasoj zemlji 
ostalo u stvari je skrivena manjina. Ona je skrivena dvostruko. S jedne 



11 Broj nije precizan zbog procesa deoba do koga dolazi u nekima od njih. 



Zoran Janjetovic: Svabeu Vojvodini 



131 



strane, ljudi cisto nemackog porekla cesto se na popisima ne izjasnjavaju 
kao Nemci, secajuci se nekadasnjih strahota i osecajuci ponekad jos uvek 
odijum sredine prema Nemcima — koji kao da je oziveo poslednjih dece- 
nija. S druge strane, deo ljudi mesovitog porekla, iako intimno podjednako 
vezan za obe nacije iz koje je ponikao, u javnosti se izjasnjava samo za 
pripadnost brojnijoj, obicno vecinskoj, naciji jer je to drustveno pozeljnije. 
Ekspanzija nacionalizma na prostorima bivse Jugoslavije tokom devedese- 
tih godina XX veka, nije doprinela da ljudi iz mesovitih brakova bez uste- 
zanja u javnosti priznaju i onaj deo svog porekla koji ih ne vezuje za ve- 
cinsku naciju. Dok se zli duhovi nacionalizma ne vrate u bocu i to ponovo 
postane potpuno uobicajeno, postoji opasnost da Nemci od skrivene ma- 
njine, postanu iscezla manjina. 



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Zoran Janjetovic 



Germans in Vojvodina: From their Settling until Present Times 

The German minority in Vojvodina is a result of the colonization during the 18 th and 
early 19 th century. The territories the Habsburgs liberated from the Ottoman Turks in the late 
17 l and early IS 1 century, which had belonged to the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, were 
sparsely populated — mainly by Serbs and (in Banat) by Romanians. These were neither 
numerous enough, nor sufficiently developed economically to make the newly acquired 
territories profitable for the Viennese court. The powers-to-be were interested in building up the 
military strength of the new provinces and the Empire as a whole. Furthermore, private 
landowners of various nationalities needed labour force for their retrieved or newly acquired 
estates. To these aims, colonists of various ethnic backgrounds were invited to settle down in the 
new territories. The Serbs and Romanians were preferred as soldiers for the Military Border that 
was set up alongside the Southern frontier, whereas frugal and hard-working Slovaks, 
Ruthcnians and Germans were preferred as peasants. German artisans were encouraged to settle 
down in towns. Hungarians were preferred by Hungarian nobles and the Hungarian Court 
Chamber, although they were not the only settlers to be colonized by them. 

The Germans were also partly preferred by the central authorities so as to "dilute the 
rebellious Magyar blood", but these political considerations were not so important as the 
economic ones. The religious affiliation played a much more decisive role — basically until the 
reign of Joseph II (1780-1790) only Roman-Catholics were eligible for colonization. Depending 
on the time of colonization and the agency or landowner who had organized it, smaller or larger 
privileges were granted to the colonists. Usually they comprised a few tax-free years, seed, 
building materials, equipment etc. This aid, their better agricultural technique, their diligence 
and thriftincss enabled the newcomers to prosper faster and better than the locals. Their different 
way of life (agriculture) brought them into collision with the natives who were primarily 
cattle-raisers. Also the fact that the Serbs often had to make room for the Germans, hardly 
served to improve the inter-ethnic relations. However, the state authorities managed to smooth 
these squabbles over, so the locals and the colonists started a peaceful coexistence marked by 
mutual learning and (more often) by cooperation. What remained of the old animosity was 
certain economic rivalry which would last until the end of the WW II. 

The next occasion that pitched the Serbs and Ethnic-Germans on the opposite side was 
the Magyar revolution of 1848: the Germans, desirous of economic progress, sided with the 
Hungarians who preached civil liberties, opposing thus the Serbs who were more keen on 
preserving their nationality. Eventually, all would be defeated by the reestablished Habsburg 
absolutism. 

In autumn of 1918 the Serbs and Germans faced each other again with conflicting goals. 
The Serbs wanted to unite with Serbia, whereas the Germans, under strong impact of 
decades-long magyarization, wanted to remain part of Hungary. The latter were completely 
neglected by the Paris peacemakers. The Germans, most of them without strong national 
consciousness, became a national minority in a state not overly benevolent towards national 
minorities. However, the new state enabled the young generations to break the spell of 
magyarization and to develop a distinct German national consciousness. Unfortunately, this 
occurred simultaneously with the rise of national-socialism in Germany, which exercised its 
strong influence also on the Germans in Yugoslavia, dissatisfied with the shortcomings of their 
minority position. 



134 Ckpmbehe mah>mhe ha Bajikahy 

For this reason, the ethnic Germans sided with the Reich and its allies during the WW II. 
They supported their war effort which earned them the hatred of part of their neighbours and 
especially communist partisans. Thus, at the end of the war those who had not been evacuated in 
time or shot in the first wave of revenge, were incarcerated into concentration camps where 
some 50,000 perished of hunger, disease and hard labour. The surviving remnants emigrated 
during 1950s and 1960s. 

Nowadays there are only some 3,900 Germans in the Vojvodina (out of the original 
350,000 in 1931). They are organized in some five or six associations which struggle to revive 
their national traditions. 



Thede Kahl 



CUVANJE JEZIKA, GUBLJENJE IDENTITETA: 

MEGLENSKI VLASI 1 



Poreklo, jezik i rasprostranjenost meglenskih Vlaha 

Meglenski Vlasi predstavljaju samostalan ogranak balkanskog roman- 
skog stanovnistva, koji je u bliskoj jezickoj vezi sa Aromunima (Cincari- 
ma), Dakorumunima i Istrorumunima. Balkanolog Weigand (1892:53-55) 
je smatrao da su meglenski Vlasi dco bugarsko-vlaske grupe naroda, koji je 
nakon bitke na Kosovu izbegao na visoravan Karadzova. Tamo su nasli po- 
desnu klimu i zemlju, sto je uticalo na njihovo udaljavanje od nomadskog 
nacina zivota; Papahagi (1903:7-9) smatra ovu teoriju malo verovatnom. 
Nakon Jireceka (1893:97), mnogi autori su zauzeli stav da su se Vlasi mesa- 
li sa Pecenezima, koji su, nakon poraza u bici protiv vizantijskog cara Kom- 
nenosa 1091. godine naseljeni kao vojni kolonisti u podrucju Meglena. Uz 
teorije o mesanja sa Pecenezima, postoje i teorije o mesanju sa Kumanima 
(Katsugiannis 1964:34). 

Meglenovlaski ili meglenorumunski 2 smatra se dijalektom rumun- 
skog jezika; medutim, ukoliko aromunski (cincarski) posmatramo kao po- 
seban jezik, onda se i meglenorumunski mora tretirati na isti nacin — kao 
poseban jezik, ili barem kao posebna varijanta (za detalje o jeziku cf. Ata- 
nasov 1984 i 2002, Dahmen 1989, Katsanis 2001). 

Meglenski Vlasi su pretezno pravoslavne vere. Za vreme osmanlij- 
ske vladavine, meglenorumunsko stanovnistvo se oduprlo islamizaciji — s 
jednim jedinim izuzetkom: to je selo Ndnti (grcki Ncona, bugarski 
H-bumu, turski Nutya), cije je stanovnistvo u 18. veku preslo na islam. Se- 

i 

1 Za pomoc pri priredivanju teksta zahvaljujem se Radovanu Grahovcu. 

2 Nazivi meglenski Vlasi i meglenski Rumuni / Meglenorumuni mogu se koristiti 
kao sinonimi. Ja ipak dajem prednost terminu meglenski Vlasi, buduci da ovaj narod danas 
sam sebe naziva Vlasima, a ne Rumunima. 



1 36 Ck'PMBEHE MAlbHHE HA EAJIKAIiy 



lo Nanti je nekada predstavljalo centar vlaske populacije u srcdnjoj Make- 
doniji, dok je danas naseljeno pontijsko-kavkaskim stanovnistvom koje 
govori grcki jezik. Ovo sclo je preuzelo funkciju trgovackog centra za ci- 
tav Meglen, i kao takvo imalo je najveci broj stanovnika od svih megleno- 

vlaskih sela. 

Zbog sve vece vezanosti za poljoprivredu i sve veccg udaljavanja od 
mobilnog stocarskog privredivanja, meglenski Vlasi su do pocetka 20. ve- 
ka uspeli da se kompaktno nasele u dobro omedenom prostoru srednje 
Makedonije — u takozvanom Meglenu. Meglen je geografski prostor koji 
se proteze preko severoistocnog dela oblasti Aim op la i siri se preko za- 
padnog kraja provincije Peonija, sve do malog prostora u Republici Make- 
doniji u oblasti oko Gevgelije. Uz juznoslovenski oblik Mdglen, odnosno 
Meglen, koji odgovara grckom MeyXevd ili MoyXevd, upotrcbljava se i 
tursko-osmanlijski oblik Karacova kao i anticko grcko ime AXficoma, ko- 
je je ponovo u sluzbenoj grckoj jezickoj upotrebi jos od 1927. godine. 
Rasprostranjenost meglenskih Vlaha moze se danas, nakon napustanja 
Meglena i iseljavanja, okarakterisati kao disperzna. lseljavanje se odvijalo 
u dva glavna pravca — prema Rumuniji i Turskoj, pri cemu je iseljavanje 
u Rumuniju pre svega imalo privredne motive, a iseljavanje u Tursku je 
uglavnom bilo prisilno, u okvirima grcko-turske razmene stanovnistva. 

• U Meglenu su se sledeca vlaska sela sacuvala do danas: u Grckoj 
Archangelos (Osan), Skra (L'umnita), Periklia (Birislaf), Langadia 
(Lungunt), Kupa (Cupa), Karpi (Tsarnareca) i u Rep. Makedoniji selo 
Uma (Huma). 

• Meglenski Vlasi su se u Rumuniju doseljavali od 1925. godine nadalje. 
„Makedonskoj braci" je rumunska drzava pomagala prilikom preselja- 
vanja. Najveci deo tih preseljenika se danas moze naci u Cerni u Do- 
brudzi. Danas se u Rumuniji vrlo cesto tvrdi da su ti ljudi napustali 
Grcku zbog tamosnjih problema sa grckim nacionalizmom, i da su tada 
te izbeglice iz Grcke izabrale Rumuniju za svoju domovinu. Cini se, 
ipak, da su ekomonski faktori igrali odlucujucu ulogu u ovom procesu. 
Isto su tako preterana tvrdenja sa grcke strane da su iskljucivo ekonom- 
ski faktori te ljude prisiljavali na iseljavanje. 

• Iseljavanje u Tursku pogodilo je samo islamizirani deo meglenskih 
Vlaha, koji su se u celini morali iseliti i danas se nalaze u istocnoj Tra- 
kiji (za detalje cf. Kahl 1999 i 2002). Mesta naseljavanja meglenskih 
Vlaha u Turskoj bila su sve do pre nekoliko godina potpuno nepoznata 
(Andrews 1989:103; Atanasov 1990; Capidan 1925:15; Dahmen/Kra- 
mer 1986:266; Wild 1983:11), tako da se mora prihvatiti cinjenica da 
nikada necemo moci rasvetliti gde su meglenski Vlasi boravili nakon 



Thede Kahl: Cuvanje jezika, gubljenje identiteta: Meglenskj Vlasi 137 



njihovog iseljavanja iz Nantija (Dahmen 1989:445). Iseljavanje u Tur- 
sku se u potpunosti razlikuje od iseljavanja u Rumuniju, gde su se Vla- 
si iz skoro svih vlaskih sela u Meglenu naselili u jednom selu (Cerna). 
U slucaju sela Nanti, vecina iseljenika se rasula i naselila u brojnim 
mestima; u svojoj novoj turskoj domovini nisu smeli osnivati nikakav 
naseljenicki centar. 

Osim na vec spomenutim prostorima, meglenovlaske porodice se da- 
nas mogu naci i u mnogim gradovima makedonskog prostora (kao sto su 
Gumenissa, Edessa, Polykastro, Axiupoli, Thessaloniki, Gevgelija, Sko- 
pje). Nalazimo ih, isto tako, u manjem broju u bivsim socijalistickim drza- 
vama istocne Evrope (u gradovima kao sto su Taskent, Varsava, Budimpe- 
sta, Jambol). Ukupan broj stanovnika meglenovlaskog porekla na svim na- 
vedenim podrucjima danas ne prelazi 14 hiljada. 



Unutrasnja i spoljasnja odredenja meglenskih Vlaha 

Govoreci o sebi, pored naziva Via" (mnozina Vlas) meglenski Vlasi 
upotrebljavaju i izvedenice u cijoj je osnovi ime mesta iz koga poticu. Ta- 
ko Vlasi iz mesta Osari (Archangelos) sebe nazivaju Qpnefi i s tim u skla- 
du i svoj jezik nazivaju o§ine§ti, oni iz Trnareca (Karpi) se nazivaju 
Tsarnarcofi itd. 

Dok ih njihove neposredne komsije nazivaju jednostavno Vlasi 
(grcki BXdxoi, makedonski B/iacu), upotrebljavajuci tako isti naziv i za 
Aromune i za Meglenorumune, u drugim jezicima uobicajen je naziv Me- 
glenorumuni (rumunski Meglenoromani, nemacki Meglenorumdnen, ruski 
MezjieHopyMbiuu, engleski Meglenorom anions). Naziv *Rumon, kako bi 
teoretski moglo glasiti samoodredenje tog naroda, nije moguce dokazati 
(Capidan je 1928. godine pisao: „Numele Rumon, cu care ar fi trebuit sa 
se cheme, s-a pierdut fara urma", 3 cf. Arvinte 1980:37). Njihovi aromun- 
ski susedi ih najcesce nazivaju Tucani. 

U Turskoj meglenski Vlasi predstavljanju toliko malu i nepoznatu 
grupu da za njih njihovi turski susedi uopste nemaju posebno ime. Najveci 
broj Turaka iz istocne Trakije ne razlikuje ih od Pomaka i obuhvata ih poj- 
mom Karacovah („osobe iz Karacova/Megleni") ili ih uopsteno naziva 
Rumeli („pridoslice iz Rumelije"), a tim imenom nazivaju se i turske i po- 
macke pridoslice sa Balkana. S druge strane, one pridoslice, koji se prepo- 
znaju kao meglenski Vlasi, ne nazivaju se imenom Ullahlar, kako se inace 
u Turskoj nazivaju Vlasi, nego ih zovu Nutyah („osobe iz Nantija"). 

3 „Ime Rumon, kako bi ih zapravo trebalo zvati, nestalo je bez traga". 



1 3 8 CKPMBEI IE MAH.HHE HA BAJIKAHY 



Jedino se u Rumuniji za meglenske Vlahe upotrebljavaju nazivi 
Meglenifi ili Meglenoromdni, koje oni i sami koriste. Pri tome je naziv 
Vla$ kao samoodredcnje u poslednje vreme izasao iz upotrebe. Oni koji 
danas na meglenovlaskom idiomu upotrebljavaju rec Vla$, misle pri tome 
na Aromune. Tome odgovara upotreba pojma vlahe§ti kada se na megle- 
novlaskom zeli reci aromunski. Naziv Machedon se koristi u odnosu na 
vlastitu (meglenovlasku) grupu. 



Etnicko-nacionalne strukturc u Meglenu 

Etnicki prostor meglenskih Vlaha do pocetka 20. veka karakterise 
vecinsko prisustvo slovenskih govornika makedonskog jezika, koji su sna- 
zno uticali na meglenovlaski jezik i kulturu. Sasvim je sigurno da meglen- 
ski Vlasi nisu bili u bliskom kontaktu samo sa svojim hriscanskim slavo- 
fonim susedima, nego i sa slavofonim muslimanima Meglena, takozvanim 
Pomacima, Torbesima ili Citacima. 

U vreme pojave nacionalnih pokreta u jugoistocnoj Evropi, u 
Grckoj, Rumuniji i Bugarskoj pojavio se pojacan interes za meglenske 
Vlahe. Te zemlje su se zauzele za osnivanje nacionalnih skola u razlicitim 
vlaskim selima: od 1888. godine bilo je pet grckih skola, od 1890. godine 
osnivane su rumunske skole (za detalje v. Capidan 1928:9-12; Peyfuss 
1974:106). Bugari su koristili aktivnosti rumunskog pokreta kao sredstvo 
za slabljenje grckog uticaja. Islamizirani Vlasi iz Nantija nisu u to vreme 
bili cilj nacionalistickih propagandi, jer ni Rumunija ni Grcka nisu mogle 
ocekivati podrsku od muslimanskih Vlaha. Tako u Nantiju nisu postojale 
ni grcke, ni rumunske skole. 

Na prostoru najintenzivnijeg naseljavanja Vlaha, u grckoj srednjoj 
Makedoniji, sukobi izmedu razlicitih nacionalno odrcdenih grupa ostavili 
su duboke tragove koji se i danas ispoljavaju kroz vrlo kompleksan strah 
od ljudi koji se interesuju za Vlahe. Radi se o sukobu na dva nivoa: s jed- 
ne strane, to je sukob izmedu nacionalnih orijentacija, kao sto su odrede- 
nja 'biti Grk ili Rumun', a s druge strane izmedu religiozne pripadnosti 
bugarskom egzarhatu ili grcko-vizantijskoj patrijarsiji. Problem identiteta 
je, dakle, slican onom kod Aromuna, s tim da su oni mnogo izrazitije bili 
grcizirani, pa je rumunski pokret u Meglenu mogao biti prisutniji. Na to je 
s jedne strane uticala pomoc udaljene Rumunije, dok je sa druge strane 
bliska Grcka nudila cvrsto uporiste. Upucenost na Bugarsku nudila se kao 
opcija pre svega prorumunskim grupacijama u njihovom sukobu sa pro- 
grckim grupacijama. Inace se raspolozenje meglenskih Vlaha prema bu- 
garskom egzarhatu moze oznaciti kao vrlo skromno. 



Thede Kahl: Cuvanje jezika, gubljenje identiteta: Meglenski Vlasi 



139 



Da bi se doslo do odgovora na pitanje da li mcdu meglenskim Vlasi- 
ma postoji osecaj zajednistva, moraju se najpre razmotriti njihovi odnosi i 
stepen identifikacije sa njihovim neposrednim susedima. 



Meglenski Vlasi i muslimani 

Slucaj islamizacije Nantija je, izgleda, jedini primer verske konver- 
zije citavog vlaskog sela. To je selo, buduci srediste episkopa, dugo vre- 
mena bilo neka vrsta sredista hriscanstva. Sa islamizacijom u 18. veku, 
stanovnici su dobili vecu podrsku vladajucih slojeva, a time i veci uticaj u 
regiji. Od danasnjih meglenovlaskih sagovornika ne moze se ocekivati da 
se direktno secaju prica o islamizaciji. Uprkos tome, ocuvala su se neka 
predanja u kojima bi moglo biti dosta istine (za primere v. Kahl 2002; 
Kukudis 2001:283-286; Limanoski 1994:267-273; Mellios 1986:24-37; 
Papageorgiu 1909:91-95). 

Religija je imala odlucujucu ulogu u formiranju identiteta musliman- 
skih Vlaha. Ona je povecavala mogucnost njihove identifikacije sa ostalim 
muslimanskim etnosima (izmedu ostalih sa Turcima i Pomacima), i isto- 
vremeno ih je udaljavala od rodaka po jeziku (Vlaha). Stoga je kod mno- 
gih doslo do pojave dvostrukog identiteta, koji je omogucavao identifika- 
ciju i sa Vlasima i sa Turcima. Identifikacija sa Turcima bila je ogranicena 
isticanjem da je neko Turcin sa Balkana, Rumeli Turcin ili jednostavno 
„turske vere", dok su Turci iz Turske bili „drugi Turci". Identifikacija sa 
meglenskim Vlasima koji su ostali u Meglenu bila je, s druge strane, ogra- 
nicena isticanjem da su Vlasi, preostali u Makedoniji, ostali gdvurlar/gau- 
ri\ samo ih je jezik povezivao jedne s drugima. 

Najizrazitije pozitivno odredenje prema njihovoj hriscanskoj proslo- 
sti cuo sam 1997. godine od jedne osamdesetogodisnje Vlahinje u 
$arkoy-u: Mi smo postali Turci, ali smo u srcima ostali hriscani. Potajno 
smo nastavljali liturgiju. Jedan drugi sezdesetdvogodisnjak s kojim sam 
razgovarao u Hoskoy-u misli: Tako kao sto se Turci u Grckoj osecaju kao 
Grci, tako se i ja osecam kao Turcin. 

Danas su u Turskoj mesoviti brakovi izmedu meglenskih Vlaha i 
pripadnika drugih etnickih grupa pravilo. Iako nije bilo moguce uspostavi- 
ti potpunu geneologiju, moze se tvrditi da se Vlasi vise mesaju sa doselje- 
nicima sa makedonskog prostora („Rumeli") nego sa Turcima koji su se 
jos od ranije nalazili u Trakiji. Prema vlastitim izjavama, najcesce brakove 
sklapaju sa Pomacima — kao sto se uostalom i odnos prema Pomacima 
moze oceniti kao najblizi. Bio sam iznenaden podatkom da osobe iz 
Nantija u Kalamisu poznaju skoro sve pomacke stanovnike susednih sela i 
da sa njima odrzavaju vrlo intenzivne kontakte, dok u isto tako bliskom 



1 40 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 



turskom selu nisu ni jedanput bili u poseti kod yerli („domacih"). Za Po- 
make kazu: Naravno da ih poznajemo dobro, oni su isto Karacovah (Me- 
glenci). 

Meglenovlaski idiom u Turskoj ostao je potpuno izvan uticaja stan- 
dardnog rumunskog jezika, tako da je u odnosu na meglenovlaski govor u 
Grckoj, Rumuniji ili Republici Makedoniji sacuvao mnoge arhaicne crte. 
Neki ljudi sa kojima sam razgovarao izjavili su da vlaski mogu pisati tur- 

skim alfabclom — stoje u lzrazitoj suprotnosti sa Vlasima iz Grcke, koji 
vlaski jezik smatraju „nepodesnim" za pisanje! 

Meglenski Vlasi i slovenski Makedonci 

Meglenski Vlasi su uglavnom ziveli u slovenskom okruzenju, tako 
da je jezicki i kulturni uticaj Slovena vrlo prisutan, sto kod Aromuna nije 
bio slucaj. Jak uticaj slovenskih Makedonaca ogleda se, pre svega, u do- 
menu tradicionalne kulture meglenskih Vlaha, i to posebno u leksici veza- 
noj za zivot na selu, ali i u materijalnoj i duhovnoj kulturi. Pored toga, na 
repertoaru vlaskih muzicara u Meglenu ocuvao se do danas veliki broj slo- 
venskih pesama i igara. Slovenski idiom Meglena je za Vlahe bio jezik tr- 
govine pa je zato imao prestizan status. Dokaz tog visokog statusa je slo- 
venizacija vlaskog stanovnistva — selo Kastaneri (Barovista) je, na pri- 
mer, u potpunosti slavizirano. 

Meglenski Vlasi u grckom delu Meglena danas vise ne vladaju ak- 
tivno slovenskim idiomom. Imajuci u vidu stepen asimilacije Vlaha u ra- 
znim slovenskim selima Meglena jasan je njegov znacaj i status u proslo- 
sti. Slovenski uticaji su stari i duboko ukorenjeni, te su prisutni i u zajed- 
nicama pridoslica i u novije vreme ne pokazuju nikakav oblik asimilacije. 
U lokalnoj komunikaciji, danas, u grckom delu Meglena, grcki jezik dale- 
ko se vise vrednuje od slovenskog idioma. 

Identifikacija meglenskih Vlaha sa etnonimom „Makedonac" srece 
se u oba dela Meglena. Citiram iskaz jednog sezdesetsedmogodisnjeg sa- 
govornika iz sela Osah (Grcka): Neznam da li su Vlasi dosli iz drugih me- 
sta, ali svi smo Makedonci. Pricamo drugi jezik, ali 'vromoi' 4 nisu vise 
Makedonci od nas. 



Meglenski Vlasi i Aromuni 

Uprkos neposrednom susedstvu, retko je dolazilo mesanih brakova 
izmedu meglenskih Vlaha i Aromuna, pa i to iskljucivo u jednom smeru: 



4 „vto7uoi" = domoroci; ovako meglenski Vlasi i Grci oznacavaju govornike slo- 
venskih idioma. 



Thcde Kahl: Cuvanje jezika, gubuenje identiteta: Meglensk.1 Vlasi 



141 



dok sam cesto sretao meglenske zene koje su zivele medu Aromunima i 
tako u svoj jezik preuzele mnoge aromunske reci, a i neke obicaje i navi- 
ke, kao sto je to, na primer, nosenje tetoviranog krsta, upoznao sam samo 
jednu jcdinu Aromunku koja se udala u meglenovlasku porodicu. Dok me- 
glenski Vlasi u Rumuniji nemaju ni knjiga objavljenih na meglenskom di- 
jalektu, niti kaseta sa meglenovlaskim pesmama, znacajno brojnija zajed- 
nica Aromuna objavila je u Dobrudzi veliki broj aromunskih tekstova i 
muzickih kaseta. Njihova muzika je rasirena i kod meglenskih Vlaha i ka- 
rakteristicno je da u mnogim meglenovlaskim domovima u Cerni kruze 
aromunske publikacije, ali nema meglenovlaskih. 

I dok meglenski Vlasi u Rumuniji pokusavaju da se distanciraju od 
Aromuna, dotle se u Grckoj u mnogim mestima moze primetiti suprotna 
tendencija. Lokalna udruzenja saraduju sa aromunskim udruzenjima i na 
meglenovlaskim proslavama pocela se izvoditi aromunska muzika, dok se 
vlastita uopste ne neguje. 



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Meglenski Vlasi i Rumuni 



Meglenske porodice koje su se odlucile na iseljenje u Rumuniju 
nisu ni na koji nacin u tome bile sprecavane od strane grckih vlasti. 

v 

Prema navodima mojih sagovornika iz Cerne, bili su cak nagovarani na 
odlazak i bilo im je saopsteno da ne treba da ocekuju da ce u slucaju ze- 
lje za povratkom biti dobrodosli. Nakon napustanja svojih domova u 
Meglenu u srednjoj Makedoniji, meglenski Vlasi su naseljeni u juznoj 
Dobrudzi, koju su 1940. godine morali ponovo napustiti da bi se naseli- 



1 42 CKPHBEHE MAlhHHE HA BAJ1KAHY 



li u severnoj Dobrudzi. Mesto naseljavanja se najcesce odredivalo na 
osnovu mesta njihovog porekla, sto znaci da su Vlasi iz sela Lundziri 
bili naseljavani u jedno naselje, a mestani sela Osiri u neko drugo. 
Mnoga sela su bila posebno za njih izgradena i nalazila su se u sused- 
stvu bugarskih ili turskih sela. Nakon naseljavanja u juznoj Dobrudzi, 
meglenski Vlasi su mogli svoju decu da salju u rumunske skole i da po- 
secuju rumunsku sluzbu u crkvi. 

Pri popisu stanovnistva u Rumuniji 2002. godine, macedoromdni 
(makedonski Rumuni) i aromdni (Aromuni) svrstani su u podgrupu Ru- 
muna. Ipak, ne moze se sa sigurnoscu utvrditi u kojem su se stepenu me- 
glenski Vlasi odredivali kao makedonski Rumuni ili kao Aromuni. Pri po- 
slednjem popisu stanovnistva, u najvecem meglenskom naselju u Rumuni- 
ji (Cerna) celokupno stanovnistvo deklarisalo se kao Rumuni. Megleno- 
vlasko stanovnistvo u ovom naselju je samo dalo podatak da njihov udeo 
u selu iznosi 60%. 

Meglenski Vlasi na svom jeziku Dakorumune nazivaju Mucani. Taj 
naziv ipak izbegavaju u prisustvu Dakorumuna jer se ta rec moze doziveti 
kao uvredljiva. Tako jedan sagovornik navodi: Iako kod Rumuna nije do- 
bro primljeno kada ih naziv amo „Mucani", mi ipak za njih upotrebljava- 
mo taj naziv. [...] Naravno da smo i mi sami Rumuni. Mi [Megleni] smo 
takode slicniji Rumunima nego Aromunima. 



Meglenski Vlasi i Grci 

U jednom pismu crkvenog ekonoma loakeima Ananiadesa iz Gevge- 
lije tadasnjem upravniku Makedonije Stefanosu Dragumisu (1842-1922) 
stoji: Stanovnistvo sedam vlaskih sela Meglenaje „rumunizovano" i oni 
bi se rade naziv ali Turci nego Grci. 

Nekome ko se vec bavio istrazivanjem aromunskih zajednica u 
Grckoj i ko je upoznao njihovu ekstremnu identifikaciju sa savremenim 
grckim osecanjem, taj ce element nedostajati kod meglenskih Vlaha. Sna- 
zno prisustvo svrstavanja Arumuna pod pojam „grckog" moguce je obja- 
sniti njihovom zavisnoscu od grckog jezika kao jezika trgovine, a odsu- 
stvo takve strategy e kod meglenskih Vlaha pretezno ne-grckim okruze- 
njem u kome su oni naseljeni. U poslednje vreme efekat konzervacije ima 
cinjenica da se naselja meglenskih Vlaha nalaze u vojno zatvorenom pod- 
rucju. U grckom delu Meglena vecina Vlaha sama sebe oznacava kao *EX- 
Xr\veq (Heleni), ali ne kao Grci (detaljnije o aspektima grciziranja Vlaha 
v. Dahmen 1997, Kahl 2003). 



Thede Kahl: Cuvanje jezika, gubljenje identiteta: Meglenski Vlasi 



143 



Da li postoji osecaj zajednistva medu meglenskim Vlasima? 

Vec pri povrsnom posmatranju pada u oci da je kod meglenskih Vla- 
ha vlaski identitet jos manje izrazen nego kod ostalih Vlaha, posebno kod 
Cincara (Belkis 1996, Kahl 1999). Tri najvaznije oblasti njihovog naselja- 
vanja (Meglen, Dobrudza i Trakija) toliko su se „udaljile" jedna od druge 
da ih, osim potpuno neproblematicne komunikacije na istom jeziku, vise 
nista ne povezuje — a najmanje inace osetljivo osecanje zajednicke pri- 
padnosti. Zbog vec dugo slabe povezanosti izmedu hriscanskog i musli- 
manskog meglenovlaskog stanovnistva, ne cude tako slabi ili nikakvi kon- 
takti izmedu meglenskih Vlaha u Turskoj i Vlaha u ostalim zemljama ju- 
goistocne Evrope. Dok je u Turskoj staro stanovnistvo sacuvalo jos zive 
uspomene na regije iz kojih su naseljeni pa se i sada mogu setiti mnogih 
mesta u Meglenu — u rumunskoj Dobrudzi, a jos manje u podrucju odakle 
su iseljavani — u samom Meglenu, niko nema nikakve predstave o tome 
;de danas zivi meglensko muslimansko stanovnistvo iz tih krajeva. U 
"'erni sam upoznao samo dve osobe koje nesto znaju o postojanju islami- 
zovanih Vlaha, koje su cule za selo Nanti i da su tamo nekad ziveli islami- 
zovani Vlasi. Tako su, medutim, bili prekinuti i odnosi izmedu meglen- 
skih Vlaha u Rumuniji i Grckoj tokom trajanja gvozdene zavese, i samo je 
mali broj porodica ponovo uspostavio kontakt. 

V 

Cini se da meglenovlaska kultura i identitet, u odnosu na situaciju 
kod Aromuna, imaju jos manje sanse da prezive. Moze se pretpostaviti da 
bi se meglenski jezik (dijalekat) uz odgovarajucu podrsku mogao odrzati u 
nekoliko narednih generacija u Gevgeliji, gde zivi relativno kompaktna 
grupa meglenskih Vlaha. U Rumuniji je standardni jezik previse slican 
meglenskom idiomu, a u Grckoj i Turskoj disperzija meglenskih Vlaha je 
prevelika, a uz to je i sama zelja da se maternji dijalekat ocuva veoma ma- 
la. Stoga se na ovim prostorima moze ocekivati brza asimilacija meglen- 
skih Vlaha, dok bi se oni u podrucjima Gevgelije i Cerne mogli eventual- 
no ocuvati kao mala, izolovana ostrva stanovnistva. 



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Thede Kahl: Cuvanje jezika, gubljenje identiteta: Meglenski Vlasi 



145 



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Beiheft 2, Hamburg. 



Thedc Klahl 



Sprachverlust und Identitatswahrung 
Feldforschungen bei den meglenitischen Vlachen (Meglenorumanen) 

Die meglenitischen Vlachen oder Meglenorumanen Zentralmakcdoniens (Griechenland, 
Makedonien/FYROM) sind ein eigenstandigcr Zweig der Balkanromanen, Sprecher eines 
rumanischen Dialektes im weitcsten Sinne und in ihrer uberwiegenden Mehrheit orthodoxe 
Christen. Zu osmanischer Zeit hat die meglenitisch-vlachische Bevolkerung der Islamisierung 
standgehalten - mit einer einzigen Ausnahme: dcm Dorf Nanti, dessen Bevolkerung im 18. 
Jahrhundert zum Islam ubertrat. In Folge des griechisch-tiirkischen Bevolkerungsaustausches 
1922 mussten sich die Einwohner des Dorfes in der Turkei ansiedeln - wo ihre Siedlungsgebiete 
bis vor wenigen Jahren unbekannt waren. Eine andere, ebenfalls zahlenmaBig grofie Gruppe der 
meglenitischen Vlachen verlieB fast gleichzeitig ihre zentralmakedonische Heimat Richtung 
Rumanien. Dort leben sie bis heute in der Dobrudscha in Nachbarschaft mit Rumanen, 
Aromunen, Lipovenern und Tiirken. Die verbliebenen Vlachen im Meglen sind zum Teil in die 
nahegelegenen Stadte abgewandert, zum Teil wohnen sie bis heute in ihren Bergdorfern im 
Meglen. Der Beitrag untersucht, wie weit bei diesen drei relativ kompakten Siedlungsgruppen 
noch von einer meglenitisch-vlachischen Ethnie gesprochen werden kann, wie weit es noch 
Beziehungen, Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschicde iiber die Grenzen hinweg gibt und ob von 
einem Zusammengehorigkeitsgefuhl gesprochen werden kann. Nach kurzen Ausftihrungen zur 
Herkunft der meglenitischen Vlachen wird auf die Eigen- und Fremdbezeichnungen und die 
Beziehungen zu den benachbarten Ethnien sowie die Assimilation durch diese eingegangen. 



Zoran Plaskovic 



STATUS I ETNICKI IDENTITET CINCARA IZMEDU 

OCEKIVANJA I STVARNOSTI 

Skoro ceo vek u Srbiji se vise ne srecu ljudi obuceni u duge anterije, 
sa crvenim fesom sa kicankom na glavi, dugim carapama ispod anterije i 
brojanicama u ruci (Hristic 1987:153). Priblizno isto toliko vremena ne 
moze se naici na trgovca, handziju ili zanatliju koji ne govori dobro srpski 
jezik. A ovo su bili uobicajeni i lako vidljivi spoljasnji znaci karakteri- 
sticni za pripadnike cincarskog naroda koji je deo sarolike skupine et- 
nickih zajednica Balkana. Cincari gurbetlije prvo kao samci, a potom i sa 
porodicama, masovnije dolaze u Srbiju tek krajem 18. veka kada u matici 
nastaju nepovoljni uslovi za bavljenje njihovim tradicionalnim poslovima 
— stocarstvom, kiridzilukom i trgovinom (Gavrilovic 2002:118). Ovi do- 
seljenici sa prostora Epira, Tesalije, Albanije i Makedonije razlikuju se od 
domaceg vecinskog stanovnistva svojim poznavanjem jezika balkanskih 
naroda, posvecenoscu radu, skromnoscu i racionalnim odnosom prema 
novcu. Noseni zeljom da sto pre steknu status lojalnog i korisnog podani- 
ka u drzavi koju su izabrali za mesto svog boravka i rada, a uvereni da no- 
vac i povoljan ekonomski i drustveni status mogu da potisnu ili ublaze 
mnoge otezavajuce okolnosti koje prate pripadnike manjine i nosioce kul- 
turnog modela razlicitog od domicilnog stanovnistva — radili su i sticali 
kapitale. Ekonomska moc koju su predanim radom osvajali, udruzena sa 
obrazovanjem koje su preferirali, donosila im je ugled, postovanje i pri- 
hvatanje, ali i netrpeljivost i podsmeh, pre svega konkurentski manje spo- 
sobnih pripadnika vecinskog naroda (Petrovic 1994:144). Svojim radom 
daju doprinos (nesrazmeran broju pripadnika), formiranju gradova i ukup- 
nog drustvenog zivota u njima. 

Neskloni etnickoj iskljucivosti, a skloni razumevanju Balkana kao 
prostora na kojem zivi jedan narod, relativno su lako prihvatali navike i 
obicaje vecinske srpske populacije, gradeci postepeno dvojni srpsko-cin- 



148 CKPMBEHE MAfttfHEHA Bajikahy 



carski ili srpski etnicki identitet. Svoja izvorna prczimena modifikovali su 
srbiziranim oblikom, napustali su praksu endogamnog braka i svojoj deci 
davali srpska imena, u poslovnim odnosima sve manje koristili grcki i pre- 
uzimali srpski jezik, maternji cincarski koristili samo u kuci i postepeno 
se, svesno, asimilirali i srbizirali. Verska pripadnost pravoslavlju doprino- 
sila je slabljenju etnicke distance izmedu Cincara i srpskog naroda i svc je 
upucivalo na ostvarenje prognoze, izrecene u cetvrtoj deceniji proslog ve- 
ka — da su Cincarima kao posebnoj etnickoj grupi dani odbrojani jer se 
mogu odrzati ne duze od 40 do 50 godina (C. M 1937:197). 

Na srecu, njihovo nestajanje sa etnicke mape bivse Jugoslavije i Sr- 
bije nije se dogodilo, pred nama je cinjenica njihovog opstanka kao male 
etnicke zajednice koja se uporno trudi da cuva i neguje svoj identitet i po- 
sebnost. Cincarski jezik, tradicija, muzika, obicaji, secanje na zajednicku 
proslost, mitovi o Moskopolju, armatolima i Suliotima i veze sa zavicajem 
opstaju i danas. Danasnja pozicija pruza dosta opravdanih razloga da Cin- 
cari ponesu atribut „skrivena manjina" — ozbiljnije sagledavanje njihovog 
statusa pruza za to sasvim opravdane razloge. Mislimo da ovih razloga 
ima vise, oni se krecu u rasponu od formalnopravnih i demografskih do 
politickih i psiholoskih. Kada su u pitanju kategorije koje se mogu defini- 
sati kao demografske, onda jc to, pre svega, odsustvo zvanicnih statistickih 
podataka koji se odnose na brojno stanje populacije Cincara. Brojnost po- 
pulacije jedan je od najcescih parametara koji znacajno uticu na mogucno- 
sti za ostvarenje prava manjinskih etnickih grupa. Pouzdanih statistickih 
podataka o broju Cincara na nasim prostorima nema. Ovo je rezultat cinje- 
nice da niti jedan popis stanovnistva u Srbiji (od prvog, sprovedenog 
1834. godine) ili Jugoslaviji nijc imao rubriku „Cincari 4C sto bi omogucilo 
pripadnicima ovog etnosa da iskazu svoj nacionalni identitet. U popisnim 
dokumentima objavljenim 1890. i 1900. Cincari su ubrojani u Rumune, 
sto je ucinjeno i pri popisu 1921. godine (Popovic 1924:452-457). Podaci 
dobijeni popisima iz 1890, 1900. i 1921. evidentirali su populacije prema 
jeziku koji je smatran maternjim, tako su postojale samo dve grupe: srpski 
jezik i „drugi", u ovom slucaju rumunski, jer je jezik Cincara zbog svoje 
slicnosti sa ovim — tretiran kao rumunski. 

Radi sagledavanja brojnog stanja cincarske populacije u duzem vre- 
menskom periodu i moguce komparacije, iz ovih popisa koristili smo sa- 
mo podatke koji se odnose na okruge „Juzne Srbije" (sadasnja Republika 
Makedonija) — bitoljski, bregalnicki i ohridski, s obzirom da je opravdano 
sa znatnom sigurnoscu pretpostaviti da se radi o Cincarima. Raspolozivi 
statisticki podaci upucuju na 6.979 pripadnika ovog naroda (Popovic 
1924:455). Konacan popis stanovnistva Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i Slove- 
naca iz iste godine (1921) belezi 9.056 stanovnika koji govore rumunski 



Zoran Plaskovic: Status i etnicki identitet Cincara izmedu oCekjvanja i stvarnosti 1 49 



jezik u „Juznoj Srbiji" (Popovic 1924:457). Ni popisi organizovani posle 
Drugog svetskog rata nisu imali odrednicu „Cincari". Tako su oni koji su 
se osecali Cincarima i zeleli da se tako deklarisu bili onemoguceni u ispo- 
ljavanju svog etnickog identiteta. Ako su se popisivacima iskazali kao 
Cincari bili su upisivani u rubriku „ostali". Pojedini pripadnici ovog etno- 
sa nisu se kao Cincari deklarisali iz drugih razloga (iz straha od stava oko- 
line prema njima, zbog profesionalne licne karijere ili karijere dece i si.). 
Na taj nacin nije bilo moguce utvrditi stvarni broj Cincara. 

U BJR Makedoniji Cincari su mogli da se izjasne kao Vlasi, kako ih 
u Makedoniji zovu, ali je statisticki podatak o njihovom broju bio daleko 
manji od stvarno postojecih pripadnika ovog naroda. Tako je, na primer, u 
popisu iz 1971. statisticki evidentirano 8.500 Vlaha, sto se ponovilo i pri- 
likom popisa sprovedenog 1994. godine. Sa uverenjem da imamo opsti 
uvid u brojno stanje cincarske zajednice u Makedoniji slobodni smo da 
pretpostavimo da je rezultat popisa iz 1994. godine samo „prepisani" po- 
datak iz 1971. godine. 

Istrazivanje sprovedeno u Beogradu u periodu od 1994-1999. daje sa- 
mo delimican uvid u brojno stanje pripadnika cincarske populacije grada. 1 
Cincari anketirani u okviru drustva „Lunjina" i clanovi njihovih porodicnih 
domacinstava (iskljucujuei bracnog partnera ako je pripadnik drugog naro- 
da), daju podatak o 261 osobi. Imamo opravdane razloge za ocenu daje broj 
Cincara u Beogradu veci od navedenog polazeci od cinjenice da: 

— vise od stotinu clanova Drustva koji jesu Cincari nisu bili ukljuce- 
ni u istrazivanje i njih treba dodati broju od 261 osobe; 

— clanovi Drustva poznaju jedan broj Cincara i clanova njihovih po- 
rodica koji nisu clanovi Drustva i nisu obuhvaceni ovom nasom statistikom; 

— izvestan broj pripadnika ovog etnosa iz licnih i drugih razloga ne 
zeli da se izjasni kao Cincarin. 

Podatke o broju Cincara u drugim gradovima Srbije neuporedivo je 
teze dobiti. Oni su u njima malobrojni, ne poseduju organizaciju koja bi ih 
okupljala i osnazivala, sa vise teskoca se medusobno „pronalaze", a provin- 
cija i njen mentalitet imaju manje sluha za „razlicite" ili „druge", sto obes- 
hrabruje one koji bi zeleli da iskazu svoj cincarski nacionalni identitet. 

Polazni stav u razmisljanju o razlozima za nepostojanje valjanih i 
pouzdanih statistickih podataka jeste da to nije slucajno. Iza toga moramo 
postaviti pitanje o uzrocima. Moze se pretpostaviti sledece: 

— iako su pozitivni zakonski i drugi dokumenti posle Drugog svet- 
skog rata u Jugoslaviji i Srbiji deklarisali odredbe o slobodnom izrazava- 

1 Popis od 2002. evidentira Cincare (u Srbiji - 293, u Beogradu - 184). 



1 50 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

nju verskih i nacionalnih osecanja gradana, stvama takva mogucnost od- 
nosila se pre svega na pripadnike naroda koji su u okviru Federacije imali 
svoje republike, odnosno na pripadnike nacionalnih manjina koje su u 
okruzenju imale maticne narode i drzave kao podrsku u procesu realizaci- 
je takvih prava; 

— Cincari nisu imali zvanicno priznat status manjine; 

- — formalnopravna mogucnost iskazivanja i negovanja nacionalne ili 
etnicke svesti, razlicite od vecinskih, nijc bila potpomognuta efikasnom mo- 
ralnom i fmansijskom potporom drzavnih i drugih organa i organizacija; 

— Cincari nisu imali svoje organizacije i udruzenja koje bi posedo- 
vale legitimitet zastupnika njihovih prava i interesa; 

— medunarodne, multilateralne organizacije i skupovi tek su u po- 
slednje dve decenije proslog veka ozbiljnije poceli da se bave pitanjima 
malih ili „patuljastih" zajednica (u koje se mogu svrstati i Cincari), kao 
rezultat uverenja da one predstavljaju vrednost savremene civilizacije; 

— rukovodeni razlicitim motivima, sami Cincari i njihovi potomci 
nisu problematizovali pitanje ostvarivanja svojih pojcdinacnih i kolektiv- 
nih manjinskih prava; 

— na globalnom nivou nisu bili dovoljno prisutni i prihvaceni interes 

i opredeljenje za priznavanje i razvoj korpusa ljudskih prava i prava ma- 
njina. 

Konfesionalna opredeljenost jedan je od simbola etnickog identiteta, 
a identitet mnogih zajednica zasniva se na verskim merilima diferencijaci- 
je (Smit 1998:20). Cincare su neki istrazivaci smatrali veoma religioznim i 
odanim crkvi (Cvijic 191 1:1028). Cincari Srbije, prihvatajuci Srpsku pra- 
voslavnu crkvu kao svoju i ostajuci vcrni starom kalendaru, eliminisali su 
jedan od mogucih znakova difercncijacije izmedu njih i Srba. Na taj nacin 
oni su pospesivali proces sopstvene asimilacije i srbizacije, a konfesional- 
na istovetnost bila jejos jedan od uzroka koji je pozicionirao Cincare kao 
„skrivenu manjinu". Njihova pravoslavnost pokazala se kao etnicki sim- 
bol koji je doprineo ublazavanju ili eliminisanju etnicke distance izmedu 
njih i vecinske populacije. 

U poslednjih nekoliko decenija u svetu je zapoceo proces, uslovno 
receno, nacionalnog budenja Cincara i stvaranja cincarskih asocijacija sa 
ciljem da se od zaborava sacuva njihov etnicki i kulturni identitet, kao i 
kulturna bastina. Ta pojava povezana je sa intenziviranim naucnim intere- 
sima da se upoznaju i afirmisu kulture starih naroda sacuvanih u reliktima 
kao etnicke grupe, odnosno ranije pomenute „patuljaste" etnicke zajedni- 
ce. Kao reakcija na ta zbivanja u Evropi (Nemacka, Francuska, Italija, 
Svajcarska, Rumunija), Americi i Australiji, u Beogradu je januara mese- 



Zoran Plaskovic: Status i etniCkj identitet Cincara izmedu oCekjvanja i stvarnosti 1 5 1 



ca 1991. formirano Srpsko-cincarsko drustvo „Lunjina". Ovo Drustvo, u 
kojem vecinu cine Cincari i njihovi potomci, odnosno Srbi cincarskog po- 
rekla, ima svoju podruznicu i u Smederevu, a u toku je akcija na formira- 
nju podruznica u Pancevu i Nisu. Osnovni motiv za formiranje Drustva bi- 
la je namera da se istraze i sacuvaju svedocanstva o prisutnosti i zivotu 
Cincara na ovim prostorima tako sto ce se izucavati i razvijati tradicija 
cincarske kulturne bastine i cincarski identitet. Uvereni da kontaktirajuci 
pripadnike cincarske populacije u Beogradu i drugim gradovima Srbije 
poznajemo njihovu opredeljenost i spremnost da u promenjenim drustve- 
nira okolnostima pokrenu akciju koja ce omoguciti priznanje, reafirmaciju 
i jednakopravnu egzistenciju Cincara kao etnicke grupe u okviru drustve- 
ne strukture Srbije, a saglasno ciljevima „Lunjine" kao asocijacije koja je 
okupila Cincare ohrabrene mogucnoscu da pripadnike vecinske i drugih 
populacija podsete na svoju, za neupucene „skrivenu" prisutnost, pristupi- 
li smo istrazivanju. Ovo istrazivanje imalo je dva osnovna cilja: prvi je bio 
sagledati demografske karakteristike, a drugi prouciti sadrzaje etnickog 
identiteta Cincara. Akcenat je stavljen na populaciju koja obuhvata dana- 
snje Cincare i njihove potomke ciji su preci poceli da se doseljavaju na 
ove prostore pocevsi od druge polovine 18. veka do perioda koji se zavr- 
sava sedamdesetim godinama proslog veka. Posli smo od cinjenice da se 
pripadnici ovog naroda mogu podeliti u tri grupe: 

a. oni koji se osecaju Cincarima i kao takvi javno i privatno izjasnja- 
vaju; 

b. oni koji znaju za svoje cincarsko poreklo, ali se tako ne osecaju i 
ne izjasnjavaju; 

c. oni koji ne znaju za svoje cincarsko poreklo, pa se kao Cincari, sto 
je logicno, ne izjasnjavaju. 

Osnovne hipoteze koje smo zeleli proveriti polazile su od procene: 

1. da je broj onih koji se kao Cincari deklarisu manji od stvamog 
broja pripadnika ove populacije; 

2. da ce deca iz egzogamnih brakova imati manje izrazenu svest o 
svom cincarskom identitetu; 

3. da su se u vecim gradskim naseljima Srbije naseljavali motivisani 
ekonomskim razlozima, socijalnim poreklom i navikama; 

4. da manje izrazenu svest o nacionalnom poreklu imaju oni koji su 
ranije dosli na ove prostore; 

5. da ce mladi pripadnici populacije u vecoj meri iskazati necincar- 
ski ili dvojni identitet, i 

6. da je svest o cincarskom poreklu i identitetu prisutnija u slojevima 
sa nizim nivoom obrazovanja. 



1 52 CKPMBEHE MAIbHHE HA EAJIKAHY 

Istrazivanje je podrazumevalo multidisciplinarai pristup jer je bio 
obuhvacen demografski, etnoloski, istorijski i politikoloski aspekt. Podaci 
do kojih smo dosli tokom realizacije istrazivanja bili su dragoceni za stica- 
nje uvida u stanje i perspektive Cincara kao etnicke grupe. Polna, staro- 
sna, obrazovna i socioekonomska struktura, radni i fertilni kontingenti, 
kao i motivi koji su uzrokovali migracione procese Cincara na pravcu od 
juga prema severu Balkanskog poluostrva, kao demografske kategorije 
kojima smo posvetili paznju, pruzaju zanimljiv materijal i osnovu za dalja 
istrazivanja i o njima ovom prilikom nece biti reci. Za ovaj prilog intere- 
santniji su sadrzaji koji se ticu etnickog identiteta i simbola koji ih obele- 
zavaju, odnosno stavovi samih Cincara o mogucnostima i perspektivama 
ostvarivanja manjinskih prava i njihova institucionalna verifikacija. Ima- 
juci u vidu stav da istrazivanja o etnicitetu evropskih naroda niposto nisu 
izlisna (Kiznije 1997:135) temi smo prisli sa stanovista dve dominanantne 
koncepcije: prve — koja prednost daje objektivnim pokazateljima etnickog 
identiteta, i druge — koja primat daje subjektivnom osecanju pripadnosti 
grupi u procesu samoidentifikacije (Pavlovic 1990:85). U istrazivanju je 
koriscen upitnik kompozitnog tipa, kao metodoloski instrument specijalno 
konstruisan za ovo istrazivanje, a dopunu su predstavljali intervjui, neve- 
zani razgovori i licne opservacije. Pitanja su se odnosila na verbalne i ne- 
verbalne znakove nacionalnog identiteta. Od verbalnih istrazivali smo je- 
zik i ime, a od neverbalnih veru, muziku, hranu i odecu. 

Cincarski jezik kao sredstvo komunikacije u kuci i medu sunarodni- 
cima koristi u proseku 68% ispitanika, a delimicno ga govori oko 6%. 
Upotreba cincarskog jezika razmatrana je u okviru triju starosnih (dobnih) 
grupa. U prvoj (najstarijoj) relativna ucestalost iznosila je 73%, u drugoj 
66%, a u trecoj (najmladoj) upotreba cincarskog jezika prisutna je kod 
29% ispitanika. Ocigledna je tendencija gubljenja cincarskog jezika. Ona 
je jos izrazenija kod ispitanika koji poticu iz egzogamnog braka kod kojih 
je prosecna ucestalost znanja cincarskog jezika nesto veca od 36%. Cin- 
carski jezik cita 31% anketiranih, a pri pisanju koristi ga 16%. Cincarskim 
jezikom u govoru, citanju i pisanju sluzi se 16,5% ispitanika. Izjasnjavanje 
o maternjem jeziku, koje smo ocenili vaznim u istrazivanju jezika kao 
simbola nacionalnog identiteta, pokazalo je da 66% anketiranih maternjim 
smatra cincarski, a 32% srpski jezik. U podgrupi onih koji poticu iz meso- 
vitih brakova — cincarski jezik maternjim smatra 29% anketiranih. 

Analiza anketnih odgovora o znanju cincarskog jezika posmatrana 
kroz varijablu mesto, odnosno republika rodenja, pokazala je daje 63% is- 
pitanika koji su potvrdno odgovorili — rodeno u BJR Makedoniji. 

Podaci koji se odnose na prisutnost licnih i porodicnih imena sa cin- 
carskim oblikom pokazali su daje 15% anketiranih zadrzalo izvorni, ka- 



Zoran Plaskovic: Status i etnickj identitet Cincara izmedu ocekivanja i stvarnosti 153 



rakteristicni dvoslozni ili troslozni oblik porodicnog imena (npr. Korneti, 
Mara, Pana, Nanus), 13% je izvorni oblik modifikovalo u srpski (Ciuca u 
Cukovic, Dica u Dikovic), a makedonski oblik (npr. Manakoski od Ma- 
nac, Andonovski od Andoni) ima 17% ucesnika u anketi. Uoceni su pri- 
meri da se izvorni oblik prezimena, u okviru sire porodice, javlja i u srp- 
skom i u makedonskom obliku {Bula kao Bulovic ili Bulovski). Neki ispi- 
tanici imaju srpski oblik prezimena koji nema osnovu u izvornom (Dorde- 
vici cije je porodicno Kraza u jednom slucaju ili Spoa u drugom). Licna 
imena cincarskog, ali i grckog porekla, prisutna su kod 10% anketiranih 
koji pripadaju starijim dobnim grupama i ona su navedena u njihovim 
licnim dokumentima. Unutar cincarskih domova, u siroj porodici i medu 
sunarodnicima, cincarska imena, kao znak personalnog identiteta, mnogo 
su prisutnija i cesca u upotrebi. Tako je Kostadin ili Kosta znan kao Koca, 
Dorde kao Jorgo ili Giorgi, Anastas kao Suli i slicno. 

Kod nekoliko ispitanika uocili smo pojavu povratka sa srpskog ili 
makedonskog na izvorni oblik (recimo Marovski su ponovo Mara). 

Neadekvatno poimanje cinjenica u vezi sa upotrebom jezika i pro- 
menama izvornih oblika porodicnih imena mogu uzrokovati pogresne za- 
kljucke. Iako se cincarski jezik veoma retko cuje na javnom mestu, on i 
dalje zivi u cincarskim kucama i medu sunarodnicima. Nedovoljna prisut- 
nost cincarskih imena u zvanicnim dokumentima (izazvana i mimo volje 
njihovih nosilaca) ili njihova promena, moze stvoriti utisak promenjenog 
ili nestalog etnickog identiteta, a da se to u stvarnosti nije dogodilo. U 
ovim okolnostima mislimo da je opravdano govoriti o manifestacijama fe- 
nomena „skrivene" manjine. 

Cincarska muzika slusa se i izvodi samo u cincarskim porodicama, a 
specijalitete cincarske hrane moguce je konzumirati samo u cincarskim 
domovima, cesce u nemesovitim nego mesovitim brakovima. Nosnja Cin- 
cara potpuno je iscezla. 

Ovo istrazivanje cincarskog etnickog identiteta pokazalo je postoja- 
nje izvesne protivurecnosti. Iako analiza anketnog izjasnjavanja signalizi- 
ra proces laganog opadanja prisustva etnickih simbola i gubljenje cincar- 
skog identiteta, brojni razgovori i kontakti sa ispitanicima ukazuju na nji- 
hovu zainteresovanost za aktivnosti cincarskih asocijacija, teznju da u 
kontaktima sa sunarodnicima pokazu manje ili vece poznavanje cincar- 
skog jezika, tradicije i istorije, ili uocljivu simpatiju sa kojom govore o 
precima ili poznavanju sadrzaja usmene cincarske knjizevnosti. 

Istrazivanje je pokazalo da u interakciji Cincara i Srba, ili Cincara i 
pripadnika drugih etnickih zajednica koje zive u Srbiji, ne postoji izrazita 
etnicka distanca koja je Iako uocljiva u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji. Cin- 
carski etnicki identitet izrazava se kao osecanje pripadnosti maloj etnickoj 



154 CKPHBEHE MAH>HHE HA BAJ1KAHY 

zajednici, obojeno nostalgicnim secanjem na roditelje ili dalje pretke, na 
prijatne porodicne svetkovine ispunjene sadrzajima obicajne, muzicke i li- 
terarae narodne tradicije i ojacano porodicnim predanjima i zavetima da 
ce se i u buducnosti negovati i postovati svest o pripadnosti narodu koji je 
obilno dajuci svima, rasuo sebe (Popovic 1937:307). Sve receno daje pra- 
vo da se zakljuci da kod savremenih Cincara postoji izrazena svest o pri- 
padnosti cincarskom narodu. Ocuvanje identiteta manje je vidljivo po svo- 
jim spoljnim obelezjima i van uzih porodicnih, prijateljskih i sunarod- 
nickih krugova, a znatno vise je prisutno u subjektivnom osecanju. 

Cincari kao kolektivitet u ranijem periodu nisu na bilo koji nacin bili 
organizovani kao manjinska grupa, iako su svi jugoslovenski i republicki 
ustavi proklamovali punu nacionalnu ravnopravnost, a pripadnicima naci- 
onalnih manjina garantovali i posebna prava u oblasti kulture, upotrebe je- 
zika i slicno. Odsustvo politicke ili druge volje da se organizuju i zelja da 
se dobije inicijalni uvid u stanje nacionalne i politicke svesti motivisali su 
nase istrazivanje o manjinskim pravima Cincara. Dobijeni podaci pokazali 
su da 55% ukupno anketiranih sebe vidi kao pripadnika manjinske grupe, 
a cak 24% informatora nije zelelo da odgovori na ovo pitanje. Podrsku ko- 
lektivnim manjinskim pravima pruzilo je 71% ispitanika, sto se poklapa i 
sa podrskom pravima na radio i TV emisije na cincarskom jeziku. Prob- 
lem manjinskih prava i manjinskog statusa posmatran sa stanovista mesta 
rodenja pokazao je da 61% anketiranih rodenih u BJR Makedoniji sebe vi- 
di kao pripadnika nacionalne manjine. Kod rodenih u Srbiji ovo ucesce iz- 
nosi 48%. U podgrupi rodenih u mesovitom braku pripadnikom manjine 
smatra se 46% ispitanika. Najveci broj izbegnutih anketnih odgovora od- 
nosio se na pitanja o subjektivnom poimanju manjinskog statusa, sto upu- 
cuje na prisutan strah ili oprez da iskazivanje manjinskog identiteta moze 
uzrokovati probleme u svakodnevnom zivotu. 

Kursevi cincarskog jezika, finansijska i materijalna pomoc drustvene 
zajednice publikovanju knjiga i casopisa koji tretiraju proslost i sadasnjost 
Cincara, ili radio i TV emisije, bile bi korisne za usporavanje procesa pro- 
mene ili gubljenja etnickog identiteta. Povoljniji drustvenoekonomski, po- 
liticki i kulturni milje ukupnog stanovnistva, a to znaci i male etnicke za- 
jednice koju izucavamo, i fakticko, a ne samo normativno, uspostavljanje 
mogucnosti za uzivanje kolektivnih i individualnih manjinskih prava, mo- 
gu biti podsticajni za ocuvanje, negovanje i razvijanje identiteta Cincara. 
Ovo podrazumeva da uslovi u kojima ce se ostvarivati manjinska prava 
moraju biti dovedeni u sklad sa normama medunarodnih organizacija 
kompetentnih i odgovornih za pitanja manjina. 



Zoran Plaskovic: Status i etniCkj identitet Cincara izmedu oCekivanja i stvarnosti 155 



Literatura 

Cvijic 1 9 1 1 : J. Cvijic, Osnove za geografiju i geologiju Makedonije i Stare Srbije III, 
Beograd. 

CM 1937: C. M, Prikaz knjige „0 Cincarima" dr Dusana Popovica, Glasnik jugoslo- 
venskog profesorskog drustva, Beograd. 

Gavrilovic 2002: Lj. Gavrilovic, Kir Janja — stvarnost ili stereotip o Cincarima, Nova 
srpskapolitickamisao, posebno izdanje: Etnickistereotipi, Beograd, 1 17-124. 
Hristic 1987: K. Hristic, Zapisi starog Beogradanina, Prosveta, Beograd. 
Kizinije 1997: Z. Kiznije, EtnologijaEvrope, Biblioteka XX vek, Beograd. 
Pavlovic 1990: M. Pavlovic, Srbi u Cikagu, Etnografski institut SANU, Beograd. 

Petrovic 1994: D. Petrovic, Etnikon Aromun? Cincar-pezorativ ili ne 9 Zbornik Malice 
srpske za istoriju 50, Novi Sad. 

Popovic 1937: D. Popovic, O Cincarima, Beograd. 

Popovic 1924: Z. R. Popovic: Rumuni nase drzave, Nova Evropa IX/15, Zagreb 
452-457. 

Smit 1998: D. Antoni Smit, Nacionalni identitet, Biblioteka XX vek, Beograd. 



Zoran Plaskovid 

Status and Ethnic Identity of Tzintzars: Between Expectations and Reality 

For almost a century it is impossible to meet in Serbia a man wearing a special costume, 
anterija, a red cap, /<?.?, on his head, long socks, and with a chaplet in his hand. It is impossible to 
meet either a merchant, or an artisan who does not speak the Serbian language very well. The 
mentioned features were characteristics of Tzintzars and were easily recognizable for the 
majority population ever since Tzintzars came to Serbia at the end of the XVIII century and the 
beginning of the XIX century. They were very devoted to work and education, and had a 
rational attitude towards money and property. Wishing to get good social status and reputation 
of loyal citizens in diaspora, Tzintzars deliberately changed their surnames and adopted Serbian 
ones, have encouraged mixed marriages with the minority community members, while in 
business communication they abandoned the Greek language and shifted to Serbian and 
gradually got assimilated. In the family and among country fellows, however, they maintained 
the native Tzintzar language and customs brought from the motherland, and were often talking 
about memories related to Moskopolje. 

In such circumstances, a double Serbian-Tzintzar or Serbian identity was established. 
There were a lot of factors indicating that this Balkan ethnic group would disappear soon from 
the ethnic map of Serbia and former Yugoslavia. Fortunately, this did not happen and now we 
deal with a small ethnic group that managed to preserve and maintain its identity. Language, 
script, songs, tradition, customs, and memories about common past and ties with the motherland 
still exist. Nowadays Tzintzars live silently in our settings. Their position within current social 
networks provides enough reasons for them to be classified as a "hidden minority". 

Tzintzar society "Lunjina", publishing activities and the manifestations they organize 
show their intention to survive as a minority group. Symbols of ethnic identity gather them and 
strengthen a common feeling of unity. However, they have no intension to distance themselves 
ethnically from the Serbians. In the multiethnic coexistence, they just want to preserve their 
ethnic features. 



1 56 Ckphbehe mah>mhe ha Bajikahy 

No official demographic survey gives any data about Tzintzars' presence. Is this so only 
by chance, and what is its cause? Both sides — the state and Tzintzars themselves — are "guilty" 
for such a situation. Why have they been hidden, and who was hiding them? 

Similarities in characteristics of ethnic identities can contribute both to strengthening and 
to weakening of minority's identity. This provides another reason that would cause the 
emergence of a hidden minority. 

The name is a sign of personal identity, but also a symbol of ethnic identity of a person; 
consequently, changing the name could indicate loosing the ethnic identity, and could also leave 
the impression of extinction of an ethnic community, which is false — the community can 
continue to exist. Here we are faced again with the phenomenon of a hidden minority. 

Abandoning the Tzintzar traditional costume and accepting the value system and 
customs of the majority population resulted in reducing the ethnic distance between Tzintzars 
and Serbs, so that for less informed people in Serbia, Tzintzars are only an exotic and rare 
phenomenon. 

Our research shows that Tzintzars, their status and ethnic identity presently exist 
between indicated and presupposed extinction, or assimilation and "Serbization", on the one 
hand, and their survival oriented towards development of the national identity, differentiation 
and collective minority rights, on the other. 



JosaHKCi Tboptjeeufr Joeauoeuh 



rpu,H y EEorPA#y 



1. TajiacH aocejbaBaiba 

IlonyT CTapHX XejieHa h PoMHOCMHa xpajoHUHJy MacoBHMx h necxnx 
MHrpauHj'a nacTaBwiH cy h caBpeMeHH TpuM. Pa3Ji03H HcejtaBatta H3 Ma- 
THHHe 3eMJte, noxeKJin H3 concTBeHor H36opa huh uojx npHHy/iOM, Hajia3e 

CC y Ct()epH eKOHOMCKOr HHTepCCa HJIH HCTOpHJCKO-nOJIHTHHKHX npHJIHKa. 

y rpnicoj HCTOpHorpa(j)HJH pa3JiHKyje ce hckouhko MacoBHHJnx ncejbaBa- 
H,a: Pane Muspaifuje 1873-1899. (ncejbeHO 15.000 Tpxa), Bemuai iaa/iac 
1890-1917. (450.000), Tlocnedibu iua/iac 1918-1924. (70.000), 3aiueope- 
ua epaiua 1925-1946. (30.000), Jlociepawiia Kpewatba 1947-1965. 
(160.000), Oaaa6/beuo uceaaeatbe 1980-1989. (25.000). Kpos 6aBjLeH,a 
obhm nHTaibHMa eBHoeHTHpana cy n uHK/iHHHa Bpahaiba y seMJby. 

y nopeljetby ca obhm bcjihkhm TanacHMa iiOMepaH>a cxaHOBHHuiTBa, 
flocejbaBaita TpKa y cpriCKe KpajeBe i-tnje 6hjio tojihko MacoBHO, ajin 
npe.ocxaB.jta xpa/j;HUHJy BeoMa .zryror xpajaifca. MaTHHHa seMJLa je y cbo- 
jhm Hce/teHHUHMa y ueHxpajnioj h 3ana^Hoj EBponH hjih AiviepHUH, Ka- 
Ha/iH h AycTpajiHJH HMajia BejiHKe ,ao6poxBope h (})HHaHCHJepe, jxok je y 
CpGHJH h Ha BajiKaHy, yonmxe, 3axBajtyjyriH npe CBera ljxjkbh h npaBO- 
cjiaBJby, HMajia ncxpaJHe npeHocHone rpmce icyjixype HCH30cxaBH0 yxxaHe 
y H3rpa^H>y rpal)aHCKor cjioja. 

IlHcaHH noMeHH o 6opaBKy rpKa Ha cpncKOM TJiy pacyxn cy y jxqjik- 
Ma nyxonncaua, MeMoapcicoj hjih apxHBCicoj rpal)H. Taxo je, Ha^oMaK Eeo- 
rpa^a, y FlaHHeBy, apancKH reorpa(|) MyxaMcn. cji UJexHcj) PUpH3H 1 153, 
3a6ejxe>KHO aa ce y oboj „xproBaHKOj Bapoinn Hajia3e MHorn MapJBHBH Tp- 
HH 36or cbojhx nocjic-Ba" (http://www.pancevo.co.yu/HTM/istorija.html), 
ook EBJiHj'a ^ejieGnja y XVII ciiOMHH.e „xpn rpmce Mane y Beorpa/iy no- 
peA AynaBa" (Kocxnh 1926:174). ^y6poBa i iKa apxHBCKa rpahja £OKa3yje 
xta cy h 1538-1539. Georpa^cKH Tpun (^ervierpHJe h Maxej Koh^h, Ha 



158 CKPHBEHE MAIbHHE HA BAJIKAHY 



npMMep) TproBanH ko>kom h cbhjiom ca BeHeunjoM (TaAnh 1950:15, 19, 
20, 21), flOK je HenjiOAHe 1571. ronuue ocKy^Hua y >khbothhm naMHpHH- 
uaMa noAcrauajia h TproBHHy: „Qa CojiyHa BO>Kaxy Te MeH>axy 3a >khto, 
MepoM kojimko ^CHTa, toji'ko h coji h He xTejaxy npMMaTH con 3a jkhto" 
(TiopHh 1939:132). BpaTHCJiaB MnTpoBHua je, npojia3ehn Kpo3 Eeorpaa 
1591. ro^HHe, TaKoi)e cpeTao TpKe (KocthIi 1926:174). 

Or 80.000 Tpica AOcejteHHx Ha TepHTopHJy Xa636ypuiKe MOHapxHje 
y BpeMe TypCKe BjiacTH (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r7frd/cstdy: 
@field(DOCID+GR0044)) HeH3BecHO je kojihkh ,neo h>hx ce HacTaHHO y 
KpajeBHMa ca cpncKHM ^hbjlcm. 1 Ilo3HaTO je ,na cy ce rpun y to BpeMe 
HacejtaBajiH y cpncKe oGjiacra nojeAHHaHHO hjih y MacoBHHJHM Tajiacn- 
Ma. npBOJ KaTeropHJH, yruaBHOM, npnnaaajy Majio6poJHH rpijn kojh cy 
floniJiH y npaTH>H naina Kao TproBijn 3JiaiOM, Kpojann, Kp3Hapn, CHaGfle- 
BanH, neKapH, hjih npeHOCHOUH nopyica h kojh cy no ono3HBy rocno^apa 
ocTajajiH y Beorpaay (Cre^aHOBHh 191 1:305). ^aneKO BHine Tpxa HacTa- 
H>eHO je y kojickthbhom HanyiirraH>y AOMOBHHe. 2 

Ha ocHOBy flocaflainitHx HCTpa>KHBaH>a, npBe MacoBHHJe MHrpaiinje 
rpxa H3 KonHeHHX npe^ejia MaKe^OHHJe, Ennpa hjih Tecajinje 6njie cy 

1 ripeMa caaauiBMM ca3HaitHMa apxHBCKa rpal)a o TpuHMa y cpncKHM KpajeBHMa nojx 
Xa636ypiiiKOM MOHapxnjoM .aajieKo je 6oraraja or OHe y o6jiacTHMa noA TypcKOM BJiauuhy. 
,D,eo rpaf)e je oGjaBibeH, Ha npnMep, nonHCH „TypcKHx" TproBaua h 3aHaTjiHJa y CpeMCKOj 
>KynaHHJH (raBpHJiOBHh 1969:246-292). HecTO ce noMHity TpuH Mel)y epnCKHM acHTejbHMa 
cpeMCKHX, 6aHaTCKHx h 6aMKHX cena h Bapomnua. TaKO cy 1660. Kao CTanoBHHUH Banaia 
3a6ejie>KeHH KocTa, TpK, ToMam TpK, /jMHTap TpK, a 1733. y IlaHqeBy, AH^pnja TpK, Ho- 
BaK TpKOBMh h MHxaHJio TpK, y BejiHKOM BeMKcpeKy — MHxaeji TpeK (FIonOBHh 1955:105, 
149, 273). y CpeMy, 1736. cnoMHiby ce TproBUH Mhho TpeKO, Ahmo nana, TpeKO JJptm h 
Teopr TpeKO (nonoBHh: 1950:374). y BaHKOJ cy Tpun 6ejieacenH Kao „ocTajiH kojh neMajy 
npe3HMe Ha -nh h -bhU" (IlonoBHh 1952:10), cTora ce y nonncy H3 1720, Ha npMMep, y Ba- 
paAMHCKOM uiaHuy HaBo^H 6poj (uiecT) TpKa (IlonoBHh 1952:45). 3HaTHO je ratine i*hx 6e3 
oupcjxnmie TpK ajiH npe3HMeHa h Mecra pol)en>a He aoboac y cyMH>y HaunoHajmy npHiiaa- 
hoct. ripncycTBO TpKa ocTaBHJio je Tpara y OHOMacrauH, Ha npHMep, >kchcko HMe TpKHH>a 
(FIonoBHh 1955:43) h y TonoHowacrauH, TpK, cejio (Munh 1973:121, 122, 123), TpMKa MJia- 
Ka — aTap y Kenn, TpHKa jiHBa^a — aTap y Hl)omy (IlonoBHh 1955:1 13, 177), TpnKH mop — 
,aeo ccna OrapH EaHOBun, TpHKH raj — noxec EyfjaHOBua, TpHKe jiMBa^e — noTcc KapjioB- 
HHha, TpHKa a,aa (TIoiiOBHh 1950:38, 48, 72, 104), TpnKa 6apa — iiOTec y noisy EoljaHa, 
TpMKa 6apa — nOTec /JecnoT CeHTHBana (IlonoBHh 1952:81, 145). 

2 CaaKaKO 6h Tpe6ajio HanoMeHy-ra ^a cy ce ca TpuHMa KpeTann h rpKoi^OHH I^hh- 
uapn, oco6hto no pa3apan>y Mocxonojba. rio3HaTo je j\a UHHuapn HMajy 4>JioTaHTHO na- 
UHOHajiHO ocehaH>e, na cy ce £OJia3ehH y Cp6HJy, y BeflHHH c;iynajeBa H3XiaBajiH 3a TpKe, 
TaKO ^a je h y to BpeMe nocrojao npo6jieM pa3rpaHHHeH>a a KaMOJiH ca ,uaHaiiJH>e BpeMeH- 
CKe AHCTaHue. Hhhh ce ^a cy napaMerpH 3a o,upel)HBaH>e eTHHHKe npHnaflHOCTH rpKO(J)0- 
hhx UHHuapa, hhjh je y^eo uiHpett»y rpHKe Kyjuype Ha cpncKOM TJiy HeocnopaH, abocjio- 
3KHa hjih Tpocjio^cHa npe3HMeHa h jiHTepaTypa hjih apxHBCKa rpal)a y kojoj je nopeA HMeHa 
HaBe^eHa exHHMKa OApe^HHua. 



JoBaHKa T>opl)eBHh JoBaiiOBHh: Tpuh y EeorPA/jy 



159 



1690, no noTBpflH Beh aoShjchhx npHBHJierHJa ozt Jleonojma I (1667, 
1668. h 1669) huh no noTnHCHBan>y KapjiOBa^Kor MHpa 1699. (Vacalopo- 
ulos 1973:280). Jlpyrn Tanac ycjie/j,HO je nocjie rio>KapeBaHKor MHpa, 
„Ka/;a je TypcKHM nonaHHHHMa ^03BOJteHa TproBHHa TypcKOM po6oM Ha 
bojihko, a Ha Mano caMO y BpeMe Bauiapa" (raBpnjioBHh 1969:13-14). 3a 
pa3JiHKy ojj, OBa #Ba Tajiaca noKpenyTa TproBaHKHM HHTepecHMa, HapenHH 
cy 6hjih nocneAHHa pa3apan>a Mocxonojta (1769, 1788. h 1821) y KOJHMa 
cy npeoBjia^HBajiH IjHHHapn (IlonoBHh 1937:37; npey3CJin: Vacalopoulos 
1973:390; Ylanabprnvoc, 2001:27). riocjie^FbH bcuhkh ncejbeHHHKH Tauac 
TpKa, kojh noHHH^e oko 1804. a BpxyHan aocTH^ce 1830, Kpefre ce npeiwa 
cpncKHM KpajeBHMa jy^cHHJe oa Eeorpajja (na7E<x8piav6<; 2001:28). riper- 
nocTaBiba ce aa je obo nocjie/j[H>e MacoBHnje ncejLaBaite 3a CBoje y3poKe 
HMajio, Ha noneTKy, MoryhHOCT 3a jiaKmy h noBOJtHHJy TproBaHKy jj;ejiaT- 
hoct h cranage HMeTKa, a y nocneAttoj fleueHHJH, Heycnex ycTaHHHKor 
noKpeTa 1821-1822. (.ime.gr/ projects/migration/15-19/ gr/v2/yugosla- 
via.html). 

3ana>Ka ce m cy MHrpaHTe H3 ckohomckhx pa3Jiora yrjiaBHOM hhhh- 
jih MyuiKapHH, rjiaBe nopo/nma, kojh cy no yxojjaHOM nocjiy hjih CTeie- 
hom HMeTKy aoboahuh h nopoziHHe, ^ok cy paTHe HCBOJLe OAMax noKpe- 
Tajie nopoflHue hjih caMO >KeHe, KaKO je npHcyTHO h y npe/jaitHMa. 3 

O AajtHM MHrpaHHj'aMa TpKa y cpncKe KpajeBe, npeMa rpal)H ApxHBa 
CpGnje h Yij;py)KeH>a TpKa „PHra <Depeoc", noje#HHaHHa hjih rpymia floce- 
jtaBaH>a y Cp6njy h Beorpajj HacTaBjteHa cy h tokom XX BeKa. V npBoj 
nojiOBHHH Tor nepHOjj;a Kao nocjieAHHa paTHHx HeBOJba h hojihthmkhx He- 
CJiaran>a 6hjio je hckojihko Tanaca HacejtaBaH-a TpKa y cpncKe KpajeBe: y 
BpeMe npoTepHBaita TpKa H3 TypcKe 1913-1914. h 1922-1923, 3araM H3 
ByrapcKe 1918-1928, Kao h no 3aBpuieTKy /Jpyror CBeTCKor paTa 
1945-1949, Ka.ua je oko 90.000 TpKa flonpjio /to JyrocjiaBHJe 4 h ocTajinx 



3 JlereH^a o hmchy cejia rpKun>a y J\o^>qm 3annaH>y Morjia 6h yica3HBaTH Ha npn- 
cwjiHa Hceji>aBaH>a >KeHa TpHKe. Hmg cejia MeiUTaHH necTO H3roBapajy y mhomchhh. no jca- 
hoj JiereHAH cejio je ao6hjio HMe no TpKMH>aMa — yAOBHuaivia. Typun cy y h>hxobom ceny 
noy6HJa;iH cbc Myiincapue, a OHe cy 6e>KehH oa H>HxoBor 3yuyMa Aocnejie ao OBor MecTa h 
Ty ce HacTaHHJie. Y Apyroj JiereHAH nperaocTaBJba ce Aa je ceno Ha3BaHO no jienoj >*ceHH 
jeAHor MeuiTaHMHa TpKa kojoj HHcy 3HajiH hmc nonHCHa Ktbura nopecKe ynpaBe ajieKCH- 
HaHKe onuiTHHe H3 1884. noTBpl)yje Aa je y ceny 6hjio AOcejbeHHKa H3 TpHKe (IleiiiHh 
2002:99-100). 

4 IlHTaH>e rpHKMx M36enuma peuiaBano je oa 1952, KaAa cy ce oahoch JyroanaBHJe 
m TpHKe HopMajiH30BajiH. OHMMa kojh cy >Kejie;iH A03BOJBeH je noBpaTaK y TpnKy, aok je 
AajtH 3a GopaBaK y JyrocnaBHJH 6ho HeonxoaaH oroycr H3 rpHKOr Ap^aBjtaHCTBa. Hobhm 
JyrocjiOBeHMMa y Cp6nJH OMoryhaBaH je AOJia3aK nopo;uma (oa 1952. ao 1956. AOcejteHo 
je 198 a tokom 1957-2650 Jinua), AaBaHe cy mm noBJiacraije npn noAH3aa>y Kyha, njiaha- 
H>y nope3a hjih 3anomji>aBaH>a. flpeMa H3BopHMa MnHHCTapcTBa HHOCTpaHHx nocjioBa y 



60 Ckphbehc mah>mhe ha Eajhcahv 

6anKaHCKHx apacafia (Haynes 1995: Appendix 2). npeivia no^auMMa Mhhh- 
CTapcTBa HHOCTpaHHx nocjiOBa y Cp6HJy je ojx 1950. no 1957. aoiujio 
25.766 eMHrpaHaxa M3 Tp4KC (MmtpobmIi 1997:197). Y flpyroj iiojiobhhh 
XX Bexa m na caMOM noneTKy XXI 3HaraH 6poj MJial)nx TpKa ,uojia3H 
yrjiaBHOM y Eeorpa,n pa/in CTy^HJa h opraHH30BaH>a nocjiOBa (Aid^oyoq 
2003:17). 

TpuH y BeorpaAy aocejbcim KpajeM XX Bcxa yrjiaBHOM ce HaJiase y 
CTaTycy npnBpeMeHO HacTat-beHHx. HeH3BecH0 je kojihko he ce or h>mx 
597 ca npHBpeMeHHM 6opaBKOM (450 CTyfleHara m 56 noanoBHHx Jty^w) 
npHKJby^HTH cTajiHO HacTait>eHMM u ca KaKBUM cxaxycoM. Mau>H jxeo 
rpHKe MaH>HHe y Bcorpa^y, iiotomum cxapnx nopo^HLia m eMHrpairni H3 
1945-1949. kojh cy noHOBO CTeKJiH rpHKO Ap>KaBJi>aHCTBO, yKynHO h>hx 
95, HMa cxaTyc CTajiHO HacTaH>eHHx. 5 ^eo h>hx npnnafla uinpoj nopo/iHUH 
TpKa, OKynjbenHX y y,apy5KeH>y „Pnra Oepeoc". 

EBH^eHTHa cy, naKO He h MacoBHa, i<peTaH>a TpKa y oGpHyxoM cmc- 
py — H3 CpGHJe y TpMKy. Pa3Jiore 3a TaKBy nojaBy, HapoHHTO y npsoj no- 
jiobhhh XIX BeKa, TpeGajio 6h TpaacHTH c je#He CTpaHe y HHi-beHHUH ,aa je 
TpHKa ocjioGo^ena, a ca flpyre cxpaHe y cpncKoj nojiHXMUH npeMa cxpaH- 
UHMa. ,H,p)KaBHH caBex CpGnje AOHeo je OAJiyicy 1844. #a cxpaHH no^aHH- 
UH He Mory MMaxM CBOja HeriOKpexHa ,no6pa. 5aBJbeH>e 3aHaxHMa xaicoljc jc 
Ghjio oxe>KaHO jep cy ecHacf)CKe ype,n6e 3a cxpaHue saxTesan-e oxnycx H3 
Ap>KaBJLancxBa h noBehaHe xpouiKOBe, Ha npHMep, 3a 6ojixauHJCKH (ay- 
ftaHCKH) ecHacj) — 250 (JDOpHHXH (T)opl)eBHh 1925:XLIII). MoryllHocx 3a 
oncxaHaK h HacxaBaK 6aBJbeH>a 3anonexHM nocjioBHMa Hy^HJio je cpncKO 
Ap>KaBJi>aHCXBO. CxaB TypcKe xaKol)e je Hiiiao Ha pyicy nocp6jbaBan>a Tp- 
Ka. rioBpeivieHO je Typcica xpa>KMJia ojx CpGnje Aa joj ce ncnopyne iiojchh- 
hh TpuH. TaKO je 26. Mapxa 1854. 3axpa>KHJia KoHCxaHXHHa riaHajoxnca n 
^HMHXpHca KocxHca. TTopxa h <j)paHuyci<H KOH3yji oGaBeuixeHH cy 3. Maja 
#a ce xpa^KeHa jinua He Hajia3e y CMe^epeBy, 24. Maja — Aa cy ohm, nnaic, 
y rpa/iy, aok ce y nHCMy ojx 2. jyHa 1854. jaBJLa #a cy no flOSBOJiH cj)paH- 
LiycKor KOH3yjia cxynwin y cpncKO ,ap>KaBJLaHCXBO h j\<x ce BJiacx npeMa 
H>HMa TaKO h onxo^H. CyjiTaHOB cJ)epMaH o ynpaBJbatty npH#p/KaBaH>eM 
xaKHpe ynyheH je cbhm npoBHHunjaMa, na n oeorpa^cKoj. Hajro>KeHO je 
Aa cbh noAaHHUH TpHKor KpajteBCXBa Mopajy j\& Hanycxe xepnxopHJy 



JyrocnaBHJH jc Gvmo oko 25.766 rpHKnx H36ernHixa, ojx kojhx je ApjKaBJbaiicrBo iiphmhjio: 
1950. - 70, 1950/1957. - 7914, 1957. - 945, yKym-10 8929 Jinua. Oko 17.000 Vpm iiaaa- 
jio ce noBparKV y orauoHiiy, oneKyjyliH noBOJbHHJH iiojihtwhkh momchbt. Oomctkom uic3- 
AeceTHx ro/UiHa ,,rp i n<o nHTaibe" HHJe 6hjio Biiuie y >khh<h HHTepecoBaiba, Hei<H TpuH cy 
ocTajiH y JyrocjiaBHJH, £OK ce Behn ^eo Bpanio y Tpnicy hhh ce MceJiHO 11a Hctok h 3anazi. 
(MHTpoBHfi 1997:197-198). 

5 npeMa noaauHMa MnHncxapcTBa 3a ynyrpaujibe noejiose CpGnje, 5. VIII 2003. 



JoBaHKa T>opf)eBnh JoBaHOBHh: rpuH y EEOrPAfly 1 6 1 



TypcKe h TypcKHx npoBHHm-ija y pony oa 15 AaHa. Cpncxa CTpaHa flocra- 

BHJia je OAroBop Aa y BeorpaAy HeMa noAaHHKa Tp4Kor KpajteBCTBa (AC, 
MYfl-H, C5 103/1854).6 

BeorpaACKH Fpnu m nopOAHna AOceibeHHx npe /Jpyror CBeTCKor 
paTa naMTe npncHJiHa HcejLaBaiba cbojhx cyHapOAHHKa, oa Bjiacra one- 
tbeHHx Kao „HenoAo6HH", 7 neraHa, y MaiteM o6nMy, y roAHHaMa WufyopM- 
6npoa (ApxHBa PO), KaAa cy nojiHTHHKH oahoch H3Me!)y JyrocjiaBHJe h 
TpHKe 6hjih BeoMa 3aTerHyrH. HaKOH noHOBHor ycnocTaBJBaita ahiijio- 
MaTCKHx OAHOca 3a6ejie>KeH je ao6opobojlhh MacoBHH noBpaTaK hobo- 
npncnejinx TpKa y OTau6nHy. 

Cjaj rpHKor BeorpaAa h H>eroB nyT ao 6jieAe ceHKe BHme HHTepeco- 
Ban>a 6yAHO je y cpncKoj peajiHCTHHKOj npo3H ho y HaynHHM HCTpaacHBa- 
H,HMa (ByKejinh 1997:153-163). Hh rpHKa CTpaHa HHJe HcnojtHJia noce6- 
ho 3aHHMan»e jep cy y MOHorpa(J)HJaMa hjih AcnoBHMa CTyAHJa nocBehe- 
hhm ycnoHy Tpna cpncKoj cpeAMHH yrjiaBHOM npey3HMaHH pe3yjiTaTH J\. 
nonoBHha, aok rpal)a cpncKHx apxHBa (JyrocnaBHJe, Cp6HJe h BeorpaAa 
hjih YApy>KeH,a „PHra Oepeoc") ocTaje Heo6pai)eHa Kao h npo6jieM rpqKe 
Anjacnope y Cp6HJH y XX Beicy. Hhhh ce m je cyA^HHa TpKa Aa 6yay 
CKpHBeHH, cyAehH 6ap no nonncHMa HMa CTaHOBHHiiiTBa H3 1838. (KyHH- 
6epT 1988:221) h 1867. (OrojaHHeBHh 1967:25) kojh hx y6pajajy y „xpn- 
LiinaHe" hjih „ocTajie". J\. rionoBHh je oojaBHO Aa ce y BeorpaAy y npBoj 
nonoBHHH XIX BeKa Hajia3Hjio 109 yrjieAHHx rpHKHx nopoAHHa h to „32 
H3 KjiHcype, 12 H3 CjaTHCTe, 1 1 H3 Ejiana, 6 H3 MocxononHca 3 H3 CejiH- 
He h MejiHHKa, no jeAHa H3 JaitHHe, Cepeca, KaTpaHHne, CojiyHa, Kaero- 
pnje h BejiBeTa" (nonoBnh 1937:50-51; Vacalopoulos 1973:391; Ylana- 
5piavo<; 2001:32; ria7i;a8piav6(; 2003:17). H3y3eTaK TaKol)e HHHe er- 
hhhkh nonncH CTaHOBHHiuTBa H3 1971. KaAa je rpaAy BeorpaAy nonncaHO 
232 TpKa (nonnc 1974: passim) h 1991. - h>hx 260 (TIonHc 1993: pas- 
sim). 06jaBjteHH nonnc H3 1981. h 2002. He aohoch noAaTKe o TpHHivia, 
ajiH ce ohh Mory ca3HaTH y Peny6jiHHKOM 3aBOAy 3a CTaTHCTHKy. TaKo je 
1981. perHCTpoBaHO 250 a 2002. — 255 TpKa y BeorpaAy. Snare ocHJiann- 
je 6poja TpKa, y3HMajyhH y o63Hp CTapocHO Ao6a BehnHe, Morjie 6h yny- 
hHBaTH Ha JiaraHO 6yl)eH>e CBecra CTapoceAejiana o cthkhkoj npnnaAHO- 

CTH, H3 KOJe npOH3HJia3H H JKCTba 3a H3JaiHH>aBaH>eM, OAHOCHO Ha HOBe 

6 OpamjycKH KOH3yji je 6ho npemoHHJH HaBOAehH &a y CMeaepeBy acHBe: MnxaH- 

J1HC riaHajOTHC, KOHCTaHTHH jTIaTpHHaKHC, JoprOC H flHMHTpHC Kocthc, JoaHHC KOKHHa- 
THC H KOHCTaHTHH FlaHajOTHC. 

7 TpuH cy AHoaoMaTCKHM nyTeM nonHejiH 171 MOJiSy 3a Ha^OKHa^y BpeAHOCTH Ha- 

UHOHajlH30BaHHX HCKpeTHHHa (MHTpoBnh 1997:196). 



1 62 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

MceibeHHKe H3 MaTHHHe 3eMJbe hjih Ha MHrpaunje yHyTap JyrocjiaBHJe 
hjih Cp6HJe noflCTaKHyTe paTHHM npHJiHKaMa. 

IToTOMmi nopoflHij,a rpnice kojiohhjc y EeorpaAy n HOBonpHAOimiH 
Tpu,H nnaic cy ocefiajin noTpeGy a& ce Ap>Ke Ha oxyny, Aa ce Mel)yco6Ho 
noMa>Ky h cpefty, na cy CTora ocHHBajin yApy>Ken>a. 



2. TpHKa nopoflima y Beorpaay 

npBO yapy^ceHbe Tpxa y EeorpaAy ocHOBaHO je 1922. roAHHe. Pe- 
AObhh HjiaHOBH ^pyuiTBa nocTajajiH 6h FpuH, 6e3 o63Hpa Ha noAaHCTBO, 
nouiTO 6h nojro)KHJiH ynwcHMHy oa 100 flHHapa. OcHHBann, h>hx ABaAe- 
ceTopo, npHJio)KHJiH cy no 500 AHHapa a to 6hjih: Mnxanjio KyicyjiHAec, 
riaBJie KaneHHK, CHMa Eaina, Toaop nana TeoAopy, JaHKO Kaparvinh, 
riepHKJinc EapSepn, ^HMHTpnje KapaMnh, T>opl)e J. KapaMnh, HnKOJia 
Mynonyjioc, Pncia HeHCTenyjioc, Hnxona Kasamjnc, AHacTac JIa3ape- 
Bnh, Baca nananajoTMC, TlaHajoT ^ejta, riaHTa EejiojaHnft, Toopl)e Kana- 
hhh, TpanAa(J)Hji TpaHAa4)HjiOBMh, HHKOJia Hyuionyjioc (ripaBHJia 
1923:13). YApy5KCH>e je nocnoBaJio npeMa IJpaeuAUMa. CacTajajiH cy ce 
y cbojoj 3ajeAHH4K0J Kyhn y CapajeBCKoj yjinun, HHTajin rpHKy uiTaMny 
m KH>nre ? npocjiaBjLajin EjiaroBecTK Kao onaBy, 6pHHyjiH o HJiaHOBHMa. 
JXpym cbctckh paT OMeo je paA YApy^eita, a y nocjiepaTHHM roAHHaivia 
YApy^eity je 3a6pan>eH paA ynpKoc ypeAHOJ peracTpaimJH. H>hxob aom 
npnnao je TpHKOj aM6acaAn. TeK 1996. roAMHe YApy>KeH>e noA hcthm 
HMenoM n ca hcthm wvbcu — noMoh TpuHMa y cpncKOJ cpeAHHH, HacTa- 
bhjio je ca paAOM. Ehjic cy to Teuixe roAHHe, norvioh je 6njia noTpeGHa 
cbhm rpa^aHHMa, na h TpanMa Kao CKpnBeHOJ MattniiH. Tp4Ka je noKa- 
3ana H3y3eTHy conHAapHOCT. EeorpaACKH Tpun cy 3a KpaTKO BpeMe H3a- 
uijim H3 cemce, noHOCHH Ha MaranHy 3eMJby, noMoh cy AOCTaBJtajiH ohh- 
Ma Kojnivia je HajnoTpcGimja. JaBHa rjiacnjia peAOBHo cy npaTHjia h>hxo- 
By aKTHBHOCT (MnjiaHOBHh 1999). To je 6ho npaBH TpeHyTaK Aa ce Tpun 
OKyne. IIotomuh CTapnx rp4KHX nopoAnua, no )kchckoj hjih MyniKOJ jih- 
hhjh, 3aTHM HcejLeHHUH npBe nojiOBHHe XX Beica (90%) h npHAOiiuiH 
CTyACHTH hjih nocjiOBHH JtyAH (10%) npHCTynajiH cy 3ajeAHHijH. TaKO 
caAa YApy^KCH^e Gpojn 1300 HJiaHOBa. 8 ElpeTnocTaBJba ce Aa je oko 3200 
noTOMana H3BaH YApy^eH^a. HjiaHOBH „Pnre Oepeoca" yrnaBHOM HMajy 
cpncKa npe3HMeHa (70%), H3BCACHa AOAaBan>eM HacTaBKa -uh Ha rpHKy 
ocHOBy, npeBOAOM, hjih cy cacBHM pa3JiHHHTa. TTpoMeHa npesHMena 
noApa3yivieBajia je npHMan>e cpncKor Ap^aBjtaHCTBa, H3 ckohomckhx 



8 TpHKa AMJacnopa y cyce^HMM 3eMJbaMa je /uuieico 6poJHMJa: y PyMyHHJH 18.000, y 
Aji6aiiHJM 250.000-400.000 a y Mal)apcKqj 1.600 HiiaiiOBa (Europe/europe_indcx.htm#). 



JoiiaiiKa "Bopl)CBHh JoBanoBHh: Tpuh y BEOPPAfly 1 63 

hjih nojiHTH4KHX pa3Jiora. Oko 50% HJiaHOBa 6eorpaACKe rpqice nopoAH- 
ue npe AOJiacKa y BeorpaA SopaBHjio je y hckom ApyroM rpaAy Cp6nje 
hjih 6HBiue JyrocjiaBHJe. BehnHa obhx AocejteHHKa boah nopeKjio H3 ce- 
BepHMJMx KpajeBa TpnKe (h3 Kjincype, AHApHJaHonojba, Couyna, JaH>H- 
He, Cepeca, IJtyMaje, KaTpaHHue, KacTopHJe, BejiBeTa, CjaracTe, Jlapn- 
ce, Bjiaua h Mocxonojfca) a 3HaTH0 Matte hx je ca ocTpBa hjih KpaJH>er 
jyra. IUto ce Tnne o6pa30BHe CTpyKType, 89% HMa BHCOKy uiKOJiCKy 
cnpeMy. Y nopo/umaMa ce ymaBHOM He roBopn rpnKH, Tano Aa je 3Haite 
je3HKa, yicojiHKO nocTojn, cTeneno Ha KypceBHMa hjih y CKopnje BpeMe 
Ha peflOBHHM cTy^HjaMa. nopoAHue 6hbujhx h caflamibHx dyAeHaTa 
rpKa HacToje Aa yne Aeuy je3HKy MajKe hjih ona. Yapy>KeH>e, cBecHO 
3nanaja je3HKa y onyBaflby eraHHicor HAeHTHTeTa, opraHH30Bajio je Kyp- 
ceBe je3HKa 3a nyHOJierae. Hfleja o ocHHBaity rpnice uiKOJie 3a HaJMJial)e 
noTOMKe (AiaXoyoc; 2003:19), y pacKopaKy ca MaTepnjajiHHM h npo- 
ctophhm npo6jieMHMa, join hhjc peajiH30BaHa. CBaKaKo paHO yno3HaBa- 
H>e ca je3HKOM h KyjiTypoM TpKa yMHoroMe 6h noACTaKjio caMOCBecT o 
eTHHHKOj npHnaflHOCTH h noMorjro onyBaH»y rpHKor ayxa y 6eorpaACKoj 
cpeAHHH. HjiaHOBH ce peAOBHo OKynjtajy Ha He^ejLHOM Sorocnyacefiby y 
upKBHUH BorocnoBCKor 4)aKynTeTa, o bcjihkhm xpHinhaHCKHM npa3HH- 
HHMa, o cjiaBH Yflpy)KeH>a BjiaroBecTHMa, Ha 3aAyniHHM noMeHHMa yno- 
kojchhx HjraHOBa. CBenaHOCTH o HaHHOHajiHHM npa3HHUHMa rpmce, 25. 
MapTa h 28. OKTo6pa, nporpaiviH y 3HaK cehaita Ha HaJBehe TpareAnje 
rpHKor Hapofla, nporoH TpKa H3 CMnpHe hjih ca IloHTa, noAcehajy Ha 
TpeHyTKe HCTOpnje h HHHe Aeo cbccth Tpna, Ma rae Aa ce ohh Hajia3HJiH. 
TloBOA 3a 3ajeflHHHKo cehaae jecTe h 24. jyH, AaH norH6nje Pnre Oepeo- 
ca, Hfleonora, necHHKa h Gopua, koa He6ojuiHHe Kyjie, H3BaH TaAaume 
TpHKe, ajiH He h H3BaH PnrHHe 3aMHiHJteHe rpnKe HMnepnje. 

HaJMJial)a reHepaimja npnBpeMeHO HacTaH>eHHX TpKa CTyaeHaTa 
3HaTHo je npoAopHHJa. Ha h>hxobhm „>KypKaMa" neTKOM y CKa/iapjiHJH 
noKa3yjy KaKo ce MjiaAOCT rpmce 3a6aBJBa, Kojy My3HKy cnyuia, OTKpHBa- 
jy Aa cy MJiaAH Tpnn y Beorpa^y. 

3a pa3J7HKy o/j, AaHaunter BpeMeHa, Ka^a ce y 6eorpaACKoj cpe^HHH 
Ha TpKe He rjie/ta Kao Ha cjioj JtyAH ca noce6HHM, thhhhhhm o6ejie>KJH- 
Ma, y He TaKO AaJieKC-j npoiujiocTH Shjio je cacBHM Apyrannje. 



3. TpHKH Beorpa/j 

3ajeAHHHKH >khbot Cp6a h TpKa y 6eorpaACKoj napuiHJH Meitao ce 
tokom BpeMeHa. Ha noneTKy XVIII BeKa rpmca KOJiOHHj'a HacTojajia je Aa 
ocTaHe H3ABOjeHa, AP^ehn ce nocjiOBHHx hjih )KeHHfl6eHHx Be3a ca cyHa- 
poAHHHHMa y TpHKoj hjih pacejaity. H>nxoBa onurraHa OKynjtajia je TproB- 



1 64 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

Lie Ha BejiHKO h Mano Kao h 3aHaTJiHJe. TpuH cy ce6e CMaTpanH bhuihm cjio- 
jeM ApyuiTBa, a h Cp6n cy hx TaKO flo^cHBJi>aBajiH ? 9 ivta^a cy yBH^anH coijh- 
janHe pa3JiHKe Metjy itHMa h no „npaB^H cyAHjiH": ,,repiJH kojh cy y ro- 
cnocTBy ohh cy Jbyjw HaJBHiue onacTHH h hcmhphh h GyHaijHJe. A Tepmi 
KyheBHH, >KeHaTH, 3aHaijHJe h xeproBUH, ohh cy Jty^H ao6pn h nourreHH" 
(riepoBHh 1954:149). 0,zjeBaH>e TpKa, „aHTepnja oa frHTaHHJe c fiypneTOM 
hjih utyGeTOM oa noxe CMaTpajio ce Kao o^eno HeKe BHiiie Kjiace — hhtcjih- 
reHTHO, rocno,a;cKo u (IlonoBHh 1937:55-56). Ha3HBanH cy hx h (fjanapuo- 
iutiMa ajiyAHpajyhn Ha HMyhHe rpnKe nopoAHije Koje cy ynpaBJtane LJapn- 
rpaACKOM naTpHJapuiHJOM h nrpajie BH^Hy nojiHTHHKy Kao h ckohom- 
CKO-{^HHaHCHJCKy yuory. OBaKBO nopel)eH>e je cacBHM yMCCHO, jep je yjiora 
TpKa y cpncKOJ cpeAHHH ofl H3y3eTHe Ba>KHOCTH 3a H3pacTan>e Bapoiun h 
pa3Boj rpa^aHCKor apyuiTBa (Kocrah 1926:174-182; BjiaflHcaBJteBHh 
1930:298-310; OrojaHHeBHh 1987:93). TpHKH TproBUH h upkbchh bcuhko- 
^ocTOJHHUH noce6HO cy ce 6pHHyjiH fla ce rpHKa KyjiTypa h nncMeHOCT 
o^p)KaBajy h pa3BHJajy y Eeorpa^y (CTe^aHOBHh 1913:846-85 1). 10 

MetjyTHM, Beh KpajeM XVIII h Ha caMOM noneTKOM XIX BeKa Hacn- 
jte Aaxnja, ,n;H3aH>e ycTamca, ennzieMHJa Kyre, naHHHHa npe^a^ceH>a y 3e- 
MyH ? nopeMeTHJie cy yxo^aHOCT rpHKe onniTHHe a H>eHe npnjiHHHo ocnpo- 
MaiueHe >KHTejLe ynyTHJie Ha 3aje,nHHHKH jkhbot ca Cp6nMa. Tokom ^Ba- 
AeceTHx roAHHa XIX BeKa 6eorpa,n;cKH rpun cy o6hobhjih cboj ApyuiTBe- 
hh ^chbot h cf)HHaHCHJCKH ce CTa6HJiH30BajiH, ajiH npHMaT y Bol)eH>y Tpro- 
BaHKHx nocjiOBa Hncy noBparajiH. HnaK, 6poj TpKa y Eeorpa^y je pacTao, 
Kao nocjie^Hua c jeflHe CTpaHe npBHX nopa3a rpHKnx ycraHHKa, 11 a c apy- 



9 y HjiwheBOM poMaHy Xaytu /Juuia nopeA npe^CTaBe >KHBOTa 6eorpaACKe Tpro- 
BanKO-3aHaTCKe napuiHJe na>KH>y npHBJianH carjie#aBaH>e npoGueMa yuacKa Cp6a Me!)y 
rp4Ke TprOBue (Hjinh 1908). 

10 riocTOJajia cy 6ap Tpn HanHHa Ha Koje ce OABHjao npouec mnpeifea rpHKe Kyjuy- 
pe koa Cp6a. JeAaH je HHCTHTyuH0HajiH30BaH, Apyrn je HenocpeAaH hjih cnonTan, a Tpehn 
nocpe^aH. Moace ce TaKofje roBopHTH o BepTHKajiHOM h JiHHeapHOM pacnpocrapaH>y rpHKe 
Kyjuype. BepTHKajia peuenunje rpHKe Kyjrrype no HanHHy uiHpeH>a jecTe HHCTHTyuHOHa- 
nw30BaHa h Henocpe^Ha, a npOTe^ce ce oa BpeMeHa BH3aHTHJe ao Apyre nojiOBHHe XIX Be- 
Ka. OHa ce HajcHaacHHJe HcnoJLHJia y BH3aHTHJcK0 Ao6a, o6orahyjyhn cpncKe ApyiHTBeHe 
cjiojeBe Ha AP^aBHOM, BepcKOM h KH>H>KeBHOM, Kao h jihkobhom nojty. 3a BpeMe TypcKe 
BJiaAaBHHe MO>Ke ce npaTHTH jiHHeapHo, npeMa BHAy peuenunje — HenocpeAHO, pacnpo- 
CTMpaibe rpHKe KyjiType y c})opMHpaH>y cpncKor rpa^aHCKor ApyiuTBa. H3Me^y ABa CBeTCKa 
paTa HajcHancuHJe ce MaHH(J)ecTOBajio HHAHpeKTHO ycBajaae aHTHHKe KyjiType, Koje ca H3- 
BecHHM npeKHAHMa noKa3yje TCHACHUHJy ycnoHa ao Aaiiauitbwx Aana. 

11 KHe3 Mm^olij, Haxo HHJe OTBopeHO noAp>Kao rpMKH ycTaHaK, CBOJy h3kjiohoct je 
noKa3HBao OTKynoM rp^Kor po6jba (TaBpHJiOBHh 1909:13), hjih H3AaBan.eM A03BOJiaMa Aa 
TpuH npoce y BeorpaAy paAH H36aBJbaifca CBqje Aeue H3 poncTBa. TaKBO AonyuiTeibe AaTO 
je, Ha npHMep, Jan^H HacTacy H3 Jan>HHe h JeKaTepHHH H3 Hayce (KpecTHh/FIeTpoBHh 
1973:409, 474). 



JoBaHKa T>opr)eBHh JoBaHOBnh: Tpuh y BEOrPAfly 1 65 



re, CHrypHOCTH Kojy je npy>Kajia ynpaBa MHJioiua 06peHOBHha (GrojaH- 
neBHh 1976:89-100). YcnoH rpica y Beorpa/iy HacTaBHo ce jjp 1832. mm 
je 3a MMTponojiHTa H3a6paH Cp6nH. To je 6ho noneTaK jiaraiior Hecrajaiba 
rpHKor Beorpaaa kojh he ca 6yI)eH>eM HaijHOHajiHe CBecra, 1848, cbc bh- 
iue nocrajaTH cpncKH, acHMHJiyjytiH h rpHKy KOJiOHHJy. 12 3a cjiyac6eHH je- 
3hk yBe^eH je cpncKH, noTHCHyT rpnKH, Kao je3HK 6ajiKaHCKHx TproBaua. 
HnaK, rpHKH ce h AajLe npeAaje y Eeorpaay. Je3HK aHTHHKHX TpKa 
npesacxoAHO Hajia3H MecTO y cpe^^eM a noce6HO y bmcokom o6pa30Ban>y 
cpncKwx HHTejieKxyajiaua. 

O HacTaBM rpMKor je3MKa y Eeorpaay Kpo3 BeKOBe MO>Ke ce roBopn- 

TH KaO O HaCTaBM Ha pa3JIHHHTMM HHBOHMa: H TO y rpHKHM OCHOBHHM H 

cpeflftHM uiKOJiaMa ((JmnaHCHpanHM on CTpane rpHKe onurraHe), noTOM y 

CpnCKHM OCHOBHHM IUKOJiaMa, TMMHa3HJaMa H Ha yHHBep3HTCTy. KaKo je 

tokom XVIII h y npBOj nojioBHHH XIX BCKa no3HaBan>e rpHKor je3HKa 13 
6hjio HeonxoflHO 3a npo/jop y bhujc KpyroBe ApyuiTBa h ,ap>KaBe y 
MMyhHHM cpncKHM nopo^MuaMa 14 hjih Ha flBopy Kapal)opl)eBHha hjih 
06peH0BHha 15 aHra^KOBaHH cy npHBaraH yHHTejtw. 3anaxeH je h>hxob 
yraqaj Ha cpncKH ABop rjje cy 6hjih ocjiOHau cpncKHM BjiaaapHMa, Kao 
Ao6pe AHmiOMaTe ajiH h no3HaBaonH 6ajiKaHCKHX h cbctckhx je3HKa. 16 

12 HeTBpT eeKa KacHHJe HecTajan,e TpKa H3 cpiiCKe cpeAHHe mtmwiDjs nojieMHKy 

H3Me^y aTHHCKHX HOBHHa „0HJIOIiaTpHC", TpiIlhaHCKMX „HMepa" H „CpnCKHX HOBHHa". 

Ha omy)K6e rpnice cTpaHe Ma-raja BaH je o^roBOpao KpahoM cryAHJOM Cp6u u rpifu, Ha- 
r^auiaBajyhH Aa je nocp6jbaBaH>e TpKa y Cp6MJH „npnpoAHa cTBap" Kao h xe/ieHH30BaH>e 
Cp6a y TpHKOj (Tepsnh 1992:96). 

13 y BeorpaACKOM HHTajiHiirry 6hjio je rpmcHx HOBHHa. Tano ce tokom roAHHe 
1847. o nora^aJHMa y TpHKOj Morjio ca3iiaTH m HOBHHa: Eoh, XpoHOC, HcoKpaTwc, Athhh 
h AMajiTHja (IlonoBHh 1964:374). A y HHTajinuiTa umpoM Cp6nje H3Mef)y HCTpAecerax h 
ACBeAeceTHx roAHHa 19. BeKa GTHsaao je npeKo 230 jiaanoBa Ha 14 cTpaHnx je3HKa, oato- 
ra na rpnicoM: AMajrra, EjiaAa, Eon, XnMcpa, Xpoiioc, HcoKparoc, Heo-ioroc, Tejierpacl)oc 
(CTaMaTOBHh 1998:714). 

14 CnoMeiiHMo CnHpy JecjMMHJafleca, Jienapa h yHHTejta HOBorpnKOr je3HKa, Aeue 
ABpaMa IleTpOHHJeBHha. Oh je poaom H3 Jlapnce. y Eeorpaa je Aomao neTpAeceTHx toah- 
Ha Kao t)aK neKe BHiue aTMHCKe iiiKOJie. IlpaTehH neTpoiiHJeBHheBe CMHOBe, 3aBpuiH0 je 
MeAHUHHy y Eeny (FfonoBHh 1964:457). 

15 llo3HaTo je Aa je ynHTejfe h BaciiHTan Kapal)opl)eBor CHHa 6ho Poao^hhhkhh, a 
MHJiomeBHx cHHOBa KoHCTaHTHH Paaoc. MHJiouieBa naJAapoBHTHJa KhH CaBKa ynnjia je h 
3Hajia rpHKH (IlonoBHh 1964:350). 

16 Tokom BeKOBa y CpGnJH cy ce CMeibMBajie AHHacraje, BJiaAapn h BJiaAC a 6eo- 
rpaACKHM TpuHMa yBeK je xvpmimmo ymeAHo mccto y hojihthhkhm MHCHJaMa. TaKo je 
IleTap Hhko, 36or CBOje yMeuiHOCTH h no3HaBaita jesHKa, 6mo Kapa^op^eB ocuoHau y 
nperoBopHMa ca IlopTOM h MwjioiiieB capaAHMK Kao CTapeuiMHa 6eorpaACKHx TproBaua, 
kojh ce hhjc SpHHyo caMo o xproBaHKHM Beh h o AHnjiOMaTCKHM noanoBHMa. JoBaH KyMa- 
ayAHC je 1862, Ha nperoBopHMa y Athhh, 6ho H3acnaHHK KHe3a Mnxan^a. BjiaAaH T>op^e- 



1 66 Ckphbehe mah>hi ie ha Eajikahy 



y CBaKOAHeBHOM )KHBOTy ona)Ka ce h>hxob yAeo y npeo6pa>Kajy hckhx 
cpncKHx o6HHaja. TaKO je cjiaBa, noA yrauajeM npocnaBe rpHKHX HMeHAaHa, 
oa nopoflHHHe CBenaHOCTH nocrajia MaHHCJDecxaiiHJa flpyniTBeHor >KHBOTa, 
Kaaa ce npwviajy „noceTe ijejior CBCTa m #aje nocjiy)KeH>e" (Cre4)aHOBMh 
191 1:306). Tokom BpeMeHa, h nopeA BejiHKor oinopa, nojeAHHe rpHKe nopo- 
AHue „OApeiuie" cy ce HMeHAaHa h „npHXBarajie" cnaBy. Cbctkobhhh je ca- 
mo npoMen>eHO wvie, aok je cyuiTHHa pHTyana ocTana HCTa. 

CpncKa KyxHH>a npHMHJia je npmiHMHO or TpKa, nyBapa npe^HEbene 
BH3aHTHJCKe Tpne3e, 6oraTe opHj'eHTajiHHM I)aKOHHJaMa h mhphchhm 3a- 
MHHHMa (Ore^aHOBHh 1911:306). 

HnaK, rpHKH Kjiep h oSnnaJH Be3aHH 3a upKBeHH :>khbot H3a3HBauH cy 
CHa^caH OTnop koa Cp6a. Ha Heoflo6paBaH>e je, Ha npHMep, HaHjia3MJio no- 
HamaH>e TpKa y upKBH y kojoj cy ce nojaBJBHBajie >KeHe y upKBeHOM xopy, 
a MyniKapuH ca KanaMa Ha ruaBaMa. CivieTH>y cy npeACTaBJBajie w cjiy>K6e 
na rpHKOM je3HKy. Grora je KHe3 Mhjiolu 1827- H3Aao Hape^Sy kojom je 
yKHHyTa rpHKa cjiyac6a n rpHKO nojaite. Mel)yTHM, o6nnaj AH3aH>a upKBe- 
hhx norjraBapa y bhc, OAOMaheH y rpHKOM HapOAy ajiH He h upKBeHH 3aKOH, 
npHXBaheH je h koa Cp6a (HajicaHOBHh 1909:45-51), Kao h oco6eH HaHHH 
noja&a no3HaTor Kao KapjiosaHKO nojan>e (Tpal)a 1958:12). y Cp6nJH 
06peHOBHha 3a^p^aHa je h HHCTHTyunja upKBeHe Kyraje, „Taca" 3a mhjio- 
CTHH>y. OBaKO npHKynjteH HOBau 6ho je HaMen>eH upkbh, uiKOJiaMa, ecHa$- 

CKHM yflOBHIjaMa H BapOHIKOJ CHpOTHH>H (CTOJaHHeBHfr 1987:92). 

BeorpaA je 3anaMTH0 h join yBei< naMTH TpKe Kao y3opHe 3aAy^c6H- 

Hape. Mel)y H>HMa OAyseK je 6Hjia pa3BMJena HHCTHxyuHJa Ao6poHHHCTBa, 

oco6eH bha xpHiuhaHCKor MHJiocpl)a, Koje cy HeroBajiH Ma rAe Aa cy ce 
Hajia3HjiH. 17 



BHh Kao cpncKH AHiuiOMaTa Hajia3H0 ce Ha ay>khocth nocjiaHHKa y Athhh (1891-1894) h 
y Uapwrpa^y (1894-1897). 

17 ripHJio3H cy OAroBapajiH MOryhHocTHMa AapoAaBaua. /JacKaji CTe(j)an je oa ynn- 
TejbCKe njiaTe oabojho 2 (J)opHHTe 3a o6naBJbaH>e xpa.Ma CBcror 'Roplja y EeorpaAy h npn- 
jio>kho hx 3. HOBeM6pa 1712. (llonoBHh 1935:20). Ca6opHqj upkbh y EeorpaAy, no Te(})Tepy 
MojcHJa rieTpoBHha, npHJioxcHJiH cy TpK JaHa, Ha BacKpce^e 1734, no OTBOpaity AyfiaHa — 
6 (})Ophhth, a cJieAehe roAHHe — 12 cJjophhth, neap TpK — 75 ^opnHTM, TiypKO TpK — 3 <j)o- 
pnHTe h 75 HOBHnha, aok je #hmmo CnHAa npeaao 13 (})ophhth h 65 HOBHnha caKynjseHHx 
no xaHy (llonoBHh 1935:84-87). CeKpeTap KHeaa Mnjioma, KoHCTairraH XaflHja, nHBap, no- 
peKJioM H3 MejniHKa, MaTepnjajiHO je noMarao h MHore jaBHe ycTaHOBe y TpHKOJ. Oh je 
1848. noKJiOHHO 1000 ApaxMH HOBOOCHOBanoM JXpyunsy jiennx BeiiiTHHa y Athhh, 10000 
ApaxMH Komhchjh 3a noAH3aH>e Apyror KpH^a m cpeAH^e cane rpMKor ynHBep3HTeTa y Ath- 
hh Kao h OA6opy 3a ii0AH3aH>e h OMyBan>e ohhmx KJiHHHKa. TpnKH Kpajb Otoh je y 3HaK 3a- 
xBajmocTH 3a ynHH.eHe iioiaiOHe h noKa3aHy HaioiOHocT XaAHJy OAJiHKOBao opAeHOM Cna- 
CHTejta. XaAHJa ce naiuao y HeBoibH CTanOBHHUHMa KopHHTa na hm je noc^e 3CMJtOTpeca 
nocjiao 50 aycTpnjcKHX ryjiAeHa (BecejiHHOBHh 1965:110-112, 118, 214, 306). 



JoBaHKa T>opI)eBHh JoBaHOBHh: Tpuh y EEOrPAfly 



167 



Tpnu HHKOJia XpHcraft, 18 Bjia^aH T>opl)eBHh 19 h KocTa KyMaHy^M 20 
Kao rpaflOHanejiHHUH npecTOHwue HacrojajiH cy Aa AonpHHecy ypefjeHO- 
cth BeorpaAa. O AeJiaTHOcra npBor npeAceAHHKa EeorpaACKor MarHCTpa- 
Ta, FleTpa Hhkcl, kojh ce Ha oboj Ay>KHOCTH Hajia3H0 oa OKTo6pa 1807. ao 
CBOje cmpth, 1808, HHJe canyBaHa apxHBCKa rpal)a (HjiHh 1955:600). 

ApxHTeKTOHCKOM npeo6pa>*cajy Typcxe Bapomw y eBponcKy npecroHH- 
ity AonpHHejiH cy h noTOMiw yraeflHHx rpHKHX h UHHuapcKHX nopOAHqa, 

KaO LIITO Cy, Ha npHMep, KOHCTaHTHH JOBaHOBHh 21 H ^HMHTpHJe JleKO. 22 



18 Kaaaje 1856. HHKOJia XpHcrafi nocTao ynpaBHHK rpaAa, EeorpaA je HMao zjBa 
yjiHHHa (f)eH>epa, Ha OnuiTHHCKOJ KyhH h Ha Tepa3HJaMa. H>eroBMM 3ajiaran>eM EeorpaA je 
6jtecHyo — Ha6aBHO 6 hobhx (j)eH>epa, pacnopeAHO hx na 400 Kyha. TaKolje je H3Aao Ha- 
pe^6y w BJiacHHUH wcnpeA cbojhx Ka^ana, MexaHa hjih rocraoHHua, noA npeTH>0M 3aTBa- 
paH>a, nocTaBe <})eH>epe. Join 360 4)eibepa je 3acHJajio y TaAauiH>eM Beorpa^y (KHeaceBHh 
1957:462-463). 

19 AKaAeMHK BiiaAaH T>opl)eBHh, HCTOpHnap, kh>h^cbhhk, jieKap, cpncKH nocjiaHHK 
y Athhh, upeAceAHHK cpncxe BJia^e, no MajuH MapnJH je H3AaHax rpnice nopoAHije JleKO. 
3a oua T>opl)a, npeTnocTaBJtaMo Aa je TaKol)e TpK (nocp6ji>eH), cyAehH no xyMCTBy ca no- 
POahuom TepMaH. B. T>opl)eBHh je 1884, Kao npeAceAHHK 6eorpaACKe onuiTHHe hjih 
KMeiu, Kaxo je oh ce6e Ha3HBao, no6ojtuiao ocBeTJtetbe $eH»epHMa, ocHOBao Hobo rpo6jbe 
h ypeAHO CaBCKH Kej. B. "RopfjeBHh je pa3MHiijjbao Aa yBeAe ejieicrpHHHO ocBeTJieite yno- 
Tpe6oM BOAeHe cHare CaBe h AynaBa, ajiH je OAycTao 6ojehn ce Aa He oMCTe iuioBHA6y. 
BejiHKe Hanope je yjiarao Aa ce y rpaAy H3rpaAH boaoboa h KaHajnnauHJa. IloAaTKe o qa- 
chom o6aBJi>aH>y OBe Ay>KHOCTH, Kao h o HenpHJaTHOCTHMa y Tpa^en^y npeAy3HMana paAO- 
Ba npyjKa h H>eroBO nnCMO HHMceitepy AiieKCHhy (B. T>opf)eBHh — r. A. AiieKcnhy, 26. 
VIII 1884, <D>oha BjiaAaH T>opt)eBHh, 64, ApxHB Cp6HJe). 

20 Ha TpehHM H36opHMa, 22. 8. 1926. 3a npeAceAHHKa 6eorpaACKe onniTHHe H3a- 
6paH je AeMOKpaTCKH KaHAHAaT, KocTa KyMaHyAHC. To cy 6hjih noaneAH>H H36opH, a Ky- 
MaHyAHC nocjieAH>H H3a6paHH KaHAHAaT, nouiTO cy H>eroBH HacjieflHHUH nocTaBjtaHH Kpa- 
jteBHM yKa30M. KyManynHc ce cycpeTao ca npo6jieMHMa kojh cy y eBponcKHM rpaAOBHMa 
6hjih MHoro H3pa>KeHHJH ajiH h 3aKOHCKH peryjiHcaHH. FIpoMeHe y HanHHy npeB03a no ca- 
mom rpaAy, CMaH>eH 6poj Konnja a noBehaH 6poj TaKCHCTa, H3HCKHBao je AOHouietbe npo- 
nwca kojh he no6oJBiuaTH CTaite h noBeha™ cnrypHOCT rpal)aHa Ha yjinuH h caMHx yne- 
CHHKa y cao6pahajy. YnpaBa rpaAa je TaKofje 6njia auraacoBaHa Ha ceKTopy jaBHe 6e36eA- 
hocth, na cy Beh nocTOJehe OApeA6e H3 1921. AopaljeHe h npouiHpeHe. KopHroBaHe cy 
Ta4Ke Koje ce OAHOce Ha jaBHH cao6pahaj, JiHHHy h HMOBHy 6e36eAHOCT, MHp h cnoKOJCTBo 
rpa^aHa, nyBaite HapoAHor 3ApaBji>a h OApncaBaH>e HHCTohe, jaBHa KynaTHjia, TprOBe, CTa- 
pHHCKe paAH>e, Ap>Katbe naca h Manaxa, npHJaBJbHBaH>e rpaI)aHCTBa, peA Ha 3a6aBaMa, 
npeACTaBaMa h npnpei)HBaH>y npoAyKunja, HyBaibe jaBHor Mopajia h onurre OApeASe. rio 
AOHOuieH>y obhx 3aKOHCKHx o;ipeA6H Koje cy AonpHHOCHJie 6oJbeM >KHBOTy rpaAa npncTy- 
nnno ce nojeAHOCTaBJbCH>y H no6ojbuiatby paAa aAMHHHCTpauMJe (Bo^coBHh 1995:142). 

21 KoiiCTaHTHH je chh AHacTaca JoBaHOBHha. npojeKTOBao je 3rpaAe y peHecaH- 
chom crajiy. 3a aeroBO peiweK Aejio cMaTpa ce 3rpaAa HapoAHe Saffice, noAHrayTa 1889. 
Flo ii>eroBHM npojeKTHMa ca3HAaHO je jom 10 3rpaAa y npHBaTHOM B^acHHuiTBy. YrjiaB- 
hom H3 (j>HHaHCHJCKHx pa3Jiora HHcy peajiH30BaHH h HeKH H>eroBH Harpa^HBaHH ruiaHOBH: 
HapoAHe cKynuiTHne, UeHTpajiHe 3rpa^e nouiTe, Tejierpac})a h Tejie(jjOHa, upKBe cb. CaBe h 
CpncKe aKaaeMHJe HayKa (HnKHh 1957:345-358). 



168 ClCPHBEHE MAIbHHE HA EaJIKAHY 

Mel)y HHTeneKTyajiuHMa Beorpa^a flpyre nojiOBHiie 19. m c noneTKa 
20. Bena MHorn TpuH, Kao tberoBH cyrpal)aHH, ^aBajiM cy cboj ^onpHHOc 
KyjiTypHOM, yMeTHHMKOM m Hay^HOM pa3BOjy h BacnHTae>y hobhx reHepa- 
ijHJa. CnoMeHHMO naHajoraca IlanaKOCTonyjioca, npo(})ecopa rHMHa3nje, 
jreKapa h npeBOAHOua 23 hjih ocHHBana KaTeape 3a BH3aHTOJionijy /Jpary- 
THHa AHacTacHJeBHha, 24 npo<j)ecopa KocTy KyMaHy^Hca (TproBHeBHh 
1987:25), AOijeHTa ^HMHTpnja KjiHflnca (TproBHeBHh 1987:80) hjih acn- 
CTeHTa HHKOJiy AHTyjiy (TproBHeBHh 1987:115). 

Obh o6pa30BaHH Tpun noTHCKHBajin cy KapHKHpane npe/iCTaBe Tp- 
Ka HCKibyHHBO Kao GajiKaHCKO-no^yHaBCKHX TproBaua, urreAJbHBHx jio 
TBpAHHJiyKa hjih cnpeMHHx 3a „iuneKyjiauHJy", naK h yBpe>KeHO MHiiiJbe- 
H>e o Mel)yco6HOJ <|)H3hhkoj cjihhhocth. 

y CpnCKOJ KH>H^CeBHOCTH CTBOpHO Ce HH3 jeflHOCTpaHO THIIH3HpaHHX 

jiHKOBa nonyT TBp^Hue CTepnJHHor Knp JaH>e, 3ejieHama TiHp TpnKa, jy- 
Haxa TjiHiuHheBe npnnoBeTKe Uluno 3a ozrbuao, CpeMHCBor Kup Tepaca. 
H>HMa ce npn^py>Kyjy jyHauH porwaHa XlparyTHHa Hunha Xaytu JJ[uiua: 
Knp JIaM6pa h Knp Hyuia. H jxok cy TpuH Kao KFbH^ceBHH hhkobh H3a3H- 
Bajin noACMex hjih, naK >Kaji>eH>e ycjie^ je^HocTpaHor npHKa3HBaiL»a, Tp- 
KHH>e cy yBSOKasaice Kao ojiHHeH>e bhcokhx BpjiHHa. TaKBa je jiena h njie- 
MeHHTa JejieHa, TpKHH>a Koja je o,a6HJajia Cp6e npocue HCKajyhn Tpi<a 
(Knnh 1908), hjih /Ja(])HHa, H3 GoraTe TpmhaHCKe nopo^Hue XpHCToayjio, 
jyHaKHH>a Ceo6a Mnjiouia UpttaHCKor. 



22 ^HMHxpHJe JIcko je nope.a jienHx 3AaH>a (OcaoBiie uikojic y FaBpuna npnunna h 
PaTHHx HHBajiH^a, hobc Bojhc aKajieMHJe, srpafla ocurypaBajyfier ^pyiuTBa lilyMa^HJa Ha 
Tepa3HJaMa, crape oncepBaTopHJe na ByjieBapy JHA h BejiHKor 6poja npHBaTHHx Kyha) 
cuaacHO yrauao na (})opMHpaibe apxHTeKType y Cp6MJH. 

23 Heocnopna je IlanaKOCTOny^ocoBa 'jaonyra 3a iUHpeH>c anTMHKe Kyjrrype y cpn- 
ckoj cpejiHHH XIX Bena, Kao h H>croBO HcraKHyTO mccto iviel)y npeBo^HouHMa ca rpMKor. 
Oh je upBH npeBeo, HCTwua y npo3H, XoMepoBy Oducejy (nocTyMHO uiTaMnaiia 1888), Co- 
(J)OKJioBy Tpare^HJy Antuuzona (1873), JlyKwjaHOB <J)hjio30<j)ckh ciihc Pa32oeop Mpiumifa 
(1874), McoKpaiuoea deceda, caeeiu flwxtonuKy (1874), Boj otca6a u Mutuesa hjih Baiupa- 
xoMuoMaxuja (1877). Oa 3Hanaja cy h H>eroBe cTyjjHJe Exquien oder Leichen — 
Begrabniss fur laien der Gtiechisch-Orthodoxen Christe (1872) h JemiHCKuje3UK (1878). 

24 AKa;ieMHK flparyraH AnacTacHJeBwh upo^ecopcKy Kapnjepy 3ano^co je Ha Eeo 
rpaACKOM yHHBep3HTeTy, Ha HOBOOcnoBanoj KaTcapw 3a BH3aHTOJiorHJy, Kao npBH npe.ua- 
Ban. Kao HayHHHK h npo({)ecop, ]\. AnacTacHJeBHh je noce6no HCTHuao noTpeSy no3HaBa- 
iba rpHKOr je3HKa pa#H KOpHinheH>a opnrHHajiHHx BH3aHTHJCKHX jjOKyMenaTa. 3iiajyhH ko- 
jihko je peTKo no3HaBan>e rpwor je3HKa, oh je y hckojimko HaBpaTa npeBOAHO ohc rpnKC 
TeKCTOBe HHJe je Heno3naBaH>e cMaTpao uitcthhm 3a cpncKy HayKy. Bpe^an je i-beroB #o- 
npHHoc Kao npeBOj^HOua y onurreM no3iiaBai-by ain*M4Ke mhcjih (Kcchoi^oht, VcuoMene o 
Coxpaiuy) h;ih y iipaGjiH^caBaiby caBpeMeHe rpMKe KH>H>KeBHOCTH npBMM npeBOjiOM pOMa- 
iia J\. BHKejiaca, JlyKa Jlapac (Beorpa/i 1913). 



JoBaHKa TiopI)eBHh JoBaHOBHh: Tpuh y EEOfTAfly 



169 



MHoro cynTMUHHJH npHCTyn TpuHivia HMajia je Hcn^opa CeKy/iHh y 
KpoHuifu uajiananKoz zpo6/ba. IipaTehH 3eMyH kojh HecTaje, cctho je 
yKa3HBa;ia Ha TparHHHy cy,a6HHy TproBaua y H3rapan>y 3a hmctkom, Ha 
rameH>e nopoanna 6e3 ^cue. O rametby je/jHe rpHKe TproBanKe nopoin-me 
npnnoBeAao je MnjieTa JaKHinn. Oran je ,„noiuao Herae H3 CBeTa, roBopHO 
rpHKH, CBai<e Heaejte h npa3HHKa o,iuia3HO y npKBy h neBao y ^ecHoj neB- 
hhuh BenHKHM npa3HHHHMa H3 HeKaKBe BejiHKe rpHKe KH>Hre" a iteroB 
chh je roBopHO cpncKH. YnyK, TpK-EIaBJie, HHj'e HMao oho iuto jejiHy 
„(paMHJiHJy pacuBdaBa c KOjieHo na kojicho" Tano ^a oh npeACTaBjta h>ch 
Kpaj (JaKuiHh 1935:74-77). 

TypcKH BeorpaA 3anaMTHO je Tpice, npHiiaAHHKe LIpKBe, Mef)y ibh- 
Ma h oMpajKenor MHTponojiHTa JTeoHTHJa h H>eroBy H3flajy. J\n 6h 3a#o- 
bojlho CBOj'y arviGHiTHJy, oh je H3#ao CBora aoSpOTBopa MHTponojiHTa 
MeTOAHJa KynyK Ajihjh. Obo Heaejio h HeMHpHe CHOBe MHTponojiHTa 
JleoiiTHJa HeAOBOJtHO no3HaTH nncan CTOJaH )KHBa,a,HHOBHn yBeo je Kao 
ocHOBHe MOTHBe y CBOjy npnnoBeTKy Cnoeu Muiupouonuwa JJeoHiuuja 
()KHBaAHHOBHh 1928:321-338). TpHKH ayxoBHHHH cy h y napoziHHM 
npHnoBeTKaMa bh^hh Kao noxnenHH h uikpth (EloiiOBHh 1904:375), 
yaajbeHH on no3HBa nacTHpa, Hecnoco6HH Aa ce CTa/iy o6paTe Ha cpn- 
ckom je3HKy 6e3 3aMyHKHBaita, H3roBapajyhn h yMecTO ij hjih ui — c 
(T)op^eBHh 1905:851-855). 

MeI}yTHM, y necMaMa ce rpnKH je3HK CMaTpao oco6eHHM, jxok je y 
nocjiOBHuaMa anejiaT 3a MyapocT {rpnKu sdopu a MaJMyucKu ckcihu), Tano 
Aa ce MO>Ke peftn aa cy TpHH AOKHBJtaBaHH Kao MyapH. ITo MepHJiHMa Ha- 
Poahhx neBana Tpun uncy CMaTpann jyHannMa, 25 Ha h>hx ce nncy MorjiH 
ocjiohhth Cp6n, Ha npHMep, hphjthkom ,o,OBoI)eH>a HeBecTe H3 TytjHHe, 26 
ajiH cy 3aTO paao no3HBaHH Kao TyMaHH. 27 HarjiamaBaHO je ibnxoBO 60- 



25 y cpriCKOJ HCTopHJH XIX BeKa 3ana\ihcHH cy MnorH Tpun Kao xpa6pn paTHHHH. 
CnoMCHHMO Joproca OiiHMnnoca h H>eroBO paxoBaibe ca XajnyK Bcibkom ncTpouHhe,\i 
hjih KapaTacy, KOMe je M. 06peiiOBHh noAHrao chomchhk Ha TamiviaJAaHCKOM rpo6jty h, 
KaKO ce npeTnocTaBJta, jihhho My HcncBao enHTacj), hjih TpKe AoGpoBOJbue y 6op6aMa 
1848-1849 (raBpHJioBHh 1970:126-128). Y TTpBOM cbcctkom paTy mho™ TpuH 6ophjih 
cy ce Ha cpucKOJ CTpaHH, H3Mel)y ocTajinx h Kocxa KyinaHyAHC, 1916. Kao cyACKH KaneTaH 
y AynaBCKOJ ahbh3hjh I uo3HBa, a 1917. y I cpneKoj AoSpOBOJbanKOJ ahbh3hjh y Pycnjn, 
naKO je 6ho oano6of)eH (TproBneBHh 1987:25). HeKH oa h>hx, Kao /I,HMHTpHJe Kjihahc h 
HnKOJia AHTyjia, A&nn C y >khbot (TprOBMCBnli 1987:80, 1 15). 

26 Th He boah TpKa, hh Byrapa, / Beh CBe 30bh Cp6e y CBaTOBe / JlaTHHUH cy cTapc Ba- 
pajiHue (ByK II, 87); 3a MapKOM ne HMa HHKora, / Ro hckojihko TpKa h Byrapa (ByK II, 61). 

27 Xohe ji' uape rpMKH 6eceAHTH, / Tepe mchh th hobhah cpncKH, / 3a Aa HauiHx He 
ry6nM0 rjiaBa (HapoAHe necMe 1964:227). 



1 70 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

raTCTBO, 28 JiaKOMOCT Ha Gnaro, 29 ckjiohoct Ka jiaroAHOM >KHBOTy. 30 TpKH- 
H>e cy, oneT, aobhtjlhbc h xpa6pe 31 hjih paAHe AeBojice. 32 

^hhh ce Aa je HajcHa>KHHJa npeACTaBa o TpijHMa, OHaKBa KaKo cy hx 
Cp6n carjieAaBajiH Kpo3 bckobhh 3ajeAHHHKH >khbot, ca^KeTa y BHine- 
3HaHHOCTM caMor TepMHHa FpK. BpoJHH npHMepM Kpo3 jiHTepaTypy yica3y- 
jy Aa r(e)pK HMj'e caMO OApeAHHija 3a eraHHKy npnnaAHOCT, Beh h 3a H3pa- 
3mto npaBOCJiaBHO o6ejie>KJe, 3a nocTojaHO 3aHHMan>e TproBua hjih AyfiaH- 
UHJe, 3a Ha3HB cejtaica 3a BapomaHHHa Kao h 3a flo6por neBana (Pchhhk 
1965:637). 

^aHatufte BHf)eH>e Tpxa y cpncKoj cpeAHHH, a npe CBera y EeorpaAy, 
HeMa HHKaKBy noce6HocT Koja 6h ce Morna nopeAHTH fbhxobhm HeicaAa- 
ihh>hm noHMaH>eM. 33 ToMe CBaKaKO AonpHHOCH hcaoboibho H3pa>KeHa ca- 
MocBecT TpKa o eTHHHKqj npnnaAHOCTH. Hen3BecHO je y kojihkoj Mepn ce 
Mo^ce o^cHBeTH rpHKH pyx y EeorpaAy, Aa jth yApy>KeH>e TpKa „Pnra 
<t>epeoc" Kao H3AaHaK CTape rpHKe onuiTHHe Mo>Ke Aa noACTaKHe CHa^cHH- 
je MaHH^ecTaiiHJe npncycTBa OBe CKpnBeHe MaH>HHe. ramette rpnKO-up- 
KBeHe ayTOHOMHJe, 6pyjatt>e 3BOHa ca cpncxe Ca6opHe upKBe 1830. toah- 
He, orjiacHJio je h npeoKpeT eTHHHKor npoueca, AOTaAa cy Cp6n HacTqja- 



28 H Tep3HJe CBqje pyBeTJinje / Kojh Hoce CBHJiy h KaAHBy / H yenoBe c o6aABHJe 
CTpaHe / Ty he 6hth uinhapa 3a xaJAyKe (ByK III, 6). 

29 TpHHh MHJieHKO je 36or 6jiara nora3HO KyMCTBo: „Mho KyMe, rpnnhy Manojjie! / 
„npoMMJeHH OBy l)euy JiyAy: ,>A a J th MCHe ne^o BjiaxHH>HHO, I "A BjiaxHH>H Aa AaMO f)eBqj- 
Ky, / „H AajeM th Eo>Ky Bj'epy TBpAy, / "Jipaui hy th ra H3MJepHT' ca 3JiaTOM " (ByK II, 6). no 
je,uHOM TyManeifcy rpnuhJQ AeMHHyraB kojh ce oahoch Ha jihmhoct MuneHKa, Manor TpKa. 

30 ripomeTajia TpH TpneTa / JeAHO hoch 3JiaTHy ap$y, njxe jxa CBHpa; / Apyro hoch 
yayTC HH3Me HAe Aa nrpa; / Tpehe HAe Aa o6jby6n CBe TpH TpKHH>e. (ByK I, 383). 

31 H ohh je ynycTHiue y TaMHHuy KoMJeHOBy, / Bp30 th My oruieTe ^cyre xoce AeBo- 
janKe, / H Ha H>er oGyKJia AJeBojanKO TaHKO pyxo, /..Y TaMHHUH ocTaje TpKHH>a AjeBOJKa / 
...Y3e MJiaAa BpjinjeM TypKOM roBopnra: / Je jih MjiaAa AjeBOJKa 3a uapa o6jeiueHa (riaH- 
THh 1964:77-78). Moryhe je Aa ce TepMHH „rpKHH>a" He oahoch Ha eTHHHKy npnnaAHOCT, 
Beh Ha ASBOjHHHy MyApocT, uito oneT ynyhyje Ha AoacHBjbaBafte TpKa y HapoAy. 

32 nouieT&Jie Tpn AeBOJKe, CBe Tpn TpKHH^e; / JeAHa hoch 3JiaTan fjepljecf), ohe Aa Be- 
3e; / Apyra hoch cHTaH 6Hcep, ohe Aa HH^ce; / Tpeha hoch TaHKO njiaTHO, ohe Aa 6ejiH. 
(ByK I, 383). 

33 y hobhjoj JiHTepaTypn yTHuaJHHJe rpHKe 4>aMHJiHJe mccto cy npeACTaBJbaHe Kao 
UHHuapcKe, Kao ujto cy KyMaHyAHC hjih XpncTOAyJioc (03HMHh 2002:139-144). IIotom- 
UH obhx nopoAHua ce H3JauiH>aBajy Kao TpuH, a HeKH oa h>hx cy yKJiynenH y rpHKy nopo- 
AHuy „Pnra Oepeoc". TaKol)e, CTepHJHH Knp Jatba CMaTpa ce CTepeoTHnoM yBpeaceHor 
cxBaTatba I^HHuapHHa Kao TBpAHue (Gavrilovic 2002:117-124). M. Ojiauiap, H3BaHpeAaH 
no3HaBaaau CTepnJHHor A^Jia, y jyHaKy Tepduv,e He Hajia3H aobojbho ejieMeHaTa 3a H>ero- 
bo OApe^eH>e Kao LJnHuapHHa. Je3HK Knp Jan.e je „AOMahn H0B0rp4KH u , ca y6aneHHM 
4>pa3aMa CTaporpHKor. JaAHKyjyhn HaA co6om, Ha jcahom MecTy ynoTpe6ibaBa uHHuapcKy 
pen y kom6hh3uhjh ca rpnKOM o iuwcenaj (xx>xrj+laiu) JaH>a, a Apyrn nyr je to rpMKH noeT- 
ckh H3pa3 o iuanac JaH>a. (Ojiauiap 1988:72) 



JoBamca 7x>pI)eBHh JoBanoBHh: fPUM y EEorPAAy 



171 



jih m ce „rpne", a Tor Ao6a Tpun cy ce nocp6jtaBajiH. 34 Ochobhc pa3Jio- 
re 3a nyT Tpna oa rocnoflapa BapouiH ao cxpHBeHe MaitHHe Ha;ia3HMO h y 
ohhm noKpeTaHHMa kojh cy hx h aobcjih y EeorpaA, a kojh cy, y Bpeiue 
HauMOHajiHo npo6yl)eHe Cp6HJe ghxbsbg noACTHuajiH acHMHJiaHHJy: ^cejta 
3a oncTanKOM h (JwHaHcnjcKa ao6ht. Jep, pacnaA OroMancKor uapcTBa 3a 
TpKe, nocHoue TypcKe TproBHHe npeACTaBJtao je ry6nTaK yxo^aHor Tp- 
)KHiiiTa. fl,ejiaTHOCT Tpna Snjia je yrpo>KeHa TaKofje 6op6oM cpncKHX Tpro- 
Baaa h 3aHaTJiHJa nporaB cTpanana (Byno 1954:9), Kao h tcxhhhkhm ho- 
BHHaMa Kao iiito cy napoSpOA, 2cejie3HHHa hjih (paSpHHKa HHAycTpnja. 
HcTopHJCKH h npHBpeziHH tokobh 0Apa3HJiH cy ce Ha CBecT jty^H h nope- 
MeTHJiH xoivioreHOCT rp^KHX nopoAHua. TacHJia ce TpaAHunja m ce Tpro- 
BHHa hjih 3aHaT, 3aHHMan>e je^He nopoAnue HacjieACTBOM HaeraBJBa. 35 
MemoBHTH 6paKOBH TaKO^e cy occtho AonpHHOCHJiH acHMHJioBaity TpKa. 
YmaBHOM nocp6jteHH Tpun tokom XX Bexa npnnaAajiH cy hojihthhkoj, 
HaynHoj h KyjiTypHoj ejinra Beorpa^a. rioneTKOM XXI Beica yKa3yjy ce 
hobh bhaobh npHcycTBa TpKa y Cp6nJH Kao 6aHKapa, BejiCTproBaua h 3a- 
MaiUHHx HHBecTHTopa. YnpaBO y obom nepnoAy Kao HHKa^a ao caAa y 
cpncKoj cpeAHHH noKa3yje ce HHTepecoBaH>e 3a Aena rpqKe KH>H)KeBH0CTH 
Koje ce orneAa y 6poJHHM npeBOAHMa ynnaBHOM caBpeMeHHx rpnKHx nn- 
caua. 3HaTHO cy Heinhe MaHH^ecTaunje My3H4Kor h jiHKOBHor CTBapajia- 
HJTBa TpKa. OBa KyjiTypHa AOrafjaEba npeACTaBJtajy npnjaTHOCT 6eorpaA- 
ckhm TpHHMa, aim hhhh ce, He 6yAe ^cejty 3a eKcnoHHpaH>eM. Ohh ocTajy 
y cbom nopoAHHHOM Kpyry Heryjyhn npaAeAOBCKe o6HHaje, noAHOcenn 
He3aHTepecoBaHOCT MaTHHHe 3eMJBe h (pHHaHCHJCKy HeMoh Aa ce y Apyroj 
OTauGnHH 6ojte opraHH3yjy. HnaK, nocToJH MoryhHOCT Aa he HJiaHCTBOM 
yApy^e^a „PHra 0>epeoc" y opraHH3auHJH „^Hj'acnopa TpKa", Koje noA- 
pa3yMeBa HBpmhy noBe3aHOCT, KaKO ca MaTHUOM, TaKO h ca no CBeTy pa- 
cejaHHM 3eMJtaHHMa, AonpnHeTH OHyBaity rpnKor eTHOca y BeorpaAy. 
HaAa ce nonage y MJial)e HjiaHOBe y"Apy>Kett>a kojh He Mopajy Aa ce no- 
BJiane y ceHKy Kao h»hxobh „HenoAo6HH" oneBH h acaobh, jcahh CKJiaaa- 



34 H3BaH rpiKHX onuiTHHa Kao ujto cy 6eorpaACKa, 3eMyHCKa hjih HOBocaACKa, y 
ceJiHwa oko Beorpa^a h y Man>HM MecTHMa mnpoM Cp6nje, y KOJHMa je jkhbcjio Man.e Tp- 
Ka, npennaHaBaH>e npe3HMeHa je 3HaTHO paHHje npnMeH>HBano. TySHTaK nopoAHHHor HMe- 
Ha MO>Ke MOrao 6h ce CMaTpara npBHM KopaKOM npn acHMHJiauHJH, Ma^a, y obhm onysaje- 
BHMa BHiue oTKpHBa, aa je^aH nojeAHOCTaBjteH HaHHH, xcejty 3a onyBaibeM eTHHHKor 
H^eHTHTeTa AOceJteHHKa. TaKO ce y Tecpiuepy Mojcnja lleTpoBHha H3 1731. cnoMHH>y 
HBaH TpKOBHh y TpouKoj, Hjinja TpKOBHh y ApSaHOBHHivia (rionoBwh 1935:34, 52-53). 

35 y KtbHMceBHOCTH ce 3a oBy nojaBy Kawc Aa iiotomctbo TpKa HeMa oho hito 
„c})aMHJiHjy pacuBeTaBa c kojicho Ha kojicho", a apxHBCKa rpal)a to HJiycTpyje. ITpeMa ao- 
KyMeHTy BeorpaACKor MaracxpaTa 6p. 214 oa 28. MapTa 1838, KocTa, chh Hayivia HiKa, 
OAao ce kohkh ()KHBe™ 2003:406). To je BcpoBaTHo jcAaH oa pa3Jiora kojh cy HaiepajiH 
HnKOBe chhobc h KhepH Aa CTBapn noKoJHor oua AeJic h Aa hx, paAH ^taKuie Aeo6e, H3Jio>Ke 
jaBHOJ npoAaJH (Khbcth 2003:288-290). 



172 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikauy 



jyhH ce oa KOMyHHcramce npaBAC Kao hotomuh npeApaTHHX KanirrajiH- 
CTa, Apyra oa CTaBa OTau6HHe npeMa nopa>fceHoj CTpaiiH ynecHMKa rpa- 
^aHCKor paTa.* 

Tpa^a 

ApxHB Cp6HJe: MHHHCTapcTBO yHyTpamiLHX ziejia AC, MYfl-H, C5 103/1854 

Oonfl Bjiaaan T>opljeBHh, 64: B.T»opl)eBHh — T.A. AncKCHhy, 26. VIII 1 884. 

ApxHBa YApy^eita Tpica „Pnra Ocpcoc" (ApxHBa PO) 

JlHTepaxypa 

Vacalopoulos 1973: A. Vacalopoulos, History of Macedonia, Institute for Balkan Stu- 
dies, Thessaloniki. 
Eo>KOBHh 1995: E. Eo5kobhFi, Eeozpad u3Mef)y dea ceeuicKapauia, EeorpaA. 

BccejiMHOBHh 1965: P. BecejiHHOBHh, Tpatja 3a ucwopujy Beoepada, I, My3ej rpaAa 

Beorpaaa, EeorpaA. 
ByK I: B.C. Kapaunh (ed.), Cpucxe Hapodue ujecue I, TIpocBeTa, EeorpaA 1975. 
ByK II: B. C. Kapaunh (ed.), CpucKe napodne uecMe, II, TTpocBeTa, EeorpaA 1969. 
ByK III: B. C. KapaijHh, (ed.), CpUcm napodne uecue, III, FIpocBeTa, Eeorpan 1969. 
ByKejinh 1997: M.ByiceJiHh, Guinea o FpuHMayHauioj Kn>wKtxinocT\\,36opnuK <Puao- 

30<pCK02 cpaKyAiueiua XIX, Ohjio30(})ckh ^aKyJiTer, EeorpaA, 

Byno 1954: H. Byno, Pacuadaibe ecna(pay Cpduju, Eeorpafl 

TaBpHJiOBMh 1969: C. TaBpHJiOBHh, IJpuAoe uciuopuju mpzoeune u Muepaifuje Ean- 
mn-HodyHame XVIII uXIX ciuoAeha, CAHY, noce6Ha H3flan>a CDXXXIII, 

EeorpaA. 
TaBpHJiOBHh 1909: M. raBpnjiOBHh, Muaoiu Odpenoeuh, III, EeorpaA. 
Gavrilovic 2002: Lj . Gavrilovic, Kir Janja — stvarnost ili stereotip o Cincarima, Etnicki 

stereotipi, Nova srpska poliiicka misao, Beograd, 1 17-124. 
Tpal)a 1958: Tpa^a 3a HCTopHJy EeorpaAa 1717-1739, (A- rionoBnh, M. EorAaHOBHli, 

eds.), My3ej rpaAa BeorpaAa, EeorpaA 
^a6M>KHh 1996: M. £a6H>KHh, YcuoMene naxeAeucKy KOAOttujy y 3ejuyuy, 3eMyn. 
AiaXoyoq 2003: Osnovci uce grcki, AidA-oyoc; 1, EeorpaA, 19. 
Aidkoyot; 2003: Grci sa Srbima u 150firmi y Aidkoyot; 2, EeorpaA, 17. 
^Hacnopa: http://www.greece.gr./global_Diaspora_factbook/Europe/europe_in- 

dex.htm# 
TbopIjeBnh 1905: T. T>opl)eBHh, TpHKH ayxoBHHUH y cpncKHM HapoAHHM npHnoBeTKa- 

Ma, CpucKu Khbuoiceenu zAacnun XIV, EeorpaA, 851-855. 

T)opl)eBHh 1922: T. TiopljeBHh, Pa36uiuaK eapoiuuy Cpduju 3a eAade xne3a Mwiouta 

Odpenoeuha (1815-1839, EeorpaA- 
T>op^eBHh 1925: T. Tyop^tBuh, ApxuecKa epa^a 3a 3anauie u ecnacpey Cpduju, >Khbot 

h oGnnaJH HapoAiiH kh>. 15, EeorpaA. 



* OBaj paA je ypal)eH y OKBHpy npojeKTa Hau,uja y eepa, KyAiuypa (102166) kojm <J>m- 
HaHcnpa MHHHCTapcTBO nayice h 3auiTHTC acHBOTHe cpeAHHe Cp6nje. 



JoBaHtca T)opl)eBHh JoBaHOBwh: Tpum y EEorPAfly 1 73 

HjiHh 1908: /J. Himh, Xayu Jjuiua, CpncKa KH>H>KCBHa 3a^pyra, Beorpa^. 

HjiHh 1 955; T. HjiHh, rpalja U3 3eMyncKux apxuea 3a uciuopujy Tlpeoz cpucKozycwan- 
ku 1, HcTopHJcKH apxHB Eeorpa^a, Eeorpa^. 

HjiHh 1 973 : T. KriHh, Eeorpa,a m Cp6HJa y AOKyMCHTHMa apxHBe 3eMyHCKor MarncTpa- 
Tzoix 1739. ^o 1804. I, HcTopHJcKH apxHB Beorpa^a. 

^CHBa^HHOBHh 1 928 : C. )KHBaAHHOBHh, CHOBH MHTpOnO.lHTa JTeOHTHJa, CpUCKU KlbU- 

ztceenu zauchuk XXV , 321-338. 

^(mbcth 2003: Mueeiuu y Eeozpady 1837-1841, /JoKyMeirra ynpaBe rpa^a Eeorpa/ja, 
HcTopHJcKH apxHB Eeorpazja, Beorpa^. 

JaKUJHh 1935: MnjieTa JaKiunh, ripoponanciueo, Mnpaa BpcMeHa, Eeorpazi. 

KnoKeBMh 1957: C. KhokcbhI}, OcBeTJben>e y Beorpa^y, ToduiuibaK zpada Beozpada 
IV, Eeorpaa, 455-476. 

KocTHh 1926: K. Kocmh, Tpafya sa uciuopujy cpucKe uipeoeune u undyciupuje, CnoMe- 
hhk CpncKe KpaibeBCKe aKa^cMHJe LXVI, CpncKa KpajteBctca aKa^eMHJa, Beo- 
rpaa. 

KpecTHh/rTeTpoBHh 1973: B. KpecTwh / H. TleTpoBHfi, TJpoiuoKOA Ktie3a Mu/iowa 
Odpenoeuha, CAHY, Eeorpaa. 

KyHH6epT 1988: B. KyHn6epT, flpeu cpucKu ycmanaK u upea e/iadaeuna Munouia 
Odpenoeuha 1804-1850, Beorpa^. 

HHKHh, 1957: Jb. HhkhIi, Apxhtckt KoHCTaHTHH JoBaHOBHh, roduiuhbax epada Eeo- 
zpada IV, Beorpafl, 345-358. 

HoBaKOBnh 1906: C. HoBaKOBHh, Typcxo ifapcuieo uped upeu cpitcKU ycmanaK 
1780-1 804, Beorpaa. 

MHjiaHOBHh 1999: O. MHJianoBHh, Mucuja ynyxe Tpxa 3op6e, htpp. www;//poilti- 
ka.co.yu/ilustro/2 108/1 l.htm 

MHTpoBHh 1997: M. MHTpoBHh, H36erjiHue H3 TpMKc y JyrocjiaBHJH 1945-1960, To- 
Koeu uciuopuje 3-4, HHCTHTyT 3a HOBnjy HCTopajy Cp6MJe, Eeorpa#, 1 85- 1 98 . 

03HMHh 2003 : H. 03HMHh, ITpHjior npoynaBaH>y IJmmapa y hhiiikoj TproBHHH h HH#y- 
CTpuJH KpajeM XIX h noneTKOM XX cTOJieha, 36opnuK 11, Hhui, 139-144. 

naHTMh 1 964: Hapodue uecuey 3auucwxta XV -XV III eexa, M. riaHTHh (ed.), IIpocBe- 
Ta, Beorpaa. 

narca5puxv6q 2001 : I. ria7ux5piav6<;, Oi 'EUriveq xv& Zeppmq (18 oq -20o<; ai , 'AJte- 
^avSpotmoA/n. 

riaTiaSpiavoq 2003: 1. riajcaSpiavoq, O eXX^via^og tcovBccXkccvicdv, Notioa^apiec; 
Xcopeq (18oq-20oc; at.), 'EAAriviaiaoq xr\q Siaanopdq, AtadA^cov tod Aai- 

kotS naveTciaxriiiio-o 12, AtvKwoia. 

nepoBHh 1954: P. IlepoBHh, fpafya 3a uciuopujy Upeoz cpucKoa yciuanKa, Bcorpa^. 

rieiuHh 2002: H. M. neiunh, Cejio neo6HMHor HMena TpKHH>a, 36opnuK 11, HapojjHH 
Ky3-ej Hhiu, Hhui, 95-100. 

rionHc 1974: IJouuc ciuanoeuuuiiuea u ciuanoea 1971, Peny6jiHHKH 3aBOA 3a CTara- 
CKHKy, Beorpafl. 

IlonMC 1993: Uouuc ctuanoeiiuuiiuea u ciuanoea CPJ 1991, Peny6jiH4KH 3aBOA 3a crra- 
THCKMKy, Eeorpaz*. 

rionoBHh 1903: U. TIonoBHh, J. riaMyHHiia, UlajbHBe cpncKe npHnoBexKe, CpucKu 
KfbUDiceenu zaqchuk IX, BeorpaA, 375. 

TTonoBHh 1904: 3. TIonoBHh, Caukc U3 Cittape CpOuje, Eeorpaa. 



1 74 CKPHBEHE MAlbMHE ha Bajikai iy 



IlonoBHh 1935: J\. IIonoBHh, Tpalja 3a uciuopujy Eeozpada od 171 1-1739 zod., Cno- 
mchhk, LXXVIII, CpncKa KpajteBCKa aKa^cMHJa, EeorpaA, 15-96. 

IlonoBHh 1937: J\. rionoBHh, O IfuHifapuMa. TIpwiosu uociuaiiKa aautez zpafyancKoz 
dpyutiaea, Eeorpafl. 

FIonoBMh 1950: J\. FIonoBHh, Cp6uy Cpeuy do 1736/7, ETHorpacj)CKH HHCTHTyr, rio- 
ce6Ha H3£aH>a 1, Eeorpaa. 

TTonoBHh 1952: J\. ITonoBHh, Cp6u y Eanxoj do Kpaja ocaMtiaeciuoz eexa, EeorpaA. 

TIonoBMh 1955: J\. IlonoBHh, Cpduy Eanaiuy, Beorpazi. 

IlonoBHh 1964: J\. llonoBHfi, Eeozpad xpo3 eeKoee, EeorpaA. 

PenHHK 1965: Pennine cpucKoxpeaiucKoz Ktbuofceenoz u napodnoz je3W<a III, CpncKa 
aKa^eMMJa HayKa h yMeTHocTH, Ecorpafl. 

FIpaBHJia 1923: Upaeiina ydpyoiceiha Tpxa y Eeozpady uod umbhom „Puza od &epe", 
Eeorpa/j. 

CeKyjiHh 1968: H. CeKyjiHh, IlanaHKa h h.chh nocnefliLH Tpun, KponuKa UananaHKoz 
zpoOjba, ripocBeTa, EeorpaA, 275-301. 

CTaMaTOBHh 1998: J\. GraMaxoBHh, CxpaiiM h flOMalta MaconHCH h iiobmhc y cpncKMM 
HHTajiHiiiTHMa flpyre noJiOBHne XIX Beica, Haym u iUexnuxa y Cpduju dpyze 
uoAoeune XIX eexa (1854-1904), KparyjcBau. 

CTe4>anoBMh 1911: T. B. Gre<})aHOBHh, CxapH Beorpa/i (1820-1856), CpucKu Kibu- 
Dfceenu znacnuK XXVI, EeorpaA. 

,CTecj)aHOBHh 1913: T. B. Crec^aHOBHh, LJpKBe h ujkojic y Eeorpany, CpucKu Kibuotcea- 
hu enacHUK XXX, Eeorpaxi. 

CTOjaHHeBHh 1967: B. OrojaHMeBHh, ETHHHKa, fleMorpacj)CKa m counojajiHO-eKoiiOM- 
cna cTpyKTypa Bcorpaaa 1867. roflHHe, roduiutbaK Tpada Eeozpada XIV, Eeo- 
rpaA- 

CTOJaHMeBMh 1987: B. CTOjaHHeBHh, Tpnica onuiTHna y Beorpaay, roduiwbciK zpada 
Beozpada XXXIV, My3ej rpaaa Eeorpajja, EeorpaA, 85-95. 

Ta/jHh 1950: J. Ta/uih, JJy6poeaHKa apxuecxa zpal)a o Eeoepady 1, Eeorpa#. 

Tep3Hh 1992: C. Tep3Hh, CpOuja u TpnKa 1856-1903, HcTOpHJCKH hhcthtyt, rioce6- 
Ha H3flaiba kh>. 27, EeorpaA- 

TproBHeBHfr 1987: Jb. TproBHeBwh, HayvHuifu Cpduje u ciueapawe Jyzoc/iaeuje, Ha- 
po^Ha KH>Hra h CpncKa K&MxceBHa saapyra, EeorpaA. 

TiopHh 1939: M. Tiopnh, Cto rjiaflHHX roAWHa, CpucKu KwuztceeHu znanuK LVIII, 
Eeorpaa 132. 

Ojiauiap 1988: M. Onamap, Ciuyduje o Ciuepuju, CpncKa KH>H/fceBna 3a,apyra, Beo- 
rpaA. 

Haynes 1995: M. Haynes, Theses on the Balkan War, International Socialism Journal, 
83, Appendix 2: Forced Migrations in the 20 th century Balkans. 

HaJKaHOBHh 1909: B. HaJKaHOBHh, Hs6op cpncKnx nomaBapa. FtpHjior cthojio- 
iiiKO-npaBHOJ chm6ojihuh, CpucKu Kibuotceenu znacnuK XXIII, EeorpaA, 
45-51. 



JoBaiiKa T)op^eBHli JoBaHOBah: Tpum y BEon>A^y 



175 



Jovanka Djordjevic Jovanovic 



Greeks in Belgrade 

Greeks have settled in Belgrade and other Serbian towns in several migration waves, 
which were caused by various reasons. Wish for better salaries and fear of natural disasters 
(epidemic diseases, fires) made Greeks look for a new home in Serbia even before 1153 
(according to the Arab geographer Mohamed el Setif Idrizi). Researches conducted so far show 
that large-scale migrations in the period of Ottoman Empire were caused by wars (after the first 
and the second Moshopolje catastrophes, around 1802, after the failure of the Greek uprising, 
whose peak was reached around 1830), and by the Austrian privileges offered to Greek 
merchants (1690, 1701) which made possible the existence of a successful and safe market. 
During this period, Greeks and Greek speaking Tzintzars were acting as founders of the Serbian 
bourgeois society, being skillful craftsmen and merchants, respected householders, educators of 
the Serbian and Greek youth, and donors whose pious endowments also impress nowadays. 

Recent researches are often skeptical about massive Greek settling and their participation 
in establishing of the Serbian bourgeoisie, and emphasize the role of the Greek speaking 
Tzintzars. Although ethnic affiliation is contestable, it is sure that both Greeks and Tzinzars 
coming from Greek speaking areas were carriers and propagators of the Greek culture in the 
Serbian setting. 

In the second half of the XIX century, there was a decline of the Greek population in the 
Serbian settlements. A great number of Greeks came back to the liberated homeland, while 
many of them were assimilated. Memory about Greeks in the Serbian areas was preserved in 
folklore texts, literature, music and plastic arts. 

According to the archives the Greek association "Riga Fercos", the Greek community 
currently numbers approximately 1300 members. Apart from the descendants of the XVIII 
century families, there are Greeks settled after Balkan wars, after Asia Minor catastrophe, as 
well as after the Second World War. In the last wave of immigrants there are Greek students and 
businessmen. With the exception of this youngest and most active generation of Belgrade 
Greeks, in the Greek families settled a long time ago the mother tongue has almost been 
forgotten. 



Muxaj H. PadciH 



Y3P0UH KOJIEEAPbA KAPA111EBAKA 
nPH ETHHHKOM OnPE/JEJBMBAIBy 



1. KapameBCKy cuoBeHCKy eHKJiaBy hhhh ce/taM Hacejta (~ 6.770 CTa- 
HOBHHKa 1 ) y jyixmnaaHOM aejiy pyMyHCKor BaHffia, CMeurreHHX y nojx- 
Ho>KJy CeMeHHKa, HeA&neKo oa PeuiHqe. HaJBehe h HajcTapuje KapaiueBCKO 
Hacejte jecTe Kapdiueeo /Card§ova 2 : 1333; ~ 39 % on ynynHor CTaHOBHH- 
uiTBa), a ocTana cy Hacejta 3a6ejie>KeHa KacHHJe: Ja&cum 'e llabdlcea: 1564/, 
JlyuaK ILupac: 1598/, lOioKdmm' IClocotici: 1690-1700/, PdemiK IRdfnic: 
1690-1700/, HepMul)' INermet: 1723/ h BodnuK IVodnic: 1723/. Y obmm 
HacejtHMa KapaiueBU,H HHHe ancojiyray BehHiiy (90,65%). MeI)yTHM, Kapa- 
uieBaKa joiu HMa hjih hx je no He^aBHo 6hjio h yApyraM HacejbHMa BaHaTa 
(pyMyHCKor hjih cpncKor), Kao iiito cy Tupo/i ITwiopifil, floKHeua IJJyK- 
hbdn 'a, /JoKfodn 'a/, Kanuna, C/iaiuuHa Tumuui, Jluuoea, Y/bma, EanaiucKu 
Kap/ioeav,, H'sGuiuiue, Bpiuaij h ;xp., aim cy TaMO ohh 6hjih y Man>HHH h, y 
BehHHH cnynajeBa, 6hjih cy acHMHjiOBaHH [Pa^aH 2000:14-22]. 

IIo3HaTO je fla ce KapamcBCKH >KHBajt oflJiHKyje 6poJHHM cneim- 

(j)HMHHM eTHO-JIHHrBHCTHHKHM H BCpCKHM OC06HHaMa, KaO IUTO Cy apxa- 
HHHH TOBOp H 06HHaJH, CneUH(J)HHHa HOIHH>a, (pOJIKJIOp H MeHTaJIHTeT, pH- 

MOKaTOJiHHKa BepoHcriOBecT, Koje ra H3flBajajy on ocTajior cpncKor (h xp- 
BaTCKor) >KHBJta H3 BaHaTa. Bam Te oco6chocth KapauieBaKa mhhc Bec-Ma 
cjio^ceHHM npo6jieM oflrc-HeTaHba itHxoBor nopeioia. H3 CTpyHHe jihhfbh- 
CTHHKe, eTHorpadpcKe h HCTopnjcKe jiHTepaType KapameBHHMa Mcme ce 
BH^eTH m je npoGjieM eTHHiKor nopeKJia OBe eHKJiaBe H3a3Bao tokom 
BpeMeHa 6pojne noueMHKe Koje join h ^aHac Tpajy. MaH>e cy, Mel)yTHM, 

1 npetvia EIoiiHCy CTaHOBHHiirrBa y PyMyHHJH oa 1992. rc-AHHe. 

2 y 3arpaAaMa AajeMO 3B3hhmhh pyMyHCKH Ha3HB h roAHHy KaAa je Hacejbe npBH 
nyT 3a6eneaceno. 

3 y 3arpaAaMa cy AaTH Ha3HBH uacejba onaKO KaKO hx KapauieBUH Ha3HBajy. 



1 78 Ckpmbehe maii>hhc ha Eajikahy 

no3HaTH yjpoiiu Kone6aH>a KapameBaKa npH cthh4kom (iie)oiipe ( AejbMBa- 
Ft,y, kojh cy, Huane, 3HaTno ^oiipHHejiH h K0Jie6aH>y je/jHor j\ena HCTpa- 
>KHBana OBor >KHBJi>a npH AOHOLueity KpaJH>nx 3aKJbynaKa o H>eroBOM no- 
peKJiy. 

Paflw Gojter pa3yMeBai±>a KOJie6jt>HBOCTH KapameBaKa npn eTHM4K0M 
onpeAejbHBan>y, noKyuiaheMO y HacxaBKy #a npHKa>Keivio h aHanH3HpaMO 
y3poi<e, oahocho 4>^^ope kojh croje y ochobh Te K0Jie6ji»HB0CTH. 

2. Jom oji panor cpcmber BeKa (V-VI Bei<) Ha TepHTopHJH #aHa- 
uiFber pyMyHCKor Eauaxa >KHBeo je c;iobchckm, o^hocho cpncKH >KHBajb. 
TTocjie nponacTH cpncKe cpc^H^OBeKOBiie ,np>KaBe, a napoHHxo tokom Ma- 
^apcKO-rypcKHX paroBa, cpiiCKM cthmhkh ejieMeHaT nojaMaH je floceibeHH- 
UHMa H3 PaoiKe, xaico r<\ cy 3a epeMe Typcice Bna^aBHHe BaHaTOM 
(1552-1688) Cp6n hhhhjih maBHHHy cTaHOBHHUiTBa y H>croBOM iih3hj- 
ckom flejiy, 36or Hera je y aoKyMeHTHMa Tora #o6a xaj ago Banara (3anaA- 
hh) H&&BB8S Rdczvildg, Rdczorszdg „Cp6Hja", a ruiannHCKH rqq BaH&Ta 
(hctohhh) Oldhszdg „BjiaiDKa" [TlonoBMh 1955:15, 35-36]. HoHeB o,a 
XVIII BeKa, npBeHCTBeHO 36or aycTpnjcKe nojiHTHKe KonoHH3auMJe EaHa- 

Ta KaTOJIHHKHM CTaHOBHHUlTBOM IipCTOKHO HCMaHKOT nopeiOia, aJlH H H3 

Apyrnx pa3Jiora (ceoGe, Ha npuMcp), CTHMHKa KapTa Banaxa 6htho ce Me- 

ita, a 6poj Cp6a ona^a. To ce noce6no oahoch na cpncKH xkbsjl H3 OHor 
flejia BaHaTa kojh je 1919. npnnao PyMyHHJH, rj\t je 6poj Cp6a y CTajiHOM 
ona#aH>y, HapoHHTO nocue npBor ceeTCKor paTa, i<ao lhto noKa3yjy eta- 

THCTHHKH nO^aUH 3a6eJieHCeiIH npHJIHKOM paSHHX IlOIlMCa CTaHOBHHUJTBa 

on 1900. roflHHe ao AaHac. Pa^H HjiycTpannje, #ajeMo 6pojnaHO CTaibe 
Cp6a 3a6ejre)KeHO pa3HHM nonncHMa: 1905. — 49.884; 1924. — 44.078; 
1940. - 43.405 [KocthIi 1940M02]; 4 1992. - 29.080 [CTenanoB 

1997:189]; 2002. 22.51 8. 5 lllxo ce naK rane KapameBaKa, ipe6a pehn 

Aa je npHcyTaH hcth HeraTHBHH ,aeMorpa(})CKH Tpeiiu: 1851. — 9.001; 
1865. - 8.311; 1930. - 7.068; 1992. - 6.771 [Pa^aH 2000:14-15]. 

HaKO je y pyMyHCKOM Banaxy 6poj Cp6a (y Koje mh yGpajaMO h Ka- 
paiueBKe) h XpBaTa MajiH, h^hxobh roBopn upHna^ajy pasjiHHHTHM cpn- 
ckhm AHJaneKTHMa, a je^aH je roBop xpBaTCKH, luto je #OKa3 #a noTHMy H3 
pa3;iHHHTHX noapynja cpncKor hjth xpBaTCKor je3Hi<a. Ha ocHOBy TepeH- 
ckhx HCTpa)KHBaH>a, ycTaHOBJbeHO je Aa ce cpncKH h xpBaxcKH roBopn y 
pyMyHCKOM BaHaTy Mory CBpcraxH y ceflpM rpyna: 1. cpucKti 6anaiucKu 
eoeop (y OKBHpy Kora pa3JiHi<yjy ce TpH Twria: ceeepnu, ijeitiupa/iHu wjy- 



4 Obh ce ncaaun canoce caMO Ha Cp6e npaBoanaBue, aaicjie, He h Ha KapameBKe 

KaTOJIHKC. 

5 ripeMa He3BaHHHHHM noaauHMa o6jaBJi>eHHM y py.MyncKoj uiTaMnH nocue nonHca 
H3 MapTa 2002. 



MHxaj H. PaaaH: Y3POHH kojieeah>a Kapauiebaka nPH ethhhkom oriPEflEJLHBAifay 1 79 

cuchu); 2. zoeop miucypcicux cena\ 3. zoeop CeuYbui\e\ 4. KpaiuoeancKU zo- 
eop(u); 5. peKauiKu zoeop; 6. zoeop 6anamcKe I^pm Fope; 7. zoeop Keue 
(xpBaTCKH KaJKaBCKH roBop) [^CmbkobhIi 1976:274]. npeivia AocaAanmHM 
HCTpa>KHBaH>HMa, ycTaHOBjLeHO je #a uiyMaAHJcKO-BOJBoi)aHCKOM AHJa- 
jieKTy npHna^a cpiiCKu 6anamcKu zoeop {ceeepnu u v,eH\upa/iHU ran), 
CMeflepeBCKO-BpmaHKOM (ca HeKHM iuyMa^HJcKO-BOJBo^aHCKHM upxaMa) 
npHna,aajy jycucHU ran cpucKoz 6anaiucKoz zoeopa, Te zoeop 6anamcKe 
ZJpue rope h zoeop PeKawa, KocoBCKo-pecaBCKOM npHna^a zoeop miucyp- 
ckux cena, a roBop Ceuihuife raMOHKO-npn3peHCKOM AHj'ajieKTy. 3a xapa- 
uieecKe zoeope ycTaHOBJteHO je #a C y to cpncKH roBopH urroKaBCKO-eicaB- 
CKor rana, anH cy MHinjteita JiHHrBHCTa noaejLeHa y norjie^y npnnaAHO- 
cth je^HOM or #Ba cpncKa Anjajieicra: KocoBCKo-pecaBCKOM [MHiierai 
1903:179; IleTpoBHH 1935:221-224; Eejinh 2000:27; }KHBoJHOBHh 
1907:78; Pa^aH 2000:222-223] hjih THMOHKO-npn3peHCKOM [HbhIi 
1956:212; Ckok 1949-1950:253-259; TomhIi 1971:163]. 

2.1. Ojx cbhx cpriCKHx roBopa y pyMyHCKOM nesiy BaHaTa (h, yon- 
iiiTe, Ha uejioM cpncKOM je3HHKOM noApyHj'y) HajapxaHHHHJH cy ceuwwKu 
h KapauieecKu roBopH. 

KapauieBCKH cy roBopH, Kao ujto je no3HaTO, canyBajiH 6pojHe apxa- 

H3Me y (])OHOJIOrHJH, MOp^OJIOrHJH, CHHTaKCH H JieKCHHH. Ochm Tora, 6y- 

flyhn #a ce obh roBopn Hajia3e Ha caMoj nepn^epnJH cpncKor je3HHKor 
noApynja, Te m cy BeKOBHMa 6hjih y pyMyHCKOM OKpy>KeH>y, H30JiOBaHH 
ojx CBOJe Maraue, y cboj'oj cy eBOJiyuHJH pa3BHJiH npnjiHHaH 6poj HHOBa- 
HHj'a, ujto hx, AaKaKO, H3^Baja or ocTajwx cpncKHx h xpBaTCKHx rc-Bopa h 
Aaje hm cneHH(J)HHHO oGejieacje. ApxaHHHocT roBopa, Kao h Apyre oco6e- 
hocth OBora HCHBjta, npnByiaie cy na>KH,y 6poJHHx HCTpajKHBa^a join oa 
Apyre nojiOBHHe XIX Bena, na ce o KapanieBnnMa, Hano y PyMyHHJH no- 
CTOj'e h apyre, 6poJHHJe cjiOBeHCKe eranHKe rpyne, HaJBHiiie nncano. O 
ocTajiHM cpncKHM roBopHMa y PyMyHHJH MaH»e ce nncajio [ChkhmhIi 
1994; Pa^aH 1994]. 

Ma^a cy KapaiueBHH penaraBHo oabojchh oa ocTannx 6aHaTCKHx 
Cp6a, to jecT HHcy jkhbcjih y HenocpeAHOM cyceflCTBy (Haj6jiH>Ka cpncna 
Hacejta y^ajteHa cy oa KapaiueBCKHx HajtviaH,e me3AeceTaK KH/iOMeTapa), 
oayBeK je H3Mel)y h,hx 6hjio KOHTaKaTa, ajiH ra KOHTaKra HHcy 6 hjih hh- 
TeH3HBHH h CBaKOflHeBHH, sen cnopaAHHHH, cjia6HJer HHTeH3HTeTa. y THM 
h TaKBHM KOHTaKTHMa KapauieBUH yBH^ajy, npe CBera, je3HHKe pa3JiHKe 
H3Me^y H,HXOBor h, y npBOMe pe^y, 6aHaTCKHX, na h Apyrnx cpncKHx ro- 
Bopa, Koje h HHcy 6e3HanaJHe. To je, no HameM MHuui»eH>y, HHane 3acHo- 

BaHOM H Ha JIHHHOM HCKyCTBy H3 MJiaflOCTH, H3a BepCKOr, HaJ3HaHaJHHJH 

4>aKTop kojh je yranao h yrane h AaHac j\a ce npn cthhhkom onpeAejtH- 



1 80 CKPHBEI IE MAlbMHE HA EAJIKAHY 



Bae>y KapauieBUH K0Jie6ajy H3Mel)y cpncKor h xpBaxcKor, a y npoiujiocTH, 
h GyrapcKor HfleHTHxeTa. 

BpoJHH HCTpa^cHBaHH, kojh cy npoynaBajiH roBop h o6H4aje Kapaiue- 
BaKa h noKymaBajiH Aa OTKpHJy nopeKJio OBor cjiOBeHCKor >KHBji>a, npHMe- 
thjih cy fla je oSnraor ^cMTejta KapauieBCKHx Haceiba Teiuico hjih naic He- 
Moryhe Ghjio y6eAHTH #a je Cp6nH, XpBaT hjih ByrapHH. Ty cy HHH>eHHuy 
hckh ozi h>hx cxBaTHJiH hjih npoTyMaHHJiH Kao HenocrojaH>e HaiiHOHajiHe 
CBecTH KOfl OBor >KHBJi>a. TaKO, Ha npHMep, J. >Khbojhobh1i TBp/iH jxd. 
„HeMajy MHoro CBeera Hapo^nocHe" [>Khbojhobh1i 1903:86]. To nHTatbe, 
Mel)yTHM 3 HHje TaKO jeztHocTaBHo. naaatHBHJOM h ,ay6jbOM aHajiH30M Kapa- 
uieBCKe eiiKJiaBe, noceGHO iteHor MeprrajiHTeTa, CTH^ce ce ao cynpoTHor 3a- 
KJtyHKa. HaHMe, cbcchh cbojhx oco6chocth, nnje KopeHe Tpe6a Tpaa&HTH y 
cneuH^HHHOM npouecy eTHoreHe3e KapamcBaKa h AyrOTpaJHOCTH itHxoBor 
6nTHcaH>a Ha obhm npocTopHMa (bh^h HH>Ke), iuto je AonpHHejio #a ce 
npeflatbe o eTHHHKOM nopeicny 3aMarnn hjih cacBHM 3a6opaBH, koa Kapa- 
iiieBaKa ce BpeMeHOM CTBapajia h yo6.nH4H.na uocedna uatfuojianiia ceecm 
[Pa^aH 2002:230; Simu 1939:113]. TaKo je, cse i\o 1990. roAHHe, sehnHa 
KapameBaKa ce6e cMaTpajia noce6HHM Hapo^OM: KapauieecKii uapow, a 
cboj roBop Ha3HBajra KapauieecKu je3UK [Pa^aH 2000:28-31]. J\<x jc OBa 
TBpAH>a TaHHa CBeflone GpoJHH 3anncn pa3HHX HCTpa>KHBaHa, ojx kojhx H3- 
ABajaMO cjie,aehe: „KapameBUH ce CMaipajy noce6HHM HapoflOM, a HMe Ka- 
pameBaK HeMa Apyro 3HaneH>e }\o KaTOJiHK kojh roBopn KapauieBCKn" [Mh- 
jieTHH 1903:162]; „KapameBUH HMajy CBOJy HannoHajiHy cBecx. Ohm ce 
CMaTpajy noce6HHM Hapo/ioM." [EleTpoBHH 1935:14]; „roBope hhcto cpn- 
ckh, Met)y thm ce Ha3HBajy KpauiOBaHH. noHyay H3 Byrapcxe #a ce «Kao 
ByrapH» ncejie y CBpjy «CTapy OTaij6HHy», o#6hjih cy KapamoBaHH Hajo- 
AJiyHHHJe, jep — Bejie — ohm nncy Byrapn, Beh Cp6n" [MBaHHh 1893:28]; 
„Tokom BpeMCHa ohh cy CTBopnjiH noce6aH je3HK h noceGHe oGnnaje, jep 
CTapo cy 3a^p^cajiH, a hobo Ao6njajiH caMO ojx TyhHHa, TaKo #a hm to #aje 
o6njLe^cja noce6Hora Hapozia, jep ohh ce TaKo 30By nope^a 3BaHHx h He3Ba- 
hhx kojh TaKo nnuiy h roBope" [TiopHh 1938:52]. 6 HaK je h J. ^ChbojhobhIi 
CBOje npBo6HTHO MHuiJbeH>e o ozicyCTBy HauHOHaime cbccth KapameBaKa 
npoMeHHO HaKOH SopaBKa Mel)y EtHMa h itHxoBor 6ojter yno3HaBan>a, Te je 
Ta^a yBH^eo aa ce koa h>hx BpeMeHOM cTBOpHna cbcct: „#a cy ohh Kao 
KpauiOBaHH 3ace6aH napoA, kojh roBopn 3ace6HHM je3HKOM KpamoBaH- 
ckhm" [)KHBoJHOBHh 1907:49]. 



6 T. TiopHh jc ;jomao Kao yMMTejb M3 XpBaTCKe, Ha ocHOBy ypc/i6e o lukojickoj Koh- 
BeHUHJH H3 1933. ro^HHe, h ynHTcrbeBao y KjiOKorany. 3a pa3JiHKy on, CBor KOJiere Jo3a 
Cp3Hha, yHHTejta y PaanHKy, y cbojhm je nariHCHMa 6ho KopeKTaH, HcnpHcrpacaii, TBp,ae- 
fw aa cy KapauieBUH m mo je3MKy h no o6K4aJHMa «6jih>kh Cp@HMa Hero XpBaxHMa». 



MHxaj H. Paa.au: Y3P0UH KOJiEBAibA Kapaluebaka nPH ethmmkom onpEAEJbHBAiby 1 8 1 



2.2. Join oa Apyre nojiOBHHe XIX BeKa CBe jxo AaHac, KapauieBCKa je 
eHKJiaBa npHByKjia cbojhm oco6eHOCTHMa na>KH>y 6poJHHX HaynHHKa. Pe- 
3yjiTaT Tor BejiHKor HHTepecoBaita orjie^a ce y bcjihkom 6pojy pa^OBa h 
pa3HHx Hannca o KapauieBUHivia. Mel)yTHM, 3aKJtyHUH o cthhhkom nope- 
Kiiy OBora >KHBjT>a y thm paAOBHMa pa3JiHHHTH cy, iccro nyTa h cacBHM 
cynpoTHH. TaKO, Ha npHMep, (J)opMyjiHcaHe cy pa3JinHHTe TeopHJe o h>h- 
xobom nopeKJiy, Te cy ohh CMaTpaHH ByrapHMa, Cp6HMa, XpBaraMa, He- 
CHMa, PyMynHMa, AjiGaHUHMa, CMecoM BHine 6anKaHCKHx HapoAa, iiotom- 
UHMa npBHx cjiOBeHCKHX nacejbeHHKa ceBepHO or /JyHaBa hta. [Pa^aH 
2000:62-63]. J\o TaKO pasJiHHHTHX h Hecro onpeHHHx 3aKJbynaKa cnoano 
ce KaKO ycjieA cjiokchocth npoueca eTHoreHe3e KapameBCKe eHKjiaBe, Ta- 
ko h H3 zipyrHx pa3Jiora (HecTpyHHOCT nojeflHHMx HCTpa^KHBana, cjia6o 
no3HaBaite OBor ^HBJta h cji.). Ha>KajiocT, pa3HOJiHKOCT MHiiiJi>eH>a h ko- 
jie6aH>a HayHHHKa oko eTHH4K0r nopeKJia OBora >KHBJba ccwo cy uoeehcma 
du/ieMy u KO/ied/bueociu KapauieeciKa upu eiunuHKOM oupede/bueany. Me- 
I)yTHM, Beh na caMOM noneTKy [Mhjicthh 1903; >Khbojhobh1i 1907] h to- 

KOM XX BeKa HOJaBHJIO Ce HeKOJIHKO H3y3CTHO fl06pMX CTpyHHHX JlHHrBH- 

cthhkhx pazioBa [rieTpoBHH 1935; HbhIi 1956], y KoJHMa je BeoMa apry- 
MeHTOBaHO flOKa3aHO jx'd cy KapauieBUH cpncKor nopeKJia h Aa h,hxob ro- 
Bop npnnaAa cpncKHM (eKaBCKHM) AHJajieKTHMa. Ca thm ce MHuuteibeM 
AaHac cjia>Ke BchHHa Hajno3HaTHJHx AnjajieKTOJiora h cjiaBHCTa H3 CBeTa. 
nocjieAH>HX HeKOJIHKO AeueHHj'a, nopeA JiHHrBHCTHHKHx, nojaBHJie cy ce h 
Apyre CTpyHHe CTyAHJe, npeTe>KHo eraorpa^CKe h HCTopnorpa^CKe, Koje 
noTBpljyjy Beh #OKa3aHy T e3y o cpncKOM nopeKJiy KapauieBaKa. Mel)y- 
thm, obh paAOBH, 6yAyhn ^a ce nojaBjtyjy AOCTa KacHo, y Mauoj cy Mepu 
ycnejiH Aa Mel)y o6hhhhm KapauieBUHMa pacnpme Beh nocTOj'ehy AHJieMy 
o h,hxobom HejacHOM hjih necHrypHOM eTHHHKOM nopeKJiy. 

2.3. Pa^H peuieH>a npo6jieMa nopeKJia KapauieBaKa oa 6nTHor je 
3Hanaja pa30TKpHTH npouec HacTaHKa OBe eTHHHKe eHKJiaBe. IioKyiuaBajy- 
hn Aa OAroBope Ha to nHTaite, MHuiJi>eH>a HCTpajKHBana cy oneT noAejbe- 
Ha. ,Hok BehHHa h>hx cMaTpa Aa cy KapauieBUH noTOMUH H36erjinua kojh 
cy y BaHaT aoujjih y nepHOAy oa XIII oao XV BeKa H3 o6jiacTH jyacHo oa 
AyHaBa (CTapa Cp6HJa, MO>KAa h ByrapcKa hjih MaKeAOHnja) [Melich 
1929; rieTpoBHH 1935; Mhjicthm 1903; HBnh 1956], MaH>H Aeo CMaTpa Aa 
cy KapauieBUH noTOMuu npBHx CjiOBeHa kojh cy ce y BaHaTy HacTaHHJiH 
HerAe y VI- VII BeKy [IIonoBHh 1956; EpAejBaHOBuh 1925]. ITo HauieM 
MHULTbeity, KapauieBUH cy noTOMUH npBHx jyjKHHx CjiOBeHa kojh cy ce y 
VI-VII BeKy HacTaHHJiH y BanaTy h noMeuianH ce KacHHJe, y XIV-XV Be- 
Ky, ca H36erjiHuaMa npHAOuuiHM y KapauieBCKa Hacejta H3 o6jiacTH jy>KHO 
oa AyH^Ba, kojh cy BehHHOM 6hjih Cp6n, ho Mel)y H>HMa je BepoBaTHO 6h- 
jio h 6yrapcKor hjih/h MaKeAOHCKor >KHBJba. 3HanajaH yAeo y CTBapau>y 



182 Ckphbehe maii>hiih iia Bajikahy 



OBe eTHHHKe 3ajeAHHue HMann cy h 6anaTCKH PyMyHH, ca KOJHMa cy Ka- 
pauieBUH BeKOBHMa 6hjth y Henocpe^HOM cyceACTBy m KOHTaKTy, a cnryp- 
ho je 6hjio h Meiuau>a OBa Asa >KHBJT>a ? ajiw cy PyrviyiiH npncnejiH y Kapa- 
meBCKa Hacejba 6hjih acHMHJiOBaHH. 3HanaJHy je ynory y npouecy erao- 
reHe3e KapaiueBCKor >KHBJba OAnrpajia KaTOJiHHKa upKBa, Koja je AejiOBana 
Kao KaTa^H3aTop 3a cnajan>e OBe xeTeporeHe Mace y HBpcry xoMoaeny ew- 
iiuuKy 3ajedHui{y. H3 Tor cjio>KeHor npoueca eTiioreHe3e nponcTHHy h 
ciicuhcJdhhhocth KapauieBCKe eTHHMKe eHKJiaBe [Pa^an 2000:222]. 

3. Kao uiTO je no3HaTO, cbh KapauieBUH cy AaHac puMOKaiuo/ium<e 
eepoucuoeeciuu. Mel)yTHM, cacBHM je H3BecHO, Aa je BepcKO CTaite y npo- 
uijiocth 6hjio ApyranHJe ojx AaHaiuFber, urro 3iia4H Aa je npo6neM Bepou- 
cnoBecTH KapamcBaKa ano>KeHHJH ncro luto, Ha npBH nonneA, H3nieAa. 

3.1. PaflH 6oji>er pa3yMCBaH>a BepCKe KOMiioneHTe OBora >KHBJi>a ? 
Heonxo^no je no3HaBaTH HCTopnjaT npoGjieivia, kojh cyMapiio AajeMO y 
HacTaBKy. H3 pa3HHx hctophjckhx M3Bopa MO)Ke ce 3aKJbyHHTH Aa je CBe 
Ao XIII BeKa cTaHOBHHinTBO Banaxa cxopo y uejiHHH 6hjio npaBoariaBHe 
Bepe, Te Aa cy Mal)apcKH KpajteBH H3 Tor nepnoAa 6hjih TonepaHTHH npe- 
Ma cbojhm npaBOCJiaBHHM noaaHHUHMa. LLJto ce rane KapameBaica, py- 
MyHCKH HCTopHnap kojh je HcnHTHBao KapauieBCKH ^CHBajB, TpajaH CHMy, 
TBpflH y jeziHOM cbom Hanncy Aa je y KapameBy, Herae oko 1030. roAHHe, 
nocTOJao npaBoanaBHH ManacTHp y KojeM cy any>K6oBajiH rpHKH (tj. npa- 
BOCJiaBHH) Kajiy^epn. Te je Kany^epe enncKon repxapA npeMecTHO H3 
ApaAa y KapameBO, a Ha h>hxobo je MecTO AOBeo KaTOJiHHKe (JxpaTpe [Si- 
mu 1924:478]. rioneB ojx XIII jxo XV Beica MatjapcKH Kpaji>eBH 3anonHH>y 
KaMnaH>y noKamriHHaBaFba npaBOCJiasaua y EaHaTy, Koja je noBpeivieHO 
nonpHMajia ApaMaTHHHe oGjihkc Toj KaMnan>H HHcy OAOJie/in CTanoBHH- 
UH H3 HenocpeflHe 6jiH3HHe cpcaibobckobhhx TBpl)aBa ? Koje cy HMane H3y- 
3eTHO 3HanaJHy BOJHO-CTpaTeuiKy OA6paivi6eHy yjiory 3a yrapcxo KpajteB- 
ctbo. TaKO cy KapauieBUH, nnja cy ce Hacejba Hajia3HJia y HenocpeAuoj 
6jih3hhh TBpl)aBe Kojy ohh Ha3HBajy TypcKu apatu, HaJBepOBaTHHJe 6hjih 
npHMopaiiH zia npHXBaTe KaTOJiHHKy BepoHcnoBecT. y AOKyMenTHMa je 
3a6ene>KeHO Aa je napoxnja y Kapaweey Beh 1332-1333. foahhc Ao6njia 
CTaTyc npoTOJepejcKor ceAHurra. V AOKyMCHTHMa H3 KacHHJer nepnoAa. 
Me^yTMM, KapauieBUH ce cnoMHH>y Kao wu3Maiuuiju, na je Kompezav,uja 
3a upouaaaudy eepe y PuMy yjio>KHJia BejiHKe Hanope y npBOJ nojiOBHHH 
XVII BeKa paAH FbuxoBor (noHOBHor?) noKamnHHaBaita. y to Bpeiwe > 
KapanieBy KoHrperaunja OTBapa MaHacTHp kojh he nocTaTH ueHTap m 
Kora cy noKpeTane aKunje noKamnHMaBatba He caMO KapauieBaKa, Beh v, 
ocTanor 6aHaTCKor CTaHOBHHuiTBa. HHH>eHHua je Aa ce TeK oa XVIII BeKc 
noy3AaHO MO^ce tbpahth Aa cy KapauieBUH 6hjih KaTOJinun [PaAafc 
2000:35-43; Zach 1979]. 



Mnxaj H. Pa^aH: Y3P0UH kojieeah>a Kapaijjebaka nPH ethhhkom oriPEAEJBHBAifey 1 83 

3.2. npunaflHocT KaTOJiHiKoj Bepn, Ha ncHxojiouiKOM njiaHy, koh- 
CTHTyHiue ce y HaJ3HanaJHHJH cpaKTop kojh cHaacHo yrane Ha kojicSjlh- 
boct KapameBaKa Ka^a je pen o npuxBaTaity cpucKoe nai^uoua/iHoz uden- 
iuumeiua. Ta KOJieSjbHBOCT ce Hapowro ncnoibaBajia ao ceAaMAecerax 
roAHHa npouijiora BeKa, noroTOBO koa CTapnje reHepaunje, Koja yrjiaB- 
hom HHJe npnxBaTajia xpBaTCKO nopeKJio, ajrn hh cpncKO, jep je y h>hxo- 
bom cxBaTa^y Cp6HH o6aBe3HO npaBOCJiaBue Bepe, H3 Hera ce ayroMaT- 
ckh 3aKJLynyje m KapauieBun, Kao KaTOJiHHH, TeuiKO jxa Mory 6hth Cp6H. 
y tom norjieay H3y3eTaK cy y npouiJiocTH hhhhjih je^HHO KapauieBCKH 
HHTejieKTyanuH hjih yneHHJH jtyAH (He cbh) [PaaaH 2002:233-240], a y 
iioaneflH>e 3-4 AeuenHJe Ao6ap Aeo Mjial)e reHepauHJe ca cpe/jH>HM h bh- 
uihm ihkojickhm o6pa30BaH>eM, kojh cy MorjiH npeBa3HhH Ty ncHxojiouiKy 
Gapnjepy h yoHHTH Mnoro6pojne eTHOJiHHrBHCTHHKe OApeAHHue i<oje Ka- 
pauieBCKH >KHBajb cnajajy ca cpncKHM HapOAOM. 

y pa3HHM o6HHaJHMa, o6pe^HMa h BepoBaibHMa KapaineBaKa iiocto- 
je 6poJHe HHAHHHj'e Koje roBope o TOMe Aa KapameBun Hncy oa HCKOHa 
6hjih KaTOJiHHKe Bepe, a OHe Hncy npoiviaKJie 036hjbhhjhm HCTpa>KHBaHH- 
Ma [L(Hp6yc 1885; EpACJtaHOBHh 1925; Bjiaxc-BHh 1994; EnpTa 1993]. 
CnoMeHyheMO OB^e caMo HeKe oa h>hx: KyhHa cjiasa [Pa^aH 1998], 
CMep/bawe — nacrapcKH o6nHaj kojh ce, CBe ao HeAaBHO, CBaKe roAHHe 
OAp>KaBao na Ha npaBOCJiaBHH T)ypl)eBAaH (06. Maja) [Pa^aH 2000:43], no- 
iHTOBaH>e h HanopeAO npa3HOBau>e BejiHKor 6poja CBeTaua Kaico no npaBO- 
cjiaBHOM, TaKo h no KaTOJiHHKOM KajieHAapy 7 , pa3Ha BepoBaita [I4np6yc 
1885:44-46, 50, 238; Simu 1939:111-130] hta. HHane, KapaiueBHH cy, 
Kao ihto npHMehyjy nojeAHHH Hcrpa>KHBaHH, BeoMa pejiHrao3HH, ajin hh- 
cy 4>anaTHHH, hhth cy neTOJiepaHTHH npeMa ApyrnM BeponcnoBecTHMa, 
noroTOBO He npeivia npaBocjiaBHOj npKBH. CTora Hnje peTKOCT bhacth hx 
jxa npHcycTByjy 6orocjiyHceH»y y npaBOCJiaBHHM upKBaMa h MOJie ce Bory 
3a 3ApaBjte cbojhx yKyhaHa hjih 3a H36aBJteH,e H3 KaKBe HeBOJte Koja hx 
je 3aAecHJia. y tom KOHTeKCTy, HjiycTparaBHa je HHH>eiiHua, MaAa nyAHO- 
BaTa, KaKO npuMenyje y cbojoj HCTOpHJCKo-eTHorpaa)cKOJ MOHorpa(pHJH T. 
CnMy, uito ce y cjiyuajy BejiHKor CTpaxa „Kapaiueei{u Kpciue pyMyucKU, 
tj. upeMa MOAejry KopnuiheHOM y npaBocjiaBHOj' Bepn" [Simu 1939:115]. 
Hnje Ha oamct cnoMeHyra h to Aa CBaKe roAHHe nocehyjy ABa KaTOJiHHKa 
MaHacTnpa Ha AaH H>nxoBe xpaMOBHe cjiaBe — Mapujy Padny, HeAaneKO 
oa JlnnoBe, h Hwuioey /Ciclova/, 6jiH3y OpaBHue. 3aHHMJtHBO je, Meljy- 
thm, Aa KapauieBUH Ha npaBOCJiaBHH T>ypl)eBAaH (6. Maja) h AaHac y Be- 

7 y KapameBy, joiu a jiaaac KpcHy cjiaBy Ce. Apauf) 'ena (Ca6op CBeTOr apxaHrena 
MHxaHJia — ApaH^ejioB^aH) cjiaBe 21. HOBeM6pa, Kao h npaBOCJiaBHH Cp6n, a y oexanHM 
KapaaieBCKHM cejiHMa 8. iiOBeM6pa (no KaTOJiHHKOM Kajieiwpy) [Pa^aH 2000: 228]. 



1 8 4 Ckphbehe m ah>hhe ha B ajikahy 



jihkom 6pojy OAJia3e y xoAonaiiihe npaBOCJiaBHOM MaHacrapy HIeHfyypai4 
/Sdngeorge/ (yAajteH ~ 60 km oa KapameBCKHx Hacejta), Aa npncycTByjy 
jiHTyprajn Koja ce OAP^aBa eioboaom xpaMOBHe cnaBe MaHacrapa. HHTe- 
pecaHTHO je Aa cy nojeAHHH yneHHJH KapameBUH join y Apyroj nonoBHHH 
XIX BeKa 6hjih yBepeHH Aa cy KapameBun — Cp6w h Aa cy y npouuiocTM 
6hjih npaBOcnaBHe Bepe. PaAH HJiyCTpanHJe Te TBpAH>e inrrapaheMO jeAHO 
nHCMO HaMeiteHO cilomu karasevskomu narodu, Koje je HanHcao start ro- 
dent Serbin Todor Birta, 86. godine sta , y KOMe h3hoch cboj CTaB Aa cy 
nashi prahdedovi skoro 500 godine kano Serblje, iz Stare Serbi(J)e, Turske 
Bosne...ovamo doshli, koji serbski jezik govorimo, serbski obicsaji vodi- 
mo... alt samo iz serbske virejesu nas katolicski popove u katolicsku viru 
preuzeli [BHpTa 1993:21]. Hcth Todop Eupiua - 7>/c, y uucuy Koje je no- 
CJiao JoBaHy )KHBOJHOBnhy, oSjauitbaBa h o6pa3Jia>Ke KaKO cy KapaineBini 
npeuiJiH H3 npaBocjiaBHe y KaTOJiHHKy Bepy: „Ilo npnHaity oa CTapHHa, 
Kaace ce, Aa cy OpaiteBnH (^pavpu) Te JtyAe, kojh cy Kao pacejaHe h H3- 
ry6jBeHe OBne hchbcjih no 6peroBHMa, noTpa^cHJiH no h>hxobhm CTaHOBH- 
Ma, HOBopo^eHHaA mm kpcthjih h o6paTHJin hx y pnMOKaTOJiHHKy Bepy: 
TaKO cy AOcejteHHUH Cp6w EoiiiH>auH nojiaraHo nocTann cbm KaTOJinnn, 
ajin ce ciuapoeepcKu oduuaju (npaBocjiaBHH cpncicn) koa h>hx ao AaHac 
npecafjHBaxy y HapoAy h jfcueehe eenuuio Mef)y KaiuoAuijUMa Kpaiuo- 
eanuMa" pKnBOJHOBnn 1909:61]. 

3.3. 36yH>yje HHiteHHna Aa KaTOJiHHKH cjiobchckh MHCHOHapn (4>pa- 
iteBim h HcycoBnn), XpBaTH n Byrapn, kojh cy Meljy KapameBUHMa AeJio- 
Bajin, c MajiHM npeKHAHMa, hckojihko BeKOBa (oa XIV ao npeA Kpaj XVIII 
BeKa), a oa Kpaj a XVIII BeKa ao AaHac KamjiHHKO cBeurreHCTBO (o6hhho 
h3 peAOBa CjiOBeHa KaTOJiHKa, npeTe>KHO XpBaTa), Hncy ycnejiH Aa koa 
KapameBaKa cTBope xpBaTCKy hjih 6yrapCKy HannoHajmy CBecT. Hncy y 
TOMe ycnejin hh ynnTejLH H3 XpBaTCKe kojh cy y Me^ypaTHOM nepnoAy 
cjry>K6oBajiH y KapameBCKHM cejiHMa. Thm cy ce noKyniajnMa KapameBUH 
ycneniHO cynpocTaBJtajiH CBe ao npeA carsi Kpaj XX BeKa. TeK y AeBeAe- 
ceTHM roAHHaMa npouiuora BeKa Taj uhjb ce noHHite ocTBapHBaTH, ajin He 

TOJIHKO 3aXBaJtyjytiH KOHCTaHTHOJ H jaKOJ XpBaTCKOJ Ap^aBHOJ H KaTO- 

jihmkoj nponaraHAH, Beh ApyrHM (J)aKTopHMa — 6kohomckhm h nojin- 
thhkhm, Ha Koje heMO ce KpaTKO ocBpHyTH y HacTaBKy OBora paAa. 

3.4. H3 ropeH3Jio>KeHHx noAaTaKa o BeponcnoBecTH KapameBaKa, 
HaMehy ce cjieAehn 3aKjLyquH: 

a) KaTOJiHHKa Bepa je noBehana AHJieMe KapameBaKa y Be3H ca h>h- 
xobhm eTHHHKHM nopeKJiOM h, Ha ncHxojiomKOM njiaHy, CBe jxo HeAaBHO 
npeACTaBjtajia je 3a o6hhhc TKUTGibQ KapameBCKe 3ajeAHnne HenpeMOCTH- 
By npenpeKy 3a npHXBaTaite cpncKor nopeKJia, y hhjh npnjior HAy CKopo 
CBe 6nTHe KOMnoHeHTe MaTepHJajiHe h AyxoBHe KyjiType KapameBaKa; 



MHxaj H. PaAaH: Y3P0UM ko/ieeah>a Kapaiiiebaka npn ethhmkom oriPEAEJLHBAiby 1 85 

6) KaTOJiHHKa qpKBa je OAnrpajia BeoMa 3HanaJHy yjiory y xoMoreHH- 
3auHJM m HapoHHTO KOH3epBaHHJH oae eraHHKe eHKJiaBe; HaJBepoBaTHHj'e 
je, HeHaMcpHO, cboj'om HCKibynHBOiuhy AonpHHeua CTBapaity HAeje o no- 
ce6HOCTH KapameBaKa y cthhhkom CMHony, iuto je 6hjio y cynpOTHOcra 
ca uHJteM CTBapaH>a xpBaTCKe (oahocho 6yrapcKe) HauHOHajiHe cbccth; 

b) SyziyhH Aa je KapaiueBCKa KaTOJiHHKa cjroBeHCKa eHKiiaBa bckobh- 
Ma ^CHBejia y HenocpeAHOM OKpyacciby pyMyHCKor npaBOonaBHor cTaHOB- 
HHiii3Ba, BepoBaTHO je y KapameBCKOJ 3ajeAHHHH je^Hor MOMeHTa npopa- 
Aho HeKH yHyTpauiH>H MexaHH3aM ayTOKOH3epBanHJe, hhcthhkt caMOOAp- 
^caBaita, iiito HaJBepoBaTHHj'e o6jaiHH>aBa HarjiameHH KOH3epBaTHBH3aM 
KapameBaKa [Simu 1939:112]. 

4. CacBHM je CHrypHO Aa je je^aH oa pa3Jiora Kone6aH>a KapameBa- 
Ka npn cthhhkom OApel)HBaH>y, oahocho HenpHXBaTaH,a cpncKor eT- 
HHHKor H.a,eHTHTeTa, He3aHHTepecoBaHOCT cpncKe npaBocnaBHe qpKBe 3a 
HenpaBOCJiaBHe canjieMeHHKe, MO>KAa h H3BecHa A03a HeTpnejLHBocTH 
npeivia H>HMa, iiito je CBaKaKO 0Apa3 OAHOca H3Mel)y npaBocjiaBHe h KaTO- 
jihhkc upKBe tokom BeKOBa. TaKaB CTaB cpncne npaBocjiaBHe upKBe npe- 
Ma Cp6wvia KaTOJiHHKe BeponcnoBecTH (h ncjiaMCKe), a HMaMo Ty y BHAy 
npBeHCTBeHO OHe Cp6e kojh cy HMajiH hjih joui yBeK HMajy HauHOHajmy 
CBecT Aa cy Aeo cpncnor Hapo^a (Ha npniviep, Cp6n KamJiHim H3 ,Zfy6poB- 
HHKa h ^ajTMaunje), BpeMeHOM je AonpnHeo CBe BefreM h>hxobom OTyf)eiby 
h yAajtaBaity oa CBOJe Maraue h, Ha Kpajy, npHXBaTaH>y Tyl)er HauHOHaji- 
Hor HjieHTHTeTa, y rjiaBHOM, xpBaTCKor. y tom norjie^y, hhhh HaM ce m 
je KaTOJiHHKa upKBa, y HauieM orynajy — xpBaTCKa, mhoto 4)JieKCH6HJiHH- 
ja h npanviaTHHHHJa, Man>e nypnTaHCKa, cnpeMHa Aa tiojx CBOJe OKpHjte 
npHMH h HexpBaTCKe KaTOJiHHKe BepcKe 3ajeAHHne, 3Hajyhn Aa he OHe 
BpeMeHOM nocTaTH xpBaTCKe. 

Pa^H HJiycTpauHJe ropeH3HeceHor, BeoMa HHAHKaraBHHM HaM ce hh- 
hh floraljaj kojh HaM je ncnpHHao jeaaH Cp6HH H3 TeMHiuBapa, npaBOCJia- 
Ban, poaom H3 CpncKor CeMapTOHa. O tom AoraI)ajy oh je ca3Hao oa CBor 
Jiejie, kojh je y Me^yparaoM nepHOAy 6ho HJiaH npaBocnaBHe cpncKe 
EnapxHJcKe CKynurraHe TeMHUiBapcKe. HaHMe, nocjie TTpBor CBeTCKor pa- 
Ta, H3Me^y KpajteBHHe Cp6a, XpBaTa h CjiOBeHaua h KpajteBHHe PyMy- 
HHJe bo^hh cy nperoBopn o noAeiiH BaHaTa, HaKOH Hera je ycjieAHJio no- 
jihthhko pa3rpaHHHeH>e OBe oGnacTH. TaAa je hctohhh Aeo BaHaTa, y ko- 
jeM je 6hjio AOCTa Cp6a h KapameBaKa, npnnao PyMyHHJH. Ilpe noBJiane- 
H>a cpncKe BOJCKe ca 6aHaTCKe TepHTopnje i<oja je npnnajia PyMyHHJH (jy- 
Jia 1919), njiauiehn ce m y HOBOHacTajiHM hojihthhkhm h Ap^caBHHM 
OKOJiHOCTHMa KapaiueBCKa KaTOJiHHKa 3ajeAHHua He noTnaAHe noA pyMyH- 
CKy npKBeHy ynpaBy, Aejierannja KapameBaKa A0Jia3H y TeMHHiBap, y 
IlpaBOCJiaBHy cpncKy enapxnjy, ca mojiSom Aa hx EnapxHJa TeMHiuBapcKa 



186 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Ba^kahy 



y3Me noA CBOJe OKpnjLe, y CMHCJiy Aa OHa 3acTyna h 6paHM H>nxoBe HHTe- 
pece. Ha)KajiocT, Ty MOJi6y KapameBaKa, npeMa Ka3HBan>y Hauier HH(J)op- 
MaTopa, EnapxHJcKa CKynurrana je OASHjia. noKyiuajiH cmo m noTBpAy o 
tom AoraI)ajy ua^QMO y 3anHCHHUHMa EnapxHJcKe CKyniiiTHHe M3 Tor ne- 
pnoAa, ho, HaacajiocT, tm ce 3anHCHHUM h ocTajiH AOKyMCHTH H3 npBHx 
nocjiepaTHHX roflHHa BHiue He Hajia3e y EnapxnjcKOM apxnBy, noiuTo cy 
CBa AOKyMeHTa H3 Tor nepHOAa OAHeceHa y CpSnjy, ajiH nam hhko Hwje 
3Hao pehn r^e ce ohh AaHac Hajia3e. 

5. He3aHHTepecoBaHOCT h nacuBaH oahoc cpncKHX BJiacTH y no- 
cneAH>Mx cto roAHHa npeMa cbojhm Man>HHaMa y AHJacnopn, Te OAcycTBo 
KOHKpeTHe noflpniKe Cp6HMa y pacejan>y, npeACTaBJba join jeAaii pa3Jior 
KOJie6aH>a KapameBaKa npn cthhhkom onpeAejtHBaiby m HenpHXBaTaH>y 
cpncKor HAeHTHTeTa. KoHCTaHTHa, AyropOHHa h KOHKpeTna cpucxa Ap- 
HcaBHa nojiHTHKa npeMa Awjacnopn, ca jacHO AC<J)HHHcaHHM UHJteBHMa, oa 
kojhx je HaJBa>KHHJH KaKO cenpeMHTH pa3BOAH>aBa*be h HecTajaibe cpn- 
ckhx 3ajeAHHiia y Tyl)HM 3eMji>aMa, ceM Ha flCKJiapaTHBHOM imaHy, npaK- 
thhho HHKaA HHJe nocTOJajia. HsyseijH cy peTKH h, Ha^canocT, jai<o i<paT- 
KOTpaJHH. y pa3Ao6jty oa npeKO ceAaM AeueHnja (1918-1990), kojihko je 
HaMa no3HaTO, jcahho uito je cpncKa Ap^aBa ypaAHJia 3a KapaineBKe ca- 
ctojh ce y cjieAel)eM: y nepHOAy oa 1990. ao 1997. roAHHe npHMHJia je Ha 
CTyAHJe AeceTaK MjiaAnha kojh cy H3pa3Hjin Ty >Kejby h, cnopaAHHHO, ana- 
na iirraMny y KapameBCKa HacejLa (oa 1990. ao 1994. roAHHe). H3Jihiijho 
je HanoMHH>aTH Aa TaKBa nojiHTHKa (6oji>e peneHo, OAcycTBO 6h;io KaKBe 
nojiHTHKe) HMa HapOHHTO HeraTHBHe ec^eirre y ohhm cpncKHM 3ajeAHHu,a- 
Ma Koje ce He yKJianajy y noTnynocTH y HeKe yerajbeHe MaTpnije cpncTBa 
(Ha npHMep, HenpaBocjiaBHe 3ajeAHMue), a Aa h He roBopHMO o TaKBHM 3a- 
jeAHHuaMa Kao uito je KapameBCKa, Koja HMa noce6Hy nauHOHajmy CBecT 
(HaKO He nocTOJH Hexa peajiHa ocHOBa 3a to) hjih je join yBeK y noTpasn 

3a CBOJHM eTHHHKHM HACHTHTeTOM. 

McTOBpeMeHO, HacynpoT cpncKoj nojiHTnun, xpBaTCKa je nojiHTHKa 
npeMa Awjacnopn Ao6po ocMHiujbeHa, KOHCTaHTHa h Ao6po Bof)eHa. Ty 
CBOJy nojiHTHKy AP^aBHe xpBaTCKe HHCTHTyunje cnpOBOAe h y ohhm 3a- 
jeAHHiiaMa 3a Koje Ta4H0 3Hajy Aa cthhhkh uncy xpBaTCKe. V tom norjie- 
Ay> HajGojbH je npHMep 6am KapameBCKa 3ajeAHHu;a. 

HHTepec XpBaTa npeMa oboj 3ajeAHHijH nojaBHO ce HerAe y Apyroj 
AeiteHHJn nponuiora BeKa, KaAa cy KapauieBun y CBeTy Hayice HanpaBHJiH 
ceH3au;HJy cbojhm, npe CBera, apxannHHM roBopoM, ajin h ocTajiHM cneun- 
(})hhhhm oco6nHaMa. ByAyhn Aa cy KapameBijH KaTOJinnKe BeponcnoBe- 
cth, HMajiH CBOJy noce6Hy eTHHHKy KOHuenijHJy, ho nnaK 6mjih y noTpa3H 
3a npaBHM hachthtctom, XpBaTH cy cxBarajin Aa OBy H30JioBaHy eiiKJiaBy 
Mory, y3 noMofi qpKBe, y6eAHra Aa je Aeo xpBaTCKor HapoAa. Ohh cy CTp- 



Mnxaj H. Pa^aH: Y3P0UH kojieeah>a Kapauiebaka npn ethhmkom oriPEflEJi>HBAH>y 1 87 



njbHBO, KOHCTaHTHO, Ha pa3He HanHHe noKyinaBajiH OBaj >KHBajL npH£o6n- 
th Ha CBOJy CTpaHy. Y MefjyparaoM nepno,ny tuaiby CBOJe ynnTejLe y Ka- 
paiueBCKa cejia, ripe h nocjie /Ipyror CBeTCKor paTa, flaiaie h y BpeMe ko- 
MyHH3Ma, npoHajia3HJiH cy HanHHe h — MecHe napoxoje h BepHHKe koh- 
CTaHTHO CHa6/j,eBajiH qpKBeHHM KH>nraMa, a nocjie 1970. roAHHe, napoxn- 
jaMa h uiKOJiarvia CKopo pe^OBHo maji>y HOBHHe (3arpe6aHKH Vjesnik), no- 
BpeMeHO h iiiKOJicKy h ^HAaKTHHKy jiHTepaTypy. CaMO hckojimko #aHa Ha- 
koh fleueisiGapcKor npeBpaTa 1989. roAHHe y PyiviyHHJH, npBa noMoh Koja 
je y KapaineBCKa Hacejta (y KapaineBo) crania H3 HHOCTpaHCTBa (xpaHa, 
o^eha) 6njia je ojx rpaAnurraHCKHx XpBaTa H3 AycTpnje, a y6p30 noTOM h 
H3 caMe XpBaTCKe. Anpnjia Meceua 1990. ro^HHe OBy 3aje/jHHijy nocehyje 
AejierauiHJa XpBaTCKor ca6opa (npe AOJiacKa X,2,3-a Ha BJiacT). y nepnoziy 
ojx 1990. ]\o 1995. XpBaTCKa #p>KaBa cbhm CHjiaMa paAH Ha npHjjoSnjaFby 
KapaiiieBaKa, maji>e (JmHaHcnjcKy h flpyry noMoh, npHXBaTa CBe 3anHTe- 
pecoBaHe 3a CTyanpaite y XpBaTCKqj h cjl, ajiH ca MajiHM ycnexoM, jep cy 
KapameBHH, BehHHOM ohh H3 pe^OBa Mjiafje h cpe^Kbe reHepaunje, BHiue 
HarHH^ajiH cpncKOM cthhhkom H^eHTHTeTy. TeK Ka^a je 1995. roAHHe Xp- 
BaTCKa KapameBUHMa noHy^HJia abojho ^p^aBJbaHCTBo, H>eHa je nojinra- 
Ka nonejia noKa3HBaTH CBOJe npBe njio/ioBe, Te bcjihkh 6poj KapameBaKa 

npHXBaTa XpBaTCKH eTHHHKH HtfeHTHTeT (BHUie HeBOJbHO, HO BOJbHO, MHO- 

rn caMO flemiapaTHBHO, jep hm je Gnjia noTpe6Ha xpBaTCKa nyTOBHHua no- 
Mohy Koje cy motjih cjio6oaho KpeHyTH y 3ana#Hy EBpony „Tp6yxoM 3a 
KpyxoM"). 

6. Kojie6aH>y obot acnBJLa oko HaijHOHajiHor H^eHTHTeTa CHrypHO jxo- 
npHHOCH h HHH>eHwua hito, 6ap 3acaAa, Hncy y AOKyMeHTHMa H3 cpe#H>er 
BeKa npoHaI)eHH noziauH o h>hxoboj npouuiocTH, KaKO cthhhkoj, TaKO h 
BepcKOJ. CBe hito ce o npoiujiocTH KapameBaKa jxo ca^a sua hjih ce caMO 
Haral)a, a 3Ha ce Mano, norane H3 cpeAHbOBeKOBHnx H3Bopa y KOJHMa ce, y 
BehHHH cjiynajeBa, HH^npeKTHO roBopH o obom >KHBjLy. npoHana3aK Ka- 
KBor BepoAOCTOJHor AOKyMeHTa hjih Bnine h>hx y KOJHMa 6h ce Hanum npe- 
UH3hhjh noflauH o h>hxobom eTHHHKOM nopeioiy h BepCKOM CTaH>y npe XV 
BeKa, Morao <5h fla oflCTpaHH HefloyMHije koa oGhhhhx jby^H h peuin npo6- 
jieM HauHOHanHor H^eHTHTeTa KapameBaKa. 

7. HcTpa^cHBann KapameBCKor >KHBJi>a npHMeTHJin cy fla KapameBUH 
HeMajy HapoHHTH a(|)HHHTeT npeMa XpBaraMa, Ma/ja ce H3BecHa opnjeHTa- 
unja Ka xpBaTCKOj HaimoHajmoj onunJH nojaBHjia tokom XX BeKa (Haponn- 
to y Mel)ypaTHOM nepnoay). C Apyre CTpaHe naK, npHMehyje ce ^a je y 
upomjiocTH, a noroTOBO .naHac, BehnHa KapameBaKa HMajia h ro aaHac ca- 
nyBajia Hajnemhe noACBecHO ocehaH>e #a cy noTOMUH Cp6a, #a cy orpaHaK 
cpncKor HapoAa, Ma#a, napaflOKcajiHO, BehnHa h>hx to jaBHO He npnxBaTa 
hjih He npH3Haje. 3aTO, c pa3Jioroivi, E. nerpoBHH y cbojoj no3HaToj moho- 



1 88 CKPHBEHE MAIbMHE HA EAJIKAHY 



rpa4)HJH naace: „0a bshsbsd Moraa ce npHMeTHTH Mcl)y KapameBUHMa H3- 
BecHa xpsaTCKa opHJeHTaunja... IlpeKO upKBe h uikojic A03HajiH cy Kapa- 
iueBUH Aa cy «XpBaTH». HeKH oa h>mx, uiKOJiOBaim JbyAH, pa3yivie ce, opH- 
jeHTHcajiH cy ce h npeMa Cp6nMa. HnaK, hmhh mm ce Aa je HeMoryhe y6e- 
Ahth jeflHor KapauieBKa Aa je Cp6nH; 3a H>era je CpGnH npaBocjiaBau, a 
KapameBaK KaTOJiHK" [rieTpoBHM 1935:15]. Taj ocehaj, Ty HeBmybHBy hht 
Koja hx npHBjiaHH h cnaja ca cpiiCKOM HapoAOM, Kao uito ce MO^ce BHAeTH 
H3 ropier H3JiaraH>a, cnyTaeajy hckh flpyra (JDaKTopn, y npBOM peAy Kaxo- 
jiHHKa BepoMcnoBecx [bmam rope, t. 2, 3 h 4]. 

Mel)yTHM, yupKOC BHmeBeKOBHOM iienocpeAHOM AeJioBau>y m koh- 
THHyHpaHOj uponaraHAM Met)y KapameBijHMa, HHane cnpoMaiUHMM m He- 
npocBeheHHM cTonapHMa h 3CMJLopaAHMHHMa, KaTOJiHHKa upKBa Hnje yc- 
nejia Aa koa OBor >KHBJi>a CTBOpH cbcct o xpBaTCKOM (huh 6yrapcKOM) no- 
peKJiy h OABpaTH ra or CBOJe KOimenuHJe o noce6HOM cthhhkom hachth- 
TeTy. Ha nyTy Aa y TOMe ycne jecTe xpBaTCKa Ap>KaBHa riojiHTHKa, a y 
ochobh Tora ycnexa CTOje eKOHOMCKH pa3Ji03H. TaKO, y nocJieAH>oj Aeue- 
hhjh XX Beica, KaAa ce hmhhjio Aa he HHTeueKTyajmo ca3pejia MJial)a h 
cpeAH>a reHepauHJa KapauieBaKa OKOHnaTH BHiueBeKOBHa eTHHHKa KOJie- 
6aH>a cbojhx npeAaKa npHXBaTaiteM cpncKor eTHHnor HAeHTHTeTa, Ta 
HCTa reHepauHJa je noKJieioia npeA MaTepHJajiHHM rioroAHOCTHMa Koje mm 
je y tom TpeHyTKy nonyAHJia xpBaTCKa HOBOCTBopeHa Ap^aBa. Ako ce, c 
jeAHe CTpaHe, HMa y BMAy Aa cy ce 6am Te renepauHJe KapauieBaKa Hana- 
3MJie y He3aBMAH0M, CKopo 6e3M3ua3H0M ncxncHKajy, jep cy CKopo cbh 
ocTajiM 6e3 nocjia HaKOH pe4)opMHcaH>a HHAycTpMJe y Pcuimlih, a c Apyrc 
CTpaHe, HMH>eHHuy Aa mx je cpncKa Ap^aBa jeABa npH3naBajia 3a CBoje v 
HMJe mm noHyAMJia HHKaKBy nepcneKTMBy (Kao hh ocTajiMM Cp6nMa m 
AMJacnope), cacBMM je cxBaTJBHBO KaKO m 3aurro je, Maicap m TpeHyrao 
npeBarHyjia xpBaTCKa HauHOHajma onunja. Ho to HMKaKO He matm m je 
npouec eTHMHKor onpeACJLMBaH>a KapauieBaKa saBpiixeH. 

Ha Kpajy ^cejiMMO MCTahM join jeAHOM Aa cy OBaKBa npeBHpan>a i 
K0Jie6aH>a KapauieBaKa oko eTHHHKor HAenTMTeTa cacBMM pa3yM/bHBa 
aKO ce HMa y BMAy HHH>eHHua Aa ce OBaj )KHBaji> na obmm npocTopuMa Ha 
na3M MO)KAa jouj oa paHor cpeAtter BeKa (VI-VII BeK), Aa je bckobhm< 
M3onoBaH oa CBoje MaTHije, Te Aa je npeAan>e o nopeKuy 3aMarji>eH0 hji* 
cacBMM 3a6opaBji>eHO. npHAOAaMO jim TOMe hh3 cneuH^MHHOCTH Koje OBa 
>KHBaib M3ABajajy oa ocTajior cpncKor mjim xpBaTCKor HapOAa, y npBOM pe 
Ay M3y3eTHO apxannaH roBop, Te KamnHMKy BepoucnoBecT m MyTHO, Heja 
chom BepcKO CTau>e y npoiujiocra, HeoAJiy^HOCT npu cthhhkom onpeAe 
jtMBaH>y je cacBMM MOTHBucaHa h onpaBAaHa. y CBaKOM cjiynajy, KJtyn 3< 
eTHHMKa KOJie6atba KapauieBaKa Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH y npoitecy eTHoreHe3< 
KapauieBCKe eHKjiaBe. 



Mnxaj H. Pa/urn: y-jPOUH KOJiEKAibA Kapaiuebaka nPH ethhmkom oiiPE*EJ]>MBAii>y 189 



JlHTepaxypa 

BcjihIi 2000: AjieKcanaap Eejinh, JJuj aneKuioAOUiKa KapCua cpucKoe je3UKa, X tom 
//BejiHh A;ieKcaH*ap, Hsa&pma de/ia AneKcandpa Eenuha, X, O duja/ieKiuuMa 
(npHpefjHBan £paroji>y6 neTpoBnh), 3aB0* 3a yu6eHHKe h HacTaBiia cpe*CTBa, 
Eeorpa* — Hobh Ca*. 

EnpTa 1993: HBaH EnpTa, Kapatueetfu {Hapodm yMOtuBopune ca euiHOAOiuKUM ocep- 
iuom), Romcart, EyKypeuiT. 

BjiaxoBHh 1994: TTeTap BjiaxoBHh, HcKe cthhhkc o*pe*Hnuc KpawoBaHa, TeMuiueap- 
cku 36opnuK\, Hobh Ca*, 137-145. 

EpztejtaHOBHh 1925: JoBan Ep*eji,aHOBHh, TparoBH najcTapnjer arcoBeHCKor cjioja y 
BaHary, Niderluv sbornik, npar, 275-308. 

>KHBKOBMh 1976: MnpKO ^hbkobhIi, CeedoHanciuea o cpucxo (jyeocAoeeiiCKo) — py- 
MyncKUM KyniuypuuM u KhbuotceemiM odnocuAta, KpHTepHOH, EyicypeiuT. 

)KHBoJHOBMh 1903: JoBan ^hbojhobhIi, YrapcKa CTaTHCTMKa h Cp6n y YrapcKoj,j7e- 
uXouuc Maiuuife cpucxe 222/VI, Hobh Ca*, 75-99. 

)Khbojhobh1i 1907: JoBan )Khbojhobh1i, KpauiOBanH (KapamaHH, KapaiuaBun). Bejie- 

uiKe^apoflHHoGHHaJHHnpHMcpHJesHKa^e^owwcMrt^wi/ec^wc/ceLXXXIII, 
242/11, 42-67; LXXXI1I, 243/III, Hobh Ca*, 52-79. 

>KHBOJHOBHh 1 909: JoBaH >KHBOJaoBHh, Kpo3 Jy>KHH Banax (nyTHHHKe GejicuiKe h pa3- 
MHnubaH>a), Jlewouuc Maiuuife cpucKe LXXXV, 255/VIII, Hobh Ca*, 37-65. 

Zach 1979: Krista Zach, Die bosnische Franziskanermission des 17. Jahrhunderts im 
siidostlichen Niederungarn, Studia Hungarica (Horst Glassl), 13, Dr. Rudolf 
Trofenik, Munchen. 

HBaHHh 1 893 : HBaH MsaHHh, O EyiBesuHMa, Jleiilouuc Maiuuife cpucKe 1 75, III, Hobh 
Ca*. 

HBHh 1956: naBJic Hmih, JjujaAeKuioAoeuj a cpucKoxpeaiucKux je3UKa. Yeod y luiuo- 
KaecKo napenje, Marana cpncKa, Hobh Ca*. 

Kocrah 1940: Oio6o*aH Kocrah, Cp6u y pyMyucKOM Banawy. HcuiopucKu, 6poJHu, em- 
HOMCKo-upuepednu upeaned 1940eodune i lllTaMnapnja ,,/JoJHa", TeMHWBap. 

Melich 1929: I. Mclich, A honfoglalaskori Magyaroszag, A magyar nyelvtudomdny 
kezikonye y 1/6, Budapest. 

MnjieTHH 1 903 : Ljubomir Miletic, Ueber die Sprache und die Hcrkunft der sog. Kraso- 
vaner in Sud-Ungarn, A rcivfur slavische Philologie 25, Berlin, 161-181. 

neTpoBHH 1935: Emil Petrovici, Graiul carcqovenilor. Studiu de dialectologie slavd 
meridionala, ImprimeriaNationala, Bucure§ti. 

nonoBHh 1955:£. nonoBHh, Cp6uy Eauaiuy do xpaja ocaMnaeciuoz eeKa — Mciuopu- 
ja HaceA>a u ciuaHoenuuiiuea, HaynHa KH>nra, Eeorpa*. 

nonoBHh 1956: HBaH nonoBHh, Mcuiopuja cpucKoxpeaiucKoa je3UKa, Hobh Ca*. 

Pa*an 1998: Mnxaj H. Pa*aH, 3naHaj cjiaBe h join hckhx npocnaBa ca KyjiTHHM o6e- 

jie>KJeM 3a o*pel)HBaiLe eTHHHKor 6nha KapauieBaKa, Eiuno-KyAuiypoAOUiKu 

36opuuK IV, CBpjLHr, 105-1 10. 

Pa*aH 2000: Mihai N. Radan, Graiurile cara^ovene azi. Fonetica§ifonologia, Uniunea 

Sarbilor din Romania — Anthropos, Timi?oara. 
Pa*aH 2002: Mnjta Pa*an, 0*hoc KapameBCKHx HHTejieieryajiaua c Kpaja XIX h npBe 

nojiOBHHe XX Bena npcMa cthhhkom nopeKny KapauieBaKa, TeuuiueapcKu 

36opuuK 3, 229-242. 



1 90 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

PaaaH 1994:MihaiN. Radan, Stadiul actual al cercetariigraiurilorsarbe$ti$icroatedin 
Romania, A nalele Universitafii din Timi$oara. Seria§tiinte Filologice XXXU, 
159-196. 

CuKHMnh 1994: BnjbaHa ChkhmhIi, TTpoyHaBaH>e jciHica Cp6a y PyMynHJH, TeMit- 
meapcKu 'jdopmiK 1, 229-232. 

Simu 1924; Traian Simu, Carasova §i Cra§ovenii. Schita istorico-etnografica,^ rhivele 

OltenieilWl 1,477-485. 
Simu 1939: Traian Simu, Origineacrcqovenilor. Studiu istotic §i etnografic, „Corvin", 

Lugoj. 

Ckok 1949-1950: IleTap Ckok, Petrovici Emil, Graiul cara§ovenilor. Studiu de dialec- 
tologie meridionala, Bucure?ti, 1935, JyoicnocnoeencKu (pwiOAoa XV11I/1-4, 
253-259. 

CrenaHOB 1997: Jty6oMHp CrenaiiOB, Caee-j Cp6a y Pymynuju 1990-1997, CaBe3 Cp- 
6a y PyMyHHJH, TeMHUiBap. 

ToMHh 1 971 : MileTomici, „Unitatea" graiurilor cara§ovene, Studiide limbd, literatura 
^/o/c/orII 5 Re?ita, 159-177. 

TiopHh 1938: TpraTiopHfr, KpamoBanHMa, Kanendap TeMUtaeapcKoe eecnuKa 3a zo- 
duuy 1938, TeMHiiJBap. 

U,Hp6yc 1885: Fee3a U,Hp6yc, K)^CHoyHrapcKHTe Bturape, IJepuodunecKo cnucanue 
na Et/ieapcKomo Knuoteoeno dpyo\cecmeo XIII, Cpe.aeu'b, 31-50; XIV, 
230-255. 



Mihaj N. Radan 

The Reasons Why the People of Carasova Waver when Declaring their Ethnic Origin 

At the onset of the paper, the author reviews synthetically some data concerning the 
ethnical enclave of Carasova: the geographical position of Carasova, the demographical 
evolution over time, the main features of this archaic community: an archaic Serbian dialect, 
well preserved old traditions, specific folk costumes, Catholic faith, a separate ethnic 
consciousness and a certain kind of mentality. 

At the same time, the author brings out these features once again by showing that they single 
the people of Carasova out from their Serbian co-nationals in Banat and from other ethnical groups 
and that they have aroused the special interest of scholars, manifested in sundry publications (some 
of them monographies) of linguistic, ethnographic, folklore and historical character. 

Further on, the author proceeds to the detailed analysis of the causes which, on the one 
side, led to a separate ethnical consciousness (Carasova people, Carasova language) and which, 
on the other side, are responsible for the wavering attitude displayed by this ethnical group, 
regarding their acceptance of a Serbian or Croatian origin (in the past also of a Bulgarian 
origin). These causes are: the archaic dialect of Carasova, the Catholic faith and fuzzy religious 
past, economical factors and political conditions. 



Ana XoqbAiaii 



nPOBJIEMH MY3HHKOr H/JEHTHTETA BYH>EBAqKE 
HAIJHOHAJ1HE 3AJEAHMUE Y 3AnAAHOJ EAHKOJ 1 

BytbeBUH, y OApe^eHOM CMHcny, npnnaAajy „cnopHHM" cthhhkhm 
3aje^HHuaMa, oahocho HaHHOHannHM MaiBHHaMa, o63HpoM Ha to jxq. ce o 
h.hxobom nopeKJiy pacnpaBJLa Beh BHiue oa cto roAHHa. Y xpBaTCKHM H3- 
BopHMa Ha3HBaHH cy BaHKHM XpBaTHMa (CeKyjinh 1991:24), aok hx, c 
Apyre CTpaHe, hckh oa HCTpa^KHBana cMaTpajy noKaTonHHeHHM Cp6HMa 
(EpAejbaHOBHh 1930:387, 394). Tokom er3HCTHpaH>a 6HBine JyocnaBHj'e 
na obhm npocTopHMa, Kaxo Ka3HBaqn Ha Tepcuy Hcrany, MopajiH cy ce Ae- 
KjrapHcaTH Kao XpBaTH, aok ohh ce6e CMaTpajy h Ha3HBajy EyrteBHHMa. 
Ha hcth HanHH hx KBajwcpHKyjy h npnnaAHHHH ocTajinx 3ajeAHHua y h>h- 
xobom OKpy^ceH>y. Oho ihto ByH>eBue KapaKTepHuie h im cneuncpHHaH Ha- 
hhh H3ABaja jecTe HKaBCKo Hapenje h npnnaAHocT KaTOJiHHKOJ Bepn. Kao 
Maraqa H3 Koje cy ce aoccjihjih, KaKO H3BopH HaBOAe join y XVII Beicy, y 
jiHTepaTypn ce cpehe /JajiMaTHHCKa 3aropa, CeHbCKO npHMopje, JlHKa, Eo- 
CHa, TopcKH KoTap. ^aHac hx, npeivia noc;ieAH>eM nonncy, AeKJiapncaHHx 
Kao ByH,eBaHa y Cp6njn HMa 20.012, oa kojhx y Cy6oTHun 16.254. CBecx 
EyifceBaua o „BeKOBHOM 6HTHcaiby" Ha npocTopy Bojboahhc h BJiacTHTOJ 
„noce6nocTH" H3y3eTHO je jana. 

3ira4ajaH noaaTaK je aa C y EytteBUH npBa ruieMCTBa ao6hjih 1560. roAHHe. 
3na4M, MopajiH cy 6hth h npe Tora OBAe, to je h npBH AOKyMeHT na KojeM 
mh 6a3HpaMO CBojy ayTOXTOHocT. Hcto, ibto je Ba>Kno, npe3HMe riphwh He 
nocTOJH koa AanMaTHHCKHX BytteBaua h AHnapCKO-Bejie6HTCKHx iiito je 



1 H3BopH 3a OBaj npHJior npHKyrubeHH cy tokom Tpajaita npojcKTa „Respecting di- 
versity" koj'h je peajiH30BaH tokom 2002. IlpojeKaTJe HMao 3a iiHJb HCTpa>KHBaibe Kyrnyp- 
nor Hacnerja 6yiteBaqKC nauHOHajme 3aje£HHue. npojeKaT cy peajiH30BajiH eTHOMy3HKO- 
jio3h h cTyaenTH eTHOMy3HKOJiorHje OaKyjiTCTa My3HHKe yMeTHOCTH H3 Beorpa^a h CTy- 
^eHTH eTHOJiorHJe 0HJio3O<j)CKor ^aKyjiTeTa H3 3arpe6a, Kao i uiaHOBH HCBjiaaHHe opraHH- 
3auHj'e „UeHTap 3a HCTpa^HBaitc My3HKe BaiiKana". 



192 CKI'HBEHE MAH.HIIE 1IA EAJIKAHV 



HajayTeHTHHHHJe, jep mh Ha obhm npocTopnMa hmsmo npe3HMeHa Koja ne 
nocTOje koa ocTajiHX Jy>KHHx CjiaBena (CyooTHna 6.4.2002. Ka3HBaH: Mh- 
jo MaHAnfr). 

Herpa>KHBaHH kojh cy ce SaBHjin npoyHaBafbeM nopcKJia h TpaAH- 
UHOHajiHe Kymype 6yH>eBaHKe erHHHKe 3ajeAHHue, y bcIihhh cnynajcBa 
noBe3HBajiH cy je h noHCTOBehnBajiH ca moKaHKOM, TperapajyhH hx Kao 
Hdy eTHHHKy rpyny. HacynpOT TOMe, npeivia HCKa3HMa ca TepeHa, caMH 
BytbeBUH h IIIokuh jacHO cy cc AeTepMHHHcajiH Kao npnnaAHHUH cpoA- 
hhx anH caMOCBOJHHX 3ajeflHnija. Y CKJiaAy c npeTXOAHO HaBCAeHHM, 
npeMa jiHTepaTypn Koja ce no ca^a GaBHJia obom npo6jieMaTHKOM Mopa 
ce oahochth ca pe3cpBOM h HeonxoAHOM AHCTaHUOM, o63wpoM aa je, y 
BehHHH cjiynajeBa, nncaHa noA jaKHM ynmajeM aKTyejiHHX hojihthhkhx 
CTaBOBa. 



IIpo6jieMH TepencKor HCTpaacHBairba 

OBaKaB cneuH^HHaH kohtckct, y KojeM je iipoGueM HauHOHa/mor 
HAeHTHTeTa HCTaKHyr Kao je^aH oa HaJBa»HHJHx, ynnHHO je Aa HerpayKH- 
BaHKH paA Ha TepeHy 6yAe napoHHTO 3axTCBan. OaKTopn kojh cy y erapTy 
yTHuaAH Ha KBanHTCT HCTpa»cHBaita TpaAHUHOHajinc KyuType 6yi±.CBaHKe eT- 
HHHKe 3ajeAHHH,e, Mory ce noAejiHTH Ha nojiHTHHKe, oahocho HAeojiouiKe: 

1) MaHHnyjiaHHJa HauHOHajiHHM HAeHTHTeTOM 

y npncTyny HCTpa^HBa^y KyjnypHe 6auiTHHe HauHOHajiunx 3a- 
jeAHHHa TeiuKO je 3aHeMapHTH GpoJHe no/iHTHHKe (})aKTOpe. BehHHa 
h>hx tokh Aa ycnocTaBH hjto 6ojlh KOHTaKT (HHTaj: npHnojn ce) ca Ma- 
thhom, oahocho, y cjiynajy ByH>eBaua, tokh Ka (J)opMajiHOM npH3HaBa- 
H>y H>HXOBor HauHOHa oa CTpaHe AP>KaBHHx HHCTHTyuHJa. TaKO cy ao- 
AaTHH npoGjieM npn Herpa>KHBaH>y OBe rpyne npeACTaBJtajiH h nocTyn- 
hh MaHnnyjiauHJe Hau.HOHa.nHHM HfleHTHTeTOM, 6yAyhn Aa y noMeHyToj 
eTHHHKOJ 3ajeAHHHH er3HCTHpajy Tpn „CTpyje", KaKO nojiHTHHKe, TaKO 
h noAejie no jihhhom ocehan.y npHnaAHOCTH caMHx HjiaHOBa 3ajeAHH- 
He: ByBbeBHH kojh ce6e CMaTpajy XpBaTHMa, EyiteBHH kojh ce, 36or 
npeTnocTaBKH o 3ajeAHHHKOM nopeKJiy, ocehajy Gjihckhjh ca Cp6nMa 
(noce6HO J^HHapuHMa) h ohh kojh ce AeKjiapnuiy Kao ayTOXTOHH HapoA 
— ByH>eBHH. 

2) KaKO je Ben noMenyTO, npn HCTpa>KHBaH>y je TeuiKO orpaAHTH ce 

OA nOJIHTHHKHX H HAeOJIOHIKHX ^aKTOpa, HapOHHTO aKO je HCTpa^CHBaH 

npnnaAHHK Man>HHe Kojy ncnHTyje. OApel)eHa BpcTa cy6jeKTHBHor HHTa- 
H>a je HeMHHOBHa, jep CBaKo oa nac H3 concTBeHor AHCKypca nocMaTpa 
OApe^eHy npoSneMaTHKy (OyKO 1998:31), anH, Aa 6h ce H36erjra pa3Ha 
HecBecHa hjih CBecHa Heo6jeKTHBHa TyManeita MaTepHJana, HeonxoAaH je 



AHa Xo<j)MaH: IIpOBJIEMM MY3HHK0r HflEHTHTETA SYftEBAHKE HAUHOHAJIHE ... 193 



HajBHOiM CTeneH HayMHe AHCTaHije, HapoHHTO y npncTyny npoynaeatLa 
cthhhkhx 3ajeAHHua. ,ZJa 6h ce H36erjia OBaKBa neoGjeKTHBHocT, HCTpa- 
^cHBaH>e TpeztMUMOHajiHe KyjiTypHe 6aiirraHe 6ye>eBaHKe 3ajeAHHue 06a- 
BjLaHO je ca KOJieraMa M3 XpBaTCKe m 6e3 ynyiiiTaii>a y HHTepHe nojiH- 
THHKe OAHOce y caMoj 3ajeAHHijH. 

Ochm HaBe^eHHX (})aKTopa kojh Henocpe^HO yrany Ha HCTpa^KM- 
BaHKH paA, HeonxoflHO je HCTahw h ApyniTBCHO-HCTopHJCKe (J)aKTope kojh 
cy yTMuajiH Ha 3aTeneHO cTan>e, oahocho (|)opMHpaH>e hjih ry6jteH>e Ha- 
UHOHajiHe CBecTH koa ByH>eBaij,a; 

a) HeMoryhHOCT HcnojbaBaita HauHOHajiHor HAeHTHTeTa tokom Tpa- 
jaita KOMyHHCTHMKOr pe>KHMa Ha obhm npocTopHMa, h 
6) jaK yTHuaj KaTOJiHMKe iipKBe. 

Tokom Tpajauba nepHOAa KOMyHH3Ma y Ghbuioj JyrocnaBHJH, EyH>eB- 
UH cy ce AeKJiapHcajiH Kao XpBara (npe caera 36or KamnHHKe BepoHcrio- 

BeCTH). 

KaTOJiHMKa upKBa BeKOBHMa je Bpuinjia jaK yrauaj Ha 6yn>eBaHKy eT- 
HHHKy 3ajeflHHLty. IlpeMa peHHMa Ka3HBana, 6orocjiy>KeH>e Ha HKaBHUH 
nocTOJajio je ao noneTKa XX BeKa, aok ce, oa Tor BpeMeHa na ao flanac, 
CJiy>K6a OAp^aBa Ha HJeKaBHi^H. Cbh CBeuiTeHHLjH ce HiKOjryjy y 3arpe6y 
h Ha o^pe^eHH HaHHH nponarHpajy npHnaAHOCT Eyn>eBaua xpBaTCKOM Ha- 
poay. 

y CTpaxy oa acHMHJiauHJe, a y npoueny H3Mel)y AOMHHaHTHHx Ha- 
UHja (cpncKe h Mal)apcKe) h yrauaja qpKBe Koja nponarapa xpBaTCKO no- 
peKjio, ByH>eBu;H kojh ^cejie onyBaTH CBOJe ayTemrHHHO Hapenje, Kyjrrypy 
h ocehaite, noneTKOM AeBeAecerax roAHHa Ha OApel)eHH HaHHH o>KHBJba- 
Bajy CBOJy TpaAHUHOHajiHy KyjiTypy h nyTCM KyjiTypHO-yMeTHHHKHX Apy- 
HiTaBa nuacnpajy CBOJe KyjuypHo Hacjiel)e y Te>KH>H Aa noBpaTe CBOJy 
„H3BopHy u HauHOHajiHy CBecT. Taj cneuH<f)HHaH bha HauHOHanHor 6yl)e- 
H>a, HapoHHTO Ha njiaHy My3HHKor <j)OJiKJiopa, H3y3eTHO je 3aHHMJLHBa no- 
jaBa BpeAHa na^cae. 



My3HKa Kao jeAaH oa (|)aKTopa HauHOHajiHor OApel)eH>a 

My3HKa je, HecyMiLHBO, jeAaH oa 3HanaJHHX 4>aKTopa kojh yTHHy Ha 
Aec[)HHHcaH>e h OHyBaae HauHOHajiHor HAeHTHTeTa. 3a pa3JiHKy oa npo- 
6jieMa ca AeKJiapHcan>eM, EytteBUH ce Bpjio jacHO H3pa^caBajy o cbojoj 
My3HHKOJ, a noceGHO HrpanKOJ TpaAHijHJH. CMaTpajy je cbojhm cneun- 
4>hhhhm Hacjie^eM Koje hx OABaja oa ocTajiHx cthhhkhx rpyna Ha hcthm 
npocTopHMa. 



1 94 CKPMBEHE MAlbMHE HA BAJIKAHY 

y o/iHocy Ha M3Bope H3 JiMTepaType Koja ce 6aBH TpaziMUHOHajiHMM 
My3HHKHM Hacjiel)eM EyH>eBaua, r^c ce Mory HaliH 3a6ejie>KeHC iickc o 06- 
peAHHx necaMa, noivteHH rpOKTajiHua ht^. (Ilphwh 1939, 1971; My6ejiHh 
1956), TepeiicKO HCTpa>KHBaH>e noKa3yje cacBHM apyraMHje CTan>e. Sacry- 
njtena je cneuH^HHHa nojaBa AHCKOHTHHynTeTa Tpa^HUHJe, jep ce CTBa- 
pajiauiTBO Bell ay>Ke BpeMe hc npeHOCM ycMCHHM liyTCM (Hapo^HC nccMe 
npecTajie cy ca aKTHBHHM npeHOuieH>eM jom noneTKOM iipouuior bckh), 
Beh ce H>eroBo npeHouiett»e OABHJa nyxcM 3aiiHca (Ka3HBaHH HHTcpnpeTH- 
pajy BOKajiHO CTBapajiauiTBO H3 iirraMnaHHx M3^aH>a m BepcKMx MOJiHTBe- 
HHKa; HaJ3HanaJHHJa je KH>wra Jla3apa MajiarypcKor: Pisme i igre u narod- 
nim obicajima Backih Bunjevaca, Subotica 1997). TaKof)e, npHcyTHa je 
paHa nojaBa cneuMcfwHiie no^ejie y Tpa/jHUHOHajiHoj MySHHKOJ npaKCH Ha 
H3BO^ane h cjiyuiaoue, rae Hapo/iHy My3HKy H3BOAe HCKJtyHHBo npo<J)ecH- 
OHajiUH. y CKJia^y c thm, o6peflHa BOKajiHa TpaflHijHJa EyH>eBaua Mopa ce 
nocMaTpaTH ca je#Hor iiJHper acneiera, jep y obom cjiynajy TepMHH odped- 
ho 3axTeBa m3bccho npouiHpeH>e. 063HpoM Ha to /ja cy cbh oGnnaJH xpn- 
CTHJaHH30BanM — o6wHaJH ce yna3a$ MHoro roAHHa oGaBJbajy y upKBH 
hjih cy ce ycKO Be3ajiH 3a upKBy (Kpa/buije y Kao jcaan o,o; HaJKapaKTepH- 
cthhhhjhx GytbCBaHKHX oGn^aja Be3ao ce 3a upKBy, KpajLHije cboj onxoA 

nOHMH>y H3 UpKBe) H JX& Ka3HBaMH H3B0AC H3 MOJlHTBCHMKa I1CCMC KOJC CC 

nesajy Ha o^pe^eHe npa3HHi<e, TepMHHOM odpedna eoKCuiua upaKca neon- 
xoxiho je o6yxBaTHTH h upKBeHe necMe. 

ElecMe T3B. 3a6aBHor penepToapa (xoje Hncy BC3aHe 3a roaHuiH>H 
hjih >khbothh uHKJiyc oGnnaja) 3a6ejie>KeHe cy y aajrexo BeheM 6pojy, y3 
o6aBe3HO MCTMuaite Ka3HBa4a ^a ce pa^H o ayTeHTHHHOM 6yn>eBaHK0M 
CTBapajiainTBy. EyayhH Aa 3a6ejie>KeH penepToap cbhachtho npHna^a jca- 

HOM UIHpeM, 3ajeflHHHKOM B0JB0l)aHCK0M My3HHKOM H£HOMy, y TOM CMH- 

cjiy 3aHHMJLHBO je ynpaso nocivtaTpaTH ra ca acneiera ozuioca Eyj&eBaua 
npeMa concTBeHoj My3MHKpj Tpa^HUHJH. nojaBa npHXBaTaH>a Tyl)e Tpa^H- 
ijHJe Kao CBOJe (3a MHore necMe Ka3HBaHH TBp,zje j\& cy ayTeHTHHHO CTBa- 
pajiauiTBO ByibeBaua, HaKO je cbhachtho m OHe to nncy), noKa3yje ji'& 
BytbeBUH HMajy ohhtjicaho Bpjio jaKy, ajin 11a >Ka;iocT nepcajniy cuHKy 
„noce6HOCTH" CBOJe BOKajine TpaflHUHJe. 

Jom jeAHy cneuM(j)HHHOCT Be3aHy 3a OHyBaH»e h „npeHonieH>e" My- 
3HHKor (j)OJiKJiopa kozi ByH>eBaua npeACTaBJba HHCTHTyuHJa KyjiTyp- 
HO-yMeTHHHKHx ApymTaBa, Koja je, hhhh ce, hc caMO KOH3epBaTop BOKaji- 
ne, HHCTpyMeHTajiHe h HrpanKe npaxce, Beh h ruaBHH CTy6 HauHonajiHor 
H^eHTHTeTa EytLesaqa. Je^aH #eo crape oGpe/uic npaKce npeHeccH je y 
Ky/J-OBe, kojh cy npey3ejiH H3B0^eH>e onxo,aa Kpa/but{a h do^fcujantfe 
(cneuH^HHHor oGnnaja cjiaBjteH>a 3aBpuieTKa )KeTBe). 



Ana Xo(j)Man: IIl'OliJIBMH MY3H4KOI' H/ICIITHTETA GyiM-BAHKli IIAUHOHAJIilE ... 195 

y cicna/iy ca cbojcbpciihm nauHonanHMM 6yljeH>eM BJasoM aKTHBHO- 
iii hy KyjiTypno-yMeTHHHKHx ;;pyuiTaBa Koja enHcrapajy Ha noApynjy 3a- 
na^HC Eamce, y nocjieAH>nx TpnuaecT roAHiia npMMehcHa je HOBa npai<ca 
Aa ce, ochm HyBaH>a My3H4Ke h HrpaHKe rpaAHUHJe, twkh Ka ibeHoj cue- 
un(j)H4iioj HaflorpaAftH. HaHMe, y inuty aKTyejiHsauHJe pcnepToapa h Mce- 
jte m ce Tpa^HUHJa na oapefjeHH HaHHH oiict „o>khbh", Kopeorpac})w h ca- 
paaiiHUH npn KY^-OBHMa Kpenpajy jeAHy hocbc H3MeibCHy TpaAHunjy 
Koja ce koa caMHx npHiiaAHHKa 3ajeflHime njiacnpa Kao ayTeHTHHHo 6y- 
n>eBa i iKO CTBapaiiaiiiTBo: 

To cy CBe iiapoaHe nHCMe, n3Bopne h caA bcIi kmsmo nyno obhx necimica 
iijto nHuiy. y CTapa BpeMena to n^e c KOJieira 11a kojiciio, jep mh HMaMo 
cTape flOBCKe nncMe Koje h caA n|y s Koje ce h caa nHBajy, HMaMO h HOBe 
Koje cy nucajiH. (Ka3HBan: Thkbcukh Tcpe3HJa (1944), MajiH BaJMOK, 
9.4.2002) 

y cK;iaAy c npcTxoAiio HaseaeHHM, Ky^-OBH y BehHHH Kpajesa no- 
CTajy jeAHHH „H3Bop" H3 Kor ce CTape necMe h Hrpe, na h oGnnaJH yne. Ta- 
ko je npHMchena h cneuH(})HHHa nojaBa „noBpaTHe peaKunje" (feedback) — 
Aa ce raKO HHTepnpeTHpaHo liapoAiio cxBapajiauiTBo Ha oApeljenH HaHHH 
Bpaha y napoA, oahocho Aa MnorH Ka3HBa i iH h3boac necMe h Hrpe ynpaBO 
nc-A yTHuajeM pcnepToapa KyjnypHO-yMeTHHHKHx apyuiTaBa. 

HapaBHO, penepToap Ky^-oBa o6yxBaTa KaKo AejiOBe TpaAHuno- 
HajiHor My3HHKor Hacjielja, Taxo h ayTopcne necMe HacTane Ha tcmcjlh- 
Ma HapoAHHx npeAJio»:aKa. CBaKH og jsbhhx nacyna jecTe CTpyKTynpan, 
ynH<J)HUHpaH h, na OApel)eHH HaHHH, pHTyajiH30Ban Aora^aj kojh Mopa 
3aAOBOJLHTH jacHO OApel)eHy (j)opMy (UepnGauinh 2003:20). Taxo ce, Ha 
noneTKy CBaKor HacTyna, no npaBHJiy H3BOAe necMe KOMnoHOBaHe y 
Apyroj nonoBHHH XIX Beica, nnja je TeMaTHKa TecHO Be3aHa 3a 6yl)eH>e 
6yH>eBaHKor HaunoHajiHor HAeHTHTeTa, a Koje ce Mory OKapaKTepncaTH 
Kao uaiupuoiucKe. HeonxoAHO je npHTOM Hcrahn Aa obo CTBapajiamTBo 
ByH>eBUH AaHac CMaTpajy jcahhm oa HajapxaHHHHJnx. PaAH HjiycTpaunje 
naBeuiheMO neciwy, Koja ce, ycjiOBHo peneHO, Moace Ha3BaTH 6yH»e- 
BaHKOM xhmhom: 

IloABHKyje 6yibeBaHKa BHJia, 
H3 o6jiaKa paiiiHpHjia KpHJia. 
Oj, Eyi-beBHe, npo6yAH ce caAa, 
CTapeiiiHuo Cy6oTHue rpaAa. 

KaA th bhahiu HHMep oa KacHHe, 
/Jep npoanaBH 6yH>eBatiK0 HMe 
H noxHTH Aa c ynmiiem TaMO, 
Te6e 30By 6paha Beh oAaBHo. 



1 96 CKI'HBEHE MAItHHE HA EAJIKAHY 



MeHe MaTH ynmia nHBaTH, 
llHBaj, cHHe, aa EyH>eBU,H >KHBe, 
HeK naM >khbh Haiua MHjra EaHKa, 

TaM6ypHiia, nwcMa 6yii>eBaHKa. (HcneBana iia oTBapaity 

nynce Kacmie 1878) 

HHCncTHpaH>e Ha yTBpfjeHOM penepToapy npeACTaBjba KpeHpaibe 
OApe^eHe, penpe3eHTaTHBHe KyjiTypHe MaTpnne. Ha Taj HannH, OApefjeibe 
HapoziHe My3Hi<e h aeHO npeACTaBJbaibe BaH rpaHHua BjiacTHTe cpCAnne 
npHna^a HCKJbyHHBO HHCTHTynnJH KY/J-a. IToHMan-e TpaAnnnoHajiHe 
Ky/iType H3 Tor AHCKypca (AHCKypca KY/J-OBa), npe CBera noApa3yMCBa 

HHCHCTHpaH>e Ha KOHUeriUHJH O ayTCHTHMHOM IIOpCKJiy, „CTapHHCKOJ" 

(ciuapoeuHCKoj) KyinrypH, nocBe „H3BOpHoj", iiito npeMa hckhm HCTpa>KH- 
BaHHMa (BayMaH 2001 : 10) He boah i<a >KejbenoM UHJty ocHa>KHBaiba caMO- 
cbojhoctm, je^HHCTBeHOCTH OApeljeHe KyjiType (y obom anynajy h eT- 
HHHKe 3ajeAHHue), Beh, cacBHM cynpoTHo, Kao nooneAnuy HMa ibeHy ca- 
MoreTOH3au,HJy h eTHHUH3aunjy. npH Kpenpaiby penepioapa yrnaBHOM cy 
3aCTyiui.eHH nocTynnn ccjieKTHBHor KopHinheiba cjdojikjiophhx o6pa3aua 
(H36op H3 jiOKajiHe npaKce) hhmc AOJia3H no 0ApeI)eHe yHH(])HnHpaH0CTH 
penepToapa, na cy, BpeMeHOM, th o6pacnn oi<aMCH>eHH h cbcachh Ha cbo- 
jcBpcHe npoTOTHnoBe (ry6jbeibe jioKanHHX KapaKTepHCTHKa). C Apyre 
CTpaHe, penepToapH KY^-OBa 3a caMy cpe^HHy npeACTaBJbajy pacaAHHK 

ayTeilTHHHHX TpaAHUHOHaJIHHX My3H4KHX (J)OpMH. 

IlojaM „H3BopHOCTH", no ce6H Bpjio pcjiaTHBaH, jiaKo Ao6nja ca- 
cbhm pa3JiH4HTa 3HaneH>a. CneiiH^HHHOM npaKCOM H3BO^eH>a caBpeivie- 
hhx (^opMH Koje ce civiaTpajy cxapHM, H3Bol)aHH hx „cnacaBajy oa 
3a6opaBa", npH3HBajy npouiua BpeMena Koja cy no Ae^enHUHJH 6HJia 
HflHJiHHHa. „H3BoI)eH>eM cyBpeMeHHX oojiHKa Koje ce CMaTpa AOMahnM, 
ohh Mory rpaAHTH o6pacu,e y KojnMa ce >Kejie npeno3HaTH h KOJHNia ce 
>Kejie npeflCTaBHTH ApyrHMa. H3Bo!)etbeM cyBpeMeHHX o6jiHKa Koje ce 
CMaTpa xpBaTCKHM, ohh Mory noAynpnjeTH cboj HannoHajiHH hachth- 
TeT" (L[epH6aiiJHh 2003:263). 

TaKof)e, no3HBaH>e Ha HCTOpHJCKH KOHTHHyHTeT CTBapajiamTBa h 
KyjiTypHe caMOCTajiHOCTH h caMOCBOJuocTH 3ajeAHHu,e (npeACTaBJbaibe 
My3HHKor penepToapa Kao „H3BOpHor" h HenpoMeiiJbHBor) HMa 3a nnjb m 
HaraauiaBaibe pa3JiHKe y OAHOcy Ha Apyre h ncranaibe cneu.H(j)HHH0CTH 
concTBeHe KyjiType. TaKO ce HaBeAene nojaBe Mory nocMaTpaTH h c 
acneKTa H3MHiujbeHHX TpaAnnnja. HaHMe, EpHK Xo6c6om y 36opHHKy pa- 
AOBa H3Muuubaihe iupadui^uje, OBe nojaBe Ae(|)HHHLue Kao nocTynKe H3- 
MHuiJban>a TpaAnnnje Koja je KpaTKor Aaxa h necTO HMa 3a u,njb Aa koh- 
CTHTyHiue hjih ycaAH OApefjeHe BpeAHOCTH (Xo6c6om 2002:6). V obom 
cjiynajy, My3HKa ce kophcth y CBpxy H3rpaAH>e, onyBaiba h noTBpAe Ha- 



AH3 XO(})MaH: HPOEJIEMH MY3HHKOr HflEHTHTETA EymEBAHKE hauhoha/ihe ... 1 97 

UHOHajiHor H,aeHTHTeTa, wme ce pa#H Ha o6e36el)HBaH>y JierHTHMHTCTa 
OAperjeHoj TpaAHqHOHajiHoj KyjiTypH h tt-eHoj caMocBOJHocTH. Onnrjie^HO 
je Heonxo^HO fla My3HKa 6y^e HHCTpyMenTajiH30BaHa y Ty CBpxy Ha no- 
neTKy XXI Bena, y TpeHyTKy Ka#a je 6yH>eBaHKa eTHHmca 3aje,nHHua noHO- 
bo Ha nyxy Tpa>KeiBa cBor H3ry6jbeHor nopeKna. 



JTHxepaTypa 

AHTyHOBHh 1 882: PlBan AHTyHOBHh, Pasupaea o uodyuaecrcux u UoiuucaucKux Bytbee- 
uux u UIoKijux y uoznedy uapodnoM, ejepcKOM, ymuou, zpahaucKOM u eociio- 
dapcKOM, Ben. 

Baumann 200 1 : Max Peter Baumann, Festivals, Musical Actors and Mental Constructs 
in the Process of Globalization, The World of Music 43, 2-3, 9-29. 

flejiopKO 1964: Ojihhko .ZJejiopKO, Hapodue eucKe ujecAte, 3arpe6. 

EpflejtaHOBHh 1930: JoBaH EpflcrtaHOBnh, O uopemy Eyibeeaua, Cpncxa KpajteBCKa 
aKaacMHJa, kh>. LXXIX, ®hjio30(})ckm h fyamnamm enHcn, kh>.19, Beorpa^. 

HBaiiHh 1 899: HBaH HBaHHh, Byweetfu u WoKifu, uciuopujcKo-eumozpcKpCKapacupa- 
ea, 3, Eeorpajj. 

KyjyuuHh 1969: HBaH Kyjymjah, EyitcBaHKo-ujoKaHKa 6H6jiHorpad)HJa, Pad JA3V 
335, 3arpe6, 667-769. 

riphuh 1938: HBe TTphnh, „riyHKa KacHHa" y nponiJiocTH h caziamiiocTH, Knacje ua- 
xuuxpaeuu IV, 6p. 5, Cy6oTHna, 9-1 1. 

ITphnh 1939: HBe nphnh, EyibeeanKe napodne uuCAte, Cy6oTHua. 
nphnh 1971: HBe rtphnh, Eyweeawe Hapodue uucMe, Cy6oTHira. 

nphnh 1927: KaTa nphnh, CBaaSeHH o6nHaJH koa cyGoTHHKHx ByibeBaua npn Kpajy 
XIX BHKa, Khbuotceeuu ceeep III/3-4, Cy6oTHU,a, 167-173. 

nphnh 1 930: KaTa nphnh, Oapn 6o>KHhHH o6HHajn KO,a cy6othhkhx ByaeBaua, Kmi- 
otceeuu ceeep VI/6-7, Cy6oraua, 203-212. 

CeKyjinh 1 99 1 : Ahtc CcKyjinh, EaMKuXpeaiuu (napoduu otcueom u o6maju), Jyrocjio- 
BencKa aKaaeMHJa 3HaHOCTH h yMJeTHOCTH, 3arpe6. 

CeKyjiHh 1980: Aim CeKyjinh, CBa.u6eHH o6nHaJH 6amcHx ByiteBaua, 36opuuK3a ua- 
poduu oicueoxu u oGunajejyoicuux Cnaeeua 48, 3arpe6, 141-168. 

OHjranoBHh 1965: MnjieHKO C. OnjiHnoBHh, O HMeHy EyiLeBUH, 36opuuK sa dpy- 
wmeeue uayKe Maiuuife cpucKe 40, Hobh Cafl, 158-166. 

OmiHnoBHh 1962: Mhjichko C. <J>HJiHnoBHh, Pa3JiHHHTa eTHOJiouiKa rpafia H3 Bojbo- 
Ahhc, IJpuno3u u zpafya eojeofyaucKux My3eja 1, Hobh Cazi. 

OyKO 1 998 : Mhihcji OyKO, Apxeonozuja suana, EH6jiHOTeica «H A TP Ary », Eeorpaa. 

Xo6c6om 2002: EpHK Xo6c6om, Tepene PeJHuep, H3Muuubau>e ulpaduijuje, Bh6jiho- 
TeKa XX BeK, Beorpaa. 

Hencjinh 1914: MHJiKoHenejiHri,TpHaaHaMeflEyH,eBUHMaHLlIoKUHMa, CydoiuuHKa 
JJaHuifa 3a J 914, Cy6oTHua, 55-74. 

UepH6auiHh 2003: Hanjia HepH6aiuHn, XpeaiucKo, ce/banKo, ciuapuucKO u douahe 
{uoeujectu u eiuHozpacpujajaeue upaxce uapodue zna36e y XpeaiucKoj), Eh6ho- 
Teica HoBa eTHorac^nja, 3arpe6. 

l Iy6ejiHh 1956: Tbptko Hy6ejiHh, JIupcKe uapodue ujecMe, 3arpe6. 



198 CKPMBEHE MAlbfttiE tIA EAJIKAIIY 



Ana Ilofman 

The Problem of Musical Identity of Bunjevci National Community 

in West Backa Region 



Although Bunjevci national community has problems in stating its national identity, the 
mombers of the community express very clearly their musical and dancing tradition, depicting it 
as their specific heritage, which distinguishes them from other ethnical groups. The problem of 
national identity (and its manipulation) led to the fact that our field research was influenced by 
political-ideological factors. 

The problem of tradition discontinuation was caused by the cease of transmitting oral 
tradition and by the early division into performers and audience, where the traditional music was 
performed by professionals. This is the main reason why FCC (Folk Creation Centre) took over 
the conservation and transmission of Bunjevci traditional heritage. So the FCC in many areas 
became the basic "source" for learning old songs and dances, as well as for making costumes. 
There was immediate feedback: a lot of amateur performers started to sing and dance under the 
influence of FCC repertoire. 



Marija Vuckovic 



KAJKAVCI U BANATU: LINGVISTICKA SITUACIJA 

I POLNA DIFERENCIJACUA 1 



Manjina u okviru manjine 

Jezik i poreklo predstavljaju okosnicu lokalnog identiteta ove zajed- 
nice i diferenciraju je od ostalih grupa inace heterogene etnicke skupine 

Hrvata u Banatu i u drugim oblastima Vojvodine. 2 tome svedoci i iskaz 
informatora: 

Pazi, mi smo kajkavci i zapamti: na mlogo mesta mi kazemo kaj, kaj delas, 
kaj radis, kam ides, vek upotrebljavamo rec kaj, jer mi smo kajkavci, mi ni- 
smo Sokci, a Titel, Perlez, to su Sokci, a Bacvanini oni su mliko, a mi smo 
mleko. Da, da, e to ima kaj. (z., 1914, Boka)3 

Naucno a i sire interesovanje za banatske kajkavce javljalo se perio- 
dicno i rezultovalo je radovima i prilozima koji, pored arhivskog materija- 
la, omogucavaju dijahronijsku perspektivu u izucavanju ove etnolingvi- 
sticke grape. 4 



1 Rad je rezultat projekta „Etnolingvisticka i sociolingvisticka istrazivanja izbeglica 
i multietnickih zajednica na Balkanu" koji pod brojcm 2167 finansira Ministarstvo zanau- 
kui zastitu zivotne sredine Srbije. 

2 O Hrvatima u Banatu up. Mcssner-Sporsic 1931:161-162; Brabcc 1972. Etnicko 
odredenjc ovih zajednica u velikoj meri varira izmedu ostalog i u zavisnosti od etnicke pri- 
padnosti autora koji pisu o tome. Up. rad M. Radana i A. Hofman u ovom zborniku. 

3 O informatorima su navedcni podaci o polu, godini rodenja i mestu stanovanja. 

4 Izmedu dva svetska rata nastao je dragoceni prikaz o proslosti i tada aktuelnom 
stanju kajkavaca u sva cetiri naselja u Banatu (Messner-Sporsic 1931). Drugi prilozi iz 
ovog perioda su manji ili se samo delom ticu banatskih kajkavaca, up. Vlasic 1928 (citira- 
no prema Krpan 1983:165); Jarnh 1929; Messner-Sporsic 1934 (o Keci); za clanke u stam- 
pi v. Krpan 1983:166, 184-185. Zatim se 70-ih i 80-ih godina 20. veka javljaju radovi u 
kojima se ukazuje, izmedu ostalog, na glavne jezicke karakteristike ove zajednice (Brabec 



200 CKMBEHE MAIbHIIE HA Ea/IKAHY 

Statusne karakteristike 5 

Cinioci koji su oblikovali etnicki i jezicki identitet ove manjinske 
zajednice visestruki su i podlozni prorncni tokom vremena. 

Drustvenoistorijski status: Pored jezika, porcklo je drugi konstitutiv- 
ni clement identiteta ove hrvatske zajednice. Krajem 18. i pocetkom 19. 
veka predijalci iz donjeg Pokuplja (juzno od Zagrcba), podlozni zagre- 
backom biskupu, preseljeni su na novc poscdc u Banatu koje je njihov se- 
nior dobio kao naknadu za oduzeta mu dobra u Pokuplju prikljucena Voj- 
noj krajini. Kako nisu bili obicni kolonisti, imali su i poseban drustve- 
no-pravni status sitnih plemica. 6 Doseljavanje je vazan topos njihovog ko- 
lektivnog pamcenja, a svest o poreklu i njegova pozitivna simbolicka 
vrednost ocituju se kod pojedinaca u sacuvanim rodoslovima, dokumenti- 
ma iz perioda doseljavanja i interesovanju za pretke. 7 Izgleda da je jednim 
delom njihova predaja oblikovana i na osnovu pisanih izvora, pre svega 
Sporsicevog rada. 8 

Ovaj tip statusa objektivno je odreden i drustveno-politickim prome- 
nama koje su rezultat dogadaja 1848, smena drzava i politickih uredenja i 
s tim u vezi promene etnickih, socijalnih pa i sociolingvistickih obelezja 
okruzenja. 

Ekonomski polozaj: Vremenom dolazi do znacajnijeg ekonomskog 
raslojavanja (Messner-Sporsic 1931:181), ali glavno zanimanje sve do po- 
cetka 50-ih (pa i kasnije) ostaje poljoprivreda (Krpan 1983:62). 



1972:258; id. 1982:77) i na onomasticku gradu iz Kecc (Tomic 1984-85; id. 1984; id. 
1985; id. 1986). Detaljnije podatke donosi monografija o Hrvatima u Keci (Krpan 1983), a 
nesto grade moze se naci u prilozima za monografiju o Radojevu (OapaiiOB 1981). Etnolo- 
ska istrazivanja zivotnog ciklusa zajednice kajkavaca u Banatu (sem Radojeva) obavljala 
je mr Vcsna Marjanovic u periodu od 1985. do 1987. i kasnije 1993/94. Zatim su tokom 
2000. godine sprovedena socio- i etnolingvisticka istrazivanja u sclima u vojvodanskom 
Banatu. U istrazivanjima su ucestvovale dr Biljana Sikimic, mr Maja Dokic, Marija llic i 
Marija Vuckovic. Neke preliminarne rezultate sadrze radovi Vuckovic 2000; id. 2001. 
Upravo je objavljena opsezna monografija o sclu Boka koja donosi podatke i o ovoj hrvat- 
skoj zajednici (BenaHCKH 2003). 

5 Status, demografija i institucionalna podrska su, prcma Gilcsu ct al. 1972:308-318, 
tri bitna faktora koji uticu na stepen vitalnosti nckc etnolingvisticke zajednice. 

6 O pojedinostima vezanim za doseljavanje i drustveno-pravni polozaj v. Mes- 
sner-Sporsic 1931:165-171, 173-175; Krpan 1983:19-20,23-33. 

7 Kod autora je kopija pisma iz 1986. u kojem je rec o distribuciji knjiga medu sta- 
novnicima Boke, a na osnovu konteksta se mozc zakljuciti da su u pitanju Sporsicev rad i 
Krpanova knjiga. 

8 O potrebi razlikovanja kolektivnog pamcenja koje potice „odozdo" i onog koje 
dolazi „odozgo" v. Bell 2003:74-75. 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvistiCka situacua i polna ... 



201 



Socijalni polozaj: O socijalnom statusu koji su imali posle doseljava- 
nja vec jc bilo reci, a danas ova zajednica nema poseban drustveno-eko- 
nomski polozaj. 

Status jezika: Maternji idiom ove etnicke grupe i u matici ima status 
nestandardizovanog idioma (mada je u proslosti bio jezik knjizevnosti), po- 
sto savremeni knjizevni jezik u Hrvatskoj od sredine 19. veka ima stokav- 
sku bazu. Problem institucionalne podrske (npr. skolovanje na materajem 
jeziku) u ovakvim slucajevima vec je uocen kod hrvatske manjine u Madar- 
skoj (Grbic 1995:1 19-120). Sto se tice subjektivnog stava clanova ove etno- 
lingvisticke zajednice, postoji generacijska razlika. Dok su stariji svesni za- 
sebnog identiteta ovog idioma i smatraju ga jednim od najznacajnijih kon- 
stituenata svog grupnog identiteta, najmladi ga dozivljavaju kao nestandard- 
nu jezicku realizaciju i cesto normativno reaguju kada ga cuju od starijih 9 : 

Mene deca ispravljadu, unucad: Majka, kak to divanis, majka, nemoj tak, a 
ja ne mogu da zaboravim jos svoj jezik. (z., 1931, Boka) 



Demografska obelezja 

Distribucija grupe: Vazan faktor koji odreduje vitalnost jedne etnolin- 
gvisticke grupe je njena teritorija. U ovoj tacki se preklapaju socioistorijski 
i demografski kriterijumi. Bitni momenti su iseljavanje sa maticne teritorije 
pocetkom 19. veka i dogadaji koji su nastupili posle Prvog svetskog rata: 
promena drzavnog okvira i razgranicavaje izmedu Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i 
Slovenaca i Rumunije 1924. kada je Keca pripala Rumuniji. Naselja kajka- 
vaca u Banatu nasla su se u razlicitim drzavama, sto se lose odrazilo na nji- 
hove dotad intenzivne veze.'O Na jezickom planu dolazi do bifurkacije, ra- 
cvanja dotle jedinstvenih sociolingvistickih tendencija sa razlikama medu 
naseljima koje su do tada bile samo u intenzitetu promena. 

Sto se tice koncentracije grupe, Hrvati su naseljeni u Boki i Neuzini 
(koje su medusobno udaljene 12 km), istocno od Zrenjanina, i severnije, 
30 km zapadno od Temisvara, u susednim selima Keci i Radojevu, nekada 
Klariji. Kasnije su se neke porodice iz Kece i Klarije preselile u Cenej kod 
Kece. Sve zajednice u ovim ruralnim multietnickim naseljima 11 bile su 

9 Isti jc odnos prcma srpskom kod najmladih generacija batanjskih Srba u Madar- 
skoj, up. naEuiOBHh 1997:106. 

10 Vcze sa Kecom bile su od tada otezane (Mcssner-Sporsic 1931:192, 193; Krpan 
1983:170-171). Kohezija se inace ostvarivala putcm unutargrupnih migracija do kojih je 
dolazilo prilikom sklapanja brakova i preseljavanja pojcdninih porodica (Messner-Sporsic 
1931:182, 187, 192; Krpan 1983:36-37, 177). 

1 ' U Boki zive ili su ziveli Srbi, Madari, Hrvati, Nemci, Jevreji, Romi, Rumuni, Bu- 
gari, Rusi i kolonisti iz Hercegovine i sa Kosova (BenaHCKH 2003:192). 



202 



CKPHBEHE MAII.W1E HA BAJIKAIiy 



koncentrisane u posebnim cetvrtima (Messner-Sporsic 1931:173-174; Kr- 
pan 1983:12), sto je pojacavalo koheziju grupe, ali je narusavanje prostor- 
ne separacije zabelezeno 20-ih godina proslog veka (Messner-Sporsic 
1931:182, 205). Proporcionalno, u svim naseljima Hrvati su manjinsko 
stanovnistvo. 

Nema tacnih podataka koliko je kajkavaca doseljeno, ali se njihov 
broj grubo procenjuje na oko 1000 (Messner-Sporsic 1931:171). Krajem 
20-ih godina 20. veka bilo ih je u Keci priblizno 400 (11, 4% ukupne po- 
pulacije), u Klariji oko 400 (10%, vecinu su cinili Srbi), u Boki do 700 
(21%, Srba je bilo 36%, ostalo Madari i Nemci), u Neuzini oko 200 (10%, 
Nemaca i Madara 50%, Srba 40%). 12 Pocctkom 90-ih hrvatska zajednica u 
vojvodanskom Banatu brojala je 134 clana, a 1 1 godina kasnije popisano 
ih je 106. Treba naglasiti da ovi podaci nisu sasvim precizni posto su nji- 
ma obuhvacene samo maticne zajednice, ne i osobe koje su nastanjene u 
Zrenjaninu, Novom Sadu, Pancevu i drugde. 

Demografski podaci 13 o populaciji kajkavaca posle Drugog svetskog 
rata dati su u tabeli: 





ukupno 


Boka 


Neuzina 


Radojevo 


Keca 


1953. 


533 


339 


12% 


90 


3.5% 


104 


3.6% 






1978. 
















125 


7% 


1991. 


134 


103 


5.2% 


18 


1 .2% 


13 


0.8% 






2002. 


106 


83 


4.8% 


13 


1% 


10 


0.8% 







Etnodemografski pregled ukazuje na izrazitu depopulaciju ove hr- 

vatske zajednice u poslednjih 80 godina. 14 I inace broj njenih pripadnika 

nikada se nije znacajno povecao u odnosu na broj doseljenih. Jedan od 

uzroka je bio nizak natalitet, namerno ogranicavan iz ekonomskih razloga 

(Messner-Sporsic 1931:187), zatim migracije (npr. u Ameriku, v. id. 207), 

a posle Drugog svetskog rata usled deagrarizacije i industry alizacije dola- 

zi do intenzivnijeg kretanja stanovnistva iz sela u grad (up. i BenaHCKH 
2003:195).i5 



12 Messner-Sporsic 1931 passim. 

13 Podaci za Boku, Neuzinu i Radojevo su iz Popisa stanovnistva 1953, 1991. i 
2002, za podatke iz Kece v. Krpan 1983:12. 

14 Trend depopulacije vazi i za ostale Hrvate u Vojvodini (v. Golubovic/Marko- 
vic-Krstic 2002:40). 

15 O etnodemografskoj situaciji u Keci i njenim posebnostima v. Krpan 
1983:173-181. 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvisticka situacija i polna ... 203 



Bracne karakteristike, pre svega odnos izmedu endogamnih i egzo- 
gamnih brakova i s tim u vezi naglascnost endogamnog oprcdeljenja, bit- 
no uticu na manjinske etnolingvisticke zajednice. Pocetnu endogamiju 
smcnjuje blaza konfesionalna endogamija, a tek posle Drugog svetskog ra- 
ta (od 1960) moze se govoriti o pravoj egzogamiji. 16 Kako jedan informa- 
tor kaze: 

Po oslobodenju jc pocelo da ide mesavina. (m., 1919, Zrenjanin 



Institucionalna podrska 

Veze ovih kajkavaca sa maticom poklapaju se sa periodima kada su 
ulazili u fokus naucnih istrazivanja. To su, dakle, kraj 20-ih, 30-e i 70-e 
godine proslog veka. 

Hrvati su bili organizovali manje ili vise formalne institucije u okvi- 
ru svoje zajednice kao sto su skola, 17 crkva, opstina, citaonica, razna dru- 
stva, kafane, 18 ali one pocinju polako da nestaju izmedu dva svetska rata. 
Odnos prema crkvi je bio ambivalentan: katolicka konfesionalna pripad- 
nost je vazan clement identiteta ove zajednice: 

Ondak jos smo sve po rvatski. J puno smo mi isli u crkvu... [o sinu] I de- 
klamovo i recitovo u crkvu i doceko biskupa i sve, pricestio, bermao i 
sve... I uvck smo bili Hrvati samo... (z., 1932, Boka) 

Medutim, crkvena sluzba se cesto sprovodila i sprovodi na madar- 
skom jeziku. To jedna informatorka komentarise na sledeci nacin: 

[o svesteniku] Sad jc ovaj Madar, mi naseg Orvata nemamo. Proslo je sve. 

[o crkvenoj sluzbi] Ovi su Madari nas preobratili i sad nismo vise nista... 
Idcmo u crkvu ja,ja, sad ja nisam tako cesta, sad ja idem otkad je moj deda 
umro u crkvu jel na... Moja Mila, Petra, ona Tomina, ona Bugarkinja, Katu- 
ska Imbriceva, eto. Nema vise, nema ko, mora da precita ovu litaniju, znas, 
litaniju, mora da precita, a ovo drugo nista, niti ni kaze, samo sad ako platis 
sluzbu, sad kad sam ja platila za mojega dedu sluzbu i za mojega Gabrica, 
ja sam njemu rckla, morala sam da platim sto dinara, je 1'. Ali ja sam tela 
da platim i za sina i za muza. 1 ondak je tio, mora da ti, mora da ti orvatski, 
orvatski, a ovako nemas nista. (z., 1914, Boka) 



16 Up. Jarafi 1929: 35; Messner-Sporsic 1931:187, 205, 207; BenaHCKH 2003:193. 
Za vezu izmedu egzogamije i sekularizacijc v. Voas 2003. 

17 Up. BenaHCKH 2003:193. 

18 Zasebne institucije, prostorna separacija u okviru naselja, stabilne etnicke grani- 
ce, narocito ako su bile poduprte konfesionalnim razlikama, karakterisali su, do Drugog 
svetskog rata, i zivot manjinske srpske zajednice u Batanji (Madarska), v. o tome riaBJio- 
BHh 1997:104-106. 



204 Ckpmbeiie mah>hhe ha Eajikahv 

► 

Jezicka situacija 

Generalna tendencija gubljenja materajeg idioma u korist dominant- 
nog idioma u okruzenju uocena je i pre vise od 80 godina. Medutim, po- 
stojale su lokalne razlike izmedu pomenuta cetiri naselja koje se odnose 
na uzroke i brzinu jezicke asimilacije. 19 Tokom 19. veka do Prvog svet- 
skog rata, drustveni uspon pojedinaca, sticanje viseg obrazovanja i s tim u 
vezi napustanje maticne zajednice dovodili su do madarizacije, odnosno 
do zamene ideniteta, ciji je sastavni konstituent bio i jezik, socijalno pre- 
stiznijim. 20 

Danas, u pogledu kompetencije i upotrebe kajkavskog postoje nagla- 
sene generacijske razlike, 21 a istrazivanje je pokazalo da Drugi svetski rat 
predstavlja prelomnu granicu. 22 Lingvisticku situaciju generacija rodenih 
pre Drugog svetskog rata u Boki karakterise asimetricni bilingvizam (vrlo 
cesto, zapravo, multilingvizam), tj. upotreba materajeg jezika i jezika 
okruzenja (srpskog u dijalekatskoj, kod obrazovanijih i u standardnoj rea- 
lizaciji), konvergencija kajkavskog prema srpskom i njihova funkcionalna 
specijalizacija 23 . Maternji idiom je rezervisan za privatnu intragrupnu ko- 
munikaciju u okviru iste generacije (u porodici, sa rodacima i susedima 
kajkavcima), dok se idiom okruzenja koristi u javnoj ili intergrupnoj inter- 
akciji. 24 U porodici, medutim, dolazi do medugeneracijskog diskontinuite- 



19 „Hrvati u Keci jos i danas govore kajkavski, osobito sve zene i stariji muskarci, dok 
su mladi muskarci narocito poslije prevrata poceli poprimati dosta od stokavstine prema srp- 
skom izgovoru pod utjecajem srpskih vojnika, koji su neko vrijeme bili u Keci ... Cini se, da 
ce po vremenu ipak nestati kajkavstine, jcr nema vise kajkavskih knjiga, a u Keci i oko nje zi- 
vu pretezno Srbi (od naseg naime naroda) i svuda se cuje stokavski govor" (Messner-Sporsic 
1931:188); u Klariji: „Donedavna su imali svoju vlastitu hrvatsku opcinu i skolu, ali su ih radi 
materijalnih teskoca napustili i spojili se u opcinu i skolu sa Srbima, pa s njima u zajednici gu- 
be jos vise svoje predasnje obiljezje i kajkavsko narjecje te primaju od svih Hrvata plemi- 
ca-predijalaca najvecma stokavstinu s vojvodansko-srpskim ekavskim izgovorom" (id. 
193-194); u Boki: „U govoru ima jos dosta kajkavstine, narocito u starijih ljudi i zena. Ali ona 
opceno nestaje na korist stokavske ekavstine, osobito u mladoj generaciji..." (id. 205). 

20 Up. Messner-Sporsic 1931:187, 191; Krpan 1983:180. 

21 Generacijski uslovljene razlike u upotrebi domaceg idioma primecuje i Mes- 
sner-Sporsic 1931, v. napomenu 18. 

22 Posle Drugog svetskog rata bivaju izrazitiji neki ranije pomenuti demografski 
trendovi kao sto su npr. egzogamija, migracije selo — grad, promena strukture zanimanja. 

23 O sociolingvistickim pojavama kao sto su interferencija, akomodacija, tematska 
specijalizacija, promena koda u citatima v. Vuckovic 2000:265-267. 

24 Funkcionalno suzavanje upotrebe kajkavskog registruju jos Jarah 1929:35 („Sa- 
mo izmedu sebe upotrebljavaju svoje karakteristicno 'kaj'") i Messner-Sporsic 1931:205 
(„Kajkavstina se gubi i radi toga, sto njom govore samo medusobno i kod kuce, a inace go- 
vore c po knjiski'"). 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvisticka situacija i polna ... 205 

ta: stariji informatori isticu da kajkavski gotovo nikad ne koriste u razgo- 
voru sa unucima. 

Kod govornika rodenih posle Drugog svetskog rata kajkavski je 
uglavnom sveden na pasivno znanje 25 ((pre)poznavanje odredenih lekse- 
ma i ustaljenih izraza) 26 bez uoccnih razlika zasnovanih na polu informa- 
tora. Samo je jedna informatorka, rodena 1956. u endogamnoj porodici, 
rekla da koristi kajkavski kada razgovara sa roditeljima. 

U Neuzini i Radojevu populacija Hrvata kajkavaca broji svega nekoliko 
clanova te je u tim mestima kajkavski zapravo iscezao iz aktivne upotrebe: 

Hrvata sad u Neuzini pa ima jedna stara porodica, baba i deda, u stvari baba 
je Madarica, sve je to vec pomesano, onda ima tu preko male- stariji od me- 
ne mozda tri godine Joza Berkovic, zena mu isto Srpkinja, i ja i brat. Nismo 
ni mi cisti, majka nam je bila Madarica, (A otac?) a otac je Hrvat... Nema 
sad s kirn da govorim, razumes, nema nas troj ica-cetvorica i mi smo sad 
uhodani na srpski. (m., 1948, Neuzina) 27 

Slicna je tendencija i u Boki o kojoj je malopre bilo reci: 

I oni mi svi kazu: Boze, kao si mogla vise onako sa se posrbis? Pa nemas 
ovde s kim pricati. (z., 1932, Boka) 

Sociolingvisticka situacija u Keci nesto je kompleksnija i reflektuje 
drugacije drustvene okolnosti nastale pripajanjem ovog sela Rumuniji 
1924. godine: i tu su zapazene generacijske razlike, funkcionalna specija- 
lizacija, unutargeneracijska komunikacija mladih na rumunskom „i u ke- 
canskom kajkavskom govoru prisutni su utjecaji banatske stokavstine, ali 
u nesto manjem opsegu, a zapaza se i svojevrsna tendencija vlastitog kon- 
zerviranja, uz povecanu prisutnost rumunjskog utjecaja u leksiku" (Krpan 
1983:137-138). 

S obzirom na to da ova zajednica Hrvata kajkavaca zivi u multiet- 
nickoj i multilingvalnoj sredini njihov jezicki repertoar ukljucuje i druge 
jezike: madarski, nemacki, rumunski, bugarski i slovacki (u individualnim 
slucajevima i druge jezike). Za svaki od ovih jezika mogu se definisati 
razliciti, dijahrono promenljivi parametri koji se ticu drustvenog statusa, 

25 Na povlaccnje kajkavskog kod mlade populacije uticali su i faktori koji dovode 
do unifikacije jezika i iscezavanja dijalekata, sto kajkavski danas jeste, pod uticajem stan- 
dardnog jezika. 

26 U pitanju su, u slucaju informatora iz Neuzine, rodenog 1948. u mesovitom bra- 
ku, reci iz sledecih tematskih grupa: kuca i pokucstvo, rodbinska terminologija, domace zi- 
votinje, dani u nedelji i si. 

27 Tako su se ostvarila pesimisticka predvidanja iz 30-ih godina 20. veka vezana 
za demografsku i jezicku perspektivu Hrvata u ova dva mesta, v. Messner-Sporsic 
1931:193-194, 206. 



206 Ckphbehe mah>miie ha Eajikahy 

upotrebe, nacina ucenja, velicine odgovarajuce etnolingvisticke grupe i 
aktuelnosti. Kod starije populacije prevashodno je zastupljena prirodna vi- 
sejezicnost 28 proistekla iz etnolingvisticki nehomogenog okruzenja, a je- 
zicka kompetencija stecena putcm formalne nastave ostaje u okvirima po- 
menutog registra jezika. 29 

Kako su procesi koji odreduju lingvisticki karakter ove zajednice vi- 
sestruki i kako su dijahrono promenljivi, govorno ponasanje njenih clano- 
va je dinamicna i kompleksna pojava koju karakterisu primetne individu- 
alne varijacije u pogledu znanja i upotrebe kajkavskog, ali i drugih jezika, 
uslovljene skupom faktora kao sto su pol, etnicka struktura (homogena / 
heterogena) primarne i sekundame porodice, mesto stanovanja (maticna 
ruralna / urbana sredina) i obrazovanje. 

Ovom prilikom bice podrobnije razmotrena polna diferencijacija u 
kompetenciji i upotrebi kako maternjeg idioma, tako i dominantnog idioma 
sireg drustvenog okruzenja, ali i drugih pomenutih jezika, koja je uocena 
kod starije generacije pripadnika ove manjnske zajednice. Ovaj faktor ne 
moze biti apstrahovan od ostalih koji imaju znacajan uticaj na to u kojoj 
meri ce cinilac pola oblikovati govorno ponasanje nekog pojedinca. 



Teorijski okvir 

Koncept socijalne mreze (social network) pokazao se pogodan kako 
za proucavanje lingvistickih razlika zasnovanih na polu (Coates 1986:91) 
tako i jezicke situacije u malim ruralnim zajednicama (Maher 1996:400). 
Bitne karakteristike drustvenih mreza su: zatvorenost (svi clanovi se po- 
znaju) — otvorenost (svi clanovi se medusobno ne poznaju) i viscstruka 
povezanost izmedu clanova (npr. kada je jedna osoba rodak i sused) — po- 

v 

vezanost po samo jednoj osnovi (Coates 1986:79-80). Cinioci koji oboga- 
cuju socijalne veze su u osnovi svuda isti: srodstvo, blizina (susedstvo), 
zanimanje (radno mesto), i prijateljstvo (dobrovoljna udruzivanja) (Cham- 
bers 1995:75). Ocigledno je da cvrsto povezana struktura mreze predsta- 
vlja vazan mehanizam jezickog odrzanja, jer sto su tesnje veze pojedinca 
sa lokalnom zajednicom, to je njegov jezik blizi normi lokalnog idioma 
(id. 67; Coates 1986:91; Maher 1996:396). Za tradicionalne, ruralne zajed- 
nice karakteristicna je mreza sa tesnim i visestrukim vezama medu njenim 
pripadnicima, dok socijalno mobilna i visoko razvijena drustva odlikuju 
drustvene veze slabog intenziteta (Coates 1986:79-80). Mobilnost grupe i 



28 Termin preuzet od Skutnab-Kangas 1991:115-116. 

29 Vise o visejezicnosti pripadnika ove etnolingvisticke enklave v. Vuckovic 2001. 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvistiCka situacija i polna ... 207 

pojedinca, socijalna i spacijalna, predstavlja vazan faktor koji utice na so- 
ciolingvisticke obrasce (Chambers 1995:126). 

U svetlu ovih postavki, odrzanje ove male zajednice moglo bi se ob- 
jasniti time sto je medu njenim clanovima postojala intenzivna teritorijal- 
no zasnovana socijalna mreza koja je runkcionisala kao konzervativna 
snaga (up. Maher 1996:396). Na gustinu veza uticali su struktura naselja 
(ruralna sredina, koncentracija naselja na malom prostoru, separacija u 
okviru naselja), zanimanje (poljoprivreda), endogamija i zasebne instituci- 
je (skola, opstina, drustva). S druge strane, otvaranje ovih drustvenih 
struktura i intenziviranje kontakata narocito sa clanovima onih etnolingvi- 
stickih zajednica koje su u datom trenutku demografski, ekonomski i poli- 
ticki dominantnije (ostvareno kroz migracije i uopste vecu mobilnost, 
obrazovanje, sirenje spektra zanimanja, egzogamiju, ukidanje zasebnih in- 
stirucija) podsticalo je proces asimilacije. 

Matemji idiom i polna diferencijacija 

^ Vec u literaturi s pocetka 20. veka sadrzani su podaci koji ukazuju 
na lingvisticko raslojavanje po polnoj osnovi, pored generacijskog: „... u 
govoru se vrlo malo razlikuju od susednih Srba, narocito muskarci" (Ja- 
rah 1929:35); „Hrvati u Keci jos i danas govore kajkavski, osobito sve 
zene i stariji muskarci..." (Messner-Sporsic 1931:188); kod bokinskih Hr- 
vata: „U govoru ima jos dosta kajkavstine, narocito u starijih ljudi i zena" 
(id. 205). To potvrduju i zapazanja informatora: 

I kad sem dosla, moja svekrva divanila o r vatski, i ondak nas dve smo diva- 
nile rvatski, a svek e r divanil srpski, el je on zivel na srpski krai. (z., 1931 
Boka) 

Drugi informator, Madarica (1932, Boka) udata za Hrvata, o tome 
kaze: 

Samo smo hrvatski pripovedali... Jel posto moja svekrva, ona nije drukcije 
pripovedala, samo hrvatski. 

V 

Zene su se u jezickom pogledu pokazale kao konzervativnije od mu- 
skaraca, sto je dobro poznato i u metodologiji nasih dijalektoloskih istrazi- 
vanja. U osnovi ove diferencijacije lezi cinjenica da su u tradicionalnim za- 
jednicama polarizovane polne uloge sa razgranicenim muskim i zenskim 
aktivnostima (Coates 1986:80; Chambers 1995:123) sto se reflektuje i na 
razlike u spacijalnoj i drustvenoj pokretljivosti izmedu polova (Chambers 
1995:124): „Dok su muski clanovi.. . boravili dijelom kod svojih kuca a di- 
jelom na salasima-odajama, dotle je zenski svijet rijetko napustao kucu i se- 
lo. Zene su bile zabavljene kucnim poslovima, te radovima u vrtu..." (Kr- 



208 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



pan 1983:54-55). Vecoj mobilnosti muskih clanova zajednice doprinosili su 
i sluzenje vojske, zanimanje van poljoprivrede (zanat, trgovina), skolovanje 
van mesta porekla i si. 30 Kako je vecina socijalnih kontakata zena bila intra- 
grupnog karaktera, one su se u komunikaciji najcesce sluzile maternjim idi- 
omom, sto je rezultiralo njihovom boljom kompetencijom. 



Jezicka praksa u mesovitim brakovima 

Jezicko ponasanje zena, za razliku od muskaraca, bilo je odredeno i 
etnickom strukturom njihove sekundarne porodice. Ukoliko su bracni part- 
neri bili iz razlicitih etnickih i jezickih zajednica, u brakovima koji su poci- 
vali na tradicionalnim odnosima, posebno u ruralnoj sredini, na jezickom 
planu, zenino uklapanje u novu porodicu podrazumevalo je prihvatanje i 
usvajanje jezika sekundarne porodice. Zena je stupanjem u mesoviti brak 
ulazila u jednu, narocito za zene, zatvorenu drustvenu strukturu druse et- 
nicke zajednice. Cinjenica da je vecina njenih socijalnih odnosa bila, kao 
sto smo rekli, unutargrupnog karaktera, s tim sto je ovog puta u pitanju no- 
va grupa u koju je stupala udajom, primoravala ju je da nauci i koristi jezik 
te grupe. To je uticalo i na oblikovanje jezickog i etnickog identiteta dece iz 
mesovitih brakova. Tako je, na primer, samo jedan informator naveo da zna 
bugarski, iako su u vise slucajeva majke informatora bile Bugarke. Informa- 
torka (1930, Boka) koja potice iz braka Hrvata i Bugarke istice da se u kuci 
govorio hrvatski i da ona nije naucila bugarski posto njena majka nije upo- 
trebljavala svoj maternji jezik. Njenom udajom za Srbina, situacija se pono- 
vila: u porodici se govorio srpski, a deca su krstena u pravoslavnoj crkvi. 
Druga informatorka Madarica udata za Hrvata kaze: 

Sad dobro govorim hrvatski, a nisam znala nista. (1917, Neuzina) 

S druge strane, clanovi ove etnicke grupe cije su majke bile Madari- 
ce obicno znaju i madarski, mada se uvek istice da se u kuci govorio hr- 
vatski. Medutim, clanovima kajkavske zajednice madarski je bio pristu- 
pacniji i prestizniji od bugarskog, jer su ga mogli uciti u skoli, to je cesto 
bio jezik bogosluzenja, a i cesce su bili u prilici da kontaktiraju sa clanovi- 
ma madarske etnicke zajednice. 

(Kako ste sa sinom govorili? Jel ste u kuci sa sinom isto hrvatski? 

Isto kajkavci sve, a i on je znao perfekt madarski. (m., 1914, Neuzina, 
supruga Madarica) 



30 Vezu izmedu slicne drustveno-ekonomske strukture zajednice i konzervativnosti 
zena kada su jezik i tradicija u pitanju opisala je i Maher 1996:396 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvisticka situacija i polna ... 209 

Takode, kada su se Hrvatice udavale za pripadnike drugih etnolin- 
gvistickih zajednica, one su svoj maternji idiom koristile prevashodno u 
interakciji sa svojom primarnom porodicora i zajednicom: 

[informatorova supruga] Moj svekar je imao cetiri cerke, cetiri rodene se- 
stre je imao, dve su se udale za Hrvata . . ., a jedna se udala za Majsnera, u 
Konaku je bio beleznik Majsner, a cetvrta se udala za Madara, Majsner je 
bio Nemac, a cetvrta se udala za Madara, Sandor ... i tako da su oni, to je 
bilo izmesano jako, govorilo se i ovako i onako, i nemacki i madarski i dija- 
lekat, to je tako bilo. 

[informator] Sestre tatine su znale hrvatski, ali udajom to je pocelo polako da 
se gasi. E onda su one tako kao gosti dolazile. Dok su bile tamo sa ocem i ta- 
ko razgovarale su hrvatski, ali vec sa muzevima ne. (m., 1924, Novi Sad) 

Glavnu ulogu u integrisanju zene u novu porodicu imala je svekrva. 
Svekrva je obezbedivala, putem socijalizacije snahe u porodicnu zajedni- 
cu, kontinuitet bitnih elemenata identiteta etnicke grupe kojoj data porodi- 
ca pripada, a to su obicaji i jezik: 

A ova moj a snaja, ta sto se sad preudala, kod nje da ste isli, ona mozda je 
sad i ona svc zaboravila, ona je znala, mama je bila njena svekrva, ona nije 
tela drugacije nikako da govori, ona jeste Madarica, ta moj a snaja, ali per- 
fekt hrvatski govorila, perfekt i to starinski... i ona je znala sve to da obja- 
sni sta je, jel je mama moj a tako uvek govorila. 

(Ona je od vase majke to sve naucila?) 

Da, od moje majke je naucila. (z., 1922, Zrenjanin) 

Informatorka, Madarica iz Boke, 1932, udata za Hrvata, prica da je 
kada se udala govorila hrvatski posto je svekrva „samo hrvatski pripove- 
dala" iako je razumela madarski „samo ona nije htela da prica, ona nije 
volela Mad<%re, ni tela da pripoveda...". Druga strana polozaja zene u za- 
jednicama sa cvrstom strukturom je njihova nacelno manja kompetencija 
kada su u pitanju drugi jezici, o cemu ce biti reci kasnije. S obzirom na to 
da je snaha u novoj sredini u velikoj meri bila upucena na svekrvu koja je 
neretko dobro vladala samo svojim idiomom, ona nije imala drugog izbora 
do da nauci taj jezik, ukoliko to nije njen maternji. 31 

Cak i u cisto hrvatskim porodicama odsustvo svekrve se negativno od- 
razavalo na stabilnost tradicionalnih normi. Zene su bile ne samo kljuc ocu- 
vanja jezika vec i drugih cinilaca koji sacinjavaju identitet ove zajednice: 

31 Vaznost uloge svekrve u snahinom usvajanju jezika nove porodice i sredine uoci- 
la je i Walters 1996:533-534. 



2 1 CKPHBEHE MAItHHE HA BaJIKAHY 

A ovde kad sam dosla, nisam nasla svekrvu, samo stara baba je bila... Kad 
se sedne za rucak, onda se sece hleb. E sad, kod moga tate, on je uvek seko 
hleb. Moj tata... Ovde, deda je bio becar. Sam je bio. On nije drzo [do to- 
ga]. Svekrva jeste, samo ja nju ne znam... 

(Ko je onda sekao hleb?) 

Pa, ko stigne. Ovde nisu ni postili. Moji petkom nikad nisu kuvali mrsno, 
mislim meso, nego tako, pasulj, ili rezance, nikad nije bilo mesa petkom. A 
ovde nije se. Onda sam ja to tako, kako ovde, tako sam i ja. (z., 1933, Rado- 
jevo) 

Ukoliko etnicki heterogeni bracni par zivi van mesta koja naseljava- 
ju Hrvati, a obicno je to urbana sredina, kajkavski nije imao status primar- 
nog jezika porodice i na to faktor pola supruznika nije imao uticaja. Infor- 
matorka, 1928, iz Boke, nastanjena u Pancevu, udata za Rumuna, upotre- 
bljava u kuci srpski jezik, a njena su deca mogla da cuju kajkavski samo 
kad su boravila u Boki. Informator, 1924, iz Boke, ali zivi sa suprugom 
Madaricom u Novom Sadu, na pitanje da li je sa bratom govorio na kaj- 
kavskom, odgovara: 

Pa jesmo, ali ne sasvim, zbog toga sto je i porodica uvek bila prisutna pa 
onda nisu oni ni razumeli mnogo to sve, niti smo mi zbog njih hteli da se 
izdvajamo u govoru. 



Visejezicnost i polne razlike 

Polno zasnovane razlike ne uocavaju se samo u upotrebi maternjeg 
idioma vec one postoje i kada je u pitanju znanje, usvajanje i upotreba 
drugih jezika. U drustvima u kojima su polne uloge ostro razgranicene ta- 
ko da jedan pol ima sire socijalne kontakte i aktivnosti koje se odvijaju na 
vecem prostoru, govor tog pola ukljucuje vise varijeteta socijalnih grupa 
sa kojima je u dodiru (Chambers 1995:125-126). Bi/multilingvizam zena 
karakterise manji registar jezika i slabija kompetencija. Vec pominjana in- 
formatorka (1932, Boka), mace Madarica, zamoljena da uporedi kompe- 
tenciju svekrve i svekra (oboje su Hrvati) kada je u pitanju znanje madar- 
skog, navela je da je svekrva razumela, ali nije govorila madarski, dok je 
svekar u potpunosti vladao ovim jezikom. 

Diferencijacija se uspostavlja i kad je rec o nacinu ucenja tih jezi- 
ka. Zene druge jezike uce u lingvisticki heterogenoj sekundarnoj porodi- 
ci, u neposrednom okruzenju (od komsija) ili u skoli. S druge strane, mu- 
skarci su kao socijalno pokretljiviji drugim jezicima mogli da ovladaju i 
u vojsci, tokom daljeg skolovanja van mesta porekla, u trgovini, prili- 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvisticka situacua i polna ... 211 



kom kontakata sa lokalnom administracijom i vlastima i si. 32 Sledeci ci- 
tati to ilustruju: 

Ondak sem isla dve godine u madarsku [skolu] i tamo di sam ja stanuvala u 
nas kraj bilo jeno cetri-pet komsije, svi Madari i svi, tako je bilo generacija 
koji stariji koji mladz^i i tako sam ja s njima, a sad vec^ i madarski tesko 
pricam. (z., 1932, Boka) 

Ja sam znala malo madarski i nemacki kad sam bila u Boku kao dete sam se 
igrala tako sa decama, ali zaboravila sam, sad ne znam. (z., 1933, iz Boke, 
zivi u Radojevu) 

Ja sam znao nemacki i pre, vec kao dete... Dosta smo znali i madarski i ne- 
macki, jel te nacije je bilo... Jel isli smo svi zajedno u jednu skolu. (m., 
1919, iz Boke, zivi u Zrenjaninu) 

Moj otac je znao madarski, al je naucio u vojsku madarsku i u ratu: bio je 
tri godine u Prvom svetskom ratu. (m., 1924, Radojevo) 

Svekar je znao madzarski perfekt da govori i da cita i da pise i sve je znal i 
nemacki je znao i rumunski je znao moj svekar jel on je iso u Temisvar, 
tam je ucil zanat. 

(Kako je vas svekar znao nemacki?) 

Pa ucili su, to je bila Austrougarska, i onda su ucili i nemacki, madzarski 
bio glavni jezik i ucili su i nemacki. (z., 1932, Boka) 

[II sv. rat] Tamo cete, kaze, ici, tamo cete da vezbate na nemackom jeziku 
komande. A ja ne znam nemacki nista. Iako sam razumeo dosta. Kaze, nau- 
cices, naucices, naucices... (m., 1914, Neuzina) 

I tata, on mi je znao i nemacki i rumunski i madarski i ciganski..., ne znam 
koliko jezika je znao. On je jako bio trgovac veliki. Sa konjima je, prepro- 
davao, kupovao. (z., 1928, Boka) 



Danas 

Pojave vezane za jezicko ponasanje generacija rodenih posle Drugog 
svetskog rata kao sto su pasivno znanje kajkavskog i neutralisanje polnih 
razlika korespondiraju sa socijalnom strukturom otvorenog tipa koja do- 
minira u savremenom drustvu, ali su u ovom slucaju uslovljene i demo- 
grafskim faktorom. Pripadnici posleratne generacije cesto poticu iz meso- 
vitih porodica i takve brakove zasnivaju, 33 podlezu dnevnim ili trajnim 

32 Messner-Sporsic 1931:201 (Boka) i Krpan 1983:58 u vezi sa visejezicnoscu kaj- 
kavaca navode isti repertoar jezika: madarski, nemacki, pa i rumunski (Krpan i nacine uce- 
nja), i govore zapravo o ovoj pojavi kod muskaraca. 

33 Samo sto je danas situacija inverzna: mnoge starije informatorke navode da kaj- 
kavski manje koriste, posto su im snahe nehrvatice: 



2 1 2 CKPHBEHE MAIbHHE HA EaJIKAHY 



rnigracijama, bave se razlicitim zanimanjima, a zajednica koja bi njihov 
jezicki identitet podrzala, cak i kad zive u njoj, svakim danom nestaje. Oni 
jos poznaju tek najdistinktivnije markere tog idiorna, ali ih vise ne koriste 
(v. Chambers 1995:84), a identitet postaje stvar licnog izbora. 34 

Citav proces ovde predocen odrazen je u jednoj porodici ispitanika. 
Informatorka iz Boke, rodena 1914. bila je udata za Hrvata (endogamija), 
imala je sina (1932) koji se ozenio Madaricom (konfesionalna endogami- 
ja), njen unuk (1957) u braku sa Srpkinjom (egzogamija) ima dve kcerke 
rodene oko 1980. Ona je o identitetu svojih praunuka i o problemu identi- 
teta Hrvata rekla sledece: 

Ima jos Rvata u Boki, evo vas zet, ne, taj je cist Rvat, sad je Srbin, ja, brat 
mu isto tak. Eno Jantalova zena je Slavica od Zokini. ... 1 to, to su sve Rva- 
ti. Evo ti moj Ivica, ne zna da 1 su mu deca °Rvati il, sad ova mlada oce da 
bude Orvatusa, ova starija nece. 



Literatura 

Bell 2003: D. S. Bell, Mythscopes: memory, mythology and national identity, British 
Journal of Sociology 54/1, London, 63-81. 

Brabcc 1972: 1. Brabec, Hrvatski govori u Banatu, Ljetopis JAZU16 [1971], Zagreb, 
257-260. 

Brabcc 1982: I. Brabec, Kajkavci u dijaspori, Hrvatski dijalektoloski zbornik 6, Za- 
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(I) Ja i deda mi se divanimo hrvatski u kuci, a moja snaja [Madarica] ona ne vole, 
onda ja i hrvatski i srpski i pomesano i ne znam ni kako govorim... Ja i deda isto sada: — 
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Ja sam pomesana sad vise, imam snaju Srpkinju, i sad ja vise divanim kao srpski. 
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34 O arbitrarnom i subjektivnom karakteru kriterijuma pripadnosti zajednici kod po- 
tomaka iz mesovitih srpsko-madarskih brakova u Madarskoj up. IlpejiHh 1997:88; o upo- 
trebi jezika u ovim brakovima i porodicama ead. 85. 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvisticka situacija i polna ... 



213 



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upuA03u V, Eeorpan, 243-312. 

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upuA03u VI, Eeorpaa, 121-183. 

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utxu upuA03u VII, Eeorpaa, 199-246. 

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2 1 4 CKPHBEHE MAIbHHE HA EAJIKAHY 



Marija Vuckovic 

Linguistic Situation among Kajkavian Speaking Croats in the Banat Region 

and Factors Determining Gender Differentiation 

Kajkavian speaking Croats in the Banat region are descendants of noblemen and 
possessors who settled here in the beginning of 19 l century, coming from central and lower 
Pokuplja (South-East of Zagreb). They got new property in villages of the middle Banat: Boka, 
Neuzina, Radojevo (former Klarija) and Keca; the latter settlement has belonged to Romania 
since 1924. Sociolinguistic and ethnolinguistic field research was conducted during 2000 in 
settlements inhabited by Kajkavians in the Vojvodina part of Banat. Factors that shaped ethnic 
and linguistic identity of this minority group during these two centuries are multiple and 
exposed to changes in course of time. 

As a minority group, these Croats have lived in rural multiethnic settlements together 
with Serbs, Hungarians, Romanians, Germans (until the period after the Second World War, 
when colonists were settled there), as well as with Roma populations. In Banat villages, there 
was a territorially based separation of ethnic groups within single settlements. Currently, in the 
parts of settlements formerly belonging to Kajkavians, members of other ethnic groups are being 
settled, since the number of Kajkavians is continually decreasing (according to the 1991 census, 
there were 103 Croats from a total of 1984 inhabitants in the village of Boka, while in Neuzina 
and Radojevo there were only few people). 

Until the end of the Second World War, these villages were confessionally endogamous, 
while literature indicates that immediately after the settling very strict ethnic endogamy existed. 

Until the First World War the Croats had had a school in Boka, then their own county 
and library. There is still a Catholic church in the village. Since this is a rural setting, traditional 
culture and religion were strong factors of preserving ethnic and linguistic identities until 
recently. This community is differentiated from other Croats in Vojvodina by the idiom it 
speaks. In their homeland, Kajkavian possesses a status of non-standardized dialect, since the 
standard language has been built on the Stokavian basis since the middle of the 19 l century. 
This fact limited possibilities of the linguistic institutional support. 

In the process of native idiom obsolescence and shift to the idiom of surrounding 
population, there are salient generational differences according to the competence in Kajkavian. 
The research showed that the Second World War is kind of milestone in this respect. The 
linguistic situation of the generation born before the Second World War is characterized by 
using of both of idioms, two-directional interference and functional specialization. The native 
idiom is reserved for private inter-group interactions, while a surrounding population's idiom is 
used in public and inter-group interactions. Already in the generation born after the WW2, 
competence in Kajkavian is reduced to passive knowledge only. 

Among the older generation members, individual differences in the usage of Kajkavian 
are determined by factors such as gender, homogeneity vs. heterogeneity in structure of the 
primary and secondary family, place of living (rural or urban setting), as well as education. 

Since this community lives in a multiethnic and multilingual setting, the linguistic 
repertoire of its members includes other languages, such as Hungarian, German, Romanian, 
Bulgarian, and Slovakian. For each of these languages, it is possible to determine different, 
diachronically changeable parameters related to social status, usage, way of learning, and domains 
of usage. 

The research conducted showed that among the members of older generation there is a 
differentiation in competence and using both native (Kajkavian Croatian) and majority idioms 
(Serbian, but also other languages spoken in the broader community), based on gender. Other 
researches dealing with Kajkavian speaking Croats in Vojvodina also pointed out to this 
differentiation. 



Marija Vuckovic: Kajkavci u Banatu: lingvistiCka situacija i polna ... 



215 



If spouses come from different ethnic and linguistic settings, in marriages based on 
traditional relations, especially in rural settings, women would adopt the language of secondary 
family. Broader social status of that language obviously did not affect the adoption direction 
Although the idiom of Kajkavian speaking Croats never had a prestigious status, non-Croat 
women, such as Bulgarian, Slovak and Hungarian ones, adopted Kajkavian if married to a 
Croat. 

There are a lot of examples where the mothers of interviewee were Bulgarian, but only 
one interviewee stated that he speaks Bulgarian. On the other hand, when a Croat woman would 
marry a non-Croat, she would use Kajkavian only in communication with her primary family 
and with other community members. 

In the process of integration of a bride into the new family, the mother-in-law had the 
most important role. Today, the situation is opposite: many older women stated that they use 
their native idiom less, since their daughter-in-laws are not Croatian. If a married couple lives 
out of the Kajkavian area (usually in an urban setting), they shift towards the Serbian language, 
also in cases when it is not the mother tongue of any of the spouses. 

Differences based on gender are not noticeable only in the native idiom usage, but also in 
acquisition and usage of other languages, which can be explained by the higher mobility of male 
members of traditional communities. 

Women's linguistic repertoire, as well as their acquisition level are smaller then those of 
men. There is also a difference in the ways of language learning: women learn other languages 
in linguistically heterogeneous secondary families, in the immediate surrounding (neighbors) or 
in school. Men, on the other hand, have the possibility to learn other languages during the army 
service, further education, trading, etc. 

Among the younger generation members, there is no significant gender differentiation in 
competence and usage neither of native nor of other idioms. 



Tan] a Petrovic 



LINGVISTICKA IDEOLOGIJA I PROCES ZAMENE JEZIKA 

NA PRIMERU SRBA U BELOJ KRAJINI' 



Srbi u Beloj Krajini — sociokultuma i lingvisticka situacija 

Cetiri srpska pravoslavna sela — Bojanci, Marindol, Milici i Pauno- 
vici u najjuznijoj slovenackoj regiji, Beloj Krajini, uz reku Kupu, u nepo- 
srednoj blizini granice sa Hrvatskom, sa oko tri stotine stanovnika predsta- 
vljaju poslednje ostatke nekada mnogo brojnijeg pravoslavnog stanovni- 
stva, potomaka Uskoka koji su seu 16. veku naselili u oblasti nekadasnje 
vojne granice izmedu Otomanske imperije i Habsburske monarhije. 2 U 
drugim nekada pravoslavnim selima, kako u Beloj Krajini tako i u Zum- 
berku, sa druge strane planine Gorjanci (hrvatski Zumberak) danas uglav- 
nom zive katolici i grkokatolici. 

Zajedno sa religijom i obicajima, u pomenutim pravoslavnim selima 
skoro pet vekova cuvao se i jezik, koji prema svojim osobinama pripada 
istocno-hercegovackom dijalektu (isp. Ivic 1991:270). Ocuvanju pravo- 
slavne veroispovesti i srpskog jezika u ovim selima doprinele su, s jedne 
strane, veoma stroge obicajne regulative koje su mesanje sa susednim ka- 
tolickim stanovnistvom svodile na minimum, i sa druge strane, postojanje 
institucija skole i crkve; skole na srpskom jeziku postojale su sve do se- 
zdesetih godina 20. veka, tako da je danasnja najstarija generacija stanov- 

1 Lingvisticko istrazivanje u Beloj Krajini odvija se u okviru projekata „Skrivene 
manjine izmedu centralne i jugoistocne Evrope" („Versteckte Minderheiten zwischen Zen- 
tral- und Sudosteuropa") koji se realizuje pod rukovodstvom dr Christiana Promitzera sa 
Univerziteta Karl Franzens u Gracu, Austrija, a finansiran je od strane austrijskog Fonda za 
unapredenje nauke (FWF) (broj projekta P 15080); i projekta „Etnolingvisticka i sociolin- 
gvisticka istrazivanja izbeglica i multietnickih zajednica na Balkanu" koji finansira Mini- 
starstvo za nauku i zastitu zivotne sredine Srbije pod broj em 2167. 

2 Istorijski pregled naseljavanja Uskoka u ovim krajevima daje Mai 1924. 



218 CKPHBEHE MA1MIHEHA BaJIKAHY 

nika pohadala nastavu na srpskom jeziku, uglavnom kod ucitelja ekavaca 
koji su dolazili iz Srbije; institucija Srpske pravoslavne crkve 3 bila jc sna- 
zan integracioni faktor sve do Drugog svetskog rata. U ovim selima dugo 
nije bilo mesovitih brakova — neveste su dovodene iz susednih sela ili iz 
pravoslavnih sela u susednoj Hrvatskoj — sto jc takode doprinelo ocuva- 
nju ove etnolingvisticke zajednice. 4 

Trenutna sociolingvisticka situacija u ovim selima ukazuje, medu- 
tim, na poodmakli proces zamene jezika. Samo najstarija generacija ima 
punu kompetenciju u upotrebi srpskog jezika; srednja generacija srpski 
koristi u komunikaciji sa najstarijom, dok najmlada razume srpski, ali ga 
uglavnom nc govori. Tako se pripadnici najstarije generacije, od kojih su 
neki i monolingvalni, svojim unucima obracaju na srpskom, dok im oni u 
najvecem broju slucajeva odgovaraju na slovcnackom. 5 Takva sociolin- 
gvisticka situacija uklapa se u nacelu u shemu procesa gubljenja mater- 
njeg jezika u dijaspori koju je ustanovio Filipovic (1985:90; citirano p re- 
ma Vuckovic 2000) istrazujuci govore hrvatskih iseljenika u SAD: prvu 
fazu karakterise monolingvalna situacija u kojoj doseljenici koristc isklju- 
civo doneseni idiom, u drugoj fazi javlja se bilinvgizam, a u trecoj opet 
monolingvizam, ali na jeziku okruzenja; prema ovom istrazivanju, tri faze 
su uglavnom vezane za tri generacije imigranata. Situacija u Beloj Krajini 
razlikuje se od upravo opisane po tome sto je procesu zamene jezika u 
okviru tri generacije koja se upravo odvija prethodilo skoro pet vekova 
njegove vrlo visoke vitalnosti, dok je intenzivni proces zamene jezika ini- 
ciran znacajnim socijalnim promenama posle Drugog svetskog rata (do ta- 
da stocarsko i nemobilno stanovnistvo pocelo se zaposljavati u okolnim 

V 

vecim mestima, kao sto su Metlika, Crnomelj, Vinica, gde je za komuni- 
kaciju koristilo iskljucivo slovenacki jezik, a jedna od posledica ove mo- 
bilnosti je i pojava egzogamnih brakova), dok je na status maternjeg idio- 
ma Srba u Beloj Krajini, kako objektivan tako i na nacin na koji sami go- 
vornici dozivljavaju status i vitalnost svog idioma, 6 znacajno uticao jos je- 
dan istorijski momenat — osamostaljenjem Republike Slovenije 1991. go- 
dine jedan od standardnih jezika u prethodnoj drzavi postaje idiom koji se 
ne upotrebljava u javnoj komunikaciji. 

3 Pravoslavne crkve posioje u Bojancima i Milicima, s tim sto Marindol i Paunovici 
pripadaju crkvenoj opstini Milici. 

4 Pod etnolingvistickom zajednicom ovde podrazumevamo grupu ljudi koja deli nor- 
me, vrednosti jezicke interakcije (prema Hamers/Blanc 1989:166). 

5 Campbel/Muntzel (1989:184-185) proces zamene jezika sa ovakvim karakteristi- 
kama nazivaju postepena smrt jezika (eng. gradual language death). 

6 O odnosu izmcdu objektivne {objective) i subjektivne (perceived) vitalnosti idio- 
ma v. Hamers/Blanc 1989:163. 



Tanja Petrovic : Lingvisticka ideologija i proces zamene jezika na primeru Srba u. . . 219 

Lingvisticka ideologija i male etnicke grupe 

Tokom poslednje dve decenije, u proucavanju idioma kojima govore 
pripadnici malih etnickih zajednica uocljiviji su sve veci napori da se u 
analizi ode dalje od deskripcije i da se modeli upotrebe maternjeg idioma i 
procesi uoceni u njemu povezu sa identitetskim i kulturnim obrascima ko- 
je grupa primenjuje u svakodnevnom zivotu i drustvenim procesima kroz 
koje prolazi. Posebna paznja poklanja se pri tome predstavama koje sami 
govornici imaju o svom jeziku — lingvisti se slazu u tome da „what people 
think or take for granted, about language and communication is a topic 
that rewards investigation" (Woolard/Schieffelin 1993:53). Za ovu proble- 
matiku vezuje se pojam lingvisticke /jezicke ideologije, koji se u najsirem 
smislu moze definisati kao „sets of beliefs about language articulated by 
users as a rationalization or justification of perceived language structure 
and use" (Silvestrein 1979:193). Lingvisticka ideologija posmatra se kao 
„a mediating link between social structures and forms of talk" (Woolard/ 
Schieffelin 1993:53) i treba je, dakle, razumeti kao kulturnu konceptuali- 
zaciju jezika koja ima svoju socijalnu dimenziju i nuzno je povezana sa 
odnosima moci. 



Lingvisticka ideologija malih etnickih zajednica 

i velike drustvene promene 

Opisana sociolingvisticka situacija Srba u Beloj Krajini ukazuje na 
neujednacen proces zamene jezika koji je nastupio posle izuzetno dugog 
perioda njegovog cuvanja. Takva zamena jezika karakteristicna je za male 
etnicke zajednice koje kao kompaktna celina zive u aloglotskom okruze- 
nju. Kad u ovakvim zajednicama drasticne promene u nacinu zivota i soci- 
jalnim strukturama dovedu do intenziviranja procesa zamene jezika u 
okviru tri generacije posle dugog vremenskog intervala u kome se jezik, 
zahvaljujuci opet odredenom nacinu zivota i socijalnim normama, cuvao, 
neko vreme koegzistiraju razliciti sitemi vrednosti, pogledi na pojmove 
kao sto su napredak / zaostalost, tradicionalno / moderno, a s tim i razlicite 
lingvisticke ideologije — pogledi na kodove koje etnolingvisticka zajedni- 
ca ima na svom repertoaru, na njihove simbolicke vrednosti, status i si. 
Tsitsipis (1998:199), istice da je „the process of Arvanitika sociolinguistic 
shift has left its mark on the ways speakers view the codes of their socio- 
linguistc repertiore and negotiate their position vis-a-vis these codes", na- 
vodeci da „it is frequently the case that in multy- or bilingualism and'lan- 
guage shift linguistic ideology becomes the locus of contestation (Gal 
1993:337-59) and form the realm of negotiation, a constant traffic among 
meanings and values, and an appropriation and repossession of such mea- 



220 CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA EAJ1KAI IV' 



nings by various interested social groups (Eagleton 1991:101) . Etnolin- 
gvisticka zajednica Srba u Beloj Krajini upravo prolazi kroz fazu u kojoj 
koegzistiraju i sukobljavaju se razlicite lingvisticke ideologije. U ovom ra- 
du pokusacu da ukazem na postojece lingvisticke ideologije Srba u Beloj 
Krajini, dinamiku njihovih odnosa i povezanost sa sirim drustvenim pro- 
cesima kroz koje zajednica prolazi. Pokazacu isto tako, u kojim se seg- 
mentima diskursa i na koji nacin iscitava lingvisticka ideologija i ukazati 
na teorijski znacaj metapragmaticke svesti za prepoznavanje ideoloski re- 
levantnih segmenata diskursa. 

Kako se uopste moze prepoznati i analizirati lingvisticka ideologija? 
Tsitsipis (1998) ukazuje na to da se lingvisticka ideologija moze iscitavati 
kako na nivou delova iskaza koji se mogu segmentirati, dakle na nivou je- 
zickog materijala, tako i na nivou sadrzaja, gde se izdvajaju ideoloska je- 
zgra koja se mogu prepoznati u diskursu vecine govornika. 

Metapragmaticka svest i lingvisticka ideologija 

U „iscitavanju" lingvisticke ideologije iz uzoraka diskursa, kljucni 
momenat predstavlja uspostavljanje odnosa izmedu upotrebe jezika i go- 
vornikove svesti o toj upotrebi, sto se u literaturi pre svega oznacava kao 
metapragmaticka svest (eng. metapragmatic awareness). Metapragmaticka 
svest ukazuje na to da „noji30BaTenM H3biKa b toh hjih hhoh CTeneHH 
3HaK)T, hto ohh RQjiciK)T, Kor^a Hcnojib3yK)T a3HK" (Verschueren 2001). 
Indikatori metapragmaticke svesti mogu se detektovati na razlicitim nivoi- 
ma upotrebe jezika; pomenucemo neke od njih: diskursni marked, alterna- 
cija kodova, upotreba direktnog i indirektnog govora, itd. Ovi indikatori 
imaju dvostruku funkciju: s jedne strane, oni jezicki materijal koji se upo- 
trebljava stavljaju u odredeni kontekst, a s druge funkcionisu kao signali 
jezicke refleksije korisnika jezika prilikom interpretacije njihove drustve- 
ne stvarnosti, i na taj su nacin direktno povezani sa lingvistickom ideolo- 
gijom — uz njihovu pomoc moze se definisati jedan njen znacajan aspekt: 
„KorAa 3JieMeHTti MaTanparMaTH^ecKOH ocBcaoMJieHHOCTH o6pa3yiOT no- 
CTOHHHbie 4>peHMbi HHTepnpeTariHH, CBH3aHHbie c npnpoflOH h counajib- 
hbim (JiyHKUHOHHpoBaHHeM a3biKa, KOTopwe 6ojiee ne noABepratoTca com- 

HeHHK) H 06cy)K^eHHK), CTaHOBHTC« B03M0/KHMM TOBOpHTb H3bIKOBbIX 

HfleojiornHx" (Verschueren 2001). 

Alternacija kodova 

Variranje kodova koje pripadnici visejezicne zajednice imaju na 
svom repertoaru ne odvija se po slucajnom uzorku; tako je jos Bahtin isti- 
cao da kodove treba razumeti kao pozicije koje govornici zauzimaju pre- 



Tanja Petrovic : Lingvisticka ideologija i proces zamene jezika na primeru Srba u . . . 22 1 



ma svetu, odnosno „as position on the world, that is, voices in a frame of 
analysis in which emphasis is placed on '... the material and symbolic histo- 
rical dynamic (as expressed) whithin the acting subject'" (Hill 1985:725; 
isp. BaxTHH 1963). 

U razgovorima koje su sa mnom vodili najcesce na srpskom jeziku, 
Srbi u Beloj Krajini koristili su drugi, tj. slovenacki idiom, onda kada citi- 
raju iskaze neke druge osobe. Sa komunikacijske tacke gledista, alternaci- 
ja kodova nije neophodna, ali je njena funkcija po pravilu ideoloska i sluzi 
za uspostavljanje distance i pravljenje razlike izmedu dveju grupa — mi i 
oni. Time se isticu ili kulturoloske i religijske razlike, ili razlike izmedu 
generacija u porodici: 

[1] A jednom jedan umro tu, zena mu Slovenka, jao meni, treba vodu, reko 
Zvonka, imam ja... imam ja svete vode. Kaj, mate? To ko da sam joj dao 
Boga kad sam donio svetu vodu. 

[2] Al eto njima, njima ne odgovara ta nasa vjera... Evo sad je jedna zena se 
pricestila na Petrovo, Bosanka, i ti znas kako nas pop ispoveda, kako ispo- 
ved? To nema tamo potajno, oni imaju neki kao ormar, onda tu, pop je unu- 
tra a ti izvan stojis, i ti njemu sapces onda sve svoje grehe njemu kazujes, a 
kod nas to pred oltarom radi, jesi li gresna, imas li neki veliki, veliki greh, 
zapravo ja znam ono sto mene pita. Pa veliki greh nemam, a gresim, gresi- 
mo svi. I onda on kaze Bog ce ti oprostiti, onda onaj epitrahilj, sto je ono 
nosi pred sobom, znas ono usko, da, epitrahilj, ona se prigne, znas, on s tim 
epitrahiljom gore, znas, i ne znam ja, nesto izmoli, a to njima, bas ovoj na- 
soj snaji iz Milica, bratovoj snaji — ijaoj, veli, kaj sam sejasmejala. Pa kaj, 
kak? Joj, pod kiklju je memo. A nije velim pod kiklju — pod mantiju, ona 
pravi kiklju — nije pod nego pod epitrahilj. 

[3] Samo sad mladi svijet vise nema tih obicaja, za Bozic recimo, pa sad 
bas kad je bila Cvetna nedelja, velim ja, reko, djeco kuci, tu se igrali kod 
nas, kuci i naberite cvijece, metnite ga u vodu, stavite jaje unutra, i to cvije- 
ce mora biti vani, ne pod krovom, i sutra je Cvetna nedelja, i da se umijete 
u torn cvijecu. A veli Darja, ide u prvi razred, Deda, mi cemo doci... mi bo- 
mo k vam prisli da se homo umili. 

Poslednja dva primera direktno su povezana sa procesom zamene je- 
zika kroz koji zajednica prolazi i suprotstavljanje ne samo idioma, kulture 
i religije, nego i nacina zivota i sistema vrednosti desava se u okviru poro- 
dice, u drugoj i trecoj generaciji. To da govornik u primeru [3] zeli taj su- 
kob da istakne potvrduje i njegova autokorekcija — citirani iskaz svoje 
unuke zapoceo je na srpskom, ali se onda ispravio i sve ponovio na slove- 
nackom. Ukoliko sadrzaj iskaza nije povezan sa uspostavljanjem ili istica- 
njem takve razlike, ne dolazi ni do alternacije kodova pri citiranju nekog 



222 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

za koga je jasno da je u situaciji koja se docarava citiranjem govorio na 
slovenackom: 

[4] Meni dode svako, svako k meni dode, eto, ja sam juce imao dva... dva, 
dva, dva studenta iz Maribora, to oni zovu skauti. I ta dva su dosli, ko mi 
smo, veli, skauti iz Maribora, pa dobro, vi ste samo dvojica, de su vam dru- 
gi, e drugi, kale su otisli, prespavali su ujednom selu od Vinice gore, jedni 
su otisli prema Dragatusu i mi ovuda, tako da ce se u Metlici, ne znam ja u 
kojoj... sastati. 

Navedeni iskaz predstavlja jos jedan dokaz da smenjivanje kodova u 
iskazu ima ideolosku funkciju i da ovakva komunikacijska strategija nije 
automatska. 



Ideoloska jezgra u diskursu belokranjskih Sifca 

Osim u formalnim elementima diskursa, lingvisticka ideologija se 
manifestuje i na planu sadrzaja — u diskursu se mogu izdvojiti „opsta me- 
sta" koja se, kad je u pitanju lingvisticka ideologija pripadnika zajednice 
koja prolazi kroz proces zamene jezika, na sirem planu odnose na usposta- 
vljanje kontrasta izmedu nekad (vreme pre nastupanja zamene jezika i pre 
velikih drustvenih promena koje su je uslovile) i sad (vreme u kome domi- 
nira jezik vecine za koji se vezuje drustveni prestiz i napredak). Hill 
1992:263-280, baveci se lingvistickom ideologijom meksickih Nahautl 
Indijanaca, nailazi na isti kontrast koji je u osnovi dva dominantna ideolo- 
ska diskursa u ovoj zajednici: diskursa nostalgije i modernog diskursa, ko- 
ji povremeno prekida nostalgicnu ideologiju. Tsitsipis (1998:132) izdvaja 
cetiri glavna ideoloska jezgra u diskursu Arvanita u Grckoj: 

„(1) In earlier times people suffered due to the harsh material conditions 
prevailing then, but moral principles were kept in high esteem; (2) The ca- 
lendrical order of socio-religious life was strictly observed then as against 
today when it is not; (3) Social roles were predetermined by the norm so 
that things were not left to the chancy tourns of life as against today when 
we are witnessing a moral loosening of human conduct; (4) The Arvanitika 
language was once pure and people spoke without mixing their language 
with Greek whereas today Arvanitika became a bastard language". 

Isti autor (op. cit., 1 19), oslanjajuci se na autore kao sto su Woolard 
(1992) i Eagleton (1991), kao ideoloski definise svaki segment diskursa 
koji je na neki nacin povezan sa odnosima moci. U bilingvalnim zajedni- 
cama kao sto su Arvaniti u Grckoj ili Srbi u Beloj Krajini, kodovi koje go- 
vornici imaju na repertoaru vezuju se za vrednosti kao sto su distanca i so- 
lidaraost, tradicija i savremenost, nostalgija i napredak. Ideoloska jezgra 
oko kojih se grupise diskurs pripadanika takvih zajednica pri interpretaciji 



Tanja Petrovic : Lingvisticka ideologija i proces zamene jezika na primeru Srba u. . . 223 

drustvene stvaraosti mogu se direktno odnositi na jezik i predstavljati me- 
tapragmaticke iskaze (takvo je Tsistipisovo jezgro (4)), a mogu se odnositi 
na pomenute vrednosti (koje su uvek rezultat odnosa modi) ne referisuci 
direktno na jezik, pri cemu ipak predstavljaju informacije relevantne za 
lingvisticku ideologiju, upravo zato sto se kodovi kojima zajednica raspo- 
laze povezuju sa tim vrednostima. Neka od takvih ideoloskih jezgara su 
univerzalna, kao na primer to da pripadnici starijih generacija isticu da su 
nekad ljudi bili siromasniji, ali moralniji (isp. Petrovic 2000); u slucaju za- 
mene jezika, medutim, ona dobijaju novu funkciju i imaju vecu tezinu, bu- 
duci da se osim nacina zivota u zajednici menjaju (odnosno zamenjuju / 
gube) i neke njene inherentne karakteristike, kao sto su jezik i religija. 

Dominantno ideolosko jezgro u diskursu Srba u Beloj Krajini, na ko- 
me cemo se ovde posebno zadrzati, vezano je za njihovu percepciju i eva- 
luaciju materajeg idioma; pri tome se on karakterise kao „mesavina", „ne 
pravi srpski" i si., dok se, sa druge strane, cisti slovenacki vidi kao ideal 
kome se tezi, ali ga je tesko postici: 

[5] Mi govorimo taj jezik, prem to nije pravi srpski, al je to, eto, mjesavina 
jedna srpskoga i kordunaskoga i sta ja znam tako, a dosta imamo i sloven- 
skih rijeci. Ja znam kao dijete fijoka u astalu - to smo zvali miznjak. Na 
slovenskom bi bilo to miznik, a kod nas se to zvalo miznjak. I tako puno tin 
rijeci kao slovenskih, a kazem, nisu ni tamo ni ovamo. 

[6] Moja unuka kaze, Babi, Preloka i Zilje i oni koji idu iz Hrvaskega govo- 
ru hrvaski i belokranjskija dapravo slovenski. Pa, reko, tesko jepravo slo- 
venski govorit. 

Odredena vrsta lingvistickog purizma izrazena u navedenim seg- 
mentima diskursa ocigledno se povezuje sa socijalnom kategorijom presti- 
za. Predstava o cistom slovenackom povezana je sa drustvenim napretkom 
i pozitivnim promenama koje su se dogodile u poslednjim decenijama. 
Govoriti cisto slovenacki vidi se ne toliko kao uslov za ukljucivanje u sire 
socijalne strukture (svi informatori uostalom isticu medusobnu razumlji- 
vost idioma i odsustvo bilo kakvih problema u komunikaciji izmedu razli- 
citih grupa u Beloj Krajini), koliko kao znak napretka, savremenosti i bo- 
ljih zivotnih uslova koji su nastupili poslednjih decenija sa promenama 
koje su dovele do znacajne ekspanzije upotrebe slovenackog jezika. Funk- 
cionalna redukcija materajeg idioma jos jedan je faktor koji utice na ova- 
kvu evaluaciju: cak i u idiolektu govoraika sa visokom kompetencijom na 
srpskom, pojmovi vezani za domene izvan svakodnevnog tradicionalnog 
zivota na selu imaju designate preuzete iz slovenackog: 

[7] Onda je dala opstina crkvu pod kultumu dediscinu. 

[8] Ona je socijalna delavka sa hiljadu daka. 



224 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

[9] Mladi imadu avte. 1 

Vec smo naveli da je pri pripisivanju vrednosti odredenim komuni- 
kacijskim strategijama neophodno imati u vidu njihovu dinamiku i plurali- 
zam. Navedeno ideolosko jezgro o maternjem idiomu kao mesavini prisut- 
no je kod prakticno svih govornika. Neke druge ideoloske pozicije varira- 
ce, medutim, u zavisnosti od statusa govornika i njegove uloge u lokalnoj 
zajednici. Tako oni clanovi zajednice koji u okviru lokalnih scoskih zajed- 
nica imaju neku od funkcija (kao sto su, na primer, predsednici crkvenih 
opstina), insistiraju na postovanju srpske kulturne tradicije i postovanju 
pravoslavnih obicaja i smatraju da je veoma bitno sacuvati i jezik: 



10] Ovaj moj sin govori stariji po nase, i sa zenom i sa djecom, a mladi go- 
vori slovenski. Ne znam, ja sam cio vec dosta puta rcc da... al necu reci, sto 
cu. Tako kako ko zeli. To cc jedng dana izumret, al eto, sta cemo, tako ti je. 
A ja kazem da dobro jos i mi govorimo gdje zivimo. 

I kod ovakvih pripadnika zajednice, medutim, uocljiv je sukob razli- 
citih ideologija: vecina njih odbila je inicijativu od strane slovenacke vla- 
de za ponovno otvaranje osnovne skole na srpskom. Predsednik crkvene 
opstine u jednom od sela to objasnjava na sledeci nacin: 

[11] Kaze, kud ces, kaze poslc. Posle, veli, nece valjda sva djeca u Hrvat- 
sku posle. Slacemo u slovensku skolu. Meni nije vazno sto slovenski uce, 
naucice srpski kod kuce. Tako je to preovladalo da su... da nije skola ostala 
tu. A i mace bi malo djece bilo. 

Sukob trenutno postojecih lingvistickih ideologija desava se kako iz- 
medu razlicitih grupa (pri tome su jedni obelezeni kao zagrizeni, a drugi 
kao nicija djeca), tako i kod pojedinaca. Ilustrativan primer za to mogu bi- 
ti sledeca tri iskaza starije zene iz Milica: 

[12] Ja ne znam da govorim slovenski. Ja bi htjela, al sta cu kad ne umijem. 

[13] Kada moj a snaha pregleda zadatke djeci, ona uvijek nade greske i go- 
vori „to vam je po milicko, ne po slovensko". 

[14] Kad ja umrem, sve ce umrijeti sa mnom. 

Elementi lingvisticke ideologije koje sam pokusala da izdvojim 
osvetljavaju jezicke i drustvene procese kroz koje prolazi etnolingvisticka 
zajednica Srba u Beloj Krajini na nacin koji se kvalitativno razlikuje od 
onoga sto pruzaju tzv. objektivni podaci kao sto su demografski podaci 
dobijeni prilikom popisa stanovnistva, zakonske regulative i pravni status 
manjina. „Pogled iznutra ;t koji omogucava analiza lingvisticke ideologije 



7 Isp. i leksemu studenti u primeru 4. 



Tanja Petrovic : Lingvisticka ideo logua i proces zamene jezika na primeru Srba u. . . 225 

cini se visestruko korisnim pri proucavanju malih, izolovanih etnickih i je- 
zickih grupa. Pre svega, on donosi znacajne metodoloske novine u prouca- 
vanju govora izolovanih grupa. Lingvisticka proucavanja ove vrste uglav- 
nom su se odvijala u okviru dijalektologije, najuticajnije lingvisticke dis- 
cipline od XIX veka naovamo. U slavistickoj (pa i evropskoj) dijalektolo- 
giji dominiraju stavovi koje Williams (1973) naziva pastoralnom tradici- 
jom, koja se zasniva na retorici „which continually looks back, often nos- 
talgically and for moral guidance, to a lost but supposedly more pristine, 
rural, homogeneous, and authentic past". U takvom kontekstu, varijacije u 
jeziku koje su rezultat kontakta sa drugim idiomom nisu mogle biti u cen- 
tru paznje istrazivaca — naprotiv, za istrazivanje su odabirani upravo oni 
punktovi za koje se pretpostavlja da su izolovani od uticaja drugih idioma 
te stoga najbolje cuvaju stare jezicke osobine. Istrazivaci su trazili ,,'best 
spekers', who will provide evidence of most 'unadultered' form of the 
language" (Dorian 1981:3); Chambers i Trudgill 1998:29 isticu da su u ci- 
tavoj tradicionalnoj dijalektologiji Evrope „nonmobile rurale males"® 
smatrani idealnim izborom za informatore u dijalektoloskom istrazivanju. 
Dok je u americkoj dijalektologiji doslo do znacajnog pomaka prema izu- 
cavanju savremenog stanja u jeziku tokom XX veka,9 evropsku dijalekto- 
logiju i dalje karakterise uronjenost u pastoralnu tradiciju. 10 Juznosloven- 
ska dijalektologija ni u kom slucaju ne odstupa od tog opsteg usmerenja. 
Dijalektolozi na ovom prostoru poklanjali su veliku paznju izucavanju 
izolovanih idioma, prvenstveno iz razloga sto takvi idiomi u velikoj meri 
mogu cuvati starije osobine jezika koje su se u progresivnijim centralnim 
delovima jezickog areala vec izgubile, dok su inovacije uzrokovane kon- 
taktom sa drugim idiomom uglavnom ignorisane kao irelevantne. 11 Pro- 

8 Za ovu kategoriju informatora ovi autori uvode skracenicu NORM (eng. nonmobi- 
le oral rural males). Interesantno je da se u slovenskoj dijalektologiji, upravo zbog nemo- 
bilnosti i odsustva obrazovanja, idealnim informatorom smatraju zene. 

9 Kako istice Kurtah 1972:1 1: „until recently, large-scale surveys have been delibe- 
rately restricted to folk speech, especially to that of the countryside... In The Linguistic A t- 
las of the United States all the population of any size were regularly included and, in prin- 
ciple, all social levels arc represented." 

10 To u znacajnoj meri vazi i za evropsku antropolosku lingvistiku i nacionalni folklor. 

11 Nedostatak interesovanja za kontakt izmedu jezika na ovim prostorima u novijoj 
lingvistici u velikoj je suprotnosti sa cinjenicom da su prva proucavanja ove pojave vezana 
upravo za teritoriju Balkana: Schuchardt 1884:30 pominjc raspravu G. Lucia iz 1666 godi- 
ne o mesavini hrvatskih i romanskih dijalekata u Dalmaciji zasnovanoj na zapisima iz XIV 
veka (prema Clyne 1987:452). Takode, Schuchardt (op. cit.) daje brojne primcre o mesavi- 
ni na nivou strukture i promenama indukovanim kontaktom izmedu jezika na Balkanu. 
Problematika balkanskog jezickog saveza privukla je paznju mnogih lingvista (ud Trou- 
betzkoy 1928). 



226 Ckpmbeiie mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

mene u jeziku manjine karakterisu se kao kvarenje, a za informatore se bi- 
raju osobe kod kojih je do takvog kvarenja u najmanjoj men doslo. Anali- 
za diskursa bez apstrahovanja uticaja i promena izazvanih tim uticajima 12 
ornogucava da se u proucavanju lingvistickog identiteta ovih grupa izade 
iz ovih okvira koje je u XIX i XX veku postavila dijalektologija. 

„Pogled iznutra" koji ornogucava analiza lingvisticke ideologije u 
velikoj meri relativizuje uopstavajuce konstatacije o statusu ovakvih grupa 
i njihovoj sudbini. Clifford (1986, cit. prema Gal 1989:315) istice da je 
^announcing the extinction of cultures, languages and dialects at the mo- 
ment they are first described by outsiders has been a rethorical construct 
central to Western ethnography. " Poznat je i paradoks da proucavaoci 
ovakvih grupa po pravilu pisu da izvornim idiomom govore samo najstari- 
ji pripadnici grupa, i da ce sa smenom generacija doci i do nestanka tog 
idioma, ali da govornici najstarije generacije „nikako ne umiru". 

Analiza elemenata lingvisticke ideologije, za razliku od staticne sli- 
ke koja se dobija klasicnim dijalektoloskim metodama i interpretacijom is- 
kljucivo objektivnih (npr. statistickih) podataka, ukazuje na izrazito dija- 
lekticku prirodu odnosa izmedu drustvene prakse, govornika i diskursa. 
Stavovi i vrednosti izrazeni u diskursu, upotrebljena jezicka sredstva, ulo- 
ge i status govornika u okviru lokalne zajednice povezani su u komplek- 
snu mrezu cije sagledavanje otvara sasvim nove perspektive za interpreta- 
ciju lingvistickog, etnickog i socijalnog identiteta pripadnika malih i izo- 
lovanih jezickih grupa. 



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228 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



Tanja Petrovic 

Linguistic ideology and language shift: 
The case of Orthodox minority in the Slovenian region of Bela Krajina 



In the Slovenian Southern region of Bela Krajina, close to the border with Croatia, there 
arc four Orthodox, Serbian-speaking villages. Their inhabitants are descendants of Uskoks, 
renegade refugees from the Ottoman Empire, who have settled down since 1526 in several 
migration waves. The Orthodox, Serbian speaking inhabitants managed to preserve their native 
vernacular for more than five centuries, mainly because of very strict social rules restricting 
interactions with the surrounding Slovene speaking, Catholic population. 

In the last decades, however, one can notice a rapid decline of native vernacular use, 
which is being replaced by dominant Slovenian idiom. The present situation indicates the late 
phase of the language shift: only the oldest generation of inhabitants has a full, native-like 
competence in Serbian, the middle generation speaks it occasionally, mainly in communication 
with their parents, while children in these villages understand their Serbian speaking grand 
parents, but almost always reply to them in Slovene. 

Reasons for such a rapid decline in the native vernacular use can certainly be found in 
social changes that took place in the second half of the previous century, such as increased 
mobility of population, industrialization, occurrence of intermarriages etc.; these changes made 
Slovenian the language of prestige and a kind of prerequisite for development and integration 
into broader regional community. The use of native vernacular as the language of solidarity 
became endangered with the increasing number of mixed marriages — with the Slovenian brides 
coming to the Serbian houses, the native vernacular lost the privilege which it had been 
possessing for centuries — the privilege of being the only idiom spoken within the family. 

After addressing the notion of linguistic ideology and the role its analysis may have in 
dealing with small ethnic groups undergoing the process of language shift, I will try, on the 
basis of a number of narratives recorded among Serbs in Bela Krajina, to outline the basics of 
their language ideology, i.e. explicit or implicit representations of language read out from the 
community's linguistic practice, metapragmatic discourse by which speakers interpret their own 
language behavior, and from shared representations related to power structures. 

Understood as a cultural conceptualization of language which has a social dimension and 
is necessarily related to social power, the language ideology of the Serbian community in Bela 
Krajina can clearly show the way in which its members deal with the dialectic relationship 
between a positive cultural stance towards the native language, which advocates the integrity of 
the language and speech community, and a pragmatism concerning sociocultural and linguistic 
change which adopts a course of action in which modernization and the urban developments 
take priority over traditionalism. 



Ferenc Csortan 



ALTERNATIVES OF IDENTIFICATION 

FOR A "HIDDEN MINORITY": THE CATHOLICS 

OF MOLDAVIA 1 (EASTERN ROMANIA) 



"Hidden" minorities 

If a "hidden" minority is a more or less "invisible" collectivity, 
which does not appear in the official ethnic statistics of a country, or 
appears under a "false" identity, 2 among majorities and "un-hidden", 
"visible" minorities, this phenomenon may be present in any country of 

1 From the beginning we must choose the proper name of the geographic area we 
intend to discuss about. Its Romanian name rises no problems: Moldova is the name of the 
territory of the whole medieval principality, between the Eastern Carpathians, the 
Dnester/Nistru river and the coast of the Black Sea. In 1775 its Northern part was taken by 
the Habsburg Empire, under the name Bukowina, and in 1812 (in fact in 1806) its Eastern 
part, between Prut and Dnester rivers, was taken by Tzarist Russia, and called later 
Bessarabia. Both areas became part of Greater Romania between 1918-1940, respectively 
1941-1944. Today Northern Bukowina belongs to Ukraine, most of Bessarabia is the core 
territory of the Moldavian Republic, a Soviet successor state, and Southern Bessarabia also 
belongs to Ukraine. Because the internationally accepted (Latin) name of the principality of 
Moldova was Moldavia, we use this term, refering thus to the whole teritory, and mentioning 
that today only its Western half is part of modern Romania. Possibly the Eastern part of 
Moldavia too had in the Middle Age Hungarian population (the linguists identify some 
toponyms with Hungarian etimology, such as Chi§indu, Orhei and maybe Lapwjna). 
However, in the history of Moldavia we do not find indication of Catholics living here in a 
significant number, excepting one settlement, Ciuburciu/Csoborcsok, on the right bank of the 
Dnester, in the area controlled by the Tatars of the Krimea, in the 1 7- 1 8th century. Its 
Hungarian community, still strong in the late 18 th century, was formed by - probably 
Transylvanian - slaves, brought as. loot in the 16- 17 th centuries. This community has 
disappeared without any trace after the Russian conquest in the early 19 th century. 

2 An important question: who is entitled to establish if the identity of an individual 
or of a community is "correct" or "false"? 



230 CKPMBEHE MAPbHHE HA BaJIKAHY 

the world. An essential theoretical framework of this social phenomenon 
is offered by Christian Promitzer, in this volume. 

Romania is not an exception. This country has quite a rich history of 
ethnic/national minority problems and policies (with roots in Habsburg 
"Kakania" and Byzantine/Ottoman Balkans alike), and after 1989 there is 
a positive, affirmative evolution regarding these policies. The post- 
-Revolution 1991 Constitution (with the recent amendments) guarantees 
"the preservation, expression and perpetuation of one's cultural, religious 
and linguistic identity". A total number of 20 ethnic communities enjoy 
different rights and facilities, including representation in the Parliament. 3 
There exists a system of education (of different levels) in the minority 
language in most of these 20 cases (where needed). However, the historic 
evolution of Romania — and of the respective mother country — has 
created situations in which certain minority communities followed the 
evolution towards "hiding" — and eventually vanishing. This could be the 
case of most Bulgarians in Valachia ("Serbs") (Boycheva 1995:128-135); 
most Roman Catholics in Moldavia province, identified as Romanians; 
Aromuns (Balkan Vlachs, immigrated in early 20 th century, "hidden" 
among the Romanian majority); "Sathmar Schwaben" in North-Western 
Romania, assimilated into Hungarians during the 19 th century, some of 
them "dissimilated", returning to the German identity of their forefathers; 
some groups which until recently have identified themselves as 
Ukrainians, but are now feeling "different" (Hutzuls, Rusins), and the 
similar case of "Nogay" group in the interior of the Tatar community; or 
of most Roma, identifying themselves with the local majority (Romanian, 
but in minority areas Hungarian or Turkish). 

Our intention is to present the case of the Roman Catholics in 
Moldavia (North-Eastern Romania). 



Who, where? 

Today the Roman Catholic community in Moldavia province 
numbers around 245,000 people, 4 practically inexistent in the contemporary 

3 These are: Roma, Hungarian, Ukrainian, German, Slovak, Czech, Serbian, Croatian, 
Bulgarian, Russian-Lipovan, Tatar, Turkish, Polish, Greek, Armenian, Albanian, Italian, 
Jewish. After the elections of 2000 two new minorities popped up and joined the before 
mentioned ones: the Rusins (or Ruthenes), considered by the Ukrainian as non-existent, and 
the Macedonians (in fact the coalminers' trade union of the Jiu valley, Hunedoara district). 

4 Reliable statistic data, ethnographic and historical information, past and present 
political documents may be found in the following publications: in the multimedia CD-ROM 
The Land of the "Csango"-Sy published by the Neighboring Castles Association from Pecs, 
Hungary; KORUNK (Cluj), 2003/9, issue dedicated to the Csdngo reneszdnsz? (A Csango 
renaissance?). See Pozsony 2000; Dioszegi 2002; Arens/Bein 2003. 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 23 1 



ethnic statistics of Romania. 5 If so, this means that they are not a specific 
ethnic community, they are not different from the Romanian majority of 
Romania. But is this true? The answer is not so simple. Traditionally 
they used to identify themselves as "Catholics" (and not as "Hungarians" 
or "Romanians") as long as the "Romanian religion" was Orthodoxism. 6 
Only the Hungarian population of Eastern Transylvania, then the 
Hungarian ethnologists (from Transylvania and from Hungary) — and 
some of their Orthodox neighbors from Moldavia — call them Csango 1 
(Romanian form: ceangdu, plural ceangdi) and consider them "Hun- 
garian". Actually this hetero-identification may be true, if it refers to 
their origin, but is very problematic if we consider the contemporary 
auto- and hetero-identification (as Romanians) of their overwhelming 
majority, and their cultural distance from the modern Hungarian identity. 
They live today in more than 70 villages in the districts Gudet) Bacau, 
Neamt, lasi and Vaslui and recently also in the towns of these districts 
(Gabor 1996). But a growing number of them live now in many towns of 
Romania, including Transylvania, the Western-Central province of the 
country, where they benefit, as far as their religious life is concerned, of 
the existence of traditional Roman Catholic communities (of Hungarian 
or German language). Actually, they entered in the last decade in a very 

5 The medieval Moldavian Principality became in the 1 5 th century a vassal state of 
the Ottoman Empire. Its Northern corner, called Bukovina, was taken by the Habsburgs, 
and became part of the Habsburg Empire in 1774, and its Eastern part was taken in 1812 
(practically already in 1806) by Russia, under the name Bessarabia. This area forms today 
the Moldavian Republic, and small parts of it belong to Ukraine. 

6 This is the reason why they were, and are "hidden": in the Principalities, being 
"borderlands" in the past of the Ottoman Empire, the relevant dividing wall between 
collectivities was not language, but social position and religion. 

7 The term csango is in fact in the middle of a real terminological chaos: although 
"true" Moldavian Csango do not use it for naming themselves, this is the autoidentification 
of two Hungarian groups in inner Transylvania: the inhabitants of seven Romanian — 
Hungarian villages in the neighborhood of Brasov (called in Romanian Sdcele, in 
Hungarian Hetfalu), and the mountaineers of the high valleys of the Eastern Carpathians 
(districts Harghita respectively Neamt). Thus there are the "Csangos from Hetfalu" and the 
"Csangos of the Gyimes". 

In the late 18 th century five Hungarian villages were created (with Eastern 
Transylvanian, "Szekler" refugees) in Bukowina. Emmigrants from these villages were 
settled, in several waves, from the 1880s, in different areas of former Hungary: in Deva 
town, in villages of its neighborhood, near Arad, and also in present-day Vojvodina 
(Vojlovica), etc. Some of these communities used to call themselves Csango, but, because 
of their history in the Habsburg political system, their ulterior evolution made possible a 
synchronization with the general economic, social, cultural state of other Hungarian 
communities of the empire — their offspring today name themselves Szekely (Szekler). 



232 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

dynamic chapter of their history — the passage from a "pre-national", 
"natural" existence to the modern national identity. (As the French did in 
the 19 th century, passing from peasants into Frenchmen.) 



In the statistics 

The first government-organized population census in which the 
mother tongue was included among the requested data took place in 1859, 
in the newly established unified principality of Valachia and Moldavia. At 
this time in Moldavia there were 52,811 Roman Catholics, of which 71.5% 
— 37,823 individuals — were listed as having Hungarian as their mother 
tongue (Szabados 1989:91, quoted after Vincze 2002:52). Later population 
statistics (until 1930) did not include mother tongue and nationality data. In 
1930 there were 109,953 Catholics in Moldavia, of which 23,800 had 
Hungarian as their mother tongue — but this figure is not considered 
reliable. The opinion of the scholars is that the real number of 
Hungarian-speaking Catholics in 1930 was about 45,000 (Tanczos 1997, 
quoted by Vincze 2002). The 1948 census revealed in Moldavia some 6,600 
Hungarians (the estimation is 60,000, see Szabados 1989). According to the 
1956 census, 18,817 persons spoke, as their mother tongue, Hungarian. The 
1966 figure was 9,516, and ten years later only 3,813. (The number of 
Catholics living in Moldavia at this time was estimated to be 150,000) The 
census in 1992 and 2002 also mention small numbers (a few hundreds) of 
ceangdi. According to the 1992 census there are 240,038 Catholics in 
Moldavia, but only 1,826 persons speak Hungarian. Actual field studies in 
the early 1990s show around 50,469 persons speaking Hungarian (Tanczos 
2000). This is the most recent figure. 

Elements of history 

The beginnings of their history are not known — because there is a 
great scarcity regarding the early medieval history of this entire region of 
Europe. The history of Roman Catholic population from Moldavia is 
restricted to the history of their religious life — of which there is very little 
information. Parts of the area between the Eastern Carpathians and the 
Dnester River belonged, after the mid- 11 th century, to the Princes of 
"Russian" Galitzia (a state derived from the Kievian Rus), to Turkic 
Cumans (or Kypchak, the Polovtsy of the early Russian tradition) and after 
1241 to the Tatar state of the Golden Horde. Moldavia emerged as a state 
(in mid- 14 th century) having mostly an Orthodox Romanian population and 
also a significant Orthodox Ukrainian ("Russian") one, in its Northern parts. 
In the towns of that time we also find Armenian, Italian and Turkic 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 233 

merchants. 8 In the early 13* century we have the first information on 
Catholicism in Moldavia. In 1227 or 1228 a Roman Catholic bishopric of 
the Cumans or of Milcovia (a still unidentified place in the South-Western 
border area of Moldavia) was created, subordinated to the Archbishopric of 
Esztergom (Strigonium, Gran). Its aim was to baptize (in the Western faith) 
the elites of the local Cuman population, and to take spiritual care of "those 
people, both Hungarians and Germans, from the Kingdom of Hungary, 
who, living here among the Vlachs, received the sacraments from their 
pseudo-bishops". 9 This is not the last case of migration through the passes 
of the Eastern Carpathians. More of them will follow in the forthcoming 
centuries, in both directions. The bishopric "of the Cumans" existed until 
1241. In the next political era, that of the belonging of the area to the 
Golden Horde, we hear of Dominican or Franciscan monasteries (and 
missionary activity) in several Moldavian towns. 

The Moldavian state was born under the auspices of the second 
Anjou king of the Hungarian Kingdom, Louis I. "the Great" (1342-82), 
after the success of the Hungarian military expedition led in the area by 
Andras Lackffy (probably in 1345) and the victory of the Lithuanians over 
the Tatars at Siniye Vody (1351).io The new state was organized by ethnic 
Romanian noblemen of Maramures 11 and comprised the whole area 
between the Eastern Carpathian mountains and the river Dnester, 
reaching, during the years 1350-1392, its furthermost point, the port-town 
and commercial centre Moncastro/Cetatea Alba/Bjelgorod Dnestrovski/ 
Akkerman. In its first century of existence, Moldavia developed close 
political and cultural ties with the Hungarian and the Polish-Lithuanian 
kingdom. Another aspect in the first century after the creation of the 
Moldavian state (between mid- 14^ — mid- 15 th centuries) is the 
existence, close to the ruler, of several Catholic noble ("boyar") families 
of Hungarian or German origin. Because Moldavia (most of the 
population and most of the elites) belonged to the "Orthodox common- 
wealth", the majority (and the Court) assimilated in short time (a few 
generations) these families. 

8 On the beginnings of the Moldavian state see: Spinei 1992 (in fact 1994); on the 
history of towns of Moldavia, with consistent information on all composing communities, 
see Giurescu 1997. 

9 The letter of Pope Gregory IX to crown-prince Bela of Hungary, from 14'h f 
November 1234, cited in Giurescu 1997:43. 

10 For the establishment of the Moldavian state see: Deletant 1986 and 1988, both 
texts are also in Deletant 1991. See also Spinei 1992:311. 

11 An area today in Northern Transylvania (Romania) and Eastern Zakarpatya 
(Western Ukraine). 



234 CKPMBEHE MAIbHHE HA BaJIKAHY 

In these times we can also trace the origins of another wave of 
population of Hungarian or German language and Roman Catholic faith. 
The population of towns was in the 13 th - 17 th centuries quite hetero- 
geneous from a cultural (ethnic and religious) point of view. At the 
beginning of the medieval Moldavian statality, the specific rights (elected 
town councils and other medieval administrative institutions) of burghers 
in important Moldavian towns such as Baia, Roman, Suceava, 
Targu-Trotu§ were related to their German origin. In the 15 th century the 
rich burghers: merchants, craftsmen, miners and wine-growers of these 
towns sent their sons to the universities of Prague, Vienna and Krakow, 
and were present in the Constance Council to express their position 
regarding Hussitism and "union with the Schismatics". 

Meanwhile, a new wave of ethnic Hungarians arrived. In 1439, a 
large number of Hungarian Hussites left their home area for Moldavia. 
They lived in ancient Southern Hungary (what is now Vojvodina, Banat 
and Srem, notable settlements like Vilok, Futak and Kamenica). In those 
times, this was perhaps the most densely populated, rich, civilized area of 
the Kingdom (Nemeskiirty 1989; he also quotes Malyusz 1984). They 
settled in several areas, founding even a new town, Hu§i (later the seat of 
an Orthodox bishopric). They realized the first Hungarian translation of 
the Bible, copied in 1466, in Tatros (Targu Trotu$) town, in South- 
-Western Moldavia. 

This was an era when Moldavia's ruling princes had a certain — 
however dynamic — independence. The princes needed the (economic) 
support of these towns. But from the beginning of the 16 th century, i.e. the 
beginning of the Ottoman vassality, this organic development stopped, 
and the towns gradually lost their Western-like institutions and cultural 
assets. Other reasons why this Catholic population lost its demographic 
and cultural energy was the fall, after 1526 respectively 1541, of the 
Hungarian Kingdom, thus the fading away of its former political and 
cultural influence on Moldavia. There was also the coincidence of the 
Reformation among most of the former Roman Catholic population of 
Hungary, respectively of nearby Transylvania (the very province which 
sent most of the German and Hungarian population of Medieval 
Moldavia) with this dramatic history. 

Under the Ottoman vassality the evolution of both Romanian 
principalities (Moldavia and Valachia) towards Western European social 
and political development stopped totally. The rulers depended on the 
policy of the Porte, and the Principalities, even if they did not disappear 
formally, lost all their former freedom of decision. 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 235 



During the 17 th century several Franciscan monks (of South-Slavic 
origin) from the Balkans, envoys of the Holy Seat, visited the Catholic 
communities and described their situation: poverty, isolation, and the need 
for priests to speak their language. The Catholic (Hungarian or German) 
population of the towns, preserving for a longer period their privileges 
given by the princes, have maintained their cultural (religious) and 
juridical identity for a longer period, but during the 17 th century they 
faded away, having been assimilated, killed in wars, or dying in 
epidemics. The community has continued its existence only in villages, as 
free peasants or serfs of rich boyars or of Orthodox monasteries. 

The next — and last — important immigration to Moldavia was the 
1764 exodus of many Szekler (in Hungarian Szekely, ethnic Hungarian 
soldier peasants living in the neighbouring Eastern Transylvania), due to 
the cruel way of introducing the Military Border Regiments in this part of 
the empire by the Habsburg administration. 

The different moments of immigration, from different areas of the 

Danube Basin, the later complete isolation of ethnic Hungarians from 

Moldavia of Hungary, and the total absence in the last few centuries of an 

educated stratum, have led to their very conservative, archaic, however 

rich traditional culture (appreciated by 1 9 th and 20 th century ethnologists 

and linguists) — and also to the fact that, not having an intellectual elite of 

their own, in the second part of the 1 9 th century, they were offered only 

one way of "development into nation": integration into the emerging 
Romanian national identity. 

After the Council of Trento — and because of the abandonment of 
these Catholic people from Moldavia by the Transylvanian political and 
cultural institutions (most of the Hungarians and all Germans in 
Transylvania becoming Protestant), their religious life was organized by 
the Holy Seat, which sent here, for short terms (usually 3 years) — mostly 
Italian and Polish — Franciscan monks. But this system was quite 
problematic. There were not enough monks for all parishes. The parish 
communities were usually very poor. The monks did not know the 
language of their flock (but were able to learn more easily Romanian, the 
language of the majority — and of the state). 

Reports written after these visitations from the 17 th century were 
discovered in Vatican and published in late 19 th century. Then the 20 th 
century offered a very rich new material regarding the former problems of 
these Catholic communities (further visitation reports and several 
applications of the believers for Hungarian-speaking priests). 

An important historical period was the first two thirds of the 19 th 
century, the energetic birth and development in Hungary of modern 



236 Ckpmbehe mah>mhe ha Bajikahy 

Hungarian national ideology. The "national sciences": historiography, 
linguistics, literary history, ethnology were born, and among the first 
modern Hungarian philologists we find those who went to Moldavia, to 
meet "the forgotten Magyar brothers", such as the Franciscan monk, P. Elek 
Gego (in 1836, with the support of the recently founded Hungarian 
Academy of Sciences) (Gego 1938) and the college professors, Karoly 
Veszely, Fiilop Jako Imets and Ferenc Kovacs (in 1868) (Veszely, Jako and 
Kovacs 1970). The Csango are "discovered" by the philologists — and by 
the large public. In the beginning of the 20 th century, Yrjo Wichmann, a 
Finn linguist, studies in situ their language, and between the two World 
Wars their archaic and amazingly rich musical folklore is also studied. After 
the implementation of Communism in Romania — and the establishment of 
the Hungarian University in Cluj (1945), research has continued, and until 
now has produced a great amount of scientific material, partly published. 

Moldavian Catholic bishop Paroni (1818-1825) asked, in 1825, the 
Cluj Minorite Monastery (in Transylvania) to send six monks each year to 
Moldavia. But this action ceased soon (Pozsony 2002:100). In 1861 the 
Catholic Church in Hungary created the Szent Ldszlo Tdrsulat {Associ- 
ation Saint Ladislas), for the spiritual aid of Hungarian Catholics living 
abroad. They sent in Moldavia numerous priests, offering sermons and 
liturgy in Latin and Hungarian. 

The event which apparently (and essentially) decided their future 
destiny, i.e. their integration into the modern Romanian ("ethnic") nation, 
was the establishment in 1884 in Ia§i, of a bishopric, which imposed in the 
religious life of the Csango the Romanian language, and forbade the 
Hungarian. The bishopric eliminated the ethnic Hungarian priests. A 
newly created theological Seminary was meant to prepare the only 
spiritual elite, the priests, who became the main instrument in imposing 
the Romanian language and eventually the Romanian identity. In fact this 
decision (respectively its consequences) undermined all subsequent 
attempts to introduce Hungarian language in the life of the Csango. (Such 
an attempt was, between 1945-1959, the acceptance by the Communist 
system of their Hungarian identity, and the creation of an ephemerous 
Hungarian language education network.) 

Together with the development of the modern Romanian state and 
nation at the end of the 19 th — beginning of the 20 th century, and even 
more after 1918 (the moment of creation of Greater Romania, which 
included also former Habsburg Transylvania and Bukowina and former 
Tzarist Bassarabia), the centralized policy aimed at the integration and 
eventually the assimilation of Csango (and other ethnic minorities) into 
the Romanian nation went on continuously. Apart from forbidding the use 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 237 



in the church, but also in everyday life of the Hungarian language, serious 
"intellectual efforts" were made to convince the Catholics of their 
Romanian ethnic origin. The first book revealing this was written by the 
Franciscan monk P. Iosif Petru Pal {Originea catolicilor din Moldova si 
franciscanii, pdstorii de veacuri, Sabaoani-Roman, 1941). 

Then, between 1945-48, there comes the above-mentioned moment: 
the experiment of the Communist administration to offer a possible 
"Hungarian scenario". The collateral conditions of this policy were the 
Communists' struggle against the Catholic Church, the "class struggle" 
against the richer/better farmers, and the direct Soviet interference in 
Romania's internal life. Historians noticed (without a clear explanation) that 
after Stalin's death, in the early Hrushchev era (in the late fifties), in all 
satellite states in Central Europe, the policy regarding ethnic minorities 
changed, certain institutional and procedural facilities that were offered at the 
beginning of the period have been withdrawn. In the case of Csango, this 
policy consisted of the elimination of the Hungarian language curriculum in 
schools, and furthermore, of the total ban of any mention of them in the 
media, and also the ban of any contact with Hungarians (from Transylvania 
and elsewhere). In this epoch (in 1985) the manuscript of Dumitru Martinas 
(1897-1979), dedicated to the Origin of Csango from Moldavia, 11 an 
intentionally scientific, but essentially political book was published. The 
author, a former Catholic priest from Moldavia, and high school teacher in 
Transylvania, supposes that the bulk of Moldavian Catholics arrived from 
Eastern Transylvania in the 17 th century, where they originally were 
Catholized and (partly) Hungarized Romanians (?), an assertion not 
demonstrated by the book. This book is now the main instrument in denying 
the Csangos still speaking Hungarian the right to learn Hungarian and pray in 
Hungarian (see Beno and Muradin 2002:171-173). 



The play and the actors 

The 1989 Revolution created a new paradigm regarding this issue as 
well. Now all the actors are acting openly. In this way we may present the 
basic moments — and actors — of the recent history of the Moldavian 
Catholics, respectively of those who still speak, at a certain level, the 
Moldavian Hungarian dialects. 

First I will make a sketchy presentation of the "Csango play", as it has 
evoluated in time. Until the early 16 th century their story has been decided by 

12 Originea ceangdilor din Moldova, Bucuresti, 1985, republished after 1990, with 
several translations. 



238 Ckphbehe mah»hhe ha Eajikahy 

the Prince and the administration of Moldavia, the relations between 
Moldavia and Hungary, or Moldavia and Poland, two regional powers, where 
the Catholicism was the official religion. But the situation depended on 
themselves too, some of them being rich burghers, benefiting of "European" 
urban autonomous institutions. Between mid- 16 th and late 19 th century the 
country becomes a vassal of the Otoman Empire, which is followed by the 
pauperization and ruralization of the Catholics, and the advent of mostly 
Italian Franciscan monks, sent by Rome. The use of Romanian language is 
more and more widespread. The Catholic population has no intellectual elite 
of its own. Between early 19 th century and 1884 several priests arrive from 
Hungary. Since this year the main (and "official") voice about them has been 
that of the Iasi Roman Catholic Bishopric and its priests. The position of the 
local and central administration of modern Romania is identical. The other 
voice is that of Hungarian historians, linguists, ethnologists, and 
musicologists, affirming their Hungarian origin and "character", thus 
suggesting that they should "be Hungarian". The hardly audible requests in 
the past centuries, of illiterate peasants, for Hungarian speaking priests, could 
have never influenced the reality. 

After the 1989-90 changes new actors rose, enforcing both sides. 
Because there was no significant intelligentsia among Hungarian speaking 
Catholics in Moldavia, those living in Transylvania created in October 
1990 an "Association of Csango Hungarians of Moldavia" {Asociatia 
Maghiarilor Ceangdi din Moldova, Moldvai Csdngomagyarok Szovetsege). 
The organization applied for education in Hungarian for those pupils 
whose parents ask this, and complementary Hungarian language church 
services. They published in Sfantu Gheorghe, in 1990-92, and, after 
several interruptions, from 2000 in Miercurea Ciuc (both towns in Eastern 
Transylvania), a bilingual periodical {Csango Ujsdg/Gazeta Ceangdilor 
din Moldova respectively Moldvai Magyarsdg). 

In the second part of the 1990s new organizations are bom. In 1997 a 
new magazine appears: Mi magunkrol/Noi despre Noi {We about Ourselves), 
which after 1999 will be the organ of then created Szeret-Klezse Foundation 
(it succeeded to purchase a building, which became a sort of cultural and 
educational center). The youth founded in 1996 the Via Spei Csango Youth 
Organization, registered in 1999. Its main aim is the implementation and 
development of education in Hungarian in the still Hungarian speaking 
villages. Recently in Pusztina/Pustiana \h& Association St. Stephen has been 
bom, its goal being the introduction of the complementary Hungarian language 
mess, and the study of the local folklore heritage. 

Beginning with 1990, and because of the continuously growing 
economic problems of Romania, a significant number of Csango youth 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 239 

went to Hungary to work. Several hundred children also went to Hungarian 
language schools in Transylvania, and some young people even to 
universities in Hungary. Part of them returned after graduating. Thus the 
knowledge of modern common Hungarian has become "useful". Attempts 
were made in different settlements to organize some form of education in 
the Hungarian language, from as early as 1990. The local (and district) 
administration has forbidden all these attempts, until recently. First in 2000 
the supplementary Hungarian language education was introduced in 
Cleja/Klezse, followed by the introduction of similar language coures in 
2002-3 in seven villages, in 2003-4 in 12 villages. All these began in 2000 
with the approval of the Ministry of Education. 

Meanwhile the issue has became "international": a member of the 
Parliamentary Assembly of the European Council, Mrs. Tytti Isohookana- 
-Asunmaa, former Minister of Culture of Finland, visited in 1999 the more 
important Csango settlements of Moldavia, then issued a Report with 
eight recommendations. The Romanian representative, as well as the 
Catholic Archbishop of Bucharest disapproved its conclusions, both 
considering that it is but organic part of the campaign aiming at the 
Magyarization of the region inhabited by the Csango. The Cultural, 
Educational and Scientific Committee of the European Council voted in 
Strasbourg, on the 26 th of April, 2001, the report (Jfe 9078) of Mrs. 
Isohookana-Asunmaa, containing practical propositions for the protection 
of the Csango culture. Then the Permanent Committee of the Europe 
Council issued, in Istanbul, on the 23" 1 of May 2001 its Recommendation 
M> 1521 regarding the protection of the Csango culture (it was issued 
before a similar document on the protection of Roma culture, and also on 
another hidden Balkan minority: the Vlachs or Aromans — received 
without enthusiasm by the Greek authorities). 

The other side comprises now the recently organized "Department of 
Scientific Research of the Iasi Roman Catholic Bishopric", publishing, 
since 1998, together with the Romanian Academy, imposing books on the 
Romanian character and origin of the Moldavian Catholics. Another new 
actor is Dumitru Martina^ Union, established in March 2001 in Bacau, its 
goal being the prevention from and limitation of the right to self- 
-organization of the Csango, free expression and institutional practice of 
their identity. The organizers intend to send the European institutions a 
message that there is no need in Moldavia for education and liturgy in 
Hungarian, because the Csango are of Romanian origin. 

The Romanian Academy organized, "behind closed doors", on 29 th 
of April 2002, a seminar in Bucharest, in the building of the Parliament, 
on "The Cultural Identity of the Moldavian Roman Catholics". Co-or°a- 



240 Ckphbehe mailhhe ha Bajikahy 

nizers were the Ministry of Education and Research, Dumitru Martina? 
Union, the Research Institute of the Romanians in Counties Covasna and 
Harghita and the Ia§i Bishopric. The Ministry of Information supported 
the costs of the seminar. 13 

This presentation is very fragmentary — we do not intend to make an 
exhaustive history, or even a chronology of the events, only to suggest the 
conditions of this case of a hidden minority. 



Conclusions 

The Csango are forced to quit the silent comer of history. They 
(those for whom this was not made by the forefathers) must make their 
choice, and assume an identity. It seems that the still Hungarian-speaking 
part of the Catholics of Moldavia faces the following alternatives of 
identification: 

• For most of the community members, the process of assimilation is 
finished and definitive. They are now ethnic Romanians of Catholic faith. 
They have disappeared as a (both "hidden" or "official") minority. This is 
the scenario officially backed by the Ia§i Bishopric and the Bucure§ti 
Roman Catholic Archbishopric, as well as by the administrative and even 
the scientific establishment. 

• For a few communities another alternative has "materialized" — 
that of the "Hungarian" identification. Its signs are the existence of the 
"Hungarian-Csango" organizations and the beginning of "complementary" 
Hungarian language education, in a few villages. They benefit of the tacit 
or outspoken help of the Hungarian intelligentsia of Transylvania, of the 
Democratic Association of Hungarians of Romania (the still apparently 
strong parliamentary representation of Hungarians in Romania), and of 
NGO-s, and even of institutions close to the government of Hungary. A 
political analyst from Bucharest writes: "Are the Csangos Hungarian? 
Some say yes, others say no. Of course, if the present tendency to 
assimilate into the body of the "unique Hungarian nation" is continued, 
including the fellowhips in Budapest for the Csango elite, it is possible 
that in 30-40 years the Csangos, too, become in their totality, Hungarian 
(...)" (Oprescu 2001:65). 

• A third alternative (which I consider not realistic, but however, 
possible) may be based on the recent Recommendation Ka 1521 (2001) of 



13 A more detailed presentation of the post-1989 chronology is offered in: Pozsony 
2003. Ferenc: A moldvai csdngok erdekvedebni torekvesei 1989 utdn, in: KORUNK, nr. 
9-2003, pp. 3-20. 



Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority" 24 1 

the Council of Europe, "Csango minority culture in Romania". Speaking 
of the Csangos, it mentions that their language is an "archaic Hungarian" 
one, yet it names their language "Csango", not Hungarian. Bishop 
Gherghel from Iasi calls (in October 2000, in Cluj, in a conference of the 
Roman Catholic bishops of Romania) their language a "slang". Mr. 
Ghiorghi Prisacaru, Romania's representative in the Permanent Committee, 
when commenting the Recommendation in the European Council mentions 
that the document recommends education in the mother tongue, but not in 
Hungarian. He announced that the Iasi Roman Catholic bishopric "created 
a scientific team which will elaborate the written variant of the Csango 
language". 14 

A possible final conclusion: all individuals, and all human collectivi- 
ties are dynamic, in motion. They exist — and change — between limits in 
space, and in time. They are always on the road. Always on the 
"threshold". This fact is most visible in the case of hidden minorities, 
when they flourish or hide, and/or disappear. 



Literature 

Arens/Bein 2003: M. Arens, D. Bein, Katholische Ungarn in der Moldau. Eine 
Minderheit im historischen Kontext einer ethnisch und konfessionell 
gemischten Region, Saeculum, Band 54, II. Halbband, 213-270. 

Beno and Muradin 2002: A. Beno, L. Muradin, Csango Dialect - Csango Origin, L. 
Dioszegi, (Ed.): Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia. Essays on the Past and Pres- 
ent of the Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia, Budapest. 

Boycheva 1995: P. Boycheva, Predstavata za balgarite spored rumanskata 
istoriografiya (XV-XIX v.), N. Danova, V. Dimova, and M. Kalicin, (Eds.), 
Predstavata z a "drugija" naBalkanite, Sofia, 128-135. 

Deletant 1986: D. Deletant, Moldavia between Hungary and Poland, 1347-1412, The 
Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 64, Ks 2. April 1 986. 

Deletant 1 988: D. Deletant, Some Considerations on the Emergence of the Principality 
of Moldavia in the Middle of the Fourteenth Century, D. Delenant, H. Hanak 
(Eds.), Historians as Nation-Builders — Central and South-East Europe, 
Macmillan Press in association with School of Slavonic and East European 
Studies, University of London. 

Deletant 1991 : D. Deletant, Studies in Romanian History, Bucuresti. 

Dioszegi 2002: L. Dioszegi, (Ed.): Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia. Essays on the Past 
and Present of the Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia, Budapest. 

Gabor 1996: I. Gabor, Dicfionarul comunitdfilor catolice din Moldova, Bacau. 

Gego 1838: P. E. Gego: A ' moldvai magyar telepekrol (About the Hungarian Settle- 
ments of Moldavia), Buda. 

14 Pozsony, in the KORUNK article, p. 17. 



242 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

Giurescu 1997: C. C. Giurescu: Tdrguri sou ora$e $i cetdfi moldovene din secolul al 
X-leapand lamijlocul secolului al XVI-lea, Bucure^ti. 

Malyusz 1984: E. Malyusz, Zsigmond kirdly uralma Magyarorszdgon, Budapest. 
Nemeskiirty 1984: I. Nemeskurty, Dallas idok, Budapest, 122-164. 

Oprescu 2001: D. Oprescu, Despre "legitimatia de maghiar", Sfera Politicii, nr. 
97-98/2001. 

Pozsony 2000: F. Pozsony, (Ed.): Csdngosors. Moldvai csdngok a vdltozo idokben. 
(Destiny of Csango. Moldavian Csangos in the changing times), Budapest, n.d. 

Pozsony 2002: F. Pozsony: Church Life in Moldavian Hungarian Communities, L. 
Dioszegi, (Ed.): Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia. Essays on the Past and Pres- 
ent of the Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia, Budapest. 

Pozsony 2003: F. Pozsony:^ moldvai csdngok erdekvedelmi torekvesei 1989 utdn, in: 
KORUNK, nr. 9-2003, 3-20 

Tanczos 1997: V. Tanczos, Hanyan vannak a moldvai csangok?, Magyar Kisebbseg, 
No. 1-2,370-390. 

Tanczos 2000: V. Tanczos, A moldvai csangok lelekszamarol, in: Pozsony, Ferenc 
(ed), Csdngosors, Budapest, n.d. 

Spinei 1992: V. Spinei, Moldova in secolele Xl-XIV, Chi§inau. 

Szabados 1989: M. Szabados, A moldvai magyarok aroman ncpszamlalasoktiikreben 
1859-1977 kozott, Magyarsdgkutatds. A Magyarsdgkutato Intezet evkonyve, 
Budapest. 

Vincze 2002: G. Vincze, An Overview of the Modern History of the Moldavian 
Csango-Hungarians, L. Dioszegi, (Ed.): Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia. Es- 
says on the Past and Present of the Hungarian Csangos in Moldavia. Budapest. 

Veszely, Jako and Kovacs 1 970: Karoly Veszely — Imets Fiilop Jako — Ferenc Kovacs: 
Utazds Moldva-Oldhorszdgban 1868, Marosvasarhely. 



Ferenc Csortan 

Alternatives of identification for a "hidden minority": 
the Catholics of Moldova (Eastern Romania) 

The Catholics are a constituent cultural group of former Moldavian Principality (today 
part of modern Romania, the Moldavian Republic and Ukraine). They live today in many 
villages of Bacau, Ia§i, NeamJ and Vaslui districts, and also in towns of this area. Their history 
may be followed during the last 7-8 centuries; however, their origin is not clear. Part of them 
still speaks archaic forms of the Hungarian language. In the Middle Age, Moldavia, officially 
being "an Orthodox state", was an Ottoman vassal state, and the administration of the Catholics 
was offered directly by the Vatican, through Italian and Polish Franciscan monks. Intense before 
the second half of the 16 th century, the relations with ethnic Hungarians in Transylvania were 
decreased because of the fall of the medieval Hungarian Kingdom under the Ottomans and the 
Reformation of most Transylvanian Hungarians. Thus the Moldavian Catholics became 
completely isolated of later evolution of Hungarians in the Danube basin. 

In early 19 l century they were "discovered" by Hungarian philologists, and ever since a 
great amount of scientific material has been produced regarding their traditional culture, 
linguistic and ethno-musical heritage, which preserves archaic layers of traditional Hungarian 
folk culture. Their name in the Hungarian scientific and social space is "Csango". 




Ferenc Csortan: Alternatives of Identification for a "Hidden Minority 



99 



243 



>ih 



Modem Romania has been engaged in an intense modernization since the first half of the 
19 century. This includes all phenomena of "nation building". In late 19 ,h century a bishopric 
was created in Iasi, imposing the Romanian as language of the cult, respectively forbiddin« the 
use of Hungarian. s 

In this process the "ideological evolution" of most Moldavian Catholics was towards an 

ethnic Romanian identification. A "brake" in this evolution appeared, between the first postwar 

years and the late fifties-early sixties, when Romania's national policy, following the "example" 

of the Soviet Union, offered them a scenario of developing a Hungarian identification Then this 
evolution was stopped. 

Now, after the 1989 revolution, wc may see, simultaneously, three possible scenarios: 

j l "^ That ' followed b y their majority, and supported by the local and central administration 
and the Roman Catholic bishopric of Iasi and the arch-bishopric of Bucharest, of a Romanian 
identification; 

- That, formulated by tiny "Hungarian Csango" organizations, and sustained by some 
scientific and social fora and government organizations of Hungary, of identification as part of 
the Hungarian minority from Romania: and 

— That of identification as a separate ethnic community, partly bilingual using a 
language different of Hungarian, and of Romanian ethnic origin. 



Padueoje M/iabeuoeuh 

CJ10BEHCKA JIHHrBHCTMHKA nPffllA/JHOCT 

KOHOECHOHAJIHA nPHHAAHOCT H ETHMHKH 

TPAHCOEP y CBETJIY CKPHBEHHX MAEbHHA 

ha jyro3AriA£y kocoba h metoxhje 

1. 06iiacT KocoBa h MeToxHJe KapaicrepHuie ce H3pa3HTHM jihhtbh- 
cthhkhm h cthhhkhm inapeHHJiOM, na je npe^cTaBa o oboj TepHTopHJH ca- 
mo Kao npocTopy cpncKO-anGaHCKHX cy K o6a u cynejbaBaHba noBpiiiHa. H e- 
noTnyHa h norpeuma. Ha ocHOBy OBaKO ynpomheHe npeACTaBe CTBapa ce 
norpemaH 3aKJbynaK o cthhhkoj h JiHHrBHCTHHKOj mohojihthocth flBajy je- 
3HKa h ABajy HapoAa. MyjiTHJiHHrBajiHOCT, MyjroiK0H$ecH0HajiH0CT h Myj> 
THKyjiTypajiHocT KapaKTepnuie 0By o6;iacT y BHine nocjiewtHx BeKOBa. 

Ochobhh <|)aKTop kojh yruHe Ha (J)JiyKTyHpaH>e eTHHHKe npHna^HO- 
cth Ha KocoBy h Mctoxhjh je KOH^ecnoHajiHa npHna^HOCT: Heaji6aHCKe 
MycjiHMaHCKe eTHOKyjrrypHe rpyne acHMHuniuy ce y aji6ancKH eraoc, eT- 
HOKyjiTypHe rpyne npaBocjiaBHHX xpniuhaHa HecpncKor nopeKua hhtc- 
rpHiny ce y cpncKH. Ethhhkh TpaHc^ep Ha KocoBy h MeToxHJH y Heno- 
cpeaHoj je Be3H ca hojihthhkhm o^HOCHMa y znmaBH. 

ynopeI)HBaH>eM pe3yjiTaTa nonnca CTaHOBHHiuTBa yonaBa ce eT- 

HHHKH TpaHC^Dep MyCJIHMaHCKOr CTaHOBHHUJTBa CJIOBeHCKe JTHHrBHCTHHKe 

npHnaiiHOCTH. HjiaHOBH obhx eTHOKyjiTypHHx rpyna HeKa^a cy Cp6n, He- 
Ka^a cy MycjiHMaHH ( K ao eranHKo Odette), Hena^a cy Typnn, Henaaa 
cy Aji6aHUH, HeKa^a cy JyrocjiOBeHH, a nocjie 1999. ro/iHHe h EoumauH. 

3Hanaj yranaja KOH^ecHOHajiHe npHna^HOCTH Ha eranqKO caMOo- 
/ipe^eH»e cjiobchckhx eTHOKyjiTypHHx rpyna Ha KocoBy h Mctoxhjh H.iy- 
CTpyje CTaHOBHHiHTBo xpninhaHCKe pHMOKaTOJiHHKe Bepe JaaeBa h JleT- 
hhhc JlHHrBHCTHHKH ohh npnnaAajy cpncKHM roBopHMa, aiiH ce nociie^- 
h.hx aeueHHJa cthhhkh caMooApeFjyjy Kao XpBaTH. 

MycuHMaHCKO CTaHOBHHiHTBo TypcKora je3HKa, npHcyrao y cbhm 
rpa/iOBHMa Ha KocoBy h MeTOXHjn, y nonHCHMa CTaHOBHnuiTBa H3JaniH>a- 



246 Ckphbehe maimihe ha Eajikahy 



Ba ce TypuHMa hjih Aji6aHUHMa, nyBajyhn Typcny jiHHrBHCTHHKy npnna/a- 
hoct y Mefjyco6Hoj KOMyHHKannJH. CTaHOBHHiiiTBO TypcKor MaTepiter je- 
3HKa CBojy noce6HOCT — 6e3 o63Hpa Ha cthhhko H3JaujH>aBaH>e — MaHH- 
(J)ecTyje Kpo3 aHTaroHH3aM CBor yp6aHor nopeKJia m cbojhx HaBHKa ca 
CTaHOBHHiiiTBOM pypajiHHX cpe/jHHa. 

POMH Ha K0C0By H MeTOXHJH H3pa3HTO Cy CKJIOHH CTHHHKOM TpaH- 

c$epy, kojh Hemhe Hero kojj flpyrnx eTHOKyjrrypHHx rpyna HMa 3a nocjie- 
nuuy h jiHHrBHCTHHKH TpaHC(])ep. H OHzia Ka.ua cy h cthhhkh h jihhtbh- 
cthhkh acHMHjiOBaHH zjOMHHaHTHHM Hapo/wMa, OHM Hajneinhe HMCy noT- 
nyHO npHXBaheHH hh oa Aji6anana hh oji Cp6a, na npeflCTaBJtajy nony- 
HHTerpHcane rpyne y HapoA KOMe cy npninjiH. 

JIok je KOHc[)ecHOHajiHa npnnaAHOCT eTHOKyjrrypHHx rpyna cjiobch- 
cxe je3HHKe npnnaflHOCTH Ha KocoBy h Mctoxhjh on npecy/mor 3HaHaja 
3a eTHHHKO oflpe^eae, y flecjpHHHcaity eTHHHKe npnna/iHocTH ohhx kojh- 
Ma je aji6aHCKH je3HK MaTepn-H npHMapHa je JMHrBHCTHHKa npHna^HOCT, 
a KOH^ecHOHanHocT HMa 3a nocjie/JHny caMO pa3JiHHHT KyjiTypHH HfleHTH- 
TeT AjiGaHaqa MyciiHMaHa h Aji6aHaua pHMOKaTOJimca. 

2. y obom npHJiory 6jin>Ke ce aHajiH3npa o^hoc anoBeHCKe jihhtbh- 
CTHHKe npHnaflHOCTH, KOH^ecnoHajiHe npnna,aH0CTH h eTHHMKor TpaH- 
c<j>epa y cBeTJiy npoGjieMa ckphbchhx Man>HHa Ha jyro3anaziy KocoBa h 
MeToxHJe. TepHTopnja m eTHOKyjrrypHe rpyne Ha H>oj oaa6paHe cy H3 bh- 
me pa3Jiora: obrq je HBnna cpncKor eraoca, OB/je ce 3aBpmaBajy cpncKH 
roBopn npn3peHCKO-jy^(HOMopaBCKor THna, cycpehy ce HaHocn H3 3anazi- 
HOMaKeaoHCKHX roBOpa, Ha obom npoeropy >KHBe (hjih cy Maxap /KHBejie 
ao jyHa 1999. rojiHHe) pa3Hopo/iHe eTHOKyjiTypHe rpyne ckjiohc eT- 

HHHKOJ, AeJIHMHHHO H je3HHKOJ MHMHKpHJH, >KHBe npnnaflHHUH pa3nH4H- 

thx Hapofla h pa3JiHHHTHX KOH^ecHj'a. Obo je, TaKol)e, TepnTopHJa Kojy y 
nocjie£H>a xpH Beica KapaKTepniny 3HaTHe eTHoje3HHKe npoMene. Y cpejj,- 
H>eM Bexy neHTap cpncne flpacaBe, ca H3pa3HTOM flOMHHannjoM cpncKor 
CTaHOBHHniTBa anH h npHcyTHOuihy Ajr6aHana h Bjiaxa, y KacHHJHM bcko- 
BHMa TepHTopnja H3pa3HTe HCJiaMHsamjje, Mnrpannja, bcjihkhx eTHOJe- 
3hhkhx npoMeHa. rioMepaEbe xpnmhaHCKor cpncKor CTaHOBHHinTBa ca 
OBe TepHTopnje npeMa ceBepy, noce6HO or Kpaja XVII BeKa, uinpeifce aji- 
6aHCKor eraoca Ha ao Ta#a cpncKy TepHTopHj'y, 3aTHM npnjiHB MycjiHMaH- 
CKor CTaHOBHHinTBa pa3JiHHHTe eTHOJiHHrBHCTHHKe npnna^HocTH y flpyroj 
nonoBHHH XIX Bexa ca ceBepHHJnx cpncKnx TepHTopnja ocjio6oI)eHHx or 
TypCKe BJiacTH, yTHnao je Ha npOMeHy yKynne eTHOJe3HHKe a eTHOKyn- 
TypHe cnHKe oSjiacra, 3aonrrpHo je KOH^ecHOHajiHH aHTaroHH3aM. 

AHajiH3a o^HOca y obom npnjiory 3acHHBa ce je/JHHM flejiOM Ha CTa- 
H>y ao jyHa 1999. ro^n-me, Ka/xa je ynynHa eTHOje3HHKa cjiHKa H3Men>eHa 



PagHBOje MjiaaeHOBHh: Cjiobehcka JiHHrBHCXHHKA npunA/jHOCX 



247 



eraoaycoM najBeher aejia npaeocjiaBKHx Cp6a, je/oHor A ejia npaBocjiaB- 

HHX POMa, fleJIHMHHHO H CXaHOBHHIUXBa CJIOBCHCKe JlHHFBHCTHHKe H P H- 

na^HocTH a Myc/iHMaHCKe KOH^ecnje. nocjie jyna 1999. ro^HHe fl eo npn- 
na^HHKa cjiobchckhx MycjiHMaHCKHx exnoKyjixypHHx rpyna npsn nyx ce 
npHKjiaiia oomaaHKOM cxhhhkom Moztajinxexy. 

3. JyrosanaaHH mo KocoBa b Mexoxnje KapaKxepnine ce HspasHTOM 
JiHHrBHCTHHKOM SHcpepeHHHJaHHJOM, nouiTO je na mojiom npocxopy jaCHO 
npcxjwjmcaHo - nope* HecjioBencKHX - oca M cjiobchckhx (c P hckhx) ro- 
Bopa.' (DopMHpaHH cy roBopn cpncKora jesHKa? „ ropaHCKH - je^HHM ae- 
jiom ne P H(|)epHH msBmoHtcm^mea roBop, xobo P h aji6aHCKor je 3 HKa 
roBop TypcKor je3HKa 5 roBopn poMCKor je3HKa. 

Y npnspeHy je KpajeM XX B e K a Maaa 6poj cxaHOBHHKa 3H ao, now- 
me, orpaHHHeny jieKCHKy apy M yHCKor (uHHuapcKor) rosopa, Kao xpar *o- 
ce.rtaBaiBa y osaj rpas - naJBehnM nmou m MocKonc-Jta - je;me ck Y hh- 
He UHHuapa KpajeM XVIII h nonexKOM XIX B e K a. H>hxob 6poi y n P H 3 pe- 
H y npe cxoxnnaK ro^HHa HHJe 6ho saaBuapjusB,* thm BHine mxo je eKo- 
HOMCKa cHara OBe exHOKyjixypHe rpyne 6HJia 3Hax H a. 

UHHuapH, 6y^yhn npaBocjiasHH xpnmhaHH, nocjie AocejtaBajfca y 
lIpnspeH y6p 3 o cy nocxajin xtBojesHHHH npHXBaxajynn c P hckh Kao zmyrn 
MaxepftH je3HK. Ha K o ce hoxomhh obhx IJmmapa caMOcyraefiyjy K ao Op- 
en, naKo BehHHa - noce6Ho MJiai)H - 3H a ca M o cpncKH, ohh ce hhc Y hox- 
ny H o orjBojHJiH o* CBor n P HMa P Hox exHoje 3 HHKor nopeKjia, opoI)aBajyhH 
ce ao nocjiea&HX aeaeHHJa nponuiora BeKa npexe^Ho Mel)yco6Ho ny B a- 
jyfiH npesaae o noce6 H ocxH, pasjiHKyjyhn ce h exnorpadpcKH o* 'jiokoji- 

HHX eXHHHKHX Cp6a. 3a JlOKaJlHH CpnCKH HCHBaib OHH Cy eXHOKyjIXYDHO 

MapKnpaHH Kao Tore. 

4. Ha jyroaanaay KocoBa h MexoxHJe cpefry ce AB e KOHcpecnje - 
xpHiHhaHCKa (npaBocjiaBHa h pHMOKaxojiHHKa) h MycjiHMaHCKa (cynnx- 
CKa). MycjiHMaHCKOj KOHcpecHJn npnnaAajy JiHHrBncxnHKH h cxhhhkh pa- 
3Hopo^He rpyne, na je hhtchshtct jihhfbhcxhhkhx h KyjxxypojroiHKHx 
KOHxaKaxa Mel)y npnnajiHHHHMa OBe pejinrnje Heiuxo Behn. 

y cbhm exHOKyjixypHHM xpynaMa a H ajiH3H P aHe oGnacxH, noce6 H o 
MycjiHMaHCKHM, yonaBa ce nperninxatte pasjiHHHrax exHOKyjixypnnx cjio- 
jesa - cxap o6ajiKa H CKor, cjioBeHCKor (cpncKor), aji6a H cKor, opnjeHxaji- 

1 HHJajieicaTCKOJ flH^epeHUHJauHJH obhx roBopa b. Kap T y. 
no^opy^.^Tr^™^ K ° Mn03HUHJH *»**«■ ^Bopa xpajy ce„a y HpHspeHcxoM 
3 J. UBHJHh HaBO^H 6poj K y oa 725 cTaHOBHHKa (UBHJHh 191 1:1 193). 



248 



CKPHBEHE MAH.HHE HA EAJIKAHY 



JY)KHOMETOXHJCKH H CEBEPHOUIAPnJIAHHHCKH 

TOBOPPi 



BpQTOTHM 



l"Ek!KOB!!Ua 



Opaxooau 

Bwhq Xosa . *& 

T>j ^LDrrTcpyuja J c*M Pcxa m H^. 

A- APcniMi^ ■ Moa.i>aHc 

-<£/- -^fJv*° CorwHC-. 




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TlOiipiIMCKH TOBOp 
© ^aKOBaHKH TOBOp 

■ nOAropcKH roBop 

# nonropcKH roBop ca 
aHTenenyjiTHMCKiiM aKuenroM 

D cupuHiihKii roBop 
O ropancKH roBop 

• cpereMKu roBop 

■ npinpencRii rpaACKU roBop 
p npeKOKaMCKu roBop 



Pa^HBOje MjiafleHOBHh: Cjiobehcka ^MHrBHCTHMKA iiPHrwiHOCT . . . 249 



Hor. OBaKBa BHmecjioJHocT pe3yjiTaT je ,ao6pe HaceiteHoera oBe TepHTO- 

pHJe OH HajCTapHJHX BpeMeHa 4 , 3aTHM BHUieBeKOBHHX CTHOJe3H4KHX KOH- 

TaKaTa paanxranxx Hapoxia h je3HKa. On cthhhkhx rpyna Koje cy 6njie 
npHcyrae y BeheM o6HMy h kojc cy 3HanaJHO yrauajie Ha cpopMnpaH>e CTa- 
po6a;iKaHCKor eraoKyjrrypHor cjioja, noce6HO y miaHHHCKHM CTonapcKHM 
AenoBHMa o6jiacTH, a kojhx BHuie HeMa, Tpe6a noMeHyTH CTapoSajiKaHCKO 

pOMaHH30BaHO (BJiaiUKO) CTaHOBHHUITBO. CBeflOHaHCTBO O ifcHXOBOJ npH- 

cyTHocTH je y touohhmhjh, aHTponoHHMHJH, noce6Ho Ha LQap-njiaHHHH, 
3aTHM y nojeflHHHM je3HHKHM upTaivia y aKTyejiHHM je3HHHMa h roBopHMa. 

5. Ha jyro3ana^y KocoBa h MeTOxnje ochobho o6e/ie>KJe eTHOKyji- 
TypHHx rpyna cnoBeHCKor nopeKJia je cjiobchckh roBop, a ochobhh Kpn- 
TepnjyM 3a cthhhkh CTaTyc npHna^HOCT xpniiihaHCKOj hjih MycjiHMaHCKOj 

peJIHTHJH. 

POMH MyCJIHMaHCKe KOH^eCHJe eTHHHKH H JIHHrBHCTHHKH npCTOKHO 

npHJiase Aji6aimHMa. Pomh npaBocjiaBHe KOHcpecnje, 3HaTHO Mano6pqj- 
hhjh, npHcyTHH y OpaxoBuy h CyBOJ PeuH, npHXBaTHJiH cy cpncKO eT- 
hhhko h je3HHKO OApel)eH>e. HaKO je3HHKH bhcoko HHKopnopnpaHH y HO- 
bh eraoc, noKa3yjy jiHHrBHCTHHKe cneuncpHHHOCTH, a Ha HHBoy ziyxoBHe 
KyjiType KapaKTepniuy ce BehoM apxaHHHOinhy on Cp6a. ripHna^HHUH 
npaBocnaBHe poMCKe cnynHHe opoI)aBajy ce Mel)yco6Ho. 3a eTHHHKe Cp6e 
ohh cy cpncKH LJnraHH. 

6. y OpaxoBHy hcth jioKajiHH cpncKH roBop Kao MaTepn>H Kopncre 
Tpn eTHOKyjiTypHe rpyne: ^Be npaBocjiaBHe — Cp6H a Pomh (kojh ce6e 
caMOfle(j)HHHmy Kao Cp6e) h rpyna MycjiHMaHCKe KOHcpecnje, hhjh npn- 
naziHHUH ce6e CMaTpajy cthhhkhm Aji6aHUHMa. OpaxoBaHKH Aji6aHHH y 
Me^yco6Hoj KOMyHHicaiiHJH Kao h KOMyHHKauHJH ca npyruu HeaJiGaHCKHM 
eTHOKyjiTypHHM rpynaMa KopncTe JioKajiHH cpncKH roBop, hjih cy ra no 
He TaKo n&BHO KopHCTH^H. 36or 3aTBopeHocTH OBe eTHOKyjiTypHe rpyne, 
h>hxob cpncKH roBop noKa3yje HeKe apxaHHHHj'e npTe y o^Hocy Ha cpncKH 
roBop npaBocjiaBHe nonyjiaunje. J\o Kpaja me3neceTHx roAHHa XX BeKa 
noxa^ajiH cy HacTaBy Ha cpncKOM HacTaBHOM jesHKy. KoHTaKT OBe MycjiH- 
MaHCKe rpyne ca okojihhm AjiSamjHMa ocTBapnBao ce y Ay^eM BpeMeH- 
ckom pa33o6jby Kpo3 je3HHKO abojctbo, npe CBera MyuiKe nonyjiaunje, 
Koja je nopeA cpncKor BJiaziajia h an6aHCKHM je3HKOM, KopncTehn ra y 
KOHTaKTy ca Aji6aHHHMa H3BaH OpaxoBua. OncTaHaK cpncKor je3HKa y 

4 CeBepHH neo ILIap-njianiiHe, 6oraT TpaBOM h bozkjm, H3y3eriio je noronaH 3a cto- 
napcTBO. y npH3pencKo-MeroxHJcKoj kotjihhh HMa mhoio aoGpe 3eMJte, noroflHe 3a pa- 

TapCTBO H BHHOrpaAapCTBO. 



250 CKPHBEHE MAIfcHHE HA Ea^KAHY 

oboj eTHOKyjuypHOJ rpynn y3poKOBaH je He3Han>eM ajiGaHCKor je3HKa oa 
CTpaHe ^ceHCKor Aena npnnaAHHKa OBe rpyne. V nocTOJehHM cthhhkhm h 

nOJIHTHHKHM OAHOCHMa Ha KoCOBy H MeTOXMJH 0paX0Ba4KM MyCJIHMaHH 

HHTeH3HBHO ce h JiHHrBHCTHHKH HHTerpHiny y aJl6aHCKH CTHOC. 

^eo opaxoBanKHx MycjiHMaHa cpncKora je3HKa AOcejteH je y obo 
Hacejte npe ETpBor cpncKor ycTaHKa H3 KapaHOBua (KpajLeBo). „Moryhe 
je Aa cy to MyxaijHpH H3 BpeMeHa aycTpMJCKHx OKynauHja oa 1690. hjih 
1718. toahhc ToBOpHH je je3HK cbhx obhx MyxaMeAaHaua cpncKH. CaMO 
y HaJHOBHJe BpeMe, npeKO apHayTCKHx OAHBa, noHHtbe Aa ce yBJianH ap6a- 
HauiKH". 5 Je^aH aco opaxoBanKHX MycjiHMaHa npeACTaBJbajy HCJiaMH30- 
BaHH noKajiHH Cp6H, 6 oa kojmx cy HeKH ao npe TpHAeceTaK roAHHa HMajiH 
po^aHKe KOHTaKTe ca npaBoanaBHHM Cp6HMa y IIoaphmh. CefraH>a Ha Te 
KOHTaKTe cy joui >KHBa. y npnjiory ce HaBOAH HCKa3 >KeHe H3 BenHKe Xo- 
ne, 3a6ejie>KeH y obom cejiy jyna 2003. roAHHe, y KOMe HH^opMaTop, npa- 
BocnaBHe Bepe, npnna o moji6h poi)aica HonaMCKe Bepe na caMpra: 

„Ohh cpncKH 36opHB, a Bepa TypcKa. H TaKO, moj CBeKap HMaja, Taj pou'a 
My 6nja, pou'a. Typn'HH ino 6Hj'a. H ohh Giuie noTypM'eiiH, a moj CBeKap 
ocTaja OHJiHnoBHH', CpGwu. H oh, 6ojiecaH, Taj CTap h>hh mo 6nja ? h oh 
MyHH ce Aa yMpe, GonecaH Snja. MynH ce Aa yMpe, He Mo>Ke Aa yMpe. Mo- 
pa oh HeKOMe Aa ce H3BHHH — uio 6nja, Kano Gnja. Ila 3Baja nocjie Mojera 
AeAy, ot CBeicpa OTau, 3Bajie ra — He MO>Ke Aa yMpe. H orauia ot CBeKpa 
OTau koa H>era. HcnyAHJa h Aeuy, h CBe ot ce6e. CaMO ABa pen' a Aa My Ka- 
>Ke H>eroB pou'a: 'Ajiaji Aa mh yMHHHiu mo cmo 6Hiie noTypn>auH\ H peKa 
CBe mo ypaAHJie. H KaA My onpocTHja, 3aBpuiHJa, yMpeja". 

^HJajieKaTCKH chctcm roBopa npHcejLeHHKa H3 KapaHOBua pa3JiHKO- 
Bao ce y BpeMe AocejLaBaH>a oa JiOKajiHor opaxoBanKor roBopa THMe uito 
je HaJBeposaTHHJe npHnaAao KOCOBCKO-pecaBCKOM rany. YnpaBO y toj hh- 
H>eHHUH Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH pe4)OHOJiorH3auHJy KsaHTMTeTa y KBajiHTeT BOKa- 
jia y opaxoBa^KOM roBopy, 7 3araM np030AHJCKH CHCTeM kojm je no MecTy 
axueHTa AOHemie cpoAaH KocoBCKo-pecaBCKOM rany. ^ocejbaBajyhn cc y 
rpynaMa, npHcejteHHUH H3 KapaHOBua je3HHKH cy AOHeKJie acHMH.iOBaHH 
y JiOKajiHH noApHMCKH roBop, ajiH cy h yqecTBOBaJiH y npeKOMno3Hun 3a- 
TeHeHor CTan>a. KoH^ecnoHajiHa pa3JiHHHT0CT yTHuajia je Ha to Aa roBop 
opaxoBaHKHX MycjiHMaHa 6yAC Heurro apxaiiHHHJH oa roBopa cthhhkhx 
Cp6a. MycnHMaHCKa pejiHrno3Ha npunaAHOCT, penHrH03HH aHTaroHH3aM, 
yHHHHjiH cy Aa ce cthhhkh HAeHTHcjwKyjy ca hctobcphhm Aji6aHUHMa y 



5 UbhjhIi 1911:1255. 

6 JXo uie3^eceTHX roziHHa XX b. joui je 6hjio peTKHx poljanKHx KOHTaKaTa cpncKHX 
npaBociaBHHx h opaxOBamoiX MyoriHMaHCKHX (ajiSaHCKHx) nopoAHua y rio^pHMH. 

7 Yn. HBHh - PeMeTHh 1981. 



PazuiBoje Mjia^eHOBHh: C^OBEHCKAjiHiirBHCTHHKAnPHnA/iHOCT ... 



251 



OKpyaeeay, ajiH a aa onyBajy pejiaTHBHO Ayro cpncny jinHrBHcraqKy npn- 
naziHocT. 8 



7. OpaxoBanKH npaBOCJiaBHH Pomh nnne nejiHHy ca npaBocjiaBHHM 
PoMHMa ElehH, 9 TiaKOBHue, /JpeHHue, KocoBa, a H3BecHa eraorpa^CKa 
M30JioBaHOCT oa HCTOBepHHx Cp6a, Koja ce MaHH(J)ecTyje OAcycTBOM >Ke- 
HH^6eHHx Be3a H3Mel)y obhx ABejy rpyria y OpaxoBuy, ynyrajia hx je Ha 
cpoziHHHKe ojxhocq ca o6,ih>kh,hm pomckhm npaBocjiaBHHM rpynaMa. OBa- 
kbh cpoAHHMKH KOHTaKTH Bpuie h OApeI)eHy HHBeJiauHJy ynyTap npaBo- 

CJiaBHHX P0Ma Ha HHTaBOJ TepHTOpHJH KoCOBa H MeTOXHJC y JIHHrBH- 
CTHHKOM CMHCJiy IfcHXOB TOBOp — HaJBellHM AeJIOM HACHTHHaH C3 OpaXO- 

BanKHM roBopoM Cp6a h A;i6aHaua — noKa3yje HCKe cjihhhocth ca cpn- 
ckhm roBopoM I)aKOBaHKHx npaBocuaBHHX PoMa. HaKo cy npHMHJin 311a- 
TaH 6poj o6HHaja oa Cp6a, HaKo BeoMa Ap^e jxo Tora Aa hx CMaTpajy Cp- 
6HMa, HHcy noTnyHO HHTerpncaHH y cpncKy rpyny. Oa Cp6a ce pa3JiHKy- 
jy H3pa3HTOM npHcyTHomhy npeApacyAHHx ejieMeHaTa (Bpau6Hiia, Marn- 
ja, pejinrnja) y CBaKOAHCBHOM >KHBOTy. 

ripaBocjiaBHH Pomh y CyBoj Penn 10 y ochobh noKa3yjy OHe erao- 
rpa<pCKe oco6chocth Koje KapaKTepHiuy npaBocjiaBHe PoMe y OpaxoBuy. y 
jiHHrBHCTHHKOM CMHCJiy HeMa noxriyHe no^yAapnocTH, nOUJTO cyBopeHKH 
npaBocnaBHH Pomh npnnaAajy iiOAropcKOM roBopy, kojh ce y hckhm upTa- 
Ma pa3HHKyje oa noApnMCKor, KOMe npnnaaajy opaxoBaHKH Pomh. 

8. Ha LLIap-njiaHHHH h TepHTopnJH Koja ce Hacjiaita Ha OBy njiaHHHy 
dpopMHpaHe cy Tpn MycuHMaHCKe eTHOKyjiTypHe rpyne ca cjiobchckhm ro- 
BopoM, Koje ce caMOOApeI)yjy Kao cuoBencKe. Oho uito KapaKTepnuie OBe 
rpyne je H>HX0Ba eraHMKa (pJiOTaHTHOCT y3poKOBaHa cjia6ji,eH>eM h ry6nT- 
kom cpncKor HapOAHOCHor oceha^a nocue npenacKa Ha ncjiaM. H3JeAHa- 
HaBatbeM npaBOCJiaBJta ca cpncTBOM, OBe rpyne He npnnaAajy cpncKOM 

8 O AyroM HyBaity HeKnx TBOp6eHHX aiiTponoHHMMJCKHX MOj,ejia y roBopy opaxo- 
BaHKHx MycjiHMana th:tihhhhx 3a cpiiCKH jc3hk cBcuone 3anncn y Xcjibcthtckoj TejCHJn y 
OpaxoBuy ;iOKajiHHM aoraljaJHMa h jiniHOCTHMa y OpaxoBuy oa npBux aeueHHja XVIII 
Bexa. TaKO ce npe3HMeHa Jic-Kajmux MycriHMaHa Ha -uh Ge.iOKe tvpckom rpa({)HJOM -ik (jia- 
THHHHHa TpaHCKpHrmHJa): Arslan Kalaycik, Sadik Grbik, Grlik, Said Balik. Bume OBOMe 
b. EjieiOBHh 1948:135-139. Y Ejie30BHheBOM npurioryje h tckct JiOKajiHor cpncKor tobo- 
pa, 3a6eiie-A'CHor on Mcpa rip6ocoBMha, aepBHuia xciBeTCKe TeKuje y OpaxoBuy. 

9 npeMa noaauHMa J. UBiynha HaJBehu 6poj pomckhx nopoaHua y FIoaphmh je y 
OpaxoBuy, a BehHHa je y obo MecTO aoiujia H3 nehKe HaxHJe (U,BHJHh 191 1:1256). O nope- 
KJiy PoMa y OpaxoBuy ca noneTica 20. Bexa b. Ubhj'hIi 1911:1257. 

10 O ncHXHHKHM oco6HHa.Ma npaBOCJiaBHHx Po.\ia y JlppopeHCKOM n<wopy b. Pa- 
aoBaHOBHfi 1965:379-380. 



252 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

eTHOcy, ajiH HHcy hh Aji6aHUH nourro hx oa h>hx OABajajy je3HK h Apyra 
eTHorpac^cKa o6ejie>KJa. O (|)JiOTaHTHocTH cnoBeHCKHx MycjiHMaHCKHx 
rpyna cbcaohh aji6aHH3auHJa cjiOBeHCKor HCJiaMH30BaHor >KHBJi>a y jy- 
^choj MeTOxnjn, 3aTHM y IlpH3peHCKOM IIoAropy, ocTBapeHa y XX BeKy, 
noceGHO y nocjieAH>nx neAeceTaK roAHHa. Ha 3HaTHHJy npncyTHOCT npe- 
AaKa ^aHauiH>HX AjiGaHaua y llpH3peHCKOM IIoAropy MycjiHMaHCKe koh- 
<J)ecHJe a cpncice jiHHrBHCTHHKe npnnaAHOCTH npe Matte oa jeAHor Bexa 
ynyhyjy noAaijH J. l^BHJHha, 11 ajiH m jiOKajiHa TpaAHunja. 

OncTaHaK cnoBeHCKe MycjiHMaHCKe rpyne y HenocpeAHqj je Be3H ca 
H>eHOM 6poJHOiuhy h KOMnaKTHonifry Ha jeAHOj TepHTOpnJH. rpyne Koje 
HHHe KOMnaKTHy cjiOBeHCKy JiHHrBHCTHHKy uejiHHy Koja oSyxBaTa BehH 
6poj npHnaAHHKa, OTnopHHJe cy je3HHKoj aji6aHH3aijHJH. Majio6poJHHJe 
rpyne noAJio^KHe cy acnMHJiaunJH, noce6HO ano ce nanase y ajiGaHCKOM 
eTHOJe3HHKOM OKpy>KeH>y. 

OjiOTaHTHOCT obhx rpyna y ayroTpaJHHM HecTa6njiHMM HCTopnj- 
ckhm oKOJiHOCTHMa KapaKTepHCTHHHHM 3a OBy TepHTopnjy, ca cyKoSoM 
HaunoHajiHHx h KOH(J)ecHOHajiHHx HHTepeca, MHMHKpHJa je ca Te>KH>OM Aa 
ce oncTaHe h ociaHe Ha 3ay3eToj h HacejLeHoj TepHTOpnJH. 3a npnnaAHH- 
Ke obhx rpyna npHMapHa je npnnaAHOCT rpynn oapeljeHOJ TepnTopnjaji- 
ho, JiHHrBHCTHHKH, eTHorpa<J)CKH, na ce ohm noKajiHO caMOOApel)yjy Kao 
TopaHH, CpenaHH, HauiHHUH. CaMO cthhhko HMe HHJe oa npecyAHor 3Ha- 
naja, na ce hcth npnnaAHHun y pa3iiHHHTHM BpeMeHMMa h OKOJiHOCTHMa 
pa3JiHHHTO eTHHHKH H3JamH>aBajy. 

MycjiHMaHH cjiOBeHCKor (cpncKor) nopeKJia H3ry6HJin cy cthmhkh 
HAeHTHTeT npenacKOM Ha ncjiaM. Y Tparan>y 3a hobhm HAeHTHTeTOM 6h- 
Bajin cy pacneTH H3Mel)y TypcKe, aji6aHCKe, MycjiHMaHCKe onunje. y no- 
CJieAH^nx TpHAeceTaK roAMna npnxBaTajy MycjiHMaHCTBO Kao npHMapHy 
HAeHTH(J)HKaiiHOHy eTHOHaunoHajiHy h eTHOCTaTHCTHHKy KaTeropHJy. 12 H 
npnxBaTaiLe 6ouiH>aHKor eTHOHauHOHajmor OApel)eH>a HacTaBaK je My- 
cjiHMaHCKe onijHJe y cjiobchckom caAp^ajy. 

Ha jyro3anaAy KocoBa h MeTOXHJe c[)opMHpaHO je BHiiie TaKBHx 
rpyna. Oho llito KapaKTepnine jiOKajme roBope noMeHyTHX rpyna je koh- 
TaKT — pa3JiHHHTor o6HMa — ca o6jih>kh>hm 3anaAHOMaKeAOHCKMM tobo- 
pHMa, h to npe CBera ca roBOpHMa cjiobchckhx MycjiHMaHCKHx eTHOKyji- 
TypHHX rpyna. 13 CaM KOHTaKT ocTBapeH je AyroTpaJHHM CTonapcKHM Ha- 
hhhom ^cHBOTa h KpeTaiteM KHHeBCKO-nojioujKe CTpyje npeMa TpaBOM h 
boaom 6oraT ceBepHH Aeo LUap-nnaHHHe. Ha npaBau; KpeTan>a ycejLaBaita 



11 UBHJHh 1911:1192, 1256. 

12 Bume o reHe3H eTHHHicor HAeiiTHTeTa TopaHa h CpenaHa b. y PajioBaHOBHh 1995. 

13 O roBOpHMa obhx eTHOKyjrrypHHx rpyna b. Bhjxocckh 1991:309-338. 



PaAHBOje Mjia,a,eHOBHh: C/iobehcka JiMHrBHCTHHKA npuriA/iHOCT . . . 253 



H3 3anaflHOMaKeAOHCKMx o6iiacTH yKa3yje HHTeH3HTeT MaKe/iOHH3aMa y 
ceBepHomapnjiaHHHCKHM roBOpHMa — HaJBefrn je y ropaHCKOM roBopy, 14 
iviaitH y cpeTenKOM 15 h roBopy TpHJy MycjiHMaHCKHx cejia y E[pH3peHCKOM 
rio^ropy. OncTaHaK obhx cjiobchckhx eTHOKyjrrypHHX rpyna y Bpeivie aji- 
6aHCKor 3anoce,ziaH>a okojihhx TepHTopHJa OMoryhHJia je HCJiaMH3anHJa 
kojom je onyBaH cjiobchckh eTHOKyjrrypHH H^eHTHTeT Ha CTaHHiHTHMa Ha 
KOJHMa cy OBe rpyne 6opaBHJie. ,3.HJajieKaTCKH chctcmh roBopa obhx cjio- 
bchckhx MycjiHMaHCKHx rpyna ynyhyjy Ha oapeljeHH KOHTaKT ca an6aH- 
ckhm HflHOMOM. Ha noBehaH KOHTaKT ca TypcKHM je3HKOM ynyhyje BehH 
o6hm neKCHKe TypcKor nopeKna Hero y npaBocnaBHHM cpeAHHaMa. Cjio- 
BeHCKa jiHHrBHCTHHKa npHnazi,HOCT h cbcct o noce6HocTH y o^Hocy Ha 
HCTOBepHe AjiSaHHe h TypKe, Me^yraM, yranajie cy Ha oncTaHaK obhx er- 
HOKyjiTypHHX rpyna. 

Flo OKOHnafty Apyror CBeTCKor paTa, 1945. roflHHe, cbhm MyoiiH- 
MaHCKHM rpynaMa oko EIpH3peHa Hean6aHCKe JiHHrBHCTHMKe npnnaflHO- 
cth (cuoBeHCKHM, TypcKHM, pomckhm) #p>KaBHOM ozmyKOM nponHcaH je 
MycjiHMaHCKO-aji6aHCKH aHTponoHHMHJCKH MoaeJi, a y cthhhkom CMHCJiy 
cbh cy nporjiauieHH AjiGannHMa. y hcto BpeMe obhm eTHOKyjiTypHHM 
rpynaMa HaMerayT je h aji6aHCKH HacTaBHH je3HK. IipHnaAHHHH cjiobch- 
ckhx MycjiHMaHCKHx rpyna, Me^yTHM, y bcjihkoj BefinHH Hncy npHXBara- 

JIH JIHHrBHCTHHKH TpaHC(|)ep. 

9. Haj6poJHHJa cjiOBeHCKa MycjiHMaHCKa eTHOKyjiypHa rpyna Ha jy- 
ro3ana/iy KocoBa h MeToxnje cy TopaHH. Ohh noKa3yjy BncoKy cajvio- 
CBecT o noce6HOCTH ocTBapeHoj Kpo3 cjiobchcko nopeKJio h ropaHCKH ro- 
Bop Kao ochobhom o6ejie>KJy eTHOKyjuypHe noce6HOCTH. 

TopaiiH ce Hajia3e y TpnMa #p>KaBaMa — Cponjn (KocoBy h Mctoxh- 
j'h, rjiaBHHHa), Aji6aHHJH h £BaMa cejiHMa y Elojiory y MaKeAOHHJn (rae 
npe^cTaBJLajy je^aH cjioj CTaHOBiiHKa CTHrao y OBa cejia y XVIII h XIX 
BeKy). Topa h TopaHH cy noijejteHH y jibq £p>KaBe 1925. ro/iHHe, Ka^a je 
yTBpl)eHa flpaeaBsa rpaHHna H3Mel)y KCXC h Aji6aHnje, Ma^a 3a to Hnje 
6njio onpaBAan>a noniTO Topa npeACTaBjLa jeaHHCTBeny reorpacpCKy h eT- 
HOKyjiTypHy HejiHHy. 16 

y Cp6njn cy ce TopaHH 17 pa3JiHHHTO cthhhkh H3JamH>aBajiH, a hh- 
TepecaHTaH je noaaTaK #a cy ce y nonncy ofl 1991. y bhcokom npouenry 
H3JacHHjin 3a TopaHe, ca ropaHCKHM roBopoM Kao cboj'hm jc3hhkhm o6e- 

14 MjiaaeHOBHh 2001. 

15 riaBJioBHh 1939. 

16 MjiaaeHOBHh 2001:36-38. 

17 roBopy TopaHa y aejiy koj'h je y CpSajn b. MjiazieHOBull 2001:1-606. 



254 Ckphbehe mah>hme ha Ba^kahy 



jie>KJeM. riouiTO y nonncy HHJe 6ho npe,aBHf)eH ropaHCKH MO,aajiHTeT, ohh 
cy y HauHOHajiHOM CMHCJiy y 3BaHHHHHM no^aiiHMa npHiincaHH Myann- 
MaHHMa (Kao eraHHKOM oixpet)eH>y) ca cpncKHM MaTepH>HM je3HKOM. 

y An6aHHJH, y 9 Hacejta, oncTajy Kao cnoBeHCKa eTHOKyjrrypHa 3a- 
je^HHua y kojoj ce y Mel)yco6HOJ KOMyHHKauHJH kophcth ;iOKajiHH ropaH- 
ckh roBop, 18 h Ha Taj HaHHH MaHH(J)ecTyje noce6HocT y OAHocy Ha OKOjme 
Aji6aHue. 

CTaB y MaKe^OHHJH npeivia FopaHHMa Kao aejiy MaKe^OHCKor erao- 

Ca, 3aCHOBaH Ha JTHHrBHCTHHKOJ KOMn03HUHJH ropaHCKor roBopa, HHJe 

npHXBaheH Mel)y TopaHHMa H3BaH MaKeztOHHJe. OnHrjicaHO je ^a je 3a 
TopaHe noKajiHH roBop 3HanaJHO o6ejie>KJe eTHOKyjiTypHe npnna,AHOCTH, 
ajiH He h jeAHHO. Ako ce npnxBaTH npHHUHn eTHOKyjiTypHor caMooape^e- 
H>a, TopaHH npeACTaBJLajy noce6Hy cnoBCHCKy eTHOKyjrrypHy CKymnry. 

JlHHrBHCTHHKH KOHTpaCTHpaHH npeMa Ajl6aHHHMa, KOHC|)eCHOHaJlHO 

h JlHHrBHCTHHKH KOMnaKTHH Ha 3aje£HHHK0J TepHTopnJH, onyBajiH cy jjeo 
npeflHCJiaMCKe xpnuinaHCKe TpaflHHHJe, 19 Miiora HMeHa 6paTcraBa — no- 
ce6HO y bhiiihm HaceibHMa y KOJHMa je HC.naMH3aH.HJ a H3BpuieHa HaJKa- 
CHHJe — h aaibQ cy npezn-icjiaMCKa (TbypoBUH, CMHibaHOBUH, BejLauieBHH, 
JoBaHOBHH, BoraaHOBun). 

y Aji6aHHJH TopaHH noxaI)ajy niKOJiy Ha anSaHCKOM je3HKy, TaKO m 
je h>hxob JiOKaiiHH roBop HaTpyiteH aji6aHCKOM apTHKyuaunjoM ajiH h 
neKCHKOM. IlpeMa HenoTnyHHM no^auHMa KOJHMa pacnojia)KeM, CMaTpajy 
ce TopaHHMa, cjiobchckom eTHOKyjiTypHOM rpynoM. Okojihh Aji6aHH.H hx 
Ae{J)HHHmy Kao Cp6e. y MaKe/iOHHJH hx CMaTpajy MaKeaoimMMa MycnH- 
MaHHMa. 

10. y CpeTeHKOj acynH, rpynn nacejta y jeziHOJ ojx KopyTnua 
LIIap-njiaHHHe, jkhbh CTaHOBHHHiTBO cpncKor roBopa pa3JiHHHTe KOHcpe- 
CHOHajiHOCTH. TipaBOCJiaBHO CTaHOBHHHiTBO ce CMaTpa Cp6nMa ca cpn- 
ckhm MaTepn>HM je3HKOM. JKuTeibu MycuHMaHCKe KOH(j)ecHj'e y norniCHMa 
y nocnexuiHx ne^eceTaK roflHua pa3JiHHHTO ce cthhhkh H3JainibaBajy, anH 
6e3 jiHHrBHCTHHKor TpaHccpepa H3 jiOKajiHor roBopa. y MyuiHHKOBy, Ha- 
cejty CpeTenKe >Kyne, MycjiHMaHH cpncKe jiHHrBHCTHHKe npHnajiHOCTH 
oa ocaMfleceTHx ro^HHa XX BeKa cthhhkh ce H3JaiHH>aBajy 3a Aji6aHue h 
noxafjajy HacTaBy Ha aJiSaHCKOM je3HKy. y Mel)yco6HOJ KOMyHHKauHJH, 

Mel)yTHM, KOpHCTe JIOKaJIHH cpncKH roBop. 

H3Bop noBehaHor eTHHHKor (JmyKTyHpaita MycjiHMaHa CpeTenKe >Ky- 
ne Jie^KH y hhh>chhhh jxq. cy HeKe nopo/mae, HaJBepoBaTHHJe, HecpncKor eT- 

18 O roBopy TopaHa y Aji&ihhjh b. BMitoecKH 1985:349-350. 

19 MjiaaeHOBHh 2001:42-60. 



PaflHBqje MxiaaeHOBHh: Cjiobejicka JiHHrBHCTHMKA iiPnnA,0HOCT ... 255 



HOj'e3HHKor nopeKJia. 3a Hene MycjiHMaHCKe nopoznme y CpeienKoj >Kynn J. 
UBHJHh HHJe cnrypaH jecy jih cpncKor hjih au6aHCKor nopeKJia. 2 ^ Meljy 
MycjiHMaHCKHM nopoAHnaivia, 3aKJtyqyje LjBHJnh, 3HaTHO je BMiue ohhx hh- 
je je cpncKO nopeK.no BepoBarao hjih HecyMH>nBo. 3a LjBHJHhaje cyMH>HB0 
nopeKJio nopoflHne XaHUHHUH (jiOKajiHH na3HB 3a MywHHKOBCKe MycjiHMa- 
He je AHytuwiiju). „Be;iHKa nopoztHua XaHUHHun, MyxaMe^aHCKa, ^ocejteHa 
je H3 npH3peHCKe Byinaie, boot nopeKJio or je^Hor MyxaMejnaHua, kojh ce 
Kao xaHUHj'a Hacejino y MyniHHKOBy npe 150 toa." 21 

11. CnoBeHCKO MycjiHMaHCKO craHOBHHiiiTBO y TpHMa cejiHMa y ripH- 
3peHCK0M noaropy - CKopo6HiiiTy, TpHHapy h Hobom Cejiy - noKa3yje 
eraoKyjiTypHy h JiHHrBHCTHHKy noce6HOCT. 22 Hacejta OBe rpyne Hajia3e ce 
y jy>KHOM aejiy ripH3peHCKor rioflropa, y HenocpexiHOM cyceflCTBy ca Cpe- 
TeqKOM ^cynoM. CraHOBHHLiiTBO obhx Hacejta „hhhh orpaHaK ncHXHHKe 
rpyne (JwiOTaHraor cTaHOBHHiiiTBa CpeTcne, Onojta h Tope". 2 3 )KnBehH y 
TpHMa cejiHMa y npaBOCJiaBHOM cpncKOM h anGaHCKOM OKpy>KeH,y, npnna^- 
hhuh OBe rpyne noKa3yjy hh3 eTHOKyjrrypHHx ocoGchocth, Koje cy jqjxhum 
AejioM cpoflHe ca OHHMa y CpeTenKoj acynn, jczihhm jxqjiom ce Hacjiaaajy 
Ha oco6eHOCTH cbojctbchhm npaBocjiaBHHM CpSnivia hjih AjiSamjHMa My- 
cjiHMaHHMa. HHAHBHayajiHOCT OBe rpyne hhhh h H>eH jiOKajiHH roBop, y 
KOMe ce Hajia3e CBe ocooHHe Koje cy npncyTHe y cpeieHKOM, ropaHCKOM 
hjih y cpncKOM noaropcKOM jyjKHOMeTOXHj'cKOM roBopy, ajin y HenoHO- 

BJBHBOJ KOM6HHaUHJH. OBaKBa AHj'aJieKaTCKa KOMn03HUHj'a CBeflOHH KOH- 

TaKTHMa OBor CTaHOBHHinTBa ca okojihhm eTHOKyjrrypHHM rpynaMa. Caiuo 
TaKO ce Mo>Ke cxBaTHTH THnHHHa cpncKa CHTyaunja y ocHOBaMa penn (Koja 
je TaKBa y cbhm cpncKHM roBopHMa Ha obom ncapynjy, ochm y ropaHCKOM 
y ixQJiy jreKceiwa), ajin h 6poJHH HaHOCH 3anaAHOMaKe,aoHCKor rana {ciuapo- 
20, w.020, aHTeneHyjiTHMCKH aKneHaT htji.). 

y eTHHHKOM CMHCJiy OBa rpyna je H3pa3HT0 apjioTanrHa, CKJioHa je 
eTHHHKOM TpaHC(j>epy y ajiSaHCKH Mo^ajiHTeT 3HaTH0 BHiue ojx OHe y Topn 
hjih CpeTenKoj >Kynn. Ethhhkh TpaHC(]>ep He npara je3HHKH, na y jioKaji- 
hoj KOMyHHKauHJH ripHnaaHHUH OBe rpyne KopncTe cboj JiOKajiHH cjiobch- 
ckh roBop h OH,aa Ka^a ce iiiKOJiyjy Ha aji6aHCK0M je3HKy. 

20 Obo ce oahoch Ha nopeKJio ciaHOBHHKa MyuiHHKOBa (\iycjiHMancKH neo), Pena- 
Ha h He6perouiTa (U,BnjHh 1911:1107-1109). 

21 UbhjhIi 1911:1109. 

22 Okojiho CTaHOBHHuiTBO, npe csera CpenaHH, Ha3HBa hx upeKOKcwifUMa. Pl.vte je 
MOTMBHcaHO reorpac})CKOM npenpeKOM - ctchom, boihicmm KaMeHOM, kojh ce najia3H 113- 
Me)jy obhx HacaiBa h CpeTenKe acyne. 

23 PaaoBaiiOBHh 1965:376. 



256 Ckpmbehe mailhhe ha Eajikahy 



HeKOJiHKO 3aBpuiHHx iianoMCiia 

12. MycjiHMaHCKe eTHOKyuTypHe rpync cjiOBencice JiHHrBHCTHHKe 
npHnaanocTH Ha jyro3ana^y KocoBa h MeTOxnje — Ka^a cy penaraBHO 
6poJHe h KOMnaKTHe na oapetjCHOJ TepHTopnjn — ne ocTBapyjy norayn 
exHHHKH TpaHC(J)ep noiiiTO HHcy cnpeMne Ha jimhtbhcthmkh TpaHC$ep. Y 
tom KOHTCKCTy ce MO>Ke cxBaTHTH h GoumaHKO cthhhko o,zjpel)eH>e OBHX 
cjiOBeHCKHx MycjiHMaHCKHx rpyna nocne jyHa 1999. h npoMCHe nojra- 

THHKHX H HCTOpHJCKHX OKOJ1HOCTH. 

ripHna^HHUH MycjiHMaHCKe eTHOKyjuypHe rpyne cuoBeHCKe jihh- 
rBHCTHHKe npHna^HOCTH nozmommJH cy aji6anH3ai;HJH Ka,na cy y MaftHM 
CKynHHaMa, noce6HO Ka^a cy H3BaH MaTHMHC TepHTopnje. 

13. IlpHcyTHOCT MaKe,noiiH3aMa HajBehHM acjiom je y ohhm ctho- 
KyjiTypHHM rpynaMa Koje npnna^ajy MycjiHMaHCKOj KOH(})ecHJH, Haua3e ce 
Ha IlIap-njiaHHHH hjih y H>enoM noA6pl)y. OBaKBa AMJaiiCKaTCKa c;nn<a pe- 
3yjiTaT je AyroTpajuHJer KOHTaKTa cjiobchckhx MyanniviaHCKHx rpyna Ha 
LIJap-njiaHHHH h oko obc miaHHHe ca 3ana,oHOMaKe,z];oHCKHM cjiobchckhm 
MycjiHMaHCKHM rpynaMa ocTBapeiior Kpo3 CTOiapcicH naHMH JKHBOTa. 

14. caMOCBecTH cjiobchckhx MyanHMancKnx eTHOKyjuypHHx rpy- 
na o eTHOKyjrrypHoj noceGHOCTH, cbchohh ilhxobo oncTajaite Ha jihhfbh- 

CTHHKOM CJTOBeHCKOM CHTHTCTy, aJTH H CKJIOHOCT Ka MHMHKpHJH KOJa Ce 

orjie^a y cthhhkoj npoMeHJbHBOCTH. 

15. npeoBJia^yjyhH cTaB y HOBHj'e BpeMe na 3a npunazwocT cpncKOM 
eTHHHKOM Kopnycy HHJe ziOBOJbHa carvio JiHHrBHCTHHKa Beh jxa ona Mopa 
6hth npaheHa h KOHCpecnoHajiHOM npHnaxmomhy npaBoanaBHOM xpn- 
mhaHCTBy, yqHHHO je to rz cnoBencKe MycjiHMaHCKe eTHOKyuTypHe rpy- 
ne ocTaHy H3BaH eTHHHKor Kopnyca KOMe jiHHrBHCTHHKH h nopeKHOM 
npnnaflajy. Ca Apyre CTpaHe, OBe rpyne HHcy hh ,aeo Kopnyca HCTOBep- 
hhx Aji6aHana KojnMa He npHna^ajy hh JiHHrBHCTHHKH hh nopeKJiOM. 



JlHTepaTypa 

BH^oecKH 1985: Eo>KH,aap Bhuocckh, MaKeflOHCKHTe SHJajieKTH bo AjiGaHHJa, y: Bh- 
aoecKH Eo>KHziap, JJujcLieKwuiue ita MaKedoncKuowja3UK, tom 1 , MaKejoncKa 
aKa/ieMHJa Ha HayKHTe h yMeTHocTHTe, CKonje, 339-35 1 . 

BHaoecKH 1991: BnaoecKH BoKH^ap, ToBopHTe Ha HCJiaMH3HpaHHTe MaKenoHun bo 
3ana,zjHa MaKeaoHHj'a, y: Bhaocckh Bo>KHziap, JJujaAeKiiiuUie ita MaKedoncm- 
oiuja3UK, tom 1 , MaiceziOHCKa aioaeMHJa na HayKHTe h yMeraocTHTe, CKonje, 
309-338. 






PaflHBoje MjiaaeHOBHh: Cjiobehcka JiH HrBHCTHHKA npunAziHOCT ... 257 

BHTOineBHh 1 996: Kpcxa BHTomeBHh, Opaxoea H , anmpouoeeoepacpcKo ucmpaxcuean* 
ua luepuiuopuju opaxoeame outuMme, J\. J\. r P a*H K a, HpHapen, 1-™ 

mh koa n P H3 P eHa, JyvcHooioeencm 4>wioao Z XVIII, kh, 1-4 Hhcthtvt 3a 
cpncKHjesHK, CpncKaaKa^eMHJaHayKa, Beorpaj 1949-1950 133-140 
HBHh-PcMCTHh 198 :i Pavlelvic, Slobodan Remet.c, Orahovac, y: Fonoloikioplsisrp. 

Kr^5«f 8rwsa *" atlasom ' posebna izdanja ANuBi " ^ ™* 

M.aa a eHOB„h 2001: Pa^eoje MnwciiOBHh, ToBop inapn^HHHCKe *yne Fopa Cpu- 
cKuJuja^^ou^u 36opHu K XLVIII, HncTHxyx sa cpncKH jesn/cAHy 
Cpncha aKaaeMHja Hay K a h yMcraoc™, Eeorpaa 1-606 

^SS " 1, roBOp CpeTCHKe **■* «**« ***« *«~ 

wkk jtopHiK VIII, CpncKa KpajteBCKa aKaaeMHJa, Beorpa^ 1-353 
PwoBaHOBHh 1965: MHJioaaH B. P W OBa„OBHh, Ciwom™ HpHspcHCKor rionro- 

pa, rnacHUK Myseja Kocoea u Meiaoxuje IX, n P HiiiTHHa 253-4 1 5 
PaaoBanoBHh 1995: Mmjiobbh Pa*oBa„OBHh, AHiponoreorpatpcKc h erHOACMorpad,- 

ZZfwaZ^cTT * y na rope ' 0no " a H Gp w * : WL«Ei 

"Vueropa, Ouoyte u CpedcKa, aHuipouoeeoepacpcKo-emHOAOiuKedeMoepacb- 
LpOuje, kh,. wpetia, CpncKa KpajteecKa aKa^eMHJa, Bcorpa^. 



Radivoje Mladenovic 



Slavic Li »8^c Idcnti^ Confessional Identity and Ethnic Transfer in the Framework 
of the Hidden Minority Issue in South-West of Kosovo and Metohia 

awe s -a sSfer «■ m aasaa 



258 Ckphbeiie mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



3. The area in question, together with border West Macedonian regions, is characterized 
by intense Serbian-Macedonian linguistic contacts. 

4. In the Southwest of Kosovo and Metohia, the basic ethnocultural characteristic of 
Slavic ethnocultural groups is the Slavic language, while the basic criterion for ethnic division is 
belonging to the Christian or Muslim religions. 

With regard to the Romany populations, there is a direct connection between religion and 
ethnic transfer, which is frequently followed by the linguistic transfer. Muslim Roma 
populations most often converge to Albanians ethnically and linguistically. The Orthodox Roma 
population in Orahovac and Suva Reka accepted the Serbian ethnic and linguistic transfer. 
Although they are part of the Serbian ethnolinguistic corpus that is highly incorporated into new 
ethnos, they are still characterized by certain linguistic specifics, while in the domain of spiritual 
culture are more archaic than Serbs. 

Muslims in Orahovac have a special status — they consider themselves ethnic Albanians, 
but use (or at least have used until recently) the Serbian vernacular of Orahovac for internal 
communication and communication with other ethnocultural groups. The Serbian-speaking 
Albanians in Orahovac preserved some archaic linguistic features because of the self-isolation of 

this group. 

5. The basic subject of interest in the present article are Slavophone groups of Slavic 
ethnic origin and Muslim religion. There are several such groups dialectologically differentiated 
among themselves. The main characteristic of these groups' local idioms is contact — to 
different extents — with neighboring West Macedonian idioms, conducted through mobility of 
populations predominantly dealing with cattle raising. The degree of ethnic transfer of these 
groups' members varies and is dependent on historical circumstances. The common feature is 
awareness of linguistic specificity realized through local Slavic idiom. 

Ethnic transfer of Muslim Slavic populations is not usually followed by linguistic transfer, 
since for Muslims themselves, different ethnic identification is perceived as an ethnic mimicry, 
which is a means enabling ethnocultural survival in this area. This is also obvious in demographic 
data in the last half of century, showing that members of these groups accept ethnic transfer, but 
not ethnocultural assimilation to non-Slavic communities of Turkish or Albanian origin. 

a) The ethnocultural group of Gorans shows high level of self-consciousness about its 
ethnocultural specificity, especially with regard to its Slavic origin and the Goran idiom as 
essential components of its identity. The Goran populations live in three states — Serbia 
(Kosovo and Metohia), Albania, and in two villages of Polog in Macedonia (here they were 
settled in the 18th and 19th centuries). In Serbia, they were declaring their identity in different 
ways, while in the 1991 census a high percentage of this population declared as Gorans, with the 
Goran idiom as a specific linguistic feature. In Albania, there are 9 Goran settlements forming 
an ethnocultural community. Their idiom, although partially influenced by Albanian, still exists. 

b) In the group of settlements on the Sara mountain called Sretacka Zupa, there are 
populations speaking the same idiom, but belonging to different religions. The Orthodox 
population declares as Serbian with Serbian being the mother tongue. In censuses conducted in the 
last 50 years, Muslims were ethnically self-identificating in various ways, but no linguistic transfer 
has ever taken place. 

c) Muslims in three villages of Prizrenski Podgor (Skorobiste, Gracar, and Novo Selo) 
posses certain specific linguistic features. 

The ethnocultural situation of the mentioned settlements and the religion to which their 
inhabitants belonged affected the development of features that also characterize other 
Slavic-speaking Muslim ethnocultural groups; such features, on the other hand, cannot be found 
in the idioms of Orthodox Serbs. This ethnocultural group fluctuates in respect to ethnic 
identification, but the Slavic idiom within the community has a stable position. 

6. Among Slavic-speaking Muslim populations in the Southwest of Kosovo and Metohia, 
there is no complete ethnic transfer because they do not accept linguistic transfer. In such 
context, the Bosnjak ethnic identification of the Slavic Muslim groups after June 1999 can be 
treated. 



Sikimic Biljana 



ETNOLINGVISTICKA ISTRAZIVANJA SKRIVENIH 
MANJINA - MOGUCNOSTI I OGRANICENJA- 

CERKEZI NA KOSOVU 1 

Cerkezi se u kolektivnoj svesti stanovnika Srbije percipiraju na dva 
sasvim razlicita nacina: kao nekadasnji dobri ratnici Otomanskog carstva 
1 kao vredne zanatlije i miroljubive komsije.2 U pitanju su, dakle, dva 
razlicita konteksta: geografski siri - ratni (sa dijahronom dimenzijom) i 
u komsijski, kontaktni kontekst (i on u novije vreme samo sa dijahronom 
perspektivom). U onom sto se uslovno moze nazvati „komsijski" kon- 
tekst - a svodi se na specificnu vrstu multietnicke zajednice - o Cerke- 
zima se zna samo medu stanovnicima nekoliko kosovskih sela severno 
od Pristine. Ako se u koncentricnim krugovima prisiri geografski areal 
oko kosovskog sela Donje Stanovce, slika o Cerkezima - komsijama 
sve je bleda 1 nesigurnija, kako je i socijalna mreza multietnicke zajedni- 
ce sve labavija, reda, a direktni kontakti sa Cerkezima - slucajni. Cerke- 
zi su, kada se predu granice Kosova, poznati samo kao ratnici i ova je 

' Ovaj prilog je rczultat rada na projektu Balkanoloskog instituta SANU , Etno- 
lmgvisticka i sociolmgvisticka istrazivanja izbeglica i multietnickih zajednica na Balkanu" ko- 
ji pod brojcm 2167 finansira Ministarstvo za naukui zastitu zivotne sredine Srbije. 

2 Cerkezi (kao i njihov jezik) pripadaju kavkaskoj grupi naroda. Procene njihovog 
broja vrlo su razhcite, smatra se da u dijaspori zivi od milion do pet miliona Cerkeza naj- 
vise u Turskoj, Bliskom Istoku i SAD. U Rusiji Cerkezi danas zive u kavkaskoj republici 
Adigeji (120 000), i u republici Karacajevo-Cerkaskaja (obe ove republike u SSSR imale 
su status autonomnih oblasti). Cerkeska tradicija kao datum egzodusa pominje 21 maj 
1864. kada je Rusija osvojila nj.hove teritorije. Cerkezi su tada brodovima preseljeni na te- 
ntonje tadasnjeg Otomanskog carstva; ovo je preseljenje bilo veoma surovo i sa tragicnim 
posledicama. Cerkezi koj, nisu zeleli da se isele, preseljeni su na levu obalu Kubana gde su 
ziveli u rezervatima pod zabranom napustanja naselja. Na prvobitno cerkesku teritoriju 
preseljeni su Kozaci, Grci i Jermeni. 



260 CKPMBEHE MAIbHHE HA EAJIKAI iy 



slika, kao i svuda medu hriscanskim slovenskim stanovnistvom Balkana, 
dosledno negativna. 3 

Kao posledica znacajnih etnickih pomeranja tokom devedestih godi- 
na dvadesetog veka na Kosovu i Metohiji, medu raseljcnim licima nasla se 
i zajednica kosovskih Cerkeza. Paznja koju je njihov definitivni odlazak 
privukao — nije bila velika. 4 Na osnovu rezultata terenskog istrazivanja 
kosovskih enklava u okviru projekta „Istrazivanja slovenskih govora na 
Kosovu i Metohiji", 5 juna i jula 2003. godine, postaje moguce definisanje 
jednostrane slike o Cerkezima iz sela Donje Stanovce (u neposrednoj bli- 
zini enklave Priluzje). Ova jednostrana slika otvara niz pitanja vezanih za 
Cerkeze: izmedu ostalog — pitanja realnog vremena i realnog prostora. 
Istorijski su zadate i donja i gornja vremenska granica postojanja Cerkeza 
u Donjem Stanovcu: 1864. i 1998. godina (Cerkezi iz sela Donje Stanovce 
odseljeni su u Rusiju jula 1998). Prostorno ubiciranje Cerkeza na Kosovu 



3 Cerkesko pitanje postavilo se u balkanologiji vec u programskom balkanoloskom 
zborniku Knjiga o Balkanu iz 1936: „Ha3HB HepKe3a je iuicmchckh na3HB kojh 03HanaBa 
HHTaBy rpyny KaBKacKHX Hapoaa, Mel)y KOJHMa hme Ajuira, ABKa3a, Ka6ap#a hta. (...) V 
npBo6HTHoj nocTOJ6HHH, HepnecKoj, cTaHOBHHuiTBO je chjiho onajio, 3aTO ujto hx je pyCKO 
ocBajatte HaTcpano Ha jojxny or Haj>*cajiocHHJHx eMHrpamija Koje cy xpoHHKe HKafl 3aoejie- 
)KHJie. To^HHe 1864 h ajxyhnx roaHHa, oko 750.000 HepKC3a, 6e>Kehn or Pyca hjih nporo- 
tbeHH or h>hx, noTpa>KHJiH cy yTOMMuiTC y Typcxoj. Be>Kajio ce H3 MepKecKe cyB03eMHHM 
nyTeM h MOpew. MopeM je nouuia Behima eMHrpaHaTa. Ca cbmx KaBKacKHX npHCTamniiTa 
Kpenyjie cy 5KajiocHe ra^nje. One Koje cy cc ynynuie npcMa BajiKaHCKOM Ilo^yocTpBy 
npHCTane cy y Eypracy, y BapHH, y "RycTeHue (/iaHaiiiH>a KoHcraHua) m, HapaBHO, y Uapn- 
rpa,ny. Thm ja/iHHM nneweHMMa noAHrHyra cy cena Ha Ea^KaHCKOM riojiyocTpBy h y Ma- 
Jioj A3MJH. 50 000 Mel)y E&HMa, Ka>Ky, pacyjin cy ce no 3ana/moj ByrapcKOJ. H ,Ho6pyua je 
ripHMHJia hckojihko KOHTHHreHaTa. Or cbhx noJiHTHHKHx nporoHCTaBa obo je 6hjio je/uio 
or HajcBHpenHJHx. Or nojiacxa ca KaBKa3a na ro aojiacica y AnaTOJiHJy hjih Ha BajiKaHCKo 
IlojiyocTpBO, cmpt je CTajiHo ^eceTKOBajia Te eMHrpaHTe. Ka>Ky #a hx je caMO y Tpe6n30H- 
Ry yMpjio 30 000. HepKecKa rpo6jta cy MHOroGpoJHa BaH KaBKa3a. Ja caM hx BHueo hcko- 
jihko y flo6pyi4H. MHora cy Beh HecTa^a iior H>HBa\ia. Tpe6a HCTafm jcRny Hyany HHH,e- 
HHuy. HepKe3H, H3niefla, HHcy hhvrq yxBaTHJin npaBor KopeHa. £a m cy CTBapHO issyMp- 
jih 36or Hecnoco6aocTH npHJiaro!)aBaii>a? Joiu ce Mory Hahn, obrq oH^e, Ha KapTaiua I~Io- 
JiyocrpBa, mama. MecTa Koja noTcehajy m cy Ty 6hjih HepKe3H (Hnp. HepKecKJej 3ana£HO 
on Kapa OMepa y Ao6pyun)" (IlHTap 1936:175-176). 

4 Up. kratak osvrt istoricarke Olge Zirojevic u casopisu „Republika" 208-209. iz 
1999. godine. 

5 Projekat „Istrazivanje slovenskih govora na Kosovu i Metohiji" finansirao je 
UNESCO tokom 2003. godine pri Institutu za srpski jezik SANU. Podaci o tonskim zapisi- 
ma u ovom prilogu odnose se na gradu iz Zvucnog arhiva Instituta za srpski jezik SANU, 
Beograd, snimljenu tokom rada na ovom projektu. Inicijali istrazivaca koji je vodio razgo- 
vor dati su na kraju podatka svakog tonskog zapisa: BS — Biljana Sikimic, VJ — Vladan 
Jovanovic, ML — Milos Lukovic. Etnodijalekatski tekstovi u ovom prilogu, sa primarnom 
funkcijom etnolingvisticke ilustracije, istovremeno ilustruju danasnju sociolingvisticku ra- 
slojenost slovenskih govora Kosova. 



Sikimic Biljana: EtnqlingvistiC ka istraZivanja skrivenih manjina ... 261 

iz uslovne perspektive srpske enklave jeste selo Donje Stanovce, danas na 
putu izmedu naselja Priluzje sa jedne strane i sela Grace i Babin Most sa 
druge. Ovim putem, kroz selo Donje Stanovce, danas, tokom skolske go- 
dine, prolazi autobus koji prevozi ucenike iz Graca i Babinog Mosta do 
skola u Priluzju i nazad. 

£erkezi na Balkanu 

Istricar orijentalista, Aleksandar Popovic, dao je solidan pregled na- 
ucne literature o ezgodusu Cerkeza i njihovom naseljavanju na Balkan i po- 
sebno Kosovo, kao i aklimatizaciji i asimilaciji u novim zemljama (Popovic 
1 978:1 59- 160).6 Prema podacima turskih istoricara „kada su Rusi Dunav 
presli i krenuli prema Jedrenu i Istanbulu 600.000 Turaka je emigriralo, 
ostavljajuci sve svoje stvari. (...) Iseljenici koji su presli u Anadol smestili 
su se u vilajetima centralne i zapadne Anadolije. Od tih (uglavnom Cerkezi) 
upucivani su i u Siriju". Prema istim, turskim podacima: „Prokupacki srez 
imao je pre srpsko-turskog rata 2.031 srpsku, 74 tursku, 2.054 arnautske i 
200 cerkeskih kuca" (citirano prema: Rizaj 1972:96-97). Cerkeza danas ne- 
ma u Makedoniji 7 i Srbiji, o njima svedoce samo onomasticki tragovi kao 
sto je, na primer, Cerkeska mahala i u njoj Cerkeska cesma u Prokuplju u 
kojoj danas zive Romi. 8 

Cerkezi na Kosovu 

Prema iskazima jednog starijeg Srbina iz Gracanice, cija su secanja 
zapisana 1914. godine, interetnicki odnosi na Kosovu pogorsali su se jos 
1864. kada su Turci naselili Cerkeze kao deo namerne politike izgradnje 
anti-pravoslavnog bedema u regiji (Malcolm 1998:214). Mada su cerkeski 
naseljenici na Kosovu bili oslobodeni placanja poreza, medu njima je, 
zbog teskog zivota na Kosovu i centralnoj Bugarskoj, 1867. izbila pobuna 
koju je otomanska vojska ugusila. Kosovski Cerkezi su inace korisceni 

6 Dzambazovski 1960:65-66 prenosi podatke iz beogradskog „Vidovdana" o na- 
mernom naseljavanju Cerkeza izmedu Srba i drugih slovenskih naroda, na osnovu zva- 
nicnih turskih podataka. 

7 Podatke o Cerkezima u Makedoniji sumirao je Milenko Filipovic: bilo ih je u gra- 
dovima Tetovu, Velesu i Prilepu, u selima u okolmi Skoplja, Stipa, Strumice, Kruseva 
(OH.iHnoBHh 1935, T P H(|.yHOCKH 1990). U Makedoniji se i danas cuvaju nazivi mahala 
(Madzirmaalo) u koj.ma su ziveli Cerkezi i Tatari (u Skoplju, Svetom Nikoli i Kumanovu 
Dzambazovsk! 1960:65-66). U selu Cerkeze kod Kumanova, Makedonija, danas zive sa- 
mo Albanci (prema podacima etnologa Anite Dordeske, Narodni muzej, Kumanovo). 

8 Cerkeska cesma u Prokuplju danas je romsko kultno mesto - prema podacima 
Baje Lukina Saitovica. 



262 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



kao pomocne vojne snage za gusenje bugarskog ustanka 1876, a kasnije i 
u ratovima 1877-1878. (Malcolm 1998:215). Te 1864. godine, kada se 
kavkaski Cerkezi pominju kao doseljenici, Kosovo je bilo integralni deo 
Otomanskog carstva. Antropogeografi procenjuju da ih je bilo oko 1500 
porodica, ali je malo verovatno da se pouzdano moze odrediti tacna cifra. 
Iseljavanje Cerkeza sa Kosova pocelo je prakticno odmah po njihovom 
doseljenju i odvijalo se u najmanje pet talasa. Prvi talas iseljavanja Cerke- 
za iz novooslobodenih teritorija Srbije i istovremeno njihov drugi talas na- 
seljavanja na — i istovremenog iseljavanja sa Kosova bio je 1878. godine, 
posle Berlinskog kongresa. Sledeci talasi pratili su ratne prilike na Balka- 
nu pocetkom dvadesetog veka: posle Balkanskih ratova 1912, zatim u pe- 
riodu izmedu dva svetska rata, pa sezdesetih godina dvadesetog veka, 9 i 
peti — jula 1998. godine. 

Prema podacima OSCE, na Kosovu i danas zivi stotinak Cerkeza u 
naselju Milosevo, opstina Obilic. 10 Prema ovim podacima OSCE, Cerkezi 
iz Miloseva su tokom proleca 1999. bili proterani u Makedoniju, a neke 
kuce su im spaljene. OSCE procenjuje da su se odnosi sa komsijama Srbi- 
ma pogorsali kao posledica proterivanja. Sredinom jula 1999. dve cerke- 
ske porodice iz Miloseva su se preselile u Rusiju. 11 



9 Antropogreograf Atanasije Urosevic pominje cetiri talasa iseljavanja Cerkeza: prvi 
posle srpsko-turskih ratova 1877-1878, sledeci posle Drugog balkanskog rata, treci u periodu 
izmedu dva svetska rata i cetvrti sezdesetih godina dvadesetog veka. Inace, Urosevic pominje 
cifru od oko 1500 cerkeskih porodica naseljenih na Kosovu (ypoiueBnh 1987:82; YpouieBMh 
1965:95). ,JIOMepaH>e cpncice rpaHHue na ripenoJiau h Mep/iape no paTy 1877-78, 3aiuiaiiiH- 
jio je CKopo ,aoceji>eHe HepKe3e h o.a h>hx, kojhx je 6hjio oko 2000 Kyha, jcaaH mo ce hccjtho 
joui 1878, a HeTpHaecr ro^HHa no cbom AOceJbeH>y Ha Kocobo nOByKao ce y nyQshy yHyrpa- 
uih>oct TypcKe. fipyrn cy ce HcejBaBajin y Typcny no EajiKaHCKOM h IlpBOM cbctckom paiy, 
raKO #a hx je nocjie .Hpyror CBeTCKor paTa ocTajio CBera HeuiTO BHuie or eroraHy Kyha. 1956. 
cy MHora Beh 6hjih npoaajm HMaa>a h cnpeManH ce 3a Mce^>en>e, a ocTajiH cy Tpa>KHJiH Kynue 
3a CBOJa HMaH>a aa 6h h ohm KpenyjiH y TypcKy. PaHHJH y3poK h>hxobom HcejbaBatty 6ho je 
crrpax aa he Kao MycjiHMaHH 6hth raH>anH h &a Hehe Mohn ocTaTH MyariHMaHH y xpniuhaHCKOj 
Ap>KaBH. CaAa, no HapoAHOOCJioSoAHJianKOM paTy, T0\ie crpaxy HeMa Mecrra, ann je HCKpcao 
jxpym y3poK. EpaMHHM Be3aMa cy ce tojihko opoAmiH aa ce CKopo BHuie He Mory y3HMaTM. A 
H3 TOKite m ce onyBajy Kao HepKe3H, He crynajy y 6pa*me Be3e ca ApGaHaciiMa. 3ay3e;iH cy 
crraHOBHiiiTe aa MOpajy nohw h npHApy>KHTH ce ApyrHM nepKecKHM rpyaaMa y Majioj A3hjh, 
no MoryhcTBy paHHJHM HceibeHHUHMa ca KocoBa ' (YpouieBHh 1965:95). 

10 Pretpostavlja se da je nekada u Milosevu bilo 300 cerkeskih kuca, a kuca Albana- 
ca muhadzira — 200. Posle iseljenja muhadzira, po zavrsteku Prvog svetskog rata, u Milo- 
sevo su doseljeni kolonisti iz raznih krajeva Jugoslavije. Sredinom dvadesetog veka u Mi- 
losevu su zabelezene sledece cerkeske porodice: Besnej, Taus i Serhus (YpoineBHh 
1965:243). Prema podacima Ozbek 1986, broj Cerkeza u selima Donje Stanovce i Milose- 
vu osamdesetih godina dvadesetog veka bio je oko 600-700 ljudi. 

11 Ovaj OSCE izvestaj se nalazi na brojnim internet sajtovima, up. npr.: 
www.osce.org/kosovo/documents/reports/hr/partl/ch21.htm. 



Sikimic Biljana: Etnolingvisticka istrazivanja skrivenih manjina . . . 263 



Antropogeografska grada 

Cerkeske kolonije osnovane na Kosovu pocevsi od 1864. bile su: Mi- 
losevo, Malo Ribare, Pomazetin, Veliki Belacevac, Magura, Vrelo, Velika 
Slatina, Gornje Dobrevo, Ajvalija, Gornje Slakovce, Muadzer Babus, Mua- 
dzer Prelaz, Sazlija, Muadzer Talinovac, Donje Godance, a sela Velika Re- 
ka i Mali Bivoljak, osnovana su nekoliko godina kasnije. Pominje se i neko- 
liko cerkeskih naselja u kosovskom Pomoravlj u : Cerkez Sadovina, Drobes, 
Pozaranje i Donji Livoc (YpouieBHh 1965: passim i 1935:159; 181-182; 
170, 224-225). Do 1913. u Zvecanu, iznad Kosovske Mitrovice, bilo je ne- 
koliko cerkeskih kuca, naselje se zvalo Cerkeska Mala (0>HJiHnoBHh 1935), 
to se mesto i danas naziva Cerkesko groblje, a ima i ostataka nadgrobnih 
spomenika. 12 Cerkeza je bilo i u okolini Podujeva, Niko Zupanic na svojoj 
karti kao cerkeska naselje belezi varosicu Podujevo i s. Suvi Dol (Zupanic 
1933:221), ovo selo kao cerkesko pominje i Miloje Milojevic u svom puto- 
pisu (prema prilicno nepouzdanim podacima ovog autora 13 u okolini Podu- 
jeva bilo je pet velikih cerkeskih sela, MHJiojeBHh 1871:1 13, 127). Cerkeza 
je, prema istom autoru, bilo i u Metohiji u tri sela; Cerkezi su bili i ucenici 
medrese u Prizrenu (MHJiojeBHh 1878:178, 242). 

I u gradovima je tokom dvadesetog veka bilo Cerkeza: Kosovskoj 
Mitrovici je pedesetih godina postojalo nekoliko zanatlijskih cerkeskih 
kuca, doseljenih u meduratnom i posleratnom periodu iz Vucitrna i iz sela 
Donje Stanovce (YpouieBHh 1957:201-202). Cerkeza je 1910. godine jos 
bilo i u Urosevcu i Pristini, ali su podaci o njima vrlo oskudni. 14 

Cerkesko selo Donje Stanovce, koje je predmet ovog priloga, bilo je 
podeljeno u dve mahale: Stanuca i Graca. Tokom otomanske vladavine 
zvanican naziv sela Donje Stanovce bio je Ishanija Balja (Gornja Ishani- 
ja), a selo je bilo poznato i pod imenom Cerkesko Selo (YpoiueBuh 
1965:57-58). Tokom prvog talasa iseljavanja Cerkeza sa Kosova, 1878, i 
iz Donjeg Stanovca iselilo se desetak kuca, a posle Balkanskih ratova, u 
Tursku je iseljeno jos petnaestak kuca. Kao cerkeski rodovi pominju se 
prezimena Gut, Zjau, L % Cej, Nac, Mahos, Sauden, SI 's, Phava i Hoc, svi 
iz plemena Abadzeha. Iz Kosovskog Pomoravlj a kasnije su preseljene u 

12 Up. i iskaz sagovornika iz sela Grabovac kod Kosovske Mitrovice [8] u drugom 
delu ovog rada. 

13 Milojevicev putopis uopste ne pominje Cerkeze u selu Donje Stanovce koji su 
inace osnovali to selo 1864. godine (MHJiojeBHh 1871:213-214). 

14 UBHjHh 1996 2 :454, 523. Atanasije Urosevic pominje u Urosevcu sest „Kyna Hep- 
Ke3a, koj'h cy ce ^ocejinjiH H3 Hmua", ovi Cerkezi su se posle prvog svetskog rata iselili u 
Tursku (ypouieBHh 1936:271). 



264 Ckphbehe m ah>hhe ha B ajikahy 



Donje Stanovce porodice Baz i Bargl (detaljnije podatke o stanovnistvu s. 
Donje Stanovce v. u: yponieBun 1965:206-207). 

Cerkezi i ratni diskurs 

U jednoj savremenoj zbirci terenskih zapisa iz okoline Pirota, koja je 
zapravo svojevrsna „privatna istorija" tog kraja, Cerkezi (Hephe3je) se po- 
minju u poglavlju naslovljenom „Zlo vreme tursko i ajducko". O Cerkezi- 
ma usmeno svedoce ljudi rodeni pocetkom dvadesetog veka, ali ne iz prve 
ruke, vec po secanju predaka (deda Miije upmost). Ratni diskurs, u cijem se 
okviru pominju Cerkezi, opisuje krade, razbojnistva ili ubistva {Hephe3je 
doodusiu da xpadny siuckobhuuu u dped), a u nekim primerima nema et- 
nicke izdiferenciranosti izmedu Cerkeza i Turaka (3uaTKOBHh 2002:95-97). 
Cerkezima su plasili decu u makedonskim selima: 15 

no flOJiacKy MepKe3a y Tctobo, poflHTejbH cy 3a ayro nnauiHJiH zieiry #a He 
H3na3e Ha yjiHiry, jep fla he hx HepKe3H 3aicnaTH h to 3aKHBaH>eM KJiHHaua y 
Tejio. (...) H y Bejiecy cy poAHTeibH njianiHJiH aeuy roBopehn za HepKe3H 
jeay RQixy. (OHUHnoBHh 1935-267) 

Putopisna grada sa Kosova iz druge polovine 19. veka tu i tamo po- 
minje Cerkeze, kao, na primer, Miloje Milojevic koji je kroz Kosovo pu- 
tovao 1870. 16 Ovakva propagandna dela, kao i nesto ozbiljnija grada sa 
istoriografskim pretenzijama, mogla su da imaju veliki uticaj na uoblica- 
vanje defmitivne slike o Cerkezima. 17 

I nesto kasnija, knjizevna produkcija memoarskog tipa iz vremena 
srpsko-turskih ratova obiluje pasazima u kojima su Cerkezi prikazani u 
izrazito negativnom svetlu, ovde se samo ilustrativno navode izvodi iz dva 
dela koja se odnose na ovaj period. U Gnjilanu, vojnici iz azijskog dela 
Otomanske imperije iznose svoje videnje ratovanja tokom 1875: „Hep- 
Ke3H h ApHayra wmJbsaw cy, a eBponcKH TypuH p^aBH JtyflH." Ista me- 
moarsko delo (IlonoBHri 1896), u sklopu dogadanja iz januara 1878. u 
Gnjilanu, Cerkeze opisuje kao pljackase: 

CaA Beh HacTaae njtaHKafte. Ha )emy CTpaHy yaapajy HepKe3H, Ha apyry 
ApHay™. IlyniKa: tsh1». a paiteHH Cp6HH BHne: „AMaH, He aaJTe!" (...) 



15 Time se Cerkezi ukljucuju u niz tudanaca i inoveraca kojima su plasena deca kod 
juznih Slovena (uz Cigane i Turke, up. PaaeHKOBuh 2000:146-147). 

16 O objektivnosti i recepciji ovog Milojevicevog putopisa v. npr. BaJHh 2000. Mi- 
loje Milojevic u istoriji narodne knjizevnosti poznat je kao falsifikator folklora, a smatra se 
i za „najromanticnijeg srpskog istricara patriotske skole" (JoBaHOBHh 2001:311, 246). 

17 Bibliografiju takvih istoriografskih izvora o Cerkezima u Srbiji donose Dordevic 
1984 i Filipovic 1935. 



Sikimic Biljana: EtnolingvistiCka isxrazivanja skriven 



ENIH MANJINA . . . 265 



Onex B P HcaK - ariH ca fl a IlHraHaKa h L^nna/m: „Ee*' xoua!... Eto Hep- 
Kesa!". Hsa^ox H3 unraHCKe Kyhe. Ky^a hy? YnyxHM ce csojoj Kyhn Cxa- 
He M koa KannuHKa. ILormnm - epaxa c B a wh P om OTBopena... Je/jaH ce 
HepKes orpiiyo ymtaHKaHMM hHJiHMHexoM, a /roym hoch Moje heMane h 
npo6a jxa cBHpa. Oaonie... Eto spyrnx fl a njLanKajy mxo je ocxajio H3a np- 
bhx... npoxpnax k P 03 aBopniuxe. Hsahox Ha ymjjy. Hahox ce Ha pac K p- 
chhuh... Ky A a hy?... £ecHo h jieoo Hfly Apnayxn h HepKesn... H^y H nyuaiy 
H3 nyuiaKa (IionoBHh 1896:250-261). 

Rat 1877. ovako komentarise Arnautin, staresina zandarmerije, iz- 
jednacavajuci Arnaute i Cerkeze: 

- C P 6hh he aohn - nacxaBH Cyjma, - h npaBo je m aohe. (...) Bor he My 
saxH, jep He Mo>Ke BHiue hh oh m rjie fl a HenpaB/te, uixo ce mmt ch P oxhh>h 
Ajih CH P oxHH,a Mo>Ke jom aa cxpaaa: hjih m nocrpaaa or Apnayxa h Hep K e- 
sa, hjih ojx cpncrax 6aiuH6o 3 yKa (flo6poBOJta U a). (nonoBHh 1896:250-261) 

Izjednacavanje Araauta i Cerkeza uobicajno je za ovo vreme: „r*e 
cm, 6pe HepKesy, 6pe ApnayTHHe, m th ceiceM raaey, H eheni BHiue cecipy 
m mm apnam!" (nexpoBHh 1979:51). Cerkezi terorisu i pljackaju grad u 
borbama za oslobodenje Prokuplja: 

UapcKH acKep sahe m njtaHKa no ayhaHHMa u KyhaMa, H3a3HBajyhH Kasry. 
Kaa npHnynaiue nyimce y BapouiH, ohh ce omax noByKouie y xa6HJe, a 
noxnycxHiue Hepnese h 6aiiiH6o3YKe kojh HaBajiHine Ha Kyhe H ayhaHe, 
o6HJajyhH hx. (...) Ka^HJa je jyxpoc ca M0 3axo oxHmao, fl a 6h HepKesH h 
6aiHH6o 3 yHH moxjih noy6Hjax H c B e Cp6e h Bapom cnpacnxH (nexpoBHh 
1979:54-46) 

I savremena vojna istoriografija (Vojna enciklopedija, s.v. Cerkezi) 
osvetljava samo isti ovaj ratni diskurs: 

U ratu su obrazovali neregularae konjickc i pesadijske jedinice. Bill su od- 
licm i vrlo ratoborni strelci, jahaci i pesaci. Turci su ih upotrebili za ugusenje 
apnlskog ustanka u Bugarskoj 1876, sto su izvrsili vrlo surovo, pa je na Ber- 
linskom kongresu zabranjeno Turskoj da ih naseljava na granici prema Bu- 
garskoj. Pred srpsko-turski rat 1876-77. vrsili su napade na srpske karaule 
upadah preko granice, palili i pljackali srpska naselja. U torn ratu ucestvova- 
lo je oko 10.000 C. u sastavu turske vojske, najvise u borbama na Babinoj 
glavi, kod Bele Palanke, Gramade, Aleksinca i Sumatovca, gde su vrsili nasi- 
lja prema stanovnistvu u tim krajevima. Zbog straha od odmazde povukli su 
se 1877-78. pred srpskom vojskom kad je ona prodrla prema Nisu, Prokuplju 
i Kosovu. U prvom balkanskom ratu 1912-13, osim neznatnog dela, povukli 
su se s turskom vojskom sa Kosova i iz Makedonije u Tursku. 



266 Ckphbehe mailmhe ha Bajikahy 



Etnografska grada 

Etnografska grada o Cerkezima na Kosovu nije previse obimna: oni 
se uzgredno pominju u opisu Kosova, knjizevnika i ambasadora Branisla- 
va Nusica, iz 1902, 18 a posebne studije ovoj temi posvecuju u prvoj polo- 
vini dvadesetog veka etnolozi Tihomir Bordevic (1928), Niko Zupanic 
(1933), uz nekoliko manjih radova drugih autora. 19 

Podaci o Cerkezima kojima je raspolagao Tihomir Bordevic poticu 
iz druge ruke i zapravo su secanja na Cerkeze u gradovima Srbije u koji- 
ma ih, u vreme kada su ova secanja zapisivana (oko 1920), vise nije bilo. 
Tako je Dordevicev etnoloski tekst uglavnom izgraden bezlicnim kon- 
strukcijama: u Nisu su, prica se; u Prokuplju se prica; u nasoj zemlji za- 
pamceni su;josje od cerkeskih obicaja u nas zapamceno; na Kosovu su 
mi kazivali ljudi. U vreme kada Tihomir Bordevic pise svoj prilog, slika o 
Cerkezima u srpskim zemljama pod Turcima definitivno je izbledela, ali, 
„kako su i oni bili stanovnici nase zemlje i, za neko vreme, imali uticaja, 
makar i zlog, na nas narod, to je, mislim, potrebno da se i to zna" (T>opl)e- 
BHh 19842:150). 

Slika koju pruza ova etnografska i antropometrijska grada svodi se 
na moralni lik Cerkeza, 20 opis tradicionalne cerkeske nosnje (koji prati i 

18 „HepKe3H cy ce (...) Hacemuiw OAMax nocjie kphmckof paTa, H3Mei)y 1858. h 
1962. roAHHe. CBera hx ce AOcenHJio Ha Kocobo 6000 nopozmua. Hacejietbe Mepxe3a cy h 
TypuH h ApHayTH npHMHUH ca Hero#OBaH>eM na ce h jxo ijaHac HHcy ca H»HMa h3mhpmjih, 
Bajta Aa h 3a to ihto HepKe3H ynopHO o^p^aBajy CBOJe o6HHaje m >KHBe >khbotom ca cbhm 
noABOJeHHM oa ocTajiHx MyxaMe^aHaua. HepKe3H ce HHCy HacejtaBajin no onycTejiHM ce- 
jiHMa, Hero cy 3a ce6e noAH3ajiH HOBa cejia, Te 0Ty;i aaHac Ha KocoBy Bp.io MHoro HMeHa 
HepKe3-Kej, JeHH HepKe3-Kej h t.r. H ano cy Beh tojihko ro^HHa Ha obom MecTy, Hepxe3M 
join HHcy HayMHHH hh ApHayrcKH hh TypcKH ochm ohhx no BapouiHMa, Koje je Ha to join 
h KaKaB nocao ynyhHBao. HepKe3HMa He ro^H Ha oboj paBHHUH, Te 6poJHO jano ona#ajy h 
paceJtaBajy ce. HapoHHTO cy ce mhoto pacejiHUH nocjie cpiiCKO-TypcKor paTa. flaHac hx 
Beh HeMa Ha KocoBy BHme ojx 400 nopo^Hua" (HyiiiHh 1902:76). 

19 OHUHnoBHh 1935 (gde je data i druga literatura), OHUHnoBnh 1937:412, 498; 
YpouieBHh 1987:79-82. 

20 „Koa Cp6a je oho (cTonapcTBo) nOHeno nonyuiTaTH or AOJiacica Hepice3a 1864, 
jep cy HepKe3H, Kaico ce npnna, 6hjih y npBo BpeMe bcuhkh Kpa/ubHBijH. Kpal)a ctokc je, 
Ka^cy, nonejia or aojiacKa MepKe3a, r#e cy noTOM tcpajiH h Ap6aHacH, a HapoHHTO je y3ejia 
Maxa on Haceji>aBaH>a Myxaunpa, r^e cy, nope# h,hx, Myxaunpa, y Kpal)H ynecTBOBajw h 
npyra Ap6aHacH. 3a HepKe3e ce Ka^ce #a HHcy 6hjih pa36oj*HHUH („HHcy ySHJajm"), ajin cy 
„BHiue h 6ojbe KpajiH ho ApHayra". C nojaBOM TaKBe Kpal)e npecTajia ce Ap^caTH CTOKa Ha 
nojaTaMa BaH cejia, jep je, nopen pH3HKa 3a cTOKy, nocTojao ph3hk h 3a Jty^e kojh Hohy 
ocTajy ca ctokom Ha thm nojaTaMa. Her^e ce CTOKa Ha nojaTaMa apxcajia caMO ncrn (...). 
Cp6n cy y flo6poTHHy TaKO ro AOJiacKa HepKe3a #p>KajiH CTOKy h 3hmh h jicth" (ypoiue- 
Bnh 1965:127). Stereotip o Cerkezima kao lopovima pominje jos u 17. veku Evlija Celebi- 
ja govoreci „o neobicnim osobinama naroda cerkeskog" (E;ie30BHh 1936:261-262). 



Sikimic Biljana: Etnqlingvisti cka istrazivanja skrivenih manjina ... 267 

njenu postepenu modifikaciju),2i opis privrede, obicaja oko ishrane i ne- 
koliko sociolingvistickih detalja. Istoricar Aleksandar Popovic ukazuje na 
velike slabosti raspolozive naucne literatutre o Cerkezima na Kosovu, sva 
istrazivanja su radena na brzu ruku i povrsno, podaci su delimicno kontra- 
diktorni, nije koriscena arhivska grada, niti dnevna stampa (Popovic 
1978:1 7 1).22 Od novijih priloga treba pomenuti da je u Bonu je 1986. go- 
dine objavljena „cerkeska knjiga secanja" (Ozbek 1986) u kojoj Cerkezi 
sa Kosova sami govore o sebi. 23 



Etnolingvisticka grada: £eifcezi i komsijski diskure 

U drugOM delu rada analiza slike o Cerkezima zasniva se na usme- 
nom svedocenju, na podacima dobijenim terenskim istrazivanjima Srba u 
enklavi Priluzje i okolnim naseljima koja se nalaze i u blizini nekadasnjeg 
cerkeskog sela Donje Stanovce (Plemetina, Grace i Babin Most). Drugi 
krug razgovora o Cerkezima voden je u susednim kosovskim enklavama: 
okolini Kosovske Mitrovice, Gojbulji i Novom Brdu. Selo Donje Stanov- 
ce uzgredno pominju u svojim iskazima i raseljena lica, sa kojima su raz- 
govori vodeni uglavnom u izbeglickim centrima u Srbiji. Slika o Cerkezi- 
ma dobijena na osnovu svih ovih iskaza, veoma se razlikuje od istoriograf- 
ske grade, putopisa, memoarskih zapisa, etnografske grade. 

21 „MymKa Mep K ecKa Hoiuaa je caaa HajeflHaneHa ca TypcKOM. Hoce 4>ec. Ajih cy 
ao 1910 roOTHe HepicesH hochjih H euj (Konopa H ) c (Jjhuickjihjom, Kantian ( B pcTa MHHTaHa 
ayraHKor ao KOJieHa), yonet) (naiouHpe), nana (onamiH oa MeujHHe Koje cy naparjHBajie 
ftHxoBe >KeHe), ua'o ( K ana 6e.ia hjih up H a sum o6oje H a), 6'A>ucp (icaJHw ca chjieiJjom)" 
(YpoiueBHh 1935:123). „HoniH>a Hep K ecHH>a ce y noc/ieaite BpeMe nonejia H3JMHaHaBara 
ca TypcKOM hoiiih>om. Ho h caa ce join oapacaBa cpyciuaH u hcchckh xauwaH (6jiy3a), koj'h 
ce H3par,yjy on 6acMe h KyTHHJe. Ha yjiHim cy He P KecKHH>e 6mie y (JiepeuH, a Jinue cy no 
1910. roOTHe noKpHBajie 6eiiHM janmaxoM, ica^a je aaMeaen upmm Kao h koji ocTajmx 
MycjiHMaHa obhx o6jiacTH" (VponieBHh 1935:126). 

22 Zupaniceva antropometrijska istrazivanja kosovskih Cerkeza istoricar Aleksan- 
dar Popovic (1978:165) ne zeli ni da komentarise. Sa lingvistickog stanovista se ipak na- 
mece kao sporno i pitanje cerkeskih antroponima koje navodi Zupanic (1933:238). Naime 
lmena i prezimena 1929. godine ispitanih Cerkeza iz sela Donje Stanovce {Ahmet Alijevid 
Mula Cerim Husejn, Bastri Hajrula, Serif MHz, Jusuf Musa, Izet Hadzimelovic, Salih Ju- 
suf Jaja Said, Redzep Sulejman, Mustafa Salt, Riza Ismail, Mamul Sulejman, Ismail Haki 
Casim Sulejman, Daut Zabi, Sali Apuk, Jaja Hamza, Serif Sali, I lias A run, Ahmet Hadzi- 
met, Husein Daut) ne odgovaraju vec navedenim cerkeskim prezimenima koja je nekoliko 
godina kasnije u istom selu zabelezio antropogeograf Atanasije Urosevic (Gut Zjau L s 
Cej, Nac, Mahos, Sauden, Si's, Phava i Hoc). 

O etnolozima u Srbiji i sindromu dvostrukog insajdera v. Naumovic 1999. 

23 Sintezu o Cerkezima na Kosovu na engleskom jeziku, v. u: Malcolm 1998. 



268 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 



Usmeni etnodijalekatski tekst, tacnije transkript etnodijalekatskog 
iskaza, daje, izmedu ostalog i informacija o samom sagovorniku. Razgo- 
vor o nekadasnjim prvim komsijama, jeste iskaz o konceptu 'mi' i 'drugi', 
pozicioniranjem prema drugom — odreduje se sopstveni identitet. Noviji 
lingvisticko-antropoloski radovi fokusiraju i samog istrazivaca, kao treceg 
clana. Ogranicenja istrazivaca autsajdera nisu determinisana iskljucivo 
nj ego vim nepoznavanjem jezika i nedostatkom prethodnih istrazivanja. 24 
Ipak, prica o cerkeskom praznom prostoru, mnogo je slozenija: uvode- 
njem prvog lica jednine (sam sagovornik) i treceg lica jednine (konkretni 
Cerkez) slika objedinjuje individualni i grupni portret. Slozena kosovska 
stvarnost uvela je jos jednog aktera: grupni portret muslimana i grupni 
portret Albanaca kao referentnu tacku za skoro svako licno promisljanje o 
Cerkezima. Podaci dobijeni o muslimanskoj veri Cerkeza osvetljavaju od- 
nos pravoslavni : muslimani na Kosovu danas, jer se u iskazima Cerkezi 
muslimani redovno porede sa Albancima muslimanima, i to dosledno u 
pozitivnom kontekstu, na stetu ovih drugih. 

Aktuelni komsijski diskurs: Cerkezi 

U razgovorima vodenim 2003. u kosovskim enklavama, svi sagovor- 
nici navode da su sa Cerkezima imali prijateljske, poslovne kontakte. Po- 
nekad su se posecivali za praznike (za slavu, odnosno Bajram), ali niko ni- 
je bio u stanju da navede podatke o cerkeskoj tradicionalnoj kulturi. Nije 
bilo mesovitih brakova sa Srbima, proizlazi da je cerkeski bilingvizam, 
tacnije multilingvizam, bio — jednosmeran: niko od sagovornika ne pomi- 
nje svoje znanje ili bar poznavanje cerkeskog jezika. Tako su dobijeni 
'eksterai' podaci, koji se sastoje od oskudne impresije o zvucnim efektima 
nerazumljivog cerkeskog jezika i od povrsnih, sasvim uopstenih podataka 
o okolnostiraa stanovanja, ishrane i odece Cerkeza. 25 

1. Usmena istorija: ubiciranje u vremenu 

Usmeni iskazi o Cerkezima prilicno su nepouzdani kada je u pitanju 
hronoloska orijentacija: niko od intervjuisanih Srba nije znao ni priblizno 
vreme kada su Cerkezi doseljeni na Kosovo. Pada u oci iskaz [1] po kome 

24 Cerkezi i danas zive na Kosovu u mulitetnickom selu Milosevo, ali je njihovo di- 
rektno istrazivanje od strane ekipe iz Beograda u ovom trenutku veoma problematicno. Za- 
pravo je problem istrazivaca autsajdera u ovom slucaju dodatno komplikovan cinjenicom 
da su istrazivaci iz Beograda svakako jos uvek negativno markirani autsajderi za vecinu 
stanovnika scla Milosevo. 

25 O percepciji cerkeske odece i poziciji istrazivaca u radu sa traumatizovanim za- 
jednicama v. Sikimic 2004. 



Sikimic Biljana: Etnqlingvi stiCka istrazivanja skrjvenih manjina ... 269 

su Cerkezi stigli na Kosovo posle ruske revolucije. Ipak, Niko Zupanic 
pominje Kabardinca Nuriju Tisekova, vojnika Vrangelove vojske koji se 
oko 1930. nastanio u s. Donje Stanovce (Zupanic 1933:225), a slicnim po- 
dacima (da su Cerkezi stizali na Kosovo i posle sovjetske revolucije 1917) 
raspolaze i Aleksandar Popovic (Popovic 1978:160). Proizlazi da je vre- 
menski period od 140 godina (pa i manje, imajuci u vidu zivotni vek nasih 
sagovornika), u usmenoj kulturi dovoljno dugacak da se zaborave istorij- 
ske cinjenice o 'drugom': Oni su, izgleda mi, kako sam ja cuo i kako sam 
ispitivao, oni su pobegli odotud kad je stupio komunizam, kada su Kara- 
dordevici primili, isto. Karadordevici su primili isto. (Ruse kad su primi- 
li?) Osamneste go dine primili, je I tako? E to ja znam, to sam u onuAka- 
demiju ucio. [1]; (Da li se zna otkud oni tu?) E, to. Odakle su oni dosli i 
kako su stigli oni. Odavno su dosli. (Da vipamtite uvek su tu?) JJvek. De- 
da iparadeda i unukdeda, i oni su bili tu. Odavno dosli i oni. [2]; E, to ne 
pantim. (Dosli su pre nego vi pamtite?) Pre, pre, ool Mozda su oni, kako 
bi reko, iljadu devetsto pi-ve, pete, staja znam, pre, tu su bili oni, tu su. 
Odavno su oni tu bili. Ne pantim ja za nji uopste kad su oni dosli. [3]; pa 
ja ne znam koje godine dosli Cerkezi kod nas, evo sad se iselili. On) su 
dosli, ja mislim posle revolucije, oktombarske revolucije iz Rusije ovde 
kod nas. [4]; Znate tacno kad su stigli oni? Kad su se naselili?) Ne znam, 
bogami, samo tako moj paradeda Bojko, pricao, od Kavkaza, Rusije, oni 
tu dosli. (To nije bilo u ovom veku?) Ne, ne. (Toje bilo u pros lorn veku?) 
Uproslim veku. [5]; A u kojem su veku dosli, bogami, ne znam. (Nije se 
pricalo kad su stigli?) Ne, samo uglavnom, da su, ima i tamo drzava njina, 
Cerkezi, iz Rusije, otuda su poreklom [7] 

Miloje Milojevic u svom putopisu o Kosovu na vise mesta pominje 
legendu o Cerkezima koji su ucestvovali u Kosovskoj bici i zarobili kneza 
Lazara (MmiojeBHfr 1871:180; 1872:41-42), verovatno je ova legenda bila 
poznata sagovorniku iseljenom iz sela Pestovo: Oni su ucestvovali i u Ko- 
sovsku bitku, ovi Cerkezi sa Turcima, dosta su doprineli, bili su borbeni. 
[7]. Legenda o Cerkezima koji su pre Turaka lili zlato u rudniku Novo Br- 
do, verovatno nije u vezi sa prethodnom: Ranije bili. Koj ce i zna. (Vi ne 
znate nikogal) Pa mismo mladi. Pre, pred Tursku prica da bili Cerkezi. [9] 

Sagovornici su, medutim davali razlicite podatke i o sasvim recent- 
nim dogadajima, o vremenu kada su Cerkezi otisli iz s. Donje Stanovce: 
Sad pre rataje to bilo. (...) ali pre rata, pre nego stoje NA TO, mislim, po- 
ceo sa bombardovanje, ovi su ih sve avionom poslali za Kavkaz. Povukli 
su ih tamo. (Ne znate otprilike kad su oni odseljeni?) Sad skoro. — Deve- 
des osme. Sad, ovog rata. (...) (Znaci skoro?) Mi kad smo pobegli, oni sa- 
mo pre rata otisli. - Za par meseci pre nas otisli, pre nego stoje poceo 
NA TO da bombarduje. [2]; Pa oni su pred rat, pred ovaj rat. (Do skora su 



270 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

tu bill?) Bill su do skoro. Kadje bilo ovo, borba ovde, bilji su, prije imali 
tu malo nesto, all veci brojje bio otiso za Tursku, ali ipakje bilo i tu. I on- 
da kad su se pobunili ovde Siptari, oni su pobegli svi za Rusiju. [3]; evo 
sad se iselili. (...) / do sad su bili, sad otisli, opet tamo u Kavkaz [4]; Za 
vreme nemacko, otada oni vise nesu dosli ovde. (...) {Kad su otisli?) Pa, 
ima, bogami, imapetnes godine, i vise, dvaes, otisli. (Nije to sad skoro bi- 
lol) Ne, ne. Sad za vreme rata ove dve porodice Sabana Sabani i ovaj, bra- 
tanca. — Za vreme bombardovanja, tad oni otisli (...) Kad dosli ovi deve- 
des cetvrte juna meseca, tad oni otisli. [5] (U primcru sigurno lapsus dev- 
des cetvrte umesto „devedeset devete"); Odavno, davno. (Da vi pamtite?) 
Pamtim. Pre tries godina otisli su. (Nije to tako davno.) Ne. Pre tries go di- 
ne su otisli. [6] Primeri pokazuju jednostavnu orijentaciju u vremenu, u 
kojoj se rat dozivljava kao osnovni vremenski reper, odnosno — vreme 
jednog dogadaja se odreduje prema vremenu nekog licnog dogadaja: Mi 
kad smo pobegli, oni samo pre rata otisli. I u vremenskim koordinatama 
Cerkezi se spontano porede sa Albancma: Kad dosli ovi devedes cetvrte 
juna meseca, tad oni otisli; I onda kad su se pobunili ovde Siptari, oni su 
pobegli svi za Rusiju. 

v 

Sto je dogadaj vremenski udaljeniji od momenta razgovora — vremen- 
sko odredivanje je nepreciznije, na primer, odredba u ono tursko (vreme), ko- 
ja pokriva ceo period osmanske vladavine, precizirana je momentom 'oslobo- 
denja', znaci da su Cerkezi iz Malog Zvecana iseljeni u vreme Balkanskih ra- 
tova: Iselili se u ono tursko, kad je posle, ovaj, oslobodeno. [8] 

Svi sagovornici su znali da su Cerkezi poreklom odnekud sa Kavka- 
za i da su se tamo negde (u Rusiju) i vratili. Logicna je nepouzdana pro- 
storna orijentacija kada su u pitanju udaljene zemlje, pa se mesto odakle 
su Cerkezi doseljeni na Kosovo ovako opisuje: Iz Kavkaz su pobegli, od 
Kavkaz od tud [1]; Oni od Rusije dosli ovde, posle odavde pobegli za Tur- 
sku. (...) tako moj paradeda Bojko, pricao, od Kavkaz a, Rusije, oni tu do- 
sli. [5]; Pa oni su poreklom iz Rusije, ima i sad tamo ta nacija. A u kojem 
su veku dosli, bogami, ne znam. (Nije se pricalo kad su stigli?) Ne, samo 
uglavnom, dasu, ima i tamo drzava njina, Cerkezi, iz Rusije, otudasu po- 
reklom. Paja t mi se cini da smo i mi poreklom otuda. [7] 

Geografska udaljenost Kavkaza dosledno uslovljava i nesigurnu ori- 
jentaciju o mestu na koje su danas preseljeni Cerkezi: Ajde za Kavkazl 
(...) Ides u Kavkaz, reko, tamo da-s smrznes,ja sam mislio da tamo u Kav- 
kaz velika ladnoca [1]; Napustili, isli su za Rusiju, odose (...) Za Rusiju, 
Ceceniju (...) U Kavkaz su otisli, pre rata. Poslali su im, avionom su ih sve 
poslali, mislim, ovi iz Kavkaza su povukli njih tamo. [2]; Pa nesto otislo 
za Tursko, nesto, mali broj otiso za Kavkaz, u Rusiju, oni tamo, sta ja 



Sikimic Biljana: Etn qlingvisticka istraZivanja skrjvenih manjina ... 271 

znam. A veci broj otiso u Tursku. [3] / do sad su bill, sad otisli, opet tamo 
u Kavkaz, di otisli, ne znam, Cerkezi. [4] 

Istorijska cinjenica da su se Cerkezi iseljavali u najmanje pet velikih 
talasa verovatno je zamaglila privatno istorijsko pamcenje njihovih prvih 
komsija. Siri transkripti su odabrani tako da ilustruju orijentaciju u vreme- 
nu i prostoru samih sagovornika i istovremeno omoguce uvid u realno 
funkcionisanje nekadasnje kosovske multietnicke zajednice. Faktografske 
okolnosti defmitivnog odlaska Cerkeza iz sela Donje Stanovce, poklapaju 
se sa podacima iz autenticnih dokumenata i prepiskom ruskih i jugoslo- 
venskih vlasti sa internet sajta Circassian Land. 2 6 Iskazi sagovornika o 
eventualnim preostalim Cerkezima u selu Donje Stanovce se razlikuju, te 
podatke nije bilo moguce proveriti na terenu: Utovarili se Cerkezi svi oti- 
sli, samo dve kuce ostali. (...) Dve porodice su i danas tu[\];Ima neki zi- 
ve dole. Gde su sad Siptari, tu, Cerkezi. (...) Ne znam ko rece, brejesjed- 
nafamilija-dve. [2] Niko. Niko nije ostao. [3] 

[1] Iz Kavkaz su pobegli, od Kavkaz od tud neki su Cerkezi. Preko zapad, 
tamo, odavde, takozvane Stanovce. Pravo da ti kazem, ja sam bio ovde, do- 
bro se secam kad su dosli kamioni ruski, pratioci ruski, tenkovi, neka'voj- 
ska opasna. I samo: Ajde za Kavkaz! Utovarili se Cerkezi svi otisli, samo 
dve kuce ostali. (Tada su sa Rusima otisli Cerkezi?) Sa Rusi, dabome, uto- 
vareni u kamioni, bre. Izvinite sto vi reko - bre. Izvinjavam se. Ali 'dosli 
ljudi, nisu teli vozom da gi pustu, nego direktno dosli. (...) Oni su najbolji 
prijatelji i njegovom sinu Momcilu i meni. Ja vikam: - Said, apo maljan, 
jer ja znam siptarski, ja znam siptarski, znam i madarski, znam i italijanski! 
znam, i turski i ciganski. Znam i nemacki dosta. Ja vikam: Said, apo ma- 
ljan, ti maljan. - Ajde idemo, vika. Ja kazem: - Zar ti nije zao da me osta- 
vis samoga, jer dobro smo ziveli, znas. Njegov otac bio Ajdar, on je pravio 
vitlove velike koji krecaju kamen, od metar i nekoliko na Sitnicu i na Lab, 
on je pravio te vodenice koje su mleli, struja nije bila, i mi smo imali dve 
vodenice, jednu na Lab, jednu na Sitnicu, moj otac. I taj je Ajdar pravio te 
velike vitlove. E taj Saip, on drzo konje, drzo sam i ja, i za celo ovo vreme, 
uvek zaktevao da vozi pesak, ovako prvo da se javi meni. I kad je vec kre- 
no, on doso da se javi, da ja ne bi ni znao da nije doso. - More, ako da sa- 
cekate malo, sad ja bas sad tovaram stvari tamo. — Ne, ne, kaze, u pola noci 
dodu kamioni i idemo. - Sta, bre? - Idemo. - Di cete, bre? Ides u Kavkaz, 
reko, tamo da-s smrznes, ja sam mislio da tamo u Kavkaz velika ladnoca i' 
Rusi koji su dosli oni su znali pristojno da govoru srpski i meni kaze: — Aj- 
de, dodi i ti s nama. - Ne, reko, fala vam, necu. (A te dve porodice sto su 
ostale, sta je s njima bilo?) Dve porodice su i danas tu, ali nisam mislio sa 
(?) pravo da ti kazem. (U Stanovce?) U Stanovce su. (Ima ih sigurno danas 
tamo?) Sigurno. Raspitajte se, to je sigurno da ima. Vec ako su za ovo vre- 



26 wvAv.circassian.narod.ru/rus/maf/index.html 



272 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

me da su otisli, oni otisli, ja ne znam, al znam ja, tu su ostali. (...) (Da li se 
pricalo kad su oni dosli ovde na Kosovo? Otkud oni na Kosovu?) Oni su, 
izgleda mi, kako sam ja cuo i kako sam ispitivao, oni su pobegli odotud kad 
je stupio komunizam, kada su Karadordevici primili, isto. Karadordevici su 
primili isto. (Ruse kad su primili?) Osamneste godine primili, je 1 tako? E 
to ja znam, to sam u onu Akademiju ucio. [129-K-Priluzje-7-BS] 

[2] Cerkezi? Bili. Bill Cerkezi. Napustili. isli su za Rusiju, odose. ne znam 
sad. — Sad pre rata je to bilo. — De odose ovi Cerkezi? Za Rusiju? — Za 
Rusiju, Ceceniju, nisu bili ovde kod nas, u Stanovce. — U Stanovci. — Mi- 
slim, nema Cerkeze, ima ispod asfalta, to je bilo njihovo naselje. (To je ov- 
de bilo?) Pa da, oni i dan-danas zive, da 1 se vratili sad. — Ima neki zive do- 
le. Gde su sad Siptari, tu, Cerkezi- (Tu su oni, u torn siptarskom selu?) Da, 
da. Oni su bre, ovamo. — U, bre, prema Priluzju kad se ide, Cerkezi pa Pri- 
luzje. U Kavkaz su otisli, pre rata. Poslali su im, avionom su ih sve poslali, 
mislim, ovi iz Kavkaza su povukli njih tamo. (To je bilo jedino cerkesko 
selo u ovom kraju?) Jedino. Ima i malo, znas, u Milosevo, to su prijatelji 
neki. Inace, da li se vratili, moguce da su se vratili opet. — Malo, kaze, vra- 
tili se. — Ne-e, Cerkezi nisu. — Ne znam ko rece, bre, jes jedna famili- 
ja-dve. Mada nisu nista oni prodali, moguce da se vrate. — Pa ostavili. — 
Samo zbog rata su oni napustili. — Ostavili imanje, onome u Milosevo. — 
Onom Cerkezu isto. — Sto je napravio sporeti. — Onje Cerkez, sta je? — 
Cerkez je. E, njemu ostavili sve imanje. Ako ces prodaj, ako ces sto god 
oces radi, ako ces radi za sebe i gotovo. (To je u Stanovce?) Da, da. Donje 
Stanovce. Oni su samo ziveli tu, nisu ziveli Siptari. Samo su Cerkezi bili tu. 

— Nije imalo mesovinu, samo Cerkezi. — Kasnije su Siptari. (A sada?) Ka- 
snije su oni kupovali. (To je ovo selo izmedu Priluzja?) Da, odmak ispod 
asfalta. — Vidi se. — Donje Stanovce. — Cim smo izasli od onog puta de su 
Marokanci, ono. Odande pocinje Stanovce sve do dovde, de stao autobus. 

— Znas de su Marokanci, preko Laba, s ove strane. E tu su bili Cerkezi svi, 
i dan danas imaju kuce tu, ali pre rata, pre nego sto je NATO, mislim, po- 
ceo sa bombardovanje, ovi su ih sve avionom poslali za Kavkaz. Povukli su 
ih tamo. (Ne znate otprilike kad su oni odseljeni?) Sad skoro. — Devedes 
osme. Sad, ovog rata. — Da i mi smo isli dole, bre, rezali daske. — I dan da- 
nas njihove kuce su tu. — Stolar je bio tu, tu smo rezali daske i lamperiju i 
vrata. (Znaci skoro?) Mi kad smo pobegli, oni samo pre rata otisli. — Za par 
meseci pre nas otisli, pre nego sto je poceo NATO da bombarduje. (Da li se 
zna otkud oni tu?) E, to. Odakle su oni dosli i kako su stigli oni. Odavno su 
dosli. (Da vi pamtite uvek su tu?) Uvek. Deda i paradeda i unukdeda, i oni 
su bili tu. Odavno dosli i oni. Oni od Kavkaza dosli. (...) Oni nisu otisli, ne- 
go njih je vlada, vlada ih je povukla sve tamo. — Koja vlada? — Njina, vla- 
da Kavkaza, bre. — Naredenje. — Poslali im avione, sve da ih povuku, sa- 
mo ih povukli. — I bolje. — Nije bolje. — Ja ne znam sad ovo da 1 je proda- 
to, sta je s tim? — Nisu prodali, sve tako stoji. [141-K-Grace-2-BS] 



Sikimic Biljana: Etnolingvisticka istrazivanja skrivenih manjina . . . 273 



[3] (Gde su oni sada?) Pa nesto otislo za Tursko, nesto, mali broj otiso za 
Kavkaz, u Rusiju, oni tamo, sta ja znam. A veci broj otiso u Tursku. (Kad 
su otisli?) Pa oni su pred rat, pred ovaj rat. (Do skora su tu bili?) Bili su do 
skoro. Kad je bilo ovo, borba ovde, bilji su, prije imali tu malo nesto, ali 
veci broj je bio otiso za Tursku, ali ipak je bilo i tu. I onda kad su se pobu- 
nili ovde Siptari, oni su pobegli svi za Rusiju. (Niko nije ostao?) Niko. Ni- 
ko nije ostao. (Jel se javljaju vama sada?) A, ne. (Imate bilo kakvih vesti o 
njima?) Nikake veze nemamo, nista sa njima, ne, nikako. Ne se javljamo 
uopste. (...) (Da li se zna kad su oni dosli ovamo? Otkud Cerkezi ovde?) E, 
to ne pantim. (Dosli su pre nego vi pamtite?) Pre, pre, oo! Mozda su oni, 
kako bi reko, iljadu devetsto prve, pete, sta ja znam, pre, tu su bili oni, tu 
su. Odavno su oni tu bili. Ne pantim ja za nji uopste kad su oni dosli. (Nije 
se ni pricalo kad su dosli?) Ne, ne, to ne pantim, ne. Ne znam. [132-K-Pri- 
luzje-10-BS] 

[4] A Cerkezi su bili, pa ja ne znam koje godine dosli Cerkezi kod nas, evo 
sad se iselili. Oni su dosli, ja mislim posle revolucije, oktombarske revolu- 
cije iz Rusije ovde kod nas. 1 do sad su bili, sad otisli, opet tamo u Kavkaz, 
di otisli, ne znam, Cerkezi. Samo, ranije, ne znam kako su oni bili, ponasa- 
li, ali sad ovo vreme od kad ja znam, oni su jako kulturni ljudi. [136-K-Pri- 
luzje-14-BS] 

[5] (Koji sujezik govorili Cerkezi?) Cekeski, to je Kavkaz, mi, to je po ru- 
ski Kavkazi, oni imaju svoj deo kao sto je sad Jugoslavia odvojeno, u Ru- 
siju, se zove Kavkaz. Pa to Cerkezi, zato se zovu, jes, zato se zove Kavkaz 
— Cerkez. Oni od Rusije dosli ovde, posle odavde pobegli za Tursku. — Po- 
sle se zaratilo. — Za vreme nemacko, otada oni vise nesu dosli ovde. (Znate 
tacno kad su stigli oni? Kad su se naselili?) Ne znam, boga mi, samo tako 
moj paradeda Bojko, pricao, od Kavkaza, Rusije, oni tu dosli. (To nije bilo 
u ovom veku?) Ne, ne. (To je bilo u proslom veku?) U proslim veku. (...) 
(Kad su otisli?) Pa, ima, bogami, ima petnes godine, i vise, dvaes, otisli. 
(Nije to sad skoro bilo?) Ne, ne. Sad za vreme rata ove dve porodice Saba- 
na Sabani i ovaj, bratanca. — Za vreme bombardovanja, tad oni otisli, ostali 
samo Saban i ovi neki drugi iz Priluzja. Kad dosli ovi devedes cetvrte juna 
meseca, tad oni otisli. Ove dve kuce. Te dve kuce bili i otisli. [133-K-Pri- 
luzje-11-BS] 

[6] (A kolko ih je bilo?) O, pa bilo to Cerkeze sve, tu Siptara nije postojalo, 
samo Cerkeza. A onda su otisli, da li u Tursku, da li u, u Tursku vala veci- 
nom. (Kad su otisli?) Odavno, davno. (Da vi pamtite?) Pamtim. Pre tries 
godina otisli su. (Nije to tako davno.) Ne. Pre tries godine su otisli. 
[139-K-Plemetina-5-BS 



[7] (Je li bilo blizu Pestova Cerkeza?) Ja i znam jedno dve tri kuce, bili su 
nekolko kuca ovde u Stanovce, pose, pred ovo bombardovanje, ja, mi se ci- 
ni slabo. Kod Priluzja. Bili su tu, sta se s njima desilo ne znam. (...) Oni su 
ucestvovali i u Kosovsku bitku, ovi Cerkezi sa Turcima, dosta su doprineli, 



274 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

bili su borbeni. (Da li se zna kad su dosli, otkud oni tu?) Pa oni su poreklom 
iz Rusije, ima i sad tamo ta nacija. A u kojem su veku dosli, bogami, ne 
znam. (Nije se pricalo kad su stigli?) Ne, samo uglavnom, da su, ima i tamo 
drzava njina, Cerkezi, iz Rusije, otuda su poreklom. Pa ja, mi se cirri da 
smo i mi poreklom otuda. Mislim da smo i mi otuda. [148-K-Rudare-6-BS] 

[8] (Ima li nekog pamcenja ovde o Cerkezima?) Ja sam to napomenuo sto 
sam cuo, Mali Zvecan, znam da postoji njihovo groblje, muslimansko i ta- 
ko dalje, a to su u stvari ziveli Cerkezi u torn Malom Zvecanu. I Srbi Risto- 
vici iz Josanicke Banje su dosli, otkupili od njih zemlju i od tada oni zive u 
Malom Zvecanu. Sad ih sve manje ima, osuli se i oni, ali uglavnom to je ta- 
ko. Tamo tih Cerkeza nema niti ima muslimana u Novom Zvecanu. (Cerke- 
zi su se iselili?) Iselili se u ono tursko, kad je posle, ovaj, oslobodeno. (Ali 
me interesuje, rekli ste, groblje?) Groblje postoji, postoji u Malom Zveca- 
nu. [258-K-Grabovac-6-VJ] 

v 

[9] (Kazite mi, jesu ovde bili i Cerkezi?) Bili. (A gde su bili?) Ranije bili. 
Koj ce i zna. (Vi ne znate nikoga?) Pa mi smo mladi. Pre, pred Tursku prica 
da bili Cerkezi. (Ko je to bio? Kakav je to narod bio?) Italijani li, kakvi bili, 
ne znam. Jer, tija Cerkezi, i tija onoj, tad oni lili to zlato dole, tu se lilo zla- 
to, vadili zlato i tu ga kovali, kovani novae, zlato. Mozda ste culi. Jer to je 
znato najvriedno. (To su lire?) Jer to su lire sas cekic, izvadi zlato iz cekic, i 
udari stambilj, cap, to je cisto zlato. Posle kad pocele fabrike. ali mesali. 
(To su ti Cerkezi? A jesu oni ovde u Novom Brdu bili bas?) Bili, celo oni. 
[229-K-Izvor-l-BS] 



2. Perceptivna dijalektologija: cerkeski jezik 

Cerkeski jezik sagovomici ocenjuju kao „tezak" i „nerazumljiv"; 
obicno ga opisuju onomatopejom: 27 njihov jezik ne mos da, gulje, gulje, 
gulje, znas ono [10]; Njihov, poseban, bre, izvinite, kolo-kolo-kolo-ka 
[1 1]. Nesto sociolingvistickih podataka o jeziku kojim su govorili Cerkezi 
moze se naci i u etnografskim izvorima, na primer da su Cerkezi u pocet- 
ku govorili samo cerkeski, a posle naucili turski, a na Kosovu jos albanski 
i srpski, ali: „0/i CBor je3HKa hmkomc HMcy xtcjih Ka3aTM hm je^He pcHM. 
BHBajio je cjiynajeBa jx<x cy Jhyjxw y h>hx ro^MHaivia cuy^cHJiH, na HHcy 
ycneBajiM j\& Hayne HHurra o^ KbnxoBor jesHKa" (T)opl)eBHh 1 984 2 : 1 59). 
Ovo potvrduju i Srbi na Kosovu danas: Mi nismo znali njihov jezik, ali 



27 Jos je Evlija Celebija u svojoj sedmoj knjizi putopisa na Kavkazu ovako video 
cerkeski jezik: „Sadaje jezik cerkeski kao jezik svrakin, jedan iscckan, cudan jezik. Tako 
je to cudan jezik da se danas on ni na koji nacin ne moze zapisati. Samo se po sluhu moze 
znati. To je jedan jezik koji je sastavljen od kostica vokalnih glasova. Ne moze se pisati na 
njemu, jer se izgovara iz grla i supljina izmedu obraza i zuba, kao kad se mlcko muzc" 
(Eiie30BHh 1936:261). 



Sikimic Biljana: EtnolingvistiCka istraZivanja skrivenih manjina . . . 275 



oni znali nas. Oni su znali srpski jezik. Mi njima ne, njihov jezik nismo 
znali. [13] 

Cerkezi, koji su svojevremeno bili sagovornici Aleksandra Popovica 
(1978:168-169), navode da su po dolasku govorili samo cerkeski jezik, 
zatim je jedan broj naucio turski, nesto malo srpski, a oni koji su ziveli na 
Kosovu i pomalo albanski. Ovi informatori navode (u sta Popovic sumnja) 
da su svi Cerkezi znali turski, skoro svi albanski, a mnogi medu njima i 
srpski, pa i da cak znaju dobro arapski i njime pisu. 

Svi nasi sagovornici isticu bilingvizam, pa i visejezicnost Cerkeza 
{Znali oni i siptarski i srpski, obajezika su govorili [12]), visejezicnost je 
svakako sigurna kada su u pitanju muskarci, a pod znakom pitanja kada su 
u pitanju cerkeske zene za koje je karakteristican izolovan zivot koji je si- 
gurno diktirala tradicionalna kultura. Verovatno su Cerkezi srpski govorili 
sa specificnim izgovorom: Ja sam mislila vise puta kad bi isla dole, daje, 
am a bosanski mi delovalo, kao Bosanac. [12]. 

Aktivni multilingvizam Srba i Cerkeza vidljiv je iz transkripta iska- 
za: sagovornik, Srbin, navodi direktan razgovor sa Cerkezom koji je oci- 
gledno bio voden na albanskom jeziku, 28 s tim sto se Cerkezove reci u na- 
stavku iskaza citiraju na srpskom. Moze se pretpostaviti daje taj razgovor 
bio voden na tadasnjem kosovskom koineu, na kreolizovanom srpsko-al- 
banskom, a moguce je i daje sagovornik spontano preveo istrazivacu deo 
razgovora vodenog na albanskom: Ja vikam: — Said, apo maljan, jerja 
znam siptarski, ja znam siptarski, znam i madarski, znam i italijanski, 
znam, i turski i ciganski. Znam i nemacki dosta. Ja vikam: Said, apo ma- 
ljan, ti maljan. — Ajde idemo, vika. [1] 



10] (Kako su oni govorili, koji jezik?) Au, njihov jezik ne mos da, gulje, 
gulje, gulje, znas ono. Jeste. Njihov jezik je vrlo tezak. (Njih niste mogli da 
razumete?) Ne, nisam mogla da razumem. A, na primer, kad su dolazili kod 
nas, srpski govorili. Iskljucivo srpski. [139-K-Plemetina-5-BS] 

[11] To su muslimani, iz Kavkaza su oni, Cerkezi, znam i da govoru cerke- 
ski, to poseban jezik. Oni siptarski nisu znali da govoru. (...) (A ti Cerkezi, 
koji su jezik govorili?) Jezik? Koji jezik? Njihov, poseban, bre, izvinite, ko- 
lo-kolo-kolo-ka. (Jesu li znali siptarski?) Ne-e. Za to vreme, ako su neki, 
ovako, mogo da primi nesto, jer i ja siptarski nisam znao, ja sam naucio za- 
to sto sam tu. A Cerkezi su ama njihov jezik posebni imali. Kolo-kolo-kolo. 
(A srpski su znali?) Srpski su, i oni nisu znali ni srpski dobro, a tek za to 
vreme, oni se vise druzili sa nas tu Srbe, posto smo mi bili s njima malo bli- 
zi. [129-K-Priluzje-7-BS] 



28 Za mehanizam interpolacije u naraciju citata na jeziku na kome je voden razgo- 
vor o kome je rec, up. Vuckovic 2000:269 i rad Tanje Petrovic u ovom zborniku. 



276 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

[12] (Koji su jezik govorili?) Njihov, cerkeski. — Njin, cerkeski. Cerkeski 
jezik. — I siptarski. (Jeste li znali?) Ne. — A siptarski znaju oni. (Kako ste 
govorili sa njima?) Siptarski valjda. Znali oni i siptarski i srpski, oba jezika 
su govorili. — Srpski pricali, bog te vido, ma. Ja sam mislila vise puta kad 
bi isla dole, da je, ama bosanski mi delovalo, kao Bosanac. — Ondak i sko- 
lovali se. Skolu imali veliku. I sve cerkeski. (Na kom jeziku im je bila sko- 
la?) Cerkeski. — Albanski. Ne, u poslednje vreme ovde koji su ostali ovde 
su na albanski. (Tesko da su imali skolu na cerkeskom.) Ne, ne, mali broj 
bili, na siptarski su isli. — A studirali, ja mislim, srpski. — Kako se ko sna- 
so. Neko iso i tamo da studira. — I Siptari studirali, vise ima, vise studirali 
na srpski. — Neko i u Kavkaz iso da studira, sad zavisi. [141-K-Gra- 
ce-2-BS] 

[13] (Kako ste se vi sa njima sporazumevali? Koji ste jezik govorili?) Sa 
Cerkezima? Mi nismo znali njihov jezik, ali oni znali nas. Oni su znali srp- 
ski jezik. Mi njima ne, njihov jezik nismo znali. — Razumilji oni, razumilji, 
ee. [132-K-Priluzje-10-BS] 

[14] (A znate za Cerkeze?) Cerkeze nisu ovde, ima gore neko selo, Cerkezi, 
Stanovce se zove selo, tamo su ti celo selo Cerkezi. Imaju oni, oni imaju 
specijalni jezik, ne govore siptarski, imaju oni svoj jezik. [261-K-M.Ruda- 
re-l-VJ] 

[15] (Koji su jezik oni govorili?) Pa govorili srpski vise, srpski. 
[150-K-Gojbulja-l-BS] 

[16] (Da li su znali srpski u vase vreme?) Profekt su Cerkezi znali srpski, 
profekt, profekt. Znali su srpski. I pitomi su ljudi bili. [304-K-Vrni- 
ca-l-ML] 



3. Lingvisticka antropologija: iskaz informatora 

Stariji stanovnici naselja Priluzje osecaju upotrebu uzvika bre kao 
neprikladnu u razgovoru sa istrazivacem, kome se inace obracaju u dru- 
gom lieu mnozine: Njihov, poseban, bre, izvinite, kolo-kolo-kolo-ka. [11]. 
Istovremena upotreba drugog lica jednine u obracanju istrazivacu verovat- 
no je okamenjena u izrazu pravo da ti kazem: Pravo da ti kazem, ja sam 
bio ovde (...) Sa Rusi, dabome, utovareni u kamioni, bre. Izvinite sto vi re- 
ko — bre. Izvinjavam se. (...) pravo da ti kazem. (...) Raspitajte se, to je si- 
gurno da ima. [1] Pored uzrecice bre, u slicnoj funkciji se javlja i uzrecica 
majkOy koja se ne dozivljava kao pogrdna u obracanju istrazivacu: Majko, 
oni su bili tako pedantni, cisti. [17]. Kulturoloski je zanimljivo da se po- 
minjanje hrane u razgovoru dozivljava kao uvredljivo: Onda pridrzavali i 
ovo t u vezi f izvinite, gospodice, u vezi hrane isto toko, priblizno, siptarski 
neki nacin [18], kao i pominjanje sklapanja braka sa Siptarima\ Ne, oni 
uzimaju, da me izvines, sa Siptari, i Cerkezi, to je, oni ta vera. [21] 



Sikimic Biljana: Etnoli^gvistiCka istraZivanja skrivenih manjina . . . 277 



Stanovnici sela Grace su pravoslavne veroispovesti, govore istim ko- 
sovsko-resavskim dijalektom kao i okolno srpsko stanovnistvo, sebe sraa- 
traju Srbima i tako se izjasnjavaju, ali ih okolno stanovnistvo smatra Ciga- 
nima (a ovako ih kvalifikuje i antropogeografska grada, v. YpoiueBHh 
1965:188). Ipak, odredene specificnosti u govoru stanovnika s. Grace po- 
stoje, kao sto je ovde u transkriptu registrovana upotreba termina unukde- 
da umesto cukundeda: (Da vi pamtite uvek su tu?) Uvek. Deda i paraded a 
i unukdeda, i oni su bili tu. Odavno dosli i oni. [2] 

4. Koncept 'vere' 

Vera u zabelezenim iskazima na Kosovu cesto ima znacenje 'narod- 
nost\ mace, ova je pojava u dijalektiraa rasprostranj ena znatno sire od geo- 
grafskog Kosova. 29 U govor Srba na Kosovu ulazi u upotrebu i, ocito novi- 
ji, termin nacija: toje druga nacija, druga nacija to je. Oni dosli iz Kavkaza, 
tud, od Rusije [21]. Vera ima istovremeno i znacenje kao u knjizevnom je- 
ziku 'religija': Muslimanska vera. [19]; Pa, is to su na muslimansku veru. 
Taj pravac imau, Cerkezi. [22]. Pominjanjem 'nase' i 'njihove' vere podra- 
zumeva se odnos pravoslavnih i muslimana: (Daje neko uzo Cerkeskinju?) 
Ne nismo, to nismo. To smo cuvali tu veru i mi i njinijok, nismo to [20]. 

Sasvim ocekivano, i kada je pitanju znacenje 'religija' i kada je pita- 
nju znacenje 'nacionalnost' Cerkezi se porede sa kosovskim Albancima: 
Cista vera su bili, cisti mlogo. Nikad nisu se uzimali sa Siptarima. (Nego?) 
Ne. Oni su posebna vera. [17]; prilikom vere vise su bili priblizni sa Siptar- 
cima (...) uzimali su one zenske koje volu da privatu njinu veru. Njinu veru 
da neje svinjsko, da veruje u dzamiju, u Ramazan, da slavi Ramazan tries 
dana, daposti, sta li. To su postili i ovijedni i drugi po tries dana [18]; Ne, 
oni uzimaju, da me izvines, sa Siptari, i Cerkezi, to je, oni ta vera. [21]. 

[17] Majko, oni su bili tako pedantni, cisti. Cista vera su bili, cisti mlogo. 
Nikad nisu se uzimali sa Siptarima. (Nego?) Ne. Oni su posebna vera. (Sa- 
mo medusobno?) Samo medusobno. [139-K-Plemetina-5-BS] 

[18] A, kako bi kazao, prilikom vere vise su bili priblizni sa Siptarcima. Zato 
sto su, kako bi ti reko, Bajram imali isti, ko-s su imali Siptari. Onda pridrza- 
vali i ovo, u vezi, izvinite, gospodice, u vezi hrane isto tako, priblizno, siptar- 
ski neki nacin. Ovi Siptari, oni ne jedu svinjsko, a nisu jeli ni. Ono sto jes, 
jes. (Ni alkohol?) Pice tako isto. Veci broj imao ovde, veci broj alkokol pili 
su Cerkezi nego Siptari. Dobro, za celo to vreme sad i Siptari vise piju nego 
mi, i Cerkezi bili za to vreme, znas, oni se prikljucili uz pice. (S kirn su se ze- 



29 U Recniku SANU ovo znacenje lckseme vera ('narodnost, pripadnici neke narod- 
nosti') kvalifikuje se kao „narodno", a ilustrovano je primerima iz dela Laze Lazarevica i 
Marinka Stanojevica, ciji jezik geografski pripada severnoj i severoistocnoj Srbiji. 



278 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 



nili?) Sa njini, sa Cerkeskinje. Jel to Cerkezi su bili mnogo, doslo preko cetr- 
des, pedes kuca odotud. A sad kad otisli, otisli preko stotinu. Oni se namno- 
zili. I oni se zenili sa njine Cerkeskinje. A mozda se i neki zene s neke druge, 
ali, sta ja znam, tacno samo sa Cerkeskinje. I zene se, naravna stvar, uzimali 
su one zenske koje volu da privatu njinu veru. Njinu veru da ne je svinjsko, 
da veruje u dzamiju, u Ramazan, da slavi Ramazan tries dana, da posti, sta li. 
To su postili i ovi jedni i drugi po tries dana. (...) Kad sam ja bio u vojsku, 
nasi su vrlo dobro postupali, nasi oficiri prema Siptari. Poseban kazan. (Zato 
sto su muslimani?) Jeste. Na rucak svaki na svoj kazan, oni imali svojega ku- 
vara, Siptari, to da znate. To ja tvrdim. Ono sto znam, ja sam sluzio. Isto kad 
je Bajram. E kadje Bajram nisu gi dali da poste, nego da jedu, a koje teo, ko 
nije teo, mogo da jede, a ko je teo mogo da posti. Mogo da pridrzava veru, 
veru nisu teli da nikome kvaru. Apsolutno. [129-K-Priluzje-7-BS] 

[19] (Da li je bilo primera da se neka Cerkeskinja uda u Grace, ili obrnuto? 
Blizu ste, komsije ste.) A ne. To neces da vidis njegovu zenu. (I Cerkeski- 
nje se krile?) — Aaa! Muslimanska vera. — A, oni su opasniji no ovi za ze- 
ne. — Nije ni bilo potrebno da se uzimaju. [141-K-Grace-2-BS] 

[20] (Ima li primera da se neko ozenio nekom Srpkinjom?) Ne. Nisu se ze- 
nili Srpkinjom, niti mi Srbi da smo se za njih. (Da je neko uzo Cerkeski- 
nju?) Ne nismo, to nismo. To smo cuvali tu veru i mi i njini, jok, nismo to. 
— Dobar dan, reknu, dobar dan i produ. [132-K-Priluzje-10-BS] 

[21] (U kakvim ste odnosima bili sa njima? Jesu se mogle udavati devojke 
tamo?) Oni ne, niti uzimaju ni da davaju. Ne, oni uzimaju, da me izvines, sa 
Siptari, i Cerkezi, to je, oni ta vera. Cerkeskinje, eve ga, ovaj sin uzeo ovo- 
me Sabanu sestricinu. — Mozda se zenili i sas Siptarke. — Pa Siftari, oni ta 
vera, Kavkaz. Imaju oni pravo, Turci se zove drugi, a mi kazemo Siptar. 
Oni, to je pod tursko. (Ti Cerkezi nisu Turci?) Ne-e. (To je nesto trece?) To 
je trece, to je druga nacija, druga nacija to je. Oni dosli iz Kavkaza, tud, od 
Rusije. (Nisu imali veze sa onim Turcima u Prizrenu?) Ne, ne. Nikako. 
[133-K-Priluzje-ll-BS] 

[22] (Koji su jezik oni govorili?) Pa govorili srpski vise, srpski. (Ali su Mu- 
slimani bili?) Pa, isto su na muslimansku veru. Taj pravac imau, Cerkezi. 
(Jesu se zenili sa Srpkinjama?) To je rede malo. [150-K-Gojbulja-l-BS] 

Internet diskurs 

Kosovski Cerkezi su prevazisli istorijsko pamcenje svog ezgodusa i 
progona od strane Rusa (up. deciju rugalicu Cerkezima iz Nisa iz vremena 
pre 1878: Moskov bum, Cerkez trt), ovo ilustruje kavkaski internet sajt 
koji dokumentuje proces repatrijacije grupe Cerkeza iz sela Donje Stanov- 
ce u rusku republiku Adigeju. 30 Tako, zahvaljujuci internetu, kosovski 



30 Up. tekstove na sajtu Circassian Land, na adigjeskom, arapskom, engleskom, tur- 
skom i ruskom jeziku. 



Sikimic Biljana: EtnolingvistiCka istrazivanja skrivenih manjina . . . 279 



Cerkezi nastavljaju svoje postojanje i u virtuelnom prostoru. Ali internet 
diskurs je, opet, sekundarni izvor o zivotu kosovskih Cerkeza danas u 
„Srecnom selu" u ruskoj republici Adigeji. Istina, ovaj interent sajt nudi i 
jedan od preduslova za pouzdanu etnolingvisticku analizu — postoji i ver- 
zija na adigejskom jeziku, dostupna, opet, samo onome ko poznaje ovaj 
jezik. Deklaracija o aktuelnim politickim prilikama na Balkanu, koja je 
jedan od sadrzaja tog sajta (koriscena je verzija na ruskom jeziku), pisana 
je neobicnim, stereotipiziranim jezikom 'funkcionera nomenklature', 31 u 
prvom lieu mnozine, i kroz nju, ocito, o kosovskim Cerkezima govori ne- 



ko drugi. 



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YpoiueBHh 1 936: A. YpoiueBHh, YpomeBau, Bapoiunua na KocoBy, rnacnuK Ckouckoz 
naynnoz dpyuiiuea XV-XVI, CKorute, 265-271. 

YpoiueBHh 1957: A. YpoiueBHh, KocoBCKa MHTpoBHua, TnacHUK EiunozpcupcKoe un- 
ciuuiuyiua CAHY II-III, Eeorpa^, 1 87-2 1 1 . 

YpoiueBHh 1965: A. YpoiueBHh, Kocobo, CpucKu eiunoepcxpcKU 36opnuK LXXVIII, 
Hace/ba u iiopeKAo cmanoeHummea 39, Eeorpaji. 

YpoiueBHh 1987: A. YpoiueBHh, Euihuhku upoijecu na Kocoey xuokom iuypcKe e/iada- 
eune, Eeorpa^. 

Vuckovic 2000: M. Vuckovic, Govor kajkavaca u Boki, sociolingvisticki aspekt, Jy- 
oteHOCAoeencKu cpuAO/ioe LVI, Eeorpa^, 261-271. 

Zupanic 1933: N. Zupanic, Etnoloski znacaj kosovskih Cerkeza, Etnolog, Glasnik Et- 
nografskega muzeja u Ljubljani 5-6, Ljubljana, 218-253. 



Biljana Sikimic 

Linguistic Anthropology Research of Hidden Minorities — Possibilities and Restrictions 

(Caucasians at Kosovo) 

Kosovo Cherkess are of Caucasian origin, their language belongs to the Caucasian 
language group. According to different current estimations there are five million Caucasians in 
diaspora today, the majority of them living in Turkey, Middle East and USA. In Russia they live 



Sikimic Biljana: EtnolingvistiCka istra2ivanja skrivenih manjina ... 281 



in the Republic of Adigya (120,000), and in the republic Charachaevo - Cherkasskaya (both 
republics during the time of USSR were autonomous regions). Caucasians consider the May 21 st 
1864 as a date of their exodus, after the Crimean war when Russia occupied all the native 
Cherkess territories. Historical data show that the majority of Cherkess people were transferred 
in Turkey on Turkish boats. On their land Cossacks, Greek and Georgians were settled. 

Cherkess moved to Kosovo, in that period European Turkey, in the year 1864, after the 
Crimean war. Estimations about the number of settled families are contradictory, but 
anthropogeographers consider the figure of 1500 families as a most probable one. The definite 
figure of all the persons transferred to Kosovo cannot be calculated. 

Cherkess exodus from Kosovo had at least five waves. The first wave took place in 1 878 
after the Berlin Congress and changing of the kingdom of Serbia toward South. The second 
wave appeared after the Balkan wars, 1912, the third one in the period between the two World 
Wars, the forth during sixties of the XX century, and the fifth, the most recent one, in July 1998. 
Today, according to OSCE data, Cherkess live in Kosovo only in the village of Milosevo in the 
county district of Obilic, where there are altogether 85 persons. The OSCE data also mention the 
group of Milosevo Cherkess as refugees in Macedonia in the beginning of June 1999, their 
houses being burned by Serbs. 

At our disposal there are only indirect linguistic anthropology data about Kosovo 
Cherkess. During our June 2003 field research of the enclave of Pnluzje and surrounding 
Serbian settlements (Plemetina, Grace and Babin Most) conversation was held about Cherkess 
people that had lived there until the summer 1998 in the neighboring village of Donje Stanovce. 
They were altogether repatriated to the Russian republic of Adigya. The anthropogeography 
data from the middle of XX century confirms that, except in this largest Cherkess village from 
Kosovo, Donje Stanovce, a few Cherkess families have lived also at Milosevo, Velika Reka. 
Malo Ribare and Pozaranje, also in Kosovo towns of Pristina, Urosevac, Vucitrn and Kosovska 
Mitrovica. 

The obtained statements about Donje Stanovce Cherkess are unreliable from the historic 
point of view. No one from the interviewed Serbs knew the data of Cherkess immigration to 
Kosovo ("after the Russian revolution"). The time of their repatriation to Russia is also 
uncertain ("few years ago; twenty years ago; thirty years ago"). All the interviewed Serbs knew 
that Cherkess had come from Caucasus and that they went back also somewhere there (in 
Russia). The historical fact that Cherkess people from Kosovo immigrated back in at least five 
big waves probably made uncertain the historical memory of their close neighbors. At the same 
time, Cherkess people also have a sort of short historical memory about their own exodus from 
Russia (cf Serbian child mockery from the town of Nis before 1878 "Russians bum, Cherkess 
fear"). This is evident from Caucasian internet sites that illustrate the warm process of 
repatriation of this Kosovo Cherkess group to the Russian republic of Adigya and their happy 
new life there. 

The picture about Cherkess formed on the basis of Serbian statements differs from the 
one suggested by historiographic and ethnographic data and books of memoirs. This sort of data 
from the beginning of XX century (both scientific and fictional) present a series of ethnic 
stereotypes, from whom today only the story about the exceptional beauty of Cherkess women 
remains. The presentation of Cherkess as "ruffians, cruel, not adapted, dirty" completely 
disappeared from the collective memory of Kosovo Serbs. This picture, on the other side, is still 
vivid in the memory of other Serbs, who did not have direct, private contact with Cherkess. 
based probably on the oral history about Cherkess cruelty during the Second World War. 

Completely opposite, Cherkess are today described as "diligent, clean, very fine people, 
skilful artisans". The data about Cherkess Muslim religion also illustrate the relationship among 
Orthodox Christians and Muslims at Kosovo today. In their statements, Serbs regularly compare 
Cherkess Muslims with Albanian Muslims, always putting Cherkess in the positive context. 

Although our informants point out both friendly and service-rendering contacts with 
Cherkess, e.g. mutual visits with the occasion of annual feasts or funerals, anthropologic data 
about the traditional culture are lacking. There were no mixed marriages with Serbs, and the 
Cherkess bilingualism (Cherkess, Serbian) or multilingualism (Cherkess, Serbian, Albanian) 
was one directional. Obtained 'external' data refer to the Cherkess speech (their language is 
described as "difficult, not understandable"), conditions of lodging, nutrition and clothing. 



Mapiuma MKUMoea 



B-LJirAPCKATA rPA^HHAPCKA EMRFPAUm B ABCTPHil 

- CKPHTO MAJIUHHCTBO HJ1H - ? 

ryp6erbT e TpaflHUHOHHa npo^ma Ha npeAnpHeMHHBHH rbproBCKH 
ayx na 6i.JTrapcKOTO HaceneHHe h Ha opraHH3HpaHOcrra My ^a TbpcH 

HOBH B-b3M05KHOCTH 33 HO^OOptfBaHe Ha CBOHTa eK3HCTeHHH>L* 

B 6-bJirapcKaTa eHiTHKJione,HHfl uoji Ha3BaHHeTO 2yp6enmuucmeo e 
o6hchcho ynpajKHHBaHe Ha sanaMT (a6aA>KHHCTBO, 3H,aapcTB0, B-brjiHiuap- 

CTBO, 6aKT>pZPKHHCTBO, Tp aflHHapCTBO) H3B-bH MeCTOKHTCJlCTBOTO HJTH B 

4y^K6Hna. KaTo MacoBa (popMa na Tpyzi rypGeTHHHCTBOTO ce Hajiara npe3 
ocMaHCKOTO MHHajio h oco6eHo nonyjiapno npe3 BpeMeTO Ha BT>3pa>K,na- 
HeTO. OShkhobcho ryp6eTHHHCTBOTO npozn>Ji>KaBa 9-10 Meceua b ro^HHa- 
Ta, a qecTO m>TH h no 2-3 rwihh. .JJ-bJiroTo otcbctbhc ot poahhh Kpafi 

nopa>KZia CBBCeM pa3JIHHHH B3aHMOOTHOLIieHHfl MOK/jy MaHCTOpH, HHpaUH 

h Kan^H (B-bJirapcKa eHUHKJioneAHfl 1981:197). 

B cejrcKOCTonaHCKaTa c(J)epa ryp6eTHHHCTBOTO ce H3pa3ABa Hafi- 
-Beqe b npH^BH>KBaHeTO Ha pa6oTHaTa ptKa ot njiaHHHHTe Khu 6oraraTe 
paBHHHH h peHHH flonHHH B ce30HHTe Ha npnGHpaHe Ha peKOjrraTa 
(Xphctob 2003:1). 

B eHHHKJione^HH «IOrocjiaBHji» ot 1983 na H3aaTejiCTBO «MHpo- 
cnaB Ki>pjie)Ka» (3arpe6) ayMaTa He e noconeHa. Ta jinncBa h npn ome 
eflHa eHHHKJioneflHH, H3aazieHa ot BpeMeTO Ha 6HBina peny6jiHKa 
IOrocnaBHH (Enciklopedija Jugoslavije 1958). 

PeKOHCTpynpaHKH eztHa ot CTapHTe Bi>3po>KAeHCKH Tpazu-iuHH Ha 
6-bJirapcKOTO HaceneHHe KaTO rypSeTHHHCTBOTo, ycTaHOBHx, ne npn 
TbpceHeTO Ha eTHMOJiorHHHO npoynBaHe Ha ayMaTa eypdem, KaTO HaraH 
Ha ynoTpe6a h npo^Ba b 6-bJirapcKH^ e3HK h b o6mecTBeHHH >khbot, ce 

* Ta3H cTaTHii e pc3y;iTaT ot iiskojimko roflHiiiHa pa6oTa Ha npoerra „Ckphth 
MaauHHCTBa MeyKpy ucHTpaiiHa h ioroH3T04Ha EBpona" $HHaHCHpaH ot FWF PI 5080. 



284 Ckphbehe mah>hhe ha Bajikahy 

HarbKBaMe Ha ejjHH MHoro HHTepeceH (J)aKT, kohto jtbidkh cbocto 
BHHMaHHe, MaKap H/iae He3HaHHTejieH no CBOjrra clujhoct. To3h $aKT no 
eflHa hjih Apyra npMHHHa e y6*rBa;i ot MoeTO cb3HaHHe Bepo^THO 3aTOBa 5 
ne He ce 3aHHMaBaM c Ta3H Teivia, He3aBHCHMO ot c|)aKTa, ne th B3eivia 
npnopHTeT b nocjie^HO BpeMe h e KjnonoBa, KoraTo CTasa Btnpoc 3a 
npo6iieMHTe Ha ManuHHCTBaTa, npo6jieMH, kohto 3acnraT bchko ejmo 
MO^epHO oGmecTBO. ToBopa 3a unraHOJiorHHTa. 1 

ripe^nojiara ce, ne Ha3BaHHeTO aypdem npoH3UH3a ot TypcKaTa 
ay Ma «CTpaHCTBO, Hync6HHa, ny^cA Kpan». BapnaHTH Ha hmcto ce cpemaT 
h KaTO e^MH ot ocHOBHHTe KJiOHOBe Ha pomckoto HacejieHne, KOeTO 
npoH3xo)KAa ot HpaH h A^raHHCTaH h e eziHH j\n.j\ ot TbH HapeneHHTe 
opneHTajiCKH poMH KaTO Hopdamu hjih xypdemu. Kypdemu ca e^HO mhoto 
mo6hjiho nneivie h noHHKora ce npe^CTaBHT h yiojx HMeTO nepzapu, a b 
BocHa h XepueroBHHa ce HapnnaT h Kane Pojaa (b npeBozi «HepHH 
UHraHH»); npe,u;nojiaraeMH£T hm npoH3xozi e ot PbpuHfl, BeposrrHO KaTO 
MOKflHHHa poflHHa (Baldauf 1997:60). Te npeacTaBJiHBaT TpeTaTa no 
rojieMHHa poMCKa rpyna b MaKeAOHHH h e^Ha nacT ot thx ca npaBO- 

CJiaBHH XpHCTHHHH. 

Ot caMO ce6e ch ce noApa36npa THCHaTa jiorHnecKa Bpi>3Ka, kohto 
HCKaM fla HanpaBa, ne He cjiynaHHO ziyMaTa zypdem e h o6o3HaneHHe 3a 
e^HH ot ocHOBHHTe poMCKH KJiaHOBe h aKO ce BnycHeM b A^jiGnHHTe na 
BpeMeTO h non>pcHM HeHHaTa aBTeHTHHHa ynoTpe6a, me pa36epeM, ne 
ryp6erbT KaTO ntTyBaHe b CTpaHCTBO, KaTO ono3HaBaHe Ha Heno3HaTOTO, 
KaTO ABH^KeHne Ha (J)H3HHecKOTO thjio ot e^HO npocTpaHCBO kt>m apyro H 
c6jitci>Ka My etc co6ctbchoto h ny>K,noTO, e ctmecTByBan ome ot 
BpeMeTO Ha ocMaHCKOTO HamecTBHe Ha EajiKaHCKHfl nonyocTpoB KaTO 
e^HO ot Ba^HHTe HapnuaTejiHH HMeHa, KoeTo KpHe b cbfltp^KaHHeTO ch 
coqHajiHa, nojiHTHnecKa, a no-KtCHO h HKOHOMnnecKa eHeprnii. 

Ka3BaM no-Kt>CHO h HKOHOMHHecKa, 3amoTO JiorH4HO e £a ce 
npneMe, ne npn bchko ntpBOHanajiHO nvryBaHe ono3HaBaHeTO Ha flpyraa 
h octmecTBHBaHeTO Ha KOHTaKTH e ntpBaTa crbnKa b Heno3HaTa TepHTO- 
pHH, BTopaTa e rtpceHeTO Ha H3ro#aTa h oGMAHaia Ha HH(J)opMau,HH h Ha 
TpeTO mhcto HflBa TLproBH^Ta. H TaKa ayMaTa zypdem e HaTpynajia ot 
m>pBOHaHajiHOTO ch cwi'bpHcaHHe KaTO o6o3HaneHHe Ha CTpaHCTBO, 
ny^cGHHa ome e^HO hobo 3HaneHHe, kocto ce e pa3npocTpaHHjio cpezi 
noHTH BCM4KH GanKaHCKH A^p^aBH (Ct>p6hh, ^epHa ropa, XibpBaTCKa, 
BocHa h XepueroBHHa, MaKeAOHwa, EtJirapHA, AjiGaHHH, Plpuhh, Typ- 
uhh). T^yMaxa BKJitOHBa b ce6e ch h npe^JiaraHeTO Ha cneun^HHHH 



1 B Hmuj rpyna couhojio3h H3one;iBa h ny6unKyBa TBT>pAe ycmieHO Btpxy 
cneuH(})HHHaTa Kyjrcypa Ha pomckoto oGmecTBO. 



MapHanaflKHMOBa: B-bJirAPCKATA rPAflHHAPCKA EMHTPAltfW B ABCTPMfl ... 285 

npo(f)ecHOHajiHH yMeHH«, komto ca xapaKTepHH 3a e^HH onpe/iejieH 
reorpa(J)CKH peraoH, bt,b ^pyr, OT^ajieneH, ny*ero rapceHeTO hm cwaaBa 
ycjioBH* 3a 3aaoBOJiHBaHe Ha $HHaHCOBHH HHTepec h 3a no^THCHaKaHeTO 
Ha HocTajirwrra, nopo/teHa ot OTHyjK^aBaHeTo b hmcto Ha eAHa He caivio 
MaTepHajiHa, ho h AyxoBHa H3ro;aa. H TaKa ryp6eTHHHTe ce npeBptmaT b 

XOpa CTpaHHHHH, MCprapH, KOHTO CHAT B naJiaTKH KaTO pOMHTe H TbpCHT 

hobh ^H3HeHH CTpaTerHH 3a ouejureaHe - ezwa Tpa^HUHOHHa npoHBa Ha 
npe^npHeMHHBHH TbproBCKH ayx h opraHH3HpaH0CT b TbpceHe Ha hobh 
bt>3mo>khocth 3a noAo6pHBaHe Ha cBoeTo CbmecTByBaHe. 

TpaAHHapcTBOTO KaTO ryp6eT ce e hojibhjio no BpeMe Ha ocMaH- 

CKOTO MHHaJlO b Kpaa Ha 1 7 H HanaJIOTO Ha 18 BeK BbB Bpi>3Ka c MHoro- 

6poHHHTe bohhh, kohto boah OcMaHCKaTa HMnepna c Xa6c6yprcKaTa 
MOHapxHH h PycHH. 3a H3xpaHBaHeTO Ha MHoroxHJi^^HaTa TypcKa BOHCKa 
b rapHH30HHTe ce HaeMaT pa6oTHHHn, kohto «a OTnie3KAaT 3ejieHHyuH 3a 
HyacAHTe Ha apMHHTa. FIo-KbCHO Te3H pa6oTHnu,H npHAo6HBaT cneunajiHH 
npeHMymecTBa npea ocTaHanoTO HeMiociojiMaHCKo Hacejiemie — oco6eHH 
npHBHJieraH KaTO bchhkh ocTaHanH 3aHaaTHHH a6aA*HH, ranTaH^)KHH, 
A>KaM6a3H, kohto CHa6a«BaT apMHHTa c yHH(J)opMH h c flpyrn yciiyrH 
(B-bHBapoB 1986:12). 

B nepnofla cjieA OcBo6o>KAeHHeTO Ha Btjirapna ao n*pBaTa cbctob- 
Ha BOHHa rpa^HHapcTBOTo KaTO 3aHa*rr HaMHpa pa3npocTpaHeHne Ha 
TepHTopHHTe na bchhkh ctce^HH Ha BiJirapHa 3cmh: PyMtHHa, Ci,p6na, 
Pycna, KaTO o6ihhht 6pOH Ha rpa^HHapHTe, kohto H3JiH3aT Ha ryp6eT e 
24.336 (Billaut 1991:20). Anoren Ha cbocto pa3BHTHe, o6ane, rpa^HHap- 
ckoto ryp6eTHHHCTBO 6ejie*H b nepHoaa Me>K^y ABeTe cbctobhh bohhh. 
rpaflHHapHTe-ryp6eTHHH ctmecTByBaT Bene KaTO opraHH3HpaHa TpyAOBa 
Maca, ko*to npHTeacaBa cboh oprmmmm h ^py^ecTBO, kocto e npe^Ha- 
3HaneHo na 3aiHHTaBa HHTepecnTe hm npezi 6-bJirapcKaTa A^p^aBaTa h 
npea npaBHTejiCTBaTa Ha nyxxme g&pxaBH, B kohto rpaziHHapHTe 
npeSHBaBaT jierajiHO KaTO pa6oTHHUH, acHBeemn cbbmcctho h o6pa3y- 
BamH rpaziHHapcKH 3a^pyrn ot ce^eM hjih oceM HOBeKa, kohto ca c 
nocTOjmeH hjih npoMeHJiHB TpyaoB ctCTaB. Te 3aHMCTBaT opraHH3auH*Ta, 
npaBHHTe OTHomeHH* h pa3npe^ejieHHeTo Ha nenajiGaTa ot maposswea- 
CKHTe 3a/xpyrH, K aTO ctneTaBaT CTapaTa 6wapcKa TpaAHHH* c KanHTajin- 

CTHHeCKOTO HpOH3BO/lCTBO. B CblHHfl MOMeHT Te Ca H HOBH KOpHOpaTHBHH 
npOH3BOflCTBeHH npeAnpHHTHfl, KOHTO OTpa3JIBaT pa3BHTHeTO Ha CTOKOBO 

napHHHHTe OTHomeHHa h oSp-bmeHHeTO Ha KanHTaua b CTpaHaTa npea 
Tpn^eceTe ro/THHH. BceKH hjich Ha 3aApyraTa HMa onpe^ejieHo fiepapxH- 
hho nojiOHceHHe h ynacTBa c onpeAejieH napnneH KanHTaji b hoi. Ha6npa- 
HeTO Ha pa6oTHHUHTe ce octmecTBaBa ot easdama - rpa^HHapa 
opraHH3aTop. flpn JinncaTa Ha 6aHKOB KpeAHT, 3a Aa y B ejiHHaT KanHTajio- 



286 Cki'mbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahv 



BJio>KeHHHTa rpaflHHapMTe 3aerviaT napn ot Apyrn 3aApyrn h TOBa CTaBa 
npHHHua (J)MHaHCOBaia B3aMMonoMom Aa Gvie jihfhthmho y3aKoneHa 
npe3 cb3^aBaHeT0 Ha e^Ho Apy>KecTBo, kocto m pemaBa npaBHHTe 

Bi>npocH. J\o T03H momcht ce npaKTHKyBa eztHHCTBeno cnopeA HOpMHTe 
Ha oGHHaHHOTO npaBO (JlKHMOBfl 2000:25, Jakimova 2002). 

3a Aa ce peKOHCTpynpa HCTopnHecKOTO MHHajiOTO Ha 6i>;irapcKaTa 
rpa^HHapcKa eMHrpamia b Abctphh, Tpa6Ba Aa ce npocjieAn R-bsirwi m.T 
Ha 6-bJirapCKHTe rpaAHHapn, kohto Te H3MHHaBaT npe3 AeceTHJieTHHTa, 

MHOrOKpaTHO ntTyBaHKH RO CBOHTa pO^HHa 3a KpaTKH CpeillH C 6jlH3KHTe 

en npe3 3HMHHTe MeceuH, 3a m yceTAT AOMaiHHaTa aTMOC(j)epa, hjih Aa 
H3KonajiT ocHOBHTe Ha cBosrra tbm jxhjiro MeHTaHa Kima. JSpyr mothb 3a 
3aBp-bin,aHeTO hm o6paTHO no poAHHTe hm Kpaniua e 3aAOMHBaHeTO hm. 
EMnHpuHHHTe H3cnejiBaHHa noKa3BaT ne 6"bJirapcKHTe rpaAHHapn cnejx 
3aBpibmaHeTO ch b EBJirapna ce aceiuiT 3a 6"bJirapKH h cneA TOBa MjiaaoTO 
ceMencTBO ce BKjnoHBa othobo b peAOBeTe Ha rpaAHHapci<aTa eMMrpauwa. 
>KeHHTe pa6oT«T b rpaAnnapCKaTa 3aApyra KaTO roTBaHKH, nepaHKH, a 
cimo ce saHHMaBaT h c jieicaTa pa6oTa b rpaflHHara Ha tbbpao BB3Ha- 
rpa^czieHHe c roAHiima 3anjiaTa ot 300 jiesa (BtHBapOB 1986:49). 

IlpHMaMKaTa 3a 6i»p3a nenaji6a b Hy>KOHHa h 3a naTpynBaHeTO Ha 
hmot h KanHTan b BtJirapHH BtjiHyBa MH03HHa ot HaceneHHeTO Ha 
CTpaHaTa. OaKT e ne, bcckh rpaAHHap eb6npa napn, 3a Aa ctrpaAH aom. 
HoBonocTpoeiiaTa Ktma 0Tpa3HBa HeroBOTo 6jiaroebCTOHHHe h AOKa3Ba 
c^iaKTa, ne toh ce OTAejia ot rojniMOTO KOMnjieKCHO ccmchctbo m oopa3yBa 
hobo MO^epHO eAHO^aMMjmo ceivieHCTBO. Ot eAHn naTpHJiOKauHO 
opneHTHpaHH Bpi.3KH ce npeMHHaBa kbm HeojiOKajiHH. H ao AHec 
CbmecTByBaT AeceTKH kblu,h Ha 6BJirapcKH rpaAHHapn-ryp6eT4HH, 
nocTpoeHH b nepHOAa MOKAy ABeTe cbctobhh bohhh b cejio /JparaHOBO h 
OKOJiHOCTHTe Ha BejiHKOTbpHOBCKa 06/iacT, npeB-bpHajra ce b neHTbp Ha 
eMHrpauwrra. 

BpoflT Ha 6-b^rapcKHTe rpaAHHapn AOCTHra npe3 1940 roAHHa 
uiHct)paTa 17 000, KaTO ochobhhtc AecTHnannn kbm kohto Te ce HacoHBaT 
ca YHrapHH, Abctphh Hexna, riojiiiia, 6HBma peny6jiHKa lOrocnaBHfl, 
KBAeTO ome npe3 1903 roAHHa b okojihocthtc Ha BenrpaA 3acejiHJiMTe ce 
3a nocTOHHHO npe6nBaBaHe 6tJirapcKn rpaAHHapn c^opivrnpaT Apy^cecTBO 
«Ilporpec», KoeTO e cny^ejio KaTO oGeAHHHTejino 3bcho 3a bchhkh 
rpaAHHapn, kohto ca nptCHaTH no pa3HHHHH Kpaniua Ha CTpaHaTa 
(CapaeBO, Ty3Jia, EaHJi JlyKa, Hobh CaA, 3arpe6, Bapa>KAHH). Unc^paTa ot 
4287 rpaAHHapn (544 ra3AH c 3643 pa6oTHnnn, o6pa6oTBamn 523 
rpaAHHH c njioin ot 20 881 676 kb. m hjih 20 881 AeKapa, hjih aKO cyMaTa 
ce pa3Aenn cpeAHO apHTMeTHHHO ce nojiynaBaT 5 AeKapa nnom, kohto 
o6pa6oTBa bcckh eAHH pa6oTHHK) cjwrypnpa b o^nnnajmaTa CTaTHCTHKa 



MapiMHa ^KHMOBa: E'b/irAPCKATA rPAflMHAPCKA EMHrPAlJH* B ABCTPHil . . . 287 

Ha 6-bJirapcKOTO rpa/iHHapcKO apyacecTBO, Koe-ro e ocHOBaHo Ha 22 
cenTeMBpH npes 1936 ro/iHHa (<£hjihhob 1986:4). EtjirapH* KaTo 
npH^TejiCKa CTpaHa Ha TepMaHHa npe3 to3h nepHOfl ce o6B"bp3Ba c 
AoroBopH 3a npe^ocTaBHHe Ha repMaHH* cypoBHHH h pa6oraa ptica, 
kohto e npe/tHa3HaneHa aa 3a^0B0Jin Hyacflm-e Ha cejiCKOTO CTonaHCTBo.' 
Te3H AoroBopn ca Tana HapeneHHTe floroBopH 3a pa3M*Ha Ha pa6oTHHini c 
TepMaHHii, ho xa3H pa3Masa e e^HonocoHHa. no cbiiiHTe zioroBopn 
pa6oT^T npe3 cpe/taTa Ha 1939 ro^HHa b cejiCKOTO CTonaHCTBo 37 000 
HTajinaHUH, 15 000 rorocjiaBHHH, 12 yHrapiiH h 5000 6-bjirapH (Herbert 
1985:56). 

Apyra npHHHHa, kohto HacoHBa 6-bJirapcKHTe ryp6eTHHH-rpa^HHapH 

KT>M ABCTpHfl e TOKKaTa HKOHOMHHeCKa CHTyaHHH B BtJirapHH H Abctph^ 

cjiezi n-bpBaTa cBeTOBHa BOHHa. H 3a flBeTe CTpaHH nocjie^HHHTe ot 
BOHHaTa ca KaTocTpo^ajiHH. Ctothuh xhji^h ca acepTBHTe, paHeHHTe h 
6e3CJie^Ho H3ne3HajiHTe h ot flBeTe CTpaHH. HauHOHajiHOTO CTonaHCTBo e 
pa3pymeHO. B paMKHTe Ha 6 roflHHH EtJirapHJi yqacTBa b TpH bohhh — 
BajiKaHCKa, Me^Ayci»K)3HHHecKa h rfr>pBaTa CBeTOBHa BOHHa h 3ary6Ba 
1/10 ot TepHTopHHTa cm (KbKHa Ao6pya»a, 3anaflHa TpaKH* h H3Jia3a Ha 
Bhjio Mope) h 1/7 ot HacejieHHeTO ch (Grothausen 1990). ABCTpo-YHrap- 
CKaTa MOHapxHJi ce pa3na^a, 6e3pa6oTHuaTa ce uinpH HaBcaKB/ie h 
HaH-Bene cpe# cpeflHTe Ha pa3(J)opMHpoBaHHTe bochhh noApa3flejieHHJi. 

HH(J)JiaHHOTa B3eMa HeBHiKJiaHH %0 T03H MOMeHT pa3MepH. 3a fla H3JIH3aT 

ot npoflOBOJiCTBeHaTa KpH3a Abctphs cb3flaBa npe$epeHUHajiHH bt>3- 
mojkhocth 3a 6i>jirapcKHTe rpa^HHapH KaTO oGjieKHeHne Ha BH30BHa 
pe>KHM 3a 6tJirapHTe h npaBo Ha pa6oTa. Heo6HKHOBeHO 6"bp30TO pa3pa- 
CTBaHe Ha 6i,jirapcKOTO rpaziHHapcTBO b Abctphh ce .ztbjdkh ot e^Ha 
CTpaHa Ha Heo6xo;iHMOCTTa Ha 3a#OBOJiaBaHeTO Ha OKe/iHeBHHTe HyjKflH 
Ha na3apa etc 3ejieHHyuH b to3h cjieflBoeHeH nepnofl, a no-KBCHO h no 
BpeMe Ha CBeTOBHaTa HKOHOMHHeCKa KpH3a 1929/1933. 3ejieHHyuHTe ce 
OKa3BaT eAHO ot Han-eBTHHHTe xpaHHTejiHH cpe^cTBa, 6i,p3o ce 
OTrjie>KflaT b paMKHTe Ha e^HH roflHiueH ce30H, 6orara ca Ha BHTaMHHH h 
HMaT bi>3M05khoct fla ce cbxpaHHBaT 3a 3hmhhtc Meceun b cypoBO 
ctcToaHHe hjih b-bb bha Ha KOHcepBH. B-bJirapCKHTe rpa^HHapn OTi\Jie:>KaaT 
AOCTa-rtHHO KOJiHHecTBO 3ejieHHyuH 3a 3aaoBOJiHBaHe Ha noTpe6HOCTHTe 
Ha bchko OTflejiHo ceMeHCTBo. Te cb3flaBaT arpoTexHOJiornfl 3a MacoBO 
ctokobo npoH3BOflCTBO, npHjiaraT caMo6HTHa arpOTexHHKa npnrozieHa 

K-bM MeCTHHTe MeTeOpOJIOrHHHH H nOHBeHH yCJIOBHS H B-bBOKflaT B 

npoH3BOflCTBOTO MHoro hobh 3ejreHHyKOBH KyjiTypH h copTOBe. Oco6eHa 
e 3acjiyraTa hm 3a pa3npocTpaHeHHe Ha ztOMara, nnnep, naTJiaAacaH {cuhu 
doMamu, Kaiero ca no3Hara b Hapo/iHa TepMHHOJioraa), raaBecTO 3e;ie, 
$acyji, KaKTo h nonyjiHpH3HpaHeTO Ha hobh copTOBe cpea mccthoto 



288 Cki'mbeiie mah>hhe ha EAJiKAny 



HacejieHHe. B HyjK^ecTpaHHHTe KaTaji03H 3a ceMena ce cpemaT pa3JiHHHH 
copTOBe 6i>JirapCKH nnnep KaTO HanpHMep ruioeduecKa Kanun, 6aioecKu 
6m 6o6, Ka6a cuepux, kcuiuhko6Cku, MapuHKoecKu, pasjiHHHH copTOBe 
nyK — AHCKORecKu, cciMoeodcKu, KonpaGn, no3HaTO KaTO cuiaoaiu. Te3H 
copTOBe ce cpemaT b KaTano3HTe cbc CBOHTe opnrHHajniH Ha3BaHH«, 6e3 
jxa. 6-hp.SLT npeBOK^aHM. 

BturapHTe-rypGeTHMH b CTpaHCTBO Tbpcjrr hobh >KH3HeHH CTpaTe- 
thh 3a npeozi,ojiHBaHe Ha (J)HHaHC0BH>i Konanc h ryp6eTHHHCTBOTO KaTO 
CTpaTerHH 3a onejwBaHe ce npeBptma nocTeneHHO b ce30HHa eMHrpannn 
ot hob ran b MO^epHOTO o6mecTBO. KtM T03H thh eMwrpauHJi cna^aT 
rpynH eMHrpaHra hjih OTzjejiHH jihhhocth, kohto 3a cziho npojxLjmHTeji- 
ho BpeMe npOMeHHT cBoeTO MecTO)KHTejiCTBO. JXyMaia eMuapaifun npoH3- 
xo^cjia ot jiaTHHCKaTa AyMa migrare, migratio h 03HanaBa npeceiiBaHe, 
npeMecTBaHe. MnrpauHflTa BHHarn e CBT>p3aHa c npoM«HaTa Ha MecTO- 
^HBeeHeTO h c npoMjmaTa Ha MecTO>KHTejiCTBOTo, KaTO TOBa hobo macto 
ce CBi>p3Ba c npocTpaHCTBeHOTO 7JBH>KeHHe Ha xopaTa (Han 2000:7). 
MoraBHTe 3a Ta3H npoMHHa MoraT m 6-bjxa.r nojinranecKH, counajiHH, 

HKOHOMHHeCKH, peJ!HrH03HH, eKOJIOrHHeCKH, KyjITypHH, eTHHHeCKH, a 

caMaTa eMHrpanna MOJKe Aa 6-bfle ao6poBOJiHa hjih npHHy/juTTenHa. 

EMHrpannaTa e chmboji h npn3HaK Ha MOflepHocrra, hhhto ochobhh 
xapaKTepncTHKH ca rbBKaBocrra h no^BH>KHOCTTa. Ta npcacTaBjiaBa 
npeMecTBaHe na hkohomhhcckhh, KyjiTypHna h counajieH KannTan ot 
e^HO mhcto Ha jipyro (Mergel/Welskop 1997:76). XopaTa eMnrpnpaT 
AyxoBHO, npocTpaHCTBeHO ot qwh cbht b znpyr, TOBa e e^Ha cTpyKTypHa 
pa^HKanHa npoMjma Ha cb3HaHHCTO, cmchh ce uajiaTa >KH3HeHa cncTeMa. 
HMeHHO 3aTOBa eMHrpaHTHTe ce Hy>K,aajTT ot eflHH ,zn>jn>r nepnozt 3a 
npHcnoco6aBaHe kt>m hobhh KyjiTypen Mozjeji. 

Cuefl naAaHeTO Ha )Keji»3HaTa 3aBeca rpaHnnHTe ce 3aTBapaT h enHa 
rojiflMa nacT ot 6tJirapcKHTe rpa^HHapn ocTaBaT H30JinpaHH 3a noBene ot 
45 ro^HHH, OTflajieneHH ot CBOHTa po^HHa, h noHacToameM noBene ot 
Tpn noKoneHHH khbcht b Abctphh. Te ca 3ana3HJiH oraacra cbohtc 
H^eHTHHHH 6ene3H, tbh KaTO )KHBeaT b ycnoBHH Ha ny>K,aa e3HKOBa, pejiH- 
rno3Ha h connanHa cpezta. 

B HOBaTa CHTyanna HHJJHBHjjyajTHocTTa Ha eMHrpaHTHTe e orpaHH- 
neHa. B ApyraTa o6ihhoct Te ce MaprnHajiH3HpaT, tbh KaTO npHTe>KaBaT 

CnenH(J)HHHH eMOHHOHaJIHH XapaKTepHCTHKH, KOHTO TH OTJIHHaBaT OT 

MecTHHTe aBCTpHHUH. Te 3ana3BaT cboa KyjiTypeH Moaeji, co6ctbchh3 ch 
CBeTorjiea h cneuHcf)HHHH moacjih Ha noBeaeHHe, KaKTO h TpaxwunoHHaTa 
Hapo/iHa Me^HHHHa. Te3H 6ejie3H ca flocTaTbHHH jxa (jsopiviHpaT ejjHa 
KyjrrypHa rpaHHna. Te ce HaMnpaT b CHTyanna Ha nporaBozieHCTBHe 
Me>Kziy TexHHA cy6eKTHBH3tM h o6eKTHBHaTa flencTBHTenHOCT. CyoeK- 



MapHgHa .gKHM OBa: EtJirAPCKATA PPAflMI lAPCKA EMHrPAUHH B Abctphh ... 289 

THBHaTa peaKuna Ha eMHrpaHTHxe b apyraTa Kyuxypa ce pasnieacaa b 
KyjiTypHaTa aHTponojioraa KaTo «KyjiTypeH uiok» (Greverus 1995:2). 
EMHrpaHTHTe *HBeHT Meamy cTpaxa ot npoMjmaTa h HaAOK^aTa 3 a 
npoMHHa. 

KyjiTypnaTa HfleHTHHHOCT Ha 6wapcKHTe rpaztHHapn eMHrpaHTH e 

CB-bpsaHa C THXHOTO KyjITypHO CT,3HaHHe, HOpMH H HeHHOCTH, KaKTO H OT 

Hac.noeHaTa hm KyjixypHa naMeT. Ta3H TpazmuHOHHo po/ma aTMoc^epa 
o6oco6HBa BajiHAHOCTTa hm k-bm e^Ha onpeaejieHa rpyna h ocj)opMH 

HyBCTBOTO HM 33 CTHHHeCKa HpHHa/UIOKHOCT. ToBa e ot SHaneHHe 3a 

KyjITypHHH XOPH30HT, KOHTO Te Ca HpHTe^aBa^H B MHHaJlOTO H ro 

npeHacHT b caho qyacao npocTpaHCTBo. Tosh a KT Ha MnrpauH* npoBOKnpa 

COUHaJIHHH HM CTaTyC H yTB-bpjK^aBa HOBHTe HM >KH3HeHH UeJIH. T03H 

npouec ce xapaKTepn3npa e^HOBpeMeHHo h KaTo 3ary6a, h KaTo Bt3pa- 
■MnaHQ Ha npeAHUiHHH hm erao-KyjiTypeH HzieHTHTeT. BHe3anHaTa npoM- 
nna Ha BceKH^HeBHHH hm >khbot th HacoHBa KtM apyra counajiHa 
opneHTaHHJi. KyjiTypHaTa HfleHTHHHocT e npouec Ha npneMaHe Ha 
o6mecTBeHHTe ho P mh h uchhocth. To3h npouec ce c})opMHpa Ha 6a 3 aTa 
Ha HH^HBHAyajiHHTe, ncnxHHecKH h eMouHOHajiHH KanecTBa Ha BCHKa 
jihhhoct. EMHrpaHTHTe ce noTan^T hc chmo b e^Ha ny^a aTMOccJjepa, 
kohto HMa onpeziejieHO BJiHHHne B-bpxy thx, ho h ca CBT> P 3aHH c tcxhh 
npe^HuiHH acounauHH, c thxhoto reorpa^CKo MecTOHaxo^eHHe h 
counajiHa npocjiOHKa. ITpn thx AOMHHHpa BariHOTHH Tpa/muHOHeH MO/ieji 

C 6tJirapCKHTe HpaBH, o6hH3H, e3HK, Tpa^HUHOHHH npo(f>ecHH H 3aHa*TH. 
HopMHTe H UeHHOCTHTe, Bt3npHeTH OT pOflHOTO BT,3nHTaHHe, 060C06HBaT 

npaKTHKyBaneTO hm Ha cneuH(J)HHeH *H3HeH cthji. YIoa bjihhhhc h 
Bi,3zieHCTBHe Ha HOBaTa cpe^a 6i>JirapcKHTe eMHrpaHTH KOHTaicryBaT c 

MeCTHHTe HHCTHTyUHH H OpraHH3H P aT BCeKHAHeBHHH CH )KHBOT B 

HOBoc-b3ztaAeHH apyjKecTBa h He(f)opMajiHH rpynoBH CApyaceHH*. 

«rpa/jHHapcTBOTo e ezma rojiHMa jioTapHH» (ManeB 1938:315) nn- 
uiaT npe3 1938 ro^HHa ctCTaBHTejiHTe Ha k>6hji6hhhh c6opHHK, mnajien 
no cjiynan 10 roAHiHHH* K)6HjieH ot cbsaaBaHeTO Ha 6-b^rapcKH* 
rpa^HHapcKH cbK>3. Ezuia JiOTapna 3a koto? 3a KaKBo? 

^Hec Hne ot no3HUHHTa Ha BpeMeTo HHMaMe npaBo #a cb^hm TOBa 
noKOJieHne 3a tcxhhh h 3 6o P ^a HanycHaT po^HHaTa, TpazmuHOHHHH 
KyjiTypeH nefoa*, 3£paBHTe po^hhhckh Bp-b3KH Ha 3aTBopeHOTO naTpnap- 
xajiHo ceMencTBO h jxa noe M aT Hepa^ocT-bHHH n-bT H a CTpaHCTBamn* 
rypoeTHHH. /Jnec Te cbiuecTByBaT KaTo e^Ha MajiuHHCTBeHa o6oco6eHa 
rpyna, kohto *HBee b MyjiTHKyjiTypHaTa o6iuhoct Ha Abctphh clc 
3ana3eHa 6i,jirapcKa hachthhhoct, Tpac^opMnpaHa b Hy*flOTo npocTpaH- 

CTBO. 



290 Ckphbehe mah>mhe ha Eajikahy 



TeMaTa 3a KOJieKTHBHaTa HAeHTHHHOCT Ha MaJiUHHCTBaTa ce zihc- 
KyTHpa AHec b Abctphh c ocTpa nojiHTHnecKa pHTOpHHHOCT. Th 3acri>nBa 

BtnpOCHTe CB1>p3aHH C HOBHTe COU,HaJlHH npOMeHH B CBeTa H b cliuoto 

BpeMe nocTaBH flHCKypca 3a ocHOBaHHexo Ha nojiHTHHecKHTe kohcJuihkth 
h TepHTopnanHH npeieHUHH. Hivtax jih ManuHHCTBeHHre rpyiiH npaBO Ha 
npoTHBonocTaBHHe cpemy mho3hhctboto? ToBa ca KyjuypHH h couHajiHH 
npoGjieMH CBi>p3aHH c eTHHHHOCTTa, MynTHKyjiTypHOCTTa, HauwoHajiHaTa 
npHHazuie)KHOCT h njrypajTH3Ma, komto ctoht otkphth h 3a b 6i>^eme. 



EHOJ"iHorpa(f)Hfl 

Baldauf 1997: Margot Baldauf, Die Roma aaf dem Balkan und in Wien. Subkultur, 
soziale Organisation, historische Wandel, Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des 
Grades einer Magistra der Philosophic an der Geisteswissenschaftlichen 
Fakultat der Karl-Franzens-Universitat, Graz. 

EtJirapcKa eHUHKJioneriH^ 1981 : Eh/ieapcKa eHifUftnonedun na nayKume, tom 2, T-3, 
H3,aaTejiCTBO Ha BAH, CocJ)hh. 

BtHBapoB 1986: CTec})aH EtHBapoB, EhAeapcKo epadunapcmeo, 3eMH3AaT, Co$hh. 

Billaut 1991: Micheline Billaut, Les migrations externes en Bulgarie. In: Eeckaute — 
Denise Bardery, (ed.), Migrations balkaniques et danuhiennes, Publications 
Langueso, Paris. 

Enciklopedija Jugoslavije, Zagreb. 

OmiHnoB 1986: KnpHJi Ohjihiiob, floK/iad no cnynau 50- zodumuunama om 
ocHoeaeanemo na dpyoicecmeomo na 6-bmapcKume zpaduuapu — Buena, 
BneHa. 

Greverus 1995: Ina-Maria Greverus, Die Anderen und Iclu Darmstadt. 

Grothusen 1999: Klaus-DetlevGrothusen, Bulgarien, Siidosteuropa-Handbuch, Band 
IV, Gottingen. 

Han 2000: Petrus Han, Soziologie der Migration, Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart. 

Herbert 1985: Ulrich Herbert, Fremdarbeiter. Politik und Praxis des «Ausldn- 
der-Einsatzes» in der Kriegswirtschaft des Dritten Reiches, Berlin — Bonn. 

XpHCTOB 2003: TTeTKO XpncTOB, ryp6eTHHiicmio?w/nevaA6apcm«omo e ^eHTpajiHara 
nacT Ha BanKaHHTe Kaio TpancrpaHHneH oomch. — B: fla otcueeeut maM 3 da 

cbnyeaui myK. EMHrpauHOHHH npouecH b Hana^-ioTO na XXI BeK, Cocfwa, 1MIR. 
223-234. 

Hristow 1980: Hristo Hristow, 1300 Jahre Bulgarien, Sofiapress, Sofia. 

5lKHMOBa 2000: MapHflHa #KHMOBa, Kynmypnama udenmuHHocm na 6h.i2apcKama 
epadunapcKa eAtuepai{ux e Aecmpux, JXhujiomh^ pa6oTa, Co^hm. 

Jakimova 2002: M. Jakimova, Kulturni identitet bugarske bastovanske emigracije u 
Austriji, Kulturni i etnicki identiteti u procesu globalizacije i regionalizacije 
Balkana, Nis, 204-208. 

MaHeB 1938: To#op MaHeB (ed.), Mcmopun na 6-bmapcKomo epadunapcmeo, 
I06HJieeH cSophhk 1928-1938, Coc{)hh. 

Mergel/Welskop 1 997: Mergel/Welskop (ed.), Geschichtezwischen Kultur und Gesell- 
schaft, Verlag C. H. Beck, Mtinchen. 



MapHaHa flKHMOBa: Ewapckata tpa/whapcka EMHfPAUHJi b Abctph^ ... 291 



Marijana Jakimova 
The History of Bulgarian Migrant Gardeners in Austria - a Hidden Minority or not? 

The emigration of Bulgarian gardeners to foreign countries is a special form of economic 
migration which is called gurbet, a term which is of Turkish origin and denotes "foreign 
countries . We can observe the migration of Bulgarian gardeners since the 18'" century but it 
reached its peak in the period between the two world wars. 

For the mid-war period we are able to know more about the hierarchical structures of the 
migrant gardeners communities abroad and how they organized the redistribution of the earned 
profit among their individual members. These circumstances are highlighted in the case of 
Austria in that period. It was the emigrants from the region of Veliko Tarnovo, in particular 
who came to this country. Because of the than sweeping economic crisis the relatively cheap 
products of Bulgarian gardeners, who also established new sorts of vegetables on the market 
were welcomed by the Austrian consumers. 

Gradually, an increasing number of Bulgarian gardeners decided to abandon seasonal 
migration and to remain permanently in Austria - a decision that was confirmed by the fall of 
the Iron Curtain after the Second World War. Because of their isolation from their native 
country they had to find new strategies for survival, which would integrate them into the 
Austrian society. Such strategies, however, would lead to the - partial or total - abandonment 
of their traditional cultural identity, at least among the succeeding generations. It is therefore an 
open question, whether the descendents of the Bulgarian gardeners in Austria should be treated 
as a hidden minority rather than a dissipating group on its way to total assimilation 



AYTOPH 



TopjaHa AjieKcoBa 

AcHCTeHT Ha npe/weraMa: CaBpeMeHH Ma K eflOHCKH je3HK H MeTOflHKa HacTaBe 
MaKeaoHCKor je3HKa n P H Ohjiojiowkom (baKyjiTeTy „Bjia>Ke Kohcckh" y CKoruby. 

06jiacT HHTepcoBatba: JiHHrBHCTHKa, couHOJiHHrBHCTHKa, HacTaBa je3HKa 
MaKeaoHCKH je3HK y OTj'acnopH. 

Teaching assistant for subjects: Contemporary Macedonian Language and 
Metodology of teaching Macedonian at the Faculty of Philology "Blaze Koneski", Skopje. 

Research interests: linguistics, sociolinguistics, methodics of teaching, Macedonian 
language in diaspora. 

CToJKa BoJKOBCKa 

^nnjioMHpajia 1970. Ha Ohjtoso^ckom (^KyjireTy y CKOnjLy, H a rpynn 3a 
Ma K ejoHCKH je 3 HK h jyjKHooioBeHCKe jesHKe. On 1971. paan Ha Ohhojiowkom fcaKynreiy 
„B;ia>K-e Kohcckh" y CKonjby, H a KaTenpH 3 a MaKeaoHCKM je3HK h jy>KHocjiOBeHCKe jesnice 
K-ao npotbecop caspeMeHor MaKeaoHCKor jesMKa h Me-roamce Hacrase MaKeaoHCKor jeanica 
MarncxpHpajia h aoKTopHpajia h 3 o6JiacTH flHJajieKTOJior-HJe MaiceflOHCKor jesmca. 

CapaaHHK Bnuie MaKenoHCKHx h ue^ymipomm JiHHrBHcraHKHx h co«HOJHrarBHcnraKHX 
npojeKara. 

OGjiacT HHTepecoBaaa: AHJajieKTOJionija, couHOJiHHrBHCTHKa, caBpeMemi 
MaKeaoHCKH je3HK, MeToziHKa HacTaBe. 

Graduated from Faculty of Philosophy, Skopje, department of Macedonian and 
South Slavic languages (1970). Since 1971 employed at the Faculty of Philology "Blaze 
Koneski , department of Macedonian language and South Slavic languages as professor of 
contemporary Macedonian language and Methodics of teaching Macedonian language 
MA and PhD in Macedonian language dialectology. Collaborator at several Macedonian 
and international linguistic and sociolinguistic projects. 

Research interests: dialectology, sociolinguistics, contemporary Macedonian 
language, methodics of teaching. 



294 CKPHBEHE MAH>IIHE HA EaJIKAHY 



Ferenc Csortan 

flHnjioMHpao 1971. Ha Tcxhhhkom YHnBepiHTeTy y Knyacy. ,fl,oKTopaT CTeKao m 
o6^acTH HCTopHJe apxHTeKType. Ojx 1990. ca&eTHHK y MumicTapcTBy Kyjuype u BepcKnx 
nHTatta PyMyHHJe. rTpenaBan Ha yHHBep3HTeTy y Kjiyacy (PyMymija) h Cereanny 
(MaI)apcKa). 

OonacT HHTepecoBaH>a: KyjiTypa iviaibHua y jyroncTOHHOJ EBponH, HCTopuja 
apxHTeKType, oTOMaHCKa apxHTeKTypa. 

Graduated in 1971 from the Technical University of Cluj. PhD candidate in 
Architectural History. Since 1990 counselor in the Ministry of Culture and Religious 
Affairs of Romania. Frequent lectures, such as introductory courses in Balkan Studies, at 
the Cluj (Romania), respectively Szeged (Hungary) Universities. 

Research interests: culture of minorities in South-East Europe, architectural history, 
Ottoman architecture. 



Klaus-Jiirgen Hermanik 

Pol)en 15. cercreM6pa 1963. y Jleo6eHy, o.npacTao y Tpo(|)ajaxy. 0;i 1983. 30 1990. 
GTysHpa HeMaHKy 4>HJiojiorHJy h eTHOJionijy/KyjiTypny aHTponojiorHJy y Tpauy. 
O^opaHOM aHcepxamije o HCMamcOM ayiopy A/ioep-ry Onrojiajcy TejieHy noKTopnpao 
1995. roiiHHe. BaBHo ce MajiHM cthhmkhm rpyna\ia y ajincKo-ja^pancKOM pcniOHy. Or 
2001. HaynHH capaannic na npojeicry „(CKpuBeHe) Marine H3Met)y Cpcxuue EBpone h 
Ba^KaHa". PaziH Ha OnceKy 3a Hcropnjy jyrOHCTOMHc Espone Ha YHHBep'iHTeTy Kapjia 
OpaHueHca y fpauy. ripcuaje KOHCTpyKuwjaMa nsenTHTeTa MaJinx cthhhkhx rpyna h 
kohcbckom perHOHy y Cjiobchhjh. 

Mag. Dr. phil., born on September 15' h 1963 in Leoben and grew up in Trofaiach. 
Between 1983-1990 he studied German philology and Ethnology/Cultural Anthropology 
in Graz. His doctoral dissertation focused on the German author Albert Vigoleis Thelen. 
He finished his PhD in 1995. Afterwards, he has dealt with small ethnic groups in the 
Alpine- Adriatic Region in his research. Since 2001 he lias been scientific collaborator at 
the project "(Hidden) minorities from Central Europe to the Balkans". Hermanik works at 
the Department of Southeastern European History at the Karl-Franzcns University Graz. 
As a lecturer he deals with "Identity constructions of small ethnic groups" and "Kocevje 
Region". 



Ana Xo(J)MaH 

Pol)eHa 1976, CTHOMy'iHKOJior, &>aKyJiTeT yivieTHocTH y Hnuiy. 

06jiacT HHTpecoBaH>a; MyiHKa h MattHHe, MyssHica aHTponojionija, My3HMKa 
couHO^ornja (nojiHTHKa, HjieojiorHJa). 

Born in 1976, cthnomusicologist, Faculty of Art, Nis. 

Research interests: music and minorities, music anthropology, music sociology 
(politics, ideology). 



AyTopH 



rieTKO XpncroB 



295 



ETHOJior, ETHorpaci)CKH hhcthtyt h M y 3 cj, ByrapcKa aKaaeMHJa H ay K a, CocbHJa, 
ByrapcKa. 

06nacT HHTepecoB3H,a: HapoiiHe HHCTHTyunje h HopMe noHaiuaita, pHTyaji h 
HjeHTHTeT, nopo^Hua h pojiShhckh ootoch, couhJ3jihh acneicrH yjiore nojioBa y Tpazmun- 
OHajmoM npyiuTBy. 

PhD, Ethnologist, Ethnographic Institute and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of 
Science, Sofia, Bulgaria. 

Research interests: folk institutions and norms of behavior, rituals and identity, 
family and kinship, social aspects of gender roles in the traditional society. 

Mapusma HKHMOBa 

Pol)eHa 1968. y Chjihctph (Eyrapcica). OiyaHpajia KyjiTypojiornjy h HCTopHJy y 
CocJmjh h Tpairy. MarHCTpupajia Ha npo6jicMaTHUH 6yrapcKHx MHrpaHaTa - 6aiuT0BaHa y 
AycrpHJCKOj cj)e^epaTHBHOj npoBHHUHJn Uh-ajepcKoj (2000. ro/iHHe y Cocpmn h 2003. 
roaHHe y Tpauy). Capa^HMK Ha npojeKTy „CKpHBeHe Man>HHe H3Met)y ueirrpajiHe EBpone 
h BajiKaHa". Ha BHiue MerjyHapoaHHx KOH^epeHuuja npencTaBHJia jc pa/ioBe Be33He 3a 
TeMaTHKy 6yrapcKHx 6aujT0BaHa y AycipHJH. 

06jiacT HHTepecoBaaa: KyjrrypHH ammmen MHrpaHaTa H3 jyroHCTOHHe EBpone y 

AyCTpHJH. 

Born in 1968 in Silistra (Bulgaria). She has studied Cultural Science and History in 
Sofia and in Graz. Her master's thesis was on the Bulgarian migrant gardeners in Austrian 
federal province of Styria (2000 in Sofia and 2003 in Graz). She is a collaborator at the 
research project "Hidden Minorities between Central Europe and the Balkans". On the 
Bulgarian gardeners in Austria she has given several papers in different international 
conferences. 

Research interests: cultural identities of migrants from Southeast Europe to Austria. 

3opaH JaH>eTOBHh 

HHCTHTyT 3a HOBHJy HCTopHJy Cp6nje, Eeorpaa 

OonacT HHTepecoBatfca: HauHOHaime MaitHHe Ha TepHTopnJH JyrocnaBHJe. 

Institute for the modern Serbian history, Belgrade. 
Research interests: national minorities in Yugoslavia. 

JoBaHKa Bopr)eBHh JoBaHOBHfi 

Cry^Hpajia h MaracTpHpajia Ha Ohjiojiouikom (paKyjiTeTy y Eeorpaay. HcTpa>KHBaH 
capanHHK y EajiKaHOJiouiKOM HHCTHTyTy CAHY. 

OGjiacT HHTepcoBaita: rpnica zmjacnopa y Cp6nJH, rpHKo-cpncKH ozihoch. 

Graduated and M.A at the Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade. Research 
Associate at the Institute for Balkan Studies of SASA. 

Research interests: Greeks' Diaspora in Serbia, Greek-Serbian Relations. 



296 Ckpmbehe mah>hhe ha Eajikahy 

Thede Kahl 

CTy/jupao reorpac|)HJy, cjiaBHCTHKy, BH3aHTOJiorHJy h rpHKy (})H-TOJiorHJy y 
XaM6ypry, MHHCTepy, CoJiyHy h KejiHy. Or 1999. ro 2002. npe^aBan h HayHHH capa^HHK 
hq HHCTHTyTy 3a reorpacJ)HJy y MHHCTepy. To^HHe 2002. HayHHH capajiHHK Ha npojeKTy 
JlHHrBHCTHMKor aTjiaca 6ajiicaHCKHx je3HKa y HHCTHTyTy 3a onoBeHCKy (fmjiojiorHJy y 
Mapoypry. CapaaHHK bhuic HaynHHx npojeKaTa eesaHHX 3a pa3JiHMHTe eTHHHKe rpyne Ha 
BajiKaHy. Or 2002. pyKOBOimJiau O^cena 3a reorpa(J)HJy Ha HHCTHTyTy 3a HCTOHHy h 
jyroHCTOHHy EBpony y Eeny. HnaH ype^HHuiTBa naconnca „Osterreichische Osthefte" h 
„ATJiaca HCTOHHe h jyroHCTOHHe EBpone". 

OGjiacT HHTepecoBatta: MaH>HHe (Apy\iyHH, IToMauH, TpuH H3BaH TpMKe), 

HOMaACKH HaHHH >KHBOTa H HOMa^CKa HaceJta, eTHOMy3HKOJ!OrHJa, eTHOJlHHTBHCTHKa H 

je3HUH y KOHTaKTy, My/iTHeTHHHKa Koer3HCTeHUHJa Ha BajiKaHy. 

Studied geography, Slavic philology, byzantinology and Greek philology in 
Hamburg, Miinster, Thessaloniki and Cologne. From 1999-2002 lecturer and scientific 
researcher at the Institut fur Geographie, Munster. In 2002 scientific researcher at the 
Linguistic Atlas of Balkan languages of the Institut fur Slawische Philologie, Marburg. 
Several research projects regarded different ethnic groups in the Balkans. Since 2002 head 
of the department of Geography, project Manager and scientific researcher at the Austrian 
Institute of East and Southeast European Studies, Vienna. Member of the editorial board of 
"Osterreichische Osthefte" and "Atlas of Eastern and Southeastern Europe". 

Research interests: minorities (esp. Aromanians, Pomaks, Greeks outside Greece), 
mobile animal breeding and nomad peoples and settlements, ethnomusicology, 
ethnolinguistics and language contacts, interethnic coexistence in the Balkans. 

PaAHBoje MjiaAeHOBHfi 

ripeAaBan Ha OHJiojiouiKo-yMeTHHHKOM (JmicyjiTeTy YHHBep3HTeTa y KparyjeBuy, 
Ha npe^MeTy HcTopnja cpncKor je3HKa (.aoueHT); bhiuh HayHHH capa^HHK Ha HHCTHTyTy 
3a cpncKH je3HK CAHY, Eeorpa#. 

06jiacT HHTepecoBan>a: Hayrca o je3HKy (cpncKH je3HK — HHJajieKTOJiornja, 
JIHHrBHCTHHKa KOHTaKTOJlOTHJa, 6ajiKaHOJiorHJa, HCTopHja je3HKa). 

Lecturer at the Faculty of Philology and Arts, University of Kragujevac. Teaches 
History of the Serbian language. Researcher at the Institute for the Serbian Language, 
SASA, Belgrade. 

Research interests: linguistics (Serbian language — dialectology, contact linguistics, 
balkanology, history of language). 

Taa>a IleTpOBHfi 

CTy^Hpana cpncKH je3HK h KH>H>tceBHocT Ha Ohjiojiouikom (J)aKyjrreTy YHHBep- 
3HTeTa y Beorpajiy (^HnjroMHpajia 1998, MarHCTpHpa/ia 2002). Or 1998. ro 2002. 
CTHneHAHCTa Ha Ethmojiouikom oaccKy HHCTHTyTa 3a cpncKH je3HK CAHY, Eeorpa/j. Or 
2002. HCTpa)KHBaH Ha EajiKaHOJiouiKOM HHCTHTyTy CAHY. Ha Institutum Studiorum 
Humanitatis y JLy6ji>aHH nHiue .ancepTauHJy je3HHKoj HfleojiorHJH Cp6a y Bejioj 
KpaJHHH. CapanHHK npojeicra „CKpHBeHe Man>HHe H3Met)y ueHTpajiHe EBpone h EajiKaHa" 

UOR pyKOBO^CTBOM R$ KpHCTHjaHa IlpOMHUepa H „ETHOJIHHrBHCTHHKa H COUHOJIHHrBH- 



AyTopH 



297 



CTHHKa HCTpa>KHBaH,a H36er;iHua h Myji-raeTHHMKHx 3ajenHHua Ha BajiKaHy" y BajiKaHO- 

JIOUIKOM HHCTHTyTy CAHY. 

06.nacT HHTepecoBatta: couHoriHHrBHCTHKa, aHTponoJiouiKa JiHHrBHCTHKa, je3Hun y 

KOHTaKTy, JIHHrBHCTHHKH HfleHTHTeT H je3HHKa H/tCOJIOrHJa MajlHX eTHHMKHX 3ajenHHua. 

Studied Serbian language at the University of Belgrade (graduated 1998, M.A. 2002). 
1998-2000 fellow at the Institute for the Serbian language (Department of Etymology), 
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade. Since 2000, research fellow at the Institute 
for Balkan Studies, Belgrade. At Institution Studiorum Humanitatis in Ljubljana writes her 
dissertation on language ideology of Serbs in Bela Krajina. Scientific collaborator in projects 
''(Hidden) minorities from Central Europe to the Balkans" led by Dr Christian Promitzer and 
"Ethnolingmstic and sociolinguistic Research of Refugees and Multiethnic Communities in 
the Balkans" at the Institute of Balkan Studies (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts). 

Research interests: sociolinguistic, anthropological linguistics, language contacts, 
linguistic identity and language ideology of small ethnic groups. 



3opan n.iacKOBHfi 

3anoc;reH y npeny3ehy „HHEn". 

06jiacT HHTepecoBaita: UHHuapH, H>HXOBa HCTopnja h TpaaniiHJa, aaHauifta 
no3Hunja, eTHHHKH HfleHTHTeT, MaftHHCKH cTaTyc (eTHOJiornja). 

Employed in INEP. 

Research interests: Tsintsars, their history and tradition, current status, ethnic 
identity, minority status (ethnology). 



Christian Promitzer 

ZIoueHT Ha OaceKy 3a ncTopHJy jyroHCTOHHe EBpone Ha YHHBep3HTeTy y Tpauy. 
ZlHcepTauHJa o hctophjh c^oBeHaHKor >KHBJta y aycTpHJCKoj IllTajepcKoj. nocjieaftHx 
roiiHHa 6aBH ce hctophjom HayHHor pacH3Ma y jyroHCTOHHOJ EBponH h H>eroBHM 3HaHajeM 
3a nojiHTHKy HAeHTHTeTa. PyKOBOAH^au Meh;yHapoiiHor npojeicra o „ckphbchhm Man»H- 
HaMa" H3Mel)y Cpe/nte EBpone h BajiKaHa, o neiviy je H3Me^y ocTajior nncao y nnaHKy 
»'Gute Serben': Ethnologen und Politiker iiber die Identitat der Serben in der 
slowenischen Bela krajina« u: Ulf Brunnbauer (ur.), Umstrittene Identitaten. Ethnizitat und 
Nationalist in Siidosteuropa. Frankfurt: Peter Lang 2002: str. 173-199 (TaKorje Ha 
HHTepHeTy). 

Lecturer at the Department of Southeastern European history in Graz. Wrote 
dissertation on history of the Slovene population in the Austrian Styria. Recently deals 
with the history of scientific racism in Southeastern Europe and its significance for the 
identity policy. Head of the scientific project on "hidden" minorities between Central 
Europe and the Balkans. On this topic published the article '"Gute Serben': Ethnologen 
und Politiker iiber die Identitat der Serben in der slowenischen Bela krajina" in: Ulf 
Brunnbauer (ed.), Umstrittene Identitaten. Ethnizitat und Nationalist in Siidosteuropa. 
Frankfurt: Peter Lang 2002: pp. 173-199 (also available on web site). 



298 Ckphbehe mah»hhk ha Eajikahy 



Mihai Radan 

3ana^HH yHHBep3HTeT y TeMHiuBapy, Ohjiojioujkh, hctophjckh h tcojioujkh c[)a- 
KyjiTeT, Kaie,apa 3a CJiaBHCTHKy, CXaceK 3a cpncKH h xpBaTCKH je3HK h KH,H>KeBHOCT (Bv. 
V. Parvan 4, 300223 — Timi?oara, Romania). 

06.nacT HHTepecoBatta: zuijajieKmnorHJa, eTHOJiornja, (J)ojikjiop; KapaiueBCKH (h 
yoniiiTe cpncKH) roBopH y pyMyHCKOM BaHaTy, eTHOJiorwja h (})OJiK^op Cp6a H3 pyMyHCKor 
BaHaTa. 

University of the West Timi?oara, Faculty of Philology, History and Theology, 
Department of Slavic studies, Serbian and Croatian language and Literature (Bv. V. Parvan 
4, 300223 — Timi§oara, Romania). 

Research interests: dialectology, ethnology, folklore; Karasevan (and Serbian) 
dialects of Romanian Banat, ethnology and folklore of Serbs in Romanian Banat region. 

EifJbaHa CiiKHMiifi 

Bhuih HayqHH capanHHK EajiKaHOJioiUKor HHCTHTyTa CAHY, Eeorpaji. PyKOBOiiH- 

JiaiJ npojeKTa „ETHOJIHHrBHCTHHKa H COUHOJIHHrBHCTHHKa HCTpa>KHBaH>a H36er:iHua H 

MyjiTHeTHHHKHx 3aje;iHHua Ha BajiKaHy". 

06jiacT HHTepecoBan>a: aHTponojioiiiKa jwHrBHCTHKa, je3HK 4)OJiKJiopa, AHJacnopa, 

MyHTHJIHHrBH3aM. 

Senior scientific researcher at the Institute for Balkan Studies, SASA, Belgrade. 
Project leader ("Ethnolinguistic and sociolinguistic research of refugees and multiethnic 
communities on the Balkans"). 

Research interests: anthropological linguistics, language of folklore, diaspora, 
multilingualism. 

CraHHCJiaB CraHKOBHfi 

AcHCTeHT Ha Ohjio30(})Ckom (J)aKyjrrcTy y Kocobckoj Mhtpobhuh Ha npeiiMeTHMa 
„CHHTaKca cpncKor je3HKa" h „MaKeA0HCKH jes-HK". 

06^acT HHTepecoBaH>a: aHJa^eicrojiorHJa, couHOJiHHrBHCTHHKa OTJajieKmnorHJa, 
6anKaHCKa JiHHrBHCTHKa. 

Assistant at the Faculty of Philosophy in Kosovska Mitrovica. Teaches Syntax of 
Serbian language and Macedonian language. 

Research interests: dialectology, sociolinguistics in dialectology, Balkan linguistics. 

Christian Voss 

HcTpa>KHBaH Ha Onceicy 3a cjiOBencKe je3HKe yHHBep3HTeTa Aji6epTa JlyjiBHra y 
Opaj6ypry. PoljeH 1965, cTyjuipao cJiOBeHCKy h poMaHCKy (|)HJiojiorHJy h HCTopHJy 
jyroHCTOMHe EBpone Ha yHHBep3HTeTHMa y KejiHy, Coc})hjh h OpajSypry (MarHCTpHpao y 
Kejmy 1993. roflHHe, jjoKTopHpao y Opaj6ypry 1994, xaoHJiHTauHJa y Opaj6ypry 2004). 

06.nacT HHTepecoBaa>a: upKBeHocjioBCHCKH, jesHHiea nojiHTHica y jy>KHoc;ioBeHCKHM 

je3HUHMa, COUMOJIHHrBHCTHKa, je3HUH y KOHTaKTy, je3HUH Ma^HHa, CTHHUHTeT H JC3HK. 



AyropH 



299 



Research fellow at the Department for Slavic languages, Albert-Ludwigs- 
-Universitat Freiburg. Born in 1965, he studied Slavic and Roman Philology and East 
European History and the university of Cologne, Sofia and Freiburg (M.A. Cologne 1993, 
PhD Freiburg 1996, Habilitation 2004 Freiburg). Dissertation about the "Paraenesis of 
Ephraem Syrus" in South-Slavic manuscripts (14-17th century). Habilitation about the 
Macedonian Standard/Dialect-continuum in the 20th century (comparing Tito-Yugoslav 
language planning in Vardar Macedonia with the situation of the Slavic-speaking minority 
in Greek Aegean Macedonia). 

Research interests: Church Slavonic, South Slavic language policy, sociolinguistics, 
language contact, minority languages, ethnicity and language. 

Mapnja ByHKOBHfi 

HcTpaacHBan capa/iHHK y HHCTHTyTy 3a cpncKH je3HK CAHY, Eeorpaa, na npojeicry 
„Ethmojiouikh penHHK cpncKor je3HKa". 

06jiacT HHTcpecoBaH>a: eTHMOJioraja, counojiHHrBHCTHKa, TaJHH je3HUH BajiKaHa. 

Research fellow at the Institute for Serbian Language, SASA, Belgrade. Scientific 
project "Etymological dictionary of Serbian language". 

Research interests: etymology, sociolinguistics, Balkan secret languages. 

Maja ByKHfi 

AcHCTeHT — npHnpaBHHK Ha npe^MeraMa CaBpeMeHH cpncKH je3HK III (CHHTaKca) 
h npaBonHc Ha OryflHJcKOJ rpynH 3a cpncKH je3HK h kh>h^ccbhoct OHJi030c{3CKor (fcaicyji- 
TeTa y HHmy. 

06nacT HHTepecoBaaa: caBpeMeHH cpncKH je3HK, je3HMKa HHTep^epeHUHJa. 

Teaching assistant for the subject Contemporary Serbian Language III (Syntax) and 
Orthography at the Faculty of Philosophy, Nis, Serbia. 

Researsh interests: contemporary Serbian language, language interference. 

CaH>a 3.ia i aHOBHh 

ETHOJior h aHTponojror, pa^H y E™orpa(J)CKOM HHCTHTyTy CAHY. 

06jiacT HHTepecoBaaa: npo6jieMH eTHHUHTeTa h xchbothot uHKJiyca (cBa,a6e). 

Ethnologist and anthropologist, works at the Ethnographic Institute of the Serbian 
Academy of Sciences and Arts. 

Research interests: ethnicity and life cycle (wedding). 



CKPHBEHE MAH>HHE HA EAJIKAHY 

H 3d ascm 
EAJIKAHOJIOUIKH HHCTHTYT CAHY 

KHe3-MHxaH^OBa 35 
balkinst@sanu.ac.yu 

-ran. +381 11 639 830 

3a mdaeana 
JLy6HHKO PaaemcoBnh 

JleKtnop it KopeKmop 

CBCTJiaHa TlHpKOBHh 

Jlexmop 3a enznecKu j&utc 
AHaMapiija CopecKy-MapiiHKOBiih 

Hpunpeua 3a lumoMny 

flaBop riajiHHh 

palcic@eunet.yu 

Cjiukq na KopuifaAta 

IleuiKHp H3 aeBojaHKe cnpeMe OnuiHJe OhjikobhIi, 

y^are )KyHau, Bona y EaHary 

UlmaMna 

Hnroja LUTaMna 

Beorpa^, OryzjeHTCKH Tpr 13 

chigoja@eunet.yu 

Tupmtc 

600 

CIP - KaTajionnauHJa y ny&THKamijH 
HapcuHa 6H&nHOTej<a Cp6nje, Beorpa,a 



81*26:323.151 (497)(082) 

316.344/.35(497)(082) 

316.347(497)(082) 

323.15(497)(082) 

327.58(497)(082) 

CKPHBEHE MatbHHe Ha EajiKaHy / ypezuniK 
Bujbana CHKHMHh. - Beorpas : BajiKaHOJiouiKH 
HHCTHTyT CAHY, 2004 (Beorpaa : 4nroja 
uiTaNfna). - 299 CTp. ; 23 cm. - (IloceGHa 
H3flaH>a / CpncKa aicafleMHJa Hayxa h 

yMeTHOCTH, BaJIKaHOJIOUJKH HHCTHTyT ; 82) 

Ha cnop. Hacn CTp.: Hidden Minorities in 
the Balkans. - Tckct Ha BHiue jesifica. - 
TnpaMc 600. - HanoMene h 6HO/iHorpac|)CKe 
pe^epeHiie y3 tckct. - Summaries. 

ISBN 86-7179-038-X 

1 . Ctb. nacji. na ynop. Hacn. CTp. 

a) MaH>HHCKe rpyne - BanKaHCKe flp)KaBe - 

36opHHiiH 6) HauHOHajiHe Maibiine - 

BajiKaHCKe Ap>KaBe - 36opHHu,H n) Ethhhkh 

ootoch - BajiKancKe apacaBe - 36opHHUH a) 

Je3HHKa no^HTHKa - BmueHauHOHajiHa 

3ajenHHua - 36opHHUH e) ETHOJiHHrBHcniKa - 

Ba-iKaHCKe ,ap)KaBe - 36ophhuh 

COBISS.SR-ID 1141685