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THE MANUALS OF BUDDHISM 

(THE EXPOSITIONS OF THE BUMJHA -DHAMMA} 



MAHA THERA LEDI SAYADAW, 
AGGAMAHAPANDITA, D.LITT. 




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The 

Manuals 

of 

Buddhism 



The Vipassana - Dipani 
Patthanuddesa Dipani 
Sammaditthi Dipani 
Niyama Dipani 
Catusacca Dipani 
Bodhipakkhiya Dipani 
Magganga Dipani 
Alin-kyan 

Uttamapurisa Dipani 
Anapana Dipani 



^ There have been shown the field florised with ^ 

' the countless signs of Lord Buddha images and Pa- ' 

godas and Satti. Amongs which the reweskable 

photoesof Lord Buddha as frist preached " Damma 

Seakkya Pawitana Version the " Four Noble Parts", 

after attaining this Shrime as the culture of Pagan in 

front cover After hearing Buddha's Damma " Four 

Noble parts" the fifth group of monks came to Know 

the true Knowledge (ultimate truth). They revealed 

the damma of" Four Noble truth". (Cicca) one after 

another He (Lord Buddha) Renew of all suffering of 

Dukkha which were oldage suffer. The suffer of 

Waitana and that of severe death. Saurudaya Cicca 

was the desire of persons and things. Magga Cicca 

was the endeavour to gain the insight Knowledge. 

Nigyawda Cicca was the Stage reacking the Dhamma 

of Nivana Sotapatti magga and Phala) 

i At the back cover one sati of Shrilinka and the , 

^ foot print of Lord Buddha in Minbu, Myanmar. ^ 



THE MANUALS OF 
BUDDHISM 

( THE EXPOSITIONS OF THE BUDDHA - DHAMMA) 

by 

MAHA THERA LEDI S AYAD AW, 
AGGAMAHA PANDITA , D . LITT. 




Edited and Published 

by 

MOTHER AYE YARWADDY 
PUBLISHING HOUSE 
YANGO N , M YA N M A R 

2004 



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GfTyseSGOO^C OCO CO(jSc8aD^OGGoSap6[Os[^g6 



The Venerable Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, 
Aggamahapandita, D. Lift. 



Known to scholars of many countries, the Venerable Ledi Sayadaw, 
Aggamahapandita, D. Lilt., was perhaps the outstanding Buddhist figure 
of this age. With the increase in interest in western lands, there is a 
great demand for his Buddhist Discourses and writings which are now 
being translated and reproduced in The Light of the Dhamma. 

Bhikkhu Nyana, who was later known as Ledi Sayadaw, was born on 
Tuesday, the 13th Waxing of Nattaw, 1208 Myanmar era {1846 C.E.) 
at Saing-pyin Village, Dipeyin Township, Shwebo District. His parents 
were U Tun Tha and Daw Kyone. Early in life he was ordained a 
samanera and at the age of twenty a bhikkhu, under the patronage of 
Sal in Sayadaw U Pandicca. He received his monastic education under 
various teachers and later was trained in Buddhist literature by the 
Venerable San-kyaung Sayadaw, Sudassana Dhaja Atuladhipati Siripavara 
Mahadhamma Rajadhi-raja-guru of Mandalay. 

He was a bright student. It was said of him, 'About 2000 students 
attended the the lectures delivered daily by the Ven'ble Sankyaung 
Sayadaw. One day the Venerable Sayadaw set in Pali twenty questions 
on parami (perfections) and asked all the students to answer them. None 
of them except Bhikkhu Nyana could answer those questions satisfactor- 
ily.' He collected all these answers and when he attained fifteen vassa 
and while he was still in San-kyaung Monastery, he published his first 
book, Parami Dipani (Manual of Perfections). 

During the reign of King Theebaw he became a Pali lecturer at Maha 
Jotikarama Monastery in Mandalay. A year after the capture of King 
Theebaw, in 1887 C.E, he removed to a place to the north of Mon- 
ywa town, where he established a monastery under the name of Ledi- 
tawya Monastery. He accepted many bhikkhu-students from various 
parts of Burma and imparted Buddhist education to them. In 1897 C.E. 
he wrote Paramattha Dipani (Manual of Ultimate Truths) in Pali. 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

Later, he toured in many parts of Burma for the purpose of propagat- 
ing the Buddha Dhamma. In towns and villages he visited he delivered 
various discourses on the Dhamma and established Abhidhamma classes 
and meditation centres. He composed Abhidhamma rhymes of Abhidham- 
ma Sankhitta and taught them to his Abhidhamma classes. In some of 
the principal towns he spent a vassa imparting Abhidhamma and Vinaya 
education to the lay devotees. Some of the Ledi meditation centres are 
still existing and still famous. During his itinerary he wrote many 
essays, letters, poems and manuals in Burmese. He has written more than 
seventy manuals,* of which eight have been translated into English and 
published in The Light of The Dhamma. 

He was awarded the title of Aggamahapandita by the Government of 
India in 1911 C.E. Later, the University of Rangoon conferred on him 
the degree of D. Litt. (honoris causa). In the later years he settled down 
at Pyinmana where he died in 1923 C.E. at the ripe age of 77. 

* See Appendix at the end of this book. 



The Most Venerable Mahathera 

Led! Sayadaw Aggamahapandita 

D.Litt (1846-1923) 



* The most eminent and highly respected teacher 
of Tipitaka, 



* The most gifted and summit scholar, 



The bravest and boldest author, 



The great pioneer of meditation master, 



* The most excellent preacher of the Dhamma, 



* The most admired and the brightest eye of 
the west. 



The English Translations 

1. Vipassana-Dipani (The Manual of Insight) 

translated by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monstery, 
Mandalay 

2. Patthanuddesa-Drpani (The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations) 

translated by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monstery, 
Mandalay 

3. Sammaditthi-DTpanT(The Manual of Right Views) 

translated form Pali into Burmese by Ledi Pandita U Mating Gyi, M.A. 
translated into English by the Editors of The Light of the Dhamma 

4. Niyama-Dipani(The manual of Cosmic Order) 

translated from the Pali by Beni M. Barua, D. Lit!.. M.A. 

revised and edited by Mrs. C.A.E Rhys Davids. D. Liu., M.A. with the 

residuum translated by Ven. U Nyana, Patamagyaw 

5. Catusacca-DIpariT (The Manual of the Four Noble Truths) 

translated by the Editors of The Light of the Dhamma 

6. Bodhipakkhiya-Dfipam (The Manual of the Factors Leading to 
Enlightenment) 

translated by U Saw Tun Teik, B.A.B.L. 

7. Maggariga-DTpari! (The Manual of the Constituents of the Noble 
Path) 

translated by U Saw Tun Teik, B.A.B.L. 

8. Alin-Kyan (An Exposition of Five Kinds of Light) 

translated by the Editors of The Light of the Dhamma 

9. Uttamapurisa-DTpanT (The Manual on the Greatest of Mankind) 

translated by U Tin U (Myaung) 

1 0. Anapana-Diparil (The Manual of Mindfulness of Breathing ) 

translated by U SeinNyo Tun (Late of the Indian Civil Service) 



Memorandum from 
LEDI DIPANI PROPAGATION SOCIETY 



WHEN THE BUDDHA GAINED ENLIGHTENMENT, he gave 
discourses after discourses to beings for up to 45 vassa (or years) before 
passing away and entering parinibbana. He left his teachings , the Dhamma, 
to represent him after his demise; so the Buddha can be deemed still alive, so 

to speak. 

THE GREAT BENEFACTOR VEN. LEDI SAYADAW, making 
selections from the corpus of the Buddha's teachings and expounding on 
them, had authored a 1 00-plus treatises called dfpanis in line with what the 
Buddha had taught, disseminating the true knowledge of the Dhamma in the 

process. 

FROM THE BEGINNING, the great benefactor Ven. Ledi 
Sayadaw had wished to widely distribute his dipanis, at home and abroad. 
Moreover, at a meeting of a major Buddhist organization abroad he gave 
guidance that it was high time especially to propagate the Buddha's teach- 
ings, translated into various languages, all over the world. 

THE LEDI DIPANI PROPAGTION SOCIETY 

Led by Aggamahapandita LEDI BHADD ANTA KELAS A, the 9th 
Ledi Sayadaw and presiding sayadaw of Maha Ledi Monastery in Monywa, 
Sagaing Diviaion; Aggamahapandita BHADD ANTA KUNDALA, ( Ashay 
Ledi Taik Monastery) Monywa; Aggamahapandita BHADDANTA JOTIKA, 
(Myoma Shwegu Taik Monastery) Monywa; Dvipitakadhara Dvipitakovida 
Aggamahapandita LEDI BHADDANTA JAGARABHIVAMS A, presid- 
ing sayadaw of Kalaywa Tawya Sarthintaik Monastery on Nagalainggu Pa- 
goda Hillok in Yangon and principal of the Monastic Education School of 



Progress of Border Areas and National Races Department, Yangon, presid- 
ing sayadaw of Ledi Vipassana Centre at No-337A, Pyay Road, Sangyong, 
Yangon, and Joint Secretary of the State Sangha Maha Nayaka Committee, 
the Ledi Dfpani Propagation Society was established, which had since been 
joined by learned bhikkhus and lay scholars. 

THE SAYADAW'S WISH TO BE FULFILLED 

To have the Great Benefactor Ledi Sayadaw's wish fulfilled, and to 
have the following copies of Ledi treatises in English distributed for free by 
Vice-Chairman of Ledi Dfpani Propagation Society, Chairman of Ledi 
Kammatthariacariya Committee, Joint Secretary of State Sangha Maha 
Nayaka Committee, Ovadacariya Sayadaw of International Theravada Bud- 
dhist Tawya Monastery and of Ledi Vipassana Centre Aggamahapandita, 
Dvipitakadhara Dvipitakakovida Aggamahaganthavacakapandita Ledi 
Bhaddanta Jagarabhivamsa and would-be donors from inside and ouside of 
the country, in accordance with five objectives of the Fourth World Buddhist 
Summit, namely: 1) To enhance the friendship, mutual understading and co- 
operation among countries accepting the Buddhist faith; 2) To help the Bud- 
dhists maintain their faith and practice between themselves; 3) To spread the 
Buddhist education based on Pariyatti-scriptural learning; 4) To bring about 
a peaceful and prosperous world for hummankind from the Buddhist 
perpective; and 5) To propagate the Buddha's teachings in their original form 
internationally, the Ledi Dfpani Propagation Society has granted permission 
for printing of the said treatises (expressed in latest page on this book) to 
MOTHER AYEYARWADDY PUBLISHING HOUSE. 



Ledi Dipani Propagation Society 



CONTENTS 



page 



The most Venerable Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw v 

The English Translations vi 

The Venerable Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw vii 

Ledi Dlpani Propagation Society ix 

Contents xi 

Donors of this Dhamma Gift xx 

The Vipassand-Dipani 1 

The Three Vipallasa 1 

The Three Mannana 4 

The Two Abhinivesa 6 

The Two Bhumi or Stages 6 

The Two Gati 7 

Nakhasikha-Sutta 9 

Kanakacchapa-Sutta 10 

The Two Sacca or The Two Truths 12 

Twenty-Eight Kinds of Material Phenomena 15 

Fifty-Four Kinds of Mental Phenomena 16 

Consciousness 17 

Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 18 

Nibbana 25 

The Four Mahabhuta or The Four Great Essentials 26 

The Six Bases 26 

The Two Bhava or Sexes 27 

Jivita-Rupa or the Material Quality of Life 28 

Ahara-Rtipa or The Material Quality of Nutrition 28 

Gocara-Rupa or The Four Sense-Fields 28 

Akasa-Dhatu or The Material Quality of Limitation 29 

The Two Vinnatti-Rupa or Modes of Communications 29 

The Three Vikara-Rijpa or The Three Plasticities 30 

The Four Lakkhana-Rupa or the Four Salient Features 30 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

The Four Producers or Generators of Material Phenomena 32 

Causes or Origins 33 

The Two Abhinnana or The Two Super-Knowledges 36 

The Three Parifina 37 

Exposition of Tirana-Paririna 44 

Pahana-Parinna 56 

Patthanuddesa Dipani 61 

Hetu-Paccaya or The Relation by Way of Root 64 

Arammana-Paccaya or The Relation of Object 67 

Adhipati-Paccaya or The Relation of Dominance 69 

Anantara Paccaya or The Relation of Contiguity 74 

Samanantara-Paccaya or The Relation of Immediate Contiguity 76 

Sahajata-Paccaya or The Relation of Co-Existence 79 

Arinamanna-Paccaya or The Relation of Reciprocity 79 

Nissaya-Paccaya or The Relation of Dependence 80 

Upanissaya-Paccaya or The Relation of Sufficing Condition 82 

Purejata-Paccaya or The Relation of Pre-Existence 88 

Pacchajata-Paccaya or The Relation of Post-Existence 89 

Asevana-Paccaya or The Relation of Habitual Recurrence 90 

Kamma-Paccaya or The Relation of Kamma 92 

Vipaka-Paccaya or The Relation of Effect 94 

Ahara-Paccaya or The Relation of Food 95 

Indriya-Paccaya or The Relation of Control 97 

Jhana-Paccaya or The Relation of Jhana 99 

Magga-Paccaya or The Relation of Path 100 

Sarhpayutta-Paccaya or The Relation of Association 101 

Vippayutta-Paccaya or The Relation of Dissociation 102 

Atthi-Paccaya or The Relation of Presence 102 

Paccaya-Sabhago or The Synthesis of Relations 103 

The Synchrony of Relations 105 
Synchrony ot Relations in Consciousness Not Accompanied by Hetu 108 

Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral Class of Consciousness 110 

Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind 111 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities 113 

Sammaditthi Dipani 121 

Part I. Three Kinds of Wrong Views 121 

Refutation of Pubbekata-Hetu View 122 

Refutation of Issaranimmana View 123 

Refutation of Ahetuka View 125 

Three Wrong Views 126 

Refutation of Pubbekata-Hetu View 126 

Exposition of the World— 'Kammassaka' 129 

Three Great Spheres 131 

Exposition of 'Kammassaka, etc/ 137 

Part II. Refutation of Issaranimmana View 140 

Refutation of Ahetuka View 143 

Further Explanation of Kammassakata-Vada 145 

Exposition of Atta-Ditthi 150 
Benefits Derived From Total Destruction of Atta Ditthi 153 

Part III. Atta and Anatta 157 

Pictorial Ideas and Concept of Continuity 161 

Asamikatthena- Anatta 162 

Avasavattanatthena-Anatta 163 

Brief Exposition of Attaniya 163 

Five Kinds of Samma-Ditthi 166 

Example of an Iron Bowl 170 

How to Acquire Nama-Rupa-Pariggaha-Nana 173 

How to Attain Insight- Wisdom 175 

Niyama Dipani 177 

I. Of the Fivefold Niyama (Cosmic Order) 177 

II. Of the Two Standards of Truth 188 

III. Expositions of Great Periods of Time 192 

IV. Of Things Not Within the Range of Thought 198 
V. Expositions of the Three Worlds 208 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

VI. Expositions of Causal Genesis 221 

Dhamma-Niyama (a discussion) 234 

Note on Dhamma-Niyama 239 

Catusacca-Dipani 249 

Part One 

The Twelve Ayatana (bases) 249 

Eighteen Psycho-Physical Elements 250 

The Meaning of Characteristics of Truths 256 

The Burden of Dukkha in the Brahma World 258 

The Burden of Dukkha in Deva World 259 

The Burden of Dukkha in the Human World 261 

The Burden of Dukkha in the Lower Planes 263 
How Beings Have to Wander in the Round of Rebirths 268 

Part Two 272 

The Exposition of the Meaning of Samudaya-Sacca 272 

The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 275 



Bodhipakkhiya Dipani 285 

Translator's Preface 285 

Three Types of Individuals 288 

Necessary Conditions of Practice for Neyya and Padaparama 292 

Two Classes of Individuals 293 

Vijja (Knowledge) and Carana (Conduct) 295 

The Essential Point 297 

Order of Practice and Those Who Await the Next Buddha 299 

Loss of Opportunity to Attain the Seed oi Vijja Through Ignorance 

of the Vale of the Present Times 301 

Adhikara (Assiduous and Successful Practice) 302 

Dhammantaraya 304 

I. The Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma 306 

II. The Four Satipatthana 307 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

III. The Four Sammappadhana 316 

IV. The Four Iddhipada 333 
V. The Five Indriya 338 

VI. The Five Bala (or Balani) , 348 

VII. The Seven Sambojjhaiiga 356 
VIII. The Eight Maggahga 360 

IX. How to Practise the Bodhipakkhiya-Dhamma 368 

X. Heritage of the Sasana 369 



Maggariga Dipani 388 

Samma-Ditthi 388 

Kammassakata-Samma-Ditthi 389 

Samma-Sankappa 391 

Samma-Vaca 391 

Samma-Kammanta 391 

Samma-Ajiva 392 

Samma-Vayama 392 

Samma-Sati 393 

Samma-Samadhi 393 

Exposition of the Three Kinds of Samma-Ditthi 394 

Analysis of the Good and Bad Kamma 395 

The Result of Present Kamma 396 

The Result of Past Kamma 397 

Sabbe Satta Kammassaka 398 

Sabbe Satta Kammayoni 399 

Sabbe Satta Kammabandhu 400 

Sabbe Satta Kammappatisarana 400 

Exposition on Dasavatthuka Samma-Ditthi 405 
The Exposition of Right Understanding of The Four Noble Truths 412 

Right Understanding of The Truth About Suffering 412 

Oppression Through Kamma Activities 413 

Oppression Through Instability 413 

Oppression Through 111 of Suffering 413 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

Oppression Through Burning 413 
Right Understanding of The Truth About the Cause of Suffering 414 
Right Understanding of The Truth About the Cessation of Suffering 414 
Right Understanding of The Truth About the Real Path Leading 

to the Cessation of Suffering 414 

The Exposition of Right Thinking 415 

The Exposition of Right Speech 415 

The Exposition of Right Action 417 

The Exposition of Right Livelihood 418 

The Exposition of Right Effort 419 

The Exposition of Right Mindfulness 422 

Four Applications of Mindfulness 422 

The Exposition of Right Concentration 424 

Three Kinds of Vatta 425 

Interrelations Between Maggariga and Vatta 427 

The First, Second and Third Stage of Ditthi (Wrong Views) 427 

I-ness 428 

To the First Nibbana 428 

Match-Box, Match-Stick and Nitrous Surface 429 

Forming the Noble Eightfold Path into Three Groups 430 

To Destroy the Three Stages of Sakkaya-Ditthi 431 

How to Establish the Morality-Group of the Eightfold Path 431 

How to Take and Practise Ajivatthamaka Sila 431 

The Kinds of Nicca-Sila (Permanent Morality) 432 

Ingredients of the Seven Kinds of Wrong Doing 433 
How to Establish the Concentration-Group of the 

Noble Eightfold Path 435 

Anapana Practice 435 

Let Mindfulness Be Constant 436 

How Mental Restlessness Can Be Got Rid of 437 

When to Establish Pannakkhandha (Wisdom-Group) 437 

How to Establish the Wisdom-Group of the Eightfold Path 437 

'Increase'— Udaya; 'Decrease'— Vaya 439 

Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta 440 

Sakkaya-Ditthi* And the Head 440 



The Manuals of Buddhism 

page 

Know: Note: Think: See: 441 

Delusion 441 

Because They Do Not Understand 441 

Must Be Persistent 442 

To Become 'Bon-Sin-San' Individuals 443 
A Short Explanation of the Establishment of the 

Noble Eightfold Path 443 

Understanding Reality Whenever Contemplated 444 

Enjoying the Three Kinds of Happiness 444 

Alin-Kyan 446 

Five Kinds of Stark Ignorance and Five Kinds of Light 446 

Kamma-Sammoha and Kammassakatanana 446 

Not Understanding Kamma 447 

Not Understanding the Resultant of Kamma 447 

Kammassakata-Nana 448 

Understanding Kamma and Its Resultant 448 

The Light of the World 449 

Stark Ignorance of Dhamma and the Second Light 451 

Dhamma-Vavatthana-Nana 451 

Stark Ignorance of Causation and the Third Light 452 
Stark Ignorance of Three Characteristics of Life and the 

Fourth Light 455 

Nibbana-Pativedha-Nana 456 

Six Kinds of Dhatu (Elements) 457 

Analysis of Pathavi 460 

Proof by Means of Characteristics 462 

Analysis of Apo 465 

Analysis of Tejo 466 

Uttamapurisa Dipani 

Chapter One 468 

The Perfections Defined 469 

The Perfections Explained 478 



page 

Chapter two 501 

Seven Aspects of Materiality to be Perceived 501 

Seven Aspects of Feeling to be Perceived 519 

Seven Aspects of Perception to be Perceived 523 

Seven Aspects of Mental Formations to be Perceived 525 

Seven Aspects of Consciousness to be Perceived 529 

The Origin and Cessation of Mind-consciousness 539 

The Satisfaction and Danger of the Four Mental Aggregates 547 

The Danger of Impermanence in the Five Aggregates 555 

The Five Aggregates and the Four Noble Truths 561 

Chapter Three 562 

The Element of Deliverance 562 

The True Peace of Nibbana 566 

Chapter Four 569 

Two Types of Person 569 

Chapter Five 572 

How to be Mindful of the Noble Truths, etc. 572 

While Doing a Meritorious Deed 572 

Chapter Six 578 

The Five Maras 578 

Chapter Seven 590 

How to Practise the Three Refuges 590 

Chapter Eight 594 

The Four Types of True Buddhists 594 

Chapter Nine 598 

The Four Noble Truths Need to be Understood 598 

Some Difficult Points in Dependent Origination 619 

The Four Noble Truths Explained 629 

Chapter Ten 640 

An Exhortation Regarding the Greatest of Opportunities 640 

Anapana Dipani 

Request and Acceptance 65 1 

Exhortation to Practise and Strive for Spiritual Success 652 

Drift in Past Samsara Because of Unstable Mind 654 

Mindfulness of the Body before Tranquillity and Insight 658 

Why Mindfulness of Breathing Should Be Practised 660 

Mindfulness of Breathing Leads to Nibbana 662 

Posture for Meditation 663 



Page 

The First Tetrad 664 

The Method of the Commentary 667 

The Commentary Reconciled with the Sutta 673 

The Second Tetrad 677 

The Third Tetrad 679 

The Fourth Tetrad 680 

How the Foundations of Mindfulness are Fulfilled 68 1 

How the Enlightenment Factors are Fulfilled 683 

How the knowledge and Deliverance are Fulfilled 684 

How to Proceed to Vipassana 687 

Conclusion 695 
Appendix 

I. Five Questions on Kamma 697 

II. Anattanisamsa - A Concise Description of the Advantages 704 
Arising out of the Realisation of Anatta 

III. Tikas, Manuals, Essays, and Letters of the Venerable 711 

Ledi Sayadaw 

Index 714 





Donors of this Dhamma Gift from 

Union of Myanmar 

Yangon Division 

Mayangone Township 

Naga Hlainggu Pagoda Hillock Chief Abbot 

Kalaywa Tawya Sayadaw 

Joint Secretary of state Sangha Maha Nayaka committee 

Vice-Chairman of Ledi DfpanI Propagation Society 

Dvipitakadhara Dvipitakakovida 

Aggamahaganthavacakapandita Aggamahapandita 

BHADDANTA JAGARABHIVAMSA 

and 

Myanmar and abroad (2000) copies 





The Vipassana Dipani 

or 

The Exposition of 

Insight 

Honour to the Buddha 
The Three Vipallasa 

Vipallasa means hallucination, delusion, erroneous observation, or 
taking that which is true as being false, and that which is false as true. 
There are three kinds of vipallasa, to wit: 

1. sanfia-vipallasa: hallucination of perception; 

2. citta-vipallasa: hallucination of thought; 

3. ditthi-vipallasa: hallucination of views. 

Of these three, hallucination of perception is fourfold, thus: 

1. it erroneously perceives impermanence as 'permanence; 

2. impurity as purity; 

3. ill as good; and 

4. no-soul as soul. 

The same holds good with regard to the remaining two vipallasa, i.e. 
those of thinking and viewing. All these classifications come under the 
category of "This is mine!" "This is myself or living soul !" and will be 
made clear later. The three vipallasa may be illustrated respectively by 
the similies of the wild deer, the magician, and a man who has lost his 
way. 

This is the simile of the wild deer to illustrate the hallucination of 
perception. 

In the middle of a great forest a certain husbandman cultivated a piece 
of paddy land. While the cultivator was away, wild deer were in the 



2 The Vipassana-Dlpani 

habit of coming to the field and eating the young spikes of growing 
grain. So the cultivator put some straw together into the shape of a man 
and set it up in the middle of the field in order to frighten the deer away. 
He tied the straws together with fibres into the resemblance of a body, 
with head, hands and legs; and with white lime painting on a pot the 
lineaments of a human face, he set it on the top of the body. He also 
covered the artificial man with some old clothes such as a coat, and so 
forth, and put a bow and arrow into his hands. Now the deer came as 
usual to eat the young paddy, but approaching it and catching sight of 
the artificial man, they took it for a real one, were frightened and ran 
away. 

In this illustration, the wild deer had seen men before and retained in 
their memory the perception of the shape and form of men. In accord- 
ance with their present perception, they took the straw man for a real 
man. Thus their perception of it was an erroneous perception. The hal- 
lucination of perception is as here shown in this allegory of the wild deer. 
It is very clear and easy to understand. This particular hallucination 
is also illustrated in the case of a bewildered man who has lost his way 
and cannot make out the cardinal points, east and west, in the locality 
in which he is, although the rising and setting of the sun may be dis- 
tinctly perceived by anyone with open eyes. If the error has once been 
made, it establishes itself very firmly, and is only with great difficulty 
to be removed. There are many things within ourselves which we are 
always apprehending erroneously and in a sense the reverse of the truth 
as regards impermanance and no-soul. Thus through the hallucination 
of perception we apprehend things erroneously in exactly the same way 
that the wild deer take the straw man to be a real man even with their 
eyes wide open. 

Now for the simile of the magician to illustrate the hallucination of 
thought. 

There is a pretended art called magic by means of which when lumps 
of earth are exhibited in the presence of a crowd, all who look at them 
think they are lumps of gold and silver. The power of the magical art 
is such as to take from men their ordinary power of seeing and in its 
place put an extraordinary kind of sight. It can thus, for a time, turn 
the mind upside down, so to speak. When persons are in command of 
themselves they see lumps of earth as they are. But under the influence 



The Three Vipallisa 3 

of this magical art, they see the lumps of earth as lumps of gold and 
silver with all their qualities of brightness, yellowness, whiteness, and 
so forth. Thus, their beliefs, observations, or ideas, become erroneous. In 
the same way our thoughts and ideas are in the habit of wrongly taking 
false things as true and thus we delude ourselves. For instance, at night 
we are often deceived into thinking we see a man when it is really the 
stump of a tree that we are looking at. Or, on seeing a bush, we imag- 
ine we are looking at a wild elephant, or, seeing a wild elephant, take 
it to be a bush. 

In this world all our mistaken ideas as to what comes within the field 
of our observation are due to the action of the hallucination of thought, 
which is deeper and more unfathomable than that of perception, since 
it deludes us by making false things seem true. However, as it is not so 
firmly rooted as the latter, it can easily be removed by investigation or 
by searching into the causes and conditions of things. 

Now for the simile of the man who has lost his way to illustrate the 
hallucination of views. 

There was a large forest haunted by evil spirits, demons, who lived 
there building towns and villages. There came some travellers who were 
not acquainted with the roads through the forest. The demons created 
their towns and villages as splendidly as those of devas, or celestial 
beings, and themselves assumed the forms of male and female devas. 
They also made the roads as pleasant and delightful as those of the 
devas. When the travellers saw these, they believed that these pleasant 
roads would lead them to large towns and villages, and so, turning 
aside from the right roads, they went astray following the wrong and 
misleading ones, arriving at the towns of the demons and suffering 
accordingly. 

In this allegory, the large forest stands for the three worlds of kama- 
loka, rupa-loka and ariipa-loka. The travellers are all those who inhabit 
these worlds. The right road is right views, and the misleading road 
is wrong views. The right views here spoken of are of two kinds, 
namely, those that pertain to the world, and those pertaining to Enlight- 
enment. Of these two, the former is meant to connote this right view: 
"All beings are the owners of their deeds; and every deed, both moral 
and immoral, committed by oneself is one's own property and follows 
one throughout the whole long course of life", while the latter is meant 



4 The Vipassana-DIpani 

to connote the knowledge of the Doctrine of Causal Genesis, of the ag- 
gregates, of the ayatana (bases), and no-soul. Of these two views, the 
former is as the right road to the round of existences. The worlds of 
the fortunate (i.e. the abodes of human beings, devas, and Brahmas), 
are like the towns of good people. The erroneous views that deny moral 
and immoral deeds and their results or effects, and come under the names 
of natthika-ditthi, ahetuka-ditthi, and akiriya-ditthi, are like the wrong, 
misleading roads. The worlds of the unfortunate which are the abodes of 
the tortured, of animals, petas, and asiiras, are like the towns of the 
demons. The right view of knowledge which is one of the factors of 
Enlightenment, is like the right road that leads out of the round of 
existence. Nibbana is like the town of good people. The views "my 
body!" and "my soul!" are also like the wrong and misleading roads. 
The world comprising the abodes of human beings, devas, and Brahmas, 
or the ceaseless renewing of existences, is like the towns of the demons. 
The aforesaid erroneous views are known as the hallucinations, such 
being deeper and more firmly established than that of thought. 



The Three Mannana 

Mannana means fantasy, egotistic estimation, high imagination, or feign- 
ing to oneself that one is what one is not. Through nescience hallucina- 
tion arises and through hallucination fantasy arises. Fantasy is of three 
kinds, to wit: 

1. tanha-mannana: fantasy by lust (desire of the senses); 

2. mana-manriana: fantasy by conceit; 

3. ditthi-mannana: fantasy by error (in beliefs). 

Of these, "fantasy by lust" means the high imagination: "This is 
mine!", "This is my own!" in clinging to what in reality is not "mine" 
and "my own". In strict truth, there is no "I"; and as there is no "I", 
there can be no "mine" or "my own". Though indeed, it is the case 
that both personal and impersonal (external) objects are highly imagined 
and discriminated as "This is mine; that other thing is not mine," and 
"This is my own; that other thing is not my own". Such a state of 
imagination and fanciful discrimination is called "fantasy by lust". 



The Three Mannana 5 

Personal obejcts here means one's own body and organs. Impersonal or 
external objects means one's own relations, such as father, mother, and so 
forth, and one's own possessions. 

"Fantasy by conceit" means the high imagination of personal objects ex- 
pressed as "I", "I am". When it is supported or encouraged, so to speak, 
by personal attributes and impersonal objects, it becomes aggressively 
haughty and fantastically conceited. Here, personal attributes means 
vigour or plenitude of eyes, ears, hands, legs, virtue, intuition, know- 
ledge, power and so forth. Impersonal objects means plenitude of families, 
relations, surroundings, dwellings, possessions and so forth. 

"Fantasy by error" means over-estimation of personal objects as "my 
frame-work; my principle; my pith; my substance; my soul; my quin- 
tessence." In the expressions "earthen pots" and "earthen bowls", it 
is understood that earth is the substance of which these pots and bowls 
are made, and the very earth so made, so shaped, is again called pots 
and bowls. In the expressions "iron pots" and "iron bowls", and so forth, 
it is also understood that iron is the substance from which iron pots and 
bowls are made, and the very iron, so made, so shaped, is again called 
pots and bowls. In exactly the same way that in these instances earth 
or iron is the substance from which the vessels are made, so, assuming 
the element of extension, the earth-element which pertains to the per- 
sonality or the substance of living beings, of the "I", this fanciful estima- 
tion of the facts of the case arises: "The element of extension is the 
living being: the element of extension is the T." What is here said in 
connection with the element of extension is in like manner to be un- 
derstood in connection with the element of cohesion, the liquid element, 
and all other elements found in a corporeal existence. This over- 
estimation or fantastic imagination will be expounded at greater length 
further on. 

These three kinds of fantasy are also called the three gaha, or three 
holds, to indicate their power of holding tightly and firmly. Since also 
they multiply erroneous, mistaken actions which tend gradually but con- 
tinuously to increase past all limits and never incline to cease, they are 
also called three papanca or three multipliers. 



6 The Vipassana-Dipani 

The Two Abhiniresa 

Abhinivesa means strong belief set in the mind as firmly and immov- 
ably as doorposts, stone pillars, and monuments, so that it cannot be 
moved by any means or expenditure of effort. It is of two different 
kinds, to wit: tanhabhinivesa— firm belief induced by lust, and ditthi- 
bhinivesa— firm belief induced by error. 

Tanhabhinivesa means the firm and unshakable belief in what is 
not my own body, head, hands, legs, eyes and so forth, as being my 
own body, my own head and so forth, throughout a long succession of 
existences. 

Ditthibhinivesa means the firm and unshakable belief in the existence 
of the soul or self or separate life in a person or creature, which is 
held, in accordance with this belief, to be an unchanging supreme thing 
that governs the body. These two kinds of belief are also called tanha- 
nissaya and ditthinissaya respectively. They may also be called the two 
great reposers upon the five aggregates, and on body-and-mind; or 
as the two great resting-places of puthujjanas or ordinary men of the 
world. 

The Two Bhumi or Stages 

Bhiimi means the stage where all creatures find their footing, generate 
and grow. It is of two kinds, to wit: puthujjana-bhumi and ariya-bhumi. 

Puthujj ana- bhiimi is the stage of a puthujjana, an ordinary or normal 
being, and, speaking in the sense of ultimate truth, it is nothing but the 
hallucination of views. All creatures of the ordinary worldly kind live 
in the world making this ditthi-vipallasa or erroneous view their resting 
place, their main support, their standing ground: "There is in me or in 
my body something that is permanent, good and essential." 

The ditthi-mafmana or fantasy through error, the ditthi-gaha or erro- 
neous hold, the ditthi-papanca or multiplier of error, and the ditthi-abhini- 
vesa or strong belief induced by error, are also the landing stages, the 
supports, the resting places, and the standing grounds of all puthujjanas. 
Hence they will never be released from the state or existence of a pu- 
thujjana, so long as they take their firm stand on the ground of the said 
many-titled error. 



The Two Gati 7 

As to the ariya-bhumi, it is the state of an ariya, a noble and sanctified 
being, in whom hallucination is eradicated It is, speaking in the ultimate 
sense, nothing but this right view, this right apprehension, the right 
understanding: "There is in me or in my body nothing permanent, 
good, and essential". As an ariya lives making right view his main 
footing, this right view may be called the stage of the ariya. Upon 
the attainment of this right view, a being is said to have transcended 
the puthujjana-bhumi, and to have set foot on the ariyan stage. 

Among the innumerable ordinary beings (puthujjanas) who have been 
treading the ground of puthujjanaship during countless existences that 
have no known beginning, if a certain person trying to eradicate the 
hallucination of error to implant the right view within himself on a 
certain day succeeds in his attempts, he is said to have set foot that 
self -same day upon the ground of the ariya, and to have become an 
ariya, that is, a sanctified being. Even if there should remain the hal- 
lucinations of mind and perception in some of the ariyas, they would 
not commit such evil deeds as would produce for them evil effects in 
the worlds of misfortune, for they have eradicated the weighty halluci- 
nation of error. The two remaining hallucinations would merely enable 
them to enjoy such worldly pleasures as they have lawfully earned. 



The Two Gati 

Gati means transmigration. (Here it does not mean that 'transmigra- 
tion of soul', so called, which is current in non-Buddhist philosophies. I 
have adopted the word "transmigration" for gati which literally means 
"going", merely in order to indicate the idea while dealing with it from 
the standpoint of Buddhist philosophy.) It is the change of existences. It 
is of two kinds: puthujjana-gati and ariya-gati. 

Of these two, the former is the transmigration of the ordinary person 
which is vinipatana or dispersive, that is to say, one cannot transmigrate 
into whatever kind of existence one might wish, but is liable to fall 
into any one of the 31 kinds of abodes or existences, according as one is 
thrown by one's past kamma. Just as, in the case of the fall of a 
coconut or of a palm-fruit from a tree, it cannot be ascertained before- 
hand where it will rest, so also in the case of the new existence of a 



8 The Vipassana-DIpanl 

puthujjaha after his death, it cannot be ascertained beforehand whereunto 
he will transmigrate. Every creature that comes into life is inevitably- 
laid in wait for by the evil of death, and after his death he is also sure 
to fall by "dispersion" into any existence. Thus two great evils of death 
and dispersion are inseparably linked to every being born. 

Of these two, "dispersion of life" after death is worse than death, for 
the four realms of misery down to the great Avici Hell, stand wide open 
to a puthujjana who departs from the abode of men, like space without 
any obstruction. As soon as the term of life expires, he may fall into 
any of the niraya or realms of misery. Whether far or near, there is 
no intervening period of time. He may be reborn as an animal, as a 
peta, a wretched shade, or as an asura or titan, an enemy of Sakka 
the king of the gods, in the wink of an eye. The like holds good if 
he dies out of any of the upper six realms of the kamavacara devas. 
But when he expires from the worlds of rupa-loka and ariipa-loka, there 
is no direct fall into the four realms of misery, but there is a halt of one 
existence either in the abjde of men or in those of devas, wherefrom 
he may fall into the four worlds of misery. 

Why do we say that every being fears death? Because death is fol- 
lowed by dispersion to any sphere of existence. If there were no dis- 
persion as regards existence after death, and one could take rebirth in 
any existence one chooses, no one would fear death so much, although, 



The All 

'Brethren, I will teach you the All. Do you listen to it. And 
what, brethren, is the All? 

'It is eye and visible object; ear and sound; nose and scent; 
tongue and taste; body and tangibles; mind and ideas. This, brethren, 
is called the All. 

'Now, brethren, he who should say, "Rejecting this All, I will 
proclaim some other All," such might be the substance of his talk, 
but when questioned he would not be able to make good his boast, 
and he would come by disappointment besides. What is the cause 
of that ? Because, brethren, it would be beyond his power to do so/ 

S. N. iv. 15. 



Nakhasikha-Sutta 9 

to be sure, sometimes there may be thirst for death when a being after 
living a considerable length of time in one existence, desires removal to 
a new one. 

By way of showing how great is the dispersion of existence which is 
called puthujjana-gati, the Nakhasikha and Kanakacchapa Suttas may 
be cited. However, only an outline of each will here be produced. 

Nakhasikha-Sutta. At one time the Buddha, showing them some dust 
which he had taken upon the tip of his fingernail, addressed the di- 
sciples thus: "If, Bhikkhus, these few grains of dust upon my finger- 
nail and all the dust in the universe were compared in quantity, which 
would you say was less, and which more?" The disciples replied, "Lord, 
the dust on your fingernail is less, and that of the universe is more. 
Surely, Lord, the dust on your fingernail is not worthy of mention in 
comparison with the dust of the universe." Then the Buddha continued: 
"Even so, Bhikkhus, those who are reborn in the abodes of men and 
devas whence they have expired, are very few even as the few grains 
of dust on my fingernail; and those who are reborn in the four realms 
of misery are exceedingly many, even as the dust of the great universe. 
Again, those who have expired from the four miserable worlds and are 
reborn in the abodes of men and devas are few even as the grains of 
dust on my fingernail, and those who are repeatedly reborn in the four 
miserable worlds are innumerable, even as the grains of dust of the great 
universe." 

What has just been said is the substance of the Nakhasikha-Sutta. But, 
to say nothing of the beings of all the four realms of misery, the crea- 
tures that inhabit the four great oceans alone will suffice to make evident 
how great is the evil of vinipatana-gati, that is, the dispersion, the 
variety of possible kinds of existence after death. 



'The way, Cunda, to get quite and rid of those false views 
and of the domains in which they arise and crop up and obtain, is 
by seeing with right comprehension that there is no 'mine', no 
'this is I\ no 'this is myself'." 

Sallekha-Sutta 



10 The Vipassana-DipanI 

Kanakacchapa-Sutta. At one time the Buddha addressed the disciples 
thus: "There is, Bhikkhus, in the ocean a turtle, both of whose eyes 
are blind. He plunges into the water of the unfathomable ocean and 
swims about incessantly in any direction wherever his head may lead. 
There is also in the ocean the yoke of a cart which is ceaselessly floating 
about on the surface of the water, and is carried away in all directions 
by tide, current and wind. Thus these two go on throughout an incalcu- 
lable space of time. Perchance it happens that in the course of time the 
yoke arrives at the precise place and time where and when the turtle 
puts up his head, and yokes on to it. Now, Bhikkhus, is it possible 
that such a time might come as is said ? " "In ordinary truth, Lord," 
replied the Bhikkhus, "it is impossible, but time being so spacious, and 
an aeon lasting so long, it may be admitted that perhaps at some time 
or other it might be possible for the two to yoke together, as said, if the 
blind turtle lives long enough, and the yoke does not tend to rot and 
break up before such a coincidence comes to pass." 

Then the Buddha said, "0 Bhikkhus, the occurrence of such a strange 
thing is not to be counted a difficult one, for there is still a greater, a 
hundred times, a thousand times more difficult than this lying hidden 
from your knowledge. And what is this? It is, Bhikkhus, the obtain- 
ing of the opportunity of becoming a man again by a man who has 
expired and is reborn once in any of the four realms of misery. The 
occurrence of the yoking of the blind tortoise is not worth thinking of 
as a difficult occurrence in comparison therewith, because those who 
perform good deeds and abstain from doing bad alone can obtain the ex- 
istence of men and devas. The beings in the four miserable worlds can- 
not discern what is virtuous and what vicious, what good and what bad, 
what moral and what immoral, what meritorious and what demeritor- 
ious, and consequently they live a life of immorality and demerit, tor- 
menting one another with all their power. Those creatures of the niraya 
and peta abodes in particular, live a very miserable life on account of 
punishments and torments which they experience with sorrow, pain and 
distress. Therefore, Bhikkhus, the opportunity of being reborn in the 
abode of men is a hundred times, a thousand times harder to obtain than 
the encountering of the blind turtle with the yoke." 

According to this Sutta, why those creatures who are born in the 
miserable planes are far from human existence is because they never 



Kagakacchapa-Sutta 11 

look up but always look down. And what is meant by looking down? 
The ignorance in them by degrees becomes greater and stronger from 
one existence to another; and as the water of a river always flows down 
to the lower plains, so also they are always tending towards the lower 
existences, for the ways towards the higher existences are closed to them, 
while those towards the lower existences are freely open. This is the 
meaning of "looking down". Hence, from this story of the blind turtle, 
the wise apprehend how great, how fearful, how terribly perilous are 
the evils of the puthujjana-gati, i.e. the "dispersion of existence". 

What has been said is concerning the puthujjana-gati. Now what is 
ariya-gati ? It is deliverance from the dispersion of existence after death. 
Or it is the disappearance of that "dispersion of existence" which is con- 
joined with the destiny of inevitable death in every existence". It is also 
the potentiality of being reborn in higher existences or in existences ac- 
cording to one's choice. It is also not like the fallof coconuts from trees, 
but it is to be compared to birds which fly througn the air to whatsoever 
place or tree on which they may wish to perch. Those men, devas and . 
Brahmas who have attained the ariyan state, can get to whatever better 
existence, i.e. as men, devas, Brahmas, they may wish to be reborn into, 
when they expire from the particular existence in which they have at- 
tained such ariyan state. Though they expire unexpectedly without 
aiming to be reborn in any particular existence, they are destined to be 
reborn in a better or higher existence, and at the same time are entirely 
free from rebirth into lower and miserable existences. Moreover, if they 
are reborn again in the abode of men, they never become of the lower 
or poorer classes, nor are they fools or heretics, but become quite other- 
wise. It is the same in the abodes of devas and Brahmas. They are en- 
tirely set free from the puthujjana-gati. 

What has been said is concerning the course of ariya. Now we will 
explain the two gati side by side. When a man falls from a tree he 
falls like a coconut because he has no wings with which to fly in the 
air. In precisely the same way when men, devas and Brahmas who 
are putthujjana, riveted to the hallucination of wrong views and having 
no wings of the Noble Eightfold Path to make the sky their resting 
place, transmigrate after the dissolution of their present bodies into new 
ones. They fall tumbling into the bonds of the evils of dispersion. In this 
world ordinary men who climb up very high trees fall tumbling to the 



12 The Vipassana-Dipani 

ground when the branches which they clutch or try to make their rest- 
ing place break down. They suffer much pain from the fall, and some- 
times death ensues because they have no other resting places but the 
branches, neither have they wings wherewith to fly in the air. It is the 
same with men, devas and Brahmas who have the hallucination of 
wrong views. When their resting place of wrong views as regards self 
is broken down, they fall tumbling into the dispersion of existence, for their 
resting places are only their bodies; and they have neither such a resting 
place as Nibbana, nor such strong wings as the Noble Eightfold Path 
to support them. As for the birds, though the branches they rest on may 
break, they never fall, but easily fly through the air to any other tree, 
for the branches are not their permanent resting places but only tem- 
porary ones. They entirely rely on their wings and the air. In the same 
way, men, devas and Brahmas who have become ariya and are freed 
from the hallucination of wrong views, neither regard their bodies as 
their atta or self, nor rely upon them. They have in their possession 
permanent resting places, such as Nibbana which is the entire cessation 
of all tumbling existence. They also possess the very mighty wings of 
the Noble Eightfold Path which are able to bear them to better ex- 
istences. 

What has been said is concerning the distinction between the two 
gati, i.e. the puthujjana-gati and the ariya-gati. 

The Two Sacca or The Two Truths 

Sacca or Truth is the constant faithfulness or concordance of the term 
which names a thing, to or with that thing's intrinsic nature. It is of 
two kinds, to wit: 

1. sammuti-sacca: conventional or relative truth; 

2. paramattha-sacca: ultimate Truth. 

Of the two, conventional truth is the truthfulness of the customary 
terms used by the great majority of people, such as "self exists", "a 
living soul exists", "men exist", "devas exist", "Sakkas exist", "elephants 
exist", "head exists", and so on. This conventional truth is the opposite 
of untruth, and so can overcome it. It is not a lie or an untruth when people 
say: "There probably exists an immutable, permanent, one continuous 
self or living soul which is neither momentarily rising nor passing away 



The Two Saccas 13 

throughout one existence", for this is the customary manner of speech 
of the great majority of people who have no intention whatever of deceiv- 
ing others. But according to ultimate truth, it is reckoned a vippallasa or 
hallucination which erroneously regards impermanent as permanent and 
non-self as self. So long as this erroneous view remains undestroyed, one 
can never escape from the evils of samsara, the wheel of life. All of 
the foregoing alike holds good when people say "a person exists", and so 
on. 

Ultimate truth is the absolute truthfulness of assertion or negation in full 
and complete accordance with what is actual, the elementary, fundamental 
qualites of phenomena. Here stating such truth in affirmative form, one 
may say; "the element of solidity exists", "the element of extension 
exists", "the element of cohesion exists", "the element of kinetic energy 
exists", "mind exists", "consciousness exists", "contact, feeling and per- 
ception exist", "material aggregates exist", and so on. And expressing 
such truth in a negative form, it can be said "no self exists", "no liv- 
ing soul exists", "no person exists", "no being exists", "neither does an 
elephant exist", "nor do hands, nor legs, nor any members of the body 
exist", "neither does a man exist nor a deva", and so on. In saying here 
"no self exists", "no living soul exists", we mean that there is no such 
ultimate entity as a self or living soul which persists unchanged during 
the whole term of life, without momentarily coming to be and passing 
away. In the expression "no being exists", and so forth, what is meant 
is that nothing actually exists but material and mental elements. These 
elements are neither persons nor beings, nor men, nor devas, etc. There- 
fore there is no separate being or person apart from the elements. The 
ultimate truth is the diametrical opposite of the hallucination, and so can 
confute it. One who is thus able to confute or reject the hallucination 
can escape from the evils of samsara, the evolution of life. 

According to conventional truth, a person exists, a being exists, a person 
or a being continually transmigrates from one existence to another in the 
ocean of life. But according to ultimate truth, neither a person nor a being 
exists and there is no one who transmigrates from one existence to another. 
Here, it may be asked: "Do not these two truths seem to be as poles 
asunder?" Of course they seem to be so. Nevertheless, we may bring 
them together. Have we not said "according to conventional truth" and 
"according to ultimate truth" ? Each kind of truth accordingly is truthful 



14 The Vipassana-Dlpani 

as regards its own mode of expression. Hence if one man should say 
that there exists a person or a being according to conventional truth, 
the other to whom he speaks ought not to contradict him, for these con- 
ventional terms describe what apparently exists. And likewise, if the 
other says that there exists neither a person nor a being, according to 
ultimate truth, the former ought not to deny this, for in the ultimate 
sense, material and mental phenomena alone truly exist and in strict 
reality they know no person or being. For example, men dig up lumps 
of earth from certain places, pound them into dust, knead this dust with 
water into clay, and from this clay make various kinds of useful pots, 
jars, and cups. Thus there exist various kinds of pots, jars and cups in 
the world. Now when discussion takes place on this subject, if it were 
asked "are there earthen pots and cups in this world?" the answer, 
according to conventional truth, should be given in the affirmative, and 
according to the ultimate truth, in the negative, since this kind of truth 
admits only the positive existence of the earth out of which the pots 
and so forth were made. 

Of these two answers, the former requires no explanation inasmuch as 
it is an answer according to the established usage, but as regards the latter, 
some explanation is needed. In the objects that we called "earthen pots" 
and "earthen cups", what really exists is only earth, not pots nor cups, in 
the sense of ultimate truth, because the term "earth" applies properly 
not to pots and cups but to actual substantial earth. There are also pots 
and cups made of iron, brass, silver, and gold. These cannot be called 
earthen pots and cups, since they are not made of earth. The terms 
"pots" and "cups" also are not terms descriptive of earth, but of ideas 
derived from the appearance of pots and cups, such as their circular or 
spherical shape and so on. This is obvious, because the terms "pots" 
and "cups" are not applied to the mere lumps of earth which have no 
shape or form of pots and cups. Hence it follows that the term "earth" 
is not a term descriptive of pots and cups, but of real earth, and also 
the terms "pots" and "cups" are not terms descriptive of earth but of 
pictorial ideas (santhana-pannati) which have no separate elementary 
substance other than the dust of clay, but are mere conceptions present- 
ed to the mind by the particular appearance, form, and shape of the 
worked- up clay. Hence the negative statement according to ultimate 



Twenty-Eight Kinds of Materiality 15 

truth, namely, that "no earthen pots and cups exist" ought to be accept- 
ed without question. 

Now we come to the analysis of things in the ultimate sense. Of the 
two kinds of ultimate phenomena, material and mental, as mentioned 
above, the former is of twenty-eight kinds: 

I. The four great essential elements: 

1. the element of solidity 

2. the element of cohesion, or the holding, the fluid 

3. the element of kinetic energy 

4. the element of motion. 

II. The six bases: 

5. the eye base 

6. the ear base 

7. the nose base 

8. the tongue base 

9. the body base 

10. the heart base. 

HI. The two sexes: 

11. the male sex 

12. the female sex. 

IV. One species of material quality of life: 
13. the vital force. 

V. One species of material quality of nutrition: 

14. edible food 

VI. The four sense fields: 

15. visible form 

16. sound 

17. odour 

18. savour. 



16 The Vipassana-DJpani 

These eighteen species are called jatarupani or genetic material qua- 
lities, as they possess the power of production. 

VII. One species of material quality of limitation: 

19. the element of space. 

Vm. The two communications: 

20. intimation through the body 

21. intimation through speech. 

IX. The three plasticities: 

22. lightness 

23. pliancy 

24. adaptability. 

X. The four salient features: 

25. integration 

26. continuance 

27. decay 

28. impermanence or death. 

These last ten species are called ajatarupani or non-genetic material 
qualities, as they do not possess the power of production. 

Fifty-Four Kinds of Mental Phenomena 

There are 54 kinds of mental phenomena: 

citta: mind or consciousness; 

cetasika: mental properties or concomitants, fifty-two in number 

Nibbana: getting out of the circle of existences. 

[Nibbana is here reckoned as a mental phenomenon, not from the 
subjective, but from the objective point of view. Translator] Citta means 
the faculty of investigating an object (arammana) or the faculty of taking 
possession of an object, or the faculty of knowing an object, the faculty 
of being conscious of an object. 

Cetasikas are characteristics of consciousness, of mental properties born 
of mind, or concomitants of mind. 



Fifty-Four Kinds of Mental Phenomena 17 

Nibbana means freedom from every kind of infelicity. 

I. Consciousness 

Consciousness is divided into six classes: 

1. consciousness of sight 

2. " " sound 

3. " " smell 

4. " " taste 

5. " " touch 

6. " " mind. 

1. The consciousness arising at the eye-base is called the consciousness 
of sight, and has the function of seeing. 

2. The consciousness arising at the ear-base is called the conscious- 
ness of sound, and has the function of hearing. 

3. The consciousness arising at the nose-base is called the conscious- 
ness of smell, and has the function of smelling. 

4. The consciousness arising at the tongue-base is called the conscious- 
ness of taste, and has the function of tasting. 

5. The consciousness arising at the body-base is called the conscious- 
ness of touch, and has the function of touching. 

6. The consciousness arising at the heart-base is called consciousness 
of mind. In the arupa-loka, however, mind -consciousness arises without 
any base. Mind -consciousness is again subdivided into four kinds. 

a. kama-consciousness 

b. riipa-consciousness 

c. arupa-conxiousness 

d. lokuttara-consciousness. 

(a) Of these, kama-consciousness is that which lies within the jurisdiction 
of desire prevailing in kama-tanha and it is fourfold, thus: moral (kusa- 
la), immoral (akusala), resultant (vipaka), and ineffective (kiriya). 

(b) Riipa-consciousness is the jhanic or ecstatic mind which has become 
free from kama-desire but still remains within the jurisdiction of the 
desire prevailing in rupa-loka (riipa-tanha), and it is threefold: 



18 The Vipassana-DIpani 

moral, 

resultant, 

ineffective. 

(c) Ariipa-consciousness is also the jhanic or ecstatic mind which has be- 
come free from rupa-desire, but still remains within the jurisdiction of 
the desire prevailing in the ariipa-loka (ariipa-tanha) and it also is three- 
fold: 

moral, 

resultant, 

ineffective. 

(d) Lokuttara, or transcendental consciousness is the noble mind (ariya- 
citta) which has become free from the threefold desire, and has trans- 
cended the three planes, kama, rupa and arupa. It is of two kinds: 
noble consciousness in the Path, and noble consciousness in the Fruition. 

II. Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 

Mental properties are of 52 kinds. 

A. The seven common properties (sabba-cittaka), so called on account 
of being common to all classes of consciousness: 

1. phassa (contact) 

2. vedana (feeling) 

3. sanna (perception) 

4. cetana (volition) 

5. ekaggata (concentration of mind) 

6. jivita (psychic life) 

7. manasikara (attention). 

B. The six particulars (pakinnaka) so called because they invariably 
enter into composition with consciousness: 

1. vitakka (initial application) 

2. vicara (sustained application) 

3. viriya (effort) 

4. piti (pleasurable interest) 

5. chanda (desire-to-do) 

6. adhimokkha (deciding). 



Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 19 

The above thirteen kinds (A) and (B) are called mixtures (vimissaka), 
or better, as rendered by Shwe Zan Aung, "un-morals", as they are 
common to both moral and immoral consciousness in composition. 

C. The fourteen immorals (papa-jati): 

1. lobha (greed) 

2. dosa (hate) 

3. moha (dullness) 

4. ditthi (error) 

5. mana (conceit) 

6. issa (envy) 

7. macchariya (selfishness) 

8. kukkucca (worry) 

9. ahirika (shamelessness) 

10. anottappa (recklessness) 

11. uddhacca (distraction) 

12. thina (sloth) 

13. middha (torpor) 

14. vicikiccha (perplexity). 

D. The twenty-five morals (kalayanajatika): 

1. alobha (disinterestedness) 

2. adosa (amity) 

3. amoha (reason) 

4. saddha (faith) 

5. sati (mindfulness) 

6. hiri (modesty) 

7. ottappa (discretion) 

8. tatramajjhattata (balance of mind) 

9. kayapassaddhi (composure of mental properties) 

10. cittapassaddhi (composure of mind) 

11. kayalahuta (buoyancy of mental properties) 

12. cittalahuta (buoyancy of mind) 

13. kayamuduta (pliancy of mental properties) 

14. cittamuduta (pliancy of mind) 

15. kayakammaiifiata (adaptability of mental properties) 

16. cittakammannata (adaptability of mind) 



20 The VipassanS-DTpam 

17. kayapagunnata (proficiency of mental properties) 

18. cittapagunnata (proficiency of mind) 

19. kayujukata (rectitude of mental properties) 

20. cittujukata (rectitude of mind) 

21. sammavaca (right speech) 

22. sammakammanta (right action) 

23. samma-ajiva (right livelihood) (The immediately preceding three 
[21, 22, 23] are called the three abstinences.) 

24. karuna (pity) 

25. mudita (appreciation) (These last two are called the two illimita- 
bles or appamanfia.) 

1. Phassa means contact, and contact means the faculty of pressing 
the object (arammana), so as to cause the agreeable or disagreeable sap 
(so to speak) to come out. So it is the main principle or prime mover 
of the mental properties in the uprising. If the sap cannot be squeezed 
out, then all objects (arammana) will be of no use. 

2. Vedana means feeling, or the faculty of tasting the sapid flavour 
thus squeezed out by the phassa. All creatures are sunk in this vedana. 

3. Sanria means perception, or the act of perceiving. All creatures 
become wise through this perception, if they perceive 'things with suffi- 
cient clearness in accordance with their own ways, custom, creed, and so 
forth. 

4. Cetana means volition or the faculty of determining the activities of 
the mental concomitants so as to bring them into harmony. In the com- 
mon speech of the world we are accustomed to say of one who super- 
vises a piece of work that he is the performer or author of the work. 
We usually say: "Oh, this work was done by so-and-so", or "This is 
such-and-such a person's great work". It is somewhat the same in con- 
nection with the ethical aspects of things. The volition (cetana) is called 
the doer (kamma), as it determines the activities of the mental concom- 
itants, or supervises all the actions of body, of speech, and of mind. As 
every kind of prosperity in this life is the outcome of the exertions put 
forth in work performed with body, with speech and with mind, so also 
the issues of new life or existence are the results of the volition (asyn- 
chronous volition is the name given to it in the Patthana, and it is known 



Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 21 

by the name of kamma in the actions of body, speech and mind) performed 
in previous existences. Earth, water, mountains, trees, grass and so forth, 
are all born of utu, the element of warmth, and they may quite properly be 
called the children or the issue of the warmth-element. So also all living 
creatures may be called the children or the issue of volition, or what is 
called kamma-dhatu, as they are all born through kamma. 

5. Ekaggata means concentration of mind. It is also called right con- 
centration (samadhi). It becomes prominent in the jhanasamapatti, the 
attainment of the supernormal modes of mind called jhana. 

6. Jivita means the life of mental phenomena. It is pre-eminent in 
preserving the continuance of mental phenomena. 

7. Manasikara means attention. Its function is to bring the desired 
object into view of consciousness. 

These seven factors [1-7] are called sabbacittika, universal properties, as 
they always enter into the composition of all consciousness. 

8. Vitakka means the initial application of mind. Its function is to 
direct the mind towards the object of research. It is also called sankappa 
(aspiration), which is of two kinds: sammasankappa or right aspiration, 
micchasankappa or wrong aspiration. 

9. Vicara means sustained application. Its function is to concentrate 
upon objects. 

10. Viriya means effort of mind in actions. It is of two kinds: right 
effort and wrong effort. 

11. Piti means pleasurable interest of mind, or buoyancy of mind or 
the bulkniness of mind. 

12. Chanda means desire-to-do, such as desire-to-go, desire-to-stay, de- 
sire-to-speak, and so forth. 

13. Adhimokkha means decisions, or literally, apartness of mind for the 
object; that is, it is intended to connote the freedom of mind from the 
wavering state between the two courses: "Is it?" or "Is it not?" 

These last six mental properties [8-13] are not common to all classes of. 
consciousness, but severally enter into their composition. Hence they are 
called pakinnaka or particulars. They make thirteen if they are added 



22 The Vipassana-DIpani 

to the common properties, and both taken together are called vimissaka 
(mixtures) as they enter into composition both with moral and immoral 
consciousness. 

14. Lobha ethically means greed, but psychically it means agglutination 
of mind with objects. It is sometimes called tanha (craving), sometimes 
abhijjha (covetousness), sometimes kama (lust), and sometimes raga 
(sensual passion). 

15. Dosa in its ethical sense is hate, but psychically it means the violent 
striking of mind at the object. It has two other names: patigha (re- 
pugnance), and byapada (ill-will). 

16. Moha means dullness or lack of understanding in philosophical 
matters. It is also called avijjha (nescience), annana (not-knowing) and 
adassana (not-seeing). 

The above three just mentioned [14-16] are called the three akusalamula, 
or the three main immoral roots, as they are the sources of all immoralities. 

17. Ditthi means error or wrong seeing in matters of philosophy. It 
takes impermanence for permanence, and non-soul for soul, and moral 
activities for immoral ones, or it denies that there are any results of 
action, and so forth. 

18. Mana means conceit or wrong estimation. It wrongly imagines 
the name-and-form (nama-riipa) to be an "I", and estimates it as noble 
or ignoble according to the caste, creed, or family, and so on, to which 
the person belongs. 

19. Issa means envy, or disapprobation, or lack of appreciation, or 
absence of inclination to congratulate others upon their success in life. 
It also means a disposition to find fault with others. 

20. Macchariya means selfishness, illiberality, or unwillingness to share 
with others. 

21. Kukkucca means worry, anxiety, or undue anxiousness for what 
has been done wrongly, or for right actions that have been left undone. 
There are two wrongs in the world, namely, doing sinful deeds and 
falling to do meritorious deeds. There are also two ways of representing 
this: "I have done sinful acts", or "I have left undone meritorious acts, 
such as charity, virtue, and so forth." "A fool always invents plans 



Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 23 

after all is over", runs the saying. So worry is of two kinds, with regard 
to forgetfulness and. with regard to viciousness, to sins of omission and 
sins of commission. 

22. Ahirika means shamelessness. When a sinful act is about to be 
committed, no feeling of shame such as "I will be corrupted if I do 
this", or "Some people and devas may know this of me", arise in him 
who is shameless. 

23. Anottappa means utter recklessness as regards such consequences, 
as attanuvadabhaya (fear of self- accusations like: "I have been foolish", 
"I have done wrong", and so forth), paranuvadabhaya (fear of accusa- 
tions by others), dandabhaya (fear of punishments in the present life in- 
flicted by the rulers), apayabhaya (fear of punishments to be suffered 
in the realms of misery). 

24. Uddhacca means distraction as regards an object. 

25. Thina means slothfulness of mind, that is, the dimness of the mind's 
consciousness of an object. 

26. Middha means slothfulness of mental properties that is, the dim- 
ness of the faculties of each of the mental properties, such as contact, 
feeling and so forth. 

27. Vicikiccha means perplexity, that is, not believing what ought to 
be believed. 

The above fourteen kinds [14-27] are called pfipajati or akusala-dhamma. 
In fact, they are real immoralities. 

28. Alobha means disinterestedness of mind as regards an object. It is 
also called nekkhama-dhatu (element of abnegation or renunciation), and 
anabhijha (liberality). 

29. Adosa, or amity in its ethical sense, means inclination of mind in 
the direction of its object, or purity of mind. It is also called abyapada 
(peace of mind), and metta (loving-kindness). 

30. Amoha means knowing things as they are. It is also called nana 
(wisdom), pafrna (insight), vijjha (knowledge), sammaditthi (right view). 

These three [28-30] are called the three kalayanamiilas or the three main 
moral roots as they are the sources of all moralities. 



24 The Vipassaaa-DIpani 

31. Saddha means faith in what Ought to be believed. This is also 
called pasada (transparence). 

32. Sati means constant mindfulness in good things so as not to forget 
them. It is also called dharana (retention), and utthana (readiness). 

33. Hiri means modesty which connotes hesitation in doing sinful acts 
through shame of being known to do them. 

34. Ottappa means discretion which connotes hesitation in doing sinful 
deeds through fear of self -accusation, of accusation by others, or of pun- 
ishments in spheres of misery (apayabhaya). 

35. Tatramajjhattata is balance of mind, that is to say, that mode of 
mind which neither cleaves to an object nor repulses it. This is called 
upekkha-brahmavihara (equanimity of the sublime abode in the category 
of brahmavihara; and upekkha-sambojjhanga (equanimity that pertains 
to the factors of Enlightenment) in the bojjhanga. 

36. Kayapassaddhi means composure of mental properties. 

37. Cittapassaddhi means composure of mind. By composure it is meant 
that the mental properties are set at rest and become cool, as they are 
free from the three immorals (papa-dhamma) which cause annoyance in 
doing good deeds. 

38. Kaya-lahuta means buoyancy of mental properties. 

39. Citta-lahuta means buoyancy of mind. By buoyancy it is meant 
that the mental properties become light, as they are free from the im- 
morals which weigh against them in the doing of good deeds. It should 
be explained in the same manner as the rest. 

40. Kaya-muduta means pliancy of mental properties. 

41. Citta-muduta means pliancy of mind. 

42. Kaya-kammannata means fitness for work of the mental properties. 

43. Citta-kammafinata means the fitness of the mind for work. 

44. Kaya-pagunnata means proficiency of mental properties. 

45. Citta-pagunnata means proficiency of mind. Proficiency here means 
skilfulness. 

46. Kayujukata means rectitude of mental properties. 

47. Cittujukata means rectitude of mind. 



Fifty-Two Kinds of Cetasika 25 

48. Samma-vaca means right speech, that is abstinence from the four- 
fold sinful modes of speech: lying, slandering, abusive language and idle 
talk. 

49. Samma-kammanta means right action, that is abstinence from the 
threefold sinful acts: killing, stealing, and unchastity. 

50. Samma-ajiva means right livelihood. 

These three (samma-vaca, samma-kammanta and samma-ajiva) are 
called the triple abstinences. 

51. Karuna means pity, sympathy, compassion or wishing to help 
those who are in distress. 

52. Mudita means appreciation of or congratulation upon or delight in 
the success of others. 

These two are respectively called karuna-brahmavihara and mudita- 
brahmavihara. They are also called appamanna (illimitables according 
to the definition "appamanesu sattesu bhava ti appamanna", that is, 
"appamanna is so called because it exists without limit among living 
beings.") 

Nibbana may be classified into three kinds: first Nibbana, second 
Nibbana and third Nibbana. 

Freeing or deliverance from the plane of misery is the first Nibbana. 

Freeing or deliverance from the plane of kama-loka is the second 
Nibbana. 

Freeing or deliverance from the planes of riipa-loka and arupa-loka 
is the third Nibbana. 

Consciousness one, mental properties fifty-two, Nibbana one, altogether 
make up fifty-four mental phenomena. Thus the twenty-eight material 



"Ceasing and abstaining from Evil, 
Refraining from intoxicating drink, 
Vigilance in righteous acts: 
This is the most auspicious Performance. 



Sutta-Nipdta 



26 The Vipassana-Dlpanl 

phenomena and 54 mental phenomena make up 82 ultimate things which 
are called ultimate facts. On the other hand, self, soul, creature, person 
and so forth, are conventional facts. 

The Four Mahabhuta or the Four Great Essentials 

Mahabhuta means to develop greatly, and are four in number: 

1. The element of extension is the element of earth, that is, the funda- 
mental principle or foundation of matter. It exists in gradations of 
many kinds, such as, hardness, more hardness, stiffness, more stiffness, 
softness, more softness, pliability, more pliability, and so on. 

2. The element of cohesion is the element of water, that is, the co- 
hesive power of material qualities whereby they form into mass or bulk 
or lump. There are apparently many kinds of cohesion. 

3. The element of heat is the element of fire, that is, the power to 
burn, to inflame, and to mature the material qualities. This maturative 
quality is of two kinds: the maturative quality of heat and the maturative 
quality of cold. 

4. The element of motion is the element of wind, that is, the power 
of supporting or resisting. It is of many kinds, such as supportive, re- 
sistive, conveying, vibratory, diffusive, and so on. From these four great 
elements all other forms of matter are derived or are born. Or, ex- 
pressed in another way, all matter is a combination, in one proportion 
or another, of these four elementary properties. 

The Six Bases 

Base is that where consciousness generates, arises, develops, or that 
whereupon it depends. 

5. The eye-base is the element of the sensorium within the eye : ball 
where consciousness of sight is generated, and the consciousness of sight 
connotes the power of seeing various kinds of colours, appearances, forms 
and shapes. 

6. The ear- base is the element of the sensorium within the organ of 
the ear where consciousness of sound is generated, and the consciousness 
of sound connotes the power of hearing various kinds of sound. 



The Two Bhava 27 

7. The nose-base is the element of the sensorium within the nose 
organ where consciousness of smell is generated, and the consciousness 
of smell connotes the power of smelling different kinds of odours. 

8. The tongue base is the element of the sensorium upon the surface 
of the tongue where consciousness of taste is generated, and the con- 
sciousness of taste connotes the power of tasting tastes of many kinds, 
such as sweet, sour, and so forth. 

9. The body-base is the element of the sensorium locating itself by 
pervading the whole body within and without from head to foot, where 
consciousness of touch is generated, and the consciousness of touch con- 
notes the power of feeling or sensing physical contacts. 

10. The heart-base is a kind of very fine, bright, subtle matter within 
the organ of the heart where mind -consciousness, comprising sixty-nine 
classes of the same in number is generated. 

From these six bases all classes of consciousness are generated and 
arise. 

The Two Bhava or Sexes 

Bhava means production or productive principle. 

11. The itthi-bhava or the female sex is a certain productive principle 
of matter which produces several different kinds of female appearances 
and feminine characteristics. 

12. The pum-bhava or the male sex is a certain productive principle 
of matter which produces several different kinds of male appearances 
and masculine characteristics. 

The two sexes respectively locate themselves in the bodies of male and 
female, like the body-base, pervading the entire frame, from the soles of 

"I have preached the truth without making any distinction between 
exoteric and esoteric doctrine; for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the 
Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher who keeps 
something back." 

Mahaparinibbana Sutta 



28 The Vipassana-Dlpani 

the feet to the top of the head within and without. Owing to their pre- 
dominant features, the distinction between masculinity and femininity is 
readily discerned. 

Jmta-Rupa or Material Quality of Life 

13. Jivita means life, that is, the vital force which controls the material 
qualities produced by kamma and keeps them fresh in the same way 
that the water of a pond preserves the lotus plant therein from decay 
and so informs them as to prevent them from withering. The common 
expressions of ordinary speech, "a being lives" or "a being dies" are de- 
scriptive merely of the presence or absence of this material quality of life. 
When it ceases forever with reference to a particular form, we say "a 
being dies", and we say "a being is living" so long as it continues to 
act in any particular form. This also locates itself by permeating the 
whole body. 

Ahara-Rupa or the Material Quality of Nutrition 

14. Ahara-rupa means the element of essential nutriment that chiefly 
nourishes or promotes the growth of material qualities. Just as the element 
of water that resides in earth or that falls from the sky, nourishes trees 
or plants or mainly promotes their growth or helps them to fecundate, 
develop and last long, so also this material quality of nutrition nourishes 
or mainly helps the four kinds of bodies or matter produced by the four 
causes, namely, kamma, mind, temperature and food, to fecundate and 
grow. It is the main supporter of the material quality of life, so that 
undertaking various kinds of work in the world for the sake of getting 
one's daily food, is called a man's living or livelihood. 

Gocara-Rupa or the Four Sense-Fields 

Gocara means sense-field or object of the five senses. 

15. The object "visible form" is the quality of colour or shape of 
various objects. 

16. The object "sound" is the quality of sound itself. 

17. The object "odour" is the quality of scent or smell. 



The Two Viiinatti-Rupa 29 

18. The object "savour" is the quality of savour or taste. Mention is 
not made here of touch or the tangible, as it consists in the great essen- 
tials or elements. It is of three kinds: pathavi-potthabba or extension 
tangible, tejo-potthabba or temperature tangible, vayo-potthabba or move- 
ment tangible. Counting in the tangible also we thus get five sense- 
fields in all. Of these, visible form is the object of eye, sound of ear, 
odour of nose, savour of tongue, and the tangible of body. 

Akasa-Dhatu or Material Quality of Limitation 

19. Akasa-dhatu means the element of space. In a heap of sand there 
is a space between each particle of sand. Hence we may say that there 
are as many spaces as there are particles of sand in the heap; and we 
can also distinguish the particles of sand from one another. When the 
heap is destroyed the particles of sand are scattered about, and the space 
enclosed between them disappears also. Similarly, in very hard lumps 
of stone, marble, iron, and metal, there are innumerable atoms and par- 
ticles of atoms which are called kalapa or groups. Into every finest, 
smallest particle of an atom there enters at least these following eight 
qualities of matter: the four essentials and colour, odour, savour, and 
nutritive essence. And each group is separated by the element of 
space which locates itself between them. Therefore there is at least as 
much of space as there is of the matter of the lump. It is owing to the 
existence of this space that lumps of stone and iron can be broken up, 
or cut into pieces, or pounded into dust, or melted. 

The Two Viiinatti-Rupa or Modes of Communications 

Vinnatti-riipa means mode of communication or sign employed to com- 
municate the willingness, intention, or purpose, of one person to the un- 
derstanding of another. 

20. Kaya-vinnatti is that peculiar movement of body by which one's 
purpose is made known to others. 

21. Vaci-vinnatti is that peculiar movement of sounds in speech by 
which one's purpose is made known to others. 

Those who cannot see the minds of others know the purpose, the in- 
tention, the willingness, of others through the use of these two modes 



30 The Vipassani-Dlpanl 

of communication or vinnatti-rupa. These two are employed not only in 
communicating one's purpose or intention to the understanding of another, 
but also in moving the parts of the body while walking, and so forth, 
according to one's own will, as also in learning by heart, reading to one- 
self, and so forth. 

The Three Vikara-Rupa or the Three Plasticities 

Vikara means the peculiar expression or distinctive condition of the 
jata-rupa, the genetic material qualities. 

22. Lahuta is the lightness of the material quality. 

23. Muduta is the pliancy of the material quality. 

. 24. Kammannata is the adaptability of the two media of communica- 
tion. When one of the four great essentials falls out of order and be- 
comes disproportionate to the rest in any parts of the body, these parts 
are not light as usual in applying themselves to some work, but tend to 
become heavy and awkward; they are not pliable as usual, but tend to 
become hard, coarse and rigid; they are not as adaptable as usual in 
their movements in accord with one's will, but tend to become difficult 
and strained. Likewise when the essentials are out of order, the tongue, 
the lips, are not adaptable according to the wish in speaking, but be- 
come firm and stiff. When the four great essentials are in good order 
and the parts of the body are in sound health, the matter of the body 
(riipa) is said to be in possession of these qualities of lightness, pliancy, 
and adaptability, which are called the three plasticities (vikara-rupa). 

The Four Lakkhana-Rupa or the Four Salient Features 

Lakkhana means salient feature or mark by means of which it is 
decisively known that all material and mental qualities are subject to 
impermanence. 

25. Upacaya-rtipa means both integration and continuance of integra- 
tion, of which two the former may be called acaya (initial integration) 
and the latter upacaya (sequent integration). 

26. Santati-riipa means continuance. From the cessation of sequent 
integration to the commencement of decay the phenomenon continues 



The Four Lakkhaija-Rupa 31 

without any increase or decrease. And such a continuous state of mater- 
ial phenomenon is called santati or pavatti (prolongation). The production 
(jati) of the groups of material qualities alone is described by the three 
names of acaya, upacaya and santati. 

27. Jarata is the state of growing old, of decline, of maturity, ripeness 
(in the sense of being ready to fall), decayedness, caducity, rottenness, 
or corruption. 

28. Aniccata means impermanence, death, termination, cessation, bro- 
kenness, or the state of disappearing. [It is our Ledi Sayadaw's style 
in writing to express an idea by means of as many synonymous terms 
as he can collect, and a translator, such as I, who has not fully attained 
the mastery of the language in which the treasures of Burmese literature 
are to be deposited, can with difficulty furnish the translation with a suf- 
ficient number of appropriate terms.] 

A plant has five periods, the acaya period, the upacaya period, the 
santati period, the jarata period, and the aniccata period. It is first 
generated, then grows up gradually or develops day by day, and after 
the cessation of growth, it stands for some time in the fully developed 
state. After that it begins to decay and at last it dies and disappears, 
leaving nothing behind. Here the primary generation of the material 
qualities is called the acaya period; the gradual growth or development, the 
upacaya period; and their standing in their fully developed state, the 
santati period. However, during these three periods there are momentary 
decays (khanika-jarata) and momentary deaths (khanika-aniccata), but 
they are not conspicuous. 

The declining of the plant is called jarata period. During the period 
of decline there are momentary births (khanika-jati) and momentary deaths 
(khanika-marana) but they are also inconspicuous. 

[The Commentator of the "Dhammasangani" in his " Athasalini" 
explains this by an illustration of a well dug out on the bank of a river. 
The first gushing out of water in the well, he says, is like the acaya of the 
material phenomenon; the flushing up or the gradual increasing or the 
rising up of water to the full, is like the upacaya; and the flooding is 
like the santati.] 

The death of the plant and the final disappearance of all its constituents 
is called the aniccata period. During what we call death there are also 



32 The Vipassana-DlpanI 

momentary births and decays but they are invisible. The five periods al- 
lotted to what is apparent to the view are shown here only in order to 
help one to grasp the idea of lakkhana-riipa. 

In a similar manner we may divide, in the life of a fruit tree, the 
branches, the leaves, the buds, the flowers, and the fruits into five periods 
each. A fruit can be divided into five periods thus: the first period of 
appearance, the second period of growth or development, the third period 
of standing, the fourth period of ripening and decaying, and the fifth 
peYiod of falling from the stem or total destruction or final disappearance. 

Just as we get five periods in the life of plants, so it is with all creatures 
and also with all their bodily parts, with their movements or bodily ac- 
tions, such as going, coming, standing, sitting, with their speech and with 
their thought. The beginning, the middle, and the end are all to be found 
in the existence of every material thing. 

The Four Producers or Generators of Material Phenomena 

There are four kinds of producers which produce material phenomena: 

1. kamma 

2. citta 

3. utu 

4. ahara. 

Kamma means moral and immoral actions committed in previous ex- 
istences. 

Citta means mind and mental concomitants existing in the present life. 

Utu means the two states of tejo-dhatu, the fire-element, i.e., heat 
(unha-tejo) and cold (sita-tejo). 

Ahara means the two kinds of nutritive essence, internal nutriment 
that one obtains from the time of conception and external nutriment that 
exists in edible food. 

Out of the twenty-eight species of material qualities, -the nine species, 
i.e., the six bases, two sexes, and life, are produced only by kamma. The 
two media of communications are produced only by citta. 

Sound is produced by citta and utu. The three plasticities are produc- 
ed by citta, utu, and ahara. Of the remaining thirteen, excluding jarata 
(decay) and aniccata (impermanence), the eleven— comprising the four 



Causes or Origins 33 

great essentials, nutriment, visible form, odour, savour, the element of 
space, integration, and continuance— are produced by the four causes. 
These eleven always appertain severally to the four classes of phenomena 
produced by the four causes. There are no phenomena that enter into 
composition without these. Material phenomena enter into composition 
with these, forming groups of eight, nine, and so forth, and each group 
is called rtipa-kalapa. 

As to the two salient features, decay and impermanence, they exclude 
themselves from the material qualities born of the four causes as they 
disorganise what has been produced. 

Causes or Origins 

Of these eighty-two ultimate things, Nibbana, inasmuch as it lies outside 
the scope of birth (jati), does not need any originator for its arising; neither 
does it need any cause for its maintenance since it also does not come 
within the range of decay and death (jara-marana). Hence Nibbana is un- 
conditioned and unorganized. But, with the exception of Nibbana, the eighty- 
one phenomena, both mental and material, being within the spheres of 
birth, decay and death, are conditioned and organized things. 

Among the four causes already dealt with in connection with the 
material qualities, kamma is merely an originator and citta (mind) is 
simply a stimulus. The physical body develops, stands, and is maintained 
by the power of the warmth -element called utu and by the power of the 
essence of nutriment. If the forces of the latter two come to an end, 
the forces of the former two also can no longer operate but cease simul- 
taneously. 

In the case of trees, for example, the seeds are only their origins. They 
grow, develop, and are maintained by means of the elements of earth 
and water. If these two principles fail them, the power of the seed also 
fails along with them. Here the physical body is like the tree; kamma 
is like the seed; the warmth- element, or what is called utu, is like the 
earth; the nutritive essence is like the rainwater, which falls regularly 
at proper seasons; and mind is like the atmosphere and the heat of the 
sun, both of which give support from outside. 

With regard to the causes of mind and mental properties, three things 
are needed for the arising of resultants; a past kamma, a base to depend 



34 The Vpiassana-Dfpani 

upon, and an object. The first is like the seed of the tree,, the basis is 
like the earth, and the object is like the rainwater. 

Two things are necessary for the arising of each of the mental phenomena 
of the morals, the immorals and the ineffectives: a base to depend upon, 
and an object. However, to be more detailed, full rational exercise of 
mind ( yoniso-manasikara) is needed for the morals, and defective irrational 
exercise of mind (ayoniso-manasikara) for the immorals. The ineffectives 
which have apperceptional functions have the same causes as the morals. 
As for the two classes of consciousness called 'turning towards', if 
they precede the morals they have the same causes as the morals, and 
if they precede the immorals they have the same causes as the immorals. 
Here yoniso-manasikara means proper exercise of reason, and ayoniso- 
manasikara means improper exercise of reason. These are the functions 
of the two classes of consciousness called avajjana, 'turning towards'. 
On seeing a man, if the manasikara be rationally utilized, moral con- 
sciousness arises; and if the manasikara be irrationally utilized, immoral 
consciousness arises. There is no particular object which purely" of itself 
will cause to arise only a moral consciousness, or only an immoral con- 
sciousness. The process of the mind may be compared to a boat of which 
the avajjana- citta or 'turning- towards- thought' is the helmsman. As the 
course of a boat lies entirely in the hands of the helmsman, so also the 
occurrence of the moral and the immoral consciousness lies entirely in 
the hands of avajjana 

What the seed is to the tree, that the manasikara is to the morals and 
the immorals. What the earth is to a tree, that their 'base' is to the 
morals and immorals. What rainwater is to a tree, that their 'object' is 
to the morals and immorals. 

We will now set forth the causes in another way. Each of the six 
classes of consciousness has four causes. For the arising of the con- 
sciousness of sight there is needed cakkhu-vatthu, ruparammana, aloka 
and manasikara. Of these, manasikara is the name of the avajjana- 
citta which turns the process of mind in the direction of the object of 
sight. Aloka means light. Unless there is light, the function of seeing 
will not take place, nor the process of cognition. Cakkhu-vatthu means 
eye-base; and ruparammana means object of sight, literally, form-object. 

For the arising of the consciousness of sound, there is needed sota- 
vatthu (ear-base), saddarammana (object of sound), akasa and manasikara. 



Causes or Origins 35 

Here akasa means the space through which sound is communicated to 
the ear. The function of hearing can take place only when it is present; 
the process of ear-door cognitions also occurs only when hearing takes 
place. 

For the arising of the consciousness of smell, there is needed ghana- 
vatthu (nose-base), gandharammana (object of smell), vata and manasikara. 
Here vata means the air in the nose or the inhaled air. If this is not 
present, odours cannot come into contact with the nose-base, and con- 
sequently the function of smelling and the nose-door cognition cannot 
take place. 

For the arising of the consciousness of taste, there is needed jivha- 
vatthu (tongue-base), rasarammana (object of taste), apaand manasikara. 
Here apa means wetness of the tongue. If the tongue is dry, the savour 
or sapidity cannot come into contact with the tongue-base, and conse- 
quently the function of tasting and the tongue-door cognition cannot 
take place. 

For the arising of the consciousness of touch, there is needed kaya- 
vatthu (body-base), photthabbarammana (object of touch), thaddha and 
manasikara. Here thaddha means the quality of the object of touch, i.e. 
its degree of coarseness. Only a somewhat coarse touch can make 
an impression upon the body-base. If the object of touch is too subtle, 
it cannot impinge upon the body-base. And unless there is impingement, 
neither consciousness of touch nor the body-door cognition can arise. 

For the arising of the consciousness of mind, there is needed hadaya- 
vatthu (heart-base), dhammarammana (object of thought), manodvara 
(minddoor), and manasikara. Of these, dhammarammana means all objects 
comprising all material qualities other than the five-fold objects, all men- 
tal qualities, all ideas, and Nibbana. As a matter of fact, the five-fold 
objects (form, sound, smell, taste and touch) are also the objects of con- 
sciousness of mind, but in order to set forth what is not related to the 
five doors, or five senses, only thought-objects are mentioned here. Mano- 
dvara or mind-door means the continuum of sub-consciousness. Though 
the heart-base is the place where consciousness of mind arises, since it 
does not possess the appropriate kind of sensuous organs, the impressions 



36 The Vipassana-DlpanI 

of objects cannot appear in it, hence they have to appear in the mind- 
door only. 

The Two Abhinnana or The Two Super-Knowledges 

Abhinnana means super-knowledge, or the faculty of knowing preeminent- 
ly beyond that of ordinary mankind. It is of two kinds: samatha- 
abhinnana and dhamma-abhinnana, 

Samatha-abinnana means super-knowledge acquired through the carry- 
ing out of the exercises in calm (samatha). It is of five different kinds: 

1. iddhividha-abhihnana 

2. dibbasota-abhinnana 

3. cetopariya-abhinnana 

4. pubbenivasa-abbinnana 

5. yathakammupaga-abhinnana. 

The first is the supernormal powers of passing through the air, sink- 
ing into the earth, by oneself creating wonderful things, transforming 
oneself into different personalities. The second is extreme sensitiveness 
oi hearing such as is possessed by celestial beings. The third is the 
supernormal knowledge of others' thoughts. The fourth is the supernormal 
knowledge of previous existences. The fifth is supernormal knowledge 
of living beings and of the kamma in accordance with which they are 
thrown down into the various spheres of existence. It resembles such 
supernormal vision as is possessed by celestial beings. 

Dhamma-abhinnana means the insight by which are discerned all the 
things of ultimate truth mentioned in the section on the truths, together 
with their respective characteristics beyond the range of conventional 
truth. It is divided into three kinds: 

1. sutamaya-riana: knowledge acquired by learning 

2. cintamaya-nana: knowledge acquired by reasoning 

3. bhavanamaya-nana: knowledge acquired by contemplation 

The last of the three is again subdivided into two: 

1. anubodha-nana 

2. pativeda-nana. 



The Three Parifina 37 

Of these last two, the former is the triple insight into impermanence, 
infelicity, and no-soul, or it is the insight into things with all their 
characteristics as they truly are. The latter is the transcendental know- 
ledge of the Four Paths. By this knowledge, which can dispel the dark- 
ness of the defilements (kilesa) such as error, perplexity, and so forth, 
those who have attained the Paths are brought into the light. 

The Three PariMa 

Parifina means profund knowledge. It is of three kinds: 

1. riata-parinna: autological knowledge 

2. tirana-parifina: analytical knowledge 

3. pahana-parinna; dispelling knowledge. 

Nata-parinna means a profound and accurate discernment of mental 
and material phenomena with all their proximate causes, and also of 
Nibbana, as shown in the previous sections on the truths and the causes. 
It discerns things deeply by means of dhamma-abhinnana (philosophical 
knowledge) in their ultimate aspects, dispelling all mere pictorial ideas 
or representations (santhana-pannatti) such as hair, hair of the body, and 
so forth. Even if all of these are not discerned, if only the four great 
essentials out of the twenty-eight material phenomena are discerned ac- 
curately in the aforesaid manner, it may be said that the function of 
nata-parinna as regards rupa (form), is accomplished. As regards nama, 
the aspect of mentality, if only four of the mental things, i.e. mind, feeling, 
perception, and volition, are thoroughly discerned in the aforesaid manner, 
it may also be said that the function of nata-parinna as regards nama 
is fulfilled. If Nibbana can also be discerned, as shown above, the function 
of nata-parinna would be fully realized. 



'Thus, monks, the Tathagata, being such an one in things seen, 
heard, sensed, cognised, is "such". Moreover than "He who is such" 
there is none other greater or more excellent, I declare.' 

Anguttara Nikaya. ii, 23, IV, 111, 24. 



38 The Vipassana-Dipanl 

Tirana-parinna means a profound and accurate discernment of momen- 
tary phenomena (both mental and material) with insight into waxing 
and waning, by skilfully dissecting the continuity of mentals and mater- 
ials (nama and riipa) into momentary ultimates. It is of three kinds: 

1. anicca-parinna 

2. dukkha-parinna 

3. anatta-parinna. 

Of these three, anicca-parinna means either a perfect or a qualified 
knowledge of the law of death (marana). Here death means conventional 
death (sammuti-marana) and ultimate death (paramattha-marana). By con- 
ventional death we mean that kind of death concerning which we are 
accustomed to say, according to conventional truth, that "to die some 
time is unavoidable for every living person or every living creature." 
By ultimate death we mean the momentary death of mental and material 
phenomena which occurs innumerable times even in one day. The former 
neither possesses the real salient feature of impermanence, nor does it 
lie properly within the domain of anicca-parinna, but only of the recol- 
lection of death (marana-anussati). In fact, it is only the latter, ultimate 
death, which exhibits the salient feature of impermanence, and lies within 
the domain of anicca-parinna. 

Dukkha-parinna means either a perfect or a qualified knowledge of 
the intrinsic characteristic of ill or infelicity. Here ill is of two kinds:- 

1. vedayita-dukkha (pain-feeling ill) 

2. bhayattha-dukkha (fear-producing ill). 

Vedayita-dukkha means, bodily and mental pains, and by bodily pain 
is meant the unbearable, unpleasant pain that comes to the various 
parts of the body; while mental pain means such pains as soka (sorrow), 
parideva (lamentation), domanacsa (grief), upayasa (despair), which are 
experienced by mind. Bhayattha-dukkha are those pains which fall 
within the sphere of bhaya-riana (knowledge of things as fearful), and 
of the adinava-riana (knowledge of things as dangerous): jati-dukkha (ill 
of birth), 'jara-dukkha (ill of decay), marana- dukkha (ill of death), sankha- 
ra-dukkha (ill of conditionality), and viparinama -dukkha (ill of change- 
ability), which will be explained afterwards. 

Here is an illustration to show the difference between the vedayita- 
dukkha and bhayattha-dukkha. A man has a dangerous disease. He has 



The Three ParifiM 39 

to live on a simple diet, such as vegetables and fruit, so as to keep 
himself healthy and the disease in a subdued condition. If he takes a rich 
diet, such as poultry, fish, meat, and confectionery, even though a sense 
of comfort and enjoyment may accompany such a dainty meal, after 
partaking of it he will suffer almost deadly pain for the whole of that 
day or maybe for many days from indigestion, which will cause to arise 
again in full force the disease that was subsiding. The more dainty the 
meal was, the longer he will suffer. Now suppose that a friend of his, 
with a view to acquiring merit, brings him some nicely cooked, buttered 
rice, fowl, fish, and meat. The man, fearing the agony of pain which 
he will have to undergo if he should eat of the meal so well prepared, 
though only for a few moments, has to thank his friend but decline it, 
telling him that the meal is too rich for him, and that should he partake 
of it he would be sure to suffer. In this instance, the richly prepared 
food is, of course, the pleasurable object (vedayitasukha-vatthu), for it will 
probably f urnish a nice savour to the palate while it is being eaten, which 
feeling of pleasure is called vedayitasukha. But to him who foresees that 
it will cause him such pain as may break down his health, this same 
food is really an unpleasurable object. He shrinks from and fears it, for 
he knows that the better the savour the longer he must suffer; hence 
the pleasure his palate will derive from the food is to him a real fear- 
producing ill. 

In the world, he who has not got rid of the error of ego and become 
safe against the danger of the dispersion of life (vinipatanabhaya), and 
its passage to realms of misery, is like the aforesaid man who has the 
dangerous disease. The existences of men, devas and Brahmas, and the 
pleasures experienced therein, are like the richly prepared food and the 
feeling of pleasure derived from it. The state of being reborn in differ- 
ent existences after death is like the agony which the man has to suffer 
after the enjoyment of the food. 

Here vedayita-dukkha is synonymous with dukkha-vedana which is 
present in the vedana triad of sukhaya-vedanaya-sampayuttu-dhammu, 
diikkhaya-vedanaya-sampayiitta-dhamma, and adukkhaiuasakhfiyd-veddndya- 
sampayutta-dhamma. Bhayattha-dukkha is synonymous with dukk.ha- 
saccarh and with dukkham, which is present in the three salient features, 
anicca, dukkha, and anatta. 



40 The Vipassana-DIpani 

Hence, the perfect as well as the qualified knowledge of the intrinsic 
nature of the ill of the existences of men, devas and Brahmas, as of 
the pleasures experienced therein, is called the dukkha-pariniia. 

Anatta-paririfva means the perfect or the qualified knowledge of things 
mental and material as possessing the characteristic of 'no-soul'. By 
this knowledge of things as no-soul, the anatta-nana, all the mental and 
material phenomena that belong to the ultimate- truths are discerned as 
having no-soul. By it also is discerned the non-personality of the 'person' 
of conventional truth. Neither are persons and creatures discerned as 
the soul or personality of mental and material phenomena; nor is it dis- 
cerned that there exists, apart from these, a soul or personality which 
never dies but transmigrates from one existence to another. If this know- 
ledge attains to its highest degree, it is called anatta-parinfia. The triple 
pariniia (of anicca, dukkha, and anatta), is called tirana-parinna. 

Pahana-pariniia means the perfect or the qualified knowledge which 
dispels hallucinations. It dispels the three nicca-vippallasa by means of 
the insight acquired through the contemplation of impermanence, the 
three sukha-vippallasa and the three subha-vippallasa, by means of the 
t insight acquired through the contemplation ot ill, and the three atta-vip- 
pallasa by means of the insight acquired through the contemplation of 
no-soul. 

[Note by translator—Here the three nicca-vippallasa are: 

1. anicce niccanti sannavippallaso, 

2. anicce niccanti cittavippallaso 

3. anicce niccanti ditthivippallaso. 

- That is to say: impermanence is erroneously perceived, thought and 
viewed as permanence. 

The three sukha-vippallasa are: 

1. dukkhe sukhanti sannavippallaso, 

2. dukkhe sukhanti cittavippallaso, 

3. dukkhe sukhanti ditthivippallaso. 

That is to say: ill is erroneously perceived, thought, and viewed as 
pleasure. 

The three subha-vippallasa are; 

1. asubhe subhanti sannavippallaso, 



The Three Pariiina 41 

2. asubhe subhanti cittavippallaso, 

3. asubhe subhanti ditthivippallaso. 

That is to say: impurity is erroneously perceived, thought and viewed 
as purity. 
The three atta-vippallasa are: 

1. anattani attati sannavippallaso, 

2. anattani attati cittavippallaso, 

3. anattani attati ditthivippallaso. 

That is say: no-soul is erroneously perceived, thought, and viewed as 
soul.— End of Note by translator]. 

Here atta or soul is the supposed underlying essence of a pictorial idea 
(santhana-pannatti), and jiva or life is the supposed underlying essence 
of an aggregate-idea (santati-pafinatti). 

Of these two delusions, the former may be got rid of by knowledge 
of the two kinds of truth, the ultimate and the conventional; but the 
latter can be got rid of only when the anicca-parinna reaches its summit. 
Here, by santati is meant the continuum or aggregates of the same 
kind, and by nana-santati is meant the continua of aggregates of differ- 
ent kinds. 

This santati is of two kinds: mental and material. And the continuum 
of the material variety of aggregate is again sub-divided into four class- 
es, namely, into those produced by kamma, by mind, by temperature, 
by food. Each of these four kinds of continua is liable to change if the 
respective causes of each changes. When changes take place, the change 
of the continuum, of the kamma-produced class is not appare:.', but that 
of the mind-produced class is very apparent. In the one single act of 
sitting down only, many movements of the different parts of the body 
are to be observed. These movements and actions are nothing but the 
changes in the continua of aggregates. In each aggregate there are three 
periods: birth, growth-and-decay, and death. Birth is called jati, growth- 
and-clecay is called jara, and death is called marana. In each step taken 
in the act of walking there is a beginning, a middle, and an end. These 
are respectively birth, growth-and-decay, and death. Though we say 
'a step', this connotes the whole body; that is to say, the whole body 
undergoes change; the aggregates of the whole body undergo new births, 
new growth-and-decays, and new deaths. If a hundred steps or a thou- 



42 The Vipassana-Dlpanl 

sand steps are taken in the course of a walk, then a hundred or a 
thousand new births, new growth -and-decays, and new deaths take 
. place in the whole body. A step may also be divided into two, as 
the lif ting-up aggregate and the laying-down aggregate of the foot. And 
in each single step, birth, growth-and-decay, and death must be noted. 

The same holds good with regard to all the postures of the body, such 
as standing, sitting, sleeping, stretching out, drawing in. Only, what is 
to be understood here is that all tired, wearied, inflammatory, irritative, 
painful states are changes in the continua of aggregates produced by 
temperature. Both in exhaling and inhaling, beginnings, middles and 
ends are all discernible. 

The phase of continuance, of stability in the existence of the aggre- 
gates, is immediately followed by decay which, in connection with such 
matter, is called exhaustion or weariness. It is produced by inflammatory 
and irritative matter, and through it unbearably painful feelings arise. 
Then, through these painful feelings, people become aware that exhaus- 
tion is present, but they do not apprehend the perpetual growths-and-decays 
of the continua. Weariness is indeed the name applied to the growth- 
and-decay of the continua of aggregates which at first spring up strongly 
and cheerfully; while the end of each of these aggregates is the death 
of the continuum (santati-marana). In the same manner it is to be 
understood that there are beginnings, middles, and ends in every aggregate 
produced by laughter, smiling, gladness, joy, grief, sorrow, lamentation, 
groans, sobs, hate, faith, love, and so forth. In speaking also it is obvious 
that every word has its beginning, its middle, and its end, which are 
respectively the momentary birth, growth-and-decay, and death of speech. 

With regard to matter produced by temperature, aggregates arise and 
cease at every stroke of our fan when, in hot weather, we fan ourselves. 
In exactly the same way, while we are bathing there arise and cease 
cool aggregates each time we pour water over ourselves. Tired, fatigued, 
ailing aggregates, generally speaking, are changes in the temperature- 
produced continua. Through hot and cold foods we observe different 
changes in the body which are sometimes due to temperature (utu). The 
arising, the increasing, and the curing of diseases by unsuitable or suit- 
able food and medicines, are also due to temperature. Even in the mind- 
produced aggregates, there may also be many changes which are due to 
temperature. 



The Three Parinna 43 

With regard to the aggregates produced by nutritive essence, poverty 
or abundance of flesh, vigorousness or defect of vital force must be 
taken into account. By vigorousness of vital force, we mean that as 
soon as the food taken has entered the stomach, the vital force 
which pervades the whole body becomes vigorous and is strengthened. 
Therefore, the most necessary thing for all creatures is to promote -it 
the vital force, to keep it from failing. What we call getting a living 
in the world is nothing else but getting regular supplies of food for the 
maintenance of the vital forces. If people hold that it is of great impor- 
tance to remain in life, it will be obvious to them that a sufficient supply 
of suitable food is also a matter of great importance. It is more necess- 
ary to supply food than to increase the blood; for if the supply of food 
to the stomach is reduced, all blood and flesh in the body will gradually 
decrease. The life of the kamma- produced material qualities, such as 
the eye, the ear, and so forth, is the jarita-riipa, or the vital force which 
depends upon the supply of food. If the supply of food fails, the whole 
body, together with the vital force, fails. If the supply of fresh food is 
suspended for six or seven days, the vital force and all the kamma - 
produced materials, come to their ends. Then it is said that a being dies. 
Now it is not necessary to indicate the changes (i.e. the birth, the growth- 
and-decay, the death) of the aggregates of the food-produced materials, 
for they are apparent to every one of themselves. 

What has been shown is the growth-and-decay and the death of the 
continua of material aggregates. 

Now come the continua of mental phenomena. They are also very 
numerous. Everyone knows his own mind. There are continua of various 
kinds of greed, of various kinds of hate, of various kinds of dullness, of 
various kinds of faith, of various kinds of love. In the single act of sitting 
only, the arising of various kinds of countless thoughts is recognised by 
everyone. Each process of thought has its birth, decay, and death. Every- 
one knows oneself thus: "greed is rising in me now", or "hate is 
rising in me now", "greed has ceased in me", or "hate has ceased in 
me". But it cannot be said that it has ceased forever or that it has come 
to its final end, for this is only the temporary cessation or death of the 
process or continuum of thoughts. If circumstances are favourable, they 
will rise again instantly. What has just been said is in exposition of the 
decay and death of the mental continuum. 



44 The Vipassana-Dipani 

Nat a -pari anna is relevant to tirana-parinna, which in turn is relevant 
to pahana-piranfia, the one sole necessary thing. 



Exposition of Tirana- Parinna 

The three salient marks or features are: 

1. anicca-lakkhana: the mark of impermanence 

2. dukkha-lakkhana: the mark of ill 

3. anatta-lakkhana: the mark of no-soul. 

Anicca-lakkhana or the mark of impermanence, is the characteristic 
sphere of viparinama and of annathabhava. 

Viparinama means metastasis, that is, a radical change in nature; a change 
from the present state into that which is not the present state. Annatha- 
bhava means subsequent change of mode. If the spheres of viparinama 
and annathabhava are exposed to the view of the mind's eye, it will be 
distinctly discerned that the mental and material phenomena which are 
within the spheres of these two, viparinama and annathabhava, are really 
impermanent things. Therefore we have said that anicca-lakkhana or 
the mark of impermanence, is the characteristic of the sphere of vipari- 
nama and of annathabhava. 

When we closely observe and analyze in mind the flame of a lamp 
burning at night, we take note of the flame together with its five salient 
features, Le. birth, growth, continuance, decay, and death. We note that 
the fire is momentarily arising. This is the birth of a material phenomenon, 
but it is not fire. We observe that, after arising, the flame is constantly 
developing. This is the growth of the material phenomenon, but it is not 
fire. We observe that the flame is uninterruptedly continuing in its normal 
state. This is the continuance of the material phenomenon, but it is not 
fire. We observe that the flame is dying down. This is the decay of the 
material phenomenon, but it is not fire. We observe that the flame is 
dying away. This is the death of the material phenomenon, but it is not 
fire. The property of hotness is, of course, fire. The flame quivers merely 
on account of the presence of these five salient features. Sometimes it may 
quiver when the lamp is removed, and in that case it may be said that the 
quivering is due to wind. These five salient features are therefore the 
subsequent changes (annathabhava) of the flame, called the marks of 



Exposition of Tirana-Pariiifia 45 

impermanence. By observing and taking note of these five salient features, 
it can be understood that the flame is an impermanent thing. Similarly it 
should be understood that all moving things are impermanent things. 

The mobile appearances of the most delicate atoms of matter which 
are not discernible by the human eye, are discovered by the help of that 
clever revealer of nature's secrets, the microscope. Through the discovery 
of these moving appearances, it is believed nowadays by certain West- 
ern people— Leibnitz and Fechner, for example— that these material phe- 
nomena are living creatures. But in truth they are not living, 'aeeatures, 
and the moving appearances are due only to the reproduction of the 
material phenomena through the function of the physical change (utu). 
By reproduction we here mean the acaya-rupa. In some organisms, of 
course, there may be living creatures in existence. 

When we look at the flowing water of a river or a stream, or at the 
boiling water in a kettle, we discern moving appearances. These are 
the reproductions of material phenomena produced by physical change. 
And in water which seems still or quiet to the naked eye, moving ap- 
pearances will also be seen with the help of a miscroscope. These two 
ate reproductions of material phenomena produced by physical change. 
Here 'reproductions' means the constant integrations of new phenomena 
which are called acaya-rupa. By discerning the integrations of new 
phenomena, the subsequent deaths or disappearances of the old pheno- 
mena which are called the aniccata-mpa, are also discernible. When 
the integration of new matter and the death of the old matter take place 
side by side, the santati-rdpa is discernible. When the reproduction is 
excessive, Ihe apacaya-riipa is discernible. W T hen the death of old matter 
is excessive, the jarata-rupa is discernible. We have shown above thai 
in every tree, root, branch, leaf, sprout, flower, and fruit there are these 
five salient marks. So, when we look at them with the aid of a micro- 
scope, we see that they are full of very infinitesimal organisms moving 
about as if they were living creatures; but in fact these are mere re- 
productions of matter produced by physical change. 

As regards the bodies of creatures or persons, these five salient marks 
are also discernible in every member of the body, such as, hair, hair of 
the body, fingernails, toe-nail^teetb, the inner skin, the outer skin, muscles, 
nerves, veins, bones, bone-marrow, kidney, heart, liver, membrane, 
lungs, large intestines, small intestines, entrails, undigested food, digested 



46 The Vipassana-Dlpani 

food, and the brain. So, when we look at them with the help of a microscope, 
moving organisms like very small creatures are seen. These are the re- 
productions of matter produced by kamma, mind, food, and physical 
change. There may, of course, be microbes in some cases. Thus, if we 
look with the mind's eye, the mark of impermanence in all the matter 
of the whole body will clearly be discerned. 

What has just been expounded is the mark of impermanence in 
matter. 

In mental phenomena, i.e. mind and its concomitants, the mark of 
impermanence, which has two distinct features, the radical change (vi- 
parinama) and the subsequent change (annathabhava), is no less clearly 
to be seen. In the world, we all know that there are many different 
terms and expressions which are applied to the different modes and 
manners of the elements of mind and body which are incessantly arising 
and ceasing. For instance, there are two expressions, "seeing" and "not- 
seeing", which are used in describing the function of the eye. Seeing is 
the term assigned to the element of sight-consciousness, or, when we say 
"one sees", this is the term applied in describing the arising of sight- 
consciousness from the conjuncture of four causes, namely, eye-base, 
visual-form, light, and attention. And when we say, "one does not see", 
this is the phrase we use in describing the non-existence of sight-con- 
sciousness. When, at night in the dark, no source of light is present, 
sight-consciousness does not arise upon the eye-base. It is temporarily 
suspended. But it will arise when the light from a fire, for instance, is 
introduced. And when the light is put out, sight- consciousness will also 
again cease. As there are five salient marks present in the flame, if 
the light comes to be, seeing also comes to be, sight also arises. If the 
light develops, seeing also develops. If the light continues, seeing also 
continues. If the light decays, seeing also decays. And if the light ceases, 
then seeing also ceases. In the day-time also, these twin terms "seeing" and 
"not-seeing" may be made use of. If there is no obstruction, one sees; 
if there is an obstruction, one does not see. As regards eye-lids, if they 
are opened, one sees; if they are shut, one does not see. What has 
just been expounded is the viparinama and annathabhava of sight-con- 
sciousness through the occasioning cause— light. In cases where the des- 
truction of the eye-base occurs after conception, sight-consciousness also 
is lost forever. If the visual form is taken away out of view, sight-con- 



Of the Mark of 111 47 

» 

seriousness also ceases. While sleeping, as there is no attention, so sight- 
consciousness subsides for some time. The genesis of all classes of con- 
sciousness that take part in the process of eye-door is to be understood 
by the term "seeing"; the subsidence of the same is to be understood 
by the term "not-seeing" 

Similarly, in each function of hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching, 
a pair of expressions (existing or otherwise) is obtainable, and these 
must be dealt with as to their impermanency, i.e. viparinama and aiiria- 
thabhava, in the same way as sight- consciousness. 

Mind- cognition, has many different modes, and each is apparent in its 
nature of viparinama and annathabhava through the changes of the different 
kinds of thought. Among the mental concomitants, take feeling for ex- 
ample, the changes of pleasure, pain, joy, grief, and hedonic indifference, 
are very evident. So also, the changes of perception, initial application, 
sustained application, from good to bad and vice versa, are very obvious. 
It may be easily noticed by anyone that in the single posture of sitting 
alone, greed, disinterestedness, hate, and amity, are each arising by turns. 

What has just' been expounded is the im permanence of mental pheno- 
mena. So much for the mark of impermanence. 

Of the Mark of 111 

Briefly speaking, the marks of impermanence in viparinama and anna- 
thabhava may also be called the mark of ill, for they are to be feared 
by the wise in samsara, the evolution of life. Why are they to be feared 
by the wise? Because, in the world, the dangers of decay and death are 
the dangers most to be feared. Viparinama is nothing but momentary 
decay and death. It is the road to death, and to vinapatana (the disper- 
sion of life into different spheres). All creatures remain alive without 
removing to another existence only because they are sustained by various 
methods of preservation. Viparinama is also to be feared on account of 
the disadvantages which may fall on ourselves. Acaya, upacaya and san- 
tati, which are the features of annathabhava, may also bring many dis- 
advantages. They may establish in the physical body many kinds of dis- 
ease and ailments. They may establish in the mental continuum many 
kinds of afflictions (kilesa), many kinds of"hallucinations T and many other 
disadvantages. Every material phenomenon possesses these two marks 



48 The Vipassana-Dipani 

of im permanence. Every mental phenomenon pertaining to kama-loka, 
rupa-loka and arupa-loka also has the same two marks of impermanence. 
Therefore the existences, or the bodies (comprising the mentals and 
materials) of men, devas, and Brahmas are all subject to ill. The two 
marks of impermanence being always present, there are approximately 
three different marks of ill: dukkha-dukkhata, sankhara-dukkhata, and 
viparinama-dukkhata. 

Dukkha-dukkhata means both bodily (kayika) and mental (cetasika) 
pains. Sankhara-dukkhata is the state of things (i.e. material and mental 
phenomena) which exists only if they are always determined, conditioned 
and maintained with a great deal of exertion in every existence. The 
existences or the bodies (khanda or the sum total of a being) of Brahmas 
have a great amount of sankhara-dukkhata. Hardly one out of a hundred 
who has abandoned all sensual pleasures, renounced the world, and prac- 
tised the "stations" without regard to his own life, hereafter attains 
the existence of a Brahma. Though people know that such an existence is 
a very good thing, they do not venture to practise them, for they take 
them to be very hard, difficult and pain-giving. When jhana-dhamma 
and supernormal intellections are attained, they must be maintained with ; 
great care and trouble, for if not, they are liable to recession in a 
moment upon the most trifling occasion. 

Viparinama-dukkhata is the state of destruction, or the state of death 
after conception, if circumstances are favourable to the same at any time, 
day or hour. The existences, or the bodies, of men, devas and Brahmas 
are the real ills, since they are severally subject to the said three marks 
of ill. 

Speaking broadly, there are eleven marks of ill: 

1. jati-dukkha; ill of birth 

2. jara-dukkha: ill of decay 

3. marana-dukkha: ill- of death 

4. soka-dukkha: ill or sorrow 

5. parideva-dukkha: ill of lamentation 

6. kayika- dukkha: bodily ill 

7. cetasika-dukkha: mental ill 

8. upayasa-dukkha: ill of despair 

9. apiyasampayoga-dukkha: ill due to association with enemies 



Of the Mark of 111 49 

10. piyavippayoga-dukkha: ill due to separation from loved ones 

11. iccbavighata-dukkha: ill due to nonfulfilment of wishes. 

Of these, jati means birth or reproduction. It is of three kinds, to wit: 
kilesajati — birth of defilements; kammajati birth of actions; and vipakajati— 
birth of effects. 

Of these three, kilesajati is the birth or the reproduction of defilements, 
such as greed, hate, dullness, error, conceit, and so forth. Among the 
kilesajati, greed is very fierce and violent. It will arise at any time it 
finds favourable circumstance, like fire fed with gunpowder. When it 
arises it can with difficulty be suppressed by any means whatever; it 
will develop in volumes in an instant. Hence, it is a real 'ill', since it is 
very much to be feared by all Ariya. The like should be understood in 
connection with hate, dullness, and so forth, which ethically are one 
thousand and five hundred in number. Just as a hill which is the abode 
of very poisonous serpents is feared and no one dares to approach it, 
so also the existences of men, devas and brahmas are feared, and no 
Ariya dare approach them with the views 'myself and 'my body', for 
they are the birthplaces of the said defilements. Therefore they are real 
'ills' that are to be feared. 

Vipakajati is the birth or reproduction of different kinds of diseases, 
different kinds of ailments, and different kinds of painful feelings in the 
body, or the reproduction of mean and low existence such as those of birds 
and animals, and so forth. 

Of the kammajati, immoral actions of body, speech, and thought are 
the developments of the defilements. Therefore, they are equally as fierce 
as the defilements. Hence this kammajati is also a real 'ill' to be feared 
by all Ariya. Just as the villages where thieves and robbers take up 
their quarters are feared, and good people do not venture to approach 
them, so also the existences of men, devas and brahmas are feared, and 
no Ariya dare approach them with such views as 'myself and 'my 
body', for they are the birthplaces of the said kammajati. 

Of the vipakajati, owing to the dreadfulness of kilesajati and kammajati, 
the rebirth into the planes of misery is likewise always a terrible thing 
in the revolution of existences. 

Therefore, the existences of men, and so forth, to which the vipakajati 
together with the kilesajati and the kamajati are joined, are real 'ill'. 
The moral actions and the fortunate realms furnish food for the defile- 
ments, fuel for the flames of the defilements, so that the birth of moral 



50 The Vipassana-Dipani 

actions and the birth of results therefrom, are all obtainable in the 
kilesajati. So much for the jatidukkha. 

Concerning the jaradukkha and maranadukkha, these are the momen- 
tary decays and deaths which follow a being from the moment of con- 
ception, and are at all times ready to cause him to fall in decay, death, 
or unfortunate realms whenever opportunities for the same occur. They 
also obtain in connection with viparinamadukkha, and since they dog 
the steps of all living beings in every existence from the moment of 
conception, the existences of men, devas and brahmas are real 'ill'. So 
much for the jaradukkha and maranadukkha. 

Sokadukkha, paridevadukkha, kayikadukkha, cetasikadukkha, and upa- 
yasadukkha, always follow the existences of men and devas, ready to 
arise whenever an opportunity occurs. The .realms of the niraya and 
the peta worlds are the realms of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and 
despair. So much for the five kinds of dukkha. 

To come into union with persons, creatures, things, objects with which 
one does not wish to unite or does not wish even to see, is apiyasam- 
payoga-dukkha. Separation from persons, creatures, things and objects 
which one always wishes to meet or be united with, from which one never 
wishes to be parted in life or by death— this is piyavippayoga-dukkha. 
To strive hard, but all in vain, to obtain anything is icchavighata-duk- 
kha. 

These 'ills' or dukkha are very numerous and very evident, and are 
also frequently met with in the world. Hence the existences, or the bodies 
of men, devas and brahmas are real 'ills'. Of these eleven varieties of 
dukkha, birth, decay and death, are the most important. 

So much for the mark of '111'. 

Anatta 

The mark by which mental and material phenomena are to be un- 
derstood as no-soul is called the anatta-lakkhana or the mark of no-soul. 
In considering the word anatta, the meaning of atta ought first to be 
understood. Atta in the ordinary sense means essence or substantiality. By 
-essence or substantiality is meant, as we have already explained in con- 
nection with ultimate truth, the earth which is the essence or the sub- 
stantiality of pot. The word 'pot' is merely the name by which is 



Anatta 51 

indicated a certain pictorial idea (santhana-pannatti); it is not a name for 
earth. And a pictorial idea possesses no essence or substantiality as an 
ultimate thing; here earth alone is the ultimate thing and possesses essence 
or substantiality. If the question is asked: 'Does such a thing as pot 
exist in the world?' those who are unable to differentiate between the 
two kinds of truth, ultimate and conventional, would answer that the 
pot exists. These should then be asked to point out the pot. They will 
now point to an earthen pot near at hand, saying: 'Is not that a pot?' 
But it is not correct of them thus to allege that earth is pot. It is a false 
allegation. Why is it a false allegation? Simply because earth is an 
ultimate thing and has essence or substantiality, while pot is a mere 
conception having no essence or substantiality, and thus, like space, is 
void. To allege of earth that it is pot is in effect to try to make out that 
the essential earth constitutes the essence or substantiality of pot, which 
in actual fact, seeing that pot is a mere representation of the mind, 
possesses no substantial essence whatever. Here, what actually is non- 
existent-pot becomes existent-pot, and earth also becomes the atta of the 
earth, so that earth and pot become one and the same thing; the identity 
of the one is confused with the identity of the other. It is for this reason 
that we call this a false allegation. 

In this illustration, 'earth' corresponds with the five aggregates or their 
constituents, material and mental phenomena, while 'pot' corresponds 
with persons and living creatures. Just as earth becomes the essence of 
pot in the statement that the earth is the pot, so also the five aggregates 
or their constituents become the atta or the essence of persons and 
creatures, when it is said that the aggregates are persons and creatures. 
This is the meaning of atta. 

Now for anatta. In the expression 'earthern pot', if one is able to 
discern that earth is one thing and pot another, and that earth is an 
ultimate thing and pot a mere conception of the mind; and again, that 
earth is not pot, and pot is not earth; and also that it is false to call 
earth a pot, and to call pot earth, then the earth becomes not the es- 
sence or atta of the pot, but becomes anatta, while at the same time, 
pot is seen to be void like space, since it is a mere conception of 
form. A like result is obtained if one is able to discern the five aggre- 
gates and the material and mental phenomena thus: The fivefold set of 
aggregates are ultimate things; persons and creatures are ideas derived 



52 The Vipassanl-DlpanT 

from the forms and the continua; hence the phenomena are not persons 
and creatures, and persons and creatures are not the phenomena. lithe 
phenomena are called persons and creatures, this is a false naming of 
them; and if persons and creatures are called the phenomena, this is 
false, too. Accordingly, the phenomena become, not the essence of persons 
and creatures, but anatta, or the reverse of substantial essence. And 
also, persons and creatures become quite evidently void and empty 
inasmuch as they are mere ideas derived from the forms and continua 
of the phenomena. 
What has just been said is in exposition of the meaning of anatta. 

The marks of impermanence and ill expounded in the foregoing pages 
are also the marks of no -soul (anatta). How? It is supposed that the 
ideas (pannatti) of persons and creatures are eternal and immortal both 
in this existence and in those that follow, and it has been explained that 
the phenomena are not eternal since they are subject to momentary 
decays and deaths which are the marks of impermanence, and also 
because they are constantly ceasing and being reproduced many times 
beyond the possibility of being numbered, even in one day, which is the 
mark of that kind of impermanence known as auiiathabhava. 

In Buddhist philosophy there are three things which are 'eternal and 
immortal' in the sense in which that phrase is here used in the text. 
These three things are called in the Pali, pannatti (plural, pannattiyo), 
akasa, and Nibbana, that is, concepts (or ideas), space and that which 
supervenes when craving, hate and delusion are completely wiped out. 
Of these three things it is held that their existence is something which 
has nothing whatever to do with time, never enters time, is never limited 
by time. The law of rise-and-fall, of arising and ceasing, which applies 
to all things else, does not apply to them. They exist independent of 
v/hether any particular being thinks them or not. In other words, they 
are eternal and immortal and independent of time, not in any sense 
of being unbrokenly continuous in time. Nibbana is distinguished from 
the two other 'eternal and immortal' things in that it has santiiakkhana 
or it is santibhava, a word which may be rendered quite accurately in 
English (if not literally, at least in accord with its spirit) as 'the great 
peace' and all that this implies. But in the ideas (pannatti) of persons 
and creatures no marks of viparinama and afmathabhava are to be 



Anatta 53 

seen. If such marks were to be found in the ideas (pannatti) of per- 
sons and creatures, then, of course, the ideas of pannattiyo would also 
be subject to births, decays, and deaths, and would be reborn and decay 
and die many times, even in one day. But these .marks are not to be 
found in pannatti or ideas. We discern these marks only in mental and 
material phenomena. Therefore it comes to this, that mental and material 
phenomena, that is, nama-rupa-dhamma, are not to be regarded as the 
essence or substantiality of persons and creatures. It is in this way that 
the mark of 'no-soul' becomes the mark of impermanence in accord- 
ance with the text asdrakatthena anatta, or 'on account of being without 
a core, the word anatta is used.' 

How does the mark of ill become the mark of impermanence? The 
marks of ill are very evil, disadvantageous, and very unsatisfactory; and 
all creatures desire to be in good states, to be prosperous, and to be 
satisfied. If mental and material phenomena are the true essence of 
persons and creatures, the phenomena and the person must be one and 
the same. And if this be so, their desires must also be one and the same, 
that is, the person's desire must also be that of the phenomena, and 
vice-versa. But if this is not so, then each must be a thing separate 
from the other. Here by 'person's desire' we mean greed (lobha) and 
desire-to-do (chanda); and by 'the desire of phenomena', the happening 
of things in accordance with their cause. 

A main characteristic of persons and creatures is the craving for 
happiness of mind and body; and an outstanding feature of phenomena 
is their uniformity with their causes or conditioning things, that is, the 
arising and the ceasing ot phenomena are subject to causes, and never 
entirely in accordance with the desires of persons in defiance of causes. 
For example, if warmness is wanted the cause that produces warmness 
must be sought out, or if coldness is wanted, the cause that produces 
coldness must be sought out. If long life is wanted, the conditioning 
cause, a supply of suitable food daily, must be sought out, for no man 
can live long merely by wishing to live long. And if rebirth in the 
worlds of the fortunate is wanted, then the cause of this, moral or 
virtuous deeds, must be sought out, for no one can get to the world 
of the fortunate merely by wishing to be reborn there. It is sometimes 
erroneously thought or believed that one can be whatever one wishes 



54 The Vipassana-Dipani 

to be on those occasions when something one has wished for is 
later on fulfilled, although the actual fact is that it has come about 
only in accordance with a cause that has previously been sought out and 
brought into play. It is falsely thought or believed by many people that 
one can maintain oneself according to one's wish when in sound health 
or at ease in any of the four bodily postures, ignoring the fact that the 
cause, the partaking of food on previous days, was sought out by them 
and brought into play. They also mistakenly think that their wishes are 
always fulfilled when they find themselves living happily in buildings 
previously in existence. But in truth, if one looks about him in this world 
and sees how great and 'how numerous are the businesses, affairs, occu- 
pations and so forth, of men in all their extent and variety, he will 
so on discern with the mind's eye that sankhara-dukkha, the dukkha 
associated with sankhara, is great and manifold in precisely the same 
measure as men's activities. And this dukkha is due to the begetting 
or the establishing of the causes necessary to the acquiring of the effects 
desired, for phenomena can never become exactly all that beings may 
wish them to be, or may give orders that they are to be. Thus simply 
in beholding the marks of sankhara-dukkhata all about us, it becomes 
evident that phenomena do not conform themselves to the desires of per- 
sons and creatures, and hence they are not their essence or substance. 

In addition to this, it is also to be noted well how conspicuous is non- 
substantiality with regard to dukkha-dukkhata, viparinama-dukkhata, 
jatidukkha, jaradukkha, maranadukkha, and so forth. 

So much for the mark of anatta from the standpoint of dukkha. 

The three knowledges pertaining to the insight which fully grasps the 
meaning of the three marks, are called tirana-parinna. These three know- 
ledges pertaining to insight are: 

1. anicca-vipassanana-nana: insight-knowledge in contemplating 'im- 
permanence'. 

2. dukkha-vipassana-nana: insight knowledge in contemplating 'ill'. 

3. anatta-vipassana-nana: insight knowledge in contemplating 'no- 
soul'. 

Of these three knowledges, the last -mentioned must be acquired first, 
as it must also be acquired in fullness, in order to dispel the error of the 
soul doctrine. And in order to obtain full acquisition of this last-mentioned 



Anatta 55 

knowledge, the first must primarily be introduced, for, if the first is well 
discerned, the last is easily acquired. As for the second, it does not cul- 
minate through the acquisition of the first. It is owing to imperfection 
in obtaining the second knowledge that the transcendental Path has four 
grades, and that lust and conceit are left undispelled. Hence the most 
important thing for Buddhists to do is to free themselves entirely from 
the apayadukkha, the ills of the realms of misery. There is no way of 
escaping from the apayadukkha open to men when the teachings of the 
Buddhas vanish from the world. And to escape apayadukkha means to 
put away all immoral actions and erroneous views. And to put away all 
erroneous views means to put away utterly the view of 'soul'. There- 
fore in that life in which we are so furtunate as to encounter the reli- 
gion of the Buddha, we should strive so to contemplate or meditate upon 
the impermanence of things, as to bring to fullness the insight-knowledge 
of no-soul. In confirmation of this, here is a quotation from the text: 

Aniccasannino meghiya anattasanna santhati anattasannino samug- 
ghatam papunati ditthe'va dhamma Nibbanam. 

"To him, Meghiya, who comprehends impermanence, the compre- 
hension of no-soul manifests itself. And to him who comprehends 
no-soul, the fantasy of an T presiding over the five aggregates is 
brought to destruction, and even in this present life he attains Nibbana." 

There is no need for us to expatiate upon the truth of this text for 
we have already shown how the mark of impermanence can become 
the mark also of no-soul. 

Insight exercises can be practised not only in solitude, as is neces- 
sary in the case of the exercise of calm or samatha, but they can be 
practised everywhere. Maturity of knowledge is the main, the one thing 
required, for, if knowledge is ripe, the insight of impermanence may 
easily be accomplished while listening to a discourse, or while living a 
householder's ordinary life. To those whose knowledge is developed, every- 
thing within and without oneself, within and without one's house, within 
and without one's village or town, is an object at the sight of which the 
insight of impermanence may spring up and develop. But those whose 
knowledge is as yet in its infancy, so to speak, can accomplish this only 
if they practise assiduously the exercise in calm. 



56 The Vipassana-DIpanI 

The consideration of the momentary deaths which occur innumerable 
times even during the wink^ of an eye, are only required in discussion 
upon Abhidhamma. But in meditating or practising the exercises in insight, 
all that is needed is consideration of the santati-viparinama and the san- 
tati-annathabhava, that is, of the radical change and of the sequent change 
of the continua, things which are visibly evident to and personally ex- 
perienced by every man alive. 

The exercises in insight that ought to be taken up are first, the four 
great elements from among the material qualities, and the six classes 
of cognition from among the mental qualities. If one can discern the 
arisings and ceasings of the four elements innumerable times in one 
day alone, the changes, or the risings and ceasings of the rest (i.e. upa- 
darupa: the derivative material qualities) are also discerned. Or the 
mental qualities also, if the changes of consciousness are discerned, those 
of the mental concomitants are simultaneously discerned. In particular, 
feelings, perceptions, volitions, and so forth, from among the mental 
qualities, and forms, odours, and so forth from among the material quali- 
ties, which are extraordinary, may be taken as objects, for the exercise, 
as they will quickly enable a meditator to acquire with ease the insight 
of impermanence. 

However, from the philosophical point of view, insight is acquired in 
order to dispel such notions as 'creatures', 'persons', 'soul', 'life', 'per- 
manence', 'pleasures', and to get rid of hallucinations. The acquisi- 
tion of insight also mainly depends on a sound grasp of the triple marks, 
which have been suffciently dealt with already. 

So much for the exposition of tirana-parinna. 

Pahana-Parinna 

In Buddhist philosophy there are five kinds of pahana which are neces- 
sary to deal with: 

1. tadangapahana 

2. vikkhamabhanapahana 

3. samucchedapahana 

4. patipassaddhipahana 

5. nissaranapahana. 

In order to make them clear, the three periods of the defilements which 
are called bhumi must here be mentioned. They are: 



Pahana-Parifina 57- 

1. anusaya-bhumi 

2. pariyutthana-bhumi 

3. vittikkama-bhiimi. 

Of these three, anusaya-bhumi means the period during which the defile- 
ments do not come into existence as mental properties representing 
themselves in the three phases of time, i.e., nascent, static, and arrested, 
but lie latent surrounding the life-continuum. 

Pariyutthana-bhumi means the period at which the defilements come into 
existence from the latent state as mental properties at the mind -door 
when any object which has power to wake them up produces pertur- 
bance at one of the six doors. 

Vittikkama-bhumi means the period at which the defilements become so 
fierce and ungovernable that they produce sinful actions in deed and 
word. Thus, in the revolution of existences that have no known begin- 
ning, every greed that follows a creature's life-continuum has three bhumi. 
Similarly, the rest of the defilements, error, dullness, conceit, and so forth, 
have three periods each. 

In Buddhist ethics, there_ are three sikkha, namely, sila-sikkha, the 
: training of morality; samadhi-sikkha, the training of ecstatic thought; and 
panna-sikkha, the training of insight. Of these three, the first training, 
the training of morality, is able to dispel or put away only the third 
(vittikkama-bhumi) of the defilements. As there remain two bhumi 
undispelled, the defilements which are got rid of by sila would again 
arise and soon fill up till they reached the vittikkama-bhumi. Therefore, 
the putting away by sila is called the tadangapahana, which means the 
temporary putting away. 

The second training, that is, the training of ecstatic thought in the 
first jhana, the second jhana, and so forth, is able to dispel or put away 
the second, the pariyutthana-bhumi of the defilements which have been 
left undispelled by sila. As there still remains the anusaya-bhumi un- 
dispelled, the defilements which were put away by jhana would soon arise 
and fill up till they reach the vittikkama-bhumi if obstacles to the jhana 
were encountered. Therefore, the putting away by samadhi is called vik- 
khamabhana-pahana, which means the putting away, to a distance. Here 
jhana can dispose of the defilements for a considerable time so that they 
do not arise again soon, for it is ecstatic moral culture and more powerful 
than the sila. 



58 The Vipassana-Dipani 

The third training, that is, the training in the knowledge that belongs 
to insight and in the knowledge that pertains to the transcendental path, 
is able to dispel or put away the first anusaya-bhiimi of the defilements 
that have been left undispelled by sila and samadhi. The defilements 
that are entirely got rid of through the said knowledge, leaving nothing 
"behind, will never arise again. Therefore the putting away by panria is 
called the samuccheda-pahana, which literally means the 'cutting-off, 
putting-away'. The knowledge that pertains to transcendental fruition 
puts the defilements away by tranquillizing the same defilements that 
have been put away by the knowledge that pertains to the transcenden- 
tal path, and this putting away is called the patipassaddhi-pahana. The 
putting away be entering Nibbana is called the nissarana-pahana, which 
means the utter relinquishment or an escaping from the ties of existen- 
ces forever and ever. 

Now we have seen that knowledge is of three kinds: knowledge of 
insight, knowledge pertaining to the transcendental path, and knowledge 
pertaining to transcendental fruition. Of these, though the knowledge 
of insight is able to put away the anusaya-bhumi, it is not able to 
put it away completely. Only the knowledges pertaining to the paths 
are able to put away all the defilements that respectively belong to 
each path. The knowledge pertaining to the sotapattimagga, the first 
path, dispels utterly and eradicates all erroneous views and perplexities. 
It also dispels all immoral actions which would result in life in [the 
realms of misery, so that they do not arise again. The knowledge 
that pertains to sakadagami-magga, the second path, dispels all coarse 
lust and hate. The knowledge pertaining to anagami-magga, the third 
path, dispels all subtle lust and ill-will which have been left un- 
dispelled by the second path. To him (the anagami-puggalo— never- 
returner) the link of kinship with the world is broken, and the brahma- 
loka is the only sphere where he may take rebirth. The knowledge 
pertaining to the arahatta-magga, the fourth path, dispels the defilements 
which are left undispelled by the lower paths. And he (the arahatta- 
puggalo— one who kills all de[ilements>, becomes the arahant, and escapes 
from the three loka or worlds. In our Buddhist religion, this samuccheda- 
pahana is the chief thing to be accomplished. 

So much for the pahana-parimia. 



Pahana-Pariiina 59 

Now I will indicate the main points necessary to those who practise 
the exercises of insight. Of the three knowledges of insight, the know- 
ledge of impermanence must first and foremost be acquired. How ? If 
we carefully watch the cinematograph show, we will see how quick are 
the changes of the numerous series of photographs representing the 
wonderful scene, all in a moment of time. We will also see that a hun- 
dred or more photographs are required to represent the scene of a moving 
body. These are, in fact, the functions of viparinama and annatha- 
bhava, or the representation of impermanence or death, or cessation of 
movements. If we carefully examine the movements in a scene, such 
as the walking, standing, sitting, sleeping, bending, stretching, and 
so forth, of the parts of the body during a moment of time, we will 
see that these are full of changes, or full of impermanence. Even in a 
moment of walking, in a single step taken with the foot, there are 
numerous changes of pictures which may be called impermanence or 
death. It is also the same with the rest of the movements. 

Now we must apply this to ourselves. The impermanence and the death 
of mental and material phenomena are to be found to the full in our bodies, 
our heads, and in every part of the body. If we are able to discern 
clearly those functions of impermanence and death which are always 
operating in our bodies, we shall acquire the insight -of the destruction, 
the breaking -up, falling-off, cessation, and changes of the various parts 
of the body in each second, in each fraction of a second. That is to say, 
we will discern the changes of every part of the body, small and great, 
of head, of legs, of hands and so forth and so on. If this be thus dis- 
cerned, then it may be said that the exercise on the contemplation of 
impermanence is well-accomplished. And if the exercise on the contem- 
plation of impermanence is well -accomplished, then that of the contem- 
plation of non-soul is also accomplished. If this is thus discerned, then 
it may be said that the exercise on the contemplation of impermanence 
is well -accomplished. By the word 'accomplished' is meant that the 
exercise has been properly worked out so as to continue a permanent 
possession, during the whole term of life, but it does not mean that the 
knowledge of the path and of fruition has been attained. The attain- 
ment of the knowledge of the path and fruition, however, is quick or 
slow, according to opportunity or lack of opportunity, in the practice of 
higher virtues. It is also very difficult to become correctly aware of the 



60 The Vipassana-Dipani 

attainment of the path and of the fruits. In fact, even the Ariya who 
has attained the first path hardly knows that he has become an attainer 
of the path-of -the- stream. Why? Because of the unfathomableness of the 
latent period of the defilements. Those yogis or meditators who do not 
know the unfathomableness of the latent period of the defilements some- 
times think themselves to be attainers of path-of-the-stream, while as 
yet, their erroneous views and perplexity are only partially, but not 
completely, put away. If error and perplexity, with all their latent states, 
are eradicated by the samuccheda-pahana, they would become the real 
attainers of the path-of-the-stream. The meditators or practisers of insight, 
however, for the whole term of life, must gladly continue in the exercise 
on the contemplation of impermanence until the exercise is systematically 
worked out. Even the arahants do not give up these exercises for the 
securing of tranquillity of mind. If meditators practise these exercises 
for the whole term of life, their knowledge will be developed till they 
pass beyond the puthujjana-bhumi and arrive at the ariya-bhiimi, either 
before death or at the time of death, either in this life or in the life 
following, in which latter they will be reborn as a deva. 

Here the concise Vipassana-Dipani, or the Outline of the Exercises of 
Insight for the Buddhists of Europe comes to a close. It was written in 
Mandalay, while I was sojourning in the Ratanasiri Monastery, where the 
annual meeting of the Society for Propagating Buddhism in Foreign 
Countries took place, and it was finished on the 14th waxing of Taboung 
in the year 2458 B.E, corresponding to 26th February 1915 C.E. 



The 

Patthanuddesa Dipani 

or 

The Buddhist Philosophy 

of Relations 

By Maha-Thera Ledi Sayadaw D. Litt.; Aggamahapandita 

Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw, of 

Masoyein Monastery, Mandalay, Burma. 

Preface to the published book (now out of print) 

Buddhism views the world, with the exception of Nibbana and pannat- 
ti, to be impermanent, liable to suffering, and without soul- essence. So 
Buddhist philosophy, to elaborate the impermanency as applied to the Law 
of Perpetual Change, has from the outset dissolved all things, all pheno- 
mena both psychical and physical, into a continuous succession of happen- 
ings, of states (sabhava) of mind and matter, under the Fivefold Law 
of Cosmic Order (niyama). And the happenings are determined and deter- 
mining, both as to their constituent states and as to other happenings,, 
in a variety of ways, which Buddhist Philosophy expresses by the term 
'paccaya' or 'relations.' One complex happening of mental and material 
states, with its three phases of time— genesis or birth, cessation or death 
and a static interval between— is followed by another happening, wherein 
there is always a causal series of relations. Nothing is casual and fortui- 
tous. When one happening by its arising, persisting, cessation, priority, 
and posteriority, is determined by and determining another happening by 
means of producing (janaka), supporting (upathambhaka), and maintaining 
(antipalana), the former is called the relating thing {paccaya-dhamma), 
the latter the related thing (paccayuppanna-dhamma), and the determin- 
ation or the influence or the specific function is called the correlativity 



62 The Patthanundesa Dipani 

(paccayasatti). As the various kinds of influence are apparently known, 
the relations are classified into the following 24 species: 

1. hetu— condition or root 

2. avammana— object 

3. adhipati— dominance 

4. anantara— contiguity 

5. samanantara— immediate contiguity 

6. sahajali— co-existence 

7. ahhamahha— reciprocity 

8. nissaya— dependence 

9. upanissaya— sufficing condition 

10. pwejata— pre-existence 

11. pacchajata— causal relation of posteriority in time 

12. asevana— habitual recurrence 

13. kamrna—kamma or action 

14. vipaka—efiect 

15. ahdra—food 

16. indriya— control 

17. jhdna— jhana or ecstacy 

18. magga— path 

1 9 . sampayutta— association 

20. vippayiitta— dissociation 

21. atthi— presence 

22. jiatthi— absence. 

23. vigata— abeyance 

24. avigata— continuance 

These 24 species of relations are extensively and fully expounded in 
the seventh and last of the analytical works in the Abhidhamma Pitaka 
of the Buddhist Canon, called the Patthana ('The Eminence'), or the Maha- 
Pakarana (The Great Book'). 

The well-known Ledi Sayadaw Mahathera, D. Litt., Aggamahapandita, 
has written in Pali a concise exposition of these relations known as Pat- 
thanuddesa-dipani, in order to help those who wish to study the Buddhist 
philosophy of relations expounded in The Great Book. In introducing 
these relations to the student of philosophical research before he takes 
the opportunity of making himself acquainted with the methodological 



Preface 63 

elaboration of correlations in The Eminence, the Mahathera deals with the 
subject under three heads: 

1. The Paccayattha-dipana or the Analytical Exposition of Rela- 
tions with their denotations and connotations 

2. The Paccaya-sabhagasangaho or the Synthesis of Relations 

3. The Paccaya-ghatana-nayo or the Synchrony of Relations. 

The following translation has been undertaken with the hope of rend- 
ering the Ledi Sayadaw's work intellgible to the English student. If the 
present translation makes any contribution to the advancement of learn- 
ing and knowledge in the matter of apprehending the general scheme 
of causal laws in terms of 'relations' in the field of Buddhist' philosophy, 
the translator will deem himself well rewarded for his labour. It may, 
however, be necessary to mention here that the original form, sense, 
and meaning of the Venerable Author are, as far as possible, cautiously 
preserved; hence the literal character of the translation— if it appears so— in 
some places. Nevertheless, the translator ventures to hope that any dis- 
crepancy that may have crept in, will be accordingly overlooked. 

In conclusion, it is with great pleasure that I express my indebtedness 
to U Aung Hla, M.A. (Cantab.), Barrister-at-Law who has very kindly, 
amidst his own many duties, taken the trouble of revising the manu- 
script, and has also helped me in getting it through the press and in the 
correction of the proofs.' My thanks are also due to Saya U Ba, M.A., 
A.T.M., for his valuable assistance, and to the printers for their courtesy 
and cooperation. 

Last, but not least, I must gratefully acknowledge the timely help from 
U Ba Than and Daw Tin Tin, of Rangoon, who have voluntarily and 
so generously undertaken to meet the cost of publication of one thousand 
copies of the book, which but for their kind suggestion, would not have 
materialised in this form. 



SAYADAW U NYANA 



Masoyein Monastery, 
Mandalay West, 
February, 1935 



64 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 



1. Hetu-Paccaya or The Relation by Way of Root 

What is the hetu-relation? It is greed (lobha), hate (dosa), dullness (moha), 
and 'their respective opposites, disinterestedness (alobha), amity (adosa), 
intelligence (amoha). All are hetu- relations. 

What are the things that are related by these hetu- relations? Those 
classes of mind and of mental qualities that are in coexistence along 
with greed, hate, dullness, disinterestedness, amity, and intelligence, as well 
as the groups of material qualities which co-exist with the same, are 
the things that are so related. All these are called hetupaccayuppanna 
dhamma, since they arise or come into existence by virtue of the hetu- 
relation. 

In the above exposition, by "the groups of material qualities which 
co-exist with the same" is meant the material qualities produced by 
kamma at the initial moment of the hetu-conditioned conception of a new 
being, as well as such material qualities as may be produced by the hetu- 
conditioned mind during the lifetime. Here by "the moment of cenception" 
is meant the nascent instant of the rebirth-conception, and by "the 
lifetime" is meant the period starting from the static instant of the 
rebirth -conception right on to the moment of the dying-thought. 

In what sense is hetu to be understood? And in what sense paccaya? 
Hetu is to be understood in the sense of root (mulattha); and paccaya in 
the sense of assisting in the arising, or the coming to be, of the pacca- 
yuppanna dhamma or upakarattha. Of these two. mulattha is the state of 
being a root of the root greed and so on, as shown in Mula-yamaka. 
We have illustrated this mulattha in the Miila-yamaka-dipani by the 
simile of a tree. However, we shall deal with it here again. 

Suppose a man is in love with a woman. Now so long as he does not 
dispel the lustful thought, all his acts, words and thoughts regarding this 
woman, will be cooperating with lust (or greed), which at the same time 
has also under its control the material qualities produced by the same 
thought. We see then that all these states of mental and material quali- 
ties have their root in lustful greed for that woman. Hence, by being a 
hetu (for it acts as a root) and by being a paccaya (for it assists in the 
arising of those states of mind and body), greed ishetu-paccaya. The rest 



The Relation by Way of Root 65 

may be explained and understood in the same manner— i.e., the arising 
oi greed by way of desire for desirable things; the arising of hate by 
way of antipathy against hateful things; and the arising of dullness by 
way of lack of knowledge respecting dull things. 

Take a tree as an illustration— we see that the roots of a tree, having 
firmly established themselves in the ground and drawing up sap both 
from soil and water, carry that sap right up to the crown of the tree, 
and so the tree develops and grows for a long time. In the same way, 
greed, having firmly established itself in desirable things and drawing 
up the essence of pleasure and enjoyment from them, conveys that 
essence to the concomitant mental elements, till they burst into immoral 
acts and words. That is to say, greed brings about transgression as re- 
gards moral acts and words. The same is to be said of hate, which by 
way of aversion draws up the essence of displeasure and discomfort, and 
also of dullness, which by way of lack of knowledge cherishes the growth 
of the essence of vain thought on many an object. 

Transporting the essence thus, the three elements, lobha, dosa, and 
moha, operate upon the component parts, so that they become happy 
(so to speak) and joyful at the desirable objects, etc. The component parts 
also become as they are operated upon, while the co-existent material 
qualities share the same effect. Here, from the words sampayutta-dhamme 
abhiharati, it is to be understood that lobha transports the essence of 
pleasure and enjoyment to the concomitant elements. 

Coming now to the bright side— suppose the man sees danger in sensual 
pleasure, and gives up that lustful thought for the woman. In doing so, 
disinterestedness as regards her arises in him. Before this, there took 
place impure acts, words and thoughts having illusion as their root, but 
for the time being these are no longer present and in their stead there 
arise pure acts, words and thoughts having their root in disinterestedness. 
Moreover, renunciation, self-control, jhana-exercise or higher ecstatic 
thoughts also come into being. Disinterestedness (alobha), therefore, is 
known as hetu-paccaya, it being a hetu because it acts as a root, while it 
is a paccaya because it assists in the arising of the concomitant. The 
same explanation applies to the remainder of disinterestedness and also 

Note: Wherever the verb "relate" is used as 'relates to" etc , it should be under- 
stood in the sense of 'is related to', 'are related to\ etc., respectively. 



66 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

to amity and intelligence, -which three are the opposites of greed, hate 
and ignorance respectively. 

Here, just as the root of the tree stimulates the whole stem and its 
parts, so it is with disinterestedness. It dispels the desire for desirable 
things and having promoted the growth of the essence of pleasure void 
of greed it cherishes the concomitant elements with that essence till they 
become so happy and joyful that they even reach the height of jhanic-' 
Path-, or Fruition- pleasure. Similarly, amity and intelligence respectively 
dispel hate and ignorance with regard to hateful and dull things and 
promote the growth of the essence of pleasure void of hate and dullness. 
Thus the operation of the three elements (alobha, adosa, and amoha) lasts 
for a long time, making their mental concomitants happy and joyful. 
The concomitant elements also become as they are operated upon, while 
the co-existent groups of material qualities are affected in the same 
way. 

Here the word lobhavivekasukharasam is a compound of the words lobha, 
viveka, sukha and rasa. Viveka is the state of being absent. Lobhaviveka 
is that which is absent from greed, or, is the absence of greed. Lobhaviveka- 
sukha is the pleasure which arises from the absence of greed. Hence the 
whole compound is defined thus: Lobhavivekasakharasa is the essence of 
pleasure which is derived from the absence of greed. 

What has just been expounded is the Law of Patthana in the Abhi- 
dhamma. Turning to the Law of Suttanta, the two elements of dullness 
■and greed, which are respectively termed nescience and craving, are 
the entire roots of all the three rounds of misery 1 . As to hate, it, being 
the incidental consequence of greed, is only a root of evil. The two ele- 
ments of intelligence and disinterestedness, which are respectively termed 
wisdom and the element of renunciation, are the entire roots for the dis- 
solution of the rounds of misery. As to amity, it, being the incidental 
consequence of disinterestedness, is only a root of good. Thus the six 
roots become the causes of all the states of mind and body, which are 
either co-existent or non-co-existent. Now what has been said is the Law 
of Suttanta. 

End of the Hetu-relation 

See Compendium of Philosophy by S.Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, Page 190. 



The Relation of Object 67 

2. Arammana-Paccaya or the Relation of Object 

What is the Arammana -relation? All classes of consciousness, all states 
of mental concomitants, all kinds of material qualities, all phases of Nib- 
bana, all terms expressive of concepts, are arammana-relations. There is, 
in fact, not a single thing {dhamma) which does not become an object 
of mind and of the mental elements. Stated concisely, object is of six: 
difierent kinds: visible object, audible object, odorous object, sapid object, 
tangible object, and cognizable object. 

Which are those things that are related by the arammana-relations? 
All classes of mind and their concomitants are the things that are relat- 
ed by the arammana-relations. There is indeed not a single class of 
consciousness that can exist without its having an existing {bhiitena) 
or non-existing iabhutena) object. {Bhiitena and abhutena may also be 
rendered here as 'real' and 'unreal', or, as 'present' and 'non-present', 
respectively). 

Here the present visible object is the arammana-paccaya, and is cau- 
sally related to the two classes, good and bad, of consciousness of sight. 
Similarly, the present audible object is causally related to the two classes 
of consciousness of sound; the present odorous object, to the two classes 
of consciousness of smell; the present sapid object to the two classes of 
consciousness of taste; the present three classes of tangible object to the 
two classes of consciousness of touch; and the present five objects of 
sense to the three classes of consciousness known as the triple element 
of apprehension. 2 All these five objects of sense, present, past or future, 
and all objects of thought, present, past, future or outside time, are aram- 
mana-paccaya and are causally related, severally, to the seventy-six: 
classes of consciousness known as mind-cognitions (or elements of com- 
prehension). 

In what sense is 'arammana' to be understood, and in what sense 
'paccaya'? Arammana is to be understood in the sense of 'alambitabba', 
which means that which is held or hung upon, so to speak, by mind 
and mental elements. Paccaya is to be understood in the sense of 'upa- 

2 See Compendium of Philosophy, page 108, n. 3. 



€8 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

karaka,' which means that which assists or renders help (in the arising 
of paccayupparmadhamma.)^ 

Concerning the word 'alambitabba', the function of the 'alambana' of 
minds and their mental factors is to take hold of or to attach to the 
object. For instance, there is in this physical world a kind of metal 
which receives its name of 'ayokantaka' (literally, iron-desire), lodestone, 
on account of its apparent desire for iron. When it gets near a lump of 
iron, it shakes itself as though desiring it. Moreover, it moves itself for- 
ward and attaches itself firmly to the iron. In other cases, it attracts the 
iron, and so the iron shakes itself, approaches the lodestone, and attach- 
es itself firmly to it. Here we see the power of the lodestone, which may 
be taken as a striking representation of the 'alambana' of mind and the 
mental factors. 

They (mind and its concomitants) not only attach themselves to objects, 
but, at the stage of their coming into existence within a personal entity, 
rise and cease every moment, while the objects remain present at the 
avenues of the six doors.4 Thus the rising and ceasing is just like 
that of the sound of a gong, which is produced only at each moment 
we strike its surface, followed. by immediate silence. It is also like that 
of the sound of a violin, which is produced only while we move the bow 
over its strings and then immediately ceases. 

To a sleeping man— while the life-continua are flowing (in the stream 
of thought)— kamma, the sign of kamma and the sign of the destiny 
awaiting him in the succeeding life— which had distinctly entered the 
avenues of the six doors at the time of approaching death in the preceding 
existence— are arammana-relations, and are causally related to (the nine- 
teen classes of) consciousness known as the life-continuum. 

End of the Arammana-relation. 

In this relation, 'paccaya' is generally known as 'arammana' = 'hanger' (as a 
pot-hook) =r 'object'; and 'paccayuppanna' is known as 'arammanika' =r 'hanger-on' 
— 'subject.' (Translator.) 

The six doors of the senses, mind, in Buddhist Philosophy, making the sixth 



The Relation of Dominance 69 

3: Adhipati-Paccaya or the Relation of Dominance 

The relation of dominance is of two kinds: the objective dominance 
and the co-existent dominance. Of these two, what is the relation of ob- 
jective dominance? Among the objects dealt with in the section on the 
arammana-relation there are some objects which are most agreeable, most 
lovable, most pleasing and most regard able. Such objects exhibit the re- 
lation of objective dominance. Here the objects may, naturally, be either 
agreeable or disagreeable; but by 'the most agreeable objects' only those 
objects that are most highly esteemed by this or that person are meant 
as exhibiting this relation. Excepting the two classes of consciousness 
rooted in aversion, 1 the two classes of consciousness rooted in ignorance 
and the tactual consciousness accompanied by pain, together with the 
concomitants of all these, it may be shown, analytically,? that all the 
remaining classes of kama-consciousness, rupa-consciousness, arupa-con- 
sciousness and transcendental consciousness, together with all their 
respective concomitants and all the most agreeable material qualities, are 
paccaya-dhamma. 

Of these, kama-objects are said to exhibit the causal relation of objec- 
tive dominance only when they are highly regarded, otherwise they do 
not. But those who reach the jhana stages are never lacking in high 

1-See Compendium of Philosophy, page 83. 

2 Note by Translator. Dhammato is equal to vatthuto or sarupato or pabhedato. 
Cittuppada has three aspects of meaning. 
Firstly, it means 'consciousness,' as in: 

'Tesarh cittaviyuttanarh yathayogam ito pararh, 

Cittuppadesu paccekam sampayogo pavuccati.' (See Part II, Sangaha). 

Secondly, it means 'genesis of thought', as in: 

'Vithicittani satt'eva: Cittuppada catuddasa: 

Catupannasa vitthhara Pancadvare YatharahanY (See Part IV, Sangaha.) 

Thirdly, it means 'mind and its concomitants,' as in: 

'Cittuppadanam* ice 'evaih Katva sangaham' uttararh, 

Bhumipuggalabhedena Pubbaparaniyamitam.' (See Part IV, Sangaha.) 

In each of these instances, the construction of the compound 'cittuppiida* should also 
he noted. In the first instance, it is constructed as follows: Uppajjatiti uppado. 
Cittam'eva uppado cittuppado; in the second instance, Cittassa uppado cittuppado: in 
the third instance, Uppajjati etena, ti uppado dharamasamuho. Cittaiica uppado ca 
cittuppado. 



70 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

esteem for the sublime jhana they have obtained. Ariyan disciples also 
never fail in their great regard for the transcendental dhamma 3 they 
have obtained and enjoyed. 

What are the things that are related by this relation? The eight classes 
of consciousness rooted in appetite (lobha), the 'eight classes of kamaloka 
moral consciousness, the four classes of inoperative kamaloka conscious- 
ness connected with knowledge, and the eight classes of transcendental 
consciousness— these are the things related by this relation. Here the 
sixfold mundane objects 4 are causally related to the eight classes of 
consciousness rooted in appetite. The seventeen classes of mundane moral 
consciousness are related to the four classes of moral kama-consciousness 
disconnected from knowledge. The first three pairs of the Path and Fruit, 
and Nibbana, together with all those classes of mundane moral conscious- 
ness, are related to the four classes of moral kama-consciousness connect- 
ed with knowledge. The highest— the fourth stage of the Path and Fruit 
of Arahantship— together with Nibbana are related to the four classes of 
inoperative kama-consciousness connected with knowledge. And Nibbana 
is related to the eight classes of transcendental consciousness. 

In what sense is arammana to be understood, and in what sense 
adhipati? Arammana is to be understood in the sense of alambitabba (cf . 
arammana-paccaya) and adhipati iu the sense of adhipaccattha. Then what 
is adhipaccattha? Adhipaccattha is the potency of objects to control those 
states of mind and mental qualities by which the objects are highly 
regarded. It is to be understood that the relating things (paccaya-dhamma 
of arammanadhipati) resemble the overlords, while the related things 
(paccayuppanna-dhamma) resemble the thralls in human society. 

In the Sutasoma Jataka, Porisada, the king, owing to his extreme de- 
light in human flesh, abandoned his kingdom solely for the sake of the 
taste of human flesh and lived a wanderer's life in the forest. Here the 
savour of human flesh is the paccayadhamma of arammanadhipati: and 
King Porisada's consciousness rooted in appetite is the paccayuppana- 
dhamma. 

And again, King Sutasoma, having a very high regard for Truth 5 forsook 

^Note by Translator. Lokuttaradhammas are here meant, i.e., the four pairs made 

up of the four stages of the Path with the Fruit of the same and Nibbana. 
^Sights, sounds, odours, savours, contacts, ideas. 
°Truth here means the sincerity of the promise he had given. Translator. 



The Relation of Dominance 71 

his sovereignty, all his royal family and even his life for the sake of 
Truth, and went to throw himself into the hands of Porisada. In this 
case, Truth is the paccayadhamma and King Sutasoma's moral con- 
sciousness is the paccayuppannadhamma. Thus must we understand all 
objects of sense to which great regard is attached. 

What is the relation of co-existent dominance? Intention or desire-to-do, 
mind 6 or will, energy or effort, and reason or investigation, which have 
arrived at the dominant state, belong to this relation. 

What are the things related by this relation? Classes of mind and of 
mental qualities which are adjuncts of the dominants, and material quali- 
ties produced by dominant thoughts are the things that are related by 
this relation. 

In what sense is sahajata to be understood, and in what sense adhipati? 
Sahajata is to be understood in the sense of sahuppadanattha, and adhipati 
in the sense of abhibhavanattha. Here, a phenomenon, when it appears 
not only appears alone, but simultaneously causes its adjuncts to appear. 
Such a causal activity of the phenomenon is termed the sahuppadanattha. 
And the term abhibhavanattha means overcoming. For instance, King 
Cakkavatti, by his own power or merit, overcomes and becomes lord of 
the inhabitants of the whole continent whom he can lead according to 
his own will. They also become according as they are led. In like manner, 
those four influences which have arrived at the dominant stage become 
lord of, and lead, so to speak, their adjuncts to be at their will in each 
of their respective functions. The adjuncts also become according as 
they are led. To take another example, in each of these masses, earth, 
water, fire, and air, we see that the four elements— extension, cohesion, 
heat, and motion— are respectively predominant, and each has supremacy 
over the other three components and makes them conform to its own 
intrinsic nature 7 . The other three members of the group of four 'elements' 

6 Mind here refers to one of the apperceptions which are usually fifty-five in all, but 
in this connection we must exclude the two classes of dull consciousness as well 
as aesthetic pleasure. The other three dominants are their own concomitants. Translator. 

* In no mass of earth, water, fire, or air, do these 'elements' exist in a state of 
absolute purity. The other 'elements' are always present, but in a very subordi- 
nate proportion. 



72 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

also have to follow after the nature of the [predominant element. In 
the same way, these four dominants, which have arrived at the dominant 
stage through their power, make the adjuncts conform to their own 
intrinsic nature. And their adjuncts also have to follow after the nature 
of the dominants. Such is the meaning of abhibhavana. 

Here some might say: 'If these things, leaving out intention, are to be 
called dominants on account of their overcoming the adjuncts, greed also 
ought to be called a dominant, for obviously it possesses a more over- 
whelming power over the adjuncts than intention.' But to this we may 
reply; Greed is, indeed, more powerful than intention, but only with 
ordinary unintelligent men. With the wise, intention is more powerful 
than greed in overwhelming the adjuncts. If it is assumed that greed is 
more powerful, then how should people, who are in the hands of greed, 
give up the repletion of their happy existence and wealth, carry out the 
methods of renunciation, and escape from the circle of misery? But, 
because intention is more powerful than greed, therefore those people 
who are in the hands of greed are able to give up the repletion of happy 
existence and wealth, fulfil the means of renunciation, and escape from 
the circle of misery. Hence, intention is a true dominant, and not greed. 
The like should be borne in mind— in the same fashion— when intention 
is contrasted with hate, and so forth. 

Let us explain this more clearly. When there arise great and diffcult 
manly enterprises, the accomplishment of such enterprises necessitates 
the arising of these four dominants. How? When ill-intentioned people 
encounter any such enterprise, their intention recedes. They are not willing 
to undertake it. They leave it, having no inclination for it, and even 
say: The task is not within the range of our ability.' As to well-inten- 
tioned people, their intention becomes full of spirit at the sight of such 
a great enterprise. They are very willing to undertake it. They make 
up their mind to accomplish the task, saying: This has been set within 
the orbit of our ability.' A person of this type is so persuaded by his 
intention that he is unable to give up the enterprise during the course 
of his undertaking, so long as it is not yet accomplished. And since this 
is the case the task will some day arrive at its full accomplishment even 
though it may be a very great one. 



The Relation of Dominance 73 

Now, let us turn to the case of men of the indolent class. When they 
come face to face with such a great task they at once shrink from it. 
They shrink from it because they foresee that they will have to go 
through great hardships and also undergo bodily and mental pain if they 
wish to accomplish it. As to the industrious man, he becomes filled with 
energy at the sight of it and wishes to set himself to it. He goes on 
through thick and thin with the performance of the task for any length 
of time. He never turns back from his exertions, nor does he become 
disappointed. What he only thinks about is that such a great task cannot 
be accomplished without unswerving efforts every day and every night. 
And this being the case, the great task will certainly reach its end one 
day. 

Let us take the case of the feeble-minded. They also turn away when 
they see such a great task. They will certainly never think of it again. 
But it is quite different with the strong-minded person. When he sees 
such a task he becomes highly interested in it. He is quite unable to 
dispel the thought of it. He is all the time wrapped up in thoughts about 
the task, -and at its bidding sets himself to it for a long time, enduring 
all kinds of bodily and mental pain. The remainder should hereafter be 
explained in the same manner as the dominant intention above. 

Again a few words about unintelligent men. When they are confront- 
ed with such a task they become blinded. They know not how to begin, 
nor how to go on with the work, nor how to bring it to its end. They 
feel as if they had entered the dark where not a single light of inclina- 
tion towards its performance has been set up to guide them. On the other 
hand— to take the more intellgent case— when a person of this type has 
to tackle such a great task he feels as if he were lifted up to the sum- 
mit of his intellect, whereupon he discerns whence to start and whither 
to end. He also know r s what advantage and blessing will accrue to him 
from its performance. He invents many devices for its easy accomplish- 
ment. He continues on with the work for a long time, and so on and 
so forth. The rest should be explained in the same manner as the domi- 
nant effort— only inserting the words 'with an enormous amount of inves- 
tigation* in place of 'unswerving efforts'. 

Thus, when there arise great and dfficult manly enterprises, these four 
dominants become predominant among the means of their accomplish- 



74 The Patthanuddesa Dlpani 

ment. Owing to the existence of these four dominants there exist disting- 
uished or dignified persons (personages) such as the Omniscient Buddhas, 
the Pacceka Buddhas 8 , the most eminent disciples, the great disciples 
and the ordinary disciples. Owing to the appearance of such personages, 
there also appear, for the general prosperity and welfare of mankind 
numerous 9 arts and sciences, as well as general articles of furniture to 
suit and serve human needs and wants under the canopy of civilization. 

End of the A dhipati -relation. 

4. Anantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Contiguity 

What is the anantara-paccaya? All classes of consciousness and their 
mental concomitants, which have just ceased (in the immediately preced- 
ing instant), are anantara-paccaya. Which are those that are related by 
this paccaya? All classes of consciousness and their mental concomi- 
tants, which have just arisen (in the immediately succeeding instant), are 
related by this paccaya. 

In one existence of a being, the rebirth-consciousness is related to the 
first life-continuum by way of contiguity, and the first life-continuum is 
again related to the second life-continum, and so on with the rest. 

Now with reference to the text, 'When the second unmoral conscious- 
ness arises to the Pure (those of Pure abode, i.e. suddhavasa), etc.,' 
which is expounded in the Dhamma-Yamaka, the ninth chapter of the 
Sixth Book of Abhidhamma, we understand that, as he becomes aware 
of his new body, the first process of thought which occurs to a being 
in his new life is the process of unmoral thought accompanied by a strong 
desire to live the new life, with the idea: 'This is mine; this am I; this 
is myself.' When this process is about to occur,, the life-continuum 
vibrates first for two moments. Next comes the mind-door apprehension, 
and then follows a series of seven apperceptives, accompanied by a strong 
desire to live the new life. Thereafter, life-continua begin to flow again. 
In fact, this being* does not know anything of his present new life. 
He lives, reflecting on what he had experienced in the previous existence. 

That is one who attains Nibbana unaided. 
'Here, Science, Arts, and Handicrafts are meant. 
Ledi Sayadaw here seems to explain the life term of a womb-born being. 



The Relation of Contiguity 75 

The basis of mind, however, is too weak, so that the object also cannot 
be clearly reflected. The object being thus indistinct, there generally 
arise only such classes of consciousness as are conjoined with perplexity. 

After two months or so from the time of impregnation, during which 
period the individual is gradually developing, the controlling powers of 
the eyes, ears, etc., complete their full development. But there being no 
light, and so on, in the womb of the mother, the four classes of cognition- 
visual, auditory, and so on— do not arise. Only the tactile cognition and 
the mind-cognition arise. The child suffers much pain and distress at 
every change of the mother's bodily posture, and much more so while 
he is being born. Even after he has come into the outer world, he has 
to lie very feebly on his back till the delicate body becomes strong enough 
(lit., reaches the state of maturity) to bear itself. During this period, he 
cannot cognize present objects, but his mind generally turns towards the 
objects of his previous existence. If he comes from the hell-world, he 
generally presents an unpleasant face, for he still feels what he had 
experienced in the hell -world. If he comes from the abode of devas, his 
pleasant face not only shines with smiles, but in its joyous expression of 
laugh, as it were, he shows his happiness at some thought of the objects 
of the deva-world 

Furthermore, the members of his body steadily become stronger, and his 
sense-impressions clearer. So he is soon able to play joyfully in his own 
dear little ways. A happy life is thus begun for him; and he begins to 
take an interest in his new life. He takes to and imitates his mother's 
speech. He prattles with her. Thus his senses almost entirely turn to the 
present world, and all his reflections of the previous life fade away. 
That is to say, he forgets his previous existence. 

Do all beings forget their previous existences only at this period of 
life? No, not all beings. Some who are very much oppressed with the 
pain of conception, forget their previous existences during the period of 
pregnancy, some at the time of birth, some at the aforesaid period; some 
during the period of youth, and some in old age. Some extraordinary men 
do not forget for the whole of their lifetime, and there are even some 
who are able to reflect two or three previous existences. They are called 
jatissarasatta, those gifted with the memory of their previous existences. 



76 The Patthanuddesa Dlpani 

Now, to return to our subject. Though the six-door processes of thought 
begin to work after the child has been born, yet the six- door processes 
work themselves out in full action only when the child is able to take 
up present objects. Thus, in every process of thought, every preceding 
consciousness that has just ceased is related to every succeeding con- 
sciousness that has immediately arisen, by way of contiguity. And 
this relation of contiguity prevails throughout the whole span of the re- 
curring existences of an individual, right from the untraceable beginning, 
with unbroken continuity. But only after he has attained the Path of 
Arahantship and has entered the khandha-parinibbana (i.e. the final 
extinction of the Five Aggregates), does this continuum break, or, more 
strictly speaking, cease forever. 

Why is anantara so called, and why paccaya? Anantara is so called 
because it causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to 
succeed in the immediately following instant. Paccaya is so called because 
it renders help. In the phrase 'similar to its own', the word 'similar' is 
meant to express similarity in respect of having the faculty of being 
conscious of an object. And sarammanta means a phenomenon which 
does not occur without the presence of an object. So it has been rendered 
as 'similar in respect of having the faculty', and so forth. 

Also the phrase dhammaniarassa-uppadanaithena expresses the follow- 
ing meaning: 'Though the preceding thought ceases, the conscious 
faculty of it does not become extinct until it has caused the succeeding 
thought to arise.' 

Here it should be borne in mind that the series of paccaya -dhamma 
of this relation resembles a series of preceding mothers, and the series 
of paccayuppanna-dhamma resembles a series of succeeding daughters. 
This being so, the last dying-thought of an Arahant should also cause 
the arising of a rebirth-consciousness. But it does not do so, for, at the 
close of the evolution of existence, all activities of volitions and defile- 
ments (kamma-kilesa) have entirely ceased, and the last dying -thought 
has reached the final, ultimate quiescence. 

End of the Anantara-relation. 

5. Samanantara- Paccaya or the Relation of Immediate Contiguity 

The classifications of the paccaya-dhamma and paccayuppanna-dhamma 



The Relation of Immediate Contiguity 77 

of this relation, are, all of them, the same as those of the anantara- 
paccaya 

In what sense is samanantara to be understood? Samanantara is to be 
understood in the sense of 'thorough immediateness'. How? In a stone 
pillar, though the groups of matter therein seem to unite into one mass, 
they are not without the material quality of limitation or space which 
intervenes between them, for matter is substantial and formative. That 
is to say, there exists an element of space, called mediacy or cavity; 
between any two units of matter. But it is not so with immaterial qua- 
lities. There does not exist any space, mediacy or cavity, between the 
two consecutive groups of mind and mental concomitants. That is to say, 
they (groups of mind and mental concomitants) are entirely without any 
mediacy, because the mental state is not substantial and formative. The 
mediacy between two consecutive groups of mind and mental concomi- 
tants, is also not known to the world. So it is thought that mind is per- 
manent, stable, stationary, and immutable. Hence, samanantara' is -to be 
understood in the sense of 'thorough immediateness'. 

Anantarattha has also been explained in the foregoing relation as Altano 
anantare attasadisassa dliammantarassa iippatianatthena: that is because it 
causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to succeed in 
the immediately following instant. This being so, some such suggestion 
as follows might be put forward: at the time of 'sustained cessation' 1 
(nirodhasamapatti), the preceding consciousness is that of neither-con- 
sciousness-nor -unconsciousness, and the succeding consciousness that of 
neither-consciousness-nor-unconsciousuess, and the succeeding consciousness 
is that of the Ariyan Fruit. Between these two classes of consciousness, 
the total suspension of thought occurs either for one day, or for two, or 
three. . . or even for seven days. Also in the abode of unconscious beings, 
the preceding consciousness is that of decease (cuticitta, the dying-thought) 
from the previous kamaloka; and the succeeding one is that of rebirtli 
(patisandhicitta) in the following kamaloka. Between these two classes 
of consciousness, the total suspension of thought of the unconscious 
being occurs for the whole term of life amounting to five hundred kappas 

^Has been rendered as 'sustained cessation'. Here the cessation is that not only of 
consciousness but also of mental- concomitants and mental qualities, born of mind. 
<Translator.) 



78 The Patthanuddesa Dlpanl 

or great aeons. 

Hence, is it not correct to say that the two classes of preceding 
consciousness are without the faculty of causing to arise something simi- 
lar to themselves in an immediately following instant? The reply to this 
is: No, they are not without this faculty. The faculty has only been 
retarded in its opertion for a certain extended period, through certain 
highly cultivated contemplations and resolutions made. When the preced- 
ing thoughts cease, they cease together with the power, which they 
possess, of causing something to arise similar to themselves. And the 
succeeding thoughts, being unable to arise in continuity at that immedi- 
ate instant, arise only after the lapse of the aforesaid extent of time. It 
cannot be rightly said that they (the preceding thoughts) do not possess 
the faculty of causing to arise something similar to themselves, or that 
they are not anantara -relations only because of a suspension of operation 
of the faculy. For, we do not speak of a king's armies when they are 
not actually in a battle or in the very act of fighting, or while they are 
roaming about, not being required to fight by the king, who at such 
times may say, 'My men, it is not the proper time for you yet to fight. 
But you shall fight at such and such a time.' We do not then say that 
they are not armies or that they have no fighting qualities. In precisely 
the same way, the relation between the two aforesaid preceding thoughts 
is to be understood. 

Here some might say: 'It has just been said in this relation that both 
the relating and the related things, being incorporeal qualities having no 
form whatever and having nothing to do with any material quality of 
limitation (space) intervening between, are entirely without mediacy or 
cavity. If this be so, how shall we believe the occurrence at every 
moment, of the arising and ceasing of consciousness, which has been 
explained in the arammana-paccaya by the illustration of the sound of a 
gong and of a violin? We may answer this question by asserting the 
fact, which is quite obvious in the psychical world, that the various classes 
of consciousness are in a state of continual flux, i.e., in a continuous 
succession of change. It has also been explained, in detail, in the essays 
on Citta Yamaka. 

End of the Samanantara- relations. 



The Relation of Co-Existence 79 

6. Sahajata-Paccaya or the Relation of Co-Existence 

The classifications of the paccaya and paccayuppanna dhamma of this 
relation will now be dealt with. All co-existent classes of consciousness 
and their mental concomitants are each mutually termed paccaya and 
paccayuppanna-dhamma. So also are the mental aggregates of rebirth and 
the basis of mind, which co-exist with rebirth; and so also are the Great 
Essentials, mutually among themselves. All the material qualities born 
of kamma at the moment of rebirth and all the material qualities which 
are born of mind, during life, at the nascent instant of each momentary 
state of consciousness (which is capable of producing material quality), 
are merely termed the paccayuppanna-dhamma, of that co-existent con- 
sciousness. All the material qualities derived from the Great Essentials are, 
however, termed the paccayuppanna-dhamma of the Great Essentials. 

In what sense is sahajata to be understood, and in what sense paccaya? 
Sahajata is to be understood in the sense of co- existence, and paccaya 
in the sense of rendering help. Here, co-existence means that when a 
, phenomenon arises, it arises together with its effect; or, in other words, 
also causes its effect to arise simultaneously. Such is the meaning of 
co-existence implied here. For example, when the sun rises, it rises together 
with its heat and light. And when a candle is burning, it burns together 
with its heat and light. So also, this relating thing, in arisng, arises 
together with related things. 

In the above example, the sun is like each of the mental states; the sun's 
heat like the co-existing mental states; and the sun's light is like the 
co-existing material qualities. Similarly, the sun is like each of the Great 
Essentials; its heat, the co-existing Great Essentials; and its light, the 
co-existing material qualities derived from them. In the example of the 
candle, it should be understood in a similar way. 
End of the Sahajata-relation. 

7. Annamaiina-Paccaya or the Relation of Reciprocity 

What has been spoken of the paccaya-dhamma in rhe classifications 
of the relation of co-existence is here (in this relation) the paccaya a3 
well as the paccayuppanna-dhamma. All states of consciousness and their 
mental concomitants are, reciprocally, the paccaya and the paccayup- 
panna-dhamma; so are the co-existing Great Essentials; so are the mental 



80 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

aggregates of rebirth; and so is the basis of mind or heart-base which 
co-exists with the mental aggregates of rebirth. 

As to the sense implied here, it is easy to understand. However, an 
illustration will not be uninteresting. When three sticks are set upright 
leaning against one another at their upper ends, each of them depends 
on, and is depended on by, the other two. As long as one of them re- 
mains in such an upright position, so long will all remain in the same 
position. And, if one of them falls,, all will fall at the same time. Exactly 
so should this relation of reciprocity be understood. 

Here, if any one should assert that the mental properties are not able 
to arise without consciousness rendering them service as their base, we 
would acknowledge that this is so. Why? Because the function of know- 
ing is predominant among the functions of contact, and so forth, of the 
mental properties, and, in the Dhammapada, as expounded by the Om- 
niscient Buddha, 'mind is predominant' (Manopubbangama Dhamma, 
etc.) And again if anyone holds that consciousness also is not able 
to arise without the mental properties as a correlative, we will support 
this view. They (mental properties) are concomitant factors of conscious- 
ness; therefore consciousness also is not able to arise without its accom- 
panying mental properties. In a similar way are the four Great Essen- 
tials to be understood. But the mental qualities derived from them should 
not be counted as concomitant factors, for they are only derivatives. Then 
are the material qualities of life and those born of food not concomitant 
factors, seeing that they can exercise, individually, the causal relation of 
control and that of food? No, they are not. They may be taken as con- 
comitant factors only when the development is in full swing, but not 
when things are only at the state of genesis. In this relation of recipro 
city, the arising of concomitants at the stage of genesis is a necessary 
factor. 

End of the Afinamanna-relation. 

8. Nissaya Paccaya or the Relation of Dependence 

The relation of dependence is of three kinds: co-existent dependence, 
basic pre-existent dependence, and basic objective pre-existent depen- 
dence. 

Of these, what is the relation of co-existent dependence? The relation 



The Relation of Dependence 81 

of co-existent dependence embraces all those that are already comprised 
in the relation of co-existence. Hence the classifications of relation and 
related things ought here to be understood in the same way as those 
that have already been set out in the section on the relation of co-exist- 
ence. 

And what is the relation of basic pre-existent dependence? There are 
six bases— eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and heart. These six bases, 
during life, are causally related, by way of basic pre-existent dependence, 
to the seven elements of cognition. The material base itself pre-exists and 
serves as a standing ground or substratum, and it is therefore called 'basic 
pre-existent dependence'. Here 'basic' is so called because of its being a 
standing ground or substratum for mind and mental properties. To 
pre-exist' means to exist beforehand— one thought-moment earlier than 
its related thing. 

Here the rebirth consciousness arises in dependence upon the heart- 
base 1 that co-exists with it, for there is no pre-existent physical base at 
that moment. And the first life-continuum arises in dependence upon the 
same heart-base which co-exists with the rebirth-consciousness. The se- 
cond life- continuum arises also in dependence upon the heart-base which 
co-exists with the first life- continuum, and so on with the rest, that is, 
the third life-continuum arises in dependence upon the heart-base that 
co-exists with the second life-continuum, and so on and on, until comes 
the moment of death. Thus should be understood the 'basic pre-existent 
dependence' which relates to the two elements of cognition, the element 
of apprehension and the element of comprehension. 

Just as a violin sounds only when the violin-bow moves across its strings, 
and not otherwise, so also the five senses awake only when the five 
kinds of sense-objects enter the five avenues known as 'five bases', and 
not otherwise. 

The impression is possible only at the static period of the object and 
of the base. On account of the impression, the life-continuum vibrates 
for two moments. And, on account of the vibration of the life-continuum, 
apprehension occurs. On account of apprehension, the five sense-cognitions 
are able to arise. Therefore, the five sense-bases (eye, ear, etc . ) which 
have arisen at the nascent instant of the past sub-consciousness, are the 
^Here (hadayam) is the seat of (citta) thought. 



82 The Patthanuddesa Dlpani 

'basic pre-existent dependences' of the five elements of sense-cognition. 

Now, at the time of death all the six bases come into being only at 
the nascent instant of the seventeenth sub-consciousness, reckoned back- 
ward from the dying-consciousness. No new bases occur after that seven- 
teenth sub-consciousness. So, at the time of death, all sub -consciousness, 
all six-door-process-cognitions and consciousness of decease arise in depen- 
dence upon these, their respective bases that came into being together 
with the seventeenth sub-consciousness which has arisen previously to 
them. This is the causal relation of 'basic pre-existent dependence'. 

What is the causal relation of 'basic objective pre-existent dependence'? 
When one is reflecting and holding the view: 'my mind locates itself 
in dependence upon the matter which is mine, or myself, or my atta', 
through craving, conceit, and error; or when one is reasoning or specu- 
lating thus: 'my mind locates itself in dependence upon matter which is 
impermanence, ill, and no-soul', there arise mind-door cognitions, such 
as determining, and so forth. During that time, each of the material 
bases becomes the standing ground for, and also the object of, each of 
the mind-door cognitions. Therefore, such and such a heart-base is causally 
related to such and such a consciousness and its concomitants, by way of 
basic objective pre-existent dependence. This is the causal relation of 
'basic objective pre-existent dependence'. Hence the relation of depen- 
dence is of three different kinds. 

Here, the dependence by way of Suttanta should also be mentioned. 
We know that men, animals, trees, and so forth, stand or rest on the 
earth; the earth in turn, on the great mass of air; and the air, on the 
limitless empty space underneath. We also know that men establish them- 
selves in houses; bhikkhus, in viharas or monasteries; devas in celestial 
mansions; and so on with the whole universe. Thus should we under- 
stand that everything is causally related to something else by way of 
dependence. 

End of Nissaya-relation 

9. Upanissaya-Paccaya or the Relation of Sufficing Condition 

The relation of sufficing condition is of three kinds: objective suffic- 
ing condition, contiguous sufficing condition and natural sufficing condition. 
Of these three, the first is the same as objective dominance, and the second 
as contiguity. 



The Relation of Sufficing Condition 83 

What is 'natural sufficing condition'? All past, present and future, 
internal and external, classes of consciousness together with their con- 
comitants, all material qualities, Nibbana and concepts (pannatti), are 
natural sufficing conditions, severally related, as the case may be, to 
all the present classes of consciousness and their concomitants. 

Here, the Buddha who passed away and has entered Nibbana, His 
Dhamma, the Fraternity of His sanctified disciples, and the successions 
of the recognized Fraternity, are causally related to us, of later genera- 
tions, by way of natural sufficing condition, for the cultivation of good. 
In the same way, our forefathers, in their respective capacities as parents, 
teachers, wise monks and brahmins, eminent philosophers, and powerful 
and august kings, are also causally related to the succeeding generations 
by way of natural sufficing condition, either for the cultivation of good 
or of evil, or for the experience of pleasure or of pain. For which reason, 
they established or propounded various laws and sayings, moral and 
immoral, and also worldly institutions— both for the welfare and other- 
wise of the succeeding generations. The future generations also follow 
their paths and adopt their customs by doing acts of charity, by observ- 
ing the precepts, and so forth, by practising the moral and social laws 
of the world, by adhering to various religious beliefs, by taking up var- 
ious kinds of occupations, by studying various branches of arts and 
science, by governing hamlets, villages and towns, by being agricultur- 
ists in the field and on the farm, by digging lakes, ponds and wells, by 
building houses, by making carriages and carts, by building boats, steam- 
ers and ships, and by seeking for and accumulating wealth, such as 
silver, gold, precious stones, pearls and so forth and so on. Thus the 
world has developed unceasingly. 

The future Buddha (Metteyya), His Dhamma and His Fraternity are 
natural sufficing conditions, being causally related to the present genera- 
tion, for the acquirement of virtues, and the gaining of merit. Suprem- 
acy, wealth, power, prosperity— which are to be gained in the future- 
are also natural sufficing conditions, related to the present generation for 
the putting forth of efforts of all sorts. The acquirement of happy exist- 
ence and wealth and the attainment of Path, Fruition and Nibbana, 
which are to be enjoyed in the future, are also natural sufficing condi- 
tions, related to the present generation of men for the development of such 



84 The PatthSnuddesa Dipani 

forms of merit as charity, virtue and so on. 

With the hope of reaping crops in winter, men till the soil and sow 
seeds in the rainy season, or they do various kinds of work, which incur 
labour and intellect, with the hope of getting money upon their completion 
of the work. Now, the crops to be reaped and the money to be got, are 
future natural sufficing conditions, related to the acquisition of crops 
and money. In the same manner, most people in the present life do many 
good deeds, realizing that they will reap the fruits of their deeds in 
some life hereafter. In this case, the fruits which will be reaped in future 
are future natural sufficing conditions, related to the deeds done in the 
present life. Deeds done before are also past natural sufficing conditions, 
related to the fruits which are to be reaped in the future. Thus we see 
that the future natural sufficing condition is as large and wide as the 
past. 

The living Buddha, His Dhamma, and so on, are present natural suffic- 
ing conditions, being related to the present living men, devas and Brah- 
mas, and so are living parents to living sons and daughters, and so on. 
The present natural sufficing condition is thus obvious and easy to un- 
derstand. 

Internal natural sufficing conditions are those that exist in an animate 
person, such as the Buddha, and so forth. External natural sufficing con- 
ditions are conditions, such as lands, mountains, rivers, oceans and so 
on, which serve as resting places for the existence of life (sentient be- 
ings); or such as forests, woods, trees, grasses, grains, beans and so forth; 
or such as the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars and so on; or such 
as rain, fire, wind, cold, heat, and so forth, which are useful and ad- 
vantageous to life in one way or another. All these are the more powerful 
sufficing conditions, either for the accomplishment of good or for the 



'Just as a stick, brethren, thrown up into the air, falls now on 
the butt-end, now on its side, now on its tip, even so do beings, 
cloaked in ignorance, tied by craving, running on, wandering, go 
now from this world to the other world, now from the other world 
to this.' 

—Samyutta-nikaya, xv, 2-11. 



The Relation of Sufficing Condition 85 

spreading of evil, either for the enjoyment of pleasures or for the suffering 
of pains. 

Those with an earnest desire to enter Nibbana in the present life 
work out the factors of enlightenment. Those with an ardent hope to 
enter Nibbana in the lives to come when Buddhas will appear fulfil the 
perfections. Here, Nibbana is the more powerful sufficing condition for 
the cultivation of these tasks. 

A large variety of concepts or names-and-notions, commonly employed, 
or found in the Tipitakas of the Buddha, are also sufficing conditions for 
the understanding of many things. 

In fact, all conditioned things here come to be only when there are 
present causes or conditions for the same, and not otherwise. And they 
stand only if there are present causes for their standing; otherwise they 
do not. Therefore, causes or conditions are needed for their arising as 
well as for their maintenance. However, Nibbana and concepts are things, 
unconditioned, without birth and genesis, everlasting and eternal. There- 
fore no causes are needed for their arising and maintenance. 1 

The moral is causally related to that which is moral by way of sufficing 
condition. A clear exposition of this is given in the Patthana, where it 
is said: 'Through faith one gives charity, observes the precepts and so 
on.' Similarly, that moral is causally related to immoral— and unspecified 2 
or unmoral to unmoral— by way of sufficing condition is made clear by 
these expositions: Through lust one commits murder, theft and so on,' 
and 'Through suitable climate and food, one enjoys physical health and 
so forth.' The moral is also causally related to that which is immoral 
by way of more powerful sufficing condition. This is to be understood 
from the following exposition: 'One may give charity, and thereupon 
exalt oneself and revile others. In the same manner, having observed the 

iThat is to say, Nibbana and concepts (or more properly, concept-terms) do not enter 
time, and therefore are not subject to time's nature, change. They do not 'arise', 
therefore they do not 'cease'. They are 'everlasting and eternal' in the sense 
of being extra-temporal, not in the vulgar sense of being endlessly continuous in 
time. 

2 Here abyakata is rendered as 'unspecified* or 'unmoral'. It is explained in the com- 
mentary as Kusala-akusalabhavena akathita, annabhavena kathita, i.e., not to be 
called as moral or immoral, but to be called as 'apart-from-both', i.e., unmoial or 
unspecified. The abyakatadhammas are — All classes of resultant and inoperative 
consciousness and all material qualities, as well as well as Nibbana. Translator. 



86 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

precepts, having attained concentration of mind, and having acquired 
learning, one may exalt oneself and belittle others.' 

The moral is also causally related to that which is unmoral by way 
of more powerful sufficing condition. All good deeds done in the four 
planes (these four planes are the spheres of kama, rupa, ariipa and 
lokuttara), and all actions connected with doing good, are related, by 
way of more powerful sufficing condition, to unmorals of the resultant 
kind, producible at a remote period. Those who practise for the perfection 
of charity, suffer much physical and mental pain. Similarly, those who 
practise for such other perfections (paramita) as of morality, abnegation, 
wisdom, perseverance, patience, sincerity, resolution, love, and resigna- 
tion, suffer the same. It is likewise with those who practise the course 
of jhana and magga ('supernormal thought' and the Path). 

Im morals are also causally related, by way of more powerful sufficing 
condition, to morals. For instance, some on this earth, having done wrong, 
repent their deeds and better themselves to shun all such evil deeds, by 
cultivating such moral acts as giving charity, observing the precepts, 
practising jhana and magga. Thus the evil deeds they have done are 
related, by way of stronger sufficing condition, to the moral acts they 
cultivate later. 

Imm orals are also causally related, by way of more powerful sufficing 
condition, to unmorals. For instance, many people in this world, having 
been guilty of evil deeds, are destined to fall into one of the four planes 
of misery, and undergo pains of suffering which prevail there. Even in 
the present life, some, through their own misdeeds or the misdeeds of 
others, have to bear a great deal of distress. Some, however, enjoy a 
large variety of pleasures with the money they earn by their misconduct. 
There are also many who suffer much on account of lust, hate, error, 
conceit, and so forth. 

Unmorals are also causally related by way of more powerful sufficing 
condition to morals. Having become possessed of great wealth, one gives 
charity, practises for the perfection of good morals, fosters wisdom, and 
practises the religious exercises in a suitable place, such as a monastery, 
a hollow place, a cave, a tree, a forest, a hill, or a village, where the 
climate is agreeable and food is available. 

Unmorals are also causally related by way of more powerful sufficing 



The Relation of Sufficing Condition 87 

conditions to immorals. Being equipped with eyes, many evils are born 
of sight within oneself. A similar explanation applies to our equipment 
with ears, etc.; so also as regards hands, legs, swords, arms, etc. It is 
thus that sufficing condition is of three kinds. 

Sufficing condition by way of Suttanta, 3 may also be mentioned here. 
It is found in many such pasages in the Pitakas as, 'through intercourse 
with virtuous friends', 'through association with sinful companions', 'by 
living in the village', 'by dwelling in the forest', and so forth. In short, 
the five cosmic orders (panca-niyamadhamma) are the stronger sufficing 
conditions relating to the three worlds— the animate world, the inanimate 
world, and the world of space, to go on unceasingly through aeons of 
time. This also has been expounded at length by us in the Niyamadlpani 4 

Why is arammandpanissaya so called? It is so called because the dom- 
inant object acts as a main basis for subjects (arammanika). 

Why is anatarupanissaya so called? It is so called because the preced- 
ing consciousness acts as a main basis for the arising of its immediate 
succeeding consciousness. The preceding consciousness is just like the 
mother, and the succeeding one, the son. Here, just as the mother gives 
birth to the son who owes his existence to her in particular, so also the 
preceding consciousness gives birth to the succeeding one which owes its 
existence particularly to its predecessor. 

Why is pakatupanissaya so called? It is so called because it is naturally 
known to the wise as a distinct sufficing condition. Here, something fur- 
ther requires to be said. The influence of a sufficing condition in conti- 
guity pervades only its immediate successor, but that of a natural suffic- 
ing condition can pervade many remote ones. Therefore, what in this 
present life has been seen, heard, smelt, tasted, touched and experienced 
in days, months, years, long gone by, takes form again at the mind-door, 
even after a lapse of a hundred years, if a sufficient cause is available. 
And so people remember their past, and can utter such expressions 
as 'I saw it before', 'I heard it before', and so on. These beings, whose 

3 That is 'sufficing condition' as set forth in the manner of the Suttas or general 
discourses of the Buddha, as distinguished from the manner in which it is dealt with 
in the Abhidhamma section of the Scriptures. 

^Niyamadipani was written by the late Ven. Ledi Sayadaw and translated into 
English by \ en. U Nyana and Dr. Barua. 



88 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

birth is apparitional 5 , also remember their former existences; likewise, 
some among men, who are gifted with the memory of their former 
existences, can do so. If one out of a hundred thousand objects experienced 
before be met with afterwards, many or, it may be, all of them reappear 
in the process of thought. 

End of the Upanissaya-relation. 

10. Purejata-Paccaya or the Relation of Pre Existence 

The relation of pre-existence is of three kinds: basic pre-existence, 
objective pre-existence, and basic objective pre-existence. 

Of these, the first and the last have already been dealt with under 
the heading of Nissaya in the foregoing section on the Nissaya-relation. 

Objective pre-existence is the name given to the present eighteen kinds 
of material qualities of the determined class (nipphanna) Of- these, the 
present five objects (visible form, sound, and so forth) are causally relat- 
ed, always by way of objective pre-existence, to those thoughts which 
are capable of taking part in the five-door processes. Just as the sound 
of the violin only arises when it is played with a bow, and the sounding 
necessitates the pre-existence of both the violin strings and the violin 
bow, so also those thoughts, which take part in the five-door processes, 
spring into being owing to the presentation of the five objects of sense 
at the five doors, which are no other than the five bases. The presenta- 
tion is possible only when the door and the object are in their static 
stages. Those five objects not only present themselves at the five doors 
of the five senses at that static period, but they also present themselves 
at the mind- door. On this account, the life-continuum vibrates for two 
moments, and then ceases; and the cessation of the life-continuum gives 
rise to a consciousness-series. This being so, the consciousness-series in 
any process cannot arise without the pre-existence of the objects and of 
the bases. The eighteen kinds of determined material qualities are either 
past, because they have ceased, or future, because they have not yet 

^Beings whose coming into existence takes place in any other mode than the 
ordinary one of birth from parents; what occidentals might call 'supernatural beings' 
though not all of them are to be uncerstood as superior to man in any vital respect. 
Many are inferior to man, in power and faculty, as well as in the opportunities open 
to them of winning Nibbana. Translator. 



The Relation of PosNExistence 89 

arisen, or present, inasmuch as they are still existing. All of them, with- 
out distinction, may be objects of the mind-door cognitions. But, among 
them, only the present objects act as objective pre-existence. And if a 
thing in any distant place, or concealed from sight, itself existing, becomes 
an object of mind, it also may be called a present object. 
End of the Purejata-relation. 

11. Pacchajata-Paccaya or the Relation of Post-Existence 

Every posterior consciousness that springs into being, causally relates 
to the still existing group of prior corporeal qualities born of the Four 
Origins 1 (kamma, citta, utu, ahara), by way of post-existence, in helping 
them to develop and thrive. For example, the rainwater that falls every 
subsequent year, renders service by way of post- existence to such vege- 
tation as has grown up in previous years, in promoting its growth and 
development. 

Here, by 'every posterior consciousness' are meant all classes of con- 
sciousness beginning from the first life-continuum to the final dying- 
thought. And, by 'prior corporeal qualities' are meant all corporeal quali- 
ties born of Four Origins starting from the group of material qualities 
born of kamma, which co-exist with the rebirth-conception. 

The fifteen states of the life-continuum, starting serially from the first 
life-continuum which has arisen after the rebirth-conception, causally relate 
by way of post-existence to the group of material qualities born of 
kamma, which co-exist with the rebirth-conception. As to the rebirth- 
conception, it cannot be a causal relation by way of post-existence, for 
it co-exists with the group of corporeal qualities born of kamma. Similarly, 
the sixteenth life-continuum cannot become a causal relation by way of 
post-existence, for it comes into existence only when that group of ma- 
terial qualities reaches the stage of dissolution. Therefore, these are 'the 
fifteen states of the life-continuum' which causally relate as above. 

At the static moment of the rebirth-conception, there spring up two 
groups of material qualities, born of kamma, and born of temperature; 2 

*Here, the origins of material qualities are meant, The word 'origin' is used in the 
sense of Darwin as in the 'Origin of the Species.' 

^Here, utu (lit., season) has been rendered as 'temperature'. It may also be rendered by 
popular acceptance, as 'physical change,' 'caloric energy/ 'heat and cold,' etc. 



90 The Patrhanuddesa Dipani 

and the same at the arrested moment. But at the nascent moment of the 
first life-continuum, three groups spring up: that born of kamma, that' 
born of temperature, and that born of mind. When oja (the nutritive 
essence) of the food eaten spreads all through the body, the corporeal 
nutritive essence absorbs the stimulant and produces a group of material 
qualities. From that time onward, the groups produced by the Four Ori- 
gins spring up incessantly, like the flame of a burning lamp. Leaving 
out the nascent moment, so long as these groups stand at their static 
stage, every one of the posterior fifteen classes of consciousness renders 
them help by way of post-existence. 

Vuddhivirulhiya means 'for the gradual development and progress of 
the series of corporeal qualities born of the Four Origins.' Therefore, if 
they, the four kinds of corporeal groups, are repeatedly related by (lit., 
do repeatedly obtain) the causal relation of post-existence, then they leave 
behind them, when their physical life-term has expired, a powerful energy 
—an energy adequate to produce the development, progress and prosper- 
ity of the subsequent series of groups. 

End of the Pacchajata-relation. 

12, Asevana-Paccaya or the Relation of Habitual Recurrence 

The forty-seven kinds of mundane apperceptions comprising the twelve 
classes of immoral consciousness, the seventeen mundane classes of moral 
consciousness, and the eighteen classes of inoperative consciousness (ob- 
tained by excluding the two cla'sses of consciousness, called 'turning 
towards', avajjana, from the twenty), are here termed the causal relation 
of habitual recurrence. When any one of these arrives at the appercep- 
tional process (i.e., the sequence of seven similar states of consciousness 
in a process of thought) every preceding apperception causally relates 
itself by way of habitual recurrence to every succeeding apperception. 
The related things, paccayuppanna-dhamma, comprise the succeeding 
apperceptions as stated above, as well as the Four Paths. 

In what sense is the term asevana to be understood? It is to be under- 
stood in the sense of habituating by constant repetition or of causing 
its paccayuppanna-dhamma to accept its inspiration, for them to gain 
greater and greater proficiency, energy and force. Here pagunabhava 
means proficiency of the succeeding apperceptional thoughts in their 



The Relation of Habitual Recurrence 91 

apperceptive functions and stages, just as one who reads a lesson many 
times becomes more proficient with each new reading. 

Parivaso literally means perfuming, or inspiring. Just as a silk cloth 
is perfumed with sweet scents, so also is the body of thought, so to speak, 
perfumed, or inspired, with lust, hate, and so forth; or with disinterested- 
ness (arajjana), amity (adussana), and so on. Although the preceding 
apperception ceases, its apperceptional force does not cease, that is, its 
force pervades the succeeding thought. Therefore, every succeeding apper- 
ception, on coming into existence, becomes more vigorous on account 
of the former's habituation. Thus the immediate preceding thought habi- 
tuates or causes its immediate successor to accept its habituation. How- 
ever, the process of habitual recurrence usually ceases at the seventh 
thought, after which either resultant thought-moments of retention follow, 
or subsidence into the life-continuum takes place. 

Here, habitual recurrence, as dealt with in the Suttanta, ought to be 
mentioned also. Many passages are to be found in several parts of the 
Sutta Pitaka. Such are: Satipatthdnam bhdveti: 'one cultivates the earnest 
applications in mindfulness'; Sammappadhdnam bhaveti. 'one cultivates the 
supreme effort'; Sati-sambojjhangam bliaveti: 'one cultivates mindfulness, 
a factor of Enlightenment'; Dhammavicaya- sambo jjhangam bhdveti: 'one 
cultivtes the 'investigation of truth,' a factor of Enlightenment'; Sam- 
mdditthim bhaveti: 'one cultivates the right view'; Sammdsankappam 
bhdveti'. 'one cultivates right aspiration': and so on. In these passages, by 
'bhaveti' is meant, to repeat the effort either for one day, or for seven 
days, or for one month, or for seven months, or for one year, or for 
seven years. 

Moral and immoral actions, which have been repeatedly performed or 
cultivated or many times done in former existences, causally relate by 
way of habitual recurrence to moral and immoral actions of the present 
existence for their greater improvement and worsening respectively. 

The relation which effects the improvement and the worsening respect- 
ively of such moral and immoral actions at some other distant time or 
in some future existence is called sufficing condition, but the one which 
effects this only during the apperceptional process is called habitual 
recurrence. 

In this world, there are clearly to be seen always many incidental 



92 The PaUhanuddesa DIpani 

results or consequences following upon great achievements in art, science, 
literature, and so forth, which have been carried out in thought, word, 
and deed, continuously, repeatedly and incessantly. 

As such a relation of habitual recurrence is found among all transient 
phenomena, manly zeal and effort, exerted for a long period of time, 
have developed to such a high degree that many great and difficult la- 
bours have reached complete accomplishment and that even Buddhahood 
has been attained. 

End of Asevana-relation. 

13. Kamma-Paccaya or the Relationship of Eamma 

The relation of kamma is of two kinds: co-existent kamma and asyn- 
chronous kamma. 

Of these two, all volitions, moral, immoral, and unmoral, which consist 
of three time-phases, constitute the causal relation of co-existent kamma. 
Their related things are: all classes of consciousness and their mental 
concomitants in co-existence with volition, material qualities born of 
kamma which arise simultaneously with the rebirth-conception, and 
material qualities produced by mind during the term of life. 

Past moral and immoral volitions constitute the causal relation of asyn- 
chronous kamma. Their related things are the thirty-seven classes of 
mundane resultant consciousness and their mental concomitants, and all 
the material qualities born of kamma. 

Why is kamma so called? It is so called on account of its peculiar 
function. This peculiar function is nothing but volition (or will) itself, 
and it dominates every action. When any action of thought, word, or 
body takes place, volition (or will) determines, fashions, or causes its 
concomitants to perform their respective functions simultaneously. For 
this reason, volition is said to be predominant in all actions. Thus kamma 
is so called on account of its peculiar function. Or, to define it in ano- 
ther way, kamma is that by which creatures do (or act). What do they 
do then? They do physical work, vocal work, and mental work. Here, 
by 'physical work' is meant standing, sitting, and so forth; stepping 
forward and backward, and so on; and even the opening and the shutt- 
ing of the eye-lids. Vocal work means producing vocal sounds. Mental 
work means thinking wisely or badly, and, in short, the functions of 



The Relationship of Kamma 93 

seeing, hearing, and so forth, with the five senses. Thus all the actions 
of beings are determined by this volition. Therefore it is called kamma. 

Sahajata is that which comes into being simultaneously with its related 
things. Sahajatakamma is a co-existent thing as well as a kamma. Saha- 
jatakamma-paccaya is a causal relation standing (to its effects) by way 
of co-existent kamma. 

Nanakkhanikam is a thing differing in point of time from its effects. 
That is to say, the time when the volition arises is one, and the time 
when its effects take place is another, or, in other words, the volition is 
asynchronous. Hence asynchronous volition is a volition that differs in 
point of time from its effects. So nanakkhanikakammapaccaya is a cau- 
sal relation standing (to its effects) by way of asynchronous kamma. 
The volition which co-exists with the Ariyan Path, only at the moment 
of its ceasing, immediately produces its effect, and so it also is asynchro- 
nous. 

Here, a moral volition such as predominates in charity, for instance, 
is causally related to its co-existent mind and mental qualities, together 
with the material qualities produced by the same mind, by way of co-ex- 
istent kamma. It is also causally related, by way of asynchronous kamma, 
to the resultant aggregates of mind and material qualities born of that 
kamma, which will be brought into existence at a distant period in the 
future. Thus a volition, which is transmuted into a course of action en- 
tailing moral and immoral consequences, is causally related to its related 
things by way of two such different relations at two different times. 

In this asynchronous kamma relation, the kamma signifies quite a 
peculiar energy. It does not cease though the volition ceases, but latently 
follows the sequences of mind. As soon as it obtains a favourable oppor- 
tunity, it takes effect immediately after the dying-thought has ceased, 
by transmuting itself into the form of an individval in the immediately 
following existence. But, if it does not obtain any favourable opportunity, 
it remains in the same latent mode for many hundreds of existences. If 
it obtains a favourable opportunity, then what is called 'sublime kamma' 
takes effect, upon the next existence in the Brahma-loka, by transmuting 
itself into the form of a Brahma- deva, and it is so matured that it 
exhausts itself at the end of this second existence, and does not go any 
further. 

End of Kamma relation. 



94 The Patthanuddesa UipanI 

14. Vipaka-Paccaya or the Relation of Effect 

Thirty-six classes of resultant consciousness and their concomitants 
are the relation of effect. As they are mutually related to one another, 
the related things embrace all of them, as well as the material qualities 
born of kamma at the time of conception, and those produced by the 
resultant consciousness during life. 

In what sense is vipaka applied? It is applied in the sense of vipaccana, 
which means a change of state from infancy or youth to maturity. 
Whose tenderness and maturity are meant? What is meant of the former 
is the infancy of the past volition, which is known as asynchronous 
kamma. By maturity, also, is meant the maturity of the same kamma. 

Here, it should be understood that each volition has four avattha, or 
time-phases— cetanavattha, or the genesis of volition; kammavattha, or 
the continuance of volition; nimittavattha, or the representation of volition, 
and vipakavattha, or the final result. Here, although the volition itself 
ceases, its peculiar function does not cease, but latently follows the series 
of thought. This is called kammavattha, or the continuance of volition. 

When it obtains a favourable opportunity for fruition, the kamma 
represents itself to the person about to die. That is to say, he himself 
feels as if he were giving charity, or observing the precepts, or perhaps 
killing some creatures. If this kamma fails to represent itself, a symbol 
of it is represented. That is to say, he himself feels as if he were in 
possession of the offerings, the gifts, the weapons, and so on, or any 
thing with which he had committed such kamma in the past. Or, some- 
rimes, there is represented to him the sign of the next existence where 
he is destined to open his new life. That is to say, such objects as the 
abodes or palaces of the devas, or the fires of the niraya-worlds, or 
what-not, which— as it will be his lot to obtain, or to experience, such 
in the existence immediately following— enter the fields of presentation 
through the six doors. These are called nimittavattha, the representation 
of the volition. 

Now, how are we to understand the vipakavattha? If a person dies 
with his attention fixed upon one of these three classes of objects, either 
on the kamma itself or on the sign of it, or on the sign of destiny, it is 
said that kamma has effected itself, or has come to fruition, in the 
immediately new existence. It has transmuted itself into a personality, 



The Relation of Food 95 

and appears, so to speak, in the form of a being in the new existence. 
This is called the vipakavattha, or the final result. Here, in the first three 
avattha, the volition is said to be in the state of infancy or youth J 
The last one shows that the volition has arrived in maturity, and can 
effect itself. Therefore, as has been said, vipaccana means a change of 
state from infancy or youth to maturity. Thus vipaka is the name assign- 
ed to the states of consciousness and their concomitants, which are the 
results of the volitions, or to the matured volitions themselves. 

Just as mangoes are very soft and delicate when they are ripe, so also 
the resultant states are very tranquil, since they are inactive and have 
no stimulus. They are so tranquil that the objects of sub-consciousness 
are always dim and obscure. On reviving from sub-consciousness, one 
has no consciousness of what its object was. For this reason, there is no 
possibility of occurrence of a process of thought, which can reflect the 
object of the sub-consciousness thus: 'Such and such an object has been 
met with in the past existence, although, in sleep at night, the sub- 
consciousness takes for its object one of the three classes of objects 
(kamma, the symbols of kamma, and the symbols of one's future destiny), 
which had been experienced before, at the time of approaching death, 
in the immediately preceding existence. Hence it is that one knows 
nothing about any object from a past existence, either in sleep or in 
waking. Thus the mutual relationship by way of inactivity, non-stimula- 
tion, and tranquillity is termed the function of vipaka. 

End of Vipaka-relation. 

15. Ahara-Paccaya or the Relation of Food 

The relation of food is of two kinds: material and immaterial. Of these, 
material food connotes the nutritive essence (or what is called edible 
food), which again is subdivided into two kinds: internal and external. 

All the natural qualities born of the Four Causes 1 , pertaining to those 
creatures who live on edible food, are here the paccayuppanna-dhamma 
related to the two kinds of material food. 

iLedi Sayadaw has not explained the cetanavattha. But it is easy enough to under- 
stand, since it is the commission of the initial volition or kamma. 
iThe Four Causes are (1) kamma, (2) citta (consciousness), (3) utu (temperaturei and 
(4) ahara (nutriment). 



96 The Palthanuddesa Dipani 

As to immaterial food, it is of three different kinds: contact, volitional 
activity of mind, and consciousness. These kinds of immaterial food, or 
paccaya-dhamma are causally related to the co -existent properties, both 
mental and material, which are their corresponding paccayuppanna- 
dhamma. 

In what sense is ahara to be understood? Ahara is to be understood 
in the sense of 'holding up strongly', which means 'causing to exist 
firmly'. That is to say, a relating thing nourishes its related thing so 
as to enable it to endure long, to develop, to flourish, and to thrive, by 
means of support. Though the causal relation of food possesses a produc- 
ing power, the power of support is predominant here. 

Here, the two material foods are called ahara, because they strongly 
hold up the group of internal material qualities born of the Four Causes, 
by nourishing them so that they may exist firmly, endure long, and 
reach uncurtailed the bounds (or limits) of their life-term. 

Contact is an ahara also, because it strongly holds up its co-existent 
things, and enables them to stand firmly and endure long by nourishing 
them with the essence extracted from desirable and undesirable objects. 
Volitional activity of mind, or (in a word) will, is an ahara in that it 
furnishes courage for the execution of deeds, words, and thoughts. And 
consciousness is an ahara also, inasmuch as it predominates in all think- 
ing about an object. These three immaterial foods, in supplying nour- 
ishment to the co-existent mentals, also affect the co-existent materials. 

Ahara here may also be explained after the Suttanta method. Just as 
birds, ascertaining where their quarters are, fly with their wings through 
the air from tree to tree and from wood to wood, and peck at fruits with 
their beaks, thus sustaining themselves through their whole life, so also 
beings— with the six classes of consciousness, ascertaining objects; with 
the six kinds of volitional activity of mind, persevering to get something 
as an object; and with the six kinds of contact, making the essence of 
objects appear— either enjoy pleasure or suffer pain. Or, solely with the 
six classes of consciousness, comprehending objects, they avail themselves 
of forming, or becoming, body and mind. Or, solely with the contacts, 
making objects appear in order that feelings may be aroused through the 
same, they cultivate craving. Or, committing various kinds of deeds 
through craving accompanied by volitions, they migrate (so to speak) 



The Relation of Control 97 

from existence to existence. Thus should be understood how extensive 
the functioning of the different foods is. 

End of the Ahara-relation. 

16. Indriya-Paccaya or the Relation of Control 

The relation of control is of three kinds: co-existence, pre-existence and 
physical life. 

Of these, the paccaya-dhamma of the first kind 1 are the fifteen co-ex- 
istent controls, namely, psychic life, consciousness, pleasure, pain, joy, 
grief, hedonic indifference, faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, rea- 
son, the thought: 'I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown (Nibbana)', the 
thought: 'I-know', and the thought: 1-have-known'. The paccayuppanna- 
dhamma are their co-existent properties, both mental and material. 

The paccaya-dhamma of the second kind are the five sentient organs: 
the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and the body. The paccayupanna- 
dhamma are the five senses together with their concomitants. 

The paccaya-dhamma of the third kind is only one, namely, physical 
life itself. And all kamma-bora material qualities, with the exception - 
of physical life itself, are its paccayuppanna-dhamma. 

In what sense is indriya to be understood? It is to be understood in 
the sense of 'exercising control over'. Over what does it exercise con- 
trol? It exercises control over its paccayuppanna-dhamma. In what 
function? In their respective functions. Psychic life exercises control 
over its co -existent mental properties in infusing life, that is, in the 
matter of their prolongation by continuity. Consciousness exercises control 
in the matter of thinking about an object. The functioning of the rest has 
been explained in our recent indriya-yamaka-dipani. 

Here, some may put a question like this: 'Why are the two sexes 2 
—the female and the male— which are comprised in the category of con- 
trols, not taken in this relation as paccaya-dhamma?' The answer is: 
Because they have none of the functions of a paccaya. A paccaya has 
three kinds of functioning, namely, producing, supporting and maintain- 

1 Of these, the last three are confined to lokuttara alone. And of these three, the 
first is the knowledge pertaining to the First Path, the second that pertaining to 
the last three Paths and the first three Fruitions, and the third pertaining to the 
last Fruition only. 

2 See Compendium, Part VIII. 



98 The Patthinuddesa Dipani 

ing. Here, if A is causally related to B in B's arising, A's functioning 
is said to be that of producing, for had A not occurred, the arising of 
B would have been impossible. The functioning of anantara may be in- 
stanced here. Again, if A is causally related to B in B's existence, develop- 
ment and prosperity, A's functioning is said to be that of supporting, for 
if A did not happen B would not stand, develop and flourish. The relation 
of pacchajata will serve here as an example. And, if A is causally relat- 
ed to B in B's prolongation by continuity, A's functioning is said to be 
that of maintaining, for if A did not exist, B's prolongation would be 
hampered, and its continuity would also be broken. The functioning of 
physical life will illustrate this. 

Now, the two sexes do not execute any one of the said three functions. 
Therefore, they are not taken as a paccaya-dhamma in this relation of 
control. If this be so, must they still be called controls? Yes, they must 
be called controls. Why? Because they have something of controlling 
power. They control the body in its sexual structure (linga), in its 
appearance (nimitta), in its characters (kutta), and in its outward dis- 
positions (akappa). Therefore, at the period of conception, if the female 
sex is produced in a being, all its personality, i.e. the five aggregates 
produced by the Four Causes (kamma, and so forth), tends towards fem- 
ininity. The whole body, indeed, displays nothing but the feminine struc- 
ture, the feminine appearance, the feminine character, and the feminine 
outward disposition. Here, neither does the female sex produce those 
qualities, nor support, nor maintain them. But, in fact, when the body 
(ie. the five aggregates) has come into existence, the sex exercises 
control over it as if it (sex) were giving it the order to become so and 
so. All the aggregates also become in conformity with the sex, and not 
out of conformity. Such is the controlling power of the female sex in 
the feminine structure. In the same manner the male sex exercises control 
in the masculine structure. Thus the two sexes have controlling functions 
in the structures, hence they may be called controls. 

With regard to the heart-base, though it acts as a base for the two 
elements of mind-cognition, it does not control them in any way, for, 
whether the heart is limpid or not, the elements of mind-cognition in a 
person of well-trained mind never conform to it. 
End of the Indriya -relation. 



The Relation of Jhana 99 

17. Jhana-Paccaya or the Relation of Jhana 

The seven constituents of jhana are the paccaya-dhamma in the rela- 
tion of jhana. They are:— vitakka (initial application), vicara (sustain- 
ed application), piti (pleasurable interest), somanassa (joy), domanassa 
(grief), upekkha (hedonic indifference) and ekaggata (concentration in 
the sense of capacity to individualise). All classes of consciousness (with 
the exception of the five senses), their concomitants and material qualities 
in co-existence with the seven constituents, are the paccayuppanna-dham- 
ma here. 

In what sense is jhana to be understood? Jhana is to be understood in 
the sense of closely viewing or actively looking at, that is to say, going 
close to the object and looking at it mentally. Just as an archer— who 
from a distance is able to send or thrust an arrow into the bull's eve 
of a small target— holding the arrow firmly in his hand, making it steady, 
directing it towards the mark, keeping the target in view, and attentively 
looking, or rather aiming at it, sends the arrow through the bull's eye 
or thrusts it into the latter, so also, in speaking of a yogi or one who 
practises jhana, we must say that he, directing his mind towards the 
object, making it steadfast, and keeping the kasina-object in view, thrusts 
his mind into it by means of these seven constituents of jhana. Thus, 
by closely viewing them, a person carries out his action of body, of 
word, and mind, without failure. Here, 'action of body* means going 
forward and backward, and so forth; 'action of word' means making 
vocal expressions, such as the sounds of the alphabet, words and so forth; 
'action of mind' means being conscious of objects of any kind. So no 
deed, such as giving charity or taking life, can be executed by a feeble 
mind lacking the necessary constituents of jhana. It is the same with all 
moral and immoral deeds 

To have a clear understanding of its meaning, the salient characteristic 
mark of each constituent of jhana should be separately explained. Vitakka 
has the characteristic mark of directing the concomitant properties 
towards the object, and it, therefore, fixes the mind firmly to the object. 
Vicara has the characteristic mark of reviewing the object over and over, 
and it attaches the mind firmly to the object. Piti has the characteristic 
mark of creating interest in the object, and makes the mind happy and 
content with it. The three kinds of vedana, i.e, joy, grief and indifference, 



100 The Pafthanudessa Dipani 

have the characteristic marks of feeling the object, and they also fasten 
the mind as regards experiencing the essence of desirable, undesirable 
and neutral objects. Ekaggata has the characteristic mark of concentration 
and it also keeps the mind steadfastly fixed on the object. 

End of the Jhana-relation. 

18. Magga-Paccaya or the Relation of Path 

The twelve path -constituents are the paccaya-dhamma in this relation 
of Magga. They are: Right Views, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right 
Action, Right Livelihood, Right Endeavour, Right Mindfulness, Right 
Concentration, Wrong Views, Wrong Aspiration, Wrong Endeavour, 
and Wrong Concentration. There are, however, no distinct mental pro- 
perties to which to assign the terms Wrong Speech, Wrong Action and 
Wrong Livelihood. These are but other names for the four immoral 
aggregates (akusala-khandha) which appear under the names of lying 
and so forth. Therefore they are not taken as distinct path-constituents. 
All classes of consciousness and mental concomitants conditioned by 
hetu, and all material qualities in co-existence with the hetu-conditioned 
mind, are paccayuppanna-dhamma. 

In what sense is magga to be understood? It is to be understood in 
the sense of path, that is, as the means of reaching the realm of misfor- 
tune or the realm of Nibbana. The eight path-constituents (Right Views, 
and so on) lead to Nibbana. The four wrong path -constituents lead to the 
realm of misfortune. 

Now the functioning of jhana is to make the mind straight, steadfast, 
and ecstatic 1 in the object. 'Ecstatic mind* means mind that sinks into 
the kasina-object, and so forth, like a fish in deep water. The function- 
ing of magga is to make kammic volition in the 'way-in' to the circle 
of existence and bhavanic volition in the 'way-out' of the circle, straight 
and steadfast, issue in a course of action, develop, flourish and prosper, 
and reach a higher plane. This is the distinction between the two relations. 

Here the kammic volition which can produce a rebirth— since it has 
worked out in moral and immoral acts such as taking life, and so forth— 
is spoken of as kammapathapatta. And the bhavanic volition, which arrives 

■^Standing out ot, or going beyond, its norma! mode. 



The Relation of Association 101 

at the higher stages, that is, proceeds from the sensuous stage to the 
transcendental one, through a succession of higher and higher stages, by 
the power of an orderly succession of training-practices (bhavananu- 
kamma), even within the brief period occupied by one bodily posture, is 
spoken of as bhummantarapatta. 

To understand this relation, the characteristic mark of each of the 
path-constituents should also be separately explained in the manner shown 
in the Relation of Jhana. 

End of the Magga-relation 

19. Sampayutta -Relation or the Relation of Association 

The relations of association and dissociation form a pair. So also do the 
relations of presence and absence, and of abeyance and continuance. 
These three pairs of relations are not special ones. They are only men- 
tioned to show that, in the foregoing relations, some paccaya-dhamma 
causally relate themselves to their paccayuppanna-dhamma, by associa- 
tion, and others by dissociation; some by presence and others by absence; 
some by abeyance and others by continuance. 

Here also in such passages as 'atthi ti kho, kaccana, ayam eko anto; 
natthi ti kho dutiyo anto ti',i the words atthi and natthi are meant to 
indicate the heretical views of eternalism and annihilationism. Therefore, 
in order to prevent such interpretations, the last pair of relations is 
mentioned. 

All classes of consciousness and mental properties mutually relate them- 
selves to one another by way of association. In what sense is 'sampa- 
yutta' to be understood? 'Sampayutta' is to be understood in the sense 
of association, or through coalescence, by the four associative means, 
namely, simultaneous arising, synchronous cessation, mono-basic, and 
mono-object. Here, by ekibhavam gato (or coalescence), it is meant that 
the consciousness of sight coalesces with its seven mental properties so 
thoroughly that they all are unitedly spoken of as sight. These eight men- 
tal states are no longer spoken of by their special names, for it is indeed 

1 'Certainly Kaccana, (the soul) exists is the one extreme, and (the soul) does 
not exist, is the second extreme.' 

This is a passage where the problem of soul, self or ego is discussed as to its 
existence or non-existence as a real personal entity. 



102 The PatthSnuddesa Dlpant 

a diffcult matter to know them separately. The same explanation applies 
to the other classes of consciousness. 

End of the Sampayutta-relation. 

20. Vipayutta-Paccaya or the Relation of Dissociation 

The relation of dissociation is of four different kinds: co-existence, basic 
pre-existence^ basic objective pre-existence, and post- existence. Of these 
four, the paccaya and paccayuppanna-dhamma of the co existent disso- 
ciation may be either mental or physical in accordance with what has 
been shown in the relation of co-existence. Therefore a mental is causally 
related to a physical by way of co -existent dissociation, and vice versa. 
A 'mental' here, when spoken of as a paccaya, means the four mental 
aggregates, namely, sensation, perception, mental functionings and con- 
sciousness, during life; and a 'physical' when spoken of as paccayuppanna, 
means material qualities produced by mind. Again a 'physical' when 
spoken of as a paccaya means the heart-base at the moment of conception, 
and a 'mental' when spoken of as paccayuppanna means the four mental 
aggregates belonging to rebirth. 

The remaining three kinds of dissociation have already been explained. 
End of the Vippayutta-relation. 

21. Atthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Presence 

The relation of presence is of seven different kinds: co- existence, basic 
pre-existence, objective pre-existence, basic objective pre-existence, post- 
existence, material food, and physical life-control. 

Of these, the relation of co-existent presence is that of mere co-existence. 
A similar interpretation should be made for the remaining six, for which 
the equivalent relations that have already been explained are to be refer- 
red to. The classifications of relating and related things have already 
been dealt with above in each of the relations concerned. 

Why is atthi-paccaya so called? Atthi-paccaya is so called because it 
causally relates itself to its effect by being present in the three phases 
of time called khana. 

End of the Atthi-relation. 



The Synthesis of Relations 103 

22. Natthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Abeyance 

23. Vigata-Paccaya or the Relation of Absence 

24. Avigata-Paccaya or the Relation of Continuance 

The relation of absence is entirely the relation of contiguity; so is the 
relation of abeyance. The relation of continuance is also the same as the 
relation of presence. The words 'atthi* and 'avigata' have the same 
meaning; so also the words 'natthi' and 'vigata'. 

End of the Natthi-, the Vigata-, and the Avigata-relation. 

25. Paccaya-Sabhago or the Synthesis of Relations 

The synthesis of relations will now be stated. 

The relation of sahajata (co-existence) may be specified as being of 
fifteen kinds, i.e. four superior sahajata, four medium sahajata, and 
seven inferior sahajata. The four superior sahajata comprise ordinary 
sahajata, sahajatanissaya (dependence-in-co-existence), sahajatatthi (co-exis- 
tent presence), and sahajata-avigata (co-existent continuance). The four 
medium sahajata comprise annamanria (reciprocity), vipaka (effect), 
sampayutta (association), and sahajata-vippayutta (co-existent dissociation). 
The seven inferior sahajata comprise hetu (condition), sahajata-dhipati 
(co-existent dominance), sanajata-kamma (co-existent kamma), sahajata- 
hara (co-existent food), sahajatindriya (co-existent control), jhana, and 
magga (way). 

Rupahara, or material food is of three kinds: rupahara (ordinary material 
food), riipaharatthi, and rupaharavigata. 

Rupa-jivitindriya, or physical life-control is of three kinds: rupa-jivit- 
indriya, jivitindriyatthi, and rupa-jivitindnya-avigata. 

The relation of purejata (pre-existence) may be specified as seventeen 
kinds: six vatthu-purejata (basic pre-existence), six arammana- purejata 
(objective pre-existence), and five vattharammana -purejata (basic objective 
pre-existence). Of these, the six vatthu-purejata are vatthu-purejata, 
vatthupurejatanissaya, vatthu-purejatindriya, vatthu-purejata-vippayutta, 
vatthu-purejatatthi, and vatthu-purejata-avigata. The six arammana-pure- 
jata are: arammana-purejata, some arammana, some arammanadhipati> 
some arammana-arammanupanissaya, arammana-purejatatthi, and aram- 
mana-purejata-avigata. The words 'kind' and 'koci' in kind arammanam 
and so forth, are used in order to take in only the present nipphanna- 



104 the Fafthanudessa Dipani 

rupa (material qualities determined by kamma and environment). The five 
vattharammana-purejata are vattharammana-purejata, vattharammana- 
purejata-nissaya, vattharammana-purejata-vippayutta, vattharammana- 
purejatatthi, and vattharammana-purejata-avigata. 

The relation of pacchajata or post-existence may be specified as four 
kinds: pacchajata, pacchajata-vippayutta, pacchajatatthi, and pacchajata- 
avigata. 

The relation of anantara (contiguity) is of seven kinds: anantara, sa- 
manantara, anantariipanissaya, asevana, anatara-kamma, natthi, and 
vigata. Of these, anantarakamma is the volition which appertains to the 
Ariyan Path. It produces its effect, i.e. the Ariyan Fruit, immediately 
after it ceases. 

There are five relations which do not enter into any specification. 
These are: the remaining arammana, the remaining arammanadhipati, 
the remaining arammanupanissaya, all pakatupanissaya, and the remaining 
kind of kamma which is asynchronous kamma. 

Thus the relations expounded in the Great Treatise (Patthana), are 
altogether fifty- four kinds in all. 

Of these relations, all species of purejata, all species of pacchajata, 
material food, and physical life-control are present relations. All species 
of anantara and of nanakkhanika kamma are past relations. Omitting 
Nibbana and term -and-concept— pafinatti— the relations of arammana and 
pakatupanissaya may be classified under the three periods of time: past, 
present and future. But Nibbana and term-and-concept are always out- 
side time. 

These two dhamma— Nibbana and pafinatti (concept)— are both termed 
appaccaya (void of causal relation), asankhata (unconditioned). 1 Why? 
Because they are absolutely void of becoming. Those things or phenomena 
which have birth or genesis are termed sappaccaya (related things), san* 
khata (conditioned things), and paticcasamuppanna (things arising from 
a conjuncture of circumstances). Hence those two dhamma, being void 
of becoming and happening, are truly to be termed appaccaya and asan- 
khata. 

Among things related and conditioned, there is not a single phenomenon 

1. Here, the word appaccaya is not a kammadharaya compound but of the bahubbihi 
class — thus: riatthi paccaya etesam ti appacaya. Asankhata is a kammadharaya 
compound — thus: samkariyante ti sankhata; na sankhata ti asankhata. 



The Synchrony of Relations 105 

which is permanent, lasting, eternal and unchangeable. In fact, all are 
impermanent, since they are liable to dissolution. Why ? Because in com- 
ing into existence they are related to some causes, and their causes are 
also not permanent. 

Are not Nibbana and concept paccaya-dhamma or relating things ? 
Are they not permanent and lasting? Yes, they are so, but no pheno- 
menon happens entirely through Nibbana or concept alone as sole cause. 
Phenomena happen through, or are produced by, many causes which are 
not permanent and lasting. 

Those things which are not permanent are always distressing and 
hurtful to beings with the three kinds of afflictions. Therefore, they are 
looked upon as ill by reason of their being dreadful. Here the three kinds 
of afflictions are 'dukkha-dukkhata' (ill due to suffering), 'sankhara- 
dukkhata' (ill due to conditioning), and 'viparinama-dukkhata' (ill due 
to changeability). All things are impermanent, and are dissolving at every 
moment, even while occupying one posture. 2 Therefore, how can there 
be any essential self or core in creatures and persons, even though, all 
their life through, they imagine themselves to be permanent ? Everything 
is also subject to ill. Therefore, how can there be any essential self or 
core in creatures and persons who are under the oppression of ills, and 
who nevertheless yearn for happiness? Hence all things are void of self 
by reason of the absence of a core. 

To sum up, by expounding the twenty-four relations, the Buddha re- 
veals the following facts: all conditioned things owe their happening 
and becomings or existence to causes and conditions, and none to the 
mere desire or will or command of creatures. And among all the things 
subject to causes and conditions, there is not one that comes into being 
through few causes. They arise, indeed, only through many. Therefore, 
this exposition reaches its culminating point in revealing the doctrine of 
no-soul. 

End of the Synthesis of Relations. 

26. Paccaya-Ghatanaya or the Synchrony of Relations. 

The -synchrony of relations will now be stated. 
The concurrence of causal relations in one related thing is called syn- 
chrony of relations or paccaya-ghatana. All phenomena are called sa- 

2. There are four postures for all beings: sitting, standing, walking and lying down. 



106 The Patthanuddesa Dipant 

paccaya (related to causes), sankhata (conditioned by causes), and patic- 
casamuppanna (arising from a conjuncture of circumstances), because 
in arising and in standing they co-exist with, or have, or are conditioned 
by, these twenty-four causal relations. What, then, are those phenomena? 
They are: one hundred and twenty-one classes of consciousness, fifty- 
two kinds of mental properties, and twenty-eight kinds of material -qua- 
lities. 

Of these, the one hundred and twenty -one classes of consciousness may 
be classified into seven, under the category of dhatu (elements): 

1. element of visual cognition 

2. element of auditory cognition 

3. element of olfactory cognition 

4. element of gustatory cognition 

5. element of tactile cognition 

6. element of apprehension 

7. element of comprehension. 

Of these: 

the two-fold classes of sight-consciousness are called the elements of 

visual cognition; 
the two-fold classes of sound-consciousness are called the elements of 

auditory cognition; 
the two-fold classes of smell-consciousness are called the elements of 

olfactory cognition; 
the two-fold classes of taste-consciousness are called the elements of 

gustatory cognition; 
the two-fold classes of touch-consciousness are called the elements of 

tactile cognition; 
'the adverting of mind towards any of the five doors' (pahcadvara- 

vajjana) and the two-fold classes of 'acceptance of impressions' 

(sampaticchana) are called the elements of apprehension; 
the remaining one hundred and eight classes of consciousness are called 

the elements of comprehension. 
The fifty-two kinds of mental properties are also divided into four 
groups: 

1. seven universals 

2. six particulars 



The Synchrony of Relations 107 

3. fourteen immorals 

4. twenty-five radiants. 
Of the twenty-four relations: 

fifteen relations are common to all the mental states: arammana, 
anantara, samanantara, sahajata, annamanna, nissaya, upanissaya, 
kamma, ahara, indriya, sampayutta, atthi, natthi, vigata and avigata. 

There is not a single class of consciousness or mental property which 
arises without the causal relation of arammana (object). The same holds 
good as regards the remaining causal relations of anantara, samanantara, 
sahajata and so on. 

Eight relations only— hetu, adhipati, purejata, asevana, vipaka, jhana, 
magga and vippayutta— are common to some mental states. Of these, the 
relation of hehi is common only to the classes of consciousness condition- 
ed by hetu; the relation of adhipati is also common only to the apper- 
ceptions (javana) co-existing with dominance (adhipati); the relation of 
purejata is common only to some classes of mind; the relation of asevana 
is common only to apperceptive classes of moral, immoral, and inopera- 
tive consciousness; the relation of vipaka is also common only to the 
resultant classes of mind; the relation of jhana is common to those classes 
of consciousness and mental concomitants which come under the name 
of elements of apprehension and comprehension; the relation of magga 
is common to the classes of mind conditioned by hetu; the relation of 
vippayutta is not common to the classes of mind in ariipaloka; only one 
particular relation of pacchajata is common to material qualities. 

Here is the exposition in detail. The seven universal mental properties 
are: phassa (contact), vedana (sensation), sanna (perception), cetana 
(volition), ekaggata (concentration in its capacity to individualise), jivita 
(psychic life) and manasikara (attention). 

Of these, consciousness may be the relation of adhipati; it may be 
the relation of ahara, and it may also be the relation of indriya; contact 
is the relation of ahara alone; sensation may be the relation of indriya, 
and may also be the relation of jhana; volition may be the relation of 
kamma, and may be the relation of ahara; ekaggata may be the relation 
of indriya; it may be the relation of jhana, and it may be the relation 
of magga also; psychic life is the relation of indriya alone; the two remain- 
ing states— perception and attention— do not become any particular 
relation. 



108 The Pa//hanuddesa Dlpani 

Consciousness by way of sight obtains seven universal mental concom- 
itants, and so they make up eight mental states. All of them are mutu- 
ally related to one another by way of the seven relations: four superior 
sahajata and three of the medium sahajata excluding the relation of 
dissociation. Among these eight mental states, consciousness causally 
relates itself to the other seven by way of ahara and indriya. Contact 
causally relates itself to the other seven by way of ahara; feeling to 
the rest by way of indriya alone; volition, by wayofkamma and ahara; 
ekaggata by way of indriya alone; and psychic life to the other seven, 
by way of indriya. The basis of eye causally relates itself to these eight 
states by way of six species of vatthupurejata. The present visual objects, 
which enter the avenue of that eye-base, causally relate themselves to 
those eight by way of four species of arammana-purejata. Consciousness, 
which is called turning-towards-the-five-doors at the moment of cessation 
just before the arising of sight consciousness, causally relates itself to 
these eight mental states by way of five species of anantara. Moral and 
immoral deeds which were done in former births causally relate them- 
selves to these eight resultant states of good and evil respectively, by way 
of asynchronous kamma. Nescience (avijja), craving (tanha) and grasping 
(upadana)— which co-operated with volition (kamma) in the past existence, 
and dwellings, persons, seasons, foods and so forth, of this present life, 
causally relate themselves to these eight states by way of pakatupanis- 
saya (natural sufficing condition). The six relations— hetu, adhipati, pac- 
chajata, asevana, jhana and magga— do not take part in this class of con- 
sciousness, but only the remaining eighteen relations take part. Just as 
the six relations do not take part— and only the eighteen relations do— 
in consciousness by way of sight, so do they in consciousness by way 
of hearing, smell, and so on. 

End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Five Senses. 

27. Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness Not Accompanied by Hetu 

There are six mental properties termed particulars (pakimuka), vitakka 
(initial application), vicar a (sustained application), adhimokkha (deciding), 
viriya (effort), piti (pleasurable interest), chanda (desire-to- do). Of these, 
initial application takes part in the relation of jhana and in the relation 
of magga. Sustained application takes part in that of jhana alone. Effort 
takes part in the relation of adhipati, in the relation of indriya, and 



The Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness Not Accompanied by Hetu 109 

in the relation of magga. Pleasurable interest takes part in the relation 
of jhana. Desire-to-do takes part in the relation of adhipati. Deciding 
does not take part in any particular relation. 

The ten concomitants, namely, seven universals, initial application, 
sustained application, and deciding from the particulars— obtain in the five 
classes of consciousness, i.e. turning-towards-the-five-doors, the two-fold 
class of acceptance, and the two-fold class of investigation accompanied 
by hedonic indifference. They form eleven mental states in one combi- 
nation. Jhanic function obtains in these three classes of consciousness. 
Sensation, ekaggata, initial application, and sustained application perform 
the function of jhana relation. Consciousness (turning-towards-the-five- 
doors) belongs to the inoperative class, and so does not obtain in the 
relation of vipaka. Asynchronous kamma serves in place of upanissaya. 
So, leaving out jhana from, and inserting vipaka in, the relations which 
have been shown above as not obtainable in the five senses, there are 
also six unobtainable and eighteen obtainble in the consciousness, turning- 
towards-the-five-doors. As for the remaining four resultant classes of 
consciousness, by omitting vipaka, five relations are unobtainable, and, 
by adding vipaka and jhana, nineteen are obtainable. 

Investigating consciousness accompanied by joy obtains eleven mental 
concomitants, namely, the above ten together with pleasurable interest. 
With the consciousness (turning-towards-the- mind -door), eleven concomi- 
tants co-exist, and they are accompanied by effort. They make up twelve 
mental states together with the consciousness. Twelve concomitants, i.e. 
the above ten together with pleasurable interest and effort, co-exist with 
the consciousness of aesthetic pleasure. They make up thirteen mental 
states in combination with the consciousness. Of the three classes of in- 
vestigating consciousness, the one accompanied by joy has one more men- 
tal property (i.e. pleasurable interest) than the other two, in respect of 
the jhana factors: therefore, the unobtainable five and the obtainable 
nineteen relations are the same as in the two classes of investigating 
consciousness accompanied by hedonic indifference. In the consciousness 
(tiirning-towards-the-mind-door), the predominant property is merely 'ef- 
fort', which performs the fimctions of indriya and jhana, but not the 
functions of adhipati and magga. This consciousness, being of the ino- 
perative class, does not obtain the vipaka relation. Therefore, the unob- 
tainable six including vipaka, and the obtainable eighteen including jhana, 



110 The Patthanuddesa DipanI 

are the same as in the consciousness (turning-towards-the-five-doors). The 
relation of vipaka is also not obtained in the consciousness of aesthetic 
pleasure, since it belongs to the inoperative class. But being an appercep- 
tive class, it obtains in the relation of asevana. Therefore, five relations, 
including vipaka, are not obtainable, and nineteen relations including 
asevana, are obtainable. 

End of the Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness Not Accompanied 

by Hetu. 

Synchrony of Relations Is the Immoral Class of Consciousness 

There are twelve classes of immoral consciousness: two rooted in 
nescience, eight rooted in appetite, and two rooted in hate. There are 
fourteen immoral mental properties: moha (dullness), ahirika (shame- 
lessness), anottappa (recklessness of consequences), and uddhacca (distrac- 
tion)— these four are termed the moha-quadruple; lobha (greed), ditthi 
(error), and mana (conceit)— these three are termed the lobha-triple; 
dosa (hate), issa (envy), macchariya (selfishness), and kukkucca (worry)— 
these four are termed the dosa-quadniple; thina (sloth), middha (torpor), 
and vicikiccha (perplexity)— these three are termed the pakinnaka-triple. 
Of these,' the three roots— greed, hate, and dullness— are hetu relations. 
Error is a magga relation. The remaining ten mental properties do not 
become any particular relation. 

Here, the two classes of consciousness rooted in dullness are: con- 
sciousness conjoined with perplexity, and consciousness conjoined with 
distraction. With the first of these two, fifteen mental concomitants co-ex- 
ist. There are the seven universals, initial application, sustained applica- 
tion, effort (from the particulars), the moha-quadruple, and perplexity 
(from the immorals). They make up sixteen mental states in combination 
with consciousness. In this consciousness, i.e. the consciousness conjoined 
with perplexity, the relations of hetu and magga are also obtained. That 
is, dullness acts as the hetu relation; initial application and effort as the 
magga; and, as to ekaggata, as its function would be interferred with by 
perplexity, it does not perform the functions of indriya and magga, but 
it does the function of jhana. Therefore, the three relations (adhipati, 
pacchajata, vipaka) are not obtainable; and the remaining twenty-one 
are obtainable in this consciousness which is conjoined with perplexity. 



Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind 111 

In consciousness conjoined with distraction, there are also fifteen mental 
properties— omitting 'perplexity' and adding 'deciding'. They also make 
up sixteen mental states together with the consciousness. In this con- 
sciousness, ekaggata performs the functions of indriya, jhana and magga. 
Therefore, three relations are not obtainable, whereas twenty-one are 
obtainable. 

Seven universals, six particulars, the moha-quadruple, the lobha-triple, 
sloth and torpor— altogether twenty-two in number, severally co-exist with 
the eight classes of consciousness rooted in appetite. Among these, the 
two roots— greed and dullness— are hetu relations; and the three mental 
states— desire-to-do, consciousness itself and effort— are adhipati relations. 
Arammanadhipati is also obtained here. Volition is the relation of kamma. 
The three foods are the relations of abara. The five mental states: mind, 
sensation, ekaggata, psychic life and effort— are relations of indriya. The 
five jhana factors, i.-e. initial application, sustained application, pleasur- 
able interest, sensation, concentration, are jhana relations. The four magga 
constituents, i.e. initial, application, concentration, error, and effort, are 
magga relations. Therefore only the two relations (pacchajata and vipaka) 
are not obtained. The remaining twenty-two are obtained. 

End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral Class of Conscious- 
ness. 

Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind 

There are ninety-one 'radiant' classes of consciousness. They are: twenty- 
four 'radiant' classes of kama-consciousness, fifteen classes of rupa-con- 
sciousness, twelve classes of ariipa-consciousness and forty classes of 
transcendental consciousness. Of these the twenty-four 'radiant' classes 
of kama-consciousness are: eight classes of moral consciousness, eight 
classes of 'radiant' resultant kind, and another eight classes of 'radiant' 
inoperative kind. 

There are twenty-five kinds of sobhana ('radiant') mental properties: 
alobha (disinterestedness), adosa (amity), amoha (intelligence)— these 
three are termed moral hetu— saddha (faith), sati (mindfulness), 
hiri (prudence), ottappa (discretion), tatramajhattata (balance of mind>, 
kayapassaddhi (composure of mental properties), cittapassaddhi (compo- 
sure of mind), kayalahuta (buoyancy of mental properties), cittaJahuta 



112 The Patthanuddesa Dlpani 

(buoyancy of mind), kayamuduta (pliancy of mental properties), citta-kam- 
maiinata (fitness of work of mind), kaya-pagunnata (proficiency of mental 
properties), citta-pagunnata (proficiency of mind), kayujukata (rectitude 
of mental properties), cittujukata (rectitude of mind), samma-vaca (right 
speech), samma-kammanta (right action), samma-ajiva (right livelihood)— 
the last three are called the three abstinences— karuna (compassion) and 
mudita (sympathetic appreciation)— these last two are called the two 
illimi tables. 

Of these, the three moral hetu are hetupaccaya. Intelligence appears 
under the name of vimamsa in the adhipati relation; under the name of 
pafina in the indriya relation; and under the name of sammaditthi in 
the magga relation. Saddha or faith is the indriya relation. Sati or mind- 
fulness is a satindriya in the indriya relation, and a sammasati in the 
magga relation. The three abstinences (right speech, right action, right 
livelihood) are magga relations. The remaining seventeen mental states 
are not particular relations. 

Thirty-eight mental properties enter into combination with the eight 
moral classes of kama- consciousness (kama=sense desires). They are: 
seven universals, six particulars, and twenty-five sobhana. Of these, 
pleasurable interest enters into combination only with the four classes 
of consciousness accompanied by joy. Intelligence also enters into combi- 
nation with the four classes connected with knowledge. The three ab- 
stinences enter into combination only when moral rules or precepts are 
observed. The two illimitables arise only when sympathising with the 
suffering, or sharing in the happiness, of living beings. In these eight 
classes of consciousness, the dual or triple roots are hetu relations. Among 
the four kinds of adhipati, i.e. desire-to-do, mind, effort, and investigation, 
each is an adhipati in turn. Volition is the relation of kamma. The three 
foods are the relations of ahara. The eight mental states, i.e. mind, sen- 
sation, concentration, psychic life, faith, mindfulness, effort and intelli- 
gence are relations of indriya. The five jhana factors, i.e. initial applica- 
tion, sustained application, pleasurable interest, sensation and concentration 
are relations of jhana. The eight path-constituents, i.e. investigation, 
initial application, the three abstinences, mindfulness, effort and concen- 
tration are relations of magga. Therefore, only the two relations (paccha- 
jata and vipaka) are not obtained in these eight classes of consciousness, 
and the remaining twenty- two are obtained. The three abstinences do not 



Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities 113 

obtain in the eight sobhana classes of inoperative consciousness. As in the 
moral consciousness, two relations are unbtainable and twenty-two are 
obtainable here. The three abstinences and the two illimitables also do 
not obtain in the eight beautiful classes of resultant consciousness. The 
relations unobtainable are three in number, namely, adhipati, pacchajata 
and asevana; and the remaining twenty-one are obtainable. 

The higher classes of rupa, arupa and transcendental consciousness, 
do not obtain more than twenty-two relations. The synchrony of rela- 
tions should be understood as existing in the four moral classes of kama- 
consciousness connected with knowledge. If this be so, then why are 
those classes of consciousness more supreme and transcendental than the 
kama- consciousness? Because of the greatness of asevana. They are fash- 
ioned by marked exercises, and so asevana is superior to them; for this 
reason, indriya, jhana, magga and other relations also become superior. 
When these relations become supreme — each higher and higher than the 
other— those classes of consciousness also become more supreme and 
transcendental than kama-consciousness. 

End of the Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind. 

Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities 

The synchrony of relations in the groups of material qualities will now 
be stated. There are twenty-eight kinds of material qualities:— 

A. Four essential material qualities: 

1. the element of solidity (pathavi) 

2. the element of cohesion (apo) 

3. the element of kinetic energy (tejo) 

4. the element of motion (vayo). the tangible (photthabba): this 

material quality is composed of three essentials, namely, the 
element of extension, ,the element of kinetic energy and the 
element of motion. 

B. Five sensitive material qualities: 

1. the eye (cakkhu) 

2. the ear (sota) 

3. the nose (ghana) 



114 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

4. the tongue (jivha) 

5. the body (kaya). 

C. Five material qualities of sense-fields: 

1. visible form (riipa) 

2. sound (sadda) 

3. odour (gandha) 

4. sapid (rasa). 

D. Two material qualities of sex: 

1. female sex (itthibhava) 

2. male sex (pumbhava). 

E. One material quality of life (jivita). 

F. One material quality of heart-base (hadaya-vatthu). 

G. One material quality of nutrition (ahara). 

H. One material quality of limitation (akasa-dhatu). 
I. Two material qualities of communication: 

1. intimation by the body (kayavifinatti) 

2. intimation by speech (vativinfiatti). 

J. Three material qualities of plasticity: 

1. lightness (lahuta) 

2. Pliancy (muduta) 

3. adaptability (kammafinata). 

K. Four material qualities of salient features: 

1. integration (upacaya) 

2. continuance (santati) 

3. decay (jarata) 

4. impermanence (aniccata). 

Of these, six kinds of material qualities— the four essentials, the mater- 
ial quality of life, and the material quality of nutrition— causally relate 
themselves to the material qualities. Here also the four essentials are 
mutually related among themselves by way of five relations: sahajata, 
annamanna, nissaya, atthi, and avigata; and they are related to the co- 
existent material qualities derived from the latter by way of four relations, 
i.e. excluding annamanna in the above five. The material quality of life 



Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities 115 

causally relates itself to the co-existent material qualities produced by 
kamma by way of indriya. The material quality of nutrition causally 
relates itself to both the co-existent and the non-co-existent material quali- 
ties which are corporeal by way of ahara. 

Again, thirteen kinds of material qualities causally relate themselves 
to the mental states by some particular relations. These material qualities 
are: the five kinds of sensitive material qualities, the seven kinds of 
sense-fields, and the heart-base* Of these, just as a mother is related to 
her son, so also the five kinds of sensitive material qualities are causally 
related to the five sense-cognitions by way of vatthu-purejata, by way 
of vatthu-purejatindriya, and by way of vatthupurejata-vippayutta. And 
just as a father is related to his son, so also the seven sense-fields are 
causally related to the five sense-cognitions and the three elements of 
apprehension by way of arammanapurejata. In the same way, just as a 
tree is related to the deva who inhabits it, so also the heart- base caus- 
ally relates itself to the two elements of apprehension and comprehension 
by way of sahajatanissaya at the time of rebirth, and by way of vatthu- 
purejata and of vatthu-purejata-vippayutta during life. 

There are twenty-three groups of material qualities. They are called 
groups because they are tied up with the material quality of production 
(jati-rupa) into groups, just as hair or hay is tied up with a string. 1 Of 
these, the eight kinds of material qualities, such as, the Four Essentials, 
colour, odour, taste, and nutritive essence, make up the primary octad 
of all material qualities. 

There are nine groups produced by kamma: the vital nonad, the 
basic-decad, the body-decad, the female-decad, the male-decad, the 
eye-decad, the ear-decad, the nose-decad, and the tongue-decad. Of these, 
the primary octad together with the material quality of vitality, is called 
the vital nonad. This primary nonad together with each of the eight 
material qualities, i.e. heart-base and so forth, makes up analogously 
the other eight decads, i.e. base-decad, and so forth. Here the four 
groups: vital nonad, body-decad, and two-fold sex-decad, locate them- 

1 Ledi Sayadaw here makes the number of groups twenty-three instead of twenty- 
one, as in the Compendium. (Cf. Compendium, page 164.) He also makes the groups 
of material qualities produced by thought number eight instead of six, as in the 
Compendium; thus they are here increased by two. (Cf. Paramatthadipani, page 273.) 
Translator. 



J16- The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

selves in a creature, pervading the whole body. Here vital-nonad is 
the name of the maturative fire (pacakaggi) and of the bodily fire 
(kayaggi). Pacakaggi, or maturative fire, is that which locates itself in 
the stomach and matures or digests the food that has been eaten, drunk, 
chewed and licked. Kayaggi, or the bodily fire, is that which locates 
itself by pervading the whole body, and it refines the impure bile, phlegm 
and blood. Through the inharmonious action of these two elements, crea- 
tures become unhealthy, and by their harmonious action they become 
healthy. It is this dual fire (or that vital-nonad) that gives life and good 
complexion to creatures. 

The body-decad makes available pleasurable and painful contact. 
The two-fold sex-decads make available all the feminine characteristics 
to females and all the masculine characteristics to males. The remaining 
five decads are termed partial decads. Of these, the heart-decad, locating 
itself in the cavity of the heart, makes available many various kinds of 
moral and immoral thoughts. The four decads, i.e. eye-decad and so forth, 
locating themselves respectively in the eye-ball, in the interior of the ear, 
in the interior of the nose, and on the surface of the tongue, make avail- 
able sight, hearing, smell, and taste. 

There are eight groups produced by mind: the primary octad, the 
sound-nonad, the nonad of body-communication, the sound-decad of 
speech-communication. Taking these four together with lightness, pliancy 
and adaptability, they make up another four: the undecad of plasticity, 
the sound-dodecad of plasticity, the dodecad of body-communication 
together with plasticity, and the sound-tre-decad of speech-communication 
together with plasticity. The last four are termed plastic groups, and 
the first four are termed primary groups. 

Of these, when the elements of the body are not working harmonious- 
ly, only the four primary groups occur to a sick person, whose mater- 
ial qualities then become heavy, coarse and inadaptable, and consequently 
it becomes difficult for him to maintain the bodily postures as he would 
wish, to move the members of the body, and even to make a vocal reply. 
But when the elements of the body are working harmoniously— there being 
no defects of the body, such as heaviness and so on, in a healthy person— 
the four plastic groups come into existence. Among these four, two 
groups of body -communication occur by means of mind or by moving any 



Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities 117 

part of the body. The other two groups of speech-communication occur 
also on account of mind, when wishing to speak: but when non-verbal 
sound is produced through laughing or crying, only the two ordinary 
sound-groups occur. At other times the first two groups, the primary 
octad and the sound nonad, occur according to circumstances. 

There are four groups produced by physical change: the two primary 
groups (i.e. the primary octad and the sound nonad) and the , two 
plastic groups, i.e. the undecad of plasticity and the sound dodecad 
of plasticity). Now this body of ours maintains itself right on throughout 
the whole life, through a long course of bodily postures. Hence, at every 
moment, there occur in this body the harmonious and inharmonious 
workings of the elements, through changes in the postures, through 
changes in its temperature, through changes of food, air, and heat, 
through changes of the disposition of the members of the body, and 
through changes of one's own exertion and of others. Here also, when 
working harmoniously, two plastic groups occur: and when working 
inharmoniously, the other two primary groups occur. Of the four groups, 
two sound-groups arise when there occur various kinds of sound other 
than that produced by mind. 

There are two groups produced by food: the primary octad and the 
undecad of plasticity. These two groups should be understood as the 
harmonious and inharmonious occurrences of material qualities produced 
respectively by suitable and unsuitable food. 

The five material qualities, namely, the element of space and the four 
salient features of matter, lie outside the grouping. Of these, the element 
of space lies outside the grouping because it is the boundary of the 
groups. As to the material qualities of the salient features, they are left 
aside from grouping, because they are merely the marks or signs of 
conditioned things, through which we clearly know them to be really 
conditioned things. 

These twenty-three groups are available in an individual. The groups 
available in external things are only two, which are no other than those 
produced by physical change. There are two locations of material 
qualities, the internal and the external. Of these two, the internal 
location means the location of a sentient being and the external location 
means the earth, hills, rivers, oceans, trees, and so forth. Therefore 



118 The Patthanuddesa Dipani 

have we said that, in an individual, twenty-three groups, or all the 
twenty-eight kinds of material qualities, are available. 

Now the rebirth- conception and its mental concomitants are causally 
related to the groups produced by kamma at the moment of conception, 
by way of six different relations: the four superior sahajata, the vipaka, 
and vippayutta. But to the heart-base alone, they are causally related by 
seven relations, that is, the above together with the relation of annaman- 
na. Among the mental states at the moment of rebirth, the roots are 
causally related by way of the hetu relation: the volition by way of ahara; 
the controls by way of indriya; the jhana constituents by way of jhana; 
and the path-constituents, by way of Path to the kamma- produced groups. 
The past moral and immoral volitions are causally related by way of 
kamma alone. The first posterior life-continuum, the second, the third, and 
so on and so forth, are causally related to the prior material qualities 
produced by kamma, by way of pacchajata. By pacchajata are meant all 
the species of pacchajata. The past volitions are causally related by way 
of kamma alone. Thus, the mental states are causally related to the 
material qualities produced by kamma, by fourteen different relations. 
Here, ten relations are not obtained, i.e. arammana, adhipati, anantara, 
samanantara, upanissaya, purejata, asevana, sampayutta, natthi and 
vigata. 

During the term of life, mental states which are capable of producing 
material qualities, are causally related to the co-existent material qualities 
produced by them, by five different relations: the four superior sahajata, 
and vippayutta. Among these mental states: hetu are causally related 
by way of hetu, the dominances by way of adhipati, the volition by way 
of kamma, the resultants by way of vipaka, the foods by way of ahara, 
the controls by way of indriya, the jhana factors by way of jhana, the 
path-constituents by way of magga, to the mind-produced material 
qualities. All the posterior mental states are causally related to the prior 
material qualities produced by mind, by way of pacchajata. Thus the 
mental states are causally related to the material groups produced by 
mind, by fourteen different relations. Here also ten relations are not 
obtainable: arammana, anantara, samanantara, annamanfia, upanissaya, 
purejata, asevana, sampayutta, natthi, and vigata. 

During a lifetime, starting from the static phase of conception, all men- 



Patthana 119 

tal states are causally related both to the material groups produced by 
food and to those produced by physical change solely by way of paccha- 
jata. Here again, by pacchajata are meant all the four species of paccha- 
jata. The remaining twenty relations are not obtainable. 

Among the twenty-three groups of material qualities, the four essen- 
tials are mutually related among themselves by way of five different rela- 
tions, namely, four superior sahajata and one annamanna; but to the 
co- existent derivative material qualities by way of the four superior saha- 
jata only. The material quality of nutritive essence is causally related 
by way of ahara, both to the co -existent and the non-co-existent material 
qualities which are corporeal. The material quality of physical life in the 
nine groups produced by kamma is causally related only to the co-exist- 
ent material qualities by way of indriya. Thus the corporeal material 
qualities are causally related to the corporeals by seven different rela- 
tions. As for the external material qualities, they are mutually related to 
two external groups produced by physical change, by way of five dif- 
ferent relations. 

End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities. 

The meaning of the term 'patthana' also will now be explained. 'Pa- 
dhanam thanam ti patthanam': Patthana is the pre-eminent or principal 
cause. In this definition 'padhana' means 'pre-eminent' and the the word 
'thana' means 'condition' or 'cause'. Hence the whole expression means 
the 'pre-eminent cause', 'the actual cause' or 'the ineluctable cause'. 
This is said having reference to its ineluctable effect or result. 1 There 
are two kinds of effect, the direct and the indirect. By 'the direct' 
is meant the primary or actual effect, and by 'the indirect' is meant 
the consequent or incidental effect. Of these two kinds, only the direct 
effect is here referred to as ineluctable, and for this reason: that it never 
fails to arise when its proper cause is established or brought into play. 
And the indirect effect is to be understood as 'eluctable' since it may or 
may not arise even though its cause is fully established. Thus the ineluct- 
able cause is so named with reference to the ineluctable effect. Hence 
the ineluctable or principal cause alone is meant to be expounded in this 
'Great Treatise'. For this reason the name 'patthana' is assigned to the 

1. Elsewhere I have rendered tho word 'paccayuppana' as 'related things'. 



120 The Patthanuddesa Dipanl 

entire collection of the twenty-four relations, and also to the 'Great 
Treatise*. 

And now, to make the matter more clear and simple. 

Say that greed springs into being within a man who desires to get 
money and grain. Under the influence of greed, he goes to a forest where 
he clears a piece of land and establishes fields, yards and gardens, and 
starts to work very hard. Eventually he obtains plenty of money and 
grain by reason of his strenuous labours. So he takes his gains, looks 
after his family, and performs many virtuous deeds, from which also 
he will reap rewards in his future existences. In this illustration, all the 
mental and material states co-existing with greed, are called direct effects. 
Apart from these, all the outcomes, results and rewards, which are to 
be enjoyed later on in his future existences, are called indirect effects. 
Of these two kinds of effects, only the former is dealt with in the Pat- 
thana. However, the latter kind finds its place in the Suttanta discourses: 
if this exists, then that happens; or, because of the occurrence of this, 
that also takes place. Such an exposition is called 'expounding by way 
of Suttanta'. In fact, the three states (greed, hate, and ignorance) are 
called the hetu or conditions, because they are the roots whence spring 
the defilements of the whole animate world, of the whole inanimate world 
and of the world of space. The three other opposite states (disinterested- 
ness, amity, and knowledge) are also called hetu or conditions, since 
they are the roots whence springs purification. In the same manner the 
remainder of the patthana relations are to be understood in their various 
senses. Thus must we understand that all things that happen, occur, 
take place, or produce changes, are solely the direct and indirect effects, 
results, outcomes, or products of these twenty-four patthana relations or 
causes. 

Thus ends the Patthanuddesa Dipani, or The Concise Exposition of 
the Patthana Relations, in these three sections: The Paccayatthadipani 
(The Analytical Exposition of Relations), the Paccayasabhaga-sangaha 
(The Synthesis of Relations), and the Paccayaghatananaya (The Synchrony 
of Relations). 

This concise exposition of relations, 'The Patthanuddesa Dipani', was 
written by The Most Venerable Ledi Arannaviharavasi Maha Thera of 
Monywa, Burma. 



Sammaditthi Dipani 

The Manual of Right 

Views 

By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D. Litt. 

Translated from Pali into Burmese by Ledi Pandita 

U Maung Gyi, M.A. 

(Translated into English by the Editors of 'The Light of the Dhamma'.) 

Part One 

Preamble 

Ditthibandhanabandheyya, 
Tanhasotena vahite 
Satte nayaka taresi 
Bhagavantassa te namo. 

By means of a ship named 'The Noble Eightfold Path', the great leader 
of men, devas and brahmas has rescued beings, who, entangled with wrong 
views, were drifting aimlessly in the current of the ocean of craving. To 
this exalted one I pay my deepest homage. 

1. Three Kinds of Wrong Views 

'0 monks, there are three kinds of beliefs, addicted to which, dis- 
cussing which, and making them their object, some samanas and 
brahmins reach the extremes and become akiriya-ditthi (holders of the 
'view of the inefficacy of action'). What are these three? They are: 

1. pubbekata-hetu-ditthi 

2. issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi 

3. ahetu-apaccaya-ditthi. 



122 Sammaditthi Dlpanl 

1. Pubbekata-ditthi— the view that all sensations enjoyed by beings in the 
present existence are caused and conditioned only by the volitional actions 
done by them in their past existences. 

'Monks, there are some samanas and brahmins who set forth and 
hold the following view: "All bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, 
all bodily and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sen- 
sations enjoyed by beings in the present existence are caused and con- 
ditioned only by the volitional actions done by them in their past ex- 
istences." This view is known as pubbekata-hetu-ditthi.' 

2. Issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi— the view that all sensations in the present 
existence are created by a supreme being or god. 

'Monks, there are some samanas and brahmins who set forth and hold 
the following view: "All bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all 
bodily and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations 
enjoyed by beings in the present existence are created by a supreme 
brahma or god." This is know as issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi.' 

3. Ahetu-apaccaya-ditthi— the view of the 'uncausedness and unconditiona- 
lity' of existence. 

'Monks, there are some samanas and brahmins who set forth and hold 
the following view: "All bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all 
bodliy and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations 
enjoyed by beings in the present life come into existence of their own 
accord and are not caused by jana-kamma (generative kamma) and upat- 
thambhaka-kamma (sustaining kamma)." This is known as ahetu-apac- 
caya-ditthi.' 

2. Refutation of Pubbekata-hetu View 

In the Anguttara Nikaya, Tika-nipata, we have the Omniscient Buddha's 
words: 'Monks, of these three views, there are some samanas and brah- 
mins who hold and set forth the following view: "All bodily and men- 
tally agreeable sensations, all bodily and mentally disagreeable sensations 
and all indifferent sensations enjoyed by beings in the present existence 
are caused only by the volitional actions done by them in their past ex- 
istences." 

'I approach them and ask: "Friends, is it true that you hold and set forth 
this view: 'That all bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all bodily 



Refutation of Issaranimmina-hetu View 123 

and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations enjoyed 
by beings in the present life are caused only by the volitions done by 
them in their past existences ? '" 
To this those samanas and brahmins reply, "Yes, Venerable sir." 
"Then I say to them: "Friends, if that be the case, there will be per- 
sons who, conditioned by volitional actions done by them in their past 
existences 

1. will kill any living being 

2. will steal 

3. will tell lies 

4. will indulge in immoral sexual intercourse 

5. will slander 

6. will use harsh language 

7. will foolishly babble 

8. will be avaricious 

9. will maintain ill-will against others 
10. will maintain wrong views. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who confidently and solely rely 
on the volitional actions done by beings in their past existences and hold 
this view, there cannot arise such mental factors as chanda (desire-to-do) 
and vayama (effort), as to differentiate between what actions should be 
done and what actions should be refrained from. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who cannot truly and firmly 
differentiate between what actions should be done and what actions should 
be avoided, and live without the application of mindfulness and self- 
restraint, there cannot arise righteous beliefs that are conducive to the 
cessation of defilements. 

'Monks, this is the first factual statement to refute the heretical beliefs 
and views advanced by those samanas and brahmins who maintain that 
all sensations enjoyed by beings in the present life are caused and con- 
ditioned only by the volitional actions done by them in the their past 
existences.' 

3. Refutation of Issaranimmana hetu View 

The Buddha declared: 'Monks, of these three views, there are some 
samanas and brahmins who hold and set forth the following view: "All 



124 Sammaditthi Dipan! 

bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all bodily and mentally dis- 
agreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations enjoyed by beings in 
the present existence are created by a supreme brahma or god." 

'I approach them and ask: "Friends, is it true that you hold and set 
forth this view: 'That all bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all 
bodily and mentally disagreeable sensations, and all indifferent sensations 
enjoyed by beings in the present life are created by a supreme brahma 
or god?'" 
To this those samanas and brahmins reply, "Yes, Venerable sir." 
'Then I say to them: "Friends, if that be the case, there will be per- 
sons who, owing to the creation of a supreme brahma or god 

1. will kill any living being 

2. will steal 

3. will tell lies 

4. will indulge in immoral sexual intercourse 

5. will slander 

6. will use harsh language 

7. will foolishly babble 

8. will be avaricious 

9. will maintain ill-will against others 
10. will maintain wrong views. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who confidently and solely rely 
on the creation of a supreme brahma or god, there cannot arise such 
mental factors as desire-to-do and effort, as to differentiate between what 
actions should be done and what actions should be refrained from. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who cannot truly firmly differ- 
entiate between what actions should be done and what actions should 
be refrained from, and live without the application of mindfulness and 
self-restraint, there cannot arise righteous beliefs that are conducive to 
the cessation of defilements. 

'Monks, this is the second factual statement to refute the heretical 
beliefs and views advanced by those samanas and brahmins who main- 
tain that all sensations enjoyed by beings in the present life are created 
by a supreme brahma or god.' 



Refutation of Ahetuka View 125 

4. Refutation of Ahetuka View 

The Buddha declared: 'Monks, of three views, there are some samanas 
and brahmins who hold and set forth the following view: "All bodily 
and mentally agreeable sensations, all bodily and mentally disagreeable 
sensations and all indifferent sensations enjoyed by beings in the present 
life come into existence of their own accord and without the interven- 
tion of generative or sustaining kamma." 

'I approach them and ask: "Friends, is it true that you hold and set 
forth this view: 'That all bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all 
bodily and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations 
enjoyed by beings in the present life come into existence of their own 
accord and are not due to the generative and sustaining kamma ? "* 

'To this those samanas and brahmins reply: "Yes, Venerable sir." 

'Then I say to them: "Friends, if that be the case, there will be per- 
sons who, without any cause or condition 

1. will kill any living being 

2. will steal 

3. will tell lies 

4. will indulge in immoral sexual intercourse 

5. will slander 

6. will use harsh language 

7. will foolishly babble 

8. will be avaricious 

9. will maintain ill-will against others 
10. will maintain wrong views. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who confidently and solely rely 
on "uncausedness and unconditionally" of existence, there cannot arise 
such mental factors as desire-to-do and effort, as to differentiate between 
what should be done and what should be avoided. 

'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who cannot truly and firmly 
differentiate between what should be done and what should not be done, 
and live without the application of mindfulness and self-restraint, there 
cannot arise righteous beliefs that are conducive to the cessation of de- 
filements. 

'Monks, this is the third factual statement to refute the heretical beliefs 
and views advanced by those samanas and brahmins who maintain that 



126 Sammaditthi DipanI 

all sensations enjoyed by beings come into existence of their own accord 
and are not due to the generative and sustaining kamma.' 

5. Three Wrong Views 

In the world there are three evil views. They are: 

1. pubbekata-hetu-ditthi 

2. issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi 
.3. ahetu-apaccaya-ditthi. 

These three wrong views have already been explained and were also 
expounded by the Omniscient Buddha in the Aiiguttara-Nikaya, Tika- 
nipata— Dutiyapannasaka— Dutiya-vagga, first sutta and in the panna- 
sanipata— Mahabodhi-paribbajaka jataka. In some of the suttas, the issara- 
nimmana view is known as issarakarana-vada (view that a supreme 
brahma or god has performed all these) or issarakuttika-vada (view that 
a supreme brahma or god has arranged all these). The Ommiscient Bud- 
dha refuted these three wrong views in conformity with the Truth. I shall 
therefore explain these three wrong views serially, in detail and more 
completely. 

6. Refutation of Pubbekata-hetu View 

a. View that the past volitional actions of beings are sole causes. 

Beings enjoy all bodily and mentally agreeable sensations, all bodily 
and mentally disagreeable sensations and all indifferent sensations. They 
enjoy such sensations as relate to inferiority, superiority, foolishness, 
to one's influence being great or to one's influence being negligible. 
Those who hold the pubbekata-hetu view maintain as follows: 'Con- 
ditioned soley by the volitional actions done by them in their past 
existences, people enjoy such things as agreeableness, disagreeableness, 
satisfactoriness and unsatisfactoriness of life. All these things are not 
created by anyone, nor are they caused by acts done diligently by people 
in the present existence.' 

As this view disclaims the effects of the acts done by the people in 
the present existence, it is unreasonable and grossly mistaken. Hence 
it is called a wrong view. 

Suppose this pubbekata-vada were really true. There are people who 
kill living creatures, only because they are prompted by their past voli- 



Absence of 'Desire-To-Do' And 'Energy' 127 

tional actions. There are also people who, being conditioned by the 
wholesome volitional actions done by them in their past existences, have 
become samanas and brahmins endowed with good conduct. At times these 
samanas and brahmins are prompted by their past volitional actions to 
commit evil deeds. Then they, prompted by their evil actions, kill living 
creatures, take what is not given, indulge in illicit sexual intercourse, 
tell lies, carry tales, use harsh language, uselessly babble, are avaricious, 
maintain ill-will against others, and maintain wrong views. 

In this world there are such things as 'hearing the discourse delivered 
by the wise' and Vise consideration', which are the conditions to be- 
come wise and virtuous. Supposing all wholesome and unwholesome 
volitional actions done by people in the present life are solely caused by 
their past kamma, then those things such as 'hearing the doctrine', 
and 'wise consideration' will become fruitless and useless, because the 
holders of this view believe that 'to become a wise man' or 'to become a 
fool' is solely caused by their past kamma and by no other causes.* 

In reality, people are able to become virtuous samanas or brahmins 
only when they perform such wholesome volitional actions as 'keeping 
company with the wise' and 'hearing the doctrine', and not otherwise. 
We have noticed such states of affairs in our daily lives. As the pub- 
bekata-hetu view disclaims the generative kamma and the sustaining 
kamma, it should be declared as a wrong view. 

This is a way of refutation. 

b. Absence of 'desire-to-do' and * energy*. In the minds of these 
samanas and brahmins who confidently rely on the volitional actions 
done by them in their past existences and hold the same view, who 
hold that this pubbekata-hetu view only is the true view, and who 
hold that other views are false and useless, there cannot arise 'desire- 
to-do' and 'energy' by which they are able to differentiate between 
what should be done and what should be refrained from, because they 
believe that all present actions are caused by their past volitional 
actions and not by 'desire -to-do' or 'energy' exercised by people in the 
present life. 

* Note — This is the 'Doctrine of the Elect" held by certain sects in some faiths even 
today. 



128 Sammaditthi Dipani 

In reality, only when people have good intention and right effort are 
they able to perform what should be done and refrain from what should 
not be done, and not otherwise. We have noticed such states of affairs 
in our daily lives. The view held by those who reject all present causes, 
such as 'desire-to-do' and 'energy* and believe only in the past volitional 
actions, should be taken as a wrong view. 

This is another wav of refutation. 



c. How virtuous practice can be impaired. If desire-to-do and energy to 
perform what should be done and to avoid what should be refrained from 
do not arise in the minds of those people who hold the pubbekata-hetu 
view, they being, unable to perceive what is good and what is evil, remain 
without performing wholesome volitional actions which should be per- 
formed, and on the other hand perform unwholesome volitional actions 
which should be avoided. They having no mindfulness and self-restraint, 
their view cannot be a righteous samana-vada. In the world there are 
such conventional terms as 'samana' (one endeavouring to extinguish 
the passions), 'brahmana' (a person leading a pure, stainless and ascetic 
life), 'virtuous people' and 'people', because these are the people who 
perform what should be performed and avoid what should be avoided. 
The conventional terms of 'righteous person', 'persons leading a pure 
and stainless life' or a 'sappurisa' (worthy man) cannot be applied to 
those who hold this pubbekata-hetu view, because Lo them there is no 
difference between what actions should be done and what should be re- 
frained from, which courses of action are usually practised by household- 
ers, samanas and wise people alike. 

In reality, there are actions which should be refrained from. Some 
people do not always perform wholesome volitional actions which should 
be done, and do those evil actions which should be abstained from. Such 
people are called pakati-manussa (worldings). Some people, having mind- 
fulness and self-restraint, perform good actions and abstain from evil 
actions. They are called 'samana', 'brahmana', or 'sappurisa'. If one 
differentiates between these classes of people— evil ones and wise ones- 
he is said to maintain the right samana view or the right brahmana 
view. As the pubbekata-hetu view disclaims all present causes such as 
mindfulness, etc , and firmly believes in the volitional actions performed 



Exposition of the Word — 'Kammassaka' 129 

by beings in their past existences, only their view should be regarded as 
a wrong view. 
This is the third way of refutation. 

d. The possibility of becoming the holder of the view that all things 
are uncaused or unconditioned. If this pubbekata-hetu- ditthi-vada (view 
of the inefficacy of action) be scrutinized or thoroughly analysed by the 
intelligence of wise people, it will be found that, according to this view, 
in all fields of actions there is nothing worthy for people to do but for 
them to follow the line of least resistance. How ? It is in the following 
manner: those who hold this view reject all actions that should be done 
in the present life and also do not put forth the energy to be exercised 
by the virtuous. They also reject the functioning of energy and 
wisdom. 

They maintain that the benefits relating to the present life and those 
relating to the next existence as declared by the wise are false. In the 
minds of those who hold this wrong view, there cannot arise the mental 
factors of desire-to-do and energy to perform all wholesome actions that 
should be performed by the virtuous. Thus this view becomes akiriya-ditthi 
(the wrong view of the uncaused ness of existence). 

Those who hold this pubbekata-hetu view are, therefore, good for no- 
thing, and resemble a heap of refuse, or a piece of wood. For the reasons 
mentioned above, the Supreme Buddha was able to confute this wrong 
view. 



7. Exposition of the Word— 'Kammassaka' (One whose kamma is his 
own property.) 

A query— Here one may say to another: 'Friend, if it is true that the 
Supreme Buddha had well refuted the pubbekata-hetu view, why and for 
what reason did the Buddha declare the following in the Subha-sutta*? ' 

Kammassaka manavasatta kammadayada, kammayoni, kamrnabhan- 
dhu, kamma patissarana kammam satte vipajjati yadidam hina panita 
bhavaya. 

* Uparipannasa, Vibhariga-vagga, 5th Sutta; also known as Culakarama Sutta. 



130 Sammaditthi DipanT 

Only the wholesome and unwholesome volitional actions done by beings 
are their own properties that always accompany them, wherever they 
may wander in many a becoming or kappa (world-cycle). 

All beings are the heirs of their own kamma. Kamma alone is the 
real relative of all beings. Kamma alone is the real refuge of beings. 
Whatever wholesome and unwholesome actions are done by beings, 
bodily, verbally and mentally, kamma distinguishes them from one another 
as high and low, good and bad, and they become the heirs of their 
kamma. 

The following are the replies to the above question: 

1. Those who maintain the pubbekata-hetu view hold that all plea* 
sures and sufferings experienced by beings in the present life are 
conditioned and caused only by the volitional actions done by them 
in their past existences. They reject all present causes, such as 
energy and wisdom. As this pubbekata-hetu view rejects all pre- 
sent causes, it is known as ekapakkhanina-vada (the view which 
is deprived of one side, i.e. present kamma). 

2. Those who hold the issaranimmana-hetu view maintain that all 
pleasures and sufferings experienced by beings in the present life 
are created by a supreme brahma or god. They reject all past 
and present kamma of beings, so this view is known as ubhaya- 
pakkhahina-vada (the view which is deprived of both sides, i.e. 
both past and present kamma of beings). 

3. Those who hold the ahetu-apaccaya view maintain that all plea- 
sures and sufferings experienced by beings in this life come into 
existence of their own account, and reject all causes whatsoever. 
As this view rejects all causes of existence, it is known as sabba- 
hinavada (the view which is deprived of all, i.e. all kinds of 
causes whatsoever). 

Of these three, the Supreme Buddha, desiring to refute the issaranim- 
mana-vada (the view that all sensations in the present existence are 
created by a supreme brahma or god) and ahetuka-vada (the view of 
the 'uncaused ness and unconditionally' of existence), declared, 'Kam- 
massaka manavasatta kammadayada.' 



Atita-kanimasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which past kamma operate) 131 

Another way of Explanation 

The Buddha, in a general manner, declared: 'Kammassaka satta kam- 
madayada* and not specifically as 'pubbekata kammassaka satta pubbe- 
kata kammadayada'. Here, kammassaka means both past and present 
kamma of beings. If we truly interpret in this way, 'kammassaka' 
will mean 'past and present kamma of beings'. 

8. Three Great Spheres 

Here I shall explain the past and the present kamma. There exist 
three great spheres: 

1. kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which kamma operates) 

2. vlriyasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which energy operates) 

3. pannasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which wisdom operates). 

Kammasadhantya-thana (sphere in which kamma operates). Kammasa- 
dhaniya-thana is subdivided into two parts: 

a. atita-kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which past kamma op- 
erate). 

b. pacuppana-kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which present kam- 
ma operate). 

a. Atita-kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which past kamma operate). 

The following resultant effects being caused and conditioned by the 
volitional actions done by beings in their past existences are called atita- 
kammasadhaniya-thana: 

1. Rebirth in the happy course of existence or in the woeful course 
of existence through the medium of any of the four kinds of pati- 
sandhi.* 

2. Rebirth in a noble family or in an ignoble family, even in the 
happy course of existence. 



* 



There are four kinds of Rebirths. They are: 

1. upapatti-patisandhi (spontaneously-manifesting beings); 2. samdedaja-patisandhi 
(moisture-born beings) 3. andaja-patisandhi (beings born from eggs): and 4. jalabuja- 
patisandhi (beings born from a womb). 



132 Samraadhitthi Dlpani 

3. Presence or absence of any of the sense organs, such as eyes, 
ears, etc. 

4. Endowment with wisdom,: or lack of wisdom at the conception- 
moment. 

5. Deformity or non-deformity. 

The actions performed by beings in the present life cannot cause such 
effects. The beings reborn in the happy course of existence by virtue 
of their past wholesome kamma cannot transform their bodies into those 
of the woeful course of existence by dint of their present actions, such 
as wisdom and energy without the dissolution of their bodies of the happy 
course of existence. In the same way, the beings who are reborn in the 
woeful course of existence by virtue of their past kamma cannot trans- 
form their bodies into those of the happy course of existence by means 
of their present kamma without the dissolution of their bodies of the 
woeful course of existence. No man, deva, brahma or god, by means of 
present kamma, such as wisdom and energy, is able to restore the eye- 
sight of a being whose optical organs have been impaired from the very 
moment of conception owing to that being's past unwholesome kamma. 

Again, when a being's optical organs which he obtained by virtue of 
his past kamma are utterly destroyed by some dangerous causes in the 
present life, no man, deva, brahma or god is able to restore his lost eye- 
sight by means of the man's, deva's, brahma's or god's wisdom and en- 
ergy exercised by him in the present life. The same principle holds good 
for the audible organs, etc., that come into existence owing to the past 
kamma of beings. 

b. Paccuppaiuia-kammasadhaniyathana (sphere in which the present 
kamma operate). 

Here, I shall first expound the pace upanna- kamma (present kamma). 
Briefly speaking, all bodily, verbal and mental actions performed by 
beings in the present life for their happiness or misery are all paccup- 
panna-kamma. Broadly speaking, there exist such actions as agriculture, 
cattle breeding, sheep-farming, trade and commerce. There also exist 
branches of study, such as various types of arts, crafts, etc. Besides, 
there exist the following arts: 



Composite Method of Exposition 133 

Bhiimi-vijja (the art of determining whether the site for a proposed 
house or garden is suitable or not), angavijja (the art of character read- 
ing from marks on the body), nakkhatta-vijja (astronomy), sutamaya- 
panna (knowledge based on learning), cintamaya-panna (knowledge based 
on thinking— philosophy); and bhavana-maya-panna (knowledge based on 
mental development). Those actions, crafts, arts and knowledge men- 
tioned above are called paccuppanna-kamma (present volitional actions). 
Apart from the above-mentioned actions, there also exist a countless num- 
ber of evil actions, stupidity and negligence which cause the destruc- 
tion of life and property, injury to health, defamation and libel, injury 
to morality, and hindrance to progress of knowledge. All these actions 
are present kamma. So there really exist various kinds of actions, some 
of which are profitable and others disadvantageous in the present life. 
These two kinds of actions are within the paccuppanna-kammasadhaniya- 
thana (sphere in which the present kamma operate). 

Missaka-naya. 

Composite method of exposition 

Past kamma is subdivided into three: 

1. mabanta (major karma) 

2. majjhima (medium kamma) 

3. appaka (minor kamma). 

Present kamma is also subdivided into three kinds: 

1. vuddhibhagiya (kamma that will lead to one's prosperity) 

2. thitibhagiya (kamma that will keep one in stability) 

3. hanabhagiya (kamma that will lead to one's decrease.) 

1. Mahantatita-kammamulakatika— three types of persons who are con- 
ditioned by their past major kamma. 

Conditioned by their past major kamma, some people are reborn in 
the families of kings, wealthy people and rich people. Of these, some 
people perform vuddhibhagiya-paccuppana-kamma (present kamma that 
will cause one to prosper). They are prosperous with worldly riches and 
authoritative powers. They rise up from the position they first attain 
and do not go down to a lower position. 



134 Sammaditthi DipanI 

Some people perform thitibhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma (kamma that will 
keep one in normality). Their wealth and glory will be at a standstill; 
they neither rise up nor go down from their normal position. 

Some people perform hanabhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma (kamma that 
will cause their wealth and position to decrease). They lose their pro- 
perty and glory; they are not able to keep their position at normality, 
nor are they able to improve their status. 

2. Majjhimatita-kammamulakatika— three types of persons who are con- 
ditioned by their past medium kamma. 

Cond tioned by their past medium kamma, some people are reborn in 
the families of moderately rich people. Of these, those who perform 
vuddhibhagiya-paccuppanna- kamma are prosperous with wealth and glory 
in the present life. 

Those who perform thitibhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma will be in their 
normal position without having any progress or decrease in wealth and 
standing. 

Those who perform hanabhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma will lose their 
wealth and honour, being unable to keep themselves in normal position, 
let alone improve their status. 

3. Appakakatita-kammamulakatika— three types of persons who are 
conditioned by their past minor kamma. 

Conditioned by their past minor kamma, some people are reborn in 
the families of poor people. Of these, those who perform vuddhibhagiya- 
paccuppanna -kamma increase their wealth. 

Those who perform thitibhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma remain in their 
normal posiiion without any progress or decrease. 

Those who perform hanabhagiya-paccuppanna-kamma cannot remain 
even in their normal position, but will become poorer and poorer. 

Thus there are two great spheres— atita-kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere 
in which the past kamma operates) and paccuppana-kammasadhaniya- 
thana (sphere in which the present kamma operates). 

Yiriyasadhaniya (sphere in which energy operates) and pannasadhaniya- 
thana (sphere in which wisdom operates). 

Viriya (energy) and panria (wisdom) function to help the accomplish- 
ment of the two present kamma. The greater the- energy and wisdom, 



Relations Between Past and Present Kainma and Viriya and Nana 135 

the greater will be the mahanta-kamma (major kamma). If energy and 
wisdom be of medium strength, they are able to cause medium kamma. 
If energy and wisdom be feeble, they are able only to cause minor 
kamma. So, when two kinds of kammasadhaniya-thana (sphere in which 
kamma operates) are great, the spheres in which energy and wisdom 
operate also become great. 



Relations Between Past and Present Kamma and Viriya (Energy) and 

Nana (Knowledge) 

In the case of beings who are thus wandering in the round of rebirths, 
past and present kamma are the primary causes in conditioning hap- 
piness and suffering experienced by beings in the present life. Other 
causes such as kala (time), desa (locality, region), etc., are called secon- 
dary causes. The Buddha, therefore, expounded past and present kamma 
and declared: 'Kammassaka manava satta kammadayada' [Only the 
wholesome and unwholesome volitional actions done by beings are their 
own properties that always accompany them, wherever they may wander 
in many a becoming or kappa (world-cycle). Beings are the heirs of their 
own kamma,] 

When the Buddha expounded the primary causes, that exposition also 
related to the secondary causes. So when He declared 'Kammassaka, 
etc.', and expounded the two kamma— past and present kamma— He 
had thereby explained that these two primary kamma are • conditioned 
by such causes as 'associating with the wise', 'hearing the doctrine' 
and 'practising the Dhamma'. When the Omniscient Buddha declared 
'Kammassaka, etc.', it should be taken that the exposition of that de- 
claration also included the exposition of their elements. 

People like Subha came to the Buddha and related to him their (wrong) 
views on past kamma. With reference to these people the Buddha ex- 
pounded past kamma in the Ciila-kamma-vibhanga-sutta and the Maha- 
kamma-vibhanga-sutta of the Uparipannasa, Majjhima-nikaya. 

People like Singala related to the Buddha their (wrong) views on pre- 
sent kamma. With reference to these types of people, the Buddha ex- 
pounded the present kamma in the Singalovada-sutta of the Digha-nikaya 
and the Vasettha-sutta of the Sutta-nipata. 



136 Sammaditthi DipanI 

In the Attha-nipata and others of the Anguttara-nikaya, the Omniscient 
Buddha gave the explanation of both past and present kamma. 

In regard to those people who do not realise the advantages of energy 
and wisdom, the Omniscient Buddha expounded the advantages of energy 
and wisdom in many hundreds of Suttas. 

Past and present kamma, which cause pleasurable sensations enjoyed 
by beings, cannot exist without the functioning of energy and knowledge. 
So when the Buddha expounded past and present kamrna, it should be 
noted that energy and knowledge were also included in that exposition. 

Energy and knowledge exist only for the coming into existence of, or 
for the accomplisment of those volitional actions. This statement is true, 
because, if there are no actions to be energised, where will energy func- 
tion? And if there be no knowable things, what will knowledge know 
then? It should therefore be noted that where the Buddha expounded 
energy and knowledge, his exposition also included the two kamma 
caused by energy and knowledge. 

Briefly, the benefits enjoyed by beings are as follows: 

1. ditthadhammikattha— benefits enjoyed by beings in the present 
life. 

2. samparayikattha— benefits to be enjoyed hy beings in the future 
existences. 

3. paramattha— supramundane benefits. 

The Tipitaka— the teaching of the Buddha— is conditioned on these three 
classes of benefits. When the Buddha expounded the benefits to be en- 
joyed by beings in the present life, it should be remembered that present 
kamma is expounded in the Pitakas where those benefits are expounded. 
When he expounded the benefits to be enjoyed by beings in the future 
existences, it should be noted that past kamma is expounded in those 
Pitakas also. In some sermons he expounded khandha {groups of exis- 
tence), ayatana (bases), dhatu (elements), sacca (Noble Truths,) and patic- 
casamuppada (Dependent Origination) in connection with sunnata-dhamma 
(doctrine of unsubstantiality). It should also be noted that when the 
Omniscient Buddha expounded these, his exposition included supramundane 
benefits which are the absolute truths. These supramundane benefits also 
have some bearing on ditthadhammikattha (benefits enjoyed by beings 



Exposition of Kammassaka 137 

in the present life) and samparayikattha (benefits to be enjoyed by be- 
ings in the future existences). Therefore it should be borne in mind that 
as the Omniscient Buddha expounded the dhamma relating to sunnata 
(unsubstantiality), the three Pitakas include past and present kamma, 
and that the whole Tipitaka is based on past and present kamma. For 
these reasons, wise people know that when the Buddha declared: 'Kam- 
massaka satta, kammadayada', He also meant thereby: 'nanaviriyassaka- 
satta, nanaviriyadayada' (knowledge and energy are the properties of 
beings are the heirs of their knowledge and energy). 

9. Exposition of 'Kammassaka, etc' 

a. Kammassaka: I shall now briefly explain the phrase 'kammassaka 
satta, kammadayada, kammayoni, kammabandhu, kammappatissarana.' 

'Attano idanti sakanY (one's own is one's own property). 
'Kamma eva sakam ete santi kammassaka' (volitional actions alone 
are the properties of their beings. So they are called 'kammassaka'.) 

The explanation is as follows: People call gold, silver, wealth and 
jewels acquired by them their properties, because they are dealing with 
these properties and these belong to them and to no others. In reality, 
even then, they cannot call these properties their own simply because 
they belong to them, for they can enjoy these properties only in the pre- 
sent life and when they die they will have to leave all these properties 
behind, being unable to carry them to the next existence. In the present 
life also, beings alone are not dealing with their properties, but 'water', 
'fire', 'rulers', 'thieves' and 'enemies' are also dealing with (or have some 
bearing on) their properties by way of destroying them. In reality, only 
wholesome and unwholesome volitional actions done by a being are his 
own properties, inasmuch as these kamma accompany his life-continuum 
maybe for hundreds and thousands of existences to come, and hundreds 
and thousands of world-cycles to come, and relate to him and to no others, 
whether or not there be 'water', 'fire', 'rulers', 'thieves' or 'enemies'. To 
give such an interpretation, the Buddha declared: 'kammassaka satta'. 
The same holds good for the next phrase 'kammadayada'. 

b. Kammadayada: 'kammassadayam adiyantiti kammadayada' (beings 
inherit all the volitional actions done by them in their past and present 
existences. So they are the heirs of their own kamma.; 



138 Sammaditthi Dipanl 

Those who inherit from their parents are called heirs of their parents. 
These people who inherit from their parents cannot be called heirs in the 
true sense. Why? Because things like gold, silver, wealth and jewels 
last only temporarily. So those who inherit these temporary things can- 
not be called the true and real heirs. In reality, beings inherit wholesome 
and unwholesome actions committed by them. So they are the heirs of 
their own kamma. 

c. Kammayoni: 'kammameva yoni etesanti kammayoni' (all beings are 
the descendants of their own kamma). 

d. Kammabandhu; 'kammamevabandhu yesanti kammabandhu' (kamma 
alone is the real relative of all beings). 

Everyone has relatives and friends. They cannot be called the true 
and real friends, because they are so only temporarily. Kamma alone 
is, therefore, the only real relative of all beings. 

'Kammeva patissaranam yesanti kammappatissarana' (kamma alone is 
the real refuge of all beings) whatever wholesome or unwholesome actions 
are done by beings bodily, verbally, or mentally, they become the heirs 
of that kamma. 

e. Kammappatissarana: People go for refuge to various gods who are 
called their patissarana (refuge). To those who go for refuge to Vishnu, 
Vishnu is their patissarana. To those who go for refuge to Rama, Rama 
is their patissarana. To those who go for refuge to the Triple Gem, the 
Triple Gem is their patissarana. 

So-called gods like Vishnu, Rama, etc., are called patissarana because 
people go for refuge to them and rely on them, but they cannot be real 
refuges, for they themselves are not permanent.* In fact, volitional actions 
done by beings and which accompany their life-continua for however 
many world-cycles they may wander more in this round of rebirths and 
not any 'god' whatsoever are the only real refuge. This statement is 
true. People go for refuge to the Buddha. They do so to acquire whole- 
some merit and also to acquire the result of panna-patisamyutta-kamma 

* And this applies of course to all 'gods' under whatsoever name they are wor- 
shipped and whatever powers are attributed to them by the more devout of their 
followers. 



Exposition of Kammassaka 139 

(volitional actions connected with wisdom). In reality, only punna-kamma 
(merit of deeds) and panna-kamma (result of actions connected with know- 
ledge or wisdom) which are attained by beings in taking refuge in the 
Buddha are their real refuge. 

f. Kammassaka, etc., in relation to present kamma. As regard pre- 
sent kamma, in the present life all people earn their livelihood by per- 
forming such actions as trading, agriculture, etc. These present actions 
of the people being their properties, the people are called 'kammassaka'. 
As they inherit this present kamma, they are called their heirs (kamma- 
dayada). As the present kamma are the root-causes of 'the modes of 
generation', they are called 'kammayoni'. As these present kamma 
are their relatives, they are called 'kammabandhu*. As these present 
kamma are their refuge, they are called 'kammapatissarana'. 

When the Buddha expounded kamma as a fundamental thing, that ex- 
position covers the explanations of such other auxiliary causes as kalyana- 
mitta (friendship with the good and virtuous), panditasevana (association 
with the wise) and dhammapatipatti (practice according to. the teaching 
of the Buddha), all of which are conducive to the accomplishment of that 
> kamma. 

A scientific explanation: By the declaration 'kammassaka satta kam- 
madayada', the Buddha also meant the following: 'Wholesome and un- 
wholesome actions performed once by a being during his lifetime, may 
ripen after a lapse of hundreds or thousands of existences or world-cycles 
or even a longer period. Thus the wholesome kamma that gives resul- 
tant effect of sukha (happiness) and unwholesome kamma that gives 
woeful result always accompany the life-continuum of a being.' 

One should therefore love and esteem 'good conduct' more than one's 
own life and preserve it well. As regards 'evil conduct', one should 
dread it more than the danger of death and refrain from evil deeds. 



140 Sammaditthi DipanT 

Part Two 

Refutation of Issaranimmana View 

a. Notion of a creator. 

In the ekaccasassata-vada (eternity-belief with regard to some, and 
non-eternity-belief with regard to others) of the Brahmajala Sutta, Digha- 
nikaya; Brahmanimantana Sutta, Miilapannasa, Majjhima-nikaya; and 
the Brahma Samyiitta of the Samyutta-nikaya, mention is made of the 
Great Brahma who first resided in the first jhana plane. This Great 
Brahma may be regarded as the supreme being for the purpose of ex- 
plaining this issaranimmana view. 

Those who hold this wrong view maintain as follows: 'Indeed this 
being, the Brahma, the Great Brahma, the conqueror, the one who cannot 
be conquered by others, surely is all-seeing, all-powerful, the ruler, the 
creator of the three worlds— okasaloka, "sattaloka and sankharaloka*— 
the excellent, the almighty, the one who has already practised calm, 
the father of all that are and are to be. And he has created us'. 

This issaranimmana view exists in this world on account of those 
samanas and brahmins who held the ekaccasassata-vada, the view held 
by those brahmas who having fallen from the brahma planes are reborn 
in the planes of men and devas, and are able to remember their last ex- 
istence. This issaranimmana-vada has been clearly expounded in the 
Brahmajala Sutta. Before the rising of the Omniscient Buddha, this wrong 
view was maintained by many brahmins. When the Buddha arose, He 
fully refuted all wrong views, and this wrong view of issaranimmana- 
vada had no chance to thrive well in India. 

Those who believe in the creation of a supreme being or god are called 
issaranimmana-vadi. 

(The three modes of refutation of this issaranimmana view are the 
same as those in the case of pubbekata view). 

* Okasaloka: world of space. 
Sattaloka: world of beings. 
Sankharaloka: world of formations. 



How Beings Are Saved By Their Own Kamma 141 

b. One's own action only is one's own property. 

Those who hold this issaranimmana view totally reject the right view 
expounded in the phrase 'kammassaka satta kammadayada'. Though 
they reject this right view, yet they do not realise that they have un- 
consciously entered into the spheres of 'kammasaka' and 'kammada- 
yada.' This statement is true. Those who believe in the creation of a 
supreme being or god also become the 'owners of their kamma' and 
'heirs of their own kamma.' I shall clarify the matter. 

In the matter of paccuppanna-kamma-sadhaniya (sphere in which present 
kamma operate), those who maintain the issaranimmana view earn their 
livelihood by cultivating the lands. Simply by the act of cultivating lands 
themselves they become the 'owners of their own properties— actions 
done by themselves.' It means that they have their properties in the form 
of 'cultivation'. Some of them earn their livelihood by trading. By the 
act of trading by themselves they become the 'owners of their properties- 
act of trading performed by themselves'. It means that they have their 
properties in the form of 'act of trading'. Some of the rest earn their 
living by serving under a government. Simply for their actions in serv- 
ing under the government, they become the 'owners of their properties- 
act of serving under the government performed by themselves.' It means 
that they have their properties in the form of 'government service'. The 
same principle holds good for other spheres of actions, such as arts, 
sciences, etc. 

There are some people who believe in an almighty god and take refuge 
in him. They are able to acquire wealth and glory only when they work 
for themselves in various walks of life. On the other hand, by simply 
having faith in the almighty god, they will not be able to acquire such 
wealth and glory. 

There are others who do not believe in god and also repudiate him. 
They also will have to work for their livelihood and thus acquire wealth 
and glory. So the wise understand that only those actions performed by 
beings themselves can bestow wealth and glory and that no god can give 
anything whatsoever to them. 

c. How beings are saved by their own kamma. 

Those who believe in god, take rake refuge in him, have faith in him, 
and revere him throughout the whole of life. They believe that only 



142 Sammadifthl Dipani 

those who have faith in god will be saved by him when they die, and 
that non-believers in god will not be saved by him. 

Here, it is clear that only those who believe in god, have faith in him 
and take refuge in him will be saved by him, and not otherwise. This 
interpretation of issaranimmana view is perfectly clear. So, it is evident 
that only their actions in the form of 'believing in god', 'taking refuge 
in him' and 'revering him' can save them, and the almighty god cannot 
save them. This meaning is quite apparent. 

d. Further explanation. 

In this very world, all people, believers and non-believers in god alike, 
have to follow various pursuits of life and earn their livelihood. There 
is no difference for any one in the 'sphere in which present kamma 
operate'. Thus we see with our naked eyes that people work for them- 
selves to earn their living, thus themselves becoming the 'owners of their 
own kamma in the form of volitional actions in the present life'. 

In the sphere in which past kamma operate also, there is no difference 
whatsoever. We see with our naked eyes that conditioned by their past 
kamma, they are also working to maintain life. We have never noticed 
that any other specific benefit comes into existence simply by the agency 
of god and without the operation of either past or present kamma. 

e. Evil rules the world. 

In the world there are the following types of beings: well-bred people, 
low-bred people, wealthy people, poor and needy people, long-lived crea- 
tures, short-lived creatures, beings who seldom contract diseases, beings 
who often contract diseases, beautiful creatures, ugly creatures, moral 
people, immoral people, educated people, uneducated people, wicked peo- 
ple, thieves, robbers leprous people, blind creatures, deaf creatures, dumb 
creatures, persons who commit matricide, persons who commit patricide: 
murderers, thievish persons, persons who are in the habit of indulging 
in sexual misconduct, people who tell lies, people who slander, people who 
use harsh language, people who talk flippantly, avaricious people, people 
who have ill-will against others, and people who hold wrong views. So, 
in this world there are very few people who are righteous, but there are 
many who are base and mean. 



The View of the Uncausedness of Existence 143 

f . Right views of those who believe in kamma and its result. 

Those who believe in both past and present kamma and their result- 
ant effects maintain as follows: 'Relating to the sphene in which past 
kamma operate, because beings have performed wholesome actions in 
their past existences, they now enjoy the resultant effect in the form 
of becoming superior types of people; and because they have performed 
unwholesome actions in their past existences, they suffer the resultant 
effect of becoming inferior types of people. Again, as regards the sphere 
in which present kamma operate, because beings work well in the present 
life, they become superior types of people; and because they perform 
evil deeds, they become inferior types of people.' 

11. Refutation of Ahetuka View. 

a. The view of the uncausedness of existence. 

Those who hold this ahetuka view maintain as follows: 'Everything 
in this world, such as the corruptness or purity of beings, is predestined 
by fate, and not by past or present kamma and energy and knowledge, 
and all of this has been explained in the chapter on the refutation 
of pubbekata view.* Or in other words, they hold that everything in 
the world comes into existence of itself and is neither caused nor 
conditioned by past kamma, generative kamma and sustained kamma. 
The various physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally 
termed ego, personality, man, woman, animal, etc., are a mere play of 
blind chance, and not the outcome of causes and conditions. They 
come into existence of their own accord without being created by a 
creator, nor caused and conditioned by generative and sustained kamma. 
Such things as 'richness', 'poverty', 'complacency', 'destruction', 'wicked- 
ness', 'cleverness', etc., come into existence of their own accord and 
not due to any cause or condition whatsoever.' 

(The three ways of refuting the ahetuka view are the same as those 
in the case of pubbekata view.) 

* View that all sensations enjoyed by beings in the present existence are caused and 
conditioned only by the volitional actions done by them in their past existences. 



144 Sammaditthi Dlpairi 

b. No action can arise of its own accord. 

Before the rising of the Omniscient Buddha, this ahetuka wrong view 
was held by such heretical teachers as Gunakassapa as mentioned in the 
Narada Jataka. During the lifetime of the Buddha, this fatalistic View 
of uncausedness' of existence was taught by Makkhali-Gosala and Acelaka 
of India. Those who maintain this ahetuka wrong view reject the kam- 
masakata view— 'owners of their kamma are beings' which is the word 
of the Buddha. Although they reject this kammasakata view, they are 
not aware of the fact that they themselves thereby become the holders 
of the kammasakata view— 'owners of their kamma are the beings.' 
If, according to this wrong view, all physical and psychical phenomena 
of existence be a mere play of blind chance and not the outcome of 
causes and conditions, then there will be no difference between the 'sphere 
in which past kamma operate' and the 'sphere in which present kam- 
ma operate.' Also there will be no difference whatsoever whether one 
commits small offences or grave offences, or whether one acts wickedly 
or cleverly, because all volitional actions are not the outcome of causes 
and conditions, but they come into existence of their own accord or as 
a general rule. 



c. Different characteristics of kamma, nana and viriya. 

According to this ahetuka view, all desire-to-do, energy and volitional 
actions will be rendered useless and unproductive, because however lofty 
acts beings might perform, they would not obtain any specific resultant 
effect. It would be just the same as if they remained idle and did no- 
thing at all. In reality, these dhamma— volitional actions, knowledge 
and energy— are not barren and unproductive. They are the dhamma 
that will surely give resultant effects. It is apparent that the greatness 
or smallness of present kamma depends on the degrees of desire- to-do, 
energy and wisdom exercised by the people; 

Owing to the variety of these kamma there exist a variety or resultant 
effects. In regard to this matter, the wise people maintain this right view in 
this manner. 'In the sphere where present kamma operate, actions leading 
to 'complacency', 'destruction*, 'richness', or 'poverty' experienced by 
beings in the present life are termed the 'root-conditions'. This state of affairs 



Three Causes or Conditions 145 

is quite evident in the present world, and in the future existence also, 
desire-to-do, energy and wisdom which cause the richness, poverty, com- 
placency and destruction of beings, and good conduct and evil conduct 
will not remain unproductive. In fact, they will give appropriate result- 
ant effects. As these mental factors are not barren and will surely give 
results, in the matter of the 'sphere in which past kamma operate', 
beings, conditioned by their various past kamma, will attain the various 
kinds of resultant effects in their future existences.' 

d. To determine the root-causes by seeing the results. 

For example, by seeing the various kinds of plants and vegetation we 
can determine that they have different kinds of seeds. In the same man- 
ner, by seeing the various "positions of beings, such as complacency, des- 
truction, richness and poverty, we should be able to judge the various 
kinds of kamma committed by them in their past existences. 

The Tathagata knew all these. He had realised and seen face to face 
the functionings of all kamma in regard to the spheres in which past 
and present kamma operate, and also the resultant effects, such as rich- 
ness and poverty— the vicissitudes of life. For these reasons he was able 
to refute this ahetuka view. 

12. Further Explanation of Kammasaka-Vada 

a. Three causes or conditions. 

The phrase 'kammasaka' has been expounded in the chapter on 'pub- 
bekataveda-niggaha' (refutation of the pubbekata view.) Now, I shall 
explain those things which have been left unexplained in that chapter. 
There are people who cultivate the lands. For the fructification or the 
destruction of their cultivation, there are causes or conditions. They are: 

1. hetu (root-condition), 

2. paccaya (supporting condition) 

3. sambhara (component conditions). 

Of these three causes: 

1. Paddy seeds and cultivators are hetu causes; 

2. The nutritive essence (oja) contained in the soil of the land where 
cultivation takes place is paccaya condition; and 

3. The following are sambhara causes: rainfall, drainage, rivers and 



146 SammSditthi DipanI 

creeks to feed the fields, clouds, moisture-iaden wind, sun, moon 
and constellation, and moral practices exercised by the people 
residing in the country. 

b. Concrete example. 

Here, if the paddy seeds are pure, the cultivation will be successful 
and the required crop will be obtained. If from the beginning the seeds 
be impure or inferior, the cultivation will not be successful and a poor 
crop will result. Even if the seed be pure and full of pith, the cultiva- 
tion can be complete and successful only when the cultivator knows when 
to break the clods, till the soil, sow the seeds in the nursery, .transplant 
the young plants and do all that is necessary for cultivation. Although 
the cultivator does all that is required for the cultivation, a good rainfall 
brings a good harvest and a bad rainfall brings a bad harvest, resulting 
in the destruction of the cultivation. Even if the rainfall be good, if there 
be no drainage or water-gates to feed the fields with water when requir- 
ed and to let out the water when the fields are flooded, the cultivation 
cannot be successful and will be liable to be destroyed. In the case of 
the fields which are irrigated by river water, the cultivator must know 
when to irrigate the lands and when not to. Otherwise the crops will 
be destroyed. The water in the river has to depend on the amount of 
rainfall that takes place in the mountains in the up-country. If there 
be no rainfall in the up-country or at the source of the river, the water 
in the river cannot rise. Rain can fall only when the necessary causes 
and conditions are fulfilled; otherwise no rain can fall. 

c. K anuria and the above example. 

We now notice that even in the matter of cultivation, there are thou- 
sands of causes and conditions either for the complete success of cultiva- 
tion or its destruction. 

The above is the brief explanation of what is actually happening in 
the world. 

d. Primary effect and secondary effect. 

Past kamma that cause the pleasures and sufferings of beings in the 
next next existence may have two kinds of effects: primary and secon- 
dary effects. 



Evil Kamma and Two Kinds of Effects 147 

e. Present kamma and two kinds of effects. 

In this respect I shall first explain present kamma. For example, a 
person learns a great art or craft. Until and unless he finishes this 
course of training, he will have to undergo various kinds of suffering 
on account of this art or craft. But at times during the course of his 
training he may come across happiness. When he is successful in his 
training, he will earn plenty of money, or may be able to enjoy a high 
position in the government service. He will the,n acquire various kinds 
of happiness and wealth. Depending on this one man who is well learned, 
his other relatives and friends also will be able to enjoy various kinds 
of pleasures. 

f . Secondary effect. 

The amount of suffering which a person experiences before the com- 
pletion of His training, and the benefits enjoyed by his friends and rela- 
tives on account of his art are not the primary effects of his training, 
but they are secondary effects. 

g. Primary effect. 

After the completion of his training in any art or craft, if a person 
succeeds., he will be able to acquire great wealth or enjoy a good position 
in the government service or enjoy various kinds of pleasures. These 
are the primary effects of his learning the art. 

h. Evii ksinma and two kinds of effects. 

Similarly, there are also two kinds of effect in the case of evil kamma. 
: or example, a man murders another person. The enemies of the de- 
ceased may honour the murderer and esteem him; or they may present 
him with cash or kind. On the other hand, the relatives of the deceased 
may hate the murderer, and they may kill the murderer in revenge, or set 
the wheels of justice in motion so that the murderer may receive capital 
punishment. These resultant effects of the murderer's kamma—the evil 
action in killing a living person— are called the secondary effects. 

This murderer, on the dissolution of his body after death, will be reborn 
m the lower worlds as the resultant effects of his evil kamma in killing 
a man, and undergo immense suffering. This is his primary effect. 



148 SammMfthf DipanI 

If the murderer, conditioned by his past wholesome kamma, be reborn 
as a human being, he will, wherever he enters into existence, be of short 
life, have much sickness and encounter enmity with his rivals. These 
are the primary effects of his present kamma of killing a man. 

Due to his act of murdering a man, his relatives will experience various 
kinds of suffering. These are the secondary effects. 

The same principle holds good in the case of wholesome volitional 
actions done by beings. 

This secondary effect is also subdivided into two kinds. They are: 

1. The one that takes effect at the time of .the commission of deeds, 
and 

2. The one that takes effect when the relevant kamma ripens in a 
future birth. 

Of these, the resultant effect which takes place at the time of the. com- 
mission of an action is not 'regular'. The person who sustains the secon- 
dary effect due to wholesome kamma may experience 'suffering', while 
the person who sustains the secondary effect due to an evil action may 
experience 'happiness'. But when the relevant kamma ripens in a future 
existence, the secondary effect is 'regular', because evil kamma will 
give the resultant effect of 'suffering' and good kamma will give the 
resultant effect of 'happiness'. 

i. Primary effect. 

Primary effect takes place surely, because morally good kamma will 
give a good resultant effect and not a bad one, and bad kamma will 
give a bad resultant effect and not a good one. Primary effect takes 
place in the life- continuum of the doer of a volitional action and not in 
the life-continuum of any other person. After experiencing the primary 
effects of his kamma, if a person dies, that primary effect also is exhaust- 
ed and no reaction of it ever remains. 

j. Secondary effect. 

In the case of the secondary effect, it takes place in the life-continua 
of other persons. So even when the doer of kamma dies, the reaction 
of the secondary effect remains, either for the good or evil of others. 



Past Kamma and Secondary Effect 149 

I shall explain it more clearly. Suppose a virtuous and powerful being 
who had fulfilled paramita in his previous births is conceived in the 
womb of a woman of a certain family. Since the conception of that 
supernormal child, his parents will be successful in all walks of life 
and find an increase in wealth, attendants and servants. If the family 
be a royal one, wise counsellors and valiant soldiers or generals will 
surely exist. The locality in which the child is conceived in his mother's 
womb will have sufficient rainfall, and the inhabitants of that country 
will enjoy prosperity. The country in all will become prosperous. This 
is the reaction of the effect due to that powerful and virtuous being. 

In this connection the Dhammapada says: 

Dullabho purisajanno 
na so sabbattha jayati, 
yattha so jayati dhiro 
tarn kulam sukham edhati. 

— Verse 193 

The thorough-bred man (Buddha) is rare; he is not born everywhere. 
Where that wise man is born, that family attains happiness. 

k. Present kamma and secondary effect. 

Here, I shall explain this with an example. If an efficient person, by 
means of his manpower, wealth or technical knowledge, constructs arable 
lands, gardens, ponds, wells, dams, canals and metal roads, these con- 
structions will remain for a great length of time for the benefit of many 
other people, and depending on these establishments, many people will be 
able to reap many pleasurable benefits. 

1. Past kamma and secondary effect. 

Just as we see the secondary effect of present kamma with our own 
eyes, in the case of the sphere in which past kamma operate, many 
people can depend on one virtuous supernormal being. Again, due to the 
reaction of evil kamma done by a being in his existence, many people 
will have to undergo hardship and suffering. 

Thus wise men. believe that every being possesses past and present 
kamma with their respective primary and secondary effects. 



150 Sammaditthi Dipanl 

The above is the brief exposition of how past and present kamma 
give various kinds of resultant effects. 

13. Exposition of Atta-Ditthi (Personality-belief). 

a. How beings have to wander in the happy and woeful courses of 
existence due to personality-belief. 

Various kinds of wrong views, various kinds of evil things and various 
kinds of kamma lie latent in and accompany the life-continua of beings 
who wander in the round of rebirths. On account of these unwholesome 
mental factors, the following conspicuously come into existence. 

1. four lower worlds, and 

2. various kinds of unwholesome volitional actions. 

Beings wander in different planes of existence due to these bad men- 
tal factors. To say the least, even dogs and pigs, etc., of the four lower 
worlds in the course of the round of rebirths may become great brahmas. 
Sometimes they are reborn in the higher brahma planes, such as abha- 
sara, subhakinha, vehapphala and formless spheres. Although they have 
opportunity to be reborn in these higher brahma planes, when their span 
of life comes to an end or when their merit is exhausted they have to 
be reborn in the four lower worlds. This is the way of the universe. 

Vibhanga says:* 

ukkhitta pufinatejena, 
kamariipagatim gata, 
bhavaggatampi sampatta 
puna gacchanti duggatim. 

Conditioned by their wholesome volitional actions, beings are reborn in the 
sensuous sphere, the form sphere and even in n'eva-sanna-nasannayatana 
(sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception), in the fine-material 

* Vibhanga has been translated as 'Distinctions*, 'Classifications' 'Distribution". The 
late Venerable Nyanatiloka Mahathera in his 'Guide Through the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka' says: 'By reason of its first three treatises, Vibhanga, in a certain mea- 
sure, is supplementary to Dhammasangani and, at the same time, a foundation to 
the Dhatu-Katha (two other books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka). Those three trea- 
tises are entirely devoted to an exhaustive investigation of three categories of 
the highest importance or a real understanding of Buddhist Philosophy.' 



Force of Atta-Ditttri 151 

spheres. Even then, when their spaa of life expires or when their merit 
is exhausted, they are reborn in the woeful course of existence. 

As these wrong evil mental factors and evil kamma accompany the 
life-continua of beings, although they become Great Brahmas, they are 
puthujjanas (worldlings); they are the inhabitants of the mundane sphere. 
Just as stones and spears thrown up into the sky fall down to the ground 
by the force of gravity, beings are liable to be reborn in the four lower 
worlds. As their life-continua are fully laden with hellish mental factors 
they are 'beings bound for (impermanent) hades'; as the wicked mental 
factors accompany their life-continua, they are evil-minded beings des- 
tined to do evil deeds; as they exist in the sphere where evil kamma 
abound, they are the inhabitants of that sphere; as they exist in the sphere 
where most beings have no 'eyes of wisdom', they are the inhabitants 
of that sphere. 

Which are kanha-bhumi (plane where evil kamma abound) and andha- 
bala-bhumi (plane where beings being blinded by folly have no 'eye of 
wisdom')? The above-mentioned papa-ditthi (wrong views), papa-dhamma 
(wickedness; evil habit) and papa-kamma (unwholesome deeds) manifest 
in these two planes (or spheres): kanha-bhumi and andha-bala-bhumi. 
The next question is: Why do even Great Brahmas exist in these two 
planes? Because they profess the eternity-belief or personality-belief— T 
am, I am.' 

b. Force of atta-ditthi. 

The root-cause of all wrong views, evil mental factors and evil kam- 
ma- is atta-ditthi. So long as these papa-ditthi exist in the life-continuum 
of a being, papa-ditthi, papa-dhamma and papa-kamma will exist there 
also. So long as these papa-ditthi, etc., accompany his life-continuum, he 
will be termed as 'one bound for hell 1 , 'evil-doer', 'inhabitant of kanha- 
plane' and 'inhabitant of andha-bala-plane'. Once this atta-ditthi ceases, 
all these three will be extinguished along with all kinds of evils. 

Those beings who cannot eradicate atta-ditthi will become heirs of 
papa-ditthi. In what manner? Because a being who professes atta-ditthi 
(personality-belief) cannot get rid of these untold and uncountable papa- 
ditthi, etc., which he has been holding for many world-cycles and exist- 
ences in the round of rebirths. T r 



152 Sannnfiditfhi Dlpanl 

Although beings whose lif e-continua are accompanied by atta-ditthi are 
reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, these papa- 
ditthi, etc., will give them appropriate resultant effects and undoubtedly 
drag them to the lower worlds. 

So long as beings cannot dispel this atta-ditthi, they will have to be- 
come the victims of these papa-ditthi, etc., in their future existences. 
And in whichever future existence they may arise, they will profess 
all kinds of wrong views that may arise, perform all sorts of 'evil con- 
duct' they may have opportunity to do, and commit such weighty kam- 
ma as matricide, etc. 

In the present life also, those who profess atta-ditthi will generally 
have a tendency to profess wrong views, entertain evil mental factors 
and do evil deeds. 

c. How issaraiummana view arises due to atta. 

It is true that issaranimmana view comes into existence on account of 
this atta-ditthi. On account of this atta-ditthi the Great Brahma who does 
not know whence he came from and when he will fall from that Brah- 
ma plane thinks himself to be permanent, immutable, eternal, not subject 
to change and remain as something eternal. He thinks to himself: 'I 
am Brahma, the Great Brahma, the conqueror, the one who cannot be 
conquered by others, surely all-seeing, all-powerful, the ruler, the creator, 
the excellent, the almighty, the one who has already practised calm, the 
father of all that are and all that are to be.' Occasionally he makes his 
appearance in the planes of the Brahmas who have shorter spans of life 
and says: *I am permanent; I am almighty; I create you all'. 

When those Brahmas hear him say those words, they believe in him 
and thus become the holders of this view. Not to say of those beings who 
are reborn in the planes of devas and the world of men. 

(Those who maintain this issaranimmana view regard him as their 
creator god. Conditioned on the words spoken by that Great Brahma, 
this view came into existence in this world). 

d. No real happiness due to atta. 

So long as one is not able to get rid of atta-ditthi, although he may 
become a Great Brahma who declares himself to be a creator god, he 
will not be able to get out of the entanglement of papa-ditthi, etc., that 



Attainment of Nibbana 153 

had already arisen in his life- continuum in the past existence, that arise 
in the present existence and also that will exist in his future births also, 
and he will surely be reborn in the lower worlds in his future births. 

They are thus the mere inhabitants of kanha-plane, just as fishes and 
turtles inhabit the great ocean. As they do not possess 'eyes of wisdom', 
they are the inhabitants of andha-bala plane. 

Those beings who are reborn at present in the lower worlds due to 
their past unwholesome kamma, anyone amongst them may, in a future 
existence, become a Great Brahma who declares himself as almighty god, 
when his past wholesome kamma ripen. Thus it should be borne in 
mind that, if atta-ditthi lies latent in the life-continua of beings, they will 
not be able to find happiness while wandering in the round of rebirths, 
and will not be able to find an escape from the samsara (round of 
rebirths). 

14. Benefits Derived from the Total Destruction of Atta-Ditthi. 

a. No more rebirth in hell. 

When the beings are able to eradicate atta-ditthi which is the root- 
causes of papa-ditthi, etc., these mental phenomena which had accompan- 
ied their life-continua in the past, accompany it in the present, and would 
accompany the life-continua of the beings in future existences, will be 
totally destroyed. 

They then become the heirs of the wholesome volitional actions done 
by them in the past existence, which are being done in the present ex- 
istence, and would be done by them in the future existence. Once the 
beings have expelled atta-ditthi, all wrong views, evil mental factors and 
evil kamma which would lead them to the lower worlds will disappear 
along with atta-ditthi. They will no more be reborn in the lower worlds 
and will be out of the grip of the lower worlds in their future existen- 
ces. As they will be doing no more evil actions, they will forever be 
free from all evil. 

b. Attainment of Nibbana. 

The full extinction of defilements including papa-ditthi, etc., and the 
total extinction of evil kamma with the groups of existence still remain- 



154 Sammaditthi DipanI 

ing is called sa-upadisesa-nibbana or the supramundane sphere or the 
sphere of the holy ones. 

c. No more death. 

Sa-upadisesa-nibbana— the state of the extinction of defilements such 
as papa-ditthi, etc., with the groups of existence still remaining, never 
gets spoiled, destroyed or deteriorates in the world-cycles to come. This 
state is permanent and eternal; it never changes; it never decays; it does 
not dissolve; and it does not disappear. This state has no 'dissolving 
moment', and so it is called amata. 

d. Unoriginatedness. 

Those who have attained such state of extinction of the defilements 
and the root-cause— atta-ditthi— will find that this state of extinction is 
never destroyed in the future. Papa-ditthi, etc., cannot arise in their minds 
again. The state of their total abstinence from doing evil that would 
lead them to the lower worlds will never be destroyed, nor will it decay. 
They will no more be reborn. 

This state of the extinction of defilements being amata- dhatu (the state 
where there is no more death or rebirth) is called asankftata-dhatu 
.(the Uncreated; the Unoriginated; Nibbana). 

e. Planes in which sotapanna are to arise. 

Since the time atta-ditthi is extinguished in the minds of those people 
who have attained sa-upadisesa-nibbana, they have passed the stage of 
puthujjana (worldlings) and are no more within the sphere of worldings. 
They begin to exist in the plane of holy ones and become the inhabi- 
tants of that plane. As they have passed the mundane stage, they are 
in the supramundane sphere and become the inhabitants of that sphere. 

These people who have eradicated atta-ditthi will pass amongst hea- 
venly and human beings only at most seven times more through the 
round of rebirths and finally attain Nibbana. (Note— This refers to 
sotapanna.) 

However, there is no number-limit for some of these people who are 
reborn or who are to pass amongst the Brahmas, because they have 
become uddhagami-puggala (beings who will pass through higher stages). 



Planes in Which Sotaanna Are to Arise 155 

They may pass amongst the Brahmas for , hundreds, thousands and 
•hundreds of thousands of existences and -world- cycles; but they will never 
be reborn in the lower worlds, nor will they pass amongst devas and 
men. 

Conditioned by their past and present wholesome kamma, these holy 
ones will fare-on in the happy course of existence. In the future also 
they will only perform wholesome volitional actions and never dream of 
performing unwholesome volitional actions. Atta-ditthi, which is the root- 
cause of papa-dhamma and papa-kamma, have been totally extinguished 
by them. 

These people who have dispelled atta-ditthi become the heirs of their 
present kamma. They possess wholesome kamma which will lead them 
to the happy course of existence and are bound for that course only. As 
they are endowed with exalted dhamma, they become exalted ones. 
As they exist in the sphere where wholesome and pure kamma abound, 
they become inhabitants of that sphere/ As they possess the 'eye of 
wisdom' by means of which they can realize the Four Noble Truths, 
they are Noble Ones. In whichever existence they may wander in 
the future, they will be endowed with ariyapanna (wisdom pertaining 
to the Holy Ones)— they are ariya (Noble Ones). As they pass the stage 
of those puthujjana who are not able to dispel atta-ditthi, they become 
ariya— the inhabitants of the supramundane sphere. 

During the lifetime of the Omniscient puddha, in Savatthi, Banares, 
Vesali, Rajagaha, there were many householders who, after having dis- 
pelled atta-ditthi, became sotapanna. 

It is said that Sanankumara, king of Brahmas, once revealed that there 
had been a countless number of Holy Ones. 

Those people who became sotapanna during the lifetime of the Buddha 
are now conspicuously existing in the six deva planes. These sotapanna, 
being uddhamsota-puggala (persons who are going upwards in the stream 
of life) will never be reborn in a lower plane. 

In the ten thousand universes within the jatikbetta (realm of rebirth), 
there are decillions and decillions, an incalculable number, of catumaha- 
rajika devas who are sotapanna. There is also an incalculable number 
of sotapanna in each of the five other planes of devas and in the Brah- 
ma planes, such as brahmaparisajja plane. These sotapanna, being 



156 Sammaditthi Dlpani 

uddhagami-puggala (persons who are going upwards in the stream of 
life), will never be reborn in a lower plane. 



Part Three 

How atta makes one vicious. 

Beings who are accompanied by soul-belief, having inclinations to per- 
form evil actions, have to wander through the ceaseless round of rebirths. 
The moment they are able to extinguish soul-belief, that moment are 
they established in purity and nobility and they will wander peacefully 
in the round of rebirths free from all dangers. 

One may question: 'Why is soul-belief the root-cause of evil views, 
evil thoughts and evil deeds, and why is destruction of this belief the origin 
of the cessation of these?' 

It may be answered in this way: for example, a certain king has a 
great attachment to his kingship, pomp and grandeur. To preserve his 
kingly status and glory, he will have to exercise all evil thoughts and 
evil deeds in his power. Even a king, if he has a great attachment to 
his kingly power and glory, has to protect himself by entertaining all 
kinds of evil thoughts and performing all kinds -of evil actions. 

Some time later that king sees shortcomings and blemishes in his kingly 
duties and glory. From that time his attachment to his kingship dim- 
inishes, and he has a great desire to abdicate his throne and become a 
samana. Then he has a mind to keep aloof from all evil actions that 
are necessary for the preservation and protection of his kingly power 
and glory, and henceforth will refrain from performing evil actions. 

Still some time later he will go forth from the house-hold life into that 
of a samana. Although he becomes a samana, he delusively considers 
his mind and body— the five constituent groups of existence— as his soul, 
which is full of essence or substance and which belongs to him. Thus 
he delusively considers the five constituent groups of existence as his 
soul and clings to it. So long as he is attached to this soul-belief and 
is not able to put it away, he will undoubtedly have to preserve his soul 
by entertaining evil thoughts and performing evil actions as occasion 
arises. 



Asarakatthena- Anatta ] 57 

Some time during his life as a samana he realises the blemishes and 
miseries in the five constituent groups of existence, he, having rightly 
viewed through insight-wisdom that there is no essence or substance in 
the five constituent groups of existence— that there is no soul— will have 
no soul-attachment. From that moment he will not entertain any evil 
thought or commit any evil action, by means of which he has formerly 
preserved what he has considered as his soul and will preserve himself 
only by acts of virtue. 

He will never deviate from the path of virtue to protect himself. As 
a matter of fact, he will sacrifice himself dauntlessly to preserve the 
principles of virtue. From the above analogy it should be understood that 
soul-belief is the root cause of all evil and that destruction of this belief 
is the origin of the cessation of evil. 

Atta and Anatta. 

Atta means 'self, ego, personality, soul-essence'; anatta means 'non-ego, 
not-self, absence of soul-essence'. The word anatta is used to convey the 
following three interpretations: 

1. asarakatthena-anatta— on account of being without essence or 
substance it is called anatta. 

2. asamikatthena-anatta— on account of not having any owner or 
overlord it is called anatta. 

3. avasavattanatthena-anatta— on account of its not yielding to an- 
other's will it is called anatta, 

Asarakatthena-anatta: the five constuent groups of existence delusi- 
vely taken as atta. 

Of the three interpretations as shown in the text, I shall first expound 
the phrase 'asarakatthena-anatta'. 

Atta in the ordinary sense means essence or substance. Those beings 
who are not able to discern the momentary arisings and dissolutions of 
the physical and mental phenomena of the five constituent groups of ex- 
istence and thus are not able to realise the characteristic of anicca (im- 
permanence) maintain: 'The corporeality-group is the essence and therefore 
atta of beings; the sensation-group is the essence and therefore atta of 
beings; the perception-group is the essence and therefore atta of beings; 



158 Samraadhitthi Dlpani 

the formation-group is the essence aqd therefore atta of beings; and the 
consciousness-group is the essence and therefore atta of beings.' This 
kind of view is known as soul-belief. 

Example of a bowl. 

I shall explain the above with an example. There are such things as 
wooden bowl, earthen bowl, brass bowl, silver bowl and gold bowl. A 
bowl made of wood has wood as its substance and is called a wooden 
bowl; a bowl made of earth has earth as its substance and is called an 
earthen bowl; a bowl made of iron has iron as its substance and is called 
an iron bowl; a bowl made of silver has silver as its substance and is 
called a silver bowl, and a bowl made of gold has gold as its substance 
and is called a gold bowl. 

Here, the world 'bowl* is merely the name by which is indicated a 
certain pictorial idea (santhana-pannatti), and this conventional term of 
'bowl' possesses no essence or substance as an ultimate thing. Only the 
conventional terms of 'wood', 'earth', 'gold', etc., possess essence or sub- 
stance (at least for this purpose). By simply hearing the sound 'bowl' one 
is able to understand the pictorial idea of a bowl and not its essence or 
substance. Only when one hears the conventional terms of 'wood', 'gold', 
etc., is one able to know the essence or substance of that bowl. 

A question may be asked: 'Why is "wood", "earth" or "gold" the 
essence or substance of the bowl ? ' 

I shall explain it clearly. In calling a thing 'wooden', 'wood' is the essence 
or substance of the pictorial idea of the bowl, and is therefore its atta. 
Without the substance of wood, the conventional term of 'bowl' cannot 
exist. Only a piece of wood that is made in the form of a bowl is called 
a wooden bowl. This wooden bowl will last as long as the wood is 
durable, and it will be valuable according to the class of wood. If it is 
a bowl made of teak wood, it will be valuable according to the price of 
teak. If it be made of aloes wood, it will be valuable according to the 
price of that wood. If it be made of sandalwood, it will be valuable ac- 
cording to the value of sandalwood. As regards the utility, too, a teak 
bowl will be used where it is fit to be used, and so too a bowl made 
of aloes wood or sandalwood. As regards the worthiness, too, the teak 
bowl and the sandalwood bowl will be worthy according to their stand- 
ards. Thus when we say 'the wooden bowl', the wood is the essence 



How Atta-Ditthi Is Formed 159 

or substance of the bowl. The same principle follows in the cases of 
earthen bowl, gold bowl, etc. 

Analogy. 

Similarly a being is composed of the corporeality- group and has this 
group as his essence or substance. What has this group as its essence 
or substance is called a being. 

A being is composed of the sensation-group and has this group as his 
essence or substance. What has this group as its essence or substance 
is called a being. 

A being is composed of the perception -group and has this group as his 
essence or substance. What has this group as its essence or substance 
is called a being. 

A being is composed of the mental-formation-group and has this group 
as his essence or substance. What has this group as its essence or sub- 
stance is called a being. 

A being is composed of the consciousness-group and has this group as 
his essence or substance. What has this group as its essence or sub- 
stance is called a being. 

In brief, every being is composed of the five constituent groups of ex- 
istence and has them as his essence or substance. 

In this analogy, a bowl resembles a being and the substance of a bowl 
resembles the five constituent groups of existence which form the essence 
or substance of a being. 

How atta-ditthi is formed. 

Some maintain the following view: 'So long as the five constituent 
groups of existence last, do not decay or dissolve, beings last, do not 
decay nor dissolve. They live up to one hundred or one thousand years 
without decay, death and dissolution, and for such periods of time the five 
constituent groups of existence which are their essence or substance do 
not decay nor dissolve.' This view is soul-belief. 

Some people understand that the essence or substance of the wooden 
bowl is wood, but they cannot penetrate the truth and discern that this 
piece of wood comprises an immense number of atthakalapa-rupa* So 

* Atthakalapa-rupa means 'pure eightfold group' consisting of 1. the element of- ex- 



160 Sammaditthi Dipani 

they can only superficially understand that the essence or substance of 
the wooden bowl is wood. 

Some people penetrate the truth and realise that the essence or sub- 
stance of the wood is but a collection of corporeal groups and that these 
are also causally-conditioned, arising-and-vanishing physical phenomena. 
They realise in the following manner: The state of extension is con- 
spicuous in a piece of wood which assumes the shape of a bowl and these 
elements of extension are undoubtedly the ultimate truth of pathavi-dhatu 
(the element of extension), and not 'wood' at all. In the same way, the 
state of cohesion found conspicuously in that form or shape is the 
characteristic of apo-dhatu (the element of cohesion); the state of heat or 
cold found in that shape is the characteristic of tejo-dhatu (the element 
of kinetic energy), and the state of support or motion found in that shape 
is the characteristic of vayo-dhatu (the element of motion). These four 
elements are known as the four great primaries or the four great essentials 
(maha-bhuta). 

In like manner, the colour of that piece of wood is vanna (the element 
of colour), the smell is called gandha (the element of smell), the taste 
is called rasa (the element of taste), and the nutriment is called oja (the 
element of nutriment). Thus some wise people penetrate the truth and 
realise it. 

When they have so penetrated the truth, they realise: 'Only physical 
phenomena roll on and no wood exists; and if there be no wood, how 
can there be the wooden bowl in the ultimate sense ? * 

When the piece of wood which we conventionally call 'bowl' is affect- 
ed by cold or warm wind, or struck by a stick, or pierced by a spear, 
or thrown upward and downward, the physical phenomena contained in 
that wood will change, yielding place to newer ones, and having arisen 
will also disappear then and there. Some of the phenomena decay, some 
dissolve and some arise again by conditions, some increase, some decrease 
and some remain normal. 

When they have realised in this manner they clearly understand that 
there is no wood apart from these physical elements. Now, when the 

tension. 2. the element of liquidity or cohesion, 3. the element of kinetic energy, 
A. the element of motion, 5. the element of colour, 6. the element of smell, 7. the 
element of taste, 8. the element of nutriment. 



How Pictorial Idea's and Concepts of Continuity Are Regarded as Atta 161 

wood itself does not exist in the ultimate sense, how can the wood pos- 
sess the essence or substance of the bowl? How can momentarily aris- 
ing-and-passing-away corporeal groups become the essence or substance 
of the wood? Thus they penetrate to the truth. 

Here, the conventional term of 'bowl' resembles the conventional term 
of 'being'. The corporeal groups contained in the wood resemble the five 
constituent groups of existence. This is the analogy. 

(As regards the mentality-group, it has no form. When an object con- 
tacts any part of the body, then consciousness arises and disappears im- 
mediately. The bhavangasota ('the stream of subconsciousness'^incessantly 
arises and vanishes in the heart. The stream of subconsciousness can 
be broken only when a new object comes into contact with it. 

Pictorial Ideas and Concept of Continuity. 

The shapes of parts of the body such as face, hands, legs, breast, 
abdomen, thighs and back are called santhana (pictorial ideas). Mentality- 
group has no form but only santati-pannatti (concept of continuity). 

The continuity of 'seeing' is dassana-santati. 

The continuity of 'hearing' is called savan-santati. 

The continuity of 'smelling' is called ghayana-santati. 

The continuity of 'tasting' is called sayana-santati. 

The continuity of 'thinking' is called cintana-santati, and so on. 

How Pictorial Ideas and Concepts of Continuity Are Regarded as 

Atta. 

Some people understand only the various kinds of shapes or forms and 
various kinds of continuity, but they do not penetratingly discern the 
physical and mental phenomena which are the essence or substance of 
these concepts of shape and continuity. Also, they are not able to realise 
the momentary decay and death of these physical and mental phenomena. 
They consider these concepts as the essence or substance of beings and 
delusively take them as the atta of beings. 

When, through insight- wisdom, people penetratingly understand the real 
nature of pathavi (elements of extension), the phenomena of eye-con- 
sciousness, etc., and realise that these five constituent groups of existence 
are subject to momentary decay, death and rebirth, it will dawn upon 



162 Sammaditthi Dipanl 

them that these five constituent groups of existence have no essence or 
substance and that they are very far from "being the essence or substance 
of beings. 

I shall clarify the matter. People think that beings live for a day, a 
month, a year, a hundred years or a thousand years, and that during 
those periods there is no such thing as momentary decay, death and 
rebirth. In fact, the physical and mental phenomena contained in the 
five constituent groups of existence which people take as the essence or 
substance, arise and dissolve more than one hundred thousand crores* 
of times during the blink of an eye or the period occupied by a flash 
of lightning. 

If it be alleged that the corporeality-group has atta (essence or substan- 
ce), the sensation-group has atta (essence or substance), the perception- 
group has atta (essence or substance), the mental-formation-group has atta 
(essence or substance), the consciousness -group has atta (essence or sub- 
stance), it will mean that beings decay, die and are reborn through con- 
ditions every moment. Why ? Because the essence or substance of beings 
are the groups of existence which are subject to momentary decay, death 
and rebirth. 

In reality, just as it is not appropriate to rely on the rapidly arising- 
and-vanishing flashes of lightning and use them as things of substance, 
it is also not appropriate to rely on the momentarily arising-and-vanish- 
ing physical and mental phenomena as things of substance and to regard 
them as the essence or substance of oneself. So the five constituent groups 
of existence are purely anatta (without essence or substance). 

Asamikatthena- Anat ta . 

The meaning of the phrase asamikatthena-anatta is as follows: As 
these flashes of lightning, which do not last for more than a moment, 
do not possess any essence, there cannot be any lord over them, nor can 
they be one's own. Just as one cannot say that flashes of lightning 
are owned by him and so they are his, one should not say that the 
physical and mental phenomena comprising the five constituent groups 
of existence belong to him and are his own, or that one is the overlord 
of these phenomena. 

* Crore=ten millions. 



Attaniya Objects 163 

So according to the phrase asamikatthena-anatta, the five constituent 
groups of existence are anatta. 

Avasavattanatthena- Ana tta. 

I shall expound the phrase avasavattanatthena-anatta. As these flashes 
of lightning do not last long and do not possess essence, they will not 
yield to one's wishes. Just as it is not proper for one to say that these 
flashes of lightning will listen to one's words and that one has control 
over them, the physical and mental phenomena contained in the five 
constituent groups of existence being impermanent, will not yield to the 
wishes of anyone. So it is not proper for one to delusively consider 
that the five constituent groups of existence will obey one's orders or 
that one has sway over them. 

The arising of these flashes of lightning is due to the relevant causes 
and conditions, and has nothing to do with the desire of any 'person', so 
these flashes of lightning do not yield to the wishes of anyone. The 
arising of the five constituent groups of existence is due to the causes 
and conditions which bring them about and has nothing to do with the 
desire of anyone, so these five constituent groups of existence do not 
yield to the wishes of anybody. Just as it is not fit to think that these 
flashes of lightning will yield to one's wishes, so it is not fit for one to 
think that the five constituent groups of existence yield to one's wishes 
and to regard them as one's essence or substance. 

So according to the phrase avasavattanatthena-anatta, the five con- 
stituent groups of existence are anatta in the sense that they do not yield 
to the wishes of anyone. 

Brief Exposition of Attaniya. 

Attassa idam attaniyam— attaniyam means 'the property of atta'. 
Attana sambandhanti attaniyam— attaniyam means 'objects connected 
with atta'. 

Attaniya Objects. 

According to the above interpretation, all animate and inanimate objects 

connected with atta are called attaniya. But these objects become attaniya 

j3 ,only when one is attached to and takes delight in them through craving 

and accepts them as 'my own', 'these are mine'. When, through insight- 



c: 



164 Sammaditthi Dipanl 

wisdom, people are able to discard these animate and inanimate objects 
freely as they are not attached to and take no delight in them, these 
objects cease to be attaniya. 

One is not attached to these objects which naturally have nothing to 
do with atta. and are quite apart from it; so they are not attaniya. 

People are generally concerned with what they consider to be as them- 
selves or their own on account of the concept of attaniya, and their 
bodily, verbal and mental acts are based on and are conditioned by that 
concern. So the root of all vice for the foolish concern is 'self and 
'one's own'. People mistake what is not attaniya to be attaniya as they 
have these hallucinations, namely, that what are not their children are 
their children, that what is not their son is their son, that what is not 
their daughter is their daughter, and that what is not their gold, silver 
or other property is their gold, silver or other property. 



Delusion of Attaniya Dae to Vipallasa (Hallucination). 

In the ultimate sense there does not exist one's own atta, and that 
being the case, how then can there be any attaniya? 
So the Dhammapada says: 

'Putta m'atthi dhanam m'atthi' 'Sons have I, wealth have I' 

iti balo vihannati, Thus a fool worries himself, 

atta hi attano natthi Verily, one's self does not exist, 

kuto putta kuto dhanam? 1 Whence sons? Whence wealth? 

— Verse 62, Bala-vagga, Dhammapada. 

Owing to the misconception of attaniya, fools are tired and fatigued 
like a deer which follows a mirage thinking it to be a pool of water. 
In fact, one's self does not exist. How then can there be one's sons and 
bow can there be one's wealth? 

People do not perform bodily, verbal and mental acts, which are con- 
ditioned by craving, on account of things which they do not regard as 
themselves or their own and they accordingly do not feel any concern. 
There is no likelihood of their committing any vice or sin on account 
of such things. This is quite clear from what we see and experience in 
this world. 



Inhabitants of Ariya-bhumi— the Plane of Noble And Sanctified Beings 165 

Only those people who entertain soul-belief have attaniya. Those who 
have no soul-belief really have no attaniya. As regards these, let alone 
external things, they have no delusive perception of attaniya even in 
respect of the parts of their bodies, such as eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body 
and mind, and they don't have any misconception of attaniya in respect 
of visible object, sound, etc. 

As regards those people who have already eradicated soul-belief, al- 
though they procure wealth and maintain their family, they do so not due 
to attaniya-saiina (perception of attaniya), but due to residual craving. 

Inhabitants of Ariya-bhumi (the Plane of Noble And Sanctified 

Beings). 

Those people who have totally extinguished soul-belief will never dream 
of performing hell- leading deeds on account of their craving for their 
own persons or external objects, nor will they dream of performing such 
vile actions as would cause them to arise in the woeful course of ex- 
istence. 

They will attain sa-upadisesa-nibbana (Nibbana with the constituent 
groups of existence still remaining), after passing through the planes of 
men, devas and brahmas for many world-cycles. They will not fall 
back to the level of common men. In reality, they are beings who are 
bound to attain higher and higher stages of sanctity. (Note— This refers 
to sotapanna.) 

When they desire to attain the knowledge of the 'once-re turner', they 
will strive for and attain sakadagami-magga (the holy path of 'once- 
returner') and will reach the second stage of sanctity. Established in that 
stage they will pass through brahma-planes for many world-cycles, 
enjoying themselves as Great Brahmas. 

When they desire to attain anagami-magga (holy path of 'non-return- 
er') they will strive for and attain that holy path and reach the third stage 
of sanctity. Established in that stage they will pass through the planes 
of brahma for many world-cycles, enjoying themselves as Great Brahmas. 

When they feel that there is nothing to be contented with or attached 
to even in being Great Brahmas (when they detest being Great Brahmas 
like sputum), they will strive for and attain arahatta-magga, the fourth and 
final stage oi sanctity, and become arahats. There they need not strive 



166 Sammaditthi Dlpani 

further because they have become khinasava-dakkhineyya-arahanta (ara- 
hats who have extinguished all defilements and are worthy of all alms 
and offerings). They will remain as arahats in the fourth stage of sanctity 
for many world-cycles; on death they will discard the five constituent 
groups of existence and attain anupadisesa-nibbana. 

In this connection, the asankhata-nibbana (Nibbana— the beyond of all 
becoming and conditionally) is called sa-upadisesa- nibbana. The reason 
why it is called sa-upadisesa-nibbana is that it is attained while the 
constituent groups of men, devas and brahmas still remain. 'Nibbana 
without the constituent groups of existence remaining' or the 'no-more- 
continuing of this physico-mental process of existence' is called anupadisesa- 
Nibbana. 

These two are not different in principle and both are asankhata (the 
Uncreated, the Unoriginated) and amata (Deathless). Animitta-dhamma, 
which has no beginning nor end, is of one kind only and not two. 

Five Kinds of Sammaditthi 

During the present time also, those viriuous people who desire to reach 
the supramundane sphere should strive to establish themselves in the fol- 
lowing five kinds of sammaditthi. 

1. Kammassakata-sammaditthi (right view that beings are the 
owners of their own kamma). 

2. Nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi (right view arising from full 
comprehension of the characteristics of the physical and mental 
phenomena of existence). 

3. Hetu-paccaya-pariggaha-sammaditthi (right view arising from 
full comprehension of the root cause and other causes of the 
physical and mental phenomena of existence. 

4. Vipassana-nana-sammaditthi (right view arising from perception 
with insight-wisdom), 

5. Lokuttara-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from the 
attainment of holy paths and fruitions thereof). 

Of these, lokuttara-sammadittbi is subdivided into the following: 

1. Sotapatti-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from the 
path of stream -winner and the fruition thereof). 



Ever- existing Kammassakata- Sammaditthi 167 

2. Sakadagami-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from 
the path of 'once-returner' and the fruition thereof). 

3. Anagami-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from the 
path of 'non-returner' and the fruition thereof). 

4. Arahatta-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from the 
path of arahatta and the fruition thereof). 

In the Buddha's Sasana, the above four are consolidated into one. So 
there are five kinds of sammaditthi only. 

Ever-existing kammassakata-sammaditthi. 

The kammassakata-sammaditthi has already been expounded. It exists 
in innumerable universes and world-cycles even though an Omniscient 
Buddha does not arise. 

Owing to the conspicuous existence of this kammassakata-sammaditthi 
in the world, the happy planes of existence, namely, the worlds of men 
devas and brahmas exist. Chief-disciples-to-be, Pacceka-Buddhas-to-be* 
and Omniscient Buddhas-to-be also exist on account of this kammassakata- 
sammaditthi. 

Those who have wisdom arising from this kammassakata-sammaditthi 
are free from all kinds of wrong views. It is the 'great eye' of the 
mundane sphere. However, the soul-belief of those who merely have 
this sammaditthi remains intact and unaffected. 

[Note— Atta-ditthi (wrong view of self, ego, personality), sakkaya-ditthi 
(personality belief), attanuditthi (wrong view following personality -belief) 
and attavadupadana (attachment to the ego-belief) are the same dhamma 
with different names.] 

This soul-belief is again subdivided into four kinds: 

1. Ati-olarika-attadiithi (very coarse soul-belief) 

2. Olarika-attadilthi (coarse soul-belief), 

3. Sukhuma-attaditthi (subtle soul-belief) 

4. Ati-sukhuma-attaditthi (very subtle soul -belief). 

* Pacceka-buddha: Individual or silent Buddha, is called an Arahat who has realised 
Nibbana without ever in his life having heard from others the Buddha's doctrine. 
He does not possess the faculty to proclaim the doctrine to the world. 



168 Sammaditthi Dlpanl 

These four degrees of soul-belief should be eradicated by means of 
nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi, hetu-paccaya-sammaditthi, vipassana- 
nana-sarnmaditthi and lokuttara-magga-phala-sammaditthi respectively. 

Of these sammaditthi, right view arising from full comprehension of 
respective characteristics of the physical and mental phenomena of ex- 
istence is called nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi. Right view arising 
from full comprehension of the root cause and other causes of the phy- 
sical and mental phenomena, of the dependent origination of these phe- 
nomena is called hetu-paccaya-pariggaha-sammaditthi. Right view arising 
from meditation on impermanency (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and imper- 
sonality (anatta) is called vipassana-nana-dassana-sammaditthi. Knowledge 
arising from the attainment of the holy paths and the fruitions thereof 
is called lokuttara-magga-phala-sammaditthi. 

These four sammaditthi can be attained only during the Buddha's 
Sasana. They cannot be attained at any other time. 

Ati-olarika-ditthi And Ditthi-visuddhinana (very coarse atta-ditthi 
versus wisdom arising from clearness of view). 

Some beings maintain that the five constituent groups of existence 
are atta or jiva (life, individual, or personality). Some maintain that apart 
from the five constituent groups of existence there is a soul which has 
sway over them. All those kinds of delusions are known as ati-o]arika- 
atta-ditthi. Those who have the nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi are 
able to get rid of this false view. 

[Note— Nama-rupa-pariggha-ri ana (wisdom arising from full comprehen- 
sion of the characteristics of the physical and mental phenomena), nama- 
rupa-vavatthana-fiana (wisdom in determining the physical and mental 
phenomena) and ditthi-visuddhi (wisdom arising from clearness of view) 
are the same. They are mere synonyms of nama-rupa-pariggaha-sam- 
maditthi. With reference to this sammaditthi, it has been stated in the 
Paramattha-Sankhepa: 'The self -belief will be dispelled and clearness 
of view will arise if one can determine name and form (nama-riipa) 
with reference to their respective nature, function, essence, tendency (or 
propensity) and basis.] 



Sukhuma-attfi-ditfhi and Vipassana-iiaga 169 

Olarika-atta-difthi and Paccaya-pariggaha nana (Coarse atta-ditt hi and 
wisdom arising from full comprehension of the root cause and other 
causes of the physical phenomena of existence). 

Some people delusively maintain that there is a 'doer of the deeds' and 
also 'one who takes the consequences'. These delusions of karaka-ditthi 
(wrong view that there is a sufferer of consequences) are called coarse 
olarika-atta-ditthi. 

Those who have paccaya-pariggaha-sammaditthi can dispel karaka-ditthi 
and vedaka-ditthi. They can also dispel ahetuka-ditthi maintained by 
those who hold the 'view of the uncausedness* of existence, and visama- 
hetu-ditthi (mistaken view as to causes) held by those who believe that 
the Supreme Being is the Greater. They are also able to exterminate 
eight kinds of sceptical doubt and sixteen kinds of intellectual or ethical 
doubt. 

[Note— paccaya-pariggaha-nana and kankhavitarana-visuddhi-fiana (wis- 
dom arising from full comprehension of the root-cause and other causes 
of the physical and mental phenomena of existence and wisdom arising' 
from purity due to all doubts having been dispelled are the same. They 
are mere synonyms of paccaya-pariggaha-sammaditthi.] 

The Venerable Ledi Sayadaw in his Paramattha-sankhepa (A Short 
Treatise on the Ultimate truths) says: 'If one thoroughly understands 
the dependent origination of the physical and mental phenomena of 
existence, he will attain the knowledge relating to purity rising over 
all doubt, dispelling sixteen kinds of doubt, eight kinds of sceptical doubt 
and various kinds of wrong views.' 

The two kinds of sammaditthi— nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi and 
hetu-paccaya-sammaditthi— are able to root out the coarse atta-ditthi which 
are actually or actively arising in beings. But they are not able to root 
out the subtle soul-beliefs that lie latent in beings, nor are they able to 
root out the tendency to sceptical doubt. This proclivity— the subtle soul- 
belief— is the root-cause or the seed of all wrong views. 

Snkhuma-atta-ditthi and Vipassana-nina (Subtle Soul-Belief And 
Insight-knowledge Arising from Practice of Meditation). 

When insight-knowledge has been gained by contemplating on anicca, 



170 Sammaditthi DipanI 

dukkha and anatta, the subtle soul-belief and sceptical doubts are exting- 
uished, but the extremely subtle soul-belief and the latent sceptical 
doubts will remain intact. 

Atisukhuma atta ditthi and Magga-phala-naita (extremely subtle soul- 
belief and the wisdom arising from the attainment of the holy path 
and the fruition thereof). 

When the sotapatti-magga-phala-sammaditthi (insight-knowledge arising 
from the path of stream-winner and the fruition thereof) which is the 
first of the four lokuttara-sammaditthi arises, the extremely subtle 
atta-ditthi and latent sceptical doubts are expelled. When soul-belief 
and sceptical doubts are dispelled completely, the evil and mean deeds 
that would cause one to arise in the four lower worlds or in the woeful 
course of existence are also completely extinguished. From that moment 
there will permanently and steadfastly arise in them the 'eye of wisdom' 
by means of which they can penetratingly realise the Four Noble 
Truths; also the thirty-seven 'things pertaining to enlightenment' will 
also be permanently established in them. Although they may pass 
through the planes of men, devas and brabmas in the round of rebirths, 
they will wander as good and virtuous people who have established 
themselves in right view, morality, concentration and wisdom, all of 
which will be permanent and will never be destroyed. They will always 
be good and virtuous people who belong to the higher stages, enjoying 
great wealth, glory and having numerous attendants. They will always 
be able to penetrate the Four Noble Truths. 

[Note— This is the exposition of the benefits of the Buddha's Sasana 
enjoyed by sotapanna (stream- winners) who have attained the first holy 
path and the fruition thereof.] 

Example of an Iron Bowl 

I shall give an example. Suppose a certain person obtains a substantial 
iron bowl which is very rusty. He will then strip off the outer rust by 
means of a chisel and will find the dark-coloured iron. Again for a 
second time he polishes the dark surface of the iron bowl with powdered 
rock and brick and brick-dust, when he will find the original colour of 



Example of an Iron Bowl 171 

the iron bowl. Thirdly, he polishes the remaining impurities on the sur- 
face of the iron bowl by means of very fine powdered rock so that the 
surface of the bowl becomes much brighter. The iron bowl will be 
free from the coarse impurities on the surface. 

Although the iron bowl is devoid of the coarse impurities on the outer 
surface, the subtle and the extremely subtle impurities that lie latent in 
the inside of the bowl remain intact, or remain as they were: they do 
not disappear. These subtle and extremely subtle impurities which He 
latent in the interior of the bowl are the root-causes of the coarse 
impurities which may be formed on the outer surface of the bowl. 
Sometimes when the iron bowl is moistened with water and comes in 
contact with acid or saline water, which are the causes of forming 
impurities, the subtle and extremely subtle impurities contained in the 
bowl will help the growth of coarse and very coarse impurities on the 
surface of the bowl, and the iron bowl will once more become completely 
dark-coloured. 

The owner of the bowl which has been previously polished on the outer 
surface then soaks it in acid or chemical solution many times, and places 
it in a crucible heated to a high temperature. Then the subtle impurities 
contained in the iron bowl are purified: but the extremely subtle impur- 
ities which lie latent in the iron bowl do not disappear and they remain 
as they were. The bowl is not devoid of all impurities. If it comes in 
contact with conditions to form new impurities, a new layer of impurities 
will form on the surface. 

Finally, the owner of that bowl which has been somewhat purified 
before, soaks it again in a very powerful acid or chemical solution of a 
special recipe for seven days and bakes it again in a very great fire for 
seven days and seven nights. Then all the extremely subtle impurities 
contained in the iron bowl become absolutely removed. From that mo- 
ment there is no opportunity for the impurities to form again in the iron 
bowl. The bowl now becomes a stainless bowl possessing an ever-brilliant 
lustre. It becomes a bowl which is magnificent and which is as brilliant 
as a moon or a sun. 

The bowl on which rust has accumulated for such along time resem- 
bles the common people who hold the soul-belief in the endless round of 
rebirths. 



172 Sammaditthi Dlpanl 

The iron bowl, the very thick coarse impurities of which have been 
stripped off by a chisel, resemble the common people who have eradicat- 
ed the pubbekata-hetu-ditthi (view that all sensations enjoyed by beings 
in the present existence are caused and conditioned by the volitional 
actions done by them in their past existences), issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi 
(view that all sensations in the present existence are created by a Sup- 
reme Being or God), and ahetuka-ditthi (view of the 'uncausedness and 
unconditionally* of existence) by means of kammassakata-sammaditthi 
(right view in holding that beings are the owners of their own kamma). 

The iron bowl which has its outer surface polished by means of pow- 
dered rock and brick-dust, resembles the worldlings who have rooted out 
the very coarse soul-belief by means of nama-rupa-pariggaha-sammaditthi 
(right view arising from full comprehension of the characteristics of the 
physical and mental phenomena of existence). 

The iron bowl which is again highly polished by means of very fine 
powder or sand resembles a worldling or being who has dispelled the 
less coarse soul-belief by means of hetu-paccaya-sammaditthi (right view 
arising from full comprehension of the root-cause and other causes of the 
physical and mental phenomena of existence). 

The iron bowl in which the subtle impurities lie latent and are purified 
to a certain extent by treating with powerful acid and chemical solution 
of a special recipe and heating to a high temperature in a crucible, resem- 
bles one who has eradicated soul-belief by means of vipassana-fiana- 
dassana-sammaditthi (right view arising from perception with insight- 
wisdom). 

The bowl which has been transformed into a stainless bowl by treating 
it with very powerful acid and chemical solution for seven days and seven 
nights and which has been baked in a very great fire for seven days 
and seven nights, thus absolutely driving out all impurities from the bowl, 
resembles a Holy One who belongs to the Supramundane sphere, and 
who has eradicated the extremely subtle soul-belief by means of lokut- 
tara-magga-phala-sammaditthi (right view arising from the attainment of 
the holy paths and the fruitions thereof). 

Those virtuous people who desire to enjoy the benefits of the Buddha's 
Sasana should strive their best to realise these five kinds of sammaditthi. 



How to Acquire Nama-Rupa-Pariggaha-Nana 173 

How to Acquire Nama rapa pariggaha-iiana. 

Of the five kinds of right views, the method of acquiring kammassa- 
kata-sammaditthi has been expounded clearly in a former chapter. Those 
who desire to strive for nama-nipa-pariggaha-sammaditthi (right view 
arising from full comprehension of the characteristics of the physical and 
mental phenomena of existence) should very well note and contemplate 
a mental phenomenon, which is prominent amongst the psychic phenom- 
ena, which is also a principal phenomenon, and which is inseparably 
associated with all consciousness. 

If one develops his mental faculties by concentrating on a fundamen- 
tally important mental factor, which is inseparably associated with all 
consciousness, the other mental phenomena will be covered by this con- 
templation, and they need not be separately contemplated. 

This statement is true: In the Nidanavagga of the Samyutta-nikaya, the 
Buddha declared that if one is able to fully comprehend phassa-ahara 
(the condition of sense-contact), he will realise the three kinds of sensa- 
tion—agreeable, disagreeable, indifferent— and will achieve the Goal. 

The Buddha also declared that if one fully comprehends mano-sance- 
tanahara (the condition of mental volition), he will realise the three kinds 
of craving and achieve the Goal; and if one fully comprehends vinna- 
nahara (the condition of consciousness), he will realise mind and matter 
and will achieve the Goal. 1 [The exposition of these three kinds of 
ahara (causes) may be taken from the Ahara- dipani by the late Venerable 
Ledi Sayadaw.] 

In the Maha-tanhasankhaya-sutta 2 also, the Buddha preached to Sakka, 
King of Devas, that if one is able to comprehend vedana (sensation), he 
is able to achieve the Goal. [The exposition of vedana may be taken 
from Kammatthana-dipani and Anatta-dipani by the late Venerable Ledi 
Sayadaw.] 

Besides, there are many other Suttas where the Buddha declared the 
method of contemplation based on just one mental phenomenon. 

In the contemplation of physical phenomena too, if one contemplates the 
Great Primaries which are conspicuous, the other physical phenomena 

1. Samyutta-nikaya, Nidana-sanyutta, Maha-Vagga, Putitamanata Sutta. Chattha 
Sangayana Edn. 322. 

2. Majjhima-nikaya, Milapannasa . . . Mahayamaka vagga . . . Mahatanhasarikhya- 
siUfa. Chattha Sangayana Edn. p. 323. 



174 SammSditthi Dipani 

also come within the scope of this contemplation. [The Four Great 
Primaries have been dealt with in Lakkhana-dipani, Vijja-magga-dipani, 
Somanassupekkha-dipani, and Bhavana- dipani by the late Venerable Ledi 
Sayadaw.] 

In the chapter on Ditthi-visuddhi in the Visuddhi-magga Atthakatha, 
the process for full comprehension of the characteristics of physical and 
mental phenomena has been set out at great length and in great detail, 
but what has been set out there is only for those who are highly intel- 
ligent and who have specially grasped the Abhidhamma. It is not for 
the beginner in the practice of meditation. 

This statement is true: The Omniscient Buddha did not teach in the 
world of men this Abhidhamma Pitaka wherein He fully dealt with such 
dhamma as wholesome volitional actions, the five constituent groups of 
existence, etc. He taught this only to the Devas in the Tavatirhsa Deva- 
world. 

In the world of men, the Omniscient Buddha declared only such phy- 
sical and mental phenomena as will be suitable to these beings, and as 
will enable them to attain lokuttara-sammaditthi-nana by contemplating 
the same. He did not teach them all the physical and mental phenomena 
in full. 

When one is prosecuting his studies in Buddhist literature, one should 
understand all the Teachings in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. However, when 
one is contemplating mental and physical phenomena for the purpose 
of acquiring vipassana-nana-dassana-sammaditthi (right view of anicca, 
dukkha and anatta through insight-wisdom), it is not necessary for one 
to know all that is contained in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. One should 
think out which suttanta-method among the methods declared in the 
Majjhima-nikaya and Samyutta-nikaya, is best suited for one's purpose 
and should try and attain nama-rupa-pariggaha-nana by that method. 

In doing so, he should first get instructions from a competent kammat- 
thana teacher who has already attained nama-rupa-pariggaha-fiana. Other- 
wise, if he simply depends on his intellectual power and contemplates as 
he pleases, he may be able to achieve the desired goal only after a very 
long period, or may not be able to achieve that goal at all. 



How to Attain Insight-Wisdom 175 

How to Acquire Paccaya-pariggaha-nana (knowledge arising from 
full comprehension of the root-cause and other causes of the physical 
and mental phenomena of existence). 

In trying to attain hetu-paccaya-pariggaha-sammaditthi (right view 
arising from full comprehension of the root-cause and other causes of 
the physical and mental phenomena of existence), one should contemplate 
the following in accordance with such texts as 'ahara-sammudaya rupa 
sammudayo', etc. 

1. because of nutriment, material qualities arise 

2. because of contact, sensation arises 

3. because of mind and matter, consciousness arises 

4. conditioned by the eye-base and the visible object, eye-conscious- 
ness arises 

5. mental and physical phenomena arise according to the principle 
of Dependent Origination. 

How to Attam Insight-Wisdom. 

In developing one's mental faculties to attain insight-wisdom, one should 
contemplate as follows: 

1. by the cessation of nutriment, material qualities cease 

2. by the cessation of contact, ceases sensation 

3. by the cessation of kamma- formations, ceases consciousness 

4. by the cessation of consciousness, cease the mental and physical 
phenomena 

5. by the cessation of the mental and physical phenomena, cease the 
six bases 

6. by the cessation of the six bases, ceases contact 

7. by the cessation of contact, ceases sensation 

8. by the cessation of sensation, ceases craving. 

Thus whenever the causes cease, the consequences also cease. 

According to the declaration 'yadaniccam, tarn dukkham', a dhamma 
is really anicca (impermanent), is utterly devoid of sukha (pleasure), and 
in reality it is dukkha (suffering) pure and simple. 

According to the declaration 'yam dukkham tadanatta', a dhamma 
which is suffering pure and simple should not be relied on as atta. This 



176 Samraaditthi Dlpani 

dhamma which is Suffering pure and simple should not be relied on as a 
dhamma which can be swayed by one's will. So it really is anatta. 

[The exposition of Vipassana-nana-dassana-sarnmaditthi appears in many 
other books written by the Venerable Ledi Sayadaw.] 

Here ends the exposition of the five kinds of sammaditthi. 

Here The Manual of Right Views' comes to a close. It was originally 
written in Pali by the Venerable Ledi Sayadaw and the Burmese transla- 
tion of it was carried out by Ledi Pandita U Maung Gyi, M.A. at 
Thaton. 



Niyama-Dipani 

or 

Manual of Cosmic 

Order 

By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahdpandifa, D. Lit f. 

(Translated from the Pali by Beni M. Barua, D. Litt., M.A. and revised and edited 
by Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, D. Litt., M.A. with the residuum translated by Ven. 

U Nyana, Patamagyaw.) 



Of the Fivefold Niyama (Cosmic Order) 1 

Honour to the Exalted One, Arahat Buddha Supreme. 
Honour to the Norm, honour to the Order. 
Honour to the Teachers. 
And may they e'er before me stand 
And commune with me as I go. 

Him who became perfect by the cosmic order, him who taught that 
law, him the Refuge 2 thus honouring I shall now expound that Law. 

The expression 'became perfect by the cosmic order" means that this 
order includes laws of cosmic order for Buddhas, whereby the state of 
Buddhahood is completely brought to pass and achieved. These laws 

1. On Niyama. or Niyama — 'that which fixes', 'fixity', see my Buddhism (London, 
1912, and pp. 378f. in Points of Controversy (the Kathavatthu), by S-Z, Aung and 
myself, P.T.S. 1915.— Ed. 

2. Natho 



178 Niyama DIpanI 

bring about the attainment of BodhP by the great Bodhisats— namely, 
the ten perfections, each of three stages, the five great renunciations, 
the threefold duty, and at the end of the days, the grappling, while on 
the Bodhi-seat, with the law of causality, and the perceiving, while in 
jhana-concentration with controlled respiration, the genesis and evanes- 
cence of the five aggregates of individuality. By these things the Buddhas 
win Buddhahood, hence such matters are called the things of the cosmic 
order for Buddhas. Hereby we indicate that not by chance or accident 
do Buddhas become perfect. 

'Who taught that law' means that He taught this and that way of 
applying the law of cosmic order, taught the one cosmic order of the 
five series of that order. 

The Fivefold Niyama is as follows 

1. utu-niyama: the caloric order 

2. bija-niyama: the germinal order 

3. kamma-niyama: the moral order 

4. citta-niyama : the psychical order 

5. dhamma-niyama: natural phenomenal sequence. 4 

1. Utu 5 is that which manifests, brings forth, generates what is ungen- 
erate, develops that which is generate. But what is it? It is the specific 
quality we know as heat, the bare primary quality of fire. In this con- 
nection let us consider the four 'great essentials' of matter. 

Each of these exhibits three forms. By the first essential quality 'pat- 
havi' we understand either (i) that constant 'extended element', adapt- 
able and pliant, which functions as the basis of the other three— fluids, 
fires, gases— or (ii) soil, or (iii) rock. The second essential element has 
the salient mark of binding together, but there can be no binding without 
the wherewithal to bind. Nor in the third essential can there be heat 
without food, without fuel. Nor as to the fourth essential can there be 
mobility without some moving base. Hence, whatever material phenomena 

3. Enlightement: Buddha- Wisdom. Mr. Barua prefers 'Philosophic order, causal 
order'. 

4. We have no word to fit 'dhamma". The rendering used is Mr. S.Z, Aung's. 

5. Cf. Compendium of Philosophy, 161n4. 



Of the Fivefold Niyama 179 

we take— liquid, fiery or gaseous, even the smallest atoms— the element 
called pathavi is the supporting condition of all of them by its function 
of serving as 'basis' to all. 

By the second essential quality 'apo* we understand (i) that constant 
'cohesive element', adaptable and pliant, which functions in solids, fires, 
gases as that by which they cohere, or (ii) the 'viscous', the moisture 
that is for instance in bodies, in trees, etc., or (iii) the more obvious 
fluid apo manifested in this or that liquid. 

The 'viscous 1 form of apo denotes, as has been said, moisture in organic 
form, such as in an un withered tree or an undried body. The 'fluid 1 , 
such as waters and juices, is obvious-. Whatever conglomerates in the 
least atoms, all are impossible without the function of cohesion. It has 
therefore been said that apo is primarily the variable internal cohesion 
of solids, fire and air. 

By the third essential quality 'tejo' we understand (i) that constant 
element of heat, adaptable and pliant, which as 'hot' and 'cold' func- 
tions in solids, etc., as that which generates and as that which brings 
to maturity, or (ii) glowing heat, or (iii) flaming heat.- It is due to the 
action of this element that all material things when they have reached 
maturity are reproduced, and make for growth or for maintenance. 

By the fourth essential quality 'vayo' we understand (i) that constant 
element of mobility, adaptable and pliant, which functions as fluctua- 
tion (or oscillation) in solids, etc., or (ii) compressed or tense atmos- 
phere, or (iii) atmosphere in motion— for instance, air in a pair of bellows 
and air inhaled and exhaled. The mobile element constitutes the element 
of force, of resistance in co-existent essential forms. Hence all material 
things through this force and resisting power carry out their func- 
tions. 

Furthermore, all these elements, whilst persisting under the stated 
conditions, increase in magnitude when there is an efficient cause for 
increase, and decrease in magnitude when there is an efficient cause for 
decrease. How may such a cause arise ? In the case of solids the cohe- 
sive element may obtain fluidity, and the solid substance begin to melt. 
In the case of water, heat may grow to a flaming fire, while the cohe- 
sive element can merely exercise the property of cohesion. It is on 



180 Niyama DIpanI 

account of their intensity and magnitude that they are called the 'Great 
Elements' (maha-bhutani). Their intensity and magnitude reach the climax 
on the eve of the destruction and disintegration of the world-systems. 

Heat in its primal form is the germinator of all material phenomena. 
And this element or primal form of heat is just utu. Conversely, as we 
have said above, utu is the primal form of fire. Now to return to the 
'caloric order.' 

The caloric order is the fixed process that determines the four-fold 
succession of evolution, continuance, revolution (i.e. dissolution), and void 
of the universe. It is the process that determines the ordered succession 

of the three seasons— winter, summer and rains It is again the same 

process that determines the -specific season in which trees, creepers, 
shrubs and grasses bring forth flowers and bear fruit. And all this order 
has been made and created by no 'maker' whatever, whether human, 
celestial, or divine. Inasmuch as it is accomplished entirely by the fixed 
(or natural) order that we know as 'utu', it is called utu-niyaina, or 
caloric order. 6 Thus we read in the Pali texts: 'There comes, Vasettha, 
a time, when, sooner or later, after the lapse of a long, long period the 
world-system passes away. In the course of time, Vasettha, the radiance 
of those celestial beings vanishes. Their "self- radiance" having thus van- 
ished, the moon, sun, planets and stars come into existence: nights, days, 
months, half months, and the year with its seasons appear, etc.' 7 

2. Germinal order— Germ (seed, bija) is that from which trees, etc., 
spring and grow in varying forms. But what is that? In its common 
acceptance the word 'germ' denotes the five kinds of bija— 'root', 
etc. From the philosophical point of view it is just a form of 'caloric 
energy' (utu). Thus the generating and growing agency of the vege- 
table kingdom, embracing trees, etc , 'seedlings and plants' s — a form of 
'caloric energy', which tends to manifest itself in plant-life— is called 
seed or germ. 

6. 'It is not change but the changing, and the changing is fire: . . . this order (kos- 
mos) which is the same in all things, no one of gods or men has made, but it was, 
is now, and ever shall be an ever-living fire kindled and extinguished in due 
measure — Heraclitus. 

7. Digha Nikaya iii. 84, 86. 

8. An ancient Pitaka phrase. 



Of the Fivefold Niyama 181 

The germinal order signifies the sprouts, shoots, trunks, branches, 
twigs, leaves, flowers, and fruits which spring from, say, the 'rose-apple seed' 
(jambu-bija) and which do not cease to be of the rose-apple species, type or 
family. This explanation applies to all trees, creepers, shrubs and grass- 
es. This, too, is not made, nor created by any maker whatever. Inas- 
much as it is accomplished entirely by the fixed or natural order that 
we know as germinal, it is called bija-niyama or germinal order. Thus 
we read in the Pali-texts: 'There are, bhikkhus, five classes of seeds, 
namely, those which are propagated from roots, from stems, from joints, 
from shoots, 9 and from the seed proper.'io 

The subject is treated in detail in the Commentary on the Vinaya, in 
the section devoted to behaviour towards plant-life. 

3. The moral order— Kamma (action) is that by which men execute 
deeds, good or evil, meritorious of the opposite. What is it ? It is volition 
(cetana), moral or immoral. We are told in the Pali texts : 'By action, 
Bhikkhus, I mean volition. It is through having willed that a man does 
something in the form of deed, speech or thought.'!! 

Here volition (or conation) is the act of willing (voluntary, or conative 
action). In carrying something, good or bad, meritorious or the opposite, 
into effect, it deliberates and decides upon the steps to be taken, as the 
leader of all the mental functions involved in so doing. It provides the 
tension of those functions towards the desired object. 

The expression 'as the leader of all* implies that in doing its own 
works, as well as the works of all the other psychic processes involved, 
volition becomes the chief and supreme leader in the sense that it in- 
forms all the rest. Volition, as such, brings other psychical activities to 
tend in one direction. This is the explanation of our statement: 'kamma 
is that by which men execute deeds.' 

It should, however, be borne in mind that the conative process informs 
other psychical processes only in the case of one's own works, not in 
the case of the works of others. Accordingly, the latter cannot be brought 
within the definition of 'volition as the act of willing'. Hence B's actions 

9. Lit. 'from the top' (agga). 

10. Samyutta-Nikaya, iii. p. 54. 

11. Anguttara-Nikaya, iii 415 (VI. 6, "Mahavagga Nifabedhika". 



182 Niyama Dipani 

cannot be called A's kamma, since there is as much difference between 
voluntary and non-voluntary actions as there is between a goat and a 
sheep. Voluntary action alone is entitled to the name. And therefore 
was it said: 'By kamma bhikkhur, I mean volition.' 

In all acts the word kamma denotes 1) that which all deeds have in 
common, and 2) a disposition to exertion. And once well formed in the 
present, through either a good deed, or again through a bad deed, such 
a disposition serves later to call forth the coexistent aggregates (psycho- 
physical states) when the deed is repeated. It is due to the reawaken- 
ing of those aggregates that a man is said, e.g. to be liberal, or given 
to violent deeds. In its persistence this disposition serves to produce 
the factor that leads to the concatenation of existence by way of rebirth 
in a life to come. It is due to the origination' of such a factor that a 
man, having bestowed gifts or killed living beings, is reborn into a state 
of bliss or of woe. This sort of disposition is therefore described in the 
Mahapatthana as the relation of co existent kamma, and, again, of 
kamma at different points of time. 

The distinctive basis in different lines of action 12 is attended with 
great consequences. Once made and established, in one place and at 
one time, it continues to be the cause of some peculiarity with regard 
to the body or mind or both. For this reason, perseverance in reflection 
upon the order of things, or, in worldly matters, perseverance in reflec- 
tion upon such bases, yields great fruit and reward. 

Of the various forms of such bases, two are attended with greater 
consequences in their adjustment and re-adjustment than in their natural 
order. Of these, one is the conative basis of subjective experience and 
the other is the caloric basis (utu) in things external. As to subjective 
experience, the variety in conative tendency is accountable for the variety 
in consciousness. As to external life, the difference in variety of utu 
is accountable for the difference in mobility. 

By the moral order we mean the necessary, fixed, undesirable result 
in an evil action, the necessary, fixed, desirable result of a good action. 
The course of evil action results in rebirth into a state of woe. The 
way of meritorious deeds belonging to the realm of 'riipa' (form sphere) 

12. Dhatuvikatinam dhatuvikaro nama. On vikara; cf. Compendium; Pali Index. 



Of the Fivefold Niyimia 183 

leads to rebirth into a state of purity belonging to the realm of 'rupa'. 
Furthermore, it is said in the Pali texts: 'The result of killing life is to 
make a being short-lived, and abstinence from killing leads to longevity. 
Jealousy begets many sorts of quarrels, while humanity begets peace. 
Anger robs a man of beauty, while forbearance enhances beauty. Enmity 
begets weakness, while amity brings strength. Theft begets poverty, 
while honest labour brings wealth. Pride ends in loss of honour, while 
modesty leads to respectability. Association with a fool causes loss of 
wisdom, while knowledge is the reward of association with a wise man.' 13 
This is the significance of the moral order. 

Here the expression 'the act of killing life makes a being short-lived' 
implies that when a man has once killed a human being, or a being of a 
lower order, the act of killing furnishes the cause of his rebirth in var- 
ious ways into a state of suffering. During the period when he returns 
to the state of man, the same act as 'life killing factor' makes him 
short-lived in many thousands of rebirths. This is the explanation of the 
statement. 'The act of killing life makes a man short-lived'. The ex- 
planation of the rest is analogous. In many hundreds of other suttas, 
various instances of fixed moral consequences are to be found. Such is 
the moral order. 

We read in the Pali texts: 'There is no place, Bhikkhus, no room (in 
the conception of the moral order of things), for a bad action to produce 
desirable, agreeable and delightful results, etc.' 1 ^ 

An 'action' produces two kinds of result: that which is uniform (in- 
evitable), that which is diverse (exceptional). Here the order of moral 
principles is given with reference to the first kind of result. When we 
come to the 'diverse kind of result', we find that a man may pass his 
days happily with ill-gotten riches, but, after death, according to the 
uniform kind of result, he undergoes a doom of suffering all the more. 

Men inspired with pious thoughts and religious ideals forsake all world- 
ly success, perform acts of merit, walk in the Norm, and undergo 
many kinds of privation. But according to the uniform kind of result, 
after death they may rejoice in heavenly bliss all the more. Such is the 
fixed moral order. 

13. Cf. Majjhima-Nikfiya Cula-Kamma-Vibhanga-Sutta, iii. 202f. 

14. Anguttara-Nikaya, i, 2R 'Atthana-vagga.' 



184 Niyama Dlpani 

4. The psychical or psychological order—Thought (citta) means 'one 
is thinking' (the act of thinking), the meaning being, one cognises an 
object. It may also mean: investigates or explores an object. Further- 
more, thought is, figuratively, called the 'varied' owing to the varying 
forms of thinking of objects. 15 Accordingly it is said in the Pali texts': 
T see, bhikkhus, no other thing which is so very varied as thought 
(mind). I see, bhikkhus, no other group (nikaya) which is so varied as 
beings of a lower order (beasts, birds, etc.) The beings of lower order 
are varied only by mind. 16 But thought is said, bhikkhus, to be still 
more varied than those beings.' 

Thought becomes more varied with regard to immoral things than to 
such as are moral. It is said 'mind delights in evil'. The beings of 
lower order that are made and created by mind are therefore more var- 
ied than all other beings. How is that? It is said in the Pali texts: 1 
will declare, bhikkhus, how the world originates, and how it ceases. 
What is the origination of the world, bhikkhus? Conditioned by the 
eye and objects arises visual cognition. This triad is called "contact". 
Because of contact, feeling; because of feeling, craving . . . Such is the 
origination of the entire body of ill. Conditioned by the ear and objects 

... by the nose ... by the tongue by the body, etc . . . conditioned 

by the sensorium and things arises mind-cognition. This triad is contact. 
Because of contact, feeling; because of feeling, craving . . . Such is the 
origination of the entire body of ill. This, bhikkhus, is what is called 
the origination of the world. 

'What is the cessation of the world, bhikkhus? Conditioned by the 
eye and objects arises visual cognition. This triad is called "contact". 
Because of contact, feeling; because of feeling . . . Because of the com- 
plete cessation of that craving, grasping ceases; because of the cessation 
of grasping, becoming ceases . . . Such is the cessation of the entire 
body of ill. So with regard to ear and other senses. This, bhikkus, 
is what is called the cessation of the world.' 17 

15. The word citta (pronounced chit-ta) means both consciousness, cognition and also 
variegated manifold. Hence the author plays on the word. 'Thought* should 
here be understood in the widest sense as 'being-aware of, 'conscious of — Ed. 

16. Cittan'eva cittikata. Samyutta-Nikaya, iii. 152. 

17. Samyutta-Nikaya, iv 87 



Of the Fivefold Niyama 135 

Here the expression 'conditioned by the eye and objects arises the 
visual cognition, etc.', indicates that in this world the consciousness and 
thought-procedure of foolish average folic vary from moment to moment 
and become the cause of their rebirth in different forms of future exis- 
tence. Admitting this, it will be found that the different forms of their 
future existence are made and created by the mind in their present life. 
Because of the variation of consciousness, perception varies. Because of 
the variation of perception, their natural desire varies, and because this 
varies, action (kamma) varies. Some maintain also that because kamma 
varies, the rebirths in the animal kingdom vary. 

Now the phenomena, termed in the philosophic truth kamma and 
mind, become in conventional standards of truthis 'soul' (or 'being') 
and 'person'. According to the latter, just as men by manifold thoughts 
make divers and manifold things in this world, and just as gods* 9 by 
manifold thoughts create divers and manifold things, so actions (kam- 
mani) and the results of actions, diversified by thought, are endowed 
with various forms of thinking, as if they were 'beings' and 'persons'. 
Hence, although neither action nor mind has the nature of atman, 20 who, 
it is asked, knows how to make? who is able to make? 'Beings', 
'persons': they know, they can make all things. But whether there 
is any special being or person making the infinitely varied world-picture 
or not it is impossible for them to say. 

By psychical order we mean the fixity or law of the consequences of 
thoughts or consciousnesses, varying in function and in occasion. It is 
treated of in the Patthana in the chapter on 'the Relation of succession 
or sequence'. 21 

5. Natural phenomenal sequence (dhamma-niyama)— A dhamma is that 
which bears (dhareti) its own nature, e.g. its own hardness to the touch, 
its specific, individual mark as well as its universal characters, namely, 

IS. Ci. Exposition II. 

13. Deva, it must be remembered, includes all 'spirits' (all of them impermanent) 

inhabiting either the heavens as 'God', angels, gods, or this earth as 'fairies', 

etc' 

20. Atta, or self, implies superphenomenal nature. Cf. Anattalakkhana-Sutta, Vinaya 
Texts, i. lOOf— Ed. 

21. This is included in the Tika Patthana. 



186 Niyama Dipani 

growth, decay, dissolution, etc. The dhamma, categorised under the 
causal relation 'bear' the function of that relation, and those categorised 
under 'effect' 'bear' the function of the result or effect. This meaning 
applies to all dhamma as treated of in the Suttanta and the Abhidhamma 
Pitakas. It also embraces the things enumerated in the Vinaya Pitaka 
under the name 'the body of precepts' (silakkhandha). Why? Because 
they are not outside the given definition of dhamma. 

The. principal treatment of the order of these dhamma and of all 
other dhamma is in the text of the Mahapatthana. Among the Suttanta 
texts, the whole of the Mahanidana-suttanta, and of the Nidana-samyutta 
is devoted to the dhamma-niyama; so, too, as all other suttantas which 
throw light on the conception of cause and effect. In one sutta this 
niyama is referred to as 'the establishing, the fixity of things as effects' 
(dhammatthitata dhammaniyamata): 'Because of ignorance comes kamma: 
now whether, bhikkhus, Tathagatas arise, or whether they do not 
arise, this element (dhatu) stands, namely, the establishment of dhamma 
as effects, the fixity of dhamma as effects. Because of kamma . . . 
(and so on through all the links of the causal formula), 2 2 It is also 
referred to in the dictum: 'All conditioned things (sankhara) are imper- 
manent, full of ills, and of the nature of "not self" . . . ' 23 

In some passages, this niyama is called dhammata. 'It is dhammata— 
the rule, or order— bhikkhus, that when a Bodhisat (future Buddha) 
having fallen from the Tusita-group, enters into a mother's womb, a 
splendid radiance appears throughout the world, including the worlds of 
gods and brahmas . . . and the thousand world-systems tremble and 
shudder and quake . . . .' 24 

In some passages it is alluded to under the category of possibility and 
the opposite: 'It is impossible, bhikkhus, and out of the question that the 
person endowed with sound views should consider, a conditioned thing in 
the light of something eternal. Such a thing can nowise come to pass, 
€tc.'25 

22. Samyutta-Nikaya, ii. 25; cf. Points of Controversy, 87, 383f. 

23. Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren) ver, 676-678. 

24. Digha-Nikaya, ii. 12 (Dialogues, ii. 9). Dhammata is the abstract noun formed 
from the concrete 'dhamma' as if we should say 'normness'. Cf. Pss. of the 
Brethren, p. 29, n2, 190 etc. 

25. Anguttara-Nikaya, i. 26. 



Of the Fivefold Niyama ]87 

But the character of the dhamma-niyama is best summarised in the 
formula: 'When that exists, this comes to be. From the arising of that 
this arises. When that does not exist, this does not come to be. When 
that ceases, then this ceases!' 26 

Or again: 'These, bhikkhus, are the three characteristics of a condi- 
tioned thing: perceivable is its growth, perceivable is its decay, 'perceiv- 
able is its changing whilst it lasts. These, bhikkhus, are the three 
characteristics of the unconditioned: growth is not perceivable, decay is 
not perceivable, changing and duration is not perceivable.' 27 

It is the dhamma of birth that is born, the dhamma of decay that 
grows old, the dhamma of dying that dies. And herein is another niyama: 
that of birth. For it is said in the Pali texts: 

Then: '0 Vasettha', said the Exalted One, 
'To both of you will I discourse upon 
The question of the breeds of living things, 
In due course, e'en as it really is. 
By breed, in sooth, they differ mutually. 
Grasses and trees ye know; albeit ye may not 
Discern it, birth-made is of each the type. 
By breed, in sooth, they differ mutually ' 

and so on, in several verses, in both the Majjhima-nikaya and the Sutta- 
nipata. 25 Here, 'type' (linga) means 'variation in appearance.' 'Differ 
mutually' is different from one another. 

In these verses the Master spoke of the generic order of trees, etc., 
and of animals. Such an 'order of birth' obtains also among men. Men 
are also seen to be of different birth and breed, different clans, families 
and descent. But in this sutta in order to eliminate the false notion 
that 'the brahmin is the best of all in the world' (the brahmin, i.e. by 
birth only), he first shows the types, among the multitudes of human 
actions and efforts, are wrought by present actions (not merely by birth), 
and finally describes the ideal brahmin. Kamma is shown, in this sutta 
as the criterion of the inferiority or excellence of • beings. It is kamma 

26. In the Vasettha Sutta common to both works, ii 196 and verse 600^ respectively. 

27. ADguttara-Nikaya, i 152 (Culavagga, 47). 

28. Majjhima-Nikaya, ji. 32 (79th Sutta); Samyutta-Nikaya, ii 28, etc.: Anguttara- 
Nikaya, v. 184. 



188 Niyaraa Dipani 

that distinguishes beings with respect to worth. Outward appearance is 
due to breed-variety in the parents. Born of bovine breed, one has the 
bovine shape and appearance; similarly as to horses. Hence in the birth- 
niyama a different procedure is called for when treating of animals 
(pana) as distinct from higher beings (satta). 



II 

Of The Standards of Truth (Dve Saccani) 

Our task here is to define the two categories under which all truths 
may be included: (1) The conventional (sammuti), and (2) the philosophic 
(paramattha) 2 standard. 

1. Conventional truths— By this is meant a truth or fact, generally 
received as such by the common consent of mankind. What are the 
modes of conventional expressions? These are 'self', 'soul', 'being', 
'person', woman, man, body, head, hand, leg, hair of the head, down 
on the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, nerves, sinews, bone, etc.; the names 
of such external objects as tree, creeper, shrub, house, chariot, carriage, 
bed, seat, etc. 

None of these are names of such 'really existent' dhamma (facts, 
phenomena, attributes) as mind, contact, extension, cohesion, etc. They 
are all names which denote as well as connote only some physical ap- 
pearance and its persistence as such. These names and their connota- 
tion, therefore, having but a conventional significance, are called modes 
of conventional expression, i.e. terms in common use. 

What constitutes the achievement or predication of conventional truth? 
'The self is (exists)', 'the living soul is', 'a being is', 'the person is', 
etc. By adopting such words in common use a man becomes a conven- 
tional truth-speaker. And these are to be regarded as a correct mode 
of stating such truth. Why? Because otherwise constant disputes would 
result from want of a common language and common notions. 

1. This is placed in ihe author's Ms. as No. 4. but I have translated it before the 
others, because the two standards are referred to in Exposition I — Tr. 

2. Literally, having the supreme or ultimate matter — Ed. 



Of the Standards of Truth i?9 

This is what is termed 'conventional truth'. 

2. Philosophic truth— This is a tact or truth recognised from the philo- 
sophic point of view. What are the modes of philosophic expression? 
These are: 'mind', 'mental factor', 'matter', 'Nibbana', 'aggregates', 
'elements', and so on. 

These are not merely common or collective names, but imply some- 
thing which really as such (sabhavato) exists. These are called the 
modes of 'highest', or 'ultimate matters', inasmuch as any import be- 
yond that which they possess is inconceivable. 

What constitutes the achievement or predication of philosophic truth? 
'Consciousness exists', 'contact exists', 'feeling exists', 'extended quality 
exists', 'cohesion exists', 'Nibbana exists', and so on. 

By expressing things as they exist in reality a man is a truth-speak- 
er. 3 Such speech is also to be regarded as a correct mode of stating 
truth. Why? Because it helps us to avoid falling into the errors of re- 
cognition, sense-consciousness and illusory opinions. 

This is what is termed 'philosophic truth'. It should be noted in this 
connexion that 'conventional truth' provides a safeguard against false- 
hood, and 'philosophic truth' guards against hallucination. Thus, when 
a man from the conventional point of view states 'the self, the soul, 
the being, the person exists', etc., he is not to be considered as uttering 
falsehoods, whether the import of what he affirms is really true or not, 
whether it rests upon valid speculation or self. 4 Why? Because, in such 
a case, there is no fraudulent motive. But it comes within the province 
of hallucinations. Why? Because in these cases the things that are of 
the nature of 'not self are taken as of 'self, and stated as such. From 
the philosophical point of view there is nothing of 'self. There are 
only dhamma. And none of these is of the nature of 'self. They 
are, on the contrary, of the nature of 'not-self, etc. And when a man 
speaks like this his words show neither falsehood nor hallucination. So we 
read in the Pali texts: These, bh'ikkhus, are the four cases- of hallu- 
cination. What are the four ? The impermanent is taken as permanent.' 
This is the first point involved in hallucinations of recognition, sense- 

3. SaccavadT, applied par excellence to the Buddha. Cf. Pss. of the Sisters, 121 n I, 

and elsewhere. 
A. Atta, Sanskrit atman. On the implications in this term, see Exposition I. 



190 Niyama Dipanl 

consciousness and illusory opinion. 'That which is ill is taken as weal. 
That which is not-self is taken as self. The ugly and offensive is taken 
as beautiful and beneficial.' These are the remaining three cases of the 
hallucinations of recognition, sense-consciousness and illusory opinion. 

Here the expression 'The impermanent' implies the psychical and 
phys:cal facts and conditions that are summed up in the term 'name- 
and-form', 5 and which are by nature impermanent. The expression 
'that which is ill' implies the facts of common experience that are 
categorised under the 'truth regarding ill'. The expression 'the not- 
self implies all that which is of the nature of 'not-self. And the ex- 
pression 'the ugly and offensive' implies the psycho-physical conditions 
that fall under 'the truth regarding ill' and are, therefore, a fortiori con- 
sidered to be 'ugly and offensive'. 

By viewing 'name-and-form' in the light of 'being', 'person', a man 
takes what is impermanent as permanent. Why? Because 'being' or 
'person' is nothing but a concept. And a concept, as we know, has 
not the attribute of passing away or moving about. 

On the other hand, when it is said that a being, on coming into a 
form of existence, is himself born, that at the end of life he himself dies, 
that even before he took on to himself the present form of existence, he 
had come from this or that form of first existence, and that after death 
he would be re-born into this or that form of future existence, it shows 
that the being is viewed as engaged in 'going'. 

It is for these reasons that, by viewing 'name-and-form' in the light 
of 'being', 'person', a man takes what is impermanent as permanent. 

By holding dear and agreeable that which is merely a mental and 
bodily phenomenon liable to the facts of misery, a man takes that which 
is ill as weal, that which is ugly and offensive as beautiful and bene- 
ficial. 

'Being' is a mere 'concept'. There is no corresponding thing in nature. 
When such a really non-existent is regarded as really existent, the re- 
sult thereof is that mere name-and-form is made the essence of a being. 
And by holding that it is the self of a being, not only that, the being 
himself, a man takes what is not-self as self. 

5. Approximately equal in sense to mind- and -bojiy — Ed. 



Of the Standards of Truth 191 

It is said that a man sees objects through his eyes. Here seeing means 
visual cognition. The gaze is fixed upon a material form as the object 
of that cognition- And the form is a visible and tangible phenomenon, 
and neither the being nor the person. A man, having seen such a form, 
-contemplates it in his mind as a being, a woman, a head, a face, a tree, 
a chariot, a carriage. 6 This is the error of cognitive consciousness or- 
iginating from seeing. A similar explanation can hold true of such an 
error as originates from hearing, etc. But the question as to the error 
that originates from the mind co-ordinating sensations is rather intricate, 
though of pressing importance. 

According as an object is discerned by the mind, it is marked or fixed 
"by recognition. Later on it may cause bewilderment and confusion. 
This is what is called the hallucination of recognition. 

According as a man apprehends a thing through the understanding, 
he speculates upon it:— 'Beings, etc., have a self.' 'It is like this and 
that.' 'There is a living soul.' 'It is such and such.' This is what 
is termed the hallucination of illusory opinion. 

In the Pali texts, the hallucination of recognition as being very obvious 
is mentioned first. But it may follow the hallucination of opinion. And 
these three forms of hallucination are rooted in 'ignorance', that is to 
say, they originate from it. Of these, the first two forms of hallucination 
have a bearing upon the immoral type of worldly consciousness. Craving, 

•6. "They (i.e. the surface view of sense perception) do not bring us to understand 
the true underlying principle or law; they rather disguise that from us. It is 
perhaps not too much to say that the senses tend to give us the notion of the 
fixity of things, and therefore to hide the truth that the law of all things is 
change: there is no permanence in things save only — the law of all change." — 
Heraclitus. 



"Householder, to bring about life in the heaven- world, it is of no 
use for an Ariyan disciple, yearning for heaven, either to pray for 
it or to think much of it; the steps that lead to heaven must be 
stepped by the Ariyan disciple, and when those steps are stepped 
by him, they lead to the winning of heaven, and he becomes a 
winner of the heaven-world." 

Anguttara-Nikaya, The Book of the Fives, iii (43) 



192 Niyama DIpanI 

conceit, and false notions spring from them. By taking his stand upon 
philosophical truth, a man can discern the nature of hallucinations; and 
having ascertained what that is, he can give them up for ever. 



Of Great Periods of Time 

We shall now expound our system of the five time-periods called 
kappa. They are distinguished as 1) a great kappa, a cycle or aeon; 
2) an incalculable kappa, four going to each great kappa; 3) an included 
kappa, falling within one of the preceding; 4) a life-kappa, or one life- 
span of any given being; and 5) a cataclysm-kappa, or age of doom. 

1. A 'great kappa'— This is a notion of a given time historically cut 
off, so to speak, and divided into some periods in which many events 
happen (in a certain order, and which repeat themselves). It would 
follow from this that a 'great kappa' is but a notion of time itself. To 
a kappa as such is given the name 'great' on the ground of its having 
been conceived as the greatest in duration. How long, then, is the dur- 
ation of a great kappa ? 

In order to form an idea of its duration, let us imagine a mountain, 
which is a single cube of rock, one leaguei in length, in breadth, and 
in height. If a person were to flick it with a piece of cloth once at the 
lapse of every hundred years, the time that such a mountain would re- 
quire to be completely worn away would not be so long in duration as 
is a great kappa.2 

1. A yojana, a classical division of length, a distance of about seven miles. 

2. 'Just as if, brother, there were a mighty mountain crag, four leagues in length, 
breadth, and height, without a crack or cranny, not hollowed out, one solid mass 
of rcjck, and a man should come at the end of every century, and with a fine cloth 
of Banaras should once on each occasion stroke that rock; sooner, brother, would 
that mighty mountain crag be worn away by this method, sooner be used up, 
than the aeon. 

'Thus long, brother, is the aeon; of aeons thus long many an aeon has passed 
away, many a hundred aeons, many a thousand aeons, many a hundred thousand 
aeons.' 

S.N. ii. 178 ff. 



Of Great Periods of Time 193 

How long in duration has been the succession of great kappas in the 
past ? It is said in the text: 'Undetermined, Bhikkhus, is the beginning of 
this world: the past extremity (pubbakoti) as to the running on of beings 
in rebirths under the hindrance of ignorance and bonds of craving is not 
manifest.' 3 

Here the Pali word for 'undetermined' is anama, which is the same 
as a-mata, the syllable an being euphonic. Amata means that which is 
unknown, unascertained. Sd it was said 'The past extremity' (or be- 
ginning) is not ascertainable by calculation. Or, it may perhaps mean 
that which, like the 'eel wriggling' of the sophists, 4 sets itself no limit. 

In turning back to the proposition 'the past extremity ... is not man- 
ifest', it is indeed suggested that here the words 'is not manifest' mean 
'does not exist' in the same way as in the passage 'If there be, An- 
anda, no birth, are old age and death manifested ?' 'Verily they are not, 
Venerable Sir.' 5 The word 'manifest' means 'exist', and 'not manifest' 
means 'does not exist'. 

Whether the one or the other be meant, we may conclude that the 
proposition 'the past extremity ... is not manifest* means that the past 
extremity as to the succession of great kappas in general does not exist, 
while taking a kappa in particular, this may be said to have its beginn- 
ing, its middle, and its end. 

Those who fancy that there was actually a past extremity to the suc- 
cession of all great kappas in general have certainly no other reason for 
it than their own fanciful thinking. Those who reject the ariyan mode 
of interpretation called 'the theory of causation' commit themselves to 
the error of the assumption of the uncaused, or to that of theism. 

So much as to the nature and extent of a great kappa. 

2. Incalculable epochs— Such is the name of a kappa that is not capable 
of being definitively enumerated, enumerated even by taking hundreds 
of thousands of years as a unit. These are four kinds: the enve- 
loping epoch, the enveloped epoch, the developing epoch, the developed 
epoch. 

3. Samyutta-Nikaya, ii, 178. 

4. Dialogues of the Buddha, i, 39 f. 

5. Op. cit. ii., 52. 



194 Niyama Dipani 

It is written in the Anguttara-Nikaya (iv., 156; or vol. ii., 142): These 
are the four incalculable epochs. . .(They are enumerated as above). The 
epoch, Bhikkhus, when there is a cosmic envelopment, is not easy to 
reckon as so many years, centuries, tens or hundreds of centuries.' 
Here 'the enveloped' is that which relapses, is destroyed. The world- 
system having once relapsed, while the world-stuff remains in a state of 
dissolution, it is said to remain enveloped. 'The developing epoch' is a 
period of restoration, of evolution. Having once been reinstated, while 
the world-system continues to be in that state, it is said to be devel- 
oped. 6 

Of these epochs, again, the first is distinguished as of three kinds: 

That which is brought to pass by heat, i.e. by the action of fire; 
That which is brought to pass by water, i.e. by the action of a 

deluge; 
That which is brought to pass by wind, i.e. by raging storms that 

hurl away a world-system. 

In the event of the first type of envelopment, fire consumes the realm 
of matter, both in the lower material heavens and everything that is 
below. In the event of the second type of envelopment, water submer- 
ges the realm of matter in the next higher material heavens, together 
with all that is below. And in the event of the third type of envelopment, 
wind unhinges the realm of matter in the highest material heavens, toge- 
ther with all that is below. 

It should be noted now that four incalculable epochs are together equal 
to a great kappa. Hence when we speak of an incalculable period, we 
should understand thereby just one-fourth of a great kappa. 

6. The translator had selected 're-absorbed', and 'persisting as such'. The Pali is 
literally 'rolling together' and 'unrolling'; — Sam-vatta. vi-vatta, the Indo-Aryan 
root being war, wart. Cf. our 'vert' ad-, invert &c.,). I have substituted Leib- 
nitz's 'envelopments, developments' as being an interesting approximate coincidence 
in Eastern or Western terminology. The 'rolling together* is a lurid idea that 
has also shaped itself in the Christian poetic fancy, namely, in the verse of thu 
Dies ira. 

When shrivelling like a parched scroll, 

The 1 laming heavens together roll .... 

Mrs. Rhys Davids. 



Of Great Periods of Time 195 

It as not for us to speculate whence come those three great destructive 
agencies. Suffice it for us that we live in a universe of a certain con- 
figuration, and that everywhere we discern the agency of fire, water 
and wind. When, for instance, fire burns one house, its flame strikes 
on to another, and burns that too. While the flame is yet in the second 
house, it causes the element of heat to grow up in yet another house 
and burn it. Evidently in the last case the flame of the second house 
does not directly burn the third one. This remark holds true of all. 
Thus it would follow from this that this broad earth and universe are 
ever filled with those elements which are ever finding opportunity of 
transforming and disturbing them. And whenever they obtain adequate 
opportunity, they destroy the earth, just as fire can destroy this or that 
mountain in which it resides. There is no question of agencies passing 
over into the universe, but only of series of internecine counteractions. 

3. An included era— This denotes a kappa which appears to fall within 
one of the incalculable epochs, called the developed. In the beginning 
of an incalculable epoch, men live to an exceedingly great age. This 
state of things exists until subsequently, as the conditions of immorality 
develop, their life-term decreases by degrees through a succession of many 
hundreds of thousands of such periods, till it reaches the minimunm of 
ten years. From this again with the conditions of morality developing 
among them, their life-term goes on increasing and increasing till at last 
it regains the maximum of exceeding longevity. This is what is termed 
an included era. Of such eras sixty-four are together equal in duration 
to one incalculable period:— so it is said in the commentaries. 

If that be so, the length of an included era can only be decided by a 
knowledge of the duration of an incalculable epoch. And we may add 
that, if a man were to count the numbers of years by grains of sand 
picked up one by one from one league of the Ganges, the sands would be 
exhausted sooner than the years of one included era were all counted. 

4. Life-spans— When we say 'Through a succession of many hundreds 
of thousands of life-spans', we mean the life-span of men. There is no 
definite term of life as regards brutes, 'petas', demons, infernal beings, 
and earthly gods. Among the higher grades of celestial beings, the life- 
span of the twenty brahma -worlds is different in each case. 



296 Niyama Dipanl 

5. Ages of doom or cataclysm— In the world of men, events happen 
at times that affect human life and are termed disasters. These are of 
three kinds: war, famine, and pestilence. We read in our texts: 'A 
Brahmin said to the Blessed One: "I have heard it said, Venerable Gotama, 
of the Brahmins of old, of teachers, and the teachers of teachers, that 
in former days this world was . . . pervaded by men: within 'the flight 
of a cock' were situated the villages, the inhabited districts, and the 
royal capitals. Now what is the cause, what is the reason that, at the 
present time, the numbersof men have dwindled, so that their paucity 
in numbers is apparent, and that villages appear to be no villages, towns 
appear to be no towns, and inhabited countries appear to be uninhabited ?" 

The Blessed One said: "Now Brahmin, because men are attached to 
immoral passions, overpowered by lawless greed, and victims to false 
ideals, they with sharp weapons kill one another. This verily is the 
cause, this is the reason why the numbers of men have now dwindled, 
so that their paucity in numbers is apparent. And furthermore, Brahmin, 
for them who are grown morally debauched, the sky does not pour down 
sufficient rain, the result of which is the outbreak of famine, on account 
of which many people die. 

'"And yet again, Brahmin, for men who are grown morally debauched 
the yakkhas let loose ferocious non-human pests, in consequence of which 
many people die." ' 7 

Here the expression 'within the flight of a cock' signifies that villages 
and towns were so closely connected that cocks might leap from the 
boundary of one and alight near that of another. 'Victims to false 
ideals' means that they have given themselves up to false ideals and 
ceremonies, by which are meant covetousness, ill-will, as well as various 
sacrifices accompanied with the slaughter of animals. 

'Many people die' implies that, at times, in consequence of some mat- 
ter of administration, or from atrocities perpetrated by thieves, etc., a 
commotion arises in the country, many people lose their lives, many 
properties and means of sustenance are destroyed, and many villages, 
districts, towns and royal capitals are on that account burnt by fire. 
And this sort of fear arises sometimes every three years, sometimes every 
five or six years, sometimes every ten or twelve years. Then comes a 
time when war breaks out between one country and another, between 

7. Anguttara-Nikaya, iii, 56, or vol. i., 159 f. 



Of Great Periods of Time 197 

one kingdom and another, and many people die in consequence. This is 
called a 'doom-era' of anarchy and war. 

'The yakkhas' meant the commanding beings, placed by the four 
great rulers of the four cardinal points as commanders of such beings. 
'The ferocious' meant wicked, savage, non-human beings, devils and 
goblins of terrestrial, aquatic and ethereal origins. 

Tn consequence of which many people die' means that the non-human 
pests, having got the opportunity, came upon the walks of man in many 
hundreds and thousands, from seas or forests. They> having caused many 
diseases to prevail and to seize upon the living bodies, devoured fat and 
blood. Hence they are designated as 'blood -sucking' and 'blood- thirsty*. 
If they failed to seize upon men, they were said to devour fat and blood 
of cows and buffaloes, goats and sheep. When this kind of pestilence 
prevailed once in a country, it prevailed there even for six or seven 
years, causing enormous mortality among the young in men and beasts. 
The remedies used for such a pestilence were the potent formulas of spells 
and incantations, or offerings to the yakkhas. In this connection might 
be cited the story of Sakabodhiraja of Ceylon, in the book of the Great 
Chronicle. 8 

This is called the doomful period of pestilence. Many other types of 
eras of doom also appear in this world. We have been taught, for in- 
stance, that in former days, through demoniac agency, the kingdoms of 
Dandaka, Majjha, Kalinga and Mutanga ceased to be kingdoms. Even in 
these days, in countries, towns and villages where destruction of life goes 
on on a large scale, many creatures meet with death from great earth- 
quakes or from great tidal waves, or from hurricanes, from floods or 
rain, from volcanic eruptions, from shipwrecks. 

When do these three eras of disaster mainly come to pass? From the 
time when the life-span of men is five hundred years. We read in the 
Cakkavatti Sutta: 9 'Upon men who live to an age of five hundred years, 
Bhikkhus, three things come to full florescence: unrighteous, lawless 
greed and false ideals.' 

s. The Mahavamsa, P.T.S. translation, p. 260 f. 
y. Digha-Nikaya, iii., 70. 



198 Niyama DIpani 

IV 
Of Things not Within the Range of Thought 
(Acinteyyani) 

These we hold to be four in number: the range of a Buddha, the range 
of iddhi or supernormal power, the nature of the result of action (kam- 
ma), the origin and reality of the world. 

As it is said in the texts: 'There are four things which are not within 
the range of thought, which should not be thought about, thinking upon, 
which tends to unhinge the mind and injure the system, namely, the 
range of a Buddha, the jhana-range of one in jhana for mystic rapture, 
the result of kamma and thinking of the world.' i 

Here 'things not within the range of thought' means 'which cannot be 
thought about by average folk; things that lie beyond their intellectual 
ability, and with which it is therefore not meet they should occupy their 
thoughts.' By 'thinking upon which' we mean endeavouring strenuously 
to grasp, with the determination: 'Whether I am far removed from, or 
stand near to the matters belonging to ariyans, to saintly persons, I will 
realise these for and by myself, solely by my own intellectual insight/ 
'To unhinge the mind'— to bring about loss of mental balance. 'Injure' 
to cause mental misery. 'Jhana-range' we have called 'range of iddhi'. 

The range of a Buddha. 

These are the fourfold assurances, the six modes of super-intellect and 
the ten powers. The only adequate criterion of these attainments is the 
insight of a Buddha himself, not that of eminent followers, or of other 
beings, human or celestial, fit to rank beside them. As to the nature of 
those powers, they should be studied in the testimony of the Buddhas. 
In so doing a disciple can fulfil his duty, otherwise his efforts are but 
misdirected, and would tend to his ruin, or, as it is said, 'unhinge the 
system'. 

This would hold true for other inquirers, intelligent yet not adherents. 

If this criterion be admitted, the further question arises: 'How can 
one who is a Buddha, i.e., "Awakened", enlightened, omniscient—be 

1. An^uttara-Nikaya, iv., 'Apannakavagga' (vol. ii., p. 80). 



The Range of a Buddha 199 

"known to be such ? ' The reply is: 'By the vastness of his intellect: in 
other words, by omniscience.' But how can omniscience be known ? By 
the contents of his teaching. And by his teaching (in the case of the 
Buddha Gotama) we mean the eighty-four thousand dhammas constitut- 
ing the body of his doctrine. 2 It is by the possession of this intellectual 
superiority (buddhi-mahatta) that a person becomes 'Buddha'; it is not 
only by possessing supernormal gifts as such that he can attain to a 
state of perfection. A Buddha of a truth becomes a true saviour of mul- 
titudes in virtue of his greatness in merit, in morals, in power of con- 
centration, in supernormal power, in intellectual endowment— in all of 
these qualities. 

If it be insisted on the contrary that it is by virtue of mere supernor- 
mal faculties that a Buddha becomes a true saviour, our contention is 
that should a man, himself blinded by the supernormal faculty in matters 
which can only be illumined by intellect, right understanding, try to save 
many, it would do many foolish people great harm. Indeed, in the absence 
of genuine intellect, the supernormal faculty, whether small or great, 
serves as an instrument by which to practise the art of cunning, crafty 
talk and deception. Those who attach weight to supernormal faculty as 
such are as children, while those who attach weight to intellect are wise 
indeed. This truth is brought out in the section called 'Sila', of the Digha 
nikaya, in the Kevatta-sutta. 3 

Here one might object by saying that, for that matter, superiority of 
intellect should be the same as superiority as to supernomal faculty. If 
so, our reply to him would be that should a being be capable of doing 
all possible good to the world by virtue of his superiority as to super- 
normal faculty, it would follow from this that, in his case, there is no 
duty to carry out in the moral kingdom, by virtue of his capacity for 
teaching. If so, it would further follow that in his case there is also no 
duty to perform by virtue of his superior intellect. If this is so, it should 
further be inferred that, in his religion, the functions of teaching and of 
intellect are far to seek. 

Concerning this statement, that by virtue of his superiority in super- 
normal faculty a man is capable of doing all possible good to the world— 

2. See Psalms of the Brethren, Ananda's verses, verse 1024. 

3. Dialogues of the Buddha, i., 276 f. 



200 Niyama Dipani 

'is capable' means, of course, a public, well-attested capacity, visible at 
any time no less than moon or sun in the sky. Otherwise the foolish 
person who draws conclusions from the loud-voiced professions of impos- 
tors gaining their living by such cunning and crafty talk, will in the 
end find himself sprawling in empty space under the delusion that he is 
on broad earth. But superiority of intellect can be absolutely relied upon, 
and he who, in great and profound matters, does not seek is foolish 
both by nature and in the eyes of the world. 



The range of iddhi. 

By iddhi we understand supernormal faculties developed by special ex- 
ercises. In ancient days, when life was long, recluses and brahmins 
outside the pale of Buddhism reckoned five kinds— i.) supernormal will- 
power (iddhividhabhinna); ii.) hyperesthesia of sight; iii.) hyperesthesia 
of hearing; iv.) discerning the thought of another (thought-reading, tele- 
pathy); v.) hypermnesia, or reminiscence of one's own past history. 
These five, together with the insight known as the conviction of one's 
self being free from the four 'intoxicants' (asava-kkhayabhinna), are re- 
cognised among the disciples of the Buddha as six kinds of supernormal 
faculties as such. 

By supernormal powers of will, recluses and brahmins claimed to go 
to the worlds of gods and Brahmas above, to the infernal regions below, 
and even beyond the limit of the farthest zone of the world-systems. 

By supernormal powers of sight and hearing they, standing here, could 
see objects and hear sounds there, at distant places. 

By supernormal powers of thought they could read thoughts, and by 
supernormal powers of hypermnesia they could recollect events that hap- 
pened in the past, many hundreds of births ago, even many periods of 
envelopment and development of the world-system. 

While going above, below or about, they thus began to observe: 'In 
travelling in this manner, in a single moment' we have measured so many 
leagues.' In so doing various configurations and many leagues in the 
systems of the world in the course of a cosmic epoch would become 
visible Having realised through this the perniciousness of sensual desires, 
they renounced the world, became dwellers in the woods, practised, 
meanwhile, such things as meditation on the nature of material things 



The Range of Iddhi 201 

and cultivation of the divine Brahma-life— of good-will, compassion, ap- 
preciation and equanimity— by which a man can attain to the Brahma- 
world, and mastered five supernormal powers. From that time on they 
had nothing further to do for themselves. At this stage they, while living 
in this world, sought for many hundreds, many thousands, many hundreds 
of thousands of years to do good to the world. In so doing there would 
be revealed to them very many kinds of various arts and , sciences. 

As to these recluses and brahmins, we are told in the Brahmjala-sutta 4 : 
'There are some recluses and Brahmins who theorise with Regard to what 
was before the aeons of time, and who speculate on what will be" after 
the aeons of time, etc.' 5 From this we can see that their speculations did 
not come into the range of their fivefold iddhi. Hence, as to a matter 
within the range of their iddhi, their knowledge, and not that of average 
men was to be regarded as the true measure. And it was the business 
of the latter to learn to comprehend those points as they were given by 
those recluses and brahmins. As it is said in the Dasavatthuka-samma- 
ditthi: 6 'There are in the world recluses and brahmins who, being in 
the right path, having made progress by right methods, have discerned 
and realised the nature of this world as well as of the world beyond, 
and declare what they know.' 

Here one might say: T do not believe that there are recluses and 
brahmins who have possessed such great supernormal powers. Why? 
Because now for certain no such men are ever to be seen or heard of in 
the world.' 

You are right in saying, 'now for certain no such men are ever to be 
seen.' The reason is that now you are born too late, and in the closing 
part of a period of decadence. This is also true that you say: 'no such 
men are to be heard of. The reason is that you are born rather too 
late in a non-Noble land, far removed from religions and texts coming 
down in unbroken succession from the beginning of an,. aeon. But you 
should investigate the matter thus: In former days this world was ex- 
ceedingly rich in all respects; men lived to a very great age, even past 
reckoning was one span of life. What then might not this world of men 

4. Dialogues of the Buddha, i , No. 1. 

5. Ibid., p. 52. 

G. A tenfold exposition of Sammaditthi 'right view', in the "Maha-.cattarisaka Sutta", 
Majjhima-Nikaya, No. 117. 



202 Niyama Dlpani 

have been like in those days? To what can we of today liken the saints 
and recluses of those times? 7 



The nature of the result of action (kamma). 

This is of two kinds: that which takes effect in the life-experience of 
an individual, and that which comes about afterwards in a life beyond. 
Here 'result' is that which matures, that is to say, bears fruit, secures a 
distinct end. For instance, when a man, having earned akahapana (old 
Indian coin) by some job he has done, enjoys thereby things that he de- 
sires, it is then, and then only, that his work secures a distinct end, that 
is, reaches the object sought by the labourer. In the same way is the 
point in question to be viewed. Carried once into effect, an action 2 runs 
its course as such, and as long as it does not mature, so long it cannot 
be said to have reached its distinct end. Its sequence may run through 
hundreds of thousands of periods. Thus does a powerful kamma of im- 
moral nature secure its distinct end in states of woe, and thus does a 
a powerful kamma of moral nature become effective in lives of bliss. 

Again, the result of kamma is taken to be twofold: as drifting, affect- 
ing the individual, and as overflowing, affecting others. Of these the 
former implies prosperity, or adversity experienced by a man in this or 
that existence as an individual being, in consequence of his meritorious 
or demeritorious deeds. Under this aspect the result of kamma affects 
the doer of the deed only. But in his existence as an individual being, 
owing to the heat and power of his kamma promoting his happiness, or 
causing him misery, there arise conditions of prosperity, or adversity, with 
respect to persons other than himself. This is called the overflow of the 
result of kamma. Under this aspect the result of his kamma is shared 
by others. 

The drifting course of the result of kamma may be illustrated by the 
prosperity of King Mahasudassana's life in the Mahasudassana-sutta 9 . 

7. This is not to say that such men do not exist in the world today. They can and 
do exist. Not only that, the possibility exists for you to reach the Spheres of 
Attainment; and realisation for yourself is, after all, The only valid thing. 

8. Readers should note th,at kamma means literally action, act, deed. Thus 'job' is 
literally hattha-kamma, hand-action, manual-labour. 

9. Dialogues of the Buddha, ii. No. xvii., Buddhist Suttas (Sacred Books of (he 
East). 



The Nature of the Result of Action 203 

Moreover, owing to the power of the meritorious deeds of the king, var- 
ious conditions of prosperity in the lives of other persons arose, some 
together with his own condition, some coming from this or that source. 
This may be taken as an illustration of the overflowing course of the 
result of kamma. It may even promote the happiness of the inhabitants 
of other continents. 10 

As regards evil deeds, the story in which the whole kingdom was ru- 
ined in consequence of the overfiowing course of King Nalikera's act, 
persecuting five hundred sages, 11 and such other stories may be related. 

Again,. it is written: 'A person, Bhikkhus, may be so born as to pro- 
mote the well-being of many men, the happiness of many men, the in- 
terests of many men, the well-being and happiness of many gods and 
men. A person, Bhikkhus, may be so born as to increase the ill of many 
men, the misery of many men, the ruin of many men, the ill and misery 
of many gods and men.' 1 2 

It not only affects beings, animals as well as men, but it also perme- 
ates the realm of space, and the who]e organic world. Thus we read in 
our texts: 

'It is the rule, Bhikkhus, that when the Bodhisatta, having fallen 
from the Tusita-heaven, enters his mother's womb, then there appears 
throughout this world including the celestial worlds, an infinitely 
splendid radiance surpassing in splendour the divine radiance of 
gods, and then the ten thousand world-systems tremble, shake and 
quake. 13 Such is the overflowing result of a Bodhisatta's acts of 
fulfilling many perfections. 

When men become exceedingly sinful in thought and deed, all the 
overflowing course of their kamma rushes from this extensive earth up 
to the orbits of moon, sun and stars, agonising even the whole realm of 
space, and the whole organic world of trees, etc., undermining by degrees 
the cause of prosperity and strengthening that of adversity. It is then 
that the life-span, beauty and health of men, inhabiting and living in 
both of these worlds, undergo diminution. 

10. Dipa. This may conceivably mean 'world'. 

11. Jataka (trans.) v., pp. 72, 76. 

12. Ariguttara, i., p. 33. 

13. Dialogues, ii., 9. 



204 Niyima DIpanI 

Nowadays men and trees appear exceedingly small. But we are told, 
in the Buddhavamsa that, in the days of longevity, the body of a Buddha 
was eighty cubits in length, while according to the Sixth Book of the 
Anguttara the height was ninety cubits. The Dhammikavagga 14 tells 
us that in ancient times the King Korabya of the Kingdom of the Kurus 
had a banyan tree, named Suppatittha, twelve leagues in circumference, 

its fruits of the size of big rice-jars 

When men become virtuous in thought and deed, it has heen similarly 
declared how the life-span of men goes on increasing. The whole of the 
Aggafma and Cakkavatti-suttas should be referred to in this connection. lo 
Again, in the Fattakammavagga, of the Anguttara-nikaya, 16 we are 
told: 'At the time, Bhikkhus, when kings and their sons become 
unrighteous, unrighteous become also the Brahmins and house-holders, 
and the people who live in suburbs and countries. Then the moon, sun, 
stars and planets move irregularly. At the time, Bhikkhus, when kings 
and their sons become righteous, righteous become also the Brahmins 
and householders, etc. Then do moon, sun, stars and planets move reg- 
ularly.' This is the overflowing consequence of the collective kamma of 
men. Such a consequence affects even the whole realm of space and the 
whole organic world. 

It must be borne in mind that here by 'result of kamma' is meant 
something 'born of the result of kamma'— for instance, the supernormal 
faculties, included under the category of things not within the range of 
thought, became possible through the kamma of past lives. The faculties 
as such are of many kinds, each realm of beings having its own 
supernormal powers. 

As regards the supernormal powers of the Brahma-gods, we are inform- 
ed in the Sankharupapatti-sutta, 17 of the presence of one thousand to 
ten thousand Brahmas: that of these, one thousand Brahmas permeate 
one thousand world-systems with their radiance, two thousand Brahmas 
permeate two thousand world-systems, and so on. These are the Maha- 
brahmas living on the plane of the first stage of Jhana-rapture. Now 

14. Anguttara. iii,, 369. 

15. Digba-Nikaya, iii., Nos. xxvii. 

16. Vol. ii. p. 74. f. 

17. Majjrnma-Nikaya, vol. iii., No. 120. 



.The Nature of the Result of Action 205 

the gods and men who live beneath this plane imagine and recognise 
this or that Maha-brahma to be the maker of the whole world, the lord 
of the whole world, omnipresent, immutable, eternal saviour of the world. 
It is said in the Miila-pannasa, 18 the first sutta of the Majjhima-nikaya: 
'He (i e. an ordinary thinker who is not familiar with the Ariyan mode 
of thinking) apprehends Brahmai9 as Brahma. Having apprehended Brah- 
ma as Brahma, he fancies him to be the Brahma, conceives attributes 
in the Brahma, fancies that the world is from the Brahma, imagines that 
the Brahma is his, and extols the Brahma as such. What is the cause 
of it? I say, it is because this matter is not truly understood by him.' 

Here the meaning of 'apprehends Brahma as Brahma' is: he appre- 
hends the god just as people commonly do in ordinary speech. And the 
phrase 'he fancies him to be the Brahma' implies that he imagines him 
(a) according to his unregenerate desires, thinking: 'Lo! this Great Brahma 
in all his beauty!' (b) according to his fancies as to values (mana), think- 
ing: 'He is the supreme, the most high in the world'; (c) according to 
his speculative opinions, thinking: 'He is the unchangeable, immutable, 
eternal, stable and enduring, for ever.' 

The expression 'he conceives attributes in the Brahma' implies that 
he conceives such and such splendour, such and such supernatual powers 
in him. The expression 'he fancies that the world is from the Brahma' 
signifies that he thinks that this world is born of, i.e. emanates from, 
this Brahma, comes into existence only in relation to him. The expression 
'imagines that the Brahma is his' implies that he considers the Brahma 
to be our master, lord, and refuge. 'Extols the Brahma as such' means 
that he praises him by saying, 'Ah! how majestic is he! Ah! how power- 
ful is he!' The expression 'because this matter is not truly understood 
by him' means that it is not discerned by the threefold mode of discern- 
ing: In the first place he does not investigate it in the light of such an 
axiom of knowledge as the Brahma as such does not exist, the only 
existing things are the psychical and physical facts and conditions classed 
as 'name-and-form'. In the second place he does not investigate the 

18. Majjhima-Nikaya, first Sutta, called 'Mula-pariyaya , in the first firty suttas 
called collectively Mulapannasa, or 'Root-fifty'. 

19. That long-lived being worshipped under mmy names as 'The creator' 'Lprd god 
Almighty', etc. 



206 Niyama Dipani 

matter by the light of higher reason, which judges the psychical and 
physical facts and conditions as such are by nature impermanent, involve 
ills, and are accordingly not of the nature of soul or deity. 

And in the third place he does not investigate the matter by the light 
of a felt necessity of abandoning, once for all, craving, imagined values, 
and false speculation which are rooted in erroneous apperception. These 
were indicated above in connection with our explanation of the expres- 
sions 'he apprehends,' 'he fancies,' 'he extols'. This lack of knowledge, 
indeed, is the cause of his apprehending and imagining and praising after 
this sort. 

As regards the remainining faculties, such as those which are peculiar 
to the gods, etc., they are made manifest in the Deva, Sakka, Brahma, 
Yakkha, Naga, Supanna, and Lakkhana Samyuttas (in the Samyutta- 
nikaya), as well as in the Peta-Vatthu and other texts. 

These faculties are not seldom found among men. But common people 
do not know and see them, although they are lodged in their own bodies. 
The recluses and Brahmins of great supernomal power in the past, or 
those who cultivate occult lore, alone know and see them. Those super- 
normal faculties, born of the result of kamma, are outside the mental 
range of average folks and should not be studied. 

Nevertheless, these faculties are really common, speaking generally, to 
all beings. For all beings, during their continual journey in this endless 
series of lives, may travel from the nethermost purgatories to the topmost 
scale of existence, through all those that are intermediate. They may 
attain then to the state of gods, to that of Sakka, Brahmas, Maha- bran mas, 
and so on. Again from this highest scale they may be reborn into the 
states of woe. He who is today the king of gods, or a brahma, 20 en- 
dowed with majestic powers, may become tomorrow a dog or a hog. and 
so on in rotation. 

Other results of kamma not within the range of thought are such as 
come into effect among infra-human beings. Besides, in the bodies of 
men and of the brute creation there are physical conditions of the sense- 
faculties, resulting from past kamma. These, too, are of a nature not 
within the range of thought. For when in the case of a dead body, or 
a dead organ of sense, a man thinks 'I will bring it to life again ! ' he 
only runs the risk of losing his reason, or of ruining his health by his 

20. 'God Almighty'. 



The Nature of the Result of Action 207 

thoughts and efforts. And why ? Because he is striving against the in- 
exorable working of another's past deeds. 

In the Mahavagga-Samyutta, in the section dealing with the four truths, 
the ten speculative views, maintaining that the world is eternal, that it 
is not eternal, and so forth, are called technically 'world -thought' {loka- 
cinta). But here we are using the term in a more comprehensive sense 
for all world-lore to be found in ancient texts under various names, for 
cosmologies conceived by the recluses and Brahmins of supernomal pow- 
ers, by their pupils and pupils of pupils, or by Atthaka, Vamaka, 
and such other recluses and Brahmins. The Vedangas, for instance, are 
said to be derived from, and dependent upon, the contents of the three 
vedas of the tri-veda brahmins. The sciences mean medical science. The 
mantras denote spells for conquering the earth, winning wealth, etc. 
'World-thought' is also applied to the Manika and Gandhari cults, mention- 
ed in the Kevattasutta. The Manika-cult is like the 'supernormal thought 
called discerning the thought of another', a telepathic device. And the 
Gandhari-cult is like the 'supernormal powers of will', a device for exe- 
cuting various feats ot supernormal character, such as floating through 
the air, etc. The latter is manifold, viz., root-cult, incantatory, numerical, 
and metallic. The root-cult is that which is rendered effective through 
medicinal roots; the incantatory cult is that which is brought into play 
through formulas of spells; the numerical cult is that which is brought 
into play through eight and nine series of numbers; and the metallic 
cult is that which is brought into play by means of metals like iron and 
mercury. And in the Patisambhidamagga we read: 'What are the feats 
of magic ? A magician having recited his spells exhibits an elephant, a 
horse, a chariot, infantry, and various arrays of the army in the sky, in 
the firmament.' In the Upali-sutta of the Majjhima-pannasa we read: 
'What do you think, householder? Is a recluse or a Brahmin, who is en- 
dowed 'with supernormal faculty and has obtained mastery over will, able 
to reduce Nalanda to ashes by a single curse?' 'He is able, Venerable 
Sir.' 21 

Here the clause 'who is endowed with supernormal faculty' means one 
who is said to be gifted with synergic iddhi applied to thought about the 
external world. 

21. Majjhlma-Nikaya, i., 377. 



208 Niyama Dipani 

Among the four matters not within the range of thought, the powers 
of a Buddha stand highest in rank, iddhi proper comes next, and the 
supernormal faculties born of the result of kamma come last. This being 
the case, those who are in the higher worlds gifted with supernormal 
faculties born of the result of kamma, whether they are kings of gods 
or Maha-brahmas recognised as the supreme rulers'ofthe world, become 
in the world of men attendants to Buddhas or their disciples, possessing 
majestic powers of intellect and will. And the same is the case with 
those recluses and Brahmins who are outside our religion, but have 
reached the climax of the supernormal faculties of gods in the higher world. 
Why ? Because those faculties which result from kamma obtain among 
the beings of lower order. And secondly, because they are equipped with 
the moral, reflective, and intellectual qualities that are extant amongst 
us. 

Among witchcrafts concerned with mundane thoughts, those who at- 
tained to success were called Vijjandharas. The gods of lower orders 
and all demons and goblins served as messengers to Vijjandharas. There 
were formulas of incantation and spells which were very powerful. They 
served to crush those gods, demons, goblins, etc. 

Men who have supernormal gifts are seen sometimes in our own coun- 
try (Burma). They repair to a forest, and having handled regularly 
the occult formulas and prepared themselves for days and nights, and 
achieved success, many begin to tour in villages and districts. Wherever 
they go, they provide instantaneous relief to those who are ill and come 
to them for help. They also exhibit many other feats of wonderful magic, 
and account for this or that fateful event in the life of men. But the 
rulers prohibit these occult practices, lest they might give rise to violent 
commotions in the country. 

v 

Of The Three Worlds 

Here we expound our system of the world under three headings: phy- 
sical universe, things, and being (i.e. person). 

1. By physical universe is meant the world conceived in spatial relation 
(okasaloka), as something in which things and beings have their exis- 



Of the Three Worlds 209 

tence. Thus heaven is the physical universe as regards celestial beings, 
earth is the physical universe as regards men, brutes, and things in gen- 
eral, and purgatory is the physical universe as regards infernal beings. 
It comprises the great earth, the great ocean, the circumjacent moun- 
tains, 1 Mount Sineru in the centre, round which seven successive ranges 
of mountains intervened by the seven successive oceans ot intense cold, 
the four great islands, many other smaller ones, and the six abodes of 
devas, and the twenty abodes of Brahmas in vertical positions. Such is 
termed one spatial universe or a circular world-system (cakkavala). There 
are many other smaller world-systems innumerable in number in all the 
eight directions of the present one. 

We also find in the Tika-Anguttara at the Ananda-vagga, the three 
kinds of world -systems, namely: 1) small-thousand-world-system (diilasa- 
hassi) which comprises one thousand cakkavalas, 2) medium-thousand- 
world-system (majjhumasahassi) which comprises one million cakkavalas, 
3) great-thousand-world-system (mahasahassi) which comprises one billion 
cakkavalas. 

There are -also three other kinds of world-systems: 1) ten-thousand- 
world system which is called the realm of existence (jatikhetta) and it ■ 
means the* realm in which the Buddhas appear and all the devas and 
Brahmas therein form the audience of the Buddhas, 2) great-thousand - 
world-system which is called the realm of influence (anakhetta) and it 
means the realm where the influence of the parittas 2 and the Buddhas 
pervade, and all the devas and Brahmas therein accept it, 3) infinite- 
world-system which is called the realm of object (visayakhetta) and it 
means the one which serves as the object of the knowledge of the Bud- 
dhas. 

There are three others also: 1) sensual plane (kamadhatu), 2) material 
plane (rupadhatu), 3) immaterial plane (arupadhatu). The first comprises 
eleven realms of kama, the second sixteen of rupa, and the third four 
of arupa. 



1. Cakkavala pabfaata which forms the boundary of this world-system, is situated 
circumlittorally in the extreme part of this universe, and it is said that the 
height is 82000 leagues. 
2. Parittas are the verses especially compiled for the promotion of protection and 
gereral prosperity, such as Ratana-Sutta-Paritta, Metta-Sutta-Paritta, etc. 



210 Niyama Dlpani 

Four stages are also expounded: 1) sensual stage (kama-bhumi), 2) 
material-stage (rupa-bhumi), 3) immaterial-stage (arupa-bhumi), 4) tran- 
scendental-stage (lokuttara-bhiimi). The first three respectively com- 
prise the realms of kama, riipa, and arupa, and the last comprises the 
four noble paths, the four noble fruits and Nibbana, the unconditioned. 

2. The term 'thing' is used in the sense of conditioned things in general 
(sankharaloka). Things in this sense include plants, trees, creepers, bush- 
es, shrubs, etc.; metals, such as gold, silver, etc.; in short, all the natural 
sources we draw from and enjoy, the objects fashioned therefrom by 
men, such as houses, chariots, carriages, etc., and lastly, the things of 
intellectual creation, e.g. categories such as aggregates, senses, objects, 
etc. 

3. By beings (satta) or persons (puggala) we understand creatures gen- 
erally:— infernal beings, animals, spirits, demons, men, gods and Brahmas; 
there are beings terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial, oviparous, viviparous, 
moisture-sprung, and beings reborn without earthly parentage; beings 
without feet, bipeds, quadrupeds, and beings with many feet, beings with 
form and beings without form, beings having perception and beings 
having no perception and beings having neither-perception-nor-nonpercep- 
tion. The world of space and the world of creatures are both included 
among the world of things. But the things when classified distinctly 
and separately under the names of realm and creature have special 
names assigned to them, such as the 'world of space', and the 'world of 
creatures'. 

We shall now explain the mode of existence (santhiti) in the physical 
universe. According to our theory, earth rests on water beneath it, w r ater 
rests on air, and air rests on open space (ajatakasa). This open space 
is infinite below and on all sides. It is filled with air without motion, 
which supports the great volume of air (atmosphere) above it; this sup- 
ports in its turn the great volume of water; and that supports this great 
earth. It is said in the text: 'This great earth, Ananda, is established 
on water, water is established on air, air on space. A time comes, Ananda, 
when a mighty wind blows. This blowing causes commotion in the waters, 
and the waters being in commotion cause the earth to quake . (Digha- 
nikaya ii., 107; Dialogues ii,, 114) 



Of the Three Worlds 211 

Next we deal with coming into being and the ceasing to be of the 
physical universe. The co-inherent quality of heat is the cause of birth, 
decay, and death of the physical universe— the cause of its origination 
and cessation. As it is said in the Pali: 'What is the element of heat? 
It is that which heats, that which causes things to decay, that which 
consumes, and that through which things reach an entire change.' (Maj- 
jhima-nikaya i., 188, 422). Accordingly it is the co-inherent heat which 
is ever causing co-existent things to burn, to decay, consuming them, 
changing them, and making them pass from one condition into another. 
The cold-therm (sita-tejo) also determines the same effects in these mat- 
ters. And it is now not necessary to say anything of the hot- therm 
(unha-tejo). It is quite clear. 

As it is said in the Dhammasangani in the chapter of matter: 'That 
which is the growth of sense spheres is the development of matter, and 
that which is the development of matter is the continuum of the same.' 
Birth may be classified into four divisions: birth, growth, development 
and continuum. Of these, birth means the first appearance of the con- 
ditioned things. Growth means the first start of development of appear- 
ing things. Development means the gradual extension of the developing 
things. Continuum 3 means the continuance of the developed and accumu- 
lated things. That is to say, things continue in such quantity as they 
have developed and they neither increase nor decrease. After that, these 
matters, together with the element of fermenting heat (jiranatejo) which 
causes the co-existent things to decay, gradually diminish at the stage of 
decay and disappear away at the final stage of death. 

The world is considered by us a system or order in which everything 
happens according to the laws of causality. 4 Because the great earth is 
being all the time heated, burnt, decayed, and matured by the twofold 
co-existent heat [I have elsewhere rendered it as cold-therm (sita-tejo) and 
hot-therm (unha-tejo),] it cannot overcome the six stages, i.e. birth, 
growth, development, continuum, decay, and death. So with the Mount 
Sineru, the circumjacent mountains, etc. Therefore in the developed epoch, 
all the earth, mountains, etc., that come into being and appearance pass 
gradually from the beginning through the four stages: birth, growth, 

3. It is better known as 'inertia' in Physics. 

4. Dhammata, i.e., dhamma-niyamo. The Manoratha-puranI (Buddhghosa's Commentarv 
on the Ariguttara-Nikaya) explains the latter term. 



212 Niyama DipanI 

development and continuum. That is to say, they rise, grow, develop 
and continue for a long time till at last they arrive at the stage of decay 
in which the influence of all the heat will overrule all others. From that 
time onwards all the unessential things among them will at first be des- 
troyed and the essential ones alone will remain. Then even the essentials 
will be consumed in the long run of process and only the more essential 
will remain. Thus continuing for an indefinite time, everything will at 
last arrive at the most extreme point of degree at which combustion 
may easily take place like gun powder, the munition of the king's army, 
which is apt to combust at the sudden contact with a spark of fire. 
Then this developed epoch will be destroyed by the action of fire in the 
manner said in the Satta Suriya Suttanta. There it is said: 'Just as, bhik- 
khus, there is no trace of ash nor of carbon perceptible after the butter 
or the oil is burnt up, so also there, bhikkhus, v/ill no trace of ash nor 
of carbon be discernible after the earth and Sineru, the king of mountains, 
have been burnt up. Thus, bhikkhus, all the conditioned things are in- 
consistent and unstable. It is advisable, bhikkhus, to be disgusted with 
all the conditioned things, it is expedient to detach them, and it is suit- 
able to break free of them. Here, who would know, who would believe 
that this great earth and Sineru, the king of mountains will be burnt up, 
will be destroyed, will relapse into void, except those who have realised 
Nibbana?' 

It is said that the flames of the burning fire reach as far as the realms 
of Brahma. This world -destructive fire burns up everything that exists 
between the mass of water below and the first realm of jhana above, 
without leaving a single atom of things behind. When the rock-earth 
(sela-pathavi) is burnt up, there in its place only remain the caloric ener- 
gies (utu-dhatuyo) which will again become the germinal status of the 
rock-earth. Similarly, when the dust-earth (pamsu-pathavi) is burnt up, 
there also remain the caloric energies which will again become the ger- 
minal status of the dust-earth. So the caloric energies which are the 
remaining dynamics of fire fill up the whole sphere. And the fire itself 
is entirely extinguished away. It is the enveloping epoch. And the one 
that continues in an enveloping state, as has been just explained, is called 
the enveloped epoch. The duration of each of these epochs is equal to 
that of sixty-four included eras (antarakappa). What has been now said 
is the exposition of the twofold enveloping epochs. 



Of the Three Worlds 213 

In the second epoch, these caloric energies are carried about by the 
excessively cold atmosphere and they remain in such condition as they 
have been. But when they arrive at the matured, proficient, and adap- 
table state for reaction, that is to say, become hot, then they transform 
into rolling clouds laying in great heaps and volumes. After that they 
transform again into great epoch-reinstating rains and pour down all over 
the places where fire had burnt up in the enveloping epoch. The rain- 
drops coming into contact with very cool air generally form into masses. 
And the water thus conglomerated slides into the infinite space as long 
as the air which is going to support the universe is not strong enough 
to do so. But as soon as the air below is capable to do so, it at once 
checks the fall' of water and supports it. All the rain-water becomes 
implemental in the establishment of the new epoch. That is to say, they 
form into constituents of the universe, such as rock, dust, water, etc. All 
these things occur according to the laws of caloric process (utu-niyama) 
and are not created by any world-lord. During the establishment of the 
constituents of the universe, the natural phenomenal process (dhamma- 
niyama) plays an important part. By natural phenomenal process we 
mean the proportionate and disproportionate procedures (sama-dharana) 
and (visama-dharana) of the elements of extension, etc. And again, pro- 
portionate procedure should be understood as the natural process and 
disproportionate procedure as the unnatural process. Hence when the 
natural process goes on, the proportionate procedure takes place, and if 
the unnatural cause happens, the procedure becomes disproportional. 
Among the forms also, roundness is the natural form. Therefore through 
the proportionate procedure of elements, all the constituents of the uni- 
verse are established in the round-about shape as if they were manufactured 
from machines. The great earth, the great ocean, the circumjacent 
mountains, Sineru, the central mountain, the glacial oceans (sita-samudda) 
and sitantarika (glaciers in the hollows of mountains) and the circular 
ranges (paribhanda-pabbata) all are established in the round-about shapes. 
It is the contribution of natural phenomenal process. 

Here indeed something should be said of the proportionate and dispro- 
portionate procedures of elements. Of the forms, the height of a person 
is said to be proportional when it is equal to his own span just as a 
proportionate banyan tree whose height is equal to the diameter of its 
circumference. Otherwise it is said to be disproportional. In short, the 



214 Niyama EHpanl 

repletion of 32 marks of an eminent person (maha-purisa-lakkhana) is 
proportional and their deficiency is dispvoportional. Good-mindedness is 
proportional while evil-mindedness is disproportional Of the forms other 
than those of living beings as trees, etc., the symmetry of some of the 
banyan trees is proportional and the reverse should be understood in the 
other way. It is also the same way with all the trees, stems, branches, 
sprouts, leaves and fruits. In fact, all the infinite varieties of forms, 
etc., which appear in the world owe their causes entirely to the variation 
of elements. To have a full understanding of these procedures is within 
the province of the knowledge of infinite and various elements, of the 
omniscient ones. Those who do not know the various functions of elements 
look for the world-lords. In fact, there are no other world-lords but 
elements and the word 'wold-lord' is merely the outcome of their fancy. 

Now to return to our subject. Among the caloric germs, some densely 
accumulated ones become rolls of cloud, other finely accumulated ones 
become volumes of water in their respective places. And through the 
influence of kamma of all creatures, there at the inception of the uni- 
verse appear uninhabited abodes and celestial mansions for both men and 
devas, and also lunar mansions, such as the mansions of the moon and 
sun. In the higher abodes of devas and in the first jhana planes there 
also appear uninhabited abodes and mansions for devas and Brahmas. 

Here, the word 'simnani' means having no owners, and the owners 
only come down from the higher planes of Brahmas after they have spent 
their life-terms there, and they occupy abodes earned by their past deeds. 
It is said in the text: 'In such period, bbikkhus, and for such immeasur- 
able lengths of time, the world develops. And while it is developing, 
uninhabited mansions for Brahmas are established.' 

Here also one should not display wonder at how all these abodes and 
mansions come into existence from the caloric germs through the influence 
of kamma of the creatures. Among the three worlds, the world of beings 
is predominant and superior to the other two which are merely subser- 
vient to the former. This great earth forms itself for the sake of the 
creatures, so also Mount Sineru, etc., and therefore it is not necessary to 
expound why and how those mansions are established. Mind and its 
qualities (citta-cetasika) known as norm which belongs only to the world 
of beings, are termed mental elements. They are very powerful, 'lum- 
inous and thrilling' and the fourfold unknowables spring out from them. 



Of the Three Worlds 215 

And at the time when men's life-span falls to a decade the influences 
of the good deeds done by the people who are frightened at the outbreak 
of the world- destroying wars, pervade the whole world and raise the life- 
span again to the innumerable age. 

In the passage 'Through the influence of kamma of all the creatures*, 
by 'kamma' it includes all the good deeds performed during the whole 
enveloping epoch in order to reach the higher planes by all the creatures 
who are frightened at the destruction of the world, and also all those 
good deeds performed during the two innumerable kappas by those who 
are rebom in the Brahma planes. Therefore one should not think as to 
how the formation and establishment of those abodes and mansions are 
brought about. 5 

These celestial mansions are made of, and decorated with, all kinds of 
gems, but they are as light as the bodies of the celestial beings (opapati- 
ka-satta) and situated on the motionless air like the heaps of cloud in 
the sky. Some other lunar mansions, however, move about. How ? There 
are two currents of wind in the sky. The one from Mount Sineru and 
its surrounding mountains blows out and the other from the circumjacent 
mountains blows in. These two currents of wind, coming into contact, 
form a great whirlwind and turn incessantly round Mount Sineru very 
swiftly, keeping it on the right. The lunar mansions are seen moving 
about as they are carried away by these encircling winds.6 Some of them 
are light and some are lighter. Therefore, slowness and swiftness of their 
movements are observed. The force of the two currents are proportional 
at one time and disproportional at another, and so we observe the differ- 

5. Ledi Sayadaw here intends to indicate the reinstatement of the developing Kpoch 

or the reorganization of the new world with abodes of men and marvellous man- 
sions for devas, by two causes, i.e., material cause and efficient cause. Ey the 
former he means the material or stuff out which the world or the World of things is 
organised. That is the primitive matter known as caloric germs or utu. And by 
the latter he means ihe force or agent through which the material phenomena are 
put together in various and mar\ ellons shapes, forms, and sizes. That is the 
mental force known as action or kamma. For instance, in the case of a house, the 
wood, iron and bricks of, which it is built up are the material cause; and the 
carpenter who designs and builds it is the efficient cause. Now the wood, etc., 
are comparable to utu, the material cause of which it is constituted; and the carpenter 
is comparable to the mental force, the efficient cause by which it is designed. Tr. 

6. The expanding Universe. 



216 Niyama DipanI 

ent courses in which the mansions are carried away backward and for- 
ward by the encircling winds. Some of the planets and mansions of the 
celestial devas situated below the course of the wind do not move. What 
has been spoken of is the developing epoch. 

From the appearance of the sun and moon to the beginning of the 
enveloping epoch is the fourth incalculable developed epoch, and its dura- 
tion may be calculated as equal to that of the sixty-four included eras. 
So much for the exposition on the two constructive epochs. 

In this fourth developed epoch of the four incalculable ones, the greater 
is the vastness of the world-stuffs, the more will be the violence of the 
world-destructive-fire in the first enveloping epoch. And the greater is 
the violence of the world-destructive-fire, the more will be the immensity 
of caloric -stuffs in the second enveloped epoch. And the more is the 
immensity of the caloric-stuffs, the greater will be the voluminousness 
of rainwater in the third developing epoch. Again the more is the vol- 
uminousness of rainwater, the greater will be the vastness of the world- 
stuffs in the fourth developed epoch. Indeed it goes on for ever in the 
the same manner. 

Without a known beginning, and without end, the world or physical 
universe continues the same whether world-lords appear or not. Not made, 
not created by any such, not even a hundred, not even a thousand, not 
even a hundred thousand world-lords would be able to remove it. By 
the law of heat, by the law of natural causation, the order of the physi- 
cal universe is maintained. 

The organic .world of things— By this are implied trees, etc. The vege- 
table life is broadly distinguished into seedlings and growing plants. Here 
'bijagama' is the collective term of all the trees which are in the stage 
of seedlings, and 'bhCitagama' is the collective term of all the trees which 
have passed the stage of seedlings and arrived at the fully grown stage. 
Just as we have said in the exposition of psychological order that, on 
account of the diversity of thoughts of the creatures, perception is di- 
verse; on account of the diversity of perception, kamma is diverse; on ac- 
count of the diversity of "kamma, the genus of the animal kingdom is 
diverse; and so it may also be maintained here that, on account of the 
diversities of thoughts, perceptions and kamma of the creatures, the spe- 
cies of the seedlings are diverse; and on account of the diversity of the 
species of the seedlings, the species of all the plants and trees are di- 



Of the Three Worlds 217 

verse. In the case of animals, the actual result (mukhya-phala) is pre- 
dominant, but here in the case of seedlings and plants the complementary 
result (nisanda-phala) is predominant. 

The term seed or germ (bija), in its ordinary popular sense, implies 
various seeds— roots, and the rest— as described before. In the higher 
sense, however, seed or germ is to be regarded as a form of heat- 
caloric energy (utu). If this is so, a mango-stone, which, in the former 
sense, is called a seed-proper, cannot, in the latter sense, constitute the 
whole seed. For in that one mango- stone there are these eight compon- 
ent elements (qualities primary and secondary): extension, cohesion, heat, 
motion, colour, odour, taste, and nutrition. Of these, heat carries out the 
germinating function. Hence it alone is radically entitled to the name 
of seed or germ. The remaining seven elements are complementary to 
. heat; they do not directly perform the germinating function. 

Moreover, the form of heat (or caloric energy— utu) which is specified 
above as seed or germ, is the same heat or energy in kind as that which 
is considered to be the germinating factor of the universe of a given 
period of time— an aeon. The germinal energy of seed could not bring 
its germinating function into play at the enveloping and enveloped epoch 
as it does not get any stimulus, but at the developed epoch it gets stim- 
ulus from earth and water and brings forth its germinating function. 
Therefore, just as there are only asexual people of apparitional rebirth 
so long as there is no sex distinction among the world of men, so also 
there are no species of seedlings and plants so long as the five kinds of 
seeds do not appear, but they remain latent in the state of mere germs 
in the earth and water. And afterwards jambu-trees germinate from 
jambu-germs, mango-trees from mango-germs, and so on. But first of 
all there appears flavorsome earth (rasapathavi) spreading all over the 
surface of water. At that the volumes of rain which fall down from the 
realm of Brahma, first of all form themselves into rock-earth, Mount 
Sineru, surrounding mountains, circumjacent mountains, and Himalayan 
mountains, the other places are covered with water. And then, after a 
lapse of very long time, the flavorsome earth becomes hard, coarse and 
in-esculent. Then over this there forms a layer of earth (bhumi-papatika). 
So it is said, 'when the flavorsome earth deposits itself. This is the in- 
ception of earth. Ere long this layer of earth becomes hard and coarse 
and unsuitable for eating. Then from among the germs of seedlings and ' 



218 Niyama Dipani 

plants, sweet creepers (padalata), rice, and paddy plants germinate. After 
that many different species of grass, trees, creepers, and shrubs are pro- 
pagated from the germs. Later, when time passes on and evil thoughts 
and bad behaviour increase, the essence, the sap, the taste and the nutri- 
tive properties in the trees dry up and vanish one after another. At that 
time the elements of germs conglomerate in their respective species. 
Thus the root-germs conglomerate in roots, and so on. From that time 
onwards, those trees which germinate from roots grow only from roots, 
and so with the rest. The f unctioning of the caloric order, germinal order, 
and natural phenomenal order by way of proportional and disproportional, 
upon the trees, etc., have been already mentioned in the foregoing pages. 
Here ends the exposition on the world of things. 

The world of beings (satta-loka)— To understand the nature of life 7 
of a satta— a being, person, individual— is an exceedingly deep and dif- 
ficult task. It lies at the basis, at the bottom of all philosophical specu- 
lations. We shall approach it from the two standards of truth: the con- 
ventional (sammuti) and the philosophic (paramattha).s 

By 'a being' conventional usage understands a nama-rupa— a compound 
organism— mental (naraa) and physical (riipa). By this it means a certain 
appearance (santhana) and a certain continuum (santana), which it terms 
a being or person or individuals Philosophic usage sees in 'a being' a 
mental and material phenomenon or datum (nama-riipa-dhamma). For 
it the appearance and continuum are just a mental construction and its 
verbal expression.^ But the phenomena of mind and matter, out of which 
beings are constructed, are the data or subject matter (dhamma) of philo- 
sophy. As if man having dug out clay should reduce it to powder, and 
by kneading that with water should make a jar, jar, in that case, is 
the name given to the physical structure of the thing in question, while 
the powder or clay is the material or substance. This physical structure 
called jar appears only at the time when the potter shapes it in this 

7. 'Nature and life', in the author's original Pali 'pavatti'; a staple term in the dyn- 
amic philosophy of Buddhism, meaning on-rolling, or procedure. 

8. See Section II., 'Of the two Standards of Truth*, p. 6 of vol. IV, No. 1. 

9. Satta, etymologically, is "being'. When animals are included, the more usnal 
term is pana or bhuta. 

10. Panfiatti means both concept and term. See U Shwe Zan Aung in Compendium of 
Philosophy. v * 



Of the Three Worlds 219 

particular fashion. When the jar is smashed to pieces, the structure to 
which the name 'jar*, was given disappears, while the powder or clay 
as material remains. . Here the physical structure of the jar is comparable 
to the organic form of a being, the name 'jar* to the name 'beings' or 
'person', the powdered clay to the phenomena of mind, matter. 

By 'continuum' or continuity in time is generally understood the 
continued life of a being passing from one form of existence into another. 
But since beings is a mere concept of our mind, we cannot ascribe 
to the mental fiction the modes of physical origination and cessation. On 
the other hand, mind and matter, as real facts, can be conceived as 
springing into existence and undergoing dissolution. 

A being is said,- from the conventional standpoint, to be born, to decay, 
to die, to fall from one state of existence and to be reborn into another. 
Taken in this sense, a being is born, during his whole life- term, just 
once at the time of birth and dies once for all at the time of death. 
Mind and matter, on the contrary, come to birth, undergo decay, die and 
break down many hundreds of thousands of times, even in one day. 
Thus it should be explained. And it should also be clearly explained in 
the same manner according to the intellect and observation of others 
with regard to their own birth, decay and fall. 

And just as conventional usage affirms that there is infinite space in 
the universe, so does philosophy maintain that space has no real existen- 
ce. But this 'exists' of the one standard, 'does not exist' of the other, 
present no genuine mutual antagonism. How is this ? Because each state- 
ment is from a different standpoint. 

Similarly by 'a being' is implied some sort of individual consciousness 
and intelligence. That this exists and persists in transmigrating: this is 
admitted as a truth from the conventional point of view. In Abhidhamma- 
knowledge, or philosophical truth, however, such a being is not recog- 
nized, does not exist. Only mental and material phenomena exist. And 
they do not persist in a series of transmigrations. They are perpetually 
dissolving, now here, now there. Yet here again between the 'exist' and 
the 'does not exisf there is no real antagonism. How is this? Because 
of the distinction drawn between a being (conventional view) and a phe- 
nomenal compound of mind and matter (philosophical view). 



220 NiySma DTpanI 

If, by adhering to the belief that a being persists in transmigration, we 
hold that mind and matter do the same, then this is eternalist error (sas- 
sataditthi). And if by adhering to the belief that mind and matter do 
not persist in transmigration, but break up and dissolve, now here, now 
there, we come to hold that a being does the same, this is the annihila- 
tionist error (ucchedaditthi). 11 To maintain the eternalist view is to shut 
the gate of Nibbana. How so? Because if mind and matter transmigrate, 
then it is to be inferred that transmigration itself is eternal. And to 
maintain the annihilationist view is to shut the gate of heaven. How so? 
Because the working out of kamma is thereby suspended. Moreover, both 
of those views maintain that the living personality is a soul. And since 
the soul-theory is at the root of all false opinions, we shall find ourselves 
lodged at that root. Wherefore, avoiding those two extreme views, and 
adopting the distinction in standpoints described above, let us stand hold- 
ing open every gateway to heaven and to the final release. 

Of these two truths, the coming into being of all beings should be spo- 
ken of by way of conventional truth. While the universe is developing, 
and after the empty mansions in the world of Brahma (i.e. the first 
realm of Brahma) and in the six abodes of devas are established, beings 
generally from the realm of abhassara come down to be reborn in these 
places. Here someone would say, 'Why are they generally reborn in 
the lower stages? As they have been there in the Abhassara Brahma- 
loka for so long, is if not convenient for them to cultivate higher jhanas 
and ascend generally the higher realms of Brahma?' Thus it should be 
replied: In the Samacitta-sutta, Anguttara-Nikaya, vol. II, it is said that there 
are two kinds of beings, namely, a being with internal fetters, and a 
being with external fetters. Here the internal fetters are five in number: 
delusion of self (sakkaya-ditthi), doubt (vicikiccha), adhesion to the efficacy 
■of rites and ceremonies (silabbataparamasa), sensual desire (kamacchanda), 
and ill feeling (vyapada). They are also called downward-tending-fetters 
(orambhagiya). The external fetters are also five in number: desire to 
be reborn in the riipaloka (ruparaga), desire to be reborn in the ariipa- 
loka (ariiparaga), pride (mana), quivering of thought (uddhacca), and nes- 
cience (avijja). These are also called up wardtending -fetters (uddham- 

11. See 'Brahmajala-Sutta' translated by the English Editorial Department, vol. II!, 
No. 2 of the Light of the Dhamrna. 



Of Causal Genesis 221 

bhagiya). Here 'internal' means the kamaloka, and 'external' means the 
Brahmabka. Why are they so called? It is because nearly all the beings 
are reborn in the kamaloka and very seldom do beings take rebirth in 
the Brahmabka. And where there rebirth is most there lust for various 
objects is in great swarms. Therefore kamaloka is called 'internal' of 
all the ordinary folks. Brahmabka should be understood in the opposite 
way. In fact, all these beings are pleased with, gratified upon, and 
delighted in, the pleasurable things which are full to the brim in 
the kamaloka, while there are none at all in the Brahmabka. Why 
do they all get to the Brahmabka? Because there is no abode at all 
below that when the world is destroyed. However, through the agitation 
of the downward- tending-fetters which have not yet been shattered, the 
beings in the Brahmabka are always inclining to be back to kamaloka. 
For instance, when a town is disturbed and attacked, the people of the 
town take refuge in a big forest and stay there till peace is restored. 
Now the big forest is a very pleasant place, without any danger, and 
full of shade and water. But the people are always inclining to return 
to their town and they are not one moment happy however pleasant be 
the forest. Thus should it be understood here also. Therefore the beings 
in the brahmabka descend generally to the kamaloka when the world 
re-establishes. When they are reborn as men in the kamaloka, their re- 
birth is at first apparitional. They are like the Brahmas. Everything is 
fulfilled at the instance of their wishes. They live at first upon jhanic 
interest (jhanapiti). Their bodies are luminous and brilliant. They live 
and walk in the sky. Their lifespan is an incalculable one. And the 
rest, such as the decreasing and increasing of their lifespan, etc., should 
be understood as is said in the Aggarina and Cakkavatti Suttas. 

VI 
Of Causal Genesis 

From the standpoint of ultimate or philosophic truth, the older (or 
procedure, pavatti) in the world of rational individuals (satta) is by way 
of causal genesis. Hence we state the law of that order in terms of the 
formula called causal genesis (literally happening-because-of: paticca- 
samuppada):— Because of ignorance, actions; because of actions, conscious- 



222 Niyama Dipani 

ness; because of consciousness, mind-and-body; because of mind-and-body, 
the six sense-spheres, (senses and objects); because of the six sense- 
spheres, contact; because of contact, feeling; because of feeling, craving; 
because of craving, clinging; because of clinging, becoming; because of 
becoming, birth; because of birth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
misery, and despair. This is the genetic process of the entire body of 
ill. 

1. Ignorance, nescience (a-vijja). Let us here take the positive form, 
knowledge, first. Knowledge is cognising, knowing. Knowing what? 
The knowable. What is the kno'wable? Facts (called truth). What is 
truth, or fact? -That which holds. good at all times, and is a fact (lit., 
has come to be), which is 'thus', which is not 'not-thus', is not otherwise 
and not self-contradictory, is called truth. How many aspects (vidha) of 
truth are there? There are four:— the fact itself, its cause, its cessation, 
the means to its cessation. For example, in the Four Noble Truths con- 
cerning suffering or ill:— The noble fact of ill, the noble fact of the cause 
(or genesis) of ill, of the cessation of ill, of the means (or path) leading 
to the cessation of ill. 'Noble' truth here is equivalent to immoveable 
(achala) truth. 1 

Now, what is the fact of ill ? In the Pali we are told that the five ag- 
gregates, or the six organs of sense are synonymous with the fact of 
ill. 2 But why should the matter-group be comprised under the noble 
fact of ill ? Well, are not the factors of the body, even though the body 
be an angel's or a god's, subject eventually to birth, decay, death, sor- 
row, mourning, pain, misery, and despair? Now this quality 'subject to 
birth' includes liability to (re-) birth in purgatory, or as a beast, or in 
such evil planes of life as those of petas or asuras. It includes the being 
involved again and again in passions, in wrong-doing, in diseases and 
infirmities. Hence rebirth in any material shape is a state of perpetual 
peril and liability to suffering. 

The Second Noble Truth is described as the cause or origin of ill. Here 
by the word origin (samudaya) is implied that which gives rise to or 

1. No etymology is here intended. It is simply a method of ancient edifying exegesis. 
—Ed. 

2. E.g. Saiiiyutta, iii., p. 23 f.; iv., 2, etc. etc. 

(NOTE: Editorial footnotes are, unless otherwise stated, those of the original 
editor.) 



Of Causal Genesis 223 

develops ill. What is that? Craving (tanha, or unregenerate desire). 
Whoso does not put away such desires begets and fosters all the ills 
characterising the life of a mental and bodily organism. 

The fact of the cessation of ill is known as the Third Noble Truth. We 
conceive cessation as twofold, namely, the cessation of what has already 
arisen, and the cessation of what has not yet arisen. When we include 
under cessation the cessation of cravings not yet actual, w T e are really 
referring to ills that are not yet felt, since cravings are their cause or 
root. Hence the task of making to cease is immediately concerned with 
cravings, not with suffering. And by cessation we mean not temporary 
removal, but final non-reappearance. Of two men who each cut down 
a poisonous tree, only he who cuts away the root ensures the impossibility 
of regrowth. 

In the Fourth Noble Truth, again, the means or course referred to is in 
reality the Path leading to the cessation of craving, and thus of ill; of those 
ills, namely, associated, as we have seen, with mental and bodily organic 
life. Doctrinally, the Path generally denotes the Noble Eight-fold Path 
which consists of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, 
right livelihood, right effort, right contemplation, and right concentration. 
These fall into three groups; insight, concentrative practice, and moral 
conduct. Under insight come right view and right resolve; in the moral 
group are right speech, right action, and right livelihood; and in the 
concentration-group are right effort, right contemplation and right con- 
centration. 

It is worthy of note that by the path we understand, from another 
point of view, the carrying out of the act of comprehension (parinria). 
The work of comprehension is three-fold, namely, penetrating insight 
into the nature of reality and laws of things; investigating comprehen- 
sion of the three characteristic marks of phenomena; and the comprehen- 
sion which abandons hallucinations attaching to things of temporal se- 
quence thus inquired into. More strictly, the term Path is taken to signify 
the fullest exercise of the last-named work of comprehension. For it is 
through the work of comprehension that we get rid, first, of belief in a 
soul; secondly, of inherent craving for sensuous pleasures; and thirdly, of 
inherent craving for rebirth. 

Here it should be noted that, instead of a negative name, such as ces- 
sation of ill, we might give a positive name, such as attainment of 



224 Niyama Dipani 

happiness, to the Third Noble Truth. Happiness is of two kinds: pleasure 
as experienced by the gods and average men, and the blissful tranquil- 
lity reached only by those who follow the Noble Path. Pleasure is the 
experience of those who are victims of craving while the experience of 
blissful tranquillity is only for those who are masters of knowledge. This 
realm of bliss we call Nibbana, where the nutriment for craving is 
wanting. 

To sum up: knowledge is the act of knowing, the knowing what ought 
to be known, i.e., the Four Noble Truths. If this be so, and if ignorance 
be rightly understood as the opposite of knowledge, then it necessarily 
follows that ignorance is the act of not knowing what ought to be known, 
i.e., the Four Immutable Noble Truths. 

2. Actions (sankhara). These are the plannings, the activities, 'puttings- 
together', in virtue of which living beings accomplish something: that of 
which the moral consequence is either good or evil, meritorious or the 
contrary, attaches to this life or has bearing upon the life that is to follow 
upon the present one. In our phraseology, we take sankhara to signify 
all those actions by way of deed, speech, and thought, which determine 
the modes of our existence now or in time to corne or both at present 
and in future. Actions so conceived fall into three grades (or kinds): 
the demeritorious, the meritorious, and those of an unoscillating nature 
(anarija). Of these, demeritorious actions are bad deeds, words and thou- 
ghts; meritorious actions are good deeds, words and thoughts belonging 
to the kama planes of life; 3 the third kind are acts of the mind, involv- 
ing merit, done in the riipa planes of life 4 and good acts of the mind 
done in the arupa planes of life. 5 But how is it that because of ignor- 
ance actions come to pass ? They who do not understand, do not know 
the Four Noble Truths; for them the three types of hallucinations as to 
their mind and body, thus conditioned by ignorance, come into existence. 
The hallucinations in their development form what we call craving-mater- 
ials, and these materials in their development form the modes of our ex- 
istence now or in time to come. It is thus that because of ignorance 
actions come to pass. 6 

3. i.e. Life from" purgatory up to the lower heavens. 

4. Life in the higher material heavens (Brahma-world, etc.) 

5. Life, in purely mental heavens. See Compendium of Philosophy. Ed. 

6. 'Coma to pass' is not in the text here or above. The reader will have noted that 



Of Causal Genesis 225 

3. Consciousness (vinnana). This is our term for knowing (i.e. coming 
to know) in a variety of ways. It includes awareness of cognition through 
sense and cognition through work of mind. For example, we cognise 
objects by way of sight; sounds by way of smell; sapids by way of taste; 
the tangibles by way of touch, and the cognisables by way of thought. 
Accordingly, we distinguish cognition into six modes— visual, auditory, 
olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mind-cognition. 

Visual cognition is the mode in which the process of consciousness 
takes place in (connection with) the eye, etc. By mind-cognition we un- 
derstand the mode in which the process of consciousness takes place in 
connection with thoughts (as distinguished from sense-perception). Again, 
cognition is distinguished into two kinds, according as it leads to moral 
or immoral results. 

Our main question is, how is it that because of actions consciousness 
comes to be? It is worth noting that in this case, actions are but a name for 
the element of volition (cetana-dhatu) given in a process of consciousness. 
The term consciousness, too, is used in a limited sense for what is called 
resultant rebirth-consciousness (i.e, consciousness in a newly -conceived 
embryo). Hence the expression 'because of actions, consciousness' signi- 
fies that the rebirth-consciousness results or emerges from the volitional 
effort in the previous birth. 

It may be asked, how is it possible that, the action done in the previ 
ous birth ceasing to be, the rebirth-consciousness should now emerge 
from it ? Here we ought to clear up the ambiguity that is attached to the 
expression 'ceasing to be.' In accordance with our conception, cessation 
implies the completion of an act. There are three stages— the will to act 
(kamma-cetanu), the impulse and vim of the act (kamma-vega, kamma- 
nubhava), and the resultant state (vipaka-bhava). Let us take an illus- 
tration. Suppose a man were to sow a mango-seed. He does so with a view 
to obtain mango fruits. Obviously, then, his action is purposive. The seed 
thus sown engenders a mango-tree. But nobody can say until the tree 
bears fruit whether the seed was sound or not. In the course of time 
the tree bears fruit. It is then, and only then, we judge that what was 
so far merely potential in the seed is now actualised in the fruit. Be 

the formula of Causal Genesis at the head of this section is a, series not of pre 
positions but of correlated terms: 'because of ignorance, actions,* etc. — Ed. 



226 Niyama DIpani 

tween the potential and the actual or resultant there is the intermediate 
process, the stimulation and development of the potential into a living 
force, represented in this illustration by the growth of the mango-tree. 
On this we are entitled to say that the seed contained in some myster- 
ious way both the end to be realised and the active process that is es- 
sential to it. Thus if we say that the seed ceases to be in engendering 
the tree, we mean thereby only that it has developed into a living force, 
so as to reach its end. 

Now we conceive volition to be the germ of rebirth, a motive force 
in our conscious activity which brings rebirth-consciousness into play. 
Our underlying postulate is that fruition marks the cessation or comple- 
tion of an act of volition. The Omniscient One, too, declared to the effect: 
T declare, bhikkhus, that no voluntary actions reach a termination with- 
out making the accumulated fruits and results to be felt.' (Anguttara- 
nikaya, v., 292). 

4. Name-and-form (nama-rupa). Name is that which bends towards 
(namati) objects and form is that which undergoes change (ruppati), is 
transformed as conditions vary. Under name are grouped sensations, 
perceptions and mental properties. Form includes matter and material 
qualities. 7 'Because of consciousness, name-and-form':— by this we mean 
that rebirth-consciousness is the seed or principle of change as to name- 
and-form. In the series of causal genesis, name-and-form denote no 
more than mind and body in a developing man. We must note that 
riipa (rendered here loosely as form) denotes also a living body, an or- 
ganism capable of development from a seed or germ into a living, think- 
ing individual. 

5. The six sense-9pheres (salayatanani). The term ayatana ('going to') 
is applied to the six organs of sense, because they serve as places (tha- 
nani) in a living body, where six external objects, coming from this or 
that source, strike (produce stimulus), and thereby set up or occasion 
(i.e. bring into play), presentative functions (arammana-kiccani), and 
mental properties, with their six inward-turning doors, coming from this 
or that seat or base, set up receptive, or 'object-seizing' functions (arani- 
mana-gahana-kiccani). The six sense-spheres are the eye, the ear, the 

7. Hence mind-and-body is the better rendering for most purposes — Ed. 



Of Causal Genesis 227 

nose,* the tongue, the body, and the mind. Here the sphere of the eye 
denotes the sensitive material quality of the organ of sight, ear denotes 
the sensitive material quality of the organ of hearing, nose that of the 
organ of smell, tongue that of the organ of taste, body that of the organ 
of touch, and mind denotes the organic consciousness (bhavanga-cittam). 

The six sense-spheres are termed also the six sense-doors, or gates, 
because they serve as so many sensitive media through which the six 
external sense-objects and the six internal thought-processes (vithi-cittani), 
entering and leaving the six doors, mix as objects and subjects (visaya- 
visayi-bhavena), 'door' meaning sensitive medium, and not physical aper- 
ture. 

Of these, the organic consciousness, being radiant as a pure diamond, 
is not merely a sensitive medium. As it was said: 'Radiant, indeed, is 
consciousness (cittarii), bhikkhus.' s 

In the case of moisture- sprung and congenital beings, the sense-spheres 
are rather dull, but in the case of beings of 'apparitional birth', they are 
of a divine nature: shining and burning .... 

But how is it that 'because of name-and-form the six sense-spheres' 
come to be? The answer is to be found in the laws of embryological 
growth. In viviparous beings the senses and sense-organs develop as 
the embryo develops in the womb. The specific senses and sense-organs 
develop at various stages through which the embryo passes. 9 

6. Contact (phassa). Contact is the act of touching. Consciousness cog- 
nises each several object. But contact must be distinguished from such a 
sense-cognition. For contact implies that 'concussion' which alone brings 
the functional activity of the senses into play. As commonly understood, 
contact may be a mere physical collision or juxtaposition of two things. 
But in Abhidhamma (or philosophy) touching denotes only stimulus (san- 
ghattana). Otherwise, all material things would be called tangible objects. 
But the force of the term 'stimulus' is that there must be union, meeting, 
acting together of all things connected with the stimulation. It is by 

8. Pali: "Bhtkkhave cittarh pabhasaramidam" — Ariguttara-Nika}-a i, p 10. Acchanis- 
anhata-Vagga. (Eds. — The Light of the Dhamma) 

9. The translator has cut this section short, for the reasons given previously. The 
author enlarges on the account of embryological growth given in the Corny, on 
Kathavatthu, xiv, 2 (See Points of Controversy, 283 f.)— Ed. 



228 Niyama Dipanl 

reason of this acting together that various sense-operations take place. 
In the Pali we are told: 'Due to contact, and conditioned by contact, 
feeling, perception, and active complexes are manifested. (Samyutta- 
Nikaya, iii, 101 f.) 

Contact is regarded also as one among the four kings of nutrition. 
Taken in this sense, contact is of six kinds: visual, auditory, olfactory, 
gustatory, tactile and mental. 

But how is it that because of the six sense-spheres contact comes to be ? 
In the Pali we read: 'Because of the eye (organ of vision), visual cog- 
nition arises with regard to visual objects. The conjuncture of these three 
is contact. The same holds true of the other special senses.' This means 
that based upon the sense-organ, and depending on the sense-impression 
(nimittam), sense- apprehension comes to pass. This being so, the intensity 
of impression, in the case of each special sense, varies with the stimulus. 

7. Sensation, feeling (vedana). Vedana means experiencing the enjoy- 
ing of the essential property (lit: taste, rasa) manifested in the object 
by the contact-stimulus. That essential property is either pleasant and 
agreeable, or unpleasant and disagreeable. Further, regarded in this 
aspect, vedana is distinguished into six kinds, corresponding to the 
six-fold contact, namely, sensation born of visual contact, that born of 
auditory contact, etc. 

Vedana is also applied to feeling, distinguished into three types: joy, 
grief and hedonic indifference. According to yet another classification, 
vedana is five-fold: pleasure, pain, joy, depression, and indifference. We 
hear also of these three kinds of experience: infernal (or infra-human), 
human and celestial or divine (super-human). The lowest form of infra- 
human experience (such as that of hellish beings) is one of unmitigated 
misery. The average human experience is of a mixed character, while the 
highest form of divine experience is one of absolute bliss. But the dif- 
ference is that of degree. We have now seen that the phrase 'because 
of contact, feeling' means contact or stimulus is the necessary antece- 
dent of feeling. 

8. Craving (tanha) This implies hankering, thirsting always after things 
one does not possess. Craving, so regarded, involves naturally worrying 



Of Causal Genesis 229 

and pondering over things. For instance, a man thus broods over the 
past: 'The things I had before I now, alas! have not!' He calculates 
thus about the future: 'Should this happen in time to come, it would be 
for my welfare!' He may worry as well over the present: 'The things 
I have now, I shall not afterwards obtain!' 

Craving is six-fold: for sight, for sound, for smell, for taste, for touch, 
and for things cognisable or intellectual (dhamma). In the Satipatthana 
Sutta we read: 'Sight is (looked upon) in this world as pleasant and agree- 
able. If craving arises, it arises in seeing and settles there. And so, 
too, with regard to sound, smell, taste, touch, and cognisable objects.' 10 

Because of feeling, craving comes to be. This means that feeling (or 
sense-experience) is the necessary antecedent of craving, 

9. Grasping (upadana). This means adopting, laying a firm hold on. 
Negatively, it implies the inability to shake off a thing, even after ex- 
periencing great pain due to it, and perceiving its many evil conse- 
quences. Grasping, so conceived, is said to be fourfold: sensuality (kama), 
dogmatism (or, othodoxy, ditthi), belief in works and rites (silabbata), and 
the belief in soul (attavada). Of these, sensuality denotes an intensified 
form of craving for all pleasant, agreeable, and sensuous things. 

By dogmatism is to be understood that orthodoxy which leads a person 
to think: 'This alone is true, and everything else is false.' 

By belief in works and rites is meant the fixed view, that the man is 
able to purify himself, to free himself from pain by means of external, 
outward rules, or by means of self-mortification, self-torture, instead of 
religious meditation and philosophic contemplation. 

The belief in soul is described as the theory of animism, as the doc- 
trine of a permanent ego, or the postulate of being (sakkayaditthi). He 
who is in the grip of this view considers this ever-changing world in 
the light of a permanent substratum or unchangeable essence (sara). 

Now 'because of craving, grasping comes to be' means that in our 
system craving is regarded as the necessary antecedent of sensuality, 
dogmatism, belief in works and rites, and belief in soul. 

10. Existence (bhava). By this we understand becoming, or the attain- 
ment of individuality (lit: self-ness, attabhava). Existence is conceived by 

10. Digha-Nikaya, ii. 303 <cf. Dialogues, ii., 340.) 



230 Niyama Dlpani 

us under two aspects— (a) action, (b) result, (a) The active side of ex- 
istence is for us the life of action (kammabava), the present life in which 
a man performs various actions by way of thought, speech and deed, 
moral and immoral, pious, spiritual and intellectual, determining thereby 
his character (sahkhara), or shaping the nature of his future existence 
(upapattibhava). Thus the term action (kamma) includes, first, ten immoral 
actions: the killing of living beings, the taking of what is not given 
(i.e., not one's own), unchastity, falsehood, slander, harsh language, idle 
talk, greed, hate, and erroneous views; secondly, the ten moral actions: 
abstinence from killing, from thieving, from unchastity, lying, calumny, 
harsh language, and idle talk, absence of greed, absence of hate, and 
right views; and thirdly, the points of pious duty (punnakiriya vatthuni): 
liberality (dana), conduct (sila), contemplation (bhavana), civility, hos- 
pitality, the giving of what has been won (distribution of merit), appre- 
ciation (anumodana), and correction of erroneous views of others. 

In judging each immoral action, we consider these four 'fields of kam- 
ma' 1) as one's own act, 2) as instigating another, 3) as consenting to 
another's instigation, and 4) as commending the act. 

In like manner, we judge each moral action according as 1) it is one's 
own act, or as 2) one inspires another to do it, or as 3) one consents 
to another's instigation, or 4) one commends the act. 

Again, moral actions are distinguished as 1) worldly (vattanissita), 11 
and 2) unworldly (vi vattanissita). Worldly moral actions are those which 
are done with the object of bringing fame and reputation in this life, 
and of securing high rank and fortune in the life beyond. 

And those which are unworldly denote those moral actions which are 
done with the desire that they may lead to the extinction of craving in 
future, and not with the object of bringing fame and reputation in this 
life, or of securing high rank and fortune in the life beyond. This last 
mentioned type of moral actions is further distinguished as 1) those 
which are preliminary (paramipakkhiyo), and 2) those which are perfec- 
tive (bodhipakkhiyo). 

Existence as (resultant) rebirths ( upapatti-bhava ) are said to be 
ninefold (including twoi 2 systems of classification). According to the 

11. Lit: dependent on the Round (i.e. of rebirth, of lives) — Ed. 

12. The ninefold existence is classified under three systems and not under two as 
remarked by the translator. The first three are classified according to planes, 



Of Causal Genesis 231 

first system of classification, the lowest in the scale are rebirths in the 
worlds of sentience (kama-bbavo); the next higher are rebirths in the 
heavens of form (rupa-bhava); those higher still are rebirths in the form- 
less heavens (arupa-bhava); yet above these are placed the heavens called 
conscious (sanrii), the unconscious (asanfu), and the neither-conscious- 
nor- unconscious (nevasanm-nasariiii). According to the second system 
of classification,, these six grades of existence are divided into three: 
those endowed with one 'mode' (ekavokara), those endowed with four 
modes (catuvokara), and those with five (parica-vokiira). Here those with 
five modes include the sentient and corporeal beings endowed with five 
aggregates; those with four denote those unconscious beings who are 
endowed with four aggregates; and those with one denote the unconsci- 
ous beings who are endowed with one aggregate. 

But how does existence (rebirth) come to be 'because of grasping' ? 
Those average or worldly persons, who have not put away the four 
forms of grasping or clinging, by the right means of Path, indulge in 
each of the four forms in their deeds, words and thoughts. All their 
activities are in one way or another prompted by their clinging to sen- 
suous desires, to opinions, to the efficacy of habits and rites, to their 
belief in a soul. Activities thus accompanied by clinging inevitably bring- 
about, at death, some form of rebirth, some reinstatement of khandhas, 
or constituent aggregates. 

]]. Birth (jati). This expression is applied to the generation of beings, 
to the manifestation of sankhfira, that is to say, the appearance as 
individuals of what the nine above-named modes of existence are poten 
tially. Sentient existence is divided into these four types of beings: 1) 
the oviparous; 2) the viviparous: 3) the moisture-sprung, and 4) opapatika 
birth (apparitional, without physical generation). All the gods of the six 
kama-planes, and all the infernal beings are said to be of the last kind. 
In the developing period,^ men were thus born, and so, too, were ani- 
mals, spirits, and earthly gods. Subsequently men appear to have been 1 * 
viviparous, and even oviparous and moisture-sprung. The same holds 

the second three according to perception or consciousness, and the last three 
according to constituent aggregates. U Nyana. 

13. See Exposition, II 

14. That is, passed through the evolutionary stage of. 



232 Niyama Dipani 

true of animals in general. All corporeal and incorporeal Brahmas are 
of apparitional birth. 

But how does birth come to be 'because of becoming'? In this way: 
the life of action determines the type of future existence, and that type 
of existence becomes manifest by way of birth. 

12. Decay and death (jara-marana). Corresponding to the nine grades 
of existence, referred to above, decay is said to be ninefold. But it is 
considered also uuder these two heads— mental (nama-jara) and physical 
(riipa-jara). Each of these two kinds of decay is further distinguished 
into that which is momentary (khanika) and latent (apakata), and that 
which is prolonged (santati) and patent (pakata). The latent is to be 
known (inferred) from the patent, for were there no momentary change, 
there would be, a fortiori, no change of a more prolonged duration. 

But how does the fact of prolonged mental decay (i.e., change), (pari- 
vattana) become evident (or intelligible)? It becomes evident through 
the occasion of sensations in the body, pleasing or painful; through feel- 
ings, of joy or grief in the mind; through the perception of sight, sound 
etc., through such higher functions of the mind as reflection, discursive 
judgment, etc., or through such functions of the understanding as (cog- 
nitive or intuitive) insight, hearing, etc. Here the meaning of the expres- 
sion sankamati ('pass on') is that the old stream (of consciousness) disap- 
pears, and a new stream makes its appearance. But without a priori 
admitting decay (parihani), it is impossible to conceive such a disappear- 
ance. Besides, one must admit, the mind changes very quickly. The 
master said: T do not see, bhikkhus, a single thing so quickly changea- 
ble as mind. And it is not easy to find an analogy for this quickly 
changing mind.' 15 Obviously, by the expression 'quickly changeable' in 
the quoted passage is meant the passing on of the flow of consciousness. 
Thus the quick change of the mind being realised, we are the better 
able to conceive its decay and death. 

But \,o\\- does the fact of continuous physical change become intelligi- 
ble ? It becomes intelligible through bodily movements. For instance, in the 
time of walking, when the first step has been taken, then we can take 
the second step. And it becomes evident from all natural changes, such 

15. Saiiiyuttn-Nikaya, ii, 95 



Of Causal Genesis 233 

as the seasons of the year, the months, the fortnights, the nights and 
days, and the great periods. 

Corresponding to the nine grades of existence, this ;s also said to be 
ninefold. Death is distinguished again into these four kinds: that which 
is due to expiration of the term of life, that which results from the ex- 
tinction of kamma, that which results from both of these two causes, 
and premature death. Premature death may be due either to the action 
of past life, or to that of present life, either to the drifting result of 
action, or to the overflowing result of action. 1(i 

It may be asked why these three— birth, decay and death— are includ- 
ed among the factors of the causal genesis. They are none other ihan 
the three characteristics of compound things. Are they not, therefore, 
of slight importance, of slight consequence ? No, we must not speak thus, 
for of all phenomena of life, these three are of the greatest importance, 
for these supply the necessity for the advent of Buddhas. In the words, 
of our master: 'If these three factors did not exist in the world, no 
Buddha would have been born. But because these exist, Buddhas are 
born.' That is to say, it is in understanding, penetrating into the root- 
causes of birth, decay and death that the knowledge and mission of the 
Buddha consist. 

The Master himself declared: 'Those recluses and Brahmins who do 
not know the causal genesis of decay and death, do not know what the 
cessation of decay and death is. It is impossible that they, overcoming 
decay and death, will remain (for ever the same).' 17 

Thus it is evident that our whole conception of the causal genesis 
(paticcasamuppada), or the causal order (dhammaniyamo) 18 has this end 
in view: to understand, to penetrate the cause of birth, decay and death. 
The knowledge of a learned, Noble Disciple (who has gained an insight 
into the law of causal genesis) is self-evident (apara-paccaya): 'There 
being ignorance, there is kamma; there being kamma, there is rebirth 
consciousness; there being birth, there are decay and death. Where ignor 
ance is not, there kamma is not; where kamma is not, there rebirth-con- 
sciousness is not, where birth is not; there decay and death are not.' 

16. See Expositions, II. 

17. Samyutta-Nikaya, ii, 46 

18. On Dhamma as meaning 'effect,' cf. Points of Controversy, p. 387. 



234 Niyama Dipani 

In conclusion, this causal genesis, this causal order, is the basis, the 
fundamental conception of our system, the penetrating wisdom of the 
Noble Ones. It is the norm which serves as the door of Nibbana, the 
gate of 'the ambrosial'. That is to say, it is the path which leads to 
abandonment of all views of individuality, all theories of soul, all forms 
of dogmatism and kinds of craving. 



Dhamma-Niyama 
a discussion 

(The following extracts from letters of U Nyana, Patamagyaw, and 
Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, M.A., are here inserted as they introduce 
some comments on the dhamma- niyama and are worth while to be re- 
corded for the benefit of the interested readers.) 

From Mrs. Rhys Davids to U Nyana. 

.... I especially wish to raise the question as to the exposition of 
the term dhamma-niyama, both as to the translation of that section and 
indeed as to the exposition itself— but this with all reverence. 

Cordially yours, 
C.A.F. Rhys Davids 

From U Nyana to Mrs. Rhys Davids. 

' . . . . Now, dear upasaka, I wish to say a few words on the exposi- 
tion of the term dhamma-niyama. First of all, if I were to render into 
English the terms of the fivefold niyama, I would do so as follows: 

1. Utu-niyama: the order of things in relation to climatic conditions 

2. Bija-niyama; the order of things in relation to germinal conditions 

3. Kamma-niyama: the order of things in relation to moral conditions 

4. Citta-niyama: the order of psychogenesis 

5. Dhamma-niyama: the natural order of things (other than the above 

mentioned.) 



Dhamma-Niyama — a discussion 235 

'Mr. S.Z. Aung's rendering as "Natural phenomenal sequence" is a good 
one but it does not, I think, cover the wide meaning of the term dham- 
ma. Here dhamma is used to mean the whole cosmos or universe (the 
31 stages of bhumiyo, the Buddhist point of view) with its inhabitants, 
both animate and inanimate. Hence the dhamma-niyama is the whole 
ordered system of the cosmos. And the first four niyama are only the 
specific orders specialised from it, as each of them is universally predom- 
inant among many other order's. So whatever order remains unspecified 
or unspecialised, it comes under the heading of the dhamma-niyama. The 
dhamma-niyama may be expounded in many aspects. The revelations 
of all the branches of science may be cited for the treatment of the 
cosmic order if one is capable of doing so. But Ledi Sayadaw as a phil- 
osopher is obliged to expound it from the philosophical point. There are 
also, as you know, two methods in our Buddhist philosophy in expound- 
ing the dhamma in the light of their causes and effects, namely, Suttanta- 
nayo 1 and Abhidhamma-nayo. 3 The former is more adaptable to all clas- 
ses of mind than the latter, which is only suitable to those who have a 
preliminary knowledge of Abhidhamma. So the Mahathera chooses the 
Suttanta-nayo to expound with. And he, after treating the cosmic order 
pretty well, takes the paticcasamuppada for his context. The whole of 
the expositions is meant to reveal the following facts: 

'There is no world-lord, no creator who makes or creates the universe, 
but "the fivefold order of law. All is the sum total of causes and effects 
which are rising and ceasing every moment. Nothing is abiding in this 
world of transience, wherefore no eternal peace can be found, but on the 
other hand, it can only be found beyond this world of changes where 
no jati or becoming is found through lack of cause. And to reach that 
place where eternal peace abides we must walk along the Eightfold Noble 
Path which, though it pertains to this world, leads to the way out, and 
when we get to the end close to the outer-world, (let me say so) or to 
Nibbana and as soon as we draw away the last foot set on this world, 
we at once ascend the lokuttara-bhumi, the Nibbana peace. So much for 
the expositions .... 

1. Suttanta-nayo: According to tne methods shown in the Suttas. 

2. Abhidhamma-nayo: According to the methods shown in the Abhidhamma. 



236 Niyama Dipani 

With best wishecs, 

I remain, 
Yours in the Order, 
U Nyana 

From Mrs. Rhys Davids to U Nyana. 

' - . . Thank you for your note on the niyama. Personally, I find either 
of the definitions of dhamma-niyama unsatisfactory. Any division must 
seem so to our Western minds which is co-ordinated with other divisions 
and yet claims to include them. It shocks our sense of proper classifi- 
cation. It would pass muster with us if it was a sesa-niyama only, for 
any orders not included in one to four. But then it should be so called, 
and not dhamma-niyama. According to the Burmese traditional interpreta- 
tion, the whole five ought to be called the pahcaka-dhamma-niyana and 
the fifth the sesa-(or pakinnaka?) niyama. Or there should be a sixth, 
the Buddha-niyama. 

'Not knowing this traditional interpretation, I, when I introduced the 
subject to Western readers, in my Buddhism (1912) p. 117 foil., judged 
that the fifth niyama was not dhamma, but dhamma-niyama. I noted 
Buddhaghosa's illustration of it on dhammata in the rebirth and appear- 
ance of a Sambuddha on earth— and it seemed to me a wonderful con- 
cept, and one necessary to the Buddhist idea of the cosmos that among 
the laws of that cosmos should be the uppatti (upapatti you say) from 
time to time of a Sabbanfiu Buddha. You Buddhists must call this a law. 
How otherwise do you explain the recurrence of Buddhas? 

'And to place this wonderful law at the end with just any other ni- 
yama that have not been specified in one to four seems most 'unsatisfactory. 
How I wish I could discuss this in Burmese with the Mahathera, Western 
fashion .... 

Believe me, 
Sincerely yours, 
C.A.F. Rhys Davids 

(This letter was translated into Burmese and sent to Ledi Sayadaw who 
in return wrote a long note on dhamma-niyama which is also printed 
in this book at the end). 



Dhamma-Niyama —a discussion 237 

From U Nyana to Mrs. Rhys Davids. 

' . . . With regard to our classification and definition of niyama, I agree 
with you in your modification of the word "dhamma" as "sesa" or "pakin- 
naka" for the fifth order only in sense, but not in word-expression. For 
we should not only look into the import of the word, but we should re- 
spect the moral importance of the word-expression as well. If we use 
the word "sesa" for the last order, there should probably be a more defin- 
ite number of niyama for it to refer to and it should not have been stated 
as that there are only five kinds of niyama. The orders which the 
dhamma-niyama comprise are so numerous in quantity and so variant 
in quality that even an analyst of intellect and extraordinary gift like 
Buddhaghosa is sure to fail in his bold attempt to get all into detail. 
And the Buddha even warns his disciples not to contemplate too much 
upon the laws and forces of the natural constitution of the universe and 
of life reigning therein in these words: "Lokacinta, bhikkhave, acinteyya 
na cintetabba. Yam cintento ummadassa vighatassa bhagi assa", as they 
give rise to insanity and fatigue to the vigorous pursuer after research 
and as he can never reach, I dare say, the triumphant goal of his pro- 
found research, however far advanced his observation, experiment, analy- 
sis and classification of phenomena may be. It is the Buddhavisayo, 3 
and the entire revelation can only be safely entrusted to one who is pos- 
sessed of sabbannutanana. 4 When aspiration for research after phenom- 
enal occurrence eventually arises in his disciples' minds, the Buddha 
usually calms it with these words: "Dhammata esa, bhikkhave"-^ or 
"Dhammata' yam, bhikkhave", etc.,' 3 lest they should waste away their 
valuable time in unfruitful research. From such passages and from such 
data, Buddhaghosa, after careful observation and speculation, infers that 
there are five niyama. 

'Mow, to turn to our discussion of sesa it is required for reference 
or summing up, but not in formal classification. I have never come 
across, as far as my reading is concerned, the word "sesa", "the rest'' 
used even by the Western analyst in enumerating his formal clas- 

3. The power of the Buddha. 

4. Omniscience. 

5. "That is the Law of Cosmic Order, Monks.' 

6. 'This is the Law of Cosmic Order, O Monks.' 



238 Niyama Dipanl 

sification. As regards to the other word "pakinnaka", it is preferable 
to the word "sesa" as it may mean miscellaneous order or order 
of heterogeneous types, or order of things not arranged under any dis- 
tinct class. But it is doubtful whether it has a wide and comprehensive 
sense as the word "dhamma". Its proper use only in a particular case as 
we find in the Compendium of Philosophy as "pakinnakacetasika", which 
is used quite differently from what Buddhaghosa wishes to explain in 
his classification. In Pali language no suitable word can be found otber 
than the word "dhamma", which is a philosophic expression applied to 
things in general. It is neither an introduction of a new expression nor 
his own invention that Buddhagosa has used the term "dhamma" for the 
last division of niyama so as to include all that has not been said in the 
previous ones. It is but an adoption. Let me invite your reference to 
the classification of ayatana and dhatu. Of the twelve kinds of aya- 
tana and eighteen kinds of dhatu, the last of each is called dhammaya- 
tana and dhammadhatu, and each claims to include anything not included in 
the previous ones. According to the definition "sabhavam-dhareti ti dham- 
mo", every kind of ayatana and dhatu is a dhamma and yet each kind 
stands in co-ordinate rank with the last one. And the dhammayatana 7 
cannot include them as they have got their special name (laddha-nama- 
visesa). Here the conotation of the dhamma is limited and in Pali such a 
term is known as "pasiddha-ruthi" and it has no right to extend its sphere 
of nomenclature over other terms of laddha-nama-visesa. You may as 
well see that in classification of sixvifmanani (see Abhidammattha-san- 
gaha, ch. IV.) the last division is called mano-vinnanam, and mano, though 
it is a common term for all classes of consciousness or thought (citta), 
cannot claim to include the five kinds of consciousness previously enu- 
merated, such as cakhhuvinnanam, etc., for each of which has its special 
name, but it is applicable only to any other citta not included in the 
previous classes. So also is the same in our case. The dhamma-niyama 
cannot claim to include the above four niyama though each is really a 
dhamma or a thing within the legitimate sphere of its definition, but it 
is limited to include only what are not included in one to four. And the first 
four have a right to stand co-ordinately in rank with the last, and hence 

7. Mental object as base. 



Note on Dliamma-Niyaina 239 

you need not also call them the pancaka-dhamma-niyamo. 

Allow me to give you an instance of Western classification. The English 
grammarians classify an adverb into the following distinct classes: as adverb 
of time, place, number, quantity and quality. As each class is co-ordinate 
with the other divisions, the adverb of quality, though it may legitimately 
claim to include all the other classes in the sense of its being a qualify- 
ing word must be maintained without any prejudice and contention as 
the proper classification. Hence the adverb of quality may mean any 
adverb not included in the previous classes. Now we see that it is on 
all fours with our method. With regard to your suggestion to include a 
sixth, i.e. Buddha-niyama, I think it is not necessary. It may come under 
the head of dhamma-niyama. Jt is not a univerasl order applicable to 
many others but itself. It should be borne in mind that the appearance 
of a Buddha is not a regular recurrent one. Some universe has one or 
more and others have none at all, and even in the former case it is not 
synchronous. Therefore, it seems to Buddhaghosa that the Buddha-niyama 
does not deserve a special treatment in his elucidation of the general 
laws. It is the dhammata that a Buddha appears only when a Bodhi- 
satta has fully reached the perfection of the paramita's and Buddha- 
dhamma 

I remain, 
Cordially yours, 
U Nyana 



Note on Dhamma-Niyama 

by 
Ledi Sayadaw. 
(Translated by U Nyana) 

The aim of the scholiats in expounding the fivefold cosmic order should 
at first be noted. There are both in this world of men and of gods 
two kinds of conceptions, namely, issara-kutta, and brahma-kutta. The 
conception by which some people believe that there is a supreme ruler 
of the three worlds who ever lives in heaven and by whom everything 



240 Niyama Dipani 

is created, is the issara 1 -kutta. It is also called issara-nimmana (created 
by issara or is vara or supreme ruler or god). And the conception by 
which some people believe that there is a Brahma who ever lives in hea- 
ven, who is the great father and great-grandfather of all beings, who 
creates everything and supremely rules over the three worlds, is the 
Brahma-kutta (created by Brahma). Here issara and Brahma differ only 
in expressions but each is the designation of the same deity, the world- 
lord, the creating god. Of the two, Brahma is the name assigned to the 
supposed supreme being by the brahmins and Hindus and it has become 
a general notion in the three worlds of men, gods and Brahmas since 
the world begins. As to the name issara, it is not a universal notion 
but a later imaginative adoption by those who fail to acquire the know- 
ledge of origin of the world and primary causes of things in existence. 
In order to cast away these two imminent conceptions the scholiasts 
have expounded the fivefold cosmic order. 

The fivefold cosmic order is as follows: 

1. Utu-niyama, 2. bija-niyama, 3. kamma-niyama, 4. citta-niyama, 
and 5. dhamma-niyama. Of these five, the meaning of 'dhamma' in 
the last order should be first shown. We will quote a few lines from 
the Nidanavagga-Samyutta, Ahara-vagga, X Sutta, page 162, which run: 
'jatipaccaya, bhikkhave, jaramaranam. uppada va tathagatanam anup- 
pada va tathagatanam, thita 'va sa dhatu, dhammatthitata, dhamma- 
niyamata, ida-paccayata, bhavapaccaya, bhikkhave, jati. uppada va 
tathagatanam . . . pe . . . ida-paccayata . . . . pe avijjapaccaya, bhikkhave, 

saiikhara. uppada va tathagatanam pe . . . ida-paccayata. ayam vuccati 

paticcasamuppado.' 2 

L. Jahweh or Jehovah. 

2. English translation: 'What, monks, is Dependent Origination ? Through Rebirth 
are conditioned Old Age and Death': — whether, O monks, there be an arising of 
Tathagatas, whether there be no such arising, this natural order of elements exists, 
this establishment of sequence of causes and effects, this fixity of mutual relation 
of causes and effects. Concerning that the Tathagata is fully enlightened, that he 
fully understands. Fully enlightened, fully understanding, he declares it, teaches 
it, reveals it, sets it forth, manifests, explains, makes it plain, saying, "Behold. 
Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death. 

"Through the process of becoming, rebirth is conditioned; 



Note on Dhamma-Niyama 241 

In this text the natural things or phenomena (sabhave-dhamraa) are 
first shown, with the words 'avijja, etc.* and then the meaning of the 
word 'niyama' is expressed in the following sentence: 'uppada va 
tatbagatanam, etc' Therefore, the word 'dhamma' denotes both the 
things which mutually stand in relation to one another as cause 
and effect, for a dhamma always depends for its appearance upon some 
other dhamma which again in its turn requires some other antecedent 
for its arising. Hence any dhamma may be both cause and effect. And 
the word 'niyama' expresses the fixity of sequence of cause and effect. 

Here is our interpretation of the sentence 'thita va sa dhatu, dhammat- 
thitata, dhammaniyamata, idapaccayata.' There, indeed, ever exist in 
this universe that natural order of elements, that establishment of se- 
quence of causes and effects, that fixity of mutual relation of causes and 
effects, and that causal nexus of individual things or phenomena, such 
as avijja, etc. In this text, the word 'dhammatthitata' is synonymous with 
'dhammata', and the word 'dhamma-niyammata' with 'dhamma-niyamo.' 
The renderings made by Maung Shwe Zan Aung and U Nyana on the word 
'dhamma-niyama' seem to be in conformity with the above quoted text. 

Just as the method of word-description (padasodhananayo) is expounded 
at the very outset in the expositions of the Ten Books of Yamaka, so 

"Through Clinging, the Process of Becoming is conditioned; 

"Through Craving, Clinging is conditioned; 

"Through Sensation (feeling), Craving is conditioned; 

"Through Contact (impression) Sensation is conditioned; 

"Through the Six Bases, Contact is conditioned; 

"Through Mental and Physical Phenomena, the Six Bases are conditioned; 

"Through Consciousness, Mental and Physical Phenomena are conditioned; 

"Through Kamma-formations (rebirth-producing volitions), Consciousness is 

conditioned; 
"Through Ignorance, Kamma-formations are conditioned. 

Whether, monks, there be an arising of Tathagatas, whether there be no such 
arising, this natural order of elements exists, this establishment of sequence of 
causes and effects, this fixity of mutual relation of causes and effects. Concerning 
that, the Tathagata is fully enlightened, that he fully understands. Fully enlightened, 
fully understanding he declares it, reveals it, sets it forth, manifests, explains, 
makes it plain, saying "Behold. Through Rebirth are conditioned Old Age and 
Death. This, monks, is called Dependent Origination." 

(Note. — The Six Bases: The five physical sense-organs with mind as the sixth.) 

(Eds. — The Light of the Dhamma.) 



242 Niyama Dipanl 

also here we should apply that method first in the classification of the 
fivefold niyama. In the expression 'dhamma-niyama, the word 'dharoma' 
denotes all mental and material things. Therefore, bija, kamma and 
citta are all dhamma, and it comprises all of them. Hence 'utu' gets 
two names: 1) 'dhamma', a general or common name, and 2) 'utu', an 
individual or distinct name. In like manner, bija, kamma, and citta get 
two names each. But in the classification of niyama, the individual 
names are used for the first four so as to particularize and make dis- 
tinction from the rest of things, mentals and materials, which are con- 
veniently treated under one common name of 'dhamma'. For this reason 
the term 'dhamma-niyama' should not be taken in its full application, 
but must be restricted within bounded limits to denote only the things 
which are not included in the first four. When it is required to treat 
'utu' as niyama, one should not call it a 'dhamma-niyama' though it 
(utu) is really a dhamma, but must use the appropriate and individual 
name and call it an utu-niyama. The same rule holds good with bija, 
kamma, and citta-niyama. 

For instance, we presume that there are five classes of workers on 
board a ship: the captain, the engineer, the pilot, the officer, and the 
sailors. Now, the owner of the ship, being very much pleased with the 
works of the crew, and wishing to give them a bonus, sends a man with 
some money to distribute among them according to his instruction that 
so much should be paid to so and so. When distribution is made, the 
captain and the other three are not entitled to receive shares from those 
of the sailors though they are working on board the ship under one 
common name as sailors, for they have already received special gratuity 
under the individual names of captain, engineer, pilot, and officer. Thus 
it should be understood here also. So much for the word-description. 

Moreover, among the six kinds of objects, the dhamma-rammana stands 
last. So also dhammayatana and dhammadhatu stand last in the cate- 
gories of twelve ayatana and eighteen dhatu respectively. Here also the 
denotation of each should be understood according to the method of word- 
description just as in the fivefold niyama. We will reproduce here a few 
lines from the books of Yamaka which will serve as a means to obtain 
a dear knowledge of the method of word-description. 



Note on Dhamma-Niyama 243 

Dhammo dhammayatanam ? ti. Dhammayatanam thapetva, avaseso 
dhammo dhammo, na dhammayatanarh; dhammayatanam dhammoc' eva 
dhammayatanan ca. Dhammayatanam hammo ? ti. Amanta. Ayatana- 
Yamaka. Dhammo dhamma-dhatu? ti. Dhamma-dhatum thapetva, 
avaseso dhammo dhammo, an dhammadhatu; dhammadhatu dhammo-c'eva 
dhamma-dhatu ca. Dhamma-dhatu dhammo ? ti. Amanta. Dhatu-Yamaka. 

Is dhammo a dhammayatana? Excluding the dhammayatana, the re- 
maining dhammo is dhammo and not dhammayatanam; but dhammaya- 
tanarh is both dhammo and dhammayatanam. Is dhammayatanam a 
dhammo? Ay. Is dhammo a dhamma-dhatu? Excluding the dhamma- 
dhatu, the remaining dhammo is dhammo, and not dhamma-dhatu; but 
dhamma-dhatu is both dhammo and dhammadhatu. Is dhamma-dhatu a 
dhammo? Ay. 

Now 1 have dealt enough with, to respond to the critical observation: 

'Any division must seem to our Western minds which is co-ordinated 

with other divisions and yet claims to include them. It shocks our sense* 

of proper classification.'— made by Mrs. Rhys Davids, in her letter to U 

Nyana. 
With regard to her sound suggestion, 'It would pass muster with us 

if it was a sesa-niyama only, for any orders not included in one to four. 
But then it should be so called, and not dhamma-niyama .... And the 
fifth the sesa— or pakinnaka-niyama',— we would say thus: 

If the fifth order is called the sesa-niyama, it would only mean that 
the above four orders did not involve in it. But if it is called the pakin- 
naka-niyama, it would not only mean that it did not mix up with the 
above four orders, but it would also allow various kinds of order, such 
as the Buddha-Niyama, etc., to be included. However, in our Buddhist 
Philosophy, the word 'dhamma' and its scope of meaning are very impor- 
tant and extensive. How ? It is an ample work for the word 'dhamma' 
to uproot and destroy all the false notions, such as issara-kuttaditthi, 
Brahma-kutta-ditthi, sakkaya-ditthi, etc. The whole of the seven books 
of the Abhidhamma is composed with the expressed purpose of disclosing 
the meaning of 'dhamma'. Particularly, the exposition of the fivefold 
niyama by the scholiast is the attempt to eliminate the unfounded notions 
of issara-kutta and Brahma-kutta. It will be clearly shown later how it 
eliminates. 



241 Niyama Dlpanl 

Here the difference between the power of the great Brahma or 
the so-called suppreme ruler and the influence of the cosmic laws 
should be shown. The great Brahma can shed lustre over many thou- 
sands of world systems with his radiant beauty. He can see everything 
in those worlds, can hear sounds, get to any place and return to his 
own at the instance of his will, and read the minds of men and gods. 
As to his supernormal power (iddhi) concerning creation and transform- 
ation, he can create or transform either his own body or any external 
object into many and any forms. But these are only shadow-like shows 
and exhibitions which when he withdraws his power are sure to disap- 
pear away. In fact, he cannot create a real creature or thing, in the 
least louse or its egg, which will not disappear away when the creative 
power is discontinued. In exhibiting gardens and trees through his creative 
power, he can create and exhibit only temporal, unsubstantial, unreal, 
and counterfeit shapes of, and resemblances to, the desired things. A 
tree, a real substantial tree, even a blade of grass, he can never create. 
Because the appearance of a phenomenon, the coming into being of a 
creature, or the growing of a plant, is not within the range of super- 
normal or creative power, but it is within the domain of the cosmic 
orders, such as dhamma-niyama, kamma-niyama and bija-niyama. The 
things created only last while the iddhi is acting behind them, and they 
are liable to disappear as soon as the iddhi is withdrawn. The occurrence 
of hot, rainy and cold seasons are the natural process of climatic order 
and not the operation of iddhi. As regards dhamma-niyama, the great 
Brahma can transport thousands of men in their present life to heaven 
if he wishes, but there he cannot make them neither to become old nor 
to die, and even when they die he cannot debar and save them from 
falling into or being reborn in the abodes of torture. For the mental and 
material aggregates constituting the persons of men are under the sway 
of natural laws (dhamma-niyama) of birth, old-age and death. He cannot 
also make men or any creatures to be born in heaven after they die 
because the inception of new life in new abodes after death is not within 
the sphere of the operation of iddhi but it is within the domain of kam- 
ma-niyama. In this world, any one who kills and eats daily fowls, etc., 
and always drinks intoxicating liquor, must fall, in spite of his daily 



Note on Dhamma-Niyama 245 

prayers and attendance to church, into the planes of misery after death. 
The great Brahma or the supreme god cannot save him in any way, 
because it is within the domain of kamma-niyama and not within that 
of iddhi. On the other hand, any one who disbelieves in the notions of 
issara-kutta and Brahma-kutta, who is a strong believer in the laws of 
kamma, and who shuns evil actions and always cultivates good deeds, 
is sure to ascend the higher abodes of gods and Brahmas after death. 
And the great Brahma cannot prohibit him from coming up to heaven, 
because the influence of iddhi can never overrule that of moral laws. 
The great Brahma, were he to encounter the cosmic laws, cannot defend 
and save even himself from falling into their clutches, let alone others. 
So much for the differentiation of iddhi and niyama in respect of their 
influences. 

Now to show how the notions of issara and Brahma-kutta are refuted. 
There are some people who think that there is only one world, and who 
do not believe that there have been many cycles of worlds in the past 
and that an unlimited number of worlds will follow this present one 
in future. But they do believe that this present world has both its 
beginning and its end. And in looking for the primary cause of its 
beginning they utterly fail. However, reflecting upon the houses and 
buildings and their designers and builders, they come to the conclusion 
that this world must have its originator and he must be the creator or the 
supreme ruler, or the great Brahma, or the god. On the other hand, 
Buddhism teaches that many cycles of worlds have been formed in the 
past and many others will follow the present one in succession. It also 
teaches that the world has its beginning and its end, and there are causes, 
called natural laws, for the formation and destruction of every world, 
and these natural laws exist for ever and go rolling on in the infinite 
space of time. Therefore the followers of Buddhism have no notion what- 
ever of issara and Brahma-kutta. So much for the refutation of the two 
notions. It has also been sufficiently dealt with in my expositions. 

Among the fivefold niyama, the dhamma-niyama is most important. 
Cakkavatti and Aggarina Suttas of the Digha-Nikaya are the fields for 
dhamma-niyama. In those suttas we find the order of life-span, or, under 
the common name, the dhamma-niyama, which reveals the facts that the 



246 Niyama-Dlpani 

incessant rise and fall of human life-span from a decade to a myriad 
■ (asankhyeyya) and vice versa are due to kusala and akusala dhamma. 
Besides those suttas, such kinds of order may be found in many places 
in the text. In the Dhamma-Hadaya-Vibhanga of the Abhidhamma Pitaka 
and in the Uposatha Sutta of the Eighth Book of Anguttara-Nikaya, the 
six abodes of devas and twenty abodes of Brahmas and their life-spans 
are definitely expounded. It is also a kind of dhamma-niyama which in 
other religions is never heard of. It may be called the order of life-span 
(ayukappa-niyama) if one would like to particularize. Or it would not 
be wrong to enter it under the heading kamma-niyama. 

'Or there should be a sixth, the Buddha-niyama'— with this suggestion, 
we are quite in concordance. Because in specifying it separately, the 
great wonders of the Buddha would be more conspicuous. I have also 
written in my exposition that there should be a sixth, the order of birth 
(jati-niyama) which we find in Vasettha Sutta (Sutta Nipata, Maha-Vagga), 
because it seems to be a distinct class of order from bija and kana*-*. 
With regard to the Buddha-niyama, we cannot say that the appearance 
of a Buddha occurs in every world. Very few are the worlds 'in which 
a Buddha or Buddhas appear. We must then assign the Buddha-niyama 
to the occasional occurrences of certain wonderful and mysterious pre- 
sages, such as the quaking of ten thousand worlds, etc., during the infinite 
space of time while a Bodhisat is fulfilling the Buddha-dhamma, that 
is, from the time a Bodhisat receives the ultimate prediction from a 
Buddha that he would certainly become a saviour like himself, till he 
attains to Buddhahood and enters into the final goal, the Nibbana-dhatu. 
The marvellous occurrences of such wonderful and mysterious presages 
are recorded in Buddhavamsa in the chapter known as 'Sumedha's Re- 
ception of Dipankara's Prediction.' They occur also when the Bodhisat in 
his last life enters the mother's womb, the world, when he becomes the 
Buddha, when he sets rolling the wheel of law, when he appoints the 
time of his death, and lastly when he enters into Nibbana. Such occur- 
rences are called 'dhammata' by the commentators. There is also a kind 
of dhamma-niyama which comes under the name of dhammata in the 
Mahapadana Sutta, in the Digha-Nikaya. In the Majjhima-Nikaya, it comes 
under the name of acchariya-abbhuta-dhamma. See Upari-Pannasa, third 



Note on Dhamma-Niyama 247 

chapter, third sutta. In the commentaries, these wonderful and myster- 
ious things are classed under dhamma-niyama. 

If the Buddha-niyama be specialized, the savaka-niyama should not be 
overlooked. It should also be treated distinctly. And what then is savaka- 
niyama ? It is the order of precepts, etc., of the disciples, comprising the 
laymen, devas and Brahmas who have received deliverance from anyone 
of the many Buddhas, surpassing in number the sands of the river Gan- 
ges, who have appeared in the cycles of aeons that have no knowable 
beginning. 

Before we proceed any further, we should here first show the 
puthujjana-bhumi and puthujjana-gati. Of the two, puthujjana-bhumi 
or the stage of worldlings means the potentiality of kilesa, the immen- 
sity of evil deeds, and the open door of the four planes of misery, on 
account of the strong hold of the soul theory. The potentiality of kilesa 
means the capability of committing the five great sins, i.e. matricide, 
parricide, etc., and the possibility of holding strongly the three fixed 
views (niyata-ditthi), i.e. natthika-ditthi: nihilism; ahetuka-ditthi: anti- 
cansationism; and akriya-ditthi: anti-moralism. The immensity of evil deeds 
means that the innumerable evil deeds committed in the past are always 
following the personality of the worldling wherever he goes, and that the 
immense number of new evil deeds are also surrounding him to fall in 
at every moment. How ? Bearing in mind the difficulty of attaining a 
manhood life (manussattabhavo) we are to understand that a worldling 
has spent many myriads of existences in the abodes of misery before he 
had a chance of being reborn in the world of men. Similarly, millions 
of miserable lives precede the fortunate life of a deva, and many ten- 
millions (kotis) of lives in miserable abodes are followed by a life of 
Brahma only if circumstance favours. So the more are the evil existen- 
ces, the greater is the immensity of evil deeds. There are evil deeds 
which have given effects and which are to give effects if they get fa- 
vourable circumstances in one's own personality. There are also many evil 
deeds which will arise in the worldling as long as he clings to self. 
However, he has also good deeds, but they are as few as a handful of 
sand while the evil deeds are as much as the sands of the river Ganges. 
Such is the immensity of evil deeds in an individual who clings to self. 
What is meant by 'the open door of the four planes of misery' ? A 



248 Niyama Dipani 

puthujjana, though he be fortunate enough to become a human being, is 
always inclining to the miserable existences on account of the immensity 
of evil deeds and clinging to self. Generally speaking, many are those 
who are reborn in the four miserable abodes after their death. It is also 
the same with the devas and Brahmas when they gradually fall into 
the tortured states. These facts are expounded in the Nakhasikha Sutta 
of the Sarhyutta-Nikaya, in the fifth chapter, Amakadhanriapeyyala of 
Mahavagga Samyutta. If one once falls into the abodes of miserable 
ones, it is very difficult for him to be reborn again in the abodes of men. 
This fact is also expounded in Bala-Pandita Sutta, in the Sunnata-Vagga 
of Uparipannasaka, Majjhima-Nikaya. So much for the puthujjana-gati. 

Rev. U Nyana, 
Dear Sir, 

I have been deeply touched by the goodness and great kindness of the 
Maha Thera in condescending to answer himself, and to answer so fully, 
the points I raise in my letter to you concerning your traditional teach- 
ing of the fivefold niyama. He has certainly made it very clear that, 
under 'dtiamma-niyama', we have to understand a cosmic law relating 
to causally-ordered dhamma or phenomena, and not a cosmic law of the 
saddhamma, the second of the ratanattaya-dhamma which are in Bud- 
dhaghosa's list 'hetu' rather than 'pariyattj.' Will you be so good as to 
convey my respects to him and my sincere thanks for this kind message, • 
ray great satisfaction at hearing that his health is restored and my best 
wishes for the recovery of his sight and for his continuance in good 
health 

Yours Sincerely, 
C.A.F. Rhys Davids. 



Manual of The Four 
Noble Truths 

By Agga Maha Pandita, Mahathera Ladi Sayadaw, D. Litt. 

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato San mid Sambuddhassa. 
Veneration to Him, the Most Exalted, the Purified, the Supremely 

Enlightened Buddha. 

The Five Khandha (Groups of Existence) 

Phenapindupamam rupam, vedana pupphuliipama, 
Maricikupama sanna, sankhara kadalupama, 
MayCipamanca vihhanam, desitadiccabandhuna. 1 

The Omniscient Buddha declared: 'The corporeality-group resembles a 
heap of foam which is devoid of soul entity and essence; the feeling-group 
resembles water bubbles which are devoid of soul-entity and essence; 
the perception-group resembles a mirage which is devoid of soul-entity 
and essence; the group of mental formations resembles the trunk of a 
banana tree which is devoid of soul-entity and essence; and the con- 
sciousness-group resembles deceitful appearances produced by a magician, 
and which are devoid of soul-entity and essence.' 

The Twelve Ay a tana Bases 

Ajjhattika— Six Somatic Bases Bahira— Six External Bases 

Eye Visible Object 

Ear Sound 

Nose Odour 

Tongue Taste 

Body Body-contact 

1. Samyutta-Nikaya, Khandha Vagga-Samyutta, Khandha -Samyutta, (5) Pupphavagga, 
(3) Phenapindupama Sutta 6th pyn. Edition pp 115. 



250 Mannal of the Four Noble Truths 

Mind -base Mental- object 

(manayatana) (dhammayatana) 

Sunriogamo sunnogamoti kho bhikkhave channetam ajjhattikanam ayata- 
nanamadhivacanam; cakkhayatanassa, sotayatanassa, ghanayatanassa, 
jivhayatanassa kayayatanassa, manayatanassa, gamaghatakacora ti kho 
bhikkhave channetam bahiranam ayatanam, rupayatananam, saddaya- 
tananam, gandhayatananam, rasayatananam, photthabbayatananam, 
dha mmay atananam . 2 

'Monks, the six somatic bases— the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, 
the body, and the mind-base or consciousness (manayatana) are figura- 
tively termed "a ruined village". The six external bases— visible objects, 
sound, odour, taste, body-impressions and mental-objects are figuratively 
termed "gangs of robbers who plunder the village." ' 

Eighteen Psycho* Physical Elements 



eye 


visible object 


eye-consciousness 


ear 


sound 


ear-consciousness 


nose 


odour 


nose-consciousness 


tongue 


taste 


tongue-consciousness 


body 


body-contact 


body -consciousness 



mano-dhatu (mental-element) 
dhamma-dhatu (mental-object-element) 
mano-vinnana-dhatu (mind-consciousness-element) 

According to the declaration 'attano sabbavam dharetiti-dhatu', as 
these eighteen psycho-physical elements never act according to the wishes 
of beings, but function according to their respective natures, they are 
termed dhatu (elements). 

Three Psycho-Physical Elements and Dependent Origination 

The Nidana-Vagga of the Samyutta-Nikaya says : 3 Lokasamudayarica 
bhikkhave desessami lokanirodhanca, I. Kathanca bhikkhave lokasamu- 

2. Samyutta-Nikaya, Salayatanavagga, Salayatana-Samyutta (4) Asivisvagga, Asi 
vispama Sutta. 6th syn. Edition, p. 383. 

3. Samyutta-Nikaya, Nidanavagga Samyutta, Nidana-Sariiyutta, i5) Gahapati vagg^, 
(4) Loka Sutta 6th syn. Edition p. 301. 



Three Psycho-Physical Elements and Dependent Origination 251 

dayo? 1. Cakkhuncapaticcariipeca uppajati cakkhu-viririanam, tinnam- 
sangatiphasso, phassapaccaya vedana, vedanapaccaya tanha, tanhapaccaya 
upadanam, upadanapaccaya bhavo, bhavapaccaya jati, jatipaccaya jara- 
marana sokaparideva dukkhadomanassupayasa sambhavanti, evametasa 
kevalassa dukkhandhassa samudayo hoti. 

2. Sotanca paticca saddeca uppajjati sotaviniianam, tinnam sangati 
phasso; peyyala; 

3. Ghananca paticca gandheca uppajjati ghanavinnanam tinnam sangati 
phasso; peyyala; 

4. Jivhanca paticca raseca uppajjati jivhavinnanam tinnam sangati 
phasso, peyyala; 

5. Kayanca paticca photthabbeca uppajjati kayaviiirianam tinnam san- 
gati phasso, peyyala; 

6. Manarica paticca dhammeca uppajjati manoviniianam tinnam sangati 
phasso, peyyala, dukkhakkhandhassasamudayo hoti, evanca bhikkhave 
loka samudayo. 

II. Kathaiica bhikkhav lokanirodho? Cakkhunca paticca riipeca uppaj- 
jati cakkhuvinrianam tinnam sangati phasso, phassanirodha vedana 
nirodho, vedananirodha tanhanirodho, tanhanirodha upadananirodho, 
upadananirodha bhavanirodho, bhavanirodha jatinirodho, jatinirodha jara- 
marana sokaparideva dukkha domanassa upayasa nirujjhanti; evame- 
Lassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti; evanca bhikkhave loka- 
nirodho. 

2. Sotanca paticca sadde ca uppajjati sotavinnanam, tinnam sangati 
phasso, phassanirodha vedana nirodho, vedananirodha, tanhanirodho, tan- 
hanirodho, tanhanirodha upadananirodho, upadananirodha bhavanirodho, 
bhavanirodha jatinirodho, jatinirodha jaramarana sokaparideva dukkha 
domanassupayasa nirujjhanti; evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa 
nirodho hoti; evanca bhikkhave lokanirodho. 

3. Ghananca paticca gandhe ca uppajjati ghanavinnanam, tinnam san- 
gati phasso, phassanirodha vedana nirodho, vedananirodha tanhanirodho 
tanhanirodha upadananirodho, upadananirodha bhavanirodho, bhavanirodha 
jatinirodho, jatinirodha jaramarana sokaparideva dukkhadomanassupayasa 



252 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

nirujjhanti; evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti, evafica 
bhikkhave loka nirodho. 

4. Jivhanca paticca rase ca uppajjati jivhavinnanam, tinnam sangati 
phasso, phassanirodha vedananirodho, vedananirodha tanhanirodho, tanha- 
nirodha upadananirodho, upadananirodha bhavanirodho, bhavanirodha 
jatinirodho, jatinirodha, jaramarana sokaparideva dukkhadonanassupayasa 
nirujjhanti, evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti, evafica 
bhikkhave lokanirodho. 

5. Kayaiica paticca photthabbe ca uppajjati kayavinrianam. tinnam san- 
gati phasso, phassanirodha vedananirodho, vedanamrodhii tanhanirodho, 
tanhanirodha upadananirodho, upadananirodha bhavanirodho, bhavani- 
rodha jatinirodho, jatinirodha jaramarana sokaparideva dukkhadomanas- 
supayasa nirujjhanti, evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho 
hoti, evafica bhikkhave lokanirodho. 

6. Mananca paticca dhamme ca uppajjati manoviiinanam, tinnam san- 
gati phasso, phassanirodha vedananirodno, vedananirodha tanhanirodho, 
tanhanirodha upadananirodho, upadananirodha bhavanirodho, bhavaniro- 
dha jatinirodho jatinirodha jaramarana sokaparideva dukkhadomanas- 
supayasa nirujjhanti; evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho 
hoti, evafica bhikkhave lokanirodho. 

The Buddha said: I. 'I will teach you, monks, the origin of repeated birth 
and passing away of beings in this world. 1. What, monks, is the origin 
of beings? On account of the eye, and visible object, eye-consciousness 
arises. Impression (phassa) is the conjunction of the three; through phassa, 
vedana (feeling) arises; through vedana, tanha (craving) arises; through 
tanha, upadana (grasping) arises; through upadana, bhava (process of 
becoming) arises; through bhava, jati (rebirth) arises; through jati, jara- 
marana (decay and death), soka (sorrow), parideva (lamentation), dukkha 
(pain), domanassa (grief) and upayasa (despairj arise. Thus arises this 
whole mass of suffering. 

'2. On account of the ear and sound, ear-consciousness arises. Phassa 
is the conjunction of the three; through phassa, veaana arises: through 
vedana. tanha arises; through tanha, upadana arises; through upadana, 
bhava arises; through bhava, jati arises; through jati, jara-marana, soka, 



Three Psycho-Physical Elements and Dependent Origination 253 

parideva, dukkha, domanassa and upayasa arise. Thus arises this whole 
mass of suffering. 

'3. On account of the nose and odour, nose-consciousness arises. Phassa 
is the conjunction of the three; through phassa, vedana arises; through 
vedana, tanha arises; through tanha, upadana arises; through upadana, 
bhava arises; through bhava, jati arises; through jati, jara-marana, soka 
parideva, dukkha, domanassa and upayasa arise. Thus arises this whole 
mass of suffering. 

4. On account of the tongue and taste, tongue- consciousness arises. 
Phassa is the conjunction of the three; through phassa, vedana arises; 
through vedana, tanha arises; through tanha upadana arises; through 
upadana, bhava arises; through bhava, jati arises; through jati, jara-marana, 
soka, parideva, dukkha, domanassa and upayasa arise. Thus arises this 
whole mass of suffering. 

5. On account of the body and bodily impression, body-consciousness 
arises. Phassa is the coniunction of the three; through phassa, vedana 
arises; through vedana, tanha arises; through tanha, upadana arises; 
through upadana, bhava arises; through bhava, jati arises; through jati, 
jara-marana, soka, parideva, dukkha, domanassa and upayasa arise. Thus 
arises this whole mass of suffering. 

'6. On account of mental element and mental-object element, mind-con- 
sciousness arises, Phassa is the conjunction of the three; through phassa, 
vedana arises; through vedana, tanha arises; through tanha, upadana 
arises; through upadana, bhava arises; through bhava, jati arises; through 
jati, jara-marana, soka, parideva, dukkha, domanassa and upayasa arise. 
Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. This is the origin of beings. 

'II. What, monks, is the passing away of beings? 1. Monks, on ac- 
count of the eye and visible object, eye- consciousness arises. Phassa is 
the conjunction of the three; through the extinction of impression, feeling- 
becomes extinguished, through the extinction of feeling, craving becomes 
extinguished; through the extinction of craving, grasping becomes extingui- 
shed; through the extinction of grasping, rebirth becomes extinguished. 
through the extinction of rebirth, decay and death become extinguished, 
as well as sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. Thus takes place 
the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This is the passing away 
of beings. 



254 Manual ol the Four Noble 'I ruths 

2. On account of the ear and sound, ear-consciousness arises. Impres- 
sion is the conjunction of the three; through the extinction of impression 
feeling becomes extinguished; through the extinction of feeling, craving 
becomes extinguished; through the extinction of craving, grasping be- 
comes extinguished; through the extinction of grasping, rebirth becomes 
extinguished, through the extinction of rebirth, decay and death become 
extinguished, as well as sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair. 
Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This 
is the passing away of beings. 

3. On account of the nose and odour, nose- consciousness arises. Im- 
pression is the' conjunction of the three; through the extinction of impress- 
ion, feeling becomes extinguished, through the extinction of feeling, crav- 
ing becomes extinguished; through the extinction of craving, grasping 
becomes extinguished; through the extinction of grasping, rebirth becomes 
extinguished; through the extinction of rebirth, decay and death become 
extinguished, as well as sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair. 
Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This 
is the passing away of beings. 

4. On account of the tongue and taste, tongue-consciousness arises. 
Impression is the conjunction of the three; through the extinction of 
impression, feeling becomes extinguished; through the extinction of feel- 
ing, craving becomes extinguished; through the extinction of craving, 
grasping becomes extinguished; through the extinction of grasping, re- 
birth becomes extinguished; through the extinction of rebirth, decay and 
death become extinguished, as well as sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, 
and despair. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of 
suffering. This is the passing away of beings. 

5. On account of the body and bodily impression, body-consciousness 
arises. Impression is the conjunction of the three; through the extinction 
of impression, feeling becomes extinguished; through the extinction of 
feeling, craving becomes extinguished; through the extinction of craving, 
grasping becomes extinguished; through the extinction of grasping, rebirth 
becomes extinguished; through the extinction of rebirth, decay and death 
become extinguished, as well as sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and 
despair Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. 
This is the passing away of beings. 



Tly-ee Psycho-Physicai Elements and Dependent Origination 255 

6. On account of the menial element and mental-object element, mind- 
consciousness arises. Impression is the conjunction of the three; through 
the extinction of impression, feeling becomes extinguished; through the 
extinction of feeling, craving becomes extinguished; through the extinction 
of craving, grasping becomes extinguished; through the extinction of 
grasping, rebirth becomes extinguished; through the extinction of rebirth 
decay and death become extinguished, as well as sorrow, lamentation, 
pain, grief, and despair. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole 
mass of suffering. This is the passing away of beings. 

1. 'Cakkhuiica paticca rtipeca uppajjati cakkhuviririanam'. On account 
of the eye and visible object, eye-consciousness arises.—.'! psycho-physical 
elements. 

2. 'Sotanca paticca saddeca uppajjati sotaviiimmanr. On account of the 
ear and sound, ear-consciousness ^ris^s —3 psycho-physical elements. 

3. 'Ghanarica paticca gandheca uppajjati ghanavinnanam'. On account 
of the nose and odour, nose-consciousness arises.— 3 psycho-physical ele- 
ments. 

4. 'Jivhahca paticca raseca uppajjati jivhavihriananV. On account of the 
tongue and taste, tongue-consciousness arises.— 3 psycho- physical elements. 

5. 'Kayahca paticca photthabbeca uppajjati kayavinnanam'. On account 
of the body and bodily impression, body-consciousness arises.— 3 psycho- 
physical elements. 

6. 'Manarica paticca dhammeca uppajjati manovinnanam'. On account 
of mental element and mental-object elemenl, mind-consciousness arises.— 
3 psycho-physical elements. 

Thus there are six triads making in all the eighteen psycho- physical 
elements. 

Here, photlhabba means the combination of pathavi (the element of 
extension), tejo (the element of kinetic-energy) and vayo (the element of 
motion). 

Dhamma-dhatu (mental-object elements) comprise all kammically who- 
lesome, kammically unwholesome and kammically neutral phenomena 
excepting the former seventeen psycho-physical elements. 



256- Manual of The Four Noble Truths 

The Meaning of Sixteen Characteristics of Truths 

Dukkhassa pilanattho, sankhatattho, santapattho, viparinamattho; 

Dukkhasamudayassa ayuhanattho, nibanattho, samyogattho, palibo- 
dhattho; 

Nirodhassa nissaranattho, pavivekattho, amatattho, asankhatattho; 

Maggassa niyyanattho, hetuttho, dassanattho, adhipateyyattho. 

— Patisambhidamagga . 

The Interpretation of Dukkha-Sacca (Noble Truth of Suffering) 

The four inherent characteristics of dukkha-sacca are: 

1. Pijanattho —having the characteristic of oppression 

2. Sankhatattho —having the characteristic of production by a 

combination of causes 

3. Santapattho —having the characteristic of continuously burn- 

ing, heat, fire 

4. Viparinamattho— having the characteristic of change. 

Thus any dhamma that has the above four characteristics is called 
dukkha-sacca. It means that they are dangers much to be feared by the 
wise. As all causally-conditioned physical and mental phenomena have 
the above four characteristics, they are all dukkha-sacca. 

The Interpretation of Samudaya-Sacca (Noble Truth of the Origin of 

Suffering) 

The four inherent characteristics of samudaya-sacca are: 

1. Ayuhanattho —having the characteristic of accumulating what 

would cause suffering 

2. Nidanattho —having the characteristic of constantly supply- 

ing, or becoming a constant source of supply 
of suffering 

3. Samyogattho —having the characteristic of causing union or 

association with suffering 

4. Palibodhattho —having the characteristic of obstructing, being 

an obstacle or impediment to freedom from 
suffering. 



The Interpretation of Magga-Sacca 257 

Thus any dhamma that has the above four characteristics is called 
samudaya-sacca. It means that this samudaya-sacca really helps the 
growth of all kinds of suffering. As tanha satisfies the above four char- 
acteristics, it is all samudaya-sacca. 

The Interpretation of Nirodha-Sacca (Noble Truth of the Cessation of 

Suffering) 

The four inherent characteristics of nirodha-sacca are: 

1. Nissaranattho —having the characteristic of being an escape, 

liberation from suffering 

2. Pavivekattho —having the characteristic of being free from 

disturbance 

3. Amatattho --a state where there is no more death or dis- 

solution 

4. Asankhatattho —having the characteristic of the unoriginated 

(Nibbana). 

Thus any dhamma that has the above four characteristics is called 
nirodha-sacca. Nibbana alone has the above four characteristics, so it is 
all nirodha-sacca. 

The Interpretation of Magga-Sacca (Noble Truth of the Path Leading 
to the Cessation of Suffering) 

The four inherent characteristics of magga-sacca are: 

1. Niyyanattho —having the characteristic of leading to release 

or deliverance 

2. Hetuttho —having the characteristic of being a cause for 

the attainment of arahatship. 

3. Dassanattho —having the characteristic of realization of the 

Four Noble Truths, which is not even dreamt 
of in the rounds of samsara 

4. Adhipateyyattho— having the characteristic of overcoming three 

kinds of craving and attaining mastery over 
oneself. 

Thus any dhamma that has the above four characteristics is called 
magga-sacca. Only the Eightfold Noble Path has the above four charac- 
teristics. So it is magga-sacca. 



258 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

The Exposition of Four Characteristics of the Truth of Suffering 

Oppression of Dukkha 

The four characteristics are pilanal.tha, sankhatattha, santapattha, and 
viparinamaltha. Of these, pilanattha is the main characteristic of duk- 
kha-saccn, and the remaining three are its adjuncts. PHanattha means 
'oppression' and this op] session can be formed in the following three 
ways: 

1. By way of sankhata 

2. By v/ay of santapa 

3. By way of viparinama. 

Any causally-conditioned phenomemon burdens any being who clings 
to it in Lhe following manner: in the beginning, it burdens the being by 
way of sankhata, in the middle by way of santapa, and at the end by 
way of viparinama. These three methods of burden in the beginning, 
in the middle and at the end, manifest themselves as the state of pila- 
nattha 

I. The Burden of Dukkha in the Brahma World 

1. By way of sankhata at the beginning means: to attain the five 
khandha of the Brahma world (i.e. to be born in Brahma world), one 
has to practise for jhana and samapatti in his previous existence. This 
endeavour to attain such states is the heavy burden of sankhata at the 
beginning. Such attainments can be achieved only by one who lives in 
remote places such as in forests and on mountains, and takes severe 
austerities unbearable for an ordinary man. 

2. By way of santapa in the middle means: when a being achieves 
the khandha of a Brahma as the resultant effect of his having reached 
samapatti (attainments) while in the world of men, his body and mind 
are incessantly burdened by the superiority conceit of T am' T am.' In 
the same manner, other evils, such as sassataditthi (eternalist theory), 
uccheda-ditthi (annihilationist theory), mada (intoxication with sensual 
pleasures in the Brahma plane), pamada (negligence of the dhamma) 
and the defilements are burdening him by way of 'santapa' (burning; 
heat; fire). When a Brahma is being burdened by the ten kinds of de- 



The Burden of Dukkha in the Deva World 259 

filements, he does not perceive the weight of that burden. He thinks that 
it is good and to his liking also. Only when there arise anxiety and 
repentance, then the weight of the burden caused by defilements becomes 
apparent. Although a person may not be aware of his being burdened 
by these kilesa, all those passions that are going to defile his mind are 
the means of burdening him. As long as that Brahma lives, the groups 
(khandha) which constitute his existence produce all kinds of defilements 
and will burden him throughout his life. 

3. By way of viparinama at the end means: the phrase 'in the end 
the being is burdened by way of viparinama (change)' means the death 
or dissolution of the five groups of existence pertaining to that being, 
and that is his viparinama-dukkha (suffering due to change). Because 
there is the dissolution of that Brahma's body, he will have to be reborn 
in a lower plane— the sensuous plane. He may gradually go down till 
he reaches Avici. He may be reborn as a dog, a pig, a bird, a mosquito 
a gadfly, a louse, a bug and so forth Thus the the five groups of 
khandha belonging to that Brahma burden him by way of viparinama. 
Therefore, that Brahma's body is known as dukkha-sacca inasmuch 
as it has the four characteristics— pijanattha, sankhatattha, santapattha 
and viparinamattha. 

II. The Burden of Dukkha in the Deva World 

In the six abodes of devas also, the five groups of existence found in 
any devas will firstly burden him by way of sankhata at the beginning, 
by way of santapa in the middle, and finally by way of viparinama. 

1. Sarikhata dukkha: here the burden by 'sankhata', may be explained 
as follows: It briefly means alms-giving, restraint of bodily and verbal 
actions, and restraint of mental action. Only when one has performed 
these wholesome deeds in this present life will he be able to arise in 
the deva-plane in his next birth and attain the body of a deva. He will 
not be able to achieve such a state by developing his mental groups 
only. By giving away his property to others in charity, a person who 
has wealth of a hundred kyats or a thousand kyats may be reduced to 
poverty in a single day; morality means strict observance and restraint. 
If one does not practise alms-giving and morality, he is bound to be re- 



260 Manuel of the Four Noble Truths 

born in the lower worlds in his next birth. So it is necessary to perform 
these wholesome deees to reach the deva world. Even when they arise 
in the happy course of existence by virtue of their wholesome deeds 
done in the previous existences, if they have offered on a small scale 
in their past existence, they will have to lead a base life in their present 
existence. The more they practiced dana and sila, the better positions 
they will enjoy in their present existence. So people have to practice 
alms-giving spending a lot of money and also observe precepts with great 
self-control, because they fear that they may be low down in lower 
worlds in their next existence. When they have to do this merely because 
it is essential for their future welfare, it is dukkha. 

Anything that is performed compulsorily is dukkha. If, without prac- 
tising dana and sila, a being were able to arise in the deva-plane after 
his cfcath, or if he were able to arise in the Brahma plane without prac- 
tising calm, who would care to perform such wholesome deeds as dana, 
sila and bhavana. ? 

2. Santapa dukkha: Once the beings obtain the bodies of devas in 
the deva-planes, great fire of passion rise up from the body and burn 
that deva throughout his life, closa, moha, soka, parideva, dukkha, doma- 
nassa and upayasa, arise in his life in the fullness of time. This is how 
a deva is burdened by way of santapa. 

3. Viparinama dukkha: Again, while the devas are thus enjoying plea- 
sures in the deva-plane, their span of life expires, and just like a big 
fire suddenly put out by an external agency, these devas die suddenly, 
and generally they arise in the lower worlds. In fact, their khandha 
cause them to arise in the lower worlds. This is how the devas are 
burdened by way of viparinama finally 

Out of three ways of burdening at the beginning, in the middle and 
at the end, the burden of sankhata is very heavy for Brahmas. Because 
they are able to bear the heavy burden of sankhata, the santapa in the 
middle becomes a little lighter for them. The burden of viparinama also 
comes after a long time. Their life-span is calculated in terms of kappa 
(world -cycles) 

In the case of devas in the six deva-worlds, the burden of sankhata . 

is not heavy. The practice of dana and sila is a thousand times easier ^ 



The Burden of Dukkha in the Human World 261 

than the practice of jhana and bhavana. As the burden of sankhata is 
not heavy and as .kilesa have not even faded, the burden of santapa is 
very heavy when one becomes a deva. The fire of passion and sensous 
lust arisen out of the six sense-doors burns those devas up to the end 
of their lives. The remaining fire of defilements also burns when the 
time is ripe. The burden by way of viparinama also comes very quickly. 
Their span of life is calculated in terms of years, months and days. The 
life-span of the devas is like the wink of an eye when compared to 
that of Brahmas. Though there is said to be pleasures and enjoyments 
in the whole of the six deva-worlds, all these are fires of kama andraga 
that are burning them. 

Thus the khandhas of six deva-worlds burden the devas in four ways 
and as the burden is manifest it is clearly dukkha-sacca. 

III. The Burden of Dukkha in the Human World 

In the case of men, too, the mental and physical phenomena in their 
khandha always burden them in three ways of sankhata, santapa and 
viparinama. 

1. Sankhata dukkha; As they have not to strive very hard in the 
field of sankhata, their burden of santapa is very heavy, and is a hun- 
dred thousand times greater than that of a deva. Their time of destruc- 
tion too comes to them very quickly. Their span of life is an infinites- 
imal fraction of that of a deva. 

2. Santapa dukkha: How heavily the khandha of men are burdened 
by way of santapa may be explained as follows: The trouble of being 
conceived in the womb of a mother, the trouble of having to be born, 
the trouble of feeling warm when residing in a warm region during the 
warm weather, the trouble of feeling cold when residing in axool region 
during the cold weather, the trouble of living in the torrid zone and ex- 
posing oneself to the heat of the scorching sun, the blowing of hot wind 
and the biting by flies and fleas, the immense trouble to be undertaken 
by a cultivator to cultivate his lands amidst those troubles for the pur- 
pose of his livelihood, the trouble of serving under a government, the 
trouble of having to transact civic duties, the trouble concerning one's 



262 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

kith and kin, the trouble of feeding the so-called body morning and 
evening so that it may live, the trouble of changing the postures every 
now and then as one is not able to remain for long in any one posture 
during one of the four modes of deportment, the trouble of supplying 
nutritive essence to the defilements that arise at the six sense-doors and 
which may be compared to ogres and demons. These are all suffering 
which are the common ways of the world. There are other kinds of 
suffering such as the troubles arising out of the over-enjoyment of sen- 
suous pleasures, the trouble arising out of earning a livelihood by per- 
forming evil deeds, the trouble of maintaining wife and children, the 
trouble of becoming a man among people who profess a faith involving 
wrong views, thus dragging him to the lower worlds as long as he re- 
mains in that clan or nation, the troubles arising from self- mortification 
by living near the fire during the hot season and by remaining in the 
water during the cold season, etc., which are fruitless and are the prac- 
tices of people of wrong views, the trouble connected with diseases, 
bruises, wounds and pains, and the immense troubles caused by external 
enemies, such as water, fire, thieves, rulers and those disliked. 

Thus the burdens of santapa for human beings, in the round of sam- 
sara are various and heavy. The body of human beings burdens them 
in such. a manner by way of santapa. 

3. Viparinama dukkha: The khandha of men burden them by vipari- 
nama. To have become a man is one of the rare opportunities, and 
even when a being arises in the world of men, he is liable to die at any 
moment from the time of conception in the mother's womb up to the 
end of the span of his life. 

Thus at the embryonic stage immediately formed after conception a 
being has the appearance of a little drop of butter-oil scum attached to 
a fine woolen thread. Then follows the abbuda (an oval shaped tiny 
mass), then the pesi (the lump of flesh), then the ghana (clot), then the 
pasakha (off-shoots), in which later stage, arms, legs, etc., are forming. 
In the whole of the round of rebirths, a being arises and perishes count- 
less times in any one of the above-mentioned stages of life. Thus khan- 
dha of men burden them in the four ways, and so this is purely duk- 
kha-sacca. 



The Burden of Dukkha in the Lower Planes 263 

IV. The Burden of Dukkha in the Lower Planes 

The khandha of beings in the four lower v/orlds burden them by four 
ways. 

1. Sankhata dukkha: Unwholesome volitional actions cause beings to 
arise in the four lower worlds. There is the declaration: 'Papasmim 
ramate mano' (The minds of beings take delight in evil actions). They 
perform evil actions according, to their wishes and do not consider it as 
suffering while they can enjoy their lives according to their inclinations, 
and so its burden of sankhata consequences may be said to be not very 
heavy, but by judging the severity of the resultant effects, it may be 
said that its burden of sankhata consequences is very heavy indeed. 

2. Santapa dukkha: As regards the beings that arise in the four lower 
worlds, the Buddha declared that it was not possible to explain in full 
how these beings are burdened by santapa, because they are numerous 
and it would occupy a great deal of time. They have been discussed 
generally in the Samvega-Vatthu. 

Those who arise in hell will have their bones, nerves, flesh, hearts, 
lungs, brains, etc., all red-hot and tongues of fire will spring out of their 
skins. Thus they will remain for hundreds of thousands, billions, trillions, 
and decillions of years, experiencing intolerable heat. So long as their 
resultant effects are not exhausted they will not be free from such misery. 
In like manner there are myriads of beings who are arising in the var- 
ious lower worlds, and who are suffering there for decillions and decillions 
of years. 

(The Samvega-Vatthu also describes the santapa-dukkhe relating to the 
petas, ghosts, asuras (demons) and animals.) 

3. Viparinama dukkha: In the case of viparinama at the end which is 
the passing away, one may arise in an infernal region for a single un- 
wholesome volitional action; and when resultant effect comes to an end, 
one may pass away from there due to the burden of viparinama and be 
reborn in a lower region which is deeper than that of one's previous 
existence. One may not have the opportunity to arise in the happy 
higher planes even after thousands of existences. 

Here the explanation given by the Sammohavionodani Commentary 
may be pointed out. For beings wandering in samsara the number of 



264 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

existences in which they live up to the principles of virtue are com- 
paratively few. Most of the existences are in the lower worlds where 
beings prey upon one another. 

Even if they happen to be reborn in the world of men for many a 
time, in one out of a hundred of such existences would they be able to 
encounter the Buddha -Dhamma and practise it. They would hold wrong 
views or be vicious people in a greater number of existences. Evil con- 
duct in deeds, words and thought done by any being in an existence is 
incalculable. So, among worldly beings existing in the present life, any 
one being possesses myriads of evil actions done by him in the innumer- 
able past existences that could drag him to hell. 

Those beings who are destined to arise in the hells, in the peta world 
and in the asura world also possess myriads of old accumulated unwhole- 
some volitional actions; and the same is the case with those who arise 
in the planes of devas and Brahmas. 

If a being who dies from the world of men, the deva plane or 
the Brahma plane happens to be reborn for a time in hell, all the 
unwholesome kamma done by him in his past existences will have the 
opportunity to play their parts. One evil kamma after another would 
cause him to be reborn continually in the four lower worlds and he 
would not have an opportunity to arise in the happy course of existence 
in another one thousand, ten thousand or a hundred thousand existences. 
A being bound to be reborn in the lower worlds by having performed 
a comparatively small amount of evil action, could arise there continuous- 
ly for a great number of aeons due to his successive past kamma. 
There are decillions and decillions of such beings who become 'rooted in 
hell' and who have no opportunity to arise in the happy course of ex- 
istence. 

Here ends the brief exposition as to how the beings belonging to the 
four lower worlds are burdened by way of way of santapa and viparinama. 

This also explains how the khandha of a being in any one existence 
is burdened by sankhata, santapa and viparinama. 

A Multitude of Dukkha for Cultivators 

The five groups of existence corporeality group and mental groups of 
a cultivator burden him by sankhata, santapa and viparinama every 
month and every year. 



A Multitude of Dukkha for Cultivators 265 

1. Sankhata dukkha: In cultivating the lands and consuming the yearly 
crops, firstly the trouble of tilling the lands, sowing the seeds and look- 
ing after the plants burden the cultivator by way of sankhata. 

2. Santapa dukkha: The trouble of looking after the standing crop, 
reaping the harvest, threshing corn, storing the corn in the granary, 
guarding the granary, disposing of the corn thus stored, living on the 
sale proceeds of the corn, sustaining such evil actions as lobha, dosa, 
mana. issa and macchariya— all these burden the cultivator by santapa. 

3. Viparinama dukkha: Moreover, he is burdened by viparinama daily 
when he has to consume his wealth, thus reducing the amount. Here, 
one may argue: 'Only the destruction of property by fire or water should 
be termed "burden". The gradual decrease of wealth owing to expen- 
diture should not be termed a "burden". This is an argument advanced 
by utterly ignorant persons. If the crop thus acquired by the cultivator 
be permanent, i.e. it can never become less and exhausted, his one year's 
labour would be sufficient to maintain him peacefully for the rest of his 
life. Thus he would be free from the trouble of tilling the ground again, 
etc. He would even have an opportunity to live his whole life spending 
his time in practising the Buddha-Dhamma and thereby attaining a great 
deal of supramundane benefit. As it is, the crop is not permanent, but 
impermanent. As the crop becomes less and exhausted due to daily 
usages he is reduced to poverty and dire straits. For that reason, when 
the next rainy season starts, he has to take the trouble of tilling his 
land, cultivating it. In this manner he will have to continue from year 
to year till he becomes old and dies at last. Although he has obtained 
the opportunity of 'becoming a man', which is a rare opportunity, as 
he has no opportunity to hear the Buddha-Dhamma and practise it, he 
misses the chance of reaping supramundane benefits. There is no way 
out for those foolish people who are entangled is such worldly pleasures 
as these destructible and impermanent things which can never lead one 
to the state of permanent happiness. 

Wise people regard all these as 'unsatisfactoriness of life', because one 
has no chance to escape from the sphere of suffering; has not found a 
way out, has to encounter such suffering in his future births, has no 
opportunity to practise the Buddha-Dhamma in this present birth and 
has to take the trouble of tilling the soil, etc. To these wise people all 



266 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

are the same, whether one loses his property by spending for himself or 
by its being destroyed by fire or water. Ultimately they regard the sen- 
suous pleasures found in the world of men, the planes of devas and 
Brahmas— in the thirty-one planes of existence as unsatisfactoriness of 
life. 

Those foolish people who have no such kind of understanding would 
feel sorry if their properties were destroyed by fire or water, because 
they could not use them for themselves, but they would not be sorry if 
their property lessened owing to their own expenditure according to their 
will and pleasure. They would feel quite satisfied with that. So long 
as one's heart does not burn at such wastage and deterioration, one will 
never have a chance of escaping such suffering. Only when one's mind 
is moved at that, will one have a chance to do so. Then only will one 
be able to realise the groups of existence found in the world of men, 
the deva plane and the Brahma plane as suffering, and not otherwise. 
Only if a person clearly discerns the various grades of advantages enum- 
erated above, will he be able to realise as suffering all the days, months, 
years and world cycles he has wasted in many of his past existences 
without reaping any benefit, just like throwing water into the sand. This 
is the answer to the argument. 

The above is the exposition how the crops which are produced and 
exhausted yearly burden a cultivator in three ways: sankhata, santapa 
and viparinama. 

Relying on this principle, discriminate and understand how a being is 
burdened by various kinds of suffering for days and months continuously. 
Ponder over the matter and understand how in this cosmos, earning 
wealth for one's livelihood and spending money on food and clothing are 
burdening in three ways. Extend this to the cases of men, devas and 
Brahmas who have enjoyed sensuous pleasures in their respective planes, 
by virtue of their having done wholesome volitional actions in respect 
of gifts, morality and mental development in wandering in samsara. 

Sense Object and Suffering 

In perceiving objects, when the visible object comes into contact 
with the eye-organ, it is pleasurable to the eye. When the visible object 
is removed, the sense pleasure to the eye disappears. 



Viparigaraa Dukkha 267 

When sound comes into contact with the ear-organ, it is pleasur- 
able to the ear. "When the sound, is removed the sense pleasure to the 
ear disappears. 

The same principle holds good in the cases of nose and odour, tongue 
and taste, body and tangible object, mental element and mind object- 
element. 

Corresponding to the six sense-objects, there are six kinds of craving: 
craving for visible objects, for sounds, odour, taste bodily-impression, 
mental impressions; and also six kinds of feeling: feeling associated with 
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily -impression and mental-impression. 

To feed the six kinds of craving, six kinds of sense-objects have to 
be kept in readiness. Those who are following these sensuous pleasures 
cannot get rid of -them. These sense objects are also subject to decay. 
So feelings such as joy and mentally agreeable feeling burden the beings 
in all their existences by sankhata, santapa and viparinama. They are 
not able to get out of this pit of suffering for many existences and world- 
cycles. Nor are they able to obtain the opportunity of practising the 
Dharama which can lead them to deliverance. They only deviate from 
this course and are tempted to follow the previously mentioned disadvan- 
tageous ways. 

The above is the exposition as to how beings are continuously burd- 
ened by the five groups of existence at every hour and at every moment. 
Highly obvious facts have been sought and set out in the above exposi- 
tion of viparinama dukkha. 

I shall now briefly explain the viparinama dukkha alone. In this sam- 
sara, suffering in the four lower worlds is intense. Those who know of 
it greatly dread to fall there. As for those who do not know of it, they 
have to suffer there for their ignorance. 

Unwholesome volitional actions which are the seeds of birth in the 
lower worlds cling to sakkaya-ditthi (the belief in a permanent person- 
ality). When this sakkaya-ditthi becomes strong, these unwholesome 
volitional actions become powerful. When they fade away, those bad 
kamma also fade away. When this sakkaya-ditthi ceases, those kani- 
ma also cease. For example, in introducing a light into a room, the 
flame may be compared to evil kamma. When the fire is strong, the 



268 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

light becomes bright, and when the fire becomes weak, the light also 
becomes dim. When the fire dies out, the light also disappears. 

Although the beings with sakkaya-ditthi are bound for hell, they may 
know to some extent the intensity of suffering in the lower worlds, and 
they may perform evil actions, simply because they are tempted by their 
hellish element. What can be said then of those people who are either 
utterly ignorant of this or who maintain false views? Their hellish ele- 
ment will play its part completely. 

While wandering in samsara, there are very few existences where 
a being can understand what evil actions are and the dangers of the 
lower worlds. There are a great number of existences where they do 
not know about it, or where they maintain false views. A person in 
one thousand of his existences might encounter only one existence where 
he could differentiate between good and evil. The explanation given so 
far is a point to judge how much greater a being's unwholesome voli- 
tional actions would be, though there may be many wholesome volitional 
actions done by him in his past existences, and while wandering in this 
round of rebirths. 

Another point to consider is how much greater a being's unwholesome 
volitional actions will be though there may be a great deal of wholesome 
volitional actions in his future existences, while wandering in this round 
of rebirths. 

How Beings Have to Wander in the Round of Rebirths 

Wholesome deeds such as alms-giving, morality and mental development 
performed by worldlings are the actions done by those who dread the 
dangers of hell, so that they may escape from such dangers. Even though 
they arise in the planes of men, devas and Brahmas according to the 
quantity of wholesome volitional actions, they are always accompanied 
by myriads of old accumlated unwholesome kamma coupled with sakkaya- 
ditthi. This sakkaya-ditthi has accompanied a being throughout his ex- 
istences as man, deva and Brahma with the result of multiplying more 
evil kamma in whatever existence he may happen to arise. 

The wholesome kamma such as alms-giving, morality and mental de- 
velopment performed by any one being ia his past existences are also 
subject to change (exhaustion— viparinama). They naturally fade away 
when they cannot have any further effect. 



How Beings Have to Wander in the Round of Rebirths 269 

The groups of existence found in men, devas and Brahmas are also 
subject to decay. It is the law of cosmic order that they must dissolve 
at the exhaustion of their kamma and the expiry of their span of life. 

The groups of existence of those who are enjoying sensuous pleasures 
in the planes of human beings, devas and Brahmas burden them with 
death by way of viparinama. As soon as the vitality element is cut off, 
sakkaya-ditthi latent in them causes them to be reborn in the lower 
worlds. They then have to sink in the ocean of suffering in hell which 
they dread very much. As explained by the commentators previously, 
these beings will have no chance to escape the hells and arise in a higher 
plane even after a lapse of one thousand or ten thousand existences. 
Only after a very great length of time, will some have the opportunity 
to arise in a higher plane, the happy course of existence. 

Some will only have a chance to escape at the end of the world- system, 
i.e. when it is destroyed. Then they have to arise in the planes of men, 
devas and Brahmas; and again they who enjoy the sensual pleasures in 
these planes are burdened by the groups of existence by viparinama. 
As soon as they die in that state their sakkaya-ditthi causes them to be 
reborn in the lower worlds. They then have to sink in the ocean of 
suffering in hell and have no chance to escape in a thousand or ten 
thousand existences. The sequences in this respect are the same as men- 
tioned above. 

The above is the textual explanation as to how beings wander in the 
round of rebirths. 

Here, men, devas and Brahmas may be compared to victims, and the 
groups of existence to the murderers. The law of change may be com- 
pared to a very sharp sword. 

In the Khandha-Vagga of the Samyutta-Nikaya * the Buddha declared: 
'Corporeality is a murderer, so too are vedana, sanna, sankhara and vin- 
fiana'. According to this, it is to be remembered that whenever beings 
pass away, their respective khandha play the part of murderers. If 
we examine the causes of all deaths, we shall find that there can be no 
death unless there are dislocation, displacement or change in the body. 
If there be no snch change, even if lightning were to strike a person 

Samyutta-Nikaya, Khandha-Vagga Sathyutta. (2) Radhasamyutla, (2) Dutiyavagga, 
(1) Marasutta. 6th syn. Edition, p. 159. 



270 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

on the head, he would not die. That shows that the khandha of a being 
are really murdering him. 

Another interpretation: As people call Maccu the god of death which 
itself is death personified, the law of change (viparinama) is again termed 
a murderer. The inherent quality of the law of change found in men, 
devas and Brahmas causes their -death. Thus the khandha of men, devas 
and Brahmas are alway receiving capital punishment, and therefore are 
dukkha-dhamma (suffering miserably). 

All human beings who are trying to take refuge in the world of men 
because they fear the dangers of hell are killed and caused to arise in 
the lower worlds from time to time by the groups of existence and 
sakkaya-ditthi. The same holds good in the cases of devas and Brahmas, 
The khandha of beings that are subject to change are murderers, and 
the unwholesome kamma together with soul-belief are constantly tend- 
ing to drag them to the lower worlds. 

In the cases of men, devas and Brahmas who have already got rid of 
soul-belief, although they die through the agencies of their khandha, 
they are never reborn in the lower planes, but in the higher planes of 
existence. This matter will be fully discussed when we come to the 
Chapter on Magga-Sacca (the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the 
Cessation of Suffering). 

A question may be raised at this point: 'If what has been said be true, 
there should be no inhabitants in the planes of men, devas and Brahmas. 
But that is not the case. There are plenty of men in the world of men, 
many devas in the deva-worlds and many Brahmas in the Brahma-worlds. 
So, it may be said that it is an unwarranted threat.' This is the kind 
of question raised by those ignorant people who have not the slightest 
idea of the vastness therein of the four lower worlds, and the density 
of population. 

The happy course of existence is very extensive, but the inhabitants 
are very few. An abode of a deva or a Brahma is as big as five or ten 
of our townships. Their bodies are about six gavuta high. Each of the 
planets we see high above the sky is of enormous dimensions. 

The woeful course of existence is also extensive and the inhabitants 
there are immensely numerous too. The number of people in the world of 
men, and the number of inhabitants in the six deva-worlds and the twenty 
Brahma-worlds cannot even be equal to the number of a single kind 



Crowded in Avici Hell 271 

of insect, say ants, living in our country of Burma. In our country alone, 
even besides ants, there are countless numbers of aquatic and ]and an- 
imals. Just imagine how great would be the number of those aquatic 
and land animals residing in the big islands, small islands, oceans, seas, 
mountains, rivers and lakes of the world excluding those of Burma. Thus, 
if the number of occupants in the twenty-seven planes of the happy 
course of existence be compared with those in the animal world, it will 
be found to be very insignificant. 

Crowded in Avici Hell 

It is said in the commentaries as follows: There are eight kinds, of hells, 
each of which is as big as Jambudipa and is about 1000 yojanas in ex- 
tent. The lowest of these eight hells is Maha Avici where the inhabitants 
are packed to the full like mustard seeds in a bamboo tube. All those 
beings who have committed the evils of the deepest dye usually take 
rebirth in Avici, the most frightful of the many hells. If Avici alone is packed 
so much, Just consider how many beings there will be in the seven 
other major hells and many other minor hells. Thus, if compared with 
the inhabitants of a single hell, the number of inhabitants in the other 
twenty-seven planes of the happy course of existence is insignificant. 
Extend this to the cases of petas (ghosts) and asuras (demons). 

Only the three kinds of wholesome kamma— alms-giving, morality and 
mental development— can cause a being to arise in the happy course of 
existence, and only when a being can objectify a wholesome kamma at 
the moment of death will he be able to take in the happy course of 
existence. 

On the other hand, if he objectifies an unwholesome kamma at the 
moment of death, he will as a matter of course be reborn in the four 
lower worlds. A countless number of acquatic and land animals pass 
away in one day in Burma alone. Of these very few would be able to 
objectify a wholesome kamma at the moment of death. There will be 
not even one in a hundred thousand. The same is the case with all 
beings in the lower worlds. 

How can the beings who do not know what is wholesome kamma, ob- 
jectify such kamma at the moment of death ? A being who is reborn in 
the four lower worlds usually takes rebirth there for many existences, 



272 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

and when his old accumulated kamma wane, the apara-pariya-vedaniya- 
kamma (kamma ripening in successive births) comes into play and he 
has no chance to arise in the happy course of existence. 

Those who are able to use logic and reason and those who are ignor- 
ant think that there are very many people in this world. By seeing the 
planets or constellations high above the sky, they think that there are 
many inhabitants in the deva-worlds. They have not the slightest idea 
as to how difficult it is to have become a man. They have heard the 
discourses about the blind turtle and the yoke 2 and the comparison of 
the small piece of earth on the fingernail and the great earth itself 3 , 
but do not realise their truth. 

This is the answer to the question raised by an ignorant person as 
mentioned above. 

Here ends the exposition as to how the beings who wander in this 
round of rebirths are burdened by the groups of existence to show that 
this is purely dukkha-sacca (the Noble Truth of Suffering). 

Here ends the exposition on dukkha-sacca. 



Part Two 

The Exposition of the Meaning of Samudaya-Sacca 

Craving 

I shall now expound the four different interpretations of the term 
'samudaya-sacca'. 'Samudaya' means 'the cause of ever continuing this 
psycho-physical process of existence'. It also means 'the cause of ever 
continuing the unsatisfactoriness of life'. There is no more continuing 
of this psycho-physical process of existence after the death of an arahat 
who has overcome all kinds of craving, and there is no more continuing 
of suffering in him. Therefore it should be definitely understood that crav- 
ing is the origin of ever continuing the arising of suffering in the lives 
of all beings, throughout all of their existence. In the world there is 

2. Samyutta-Nikaya, Mahavagga-Samyutta, Saccasamyutta, Papatavagga, Chjggalayuga 
Sutta. 6th syn. Edition, p. 397. 

3. Samyutta-Nikaya, Nidanavagga-Sariiyutta, Opammasarhyutta (2) Nakhasikha Sutta 
6th syn. Edition, p. 454 



Craving 273 

kama-tanha (sensual craving), and those who overcome this craving are 
free from sankhata (that produced by a combination of causes), santapa 
(burning), viparinama (change) and suffering connected with the main- 
tenance of their wives and children. Those who strive for sensual plea- 
sures are burdened by these till their death. Although they have had 
the rare opportunity of attaining manhood during the Buddha's Sasana, 
to encounter which, also, is another rare opportunity, they have no op- 
portunity to add to the glory of learning of the doctrine and practice 
of the Dhamma. As they have sown this seed of craving, the off-shoots 
and branches in the nature of 'desire to accumulate wealth', 'desire to be 
handsome and good-looking', 'desire to be wealthy', 'desire to compete 
with others', etc., which are but the expansion of craving, spring forth 
endlessly. These expansions of craving have their relevant suffering 
with three aspects in each: sankhata, santapa and viparinama. This is 
the exposition of the nature of the origin of suffering, which as we see, 
arises along with the expansion of craving in its three aspects. 

There are six kinds of craving: rupa-tanha (craving for visible objects), 
sadda-tanha (craving for sounds), gandha-tanha (craving for odours) rasa- 
tanha (craving for tastes), photthabba-tanha (craving for bodily impress- 
ions), dhamma-tanha (craving for mental impressions). These cravings 
having four interpretations in each, we have 24 interpretations in all. 
Rupa-tanha means craving for pleasant visible objects. For these objects 
beings cannot be free from the burden of sankhata, santapa and vipari- 
nama. How ? It is in this way: This craving by way of ayuhana (the 
fever of unsatisfied longing) forces beings to strive and find ever fresh 
delight. They have no desire to get rid of such delightful objects. This 
craving is also expanded in the following ways: By way of nidana 
(foundation; origin; cause), they incline to have more and more pleasur- 
able objects and enjoy more and more. They have no contentment of 
mind. By way of samyoga (union; association) they desire always to be 
associated with these pleasant objects. They have not the slightest idea 
to part with these pleasurable objects. By way of palibadha (obstruction; 
hindrance; impediment), they prevent beings from parting with these 
pleasant objects, and also obstruct the sources of tranquillity of mind. 
They do not allow beings to attain calmness of mind obtained by not 
mingling with these objects. Thus craving for visible objects causes beings 



274 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

to sustain suffering by functioning in these four ways. 

The same holds good for craving for sounds, etc. Dhamma-tanha means 
craving for vedana-kkhandha (feeling group), sarina-kkhandha (perception 
group), sankhara-kkhandha (group of mental formations) and vinnana- 
kkhandha (consciousness group) found in a person's life or in the lives 
of his dear ones. 

Another way of expression: There are also three kinds of craving. 
They are kama-tanha, bhava-tanha, and vibhava-tanha. Kamatanha 
means craving for sensuous objects, as form, etc. Bhava-tanha means 
'having delight in the jhana attained by oneself. Vibhava-tanha means 
'having delight in wrong view of self-annihilation (uccheda-ditthi)'. 

Meals prepared from coarse cereals, such as maize, etc., are very plain. 
They are not palatable and not very easy to swallow. When we add 
ghee, butter, fish soup or beef soup to it and when we eat it with pork 
or chicken, then only can we eat tastefully. 

In the same manner, the consciousness of beings of the sensuous 
planes, having been incessantly mixed with such 'burning' things as 
sensuous lust, ill-will, etc., are very arid and hot. When they have no 
opportunity to come in contact with external objects, they at once be- 
come monotonous, drowsy and devoid of interest. Just as a dog becomes 
irritable and restless when an ulcer in its body is eaten by maggots, 
these cravings also cannot rest for a moment, and have to run immed- 
iately after an external object, or after one of their associates. Only 
when these cravings are constantly associated with external objects can 
the agreeableness of consciousness of beings become conspicuous. The 
more attractive are the external objects, the better will be the state of 
agreeableness of beings. 

Thus, beings experience sensuous pleasures in association with external 
objects and enjoy the status of Sakka, the king of devas, worldly kings, 
wealthy persons, devis, women, etc., in the sensuous planes. When they 
are kept away from these external objects, they become drowsy and 
bored. Then the craving, which may here be compared to a burning fire, 
arises and longs for external objects. To satiate its hunger, it has to 
be fed. So, in accumulating the combustible substances for this burning 
craving, we find that myriads of evil actions and myriads of sufferings 
accompany the lives of these beings. This craving is called sensuous 
craving. This sensuous craving always murders beings by sinking them 



The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 275 

in the ocean of suffering, while the beings of this sensuous sphere are 
striving hard for the maintenance of their wives and children and also 
to earn a livelihood. Just as water that runs down the steep hills into 
the river and carries all dry twigs, branches and leaves down to the ocean, 
this never-satiated craving carries to the four lower worlds all those 
worldlings and men of the sensuous sphere, who are not living accord- 
ing to the Buddha-Dhamma. This is the exposition on sensuous craving 
of the origin of suffering. 

Those wise people who understand the work of this burning craving 
treat this sensuous sphere on the same level as the four lower worlds, 
discard their properties, become samanas and practise calm in the forest 
so that they may be free from such suffering. 

The meal that is cooked on the jotipasana (a burning glass made of 
crystal) used by the northern islanders is very delicious and palatable. 
It is comparable to those delicious dishes of ghee, butter, pork and chi- 
cken found in our country, and if our dishes happen to be mixed with 
that meal, the latter would lose its taste and delicacy altogether. Thus 
the union of the two will have to be much feared. Similarly, one attains 
jhana which is free from such hindrances as sensuality and ill-will. 
Detached from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome states of 
mind, he enters into the first jhana, which is accompanied by thought- 
conception and discursive thinking, is born of detachment and filled with 
rapture. External objects are obstacles to him. The craving for such 
jhana, or the arising in the Brahma plane in the next birth by virtue 
of such jhana, is called bhavatanha. Understand the origin of suffering 
in relation to the bhava-tanha in the same way as has been explained 
in the previous chapter where the suffering in the cases of constituent 
groups of existence contained in Brahmas has been expounded. 

The exposition of the origin of suffering in relation to the vibhava- 
tanha which is associated with miccha-ditthi (wrong belief) is not given 
here, as it is not necessary to be explained in the Buddha's Sasana. 

Here ends the exposition of samudaya-sacca (The Noble Truth of the 
Origin of Suffering). 

The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca (The Noble Truth of the 
Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering) 

Of the four aspects of nirodha-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cessation 



276 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

of Suffering) and four aspects of magga-sacca (The Noble Truth of the 
Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering) both of which are attainable 
and enjoyable by sotapannas (stream-winners), I shall now deal with 
the latter first. As has been explained before there are four inter- 
pretations of magga-sacca. They are: 

1. niyyanatho (release; deliverance) 

2. hetuttho (suitability for the attainment of arahatship) 

3. dassanatho (realization of the truth) 

4. adhipateyyatho (sovereignty; power). 

1. Of these, 1 shall expound how sotapannas are able to a tain and enjoy 
the niyyanatho aspect of The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering. 
When a person attains sotapattimagga (the path of stream-winning), 
miccha-ditthi (wrong understanding) and vicikiccha (sceptical doubt) that 
accompany him come to an end. All his accumulated old unwholesome 
kamma and those unwholesome actions that have been performed by 
him in the present life and are to take effect in succesive births or future 
births become ineffective. He is thus free from falling to apaya-samsara 
(rebirth in the lower worlds) for ever. At most he will have to wander 
in the happy course of existence, such as the world of men, deva-planes 
and Brahma planes. Even in those planes, never would he arise as one 
who commits evil actions and who leads a bad mode of living; nor would 
he arise as one who is deprived of power, wealth and glory. He would 
only arise as one who is endowed with wisdom, glory, wealth and power. 
It is the law of cosmic order that such a being would never be reborn 
in a plane lower than he has arisen in, after his passing away from the 
present plane. If he so desires, he can take rebirth in the same old plane, 
or he can arise in a higher plane. 

In this manner he wanders in the happy course of existence for many a 
world-cycle. Although sotapannas wander in the happy course of existence, 
unlike the ordinary worldlings they do not drift along the current of 
sarhsara and are not destined to take rebirth in the lower worlds. From 
the moment they attain the Path of stream- winning, they are delivered 
from such evils as sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief), vicikiccha, ducarita- 
durajiva (evil actions and bad livelihood), and apaya-dukkha, and have 



The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 277 

thus attained sa-upadisesa-nibbana 4 (the full extinction of defilements 
with the groups of existence still remaining). They then wander in the 
happy course of existence as ariyas (noble ones) who belong to the supra- 
mundane sphere. After wandering in the planes of human beings, devas 
and Brahmas, when they do not desire to wander any more in the happy 
course of existence, they attain anupadisesa-nibbana (the full extinction 
of defilements without the groups remaining, or the 'no-more-continuing' 
of this psycho-physical process of existence) This is the exposition as 
to how sotapannas gradually rise till they attain anupadisesa-nibbana. 
This is the definition of myyanatho. The above shows the exposition 
of the aspect of niyyanatho attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. 

2. Below is the explanation of the aspect of hetuttho (having the char- 
acteristic of being a cause for the attainment of arahatship) attained and 
enjoyed by sotapannas. From the moment the sotapannas attain the Path 
of stream -winning, the inherent qualities of the holy ones ever exist in 
them, and they become stronger and stronger in succeeding existences. 
The qualities of morality established by them become greater and greater. 
So too are the powers of their samadhi (concentration of mind) and pan- 
ria (wisdom). So also are the powers of satipatthana-dhamma (four ap- 
plications of mindfulness), sammappadhana-dhamma (right exertion), iddhi- 
pada-dhamma (roads to power), indriya-dhamma (faculties), bala-dhamma 
(powers), bojjhanga (the seven links of enlightenment) and magganga- 
dhamma (the Noble Eightfold Path). The development of such powers in 
one existence after another is known as hetuttho. The above is the 
exposition of the aspect of hetuttho (suitability for the attainment of 
arahatship) attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. 

3. Now comes the aspect ofdassanatho (realization of the truth) attain- 
ed and enjoyed by sotapannas. From the moment the sotapannas at- 
tain the Path of stream -winning up to the time of their attaining an- 
upadisesa-nibbana, while they are wandering in the happy course of 
existence, they have no perplexity of mind in regard to the existence of 

4. There are two interpretations in regard to the use of sa-upadisesa-nibbana In the 
first case it is used only in respect of arahats, in the second case, as here by the 
Venerable Ledi Sayadaw, it is used in respect of all four stages of holiness. If 
the word is used only in respect of arahats, nibbana-dhatta appears to be more 
suitable in respect of The remaining three 



278 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

The Four Noble Truths— The Noble Truth of Suffering, The Noble Truth of 
the Origin of Suffering, The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering and 
The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. When- 
ever they contemplate these Four Noble Truths, they at once realize 
them vividly, just as one can distinctly see the planets and constellations 
high above in the sky. This is the exposition of the aspect of dassanatho 
(realization of the truth) attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. 

4. Below is the explanation of the aspect of adhipateyyatho (mastery 
over oneself) attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. The wholesome voli- 
tional actions, such as dana (alms-giving), sila (morality) and bhavana 
(mental development) performed by these sotapannas are free from the 
operation of craving. Thus they are free from the 'accumulation of merit' 
called punnabhisankhara. They have attained the highest amongst all 
the mundane wholesome kamma. Their minds become as pure as a 
highly polished conch. These all help them to attain anupadisesa-nibbana. 

This is the exposition of the aspect of adhipateyyatho attained and 
enjoyed by sotapannas. 

Now I shall expound the four aspects of nirodha-sacca (The Noble Truth 
of the Cessation of Suffering), which itself is called Nibbana. There are 
four aspects of nirodha-sacca. They are: nissaranattho (having the 
characteristic of being an escape), pavivekattho (having the character- 
istic of being free from disturbance), amatattho (a state where there 
is no more death or dissolution), and asankhatatho (having the character- 
istic of the unoriginated, Nibbana). 

The supramundane sphere of such sotapannas as Visakha, Anathapin- 
dika, and decillions of holy ones in the deva-countries of catu-maharajika, 
etc., may be compared to the great Sita ocean situated at the foot of 
Mount Menu Decillions and decillions of such noble ones may be com- 
pared to decillions and decillions of fishes living in that great ocean. In 
what respect do they resemble them ? It is in this manner that great 
Sita ocean situated amidst the Yuganda mountains is very wide and im- 
mensely deep. The water in that great ocean never gets diminished, 
nor is its water evaporated by any of the sun. The water is so clean 
that even a peacock's feather or fine cotton will sink to the bottom of 
the ocean. In the same manner it is the law of cosmic order that this 
sa-upadisesa-nibbana, the supramundane sphere of ariyas, such as Vi- 



The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 279 

sakha, Anathapindika, etc., will never be diminished owing to the lapse 
of time, even after a lapse of many millions of world-cycles. The state 
of 'the full extinction of defilements with the groups of existence still 
remaining' will never be diminished. The state of Nibbana never becomes 
extinct. It is also the law of cosmic order that these sotapannas are never 
entangled with evil actions, sceptical, doubt and bad livelihood, because 
the state of sa-upadisesa-nibbana exists in them. 

Just as the great fishes in that great Sita ocean need, not fear the water 
in the ocean getting diminished, these sotapannas need never fear losing 
their attainment of 'the full extinction of defilements with the groups of 
existence still remaining' Just as the water of that great ocean is not 
warmed by the rays of the sun, these sotapannas who have attained sa- 
upadisesa-nibbana will not be polluted with any defilement or threatened 
with the dangers of wandering in samsara, however long they may 
have to wander in the happy course of existence, and they need not fear 
that personality -belief will accompany ihem anymore. 

Just as the fishes in the great ocean need not be anxious about the 
water of the ocean getting warm at any time, these sotapannas also 
need not be anxious about the defilements which Ihey have already dis- 
pelled by means of the Path and Frution of the stream-winning. Just as 
the fishes in the great ocean need not be anxious about the water of the 
ocean getting dirty, so also the sotapannas need not be anxious about 
their state being polluted with wrong views, sceptical doubt, evil actions, 
bad livelihood and hellish qualities. 

Just as the great fishes in that great ocean need not be anxious for 
a change of residence to other lakes, rivers and seas, nor be anxious 
about the ocean water becoming warm or turbid, these countless numbers 
of ariyas, who pass amongst heavenly and human beings at the most 
for seven times in the round of rebirths, need not wait till the arising 
of another Buddha. Retaining the state of sa-upadisesa-nibbana, they 
wander in the round of rebirths as wealthy men, devas and Brahmas and 
finally attain an-upadisesa-nibbana. 

At this juncture one may ask the following question in connection with 
the expression 'these sotapannas remain within the supramundane sphere 
of sa-upadisesa-nibbana': 'As sotapannas they are able to dispel some 
of the defilements only, and at the same time are not free from the suf- 
ferings of rebirth, old age and death, so it cannot be claimed that they 



280 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

have attained Nibbana, nor are they within the sphere of Nibbana. 1 The 
answer to it as follws: 'Did not the Omniscient Buddha declare that the 
Nibbana attained by these sotapannas is specially termed sa-upadisesa- 
nibbana, because they have not dispelled all defilements? Is it not that 
it is declared as sa-upadisesa-nibbana because these sotapannas will have 
to take rebirth for at most seven times, experiencing old age and death 
for many world -periods to come?' 

This kind of question is raised by one who does not realise the great- 
ness and magnificence of Nibbana. 

These sotapannas, after passing amongst heavenly and human beings 
for a great length of time, finally become arahats, and the Nibbana they 
are then to attain after getting rid of the groups of existence is called 
anupadisesa- nibbana. This Nibbana is not within the scope of sotapan- 
nas, and so in expounding the Nibbana attained by sotapannas, anupadi- 
sesa-nibbana is not meant thereby, and therefore not discussed. 

1. The nissaranattho (having the characteristic of being an escape) 
aspect attained and enjoyed by sotapannas means the following: kilesa- 
vatta (escape from the circle of the most evil defilements headed by 
'wrong views' and 'sceptical doubt'), kamma-vatta (escape from the 
circle of unwholesome kamma such as the ten kinds of evil conduct in 
deeds, words, and thought, and also the bad mode of living), and 
vipakavatta (escape from the circle of being reborn in the four lower 
worlds). 

As regards worldlings, although they wander in the round of rebirths 
as kings of men, kings of devas or kings of brahmas, as they have not 
yet attained the state of escape from the round of rebirths, they have to 
wander in it, entangling with wrong views, sceptical dovibt, evil conduct 
and bad livelihood, which would cause them to arise in the four lower 
worlds. 

Here ends the exposition of nissaranattho. 

2. Pavivekattha (retirement; seclusion; solitude): Although sotapannas 
may wander in the happy course of existence for many world-cycles, 
their minds will be ever free from being molested by wrong views, evil 
actions and bad livelihood, and suffering in the four lower worlds. The 
state of ever being free from the operation of these evil actions and the 
evils of the four lower worlds, which are the most evil things in the 



.The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 281 

round of rebirths, is called retirement, seclusion or solitude attained and 
enjoyed by sotapannas. Worldlings are not free from the operation of 
such evils. Although they wander in the round of rebirths as kings of 
men, devas and brahmas, their minds are at times brightened with right 
views, faith, good actions and sense pleasures, and at times darkened 
with wrong" views, sceptical doubt, evil actions and miseries of the four 
lower worlds. 
This is the exposition of pavivekattha. 

3. Asankhatattha: Below is the exposition of asanknatattha (having the 
characteristic of the 'unoriginated' Nibbana). 

The sa-upadisesa-nibbana attained by sotapannas is never destroyed 
and so it is eternal. That being the case, it is free from the trouble of 
setting it up anew. There is no more trouble of diving into the pit of 
suffering again to perform alms-giving in the endeavour to attain Nibba- 
na. There is no more suffering for them to practise morality and also 
to lead the life of a samana. The state of the unoriginated, uncreated, 
is called the asankhatattha aspect attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. 
They, however, practise alms-giving, morality and mental development 
for the purpose of further dispelling some defilements that lie latent in 
them. They need not worry about personality-belief, sceptical doubt and 
the ten kinds of evil actions which have already been extinguished. 

Here ends the exposition of asankhatattha. 

4. Amatattha (a state where there is no more death or dissolution.) 
The state of the extinction of defilements with the groups of existence 
still remaining, never gets spoiled, destroyed or deteriorated in the 
world-cycles to come. For instance, in the cases of sotapannas like 
Visakha, Anathapindika and others who pass from the planes where 
they are to higher ones, the state never fades away nor disappears, 
though their constituent groups of existence which are subject to 
change may be destroyed, taking the form of new groups of existence. 
Nibbana is 'deathlessness', but the khandha (groups of existence) are 
mortal and subject to change. One khandha may go away and another 
khandha may come, but the state of sa-upadisesa-nibbana will go 
on, and so it finally merges into an-upadisesa-nibbana. Although these 
sotapannas may wander in the round of rebirths for many a world- 
cycle to come, they need not fear the loss of the cessation of suffering 



282 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

which they have experienced and realised. From the moment they attain 
the path of stream- winning up to the time they attain full Nibbana or 
anupadisesa- nibbana, this state of sa-upadisesa-nibbana remains as the 
refuge and dependence of the countless number of sotapannas. This 
state is termed the amatattha (a state where there is no more death or 
dissolution) attained and enjoyed by sotapannas. 

Here ends the exposition of amatatiha. 

The above is the exposition on the four interpretations of sa-upadi- 
sesa-nibbana. 

The same holds good for the four aspects of Nibbana attained by sa- 
kadagami, anagami and arahats. 

1. The four aspects of the Noble Truth of Suffering are the func- 
tions of parinna (lull comprehension). 

2) The four aspects of the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering 
are the functions of pahana-parinna (full overcoming; abandon- 
ing.) 

3. The four aspects of the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffer- 
ing are the functions of sacchikarana (realization or seeing face 
to face). 

4, The four aspects of the Noble Path Leading to the Cessation of 
Suffering are the functions of mental development. 

If a person fully comprehends and realizes the four aspects of the 
Noble Truth of Suffering, he will automatically realize the twelve remain- 
ing aspects of the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, the Noble 
Truth of the Cessation of Suffering and the Noble Truth of the Path Lead- 
ing to the Cessation of Suffering. Moreover, the four aspects of the Noble 
Truth of Suffering are included in the three characteristics of existence- 
characteristic of impermanence, suffering and selflessness. These four 
aspects are also within the orbit of the characteristic of suffering. Of the 
four interpretations of the Noble Truth of Suffering, viparinamattha (cha- 
nge) is itself characteristic of impermanence. If these four aspects of 
the Noble Truth of Suffering fall within the province of the characteris- 
tics of impermanence and suffering, they will also be in the orbit of the 
characteristicof impersonality. So, when one fully comprehends the three 
characteristics of impermanence, suffering and selflessness, he also fully 



The Four Interpretations of Magga-Sacca 283 

comprehends the sixteen aspects of The Four Noble Truths, as has been 
explained before. 

'Etesu tisu lakkhanesu ekasmim ditthe itaradvayam dittham neva hoti. 
Tena vuttam, anicca-safinino meghiya anatta-sanna santhatiti.'— Angut- 
tara commentary. 

(When one fully comprehends any one of the three characteristics of 
existence, he also automatically comprehends and realises the remaining 
two characteristics. The Omniscient Buddha declared. '0 Meghiya, if 
one realises one of the three characteristics of existence, he automatically 
realises the remaining two.') 

Of the three characteristics, the characteristic of impermanence is the 
fundamental one. The whole affair of the characteristic of imperman- 
ence is nothing but marana (death), which means the continually repeated 
dissolution and vanishing of all physical and mental phenomena and that 
these phenomena do not last even for the time occupied by a wink of 
the eye, he automatically fully comprehends and realises the character- 
istics of suffering and selflessness. How? It may be explained as fol- 
lows: If one realises all physical and mental phenomena in his body 
continually and repeatedly dissolve and vanish at every consciousness- 
moment, will he have any attachment for his body and take that as 
pleasure? Or will he also take it that this body is soul-essence? 

The above shows that of the three characteristics of existence, the 
characterstic of impermanence is the most essential. 

If one realises the functioning of the characteristic of impermanence 
in corporeality out of the five constituent groups of existence, he is able 
to attain the Path of anagami (never-returner). On the other hand, if 
he realises the functioning of the four mental formations out of the 
mental group, he is able to attain the Path and the Fruition of arahatta 
(holiness). 

(These two theories have fully been discussed with Pali and its defini- 
tion in the Manual of Ahara DIpani.) 

Therefore, those worldlings who desire to be delivered from the tangle 
of wrong views, evil actions, and the state of the worldlings who wander 
in the round of rebirths and enjoy the status of those sotapannas like 
Visakha, Anathapindika and others, who have attained sa-upadisesa-nib- 
bana and become the inhabitants of the supramundane sphere, passing 
through the planes of heavenly and human beings until they attain the 



284 Manual of the Four Noble Truths 

state of anupadisesa-nibbana and fully comprehending the four aspects 
of the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering and 
the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering, should get instructions from 
a competent teacher on the full interpretations and aspects of the charac- 
teristic of impermanence, and having studied them conscientiously, 
should practise vipassana-bhavana through the medium of the character- 
istic of impermanence, just as a person whose hair is burning with a 
celestial fire or whose head is pierced with a sharp spear desires to quell 
this celestial fire of personality-belief or take out the spear of personality- 
belief from his head. 

Conclusion 

Here the concise Catusacca-Dipani, or the Manual of the Four Noble 
Truths, comes to a close. It was written at the Letpandaung Hill, Mony wa, 
at the request of Pleaders Maung Kyaw and Maung San Lin, for the ben- 
efit of those who desire to know the sixteen interpretations of the Four 
Noble Truths and who desire to honour the teaching of the Buddha. It 
was finished during the Vassa of 1265 Burmese Era (July 1903 C.E.). 



Bodhipakkhiya Dipani 

The Manual of The 

Factors Leading to 

Enlightenment 

by 

Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D. Litt. 
(Translated from the Burmese by U. Sein Nyo Tun, late of the Indian 

Civil Service.) 

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa. 
(Veneration to the Exalted One, the Worshipful, the Omniscient.) 

Translator's Preface 

The Venerable Ledi Sayadaw's works are well known in Burma. They 
are widely known because they are clear expositions of the Buddha- 
Dhamma couched in language easily intelligible to an ordinary educated 
Burman. Yet the Venerable Sayadaw's works are not meant for an abso- 
lute beginner in Buddhist studies. There are many technical Buddhist 
words which require a certain amount of previous foundation in Buddhist 
tradition and practice. 

The Venerable Sayadaw's exposition contains many technical Pali words 
which are used by him as if they were ordinary Burmese words. Many 
of these words have been incorporated into the Burmese language either 
in their original Pali form of with slight variations to accord with Bur- 
mese euphony. These are words which Burmans have made no attempt 
to translate, but have preferred to absorb them into the normal usage 
of the Burmese language. I have, similarly, made no attempt to translate 
many of them into English in the present translation. I have used these 
words in their original Pali form though in all such cases an attempt 



2S6 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

has been made to append short explanatory footnotes in order to facili- 
tate continuity in reading. 

Though the translation is not verbatim, yet a careful attempt has been 
made to render as nearly a verbatim translation as is possible in the 
circumstances, having regard to differences in the construction of senten- 
ces between English and Burmese, to differences in the manner of pre- 
sentation, and to the Venerable Sayadaw's penchant for sometimes using 
extremely long sentences. 

Many of the sub- headings and sub-titles are not in the original text, 
but have been introduced by the translator in order to assist the English 
reader. 

The Venerable Sayadaw was a prolific writer. His works number over 
a hundred. Each of these works was written at the specific request of 
one or more of his innumerable disciples, either as an answer to certain 
questions put to him, or as in the present case, to expound certain im- 
portant points or aspects of the Buddha-Dhamma. 

Sein Nyo Tun. 

135, University Avenue, 

Rangoon. 



Introduction 

In compliance with the request of the Pyinmana Myo-ok Maung Po 
Mya and Trader Maung Hla, during the month of Nayon, 1266 Burmese 
Era (June 1904 C.E.), I shall state concisely the meaning and intent of 
the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma (factors leading to enlighten- 
ment). 

Four Classes of Individuals 

It is stated in the Puggala Pafinatti 1 (the book of classification of in- 
dividuals) and the Aiiguttara-Nikaya 2 that, of the beings who encounter 
the Sasanas (teachings) of the Buddhas, four classes can be distinguished: 

1. Ugghatitannu 3. Neyya 

2. Vipancitanfiu 4. Padaparama. 

1. Abhidharama Pitaka, Puggala Pafinatti, 6th syn. Edn. 

2. Suttanta Pitaka, Aiiguttara-Nikaya, Catukka-Nipata. page 45-, Sixth Syn. Edn. 



Four Classes of Individuals 2S7 

Of these four classes of beings, an ugghatitannii is an individual who 
encounters a Buddha in person, and who is capable of attaining the holy 
Path and the holy Fruits through the mere hearing oi a short concise 
discourse. 

A vipancitannu is an individual who has not the capability of attaining 
the Paths and the Fruits through the mere hearing of a short discourse, 
but who yet is capable of attaining the Paths and the Fruits when the 
short discoure is expounded to -him at some length. 

A neyya is an individual who has not the capability of attaining the 
Paths and the Fruits through the hearing of a short discourse, or when 
it is expounded to him at some length, but is one for whom it is neces- 
sary to study and take careful note of the sermon and the exposition, 
and then to practise the provisions contained therein for days, months, 
and years, in order that he may attain the Paths and the Fruits. 

This neyya class of individuals can again be sub-divided into many 
other classes according to the period of practice which each individual 
finds necessary before he can attain the Paths and the Fruits, and which 
further is dependent on the parami (perfections) which each of them 
has previously acquired, and the kilesa (defilements) which each has 
surmounted. These classes of individuals include, on the one hand, those 
for whom the necessary period of practice is seven days, and on the 
other, those for whom the necessary period of practice may extend to 
thirty or sixty years. 

Further classes also arise, as for example, in the case of individuals 
whose necessary peroid of practice is seven days, the stage of an arahat 
may be attained if effort is made in the first or second period of life, 3 
which no more than the lower stages of the Paths and the Fruits can be 
attained if effort be made only in the third period of life. 

Then, again, putting forth effort for seven days means exerting as 
much as is in one's power to do so. If the effort is not of the highest 
order, the peroid of necessary effort becomes lengthened according to the 
laxity of the effort, and seven days may become seven years or longer. 

If the effort during this life is not sufficiently intense as to enable one 
to attain the Paths and the Fruits, then release from worldly ills cannot 
be obtained during the present Buddha Sasana, while release during fu- 

3. Three preiods of life are usually distinguished: youth, middle-age, and old age. 
Please see page 721, Visuddhimagga by Nanamoli. 



288 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

ture Buddha Sasanas can be obtained only if the individual encounters 
them. No release can be obtained if no Buddha Sasana is encountered. 
It is only in the case of individuals who have secured niyata vyakarana 
(sure prediction made by a Buddha), is an encounter with a Buddha 
Sasana and release from worldly ills certain. An individual who has not 
attained niyata vyakarana cannot be certain either of encountering a 
Buddha Sasana or achieving release from worldly ills, even though he 
has accumulated sufficient parami to make both these achievements 
possible. 

These are considerations in respect of those individuals who possess 
the capabilities of attaining the Paths and the Fruits by putting forth 
effort for seven days, but who have not obtained niyata vyakarana. 

Similar considerations apply to the cases of those individuals who have 
the potentiality of attaining the Paths and the Fruits by putting forth 
effort for fifteen days, or for longer periods. 

A padaparama is an individual who, though he encounters a Buddha 
Sasana, and though he puts forth the utmost possible effort in both the 
study and practice of the Dhamma, cannot attain the Paths and the Fruits 
within this lifetime. All that he can do is to accumulate habits and po- 
tentials. 4 

Such a person cannot obtain release from worldly ills during this life- 
time. If he dies while practising samatha (calm) or vipassana (insight) 
and attains rebirth either as a human being or a deva in his next ex- 
istence, he can attain release from worldly ills in that existence within 
the present Buddha Sasana. 

Thus did the Buddha say with respect to four classes of individuals. 

Three Types of Individuals 

In the same Pitakas referred to above, the Buddha gave another clas- 
sification of beings, dividing them into three classes according as they 
resembled three kinds of sick persons. The- three kinds of sick persons 
are: 

1. A person who is certain of regaining health in due time even 
though he does not take any medicine or treatment. 

4. Vasana: habits and potentials. 



Three Types of Individuals 289 

2. A person who is certain of failing to make a recovery, and 
dying from the illness, no matter to what extent he may take 
medicines or treatment. 

3. A person who will recover if he takes the right medicine and 
treatment, but who will fail to recover and die if he fails to 
take the right medicine and treatment. These are the three 
kinds of sick persons. 

Persons who obtained niyata vyakarana (sure prediction made by a 
Buddha) from previous Buddhas, and who as such are certain of obtain- 
ing release from worldly ills in this life, resemble the first class of sick 
persons. 

An individual of the padaparama class resembles the second class of 
sick person. Just as this second class of sick person has no chance of 
recovery from his illness, an individual of the padaparama class has no 
chance of obtaining release from worldly ills during this life. In future 
lives, however, he can obtain release either within the present Buddha 
Sasana, or within future Buddha Sasanas. The story of the youth Chat- 
tamanava, 5 of the frog who became a deva, 6 and of the ascetic Saccaka,' 
are illustrations of presons who obtained release from worldly ills in their 
next following existences within the present Buddha Sasana. 

An individual of the neyya class resembles the third class of sick per- 
son. Just as a person of this third class is related to the two ways of 
either recovering or dying from the sickness, so is a neyya individual 
related to the two eventualities of either obtaining release from worldly 
ills during the present life, or failing to obtain such release. 

If such a neyya individual, knowing what is good for him according 
to his age, discards what should be discarded, searches for the right 
teacher, and obtains the right guidance from him and puts forth suffi- 
cient effort, he can obtain release from worldly ills in this very life. If, 
however, he becomes addicted to wrong views and wrong ways of con- 
duct, if he finds himself unable to discard sensual pleasures, if although 
able to discard sensual pleasures he does not obtain the guidance of a 
good teacher, if although obtaining the guidance of a good teacher, he 

5. Vimana v'atthu, p. 76, 6th Syn. Edn. 

6. Vimana Vatthu, p. 73, 6th Syn. Edn. 

7. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikoya, Mula-pannasa, pp, 288-29 fl , 6th. Syn. Edn. 



290 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanl 

is unable to evoke sufficient effort, if although inclined to put forth effort 
he is unable to do so through old age, if although young he is liable to 
sickness, he cannot obtain release from worldly ills in this present life. 
King Ajatasattu, 8 the millionaire Mahadhana's son, 9 Bhikkhu Sudinna, 10 
are cases of persons who could have obtained release from worldly ills 
in this present existence. 

King Ajatasattu failed to obtain release because he had committed pa- 
tricide. It is stated that he will drift in future samsara (round of rebirths) 
for two asarikheyya (unit followed by 140 ciphers) world-cycles, after 
which he will become a paccekabuddha (solitary Buddha). 

The millionaire Mahadhana's son indulged himself so excessively in 
sensual pleasures during his youth that he was unable to attain tran- 
quillity of mind when he grew older. Far from obtaining release from 
worldly ills, he did not even get the opportunity of associating with the 
Ti-Ratana.ii Seeing his plight at that stage, the Buddha said to Ananda: 
'Ananda, if this millionaire's son had become a bhikkhu in my sasana 
during his youth or first period of his life, he would have become an 
arahat and would have attained parinibbana 12 in this present life. If, 
otherwise, he had become a bhikkhu during the second period of his life, 
he would have become an anagami, 13 and o.n death would have been 
reborn in the suddhavasa brahma loka,i4 whence he would have attained 
parinibbana. In the next alternative, if he had become a bhikkhu in my 
sasana at the beginning of the third period of life, he would have become 
either a sakadagamiis or a sotapanna, 15 and would have attained per- 

8. Samafinaphala Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sasana council. Please see 
the Light of the Dhamma, Vol. V-No 1. 

9. Dharnmapada Commentary, Book 11, Story 9, See also Khuddaka-Nikaya, Peta 
Vatthu, page 216, 6th Syn. Edn. 

10. Vinaya Pitaka, Parajika, p. 13. 6th Syn. Edn, 

11. Ti-Ratana: The Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dhanama, the Sarigha. 
12 Full Nibbana. The death of an Arahat is known as attaining Parinibbana. 

13. A Non- Returner to kama-loka. 

14. The 'Pure Abodes' are a group of six heavens belonging to the form-sphere, 
where only the never-returners are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship 
and Nibbana. 

15. The 'Once- Returner.' 

16. The 'Stream-Winner.' See page 53 Ibid. 



Three Types of Individuals 291 

manent release from rebirth in the apaya loka,' 17 Thus said the Bud- 
dha to the Venerable Ananda. Thus, although, he (the millionaire Maha- 
dhana's son) possessed parami ripe enough to make his present existence 
his last existence, not being a person who had secured niyata vyakarana, 
he failed to obtain release from worldly ills in his present life because 
of the upheavals caused by the defilements within him, and this is des- 
pite the fact that he had the opportunity of encountering the Buddha 
Sasana. If further, his period of existence in the apaya loka is prolonged 
because of evil acts done in this existence, he would not be able to rise 
again and emerge out of those apaya loka in time for the sasana of the 
future Metteyya Buddha. And, after that, the large number of world- 
cycles that follow are world -cycles where no Buddhas appear, 19 there 
being no world-cycles within the vicinity of the present world where 
Buddhas are due to appear. Alas! far indeed is this millionaire's son 
from worldly ills even though he possessed parami ripe enough to make 
his present existence his last existence. 

The general opinion current at the present is that, if the parami are 
complete, one cannot miss encountering a Buddha Sasana even if one 
does not wish to do so, and that one's release from worldly ills is 
ensured even though one may not desire such release. These people 
fail to pay attention to the existence of niyata (one who has obtained 
a sure prediction made by a Buddha) and aniyata (one who has not 
obtained a sure prediction made by a Buddha). Considering the two 
texts from the Pitaka mentioned above, and the story of the millionaire 
Mahadhana's son, it should be remembered that aniyata neyya in- 
dividuals can attain release from worldly ills in this life only if they put 
forth sufficient effort, even if they possess parami sufficient to enable 
them to obtain such release. If industry and effort are lacking, the 
Paths and the Fruits cannot be attained within the present Buddha 
Sasana. 

Apart from these classes of persons, there are also an infinite number 
of other beings who, like the ascetics Alaraand Uddaka, 19 possess suffi- 

17. Apaya loka: The four lower regions. They are: the animal world, the ghost- 
world, the demon- world and hell. 

IS. Sunfia-kappa: 'Zero' world-cycles. 

19 Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima Nikaya, Mulapannasa, Pasarasi Sutta, p. 220, 6th Syn, 
Edition. 



292 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanI 

cient parami lor release from worldly ills, but who do not get the oppor- 
tunity, because they happen to be in one or the other of the eight in- 
opportune places (atthakkhana) 20 where it is not possible to attain the 
Paths and the Fruits thereof. 

(Here ends the part showing the division of beings into four and three 
classes according to Puggala Pannatti of the Abhidhamma Pitaka and the 
Anguttara-Nikaya of the Suttanta Pitaka). 

Necessary Conditions of Practice for Neyya and Padaparama 

Of the four classes of individuals mentioned, the ugghatitafinu and the 
vipancitannu classes can attain the sotapatti-magga (path of a stream- 
winner) and the other higher stages of wisdom—like Visakha and Anatha- 
pindjka 21 — through the mere hearing of a discourse. It is not necessary 
for such individals to practise the Dhamma according to the stages of 
practice such as sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue), citta-visuddhi (puri- 
fication of consciousness) and so on. Be it remembered that this is also 
the case when devas and Brahmas attain release from worldly ills. 

Hence, it should be noted that the courses of practice, such as sila- 
visuddhi and citta-visuddhi, laid down in the Pali Canon, are only for the 
neyya and padaparama classes of individuals before their attainment of 
the sotapatti-magga. These courses of practice are also for the first three 
classes of individuals prior to the achievement of the higher stages of 
the Paths and the Fruits. In the period after the attainment of arahatship 
also, these courses of practice are used for the purpose of dittha-dhamma- 
sukhavihara 22 (dwelling at ease in this present existence), since arahats 
have already gone through them. 

20. Digha-Nikaya Pathika-vagga, DasuLtara Sutta, page 248, 6th Syn. Edn., Anguttara- 

Nikaya III Atthaka-m'pata, Akkhana Sutta, page 60, 6th Syn. Ekn. i) paccantaro 
— a border district where the Buddha Sasana does not flourish; ii) arupino — the 
four Brahma planes of the formless-sphere; iii) vitalingo — persons with congenital 
defects such as idiocy, etc.' iv) asannasatta — a brahma plane of the form-sphere 
of non-consciousness.' v) micchaditthi — birth among people holding wrong views, 
vi) peta — the peta world; vii> tiracchana — the animal world, and viii) niraya — 
hell. 

21. Dhammapada Commentary, stories relating to verses 1 and 18. 

22. In an arahat there arises the knowledge of his freedom, and he realises: "Rebirth 
is no more, I have lived the pure life; I have done what ought to be done; I 
have nothing more to do for the realisation of Arahatship.' Thus he lives at 
ease in this existence. 



Sila 293 

After the passing of the first thousand years (of the present Buddha 
Sasana), which constituted the times of the patisambhidha-patta arahat 
(arahat possessing analytical knowledge), the period of the present Bud- 
dha Sasana comprises the times of the neyya and padaparama classes 
of individuals alone. At the present day, only these two classes of in- 
dividuals remain. 

Of These Two Classes of Individuals 

Neyya-Puggala: Of these two classes of individuals, an individual of the 
neyya class can become a sotapanna in this present life if he faithfully 
practises the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma comprising satipatthana (four ap- 
plications of mindfulness), sammapadhana (right exertion), etc. If he is 
lax in his practice, he can become a sotapanna only in his next existence 
after being reborn in the deva planes. If he dies while still aloof from 
these (bodhipakkhiya) dhamma, such as satipatthana, etc., he will become 
a total loss so far as the present Buddha Sasana is concerned, but he 
can still attain release from worldly ills if he encounters the Sasana of 
the next Buddha. 

Padaparama-Puggala Extant: An individual of the padaparama class 
can attain release within the present Buddha Sasana after rebirth in 
the deva planes in his next existence, if he can faithfully practise these 
(bodhipakkhiya) dhamma in his present existence. 

The Age of Ariyas (Noble Ones) Still: The five thousand years of the 
present Buddha Sasana constitute, all of them, the age of ariyas. This 
age of ariyas will continue to exist so long as the Tipitaka remain in 
the world. The padaparama class of individuals have to utilise the 
opportunity afforded by the encountering of the present Buddha Sasana to 
accumulate as much of the nuclei or seeds of parami as they can within 
this lifetime. They have to accumulate the seeds of sila (morality). They 
have to accumulate the seeds of samadhi (concentration). They have to 
accumulate the seeds of panna (wisdom). 

Sila: Of these three kinds of accumulations, sila (morality), samadhi (con- 
centration), panna (wisdom), the seeds of sila mean: panca-sila, 23 ajivat- 

23. The five precepts. They are basic and constitute the mini:num which every man 



294 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

thamaka-sila, 2 * atthanga-uposatha-sila, 25 dasanga sila, 2 ^ in respect of 
ordinary laymen and women, and the bhikkhu-sila 2 ? in respect of the 
bhikkhus. 

Samadhi: The seeds of samadhi means the effort to achieve parikamma- 
samadhi (preparatory concentration) through one or other of the forty 
objects of meditation, such as the ten kasina (meditation devices), or, if 
further effort can be evoked, the effort to achieve upacara-samadhi 
(access concentration), or, if still further effort can be evoked, the effort 
to achieve appana-samadhi (attainment concentration.) 

Paniia: The seeds of pariria means the cultivation of the ability to analyse 
the characteristics and qualities of rupa (material phenomena), nama (mental 
phenomena), khandha (constituent groups of existence), ayatana (bases), 
dhatu (elements), sacca (truths), and the paticcasamuppada (dependent 
origination), and the cultivation of insight into the three characteristics 
of existence (lakkhana), namely, anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffer- 
ing), anatta (impersonality). 

or woman must observe. There are- abstention from killing, stealing, improper 
sexual intercourse, telling lies, and intoxicants. 

24. The three constiluents of the morality-group of the Eightfold Path, when consid- 
ered in detail become ajivatthamaka-sila (morality consisting of the practice of 
Right Livelihood) in the following way: 1. I will abstain from taking life. 2. I 
will abstain from stealing. 3. I will abstain from indulging in improper sexual 
intercourse and taking intoxicant drugs. 4. I will abstain from telling lies. 5. I 
will abstain from setting one person against another. 6. I will abstain from 
using rude and rough words. 7. I will abstain from frivolous talk. 8. I will 
abstain from improper livelihood. 

25. The eight precepts are: abstention from 1) killing, 2) stealing, 3) unchastity, 
4) lying, 5) intoxicants, 6) eating after midday, 7) dancing, singing, music and 

shows, garlands, scent, cosmetics and adornment, etc., 8) luxurious and high 
beds. 

26. The ten precepts. This is the polished form of attha-sila. No. 7 of the eight 
precepts is split into two and No. 10 is 'abstinence from accepting gold and 
silver." 

27. Bhikkhu sila: The four kinds of parisuddhi-slla are: — 

1) Restraint with regard to the 227 Vinaya Rules. 

2) Restraint of the senses. 

3) Restraint with regard to one's livelihood. 

4) Morality with regard to the four requisites. 



Vijja And Caraga 295 

Of the three kinds of seeds of magga-nana and phala-nana, 28 sila and 
samadhi are like ornaments that permanently adorn the world, and exist 
even in the sunna world-cycles that is, world-cycles where no Buddhas 
arise. The seeds of sila and samadhi can be obtained at will at any time. 
But the seeds of panna, which are related torupa, nama, khandha, aya- 
tana, dhatu, sacca, and paticcasamuppada, can be obtained only when 
one encounters a Buddha Sasana. Outside of a Buddha Sasana, one does 
not get the opportunity of even hearing the mere mention of words as- 
sociated with panna, though an infinite number of 'sunna' world-cycles 
may elapse. Hence, those persons of the present day who are fortunate 
enough to be born into this world while a Buddha Sasana flourishes, if 
they intend to accumulate the seeds of magga-nana for the purpose of 
securing release from worldly. ills in a future existence within a future 
Buddha Sasana, should pay special attention to the knowledge of the 
paramattha 29 (ultimate realities), which is extremely difficult for one to 
come across, more than they attempt the accumulation of the seeds of 
sila and samadhi. In the least, they should attempt to obtain an insight 
into how the four great primaries (mahabhuta)— pathavi, apo, tejo and 
vayo are constituted in one's body. If they acquisition a good insight into 
the four great elements, they obtain a sound collection of the seeds of 
panna which are most difficult of acquisition, and this is so even though 
they may not acquire any knowledge of the other portions of the Abhi- 
dhamma. It can then be said that the difficult attainment of rebirth 
within a Buddha Sasana has been made worthwhile. 

Vijja (Knowledge) And Carana (Conduct): Sila and samadhi constitute 
carana, while panna constitutes vijja. Thus are vijja-carana (knowledge 
and conduct) constituted. Vijja resembles the eyes of a human being, 
while carana resembles the limbs. Vijja is like eyes in birds, while 
carana is like wings. A person who is endowed with morality and 
concentration, but lacks wisdom, is like one who possesses complete 

28. Magga-nana: knowledge of the holy paths. Phala-nana: knowledge of the fruits 
thereof. 

29. Paramattha: truth in the ultimate sense; absolute truth. 

The Abhidhammattha Sarignha lists four paramattha dhamma, namely, citta (con- 
sciousness), cetasika (mental factors), rupa material qualities) and Nibbana. 
Pathavi (Element of extension,) apo (element of liquidity or cohesion,) tejo (element 
of kinetk. energy,) and vayo (element of motion or support). 



296 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

and whole limbs but blind of both eyes. A person who is endowed with 
vijja. (knowledge), but lacks carana (conduct), is like one who has 
good eyesight but is defective in his limbs. A person who is endowed 
with both vijja and carana is like a normally whole person possessing 
both good eyesight and healthy limbs. A person who lacks both vijja 
and carana is like one defective in eyes and limbs, and is not one worthy 
of being called a living being. 

Consequences of Having Carana Only: Amongst the persons living 
within the present Buddha Sasana, there are some who are fully endowed 
with morality and concentration, but do not possess the seeds of vijja 
(knowledge), such as insight into the nature of material qualities, mental 
qualities and constituent groups of existence. Because they are strong 
in carana, they are likely to encounter the next Buddha Sasana, but 
because they lack the seeds of vijja, they cannot attain enlightenment, 
even though they hear the discourse of the next Buddha in person. They 
are like Laludayi Thera.so Uyananda Thera, 31 Chabbaggiva Bhikkhu,32 
and the King of Kosala, 3 3 during the lifetime of the Omniscient Buddha. 
Because they were endowed with the previously accumulated carana, such 
as alms-giving and morality, they had the opportunity to associate with 
the Supreme Buddha, but since they lacked previously accumulated vijja, 
the discourses of the Buddha which they often heard throughout their 
lives, as it were, fell on deaf ears. 

Of Having Vijja Only: There are others who are endowed with vijja, 
such as insight into the material and mental qualities and the constituent 
groups of existence, but who lack carana, such as dana, nicca-sila 
{permanent morality) and uposatha-sila (precepts observed on fasting 
days). Should these persons get the opportunity of meeting and hearing 
the discourses of the next Buddha, they can attain enlightenment be- 
cause they possess vijja, but since they lack carana, it would be 
extremely difficult for them to get the opportunity of meeting the next 
Buddha. This is so because there is an an tara-kappa (intervening world - 
cycle) between the present Buddha Sasana and the next. 

30. Dhammapada-atthakatha, verse, 64, (The story of the wise fool). 

31. Dhammapada commentary, story relating verse 158 'The greedy monk.' 
22. Vinaya Pitaka, Mahavagga, p. 191, 6th Syn. Edn. 

33. Dhammapada commentary, story relating to verse 60 — Bala-vagga. 



The Essential Point 297 

In case these beings wander within the sensuous sphere during this 
period, it means a succession of an infinite number of existences and 
rebirths, and an opportunity to meet the next Buddha can be secured 
only if all these rebirths are confined to the happy course of existence. 
If, in the interim, a rebirth occurs in one of the four lower regions, the 
opportunity to meet the next Buddha would be irretrievably lost, for one 
rebirth in one of the four lower worlds is often followed by an infinite 
number of rebirths in one or other of them. 

Those persons whose acts of dana (alms-giving) in this life are few, 
who are ill-guarded in their bodily acts, unrestrained in their speech, and 
unclean in their thoughts, and who thus are deficient in carana (conduct), 
possess a strong tendency to be reborn in the four lower worlds when 
they die. If through some good fortune they manage to be reborn in the 
happy course of existence, wherever they may be reborn, they are, be- 
cause of their previous lack of carana, such as dana, likely to be defi- 
cient in riches, and likely to meet with hardships, trials, and tribulations 
in their means of livelihood, and thus encounter tendencies to rebirth in 
the apaya loka. Because of their lack of carana of nicca-sila and 
uposatha-sila, they are likely to meet with disputes, quarrels, anger and 
hatred in their dealings with other persons, in addition to being suscep- 
tible to diseases and ailments, and thus encounter tendencies towards 
rebirth in the apaya loka. Thus will they encounter painful experiences 
in every existence, gathering undesirable tendencies, leading to the cur- 
tailment of their period of existence in the happy course of existence and 
causing rebirth in the four lower worlds. In this way, the chances of 
those who lack carana meeting the next Buddha are very few indeed. 

The Essential Point: In short, the essential fact is, only when one is 
endowed with the seeds of both vijja and carana can one obtain release 
from worldly ills in one's next existence. If one possesses the seeds of 
vijja alone, and lacks the seeds of carana, such as dana and sila, one 
will fail to secure the opportunity of meeting the next. Buddha Sasana. 
If, on the other hand, one possesses the seeds of carana but lacks the 
seeds of vijja, one cannot attain release from worldly ills even though 
one encounters the next Buddha Sasana. Hence, those padaparama 
individuals of today, be they men or women, who look forward to meeting 
the next Buddha Sasana, should attempt to accumulate within the present 



298 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanl 

Buddha Sasana the seeds of carana by the practice of dana, sila and 
samatha-bhavana (practice of calm), and should also, in the least, with 
respect to vijja try to practise insight into the four great primaries, and 
thus ensure meeting the next Buddha Sasana, and having met it, to 
attain release from worldly ills. 

When it is said that dana is carana, it comes under the category of 
saddha (faith), which is one of the saddhamma or practical conduct of 
good people, which again comes under the fifteen carana-dhamma. The 
fifteen carana-dhamma are: 

1. sila (morality) 

2. indriya-samvara (guarding the sensedoors) 
3 bhojanemattannuta (moderation in eating) 
4. jagariyanuyoga (wakefulness) 

5-11 saddhamma (the seven attributes of good and virtuous men) 
12-15 four jhana— first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, and fourth 
jhana. 

These fifteen dbamma are the property of the highest jhanalabhl (at- 
tainer of jhana). So far as sukkhavipassaka (practising insight only) 
individuals are concerned, they should possess the eleven carana dham- 
ma, i.e. without the four jhana. 

For those persons who look forward to meeting the next Buddha Sasana, 
dana, sila uposatha, and the seven saddhamma are the essentials. 

Those persons who wish to attain the Paths and the Fruits thereof in 
this very life must fulfil the first eleven carana-dhamma, i.e. sila, in- 
driya-samvara, bhojanemattannuta, jagariyanuyoga, and the seven sad- 
dhamma. Herein, sila means ajivatthamaka-nicca-sila (permanent prac- 
tice of morality ending with right livelihood); indriya-samvara means 
guarding the six sense-doors— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind; 
bhojanemattannuta means taking just sufficient food to preserve the 
balance of the corporeality group in the body and being satisfied 
therewith; jagariyanuyogo means not sleeping during the day, and sleep- 
ing only during one period (of the three periods) of the night, practising 
bhavana (mental concentration) during the other two periods. 



Order of Practice And Those Who Await the Next Buddha 299 

Saddhamma means: 

1. saddha (faith) 

2. sati (mindfulness) 

3. hiri (moral shame) 

4. ottappa (moral dread) 

5. bahusacca (great learning) 

6. viriya (energy; diligence) 

7. panna (wisdom). 

For those who wish to become sotapannas during this life, there is no 
special necessity to practise dana (alms-giving). But let those who find 
it unable to evoke sufficient effort towards acquiring the ability to obtain 
release from worldly ills during the present Buddha Sasana make special 
attempts to practise dana (alms-giving) and uposatha (precepts observed 
on fasting days). 

Order of Practice And Those Who Await the Next Buddha 

Since the work in the case of those who depend on and await the next 
Buddha consists of no more than acquiring accumulation of parami, it is 
not strictly necessary for them to adhere to the order of the stages of 
practice laid down in the Pali Texts: sila, samadhi and panna. They 
should not thus defer the practice of samadhi before the completion of 
the practice of sila, or defer the practice of panna before the completion 
of the practice of samadhi In accordance with the order of the seven 
visuddhi (purifications), such as sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue), 
citta-visuddhi (purification of consciousness), ditthi-visuddhi (purification 
of view), kaiikhavitarana-visuddhi (purification by overcoming doubt), 
maggamaggananadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision 
of what is and what is not path), patipadafianadassana- visuddhi (pur- 
ification by knowledge and vision of the way), and nanadassana- visuddhi 
(purification by knowledge and vision), they should not postpone the 
practice of any course for a visuddhi until the completion of the respective 
previous course. Since they are persons engaged in the accumulation 
of as much of the seeds of parami as they can, they should contrive to 
accumulate the largest amount of sila, samadhi, and panna that lies in 
their power. 



300 Bodhipakkhiya-DipanI 

Unnecessary to Adhere to the Prescribed Order of Practice 

When it is stated in the Pali Texts that citta-visuddhi should be prac- 
tised only after the completion of the practice of sila-visuddhi, that 
ditthi- visuddh i should be practised only after the completion of the prac- 
tice of citta-visuddhi, that kahkhavitarana-visuddhi should be practised 
only after the completion of the practice of ditthi-visuddhi, that the work 
of anicca, dukkha, and anatta-bhavana (contemplation of impermanence, 
suffering and impersonality) should be undertaken only after the com- 
pletion of the practice of kahkhavitarana-visuddhi, the order of practice 
prescribed is meant for those who attempt the speedy realisation of the 
Paths and the Fruits thereof in this very life. Since those who find it 
unable to call forth such effort, and are engaged only in the accumula- 
tion of the seeds of pararni are persons occupied in grasping whatever 
they can, it should not be said in their case that the work of samatha 
manasikara citta-visuddhi (the practice of purification of consciousness 
consisting of advertence of mind to tranquillity) should not be undertaken 
before the fulfilment of sila-visuddhi. Even in the case of hunters and 
fishermen, it should not be said that they should not practise samatha 
vipassana (calm and insight) manasikara (advertence of mind towards 
calm and insight) unless they discard their avocations. One who says 
so causes dhammantaraya (danger to the dhamma). Hunters and fish- 
ermen should, on the other hand, be encouraged to contemplate the 
noble qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangria. They should 
be induced to contemplate, as is in their power, the characteristic of 
loathsomeness in one's body. They should be urged to contemplate the 
liability of oneself and all creatures to death. I have come across the 
case of a leading fisherman who, as a result of such encouragement, 
could repeat fluently from memory the Pali Text and 'nissaya' (word for 
word translation) of the Abhidhammatha Sahgaha, and the Paccaya Nid- 
desa of the Patthana (Book of Relations), while still following the profess- 
ion of a fisherman. These accomplishments constitute very good found- 
ations for the acquisition of vijja (knowledge). 

At the present time, whenever I meet my dayaka upasakas (lay dis- 
ciples who contribute to a bhikkhu's upkeep), I tell them, in the true tra- 
dition of a bhikkhu ; that even though they are hunters and fishermen by 
profession, they should be ever mindful of the noble qualities of the Three 



Loss of Opportunity to Attain the Seed of Vijja 301 

Jewels and three characteristics of existence. To be mindful of the noble 
qualities of the ti-ratana (Triple Gem) constitutes the seed of carana. To 
be mindful of the three characteristics of existence constitutes the seed of 
vijja. Even hunters and fishermen should be encouraged to practise the 
advertence of mind. They should not be told that it is improper for 
hunters and fishermen to practise advertence of mind towards samatha 
(calm) and vipassana (insight). On the other hand, they should be helped 
towards better understanding, should they be in difficulties. They should 
be urged and encouraged to keep on trying. They are in that stage 
when even the work of accumulating parami and tendencies is to be 
extolled . 

Loss of Opportunity to Attain the Seed of Vijja Through Ignorance 
of the Value of the Present Times 

Some teachers, who are aware only of the existence of direct and un- 
equivocal statements in the Pali Texts regarding the order of practice 
of the seven visuddhi (purifications), but who take no account of the 
value of the present times, say that in the practices of samatha and 
vipassana (calm and insight) no results can be achieved unless sila- visud- 
dhi (purification of virtue) is first fulfilled, whatever be the intensity of 
the effort. Some of the uninformed ordinary folk are beguiled by such 
statements. Thus has dhammantaraya (danger to the dhamma) occurred. 

These persons, because they do not know the nature of the present 
times, will lose the opportunity to attain the seeds of vijja which are 
attainable only when a Buddha Sasana is encountered. In truth, they 
have not yet attained release from worldly ills and are still drifing in 
sarhsara (round of rebirths) because, though they have occasionally en- 
countered Buddha Sasanas in their past inconceivably long sarhsara where 
Buddha Sasanas more numerous than the grains of sands on the banks 
of the Ganges had appeared, they did not acquire the foundation of the 
seeds of vijja. 

When seeds are spoken of, there are seeds ripe or mature enough to 
sprout into healthy and strong seedlings, and there are many degrees of 
ripeness or maturity. There are also seeds that are unripe or immature. 
People who do not know the meanings of the passages they recite or 
who do AOt know the right methods of practice even though they know 



302 Bodhipakkhiya-DipanI 

the meaning, and who thus by custom or tradition read, recite and count 
their beads while performing the work of contemplating the noble qualities 
of the Buddha, and anicca, dukkha and anatta, possess seeds that are 
unripe and immature. These unripe seeds may be ripened and matured 
by the continuation of such work in the existences that follow, if op- 
portuntity for such continued work occurs. 

The practice of samatha until the appearance of parikamma-nimitta, 3 ' 1 
and the practice of vipassana until insight is obtained into rupa and nama 
(matter and mind) even once, are mature seeds filled with pith and sub- 
stance. The practice of samatha until the appearance of uggaha-nimitta 
an'd the practice of vipassana until the acquisition of sammasananana 35 
even once, are seeds that are still more mature. The practice of samatha 
until the appearance of patibhaga-nimitta, and the practice of vipassana 
until the occurrence of udayabbayariana 3 ^ even once, are seeds that are 
yet more extremely mature. If further higher effort can be made in 
both samatha and vipassana, still more mature seeds can be obtained 
bringing great success. 

Adhikara (Assiduous And Successful Practice) 

When it is said in the Pali Texts that only when there has been adhi- 
kara in previous Buddha Sasanas can relative jhana, the Paths and the 
Fruits be obtained in the following Buddha Sasanas, the word 'adhikara' 
means 'successful seeds.' Nowadays, those who pass their lives with 
traditional practices that are but imitation samatha and imitation vipas- 

34. Nimitta is the mental image which arises in the mind by the successful practice 
of certain concentration exercises The image physically perceived at the very 
beginning of concentration is called the preparatory image or parikamma-nimitia. 
The still unsteady and unclear image which arises after the mind has reache:! a 
certain degree of concentration is called acquired image or uggaha-nimitta. This 
is a mental image. The fully clear and immovable image that arises at a great 
degree of concentration is called the counter-image or patibhaga-nimitta. This also 
is a mental image. 

35. Observing, exploring, grasping, determining, all phenomena of existence as imper- 
manent, miserable, and impe^or.al, which precedes the Hashing up of clear 
insight. 

36. Knowledge arising from the contemplation of arising and vanishing. It is the first 
of the nine insight-knowledges constituting 1he patipada-nanadassana-visuddlii (pur- 
ification by knowledge and vision of the way). 



Miccha-Dhamma of the Present Day 303 

sana do not come within the purview of persons who possess the seeds 
of samatha and vijja which can be called adhikara. 

Of the two kinds of seeds, those people v who encounter a Buddha Sasa- 
na, but who fail to secure the seeds of vijja, suffer great loss indeed. 
This is so because the seeds of vijja which are related to rupa and nama 
dhamma can only be obtained within a Buddha Sasana, and that only 
when one is sensible enough to secure them. Hence, at the present time, 
those men and women who find themselves unable to contemplate and 
investigate at length into the nature of rupa and nama dhamma, should, 
throughout their lives, undertake the task of committing the four great 
primaries to memory, then of contemplating on their meaning and of dis- 
cussing them, and lastly of seeking insight into how they are constituted 
in their bodies. 

Here ends the part showing, by a discussion of four classes of individu- 
als and three kinds of individuals as given in the Sutta and Abhidhamma 
Pitaka, that ]) those persons, who within the Buddha Sasana, do not 
practise samatha and vipassana but allow the time to pass with imitations, 
suffer great loss as they fail to utilize the unique opportunity arising 
from their existence as human beings within a Buddha Sasana, 2) this 
being the time of padaparama and neyya classes of persons, if they heed- 
fully put forth effort, they can secure ripe and mature seeds of samatha 
and vipassana, and easily attain the supramundane benefit either within 
this life or in the deva loka (deva abodes) in the next lite— within this 
Buddha Sasana or within the Sasana of the next Buddha, 3) they can 
derive immense benefit from their existence as human brings during the 
Buddha Sasana. 

Here ends the exposition of the three kinds and the four kins of in- 
dividuals. 

Miccha-Dhamma of the Present Day: A Word of Advice And Warning 

If the Tipitaka which are the discourses of the Buddha delivered dur- 
ing forty-five vassa (rainy seasons) be condensed and the essentials ex- 
tracted, the thirty seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are obtained. These 
thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma constitute the essence of the Tipitaka. 
If these be further condensed, the seven visuddhi (purifications) are 
obtained. If again the seven visuddhi be condensed, they become slla 



304 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

(morality), samadhi (concentration), and panna (wisdom). These are called 
adhisila-sasana (the teaching of higher morality), adhicitta-sasana (the 
teaching of higher mentality), and adhipanna-sasana (the teaching of 
higher wisdom). They are also called the three sikha (trainings). 

When sila is mentioned, the essential for laymen is nicca-sila. Those 
people who fulfil nicca-sila become endowed with carana which, with vijja, 
enables them to attain the Paths and the Fruits. If these persons can 
add the refinement of uposatha-sila over nicca-sila, it is much better. 
For laymen, nicca-sila means ajivatthamaka-sila. That sila 37 must be 
properly and faithfully kept. If because they are puthujjana (worldlings) 
they break the sila, it can be re-established immediately by renewing 
the undertaking to keep the sila for the rest of their lives. If, on a future 
occasion, the sila is again broken, it can again be similarly cleansed, 
and every time this cleansing occurs, the person- concerned again becomes 
endowed with sila. The effort is not difficult. Whenever nicca-sila is 
broken, it should be immediately re-established. In these days, persons 
endowed with sila abound in large numbers. 

But persons who have attained perfect concentration in one or other 
of the kasina exercises (meditation devices), or in the practice of asubha- 
bhavana (meditation of loathsomeness), etc., as also persons who have at 
one time or other attained insight in regard to physical phenomena, men- 
tal phenomena, the characteristics of anicca, etc., are very rare. This 
is so because these are times when miccha-dhamma (wrong dhamma) 
that are likely to cause dhammantaraya (danger to the dhamina) are 
rife. 

Dhammantaraya 

By miccha-dhamma that are likely to cause dhammantaraya is meant 
such views, practices and limitations as the inability to see the dangers 
of samsara, the belief that these are times when the Paths and the Fruits 
can no longer be attained, the tendency to defer effort until the parami 
ripen, the belief that persons of the present day are dvi-hetuka, 38 the 
belief that the great teachers of the past were non-existent, etc. 

37. Ajivatthamaka-sila — morality ending with right livelihood as the eighth precept. 

38. Dvi-hetuka-patisandhi — Being reborn with only two root-ccnditions: alobha (de- 
tachment) and adosa (amity). Dvi-hetuka-patisandhi individuals cannot attain the 
Paths and the Fruits in the present life. 



Dhammantaraya 305 

Even though it does not reach the ultimate, no kusala kamma (whole- 
some volitional action) is ever rendered futile. If effort be made, a ku- 
sala kamma (wholesome volitional action) is instrumental in producing 
parami in those who do not possess parami. If no effort be made, the 
opportunity to acquire parami is lost. If those whose parami are imma- 
ture put forth effort, their parami become ripe and mature. Such persons 
can attain the Paths and Fniits in their next existence within the present 
Sasana. If no effort be made, the opportunity for the parami to ripen 
is lost. If those whose parami is ripe and mature put forth effort, the 
Paths and the Fruits can be attained within this life. If no effort be 
made the opportunity to attain the Paths and the Fruits is lost. 

If persons who are dvi-hetuka put forth effort, they can become ti- 
hetuka 39 in their next existence. If they do not put forth effort, they 
cannot ascend from the stage of dvi-hetuka and will slide down to the 
stage of ahetuka. 40 

In this world, there is a certain person who plans to become a bhik- 
khu. If another person says to him, 'entertain the intention only if you 
can remain a bhikkhu all your life. Otherwise, do not entertain the idea', 
it amounts to dhammantaraya. 

'Cittuppadamattam pi kusalesu dhammesu bahupakararh vadami.' 

(I declare that the mere arising of intention for the performance of 
meritorious deeds is productive of great benefits). 41 

Thus did the Buddha preach. 

To disparage either the act of dana (alms-giving), or the performer of 
dana may invoke pufinantaraya 42 on oneself. If the acts of morality, 
concentration and wisdom, or those who perform them are disparaged, 
dhammantaraya may be invoked. If pufinantaraya is invoked, one is 
liable to be bereft of power and influence, of property and riches, and 
be abjectly poor in the existences or lives that follow. If dhammanta- 
raya is invoked, one is liable to be defective in conduct, and defective of 
sense, and thus be utterly low and debased in the existences or lives that 
follow. Let all beware! 
39. Ti-hetuka-patisandhi — Being reborn with all the three root-conditions, namely, 

alobha, adosa and amoha (wisdom). 
}0. A-hetuka — A being reborn without any wholesome root-condition. 

41. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikaya Mulapannasa, Samlekha Sutla, p. 48. 6th Syn. 
Edn. 

42. Danger to the performance of wholesome volitional actions. 



306 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpant 

Here ends the part showing how the rare opportunity of rebirth as a 
human being can be made worthwhile, by ridding oneself of the miccha- 
dhamma mentioned above, and putting forth effort in this life to close 
the gates of the apaya loka (four lower worlds) in one's future sarhsara 
(round of rebirths), or else to accumulate the seeds that will enable one 
to attain release from worldly ills in the next following life, or within 
the next Buddha Sasana, through the practice of calm and insight with 
resolution, intention, and industry. 



The Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma 

I shall now concisely show the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhamma, 
which are dhamma which should be attempted with energy and deter- 
mination by those persons wishing to practise samatha (calm) and vipas- 
sana (insight), and thus make the rare opportunity of rebirth as a human 
being within the present Buddha Sasana worthwhile. 

Briefly, the bodhipakkhiya dhamma consist of seven kinds, namely: 

1. satipatthana 

2. sammappadhana 

3. iddhipada 

4. indriya 

5. bala 

6. bhojjhahga 

7. maggahga. 

According to the definition 'bodiyapakkhebhavati bodhipakkhiya', these 
dhamma are called bodhipakkhiya because they form part of, or they 
are associates of, magga-riana (knowledge of the Holy Paths). They are 
dhamma that are the padatthana (proximate cause), sambhara (requisite 
ingredients), and upanissaya (basis or sufficing condition) of magga-nana 
(knowledge of the Holy Paths). 



The Four Satipatthana 307 

II 

The Four Satipatthana 

The definition of satipatthana is: 'Bhusam itthatiti patthanam; sati 
eva patthanam satipatthanam.' It means mindfulness or needfulness 
which is firmly established. There are four satipatthana {applications 
of mindfulness). They are: 

1. kayanupassana-satipatthana 

2. vedananupassana-satipatthana 

3. cittanupassana-satipatthana 

4. dhammanupassana-satipatthana. 

1. Kayanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness which is firmly es- 
tablished on physical phenomena, such as on the exhaled breath and 
the inhaled breath. 

2. Vedananupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness which is firmly 
established on sensations. 

3. Cittanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness which is firmly es- 

tablished on thoughts or mental processes, such as thoughts associ- 
ated with the passions or dissociated from the passions. 

4. Dh^nmanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness which is firmly 
established on phenomena such as nivarana (hindrances), etc. 

Of the four, if mindfulness or attention is firmly established on a part 
of the body, such as on out-breath and m-breath, it is tantamount to 
attention being firmly established on all things. This is because the 
ability to place one's attention on any object at one's will has been ac- 
quired. 

'Firmly established' means, if one desires to place the attention on out - 
breath and in-breath for an hour, one's attention remains firmly fixed on 
it for that period. If one wishes to do so for two hours, one's attention 
remains firmly fixed on it for two hours. There is no occasion when 
the attention becomes released from its object on account of the instabil- 
ity of thought-conception (vitakkha). 

(For a detailed account of the satipatthana, see the Mahasatipatthana 
Sutta.43) 

4i. Please see the Light of the Dhamma, Vol. Ill, No. 4. Dlgha-Nikaya Maha-Vagga, 
Mahasatipatthana Sutta, p. ?31, 6th Syn. Edn. 



30S Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

Why is it incumbent on us to firmly establish the mind without fail 
on any object such as the out-breath and the in-breath ? It is because it 
is necessary for us to gather and control the six vifmana,** which have 
been drifting tempestuously and untrained throughout the past incon- 
ceivably long and beginningless samsara (round of rebirths). 

I shall make it clear. The mind is wont to flit about from one to 
another of the six objects of the senses which live at the approaches of 
the six sense-doors. 45 

As an example, take the case oi a mad man who has no control over 
his mind. He does not even know the meal-time, and wanders about 
aimlessly from place to place. His parents look for him and give him 
his meal. After eating five or six morsels of food, he overturns the dish 
and walks away. He thus fails to get a square meal. To this extent 
he has lost control of his mind. He cannot control his mind even to the 
extent of finishing the business of a meal. In talking, he cannot control 
his mind to the extent of finishing or completing a sentence. The beg- 
inning, the middle, and the end do not agree with one another. His talk 
has no meaning. He cannot be of use in any undertaking in this world. 
He is unable to perform any task. Such a person can no longer be 
classed as a human being, and he has to be ignored. 

This mad man becomes a sane and normal person again if he meets 
a good doctor and the doctor applies such stringent methods of cure as 
tying him up and putting him in chains. Thus cured, he obtains control 
of his mind in the matter of taking his meals, and can now eat his fill. 
He has control over his mind in all other matters as well. He can per- 
form his tasks till they are completed, just like others. Just like others, 
he can also complete his sentences. This is the example. 

In this world, persons who are not insane, but who are normal and 
have control over their minds, resemble such a mad person having no 
control over his mind when it comes to the matter of samatha and 
vipassana. Just as the man upsets the food dish and walks away after 
five or six morsels oi food athough he attempts to eat his meal, these 
normally sane persons find their attention wandering because they have 
no control over their minds. Whenever they pay respects to the Buddha 

44. Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, 
body- consciousness, and mind-consciousness. 

45, Eye-door, ear-door, nose-door, tongue door, boiy-door and mind-door. 



The Four Satipatthana 309 

and contemplate his noble qualities, they do not succeed in keeping their 
minds fixed on those noble qualities, but find their attention being div- 
erted many times on to other objects of thought, and thus they fail to 
reach the end of even the 'itipiso ' verse. 46 

It is as if a man suffering from hydrophobia who seeks water fever- 
ishly with parched lips, yet runs away from it with fear- when he sees 
a lake of cool refreshing water. It is also like a diseased man who when 
given a diet of relishing food replete with medicinal qualities, finds the 
food bitter to his taste and unable to swallow it and is obliged to spit and 
vomit it out. In just the same way, these persons find themselves un- 
able to approach the contemplation of the noble qualities of the Buddha 
effectively and cannot keep on dwelling on them. 

If in reciting the 'itipiso' verse, their recitation is interrupted every 
time their minds wander, and if they have to start afresh from the 
beginning every time such an interruption occurs, they will never reach 
the end of the verse even though they keep on reciting a whole day, or 
a whole month, or a whole year. At present they manage to reach the 
end because they can keep on reciting from memory even though their 
minds wander elsewhere. 

In the same way, those persons who, on uposatha days, plan to goto 
quiet places in order to contemplate the thirty-two parts of the body, 
such as kesa (hairs of the head), loma (hairs of the body), etc., or the 
noble qualities of the Buddha, ultimately end up in the company of 
friends and associates because they have no control over their minds, 
and because of the upheavals in their thoughts and intentions. When 
they take part in congregational recitations, 47 although they attempt to 
direct their minds to the samatha (calm) work of the brahma-vihara 
(sublime states), 48 such as reciting the formula for diffusing metta (lov- 
ing-kindness), because they have no control over their minds, their thou- 
ghts are not concentrated but are scattered aimlessly, and they end up 
only with the visible manifestation of the recitation. 

4 6. Verse relating to the nine inherent qualities of the Buddha. Please see Brahma- 
jala Sutta and Samafinaphala Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sasana Council. 

47. Called 'wut' in Burmese. 

48. The Four sublime states, namely, metta (loving-kindness), karuna (compassion), 
mudita (altruisive joy), and upekkha (equanimity). 



310 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

These facts are sufficient to show how many persons resemble the 
insane while performing kusala kamma (merit). 
Papasmirh ramate mano. 
The mind takes delight in evil. 4 ^ 

Just as water naturally flows down from high places to low places, 
the minds of beings, if left uncontrolled, naturally approach evils. This 
is the tendency of the mind. 

I shall now draw, with examples, a comparison between those who 
exercise no control over their minds and the insane person mentioned 
above. 

There is a river with a swift current. A boatman not conversant with 
the control of the rudder, floats down the river with the current. His 
boat is loaded with valuable merchandise for trading and selling at the 
towns on the lower reaches of the river. As he floats down, he passes 
stretches of the river lined with mountains and forests where there are 
no harbours or anchorages for his boat. He thus continues to float down 
without stopping. When night descends, he passes towns and villages 
with harbours and anchorages, but he does not see them in the darkness 
of the night, and thus he continues to float down without stopping. When 
daylight arrives, he comes to places with towns and villages, but not 
having any control over the rudder of the boat, he cannot steer it to 
the harbours and anchorages, and thus perforce he continues to float 
down until he reaches the great wide ocean. 

The infinitely lengthy sarhsara (round of rebirths) is like the swift 
flowing river. Beings having no control over their minds are like the 
boatman who is unable to steer his boat. The mind is like the boat. 
Beings who have drifted from one existence to another in the 'sunna' 
world-cycles, where no Buddha Sasanas appear, are like the boatman 
drifting down those stretches of the river lined by mountains and forests, 
where there are no harbous and anchorages. When at times these beings 
are born in world-cycles where Buddha Sasanas flourish, but are in ignor- 
ance of them because they happen to be in one or other of the eight 
atthakkhana (inopportune places), they resemble the boatman who floats 
down stretches of the river lined by towns and villages with harbours 
and anchorages, but does not see them because it is night. When at 
49. Dhammapada, verse J16. 



The Four Satipatthana 311 

other times, they nre born as human beings, devas or Brahmas, within 
a Buddha Sasana, but fail to secure the Paths and the Fruits because 
they are unable to control Iheir minds and put forth effort to practise 
vipassana (insight) exercises of the satipatthana (the four applications 
of mindfulness) thus continuing still to drift in sarhsara, they resemble 
the boatman who sees the banks lined by towns and villages with har- 
bours and anchorages, but is unable to steer towards them because of 
his inability to control the rudder, and thus continues perforce to drift 
down towards the ocean. In the infinite sarhsara, those beings who 
have obtained release from worldly ills within the Sasanas of the Buddhas 
who have appeared, whose numbers exceed the grains of sand on the 
banks of the river Ganges, are beings who had control over their minds 
and who possessed the ability of retaining their attention on any desired 
object at will through the practice of the satipatthana. 

This shows the trend of the wandering or 'course of existence' of 
those beings who do not practise the satipatthana, even though they 
are aware of the fact that they have no control over their minds 
when it comes to the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and in- 
sight). 

Comparisons may also be made with the taming and training of bul- 
locks for the purpose of yoking to ploughs and carts, and to the taming 
and training of elephants for employment in the service of the king, or 
on battlefields. 

In the case of the bullock, the young calf has to be regularly herded 
and kept in a cattle-pen, then a nose-rope is passed through its nostrils 
and it is tied to a post and trained to respond to the rope's control. It 
is then trained to submit to the yoke, and only when it becomes amen- 
able to the yoke's burden is it put to use for ploughing and drawing 
carts and thus effectively employed for trade and profit. This is the ex- 
ample of the bullock. 

In this example, just as the owner's profit and success depends on the 
employment of the bullock in the drawing of ploughs and carts after 
training it to become amenable to the yoke, so do the true benefits of 
lay persons and bhikkhus within the present sasana depend on training 
in samatha and vipassana (calm and insight). 

In the present Buddha Sasana, the practice of sila-visuddhi (purification 
of virtue) resembles the training of the young calf by herding it and 



312 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanI 

keeping it in cattle-pens. Just as if the young calf is not so herded 
and kept in cattle-pens it would damage and destroy the properties of 
others and thus bring liability on the owner, so if a person lacks sila- 
visuddhi, the three kammaSO would run riot, and the person concerned 
would become subject to worldly evils and to the evil results indicated 
in the dhamma. 

The effort to develop kayagata-satipatthana^i resembles the passing 
of the nose-rope through the nostrils and training the calf to respond to 
the rope after tying it to a post. Just as when a calf is tied to a post 
it can be kept wherever the owner desires it to be, and it cannot run 
loose, so when the mind is tied to the body with the rope called satipat- 
thana, that mind cannot wander but is obliged to remain wherever the 
owner desires it to be. The habits of a disturbed and distracted mind ac- 
quired during the inconceivably long samsara become appeased. 

A person who performs the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm 
and insight) without first attempting kayagata-satipatthana (mindfulness 
as regards the body), resembles the owner who yokes the still untamed 
bullock to the cart or plough without the nose-rope. Such an owner would 
find himself unable to drive the bullock at his desire. Because the bul- 
lock is wild, and because it has no nose-rope, it will either try to run 
off the road, or try to break loose by breaking the yoke. 

On the other hand, a person who first tranquillises and trains his mind 
with kayagata-satipatthana-bhavana (contemplation of the body) before 
turning his mind to the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and 
insight), his attention will remain steady and his work will be successful. 

In the case of the elephant, the wild elephant has first to be brought 
out from the forest into the field hitched to a tame trained elephant. 
Thence it is taken to a stockade and tied up securely until it is tame. 
When it thus becomes absolutely tame and quiet, it is trained in the 
various kinds of work in which it will be employed in the service of the 
king. It is only then that it is used in state functions and on battle- 
fields. 

50. The tenfold unwholesome action: 

kavakamraa — threefold bodily action: killing, stealing, improper sexual intercourse 
vacikamma — one verbal action: lying, slandering, rude speech, foolish babble 
manokamma — threefold mental action: avarice, ill-will, wrong views. 

51. Mindfulness with regard to the body. 



The Four Satipatfhana 313 

The realm of sensual pleasures resembles the forest where the wild ele- 
phant enjoys himself. The Buddha Sasana resembles the open field into 
which the wild elephant is first brought out. The mind resembles the 
wild elephant. Faith (saddha) and desire (chanda) in the sasana-dhamma 
resemble the tame elephant to which the wild elephant is hitched and 
brought out into the open. Sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue) resembles 
the stockade. The body, or parts of the body, such as out-breath and 
in-breath resemble the post in the stockade to which the elephant is tied. 
Kayagata-sati resembles the rope by which the wild elephant is tied to 
the post. The preparatory work towards samatha and vipassana resem- 
bles the' preparatory training of the elephant. The work of samatha 
and vipassana resembles the parade ground or battlefield of the king. 
Other points of comparison can now be easily recognised. 

Thus have I shown by the examples of the mad man, the boatman, 
the bullock, and the elephant, the main points of kayagata-sati, which is 
by ancient tradition the first step that has to be undertaken in the work 
of proceeding upwards from sila-visuddhi within the Sasanas of all the 
Buddhas who have appeared in the past inconceivably long samsara. 

The essential meaning is, whether it be by out- breathing or in-breath- 
ing, or by iriyapatha (four postures— going, standing, sitting, lying) or by 
sarhpajanna, (clear-comprehension), or by dhatu-manasikara (advertence 
of mind on the elements), or by atthika-safina (contemplation of bones), 
one must put forth effort in order to acquire the ability of placing one's 
attention on one's body and its postures for as long as one wishes through- 
out the day and night at all waking hours. If one can keep one's at- 
tention fixed for as long as one wishes, then mastery has been obtained 
over one's mind. Thus does one attain release irom the state of a mad 
man. One now resembles the boatman who has obtained mastery over 
his rudder, or the owner of the tamed and trained bullock, or the king 
who employs the tamed and trained elephant. 

There are many kinds and many grades of mastery over the mind. 
The successful practice of kayagata-sati is, in the Buddha Sasana, the 
first stage of mastery over one's mind. 

Those who do not wish to follow the way of samatha (calm), but de- 
sire to pursue the path of pure vipassana, which is the way of the 



314 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

sukkha-vipassaka 52 individual, should proceed straight to vipassana after 
the successful establishment of kayagata-sati. If they do not want to 
practise kayagata-sati separately and if they mean to practise vipassana 
with such industry that it may carry kayagata-sati with it, they will 
succeed, provided that they really have the necessary wisdom and 
industry. The kayagata-sati that is associated with udayabbaya-riana 
(knowledge arising from contemplation of the arisings and vanishings 
of mental and physical phenomena), which clearly sees their coming 
into existence and passing away, is very valuable indeed. 

In the samatha (calm) method, by practising the kayagata-sali of out- 
breathing and in-breathing; one can attain up to rupavacara-catuttha- 
jhana (the fourth jhana of the form-sphere); by practising vanna-mana- 
sikara 53 of the kayagata-sati of the thirty -two parts of the body, such 
as kesa (hair of the head), loma (hair of the body), etc., one can attain 
all the eight samapatti, 54 and by practising 55 patikula-manasikara of 
the same kayagata-sati one can attain the first jhana. If vipassana (insight) 
is attained in the process, one also can attain the Paths and the Fruits. 

Even if completion is not arrived at in the practice of samatha and 
vipassana (calm and insight), if the stage is reached where one attains 
control over one's mind and the ability to keep one's attention fixed on 
wherever one wishes it to be, it was said by the Buddha that such a 
one can be said to be one who enjoys the savour of amata nibbana. 56 

'Amatam paribhuttarh, 57 These who enjoy kayagata-sati, 

Yesam kayagata sati paribhutta/ enjoy amata (nibbana). 

Here, amata (nibbana) means great peacefulness or tranquillity of 
mind. 5 8 

In its original natal state, the mind is highly unstable in its attentive- 
ness, and thus is parched and hot in its nature. Just as the insects that 

52. One who practises vipassana only. 

53. Advertence of mind to colour or appearance. Part of the exercise of reflection 
on the thirty- two parts of the body. 

54. eight sustained consciousness — Eight trances of the form-sphere and formless 
sphere. 

55. Contemplation of loathsomeness 

56. Contemplation of loathsomeness. 

57. Ahguttara-Nikaya, Ekaka-Nipata, 20 Amata-Vagga Sutta, p. 47, 6th Syn. Edn. 

58. This means kilesa nibbana. 



The Four Satipatthana 315 

live on capsicum are not aware of its heat, just as beings pursuing the 
realm of tanha (craving) are not aware of tanha's heat, just as beings 
subject to anger and pride are not aware of the heat of pride and anger, 
so are beings unaware of the heat of unsettled minds. It is only when, 
through kayagata-sati, the unsettlement of their minds disappear, do they 
become aware of the heat of unsettled minds. Having attained the state 
of the disappearance of that, they develop a fear of a relapse to that 
heat. The case of those who have attained the first jhana, or udayab- 
baya-nana, through kayagata-satipatthana needs no elaboration. 

Hence, the higher the attainments that one reaches, the more does it 
become difficult for one to be apart from kayagala-sati. The ariya pug- 
gala (holy one's) use the four satipatthana as mental nutriment until 
they attain Parinibbana. 

The ability to keep one's attention fixed on parts of the body, such as 
out-breath and in-breath, for one or two hours takes one to the culmina- 
tion of one's work in seven days, or fifteen days, or a month, or two 
months, or three months, or four months, or five months, or six months, 
or a year, or two years, or three years, according to the intensity of 
one's efforts. For the method of practising out-breathing and in-breathing, 
see my Anapana Dipani. 

There are many books by past teachers on the method of the thirty - 
two parts of the body. In this method, kesa (hair of the head), loma 
(hair of the body), nakha (nails), danta (teeth), taco (skin) are known as 
taca-pancaka (group ending with taco as the fifth). If attention can be 
firmly fixed on these five, the work of kayagata-sati is accomplished. 

For catu-dhatu-vavatthana (analysis of the four great primaries), riipa- 
vipassana (contemplation of physical phenomena), and nama-vipassana 
(contemplation of mental phenomena), see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijja- 
Magga Dipani, Ahara Dipani, and Anatta Dipani. 

Here ends a concise explanation of kayagtasati-bhavana, which is one 
of the four satipatthana, and which has to be established first in the 
work of bhavana (mental contemplation) by neyya and padaparama in- 
dividuals for the purpose of attaining the Paths and the Fruits within a 
Buddha Sasana. 

Here ends satipatthana. 



316 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 



The Four Sammappadhana 

The definition of sammappadhana is: 

Bhusam dhahati vahatiti padhanam, 
Sammadeva padhanam sammappadhanam. 

(Can carry out exceedingly: hence it is called pad nana. Dhamma that 
can carry out properly and exceedingly: hence they are called sammappa- 
dhana.) 

Effort that has not in it any element of unwillingness is called sam- 
mappadhana. It is also called atapa-viriya. It is effort that can evoke 
the taking of great pains physically and mentally. It is effort that pos- 
sesses four characteristics. These four characteristics are: 

Kamarh taco ca nharu ca, 

Atthi ca avasissatu. 

Sarire upasussatu mamsalohitarh, 

Yam tarn purisathamena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena 

pattabbam, 
Na tarn apapunitva viriyassa santhanam bhavissati. 1 

(Let only my skin, and sinews, and bones remain, and let my flesh 
and blood in the body dry up, I shall not permit the course of my effort 
to stop until I win that which may be won by human ability, human 
effort and human exertion.) 

These characteristics may be summed up as follows: 

1. let the skin, remain 

2. let the sinews remain 

3. let the bones remain 

4. let the flesh and blood dry up. 

It is effort that calls forth the determination 'If the end is attainable 
by human effort, I shall not rest or relax until it is attained, until the 

1. Ariguttara-Nikaya, Duka-Nipata, 9 Upannata Sutta p. 53, 6th Syn. Edn. 



The Four Sammappadhana 317 

end is grasped and reached.' It is the effort of the kind put forth by 
the Venerable Bhikkhu Sona 2 and the Venerable Cakkhupala. s 

It is only when the jhana, the Paths, and the Fruits are not attained 
after effort is put forth on this scale, as prescribed by the Buddha, through- 
out one's life, can it be said that the cause (of the failure) lies in the 
nature of the present times, or in one being dvi-hetuka (born with two 
root conditions only), or in one's lack of sufficient previously accumulat- 
ed parami. 

In this world, some persons, far from putting forth the full scale of 
the effort prescribed by the Buddha, do not even try to set up kayaga- 
tii-sati effectively in order to cure their minds of aimless drifting, and 
yet they say that their failure to attain the Paths and the Fruits is due 
to the fact that these are times that preclude such attainment. There 
are others of the same class who say that men and women of the pre- 
sent day have not the necessary accumulation of parami to enable them 
to attain the Paths and the Fruits. There are yet others of the same 
class who say that men and women of the present clay are dvi-hetuka. 
All these people say so because they do not know that these are times 
of the neyya class of individuals who fail to attain the Paths and the 
Fruits because they are lacking in sammappadhana effort. 

If proper sammappadhana effort be put forth with pahitatta intention, 
where a thousand put forth effort, three, four or five hundred of Lheni 
can attain the supreme achievement; if a hundred put forth effort, thirty, 
forty, or fifty of them can attain the supreme achievement. Here, pahi- 
tatta intention means 'determination to adhere to the effort throughout 
one's life and to die, if need be, while still making the effort.' 

The Venerable Sona Thera's effort consisted of keeping awake through- 
out the three months of the vassa (rainy season), the only body pos- 
tures adopted being sitting and walking. The Venerable Cakkhupala's 
effort was of the same order. The Venerable Phussadeva Thera 4 achieved 
the Paths and the Fruits only after twenty-five years of the same order 

2. Vinaya Pitaka, Mahavagga, V ]3, 1-10. 267, 6th Syn. Edn. 

Sammohavinodani Atthakatha. page 262, 6th Syn. Edn. 
3 Dhammpada, p. 2.. 6th. Syn. Edn. 
1. Silakkhandha-vagga Atthakatha p. 159, 6th Syn. Edn. 

Mula-panncisa Atthakatha, Satipatlhiina Sutta Vannana, p. 262, 6th Syn. Edn. 



318 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanl 

of effort. In the case of the Venerable Mahasiva 5 Thera, the effort lasted 
thirty years. 

At the present day, there is a great need for such kind of sammap- 
padhana effort. It happens that those who put forth the effort have not 
sufficient foundations in the pariyatti (learning of the doctrine), while 
those who possess sufficient pariyatti foundations live involved in the 
palibodha (obstacles) of the business of bhikkhus, according as they live 
in towns and villages, such as discussing the Dhamma, delivering sermons 
and discourses, and writing books on the Dhamma. They are persons 
who are unable to put forth sammappadhana effort for lengthy periods 
without a break. 

Some persons are wont to say that when their parami become mature 
and the time becomes ripe for them to attain release from worldly ills 
they can easily obtain that release and that as such, they cannot put 
forth effort now when they are not certain whether of not that effort 
will result in release. They do not appear to compare the suffering oc- 
casioned by thirty years' effort now with the suffering they will encoun- 
ter if, in the interim before they attain release, they are cast in the hell 
regions for a hundred thousand years. They do not appear to remember 
that the suffering occasioned by thirty years' effort is not as bad as the 
suffering caused by just three hours in the hell regions. 

They may say that the situation will be the same if no release is at- 
tained after thirty years' effort. But if the person is sufficiently mature 
for release, he will attain that release through that effort. If he is not 
sufficiently mature, he will attain release in the next life. Even if he 
fails to attain release within the present Buddha Sasana, bhavana-acinna- 
kamma (the kamma of repeated efforts at mental development) is a 
powerful kamma. Through it he can avoid the apaya regions and can 
meet, the next Buddha after continuous rebirths in the sugati existence 
(happy course of existence). In the case of those who do not put forth 
the effort, they will miss the opportunity of release even though they 
are mature enough to obtain release through thirty years' effort. For 
lack of effort they have nothing to gain and everything to lose. Let all, 
therefore, acquire the eye of wisdom, and beware of the danger. 

5. Digha-Nikfiya, Mahavajjga Auhakatha, Saka Panha Sutta, p 319, 6th Syn. End. 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Akusala Kamma 319 

There are four kinds of sammappadhana,6 namely: 

1. uppannanarh akusalanarh .dhammanarh' pahanaya vayamo, 

2. anuppannanarh akusalanarh dhamanam anuppadaya vayamo, 

3. anuppannanarh kusalanarh dhammanarh uppadaya vayamo, 

4. uppannanarh kusalanarh dhammanarh bhiyyobhaya vayamo. 

1. effort to overcome or reject evil unwholesome acts that have arisen, 
or are in the course of arising; 

2. effort to avoid (not only in this life but also in the lives that 
follow) the arising of unwholesome acts that have not yet arisen; 

3. effort to arouse the arising of wholesome acts that have not yet 
arisen; 

4. effort to increase and to perpetuate the wholesome acts that have 
arisen or are in the course of arising. 

Uppanna And Anuppanna Akusala Kamma 

In the personality of every being wandering in sarhsara (round of 
rebirths) there are two kinds of akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional 
actions), namely: 

1. uppanna akusala kamma 

2. anuppanna akusala kamma. 

Uppanna akusala kamma means past and present akusala kamma. 
They comprise unwholesome volitional actions committed in the intermin- 
able series of past world-cycles and past lives. Among these akusala 
kamma, there are some that have spent themselves by having produced 
rebirths in the apaya-loka. There are others that await the opportunity 
of producing rebirths in the apaya-loka, and thus constitute potentialities 
for rebirth in the apaya-loka that accompany beings from world-cycle to 
world-cycle and from life to life. 

Every being in whom sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief) resides, be he 
a human being, or a deva, or a Brahma, possesses an infinitely large 
store of such past debts, so to say, consisting of akusala kamma (un- 
wholesome volitional actions) that have in them the potentiality of produc- 

6. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Patisambhida-Magga, Maha-Vagga, p. 214, 6th Syn. Edn. 
Ariguttara-Nikaya, Catukka-Nipata, Padhana Sutta. p. 322, 6th Syn. Edn. 
Abhidhammattha Sarigaha, Samuccaya-Kanda Padhana. 



320 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

ing rebirths in the lowest Avici Hell. Similarly, there are infinite stores 
of other kamma capable of producing rebirths in the other apaya-loka. 
These past kamma which await a favourable opportunity for producing 
rebirth resultants and which accompany beings from life to life until 
they are expended, are called uppanna. 

These past uppanna akusala kamma have their roots in sakkaya- 
ditthi (personality- belief). As long as sakkaya-ditthi exists they are not 
expended without producing resultants. There is no case of past kamma 
expending itself without producing due resultants. But when, with 
insight into the anatta-lakkhana (characteristic of impersonality), one 
rids oneself of sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief), from that instant all 
the uppanna akusala kamma lose their potentiality and disappear from 
the store of past akusala karnma. From that existence, one will no 
longer become subject to rebirth in the apaya-loka in future samsara, 
even in one's dreams. 

Anuppanna akusala kamma means future akusala kamma. Beginning 
with the next instant in this life, all the new evil and unwholesome acts 
that one commits, whenever opportunity occurs in the course of this 
present life and in the succession of lives that are to follow, are called 
anuppanna. These new akusala duccarita kamma (evil and unwholesome 
volitional actions) that one can commit even during a single lifetime 
can be infinite in number. 

All these anuppanna akusala kamma have their origin in sakkaya- 
ditthi. 

If at any time sakkaya-ditthi disappears, all the new anuppanna 
akusala kamma also disappear, even at that instant, from the personality 
of the beings concerned, leaving no residue. Here, 'disappear' means 
that there will be no occasion, starting from the next instant, in future 
succession of lives and future succession of world-cycles, when new 
akusala kamma are perpetrated. Throughout future anamatagga-samsara 
(beginningless round of rebirths), those beings will not commit, even in 
their dreams, any akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional action) such 
as panatipata (killing any living being). 

If sakkaya-ditthi remains, even though the being is a universal monarch 
exercising sway over the whole universe, he is, as it were, sandwiched 
between hell-fires in front and hell-fires at the back, and is thus hedged 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Akusala Kamma 321 

in between the two akusala kamma of uppanna and anuppanna. He is 
thus purely a creature of hell-heat. Similarly, the kings of the deva 
Ioka, Sakka, the king of the tavatimsa-deva-loka, the Brahmas of the 
rupa and arupa brahma-loka, are all purely creatures of hell-heat. They 
are creatures that are hitched on to the chains of hell and the apaya 
regions. In the great whirlpool of sarhsara, ihey are purely creatures 
who drift or sink. 

In the infinitely long sarhsara, beings -have to cultivate the desire for 
encountering a Buddha Sasana, which is an extremely difficult achieve- 
ment. Hedged in as they are, from before and behind, by the hell-fires 
of uppanna and anuppanna akusala kamma, they have to cultivate 
earnestly the desire to extinguish those fires once and for all. Hence, 
those beings who do encounter Buddha Sasanas have to make the ex- 
tinguishing of the hell-fires of uppanna and anuppanna their sole task 
for their future welfare. 

The task of extinguishing the akusala kamma of uppanna and anup- 
panna consists of ridding oneself of sakkaya-ditthi and no more. If sak- 
kaya-ditthi is uprooted, the two akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional 
actions) are entirely extinguished. 

' Bon-sin -san' 7 Sotabannas, like Visakha and Anathapindika, who are 
infinitely numerous among humans, devas, and Brahmas, are beings who 
have obtained release from the state of sinking and drifting in the great 
whirlpool of sarhsara (round of rebirths) from the moment sakkaya-ditthi 
was uprooted. They are beings who have attained the first stage of 
Nibbana called sa-upadisesa-nibbana (Nibbana with the five constituent 
groups of existence remaining). Although they are liable to wander in 
the round of rebirths for many more lives and many more world-cycles, 
they are no longer worldly beings. Having become 'bon-sin-san' ariyas 
(noble ones), they are beings of the lokuttara (supramundane sphere). 

Here ends the part showing uppanna and anuppanna akusala kamma 
from which sotapannas have obtained their release. 

Uppanna And Anuppanna Kusala Kamma: 

I shall now show the division of kusala kamma (wholesome volitional 
actions) into uppanna and anuppanna, first with reference to the three 

7. Beings who are bound to attain higher and higher stages of sanctity. 



322 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

sasanasof sila (morality), samadhi (concentration), and panna (wisdom), 
and second with reference to the seven visuddhi of sila-visuddhi, citta- 
visuddhi, ditthi-visuddhi, kankha-vitaranavisuddhi, magga-magga-riana- 
dassana-visuddhi, palipada-riana-dassana-visuddhi, and lokuttara-nana- 
dassana-visuddhi. 8 

When it is said that samsara (round of rebirths) is very terrifying, it 
is because of the duccarita (evil deeds) of uppanna and anuppanna which 
have ditthi (wrong views) as their root. When it is said that there is 
no hiding place, no haven, nowhere on which one can depend, it is be- 
cause of the self-same duccarita and ditthi. 

When ditthi is extinguished, both old and new duccarita are also ex- 
tinguished. When old and new duccarita are extinguished, release from 
the samsara of apaya-loka is attained, and only exalted stages in the 
states of humans, devas, and Brahmas remain. Since beings have to 
cultivate the desire for an encounter with a Buddha Sasana in order to 
secure release from the apaya samsara together with old and new duc- 
carita, now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana in this ex- 
istence, it behooves them to make the attempt of extinguishing the great 
evil of ditthi. 

Ditthi is established in beings in three layers: 

1. vitikkama 

2. pariyutthana 

3. a unsay a. 9 

These layers are the realm of sakkaya-diuhi. They may be called 
coarse, middling, and fine ditthi. 

I shall now show how the offsprings of ditthi, the ten duccarita, 
enter into ditthi. 

The coarse ditthi of vitikkama comprises the akusala kamma com- 
mitted through overt acts and speech. The middling ditthi of pariyutthana 
comprises the evils that occur in thoughts. Anusaya-ditthi is the evil 
that lies latent in the personalities of beings throughout anamatagga- 
samsara though it may not yet result in manifestations of acts, speech, 
or thoughts. 

8. Please see the Light of Dhamma, Vol. VII-No. 1. p. 18 

9. Please see the Liyht of the Dhamma Vol. VI-No. 4, p. 17. 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Kusala Kamma 323 

It may be said that there are three kinds of fire in a match-box. The 
first is the fire that lies latent in the whole box of matches. The second 
is the fire that ignites the match stick when it is struck. The third is 
the fire that is transferred to another object when it is brought in con- 
tact with the flame of the match stick. Such a fire is that which burns 
rubbish heaps, clothes, houses, monasteries and villages. 

This fire, the fire that is transferred to another object, resembles the 
coarse vitakkama-ditthi. The fire that burns the match stick resembles 
the middling pariyutthana ditthi which is manifested in the mind every 
time it comes in contact with objects of thought. The fire that is latent 
in the box of matches resembles the fine anusaya-ditthi that resides in 
the personalities of beings throughout the succession of lives in anama- 
tagga-samsara. 

This fire that lies latent in the box of matches does not burst into 
flame so long as the match head is not rubbed with the nitrous surface 
of the match-box. It does not cause any harm even if it be kept in 
contact with highly inflammable articles such as gunpowder. In the 
same way, the anusaya-ditthi lies latent in the personality and does not 
manifest itself so long as it does not come into contact with evil objects 
of thought or other causes of evil. When, however, evil objects of thought 
or other causes impinge on the six sense-doors, the anusaya-ditthi is 
disturbed and begins to make itself manifest in the mind-door, or in the 
plane of the pariyutthana through the function of volition. If at that 
time the manifestations can be suppressed by good doctrines, they dis- 
appear from the pariyutthana plane and return to the anusaya plane and 
reside there as latent natural tendencies. If they cannot be suppressed, 
they continue to manifest themselves as developing volitions. If they are 
further disturbed (in the pariyutthana plane), they manifest themselves 
in the vitikkama plane in the form of evil speech or evil acts. 

In this world, if a person can control himself in the vitikkama and 
pariyutthana planes, and if thereby his acts, speech, and thoughts are, 
so to say, clean and unsoiled, he is called a good, pious, or moral man. 
But such a person is not aware of the anusaya plane. If the anusaya 
plane is not destroyed, even if perfect control is exercised over the vitik- 
kama and pariyutthana planes, such control can only be of a temporary 
nature. If the person is strong in the observance of good principles, the 



324 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipan! 

control can last for the whole of this life. Bat there can be no certainty 
about the next life, when upheavals in these two planes may recur. 

Lobha (greed), dosa (hatred), and moha (delusion) also have each of 
them three planes. 

In order to destroy these three planes oi ditthi completely, men have 
to put forth effort in the three sikkha (trainings) of sila (morality), 
samadhi (concentration), and panna (wisdom). They have to practise 
the seven visuddhi (purifications). 

As far as layfolk are concerned, sila means ajivatthamaka-sila which 
is nicca-sila for them. The atthanga-uposatha-sila and dasaiiga-sila add 
refinement to nicca-sila. It is a good thing to be able to observe them, 
but it does not matter much if they cannot be observed. For those 
people who assume the yellow garb of Isis 10 the ajivatthamaka-sila and 
dasaiiga-sila consitute sila. The atthanga-uposatha-sila is included in 
the dasaiiga-sila. For bhikkhus, the catuparisuddhi-sila 11 constitutes sila. 

The parikamma-bhavana, upacara-bhavana, and appana (also called 
the eight samapatti 12 ), which arise out of mindfulness in the body (such 
as in out-breath and in-breath), and in the bones of the body, constitute 
samadhi. 

The four lokiya (mundane) visuddhi 1 - 5 beginning with ditthi- visuddhi, 
together with lokuttara (supramundane) nanadassana visuddhi constitute 
panna. 

Among the three planes of ditthi, sila can destroy the vitikkama plane. 
This means that if one possesses sila-visuddhi, upheavals in acts and 
speech cannot occur. Samadhi can destroy the ditthi in the pariyutthana 
plane. This means that if bbavana manasikara (concentration on the objects 
oi meditation) is firmly established, upheavals. in thought cannot occur. 
Panna destroys the ditthi in the anusaya plane. This means that if 
insight is obtained into the entire body avS mere groups of nama and rupa 

10. Hermits; recluses; rishis. 

11. The same as bhikkhu-sila. Please see the Light of the Dhamma. Vol. Vll-No. 1. 
p. 15. 

12. Sustained consciousness of the form-sphere and the formless-sphere- 

13. 1. Ditthi. visuddhi (purification of view); 

2. Karikhavitarana-visuddhi (purifcation by overcoming doubt); 

3. Maga-magga-fianadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision of 
what is and what is not Path); 

4. Patipadananadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision the way' 1 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Kusala Kamma 325 

and as anicca, dukkha and anatta groups, the latent store of ditthi that 
may manifest itself in views of 'personality' (puggala), living being' 
(satta), 'permanency' (nicca), 'pleasure' (sukha), 'self (atta) disappears. 
So long as this ditthi-anusaya exists, the destruction of the vitikkama 
plane by sila, and of the pariyutthana plane by samadhi, can be no 
more than temporary. 
In the division of uppanna and anuppanna there are two methods: 

1. division based on this life as the starting point 

2. division based on past infinite samsara as the starting point. 

I shall now show the method of division based on this life as the 
starting point. In those who have never undertaken to keep sila in 
this life, there is no uppanna sila. In those who at one time or other 
in this life have undertaken to keep sila, such sila is uppanna. In 
the same way, in the cases of samadhi and panna, what was attained 
in the past is uppanna, and what had never been attained in the past is 
anuppanna. 

In the method of division based on past samsara as the starting point, 
there are two kinds of sila: lokiya-sila and lokuttara-sila. Lokiya-sila 
is uppanna, because there is no being who at one time or other in the 
past samsara has not undertaken to keep lokiya-sila. Lokuttara-sila, as 
far as puthujjana are concerned, is anuppanna. 

Samadhi, also, is of two kinds: lokiya and lokuttara. Since lokiya- 
samadhi had been attained on many occasions by beings in the past 
samsara, it is uppanna. Lokuttara-samadhi, as far as puthujjana are 
concerned, is anuppanna. 

Panna, also, is of two kinds: lokiya and lokuttara. Ditthi-visuddhi, 
kaiikha-vitarana-visuddhi, magga-magga-nana-dasana-visuddhi, and pati- 
pada-fiana-dassana-visuddhi are lokiya-pariiia. These lokiya-panna are 
uppanna to those who have encountered Buddha Sasanas in the past, 
and anuppanna to those who have never encountered any Buddha 
Sasana. Lokuttara-hana-dassana-visuddhi is lokuttara-panna. As far as 
puthujjana are concerned, lokuttara- panna is anuppanna, since it had 
never at any time been attained in past samsara. 

I shall now show the four points of viriya (effort). 

The opportunity of ridding oneself completely of old uppanna akusala 
kamma arises only when one encounters a Buddha Sasana. The oppor- 



326 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

tunity of preventing the appearance of new akusala kamma in the 
series of existences that are to follow, is also one that can arise only 
when one encounters a Buddha Sasana. Even though one's sarhsara be 
infinitely long, if one does not encounter a Buddha Sasana, no opportunity 
of ridding oneself of these two classes of akusala kamma can arise. 
This is because the business of ridding oneself of these two akusala 
kamma is identical with the business of destroying the anusaya plane 
of sakkayaditthi. And, the destruction of the anusaya plane of ditthi 
is the work of anatta-bhavana, which appears only when a Buddha 
Sasana appears. 

Those beings who are destined to be Pacceka-Buddhas (solitary Buddhas) 
had acquired first the seeds of anatta-bhavana during their encounter 
with a Buddha Sasana. When there is no Buddha Sasana in the world, 
even the mere sound of anatta is not heard. And, by 'the sound of 
anatta' is meant the sound of rupa, khandha, ayatana, dhatu, and paticca- 
samuppada. The whole of the Abbidhamma Pitaka is replete with the 
sound of anatta. So is the whole of Abhidhammattha-sahgaha. 

The work of anatta-bhavana consists, first, of fulfilling sila-visuddhi, 
then of setting up kayagata-sati, and after tranquillizing and controlling 
one's madly tempestuous and unstable mind, of putting forth effort in 
the work of samatha and vipassana. It is only when the plane of ditthi- 
anusaya is destroyed through such ef tort that all the uppanna and anup- 
panna miccha-ditthi and the duccarita 'disappear. 

The effort to cause the appearance in one's personality of kusala kam- 
ma which have not appeared before, and the effort to fix in one's 
personality the kusala kamma that have already appeared, consist of 
attempting the successful completion of anatta-bhavana after the estab- 
lishment of kayagata-sati. 

Uppanna And Anuppanna Sila 

Anuppanna-sila, which has never occurred to puthujjana in the past 
infinite sarhsara, consists of sammavaca, sammakammanta, and samma- 
ajiva, which are comprised in sotapatti-magga and which have Nibbana 
as their object. This sila destroys the evil acts manifesting themselves 
in action, speech, and wrong modes of earning a living. From the moment 
that this destruction takes place, the evils appearing in the form of ac- 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Sila 327 

tions, speech, and modes of living do not appear again even for an 
instant throughout the succession of many lives and many world-cycles 
that follow. 

This class of lokuttara-sila is achieved only when anatta-bhavana is 
successfully practised. Beings must attempt to achieve this anuppana- 
sila while yet within a Buddha Sasana. It is meant by this that from 
the moment of setting up sila-visuddhi (together with kayagata-sati) up 
to the successful completion of anatta-bhavana, beings must attempt 
(without relaxation) to practise the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. 

Uppanna-sila, which has often occurred in past infinite samsara, means 
lokiya-sila or kamavacara-sila. 14 When it is said that attempt must be 
made to attain the state of fixation of that sila, it must be understood 
that there are two planes of lokiya-sila: niyama and aniyama. 15 The 
state of an ariya is that of the niyama plane, while the state of a of a 
puthujjana is that of the aniyama plane. 

The kamavacara-lokiya-sila attains the niyama plane in the person- 
alities of sotapannas. Ariyas who are sotapannas do not transgress the 
ajivatthamaka-sila even in their dreams throughout the series of lives 
and world cycles that follow until the final attainment of Parinibbana. 

In the case of puthujjana, however, the kamavacara-lokiya-sila is 
still in the aniyama plane. These persons have been virtuous and moral 
lay individuals on an infinite number of occasions in the past. They 
have also suffered in the apaya loka countless number of times. They 
have been virtuous Isis and bhikkhus on other infinite number of occa- 
sions. In all their past existences, however, they have never been free 
from the danger of liability to rebirth in the apaya loka. Even now, 
the number of beings in the apaya loka is infinite and the number of 
humans, devas and Brahmas, on the brink of being born in the apaya 
loka is infinite. 

Hence, beings possessing kamavacara-lokiya-sila, which is still aniyama, 
and which, so to say, resides in them for a temporary moment, should 
attempt, while there is yet opportunity within a Buddha Sasana, to trans- 
form it into niyama. They should set up kayagata-sati, and having 

14, Morality relating to the sensuous sphere, 

15. Niyama: stable; unchangeable, 
aniyama: unstable; changeable. 



328 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

done so, should practise the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until the function 
of anatta-bhavana is successfully completed. 
This completes the two sila kusala kamma. 

Uppanna And Anuppanna Samadhi 

Samadhi also has two planes: niyama and aniyama. Similarly, there 
are two planes of panna: niyama and aniyama. 

Appana-samadhi, which is identical with the eight or nine samapatti 16 
as the case may be, becomes niyama only when one attains the anagami 
stage. The panna that carries the tadi 17 quality becomes niyama only 
at the stage of an arahant. 

I shall now show the samadhi and panna that sotapannas achieve. In 
accordance with the discourse in the Maha Vedalla Sutta, 1 ^ wherein it is 
said: 

Yo ca visakha samma-vayamo ya ca samma-sati yo ca samma- 
sarnadhi, ime dhamma samadhikkhandhe sangahita. 

Samma-vayama (right effort), sammasati (right mindfulness) and sam- 
ma-samadhi (right concentration), which are comprised within sotapatti- 
magga (path of a stream- winner) having Nibbana as object, are called 
lokuttara-samadhi (supramundane concentration). 

These three samadhi can extinguish, once and for all, that is by 
samuccheda-pahana, 19 the mental evils of abhijjha (covetousness) and 
byapada (ill-will), which have miccha-vayama (wrong effort), miccha-sati 
(wrong mindfulness), and miccha-samadbi (wrong concentration), as their 
roots. From the instant they are extinguished, the mental evils of abhij- 
jha and byapada do not arise again throughout the many lives and world - 
cycles that may follow. It is the kind of samadhi that can be achieved 
only within a Buddha Sasana, when only appears anatta-bhavana. Hence, 
now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana, beings should endea- 

16. Eight samapatti are eight sustained consciousness of the form-sphere and the 
formless-sphere. Nine samapatti are the above eighf samapatti and nirodha- 
samapatti (total suspension of mind). 

17. Tadi: That cannot be influenced by the ups and downs of life. 

18. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikaya, Mulapannasa-Maha Vedalla Sutta, p. 365 
Synod Edition. 

19. Overcoming by destruction; eradication. 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Samadhi 329 

vour to achieve anuppanna-samadhi without fail, before they become 
severed from the sasana. This means that, beginning with kayagata- 
sati, ihey should practise the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until they attain 
the successful culmination of anatta-bhavana. 

Upanna-samadhi, which has occurred countless number of times 
in infinite past samsara, consists of kamavacara-samadhi, rupavacara- 
samadhi and arupavacara-samadhi. When it is saio 1 that attempt must 
be' made to make uppanna-samadhi niyama, it must be understood that 
there are two planes in lokiya-samadhi: niyama and aniyama. The 
lokiya-samma-vayama, samma-sati and samma- samadhi, with which 
ariyas are endowed, are established in the niyama plane. The duccarita 
such as abhijjba and byapada do not arise in them even in dreams 
throughout the succession of lives and world -cycles that follow until the 
final attainment of Parinibbana. 

The group of lokiya-samadhi with which puthujjana are endowed 
is in the aniyama plane. In the infinite past samsara, these persons 
have been men of samadhi, Isis of samadhi, and bhikkhus of samadhi, 
endowed with jhana and powers, such as the ability to fly through the air 
or go through the earth, during an infinite number of existences. In the 
life-period of every world-system, there are four kappa (world-cycles), 
each of infinite length. In three of these kappa, these puthujjana have 
been Brahmas in the brahma-loka. In every one of these world-systems, 
there have also appeared the apaya loka. These apaya loka have been 
filled by these self-same Brahmas and no other. These puthujjana have 
been Brahmas, petas, beings of hell, animals and asuras. In the infinitely 
long samsara, the life-period of each of these world-systems is like but 
the period of the twinkling of an eye. 

Thus, it behooves us all to endeavour to transform the aniyama lokiya 
samma- vayama, samma-sati and samma-samadhi (which we temporarily 
acquired in the past on many countless occasions) to niyama, while there 
is yet opportunity now when we are in the midst of a Buddha Sasana. 
We must, after first setting up kayagata-sati, practise the bodhipakkhiya- 
dhamma until the successful completion of anatta-bhavana. 

This ends the two samadhi kusala kamma. 



330 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

Uppanna And Anuppanna Panna 

In accordance with the discourse in the Maha Vedalla Sutta, wherein 
it is said: 

Ya ca visakha samma-dilthi yoca samma-sarikappo ime dhamma 
paririakkhandhe sarigahita. 

Samma-ditthi (right view) and samma-sankappa (right thinking), which 
are comprised in sotapatti-magga having Nibbana as their object, are 
called panna. This panna destroys the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi 
completely, and dispels by samuccheda-pahana every vestige of miccha- 
ditthi and miccha-sankappa, together with the duccarita and durajiva, 20 
once and for all. The old store of duccarita kamma also disappears com- 
pletely. Release is obtained from the apaya samsara. From this instant, 
the evils of miccha-ditthi and the duccarita do not make an appearance 
throughout the series of future existences and future world-cycles. 

This panna appears only during a Buddha Sasana when anatta-bhavana 
appears. Hence, now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana, beings 
should endeavour to attain this anuppanna-panfia before they become 
severed from the sasana. This means that, starting with kayagata-sati, 
they should practise the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until they attain the 
successful culmination of anatta-bhavana. 

The kinds of panna that have often occurred in the past infinite samsara 
are kammassakata-samma-ditthi, all kinds of kamavacar a knowledge and 
wisdom, and abhirma, 21 such as dibba-cakkhu (the celestial eye) and 
dibba-sota (the celestial ear). 

When it is said that effort must be made to transform this panna into 
niyama, it must be understood that there are two planes in lokiya-panna: 
niyama and aniyama. 

The lokiya samma-ditthi and samma-sahkappa of ariyas are established 
in the niyama plane. From the moment they are thus established, and 
throughout the series of lives that follow until they attain Parinibbana 
they are in possession of kammassakata-samma-ditthi-nana (knowledge 
of right view of the fact that all beings have kamma only as their own 
property), pariyatti-nana (knowlege of the doctrine), patipatti-nana (know- 

20. Wrong livelihood. 

21. Higher psychic powers. 



Uppanna And Anuppanna Paiifia 331 

ledge of practice of the dhamma), and knowledge of the Four Noble 
Truths. 

The lokiya panna which puthujjana possess is, however, established 
in the aniyama plane. In the series of existences of these puthujjana 
wandering in infinite samsara, they have sometimes been learned in the 
Dhamma, sometimes have acquired fame in their learning, sometimes 
have been great theras and great physicians, while at other times they 
have also been cockles, snails,, worms, leeches, lice, bugs, maggots, ticks, 
etc.— creatures that could just be said to be alive. 

Hence, while the opportunity of an encounter with a Buddha Sasana 
offers itself, effort must be made to transform the aniyama-panna (which 
is but a temporary or momentary acquisition) into niyama-panria. This 
means that, starting with kayagata-sati, the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma 
should be practised until the successful attainment of anatta-bhavana. 

This ends the two panna kusala kamma. 

So long as the realm of sakkaya-ditthi (personality -belief), which has 
been continuously established in our personalities throughout the past 
infinite samsara, is not destroyed, the defilements such as lobha (greed), 
dosa (hatred), and moha (delusion), remain keen, numerous and strong. 
As such they may be said to be permanent native inhabitants resident 
within our bodies. In such circumstances, sila (morality), samadhi (con- 
centration) and panna (wisdom), which are the enemies of these defile- 
ments, are like occasional alien visitors. Their visitation resembles the 
trespassing of enemy aliens into the kingdom of the ogre Alavaka, 22 
inhabited by wild and powerful ogres. Before long, these alien invaders 
become the food of these ogres, and their alien settlements are destroyed. 
On one occasion, five hundred Isis with jhana attainments came from 
the Himalaya regions to the mansion of Alavaka, but the ogres seized 
them one by one by their legs and threw them across the river Ganges. 
And thus the five hundred Isis were destroyed. 

Hence, those laymen, Isis and bhikkhus, who have encountered a 
Buddha Sasana in this life, who desire to rid themselves of evils in their 
future existences, and who wish to fix the Dhamma such as sila-visuddhi 
(purification of virtue) permanently in their personalities, should practise 

Z'd. Samyutta Atthakatha, Yakkha Samyutta, Ajavaka Sutta Vanijana, p. 289. 6th Syn. 
Edn. 



332 Bodhipakkhiya-DlpanI 

the satipatthana appropriately with sammappadhana effort in order thus 
to destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi. 

If they desire to free themselves from the insane and wild mind such 
as is possessed by the mad man, the incapable boatman, the man afflicted 
with hydrophobia, and the sick man who vomits his medicines (in the 
illustrations given under satipatthana), and if they desire to fix their 
samadhi or transform it to niyama so as to enable them to keep their 
attention tranquil, steady, and fixed on any kammatthana object at will, 
they should practise the satipatthana appropriately with sammappadhana 
energy in order thus to destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi. 

If they desire to free themselves from the sammoha-dhamma (delusion) 
which can cast them into the utter darkness of the absence of wisdom, 
and which can extirpate all feelings of respect and reverence that they 
have harboured towards the infinite and noble qualities of the Buddha, 
the Dhamma and the Ariya Sangha, as also of the establishments of the 
sasana, leaving no traces in the existences that follow; if they desire to 
rid themselves of the great miccha-dhamma that have led them in the 
past infinite samsara to approach, respect, and pay reverence to all 
manner of spurious Buddhas, because as puthujjana they were not in 
a position to know the true Buddha, the true Dhamma, and the true 
Sangha; if they desire to attain, in the series of existences and world- 
cycles beginning with the present, that faith known as adhigama-saddha,23 
and that wisdom know as adhigama-panna, 24 by virtue of which they 
can continue to evoke respect and reverence without let or hindrance 
for the true Buddha, the true Dhamma, and the true Sangha; and if they 
desire to transform them to the niyama plane, they must practise the 
satipatthana appropriately with sammappadhana energy with a view to 
destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi. Here, the appropriate prac- 
tice of sammappadhana means that energy accompanied by the determi- 
nation which says: 'Let the skin remain; let the bones remain; etc' 
Here ends sammappadhana. 

23. Firmly established saddha (faith). 

24. Firmly established wisdom. 



The Four Iddhipady 333 

IV 
The Four Iddhipada 

I shall now give a brief description of iddhipada. 

Ijjhanarh iddhi, (ijjhanariv completeness; iddhi: completeness) (The state 
of reaching completeness or perfection). 

(Note:— The PTS Dictionary says: 'There is no single word for iddhi 
as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be potency.' 
—Translator.) 

In the Buddha Sasana there are five iddhi. They are: 

1. Abhinneyyesu dhammesu abhinnasiddhi 

2. Parinneyyesu dhammesu parinfiasiddhi 
3 Pahatabbesu dhammesu pahanasiddhi 

4. Sacchikatabbesu dhammesu sacchikiriyasiddhi 

5. Bhavetabbesu dhammesu bhavanasiddhi. 

1. Completion of or perfection in acquiring special knowledge in 
those things in which special knowledge should be acquired, 
things such as riipa (material phenomena), nama (mental phen- 
omena); 

2. Completion of or perfection in acquiring full understanding in 
those things in which full understanding should be acquired, 
things such as dukkha-sacca (the Noble Truth of Suffering); 

3. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of abandonment 
of those things that should be abandoned, things such as samu- 
daya-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering); 

4. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of realization 
of those things that should be realized, things such as nirodha- 
sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering); 

5. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of development 
or cultivation of those things that should be developed or culti- 
vated, things such as magga-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Path 
Leading to the Cessation of Suffering). 

These are the five essential iddhi within a Buddha Sasana. 
Abhinnasiddhi means: the completion of the task of knowing analyti- 



334 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

cally the number and meaning of the paramattha dhamma (ultimate 
truths) which one had no knowledge of while one was beyond the pale 
of a Buddha Sasana. A thorough knowledge of the Abhidhammattha 
Sangaha (a resume of all the essential doctrines of the Abhidhamma) 
amounts to abhinnasiddhi. 

Parinnasiddhi means: the completion of acquiring full understanding of 
dukkha sacca (the Noble Truth of Suffering) either through a knowledge 
of their lakkhana (characteristics), rasa (functions), paccupatthana (mani- 
festations), and padatthana (proximate causes), or through a knowledge 
of the three characteristics of anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), 
and anatta (impersonality), which they possess. 

Pahanasiddhi means: the completion of the task of destroying the kilesa 
(defilements) which are samudaya sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cause of 
Suffering). In this book, since the main emphasis is placed on the attain- 
ment of the lowest class of sotapannas, namely the 'bon-sin-san' sotapan- 
nas, and not on the higher classes of ariyas (noble ones), the completion 
of the task of destroying sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief) is pahanasiddhi. 
The task of dispelling vicikiccha (sceptical doubt) is comprised within 
the taks of destroying sakkaya-ditthi. 

Sacchikiriyasiddhi means: the completion of the task of realizing nirodha 
sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering) both bodily and 
mentally. This task consists of the suppression and destruction of the 
kilesa (defilements). 

Bhavanasiddhi means: the development of the three sikkha (trainings) 
of sila (morality), samadhi (mental concentration) and pafina (wisdom), 
until the attainment of lokuttara-magga-sacca (supramundane Path 
leading to the cessation of suffering). 

If the iddhi be classified according to the order of the visuddhi, the 
fulfilment of catuparisuddhi-sila in sila-visuddhi constitutes four iddhi. 
In citta-visuddhi, the fulfilment of the eight samapatti together with 
parikamma-samadhi (preparatory concentration) and upacara-samadhi 
(neighbourhood concentration), as the case may be, constitutes eight iddhi. 
The fulfilment of the five lokiya abhinna (mundane higher spiritual 
powers), such as iddhividha-abhinna (supernormal powers), constitutes 
five iddhi. In the panna-visuddhi the fulfilment of ditthi-visuddhi con- 
stitutes one iddhi. In this way, further iddhi may also be recognised. 

Here ends the discussion of iddhi within the sasana. 



Iddhipada 3 35 

Iddhipada 

Iddhiya pado iddhipado (iddhiya: of attaining completion or perfection; 
pado: root or basis. 'The root or basis of attaining completion or perfec- 
tion. Hence it is called iddhipada). 

There are four kinds of iddhipada. They are: 

1. chandiddhipado— chanda 

2. viryaddhipado— viriya 

3. cittiddhipado— citta 

4. vimamsiddhipado— vimamsa or panna. 

By chanda is meant desire to obtain, desire to attain, desire to reach, 
desire to fulfil, desire to accomplish. The desire indicated here is extreme 
or excessive desire. There is nothing within or without one's personality 
that can obstruct that desire. It is the kind of desire that evokes the 
thought, 'If I do not attain this accomplishment in this life, I shall not 
rest content. It is better that I die rather than that I shall not attain 
it.' 

It is the kind of desire nurtured by King Dhammasondai of Banaras 
during the time of the Kassapa Buddha, 2 when the king said to himself, 
'What use is there in my being king of Banaras if I do not get the 
opportunity of hearing a discourse of the Kassapa Buddha ? ' The king, 
therefore, relinquished his throne and went out in search of one who 
could repeat to him a discourse of the Kassapa Buddha, no matter though 
that discourse consisted of a short stanza only. 

Such desire is appeased if it is fulfilled as in the case of King Birhbi- 
sara,3 Visakha, and Anathapindika. It is only when there are faint in- 
dications that the desire can be attained but is not fulfilled that the mind 
becomes troubled, and thoughts arise that it is better to die than live 
without attaining the desire. 

Examples of such desire existed also in King Temiya,4 King Hatthipala, 5 
and kings, nobles, and rich men in the time of the Buddha who dis- 

1. Rasavahim (Jambudipuppatti-katha) 

2. Predecessor of Gotama Buddha. 

3. Khuddaka-patha, 7. Tirokutta Sutta, p. 8 6th Syn. Edn. 
Khuddaka-patha Atth^katha, Tirokutta Sutta Vannana p 168. 6th Syn. Edn. 
Visakha and Anathapindika — Dhammapada Commentary Story relating to Verse 1. 

4. Khuddaka-Nikaya. Jataka Pali book II; Mugapakkha Jataka, p. 149, 6th Syn. Edn. 

5. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Jataka Paji book 1. Hatthipala Jataka, p 351, 6th Syn. Edn. 



336 Bodhipakkhiya-Djpani 

carded their palaces, retinue and other luxuries to live the lives of bhik- 
khus in the Buddha Sasana. 

Viriya means sammappadhana viriya together with its four character- 
istics. A person with this viriya is infused with the thought that the 
aim can be attained by energy and effort. He is not discouraged even 
though it is said to him that he must undergo great hardships. He is 
not discouraged even though he actually has to undergo great hardships. 
He is not discouraged even though it is said to him that he must put 
forth effort for many days, months, and years. He is not discouraged 
even though he actually has to put forth effort for such long periods. 

Those who are weak in viriya recoil from their task when confronted 
with work requiring great energy and effort. They shrink when told 
that they will have to stay apart from friends and associates. They shrink 
from the prospect of the necessity to be frugal in sleep and food. They 
shrink from the prospect of long periods of concentration. They resemble 
'white dogs that dare not venture into thickets.' White dogs are afraid 
to enter brushes of reeds that are no more than a cubit high because 
they think that the brushes might harbour leopards, tigers, and elephants. 

Citta means: attachment to iddhi when one comes in contact with the 
sasana and hears the Dhamma. It is attachment that is extremely ardent 
and strong. 

Although one lives amidst the beauties and luxuries of the world, 
amidst acquired powers and fortunes, amidst the sacred books and the 
study of them, one is not allured, but one's mind is always turned 
towards the iddhi. One attains satisfaction and tranquillity only when 
one's mind is absorbed in matters connected with the iddhi. It is like 
the absorption of the alchemist engaged in the transmutation of the 
baser metals into gold or silver. Such an alchemist has no interest in 
anything else but his alchemy. He forgets to sleep or whether he had 
slept or eaten. He does not notice anything when out walking. Citta 
is great absorption or attachment of this nature. 

Vimarhsa means: knowledge or wisdom that can clearly perceive the 
greatness of the sufferings of hell, and of the sufferings attendant on 
the round of rebirths. It is knowledge that can clearly perceive the 
advantages and benefits of the iddhi. It is knowledge that can dwell 
on the deep and difficult dhamma, and on their nature. A person who 
possesses such knowledge can no longer find pleasure in any worldly 



Iddhipada 337 

pursuit except the pursuit of the iddhi. He finds gratification only in 
the acquisition of deep and profound iddhi. The deeper and more pro- 
found the dhamma, the greater is his desire to attain them. 

Those who are endowed with any one of these four iddhipada can no 
longer, during this life, admit or plead inability and remain without 
putting forth effort in the establishment of kayagata-sati, and the higher 
stages of the sasana such as citta-visuddhi, ditthi-visduddhi, etc. It is 
only those who have never possessed any one of these iddhipada, and 
who cannot differentiate between the shallowness and profoundness of 
life, between superficiality and deepness of the dhamma, who admit or 
plead inability and remain without mak ng any endeavour. 

A person endowed with, any one of these four iddhipada can attain, 
according to his parami, the iddhi until he reaches lokuttara (supramun- 
dane) iddhi, either in this life or as a deva in the next life. The cases 
of those endowed with two, or three, or four, iddhi need no lengthy ex- 
planation. 

In the cases of those persons who (far from possessing any of the- 
iddhi) do not even possess any of the iddhipada, they should attempt 
to acquire one or other of these pada. They admit or plead inability 
only because they have not the desire to acquire the higher benefits of 
the sasana, such as the satipatthana. They srnuld regard this very 
admission of inability as a highway to the apayaloka. Thus, they should 
study, think and ponder, over the suttanta discourses that can arouse 
chanda. They should approach a teacher who can arouse chanda and 
rely on him. 

Hence did the Buddha say: 

Chandiddhipadarh bhaveti, 
Viriyiddhipadam bhaveti, 
Cittiddhipadarh bhaveti, 
Vimamsiddhipadarh bhaveti. 6 

(One should put forth effort to develop chanda; one should put forth 
effort. to develop viriya; one should put forth effort to develop citta; and 
one should put forth effort to develop vimamsa.) 

Some persons, far from attaining the iddhi, do not even try to attain 
the iddhipada. If they do not possess chanda, they do not even know 

6. Saihyutta-Nrkfiya, Cfipala-vagga, Samatta. p. 224, 6th Syn. Edn. 



338 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

that it is necessary to acquire chanda. They are persons who admit and 
plead inability and defeat. The same is true in the cases of viriya, citta, 
and vimamsa. 

Steady application of the mind to kayagata-sati amounts to setting up 
pada. Studying the anecdotes dealing with samvega, 7 applying oneself 
to dhutangaS and such other practices of the dhamma, is setting up viriya. 
Applying oneself to profound dhamma, such as the four great primaries 9 
amounts to setting up vimamsa. 

If any one of the pada is established, then it is certain that the re- 
spective iddhi will be attained according to one's parami. Hence, it is 
stated in the commentaries that persons who do not possess any one of 
the iddhipada resemble the sons of a candala, i0 while persons possessing 
any one of the pada resemble the sons of an emperor. The sons of 
candala never aim at becoming an emperor because they have no basis, 
no pada, for the attainment of such an aim. Sons oi emperors, however, 
always aim at becoming emperors because they are endowed with the 
bases for the attainment of such an aim. 

Hence, wise persons of the present day should attempt to acquire the 
four iddhipada so that they can destroy the great establishment of sak- 
kayadi-tthi (personality- belief), and to attain, within the sasana, the bene- 
fits of the higher attainments that can be attained according to one's 
parami. 



V 
The Five Indriya 

Indriya means: 

Indassa kammarh indriyam. 

(Indassa— of the rulers, governors, or controllers; 

7. Samvega: Dread caused by the contemplation on the miseries of this world. 

8. Dhutaiiga: Ascetic practice. 

9. Sarhyutta-Nikaya, Mahavagga Samyutta. 7. Iddhipada Samyutta, 
1. Capala-vagga, 6. Samatta, p 224, 6th Syn. End. 

10 A man of low cla s. 



The Five Indriya 339 

kammarh— act, i.e. act of ruling, governing, or controlling; 
indriyarh— hence called indriya). 

{The act of ruling by rulers. Hence called indriya). 

'The act of ruling by rules' means, wherever the ruler rules, nobody 
can go against him. 

In this matter, the control or rule that one exercises over one's mind 
is the essential factor. 

There are five indriya. They are: 

1. saddhin.driya 

2. viriy indriya 

3. satindriya 

4. samadhindriya 

5. pannindriya. 

Saddhindriya is saddha (faith). There are two kinds of saddha, namely: 

1. pakati-saddha 

2. bhavana-saddha. 

The saddha (faith and confidence) that leads ordinary men and women 
to perform acts of dana (alms-giving), sila (morality), and 'imitation' 
bhavana (mental concentration) is called pakati-saddha. Here, as was 
shown in the case of the mad man, although saddha is said to be a con- 
trolling factor, the control does not extend to the extent of controlling 
the unstable minds of ordinary folk in the work of bhavana. Control is 
exercised over the instability only to the extent of leading to acts of 
dana. 

The mind never leans towards kusala kamma (wholesome volitional 
actions) without saddha, for ordinarily it takes delight only in evil acts. 
This is true also in the case of effort to achieve sila-visuddhi (purifica- 
tion of virtue), and in the study of the sacred texts. This is how pakati 
kusala kamma are produced by the control of pakati-saddha which has 
not been developed. 

In the work of kammatthana (practice of calm and insight), pakati- 
saddha has no control over the mind, for the mind is apt to react and 
rebound from that saddha and proceed elsewhere. In kammatthana work 
pakati-saddha is not sufficient. 



340 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpam 

Bhavana-saddha prepares the seed-bed, so to say, for the acquisition 
of great strength and power through the practice of bhavana, such as 
kammatthana exercises in out-breath and in-breath, etc. 

In the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dbamma, it is this bhavana-saddha 
that is called saddhindriya. In the matter of kammatthana exercises, it 
represents the disappearance of unstable and oscillating mental attention 
and the appearance of a clear and steady mind. The mind's attention 
can be steadily fixed only on those objects which it finds clear and un- 
befogged. The practice of kayagata-s-ati, such as anapana (in-breath and 
out-breath), is the preparation of the seed-bed for bhavana-saddha. If the 
mind is fixed on kayagata-sati, such as out-breath and in-breath, it 
amounts to the attainment of bhavana-saddha. If then the work be 
continued in the fields of samatha and vipassana, the ability to destroy 
the three planes of sakkaya-ditthi can be acquired even within this life. 
The work of samatha and vipassana needs, for their proper performance, 
the reliance on a teacher very learned in the Dhamma. 

Viriyindriya is viriya. There are two kinds, namely: 

1. pakati-viriya 

2. bhavana-viriya. 

Another classification is: 

1. kayika-viriya 

2. cetasika-viriya. 

Pakati-viriya can be easily recognised. Persons who possess excessive 
pakati-viriya in worldly matters can easily attain bhavana-viriya. The 
dhutariga of pmdapatikahga, (the alrns-food-eaier's ascetic practice), 
nesajjikaiiga (the sitter's ascetic practice), rukkhamulikaiiga (the tree- 
root -dweller's ascetic practice), abbhokasikaiiga the open-air dweller's 
ascetic practice), sosanikariga (the cemetery-dweller's ascetic practice) 
are kayika-viriya-bhavana. 

If, after setting up kayika-viriya-bhavana, such as steeping fur short 
periods only and being alert and energetic, there is no cetasika-viriya, 
such as enthusiasm in bhavana manasikara, steady application or con- 
centration cannot be attained in the kammatthana objects, such as on 
out-breath and in-breath, and the period of work is unduly lengthened 
without achieving clearness of mind and peiception. 



The Five Indriya 341 

In any kind of work, it is proper and appropriate only when the 
person performing it obtains quick mastery over it. It is improper if 
the work obtains mastery over the person. By 'the work obtains mastery 
over the person' is meant that the work is done without real energy, as 
a result of which no concrete results appear, and as days and months 
drag on, distaste and tedium in body postures appear, leading to sloth. 
With the appearance of sloth, progress in work slows down, and with 
the slowing down of progress, further sloth develops. The idea then 
appears that it would be better to change the form of the work. Thus 
constant changes in forms of work occur, and thus does work obtain 
mastery over the person lacking viriya. 

In kammatthana work, quick success is obtained only by one endowed 
with both kayika-viriya and cetasika-viriya. From the moment kayagata- 
sati is set up, the viriya that develops day by day is bhavana-viriya, 
and it is this viriya that in the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma is called viriyin- 
driya. It represents the disappearance of sloth and laziness in kammat- 
thana work and the appearance of enthusiasm and energy. The mind 
takes delight in dwelling on objects on which its attention is strong. 
Thence, the task of setting up bhavana-viriya, and graded development, 
is identical with that of saddhindriya. 

Satindriya means, in the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, the 
setting up of kayagata-sati on parts of the body, such as on out-breath 
and in-breath, and the development of bhavana-sati (called satipatthana) 
until the attainment of lokuttara-samma-sati-magga (supramundane right 
mindfulness). 

Samadhindriya and pannindriya may be defined similarly. Samadhin- 
driya dispels the restlessness of the mind when it is applied in the 
work of satipatthana on an object, such as out-breath and in-breath; 
pannindriya dispels confusion and haziness. 

Saddhindriya, viriyindriya, and satindriya, which precede samadhindriya, 
are like those who raise a kingship. They raise the latter until the top- 
most excellence is attained. 

After the setting up of kayagata-sati and the attainment of mastery 
over one's mind, if the samatha road be taken, samadhindriya becomes 
the eight samapatti, while pannindriya becomes the five abhinna 11 

11. The five mundane abhinna are: 

1. iddhividha (supernormal powers), 



342 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpani 

(higher spiritual powers), such as iddhividha (supernormal powers); if 
the vipassana road is taken, samadhindriya becomes sunnata-samadhi 
(emptiness-concentration), animitta-samadhi (conditionless-concentration), 
appanihita-samadhi (desireless-concentration), and pannindriya becomes the 
five panna-visuddhi beginning with ditthi-visuddhi, ] 2 the three anupas- 
sana-fiana, 13 the ten vipassana-nana, 14 the four magga-nana,i5 the four 
phala-nana, 16 and the nineteen paccavekkhana-nana. 17 

2. dibba-sota (the celestial ear), 

3. paracitta-vijana (knowledge of the minds of others), 

4. pubbenivasa (knowledge of former existences, and 

5. dibba-cakkhu (the celestial eye". 

12. 1) purification of view, 2) purification by overcoming doubt, 3) purification 

by knowledge and vision of what is and what is not Path, 4) purification 
by knowledge and vision of the way 5) purification by knowledge and vision. 

13. 1) aniccanupassana (contemplation of impermanence). 

2) dukkhanupassana (contemplation of suffering). 

3) anatlanupassana (contemplation of impersonality) 

14. The ten insight-knowledges are: 

1) sammasana-nana (insight into the three characteristics of existence). 

2) udayabbayanupassana-nana (insight into rising and passing away of phenomena). 

3) bhariganupassana-nana (insight into passing away). 

4) bhayanupassana-nana (insight into fearful condition). 

5) adinavanupassana-nana (insight into faulty condition). 

6) nibbidanupassana-nana (insight into wearisome condition). 

7) muccitu-kamyata-nana (insight arising from desire to escape). 

8)- patisaiikhanupassana-nana (insight arising out of further contemplation). 
9) sarikharupekkha-fiana (insight arising from equanimity). 
10) anuloma:nana (adaptation-knowledge). 
15 Knowledges of the four holy Paths. 

16. Knowledges of the four holy Fruitions. 

17. Paccavekkhana-fiana: reviewing knowledges. 

He reviews the Path in this way: 'So this is the Path I have come by*. Next 
he reviews the Fruition after that in this way: 'This is the blessing I have 
obtained'. Next he reviews the defilements that have been abandoned: 'These are 
the defilements abandoned by me.' Next he reviews the defilements still to be 
eliminated by the three higher paths: 'These are the defilements still remaining 
in me.' Lastly he reviews the deathless Nibbana in this way: 'This is the state 
(Dhamma) that has been penetrated by me as object.' So the noble disciple who 
is a stream- winner has five kinds of reviewing. And as in the case of the stream- 
winner, so also in the case of the once-reterner and non-returner. Arahat has no 
reviewing of remaining defilements. So all the kinds of reviewing total nineteen. 



The Five Indriya 343 

This shows hcrw the five indriya occur together. 
It is now proposed to show where each of these indriya forms pre- 
dominant factors. 

Kattha saddhindriyam datthabbam? Catusu sotapattiyangesu ettha 
saddhingesu ettha saddhindriyam datthabbam. 18 (Where should one 
look for saddhindriya ? One should look for it in the four constituents of 
sotapatti). This means that saddhindriya predominates in the four 
constituents of sotapatti. These four constituents are: 

1. unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Buddha, qualities 
such as araham. sammasambuddho, etc. 

2. unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Dhamma, qualities 
such as svakhata, etc. 

3. unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Saiigha, qualities 
such as suppatipanna, etc. 

4. completely or perfectly endowed with the padatthana (proximate 
causes) of lokuttara-samadhi, i.e. sila-visuddhi (purification of 
virtue). 

These are the four factors that ensure the attainment of sotapatti- mag- 
ga-nana (knowledge pertaining to the path of the stream- winner) within 
the compass of this life. 

In the passage 'Buddhavecca pasadena samannagato 19 ' of the Pali Text 
in question, 'aveccapasada' means 'unshakeable faith.' It is the saddha of 
those who have attained upacara-samadhi (access concentration) while 
reflecting on the noble qualities of the Buddha. 'Upacarasamadhi' means 
steady and fixed attention achieved while reflecting on the noble quali- 
ties of the Buddha (such as araham) just as in the case of those who 
have attained the samapatti in jhana. When one sees such steady 
and fixed attention, one must know that saddha's control is predominant. 
Such a person is one who attains mastery over his mind in the matter 
of faith in the noble qualities of the Buddha. The same is true in regard 
to the noble qualities of the Dhamma and the Sangha. 

— Visuddhimagga (Vol. II), p. 316, 6th Syn. Edn. 
Please See Naiiamoli's Visuddhimagga. p. 790. 
IS. Sariiyutta-Nikaya, Mahavaggn, >\. Indriya Samyutta, 3. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172, 

6th Synod Edition. 
19 San'iyutta-Nikfiya, Maliavagga, II. Sotfipatti Samyutta, Dhammadinna Sutta. p. 356. 
6th Synod Edition. 



344 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

'Foundation of lokuttara samadhi, i.e. sila-visuddhi, means ajivattha- 
maka-nicca-sila (morality ending with right livelihood as the eighth precept) 
which can enable one to attain lokuttara-samadhi in this very life. When 
that sila is unbroken and pure, it is free from the defilements of tanha 
(craving), mana (conceit), and ditthi (wrong view), and as such one must 
understand that saddha is prominent in that sila. Inability to observe 
the requirements of the sila is called 'breaking' it. Although the sila 
may be technically unbroken, if it is observed amidst ordinary worldly 
conditions, it is said to be 'impure.' In accordance with the saying 'the 
worth of a bull can be known only on the ascent from the bed of a 
stream to the banks', lay persons and bhikkhus who profess to be 
followers, of the Buddha can know whether or not the turbulance and 
distractions latent in their minds have disappeared, i.e. whether or not 
they have obtained mastery over their minds, only when they arrive at 
these four constituents. 

Kattha viriyindriyarh datthabbam? Catusu sammappadhanesu ettha 
viriyindriyarh datthabbarh. 20 (Where should one look for viriyindriya ? 
One should look for it in the four constituents of sammappadhana.) 

Lay persons and bhikkhus who profess to be followers of the Buddha 
can know whether or not the dissettlement and turbulence of their minds 
in the matter of viriya have disappeared and whether or not they are 
thus persons who have obtained mastery over their minds, only when 
they come to the four constituents of sammappadhana. 

'Let my skin remain, let my sinews remain, let my bones remain, let 
my blood dry up, I shall not rest until the realm of sakkaya-ditthi, the 
realm of the duccarita, and the apayasamsara, that are in my person- 
ality, are destroyed in this life.' This is the singleness of determination 
and effort in sammappadhana. It is the effort of the same order as the 
Venerable Cakkhupala's. 21 When one encounters such determination and 
effort, one must recognise in it the predominating control of viriya over 
the mind. In the matter of viriya, the dissettlement and turbulence of 
the mind have disappeared in such a person, and he is one within the 
Buddha Sasana who has obtained mastery over his mind. 

20. Samyutta-Nikaya, Mahavagga, 4. Indriya Samyutta, 
8. Patthabba Sutta, p. 172, 6th Synod Edition. 

21. See the Light of the Dhamma. Vol. I-No. 2, p. 13. 



The Five Indriya 345 

Kattha satindriyam datthabbam? Catusu satipatthanesa ettha satiridriyarh 
datthabbam.22 (Where should one look for satindriya ? One should look 
for it in the four satipatthana). 

Lay persons and bhikkhus who profess to be followers of the Buddha 
can know whether or not the dissettlement and turbulence of their minds 
in the matter of sati (mindfulness) have disappeared, and whether or 
not they are thus persons who have obtained mastery over their minds, 
only when they arrive at the four constituents of the satipatthana. If 
the attention can be kept fixed on any part of the body, such as out- 
breath and in breath, by the successful practice of kayagata-sati for as 
long as is desired, then it must be recognised as the control exercised by 
sati. The dissettlement and turbulence of the mind of such a person 
have disappeared. He is one who has obtained mastery over his mind. 

Kattha samadhindriyam ditthabbam ? Catusu jhanesu ettha samma- 
dhindriyam datthabbam.23 (Where should one look for samadhindriya ? 
One should look for it in the four jhana). 

If in the work of samatha, such as out-breath and in-breath, the suc- 
cessful accomplishment in the least of upacara-samadhi-bhavana (con- 
templation of access-concentration) is attained, and if thereby the niva- 
rana such as kamacchanda (sensuous desire), byapada (ill-will), etc., which 
have continuously in the past samsara been running riot in the mind, 
are removed, the attention of the mind on the objects of samatha be- 
comes specially steady and tranquil. This must be recognised as arising 
out of the function of the predominant control exercised by samadhi. 
The dissettlement and disturbances of the mind in the matter of samadhi 
have disappeared from such an individual He is one who has obtained 
mastery over his mind. 

Kattha pannindriyam datthabbam ? Catusu ariyasaccesu ettha pannin- 
driyarh datthabbam. 24 (Where should one look for pannindriya ? One 
should look for it in the Four Noble Truths). 

Among persons who encounter a Buddha Sasana, knowledge of the Four 
Noble Truths is of supreme value. Only when this knovvlege is acquired 

22. Samyutta-Nikaya, Datthabba Sutta, p. 176, 6th Syn. Edn. 

23. Samyutta-Nikaya, Mahiivagga Sariiyiitta, 8. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172, 7th Synod 
Ediiion. 

24. Samyutta Nikaya, Mahavagga Samyutta, 8. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172, 6th Synod 
Edition. 



346 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipanl 

can they obtain release from the realm of sakkayaditthi, and that of the 
duccarita, and from the apaya samsara. Hence, in order to acquire a 
knowledge of the Four Noble Truths, they attempt in the least to obtain 
insight into the six dhatu (or basic constituent elements) of pathavi, apo, 
tejo, vayo, akasa and vinnana, 25 or insight into their fleeting and unstable 
nature— how they do not last for more than the twinkling of an eye at 
a time (so to say) and how they are continually being destroyed— through 
such methods of practice as studying, memorising, reciting, cogitating, 
listening, discussing, questioning, practising insight exercises, and con- 
templating. If a clear insight is obtained into these six elements, there 
is no necessity for special practice with regard to the remaining dham- 
ma. 26 If the nature of anicca (impermanence) can be clearly realised 
the realisation of anatta (impersonality) follows as a matter of course. 27 

The realisation of the nature of dukkha can be accomplished in its 
entirety only when one attains the stage of arahatta-phala (fruition of 
holiness). 

Thus, after putting forth effort for lengthy periods, when insight is 
obtained into the nature of the six elements both within and without 
oneself, as well as into the nature of their impermanency, fixity of attention 
on them is achieved. This must be recognised as arising out of the pre- 
dominant control exercised by panfia. The unreliability that had been 
a feature of one's mind throughout past infinite samsara gradually dis- 
appears. 

Here, 'unreliability of one's mind' means the perception of permanency 
in things that are impermanent, of happiness in suffering, of pleasant- 
ness in loathsomeness, of self in non-self, of individuals in non-individuals, 
of beings in non-beings, of human in non-humans, of devas, sakka and 
brahmas, of women, men, bullocks, buffaloes, elephants, horses in non- 
men, non-bullocks, non- buffaloes, non-elephants, and non-horses. Freedom 
from unreliability means perceiving the true reality after having obtained 
mastery over the mind within the Buddha Sasana. 

25. 1) Element of extension, 2) element of liquidity or cohesion, 3) element of 

kinetic energy, 4} element of motion or support. 5) element of space, 6; con- 
sciousness-elements. 

26. Such as khandii and ayatana, etc. 

27. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Udiina Pali, Meghiya-vagga. Meghiya Sutta, p 120, 6th Synod 
Edition. 



The Five Indriya 347 

If dukkha-sacca or the Noble Truth of Suffering, be clearly perceived, 
it follows as a matter of course that the other three sacca can also be 
clearly perceived. In the perception of these Four Truths, the way that 
putbujjana perceive them is known as anubodha, while the way of the 
ariyas is known as pativedha. Anubodha knowledge is like seeing a 
light at night but not the fire. Although the fire cannot be directly seen, 
by seeing the reflected light one can know without doubt that there is a 
fire. Seeing the fire directly is like pativedha knowledge. 

Saddhinridyarh bhaveti, 
Viriyindriyarh bhaveti, 
Satindriyarh bhaveti, 
Samadhindriyarh bhaveti, 
Panfiindriyam bhaveti. 28 

The meaning of these Pah passages uttered by the Buddha is that the 
five indriya (mental faculties) should be practised and developed in order 
to facilitate the great work of samatha and vipassana. 

The aggregate that we call the body (kbandha) of a person who has 
not developed these five indriya is like a country without a ruler or 
king. It is like the forests and mountains inhabited by wild tribes 
where no administration exists. In a rulerless or kingless country there 
is no law. There, the people are unrestrained. Like animals, the strong 
prey on the weak. In the same way, the mind of a person who has not 
developed the five indriya is distracted, and runs riot with defilements. 
Just as a person possessed by evil spirits cannot bear to hear the sound 
of such verses as 'itipiso' or 'hetu paccayo', when persons without deve- 
loped indriya hear talks connected with the cause of contentment (pac- 
caya santosa) or with the practice of mental development (bhavanararh- 
bha), they quickly discover antithetic criticisms. In them, the desire to 
exert themselves in the work of samatha and vipassana never arises. 

On the other hand, the khandha of a person who develops the five 
indriya resembles a country ruled by a just and lawful king. It resem- 
bles the towns and hamlets of the majjhima-desa (mid-country) where 
governmental administration exists. Such a person is not disturbed by 
the variegated theories of various persons. He is confirmed in the sole 
way of the Buddha's teachings. When such a person hears talks con- 

28. Samyutta-Nikaya, Mahiivagga Indriya Samyutta, 6, Sukarakhata-vagga, 8 Sukara- 
khata Sutta, p. 205. 6th Syn. Edn. 



348 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpani 

nected with the cause of contentment, or the practice of mental develop- 
ment, his mind is clear and cool. He is confirmed in the desire to exert 
himself in the work of samatha and vipassana. 

In this way, the arising of two kinds of desires in this world i9 not 
the work of beings or individuals, but depends on the existence or other- 
wise of development of the five indriya. If there is no development of 
the indriya, one kind of desire arises. If there is development of the 
indriya, that desire disappears and a new kind of desire invariably ap- 
pears. The more the development of the indriya proceeds, the more does 
this new desire increase and gather strength. When all the five indriya 
are set up, the desire for the Paths and the Fruits will immediately 
appear. Thus must beings develop the five indriya in order to raise 
pakati-saddha, vinya, sati, samadhi and panna (which are insignificant) 
to great heights. 



VI 
The Five Bala (Or Balani) 

Bala is defined: Patipakkha dhamme baliyantiti balani. 1 (Suppresses op- 
position. Hence called bala.) The Pali Texts say: Akampanatthena 
balani- (Whenever opposition is encountered, there is fearless firmness. 
Hence called bala.) 
As in the case of the indriya, there are five bala: 

1. saddha 

2. viriya 

3. sati 

4 samadhi 
5. panna. 

They are five generals or five commanders for the purpose of destroy- 
ing the kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief). They are the five 

1. Paramattha Dipani, Sarigaha Maha-Tika by Ledi Sayadaw, page 299, Kawimyethman 
Press, Rangoon. 

2. Ahguttara Nikiiya, Ekaka Nipataithakatha, 18. Apara Accharasarighata-vagga-vaii- 
nana, p. 388, 6th Syn. Edn. 



The Five Bala 349 

strengths that serve as reliance for bhihkhus and layfolk in the Buddha 
Sasana 
As in the case of saddhindriya, saddha is of two kinds: 

1. pakati-saddha 

2. bhavana-saddha. 

Pakati-saddha which has no development through specific practice, 
associates with tanha according to circumstances, and can thus produce 
only the pakati-kusala-kamma of dana, sila, etc. It cannot overcome 
tanha with strength. On the other hand, tanha keeps pakati-saddha 
under its power. 

This is how tanha keeps pakati-saddha under its power. The Pali 
Texts mention (as clearly as exist the sun and moon in the heavens) four 
ariya-vamsa-dhamma. 3 They are: 

1. being easily satisfied with food 

2. being easily satisfied with clothing 

3. being easily satisfied with dwelling place 

4. finding pleasure and enjoyment in the work of bbavana. 

They constitute the realm of saddha. In the present-day world, this 
great kingdom of saddha lies hidden and submerged. Today, beings take 
pleasure and enjoyment in material things (paccayamisa); they take plea- 
sure and enjoyment in worldly rank, dignity, and honour (lokamisa); 
they take pleasure and enjoyment in the attainment of the pleasant life, 
in worldly riches, and in power and dominion (vattamisa); and thus is 
the great kingdom of tanha established as clearly as the great ocean 
round the island. This shows the weakness of pakati-saddha in this 
world. 

It is bhavana-saddha, which has its genesis in the successful practice 
of kayagata-sati, such as out-breath and in-breath until the disappearance 
of the dissettlement and distraction of the mind, that can dispel tanha 
which takes pleasure and enjoyment in the three kinds of amisa. It is 
this bhavana-saddha that can save bhikkhus and layfolk, who are in the 
course of being drowned and submerged in the ocean of the three tanha, 
and enable them to reach the island haven of the kingdom of saddha 

3. Traditional practice of the Noble Ones. Anguttara-Nikaya, Catukka Nipata. 1. 
Patthama-pannasaka, 8 Ariyavarhsa Sutta, p. 336, 6th Syn. Edn. 



350 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

consisting of the four ariyavamsa-dhamma. In the matter of the bodhi- 
pakkhiya-dhamma, it is this saddle that should be acquired. 

Of the two kinds of viriya, pakati-viriya which lias no development 
practice, associates with kosajja (laziness) according to occasion and 
produces the pakati-kusala-kamma of dana, the study of the sacred 
texts, etc. This pakati-viriya cannot dispel kosajja. On the other hand, 
it is kosajja which controls pakati-viriya and keeps it under subjection. 
This is how kosajja subdues pakati-viriya. 

When beings encounter a Buddha Sasana, they acquire the knowledge 
that in the past infinite sarnsara they have been the kinsfolk of sakkaya- 
ditthi, the duccarita, and theapaya loka. The sacred Pa]i Texts clearly 
prescribe the method of the ariyavaihsa, which consists of dispelling 
kosajja (laziness) and devoting the whole time to bhavanarama (delight 
in meditation) till release from such a state is attained. 

The act of dispelling kosajja may be thus described. Having ' equipped 
oneself with the sikkha (trainings— which are the Buddha's heritage) 
and which one undertook in the sima (ordination hall) at the time of be- 
coming a bhikkhu, sikkha such as the undertaking 

rukkhamiila senasanam nissaya pabbajjii, tattha teyava jivamussaho 
karaniyo.J 

and in accordance with such sikkha, if one makes trees and bushes in 
the forests as one's dwelling place, lives only on alms-food one gathers 
on alms-round, does not associate with other persons, observes the 
dhutahga (ascetic practice) steadfastly, and practises kayagata-sati scru- 
pulously, tb^se are ads of viriya that dispel the akusala kamma (un- 
wholesome volitional actions) arising out of kosajja. They are acts 
comprised within the realm of viriya. 

This realm of viriya remains obscure and is unknown in the present- 
day world. Today, although bhikkhus are aware that they belong to 
that class of beings possessed of sakkaya-ditthi, the duccarita, and the 
liability to rebirth in the apaya loka, they live permanently in dwelling 
places constructed within towns and villages by dayakas (or donors), 
they take pleasure and enjoyment in the receipt of large gifts and bene- 
fits, they are unable to discard the society of other people, etc., all of 

4. The going forth by depending on the foot of a tree as abode; thus, they undertake 
the tree dweller's practice their whole lives. — Vinaya Pitaka, Vol. 1. Mahakh- 
andhaka, 6-1. Cattaio Nissaya, p 133 6th Syuod Edition. 



The Five Bal» 351 

which acts are comprised within the realm of kosajja and this realm of 
kosajja is as conspicuous as the sea which has inundated an island. This 
shows the weakness of pakati-viriya. 

It is only bhavana-viriya, such as being satisfied with the minimum 
of sleep, being always alert and active, being fearless, being bold and 
firm in living alone, being steadfast in mental advertence, that can dispe! 
kosajja. In the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, it is this bhavana- 
viriya that should be acquired. 

The detailed meaning of the bala of sati, samadhi, and panfia may 
be known by following the lines of explan?' ; on outlined above. Here, I 
shall give just a concise explanation. 

The antithesis of sati is the akusala kamma called mutthasacca. Mut- 
ihasacca means inability to become absorbed in the work of satnatha- 
bhavana— such as in kayagata-sati— or in the work of vipassana-bhavana 
inability to concentrate, inability to control one's mind, and the wander- 
ing of thoughts to objects other than the object concentrated on. The 
pakati-sati that one possesses in its natal state from birth cannot dispel 
mutthasacca. It is only bhavana-sati that can dispel it. 

The antithesis of samadhi is the akusala kamma of vikkhepa^ (rest- 
lessness of mind). It consists of the inability to concentrate, and of un- 
quietness and restlessness of mind in the work of bhavana manasikara. It 
is the arising of thoughts on objects other than the object of concentra- 
tion. It is the inability to control the mind and keep its attention fixed 
on one object. Pakati-samadhi cannot dispel that akusala kamma of 
vikkhepa. Only bhavana-samadbi can dispel it. 

The antithesis of panna is the akusala kamma of sammoha. ,; It con- 
sists of ignorance, lack of clarity, mistiness, and absence of light of the 
mind. It is the darkness that surrounds the mind. This sammoha cannot 
be dispelled by pakati-panna, nor by pariyatti- panna which may com- 
prise a knowledge of the whole of the Ti-Pitaka. It is only bhavana- 
panna that has set up kayagatii-sati which can gradually dispel sammoha. 

This shows the meaning of the five patipakkha akusala dhamma cou- 
pled with their respective bala. 

The five patipakkha akusala dhamma are: 1) tanha, 2) kosajja, or 
laziness, or inability to take pains, or lack of fearlessness in the work 

5. Wandering thoughts or idle fancies. 

6. Sammoha: delusion. 



352 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpani 

of the patipatti, 3) mutthasacca, 4) vikkhepa, and 5) sammoha. The five 
dhamma that can counteract and dispel these akusala dhamma are 
called bala. If any one of these five bala is weak and unable to dis- 
pel the respective patipakkha dhamma, 7 work in samatha and vipassana 
cannot be very successful as far as neyya individuals are concerned. 

Hence, at the present day, some persons can emerge out of the realm 
of tanha because of their strength in saddha-bala. They are rid of the 
attachments to paccaya amisa and worldly dignities and honours. But 
since they are deficient in the other four bala, they are unable to rise 
above the stage of santutthi (state of being contented). 

Some persons can emerge out of the realm of tanha and kosajja be- 
cause they are strong in saddha-bala and viriya-bala. They are constant 
in the observance of the santosa dhamma 8 in residence among hills and 
forests, and in the practice of the dhutaiiga (ascetic practices). But 
because they are weak in the other three bala, they are unable to prac- 
tise kayagatji-sati, or do the work of samatha and vipassana. 

Some persons are strong in the first three bala and thus can rise up 
to the work of kayagata-sati. They achieve concentration in out-breath, 
or in the bones of the body. But since they are deficient in the other 
two bala, they cannot rise up to the work of the jhana and vipassana. 

■Some persons can rise up to the attainment of jhana samapatti because 
they are strong in the first four bala, but since they are weak in pan- 
na-bala, they cannot rise up to the work of vipassana. 

Some persons are strong in panna-bala. They are learned in the 
Dhamma and the Pitakas. They are wise in the paramattha dhamma 
(ultimate realities). But because the back is broken in the four other 
bala, they cannot emerge from the realm of tanha, kosajja, mutthasacca 
and vikkhepa. They live and die within the confines of these akusala. 
In this way, whenever one is deficient in any one of the bala, one 
cannot emerge out of the realm of the respective patipakkha. 

7. Patipakkha: opposite. 

8. These arc four kinds of santosa-dhamina. They are: 

1. civara-santosa: contentment of robes; 

2. pindapjita- santosa: contentment of food; 

3. senasaria- santosa: contentment of lodging; and 

4. gilana paccaya bhesajja parikkhara santosa: contentment of medicines. 
Samyutta-Nikaya, Nidnna-vagga Sariiyutta, Kassapa Samyutta, p. o l J8, 6th 
Synod Edition. 

Note — Santosa mid santutthi have the same meaning. 



The Five Bala 353 

Of the five bala, viriya-bala and panna-bala are also iddhipada. 
Hence, if these two bala are strong and co-ordinated, it does not happen 
that one cannot rise up to the work of vipassana because of the weak- 
ness of the other three bala. As an illustration, consider the case of the 
five crores and five lakhs of householders in Savatthi City during the 
Buddha's time who obtained release from worldly ills. 

People who do not know the functions of the iddhipada, the indriya, 
and the bala, do not know why their desires are weak, and what pati- 
pakkha assails them. They do not know what dhamma they have to 
set up, and the desire to set them up never arises It is thus that the 
ariyavarhsa-dharnma are on the verge of disappearance at the present 
day. 

I shall give an illustration. There is a species of bull called usabha. 
It is a bull worth more than a thousand or ten thousand ordinary bulls. 
If the characteristics and distinctive signs of that bull be recognised, 
and it be reared and nurtured properly, its limbs and marks will develop, 
and its strength and powers will increase. It can then guard even a 
hundred cattle pens from the incursions of lions and leopards. The cattle 
in the enclosures where such a bull exists will be free from major dis- 
eases and epidemics. People living in houses round the stockade, up to 
the seventh house in each direction, will be free from major diseases 
and epidemics. Like the bull Nandi Visala,9 it can draw even five hun- 
dred carts at a time. 

If the owner of such a bull is ignorant of all these, and if thus he 
does -not rear and nurture it properly but keeps and tends it just as he 
would any other ordinary bull, if he employs it in ploughing and draw- 
ing carts in company with other bulls, its distinctive marks and limbs 
will fail to develop, and its strength and powers will remain dormant. 
It will thus live and die just like any other bull. 

A knowing owner, however, will separate such a bull from the rest 
and keep it in a specially constructed shed. He will cover the floor of 
the shed with clean sartd and will fix a ceiling to the roof He will keep 
the shed clean of urine and excreta, and will feed the bull with paddy 
and pulses fit for human consumption. He will wash and bathe it, and 
apply cosmetics and unguents. In such a case, the distinctive marks 

9 Khuddaka-Nikaya Jataka Pali, Ekaka Nipata, Kurufiga-Vagga, 28. Nandi Visala Jataka, 
p. 7 6th Syn. Edn. 



354 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipaiu 

and limbs will develop, and its strength and powers will increase enor- 
mously. 

In this Buddha Sasana, neyya individuals resemble the owner of the 
bull. The five bala of these neyya individuals resemble the usabhabull. 
The satipatthana vibhanga, sammappadhana vibhanga, iddhipada vi- 
bhahga, indriya vibhanga, bojjhanga vibhanga, and magganga vibhanga, 
of the Abhidhamma Pitaka and the Mahasatipatthana Sutta, satipatthana 
samyutta, sammappadhana sariiyutta, iddhipada samyutta, indriya sarhy- 
utta, bala samyutta, and bojjhanga samyutta of the Sutta Pitaka, resem- 
ble the worldly expository books which expound the distinctive signs, 
marks, and characteristics, of usabha bulls, the methods how such bulls 
are to be reared and taken care of, and the strength and powers that 
such bulls can attain if reared and nurtured properly. 

Those neyya individuals who through ignorance do not attempt to de- 
velop the five bala through the work of bhavana, and who thus remain 
satisfied with the lower attainments within the sasana, such as dana, 
sila, and the study of pariyatti-dhamma, resemble the ignorant owner of 
an usabha bull who does not rear and nurture it properly. 

In this world, there are many kinds of worldly undertakings. There 
are undertakings that can be accomplished by the strength of wealth, 
and there are undertakings that can be accomplished by the strength of 
knowledge. Even in the case of the cultivation of land, several kinds 
of strength are needed for its accomplishment. Sometimes the strength 
of wealth has to be garnered first, and at other times the strength of 
knowledge. Preparatory education and study constitute the garnering 
of the strength of knowledge. 

Similarly, in the Buddha Sasana, there are five bala needed for the 
work of samatha, vipassana, and the attainment of the holy Paths and 
Fruits and Nibbana. It is only when these bala are first accumulated 
that the great works mentioned can be undertaken. Those persons who 
do not possess even one of the five bala cannot evoke a desire to un- 
dertake these great tasks. It does not occur to them that those great 
tasks can be accomplished in this life. They live forgetfully and without 
determination. If it is pointed out to them that the tasks can be ac- 
complished, they do not wish to hear it. They do not know that such 
untoward thoughts occur to them because they are utterly impoverished 
in the bala. They lay the blame at the door of paraml, or dvi-hetuka, 



The Five Bala 355 

or at the times. 10 

If, however, these people set up work in one of the satipatthana, such 
as in anapana-sati, and if thereby they set up the three bala of saddha, 
viriya, and sati, such untoward thoughts will certainly disappear. It is 
inevitable that new wholesome thoughts must arise. This is because they 
have developed their strength. 

This is how the strength is developed. Although such a person cannot 
as yet attain an insight into rupa and nama, the weak saddha develops 
through the control exercised on paccayamisa-tanha and lokamisa-tanha. 
The weak viriya develops through the control of kosajja. The weak sati 
develops through the control of mutthasacca. Samadhi and panna also 
gather strength through the control of vikkhepa and sammoha. When 
these bala develop, it is inevitable that there must be a change in his 
mind. 

A person who is afflicted with a major disease, such as leprosy, has 
no desire to take an interest in the ordinary affairs and undertakings of 
the world. But if after taking the proper medicines and treatment, the 
great sickness is gradually cured and he is aroused from his apathy. 
This is inevitable. The group of five akusala kamma of tanha, kosajja 
mutthasacca, vikkhepa, and sammoha, resemble five major sicknesses. 11 
In the Sasana the work of samatha and vipassana-bhavana resembles 
the affairs and undertakings of the world. The work of satipatthana, 
such as anapana-sati, resembles the taking of proper medicines and 
treatment. The rest of the comparison can be easily recognised. 

Hence did the Buddha say: 12 

10. Some believe that these are times when the holy Paths and the Fruits thereof 
can no longer be attained, and tend to defer effort till the parami ripen. Some 
believe that persons of the present day are dvi-hetuka (i.e. beings reborn with 
two root- conditions, namely, detachment and amity), and as such they cannot 
attain the holy Paths and the Fruits thereof in the present life. 

11. Five major sicknesses are: 1. leprosy, 2. boils, 3. tuberculosis, 4. apoplexy, 
5. ecxema. 

12. Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu (In this Sasana, the bhikkhu) 
Saddhabalarh bhaveti (develops saddhabala), 
Viriyabalam bhaveti (develops viriyabala), 
Satibalam bhaveti (develops satibala), 
Samildhibalath bhaveti (develops samadhibala) and 
PannSbalath bhaveti (develops paiinabala). 

— Suttanta Pitaka, Samyutta-Nikaya Mahavagga Saihyutta Paji, 6. Bala Sarbyutta 
Gangapeyyalavagga, 1-12, Baladi Sutta, page 218, 6th Synod Edition- 



356 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

saddhabalarh bhaveti 
viriyabalam bhaveti 
satibalam bhaveti 
samadhibalarh bhaveti 
panfiabalairi bhaveti. 

In this world, the strength of builders lie in good tools, such as awls, 
chisels, axes, knives, saws, etc. Only when he equips himself with such 
strength can he undertake to build monasteries, houses, etc. In the work 
of carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, .artists, wood-carvers, etc., also, 
they have each their respective strength. Their strength consists of good 
tools and implements. Only with such can they accomplish their work. 

Similarly, in the Sasana, the tools of samatha and vipassana for the 
purpose of achieving magga-nana and phala-nana consists of bhavana- 
saddha, bbavana-viriya, bhavana-sati, bhavana-samadhi, and bhavana- 
panna, developed through one of the satipatthana, such as anapana-sati. 
These five bala are the strength of yogavacara.* 3 Hence, these five 
bala must be developed in order to undertake successfully the work or 
samatha and vipassana within the Buddha Sasana. This is the meaning 
of 'bhaveti' in the stanza quoted above. 



VII 
The Seven Sambojjhahga 

Catusaccadhamme sutthu bujjhatiti sambodhi. Sambodhiya aiigo samboj- 
jharigo. (Can clearly perceive the Four Noble Truths. Hence called sambodhi. 
Constituent of magga-nana. Hence called sambojjhanga.) 

Birds are first delivered from their mothers' wombs in the form of 
eggs. They are then delivered a second time by breaking the eggs. 
Thence, when they become full fledged with feathers and wings, they 
are delivered from their nests, when they can fly wherever they please. 
In the same way, in the case of yogavacara individuals, they are first 
delivered from the distractions of mind which have accompanied them 

13. Yogavacara: One who practises samatha or vipassana or both. 



The Seven Sambhojjhanga 357 

through infinite sarhsara when they successfully set up kayagata-sati 
or accomplish the work of samatha. Secondly, when they attain vipas- 
sana insight into rupa. nama-khandha, etc., they are free from coarse 
forms of ignorance. Finally, when the seven bojjhanga develop and 
mature, they become full fledged in lokuttara-magga-nana, and attain 
the magga-nana known as sambodhi, and thus they are delivered from 
the state of worldlings. They are delivered from the state of puthujjana 
and attain the state of ariya— of lokuttara or Nibbnna. 
There are seven bojjhanga; 

1. sati-sambojjhanga 

2. dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga 

3. viriya-sambojjhanga 

4. piti-sambojjhanga 

5. passaddhi-sambojjhanga 

6. samadbi-sambojjhanga 

7. upekkha-sambojjhanga. 

The sati-cetasika (mental factor) called satipatthana, satindriya, sati- 
bala, samma-sati-magganga, is sati-sambojjhanga. 

The panfia-cetasika called vimarhsiddhipada, pafmindriya, panna-bala, 
sammaditthi-maggaiiga, are all dhammavicaya-sambojjharia. Alternatively, 
the five parina-visuddhi 1 beginning with ditthi-visuddhi, the three anu- 
passana-nana, the ten vipassana-nana are called dhammavicaya-sam- 
bojjhanga. Just as cotton seeds are milled, carded, etc., so as to produce 
cotton wool, the process of repeatedly viewing the five khandha with 
the functions of vipassana-nana is called dhammavicaya. 

The viriya-cetasika called sammappadhana, viriyiddhipada, viriyindriya, 
viriya-bala, and samma-vayama-maggahga, are called viriya-sambojjhan- 
ga. 

The joy and happiness that appears when the process of seeing and 
knowing increases after the setting up of satipatthana, such as kayagata- 
sati, is called piti-sambojjhanga. 

The process of becoming calm and tranquil in both body and mind 
when the mental distractions, reflections, and thoughts abate, is called 
passaddhi-sambojjhanga. It is the cetasika of kaya-passaddhi and citta- 
passaddhi. 

1. Please see footnote to Chapter V, ibid. 



358 Bodhipakkhiya-DlpanI 

The samadhi-dhamma called sammadhindriya, sammadhi-bala, and 
samadhi-magganga, is called samadhi-sambojjhanga. Alternatively, the 
parikamma-samadhi, upacara-samadhi, appana-samadhi, or the eight sam- 
mapatti, associated with the work of samatha and ciLta-visuddhi, and 
sunnata-samadhi, animitta-samadhi, appanihita-samadhi, associated with 
pahna-visuddhi, are called samadhi-sambojjhanga. The samadhi that 
accompanies vipassana-nana, or magga-hana and phala-nana, are called 
by such names as sunnata-samadhi, animitta-samadhi and appanihita- 
samadhi. 

When the work in kammatthana is as yet not methodical or systema- 
tic, much effort has to be exercised both in body and mind, but when 
the work becomes methodical and systematic, one is freed from such 
effort. This freedom is called tatramajjhatatta-cetasika (mental factor 
of equanimity). It is upekkha-sambojjhanga. 

When a yogavacara becomes endowed with these seven characteristics 
of sambodhi equally, be enjoys the joys and pleasures of a samana within 
the Sasana— joys and pleasures which are unequalled and unparallelled 
by any worldly joy— just as a universal cakka king, 2 lord of the four 
great islands and possessor of the seven jewels, enjoys uparallelled and 
unique ease and comfort. 

Thus it is said in the Dhammapada: 

Sunnagaram pavitthassa 
santacittassa bhikkhuno 
amanusi rati hoti 
samma dhammarh vipassato. 

—Verse 373. 

Yato yato sammasati 
khandhanarh udayabbayarh, 
labhati pitipamojjam 
amatarh tarn vijanatarh. 

—Verse 374. 

[The Bhikkhu who retires to a lonely abode and has a calm mind, 
experiences joy transcending that of men, as he clearly perceives the 
dhamma. 

2. Universal Monarch. Please see The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VII, No. 1, p. 28. 



The Seven Sambhojjhaiiga 359 

The formation and disintegration of whichever part of the body the 
yogi contemplates, he experiences joy and happiness as he can thereby 
perceive the Deathless state (Nibbana).] 

If the pleasure and joy experienced in vipassana-sukha, which is com- 
plete with the seven characteristics of sambodhi, be divided into 256 
parts, one part of that joy and pleasure exceeds the worldly joys and 
plesures of kings among humans, devas, and Brabrnas— so great is the 
joy and pleasure inherent in the sambodhi. Hence also did the Buddha 
say: 

'Sabba rasarh dhammaraso jinati 3 ', (The flavour of the dhamma exce- 
eds all other flavours.) 

The are stories wherein it is related that major diseases and ailments 
have been cured by the mere hearing 4 of the recitation of these seven 
characteristics of sambodhi. But, these diseases and ailments can be 
cured only when the hearers are fully aware of their meaning, and great 
and clear saddha (faith) arises. 

When these seven characteristics or sambodhi are acquired in a balan- 
ced manner, the yogavacara can rest assured that there is no deficiency 
in his kayagata-sati. He can rest assured that there is no deficiency in 
his perception of anicca or anatta, and in his mental and bodily energy. 
Because his mind is set at rest in regard to these three factors, he ex- 
periences joy in the knowledge that he can now perceive the light of 
Nibbana which has never before appeared to him in the past infinite 
samsara, even in his dreams. Because of that joy and ease of mind, his 
attention on the kammatthana objects becomes extremely calm and steady 
and upekkha (equanimity) which is free from the anxieties and efforts 
for mindfulness, perception of anicca and anatta, and the necessity to 
evoke energy, arises. 

All the above statements are made with reference to the stage at 
which the sambojjhahga are in unison with one another and their re- 
spective functions are specially clear. As far as ordinary sambojjnariga 
are concerned, from the moment kayagata-sati is set up, the dhamma 
such as sati are known as sambojjhahga. 

When the Buddha said that the seven bojjhahga must be practised, 

3. Dhammapada, verse, 354. 

4. Please see The Light of the Dhamma, Vol VII, No. 1, p. 9. 
Sarhyutta Nikaya, Bojjhaiiga Sarhyutta, p. 12, 6th Syn. Edn. 



360 Bodhipakkhiya-DTpani 

as in: Satisambojjhangam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, 
nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim . . . upekkha sambojjhahgam bhaveti, 
viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim', 5 
it is meant that in the ordinary course, the process of setting up kaya- 
gata-sati (such as out-breath and in-breath) amounts to the setting up 
of the seven bojjhanga. For the distinctive and specific setting up of 
the bojjhanga, see the Commentary on the Bojjlianga Vibhaiiga. 6 

"The meaning of the Pali passage above is: 'One should practise sati- 
sambojjhanga which is dependent on the absence of all kinds of activities 
and anxieties, of lust and greed, or suffering attendant on the round of 
rebirths, and on the abandonment of the four substratum of upadhi. 7 

Viveka nissita, viraga nissita, nirodha nissita, mean 'having no lean- 
ings towards bhava-sampatti 8 and bhoga-sampaUi, 9 attempting to destroy 
the great realm of latent sakkaya-ditthi in this very life, and thus is free 
from dependence on the round of rebirths.' Vivatta nissita means 
freeing oneself day by day from Lhe attachments of sensuous passions, the 
meanings of bojjhanga, sambojjhariga, and sambodhi anga are identical. 



VIII 
The Eight Maggahga 

The delinition of magga is: 

Kilese marenta nibbanam gacchanti etenati maggo. 

(These dhamma dispel the defilements such as sakkaya-ditthi and thus 
enable- one to reach Nibbana— end of apaya dukkha and vatta dukkha. 
Hence they are called magga.) 

There are eight ingredients of magga, namely: 

5. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Vibhariga Pali, 10 Bojjhanga Vibhariga, p. 238, 6th Syn. Edn. 

6. Sammohavinodani Atthakatha, 1. Suttanta-bhajaniya-vannana p. 296, 6th Syn. Edn- 

7. There are four kinds of upadhi. They are: — 

1. Kamupadhi: attachment to sensuous pleasures; 

2. Kilesupadhi: attachment to mind-defiling passions: 

3. Abhisahkarupadhi; attachment to performance ot merits, etc.; and 

4. Khandhupadhi: attachments to the five constituent groups of the body. 

8. Attainment of happy planes of existence. 

9. Attainment of wealth. 



The Eight Maggariga 361 

1. samma-ditthi— Right View 

2. samma-sahkappa— Right Thinking 

3. samma-vaca—- Right Speech 

4. samma-kammanta— Right Action 

5. samma-ajiva— Right Livelihood 
6 samma-vayama— Right Effort 

7. samma-sati— Right Mindfulness 

8. samma-samadhi— Right Concentration. 

All these eight ingredients are present in lokuttara-nanadassana-visud- 
dlii (supramundane purification by knowledge and vision). In the preced- 
ing lokiya-visuddhi (mundane purifications), samma-vaca, samma-kam- 
rnanta and samma-ajiva, are present only in sila-visuddhi (purification 
of virtue). They are not present in citta-visuddhi (purification of con- 
sciousness), etc. 

Hence, in the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, sila-visuddhi 
means viveka nissita and viraga nissita sila in accordance with: 

Sammavacam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nis- 
sitam, vossaggaparinamim. 

Sarnma-kammantam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha 
nissitam, vossaggaparinamim. 

Samma-ajivam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha 
nissitam, vossaggaparinamim. 1 

It does not refer to sila that has leanings towards bhava-sampatti and 
dependency on the round of rebirths. The sila-visuddhi of those who 
have consciously given up attempts at attaining the holy Paths and the 
Fruits in this life is not genuine adibrahmacariyaka sila 2 and thus is not 
of the genuine bodhipakkhiya class. If effort be made, however, towards 
the attainment of Nibbana in the next life, it can be paramisila which 
is a part of vivatta nissita-sila. 

Samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva-maggahga are purely 
of the class of sila and hence constitute genuine sila-visuddhi They are 
also called the three virati cetasika. 3 

1. SammohavinodanI Atthakatha, 1. Suttanta-bhajanlya-vannana. p. 305,6th Syn. Edn. 

2. Morality belonging to the principles of fundamentals of moral life. 

3. The Lhree virati cetasika are: — 

samma vaca, samma-kammanta, samma-ajiva. 



352 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpanl 

Samma-saii kappa is vitakka-cetasika. Since it is the harbinger of panna, 
it is included in the panna category. There are three kinds of sankappa, 
namely nekkhama-sankappa, abyapada-sankappa, and avihirhsa-sankappa. 
Just as a person incarcerated in prison, or a .person beseiged by enemy 
trcops, or a person encircled by a forest fire, or a fish caught in a net, 
tank, or trap, or a bird caught in a cage, is absorbed (without being able to 
sleep or eat) in only one thought, that is in the attempt to escape from 
these confinements, the attempts of those persons who contrive with 
sammappadhana-viriya to escape from the confinement of the old infinite- 
ly numerous uppanna-akusala-kamma and the new infinitely numerous 
anuppanna-akusala-kamma that are due to arise are called nekkhama- 
sahkappa-maggahga. It is the sort of sankappa which looks for the 
way to escape in this very life from the vattadukkha (round of rebirths). 

The sankappa which associates with metta jhana is called abyapada- 
saiikappa. The sankappa which associates with karuna jhana is called 
avihirhsa-sankappa. The sankappa which associates with the remaining 
jhana is called nekkhama-sankappa. 

The four maggahga of samma-ditthi, samma-vayama, samma-sati, and 
and samma-sammadhi, have been dealt with under bojjhanga. 

Samma-ditthi and samm a -sankappa are pannakkhandha. They con- 
stitute the panna group. Khandha means group or aggregate. Samma- 
vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva are called silakkhandha. They 
constitute the sila group. Samma-vayama, samma-sati, and samma sama- 
dhi are called sammadhikkhandha. They constitute the samadhi group. 

The ajivatthamaka-sila that is observed and kept with the pupose of 
destroying the great kingdom of ditthi-anusaya is lokiya-silakkhandha- 
maggariga. It is sila-visuddhi. 

There are two kinds of ajivatthamaka-sila, namely, sila for layfolk, 
and sila for the sangha. Abstention from the three kaya-duccarita and 
the four vaci-duccarita 4 comprise the ajivatthamaka-sila for layfolk. 
The atthariga-uposatha-sila and the dasahga-sila are sila that refine or 
polish the ajivatthamaka-sila. 

The observance of the 227 sikkha laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka 
comprise the ajivatthamaka-sila for the saiigha. These 227 sikkha 
cover kaya-kamina and vaci kamma, and are so classified in the commen- 
taries. The remaining sila groups laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka con- 
stitute refinements to the ajivatthamaka-sila. 

4. Please see the Light of the Dhamma Vol. VII. No. 2, p. 10. 



The Eight Maggaiiga 363 

Just a3 trees grow in the Soil, the six visuddhi beginning with citta- 
visuddhi develop in the soil of sila-visuddhi. In particular, sila-visuddi, 
does not mix with the five middle visuddhi beginning with citta-visuddhi, 
but supports them by securing antecedent purity. In the case of lokuttara- 
iianadassana- visuddhi, sila-visuddhi operates in conjuction with it as three 
constituents of silakkhandha-maggahga. The reason is, the objects of 
attention of sila-visuddhi are of a different order from those of the five 
middle visuddhi, while they are identical with those of the lokuttara- 
visuddhi, thus operating together with it as sahajata (co-existent). 

This ends silakkhandha-magganga. 

With reference to samadhikkhandha-maggahga there are two courses 
of action, namely, the way of the suddhavippassana-yanika (one who 
practises pure insight only), and the way of the samatha-vipassana-yanika 
(one who practises both calm and insight). After the fulfilment of sila- 
visuddhi and the setting up of kayagata-sali, not following the way of 
samatha, but following the way of pure vipassana such as that of ditthi- 
visuddhi, etc., is the way of suddhavipassana-yanika. If, however, the 
way of samatha be followed, such as the attainment of the first jhana 
samapatti, etc., and thence following the way of vipassana such as that 
of ditthi-visuddhi, etc., it is called the way of the samatha-vipassana- 
yanika. 

Of these two ways, 1) in the case of the suddhavipassana-yanika, the 
three samadhi-maggahga fulfil the functions of * samatha- and citta- 
visuddhi through the three kinds of samadhi known as sunnata-samadhi, 
animitta-samadhi and appanihita-samadhi; 2) in the case of samatha- 
vipassana-yanika, however, the three samadhi-maggahga fulfil the functions 
of samatha and citta-visuddhi by the name of three samadhi— parikamma- 
samadhi, upacara-samadhi, and appana-samadhi; and thereafter at the 
vipassana stage, the functions of samatha and citta-visuddhi are fulfilled 
through the three kinds of samadhi know as sunnata-samadhi, animitta- 
samadhi and appanihita-samadhi. 

During the period of the preceediug sila-visuddhi and kayagata-sati, 
however, the three samadhi-maggahga fulfil the functions of khanika- 
(momentary) samadhi. 

This ends samadhikkhandha-maggahga. 

The two pahfiakkhandha-maggahga fulfil the functions of panna in 



364 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanI 

both of the ways of the suddhavipassana-yanika and the samatha-vipas- 
sana-yanika, after the setting up of sila-visuddhi and kayagata-sati. 
These remarks relate to both the lokiya-magganga and the lokuttara- 
magganga. 

I shall now show the way of sotapatti-magga in lokuttara-magganga. 
It should be remembered that this book is aimed at the lowest of the 
ariya, namely the 'bon-sin-san' sukkhavipassaka-sotapanna. At the 
present time there are infinite numbers of beings such as Visakha, Ana- 
thapindika, Sakka the deva king, Cularatha DevaS Maharatha Deva, 6 Ane- 
kavanna Deva, 7 the four Catumaharajika 8 Deva kings, and the guardian 
devas of the sun and moon 9 who still continue to derive pleasure and 
ease within the round of rebirths— inhabiting the catumaharajika deva 
loka, the tavatimsa deva loka, and the upper deva loka. They are 
beings who have seven more rebirths in the kama-loka, one rebirth 
each in the six fourth jhana loka or vehapphala brahma loka. The 
number of rebirths in the first, second, and third jhana brahma loka is 
undetermined. 

Why are they called sotapanna? The five great rivers and five hun- 
dred lesser rivers that have their source in the Himalayas, do not flow 
up, but flow down continuously to the great ocean. Hence they are cal- 
led sota. Similarly, ariya do not revert back to the state of puthujjana 
(worldlings) but proceed continuously (as ariya) until they attain anu- 
padisesa-nibbana. In the case of puthujjana, although they may attain 
rebirth in the highest brahma loka, they possess the liability to descend 
to the lowest Avici hell, but in the case of ariya, wherever they may 
be reborn, they do not descend and attain rebirth in a lower loka, but 
possess a continuous tendency to be reborn in a higher loka. Although 
puthujjana may attain the state of tihetuka-brahma in the rupa and 
ariipa loka, they possess the liability to be reborn as ahetu-duggati 
creatures such as dogs and pigs, whereas in the case of ariya, they do 
not revert back to the stage of puthujjana, but ascend with each rebirth 
to higher states of ariya. 

5. Vimana Vatthu, p. 87, 6th Syn. Edn. 

6. Vimana Vatthu, p. 90, 6th Syn. Edn. 

7. V.mana Vatthu, p. 112, 6th Syn. Edn. 

8. Dlgha Nikaya, Mahavagga, Mahagovinda Sutta, p. 178, 6th Syn. Edn. 

9. Guardian devas of the sun and moon . . . Samyutta Nikaya, Sagatha-vagga, Samyutta 
p. 48, Gth Syn. Edn. 



The Eight Maggariga 365 

Thus whether it be the loka where rebirth takes place, or the status 
attained in each rebirth, the ariya do not regress, but proceed higher 
and higher from one loka to the next, or from one status to another, 
until after many rebirths and many worlds elapse they reach the highest 
loka and the highest status, when they discard the five aggregates called 
khandha and cross over to anupadisesa-nibbana. The process by which 
this single path of ascent is traversed is called dhamma-sota. They com- 
prise samma-ditthi-sota, samma-sahkappa-sota, samma-vaca-sota, samma- 
kammanta-sota, samma-ajiva-sota, samma-vayama-sota, samma-sati-sota, 
and samma-samadhi-sota. 

Samma-ditthi-sota means the establishment of the great kingdom of 
samma-ditthi which can perceive the light of the Four Noble Truths. This 
great kingdom of samma-ditthi is established in place of the great anu- 
saya kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi. It resembles the rising of the sun after 
the night is over, when the darkness is dispelled and the light is estab- 
lished. In the same way, the great kingdom of light of samma-ditthi 
remains established throughout many lives and many world cycles until 
the attainment of anupadisesa-nibbana. The light increases and becomes 
more and more firmly established from one rebirth to another. It also 
resembles a person born from his mother's womb without sight through 
cataracts covering both his eyes, who, on coming across good medicines, 
is cured of the cataracts and gains sight. From the moment the cataracts 
disappear, the view of the earth, mountains, sky, sun, moon, and stars, 
etc., is opened to him and thereafter throughout his life. 

In the same way, the sotapanna-ariya gain view of the three charac- 
teristics (ti-lakkhana) and the Four Noble Truths. Just as the blind man 
in the illustration above can see the sky, sun and moon, these ariya 
can percieve the dhainrna mentioned at their will This is how samma- 
ditthi-magga is established. 

Samma-ditthassa samma-sankappo pahoti. 10 (When samma-ditthi is 
established, samma-sahkappa progresses.) According to this, if samma- 
ditthi is established, samma-sahkappa, which consists of intention and 
design to escape from worldly ills, and to preserve others from destruction 
and suffering, also becomes established and thrives from one rebirth to 
another until the attainment of anupadisesa-nibbana. This is how 

10. Sarhyutta Nikaya, Mahavagga Samyutta Pali, 

1. Magga-samyutta, 1. Avijja vagga. 1. Avijja, Sutta p. 2, 6th Syn, Edn. 



366 Bodhipakkhiya-DlpanI 

samma-sankappa is established. The Commentary says: Tahotiti vaddhati' 
(pahoti means vaddhati, increase). 

Samma-sankappassa samma-vaca pahoti. If the intention and design 
to escape from worldly ills, and to see others in pleasure and ease, 
is established, speech free from the vaci-duccarita appears and is 
progressively established. This is how samma-vaca is established. 

Samma-vacassa samma-kammanto pahoti. If speech free from the 
vaci-duccarita is established, acts free from kaya-duccarita appear and 
are progressively established. This is how samma-kammanta is estab- 
lished. 

Samma-kammantassa samma-ajivo pahoti. When views, intentions, 
speech and acts become pure, the forms of livelihood also become pure, 
and one is free "permanently from low and base forms of livelihood. This 
is how sarnma-ajiva is established. 

Samma-ajivassa samma-vayamo pahoti. When views, intentions, speech 
acts and livelihood become pure, energy or effort free from the duccarita 11 
become permanently established. This is how samma-vayama is established. 

Samma-vayamassa samma-sati pahoti. Thus also does samma-sati- 
maggaiiga that has its roots in the work of sila, samadhi, and panna, 
become established from one rebirth to another. This is how samma- 
sati is established. 

Samma-satissa samma-samadhi pahoti. l 2 Thus also does samma-samadhi, 
which has its roots in the work of sila, samadhi, and panna, and which 
possesses great control over the mind, become established. This is how 
samma-samadhi is established. 

This is how the eight maggariga called dhamma-sota become progres- 
sively established throughout many lives and many worlds from the 
moment a being attains the stage of sotapanna and until he finally at- 
tains anupadisesa-nibbana. 

Although from the moment kayagata-sati is set up there is progress 
such as has been shown above, so long as the state of niyama is not 
reached that being is not as yet an ariya. Sotapatti-magga is the starting 
point of ariya-sota. As soon as beings reach sotapatti-magga, they enter 
the domain of ariya. Hence it is said: Sotam aditopajjimsu papunimsuti 

11. Wrong doing. 

12. Wrong livelihood. 



The Eight Magganga 367 

sotapanna. They are called sotapanna, as they reach ariya-sota for the 
first time. 

This ends the answer to the question, 'Why are they called sota- 
panna ? ' 

Beings transcend the state of puthujjana as soon as they reach the 
stage of ariya. They are no longer worldlings or beings of the world. 
They have become beings of lokuttara. They are no longer beings sub- 
ject to the suffering within the round of rebirths (vatta-dukkha), they 
have become beings of Nibbana. Throughout the series of many ex- 
istences and many worlds, they no longer emerge back again from the 
first stage of Nibbana. They no longer possess the susceptibility to re- 
turn to the ansuaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi, or to the state of puthuj- 
jana. They are permanently established in the first stage of sa-upadisesa- 
nibbana, and throughout many lives and worlds they enjoy at will the 
pleasures of humans, devas, and brahmas. For a detailed exposition 
see my Catu Sacca Dipani, and Paramattha Saiikhitta. 

These eight maggahga occur simultaneously to these ariya only at 
the instant of the attainment of a Path or Fruition. With reference, 
however, to lokiya-kusala-kamma (mundane wholesome volitional actions), 
the three silakkhandha-magganga associate only with sila-kusala-kam- 
ma. The three samadhikkhandha-maggahga and the two panriakkhan- 
dha-maggariga, however, associate with many kinds of kusala kamma. 

Although the three silakkhandha-magganga associate only with sila- 
kusala-kamma, they are firmly established in ariya as avitikkama (non- 
con trav en Lion) throughout many lives and many worlds. 

This ends the eight maggahga. 

The pure dhamma involved in the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhain- 
ma are: chanda,. c;tta, tatra-majjhattata, saddha, passadhi, patina, vitakka, 
virya, the three virati, sati, piti, and ekaggata, and are fourteen 1 ' 1 in 
number. 

13. Samyutla Nikaya, Mahavagga Saihyutta Paji, 

1. Magga Sarhyutta, 1. Avijja-vagga, 1. Avijja Sutta, p. 2 6th Syn. Edn. 

14. 1. chanda (desire). 2. citta (consciouness), 3. tatramajjhattata (equanimity), 4. 

saddha (faith), 5. passadhi (tranquillity), 6. parina (wisdom), 7. vitakka 
(thought conception), 8. viriya (efforts 9. sammfi-vaca (Right Speech). 10. 
samma-kammanta (Right Action), 11. Samma-ajiva (Right Livelihood), 12. 
sati (mindfulness), 13. jjiti (joy), 14. ekaggata (one-pointedness of mind). 



IX 
How to Practise The Bodhipakkhiya-Dhamma 

Beings who encounter a Buddha Sasana have to set up sila-visuddhi 
first and practise the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma in order to attain the 
status of ariya-sota. I shall now give a brief description of how the 
practice may be undertaken. 

The practice of the seven -visuddhi amounts to practising the bodhi- 
pakkhiya-dhamma. In particular, citta-visuddhi concerns only persons 
who follow the way of the samatha-yanika. Maggamagga-nanadassana- 
visuddhi concerns only those adhimanika persons 1 who think that they 
have attained the holy Paths and the Fruits although they have achieved 
no such attainment. Sila-visuddhi, kankhavitarana-visuddhi, patipada- 
nanadassana-visuddhi, and lokuttara-rianadassana- visuddhi, relate to many 
kinds of persons. 

Of these five visuddhi, sila-visuddhi has been dealt with under silak- 
khandha-magganga. It consists of keeping. the ajivatthamaka-sila. 

Citta-visuddhi, in general, consists of setting up kayagata-sati. Some 
persons set up kayagata-sati through out-breath and in-breath. It may 
be said generally that if one's attention resides on out-breath and in- 
breath, whenever one wills it, no matter what the posture of the body 
may be, kayagata-sati has been set up. Some persons set up kayagata- 
sati through the four body postures in accordance with the statement in 
the text?: 'gaccanto gacchamiti pajanati', while some set it up through 
sati-sampajanna (clearness of consciouness) on bodily movements. Yet 
others set up kayagata-sati through attention on the thirty-two parts of 
the body. Here, hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, and 
skin, are called tacapancaka. 3 If attention on these parts can be firmly 
and steadily placed at will, whatever may be the postures of the body, 
kayagata-sati is set up. Attention can also be directed to the bones of 

1. Highly conceited persons. 

2. Digha Nikaya, Maha-vagga, Mahasatipatthana Sutta, p. 231, 6th Syn. Edn. 

3. Ariguttara Nikaya, Duka-nipata, 9. Upaunata Sutta, p. 53, 6th Syn. Edn. 



Heritage of the Sasana 36§ 

the body. Kayagata-sati is set up if attention can be steadily and firmly 
placed on the bones of the head. If, from the beginning, the riipa and 
nama groups of the body can be analytically differentiated, and if atten- 
tion on such work is steady and firm, the work of kayagata-sati is ac- 
complished. This gives concisely the method of kayagata-sati. 

In the work of ditthi-visuddhi, if the six elements (dhatu) of pathavi, 
apo, tejo, vayo, akasa, and vinnana, can be analytically perceived, it is 
accomplished. 

In the work of khankkhavitarana visuddhi, if the causes for the ap- 
pearance of the dhatu mentioned above can be clearly perceived, it is 
accomplished. It must be clearly perceived that the causes for the ap- 
pearance of pathavi, apo, tejo, vayo and akasa are kamma, citta, utu, 
and ahara, and that the causes for the appearance of the six viiinana 
are the six objects of perception. 

By patipada-nanadassana- visuddhi is meant the three characteristics 
of anicca, dukkha, and anatta. If these three characteristics can be clearly 
perceived in the six dhatu mentioned above, patipada-nanadassana-vi- 
suddhi is attained. 

Lokuttara-nanadassana-visuddhi means the four magga-nana. 

This shows concisely the visuddhi. For a more detailed account see 
my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijjamagga Dipani, and Ahara Dipani. 

These thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are the heritages of the 
Buddha. They are the heritages of the Sasana. They constitute gems 
of the Sasana that are priceless and invaluable. 



X 
Heritage of the Sasana 

I shall now examine what constitutes sasanadayajja. Sasanadayajja 
means the act of receiving the heritage of Sasana. 

'Databbanti dayanY. (That which is given as heritage is called daya). 
Property that should be given as heritage by parents to their children. 



370 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

'Dayarh adadatiti dayado.' (Fit to receive heritage. Hence called 
dayado.) Children or heirs who are fit to receive heritage. 

'Dayadassa kammam dayajjam.' (The act of receiving heritage by 
heirs. Hence called dayajjam.) 

'Sasanassa dayajjarh sasanadayajjam.' (The act of receiving the 
heritage of the Sasana. Hence called sasanadayajjarh.) It is also called 
Buddhadayajja (the act of receiving the heritage of the Buddha.) 

First, I shall show the nature of the heritage. In the Sasana there 
are two kinds of heritages, namely, amisa and Dhamma. 

The four requisites of a bhikkhu, namely, alms-food, robes, dwelling 
place, and medicines, are called fimisa heritage. The three sikkha of 
sila, samadhi and panna, the seven visuddhi, such as sila-visuddhi, citta- 
visuddhi, etc., the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as the four 
satipatthana, the four sammappadhana, etc., are called Dhamma her- 
itage. 

There are two kinds of Dhamma heritage, namely: 

1. lokiya dhamma heritage 

2. lokuttara dhamma heritage. 

The lokiya-sikkha of sila, samadhi, and pahna, the six lokiya-visud- 
dhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma associated with the 
lokiya-visuddhi, are called the lokiya dhamma heritage. The sikkha 
associated with the holy Paths and the Fruits, the lokuttara-nanadassana- 
visuddhi, and the thirty-seven lokuttara bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are 
called lokuttara dhamma heritage. 

Lokiya dhamma heritage may be divided into: 

1. vatta nissita dhamma heritage 

2. vivatta nissita dhamma heritage. 

or into: 

1. niyata dhamma heritage 

2. aniyata dhamma heritage. 

The practice of sila, samadhi, and panha directed towards the attain- 
ment of worldly positions, such as mentor and teacher of kings, or to- 
wards the acquisition of dignity, power, retinue, and property, or towards 



Heritage of the Sasana 37 1 

the attainment in samsara of rebirth as noble and highly placed humans 
and devas, is called vatta nissita dhamma heritage. 

There are three forms of rounds of rebirths (vatta), namely, kilesa- 
vatta, kamma-vatta and vipaka-valta. 1 Vivatta means Nibbana which 
is the end of these rounds of rebirths. The practice of sila, samadhi, 
and panna directed towards the ending of the three forms of rounds of 
rebirths is called vivatta nissita dhamma heritage. 

The practice of kusala kamma directed towards the ultimate attain- 
ment of Nibbana, as of worldly benefits and pleasant rebirths in the in- 
terim before Nibbana is attained, is related to both vatta and vivatta, 
and hence is called ubhaya-nissita. In the Pali Texts, however, only 
vatta and vivatta are mentioned. Those who are more inclined to the 
attainment of vatta results may be said to perform vatta nissita kam- 
ma, and those who are more inclined to the attainment of vivatta results 
may be said to perform vivatta nissita kusala kamma. 

With reference to the classification of niyata and aniyata, the great 
realm of sakkaya-ditthi anusaya that puihujjana (worldlings) possess is 
like a great, wide and deep ocean of hot burning embers. The sila, sama- 
dhi and panna that occasionally occur to puthujjana may be compared 
to droplets of rain falling on that great ocean of burning embers. T ful- 
fill sila. I possess sila. I develop samadhi. I am knowing. I am wise. 
I am clever. I perceive rupa and nama. I contemplate rupa and nama' 
are declarations of acts of sila. samadhi, and panna, which revolve round 
the sakkaya-ditthi that is T, and thus resemble the droplets of rain 
falling on the great ocean of burning embers. Just as the great ocean 
of burning embers scorch and dry -up the droplets of rain and cause their 
disappearance, so does the great kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi cause the 
disappearance of such sila, samadhi, and panna. Hence, the sila, samadhi, 
and panna, appearing in puthujjana are of the aniyata class. Although 
puthujjana may possess sila, samadhi, and panna, the possession is 
tadanga or temporary. 

The ajivatthamaka lokiya sila of sotapanna, their lokiya samadhi 
which resides steadily on the noble and incomparable qualities of the 
Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sarigha, and their lokiya parifia which 

1. 1. Round of defilements, 2 Round of kamma, 3. Round of resultants. 



372 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

perceives the Four Noble Truths, are of the niyata class. Like droplets 
of water falling on the great lake of Anavatatta, such lokiya sila, sama- 
dhi, and panna, do not disappear throughout many lives and many world - 
cycles. 

This shows the nature of lokiya dhamma heritage. 

The lokuttara dhamma of sila, samadhi, and panna, nanadassana-visud- 
dhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, which accompany the 
eight kinds of lokuttara consciousness are vivatta nissita. They are ni- 
yata. The lokiya sila, samadhi, and panna, which occur to ariya who 
have attained lokuttara sila, samadhi, and panna, also reach the niyata 
stage. In such persons there is no longer any possibility of their becom- 
ing dussila (immoral), asamahita (not composed), duppanna (unwise), and 
andhabala (silly). 

This shows the heritage of the Sasana. 

The heirs of the Sasana are; 

1. bhikkhu 

2. bhikkhuni 

3. samanera 

4. samaneri 

5. sikkhamana (female) 

6. upasaka 

7. upasika. 

Here, sikkhamana means 'embryo bhikkhuni.' 

Of the above seven heirs, the first first five are called 'fellow workers 
or colleagues within the Sasana.' Men, devas, and Brahmas, who are 
not 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana', but who are estab- 
lished in Ti-sarana, are included in upasaka and upasika. 

Among the seven heirs, the amisa heritage of the four requisites can 
be received only by the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the 
Sasana.' The lokiya and lokuttara dhamma heritages, however, can be 
received by all the seven. In the receipt of such heritages, there are 
special considerations in respect of the heritage of lokiya sila. There are 
special considerations with respect to the heritages of lokuttara sila, loki- 
ya and lokuttara samadhi, and lokiya and lokuttara panna. 

The special considerations with respect to lokiya sila arise because the 
five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana' receive the heritages 



Heritage of the Sasana 373 

of both the vinaya-sila and sultanta-sila, while upasaka and upasika 
receive only the suttanta-sila. 
Suttanta-sila means: 

1. in respect of the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the 
Sasana', the siia enumerated in the Brahmajala Sutta (Digha 
Nikaya) 2 

2. in respect of upasaka and upasika, ajivatthamaka-sila and 
dasanga-sila. 

Dhutariga-sila, indriya-sila, and paccayasannissita- sila are also suttanta 
sila. 

Samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva, inculded in lokut- 
tara-magganga, are called lokuttara-sila. These sila can be received 
by the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana* as also up- 
asaka and upasika. Hence no special considerations arise with respect 
to lokuttara-sila. The same is the case in the two kinds of heritages 
of samadhi and panna. The seven visuddhi and the thirty-seven bodhi- 
pakkhiya-dhamma are included within these sila, samadhi, and panna. 

Of the seven heirs of the Sasana, the five 'fellow workers or colleagues 
within the Sasana', who are in the service of the Sasana, are heirs for 
their own benefit as well as heirs who act as caretakers of the heritages of 
the Sasana in order that the Tipitaka and the other requisites of the Sasana 
may endure for the duration of 5000 years. The remaining two are 
heirs of the Sasana only for their own benefit. 

The status of caretakers of the Sasana, on whose shoulders rest the 
responsibilities of the Sasana, is much higher than that of the status of 
being merely heirs. Thus, a householder who has been an ariya for 
sixty years has to pay respect and obeisance to a young puthujjana 
samanera of seven years of age who has been initiated for only a day. 
Thus also, a bhikkhu who is an arahat has to pay respect and obesiance 
to a puthujjana bhikkhu who was ordained just an hour before him. 

This shows the heir of the Sasana. 

The three sikkha, the seven visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipak- 
khiya-dhamma, are practices that are in consonance with the nine lokut- 

2. See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. Ill, No 2, and the Brahmajala Sutta published 
by the Union Buddha Sasana Council. 



374 Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanl 

tara dhamma, 3 and hence are called dhammanudhamma-patipatti. The 
seven heirs of the Sasana who practise these dhamma well are called 
suppatipanna individuals. They are also called ujuppatipanna individuals, 
nayappatipanna individuals, and samicippatipanna individuals. 4 Although 
they may be puthujjana, they are included among the sotapatti-maggat- 
thasekha individuals (persons in training for the sotapatti magga), who 
constitute the first group (or the group in the first stage) of the eight 
ariya. They constitute dhammanudhammapatipanna ariya. Since they 
are still puthujjana, they are not yet paramattha ariya (purified Noble 
Ones). 

I shall substantiate what I say. In the Sekhapptipada Sutta,5 Buddha 
said: 'Imina ariyena silakkharidhena samannagato hoti,' meaning thereby 
that the practices which are comprised within the bodhipakkhiya-dham- 
ma, such as ajivatthamaka-sila, constitute ariya sila, ariya samadhi, and 
ariya panna. Hence, in the Buddha Sasana, the upasaka and upasika 
who are permanently confirmed in the ajivatthamaka-sila and in the Ti- 
sarana, are persons who are partly endowed with the suppatipanna qua- 
lity, and the samicippatipanna quality, and hence are dhammanudham- 
mappatipanna ariya. 

When these qualities are enumerated coupled with the name of the 
sangha, such as in: 

Sangham saranarh gacchami. Suppatippanno bhagavato savaka 
saiigho, etc , 

only the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis who are silavanta kalyana puthuj- 
jana (worlings who are morally good and virtuous) should be understood. 
In the matter of the vinaya, all persons other than upasampanna sangha 
(ordained sangha), that is, samanera, samaneri, sikkhamana, upasaka, 
and upasika, are excluded. 

A person who practises the dhammanudhamma-patipatti, which may 
also be called the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, is called samana and brah- 
mana in the Suttanta discourses, although he or she may be only an 
upasaka or an upasika. 

3. Pour magga, four phala and Nibbana. 

4. See Nanamoli's Visuddhimagga, page 236 et. seq. 

5. Samyutta Nikaya, Maha-vagga Sarayutta Pali, 1. Magga Samyutta, 3. Sekha Sutta, 
p. 12,' 6th Syn. Edn. 



Heritage of the Sasana 375 

Thus it is said in the Dhammapada: 

Alaiikato ce pi samaii careyya 
santo danto niyato 'brahmacari, 
sabbesu bhutesu nidhaya dandarh, 
sa samano, sa brahmano, sa bhikkhu. 

—Dhammapada 142. 

[Though dressed in gay and .festive clothes, if he practises an even 
mind, if his passions are subdued, if his senses ore controlled, if he is 
confirmed in the four Paths, if he permanently observes conduct that is 
chaste and pure, that person is a recluse (samana), he is an ariya (brah- 
mana), he is a bhikkhu.] 

This passage shows that a person who practises the dhammanudham- 
ma-patipatti, which are the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, and lives with pure 
mind and body, can be called a bhikkhu even though he dons the clothes 
of an ordinary layman. This shows the nobility and high status of the 
heirs of the Sasana. 

In the matter of heritages of the Sasana, there are two kinds of her- 
itages, namely, good and bad. There are also two kinds of heirs, namely, 
good and bad. 

I shall here show the essentials in the Dbamma Dayada Sutta, 6 Mula 
Pannasa, Majjhima Nikaya. 

Dhamma dayada me bhikkhave bhavatha, 
ma amisadayada. Atthi me turhhesu anukampa. 
Kinti me savaka dhamma dayada bhaveyyum, 
no amisa dayada ti. 

(Bhikkhus: Let you be heirs of the Dhamma. Let not you be heirs of 
the material requisites. I have compassion and anxiety for you. How 
do I have this compassion and anxiety ? How can my disciples become 
heirs of the dhamma? How can they avoid becoming heirs of the material 
requisites? It is thus that I have compassion and anxiety for you.) 

The meaning of this passage is as follows: The Buddha's heritage 
consists of the two kinds of amisa heritage and dhamma heritage. Amisa 
heritage is of three kinds, namely: paccayamisa, lokamisa, and vattamisa. 

6. 1. Wulapariyaya-vagga, 3. Dhammadayada Sulla, p. 15, 6th Syn. Edn. 



376 Bodhipakkhiya-DTpanI 

The benefits consisting of alms-food, robe's, dwelling place and medi- 
cines, are called paccay amisa. World renown, grandeur, dignity, power, 
worldly positions, such as teachers and mentors of kings, ministers, 
persons of wealth and influence, and possession of followers and retinues, 
are called lokamisa. Pleasant rebirths such as rebirth in high stations, 
rebirth in affluent families, or rebirth in circumstances where one's wants 
are fulfilled, are called vattamisa. I have already expounded dhamamisa. 
The Buddha foresaw that after his attainment of parinibbana the 
Sasana would be overwhelmed by the excessive increase of the three 
categories of amisa heritage, in just the same way as islands within the 
ocean are overwhelmed and submerged by the three waves of rising 
floods. Hence did he leave behind the exhortation; 

Dbammadayada me bhikkhave bhavatha, ma amisadayada. 
'Anukampa' means the anxiety or concern nurtured by the Buddha. 
The Buddha's anxiety was that, just as when the flood waters of the 
ocean rise the people inhabiting the islands are submerged and cast adrift, 
His disciples in the Sasana would in time be submerged and cast adrift 
by the rise and expansion of amisa heritage, thus severing them from the 
invaluable heritage of the dhamma. Hence did he leave behind the ex- 
hortation: 

Kinti me savaka dhammadayada bhaveyyum, 
no amisa dayada. 

The three amisa heritages are therefore heritages which caused anxiety 
and concern in -the Buddha, and thus are heritages which the Buddha 
discouraged. Hence, these three amisa heritages are bad heritages. On 
the other hand, the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as satipat- 
thana, are heritages which the Buddha extolled with a clear mind free 
from anxiety, and thus are good heritages. 

Having shown good and bad heritages, bad and good heirs should also 
be examined. 

In particular, it must be remembered that there are certain heritages 
in the amisa category which the Buddha extolled.- They are pindiyalopa 
(morsel) alms-food, pamsukula robes (robes made out of rags and cast 
away cloth such as from dust heaps), fukkhamula dwelling place 



Heritage of the Sasana 377 

(dwelling place constructed in a lonely place at the foot of a tree), and 
putimutta medicine (strong smelling urine of cattle used as medicine). 
These four are called Buddhadayajja. They are the four great heritages 
which the Buddha approved. 

If that is the case, it needs to be explained why the Buddha permitted 
the acceptance of atireka labha (surplus acquisition) amisa given by lay 
donors, as when he said: 

Atireka lobho viharo addhayogo, etc. 
(Surplus monastery, dwelling place, etc.) 

The pariyatti sasana 7 consisting of the Tipitaka is the base— the foun- 
dation— of the patipatti (practice of the Dhamma) and the pativedha (reali- 
zation) Sasana. Only when the pariyatti sasana stands firmly ' established 
can the other two Sasana be also firmly established. The burden of 
preserving the pariyatti sasana for 50C0 years is indeed great, since these 
are times of a waning kappa (world-cycle) when the life-span of men is 
also on the wane. The physical and mental strength of the members of 
the Sarigha, who are the servants and caretakers of the Sasana, are as 
a result on the wane too. The Buddha thus foresaw that it would not 
be possible for these servants and caretakers, in the future, to shoulder 
the burden of preserving the pariyatti and at the same time live in lonely 
places under trees— without the concession of atireka labha. This is one 
reason. 

In the cases of those persons whose parami are yet immature, the 
Buddha foresaw that the opportunity afforded them of practising the 
works consisting of acquiring the pariyatti, performing dana, observing 
sila, and giving paccayanuggaha (assistance in kind) extensively, would 
secure for them escape from the apaya loka in the next birth, and ena- 
ble them to obtain release from worldly ills during the next Buddha 
Sasana. This is another reason. 

It may be argued here that if what has been said above is true, it 
would amount to the Buddha himself having contrived to submerge beings 
and cast them adrift in amisa heritage. In this particular, it may be 
pointed out that the Buddha prescribed and left behind the practice of 
paccavekkhana-suddhi (purity of contemplation or purity of review), such 

7. Learning of the Doctrine. 



378 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

as 'patisafikhayoniso civaram patisevati', which should be observed and 
practised with proper attention and care, in order that the servants and 
the caretakers of the pariyatti sasanfi who have to associate themselves 
unavoidably with paccayamisa and lokamisa may not be overwhelmed 
and submerged in amisa tanha. Hence, if such persons ride the ship 
which consists of the wisdom arising out of paccayasannissita sila cetana 
according to the prescription in paccavekkhana sudd hi that is free from 
the association of two kinds of amisa tanha, they cannot become submer- 
ged and be adrift in the ocean of amisa although they are obliged to 
live in association with amisa tanha. 

The meanings of the expressions 'submerged' and 'adrift' are as fol- 
lows: The non-appearance of adinava-nana (awareness of blemishes) in 
the three amisa of paccayamisa, lokamisa, vattamisa, is what is meant 
by 'submerged.' To be non-aware of blemishes for a lengthy period, and 
to derive joy and pleasure in the three amisa throughout the whole of 
life, is what is meant by 'adrift'. Hence, in order to prevent being so 
'submerged' and 'adrift', the Buddha said in the Dhammapada: 

Tin nam annatararh yamarh 
patijaggeyya pandito. 

—Dhammapada, verse 157. 

(The wise man should purify himself during one of the three periods 
of life.) 

This means that if one is 'submerged' and be 'adrift' in the first period 
of life, one should attempt to purify oneself during the second period. 
If, however, one continues to remain 'submerged' and 'adrift' during the 
second period of life, one should attempt to purify oneself in the third 
period . 

Here, 'purifying oneself means establishing oneself in the bodhipak- 
khiya-dbamma after ridding oneself of the attachments to amisa herita- 
ges. It means establishing oneself well in the four ariyavamsa dhamma 
(practices of the noble family of ariya), which are: 

Civarasantosa— being easily contented in robes 
Pindapatasantosa— being easily contented in alms-food 



Heritage of the Sasana 379 

Senasanasantosa— being easily contented in dwelling place 
Bhavanarama— deriving joy in meditation. 

The Buddha said that if one remains 'submerged' and 'adrift' within 
the amisa heritages during the whole of the three periods of life, one 
will be cast into the apaya loka. Thus in the Dhammapada, he said: 

Ayasava malam samutthaya, 
tadutlhnya tameva khadati. 
evam atidhonacarinarh, 
tani kammani nayaati duggatirh. 

—Dhammapada, verse 240. 

(Just as rust springs from iron and eats away that self-same iron, the 
deeds arising out of amisa tanha of a person who lives without reflection 
lead him to the apaya loka.) 

This discourse 5 * was delivered by the Buddha in connection with a 
bhikkhu who died in the Jetavana Monastery, and who was reborn as a 
louse in his erstwhile bhikkhu's robes, because he harboured an attach- 
ment to those robes just before he died. If the attachment to a set of 
robes can cast one in the apaya loka, what more need be said on greater 
attachments ? 

The robes were received as a share from saiighika property (property 
belonging to the order of the Sangha), and hence were dhammika pro- 
perty (righteous or lawful property). The bhikkhu in question was also 
one who scrupulously observed the 227 sikkha of the Vinaya. Thus it 
may be said that a set of lawful robes cast a bhikkhu endowed with the 
227 sikkha into the apaya loka. What more need be said about pro- 
perties acquired with lust and greed by ordinary layfolk endowed with 
only five sikkha? It is thus that one should contemplate and acquire 
agitation (sarhvega) .9 I shall now give an illustration. 

There was a wealthy man who possessed many crores worth of silver, 
many crores worth of gold, and many crores worth of pearls. In order 
that these properties might not be lost during bad times, he buried the 

8. Dhammapada Atthakatha, 3. Tissa Thera Vatthu, p, 218, 6th Syn. Edn. 
'.>. Dr^ad caused by the contemplation on the miseries of this world. See The Light 
of the Dhamma, Vol. VII, No. 3. p. 17. 



3 SO Bodhipakkhiya-DIpanT 

bulk of them in the ground, and kept only sixty-thousand worth of 
money, rice, paddy, wearing apparel, and ornaments for immediate and 
ready use. 

This wealthy man had six sons. On his death, the six heirs divided 
the properties among themselves in six equal shares. The properties 
buried beneath the earth were also similarly allocated. These buried 
properties could be secured by the heirs only if the owners personally 
dug them out the ground. 

One of the sons was full of greed. He was not content with the pro- 
perty he could immediately use. He was satiated with the desire for 
the buried property and could not bear to wait long in order to get it. 
He therefore exerted himself and dug up Ihe property, thus becoming a 
wealthy man. 

One of the sons was full of energy. He did not look on the prospect 
of having to exert himself for days and months as burdensome. He 
therefore put forth effort and applied himself to the work of unearthing 
the buried treasure, thus becoming a wealthy man. 

One of the sons was strong in his attachment. From the moment he 
received the heritage, his mind ways always on the property. Sleep and 
food were of no consequence, so greatly was his mind attached to the pro- 
perty. He thus put forth effort and dug up the buried property, becom- 
ing a wealthy man. 

One of the sons was clever and ingenious. He contrived to construct 
machinery and dug up the buried property, thus becoming a wealthy 
man. 

One of the sons lacked greed. He imagined himself to be well-off with 
even ten thousand worth of property. He had no desire to acquire the 
buried property. He was satisfied with the property that he received for 
his immediate use. 

One of the sons was a spendthrift. He squandered all the property, 
not even leaving the price of a spade for the exhumation of the buried 
property. He sank in to bad ways and was eventually banished from his 
native place. 

In this illustration, the Buddha resembles the wealthy father. Sila-vi- 
suddhi and the pariyatti dhamma resemble the treasure available for 
immediate use. Jhana and abhinna, which constitute citta-visuddhi, resem- 
ble the buried silver treasure. The four lokiya pafina-visuddhi, such 



Heritage of the Sasana 381 

as ditthivisuddhi, resemble the buried gold treasure. The lokuttara-riana- 
dassana-visuddhi resembles the buried pearl treasure. The layfolk and 
bhikkhus of the Buddha Sasana resemble the six heirs. 

Those persons within the Sasana who are filled with the iddhipada of 
chanda (desire) resemble the first son who was filled with greed. Persons 
filled with the iddhipada of chanda are not satisfied with the mere acqui- 
sition of sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti dhamma. They do not think 
that by such acquisition they have encountered the Buddha Sasana, or 
that they have become heirs of the Sasana. They nurture great desire 
for attaining the higher visuddhi and will not rest until they are 
achieved. 

Those persons who possess the iddhipada of viriya (effort) resemble 
the second son who was full of effort. Such persons are happy and easy 
in mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire the higher 
achievements which they do not as yet possess. 

Those persons who possess the iddhipada of citta (attachment) resem- 
ble the third son who possessed strong attachment. Whenever such per- 
sons come to know of work productive of great benefits, they invoke 
great attachment for it, and their minds do not wander to any other 
matter. 

Those persons who possess iddhipada of panna (wisdom) resemble the 
fourth son who was clever and ingenious. Such persons attain happiness 
and ease of mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire 
great knowledge that is difficult of acquisition, deep, and productive of 
great benefits. 

Those persons who do not possess any of the iddhipada, who possess 
only inferior chanda, viriya, citta, and panna, resemble the fifth son who 
was easily satisfied with the unburied property. Such persons who lack 
saddha and chanda do not even possess the idea that the higher attain- 
ments of the visuddhi are the heritages which they can acquire in this 
very life. Because they lack viriya, they are reluctant to put forth effort 
that requires the encountering of privations. They are liable to reject 
such effort as impossible. Because they are weak in their volitions, their 
minds are not fixed on such kinds of work. They change their minds 
whenever they listen to various theories and expositions. Because they 
lack knowledge and wisdom, they reject such work as beyond their 



382 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipanl 

capabilities. It is because the Buddha had such persons in view that he 
said: 

Chandiddhipadam bhaveti 
Viriyiddhipadam bhaveti 
Cittiddhipadam bhaveti 
Vimamsiddhipadam bhaveti. 

In these words the Buddha urged all beings to strengthen their weak 
iddhipada, such as chanda, etc. Then only can new desires and new 
thoughts arise. 

In the Buddha Sasana, layfolk and bhikkhus who are defective in their 
moral conduct resemble the sixth son. Among layfolk, those persons 
who are defective in the establishment of the Tr-sarana, and the nicca- 
sila of parica-sila and ajivatthamaka-sila, do not possess the qualities of 
an upasaka or an upasika, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. Among 
bhikkhus and samaneras, those who commit the parajika 10 offences do 
not possess the qualities of a good bhikkhu or a good samanera, who 
only are the heirs of the Sasana. If layfolk vow that they would keep 
the pafica-sila or the ajivatthamaka-sila from today, they can immediate- 
ly become upasakas and upasikas who are heirs of the Sasana. 

This illustration shows how of the many persons who are truly in the 
line of heritage of the one father (the Buddha), only those who possess 
one or other of the four iddhipada as a foundation can enjoy the full bene- 
fits of the heritages. Persons who do not possess one or other of the 
four iddhipada get the opportunity to enjoy only some of the superficial 
benefits of the heritages. They do not get the opportunity to enjoy the 
real essence of the heritages. Some persons do not get the opportunity 
of enjoying even the superficial benefits because they squander their her- 
itages and thus become severed from the Buddha's and the Sasana's 
heritages. 

The heirs of the Sasana may also be classified into: 

1. niyata hejrs 

2. aniyata heirs 

People who have never once obtained anicca-nana and anatta-nana 
within themselves are called aniyata heirs. Aniyata means that they may 

10. Offences which entail loss of monkhuod. 



Heritage of the Sasana 383 

be the disciples of the sabbannuta Buddha (Omniscient Buddha)— or the 
heirs of the- sabbannuta Buddha— today, but they may become the dis- 
ciples and heirs of another teacher tomorrow. They may even scorn and 
destroy the Sasana of the sabbannuta Buddha. Even in the present world 
there are persons who have changed their faith from the Buddha Sasana 
to Christianity, and who scorn and undermine the Buddha Sasana. How 
easily they can change after death in another birth can be imagined. 

One can be a disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha this month, and the 
disciple of another teacher next month. One can be the disciple of 
the sabbannuta Buddha this year, and the disciple of another teacher 
the next. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in the first 
period of life and the disciple of another teacher in the second. One can 
be the. disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in the second period of life and 
the disciple of another in the third. One can be the disciple of the 
sabbannuta Buddha in this life and the disciple and heir of another 
teacher in the next. 

Thus in the Patisambhida-Magga, the Buddha said: Nanasatthanmam 
mukharii ullokentiti puthujjana. 11 (A puthujjana is so called because he 
looks up to the faces of various teachers). 

The meaning of this passage is that in the infinite past samsara, 
puthujjana have never been constant in the choice of the teachers in 
whom they have taken refuge. It has been one teacher today and an- 
other tomorrow. One teacher this month and another the next. One 
teacher this year and another the next. One teacher this life and another 
the next. The number of occasions on which they have approached 
and taken refuge in the Sabbannuta Buddha during the infinite past 
samsara is very few indeed. Sometimes, they have taken refuge in the 
Brahma, sometimes in the Sakka, sometimes in the various devas, some- 
times in the sun, sometimes in the moon sometimes in the planets, some- 
times in the spirits of the earth, and sometimes in the ogres, and they 
have done so as if these refuges were almighty. 

In the world, the number of false teachers is very numerous. The 
number of existences in which puthujjana have approached and taken 

11. Patisambhida-Magga Atthakatha, 9. Sankharupakkha-nanadassana-vannana, p. 245, 
GUi Syn. lidn. 



384 Bodhipakkhiya-Dipani 

refuge in these false teachers is also very numerous. Sometimes they 
have taken refuge in the nagas, sometimes in garudas, sometimes in rivers, 
sometimes in mountains, sometimes in forests, sometimes in trees, some- 
times in hillocks, sometimes in fire, and sometimes in water. Vi Thus, in 
nature, the number and kinds of teachers which puthujjana afflicted 
with sakkaya-ditthi have approached and taken refuge in are extremely 
numerous. The more they approach and take refuge in these false tea- 
chers, the more do they sink into the apaya and niraya loka. 

If further, beginning with this life, they continue to wander and drift 
in samsara replete with false attachments of sakkaya-ditthi, they will 
continue to change the teachers whom they approach and take refuge 
in. How frightful, terrible, and nasty is the state of a puthujjana. This 
is the meaning of the passage, 'nanasattharanarh mukham ullokentiti 
puthujjana. 

On every occasion a puthujjana changes his teachers and refuges, a 
change also occurs in the doctrines and principles that he depends on 
for his guidance. Sometimes puthujjana have depended on the adhisila- 
dhamma (purified morality) expounded by the sabbanfiuta Buddha; some- 
times on gosila govata dhamma or the practices of cattle; sometimes on 
the practices of dogs; sometimes on the practices of horses; and sometimes 
on the practices of elephants. Thus the moral practices which they have 
adopted and depended on are also very numerous. In the matter of ditthi 
(views), the number of existences in which they have adopted and depend- 
ed on samma-ditthi (right views) are extremely few. On the other hand, 
the number of existences in which they have adopted and depended on 
miccha- ditthi (wrong views) are extremely numerous. The more they 
have adopted and depended on these wrong views and practices, the 
more have they sunk— deeper and deeper— into the apaya and niriya 
loka. 

Of the countless and infinite number of errors and perversities posses- 
sed by puthujjana wandering and drifting in samsara, the error of 
seeking refuge in wrong protectors (teachers) is one of the greatest errors 
conducive of causing them great harm. This is because the error of 
seeking refuge in wrong teachers leads to wrong moral principles and 
practices, and the difficult achievement of rebirth as human beings {manus- 

12. Cf Dhammapada, verse 188. 

13. 'Wishing tice — 



Heritage of the Sasana 385 

satta dullabha), which may be compared to a great padesa*3 tree 
producing the fruits of good rebirths, becomes in its entirety a tree pro- 
ducing the evil fruits of rebirths in the niriya regions. This shows the 
future path of aniyata heirs of the Sasana. 

Those persons who perceive the anicca and anatta characteristics in 
themselves are freed from the kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi. They become 
the niyata heirs of the Sasana. Niyata means that they are freed from 
the susceptibility of approaching and seeking refuge in erroneous teachers 
throughout future infinite sarhsara. They become the true children of 
the sabbahnuta Buddha throughout the future succession of rebirth. They 
become members of the 'bon-sin-san' family, and though they may pass 
through many rebirths and many world-cycles in sarhsara, their views 
of the unbounded and incomparable qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, 
and the Sahgha, become clearer and brighter from one rebirth to another. 

The three sasana of sila, samadhi, and panna, the seven visuddhi, 
such as sila-visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma of 
satipatthana, sammappadhana, iddhipada, indriya, bala, bojjhahga, and 
maggahga, are dhamma heritages that prosper and increase in their 
minds from one rebirth to another. The three sasana of the pariyatti, 
patipatti, and the pativedha become permanently established in them 
throughout the succession of rebirths and the succession of world-cycles. 

Although they continue to wander in sarhsara enjoying the joys and 
pleasures of humans, devas, and Brahmas, they are no longer beings of 
the world who change their teachers and refuges from one existence to 
another. They continue to wander in sarhsara as beings of the lokuttara, 
or the region of the ariya. They are no longer beings of sarhsara liable 
to the miseries inherent in the round of rebirths, and who thus are sub- 
ject to being submerged, suffocated, exhausted, and cast adrift in sarh- 
sara's great whirlpool. They have become the true beings of the first 
stage of Nibbana called sa-upadisesa-nibbana. They are beings who 
will invariably ascend to anupadisesa-nibbana through the joys and 
pleasure of 'bon-sin-san' existences. 

In infinite sarhsara, all wise humans, devas, Brahmas, desire to become 
niyata beings who only are the true children of the sabbannuta Buddhas, 
and thus they hope and look forward to encountering the Buddha, the 
Dhamma, and the Sahgha. They have to perform many acts of dana and 
establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. They 



386 Bodhipakkhiya-Dlpanl 

have to perform many acts of sila and establish the wish that such acts 
may lead to such an encounter. They have to perform many acts of bha- 
vana and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. 
This shows the undeviating path of the niyata heir of the Sasana. 

It is to reveal this path that the Buddha, in several places of the Sut- 
tanta and Abhidhamma Pitakas said: 

Tinnam samyojananam parikkhaya sotapanno hoti, 
avinipata dhammo niyato sarhbodhiparayano. 14 

(Because the three sarhyojana cease, the person becomes a sotapanna. 
He becomes free from rebirth in states of suffering. He becomes con- 
firmed as heir of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. He finds rest and sup- 
port in the higher Paths and Fruits. 

[Note: The three sarhyojana are sakkaya-ditthi, vicikiccha, and silab- 
bataparamasa. Of these, sakkaya-ditthi is the essential or ruling factor.] 

This ends the part showing the aniyata and niyata heirs. 

Good and virtuous persons who perceive what constitutes good heritage 
and bad heritage, what is fixed or niyata heritage, and what unstable 
or aniyata heritage, what are good heirs and bad heirs, what are heirs 
of fixed heritage and heirs of unstable heritage, these good and virtuous 
persons did not put forth effort in past successive existences and successive 
worlds because they desired to become heirs of bad heritages of the Bud- 
dha Sasana. They put forth effort because it was their desire to become 
heirs of the good heritages. They did not practise dana, sila, and bha- 
vana because they desired to become heirs of the unstable temporary 
heritages, but because it was their desire to become heirs of the niyata 
heritages. 

Taking these facts into account, and taking heed of the fact that the 
Buddha disapproved of the bad heritages of the Sasana, those persons 
who have in this existence become the disciples and heirs of the Buddha 
should not permit themselves to become bad heirs. They should not 
permit themselves to become temporary, unstable heirs. They should 
attempt to become heirs of the good heritages which are the bodhipak- 
khiya-dhamma. They should attempt to become stable heirs. 

In the lengthy period of the series of rebirths known as samsara, 
whenever acts of dana, sila and bhavana are performed, it is ususally 

14. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Puggalapannatti Pa]i, P. 120. 6th Syn. Kdn. 



Heritage of the Sasana 387 

because beings desire that by virtue of these good acts they may in a 
future existence as a human being encounter a Buddha and attain re- 
lease from worldly ills, or attain the Path Knowledge, the Fruit Knowledge, 
and Nibbana. Thus it is usual for them to wish for the heritages of the 
Dhamma. It is not usual for them to desire that by virtue of these good 
acls they may in future existence encounter a Buddha and attain worldly 
riches and worldly positions. It is not usual for them to wish for these 
amisa heritages. It is not usual for them to desire the gaining of oppor- 
tunities for the performance of good acts leading to bhava-sampatti, 
bhoga-sampatti, and issariya-sampatti. 

But, at the present day, the bad heritages of paccayamisa-tanha, lok- 
amisa-tanha, and vattamisa-tanha constitute to be ruling factors. Modern 
men and women do not like to hear the mention of the four ariya-vamsa 
which are the antitheses of the three tanha mentioned. The fqur ariya- 
vamsa-dhamma are, as has already been mentioned previously, being 
easily satisfied with alms-food, robes, and dwelling place, and deriving 
joy and pleasure in the work of bhavana. They are called ariya-vamsa- 
dhamma because they are dhamma on which Buddhas, the disciples of 
Buddhas, and the heirs of Buddhas, should not release their hold. This 
is a reminder to those persons who possess wisdom. 

As regards persons deficient in wisdom, the mere performance of many 
good and meritorious acts has to be extolled as good. 

Those persons who are endowed with wisdom, however, should, if they 
desire to become heirs of the niyata dhamma heritages either in this 
life or in the next in the deva loka, establish the ajivatthamaka-sila, 
set up kayagata-sati, and try (for at least three hours a day) to achieve 
perception of the three characteristics of existence in the five aggregates 
of the body. If they perceive either of the three characteristics in the 
five aggregates, they can become niyata heirs and achieve the status of 
a 'bon-sin-san'. 

_ For this purpose, see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijjamagga Dipani, 
Ahara Dipani, and Kammattbona Dipani. For the path of niyata 'bon- 
sin-san' individuals, see my Catusacca Dipani, and the chapter on Nib- 
bana in my Paramattha Sankhitta. 



IVlagganga Dipani 

The Manual of the 

Constituents of the 

Noble Path 

by 

Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D. Litt. 

Translated into English by U Saw Tun Teik, B.A., B.L. 

Namo tassa bbagavato arahato samma sambuddhassa 

Veneration to Him, the Most Exalted, the Purified, the Supremely Enlight- 
ened Buddha. 

The Eightfold Noble Path: 

1. samma-ditthi —Right View 

2. samma-sankappa —Right Thought 

3. samma-vaca —Right Speech 

4. samma-kammanta —Right Action 

5. samma-ajiva —Right Livelihood 

6. samma-vayama —Right Effort 

7. samma-sati —Right Mindfulnes 

8. samma-samadi —Right Concentration. 

1. Samma-ditthi 

Three kinds of Right View or Right Understanding: kammassakata 
samma-ditthi— Right View or Understanding that in the case of beings 
only two things, wholesome and unwholesome actions performed by 
them, are their own properties that always accompany them wherever 
they may wander in many a becoming or world-cycle; dasavatthuka 



Dasavatthuka Samma-Dijthi 389 

samma-ditthi— Right Understanding of the ten kinds of subjects; catu- 
sacca samma-ditthi— Right Understanding of the four Realities or the 
Four Truths. 

Kammasakata Samma ditthi 

Sabbe satta kammassaka kammadayada, kammayoni, kammabandhii, 
kammappatisarana, yam kammarh karissanti kalyanam va papakam va 
tassa dayada bhavissanti. 

Sabbe satta kammassaka: Only the wholesome and unwholesome actions 
of all beings are their own properties that always accompany them 
wherever they may wander in many a becoming or world-cycle. 

Kammadayada: Only the wholesome and unwholesome actions of all 
beings are their inherited properties that always accompany them 
wherever they may wander in many a becoming or world-cycle. 

Kammayoni: Only the wholesome and unwholesome actions of beings 
are the origin of their wanderings in many a becoming or world-cycle. 

Kammabandhii: Only the wholesome and unwholesome actions of beings 
are their relatives and true friends that always accompany them 
wherever they may wander in many a becoming or world-cycle. 

Kammappatisarana: Only the wholesome and unwholesome actions of 
beings are their real refuge wherever they may wander in many a 
becoming or world-cycle. 

Yarn kammarh karissanti kalyanam va papakam va tassa dayada bha- 
vissanti: If bodily, verba] and mental actions be performed, whether 
wholesome or unwholesome, that kamma of theirs they will inherit 
throughout their many a becoming or world-cycle. 

Dasavatthuka Samma-ditthi 

Atthidinnarh, atthiyktham, atthi hutarh, atthi sukata dukkatfinarn 
kammanam phalam vipako, atthi mata, atthi pita, atthi satta opapatika, 
atthi ayam loko, atthi paroloko, atthi loke samana brahmana samaggata 
sammapatipanna ye imarica lokam paraiica lokarh sayam abhifina 
sacchikatva pavedenti. 



390 Magganga-Dlpani 

Atthi dinnam: There really exists alms-giving (dana) as cause (kamma) 
and its result (vipaka) 

Atthi yittharh: There really exists offering on a large scale as cause and 
its result. 

Atthi hutam: There really exists offering on a small scale as cause 
and its result. 

Atthi sukata dukkatanam kammanaih phalarft vipako: There really exist 
wholesome and unwholesome actions as causes and their results. 

Atthi mata: There really exist the good and the evil deeds done to one's 
mother as causes and their results. 

Atthi pita: There really exist the good and the evil deeds done to one's 
father as causes and their results. 

Atthi sata opapatika: There really exist beings who are bora by appari- 
tional rebirth such as beings in purgatory, petas, devas, sakkas and 
Brahmas who cannot ordinarily be seen by men. 

Atthi ayaihloko: There really exists this world which is under our very 
eyes. 

Atthi paroloko: There really exist the other worlds or planes where 
one may arise after death. 

In another way, there really exists this human world (ayaihloko) and 
there really exists Llc other worlds (paroloko: four lower worlds, six deva 
worlds and twenty Brahma worlds. 

In another way, there really exists this universe consisting of the 
human world, four lower worlds, six deva worlds and twenty Brahma 
worlds (ayaf loko): and there really exist other worlds which are infinite 
in all eight directions (paroloko) 

Atthi loke samanabrahmana samaggata samma patipanna ye imanca 
lokaih pararica lokarfi sayam abhinna sacchikatva pavedenti: There 
really exist, in this human world, persons like the Omniscient Buddha, 
monks and brahmins who practise the True Dhamma and possess tranqu- 
illity of mind and who, having seen and realised this very world and 
other worlds through their own insight, impart their knowledge toothers. 



Samma-Kammanta 391 

Catu-sacca Samma-ditthi 

1. dukkhe nanarh 2. dukkhe samudaye nanarh 3. dukkha nirodhe 
hanam 4. dukkha nirodhagaminipatipadaya nanarh. 

1. dukkhe nanarh: penetrative insight into the Truth of Suffering. 

2. dukkha samudaye nanarh: penetrative insight into the Truth of 
the Origin of Suffering. 

3. dukkha nirodhe hanam: penetrative insight into the Truth of the 
Cessation of Suffering. 

4. dukkha nirodhagaminipatipadaya nanarh: penetrative insight into 
the Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. 

2. Samma-satikappa 

Three kinds of Right Thought: 

1. nekkhama sahkappa: right thought free from greed and sen- 
suous desire, aiming at an escape from the round of rebirths. 

2. abyapada-sahkappa: right thought, for the welfare of all living 
beings. 

3. avihimsa-sahkappa: right thought for the non-injury of all living 
beings, 

3. Samma-vaca 

Four kinds of Right Speech: 

1. musavada virati: refraining from telling lies. 

2. pisunavaca virati: refraining from backbiting and calumny. 

3. pharusavaca virati: refraining from using abusive language, harsh 
words, speech hurtful to others. 

4.' samphappalapa virati: refraining from frivolous talk such as 
telling legends and fables or which is fruitless for this world and 
the next. 

4. Samma kammanta 

Three kinds of Right Action: 

1. panatipata virati: refraining from killing and injuring living 
beings. 

2. adinnadana virati: refraining from taking property which is not 
given. 

3. kamesumicchacara virati: refraining from taking intoxicants and 



392 Magganga-Dlpani 

from unlawful sexual intercourse with those who are still in the 
care of parents or guardians. 

5. Samma-ajiva 

Four kinds of Right Livelihood: 

1. duccarita micchajiva virati: in the case of laity, refraining from 
wrong livelihood by means of immoral physical and verbal actions. 

2. anesana micchajiva virati: in the case of monks and hermits, 
refraining from wrong livelihood, e.g. by means of giving fruits 
and flowers to laymen to curry favour. 

3. kuhanadi micchajiva virati: in the case of monks and hermits, 
refraining from trickery and deceptions by means of working 
wonders. 

4. "tiracchana vijja micchajiva virati: in the case of monks and her- 
mits, refraining from wrong livelihood, e.g. by means of perform- 
ing base arts such as reading signs and omens, which are against 
the rules and practice of the Order. 

6. Samma-vayama 

Four kinds of Right Effort: 

1. anuppannanarh akusalanam dhammanam anuppadaya vayamo: 
making effort in the practice of the Eightfold Noble Path so that 
those vices that have never arisen during the present existence 
may not arise even for a moment in future existences. 

2. uppannanam akusalanam dhammanam pahanaya vayamo: mak- 
ing effort in the practice of the Eightfold Noble Path so that those 
vices that have already arisen or are arising during the present 
existence may be dispelled and may not arise even for a moment 
in future existences. 

3. anuppannanarh kusalanarh dhammanam uppadaya vayamo: making 
effort in the practice of the Eightfold Noble Path so that the thirty- 
seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma (factors pertaining to Enlighten- 
ment) that have never arisen during the preset existence may 
arise here and now. 

4.- uppannanam kusalanarh dhammanam bhiyyo bhavaya vayamo: 
putting forth effort in the practice of the Eightfold Noble Path so 
that the virtues such as morality that have already arisen and 



Samma-Samadhi 393 

are arising during the persent existence may develop unceasingly 
until the attainment of anupadisesa-nibbana. 

7. Samma-sati 

Four kinds of Right Mindfulness: 

1. kayanupassana satipatthanam: application of mindfulness to 
the contemplation of the body-group, such as in-breathing and 
out-breathing. 

2. vedananupassana satipatthanam: application of mindfulness to 
the contemplation of the feeling-group, such as painful and 
pleasurable feelings. 

3. cittanupassana satipatthanam: application of mindfulness to the 
contemplation of the consciousness-group, such as consciousness 
rooted in lust (saragaj or in anger (sadosa), etc. 

4. dhammanupassana satipatthanam: application of mindfulness 
to the contemplation of mind-objects, such as sensuous lust 
(kammacchanda). 

8. Samma-samadhi 

Four kinds of Right Concentration: 

1. patthamajjhana samadhi: concentration of the first jhana pro- 
duced by fixing one's attention on one of the objects of sama- 
tha tranquillity such as kasina. 1 
1. KASINA is the name for a purely external device to produce and develop con- 
centration of mind and attain the four trances (jhana). It consists in concentrating 
one's full and undivided attention on one visible object as preparatory image 
(parikamma-nimitta), let us say, a coloured spot or disc, or a piece of earth, or a 
pond at some distance, etc , until at last one perceives, even with the eyes closed, 
a mental reflex, the so-called acquired image (uggaha-nimitta.) Now, while con- 
tinuing to direct one's attention to this image, there may arise the spotless and 
immovable so-called counter-image (patibhaga-nimitta), and together with it the 
neighbourhood-concentration (upacara-samadhi) will have been reached. While 
stitl persevering in the concentration on the object, one finally will reach a 
state of mind where all sense-activity is suspended, where there is no more seeing 
and hearing, no more perception of bodily impression and feeling, i e. the state 
of the first mental absorption, or (jhana) trance. The ten kasina mentioned in the 
Suttasare: earth-kasina, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and 
consciousness. "There are ten kasina-spheres; a certain one sees -the earth- kasina,. 
above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded; a certain one sees the water- 
kasina, above, below, etc.* (D. 33). (Nyanatiloka's Buddhist Dictionary). 



394 Magganga-Dipani 

2. dutiyajjhana samadhi: concentration of the second jhana pro- 
duced by fixing one's attention on one of the objects of samatha, 

such as kasina. 

3. tatiyajjhana samadhi: concentration of the third jhana produ- 
ced by fixing one's attention on one of the objects of samatha 
such as kasina. 

4. cututthaj jhana samadhi: concentration of the fourth jhana pro- 
duced by fixing one's attention on one of the objects of samatha 
such as kasina. 

Exposition of the Three Kinds of Samma-ditthi 
Kammassakata Samma-ditthi 

Sabbesatta kammadayada, kamayoni, kammabandhu kammappatisarana 
yam kammam karissanti kalyanam va papakam va tassadayada bhavis- 
santi. 

Sabbe satta kammassaka: There exist such properties as elephants, 
horses, vehicles, cattle, fields, buildings, gold, silver, jewels, etc. Those 
properties can be said to belong to us in the present existence before 
we pass away. But when we pass away those properties do not accom- 
pany us beyond death. They are like properties which we borrow 
for some time for our use. They are liable to destruction during the 
present existence. As those properties which beings possess do not 
accompany them to their new existences, they cannot be claimed as 
properties belonging to those beings. The Buddha therefore said, 'sabbe 
satta kammassaka.' The only property of all beings that accompanies 
them is their own volitional action. Only the mental, verbal and physical 
volitional actions of beings always accompany them in this as well as 
in future existences. They are not liable to destruction by fire, water, 
thieves, robbers, etc. 

Herein, physical action means all movements of such parts of the 
body as hands and legs, etc. 'Vaci kamma' verbal action means all ver- 
bal expressions made by means of the mouth, tongue and throat. 'Mano 
kamma' mental action means the functioning of the mind. These physi- 
cal, verbal and mental actions are known as three kamma in the Bud- 
dhist teachings. 

All beings perform these three kamma at all waking hours. All their 
work great or small is performed by means of these three kamma. These 



Two Kinds of Kamma for Future Existences 395 

three kamma become inert -when a person is asleep. In the case of a 
dead person the three kamma cease to function as far as that body is 
concerned. This is how the three kamma operate in all beings. 

These three kamma have two aspects: three good kamma, and three bad 
kamma. There good kamma are of two kinds: good kamma which 
has its result ripening during the present existence, and good kamma 
which has its result ripening during the future existences. The three 
bad kamma are of two kinds: bad kamma having its result ripening 
in this existence, and bad kamma having its result ripening in future 
existences. 

Analysis of the Good and Bad Kamma 

Ten kinds of immoral conduct: 

1. panatipata: injuring and killing living beings 

2. adinnadana: taking or destroying animate and inanimate pro- 
perties which are not given 

3. kamesumicchacara: committing sexual misconduct 

4. musavada: telling lies 

5. pisunavaca: backbiting and calumny 

6. pharusavaca: using abusive language 

7. samphappalapa: taking part in frivolous conversation 

8. abhijjha: covetousness 

9. byapada: malevolence 

10. miccha-ditthi: wrong views. 

All kinds of physical, verbal and mental actions that are free from 
these ten kinds of immoral conduct, comprising all kinds of livelihood, 
acquiring wealth and seeking knowledge, are good volitional actions which 
have to be performed for this very existence. 

All kinds of physical, verbal and mental actions that involve these 
ten kinds of immoral conduct and that comprise all kinds of livelihood, 
are bad volitional actions which are performed for this very existence. 

Two Kinds of Kamma for Future Existences 

The types of kamma performed in this present existence, physical, 
verbal and mental, with a view to ripening in future existences, are also 
divided into two kinds: three good kamma (having result in future ex- 



396 Magganga-Dipanl 

istences), and three bad kamma (having result in future existences). 

All kinds of physical, verbal and mental kamma that are free 
from the ten kinds of immoral conduct and comprise alms-giving, fast- 
day observance, conduct, practising meditation, taking refuge in and 
paying respects to the Three Gems (Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha), are 
known as good kamma done in this present life with a view to ripening 
in future existences, to being reborn in a good abode. 

If any one of the ten kinds of immoral conduct be performed, whether 
for ripening in this existence or in the future, that kamma leads one to 
the lower planes in future existences. So it is known as bad kamma 
having its result ripening in future existence. 

In this way one should differentiate the good and bad kamma and 
contemplate all the three kinds of kamma which are performed everywhere, 
on land, in water, and in the sky. 

Having seen with our eyes the three kamma which are performed in 
this world, we can also comprehend that all beings, on land, in water and 
in the sky, have been performing these three kamma in their past existen- 
ces of endless world-cycles and will also perform them in the future. 

Like this universe there are in the four directions, infinite universes 
in which all beings in water, and land and in the sky are performing 
these three kamma. 

Having discerned all these, it is quite apparent that all beings live by 
these three kamma done by themselves. They enjoy happiness by virtue 
of these three kamma. By performing the three good kamma they enjoy 
various beneficial results and by performing the three bad kamma they 
encounter various kinds of misery and suffering. The three kamma are 
their own property which can never be destroyed by fire, water, thieves, 
robbers and so forth. Though one may own nothing, not even a single 
coin, he can achieve happiness if he has mental kamma in the form of 
knowledge and wisdom. So, the Buddha declared 'sabbe satta kammas- 
saka.' All beings have the three volitional kamma as their own property. 

The Result of Present Kamma 

Those who wish to acquire worldly gains, such as wealth, governmen- 
tal standing and honour in this life, can achieve their wish if they exert 
themselves to acquire education and knowledge. If it be that such worldly 



The Result of Past Kamma 397 

gains can be had without acquiring education and knowledge and by 
merely worshipping God, the believers in God may not perform physical, 
verbal and mental kamma such as trading, farming, learning arts and 
sciences. Instead, they may perform only the act of worshipping God. 
As a matter of fact, it is not so. Like the Buddhists, the Christians, 
Mohammedans, etc., are performing the three kinds of kamma, and for this 
reason they acquire worldly gains. It is not God but the three kinds of 
kamma that give these to them. 

The Result of Past Kamma 

Just as we can see with our eyes that in this life the worldly gains 
are not given by God but are acquired by one's own kamma, similarly 
we can realise that beneficial results of being reborn in a wealthy family 
or in the deva world are not by virtue of worshipping God but by virtue 
of past kamma such as alms-giving, observance of morality and so forth, 
performed in previous existences. One who is reborn in a wealthy family 
becomes the owner of the riches of that family. That is, all his possess- 
ions are due to his past kamma. Here, the analogy of vegetation should 
be given. 

The process of the formation and growth of vegetation is commonly 
ascribed to the seed. According to the Abhidhamma, the element of 
kinetic energy (tejo) which is known as caloricity (utu) is said to be 
the cause. The seed is nothing but the element of kinetic energy. That 
element of kinetic energy is the real seed. 

At the beginning of the world, before the existence of seeds, vegeta- 
tion grew from tejo. Later that vegetation produced fruits and seeds 
from which trees grew successively. 

In the same way all beings have kamma as their seeds of becoming: 
wholesome kamma as alms-giving, morality, etc; and unwholesome kam- 
ma as taking others' lives, etc. 

The process of becoming as men and animals is due to the past kam- 
ma in previous existences. On account of the wholesome kamma, etc., 
they are reborn as men and devas, and because of the unwholesome 
volitional kamma they are reborn in four lower worlds: hell, animal world, 
peta world, and asuraka world. 

Previous vegetation produces seeds from which fresh vegetation rises. 
Thus seeds from the tree and trees from the seeds appear successively: 



seed, the earth, and the water. Of these causes, the banyan seed is 
the primary cause; the earth and water are the secondary causes. 
In the same way, in getting wages by working as a labourer, the 
present kamma, i e working as a labourer, is the primary cause. The 
place for working, the spade, the basket and the employers who pay 
wages are the secondary causes. 



398 Magganga-Dlpani 

a cycle of seeds and trees. Similarly, beings have seeds of kamma in 
their previous existences. From these seeds of kamma new existences 
appear. Thus beings perform kamma which in turn gives rise to new 
becomings successively. 

Trees have physical phenomena only. A tree yields many fruits from 
which many trees are grown. In the case of beings, they have two kinds 
of phenomena: physical and mental phenomena. Of these two, the mental 
factor is the chief. One mental factor can produce not more than one 
new mental factor (i.e. the patisandhivinhana rebirth consciousness). 
Therefore, although beings have many seeds of wholesome and unwhole- 
some kamma in one existence, one mental iactor of the previous existence, 
i.e. volition (cetana) produces in the next existence only one mental factor. 
Since many new mental factors are not produced, one corporeality-group 
of the past existence gives rise to not more than one corporeality-group 
in the next becoming. 

Earth, water, sun, moon, stars, and so forth, come into existence from 
the seeds of kinetic energy which go under the name of caloricity. It is 
not that they were created by God. Beings such as men, animals, etc., 
come into new successive existences because of the seeds of their past 
kamma performed in previous world-cycles of existences. Such view is 
known as Right View (samma-ditthi). To hold that God creates them is 
wrong view (miccha-ditthi). It is the wrong view of those who, not 
knowing fully the operative power of kamma and utu, imagine that they 
were created by God. Thus with a view to making people abandon 
wrong view, and rely upon kamma, knowledge and wisdom, the Buddha 
said, 'sabbe satta kammassaka'. 

Now there are such things as legacies and heirs. Tnese legacies can 
be called our property only before we die; but when we pass away we 
have to leave them behind. They do not accompany us to the next ex- 
istence. They are also liable to be destroyed by fire, water, thieves and 
robbers oefore our death, or they may be exhausted by us. 

As for the three kinds of kamma performed by beings, they are al- 
ways theirs in their future existences. They are never destroyed by fire, 
etc. For this reason, kamma is said to be the only property inherited 
by beings. Beings are sure to reap the results of their own kamma in 
future existences. The wholesome kamma performed by feeding dogs, 
pigs, fowls and birds can result in a hundred happy existences. The 



Sabbe Satta Kammayoni 399 

wholesome kamma performed by feeding virtuous monks can give 
rise to a countless number of happy existences as man and deva. Giving 
alms worth about a quarter of a kyat in this present life can yield bene- 
ficial results worth more than a thousand kyats in future existences. If 
a person kills an animal, such as a fish, fowl or pig, he may be killed 
in more than a thousand future existences. 

In this world, if a tiny banyan seed is planted, a big banyan tree will 
grow up bearing innumerable fruits in more than a thousand years. Simi- 
larly, if a mango seed or a jack-fruit seed is planted, big mango trees 
and big jack-fruit trees will grow and bear more than a hundred thou- 
sand fruits for many years. 

Thus in the case of trees, a small seed is able to yield more than a 
hundred thousand fruits, leaves, branches and twigs. Similarly, a seed 
of wholesome kamma such as alms-giving, morality, meditation, practised 
at one time, can yield more than a hundred thousand good results in 
successive future existences. A seed of unwholesome kamma by killing 
a being can yield evil and painful results in numerous following exis- 
tences. 

Such banyan seeds, mango seeds and jack-fruit seeds may be compared 
to the seed of physical, verbal and menal actions. A small seed from 
which arise numerous leaves, fruits, branches and twigs may be com- 
pared to a seed of kamma that produces many effects in the following 
successive existences. 

If a person performs one kamma, the effects always accompany him 
in many existences yielding good or bad results at the opportune moments. 
One can never get rid of that kamma, but he has to enjoy or suffer its 
results under appropriate circumstances. So the Buddha declares, 'sabbe 
satta kammadayada'. 

Sabbe Satta Kammayoni 

There are several causes for the growth of a banyan tree: the banyan 
seed, the earth, and the water. Of these causes, the banyan seed is 
the primary cause; the earth and water are the secondary causes. 
In the same way, in getting wages by working as a labourer, the 
present kamma, i e working as a labourer, is the primary cause. The 
place for working, the spade, the basket and the employers who pay 
wages are the secondary causes. 



400 Magganga-DIpanI 

The wholesome past kamma, i.e. alms-giving, morality, etc., which causes 
one to be reborn as a human being, and the unwholesome kamma by 
taking others lives, etc., which cause one to be reborn as an animal are 
the primary causes similar to the banyan seeds. Thf parents are the 
secondary causes, just as the earth and water are fc : the growth of a 
banyan tree. 

In the same way, with regard to the present good and evil results, 
one's own kamma performed in the present existence with wisdom and 
knowlege or otherwise is the primary cause. So also, one's own wholesome 
kamma as alms-giving, morality, etc., and unwholesome kamma as killing 
beings, performed in previous existences, are the primary causes of good 
and evil results. The parents are not the primary causes, nor is it 
anything to do with God For this reason, the Buddha said, 'sabbe satta. 
kammayoni.' 

Sabbe Satta Eammabandhu 

Now, there are parents, brothers, sons, relatives, teachers and friends 
whom we love and rely upon, but they can be loved and relied upon 
only for a short period, i.e. before our death. However, one's own physical, 
verbal and mental kamma are constant companions which accompany one 
and give happiness and prosperity to one in future existences. So the 
wholesome kamma alone is one's real relative or friend which should be 
esteemed and relied upon. Therefore, the Buddha declares, 'sabbe satta 
kammabandhu.' * 

Sabbe Satta Kammappatisarana 

In this phrase, 'refuge' means reliance upon or taking shelter for pro- 
tection against troubles and dangers. In the world those who wish to 
enjoy long life have to rely upon food and drink. Food and drink pro- 
tect persons from the danger of starvation. The danger of starvation 
cannot befall those who have sufficient food and drink. Similarly it is 
necessary to rely upon doctors and medicine for protection against ail- 
ments and diseases, and to rely upon weapons for protection against 
enemies, la the same way all kinds of refuge are resorted to for differ- 
ent purposes. 

'Refuge' does not mean only worshipping. It also has the meaning of 
reliance upon and taking shelter or protection, as mentioned above. We 



Sabbe Satta Kammappatisarana 401 

take refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, teachers and those who 
are nobler than us by paying homage to them. 

In this life a man without property will soon get into trouble. Fearing 
that trouble, we have to rely upon kamma by doing such work as will 
give us money and property. Lack of wholesome kamma will lead to the 
lower worlds where one has to suffer greviously. Fearing such suffering, 
one has to perform wholesome kamma which can lead one to be reborn 
as a man or deva in the existences to come. The present kamma of 
working with knowledge and wisdom can save us from danger in the 
present life, and wholesome kamma such as alms-giving and morality 
can save one from the lower worlds in future existences. 

We have to rely on the present kamma of working for avoiding dan- 
gers in this present existence. We have to rely on wholesome kam- 
ma also for avoiding suffering in the lower worlds in future existences. 
The Buddha, therefore, preaches 'sabbe satta kammappatisarana.' 

Herein we should analyse several kinds of refuge. In Buddhism there 
are four kinds, of taking refuge for the future: 

1. taking refuge in the Buddha 

2. taking refuge in the Dhamma 

3. taking refuge in the Sangha 

4. taking- refuge in one's own wholesome kamma. 

For example, there are in this world four kinds of refuge for sick 
persons: 

1. refuge in a chief doctor 

2. refuge in good medicine 

3. refuge in assistant doctors 

4. refuge in following their directions with faith. 

Of the above-mentioned four refuges, the chief doctors and the assis- 
tants are the refuge of the patient as they are capable of prescribing 
good and suitable medicines for particular diseases. The medicine is the 
refuge of the patient in that it can cure him of his disease. The patient's 
sensible action in following the directions are also his refuge, as without 
such action on his part the other three refuges would be ineffective for 
the cure of the disease. So all four are the real refuges of the patient. 



-402 Magganga-Dipani 

Those who commit evil deeds and indulge in sensual pleasures resem- 
ble sick persons; the Buddha resembles the chief doctor who is expert 
in curing diseases; the monks resemble the assistant doctor; and the 
Dhamma resembles the medicine. The physical, verbal and mental whole- 
some kamma resemble the sensible action of the patient in following 
the directions. In this way there are four kinds of refuge in Buddhism. 
The three refuges of the above four: Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha 
exist only during the Buddha Sasana. They do not exist outside it. 

The refuge of wholesome kamma exists both within and outside the 
Buddha Sasana. We can never be free from kamma which is operating 
all the time in this universe as well as in other innumerable universes. 

This discourse of 'sabbe satta kammassaka' is also applicable to all 
the universes both within and outside the Buddha Sasana. It is for this 
reason that the refuge of kamma alone and not the three refuges of 
the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha is dealt with in this discourse. 

These are the four kinds of refuges to rely upon with a view to acting 
wisely in this existence and being reborn in happy existences. Saranam, 
usually translated 'refuge', means that which can save, give support or 
protection. Thus food and drink are the support of beings for long life. 
Medicines and diet are the support for the cure of diseases. Kings or 
rulers are protection against the danger of dacoits and robbers. Build- 
ings are the refuge for living comfortably and safely. Boats and steamers 
are for sea and riverine voyages. The earth is for support. Similarly 
water, fire and air are the supports for respective purposes. In this way 
there are numerous refuges in this existence. This is the exposition 
about the different kinds of refuge in Buddhism. 

In other religions only one refuge, the refuge of God, is known. So 
whatever comes into existence or is destroyed is attributed to God. I 
shall make this more clear. In other religions, such as Christianity and 
Mohammedanism, the true meaning of refuge is not understood and the 
respective followers regard God as their only refuge. Since they believe 
only in one refuge, they take it for granted that the appearance and dis- 
appearance of the world and of beings are due to the power of God. They 
believe that God saves those who have faith in him by his supernormal 
power. With this power he can wash away all sins and evils of beings 



Sabbe Satta Kammappatisarana 403 

and give them eternal happiness and eternal life after death. The good 
and evil results of beings depend on the will of God. 

They disbelieve in kamma thinking that kamma is not the cause of 
such results. It is most surprising that those who are really performing 
kamma entirely disregard their own acts. Kamma means physical, verbal 
and mental actions of practising the teachings of a particular religion. 
The auspicious act of baptism, worshipping and praying to God daily, 
obeying his commandments, etc., are really kamma. These people believe 
that God saves only those who perform such deeds but not those who do 
not do so; but they do not realise that such deeds are really r kamma\ 

In those religions also, as in Buddhism, there are four kinds of refuge. 
In Buddhism, they are the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha and kamma. 
But in those religions they are: 

1. refuge in God 

2. the commandments of God 

3. prophets, such as Christ and Mohammed, and priests 

4. their own kamma in the performance of their religious rites 
and duties. 

The priests and missionaries of those religions do not realise that in 
their religions also there are several kinds of refuge. So they regard God 
as their only refuge and disregard their kamma. Consequently they 
believe that the good and evil, prosperity and ruin, happiness and suffering 
of all beings are created only by God and are not due to any other cause. 
They do not know that there are various and different causes for these. 

In this world, is it simply by worshipping and praying to God that 
the poor who desire wealth can get it, or would they get it by the pre- 
sent kamma of working diligently as a labourer, farmer, trader, etc. ? 
The answer is: wealth is not usually obtained by worshipping and 
praying to God. On the other hand, acquisition of property by performing 
the present kamma is quite evident in this world. Therefore, it is be- 
lieveable that acquiring property in this life is due to the present kamma 
and has nothing to do with God. 

God has no power to give property to anyone. Only the present kam- 
ma can do so. If God had such power to give wealth, his faithful follow- 
ers would have no occasion to perform present kamma, they would be 
enjoying riches given by him; and those who are not his followers would 



404 Magganga-Dlpani 

not get any property although they were diligently performing the pre- 
sent kamma. But it is not so. The devout followers of God have to 
perform the present kamma in order to acquire wealth and property; 
and those who are not his followers also can acquire it, if they desire, 
by performing the present kamma. For this reason, the acquisition of 
wealth in this life is the result of the present kamma. It is not the gift 
of God. 

Similarly, if one desires education and knowledge, one can get it by 
performing the present kamma of studying and learning. They cannot, 
as a rule, be acquired by worshipping God. If one wishes to be a 
government officer, one will have to study government rules and 
regulations. Government posts cannot, as a rule.be obtained by worship- 
ping and praying to God. Thus we can see with our eyes that all the 
worldly gains are obtainable only by the power of the present kamma 
and not by the power of God. 

The believers in God believe that by worshipping God faithfully they 
are freed from all their sins and evils. However, as a rule the sick are 
not cured by taking refuge in God only. On the other hand we have 
seen with our own eyes that the present kamma of medicine and diet 
has cured them. 

What a surprising thing it is to hold that they would be freed from 
the result of their sins in the next existence by worshipping God while 
even a disease such as ringworm is not usually cured by praying to 
God in this life. Again, since even trifling wealth cannot as a rule 
be acquired by merely praying to God in this life, it is also surprising 
that they believe they would by praying to God go after death to heaven, 
where they can enjoy a life of eternal happiness. 

Now, having seen with our own eyes that wealth and happiness that 
have not previously been attained in this life are achieved by virtue of 
present kamma and not by favour of God, we can fully believe that 
there is no other refuge than the present kamma for acquisition of wealth 
and happiness in this life. In the same way we can believe that the 
attainment of the higher planes of existence after death is also due to 
the wholesome kamma. It has nothing to do with God. God cannot 
make one who is without such wholesome kamma to be reborn on a 
happy plane of existence. Those who have such kamma can attain the w 

higher states of existences although they do not pray to God. aj 



Dasavatthuka Samma-Ditthi 405 

Various beneficial results in the next existence means either rebirtb 
as a member of a well-to-do or ruling family, or rebirth in the deva and 
Brahma world as a powerful deva, sakka or Brahma and so forth. Hence 
the Buddha declares, 'sabbe satta kammappatissarana.' 

[Note on kammadayada: A being has two khandha: rupakkhandhd 
andnamakkhandha (corporeality-group and mind-group). The corporeality 
group consists of head, hands, legs, etc. Mind-group means thoughts and 
consciousness. 

Of these two, the corporeality group comes to dissolution once in each 
existence. It has different shapes or forms in each existence. As for the 
mind-group, there is no break in its process. It continually arises in 
succession from one existence to another. Good kainma causes it to arise 
in successive happy existences. Wherever the mind group arises, there 
a new and different corporeality -group comes to be formed. The bad 
kamma causes the mind-group to arise in lower states of existence.! 

Here ends the discourse on 'kammassakata samma-ditthi'. 

Dasavatthuka Samma-ditthi 

Ten kinds of right understanding: 

1. Atthi dinnarh: Right Understanding that alms-giving, if performed 
with benevolence, in a previous existence, yields beneficial results in sub- 
sequent existences. 

2. Atthi yittham: Right Understanding that liberality, if extended with 
belief in past kamma and with faith in and respect for the virtuous 
qualities of recipients, yields beneficial results in future existences. 

3. Atthi hutam: Right Understanding that gifts, even on a small scale, 
(ahuna, pahuna) if made in previous existences with good will, yield 
beneficial results in future existences. 

4. Atthi sukata dukkatanam kammanam phalarh vipako: Right Un- 
derstanding that cruel deeds done to beings in previous existences yield 
bad results in subsequent existences, and that refraining from such evil 
acts yields beneficial results. 

5. Atthi mata: Right Understanding that good and evil deeds done to 



40G Magganga-Dlpanl 

one's mother yield good and evil results respectively in subsequent ex- 
istences. 

6. Atthi pita: Right Understanding that good and evil deeds done to 
one's father yield good and evil results respectively in subsequent ex- 
istences. 

7. Atthi satta opapatika: Right Understanding that there really exist 
beings by apparitional rebirth who are invisible to human eyes. Beings 
by apparitional rebirth means those that do not take conception 
in the womb of a mother. Due to the force of their previous kamma 
they are born complete with the limbs and organs of the body which 
will not develop further but remain as they are. 

Beings suffering in eight hells; peta, asuraka, earthly devas, ogres, 
nagas and garudas; devas of the six heavenly worlds, the Brahmas of the 
twenty Brahma planes consisting of three planes of the first jhana, three 
planes of the second jhana, three planes of the third jhana, seven planes 
of the fourth jhana, and four ariipa planes; all these beings are known 
as 'beings by apparitional rebirth'. 

Of the twenty Brahma planes, the Brahma of great power lives in the 
lowest three planes of the first jhana. That Brahma is regarded as god 
in other religions in which higher planes existing above those three are 
not known. 

The sun, moon, stars and constellations in the sky are the heavenly 
mansions of devas. By seeing these heavenly abodes one can visualise 
the existence of higher planes of the devas, sakkas, and Brahmas. 

Even when men are close to these beings, they are unable to see them 
with their human eyes. Only when these beings make their forms vis- 
ible, and then only can men see them. They are invisible to human eyes 
like the god, angels and devils in other religions. 

The belief that there really exist such beings by apparitional rebirth 
is called samma-ditthi. 

8. Atthi ayarh loko and 9.' atthi paroloko: Right Understanding that this 
world (ay am loko) is the human world, and the other world consists of 
the four lower worlds (hell, the worlds of animals, petas and asurakas), 
the deva worlds and the Brahma worlds. 

In other religions, hell, the worlds of petas and asurakas, and the higher 
deva and Brahma planes are not known properly. 



Dasavatthuka Sammu-Ditthi 407 

Another interpretation is that there are in this universe the human 
world, the four lower worlds, and the heavenly deva and Brahma worlds 
which are' termed as 'ay am loko'. Similarly to the east, west, south and 
north of this universe there are infinite universes which are termed 'paro- 
loko'. These universes are not known in other religions. 

10. Atthi loke samanabrahmana samaggata sammapatipanna ye inmrica 
lokam paranca lokam sayam abhinna sacchikatva pavedenti. There are 
higher spiritual knowledge (abhinna) and omniscience (sabbannuta-nana). 
Monks and brahmins who exert themselves diligently in fulfilling the 
perfections (paramita) and practising samatha and vipassana bhavana in 
this human world can achieve such nana. Personages who have achieved 
such nana appear in this world from time to time. 

Of these two kinds of nana, some are capable of gaining only abhinna 
and they can see with this nana the four lower worlds, the six deva 
worlds, and some of the Brahma worlds, as if with their natural eyes. 
Some are capable of achieving both abhinna and sabbannuta-nana and 
they can see clearly all of the countless beings, infinite worlds and uni- 
verses. Personages who have both nana are called 'Buddha'. 

These two kinds of personages appear in this human world from time 
to time and impart their knowledge of this world and the other worlds, 
but it is only a Buddha who can explain the round of rebirths and ex- 
istence of universes. 

Three kinds of belief, namely: belief that those personages of higher 
spiritual knowledge and omniscience appear in this world from time to 
time, belief in them and their teachings, and belief in the existence of 
the other worlds, constitute the right understanding or view. Those 
who have this right understanding entertain no doubt that the Buddha 
appears only in the human world, and not in the heavenly worlds. 

In other religions, where there is no such right understanding, they 
imagine that the all-knowers, the all-seers, the omniscient ones appear 
only in the highest heavens and not in the human world. 

However, there are two kinds of power: the power of kamma and the 
power of nana. In the case of kamma, the power of jhana is most effec- 
tive. It can cause one to arise in the highest plane as a Brahma with 
a long span of life. It cannot, however, cause one to become an Omni- 



408 Magganga-Dipani 

scient Buddha. That Brahma has no nana with which he can see all and 
know all. 

Only in this human world can one work for sabbanriuta-nana, and only 
one who perseveres diligently to achieve that nana can become omni- 
scient. 

It is only in the Buddha Dhamma that profound, sublime and wonderful 
teachings exist, and it is because they belong to the sphere of nana 
(knowledge and wisdom). 

In this life, to strive to become a wealthy person is one way, and to 
acquire insight-knowledge and thus become a teacher of beings is another 
way. To strive to become a great Brahma is similar to striving to be- 
come a wealthy man, and to strive as a bhikkhu or hermit for acquir- 
ing insight-knowledge is like striving to become a great teacher. Another 
example is: birds have wings to fly about in the sky but they do not 
possess knowledge and wisdom like man. Men have knowledge and 
wisdom but, they have no wings and are unable to fly about in the sky. 

The Brahma's kamma of jhana resembles the wings of birds. The 
insight-knowledge of the monks and hermits resembles the knowledge 
and wisdom of men. 

The Brahmas and the devas live in the highest planes of existence 
due to the power of jhana and kamma, but they have no insight-knowledge 
and omniscience. 

Thus the right understanding (nana, knowledge or wisdom) which en- 
ables one to believe: that the Buddha who sees all and knows all 
appears only in this human world and not not in the higher planes of 
existence; that- only the monks and brahmins of the human race who 
are endowed with abhirina and subbannuta can clearly discern the con- 
dition of the kappa and universes, the beings who are running the round 
of sarhsara and how the wholesome and unwholesome kamma operate; 
that the teachings of those monks and brahmins in the Sutta, Vinaya 
and Abhidhamma are true, is known as'atthi loke samanabrahamana 
samma-ditthi'. 

The wrong understanding or belief (miccha-ditthi) is that the God who 
knows all -and sees all cannot appear in the human world but only in 
the highest heavenly abode, and that there cannot be many gods but 
only one, and that God, being the highest and noblest, must be eternal 
and free from old age, disease, death, etc. 



Note 1 409 

Detailed explanations of the wrong views are given in our Samma- 
ditthi Dipani, The Manual of Right Views. 

Note 1 

Thirty-two kinds of talk obstructing fruition and rebirth in higher 
planes. 

1. rajakatha— talk about kings 

2. corakatha— talk about robbers 

3. mahamattakatha— talk about ministers of state 

4. senakatha— talk about armies 

5. bhayakatha— talk about dangers 

6. yuddhakatha— talk about battles 

7. annakatba— talk about food 

8. panakatha— talk about drinks 

9. vatthakatha— talk about clothing 

10. sayanakatba— talk about dwellings 

11. malakatha— talk about garlands 

12. gandhakatha— talk about perfumes 

13. natikatha— talk about relations 

14. yanakatha— talk about vehicles 

15. gamakatha— talk about villages 

16. nigamakatha— talk about market towns 

17. nagarakatha— talk about towns 

18. jamapadakatha— talk about districts 

19. itthikatha— talk about women 1 

20. surakatha— talk about heroes 

21. visikhakatha— talk about streets 

22. kumbatthanakatha— talk about watering places 

23. pubbapetakatha— talk about relatives who have passed away 

24. nanattakatha— tittle-tattle 

25. lokakkhayikakatba— talk about the origin of the world 

26. samnddakkhayikakatha— talk about the origin of the ocean 

27. (numbers 27 to 32 are known as itibhavabhavakatha)— talk 
about eternity belief 

28. talk about annihilation belief 

1. Talk about men is omitted in accordance with Majjhima Pannasa Atthakatha. p. 
156. 6th. Synod Edition. 



410 Magganga-DIpanl 

29. talk about worldly gain 

30. talk about worldly loss 

31. talk about self-indulgence 

32. talk about self-mortification. 



Note 2 

Twenty-one kinds of wrong livelihood for bhikkhus. 

1. vejjakammam karoti— medical practice 

2. dutakammam karoti— acting as a messenger 

3. pahinakammam karoti— doing things at the behest of laymen 

4. gandarh phaleti— lancing boils 

5. arumakkhanam deti— giving oil for medical application 

6. uddharh virecanarh deti— giving emetics 

7. adho virecanarh deti— giving purgatives 

8. natthutelam pacati— preparing oil for nose-treatment 

9. pivanatelarh pacati— preparing oil for medicine 

10. veludanam deti— presenting bamboos 

11. pattadanam deti— presenting leaves 

12. pupphadanarh deti— presenting flowers 

13. phaladanam deti— presenting fruits 

14. sinanadanam deti— presenting soap-clay 

15. dantakatthadanam deti— presenting tooth-sticks 

16. mukhodakadanarh deti— presenting water for washing the face 

17. cunnamattikadanam deti— presenting clay-powder 

18. catukamyam karoti— using flattering speech 

19. muggasupiyam karoti— acting like half -cooked bean soup (speak- 
ing half-truths) 

20. paribatyam karoti— fondling children 

21. jarighapesaniyarii karoti— running errands. 

Note 3 

Kuhanadi micchajiva— wrong living by means of trickery and decep- 
tion. 

2. Majjhima Nikaya, Majjhima Pannasa Atthskatha 1) Gahapati Vagga. 1) Kandara- 
kasuttavannana. 6th. Synod Edition pg. 4. 



Note 3 411 

1. kuhana— making people have an unduly high opinion of oneself 
to get alms: 

a. by pretending that one does not want to receive alms, but 
accepts only for the sake of the donors 

b. by pretending that one has attained jhana, magga and phala 

c. by feigning deportment so as to make people think one is an 
ariya. 

2. lapana— talking to please donors with a view to acquiring gain, 
honour and renown 

3. nemittikata— inviting offerings by giving all kinds of hints 

4. nippesikata— harassing so as to induce offerings 

5. labhenalabharh nijigisanata— giving something with a view to get- 
ting something more. 



The Exposition of Right 

Understanding of the 

Four Noble Truths 



Right understanding of the Four Noble Truths means: 

1. knowledge of the real suffering 

2. knowledge of the true cause of suffering 

3. knowledge of the cessation of suffering 

4. knowledge of the right path leading to the cessation of suffering. 

(This is only a brief explanation of the Four Noble Truths. For a 
detailed explanation see the author's Catusacca Dipani beginning page 249.) 

Right Understanding of the Truth about Suffering 

The horrors: The eye of human-beings, gods and Brahmas immensely 
oppresses and harasses those who are attached to it, so it is most fright- 
ful and is the real suffering. In the same way, ear, nose, tongue, body 
and mind to which human-beings, gods and Brahmas are attached greatly 
oppress and harass them. They too are most frightful and are the real 
suffering. 

Mode of oppression: Of these six, the eye oppresses through sankhara 
(kamma activities), viparinama (instability), and dukkha (ill of suffering). 
In another way, it oppresses through sankhara (kamma activities), san- 
tapa (burning), and viparinama (instability). In another way also, it op- 
presses through jati (rebirth), jara (old age) and marana (death). Or, it 
oppresses or harasses by developing the fires of passion, hatred, delusion, 
conceit, wrong view, mental defilements and asava 1 (mental impurities), 
by developing the evil conduct such as taking life, etc., and by generating 
the fires of rebirth, old age, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. 

1. 'Asava' means 'mental impurity.' See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. V — No. 1, 
p. 42 and Vol VII— No. 5. p. 44. 



Oppression Through 111 of Suffering 413 

Oppression Through Kamma Activities 

Possession of the eye of man, god or Brahma is produced by good 
deeds done in the past life, without which only the eye of hell-being, 
animal, ghost or demon would come into being instead. Thus, the eye 
of a higher being oppresses that being through the good kamma-activities 
which create the eye. And these same kamma-activities oppress him in 
the next existence, because he has to protect and sustain them so that 
he will not lose them. Thus, the eye of the higher being oppresses that 
being through the kamma-activities which produce suffering. Then the 
eye of the higher being perpetually oppresses that being. Because the 
eye of the higher being does not arise independently of the kamma- 
activities, it is said that the kamma-activities invariably oppress the 
possessor throughout the beginningless round of rebirths. 

Oppression Through Instability 

'Oppression through instability' means 'oppression by liability to im- 
mediate destruction whenever there is a cause for destruction.' From 
the time of conception there is not a single moment— even to the extent 
of a wink of an eye or a flash of lightning— when there is no liability 
to destruction. And there is always the anxiety caused by impending 
destruction. When actual destruction comes, manifold is the suffering 
that is experienced, thus the eye of the higher being oppresses him 
through instability. 

Oppression Through 111 of Suffering 

111 of suffering means physical and mental pain. The pain experienced 
during the period of coming into being of the eye of a hell-being, ghost or 
demon is plainly evident. When there is the feeling of unpleasantness 
in coming into contact with the unpleasant object or when one inflicts 
bodily pain out of bad feeling, there is oppression through ill of suffering. 
When the eye contracts some disease or whenever there is physical or 
mental trouble in the preservation and protection of the eye, one is op- 
pressed by the ill of suffering. Thus the eye oppresses beings through 
the ill of suffering. 



414 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

Oppression Through Burning 

Thus the eye, which gives so much pain to beings and Jwhich is 
a source of suffering, is an alarming factor for one who has to wander 
through the beginningless round of rebirths because of that eye. So it 
is the real source of suffering. Ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are 
to be regarded likewise. 

Thus, the knowledge that enables one to see and understand the im- 
mense suffering and the characteristics in any of the three spheres of 
beings (i.e. the sensuous sphere, form sphere and formless sphere) such 
as the eye, etc., is the samma-ditthi-nana, the knowledge of the right un- 
derstanding. 

Right Understanding of the Truth About the Cause of Suffering 

Throughout the round of rebirths, as long as there is attachment to 
the eye as 'It is mine, it is my self', so long its continuity and its op- 
pression throughout the existences in the round of rebirths be maintain- 
ed. Therefore, the craving and greed that is attached to the eye is 
the true cause of the development of suffering. Ear, nose, tongue, body 
and mind should be regarded likewise. 

This knowledge which sees and understands the true cause of suffering 
is samma-ditthi-nana— knowledge of the right understanding of the cause 
of suffering. 

This is the end of the exposition of samudayasacca-samma-ditthi. 

Right Understanding of the Truth About the Cessation of Suffering 

When, in any existence, the tanha-lobha (craving) that is attached to 
the eye finally ceases, the eye does not arise again but finally ceases, 
and so also the oppression by the eye does not arise again and ceases 
finally. Ear, nose, tongue, body and mind should be regarded likewise. 

This knowledge which sees and understands the real cessation of 
suffering is samma-ditthi-nana— knowledge of the right understanding of 
the real cessation of suffering. 

This is the end of the exposition of nirodhasacca-samma-ditthi. 

The Right Understanding of the Truth About the Real Path Leading 
to the Cessation of Suffering 



Exposition of Right Speech 415 

When, as a result of practice of the Dhamma and development of mind 
through meditation, the true nature of the eye and the oppression by the 
eye are seen and understood, craving attached to the eye ceases in this 
life. It does not arise after death and consequently the oppression by the 
eye ceases, too. Ear, nose, tongue, body and mind should be regarded 
likewise. 

This knowledge which sees and understands the true path leading to 
the cessation of suffering is the samma-ditthi-fiana— knowledge of the right 
understanding of the path of conduct leading to the cessation of suf- 
fering. 

This is the end of the exposition of maggasacca-samma-ditthi. 

Here ends the brief exposition of catusacca-samma-ditthi. 

In the matter of the Noble Eightfold Path this right understanding of 
the Four Truths is the most essential. 

Exposition of Right Thinking 

There are three modes of Right Thinking. They are: 

1. thoughts free from lust (nekkhamma-sankappa) 

2. thoughts of good- will (abyapada-san kappa) 

3. thoughts of compassion, non-injuring (avihimsa-saiikappa). 

Thoughts free from lust: there is a state of absence of greed which is 
capable of renouncing the five sensual pleasures such as pleasant sighr, 
pleasant sound, pleasant smell, pleasant taste and pleasant touch, and of 
abandoning attachment to the five constituent groups of existence or 
mind and matter. Thoughts arising out of such absence of greed is 
nekkhamma-sankappa. 

Thoughts of good-will: there is loving-kindness for all beings, be they 
men or animals, and the wish for their good and welfare. Thoughts aris- 
ing out of such loving-kindness is abyapada-sankappa. 

Thoughts of compassion: thoughts arising out of compassion and sym- 
pathy for all beings who are afflicted with suffering is avihirhsa-san kappa. 

This is the end of samma-sankappa. 

Exposition of Right Speech 

There are four types of right speech. They are: 



416 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

1. abstinence from falsehood (musavada-virati) 

2. abstinence from back-biting (pisuna-vacavirati) 

3. abstinence from offensive and abusive language (pharusava- 
ca-virati 

4. abstinence from frivolous talk (samphappalapa virati). 

Abstinence from falsehood: speaking untruth so as to make it appear 
as truth and speaking of truth as though it were untruth, means speaking 
falsehood. Abstinence from speaking such falsehood is musavada-virati. 

Abstinence from back -biting: the kind of talk which makes two friends 
lose confidence in and regard for each other, which creates dissension 
between two persons or which slanders another is back-biting. Abstinence 
from such back-biting is pisunavaca- virati. 

Abstinence from offensive and abusive words: speaking with anger 
and using abusive language affecting race, families, individuality, occupa- 
tion, etc., amounts to using offensive and abusive words. Abstinence 
from such- mode of speaking is pharusavaca- virati. 

Abstinence from frivolous talk: in this world there are such plays 
and novels as Enaung and Ngwedaung, which contain no words relating 
to attha, Dhamma and Vinaya for the betterment of those who listen to 
them; they contain only those words that are meant for the sheer enter- 
tainment of the listeners. 

Attha, Dhamma, Vinaya 

Words relating to attha are those that could bring about in this present 
life such things as long life, health and righteously acquired wealth and 
in the next existence the good result such as being reborn as a human 
being, etc. 

Words relating to Dhamma are those that relate to ways and means 
for attainment of the above-mentioned good results. 

Words relating to Vinaya are those which relate to the rules of conduct 
for both men and monks, instructing them for the destruction of greed 
and hatred. 

Such words relating to attha, Dhamma and Vinaya are not found in 
the above-mentioned types of plays and novels. Narrating such plays 
and novels to -others amounts to frivolous talk. Avoidance of such talk 



Exposition of Right Thinking 417 

is samphappalapa virati. The thirty-two types of 'tiracchana katha' 2 
(spiritually unbeneficial talk) are included in the samphappalapa. 

Those who are desirous of developing their wisdom in attha, Dhamma 
and Vinaya should abstain from wasting time in indulging in such thirty- 
two types of talk. As regards those who are building up the practice 
of acquiring mental calm (samatha) and development of insight (vipas- 
sanii), they should know the limit even of speech which is associated 
with attha, Dhamma and Vinaya. 

This is the end of the four types of samma-vaca. 

The Exposition of Right Action 

There are three kinds of Right Action. They are: 

1. panatipata virati 

2. adinnadana virati 

3. kamesumicchacara virati. 

1. Panatipata virati: Panatipata means intentional killing or destroying 
being's by physical action or verbal incitement, ranging from causing 
abortion, destroying eggs of lice and bugs to killing and destroying living 
beings. Abstinence from such deeds is panatipata virati. 

2. Adinnadana virati: Adinnadana means taking with the intention of 
stealing any animate or inanimate property in the possession of the owner, 
such as grass, fuel, water and so forth, without the knowledge of the 
owner either by physical exertion or verbal incitement. Abstinence from 
such deeds is adinnadana virati. 

3. Kamesumicchacara virati: Kamesumicchacara means improper sexual 
intercourse of a man with a woman, such as intercourse with a woman 
under the guardianship of a father, mother, etc., or the improper sexual 
intercourse of a married woman whose husband is still living with 
another man. It also includes the taking of the five kinds of intoxicants, 
and gambling with cards, chess, dice, etc. Abstinence from such deeds 
is kamesumicchacara virati. 

2. See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VI— No 3, p. 12. 



418 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

This is the end of the three kinds of samma-kammanta. 

The Exposition of Right Livelihood 

There are four kinds of Right Livelihood. They are: 

1. duccaritamicchajiva virati 

2. anesanamicchajiva virati 

3. kuhanadimicchajiva virati and 

4. tiracchanavijjamicchajiva virati. 

1. Duccaritamicchajiva virati: Duccaritamicchajiva means earning a live- 
lihood by committing any of the three-fold evil bodily actions, such as 
killing, etc., and four-fold evil verbal actions, such as speaking untruth, 
etc. Earning a livelihood by selling the five kinds of merchandise 3 which 
ought not to be sold is also included in this. 

Abstinence from such wrongful modes of earning a livelihood is duccari- 
tamicchajiva virati. 

2. Anesanamicchajiva virati: Anesanamicchajiva means earning a live- 
lihood by Isis and bhikkhus by acquiring gifts and offerings by any 
of the twenty-one improper means (anesana— wrong livelihood for bhik- 
khus), e.g. by giving fruits and flowers, and so forth. 

Abstinence from such acts is anesanamicchajiva virati. 4 

3. Kuhanadimicchajiva virati: Kuhanadimicchajiva: There are five im- 
proper ways of earning of livelihood under this head, namely: kuhana, 
lapana, nimitta, nippesana, labhena labha nijigisana. 

1. kuhana means trickery and deception by working wonders. It 
means fraudulently obtaining gifts and offerings by making 
people think that one possesses extraordinary qualities such as 
high virtues, although one does not possess it 

'■. Weapons, living beings, meat, intoxicants and poisons — these five kinds of merch- 
andise ought not to be traded in — Ariguttara N'ikaya, Pancaka-nipata, Catuttha 
Pannasaka, Upasaka-vagga, 7. Vanijja Sutta, pp. 183, 6th Synod Edition. 
. See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VI. No. 3, p. 12. 



The Exposition of Right Effort 419 

2. lapana means impudent talk in connection with property and 
gifts 

3. nimitta means making gestures and hints to invite offerings 

4. nippesana means harassing with words so that one is obliged 

to make offerings 
5. labhena labha nijigisana means giving a small gift to get a 
bigger one. 

Abstinence from such wrongful modes of livelihood is kuhanadimic- 
chajiva virati. 

4. Tiracchanavijja micchajiva virati: As the worldly arts such as prophesy- 
ing from the constituents of the body, palmistry, etc., are contrary to 
Isis and bhikkhu's practice of dhamma, they are called tiracchanavijja. 
Earning livelihood by Isis and bhikkhus by means of such arts is called 
tiracchanavijja micchajiva. 

Abstinence from such wrongful modes of earning livelihood is called 
tiracchanavijja micchajiva virati. 

This is the end of the four kinds of samma-ajiva. 

The Exposition of Right Effort 

Of the four kinds of Right Effort, the first two, namely, the two un- 
wholesome volitional actions (akusala)— one that has arisen (uppanna) 
and the other potential (anuppanna)— constantly cause anxiety, moral 
corruption and debasement to beings. The next two, namely, the whole- 
some volitional actions (kusala) that have been acquired (uppana) and 
that are yet to be acquired (anuppanna) always give peace, purity, nobi- 
lity and progress to beings. 

Of the ten kinds of evil conduct, such evil conduct as has arisen or 
is about to arise in one's body in this life is called upanna-akusala. 
Such evil conduct as has never arisen, nor is about to arise, but will 
arise in future in one's body in this life is called anuppanna-akusala. 

Of the seven kinds of purification— 1) purification of virtue, 2) purifi- 
cation of mind, 3) purification of view, 4) purification by overcoming 
doubt, 5) purification by knowledge and vision of what is and what is 



420 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

not Path, 6) purification by knowledge and vision of the course of prac- 
tice, 7) purification by knowledge and vision— such visuddhi (purification) 
as has arisen or about to arise in one's body in this life is called up- 
panna-kusala. Such visuddhi as has never before arisen in one's body or 
has never been attained by one in this life is called anuppanna-kusala. 
Thus both akusala and kusala have two kinds each, namely, upanna 
and anuppanna. 

Power of Maggariga 

If the Noble Eightfold Path be practised and developed in this life, by 
virtue of its power, the uppanna duccarita which have arisen in one's 
body in this life will not arise again till one attains anupadisesa-nibbana 
(nibbana without the constituent groups of existence remaining); and by 
virtue of the Noble Eightfold Path, the anuppanna duccarita which 
have never before arisen in one's body in this life, but which may arise 
in the future,will not at all arise in one's body till one attains anupadisesa- 
nibbana. By virtue of the Noble Eightfold Path, the two duccarita 
upanna and anuppanna are eradicated and brought to an end. 

Established as Niyama 5 

Similarly, if the Noble Eightfold Path be practised and developed in 
this life, by virtue of its power, any purification out of the seven kinds 
of purifications which arises in one's body in this life, becomes indestruct- 
ible and constant till one attains anupadisesa-nibbana; and also by virtue 
of the Noble Eightfold Path the visuddhi which have never before arisen 
in one's body, or which have never been attained by one, or which one 
has never reached, arise in one's body, or are attained by one, or are 
reached by one in this very life. 

One's Own Real Benefit 

For these reasons, those devout laymen and bhikkhus who are fortun- 
ate enough to encounter the Buddha Sasana should be convinced of the 
fact that only the practice of Right Effort in the practice and develop- 
ment of the Eightfold Path is, in reality, their welfare and wealth. 

5. Constancy. 



In the Matter of Kusala 421 

Mundane affairs should be transacted only when they are absolutely 
necessary and unavoidable. Thus indeed is the elucidation of the Right 
Effort which is the fundamental factor in Buddhism. 

(In explaining uppanna and anuppanna, people can easily understand 
akusala by way of the ten kinds of evil conduct, 7 and in the case of 
kusala by way of the seven kinds of purifications.) 

1. In the Matter of Akusala 

Practice of the Eightfold Path with the intention of preventing the 
duccarita from arising at all in this very life and the following existen- 
ces is the first kind of Right Effort. 

2. In the Matter of Akusala 

Practice of the Eightfold Path with the intention of preventing the 
duccarita that have not yet arisen in one's body in this life but are 
liable to arise in the future, from arising at all till one attains anupadi- 
sesa-nibbana, is the second kind of Right Effort. 

3. In the Matter of Kusala 

Putting forth effort to practise the Noble Eightfold Path in such a 
way as to attain or realise without fail the higher purifications which 
have not yet been attained by one in this very life, is the third kind 
of Right Effort. 

4. In the Matter of Kusala 

Putting forth effort in such a way as to keep unbroken the purifica- 
tion of virtue such as the Five Precepts and ajivatthamaka-sila which 
one is observing in this very life, till one attains Nibbana and to make 
it permanent, is the fourth kind of Right Effort. 

These are the four kinds of Right Effort which have been expounded 
in such a way as to make the people understand them easily. They are 
enumerated as four only with reference to the four -kinds of functions. In 
reality, there is only one relevant dliamma, namely, vlriya (effort), for 
the simple reason that when one tries to achieve any one visuddhi, the 

7. Three-fold bodily action: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct. 

Four-fold verbal action: lying, slandering, rude speech, foolish babble. 
Three-fold mental action: avarice, ill-will, wrong view. 



422 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

viriya so exercised covers the said four functions automatically. 
Here ends the exposition of the four kinds of samma-vayama. 

The Exposition of Right Mindfulness 

The mind of beings is never steady, but is always fleeting. They have 
no control over their mind so as to fix it steadily on any object of me- 
ditation. When they cannot control their mind they resemble mad or 
mentally deranged persons. Society has no regard for such persons who 
have no control over their mind. Similarly, those who have no control 
over their mind so as to keep it steady in meditating, find that they 
resemble a mad person whenever they attempt to fix their mind on 
any object of meditation. They are aware that they cannot control 
their mind when they try to fix it on an object of meditation. To eli- 
minate the unsteady and fleeting mind and to fix it steadily on an object 
of meditation, one has to practise the Four Applications of Mindfulness 
(Satipatthana;. 

Four Applications of Mindfulness 

1. Kayanupassana Satipatthana (Mindfulness on the Contemplation of 
the Body) 

It means that one's mind is firmly bound up with one's corporeality- 
group by means of the rope of Right Mindfulness. It means constantly 
looking at, or concentrating one's mind on physical phenomenon, such 
as exhaling and inhaling and so forth. When this practice has been 
repeated for three or four months, the unsteadiness of the mind will dis- 
appear. Then one becomes capable of constantly concentrating one's 
mind on one's corporeality-group, such as exhaling and inhaling for one 
hour, two, three, four, five or six hours every day. Then one has the 
control of the mind to fix it on any object of meditation. 

2. Vedananupassana Satipatthana (Mindfulness on the Contemplation 
of Feelings) 

It means one's mind is firmly bound up by means of the rope of Right 
Mindfulness with one's feeling-group, such as agreeable feelings and so 
forth, which are constantly taking place in one's body according to 
circumstances. Repeated fixation of the mind on these feelings will put 



Bind up with the Rope 423 

the restlessness of the mind to an end. Then one has the control of the 
mind to fix it on any object of meditation. 

3. Cittanupassana Satipatthana (Mindfulness on the Contemplation of 
Consciousness) 

It means one's mind is firmly bound up by means of the rope of Right 
Mindfulness with the other types of consciousness which are associated 
with greed and hatred which are alternately present in one's mind- con- 
tinuum according to circumstances. When this is repeated many times, 
the restlessness of the mind disappears- Then one has the control of the 
mind to fix it on any object of meditation. 

4. Dhammanupassana Satipatthana (Mindfulness on the Contemplation 
of Mental Objects) 

It means one's mind is firmly bound up by' means of the rope of Right 
Mindfulness with such mental objects as sensuous lust, ill-will, torpor 
and langour, restlessness,' worry and sceptical doubt and so forth, which 
arise in one's life-continuum. When this is repeated many times, the 
mental restlessness disappears. Then one has the control of one's mind 
to fix it on any object of meditation. 

Bind up with the Rope 

Satipatthana means the meditative work of getting rid of the mad, 
deranged, hot and burning mind that has accompanied one's life-continu- 
um from past successive becomings, by binding up one's mind by means 
of the rope of mindfulness with the four groups of the body, namely, 
corporeality- group, sensation-group, consciousness-group and mental-ob- 
jects-group, for a prescribed period of time, so that one's mind does not 
go astray to external objects of- thought, but is confined to the said four 
groups only. (For details, see Mahasatipatthana SuttaS. As regards the 
practice of exhaling and inhaling, Anapana Dipani by Ledi Sayadaw 
may be referred to.) This should be practised for a fixed period or three 
hours every night according to circumstances. 

This is the end of the four kinds of samma-sati. 

S. Digha Nikaya, 9 Mahasatipatthana Sutta, p. 231, 6th Syn. Edn. 



424 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

The Exposition of Right Concentration: (Only when the mental restless- 
ness disappears) 

In the world in learning how to read, one has to begin from the alphabet. 
Only after one has mastered the alphabet can higher education be acquir- 
ed'. Similarly, in the process of mental development, the application of 
mindfulness is to be practised first. Only when the work of satipatthana 
is in order will mad and deranged mind be gotten rid of and the higher 
stages of meditation can be practised with steadfastness. So when the 
work of satipatthana is in order and when one is able to concentrate 
one's mind undisturbedly for a period of one hour, two hours, three 
hours, etc., daily on one's own body, one should practise citta-visuddhi- 
bhavana (contemplation of purification of consciousness) which is other- 
wise known as the four kinds of samatha-jhana-samadhi, 9 just as the 
higher studies such as the Marigala Sutta, Namakkara, paritta, gram- 
mar, Abbidhamma-Sarigaha, etc:, are prosecuted after having thoroughly 
mastered the alphabet. 

Of These Four Kinds of Samadhi: Pathama-Jhana-Samadhi (First Jhana 
Concentration) 

There are twenty-five kinds of kammatthana. 10 They are: 

1. ten kinds of kasina (meditation devices) 10 

2. ten kinds of asubha (loathsomeness) 10 

3. thirty-two parts of the body 1 

4. exhaling and inhaling 1 

5. the three kinds of Brahmavihara (sublime states), namely: 

a. metta (loving kindness) 

b. karuna (compassion) 

c. mudita (altruistic joy). 

And this pathama-jhana-samadhi is attained by intense practice of one 
of the said meditation subjects passing through the three successive bha- 
vana (mental concentration) of parikamma-bhavana (initial concentration), 
upacara-bhavana (access-concentration) and appana-bhavana (attainment 
concentration). 

9. Concentration acquired through practising calm. 
10. Meditation subjects. 



Three Kinds of Vatta Relating to Four Kinds of Samsara Respectively 425 

Meditation by the exercise of fixing mindfulness on exhaling and in- 
haling merely to get rid of mad and deranged mind is included in the 
first jhana concentration. (It should be noted that the practice of fixing 
mindfulness on exhaling and inhaling serves both the purpose of establish- 
ing mindfulness and attainment of the first ihfina. For full explanation 
of the four samadhi-jhana, a reference may be made to Visuddhimagga 
Atthakatha (The Path of Purification). 

This is the end of the four kinds of samma-samadhi. 

This is the end of the full explanation of the Noble Eightfold Path. 

Three Kinds of Vatta 11 (Round) Relating to Four Kinds of Saihsara 
Respectively 

Nowadays during the Buddha Sasana if people practise and develop 
the Noble Eightfold Path, they free themselves from vatta-dukkha. I 
shall expound them. 

There are three kinds of vatta-dukkha: 

1. kilesa vatta (round of defilements) 

2. kamma vatta (round of volitional actions) 

3. vipaka vatta (round of resultants). 

They are also classified as: 

1. three vatta relating to apaya-samsara 

2. three vatta relating to kamasugati-samsara 

3. three vatta relating to rupa-sarhsara 

4. three vatta relating to arupa-samsara. 

In the case of the three vatta relating to apaya-samsara: 

1. kilesa vatta means personality -belief and sceptical doubt. 

2. kamma vatta means the following ten evil courses of action: 

i. killing 

ii. stealing 

iii. sexual misconduct 
iv. lying 

v. back-biting 
vi. rude speech 

11. See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VI. No. 4, footnote on page 4. 



426 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

vii. idle talk 
viii. covetousness 

ix. ill-will 

x. wrong view. 

3. Vipaka-vatta means the five vipaka-katatta khandha 12 of hell-beings, 
ghosts and demons. 

Any person who has not got rid of personality- belief and sceptical 
doubt, though he may be repeatedly reborn in the highest plane of ex- 
istence for incalculable number of times, is yet destined to fall repeatedly 
into the sphere of evil courses of action to be reborn as fisherman, hun- 
ter, thief and robber, or as one of the beings of the four lower worlds. 
And vatta means wandering in the sarhsara (round of rebirths) with- 
out being liberated. 

In the case of the three vatta relating to kamasugati-samsara: 

1. kilesa-vatta means desire for sensuous pleasures, such as taking 
pleasure in and attachment to pleasant sight, sound, smell, taste 
and touch. 

2. kamma-vatta means the three 'domains of meritorious actions' 13 con- 
sisting in dana (alms giving), slla (morality) and bhavana (mental 
concentration). 

3. vipaka-vatta means the five vipaka-katatta (resultant)-khandha of 
human beings and of devas in the six deva planes. 

In the cases of the three vatta relating to rupa-sarhsara and the three 
vatta relating to arupa-samsara: 

1. kilesa-vatta means attachment to form and formlessness in the 
form-sphere and the formless-sphere respectively. 

2. kamma-vatta means wholesome volitional actions leading to and 
practised in the form and the formless spheres. 

12. The five constituent groups of existence as the result of kamma. 

13. 1. dana (alms-giving), 2. sl!a (observing the precepts). 3. bhavana (mental con- 
centration), 4. apacayana (respecting the elders). 5. veyyavacca (serving or 
helping others), 6. pattidana (sharing one's merits with others), 7. pattanurr:^ 
dana (rejoicing in others' merits), 8. dhammasavana (listening to the doctrine), 9 
dhammadesana (delivering the doctrine), 10. dijthijukamma (holding right view;. 
See The Light of the Dhamma Vol, III. No. 4, p. 20. 



The First, Second and Third Stage of Ditthi (Wrong Views) 427 

3. vipaka-vatta means the five vipaka-katatta-khandha of the riipa- 
brahma, and the four vipaka-namakkhandha of the arupa-brahma. 

It should be understood that there are three vatta— riipa-tanha, rfipa- 
kusala and riipa-brahma-khandha in the rupa-samsara, and that there 
also are three vatta— arirpa-tanha, arupa-kusala and arupa-brahma- 
khandha in the arupa-sarhsara. 

This is the end of the exposition of the three vatta with four subdi- 
visions in each. 

Interrelations Between Maggariga and Vatta 

This Eightfold Path explained hithertofore is again subdivided into 1) 
Eightfold Path pertaining to stream -winners, 2) Eighfold Path pertaining- 
to once-returners, 3) Eightfold Path pertaining to non-returners, and 4) 
Eightfold Path pertaining to arahats. 

The 'stream -winner' Eightfold Path completely extinguishes the three 
vatta relating to apaya-samsara. As regards the three vatta relating 
to kamasugati-samsara, it completely extinguishes only such of them as 
would otherwise come into existence after seven more rebirths. 14 

The 'once-returner' Eightfold Path completely extinguishes the two 
vatta— kilesa-vatta and vipaka-vatta relating to the sensuous sphere 
which would otherwise come into existence after two more rebirths. 

The 'non-returner' Eightfold Path completely extinguishes the three vatta 
relating to the said two kamasugati rebirths, leaving only rupa-bhava 
and ariipa-bhava. 

The arahatta Eightfold Path completely extinguishes the three vatta 
relating to rupa-samsara and arupa-sarhsara. All defilements are com- 
pletely extinguished. 

Here ends the exposition of the interrelation between maggahga and 
vatta. 

The First, Second and Third Stage of Ditthi (Wrong Views) 

Of the four kinds of sarhsara with the three vatta in each, the three 
apaya-vatta relating to the apaya-samsara are basically most important 
for the Buddhists of the pr&jent day. When a person's head is on fire 

14. So a stream-winner will have yet to undergo seven more rebirths in the sensuous 
sphere. 



428 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

the important thing for him to do is to extinguish it. The urgency of 
the matter permits of no delay, not even for a minute. And it is more im- 
portant for those who happen to be within the Buddha Sasana to com- 
pletely extinguish the three apaya-vatta than the aforesaid person's ex- 
tinguishing the fire burning his head. For this reason, in this book, I 
shall deal with the Eightfold Path which is able to cause the extinction 
of the three apaya-vatta. Of these two things— personality-belief and 
sceptical doubt— personality-belief is the basic. Extinction of person- 
ality-belief naturally implies extinction of sceptical doubt as well, and 
the ten courses of evil actions also disappear completely. Finally, apaya- 
samsara also becomes completely extinct. 

Sakkaya-ditthi means atta-ditthi (delusion of self). The eye is regarded 
as T or 'mine'. This view is held firmly and tenaciously. The same 
remarks apply mutatis mutandis in the cases of ear, nose, tongue, body 
and mind. 

*I-ness* 

The expression 'the eye is tenaciously regarded as "I" or "mine" means 
that whenever a visible object is seen, people firmly and tenaciously 
believe ' "I" see it', ' "I" see it'. And the same remarks may be applied 
mutatis mutandis to the cases of sound, smell, taste, body and mind. 

These explain how personality-belief is held by one in respect of the 
six internal bases. 

To the First Nibbana 

In former existences beings committed foolish mistakes, and all those 
old evil kamma through personality-belief attach themselves to and 
continuously accompany the life-continua of beings. In future existences 
also foolish mistakes will be committed by them and new evil kamma 
will also arise from the same personality-belief. Thus when the person- 
ality-belief is extinguished, both the old and new evil kamma are utterly 
extinguished. For that reason, apaya-samsara is utterly extinguished, 
and by the extinction of the personality-belief, all his foolish and evil 
deeds, all his wrong views, and all his apaya-bhava, 15 such as rebirths 
in hell, animal-world, ghost-world and demon-world, are simultaneously 
extinguished. That person attains the first sa-upadisesa-nibbana 11 ' which 

15. Rebirth in the Four Lower Worlds. 

16. Nibbana with the constituent groups of existence still remaining. 



Match-Box, Match-Stick And Nitrous Surface 429 

means utter extinction of the three vatta relating to apaya-sariisara. 
He becomes a holy one in the ariya-lokuttara-bhiimi (Noble Supramun- 
dane Sphere) who will be reborn in successively higher planes of existence. 

Match-Box, Match-Stick And Nitrous Surface 

Personality-belief is established in three stages in the life-continua of 
beings: 

1. the first bhumi (the latent stage) 

2. the second bhilmi is pariyutthana-bhumi (the stage when the 
mind is perturbed by ditthi) 

3. the third bhumi is vitikkama-bhiimi (the stage when ditthi be- 
comes transgressive). 

Three-fold bodily action 17 and four-fold verbal action^ are the vitik- 
kama bhumi. Three-fold mental action 19 is the pariyutthana bhumi; and 
the anusaya-bhumi is the ditthi (wrong view) which accompanies the 
life continuum of beings in the beginningless round of rebirths, and re- 
sides in the whole body as the seed (potentiality) for the three kamma 
before they are actually committed. 

When objects which can cause the rise of evil kamma come in con- 
tact with any of the six doors, such as eye-door and so forth, unwhole- 
some volitional actions actuated by that ditthi rise up from the anusaya- 
bhumi to the pariyutthana-bhumi. It means that the stage of mano- 
kamma (mental action) is reached. 

If not suppressed in the mano-kamma stage, these akusala further rise 
up from the pariyutthana-bhumi to the vitikkama-bhiimi. It means that 
kaya-kamma and vaci-kamma stages are reached. 

Ditthi-anusaya-bhumi may be compared to the element lying latent 
in the nitrous head of a match-stick and pariyutthana dutiya-bhumi (se- 
cond stage) to the fire burning at the head of the match-stick when 
struck against the nitrous surface of a match-box, and vltikkama-tati- 
ya-bhiimi (third stage) to the fire transformed from the match-stick and 
consuming up such as a heap of rubbish. The six external objects, such 

17. Three-fold bodily action: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct. 

18. Four-fold verbal action: lying, slandering, rude speech, foolish babble. 

19. Three-fold mental action: covetousness, ill-will, wrong view. 



430 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

as pretty appearance, sweet sound, etc., resemble the nitrous surface of 
the match-box. 

This is the end of the explanation of pathama-bhumi, dutiya-bhtimi and 
tatiya-bhumi of ditthi. 



Forming the Noble Eightfold Path Into Three Groups 

1. silakkhandha (morality-group) comprises Right Speech, Right 
Action and Right livelihood 

2. samadhikkhandha (concentration-group) comprises Right Mind- 
fulness and Right Concentration 

3. pannakkhandha (wisdom-group) comprises Right Understanding 
and Right Thinking. 

The three constituents of the morality -group, when considered in detail, 
become ajivatthamaka-sila in the following manner: 

1. I will abstain from taking life 

2. I will abstain from stealing 

3. I will abstain from indulging in sexual misconduct and taking 
•intoxicants (These comprise Right Action.) 

4. I will abstain from telling lies 

5. I will abstain from setting one person against another 

6. I will abstain from using rude and rough words 

7. I will abstain from talking frivolously (These four comprise 
Right Speech.) 

8. Samma-ajiva (Right Livelihood) means livelihood without resort- 
ing to taking lives, etc. 

Thus the three constituents of the morality-group become ajivatthamaka- 
sila. 

Nicca-sila (permanent morality), such as laymen's five precepts, the 
ten precepts observed by Isis20 and paribbajaka (wandering mendicants), 
the ten precepts observed by samaneras and the 227 rules of Vinaya 
observed by bhikkhus are within the domain of ajivatthamaka-sila. And 
laymen's eight precepts are nothing but improvements on and polishings 
of the five precepts and ajivatthamaka-sila. 

20. Rishis, hermits. 



How. to Take and Practise Ajivatthamaka-Sila 431 

To Destroy the Three Stages of Sakkaya-Ditthi 

Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood— the three constituents 
of the morality-group— are the dhamma to destroy the third stage of 
personality-belief. It means that they are the dhamma to destroy the 
three evil bodily actions and the four evil verbal actions. 

Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration— the three con- 
stituents of the concentration -group— are the dhamma to destroy the 
second stage of personality-belief. It means that they are the dhamma 
to destroy the three evil mental actions. 

Right Understanding and Right Thinking— the two constituents of the 
wisdom-group— are the dhamma to destroy the first stage of person- 
ality-belief. It means that they are the dhamma to destroy the anusaya- 
bhumi which has been lying latent in the life continua of beings in the 
beginningless round of rebirths. 

Here ends the forming of the Eighfold Path into the three khandha. 

How to Establish the Morality-Group of the Eightfold Path 
(Exposition of the Eightfold Path in Relation to the Stages of Ditthi ) 

In order to get rid of the three evil bodily actions and the four evil 
verbal actions, the three constituents of the morality-group of the Eight- 
fold Path must be established, meaning thereby that ajivatthamaka-sila 
must be accepted and observed. 

In order to get rid of the three evil mental actions conditioned by 
personality-belief, the three constituents of the concentration-group of the 
Eightfold Path must be established, meaning thereby that anapana-kam- 
matthana (exercises on exhaling and inhaling), atthika-kammatthana 
(meditation on bones), kasina kammatthana (exercises on meditation de- 
vices) must be practised at least one hour daily, so that steadiness of the 
mind may be achieved. 

How to Take and Practise Ajivatthamaka-Sila 

In order to get rid of the third stage of personality-belief, people should 
establish themselves in purification of virtue by taking, observing and 
practising ajivatthamaka-sila. They can either of their own accord recite it 
and then observe it, or make up their mmd to abstain from contravening 
the eight precepts, such as panatipata (killing living beings) and so forth 



432 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

from that day throughout their life, and successfully abstain from them 

accordingly. If one observes it of one's own accord, there would be no 

necessity to accept it from a bhikkhu. It is enough if one makes up 
one's mind as follows: 

1. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from taking life. 

2. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from stealing. 

3. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from sexual 
misconduct, as also from the five kinds of intoxicants. 

4. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from speaking 
untruth. 

5. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from setting one 
person against another. 

6. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from abusive 
and rude words affecting the caste and creed, etc., of any 
person. 

7. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from speaking 
things which are not conducive to the well-being of beings 
either in the present life, in sarhsara, or in the Supramundane 

Sphere. 

8. From today throughout my life, I will abstain from improper 
livelihood. 

The Kinds of Nicca-Sila (Permanent Morality) 

Once it has been taken, it remains good till it is violated. Only the 
precept that is broken should be taken again, but if tho9e that are not 
violated are taken again, there would be nothing wrong though there is 
no necessity to do so. If one precept which has* not been violated is 
taken again, it becomes strengthened thereby. 

It is better to take the whole of ajivatthamaka-sila everyday. Ajivat- 
thamaka-sila, like panca-sila, is a nicca-sila (permanent morality). It is 
not the kind of morality (sila) that is taken and observed on uposatha 
(fasting) days. Samaneras,-Isis and paribbajaka, who have to observe 
always the ten precepts, and bhikkhus who have to observe always 
the 227 vinaya rules need not specially take ajivatthamaka-sila. 

This is the end of the explanation as to how ajivatthamaka-sila is to 
be taken. 



Four Conditions of Musavada 433 

Ingredients of the Seven Kinds of Wrong Doing 

Five conditions of panatipata: 

1. the being must be alive 

2. there must be the knowledge that it is a live being 

3. there must be an intention to cause death 

4. an act must be done to cause death 

5. there must be death as the result of the said act. 

If all the said five conditions are fulfilled, the first precept is violated 
and should be taken again. 

Five conditions of adinnadana: 

1. the property must be in the possession of another person 

2. there must be the knowledge that the property is in the pos- 
session of another person 

3. there must be an intention to steal 

4. there must be an act done to steal 

5. by that act the property must have been taken. 

If all the said five conditions are fulfilled, the second precept is violated" 
and should be taken again. 

Four conditions to kamesumicchacara: 

1. It must be a man or a woman with whom it is improper to 
have sexual intercourse 

2. there must be an intention to have such sexual misconduct with 
such a man or woman 

3. there must be an act done to have such intercourse 

4. there must be enjoyment of the contact of the organs. 

If all the said four conditions are fulfilled, the third precept is violated 
and should be taken again. 

Four conditions of musavada: 

1. the thing said must be untrue 

2. there must be an intention to deceive 

3. there must be an effort made as a result of the said intention 



434 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

4. the other must know the meaning of what is said. 
If these conditions are fulfilled, the fourth precept is violated and should 
be taken again. 

Four conditions of pisunavaca: 

1. there must be persons to be disunited 

2. there must be an intention to disunite two persons 

3. there must be an effort made as a result of the said intention 

4. the other must know the meaning of the thing said. 

If these conditions are fulfilled, the fifth precept is violated and should 
be taken again. 

Three conditions of pharusavaca: 

1. there must be someone to be abused 

2. there must be anger 

3. abusive language must actually be used. 

If these conditions are fulfilled, the sixth precept is violated and should 
be taken again. 

Two conditions of samphappalapa: 

1. there must be an intention to say things which bring forth no 
good benefits 

2. such things must be said. 

If these conditions are fulfilled, the seventh precept is violated and 
should be taken again. 

'Things which bring forth no good benefits' means such plays and 
novels as enaung, and ngwedaung. Nowadays we have numerous plays 
and novels which satisfy all the conditions of samphappalapa. 

The foregoing conditions about musavada, pisunavaca, and samphap- 
palapa relate to violation of the respective precepts. They become con- 
ditions for kammapatha, i.e. kamma which leads to rebirths in the lower 
planes, if the following conditions are added: 

Kammapatha takes place thus: 

1. in the case of musavada, another person must suffer loss or 
damage 



Anapana Practice 435 

2. in the case of pisunavaca, disunion must be brought about 

3. in the case of samphappalapa, others must think that the plays 
and novels are true stories. 

And in the case of the remaining four precepts, namely, panatipata, 
adinnadana, kamesumicchacara, pharussavaca, the said conditions relate 
not only to their violation, but also to the respective kamma amounting 
to the kammapatha. 

These are the conditions relating to the seven kinds of wrong doing 
which should be known by those who observe ajivatthamaka-sila every 
day. 

This is the end of a brief explanation of the way to establish the three 
constituents of silakkhandha of the Eightfold Path. 

How to Establish th 3 Concentration-Group of the Noble Eightfold Path 

For a person who has well observed the three constituents of the 
morality-group of the Eightfold Path and who has thereby established 
himself in the purification of virtue, micchajiva (wrong living) and the 
seven kinds of wrong doing, namely, the three kinds of physical wrong 
doing and four kinds of verbal wrong doing which are born of person- 
ality-belief, are entirely extinguished. 

Then, in order to destroy the second stage of wrong views, namely, 
the three kinds of mental wrong actions, the constituents of the concen- 
tration-group of the Eightfold Path (Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and 
Right Concentration) must be established. 

Establishment of the three constituents of the concentration-group of 
the Eightfold Path means practice of one of the forty subjects 21 of medi- 
tation, such as kasina (meditation devices), etc. 

Anapana Practice 

In this connection the practice of anapana-kamatthana (breathing ex- 
ercises) will be briefly described. If those who are still householders 
have no time to perform these exercises in the day time, they should 
always practise about one or two hours before going to bed and about 
an hour before rising from bed in the morning. 

»1. See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. V, No. 3, 14. 



436 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths 

The method of practice is as follows: According to the Buddha's 
teaching 'satova assasati satova passasati' (inhale with mindfulness; 
exhale with mindfulness). During the period already fixed, one's mind 
should be entirely concentrated on inhaling and exhaling and not 
allowed to stray elsewhere, and in order to do so, kayika-viriya and 
cetasika-viriya should be exercised. Kayikaviriy a means effort to practice 
for a fixed period every day without a break. Cetasika-viriya means 
extreme care to concentrate the mind on inhaling and exhaling so that 
it may not stray elsewhere, and intense application of the mind on 
inhaling and exhaling, so that sleepiness torpor and langour may not 
come in. 



Let the Mindfulness Be Constant 

Fixing the mind on one's nostril continuously, one should always no- 
tice that it is exhaling when the wind exhaled brushes against the 
nostril, that it is inhaling when the wind inhaled brushes against it. And 
Right Effort means these two kinds of effort, namely, kayika-virya and 
cetasika-viriya. Applying the mind in this way for fifteen days, a 
month, two months, etc., one's mindfulness becomes fixed on exhaling 
and inhaling. That mindfulness is designated as Right Mindfulness. 

Once the three constituents of the morality -group of the Eightfold 
Path have been established, the mental restlessness disappears day by 
day. 

It is apparent to every person that he has no control over his mind 
when it comes in contact with the object of meditation (i.e. when he starts 
practising meditation). In this world, mad people who have no control 
over their mind are useless in worldly affairs. In the same way, in this 
world, even those who are said to be sane, are, as regards the practice 
of kammatthana (practice of calm and insight), in the same position as 
mad people who have no control over their mind. They are useless in 
the matter of kammatthana. For these reasons the three constituents of 
the concentration -group of the Eightfold Path should be established with 
a view to getting rid of mental restlessness. 



Hov/ to Establish the Wisdom-Group of the Eightfold Path 437 

(For other particulars of Right Concentration, the Bodhipakkhiya Dipani 
and Anapana Dipani written by me may be referred to.) 

How Mental Restlessness Can Be Gotten Rid Of 

Even though 'access concentration' and 'attainment concentration' are 
not yet reached, if the mind could be fixed on the object of meditation 
(kammattbana-arammana) during a fixed period of one hour or two hours 
every day, it would become easy to concentrate the mind on any other 
object of meditation. For a person who has attained the purification of 
mind after having succeeded in establishing the three constituents of the 
concentration-group of the Eightfold Path, three evil mental actions, such 
as covetousness, ill-will and wrong views born of personality-belief be- 
come entirely extinct. And the second bhumi (stage) of ditthi, i.e. ma- 
no-kamma also becomes extinct, and the mental restlessness caused by 
five hindrances also 22 disappears. 

This is the end of the explanation of the way to establish the three 
constituents of the concentration-group of the Eightfold Path. 

When to Establish Pannakkhandha (Wisdom -Group) 

Once the three constituents of the morality-group of the Eightfold Path 
are taken and observed, from that very moment they become established 
in that particular person and lrom that very moment, so long as there 
is no violation by him, he is said to be replete with the Purity of Mor- 
ality. On the very day of observance of the precepts, the concentration- 
#roup of the Eightfold Path should be practised. Persons who are suffi- 
ciently diligent will not take more than five to ten days to get rid of the 
mental restlessness, and having attained a steadfast concentration of the 
mind on exhaling and inhaling, the three constituents of the concentra- 
tion-group of the Eightfold Path will become established in him within 
five to ten days. 

From that day he is said to have established himself in citta-visuddhi 
(purification of mind), and should start to establish himself in the wis- 
dom-group of the Eightfold Path. 

How to Establish the Wisdom-Group of the Eightfold Path 
To Establish It Bight From the Beginning: 

22. See The Light of the Dharnma, Vol. V, No. 3, p. 14. 



438 The Exposition of Right Understanding of the Fo