Skip to main content

Full text of "The American ecclesiastical review"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


Cum Approhaiione Superiorum 


** Ut Ecclesia aedificationem accipiat."" 

I Cor. 14 : 5. 




Bmerican jecclesiastlcal -Review. 

Q;be Dolpbin press 


6 1955 

Copyright, 1913 

american ^Ecclesiastical IRcview 

Zbc Dolpbin pread 



Flavian : A Clerical Portrait '*^* 

Father Prout ' J 

R. F. O'Connor, Cork, Ireland. 

Over the Desert to Convent St. Catharine. Practical Hints to 

SiNAiTic Tourists 

Leopold Senfelder, M.D., Vienna, Austria. 

Father Carlton's Offerings. A Clerical Story a^* 

L. E. Dobree. . ^ 

Something More About the Tiresome Sermon 53 

The Rev. Francis P. Donnelly, S.J., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Reminiscences of Maynooth. III. A Student's Daily Day 63 

The Rev. P. Sheridan, Dungloe, Ireland. 

The Old Priest's Vespers— and Complin 60 

A. Dease. » " * 

Analecta : 

Sacra Congregatio Consistorialis : 

I. Erectionis Dioecesis Kearneyensis 76 

II. Erectionis Dioecesis Corpus Christ! 77 

III. Declarationis circa Dioecesis Fines Wa)me-Castrensis 77 

Sacra Congregatio Concilii : 

Litterae circa Dies Festos 77 

Sacra Congregatio Rituum : 

I. Urbis et Orbis (Continuaiur) : Mutationes in Breviario et 
Missali Romano faciendae ad normam Constitutionis Apo- 

stoHcae " Divino Afflatu " 79 

II. Circa Doxologiam v. Primae, et Prefationem Propriam in 
occurrentia Festorum B.M.V. ad instar simplicis redactorum. 97 

III. Decretum de Festis Ritus Duplicis Maioris Octava conde- 
coratis 97 

IV. Decretum de Novi Psalterii edendi Facultate ab Episcopis 
non concedenda 98 

V. Monitum 99 

Studies and Conferences : 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 100 

Does the Virtue of Communion Last? (The Rev. F. M. de Zulueta, 

SJ., Chesterfield, England) lOO 

Quid Mihi et Tibi? Again. 

1. The Rev. Thomas a K. Reilly, O.P., Immaculate Conception Col- 
lege, Washington, D. C 105 

2. The Rev. Walter Drum, SJ., Woodstock College, Maryland .. 109 
Our Catholic Soldiers in China {The Rev. P. Grobel, C.F., Tientsin, 

N. China) "0 

The De Profundis Bell "0 

Our Midsummer Number ^^' 

Criticisms and Notes: 

Benson : The Friendship of Christ "J 

Otten : The Reason Why "5 

Bonvin : Cantemus Domino 'J| 

Mathias: Organum comitans ad Proprium de Tempore i»» 

Huby: Christus : Manuel d'Histoire des Religions "| 

Roussel : Le Bouddhisme Primitif ; \""ii" ' 

Murat: L'Idee de Dieu dans les Sciences contemporaines : Les Mer- ^^^ 

veilles du Corps Humain ^^^ 

Huizinga : Authority \ ^^^ 

Literary Chat J27 

Books Received 

iv Contents. 



Pulpit Eloquence and the Supernatural 129 

The Rev. John A. McClorey, S.J., Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 

The Latest Proposal in Calendar Reform 141 

The Rev. H. T. Henry, Litt.D., Overbrook Seminary, Pa. 

Thomas a Kempis as a Hymn Writer iS5 

W. H. Grattan Flood, Enniscorthy, Ireland. 

Babylonian Legislation 4500 Years Ago 161 

The Rev. W. D. Strappini, S.J., Bournemouth, England. 

About Bells ^72 

L. E. D. 
Studies in American Philosophy. III. The Modern Schools: Kant- 
ism IN America 185 

The Rev. J. B. Ceulemans, Moline, Illinois. 
Analecta : 

Acta Pn PP. X: 

Ad R. D. Philippum Fletcher, M.A., Sodalitatis Moderatorem 
quae " of Our Lady of Ransom " nuncupatur, XXV Anniver- 

sario adventante ex quo Sodalitas ipsa condita fuit 212 

Sacra Congregatio Rituum: 

I. Instructio super Privilegiis in Triduo vel Octiduo solemniter 
celebrando intra annum a Beatificatione vel Canonizatione per 
Rescriptum Sacrae ipsius Congregationis a Summo Pontifice 

concedi solent 213 

II. Societatis Missionariorum Sacratissimi Cordis Jesu : Dubia.. 215 
III. Litterae Circulares ad Rev.mos locorum Ordinarios quoad 

Propria Officiorum Dioecesana 216 

S. Congregatio Indicis: 

I. Decretum quo quaedam prohibentur Opera 218 

II. Dubiura 218 

S. Congregatio de Sacramentis: 

Decretum circa Impedimentum ex adulterio cum attentatione Mat- 
rimonii proveniens 219 

Curia Romana: 

Recent Pontifical Appointments 220 

Studies and Conferences : 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 221 

TI EMOI KAI 201, rYNAI;— Without Comment {The Rev. J. J. 

Loughran, Seward, Nebraska) 221 

The Prescribed Reverence in Pontifical Masses and Vespers 224 

Indulgence and Communion at Forty Hours' Devotion 225 

Where is the Diocese of Kempen ? 226 

The Question of Mitigating the Eucharistic Fast 226 

An Appeal for an Expression of Sentiment and Action {The Rev. A. 

Van Sever, Route 2, Grand Rapids, Wisconsin) 228 

Ecclesiastical Library Table : 

Some Recent Apologetic Works 229 

Two French Novels 231 

An Introduction to the History of the Popes 232 

" Manalive " 233 

Criticisms and Notes: 

Jorgensen-Sloane : St. Francis of Assisi 236 

Walling : Socialism as It is 239 

Boyle : What is Socialism ? 239 

Benson : The Coward 241 

Dawson : The Mirror of Oxford 249 

Pustet : Breviarium Romanum continens Novum Psalterium 251 

Thompson : Life and Times of the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. 252 

Aertnys : Compendium Liturgiae Sacrae 252 

Literary Chat 253 Books Received 255 


Studies IN American Philosophy. IV. Modern Schools: Evolutionism '^S 
The Rev. J. B. Ceulemans, Moline, Illinois. vulutionism. 258 

Ecclesiastical Dress and Vestments o 

John R. Fryar, Canterbury, England. ^^ 

The Temple of Jahu in Syene and Pentateuchal Criticism 2qt 

The Rev. Hugh Pope, O.P., Collegio Angelico, Rome, Italy. 

The Motu Proprio " Quanta vis Diligentia " 

The Very Rev. H. A. Ayrinhac, S.S., D.D., LL.D:,' St Patrick''s* Semi- 
nary, Menlo Park, California. 

Reminiscences of Maynooth. IV. « Vacat ad deambulationem " ^16 
The Rev. P. Sheridan, Dungloe, Ireland. • • • • jio 

Analecta : 

Acta Pii PP. X: 

Epistola ad R. P. D. lacobum Duhig, Episcopum Rockhampton- 
ensem, de quinquagenariis illius ecclesiae sacris solemnibus 329 
S. Congregatio S. Officii : 

I. Decretum de Dispensationibus super Impedimento Dispari- 
tatis Cultus absque debitis Cautionibus nnnquam concedendis. 330 
II. Decretum de Dispensatione super Impedimento Disparitatis 

Cultus absque debitis Cautionibus impertita 331 

III. Decretum de Parochi Adsistentia Matrimoniis Mixtis 331 

S. Congregatio Indicis : 

Decreto S. Congregationis diei 6 maii proximo elapsi laudabiliter 

se subiecit E. Th. de Cauzons 332 

S. Congregatio Rituum : 

I. Decretum praefixum Volumini VI, seu Appendici I operis 
cui titulus : " Decreta Authentica Congregationis Sacrorum 
Rituum ex actis eiusdem coUecta eiusque auctoritate pro- 

mulgata " 333 

II. Decretum seu Declarationes circa novas Rubricas 333 

III. De Dispositione Festorum juxta Novas Rubricas 334 

Commissi© Pontificia de Re Biblica: 

I. De Auctore, de Tempore Compositionis et de Historica Veri- 
tate Evangeliorum secundum Marcum et secundum Lucam.. 336 
II. De Quaesitione Synoptica sive de mutuis Relationibus inter 

tria priora Evangelia 339 

Studies and Conferences: 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 34' 

De Vasectomia {The Very Rev. A. De Smet, S.T.L., Bruges, Belgium). 341 

Clerics before the Civil Tribunal 357 

The " Oratio " after the Litany of Loreto 359 

The " Caeremoniale Episcoporum " and American Custom ^ 360 

Private Exposition of Blessed Sacrament not permitted for Priest's 

Personal Devotion • 3^2 

Conclusion of the Prayer after distributing Communion outside Mass. 363 
Dispensation in Mixed Marriage without the required " Cautiones ". 364 
Advertisements in The Ecclesiastical Review 365 

Criticisms and Notes: 

Noll : For our non-Catholic Friends 3oo 

Monin : De Curia Romana 3o7 

Dubray : Introductory Philosophy 3^9 

Perry : Present Philosophical Tendencies 3^ 

Coffey : The Science of Logic 309 

Rosmini Serbati : Theodicy— Essays on Divine Providence 373 

Stoeckl : Handbook of the History of Philosophy . .' 374 

Hyde : The Five Great Philosophies of Life 374 

vi Contents. 



The Sixteenth Centenary of Constantine's Proclamation of Relig- 
ious Liberty — 313-1913 3^5 

The Rev. William T. Kane, S.J., St. Louis University, Missouri. 
The Course of Studies and Discipline in Theological Seminaries . . 395 

Roman Seminary Life 403 

The Rev. Thomas F. Coakley, D.D., Pittsburgh, Penna. 

St. Vincent de Paul and the Foundation of Seminaries 424 

The Very Rev. Patrick McHale, CM., Philadelphia. 

The Imagination in Saint Francis De Sales 434 

The Rev. J. D. Folghera, O.P., Hawkesyard Priory, England. 
Analecta : 

Acta Pii PP. X : 

L Litterae Encyclicae ad Archiepiscopos Americae Latinae de 

misera Indorum conditione sublevanda 447 

II. Motu Proprio de Catholicorum in exteras regiones Emigra- 

tione 451 

S. Congregatio Rituum : 

I. De Conclusione Matutini et Inchoatione Laudum pro recita- 
tione privata in Triduo Mortis Christi et in Officiis Defunct- 

orum 453 

II. Decretum circa Modulandas Monosyllabas vel Hebraicas 

Voces in Lectionibus, Versiculis et Psalmis 454 

S. Congregatio Consistorialis : 

I. Litterae Circulares de Seminariis Italiae ad Reverendissi- 

mos Ordinaries 455 

II. Decretum de quibusdam Rei Biblicae Commentariis in Sacra 

Seminaria non admittendis 463 

III. De Decreto " Maxima Cura " 464 

S. Congregatio Officii (Sectio de Indulgentiis) : 

Decretum de Indulgentiis Pio Viae Crucis exercitio adnexis .... 465 
S. Congregatio de Propaganda Fide pro Negotiis Ritus Orientalis : 
I. Epistolae Circulares ad locorum Ordinaries Latini Ritus, de 
non permittendis Orientalibus eleemosynarum emendlcation- 

ibus absque venia eiusdem S. Congregationis 466 

II. Litterae Circulares ad Superiores Generales Institutorum Re- 
ligiosorum Latini Ritus, de modo tenendo antequam Orien- 

tales in eorum Sodalitates admittantur 468 

Studies and Conferences : 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 470 

Sixteenth Centenary of the Proclamation of Christian Liberty (313- 

1913) 472 

The New Decree on Mixed Marriages {The Rev. M. Martin, SJ., Si. 

Louis University, St. Louis, Mo.) 477 

A Plea for our Ageing Catholic Clergy (Senex) 488 

The Official Catholic Directory for 1913 491 

Defending the Policy of the Popes 492 

Using a Crutch at Mass 494 

Helping the Country School 494 

Conclusion of the Prayer and the Form of Blessing after Distributing 

Holy Communion (A Correction) 495 

Criticisms and Notes : 

Coffey : The Science of Logic 496 

Colvin : The Learning Process 496 

O'Connor : His Grey Eminence 501 

Meyenberg — Brossart : Homiletic and Catechetic Studies 502 

Koo : The Status of Aliens in China 504 

: The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vols. XIII and XIV 505 

Wuest : Collectio Rerum Liturgicarum 507 

Contents. yii 



The Traditional Idea of Sacerdotal Vocation cj. 

The Rev. Edmund J. Wirth, D.D., St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, 
New York. 
The Biblical Commission and the Synoptic Gospels c27 

The Very Rev. A. J. Maas, S.J., New York City. 

The Cure of Intemperance c-j^ 

Austin O'Malley, M.D., Philadelphia. "^^ 

How Bishop Ketteler Corrected the Scandal Given by One of His 

Priests ega 

Jam Toto Subitus Vesper Eat Polo [[[ 557 

The Rev. H. T. Henry, Litt.D., Overbrook Seminary, Penna. 

The Story of St. Cecilia and its Value 564 

Dom S. A. Parker, O.S.B., Oxford, England. 
Analecta : 

Acta Pii PP. X: 

Litterae Apostolicae : Committitur Episcopo Ritus Rutheni Ad- 
sistentia Spiritualis Ruthenorum in Canadensi Regione com- 
morantium 583 


Decretum de Postulatu in Monasteriis Votorum Solemnium .... 585 


I. Decreto S. Congregationis laudabiliter se subiecit Aloisius 

Izsof 586 

II. Decretum quo prohibentur Liber et Inscriptio quaedam 586 

Studies and Conferences : 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 588 

A League for Priests 589 

The Value of Method in Teaching Children to hear Mass and receive 

the Sacraments (The Rev. John L. Bedford, Brooklyn, New York). 591 

Pere Lagrange, O.P., and the Sacred Congregation 597 

The Pastoral Rights of a Convent Chaplain 600 

The Maltese for "Quid Mihi et Tibi est, Mulier?" {The Rev. Walter 

Drum, SJ., Woodstock College, Maryland) 601 

Thomas a Kempis and the Brothers of the Common Life {The Rev. 

Vincent Scully, C.R.L., St. Ives, Cornwall, England) 603 

Mitigation of the Eucharistic Fast {The Rev. A. Van Sever, Grand 

Rapids, Wisconsin) 604 

Is Old Age Sufficient Reason for Breaking the Eucharistic Fast? 606 

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and the Canadian Bill 

against the " Ne Temere " 607 

Professional Secrecy in Hospitals 610 

Private Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament 6x3 

Buhver's " Friar Joseph " in the Light of History 613 

The Bride and Groom kneeling in the Sanctuary 614 

The Old Indult of Requiem Masses and the New Rubrics 615 

Images of the Sacred Heart on the Altar 016 

The Assistant Priest at a First Mass oi7 

La Prise du Bon Dieu °^7 

Criticisms and Notes : , ^ 

Amelli : Collectanea Biblica Latina • •• • • ••••'•• °^' 

Henry: Eucharistica : Verse and Prose in Honor of the Hidden God. MO 

Straub: De Ecclesia Christi ^^4 

Ladd : The Teacher's Practical Philosophy 020 

Bardenhewer: Geschichte der Altkirchenlichen Literatur o2» 

Burton— Meyers : The New Psalter and Its Use o30 

Meehan: A Practical Guide to the Divine Office • • ' VV ' "i'lv* *m ' ' 
Hetherington : Notes on the New Rubrics and the Use of the Wcw 

Psalter •••.•••. S! 

Heiner— Wynen : De Processu Criminali Ecclesiastico 031 

Pierard : Cours Pratique de Psalmodie Vaticane '>3 

viii Contents. 



The Growth of Christian Art in Germany (With Illustrations) 641 

George Metlake, Cologne, Germany. 
The Small Host " Extra Corporale "—A Bit of Casuistry 660 

The Rev. Patrick Cummins, O.S.B., Conception Abbey, Missouri. 
Sermons— Taste and Tolerance 674 

The Right Rev. Mgr. F. D. Bickerstaffe Drevi^, Salisbury, England. 
Cardinal Newman as a Hymn- Writer and Hymn-Composer 685 

W. H. Grattan Flood, Enniscorthy, Ireland. 
The Cure of Intemperance. II. The Alcoholic Insanities 691 

Austin O'Malley, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reactions and By-Products of the Decree on Frequent Communion.. 702 

The Rev. Joseph H. McMahon, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Analecta : 

Acta Pii PP. X : 

Constitutio Apostolica de Sanctissima Eucharistia promiscuo ritu 
sumenda 7o8 


I. Conceditur Indulgentia Plenaria in honorem Beatae Mariae 

. Virginis Immaculatae 7^6 

II. Decretum circa Indulgentias Festis Beatorum adnexas 717 

S. Congregatio de Religiosis: 

I. Quoad Communionem Infirmarum in Monasteriis clausurae 

papalis 718 

II. Dubium quoad Indulta Abstinentiae et leiunii relate ad Re- 

ligiosos 719 

III. Dubium quoad Religiosos Votorum Solemnium degentes ad 

tempus extra claustra 720 

Studies and Conferences : 

Our Analecta — Roman Documents for the Month 722 

Metrical Translation of Ps. I, VII, XVIII, XXII (£. C. Donnelly). 723 
Present Status of Calendar Reform {The Rev. H. T. Henry, Litt.D.). 728 

The Proper Abbreviation of the Word " Monsignor " 734 

Daily Communion and Priests' Retreats {The Rev. L, F.Schlathoelter). 734 

Efficiency of Modem Seminary Education (Connatus) 735 

The Essential Presence of the Matter for Consecration 736 

Choice of a Diocesan Patron 73^ 

The Confiteor in the Case of the " Benedictio Apostolica " after Ex- 
treme Unction 737 

Anointing of the Feet 738 

Ecclesiastical Library Table : 

Sacred Scripture: i. The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate; 2. Archeology; 
3. Interpretation; 4. Text (The Rev. Walter Drum, S.J., Wood- 
stock College, Maryland) 739 

Criticisms and Notes: 

O. P. : The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas 749 

: The Catholic Faith 749 

Mullan : Sodality of Our Lady Studied in the Documents 750 

Lester : Story of the Sodality of Our Lady 750 

Husslein : The Church and Social Problems 752 

Toke : The Housing Problem 752 

Gerrard : The Church and Eugenics 752 

Buchberger : Kirchliches Handlexikon 755 

Bregy : The Poet's Chantry 756 

De Smet : Betrothment and Marriage 757 

Pohle-Preuss : God : The Author of Nature and the Supernatural 758 

Augier : Apologie du Catholicisme par les Incredules 758 

Gatterer : Annus Liturgicus 759 

Janvier : Exposition de la Morale Catholique Speciale 760 

Coube : Gloires et Bienfaits de I'Eucharistie 760 

Page : Practical Guide for Servers at Low Mass and Benediction 761 





5 o 

Oft? -^ 

I? G 




Fifth Series.— Vol. VII.— (XLVII).— July, 1912.— No. i 


AT any given period of Flavian's too brief career, the first 
thing to be said of him was that he was young, and 
looked younger. His foes might always have added with 
spite, and his friends with proud affection, that he could 
never be much older. The calendar, at the last, almost com- 
promised him, but nobody minded the calendar; and a pre- 
monitory hint of baldness got no credit at all as against that 
clear level glance, that virginal gayety, that unblunted cour- 
age. His most winning and valuable asset was a sort of 
aureole. Painters have always reported to us that some bodies 
shine; modern science says they are right. Many have fire 
in them, as we say ; and some shed it, as did this one. None 
who watched him could fail, ever and anon, to catch him look- 
ing as transparent as Cowley's lilies, 

Clad but with the lawn of almost naked light. 

Yet he was no angel, but " a man's man ", in all. 

His policy was not what is commonly defined as asceticism. 
He held that " holiness is not the emptying, but the filling of 
life ". However, the positive trend of Flavian's boyish per- 
sonality never for an instant obscured its dominant note, which 
was a true priestly dash of other-worldliness, or Uranian wild- 
ness. He somehow bore silent witness to himself as one bred 
in the cloister, and fresh (as fresh in any imagined to-morrow 
as at the moment) from the novitiate. If an observer were 
quick at inferences, he saw at once that Flavian's had been 
HO roundabout spiritual journey; that he had always been 


God's by an irresistible and visible religious vocation. There 
is no assurance quite so fragrant as this. But his morning 
consecration had not left him one whit less individual, and 
it had certainly deepened, as nothing else couM have done so 
fully, his singular tenderness. Those who appreciated winter 
landscape, and knew the rare beauty of the desert, were glad 
of certain austere moods in him, moods of silence and peace, 
lying just beyond the borderlands of every bustling day. 
These gave him reality. There was even some superior Puri- 
tanism in him, of a dormant kind, though for all practical 
purposes he rode with King Charles. Absolute fearlessness; 
phosphoric energy, nay, wastefulness, physical and mental ; a 
certain patrician quickness of brain, foot, lip and eye; a huge 
capacity for painstaking, and for foil to that, instinctive im- 
patience with bores and shirks, with sophisms and delays, 
with another's emotions or his own; a way of dealing with 
obstacles, when necessary, as horned lightning deals with the 
cloud, and a general uppermost air of inspiration and "unpre- 
meditated art" ; — these went far to commend him to persons 
who like living organisms to seem alive. 

Flavian's qualities were few, and happily adjusted. He 
was notably fresh and robust, simple and wholesome, with no 
least touch of the fantastic. He had " sweetness which cannot 
be weak, and force which will not be rough ". His stern- 
ness was pure Hebraic, of the best adamant, and exercised 
only against himself. What a selfish consideration might be, 
he never could have had the slightest occasion to discover at 
first hand. Full of engaging humility, he boggled not at all 
at displaying repentances and afterthoughts. In fact, his 
course through life was marked, as Hop-o'-my-thumb's by 
crumbs, by self-rectifications and little public penances, 
enough to make the most captious love him. But he was coy 
in the extreme of explanations. To match his flint and iron, 
he had a golden laughter, candid and delightful; and to his 
dying day, he kept up a rocket-like fun, with a distinct streak 
in it of adventure and soaring mischief, such as would have 
done credit to the most cherubic of choir-boys. His feeling, 
like his fun, was exquisite, and went to the quick. The one 
was defended, and the other fed, by a choice temperamental 
irony, perhaps Flavian's most essential characteristic. 


He had the sort of truthfulness which does not always go 
with a strong sense of humor: truthfulness not only concrete 
and open, but unrelenting, indescribably pervasive. In all he 
thought, said, or implied; did, or left undone; in his very 
mien, voice and handwriting, was truth up to the hilt. You 
were ever detecting in him a most blessed inability not only 
for taking, but even for crediting, the petty or provincial 
view of things. He was supremely tolerant, and could allow 
for almost any attitude of mind, except the born minimizer's. 
If he had a hobby, it was for largeness : for height, horizons, 
and freedom of survey. Detail worried him. He always con- 
founded attention to detail with fuss. It affected him like 
midges along a river-bank in September. Clearly, his part 
was — and well he knew it — that of a tireless orderly in the 
field, and not that of a strategic commander-in-chief in a tent, 
with charts spread before him, and pipes and conversation 
thrown in. Meanwhile, he lived out his passion for " Thor- 
ough ". A hater of sham, and a hero of work, he liked to see 
mastery and manfulness, and could face their results un- 
shaken. He endorsed de Tocqueville's arraignment of a 
society ailing with " Taffaiblissement moral . . . J'aime les 
passions quand elles sont bonnes, et je ne suis meme pas bien 
sur de les detester quand elles sont mauvaises. . . . Ce qu'on 
rencontre le moins de nos jours, ce sont des passions, vraies et 
solides passions qui enchainent et conduisent la vie. Nous ne 
savons plus ni vouloir, ni aimer, ni hair." It is remembered 
(how disedifying!) that Flavian thought better of a burglar 
for burgling well. 

He dearly loved letters and art, and was an illuminating 
critic of both. Musically, he was defective. It is much to be 
feared that, with Elia, he would not stake a farthing candle 
on Pergolesi, Gliick, or Handel, and that the devil with foot 
so cloven, for aught he cared might take Beethoven! More 
than letters or art, or anything else mundane, he loved open- 
air exercise, Socratic parley with country-folk, and " the sleep 
that is among the lonely hills ". All the fashionable world, 
all babies, and all dogs, he welcomed without pretence of pan- 
paternalism, but with a charming semi-benign astonishment. 
Clerical unction was an ornament of which he knew nothing. 
He was in no degree a professional philanthropist, though for 


any soul whatever which needed him, he carried his life in his 

He nursed one pet rage. It was a rage against the smug 
conscious goodness of good citizens. Any complacent stroking 
of the fur which might be called your own (i. e., whether 
personal or tribal), was sure to remind Flavian how the har- 
lots and the publicans shall go into the Kingdom of Heaven 
before you! In the pulpit, where he was wondered at and 
hugely admired, he expounded little, but provided echoes and 
flights of inspiration, crowding lovely vistas into the crevices 
of Saxon speech, and was unaffected there as elsewhere, dis- 
playing no shred of artifice or histrionics. Gesture, with him, 
was improvised, telling, frankly rectangular. Even his 
gentlest tones had a vibrancy all but unique. His concep- 
tions of religion were splendidly masculine and objective, and 
his ideals sufficiently exasperating, as it would appear, to a 
temporizing and backsliding generation. He thought moping 
a damaging heresy, and a bad odor. Ill would it have be- 
come an officer enlisted, and busy for life, in the Light Ar- 
tillery of the Catholic Church. 

Both shy and bold, he never could be a reciprocal talker. 
Words, to him, were symbols, not things. He had his own 
science of shorthand expression, and could not be tied down 
long enough to thresh out or expatiate. Controversy and dis- 
cussion were for others; these required a traveling around, 
and his was only a traveling up. It was his fashion to go 
flashing in colors across the metaphysical dark, like a Roman 
candle, spurting twice, thrice, and no more. One of his 
finest and most racial, most recognizably English traits, was 
that all which he said in the way of kindly human inter- 
course was heightened in value by all which he did not say. 
When he used the superlative, as he sometimes did, it could 
be perceived that it was of malice prepense and propter 
homines. For his natural style was built on under-statement 
and homespun epigram: everything short, and everything 
loaded. It was a genius intensely elliptical. As Mr. Lowell 
said so clairvoyantly of Keats : " He knew that what he had to 
do must be done quickly." Flavian communicated with his 
kind as if by a line of little super-intelligent aeolian harps 
hung in the roadside trees, rather than by afternoon calls and 


the parcels post. In any spiritually deforested district, he 
was bound to fall dumb indeed. Or (to recur to military 
metaphors, such as he was constantly provoking) one might 
state that Flavian preferred to conduct all his operations by 
signal code, and out-of-doors. If you were serving in his 
battalion, you got signals, and gave them. If you were not, 
why, you did not ! In the course of all the ages, could there 
possibly be a simpler and more satisfactory arrangement than 
that? As is the wont of poets and mystics, he went his way 
alone. None the less was he almost pathetically dependent 
for free play on the sympathy and furtherance of the few. 
He was a prince of courtesy. Gratitude, in him, could be elo- 
quent; officially, it was so. He could likewise, if you were 
worth it, set a fairy crown upon a personal gift by taking it 
lightly, imaginatively, without the oration and the brass band. 
Despite its too small stock of nervous strength, his nature had 
an inherent sunniness ; yet, he was as far as possible from the 
popular ideal of the ** genial " man. Profoundly social, and 
an incomparable friend, he was always silently proffering cor- 
roboration, faith, chivalry, most lavishly and loyally from the 
heart. But to have looked for a repetitive nod and grin as he 
passed upon the street was misguided. One does well, after 
all, to take the saints as they are : take them so, or leave them. 
A certain truancy is the condition of some earthly lives, and 
must be respected. "Whether in the body, I know not; or 
whether out of the body, I know not; God knoweth.*' 

It is a thankless task, then or now, to attempt to analyze 
Flavian. He defeated analysis because he was essentially 
fugitive, and not confined to one element. You could really 
grasp not much more of him than what had just ceased to 
be he: 

A moulted feather, an eagle's feather. 

It is inartistic to wish to run to earth the heart of any 
fellow-creature's mystery, even were one able to do so. Be- 
sides, the most sacred and gracious guesses refuse to be put 
on paper. In Flavian's case, if he went, for the most part, 
uncomprehended and scot-free, it was because his habit was so 
supernatural. He lived in the spirit; he had an almost un- 
canny knowledge of the things of the spirit. Like a lesser 


Philip Neri in this, he could read and construe the never- 
written. He had the art to interpret secret day-dreams, and 
to forestall by a word, disarm by a look, or supplement by a 
sign, another's thought. He was anything but diplomatic; he 
stood clear of fear or favor; he never dealt for one moment 
in wiles, subterfuges, and complexities; fancy at her drunken- 
est could not picture Flavian in an intrigue ! and therefore all 
this divination was sheer psychic power, and as miraculous in 
its way as the three R's acquired by St. Catherine of Siena. 
Certainly, it did not spring from chronic ordinary knowl- 
edge — a man of the world's knowledge — of human nature 
and motive, for in that he was eminently deficient. The phe- 
nomenon proved fairly startling, time after time, to those who 
heed such things. But he himself was quite unconscious of it. 
He was unconscious, too, of the diffidence which it bred in 
some men and women. They did not account it to him for 
brotherliness. That shining presence seemed to know so much 
of them that they feared to know more of him. Even so 
might the unwise treat the Recording Angel. 

One thing, however, we all knew, a very beautiful thing 
to know of any adult: that he was always growing. As has 
been said, he was young; as if to prove that, he kept on the 
move. Development and progress are the law of youth, how- 
ever long it lasts. " My youth is a fault, my Lord," said 
Jeremy Taylor in his charming gentleness, " which will mend 
every day." (The sentiment is more familiar yet to us, from 
the mouth of Pitt.) Those who were impatient with Flavian 
had no anticipative sense ; for to undo animadversions, he had 
only to live. His growth had all the dimensions ; it was not a 
mere length of line. That intense sensitiveness was meant to 
be rolled wide, beaten out, by process after process, like gold- 
leaf. You could never be quite as sorry as you would like to 
be, when Flavian had trouble of any sort to bear, because 
martyrdom was the very thing, and the only thing, to bring 
out his inner beauty. Of course he was considered, by the 
slave of convention, a budding anarchist. To the son of lux- 
ury, he was a ruthless stoic. To the shortsightedly practical, 
he was an enthusiast, an agitator, a mere visionary. Miscon- 
ception saddened him, indeed; but it never soured him, or, 
still less, deflected him. No misjudgment was ever committed 


by any trained psychologist, or by the poor, whose instinct 
for genuine sympathy is the most expert instinct in the world. 
These never found him abrupt, baffling, fugacious. Yet it 
was natural, nay, inevitable, to make so grave a critical error 
in relation to Flavian, while he had, as he had for long, a 
touch of incompletion, and remained partly inoperative. 

Anything elliptical, whether literary or sociological, is 
bound to be set down as obscure and freakish : which it need 
not be, and generally is not. The average mind is extremely 
loath not only to establish, but to perceive connexions. Many 
of us are acquainted with a perte de Rhone: with some 
stream which fills its channel, then drops suddenly under- 
ground, and, miles seaward, reappears on the surface, rush- 
ing over sands and between rocky banks; a most fascinating 
traveler to track and question, and none the less so because it 
has not been continuously on exhibition. It will be called 
three streams by the uninitiated. To " look before and after ", 
to look on the level and under, is the only working rule with 
it, and with persons like Flavian. There is nothing like 
knowing your full context. Otherwise, confusion and mis- 
reckoning untold, and lunacy settling down on your whole 
topography. The covenanted need of his rich nature was a 
freer play of its own powers. They asked not indeed for ac- 
cretion, but for expression, for ductility, suppleness, wider 
responsiveness, and intimate and intricate applications. Like 
all broad, all wholly disinterested characters, Flavian came 
across those whom he puzzled or infuriated. They could 
neither fit him into their reckonings, nor even agree as to his 
genus. To one, he was, let us say, seven pounds of sand ; and 
to another, seven o'clock! He was like some delicate sound 
racer, who, for all his sagacity and affectionateness, is a little 
hard in the mouth. Temperaments of this sort, strongly ab- 
stract and abstinent, are hidden springs; those who know 
what change, sorrow, will, philosophy, and the grace of God 
can do with such, await the sure gushing-forth of the clear 
stream. Meanwhile, occur certain damna rerum, more notice- 
able in a pastoral vocation than elsewhere. All the efficiency, 
pluck, control, gusto, and aspiration which can be mutely 
packed into the heart of a man go for little until they under- 
stand and speak the dialect of city streets, where efficiency, 


pluck, control, gusto, and aspiration also exist, turned to evil 
uses. And so it was a bracing spectacle of late to see our 
Flavian humanizing as fast as ever he knew how. Keeping 
all his worth intact, he was ceasing to be a non-conductor, 
and getting into touch with all that lay about him in the dim 
world of men. He was learning victoriously the whole art of 
dedicated fatherliness, and of " suffering fools gladly ", and 
of giving forth without stint the flowing waters of considera- 
tion and compassion which had sometimes seemed rockbound 
within him. He was growing up on the heroic scale, and quite 
as he had always lived, resolutely, brilliantly, and with joy. 

Flavian's most touching circumstance was that he might 
have been, and happily was not, a stray long-legged genius, 
writing idiosyncratic verses in ivied bowers. In no ordinary 
degree, his priesthood was his triumph; it was a wonderful 
piece of good fortune for him, humanly speaking, that he 
had chosen the sanctuary. As became the manliest of men, 
he had a horror of rust. It was granted to him to be broken 
while still clean and bright. They must have seen to it, above, 
that he was offered not halo and harp (awkward properties 
for him!) but stout black armor and a new sword. In the 
camp of his final happiness, soldierly comrades, familiar to our 
oldest legendry, must have claimed him : Michael, surely ; 
and Gideon; and the sacred Maccabees; Sebastian; George 
and Alban, long-loved in one isle; Martin too, not mitred 
now, but re-helmeted; Joan the Maid, with her white ori- 
flamme; and his own smiling sire, the great spirit wounded 
at Pampeluna. All these, ranged like stars about the King 
of Martyrs and Lord of Hosts, were prompt, we know, to 
answer that humble and cheerful countersign of Alleluia! 
shouted, last April, from the scaled battlements of eternity. 


THERE are few better known or more kindly remembered 
names in the history of the Anglo- Irish literature of the 
nineteenth century than that of ** Father Prout ", though it 
was only a pseudonym. Just as Gerald Griffin's Collegians 
— that unsurpassed and unsurpassable of Irish novels — has im- 


mortalized Garryowen, so the Reliques of Father Prout, by 
the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony, has made famous for- 
ever Watergrasshill, the " barren upland " near Cork which 
acquired its name through its watercresses, but is still more 
widely known on account of the fictitious fame with which the 
sportive fancy of the witty priest has environed the memory 
of its " lone incumbent ". The real Father Andrew Prout, 
P.P., " in wit a man, in simplicity a child ", to whom Frank 
Mahony ascribed the authorship of his own learned lucubra- 
tions, was not at all a scholarly divine, but a good, kindly, 
unpretentious country priest. The cream of the joke which 
made the readers of Fraser's Magazine laugh so heartily in 
the thirties of the last century, was in this comical associa- 
tion of rural simplicity with erudition and wide knowledge 
of the world and of books. It made them relish the fun of 
crediting the parish priest of Watergrasshill with engrafting 
on English literature the choicest productions of Gallic cul- 
ture; with a familiarity only to be found among the lettered, 
with the polished poetry of Horace and the modern songs of 
Italy; with an elaborate defence of the Jesuits at a time when 
the purchased pens of Sue and other hired libelers of the 
Order were busily employed in aspersing the sons of Loyola; 
and with a clever and amusing polyglot version of Millikin's 
'* Groves of Blarney " — which he describes as a rare combin- 
ation of the Teian lyre and the Tipperary bagpipe, of the 
Ionian dialect blending harmoniously with the Cork brogue; 
an Irish potato seasoned with Attic salt, the humors of Donny- 
brook wed to the glories of Marathon. 

Very scanty materials are accessible for a complete biog- 
raphy of Father Mahony, though his memoirs, had he kept 
a diary and written them therefrom at length, would be a very 
interesting contribution to the literary history of the first half 
of the nineteenth century. He has given us some glimpses of 
himself and his erratic career in the Prout Papers; but as that 
entertaining book is so much of an olla podrida, is tinged with 
so much imaginative coloring, is so much more a product of 
fancy than a record of facts, that which seems to be auto- 
biographical therein has to be taken cum grano salts. A 
member of a well-known Cork family, to whose successful 
enterprise Ireland is indebted for one of its most prosperous 



manufacturing industries— the Blarney Woolen Mills — he was 
born 31 December (feast of St. Sylvester), 1804, in Blackpool, 
the northern suburb of the city once noted for its tanneries 
and distilleries, described by a local poet, Thomas Condon, 
as "tanned-brown-faced Blackpool". The house in which 
he was born is not far from where another distinguished 
Corkman, James Barry, the friend of Dr. Johnson and protege 
of Edmund Burke, first saw the light. If not within sight, it 
is certainly within hearing of those bells of Shandon 

Whose sounds so wild would 
In the days of childhood, 
Fling round his cradle 
Their magic spells. 

On 23 February, 181 5, he entered the Jesuit College of Clon- 
gowes Wood, near the village of Clare, County Kildare, of 
which he says, " Even the sacred ' Groves of Blarney ' do not 
so well deserve the honors of a pilgrimage as this haunt of 
classic leisure and studious retirement." There he studied 
for four years — ^years which left a lasting and indelible im- 
pression upon his mind; for he never forgot what he intellec- 
tually owed to his Jesuit teachers. The Jesuits not only ex- 
cel as teachers or educationists, but seem to have a special 
aptitude for impressing themselves and their particular views 
upon the plastic minds of their pupils, who long retain the 
impress of the mould in which their minds have been formed. 

The Society was his ecclesiastical first love, and, yielding 
to the attraction, he returned to Clongowes in 1825 as a Jesuit 
novice. The attraction of the religious life, however, was su- 
perficial and transient. After trying his " vocation " in Ire- 
land and France, his Jesuit superiors, who understood him 
better than he understood himself, decided against his suit- 
ability to the clerical state, a decision which subsequent events 
unfortunately proved correct. Nevertheless he persisted in 
returning to Acheul and afterward to Rome for further trial. 
After attending the Jesuit College at Freiburg for a time and 
after a few months' hesitation as to the course he ought in 
prudence to pursue, he proceeded once more to Rome. At 
this time he continued with exemplary regularity to attend 
theological lectures for two years. The Jesuits still held to 
their opinion ; but, as Father Mahony frankly acknowledged to 


Monsignor Rogerson (who later had the privilege and happi- 
ness of reconciling him to the Church and administering to 
him the last Sacraments), he "was determined to enter the 
Church ", that is, the ministry, " in spite of Jesuit opinion ". 
Dimissory letters to that end were obtained from the Most 
Rev. Dr. Murphy, Bishop of Cork, and he was ordained at 
Lucca in 1832. 

Mr. Charles Kent, who has compiled a biography of him, 
rejects as erroneous the statement that he served on the mis- 
sion in Cork City. But the late Mr. John Windele, the well 
known Irish antiquary, who must have known him well, says 
in his Historical and Descriptive Notices of Cork (1849) 
that he officiated there " for many years and subsequently in 
London ", and that he had then (at the date of writing) re- 
<:eived a clerical appointment in Malta " within the reach of 
scenes congenial to his tastes, which are eminently classical ". 
Mr. Kent avers " as a simple matter of fact " that " he never 
returned to Cork after the date of his ordination ". But this 
is not correct ; he did return and officiate for a time as chaplain 
in his native city. A story is told of his departure from 
Cork, of which it may be said, " si non e vero, e bene trovato ". 
It is related that before the Church of St. Patrick was built, 
but whilst it was in contemplation, he located what he thought 
would be a suitable site, and, without any authorization from 
the Bishop, purchased it from the owner, a Quaker, with that 
object in view. Dr. Murphy was not a prelate who would 
tolerate any irregular proceeding or allow anyone to forestall 
his decision or take the reins out of his hands. He declined 
to ratify it. When the purchaser went to announce this to the 
Quaker, the latter replied: 'That is thy affair, friend Mahony ; 
thou hast bought it and thou must stand by thy bargain." 
Mahony was in a quandary, but his ready wit got him out of 
it. The Quaker had a terrace of houses overlooking the site. 
Mahony had a board put up with the announcement, " This 
site to be let for a cemetery''. The Quaker, fearing that 
he would lose his tenants by such a transformation of the 
plot of ground, soon released Father Mahony from his pre- 
mature purchase. 

When in London he more than once preached in the old 
embassy chapel in Spanish Place. The father of the present 


writer, who was intimate with him, met him about this time in 
London, when the Padre gave him to understand that he was 
then officiating at St. Patrick's, Soho. He is also said to 
have assisted in his parochial work the well-known Dr. Magee, 
facetiously dubbed by O'Connell " the Abbot of Westminster ". 
One at least of the reasons that led to his relinquishment 
of sacerdotal functions was that he soon realized that the 
Jesuits were right and that he was wrong. " Fools rush in 
where angels fear to tread." But though Mahony was no 
fool, he was, it must be admitted, rash and self-willed, as 
he frankly confessed. Still, he never lost his reverence for the 
priesthood per se^ however freely he may have spoken or 
written of men of his cloth. A scoffer at Christianity or a 
depreciator of Catholicism he abhorred, and he always re- 
sented any slight put upon him in his priestly character. His 
book affords evidence of his lingering leaning toward the 
Jesuits, notwithstanding their adverse judgment. Indeed, his 
very voluntary retirement from the sanctuary and abandon- 
ment of the clerical garb and clerical functions have been at- 
tributed, at least in part, to his innate reverence for the sacred 
office for which, too late, he realized that he had no vocation 
in the strict sense of the word. He loved to read his breviary,, 
which to the last remained his constant companion, and he as- 
sumed a semi-ecclesiastic costume. He never lost the faith 
and was never ecclesiastically censured. The Tablet, having 
once referred to him as ** a suspended priest ", was summarily 
challenged by him to prove its assertion in a court of law,. 
Mahony laying his damages at $10,000; with the result 
that an apology was instantly offered, and the charge uncondi- 
tionally withdrawn. Nothing has transpired which leaves any 
stain upon his moral character. 

Dropping gradually out of association with ecclesiastics, he 
found congenial companions among the editors and contribu- 
tors to magazines and the leading newspapers — Thackeray, 
Dickens, his brilliant fellow-countryman and fellow citizen 
Maginn, and others of that school who used to foregather in 
Eraser's bookshop in Regent Street, then one of the resorts of 
London literati, and situate not far from the Chapel of the 
Bavarian Legation in Warwick Street, where he had officiated 
for a short time. He soon ranked among the best and bright- 


est wits of the epoch and devoted himself wholly to a literary 
life. He became the decus et tutamen of Eraser's Magazine 
in which the Reliques — collected and published in book form 
in 1836, and of which an enlarged edition was issued in i860 
— first appeared. Archbishop McHale, the distinguished 
Irish churchman — the " John of Tuam " whom Daniel O'Con- 
nell was wont to call '' the lion of the fold of Judah " — once 
rebuked a person whom he overheard reprehending Mahony. 
The Archbishop observed that, after all, the Irishman who 
wrote the Prout Papers was an honor to his country. Not 
much read nowadays, the book was the talk of the town at a 
time when the grandfathers of the present generation were 
young men. It contains a curious mixture of fun and frivol- 
ity, of sense and nonsense, of wit and wisdom, of literary 
culture and keen criticism — gems of humor and gems of 
scholarship scattered in sparkling profusion over pages seem- 
ingly written, as it were, on the spur of the moment. The 
writer's acquaintance with classic authors is rather pedanti- 
cally paraded, but this may be pardoned for the admirable 
rendering of some of Horace's neatly turned odes. He was an 
ideal translator. He is at his best in his free translations 
of the Songs of France^ particularly Beranger's, which are 
very spirited. The Italian phrase, ** traduttore traditore ", 
cannot be applied to him, nor can he be charged with what he 
calls the clumsy servility of adhering to the letter whilst allow- 
ing the spirit to evaporate. He never fails to interpret 
faithfully the spirit and sense of the original, which is some- 
times most felicitously conveyed; in fact he occasionally sur- 
passes the original. He is equally skillful in his renderings of 
the Songs of Italy] whether he is coining the pure gold of 
Dante's matchless verse into the current coin of English un- 
defiled by colloquial vulgarisms, or the limpid lines of 
Petrarch, Tolomei, Filicia, or other sweet songsters of the 

The quaint conceit of the alleged plagiarisms of Moore, 
the originals of some of whose " Irish Melodies " he pretends 
to have discovered in French, Greek, Latin, or other authors, 
of course deceived no one, but served to show his wonderful 
versatility as a linguist. For this he makes amends to Moore 
by incidentally observing that the same melodies made Cath- 


oHc Emancipation palatable to the generous and thinking por- 
tion of the English people and won the cause silently, imper- 
ceptibly, and effectively. 

Passing from gay to grave, he pays a debt of gratitude he 
owed to the educators of his youth, the Irish Jesuits, en- 
thusiastically extolling the large share which the intellectual 
and highly-disciplined followers of the soldier-saint of Pam- 
peluna had in the making of modern literature, and quoting 
a long array of distinguished names in support of his thesis. 
" There is not," he declares, " a more instructive and interest- 
ing subject of inquiry in the history of the human mind than 
the origin, progress, and workings of what are called monastic 
institutions. It is a matter on which I have bestowed not a 
little thought, and I may one day plunge into the depths 
thereof in a special dissertation." That day never came, and 
Mahony, to use his own words, suffered his wit and wisdom to 
evaporate " in magazine squibs and desultory explosions ". It 
will always be a matter of regret that he did not concentrate 
his fine talents and extensive erudition on some sustained work 
that would take a higher and more enduring place in literature 
than the Reliques. 

Besides his writings for Fraser'Sy he contributed to Bentley's 
Magazine from 1837. The reprinted edition of The Bentley 
Ballads is prefaced by a biographical sketch of Father Mahony 
by his fellow countryman Mr. Sheehan, a London journalist. 
At the request of Charles Dickens, the first editor of the Daily 
NewSy he acted as Rome correspondent of that journal. At 
that time (1843) D^"- Grant, the saintly Bishop of Southwark, 
drew him in his own sweet way, as Mgr. Rogerson expresses 
it, once more within the sanctuary, when for the last time he 
stood vested before the altar. An affectionate mutual greet- 
ing took place many years subsequently between the prelate 
and the priest when they accidentally met in Paris. His let- 
ters to the Daily News were republished in book form under 
the title of Facts and Figures from Italy ^ by Dom Jeremy 
Savonarola, Benedictine Monk. Years afterward his Italian 
version of Millikin's " Groves of Blarney " was sung by Gari- 
baldian soldiers, awakening echoes in the groves on the shores 
of the Lake of Como. Journalism, during his later years, ab- 
sorbed all his time and attention. The last twelve or fifteen 


years of his life were spent as Paris correspondent of the 
GlobCy a post he filled up to within a fortnight of his death. 

He was a very traveled man and had roamed over Egypt, 
Greece, Hungary, and Asia Minor. His life was, indeed, 
erratic in that sense. " I have been a sojourner in many 
lands," he says. " I early landed on the shores of Continen- 
tal Europe and spent my best and freshest years in visiting 
her cities, her collegiate halls, her historic ruins, her battle- 
fields. But I have paused longest at Rome. I aspired to the 
Christian priesthood in that city, which the Code of Justinian, 
in the absence of mere Scriptural warrant, calls the fountain 
of sacerdotal honor, fons sacerdotii" • 

It was at Rome took place the accidental imaginary meet- 
ing between " the lone incumbent of Watergrasshill " and 
James Barry, the painter of the Adelphi cartoons, both Cork- 
men. Standing in the Piazza del Popolo, musing on many 
things, Prout had just alighted from the clumsy vehicle of his 
Florentine vetturino. Barry's wonderment at discovering his 
quondam acquaintance in a semi- ecclesiastical garb was not 
the least amusing feature in the group presented under the 
pedestal of Aurelian's obelisk, which flung its lengthy shadow 
across the spacious piazza as the glorious Italian sun still 
lingered on the verge of the horizon. After an adjournment 
to the Osteria della Sybilla, where they drank from sparkling 
Orvieto to the health of Edmund Burke, they parted at a late 
hour. " Barry," relates Prout, " had but to cross the street to 
his modest stanzina in the Vicolo del Greco; I tarried for the 
night in the cave of * the sybil ', and dreamt over many a 
frolic of bygone days, over many a deed of Roman heroism; 
commingling the recollections of Tim Delaney with those of 
Michael Angelo, and alternately perambulating in spirit the 
Via Sacra and Blarney Lane." 

He was a familiar figure to the cultured Parisians of his 
day. Blanchard Jerrold describes him trudging along the 
Boulevards with his arms clasped behind him, his nose in the 
air, his hat worn as French caricaturists insist all Englishmen 
wear hat or cap ; his quick, clear, deep-seeking eye wandering 
sharply to the right or left, and sarcasm — not of the sourest 
kind — playing like Jack-o'lantern in the corners 'of his mouth. 
Apart from his threadbare black garb and shambling gait. 


there were personal traits of character about him which caught 
the attention almost at a glance, and piqued the curiosity of 
even the least observant wayfarer. The '' roguish Hibernian 
mouth," noted by Mr. Gruneisen, and the grey piercing eyes, 
that looked up at you so keenly over his spectacles, won your 
interest in him, even upon a first introduction. From the 
mocking lip soon afterward — if you fell into conversation with 
him — came the loud, snappish laugh with which, as Mr. 
Blanchard remarks, the Father so frequently evidenced his ap- 
preciation of a casual witticism — uproarious fits of merriment 
signalizing at other moments one of his own ironical successes; 
outbursts of fun, followed during his later years by the rack- 
ing cough with which he was then tormented. His '' pipes ", 
as he called his bronchial tubes, he mistakenly regarded as 
the only weak point in his constitution, his physical strength 
having been mainly undermined by diabetes. That disease, 
in the midst of a complication of maladies and infirmities, first 
showed its effect in the excessive depression it superinduced 
in his naturally hilarious temperament. 

His life in his closing years was that of a recluse. About 
six weeks before his demise, his illness assumed an unmistak- 
ably menacing character. He did then what he had done 
three years previously when attacked by severe indisposition 
— he sent round to St. Roch, his parish church, for the Abbe 
Rogerson. Thenceforth, day after day, the latter was sedu- 
lously in attendance upon him. The spiritual adviser of the 
lonely wit became his friend, his guide, his consoler. He 
fotind him at times testy and irascible. For instance, on one 
occasion when the Abbe made his appearance at his door, 
which generally stood open, Mahony called out with some as- 
perity: "I'm busy." "All right," was the reply, "and not 
rery civil to-day." That same evening the confessor received 
a penciled note on the back of Mahony's card: " If you will 
poke up a bear in his hours of digestion, you must expect him 
to growl," On another occasion, when the confessor sug- 
gested to his penitent a visit to the famous church of Notre 
Dame des Victoires, as it was the centre of the Archcon- 
fraternity for the Conversion of Sinners as well as a place of 
pilgrimage to which people of all classes, including the Em- 
press Eugenie, repaired to seek and to find solace in anguish, 


Mahony, after listening silently and sullenly, broke out: 
" Don't talk to me of localizing devotion. God is to be met 
with in all places. The canopy of heaven is the roof of His 
temple; its walls are not our horizon." " Excuse me," calmly 
replied Mgr. Rogerson, " I am speaking to you under the im- 
pression that you are a Catholic wishful to resume his duty. 
Byron has given us his rhapsodies in some such fashion as this. 
Pray let me speak as a priest and a believer. If you find me 
limited and illiberal, seek some one else." Mgr. Rogerson 
says he deemed it advisable at once to claim his position un- 
hesitatingly. He did so effectually. Mahony never again 
displayed any impatience of control or pride of intellect, but 
became docile and tractable. His confessor had been prepared 
for these characteristic sallies by overhearing the remark of an 
Irish dignitary who, when conversing with another bishop on 
the subject of Father Prout, said, " I should fear him even 
dying ". The reply of the prelate addressed was : " I should 
covet no greater grace than to see poor Frank prepared to die 
well." When listening to those words the Abbe Rogerson little 
expected, he says, that his were to be the privilege and the re- 
sponsibility. It came to pass on the evening of Friday, i8 May, 
1866, at Father Mahony 's apartment in the entresol of 19 Rue 
des Moulins, under circumstances of great consolation both 
to confessor and penitent. In a note dated " 6 o'clock even- 
ing " he wrote as follows, with reference to his intended gen- 
eral confession : *' Dear and Reverend Friend — I am utterly 
unfit to accomplish the desired object this evening, having 
felt a giddiness of head all the afternoon, and am now com- 
pelled to seek sleep. It is my dearest wish to make a begin- 
ning of this merciful work, but complete prostration of mind 
renders it unattainable just now. I will call in the morning 
and arrange for seeing you. Do pray for your penitent, 
F. Mahony." 

His remorseful sense of having obtruded himself into the 
ministry was embodied by him in a document which Mgr. 
Rogerson presented on his behalf to Rome, when first he 
sought his aid toward reconciling him to the Church. This 
was in 1865 when, through the intermediary of the Arch- 
bishop of Paris, permission was obtained for him " to retire 
for ever," as he expressed it, " from the sanctuary ", and to 


resort to lay communion. Simultaneously he received a dis- 
pensation enabling him, in consideration of his failing eye- 
sight and advancing age, to substitute the rosary or the peni- 
tential psalms for the Breviary Office. The petition was 
drawn up by himself, its completeness and Latinity exciting 
the surprise of the Roman ecclesiastical advocate charged with 
its presentation. Commenting upon this document, Mgr. 
Rogerson remarks that while Mahony's published specimens 
of classical and canine Latin are no doubt the wonder and 
amusement of scholars, his taking up his pen after years of 
disuse and in a couple of hours throwing off an ecclesiastical 
paper full of technical details and phraseology was, to say 
the least of it, very remarkable. Three years before the end 
came, the Abbe had the happiness of restoring his penitent 
to practical life in the Church, though, greatly to the con- 
fessor's regret, only in the degree of lay communion. 

At the beginning of May, 1866, his state being very criti- 
cal, the last Sacraments were administered to him by Mgr. 
Rogerson. That he was well prepared is evidenced by the 
following words in which the Abbe describes how he was 
received by Father Mahony on the last occasion on which he 
found him seated in his armchair, before he took to his bed : 
" Thanking me for my patient and persevering attention to 
him during his sickness, he asked pardon of me and of the 
whole world for offences committed against God and to the 
prejudice of his neighbor; and then, sinking down in front of 
me, with his face buried in his two hands and resting them on 
my knees, he received from me with convulsive sobs the words 
of absolution. His genial Irish heart was full to overflowing 
with gratitude to God, as a fountain released at this moment ; 
and the sunshine of his early goodness had dispelled the dark- 
ness of his after-life, and he was as a child wearied and worn 
out after a day's wanderings, when it had been lost and was 
found, when it had hungered and was fed again. I raised 
him up, took him in my arms, and laid him on his bed as I 
would have treated such a little wanderer of a child ; and left 
him without leave-taking on his part, for his heart was too 
full for words." He never rose from that bed again. He 
would see no one but his confessor. At the Abbe Rogerson's 
suggestion, however, he consented to see his former fellow- 


novice of old days, Pere Lefevre, his parting with whom is 
described as wonderfully touching. Two days afterward he 
received Extreme Unction at the hands of the Abbe Rogerson, 
assisted by the Abbe Chartrain. From that moment no arti- 
culate syllable passed his lips, and at about half-past nine 
o'clock at night on Friday, i8 May, 1866, he tranquilly ex- 
pired in the presence of his sister, Mrs. Woodlock, and his 

His remains were taken to Cork, and the obsequies, presided 
over by Bishop Delany and attended by about twenty priests, 
were celebrated in St. Patrick's Church, whence the funeral 
proceeded to the family burialplace in Upper Shandon grave- 
yard, where reposes the priest-poet who sang so sweetly of the 
bells of Shandon. The first lines of the melodious metre in 
which he proclaimed their musical merits are still to be seen 
traced by his own hand on the wall of the room he once occu- 
pied in the Irish College at Rome. He rests beneath the 
steeple from which still, ever and anon, peal forth those same 
bells which once made melody in the sleeper's ears, a memory, 
to his thinking, surpassing that of the bell of Moscow, the 
thunderous tones from '' old Adrian's mole ", or those which 

the dome of Peter 

Flings o'er the Tiber, pealing solemnly! 

R. F. O'Connor. 
Cork. Ireland. 

Practical Hints to Sinaitic Tourists. 

TWO years or so past, I made up my mind to top a course 
of intensive preliminary studies with a vernal pilgrimage 
to the foremost among the international maritime health and 
quarantine stations of Egypt and Soudan. My plan duly ma- 
tured in the spring of 191 1. 

The largest and most important of those stations is Tor, on 
the Sinaitic Peninsula, along the edge of the Desert El-Ka. 
The busy season at this post coincides with the annual return 
of pilgrims from Mecca; for the station can accommodate from 


20,000 to 25,000 pilgrims, and aims to check the unwary 
smuggling of pestilence, cholera, dysentery, into Egypt. 

To get away from Tor is even a far more circumstantial 
process than to land there, seeing that only once in a fortnight 
does a steamer of the Khedivial Mail come to anchor about a 
marine mile off shore, after touching at the charming Arabian 
resorts of Djedda and Jambo, where the bubonic plague en- 
joys freedom of the town. The traveler thus chancing must 
serve his two days of quarantine detention when he reaches 
Suez. But I took account of this knowledge in mapping out 
my route, and accordingly resolved to journey overland from 
Tor to Suez, with opportunity of visiting by the way the ven- 
erable Convent of Saint Catharine, at the foot of the Djebel 

The like itinerary called for some perusal of works on 
Mount Sinai, besides a digression into the domain of Old Tes- 
tament exegesis. But neither with these matters nor with 
quarantine data shall I trouble the reader: my sole object is 
to offer a few practical suggestions to future Sinaitic tourists, 
by the aid of my own marginal notes, as it were, while the 
trip is in progress. They may then perceive just how to 
initiate and compass a trip of the same kind : the very sort of 
information which is withheld by the bibliography of the 

In this connexion my thoughts gratefully recur to that 
amiable, helpful and experienced Sinai traveler. Dr. Franz 
Fellinger of Linz, who exerted himself in every way toward 
inducting me a little beyond Aleph or Alpha in Old Testament 

Neither are very many tourists likely to share the good for- 
tune of traveling, as was my lot, under the highly influential 
protection of the President of the International Board in 
Alexandria, Dr. M. Armand Ruffer. 

A tour of the desert on any considerable scale, presupposes, 
besides physical health, a degree of self-denial, strength of 
will, and also trust in God ; for no human aid is to be expected 
in the event of sickness or accidents. 

Quite apart from the strictly scientific preparation, it is 
worth while to read a few topical books of travel. An ex- 
cellent book of this class is Szczepanski's Nach Petra zum 


Sinai.^ Suitable for the actual tour will be Baedecker's Pales- 
tine and Syria, which contains both detailed itineraries and 
a number of good maps; whilst Pere Barnabe Meistermann's 
Guide du Nil au Jourdain par le Sinai et Petra^ is an. alto- 
gether superior work, reinforced with copious illustrations 
and maps, and showing an exceedingly exact report of dis- 
tances. The author, then stationed in the Franciscans' Casa 
Nuova in Jerusalem, is rumored to be preparing a German 
issue of his volume. 

The best season for travel begins midway in March and 
closes about the last of May. Before that the weather is too 
cold, with chances of rain or snow; later, too hot. By the 
middle of March a fresh north wind is intermittent and serves 
to keep down the already pretty high maximum of daily tem- 
perature within a fair average. But even in the advanced 
season the nights are apt to prove decidedly sharp and cold, 
off and on. 

In view of the great fluctuations of temperature, and seeing 
that the route lies partly over high altitudes, woolen under- 
clothing is indispensable in every article; and preferably 
Jager's autumn weight. For outer garb a light tourist suit 
made of stout English wool answers fairly; and the shoes, 
for protection against snakes, ought to be of a very substantial 
type: yellow, laced boots, for instance, with soft leather 
gaiters. A long autumn-weight ulster is desirable for halts 
and stops over night. For headgear I selected a soft, wide- 
brimmed gray felt hat, capped by a second story, so to speak,, 
and supplemented by a neck band. Hats of this pattern may 
be purchased in Cairo and are preferable to the tropical hel- 
mets; as being flexible, and better non-conductors of heat. 
Then, too, they can be worn on the journey homeward. Hats 
of similar fashion, but with single crown, and of thicker, 
drugget material, are worn by the German Colonial troops. 
The glaring Oriental heat is very liable to impart sunstroke, 
unless the head be well protected. Let the double hat be 
constantly worn while the heat is intense; whereas the upper 
hat can be removed in the shade. 

1 By Way of Petra to Sinai, Innsbruck, 1908. 

2 Guide from the Nile to Jordan by way of Sinai and Petra. Paris, 1909^ 


Like many other travelers, I was locally advised to journey 
in Bedouin garb, which counsel I rationally declined. The 
fact is, Europeans take far more advantageously in their 
" Prankish " habit. Disguise affords no defence against at- 
tacks, for the keen glance of the " child of the desert " sees 
through such masquerading a long way off. But anyhow, the 
tourist may as well buy one of those Bedouin cloaks, an ah aye, 
in the Bazaar at Cairo, for protection against rain and cold 
at night, as also to serve as a cushion with the camel saddle. 

A sleeping bag is in order at night. My own came from 
the Cologne firm of Ferdinand Jacob — Wagener style, water- 
proof, padded, equipped with four air bolsters; in short, the 
article suited me perfectly. But the air bolsters are wont to 
play the trick (in spite of tight screwing) of losing buoyancy 
just where one might most desire it. At first I would get 
awake soon after falling asleep, to perceive that my sedentary 
portion, bruised as it was the livelong day, rested very hard; 
whereas, right and left thereof, was an irrelevant luxury of 
elastic air cushions. Ultimately, even a stony bed ministers 
to sound sleep. I may personally recommend the much 
cheaper sleeping bag of grade I, with air pillows for the 
head, plus a small bolster filled with wool, and therefore 
useful for a saddle mat by day; considering the transit by 
camel, no difficult feat of guessing is required to resolve the 
bolster's use at night. 

Whilst a tent enhances one's feeling of security and is posi- 
tively necessary in the cooler season, it is not an easy matter 
to manage the loan of a tent, or if managed at all, the cost 
is generally high. Whoever plans a prolonged tour had bet- 
ter buy a tent of medium size at home; and where conveni- 
ence is a minor factor, an Austrian army tent will meet the 
purpose, being easily put up and of compact volume when 
folded. Thanks to the Governing Board, I secured a large 
English army tent, over twelve feet in diameter, and a small 
tent for my servant, a so-called cooking tent. The Bedouins 
are wonderfully handy in setting up tents ; first clearing every 
stone away and rearing a wall of sand between the floor and 
wall of the tent, lest some reptile or other creeping intruder 
slip in by night. In the desert a tent averts two disagreeable 
ailments, rheumatism and toothache. For although one sees 


to revision and repairs of his teeth before the trip, all this is no 
downright warrant against the toothache; and still stranger to 
relate, that very tooth which seemed least capable of treachery, 
will be sure to ache first. 

Hardly had I gone ashore at Alexandria when the dele- 
gated official who had been sent to meet me on board the Lloyd 
steamer, advised me to buy a defensive weapon, either a long- 
barreled pistol, or a large revolver, for the Sinai tour. This, 
too, I declined, because the Sinaitic Bedouins are pretty good 
people, save when irritated ; and furthermore, they know right 
well that the strong hand of England bears rule in Egypt. 
When Palmer, in his day, was murdered within two days' 
march from Suez, along with two English officers, England 
made short work of the trial, and fifteen Bedouins were hanged 
in consequence. (The Bedouins give it out that Palmer had 
voluntarily dashed himself over a precipice when confronted 
with threats, but this tale seems hardly credible.) Our way 
of elaborate antecedent investigations is not practicable in the 
East; where the murderers are not discoverable, the simple 
alternative is to noose the brother, brother-in-law, Mr. Uncle, 
or any other convenient member of the tribe, his retinue to 
boot. No Bedouin is nowadays so unsophisticated as to mur- 
der a European on Sinai, except perhaps in the passion of 
strife. Accordingly, firearms may be left quietly at home, 
since in the desert this side the mountain range of Et-Tih 
life and property are far safer than in the capitals of Europe. 

Strange to say, there are not a few Europeans in Egypt, 
persons of education among them, who seek to scare tourists 
from visiting the Sinai Peninsula, by dint of holding before 
them all conceivable dangers, especially the risk of being 
murdered. Not to mention warnings of that sort, I had also 
to listen in Cairo to a highly cultured gentleman's account of 
the " swarms " of scorpions and venomous snakes to be en- 
countered. To this I calmly responded that there might be 
possibly a slight misunderstanding between us, — in fine, that 
I was not a paleographer. These croakers are of two cate- 
gories : either those who never visited the Sinai Peninsula at 
all, or those who know the country very accurately, especially 
the Convent of St. Catharine and its wo rid- renowned library, 
so that for this very reason they are fain to keep other visitors 


at a distance. Perhaps a third group should still be adduced, 
the agents of certain tourist bureaus. In their case the aim 
is to paint the dangers so black that the traveler will get 
it into his head that he must by all means have an official 
dragon-slayer, to wit, a dragoman. I would give sober warn- 
ing against these people, who tenfold increase the costs of 
travel ; often they are ignorant of the way itself ; whilst every 
trifle sets them to quarreling with the Bedouins, whom they 
render quite headstrong, to the tourist's aggravated discom- 
fort. It is well, then, to listen tranquilly to the multitude of 
croakings and trust only in God and oneself. He who suffers 
himself to be scared away by such process is unworthy to 
share the glory of beholding Sinai. But Sinai merits a 
measure of sacrifice, together with a little personal courage 
and strength of will as travel companions. 

Provisioning for the journey can best be managed in Cairo, 
where the latitude of selection is greater; although nowadays 
there are also large food stores in Suez. A very responsible 
warehouse in Cairo is that of the firm of Jules and Henri 
Fleurent. English canned goods are of the best quality and 
not expensive. Before actual purchase it is well to determine 
how long the trip is to last and what is the size of the daily 
requisition, because all the warehouses naturally strive to sell 
the tourist a maximum bill of supplies. But in any event it 
will be wise to procure something of a surplus to meet all con- 
tingencies, for instance, a ration to cover two days beyond the 
contemplated length of the trip. Moreover, make sure that 
the Beldouins always modestly recede at the camping place, 
without thought of sharing in the victuals. On the other 
hand, if one gives them portion now and then (but not every 
day), let it be some tea, coffee or macaroni; then they will 
thank you in so friendly a style as is not elsewhere ex- 
perienced in the East. Never offer them pork, which they, 
being Mohammedans, abominate; nor hand them any spiritu- 
ous drinks: for the cultivated European must esteem it an 
affair of conscience to keep the children of nature at a safe 
distance from poisons. 

For my part, I was talked into gauging my supplies too 
liberally, so that for the profit and weal of others, I will com- 
municate my bill of fare. In the morning before marching. 


a bowl of warm tea without sugar, and some biscuits. For 
daily use I kept an aluminum flask, cased in felt; and at even- 
ing this was filled with unsweetened weak tea, the best 
quencher of thirst. Such flasks keep the contained beverage 
properly cool, especially if the felt be moistened. I would 
caution people against the so-called thermos or insulated 
flasks, inasmuch as during the unavoidable jolts which ac- 
company the lading and unlading of the camel, they are 
liable to grow brittle, so as easily to burst when hot tea is 
poured in. And though the flask stay intact, there still re- 
mains the disadvantage that the contents take all of twenty- 
four hours to cool off. But a hot drink in the scorching heat 
of the desert is a torment. 

It is out of the question to make a fire at the midday halt; 
and then, too, the camels of burden are seldom at hand, being 
frequently far ahead. For this reason and owing to the short- 
ness of the halt, there are only cold cakes with noon lunch, and 
these are stowed on one's immediate saddle camel that morn- 
ing. My noon meal consisted of a piece of bread and a can 
of sterilized Swiss condensed milk of a grade rarely found at 
home. On this diet I fared remarkably well and incline to 
credit it with the fact that I bore the afternoon heat so favor- 
ably. But if the like fare appear too meagre, let a box of 
sardines be tried. The principal meal occurs at evening, ter- 
minating the day's ride. I then enjoyed a cup of Maggi soup 
with macaroni and Parmesan cheese, followed by canned meat. 
In this line much variety is afforded. The regulation can of 
meat weighs one pound, and that abundantly suffices; com- 
patibly too with the tourist's ideal, which, after eight to ten 
hours on camel back, is to sleep aind sleep again, quite un- 
disturbed on the score of scorpions and poisonous snakes,, 
leopards, howling jackals, and hyenas. Among the canned 
meats, all of which must be warmed up over a fire, I particu- 
larly tried roast beef, corned beef, young hare with dumplings, 
and small sausages. 

In the way of beverages, whiskey and wine were urgently 
recommended me. To begin with, I had two flasks of Scotch 
whiskey, a flask of brandy, together with six pint bottles of 
Medoc. But I was told in Suez that this was far from enough. 
Then I bought another flask of whiskey. The fate of these 


alcoholics will appear to the reader partly forthwith, partly 
in sequel. Very soon I perceived that in the desert every 
phase of alcohol, were it even only a few spoonfuls of whiskey 
in water after sunset, decidedly depressed the bodily powers of 
resistance. The day's individual ration would therefore com- 
prise, besides tea or chocolate, Maggi soup extract, macaroni, 
Parmesan cheese, a box of sardines or condensed milk, and a 
can of meat, for the evening meal. English cakes are a con- 
venient and freely digestible bite in the course of the day. 
The food supply, together with appurtenances like spirit 
boiler, spirits, corkscrews, and can-openers, is packed by the 
dealers in secure boxes, and should be sent to Suez docks, in 
warehouse. The storage fee amounts to a few cents a day. 

A small family medicine chest is recommended for the 
journey, both for personal use and because the Bedouins take 
every European to be a physician, and beg for medicines. 
In the latter article, the best shift is to furnish a ready purga- 
tive, such as sagrada, or tamarind tablets. Such medicine is 
much in request through the East, and easily wins for the 
donor the name of a good physician. In the Convent on 
Sinai, the steward showed me their medicine chest as well. In 
the main it was a castor oil vault. It was in Palestine that 
I made the acquaintance of a German physician who has a 
large practice among the natives. And he disclosed to me the 
secret of his success : castor oil in emulsion, tinted in the na- 
tural color, as well as in blue, red, green. Internal remedies 
of note are quinine in tablet form, tincture of opium, Hoff- 
mann's drops. For inflammation of the eyes, collyrium ad- 
stringens luteum, of which a few drops are dripped into the 
eyes. For various injuries, keep in readiness a supply of 
cotton, gauze, Byrolin ointment in tubes, and some skin 
powder. For antidote to scorpion stings, use a few crystals 
of permanganate of potash, rubbed in the wound. Better 
first clench the teeth and enlarge the wound with a sharp 
knife. The same treatment applies to snake bites. Some 
European physicians long active in the East and commanding 
large experience herein, advised me that in supplement to the 
foregoing procedure one should swallow cognac to the point of 
intoxication, a remedy of hoary age, and, as it seems, never 



For that matter, there is no occasion for inordinate fear of 
scorpions and snakes. These creatures prevalently lurk under 
stones and in proximity to water. Neither Professor Fel- 
linger nor I saw a single scorpion. Once I remarked a rather 
large specimen of the snake family, but it fled as we ap- 

Besides provisions and family medicines, a further list of 
articles remains to be procured in Cairo. One good thing is 
a camel sack, which may be had of the tent-makers, and 
also a coarse woolen cover for the very hard saddle. To lov- 
ers of nature I would especially recommend, if they visit the 
Sinai Peninsula by way of Tor, that they utilize the shipping 
card in the agency of the Khedivial Mail Line at Cairo. The 
local agent, Mr. Munari, speaks German, and is a very obliging 
man, very willing to assist tourists, and as far as possible he 
places his negro servant at the traveler's disposal for shopping 
in the Bazaar. The servant is fluent in German, which he 
melts in the accent of Berlin. Even with the fee to the 
servant, one buys cheaper than alone. 

In Cairo two important documents must be secured — a card 
of permit for visiting the Peninsula, from the Egyptian Min- 
istry of War, which is to be presented for signature to the 
English passport officer in Suez, Falconer Bey; and a letter 
of recommendation to the Metropolitan of the Sinaitic monks. 
Without this letter there is no admission to the Convent of 
Saint Catharine. Both documents are provided by the resi- 
dent Consul, but I preferred a personal introduction to the 
Archbishop, which the Director of the Khedivial Library, Dr. 
Moriz, was good enough to obtain for me. The recommenda- 
tion must have been impressive, for I was allowed to handle 
and turn over the leaves even of the most valuable manu- 
scripts, which otherwise are shown merely at a distance, 
behind a grating. 

At this point a few words may be said concerning the only, 
and unfortunately unavoidable, means of transport through 
the desert, the camel. Before starting I went over once more 
to Schonbrunn in order to inspect the " ship of the desert " 
quite minutely, and I resolved that the camel has a very high 
back, to be sure, but in other features is altogether a lovely 
creation. To my regret we could not meet at short range, 


for the reason that in Schonbrunn the visitors are strictly- 
forbidden to feed the animals. In Egypt the creature be- 
gan to attract me sensibly less, when I noticed that the camel 
is a pacer, and that the rider must thereby endure very un- 
pleasant oscillations. At Assuan I attempted a personal ap- 
proach by holding out a crisp cake, but was repelled with a 
snarl that suggested some snappish cur. Even then the 
thought began to dawn on me that the camel, despite his 
properly good qualities, is only a dumb animal; and this 
thought grew into the texture of firm conviction during the 
desert journey. 

If, after a rough day's ride, the camel for undiscerned rea- 
sons takes a notion to strike up a brief gallop, then, true 
enough, the poor rider by no means hears the choir of all 
angels, but feels rather so profound a pain in the spinal ex- 
tremity that he could himself nearly sing in his anguish. Then 
and there I resolved, in order to postpone any further sad dis- 
illusions, never again to mount a camel unless grim necessity 
thereto constrained me. 

The observation that one cannot grow seasick on camel 
back seems to me mistaken. I am rather convinced that those 
incessant, somewhat pronounced pendulum swings are liable 
to produce nausea and indisposition with sensitive constitutions. 

When the long and agitated course of our steamer El- 
Kahira through the deep blue Red Sea was at an end, and 
we sighted the Sinai Peninsula, there drew near to me the 
negro ship's commissary to solicit the drafting of a certificate; 
for the authorities in Suez keep close watch on all passengers 
who cross the Red Sea, and require to know the country and 
ultimate site of one's destination. My goal. Tor, seemed to 
startle the good negro, who looked at me quite aghast. 

In Suez my first errand was to the freight warehouse, for 
my supplies were there. The next step was to buy some to- 
bacco, the Bedouins being great smokers and apt to stay in 
good temper if they get a few packets every evening. I 
bought fifty packages of smoking tobacco, three hundred 
cigarettes, and fifty cigars for twenty piastres. Experience 
showed that this quantity was not gauged too high. 

Our Austrian Consul, whom I naturally acquainted with my 
design, was one of the few people who declared my tour to be 


free from danger. More or less officially, too, I visited the 
Director of Quarantine, Dr. Josef Batko, a Pole by birth; in 
whose family I spent a most agreeable evening after my re- 
turn from Sinai. The tourist v^ho chooses the overland route 
to Suez v^^ill do well to pay his respects to Director Batko, so 
as to preclude all manner of difficulties on arriving in the Chat. 
But of this in its place. What here calls for remark is the 
■circumstance that with the quarantine physicians infectious 
diseases, even bubonic plague and tuberculosis, have lost every 
sting. My good colleague explained to me, among other 
points of interest, that probably some cases of smallpox would 
soon be due by the Indian steamers. This prophesying 
sounded not unlike a greengrocer's announcement to the cook 
that this year's potatoes would be presently in the market. 

In the afternoon I had a call from the Russian Vice-Consul, 
Dr. Manolakis, who handed me the letter of credentials from 
the Archbishop, by way of the Sinaitic Convent in Suez; 
withal adding a note to Father Polykarpos, omnipotent stew- 
ard of the Convent of St. Catharine. I found Dr. Manolakis 
to be an extremely accommodating gentleman. Inasmuch as 
the Czar is sovereign protector of the Sinaitic religious, his 
official representative also counts very appreciably with the 
monks ; for which reason I recommend every traveler to Sinai 
to pay him a visit. Dr. Manolakis is a physician in vogue, 
and speaks Italian, French, and English. His villa near the 
Hotel Bel Air borders a lagoon with orange-red water. 

It was in the evening hours of 6 March that the steamer 
Missir left Suez. The fact that a passenger for Tor was on 
TDoard had become known, and he was regarded with awe. 
My qualifications as Hakim seemed popular warrant for curi- 
osity of the sort, and one of the natives pointed to me, saying 
to his neighbor with a twitch of the shoulders. Hakim (physi- 
cian). The first cabin's company was rather mixed: a Turk- 
ish First Lieutenant, son of the sheriff of Djedda, richly 
attired ; item, two Bedouin sheiks ; the newly appointed French 
Consul at Djedda, with his young wife and two serving maids. 
The party seemed so hopeful that I trust they may experience 
no disappointment in Djedda. There was also a Jewish pas- 
senger, and Mr. N. W. de Courcy, chief architect of the Board 
of Administration. This affable Englishman was the " only 


sympathetic heart beneath so many masks " ; and with him 
I exchanged the customary social glasses. We were the sole 
passengers for Tor. The saloon on board the Missir measures 
about eight feet in diameter; being surrounded by the cabins 
containing three berths each. Having promptly apprehended 
the merit of the baksheesh, I secured a cabin to myself. 

By 7 o'clock of the next morning, our goal was reached. 
As guest of the Board, I was spared the never very com- 
fortable, though perfectly safe transit to the Sinaitic Convent 
by sail boat; for the camp director. Dr. Zachariades Bey 
came aboard and conveyed me to the station in a steam launch. 
The process of embarking and disembarking in the East is. 
altogether summary. Before one thinks of it, he is handled 
simply like a bag of meal, and stowed away. Then follows 
the baggage, over which the passenger is often more con- 
cerned than for himself ; because the pieces are let down from 
the hull. Thus, at Port Said, I noticed how the tropical hel- 
met of a Reverend was attached by its chin straps to the boat 
hooks, and so transferred to the small boat. 

Tor (that is to say, the sanitary station Tor) is nowadays 
a purely English colony, though during the season some Ger- 
man, French, or Greek physicians are also active. President 
Ruffer had already made complete arrangements by telegraph,, 
and reserved for me a room in the President's house. Still 
more, before his departure for Paris he sent his private cook 
and rifle charger, Achmed Hamza, a guard of the Board's, to 
Tor with instructions to attend me on the tour as factotum. 
Achmed, a Berber of about 30 years, proved himself a very 
handy, model valet, who even in the desert retained the habits 
of a well-trained English servant, and every evening " laid 
the table " by dint of my water chest no less punctiliously 
than if it had stood in the drawing-room at Ramleh. When 
we parted in Suez, I nominated him, free of charge, for Pasha. 

Other travellers go by sail boat to the village of Tor, quite 
remote from the camp, where they find shelter in the Sinaitic 
Convent. For the most part the monks use only modern 
Greek and Arabic ; although it might be possible to make out 
with them tolerably in Italian. Just here a word on the lan- 
guage question. Any one who speaks French, Italian, or 
English can get along perfectly. The solitary traveller is. 


advantaged by a little Arabic; but a few terms will suffice, 
and these one may learn from the really excellent Meyer's 
Guides to Language. I had "A Little Meyers" in pocket: 
Italian, English, Modern Greek, and Arabic; much to the 
amusement of the Englishwomen in Tor. Conversation with 
the Bedouins was managed by Achmed, who spoke English 
and Arabic. 

Where caravan business is forward, the Egyptian official 
Nasir is always at hand; a right friendly man, who under- 
stands French and English. My own concerns with the Arch- 
imandrite and the Nasir were transacted that afternoon by 
Mr. Director Zachariades Bey. Contrary to common report, 
the procedure was quiet and smooth. Most tourists are sub- 
ject to the tap rooted impression that they are going to be 
overreached. But there is a fixed scale of rates in force, by 
Government regulation ; and the same applies alike to Egyp- 
tian officials, pilgrims, and tourists. The latter pay, by camel 
reckoning, 120 piastres, or about six dollars, from Tor to 
Convent St. Catharine. The money is taken over by the 
steward, who seals it and conveys it to the sheik. I was per- 
sonally present when Father Polykarpos opened the package 
on Sinai and paid the Bedouins in full. I paid for four 
camels, including two saddle camels: one for the tent and 
baggage; in which connexion the Nasir assured me that he 
would himself select the animals. The contract was drawn 
up in duplicate, and signed by the Archimandrite and by 
myself; then sealed by the sheik. The Nasir has a list of 
authorized sheiks and appoints the one whose turn is instant. 
Thus it happened that my guide was Sebeijjin Muse, although 
the President had thought of Sheik Mudakhel for me. They 
are all trustworthy and at home in their topography. Since 
the sheik has charge of the camel drivers, the tourist has only 
to indicate his wishes to the sheik alone: otherwise it may 
chance that a Bedouin, especially if some servant or dragoman 
assumes to dispense orders, will explain : " I mind none but 
the sheik." With friendly treatment, these people are very 
obliging, and never wax importunate. 

Yonder transactions over, the warehouses were visited to 
the end of completing my outfit. Only when well on my way, 
did I fully learn to appreciate the thoughtfulness accorded me 


in this regard by Mrs. Broadbent, the Directress of the estab- 
lishment, in cooperation with the Director. For instance, I 
found a small hearth, kitchen utensils, plates, cups, two large 
lanterns with candles, a wash basin and bath towel, a barrel 
of water and a folding camp chair with support for the back ; 
which is quite an invaluable article of furniture when it 
comes to resting. Achmed had bought a bag of charcoal at 
my charge. 

The journey began about a quarter to ten on the morning 
of 8 March. After a hearty farewell and thanks for hospi- 
tality, it was in order to mount camel back. The Nasir had 
kept his word: six camels in prime condition lay camped 
before the President's House. It was explained to me that 
the number of camels need cause no mistake, since only four 
were to be paid for. I had often read about the rider's ma- 
noeuvring with reference to climbing the camel, so as not to 
fall down as soon as mounted ; but a venerable thing is theory : 
all this was forgotten. The sheik on my right, Achmed on 
the left, held their arms on guard, and soon I sat safe and 
sound on the ship of the desert. At the same instant, there 
was a snapping of kodaks, another good-bye, a waving of the 
hat, and off I was for the solitary desert with six Bedouins and 
Achmed. Where man is inwardly stirred to depths of emo- 
tion, but prefers not to give free course to such mood, then the 
next moments can be conveniently tided by a pinch of snuff 
or a cigarette. I chose the latter, and was agreeably diverted 
to find how easy the lighting proved, in spite of the rocking 
movement. One grows quickly at home to the camel's back; 
and having both hands clear, one may eat, drink, read, and 
even write. Only, the latter pastime is to be recommended 
exclusively to very great scholars ; forasmuch as in their case 
it is quite immaterial if they write illegibly. 

I chose the route through the Wadi es-Sle, whose peculiar- 
ities can be followed in Szczepanski's work. A grander moun- 
tainous landscape will hardly be discovered. The first five 
hours lead one through the flat, herbless desert El-Ka. But 
I could descry nought in the way of those " yawning chasms 
and gaping abysses " mentioned by Szczepanski, who rode by 
night. Shortly before the entrance gorge of es-Sle, one must 
dismount, as the road sinks abruptly downward. No new- 

Chapel of Elias on Mount Musa 

Two Sinai Inhabitants 
(Greek Monks) 

Author's Tent in Convent Grounds, Mount Sinai 

First Stop in Waui es-Sle 


comer finds fault with this necessity. After half an hour's 
march, the sheik gives the word to mount again. This time 
better progress is perceptible. One finds the process of getting 
down a great deal more obnoxious, in that many camels drop 
quite suddenly to their knees, thereby causing the rider to 
cling tightly to the saddle plug. In es-Sle we encountered 
the first Bedouins. They reach forth their hands to my guide, 
and embrace amid whispered greetings. Whoever beholds 
these grave Biblical figures for the first time in this attitude, 
understands the Saviour's grief when He spoke: " Judas, dost 
thou betray the son of man with a kiss?" None but good 
friends embrace; others pass by with a brief salutation. 

About 2.30 P. M. I got half an hour's rest; then, off again 
till 5.30, when, after the matter of eight hours' ride for that 
day (9.45 A. M. to 5.30 P. M.), the tents were set up. First 
night in the desert ! Who is likely to sleep at once, where the 
heart is filled with such magnified impressions. I again 
stepped forth from my tent. At some distance crouched those 
gaunt, sunburned figures, to whom for the impending transit 
my life was intrusted; they were now illumined with the 
ruddy glow, as they huddled about the camp fire, whilst beside 
them in the fringe of darker background lay the camels like 
black mounds, as they chewed their durra fodder. My 
glances tended involuntarily skyward ; but the clouds con- 
tinued stark motionless; not a glimmer of light is visible; no 
voice resounds from above. The time has not yet come which 
is to renew the glad tidings of the Gospel to these unfor- 
tunates ; that Gospel which their forefathers forsook these long 
centuries past in order to follow Islam. 

The first night was rounded; but the unaccustomed camp- 
ing, the strenuous ride of the day before, did not conspire to 
beget quiet sleep. Strange noises roused me during the night. 
Could this have been the howling of hyenas? I doubt it not 
in the least that hyenas howl by night in the desert; only, I 
think that many a tourist is deluded by his excited imagina- 
tion, and that often the very loud snorting of the camels is mis- 
taken for howling of hyenas. Prolonged sleepers in the desert 
there are none; so I rose at daybreak; when behold, my man 
Achmed was already brewing tea and preparing warm water 
for washing. Since the preceding evening he had hired a 


scullion, in the shape of a droll young Geheli Gimel, camel 
driver; who struck my attention by the fact that he wore a 
European overcoat, although nothing but the lining was now 
left of it ! Gebeli ought to have been of compound construc- 
tion, to be taken apart at will ; seeing that he was incessantly 
in demand by all the company during the hours of evening 
rest. When the tents went up, he pounded like one possessed, 
with his wooden mallet on the tent pegs, and was always in 
good humor. The camel that bore the tents was his unique 
property, which supported his wife and child as well as him- 
self. To the question, did this suffice him? ''Yes," he an- 
swered seriously: '* God bestows His blessing therewith." 

Although the Bedouins work very briskly, the marching 
preliminaries take up at least an hour; forasmuch as the tents 
must be struck, and the camels brought in from foraging 
their scanty breakfast here and yonder, in order to be laden. 
These curious animals make a frightful din in the operation : 
a noise comparable to lamentation, growls, and bellowing, all 
at once. Most unmannerly is the same beast when one mounts 
him ; no sooner does he perceive such intention than he tries to 
bite and career, so that the Bedouin presses the camel's head 
with all his might to the ground, until the rider is firmly 
seated. But once in motion, the creature behaves itself de- 
corously. Thanks to the circumspection of my man Achmed, 
who looked after the baggage and was loath to see me move 
a hand, I could observe the lively exotic performance with the 
freedom of a passive beholder. The Bedouin's first care was 
to get the Chawadscha's, or master's camel, in readiness for 
the march. Still in advance of the caravan, and accompanied 
only by the aged proprietor of my mount, Gimar Taema, I 
left the camping site. The landscape acts with such fascina- 
tion over the gazer, the feeling of security controls one so 
completely, that one loses all thought of those earlier warnings 
about attacks and untoward surprises. After barely an hour's 
march, Gimar pointed to the road, and made motions to dis- 
mount. And since on that rocky ground the camel cannot lie 
down, the rider must let himself down after the fashion of a 
schoolboy over a lofty stile. But what of that? in the desert 
one has many things to learn. After protracted clambering 
over the rocks, the road improved for us again, making it 


possible to ride. After four and three quarter hours of march, 
I gained an hour's rest in Wadi Tarfa, about 12.30 P. M. 

On the third day of the journey, Friday, 10 March, I left 
camp about seven o'clock, on the Rahabe plateau. Only a few 
hours now separate us from our goal, but this time there was 
need of continual dismounting, inasmuch as the camels could 
make their way along the partly impassable, steep and rocky 
paths only with severe effort. But suddenly our destination 
looms into view, the cloistered fortress in its world- forgotten 
vale, flanked by its massive buttress of Djebel Musa and ed- 
Der. The sight of the spot where, tradition has it, Jehovah 
first revealed himself to Moses : " I am that I am," was so 
overpowering that I stood with uncovered head, lost in medi- 

About a quarter before noon, and after twenty-one and a 
half hours' riding, the caravan reached the outer cloister gate, 
which opened only after considerable delay. Neither does 
anybody in the broad cloister court invite the strangers to 
come in : like so many walls the camels continue standing, and 
the men beside them. For weal or woe, I had to open my 
trunk outside, and send my letters of recommendation into the 
yard, where Brother Miltiades received them and vanished. 
A good while afterward, he returned and silently motioned 
to me to follow. Though fairly tall, I could easily stay up- 
right while walking through the narrow passage in shape of 
a Greek zeta. In the divan of the cloister, I was greeted offi- 
cially, in the presence of the Archimandrite and the steward. 
Father Polykarpos, who is fluent in Italian and French. When 
the letters of credentials had been perused, mastic brandy, 
black coffee and cigarettes were handed about; and then the 
steward asked me where I would lodge. I might either so- 
journ in the cloister, or set up my tent at liberty in the en- 
vironment. I chose the latter privilege, and asked leave to 
camp in the cloister garden. There, indeed, under olive trees 
and blossoming apricots, with the antiquated cisterns of turban 
design on the right; their precious water coming from Djebel 
Musa ; and on the left, the monks' burial vault : one felt quite 
in the mood, only the nights were like ice. Nevertheless, I 
would select this very spot another time. But again, commu- 
nication with the cloister is not unobstructed; for the small 



gate is always barred, and the bell-handle happens to be one 
story high, so that only practised climbers can reach it. This 
being the situation, I once asked Achmed concerning the man's 
wash-room; although nothing short of the Arabic Mustarah 
revealed to him my want. A handy Bedouin then led me to a 
pool, visible far below ; kept clapping his hands to disperse the 
poultry, and thereupon, turning toward me, he made a gesture 
to approach. Already versatile to new phenomena, I simply 
uttered a resigned " all right ", and so descended to Tartarus. 

In these times the cloister's guest rooms are very clean, 
habitably ordered, furnished with soft carpets, and answerable 
even to somewhat fastidious requirements. 

Shortly after the formal introduction, began the medical 
routine ; seeing that a Hakim is but rarely encountered in Con- 
vent St. Catharine. I deem it worth while to state that from 
the Archimandrite to the humblest monk, bodily cleanliness 
and linen left nothing to censure. It is altogether singular, 
how discreditably German tourists in particular, write about 
people whose hospitality they previously enjoyed. Are there 
then in our own cloisters no brethren in service whose hands 
in the wake of coarse work are not so neat as may be presup- 
posed of ladies who receive the manicure's visit every morn- 
ing? The result of one's examination, and still more the 
subsequent inspection of the tombstones, gave food for reflec- 
tion. Except rheumatism, there appears to be no disease in 
the cloister. Death gains admission only when at last ardently 
welcomed by some weary brother of eighty or ninety years. 
Here a physician were liable to starve. But in the same 
cloister, two unsalaried physicians are always active, and they 
never make a professional mistake: namely, the fresh moun- 
tain air, and strict diet; especially during the main fasting 
season. Flesh meat and wine are never to be seen on the 
Sinaitic table. The frugal meal consists of bread, fish, vege- 
tables, and fruit, set off with a small glass of mastic brandy, 
their home product; which, however, is always drunk diluted 
with water. In the capacity of examining physician, one gains 
a closer insight into the mode of living and its reactive effects. 
Among the many monks examined, I discovered no trace of 
alcoholism. This fact is to be expressly brought out, because 
on this point, again, descriptive tourists incur the fault of 
downright want of tact. 


More than once, as I listened to the monks chanting their 
Psalms in that archaic Basilica, I put to myself the question : 
just what moved these men to quit their sunny Greek home, 
in order to pass their lives here in harsh solitude? Sloth? 
No, for they work their gardens. Epicureanism? Even the 
poor Bedouin from time to time brings down an ibex or a bird, 
and feasts himself with the dainty roast thereof. Avarice? 
But even if the Convent is wealthy, the individual enjoys 
nought of that wealth. Only living faith and profound sense 
of religion (perhaps, indeed, clothed in too rigid forms) could 
have induced these men to retire into Jethro's Valley. 

On returning to the tent to drink my noonday milk, I found 
myself in quite altered surroundings. By command of the 
steward. Brother Miltiades had fitted up my tent with a straw 
mat, a finely- covered table with glasses, knife and fork, and 
some seats. What a treat is the like scale of convenience! 
Travelling in the desert brings one properly to the conscious- 
ness that contentment stands in direct relation to independence 
of wants. 

The following day was devoted to the ascent of Djebel 
Musa. For nominal fee one may hire a monk and a Bedouin 
as companions. It is not advisable to go alone, because one 
may easily miss the path among the boulders, and fail to visit 
the isolated, locked chapels. The ascent may be recommended 
even to those who are not free from dizziness. The pilgrims' 
stairway, a lucus a non lucendo, consists of so many medium- 
sized rocks, over which one must climb as best he can. The 
route occupies two hours ; yet my attendant. Brother Constan- 
tine, who spoke Italian, kept telling me with reassurance, I 
should only walk right slowly; that people who labored with 
pen and ink were not used to mountain climbing. In three 
hours I reached the summit, from which one can admire a 
part of the imposing mass of Sinai, washed by the sea on both 
sides of its promontory. On the way down. Biblical explorers 
visit Ras es Safsaf, whence Moses is supposed to have an- 
nounced the Ten Commandments to the congregation of Israel. 
A chapel crowns the pinnacle of Musa, and opposite the same 
is a ruinous mosque. I took advantage of the hour's rest to 
eat my lunch : a few swallows of cold tea, with cakes. I also 
offered a few morsels to the worthy Constantine; but he would 



not partake until I solemnly assured him that there was no 
fat contained : only flour, water, and sugar. Constantine pres- 
ently withdrew to the chapel to chant his Psalms. Achmed 
lay sleeping beside the ruined mosque. The scene might sug- 
gest interesting reflections, but I contented myself with photo- 
graphing the sleeping Moslem and his crumbling house of 
worship. Archbishop Porphyrios II, a prelate still in his 
prime, and of antecedent schooling in France and Germany, 
is said to be planning to restore the chapel to its original form, 
and to build a road to it. The latter project was already 
begun. Likewise his work is the damming of the mountain 
torrent near the cypress plain. Moreover, in the Convent 
itself, the construction of a library with iron framework is 
under serious consideration. 

Sunday was reserved for rest and inspection of the Convent. 
Nowadays the use of the library is allowed by the Arch- 
bishop only to specially well recommended persons, in that 
their experiences on Sinai with European scholars were none 
too auspicious. I would counsel future visitors to forbear 
questions in this regard, because they are not answered with 
pleasure. Even at Cairo, I was reminded on the part of com- 
petent authority not to utter the name of Tischendorf, discov- 
erer of Codex Sinaiticus. As is known, this manuscript was 
sold to the Czar of Russia ; which sequel still nowadays, and 
that with good warrant, appears to cause bitterness of regret 
in the Convent. 

Since the contract rate of ten dollars had already been fixed 
at Tor for each camel as far as Suez, all I had to do was to 
turn over this amount to the steward. Again I paid for four 
camels, though the caravan comprised six. This custom ob- 
tains for the reason that the Bedouins spare their beasts, es- 
pecially the younger ones, and reckon on lading a supply of 
durra fodder for themselves at the Convent on the return 
trip. By special ruling, the steward permitted the same car- 
avan to continue to Suez ; whereas usually the camels and 
drivers are relayed at the Convent. My bill from the steward 
was moderate: a fee for attendance to Djebel Musa, a small 
sum for the doorkeeper, and the domestics who had got the 
baggage into the yard. The traveller who sojourns in the 
Convent and thence draws his provisions, pays for the same 


at a fixed rate, and adds an optional sum, say a dollar a day, 
for his room. Tips to the servants are not customary. But 
ancient usage approves the outlay of a stranger's gift, xenion, 
for the Church or the poor. He who needs provisions for the 
return journey, can obtain the same at moderate price in the 
Convent. Its market supplies fresh eggs, sardines, macaroni, 
cheese, and bread, which is baked in the cloister every Satur- 
day. Good fuel alcohol may also be had. Do not forget to 
fill any flasks with water. The quality is excellent. 

My announcement that in five days I must make Suez was 
received with dubious shaking of heads. An old Bedouin who 
had been called in as expert would hear nothing of such pre- 
cipitation. So I summoned my sheik, and informed him 
through Achmed that I accounted him and his people capable 
of achieving this feat, though admittedly a little arduous. 
The sheik pointed to his head, as much as to signify : By my 
pate, ere the fifth day is past, thou shalt be in Suez. A vigor- 
ous grasp of hands, an " all right '* on my side, Marhaha on 
his side, sealed the agreement. Next in order was to map off 
the route, from the chart itself : Nakb el Hawa, Wadi Lebwe, 
Barak, Suwik, etc. As the steward also allowed, Feran oasis, 
which is visited by Biblical explorers, had to stay out. 

Many travellers take ofi'ence at the fact that the Convent is 
authorized to appoint the caravans ; and make all sorts of 
ironical comments thereon. But they forget what a mortally 
wearisome task it is to negotiate with Orientals, with whom 
time counts not at all. Just plant a German professor with 
his bookish Arabic over against a group of Bedouins, and let 
him proceed. He will grow nervous, but reach no result; or 
if he does, he will pay more than to the Convent. The 
Bedouin has comparatively no right sense of the value of 
money, for he stakes everything too high. When one of my 
attendants was asked what he wanted for his sword, a kind of 
bayonet blade, in woven leather sheath, he demanded ten dol- 
lars, or about four times the real value. 

Leave-taking was no less of a ceremony than the reception. 
The steward conveyed gifts of hospitality, put on my hand St. 
Catharine's pilgrimage ring, and presented one of the same 
design for Dr. Manolakis. Before departure, he called the 
Bedouins together, commended me to their protection, and 


explained to them that after our arrival in Suez I would 
tender an exact report of their behavior to the Russian Vice- 

I left the hospitable Convent on 13 March, at 7.45 A. M. 
The sheik and Achmed discharged their rifles, and a monk 
on the battlement returned the salute. Thus, amid crackling 
of rifles and rumbling echoes I made my way into the silent 
desert, endeared to me now. Whether the sun rises or sets in 
a play of glorious colors, or the full moon and sparkling stars 
illumine the night, one is constantly discovering new beauties 
in the desert, and learns to understand why the Bedouin loves 
his wilderness above all else. 

The several daily stages were as follows: 13 March, 8j4 
hours, night camp Wadi Barak; 14 March, 9^4 hours, Wadi 
Suwik; iSth, 11 hours, 5 minutes, Wadi Uset; 16 March, 9j/$ 
hours, Wadi Werdan; 17 March, 9 hours, 10 minutes, Quar- 
antine Chat, across from Suez. 

The day's course on 15 March ended not without some up- 
roar. So early as half-past five the Bedouins wished to halt 
for the night's rest, but I declined with the remark that to-day 
we must still make Wadi Uset. Then began a petty revolt, 
and words of abuse were launched at the sheik, who muffled 
himself in silence. The men explained that they were tired, 
that the camels would find no fodder at Uset; and what not 
of the sort. I remembered that ancient Xenophon, somewhat 
farther back in Asia, was once in similar plight during the 
retreat of the Ten Thousand; so I checked my camel, dis- 
mounted, and gave word by the voice of Achmed : " Let him 
who was weary, mount my beast, and I would walk." The 
brawlers receded abashed, but when a little removed, they re- 
sumed their grumbling. It was now Achmed's turn to step 
forth with terribly glaring eyes, and threaten that whoever 
refused obedience would be sternly imprisoned at Suez. When 
Achmed interpreted to me his instantly effectual menace, I 
could scarcely conceal my smiles. It was already growing 
dark when we came to Uset. The most arrant clamorers now 
proved also loudest with their Marhaba. So still to-day, 
" Hosanna " may be heard in close contact with " Crucify 
Him." That evening I dealt out tea with plenty of sugar, 
thereby restoring the peace. My arrival in Suez on the fifth 

Inside the Walls of Convent St. Catharine 


''l€()a Movi] TOv livd 541 {.i. X. 

CHHaiicKiii MoHacTbipb 541 n. p. Xp. 

The Convent at Sinai (A. D. 541). 

Ras es-Safsaf 




Convent St. Catharine in the Sinai Desert 


day was now assured, to the joy of the sheik, who had de- 
ported himself like a diplomat. 

On 16 March, at 9 A. M., we reached Wadi Gharandel, the 
first watering station for the camels after leaving the Convent. 
Surrounded by rushes, appears a small spring, and there is a 
fairly large pool of water, whence the camels drank in eager 
draughts. After this, and the wholesome reaction from a foot 
bath, my water barrel was filled. The soup and chocolate 
boiled with this water next morning had a slight chemical 
taste, but were drunk to the last drop. The traveller joyfully 
greets the telegraph poles and the now visible Red Sea, whose 
steamers are prompt harbingers of civilization. About 3.50 
P. M. of 1 7 March we came to the springs of Moses for a brief 
rest; and about 6.25 P. M. the march ceased at Chat, where 
we were confronted by the black Quarantine soldier, posted 
as sentinel. Many tourists imagine some evil spirit at this 
station, ready to play them a trick even at the last moment. 
Such is not the case. Every caravan must halt before Chat 
pending telephone instructions from Suez, or until the Quar- 
antine physician appears on his rounds of inspection, consum- 
ing maybe half an hour. Only then are the tourists of the 
desert permitted to enter Suez. We rode on to Chat, where 
Master Zachariades, superintendent of the station, came to 
meet me with felicitations. In a few moments the Director 
sent word by telephone for my free transit. Now came the 
hearty farewell to those good sons of the desert. We parted 
amid mutual congratulations, and scarcely shall we see one an- 
other again. I procured a room in Chat, and presently Ach- 
med could announce that my fare was served in the dining- 
room. Still at a late evening hour the Quarantine boat hove 
in sight, which was to convey me to Suez ; but I was grateful 
to adjourn the trip till next morning. After sound sleep and 
a refreshing bath, I left the station on the morrow ; not without 
first perusing the visitors' book of compliments and grievances. 
But lo, there was no complaint, only praise on the part of the 
guests here quarantined against their will. Hence it is evident 
that with wise administration even the most unacceptable 
passes can be rendered endurable; nay, positively agreeable. 
Before departure I presented my provisions to Achmed, and 
supposed I might be affording my friendly surveillant a treat 


with wine and whisky. But when he declined them in aver- 
sion for alcohol, I had nothing else to do but forget my flasks 
and bottles. And if not broken, they may still be standing 

there to-day. 

Leopold Senfelder, M. D. 

Vienna, Austria. 

A Clerical Story. 

IT was May in Italy — Italia mistica. John Carlton, an 
English priest in traveling mufti, was journeying from 
Assisi to Perugia, in a shabby little carriage drawn by a very 
bony horse. He was rejoicing in his first sight of Umbria. 
Verde Umbria was now spread all around him. Many of the 
roads were bordered with white flowering acacia; the Judas 
tree showed its purple-red bloom; he looked upon the pink 
of the sainfoin, the rising green corn in the fields, the young 
oaks in spring freshness, olive groves silvery and grey, the 
small yellow flowers of the ilex peeping out of its sombre 
leafage, and in the hedges the perfumed honeysuckle, called 
by Italians " manine della Madonna ".^ The circling swal- 
lows were seen against the Italian blue sky. Perugia, augusta 
Perusiay one of the chief and most ancient of old Etruscan 
cities, now capital of the Province, built on the edge of a 
group of hills, russet-brown, grave, imposingly meritorious of 
her chequered history, of her endless associations, was above 

It commands a magnificent prospect. On clear days one can 
see the whole ring of Umbrian cities, the two great highways 
to Rome, the extensive valley of the Tiber, with all Umbria 
in its ever-varying aspects lying at its feet. To the East is 
the holy city of Assisi, with Spello, Foligno, the dark ilex 
woods of Spoleto just visible, for the hill above Bettoma hides 
the town itself ; to the South is Todi, where the northern russet 
hills rise in unequal height till they touch the Apennines. 

Father Carlton reveled in it all as they drove slowly up, 
recalling the well-known points in the vista gradually being 

1 Little hands of Our Ladv. 


unfolded before him, feeling all its irresistible enchantment. 
His room on arrival at the hotel had a like prospect, making 
it hard to tear himself from the window of the exceptionally 
comfortable bedroom and reflect that he must, when refreshed 
by the hot water left in a covered can standing in the large 
basin, go and have some tea. 

It was in the days before motors came hooting, grunting, 
and snorting noisily up from the valley station to the stately 
medieval town. Then it was very silent, but for the everlast- 
ing bells from some of the church towers, among the latter — 
there are about forty-two — the singularly beautiful Campanile 
of San Pietro. Even now there are not many carriages. The 
few gardens are hidden behind the old houses, though on many 
you notice hanging pots of flowers on iron sockets or rings so 
fastened as to hold them — daisies, carnations. One catches 
a glimpse of the fair faces of the women often bending over 
them, or as they are arranging the white and many-colored 
linen which Italian-fashion hangs from many windows. 

There are magnificent town gates in Perugia, one with 
Etruscan foundations; there are curious winding streets with 
covered ways, through which the deadly winter winds blow 
with keen force; there are endless picturesque bits in this irreg- 
ularly built town, and as you tread the Via Vecchia with its 
lovely view framed in its arch, you remember that it has been 
used as a street for over two thousand years, and that in this 
place you are forever in touch with the past. 

Father John Carlton opened his mail as he took his tea 
in the pretty hall with its palms and flowers, its easy chairs, 
its rockers, and little cosy tables. There were a few letters 
from friends — he had a good many and valued them, for he 
had practically no relatives, being the only child of only chil- 
dren; his two uncles were dead long ago. 

Father Campbell, who was supplying during his absence 
wrote about some practical matters; and a letter was here, 
which he kept to the last, from the builder he had decided 
to employ to throw out the study and add to the veranda. 
The builder sent a plan and estimate, and off"ered to begin at 
once, so that it would be nearly done by his return. He en- 
larged on the fact that it would be a very great improve- 
ment to the house, and his face, somewhat severe in expression, 


took on a smile of content as in imagination he saw room for 
so many of his books, for he was a great collector. It was a 
capital idea of his, and perhaps next year he would enlarge 
the spare room above it and put a balcony there. The view 
over pretty Sussex country would be charming. Finishing 
his tea, he pushed his letters into his pocket and went out, 
walking down the flagged Corso which cleaves the tableland 
of the town in half, until he reached the Piazza del Duomo, 
where it was impossible for Father Carlton not to stop to ex- 
amine with interest the Fonte Maggiore, a wonderful fountain 
which stands near the Cathedral. Its triple basin is beauti- 
fully sculptured, and dates from the thirteenth century. He 
was intensely sentient to the atmosphere of place and time, for 
he loved Italy with a passion that had increased as he came 
to know her. Year after year he visited her to learn more of 
her treasures, to revisit old and beloved shrines of art or piety, 
congratulating himself always on his power to do so during 
his holiday, for he was a man of independent means. At other 
times he was quite content in his small Sussex country parish, 
and he felt God was very good to him. 

He stayed musing and recalling the events of long ago 
which had taken place on that spot. There was the little 
pulpit outside the Cathedral wall from which St. Bernardine 
of Siena preached and watched the books of necromancy and 
the piles of dyed hair burned ; it was on the steps of this foun- 
tain that many nobles put the heads of their slaughtered ene- 
mies; it was in this Cathedral square they fought, for it has 
been truly said of the Perugians that " they always preferred 
Mars to Muse ". 

Turning from the square with its fascinating history, John 
Carlton went round to the principal door of the Duomo and 
entered. After his few moments of prayer before the Master 
of the House, he went to kneel at the shrine of Our Lady of 
Grace — a picture fastened against a pillar which on that May 
evening, besides the nine ever-burning lamps, was framed in 
glass drop chandeliers with lighted candles, giving the place 
an air of jesta. Many girls and women crowded round, their 
gay, many-hued silk handkerchiefs arranged gracefully on 
their heads. Their dress, bodice, band, and apron were all of 
different colors, yet all sincerely harmonious. Many of the 


young girls, with their grave, refined, tender faces, recalled 
the same childlike note so evident in the face of the Madonna 
as seen in the much venerated picture. There she stands, with 
her jewelled crown, a deep crimson curtain as background, 
relieving the dull pink of her dress, over which is her blue 
mantle lined with the fresh green of an Umbrian spring, her 
face, youthful and smiling, with the touch of sweet gravity, 
her hands lifted as if in wonderment at the infinite magnitude 
of her vocation — Our Lady of Grace — how dear she is to the 
heart of the many who, loving her picture, kneel in the 
shadowy building which guards the ring which, tradition says, 
was that of her betrothal. 

There for a while he stayed, but, remembering a promised 
visit, he rose and went away toward the presbytery of a church 
some ten minutes off. He pulled the bell chain, and the old 
sacristan let him in with jubilant recognition of the padre 
inglesey whom he knew well, since every spring brought him 
to see the Signor Curato, to whose parlor he was now shown. 

The English priest went instinctively to the window where 
away in the West the sun was reddening the sky, and in the 
near foreground was one roof above another, every hue of 
brown and grey lichen-stained tiles, with numbers of church 
towers, and, away beyond, the Vale of Umbria on which the 
evening shades were falling. The floor of the room was of 
stone, and a piece of matting lay under the table, on which was 
a lumen cristi from last Easter. Under a glass case was the 
Divine Infant clothed in a black velveteen frock with pink 
jacket, seated on some pine shavings, whilst tiny ducks dis- 
ported and sheep among vivid green foliage. The wax taper 
was twisted into various fanciful devices round about. There 
were a few wooden chairs set against the distempered walls. 
On the side of the room hung a large realistic crucifix and a 
few cheap oleographs — Our Lady, St. Joseph, St. Peter's of 
Rome, as well as photographs, cheaply framed, of the Signor 
Curato at various stages of his life, singly and in groups of 
clerical friends, whilst his father and mother occupied places 
of honor by themselves above the picture of Leo XIIL On 
a small table by itself was Martina's translation of the Bible 
into Italian, placed on a grey crochet woollen mat; above it 
on nails hung the palms of last Palm Sunday. 


The Signor Curato, Giuseppe Anacleto Rinari, had returned 
from a retreat at Lucca that very afternoon, the Priore leav- 
ing as he did so for a belated holiday to his peasant parents at 
Gubbio. The Curato, still under the spell of the silent days, 
went into the church, where as a rule some people could be 
found. It was close to the Duomo and was a popular church 
of a Religious Order. One old woman was asleep in a corner, 
her dog curled at her feet; a man with a basket full of empty 
rush-covered fiaschi knelt at Our Lady's shrine; his lips were 
moving and his face was full of entreaty — he had a child at 
home dying. 

But Giuseppe Anacleto was bowed before the high altar, his 
offering before his mind, his whole being shaken with the force 
of his earnest prayer for courage to make it. Truly, what 
God had asked in this retreat was a great thing! It meant 
the giving of that which he prized to a degree little appre- 
hended until he began to realize fearsomely what he was being 
asked to do. He started — his mind was so far away from the 
present — when Onofrio, very slow of movement entered from 
the sacristy and told him that the padre inglese Wcis there. 
He had forgotten to ask for his letters — he received very few 
— since his return, or he would have found one couched in the 
English priest's pedantic Italian, saying he hoped to be in 
Perugia and would call that evening. 

As Father Carlton stood, enjoying the marvellous view, 
the latch was suddenly lifted and his friend entered, full of 
gladness at seeing him again. The visitor was soon seated in 
the one quasi-easy chair of which the room boasted. 

The Signor Curato, a man of forty, though the fact that 
his tall slight figure was somewhat bent, made him look older, 
was usually quiet in manner and voice, exceptionally so for an 
Italian; but his dark eyes flashed with pleasurable feeling at 
the unexpected visit of the priest. 

"You did not come last year — how was that?" asked the 
Curato, after assuring himself that Father Carlton was well. 

" I went to Sicily," said the English priest in somewhat la- 
bored Italian, " and stayed on all my time. It was a disap- 
pointment, I assure you, for Perugia always has to come into 
my program." 

" If you will stay and sup with me — the Signor Priore is 
away — simple fare, but O you will be il henvenuto." 



For half a second the Englishman hesitated. He thought of 
the meal in the well-appointed dining-room — those pleasant 
Americans he had made acquaintance with last night at Assisi 
arrived just as he had come out — the excellent dinner, the 
iced Orvieto ascuitto ; and yet, he had but three days to give 
to Perugia ; he knew how the Signor Curato valued his visits. 
He assented, and his host went away hastily to tell Orlando's 
old sister Agnese, who acted as housekeeper, of the guest stay- 
ing for cena. 

There was the yellow vino nostrale, which his host mixed 
with sparkling water from the Nocera springs, whence Perugia 
is supplied with drinking water. But Father Carlton, who 
was somewhat particular about his food and drink, took it 
plain, finding it, though a vino sincere^ not at all to his taste, 
any more than the thin brodo di fagioli, guiltless of " eyes " 
denoting oil or butter; or the greasy risotto, or the hard 
lesso ; and the bread, which was casa linga,^ was sour and stale. 

The heavy white plates, discolored by age, were of the com- 
monest; many were chipped. Tooth-picks bristled between 
the receptacles for salt and pepper. All, including the table- 
cloth, was of the roughest. There was no roast, no dessert, 
the Signor Curato, who loved hospitality, apologized suffi- 
ciently, but not excessively, for his courtesy was too inborn. 
And so the two men supped. All the while Father Carlton 
was more than ever before struck with the poverty of the 
place, — one chair badly needed mending; the window had a 
broken pane; the piece of carpet under the table was thin and 
worn ; old Agnese's dress was very much patched and in parts 
almost ragged; while the Curato's shiny cassock was as ancient 
as the shoes which his friend's sharp eyes had noticed as be- 
ing sadly shabby and old. 

The Curato was very fond of Father Carlton, who was some 
fifteen years his senior. On the other hand Father Carlton 
felt himself strangely attracted to the poor priest whose ac- 
quaintance he had made years ago at Assisi, when, as an 
Anglican clergyman, he had visited the place, with its atmos- 
phere so charged with holy memories, and its very soil made 
sacred by the worship of the millions whose feet have trodden 
it on their way to the sanctuaries of the Poor Man of Assisi. 

2 Home-made. 


St. Francis himself had walked about the streets of the little 
town of red and brown houses, and his holy eyes had often 
rested on the blue hills and the vineyards, the dear olive groves 
of the beloved Vale of Umbria. 

"And now you have come from Assisi?" asked the Curate, 
as the Englishman leaned back in the uncomfortable chair 
which he had resumed after supper. 

" Drove over this afternoon. I was two nights at the 
Subasio," said Father Carlton; " yesterday there was Exposi- 
tion, and I remembered our first meeting, ah! — how many 
years ago? " 

" It must be fifteen," said the Curato. "And shortly after- 
ward you became a Christian." 

Father Carlton let pass without comment the expression 
used to convey that he had become a Catholic, knowing that 
argument was useless, and that the Italians — particularly 
among the less educated — would always look on a convert to 
Catholicism as upon a newly-made Christian — stato fatto 
Cristiano. He shook his shaggy hair, which had been white 
for the last ten years; he remembered that day well, the 
quiet, reverent people all crowding to the great sanctuary, 
the gloom of the entrance to the lower church contrasting with 
the forest of candles round the monstrance. The brilliancy 
of the lights had enabled him to see the marvellous frescoes of 
Giotto which illuminate the low-groined roof and which record 
the glories of St. Francis. He had been specially struck 
then, as he had been on the day before, by their wonderful 
and undying charm. 

" I am particularly glad to see you. Father Carlton," said 
the Curato, stumbling at the English name, which however he 
was determined to master ; " for I have some news for you — 
I am leaving Perugia — I — at least I hope so." 

"Ah, really? A sudden decision?" 

" Yes. I am going — even now at my age, to try my voca- 
tion as a Franciscan — one of the Friars Minor. I think now, 
as I look back, it is strange that, though I was born in 
Perugia and have spent my life in the land of St. Francis, 
the call did not come to me before — never in the remotest way 
— ^but now — now — my Lady Poverty has called me." He 
paused a moment, " I must go." There had been going on 



in the heart of Father Carlton for some time past a sharp 
struggle as to his own rightful attitude toward this virtue 
of holy poverty. The words of his friend strangely affected 
him, although his mind had been practically made up on the 
subject; he only wondered how the words of the Curato could 
have shaped themselves as an expression of his own silent 
resolution, taken as he had left the chapel a little while ago. 
He felt a kindred call, though it was not to take him from his 
present charge in the cure of souls. Yes ! there was to be no 
more looking back, no more hesitation — he would make the 
offering to test the reality of this call. 

" It is that then that attracts you — Poverty?" asked Father 
Carlton, after a silence, for he was greatly surprised. 

''Yes," said the Curato, ''more than anything; though of 
course I could have it in any Order — it is that of St. Francis 
to which I am drawn." 

Father Carlton was silent. His eyes wandered round the 
poor room, and came back to the shabbily dressed priest, with 
his threadbare cassock — all eloquent of poverty, if not penury. 
How much more could the Curato desire. 

" It is poverty and the obedience together — the religious 
life in fact. The poverty of Bethlehem, of Nazareth." 

" One can live in that spirit surely as a Secular," said 
Father Carlton. " There's a sitting loosely to the things of 
this world. In my case I have had no severe financial trials 
certainly, but many have, and to obey the inner leadings of the 
Holy Spirit, in submitting to it in all things, is obedience — 
one perhaps more hidden, really more precious, than the mere 
resignation of external goods. So at least I take it, and so 
more or less do those who go deeply into the obligations of 
the priestly life." 

" Yes, sictiro ; but Padre, I cannot argue — I cannot explain 
it — you know all that the ascetical writers say about the 
religious life. It is not for all, only for those who are called 
— as I believe I am. Of course, to be a priest at all there are 
sacrifices — the love of wife and child. It is but human to 
desire these and to marry ; that is where the great crucifixion 
of the ordinary priest's life lies. Not so however to me," he 
added simply, speaking to his friend as man to man, unlike 
the way in which, under the somewhat artificial conditions of 


life, people usually do. " To me, as to many, this involves no 
renunciation, and the life and duties of a secular priest I love 
all too well, but I love and have my liberty too, and poverty 
truly taken includes taking the vow of obedience, the absolute 
nakedness which can say with the holy Thomas a Kempis, ' I 
am nothing, I have nothing, and can do nothing.' It is that, 
Padre, that I desire and that I shall find in its perfection in 
the life for which I pray I may be worthy." 

" That means, I take it, that we have and are nothing, save 
through the merits of Christ. Even the greatest saint must 
say that," said the English priest as his shaggy white eye- 
brows twitched and were drawn together — a habit of his when 
much moved, as he was at the Curato's words, all the more 
convincing for being spoken calmly. 

" But of course they can be taken in another sense as 
touching on the religious life. I hope you may attain to your 
desire," he added in cold tones, which were untrue to the 
fervent feelings now stirring within him and which were char- 
acteristic of his temperament. In truth, he was in a white 
heat of emotion, though his somewhat perfunctory farewell 
to his old friend betrayed none of it. 

The Signor Curato watched him go to the comer, and then 
Father Carlton heard him close the heavy little door, and he 
felt himself in the velvet softness of the May evening, wind- 
less and calm. He walked mechanically along. In the bril- 
liant moonlight showed the swept flags of the Corso, the Um- 
brian Picadilly, where seemingly everybody in Perugia was 
out walking. The tourists were promenading, and chatter- 
ing, gesticulating natives were there too; the cafes were 
brightly lit, and the magnificent Municipal Palace, with its 
handsome windows and fine portal, above which are three 
saints, were all discovered clearly in the silver light. But 
he saw these things only as at a theatre. Though his strong 
passionate temper was under the control won by years of labor 
— for he had learnt travailler son charactere — that night he 
was angered, as the voice, speaking to his inmost soul, im- 
periously demanded a hearing. 

His thoughts ran swiftly. After poignant spiritual and 
mental suffering he had taken the step, in faith and courage, 
leaving the known for the unknown, to become a Catholic. 


Then he became a priest. And though the strength of spirit 
seemed spent and he could only rejoice in a heart at rest, a 
mind assuredly satisfied, it was done. But now — yes — a step 
further, one which he had never for a moment anticipated, 
but which he knew might be of sacramental worth to him be- 
cause of the corresponding cost. It was not a call to the re- 
ligious life. Had it been so, even at his age he would have 
obeyed. It was in a sense something more difficult to his na- 
ture to do ; it was to bring the spirit of poverty more insist- 
ently to bear on his life. Facing his life as he had never done 
before, he saw it as he had never thought possible. As in 
crystal he viewed clearly his own easeful life illuminated and 
tested by a searchlight; no great, excessive luxury certainly 
— ^but a small well-appointed rectory, his excellent servants, 
two elderly sisters, his small parish, little work, means to travel 
— ah ! poverty had not stamped her hallmark on him ! 

Wrong ? No, he knew it was not ; and that his comfort and 
prosperity did not free him from anxieties about his flock, 
from the everyday vexations and worries which fall to the 
lot of most, and that the life was one which could most truly 
be lived to the greater glory of God. But not if called to 
something higher — ah, here was the crux. 

The evening was passing on ; and in those Perugian streets 
which in their day have witnessed so much warfare, John 
Carlton fought the worst of his battle. He " wrestled not 
with flesh and blood," but with temptation to follow a path 
of little resistance instead of one that was sorely against the 
grain of a naturally ease-loving temperament. 

The big hall with palms and rockers and easy chairs to- 
night had pleasant people chatting and talking. A German 
professor with whom he had travelled lately to Orvieto, re- 
cognizing Father Carlton, came up warmly to greet him; and 
the Americans begged him to share their iced drinks and little 
cakes. But all the while he was with them he felt as in a 
dream, and after a sleepless night he said his Mass in a neigh- 
boring church, and went for a long walk through the beautiful 
old town, attractive and picturesque at every turn. Several 
of the doors of the ancient houses were most charmingly 
adorned with sculptures in pietra serena or travertine of 
flowers, ribbons, etc., as well as artistic and finely executed 


friezes; and he noted some of the '' doors of the dead " now 
bricked up and never used, which in some very old houses 
are just wide enough to admit of the passing of a coffin. 
These walled up openings are found alongside the house door. 
The superstition existed in Etruscan times that Death must 
never be allowed to pass a second time through the principal 
door. Through the parte del mortuccio, only used by the 
dead, the spirit of death passed out with the corpse, after 
which the narrow door was closely locked and the safety of 
the living thus ensured. 

With his hands clasped behind his back he wandered about, 
his brain working hard. Whatever might be right for others 
— he would not judge them — he would in future spend less 
on himself in many ways of which he alone knew. He would 
make a stricter rule for himself and master himself to keep it. 
He would strike courageously at the very root of many things 
which conflicted with the higher line in his life than that he 
had taken hitherto or had imagined it was necessary to fol- 
low. His memory, which was exceptionally good, at that 
moment, recalled the words of a few lines he had once read 
of Saint Charles Borromeo, addressed to priests : " Live per- 
sonally in such poverty that you may be able to give for your 
churches, for the adornment of your altars, and for sacred 
objects — not the overflow of superfluity, but the savings stolen 
by self-denial from your necessary maintenance." It would 
not be at all difficult to see what to do, but to do it. It would 
be hard on the comparatively free but most difficult life of a 
secular priest to say " no " where he had said " yes " to many 
perfectly innocent pleasures, to some tastes good and whole- 
some in themselves, but not for him to indulge in. Since their 
renunciation had once been asked for by the voice which had 
spoken to him individually, should he not put his offering, 
made up of many and continued sacrifices, into the Sacred 
Hand where they would, by its holy touch be transmuted into 
everlasting riches? Nor for that motive only, though he 
might begin with it ; but it might lead him on by the power 
inherent in all sacrifice to being able to say that each action 
was prompted by love. 


Et amo, et amabo Te 
Solum, quia Rex meus es : 
Et solum, quia Deus es. 

And it did. 

John Carlton, as he made his way up the dusty road below 
the Giardinetto, went with a lighter heart, and before doing 
anything else he went to the Post Office to telegraph to the 
builder that he would require nothing done to his presbytery. 
On his return he wrote a kind letter to an old lady who had 
offered to send him for a tour through Spain in the autumn 
with her brother, to decline. 

Just three years later, while Padre Leo — the ex-Curato — 
was laboring in his Community, experiencing great joy at the 
attainment of his desire. Father Carlton was to be found in 
the same Sussex presbytery. But the church had been en- 
larged; schools were about to be built; the parish seemed to 
have new life in it; and there were great hopes that some 
exiled poor Clares from France, now established in a small 
house near, might some day have a Convent built for them; 
the great fact of a religious house, a centre of penance and 
reparation, bringing its blessing on the place. 

Of how much Father Carlton had to do with all this, no one 
was cognisant, for though he accounted simply for all gifts 
received, only God knew how many were the multitudinous 
acts of poverty included in his own personal offerings. 


Monotony of Style. 

A FRENCH writer has defined eloquence as the art of say- 
ing something to some one. A sermon is talked ; it has 
a definite subject and a definite audience. A tiresome sermon 
is often such because it is addressed to none in particular and 
because it is writing, not speaking, although it may be de- 
livered without paper or book. Many tiresome sermons are 
things read from the tablets of the memory.- They are es- 
says, not talks. They have the whole world for an audience, 


not any particular part of it. Unless one speaks extempoi 
and there is some hesitation about advising that course— there 
is every likelihood that the written sermon will not often rise 
out of the style of print. It is somewhat incongruous to talk 
to a sheet of paper through a fountain-pen or a typewriter. 
The writer of a sermon may begin with, " my dear brethren ", 
but that is the only sign that he is talking to any one. The 
audience disappears from his sight in the process of the com- 
position, and he is so engrossed in the work of formulating 
his thoughts in his mind and casting them into suitable ex- 
pression that there is no attempt made or no energy left to 
direct the composition toward living ears rather than project it 
upon dead paper. 

Strange, too, as it may seem, the more care is given to a 
sermon, the more likely is it to become an essay. Th© 
preacher himself may have in view a volume of sermons, or 
the occasion which has called for more careful composition, 
will likely be one that will be honored with an account in the 
press. In either case the sermon is written for the eye, rather 
than for the ear, to be read rather than to be heard. The 
audience is not a definite one, but the whole world. Instead 
of saying something to some one, he writes something — more 
usually anything — ^to anyone. 

An Essay has no Definite Audience. 
What is the effect upon a speech of an audience, either 
actually present or distinctly imagined ? Fortunately it is not 
hard to realize. Read the Congressional Record containing 
the speeches given in regular debate and the issues given up 
to the reproduction of memorial discourses. The debates, es- 
pecially in those parts where the speaker is interrupted or 
likely to be, are vigorous, direct, lively; whereas the me- 
morials are wearisome biographical essays, vapid, exagger- 
ated, even bombastic, and containing tasteless flowers of speech 
which would shrivel in the faintest heat of conflict. It is true 
indeed that panegyric belongs to a different type of oratory 
from debate and cannot be as direct. So much the better for 
our present purpose. The contrast in Congress may well il- 
lustrate the difference between a talk in the pulpit and a 
chapter of a new book read, or as good as read, in the same 


Demosthenes has always been pointed to as more direct 
than Cicero. Cicero has more commonplaces, more frequent 
digressions to the general truth, the particular application of 
which is under discussion. The difference, we believe, will 
be found due in a large part to the audience. Demosthenes 
spoke before the people in the Athenian assembly, with the 
opposition watching intently every word. Demosthenes felt 
their presence and stripped himself of the luxuriance of style. 
" There is Phocion," he said, " the pruner of my periods." 
Cicero, on the other hand, spoke most frequently in the senate, 
or if he spoke in the court, he was usually chosen to sum up 
the case and make the emotional appeal, because of his power 
in moving juries. Is it not worthy too of note that Cicero 
wrote books and no doubt looked toward publication, whereas 
Demosthenes has left us only speeches? A like contrast, il- 
lustrating the same difference between the essay and the 
speech, between dissertations and debates, between writers and 
speakers, is found in Burke and Fox. Burke was called the 
dinner-bell of the house of Commons. He was writing books, 
composing philosophy and emptying the benches, while Fox 
spoke far into the night and even to the next morning and 
prodded tired members into constant attention. A few years 
ago the present writer had an experience which showed the 
difference between talking and, what might be called, dis- 
coursing. One of the most eloquent orators of our time was 
addressing an audience in Faneuil Hall, Boston. His speech 
was frequently interrupted with cheers and applause. When, 
however, the speaker was somewhat advanced in his topic, 
he entered upon a digression, consisting of lengthy descrip- 
tions of an event not directly connected with the subject of 
the meeting. The people who a minute or two before had 
been applauding, began to rise and leave the hall. The orator 
finally noted the exodus, dropped his historical essay, went 
back to his talk and kept his audience attentive and enthusias- 
tic to the end. The New York Times said recently in an 
editorial : " The old style of declamatory speech died a natural 
death. Its revival would be inconsistent with the spirit of 
the age; it would savor of an anachronism; our- best speakers 
have a colloquial manner. But they are too few." This 
voices the modern demand for talks rather than disquisitions. 


A better way still to appreciate the effect of saying some- 
thing to someone rather than of composing for the wide, 
wide world, is found in letters, letters, be it understood, which 
are real letters, not masquerading as such because of an 
initial " Dear Sir ". In a letter the audience is a definite in- 
dividual to whom everything is addressed with a directness 
that is scarcely possible even in the best speeches. Imagine 
a letter-writer forgetting the one he addresses and delivering 
himself of learned discourses. It would be easier to imagine 
a man transmitting over a telephone a chapter of Burke's 
On the Sublime and Beautiful. How the thought in a letter 
is pointed and epigrammatic, how it discards useless digres- 
sions and delivers itself of no ponderous platitudes, how free 
it is from all pretence at fine writing or elaborate theorizing! 
How the sentences are light-footed, running on as a rule, but 
stopping now and then to allow the insertion of a passing re- 
mark, never stiffening into the self-conscious firmness which 
would come upon them if they felt they were to make their 
debut in print, nor dragging heavily along under the weight 
of some philosophical profundity. But you will say letters 
are trivial and chatty and deal with a series of unconnected 
facts and are for one individual, while sermons are quite the 
contrary. True enough! Nor is it intended to assert that 
letters are sermons. Yet letters do however illustrate the 
effect of an audience upon composition, and that fact would 
be sufficient reason for mentioning them in this connexion. 

Fortunately, however, we can go farther with the illustra- 
tion. We have in existence and at hand letters on serious and 
sacred subjects, treating of the highest truths of our faith, 
letters addressed to a whole congregation, having all the 
spontaneity, freshness, and directness of that style of composi- 
tion without their ephemeral and trivial character. These let- 
ters are the Epistles of St. Paul ; letters which are true ser- 
mons. St. Augustine in the fourth book of his Doctrina 
Christiana, which may be well styled the first Christian rhet- 
oric, has enthusiastic studies in St. Paul's eloquence. The 
great Doctor of the Church, who had himself been a teacher 
of rhetoric, takes no exaggerated view of rhetorical precepts. 
" Often," he sa5/s, " do we find speakers without precepts sur- 
passing those who have mastered them, but no one has ever 


been eloquent without hearing or reading speeches." He advo- 
cates, in consequence, the reading and imitation of Scripture 
and says, " I could, did leisure permit, point out in the Sacred 
Scriptures all the good qualities and beauties of eloquence." 
He declares too that the reader while engrossed with the 
sense of the sacred text will insensibly be saturated with the 
style. To enforce his teaching on the use of Scripture for 
preachers, he does not disdain to subject an eloquent passage of 
St. Paul to close analysis, pointing out in detail how clauses 
and phrases vary in number and length and nature, how state- 
ments are mingled with questions or interrupted with paren- 
theses, which we may call the foot-notes of the spoken word. 
The passage thus analyzed is II Cor. 9: 6-30, and surely there 
cannot be found anywhere anything less tiresome, anything 
more direct, more unlike a dogmatical disquisition and yet 
anything better fitted to convey the truths of faith with de- 
finiteness of audience and liveliness of the spoken word. 

An Essay is Written to be Read. 

An essay is written for the eye; a sermon is spoken for 
the ear and is profoundly influenced by the consciousness in 
the speaker of addressing an audience rather than of print- 
ing his thoughts for the world in general. An eye looking 
into your eye, an ear heeding your every word, a mind to be 
affected now or never, these key a man up, make his thoughts 
brisk and energetic and promote greater efforts to be clear 
and direct. There is all the difference between composing a 
sermon for readers and composing for listeners that there is 
between working by the day or working by contract, between 
laboring alone and under the eye of a master. The fertile 
distinction between essay and talk deals a hard blow to tire- 
some sermons and the distinction has not yet exhausted its 
possibilities. In the spoken word there is an animation that 
seems out of place in an essay. There are indeed essays which 
are talks just as there are talks that are essays. Lamb's 
chatty, vivacious essays are really bits of earnest conversa- 
tion. Such essays, however, are exceptions. To write con- 
versations looks like pretence or artificiality. What is natural 
and inevitable in conversation seems forced and out of place 
when writing-paper takes the place of a companion. So the 


whole Style of sermons when they are written, is likely to doff 
all the animation of conversation. 

What are all the so-called figures of words but the traits of 
the spoken word classified and ticketed with technical names? 
A recent writer on rhetoric has no difficulty in showing by a 
cleverly imagined scene that all the figures of speech are daily 
occurring around us. It would, no doubt, surprise many, as 
it surprised Moliere's Upstart, to learn he was speaking prose, 
to learn that they are indulging every day in such tremendous 
things as conversion, complexion, conduplication, asyndeton 
or dissolution, polysyndeton, anticipation, correction, doubt, 
communication, apostrophe, hypotoposis and aposiopesis. The 
list would send an ordinary man to the nearest doctor. Yet 
what do all these terms do but formulate in scientific language 
the differences between what is written and what is spoken? 
In the light of this truth, is it remarkable to learn that St. 
Paul abounds in these so-called figures of speech ? Some will 
have it he must have derived all his rhetoric from Greek schol- 
ars in Tarsus. However that may be St. Paul's Epistles fur- 
nish us with endless examples of the most ornate figures of 
speech. The strict climax, a combination of repetition of the 
preceding thought with the ordinary climax, is rare enough 
in literature, because its artifice is too evident. Cicero has 
but few examples and Demosthenes still fewer, while St. Paul 
has, besides others elsewhere, three examples in Romans. 
" We glory also in tribulations, knowing that tribulation work- 
eth patience, and patience trial, and trial hope, and hope con- 
foundeth not ".^ Oxymoron, a seeming contradi|ct{ion in 
terms, is another figure in which art is apparent. It is fre- 
quently found in the poets and not uncommon among the 
orators. It is a favorite beauty with St. Paul and takes no 
small part in imparting vivacity to his style. A beautiful 
example occurs in the middle of the eloquent sixth chapter 
of the II Corinthians. "As deceivers, and yet true; as un- 
known, and yet known; as dying and behold we live; as 
chastised and not killed; as sorrowful and yet always rejoic- 
ing; as needy, yet enriching many; as having nothing, and 
possessing all things." Paronomasia, or play on words, is St. 
Paul's most frequent figure. This is surely a most remark- 

1 Rom. 5 : 3 ; cf. 8 : 29 ; lo : 14. 


able fact that St. Paul should play on words, should indulge 
in what are really puns, although serious ones. Most of these, 
of course, are lost to us in the English translation. Twenty- 
one instances are cited by authorities. The famous example 
of paronomasia in Demosthenes' Speech on the Crown, No. ii, 
is almost duplicated in Romans 12:3. Demosthenes says, 
" With all your guile, Aschines, you were so guileless as to be 
beguiled into thinking," etc., while St. Paul is rendered thus 
by Farrar: " Not to be high-minded above what we ought to 
be minded but to be minded so as to be sober-minded ". St. 
Paul plays too on the name of Onesimus, profitable. " I be- 
seech thee for my son whom I have begotten in my bands, 
Onesimus, who hath been heretofore unprofitable to thee, but 
now is profitable both to thee and to me ". 

Attention has been called to these more striking figures to 
show how St. Paul made his language strain itself almost in 
an effort to be varied and interesting and to avoid tedious 
monotony. It is unnecessary to mention instances of the more 
usual figures which abound in every letter of St. Paul. Even 
in the use of ordinary figures such as repetition he strives for 
point. The well-known passage, " one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism," is still more striking in the original Greek, where 
" one " is carried through the three genders of the nominative 
case. Thirty different kinds of figures in all are pointed out 
by Farrar.^ It is to these figures we may ascribe the extra- 
ordinary energy of St. Paul's style, an energy which made St. 
Jerome say : "As often as I read him, I seem to hear not words 
but the rolling of thunder. They appear to be the words of 
a simple and guileless rustic ; of one who could not lay snares 
nor escape them ; yet look where you will they are lightning 
flashes. He is persistent in his attempt; he captures anything 
he attacks; he retreats in order to be victorious; he feigns 
flight in order the better to slay his foe." * 

An Essay is almost all Reasoning. 

The sacred essay of the pulpit lacks point because its audi- 
ence is vaguely visualized ; lacks life because it shuns the 
emphasis of a lively style, which looms too prominently in 

' The Life and Work of St. Paul, Excursus II, p. 693. 
^ Ep. ad Pammacb. 68, 13. 


print. Figures have an artificial sound to nimble critics who 
can outstrip in their thoughts the speaker and, while they are 
waiting for him to catch up, can leisurely and coldly dissect 
his language. Figures have an artificial look on the written 
page where the eye can see a dozen repetitions at a glance or 
reread a passage until its art is manifest. But the inex- 
perienced ear has not the power of the cold critic or the wide- 
reaching eye. It takes in one thing at a time; it does not 
anticipate and with difficulty reflects. Impression must be 
had upon it while the words are setting its auditory nerves 
tingling. If the style is direct and vigorous, the ear does not 
analyze. It is too busy with the thought and does not, like 
critic or reader, separate the thought from the expression. 

As the true listener is more simple and unreflecting, the 
true speaker is more likely to be expansive and emotional. 
Emotion shrinks away abashed from the written page. There 
are indeed earnest essays couched in burning words. As a 
rule, however, essays are predominantly intellectual and not 
emotional. They aim at conveying the truth clearly, not at 
steeping it in fire and fervor that it may touch the heart. I 
should be very glad to have every reader thrill with the con- 
viction that it is necessary to talk and not to deliver essays 
in the pulpit; but I hesitate to enforce the lesson with the 
intense emotional appeal that one would naturally use before 
an audience. I fear the cold print; I dread the inflexibility 
of reason. Logic chills the heart. The truth is so insistent 
that it be put fully and clearly and orderly with division and 
subdivision and rigid proofs and irrefutable conclusions, that 
emotion never has a chance at all. Dogmatic disquisitions 
take the place of sermons. A thesis is put into an essay and 
another tiresome half-hour is the result. 

Say something to someone. If a few sparks of the fire 
which rages sometimes in conversation, were thrown into a 
thesis, trying to masquerade as a sermon, there would be less 
tiresomeness in the pulpit. The essay is dull because it never 
flames into feeling. Here again St. Paul's Epistles will be 
the best school for unlearning tiresomeness. His great heart 
beats volcanic at the depths of his thought and his style heaved 
irregularly, tossed and broken by the pent-up heat and force. 
He cries out and vehemently protests. He lifts his voice in 


fear; he tenderly entreats; he is shocked; he is horrified; he is 
aglow with love and aflame with anger. Never can such 
emotion be tiresome. Mark the feeling surging to the surface 
in the eleventh chapter of the Second Epistle to the Corin- 
thians : " Would to God that you could bear with some little 
of my folly: but do bear with me. For I am jealous of you 
with the jealousy of God. . . . Although I be rude in speech, 
yet not in knowledge. Or did I commit a fault, humbling 
myself that you might be exalted ? Because I preached unto 
you the Gospel of God freely? . . . The truth of Christ is in 
me that this glorying shall not be broken off" in me in the 
regions of Achaia. Wherefore? Because I love you not? 
God knoweth it ... I say again, (let no man think me to be 
foolish, otherwise take me as one foolish, that I also may 
glory a little). ... I speak according to dishonor, as if we 
had been weak in this part. Wherein if any man dare (I 
speak foolishly). I dare also. They are Hebrews? So am 
I. They are Israelites? So am I. They are the seed of 
Abraham? So am I. They are the ministers of Christ? (I 
speak as one less wise). I am more. In many more labors, 
in prisons more frequently, in stripes above measure, in deaths 
often. Of the Jews five times did I receive forty stripes save 
one." And then, after a triumphant recounting of details, 
" Who is weak and I am not weak? Who is scandalized and 
I am not on fire? . . . The God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who is blessed forever, knoweth that I lie not." 

What would become of the tiresome sermon if it felt the 
earthquake shock of such talking and such stormy emotion? 
Even the elocution would immensely profit by this process. 
No one uses preachers' tones in conversation, and if the style 
of our sermons had the directness of a letter and the traits of 
talk which rhetoricians call figures, and above all if those ser- 
mons melted their logic in the lava of feeling, all of which St. 
Paul does, the sermon would cease to be an essay and would to 
a large extent cease to be tiresome. 

Francis P. Donnelly, S.J. 

Poughkeepsie, New York. 



" A Student's Daily Day." 

I HAVE read somewhere of a priest who, recounting his im- 
pressions of collegiate life, with refreshing candor de- 
clared that his most dreaded nightmare was one which 
brought him back in spirit to his college days, and that the 
climax of its hideousness was reached when in fancy the sound 
of the morning 6 o'clock bell was wafted to his subconscious 
dreaming faculties. Certainly the stroke of the first bell on a 
cold, dark, winter's morning was not such as to awaken pleas- 
urable or responsive feelings. It was what might be termed 
the bete noire of a student's existence. Weird tales are told 
by older priests of the days before the introduction of heating 
apparatus, when the walls streamed with moisture and the 
water- jugs in the student's rooms after a hard night's frost 
were found to contain solid ice. Times have changed. On 
the analogy of the different ages of advancing civilization, 
that period might appropriately be likened to the stone age. 
The iron age is now well advanced and when we shall see the 
introduction of a daily newspaper into the college libraries 
and one or two other social improvements which will readily 
occur to every student's mind, we shall be well on toward the 
golden age of what we might term college civilization. How- 
ever, the conditions of a student's life are now quite different 
from what they were twenty years ago. Wonderful changes 
have been effected, and all for the benefit and advantage of 
the students. What with the introduction of a perfect heating 
system into every room, class-hall, and library, an equally 
perfect installation of electric-lighting, swimming baths, etc., 
etc., the material comforts of the students leave little to be 
desired. In other respects their lot may not appear quite so 
roseate, at least to students of an older generation. Rules are 
now more numerous and more rigidly enforced, while the 
increasing number of subjects which of late years are being 
added to the curriculum, entails a continuous mental and 
physical effort which must prove a severe test of endurance to 
any but really gifted students. 



It will be generally admitted, I think, that of recent inno- 
vations the General Vacation at Christmas represents to a 
Maynooth student the Summum Bonum of material gratifica- 
tion. Under the old system, while most of us had to remain 
in the college during the Christmas recess, others of the stu- 
dents were free to go out after their examinations were con- 
cluded. This was an arrangement depending entirely on the 
will of the Bishops, who legislated in the matter, each for 
his respective diocese. A few of the Bishops had made it a 
hard and fast rule that their students were not to be allowed 
to go out. Others allowed more freedom to their students. 
The departure of these latter did not tend to make more pleas- 
ant the lot of their less fortunate brethren who were com- 
pelled to remain behind. The greatest diversion we could 
hope for or obtain was the President's permission to visit 
Dublin for a day; but even that permission was not always 
readily granted. Indeed it was sometimes impossible to get a 
hearing from the latter; and even when we were fortunate 
enough to obtain an interview, it frequently ended by our 
being promptly ushered to the door, when the first inkling of 
our business began to dawn in his venerable head. There 
was one student of my acquaintance who, having exhausted 
all orthodox and conventional methods, thought to effect a 
coup d'etat by appealing to the old gentleman's vanity. The 
fact that he had already been repulsed twice did not in any 
way damp his ardor or abate his self-assurance, and with a 
hope that the President would have forgotten all about the 
previous interviews, he went up to his rooms with his plan of 
operations very carefully thought out. 

" My Lord,'' he began, " I understand, my Lord, that the 
Bishops of Ireland have invested you with plentitude of juris- 
diction in regard to the students of this college. May I have 
your permission, my Lord, to go to-morrow to Dublin? " 

" Most of the Bishops, and Archbishops (ahem!) too, have 
been so gracious, I am flattered to say, but at the same time, 
Mr. O'Connor, I must decline to grant you the permission you 

" But, Monsignor " 

" That will do now ; if you really have business in Dublin 
and wish to go there, you must first (ahem!) have your 
Bishop's permission in writing." 


" But, Doctor Gargan, the Bishop leaves everything in your 

'' Your Bishop, I regret to say, does not, and besides, even 
if he did " (moving quickly toward the door) '* even if he 
did — " but the remainder of the sentence was lost on O'Con- 
nor. He probably felt he could supply it in his own mind, 
and with a curt, unceremonious '' Good-day, Father Gargan", 
he made his way down the stairs with all possible haste. 

A group of students who were evidently bent on a similar 
errand, were at the foot of the stairs eagerly awaiting the 
result of this interview, but it did not take long to convince 
them that when a finished tactician of O'Connor's status had 
failed, it would be a hopeless waste of energy for them to try ; 
and although O'Connor's method of diplomacy had warmly 
commended itself to them, they seemed to be unanimously of 
opinion that had he only persevered in his first and original 
mode of address, the interview would doubtless have had a 
much more pleasant and satisfactory termination; to all of 
which O'Connor gloomily signified approval, attributing his 
want of success to the fact that when he saw he was making 
no impression he completely lost his temper. 

The first official duty of a student's day was morning 
prayer. It was read by the deans in their respective divi- 
sions at 6.30, when all students were supposed to be in their 
places in the oratory. The athletic prowess displayed by some 
belated students, rushing down the stairs just on the stroke 
of the clock, was marvelous to behold, and was such as might 
turn a troupe of professional acrobats green with envy. There 
was a story told of a student who once by way of experiment 
made the descent by means of the bell rope. Having done so, 
he evidently came to the conclusion that the stairs, if less 
rapid, entailed less danger of breaking his neck. At all 
events it is not recorded that he ever attempted the feat again. 
Few of the students were ever late for prayers; apart from 
other considerations, the consequences of habitual negligence 
in this important duty might be found to be unpleasantly 
serious at the end of the academic term. 

After morning prayer half an hour was devoted to medita- 
tion — on Sunday the dean delivered a lecture instead — and 
then the students assisted at Holy Mass. There was one Very 


Venerable, a dear old man, who sometimes said the commu- 
nity Mass for the Divinity students. He was one of the 
spiritual directors of the college, and was among the holiest 
and most conscientious priests it has ever been my fortune to 
know. He has since gone to his happy reward. At Mass, 
however, he was painfully slow, and at the consumption of 
the Sacred Species he was particularly painstaking and exact. 
Always careful to the point of scrupulosity, he never seemed 
to be thoroughly satisfied that all the Sacred Fragments had 
been collected from the corporal, and would return to it time 
and again, holding the paten this way and that to allow the 
light to fall on it with a view to detecting any minute frag- 
ment that might remain. 

Some of the fourth year's divines one day made bold to 
mention the matter to him and to twit him about it in a jocose 

** Father C — *', they said, " do you know what the students 
are saying? " 

"What is it, child?" 

" Well ! that you keep looking, and admiring yourself in the 

"Do they say so, now. My ! oh, my ! Ungrateful boys, 
how unkind ! " 

After that, in our oratory at any rate, his Mass was always 
finished within a reasonable time. Quite in contrast to him, 
but no less conscientious, was another priest who used occa- 
sionally to say Mass for us. It is related somewhere of a 
Canon of Winchester that he could give any other of the 
Canons to "Pontius Pilate" in the Creed, and beat him. With- 
out wishing to be irreverent, I should say that this particular 
priest could begin Mass when any other priest was at the 
Gospel, and finish before him. He had a natural aptitude for 
rapidity of movement and quickness of speech. Different 
natures are differently constituted, and he doubtless felt that 
the danger of distraction was in his case considerably lessened 
by performing the sacred ceremony without avoidable delay. 

The hour between Mass and breakfast was ostensibly set 
apart for study, though it was not infrequently devoted to the 
completion of a hasty and unfinished toilet and setting the 
rooms in order ; the rest of the hour was passed with one eye 


on the book and another on the clock, and an ear waiting for 
the first sound of the breakfast bell as 8.30 approached. It 
is only natural to suppose that no one was by any chance ever 
late for this particular or any similar function. Although 
in no sense a triumph of the culinary art or what the dilettanti 
would term gastronomic metaphysics, the food, considering 
the enormous crowd that had daily to be catered for, left little 
to be desired either in the matter of quantity or quality. We 
had few luxuries, it is true, but meals were all the more 
wholesome because of that. Chronic indigestion and consti- 
pation unhappily played havoc with the health of many stu- 
dents, due, I believe, to the abnormal proportion of calcium 
which the water contains, and which it would seem is de- 
posited in the form of sediment in the alimentary tubes just 
as carbon is deposited in the boilers of a locomotive or in an 
ordinary kitchen kettle. At least such was the explanation 
vouchsafed to me by a student who, from painful experience 
and careful study of the malady, professed to speak with ex- 
pert knowledge on the matter, and who could dilate on the 
mysticism of gastronomic alchemy with far more fluency and 
brilliancy than he could, say, on the essence of habitual grace 
or the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. It was pitiable 
to see the wreck which it made of the health of some poor 
students, and at the time when the regular Christmas vacation 
had not yet been instituted it was by no means uncommon for 
students to be obliged to take an extended vacation in the 
middle of the term, a proceeding which, whilst it no doubt 
proved highly beneficial to their health, afterward entailed 
considerable labor and trouble in making up lost ground in 

During meals strict silence was observed in the refectory — 
I mean, of course, apart from the terrific din which is neces- 
sarily occasioned by the frequent clashing of 500 knives and 
forks with a corresponding number of plates, not to mention 
the sonorous tones of the reader in the pulpit. " The har- 
mony of the dinner table," Le Gallienne remarks, " is a music 
first composed in the kitchen, transferred to notation on the 
menu, and finally performed in a skilful melody of digestion." 
Whether all these elements are essential to a successful and 
satisfactory meal I do not profess to know, but I do know that 



there was no time when the students seemed more in harmony 
with themselves and with everything else than when the bell 
summoned them to the refectory. A very worthy priest of 
my acquaintance makes it a point to extend hospitality twice 
a year to a number of young priests and students in the shape 
of an invitation to dinner. There is a careful and rigid exclu- 
sion of the elder brethren of the cloth, his idea being that, 
after all, the young fellows are the only people worth giving 
a dinner to, as they alone know how to appreciate and enjoy 
it ; and the average Maynooth student, whether inside or out- 
side the College, can be relied on to give a good account of 
himself on these occasions. 

I think it is Le Gallienne again who remarks that " the 
kitchen is the power-house of the soul ". To pursue the meta- 
phor, the only occasions on which there was any departure 
from the ordinary routine supply of power, were Christmas, 
Hallow-Eve, and St. Patrick's Day. On these days we were 
treated to a right royal repast, more expressively termed by 
the students a " Gaudeamus " or a ** Spread ". There were 
occasions when the philosophically inclined might freely des- 
cant on what somebody facetiously calls " the metaphysics of 
roast duck " — ^yes, and for that matter, of ham and roast 
beef and the various other appetizing delicacies which are 
usually associated with a groaning and luxurious dinner table. 
There was a fruit mess and a wine mess, at either of which 
any students might sit, but he might not partake of both. The 
wine mess was never largely patronized, and has since, I 
understand, on that account been entirely discontinued. There 
was no reading on these special days, but the reader by custom 
was always entitled to a bottle of wine, and it was the subject 
of frequent calculations for weeks before as to who was likely 
to be the fortunate individual. On these occasions we were 
generally left free to enjoy our dinner minus the supervision 
of the ubiquitous dean, who was supposed to take an all- 
absorbing interest in watching the various processes by which 
the human animal fortified himself. 

After dinner songs were sung, and in the evening a play or 
variety entertainment much appreciated by the students wasi 
always provided in the Aula Maxima. Mr. W. Ludwig, the 
celebrated bass, once favored us with several songs, and an 


American priest from Kentucky who accompanied him created 
no end of amusement by a jolly speech in which in truly 
characteristic American fashion he proposed a vote of thanks 
to his friend Mr. Ludwig, " from the ground right up ever 
so high ". 

Just now on glancing back it occurs to me that, having in- 
troduced this chapter as " A Student's Daily Day ", I have 
so far said little or nothing about it. Well, if the truth must 
be told there is, dear reader, little or nothing to say. 
" Cribbed, cabined, and confined," as the student is, the ordi- 
nary routine of his life allows little room for variety. Strict 
silence is enforced all day, and every day, except during the 
two or three hours set apart for legitimate recreation. The 
remainder of the time is divided between study and the lecture 
halls. Once a month the professor of Irish delivered a lecture 
in the McMahon Hall on Irish archeology, to which all the 
students were invited. Occasionally we were privileged to 
hear some distinguished lecturer or scholar from another Col- 
lege or University who usually came on the invitation of the 
President to lecture on some interesting and entertaining sub- 
ject. On these special occasions there was always a dinner 
given in the Professors' quarters to which many prominent 
people from outside, both lay and clerical, were invited. It 
was at one of these dinners, I believe, that a careless waiter 
happened to let a plate of soup spill over a very venerable 
and distinguished ecclesiastic. Somewhat aroused by the in- 
cident, he turned on the offending waiter: " What the " 

he began ; but, suddenly recollecting himself, he turned to the 
table : " Ahem ! Perhaps some layman would kindly oblige 
me by saying a few words appropriate to the occasion." 

Sunday in Maynooth differed little from the other days of 
the week. There were no lectures as a rule. A large academic 
institution like Maynooth, with its trained ecclesiastics, its 
beautiful chapels, and everything else conducive to devotion, 
naturally owes to itself and to the Church that all liturgical 
functions be carried out with that magnificence and accuracy 
of detail to which the elaborate ritual of the Church so ob- 
viously lends itself. And indeed it is only right to say that 
the solemnity and impressiveness of the ceremonies were in 
every way worthy of the venerable traditions which the 



Roman Catholic Church in her history has left behind her. 
With six hundred and fifty white-robed ecclesiastics chanting 
the solemn strains of Gregorian music antiphonally, and with 
one of the best choirs of trained voices in the world, the divine 
service was always a function well worthy of the most cher- 
ished traditions of the Eternal City. There are petty minds 
who profess to sneer at Maynooth and the Maynooth training. 
I have met them sometimes outside Ireland. They will always 
be found to be men whose ideas are warped, and whose judg- 
ments are prei,udiced from the narrow associations of diocesan 
or provincial colleges, whose minds are tinged with a certain 
national sectarianism; but facts if they regard them must 
force even these to admit that, when hard work has to be 
faced, the Irish priest is always at hand to do it; and that 
neither in point of learning, nor sanctity, nor priestly equip- 
ment has the Irish soggarth to yield the palm to any other 
nation on this broad earth, or forgo the ancient, glorious, and 
national traditions of the Island of Scholars and of Saints. 
Maynooth to-day stands in the forefront of the great eccle- 
siastical institutions of the world — Maynooth with its 650 
university graduates, and its staff which includes thirty-five 
professors and lecturers chosen from the best that Ireland can 
produce; Maynooth whose venerable halls have sent forth 
over 7,000 chosen ministers of God's Church, and whose 
bishops and priests are to be found " in the remotest confines of 
the earth and the farthest off islands of the sea ". 

P. Sheridan. 
Dungloe, Ireland. \ 


FATHER FLAVIN yawned long and loudly, and his chin 
nodded down to where the snuff rested in little rills upon 
his chest. But his head did not rest; it nodded again, up and 
down, and the spectacles slipped to an impossible angle on his 
nose. Unconsciously the knotted old hands had kept hold 
of the thumb-worn office book, but after a time they too re- 
laxed, and the breviary fell with sufficient force 'to arouse the 

1 The following story is substantially true to fact. 


dozer. He started then and opened his eyes, and stooping 
gathered up the book and its scattered contents, and opened 
the leaves at the office of the day. 

Vespers had been said, of that he had no doubt; it was only 
before beginning Complin that he had paused for a moment, 
and the involuntary interlude of slumber was the result. 

Certainly it was terribly hot. Even in the shade of the 
garden trees where the old man sat it was unlike anything an 
ordinary summer produces within reach of such Atlantic 
breezes as usually kept the parish swept. The season was alto- 
gether unprecedented; no summer within the memory of man 
had produced such burning sun, so universal a drought. 
There had been a good deal of sickness too, one way and an- 
other. More than one young girl had gone out to the weary 
task of water-drawing with hair only covered, as is the cus- 
tom, with a loose handkerchief or the corner of a shawl, and 
had come in, to rest a wildly aching head on a pillow from 
which it was never to be raised again. 

Then too the stagnant pools had been irresistible, where 
the wells were dry, both to children and to workers in whom 
common sense and self-control were equally wanting, and 
the consequences had been not only frequent visits of the 
Union cart, from the rumble of which along the dusty roads 
even the children ran, but also several sudden inroads of the 
fever, where the patient was swept away before doctor could 
be summoned or van requisitioned. Only the priest had been 
sent for, and his ministrations had been all that were needed 
or obtained. Father Flavin decided that he would not at- 
tempt the psalms for the closing of the day just yet. It was 
early still, as the glaring heat in the garden testified. He 
would wait and rest now, and when evening came he would 
pray. So now with book laid in safety on the bench at his 
side, again his head fell down in sleep. 

The birds twittering about him — lazily, for they too felt 
the heat — did not disturb him ; they were old friends all, and 
their voices were a soothing lullaby. Biddy, calling to the 
boy to " go for the love o' God an' fetch another taste o' water 
from the chapel tank beyond, for them ducks that was fairly 
perished with the drought ", Biddy disturbed him no more 
than the birds. Indeed her requests for water had become 



almost as incessant as the chirping of the birds, or the quack- 
ing of the thirsty ducks. 

But later another voice, not that of the boy, came to his 
slumber-dulled ears, a voice that alternated from entreaty to 
indignation, and the sleeper moved uneasily, feeling there was 
something going on in which he ought to have his say. Then 
he went back to dreaming, and he saw again in sleep a scene 
that had been enacted under his waking eyes only a few weeks 
before, and that had dwelt with him since, as something in- 
finitely tender, infinitely consoling, a token of love that repaid 
the weary service of many a dark ride through wet and storm 
on winter nights. 

He had been in the garden, then as now — indeed one of 
Biddy's perennial grievances was the fact that, as she ex- 
pressed it, " Every moment he's in the house, God help him, 
he's in the garden " — resting too after a long and sad day's 

Three children had died of fever in the same house. True, 
three little souls had gone to heaven, unafraid because Father 
Flavin had reminded them that Jesus was waiting; yet three 
little bodies lay still in a lonely house, where a lonely mother 
sat and watched till daylight would bring the digger of three 
little graves. 

Then, as now, a voice had come to him, and through the 
gathering dusk of a short summer's night a shadowy figure 
had risen up beside him, a figure whose bare feet had made 
no sound, falling on the softness of the turf, and a low husky 
voice had asked him to hold his hands in absolution over a 
head that Death had claimed for its own. 

" Where was the dying man? " He had not been able to 
keep the tone of utter weariness out of his voice as he ques- 
tioned, but the answer came, huskily again but quickly, reas- 
suring though amazing. It was no man who sought him, but 
a woman, the woman who now fell on her knees a pace away 
from him. Yes, she was dying. She knew it, felt it, and as 
the shawl slipped onto her shoulders and the moon shone on 
her gray-drawn face. Father Flavin could not say her nay. 
She had " left the childer, God give them rest in glory! sure, 
they didn't need her now " — and had come for the comfort of 
which, a few hours earlier, when the priest had been in her 


own house, she had not felt the need. The sickness this sum- 
mer had been very quick and sure. 

" Why had she not sent for him ? " The priest spoke almost 
Sternly. Surely the fever had not made every man in the 
parish a coward? 

" Because " — the answer came simply, for the woman had 
no thought that her act was anything but the most natural. 
She had never heard, in modern Gaelic at all events, the word 
" heroine ". Because " hadn't his reverence spent himself 
entirely that day, an' weren't the childer, God rest them ! lyin' 
round the kitchen these hours. The doctor had said to go 
into such a house, an' you drunk or tired, was certain death." 

And so when Death began to creep upon her, she unspan- 
celled the ass and started, two miles and more of a rough bog 
road, and here she was ; " the ass, savin' his honor's favor, 
was standin' at the gate ". 

She was quite peaceful. Wasn't she " goin' to God Al- 
mighty to be with the childer an' himself who'd lost his life 
three years ago at sea ? " Only she was very weary, and 
when, in a voice more husky now than her own, the priest had 
said the prayers, had anointed her there, in the garden, creep- 
ing in for what was needed, like a thief in the night for fear 
of Biddy, — when all was over she had insisted, nay she had 
even spoken angrily to the priest, to let her go her own way. 
So perforce she had her will, only unknown to her the old 
man had followed even into the shadows of the hillside till 
the doorway of her own house swallowed her up. Then the 
tears that had hardened into a ball in his throat came to his 
eyes, and flowed down the ruts and furrows of his cheeks. 

And in his sleep, as he dreamt over again the story of the 
woman whom he had buried with her children by her side, the 
tears came as before and choked him, till, between them and 
the voices which were still wrangling in the kitchen, he awoke. 

It was the usual thing, an altercation between Biddy and 
some one who, for all answer to a declaration that their sick- 
call was urgent, was met with the information that the curate 
was out, but would be in for dinner, and the messenger might 
rely upon her, Biddy's, word that " Mrs. Costello wouldn't 
go — God be good to her ! — till the turn o' the evening. That 
was the time they went mostly, without they lasted to the dusk 
before the dawn." 


But the voice of the messenger told the now fully-awakened 
listener which of the many owners of the name of Costello 
was seeking for his priestly ministrations. 

Mary-from-Loughee, they called her. For fifty years ago 
she had come over the mountains to marry one of the sea- 
going Costellos. And from that same parish had come the 
priest who, making an exception to the usual diocesan pro- 
cedure, had long labored first as curate, then as pastor in the 
home of Mary's husband. 

Father Flavin had only lately had a curate himself; but 
the habit of making use of younger bones was one he did not 
seem able to acquire. In other parishes the curates seemed 
fully occupied. Here, assistance was certainly welcome on 
Sundays, and during the week the school attendance rose con- 
siderably, for according as the speaker was only an irregular 
attendant or a systematic " mitcher ", Father McMurrogh was 
either *' a bit wicked " or " horrid mad *'. But except when 
Biddy absolutely forbade it and refused to disclose where she 
had hidden hat and stick. Father Flavin clung to his old 
habits, and did his visiting and most of his sick-calls unaided. 

Then the curate complained that there was nothing to do, 
and so his bicycle carried him farther afield. Had he been 
at home now, or had the sick-call come from anyone but Mary- 
from-Loughee, Father Flavin would have willingly accepted 
the offer of being replaced, which, when at home, the young 
man eagerly made. But he was not at home, and it was Mary. 
It was seldom, very seldom now that he was peremptory with 
Biddy; but when he was, there was not a word to be said. 
It was no use speaking of the heat, no use reminding him 
that he was tired, no use even using the last and biting weapon 
of a reference to his age. He was going. That was all. 

The pony was away, being shod. This was a triumphant 
fact. Very well, he would walk. Certainly it was not very 
far and the road all the way was downhill. But the sun was 
very, very hot and even the white dust seemed almost to burn 
his feet as he dragged them along, for he was tired and he was 
old, although before Biddy he would own to neither. 

There was no coolness, even in the Costello's kitchen. 
Here again it seemed that Biddy was right. The sick woman 
certainly would not go before the turn of the night and, judg- 


ing by the strength of her voice, there was great probability 
of her lasting till the dusk of the morning. 

She received the Food for the journey on which she was 
about to start, fully conscious, and followed the prayers that 
the priest read slowly and clearly. Time was when he had 
read them quickly enough, but now, with the tired aching of 
his own head and limbs, he seemed to find ease and comfort 
in the familiar words: 

" Depart, ye Christian soul." 

Ah well ! and why not? Another sentence came to his mind. 
" The night cometh, when no man can work." What use 
would he be if the night came upon him, — would it not be 
easier to pass out into light everlasting? Somehow to-day 
for the first time in all his life, the desire to go on living burnt 
low within him. 

" Well, Father James " — Mary-from-Loughee spoke thus to 
him with a familiarity that none of his other parishioners 
used — ** so after all 'tis me to go the first of us; but you have 
a good six years more than I have to carry to the grave, an' 
maybe it wont be long till God Almighty has a place ready 
for you as well." 

" Maybe not, Mary, maybe not. I believe you're right. I'm 
getting an old man." 

" Getting an old man ! " In all eyes but his own he had 
been an old man for years, and yet he remained so active 
that now, going out into the great heat not one of the Cos- 
tellos thought it might be more than such an old man could 

The road coming had been downhill. Therefore re- 
turning it mounted, mounted wearily and all the while the 
sun burned and burned, through the thin fringe of hair, and 
the blood was pumped too violently through the old veins 
for an old heart to bear. 

At long, long last he regained the garden. Biddy had for 
a moment forsaken her lookout, and so she missed him. His 
lips were parched; he wanted a drink so badly, but — ^but — . 
Involuntarily his limbs relaxed and he sank back on the seat 
he had quitted not so long before. 

He had said Vespers. Yes, that he remembered, but not 
Complin, and — it was curious, for the sun had certainly been 
shining a few moments ago — it was getting dark. 


He began the familiar psalms, holding his book open from 
long-continued habit, but praying from memory only. 

The darkness was gathering. Still he went on with his 
office. He was very, very tired; but God knew he meant no 
inattention. Then there were voices. Biddy's again and 
Father McMurrogh's. 

" But he has come back. He is sitting there in the garden." 
He knew the quick incisive young voice that had earned for 
its owner the reputation of being " a bit wicked ". He saw 
the short slight figure, the long black coat, gray now with 
dust; and as his eyelids fell he caught the glimmer of the 
sun on bicycle clips. Then it was dark. But again he opened 
his eyes. 

He saw a startled young face. The quick flash of a purple 
ribbon from a dusty pocket. A figure kneeling beside him 
with bared head. An upraised hand. 

But his office. He was forgetting it. 

" Salva nos, Domine, vigilantes, custodi nos dormientes." 
Yes, he would soon be ready to sleep " ut vigilemus cum 
Christo, et requiescamus in pace *'. His words must have 
been audible, for a voice answered him, " Amen ". 

Then again it was dark, quite, quite dark. But he had 
«aid his Complin. 

A. Dease. 



Erectionis Dioecesis Kearneyensis. 

Ssmus Dominus Noster Pius PP. X decreto huius Sacrae 
Consistorialis Congregationis diei 8 martii 19 12 peramplum 
dioecesis Omahensis territorium bifariam divisit, in eiusque 
occidentali parte novam et distinctam dioecesim, Kearneyen- 
sem ab urbe vulgo Kearney denominandam, erexit. 

Limites novae Kearneyensis dioecesis hi sunt, idest ad ori- 
entem fines orientales comitatum civilium Keyapaha, Rock, 
Garfield, Valley, Sherman et Buffalo; ad meridiem vero flu- 
men Platte ac dein confinia civilia inter Status Nebraska et 
Colorado; ad occidentem et ad septentrionem denique ipsa 
confinia civilia Status Nebraska; ita ut nova haec dioecesis 
comprehendat viginti sex comitatus civiles integros, videlicet 
Keyapaha, Rock, Garfield, Valley, Sherman, Buffalo, Chey- 
enne, Kimball, Banner, Scotts Bluff, Sioux, Dawes, Box 
Butte, Morrill, Garden, Sheridan, Cherry, Grant, Hooker, 
Thomas, McPherson, Logan, Custer, Blaine, Loup et Brown; 
itemque partem comitatuum civilium Dawson, Lincoln, Keith 
ac Deuel nuncupatorum. 


Insuper praedictam dioecesim suffraganeam constituit me- 
tropolitanae ecclesiae Dubuquensis. 

Erectionis Dioecesis Corporis Christi. 
Item eadem Sanctitas Sua decreto eiusdem Sacrae Congre- 
gationis diei 23 martii 1 91 2 Brownsvillensem apostolicum 
vicariatum, iisdem ut antea territorii finibus circumscriptum, 
in dioecesim erexit ac instituit, quam a civitate ubi sedis episco- 
palis statuta est Corpus Christi denominavit, eamque suffra- 
ganeam metropolitanae ecclesiae Novae Aureliae constituit. 


Declarationis circa Dioecesis Fines Wayne- Castrensis. 

Pariter decreto eiusdem Sacrae Congregationis died 29 
martii 191 2 Ssmus Dominus Noster declarare dignatus est 
Wayne- Castrensem dioecesim totum complecti septentrionale 
territorium civilis Status Indiana, ita ut ipsa iisdem quoquo- 
versus circumscribatur finibus quibus antea dioecesis Vincen- 
nopolitana, modo autem Indianapolitana nuncupata, a qua 
tamen ad meridiem discriminatur per australia confinia comi- 
tatuum civilium vulgo Warren, Fountain, Montgomery, 
Boone, Hamilton, Madison, Delaware et Randolph, quos et 



Plurimus ex locis pervenerunt ad banc S. Congregationem 
Concilii supplices libelli, quibus instantissime postulatur ut 
omnes aut nonnulli dies festi de numero festivitatum sub prae- 
cepto per litteras Apostolicas diei 2 iulii 191 1 expuncti, in 
pristinum restituantur, tum ad satisfaciendum pietati fidelium 
id enixe expetentium, tum ob alias peculiares cuiusque loci 
rationes. Potissimum vero supplicatum fuit ut festum Ssmi 
Corporis Christi celebrari possit cum solemni processione et 
pompa, ut antea, feria V post Dominicam Ssmae Trinitatis, 
earn praesertim ob causam quod huiusmodi processionis de- 
fectum non sine animi moerore et spirituali iactura pati vi- 



deantur populi, qui earn diem specialiter solemnem habere et 
miro splendore celebrare consueverunt. 

Porro, Ssmus Dnus N. Pius PP. X, Cui relatio de prae- 
missis facta fuit ab infrascripto Cardinali huius S. Congre- 
gationis Praefecto, plane cupiens ne, ex praepostera aut non 
recta interpretation e praedictarum litterarum, fidelium pietas 
ac debitus Deo cultus imminuantur; volens imo ut, quoad fieri 
possit, augeantur, haec quae sequuntur declarari, praecipi 
atque indulgeri mandavit: 

1° Quum, perpensis temporum rerumque novarum adiunctis, 
Summus Pontifex nonnullos dies expunxit e numero festivi- 
tatum sub praecepto, quemadmodum non semel a Suis De- 
cessoribus factum fuit, minime sane intellexit ut eorum dierum 
festivitas omnino supprimeretur ; vult immo Sanctitas Sua ut 
iidem dies in sacris templis celebrentur non minori quam antea, 
solemnitate, et, si fieri potest, eadem populi frequentia. Ea 
vero fuit et est Sanctitatis Suae mens, ut relaxata maneat 
tantummodo sanctio qua fideles tenebantur iis diebus audire 
Sacrum et abstinere ab operibus servilibus; idque potissimum 
ad evitandas frequentiores praecepti transgressiones et ne 
forte contingeret ut, dum a multis Deus honorificatur, ab aliis 
non sine gravi animarum detrimento offenderetur. Praecipit 
itaque Eadem Sanctitas Sua omnibus et singulis animarum 
curam gerentibus ut ipsi, dum haec commissis sibi gregibus 
significant, ne cessent eos hortari vehementer ut, iis etiam 
diebus, pergant suam in Deum pietatem et in Sanctos vene- 
rationem, quantum maxime poterunt, testari, praesertim per 
frequentiam in ecclesiis ad audienda sacra aliaque pia ex- 
ercitia peragenda. 

2° Quo autem Christifideles magis excitentur ad supra- 
dictos dies festos pie sancteque excolendos, vigore praesentium 
litterarum, conceditur omnibus locorum Ordinariis ampla 
facultas dispensandi cum suis subditis super lege ieiunii et 
abstinentiae, quoties dies abstinentiae vel ieiunio consecratus 
incidat in festum quod, licet praecepto non subiectum, cum 
debita populi frequentia devote celebratur. 

3° Item, per praesentes litteras conceditur ut festum Ssmi 
Corporis Cfiristi, ubi Sacrorum Antistites ita in Domino ex- 
pedire censuerint, etsi praecepto non obstrictum, celebrari 
possit cum solemni processione et pompa, prout antea, feria V 


post Dominicam Ssmae Trinitatis; contrariis quibuscumque 
non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae ex Secretaria Sacrae Congregationis Con- 
cilii, die 3 mail 191 2. 

C. Card. Gennari, Praefectus, 

L. * S. 

O. GiORGi^ Secretarius. 



Urbis et Orbis. 

( Continuatur. ) 


Expungatur integrum Psalterium, eique substituatur Ordi- 
narium et Novum Psalterium. 

In Propria de Tempore Breviarii. 

Post Festum Ss. Innocentium, suppressis Rubricis quae) 
nunc habentur, ponantur sequentes: 

Si Festum Nativitatis Domini, S. Stephani, S. Joannis 
Evang. et Ss. Innocentium venerit in Dominica, ipsa die nihil 
fit de Dominica, sed die proxima post Festum S. Thomae 
Mart, fit de ea, ut infra. 

Si Festum Sancti Thomae venerit in Dominica, tunc in II. 
Vesp. Ss. Innocentium fit comm. Dom. (Ant. Dum medium, 
V. Verbum caro. Oratio Omnipotens ut infra), deinde S. 
Thomae et trium Octavarum. Ipsa vero die Dominica fit Offi- 
cium de ea, ritu semiduplici, ut infra ponitur, et ad Laudes 
fit Comm. S. Thomae et quatuor Octavarum. In II. Vesp. fit 
Officium de Nativitate, ritu semiduplici, a capitulo de Dom- 
inica cum comm. sequentis diei infra Octavam Nativitatis 
(Ant. Ho die. v. Notum. Oratio Concede), S. Thomae et trium 
Octavarum. Die vero 30 Decembris fit Officium de die infra 
Oct. Nativitatis, ritu semiduplici, ut infra, cum commemor- 
atione trium Octavarum; et II. Vesperae dicuntur, ritu du- 
plici, de Nativitate, a capitulo de S. Silvestro cum commem- 
oratione quatuor Octavarum. 


Si vero Dominica venerit die 30 Decembris, in Sabbato 
dicuntur Vesperae de Nativitate, ritu semiduplici, a capitulo 
de Dominica cum commemoratione S. Thomae et quatuor 
Octavarum. Ipsa vero die Dominica fit Officium de ea, ritu 
semiduplici, et ad Laudes fit commemoratio quatuor Octa- 
varum. In II. autem Vesperis fit Officium de Nativitate, ritu 
semiduplici, a capitulo de Dominica cum commemoratione se- 
quentis Festi S. Silvestri et quatuor Octavarum. 

Si denique Dominica venerit in Festo S. Silvestri, in II. 
Vesp. S. Thomae fit comm. seq. diei infra Oct. Nativitatis et 
aliarum Octavarum. Die 30 Decembris fit Officium de die 
infra Oct. Nativ., ut infra, et in II. Vesp. fit Officium de 
Nativitate, ritu semiduplici, a capitulo de Dominica; deinde 
fit comm. diei infra Octav. Nativitatis, S. Silvestri et aliarum 
Octavarum. Die vero 31 Decembris fit Officium de Dominica, 
ritu semiduplici, ut infra : ad Laudes fit comm. S. Silvestri et 
quatuor Octavarum: et 11. Vesp. fiunt de Circumcisione 
Domini cum comm. Dominicae tantum. 

Deinde ponitur: 

Dominica infra Octava Nativitatis. 

In I. Vesperis: Capitulum Fratres, quanta tempore, etc. 
Hymnus Jesu, Redemptor, ut supra, v. Verbum caroy etc. 
Ad Magnificat Ant. Dum mediuniy etc. Oratio Omnipotens. 
Postea fit comm. Octavarum. 

Deinde omnia ut in Breviario usque ad II. Vesp. inclusive. 

Postea ponitur: 

Die 29 Decembris. 
In Festo S. Thomae Episc. Mart. Duplex. 

Oratio Deus pro cujus, etc. 

In I Nocturno : Lectiones A Mileto. 

In II. Nocturno: Thomas^ etc. (ut in Breviario) . 

In III. Nocturno: Ut in Breviario. 

Ad Laudes: Capitulum Beatus vir etc. Hymnus: Invicte 
Martyr, unicum. v. lustus ut palma, etc. Ad Benedictus 
Ant. Qui odit animam suam etc. Oratio Deus pro cujus ut 

Postea fit comm. Octavarum. 



Ad Horas: Capitula et RR. sumuntur de Comm. unius 

Ad Vesperas : Ant. et Psalmi de Nativitate, Capitulum, ut 
supra ad Laudes. Hymnus : Deus tuorum milHum. v. Justus 
ut palma etc. Ad Magnificat ant. Qui vult venire etc. Oratio 
Deus pro cujus ut supra. Deinde fit com. sequentis diei infra 
Oct. Nativitatis: Ant. Hodie etc. v. Notum etc. Oratio 
Concede etc. Postea fit com. aliarum Octavarum. 

Die 30 Decembris. 
De VI. Die infra Oct. Nativitatis. Semiduplex. 

Omnia dicuntur ut in Festo Nativitatis, praeter RR. quae 
sumuntur de Dominica et Lectiones III. Nocturni, ut infra: 
Lectio sancti Evangelii etc. {ut in Breviario) . 

Ad Laudes fit commemoratio de aliis Octavis. 

Ad Vesperas: Ant. et Psal. de Nativitate. Capitulum 
Ecce Sacerdos etc. Hymnus Iste Confessor, v. Amavit. 
Ad Magnificat Ant. Sacerdos et Pontifex. Oratio Da quae- 
sumus. Deinde fit comm. praecedentis diei infra Octav. 
Nativitatis. Ant. Hodie. v. Notum. Oratio Concede. Postea 
fit comm. aliarum Octavarum. 

Die 31 Decembris. 
In Festo S. Silvestri I. Papae Confessoris. Duplex. 

Oratio Da quaesumus. In I. Nocturno {ut in Breviario). 
In II. Nocturno {ut in Breviario) .. In III. Nocturno Homilia 
in Evang. Siitt lumbi de comm. Conf. non Pont, cum RR. 
de Comm. Conf. Pont. 

Ad Laudes : Capitulum Ecce sacerdos magnus etc. Hymnus 
Jesu Redemptor omnium, v. Justus etc. Ad Benedictus Ant. 
Euge, serve hone etc. Oratio Da quaesumus etc. Postea fit 
comm. Octavarum. 

Ad Horas : Capitula et RR. sumuntur de Comm. Conf. Pont. 

Vesperae dicuntur de Circumcisione Domini, sine com- 
memoratione S. Silvestri et Octavarum. 

Post Festum Circumcisionis ponatur haec Rubrica: Si m 
die Circumcisionis, aut in sequentibus, usque ad Epiphaniam 
inclusive, Dominica occurrerit, de ea nihil fit.. 


Dominica infra Octavam Epiphaniae. 

In II. Vesperis, pro comm. Octavae loco Ant. Tribus mira- 
culis, ponatur Ant. Magi videntes. 

In die Octava Epiphaniae. Dupl. majus. 

Ad Laudes Dominicae Sexagesimae, loco quintae Anti- 
phonae In tympano, substituatur sequens: In excelsis * laudate 

Ad Laudes Dominicae tertiae Quadragesimae , loco Anti- 
phonae tertiae Deus misereatur, substituatur sequens: Ad- 
haesit anima mea * post te, Deus mens. 

Ad Laudes Dominicae IV. Quadragesimae, loco Anti- 
phonae tertiae Benedicat nos Deus, substituatur sequens: Me 
suscepit * dextera tua, Domine. 

Ad Laudes Feriae IV. Ma j oris Hebdomadae, loco Anti- 
phonae tertiae Ipsi vero, substituatur sequens: Tu autem, 
Domine, * scis omne consilium eorum adversum me in mortem. 

Item loco Antiphonae quintae Alliga Domine, substituatur 
sequens: Fac, Domine, * judicium injuriam patientibus : et 
vias peccatorum disperde. 

Ad Laudes Feriae V. in Coena Domini, Feriae VI. in 
Parasceve et Sabbati Sancti ponantur Psalmi de Feria cur- 
renti, retento pro Sabbato Cantico Ego dixi etc. 

In fine Feriae V. in Coena Domini Rubrica Ad Completor- 
ium etc. sic corrigatur : Ad Completorium non dicitur ... in- 
cipitur a Psalmo Cum invocarem: et dicuntur Psalmi de 
Dominica, ut in Psalterio. Dictis Psalmis etc. 

Ad Completorium Sabbati Sancti verba Rubricae: Deinde 
sine Antiphona dicuntur Psalmi consueti, sic corrigantur: 
Deinde sine Antiphona dicuntur Psalmi de Dominica. 

Post Laudes Dominicae Resurrectionis Rubrica Ad Primam 
etc. sic corrigatur: Ad Primam, Tertiam, Sextam . . . dicuntur 
Psalmi de Dominica, ad Primam tamen ut in Festis, quibus 
finitis etc. 

Ad Completorium Dominicae Resurrectionis, Rubrica Dicto 
V. etc. sic corrigatur : Dicto v. dicuntur Psalmi de Dominica 
. . . quibus finitis etc. 


Dominica in Albis in Octava Paschae. Duplex majus. 

Ad Laudes suppressis Antiphonis et PscUmis usque ad Capi- 
tulum, dicatur: Omnia ut in Psalterio. 

Feria II. POST Dominicam in Albis. 

Ad Laudes supprimatur Ruhrica, quae incipit: Postea fit 
commemoratio, usque ad v. et O ratio, ut supra inclusive. 

Dominica infra Octavam Ascensionis. 

In fine addatur: Si vero in crastinum fiat Officium de Oc- 
tava, Ant. et V. sumuntur e I. Vesperis festi. 

In Octava Ascensionis. Duplex majus. 

In Festo SS. Trinitatis addatur: Duplex I. classis. 

In fine Feriae IV. post Oct. Pentecostes si corrigantur 

Feria V. celebratur Commemoratio solemnis Sanctissimi 
Corporis D. N. J. C. 

Infra Octavam non fit de Festo, nisi fuerit Duplex I. classis : 
reliqua Festa vel transferuntur post Octavam, vel commemor- 
antur juxta Rubricas, in Vesperis et Laudibus, sine IX. 

Die vero Octava non fit nisi de Festo SS. Apostolorum Petri 
et Pauli, si occurrat, cum commemoratione ejusdem diei 

In Commemoratione solemni Sanctissimi Corporis 
D. N. J. C. Duplex I. classis cum Octava. 

Dominica infra Octavam Corporis Christi. 

In II. Vesperis, pro commemoratione Octavae ponantur 
A ntiphona et v. e I. Vesp. Festi. 

In fine Feriae IV. infra Octavam Corporis Christi sic 
corrigatur Ruhrica: 

Ad Vesperas, omnia ut in I. Vesperis Festi. Si sequenti die 
aliud Festum occurrat, vel transferatur vel commemoretur 
juxta Rubricas, nisi sit Festum SS. Apostolorum Petri et 
Pauli, quod celebratur, cum commemoratione Octavae. 


Feria V. 
Octava Corporis Christi. Duplex majus. 

In fine ponatur haec Rubrica: 

Sequent! die celebratur Festum Sacratissimi Cordis Jesu, de 
quo nulla fit commemoratio in, II. Vesperis diei Octavae SS. 
Corporis Christi. 

Si autem hodie celebratum sit Festum Ss. Apostolorum Petri 
et Pauli cum commemoratione Octavae SS. Corporis Christi, 
in II. Vesperis Ss. Apostolorum fit tantum commemoratio de 
sequenti Festo Sacratissimi Cordis Jesu. 

In propria Sanctorum Breviarii. 

Die 14 Decembris. 

Ad Vesperas supprimatur Rubrica quae incipit: Si dies 

Die 15 Decembris. 

In Octava Immaculatae Conceptionis B. M. V. Dupl. majus. 

Die 19 Martii. 

In Commemoratione solemni S. Joseph Sponsi B. M. V. 
CONFESSORIS. Duplex I. classis. 

In fine mensis Aprilis: 

Dominica III. post Pascha. 

In Solemnitate S. Joseph Sponsi B. M. V. et Ecclesiae 
Universalis Patroni, Confessoris. Dupl. I. classis cum Octava. 

In fine Officii supprimatur Rubrica Si hoc Festum celebretur 

Feria II. infra Octavam Solemnitatis S. Joseph. 

Omnia ut in Festo praeter sequential In I. Nocturno Lec- 
tiones de Scriptura occurrente. In II. Nocturno De sermone 
S. Bernardini Senensis etc. ( Ut in Octavario Romano pro Oc- 
tava Patrocinii S. Joseph). 

Et sic in sequentibus Feriis III. IV. V. VI. et Sabbato, ad- 
hibitis pro Sabbato Lectionibus, quae in Octavario habentur 
pro die Octava. 

Lectiones III. Nocturni Sabbati ita dividantur: 


Lectio VII. Natalis ho die . . . filium protestatur. 

Lectio VIII. Honor atior . . , et ipse faber. 

Lectio IX. Ipse enim . . . deputetur. 

Similiter in lectionibus IV. et VII. ejusdem Sabbati se- 
quent es fiant correctiones: 

In Lectione IV. pro verbis: pater ejus, utrumque mente, non 
carne, ponatur: pater ejus, sicut conjux matris ejus, utrumque 
mente, non carne. 

In Lectione VII. pro verbis: in hac se Pater, qui credebatur, 
insinuat, ponatur: in hac se Pater, qui non credebatur, insinuat 

Post Sabbatum infra Octavam Solemnitatis S. Joseph, 
ponatur sequens Rubrica: 

Vesperae dicuntur de sequenti Dominica et in eis fit com- 
memoratio praecedentis diei VII. infra Octavam, cum Ant. 
et V. de II. Vesp. Festi : si autem in Sabbato factum fuerit 
Officium de aliquo festo IX. Lectionum, fit com. diei Octavae 
cum Ant. et v. e. I. Vesp. Festi. 

Sequenti die fit de Dominica IV. post Pascha, nisi oc- 
currat Festum Domini, aut Duplex I. aut II. classis, cum com- 
memoratione diei Octavae in Laud, et II. Vesperis. 

In Festo SS. Cordis Jesu. 

Prima Rubrica sic corrigatur : Vesperae dicuntur de Octava 
SSmi Corporis ChrLsti sine ulla commemoratione. Si autem 
praecedenti Feria V. occurrerit Festum Ss. Apostolorum Petri 
et Pauli, in II. Vesperis Ss. Apostolorum fit commemoratio 
de Festo Sacratissimi Cordis Jesu: Ant. Improperium. v. 
Ignem veni. O ratio. Concede^ quaesumus. 

Sed si Officium, etc. 

In eodem Festo Lectione s II. Nocturni, quae nunc inscri- 
bufttur: Sermo S. Bernardi Abbatis, amodo inscribantur: 
Sermo S. Bonaventurae Episcopi. 

Post diem 21 J unit sequentia inserantur: 

Sabbato ante Dom. IV. Junii. 

In Vigilia S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Hie inserantur quae posita sunt die 2j Junii, dempta ultima 
Rubrica Si sequenti die, etc.y cujus loco ponatur sequens: 

Si haec Vigilia occurrat eadem die cum Vigilia anticipata 
Ss. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, totum Officium fit de Vigilia 


S. Joannis sine commemoratione alterius Vigiliae, nisi in 

Dominica IV. Junii. 

In Nativitate S. Joannis Baptistae. Dupl. I. class, cum. 

Hie inseratur Officium, ut habetur in Breviario die 24. Junii. 

Post I. Vesperas addatur sequens Rubrica: Et fit commem- 
oratio Dominicae occurrentis. 

Supprimatur deinde Lectio IX., et ponatur haec Rubrica: 
Lectio IX. de homilia Dominicae occurrentis. 

In fine Laudum addatur: Et fit commemoratio Dominicae 

In II. Vesperis, in fine, supprimatur : Et fit commemoratio 
sequentis., et ponatur: et fit commemoratio Dominicae oc- 
Prima die libera infra Octavam S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Omnia ut in Festo praeter sequentia : 

In I. Nocturno: Lectiones de Scriptura occurrente. In 11. 
Nocturno Sermo S. Augustini Episcopi. Natalem ... {ut in 
antiquis Breviariis die 25 Junii) . 

In III. Nocturno: Lectio S. Evangeliiy etc. De Homilia S. 
Ambrosii Episcopi. Joannes est... {ut in Breviario die i 
Julii) . 

Secunda die libera infra Octavam S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Omnia ut in Festo, praeter sequentia : 

In I. Nocturno: Lectiones de Scriptura occurrente. 

In II. Nocturno: Sermo Sancti Basilii Magni. Vox Domini 
. . . {ut in Breviario die 2y Junii). 

In III. Nocturno: Lectio Sancti Evangeliiy etc. De Homilia 
S. Ambrosii Episcopi. Et Zacharias . . . {ut in Breviario die 
2y Junii). 

Tertia die libera infra Octavam S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Omnia ut in Festo, praeter sequentia : 
In I. Nocturno : Lectiones de Scriptura occurrente. 
In II. Nocturno: Sermo S. Maximi Episcopi. Festivitatem 
. . . {ut in Breviario die i Julii). 
In III. Nocturno: 


Lectio S. Evangelii secundum Lucam. 

Lectio VII. (Cap. I.) 

Elisabeth impletum est tempus pariendi, et peperit filium. 

Et audierunt vicini, et cognati ejus, quia magnificavit Dominus 

misericordiam suam cum ilia, et congratulabantur ei. Et 


Homilia Venerabilis Bedae Presbyteri. 
(In Nativit. Sancti Joannis). 

Praecursoris Domini nativitas, sicut sacratissima lectionis 
evangelicae prodit historia, multa miraculorum sublimitate 
refulget: quia nimirum decebat ut ille, quo major inter natos 
mulierum nemo surrexit, majore prae ceteris Sanctis in ipso 
mox ortu virtutum jubare claresceret. Senes ac diu infecundi 
parentes dono nobilissimae prolis exultant, ipsi patri, quern 
incredulitas mutum reddiderat, ad salutandum novae prae- 
conem gratiae os et lingua reseratur. Nee solum facultas 
Deum benedicendi restituitur, sed de eo etiam prophetandi 
virtus augetur. 

Lectio VIII. 

Unde merito sancta per orbem Ecclesia, quae tot beatorum 
mart y rum victorias, quibus ingressum regni coelestis meruere, 
frequentat, hujus tantummodo post Dominum etiam nativitatis 
diem celebrare consuevit. Quod nullatenus sine evangelica 
auctoritate in consuetudinem venisse credendum est: sed at- 
tentius animo recondendum quia sicut, nato Domino, pastori- 
bus apparens angelus ait: Ecce evangelizo vobis gaudium 
magnum, quod erit omni populo, quia natus est vobis hodie 
Salvator, qui est Christus Dominus: ita etiam angelus nas- 
citurum Zachariae praedicans Joannem: Et erit, inquit, gau- 
dium tibi et exultatio, et multi in nativitate ejus guadebunt, 
Erit enim magnus coram Domino. 

Lectio IX. 

Jure igitur utriusque nativitas festa devotione celebratur, 
sed in illius tanquam, in Christi Domini, tanquam in Salvatoris 
mundi, tanquam in Filii Dei omnipotentis, tanquam in solis 
justitiae nativitate, omni populo gaudium evangelizatur. In 
hujus autem tanquam in praecursoris Domini, in servi Dei 


eximii, in lucernae ardentis et lucentis exortu multi gavisuri 
memorantur. Hie in spiritu et virtute Eliae praecessit ante 
ilium, ut plebent ejus aqua baptizans ad suscipiendum eum, 
ubi appareret, doceret esse perjectam. 

Si aliqua dies infra Octavam Nativitatis S. Joannis oc- 
currat cum die infra Octavam Ss. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, 
fit Officium de prima cum commemoratione alterius. 

In die Octava Nativitatis S. Joannis Baptistae fit Officium 
de Dominica, nisi occurrat Festum Domini, aut Duplex I. vel 
II. Classis cum commemoratione diei Octavae. 

Si dies Octava Nativitatis S. Joannis occurrat cum Festo 
Ss. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, de ea nihil fit. 

Omnia, quae habentur in Breviario diebus 22 et 2^1. Junii, 
supprimantur omnino. 

Die 25 Junii. 

Supprimatur Rubrica, quae incipit: In Laud, fit com- 

In ultima Rubrica, quae incipit: Vesp. a Capit., suppriman- 
tur verba: et Oct. S. Joannis. 

Die 26 Junii. 

In L Vesperis supprimatur Rubrica Deinde Oct. S. Joannis, 

Ad Laudes supprimantur verba: et per horas. 

In fine laudum supprimatur Rubrica Deinde fit comm., etc. 

In II. Vesperis supprimatur Rubrica Deinde fit commem., etc. 

Omnia quae habentur in Breviario die 2j lunii, suppri- 
mantur omnino. 

Die 28 Junii. 

Supprimatur Rubrica Si hoc festum, etc. et ejus loco ponatur 
sequens: Si hoc Festum venerit in Dominica, fit de Nativitate 
S. Joannis Baptistae cum commemoratione Dominicae, et nihil 
fit de S. Leone. In Sabbato praecedenti fit de Vigilia Nati- 
vitatis S. Joannis, et nihil fit de Vigilia anticipata Ss. Apos- 
tolorum Petri et Pauli, nisi in Missa. 

Post Orationem supprimatur Rubrica Et fit comm., etc. 

In Laudibus supprimatur Rubrica in Laud, fit comm., etc. 


Die 29 JuNii. 

In I. Vesp. in Rubrica Et non fit, etc. supprimantur ultima 
verba: nee Octavae S. Joannis. 

In II. Vesp. in Rubrica Et non fit, etc. supprimantur ultima 
verba: nee Oetavae S. Joannis. 

In penultima Rubrica Deinde fit, etc., supprimantur verba: 
Et non fit eomm. Oet. S. Joannis, neque in Laud. 

Ultima Rubrica sic corrigatur : Si Commemoratio S. Pauli 
alieubi alia die celebretur, to turn Officium fit ut in propria 

Die 30 JUNii. 

Ad Laudes supprimatur Rubrica Deinde Oetavae S. Joannis. 

In II. Vesperis in Rubrica Vesperae integrae etc., suppri^ 
mantur ultima verba: et Oet. S. Joannis ut in I. Vesp. Festi. 

In principio lulii supprimatur Rubrica Prima die etc. 

In Festo Pretiosissimi Sanguinis supprimatur Rubrica, quae 
incipit: Si hodie oeeurrat. 

Post festum Pretiosissimi Sanguinis ponatur: 
Infra Octavam Ss. Petri et Pauli. 

Hie inserantur omnia quae habentur in Breviario post festum 
Visitationis B. M. V. 

Die i Julii. 

Supprimantur omnino quae nunc habentur in Breviario, et 
eorum loco ponatur: 

Tertia die infra Octavam Ss. Petri et Pauli. 

In I. Noeturno: Leetiones de Seriptura oeeurrente. 

In II. Noeturno : Sermo S. Maximi Episcopi. Non sine causa 
... {ut in antiquis Breviariis die 5 lulii). 

In III. Noeturno: Homilia in Evang. Ecce nos reliquimus, 
de Comm. Apost. i loeo. 

Die 6 Julil 
In Oetava Ss. Petri et Pauli. Duplex Majus. 

Die 5 AuGUSTi. 
Ultima Rubrica sic corrigatur: Vesp. de sequenti eum com- 
mem. praeeedentis. 


Die 6 Augusti. 

In Transfiguratione D. N. I. C. Duplex II. classis. 

In I. Vesp. supprimatur Rubrica Deinde Ss Xysti II. Papae, 
Felicissimi et Agapiti Mm. etc. 

Die 22 Augusti. 

In Octava Assumptionis B. M. V. Duplex Majus. 

Dominica infra Oct. Nativitatis B. M. V. supprimantur 
omnia quae habentur in Breviario. 

Die ii Septembris. 

In fine hujus diei addatur: Vesp. de sequent! Festo, sine 
comm. Oct. Nativitatis B. M. V. 

Die 12 Septembris. 

Supprimantur omnia quae habentur in Breviario, et ponan- 
tur sequentia: 

SS. NoMiNis B. M. V. Duplex majus. 

Omnia ut in Festis B. M. V. per annum, praeter sequentia : 
Hie inserantur omnia quae in Breviario habentur Dominica 

infra Octava Nativ., suppressa tamen in I. Vesp. Rubrica Et 

fit Comm. Dom. occurrentis. 

In fine VI. Lectionis supprimantur verba: Dominica infra 

Octavam Nativitatis Beatae Virginis Mariae. 

Post VIII. Lectionem addatur: 

Lectio IX. 

Beata quae (ut in Decreto S. R. C. lo Novembris ipog). 
Supprimantur duae ultimae Rubricae et eorum loco ponatur 
sequens: In II. Vesp. non fit comm. seq. diei infra Oct. 

Die i Novembris. 

Supprimantur duae ultimae Rubricae Dicto etc., et Si prima 
dies etc. 

Die 2 Novembris. 

Supprimantur omnia quae habentur in Breviario, et eorum 
loco ponantur quae hac die habentur in Appendice novi 


Die 8 Novembris. 

In Octava omnium. Sanctorum Duplex majus. 

Ultima Rubrica sic corrigatur: Vesp. de seq. cum Comm. 

Die 9 Novembris. 

In Dedicatione Archibasilicae SSmi Salvatoris. 
Duplex II. classis. In Vesp. supprimatur Rubrica Deinde S. 
Theodori Mart. 

In Communi Sanctorum et sequentibus partibus Breviarii. 

In Communi unius Martyris in III. Nocturno, in Lectione 
VIII. circa medium, loco verbi Delectat, substituatur: Delectet. 

In Communi unius Martyris, posita quarto loco Homilia in 
Evang. Nihil est opertum, ponatur tertio loco Homilia in 
Evang. Nolite arbitrari, quae incipit: Quae ista divisio est? 
ut in Octavario Romano. 

In Octava Dedicationis Ecclesiae. Duplex majus. 

In Officio B. Mariae V. in Sabbato, in Vesperis, expungatur 
Rubrica: Post Orationem fiunt etc. et ponatur sequens: 
Post Orationem fit Suffragium, ut sequitur: 

De omnibus Sanctis. 

Ant. Sancti omnes intercedant pro nobis ad Dominum. 
V. Mirificavit Dominus Sanctos suos. 
R. Et exaudivit eos clamantes ad se. 

Or emus. O ratio. 

A cunctis nos, quaesumus, Domine, mentis et corporis de- 
fende periculis: et intercedente beato loseph, cum beatis Apos- 
iolis tuts etc. 

Tempore autem Paschali, loco praecedentis Suffragii, fit 
commemoratio de Cruce, ut in Ordinario. 

Si autem occurrat Festum simplex, de eo fit comm. ante 
ipsum Suffragium. 

Ad Laudes, suppressis verbis Ad Laudes et per Horas: 
Omnia ut in Festis B. M. V., praeter sequentia,' eorum loco 
ponatur: Ad Laudes Antiphonae cum Psalmis de Sabbato, ut 


in Psalterio: Capitulum et Hymnus, ut in Festis B. M. V. 
per annum. 

In fine Laudum, suppressa Rubrica Deinde fiunt, ponatur: 
Deinde fit Suffragium, ut supra ad Vesperas. 

Post Ruhricam pro Tempore Paschali, supprimatur verba 
Non fiunt commemorationes etc. 

Deinde supprimitur Titulus Ad Vesperas, cum duabus sub- 
sequentibus Rubricis. 

In Officio parvo B. M. V. omittatur prima Rubrica. Ad 
Laudes post primam Antiphonam dicatur: Ps. Dominus reg- 
navit, cum reliquis de Dominica. 

In Officio defunctorum omittatur prima Rubrica. Ad Laudes 
tertius Psalmus Deus Deus meus, psalmo Deus misereatur 
omisso. Quintus Psalmus Laudate Dominum in Sanctis ejus 
etc., aliis duobus omissis. 

In Psalmis Gradualibus supprimatur prima Rubrica. 

In Septem Psalmis Poenitentialibus supprimantur duae 
primae Rubricae. 

Officia Votiva per annum supprimantur omnino. 

In Missali. 
In Principio Missalis. 

Post Bullas Pii V, dementis VIII et Urbani VIII inseratur 
Bulla Divino afHatu SSmi D. N. Pii Papae X. 

Kalendarium Missalis. 

Idem sit ac Kalendarium Breviarii, additis in singulis Festis 
ritus duplicis II. classis, quoties occurrit comm. simplicis, 
verbis: in missis privatis tantum. 

Post Rubricas Generates inserantur Tit. X., XII. et XIII. 
Novarum Rubricarum. 

In proprio de Tempore Missalis. 
In Festo Ss. Innocentium. 

Post Missam ponatur sequens Rubrica: 

Si Festum Nativitatis Domini, S. Stephani, S. Joannis 
Evang. et Ss. Innocentium venerit in Dominica, ipsa die nihil 
fit de Dominica, sed die proxima post Festum S. Thomae Mart, 
dicitur Missa de Dominica ut infra. 


Si Festum S. Thomae venerit in Dominica, Missa dicitur 
de Dominica cum commemoratione S. Thomae et quatuor 
Octavarum. Similiter si Festum S. Silvestri in Dominica oc- 
currerit, Missa dicitur de Dominica cum commemoratione S. 
Silvestri et quatuor Octavarum. Die vero 30 Decembris, si 
occurrerit in Feria II. vel in Sabbato, dicitur Missa de die 
infra Octavam Nativitatis, ut infra, cum commemoratione 
aliarum Octavarum. 

Dominica infra Octavam Nativitatis. 

Ui in Missali, additis commemorationibus de Nativitate, S. 
Stephana 5. Joanne et Ss. Innocentibus. 

Die 29 Decembris. 
Sancti Thomae Episc. Mart. 

Ut in Missali, demptis commemorationibus , et addita Ru- 
brica: Et fit comm. de Nativitate, de S. Stephano, de S. Joanne 
et de Ss. Innocentibus, ut in Missa praecedenti. 

In fine Missae deleantur Rubricae, quae nunc habentur in 

Die 30 Decembris. 
Ut in Missali, dempta Rubrica Si Festum S. Silvestri, etc. 

In Commemoratione Solemni Sanctissimi Corporis 
D. N. J. C. 

In fine Missae prima Rubrica sic corrigatur: Infra Octavam 
dicitur haec eadem Missa, et non fit de aliquo Festo, nisi fuerit 
duplex I. classis occurrens, et tunc cum commemoratione Oc- 
tavae. In die Octava non fit nisi de Festo Ss. Apostol. Petri 
et Pauli, si occurrat, cum comm. Octavae. 

In proprio Sanctorum Missalis. 
Die 19 Martii. 

In Commemoratione solemni S. Joseph, Sponsi B. M. V., 

In fine mensis Aprilis: 



Dominica III. post Pascha. 

In Solemnitate S. Joseph Sponsi B. M. V. et Ecclesiae 
Universalis Patroni Confessoris. 

Ante Evangelium addantur sequentia: 

In Missis Votivis post Pentecosten : Ps. 20. Domine prae- 
venisti etc. (ut habetur in fine Missae). 

In Missis Votivis post Septuagesimam Graduale dicitur ut 
supra post Pentecosten, omissis Alleluia et V. seq. et dicitur 
Tractus. Ps. III. Beatus vir, qui timet Dominum: in mandatis- 
ejus cupit nimis. 

V. Potens in terra erit semen ejus: generatio rectorum 

V. Gloriae et divitiae in domo ejus: et justitia ejus manet 
in saeculum saeculi. 

Supprimatur ultima Rubrica Si Festum etc. usque ad finem, 
et ponatur sequens: 

Infra Octavam dicitur Missa ut in Festo : post Orationem 
diei dicitur secunda O ratio Concede noSy tertia Ecclesiae vel 
Deus omnium fidelium. 

In die Octava dicitur Missa de Dominica IV. post Pascha, 
nisi occurrat Festum Domini, aut Duplex I. aut II. classis, 
cum commemo ration e Octavae, ut in Festo. 

Post diem 21 Junii sequentia inserantur : 

Sabbato ante Dom. IV. Junii. 

Hie inseratur Missa, quae habetur die 2^ Junii, et in fine 
addatur haec Rubrica: 

Si haec Vigilia occurrat eadem die cum Vigilia anticipata 
Ss. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, dicitur Missa ut supra cum 
secunda oratione ex Missa Vigiliae Ss. Apostolorum et tertia 
de S. Maria; et in fine Missae dicitur Evang. S. Joannis: 
In principio. 

Dominica IV. Junii. 

In Nativitate S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Hie ponatur Missa, quae habetur die 2/j. Junii. 
Post Orationem, et post Secretam addatur: Et fit com- 
memoratio Dominicae occurrentis. 
Post Evangelium addatur: Dicitur Credo ratione Dominicae.. 


Post Postcommunionem addatur: Et fit commemoratio 
Dominicae occurrentis et legitur ejus Evangelium in fine 

Suppressa ultima Rubrica, addatur: Infra Octavam dicitur 
Missa ut in Festo cum secunda Oratione Concede y tertia Ec- 
clesiae vel pro Papa; et non dicitur Credo, nisi in Ecclesia 
propria, vel nisi venerit infra Oct. Ss. Apostolorum Petri et 

Si dies Octava venerit in Festo Ss. Apostolorum Petri et 
Pauli, nihil fit de Octava. Si autem occurrerit die 30 Junii, 
Missa dicitur de Dominica, cum commemoratione diei Oc- 
tavae; deinde fit commemoratio tum S. Pauli Ap. turn S. 
Petri Ap. Si vero occurrerit Dominica I. Julii, Misga dicitur 
de Pretiosissimo Sanguine D. N. J. C. vel de Visitatione 
B. M. v., juxta Rubricas, cum com. Dom. et Octavae S. 

Omnia quae habentur in Missali diebus 2j et 24 Junii sup- 
primantur omnino. 

Die 25 Junii. 
Supprimatur Rubrica et fit com. Oct. etc. 

Die 26 Junii. 

Supprimantur Rubricae respicientes com. Oct. S. Joannis. 

Ante Diem 28 Junii sic corrigenda Rubrica: 

Si sequens Festum S. Leonis venerit in Dominica, Missa 

dicitur de Festo Nativitatis S. Joannis Baptistae cum comm. 

Dominicae, et nihil fit de S. Leone. In Sabbato praecedenti 

fit de Vigilia Nativitatis S. Joannis cum comm. Vigiliae Ss. 

Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et tertia oratione de S. Maria, et 

in fine legitur Evang. S. Joannis In principio. 

Die 28 Junii. 

Supprimantur Rubricae respicientes com. Octavae S. Joannis. 

In fine Missae Vigiliae Apostolorum addatur haec Rubrica: 
Si haec Vigilia in Sabbato anticipanda sit, ideoque oc- 

currat eodem die cum Vigilia Nativitatis S. Joannis Baptistae; 

de hac secunda dicitur Missa, cum comm. Vigiliae Ss. Apostol. 

et tertia Oratione de S. Maria et Evang. S. Joannis in fine. 


Die 30 JuNii. 

Supprimantur Rubrica respicientes Oct. S. Joannis Baptistae. 

Supprimantur omnia quae nunc habentur in Missali die i 
Julii, et ponantur sequentia: 

Die I. III. et IV. Julii. 
Infra Octavam Ss. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli. 
Hie ponatur Missa, quae habetur die j Julii. 
Die J Julii supprimatur Missa quae nunc habetur in Missali. 

Die 6 Augusti. 

Post Orationem sic corrigatur Rubrica: In Missis privatis 
tantum fit com. Ss. Mm. Xysti, Felicissimi et Agapiti. 

Dominica infra Octav. Nativitatis B. M. V. supprimantur 
omnia quae habentur in Missali. 

Die 12 Septembris. 
In Festo Sanctissimi Nominis B. M. V. 

Hie ponatur Missa quae habetur Dom. infra Oct. Na- 
tivitatis, demptis Rubricis respicientibus commemorationem 

Die 2 NovEMRBis. 

Retenta prima Rubrica, loco secundae et tertiae ponatur 
sequens: Si autem hac die 2 Novembris occurrat Duplex I. 
classis aut Dominica, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium De- 
functorum in diem immediate sequentem, similiter non im- 
peditam, transfertur, seu reponitur. 

Die 9 Novembris. 

Rubrica respiciens com. S. Theodori sic corrigatur : Pro 
com. S. Theodori, Mart, in Missis privatis tantum. 

Missae Votivae per annum supprimantur omnino. 

Quae omnia SSmo Domino Nostro Pio Papae X per in- 
frascriptum Secretarium relata, Sanctitas Sua dignata est rata 
habere et adprobare, simul iniungens, ut in Missalibus et 


Breviariis iam editis, quae venalia apud typographos prostant, 
adiiciatur fasciculus Rubricas adaptatas ut supra continens. 
Die 23 lanuarii 1912. 

Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praef. 
L. *S. 

■*■ Petrus La Fontaine, Ep. Charystien., Secret 


Circa Doxologiam v. Primae, et Praefationem Propriam 


Quum ex Constitutione Apostolica " Divino afflatu " SSmi 
Dni Nostri Pii Papae X, diei i Novembris 1911, Festum 
B. M. V. ritus duplicis maioris, aut dies Octava eiusdem Dei- 
parae, si in Dominicam occurrant, amodo simplificari debeant; 
Sacrae Rituum Congregationi insequentia dubia proposita 
fuerunt, nimirum : 

I. An in praedictu casu conclusiones Hymnorum et versus 
Responsorii brevis ad Primam esse debeant de ipsa Beata 
Maria Virgine? 

II. Quae Praefatio in casu dicenda sit in Missa? 

Et Sacra eadem Congregatio, ad relationem subscripti Se- 
cretarii, re mature perpensa, respondendum censuit : 

Ad I. Affirmative, nisi dicenda sit propria Temporis, et 
exceptis Dominicis Adventus. 

Ad II. Praefatio Trinitatis, nisi occurrat Praefatio de 
Tempore aut alicuius Octavae Domini, iuxta Novas Rubricas, 
tit. X, n. 4. 

Atque ita rescripsit die 30 Decembris 1911. 
Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praef. 

L. *S. 

Hh Petrus La Fontaine, Ep. Charystien., Secret. 


Decretum de Festis Ritus Duplicis Maioris Octava 

Quaedam Festa, quamvis perpauca, ritus Duplicis Maioris, 
pro aliqua particulari Ecclesia, transactis temporibus, Octava 
decorata fuerunt. Quum autem harum Octavarum celebratio 



novissimis Sanctae Sedis dispositionibus minime congruat, 
Sacra Rituum Congregatio, ad relationem subscript! Secre- 
tarii, audita sententia Commissionis Liturgicae, reque ac- 
curate examine perpensa, statuit et decrevit: Festa ritus 
duplicis maioris Octava gaudere nequeunt; et si quae huius- 
modi Octavae iam concessae inveniantur, amodo declarantur 
suppressae. Atque ita servari praecepit die 30 Decembris 

Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praej. 
L. * S. 

•i* Petrus La Fontaine, Ep. Charystien., Secret. 


Decretum de Novi Psalterii edendi Facultate ab Epis- 


Cum nuper nonnulli Rmi loco rum Ordinarii Sacram Rituum 
Congregationem interrogaverint utrum sibi liceat facultatem 
concedere Typographis respectivae Dioecesis imprimendi 
" Psalterium Breviarii Romani cum Ordinario Divini Officii 
jussu SS. D. N. Pii PP. X novo ordine per hebdomadam 
dispositum et editum " necne; Sacra ipsa Congregatio re- 
spondit: " Detur Decretum diei 15 Novembris 191 1 in Edi- 
tione typica Vaticana relatum ". 

Tenor autem Decreti hie est: 

" Praesentem Psalterii cum Ordinario Divini Officii edi- 
tionem Vaticanam diligenter revisam et recognitam, ac juxta 
recentes Rubricarum immutationes, ad normam Constitutionis 
Apostolicae " Divino afflatu " SSmi D. N. Pii Pp. X, ac- 
curatissime dispositam, Sacra Rituum Congregatio typicam 
declaravit; statuitque, ut novae ejusdem Psalterii editiones 
huic in omnibus sint conformes, et non imprimantur, nisi a 
Typographis hujus Sacrae Congregationis, servatisque prae- 
scriptionibus ab hac Secretaria tradendis ". 

Quod, non obstante Decreto diei 17 Maii 191 1, ita servari 

Die 15 lanuarii 1912. 

L. *S. 

"i* Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Charystien., 

S. R. C. Secretarius. 




Sax:rae Rituum Congregation! visum est Rmos locorum 
Ordinarios certiores facere, eosque orare ut suis subditis notum 
faciant, nullius roboris esse rescripta, responsa ad duhia, con- 
cessiones, declarationes cuiusque generis, privilegia, com- 
mentaria nomine ipsius S. Congregationis evulgata, nisi, prout 
de iure, subsignata fuerint exclusive ab Emo Cardinali ipsi 
S. Congregationi Praefecto una cum S. ipsius Congregationis 
Secretario vel eius Substituto, aut, in casu necessitatis, saltem 
ab Emo Praefecto, vel a Secretario aut eius Substituto: Item 
nil esse commune inter S. Rituum Congregationem et cuius- 
cumque generis ephemerides rem liturgicam pertractantes, 
cum Sacra ipsa Congregatio, quoties promulgatione opus sit, 
ea quae statuerit, in Commentario officiali Acta Apostolicae 
Sedis ad tramitem Constitut. Ap. " Promulgandi pontificias " 
inserenda curet. 

Ex S. R. C. Secretaria, die 28 lanuarii 191 2. 

HH Petrus La Fontaine, Epis. Charystien., Secretarius. 


Pontifical Appointments. 

24 April, ipi2: The Honorable Richard Preston, of the 
Archdiocese of Liverpool, appointed Secret Chamberlain 
Supernumerary of the Sword and Cape to His Holiness. 

2p April, igi2: Mr. Edward L. Hearn, of New York, made 
Commander of the Order of San Silvestro. 

Stubtes anb Conferences. 


The Roman documents for the month are : 

S. CONSISTORIAL CONGREGATION : I . Gives the boundaries 
of the new Diocese of Kearney, Nebraska, formerly of the 
Diocese of Omaha. The new See is in the Dubuque Province. 

2. The Vicariate Apostolic of Brownsville is made the Dio- 
cese of Corpus Christi, in the New Orleans Province. 

3. The boundaries of the Diocese of Fort Wayne are de- 

S. Congregation of the Council publishes a letter re- 
garding feast days. 

S. Congregation of Rites : i . Continuation of the decree 
containing the changes to be made in the Missal and the 

2. Rescript concerning the conclusions of Hymns and the 
verse of the Responsory at Prime; also the simplification of 
Proper Preface of the Blessed Virgin. 

3. Decree concerning feasts of Double Major Rite that have 

4. Permission to publish the New Psaltery is not to be 
granted by Bishops. 

5. Admonition not to accept as authentic documents pur- 
porting to come from the S. Congregation unless they are 
signed by the Cardinal Prefect and Secretary (or his substi- 
tute) of the Congregation. 


The question here proposed may be explained as follows. 
Communion intensifies the soul's supernatural vitality: it in- 
creases that sanctifying grace which is the vital principle of 
the supernatural life. The Eucharist thus lessens our danger 
of losing that divine life by the commission of mortal sin. 
Amongst other ways, it does this by weakening the rebellion 
of our natural concupiscences and irregular tendencies. But 
now the question arises: Does this preserving and vivifying 
action of a Communion last indefinitely, so that it is unneces- 
sary to repeat the soul's refreshment for a long time? Need- 


less to say, we are not here discussing the continuance of 
devout feelings and impressions after the time of Communion. 

That some repetition of the spiritual meal is necessary 
becomes plain from the ecclesiastical precept by which all 
Catholics are enjoined to receive Holy Communion at least 
once a year, as soon as they have reached the dawn of reason. 
This precept is radically divine, since it is the authoritative 
determination by the Church of Christ's command to " eat the 
flesh of the Son of man and drink His blood." ^ 

But here it is important to note that our Lord does not re- 
quire our obedience to this command merely as a point of re- 
ligious discipline. He further makes our compliance a con- 
dition for retaining the spiritual life of grace here, and gaining 
eternal life hereafter. For He says : " Except you eat . . . 
you shall not have life in you ... He that eateth . . . hath 
eternal life/' etc.^ 

It is not merely a case, then, of Communion being necessary 
because it is commanded, which is too often the view of the 
" hardy annual ". Communion is commanded because, in the 
actual dispensation of Christ, it is necessary for the soul's life. 

But is one Communion a year any sort of guarantee that 
we shall keep in God's grace? It cannot be such if the pre- 
servative efficacy of the Eucharist be passing and exhaustible. 
What grounds then have we for supposing that this is actually 
the case? 

This notion of the non-permanent virtue of a Communion 
has at its back no less a theological authority than Cardinal 
de Lugo, to whose opinions, even when unsupported by other 
doctors, Saint Alphonsus Liguori attached so much weight. 
In his treatise on the Eucharist we read : " Since this Sacra- 
ment is meant to be received repeatedly, after the manner 
of food, it is not to be thought that it produces the effects of 
help and strength so powerfully over a long period as for the 
time nearer to its reception." ^ Here the non-permanence of 
the sacramental virtue is clearly indicated. 

^ John 6 : 54. 

2 Ibid. 54-5. " He does not say that eternal life is reserved for him in 
the future {habebit), but that he has it already {habet), and holds the sure 
pledge of it." Papal Address to French First Communicants,- Sistine Chapel, 
Low Sunday, 14 April, 191 2. 

' " Cum hoc Sacramentum saepius, instar cibi, accipiendum sit . . . non est 
credendum quod aeque efficaciter influat auxilia et vires in longum tempus, 
sicut in tempus proximum." De Euch. Disp. XIV, Sect. 3. 


Then we have the teaching of the Holy See contained in the 
Decree on daily Communion. There we are told that our 
Lord ''more than once and in no ambiguous terms pointed out 
the necessity of eating His flesh and drinking His blood fre- 
quently." * This necessity of partaking frequently cannot be 
one of precept, or Christ would have guided His Church to 
demand more than an annual Communion under pain of sin. 
The necessity therefore of a more frequent reception must 
arise from our own spiritual need of it. And yet, if the effect 
of Communion did not gradually decline as the weeks and 
months wear on, a Communion once a year would suffice for 
realizing our Lord's promise of " life " and for meeting all 
the soul's emergencies, as well as for satisfying our Lord's 

Again, does not experience prove conclusively that, in the 
case of very many souls, even a monthly Communion does not 
suffice to ward off the spiritual death of mortal sin? With 
exceptionally tempted souls even a weekly one may prove in- 
adequate for this vital purpose.^ Nor will it do to urge that 
the failure is attributable simply to the communicant's want 
of care to avoid the occasions of sin, and that, failing such 
precaution, no number of Communions will keep him safe. 
For the promise of " life " must necessarily include efficacious 
graces for observing all conditions that are essential for its 
preservation. Otherwise the promise would seem to be to a 
great extent illusory. Neither, putting aside exposure to the 
occasions of sin, does it seem correct to attribute the slowing 
down of the Eucharistic action to our daily faults. That 
these offer a hindrance to the operations of grace is not denied. 
Yet the known experience of Saints prevents our accepting 
this as an adequate explanation. Thus St. John Berchmans, 
for instance, in spite of the great perfection of his daily life, 
bears witness to the sense of moral faintness which he ex- 
perienced as the week drew to a close — an interval of a week 
between one Communion and another being the usual thing 
in his day. And when a feast day coincided with a Sunday 
he would observe regretfully, " One Banquet the less! " 

* " Crebro manducandi." 

^ The reference here is to those who are able to practice more frequent 
Communion. As for the unavoidably impeded, no doubt our Lord can and 
will make the rarer Communions, alone possible to them, amply sufficient for 
their spiritual needs, however extreme these may be. 


If we discard the theory as to the non-permanence of the 
sacramental virtue, it will be difficult to defend the strong 
and indiscriminate invitation of the Holy See to the practice 
of daily Communion. " We should be forced," as Pere Lin- 
telo remarks, " to fall back upon the Jansenistical theory that 
one Communion made in perfect dispositions profits the soul 
more than a number of Communions made in less perfect 
ones. . . ." Whereas the true view, clearly underlying the 
Decree of Pope Pius X, is that, given the two essential dispo- 
sitions and no more, it is still more " salutary " in the long 
run to receive frequently and even daily. 

We need not be greatly surprised at the limited duration of 
full Eucharistic efficacy, since traces of the same phenomenon 
may be observed in some of the other Sacraments. This point 
was worked out somewhat ingeniously, though perhaps not 
at all points quite convincingly, in a paper read at the Cologne 
Eucharistic Congress of 1909. Perhaps the least strained 
analogy which the writer drew from the other Sacraments 
was from the Sacrament of Extreme Unction. The Last 
Anointing seems to have its virtue limited, not only to the one 
illness, but even to the particular danger of death during 
which it is administered, so that, should the first danger cease 
and a fresh one supervene, the Sacrament is to be repeated. 
Again, those theologians who maintain that a person who falls 
sick during the day upon which he has received Communion 
is bound to receive it again as Viaticum, evidently regard the 
virtue of the morning's reception to be sufficient for the ordi- 
nary purposes of life but not for the special ones of death. 

But perhaps we ought not to attach too much weight to 
these sacramental analogies. More stress should be laid upon 
the special nature of the Eucharist and its analogy to bodily 
nourishment. As De Lugo says, it is a Sacrament intended to 
be received repeatedly after the manner of food. The Coun- 
cil of Trent, whilst exhorting pastors to urge the frequent re- 
ception of Communion, bids them explain to the people that 
the Eucharistic food is necessary for their souls just as 
material nourishment is for their bodies. We should repeat 
our spiritual meals, just as we repeat our bodily ones, and 
not consider that an occasional repast will suffice to maintain 
our supernatural life in due vigor. 



The type of the Manna upon which our Lord insists so 
pointedly in His discourse upon the Bread of Life once more 
suggests the important lesson that, normally speaking, Com- 
munion is designed to support the soul in full vitality for the 
day. Jewish men, women, and children were bidden to collect 
the same quantity of Manna. So we need the Eucharist for 
our constant support, whether we be adults or only infants 
in holiness. 

A difficulty needing explanation yet remains, that is, if a 
satisfactory one can be found. It is this. The Eucharist 
increases sanctifying grace in the soul. How can it be sup- 
posed that this grace suffers any deterioration in the course 
of time? Surely nothing except mortal sin can destroy it or 
even diminish it? Moreover, the sanctifying grace imparted 
through Sacraments not only increases the soul's holiness, but 
gives it besides a right to the bestowal of actual graces in due 
season for the various emergencies of the spiritual life. The 
sanctifying grace cannot deteriorate. How then can the sup- 
ply of actual helps, or sacramental graces, based upon the 
sanctifying grace, weaken either? 

This is breaking difficult ground and no pretense is here 
made of supplying a complete solution to the mystery. Yet 
the answer may be hazarded that, whilst the sanctifying 
grace suffers no diminution, the actual graces to which it en- 
titles its possessors follow the particular nature of the Sacra- 
ment in question. Accordingly, as in the case of bodily food, 
their nourishing virtue grows less and less as the time since 
the last reception lengthens. 

To conclude. In discussing the above topic, no attempt, 
of course, was contemplated to define precisely for how long 
a Communion exerts its full efficacy. About that we can know 
nothing. But just for this very reason those are certainly 
wisest who, having the opportunity, receive the Bread of Life 
as often as the Church allows, that is, every day. Our con- 
fidence in our Lord's Providence over His Church justifies our 
feeling certain that this maximum allowance of the Heavenly 
Food at least will abundantly meet all our spiritual needs, 
however pressing or desperate. A smaller allowance too will 
no doubt satisfy the wants of people of good will whose neces- 
sary duties thwart their sincere wish for a more frequent 


approach to the Holy Table. Their very desire for Christ 
will bring them the extra graces that accrue from the practice 
of Spiritual Communion, and will dispose them to derive ad- 
ditional profit from their next reception. 

Chesterfield, England. p ^ ^^ Zulueta, S.J. 


To the Editor, The Ecclesiastical Review. 

In the interests of sound criticism I beg leave to submit 
the following observations on the position of Fr. Drum, S.J., 
as represented in the last number of the Review (pp. 737- 
740). The key to the difficulties advanced by him is a dis- 
tinction that must be insisted on before proceeding. My study 
of the text, John 2 : 4,^ is one thing; and the Kurdistan story, 
later on volunteered by Fr. Weigand ^ is another. These 
two topics, the study and the story, must be kept apart. The 
study will stand or fall on its own intrinsic merits; the story 
will depend largely on the authority or methods of those who 
endorse or reject it. The following division and arrangement 
of the Father's objections are made in virtue of this neces- 
sary distinction. 

I. The Study. Objections, a. During the course of the 
year, Fr. Drum has discovered that the study, which pur- 
ported to furnish an " original solution " of John 2 : 4, is not 
unlike another which was discussed in the Irish Ecclesiastical 
Record of 1888. Dr. Dixon's and Fr. Kenny's rendition of 
the moot passage is referred to. It reads : " What is there 
between you and me? " or, " What cause of complaint is there 
on your part as against me? " 

b. Now the idiom, " Quid mihi et tibi?" of St. John, and 
this other, "What is there between thee and me?" are pro- 
nounced by Fr. Drum to be " entirely at variance one with the 
other ". The former, he tells us, has " nothing in common " 
with the latter; and whoever says that our Lord in using 
the first, meant the second, is " altogether wrong ". 

c. A certain Fr. O'Brien knew of an interpretation like 
that which I prefer, viz., " The same mind to you and to me ", 
but Fr. O'Brien characterized it as " silly ", for it makes ab- 

1 EccL, Rev., Feb., 191 1, pp. 169-202. ^ ibid., April, p. 483- 


solute nonsense in every other passage ". This proves to Fr. 
Drum's satisfaction that there is a '* clear difference " be- 
tween the Biblical idiom and this peculiar construction. 

Reply. — a. The interpretation of John 2 : 4, supported by 
me is contained in the following equation : quid mihi et tibi= 
quid mihi et quid tibi=quid meum et quid tuum. Less lacon- 
ically, our Lord's words to His Mother at the marriage-feast 
meant: "Why so soon distinguish between mine and thine, 
since my hour, the hour when I shall act independently of 
thee, is not yet come? Woman, command me." Christ, al- 
though on the threshold of His public ministry, was still sub- 
ject to Mary. — How different this view is from that of Fr. 
Kenny, " What cause of complaint have you against me? " 
needs not to be told. 

b. Moreover, the rendering which Fr. Drum traces back to 
the Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 1888, viz., "What is there 
between thee and me?" antedates the Record by many a 
year. As indicated in my last paper, old French transla- 
tions of the Vulgate, notably that preferred by the Oratorian, 
de Carrieres, Paris, 1745, give as the ipsissima verba of 
Christ: " Qu'y-a-t-il entre vous et moi?" Authorities who 
do this would hardly agree to the assertions made by my 
critic in the second objection. 

c. In passing from this, my reputed opinion, back to the one 
I really hold, it is strange that Fr. Drum detects no differ- 
ence between the two. It is still stranger, if my interpretation 
is so " nonsensical " in every other Biblical passage, that he 
did not recognize it before. Now that he failed in this respect 
seems evident from the fact that he pronounced my study of 
John 2 : 4, and all related pasages, on its first appearance, a 
model of " scholarly exegesis ". 

II. The Story. The Kurdistan story, which appeared in 
the Review in April, 191 1 (p. 483), has occasioned this ob- 
scure procedure. Fr. Drum's first comment on it was that it 
" should not be taken as scientifically correct ".^ The reasons 
he urged against it were: i, its improbable dramatis personae; 
ii, the language it involves, viz., Arabic; iii, its bad Arabic; 
iv, its irrelevance in explaining John 2:4. In my reply to 
these objections,* my purpose was, not so much to defend the 

* EcCL. Rev.^ May, 191 1, pp. 598-9. "* June, 191 1, pp. 743-746. 


story, as to call attention to the religious, political and social 
background which belonged to it, if true, and to show, at the 
same time, that " the reasons alleged against it " in Fr. 
Drum's development, " did not seem to be well-founded ". 
Subsequent difficulties recently voiced by the Orientalist sug- 
gest the following reflections : 

i. Fr. Drum at first did not think there were any Dominicans 
in Kurdistan. Now, at the end of a year, he thinks that Domi- 
nican missionaries were at least absent from the country up 
until 1882, when they secured a permanent residence there. 
Being a Dominican, I can assure him of the contrary. As 
well might one argue, before knowing the fact, that the 
Fathers of the Society were unknown in certain American 
colonies before they obtained a fixed abode in them. 

ii. My critic says : *' Any one who speaks with people from 
Tunis, Egypt, Abyssinia, Syria, and Mesopotamia, will be 
astounded at the uniformity and purity of their vulgar 
Arabic ". This is very true, but it is misleading. Of itself, 
the statement is pointless, except in so far as it implies : there- 
fore, the vulgar Arabic of Kurdistan is equally pure. Now 
Kurdistan is in none of the places enumerated, and of this 
region, the Father correctly wrote a year ago : " Arabic is 
not the language of Kurdistan ". Adding more definite in- 
formation, I may quote from La Grande Encyclopedie (art., 
Kourdes), the following: "There exist among the Kurds, 
especially along the frontier, numerous dialects containing an 
abundance of Turkish, Arabic, Syriac, and other words ". 

iii. Yet at least the clergy of Kurdistan speak Arabic, for 
Fr. Drum says: " I have spoken with Chaldaic priests from 
Kurdistan and their language was Arabic, and no jumble of 
Arabic with Syriac and Kurd". Evidently, the clergy are 
on a higher level than the uncultured mountaineers. That 
was to be expected. Here we have another point of compari- 
son with early American history. However, missionaries in 
foreign lands usually familiarize themselves with the lan- 
guage and dialects of the natives, and occasionally use them 
instead of their own. 

iv. It was the utter irrelevance of the story in illustrating 
John 2 : 4, that disposed my critic to be surprised at my seem- 
ing " defence " of it. Plainly, I made no pretence at defend- 


ing the story. I approved of it only conditionally, and in 
these words: '* // it can he verified , it possesses, at least for 
the philologist, a value all its own, even though it jail short 
in explaining the Cana narrative.'' The if, and the final clause 
here italicized were inserted designedly. The same is true of 
my appreciation of the idiom, " What is between me and 
thee? " In short, I considered the idiom only to dismiss it as 
being " open to a twofold exposition — the one favorable, the 
other unfavorable." Conditionally, I was willing to accept it 
in its favorable sense, as a " desirable parallel ", but not as an 
exact equivalent, of the Biblical expression. My words were : 
" If J in any country, the expression were habitually used in 
the same circumstances as the Biblical idiom, and if its idiom- 
atic force were such as to exclude the unfavorable sense from 
the minds of those who used it naturally, I fail to see why 
we should not then have a desirable parallel of St. John." I 
might have repudiated the idiom unreservedly, but I pre- 
ferred not to be dogmatic. The French translators and others 
who had previously accepted the phrase as a reasonable 
equivalent or parallel of St. John, were entitled to that much 

Fr. Drum has therefore wrongly taken it for granted that I 
had adopted the phrase as my own, and that the adoption had 
been absolute. When he revised the Arabic reading of the 
idiom a year ago, he assigned to it a meaning quite like that 
I have preferred for John 2:4. He put it thus : " We are at 
one, there is nothing that stands between us ". But now, in 
the false supposition that I have adopted it, he excludes this 
meaning apparently, and mistakenly identifies my position 
with Fr. Kenny's : " What cause of complaint have you 
against me?" After this, an unsound principle is given per- 
emptory value in deciding the imaginary issue : The idioms of 
one language should be translated literally into those of an- 
other, for my critic argues : What is there between me and 
thee, can have no other form in Greek but this : rt fxera^v kfiov koX 
09V. Does the principle not involve a contradiction in terms? 

The other issues raised will vanish, once they are viewed in 
their proper perspective. 

Thomas a'K. Reilly, O.P. 

Immaculate Conception College, Washington, D. C. 



To the Editor, The Ecclesiastical Review. 

Having been asked whether I had any comment to make 
on the above strictures by Father Reilly, I wish to say: In 
the first place, I do not give Fr. Reilly's " reputed opinion ", 
as he intimates in the above observations upon my criticism in 
the June number, but I quote his very words and the page on 
which they appear. Moreover, it is incorrect to write of me, 
" he pronounced my study of John 2 : 4, and all related pas- 
sages, on its first appearance, a model of scholarly exegesis ". 
All this can not be fairly read in my words : " A propos of Fr. 
Reilly's scholarly exegesis of John 2:4" (p. 598, vol. 44). 
Though I disagree with that exegesis, I do not feel such 
odium theologicum as to call it unscholarly. I have drawn 
attention to one unscholarly element in Fr. Reilly's article, — 
his grouping of Joel 3:4 with the other " Quid mihi et tibi " 
texts (p. 739, vol. 46) ; this item he heeds not. Thirdly, I do 
not say that his " interpretation is so nonsensical in every other 
Biblical passage " ; but cite such words as Fr. O'Brien's in re- 
gard to the Kurdistan story. Fourthly, Fr. Reilly garbles 
my words in writing: " Now at the end of a year, he thinks 
that the Dominican missionaries were at least absent from the 
country up until 1882 ". I think no such thing. I only wrote 
that " his summary of their residence therein since 1882 does 
not make clear a story which appeared in 1877 " (p. 738, vol. 
44). Fifthly, it is unfair to say that Fr. O'Brien's character- 
ization of the story as silly is taken by me to prove to my 
satisfaction anything save that this controversy went on in 
1877. Lastly, I give no "peremptory value" to the "un- 
sound principle " : " The idioms of one language should be 
translated literally into those of another". I show that the Ara- 
bic bain of the moot phrase has a meaning such as its Hebrew 
cognate form; is used precisely in the same setting as utra^v, 
its Greek equivalent, in the New Testament; must mean the 
same ; should be translated by the same. Such " sound criti- 
cism " of the text John 2 : 4 cannot be set aside by a rhetOiical 
cry of " contradiction in terms ". 

I may add here that I am glad to find that Fr. Reilly no 
longer defends the Arabic phrase as " presumedly Kurd " ; 
nor his statement of a year ago that " the exegetical bearing 


oi the story, althbugh not convincing, is pertinent " (p. 746,, 
vol. 44). The exegesis of the phrase shows it is not at all 
pertinent to the interpretation of John 2 : 4 — n tfioi kqI «oi, 

Walter Drum, S.J. 
Woodstock College, Maryland. 


Dear Sir. 

I have the pleasure of enclosing my subscription for the 
current year and hope the Ecclesiastical Review will con- 
tinue to be as interesting as in the past. Since the troubles 
in China the American Army has also sent a regiment here, 
the 15th Infantry. Amongst them are some 200 Catholics. 
Unfortunately we have no English prayer-books nor publica- 
tions for them. The British troops have theirs provided, and 
I should think there must be some of your readers who could 
send me a few hundred small prayer-books and a few bundles 
of tracts published by the American Catholic Truth Society. 
I should see to their distribution amongst the men of the 
American contingent. p ^ 

British Military Chaplain. 


Qu. Could you give me some information regarding the De Pro- 
f undis Bell ? It seems it is customary in some places to ring or strike 
a bell in the evening to remind the parishioners of the dead, and to 
elicit a De Prof undis from their pious charity. When is this bell to 
be rung ? Must it be rung or struck, or both ? How many strokes ? 

J. M. H. 

Resp. The custom of ringing the bell in the evening to 
invite the faithful to pray for the souls of the departed ap- 
pears to antedate the institution of the Angelus bell, and to 
have originated at the time of the Crusades. Pope Urban II 
is credited with being the originator, when at the Council of 
Clermont (1095) he ordained that a prayer bell be rung 
mornings and evenings to invite the faithful to implore Al- 
mighty God for victory of the Christian armies over the Sara- 
cens, and to pray for the souls of the soldiers who were left 


dead on the battlefield in the distant country.^ Subsequently 
Clement XII issued a brief (ii August, 1736) proclaiming a 
plenary indulgence, to be gained annually by those who regu- 
larly observed the practice of reciting the De Profundis or 
one Pater and Ave for the souls of the departed (one hundred 
days for each time). This prayer was to be said kneeling, 
about an hour after the Ave Maria (Angelus), at the sound 
of the bell. Later on Pius VI ( 1 781 ) extended the indulgence 
to all who performed the act at the time assigned, even where 
the bell is not sounded. The precise hour of the De Profundis 
Bell depends on the time of the Angelus, which it follows at 
an interval of about an hour. In Catholic countries the Ave 
Maria Bell is rung as a rule at sunset, and accordingly the 
hour varies; elsewhere it coincides with the curfew bell. In 
the United States, where the hour of the Angelus is six 
o'clock, the De Profundis Bell is rung at seven o'clock. 

As to the manner of ringing this bell, no definite rule is 
laid down. Beringer with other writers holds that the bell is 
to be sounded for the space of time which it takes to recite the 
De Profundis psalm. 


The month of July falls in midsummer, when everybody 
claims some dispensation from the serious tasks of professional 
life. The clerical reader too expects to find temporary relax- 
ation from the mental strain which the discussion of theo- 
logical problems, however practical in the result, involves. 
Since the Review is not built on wholly conventional lines of 
current theological periodicals, it takes the liberty to depart 
to some extent from the traditional method in order to be 
more useful to its readers. Accordingly we fill this issue 
of the hottest month in the ecclesiastical as well as the civil 
year, with clerical stories and travel experiences, or in other 
words with the sort of Pastoralia which, whilst they appeal to 
the priest, as is our exclusive purpose, do so through the more 
convenient way of the heart and without making any particu- 
lar demand on the mental energies. We feel sure the tem- 
porary change is agreeable to most of our readers, and will 
not lessen the appreciation of the practical and serious ques- 
tions to be discussed in these pages during the rest of the year. 

^ Dr. Heinrich Otte, Glockenkunde. Leipzig. 1884. 

Criticisms anb Botes* 

THE PBIENDSHIP OF OHBIST. By Bobert Hugh Benson. New Tork 
and London: Longmans, Green & Oo. 1912. Pp. 167. 

A priest must often ask himself why good people, being so good as 
they are, fail to make that real progress in virtue and holiness of 
which their consistent rectitude of life and avoidance of at least any- 
thing like habitual sin would seem to give promise, and of which 
they certainly afford the starting-point. Why, with sanctifying grace 
habitually in their souls; why, considering all that this involves — 
the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, of the Blessed Trinity Itself, — 
why are they not much more like the Saints than they are? Why 
are they so timid, so apt to be discouraged, so prone to say, when 
it is suggested to them that they should enter upon the " devout 
life ", " Oh, such things are not for me " ? Mgr. Benson would say 
that this comes about because they do not cultivate the friendship of 
Christ; and of the friendship of Christ he discourses in this book 
in a manner at once sympathetic with such souls as we speak of, 
enlightening, encouraging, and revealing a true insight into the 
thoughts, the needs, and the difficulties of the many who, but for 
the obstacle the author sets out to remove, would do great things 
in the spiritual life, or rather would open the way for God's Holy 
Spirit to do great things in them. 

When Mgr. Benson's book appeared, the reviewer happened to be 
reading the wonderful Histoire d'une Ame, the spiritual autobiog- 
raphy of that wonderfully simple soul. Sister Teresa of the Infant 
Jesus, who died in 1897 in the odor of sanctity at the Carmelite Con- 
vent of Lisieux. She walked by the spiritual way of most simple 
child-like confidence in the love and goodness of Jesus Christ toward 
all, and one was impressed with the similarity in spirit, though not 
in the mode of treatment, between her appeal and Mgr. Benson's, 
to timid souls to cast off their timidity and make friends with Christ, 
who so constantly in the Gospels invites their friendship and offers 
His. For this, amongst other reasons, He became Man. Yet Catho- 
lics, says Mgr. Benson, " are prone ... to forget that His delights 
are to be with the sons of men more than to rule the Seraphim, that, 
while His Majesty held Him on the Throne of His Father, His Love 
brought Him down on pilgrimage that He might transform His ser- 
vants into His Friends. For example, devout souls often complain 
of their loneliness on earth. They pray, they frequent the Sacra- 


ments, they do their utmost to fulfil the Christian precepts; and, 
when all is done, they find themselves solitary. There could scarcely 
be a more evident proof of their failure to understand one, at least, 
of the great motives of the Incarnation. They adore Christ as God, 
they feed on Him in Communion, cleanse themselves in His precious 
Blood, look to the time when they shall see Him as their Judge; 
yet of that intimate knowledge of and companionship with Him in 
which the Divine Friendship consists, they have experienced little 
or nothing. They long, they say, for one who can stand by their 
side and upon their own level, who cannot merely remove suffering, 
but can himself suffer with them, one to whom they can express in 
silence the thoughts which no speech can utter ; and they seem not to 
understand that this is the very post which Jesus Christ Himself 
desires to win^ that the supreme longing of His Sacred Heart is 
that He should be admitted, not merely to the throne of the heart or 
to the tribunal of conscience, but to that inner secret chamber of the 
soul where a man is most himself, and therefore most utterly alone " 
(pp. 6, 7). 

Beautifully and persuasively Mgr. Benson draws from the Gospel 
record the evidence of this desire of the Heart of Jesus. We would 
direct attention especially to his brief, but very striking use of the 
passage also from the Apocalypse — the words of Jesus risen and 
ascended : " Behold, I stand at the gate and knock. If any man shall 
hear My Voice, and open to me the door, I will come in to him, and 
will sup with him and he with Me " ( Apoc. 3 : 20) . 

But Christ is God, as well as man. " A single individualistic 
friendship with Him therefore does not exhaust His capacities. . . . 
He approaches us, therefore, along countless avenues, although it is 
the same Figure that advances down each. It is not enough to know 
Him interiorly only: He must be known (if His relation with us 
is to be that which He desires) in all those activities and manifesta- 
tions in which He displays Himself." 

Hence Mgr. Benson divides his book into two parts : ( 1 ) Christ in 
the Interior Soul; (2) Christ in the Exterior. In the first part he 
gives us a short treatise on the Purgative and Illuminative Ways, 
up to the point at which Ordinary (not Extraordinary) Contempla- 
tion is reached — a goal, he points out, perfectly attainable by any- 
one with ordinary graces, something to be aimed at and prayed for. 
In a modern way — modern in the sense of being practical and suited 
to the difficulties and problems with which pious persons are faced 
now; in the sense also of being couched in language which people 
to-day can understand — the old and orthodox doctrine concerning 

1 Italics are the reviewer's. 


these stages of the spiritual life are presented; doctrines which 
often may fail to be understood when read in the archaic phraseology 
of past days. This is what in a certain kind of religious parlance, 
come to savor somewhat of cant, would be called very " helpful ". 
Despite the associations of the hackneyed phrase, it is entirely true 
in this case, and many souls will thank Mgr. Benson for what he has 
done for them in this section of his little work. 

The second part of the book, treating of Christ in the Exterior, 
has not only a spiritual value for Catholics, but an apologetic value 
also. It shows how interior religious experience must be judged as 
to its validity by those external criteria which Christianity, as Christ 
made it, afford. The Evil One clothes himself as an angel of light, 
so as to deceive even the elect, and " notoriously, nothing is so dif- 
ficult to discern as the difference between the inspirations of the 
Holy Ghost and the aspirations or imaginations of self" (p. 41). 
This confusion happens in Protestantism; it happened to the Mod- 
ernists. So we must look to Christ in His exterior manifestations 
of Himself. Nor can our friendship with Him be a true one if we 
do not. Particularly we must know and love Christ in the Church, 
" Christ-in- Catholicism ", as Mgr. Benson expresses it. Catholics, 
even, need to be reminded of this. It is a disposition eminently 
prominent in the lives of God's saints, and the greatest interior lovers 
and friends of Jesus have also been the greatest lovers and most 
loyal children of the Church. Readers of this Review will recall 
the author's work, Christ in the Church, recently noticed here,^ in 
which this aspect of the question is treated at length. 

One by one, then, Mgr. Benson takes the external manifestations 
of Christ, the various avenues down which the Divine-Human 
Friend makes advance to us. Christ in the Eucharist, in the Church, 
in the Priest, in the Saint, in the Sinner, in the Average Man, in the 
Sufferer, and, lastly, in His historical life — crucified, and vindicated 
— is presented to us in these illuminating pages. " Christ is the 
Saviour " is a chapter that will bring new light to many souls, re- 
vealing a view of sin, often missed, which must surely seize the 
attention of the sinner himself with appealing force. 

We cannot conceive of anyone, be he Catholic or Protestant, good 
or bad, who will not be benefited by the careful study of this work, 
which merits more than a cursory reading, and should find a place 
amongst the few chosen works to which each, according to his needs, 
goes for spiritual nourishment. 

2 See the Ecclesiastical Review for June, 191 1. 


THE EEASON WHY. A Oommon-Sense Contribution to Christian 
and Catholic Apologetics. By Bernard J. Otten, S.J., Professor of 
Theology, St. Louis University. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. Pp. 347. 

Father Otten's book is not a disappointment to the common-sense 
reader, as many advertised contributions to Christian and Catholic 
apologetics are, inasmuch as they are aggressive when they pre- 
tend to be defensive, and they exaggerate and characterize as 
malicious opposition to the truth what should be merely stated as 
fact and explained as due to ignorance or misunderstanding. If 
our Divine Master could say from the Cross that those who 
maligned and crucified Him " knew not " what they did ; if His 
attitude toward Judas down to the very last was one of a friend who 
pities rather than blames even the wilful perversity of a disciple, 
it hardly becomes the Catholic apologist to point in scorn and 
malevolence to those who are in error or who conscientiously differ 
from us and are therefore at least materially in the right. 

Father Otten would rather persuade by reasoning and pre- 
sentation of fact. He starts from the evidence of creation, and 
makes it clear that religious service and worship of some kind is 
a duty which is the outcome of man's evident dependence. The 
quality of this service is determined by man's distinctly superior 
nature, which imposes the obligation of religion as well as the 
instinct of morality upon him. Thence we are led to examine 
the claims of supernatural religion: the reasonableness of faith, 
the possibility and need of revelation, the credentials of that 
revelation, the verification of the truths of revelation in their ap- 
plication to man's moral and spiritual aspirations. The third part 
of the volume is devoted to a study of the person of Christ, by 
which His divinity and as a consequence the divine authority of 
the Church established by Him to perpetuate His teaching and 
to lead to the fulfilment of His promises, are clearly demonstrated, 
logically as well as historically. The conclusion is an appeal to 
reason and honesty of purpose to acknowledge and embrace the 
one true religion. The volume is well printed, a fact which is 
not an altogether superfluous recommendation. 

OANTEMUS DOMINO. Catholic Hymnal with English and Latin Words 
for Two and Three Equal Voices. Edited by Ludwig Bonvin, S. J., 
Op. 104. (OEGAN ACCOMPANIMENT— same editor and publisher— 
L. Bonyin, Op. 104 a). St. Louis : B. Herder. 1912. 

The present hymnal adapts the author's previous Hosanna 
hymnal " to the needs of those convents, academies and other in- 


stitutions where the custom exists of singing such hymns in 2- or 
3-part chorus." The author has accordingly selected from the 
Hosanna the hymns which seemed " to lend themselves most readily 
to the desired arrangement and at the same time suffice for the va- 
rious needs of the ecclesiastical year," and he has also included 
" some polyphonic and more pretentious, though not difficult, 
chants." Among these latter he calls special attention to Nos. 78 
and 84, which were originally written for two mixed voices, and 
which " may be counted among the most expressive and poetic com- 
positions not only of Koenen, but also in the entire field of more 
recent church music." The volume contains 91 numbers, of which 
68 are in English text, and the remainder in Latin. 

It is needless to comment on the scholarly musical abilities of Fr. 
Bonvin or on his well-guided taste in selection from the work of 
others, to whom he gives credit in the Preface to the Organ Accom- 
paniment. Hearty commendation may, however, be bestowed on his 
carefulness in acknowledging the various obligations he incurs to the 
work of others. He has given indications of all this by the initials 
placed at the end of the various accompaniments; but in order to 
understand the meaning of the abbreviations we refer to, it is neces- 
sary to have read the Preface. We venture to suggest that in a 
future edition it might be desirable to give all such information in 
an additional Index, which should also include indications of the 
sources of the texts of the hymns. This hymnological apparatus is a 
very acceptable feature of the compilations of our separated brethren 
in the hymnal field, and while it demands much editorial labor, 
nevertheless justifies the labor by the large amount of interesting 
and helpful information it furnishes both to the organist and to the 
singers. There are, for instance, in the present hjrmnal a nimiber of 
translations into English from Latin originals: No. 2 (" O Come, 
O Come, Emmanuel ") is a translation of the beautiful Latin hymn, 
Veni, Veni, Emmanuel, which itself is based on the Great Anti- 
phons (the " O's ") of Advent. The translation is a slight variation 
of that of the accomplished and highly successful Anglican trans- 
lator of oiir Latin hymns, the Rev. Dr. J. M. Neale. No. 3 (" O 
Come, Redeemer of the Earth ") is a translation of the famous hymn 
of St. Ambrose, Veni Redemptor Gentium (which is not found in 
our Roman Breviary), and is but slightly different from the trans- 
lation as found in the most recent edition of the Anglican hymnal. 
Hymns Ancient and Modern. No. 4 ("On Jordan's Banks the 
Baptist's Voice") is based on Chandler's version (found with va- 
rious changes in many non-Catholic hymn-books) of G. Coffin's 
hymn, Jordanis oras praevia, found in the Paris Breviary. These 


Latin originals are not so well known as the Jesu dulcis memoria, 
ascribed by some hymnologists to St. Bernard (which appears in 
translation as No. 12: ** Jesus, the Very Thought is Sweet") ; or 
as the Ave Maris Stella (appearing as No. 54: "Star of Ocean 
Fairest ") — and yet neither organist nor singer may know aught of 
all this interesting hymnal history. It would be desirable to furnish 
such information in an Index — and even to connect, in some wise, the 
hymns Nos. 30 and 31 ("Humbly I Adore Thee", and "O Food 
of Men Wayfaring") with the originals given later on in the vol- 
ume, Nos. 77 and 80 ("Adoro Te Devote" and "O Esca Via- 
torum"). The beautiful English version, hymn No. 1 ("Make 
Broad the Path, Unbar the Gate") is from the German original 
(" Macht hoch die Thiir, das Thor macht weit") of the Lutheran, 
Georg Weissel (d. 1665), whose original is esteemed as one of the 
finest Advent hymns. 

An Index which should contain all similar hymnological informa- 
tion for the texts used throughout the volume would be, we think, 
desirable and helpful. Meanwhile, we must congratulate the editor 
on the improved text of several of the hjnnus. It is indeed a pleas- 
ure to find the " Holy God" (No. 28) given in an absolutely cor- 
rect rhythmic version; for even at this late day the hymn is often 
reprinted with many errors, such as " Everlasting is thy Name ", in- 
stead of the proper " Everlasting is thy reign " (in the first stanza) ; 
" Angel choirs above are singing ", instead of the proper " Angel 
choirs above are raising ", etc. Especially are we gratified at the 
careful emendation of the popular hymn, " To Jesus' Heart All- 
burning ", in the interests of rhyme and rhythm, and even of pro- 
nunciation. The editorial file was necessary here, and the result is 
one that must please every careful hymnologist and singer. By some 
oversight, the 6th stanza of hymn No. 6 has allowed an error ap- 
parently (it is repeated in Nos. 7 and 8) to creep in: 

" The love that is between us 
Shall be a tie for aye, 
And nought shall e'er estrange us, 
As pledge accept my heart." 

In the previous stanzas the 2nd and 4th line always rhyme. 

In general, we commend also the work of printer and binder. We 
have noticed the following misprints: polophonic (p. Ill), Ave 
Maria gratis plena (p. V), "Make bread the path" (p. 3). As 
they stand, the volumes must be cordially commended for the excel- 
lence of both the music and the text; and the suggestions we have 
made look merely to a possible betterment in future editions. 

H. T. Henry. 


usque ad Periam VI. post Octavam Ascensionis Gradualis Eomani quod 
juxta editionem Vaticanam harmonice omavit Dr. Fr. X. Mathias, Ee- 
gens SeminariiEpiscopalis Argentinensis. EditioEatisbonensis. (New 
York and Oincinnati : Pustet. 1912). 354 pages Quarto. 

Dr. Mathias has furnished organists with an ably conceived sys- 
tem of accompaniment for plainsong. In the present installment 
of his accompaniment to the Vatican edition of the Roman Gradual, 
he has deemed it advisable to present certain of the chants in two 
keys, as for example the Introit, Offertory, Communion of Septua- 
gesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima Sundays, the first antiphon of 
Ash Wednesday, etc. This is done by printing the chants, not in 
a double signature (a device which, we conceive, must be confusing 
to many organists), but in two fully printed sets for each chant 
melody. This care for the convenience of organists involves a 
double labor for the musical editor and an added expense for the 
publisher; but both labor and expense are justified by the greater 
convenience thus created for the organist, who is often sufficiently 
tasked in his desire to render the accompaniment smooth and flow- 
ing, even without the added botheration of two sets of signatures 
placed before a single piece of music. Dr. Mathias has created his 
own system of rhythmical interpretation, and embodies it in the 
present installment of the Gradual melodies and accompaniments. 
Singers must sing the melodies as the organist finds them in transcrip- 
tion in the accompaniments; and it is obvious that either the sing- 
ers must be well trained in the system adopted by Dr. Mathias, or 
must have the use of rhythmized editions according to his system. 
He has provided these in the case of the Kyriale chants, of those 
of the Commune Sanctorum, and for the Epitome ex Editione Vati- 
cana Gradualis Romani. Perhaps he has done this also for the full 
Gradual; but if so, we have not come across it as yet. The system 
is somewhat similar to, but not identical with, that of Solesmes. 

H. T. Henry. 

Huby, avec la collaboration des plusieurs anteurs. Paris : Beauchesne 
& Oie. 1912. Pp. 1046. 

LE BOUDDHISME PEIMITIF. Par Alfred Eonssel. Paris : Pierre 
Teqni. 1911, Pp. 440. 

Much of the material which has already appeared in Father 
Martindale's excellent collection History of Religions (5 Vols., 


London: Catholic Truth Society), previously recommended in the 
Review, has been utilized in the present Manuel. The volume 
contains, besides an introduction on the general historical study of 
religions, chapters dealing successively with the religions of savage 
races, the religion of China, Japan, the Aryans, Brahmanism and 
Buddhism, the Greeks, Romans, Celts, Germans, Egyptians, Baby- 
lonians, Islam, Israel. 

A special feature of the work is the elaborate chapter on the 
Christian religion (pp. 681-1016), a study which justifies the title 
of the volume and places Christianity in its proper position as the 
unique and perfect expression of God's revelation and man's reli- 
gious faith and duty. There are full bibliographies and excellent 
indexes. The manual, while containing much matter, is compact 
and convenient, though the binding might easily have been more 

M. Alfred Roussel's study is closed with an extract which 
concludes a prior work on the same subject by Barthelemy St. 
Hilaire. Coming as it does from an authority equally competent 
and unbiased, the citation is worth requoting here. " Buddhism," 
says M. St.-Hilaire, " has nothing to teach us and its school would 
be disastrous to us. Despite its appearances, which are sometimes 
specious, it is simply a long tissue of contradictions ; and it is doing 
it no injustice to say that on close acquaintance it proves to be a 
spiritualism without a soul, a virtue without duty, a morality with- 
out liberty, a charity without love, a world without nature and with- 
out God. What then could we gain from such teachings? And how 
much we should have to forget were we to become its blind disciples? 
How many degrees we should have to descend in the scale of nations 
and of civilization! The sole, though immense service, that Budd- 
hism can render us is by its sad contrast to make us better appreciate 
the inestimable value of our own beliefs by showing to us how much 
it has cost these peoples who have no part with us therein." 

But, it may be asked, if Buddhism is thus sterile in itself and if its 
best lesson be negative, why multiply books to set forth " a long 
tissue of contradictions " or a mere standard of negative value? 
A sufficient answer to this query may perhaps be found in the fact 
that uncounted millions — one-third of the human race according to 
Professor Roussel — are enmeshed in this " long tissue of contradic- 
tions ", which, having spread far beyond its Eastern beginnings, is 
now enfolding new victims throughout the Western world. The 
moral, if not religious, beliefs of so vast a multitude of human 
beings cannot be without appeal to the interest of readers of this 
Review; and consequently the recent monograph above introduced 



may well merit their attention. Of course they already possess the 
well-known work of Dr. Aiken, in which the Professor of Apolo- 
getics in the Catholic University, Washington, examines the alleged 
relation of Buddhism to primitive Christianity. It is an able piece 
of scholarly criticism and contains the best bibliography on Budd- 
hism up to the year 1900 — the date of its publication. There is 
also the no less able work by M. de la Vallee Poussin, Professor in 
the University of Ghent, much of which is devoted to the philo- 
sophical aspects of Buddhism. 

The book under review, by M. Roussel, Professor of Sanscrit in 
the Freiburg University (Switzerland), is somewhat more descriptive 
than the two just mentioned. About half the volume is devoted to 
the life of the Buddha, the remaining half being divided between an 
analysis of the Dhamma, the law of the Buddha, and a description 
of Buddhistic monachism. The volume closes with an account of 
the present condition of Buddhism in its fatherland. It will not be 
necessary to enter here into further details. Suffice it to recommend 
it not simply to professional students but to general readers to whom 
its subject may appeal. The author has the happy art of making a 
seemingly dry subject attractive. Although the work is the outcome 
of much research, the erudition is not paraded; it blends smoothly 
in a narrative that delights whilst it instructs. 

MEEVEILLES DU OOKPS HUMAIN. Par le Dr. L. Murat, en col- 
laboration aveo le Dr. P. Murat, Paris s Pierre Tequi. 1912. Pp. 

The volume here introduced is the third on the projected program, 
though the second in turn to appear, of studies designed to 
strengthen and illustrate the teleological argument for the exist- 
ence of God. The first volume, treating of the anorganic and the 
vegetable kingdoms, appeared about two years ago and is now in its 
fourth edition. It was reviewed at the time in these pages. The 
second volume, on the animal world, is still in course of prepara- 
tion. The volume at hand opens with an elaborate examination of 
the design argument, the objections against it drawn from Darwin- 
ism and materialistic evolutionism generally being especially con- 
sidered. The seven hundred pages which constitute the rest of the 
book comprise studies in the anatomy and physiology of the brain, 
the heart and circulatory system, the digestive organs, etc., the 
sensory apparatus, eye, ear, etc. especially, as well as the protective 
devices of the body. The aim of the author throughout has been 


to secure scientific accuracy with the avoidance as far as possible 
of unnecessary technicalities. The work is not therefore precisely 
popular. It is scientific, and yet not beyond the capacity of the 
average educated person to read with profit and satisfaction. The 
French have a well recognized felicity of being clear and exact 
without being tedious. The book will therefore serve the serious 
student of science and philosophy as well as theology, while the 
preacher of the word will find it a storehouse of facts and ideas 
available in illustration of the nature and attributes of the Creator. 

AUTHORITY. The runction of Authority in Life and its Eelation to 
Legalism in Ethics and Religion, By A. v. 0. F. Huizinga. Boston: 
Sherman, Prench & Oo. Pp. 270. 

This book promises much but fulfills little. Authority is con- 
sidered from a " psychological and sociological ", also from a 
" metaphysical and theological aspect " — terms which designate the 
main divisions of the volume — but nowhere is there a clear and ade- 
quate definition of authority itself. Much is said about authority, 
but there is no analysis of its various meanings and its nature or 
essence in its religious application. The work evidences consider- 
able reading. Indeed it is little more that a catena of excerpts from 
authors who have said something more or less germane to the sub- 
ject. Some of these extracts are misinterpreted by the compiler, 
owing apparently to an imperfect knowledge of the general mind 
of the author from whom the excerpt is taken. This is evident in 
the extracts from " Tyrell ". The writer has manifestly not read, 
or, if he has, has failed to understand " Tyrell's " mind on " author- 
ity " as it is expressed in that beautiful and profound chapter, " The 
Mystical Body," which forms a part of Hard Sayings. 

The chain upon which the excerpts that make up the substance of 
the book are strung is weak and ill-formed. There runs through it 
a straining after philosophical effect which reveals a mind whose 
ambition surpasses its powers of attainment or its stage of prepara- 
tion. No one can do philosophical work who does not think at least 
clearly. Very much of the thought for which the author himself is 
responsible is hazy and confused. This is not because the thought is 
profound, or the subject so very difficult, but because the writer has 
not mastered his subject, though no doubt he honestly thinks he has. 
He undertook a task for which he lacked philosophical and theologi- 
cal ability or at least preparation. Consequently the product is im- 
mature and of little or no value as a contribution to' the subject. 

Xiterari2 Cbat 

What impresses the student of social problems most intensely, and often 
no less painfully, is the complexity of his undertakings. This is especially 
the case with " the drink question ". The frightful ravages wrought by the 
abuse of alcoholic stimulants are of course among the most sadly familiar of 
facts. The difficulties spring up and becloud the mind as soon as the method 
of stemming the flood is confronted. Here, as in every other phase and 
ramification of " the social question ", the means and remedies centre in the 
individual, the State, and the Church, and each of these agencies calls for 
special study and prudent application. The priest dealing with individual 
souls and applying to them the spiritual powers which the Church entrusts 
to him, as her representative, holds within his hands the most effective safe- 
guards and remedies. The functions, however, of the State, the rights and 
the duties of government in the matter, are less determined and more uncer- 
tain of execution. 

The literature bearing on this department is fairly abundant. Neverthe- 
less, there is plenty of room for such a treatment of the subject as is given 
by Mr. Robert Bagnell in a neat little volume entitled Economic and Moral 
Aspects of the Liquor Business (New York, Funk & Wagnalls ; pp. i86). 
The opening chapter alone is devoted to the effects of the excessive use of 
alcohol upon the individual. The rest of the book deals with the social influ- 
ences of the saloon, and the economic and moral aspects of the subject, in 
view of the pertinent rights and responsibilities of the State. The treatment 
is calm and judicious, not rampant or subjective. The author's theory of the 
basis of rights is sound — a praise that cannot always be accorded to writers 
on the temperance question. 

After recommending such a book it may seem somewhat out of place to 
introduce forthwith the Year Book of the United States Brewers' Association. 
Perhaps the insistence of the audi alteram partem might justify such a pro- 
ceeding; for indeed in view of the complexity of the drink question, the 
student who would be in every way just, dares leave no side thereof unex- 
amined. It is rather however for the data furnished by the volume that atten- 
tion is here drawn to the elaborate report of the proceedings of the Fifty-First 
Annual Convention of the said association (Chicago, November, 191 1). The 
data in point refer to the relative effects of prohibitory and permissive legis- 
lation on the liquor traffic. The comparative failure of prohibition is of 
course a well-known fact. However, the precise results of the measure are 
summarized in graphic statistical tables in the Year Book. 

Lest any one should suspect the impartiality of the reports (the case being 
apparently one of pro domo sua), it should be noted that the statistics are all 
taken from governmental, and therefore unbiased, documents. 

Much has been heard lately of boy-saving, the Boys' Brigades, Scouts, and 
so on. Saving the girl used to be thought a comparatively easier process, 
though recently the difficulties and the urgency thereof are looming up 
larger, and our educated Catholic women here and there are taking up the 
work in earnest. 

Sodalities are potent agencies in the girl-saving service, but there are large 
numbers whom they do not and cannot reach. Working girls' clubs are 
becoming more and more a necessity, especially in large centres of population. 
We have previously called attention to Madame Cecilia's little volume, Girls' 
Clubs and Mothers' Meetings (New York, Benziger), and we now want to 
redeem our promise of returning to it. 


What impresses one most in perusing the book is its eminently practical, 
workable character. Madame Cecilia has had wide experience in dealing with 
girls, young and otherwise ; and she knows their dispositions, their ways, their 
faults, little meannesses, as well as their good points. She understands thor- 
oughly how to handle them, how to draw out their better qualities, how to 
minimize their weaknesses and defects. Moreover, she has supplemented her 
knowledge by the experience of many other workers in the same field, lay 
and religious, Catholic as well as non-Catholic. The result is a compendium 
of sound, sane, detailed, practical information covering every phase of the 
large and intricate subject and presented with her wonted felicity of expres- 
sion in this neat little volume. 

The aims of Catholic working girls' clubs, how to start them, time-tables, 
order, discipline, committees, competitions, libraries, leaders, finances, rules, 
rewards, amusements, games, occupations, analyses of two hundred and fifty 
plays — these are the principal topics treated ; and there will probably be no 
conditions or occasions for advice on the side of workers in this most im- 
portant and timely of woman's charities, that will not be foreseen and pro- 
vided for in these richly-stored pages. 

Hardly second if not first in ingeniousness of Christian charity is that 
which is known as Mothers' Meetings. Municipalities and lay benevolent 
organizations are actively engaged in the work of instructing mothers in their 
maternal and domestic duties. Much good is thus being accomplished amongst 
the poor. A still larger range of beneficence spreads out where all this is 
inspired by and permeated with the heavenly graces of the Catholic spirit. 
To this most fruitful and winsome of works in which spiritual interblends 
with corporal mercy, Madame Cecilia devotes a special chapter, the perusal 
of which may, it will be hoped, inspire our Catholic women in our American 
cities to undertake the work described. 

Over against the Socialist movement which is so ably presented by Mr. 
Walling in his recent book. Socialism As It Is (to be reviewed in the August 
number) , stands the Catholic Church. Herein the Socialist " finds opposed 
to him ", as Mr. Hilaire Belloc says, " an organism whose principle of life is 
opposed to his own, and an intelligence whose reasoning does not (as do the 
vulgar capitalist arguments to which he is so dreadfully accustomed) take 
for granted the very postulates of his own creed. He learns, the more he 
comes across this Catholic opposition, that he cannot lay to avarice, stupidity, 
or hypocrisy, the resistance which this unusual organism offers to his propa- 

It probably did not fall within the scope of Mr. Walling's undertaking to 
mention this antagonism between the two greatest organized forces existing 
in the world to-day. Or it may be that he desired to exclude the religious 
element from his argumentation, and this for reasons more or less obvious. 
Whatever be the case, the fact of this determined, unflinching opposition 
between the Church and Socialism is one of the most universal and con- 
spicuous of present social phenomena. 

The bases and reasons of this conflict have been made clear in many books 
and widely spread pamphlets. Nevertheless the media of enlightenment on 
this point can hardly be too multiplied and too much disseminated. The 
International Catholic Truth Society (Brooklyn, New York) has done a good 
work therefore by reprinting in this country Mr. Belloc's brief paper, at a 
price which makes it easy to spread broadcast. Needless to say, the little 
essay is both bright and thoughtful. 

Those who are interested in the study of the growth of sociological phe- 
nomena will find in the last number of the Columbia University Studies (No. 



117) an instructive type of a good method and its results. The title is A 
Hoosier Village: A Sociological Study, by Newell Sims (New York, Long- 
mans, Green & Co.)- 

The identity of the actual Indiana village is concealed under the name 
" Aton ". The author describes the locality, the people, their social organi- 
zation, political, religious, etc., " the social mind ", and lastly the genesis of 
all these factors and activities. The whole shows how much of the ever 
interestingly human can be learned from the study of a back-country village 
of some 2,600 souls. 

The Quarterly Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica, which has recently put 
on a bright new dress, continues to reflect the progress of philosophical studies 
in Italy. The editor. Dr. Gemelli, being both an eminent physician and a 
scholastic philosopher, knows how to combine the old metaphysics and the new- 
science. With his eye on the unchanging principles he has an alert sense for 
their progressive application to changing phases and conditions of thought 
(Florence, Italy). 

Bishop Hay's The Sincere Christian has its place amongst the permanent 
books of religious instruction, a place from which the multitude of cognate 
works that have appeared during the past hundred years will not remove it. 
Solidity and clarity of doctrine, if not elegance of diction, are its claims to 
endurance. The new edition, revised by Canon Stuart, gives the work a 
worthy embodiment (St. Louis, Herder: London, Sands & Co.). 

During the summer of 191 1 a series of investigations on the subject of 
religious ignorance was carried on through the columns of the well-known 
French daily. La Croix. The most eminent Catholics in France contributed 
their thought, and the whole product has recently been edited by the Abbe 
Terasse and published in a convenient volume by Lethielleux (Paris). The 
facts, causes, consequences and remedies — under these headings a large amount 
of instructive thought and suggestion relative to the growing ignorance of 
religion is summed up. Though directly pertaining to conditions prevailing 
in France the subject possesses a universal interest (pp. 173). 

Bible et Science ^ Terre et del, by Ch. de Kirwan, is the title of a recent 
addition to M. Blond's favorably known series of " Science et Religion ". 
There are just three score pages, but these are well packed with pithily ex- 
pressed thought on the interrelations of the Bible and science and on certain 
fundamental problems centring in astronomy. Short studies, yet withal inter- 
esting, on great subjects. 

To the same series has recently been added Lettres choisies de St. Vincent 
de Paul. The booklet contains some thirty letters, now printed for the first 
time from the original MSS. and edited by M. Pierre Coste (Paris: Bloud 
et Cie). 

An oddity in ecclesiastical literature mentioned by Fr. W. Weth, S.J., in 
Zeitschrift fur kath. Theologie (Innsbruck) is a Missal of pre- Reformation 
times, belonging to the Patriarchate of Aquileja, printed in 15 19 at Venice. 
In connexion with its regular Calendar of Saints and feasts it gives certain 
rules of health and practical advice on right living. 

The so-called " dog days " are marked out in the following couplet : 

Octava Pe Pau canis incipit et finit Oc Lau. 
Mar gar caniculas Assumptio terminat illas — 

which means that the vacations began on the Octave of SS. Peter and Paul, 
or on the feast of St. Margaret; and they ended with the Octave of St. 
Laurence, or the feast of the Assumption of the B. V. Mary. 


The rules of healthy living are set forth in the Calendar as follows : 

I. In Januario claris calidisque cibis potiaris 
Atque decens potus post fercula sit tibi notus, 
Ledit enim medo tunc potatus, ut bene credo. 
Balnea tutus intres et venam scindere cures. 

Nascitur occulta febris Februario multa (influenza) 
Potibus et escis si caute minuere velis 
Tunc cave frigora, de poUice funde cruorem, 
Sugge mellis favum, pectoris morbos curabit. 

Martins humores gignit variosque dolores. 
Sume cibum pure, cocturas si placet ure. 
Balnea sunt sana, sed quae superflua vana. 
Vena nee abdenda ; nee potio sit tribuenda. 

Hie probat in vere vires Aprilis habere. 
Cuncta renascuntur : pori tunc aperiuntur. 
In quo scalpescit corpus sanguis quoque crescit. 
Ergo solvatur venter, cruorque minuatur. 

Maio secure laxari sit tibi curae. 
Scindatur vena : sed balnea dentur amena. 
Cum calidis rebus sint fercula seu speciebus. 
Potibus adstricta sit salvia cum benedicta. 

In Junto gentes perturbat medo bibentes. 
Atque novarum fuge potus cerevisiarum. 
Ne noceat colera valet hec refectio vera. 
Lactuce frondes ede jejunus, bibe fontes. 

Qui vult solamen Julio hoc probat medicamen : 
Venam non scindat nee ventrem potio ledat. 
Somnum compescat, et balnea cuncta pavescat 
Prodest recens unda, allium cum salvia munda. 

Quisquis sub August o vivat medicamine justo 
Raro dormitet, estum, coitum qu,oque ritet. 
Balnea non curet nee multum comestio duret, 
Nemo laxari debet vel phlebotomari. 

Fructus maturi Septemhris sint valituri 

Et pira cum vino, panis cum lacte caprino. 

Aqua de urtica tibi potio fertur amica. 

Tunc venam pandas, species cum semine mandas. 

October vina praebet cum came farrina, 
Necnon auccina caro valet et volucrina. 
Quamvis sint sana, tamen est repletio vana. 
Quantum vis comede, sed non praecordia laede. 

Hoc tibi scire datur, quod rheuma Novembri curatur. 
Quaeque nociva, vita: tua sint preciosa dicta. 
Balnea cum venere tunc nullum constat habere. 
Potio sit sana atque minutio bona. 

Sane sunt membris res calide mense Decembris. 
Frigus vitetur, capitalis vena scindatur. 
Lotio sit vana, sed vasis potio cara. 
Sit tepidus potus frigore contrario totus. 

Father John Hedrick's The Office with the New Psalter, which appeared 
in the Review (April) and which gave the General Ordo for the months of 


April, May, June, and July, has now been published by Fr. Pustet & Co., in a 
handy pamphlet and extended to include the new 19 12 Ordo for all the rest 
of the year. This makes it unnecessary for us to continue the publication of 
the Mutationes in Kalendario Anno. 

Creighton University (Omaha, Nebraska) seems to be doing exceptionally 
good work in the professional courses of Law and Medicine and its allied 
branches of Dentistry and Pharmacy. In these courses we note the admission 
of women-graduates. In the May issue of the Creighton Chronicle, the Uni- 
versity organ, an attractive account of the progress made by the institution 
is given. Father Eugene Magevney, S.J., the President, is evidently bringing 
his University to the front. 

According to the Tablet (London) the official reports of France indicate a 
continued decline of the birth rate there. The recorded deaths for the past 
year exceeded the births by 34,869. There were 13,058 divorces. The evils 
implied in these statistics are distinctly less in those parts of France, where, 
as in Brittany, the Catholic religion is being maintained among the people. 

Father Maurice Meschler's beautiful treatise on the Holy Ghost has been 
translated into Spanish under the title of Pentecostes b las Danes del Espiritu 
Santo. The translation is by the Jesuit Father Evaristo Gomez, and has ap- 
parently retained all the charm which is a feature of the German original, 
and which likewise characterizes the English version. The volume is an 
excellent meditation book for all seasons, although especially designed for the 
Pentecostal cycle (B. Herder). 

In connexion with this work of Father Meschler we would direct attention 
to two other treatises well known of old, but recently republished in attractive 
form as part of the Bibliotheca ascetica mystica, designed by Cardinal Fischer 
of Cologne and edited by Father Lehmkuhl. They are the mystical theology 
of the Carmelite Father Joannes a Jesu Maria, together with his Epistola 
Christi ad Hominem; likewise the Latin version by Masotto of Father 
Scupoli's Spiritual Combat, which St. Francis de Sales seems to have valued 
above all other printed aids to progress in the spiritual life, next to the in- 
spired Word of God. 

The old Venetian Luigi Comaro believed that all the spiritual doctrine 
necessary to make a man become a better servant of God, was contained in 
the principle of abstemiousness which he expounds in his fourfold treatise, 
Delia Vita Sobria. That famous book has indeed done much not only for 
the popularizing of the art of living long, but likewise for the promotion of 
natural virtue and the spirit of public benevolence. Curiously enough it is 
only within recent years that the work has become known in the United 
States. The poet George Herbert had made an English version of it in 
his day; rendered apparently from the Latin translation by Lessius (1613 and 
1615), which seems to have been popular at the time. In the succeeding^ 
century a number of editions were issued in London, of which the best, ac- 
cording to John Sinclair, is the one of 1779. An enterprising Parisian pub- 
lisher had issued a critique of the work before that date under the name of 
L'Anti-Cornaro (Paris, 1702). 

A few years ago Mr. William Butler, of Milwaukee, printed an amended 
translation, the result of original inquiry into Italian sources. Apart from 
being probably the most complete version in English of the four original 
tracts, with biographical notes and references, the volume contains a number 
of appreciations by Addison, Bacon, and Sir William Temple, who were 
fervent advocates of the Vita Sobria. 

JSooks IRecelveb. 


Das Zeugnis des fier Evangelisten fiir die Taufe, Eucharistie und Gcistes- 
sendung. Mit Entwiirfen zu Predigten iiber die Eucharistie. Von Dr. 
Johannes Evang. Belser, o. Professor der Theologie an der Universitat 
Tiibingen. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. Pp. xii-294. Price, $1.30. 

ViVRE, ou SE LAISSER viVRE? Conseils aux Jeunes Gens. Par Pierre Saint- 
Quay. Avec une lettre de Mgr. Baudrillart, Recteur de I'lnstitut Catholique. 
Paris : Pierre Tequi. 1912. Pp. xv-326. Prix, 3/r. 50. 

Manuel Pratique de la Devotion au Sacre-Cceur de Jesus. Par I'Abbe 
Vandepitte, D.H. Paris: Pierre Tequi. 1912. Pp. 345. Prix, 1 /r. 

Pensees Choisies du R. p. de Ponlevoy de la Compagnie de Jesus. Ex- 
traites de sa vie, de ses opuscules ascetiques et lettres. Par le P. Charles 
Renard. Paris: Pierre Tequi. 19 12. Pp. viii-363. Prix, i fr. 

Le Pain 6vangelique. ifexplication dialoguee des 6vangiles des Dimanches 
et Fetes d'Obligation a I'usage des Catechismes, du Clerge et des Fideles. 
Tome II : Du Careme a la St. Pierre. Paris : Pierre Tequi. 19 12. Pp. 248. 
Prix, 2 fr. 

Le Mystere d'Amour. Considerations sur la Sainte Eucharistie. Par le R. 
P. Lecomu, Provicaire du Tonkin Occidental. Paris: Pierre Tequi. 1912. 
Pp. viii-394. Prix, 3 fr. 50. 

Manuel du Tiers- Ordre de Saint-Francois. D'apres le Directoire spir- 
ituel. Par P. Eugene d'Oisy. Constitution " Misericors Dei Filius ". — Expli- 
cation de la R^gle. — Ceremonial. — Catalogue des indulgences. — Conduite in- 
terieure. — Recueil de prieres franciscaines. — Cantiques. — Office de la Sainte 
Vierge. Deuxieme Edition. Paris : Librarie S. Frangois ; Couvin, Belgique : 
Maison Saint-Roch. 1912. Pp. 558. 

Theologia Mystica et Epistola Christi ad Hominem. Auctore Joanne 
A Jesu Maria, Carmelita discalceato. 

PuGNA Spiritualis secundam versionem Latinam ab Oljrmpio Masotto 
factam. Auctore Lauren tio Scupoli, O.Cler.Reg. — Friburgi Brisg., St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 394. Price, $1.25. 

Homilien und Predigten. Von Dr. Paul Wilh. von Keppler, Bischof von 
Rottenburg.— Freiburg Brisg., St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 345. 
Price, $1.10. 

Pentecostes o Los Dones del Espiritu santo. Meditationes espirituales por 
el Padre Mauricio Meschler, S.J. Traducidas por el Padre Evaristo Gomez, 
S.J.— Friburgo Brisg., St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 505. Price, 

Gott mit uns : Theologie und Ascese des AUerheiligsten Altars sakramentes 
erklart von P. Justinus Albrecht, O.S.B. Den Eucharistischen Congressen 
gewidmet. Approb. Ergb. Freiburg. Freiburg Brisg., St. Louis, Mo.: B. 
Herder. 191 2. Pp. 122. Price, $0.55. 


The Office with the New Psalter. By Rev. John T. Hedrick, S.J., 
Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. Ratisbon, Rome, New York, Cin- 
cinnati. Frederick Pustet & Co. 1912. Pp. 32. Price, $0.10. 

Organ Accompaniment to the " Cantata ". By J. Singenberger. Ratis- 
bon, Rome, New York, and Cincinnati. Fr. Pustet & Co. 191 2. Quarto. Pp. 


The Holy Mass according to the Greek Rite, Being the Liturgy of St. 
John Chrysostom in Slavonic and English. By Andrew J. Shipman, LL.D. 
New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 19 12. Pp. 44. 


The Science of Logic. An Inquiry into the Principles of Accurate 
Thought and Scientific Method. By P. Coffey, Ph.D. (Louvain), Professor 
of Logic and Metaphysics, Maynooth College, Ireland. Two volumes. Vol. 
I : Conception, Judgment, and Inference. New York, London, Bombay, Cal- 
cutta: Longmans, Green & Co. 1912. Pp. xx-445. Price, $2.50 net. 

Handbook of the History of Philosophy. By Dr. Albert Stockl. Vol. 
I: Pre- Scholastic and Scholastic Philosophy. Second edition (1903). Trans- 
lated by the Rev. T. A. Finlay, S.J., M.A., National University, Dublin. New 
York, London, Bombay, Calcutta: Longmans, Green & Co, 1911. Pp. v-446. 
Price, $3.75, net. 

The Five Great Philosophies of Life, By William De Witt Hyde, 
President of Bowdoin College, New York: The Macmillan Co. 191 1, Pp. 
x-296. Price, $1.50, net. 

The Learning Process. By Stephen Sheldon Colvin, Ph.D., Professor of 
Psychology at the University of Illinois. New York : The Macmillan Co, 
1912. Pp. xxv-336. Price, $1.25, net. 

A Living Wage. Its Ethical and Economic Aspects. By John A, Ryan, 
S,T.D., Professor of Ethics and Economics in the St, Paul Seminary, With 
an Introduction by Richard T, Ely, Ph.D., LL.D. New York and London ; 
The Macmillan Co. 1912. Pp. xvi-346. Price, $0.50, net. 

Introductory Philosophy. A Text-Book for Colleges and High Schools. 
By Charles A. Dubray, S.M., Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy at the Marist 
College, Washington, D. C. New York, London, Bombay, and Calcutta: 
Longmans, Green & Co. 19 12. Pp. xxi-624. Price, $2.60. 

Socialism as It Is. A Survey of the World-Wide Revolutionary Move- 
ment. By William English Walling. New York : The Macmillan Co. 1912. 
Pp. xii-452. Price, $2.00, net. 

Present Philosophical Tendencies. A Critical Survey of Naturalism, 
Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism together with a Synopsis of the Philoso- 
phy of William James. By Ralph Barton Perry, Assistant Professor of Phil- 
osophy in Harvard University. New York, London, Bombay, and Calcutta: 
Longmans, Green & Co., 19 12. Pp. xv-383. Price, $a.6o, net. 


De Curia Romana: Ejus Historia ac hodierna disciplina juxta reforma- 
tionem a Pio X inductam. Auctore Monin, J.C.L., in Universitate Cath, 
Lovaniensi Juris Canonici prof, extraoid, — Lovanii : Josephus Van Linthout, 
19 1 2. Pp. 394. Price, 5 fr. 

St. Francois Xavier. Par A. Brou, Tome Premier: 1506- 1548. Tome Sec- 
ond: 1548-1552. Paris: Gabriel Beauschesne & Cie, 1912, Pp, xvi-445 et 487, 
Prix, 12 fr. 


Vendeenne. Par Jean Charruau. Paris : Pierre Tequi. 1912. Pp. xiii-270. 
Prix, 2 fr. 

My Lady Poverty. A Drama in Five Acts. By the Rev. Francis de Sales 
Gliebe, O.F.M. Fourth edition. Santa Barbara, Calif.: St. Anthony College. 
1912. Pp. 78. Price, $0.35 ; 3 copies, $1.00 ; 12 copies, $3.00. 


Fifth Series.— Vol. VII.— (XLVII).— August, 1912.— No. 2. 


THE minister of a Protestant sect feels that he has to devote 
himself assiduously to the composition and delivery of 
sermons ; for they are, he thinks, the only means which he can 
employ for the purpose of enriching the souls of his congre- 
gation with grace. 

But a Catholic priest is tempted to neglect sermons by the 
very abundance of the means of grace at his disposal. Every 
statue in its niche around the church preaches Faith. The 
Crucifix speaks eloquently of the love of God. Stained-glass 
representations of the mysteries send rays of sacred light into 
the souls of worshippers. Flowers, altar-lights, stately can- 
dlesticks, and vestments help to diffuse grace through the 
congregation. But especially there are the Sacraments and 
the Holy Sacrifice to promote the work of salvation and sancti- 
fication. Yonder is the confessional, yonder the Tabernacle. 
Is it too much to say that the Catholic priest in the midst of 
this lavish abundance of grace is tempted to feel content? 
Why should he endeavor to perfect himself in the art of 
speaking, in general ; or in particular, why prepare overmuch 
for a sermon here and now, which after all will be only a rill 
in comparison with these floods ? And indeed he may be dis- 
posed to consider it not only as a rill, but even as a dry chan- 
nel, on the theory that natural eloquence like every other 
natural thing is incapable of producing a single degree of 
grace in the soul. 

Again, in the midst of these holy surroundings he may 
possibly feel his insignificance. The heretical minister has 


not the same background or pomp of circumstance to awe him 
into reverence. Four walls there are, a human audience and 
music in the choir-loft. But the tremendous Sacrifice, the 
rich sweet Sacraments, the company of imaged saints and 
angels are not around him. The sense of their infinite super- 
iority is not forced upon him to humble him. He stands 
alone, as preacher the central figure, with a feeling of mastery 
instead of insignificance. But the priest is overwhelmed b>^ 
glory. His eyes are blinded by heavenly rays. His im- 
portance dwindles in his own opinion, and he feels what may 
seem to him to be the inconsistency of mere man presuming 
to speak in the house of God. Just as a man with a heart to 
feel, realizes his littleness whilst he stands and looks around 
him at nature; and bows his head in solemn reverence in the 
presence of mountains, valleys, oceans, and skies, so the priest 
bends his head and would refrain from speech, thinking of 
the splendid supernatural world around him, walled and 
roofed in by his church. 

Maybe too the futility of nature in the supernatural order 
will be invoked to justify neglect of eloquence. The Church 
has been clear in her depreciation of nature in works super- 
natural. She has taught us that there is no formal proportion 
existing between merely human faculties and the world of 
grace. The priest knows as a consequence that he could more 
easily draw a battleship with a silken cord, or quarry Gibraltar 
with a razor, or do any other deed ridiculously out of pro- 
portion with his means, than acquire the least degree of grace 
or glory for himself or for others with only natural energy. 
The poetical beauties of the mind of Shakespeare, the passion- 
ate strength of a Webster's soul, the keen intuitions of a 
Newton, sink into insignificance by the side of a single act 
of Faith in the soul of a child. For, after all, the accu- 
mulated splendors of imagination, passion, and intelligence, 
which beautify the mind of poet, orator, and scientist, could 
not merit by their own worthiness the slightest bit of God's 
love, a love which, however, he lavishes upon the faithful 
mind. Hence if poet, orator, or scientist went forth to reno- 
vate the world with his genius, he might succeed in imbuing 
his hearers' souls with ennobling thoughts and with stirring 
emotions, but he could not with all his gifts and energy sue- 


ceed in inducing a single salutary act. Then why not dis- 
pense with the accoutrement of nature in the warfare of God 
and look only to the armor of God, the " breastplate of justice," 
the " shield of Faith," the " helmet of salvation," and " the 
sword of the spirit, which is the word of God " ? Such thoughts 
as these may perchance incline a priest k) become sceptical 
about the utility of the art of oratory on the level of the 

Why, he might continue, presume to throw light upon the 
sun with a lantern? Why try " to gild refined gold, to paint 
the lily," or daub the rainbow? Why try to increase the 
attractiveness of heavenly Faith with the vulgar cosmetics of 
an earth-grown art? Will keenness of mind, solidity of 
judgment, wide information, facility of expression, and 
melodiousness of voice help the orator in any degree to in- 
crease the objective value of Faith, or his own appreciation 
of it, or esteem for it in the hearts of his hearers? Can 
sharpness of intellect enable him to cut away the rust of mis- 
understanding and prejudice from the shining surface of 
Faith and show its divine glory to the world, more effectively 
than the simplest intellect, alive with Faith, could do the 
same? Can the sudden intuitions of his literary mind, re- 
fined by contact with the best of books, better fit a speaker to 
mount to the level of mysticism himself and draw his hearers 
after him, to partake in the intuitions of contemplatives, be 
it ever so slightly, — can, I say, the natural intuitions of such 
a mind do this work of prayer more successfully than it could 
be done by a mind dull and untutored, but close to God? 
Can a knowledge of history with a consequent insight into 
the development of Faith through the centuries, help an ora- 
tor to produce more and better salutary results in his au- 
dience than he could hope for, had he never devoted himself 
to the Muse of the past? Can the dialectical powers which 
he employs in dissipating objections urged against the Faith 
assist his flock in any wise in their preservation of the Faith? 
Can his knowledge of natural sciences minister to the pro- 
pagation of his supernatural trust? Can his smooth style 
soften hearts? Can his voice be assured of an entrance to 
the soul as well as to the ear? Can the warmth of his emo- 
tions beget glowing grace in other men? Maybe, alas, the 



stream of golden eloquence that flows down from him to the 
people, instead of bearing upon its bosom galleons of heaven 
freighted with treasures of grace, only gratifies eyes with its 

And if it be urged that eloquence can induce men at least 
to fly in a natural atmosphere instead of groveling, and to 
live like angels instead of indulging like swine; and can per- 
suade them to adorn the walls of imagination with canvasses 
of heavenly tints instead of debauching them with images 
that pander to the lowest feelings, what profits such chasten- 
ing, it may be answered, for life eternal? Even Crates, the 
pagan, despised riches, to keep his spirit clear; but to what 
advantage supernatu rally ? Even the highest principles of 
honor only naturally instilled from the pulpit, will not receive 
recognition at the eternal throne. Even sovereign contempt 
for sensuality, only naturally learned, will not be rewarded 
after death: and gentlemanly self-restraint, refined taste, and 
delicate attentiveness to others are of themselves no pass- 
port to heaven. No doubt many a man of nobler natural 
virtue pleases God less than many another on a lower level of 
the same kind of righteousness: because superior kindness, 
openheartedness, and industry, even with the help of a good 
motive behind them, many perchance be lacking in the ac- 
companiment of grace; whilst natural accomplishments the 
most meagre may, on the other hand, be blessed with it. 
The fine spirit of enthusiasm which Demosthenes infused into 
Athenian breasts, of what profit will it be to them in the final 
reckoning? And " cui bono?" may be asked of the moral 
fruit sprung of Cicero's planting in Roman souls. 

But worse than the futility is the danger of this art. Grace 
of speech has been so closely allied to worldly ways that it 
is pressed into the service of religion not without a suspicion 
of treacherous results in the end. The possibilities of good 
in it are evident at a glance; but the chances of evil are 
written on the very face of it. It labors of course under the 
disadvantage of every other natural gift, — the disadvantage 
of being open to easy perversion from wholesome ends. But 
it has special drawbacks of its own. There is a touch of earth- 
liness in it which tends to keep it close to earth. It is allied 
to the senses, imagination, and passion, which are essentially 


self-seeking. It depends a good deal for success on moods. 
It requires a close study of mere "words, words, words," which 
develop in many a speaker the habit of drawing " out the 
thread of his verbosity finer than the staple of his argument." 
An enumeration of other possibilities of evil might be made. 
But enough has been said to show how one might plausibly 
oppose the study of oratory on the score of the dangers in 
which it abounds. Many a man has rid himself of gold, honor, 
and pleasure through fear of treachery in those honest things. 
Why not for the same reason do the same thing to this art of 
speech? And just as poverty and mortification have been 
man's best auxiliaries in the spiritual fight, why ought not 
the soul that is stripped of human graces in like manner, and 
toughened in like manner by abstention from the delicate 
draughts and toothsome morsels of a natural art, be less likely 
to be thrown down itself in its contest with the powers of evil, 
and better fitted also to lead other men to a successful issue. 
Moreover, we know that if we gaze upon a landscape through 
a stained-glass casement, the scene before us loses its native 
hue and assumes the color of the medium through which we 
gaze. In a similar manner, when, as artists, we look upon 
Divine Truth through the glowing windows of passion; 
through imagination. 

All garlanded with carven imageries 

And diamonded with panes of quaint device, 
Innumerable of stains and splendid dyes; 

and through the ruby of our heart and heart's emotions, — the 
spectacle, far from appearing in its own proper light, is coated 
with the pigments of sense. Why not dispense with these dis- 
coloring casements, and have the people gaze upon Truth 
through the open window of simple speech, under the white 
light of Faith? 

Such is the objection against oratory in its relation to the 
supernatural. It is an objection worth stating at length; for 
it contains, to say the least, the force of apparent truth ; and, 
though on examination it loses this force, I believe that^ in 
daily life it exerts a discouraging influence upon seminarists 
and priests. 

To this objection, in spite of its content of truth, real or 
apparent, most decided exception must be taken. However, 


before answering it, a clearing of the ground may perhaps 
be necessary, to avoid possible misunderstanding. 

And first the question here discussed is not engaged with 
the production of personal sanctity in the preacher. The in- 
fluence of nature upon individual holiness may or may not be 
beneficial, as far as the present discussion is concerned. Does 
natural refinement make for his own holiness in the refined 
individual, or does it not, is a matter quite apart from our 
consideration. The point at issue lies along the line of apos- 
tolic effort. How does nature help the preacher in his work 
from the pulpit? What has art to do with his influence upon 
his audience? What sort of auxiliary is oratory for him in 
his efforts to convert souls ? 

Taking into consideration this limitation of the discussion, 
I would say in the second place that the view is not entertained 
by the writer that a preacher's natural superiority, either 
inborn or acquired, insures superior supernatural effects in 
his audience. Twenty-five degrees of natural ability in him, 
working in union with five degrees of pulpit grace from 
God, are not of more avail for the conversion or sanctification 
of a congregation, ceteris paribus^ than only five degrees of 
natural ability in union with five degrees of grace. Webster 
with his wonderful genius, had he been a Catholic priest, 
could not have preached salvation more successfully than 
any of us with our mediocre talents, if (contrary to what I 
am convinced would have happened in the event of his preach- 
ing), he had been assisted in his efforts only by the same 
mediocre graces as ours. A poor musician cannot get better 
music out of a grand organ than out of a hand-organ, be- 
cause, on account of his very limited powers, he cannot ex- 
haust the full potency of the organ; he cannot toe its pedals 
and finger its keys and operate its stops masterfully; and so 
half of its music still sleeps in its bosom in spite of his frail 
efforts to arouse the mighty thing. In like manner a poor 
inconsiderable pulpit grace cannot elicit sweeter or mightier 
spirit-music from a superb human instrument than from a 
mean one, for the delight of listeners; because such a grace 
cannot supernaturally stir up the full forces of the preaching 
genius upon which it descends, but can waken only a fraction 
of them. And as an audience in the first case would grieve 


to think of so much instrumental power unused, so the Angels 
of Heaven must often grieve, if they can, to think of the im- 
mense natural preaching abilities lying dormant in the super- 
natural life, because, for one reason or another, the better 
graces of the Holy Spirit are not allowed to descend upon 
those better natural abilities, to rouse them to their fullest life. 

In the third place, neither is it maintained that superior 
natural abilities or accomplishment have the power of draw- 
ing to themselves from heaven superior graces with the aid 
of which superior results could be expected in an audience. 
Nature, even at its highest, has no attractive influence upon 
grace. There is not in the natural any exigency of the super- 
natural. A dunce is as worthy, as such, of God's best super- 
natural gifts as a genius is. Mountain and mole-hill are 
on the same level of insignificance in comparison with the 
Infinite God; so too are height and littleness of ability in 
comparison with grace. The soul in its native character 
whether little or transcendent, is not magnetic with regard to 
the outpourings of the Holy Spirit. It must be charged and 
have ite surface coated with grace before the electric sparks 
of new graces are forced to leap down from the sky to it. 
You cannot contemplate the natural abilities of an apostle and 
then tell a priori the measure of helping grace which will be 
poured out on him for his work. His capabilities are no 
index in themselves of the extent to which God will employ 
them. God is free to make this human dynamo hum with 
the electricity of grace, or to allow it to remain a lump of dead 
cold iron, free to make the souls of a congregation glow and 
shine with heat and light from the pulpit power-house like 
lamps on a line or to allow them to remain unthrilled. 

Moreover, even if God should help a preacher with graces 
proportioned to his eminent natural abilities, no man could 
have any certain assurance, even in that supposition, of ex- 
traordinary results to follow. For, preaching-graces can 
be conferred without being employed, and talents of nature 
also can be given and then left by the recipient without being 
duplicated. Every element of success can be in readiness for 
operation without being operated. Graces can be lavished 
without effect. How many a case could be cited of remark- 
able inborn and acquired abilities, of an imagination kindling 


with fire, of a comprehensive and intuitive mind, of logical 
powers, of a rare gift of speech and a fair style, all divinely 
vitalized by precious graces from on high, being allowed by 
their possessor " to rust unburnished, not to shine in use " ? 
How many a human craft, with noble keel, and sails full from 
heaven, is perversely turned by a free self-operating rudder 
from sailing down the lake with its stores of heavenly food 
for hungry mouths on yonder shore? Great natural abilities 
in God's servants have almost come to be suspicious things. 
Treachery to grace is often half-way expected. The pride of 
power frequently shadows power. Humility is many a time 
made sure of only through the medium of humble natural 
gifts and accomplishments; and the sanctification of a con- 
gregation often has to be procured by the heavenly Father 
through the instrumentality of mediocre preachers of the 

With these negative statements disposed of, the relation- 
ship of oratory to grace can now be expressed without much 
danger of being misunderstood. Oratory is a better disposi- 
tion in a preacher for the reception of pulpit-graces from 
heaven for his congregation than the lack of that art would be. 
Secondly, God regards this disposition, and if the human 
will does not place an obstacle to His bounty. He pours out 
larger graces for the good of the people, proportioned to the 
larger capacity of His well-disposed instrument. In the third 
place, just as a superior musician can draw more and better 
music from a better instrument than from a poorer one, so 
these larger graces can effect better results through the cul- 
tured soul of a holy priest than could be possible for them 
if he remained uncouth. And lastly, passing on from what 
can he to what does happen, though it be admitted that natural 
perfections are too often the occasion of ruin to their possessor 
through pride and vanity, instead of being a means of sal- 
vation, yet in view of the greater good produced by a thor- 
oughly refined and learned priesthood, it is considered best 
to acquire these perfections, provided this can be done in the 
spirit of prayer. 

We should be inclined to believe all this a priori. For is 
it not consonant with propriety for God to wish to honor His 
own better natural gifts in His servants with better super- 


natural complements? And since the supernatural is not the 
destruction, but the elevation of the natural, far from ex- 
pecting to find natural superiority shorn of its advantages on 
being raised to the levels of grace, should we not rather sup- 
pose that it would be allowed to retain those advantages for 
the greater profit of souls? 

But, a posteriori, we assent to the truth before us on the 
authority of the Church, which has shown by Her attitude 
toward profane arts and sciences that nature is of invaluable 
aid in things of the spirit. She takes a boy and places him 
in a curriculum of pagan classics. He is supposed to get a 
delicacy of touch, a refinement of sentiment, an exquisite sense 
of the proprieties of life,— all of which are purely natural 
accomplishments. He is induced to form ideas, to combine 
ideas into judgments, to proceed unswervingly along the logi- 
cal groove from some general principle down to particular 
consequences, or up from an accumulation of observed facts 
to the establishment of some general principle. He is trained 
into steadying his mental gaze, and widening it and sharpen- 
ing it. He is told that abstract knowledge is to be applied 
to present practical exigencies and that hoarded information 
is to work itself out, in one way or another, into his daily 
actions. He is made to toughen his will by downing difficul- 
ties, to wisely choose a definite course of good deeds and then 
to keep to his choice unflinchingly in spite of allurements all 
around him. After this process, merely natural in itself, if 
he has a call, he is ushered into the Seminary where again 
natural culture is attended to for many years. To compre- 
hend, to defend, and attractively to explain the Word — a 
duty which is to be a great part of his lifework — all this 
requires an intuitive quickness, a patience of research, a steadi- 
ness of mental gaze, a solidity of judgment, an eloquence of 
exposition, which again, in themselves, are natural and noth- 
ing more. 

Finally, her ideal minister is one that goes forth into the 
world rich in grace, but just as rich in profane accomplish- 
ments. I would that beauty should go beautifully, says the 
poet; and the Church would have the beauty of Faith enter 
the pulpit beautifully clad in the raiment of nature; so that 
non-Catholics on the one hand who for one reason or another 


have identified Catholicity with ignorance and have consid- 
ered the Church to be the personification of esthetic mediocrity, 
and Catholics on the other hand, who have either been alien- 
ated from the right spirit of their faith or at least have not 
arrived at the perfection of their state, may be drawn first to 
love a preacher's natural gifts, and then his supernatural 
treasury and finally the God of it. These human attributes 
are the " cords of Adam " ; they are the bait with which the 
Divine Fisherman catches men and draws them out of the 
stagnant pools of earth to place them in the pellucid basins 
of heaven. 

For further light, we may turn back to the day-dawn of 
Christianity. There stand the Fathers, those giants of the 
early Church. I see St. Augustine, not better known for his 
sanctity than for his knowledge and rhetorical skill. I see 
St. Jerome, the most learned man of his day in his combined 
knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; and St. John Chrys- 
ostom, who spoke with his eyes as well as with lips, and ir- 
radiated magnetism from his whole person; and St. Gregory 
Nazianzen, who said : '' I have given up honor, riches, and 
pleasure; one thing only I cleave to, — that is eloquence. I 
have gone over land and sea to acquire it, and I am willing 
to make every sacrifice to retain it." Finally we may turn to 
the great Athanasius, who formulated the Creed for us. What 
natural acuteness of mind he must have had, and how his 
mind must have been sharpened still more by dialectical 
studies, to have been able to state Divine truth so succinctly 
and clearly and unerringly ! Now those men were taught by 
the Church ; they were her ideal ministers and she encouraged 
them to spend themselves not more in work purely super- 
natural than in the acquisition of human refinement for 
themselves and in its spread amongst others. Here is the 
answer to the " cui bono?" of sceptics with regard to oratory. 
For, since the Church, because of her supernatural mission, 
could not and cannot encourage profane arts merely for the 
sake of resulting natural advantages, it follows that she must 
consider them closely allied to heaven. 

In her estimate of the value of the natural she was ante- 
ceded by a greater than she. For, the Creator Himself spread 
out the glorious panorama of the visible universe, in order that 


all this natural beauty might catch our eyes and hearts and 
allure us to the knowledge and love of Himself. In the Scrip- 
tures, He graced his Word with the enticing charms of liter- 
ature, partially human, to win us to taste the sweetness of 
that Word Divine. In the Incarnation, He took to Himself 
a soul and body in order that we who shrink from His 
heavenly majesty might be softened into love at the sight of 
a heart connatural with our own. Finally, in the sanctuary, 
far from relying exclusively on His sacramental magnetism, 
He has surrounded Himself with every pleasant thing, — with 
marble altar, with bronze tabernacle, with flowers, lights and 
dreaming clouds of incense, with the cloth of gold of vest- 
ments, and laces of acolytes : for. He knows that if there be 
*' sermons in stones, and books in running brooks," there must 
be much eloquence also in all the pomp and circumstance 
with which the loving hand of nature banks the sanctuary of 
the Most High. 

Here then, in the course which the Church has uniformly 
pursued in the education of her ministers in imitation of the 
economy of God Himself, we have, I presume to say, a suffi- 
cient answer to the objection against pulpit oratory. For, if 
it be urged that a priest's eloquence, when added to the other 
most abundant means of grace in his hands — particularly 
sacramental means — is like the addition of a drop of water to 
a lake, she denies the truth of the comparison and insists on 
the importance of eloquence. If the insignificance of the 
priest, standing in the midst of his grace-surroundings, is 
urged, she admits his personal insignificance, but denies his 
insignificance as ambassador of Christ and minister of the 
Most High. If the futility of speech in supernatural work is 
proposed for solution, she answers that natural gifts and ac- 
complishments cannot merit grace nor efliciently produce it in 
an audience; but that they are at least dispositions very favor- 
able to the outpouring of the supernatural grace of speech 
upon a preacher's soul for the benefit of listeners. If finally 
the danger of pride and vanity, involved in the cultivation 
of the art of speech, be placed before her as an objection, 
she answers : ** Prayerfully incur the danger that the ad- 
vantages of the art may not be lost to God." Here we may 
stop a moment to observe how different is her view of riches 



and art. She understands the innate value of both in the 
economy of salvation; she understands the misuse to which 
both can be and are put : and yet, whilst to avoid the chances 
of misuse, she invites men in the name of Christian perfec- 
tion to forgo the personal possession and use of riches, she 
has, on the contrary, in the same high interests, systemati- 
cally encouraged even her choicest children to acquire and 
employ art. 

These considerations, though speculative in flavor, are not 
without their practical importance. For, just as worldings 
overestimate the value of nature in comparison with grace, so 
supernatural persons are inclined to underrate its helpfulness 
in the work of God. The first set of men become so en- 
grossed in creatures as to forget the Creator; the second set 
grow so enamored of the beauty of the Most High that the 
contemplation and the use of finite things becomes a task to 
them. Devotees of the world employ the world as an end in 
itself; devoted children of God often neglect to use it even 
as a means to heaven. They wish to go straight to God; 
but sometimes forget that the path to Him is through the 
world. In their zeal they rightly repudiate the adoration of 
nature and of art; in their imprudence, at times they wrongly 
repudiate the employment of nature and of art in the adoration 
of Another. 

Now is not a seminarian or a priest whose gaze is being 
constantly directed toward heaven, liable to forget earth ? Is 
he not in his high appreciation of grace liable to disparage 
art? "The children of the world are wiser in their gener- 
ation than the children of light"; and they show their wis- 
dom by setting high value on the use of creatures. Satan 
wields his power among men to-day because he approaches 
them in the silken garments and with all the graciousness of 
worldliness. Is not sacerdotal influence at a lower ebb than 
it would be if priests took more pains to array their holy 
souls in winsome natural drapery? And would not the su- 
pernatural Word they speak be doubly potent if it sprung from 
golden tongues ? 

John A. McClorey, S.J. 

Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 



IN the May issue of the Review some account was given ^ 
of the present status of the movement — an international 
one — looking to a reform of the Gregorian Calendar, and some 
slight appreciation was attempted of the various plans or 
suggestions offered by students of the question. It may prove 
of further interest to give attention to the newest proposal — 
that of Professor Alexander Philip — and to add, by way of 
complement to the former article, some details elicited by 
its publication. 

The newest proposal deals, not with the Religious, but only 
with the Civil Calendar, although it is the hope and, indeed, 
the expectation of its author, that its adoption will facilitate 
a reform of the Religious Calendar as well. 

The original proposal of Professor Philip dealt with both 
the week and the month and led to the introduction of two 
bills into the House of Commons in England; but the pro- 
moters went further than the original author, and ^offended 
religious sentiment. In a letter (dated 25 April, 191 2) to 
the present writer, Mr. Philip remarks that it has been ap- 
parent to him for some time, that the Churches " will not be 
favorable to any interruption of the succession of week days," 
and he therefore proposes " to limit the reform at present to 
the months." He thinks " the advantages of this are greater 
than will at first sight appear." Accordingly he has had a 
bill introduced in the House of Commons which concerns 
itself solely with the months, avoids the pitfalls of the ** dies 
non ", and nevertheless prepares the way, if religious senti- 
ment should care to make a change at any future time, for 
any desirable treatment of the question of Easter.^ 

1 See article on Easter and Calendar Reform. 

2 "The object of the Bill is to establish a simple and symmetrical arrange- 
ment of the months and quarters within the year. 

"Any symmetrical arrangement of the months involves a slight alteration in 
the calendar date of the vernal equinox, and would conveniently precede any 
decision as to the adoption of a fixed Easter. 

" It is not proposed to interfere in any way with the regular succession of 
week days, but if subsequently found desirable, any such change would be in 
no way hindered by the previous adoption of the provisions of the Bill. 
Memorandum to the " Calendar Amendment Bill ", presented in the House of 
Commons (and by it ordered to be printed, 13 March, 1912) 'by Mr. Robert 
Harcourt and supported by Mr. John Deans Hope. 


Before considering in some detail the features of this new 
proposal, we may note in passing some of the significant im- 
plications of this departure from all the schemes outlined in 
the May number of the Review. And first of all, there is 
the relinquishment, by one of the most earnest students, for 
many years, of the problem of Calendar Reform, and one of 
the most persuasive protagonists of one of the proposed re- 
forms, — the relinquishment (at least for the present) of the 
attempt to standardize the relation of the days of the week 
to those of the month. Mr. Philip early recognized the prob- 
able opposition of the Churches to any scheme which should 
contemplate the removal of Easter from its traditional situs 
of Sunday, or which should withdraw one or two days from 
the week-scheme of the year by making them dies non. In 
an address at the Fourth International Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce (London, 21-23 June, 1910), he argued that 
while confusion is undoubtedly caused by the great variabil- 
ity of the date of Easter, this fact was by no means the main 
consideration, since " there is infinitely more trouble caused 
by the ordinary working of the calendar than by the dis- 
turbance of Easter " ; that this last is but one incident in the 
year [although for Catholics it controls many others], and is 
but a secondary one for the reason that Easter cannot be really 
fixed before a perpetual calendar is adopted : " You can fix 
it more nearly, but you cannot fix it finally, until you have a 
perpetual calendar.'* He pointed to the fact that in the 
question of the date of Easter, religious sentiments were 
involved : 

" I warn you that we must not disturb these sentiments. I 
am sure that every one of us here would be the last in the 
world to do anything to injure the feelings of anyone in 
matters which they regard as sacred. We cannot be too care- 
ful in this matter, and that is the reason why I have adopted 
this particular plan which you see foreshadowed in these pam- 
phlets which have been circulated. I mention that, not for 
the purpose of discussing the different schemes, but for say- 
ing one thing, and with that I shall conclude. The reform is 
after all divisible into two halves. You can deal with the 
month without touching the week. I have worked it out 
very carefully. . . ." 


His regard for religious sentiment was well-advised. In 
a letter to the present writer (dated 30 May, 191 2) he notes 
that a Committee has been appointed by the Church of Eng- 
land to consider calendar reform, and that its Report has 
been submitted to Convocation, two of whose recommenda- 
tions were unanimously adopted : first, '* that there shall be 
no alteration in the week of seven days, and that Sunday shall 
continue to be the first day of the week " ; and second, " that 
there shall be no alteration in the date of Christmas ". With' 
respect to the date of Easter, the third recommendation (de- 
feated by two votes) was that, if Easter should be made a fixeH 
date, it should be a Sunday in the first half of April. It is 
needless to point out here ths correspondence of these recom- 
mendations with the plan of reform which the Gaulois credited 
to the Holy Father. But it is interesting to know that reli- 
gious sentiment, whether Catholic or Anglican, still preserves 
such a strong influence; and this leads to the second signi- 
ficant implication in the argument of Mr. Philip. 

This implication is that it is futile for scholars or business 
men to advocate a reform in the calendar which will not com- 
mend itself to the various religious bodies interested therein : 
''Any reform in the calendar must be unanimous ", he argued 
in the Address (1910). And in his recent letter (30 May, 
1912) he still is of the same opinion: " My original plan pre- 
served the Sunday as the first day of the week. I have, how- 
ever, understood for a good while that the dies non would not 
be acceptable to the Churches. That is why I drew the Bill 
which Mr. Harcourt has introduced. The Church of England 
have decided that they can not accept either of the others. 
It would be very foolish to attempt to go in opposition to 
the Churches in this matter, and accordingly I think attention 
should be concentrated upon the Harcourt proposal. That 
project deals exclusively with the secular calendar." 

The proposal, therefore, of the new bill in Parliament con- 
cerns itself not at all with the question of fixing Easter or 
any other feast-day, nor does it attempt to relate the days of 
the week with those of the month. It is designed purely for 
secular purposes. Nevertheless, it would affect in some ways 
the calendar uses of the Missal and Breviary, a-nd this fact 
makes it of interest to priests, and worthy of study even by 


those who have no special interest in the general question of 
Calendar Reform. 

The scheme of Professor Philip, embodied in the Harcourt 
Bill, contemplates a business year consisting of four quarters, 
each of which should contain exactly thirteen weeks, or ninety- 
one days. This will account for 364 days. To these is added 
New Year Day (January ist), which in the previous schemes 
was to be a dies non, but is now to be a regular weekday, 
although it will be considered a public holiday, and will not 
figure in commercial computations, contracts, etc. (in which 
relationships it will be practically a dies non^ while remaining 
a weekday for religious purposes). In Leap Year, the extra 
day will be called Leap Day, and will be transferred from 
February 29th to the ist day of July. February, however, 
will contain thirty days, the additional two days being ob- 
tained by transferring them from the present 31st of August 
and of October, thus giving to July and October 30 days each. 
The purpose of these alterations will appear plainly by a 
glance at the tabulated scheme of the number of days in 
each month : 

January, 31. 

April, 30. 

August, 30. 

October, 30. 

February, 30. 

May, 30. 

July, 30. 

November, 30. 

March, 31. 

June, 31. 

September, 31. 

December, 31. 

The year is thus portioned into quarters, each of which (omit- 
ting for the first quarter the first day of January, or New 
Year Day) will contain 91 days. In Leap Year, July would 
contain 31 days, but the ist day (Leap Day) would be civilly 
a dies non, and therefore this third quarter would also contain 
(civilly) only 91 days. 

Another feature of the arrangement will appear evident by 
a brief study of the table — that there would be 91 days in any 
period of three consecutive months. Thus, for instance, if 
we begin with February we should have: February, 30; 
March, 3 1 ; April, 30 ; if we begin with March, we should 
have : March, 3 1 ; April, 30 ; May, 30, and so on — in every 
case a period of three consecutive months would comprise the 
stated 13 weeks or 91 days. 

Again, in Leap Year, the calendar would be symmetrical 
for the half-years; and in ordinary years the calendar, both 


weekly and monthly, would be symmetrical for each of the 
four quarters. 

This proposal for a new calendar is practically the same as 
that referred to in the Review (May issue), as the " Normal 
Calendar ", from which it differs principally in allowing the 
weekdays to run on consecutively without any dies nofi, while 
in ordinary years one of the months will have a merely civil 
dies non, and in Leap Year still another month will have a 
merely civil dies non. 

The advantages of the system are of commercial and statis- 
tical importance : " The calculation of apportionable pay- 
ments — wages, rents, interests, etc., would be standardized 
and greatly simplified by means of tables. The work of 
Governmental Departments, e. g. Old Pensions Act, National 
Insurance Act, etc., would be greatly simplified. Statistical 
returns would be simplified and made symmetrical. The 
keeping and auditing of accounts would be simplified." 

All of these gains will appear in stronger light by a com- 
parison of this scheme with that of the present calendar, with 
its apparently haphazard assignment of the number of days 
to the various months. 

A prominent feature of the proposed new calendar is the 
division of the year, for civil purposes, into four exactly 
equal quarters. 

The four quarters of the year might be designated simply 
as first, second, third, fourth, or as the Winter, Spring, Sum- 
mer, Autumn quarters. 

Finally, the Act of Parliament is meant to go into operation 
on the first day of January, 191 3, and to apply '* to the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and to all the British 
Dominions beyond the seas." 

It is unnecessary to go into the details by which the Bill 
undertakes to interpret existing or future contracts.^ 

It will be at once evident, that such a proposal simply leaves 
out of consideration (while not in any wise menacing) the 
ordinary traditions of the Religious Calendar of many de- 
nominations or religious bodies. The Sundays are not inter- 

3 Those who are interested in this phase of the question may obtain a copy 
of the Bill, "published by His Majesty's Stationery Office", through any 
bookseller in the United Kingdom. 


fered with, Christmas day will fall as usual on the 25th 
December, and Easter and Holy Week will recur annually in 
exactly the same relationships as at present. But in the 
Roman Calendar (used so very largely throughout Christen- 
dom), in the calendars of local dioceses, and in those of 
certain Religious Orders many changes would have to be 
made. Most of these changes are not of a fundamental char- 
acter, it is true. A few feasts now assigned to the beginning 
of one month will, unless the religious calendars are changed 
to agree with the proposed civil calendar, be celebrated at 
the end of the preceding month, or vice versa. The interval 
between March 25th (the Annunciation of Our Lad}, or the 
Conception of Our Lord) and December 25th would, in the 
new arrangement, be two days less than at present, but the 
symbolism of the " nine months " would not be greatly af- 
fected; and similarly the symbolism of the 8th of December 
(the Conception of Our Lady) and the 8th of September 
(the Nativity B. V. M.) would practically remain undis- 
turbed. But the placing of Leap Day on the first of July, in- 
stead of in February, as at present, would cause some embar- 
rassment in the church calendar, in the Breviary Offices, etc. 

What would happen if the Bill were to be enacted into law 
in Great Britain and her possessions beyond seas? The 
Catholic clergy in those regions would be living under two 
quite distinct calendars; for it is hardly probable that the 
Roman Calendar would be changed locally for their con- 
venience. In civil and commercial affairs, England would 
quite isolate herself, chronologically, from the rest of the 
world, and especially from her American cousin, and the dis- 
advantages under which the Catholic clergy would live in 
England would seem to be, in some measure, duplicated for 
merchants doing a trans-Atlantic business. 

What is of special interest to the Catholic priest, however, 
is the possibility of an international agreement based on 
Professor Philip's scheme, whose adoption by England and 
her possesions might lead the way (if it proved, in practice, 
as advantageous as it appears in theory) for the other civil- 
ized peoples of the world. In that case, the Roman Breviary 
and Missal might perhaps be subjected to the chronological 
or calendarial changes required to bring it into conformity 


with the civil calendar — a task of no great magnitude, if it 
be deemed appropriate, and of special feasibility just at the 
present time, when both Missal and Breviary are undergoing 
so many quietly performed revisions and alterations. 

It is not the purpose of the present paper to go into a min- 
utely detailed investigation of the effect Professor Philip's pro- 
posal would have, if it attained the success of an international 
approval and were actually put in operation by international 
agreement, on the Religious Calendar and the daily Mass and 
Office. It is sufficient to have indicated briefly some of the 
results that would follow. Those who are interested in the 
practical details of the proposal would find matter for pleas- 
ant study in the scheme of the " Perpetual Adjustable Calen- 
dar " designed by Mr. Philip " to gain all the advantages of a 
Perpetual Calendar without any interruption in the weekly 

The remaining portion of the present paper will concern 
itself with various matters related in one way or another to the 
schemes outlined in the May number of the Review. 

I. One correspondent has kindly furnished me with the text 
of the Address delivered by M. Pitot at the International 
Congress of Chambers of Commerce and Industrial and Com- 
mercial Associations, held at Prague in 1908. M. Pitot spoke 
on " La Reduction de la Variabilite de la Fete de Paques." 
He presents the subject with Gallic clearness, acknowledging 
indebtedness for very much of his material to the Abbe Th. 
Moreux, the director of the Observatory of Bourges (France). 
Some of this is of such interest and appropriateness to the 
present discussion of reform, that it may be quoted (in trans- 
lation) here: 

'' The prescriptions of the Council of Nicaea exhibit another 
preoccupation — the wish to avoid having the Pasch celebrated 
on the same day by Jews as well as Christians. But the at- 
tempt failed. 

" In the year 360, the Jewish Calendar was newly arranged, 
and the coincidence of feasts occurred several times. 

" The, Gregorian reform of the calendar made the concur- 
rence still more frequent. 

"The Evangelical Church of Germany decreed in 1700 
that thenceforth the astronomical tables should be the basis 


for the calculation of the full paschal moon; and the result 
was that in 1724 and 1744 there was a difference of a week 
between the Catholic and the Protestant Easter. A new de- 
cree issued in 1775 re-established the old rule. It had also 
been noticed that the use of the astronomical moon would 
have led, in 1778 and 1798, to a coincidence of the Jewish 
Pasch and the evangelical Easter, against what was deemed 
the desire of the Council of Nicaea." 

According to M. Pitot, the Abbe Moreux was asked by a 
number of astronomers interested in calendar reform to dis- 
cover how Pope Leo XIII would be affected towards the move- 
ment; and accordingly the Abbe requested the Director of the 
Vatican Observatory to ask the Holy Father if he would ap- 
prove of the desire of astronomers that Easter be always cele- 
brated on the same Sunday; for example, that following the 
equinox. "The reply of Leo XIII was most encouraging: 
' I perceive nothing improper ', he said, * in such a desirable 
change; but there should be one condition, that the Orthodox 
Russians be willing to abandon the Old Style and adopt the 
Gregorian Calendar.' This declaration is one of capital im- 
portance and ought to facilitate very much the fixing of Easter 
on a less variable date. The Evangelical Churches, simply 
following the order established by the Roman Church, would 
certainly not raise any objection to the principle of the reform 
we are preaching; nor do we suppose that such a reform could 
introduce any new divisions among Christians. As for the 
Russians, inasmuch as their calendar does not now agree with 
the Gregorian, it seems to me that we ought not much to care 
whether they accept or refuse. We ask, then, with the Abbe 
Th. Moreux, that Easter be fixed on the Sunday following the 
spring equinox ... or, at the latest, on the Sunday following 
the 4th of April." 

2. Another correspondent quotes from Markham's The 
Incas of Peru (N. Y., 1910, p. 117) some highly interesting 
details of the Peruvian Calendar: The Peruvian year con- 
tained 12 months of 30 days each; five days were added at the 
end of the year, and every fourth year a day was added. 

3. The Abbot of Farnborough contributed to the London 
Tablet two illuminating articles (20 and 27 April) on ''The 
Feast of Easter and the Reform of the Gregorian Calendar ", 


of which the first (with excellent bibliography attached) dealt 
with the past history of the question, while the second came 
down to a consideration of one of the recent proposals, that 
of M. Grosclaude, which is similar to the one of Professor 
Philip, save that, as shown above, the dies non (New Year 
Day and Leap Day) are not counted in the week, whereas they 
do not interrupt the succession of days of the week in the 
plan of Mr. Philip. The Abbot does not discuss the proposal, 
but outlines it clearly, doubtless because it is the most feasible 
and the most championed of all. He notes the fact that our 
modern reformers of the calendar '' have had precursors since 
the sixteenth century. Thus amongst the projects of reform 
elaborated at the time of Gregory XIII there was one pro- 
posing to celebrate Easter on a fixed date. A century later 
Rene Ouvard, a Canon of Tours, proposed a similar system, 
which was favorably considered by Cardinal Sluze, and was 
on the point of being presented to Innocent XL Father Nau 
a short time afterwards made the same attempt." He calls 
special attention to the works of Father Tondini, whom he 
had mentioned also in the previous paper (20 April).* 

Dom Cabrol states the arguments pro and contra clearly 
and effectively, and does not appear to lean strongly to either 
side. He contends, however, that the State cannot act with- 

* Apropos of this longtime Catholic interest in the question of calendar 
reform, it is not amiss to quote here the editorial of the N. Y. Independent 
(6 June, 19 12), which may be divided into paragraphs for the purpose of 
brief comment. 

" Six months ago we published the likelihood that the Pope would consider 
the question of setting a fixed date for Easter instead of letting it wander 
about for a full month, depending on the moon's changes." This is putting 
the attitude of the Independent rather mildly ; for it assumed that the Gaulots 
(see the May Review, page 513) had announced a fact in the assertion that 
Pope Pius X was to fix Easter on the first Sunday of April, and there was no 
intimation, in its comments on the assumed fact, that only a "likelihood" 
of papal action was in question. 

"A commission has now been appointed, and the Catholic journals are 
beginning to discuss the matter." There seems to be here an intimation that 
Catholics had not discussed the broad question before the appointment of 
the commission. The bibliography in the papers of Dom Cabrol would be a 
sufficient answer to this, as also would have been the much briefer one given 
by Father Holweck in his article on Easter in the Catholic Encyclopedia 
(V., 225, 2nd col.). The remainder of the editorial is phrased more pleas- 
antly, and indicates a changed view of the Independent : 

" Such a change is desirable ; and when decided on at Rome it will be 
interesting to see whether it will be followed at Westminster and York, or 
whether the Anglican Church will hold back, as has the Greek Church these 
centuries, unwilling to accept from Rome the reform of the calendar." 


out the concurrence of the Church — a contention which, as has 
been shown above, is put forward also by Professor Philip, and 
was made prominent in the May issue of the Review. 

We shall not presume to discuss the argumentation of the 
distinguished Abbot of Farnborough, but may be permitted to 
question the practicability of the contention that " before do- 
ing away with our present calendar it would be well to wait 
until the system which it is proposed to substitute has given 
proof of its fitness." The theoretical proofs of the feasibility 
and availability and advantages of the " Normal " calendar, 
or of that proposed by Professor Philip, are many and of no 
little weight. Practical proofs cannot, of course, be had until 
the system advocated has been put in practice somewhere — 
indeed, everywhere (for, as the Abbot remarks, the reform 
" cannot be unilateral,'' but must be shared by both Church 
and State). 

4. The June issue of the Review contained (pp. 726-8) 
a summary of a plan put forth several years ago in the 
Catholic World by a Catholic Astronomer, Father Searle. His 
scheme is ingenious and exact, and adds a new feature to the 
age-long discussion. It is so easily accessible that it needs 
not to be detailed here. 

5. Mr. Charles Fisher, of San Francisco, permits me to re- 
print here his calendar of thirteen months. It was designed 
to go into effect last year. Although, in a letter to the pres- 
ent writer, he declares that he had definitely renounced his 
plan in favor of that presented by Professor Philip at the 
International Congress (London, 1910), it is worthy of repro- 
duction to illustrate vividly a plan much advocated in various 
forms but now definitely relinquished, even by the author of 
one of the variant forms, in favor of a Normal Calendar of 
twelve months. 

From the details furnished by the article in the Review for 
May (pp. 513-529) and the supplementary matter contained 
in the present paper, it is permissible to indicate some 


and, incidentally, to correct some misapprehensions which the 
present writer has encountered both in printed form and in 



















rhis day 
t day of 
on that 

lown as 


^ w ^ 

N 1 c» 

Thursday || H i| ^ 














J HI j£ " 






10 1 10 
M 1 CI 





oil g 1 










r^ 1 Tf 



^ ^ 

Monday || S || ^ 










Z 2 c > 1 

^!! Ill 
Ml " 11 

20 g ^1:1 

Sunday «^ S 

N M CSl 




^ rj ^ SI 

Saturday | co 




« 1 N 


N N 






Friday u. 

8 g 

s g s 

g 8 




s s 






On 1 ON 







> II 00 

> II - 












00 00 00 

Tuesday H 






r^ t^ 

t^ r^ t>. 



Monday | S || ^ 









VO vO 

Sunday | to || J2 


10 1 10 











S c rt S 
rt *j 'O e 
















1 fO 

















1 N 











;S = c^ ^0 

tA 22 k" O 'O "^ 

Wednesday ^ 

1 >~* 




M hi 











Monday | 















Sunday || co 












Saturday || en || t^ 


t^ t^ 

t^ t^ t^ !>. 



t>, t^ 


Friday It 



VO vO 













xn in ir\ ut 




> * ^ * 




T^ -* Tj. 1 Tj- 





1 H ^ en rn 







Jg N N N 


N N 



N 1 N 1 N N 



CO - 5Z 
3j J "rt z 


Sunday co 













A. D. 191 I 
New "Civil Calendar" 
to be adopted SUNDAY, 
JANUARY. I, 191 1. 

























oral communications. The conclusions that may be grouped 
here are : 

1. The project of having a fixed date for Easter is not one 
merely of recent discussion. It was advocated in the time 
of Gregory XIII, and a century later by Rene Ouvard, a 
Canon of Tours, and somewhat later by Father Nau. The 
project was again renewed, in very recent years, in pamphlets 
and periodical publications, until it was formally proposed, 
four years ago, in the International Congress of Chambers 
of Commerce at Prague. 

2. Two things show that such a project is not, in its nature, 
an embarrassing one to speculate upon, from the standpoint 
of Catholic interests : first, the encouragement given by Leo 
XIII to the proposed discussion of the subject by astronomers 
and other interested parties, and his declaration that such a 
reform contained nothing improper in itself, but should be 
accompanied by a concession on the part of the Orthodox 
Russian Church — the surrender, namely, of its adherence to 
the Old Style and its adoption of the New Style of the 
Gregorian Calendar; second, the establishment by Pius X 
of a Commission to inquire into and report upon the feasibility 
of the fixing of the date of Easter. 

3. The sentiment of Catholics, as also of non- Catholic 
religious bodies, appears to demand that Easter shall always 
have Sunday for a situs, although there is some warrant in 
Church history for such an absolutely fixed date as would 
necessarily permit Easter to fall on any day of the week. 
The reasons — liturgical, historical, devotional — for this de- 
mand for Sunday as the only possible site for the Feast of the 
Resurrection are simply overwhelming at the present day, 
and need not be discussed or even detailed here. 

4. It is very comforting to know that the vast majority (in- 
deed, practically all) of the many proposals for fixing Easter 
(whether absolutely, in a reformed calendar, or with less 
variability, in the present '' unreformed " calendar) have re- 
spected scrupulously this sentiment (that Easter must fall al- 
ways on a Sunday) of Christian religious bodies. Thus the 
International Congress at Prague (1908) selected a Sunday 
for Easter in an unreformed calendar; and the various, 
schemes for a Normal Calendar have, almost without excep-- 
tion, carefully provided for a similar site. 


5. Whether or not the inclusion in the year of a dies non 
(and in leap years, of two such days) is such an essential in- 
fringement on the symbolism of the week of seven days, as to 
put all such proposals beyond the pale of Catholic discussion, 
is a matter for liturgiologists to discuss and for the authori- 
ties of the Church to pass upon. But here also it is comfort- 
ing to feel that the proposals including dies non in the calendar 
did not, in all probability, proceed either from a malicious 
desire to embarrass Christian worship or from a negligent 
contempt of Christian sentiment in the matter. Thus one 
of the most earnest students and protagonists of the Normal 
Calendar (Professor Alexander Philip), upon learning of 
the opposition of Christian sentiment to the dies non, not 
only promptly relinquished the point to the objecting party, 
but earnestly contended, at the International Congress at 
London (1910), that this sentiment should be scrupulously 
respected. He there advocated the desirability of confining 
the proposed reform to the months, leaving the weekly suc- 
cession of days undisturbed; and after much study of the 
problem, has at length had introduced in the British Parlia- 
ment a bill limiting the reform to the months, and has made 
such a proposed reform more feasible by the construction 
of a " Perpetual Adjustable Calendar ". 

6. The advantages of a Normal Calendar or Normal Year, 
in which there would be a perpetual correspondence of days 
of the month and days of the week, are nevertheless many 
and weighty. For civil, statistical, commercial, and other 
purposes, these advantages have been pointed out in detail; 
and need not be repeated here. It might be fairly argued 
that for liturgical purposes, such a Normal Calendar would 
also be desirable (i. e. if the dies non feature could be 
eliminated). In such a Normal Year, every ferial day, every 
feast day, every Sunday, could have exact and unchanging rep- 
resentation; no interference of feasts could cause a feast to 
be absolutely eliminated (as at present) from the yearly 
succession; the Divine Office could be devoutly recited — and 
(unlike the present condition of things) with certainty of 
correctness in the Ordo — and could be freed from the daily 
recurring necessity of consulting intricate, complicated direc- 
tions showing how the merely material business of the Divine 


Office shall be arranged; the simplicity of prayer would be 
increased, with a not improbable increase of devotion (for, 
naturally, where the mind is partly preoccupied with the 
merely material business of hunting up the various parts of 
the prayer in widely separated parts of the breviary, the at- 
tention to the spiritual content of the recitation of the Office 
may easily be embarrassed and handicapped). 

Much humor has been expended by the clergy on the need 
of *' fingers " in the daily recitation of the Office — much humor 
and, we fancy, not a little occasional irritability; and yet it 
may happen (for in many respects mankind is notoriously 
illogical and inconsistent) that some clerical humor may even 
be directed against the present argument that simplicity would 
be gained by a Normal Year. We have indeed heard it argued 
that the very complexity of the Divine Office is something 
desirable. Undoubtedly it is, as the complexity of the pieces 
of glass of kaleidoscopic shapes and colors is desirable in a 
stained-glass window; for they contribute to the beauty and 
splendor of the window. The question here is not one of the 
complexity of the Office, but the complexity involved in hunt- 
ing up the various components of the Office. The complexity 
becomes thus translatable into perplexity, loss of time, dis- 
traction of the attention from the content to the material 
arrangement of it, occasional irritability, and the imposition 
of a new and daily complication of duty where the world and 
our sacred ministry already place inevitable complications 
on their own account. Thus the plea that complexity — not 
in the Office but in the material saying of it — is a good thing 
is not unlike the plea that fleas are good for the dog: they 
occupy his full attention and keep him from worse things. 

Much more might be adduced in support of the argument 
for simplicity in the saying of the Office, but the simple con- 
crete fact that a priest will immediately prefer reciting his 
breviary during Holy Week, from the separate small volumes 
— one for each day — into which that Week is sometimes 
divided by publishers of breviaries, rather than from the bound 
volume of the Pars Verna, may be esteemed a sufficient an- 
swer to objectors. Accordingly we may place, with some 
confidence, conclusion number 


7. Father Searle's ingenious scheme makes it possible to 
have a perpetual calendar identifying days of the week with 
those of the month, and nevertheless avoiding the liturgical 
pitfall of the dies non. His proposal would appear to meet 
all objections, and to satisfy all needs. 

H. T. Henry. 
O verb rook Seminary, Pa. 


KEMPEN in the Diocese of Cologne can claim a most 
illustrious son in the person of Thomas Haemerken, or 
Haemerlein, better known as Thomas a Kempis (of Kempen), 
the immortal author of the Imitation of Christ. Born about 
the year 1380, Thomas studied at Deventer, and his youthful 
ideas were molded by Florence Radewyn and Arnold van 
Schoonhoven. From his earliest biographer we know that 
his studies were Grammar, Latin, and Gregorian Chant. In 
his twentieth year, in 1399, he entered, as a novice, the mon- 
astery of Mount St. Agnes, near Zwolle, of which his brother 
John was Prior. The Order was that of the Brothers of the 
Common Life (founded in 1386 by Florence Radewyn at 
Windesheim), and Thomas was formally enrolled as a mem- 
ber in 1406, becoming a priest in 141 3, in his thirty-third year. 
In 1425 he was elected Sub-Prior of Mount St. i\gnes and 
was reelected to the same position in 1448. His death took 
place, in the ninety-second year of his age, on I May,^ 147 1, 
the Feast of St. James the Less. 

It is not however with the life of Thomas a Kempis that 
I am concerned, but with his powers as a hymn writer. Num- 
erous biographers of the venerable writer have appeared, but 
until recently no hint was given as to his remarkable gifts in 
the matter of versifying. Probably the last word has been 
said by Sir Francis R. Cruise as to the authorship of the 
Imitation of Christ^ but it was not until 1 88 1 that Pastor 
Spitzen published ten hymns by a Kempis, six of which had 
previously been issued anonymously by Mone. These ten 
were printed from a MS. of about the year 1480. In 1882 

1 Some authors give 26 July, and others 8 August, as- the date, but Sir 
Francis R. Cruise inclines to i May. 

2 See Thomas a Kempis, published in 1887. 


S. W. Kettlewell published in London a fine work, in two 
volumes, dealing with the biography of a Kempis and giving 
English translations in verse of his hymns by the Rev. S. J. 
Stone, Protestant Rector of St. Paul's, Haggerston, who died 
on 19 November, 1900. It was not, however, till 1905 that 
the true merits of a Kempis as a hymn writer were made 
public, by F. F. Dreves and Blume in the forty-eighth volume 
of the monumental Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi (Nos. 
458-493). Unfortunately, this work is not very accessible, 
and so it may prove of interest to make known to the many 
readers of the Ecclesiastical Review some of the con- 
clusions arrived at by two such able delvers in the science of 

It is now conclusively proved that Thomas a Kempis wrote 
a large number of beautiful hymns, which he adapted to 
existing plainsong melodies, as indicated in a most important 
Carlsruhe MS. of the fifteenth century. Space would not per- 
mit an account of all these, but the best known are " En dies 
est dominica ", "Apparuit benignitas ", *' Veni, veni. Rex 
gloriae ", " In domo Patris ", " Quisquis valet numerare ", 
"Adversa mundi ", " O qualis quantaque laetitia ", " Nee quis- 
quam oculis vidit ", and " Jerusalem luminosa ". 

" En dies est dominica " was for long regarded as of doubt- 
ful authenticity, but Dreves and Blume ^ leave no room for 
further scepticism, as they prove that the cento, as found in 
MS. 368 of the fifteenth century at Carlsruhe, can be traced 
in the autograph MS. of Thomas a Kempis at Brussels, and 
again in the MS. copy at Zwolle. As indicated by its title 
it is a hymn to be sung on Sundays. In the original MS. it 
is adapted to the music of the Easter hymn "Ad cenam Agni 
providi ", the neumatic notation of which is to be found in 
MSS. of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In all, the lines 
of this hymn run to 116, and are printed in full by Mone, 
No. 247, from the Carlsruhe MS. The cento was translated 
by the Rev. J. M. Neale, and was published in 1854, but the 
English version in general use is that as given by the compilers 
of Hymns Ancient and Modern in 1904, commencing "Again 
the Lord's own day is here ". I here give the first and last 
verses of the Latin text of this noble hymn : 

^Analecta XLVIII, 475. 


En dies est dominica 
Summo cultu dignissima 
Ob octavam dominicae 
Resurrectionis sacrae. 

Tibi factor! temporum 
Qui vera quies mentium, 
Sit laus, honor, et gloria 
Hac die et in saecula. 

"Apparuit benignitas " is better known as " O amor quam 
ecstaticus ", being a cento from the longer poem, taken from 
the Carlsruhe MS., and is unquestionably the work of Thomas 
a Kempis. The cento comprises verses 2, 4, 9-12, and the 
doxology. There is no mistaking the tune to which it was 
sung, as a marginal note indicates the melody as "Agnoscat 
omne saeculum ", or '' Deus creator omnium ". The English 
translation of " O amor quam ecstaticus " is by B. Webb, in 
The Hymnal Noted (1854). Appended are the first and last 
verses of the original Latin text : 

O Amor quam ecstaticus, 
Quam effluens, quam nimius. 
Qui Deum Dei filium 
Unum fecit mortalium ! 

Deo Patri sit gloria 
Per infinita saecula, 
Cujus amore nimio 
Salvi sumus in Filio. 

" Veni, veni, Rex gloriae " is also an authentic hymn by 
a Kempis, and is to be found, with the musical notation, in the 
Carlsruhe MS. It was printed by Mone as No. 35, but with- 
out any clue to the author. The hymn runs to twenty-three 
stanzas, and was translated into English by Mr. T. G. Crippen 
in his Ancient Hymns and Poems (1868). 

" In domo Patris " is the fourth of the hymns by a Kempis 
from the Carlsruhe MS. 368. Its authenticity is upheld by 
Dreves and Blume. The text was printed by Mone, No. 302, 
but no clue was furnished as to the author. A good English 
translation was made by the Rev. J. M. Neale, which appears 
as " My Father's Home Eternal " in his Hymns chiefly 
Medieval on the Joys ajtd Glories of Paradise ( 1 865 ) . It is 


considerably tinkered in The English Hymnal (1906), but 
Neale's setting will be found in the Rev. G. R. Woodward'-s 
Songs of Syon (1910). 

" Ouisquis valet numerare " is another cento from a longer 
poem by Thomas a Kempis, on the glory of the heavenly 
Jerusalem, in sixteen stanzas. The current cento consists of 
verses i, 2, 9, 10, 11, and 16. In the Carlsruhe MS. No. 368, 
the music of the hymn is also given, a fine tune in the Fourth 
Mode. I herewith subjoin the first and last stanzas of the 
Latin text, as printed by Mone: 

Quisquis valet numerare 

Beatorum nmnerum, 
Horum poterit pensare 

Sempiternum gaudium, 
Quod meruerunt intrare 

Mundi post exilium. 

Vitae dator, summe Parens, 

Tibi benedictio; 
Sit laus, decus semper clarens 

Semper tuo Filio; 
Sit et honor fine carens 

Inclyto Paraclito. 

"Adversa mundi tolera " is found with the name of Thomas 
a Kempis in a MS. of the year 1480 at Zwolle, and is also to 
be found in his Opera^^ entitled " Canticum de virtute pa- 
tientiae ". It is in twenty-nine lines, arranged as eleven, but 
the full text has been printed by Wackernagel's Das deutsche 
Kirchenlied, Vol. I,. No. 377. Father Caswall translated five 
stanzas, in his Masque of Mary, under the title of " For 
Christ's dear sake with courage bear" (1858). 

" O qualis quantaque laetitia " is to be found as the com- 
position of Thomas a Kempis in a MS. of the year 1480 at 
Zwolle, and also in his Opera (Niirnberg, 1494), under the 
title of " Hymn on the Joys of Heaven and the Nine Angelic 
Choirs ". Wackernagel prints the full text, but an excellent 
English translation of the cento has been furnished by the 
Rev. G. R. Woodward in his Songs of Syon (1910), under 
the title of " Quires of Angels stand before Him ". I cannot 

* Niirnberg, 1494. 


resist the temptation of quoting the first and last stanzas of 
this admirable translation, which faithfully reproduces the 
spirit of the original text, and serves to show the poetic powers 
of Mr. Woodward: 

Quires of Angels stand before Him — 
God their Maker aye adore Him, 
See the King in all His beauty, 
Worshipping in bounden duty; 
While, in tune with holy voices, 
Ev'ry loving heart rejoices. 

There fair folk in white apparel 
Love as brethren, seek no quarrel : 
There is knowledge, no temptation, 
No more toil and no vexation ; 
There is health, but sickness never; 
Fulness there of joy forever. 

" Nee quisquam oculis vidit " is found in the oft-quoted 
Carlsruhe MS., and also in the Zwolle MS. of 1480, belonging 
to the Brethren of the Common Life, now in the library of 
the Emmanuelshuizen. It was printed by Mone, and is the 
third portion of a long poem on eternal life. It consists of 
eighty-four lines, and is headed "On the glory of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem ". A portion of it was translated into English by 
J. M. Neale, in his Hymns chiefly Medieval on the Joys and 
Glories of Paradise (1865). 

''Jerusalem luminosa " is a cento consisting of Nos. i, 4, 
5, 15-17, of seventeen stanzas, undoubtedly written by Thomas 
a Kempis, and it is one of seven which are to be found in both 
the Carlsruhe and the Zwolle MS. It was sung to the melody 
of '' Urbs beata Jerusalem ", and was translated by J. M. 
Neale, in 1854. I subjoin the original text of the first and 
last verses: 

Jerusalem luminosa, 
Verae pacis visio, 
Felix nimis ac formosa, 
Summi regis mansio, 
De te O quam gloriosa 
Dicta sunt a saeculo! 


Aeterne glorijficata 
Sit beata Trinitas, 
A qua coelestis f undata 
Jerusalem civitas, 
In qua sibi frequentata 
Sit laudis immensitas. 

Neale's English translation of " Jerusalem luminosa " was 
written in 1854, and published in The Hymnal Noted, but the 
whole of the nine verses will be found in Songs of Syon 
(1910). I append the first verse, which can be compared 
with the Latin text. 

Light's abode, celestial Salem, 
Vision whence true peace doth spring, 
Brighter than the heart can fancy, 
Mansion of the highest King; 
O how glorious are the praises 
Which of thee the prophets sing ! 

It may not be amiss to devote a concluding paragraph to 
the Brethren of the Common Life, the Congregation to which 
Thomas a Kempis belonged, and to the probable date of the 
hymns just mentioned. The community was founded by 
Florentius Radewyn, on the initiative of Gerard Groot, in 
1836, at Windesheim near ZwoUe. Within a quarter of a 
century it absorbed over seventy houses of Augustinian Canons. 
From reliable sources we are safe in assuming that a Kempis 
wrote the Imitation of Christ between the years 1408 and 
141 8. As before stated, he was ordained a priest in 141 3, 
and his magnum opus was completed about the year 141 8. 
Probably his hymns are from the same period, but they were 
certainly written before the year 1425. It is significant that 
Adrian de But, a Cistercian monk of Dunes Abbey, in 1459 
(twelve years before the death of a Kempis) refers to the 
Imitation as " a metrical or rhythmical volume ", and in some 
old manuscripts the work bears the name of " Musica Ec- 
clesiastica ". In fact the rhythm and rhyme of the Imita- 
tion are among the internal evidences for a Kempis's author- 
ship. It has been proved by Dr. Carl Hirsche, of Hamburg, 
that in addition to the ordinary system of punctuation in the 
Imitation a Kempis adopted the clivis as used in the musical 


notation of the period, and he made use of musical signs to 
insure a certain rhythmical cadence to charm the ears of the 

Perhaps at no far distant date some Catholic hymnologist 
will bring out a handy edition of the hymns of Thomas a 
Kempis, with music, and thus provide a feast for the thous- 
ands of readers of the Imitation who as yet are unacquainted 
with the great lyrical powers of the saintly Sub- Prior of 
Mount St. Agnes, Zwolle. 

W. H. Grattan Flood. 
Enniscorthy, Ireland. 


SOME years ago Father Scheil was elected a member of 
the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, by 
thirty votes out of thirty-three. He was the first candidate 
both of the College de France, and the Academie, the two 
constituent bodies. Yet he was passed over by the Govern- 
ment, against all precedent, in favor of one of the second 
candidates. " Father Scheil," wrote the Editor of the Satur- 
day Review by way of comment, " is the illustrious scholar 
who has deciphered the Laws of Hammurabi, but he has the 
fatal flaw, in the eyes of a French Republican Ministry, of 
being a Christian." ^ And we may add that he labors under 
a flaw still more fatal in the estimation of a Ministry whose 
motto is " Liberty and Equality ", by being a member of the 
great Order of St. Dominic. 

But who was Hammurabi, and what about his laws? And 
how have they come down to us, cryptic, yet decipherable? 

It was as recently as the winter of 1901-2, that M. de 
Morgan, the French explorer, was making excavations at 
Susa, in Persia. By a very happy accident, he unearthed a 
large block of black diorite (a kind of crystalline trap rock) 
on which were engraved, in cuneiform characters, forty-nine 
columns of writing, of which forty-four were sufficiently pre- 
served to be legible. Legible that is, to the exceptionally 
few scholars who, by talent and perseverance, had mastered 

^ Saturday Review, 26 December, London, 1908. 


the very ancient written symbolism of that very ancient period. 
The writing proved to be a complete Code of Laws, some 280 
of them being readable. They relate to trade, agriculture, 
building, marriage, and the many interests which make up 
civilization. The writing occupies the lower part of the 
stone; on the upper, there is a relievo, representing Ham- 
murabi receiving a tablet, inscribed, from the Babylonian 
Sun-god, Shamash. This stone is now in the Paris Museum. 

No discovery up till now, has shed so much light on those 
remote ages. It is as if a window had suddenly been opened, 
through which we look out directly upon the living Babylon, 
as it might have appeared to the eye of Abraham ; so it might 
well be, since he was a contemporary with Hammurabi, and 
like that illustrious man, a native of those cradle lands watered 
by the Tigris and the Euphrates. 

Though in our own day they are mere swamps, the alluvial 
lands about the confluence of those two historic rivers, were 
once the well-ordered dwelling-place of highly civilized com- 
munities. The spade there has dug up some of the long- 
buried remains of an almost unknown race, the Sumerians, to 
whom we stand largely indebted, even though they loom but 
dimly on the horizon of history. Dwelling beside the Tigris 
and Euphrates, they do not seem to have been themselves the 
original inhabitants, for they came to those fertile plains as 
conquerors, bringing with them a quite advanced civilization. 
From them it was that their Babylonian and Assyrian con- 
querors gradually adopted most of their own later civilization. 
From the Sumerians, the Babylonians learnt how to manu- 
facture pottery, and some of the sculpture of the defeated 
race still survives, to give us evidence of the high level of 
their industrial art. The Sumerians had originated a system 
of writing, of which traces remain to show us a gradual de- 
velopment, from mere picture writing to conventional phonetic 
symbols. From this remote ancestry, our own alphabet can 
trace an irregular but distinct descent. 

When or at what stage in the world's history did they live? 
Certainly, they appear as a civilized people some 4000 years 
before the birth of our Lord, quite 2000 years before Abra- 
ham went out from Ur of the Chaldees, and 3000 before Moses 
gave his Law to the children of Israel. 


This preface is necessary to bring home to us the venerable 
antiquity of customs which, in process of time, crystallized 
into Law, and were still further solidified when they were 
classified, arranged, and engraved on enduring stone by a 
great man. A truly great man, not great in the conventional 
phrase, by the wholesale slaughter of his fellow-man, and 
the widespread devastation of hearths and homes, but great 
because of his thought for the building up of peaceful social 
order and civic well-being. Yet, till quite a few years ago, 
his name was actually unknown. Unknown that is, by the 
name of Hammurabi, though it is practically certain that 
Hammurabi is the Amraphel of Genesis, the contemporary of 
Abraham, which gives his date as about 2200 before the birth 
of Christ. 

Before the discovery of his Laws, many " letters " of Ham- 
murabi had been found, and a great number of these are now 
in the British Museum. Lest we be deluded by the familiar 
sound of a word, we must remember that in his time a "letter" 
was in the form of a tablet of baked clay, generally enclosed 
within a thinner case of similar hard clay, forming an earthen 
envelope on which were written names and addresses. This 
outer case had to be broken by the recipient. Now among 
the letters of this king, there is one of quite peculiar interest. 
We know from the eleventh chapter of Genesis, that Abraham 
was a native of the city of Ur, "And Thare took Abram 
his son, . . . and Sarah . . . the wife of Abram his son, and 
brought them out of Ur of the Chaldees." 

This letter to which I am alluding was written to the gov- 
ernor of a province, and in it Hammurabi gives orders con- 
cerning some of his troops quartered in the city of Ur. It 
was doubted at one time whether Ur was a city or a district, 
so that this evidence is very much to the point in deciding the 
uncertainty. While Abraham was a wanderer in the land of 
Chanaan he was also the contemporary of a civilization al- 
ready old, and as Hammurabi speaks of a provision of com 
and wine and clothing, it proves that there was at the time a 
settled government, besides the knowledge of the textile arts. 

Most probably, Hammurabi and his people were Arabs, 
certainly of Semitic race. The face sculptured on the stone, 
shows a civilized, shrewd, thoughtful, and kindly expression 


with a pleasant half-smile on the finely cut lips. The upper 
lip is close shaven, while the beard is just shaven free of the 
lower lip, but leaving a full, long, flowing beard. It is a 
face one would not find out of place as the portrait of a 
modern man, charged with high employment. 

Besides its positive legal enactments, Hammurabi's Code 
opens out volumes of information, directly and indirectly, as 
to the manner of life, the style of government (a paternal 
despotism), the manner of social life, the grades and classes 
into which society was at that time divided. From the laws, 
we learn how houses were leased, how maps of boundaries 
were drawn, how they assessed lands for taxation, how they 
held courts of Law, how witnesses were heard and summoned 
from distant localities to give evidence, and their just ex- 
penses repaid to them; also on what terms agricultural land 
was let, and bequeathed to posterity. In short, all the mul- 
titudinous interests of a civilized community are made to live 
again before us; all is explained to us, in the very words of 
those who bought and sold, who borrowed, and forgot to pay 
back, in those far-off days, very much as we ourselves do now. 

When Hammurabi was King of Babylon, his population 
was divided into three distinct classes. Lowest in the scale, 
naturally, came the slaves; next the middle class, prosperous 
for the most part, small landowners, merchants, professional 
men, generally, and then the upper class, consisting of the 
great officials, the large landowners, governors of provinces, 
and ministers of State. The numerous slaves seem on the 
whole to have been well treated. It is true that they were 
bought and sold, yet they were not necessarily condemned to 
remain slaves for ever and aye. Under certain conditions, 
the slave could acquire property, and purchase his freedom. 
Often enough the slave was a man of good position in his own 
country, of allied race, sold into slavery by the fortune of war. 

A man who was a slave could marry a free woman, and 
their children were free. If such a slave died, his widow 
could claim half his property for herself and her children. 
A female slave who had borne children to her master could 
not be sold for debt. In his master's house the lot of a slave 
was not hard; it was, evidently, the owner's best policy to 
keep his working household in good health. Any man who 
stole a slave, male or female, was put to death. 


The middle class was mainly commercial. Many of the 
laws which have been deciphered concern debtors and credi- 
tors, and tell us much about the business methods of those 
ancient days. Yet ancient as they are, the more we know 
about them the more we see that length of time makes but 
little difference in all that is essentially human, and we differ 
more from Esquimaux of to-day than we do from the Baby- 
lonian almost at the dawn of history. The Babylonian mer- 
chant of that time sent out agents to sell his corn, oil, wool, 
and so on. The agent did his best, using his own judgment, 
and on his return was paid a fixed proportion of the profits he 
had realized. He had to give a written and legal receipt for 
his trading transactions. Traveling was admittedly hazard- 
ous and many disputes arose from the loss of goods looted 
by wandering bandits. The agent made his statement, and 
deposed on oath as to the amount of his loss, and he was then 
held free from responsibility. But if he were found to have 
deceived his employer, he was compelled to restore threefold 
the value of his defalcations. In our museums there are 
many clay tablets which give the terms of contract between 
merchants and their foreign agents. 

In the upper classes life was naturally more expensive. 
This appears incidentally in the way the Law treats the 
wealthy delinquent. One of the upper class who might be 
found guilty of stealing was bound to pay the lawful owner 
thirty times the value of the things stolen. For the same 
offence one of the middle class was obliged to restore only 
tenfold. The slave who was found stealing met with small 
mercy, and having no property, he was summarily put to death. 
The primitive law of " an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a 
tooth," was enforced literally, when the aggressor and the 
aggrieved were both of the first rank. When the aggrieved 
was of inferior rank, his injuries were compensated by a fixed 
money compensation. 

If the upper class had social eminence, they had to pay for 
it. Thus the upper class had to pay higher doctors' fees, 
which sounds profitable for the doctor till we find another 
law which enacts that any doctor who operated unskillfuUy, 
and caused death, was punished by the amputation of both 
hands. This law did not tend to encourage surgical oper- 


ations; it certainly thinned out the number of unsuccessful 
operators. But the surgeon was not wholly deprived of prac- 
tice. The middle class appear to have been considered fair 
game for the experimenting surgeon. No doubt they were 
fairly numerous, and a few more or less would not matter much 
to the nation. So if the unlucky patient who died under an 
operation was only of the middle class, the doctor was free 
from any penalty, just as he is amongst us, independently 
of the rank of the patient. If, however, the doctor killed a 
slave, the doctor had to give another slave to the owner, since 
a slave had a recognized value. 

The housing of the population received due attention. 
Probably there had been defective building before the days 
of Hammurabi, but the jerry -builder did not flourish in his 
time; the great man saw to that. A Babylonian house was 
solid, of one story only, with a flat roof, on which the in- 
mates mostly slept. All houses were substantially built of 
hard brick. The law put all responsibility for bad building 
on the shoulders of the builder. If a badly built house fell, 
and killed the owner, the jerry-builder was put to death. If 
it chanced to be the owner's son who was killed, then was a 
son of the builder also killed. If the slain were slaves, the 
builder had to restore slave for slave. In addition, the 
builder had to make good any damage to property, and 
rebuild the house at his own cost. These laws may help to 
account for the fact that some of the work done in the days of 
Hammurabi has lasted down to our own times. 

Agriculture and gardening were studied, and had their 
full measure of legislation. Land for gardens and orchards 
might be had free of rent for four years. After that period 
the planter might retain one-half of the garden, while the 
other half reverted to the original landlord. The tenant usu- 
ally paid his landlord in kind, assessed at a third of the yearly 
crop. Damage done by storm and flood was made good by 
the owner, not by the tenant alone. The ingrained habit of 
cattle to stray into pastures not their own was fully developed 
in Babylonian herds, and gave occasion to many laws and 
much wise legislation. 

The owner of cattle which did damage was fined accord- 
ing to the loss incurred, provided it could be proved that he 


had been careless and negligent in looking after his beasts; 
on the other hand he was not held liable for damage which he 
could not foresee and prevent. 

Legislation shows us that there existed a well-organized 
family life, and that the marriage tie was held in special 
respect. The civilization of a nation is largely evidenced by 
the position it accords to its women, and woman's place is 
mainly fixed by the position held by her on her marriage, 
as it is by marriage that woman, naturally speaking, enters 
on her own peculiar empire. The Babylonians of that period 
did not lightly contract marriages. The various claims that 
hover about the matrimonial contract, were duly made sub- 
jects of careful legislation. No marriage was a legal and 
binding contract, unless it had been performed according to a 
fixed ceremony, and legally attested by a written marriage 
contract. Once this contract was signed, it was obligatory 
and inviolable. A woman who was unfaithful to her mar- 
riage oath, was punished by drowning, together with her guilty 
partner. But a husband could save his guilty wife by a 
special appeal to the king. Such merciful appeals must have 
been made, or we should not have found any legislation on the 
subject, as it would have been clearly useless to legislate for 
what could never happen. If a husband brought an accusa- 
tion against his wife, but could produce no sufficient evidence, 
the wife could rebut the accusation by her own oath as to her 

All this legislation is testimony to the elevated position then 
held by women; and these laws are numerous. A husband 
was bound to support his wife, not in any way, but suitably 
to his position in life, and if a husband deserted his wife, he 
was still bound to maintain her in a suitable way. Under 
certain conditions a wife whose husband deserted her of his 
own accord, could become the wife of another man. The 
clause '' of his own accord " was inserted in the law, as in 
those warlike times husbands were not unfrequently made 
prisoners of war. Sometimes they came back; often enough 
they did not. The wife of a man taken prisoner was to 
live on the property of her captive husband, if he possessed 
property sufficient for her maintenance. In that case she 
could not contract another marriage. If a wife thus sufficiently 


provided for, nevertheless did contract a second marriage, 
she was prosecuted at law, and drowned as an adulteress. 
But the wife who was left destitute was allowed to marry 
again, for it was argued that, as she was thrown on her own 
resources, she could do nothing better. If the husband of 
the remarried wife eventually came back from captivity, he 
could claim his wife, but any children born remained with 
their father. If we bear the times in mind, all these laws 
show us woman in a position on the whole definite and in- 
tended to be honorable. 

While marriage was legally protected, divorce was also 
the subject of many legal enactments. We are not surprised 
to find that divorce was easier for the husband than for the 
wife, still, if a wife was divorced, her quondam husband was 
obliged to make proper provision for her, suitable maintenance. 
If she had brought a marriage portion, it was returned, and 
she had the custody of her own children. While the divorced 
wife kept the children, the husband was to give sufficient both 
for the support and the education of the children. If she had 
not brought any marriage portion, the husband was bound to 
provide for her in accordance with his, and consequently with 
her, social position. 

All this legislation quite favorable to the unappreciated wife, 
seems based on natural justice, and did not tend to make 
divorce too easy for those that way inclined. The woman who 
was legally blameless had not to suffer materially for the 
whims and fancies of her husband. The law allowed him to 
indulge his whim, but it was a costly indulgence, so he was 
made to feel where such a man is apt to feel most keenly, 
in his pocket. 

When the wife was blameworthy, the fault had to be legally 
proved ; and if she had not observed her wifely duties, or was 
extravagant, divorce was a punishment for positive guilt, 
and the guilty wife might be divorced without compensation, 
or reduced to slavery within the household. But it seems that 
she could not be sold into slavery outside the family, taken in 
its wide sense. Permanent ill health on the part of a wife 
was not recognized as a ground for divorce. Under certain 
conditions a woman could divorce her husband, and if she 
could prove that her life had been blameless, she could re- 


turn to her family, and take back her marriage portion with 

It is quite evident from these laws that Babylonian women 
enjoyed a freedom and independence unusual amongst the 
nations of antiquity. These marriage enactments also throw 
light on a passage in the life of Abraham, narrated in the 
1 6th chapter of Genesis. If not of Babylonian stock, at any 
rate Abraham lived in touch with Babylonian civilization, and 
the conduct of both himself and his family would not unnat- 
urally be guided by Babylonian custom. When Sarah be- 
came jealous of her handmaiden, and complained to her hus- 
band about her, he answered : " Behold, thy handmaiden is 
in thy own hand, use her as it pleaseth thee.'' Now accord- 
ing to the Code of Hammurabi, the handmaiden who had 
borne offspring, still remained in subjection to the principal 
wife, who had the right, if the handmaid became too forward, 
of branding her as a slave. It is not too much to assume 
that both Abraham and Sarah were well acquainted with 
existing Babylonian laws and customs, and it was quite in 
accordance with these laws that Abraham said to Sarah his 
wife, when she complained of her handmaid. Agar, " Use her 
as it pleaseth thee " ; as this was only the acknowledgment 
of the power which a Babylonian lady of her time legally 
possessed. We do not know whether Agar was branded; 
probably she was not; but we are told that " Sarah afflicted 
her,'' and that Agar ran away. 

The relatively high position of women in Babylon is in- 
cidentally brought out by the existence of a very peculiar 
institution, which does not seem to have any parallel in any 
Eastern country, ancient or modern. This was a sort of 
order of unmarried women, who were vowed to perpetual 
virginity. Many references have been found concerning them 
in the brick documents which have come down to us, and their 
position was at first quite misunderstood. They were thought 
to be Priestesses, a title which conveyed a meaning similar to 
that of Nautch girls in India, or Geishas in Japan. But 
from the laws of Hammurabi we find that they were really a 
sort of Vestal Virgin community. They were sometimes em- 
ployed in the service of temples; but their position was 
socially and morally most honorable; they had much inde- 


pendence, and great influence in social life. As a rule, they 
dwelt in communities, but this residence does not seem to have 
been essential. Near some of the greater temples, there were 
buildings set apart for them. They were apparently free to 
come and go, to engage in commerce, to own land and farms, 
and might contract legal matrimony, on condition that when 
legally married, their obligation to virginity always remained. 
The law provided that, should the husband desire posterity, 
while the Vestal herself might not undertake the duties of 
motherhood, she could provide a handmaiden, exactly as we 
find Sarah acting with respect to her Egyptian maiden Agar, 
already alluded to. " Now Sarah, the wife of Abraham, hav- 
ing a handmaid, an Egyptian named Agar, took the Egyptian 
. . . and gave her to her husband to wife." Here again, 
Sarah seems to be following the quite legal and recognized 
custom of the Babylonian days in which she lived. And this 
throws a favorable light on what seems to us a very abnormal, 
and reprehensible proceeding. Yet in Sarah's day it was 
quite correct and legally proper. 

These Babylonian Vestals, if we may so call them for want 
of a more distinctive name, had many legal rights. Though 
unmarried, they had the legal status of a married woman. 
Their good name was carefully guarded by law. The law 
numbered 127 reads: " If any man has caused the fingers to 
be pointed against a Vestal, and has not justified it, they shall 
set that man before the judges, and mark his forehead." 
However good a woman may be, she can not always escape 
the scandalmonger, and the fact that such a law should exist 
is a proof of the care taken to safeguard this order of women, 
whilst it indicates the high standard of moral conduct ex- 
pected of her. Her considerable personal freedom is inci- 
dentally shown by the law numbered no, which reads : " If a 
Vestal who dwells not in a cloister, should open a wine shop, 
or enter a wine-house to drink, that female they shall burn." 
A very drastic punishment for the offence, but it proves the 
high status from which such a lapse was measured. 

She had rights of property. Her father gave her the same 
dowry as if she had married. This property remained ex- 
clusively her own, and could not be appropriated by the 
temple to which she might be attached. Her relatives man- 


aged her property for her. It could be let to tenants if she 
wished. She could inherit property ; yet she was free from 
the property tax. Property which she herself bought, she 
could bequeath at will on her demise; but all the property 
she had received from her father had to revert to her family 
when she died. A very wise law, and one evidently intended 
to prevent lawsuits. We find that ladies of the royal family 
were numbered amongst these Vestals, a sufficient proof that 
their social standing was distinctly high. 

These various laws concerning marriage, divorce, property 
of widows and divorcees, as well as the social importance and 
independence given to the Vestals, all combine to show that 
a very honorable conception of womanhood existed in that 
ancient civilization; and it is not a little remarkable that, 
though the Babylonians treated women with such marked 
social distinction, they do not seem to have had any female 
divinity similar to the Assyrian ** Ishtar," held in such honor 
close by at Nineve. 

Invocations to all manner of gods, in all vicissitudes, abun- 
dantly prove that the Babylonian was thoroughly religious. 
The letters of Hammurabi show that he took a great interest 
in the due worship of the gods; he saw to it that religious 
ceremonies were carried out with becoming respect, and with 
carefully observed ritual. No doubt, there was superstition 
at the base of all this ; but it also shows that he realized that 
all did not begin and end with man. In a dim way, an erron- 
eous way, he perceived the existence of a super-human power. 
Though his perception was distorted by the mists of polythe- 
ism through which he gazed, he was nevertheless true to his 
convictions, such as they were. He watched over the herds 
and flocks, and over the revenues of the temples, and exacted 
detailed reports from those in charge. We know that once, 
when he had to decide in a lawsuit concerning the title to 
some property, hearing that the plaintiff was the chief baker 
of the temple, whose duty it was to supervize certain offer- 
ings on an important feast day, he adjourned the trial, so 
that the baker should not be absent from his post on such an 
important occasion. He showed no less respect toward the 
gods of other nations. We possess a letter of his in which 
he gives orders for the safe return of some captured Elamite 


goddess, directing that sheep should be given to the captive 
priestesses, for the due performance of their own sacrifices, 
on their return from the captivity from which he freed them. 

Laws may be excellent as laws, yet remain practically dead 
letters. As for the laws of Hammurabi, there have been 
found large numbers of his dispatches, addressed to local 
governors, instructions regarding the settlement of legal diffi- 
culties, and a larger miscellaneous correspondence to prove 
that his laws were not allowed to fall into desuetude. 

Naturally, with altered types of civilization, the wording of 
l^ws has changed, points of view have shifted, the ease and 
frequency of international intercommunication have modified 
very much the outward conditions of life. But the social 
instincts of men, their tendency to overstep just limits, their 
need of authoritative guidance are to-day still much the same 
as they were of old in Babylon. The old laws of Hammurabi 
come like a message to our distant age, to awaken us from 
our self-sufficiency and to show us a model of sensible law 
for mankind as yet in the making. 

W. D. Strappini, S.J. 

Bournemouth, England. 


IN the books of Exodus and Ecclesiasticus the ornaments 
of the high priest's ephod include bells, so that *' their 
sound might be heard whenever he goeth in or cometh out 
of the sanctuary." Their use in the Eastern Church obtains 
even to this day, bells being found, as they were of old, on the 
fringe of priestly garments. 

The oral law of the Jews, consisting of many traditions 
touching the Mosaic law, tells that the ancient Hebrews em- 
ployed also larger bells, which were called Megeruphita. 
These were used on different occasions by the multitude of 
temple officers, and caused frequently such noise in the streets 
of Jerusalem that it was hard to catch the words of a speaker. 
Their chief purpose was threefold. One was to call the 
priests for services, the second to summon the Levites to come 
and sing, and the third to apprize persons that the unclean 
might be brought to the gate named Nicanor. The great 


sound of these bells, so says the Mishna, when sounded at 
their fullest power, could be heard quite eighteen miles from 

When the age of the Christian Church was but three or 
four centuries, assemblage at divine service was necessarily 
done as quietly as possible, as during heathen persecutions, 
the use of bells or Semantrons would have dangerously ex- 
cited public attention. It is well known that owing to the 
necessity of safeguarding the lives of the Christians and above 
all the priests, during the early ages of the persecutions, ex- 
treme care was exercised that the " gatherings of the faithful 
might be entirely private." They were assembled by some 
secret signs known among themselves. 

Semantrons, struck with a mallet of hard wood, are sound- 
ing boards or clappers, still used in many Oriental churches, 
particularly those within the Turkish dominions, since bells 
were not known among them until the ninth century. These 
contrivances are much like what we of the Latin rite use on 
Good Friday. 

During the last days of Holy Week — called in old days, 
" The Still Week," and " The Week of the Suffering "—bells 
are not used, out of reverence for the passion and death of the 
Redeemer. Pope Benedict XIV alleges the mystic reason 
for this suspension of the use of bells, that they typify " the 
preachers of the Word of God, and all preaching ceased from 
our Lord's apprehension until after He had risen from the 
dead. The Apostles, too, when they saw His bitter torments, 
and the indignities to which He was subjected by the Jews, 
stole away from Him silently and left Him alone. 

One Holy Week spent in one of the Castelli near Rome, 
when health reasons prevented me from going on foot to the 
Sepulchres at Albano, Aviccia, etc., the driver of our car- 
riage had taken the bells off the horse's harness. The clap- 
pers in those regions were of course used, called tavolette. 
Many pious peasants there make what is called the Fast of 
the Bells, i. e. they do not touch food between the Gloria of 
the Holy Thursday Mass until that of the one on Holy Satur- 
day. Those who have heard all Rome ring out her countless 
bells, can remember the wonderful thrill felt which the joy 
thus announced calls forth. 


There are wooden and iron semantrons, the ancient Syrian 
harking back to Noe as being the inventor of the former. 
For it is supposed that God spoke to him as follows : " Make 
for yourself a bell of boxwood, which is not liable to corrup- 
tion, three cubits long and one and a hcdf wide, and also a 
smaller one from the same wood. Strike this instrument three 
separate times every day : once in the morning to summon the 
hands to the ark, once at midday to call them to dinner, and 
once in the evening to call them to rest." " The peculiar 
symbolism," says O'Brien in his book on the Mass, " attached 
to this ' holy wood ', as the semantron is often denominated, 
is, to say the least, very significant. The sound of the wood, 
for instance, recalls to mind the fact that it was the wood of 
the Garden of Eden which caused Adam to fall when he 
plucked its fruit contrary to the command of God; now the 
same sound recalls another great event to mind, viz., the noise 
made in nailing to the wood of the Cross the Saviour of the 
world, who came to atone for Adam's transgression." This 
idea is beautifully expressed in the Preface of the Cross. 

In monasteries after the time of their reunion under Con- 
stantine, the hours of the Office, prayer, etc., were announced 
by the blowing of a trumpet, or rapping with a hammer at the 
cells of the monks. In a celebrated work by Strabo on the 
Divine Offices, written about the ninth century, he speaks of 
bells not having been long in use, and having been introduced 
from Italy ; but as a fact, really little is known concerning the 
date when they were introduced. St. Paulinus of Nola and 
Pope Sabian in the seventh century are each credited with the 
introduction of bells at Mass. From what I can gather it 
seems probable that Pope Sabian first brought in the practice. 
Onuphrius Panvinius says of him : " This Pontiff introduced 
the use of the bells, and ordained that they be rung in the 
church at the canonical hours and during the Sacrifice of 
the Mass." 

The history of St. Lupus of Sens contains the statement that 
church bells were said to be known in France quite two 
centuries before the time of Strabo.^ From the same source 
we learn that the Maronites adopted the ringing of church 

1 Fleury, Hist., xlviii, 42. 


bells from the Latins on their reunion with the Catholic 
Church in the twelfth century. 

From the Campanian metal of which they are often made 
is derived the word campana. The large bells are termed 
campanae \ small ones nolae^ and very small ones tintinabulae. 
Cloccae first occurs in Bonifacius, and comes from the French 
word cloche, or possibly from the old German chlachan, 
Frangi are the large bells of cast metal that appeared first in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The largest in actual use 
in the world is the second Moscow bell, weighing 128 tons. 
The Kaiserglocke of Cologne Cathedral weighs 25 tons; the 
great bell of Pekin, 53 tons, the bell of Notre Dame, 17 tons; 
Big Ben of Westminster, 14 tons, and Tom of Lincoln, 5 tons. 

Solemn ceremonies precede the dedicating of bells for 
sacred purposes, according to a form prescribed in the Pon- 
tifical called " the blessing of a bell," though the popular 
term, " the baptism of a bell " was used as early as the 
eleventh century. Only a Bishop can bless or baptize a bell. 

The oil used is the oleum infirmorum for the outside of 
the bell, and the oil of chrism for the inside. The Bishop 
prays repeatedly that the sound of the bell may avail to sum- 
mon the faithful, that it may excite their devotion, drive 
away storms, and terrify evil spirits. Bells, being conse- 
crated, cannot be rung without the consent of the ecclesiastical 
authorities. Each bell receives a special name, and has its 
own sponsor. 

We read that in England the ceremony of blessing a bell 
was up to the Reformation carried out with great pomp. The 
ecclesiastics followed all the ceremonies employed in the 
christening of children. " Costly feasts were given, and even 
in poor villages, a hundred gold crowns were sometimes spent 
on the ceremony." In the churchwarden accounts of St. 
Lawrence, Reading, 1499, occurs the following: "Payed for 
halowing of the bell named Harry, vjs. viijd. And over that, 
Sir William Symes, Richard Clech, and Mistress Smyth, being 
godfaders and godmother at the consecratyon of the same 
bell, and berying all other costs to the suffragon." ^ 

The object of ringing small bells at Mass is to arouse the 
attention and devotion of the faithful. The custom of ring- 

2 Quarterly Review, 1854. 


ing for the Elevation began in France during the twelfth 
century, whence it was introduced into Germany in the thir- 
teenth, by Cardinal Gui, legate of the Holy See. In England 
we find it, about the same time, to be a practice enjoined by 
several Councils, and the statutes of some monastic orders or- 
dained the ringing of the large bell during the Mass. Ivo 
of Chartres, whose death is recorded in 1 115, congratulated 
Maud Queen of England on having presented the church of 
Our Lady at Chartres with bells which were rung at the 

The ringing of a bell at the Elevation came into use when 
the custom of elevating the Host had been generally adopted 
in the Church. In English-speaking countries the bell is 
also rung as the priest spreads his hands over the Host and 
chalice before the Consecration, and at the " Domine, non 
sum dignus,'' before the Communion of the priest. When 
the Blessed Sacrament is exposed a bell is never rung, nor in 
the private chapel of the Vatican when the Pope says or 
hears Mass.* 

According to Dr. Rock, at the celebration of Mass, " as the 
priest said the Sanctus, etc., the custom formerly was to toll 
three strokes on a bell which was hung in a bell cote between 
the chancel and the nave, that the rope might fall at a short 
distance from the spot where knelt the youth or person who 
served at Mass." From the first part of its use this bell got 
the name of the " Saints ", " Santys ", or '' Sanctus ", bell, 
and many notices about it are to be met with in medieval 
church accounts. From the same source we gather that in 
many places there were two distinct bells, one for the Sanctus, 
the other for the Elevation. The latter bell, made of silver, 
was sometimes called the Sacring bell. On hearing the 
Sacring bell's first tinkle, those in church who were not al- 
ready on their knees, knelt down, and with upraised hands 
worshipped their Maker lifted high before them. 

An old man, who died in Wiltshire at the age of no, 
remembered in the " time of the old law, eighteen little bells 
that hung in the middle of the parish church, which, the 
pulling one wheel, made them all ring." This was done at 
the Elevation of the Host. Pairs of ornamental iron discs 

s Benedict XIV. De Miss., ii. 11, 19; 15, 31. 



of medieval character, supposed remains of such wheels, still 
exist at Yaxley in Suffolk, and at Long Stratton, Norfolk. 
A " Wakerell '' or '' Wagerell " bell is entered in inventories 
of 1552. 

The Angelus bell, always rung thrice a day, obtains its 
name from the first word of the prayer. In Tuscany a bell 
is rung an hour before the evening Angelus or Ave bell, 
which on enquiry I discovered to be intended to remind its 
hearers to say the Creed, while the De Profundis bell sounds 
one hour after the Ave. 

In Italy, on Friday afternoon at three o'clock thirty-three 
strokes are sounded in many churches and convents in memory 
of our Lord's death at the age of thirty-three; and probably 
the custom obtains elsewhere. 

The power of a bell to drive away storms, etc., is due en- 
tirely to the solemn blessings and prayers of the Church, no 
superstitious efficacy being attributed to the bell itself, though 
some Protestant writers persist in believing that the contrary 
is intended. In old manuscripts as well as in many church- 
wardens' accounts, payments are entered as having been made 
for " ringing the hallowed bells in grete tempestes and lightn- 
inges," for " ringing in the thundering ", for the ringers' 
refreshments, for " ringing all the tyme of gret thunder ", 
etc., etc. It was at one time customary at Malmesbury Abbey 
during a thunder storm, to ring St. Adhelm's Bell ; and from 
Wynken de Worde we learn of the ringing of bells in thunder- 
storms '* to the end that fiends and wicked spirits should be 
abashed and flee, and cease the moving of the tempest ". 

An old custom is now kept up on the eve of Corpus Christi, 
when the choir of Durham Cathedral go up the tower clad 
in their surplices and sing the Te Deum. This is done in 
commemoration of the miraculous extinguishing of a terrible 
fire which took place on that night, A. D. 1429. The miracle 
was attributed to the prayers of St. Cuthbert, whose body is 
said by some to be enshrined in the cathedral. 

Many tales of the supernatural are told concerning evil 
spirits and the efficacy of bells in warding them off; likewise 
regarding the power of consecrated bells for bringing bless- 
ings. In an old chapel at Killin in Perthshire was a bell 
called that of St. Fillan, which had the reputation of curing 


lunacy. After the sufferer had been dipped in the pool of 
St. Fillan and had spent a night in the chapel, he was in the 
morning placed with great solemnity, under the bell ; and in 
many cases recorded the act of faith was rewarded by cure. 
There are numerous legends that such bells would, if stolen, 
return to their own home, ringing all the way. Of an Irish 
bell in Leinster it is related that when a chieftain of Wicklow 
had obtained possession of it, he had to tie it up to prevent 
its escaping to St. Fillan's church in Meath, where it usually 
abode. A like tale is told of the bell of St. lUfyd which, 
having been stolen by a king, " The king was destroyed, but 
repenting before his death, he ordered the bell to be restored 
to its place in Wales. Without waiting to be driven, the 
horse with the bell about his neck set out for Wales, followed 
by a whole drove of horses, drawn by the melodious sound 
of the bell. The horse was even able to cross the River Severn 
and make its entry into Wales, the other horses following. 
Then, hastening along the shore, over the mountains and 
through the woods, it finally reached the banks of the River 
Taf, where a clergyman, hearing the sweet sound of the bell, 
went out to meet the horse, and helped in carrying the bell to 
the gate of St. Illfyd's church. As the horse lowered its 
neck, the bell fell on a stone, from which fall a part of it was 
broken." * 

Among the records of other stolen bells is that of one from 
Soissons in Burgundy, which Clothaire carried away. The 
bell objected to the act by gradually becoming dumb on the 
journey to Paris, where its voice was discovered to be gone; 
but its voice returned in such full force when the bell was 
sent home, that its tone could be heard seven miles distant. 

Spelman in his History of Sacrilege gives some interesting 
information about bells. " When I was a child I heard much 
talk of the pulling down of bells in every part of my county, 
the county of Norfolk, then common in memory ; and the sum 
of the speech usually was, that in sending them oversea, some 
were drowned in one haven, some in another, as at Lynn, 
Wells, or Yarmouth. I dare not venture upon particulars, 
for that, I then hearing it as a child, regarded it as a child. 
But the truth of it was lately discovered by God himself, for 

* Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, 


that in the year. ... He sending such a dead neap (as they 
call it) as no man living was known to have seen the like, 
the sea fell so back from the land at Hunstanton that the peo- 
ple, going much further to gather oysters than they had done 
at any time before, they there found a bell with the mouth 
upward, sunk into the ground to the very brim. They carried 
the news thereof to Sir Hamon L' Estrange, lord of the town 
and of wreck and searight there, who shortly after sought 
to have weighed up and gain the bell ; but the sea, never since 
going so far back as hitherto, they could not find the place 
again.'' He also tells us of a clockier or bell-house which 
in Henry VIIFs reign adjoined St. Paul's church in London, 
with four great bells in it called Jesus bells. Sir Miles Par- 
tridge, a courtier, once " played at dice with the king for these 
bells, staking £ioo against them and won them, and then 
melted and sold them, to a very great gain." But in the fifth 
year of Edward VI, this gamester had worse fortune, when 
he lost his life, being executed on Tower Hill, for matters 
concerning the Duke of Somerest. 

In the year 1541, Arthur Bulkley, Bishop of Bangor, sacri- 
legiously sold the first five bells belonging to the Cathedral, 
and went to the seaside to see them shipped away ; but at that 
instant he was stricken blind, and so continued to the day 
of his death. 

Any sacrilege or profanation of bells, so sacredly blessed 
and set apart for holy purposes, seems to have met with 
punishment. Forrabury church in Cornwall has a tower, 
often termed the Silent Tower of Bottreaux, because it has 
no bells. The reason for the absence of bells, as given by 
Hunt in his Popular Romances of the West of England, is as 
follows : Some years ago the Forrabury parishioners wanted 
to have a peal of bells which would equal those of the church 
of Tintagel, not far off. The bells were cast, blessed with the 
usual rites, then sent off to Forrabury ; but as the vessel, after 
making a good voyage, neared the northern part of the 
Cornish coast, the pilot heard the vesper bells of Tintagel, and 
thanked God for his quick and safe journey. This act of 
piety caused the captain to laugh and swear that the safe 
voyage was due to his own skill as a captain as well as that 
of his men, and not to what he termed the pilot's super- 


stitious prayer. While yet employed in swearing and cursing, 
the ocean swelled suddenly, and rolling toward the land, over- 
whelmed everything in its course. As the ship sank, muffled 
bells were heard tolling ; and now when storms are coming, the 
sound can be heard under the waves. 

Of the twelve parish churches of the island of Jersey — each 
possessed costly bells. One of these churches sold its bells to 
defray the expenses of the troops in a long civil war. The 
ship on which the alienated bells were being sent to France, 
foundered and all was lost. Ever since then the bells ring 
from the depth of the sea, the fishermen of St. Ouen's bay 
always approaching the water's edge to listen for the sound 
which, if heard, prevents them trusting themselves to set sail. 
Similar traditions are connected with Tunstall in Norfolk, 
Blackpool, and Echingham, Sussex. 

Mr. Thisleton Dyer, to whose work on ecclesiastical folk- 
lore I am much indebted, tells us: ^'At a place known as 
Fishery Brow, near Kirby Lonsdale, there is a sort of na- 
tural hollow scooped out, where, as the legend runs, a church, 
parson, and congregation were swallowed up, and here the 
bells may be heard ringing on a Sunday morning by anyone 
who puts his ear to the ground. A similar fate is said to have 
befallen the village of Raleigh, in Nottinghamshire, and it 
was formerly customary for the inhabitants oir Christmas 
morning to go out into the valley and listen to the mysterious 
chimes of their lost parish church." 

One of the abbeys suppressed in 1539, and subsequently 
dismantled, was that of Whitby in Yorkshire. The bells, 
which had been sold, were put on board a vessel destined to 
take them to London, but the ship refused to move further 
than a little distance out of the bay, and then sank into the 
depths at a place within sight of the abbey ruins. The bells 
stay where they sank, and are heard from time to time. Mr. 
Phillips versifies the event thus : 

Up from the heart of the ocean 

The mellow music peals; 
Where the sunlight makes the golden path, 

And the seamew flits and wheels. 
For many a chequered century, 

Untired by flying time, 
The bells no human fingers touch, 

Have rung their hidden chime. 



A legend of Trefethin tells of a very wonderful bell in the 
church of St. Cadoc. A little child who had climbed to the 
belfry was struck by the bell and killed— not through the 
wickedness of the bell itself, but through a spell which had 
been put upon it by an evil spirit. But though innocent of 
murderous intent, the wretched bell became forfeit to the 
demons on account of its fatal deed. They seized it, bore it 
down through the earth to the shadowy realm of Annism, and 
ever since that day, when a child is accidentally slain at Tre- 
fethin, the bell of St. Cadoc is heard mournfully tolling un- 
derneath the ground where it disappeared ages ago.*^ 

One often hears of the " passing bell," which in English 
pre-Reformation times were rung for the dying, those in their 
agony, and after death. This practice grew out of the belief 
that devils and evil spirits not only troubled the dying but 
lay in wait to torment the soul when it had left the body. One 
writer thinks the passing bell " was originally intended to 
drive away any demon that might seek to take possession of 
the soul of the deceased '\ while Grose says it " was anciently 
rung for two purposes, one to bespeak the prayers of all 
Christians for a soul just departing, the other, to drive away 
the evil spirits who stood at the bed's foot and about the house 
ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest and terrify 
the soul in its passage; but by the ringing of that bell they 
were kept aloof, and the soul, like a hunted hare, gained a 
start." A Huntingdonshire superstition, found in Notes 
and Queries,^ tells of a neighbor who expressed great sorrow 
for a mother whose child was buried unbaptized, because " no 
bell had been rung over the corpse." The reason for the 
grief was : " because when anyone died, the soul never left 
the body until the church bell was rung." 

After the Reformation the passing bell was discontinued. 
By the beginning of the eighteenth century it was never heard, 
though tolling the bell after a death continued as before. 
In 1605, Mr. R. Dowe left £50 to the parish of St. Sepulchre's 
on condition that some person should go in the still of the 
night to Newgate before every execution day " and standing 
as near as possible to the cells of the condemned, should with 

5 Wirt Sikes, British Goblins. 
^ 1st Series, v. 364. 


a hand-bell (which he also left) give twelve solemn tolls, with 
double strokes, and then deliver this exhortation : 

All you that in the condemned hole do lie, 
Prepare you, for to-morrow you shall die; 
Watch, all, and pray, the hour is drawing near 
That you before the Almighty must appear. 

Examine well yourselves, in time repent, 
That you may not to eternal flames be sent ; 
And when St. Sepulchre's bell to-morrow tolls, 
The Lord have mercy on your souls. 
Past twelve o'clock. 

Dowe ordered that the great church bell should toll in the 
morning and that as the criminals passed the wall to Tyburn, 
the bellman or sexton should look over, and say: "All good 
people pray heartily unto God for these poor sinners who are 
now going to their death." 

Mr. Thistleton Dyer thus writes of the Curfew, or Couvre- 
feUy rung in olden times as a signal for the extinguishing of 
all fires: " Its object, as far as can be traced, was exclusively 
political or social, and not religious. The most plausible 
conjecture as to the origin of the introduction of the practice 
into England is that it was to diminish the risk of conflagra- 
tions at a period when houses were principally of wood. 
Milton, it has been remarked, has described it in a quatrain, 
sonorous and musical as the bell itself, 

On a plot of rising ground, 
I hear the far-off curfew sound. 
Over some wide, watered shore. 
Swinging low with solemn roar. 

It is an instance, too, of the tenacity with which we cling 
to a practice once established, that, though for centuries its 
only use has been to " toll the knell of parting day ", it 
continues to be rung wherever there are funds to pay the 
ringer, for which purpose we find many curious bequests. 
Thus, at Barton, Lincolnshire, the tradition goes that an 
old lady, being accidentally benighted on the Wolds, was 
directed in her course by the sound of the evening bell of 
St. Peter's Church. When, after much alarm, she found 


herself in safety, out of gratitude she gave a certain piece of 
land to the parish clerk on condition that he should ring one 
of the church bells from seven to eight every evening except 
Sundays, commencing on the day of the carrying of the first 
load of barley in every year, till Shrove Tuesday next ensuing 
inclusive. At Ringwould, Kent, half an acre of land, known 
as " Curfew Land ", has always been held, says Edwards in 
his Remarkable Charities, by the parish clerk, as a remunera- 
tion for ringing the curfew bell every evening from the 2nd of 
November to the 2nd of February. In the parish of St. 
Margaret's in the same county, the story goes that, in 1696, 
an order was passed to ensure the proper application of the 
proceeds of five roods of pasture land, which had been given 
by a shepherd who fell over the cliff, for ringing a curfew bell 
at eight o'clock every night for the winter half year, which 
ringing had fallen greatly into neglect. Many similar be- 
quests occur in different parts of the country, and here and 
there the old custom still lingers on. 

A singular instance of the various use to which church bells 
were put is given in Notes and Queries, as happening at Derby 
on the arrival of the London coach which brought fish to the 
town. The news was announced by the church bells, each 
belfry, as the coach passed by, taking up the story thus 
strangely made known. Close to the entrance of the town 
was a church with six bells, and it was the first to announce: 
*' Here's fresh fish come to town." All Saints, the next church, 
rang its peal of ten, supposed to say : " Here's fine fresh fish 
just come into the town." St. Michael's church had but three 
bells, one of which being cracked, was credited with saying: 
'' They stinkin', they stinkin ' ;" while a furlong off, the six 
of St. Alkmund's replied : " Put more salt on 'em then, put 
more salt on 'em then." 

In many English parishes the " Shriving bell " used to be 
rung in the morning of Shrove Tuesday so as to remind the 
faithful to confess before Lent. This has now changed its 
name to " Pancake bell." At Daventry, Northamptonshire, 
the bell was muffled on one side with leather, or " buffed ", and 
was known as the " Panburn bell ". The tradition that the 
Northampton church bells were rung on that day is em- 
phasized by this bell doggerel : 


Roast beef and marsh mallows, 
Says the bells of All Hallows. 
Pancakes and fritters, 
Says the bells of St. Peter's. 
Roast beef and boil'd, 
Says the bells of St. Giles'. 
Poker and tongs, 
Says the bells of St. John's."' 
Shovel, tongs, and poker, 
Says the bells of St. Pulchre's. 

At Norton, near Evesham, after a muffled peal had been rung 
for the slaughter of the Holy Innocents, an unmuffled peal of 
gladness was rung for the deliverance of the Infant Christ. 
Instances are recorded of bells being tolled on Christmas Eve, 
as at a funeral, or in the manner of a passing bell, and any- 
one asking whose bell it was, would be told that it was the 
Devil's knell. The moral of it is that the devil died when 
Christ was bom. 

Bells rung on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning are 
often called "Virgin Chimes." The "Judas Bell" dates 
from old Catholic days, doubtless in connexion with Holy 
Week ceremonies, as are the " Judas Candles ". 

Thomas Nash evidently was of opinion that joy-bells at a 
wedding were not always suitable, and that, as a writer once 
said, " there have been sequels to such a beginning with which 
the knell had been more in unison !" So Mr. Nash in 1813 be- 
queathed £13 a year to the bell-ringers of the Abbey church, 
Bath, " on condition of their ringing on the whole peal of 
bells, with clappers muffled, various solemn and doleful changes 
on the 14th of May in every year, being the anniversary of 
my wedding-day, and also the anniversary of my decease, to 
ring a grand bob-major and merry mirthful peals unmuffled, 
in joyful commemoration of my happy release from domestic 
tyranny and wretchedness." In a Wiltshire village, when a 
young person died unmarried, wedding-peals with muffled 
bells were rung immediately after the burial. The custom of 
the induction of a new Protestant Vicar is kept up by his 
ringing the bell two or three times himself the number of 

T St. John's Hospital. 


strokes, so tradition says, regulates the number of years he 
will stay in the parish. 

There existed in the parishes of Rutland a custom of ring- 
ing the gleaner's bell in every church at eight or nine a. m. 
during harvest time, which meant that women and children 
might go into the fields to glean. The bell was again sounded 
at five or six, the hours when no more gleaning was to be done. 
A church bell is usually rung after a Coroner's inquest. At 
Goddington, Oxfordshire, there exists still, I believe, a custom 
of ringing the church bell after a Coroner's inquest certify- 
ing to the actual death of some person in the parish. 

L. E. D. 

III. The Modem Schools : Kantism in America. 

UP to the middle of the last century Scotch realism con- 
tinued to fight for a representative place in the field of 
thought. It enjoyed the unstinted support of several brilliant 
professors, such as Thomas Cogswell Upham (1799- 1867), o^ 
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. ; Francis Wayland ( 1 796- 
1888),^ president of Brown University; Lawrence Perseus 
Hickok (1798- 1 888), president of Union College, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. ; J. H. Seeley (1824- 1895), president of Amherst 
College; John Bascom (1827), president of Wisconsin Uni- 
versity; James McCosh ^ (1811-1894), a Scotchman by birth, 
who became president of Princeton, reorganized the Univers- 
ity on modern lines, and showed himself a vigorous opponent 
of Kantism in his numerous writings, and also a staunch de- 
fender of Christianity; Noah Porter^ ( 181 1 -1892), president 
of Yale from 187 1 to 1887, who had familiarized himself 
with Kantism in Germany in 1853 but remained faithful to 

1 His Elements of Moral Science published in 1835 went through several 
English editions, and was translated into Hawaiian, Modem Greek, Nestorian, 
and Armenian for the use of missionaries. 

^ The Method of Divine Government, 1850, ii editions; Intuitions of the 
Mind, Inductively Considered, i860, 5 editions; An Examination of M. /. 
Stuart Mill's Philosophy, i860; The Scottish Philosophy, 1874; The Realistic 
Philosophy, 1887; besides numerous other books of lesser importance. 

3 The Human Intellect, 1868 ; Elements of Moral Science, 1885 ; Science and 
Sentiment, 1885 ; Kant's Ethics, 1886. 


Scotch realism; Francis Bowen (1811-1891)/ editor of the 
North American Review from 1843 ^o 1^54 ^i^^ afterward 
professor at Harvard, a sworn enemy of " the dirt philosophy 
of materialism and fatalism " and a strong upholder of the be- 
lief in *' one personal God and one Lord Jesus Christ in 
whom dwells the fulness of divinity." 

Others less known contributed their share in defending the 
older ideals of religion and morality, but theirs was a losing 
struggle. And it is to be regretted that they gave up the 
fight, for their withdrawal from the field has given free 
scope to the wild speculations whose pernicious excesses are 
becoming more and more evident and are now so widely de- 
plored in our institutions of higher learning. 

But the day belonged to the all-conquering Kantism, — and 
the term is here taken in its widest meaning, to include also 
all post- Kantian systems. 

Kant's Kritik der reinen Vernunft was published in 1781. 
At this late day, when here as in Europe Kantism holds full 
sway in the field of speculation outside the Catholic Church, 
it is interesting to trace its first appearance across the Atlantic 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

According to Prof. Creighton the very first reference to 
Kant in this country is found in the American reimpression 
of the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1797-99. The author of 
the article, however, the Rev. Dr. George Gleig, was not an 
American, but a Scotch clergyman. In 1 801 we find Dr. 
Dwight, president of Yale College, as the first native Ameri- 
can to make a brief and condemnatory reference to Kant in his 
Century Discourse : " The present state of literature and 
morals in Germany conspires to show that the principles of 
the Illumines respecting morality and religion have an ex- 
tensive prevalence in that country. From the philosophy of 
Kant to the plays of Kotzebue their publications appear to be 
formed to diffuse loose principles '\^ 

* Treatise on Logic, 1864 ; Modern Philosophy from Descartes to Schopen- 
hauer and Hartmann. For a more complete account of their works see : Van 
Becelaere, La Philosophie en Amerique, pp. 62 ff. 

^ Dwight, Century Discourse, 1801, p. 50. Cf. Riley, American Philosophy, 
p. 315, note. 


At about the same time Samuel Miller (1769- 1850) gives a 
fuller account of the Kantian philosophy. He had never read 
or even seen the works of the Konigsberg philosopher, but an 
echo had come to him of the fame he enjoyed in Europe. 
Finding a summary of his doctrines in Adelung's Elements 
of Critical Philosophy ^ which had been translated into Eng- 
lish and published in London, he proceeds to give us his own 
views on this new system : 

When inquiry is made among the followers of this singular man 
respecting the general drift of his system, they answer chiefly in 
negations. It is not atheism, for he affirms that practical reason is 
entitled to infer the existence of a Supreme Intelligence. It is not 
theism, for he denies that theoretical reason can demonstrate the 
existence of an infinite, intelligent Being. It is not materialism, for 
he maintains that time and space are only forms of our perception, and 
not the attributes of extrinsic existences. It is not idealism, for he 
maintains that noumena are independent of phenomena, that things 
perceptible are prior to perception. It is not libertinism, for he al- 
lows the will to be determined by regular laws. It is not fatalism, 
for he defines this to be a system in which the connection of pur- 
poses in the world is considered as accidental. It is not dogmatism, 
for he favors every possible doubt. It is not scepticism, for he af- 
fects to demonstrate what he teaches. Such are the indefinite 
evasions of this school. 

The complaint that all this is obscure and scarcely intelligible 
will probably be made by every reader. An English philosopher 
tells us that it would require more than ordinary industry and in- 
genuity to make a just translation, or a satisfactory abstract of the 
system in question, in our language; that for this purpose a new 
nomenclature, more difficult than the Linnaean botany, must be in- 
vented. This circumstance itself affords strong presumption against 
the rationality and truth of the Kantian philosophy. Locke and 
Newton found little difficulty in making themselves understood. 
Every man of plain good sense who is used to inquiries of that 
nature, readily comprehends their systems, in as little time as it re- 
quires to peruse their volumes. Even Berkeley and Hume, with 
all their delusive subtleties, found means to render themselves 
easily intelligible. Is there not reason then to suspect either that 
the system of Kant is made up of heterogeneous, inconsistent and 
incomprehensible materials ; or that, in order to disguise the old and 
well-known philosophy of certain English and French writers, and 
to impose it on the world as a new system, he has done little more 


than present it under a new technical vocabulary of his own? Or, 
which is perhaps not the most improbable supposition, that, being 
sensible of the tendency of his philosophy to undermine all religion 
and morals, sis hitherto taught and prized in the world, he has 
studied to envelope in an enigmatic language a system which he 
wishes to be understood by the initiated alone; a system which has 
been pronounced ' an attempt to teach the sceptical philosophy of 
Hume in the disgusting dialect of scholasticism ' ? At any rate, 
notwithstanding all the unwearied pains which some of the disciples 
of this famous Prussian have taken, to rescue him from the im- 
putation of being one of the sceptical philosophers of the age, the 
most impartial judges will probably assign him a place among 
those metaphysical empirics of modern times whose theoretical 
jargon, instead of being calculated to advance science, or to for- 
ward human improvement, has rather a tendency to delude, to be- 
wilder, and to shed a baneful influence on the true interests of 

In strong contrast with this inimical attitude of the 
thorough-going Scotch realist, who aimed above all at " a 
safe and sound philosophy ", was the position of the first 
thoroughly sympathetic exponents of Kantism, the New Eng- 
land Transcendentalists. Unrestrained inquiry had been anath- 
ematized in the early American schools; foreign importa- 
tions that betrayed a dangerous tendency, had been fought 
tooth and nail, as the materialistic school had found to its 
detriment. Every thinker was to be " orthodox " ; he was 
imprisoned in custom, and bound to follow the lead of the 
church of which he was a member. Never in the history of 
thought was there a more complete parody of that highly ex- 
tolled principle of " free inquiry ". But the thoroughly Pro- 
testant mind had long since been straining at these artificial 
barriers, was battering them down very fast, and preparing 
the way for Kantism, the philosophy peculiarly adapted to 
the Protestant state of mind. 

For the very spirit of Kantian criticism was a spirit of free 
inquiry ; it took nothing for granted, but imperiously claimed 
the right to probe into the very fundamentals of the human 
mind. Its adherents could not but make a clean sweep of all 
other systems. 

6 Miller, Retrospect of the i8th Century, pp. 26-27, vol. 2 ; Riley, op. cit., 
pp. 512-514- 


As developed at first in New England, it had a meteoric 
career. Looked upon as a thoroughly original American edi- 
tion of Kantism, it was not a coldly intellectual system, but 
underlying it was a decidedly mystical tendency, and its ad- 
herents manifested the fervor of religious zealots. As such 
it was short-lived, but through it Kantism obtained a foothold 
in the land; nay, it appeared shortly that it had completely 
overmastered the thinking minds of the country from that to 
this present day. And it shows no signs of losing ground. 

The first impulse toward a better understanding of Kant was 
given by young American scholars who went to complete their 
studies at German Universities, and came back as ardent 
champions of the new doctrines then already favorably known 
and taught at those seats of higher learning. The pioneers in 
this movement were Edward Everett (1794- 1865) and George 
Ticknor (1791-1871), both of whom went in 181 5 to spend 
two years at the University of Gottingen, and both of whom 
were afterward to follow brilliant careers as professors and 
writers. George Bancroft, the future historian, followed their 
example in 181 8. This temporary " emigration to Germany " 
has since grown to ever greater proportions; as a conse- 
quence, American philosophy during the nineteenth century 
has gone through all the metamorphoses of German idealism, 
and Kantism has continued to reign supreme, either as a criti- 
cal philosophy standing on its own merits, or in combination 
with the evolutionary philosophy of Herbert Spencer. 

Transcendentalism,'^ the name under which Kantism invaded 
this country, did not find the way unprepared : other systems 
had lost their vigor, and positive religious beliefs had de- 
cayed. As the first philosophical systems in this country had 
sprung from speculations on the accepted religious truths and 
had been nourished by them, so did Transcendentalism origin- 
ate in the negation of these same truths. What Calvinism 

■^ It was the name which Kant himself had given to his system : '^ Ich nenne 
alle Erkenntniss transcendental, die sich nicht sowohl mit Gegenstanden, son- 
dern mit unserer Erkentnissart von Gegenstanden, sofern diese a priori 
moglich sein soil, iiberhaupt beschaftigt. Ein System solcher Begriffe wiirde 
Transcendental-Philosophie heissen ". Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Edit. J. H. 
von Kirchmann, 7th. edit., Heidelberg, George Weiss, p. 65. " I term all 
cognition transcendental which concerns itself not so much with objects as 
with our mode of cognition of objects so far as this may be 'possible a priori. 
A system of such conceptions would be called Transcendental Philosophy." 

I go 


had been to Mather and Edwards, Unitarianism became to 
Channing, Emerson, and their followers.® 

In the terminology of Kant *' transcendent *' was employed 
to designate qualities that lie outside of all ** experience ", 
that cannot be reached either by observation or reflection or 
explained as the consequences of any discoverable antecedents. 
The term " transcendental " designated the fundamental con- 
ceptions, the universal and necessary judgments which trans- 
cend the sphere of experience, and at the same time are the 
conditions that make experience and scientific knowledge 

It was about 1820, according to Emerson, that the new 
ideas from which Transcendentalism developed, began to 
take root in New England. It was only in 1836 however that 
its followers had grown strong enough to band together, and 
on 19 September of that year was founded in Boston the 
Transcendental Club, at the house of William Ellery Chan- 
ning (1780- 1 842). Channing himself, a Unitarian minister 
of very liberal views and a fearless defender of the rights of 
the individual conscience,^ was the leader of the Club, and 
to him Emerson partly owed his education in the new doc- 
trines. Besides Channing and Emerson, the other most in- 
fluential members were Theodore Parker (1810-1860), a 
radical Unitarian minister; George Ripley (1802- 1880) ; Wil- 
liam Henry Channing (1810-1884); Henry D. Thoreau 
(1817-1862) ; Margaret Fuller (1810-1850) ; Bronson Alcott 
(1799-1888) ; Frederic H. Hedge (1805-1890), also a Uni- 
tarian minister; George Bancroft (i 800-1 891), the historian; 
James Freeman Clarke (i 810- 1 892), another Unitarian min- 
ister. Closely allied with them until his conversion to the 
Church in 1844, and even called " the coryphaeus of the sect ", 
was Orestes Augustus Brownson (1803-1876), whose Boston 
Quarterly Review was one of the greatest assets of the move- 
ment.^^ " We called ourselves the club of the like-minded," 

^ See : O. B. Frothingham, Boston Unitarianism, G. Putnam's Sons, New 
York, 1890 ; also : A History of the Unitarians in the U. S. ; Chas. Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1903, pp. 170-220. 

® " We must start in religion from our own souls. In there is the foun- 
dation of all divine truth." Barrett Wendell, Literary History of America, 
Scribner's Sons, New York, 3d edit., 1901, p. 284. 

1" Cf. Van Becelaere, op. cit., p. 85. In his sympathetic but keenly critical 


declares James Freeman Clarke, " probably because not two 
of us professed the same doctrines." 

For years this little coterie of enthusiasts succeeded in forc- 
ing itself into the limelight; their eccentricities of living, to- 
gether with their large literary output, focussed attention on 
them. Amongst them were found men of vigorous mind, 
schooled in using the written and spoken word to good ad- 
vantage, and so original in their conceptions as often to pro- 
voke sneers or pitiful smiles from the uninitiated. But all 
this they heeded not, but went their own way serenely confid- 
ing in the infallible intuitions of their own minds. Now 
their literary achievements are hardly remembered, and even 
the star of Ralph Waldo Emerson, once extolled as the very 
embodiment of American genius, is undergoing a decided 
eclipse. The factitious praise which the last generation heaped 
upon him and his apocalyptic outpourings, is coming to be 
looked upon as a mere '' fad ", the fact of a weak or blase 
mind professing to admire what it cannot grasp because it is 
unintelligible and without logical sequence or cohesion. 
Emerson's " lack of artistic finish of rhythm and rhyme " was 
noted even during his lifetime by one of his ardent admirers.^^ 
A writer with a brilliant style that expresses no thoughts is 
scarcely destined to endure. 

But whilst the transcendentalist movement lasted, Emer- 
son was its towering figure. He contends for no doctrines, 
whether God or the hereafter or the moral law. He neither 
dogmatizes nor defines. On the contrary his chief anxiety 
seems to be to avoid committing himself to positive assertions. 
He gives no definition of God that will class him as an atheist, 
a theist or a pantheist; no definition of immortality that jus- 
tifies his readers in imputing to him any form of the popular 
beliefs in regard to it. Does he believe in personal immortal- 
ity? It is impertinent to ask: he will not be questioned; he 
will be held to no definitions; he will be reduced to no final 
statements. " Of immortality the soul, when well employed, 

volume Transcendentalism in New England, New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
1876, O. B. Frothingham calls Emerson " the seer " of the movement ; Alcott 
"the mystic"; Margaret Fuller "the critic"; Theodore Parker "the 
preacher " ; and George Ripley " the Man of Letters ". 
^^ O. B. Frothingham, op. cit., p. 238. 


is incurious ; ^^ it is so well it is sure it will be well ; it asks 
no question of the supreme power . . . Immortality will come 
to such as are fit for it and he who would be a great soul in 
future must be a great soul now. It is a doctrine too great to 
rest on any legend, that is on any man's experience but our 
own. It must be proved, if at all, from our own activity and 
designs which imply an interminable future for their play." ^' 

It is evident that for the '' scientific method " Emerson 
professes no deep respect, and for the " scientific assumptions " 
none whatever. He begins at the opposite end : scientists start 
with matter, he starts with mind : " science," he says, ** was 
false by being unpoetical." ^* 

If we seek for any fundamental principles in his elusive 
pages, we might say that the first article of his creed is the 
primacy of mind: mind is supreme, eternal, absolute, one, 
manifold, subtle, living, immanent in all things, permanent, 
flowing, self -manifesting. The universe is the result of mind ; 
finite minds live and act through concurrence with infinite 
mind : '' There is one mind common to all individual men. 
Every man is an inlet to the same and to all of the same." ^^ 
" The currents of the Universal Being circulate through me. 
I am part and parcel of God." ^® 

And the second article of his creed is only a restatement of 
the first: the individual intellect is so connected with the 
primal mind that it draws thence wisdom, will, prudence, 

^2 This supreme indifference toward all time-honored Christian dogmas 
Emerson manifested for the first time in that historical sermon in which he 
resigned his pastorate of the Second Unitarian Church in Boston, 9 Sept., 
1832, because he could no longer admit the distribution of the elements of 
the Lord's Supper to the people as an ordinance instituted by Christ and in- 
tended by Him to be perpetuated through the ages : " That is the end of my 
opposition that I am not interested in it. I am content that it stand to the 
end of the world, if it please men and please heaven, and I shall rejoice in 
all the good it produces ". O. B. Frothingham, op. cit., p. 380. 

1* R. W. Emerson, Complete Works, Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston and 
New York, 1904; Conduct of Life: Worship, pp. 238-239. This edition is 
always referred to in subsequent quotations. 

14 « -phe best read savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist 
who lends an entire and devout attention to truth . . . will perceive that there 
are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility ; 
that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that 
a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted 
experiments." Com. Works, Nature; Prospects, p. 66. 

'^^ Com. Works, Essays, First Series: History, p. 3. 
i« Com. Works, Nature, p. 10. 


virtue, heroism, all active and passive qualities : " The rela- 
tions of the soul to the divine spirit are so pure that it is 
profane to seek to interpose helps . . . Ineffable is the union 
of man and God in every act of the soul ; the simplest person 
who in his integrity worships God, becomes God." 

Emerson was never concerned to defend himself against the 
charge of pantheism, or the warning to beware lest he un- 
settle the foundations of morality, annihilate the freedom 
of the will, abolish the distinction between right and wrong, 
and reduce personality to a mask. He makes no apology; he 
never explains; he trusts to affirmation pure and simple.^^ 

And as the master thought and spoke, so did the lesser rep- 
resentatives of the movement teach and speaft in their own way. 

The transcendentalist philosophy of man was of the sim- 
plest kind : it went back to the earliest Greek philosophers, 
when Christianity did not exist, and to the Eastern thinkers 
of India and China who had never caught a glimpse of the 
Christian revelation, and whom Emerson quotes with great 
satisfaction. It claimed for all men what Christianity 
claimed for its followers, and only in an analogical way : the 
words of St. Paul that " in God we live and move and have 
our being ", were seized upon and reiterated in a thousand 
different ways, especially in the pages of The Dial : ^® " Man 
is a rudiment and embryo of God . . . the perception now 
fast becoming a conscious fact, that there is one mind, and 
that also all the powers and privileges which lie in one lie 
in all . . . there is an infinity in the human soul which few 
have yet believed and after which few have aspired; there 
is a lofty power of moral principle in the depths of our nature 
which is nearly allied to omnipotence." 

It was not by accident therefore that the transcendental 
philosophy addressed itself to the question of religion : it did 
so from the very nature of the case and could not avoid the 
issue. Kant had felt the necessity of reopening the problem 
of God; Fichte followed; Schelling and Hegel moved on the 

1^0. B. Frothingham, op. cit, pp. 241-242. 

18 This "Quarterly Magazine for Literature, Philosophy and Religion", 
under the editorship of Margaret Fuller and R. W. Emerson, appeared from 
1840 to 1844, and is in itself a complete history of the movement for those 


same plane. They all insisted on the spiritual nature of man 
in virtue of which he had an intuitive knowledge of God as 
a being infinite and absolute in power, wisdom, and good- 
ness. And as for the immortality of the soul, holding it to 
be undemonstrable by the senses, it was made a postulate, a 
first principle. 

The transcendentalists rendered justice to all religions,^® 
studied them, admired them, confessed their inspiration. Of 
these faiths Christianity was cheerfully acknowledged to be 
the queen. The supremacy of Jesus was granted with en- 
thusiasm; his teachings accepted as the purest expression of 
religious truth, His miracles regarded as the natural achieve- 
ments of a soul endowed with originality and force. 

Thus Theodore Parker believed in the miracles of the New 
Testament and many others besides, more than the Christians 
were willing to accept: " It may be said that these religious 
teachers (Zoroaster, Buddha, etc.) pretended to work miracles. 
I would not deny that they did work miracles. If a man is 
obedient to the law of his mind, conscience and heart; since 
his intellect, character and affections are in harmony with the 
laws of God, I take it he can do works which are impossible to 
others who have not been so faithful and are not ' one with 
God ' as he is." 

Transcendentalism denies the reality of supernatural pow- 
ers and influences simply by regarding man himself as a 
supernatural being; and Christianity, though dethroned and 
disenchanted, is dignified as a supreme moment in the auto- 
biography of God. The transcendentalist found in sacred 
literature thoughts which he himself put there. Parker, dis- 
coursing on inspiration, cites Paul and John as holding the 
same doctrine with himself; "though," as a keen historian 

^® Margaret Fuller was perhaps the only notable exception. In 1832, writ- 
ing to a friend on the subject of religious faith, she expresses herself thus : 
" I have not formed an opinion ; I have determined not to form settled opinions 
at present. Loving or feeble natures need a positive religion — a visible refuge, 
a protection — as much in the passionate season of youth as in those stages 
nearer to the grave. But mine is not such. My pride is superior to any 
feelings I have yet experienced . . . When disappointed I do not ask nor wish 
consolation. I wish to know and feel my pain, to investigate its nature and 
its source ; I will not not have my thoughts diverted or my feelings soothed. 
... I believe in eternal progression ; I believe in a God, a beauty and per- 
fection to which I am to strive all my life for assimilation." O. B. Frothing- 
ham, op. cit., pp. 286-287. 


of the movement candidly observes, " it is plain to the sim- 
plest mind that their doctrine was in no respect the same but 
so different as to be in contradiction." 

Paul and John, it is hardly too much to say, set up their doctrine 
in precise opposition to the doctrine of transcendentalists. Paul de- 
clared that the natural man could not discern divine things, that 
they were foolishness to him; that they must be spiritually dis- 
cerned; that the Christian was able to discern them spiritually 
because he had " the mind of Christ ". The eighth chapter of the 
Epistle to the Romans contains sentences that taken singly, apart 
from their connection, comfort the cockles of the transcendental 
heart; but the writer is glorifying Christ the inspirer, not the soul 
of the inspired. He opens the chapter with the affirmation that "there 
is no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk 
not after the flesh but after the spirit " ; and follows it with the 
saying that " if any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none 
of his ". This is the spirit that " quickens mortal bodies " ; that 
makes believers to be " Sons of God ", giving them " the spirit of 
adoption whereby they cry Abba, Father " ; bearing witness with 
their spirit that they are " the children of God ". This is the 
spirit " that helpeth our infirmities ", and " maketh intercession 
with groanings that cannot be uttered ". Transcendentalism de- 
liberately broke with Christianity. Paul said : " other foundation 
can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ ". Trans- 
cendentalism responded : ** Jesus Christ built on my foundation, the 
soul ", and for thus answering was classed with those who use as 
building materials " wood, hay, stubble ", which the fire would con- 
sume. In the view of Transcendentalism, Christianity was an il- 
lustrious form of natural religion; Jesus was a noble type of 
human nature; revelation was disclosure of the soul's mystery; in- 
spiration was the filling of the soul's lungs; salvation was spirit- 
ual vitality. ^*^ 

What made Transcendentalism especially remarkable in 
New England was that, whilst in Germany and France it was 
held by cultivated men and taught in the schools; whilst in 
England it influenced poetry and art, but all over left the 
daily existence of men and women untouched, here it blos- 
somed forth in every form of social life. Experiments in 
thought and life of even audacious description were made, 

2 O. B, Frothingham, op. cit., pp. 203-204. 


not in defiance of precedent — for precedent was hardly re- 
spected enough to be defied — but in innocent unconsciousness 
of precedent. A feeling was abroad that all things must be 
\ new in the New World. There was a call for immediate ap- 
plication of ideas to life. There were no immovable pre- 
judices, no fixed and unalterable traditions. The sentiment of 
individual freedom was active; and the transcendentalist was 
by nature a reformer. He could not be satisfied with men 
as they were, and his perfervid appeals remind one of the 
mystics of the Middle Ages. Emerson, in his lecture on 
" Man the Reformer," does not dissemble his hope that each 
person whom he addresses " has felt his own call to cast aside 
all evil customs, timidities and limitations, and to be in his 
place a free and helpful man, a reformer, a benefactor, not 
content to slip through the world like a footman or a spy, 
escaping by his nimbleness and apologies as many knocks as he 
can, but a brave and upright man who must find or cut a 
straight path to everything excellent in this earth; and not 
only go honorably himself but make it easier for all who fol- 
low him to go in honor and with benefit." ^^ 

Brook Farm therefore was projected on the purest trans- 
cendentalist basis.^^ It was felt that in order to live a reli- 
gious and moral life in sincerity, it was necessary to leave the 
world of institutions and to reconstruct the social order from 
new beginnings. But what the members needed most to make 
their experiment a success, they lacked completely — religious 
abnegation. Instead they built on tKe supreme dignity of 
the individual man, a principle that expressed all too clearly 
the hallucinations under which these intellectuals labored. 

For visionaries the transcendentalists were, even to their 
contemporaries. Lord Macaulay puts the case thus in his 
article on Bacon : " To sum up the whole, we should say that 
the aim of Platonic philosophy was to exalt man into God. 
The aim of the Baconian philosophy was to provide man with 
what he requires while he continues to be man. The aim of 
Platonic philosophy was to raise us far above our wants; the 
aim of Baconian philosophy was to supply our wants. The 
former aim was noble, but the latter was attainable. The 

21 Complete Works, Nature, Man the Reformer, p. 228. 

22 See the Constitutions in O. B. Frothingham, op. cit., pp. 159-164. 


philosophy of Plato began in words and ended in words, 
noble words indeed, words such as were to be expected from 
the finest of human intellects exercising boundless control 
over the finest of human languages. The philosophy of 
Bacon began in observations and ended in arts. The truth 
is that in those very matters for the sake of which they ne- 
glected all the vulgar interests of mankind, the ancient philoso- 
phers did nothing or worse than nothing; they promised 
what was impracticable, they despised what was practicable." 
Substitute " idealism " for " Platonism," and " Transcenden- 
talism " for " ancient philosophers ", and this expresses the 
judgment of sensible men of the last generation on transcen- 

And it expresses the judgment of posterity equally well. 
Transcendentalism was but a transient phase in the develop- 
ment of Kantian philosophy in the country. It opened the 
way for a wider diffusion of idealism as it came to be studied 
and understood in all its aspects. 

The transcendentalists gave up their eccentricities of con- 
duct and settled down to merely intellectual occupations that 
gave a much broader scope to their work and drew new fol- 
lowers to their doctrines. 

In 1878 Emerson, together with Prof. Peirce of Harvard, 
William Torrey Harris of St. Louis, Bronson Alcott, and F. B. 
Sanborn, organized the Concord School of Philosophy. 
Emerson remained at the head of it until his death in 1882. 
The aim of the school was to hold conferences on philosophi- 
cal subjects. These meetings attracted many thinkers who 
were later on to make their influence felt in the field of 
speculation. Emerson attended the opening of the school on 
12 July, 1879, and in the month of August he gave his first 
lecture before the school, speaking on " Memory." He lec- 
tured there once more on 2 August, 1880, on "Aristocracy." 
This was the extent of his work for the institution, which 
however gave him much pleasure in his declining years, as 
he saw in it an earnest of the perpetuation of his doctrines. 
Plato and Aristotle were discussed, but Kantism in its various 
aspects was the theme underlying the majority of lectures.^^ 

23 Van Becelaere, op. cit., p. 99. 



One of the most active members of the school was William 
Torrey Harris (1835-1909)^* than whom few have done more 
to spread Hegelianism in this country. In 1866 he founded 
the Kant Club of St. Louis, and he was superintendent of that 
city's schools from 1868 to 1880, when he was appointed 
U. S. Commissioner of Education. In 1867 he started his 
Journal of Speculative Philosophy, which was published regu- 
larly until 1888, and intermittently from that year until 1893, 
when lack of support compelled it to cease publication. Harris- 
loved philosophical speculation for its own sake as an intellec- 
tual discipline. His restless mind was ever in search of the 
ultimate reasons of things; he possessed the happy faculty of 
infusing his own enthusiasm into others, drew many younger 
minds toward his favorite studies and generously opened the 
pages of his Journal to the results of their investigations. 

Harris was broad-minded, and, when occasion offered, was 
not slow to pay a sincere tribute to the Church and her great 
teachers. " The great scholastic Fathers, commencing with 
Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas, learned this in- 
sight of Aristotle and were able to defend Christianity against 
the Moslem pantheism which denied immortality to man. . . . 
The great era of scholasticism, an era of profoundest thought 
and clearest insight. . . . Christian thought had been almost 
completed ; very little has been added or is likely to be added 
to the ontological system of St. Thomas Aquinas." ^^ 

Harris was one of the first American exponents of Hegel's 
spiritual monism, and as such deserves further notice. He 
has himself told us how he came to champion Hegel's con- 
ception of the universe. "As early as 1858 I obtained my first 
insight into Hegel's philosophy in studying Kant's Critique 
of Pure Reason. I saw that time and space presuppose rea- 
son as their logical condition, and that they are themselves 
the logical condition of what is in the world, — not essentially 
but only in the expression or manifestation of his will, which 
expression he may altogether withhold. I saw also the neces- 
sity of the logical inference that the unity of time and space 

24 Introduction to Philosophy, extracts from his writings, published by- 
Marietta Kies, 1889 ; Exposition of Hegel's Logic, 1895 ; Psychological Foun- 
dation of Edtication, 1898, besides numerous articles on philosophical subjects. 

25 Hegel's Logic, by W. T. Harris, Chicago, S. C. Griggs & Co., 1895, pp. 34-36. 


presupposes one absolute Reason. God, freedom, immortal- 
ity, seemed to me to be demonstrable ever since the December 
evening in 1858 when I obtained my insight into the true in- 
ference from Kant's Transcendental ^Esthetic ... In 1863 I 
arrived at the insight which Hegel has expressed in his J^iir- 
sich-seyn, or Being-for-itself, which I called and still call in- 
dependent being ... I discovered afterward that it is the 
most important insight of Plato, and that Aristotle uses it as 
the foundation of his philosophy. It has in one form or 
another furnished the light for all philosophy worthy of the 
name since Plato first saw it. St. Thomas Aquinas presents 
it in the beginning of his Summa Theological^ Leibniz states 
it as the basis of his Monadolog^y . . . In 1873 I discovered 
the substantial identity of all East Indian doctrines. I un- 
dertook a thorough study of the Bagavad Gita in 1872, and 
for the first time saw that the differences of systems were su- 
perficial, and that the First Principle presupposed and even 
explicitly stated by the Sanscrit writers was everywhere the 
same, and that this is the Principle of Pure Being. It was 
in 1879 that I came to my final and present standpoint in re- 
gard to the true outcome of the Hegelian system, but it was 
six years later that I began to see that Hegel himself has not 
deduced theological consequences of his system in the matter 
of the relation of nature to the absolute idea." ^^ It is a fact 
worthy of notice that, following in the wake of Hegel and 
Emerson, Kantian idealists have almost uniformly ** gone be- 
yond " the Christian conception of God; and in search of au- 
thorities to uphold and confirm their teachings, have returned 
to Oriental speculation. Hence their vague notions of the 
Absolute Being ; or, as Harris himself puts it : " The Abso- 
lute is not an empty absolute, an indeterminate being, but it 
is determined. It is not determined through another, but 
through itself. If there is no independent being, there is no 
dependent being. If there is not self-determined being, there 
is no being whatsoever." ^* 

28 It ought to be borne in mind here that Harris has failed to grasp the 
teaching of Aristotle and especially of St. Thomas on this point. The aseitas 
ascribed to God by the latter is not the Fur-sich-seyn of Hegel. The dis- 
tinction is made apparent from the very beginning of the Summa. Cf. S. 
Theol., la, Q. II, a. 3, and Q. Ill, a. 7-8. 

^'^ Hegel's Logic, pp. viii-xiv. ^^ Ibid., p. x. 


But the nature and attributes of this being remain forever 
shrouded in mystery and it is in vain that we look for a clean- 
cut, sharply delimited conception of God such as the scholastic 
Middle Ages have left us. 

And the same must be said of Harris's doctrine of immortal- 
ity. '* Let us note that science on teaching the doctrine of 
evolution and that of the struggle for existence, favors the 
doctrine that intelligence and will are the surviving and per- 
manent substance. For intelligence and will triumph in the 
struggle for existence and prove themselves the goal to which 
the creation moves. An individuality that does not exist for 
itself has no personal identity and hence is indifferent to im- 
mortality. When the self-activity in reproducing the impres- 
sion perceives at the same time its own freedom as energy, 
then it becomes conscious of itself. This takes place in the 
recognition of objects as belonging to classes or species. Here 
begins the immortality of the individual. Not before this, be- 
cause the individual is and can be only a self -activity, and 
cannot know himself except as generic. With the recognition 
of species and genera there is the recognition of self as per- 
sistent." '* 

It is true that, as medieval philosophy had already recog- 
nized, the formation of abstract and universal concepts such 
as those of species and genera, is an argument in favor of the 
" simplicity " of the soul or its immateriality ; but Hegelian 
monism has yet to prove that this immaterial soul continues to 
endure as a self-subsistent being. Such was the philosophic 
creed of the man who has been called " the profoundest stu- 
dent of Hegel in this country." Around him and his 
Journal several other names 'group themselves because, with 
some shadings of thought, all defend the same fundamental 

Strange to say, when the centenary of the publication of the 
Critique of Pure Reason was celebrated in Saratoga, N. Y., 
in 1 88 1, it was publicly acknowledged that not a few amongst 
the professors of philosophy in America had a very superficial 
acquaintance with Kant, and Prof. Bowen of Harvard wrote 
'* that it was doubtful whether there were in the United States 

^^Introduction to Philosophy, pp. 280-283. 


an even dozen who could understand Kant in the original." 
This defect, however, Prof. George S. Morris (1840- 1889), 
of Michigan University, tried to remedy. He himself had 
studied at Halle and Berlin. He translated Ueberweg's stand- 
ard History of Philosophy. He was in full sympathy with 
German thought, and in an effort to make it better known in 
this country and bring it within the reach even of those not 
familiar with the German language, he started the publication 
of Griggs's Philosophical Classics, " devoted to a critical ex- 
position of the masterpieces of German thought." ^^ They 
were not translations, but critical accounts, simple, brief and 
to the point, giving the key to a better understanding of the 
original. He himself wrote the volume on Kant's Critique 
of Pure Reason. John Watson, of Queen's University, King- 
ston, Canada, wrote Schelling's Transcendental Idealism; 
Fichte's Transcendental Idealism was treated by Charles C. 
Everett, of Harvard; Hegel's /Esthetics by J. S. Kedney, of 
Seabury Divinity School, Faribault, Minn. ; Hegel's Philoso- 
phy of the State and of History by George S. Morris ; Hegel's 
Logic by W. T. Harris; Kant's Ethics by Noah Porter of Yale. 
Together with several other volumes this series gave in an 
English dress a fairly complete conspectus of German philo- 
sophy ; and taken in connexion with the works of the English 
exponents of German thought, prominent amongst whom were 
Edward Caird and Thomas H. Green, they contributed much 
toward popularizing Kantian and post-Kantian idealism. 

The latter especially seems to have fascinated a host of 
American philosophers besides Harris, and they have exploited 
Hegel's doctrines in all their bearings. Amongst them must 
be mentioned: Charles C. Everett (1829-1900),*^ Bussey, pro- 
fessor of theology at Harvard and as thorough-going a monist 
as Hegel ever was; and John Watson (1847),^^ who in common 
with almost every member of the idealistic school in America 

30 Published by S. S. Griggs & Co., Chicago. 

51 The Science of Thought, 1869 and 1890; Fichie's Transcendental Idealism, 

32 Kant and His English Critics, 1881 ; Schelling's Transcendental Idealism, 
1882 ; The Philosophy of Kant, Extracts from his own Writings, 1888 ; Comte, 
Mill, and Spencer, 1895; Christianity and Idealism, 1896; An Outline of 
Philosophy, 1898 ; The Philosophical Basis of Religion, 1907 ; The Philosophy 
of Kant Explained, 1908. 


strives to bring about a conciliation between " Christianity 
rightly understood " and idealism — his Christianity, it need 
hardly be remarked is but a shadowy ghost of what is gener- 
ally understood by it. William Caldwell (1863)^^ a sym- 
pathetic exponent of Schopenhauer. James McBride Sterrett 
(1847)^* of George Washington University; James Seth 
(1860)^^ formerly of Brown and Cornell Universities, now 
professor in Edinburgh University and co-editor of The 
Philosophical Review. George Stuart FuUerton (1859) of 
Columbia.^® If we are to judge from his latest work, this 
author shows signs of returning to the realist camp : " It is 
this truth which is recognized by the plain man, when he 
maintains that in the last resort we can know things only in 
so far as we see, touch, hear, taste, and smell them ; and by the 
psychologist when he tells us that, in sensation the external 
world is revealed as directly as it is possible that it could be 
revealed. But it is a travesty on this truth to say that we do 
not know things but know only our sensations of sight, touch, 
taste, hearing, and the like." ^^ Frank Thilly (1865)^* of 
Cornell University. James Hyslop (1854)^® of Columbia. 
James E. Creighton (1861) of Cornell University, editor of 

*8 Schopenhauer's System in its Philosophical Significance, 1896. 

^^ Studies in Hegel's Philosophy of Religion, 1890; Reason and Authority 
in Religion, 1891 ; The Ethics of Hegel, 1893; The Freedom of Authority, 

^^ A Study of Ethical Principles, which had gone through ten editions in 

3® The Conception of the Infinite, 1887; A Plain Argument for God, 1889; 
On Sameness and Identity, 1890; The Philosophy of Spinoza, 1894; On 
Spinozistic Immortality, 1899; A System of Philosophy, 1904. 

^"^ An Introduction to Philosophy, p. 58. In connexion with this, the fol- 
lowing sensible remark of his should not go unheeded : after pointing out the 
contradictions in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, and particularly in his ex- 
position of Antinomies I and II, he writes : " When the student meets such 
a tangle in the writings of any philosopher, I ask him to believe that it is not 
the human reason that is at fault, at least let him not assume that it is. The 
fault probably lies with a human reason." Ibid., p. 308. 

*^ Introduction to Ethics, 1900 ; he also translated : Paulsen's Introduction 
to Philosophy, 1895; Weber's History of Philosophy, 1896; Paulsen's System 
of Ethics, 1899. 

^^ Elements of Logic, 1892; Ethics of Hume, 1893; Logic and Argument, 
1899 ; Syllabus of Psychology, 1899 ; The Problem of Philosophy, 1905 ; 
Science and a Future Life, 1905; Enigmas of Psychical Research, 1906; Bor- 
derland of Psychical Research, 1906. 


The Philosophical Review.^^ Paul Carus (1852),*^ a con- 
vinced monist, expounder of Oriental, especially Chinese 
thought, and who aims, without any animosity to any of the 
established creeds of the world, to stand for conservative pro- 
gress based upon the most radical thought and fearless investi- 
gation; and holds that it is highly desirable to raise the in- 
tellectual level of the established churches to a higher plane 
by letting the matured results of science enter into the fabric 
of our religious convictions. George Trumbull Ladd 
(1842),*^ Professor at Yale, although guarded in his state- 
ments, admits that " the assumption of the immanence of Ab- 
solute Mind in that world of Nature to which both the human 
body and the human soul belong, is the only postulate which 
will make valid the whole realm of psycho-physical science 
. . . Out of this Universal Being, without seeming to be 
wholly accounted for by it, does every stream of conscious- 
ness arise. In the midst of the Universal Being — without 
getting all its laws of development from it, but on the con- 
trary showing plain signs of a certain unique, self-determined 
development — does every stream of consciousness run its 
course. Into ' It ' at the end, and so far as human observa- 
tion can follow, every stream of consciousness merges itself. 
. . . The Immortality of mind cannot be proved from its na- 
ture regarded as that of a real, self-identical, and unitary 
being; nor is its permanence, as known to itself, of an order 
to allow the sure inference of its continued and permanent 
existence after death."" Hugo Miinsterberg (1863),** pro- 
fessor at Harvard, for whom the monistic Absolute is not Mind 
but Will. 

*oin collaboration with E. B. Titchener he translated Wilheltn Wundfs 
Human and Animal Psychology, 1894; and in collaboration with A. Lefevre, 
Paulsen's Kant, His Life and Philosophy, 1902. 

*i His works, amongst which the subject of religion occupies a very large 
place, are too numerous to be quoted here. A complete list of them may be 
found in The Work of the Open Court Publishing Co., of Chicago, of which 
publishing house he is the Director. Se3 pp. 26-75. 

^^ Elements of Physiological Psychology, 1890; Psychology Descriptive and 
Explanatory, 1894 ; The Philosophy of Mind, 1895 ; Philosophy of Knowledge, 
1897; Theory of Reality, 1899; Philosophy of Conduct, 1902. 

*8 Philosophy of Mind, pp. 319, 365, 398. 

^^ Psychology and Life, 1899; Grundziige der Psychologie, 1900; The Eternal 
Life, 190S ; Science and Idealism, 1906 ; The Eternal Values, 1909- For further 
details about Miinsterberg's philosophy see Eccl. Review, January, 1909: 
" The Newest Philosophy." 



But perhaps the most remarkable and one of the most widely 
read and most influential of them all at the present time is 
is Josiah Royce (1855).*^ No doubt this is greatly due to the 
fact that, although dealing with the most abstract problems, 
he possesses the happy faculty of bringing his philosophy with- 
in the reach of the masses. The use of anecdote and story, 
an easy fluent style, a broad toleration of others' views that 
makes him quote with relish Thomas a Kempis on the vanity 
of philosophy ; a reluctance on his part to impose his own but 
to leave reader or hearer the widest liberty of choice, — all 
contribute to make him a unique personality that can draw 
around itself a host of admirers if it cannot make followers. 
Prof. Royce would gladly class himself with those whose 
doctrinal system is " an eternal interrogation " ; he is a per- 
sonality in short such as modern philosophy delights to point 
out as amongst its greatest representatives. 

The philosophical tenets developed in his various works 
are those of post-Kantian idealism and particularly of Hegel, 
from whom he scarcely deviates, even if, according to his own 
confession, he states " Hegel's thoughts in an utterly non- 
Hegelian vocabulary." *^ It would be a sickening surfeit 
to repeat here a statement of those doctrines. But they lead 
into a wider field, that of religion, which Prof. Royce ever 
and anon invades with dogged insistence, together with all 
followers of idealism, as a glance at their published works, 
listed here for that very purpose, will sufficiently show. All 
through his career this particular subject seems to have oc- 
cupied a prominent place in his thoughts. His first volume 
took it up ex professo, and only recently he made an attempt 
to show '' What is Vital in Christianity." *^ His ideas may 
be taken as representative of the general attitude of his school 
toward this engrossing subject. 

He warns us at the outset about his position : " The writer 
. . . has no visible connexion with any religious body, and 
no sort of desire for any such connexion, and he cannot be ex- 

45 The Religious Aspect of Philosophy, 1885 ; The Spirit of Modern Philo- 
sophy, 1892; Studies of Good and Einl, 1898; The Conception of God, 1895; 
The Conception of Immortality, 1899; The World and the Individual, 19OC-1901. 

*^ The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, Preface, p. xii. 

*' The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 480 ff. 


pected to write an apology for a popular creed. This con- 
fession is made frankly, but not for the sake of provoking a 
quarrel, and with all due reverence for the faith of other men. 
If the fox who had lost his tail was foolish to be proud of 
his loss, he would have been yet more foolish to hide it by 
wearing a false tail, stolen mayhap from a dead fox. The 
full application of the moral of the fable to the present 
case is moreover willingly accepted. Not as the fox invited 
his friends to imitate his loss, would the present writer aim 
to make other men loose their faiths. Rather is it his aim not 
to arouse fruitless quarrels, but to come to some peaceful un- 
derstanding with his fellows touching the ultimate meaning 
and value and foundation of this noteworthy custom, so widely 
prevalent among us, the custom of having a religion." *® 

Yet he ends by stating for his own part a religious doc- 
trine. Why ? In so far as philosophy suggests general rules 
for conduct or discusses the theories about the world, philo- 
sophy must have a religous aspect. Kant's fundamental prob- 
lems : What do I know, and what ought I to do? are of re- 
ligious interest no less than of philosophic interest. There is 
no defence for one as sincere thinker, if, undertaking to pay 
attention to philosophy as such, he wilfully or thoughtlessly 
neglects such problems on the ground that he has no time for 
them. Surely he has time to be not merely a student of 
philosophy but also a man, and these things are amongst the 
essentials of humanity. 

By the help of what method shall this study be pursued? 
By the rationalistic method. It is summarily taken for 
granted that " revelation ", the imparting to the human mind 
of any truth from without, is not even to be taken into con- 
sideration; in the modern world we must both act and think 
for ourselves. If the old solutions are to be considered at all, 
they must be judged with reference to the conclusions of 
philosophy. Only what the mind can evolve out of its own 
consciousness and ground at least temporarily on plausible 
proofs, shall be admitted as of any value. Now it is much 
more important to know how we should live, than to know 
what we should believe. The primacy of religious belief is 

*8 The Religious Aspect of Philosophy, Preface, p. vi. 


indeed a feature of highly developed religions; but for the 
mass of the faithful belief is relatively secondary to practice 
and may considerably vary, while the practice remains the 
unvarying and for them the vital feature. '' The appeal that 
every religion makes to the masses of mankind, is most read- 
ily interpreted in terms of practice." " The savage con- 
verted to the Roman Catholic Church is regularly taught that 
for his imperfect stage of insight it is enough if he is fully 
ready to say, ' I believe what the Church believes, both as far 
as I understand what the Church believes and also as far as I 
do not understand what the Church believes.' And it is in 
this spirit that he must repeat the creed of the church. But 
his ideas about God and the world may meanwhile be as 
crude as his ignorance determines. He is still viewed as a 
Christian, if he is minded to accept the God of the Church of 
the Christians, even though he still thinks of God as sometimes 
a visible and ' magnified and non-natural man,' a corporeal 
presence sitting in the heavens, while the scholastic theologian 
who has converted him thinks of Grod as wholly incorporeal, 
as not situated in loco at all, as not even existent in time, 
but only in eternity, and as spiritual substance whose nature, 
whose perfection, whose omniscience, and so on, are the topics 
of most elaborate definition. The faithful convert and his 
scholastic teacher agree much more in religious practices than 
in conscious religious ideas." ** 

Over and above these merely knowable or believable truths, 
religious philosophy seeks something else: it wants to know 
what in this world is worthy of worship as the good ; it seeks 
not merely the truth but the inspiring truth. It defines for 
itself goodness, moral worth, and then it asks: What in this 
world is worth anything? What in this world is worth most? 
It seeks the ideal among the realities ; it seeks the moral law 
in its application to this daily life. What is the real nature 
of the distinction between right and wrong? What truth is 
there in this distinction? What ideal of life results? 

Greek thought did not give us a sufficient foundation for 
morality. Neither does Christianity : the ultimate motive that 
Jesus gives to men for doing right is the wish to be in har- 

*» Harvard Theol. Review, ibid., p. 414. 


mony with God's love. And the doctrine that God loves us 
is a foundation for duty only by virtue of the recognition of 
one yet more fundamental principle: the doctrine that un- 
earned love ought to be gratefully returned. And for this 
principle theology as such gives no foundation: why is un- 
earned love to be gratefully returned? 

The whole ethical truth however is found in the " moral 
insight," which is opposed to ethical dogmatism accepting one 
separate end only, the salvation of the soul in Christianity. 
The moral insight " involves the will to act henceforth with 
strict regard to the total of the consequences of one's act for 
all the moments and aims that are to be affected by this act." 
Thus the separate men will not know or care whether they 
separately are happy, for they shall have no longer individ- 
ual wills, but the Universal Will shall work in and through 

This being the ethical norm which should guide us in our 
actions, the one highest activity in which all human activities 
are to join may be expressed as " the progressive realization 
by men of the eternal life of an Infinite Spirit." Or to put 
it in the form of a " categoric imperative " : " Devote your- 
selves to losing your lives in the divine life." ^^ And since 
our religious consciousness wants support for us in our poor 
efforts to do right, it finds this support in the concluding 
words of the 21st chapter of Mathew: " Inasmuch as ye did 
it unto the least of these, ye did it unto me." That is, if we 
may paraphrase the words of the judge: " I," he says, " rep- 
resent all beings. Their good is mine. If they are hungry 
or naked or sick or imprisoned, so am I. We are brethren; 
ours is all one universal life. That I sit in this seat, arbiter 
of heaven and hell, makes me no other than the representative 
of universal life. Such reverence as ye now bear to me is 
due, and always was due, to the least of these my brethren." 
The infinite sacredness of all conscious life, that is the sense 
of the story. Now the knowledge such as Job sought, the 
knowledge that there is in the universe some consciousness that 
sees and knows all reality, including ourselves, for which there- 
fore all the good and evil of our lives is plain fact, — ^this 

^^ Religious Aspect of Philosophy, pp. 441, 442. 


knowledge would be a religious support to the moral con- 
sciousness. The knowledge that there is a being that is no 
respecter of persons, that considers all lives as equal, and that 
estimates our acts according to their true value, — this would 
be a genuine support to the religious need in us, quite apart 
from all notions about reward and punishment.^^ 

This is indeed a dreary teaching to serve as a foundation for 
the morality of the masses. The Absolute of this Hegelian 
philosophy, on which morality is ultimately to rest, has surely 
nothing in common with the God of the Christians. '' It is 
the night in which all cats are gray, and there appears to be 
no reason why anyone should harbor toward it the least sen- 
timent of awe or veneration." *^^ 

The most recent developments of Idealism in this country 
have taken still another direction, and under the name of 
Pragmatism or Humanism have called forth a flood of acri- 
monious criticism and sharp retort. 

Its exponents include F. C. S. Schiller (1864),*^^ formerly 
of Cornell University, now at Oxford; and John Dewey 
(1859)/* formerly of Chicago University and now at Colum- 
bia. But the most noted of them all is William James, the 
late Harvard professor (1842- 1 910).'*'' His philosophy has 
many points of contact with that of Hegel, and when he gave 
to his volume on Pragmatism the subtitle : 'A new Name for 
Some Old Ways of Thinking ', he acknowledged this indebted- 
ness. For both, scientific truths, religious truths, even moral 
rules, are all provisional ; they are working truths rather than 
finalities, the best to-date and yet liable to be superseded by 
something that will work better. This is the essence of Prag- 
matism. And the final conclusions of this philosophy, es- 

51 Ibid., p. 220. 

'^^G. S. Fullerton, Introduction to Philosophy, The Macmillan Co., New 
York, 1906, p. 192. 

^'^ Riddles of the Sphinxy 189 1 ; Axioms and Postulates, 1902; Humanism, 
1903; Studies in Humanism, 1907. 

^*^ Psychology, 1886; Leibniz, a Critical Exposition, 1888; Outlines of 
Theory of Ethics, 189 1 ; Study of Ethics, 1893; Studies in Logical Theory, 

5 5 The Principles of Psychology, 1890; The Will to Believe, 1897; Human 
Immortality, 1898; Talks to Teachers on Psychology, 1899; The Varieties of 
Religious Experience, 1902; Pragmatism, 1907; The Meaning of Truth, 
1909 ; A Pluralistic Universe, 1909. 


pecially as expressed in one of W. James's latest volumes, A 
Pluralistic Universe, if divergent at first glance from those of 
Hegel, are the same at bottom. 

James writes : '' I am myself anything but a pantheist of the 
monistic pattern." ^^ Already Prof. G. Howison (1834),'^^ of 
the University of California had ki opposition to the monistic 
doctrine of Hegel, given currency to the theory of " personal 
idealism," admitting not one but a plurality of minds in the 
universe. Prof. James, however, developed this conception 
to its logical issue. 

There are two very distinct types or stages in spiritualistic 
philosophy. The generic term spiritualism is subdivided into 
two species, the more intimate one of which is monistic, and 
the less intimate dualistic. The dualistic species is the theism 
that reached its elaboration in the scholastic philosophy, while 
the monistic species is the pantheism spoken of sometimes sim- 
ply as idealism and sometimes as *' post- Kantian " or " abso- 
lute " idealism. Dualistic theism is professed as firmly as ever 
at all Catholic seats of learning,^® whereas it has of late years 
tended to disappear at our British and American universities, 
and to be replaced by a monistic pantheism more or less open 
or disguised. The theistic conception picturing God and His 
creation as entities distinct from each other, still leaves the 
human subject outside of the deepest reality in the Universe. 
The theological machinery that spoke so livingly to our an- 
cestors, with its finite age of the world, its creation out of noth- 
ing, its juridical morality and eschatology, its relish for re- 
wards and punishments, its treatment of God as an external 
contriver, an intelligent and moral governor, sounds as odd to 
us as if it were some outlandish savage religion.^® 

On the other side, the only way to escape from the para- 
doxes and perplexities that a consistently thought-out mon- 
istic universe suffers from as from a species of auto-intoxica- 

^^ Human Immortality, p. vi. 

5^ The Conception of God, 1897; The Limits of Evolution and Other 
Essays, 190 1. 

ss Prof. James shows himself quite familiar with Catholic teaching, and 
although not agreeing with its conclusions, proves that he has taken the 
trouble to understand it and he exposes it without bias as found in Catholic 
manuals. Cf. Varieties of Religious Experience, pp. 436, ff. 

^^ A Pluralistic Universe, pp. 23, 24, 29. 


tion, — the mystery of the " fall " namely, of reality lapsing 
into appearance, truth into error, perfection into imperfec- 
tion, of evil in short, the mystery of universal determinism, 
of the block-universe external and without a history — the only 
way of escape from all this is to be frankly pluralistic and as- 
sume that the superhuman consciousness, however vast it may 
be, has itself an external environment and consequently is 
finite. In other words, there is a God, but he is finite.** We 
are internal parts of God, and not external creations. God 
is not the absolute, but is himself a part when the system is 
conceived pluralistically.*^ 

What is this " system conceived pluralistically" ? The prac- 
tical needs and experiences of religion *^ seem to me suffi- 
ciently met by the belief that beyond each man, and in a 
fashion continuous with him there exists a larger power which 
is friendly to him and to his ideal. Anything larger will do 
if only it be large enough to trust for the next step. It need 
not be infinite, it need not be solitary. It might conceivably 
be only a larger and more godlike self, of which the present 
self would be but the mutilated expression, and the Universe 
might conceivably be a collection of such selves, of different 
degrees of inclusiveness, with no absolute unity realized in it 
at all. Thus would a sort of polytheism return upon us.** 
We are glad for this outspoken confession. 

If at the end of this study we try to pick some general ideas 
from this seething mass of contradictory theories, what do 
we find? In the first place, the postulates of God, human 
liberty, and immortality which Kant tried so jealously to put 
outside the pale of his destructive criticism, were, by the fatal 
logic of his own system, swept away by his successors, and 
American idealists have been in the front ranks of these ruth- 
less destroyers. The purest spiritualistic monism has been 

«o Ibid,, p. 311. 
®i Ibid., p. 317. 

®2 Or, as Prof. James puts it on another occasion : " ' The satisfaction through 
philosophy ' of * Man's religious appetites '." Varieties of Rel. Experience, 

^* Ibid., pp. 525-526. To bear out a point adverted to on previous occasions 
in this article, we register Prof. James's avowal that " notwithstanding my own 
inability to accept either popular Christianity or scholastic theism, as I appre- 
hend the Budhistic doctrine of Karma, I agree in principle with that." 
Varieties of Rel. Exp., p. 522. 


the result. Even the " pluralism " of Prof. James is but an 
ill-concealed monism, since he also admits that there is but 
one " kind of things in the universe, namely minds." In the 
second place, when the postulates of Kant were done away 
with, and all truth confined to those verities evolved by the 
human mind according to the categories of the understanding, 
all revealed truth and all morality founded on it had to be 
passed by as altogether irrelevant to a scientific conception of 
the world. " Modem idealism has said good-by to theology 
forever." ®* Dogmas are no longer attacked with the fiery 
zeal of the old heretics; they are looked upon as not worth 
attacking. And lastly, all American idealists who have ex- 
pressed themselves on the subject, profess open allegiance to 
the Oriental religions of India and China. Proclaiming on 
the housetops that they are intent on " proving all things and 
testing all things," they yet make their own the doctrines of 
the most unscientific and most unprogressive amongst the 
nations of the earth. 

J. B. Ceulemans. 
Moline, Ills. 

«* Ibid., p. 448. 


Ad R. D. Philippum Fletcher, M.A., Sodalitatis Mode- 


Dilecte fill, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Solertiae 
qua in moderanda ista of Our Lady of Ransom sodalitate ve- 
rsaris, iampridem, dilecte fili, ad Nos fama manavit. Pro- 
positum tamen Nostrum tibi bene locates labores, uti suadebat 
caritas, gratulandi ad hanc distulimus diem, ut ab ipsa op- 
portunitate subeuntis vigesimiquinti anniversarii ex quo ad 
hanc ipsam condendam sodalitatem studia adiecisti, et uberior 
et gratior accideret paternae significatio voluntatis. Optimam 
sane, libet profiteri, tibi tuisque colendam elegisti christianae 
caritatis partem: et ista quae te, quae sodales tuos sollicitat, 
de iis cura qui a nobis dissident; preces quibus vel deviis ma- 
turum reditum, vel periclitantibus in fide constantiam, vel igni 
piaculari addictis gaudia superum imploratis, cum in vobis in- 
telligens arguunt de fratermtatis caritatae indicium, quae illuc 
promptior accurrit ubi opitulandi necessitas maior, tum Nostrae 
curae ac cotidianis precibus plane congruunt. Atque utinam 
communi prece exoratus, communibus Deus annuat votis ! 


Ad vos quod attinet, pergite hoc tarn sanctum, tarn frugi- 
f erum deprecandi officium diligenter, ut f acitis, urgere. Verum 
sinite ut ad illud vos hortemur quod decessor Noster f. r. Leo 
XIII, in Epistola apostolica Amantissimae voluntatis Angliae 
catholicos alloquens, commendatissimum esse volebat; nimirum 
ut ne quid ipsi " de se desiderari ullo modo sinerent quod 
impetrationis fructum officeret. Nam praeter virtutes animi, 
quas ipsa precatio in primis postulat, earn comitentur necesse 
est actiones et exempla christianae professioni consentanea. 
Qui sancte colunt ac perficiunt praecepta Christi, eorum scilicet 
votis divina liberalitas occurrit, secundum illud promissum: 
Si manseritis in me et verba mea in vobis manserint, quod- 
cumque volueritis petetis, et fiet vobis ". 

Divinorum auspicem munerum Nostraeque testem bene- 
volentiae, tibi, dilecte fili, et omnibus sodalibus tuis, apos- 
tolicam benedictionem peramanter in Domino impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, die XXV aprilis anno 
MCMXii, Pontificatus Nostri nono. 



Instructio super Privilegiis quae in Triduo vel Octiduo 


VEL Canonizatione PER Rescriptum Sacrae Ipsius Con- 


I. In solemniis, sive triduanis sive octiduanis quae in honore 
alicuius Sancti vel Beati celebrari permittuntur, Missae omnes 
de ipsa festivitate ob peculiarem celebritatem dicantur cum 
Gloria et Credoy et cum Evangelic S. loannis in fine, nisi 
legendum fuerit ultimum Evangelium Dominicae aut feriae, 
aut vigiliae, quoties de his facta fuerit commemoratio. 

II. Missa solemnis seu cantata, ubi altera Missa saltem lecta 
de Officio currenti celebretur, dicatur cum unica Oratione; 
secus fiant illae tantummodo commemorationes quae in dupli- 
cibus primae ciassis permittuntur. Missae vero lectae dican- 
tur cum omnibus commemorationibus occurrentibus, sed ora- 


tionibus de tempore et collectis exclusis. Quoad Prefationem 
serventur Rubricae ac Decreta. 

III. Missam cantatam impediunt tantum Duplicia primae 
classis, eiusdemque classis Dominicae, nee non feriae, vigiliae 
et octavae privilegiatae quae praefata duplicia excludunt 
Missas vero lectas impediunt etiam Duplicia secundae classis, 
et eiusdem classis Dominicae, et feriae, vigiliae atque octavae 
quae eiusmodi Duplicia primae et secundae classis item ex- 
cludunt. In his autem casibus impediment!, Missae dicendae 
sunt de occurrente Festo vel Dominica, aliisve diebus ut supra 
privilegiatis, prouti ritus diei postulat, cum commemoratione 
de Sancto vel Beato et quidem sub unica conclusione cum Ora- 
tione diei in duplicibus primae et secundae classis ; aliis autem 
diebus commemoratio de Sancto vel Beato fiat sub distincta 
conclusione post orationem diei. 

IV. In Ecclesiis ubi adest onus celebrandi Missam conven- 
tualem, vel parochialem cum applicatione pro populo, eius- 
modi Missa de occurrente Officio nunquam omittenda erit. 

V. Si Pontificalia Missarum de Festivitate ad thronum fiant, 
haud Tertia canenda erit, episcopo paramenta sumente, sed 
Hora Nona : quae tamen Hora de ipso Sancto vel Beato semper 
erit; substitui nihilominus eidem Horae de die pro satisfac- 
tione non poterit. 

VI. Quamvis Missae omnes vel privatae tantum impediri 
possint, semper nihilominus secundas Vesperas de ipsa Festi- 
vitate solemniores facere licebit absque uUa commemoratione; 
quae Vesperae tamen de Festivitate pro satisfactione inservire 
non poterunt. 

VII. Aliae functiones ecclesiasticae praeter recensitas, de 
Ordinarii consensu, semper habere locum poterunt, uti Homilia 
inter Missarum solemnia, vel vespere O ratio panegyrica, ana- 
logae in honorem Sancti vel Beati fundendae preces, et maxime 
solemnis cum Venerabili Benedictio. Postremo vero Tridui 
vel Octidui die Hymnus Te Denm cum versiculis B enedicamus 
Patrem, Benedictus es, Domine exaudi, Dominus vobiscum et 
oratione Deus cuius misericordiae cum sua conclusione nun- 
quam omittetur ante Tantum ergo et orationem de Ssmo 

VIII. Ad venerationem autem et pietatem in novensiles 
Sanctos vel Beatos impensius fovendam, Sanctitas Sua, the- 


sauros Eccleslae aperiens, omnibus et singulis utriusque sexus 
Christifidelibus qui vere poenitentes, confessi ac Sacra Synaxi 
refecti, ecclesias vel oratoria publica, in quibus praedicta tri- 
duana vel octiduana solemnia peragentur, visitaverint, ibique 
iuxta mentem eiusdem Sanctitatis Suae per aliquod temporis 
spatium pias ad Deum preces fuderint, indulgentiam plenariam 
in forma Ecclesiae consueta, semel lucrandam, applicabilem 
quoque animabus igne piaculari detentis benigne concedit : iis 
vero qui corde saltern contrite, durante tempore enunciate, 
ipsas ecclesias vel oratoria publica inviserint, atque in eis uti 
supra oraverint, indulgentiam partial em centum dierum semel 
unoquoque die acquirendam, applicabilem pari modo anima- 
bus in purgatorio existentibus, indulget. 

Die 22 maii 1912. 

Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

■^ Petrus La Fontaine, Ep. Charystien, Secret. 




Hodiernus redactor calendarii Societatis Missionariorum 
sacratissimi Cordis lesu de consensus sui Rmi Procuratoris 
generalis, a sacra Rituum Congregatione humillime petiit solu- 
tionem insequentium dubiorum, nimirum: 

I. Lectiones II Nocturni in festo S. Agnetis V. M. suntne 
historicae, ita ut legi possint et debeant tanquam IX lectio si 
idem festum ob occurrentiam festi superioris ritus vel dignitatis 

II. In Completorio post II Vesperas Dominicae Palmarum 
debentne dici preces, quando in Vesperis facta sit commemo- 
ratio duplicis die sequenti occurrentis, proindeque simplificati ? 

III. In locis in quibus festum Beati Gasparis del Bufalo, 
Confessoris, recolitur sub ritu duplici maiori vel minori, di- 
cendaene sunt lectiones I Nocturni propriae, an potius de 
Scriptura occurrente? 

IV. 1° Antiphonae et psalmi ad Matutinum Commemora- 
tionis omnium Ss. Romanorum Pontificum, e communi Apos- 
tolorum desumpta, itane censenda sunt propria ut recitari 


debeant etiam si eiusmodi festum celebretur sub ritu duplici 
maiori vel minori; an potius, utpote de communi desumpta, 
cedere debent antiphonis et psalmis de feria? 

2° Idemque estne dicendum de responsoriis I Nocturni, ita 
ut, omissis lectionibus de Scriptura occurrente, recitandae sint 
lectiones " Laudemus viros " de communi? 

V. Infra octavam Commemorationis solemnis sanctissimi 
Corporis D. N. I. C, si fiat commemoratio duplicis simplificati, 
debentne adiungi tertia oratio, an potius omitti? 

VI. 1° In Missis de vigilia vel de feria propriam Praefa- 
tionem non habente, dicendane est Praefatio propria festi vel 
octavae cuius factum sit officium? 

2° Itemque in eisdem Missis dicendumne est Credo ratione 
festi vel octavae symbolum habentis? 

VII. In Missis pro Sponsis, sicut in aliis Missis votivis ex 
privilegio celebratis, in duplicibus adiungendane est tertia 
oratio ? 

Et sacra Rituum Congregatio, ad relationem subscript! 
Secretarii, audito Commissionis Liturgicae suifrag^o, re se- 
dulo perpensa, ita rescribendum censuit: 

Ad I. Affirmative. 

Ad II. Negative. 

Ad III. Serventur propriae, si fuerint concessae, iuxta 
novas Rubricas, tit. I, n. 4. 

Ad IV. Quoad i^ affirmative ad primam partem, negative 
ad secundam. Quoad 2"™ affirmative. 

Ad V. Omittatur tertia Oratio. 

Ad VI. Quoad i^™ affirmative. Quoad 2^*" negative. 

Ad VII. Negative. 

Atque ita rescripsit ac declaravit, die 24 maii 191 2. 
Fr. S. Card. Martinelli^ 5. R. C. Praejectus. 

L. * S. 

■^ Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Charystien, Secretarius. 


Litterae Circulares ad rev.mos locorum Ordinarios 
QUOAD Propria Officiorum Dioecesana. 
Illme et Rme Domine, uti Frater, 
Quum Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Pio Papae X magnae 
curae sit, ut Breviarii Romani reformatio ad unguem per- 


ficiatur; opere pretium erit, etiam lectiones historicas cuique 
dioecesi proprias ad trutinam revocare. Quamobrem gratis- 
simum Summo Pontifici fecerit Amplitudo Tua, si pro virili 
curabit, ut in ista dioecesi Tibi commissa, viri periti eligantur 
qui, conlatis consiliis, historicas lectiones quas supra dixi, dili- 
genter examinent easque cum vetustis codicibus, si praesto sint, 
aut cum probata traditione conferant. Quod, si repererint eas 
historias contra fidem codicum et solidae traditionis in aliam 
formam a nativa degenerasse, omni ope adlaborent ut vera 
narratio restituatur. 

Omnia vero maturius expendenda sunt, ne quid desit ex ea 
diligentia, quae collocanda est in reperiendis codicibus, in 
eorum variis lectionibus conferendis et in vera traditione ob- 
servanda. Nee profecto opus est f estinatione : putamus enim 
spatium ad minus triginta annorum necessarium, ut Breviarii 
reformatio feliciter absolvatur. 

Interea cum opus in ista dioecesi perfectum fuerit; Ampli- 
tudo Tua ut illud ad banc Sacrorum Rituum Congregationem 
mittatur, pro sua pietate sataget: ita tamen, ut si quid in 
lectionibus historicis additum vel demptum aut mutatum fuerit, 
rationes quae ad id impulerunt, brevi sed lucida oratione 

Dum haec, de special! mandato Summi Pontificis, Ampli- 
tudini Tuae significo, diuturnam ex animo felicitatem adprecor. 

Romae, die 15 maii 191 2. 

Amplitudinis Tuae 

Uti Prater addictissimus 
pR. S. Card. Martinelli, Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

•^ Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Chary sti en., Secretarius. 

NoTA. Hisce similes litterae missae sunt ad Praepositos 
generales Ordinum seu Congregationum Religiosorum, quoad 
Propria Officiorum ipsis concessa. 




Decretum quo quaedam prohibentur Opera. 

Feria II , die 6 mail igi2. 

Sacra Congregatio Eminentissimorum ac Reverendissi- 
morum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalium a Sanctis- 
simo Domino Nostro Pio Papa X Sanctaque Sede Apostolica 
Indici librorum pravae doctrinae, eorumdemque proscriptioni, 
expurgationi ac permissioni in universa Christiana republica 
praepositorum et delegatorum, habita in Palatio Apostolico 
Vaticano die 6 maii 1912, damnavit et damnat, proscripsit pro- 
scribitque, atque in Indicem librorum prohibitorum referri 
mandavit et mandat quae sequuntur opera : 

Abbe Jules Claraz^ Le mariage des pretres. Paris igii. 

IzsoF Ala JOS, A gyakori szent dldozds es az eletpszicho- 
logia. Budapest igio. 

Th. de Cauzons^ Histoire de ['inquisition en France. 
Paris igog. 

Itaque nemo cuiuscumque gradus et conditionis praedicta 
opera damnata atque proscripta, quocumque loco et quocumque 
idiomate, aut in posterum edere, aut edita legere vel retinere 
audeat, sub poenis in Indice librorum vetitorum indictis. 

Quibus Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Pio Papae X pOT me 
infrascriptum Secretarium relatis, Sanctitas Sua Decretum 
probavit, et promulgari praecepit. In quorum fidem etc. 

Datum Romae, die 9 maii 191 2. 

F. Card. Della Volpe, Praefectus. 

L. *S. 

Thomas Esser, O.P., Secretarius. 



Sacra Congregatio Eminentissimorum ac Reverendissi- 
morum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalium a Sanctissimo 
Domino Nostro Pio Papa X Sanctaque Sede Apostolica Indici 
librorum pravae doctrinae eorumdemque proscriptioni, ex- 
purgationi ac permissioni in universa Christiana republica 



praepositorum et delegatorum, habita in Palatio Apostolico 
Vaticano die 6 maii 191 2, ad dubium : 

" Utrum Episcopus loci, in quo aliquis auctor eidem non 
subditus " librum, a proprio Ordinario iam examinatum et 
praelo dignum iudicatum, publici iuris facere desiderat, istius 
libri impressionem permittere possit, quin eum novae censurae 
subiicere debeat " 

respondendum censuit : 

"Affirmative, apponendo iudicium * Nihil obstare ' censoris 
alterius dioecesis, ab istius Ordinario sibi transmissum." 

Quibus Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Pio Papae X per me 
infrascriptum Secretarium relatis, Sanctitas Sua responsionem 
Eminentissimorum Patrum confirmavit et promulgari prae- 

Datum Romae, die 9 maii 191 2. 

F. Card. Della Volpe, Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

Thomas Esser, O.P., Secretarius. 


Decretum circa Impedimentum ex adulterio cum Atten- 
TATiONE Matrimonii proveniens. 

Non raro accidit, ut qui ab Apostolica Sede dispensationem 
super matrimonio rato et non consummato, vel documentum 
libertatis ob praesumptam mortem coniugis obtinuerunt, ad 
consulendum suae animae saluti, novum matrimonium in facie 
Ecclesiae cum iis celebrare velint cum quibus, priore vinculo 
constante, connubium mere civile, adulterio commisso, con- 

Porro quum ab impedimento proveniente ex adulterio cum 
attentatione matrimonii, quod obstat in casu, peti ut pluri- 
mum haud soleat dispensatio, Ssmus D. N. Pius Papa X, ne 
matrimonia periculo nullitatis exponantur, de consult© 
Emorum Patrum sacrae huius Congregationis de disciplina 
Sacramentorum, statuit ut in posterum dispensatio a dicto im- 
pedimento in casu concessa censeatur per datam a S. Sede sive 
dispensationem super matrimonio rato et non consummato, 
sive permissionem transitus ad alias nuptias. 


Quoad praeteritum vero eadem Sanctitas Sua matrimonia 
quae forte ex hoc capite invalide inita fuerint, revalidare et 
sanare benigne dignata est. 

Idque per praesens eiusdem sacrae Congregationis decretum 
promulgari iussit, quibuslibet in contrarium non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae, ex aedibus eiusdem sacrae Congregationis, 
die 3 mensis iunii, anno 1912. 

D. Card. Ferrata^ Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

Ph. Giustini, Secretarius. 

Pontifical Appointments. 

24 April, igi2: The Rev. John Biermans, of the Missionary 
Society of St. Joseph, Mill Hill, is appointed Vicar Apostolic 
of the Upper Nile, with the title of Bishop of Gargara 

J May J jgi2: The Rev. John Matthew Mahony, Vicar Gen- 
eral of the Diocese of Hamilton, made Domestic Prelate. 

Mr. Charles Conrad Shaw, of Leamington (England) re- 
ceives the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Sylvester. 

8 May, jpj2: The Rev. Canon Philip Choquette, Rector of 
the Seminary of St. Hyacinth, made Domestic Prelate. 

Monsignor John Meany, of the Diocese of Aberdeen, ap- 
pointed Secret Chamberlain, supernumerary, of the Pope. 

14 May, igi2: The Rev. Canon James Paul, of the Diocese 
of Aberdeen, made Domestic Prelate. 

75 May, IQ12: The Rev. Dr. John D. Biden, rector of St. 
Joseph's Cathedral, Buffalo, made Domestic Prelate. 

22 May, ipi2: The Holy Father appoints Cardinal Diomede 
Falconio Protector of the Third Order of St. Francis, having 
its Motherhouse at Glen Riddle, in the Archdiocese of Phila- 

I June, igi2: Mr. James Prendergast and Mr. Henry Cun- 
ningham, both of the Archdiocese of Boston, made Knights 
of the Order of St. Gregory the Great (civil class). 

Stubtes anb Conferences* 


The Roman documents for the month are: 

Pontifical Letter to the Rev. Philip Fletcher, M.A., 
commending his work as director of the Guild of Our Lady 
of Ransom for the Conversion of England, on the occasion of 
the Society's twenty-fifth anniversary. 

S. CONCHIEGATION OF RiTES : I. Instruction regarding the 
privileges that are usually granted during a triduan or octo- 
duan celebration, when held within the year of the beatifica- 
tion or canonization of the person so honored. 

2. Some liturgical questions referring to the calendar of the 
Missionaries of the Sacred Heart. 

3. Circular letter to all Archbishops and Bishops propos- 
ing the revision of the historical lessons which are proper 
to each diocese. 

S. Congregation of the Index: i. Publishes a decree 
condemning three books. 

2. Decides that a book, which is written by a priest of a 
diocese other than that in which it is to be published, need not 
be submitted afresh to his censor by the Ordinary of the 
diocese of publication, provided the volume gives the Nihil 
obstat of the author's diocesan authorities. 

S. Congregation of the Sacraments issues a decree con- 
cerning the impediment that arises from adultery with at- 
tempted marriage. 

Roman Curia gives list of recent Pontifical appointments. 


To the Editor, The Ecclesiastical Review. 

Allow me a word on the time-honored question " Quid mihi 
et tibi." Every commentator claims that it is a very old 
question, and that no satisfactory solution has been given, 
except the one he may be writing. And the solution is not 

Where did this harsh, Puritanical interpretation arise? It 
goes back even beyond the days of the Puritans; it is almost 


lost in history. Perhaps some old sour-visaged Rabbin, in 
whose heart there never was a spark of human or divine love, 
gave utterance to it. It is truly unworthy of Christian origin. 

To say that this was a characteristic of the manner of speak- 
ing, an idiom of the language of the people of Palestine, or 
that the idiom is used to-day in Mesopotamia, or in the lands 
of Abbe Hue, does not change the interpretation, or give us 
any new light on the subject. It rather confounds. It also 
confesses that there is something wrong with the sentence or, 
properly, reply. 

We have all been so taught that we hang our hat on this 
peg — " It is an idiom of the language." This is the very 
answer a professor gave us in class one day. We looked up 
to our professors then as oracles in all abstruse subjects. 
Many of us since have found those oracles to be about as re- 
liable as the oracles of ancient Rome. 

But back to the question. What did Christ really say? 
You philologists turn to your Greek and tell us that St. John 
wrote the Gospel in Greek ; he was not writing a play ; he gave 
us no stage settings; he gave us no " asides"; he made no 
marginal nor foot-notes. He left these latter for the com- 
mentators, and they have spoiled the passage. They have 
covered it, so to speak, with smoke. Who was Christ, and 
what did He say on this occasion ? Christ was God, a Divine 
Person, walking among, and speaking to men. He was all 
love. Love itself. He was all amiability, all politeness. In 
polite conduct, and correct manner of speaking. He was an 
examplar for mankind for all time. 

Christ was at the wedding by invitation. His mother was 
there also, presumably by invitation. She may have been a 
relative of one of the contracting parties; in which case she 
was more than ordinarily solicitous about the preparations 
and the banquet. There were also four of the Apostles pres- 
ent. St. John does not say whether he was present or not. 
If he were present, he afterward wrote down the words as he 
heard them. If he were not present, he wrote the words he 
was inspired to write. We do not know where Christ and 
His Mother sat at the banquet. All we know about it is 
that Mary saw that there was not a sufficient quantity of wine 
for the feast. How and where she told Christ about it we do 


not know. Did she come and whisper, or speak in an " aside " 
to Him, or did she call Him to the end of the room where the 
viands were prepared? We do not know. But we do know 
that she told Him of the small quantity of wine. We have 
Christ's answer as St. John wrote it. " t/ hfioi koX aoi yhvac— 
(Madam), (My Dear), Lady, what is this to me and to you?, 
My hour (to work wonders) has not yet arrived?" "Lady, 
this is no affair of ours, (we are only guests)." " Lady, we 
did not prepare this feast," (the material part). Or, " Lady, 
is it our affair?" (are we supposed to furnish wine?) Or 
still further, " Is this a part of the program you have 
arranged ?" 

This was all said in a quiet manner. His inflection of voice 
is not given. His expression of face is not mentioned. Mary 
understood. She knew what He would do, as the resulting 
miracle proved. Why try to read into it something not there? 
As, " What is there between me and you ?" 

Evidently all that was said was in a low tone of voice, or in 
an aside, as the bridegroom, and chief steward, and guests 
knew nothing about what was happening; "but the waiters 
knew ". 

Did Christ not thus hesitate before the servants to put to 
test her importunity, to show her faith in what He could do, 
and to show indirectly that He would grant her any favor even 
inopportunely asked? 

If we now examine the words closely, we will find that 
there is not a harsh note in any of those words used by Christ. 
The word " gunai " means something more than simply wo- 
man. It is also a term of endearment, a term of polite address. 
Used in such relations it was common among the Greeks. 
Christ might have said, " Mother " ; but Christ was polite. 
Christ used this same term while hanging on the cross. This 
same St. John tells us in the nineteenth chapter of this same 
Gospel, that Christ, while hanging on the cross, turned to 
Mary and asked her to be a mother to St. John, His beloved 
Apostle. He did not address her, " Mother," but Thvai, ide 6 viog gov 
— Lady, behold thy son." He used a more endearing term 
than Mother. Then He spoke to St. John, and said, '"i^J^ ^ 
wfjTvp ffov.~ Son, behold thy mother." There could be no mis- 
take about what He meant here. Christ is careful in His 


dying moments to address His mother by the endearing 
term, Lady. 

Read this passage just as it was written by a Greek scholar 
for Greek readers. True he used an ellipsis; but the genius 
of the language calls for, or rather permits, such. 

Consider the time and place and all the settings, and then 
ask, could Christ, who was so kind to the lepers, and the fallen, 
be ungentlemanly, or seemingly rude, to His Mother? No. 

" My dear. My Lady, O Mother, are we to furnish some 
wine for this feast?" " My Dear, did you really arrange for 
me to begin my work before time?" Such is what Christ said; 
but St. John wrote it in Greek. 


Seward J Neb. 



Qu. In Pontifical Mass and in Pontifical Vespers, the Baltimore 
Ceremonial provides that the ministers make their reverences to the 
bishop by bowing, when passing before the altar, or going to and 
from the throne. The Ceremoniale Episcoporum, however, provides 
that they genuflect when so doing. 

Will you please advise me whether there is any decree from Rome 
authorizing the bows, instead of the genuflections provided for in 
the Ceremoniale, or whether custom in the United States makes it 
lawful to bow rather than genuflect? 

Resp. The late P. Schober, C.SS.R., an authority on rubri- 
cal interpretation, in his quasi-official commentary, Caere- 
moniae Missarum Solemnium et Pontijicalium (edit. 1909), 
referring to the above matter, has the following note, imply- 
ing that the Baltimore Ceremonial overlooked a distinction 
which, though not applicable to all places alike, requires due 
consideration in a manual for general direction. The note 
referred to occurs in the Chapter " De Missa Solemni Pon- 
tifical! ab Episcopo in Ecclesia Cathedrali celebranda," and 
reads as follows : 

Qui non sunt de gremio Capituli semper genuflectere debent trans- 
eundo tam ante altare quam ante Episcopum, sive pontificaliter sive 
Cappa tantiun aut Mozetta indutum; et reprobatur usus, ut solum- 


modo caput et humeros inclinent. (S. R. C, die 9 Maji, 1857, in 
Din. n. 3046.) Canonici vero, quoties ante altare vel ante Episco- 
pum transeunt, caput et humeros tantum profunde inclinant. Quare 
Assistentes et Ministri Sacri, nisi sunt Canonici, et omnes Ministri 
inferiores ante altare et Episcopum transeundo semper genuflectere 
debent; quod in sequentibus bene notandum est, quamquam postea 
dicetur : profunda facta inclinatione vel factis debitis reverentiis. 

The distinction here made seems to settle the difficulty and 
show that it does not suffice to make a simple reverence in- 
stead of genuflecting at the Pontifical services, in cathedrals 
where there are no regular Canons. 


Qu. At the close of Forty Hours' Devotion in a neighboring par- 
ish, several priests, my elders, firmly espoused the affirmative of the 
following query: Is it possible for those who make a visit to the 
Blessed Sacrament on Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday of the Forty 
Hours' Devotion, to gain the Plenary Indulgence by receiving Holy 
Communion on Wednesday morning, the Devotion having closed 
with all solemnity the evening before? There was no particular 
reason suggested why the reception of Holy Communion did not 
take place on Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday. H. F. H. 

Resp. The Indulgences specified in connexion with the 
Forty Hours' Prayer appear to require that the reception of 
the Sacraments take place on one or other of the days during 
which the Devotion lasts. A distinct concession has been 
granted, however, so as to extend the gaining of the Indul- 
gences to those who receive on the day before or on the morn- 
ing of the Exposition {Deer, authent. nn. 426 and 434.) 

Behringer, however, in his great work on Indulgences 
{Abldsse, XIII ed. p. 84), cites the Raccolta (p. xv), to the 
effect that a Plenary Indulgence, issued in connexion with 
devotions that last throughout a month or for a number of 
days, may be gained if Holy Communion be received within 
the eight days which immediately follow the closing of the 
exercises. This concession would seem to apply to the Tri- 
•duum of the Forty Hours Prayer, since " ubi lex non dis- 
tinguit " and " favores ampliandi " are principles of general 
application, although there be no mention of it in the regula- 
tions for the Forty Hours' Adoration. 



Qu. The July number of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record prints 
among its documents a letter from Cardinal De Lai in which he 
felicitates a bishop in the name of the Holy Father for founding a 
preparatory and a theological seminary in his diocese of Kempen. 
The Latin is Campinense ; but there is no Kempen diocese, the little 
town of the famous Thomas being quite too insignificant a place for 
such a distinction. From the context of the document it is not pos- 
sible to make out to what locality it is addressed. Can the editor 
of The Ecclesiastical Review throw light on the subject? 


Resp. The name Kempen as mentioned above must be an 
error. The document referred to is addressed to the Bishop 
of Campinas, which city is located in Sao Paolo, Brazil, South 


Although the subject of the Eucharistic Fast and the ad- 
visability of mitigating the present discipline have been dis- 
cussed in the Ecclesiastical Review at intervals during 
the last two years, by priests familiar with the conditions in 
missionary countries, there has been no decided voice among 
those to whom the Holy See must of necessity look for a 
proper representation and for an authoritative statement of 
facts on the subject. We understand that Bishop Gabriels of 
Ogdensburg, whose maintenance of ecclesiastical discipline 
and zeal for promoting Eucharistic devotion are attested 
by his public administration, had placed the question of 
the fast, among other difficulties likely to prevent the 
practice of frequent and daily Holy Communion, before our 
Holy Father, and that the latter, recognizing the reasonable- 
ness of the plea, under certain local conditions which obtain 
in the United States, had signified his readiness to modify the 
existing legislation, if the matter were presented in the proper 
manner as a request from the American Hierarchy. 

That many thousands of our Catholic people, who would be 
anxious to profit by the invitation to receive the Bread of Life 
in their most dire need, are prevented from doing so by no 
other obstacle than the impossibility of observing the tradi- 


tional fast, has been clearly demonstrated in these pages. 
The writers were not only from among our zealous and 
thoughtful priests, but also experienced and devout members 
of the laity, who hoped through the Review to reach the ears 
and hearts of the Clergy and the Hierarchy, with whom lay 
the remedy for the untoward conditions against which they 
pleaded. They pleaded in behalf of the laboring classes, 
notably the poor girls employed in the shops of our factory 
towns and in the department stores of our cities; the night- 
workers, and the little children. What was asked was, that, 
if the ancient discipline allowing those who could do so, to 
approach the Holy Table daily, was to be restored, then also 
the ancient mitigated discipline of the fast be restored where- 
ever necessity called for it. 

Father Pernin's article on the subject in the May number 
of the Review convinced many that, if a Jesuit Father could 
defend such a plea, there can be nothing irreverent or dan- 
gerous about it from the standpoint of Holy Church, though 
it need not follow that every member in the Society would at 
once stand for the same plea. The Rev. A. Van Sever made 
a good practical comment in our June number upon the article 
by Father Perrin, S.J., and we are glad to accede to his and 
Father Pernin's request to print the following communication, 
in the hope that it may call forth expressions from other 
thoughtful members of the Clergy who have not settled the 
whole matter for themselves and for their congregations by 
putting the problem out of their minds. 

We might add here that at our suggestion the topic was 
proposed as a subject for discussion at the last Eucharistic 
Congress in Madrid. We had hoped that the proposal might 
serve as a preparatory measure for later discussion at the 
Eucharistic Congress to be held some time in the United 
States. Among the Latin Bishops the principle " Nihil inno- 
vetur " would be likely to rule the question out of court, for 
they can hardly have any realization of the actual conditions 
calling for a change of the time-honored practice of European 
countries. But Pius X, who sees more of the American 
Church's needs than any individual Bishop, realizes that both 
our mode of living and our practice of religion are based not 
on a theory of traditions but upon a theory of advance- 


ment, and that the Americans apply this theory to the 
question of the salvation of souls as to all other ques- 
tions. Of course we must have reverence and unity of 
discipline and a conforming obedience arising from respect 
for law and authority, but we must also have the liberty of 
spirit which our Lord meant to teach the Pharisees when he 
rejected their appeals to their Sabbath traditions and to their 
ceremonial customs, where the law of charity was being ne- 
glected. It is to be hoped that the matter will, under Divine 
Providence, fashion itself into proper legislation to meet our 
actual needs, through the next Eucharistic Congress, which 
we trust may be held in the United States in the year 191 3. 

In the meantime we hope that Fr. Van Sever's appeal, 
which we here print at Fr. Pernin's request, may serve as a 
means of bringing the question from the theoretical to the 
practical stage. 


To the Editor, The Ecclesiastical Review. 

As many priests are interested in the movement which looks 
toward securing from the Holy See some mitigation of the 
Eucharistic Fast (as set forth in an article in the May issue 
of the Review), I beg leave to make the following practical 

1. It is evident that some concerted action should be taken 
to show a widespread desire on the part of the priests to se- 
cure this favor. 

2. Hence I would respectfully ask that all priests interested 
in this matter should write to the undersigned at once, pledg- 
ing their support to this movement. 

3. After a sufficient number of pledges have been secured, 
a Committee may be formed which will draw up a petition 
and forward it in the right way to the proper authorities. 

4. As it is necessary to interest as many priests as possible 
in this movement, I would earnestly request that every priest 
anxious to secure this privilege should interest his friends 
among the clergy and induce them to forward their names to 
the undersigned. 

5. If it is judged advisable to print circulars, etc., it will be 
a pleasure for me to write a substantial check. 

A. Van Sever. 
Route 2, Grand Rapids, Wisconsin. 

Ecclesiastical Xibrarig XTable* 


Monsignor Batiffol, whose Primitive Catholicism and History of 
the Roman Breviary in their English translations have made his 
name known to American readers, gave a series of lectures, the first 
in a course of Higher Religious Instruction, at Versailles, under 
episcopal sanction, during the early part of 1910. The subject he 
had selected was : What are the critical proofs of the general history 
of our Lord? The addresses were originally designed as an irenic 
appeal to the understanding of educated Frenchmen, by presenting 
the logical and historical evidence which attests the credibility of 
the Gospels. Owing to the publication, at the time, of a volume en- 
titled Orpheus by Salomon Reinach, which made a passionate on- 
slaught upon the credibility of the Gospel narrative, and which, 
because of its popular style, became the talk of the French public, 
Monsignor Batiffol somewhat altered the form of his lectures and 
turned them into a critical examination of Reinach' s statements. 
These he proved to be a series of arbitrary assertions, partly true, 
partly false, or resting on incomplete historical data and lacking the 
essentials of honest and enlightened scholarship. 

In their present perfected literary form the lectures are admir- 
ably adapted for general argument in defence of evangelical truth. 
They trace the current of rationalistic polemics, and offer a suc- 
cinct and methodical series of proofs. The author prefers to draw 
his weapons of defence from admissions by the recognized historical 
authorities among the rationalist critics themselves. Thus he makes 
Hamack, Jiilicher, Schiirer, J. Weiss, and Wernle answer Professor 
Reinach, wherever they do not unite against the Catholic position, 
a process by which the traditional credibility of the Gospels be- 
comes clearer than by the simple appeal to patristic testimony. 
Batiffol states the case of early non-Christian testimony to the work 
of Christ, especially the testimony of Josephus and of the rabbis of 
Apostolic times, in a clear and unbiased manner, which must appeal 
to any unprejudiced reader who looks for historical accuracy. 
Under the author's method of examination the statement made by 
Reinach and others, that the historic Jesus is essentially intangible, 
turns into vapor. With Christ, in the Gospels, established as the 
Messiah and founder of a Church that was to rise upon the very 
foundation of the destroyed Jewish Church, the truths of Catholicity 
gain a new assertive strength, well calculated to dispel the popular 


scepticism that delights in deifying self. The translation, which 
is admirable, is by Father George Pollen, the English Jesuit, who 
has wisely made the incident references conform to English editions 
and versions of the works cited by the author. 

An American Jesuit, Father T. W. Drum, through the Dubuque 
Apostolate publishes Christ is God, a lecture in which he goes ex- 
clusively to the New Testament for proofs. The value of the 
pamphlet in connexion with the demonstrations of Monsignor Batif- 
fol, is manifest. Father Drum brings together the evidence fur- 
nished by the sacred text for the Divinity of Christ, from the testi- 
mony of His enemies, His friends, His works, and from the fact 
of His resurrection from the tomb. 

To these proofs may be added the statements of Christ who Him- 
self asserts His Divinity. These statements have been assumed by 
the older exegetes to find their ultimate and complete embodiment in 
the fourth Gospel ; and accordingly St. John has been referred to as 
the chief witness for the Divinity of our Lord. In recent years 
rationalistic criticism has sought to weaken the traditional confi- 
dence in the historical value of the Gospel of St. John, and we are 
referred to the Synoptics as the only acceptable source of historical 
information. Here too we have some strong statements attesting 
the Divinity of Christ in His own words, the most remarkable of 
which is found in St. Matthew's Gospel (11 : 27) : "All things are 
delivered to Me by My Father. And no one knoweth the Son but 
the Father ; neither doth any one know the Father, but the Son, and 
he to whom it shall please the Son to reveal Him." The passage 
is substantially found in St. Luke 10:22, not however in St. Mark 
(though St. Irenaeus seems to have seen a reading of it there — Haer. 
IV, 6, 1). It coincides, however, with different expressions in St. 
John (6 : 46 ; 7 : 28 ; 8 : 19 ; 10 : 15) . It is clear that in proportion 
to the growth of the sentiment which refuses to accept St. John as 
historical evidence for our Lord's Divinity, claimed by Himself and 
proved by His acts, the importance of the testimony of Saints Mat- 
thew and Luke grows apace. 

In view of this fact the attempt of the rationalistic critics has 
been in the direction of destroying or weakening the force of St. 
Matthew's testimony as a later addition to the text. The answer to 
this assertion comes in a recently published study by Dr. Heinrich 
Schumacher (Freiburg: Herder) under the title Selbstoffenbarung 
Jesu bei Matt. lo: 2y {Luc. 10:22). The author succeeds in 
demonstrating by a process of critical exegesis that the passage re- 


ferred to in the above Synoptics is unquestionably as genuine as the 
remainder of the historical text. And if it be once established that 
the Apostolic witnesses stood for the Divinity of Christ, then the 
argument of a Christological development, attributed to the sup- 
posed later composition of the Johannine Gospel, falls to the 
ground, since it rests in large part on a petitio principii. Dr. Schu- 
macher examines every detail of the problem in the most approved 
fashion of higher criticism. His excursion into the literature of 
the subject is singularly wide, from the Apostolic writers down to 
the latest adept in philological critique. Popularized the work 
would complete the apologetic argument which Professor Batiffol 
makes in his defence of the Gospels. 


Davidee Birot, by Rene Bazin and recently translated into Eng- 
lish (Scribner's Sons, New York), gives us a glimpse of the con- 
ditions, social and moral, of the public lay teachers in the country 
towns of Western France. The people have little or no religion; 
many of them, especially the workmen, are quite godless and of the 
rude socialist type. But there is a remnant of the faithful, and 
there are Catholic traditions which still exercise a certain influence 
upon those of the community who are well disposed. The lay teach- 
ers are expected to eliminate these traditions from the young mind, 
to teach the children that there is no God or that He is the Unknow- 
able, and that the Catholic Church is merely a political institution, 
a remnant of the old monarchical regime, opposed to the State. 
Davidee Birot realizes the hopelessness of inculcating and preserv- 
ing womanly and manly virtue without belief in God and the sanc- 
tions of religion, and she exerts herself to vindicate the principle of 
morality to which she holds by instinct and by reflection, among the 
people with whom she lives. Romance runs of course into the story 
and gives it life and attraction. There is something in its woof that 
recalls De Toute son Ame (Redemption), which we regard as 
Bazin' s best work, although it was not one of those crowned by the 
French Academy. 

Like most of the author's other novels, of which about half a 
dozen or a third of his productions have been translated into Eng- 
lish, Davidee Birofs chief worth lies in a certain realism with which 
Bazin describes the religious thought and feeling of the peasants and 
workmen of his country, chiefly of that district which, bordering on 
the Atlantic coast, lies between the Loire and the Garonne. It is a 
religious condition which has lost its sap and freshness, and which 
explains to a large extent the apparent apathy with which a Catholic 



people has allowed its churches and altars to be despoiled and its 
schools to be laicized. The fact that for generations a State-aided 
clergy has served the people, has left upon the latter the impression 
that when a priest is condemned by the State it is because he is 
inefficient for some reason or other; and the perfunctory ministry 
itself of the priests, who had nothing to urge them to special zeal, 
has in many cases no doubt confirmed the impression. Persecution 
has lifted this apathy and there is promise of the old seed ripening to 
bloom afresh. 

Another French novel, the scene of which is set in the same dis- 
trict of Western France as is that of Davidee Birot, and which has 
the form of an autobiographical diary, is Vendeenne, by Jean Char- 
ruau (Pierre Tequi, Paris). It describes the conflict between 
the royal party and the revolutionists at the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. It was a conflict too between the old conser- 
vative principles of the Catholic faith and the assertion of 
so-called human rights against constituted authority. The author 
tells his story in the form of a diary written in 1852 by Madame 
Henriette Chambrun (nee Vernon) of Chateau-Thebaud in the dis- 
trict of the Loire. It is a pathetic account of a wife and mother 
who was called upon to make heroic sacrifices for the love of God 
and her country's honor, by seeing her nearest kinsfolk one after 
another torn from her amid the ravages of the revolution. P. Char- 
ruau has written many beautiful volumes, — ^biographies like those of 
P. Henri Chambellan and of Madame Pittar, and educational essays 
and romances, like Brother and Sister and Une Famille de Brigands. 
The reader will recognize in Vendeenne familiar thoughts and ideals 
of all the old stories reproduced in a new and fascinating form and 
with the vividness of deeply religious conviction. 


Bell and Sons of London (The Macmillan Company, New York) 
publish A Chronicle of the Popes, from St. Peter to Pius X, which 
will serve as an excellent introduction to a history of the Popes, or, 
for that matter, to the study of ecclesiastical history in general. 
" The history of the Papacy," writes the author, A. E. McKilliam, 
is " almost synonomous with the history of the civilized world from 
the early centuries of the Christian era." To the ordinary student 
the popular works of Mann, Pastor, Grisar, or of Ranke, Milman, 
Creighton, Montor, either deal only with isolated periods and aspects 
of the Papacy, or are too voluminous to permit of a sufficiently com- 
prehensive survey and a just judgment of an institution which is 


not only based on the same fundamental principle, but whose con- 
tinuous and progressive activity is informed by a single motive. 
This is true, whatever the variety of forms may be which that 
motive has assumed in the course of twenty centuries. Mr. Mc- 
Killiam gives the names, dates, and chief facts concerning each 
Pope in chronological order, thereby establishing a chain of con- 
nexion which shows the record of the facts to be continuous, al- 
though he makes no attempt to trace the causes or motives of the 
events. There is not a vestige of theological prejudice in the vol- 
ume, nor any effort to settle unproved positions against the Catholic 
contention; indeed the author shows singular fairness both in his 
statements, and in not suppressing certain facts which throw favor- 
able light upon the policy and acts of the Popes. The sources to 
which the author appeals, are, besides the Regesta Pontificum 
Romanorum and other classic authorities, mentioned above, Bruys, 
Bower, de Rossi, Balzani, Stephens, Bryce {Holy Roman Empire), 
Gregorovius, Isaacson {Later Popes). Some of these might mislead 
the historical student if their inferences were not balanced also by 
reference to our best Catholic literature of recent date on the subject. 


Manalive is a queer book, not unlike in this to The Ball and the 
Cross. As the latter goes to show the ubiquity of insanity, the 
former is an apology for craziness. Innocent Smith, the leading 
character, who calls himself Roland Oliver Isiah Charlemagne 
Arthur Hildebrand Homer Henry Danton Michael Angelo Shakes- 
peare Brakespeare Manalive, plays all kinds of practical jokes upon 
friend and foe alike. He is captured and subjected to a more or 
less burlesque sort of a trial, and finally acquitted. An extract from 
the plea for his defence presented by the inimitable advocate 
Michael Moon, may serve to give some idea of Manalive, both the 
character and the book. Innocent Smith, it is pleaded, behaves 
throughout all his career of crazy capering upon a plain and per- 
fectly blameless principle which, though " odd and extravagant in 
the modern world," is not more so than " any other principle plainly 
applied in the modern world would be." His principle is this: " He 
refuses to die while he is still alive. He seeks to remind himself 
by every electric shock to the intellect that he is still a man alive, 
walking on two legs about the world. For this reason he fires bullets 
at his best friends; for this reason he arranges ladders and col- 
lapsible chimneys to steal his own property; for this reason he goes 

iBy G. K. Chesterton. New York: John Lane Co. Pp. 311. 1912. 



plodding round a whole planet to get back to his own home. And 
for this reason he has been in the habit of taking the woman whom 
he loved with a permanent loyalty and leaving her about (so to 
speak) at schools, boarding-houses, and places of business, so that 
he might recover her again and again with a raid and a romantic 
elopement" (p. 298). 

As there is some obvious method in Smith's craziness, one naturally 
looks for its controlling idea. The idea is this : " Living in an en- 
tangled civilization, we have come to think certain things wrong 
which are not wrong at all. We have come to think outbreak and 
exuberance, banging and barging, rotting and wrecking, wrong. In 
themselves they are not merely pardonable, they are unimpeachable. 
There is nothing wicked about firing off a pistol even at a friend, 
so long as you do not mean to hit him and know you won't. . . . 
There is nothing wrong in bashing down a chimney-pot and break- 
ing through a roof, so long as you are not injuring the life or prop- 
erty of other men. . . . There is nothing wicked about walking 
roimd the world and coming back to your own house ; it is no more 
wicked than walking round the garden and coming back to your own 
house." And so on. " You associate such acts with blackguardism 
by a mere snobbish association, as you think there is something 
vaguely vile about going (or being seen going) into a pawnbroker's 
or a public-house. You think there is something squalid and com- 
monplace about such a connexion. You are mistaken." Now it was 
Smith's peculiar " spiritual power " that he discerned " between cus- 
tom and creed ". He broke the " conventions ", but kept the " com- 
mandments". He is like a man found gambling wildly in a 
gambling-hell, but you find he is only playing for " trouser but- 
tons ". 

But if you ask, " Why does Innocent Smith continue far into his 
middle age a farcical existence that exposes him to so many false 
charges? " the answer is " He does it because he really is happy, be- 
cause he really is hilarious, because he really is a man and alive. He 
is so young that climbing garden trees, and playing silly practical 
jokes are still to him what they were once to us all. And if you ask 
me yet again why he alone among men should be fed with such 
inexhaustible follies," the answer is, whether you like it or not, " In- 
nocent is happy because he is innocent. If he can defy the conven- 
tions it is just because he can keep the commandments, it is just 
because he does not want to kill, but to excite to life that a pistol 
is still as exciting to him as it is to a school boy." And so on. 

Mr. Chesterton has come to be known as a genius, to whom oddi- 
ties and whimsicalities are pardonable, balanced as they are by 
deeper intuitions. Paradoxes abound in Manalive as they do in 


The Ball and the Cross. From the very fact that men disregard 
the commandments while holding to the conventions — straining at 
gnats and swallowing camels — he takes occasion to defend the ignor- 
ing of conventions where commandments are obeyed. To effect this 
he naturally minimizes the value of the former when set over against 
the supremacy of the latter. But that happiness is determined by 
innocence is doubtless his own conviction. " If one could keep as 
happy as a child or a dog, it would be by being as innocent as a 
child, or as sinless as a dog" (p. 303). 

We can hardly of course suppose that Mr. Chesterton means to 
despise or condemn all conventions; and it would be superfluous, 
perhaps ridiculous, for a reviewer to suggest that the violation of, 
say, the " convention " not to fire off a pistol at a friend, even though 
" you do not mean to hit him and know you won't," is irrational, to 
say the least, and therefore not " pardonable ", but decidedly 
"wrong". Mr. Chesterton, no more than Innocent Smith (Mana- 
live), means to be taken seriously. Both author and character have 
set themselves to amuse, perhaps also to confirm a truism, and in 
both these functions they have succeeded. Needless to say, the book 
is not only burlesque, grotesque, and funny ; it is also in some places 
vividly picturesque. Witness the wonderful painting of the freakish 
wind, at the opening of the story. Not even Dickens's classic de- 
scription in Martin Chuzzlewitt can equal it. Paradoxes and epi- 
grams of course start up everywhere. For instance : " As for science 
and religion, the known and admitted facts are few and plain 
enough. All that the parsons say is unproved. All that the doctors 
say is disproved. That's the only difference ..." (p. 146). 

Criticisms anb IRotes^ 

SAINT PEANOIS OP ASSISI. A Biography. By Johannes Jorgensen. 
Translated from the Danish with the author's sanction, by T. O'Oonor 
Sloane, Ph.D. New York, London, Bombay, Oalontta: Longmans, 
Green & Oo. 1912. Pp. xvi-428. 

Jorgensen's biography of the Seraphic Saint has already been 
widely praised as perhaps the best of the eminent Danish convert's 
numerous descriptive works. As the author himself confesses, it 
was the altogether new light of mystic asceticism, as it glows in the 
Catholic Church, which attracted him in his search after noble 
ideals, and which made him conscious that the highest poetry finds 
its truest expression in the humble realism of monastic sanctity. 
This conscious in-breathing of the atmosphere of truth and purity 
that surrounds the remarkable group of which St. Francis was the 
centre, gives a freshness and buoyancy to the northern artist, who, 
captivated by the newness of his theme, throws into its presentation 
an enthusiasm that reflects the unexpected beauty and marvel aroused 
within his soul. It is this sense of novelty which characterizes Jor- 
gensen's treatment of the old theme, pictured in such a variety of 
forms by artists of the pen as well as of the brush, and which per- 
mits him to keep the comprehensive viewpoint in his portraiture, 
often lost by artists who enjoy habitual intimacy with the Franciscan 

Mr. Jorgensen pictures St. Francis in succession as the church 
builder, the evangelist, God's singer, and the solitary. The church 
builder is the youth who had dreamed at Gubbio of God's love for 
men, and who had then suddenly taken up the task of restoring the 
churches of S. Damiano, S. Pietro, and the Portiuncula. Then fol- 
low the journeys in the course of which he gathers his first disciples, 
writes his forma vitac, and elicits new forms of apostolic sanctity 
in followers like Brother Giles, Brother Juniper, John the Simple, 
and St. Clare. 

The preaching of St. Francis is what our author styles his sing- 
ing of God's songs. It is distinct from the " Song of Praise " in 
gratitude for the wounds of Christ reproduced in his body, or the 
famous Canticle of the Sun which the Saint composed later, when 
blindness had overtaken him at San Damiano in the summer of 1225. 


Truly does Mr. Jorgensen seize the power of that preaching which 
captured by the attraction of its melody the listening birds and the 
beasts of the forest, no less than the " verse King ", Guglielmo Di- 
vini, who on hearing the wondrous voice cried out, " Brother, take 
me away from men and give me to God ! " And so it continued to 
charm men like the Florentine Dante a century later and others 
who, like Brother Pacificus, donned in time the grey clothes of the 
Order. Viri literati, and the banditti of the mountains were equally 
affected by the singular strains of the simple "poor little man" 
in the tattered garb. Yet the secret charm of the music was neither 
in the soft resonance of his voice nor in the persuasive plea of his 
doctrine, but in the undisguised threat of God's judgments which 
struck the hearts of men like well-aimed arrows shot by a master 
hand to pierce them through. " Despise the world, and be con- 
verted, so as to withstand the coming wrath " — this was his ordinary 
theme, we are told, and its effect was wondrous quick and lasting. 

Those who heard and followed the simple admonition gradually 
formed the great body of men and women striving after perfection 
to whom St. Francis found himself obliged to give a rule of life and 
a permanent constitution for their government as a community. 
This included the organized mission work which soon brought, as 
its first fruits, martyrs whose memory gave the essential note of self- 
sacrifice to the spirit of the Order. These were triumphs to offset 
trials which threatened to disrupt the spirit of union from within. 
Dissensions, laxity of discipline, depreciation of the labors of the 
Saint, marked the tracks of the enemy in a field so rich in promise. 
The incidents of Gregory of Naples and Matthew of Narni in their 
attempt to change the rule by holding a chapter general in the ab- 
sence of the Saint, the memorable conflicts between the Brothers of 
Penance and the authorities, are chapters that allow us an insight 
into the sorrows that must have afflicted the heart of the Saint, whose 
one ideal was harmony and love. 

As an offset to the thorns that hedged round about this freshly- 
planted tree, we have the fairest flowering of sanctity in such Saints 
as Anthony or Padua and Clare of Assisi. 

The characteristic love of poverty in the latter is made the 
especial theme of beautiful reflections in Mr. Jorgensen's biography. 
No power on earth could minimize the estimate which she had of 
this virtue as a means for preserving evangelical sanctity. When 
Gregory IX, on the occasion of the canonization of St. Francis in 
1228, came to Assisi and saw the severity of the life of the daugh- 
ters of the Saint, he offered to modify the rule, so as to release the 
nuns from their strict observance. " Holy Father," answered St. 



Clare, " absolve me from my sins, if thou wilt, but never do I wish 
to be released in any way from following Christ forever." It was a 
rebuke which the Pope could never forget, for he himself, as Car- 
dinal Hugolino, had arranged the -forma vivendi given to the Poor 
Clares by St. Francis. 

As to the Rule of St. Clare, the statement of our author (page 
130) that " Innocent III gave his approval to this Rule even more 
formally than he had approved the Brothers' Rule ", though it ap- 
pears to rest on the authority of Gonzaga and Wadding, is, as 
Father Paschal Robinson points out in his admirable sketch on the 
subject {The Rule of St. Clare, pp. 18 and 19), erroneous. The 
proofs for this are given in detail by Lemmens in Romische Quartal- 
schrift (XVI, 97). 

The fourth part of Mr. Jorgensen's book describes, under the title 
of " Francis the Hermit ", the literary activity and the home life 
of St. Francis. It shows forth especially his personal virtues, — 
his truthfulness, his zeal, his obedience, his spirit of prayer, his 
evangelic joy, his love of nature, intensified if anjrthing by his blind- 
ness, and the reception of the Stigmata. Beautifully and touchingly 
does the author dwell upon the last scenes of the Saint's life, how 
he writes his Testament to the Brothers, sends his farewell to St. 
Clare, makes peace between the Bishop of Assisi and the Podesta, 
and then lets himself be carried down the olive-clad hill to his be- 
loved Portiuncula, blessing Assisi on the way ; and how, a few days 
later, he dies, amid the deep stillness and prayer of the Brothers 
in the little cell. " Mortem cantando suscepit," wrote Celano, — for 
the larks, his good friends, were twittering their last farewell 
around the house. Like Magdalen of old weeping over the dead 
body of her Master, " Brother Jacopa " fell weeping upon the life- 
less body of St. Francis, and with burning tears coursing down her 
cheeks, kissed over and over again the wounds in the feet and hands 
of the dead Saint. It all reads charmingly from first to last. 

In the Appendix are gathered the authorities for the biography of 
the Saint — his own writings, prose and poetry, those of the various 
groups that cluster around Thomas of Celano, Brother Leo, St. 
Bonaventure, and the Speculum Perfectionis, the Legenda Antiqua 
and the Fioretti; besides these, the historical sources include au- 
thorities outside the Order and modern writers. 

All lovers of St. Francis must be deeply grateful for this attrac- 
tive presentation of the unique figure; as also for the excellent 
translation of it into English by Dr. Sloane. 


SOCIALISM AS IT IS. By William Walling. New York: The Mac- 
millan Oo. 1912. Pp. 464. 

WHAT IS SOCIALISM? An Exposition and a Oriticism with Special 
Eeference to the Movement in America and England. By James 
Boyle, Private Secretary to Governor William McKinley, former 
Consul of the United States at Liverpool, England. New York: The 
Shakespeare Press. Pp. 347. 1912. 

There must needs be books that discuss Socialism as a philosophy 
and as a theory, economic and political; nor indeed can Socialism 
be properly imderstood unless these two distinct, if not entirely 
separable, aspects be abstracted and analyzed. When all this has 
been done, however, little more has been accomplished than an ana- 
tomical dissection of the skeleton, more or less articulated perhaps, of 
the system. The physiology, the account of the life processes, has 
been left out, and the vital principle ignored. True it is, of course, 
that the philosophical tenets underlying and permeating the system 
constitute its vital principle, its *' form ". On the other hand, those 
tenets are, to use a subtle distinction of the school, but the " meta- 
physical form ", which gives the esse rei, only in the abstract. The 
" physical form " that constitutes and determines the concrete es- 
sence is all that aggregate of ideas, convictions, beliefs, theories, 
tendencies, proposals which make the system live, move, act, work, — 
all that complexus of forces and processes that bind Socialism into 
the world-movement which it really is. But it is this whole com- 
plexus, not isolated for abstract discussion, but immanent, vital, ef- 
fective, urgent within the human movement itself, — this, at least, 
is living Socialism, the Socialism with which we have to reckon. Of 
course to understand this movement one must isolate, abstract, its 
principles, theories, programs, proposals; but one must remember 
that all these dwell together and are actually interfused, inextricably 
interblended in the real movement. 

It is this sense of actuality, of objective real vitality that gives to 
Mr. Walling' s work an almost unique place in the superabounding 
literature of Socialism. The book is, as its subtitle indicates, " a 
survey of the world-wide revolutionary movement ". A " survey ", 
indeed, yet something more. Not over, but beneath the surface, 
from within not from without the current, does the vision run. 
Socialism is seen first in its formative stage, its being shaped by its 
present envirorunent — which is more and more tending from indi- 
vidual to collective capitalism, " State Socialism ". Next, the in- 
ternal processes, the political struggles within the movement, are 



brought to the surface, the internal dissensions and factions not 
being minimized in the interest of a theoretically unified outlook. 
Lastly, the reaction of Socialism on its environment, its essentially 
revolutionary outcome, is presented. These are the fundamental 
lines on which the work is built. Needless to say, Mr. Walling, an 
intensely convinced Socialist himself, is an advocate, not merely a 
chronicler or narrator. At the same time he has produced a work 
which neither friend nor foe should pass by unconsidered. It is the 
priest's business, his duty, to understand, understand not simply 
Socialistic party programs, Socialistic abstractions, definitions, views. 
To be sure, all these are to be included. But Socialism in the souls 
and the lives of human beings. Socialism in action, is that which 
he must consciously realize whilst he withstands, or rather in order 
that he may withstand and oppose its oncoming. Though therefore 
he can and must differ from Mr. Walling in his whole attitude 
toward Socialism, he none the less may have something to learn 
from his opponent. Fas est et ab hoste docere. 

After reading Mr. Walling' s survey of the Socialist movement, it 
will be well to take up Mr. Boyle's answer to What is Socialism? 
The scope of his answer is determined by the subtitle, " Exposition 
and Criticism ". The former term covers the larger part of the 
treatment. The general significance of Socialism, the word, the 
thing, and the history of the movement in ancient days, and the var- 
ious stages and phases of its modern development, indicate the out- 
lines of some three hundred of the book's pages. Socialism in 
America and Great Britain receives principal consideration, its 
status in continental Europe being only briefly sketched. The criti- 
cism, though occupying but comparatively few pages, is qualita- 
tively good — just and objective. The impracticability of Socialism 
both in its establishment and its administration, its contrariety to 
himian nature, the enslavement of the individual which it would en- 
tail, — these and other such, while not novel, points of argument are 
clearly set forth and well illustrated. They are not likely to make 
much impression on the mind of the Socialist, for Socialism is prim- 
arily an emotional not a logical system, and only slightly pervious 
to argumentation. However, Mr. Boyle has written a book which 
the student of the world-wide movement should not fail to peruse. 
The concluding paragraph may here be quoted as illustrating the 
author's general temper of mind : " Socialism has its good side, al- 
though with characteristic effrontery it appropriates to itself as its 
peculiar possession attributes and forces which have been in benefi- 
cent operation through the long centuries by men who never heard 


of Socialism, and by agencies which have always had the scorn and 
even hatred of the greatest of Socialists from Marx and Engels to 
Bax and Bebel. Nevertheless, Socialism, extravagant and imprac- 
ticable though it be, has played a great part and is entitled to its 
share of credit in the ever onward and upward movement, limited to 
no class, no creed, no nationality, no theory of government or eco- 
nomics, for the amelioration of the lot of the sons of toil, the 
righting of wrong wherever found, and the uplifting of the race to 
higher places of life in all its aspects. But, as a universal condition 
of society, as a panacea for present evils, as the hope of the prole- 
tariat. Socialism in its complete conception is an absolute and a hid- 
eous impossibility " (p. 332). It is hardly necessary to subjoin that 
the author in the foregoing assignment of credit to Socialism for its 
" uplifting " beneficence, has generously omitted to attribute that in- 
fluence not to Socialism as such, but to the humanity of Socialists, 
which is wiser and better than their creed. 

THE OOWAED. By Kobert Hugh Benson, author of " The Oonvention- 
alists ", " None other Gods ", " The Sentimentalists", etc. St, Lonis : 
B. Herder; London : Hutchinson & Go. 1912. Pp. 392. 

Monsignor Benson continues to follow his manifest vocation — 
the presentation, namely, of Catholic truth to a non-Catholic public 
under the guise of the interesting stories which he is an adept in 
telling. He has the gift of writing novels that are sufficiently in 
the fashionable manner to attract the general reader, who, by the 
time he has finished one of the books, will have been not only enter- 
tained in a perfectly innocent manner, but also enlightened and 
instructed as to the true view to be taken of some of the problems of 
modem life. Also, whether he recognize it or not — and he can 
scarcely fail to do so — the attentive reader will have learnt that 
Catholic doctrine and practice offer a solution to many questions of 
which the insistence, we may safely say, is growing amongst 
thoughtful people. Sometimes, indeed, and particularly in one or 
two of his more recent novels, we have asked ourselves whether 
Mgr. Benson has been quite satisfying, and the speed at which he 
produces his books is such that the question is asked whether he is 
doing as good work as he can. Remembering his historical novels, 
we are tempted to wish for more of the same kind. But an author 
must follow his bent and inclinations, and Mgr. Benson doubtless 
feels he must strike while the iron is hot, or, to vary the metaphor, 
say what is in him when he feels moved to utterance. 

The Coward is altogether an entertaining book, notwithstanding 
that it ends with the note of sadness. The hero, ii we may apply 



that term to Valentine Medd, is a member of an old Commoner 
family, in whose veins, as is sometimes the case with Commoners, 
flows much bluer blood than many titled families can boast of. He 
can trace his ancestry to times before the Norman Conquest. Mgr. 
Benson admirably describes the peculiar and unique atmosphere in 
which the children of such a family in England are brought up, and 
in doing so, shows a thorough appreciation of the character en- 
gendered by generations of such up-bringing. Of the stately Caro- 
line house in which the Medds lived, and of the family history we 
read : 

" Altogether it is a tremendous place, utterly complete in 
itself, with an immemorial air about it; the great oaks of the 
park seem, and indeed are, nouveaiix riches, besides its splendid 
and silent aristocracy; for Medhurst has stood here, built and 
inhabited by Medds, pulled down and rebuilt by Medds again 
and again, centuries before these oaks were acorns. For, as 
Heralds' College knows very well, though the Medds never 
speak of it, it is reasonably probable that a Medd lived here — 
after what fashion archaeological historians only can relate — 
long before Saxon blood became tainted and debased by Nor- 

" It is remarkable that they have never become peers (a 
baronetcy has always, of course, been out of the question) ; but 
the serious fact seems to be that they have consistently refused 
this honor. It is not likely that they would have accepted 
such a thing from the upstart Conqueror ; and after such a 
refusal as this, any later acceptance was of course impossible. 
In Henry VIIFs reign they remained faithful to the old re- 
ligion, and consequently in Elizabeth's reign were one of the 
few families in whose house that sovereign did not sleep at 
least one night of her existence; in fact they went abroad at 
that time and produced a priest or two, prudently handing over 
their property to a Protestant second cousin, whose heir, very 
honorably, handed it back when Charles I came to the throne. 
And then, when danger seemed more or less over, Austin Medd, 
about the time of the Gates Plot, in which he seems to have 
believed, solemnly changed his religion with as much dignity 
as that with which his grandfather had maintained it on a cer- 
tain famous occasion which it would be irrelevant to describe. 
"Now when a Medd has done a thing, deliberately and 
strongly, it naturally becomes impious for later Medds to 
question the propriety of his action ; and from thenceforth two 
or three traditions — moral heirlooms, so to speak — have been 
handed down at Medhurst. The objective reality of the Gates 



Plot, the essential disloyalty of Catholicism, the sacrosanctity 
of the National Church as a constitutional fact — these things 
are not to be doubted by any who bears legitimately the name 
of Medd" (pp. 4, 5). 

Of two brothers, Austin, the elder, is of normal type, while Val- 
entine, the younger, is afflicted with a nervous temperament which, 
it turns out in the end, makes him physically, at least, a coward. 
Early in the tale we are introducted to a priest. Father Maple, a 
great pianist, who, before the story is done, has a great deal to do 
with Valentine. Austin and his younger brother do not get on well 
together, and there is a good deal of unpleasant bickering between 

Val's unfortunate disposition has already made itself manifest at 
school. He had been openly called a "funk" at football, and had once 
" avoided a fight with extreme dignity and self-restraint ". He is 
introduced to us during a vacation at home, having just had a fall 
off his horse, with the result that he finished his ride in real terror, 
and was moved by this fact to a self-analysis which left him with 
the uncomfortable feeling that he really was a coward. This, of 
course, in such a family, would be simply an unpardonable sin. 

Soon after this there comes an invitation to Switzerland. There 
Valentine and his brother are initiated into the delights and perils 
of mountain-climbing, about which Father Benson discourses elo- 
quently. Val is really very much afraid of this sport. His fear 
leads him first to re- act against it by rashness ; then, at a really bad 
jump which becomes necessary in the ascent of Matterhorn, his 
nerves give way entirely, and he collapses in the most pitiful man- 
ner. Later on he puts the seal on his disgrace by avoiding, at the 
last moment, a duel in Rome with a Roman prince who had insulted 
his lady-love ; and on this occasion his brother has to take his place, 
and is wounded. The disgrace is real, and this time final, and poor 
Val (now a Cambridge undergraduate) is practically ostracized by 
his family, and jilted by his sweetheart into the bargain. 

The real motive of the story comes in when, in his despair, poor 
Val, who is tempted to disbelieve alike in God and man, and has 
found little comfort from placing his confidence in a materialistic 
pseudo-scientist, opens his mind at last to Father Maple. This is 
Monsignor Benson's opportunity, well prepared for by all that has 
preceded, for introducing to his readers the methods of a Catholic 
priest in ministering " to a mind diseased ". They were having tea in 
the priest's garden. After much "shying" on the part of the boy, who 
has been more than half won already by Father Maple's wonderful 
playing on the pianoforte, the good priest gains his Confidence at 



last, and Val unburdens his misery. He had resolved on suicide 
shortly before, but had drawn back at the last minute — afraid. This 
is what Father Maple says, after he has patiently listened to Val's 
woeful tale: 

" The first point is. Are you a coward really? To that I say, 
Yes and No. It depends entirely upon what you mean by the 
word. If it is to be a coward to have a highly strung nervous 
system and an imagination, and further, in moment of danger 
to be overwhelmed by this imagination, so that you do the weak 
thing instead of the strong thing, against your real will, so to 
speak, then — Yes. But if you mean by the word coward what 
I mean by it — a man with a lax will who intends to put his 
own physical safety first, who calculates on what will save him 
pain or death and acts on that calculation, then certainly you 
are not one. It's purely a question of words. Do you see? . . . 
" Now it seems to me that what is the matter with you is the 
same thing that's the matter with every decent person — only in 
rather a vivid form. You've got violent temptations, and you 
yield to them. But you don't will to yield to them. There's 
the best part of you fighting all the time. That's entirely a dif- 
ferent case from the man who has what we Catholics call 
* malice ' — the man who plans temptations and calculates oa 
them and means to yield to them. You've got a weak will, let us 
say, a vivid imagination, and a good heart. . . . (Don't inter- 
rupt. I'm not whitewashing you. ... I'm going to say some 
'more unpleasant things presently.) . . . 

" Well ... a really brave man doesn't allow himself to be 
dominated by his imagination — a really brave man — the kind 
of man who gets the V. C. His will rules him; or, rather, 
he rules himself through his will. He may be terribly fright- 
ened in his imagination all the while ; and the more frightened 
his imagination is, the braver he is, if he dominates it. Mere 
physical courage — the absence of feau: — simply is not worth 
calling bravery. It's the bravery of the tiger, not the moral 
bravery of the Man. 

" And you aren't a brave man — in that sense. Nor are you a 
coward in the real sense either. You're just ordinary. And 
what we've got to see is how you're to get your will upper- 

" The first thing you've got to do is to understand yourself — 
to see that you've got those two things pulling at you — imagina- 
tion and will. And the second thing you've got to do is to try 
to live by your will, and not by your imagination — in quite 


small things I mean. Muscles become strong by doing small 
things — using small dumb-bells — over and over again; not 
by using huge dumb-bells once or twice. And the way the will 
becomes strong is the same — doing small things you've made 
up your mind to do, however much you don't want to do them 
at the time — I mean really small things — getting up in the 
morning, going to bed. . . . You simply can't lift big dumb- 
bells merely by wanting to. And I don't suppose that it was 
simply within your power to have done those other things 
you've told me of. (By the way, we Catholics believe, you 
know, that to fight a duel and to commit suicide are extremely 
wrong : they're what we call mortal sins. . . . However, that's 
not the point now. You didn't refrain from doing them be- 
cause you thought them wrong, obviously. We're talking about 
courage — the courage you hadn't got.) 

"Now this sounds rather dreary advice, I expect. But you 
know we can't change the whole of our character all at once. 
To say that by willing it we can become strong, or ... or 
good, all in a moment, is simply not true. It's as untrue as what 
you tell me that Professor said — that we can't change at all. 
That's a black lie, by the way. It's the kind of thing these 
modern people say : it saves them a lot of trouble, you see. We 
can change, slowly and steadily, if we set our will to it." 

He paused. Val was sitting perfectly still now, listening. 
Two or three times during the priest's little speech he had moved 
as if to interrupt; but the other had stopped him by a word or 
gesture. And the boy sat still, his white hat in his hands. 

" Well, that's my diagnosis," said the priest, smiling. " And 
that's my advice. Begin to exercise your will. Make a rule of 
life (as we Catholics say) by which you live — a rule about how 
you spend the day. And keep it ; and go on keeping it. Don't 
dwell on what you would do if such and such a thing hap- 
pened — as to whether you'd be brave or not. That's simply 
fatal; because it's encouraging and exciting the imagination. 
On the contrary, starve the imagination and feed the will. It's 
for the want of that, in these days of nervous systems and rush 
and excitement, that so many people break down. ..." 

"And . . . and about religion?" asked Val shyly. 

The priest waved his hands. 

" Well," he said, " you know what my religion is. At least, 
you almost certainly don't. And, naturally, I'm quite con- 
vinced that mine is true. But that's not to the point now. If 
you really want to know, you can come and talk some other 
time. With regard to religion, I would only say to you now, 


Practise your own : do, in the way of prayers and so on, all 
that you conscientiously can. . . . Yes, make a rule about that 
too, and stick to it. Make it a part of your rule, in fact. If 
you decide to say your prayers every day, say them, whatever 
you feel like. Don't drop them suddenly one morning just 
because you don't feel religious. That's fatal. It's letting your 
imagination dominate your will. And that's exactly what you 
want to avoid." 

Poor Val makes up his mind to follow the priest's advice. He 
has hoped and prayed that some day he may have an opportunity of 
doing a brave act in some great danger — something that he can 
throw himself into without having time to think ; something from 
which, once he has acted, there can be no withdrawal. The oppor- 
tunity comes. He is left at home in charge of the house. A fire 
occurs, and he rushes to clear the muniment room of its family treas- 
ures. There he is caught by the flames. A terrible scene occurs, 
for he loses all control of himself, and raves madly and incoher- 
ently at the barred windows till the floor falls, and he with it. This 
dreadful scene deepens the opinion of his family that, all through, 
he was a hopeless coward. Father Maple takes another view. 
Physically, he was afraid; morally, he showed great courage. The 
priest tries to persuade Val's mother that this was so, but she can- 
not understand. The story conveys a lesson of charity — that one 
must not always judge by external actions, but look deeper, into the 
mind and soul, where we may discover unthought-of virtues. 

Here and there in his book Mgr. Benson gives us amusing de- 
scriptions of highly respectable Anglicanism, and delivers a well- 
deserved hit at the behavior of English tourists in Roman churches. 
The following passage is a delightfully real picture of the way in 
which English people of the better class " do " Rome: 

" And of real Rome, of course, they had seen nothing at 
all. Figures had moved before them — the insolent light-blue 
cloaks of soldiers who resembled French tram-conductors; 
seedy-looking priests who went hurriedly and softly with down- 
cast eyes; countrymen — real ones, not the sham ones of the 
Trinita — asleep in little canopied carts that roared over the 
cobblestones; endless companies of handsomely bearded bour- 
geois clerks and tradesmen, pacing slowly up and down the 
Corso and eyeing brutally every female figure in range. They 
had seen crumbling ruins against the sky ; little churches, rather 
dingy, looking squeezed and asleep, between new white houses 
with balconies and uncountable windows; and they had under- 
stood absolutely less than nothing (since they had miscon- 



ceived the whole) of all that their eyes and ears had taken in. 
They had believed themselves, for example, to be by nature on 
the side of the Government and the new hotels and the trams 
and the clean white squares ; they had not understood that that 
which they dismissed as ecclesiasticism and intransigeance was 
the only element with which they had anything in common, 
and that this, and this only, had developed their aristocracy in 
the past as well as being its only hope for the future. They had 
not understood that all this, in terms of Italy, was a translation 
of their own instincts and circumstances at home." 

Finally, we cannot resist the temptation to quote one more passage, 
which shows that at least one educated English gentleman, the 
author himself, has learnt the inner meaning of the Eternal City. 
Valentine and his friends were standing on the Pincian Hill : 

" What they saw from that place was certainly remarkable 
and beautiful, indeed ' very wonderful,' as Austin had most 
correctly observed. They stood on the very edge of a terraced 
precipice, their hands resting on a balustrade, looking out over 
the whole of medieval Rome bathed in a dusty glory of blue 
and gold ; the roofs, broken here and there by domes and spires, 
stretched completely round the half -circle to right and left, in 
a kind of flat amphitheatre of which the arena, crawling with 
cabs and pedestrians, was the Piazza del Popolo, where Luther 
walked after saying mass in the church on the right. All this 
was lovely enough — the smoke went up straight, delicate as 
lawn against the glorious evening sky; c)rpresses rose, tall and 
sombre, beneath them, and barred the sky far away like blots of 
black against an open furnace-door ; and sounds came up here, 
mellow and gentle^ — the crack of whips, bells, cries, the roll of 
wheels, across the cobbles of the Piazza. But that to which 
both eye and thought returned again and again was the vast bell 
of purple shadow, lit with rose, that dominated the whole, 
straight in front, and is called the dome of St. Peter's. It 
rested there, like a flower descending from heaven, and at this 
very instant the sun, hidden behind it, shone through the win- 
dows, clean through from side to side, making it as unsub- 
stantial as a shell of foam. It hung there, itself the symbol of a- 
benediction, as if held by an invisible thread from the very 
throne of God, supported from below, it seemed, by earthly 
buildings that had sprung up to meet it, and now pushed and 
jostled that they might rest beneath its shadow. Beyond, again, 
fine as lace work, trees stood up, minute and .delicate and dis- 


tant, like ragged feathers seen against firelight. Only, this fire- 
light deepened to rose and crimson as they looked, filled the 
whole sky with flame, satisfying the eye as water a thirsty 

" This then was what they saw. They would be able to de- 
scribe all this later, and even, after consulting Baedeker, to 
name the domes and towers that helped to make up the whole — 
the white dome of the Jewish synagogue, for instance, that 
mocked and caricatured the gentle giant beyond, like a street- 
boy imitating a king. They would be able to wave their hands, 
for lack of description. . . . They would be able to rave 
vaguely about Italy and its colors. Austin would be able to 
draw striking contrasts between modern Rome and ancient 
Athens (which he had conscientiously visited in the company 
of Eton masters two years ago ) . And they both would be able 
to show that they belonged to the elect company of the initiates, 
in that they would say that what impressed them far more 
than St. Peter's or St. John Lateran was the view of Rome at 
sunset from the Pincian. 

"Now of course there is a great deal more to see from the 
Pincian at sunset than what has been set down here. It is the 
history of the human race, and the love of God, and the story 
of how One " came to His own and His own received Him 
not," and the significance of the City of the World, and the 
conjunction of small human affairs with Eternity, and their 
reconciliation with it through the airy shell of foam which, as 
a matter of realistic fact, consists of uncountable tons of 
masonry — in fact, the reconciliation of all paradoxes, and the 
solution of all doubts, and the incarnation of all mysteries, and 
the final complete satisfaction of the Creator with the creature 
and of the creature with the Creator — all these things, with 
their correlatives, find voice and shape and color in the view 
of Rome from the Pincian at sunset. For here, where the 
watchers stand, is modern Italy, gross, fleshly, complacent, and 
blind. There are white marble busts here, of bearded men and 
decadent poets, and wholly unimportant celebrities, standing in 
rows beneath the ilexes like self-conscious philosophers; and 
chattering crowds surge to and fro ; and men eye women, and 
women, with their noses in the air, lean back in rather shabby 
carriages and pretend not to see the men; and the seminar- 
ians go by, swift processions of boys, walking rapidly, as troops 
on alien ground, with the sleeves of their sopranos flying behind 
them, intent on getting back to their seminaries before Ave 



Maria rings; and belated children scream and laugh— thin- 
legged, frilled children, with peevish eyes, who call one another 
Ercole and Louise and Tito and Elena; and bourgeois fami- 
lies in silk and broadcloth, with the eyes of Augustus and 
Poppaea and the souls of dirty shrimps, pace solemnly about, 
arm in arm, and believe themselves fashionable and enlight- 
ened and modern. All these things and persons are here, and it 
is from this world and from this standpoint that one looks back 
and forward through the centuries — back to the roots that 
crept along the Catacombs, that pushed up stems in the little old 
churches with white marble choirs, and that blossomed at last 
into that astounding, full-orbed flower that hangs there, full of 
gold and blue and orange and sunlight; and on, from that 
flower to the seed it is shedding in every land, and to the Forest 
of the Future. . . ." 

Here we must take leave of Mgr. Benson and his latest novel, 
which, if somewhat slight in structure, yet well repays perusal, and, 
we may hope, will carry more than one lesson home to the minds 
of those it is designed to reach. 

THE MIEEOE OP OXPOED. By 0. B. Dawson, S.J., M.A. (Exeter Col- 
lege). With forty illustrations and a map. London and Edinburgh: 
Sands & Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 265. 

There are proportionately fewer Catholic students at Oxford, at 
the present time, than there are at any one of our leading American 
non- Catholic imiversities, such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Penn- 
sylvania, Chicago, Berkeley. Nevertheless there is a decidedly 
Catholic influence being exercised at Oxford by the gradual return 
of the Religious Orders, whose members act as licensed masters for 
undergraduate students. Among the houses of study opened by 
them are those of Parker's Hall, belonging to the Benedictines of 
Ampleforth Abbey, and Pope's Hall, established by the Jesuits, 
who also have built St. Aloysius's Church, a beautiful edifice, in 
which since 1875 upwards of a thousand converts have been recon- 
ciled to the Catholic Church; and a new Jesuit church, dedicated 
to SS. Edmund and Frideswide, has been opened at Oxford. The 
Capuchin Fathers also have founded a house of studies for stu- 
dents of their Order, although the institution still lacks the acad- 
emical authorization required for the reception of undergraduate 
students of the University. The University Catholic Board also 
provides for regular religious services by a priest for the general 
body of Catholic students, which does not exceed a hundred yet. 



Thus Oxford UBiversity is being reanimated with something of 
its ancient vitality, after nearly four centuries of delirium, during 
which it seems to have lost its true identity, retaining only the beau- 
tiful forms created by its Catholic founders. The Reformers, so- 
called, did their best to eliminate every vestige of the ancient faith 
imprinted upon the brow of the venerable mistress of learning. But 
the fashion of every cloister and the face of the old archways be- 
trayed the ancient habits of her interior, and confronted the searcher 
after truth in its halls with countless inconsistencies between the 
affirmation of modern teachers within and the indelible testimony 
of once taught truth written upon the noble walls. 

What the Reformers proclaimed and pretended has been repeated 
by the historians of the guide-book, and the New World visitor to 
the ancient sites is informed about the past of Oxford in lines written 
to harmonize with the prejudices created by Protestant tradition. 
" Wherever questions arise regarding the religious storm which burst 
over the University in the sixteenth century, statements are made, 
and inferences drawn, which in the light of present knowledge can 
no longer be sustained." To counteract this misrepresentation is the 
author's chief reason for publishing his book. 

The sources from which the present account of Oxford Univer- 
sity is drawn, are uniformly authentic, and Father Dawson has been 
helped not only by the widely-known literature on the subject, but 
likewise by the critical researches of the Oxford Historical Society. 
As a result he constructs a thoroughly reliable record of the origin, 
development, religious and scientific activity of the old foundations, 
together with the eliminations, modifications, changes, and additions 
made since the ancient seat of learning was wrested from Catholic 
control. There is a history of each of the twenty-one Colleges and 
Halls, a brief sketch of the religious Orders whose members were 
instrumental in developing the spirit of philosophical and theologi- 
cal teaching to a degree which made the name of Oxford synony- 
mous with all that is implied in the highest authority of human 

To avoid misconception, we should add that the volume is not in 
the least polemical, nor even didactic; it simply records facts, but 
facts that carry with them an immense evidence of the power of 
Catholic teaching and organization. The numerous illustrations 
give a distinction to the volume which increases its practical utility 
as a guide through Oxford or a reference book to its history. 


BREVIAKIUM EOMANUM ex Decreto SS. Ooncilii Tridentini etc. Editio 
septima post alteram typicam continens Novum Psalterimn. Qnattuor 
partes. Katisbonae, Komae, Neo-Eboraci et Oincinnati: Smnpt. et 
typis Friderici Pnstet. 1912. 

In view of the Papal Constitution Divino afflatu, which ordains 
a different arrangement in the daily recitation of the Divine Office 
from that to which priests of the Latin rite have heretofore been ac- 
customed, it is a pleasure to have a new style Breviary. One of the 
best editions of the new Office book is being supplied by Fr. Pustet 
of Ratisbon, who takes first rank among the liturgical printers in 
Europe, not only on account of the excellent work produced by him 
in the past, but also by reason of the generosity with which the old 
head of the firm, Chevalier Pustet, undertook the expense of the 
various Medicean editions, at the time when Leo XIII, after reor- 
ganizing the liturgical services, could find no other European pub- 
lisher who was willing to run the financial risk involved in repro- 
ducing the more expensive books used only in exceptional choir 

The Breviary before us, in flexible binding, about seven by four 
inches, of light weight, printed on toned paper, is in form and 
typography an ideal " priest's prayer book ". It is of course under- 
stood that when one speaks of an ideal Breviary, it is only in a 
relative sense. Some readers require large type; others want the 
volume in the smallest possible format, so as to make of it a real 
vest-pocket edition; and there are many other preferences due to the 
habits or tastes of the individual. 

Apart from the excellences of form which we have mentioned, 
little is to be said about the volumes, as the matter is uniformly the 
same in all editions and placed as conveniently as experience and the 
requirements allow. We must note, however, since it may cause 
some annoyance to those who prefer this edition on other grounds, 
the faulty reference to the paging in the " Commune Sanctorum " ; 
thus, throughout we have the reference of the Te Deum to page 13, 
instead of page 7 ; the Antiphons at Lauds refer to Psalms on page 
14 instead of 28. There are given also the old Votive Offices, al- 
though they with their rubrics have been abolished by the new rules, 
and are useless except as archeological information needlessly increas- 
ing the bulk of the book. Evidently the entire portion printed in 
bracketed numbers, that is, the " Commune Sanctorum " and the 
" Officia Propria pro aliquibus locis ", wherever these refer to the 
Ordinariinn, needs to be revised to make the references correct. In 
some instances this error of reference extends to the Proper, as in the 
Office of St. Elizabeth (8 July). The rubric ** et per horas " under 
Lauds should also be eliminated. 


JAOOB. Being a supplement to "The Land and the Book". By 
William Hamid Thompson, M.D., LL.D. Illustrated. Funk & 
Wagnalls Oo. 1912. Pp. 285. 

The fifteen chapters of this handsomely printed little volume are 
lectures or talks on Biblical topics which group themselves in a 
somewhat desultory fashion within the period of the patriarchs. 
The writer, who traveled with his father, the author of the well- 
known The Land and the Book, fills in certain recesses of the latter 
work by descriptions of Scriptural personages, places, and charac- 
teristics of patriarchal life, interspersed with reminiscences and ex- 
pressions of opinion which offer instructive and interesting reading. 
In the matter of criticism, though the book does not aim at scien- 
tific form, the author is wholly conservative. 

OOMPENDIUM LITUEGIAE SAOEAE, jnxta Eltum Eomannm in Missae 
celebratione et Officii recitatione. Auctore Jos. Aertnys, O.SS.E., 
Theologiae Moralis et S. Liturgiae Professore emerito. Editio septima 
Oonstitntioni novissimae Pii PP. X ac recentissimis S.E.O. Decretis 
acoommodata. Tomaci: Libreria Oasterman (Galopiae: Firma M. 
Alberts). 1912. Pp. 180. 

The clergy everywhere are familiar with the title of the venerable 
Father Aertnys' summary of liturgical rules and approved prac- 
tices, for the book has been before the public for many years and 
had been republished in six editions before the promulgation, last 
November, of the Pontifical Constitution Divino afflatu. The pres- 
ent edition of the Compendium incorporates the changes made neces- 
sary by this document and thus becomes practically a new work. It 
may be well to recall here that the author's purpose is to explain 
briefly the rites of the Mass and of the general rubrics of the Mis- 
sal, as well as the method of reciting the Breviary. It thus inter- 
prets the offices of the ecclesiastical year and makes clear their 
mutual relations. The method of exposition, to which the typo- 
graphical arrangement also tends, makes the manual particularly 
useful for classes in the final year of preparation for sacred orders. 

Xtterar^ Cbat 

The Histoire de I'Inquisition en France by T. de Cauzons, the second volume 
of which has just been issued by the publishers of the Nouvelle Bibliotheque 
Historique, has been censured by the S. Congregation of the Index. The con- 
demnation is dated 6 May of the present year, and specifically refers to the 
first volume issued in 1909. We printed an exhaustive and objective criticism 
of the book at the time, pointing out the attitude of the author. That attitude, 
whilst it was in no wise hostile to the disciplinary institutions, much less 
to the faith of the Catholic Church, was one of occasional strong censure of 
the churchmen who represented the Inquisition during the period of its 
greatest severity. This, we assume, is the chief reason for placing the book 
on the Index, albeit the S. Congregation does not assign any specific reasons 
in such cases, unless they are asked for by the author; for it is to be under- 
stood that the grounds of censure become patent when once indicated as 
contained either in the spirit or statements of the work. 

The second volume, although it is not mentioned in the Index censure, 
since its appearance is simultaneous with the Decree, naturally shares in the 
censure of the Introductory History which forms the subject of volume one. 
In the second volume the author deals with the personnel, procedure, penalties 
and their execution, adopted under the authority of the Inquisition. A third 
and final volume was announced, to treat of the Inquisition within the borders 
of France. The student of history who abstracts from any opinion expressed 
by the author, and who takes the facts collated by him in the purely objective 
manner of the historian, must recognize the wide range of learning shown 
in the work. We trust the author may so modify his statements in a future 
edition as to divest his erudition of any taint of exaggerated conclusions, 
which must do harm to the uncritical reader and which offer weapons to the 
malignant critics against the legitimate and salutary discipline of the Church 
of Christ. 

Professor Singenberger has published an English translation of Battlogg's 
Catechism of Liturgy. It will prove a useful adjunct in the work of our 
church choirs, inasmuch as it explains the Latin terms of the chant and of 
the rubrics used in divine services. The Catechism is perhaps a little too 
wordy, considering that the English tongue expresses thought more directly, 
if not more forcibly, than German or Italian or French. A page or so at the 
end of the volume by way of a brief epitome of definitions for quick refer- 
ence would increase the usefulness of the brochure. 

New and interesting issues in the Octavo Edition of Liturgical Catholic 
Church Music published by Schirmer, of New York (Boston: Boston Music 
Co.) are: Mass in A, by J. Rheinberger, Op. 126, which is edited and re- 
vised by N. A. Montani, and can be sung by soprano and alto (with tenor 
and bass ad lib.) or by tenor and bass (singing the parts of soprano and 
alto) ; Mass in G in honor of Blessed Jeanne d'Arc, for four-part chorus 
(S.T.B.B.), by Pietro A. Yon; a Tantum Ergo (S.A.T.B.) in A minor, by 
G. J. S. White; a " Recordare, Virgo Mater Dei" by Abel A. Gabert, in- 
structor in ecclesiastical music at the Catholic University, Washington (for 
tenor and bass or soprano and mezzo soprano) ; and, in Schirmer's Collection 
of Masses and Vespers, the Missa " Orbis Factor " for unison chorus with 
organ, by Nicola A. Montani. The principal theme of this Mass (from 
which it derives its title) is taken from the melody of the Kyrie " Orbis 
Factor " of the Vatican Edition. It is so arranged that it can be sung by a 
choir either of boys or of men, or of both combined, the division of the choir 
into two sections providing a pleasing tonal variety in a unison melody which 



is melodic and simple, while the organ supports effectively by a sufficiently 
easy accompaniment. 

August is not a time when the general reader looks around for books on 
philosophy. Even the devotee of the queenly wisdom remits something of 
his perfervidity during the dog-day season. However, at least the professional 
student has one eye open toward the approaching school term and takes 
enough actual interest in passing events in his line to keep in touch with 
coming studies. Several highly important works have recently appeared, men- 
tion of which should here and now be made in anticipation of more detailed 
description reserved for September. 

First and above all there is an Introductory Philosophy, by Charles A. 
Dubray, S.M., Ph.D., professor at the Marist College, Washington, D. C. It 
is a text-book intended for use in colleges and high-schools, as well as in private 
instruction. It is not the highest praise to say that it stands easily in the first 
place amongst the books of its class. It is more just to add that absolutely, 
and not comparatively, it is a very excellent production, and that it were 
easier to understate than to exaggerate its merits. This will be shown in 
the next number of the Review. Suffice it here to recommend it in the 
strongest possible terms to those who are interested in the study or teaching 
of philosophy. (New York: Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

Next there is The Science of Logic, in two large stately volumes, by Dr. 
Coffey, professor at Maynooth. The author is well known through his pre- 
vious contributions to philosophy — translations, namely, of De Wulf's History 
of Medieval Philosophy, and Scholasticism, Old and New. Disciple as he 
is of the Louvain school, he is endeavoring to do for English readers what 
Professor (now Cardinal) Mercier and his colaborers have done for the 
French, i. e. furnish them with thorough studies on the several parts of the 
philosophical system. He has certainly laid a solid foundation in the present 
two volumes, and professors and advanced students will applaud and profit 
by his undertaking. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

A third notable contribution to philosophy is Present Philosophical Ten- 
dencies, by Ralph Perry, Ph. D., assistant professor of Philosophy at Harvard. 
As the sub-title indicates, it is a critical survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Prag- 
matism, and Realism. It contains also a synopsis of the philosophy of the 
late William James. Dr. Perry is a realist. His criticism of the opposite 
systems is frank and discriminating. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

A translation of Rosmini's Theodicy has recently been issued by Longmans 
in three neat volumes. The work is a series of essays setting forth manifold 
aspects of God's providence. It is timely as well as solid. The translator has 
modestly omitted his name, but he has done his work well. 

The translation of Dr. Stockl's well-known History of Philosophy by Fr. 
T. A. Finlay, S.J., now appears in one goodly volume, having previously been 
issued in two sections. The book covers the pre-scholastic and the Scholastic 
period. The second volume, to comprise modern philosophy, is in prepara- 
tion. The value of the book is too well established to need any commendation 
here. The translation is worthy of the text. (Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

From Epicurus to Christ, a widely read book, by the President of Bowdoin 
College, Dr. De Witt Hyde, has recently been reissued under a new title and 
one that is more descriptive of the scope of the work. The Epicurean, the 
Stoic, the Platonic, and the Aristotelian conceptions of life are set over 
against the Christian spirit of love. The book is readable and stimulating. 
(The Macmillan Co.). 


The Learning Process, by Stephen S. Colvin, Ph.D., professor of Psychology 
at the University of Illinois, is a detailed psychological analysis of the funda- 
mental conceptions and facts relative to the process of learning and its 
application, especially in the elementary and the secondary school. The mature 
mind and practical conduct are also considered. (The Macmillan Co.). 

Those who are interested in the Negro problem will find some of its aspects 
ably treated in a recent number of the Columbia " Studies in Economics " 
(124), entitled The Negro at Work in New York City, by George Haynes, 
Ph.D. Other issues in the same series are — British Radicalism, lygi-iygy ; 
A Comparative Study of the Law of Corporations (the legal protection of 
creditors and shareholders is principally considered) ; Provincial and Local 
Taxation in Canada (a description of the tax systems of the Canadian Prov- 
inces and their practical working) ; The Spirit of Chinese Philanthropy, by 
Yu-Yue Tsu, Ph.D. The last is a study in mutual aid that enlarges one's 
view of Chinese social conditions and makes one think much more kindly 
of the manifold forms of beneficence at work amongst his antipodal brethren. 
(Longmans, Green, & Co.) 

Books TRecefveb. 


Christ's Teaching Concerning Divorce in the New Testament. An 
Exegetical Study. By the Rev. Francis E. Gigot, D.D., Professor of Sacred 
Scripture in St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y., and Author of Several 
Works Introductory to the Study of the Holy Scriptures. New York, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago: Benziger Bros. 1912. Pp. 282. Price, $1.50 net. 

The Ezra- Apocalypse. Being Chapters 3-14 of the Book commonly known 
as 4 Ezra (or II Esdras) translated from a critically revised Text, with 
Critical Introductions, Notes and Explanation,s ; with a General Introduction 
to the Apocalypse, and an Appendix containing the Latin Text by G. H. Box, 
M.A., formerly Scholar of St. John's College, Oxford ; Lecturer in Rabbinical 
Hebrew, King's College, London ; together with a Prefatory Note by W. 
Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Lady Margaret Professor and Canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford ; Fellow of the British Academy. London : Sir Isaac Pitman 
& Sons. 1912. Pp. i4-lxxvii-387. Price, los. td. net. 

Where we got the Bible. A Catholic Contribution to the Tercentenary 
Celebrations. By the Rev. Father Graham, M.A., Motherwell, sometime Parish 
Minister. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder ; Edinburgh and London : Sands and 
Co. Pp. 147. Price, $0.15. 

The Scholastic View of Biblical Inspiration. By Hugh Pope, O.P., 
S.T.M., Doctor of S. Scripture, Prof. Collegio Angelico, Rome. Piccardo 
Garroni. 191 2. Pp. 52. 


Geist und Feuer. Pfingstgedanken. Von Dr. Ottokar Prohaszka, Bischof 
von Stuhlweissenburg. Ins Deutsche iibertragen von Baronin Rosa von den 
Wense. Kempten und Miinchen : Jos. Kosel. 1912. Seiten viii und 152. 
Preis : gebunden in Leinwd., M. 1.20 ; in weichem, biegsamen Leder, M. 2.20. 

Decreta Synodi Dioecesanae Kansanopolitanae Secundae die ix mensis 
Aprilis 1912 in Ecclesia Cathedrali Kansanopoli habitae ab Illmo ac Revmo 
Joanne Josepho Hogan, D.D., Episcopo Kansanopolitano, et ab Illmo ac Revmo 
Thoma Francisco Lillis, D.D., Episcopo Coadjutore. Atchison, Kansas: 
Abbey Student Press, St. Benedict's College. 1912. Pp. xxiii-121. 


Sancti BENEDrcTi Regula Monachorum. Editionem Critico-Practicam ad- 
ornavit D. Cuthbertus Butler, Abbas Monasterii S. Gregorii M. de Downside. 
Friburgi Brisgov. ; B. Herder: St. Louis, Mo. 1912. Pp. 211. Pr. $1.10. 

Praedicate Evangelium. Anleitung fur die Kanzel modemer Anforderung 
entsprechend mit einem Anhang von Predigtskizzen. Von Kurt Udeis. Zweite 
Auflage. Regensburg, Rom, New York und Cinicinnati : Fr. Pustet & Co. 
1912. Seiten 213. Preis, $0.75. 

Religion, Christentum, Kirche. Eine Apologetik fur wissenschaftlich 
Gebildete. Unter Mitarbeit von St. von Dunin-Borkowski, Job. P. Kirsch, 
N. Peters, J. Pohle, W. Schmidt und F. Tillmann herausgegeben von Prof. 
Dr. Gerhard Esser und Prof. Dr. Joseph Mausbach. Erster Band. Kempten 
und Miinchen : Jos. Kosel. 191 1. Seiten xx und 803. Preis: geheftet, M. 6. — ; 
gebunden, M. 7. — . 


The Mass. A Study of the Roman Liturgy. By Adrian Fortescue. New 
York, London, Bombay, Calcutta: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1912. Pp. xii- 
428. Price, $1.80, net. 

L'EucHOLOGiE Latine, etudiee dans la Tradition de ses Formules et de 
ses Formulaires. — P. 2, L'Eucharistia, Canon Primitif de la Messe ou For- 
mulaire essentiel et premier de toutes les Liturgies. Par Dom Paul Cagin. 
(Scriptorium Solesmense.) — Societe de Saint Jean L'Evangeliste. — Desclee et 
Cie. : Rome, Paris, Tournai. (Picard et Fils: Paris.) 1912. Pp. 334. 


The Science of Logic. An Inquiry into the Principles of Accurate Thought 
and Scientific Method. By P. CoflFey, Ph.D. (Louvain), Professor of Logic 
and Metaphysics, Maynooth College, Ireland. In two volumes. Vol. II : 
Method, Science, and Certitude. New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta: 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 1912. Pp. vii-359. Price, $2.50, net. 

Theodicy. Essays on Divine Providence. By Antonio Rosmini Serbati. 
Translated with some omissions from the Milan edition of 1845. Three 
volumes. New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta: Longmans, Green, & Co. 
19 12. Pp. xvii-475, vii-456, and 102 and 75. 

What is Socialism? An Exposition and a Criticism with Special Refer- 
ence to the Movement in America and England. By James Boyle, Private 
Secretary of Gov. Wm. McKinley, former Consul of the United States at 
Liverpool, England, author of The Initiative and Referendum, Organized. 
Labor and Court Decisions, The New Socialism, etc. New York : The 
Shakespeare Press. 1912. Pp. 347. 

Le Monisme Materialiste en France. Expose et Critique des Conceptions 
de MM. Le Dan tec, B. Conta, Mile. CI. Royer, Jules Soury, etc. Par J.-B. 
Saulze, Professeur de Philosophic au College Stanislas. Paris : Gabriel Beau- 
chesne & Cie. 19 12. Pp. 182. Prix, 3 fr. 

Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, edited by the Faculty of 
Political Science of Columbia University : British Radicalism lygi-iyg?. By 
Walter Phelps Hall, sometime Fellow in History, Columbia University. Vol. 
49, No. I. Pp. 262. Pr. $2.00. Law Corporations. A Comparative Study, 
with particular reference to the protection of creditors and shareholders. 
By Arthur K. Kuhn, Ph.D., LL.B. Vol. 49, No. 2. Pp. i73- Pr- $i-50. 
The Spirit of Chinese Philanthropy. A Study in mutual aid. By Yu-Yue Tsu, 
Ph.D. Vol. 50, No. I. Pp. 120. Pr. $1.00. Provincial and Local Taxation 
in Canada. By Solomon Vineberg, Ph.D., sometime Garth Fellow in Economics, 
Columbia University. Vol. 52, No. i. Pp. 171. Pr. $1.50. The Negro at 
Work in New York City. A Study in Economic Progress. By George 
Edmund Haynes, Ph.D., Prof. Social Science in Fisk University. New York : 
Columbia University. Vol. 49, No. 3. 1912. Pp. 158. Price, $1.25. Long- 
mans, Green and Co. ; London : P. S. King and Son. 


Fifth Series. — Vol. VII. — (XLVII). — September, 1912. — No. 3. 

IV. The Modern Schools : Evolutionism. 

EVOLUTION ! The magical word thrilled the world two 
generations ago as no scientific discovery or philosophical 
system ever did before. Whilst the abstruse doctrines of 
Kant and the neo-Kantians appealed only to the intellectual 
elite, here was a theory that, reduced to its simplest expression, 
appealed also to the man in the street, with only a smattering 
of knowledge. 

Its few and simple laws, easily intelligible; its all-embracing 
claims,'including, as they did, an account not only of the world 
and man, but of the far-away heavenly bodies, of the whole 
cosmos in fact, opened such wide vistas before the human 
mind, that, it was momentarily dazzled by the all-inclusive 
sweep of its vision. Taking airily for granted its subjectively 
evolved theories, it soon lost sight of the fact that in evolution 
it was dealing with an hypothesis, plausible indeed for the 
nonce, but one that needed to be objectively tested and estab- 
lished. Too often its language became colored with emotion, 
when admiring its deep insight, its now indisputable 

Fully confident that they had at last discovered the philos- 
opher's stone, the enthusiastic followers of Spencer and 
Darwin flung out their challenges, as the bold knights-errant 
of science, in the face of antiquated knowledge and religious 


For our nineteenth century it is just the change, the flow, the growth 
of things, that is the most interesting feature of the universe. Old- 
fashioned science used to go about classifying things. There were 
live things and dead things; there were classes, orders, families, 
genera, species, all permanent facts of nature. . . . And the dignity 
of human nature lay in just this its permanence. . . . Valuable in- 
deed was all this unhistorical analysis of the world and of man, 
valuable as a preparation for the coming insight; but how unvital, 
how unspiritual, how crude seem to us now all these eighteenth cen- 
tury conceptions of the mathematically permanent, the essentially 
unprogressive and stagnant himian nature, in the empty dignity of its 
unborn rights, when compared with our modern conceptions of the 
growing, struggling, historically continuous humamity, whose rights 
are nothing until it wins them in the tragic process of civilization, 
whose dignity is the dignity attained as the prize of untold ages of 
suffering, whose institutions embody thousands of years of ardor 
and of hard thinking, whose treasures even of emotion, are the be- 
quests of a sacred antiquity of self -conquest ! ^ 

Thus was the new philosophy invested on all sides with a 
dignity which was wholly factitious, and which appealed more 
to the sentimental side of man than to his calmer intellectual 

Like all great systems, the doctrine of evolution must be 
regarded, not as the special creation of some isolated thinker, 
be he Spencer or Darwin, but as the product of a slow growth. 
It had its rise in a twofold interest. 

Idealism, losing itself in transcendental speculations about 
our knowing faculties, was no longer in touch with the scien- 
tific facts revealed by observation; it could neither point nor 
lead to any valuable discoveries in the material universe, 
when they pressed to the fore in rapid succession. Post- 
Kantian idealists had inaugurated an age for which the pro- 
cesses of the world were primarily spiritual processes, gradual 
unfoldings and manifestations of the absolute, revealing and 
integrating itself in and through them. But when the hey- 
day of their dazzling a priori constructions had passed, there 
manifested itself a strongly empirical interest, born of a dread 
of the extravagances of the idealistic period, the product of 

1 The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, Josiah Royce ; Houghton, Mifflin & Co.^ 
1897, pp. 274-275. 


a hard-learned lesson in caution, the embodiment of an un- 
willingness to take phantom for truth. 

Hence, on parallel lines with the current of idealism, there 
started a current of speculation intent on studying not so much 
the mind and the laws that govern its faculties, as the objec- 
tive realities to which this knowledge is applied. Fragments 
were contributed from different sources, and Spencer gave 
them a common basis in the laws of Evolution which he 

Sir Charles Lyell, the English geologist, had shown in 1830 
how enormous effects are wrought by the cumulative action of 
slight and unobtrusive causes. For the catastrophes which the 
early geologists had conceived he substituted relatively uni- 
form natural processes, whereby, as they worked through long 
ages, the earth's crust had been slowly modified. On the basis 
of this uniformitarian geology a doctrine of the transforma- 
tion of species began to look more reasonable. 

The credit for the complete theory of evolution, however, 
belongs entirely to Herbert Spencer. Sometimes Spencer is 
supposed to be chiefly a follower and expounder of Darwin. 
No doubt this is because so many people mix up Darwinism 
with the doctrine of evolution, and have rather vague and 
hazy notions as to what it is all about. Darwin's great work 
was the discovery of natural selection and the demonstration 
of its agency in effecting specific changes in plants and ani- 
mals. In that work Darwin is completely original : he 
showed not so much that there is evolution in the world, but 
how evolution is effected within the sphere of life. But 
plants and animals are only part of the universe; and with 
regard to universal evolution, or any universal formula for 
evolution, Darwinism had little to say. The discovery of a 
universal formula for evolution and the application of this 
formula to many diverse groups of phenomena in the organic 
as well as the inorganic world, have been the great work of 
Herbert Spencer. Spencer did not even get his clue from 
Darwin, for the Origm of Species was published only in 
1859. True, toward the end of this volume Darwin looked 
forward toward the distant future when the conception of 
gradual development might be applied to the phenomena of 
intelligence; but this was several years after Spencer had 


enunciated many of his own ideas in various magazines and 
especially in his Principles, of Psychology, published in 1855. 

Spencer got his clue from the great German embryolo- 
gist Karl Ernst von Baer (1792- 1876), who published his 
Entwicklungsgeschichte in 1829. His conclusion was that 
the ovum is a structureless bit of organic matter. In acquir- 
ing structure along with its growth in volume and mass, it 
proceeds through a series of differentiations, and the result 
is a change from homogeneity to heterogeneity. 

Proceeding further, Spencer held that the change from 
homogeneity to heterogeneity is accompanied by a change from 
indefiniteness to definiteness. In other words, integration is 
as much a feature of development as differentiation : the 
change is not simply from a structureless whole into parts, but 
is from a structureless whole into an organized whole. And 
this is what we call an organism. 

There remained however the yawning chasm between or- 
ganic and inorganic matter. Spencer bridged" it without 
hesitation : the growth of organization is essentially a particu- 
lar kind of redistribution of matter and motion. This redis- 
tribution of matter and motion is going on universally in the 
inorganic world : from the simple elements of nature there is 
a gradual and continuous ascent toward the complicated living 

Finally, the psychical phenomena of instinct, memory, rea- 
son, emotion, and will, are shown to have arisen by slow gra- 
dation. Although mind is evolved from matter, Spencer re- 
fuses to be called a materialist ; for he maintains that you could 
not deduce mind from the primeval nebula unless the germs of 
mind were present already. All he claims to show is that 
mental philosophy can no longer confine itself to mere intro- 
spection of the adult human consciousness : it must deal with 
the whole range of psychical phenomena as manifestations of 
organic life; it must deal with them genetically and show how 
mind is constituted in connexion with the experiences of the 
past. ' 

The universal inclusiveness of this system leaves no nook or 
corner in the natural or speculative sciences that is not af- 
fected by the doctrine, not even the field of religion. 



With regard to religious dogmas Spencer himself preserves, 
he thinks, a respectful attitude. He grants that ** from the 
beginning religion has had the all-essential office of prevent- 
ing men from being wholly absorbed in the relative or imme- 
diate, and of awakening them to a consciousness of something 
beyond it." ^ There have of necessity been changes from a 
lower creed to a higher; and, speaking generally, the religious 
current in each age and among each people has been as near 
an approximation to the truth as it was then and there possible 
for men to receive.^ And if science is the enemy of super- 
stitions that cloak themselves with the name of religion, it is 
not the enemy of essential religion, which the superstitions 
darken. Doubtless in the science of to-day there is an irreli- 
gious spirit, but not in the true science, which, not stopping at 
the surface, penetrates to the depths of nature. With regard 
to human traditions and the authority that consecrated them, 
true science maintains a lofty attitude; but before the im- 
penetrable veil that hides the absolute, it humbles itself.' The 
sincere philosopher alone can know how high, not only above 
human knowledge, but above human conception, is the Uni- 
versal Power whereof nature, life, thought, are manifestations. 

The great vogue enjoyed by Spencer* and his followers in 
this country was due very very largely to this, that their tenets 
were seemingly based on tangible scientific facts, — and science 
was the idol at whose altar everyone pretended to worship. 

The early recognition by Emerson of evolution as the plan 
of the universe in his first book and everywhere in his prose 
and verse has often attracted notice. " The facts of as- 
tronomy and the nebular hypothesis early delighted him. 
The poetic teachings of the ancient philosophers, especially 
' The Flowing of the Universe ' by Heraclitus and the ' Iden- 
tity ' by Xenophanes, and others, prepared his mind. He had 
undoubtedly early read of Leibniz's ' scale of being ' from 
minerals through plants to animals, from monad to man ; and 
from Coleridge he knew something of the speculations of 
Schelling and Oken. When Lyell's book on Geology came out, 

2 H. Spencer, First Principles, p. 92; Rand, McNally & Co. edition. 

3 Ibid., p. 105. 

* His American editors sold three times as many copies of his works as did 
his British editors. Van Becelaere, op. cit., p. 121. 


it was read by Emerson, and in it the ideas of Lamarck first 
published in 1800 were mentioned. Emerson probably came 
on them there." ^ Yet, he never took to Spencer's interpreta- 
tion of the doctrine, based, as it claimed to be, on facts. He 
preferred to adhere to the interpretations his own fancy sug- 
gested, which gave him a freer scope to indulge his favorable 
flights of poetic imagination. Nay, in a moment of temper 
he once declared Spencer to be " nothing better than a mere 
stock writer who writes equally well upon all subjects." * 

John William Draper ( 181 1- 1882) was amongst the first 
in America to profess allegiance to the doctrine of evolution. 
Professor of Medicine in the University of New York, and 
an authority on the then developing science of chemistry, he 
has left no connected expose of his philosophical creed. But 
he was a typical example of the narrow-minded scientific 
*' specialist ", who cannot see beyond the confines of his own 
particular branch. And in the case of Draper that defect of 
an irretrievably warped mentality was emphasized by a blind 
and stubborn opposition to Catholicism. What he wrote of 
Luther may be applied to his own case : " The vilification 
which he poured on Roman Catholics and their doings was so 
bitter as to be ludicrous." "^ 

Already in his History of the Intellectual Development of 
Europe ® he had freely given vent to these ideas ; but he ela- 
borated them ex professo in a subsequent volume. History of 
the Confiict between Religion and Science.^ He took for 
granted that there must of necessity be opposition between the 
two. He worshipped ''Science" with idolatrous fervor; he 
saw " that a divine revelation must necessarily be intolerant 
of contradiction," ^® but failed to see that any system of truths, 

5 Emerson's Compl. Works, Edit. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904; Nature, 
Biogr. Sketch by E. W. Emerson, pp. xxv-xxvi. 

« Outline of EvoL Philosophy, by Dr. M. E. Gazelles, translated by O. B. 
Frothingham, Appendix by E. L. Youmans, M.D. ; New York, D. Appleton 
& Co., 1875, p. 117. 

''' " The vilification which was poured on Luther and his doings was so 
bitter as to be ludicrous." J. Wm. Draper, History of the Conflict between 
Religion and Science, 5th ed., New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1875, p. 296. 

8 London, 1863, 2 vol. 

^ One of the volumes of the International Scientific Series, D. Appleton & 
Co., New York, 1875. 

1^ Conflict between Religion and Science, op. cit., p. vi. 


scientific as well as religious, must be intolerant if it is not to 
degenerate into an Arabian Nights' tale. What would 
the Copernican system amount to if it were not a scientific 
dogma? What would evolutionism amount to if, speaking 
from the viewpoint of its adepts, it were not scientifically un- 
assailable? The author claims to have written his book in 
an impartial spirit; but nowhere is there any reference to 
historical sources, and now it has only the value of a literary 
curiosity, showing how an otherwise keen mind, seemingly 
without any interested motives, can become obsessed by fixed 

The influence of Draper does not seem to have been deep or 
lasting. That of Edward Livingstone Youmans ( 182 1 -188 7) 
was both. 

One evening in i860 as Youmans was calling at a friend's 
house in Brooklyn, the Rev. Samuel Johnson of Salem handed 
him the famous prospectus of the great series of philosophical 
works which Spencer proposed to issue by subscription. The 
very next day Youmans wrote a letter to Spencer off'ering his 
aid in procuring American subscriptions and otherwise facili- 
tating the enterprise by every means in his power. With this 
letter and Spencer's cordial reply began the lifelong friend- 
ship between the two men. As long as he lived, Spencer had 
upon this side of the Atlantic an alter ego ever on the alert 
for the slightest chance to promote his interests and those of 
his system of thought.^^ 

^1 A few extracts will suffice to give an idea of the author's state of mind : 
" In the Vatican — we have only to recall the Inquisition — the hands that are 
now raised in appeals to the Most Merciful, are crimsoned. They have been 
steeped in blood" (p. xi). "When Halley's Comet came in 1456 it was neces- 
sary for the Pope himself to interfere. He exorcised and expelled it from 
the skies. It slunk away into the abysses of space, terror-stricken by the 
maledictions of Callixtus III, and did not venture back for 75 years" (p. 269), 
" Whenever, says the Bishop Alvara Pelayo, I entered the apartments of the 
Roman Court clergy, I found them occupied in counting up the gold-coin, 
which lay about the room in heaps" (p. 276). "The Protestants designed 
to bring back Christianity to its primitive purity, and hence, while restoring 
the ancient doctrines, they cast out of it all such practices as the adoration 
of the Virgin Mary and the invocation of Saints. The Virgin Mary, we are 
assured by the Evangelists, [note the pitiful cocksureness of the assertion] 
had accepted the duties of married life and borne to her husband several 
children. In the prevailing idolatry she had ceased to be regarded as the 
carpenter's wife; she had become the Queen of Heaven and the Mother of 
God" (p. 298). 

12^ Century of Science, John Fiske ; Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1899, pp. 
88, 92. 


Youmans' only published volume of philosophical import is 
a work on education, The Culture demanded by Modern Life^^ 
a series of addresses and arguments on the claims of scientific 
education. His literary activity found an outlet especially on 
the lecture platform. In 1868 he began his career as lecturer, 
and' soon made a name for himself as one of the ablest ex- 
pounders of Spencer's unified conception of nature. "As a 
lecturer Youmans was absolutely unconscious of himself, sim- 
ple, straightforward and vehement, wrapped up in his subject, 
the very embodiment of faith and enthusiasm, of heartiness 
and good cheer. In hundreds of little towns all over the land 
did his strong personality appear, make its way, and leave its 
effects in the shape of new thoughts, new questions and en- 
larged hospitality of mind, among the inhabitants. The re- 
sults of all his efforts are surely visible to-day, for in no part 
of the English-speaking world has Spencer's philosophy met 
with such a general and cordial reception as in the United 
States." ^* Youmans was truly " the interpreter of science for 
the people ". 

In furtherance of this end he also set on foot the publication 
of '* The International Scientific Series ",^^ a collection of 
popular treatises by the foremost scientists of the day. And 
finally in 1872 he established The Popular Science Monthly. 
He believed that the mind of the people is not educated by 
dumping into it a great unshapely mass of facts, but that it 
needs to be stimulated rather than crammed. Hence he wanted 
a scientific magazine which would present articles from all 
quarters, and which should deal with the essential conceptions 
of science in such a manner that they may be read and under- 
stood " by him who runs ". That he gauged the popular at- 
titude aright is shown by the fact that his magazine is still 
doing the work he intended for it. All opinions of scientific, 
philosophical, or religious interest have found expression in 
its pages, the last named being always treated with the under- 
standing that " in the world to which we are coming there 
will neither be a place nor a use for orthodoxies ". 

13 It was not an original work, but a compilation by Youmans of addresses 
by Spencer, Tyndall, Huxley, etc. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1873. 
^^ A Century of Science, John Fiske, op. cit., p. 86. 
^^ Some fifty volumes were published, all by D. Appleton & Co., New York. 


Perhaps the greatest American expounder of the evolu- 
tionary philosophy in all its aspects was John Fiske (1842- 
1901)/® who, being the master of an extremely lucid and 
attractive style, was also a thinker of great acuteness and 
depth. He knew how to mould the doctrines of Spencer and 
Darwin in a popular form. He surrounded them with fresh 
and vivid illustrations, pointed out their bearings upon great 
practical questions of the day ; and in his theory about the in- 
fluence of prolonged infancy on the social development of man 
made an original contribution to evolutionistic philosophy. 

Fiske repeatedly disclaims that evolution is in any way 
materialistic or atheistic, and he takes Prof, Hackel severely 
to task for his blatant assumptions. He sums up Hackel's 
doctrines in the following theses : 

1. The general doctrine of evolution appears to be already unas- 
sailably founded ; 2. thereby every supernatural creation is com- 
pletely excluded ; 3. transformism and the theory of descent are in- 
separable constituent parts of the doctrine of evolution ; 4. the 
necessary consequence of this last conclusion is the descent of man 
from a series of vertebrates ; 5. the belief in an immaterial soul and 
in a personal God are herewith completely ununitable [vollig 
imvereinbar) . 

And then Fiske continues : 

Now, if Prof. Hackel had contented himself with asserting that these 
two last beliefs are not susceptible of scientific demonstration, if 
he had simply said that they are beliefs concerning which a scientific 
man in his scientific capacity ought to refrain from making assertions, 
because science knows nothing whatever about the subject, he would 
have occupied an impregnable position. ... To a materialist the 
ultimate power is mechanical force, and psychical life is nothing but 
the temporary and local result of fleeting collocations of material 
elements in the shape of nervous systems. 

Into the endless circuit of transformations of molecular motion, 
says the materialist, there enter certain phases which we call feelings 
and thoughts ; they are parts of the circuit : they arise out of motion 

^^ Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, 2 vol., 1874; The Unseen World and 
Other Essays, 1876; Darwinism and Other Essays, 1879; The Destiny of Man, 
1884; Excursions of an Evolutionist, 1887; The Idea of God as Affected by 
Modern Knowledge, 1887; E. L. Youmans, Interpreter of Science for the 
People, 1894; A Century of Science and Other Essays, 1899; Through Nature 
to God, 1899; Myths and Mythmakers, 1900. 


of material molecules and disappear by being transformed into such 
motion. Hence, with the death of the organism in which such mo- 
tions have been temporarily gathered into a kind of unity, all psychi- 
cal activity and all personality are ipso facto abolished.^' 

There are those that say in their hearts : " There is no God ", 
and congratulate themselves they are going to die like beasts. 
They lay hold of each new discovery of science that modifies our 
views of the universe, and herald it as a crowning victory for ma- 
terialism, — a victory which is ushering in the happy day when athe- 
ism is to be the creed of all men. It is in view of such philoso- 
phizers that the astronomer, the chemist, the anatomist, whose aim 
is the dispassionate examination of evidence, and the unbiased study 
of phenomena, may fitly utter the prayer: Lord, save me from my 
friends. ^^ 

For Fiske does not believe that there can be any possible 
conflict between religion and science. Is it not obvious, he 
says, that since a philosophical system must regard divine 
powers as the ultimate source of all phenomena alike, there- 
fore science cannot properly explain any particular group of 
phenomena by a direct reference to the action of the Deity? 
Such a reference is not an explanation, since it adds nothing 
to our previous knowledge either of the phenomena or of the 
manner of divine action. The business of science is simply to 
ascertain in what manner phenomena coexist with each other, 
or follow each other, and the only kind of explanation with 
which it can properly deal is that which refers one set of 
phenomena to another set. In pursuing this its legitimate 
business, science does not touch on the province of theology in 
any way, and there is no conceivable occasion for any conflicr 
between the two.^^ 

On the contrary, as Fiske sees it, 

the result of the whole is to put evolution in harmony with religious 
thought, — not necessarily in harmony with particular religious 
dogmas or theories, but in harmony with the great religious drift, so 
that the antagonism which used to appear to exist between religion 
and science is likely to disappear. If you take the case of some 
evolutionist like Prof. Hackel, who is perfectly sure that materialism 

"^"^ A Century of Science, p. 55. Also, Darwinism and Other Essays, p. 49, 
ff., and p. 62 fF. 

18 The Idea of God, p. 43-44. ^^ Ibid., p. 101-102. 


accounts for everything (he has got it all cut and dried and settled, 
he knows all about it so that there is really no need of discussing 
the subject!), if you ask the question whether it was his scientific 
study of evolution that really led him to such a dogmatic conclusion, 
or whether it was that he started from some purely arbitrary as- 
sumption, like the French materialists of the eighteenth century, I 
have no doubt the latter would be the true explanation.^® 

Fiske takes for granted the fundamental theories of Spencer 
and Darwin. He considers them as solidly established as any 
scientific theory can be : " There is no more reason for sup- 
posing that their conclusions will ever be gainsaid, than for 
supposing that the Copernican astronomy will some time be 
overthrown and the concentric spheres of Dante's heaven re- 
instated, in the minds of men.'' ^^ They form the basis of his 
own philosophical system, in which his original contribution 
about the influence of prolonged infancy is worth while 

Darwin in his Descent of Man did not, so Fiske holds, 
solve the question of the origin of man. In his work on The 
Origin of Species he undertook to point out a vera causa of 
their origin, and he did it In his Descent of Man he brought 
together a great many minor generalizations which facili- 
tated the understanding of man's origin. But he did not even 
come near to solving the problem; nor did he anywhere 
show clearly why natural selection might not have gone on 
forever producing one set of beings after another, distin- 
guishable chiefly by physical differences. But Darwin's co- 
discoverer, Alfred Russell Wallace, at an early stage in his 
researches, struck out a most brilliant and pregnant sugges- 
tion : that in the course of the evolution of a very highly or- 
ganized animal, if there came a point at which it is of more 
advantage to that animal to have variations in his intelli- 
gence seized upon and improved by natural selection, than to 
have physical changes seized upon, then natural selection 
would begin working almost exclusively upon that creature's 
intelligence, and he would develop in intelligence to a great 
extent, while his physical organism would change but slightly. 
And this applies especially in the case of man, who physically 

20^ Century of Science, pp. 115, 1 16. 
21 Destiny of Man, p. 20. 


is changed but little from the apes, whilst intellectually he is 
separated from them by a stupendous chasm. Those accumu- 
lations of slight variations have brought about, in the case of 
man, a difference in kind, transcending all other differences.^^ 
Henceforth the dominant aspect of evolution was to be, not 
the genesis of species, but the progress of civilization.^^ 

And if there is any one thing in which the human race is signally 
distinguished from other mammals, it is in the enormous duration 
of infancy. The infancy of the animal is in a very undeveloped 
condition, with the larger part of its faculties in potentiality rather 
than in actuality ; this is a direct result of the increase of intelli- 
gence. First natural selection goes on increasing the intelligence, 
and secondly, when the intelligence goes far enough, it makes a 
longer infancy: a creature is born less developed, and therefore 
comes this plastic period during which he is more teachable. The 
capacity for progress begins to come in, and you begin to get at one 
of the great points in which man is distinguished from the lower 
animals ; for one of these great points undoubtedly is his progres- 
siveness. And I think that anyone will say with very little hesitation 
that if it were not for our period of infancy, we should not be 

Then looking around to see what are the other points that are 
most important in which man differs from the lower animals, there 
comes the matter of the family. The family has adumbrations and 
f oreshadowings among the lower animals ; but in general it may be 
said that while animals lower than man are gregarious, in man have 
become established these peculiar relationships which constitute what 
we know as the family. And it is easy to see how the existence 
of helpless infants v,^ould bring about just that state of things. The 
necessity of caring for the infant would prolong the period of 
maternal affection, and would tend to keep the father and mother 
and children to.gether. Real monogamy, real faithfulness of the 
male parent belong to a comparatively advanced stage. But in the 
early stages the knitting together of permanent relations between 
mother and infant, and the approximation toward steady relations 
on the part of the male parent came to bring about the family and 
gradually to knit those organizations which we know as clans. 

The instant society becomes organized in clans, natural selection 
cannot let these clans be broken up and die out ; the clan becomes the 
chief object or care of natural selection, because if you destroy it, 

22 A Century of Science, p. 104. 

23 Destiny of Man, p. 31. 


you retrograde again, you lose all you have gained. Consequently 
these clans in which the primeval selfish instincts were so modified 
that the individual conduct would be subordinated to some extent 
to the needs of the clan, those are the ones which would prevail in 
the struggle for life. In this way you gradually get an external 
standard to which man has to conform his conduct, and you get the 
germs of altruism and morality.^* 

If such is man's origin, what is his nature, and his destiny? 
Fiske is fond of repeating that, '' Darwinism replaces as much 
teleology as it destroys " ; ^^ that " the process of evolution is 
itself the working-out of a mighty teleology of which our 
finite understandings can fathom but the scantiest rudi- 
ments." ^® Hence he holds that the doctrine of evolution is 
far from degrading man; but by exhibiting the development 
of the highest spiritual human qualities as the goal toward 
which God's creative work has from the outset been tending, 
replaces man in the old position of headship in the universe as 
in the days of Dante and Aquinas. " That which the pre- 
Copernican astronomy tried to do by placing the home of 
man in the centre of the physical universe, the Darwinian bio- 
logy profoundly accomplishes by exhibiting man as the ter- 
minal fact in that stupendous process of evolution whereby 
things have come to be what they are. In the deepest sense it 
is as true as it ever was held to be that the world was made 
for man and that the bringing forth in him of those qualities 
which we call highest and holiest is the final cause of crea- 
tion." ^^ Man is the chief object of divine care, the crown 
and glory of the universe; but loaded down with a brute in- 
heritance of original sin, his ultimate salvation is slowly to be 
achieved through ages of moral discipline; and herein we find 
the strongest incentive to right living.^^ 

Whence came the soul of man ? We no more know than we 
know whence came the universe. The primal origin of con- 
sciousness is hidden in the depths of the bygone eternity.^* 

24 Op. cit., p. 109-110. 

-^ The Idea of God, p. 160. 

"^^ Cosmic Philosophy, Vol. TI, p. 406. 

"^"^ The Idea of God, p. xxi. 

28 Ibid., p. 165. 

29 Destiny of Man, p. 42. 


That it cannot possibly be the product of any cunning arrange- 
ment of material particles is demonstrated beyond peradven- 
ture by what we know of the correlation of physical forces. 
The Platonic view of the soul as a spiritual substance, an ef- 
fluence from Godhood, which under certain conditions becomes 
incarnated in perishable forms of matter, is doubtless the view 
most consonant with the present state of our knowledge.^^ 
As for its destiny : 

It is not likely that we shall ever succeed in making the immortality 
of the soul a matter of scientific demonstration, for we lack the re- 
quired data. It must ever remain an affair of religion, rather than 
of experience. In the domain of cerebral physiology the question 
might be debated forever without a result. The only thing which 
cerebral physiology tells us when studied with the help of molecular 
physics, is against the materialist so far as it goes. .It tells us that 
during the present life, although thought and feeling are always 
manifested in connexion with a peculiar form of matter, yet by no 
possibility can thought and feeling be in any sense the products of 
matter. Nothing could be more grossly unscientific than the famous 
remark of Cabanis that the brain secretes thought as the liver 
secretes bile. What goes on in the brain is an amazingly complex 
series of molecular movements, with which thought and feeling are 
in some unknown way correlated, not as effects or as causes, but as 
concomitants. So much is clear ; but cerebral physiology says noth- 
ing about another life. Indeed, why should it? The last place in 
the world to which I should go for information about a state of 
things in which thought and feeling can exist in the absence of a 
cerebrum, would be cerebral physiology. The materialist assump- 
tion that there is no such state of things and that the life of the 
soul accordingly ends with the life of the body, is perhaps the most 
colossal instance of baseless assumption that is known to the history 
of philosophy. . . . When we desist from the futile attempt to in- 
troduce scientific demonstration into a region which confessedly 
transcends human experience, and when we consider the question 
upon broad grounds of moral probability, I have no doubt that men 
will continue in the future as in the past, to cherish the faith in a 
life beyond the grave.^^ 

Closely related to this is Fiske's theory about the existence 
of God. We have heard him repudiate atheism in the strong- 

^^ Destiny of Man, p. 43. 

81 Destiny of Man, pp. no, III. 


est terms; he admits a " cosmic theism." The idea of God 
has of course undergone many changes in the course of its 
evolution. From fetishism and polytheism it has finally de- 
veloped into monotheism. *^ The theory of divine action im- 
plied throughout the Gospels and the Epistles was the first 
complete monotheism attained by mankind, or at least by that 
portion of it from which our modern civilization has descended. 
In its fundamental features this theism was so true that it 
must endure as long as man endures." ^^ 

When we come to interpret this idea in the light of modern 
science, we must confess that, in dealing with the infinite, we 
are dealing with that which transcends our powers of concep- 
tion. Our experience does not furnish the materials for the 
idea of a personality which is without limits. But it does not 
follow that there is no reality answering to what such an idea 
would be if it could be conceived. And since the teleological 
instinct in man cannot be suppressed or ignored, the human 
soul shrinks from the thought that it is without kith or kin 
in this vast universe. Our reason demands that there shall be 
a reasonableness in the constitution of things. This demand 
is a fact in our physical nature as positive and irrepressible as 
our acceptance of geometrical axioms, and our rejection of 
whatever controverts such axioms. 

Does this belief answer to any outward reality? Is there 
aught in the scheme of things that justifies man in claiming 
kinship of any kind with the God that is immanent in the 
world? For the conception of a God external to the world 
and who created the same is only a remnant of barbaric ages 
that can no longer be entertained. Yes ; but we can only con- 
ceive it or him in a symbolical way. 

The universe as a whole is thrilling in every fibre with life, not 
indeed life in the usual restricted sense, but life in a general sense. 
The distinction once deemed absolute between the living and the 
not-living, is converted into a relative distinction, and the life as 
manifested in the organism is seen to be only a specialized form of 
the universal life.^^ . . . Nowhere in nature is inertness or quies- 
cence to be found : all is quivering with energy ; all motions of rtiat- 
ter are manifestations of force to which we can assign neither be- 

32 The Idea of God, p. 78. 

33 The Idea of God, p. 149. 



ginning nor end. Matter is indestructible, motion is indestructible ; 
and beneath both these universal truths lies this fundamental truth 
that force is persistent. All the phenomena of the universe are the 
manifestations of a single animating principle that is both infinite 
and eternal, a Power v^hich is always and everywhere manifested in 
phenomena. This Power is the source of what we can see, hear and 
touch; it is the source of what we call matter; but it cannot itself 
be material. The only conclusion we can consistently hold is that 
" this is the very same power which in ourselves wells up under the 
form of consciousness." ^* 

This is the conclusion of Herbert Spencer. And thus, al- 
though he disclaims the appellation, Fiske's speculations end 
in a thinly veiled pantheism. 

We have dvi^elt at some length on Fiske's theories, because 
his works form an encyclopedia of evolutionary philosophy in 
America. Many of his contemporaries professed and still 
profess adhesion to the theories he represented ; but often they 
lack his insight and his grasp of the philosophical import of 
the scientific doctrines on which evolution is based. 

Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1889),^^ member of the U. S. 
Academy of Sciences, was especially engaged in zoological 
and paleontological work. In his chosen domain he is a pains- 
taking investigator. He does not however seem to realize the 
limits of scientific investigation ; whenever he invades the 
speculative domain, he becomes diffuse and falls into a philo- 
sophical logomachy. Feeling called upon, notwithstanding 
his limitations, to account for absolutely everything on the 
basis of evolution, he thus explains the state of innocence and 
the fall of our first parents : 

If physical evolution be a reality, we have reason to believe that the 
infantile stage of human morals as well as of human intellect was 
much firolonged in the history of our first parents. This constitutes 
the period of human purity, when we are told by Moses that the first 
pair dwelt- in Eden. But the, growth to maturity saw the develop- 
ment of all the qualities inherited from the irresponsible denizens 
of the forest. Man inherits from his predecessors in the creation 
the buddings of reason ; he inherits propensities and appetites. His 

a* The Idea of God, p. 154. 

^^The Origin of Man, 188$; The Origin of the Fittest, 1887; Factors of 
Organic Evolution, 1889. 


corruption is that of his animal progenitors, and his sin is the law 
and bestial instinct of the brute creation. Thus only is the origin 
of sin made clear. ^^ 

And to clinch his argument, he mentions the fact that, ac- 
cording to some exegetical writer, the word *' serpent '' used 
in Genesis should be translated by " ape," ** a conclusion," he 
continues, "exactly coinciding with our induction on the basis 
of evolution. The instigation to evil by an ape merely states 
inheritance in another form." *^ Thus we are better prepared 
for the author's final conclusion: ''After we reject from cus- 
tomary religion cosmogony which belongs to science, and 
theogony which belongs to the imagination, we have left an 
art which has for its object the development and sustentation 
of good works and morals amongst men. If the teachers and 
professors of this art produce the results in this direction at 
which they aim, their great utility must be conceded by all. 
. . . Whether man possess the spontaneous power called ' free 
will ', or not, the work of supplying inducements for good con- 
duct is most useful to society." ^® 

Joseph Leconte (1823-1901),^^ professor at the University 
of California, concentrates his efforts on a conciliation of re- 
ligion and evolutionary science, implicitly taking for granted 
that they must be opposed to one another. And indeed, he 
claims, they will remain so as long as we admit with the old 
religious creeds, now fortunately on the wane, that God is a 
being external to the world, interfering with it at times by 
miraculous suspension of its laws. But evolution has taught 
us to believe in a God immanent, resident in nature, at all 
times and at all places directing every event and determining 
every phenomenon; a God in whom, in the most literal sense 
not only we, but all things have their being, in whom all things 
consist, in whom all things exist. The phenomena of nature 
are naught else than objectified modes of divine thought, the 
forces of nature naught else than different forms of one omni- 

3« Ed. D. Cope, The Origin of the Fittest; D. Appleton & Co., New York, 
1887, p. 167. 

»^ Ibid., p. 167, note. 

38 Ibid., p. 238. 

^^ Religion and Science, 1874; Evolution, its Nature, its Evidence, and its 
Relation to Religious Thought, 1891. 



present divine energy or will, the laws of nature naught else 
than the regular modes of operation of that divine will, un- 
variable because He is unchangeable.*^ The human soul is 
derived from God, not directly created indeed, but only by 
the natural process of evolution; it preexisted as embryo in 
the womb of nature, slowly developed throughout all geologi- 
cal times, finally coming to birth as a living soul in man. Thus 
it attains immortality at a certain stage of development, viz. 
at spirit birth.*^ 

Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906),*^ professor at 
Harvard and rightly looked upon as one of our greatest geo- 
logists, hesitates to assert even that much. As a man accus- 
tomed to deal with facts he feels his limitations when he is 
about to state their philosophical implications. Anent that 
thorny question in evolution, the origin of life, he wrote to- 
ward the end of his long career : 

In all the skilful and patient research which has been devoted to 
the task of proving the possibility of spontaneous generation, there 
has as yet been no instance found in which, from matter which was 
not already living, any organic being has been brought forth. The 
value of the evidence as to the separation of the living from the 
not-living, which became evident a century ago, has been increased 
by recent studies, with the result that naturalists have of late re- 
garded the barrier between two states as one of great permanence, 
— one seldom passed, and then only under very peculiar conditions, 
the nature of which is not yet discovered.*^ 

The only conditions we could think of in the present state of 
science are that life can have originally begun only in water, 
e. g. in a hot spring coming from lavas where there might have 
been a deposit of materials such as constitute organic bodies. 
But, he goes on, this hypothesis by no means explains the 
way in which these dissolved materials took on their organic 
form; it only provides for the gathering-together of the ele- 
ments necessary for the organization; in a word, it helps us 

^^ Evolution, Its Nature, etc., D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1891, p. 301. 

*i Ibid., p. 326. 

^^ Nature and Man in America, 1891 ; The Interpretation of Nature, 1893; 
The Individual, 1900, besides numerous purely scientific studies. 

*8 The Individual, A Study of Life and Death, D. Appleton & Co., New 
York, 1900, pp. 18-19. 


only a little way toward the critical point where the essentially 
lifeless becomes truly alive.** 

When facing the ultimate problems which every evolution- 
ist must face sooner or later, unless he abdicate his power of 
reasoning, Shaler does not even seek recourse to blind faith 
or the demands of morality to establish the immortality of 
the soul or the existence of God. " The materialist conten- 
tion that mind is but a function of the body, and ceases when 
all the other functions cease at death, raises but a presumption 
against the continuance of mind after death." A presumption 
in favor of this continuance, he proceeds to say, is found in 
the fact that the rationality of the operations of nature cannot 
be explained except by supposing that a mighty kinsman of 
man is at work behind it all, who will also at the same time 
take care of us human beings.*^ In what way? We know 
not. But seeing a real, though impersonal immortality, in the 
past of our life, as it has come up through the ages, men will 
look forward with a perfect confidence to the future which 
awaits them, sure in their belief, with a certainty denied to 
their fathers, that the Power that has brought them here will 
deal well with them in the hereafter.*^ 

David Jayne Hill (1850), who was professor at several uni- 
versities, and our late ambassador to Germany, interprets the 
world,*^ man, and all the manifestations of his intellectual life, 
such as art, science, and religion, in accordance with evolu- 
tionary principles. 

H. Fairfield Osbom (1857), of Columbia University, has 
always been the ardent champion of the same principles in 
numerous scientific and educational papers, and has besides 
given us a valuable outline of the development of the evolution 
idea in the history of thought.*® 

As an indication of how deeply evolution has taken root in 
the scientific world, it is interesting to read Fifty Years of 
DarTvinism : Modern Aspects of Evolution ; Centennial ad- 

44 Ibid., p. 19, note. ^^ ibid., p. 313. *« Ibid., p. 333- 

*7 Genetic Philosophy, 1893. 

*8 From the Greeks to Darwin, Outline of the Development of the Evolution 
Idea, 1894. The author's attempt to make St. Augustine one of the fathers 
of modern evolutionism seems to spring not so much from misrepresentation 
as from imperfect, second-hand acquaintance with Augustinian philosophy. 
Pp. 71 ff. . 



dresses in honor of Chas. Darwin before the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, Baltimore, Jan. i, 
1909.*^ The volume contains papers by several American 
University professors, and one by Prof. Edw. B. Poulton, of 
Oxford, in which he pays high tribute to the part played by 
American scientists in the diffusion of evolution. 

In the domain of ethnography American evolutionism is 
represented by Lewis Morgan (1818-1881),^® and Daniel G. 
Brinton (1837-1900).^^ The mind of man being a develop- 
ment of that of the brute, it becomes easy to find proofs of 
this a priori doctrine in the racial characteristics, especially of 
savage or little developed tribes, because these are supposed 
to manifest the various phases of evolution in their simplest 

It was but natural also that on account of its immediate 
practical consequences the study of ethics should be eagerly 
taken up by evolutionist philosophers. And this was done at 
times with manifestations of prejudice and temper ill-befitting 
so-called scientific treatises. A conspicuous example is found 
in C. M. Williams,^^ who not only decries the hypothesis of 
God as unscientific, but inveighs with great acrimony against 
Old Testament morals. Yet, if they are a mere passing phase 
in the evolutionary process, a lower stage which we have 
happily long since outgrown, they scarcely call for con- 

P. Bixby ^^ and Sidney E. Mezes ^* are more moderate in 
the expression of their views, while giving the traditional evo- 
lutionistic theories on the foundations of morality. 

If evolutionism enlisted illustrious names amongst its fol- 
lowers in this country, it also met with determined opposition 

49 Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1909. 

^^ Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, 1871, in 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. XVII. This work was con- 
densed into : Ancient Society, 1873, 

^1 The American Race, 189 1 ; The Myths of the New World, 1896; Races 
and Peoples; The Basis of Social Relations. 

"2 A Review of the Systems of Ethics founded on the Theory of Evolution, 

^3 The Ethics of Evolution, 1900. 

^* Ethics Descriptive and Explanatory, 1901. 


from others. Already Helmholtz (i 821 -1894), the great 
German naturalist, had asserted that, " while natural selection 
might have been competent to produce varieties within the 
same species, and even many so-called species, the question of 
the descent of species in general and of man in particular is at 
present determined rather by the preconceptions of individual 
investigators, than by the facts themselves. And Virchow 
(182 1 -1902) with equal scientific authority wrote that "at 
the present time there is no actual warrant for taking the step 
from the theory of descent to the fact of descent." Even 
Prof. Huxley (1825 -1895), Darwin's friend and defender, 
reminds us that " our acceptance of the Darwinian theory 
must be provisional, so long as one link in the chain of evidence 
is missing ; and so long as all the animals and plants certainly 
produced by selective breeding from a common stock are fer- 
tile, and their progeny are fertile with one another, that link 
will be wanting. For so long selective breeding will not be 
proved to be competent to do all that is required of it to pro- 
duce natural species." ^^ 

In the face of such opposition, and representing as it did 
the most advanced opinions, while disturbing widely cherished 
beliefs at many points, it was natural that the evolutionary 
theories should be strenuously resisted and unsparingly criti- 
cized. Thus Col. Higginson wrote as early as 1864: "Mr. 
Spencer has what Talleyrand calls the weakness of omni- 
science, and must write not alone on astronomy, metaphysics, 
and banking, but also on music, dancing, and style. It seems 
rather absurd to attribute to him as a scientific achievement 
any vast enlargement or further generalization of the modern 
scientific doctrine of evolution." ^^ 

But these rather personal criticisms could not have the 
weight of a life-long opposition to the theory of a man like 
Prof. Louis Agassiz (1807- 1873) of Harvard, one of the 
greatest American naturalists of the nineteenth century. In 
his teaching as well as in his numerous scientific memoirs he 
consistently and relentlessly fought the Darwinian theory. 
He found nothing in his extensive scientific observations that 

55 Compare : Huxley; Lay Sermons; D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1872, 
pp. 292-295. 

56 Estimating Spencer; The Friend of Progress, 1864. 



compelled him to accept Darwinism as the only scientific ex- 
planation of biological phenomena; the personifications of 
nature and of natural selection did not appeal to him as verae 
causae \ and he was besides firmly convinced that Darwinism 
led to atheism and materialism. Evolutionists never could 
reconcile themselves to his hostile attitude, and certainly failed 
to grasp the weight of his arguments. 

George Ticknor Curtis (1812-1894) ^^ and S. W. Dawson 
( 1 820- 1 899)/® one time president of McGill University, Mon- 
treal, went deeper into the philosophical foundations of evo- 
lutionism than did Agassiz. They were not carried away by 
the brilliant novelties and the unreasoned enthusiasm born of 
plausible but unverified suppositions. Curtis especially points 
out with great acumen how, the theory of evolution having 
once been admitted, proofs have been made to suit the theory, 
whilst the latter is nothing more than an unstable aggregate 
of hypotheses. 

Another clear-sighted and relentless critic of the evolution- 
ist position is Jacob Gould Schurman (1854),^^ president of 
Cornell University. When, he writes, we look at the philoso- 
phical significance of the doctrine of evolution, the main point 
is to determine what it precisely is that natural selection 
explains, as well as what is left unexplained by it in the origin 
of species of organic beings. A scientific explanation consists 
in the assignment of a phenomenon to its causes, which causes 
themselves must be known natural agencies, for science takes 
account only of secondary causes. Now Darwin asserts that 
the manifestation of life on the globe was through a process 
of evolution, of which natural selection was the proximate 
cause. He came to this conclusion by observing the results 
of man's purposive selection in breeding: ''As man can pro- 
duce a great result with his domestic animals and plants by 
adding in any given direction individual differences, so could 
natural selection, but far more easily from having incompar- 
ably longer time for action." ®^ 

^"^ Creation or Evolution, 1887. 

58 The Earth and Man, 1886 ; Modern Ideas of Evolution as Related to 
Religion and Science, 1890. 

59 Kantian Ethics and the Ethics of Evolution, 1882 ; The Ethical Import 
of Darwinism, 1887; Belief in God, Its Origin, Nature and Basis, 1895; 
Agnosticism and Religion, 1896. 

6 Chas. Darwin, The Origin of Species, Rand, McNally & Co. edit., Vol. I, 
p. 62. 



But can the results attained by man also be attained by the 
blind and purposeless operations of nature? Let us grant it 
for the nonce. 

But then we are still in presence of the fact that natural selection 
or the survival of the fittest can accomplish nothing until it is sup- 
plied with material for " selection ", until there has appeared upon 
the field an antecedent "fittest", a fittest organ, function, habit, 
instinct, constitution or entire organism.®^ Natural selection pro- 
duces nothing ; it only culls from what is already in existence. The 
survival of the fittest is an eliminative, not an originative process. 
Darwin himself defines natural selection : " The preservation of 
favorable individual diflPerences and variations and the destruction 
of those which are injurious, I have called natural selection or the 
survival of the fittest." ®^ 

Nature then originates the modifications, nature propagates 
them and accumulates them through propagation ; but how all 
this is done is a mystery on which science throws no light; 
and the personification of nature, investing it with volitional 
attributes, serves only to disguise our real ignorance. Darwin 
writes : " It may metaphorically be said that natural selection 
is daily and hourly scrutinizing throughout the world the 
slightest variations, rejecting those that are bad, preserving 
and adding up those that are good." ®^ And since natural 
selection is the name of an event that follows from physical 
causes, the reader gets the impression that the origin of species 
has at last been referred to a system of purely natural causa- 
tion. But the true state of the case is very different : no cause 
has been discovered for the origin of those variations, which 
through inheritance are accumulated into specific characters. 
And this attribution of superior potency to natural selection, 
in comparison with the purposive selection of man, involves 
the conception of nature as an intelligent, active being; na- 
ture seems to do so much only because you have personified 
her. Drop the use of metaphorical language and of italics, 
and you will never make it credible that blind natural processes 
can ever attain the end realized by human design. When 

81 The Ethical Import of Darwinism, Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 
1887, p. 77. 

«2 Chas. Darwin, The Origin of Species, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 61. 
«3 Ibid., p. 63. 


trying to account for the origin of fitter beings that natural 
selection could seize upon to perpetuate, Darwin at first as- 
cribed their origin to the environment, the circumstances in 
which such beings live. But it was soon shown that similar 
varieties were produced from the same species in different en- 
vironments, and dissimilar varieties in the same environment. 
Hence he felt himself compelled to resort in the end to " an 
innate tendency to new variations " or to *' spontaneous vari- 
ability." But this assumed, everything is assumed. And ii 
is a frank admission that you return to the final cause, inherent 
in each being, which Aristotle had already pointed out, and 
the Scholastics had always defended. 

If you pursue your questioning still further and ask, 
Whence those germinal organisms with their wonderful capa- 
bilities of differentiating into species? Darwin himself an- 
swers that *' life has been originally breathed by the Creator 
into a few forms or into one " ; ** so that ultimately the gradual 
development of species is but a mode of conceiving the action 
of supernatural causality. 

Mere physical causality, by whatever name you may call 
it, without any fixed and predetermined end in view, will never 
account for the orderly phenomena of the cosmos. And it is 
this jugglery with causality, as though in time everything 
could be got almost out of nothing, which is the besetting sin 
of those evolutionists who refuse even to admit Darwin's 
" innate tendency ". 

The masters of positive sciences cannot of course observe 
the final cause under their microscope; neither can they pre- 
cipitate or sublimate it in their testing tubes ; therefore their 
refutation, they think, need only consist in characterizing it as 
" metaphysical ". 

It is in the same spirit that Spencer has made bold to re- 
construct ethics on the law of universal physical causation. 
Yet, though he postulates for ethics an immediate evolution 
like that which in the course of centuries has transformed em- 
pirical into rational astronomy, he fails to demonstrate the pos- 
sibility of such a development; still less does he accomplish 
it, or even make its accomplishment very credible to anyone 
who can resist the contagion of the evolutionist's scientific 

«* Op. cit., Vol. II, p. i86. 65 j^ Q_ Schurman, op. cit., p. 19. 


The method of ethics generally employed by evolutionists 
is as follows : 

Eschewing every attempt to deduce moral rules for the guidance of 
conduct, they institute an inquiry into the origin of that morality 
by which human life is actually regulated. It is not their business 
to tell men how they should act, or to supply them with motives 
for originating, or principles for regulating their behavior; still 
less to mete out esteem and affection or hatred and contempt upon 
what may be considered the estimable or the blamable qualities of 
men. On the contrary, their aim is purely theoretical. They seek 
only the genesis of those moral notions, beliefs, and practices which 
constitute an obvious phenomenon of the life of man. They dis- 
sect complex moral phenomena into simple elements, and under the 
guidance of evolution track these elements to their last hiding-place 
in the physical constitution and environment of the lower animals. ^® 

But the phases of morality which the scientific moralist thus 
binds together in his theory of development, are, when not a 
part of human history, purely imaginary. We know nothing 
of the morals of. the first species that ceased to be non-moral; 
for surely the shape and size of fossil remains, however useful 
they may be in other regards, do not enlighten us on this 
particular subject. 

You may indeed study the psychical attributes of the dog 
or the elephant; but however rich your harvest of observations, 
you will be no whit nearer the origin of human morality, so 
long at least as conscience continues the unique prerogative 
of man, the only moral being we know. Even if you imagine 
a moral sense in the higher brutes, descriptive ethics, though 
acquiring thereby a comparative character, would be as far 
as ever from that genesis of man's morality which evolutionary 
moralists profess to explain in their theories of physical 

And the same must be said with regard to all evolutionary 
theories about primitive society in general and conjugal rela- 
tions in particular. 

There is, for instance, not the slightest ground apart from the exi- 
gencies of a theory, for the assumption of an aboriginal promiscuity 
in sexual relations, which indeed both biology and archeology tend 

6« Op. cit, p. 23. ®^ Op cit., p. 30. 


to disprove. It is a gratuitous concession to our methodology when 
the facts of the world are supposed to arrange themselves according 
to our mode of apprehending them. We have no evidence whatever 
that all the branches of the human family passed through precisely 
the same stages of development either in general or still less in the 
details of their social institutions.®^ Isolating the various conjugal 
relations from their historical settings, in which alone an explanation 
of each is to be found, the theorist generally puts them in an arbi- 
trary row as one might string beads, and then asseverates that this 
linear arrangement of contemporaneous phenomena in space cor- 
responds to the successive order of their evolution in time. Mean- 
while no one knows that there has been such a universal develop- 
ment, or that there ever was a time when all the forms of the family 
did not coexist as they do to-day.®® 

In the hands of Darwin and his followers the historical 
method in ethics was less an independent instrument of inves- 
tigation in morals than an apt means of confirming a biological 
hypothesis and a foregone conclusion upon the derivative 
character of morality.*^® And no one acquainted with evolu- 
tionary philosophy, its methods, and its teachings, will gain- 
say this stringent conclusion. 

To sum up. American evolutionism followed in the wake 
of the European theorists, with this exception that it always 
claimed to be frankly theistic, and in harmony with the reli- 
gious spirit of the people at large. At bottom however this 
theism differs only in name from pantheism, since all pheno- 
mena, both physical and psychical, are but manifestations of 
the Underlying Power, the Eternal Reality. Being wider in 
its scope than idealism, and adapting itself to every depart- 
ment of thought and action, evolutionism has rallied around 
its standard an army of docile enthusiasts, who will* question 
and deny anything but the fundamental principles of Spencer 
and Darwin. It has indeed been well said that " the belief in 
the ultimate perfectibility, if not the present perfection, of 
the doctrine of evolution has become a part of the scientific 
fanaticism with which our age matches the religious fanati- 
cism of the sixteenth century." ^^ 

J. B. Ceulemans. 

Moline, Ills. 

«s Op. cit., p. 231. «9 Ibid., p. 241. 

■^0 Ibid., p. 31. "^1 J. G. Schurman, op. cit, p. 72. 



THE older the world grows, and the more complex becomes 
the constitution of human society, the greater and more 
necessary is the tendency to adopt some distinctive dress or 
uniform to differentiate the various vocations. 

The Church, the army, navy, diplomatic service, and the 
law (in its higher branches) have long had costumes peculiar 
to themselves. Medicine stands alone in possessing no dis- 
tinctive garb. This is doubtless largely, if not wholly, ex- 
plained by the fact that the doctor follows his profession un- 
ostentatiously, practising his skill and treatment in private. 

In the public services, both governmental and municipal, 
we find the same rule exists. Postal and telegraph officials, 
policemen and commissionaires, prison and asylum officials, 
fire brigades and hospital nurses, railway employees of all 
grades, mayors and civic corporations, chauffeurs and mes- 
senger boys, these and others are recognizable by their pre- 
scribed costume. 

Even private undertakings and philanthropic societies, when 
they have attained sufficient proportions to be of public im- 
portance, have, within comparatively modern times, adopted 
a uniform for their employees. We find instances of this 
among the officials of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals; also among hotel and theatrical functionaries, 
and the Masonic and Friendly societies. 

Turning to the scholastic world, we meet with many ex- 
amples. There is the quaint medieval costume still worn by 
the scholars at Christ's Hospital, the distinctive dress of the 
Eton boys; and the academic robes of the chancellors, vice- 
chancellors, proctors, professors, graduates, and undergradu- 
ates of the various universities. 

The history of clerical dress claims, for many reasons, a pre- 
eminence of interest. The dignity of the priestly office gives 
an importance to all that concerns its ministrations. It is, 
moreover, the oldest illustration of the tendency in human 
society to adopt a distinctive class costume. In those far- 
back times when the warrior fashioned his armor according 
to his personal fancy, or the exigencies of the period — in 
those days when navies had not yet been dreamed of, and 


when medicine and law had no existence apart from the 
Church — the vestments of ecclesiastics had long been regu- 
lated both by custom and rule. For, if the divinely appointed 
costume of the Levitical priesthood be not the first instance in 
the world's history of the adoption of a distinctive dress for 
one order of society, it certainly is the first authentic and 
detailed record of such a practice. 

Let us briefly glance at the sacred vestments of Judaism. 
Amongst the Israelites the Levites were the lowest in priestly 
rank. Until the time of Agrippa, they wore no distinguish- 
ing dress. Nor were the higher orders among the Jewish 
priesthood differently clad from the rest of the people, save 
when engaged in their holy ministrations. 

The priests wore while performing their sacred offices four 
special garments: These were (i) the linen breeches, (2) the 
tunic or coat, (3) the girdle, and (4) the bonnet. Like the 
sacred robe worn by our Lord, the tunic was woven through- 
out in one piece and fitted close to the body. The girdle was 
worn round the back of the neck, then crossed upon the breast, 
and lastly twisted round the body, with the ends hanging to 
the ground. The girdle was the distinctive priestly vestment, 
and is (in its use) very suggestive of the stole of the Christian 
Church. It was worn only during the actual ministration of 
the sacerdotal office. The inverted calyx of a flower best de- 
scribes the form of the bonnet, which was a tall, peaked cap. 
These four vestments were all of the snow-white " byssus " 
(or cotton) of Egypt. 

In addition to the above, the high priest wore four more, 
known as the " Golden Vestments '\ because golden threads, 
together with the four sacred colors (white, purple, blue, and 
scarlet) consecrated to the use of the sanctuary, were woven 
into them. These four high-priestly vestments were : ( i ) the 
meil or robe, (2) the breastplate, (3) the mitre, and (4) the 
ziz or frontlet. 

The meil was of dark blue and reached to the knees, its 
edge being adorned with pomegranates, worked in purple, 
blue, and scarlet, alternating with golden bells. The breast- 
plate was, according to the Rabbis, originally a kind of burse 
or flat receptacle stiffened in front with gold and jewels, with- 
in which were borne the mysterious Urim and Thummim. 


It was about twelve inches square, and on the twelve gems 
(set in front) were engraved the names of the twelve tribes 
of Israel. Although in the later days of the Jewish dispen- 
sation, not' only were the Urim and Thummim lost, but the 
real import of their names was forgotten, the high priest 
still continued to wear the jeweled breastplate, which was 
attached by golden links to his shoulders and by woven bands 
about his waist. 

The ziz (or frontlet) was a golden plate, suspended from 
the mitre by a web of blue lace. It was the length of the 
forehead and the breadth of two fingers, and on it was en- 
graved '* Holiness to the Lord ". 

The mitre of the high priest was more splendid than the 
bonnet of the priest, and of greater height. According to 
rabbinical tradition (for the Rabbis seem to delight in exag- 
gerating the size of their priests* vestments!) the mitre at- 
tained eventually to the absurd height of eight yards ; and the 
girdle to three fingers' breadth and sixteen yards in length. 

Any sacerdotal function was regarded invalid by the Jews, 
if the officiating priest was not fully vested in all the above 
robes of his office. The high priest had a complete new set of 
vestments for the great day of Atonement each year. When 
the vestments had become soiled, they were not washed, but 
used for making wicks for the lamps of the sanctuary. 

Some similarity may be traced between most of the vest- 
ments worn by the Jewish priests and those now in use by 
the Catholic clergy. The Christian priest of the New Dis- 
pensation bears, when vested in alb, girdle, and crossed stole, 
some resemblance to the Jewish priest of the Old Dispensa- 
tion, clad in his linen tunic. Again, any one of the more 
ornate vestments of the Christian Church — the cope, the 
chasuble, and (still more closely) the dalmatic — suggests the 
splendid robe of the high priest of the Jewish Church; while 
the episcopal mitre and the pectoral cross of to-day seem to 
have been foreshadowed by the tall bonnet and the breast- 
plate of Judaism. 

But as mere likeness of sound has often proved erroneous 
in tracing the derivation of words, so may the mere resem- 
blance of form be as delusive a guide to the origin of vestments. 
Hardly a single ecclesiologist of note to-day contends that 


Christian ecclesiastical vestments owe their origin to those of 
the Jewish Church. True that on comparison points of simi- 
larity exist between them, but the weight of evidence leans 
toward the theory that this likeness is either accidental, or has 
possibly arisen, in one or two cases, from a medieval attempt 
to make the ecclesiastical vestments then in use conform more 
closely to those analogous of the older dispensation. Indeed, 
it is now conceded by almost every ecclesiastical antiquary of 
authority that the clerical dress of the primitive Church dif- 
fered neither in shape nor material from that worn by the 
laity; except that in their sacred ministrations the early 
Christian clergy assumed garments that were usual to a Ro- 
man gentleman on solemn or festive occasions. 

The position in which the primitive Church found herself 
during the first three centuries of the Christian era rendered 
such a custom unavoidable. In those early days of the Chris- 
tian Faith, when persecution was so bitter and imminent even 
when not actually rife, it would have been a gross act of 
folly for the bishops and priests to have moved abroad in a 
garb which would at once have singled them out as leaders 
of the despised and hated religion of the Nazarene. The 
pulse of popular feeling, and the prerogatives of the powers, 
of that period must have precluded the early Christians from 
even hazarding an attempt at anything like a prescriptive at- 
tire for their clergy. Therefore, if we would examine the 
origin of clerical dress, we must seek it in that worn by per- 
sons of position in the first century, especially the chiton and 
the toga. 

The chiton, or tunic, was the most commonly worn gar- 
ment of those times, and fitted fairly closely to the body. 
Its length varied, sometimes reaching to the ankles, at others 
barely covering the knees. In color it would in ordinary 
cases probably be of some serviceable dark tint. Not infre- 
quently it was ornamented with two stripes which ran down 
the front of the garment from either side of the neck. These 
stripes differed in breadth, and perhaps also in color, ac- 
cording to the dignity of the wearer ; a senator using a broad 
clavus, as it was called, and a knight a narrower one. This 
striped chiton is often met with in early frescoes, and sug- 
gests a striking resemblance to the surplice and black stole of 



a Protestant clergyman. This resemblance is, however, in no 
sense historical. Such a garment appears in a fresco of one 
of the catacombs in Rome : an aged man is seated on a chair, 
while before him stand two youths clad in tunics adorned with 
clavi. This has often been taken as a representation of an 
early Confirmation, but there is sound reason for rejecting the 
supposition. What here concerns us is to note the dresses 
of the three persons, two of whom certainly represent laymen. 

The toga was a long and ample robe which, on state occa- 
sions, was worn by a Roman gentleman over his tunic. The 
toga was at one time the characteristic dress of every adult 
Roman citizen, and must, from its nature, have been almost 
always laid aside when any exertion was required, as in toil 
or travel. Furthermore, in the first century of the Christian 
era, it had been wholly dropped by the lower orders of society. 
However, it continued to hold its place as the recognized 
" court dress " for all who had an audience of the Emperor; 
as also the appropriate habit for religious or civil ceremonial. 
The toga was worn by the advocate when pleading in the 
Forum; it was seen at the public sacrifices; and in a white 
toga the dead were borne to their last resting-place, while 
the mourners followed in those of black. In the eyes of the 
world, therefore, there was one form of dress which, though 
not exclusively confined to the clergy, was regarded as spe- 
cially suited for all solemn occasions; and it was by the use 
of this (the toga) that the early Church was enabled to ex- 
press her sense of the dignity of her sacred rites, without ex- 
citing the notice or arousing the attacks of the heathen popu- 
lace by which she was then so dangerously surrounded. 

There is, moreover, reason to suppose that the principle un- 
derlying the use of sacred vestments, i. e. the setting aside of 
certain garments for exclusive employment in the Holy Mys- 
teries, was from the first quite evident. The toga and tunic 
used at the altar became sacred vestments to be worn hence- 
forth for no other purpose. To this intent St. Jerome, writ- 
ing in the fourth century, but evidently expressing the feel- 
ing throughout the Church, says: " We ought not to go into 
the sanctuary just as we please, and in our ordinary clothes, 
defiled with the visage of common life; but with clear con- 
science and clean garments handle the Sacraments of the 


In the vestments worn by the early Christian clergy during 
their priestly functions, and perhaps in their secular dress, we 
must note one point of distinction, namely that the color was 
restricted to white, the stripes upon the tunic probably being 
black. In this restriction and choice doubtless the Church 
was influenced by the idea of purity and gladness which are 
so naturally suggested by that color; and also probably by 
a prevalent impression (with which the vestments of the Old 
Dispensation coincide) that white was peculiarly appropriate 
to the Deity. Proof of this is found in the writings of St. 
Jerome, who, in his refutation of the Pelagians, says : " What 
is there, I ask, off"ensive to God, if I wear a tunic more than 
ordinarily handsome; or if a bishop, priest, or deacon, and 
other ministers of the Church, in the administration of the 
Sacrifice, come forth in white clothing?" 

Hegessipus, a Jew, who became a convert to Christianity 
about 1 80 A. D., tells us that St. James the Just, the first 
Bishop of Jerusalem, when about " to offer supplication for the 
people " was accustomed to " use garments, not of wool, but 
of linen." 

Two early authorities, Polycrates and Epiphanius, seem to 
imply that at least some of the Apostles adopted part of the 
distinctive vestments of the Jewish high priest, to emphasize 
the analogous position to which they had been called in the 
New Dispensation. Polycrates, writing at the close of the 
second century, speaks of St. John the Divine " becoming a 
priest, wearing the golden plate." His evidence is of special 
value, because (i) according to the consensus of tradition, 
the first Bishop of Ephesus was St. John, who died there early 
in the second century; (2) Polycrates was all but a contem- 
porary of St. John. Epiphanius was Bishop of Constantia, or 
Salamis, in Crete, 367-403 A. D. He gives a similar testi- 
mony concerning St. James : " It was permitted him to wear 
the golden plate upon his head." Epiphanius refers also to 
Eusebius and St. Clement as supporting this statement. As 
Epiphanius was by birth a Jew of Palestine, he may be sup- 
posed to have been familiar with the local tradition on the 
subject; therefore his evidence is worthy of note. 

Theodoret, who became Bishop of Syria in 420 A. D., has a 
passage among his writings which has often been quoted as 


proof of the early use of distinctive ecclesiastical vestments. 
It is to the effect that the Emperor Constantine gave to Mar- 
carius, Bishop of Jerusalem, a sacred robe, woven of golden 
thread, to be worn by him when administering Baptism. But 
too much importance should not be attached to this statement. 
The passage does not necessarily imply that the robe was 
specially suitable for its sacred purpose in any other respect 
beyond its splendor; and, when Theodoret goes on to inform 
us St. Cyril of Jerusalem was charged with having sold the 
robe, and that a stage dancer had bought and used it, the 
probability is that the said robe did not differ in fashion from 
secular clothing. 

There is still less evidence to support the contention that 
there is proof of a primitive use of sacerdotal vestments in 
St. Paul's message in II Timothy: "The cloak that I left at 
Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and 
the books, but especially the parchments." In fact the at- 
tempt to make a chasuble of this cloak appears to be dis- 
tinctly modern. 

Tertullian, in his treatise on Prayer, refers to the custom 
of removing the cloak during prayer; a practice which he 
counts among " empty observances ", not to be insisted on as 
if they were founded on Divine precept or Apostolic com- 
mand, of which there is no evidence — "unless indeed," he 
sarcastically adds, " anyone should think that it was in prayer 
that St. Paul threw off his cloak and left it with Carpus." 
Tertullian here regards the cloak as a garment which might 
conceivably be put off for divine worship, and certainly not 
as one to be specially donned for the purpose. St. Chry- 
sostom too, in one of his homilies, speaks to the same ef- 
fect; evidently regarding the cloak as an ordinary secular 
garment only. 

Two conclusions, deducible from evidence concerning ec- 
clesiastical costume in the early Christian Church, force them- 
selves upon us: I. In the primitive ages of Christendom, the 
garments worn by the clergy in their public ministrations did 
not differ in shape from those used on certain occasions by 
the civil society around them; and that in everyday life their 
garments differed in color and material no more than in form. 
There would obviously be reason for this in the hostility and 



persecution that continually raged around the Church in her 
infancy. An exact and striking parallel was, centuries later, 
presented by the Reformation in England, when the Catholic 
clergy were, so far as their ordinary attire was concerned, 
compelled to mix among their scattered flock, during the 
reigns of the later Stuarts, in lay attire, because of the severe 
penal laws enacted against them. But in the case of the 
early Church, there would be an additional reason in the 
extreme poverty of the primitive Christians; which did, 
doubtless, make it well nigh impossible to provide costly ac- 
cessories for the public services of the Church. 

2. In spite of all this, " the principle underlying the use of 
a special garb was, at least at the time of ministration, both 
felt and acknowledged so far as circumstances allowed ". 
While officiating, the clergy wore the dress which society 
recognized as most befitting solemn ceremonial; and which 
was in color esteemed especially appropriate for divine wor- 
ship. Thus by reserving this garb exclusively for sacred 
purposes they gave to it almost the character of an ecclesias- 
tical vestment. There is also the evidence proving the use, 
by at least some of the Apostles, of distinctly sacerdotal in- 
signia ; and to this testimony due weight should be given. 

It is then from this dignified costume of imperial Rome 
that throughout the centuries has been evolved the priestly 
vestments of the Catholic Church; as also, for the most part, 
that fashion which is recognized as the distinctive dress of 
the clergy in their everyday life, an attire in the use of which 
the ministers of all denominations have almost universally 
imitated the example of the ecclesiastics. 

In this development, the controlling influence has been the 
conservatism which naturally arises from that regard which 
all devout persons must feel for the customs of their fore- 
fathers in matters religious: a conservatism that is intensi- 
fied in this case by a sense of the impropriety which would 
be evinced by the Church were she to follow the frequent 
changes in the fickle fashions of the world. Thus, while the 
world has altered and re-altered the cut of its clothes from the 
mere passion for novelty, the Church has, from a reverential 
regard for antiquity, kept as near as possible to the older 
forms, and only with great deliberation has modified eccles- 


iastical dress, yielding slowly, as if by protest, to the in- 
fluence of circumstances. 

During periods of violent religious commotion and up- 
heaval, when the reins of discipline have been lax, and in- 
dividual caprice could venture to assert itself, changes have 
sometimes been initiated which have left their mark when 
regular and peaceful days have been restored. On the other 
hand, we find long tracts of time which have been scarcely 
marked by a change of any kind ; and this is yet another point 
of view which lends interest and importance to the history 
of clerical costume; for, comparatively unimportant as may 
be the cut of a coat, or the color of a vestment, such things 
have from time to time illustrated the drift of thought on 
other and more vital questions. 

John R. Fryar. 

Canterbury, England. 


THE revolution which has been effected in Biblical criticism 
by the " science of the spade " during the last twenty 
years is one of the marvels of the time. It would be as im- 
possible to erect a Tubingen School of exegesis now as it would 
be to hold the verbal inspiration of the Bible in the sense 
in which it was understood by a generation but little removed 
from our own. Studies which smell of the lamp rather than 
of the desert are no longer in vogue, and a critic who would 
be heard must take into full account what we may term the 
genius loci as revealed by the excavator's spade. And the 
amount of excavation which is being assiduously carried out 
by fully equipped men at the present day is literally amazing. 
The English Palestine Exploration Society was founded in 
1869. Till about ten years ago it was practically alone in the 
field; now nearly every nation has its army of trained ex- 
cavators at work, whether it be in Crete, Egypt, Babylonia, 
the land of the Hittites, or the lands of the facile Greeks and 
practical Romans. And the output from these scenes of ac- 
tivity is enormous, so much so that it is well nigh impossible 
to keep intelligent pace with the information which is being 



thrust upon us. There is, too, at least in England, a certain 
amount of apathy begotten perhaps of a spirit of scepticism 
due to the hasty generalizations of some less prudent workers, 
and also due, in part, to a sense of disappointment that the 
excavations which were to do such great things — unearth for 
instance the very cuneiform tablets on which Moses scratched 
the Law of Sinai — have not fulfilled the expectations which 
wild dreamers had formed. 

But putting aside the many results of doubtful value and 
the rash conclusions which have tended to throw discredit on 
the whole science (for it is a science), many very solid results 
have been obtained. It may be a convenience to the general 
reader to have presented to him in brief form the results of 
one of the most notable discoveries of the last two or three 

The Papyri of Assouan or Elephantine, eleven in number, 
were discovered between the years 1 90 1-4, and ten of the 
eleven were found in the original box in which they had been 
placed by the owners. An accident, as is so often the case, 
led to the discovery, for they were unearthed by some road- 
menders. At the same time it is but just to remark that Prof. 
Sayce, who had rescued one of these precious relics from the 
hands of some sebakh diggers in 1901, urged that excavations 
should be made on the spot in the hope of finding more. 
This was done, but without result. Meanwhile the native 
dealers were offering for sale the remaining ten, and these 
were bought by Mr. Robert Mond and Lady William Cecil, 
and published with notes, etc. by Sayce and Cowley in 1906.^ 
In that same year the Germans and the French divided the 
site between them, and the former quickly published three 
Papyri,^ of which two were duplicate copies of a petition from 
the Jews in Elephantine to Bagoas, the Persian Governor of 
Judah; the third we shall mention directly. The publication 
of the more or less mutilated fragments which remained has 
been deferred till this year, when Dr. Sachau ^ has published 

1 Aramaic Papyri discovered at Assuan; edited by A. H. Sayce with the 
assistance of A. E. Cowley and with Appendices by W. Spiegelberg and 
Seymour de Ricci, London, 1906. 

^Notice sur un Papyrus Egypto-Arameen de la Bibliotheque Imperiale de 
Strasburg, par M. J. Euting. 1903. 

3 Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer Judischen Militar-Kolonie zu 
Elephantine. Edited by Eduard Sachau. 2 Vols. Leipzig, 191 1. 


a number of official letters and also two priceless documents 
one being the Story of Ahiqar, the Achiacharus of the Greek 
text of Tobias i : 21/ and the other being nothing less than 
an Aramaic version of the famous inscription of Darius I at 
Behistun, which played so important a part in the decipher- 
ment of the Babylonian cuneiform script. 

It is easy to see how important this Aramaic version would 
have been in the early days of cuneiform decipherment. The 
discovery of the Story of Ahiqar or Achiacharus in an Aramaic 
version of the fifth century B. C. is of great interest. Prob- 
ably few legends have been more popular or more widely dif- 
fused. Hitherto it has been found only in comparatively late 
Syriac, Armenian, Arabic, Greek, and Slavonic recensions; 
but the recent discovery shows us that at least a portion of the 
material woven into the Book of Tobias was very niuch older 
than has hitherto been suspected. 

Interest centers however chiefly round the Aramaic Papyri 
which refer to the Jewish establishment at Syene or Assouan. 
In a previous issue of the Review we have given a precis of 
their contents and have drawn attention to the importance of 
the data they furnish for students of the Pentateuch. As is 
well known, modern critics are practically at one in maintain- 
ing that the legislative portions of the Pentateuch, commonly 
known as the Priestly Code, are to be referred to a period 
posterior to the Exile, while the Book of Deuteronomy is said 
to have been not merely discovered in 621 in the reign of 
Josias but to have been actually composed at that time and 
presented to the nation as the product of Moses's pen. These 
two points may be regarded as the keystones of modern Pen- 
tateuchal criticism and the religious history of Israel has been 
re-written in accordance with this view. Practically no rap- 
prochement between the traditional view and this revolution- 
ary thesis has been possible, for the two Schools approached 
the question from such widely differing standpoints that the 
fundamental data of the one were met by a flat denial from 
the other. It has always been felt that nothing but the logic 
of the spade could ultimately decide the question. Hence the 
dream of many enthusiasts that one day excavations at 

*The name occurs also in ii : 18 (LXX), and in 14:10 (LXX & Itala), 
The Vulgate has it only in 11 : 18, under the form Acior ; cf. Judith, 5, 6, 14: 6. 


Kiriath-Sopher, or " Book-Town ", would present us with the 
actual tablets on which Moses wrote! But though this may 
be an enthusiast's dream it was surely no dream that one day 
there might turn up pre-Exilic tablets which would show us the 
Pentateuch in existence at a date anterior to the Exile. This 
has not occurred yet, though the recent excavations at Samaria 
seemed at one time to bring us extraordinarily near its realiza- 
tion. But though the pre-Exilic tablets are not yet forth- 
coming, we have in these post-Exilic (but still fifth century) 
Papyri some information which no Pentateuchal critic can af- 
ford to disregard. 

Briefly, then, the Papyrus published by Sayce and Cowley 
in 1906 introduced us to the private life and affairs of a 
Jewish family settled at Syene in the fifth century B. C. The 
documents are all concerned with their legal affairs and may 
be described as the title-deeds of the family. These Jews are 
depicted as living in a garrison town, as being on intimate terms 
with the Egyptians, as intermarrying with them, and above 
all, as having a temple of their own which was dedicated to 
Jahu or Jehovah. This temple is sometimes spoken of, in 
Sayce and Cowley E. 14, and J. 6, as '' the chapel of Jahu," 
a rendering which is however not quite certain. Most of these 
deeds are concerned with the marriage and property of one 
Mibhtahyah, a daughter of Mahseiah, son of Yedoniah. The 
family is sometimes spoken of as being " Jews in the fortress 
of Jeb " (B), sometimes as "Aramaeans of Syene " (A). 

This Mibhtahyah marries one As-hor, evidently an Egyp- 
tian, and a most interesting account of the trousseau he pro- 
vided for the occasion is given. It is surprising to find among 
the " properties " given to himself on the occasion " one ivory 
cosmetic box." Amongst the articles he bestows on his future 
wife is " one garment of wool, new, embroidered on both sides 
( ?), 8 cubits long by 5 ". He also gives her cups and bowls 
of bronze, etc. In this deed of settlement full provision is 
made in case either party divorces the other, or in case the 
husband at any time repudiates his wife. It is somewhat re- 
markable that the wife seems to be at perfect liberty to 
divorce her husband, just as he is at liberty to divorce her; 
but it seems a hard provision that in either case she has to re- 
store the trousseau ! (G). 


Later on we find legal enactments regarding Yedoniah and 
Mahseiah, sons of this same Mibhtahyah by her husband As- 
hor (H). It is of extreme interest to note that in a later 
Papyrus (J) he is called by the Jewish name of Nathan. 
Does this mean that he was converted to Judaism ? As an in- 
dication of the freedom with which the Jewish religion was 
practised in Elephantine we notice that the judges in the 
courts allowed them, even when in litigation with Egyptians, 
to " swear by Jahu the God in Jeb " (B). The inventory of 
the trousseau furnished by As-hor on occasion of his marriage 
with Mibhtahyah (G) shows that these Jewish families were 
certainly well-to-do. In the deeds drawn up regarding the 
property of Mibhtahyah's sons we find that this lady possessed 
slaves, and we read of one of them, ** I have tattooed a yod on 
his right hand, the writing being tattooed in Aramaic, like thac 
of Mibhtahyah" (K). 

But the chief point of interest for us is undoubtedly " the 
temple of Jahu the God in the fortress of Jeb," and it is on 
this temple and its fortunes that the newly published Papyri 
found by the German explorers throw the most interesting 

We give the text of the Papyrus as published by Gunkel in 
the Expositor for January, 191 1 ; but as we have been able to 
glance only at the original publication by Sachau, we cannot 
guarantee either its completeness or its absolute accuracy. We 
divide it into paragraphs A. B., etc. for convenience of re- 

A. — To our Lord Bagohi, ruler of Judah, thy servant — Jedonja, 
with his colleagues — the priests in the fortress of Jeb [the Aramaic 
form of the Egyptian " lb " i. e. ivory, whence Elephantine]. 

B. — May our God, the God of Heaven, bless thee richly, and for 
all time. May He grant thee increase of grace a thousandfold, be- 
fore King Darius,^ and before the Princes of the Royal House,* 
with length of life. Be ever glad and of good health. 

C. — Further, thy servants Jedonja, and his colleagues, speak thus : 
" In the month Tammuz, in the 14th year of King Darius, when 
Arsham had departed, and had gone to the King, the priest of the 
God Chnub (Anubis), in the fortress of Jeb, made a conspiracy 

5 Darius II, Nothus, 424-404 B. C. 
« Cf. Dan. 1:3. 


with Widrang, who was then Governor, to destroy the temple of the 
God Jahu in the fortress of Jeb. 

D. — Thereupon this accursed Widrang sent a letter to his son, 
Nephajan, who was colonel in the fortress of Sewen, saying that 
the temple in the fortress of Jeb must be destroyed. 

E. — Then Nephajan brought Egyptian and other troops; they, 
having weapons, entered the fortress of Jeb, forced their way into 
the temple, and razed it to the ground. 

F. — They broke the stone pillars which were there; they also 
destroyed the five gateways hewn out of stone which were in the 
temple, and the doors with the bronze hinges; the roof, entirely 
constructed of cedar beams, and the remaining furniture, they burned 
with fire. The gold and silver ^ vessels for sprinkling,^ and the 
utensils of the temple they carried away and appropriated. 

G. — In the days of the kings of Egypt ® our fathers had built this 
temple in the fortress of Jeb ; when Cambyses conquered Egypt, 
he found the temple already built. He destroyed the temple of the 
gods of the Egyptians ; but this temple was not injured. 

H. — After the deeds of Widrang and the priests of Chnub, we, 
with our wives and children, ^^ wore sackcloth, and we fasted and 
prayed to Jahu, the Lord of Heaven. 

I. — He granted us a spectacle of joy regarding Widrang; the dogs 
tore the fetters from oif his feet; all the treasures which he had 
amassed were lost, and all the men were slain who had wished evil 
to the temple; this we beheld with joy. 

J. — Also at the time that this misfortune happened to us, we sent 
a writing to our lords, and also to Jehochanan,^^ the High Priest, 
with his colleagues, the priests of Jerusalem, to Ostan, the brother 
of Anani, and to the nobles of the Jews; but they returned no 
letter to us. 

K. — We have worn sackcloth and fasted since the " Tammuz " 
day of the 14th year of King Darius unto this day; our wives have 
become like unto widows ; we have not anointed ourselves with oil, 
and we have drunk no wine. 

L. — Also until the present day of the 17th year of King Darius 
no meal-offering, no offering of frankincense, or burnt-offering, has 
been brought to the temple. 

M. — Thy servants now speak, Jedonja with his companions, and 
the Jews, all citizens of Jeb. If it appear right unto my Lord, have 

"^ For weight and value of these cf. Nbs : 7, 19, etc. Esdras 7, 25, 33. 
* Lev. 8 : 30. 

® This is previous to the Persian conquest in 525. The last Egyptian King 
was Psammetichus III. 

10 Joel 1:13; 2:16. 11 Neh. 12:22. 


regard to this temple, to reluild it, for we are forbidden to rebuild 
it. Behold us here in Egypt, who have received thy benefits and 
favors. We pray thee to send a letter to thy servants concerning 
the temple of the God Jahu, that it may be rebuilt in the fortress- 
of Jeb, as it was before. 

N. — Then will we offer meal-offerings, frankincense, and burnt- 
offerings upon the altar of the God Jahu in thy name; and at every 
time we, with our wives and children, and with all the Jews here 
assembled, will offer prayer for thee if this be so, until the rebuild- 
ing of this temple. 

O. — If thou continue thine aid, until the temple be rebuilt, thy 
deed will be acknowledged by Jahu, the God of Heaven, with the 
gift offered unto Him of a whole-offering, or part-offering; thou 
shalt receive a thousand talents of silver. As regards the gold, 
we have sent our message and communication. 

All these things we have notified in our letter to Delaja and 
Shelemja, the sons of Sanballat, ruler of wSamaria. 

Arsham has known nothing of all that we have suffered. 

Dated 20 Marcheschvan, the 17th year of King Darius. 

That this request was granted seems to follovir from a pro- 
tocol on a leaf of papyrus subsequently discovered : 

A protocol on the reports of Bagohi and of Delaja: It is for 
thee to command in Egypt, before Arsham, concerning the Altar- 
House of the God of Heaven, which was built in the fortress of Jeb, 
before our days, and before Cambyses; and afterward destroyed by 
the cursed Widrang, in the 14th year of King Darius, that it be 
rebuilt on its own place, as it was before; meal-offering and 
frankincense to be again offered on the altar, as in ancient days. 

It is easy to see how this document affects Pentateuchal criti- 
cism. For the critical argument has briefly been this : Deuter- 
onomy, Chapters I2 and i6, insisted upon one place of wor- 
ship as alone legitimate; but the subsequent history as given 
us in the Books of Kings shows no knowledge of such legis- 
lation, for we find sacrifice offered everywhere without ad- 
verse comment, therefore the Book of Deuteronomy did not 
exist during the reigns of the kings. Advantage is then taken 
of the statement in IV Kgs. 22 : 3, that " the Book of the 
Law " was discovered in the Temple, to assert that this was 
nothing else than Deuteronomy and that its " discovery '*" 
was but a polite way of saying that the ground was, so to say,. 


" salted ", and the book which had been but just compiled in 
the interest of the priesthood, conveniently found. The argu- 
ment, it will be noted, is simply that from silence, — always a 
precarious one. But see the irony of fate. At the time when 
these Assouan Papyri were being written the Deuteronomic 
Law was, according to the critics' own statement, in full pos- 
session. Yet we find its provisions absolutely ignored by 
these Jews of Assouan who, as we shall see presently, probably 
knew the Book of Leviticus quite well. If the critical pro- 
cedure was justified in the case of the silence of the Books of 
Kings, it must logically maintain that in the face of the 
silence of these same Papyri, or rather of their writers as 
shown in their daily lives, Deuteronomy had not been written 
in the fifth century B. C. For the facts concerning these 
Jews in Egypt are these : they had erected a temple of Jehovah 
in Syene; the priests of the Egyptian Anubis were jealous, and 
on the departure of one Arsam (apparently the Persian Gov- 
ernor of the district), had induced one Widrang, the then 
Governor, to destroy the temple. This was in the year 411- 
410 B. C. At the time this took place complaint was made by 
these Jews of Syene to the Hierarchy in Jerusalem; but with 
no result. They had also applied to their Persian suzerain; 
but equally without result. They now, in the year 408-7, 
appeal again to the Persian Governor. 

Now these Jews either knew the Book of Deuteronomy or 
they did not. If they did not know it, then the critics who 
place the composition of that Book in the seventh century 
B. C. because of the disregard of its precepts shown in the 
Books of Kings — a silence from which critics argue the non- 
existence of the Book — must, if they would be consistent, 
apply the same principles and say that Deuteronomy was 
non-existent in the fifth century. The fact that these Jews in 
Egypt so readily communicated with those in Palestine will 
not allow us to say that Deuteronomy may have been known 
in Palestine but not in Egypt.^^ It is, then, practically certain 
that Deuteronomy was as familiar to them as any other part 
of the Bible. Yet according to the common interpretation 
of Deut. 12 and 16, these Jews of Syene flagrantly violated 
its precepts, for that law forbade the existence of more than 

12 See Esther ii : i ; II Mace, i : i. 


one sanctuary. Critics of the Wellhausen-Graf School mujt 
of course logically conclude that Deuteronomy did not exist 
at the time. But is it not much more likely that it is our 
interpretation of Deuteronomy 12 and 16 which is at fault? 
For, be it noted, we have absolutely no proof that the Jews 
interpreted those passages in the rigorous sense which alone 
it is generally assumed to bear. The Moabite Stone had al- 
ready told us of an "altar-stone (?) of Yahve," II. 17-18, 
in Nebo ; and this, too, would have been in contradiction to the 
Deuteronomic Law as generally understood. But both com- 
mon sense and the whole tenor of Deut. 12 and 16 demand 
that, whatever restrictions that law put upon the multiplication 
of the places of worship, they only applied to the Land of 
Promise itself. How could they have been enforced for a Jew 
or body of Jews who dwelt outside the limits of that land? 
And the way in which these Egyptian Jews ask for help from 
the Jerusalem hierarchy in the rebuilding of their temple is 
in itself a proof that they had no idea that this very temple 
constituted an infringement of the Mosaic Law. Are we to 
suppose that the failure of the Jerusalem priesthood to reply 
to their request was due to their indignant refusal to acknowl- 
edge such a temple since it was schismatic ? 

These Papyri, then, serve to correct our interpretation of a 
passage of the Law which has been, according to its false in- 
terpretation, made the pivot on which the whole vast structure 
-of modern Pentateuchal criticism revolves. 

Nor is this all. It would seem as though these same Papyri 
bear witness to an acquaintance with the so-called Priestly 
Code, or legislative portions of the Pentateuch, which critics 
affirm was only compiled after the Restoration. For these 
Jews write to Bagoas : "Also until the present day of the 17th 
year of King Darius no meal-offering (nn:D Lev. 2:1), 
no offering of frankincense ( nji:}^ Lev. 2:1), or burnt- 
offering {r6^}^ Lev. i: i) has been brought to the temple." 
They promise him, too, that if he comes to their aid, " then will 
we offer meal-offerings, frankincense, and burnt-offerings 
upon the altar of the God Jahu in thy name." Now it would 
be unscientific to see in these words as Prof. Sayce apparently 
does,^^ a quotation of Leviticus, and it would be perfectly 

^^ Expositor, Nov., 191 1, p. 426. 


justifiable to argue that these words only bear witness to the 
legislative tradition as opposed to the literary tradition of the 
Mosaic law. They show indeed that the thing existed, i. e. 
the sacrifices of which we read in Leviticus; but they cannot 
be made to show that the written account of them which is 
preserved for us in Leviticus was actually known to the Jews 
in Egypt. But we hardly need to be reminded that the criti- 
cal theory regarding the date of the composition of the 
Priestly Code is but a theory ; it has never been proved. The 
traditional view, that namely of the Mosaic authorship of the 
Code, remains in possession until disproved. When, then, a 
fact like the above reference to sacrifices, which are expressly 
named in Leviticus, is presented to us, it must be regarded as 
confirmatory of the tradition. Nor does this reference stand 
alone; the Marseilles Sacrificial Tablet, dating from the fourth 
or even the fifth century B. C, reads like a chapter out of 
Leviticus and we find there the very terms used in Leviticus 
for some of the sacrifices, e. g. whole-offering, ( bSj Lev. 
6: 15), and thank-offering, (nVsy Lev. 17: 5). 

These discoveries do not prove to demonstration the falsity 
of the critical hypothesis ; but they most certainly give us pause. 
A few brief notes on the several sections of this appeal must 
suffice us here: 

A. This Bagohi is mentioned by Josephus (Ant. XI, vii, i), 
as "the Genera] of another Artaxerxes army"; he polluted the 
temple and forced the Jews to pay 50 shekels on every lamb 
offered in sacrifice. He seems to have been a stern ruler, 
for he inflicted condign punishment on the Jews for the 
murder of Jesus by his brother John the High Priest. 
Bagoses, as Josephus calls him, insisted, in spite of the pro- 
tests of the Jews, on entering the temple, saying: "Am not I 
purer than he who was slain in it?" i. e. Jesus, brother of the 
High Priest. 

F. The temple must have been exceedingly fine. It was 
clearly not modeled on that at Jerusalem, as was the case 
with the temple at Onion discovered by Flinders Petrie; ^* 
for this Egyptian temple had five gates, as opposed to the 
one gate of the Jerusalem temple. The cedar can only have 
been brought from the Lebanon ; but the quarries of Syene are 

1* Cf. Josephus, Ant. XIII, iii, 3; Wars, I, i, i ; VII, x, 3. 


famous, and Prof. Sayce has discovered in one of them the 
very bases of the columns hewn out for this temple; for 
the letters BI (an abbreviation in the Assouan Papyri for 
"house" or "temple") are cut on the rocks apparently to 
mark out the boundaries of the quarry which the Jews were 
permitted to use. The bases still standing measure nearly 
three feet in diameter and consequently the columns of this 
Jewish temple must have compared favorably with those in 
the great Egyptian temples. It is curious that its wealth 
should have proved a temptation, just as did that of the 
temple in Jerusalem. 

G. This temple was then built before the Persian conquest 
of Egypt, i. e. before 525 B. C. The petitioners state that it 
was spared by Cambyses, though they do not here state the 
reasons for this act of mercy. Fortunately the fragment of 
Papyrus published by Euting comes to our assistance, for 
there we read : " When the Egyptians rebelled, we did not 
abandon our Lord, and no harm was found in us. In the 
14th year of Darius after that our Lord Arsam fled ( ?) to 
that wicked king ..." The Papyrus is here defective, but 
it seems to imply that in addition to their act of loyalty when 
Cambyses came into the country, the Jews were also loyal 
when Arsam, if the text be correct, played the traitor. The 
antiquity of this temple confirms the history as given in 
Jeremias 43, where we are told that the Jews with Jeremias 
went down into Egypt, and in 44:1, that they dwelt in Migdol, 
Taphnes, Memphis and in the land of Phatures.^^ The too 
often scouted Letter of Aristaeus to Philocrates also receives 
singular confirmation, for Aristaeus says ^® that as many as 
100,000 Jews were transplanted into Egypt to fight under 
Psammetichus against the Ethiopians. Syene was the gar- 
rison town established against the Ethiopians, hence the term 
which recurs so frequently in these Papyri, " the fortress of 
Jeb." The Papyrus published by Euting and unfortunately 
so much mutilated seems to show that these Jews were actual 
members of the garrison and that they were steadfast at a 
time when Arsam, the Persian Governor, went over to the king 
of ( ?) the Ethiopians, and when, too, the priests of the Sera- 
is cf. also Ezechiel 29: 10, where Syene or Assouan is especially mentioned 
i« See the Letter in Swete, Introd. to O. T. in Greek, p. 521, ist ed. 


paeum had proved disloyal and had stopped up the well in- 
tended for the use of the garrison. 

I. The Jews hardly afford us an edifying spectacle in their 
joy at Widrang's misfortunes; but we cannot judge them by 
Christian standards any more than we can condemn the Jews 
of Esther's day for their wholesale massacre of their enemies. ^^ 

O. The reference to Sanballat here is exceedingly inter- 
esting. He is called " the Ruler of Samaria," i. e. he was 
the Persian Governor there. He may well be identified with 
the Sanballat who proved so hostile to the Jews in Nehemias's 
days, Neh. 2 : 10, 19, 4: I, 7. For those events are expressly 
dated by Nehemias 2 : I as taking place after ** the twentieth 
year of Artaxerxes," i. e. in 445 B. C. The Jews of Syene 
send an appeal not to Sanballat himself, but to his sons, and 
we may .well suppose that in the year 408-7, when the appeal 
was made, Sanballat was already dead. It is worth while 
pointing out here a curious mistake on the part of Josephus. 
He assigns Sanballat, the enemy of the Jews and the father- 
in-law of Manasses, Neh. 12:28, to the reign of the last 
Darius, i. e. Codomannus, 338-331, B. C, and declares that 
he died after the siege of Gaza by Alexander the Great,^* thus 
making him live a century after he really died! 

But why did the Jews of Syene appeal to the sons of San- 
ballat rather than to the Hierarchy at Jerusalem? We have 
seen, J, that their first appeal was to these latter; but that they 
had no answer. Their appeal, then, to Sanballat, the Ruler 
of Samaria, can only have been because the events detailed in 
Esdras- Nehemias were familiar to them and because they 
divined rightly enough that they would stand more chance of a 
favorable hearing from the anti-Judaistic hierarchy at Samaria 
than from the Jerusalem priesthood. The protocol cited al- 
ready shows that they were justified in their supposition. But 
what an extraordinary state of things it portrays. The silence 
of the Jerusalem priesthood may indicate that they regarded 
the temple at Syene as schismatic ; but the action of those same 
Jews in appealing to the schismatic temple authorities at 
Samaria certainly placed them in the position of schismatics. 

Such is the picture of Jewish life in Egypt in the fifth cen- 

1'^ Cf. Esther 9: 13, 18-24. 
18 See Ant. XI, viii, 2-4. 


tury B. C. It serves to throw a vivid light on the history of 
the times, and incidentally it illumines and confirms the Bible 
history. It only remains for the French excavators at Syene 
to publish their " finds," when perhaps we shall have a further 
chapter in the history set before us. 

Hugh Pope, O.P. 

Collegio Angelica, Rome. 


^^ \ A/ HATEVER be the diligence used in framing laws, it 
V V frequently proves impossible to obviate every doubt 
which may subsequently arise from the interpretation of them."" 
Of this the Motu Proprio Quantavis diligentia has been itself 
an example. Without speaking of wilful misrepresentations 
of its object for political ends, there has not been wantihg the 
usual controversy as to its real bearing and the extent of 
its application.^ As Pennacchi remarks, the law of the Church 
is essentially traditional and any particular decree can be best 
understood in the light of previous legislation on the matter. 

The Motu Proprio Quantavis diligentia is not an isolated 
act; it is one of a series of measures taken by the Church to 
protect the honor of her clergy by securing for them, even in 
civil and criminal matters, as far as circumstances permit, a 
special tribunal before an ecclesiastical judge. 

St. Paul considered it a shame for Christians to go and be 
judged before the unjust and not before the saints (I Cor. 
6 : I ) ; and likewise it seemed repugnant to Christian sense 
that priests and bishops, the fathers and teachers of the faith- 
ful, should have to appear before laymen to be judged by 
them. There could be no question of exemption under the 
pagan emperors. But soon after the end of the persecutions 
synods commenced to ask that ecclesiastical causes be brought 
before the episcopal court.^ It is only gradually that the 
rights of the Church were recognized by the State, and not 

1 The Motu Proprio " Quantavis diligentia " and its Critics, by the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin; Canoniste contemporain, December, 191 1; De religiosis et 
Missionariis supplementa et documenta Periodica, 15 December, 191 1; Monitore 
Ecclesiastico, January, 19 12. 

2 III Carthage, c. 9 (397) ; Chalcedon, c. 9 (450 ; Agde, c. 32 (506) ; 
III Toledo, c. 3 (589). 


without occasional friction or struggle.^ At first it was the 
purely ecclesiastical matters that were withdrawn from the 
jurisdiction of secular courts, then the civil or lesser criminal 
causes of clerics, until finally the principle of the exclusive 
•competence of ecclesiastical judges over clerics, in any case 
whatsoever, was admitted in the law of Christian nations, as 
it was explicitly laid down in the canons of the Church. In 
England this was only in the days of the Norman kings, but 
much earlier in other countries. The Decretum Gratiani, 
after quoting from synodal decrees and papal constitutions, 
concludes: "From the above it is to be understood that a 
clergyman is not to be brought before public courts either in 
a civil or criminal case, unless, perhaps, the bishop would not 
decide the civil case, or in a criminal one, would have de- 
graded the cleric." 

But if recognized in principle, the privilegium fori was 
not always respected in practice. Even in the ages of faith 
it met with great opposition on the part of kings, dukes, and 
baronets, always so jealous of the power of bishops. It was 
one of the main points in contest between St. Thomas a Becket 
and Henry II. Against the encroachments of material force 
the Church used her spiritual weapons, censures, excom- 
munications, and interdicts. The Councils of Toledo and of 
Chalcedon threaten with excommunication any cleric who 
.should cite another cleric before a secular tribunal. The 
Councils of Cologne (1266), of Exeter (1287), of Leyde 
(1293), and others pronounce the same penalty against lay- 
men guilty of the same offence. This was principally local 
legislation. The constitution of Martin V, Ad reprunendas 
insolentias (i February, 1428), emanating from the supreme 
authority, is of more universal application. The Pope de- 
plores therein the many violations of ecclesiastical immunity 
reported to him from different countries: lay judges do not 
Tiesitate to drag to their tribunal ecclesiastical persons and 
institutions, even in causes spiritual in themselves; and what 
is sadder still is that often this is done at the request of ec- 
clesiastics. Therefore the pain of excommunication is de- 
creed against those ecclesiastics, the judges and other officials, 
their accomplices, even private persons who took a leading 

* Baronius : Annates "Ecdesiastici, a. 387. 


part in the proceedings against clerics. " Omnes et singulae 
personae seculares et regulares . . . omnes et singulos judices 
et executores . . . eoi;um officiales et consiliarios et personas 
privatas quae praemissorum principales perpetratores exis- 
terent." * 

These somewhat severe measures were rendered necessary 
by abuses which called for energetic repression. Ordinarily 
the censures were incurred only by the judges and public au- 
thorities who presumed to exercise jurisdiction over clerics 
in defiance of the prescriptions of the canons. The common 
discipline of the Church for a long period of years was rep- 
resented by the Bulla Coenae, which the Popes used to publish 
annually on Holy Thursday (In Coena Domini), and parts of 
which at least remained in force even when it ceased to be 
thus published. In § 15 of that Constitution there is a sentence 
of excommunication against legislators who enact laws cur- 
tailing the liberty of the Church, and against public officials 
who bring before their tribunal clerics entitled to the privi- 
legium fori. " Quive ex eorum praetenso officio, vel ad in- 
stantiam partis, aut aliorum quorumcumque, personas eccles- 
iasticas . . . coram se ad suum tribunal Audientiam, Cancel- 
lariam. Consilium vel Parlamentum, praeter Juris Canonici 
dispositionem trahunt vel trahere faciunt, vel procurant di- 
recte vel indirecte, quovis quaesito colore: — necnon qui 
statuta, ordinationes ... ex quavis causa . . . ordinaverint et 
publicaverint, vel factis et ordinatis usi fuerint, unde libertas 
ecclesiastica tollitur, sen in aliquo laeditur vel deprimitur . . ." 
Private persons are not mentioned here. At a time when ec- 
clesiastical courts were organized everywhere and their au- 
thority recognized by the civil power, it was a great abuse 
on the part of secular judges thus publicly to disregard the 
law of the Church. It was a sacrilegious invasion of her 
domain which deserved to be visited with severe punishment. 
The offence of plaintiffs who appealed for justice to lay 
courts when they should go to the bishop's, was considered a 
less grievous disorder, and, under ordinary circumstances, 
it was not found necessary to deal with them with the same 

* Bullarium Magnum. Vol. IV, p. 729. 


But in modern times the position of judges, in this matter, 
has changed. Often they are not free to cite or not to crte 
clerics to their tribunal; they have to do so or resign their 
office. Besides the hardships it would entail for many of 
them, this would tend to deprive society of the services of its 
most conscientious members in the administration of justice. 

The ancient law had to be adapted to present conditions. 
This was done in the constitution Apostolicae Sedis. Chapter 
VII retains the essential dispositions of § 15 of the Bulla 
CoenaCj but with one modification. " Cogentes sive directe 
sive indirecte judices laicos ad trahendum ad suum tribunal 
personas ecclesiasticas praeter canonicas dispositiones ; — iien* 
edentes leges vel decreta contra libertatem aut jura Ec- 
clesiae." The censure strikes now those who compel the 
judges to bring the clerics before their tribunals (" cogentes "), 
outside the cases provided for by canon law. That it did 
not strike the judges and other inferior officials was suffi- 
ciently clear from the text and it was moreover declared 
explicitly by the Holy Office on 15 June, 1870, and on i Feb- 
ruary, 1 87 1. " Excommunicationem eos non attingere, qui 
subordinati sint, etiamsi judices fuerint, sed in eos tantum esse 
latam, qui a nemine coacti vel talia agunt vel alios ad agendum 
compellunt, quos etiam indulgentiam nuUam mereri facile per- 
spicies . . . ." ^ 

But who are the " cogentes " who incur now the excommuni- 
cation ? Many thought that it must be the parties who refer 
ecclesiastical suits to secular courts and thus oblige the judges 
to proceed against clerics. The letter of the law favored that 
interpretation. There seemed to be no one else to whom the 
word ** cogentes " could apply, since the lawmakers were the 
object of a special clause. Nor did there seem to be any other 
effective way of obtaining the end intended by this decree. 
Some of the best canonists (most of them, says D'Annibale), 
favored this view at first. Others however objected that this 
would be a considerable extension of the law, and an ex- 
tension in odiosis ought not to be admitted unless clearly ex- 
pressed. The parties, moreover, are not always without ex- 
cuse ; they are not " a nemine coacti ", when there exist no 
other but secular tribunals to obtain justice against clerics. 

^Acta S. Sedis, 187X), Vol. VI, p. 433. 


Whatever may have been the value of the arguments for the 
first interpretation, the second prevailed, and it became offi- 
cial by the decree of the Holy Office of 23 January, 1886, 
which was approved by Leo XIII. " Suprema Congregatio 
S. R. U. Inquisitionis non semel declaravit caput Cogentes 
non afficere nisi legislatores et alias auctoritates cogentes sive 
directe sive indirecte judices laicos ad trahendum ad suum tri- 
bunal personas ecclesiasticas praeter canonicas dispositiones. 
Hanc vero declarationem SSmus D. N. Leo Papa XIII pro- 
bavit et confirmavit, ideoque S. haec Congregatio illam cum 
omnibus locorum Ordinariis pro norma communicandam esse 
censuit. Ceterum in iis locis, in quibus fori privilegio per 
Summos Pontifices derogatum non fuit, si in eis non datur 
jura sua prosequi nisi apud judices laicos, tenentur singuli 
prius a proprio ipsorum Ordinario veniam petere ut clericos 
in forum laicorum convenire possint, eamque Ordinarii nun- 
quam denegabunt, tum maxime cum Ipsi controversiis inter 
partes conciliandis f rustra operam dederint. Episcopos autem 
in id forum convenire absque venia Sedis Apostolicae non 
licet. Et si quis ausus fuerit trahere ad judices laicos vei 
clericum sine venia Ordinarii, vel Episcopum sine venia S. 
Sedis, in potestatem eorundem Ordinariorum erit in eum, 
praesertim si fuerit clericus, animadvertere poenis et censuris 
ferendae sententiae, uti violatorem privilegii fori, si id ex- 
pedire in Domino judicaverint." ^ Here it was authorita- 
tively declared that the Chapter Cogentes affects only law- 
givers and other authorities who compel either directly or in- 
directly lay judges to bring ecclesiastical persons before 
judges of the civil courts. 

But it was added, as if by way of corrective to the con- 
cession thus made, that in places where the derogation of the 
privilegium fori has not been obtained from the Holy See, if 
there is no other way of defending one's rights except recourse 
to the secular courts, the permission of the bishop has to be 
obtained by any one who wishes to summon a cleric before a 
civil judge, otherwise punitive measures may be taken against 
the offender. From this decision we can see how the legisla- 
tion of the Church concerning the privilegium fori had at this 
stage of its development become adjusted to the new conditions 

« Cf. Instructio S.C.P.F., 17 May, 1886. 


of society in the various countries. In some the privilege has 
been partially or totally abrogated by concordats or other pro- 
visions sanctioned by the Holy See. These determine the 
duties and rights of Catholics. In others,. episcopal courts are 
organized and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is exercised: the pri- 
vilegium fori is in full force and has to be respected by all 
under pain of sin ; but excommunication, latae sententiae, 
would be incurred by legislators only, and not by subordin- 
ate officials or private persons. In others again no special 
arrangements have been made with the State; but neither are 
there ecclesiastical courts from which justice could be ob- 
tained. Clerics may then be brought before the civil judges, 
although permission must be obtained first, under pain of 
sin and punishments to be determined by the bishop. 

The Motu Proprio Quantavis diligentia refers to that legis- 
lation, the controversies about the chapter Cogentes, and the 
official interpretation of it given by the Holy Office. Then it 
goes on : ^ 

But now in these evil times when there is so little regard shown 
for ecclesiastical immunity that not only clerics and priests, but 
also the bishops and cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, are 
brought before lay tribunals, the situation imperatively demands of 
us that those whom the gravity of the sin does not deter from such 
sacrilegious crime be restrained within the bounds of duty by the 
severity of the punishment. Therefore by this our Motu Proprio, 
we enact and ordain that all private persons, whether of the laity or 
of the clergy, male or female, who without permission of ecclesias- 
tical authority cite before lay judges any ecclesiastical persons 
whomsoever, either in criminal or civil cases, and publicly compel 
them to be present thereat, incur also excommunication latae sen- 
tentiae^ reserved in a special manner to the Roman Pontiff. 

The occasion and purpose of this decree are sufficiently clear 
from the text. Since existing sanctions were found inade- 
quate to secure respect for the law of ecclesiastical immunity, 
new ones had to be added. Nothing is said regarding legis- 
lators or judges. For them therefore there is no change. The 
new provision concerns only private persons. How far does 
it extend? According to some the Motu PropHo would seem 

"' Ecclesiastical Review, January, 1912, p. 83. 


to be nothing more than an interpretation of the Chapter 
Cogentes. They would set aside the interpretation given by 
the Holy Office, which includes private persons among those 
who compel judges to bring clerics before their tribunals and 
who thereby incur excommunication. It would have force 
consequently under the same conditions and in the same places 
as the Chapter Cogentes. Several reasons however tend to 
prove that we have to do here with something more than a 
mere declaration of a previous decision. The more solemn 
form of the Motu Proprio, the motives assigned for its pub- 
lication, the formula used (" statuimus atque edicimus"), 
— all point to a formal and independent enactment. The dif- 
ference may not be very great between the two opinions as 
regards the practical results; still it may be of some import- 
ance. If the second one is correct, the interpretation given 
by the Holy Office of the seventh chapter of the Constitution 
Apostolicae Sedis retains its full value, and it remains true 
that the word cogentes in that chapter does not refer to private 
persons ; only now a special measure is taken against them, a 
new penal law is enacted whereby there is added to the obli- 
gation already existing the sanction of a censure — *' that those 
whom the gravity of the sin does not deter from such sacri- 
legious crime be restrained by the severity of the punishment." 
The Quantavis diligentia does not directly revoke the first 
part of the decree of the Holy Office (1886), which interprets 
the Chapter Cogentes, but it completes the second part, which 
forbids the bringing of a cleric before a secular court without 
permission of the bishop. This prohibition is henceforth 
under pain of excommunication " latae sententiae." It is also 
expressed, in the recent decree, in more absolute terms which 
suggest that a more rigid application of the law is expected.^ 
Formerly the bishops were directed never to refuse this par- 
ticular permission when asked for, and there was a tendency 
to consider the asking rather as a formality to be complied 
with, " only when it could be done conveniently, successfully 
and without prejudice to one's rights." ^ Now it is simply 
stated that any one who acts without proper permission is 

^ Canoniste, supra, p. 73. 

^ Menghini : An opinion ... on the Carmont case, p. 28. • 



The questiion has even been asked whether under the present 
discipline the excommunication is not incurred also by those 
who cite clerics before civil courts simply as witnesses, not as 
defendants/" The letter of the present decree does not ex- 
clude that interpretation, and some of its expressions are gen- 
eral enough to seem to favor it. Here again may be invoked 
the principle that in penal matters extension of the law should 
not be admitted until clearly expressed. But is it not ex- 
pressed with sufficient clearness ?^^ On the same principle, 
odiosa sunt restringenda, there might be acts of complainants 
which would constitute violations of the privilegium fori and 
which would not come under the censure. ^^ The penalty of 
excommunication is incurred by those who cite clerics before 
secular courts and compel them to appear there publicly, " ad 
tribunal laicorum vocent ibique adesse publice compellant ". 
This would seem to exclude the cases when only a denuncia- 
tion is made to the public prosecutor that he may proceed ex 
officio, or when the defendant has not to appear publicly be- 
fore the court. This is another indication that, when fram- 
ing the decree, the legislator had also in mind the calling of 
clerics before civil judges as simple witnesses. 

But the most vexed question of all has been that of the ap- 
plication of the Motu Proprio. Is it meant to be obligatory 
everywhere, even in those countries in which by concordats 
the secular courts are permitted to adjudicate ecclesiastical 
suits, or where the Chapter Cogentes and the prescriptions of 
the Holy Office have fallen into desuetude? The affirmative 
answer has staunch defenders who supported it by several 
arguments. We have here, they said, a formal and indepen- 
dent enactment; it was solemnly promulgated by the supreme 
authority, to be valid " all things whatsoever to the contrary 
notwithstanding." It is formulated in most general terms 
and does not contain the restrictive clauses of preceding de- 
crees : " Praeter canonicas dispositiones ... in iis locis ubi 
privilegio fori per S. Pontifices derogatum non fuit." It is 
intended to remedy evils which may exist anywhere, or at least 

10 Cf. // Monitore Ecclesiastico, January, 19 12. 

11 An answer of the Holy Office to the Bishop of Larino officially confirms 
that interpretation. // Monitore, 31 March, 19 12. Cf. Canoniste contem- 
porain, May, 19 12. 

12 De Religiosis, 15 December, 1911, p. 108. 


there is no intimation that they are confined to a particular 
place. In all likelihood, it will be embodied in the new Code, 
one of the purposes of which is to establish as far as possible 
uniformity of discipline. By requiring Catholics everywhere 
to obtain the bishop's permission before using a privilege 
granted them, perhaps by concordat or custom, it would not 
impose upon them so very heavy a burden, nor would it 
directly derogate from existing contracts. Would not the 
decree on the other hand be rendered altogether nugatory if 
the proposed exceptions were admitted? And would not 
those very countries be exempted in which the reform is most 

Much as there may be of real value in the above arguments, 
they are not sufficient to prove that the intention of the legis- 
lator was to preclude all exceptions to his law. It is true, the 
restrictive clauses of preceding pronouncements are not repro- 
duced here; but from the nature of the case, the connexion of 
the questions, and the general principles of canon law, they 
should be understood even if they are not implied in the words 
" nullo ecclesiasticae potestatis permissu ". The penalty is 
incurred by those who act without any permission of the ec- 
clesiastical authority. Concordats entered into between the 
Holy See and civil governments contain that permission; al- 
though it is a general or indirect one, it suffices, and we have 
no proof that it has been withdrawn or that any thing has been 
changed even indirectly in those particular agreements by 
the present general enactment. 

May a well-established custom be considered as equivalent 
to a general permission? Can there be a legitimate custom 
against the law of ecclesiastical immunity ? Many good canon- 
ists deny it, because such custom would be " irrationabilis, 
contra bonum ecclesiae, corruptela juris," and consequently 
without the necessary legal approbation of the legislator. ^^ 
Supposing such a custom be not repugnant in itself, will it 
not in this matter be practically impossible to ascertain its 
existence, i. e. to prove that it fulfills all requisite conditions, 
particularly in regard to criminal cases? ^* Might is not right, 

13 Cf. Reiffenstuel, Lib. II, Tit. II, n. 240; Santi, Praelectiones, Lib. II, 
Tit. II, n. 28; A.A.S., 1910, p. 495. 
1* De Religiosis, p. 109. 


and silence does not always give consent. And granting that 
such legitimate customs do exist, have they not been abolished 
by the Motu Proprio, which is binding, " all things whatso- 
ever to the contrary notwithstanding " ? To this last argu- 
ment one may reply that a general disposition does not abolish 
particular customs, especially immemorial customs; or, it 
may be urged, when the legislator intends to abolish them it 
is the practice of the Roman Chancery to use a formula more 
explicit than the one used in the present decree. Moreover, 
all these difficulties have been practically solved by the recent 
answers of the Holy See. It has been officially declared that 
the Motu Proprio does not affect Germany for the express 
reason that there exists in that country a custom to the contrary, 
and so it is safe to conclude that legitimate customs may 
be established against the privilegium fori, that their validity 
may be demonstrated with sufficient certainty, and that where- 
ever they do exist they are not abolished by the Motu Proprio 
Quantavis diligentia. The answer for Germany was not 
given as an exemption but as a doctrinal interpretation of 
the papal document by the application of the ordin- 
ary principles of canon law. Even if, as has been surmised,^^ 
it was a concession made for the sake of peace, it would retain 
its value and remain of universal application. And this all 
the more, because a similar declaration was made shortly after- 
ward for Belgium, and a little later for Holland. The reason 
assigned again is the existence of a custom to the contrary. 

Hence it is lawful to conclude that wherever the same cus- 
tom exists the effect is the same; and without having recourse 
to the Holy See for further decision, it will suffice in each 
individual case to examine whether, in a given country, the 
privilegium fori has been in force and whether violations of 
it have been published or protested against. In this event, 
ordinarily a consuetudinary right has been created and the 
Motu Proprio does not apply to that place. It is on these 
principles that canonists have felt justified in holding that it 
does not apply to France,^^ Ireland,^'^ and English-speaking 
countries generally. In the United States the episcopal court 

15 De Religiosis, p. 109. 

16 Canoniste, December, 191 1, p. 712. 

1''' Archbishop Walsh: The Motu Proprio. 


•J o 

never could be fully organized, and it has been the practice 
of Catholics here from the beginning to have their contro- 
versies with ecclesiastics decided by lay judges. How far this 
practice has had the sanction of the Church, the Acts of Coun- 
cils may help to determine. 

In the Third Provincial Council of Baltimore (1837) a de- 
cree was enacted " on the bringing of ecclesiastics before civil 
courts ". This decree, when submitted to the Congregation 
of the Propaganda for approbation, was found too severe.^^ 
"With regard to the sixth clause," the Congregation answers, 
" in which there is mention of avoiding the bringing of eccle- 
siastical causes before the civil courts, the Sacred Congregation 
decides that the decree should be modified, and if a cleric sues 
another cleric before a lay judge, upon a matter of strict 
ecclesiastical right, the Council says truly that any one so act- 
ing incurs the censures enacted in law. But in mixed cases 
where the persons may be ecclesiastical but the object in dis- 
pute may be temporal, the Council must deal a little more 
leniently, especially in countries in which the civil govern- 
ment is not in the hands of Catholics, and unless recourse is 
had to civil courts there is not the means of defending one's 
rights." Consequently the decree was amended and thus 
worded: "Cum grave Fidelibus oriatur scandalum, et eccle- 
siastico ordini dedecus, dum causae ecclesiasticae ad civilia 
deducuntur tribunalia, hortamur omnes, quorum interest, ut 
controversias inter eos forte orituras de rebus vel personis ec- 
clesiasticis, amice componant, vel saltem judicio Episcopi sub- 
mittant. Quod si ecclesiastica vel religiosa utriusque sexus 
persona, aliam personam ecclesiasticam vel religiosam utrius- 
que sexus, coram civili tribunali temere citaverit de re juris 
stricte ecclesiastici, noverit se in censuras a jure latas incidere." 

The Bishops of the Baltimore Province, in 1837, desired to 
maintain intact the privilegium fori ; but prevailing conditions 
rendered it impossible, and the Congregation not only allowed 
but urged them to make the necessary concessions. What that 
somewhat greater leniency recommended to them was, we may 
judge from the decree as it stands after the correction. 

isCollectio Lacensis, Vol. Ill, p. 56; Concilia provincialia, Baltimori. 
habita, p. 139. 



Cathollos are exhorted not to bring ordinary ecclesiastical 
suits before the civil courts. They are not forbidden to do so ; 
nor is there any question of a permission or any other formal- 
ity to be complied with. This is a toleration which amounts 
to an indirect approval of the practice and was no doubt com- 
monly understood in that sense. 

The First Plenary Council of Baltimore (1852) endorsed 
that discipline and extended it to all the States which then 
formed part of the Union. The Second Plenary Council 
(1866) urges priests to avoid appearing before the secular 
•courts whenever their disputes can be settled otherwise, 
severely condemns all persons who violate the laws of the 
Church on ecclesiastical immunities, and quotes the above de- 
cree of the Third Provincial Council/® There is therefore 
:no new element introduced into the law by this Council, no 
previously admitted practices are reproved, and the custom 
existing now for many years against the privilegium fori 
continues legitimate. It was thus in full force when a few 
years later (1869) the Constitution Apostolicae Sedis was 
published; and the Chapter Cogentes did not revoke it. But 
it was one of those departures from the common law of which 
the Congregation of the Propaganda had said, in approving 
the decrees of the First Plenary Council, that " they were 
permitted by the Holy See because of the difficulties of the 
times, but only by way of toleration and provisionally, with 
the understanding that they should not be given greater stabil- 
ity or extension ; rather should measures be taken to endeavor 
to return to the common discipline." 

It was precisely one of the purposes of the Third Plenary 
Council, as declared by Leo XIII in the letter ordering its 
convocation, to hasten that return to the law of the universal 
Ohurch, *' ut propius ad commune ecclesiae jus, quantum fieri 
potest, accedat." On the subject under consideration, conse- 
quently, a decision was taken which indicates the efforts made 
in that direction. In the chapter '' De vita et honestate cleri- 
corum," the Fathers of the Council again declare that it is a 

19 " Ecclesiae honorem temnit et sacros canones conculcat, quicumque ec- 
clesiasticae vel religiosae personae, de rebus quae ad forum ecclesiasticum per- 
tinent, coram profano judice litem intenderit. Quo spectat decretum, quod 
sequitur, a praedecessoribus nostris latum, Cum grave . . . ". N. 155. 


source of grave scandal to the faithful to bring ecclesiastics 
before the civil courts; therefore priests are exhorted when- 
ever there arises some difficulty even with laymen and about 
temporal matters not to go before lay judges, either as plain- 
tiffs or as defendants, if it can be avoided. They are strictly 
forbidden to sue a layman before a civil court to recover 
money due to the church for pew rent or for any other cause, 
without the written permission of the bishop. They are re- 
minded of the divine law by which purely ecclesiastical mat- 
ters are under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Church, and of 
the censure which is incurred by all those who have recourse 
to the secular power to prevent the exercise of ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction. Then a disposition which was not found in the 
acts of the preceding Councils is expressed in the following 
words : *'Ad tuendam porro immunitatem ecclesiasticam, qua- 
tenus inter nos fieri potest, districte iisdem prohibemus, ne 
contra sacedotem vel clericum de rebus etiam temporalibus 
coram judice civili litem intentent sine permissione scripto 
expressa ipsius Episcopi." The law is intended to protect 
ecclesiastical immunity, i. e. to enforce as much as is possible 
of the law of the Church concerning immunity; it is for 
priests ; not for laymen, for whom therefore the implicit per- 
mission to sue clerics before lay judges remains valid or is 
even indirectly confirmed. The custom remains intact; to 
them consequently neither the decree of the Holy Office of 
1886, nor the Motu Proprio Quantavis diligentia applies. 
But for priests, whatever general, implicit authorization they 
may have had before, in common with the faithful, to sue 
other ecclesiastics before the civil courts, when the matter 
was not in itself ecclesiastical, is now withdrawn. As no new 
legitimate custom has been established since 1 884 a priest who 
sues a cleric before lay judges without leave of the bishop, or 
a bishop without leave of the Pope, falls under the censure 
enacted in the Motu Proprio, " nullo potestatis ecclesiasticae 
permissu ". 

H. Ayrinhac, S.S. 
St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo Park, California. 


IV. " Vacat ad Deambulationem." 

IN contrast to the " docetur " which in the college calendar 
meets the eye with ever recurring regularity, and which 
succintly sums up the scholastic program of each day, we find 
on Wednesday : " feria IV, post meridiem vacat ad deambula- 
tionem ". The weekly walk was an ever welcome relaxation 
from the monotony and routine of the students' daily day. 
The time ordinarily occupied by study and class was on Wed- 
nesday devoted to this. Arrayed in their ordinary clerical 
" shorts " and biretta, the students congregated after lunch 
and awaited the leader of the walk, who was usually one of 
the deans, but in the Junior House always a monitor. These 
monitors, six in number, were appointed from the Fourth 
Year's divines at the beginning of the academic year. They 
had their rooms in the Junior House, and had their places in 
the Junior refectory, but of course attended the daily lectures 
on Theology and Scripture in St. Mary's, with the other stu- 
dents of their year. Their duties were not onerous ; but they 
were always available to read morning or evening prayer on 
any occasion on which the dean was unavoidably absent. 

The dean generally picked out two students to accompany 
him. Every student was obliged to go on the public walks 
save such as obtained express permission of the dean " to stay 
in." Those to whom such exemption was extended were not 
free to indulge in any other form of outdoor exercise or to 
practise music during that time. Latterly, I believe, the rule 
has been relaxed, so that now the Wednesday walk is entirely 
optional. There was one dean — he has since gone to adorn 
the episcopal bench — a very upright and strictly conscientious 
man, whose bete-noir was chicanery or subterfuge or double- 
dealing in any shape or form on the part of a student. As a 
certain old Roman senator was accustomed to begin and end 
all his forensic efforts with the fateful words " Delenda est 
Carthago ", so the alpha and omega of all Dean X's discourses 
to the students was : " Be men ; act as men ; be not eye-servers, 
but obey exactly the rule of the college. If you do happen to 
be detected in the violation of rule, then again I say be men, 


and don't try to hide your guilt by flimsy excuses which 
nobody believes." 

The principle, it must be admitted, is sound and I have no 
doubt that in places where the violation of a rule entails less 
serious consequences than in Maynooth, it might appeal to the 
integrity and high sense of honor of those concerned; but stu- 
dents, even ecclesiastical students, are not quite angels, and 
violations of some rules there are bound to be from time to 
time. The consequences of these violations do not tend to 
enhance a student's reputation in the eyes of his superiors, and 
who will blame a student who, having violated a petty rule, 
tries by all fair and legitimate means to avoid detection or 
escape punishment? Of course there is no excuse for a student 
who violates serious or important rules. He deserves any 
punishment which his fault may entail. 

I remember one occasion when, during the public walk, two 
students who had permission to remain in, prepared to have a 
quiet game of handball in the corner of one of the ball-alleys. 
The game had not proceeded far when Dean X. . . . was seen 
approaching. He was at a respectful distance, but there could 
be no doubt he had seen them. Whether however he was 
sufficiently near to recognize them was a question about which 
they were not very sure. One of them evidently concluded 
that the safest course to pursue in the circumstances was to 
make ofi". Accordingly he grabbed his soutane and biretta, 
and disappeared as quickly as he could; the other, in pursu- 
ance of the high and righteous principles which he had heard 
so often inculcated, and considering this an admirable oppor- 
tunity of putting them to the test, quietly remained where he 
was till the Dean came up. 

" You are aware, Mr. O'Byrne, that you have been openly 
and deliberately violating the college rules. Have you any 
explanation to offer?" 

" No sir!" came the answer of O'Byrne who did not con- 
sider his act a very serious violation of rule. 

" Very well then. I must say I admire your manly and up- 
right conduct in not running away, but of course I must take 
a note of the offence all the same." And so it was done. 

There were many students of sedentary habits, myself 
amongst others, for whom these weekly walks had little fas- 


cination, and who went only when they could find no adequate 
excuse for remaining behind. The country was flat, mono- 
tonous, uninteresting, and very sparsely populated. More- 
over the walks were frequently so very long and the pace so 
unnecessarily fast that they ceased to be a recreation. The 
students generally returned mud-bespattered, tired, and per- 
spiring, and occasionally late for dinner. To enter a house on 
the occasion of a public walk was looked on as a serious offence 
and punishable with the severest penalties — expulsion, I think ; 
whilst any student or students who got unattached and failed 
to return with the main body were liable to be called up for 
explanation and perhaps similarly dealt with. It was cus- 
tomary to arrange an exceptionally long walk on Easter Mon- 
day. This was a free day, and the walk generally started 
about eleven o'clock. Sometimes it lead to Clongowes Wood 
College, and sometimes to Wolfe Tone's grave or to Lucan, 
where you might regale yourself with a draught of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen for a nominal consideration. This Easter 
Monday walk was the only occasion on which it was not con- 
sidered unconventional and altogether outre for a junior to 
carry a stick or umbrella, although amongst the divines such 
a custom was the rule rather than the exception. 

The time usually set apart for Spiritual Reading was on 
Wednesday evenings regularly devoted to a sermon preached 
by one of the divinity students. If not always a triumph in 
elocutionary art, these sermons were at least generally master- 
pieces of English prose. I have rarely heard or read finer 
compositions than were those sermons delivered by the stu- 
dents in Maynooth. From a rhetorical point of view, they 
left little to be desired, any slip or imperfection being more 
frequently due to extreme nervousness or to thoughtlessness 
than to want of preparation or ability. These sermons were 
always immediately after subjected to the public criticism of 
the presiding dean. 

Besides the public walk, many forms of recreation were pro- 
vided for the students in the college, the principal being hand- 
ball, football (both Rugger and Soccer), hurly, tennis, and 
an open air gymnasium in each Division. In all of these 
branches of sport there was much good, not to say, first rate 
talent. Handball was the game most popularly indulged in,. 


there being no less than eighteen first class ball-alleys, and 
in this department at any time might be found a team which 
would hold its own against any body of secular champions. 
Indeed Maynooth some i6 or 17 years ago was proud to own 
the champion handball player of the world in the person of 
Tom Jones, now Father Jones, a worthy priest of the Diocese 
of Kerry. In the ball-alley he was a marvel of speed, keen- 
ness, and dexterity, a clever strategist, always sure, accurate 
and alert, who when in form could be relied on to toss a prac- 
tically unplayable ball, or butt a flying ball with the back 
of his heel with greater accuracy than most players could da 
it with their hands. In other branches of athletics the stu- 
dents were almost equally prominent. Some of them, finding 
they had no ecclesiastical vocation, having passed " ad vota 
saecularia ", afterward figured as prominent international foot- 
ballers. Maynooth could at all times boast of pedestrians 
amongst its students, whose records for the mile, quarter mile,, 
or 100 yards, compared favorably with the best international 
championship performance. I wonder how many were aware 
that the runner who, under the pseudonym of ** P. O'Rourke ", 
won the international quarter mile at Celtic Park, Glasgow, in 
1907, was a young Maynooth priest at the time just recently 
ordained. He was only one of many who might have success- 
fully aspired to championship honors. 

In a vast institution like Maynooth where sickness and ac- 
cident were naturally unavoidable, the infirmary was a neces- 
sary and valuable equipment. Of such there were two, one 
attached to the Junior House and another for the benefit of 
St. Joseph's and St. Mary's. Each was under the care of a 
matron, and the doctor attended officially once a day and as 
often afterward as he was called in. Besides there was a visit- 
ing physician, a surgeon, and a dentist, all of them men of 
high standing in their professions. 

An infirmary is an institution one does not generally as- 
sociate with happiness or pleasure, yet there are many of us 
who will feel that some of the happiest days of the students' 
college life were spent in the Maynooth infirmary. I should 
also add — some of the most miserable. Happiness — perhaps 
contentment is a better word — being a relative quantity, is 
entirely a matter of contrasts, reactions, and comparisons. 

.3 20 


The Maynooth infirmary was to me, and I have no doubt to 
many others, an oasis in the desert. After three or four 
months of the grind and the monotony of collegiate life, a 
week's respite is not only useful but sometimes necessary. A 
relaxation of the high pressure, to which the semper et pro 
semper cast-iron regulations of the Division subject one, is 
helpful both from a spiritual and material point of view. In 
my time the infirmary contained in the language of Susan 
Nipper both " permanents " and " temporaries ". The former, 
of whom there were only three or four, were delicate students 
who had permission to live in the infirmary, " cum privilegio ", 
and who consequently enjoyed all the advantages and preroga- 
tives which such residence brought with it. The six o'clock 
bell had no terrors for them, and they enjoyed other privileges 
and immunities from rule which helped to make tolerable what 
must have otherwise proved a very dreary existence. Apan 
from these the Infirmary patients were divided into two classes, 
the " Top List " and the " Low List ". The former embraced 
those whose ailments were serious enough to make residence 
in the infirmary a necessity, and while on the infirmary list 
they were not permitted to attend class. The " Low List " 
patients slept in their own rooms in the Division, were obliged 
to attend class, but took their meals in the infirmary and were 
permitted to sleep till 8 o'clock in the morning. A student 
going to the infirmary was of course obliged to give notice 
to the dean of the Division, otherwise complications might 
;€asily arise, and marks of absence from duty be registered 
against a student. I was not a habitue of the Infirmary, go- 
ing there only when necessity compelled me, generally when 
I succumbed to an attack of influenza. But having been in- 
stalled there, I was equally reluctant to leave it, and it was 
always with a feeling akin to homesickness that I did so. Yet 
some of those days were dreary and lonesome enough, as when 
lying on the narrow bed, feverish and sick, one was trying to 
beguile the time by counting and mentally calculating all 
manner of arithmetical problems which the objects in the room 
suggested, from the number of spots on the opposite wall to 
the most accurate measurements which would place the sus- 
pended electric globe in the exact centre of the ceiling. 


"A fellow-feeling makes us wondrous kind ", and so the 
students became more friendly and intimate and in a short 
time got to know one another better in the infirmary than 
was possible during years in the Division. There is a rather 
conservative spirit in Maynooth. Each diocese keeps much 
to itself. Those who are fond of games of course mix freely 
in the ball courts and elsewhere, and become intimate friends ; 
but there may be and are students who during the whole six 
or seven years of their course never exchange even common 
greetings. Amongst the students, and more so between the 
students and professors, there is a surprising absence of free- 
dom of communication and a rigidity of convention which to 
one looking back on it seems hardly called for. 

I have already said that in the infirmary the students got 
to know one another more thoroughly, and many who perhaps 
had previously never spoken to each other became intimate 
and life-long friends. During this convalescent stage, when 
the bed no longer claimed us by day, many kinds of harm- 
less and informal entertainments were indulged in, and every 
one who could contributed in his own fashion to the pleasure 
and enjoyment of the rest. Harmless relaxation of this kind 
was likely to be overlooked provided it did not develop into 
unnecessary boisterousness and gaiete de ccsur, or tend to the 
annoyance and inconvenience of a patient. There was always 
to be found varied talent — orators, humorists, singers, and 
musicians, in all of which departments considerable ability 
was displayed. Indeed we were a perfectly happy family ex- 
cept when we were disturbed by the unexpected apparition of 
one of the deans who resided permanently in the infirmary, 
while sometimes we were honored by a flying visit from the 
President or Vice-President, who were naturally interested in 
the general health of the institution. 

This is the attractive side of the picture. But when — at 
rare intervals though it might be — Death, that "Angel of 
the darker Draught ", came to claim some young and promis- 
ing life from among us, it was very different. I can still see 
the procession of white- robed clerics slowly wending their 
way to the little cemetery, and hear the plaintive Dies Irae 
or the solemn strains of the Benedictus, mingled with the 
heart-broken sobs of sorrowing and bereaved relatives, as we 



carried to his grave some one from the halls of Maynooth 

In the Maynooth infirmary too the old order of things has 
I believe, changed. Many time-honored traditions have 
passed; innovations have been introduced and the change is 
decidedly for the better. Confided to the matronly care of the 
good Sisters of Mercy, the sick are now assured of that sym- 
pathetic attention and considerate treatment which can hardly 
be always expected from professional matrons or nurses. 

V. Some Stray Reflections. 

What strikes you on being suddenly brought into communi- 
cation with the variety of types which constitute a great col- 
lege like Maynooth, is what for want of a more appropriate 
term one might call " provinciality ". 

Some distinguished essayist has remarked that " all edu- 
cated and thoughtful people are confronted at times with 
modes of thought, with points of view, with systems of argu- 
ment, or with habits of expression which for one reason or 
another they call ' provincial ' ; it is equally certain that if 
asked for some definition of the term which should include 
all admitted instances of its application, and yet possess some 
historical and logical propriety, they would be severely posed 
for an answer." To the Londoner everything and everybody 
outside the great Metropolis is provincial, and although mod- 
ern conveniences of travelling and of communicating thought 
have established a close alliance, the term still retains much 
of its original significance, and to the dweller in the metropolis 
denotes the same coordinate extension as the term '* bar- 
barian " did to the ancient Greeks. 

It is quite outside the scope of this paper to seek the vari- 
ous shades of meaning which can be read into the word. As it 
is sometimes taken to signify the antithesis of universal, it 
comes in this connexion quite near enough to comprehend that 
difference of tastes and habits, that variety of modes of speech 
and expression, that peculiarity of manner and idea, that spirit 
of rivalry shall we say which distinguish the Irishman of the 
West from that of the East and the Northern from his vis-a- 
vis of the South. It may seem strange that the rest of Ire- 
land has been taught to regard the denizens of the Black North 


as being almost outside the pale of Irish nationality and look 
on him as a sort of hybrid product of Scotch and Irish an- 
cestry, possessing but little of the Celtic temperament and be- 
coming gradually nationalized only by long associations; but 
the stiff frigidity of the Northern, although in striking con- 
trast to the hot-blooded impetuosity of his brother Gael, will 
be found to shelter a warm and generous heart, a courage and 
unswerving devotion to his Faith, and an undying love for 
his country which the Catholic Church abroad has long since 
learned to appreciate at its proper value in the Celt. 

There are of course the provincial peculiarities of which I 
spoke. On a first acquaintance the accent and speech of Cork 
or Kerry are as puzzling and unintelligible to the Northern as 
the proverbial Greek is to the " man in the street " ; while I 
have no doubt the flavor of the Doric of the " unspeakable 
Scot " which is traced in the speech of Ulster, is quite as be- 
wildering to him. The peculiarities of pronunciation and 
of language which are characteristic of the various Provinces 
are frequently the occasion of good-natured chaff and raillery 
among the students themselves, — the short i of the Northern 
in such words as " Wind " and " swim '', and the short " a " 
and redundant " h " of the Western being the subject of much 
comment. Professor Joyce in his book English as it is Spoken 
remarks that no Irishman can correctly pronounce the " h " 
in such words as " Three ", " thunder ", etc. This is an 
exaggeration, although it may be true that in many parts of 
Ireland the pronunciation " tree " and *' tunder " is quite 

It was not alone in the matter of idiom and pronunciation 
that the North and West were wont occasionally to cross 
swords. There were other little traditional differences. The 
Westerns were accustomed occasionally to refer jocularly to 
their brethren of the North as the " foal eaters ", while they 
in turn would retort that some time away back in the twilight 
of history the Connaught people killed and ate St. Patrick's 
goat, an offence which must be deeply resented by all true 
and patriotic Irishmen. 

Other phases of local and what Matthew Arnold would 
style " academic provinciality," such as are found in every 
college or university, might be here mentioned as peculiar to 


Maynooth, if space permitted it. Many incidents, pleasant 
and otherwise, come back to memory which at the time formed 
the subject of much discussion or perhaps good-natured rail- 
lery in the batches. Encounters with the dean, ridiculous and 
sometimes embarrassing situations, bon mots in class, the 
harmless fads and peculiarities of some of the students, natur- 
ally supplied a fund of interest and topics of conversation 
which in our restricted surroundings were always very 

Apropos of peculiarities of certain students, there was a 
story current in Maynooth of one who had developed a mania 
for knocking doors. In the early stages he was satisfied 
with a gentle tap on the door of any empty room he might 
chance to pass; but as the idiosyncracy developed it didn't 
matter whose door it was. The violence of the impact varied 
too in proportion as the inclination increased. There was one 
venerable professor whose rooms were quite convenient to the 
stair-landing where the students were accustomd to go up 
and down. On one occasion this particular student happened 
to be passing down, and, embracing a favorable opportunity, 
he gave a loud sharp rap on the door, and disappeared down 
the stairs as quickly and as noiselessly as he could. Just at 
that particular moment another student happened to be com- 
ing up, who, having reached the professor's door, met the 
latter as he came out of his room to relieve his feelings by a 
few pertinent remarks on the conduct of students in general 
and the lamentable absence of ecclesiastical decorum in this 
student in particular, with mutterings about this thing going 
on too long, and threats (now that he had found the culprit) 
of an appeal to the administrative Council and the subse- 
quent pains and penalties which might be expected. 

Many of the students in Maynooth devoted their leisure 
hours to music, either vocal or instrumental. In the corri- 
dors, the discordant and conflicting notes of nearly every 
known musical instrument might be heard at one and the 
same time. While some of the performers acquitted them- 
selves with a high degree of proficiency, in the majority there 
was a notable absence of that charm of " magic numbers and 
persuasive sound " which the poets tell us ** soothes the savage 
breast and softens rocks and moves the things inanimate with 
living souls ". 


In the vocal order, however, the college choir under the 
tutorship of its distinguished professor was trained to a high 
standard of artistic production, as any one who has heard it 
will testify, the performances of the select choir in the college 
chapel on Sundays and great feasts representing the last word 
in musical harmony. 

In this connexion there was a most impressive and informal 
little function that those who ever heard it must have a most 
pleasant recollection of. This was the singing of the Adeste 
on Christmas morning. The college choir assembled on the 
Square in the small hours of the morning when the rest of the 
students were still fast asleep, and as the harmonious strains of 
the beautiful hymn were borne to our slumbering senses on 
the wings of the dawn, one could almost fancy he was listen- 
ing to the " Gloria in Excelsis " of the angelic midnight 
chorus which proclaimed that first " far off divine event " 
that brought joy and happiness to the human race. 

Most priests in glancing back over their student days will 
probably recall the deep satisfaction with which on returning 
from vacation they entered on the last term of their college 
career. Their years of striving were nearly at an end. The 
goal of their ambition was well within view ; the prize almost 
within their grasp. It is because of that eagerness I suppose 
that the last year seems to go by with the measured and pain- 
ful slowness of an hour hand. It is in more senses than one 
a year of preparation. Five or six years in an ecclesiastical 
college like Maynooth leaves little to be done in the spiritual 
and supernatural order. The ecclesiastic with a true vocation 
who has pursued his course with due regard for rule leaves his 
Alma Mater as well equipped for his task, spiritually and in- 
tellectually, as mortal may hope to be. If he should after- 
ward lapse from the path of virtue, it will be generally found 
to be a fall of gradual growth, a case where self-assurance 
and over-confidence override a due regard for that soundest 
of moral principles " obsta principiis ". '' Nemo repente fit 
turpissimus " is a principle which ascetics inform us recog- 
nizes no exceptions. It would be well if students realized more 
fully that the virtue they will require in the world is not of 
the " fugitive and cloistered order, unexercised and un- 
breathed ", but that after college days their lives, become a 


" race where that immortal garland is to be run for, not 
without dust and heat ". 

There are always in Maynooth not a few students destined 
temporarily for missions abroad, their own bishops not requir- 
ing their services for four or five years or perhaps longer. 
Most of the prospective young priests I think rather relished 
the idea of going abroad, and their interview with the various 
foreign bishops who called at Maynooth was always for them 
an interesting function, although in many cases, I am afraid, 
disappointing for the bishop, as the percentage that volun- 
teered for foreign dioceses, like those of Australia, South 
Africa, and the United States, was small in comparison with 
the numbers that preferred to accept missions in England and 

Whatever reluctance young priests may have to go abroad 
(very often due to family consideration), perhaps the great- 
est tribute that can be paid the Foreign Missions like America 
and Australia is the fact that the young priests who go to these 
countries manifest no desire to return again to the native heath, 
unless by way of vacation; whereas few Irish priests choose 
to remain permanently attached to a Scotch or English diocese 
when they can get one equally suitable at home. 

As the end of the year approached, it was customary for 
many of the " fourth " divines to get a day in Dublin — not 
collectively of course, but individually. There were so many 
things in the way of clerical outfit that could not easily be 
procured without a visit to the metropolis. There was a stu- 
dent in my time who had a sort of carte blanche to go out as 
often almost as he liked — at least until his business was satis- 
factorily completed. He had been negotiating with, I think, 
the Bishop of Cleveland (Ohio) for a mission in that Diocese, 
which negotiations were to be finally determined after the 
prospective candidate had submitted to his Lordship six ori- 
ginal sermons and a photograph. The sermons were duly 
despatched. The photo of course necessitated a visit to 
Dublin, but whether the artist was unskilful or the lines of 
the young levite's features did not lend themselves to satis- 
factory reproduction, I know not ; at all events the photograph- 
ing had to be repeated several times. Whatever the ultimate 
result, it became known that negotiations with the American 



Bishop were eventually broken off, causing a good deal of 
chaffing, whilst everybody realized that it was a privilege for 
any young priest that his services should be required in his 
own native diocese. 

The intellectual tests were of the usual order. The or- 
dination examination was the last fence. If a student stum- 
bled, which indeed very rarely happened, it was usually rather 
due to nervousness than to want of knowledge. An examin- 
ation is deemed necessary, but the authorities no doubt take 
consideration of the fact that a student who has come so far 
successfully through his course and satisfied his various pro- 
fessors, has acquired the necessary knowledge for the efficient 
discharge of his professional duties, however indifferently he 
may acquit himself at the examination for Orders. 

In every ecclesiastical college ordination to Priesthood is 
the most important event of the year. For the ordinandi it is 
no doubt the most serious step of their lives, and one which 
leaves a lasting impression that time can never dim, a recol- 
lection which often amid the struggle and battles of after life 
brings back to them most pleasant and happy memories. One 
watching the ordinandi vesting in the cloister for the cere- 
mony might notice many whose demeanor betrayed unmis- 
takable signs of diffidence and anxiety almost approaching 
timidity, and whose apparently sleepless and anxious vigil of 
the night before showed how truly they realized the tremen- 
dous responsibility which is not to be lightly undertaken. 

Somebody has remarked that " there comes to every human 
life a period when its cup of human happiness seems to be full 
to overflowing. That period may be long or short, but every- 
body drinks out of that cup once." Every true priest will 
agree that the realization of that happiness comes to him on 
that day when he hears pronounced upon him by the ordain- 
ing prelate those solemn and mysterious words : ''Accipe potes- 
tatem offerre sacrificium Deo, Missasque celebrare ... in 
nomine Domini," — surely the highest trust that can be re- 
posed in mortal man. Whilst it may be true of other kinds 
of happiness, that 

The distant object which we covet most 
When once enjoyed is in possession lost, 


the poet here leaves out of count this crowning glory of a 
student's life. Possession intensifies the happiness which was 
only vaguely realized in anticipation. With what pleasur- 
able memories every priest will call to mind the solemn and 
majestic strains of the Veni Creator whilst the bishop in sacred 
and imposing tones pronounced the form of unction " Con- 
secrare et sanctificare digneris, Domine, manus istas per istam 
unctionem et nostram benedictionem." And then the ceremony 
proceeded while the ordinati celebrated the Holy Sacrifice 
with the bishop, and seventy or eighty young priests were 
added to the Church to spread the light of Christ's Gospel, to 
carry His message of love and mercy, and minister to souls 
committed to their zealous trust. 

The two or three days which intervened between the or- 
dinations and the final exodus from the college passed quickly. 
One felt a joyous sense of freedom, a new feeling of inde- 
pendence and emancipation such as could be appreciated only 
after six or seven years of confinement and obedience to rule. 

On the eve of our departure the Te Deum in the college 
chapel was sung with all the power, effectiveness, and devo- 
tion which we could impart to it. After supper we had a few 
parting words of farewell with the companions of our studies, 
and next morning the great gates closed behind us as silently 
as they had before opened to receive us. The guardian sphinx 
looked down from its pedestal with its mysterious and in- 
scrutable gaze on the passing of another contingent of the 
soldiers of Christ into the battlefield of an incredulous and 
hostile world. 

P. Sheridan. 

Dungloe, Ireland. 


ACTA pn pp. X. 
Epistola ad r. p. d. Iacobum Duhig, Episcopum Rock- 


Venerabilis frater, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. 
Faustum catholicis hominibus istius regionis proximum men- 
sem septembrem accepimus fore, exeunte anno quinquagesimo 
ex quo ecclesiae Rockhamptonensis initia sunt posita: cum 
quidem in id tempus festi soUemnes dies apparentur, atque in 
huius laetitiae societatem episcopi omnes ex Australia, cum 
magno praesertim sacerdotum comitatu, venturi sint. Scilicet 
hoc Nos perlibenter intelleximus ; tibique ac ceteris rei auc- 
toribus et ducibus prolixe, vestrum laudando et probando con- 
silium, suffragamur. Novimus religionis christianaeque hu- 
manitatis celeres istic progressiones factas; ut exiguam illam 
Missionem Rockhamptonensem ampla dioecesis eaque satis 
bene constituta, baud ita longo intervallo, exceperit: omni- 
noque est aequum vos propterea, cum facti memoriam cele- 
brare, turn debitas Deo persolvere gratias, atque ex com- 
memoratione beneficiorum eius fidenter ad maiora niti. Cete- 


rum, vestram prospicientes diligentiam, itemque tantam cleri 
Australiani concordiam, quanta hie praeclare elucet, non solum 
de ista dioecesi, sed de tota Australia catholica melius sperare 
iure videmur. Itaque existimetis volumus, vestris Nos sacris 
sollemnibus animo praesentes adfore; quae ut fructus optatos 
pariant, tibi, venerabilis frater, et omnibus qui ea ipsa cele- 
brabunt, apostolicam benedictionem, auspicem divinorum 
munerum, amantissime impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, die ix mensis maii MCMXII, 
Pontificatus Nostri anno nono. 




Decretum de Dispensationibus super Impedimento Dis- 
paritatis cultus absque debitis cautionibus nunquam 

In plenario conventu supremae sacrae Congregationis sancti 
Officii habito feria IV die i6 aprilis 1890, proposita quaes- 
tione: "An in concedendis ab habente a Sancta Sede potesta- 
tem dispensationibus super impedimento disparitatis cultus 
praescriptae cautiones semper sint exigendae ", Emi ac Rmi 
DD. Cardinales in rebus fidei et morum Inquisitores genera- 
les, re perdiligenti examine discussa, respondendum decre- 
verunt: " Dispensationem super impedimento disparitatis ciil- 
tus nunquam concedi, nisi expressis omnibus conditionibus 
seu cautionibus ". 

Eademque die ac feria Ssmus D. Leo PP. XIII, in solita 
audientia R. P. D. Adsessori eiusdem supremae sacrae Con- 
gregationis impertita Emorum Patrum resolutionem benigne 
adprobare et confirmare dignatus est. 

Contrariis quibuscumque non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae, ex aedibus S. Officii, die 21 iunii 19 12. 

L. *S. 

Aloisius Castellano, 5. R. et U. L Notarius. 



Decretum de Dispensatione super Impedimento Dispari- 


In plenario conventu supremae sacrae Congregationis sancti 
Officii habito feria IV die 12 iunii 191 2, propositis dubiis : 

I ° Utrum dispensatio super impedimento disparitatis cultus, 
ab habente a Sancta Sede potestatem, non requisitis vel de- 
negatis praescriptis cautionibus impertita, valida habenda sit 
an non ? Et quatenus negative : 

2° Utrum hisce in casibus, cum scilicet de dispensatione sic 
invalide concessa evidenter constat, matrimonii ex hoc capite 
nullitatem per se ipse Ordinarius declarare valeat, vel opus sit, 
singulis vicibus, ad Sanctam Sedem pro sententia definitiva 

Emi ac Rmi DD. Cardinales in rebus fidei et morum In- 
quisitores generales, omnibus mature perpensis, respondendum 
decreverunt : 

Ad i.^ Dispensationem prout exponitur impertitam esse 

Ad 2.™ Affirmative ad primam; negative ad secundam 

Et sequenti feria V die 13 eiusdem mensis Ssmus D. N. D. 
Pius divina providentia PP. X in solita audientia R. P. D. 
Adsessori eiusdem supremae sacrae Congregationis impertita 
Emorum Patrum resolutionem benigne adprobare et con- 
firmare dignatus est. 

Contrariis non obstantibus quibuscumque. 

Datum Romae, ex aedibus S. Officii, die 21 iunii 191 2. 

L. * S. 

Aloisius Castellano, 5. R. et U. L Notarius. 

Decretum de Parochi Adsistentia Matrimoniis Mixtis 


Cum per Decretum Ne temere diei 2 augusti 1907, n. IV, 
expresse ac nulla facta distinctione edicatur parochos et lo- 
co rum Ordinarios valide matrimonio adsistere, dummodo in- 
vitati ac rogati . . . requirant excipiantque contrahentium con- 


sensum; graves in praxi difficultates ortae sunt relate ad 
mixtas nuptias in quibus, denegatis pervicaciter a partibus 
debitis cautionibus, Sancta Sedes, attentis peculiaribus quo- 
rumdam locorum circumstantiis, materialem tantum parochi 
praesentiam, per modum exceptionis ac veluti ultimum tole- 
rantiae limitem, antea aliquando permiserat. 

Re delata ad supremam banc sacram Congregationem sancti 
Officii, cui ex praescripto apostolicae Constitutionis " Sapienti 
consilio " Integra manet . . . facultas ea cognoscendi quae circa 
.. . . impedimenta disparitatis cultus et mixtae religionis ver- 
santur, atque in plenario conventu habito feria III, loco IV, 
die 21 maii 1912, praevio Rmorum DD. Consultorum voto, 
perdiligenti examine discussa, Emi ac Rmi Dni Cardinales in 
rebus fidei et morum Inquisitores generales, omnibus mature 
perpensis, decreverunt : 

" Praescriptionem Decreti Ne temerCy n. IV, § 3, de re- 
quirendo per parochum excipiendoque, ad validitatem matri- 
monii, nupturientium consensu, in matrimoniis mixtis in qui- 
bus debitas cautiones exhibere pervicaciter partes renuant, 
locum posthac non habere; sed standum taxative praecedenti- 
bus Sanctae Sedis ac praesertim s. m. Gregorii PP. XVI (Litt. 
app. diei 30 aprilis 1841 ad episcopos Hungariae) ad rem 
concessionibus et instructionibus : facto verbo cum Ssmo ". 

Et sequenti feria V die 23 eiusdem mensis Ssmus D. N. D. 
Pius divina providentia PP. X, in solita audientia R. P. D. 
Adsessori huius supremae sacrae Congregationis sancti Officii 
impertita, relatam sibi Emorum Patrum resolutionem benigne 
adprobare ac suprema sua auctoritate in omnibus ratam habere 
dignatus est. 

Contrariis quibuscumque, etiam speciali atque individua 
mentione dignis, non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae, ex aedibus S. Officii, die 21 iunii 191 2. 

L. * S. 

Aloisius Castellano, S. R. et U. I. Notarius. 


Decreto S. Congregationis diei 6 maii proxime elapsi lauda- 
biliter se subiecit E. Th. de Cauzons. 
Romae, die 15 iunii 1912. 

Thomas Esser, O.P., Secretarius. 




Decretum praefixum Volumini VI, SEU AppENDici I (ab 

ANNO 1900 NUM. 4052 AD ANNUM I911 NUM. 4284, CUM 


Decreta, quae in hoc Volumine sexto (Appendice I) Col- 
lectionis Decretorum sacrae Rituum Congregationis continen- 
tur, sanctissimus Dominus noster Pius Papa X, referente in- 
frascripto Cardinali sacrorum Rituum Congregationi Prae- 
fecto, apostolica Sua auctoritate approbavit, atque authentica 
declaravit. Contrariis non obstantibus quibuscunque, etiam 
speciali mentione dignis. 

Die 24 aprilis anni 191 2. 

Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

■^ Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Charystien., Secretarius. 


Degretum seu Deglarationes girga novas Rubrigas. 

Ad praecavendas dubitationes, quae super recta interpre- 
tatione tituli X, n. 2 et 5 novarum rubricarum quae sequuntur 
constitutionem Divino afflatu oriri possunt, R. Rituum Con- 
gregatio, audito Commissionis Liturgicae suffragio, sequentes 
declarationes evulgare censuit, nimirum : 

I. Quandocumque in feriis maioribus Missam propriam 
habentibus ceterisque diebus, de quibus tit. et num. supracitatis, 
Missa de feria celebretur, dummodo reapse pro defunctis ap- 
plicetur, addi potest oratio pro defunctis in quorum suffragium 
celebratur, etiamsi in ea agenda sit commemoratio de occur- 
rente festo duplici minori vel maiori. 

II. Huiusmodi oratio pro defunctis non excludit in casu 
orationes de tempore, nisi occurrat commemoratio duplicis. 

III. Quando additur ista oratio pro defunctis, non est at- 
tendendus numerus orationum utrum sit dispar an non. 


IV. Haec eadem oratio pro defunctis, semper recitari debet 
poenultimo loco inter orationes ea die a rubricis praescriptas 
vel permissas, non computatis collectis ab Ordinario imperatis. 

V. Oratio pro defunctis in quorum suffragium Missa de 
feria applicatur, addi potest, etiamsi ea die a rubricis prae- 
cipiatur oratio Omnipotens sempiterne Deus pro vivis et de- 
functis, vel Fidelium pro omnibus defunctis. 

VI. Ut rite legitimeque applicari possit pro defunctis in- 
dulgentia altaris privilegiati, oportet ut, diebus in quibus a 
novis rubricis permittitur, missa de feria omnino celebretur, 
addita ut supra oratione pro defunctis pro quibus Missa ipsa 

VII. Licet iuxta novas rubricas tit. VIII, n. 2, cessata sit 
obligatio recitandi in choro officium defunctorum, nihilominus 
adhuc servari debet rubrica missalis tit. V, n. i et 2, circa 
Missam pro defunctis celebrandam, sive in cantu cum prae- 
sentia choralium, si agatur de Missa conventuali, sive lectam 
extra chorum iuxta novas rubricas tit. XII. 

Die 12 iunii 1912. 

Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praefectus. 
L. * S. 
•^ Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Charystien., Secretarius. 


De Dispositione Festorum juxta Novas Rubricas. 

Sacrae Rituum Congregationi pro opportuna solutione se- 
quentia dubia proposita f uerunt, nimirum : 

I. Quando Dominica occurrit a die 25 ad diem 28 decem- 
bris inclusive, Rubrica praescribit Officium huius Dominicae 
die libera 30 decembris celebrandum. Nunc vero pluribus in 
dioecesibus dies 30 decembris impedita est aliquo festo novem 
Lectionum. Quaeritur: Quid agendum in casu? 

II. Iuxta recentem Constitutionem " Divino afflatu ", tit 
IV, n. 3, festum sanctissimi Nominis Mariae perpetuo as- 
signatur diei duodecimae mensis septembris. Quaeritur ergo : 
Num ecclesiae quae hoc festum tamquam Titulare usque ad 
hodiernam diem coluerunt Dominica infra octavam Nativitatis 
beatae Mariae Virginis sub ritu duplici I classis cum octava, 
ipsum recolere in posterum debeant die duodecima Septembris 


cum Ecclesia Universal!, servatis privilegiis quae Titularibus 
competunt ? 

III. Pluribus in locis festum sanctissimi Nominis Mariae 
ritu duplici I classis cum octava recolitur. Quaeritur: An 
istis in locis Octava Nativitatis B. Mariae Virginis cesset 
omnino, adveniente festo sanctissimi Nominis; an potius sus- 
pendatur tantum, ita ut die decimaquinta septembris agendum 
sit de die Octava ipsius Nativitatis, omissa commemoratione 
Octavae sanctissimi Nominis? 

IV. Ex novis dispositionibus saepe accidit ut festa, sive 
duplicia maiora, sive sanctorum Doctorum simplificanda sint 
ob occursum alicuius festi translati ritus duplicis II classis. 
Quaeritur ergo : Num symbolum addendum sit in Missa de isto 
festo translate quod per se symbolum non admittat, si in ea 
facta sit commemoratio alicuius festi occurrentis ritus duplicis 
maioris aut minoris quod ius habeat ad symbolum in Missa ? 

V. Collectae ab Ordinario imperatae, ex novis rubricis, tit. 
XI, omittendae sunt, quandocumque in Missa dicendae sint 
plusquam tres Orationes a rubrica eo die praescriptae. Quae- 
ritur ergo : An Collectae omittendae sint, quando in Missis 
privatis, post tres Orationes eo die praescriptas, addita est 
oratio sanctissimi Sacramenti publice expositi, vel pro Papa 
aut episcopo in respectivis anniversariis electionis, seu con- 
secrationis aut coronationis ? 

VI. Cum in tabella Occurrentiae perpetuae nuper ab ista 
S. Congregatione edita, evidenter mendum irrepserit typo- 
graphicum in quadrangulo in quo sibi invicem occurrunt Sim- 
plex cum Simplici, ubi legendus est numerus 7, et non 8, 
dubium oritur, an aliud pariter mendum sit in quadrangulis 
in quibus sibi invicem obveniunt Duplex mains et minus, cum 
Vigilia Epiphaniae, ubi loco numeri 3 videtur quod legi de- 
beat numerus 6, eo quod Officium ipsius Vigiliae gaudeat 
privilegiis Dominicae, ac proinde praevalere debeat, ex novis 
Rubricis, Duplici minori et maiori quod non sit festum Domini. 
Quaeritur: An revera in praedictis duobus quadrangulis le- 
gendus sit numerus 6, ita ut in casu agi debeat de Vigilia 
Epiphaniae, cum perpetua repositione Duplicis occurrentis? 

Et sacra eadem Congregatio, ad relationem infrascripti Se- 
cretarii, audita sententia Commissionis Liturgicae reque ac- 
curate examine perpensa, rescribendum censuit: 


Ad I. Officium Dominicae infra Octavam Nativitatis trans- 
ferendae ea die ponatur quae festum minus nobile in occur- 
rentia, a die 29 usque ad 31 decembris, secus peragendum 
foret, salvis Dominicae iuribus in concurrentia. Quod si 
omnia festa a die 29 ad 31 decembris occurrentia ritum dup- 
licem I aut II classis obtineant, commemoratio Dominicae fiat 
in Festo ut supra minus nobili. In paritate nobilitatis Offi- 
cium aut commemoratio Dominicae fiat in festo prius oc- 

Ad 11. Affirmative. 

Ad III. Negative ad primam partem; affirmative ad 

Ad IV. et V. Affirmative. 

Ad VI. In tabella Occurrentiae perpetuae menda corrigan- 
tur, ita ut in quadrangulo in quo sibi invicem occurrunt Sim- 
plex cum Simplici, ponatur numerus 7, et in quadrangulis in 
quibus occurrunt Duplex maius et minus cum Vigilia Epi- 
phaniae, ponatur numerus 6: et Vigilia Epiphaniae, privi- 
legiis Dominicae gaudens, tam in occurrentia quam in con- 
currentia, Duplici etiam maiori semper praeferatur. 

Atque ita rescripsit et servari mandavit, die 21 iunii 191 2. 
Fr. S. Card. Martinelli, Praefectus. 

L. * S. 

■^ Petrus La Fontaine, Episc. Charystien., Secretarius. 


De Auctore, de Tempore Compositionis et de Historica 
Veritate Evangeliorum secundum Marcum et secun- 
dum LUCAM. 

Propositis sequentibus dubiis Pontificia Commissio " De Re 
Biblica " ita respondendum decrevit: 

I. Utrum luculentum traditionis suffragium inde ab Ec- 
clesiae primordiis mire consentiens ac multiplici argument© 
firmatum, nimirum disertis sanctorum Patrum et scriptorum 
ecclesiasticorum testimoniis, citationibus et allusionibus in 
eorumdem scriptis occurrentibus, veterum haereticorum usu, 
versionibus librorum Novi Testamenti, codicibus manuscriptis 


antiquissimis et pene universis, atque etiam internis rationibus 
ex ipso sacrorum librorum textu desumptis, certo affirmare 
cogat Marcum, Petri discipulum et interpretem, Lucam vero 
medicum, Pauli adiutorem et comitem, revera Evangeliorum 
quae ipsis respective attribuuntur esse auctores? 
R. Affirmative. 

II. Utrum rationes, quibus nonnulli critici demonstrare ni- 
tuntur postremos duodecim versus Evangelii Marci (Marc, 
XVI, 9-20) non esse ab ipso Marco conscriptos sed ab aliena 
manu appositos, tales sint quae ius tribuant affirmandi eos non 
esse ut inspiratos et canonicos recipiendos ; vel saltern demon- 
strent versuum eorumdem Marcum non esse auctorem? 

R. Negative ad utramque partem. 

III. Utrum pariter dubitare liceat de inspiratione et canoni- 
citate narrationum Lucae de infantia Christi (Luc, I-II), 
aut de apparitione Angeli lesum confortantis et de sudore 
sanguineo (Luc, XXII, 43-44) ; vel solidis saltem rationibus 
ostendi possit — quod placuit antiquis haereticis et quibusdam 
etiam recentioribus criticis arridet — easdem narrationes ad 
genuinum Lucae Evangelium non pertinere? 

R. Negative ad utramque partem. 

IV. Utrum rarissima ilia et prorsus singularia documenta 
in quibus Canticum Magnificat non beatae Virgini Mariae, sed 
Elisabeth tribuitur, ullo modo praevalere possint ac debeant 
contra testimonium concors omnium fere codicum tum graeci 
textus originalis tum versionum, necnon contra interpreta- 
tionem quam plane exigunt non minus contextus quam ipsius 
Virginis animus et constans Ecclesiae traditio? 

R. Negative. 

V. Utrum, quoad ordinem chronologicum Evangeliorum, 
ab ea sententia recedere fas sit, quae, antiquissimo aeque ac 
constanti traditionis testimonio roborata, post Matthaeum, qui 
omnium primus Evangelium suum patrio sermone conscripslt, 
Marcum ordine secundum et Lucam tertium scripsisse testatur; 
aut huic sententiae adversari vicissim censenda sit eorum opinio 
quae asserit Evangelium secundum et tertium ante graecam 
primi Evangelii versionem esse compositum? 

R. Negative ad utramque partem. 

VI. Utrum tempus compositionis Evangeliorum Marci et 
Lucae usque ad urbem lerusalem eversam differre liceat; vel. 


eo quod apud Lucam prophetia Domini circa huius urbis 
eversionem magis determinata videatur, ipsius saltern Evan- 
gelium obsidione iam inchoata fuisse conscriptum, sustineri 
possit ? 

R. Negative ad utramque partem. 

VII. Utrum affirmari debeat Evangelium Lucae praeces- 
sisse librum Actuum Apostolorum (Act.^ I, 1-2) ; et quum hie 
liber, eodem Luca auctore, ad finem captivitatis Romanae 
Apostoli fuerit absolutus (Act., XXVIII, 30-31), eiusdem 
Evangelium non post hoc tempus fuisse compositum? 

R. Affirmative. 

VIII. Utrum, prae oculis habitis tum traditionis testimoniis, 
turn argumentis internis, quoad fontes quibus uterque Evan- 
gelista in conscribendo Evangelio usus est, in dubium vocari 
prudenter queat sententia quae tenet Marcum iuxta praedica- 
tionem Petri, Lucam autem iuxta praedicationem Pauli scrip- 
sisse; simulque asserit iisdem Evangelistis praesto fuisse alios 
quoque fontes fide dignos sive orales sive etiam iam scriptis 
consignatos ? 

R. Negative. 

IX. Utrum dicta et gesta, quae a Marco iuxta Petri prae- 
dicationem accurate et quasi graphice enarrantur, et a Luca, 
assecuto omnia a principio diligenter per testes fide plane 
dignos, quippe qui ah initio ipsi viderunt et ministri fuerunt 
sermonis (Luc, I, 2-3), sincerissime exponuntur, plenam sibi 
eam fidem historicam iure vindicent quam eisdem semper 
praestitit Ecclesia; an e contrario eadem facta et gesta cen- 
senda sint historica veritate, saltern ex parte, destituta, sive 
quod scriptores non fuerint testes oculares, sive quod apud 
utrumque Evangelistam defectus ordinis ac discrepantia in 
successione factorum haud raro deprehendantur, sive quod, 
cum tardius venerint et scripserint, necessario conceptiones 
menti Christi et Apostolorum extraneas aut facta plus minusve 
iam imaginatione populi inquinata referre debuerint, sive 
demum quod dogmaticis ideis praeconceptis, quisque pro suo 
scopo, indulserint? 

R. Affirmative ad primam partem, negative ad alteram. 



De Quaestione Synoptica sive de Mutuis Relationibus 


Propositis pariter sequentibus dubiis Pontificia Commissio 
" De Re Biblica " ita respondendum decrevit: 

I. Utrum, servatis quae iuxta praecedenter statuta omnino 
servanda sunt, praesertim de authenticitate et integritate trium 
Evangeliorum Matthaei, Marci et Lucae, de identitate sub- 
stantial! Evangelii graeci Matthaei cum eius originali primi- 
tivo, necnon de ordine temporum quo eadem scripta fuerunt, 
ad explicandum eorum ad invicem similitudines aut dissimili- 
tudines, inter tot varias oppositasque auctorum sententias, liceat 
exegetis libere disputare et ad hpotheses traditionis sive scrip- 
tae sive oralis vel etiam dependentiae unius a praecedenti seu 
a praecedentibus appellare? 

R. Affirmative. 

II. Utrum ea quae superius statuta sunt, ii servare censeri 
debeant, qui, nullo fulti traditionis testimonio nee historico 
argumento, facile amplectuntur hypothesim vulgo duorum 
fontium nuncupatam, quae compositionem Evangelii graeci 
Matthaei et Evangelii Lucae ex eorum potissimum depen- 
dentia ab Evangelio Marci et a coUectione sic dicta sermonum 
Domini contendit explicare; ac proinde earn libere propugnare 

R. Negative ad utramque partem. 

Die autem 26 iunii anni 1912, in audientia utrique Rmo 
Consultori ab Actis benigne concessa, Ssmus Dominus noster 
Pius Papa X praedicta responsa rata habuit ac publici iuris 
fieri mandavit. 

Romae, diei 26 iunii 191 2. 

L. * S. 


Laurentius Janssens, O. S. B. 
Consultores ab Actis. 


Pontifical Appointments. 

6 May: The Rev. Patrick Ryan, Vicar General of the 
Diocese of Pembroke, appointed Titular Bishop of Clazomene. 

J7 May : Mr. William Dooley, of the Archdiocese of Boston, 
appointed Private Chamberlain of Cape and Sword. 

II June: The Rev. Donald Aloysius Mackintosh, Vicar 
General of the Archdiocese of Glasgow, appointed Titular 
Archbishop of Chersoneso. 

14 June: Monsignor Francis Bickerstaffe-Drew, of Salis- 
bury, appointed Protonotary Apostolic ad instar partici- 

15 June: The Rev. Joseph Gabriel Pinter, V.G., Diocese of 
Saulte Ste. Marie and Marquette, appointed Domestic Prelate. 

22 June: His Eminence Cardinal Sebastian Martinelli ap- 
pointed Protector of the Dominican Tertiaries, whose mother- 
house is at Sinsinawa, Wisconsin. 

24. June: The Rev. John Mclntyre, of the Archdiocese of 
Birmingham, appointed Titular Bishop of Lamas and Bishop 
Auxiliary of the Archbishop of Birmingham. 

28 June: The Right Rev. John J. McCort, Vicar General of 
the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, appointed Titular Bishop of 
Azota and Auxiliary to the Archbishop of Philadelphia. 

J July: Mr. James J. Ryan, of Philadelphia, awarded the 
Grand Cross of the Order of St. Gregory the Great. 

6 July: The Right Rev. Thomas F. Kennedy, Rector of the 
American College, Rome, appointed Assistant at the Pontifical 

Stubies anb Conferences* 


The Roman documents for the month are : 

Letter of Pope Pius X to the Right Rev. James Duhig, 
Bishop of Rockhampton, Australia, on the occasion of the 
Golden Jubilee of the first mission of this now flourishing 

S. Congregation of the Holy Office decides : ( i ) that 
the dispensation from the impediment of disparity of cult is 
never to be granted unless the prescribed guarantees and safe- 
guards are explicitly given; (2) a dispensation from the im- 
pediment of disparity of cult is null, if the prescribed guaran- 
tees have either not been asked for or have been refused; (3) 
the prescription of the decree Ne temere on the presence of 
the parish priest at mixed marriages in which the regular 
guarantees are obstinately refused by the contracting parties 
(No. IV, § 3), is revoked. 

S. Congregation of the Index makes known the submis- 
sion of E. Th. de Cauzons to its decree of 6 May last. 

S. Congregation of Rites : i . The decrees contained in 
Vol. VI (Appendix I) of the Collection of Decrees of the 
S. Congregation of Rites are officially declared to be authentic. 

2. Decree regarding the new Rubrics. 

3. Arrangement of feasts according to the new Rubrics. 

Pontifical Biblical Commission answers ( i ) nine ques- 
tions regarding the authorship, date of composition, and his- 
torical truth of the Gospels of SS. Mark and Luke; (2) and 
two other questions on the mutual relations of the first three 
Gospels, — the Synoptic Question. 

Roman Curia gives the recent Pontifical appointments. 


Quaestio de vasectomia ej usque liceitate hisce ultimis tem- 
poribus tantopere sollicitos habuit theologos, medicos, juris- 
peritos et legislatores, in America praesertim Septentrionali, 
estque quaestio tum practice turn theoretice adeo momentosa 
ut, non obstantibus pluribus articulis (in hoc signanter perio- 


dico) circa illam jam scriptis/ adhuc opportunum visum 
fuerit hanc controversiam reassumere, principiis magis in- 
sistendo, quae totam litem moderate videntur. Occasione 
data, per decursum dissertationis, occurremus rationis mo- 
mentis quae contra doctrinam alias a nobis propositam in- 
ducenda censuerit doctissimus Dr. O'Malley.^ 

Ansam praebuit huic controversiae lex recenter inducta in 
variis Statibus Foederatis Americae Septentrionalis, signan- 
ter in Indiana, California, Utah et Connecticut, tenore cujus 
legis vasectomia imponitur peragenda in variis viris de- 
generibus, defectivis, alcoholicis et aliis hujusmodi, ex quibus 
procreanda timetur adulterata ac degener progenies.^ 

Successive exponemus i. in quo consistat sic dicta Vasec- 
tomia, 2. quinam sint ejusdem effectus et 3. quousque licite 
peragi valeat tam publica quam privata auctoritate. 

^ Hue spectant articuli de hac re script! sequentes : 

Donovan (professor in coUegio Franciscano Universitati Washingtonensi 
adnexo), Circa liceitatem cujusdam operationis chirurgicae, apud Ecclesias- 
tical Review., torn. XLII (1910), p. 271 ss., coUatis ibidem, p. 599 ss., nec- 
non torn. XLIV, p. 571 ss., ac torn. XLV, p. 313 ss. ; Laboure (professor 
Seminarii in San Antonio), De Vasectomia, ibidem, torn. XLIII, p. 80 ss., 
collatis, p. 320 ss. et 552 ss., necnon torn. XLIV, p. 574 ss. et torn. XLV, p. 
355 ss. ; Rigby (professor in collegio Dominicanorum, Romae), De liceitate 
Vasectomiae, ibidem, p. 70 ss. ; Schmitt, Vasectomia, eine neue Operation und 
ihre Erlaubtheit, apud Zeitschrift fur kath. Theologie, 191 1, p. 66 ss. et 
759 ss. ; coll. Ecclesiastical Review, torn. XLIV, p. 679 ss. et torn. XLV, p. 
86 ss. ; Ferreres, De Vasectomia duplici noviter inventa, apud Razon y Fe, 
t. XXVII, p. 374 ss., torn. XXVIII, p. 224 ss., torn. XXXI, p. 495 ss. et torn. 
XXXII, p. 222 ss., coll. EccLES. Rev., torn. XLVI (1912), p. 207 ss. ; Gemelli 
(Dr. medicus et professor theol. pastoralis), De liceitate Vasectomiae, apud 
La Scuola Cattolica, torn. XXI (1911), p. 396 ss. ; Stucchi, ibidem, p. 417 ss. ; 
Eschbach, ibidem, torn. XXII, p. 243 ss. ; Capello, ibidem, p. 246 ss. ; De 
Becker, The casus " de liceitate Vasectomiae ", apud Eccles. Review, torn. 
XLII, p. 474 s. et torn. XLIII, p. 356 ss. ; Dr. medicus O'Malley, Vasectomy 
in Defectives, apud Eccles. Review, torn. XLIV, p. 684 ss., coll., torn. 
XLVI, p. 219 ss. ; idem, Inseminatio ad validum matrimonium requisita, 
ibidem, torn. XLVI, p. 322 ss. ; Roderer, apud Eccles. Review, torn. XLIV, 
p. 742 s. ; Wouters, De Vasectomia, apud Nederl. kath. Stemmen, 191 1, p. 
19 ss. ; Nouv. Rev. theo., 1910, p. 417 ss. ; Revue eccl. de Liege, VI, p. 203 ss. 
Addi possunt quaedam dissertationes seu adnotationes hue spectantes anony- 
mice aut pseudonymice vulgatae in Eccles. Review, torn. XLII, p. 346 ss. ; 
torn. XLIII, p. 310 ss. (sub pseudonomine Neo-Scholasticus) ; torn. XLIV, 
p. 562 ss. ; torn. XLV, p. 71 ss. et p. 599 ss. (sub pseudonomine Philokanon) ; 
accedit tandem Consultatio theologica RR. PP. Vermeersch, De Villers et 
Salsmans, in Eccles. Review, torn. XLII, p. 475. 

2 Eccles. Review, tom. XLVI, p. 332. 

8 In Indiana, ut testatur Dr. O'Malley, apud Eccles. Review, tom. XLIV, 
p. 684, peracta fuit vasectomia, inde ab anno 1907 ad finem anni 1910, in 800 
circiter viris. Cf. etiam Eccles. Review, tom. XLII, p. 347 s. 




I. In quo consistat Vasectomia. 

A pud virum, consistit in sectione transversa peracta in 
utroque canali (vase deferente nuncupate), quod viam sternit 
a testiculis ad vesiculas seminales : incisione nempe facta per 
scrotum, forcipe prehenditur funiculus spermaticus, atque ex 
denudato vase deferente parvum fragmentum exsecatur, 
sedulo servatis nervis, venis et arteriis, quae vas deferens cir- 
cumcingunt et simul cum ipso funiculum spermaticum con- 

A pud foeminam, consistit in simili resectione utriusque 
oviducti, i. e. canalis ab ovariis ad matricem ducentis et ova 
matura deferentis. Vocatur haec operatio speciali nomine 
oophorectomia seu fallectomia^ denominatione vasectomiae 
peculiariter reservata operationi peractae in viro. 

Vasectomia viri brevem ac omni periculo expertem importat 
operationem chirurgicam, sola provocata anesthesia locali, 
quin opus sit chloroformio aliove medicamento somnifero; 
oophorectomia vero gravem et sat periculosam exigit laparo- 

II. Effectus. 

A. Inducitur apud virum et mulierem sterilitas. Via enim 
^praecluditur omnimode elemento foecundanti virili ac respec- 
tive elemento foemineo foecundando, adeo ut omnis foecundatio 
sit physice impossibilis, tarn in congressu viri vasectomiaci 
quam in copula habita cum muliere oophorectomiam passa. 

Quod autem spectat sterilitatis perpetuitatem: equidem 
physica praesto est possibilitas foecundandi potentiam resti- 
tuendi, extremitates resuendo oviducti vel canalis resecti ; * 
non desunt etiam experientiae quae, testibus medicis, felicem 
in hunc sensum exitum sint nactae; ® sed non est negandum, 
attenta exiguitate luminis seu interioris diametri canalis de- 
ferentis,^ difficilem esse hujusmodi restaurationem, etiam in 

* Intimiorem operationis descriptionem videsis apud Drem. O'Malley, 
EccLES. Review, torn. XLIV, p. 687 ss. et apud Gemelli, La Scuola cattolica, 
torn. XXI, p. 403 ss. 

5 Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Rev., XLV, p. 720, suadet potius connectendam esse 
superiorem partem resecti canalis cum epididymide. 

« Cf. Eccles. Review, torn. XLV, p. 720 s. ; La Scuola Cattolica, t. XXI, 
P- 415. 

'^ Non excedit dimidium millimetri ; cf. Razon y Fe, torn. XXVIII, p. 230. 


viro, eamque non modo expertam exquirere manum, sed et 
raro succedere, signanter quando vasectomia non fuerit re- 
centius peracta.® 

B. Vehemens exsurgit controversia utrum oophorectomia et 
praesertim vasectomia importet, ultra sterilitatem, etiam im- 
potentiam, eamque perpetuarny matrimonium dirimentem. 

Ad cujus controversiae solutionem haec duo praemittenda 
volumus : 

a. Litem coarctamus ad solam vasectomiam viri.^ Mulie- 
rem fallectomiam passam facile concedimus non reddi im- 
potentem, siquidem manet, non secus ac mulier excisa, apta ad 
habendam copulam ex parte actus ad generationem de se 
idoneam, juxta notionem datam apud Collat. Brug., t. XV, 

p. 695-705.'' 

b. Sedulo notandum vasectomiam non sequi testiculorum 
inertiam et atrophiam : horum quidem activitas minuitur, sed 
non abrumpitur seminalis secretio, sicut etiam activitas serva- 
tur in aliis glandulis ad seminis elaborationem cooperantibus, 
et manet membrorum genitalium perfecta erectibilitas. Salvis 
namque remanentibus nervis et sanguineis vasculis funiculi 
spermatid, integra servatur nutritio testiculorum ac Integra 
manet nervorum consociatio inter varias glandulas sexualis 
organismi. In hoc erraverunt non pauci falso nitentes con- 
ceptu vasectomiae, quasi consisteret in resectione integri funi- 
culi spermatici.^^ 

Quibus praenotatis : 

1° Inhaesitanter contendimus vasectomia induci impoten- 
tiam, eamque non relativam, uti patet, sed absolutam, im- 
potentiam intelligendo ad normam juris canonici. 

Revera impotens est vir qui non est capax exercendi copulam 
ad generationem per se idoneam; sufficit autem ut apta sit 
copula ex parte ipsius actus, abstractione facta a reliquis or- 
ganis, praeter copulae actum, ad foecundationem requisitis; 
sufficit etiam, uti in notione dicitur, ut copula sit per se apta, 

8 Cf. EccLES. Review^ t. XLIV, p. 690, et t. XLV, p. 720 s. ; La Scuola 
Cattolica, t. XXI, p. 413 ss. ; Razon y Fe, t. XXVIII, p. 230 s. et t. XXXII, 
p. 225 s. 

® In sequentibus c"'e hac sola erit quaestio. 

^^ Cf. etiam Tractatum de Sponsalibus et Matrimonio, ed. 2a, n. 276 ss. 

^1 Cf. Schmitt, 11. cc. ; Ferreres, Razon y Fe, torn. XXIII, p. 224; Rigby^ 
1. c, p. 70 s. 


quin nempe attendantur ilia quae possent, in ipsis copulae ele- 
mentis, procreationem impedire per accidens, i. e. prouti sunt 
in tali vel tali individuo.^^ 

Jamvero ad illam copulae aptitudinem ex parte actus re- 
quiritur et sufficit ut elementa praesto sint quae in ipso coeundi 
actu ad generationem postulantur: penetratio scil. vaginae 
cum emissione seminis natura sua et per se foecundi, i. e. non 
liquoris cujuscumque, sed veri seminis ad foecundandum per 
se idonei. 

Quid autem est semen a vasectomiaco emissum nisi semen 
natura sua et per se prorsus infoecundumf Solum et unicum 
elementum foecundans est in spermatozoidis, et haec praecise 
physico et ineluctabili impedimento prohibentur quominus 
seminationi misceantur, cum via totaliter occludatur ipsis. 

Neque invocetur paritas cum senihus qui censentur canonice 

Et sane, si sustineretur paritas, non dubitaremus ipsos senes 
declarare impotentes. Ast neganda est undecumque paritas. 
Nimirum senes, quos supponimus aliunde erectiones capaces et 
organis sexualibus instructos, habent semen per se foecundum; 
et si contingat illud esse infoecundum, hoc est per accidens. 
Semen namque dici debet per se foecundum, quod derivatur 
a glandulis ad semen foecundum secernendum natura sua des- 
tinatis, quod, attenta provenientia sua, natum est foecunda- 
tionis principium secum ferre. 

Ulterius, siquidem non omnibus placet distinctio inter ea 
quae sunt per se et quae sunt per accidens,^* alio modo arguere 
liceat. Esto scil. plurimos senes non jam habere spermato- 
zoida, aut ea habere adeo inertia ut foecundationi videantur 
inepta,^'^ non est negandum plures etiam dari quibus praesto 
sit foecundurn sperma, cum non desint exempla senum qui, 

12 " Rectitude naturalis in humanis actibus non est secundum ea quae per 
accidens contingunt in uno individuo, sed secundum ea quae totam speciem 
consequuntur." S. Thomas, C. Gentes, 1. Ill, cap. 122. 

13 Haec paritas potissimum invocatur a Gemelli, 1. c, p. 412 s., necnon a 
Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Review, t. XLVI (1912), p. 332 ss., ubi referens doc- 
trinam apud Collat. Brug., t. XV, p. 695 ss. propositam, nos inconsequentiae 
arguit quod ex una parte senes uti potentes habeamus, et ax alia parte vasec- 
tomiacos ut impotentes. 

14 Cf. Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Rev., t. XLVI, p. 336 s. 

15 Cf. Ferreres, apud Eccles. Review, t. XLVI, p. 210 ss., et Razon y Fe, 
t. XXXI, p. 498 s. 


aetate provecta, prolem procreaverint.^^ Porro quodnam, 
quaeso, erit criterium quo secernantur senes foecundi ab aliis? 
Aliud criterium quaeri nequit nisi analysis microscopica ; quod 
sane criterium admitti nequit: requiritur norma observation! 
de se pervia eo vel magis quod impotentia, positis ponendis, 
constituat impedimentum matrimonii, de cujus praesentia vel 
absentia obvie constare debeat/'^ Hujusmodi criterium de se 
obvium et naturale est praesentia membrorum quae ad semen 
foecundum elaborandum requiruntur et sufficiunt, non autem 
praesentia spermatozoidorum aut horum energia, quae variis 
in adjunctis individuis deficere potest ac regulariter sola micro- 
scopica inspectione observari potest. 

Ideo potentes censentur viri omnes, quantum vis senescentes, 
qui obvie innotescunt erectionis capaces ac organis instructi 
quae noscuntur ad semen foecundum secernendum et ejacu- 
landum necessaria et de se sufficientia; impotentes autem re- 
putantur quibus deficit omnis erectibilitas, vel qui organis 
carere apparent quibus ineluctabiliter indiget vir ad seminis 
foecundi elaborationem vel ejaculationem. Vasectomiaci 
proinde inter impotentes sunt adnumerandi, cum ex peracta 
operatione chirurgica obvie constet ipsos organo destitui ad 
seminis foecundi, non quidem secretionem, sed ejaculationem 
insupplebiliter necessario, canali scil. deferente pervio. 

Neque dicatur: ad hoc ut quis aptus existat ad validum 
matrimonium, sufficere ut matrimonium possit ipsi esse in 
remedium concupiscentiae}^ 

Profecto si hujus finis consecutio sola esset attendenda, 
sufiiceret ad validum conjugium potentia, in nupturientibus, 
copulam exercendi cum seminatione qualicumque, etiam per 
se infoecunda, adeoque vasectomiaci, etiamsi abruptae com- 
municationis restitutio esset in perpetuum impossibilis ( de quo 

1^ Cf. ffxta relata apud Brouardel, Le Mariage, Paris, 1900, p. 131 ss. ; 
Topai, De Necessitate uteri in generatione et in Matrimonio, Pustet, 1903, p. 
75 s., collate tamen Dre. O'Malley, Eccles. Rev., t. XLVI, p. 221 s. 

1'^ Ipse Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Rev., t. XLVI, p. 324, scribit : " Nequaquam 
opus est recursum habere ad observationes microscopicas vel chimicas ut norma 

1^ " Ratio fundamentalis cur matrimonium . . . viri vasectomiam passi vali- 
dum dicendum sit, quaerenda est neque in iis quae sunt per se, neque in iis 
quae per accidens contingunt, sed in hoc quod potentia sexuali gaudet perfecte 
apta ad remedium concupiscentiae habendum" Ita Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. 
Review, t. XLVI, p. 336. 


mox infra), essent habendi uti potentes et ad matrimonium 
contrahendum idonei. Ast illud suppositum falso nititur funda- 
mento, quasi sedatio concupiscentiae esset finis operis proprius 
et independens matrimonii, quod falsum esse ostendimus in 
Tractatu de Sponsalihus et matrimonio, 2* edit., sub n. 54: 
unicus finis proprius operis, cui finis medendi concupiscentiae 
est obnoxius et subordinatus, dicendus est generatio prolis; 
ac proinde nullum matrimonium, quantumvis concupiscentiae 
sedativum, potest valide iniri, nisi salva ordinatione ad ilium 
finem, supposita scil., in utroque contrahente, aptitudine ad 
copulam de se idoneam generationi. 

Caeterum si in matrimonio ej usque usu sola attendenda esset 
concupiscentiae sedatio, absque ordine ad finem procreationis, 
legitimari posset et pro valido haberi matrimonium ab eunucho 
contrahendum, in casu nonnunquam, esto infrequenter, ob- 
tinente, quo in illo eunucho salvatur erectibilitas et seminalis 
liquoris emittendi potentia. 

Ex ipsa igitur ins pe eta natura impotentiae eruendum est 
eam vasectomia induci. 

Quod confirmatur obvia analysi textus in hac re classici, 
Constitutionis nempe Sixti V Cum frequenter, de die 27 Junii 
1587, in qua eunuchi authentice declarantur impotentes." 

Nimirum non arguimus ex eo quod vasectomiaci aequi- 
parandi sint eunuchis, spadonibus seu castratis: in praeno- 
tandis namque vidimus per vasectomiam rite peractam testi- 
culos non reddi inertes nee atrophiam pati; manent vasec- 
tomiaci ad erectionem et foeminei vasis penetrationem perapti, 
necnon idonei ad seminalem liquorem emittendum, a prostata, 
vesiculis seminalibus et glandulis Cowperianis elaboratum, 
dum eunuchi plerique, ut videtur, etiam illi qui in adulta aetate 
fuerunt evirati, amiserunt, saltem post aliquod temporis spa- 

1® " Cum frequenter in istis regionibus eunuchi quidam et spadones, qui 
utroque teste carent, et ideo certum ac manifestum est eos verum semen 
emittere non posse ; quia impura carnis tentigine atque immundis complexibus 
cum mulieribus se commiscent, et humorem forsan quemdam similem semini, 
licet ad generationem et ad matrimonii causam minime aptum, effundunt, ma- 
trimonia . . . contrahere praesumant . . . mandamus ut conjugia per dictos 
et alios quoscumque eunuchos et spadones utroque teste carentes . . . contrahi 
prohibeas, eosque ad matrimonia quocumque modo contrahenda inhabiles 
auctoritate nostra declares . . . et matrimonia ipsa sic de facto contracta nulla, 
irrita et invalida esse decernas." 


tium, potentiam copulam qualemcumque exercendi, deficiente 
erectibilitate vel etiam seminalis liquoris secretione.^^ 

Unice nitimur in principio a Sixto V posito, vi cujus prin- 
cipii impotentes declarantur eunuchi : quod idem principium 
vasectomiacis applicando, ad eamdem conclusionem admitten- 
dam urgemur. Et sane eunuchi non declarantur impotentes 
quia incapaces sunt vas foemineum penetrandi aut seminalem 
liquorem emittendi (S. Pontifex hypothetice supponit quod id 
facere valeant) ; sed ideo quia " certum ac manifestum est eos 
verum semen emittere non posse ", i. e., quemadmodum ex 
oppositione ad alium seminalem humorem liquet, " ad gener- 
ationem et ad ynatrimonii causam minime aptum ". Sunt 
igitur impotentes quia semen de se foecundum emittere non 

Ulterius autem progrediendo : undenam inepti sunt ad 
semen foecundum emittendum? 

Manifeste docet Sixtus V id ex eo provenire quod utroque 
teste carent, siquidem explicite dicuntur ideo praecise verum 
seu foecundum semen emittere non posse. Jamvero, in or dine 
ad seminis foecunditatem, idem prorsus est quod testiculi de- 
sint, et quod omnis inter ipsos et ejaculationis organon abrum- 
pitur communicatio. 

Caeterum conclusionem nostram circa effectum vasectomiae 
impotentiam inducendi, tuentur plerique canonistae et theo- 
logi qui partes habuerunt in praesenti controversia.^^ 

2° Si nobis indubium videtur impotentem esse virum vasec- 
tomiam passum, non adeo liquet utrum hujusmodi impotentia 
sit dicenda perpetua, adeoque utrum vel non impedimentum 
inducat matrimonii dirimens. Id pendet a possibilitate restau- 
randi abruptam communicationem inter testiculos et versiculas 

20 Cf. Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Review, t. XLIV, p. 695; t. XLV, p. 719; t. 
XLVI, p. 334 s., et p. 22 s., quo ultimo loco arguit contra Ferreres (Eccles. 
Rev., t. XLVI, p. 217 s.). 

21 Ita De Becker, Eccles. Rev., t. XLIII, p. 357; Ferreres, Eccles. Rev., 
t. XLVI, p. 207 ss. ; Razon y Fe, t. XXVIII, p. 376 ss., et XXXI, p. 496 ss. ; 
Rigby, 1. c, p. 76; Stucchi, 1. c. ; Eschbach, 1. c. ; Capello, 1. c. ; Ojetti, Syn- 
opsis rerum moralium et juris Pontificii, 3ia ed., n. 2425. 

Contrarium opinantur Donovan (licet haesitanter), Eccles. Rev., t. XLII, 
p. 602 ; Laboure, ibidem, t, XLIII, p. 82, et praesertim Gemelli, 1. c, p. 410 ss., 
et Dr. O'Malley, t. XLIV, p. 691 s., ubi ait per vasectomiam non magis induci 
impotentiam quam per tonsionem barbae, collatis torn. XLVI, p. 219 ss. et 
332 ss. 


Probe tamen notetur non sufficere absolutam et physicam 
restaurandi possibilitatem, quam caeteroquin admittendam 
jam vidimus; manet impotentia in sensu canonum perpetua, 
quamdiu nonnisi per media extraordinaria vel ope peculiaris 
artificii sanari valet. 

Quibus attentis, et spectatis supra notatis de reparationis 
difficultate, potius inclinamur in asserenda impotentiae per- 
petuitate, saltem si agatur de vasectomia parum recenti." 
Cum tamen in hujusmodi negotio tanti momenti ac adeo intime 
praxim spectante, singulari prudentia est opus, cumque solutio 
multum pendeat ab artis chirurgicae perfectibilitate, nolumus 
alteri sententiae, temporaneam dumtaxat impotentiam admit- 
tenti, probabilitatem denegare, donee lis per decretum S. Se- 
dis dirimatur. 

Quousque igitur stare videatur concessa probabilitas, stricto 
jure non posset vasectomiacus, nisi probe constiterit restaura- 
tionem vasis resecti et abruptae communicationis in casu par- 
ticulari esse impossibilem, a matrimonio prohiberi, siquidem, 
juxta principia in citato Tractatu, n. 240 et n. 279, proposita, 
non potest a matrimonio arceri ille cujus impotentia proba- 
biliter non est perpetua. Ex alia autem parte, cum pro hujus- 
modi persona, quousque mutilatio vasectomiaca fuerit sanata 
et impotentia inde consequens ablata, usus matrimonii, salvo 
meliori judicio, sit illicitus declarandus, practice foret matri- 
monium passim interdicendum donee restauratio fuerit per- 
acta: tale namque conjugium, absque eo utendi facultate, gra- 
vissimis periculis esset plenum. ^^ 

C. Seposita sterilitate vel impotentia, refertur a medicis et 
hujus rei peritis notabiles effectus eosque faustos et beneficos 
ad vasectomiam consequi in viri organismo. Et quidem bonus 
ille influxus observari videtur potissimum in illis qui ante ope- 
rationem chirurgicam sexuali erethismo, quem vocant, labora- 
bant, quatenus qui prius incorrigibiles masturbatores existe- 
bant, aut quasi irresistibiliter ad venerem provocabantur, 

22 Hanc impotentiae perpetuitatem, inter alios, urgent Ferreres, Wouters, 
Stucchi, Capello ; impotentiam potius habet ut temporaneam Ojetti, 1. c. 

28 Haec practica solutio convenit cum doctrina proposita apud Collat. Brug., 
t. XV, p. 698, licet haec doctrina, theoretice spectata, aliquatenus mitiganda 
videatur ad normam dictorum. 



sensim evadant minus erotici et ad venerem minus proclives, 
ac magis normalem vitae rationem sequi videantur.^* 

Descriptus influxus deberi videtur, in quantum conjicere 
licet, tum imminutioni secretionis seminalis operationem con- 
sequenti, qua secretionis imminutione removetur congestio ilia 
cerebralis cum nervosa excitatione sexuali, per excessivam 
secretionem producta; tum etiam absorptioni seminalis secre- 
tionis a testiculis elaboratae, quae absorptio noscitur oeco- 
nomiae corporali valde proficua. 


Attenta notione superius data de vasectomia ejusque ef- 
fectibus, habenda est ut mutilatio gravis, cum ratio sit habenda 
non tantum resectionis in se et materialiter spectatae, sed etiam 
effectus immediati et ineluctabilis, abruptae nempe communi- 
cationis urethri cum testiculis : quae abruptio indubie gravis 
apparet, quod eam dicas sterilitatem dumtaxat vel et im- 
potentiam inducere; in utraque hypothesi privatur vir notabili 
functione physiologica foecundandi. 

Nee levis efficitur mutilatio ex eo quod functio suppressa 
restaurari queat, eo vel magis quod passim difficilis sit, uti 
vidimus, ac dubii exitus hujusmodi redintegratio. Non 
pendet proinde instituenda controversia ab ilia quae modo fuit 
instituta sub II, ad B; severae tamen conclusiones quae pro- 
ponentur magis stringunt respectu illorum qui censent vasec- 
tomiam impotentiam inducere.^*^ 

Applicanda igitur sunt vasectomiae principia quae mode- 
rantur moralitatem gravis mutilationis corporalis, quae prin- 
cipia exposita videsis apud Auctores theologiae moralis, et 
signanter apud 111. Waffelaert, Tractatus de Justitia, 
Brugis, 1886, I, nn. 91-95 et II, nn. 100-106. 


A. Quod spectat vasectomiam privata auctoritate per- 
agendam : 

1° Vasectomia indirecta licet proportionata de causa. 

24 Cf. prae caeteris O'Malley, apud Eccles. Rev., t. XLIV, p. 689 ss. ; t. 
XLV, p. 717 ss. et t. XLVI, p. 325 s. ; Gemelli, 1. c, p. 400 s. et 408 ss. et 415, 
ubi et varia testimonia referuntur. 

2^- In sequentibus passim abstrahimus ab hac disputatione, vasectomiam pro- 
ponendo ut actionem sterilizantem. 


Vasectomia indirecta est quando ex operatione canalem re- 
secante, quae est actio in se indifferens, duplex effectus se- 
quitur aeque immediate, communicationis scil. abruptio steri- 
lizans et alius effectus bonus, ac prior effectus malus non in- 
tenditur. Ita si pars canalis deferentis esset gangrena in- 
fecta, partis infectae exsectio constitueret vasectomiam in- 

Talis vasectomia, si praesto est justa causa, i. e. si bonus 
effectus est proportionatus malo effectui, ut in casu proposito, 
declaranda est omnino licita; ratio est quia resectio, in se in- 
differens, non potest dici mala ratione effectus pravi, cum ef- 
fectus ille per alium effectum proportionatum et aeque imme- 
diatum compensetur. 

2° Vasectomia directa non licet nisi ad bonum corporis. 

Vasectomia directa est quotiescumque solus effectus imme- 
diatus resectionis chirurgicae est abruptio communicationis 
inter vesiculas seminales et testiculos; ipsa namque violenta 
ilia interruptio constituit ipsam actionem sterilizantem, non 
secus ac ipsa expulsio foetus nondum viabilis constituit ipsam 
actionem occisivam. Unde sicut non est abortus indirectus, 
licet ex ipsa expulsione immediate sequatur salus matris, et 
non ex morte prolis; pari modo vasectomia seu mutilatio ste- 
rilizans directa est, licet bonus effectus seminalem secretionem 
minuendi et organismum male affectum moderandi sequatur 
potius ex ipsa communicationis interruptione quam ex sterili- 

Porro dicimus hujusmodi vasectomiam directam non licere, 
excepto casu quo in bonum corporis ordinetur. 

Quod generatim non liceat vasectomia directa, patet ex eo 
quod gravem constituat mutilationem sterilizantem, quodque 
omnis mutilatio directa, salva exceptione adducta, importet 
inordinationem : laedit nempe dominium Dei, utpote qui sibi 
reservavit proprietatem vitae humanae ejusque organorum.^^ 
Quemadmodum non possumus nobis auferre vitam, utpote in 
quam Deus sibi retinuit dominium, sic non possumus nobis 
membrum amputare vel functionem aliquam vitalem sup- 

Exceptio habetur pro casu quo mutilatio membri vel organi 
admittitur propter bonum totius corporis. Ratio est *' quod 

26 111. Waffelaert, o. c, I, n. 91. 


homo sit suipsius gubernator et membrorum administrator ad 
bonum totius ; neque enim membra singula sunt propter se 
sed propter totum, et ideo in bonum totius petunt dirigi, et 
possunt abscindi vel incidi propter bonum totius." ^^ 

Quod autem bonum corporis sit sola causa directam muti- 
lationem legitimans, inde est quod '* membra ex natura sua 
immediate non subordinantur nisi toti naturali seu corporis 
bono et conservationi." ^^ 

Directa proinde mutilatio, et in specie vasectomia, non 
licet immediate ad bonum procurandum spirituale animae; 
et ita non liceret manum amputare ne deinceps illicitos tactus 
admittat, nee oculos eruere ne amplius videant vanitatem, nee 
licet seipsum castrare ad hoc immediate ut continentia ser- 
vetur. Non datur nempe immediata subordinatio et con- 
nexio inter membra corporis et salutem animae ; et ideo etiam, 
uti notat S. Thomas,^® '' saluti spirituali semper potest aliter 
subveniri quam per membri praecisionem ", moderando scil., 
voluntatis imperio, usum membrorum, oculos avertendo, 
manum cohibendo. 

Dicitur: non licet vasectomia, eam ad bonum spirituale or- 
dinando immediate ; quia, si immediate conducit ad bonum 
corporis et requiritur ad boni corporalis conservationem, 
simul mediate proficiendo saluti animae, profecto salvatur 
debita ordinatio et nihil obstat quominus vasectomia legi- 

Jamvero, si confidere possumus testimoniis supra invocatis 
et experientiis factis, non auderemus dicere nunquam licitam 
esse posse vasectomiam directe provocatam auctoritate privata. 

Pone scil. virum aliquem abnormi secretione seminali con- 
tinuo laborare et inde continuum pati erethismum sexualem, ita 
ut inde valetudo ejus male afficiatur. Nonne, in supposito 
quod ejffectus supra descripti ad vasectomiam consequantur, 
nonne, inquam, dici posset vasectomiam immediate conducere 
ab bonum corporis, et mediate tantum ad bonum spirituale? 

Posito hujusmodi abnormi corporis conditione vere patho- 
logica, posito etiam quod frustra alia remedia fuerint ad- 
hibita, non auderemus, donee S. Sedes aliter judicaverit, vel 

27 Ibidem, II, n. lOl. 

28 Ibidem, n. 103. 

29 2a 2ae, qu. LXV, art. i, ad 3m. 


donee circa effectus physiologicos et psychicos vasectomiae 
accuratius instruct! fuerimus, damnare virum qui illam opera- 
tionem sollicitaret nee medicum qui ad illam peragendam 
operam suam praeberet.*^ 

Extra descripta omnino exeeptionalia adjuncta, plane as- 
sentimur illis qui direetam vasectomiam, auctoritate privata 
peraetam, reprobandam ducant. Vix notandum est, post ea 
quae modo exposuimus, illam operationem privata auctoritate 
nunquam adhiberi posse ad ipsam sterilitatem obtinendam, ad 
vitandam prolis multitudinem, et ad alios fines istius generis. 

B. Quod speetat vasectomiam auctoritate publica insti- 
tuendam : 

Princeps non habet directum dominium in vita vel membris 
subditorum, nee cives sunt habendi quasi in bonum reipublicae 
ordinati, cum contra respubliea sit in bonum et utilitatem 
civium. Ideo non potest a Principe vita auferri civis inno- 
centis et innocui, licet ejus mors in commune bonum cederet, 
puta ilium oecidendo ad placandum tyrannum, qui civitatis 
exeidium minitatur nisi caput illius innocentis tradatur. 

Ex alia parte agnoscenda est Principi potestas jurisdictionis 
in cives, quatenus, tanquam vindex suorum subditorum et 
curam gerens boni communis ac reipublicae conservandae, po- 
test et debet vitam et jura civium tueri contra invadentes, ac 
media adhibere quae ad conservationem reipublicae et vitae 
socialis integritatem exiguntur, etiam, si opus sit, oecidendo 
aut mutilando illos qui vitam socialem in discrimen vocant. 

Quo pacto jus habet Princeps, positis ponendis, mutilandi 
aut etiam oceidendi, sive in punitionem criminum, quae punitio 
necessaria est ad reliquos a sceleribus deterrendos, sive directe 
ad societatis vel individuorum defensionem contra nocentes. 

Porro juxta haec principia solvenda est quaestio nostra. Ex 
illis autem liquido apparet Principi non esse agnoscendum 
jus ut vasectomiam peragendam jubeat, nisi in quantum con- 
stiterit illam mutilationem (in uno alterove individuo vel in 
civium eategoria) esse necessariam vel i. ad tuendam vitam 
seu jura individuorum, vel 2. ad conservandam ipsam reipub- 

3 Conveniunt in hoc Schmitt, Zeitschr. /. k. TheoL, 191 1, P- 7^3 s., et 
EccLES. Rev., t. XLV, p. 88 s. ; Donovan, Eccles. Rev., t. XLV, p. 318 s.; 
Laboure, ibidem, p. 355 ; Stucchi, 1. c, p. 418 s. ; O'Malley, ibidem, t. XLIV, 
p. 696; necnon Auctor sub pseudonomine (Perplexus), scribens apud Eccles. 
Rev., t. XLII, p. 602 s., ac Auctor Anonymus, ibidem, t. XLV, p. 76. 


licae vitam socialem, sive per modum punitionis, sive per mo- 
dum directae defendonis contra el em en ta nociva ejus incolumi- 
tatem in grave discrimen vocantia. 

Quae conditio, pro legitimanda qualibet gravi mutilatione 
necessaria, strictius hie est urgenda pro majori gravitate muti- 
lationis vasectomiacae, signanter si censetur esse non modo 
sterilizans, sed et impotentiam ac matrimonii impedimentum 

Jamvero opinamur hanc indispensabilem conditionem neutra 
sub parte verificari. Et sane. 

1° Quod spectat vitam et jura privata individuorum : re- 
licta in viris defectivis foecundandi potentia, nuUius individui 
jus laeditur quod a Principe vindicetur; vel, si locus sit juris 
laesioni, alia praesto sunt in manu Principis media opportuna 
et efficacia, quibus juris violationi occurrat eamve praeveniat, 
quin opus sit ut ad vasectomiam recurrat. 

Nimirum non est a Statu vindicandum jus prolis forsan 
nascendae ex hujusmodi viro, in statu debiliori aut infirmiori, 
cum proles ilia, utpote nondum existens, non sit subjectum 
juris, cumque illi semper melius sit esse infirmam quam non 

Nee regulariter tuendum assumere debet jus mulieris, cui 
conjungi contingat talem virum, cum in hujusmodi unione 
regulariter et per se dictae mulieris jus non laedatur. 

Dicitur : regulariter, quia exceptionaliter potest esse locus 
juris violationi e parte talis viri. Casus esset si contagiosa 
lue esset infectus, puta lepra aut syphili in tali gradu ut proxi- 
mum contagionis periculum inducat pro muliere cui copuletur; 
vel si ageretur de viro qui tanto passionis aestu laboret ut 
primam quasi occurrentem foeminam invadat et violento 
stupro violandam aggrediatur. 

In hisce exceptionalibus adjunctis, partes essent auctoritatis 
socialis illos viros cohibere eosque impedire quominus morbo 
inficiant alios eorumve pudicitiae et castitati attentent. 

Ast non est integrum Statui qualecumque medium pro lubitu 
in hunc finem adhibere, et ad occisionem aut mutilationem 
non potest recurrere nisi deficiente alio medio efficaci. Patet 
autem efficax remedium praesto esse in reclusione, quemad- 
modum reclusione impediuntur ne noceant furiosi et rabidi, 
quos etiam occidere et mutilare non liceret, quousque alio 


medio cohiberi valent. Imo non esset ad reclusionem deve- 
niendum nisi cum viris alterius speciei, pudicitiae scil. violenter 
attentantibus ; periculo contagionis sufficienter provideretur, 
virum morbo contagioso affectum prohibendo, sub poena nul- 
litatis, a matrimonio contrahendo : quae potestas hujusmodi 
impedimentum inducendi auctoritati publicae non videtur 

2° Quod spectat directe bonum commune societatis: 

a. Vasectomia non est, pro reipublicae salute, infligenda 
in poenam et punitionem criminis admissi. Attenta namque 
natura operationis facilis et parum dolorosae, non habet vasec- 
tomia rationem poenae; quod et experientia confirmatur, cum, 
teste D^® O'Malley, pro 800 viris, in quibus, in Indiana, pera- 
genda erat, vi legis, vasectomia, i "j^ eam ultro postulaverint.^^ 

Caeterum si vasectomia imponeretur ut punitio, restringenda 
foret ejus applicatio solis delinquentibus et criminosis stricte 
dictis, non autem defectivis, abnormibus et degeneribus, ea 
latitudine qua applicatur in quibusdam Statibus Foederatis. 

b. Vasectomia non est medium necessarium quo societas 
sui incolumitatem directe protegat et defendat contra nocentes. 

In hoc praeprimis insistunt liceitatis patroni, quatenus 
timendum velint ne defectivi et abnormes, si servetur eorum 
foecundandi potentia, proles generent defectivas et ad crimina 
proclives, quarum multitudine ipsa societatis existentia in dis- 
crimen vocetur. Jamvero. 

a. Non admittimus ex procreatione prolium degenerum ex 
illis viris periclitari societatis existentiam. Numerus namque 
hujusmodi virorum et prolium inde nascentium, in Statu ali- 
unde rite moderato, semper manebit relative exiguus, et so- 
cietatis integritas stare potest cum existentia quorumdam 
membrorum abnormium et degenerum. Exaggerationem 
etiam sapit dicere ex patre vitioso non procreari nisi vitiosam 
progeniem, nee desunt exempla in contrarium. 

b. Etiamsi societas ex dicta causa periclitari videretur, 
nondum legitima foret dicenda lex ad normam illius quam in 
quibusdam Statibus Americae Septentrionalis vigere vidimus. 

Equidem, juxta statuta principia, posset Status, in boni 
communis tuitionem ac suae conservationis tutelam, quem- 

31 EccLES. Rev., t. XLIV, p. 699 s., coll. p. 742 ; coll. etiam Schmitt, 1. c, 
p. 76. 


cumque cohibere a mortifero vulnere inferendo societati ; sed 
rursus ordo esset servandus in electione remediorum, nee posset 
ad mortis illationem et mutilationem procedi nisi exhaustis 
aliis remediis; non posset ad functionis generativae suppres- 
sionem deveniri quousque sufficere appareat usus interdictio.^^ 

Jamvero Status occurrere posset periculo ex hac parte mini- 
tanti, descriptos viros a matrimonio arcendo, contra eos in- 
ducto impedimento dirimente, vel, in quantum hoc remedium 
non est satis efficax, eos recludendo et libertate privando. 
Pravae etiam dispositiones et inclinationes quae saepe observ- 
antur in prolibus ex defectivo et vitioso patre procreatis, 
magna ex parte curari possunt per virilem et christianam 
educationem qua in virtutibus exerceantur et habitus acquirant 
bonos, malis dispositionibus contraries. 

Multiplici igitur nomine denegandum est sociali auctori- 
tati jus vasectomiam imponendi civibus suis degeneribus. 
In quam conclusionem plerosque Auctores, qui banc quaes- 
tionem tractaverunt, invenimus consentientes.^^ 

Caeterum obvie apparet quomodo juris hujusmodi exer- 
citium facile ansam praeberet abusibus gravibus atque applica- 
tioni in dies frequentiori, ac timendum est ne brevi assumatur 
vasectomia quasi instrumentum selectionis ad normam eorum 
quae fiunt inter bruta animalia.^* Quem abusum, dignitati 

32 Pari modo potest qui vis homo particularis propriam vitam suam defen- 
dere contra injustum agressorem (sive formaliter in Justus sit, sive materia- 
liter, ut in casu insanientis) ; sed, in hac vitae suae defensione, servare tenetur 
moderamen inculpatae tutelae, nee ilium agressorem occidere potest si valet 
se salvare eum mutilando, nee mutilare potest si fuga sufficit ad vitae periculum 

33 De Becker, Eccles. Reviev^^. t. XLII, p. 474 s. et t. XLIII, p. 355 ss. ; 
Vermeersch, Salsmans, De Villers, ibidem, t. XLII, p. 475 ; Schmitt, Zeitschr. 
f. k. TheoL, 1. c, et Eccles. Rev., t, XLIV, p. 679 ss. et t. XLV, p. 86 s.; 
Ferreres, Razon y Fe, XXVII, p. 378 s. et XXVIII, p. 224, quo altero loco 
adducit in eumdem sensum sententiam Lehmkuhl, privatis litteris ad ipsum 
propositam; Rigby, 1. c. ; Roderer, 1. c. ; Dr. O'Malley, Eccles. Rev., t. XLIV, 
p. 699 ss. ; Wouters, 1. c. ; N. R. th., 1. c. ; Stucchi, 1. c, p. 419 ; Capello, 1. c, 
p. 247 s. ; Eschbach, 1. c, p. 243 ss. 

Contradicunt Laboure, Eccles. Rev., t. XLIII, p. 80 ss., 320 ss., t. XLIV, 
p. 574 ss., t. XLV, p. 88 ss. et p. 355 ss. ; item, salva restrictione facta, Dono- 
van, Eccles. Rev., t. XLII, p. 271 ss., p. 599 ss., t. XLIV, p. 571 ss. et t. 
XLV, p. 313 ss. Accedunt Auctores anonymice aut pseudonymice scribentes 
respective apud Eccles. Rev., t. XLIII, p. 310 ss., t. XLV, p. 76 s. et t. XLV, 
p. 599 ss. 

34 Cf. O'Malley, apud Eccles. Rev., t. XLIV, p. 705 ; Schmitt, Zeitsch. f. k. 
TheoL, 191 1, p. 66 s. et p. 77, cum nota ; Ferreres, Razon y Fe, t. XXVII, p. 
374 s. ubi refert " quod etiam in Hispania non defuerint aliquae medicae ephe- 


humanae adeo contrarium, tarn vehementer timet Donovan ut, 
postquam theoretice vindicaverit legitimitatem vasectomiae 
ab auctoritate sociali imponendae, practice urgeat a juris ex- 
ercitio esse abstinendum." 

A. De Smet. 


S. Congregation of the Holy Office. 


In answer to the esteemed letter of your Lordship, dated 11 
December last, I hasten to inform you that on the 11th instant the 
two questions proposed by your Lordship in regard to the Motu 
Proprio Quantavis diligentia were submitted to the Holy Father 
as follows: 

( 1 ) Is it lawful, without permission of the ecclesiastical authority, 
and therefore without incurring the censure enacted by the Motu 
Proprio Quantavis diligentia, to bring a civil action against a 
cleric prosecuted for crime by public authority? 

(2) Is it permitted to summon ecclesiastics to appear as witnesses 
before a lay tribunal, in civil or criminal causes? 

His Holiness by a decision of the same day commanded to answer : 
Ad utrumque — Negative. 

M. Cardinal Rampolla. 

The above is a translation of a Letter which appears in the 
Monitore EcclesiasticOy and which is referred to in the article 
on the Decree Quantavis diligentia in this number of the 
Review. Thus far it has not been published in the Acta 
Apostolicae Sedis, which is the official organ of the Roman 
Congregations, and we are therefore inclined to assume that 
it has a merely local bearing. Larino is one of the oldest 
dioceses in Italy and has enjoyed certain canonical traditions 
for nearly eight hundred years. Its inhabitants are presum- 
ably all Catholics, who, whether good or bad, can get a hear- 

merides quae hanc operationem laudibus extollant, veluti medium aptissimum 
ad social em quamdam selectionem faciendam, vi cujus probis tantum et cor- 
pore sanis generatio sit permittenda ". 
3 5 Cf. EccLES. Rev., t. XLV, p. 317 s. 


ing against an ecclesiastic if need be in the ecclesiastical court, 
and furthermore, the syndicos and avvocatos represent a mag- 
istracy of an inferior order expected to check the criminal 
and recalcitrant elements of the population distinct from the 
clerical element. The prohibition to appear against a cleric 
might well be in place under such circumstances. But for the 
rest, the answer to the Bishop of Larino, whether it be lawful 
to bring action against a cleric in the civil courts, or whether 
it is permissible to summon an ecclesiastic to appear as a wit- 
ness before a lay tribunal in civil or criminal cases, does not 
possess the force of a general interpretation of the Motu 
Proprio Quantavis diligentia. 

Indeed we should deprecate any such interpretation in a 
mixed population, such as we have in the United States. 
Though we surely owe loyalty and respect to ecclesiastical 
superiors, it is neither prudent nor just to appeal to the privi- 
legium fori where such appeal is not likely to be understood 
or heeded. Ecclesiastical privileges which are the result of 
mutual agreement between the Church and the civil Common- 
wealth, where both authorities profess and accept, the same 
religion as a basis of public action and the same interpretation 
of personal rights, cannot be asserted and claimed where such 
mutual recognition does not exist, except to the detriment of 
public peace and order. In the United States the Govern- 
ment, of which the law courts are an essential part, assumes 
to protect churchmen in the free exercise of their rights of con- 
science, i. e. of their religion; and it expects, as a matter of 
course, in return for the civil protection accorded them, that 
the churchmen as citizens observe the common law and ab- 
stain from criminal interference with the rights of their fellow 
citizens, whether these be Catholic or not. If then a cleric 
violates justice or perpetrates a crime against a fellow citizen, 
or disturbs the public peace, the law may call him to account, 
and in doing so it may require the testimony against the delin- 
quent, as witness or juror or advocate, of any citizen who en- 
joys the protection of our Commonwealth, whether he is a 
Catholic or not. To refuse to testify, under plea that the 
ecclesiastical authorities will deal with the case, is simply to 
obstruct the order of the lawfully constituted civil order. 
The same would be applicable to an ecclesiastic called into 


court to testify to any violation of law. He is bound to present 
himself sub poena, and no ecclesiastical law or privilege may 
set aside this duty unless there be some sort of mutual under- 
standing which would make it just to refuse obedience to the 
civil authority, where that authority exercises its right to 
punish criminals and enforce the observance of public morals. 
The Holy Father could not mean anything else for us. And 
as to the requisite permission of the ecclesiastical authority, 
it can only signify that the Ordinary will give his consent to 
a just suit against a cleric, unless it be a case where scandal 
can be avoided by adjusting a compromise or keeping the 
matter entirely out of court. 


Qu. Can you tell me what authority there is for saying after the 
Litany of Loreto the Oremus beginning with " Concede " instead of 
the " Gratiam tuam"? All our Office books have the latter. But 
some years ago we saw a comment on this subject in The Eccles- 
iastical Review. I have tried in vain to find it in the back num- 
bers. If you can give me any light on the subject you will greatly 

S. S. 

Resp. The Sacred Congregation of Rites decided that the 
prayer after the Litany of Loreto might be varied in accord- 
ance with the forms of the liturgical year. " Litaniae Lau- 
retanae concludendae sunt uti in Appendice Ritualis Romani, 
omissis Christe audi nos etc. Versiculus autem, Respon- 
sorium et Oratio post dictas Litanias mutari possunt pro tem- 
poris diversitate." ^ Whilst the prayer " Gratiam tuam " etc. 
has been popularly added to the Litany (perhaps because it 
is recited after the Angelus and also occurs in the Mass of the 
Blessed Virgin during Advent), it is not the one which the 
Roman Ritual as well as the Roman Breviary add to the text 
of the Litany. Both of these have the prayer: " Concede nos 
famulos tuos, quaesumus Domine Deus, perpetua mentis et 
corporis sanitate gaudere: et gloriosa beatae Mariae semper 
Virginis intercessione, a praesenti liberari tristitia, et aeterna 
perfrui laetitia. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen." 

1 S. R. C. 7 Dec. 1900, apud Ephem. Liturg. May 1901, pag. 265. 


This is likewise the prayer in the Mass of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary during the greater part of the ecclesiastical year, namely 
from the Feast of the Purification to Advent. 

It may be opportune to state here that for the purpose of 
gaining the indulgences attached to the Litany of Loreto it is 
not necessary to add either versicle or prayer. The Litany 
simply ends as given in the Raccolta, with the "Agnus 
Dei " etc. 


In the August number of the Ecclesiastical Review (p. 
224) appeared the following query, together with our answer: 

In Pontifical Mass and in Pontifical Vespers, the Baltimore Cere- 
monial provides that the ministers make their reverences to the bishop 
by bowing, when passing before the altar, or going to and from the 
throne. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum, however, provides that 
they genuflect when so doing. 

Will you please advise me whether there is any decree from Rome 
authorizing the bow instead of the genuflection provided for in the 
Caeremoniale, or whether custom in the United States makes it law- 
ful to bow rather than to genuflect? 

To this query we replied that " it does not suffice to make 
the simple reverence instead of genuflecting at the Pontifical 
services, in Cathedrals where there are no regular Canons," 
since there is no decree authorizing the reverence. 

In this matter we now receive the following communications 
from different dioceses the names of which it is not necessary 
to give here. 

From a Cathedral in the State of Pennsylvania : 

The custom of bowing instead of genuflecting to the bishop during 
Pontifical ceremonies has obtained in this diocese for more than 
thirty years. It seems to be the practice generally in the United 

From a Cathedral in the State of New York : 

Here we follow the usual custom of bowing in the United States. 
We have a feeling that most of our faithful in this country have come 
to connect the genuflection with the Altar and the Blessed Sacra- 



ment. There seems to be no doubt that custom makes it lawful for 
us to continue the bowing. 

From a Cathedral in New England : 

I do not hesitate to have the bow used in this diocese, as it has 
been the custom in New England for many years. 

From a Cathedral in Ohio : 

Here in the United States the inclination is the common usus, 
brought about no doubt by the fact that a genuflection with us is 
considered as an act of adoration simpliciter. Hence because of 
our Protestant surroundings and consequent danger of misinterpreta- 
tion of such ceremonial, I believe the American Bishops have been 
loath to permit the genuflection. 

From a Cathedral in Michigan : 

The custom of substituting bows for genuflections seems to be 
quite general in this country, but it is not absolutely imiversal. It 
has hitherto been followed in this diocese. 

It is quite evident from these communications that there exists 
in the United States a custom contrary to rubrical authority, 
and although there is no doubt that the present usage in many 
dioceses of the United States is due to a faulty interpretation 
of the Caeremoniale Episcoporum by the compilers of the 
Baltimore Ceremonial, it appears suflficiently established to 
make it lav^^ful. But it would hardly do to carry this same 
custom into places where the Caeremoniale Episcoporum has 
been the norm in the past, on the ground that the American 
people associate genuflection with the idea of adoration, or 
that we must defer to Protestant prejudice for fear of being 
misinterpreted. Such an argument would do away with all 
similar manifestations of reverence to the hierarchical repre- 
sentatives, such as genuflecting in kissing the Ordinary's 
ring, and other habitual genuflections prescribed in the Ritual, 
and recognized in the Church as the mark of reverence to 
Christ's representatives. Moreover it is not simply a question 
touching manifestations of personal reverence, but of the 
ceremonial of the Church, and it need hardly concern us what 
Protestants may think of our form of worship or our rever- 


ence. The court ceremonial of the Old World is not less 
exacting and requires genuflection in certain public or solemn 
functions not only before the person of the sovereign but even 
before the vacant throne. While we must recognize some 
freedom regarding traditions which are the mere outcome of 
local or temporary conditions, and when they concern only 
outward ecclesiastical show, we ought to be tenacious in main- 
taining the honor of the sanctuary. The merely temporal 
honors shown to ecclesiastics outside the sanctuary, where they 
are not only contrary to democratic traditions, but distinctly 
a mark of foreign citizenship, rightly yield to public custom 
in America, whatever their significance may be in Catholic 
countries where they are properly understood and valued. 


Qu. My assistant is a really edifying and zealous young priest 
who is doing much good in the parish by his advocacy of greater 
devotion to the Blessed Sacrament. I was pleased to introduce at 
his solicitation not only the practice of daily Communion, but also 
more frequent devotions at night for our working people. At these 
devotions we have " private " Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, 
in the manner explained in the Review some years ago; for the 
bishop did not think it advisable to allow Benediction more than 
once a week and on the principal feasts. But lately my young saint 
has adopted the method of making his Hour of Adoration as a mem- 
ber of the Eucharistic League in a way which I question whether it 
has the approval of the Church. He lights two wax-candles, opens 
the tabernacle, and makes his prayer vested in surplice, at the foot 
of the altar. He tells me that private Exposition of this kind is 
allowable for any cause whatever without permission from any- 
body. Is it all right? 

Resp. No. Private Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament 
is indeed permitted without special sanction of the Ordinary 
for any good cause, and may be made at the request of any 
person for a private intention, such as the recovery of the sick, 
or in thanksgiving for some particular benefit ; but it may not 
be made at the priest's private discretion. It requires in all 
cases the pastor's explicit or tacit permission. The reason 
for this is that the pastor is the regularly appointed guardian 


of the Tabernacle and he is responsible for the functions re- 
lating to external worship in the church and the parish. He 
dispenses the Treasure of the Blessed Sacrament either per- 
sonally or through his assistants. He uses It rather as the 
minister of others than for his own personal convenience. 
That such is the sense of the Church is evident from a decision 
of the Sacred Congregation, which by decree of 17 July, 
1894, forbids Exposition for a priest's private devotion. "An 
liceat sacerdoti pro sua privata devotione sacrum Taberna- 
culum aperire pro adorando Sacramento, precibus ad libitum 
fundendis ac postea illud claudere? Resp. Negative." ^ 

Where two or three, priests or others, combine in the hour's 
adoration, the act would undoubtedly be lawful, as it like- 
wise would be where a priest represents some public interest, 
— a purpose which might enter into the objects of the 
Holy Hour by members of the Eucharistic League. But in 
any case the pastor's permission or consent is required for 
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament whether private or public. 


Qu. In distributing Holy Communion outside the Mass the priest 
is to say the Antiphon " O sacrum convivium " and the Versicle 
" Panem de coelo ", with the prayer " Deus qui nobis sub Sacra- 
mento," etc. Does this prayer end with the ordinary conclusion, 
" Per Christum Dominum nostrum ", or has it the longer ending, 
" Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum filium tuum qui tecimi ", 
etc., as some contend? Some priests also kiss the altar before giving 
the blessing, " Benedictio Dei omnipotentis ", etc., after the prayer. 
Is this correct? 

Resp. The prayer referred to has the long conclusion, ac- 
cording to a decision of the S. Congregation (11 June, 1880, 
No. 3915). It should be noted that the prescribed blessing 
is not " Benedictio Dei omnipotentis Patris et Filii etc. . . . 
descendat super vos et maneat semper ", but the ordinary 
blessing used in the Mass, " Benedicat vos Omnipotens Deus, 
Pater" etc. (S. R. C. 23 May, 1835, No. 2704). 

1 Decreta authent.. No. 3832. 



In the current number of the Review we publish a Decree 
of the Holy Office on the assistance of pastors at " mixed 
marriages " when the contracting parties have refused to 
make the usual promise regarding perfect liberty in the exer- 
cise of religion and education of the children in the Catholic 

This Decree has been discussed by the secular press in a 
way calculated to spread an altogether false impression; 
and much harm has been done by the fact that some Catholic 
journals have circulated the misinterpretation of the secular 
papers, suggesting that the antenuptial promises formerly re- 
quired in the case of mixed marriages are no longer necessary. 

We wish to say that the announcement, that " the ante- 
nuptial pact in mixed marriages has been removed by the 
Pope, and that it is no longer necessary to make an agreement 
to rear the children in the Catholic faith ", which has been 
printed in various papers and which some priests have wel- 
comed as a concession to the liberal spirit of our age and coun- 
try, is entirely misleading. Indeed such concessions are or- 
dinarily incompatible with the maintenance of Christian prin- 
ciples and can obtain only a passive consent on the part of 
the Holy See. 

To remove all doubt on this subject we shall have in the 
next issue of the Review a full exposition of the correct bear- 
ing of the Decree, which as a matter of fact makes no practical 
change in the application of the general law of the Church. 
If in some European countries concessions have been made 
so as to permit assistance of the pastor or delegate at mar- 
riages in which the " cautiones " are not given, it is done only 
to avoid greater evils. It is to these places that the Decree of 
the Holy Office makes reference. But such forced concessions 
are by no means necessary in the United States. Hence our 
Bishops are not expected to alter the practice prescribed by 
the Plenary Councils of Baltimore, of insisting upon the 
" cautiones ", and of refusing dispensation as well as the as- 
sistance of the priest at any marriage in which these " cau- 
tiones " have not been duly made. 



Subscribers to the Review cannot but be aware that the 
advertisements which appear in our pages are of an excep- 
tional and superior character, wholly in keeping with the aims 
of the magazine and the special class of readers to whom it ap- 
peals. This is because we exercise rigorous supervision in re- 
gard to the firms that ask for our space. Certain classes of 
advertisements are absolutely debarred from appearing in our 
pages by reason either of the kind of goods which they offer 
or of deficient guarantee which they give to the purchaser, 
and no amount of money or influence could secure an inch 
of our columns for concerns which deal in doubtful mer- 
chandise or which employ questionable methods in obtaining 
the confidence of the clergy. Whilst we cannot in every case 
guarantee that purchasing from advertisers in the Review will 
afford absolute satisfaction, we take every care to secure 
only the most reliable of firms for our advertisers, irrespective 
of the accidental prospect of profit which such announcements 
hold out to a publication like ours. 

Occasionally we have received inquiries from members of 
the clergy which indicate that they have been prejudiced 
against some reputable firm. Some years ago we were led to 
make an investigation in the case of the altar wines advertised 
by us. Recently charges have been circulated about the 
Daprato Statuary Company, of New York and Chicago, to the 
effect that the firm was a *' Jewish concern " doing business, 
for Catholic churches. We are in position to state that the 
rumor is absolutely false and apparently the invention of 
trade jealousy. The firm has sent us a full account of its 
personnel, certified by affidavit, and showing that their com- 
pany is under entirely Catholic auspices and controlled by 
well-known Catholic artists and business men, all members of 
Catholic parishes in different parts of the United States. 
Whilst religious conviction is not a qualification of good 
workmanship or business ability, nor its profession always a 
guarantee of honest dealing, yet in the matter of Christian 
art and the use of ecclesiastical goods it is of great importance 
that the product offered to Catholic devotion be under the 
direction of men who are both competent and conscientious. 

Criticisms anb Botes* 

rOE OUE NON-OATHOLIO TEIENDS. The fairest Argument. By 
the Eev. John F. Noll, Hantington, Indiana. 

The plan of this volume is excellent. Its purpose is to bring 
together a number of creditable witnesses in behalf of the doctrine 
and practice of the Catholic Church, who themselves are not pro- 
fessing Catholics, and who may not be supposed to be influenced 
by partiality in speaking well of it. Thus we have in the first place 
a number of Protestant divines like Dean Stanley, Dr. Schaff, 
Charles Starbuck, and others, who praise the Church for its general 
attitude on moral issues and for the principles of Unity, Catholicity 
and Holiness, which characterize her activity. Next the author 
adduces witnesses to attest the reasonableness and conformity to 
Scriptural precept of her doctrines and practices. He brings into 
strong relief the misstatements of the enemies of the Catholic 
Church, against the actual facts of her teaching and discipline, as 
seen and interpreted by men who are beyond the suspicion of bias 
in her favor, and whose word may not be questioned in point of 
knowledge or veracity. Finally he makes a brief examination of 
the character and trustworthiness of those who array themselves 
against the Church, among them the self-styled ex-priests and 
ex-nuns who have been filling the ears of a credulous public with 
their inventions and exaggerations of Catholic doings and beliefs. 

All this is excellent and furnishes the reader with a weapon 
of defence and with information by which to disarm the bigotry 
and timidity of those who come under the influence of such organi- 
zations as the so-called " Guardians of Liberty ", the latest form 
of the old " Know-nothings " or the A. P. A., and a host of 
secret and semi-secret agitators who, like Major-General Sickles, 
have a grievance against Catholics in general or against the Irish 
Brigade in particular, because these have borne witness against him 
for unpatriotic conduct. 

The usefulness of Father Noll's book is marred however by the 
fact that he does not give in every case the precise and accurate 
source of his information. To refer to the testimony of Renan, 
for example, by saying " Renan writes from Rome ", without tell- 
ing the reader, who may wish to verify the quotation, where he 
can do so, is practically valueless, except for those who are already 
convinced that Father Noll as a Catholic priest and as a con- 
troversialist is to be trusted when citing the words of a dead man. 



What the reader to whom the author addresses his book wants, is an 
accurate and precise reference to some accessible edition of book 
or magazine or newspaper, to which the man or woman who chooses 
to doubt the veracity of the collator of the arguments, can go or 
at least appeal. Where such accurate legitimation is wanting the 
passport is without the proper signature and were better not used 
at all. 

Perhaps the author can supply this defect in all cases in which 
he proposes to rest his assertion on the testimony of non-Catholics ; 
for this constitutes the main value of the collection. In that case 
it would not be difficult to get a respectable non- Catholic publisher 
to make propaganda for the work among those whom it is intended 
to benefit in the first place. We notice that the author is also 
his own publisher, which fact necessarily limits the sale of the 
book. An experienced publisher would make such a volume some- 
what lighter, bind it in flexible cover, change the title, and put the 
price at the lowest possible figure. Such a book should sell in 
great numbers. 

DE OURIA EOMANA. Ejus Historia ac hodiema Disciplina jnxta Ee- 
formationem a Pio X inductam. Auctore Arthur Monin, J.O.L., in 
Universitate Oatholica Lovaniensi Juris Oanonici Professors Extra- 
ordinario. Lovanii excudebat Josephus Van Linthout. 1912. Pp. 

The author divides his historico-canonical dissertation upon the 
Roman Curia into two main parts. In the first, which comprises 
154 pages, he presents the history of the Roman Curia, tracing its 
origin and subsequent development. In the early ages of the 
Church the Sovereign Pontiff was accustomed to perform personally 
the various duties of the Holy See, using however, occasionally, the 
assistance of the clergy of Rome. Afterward, when the business of 
the Church had much increased, the Consistory was established to aid 
him in its government. In the sixteenth century when the ec- 
clesiastical business was still more augmented, the Roman Congre- 
gations were instituted. The author describes with considerable 
detail (pp. 9-151) the various Congregations, Tribunals, and 
Offices which were established, and likewise the numerous altera- 
tions which these institutions have undergone during the more than 
three centuries since the Constitution, Immensa, of Sixtus V, until 
their reorganization in 1908 by Pius X. For this portion of the 
volume he draws chiefly from eminent writers such as Cardinal De 
Luca, Bangen, Bouix, and Philips, rather than from original docu- 
ments of the Holy See. 


The second part of the work (pp. 155-377) deals with the 
present status of the Roman Curia, as remodeled by the present 
Pontiff according to the Constitution Sapienti consilio. The au- 
thor has evidently made a thorough study of this branch of his 
subject, and shows himself to be familiar with the numerous works 
which have been published within recent years upon the Roman 
Curia, among which may be mentioned chiefly the commentary on 
the Sapienti consilio by Leitner issued in 1909. The next year, 
Ojetti published a volume, De Romana Curia; while in 1911 
Capello brought out his De Curia Romana '' Sede Plena^\ Other 
volumes, as well as many series of articles in various languages, 
dealt with the same subject-matter, the Roman Curia as reorganized 
by Pius X. 

While the author of the volume under review has made excellent 
use of the commentators who preceded him, he does not hesitate 
on occasions to differ from them. The question (p. 248), whether 
the S. Congregation of the Sacraments possesses authority to decide 
upon the validity or invalidity of Matrimony has been variously 
viewed, some writers holding that cases of this kind demanded 
judicial treatment and could not therefore be settled by a Congre- 
gation which has no authority to decide questions judicially. 
Others, insisting upon the text {Sapienti consilio')^ have maintained 
that this Congregation possesses ordinary faculties for settling diffi- 
culties concerning the validity of Matrimony whenever such settle- 
ment would not involve judicial procedure. The author is in favor 
of this view and declares that the practice of this Congregation 
confirms it (p. 250). 

One of the best handled topics in the volume is the chapter (pp. 
191-194) "De ratione adeundi Sanctae Sedis Officia cum iisque 
agendi generatim." It touches a very practical question. Indeed, 
we wish that the writer had gone even farther and applied the 
solidity of his treatment to certain details of the questions. Many 
priests are acquainted with the special province of each of the Con- 
gregations and Tribunals, but when the occasion arises for making 
application to any of them, some experience difficulty in determin- 
ing the form in which the petition should be expressed. If Dr. 
Monin had added, as he might easily have done, some formulas of 
petition to the Roman Congregations, the S. Penitentiary, and the 
S. Rota, the practical advantages of his work would have been 
much enhanced. 

It would also be convenient for readers of this volume to have 
the text of the Constitution, Sapienti consilio, and indeed other 
Pontifical documents, such as the " Lex propria ", " Normae com- 
munes ", and " Normae peculiares ", incorporated in it, so that the 


exact words of the legislator might be seen at once without the 
need of consulting other commentators, such as Capello, Ojetti, 
and Leitner, who supply their readers with these texts of the 
Church's legislation upon the Roman Curia. 

In the beginning of the volume the reader will find a useful 
bibliographical index under the following headings " Jura citata ", 
"Auctores citati ", and " Periodica citata ". At the end of the 
volume there is appended a complete analytical index alphabetically 
arranged. Dr. Monin's work is certainly an important accession 
to the literature upon the Roman Curia, and many of the clergy 
will find in it numerous items of information not easily procurable 

INTRODUOTOBY PHILOSOPHY. A Text-book for Colleges and High 
Schools. By Oharles A. Dubray, S.M., Ph.D. New York: Long- 
mans, G-reen & Oo. 

Same Publishers. 

THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC. By P. Coffey, Ph.D. Same Publishers. Two 

Of books introductory to philosophy there are many types. Three 
such are here presented. While only the first on the list is so in 
name, the other two are likewise so in fact, though from variant 

Dr. Dubray's Introductory Philosophy guides the student through 
the temple of philosophy, acquainting him with the edifice in all its 
departments, and familiarizing him with its principal contents. 
Whoso has mastered it will find himself at home therein and be 
perfectly oriented and equipped for further exploration. The au- 
thor conceives philosophy to be " the science of the higher prin- 
ciples of things" (p. 8). But why "the higher" and not "the 
highest " ? 

Modestiae causa, just as good old Pythagoras, so the legend goes, 
refused to be called sophos, contenting himself with the modest 
appellative Philos-sophiae? We like still the old-time " scientia 
causarum altissimarum," for there is no rest for philosophy, human 
philosophy (of only such do we speak), until it has climbed the 
highest peak and seen its territory from the upmost summit. 

But what are those " things ", whose higher and highest principles 
it is the ambition of philosophy to explain and establish? The 



answer to this question may best be seen by the aid of the following 
schematic outline : 

{world = cosmology; 
man = psychology; 
God = theodicy. 

Philosophical study of the \ transitional = epistemology. 

{thought = logic; 
expression = esthetics; 
action = ethics. 

The higher principles of the real, the ideal, and their inter- 
relations in knowledge, these therefore form the subject-matter, 
the field of philosophy, to which the student is introduced. 

In the traditional program of the philosophical curriculimi logic 
usually occupies the first place, epistemology being included therein 
as material logic (critics, criteriology) . The student advances 
thence through metaphysics general (ontology) and special (cos- 
mology, psychology, theodicy) to the final goal, ethics. The basis 
of this order is obvious and solid. There are however som« equally 
obvious and solid objections against it, and many writers, especially 
in France, have changed it considerably. Amongst these is the 
author of the work at hand. His arrangement is outlined as follows : 

I. The empirical study of the self = 1. psychology — 

(a) Cognitive consciousness = knowledge 

(b) Affective consciousness = feeling 

(c) Conative consciousness = activity and will. 

II. The normative science — 

(a) of the intellect = 2. logic 

(b) of the expression of ideals to arouse certain feelings = 


(c) of will and action = 4. ethics. 

III. The study of the relations of cognitive processes to the real 
world and hence a transition to the following = 5. epis- 

IV. Philosophical study — 

(a) of the world = 6. cosmology 

(b) of man = 7. philosophy of mind 

(c) of God = 8. theodicy. 

V. (9) History of philosophy: 1. psychology, 2. logic, 3. esthe- 
tics, 4. ethics, 5. epistemology, 6. cosmology, 7. rational psychology, 
8. theodicy, 9. history of philosophy. Such is the order of the 

Its justification is manifest. While the mind does not ordinarily 
begin with self-scrutiny, it must in the pursuit of philosophy be dis- 


ciplined therein. Moreover, an examination of the mind's pro- 
cedure in the quest of consistency and truth, in other words the 
study of the ideal logical processes, supposes some familiarity with 
the real phenomena, the actual workings, of the mind. Hence 
the grounds for beginning philosophy with psychology instead of 
logic. The study of ideal thought (logic) leads naturally to the 
study of ideal expression (esthetics) and ideal conduct (ethics). 
From investigation into the subjective phenomena of mind, into that 
of the objective nature of the world, the soul, and God, the way 
naturally passes across the bridge between thought and thing, mind 
and object, a bridge which, if not laid, is secured, by epistemology, 
the science of knowledge. Finally philosophy in act is exhibited 
in its history. Rightly then should the study terminate with the 
history of philosophy. So much for the author's program. 

A few words now as to the execution. Supposing it to be compre- 
hensive in its matter, a text-book of philosophy should be ( 1 ) logi- 
cally coherent in its essential as well as its integral parts or details^ 
(2) lucid in its explanation and expression; (3) solid in its reason- 
ing. These qualities stand out unmistakably in the book before us. 
The work from start to finish is an organic whole, a totum per se. 
It is in no sense a compilation, an aggregation, a totum per accidens. 
Its members throughout articulate, move easily, naturally, gracefully 
on their junctures. And this living coherence extends to every 
tissue and cell of the organism, showing how well the author has 
thought out and lived into his intelligence the system he has be- 
gotten. Begotten, not created ; for, it need hardly be said, he has 
not evoked it "ex nihilo sui et subjecti." 

The book embodies the essential Catholic philosophy, not, however, 
recast or ** adapted " from Latin manuals, but assimilated, vitalized, 
issued through a soul and born anew. Developed too, " evolved ", 
if you will, not into a new " species ", but a new " variety ", shaped 
and perfected by contact with the recent scientific environment. 
All that is permanent in " the old philosophy " is set forth in its 
strength. Nothing vital or essential is passed by, though the anti- 
quated and worn-out is of course eliminated. Moreover, the im- 
portant developments resulting from the experimental sciences are 
given their due place and influence in the philosophical system. 
Lastly the style is a model of lucid expression. Never verbose or 
diffuse, it is always clear. No student capable of studying philo- 
sophy at all will fail to understand the author's meaning. If the 
thought demand mental effort, this is as it ought to be; but it will 
not be the fault of the style. 

Primarily intended as a text-book for use in college, it will prove 
a valuable instrument to form and strengthen the miiids of our 



Catholic young men and women, to help them to realize the solid 
foundations of truth that underlie and support the rational and 
therefore the theistic and consequently Catholic world-view, and the 
reasonable bases of morality, faith, religion, life. It will also prove 
a most desirable adjunct to collateral reading in the seminary course 
of philosophy, not supplanting, but supplementing in this respect, 
the excellent series of Stonyhurst Manuals. Moreover, the clergy 
who may desire (and what intelligent priest does not do so from 
time to time?) to review their philosophical studies will find in this 
clean-cut, solid, up-to-date manual a most available auxiliary. 

Students schooled in " the old philosophy " will miss from the 
author's system the department of ontology. The material usually 
assigned to this branch of metaphysics is divided amongst other 
sections — psychology especially, and cosmology. This secures of 
course to some extent the elucidation of these fundamental notions, 
the groundwork of all science and philosophy. At the same time 
their supreme importance and the fact that they are so generally 
denied or ignored by non- Catholic systems would seem to make it 
desirable if not essential that they should receive separate and 
proportionate treatment. We might note that there appears to be 
some slight confusion of " analytic " with " immediate " judg- 
ments at pages 109 and 395. 

One who has deepened and broadened his mental vision by the 
study of such a work as the foregoing, will find the process still 
further extended and perfected by perusing Dr. Perry's Present 
Philosophical Tendencies. He will here see philosophy at work 
in the minds of men to-day, in systems that differ toto coelo from his 
own. And in this respect will it help him, showing him at once 
his own strength as well as his limitations, and enabling him to 
estimate the opposite ways in which many gifted minds have inter- 
preted our world of experience — minds naturally more gifted than 
his own, though devoid of the priceless heritage of the philosophic 
perennis which accompanies, because it underlies, the still more price- 
less heritage of Catholic theology. 

Professor Perry's work cannot be called an " introduction to 
philosophy " in the usual sense of the term. Some seven years ago 
he wrote a book more aptly so entitled. The Approach to Philosophy^ 
a highly interesting and suggestive guide that points out the 
avenues leading up to the temple and indicates the chief character- 
istics of the interior. The standpoint and leading ideas embodied 
in the latter book are on the whole theoretically sound and prac- 

1 New York : Scribner's Sons. IQ05. 


tically sane. The same can be said of the work at hand. Dr. Perry, 
though (assistant) professor at Harvard, differs as widely from the 
elusively idealistic Royce, as he does from the brilliantly wayward 
pragmatist James. Professor Perry carries onward the saner real- 
ism, the " common sense philosophy ", defended in a past genera- 
tion by Porter and McCosh, and, substantially at least, still by Ladd 
and Ormond. His present work is a critique of naturalism, prag- 
matism, and idealism from the realistic standpoint. The student 
who has not the time or opportunity to familiarize himself with 
these contemporary tendencies of reflective thought by study of 
their sources, will be helped to whatever acquaintance may be de- 
sirable therewith by the clear analyses here presented. The author, 
it need hardly be said, is eminently just to his opponents. His 
positive statements are truly representative, whilst his criticism is 
perfectly objective, though frank and incisive. 

The volume contains also a succinct but clear outline of Professor 
Jgimes's philosophy. 

Though not caring to stand sponsor for every statement embodied 
in the book, the reviewer is gratified to find so much with which a 
student of Catholic philosophy can agree ; and it is still more inspir- 
ing to him to meet in the defence of absolute truth against the in- 
sidious attacks from the side of naturalism, monism, and pragma- 
tism, so uncompromising a champion as Professor Perry. 

So much space has been given to the foregoing works that we 
must defer for another occasion Dr. Coffey's two splendid volumes 
on Logic. Books on Logic are not usually " splendid ", but these 
are; and that too in every respect, outwardly, inwardly, quantita- 
tively, qualitatively, materially, formally, in every way. It is a 
pleasure to recommend the two goodly tomes to professors and ad- 
vanced students. They are not in style and method beyond the 
capacity of an intelligent beginner, but they might prove a strain 
on his courage. However, of this work more anon. 

THEODIOY. Essays on Divine Providence. By Antonio Rosmini Serbati. 
Translated from the "Milan edition of 1845. Three volumes. New 
York and London: Longmans, G-reen & Co. 1912. 

The essays here translated belong in part to Rosmini' s Opusculi 
Filosofici, though they were subsequently collected under the title of 
Theodicea. The term Theodicy is taken literally (Justice of God), 
and indicates that the purpose of the book is "to vindicate the 
Equity and Goodness of God in the distribution of good and evil in 
the world ". The erroneous judgments that men form regarding the 



ways of Divine Providence are traced by the author to three prin- 
cipal causes: first, to the lack of logical knowledge, that is to a 
failure to measure the capacity of the finite mind for confronting 
such an infinitely vast and complicated problem. To meet this 
want the first volume at hand establishes the principles that must be 
followed in order to avoid the pitfalls into which the unguided mind 
inevitably stumbles. The second cause of error is the lack of physi- 
cal knowledge regarding the working out of the cosmical order. The 
aim therefore of the second book is to show that, since every created 
nature is finite, he who would escape from certain evils should have 
to change that order and thus run the risk of incurring greater 
evils. The end of the cosmical system and its Author is not and 
cannot be objectively perfect, but a maximum result of good from a 
balance of good and evil — on the earth a broken arch, in the heavens 
a perfect whole. Lastly, the third cause of error is the lack of theo- 
logical knowledge, namely, that the constant miraculous interference 
by God in the working out of natural law would contradict His wis- 
dom and by consequence His absolute goodness. Against this erron- 
eous conception of Providence the third book is directed. 

That even these thousand pages, thought out by the brilliant in- 
tellect and poured forth from the devout soul of the great Italian 
philosopher, will suffice to solve the world-old mystery of pain and 
sin one may not venture to assert. That they logically vindicate 
God's ways with man and the universe, and that they will serve to 
enlighten darkened minds and comfort troubled hearts can safely be 
prophesied. And this surely suffices to justify their existence and 
to warrant their being recommended to intelligent readers, cleric and 
lay. The translation is modestly ascribed in a footnote to the 
" patient labors of Father Fortunatus Signini." " Opus laudat arti- 

Stockl. Translated by the Eev. T. A. Finlay, S.J., M.A. Vol. I. 
New York and London: Longmans, Green & Oo. 1911. Pp. 450. 

HISTOIRE DE LA PHILOSOPHIE. Par Gaston Sortais. Vol. I. Paris: 
P. Lethielleux. 1912. Pp. 645. 

Hyde. New York: The Macmillan Oo. 1911. Pp. 306. 

The history of ancient, including herein the early Christian and 
medieval, philosophy possesses a distinctly intellectual or specu- 
lative, as well as a distinctly ethical or practical, interest. The two 


aspects are of course not mutually exclusive, but rather inclusive, 
though withal sufficiently different to lend a character to individual 
works. Accordingly Dr. Stockl's Handbook is dominantly, though 
not solely, expository and didactic. The same is true of Fr. Sortais' 
Histoire, while President Hyde's essays are primarily moral and 

Comparing Fr. Finlay's translation of Stockl's well-known Lehr- 
buck with Professor Morris's version of Ueberweg's equally, perhaps 
better, known Grundriss, the relative merits of the two standard 
works appear at a glance. For distinct apprehension of the essen- 
tials of the pre-modern systems the former author is unsurpassed. 
For critical erudition and bibliographical apparatus the second 
writer should be given precedence. Both authors devote substan- 
tially equal space to the same subjects on the whole, though on 
special topics one is more comprehensive than the other. Compare 
for instance Stockl on St. Thomas with Ueberweg on the same sub- 
ject. Naturally of course the Catholic student will prefer the 
former author, especially for his account of Scholasticism. For the 
rest, the book is too well known to call for commendation here. Suf- 
fice it to say that Fr. Finlay has accomplished the difficult task of 
translating with singular success. The student will no doubt echo 
the hope that the second volume, on modern Philosophy, may not 
be long in coming. 

Those who are familiar with P. Sortais' Traite de Philosophic 
(Paris, Lethielleux) will find in his recent History of Ancient Phil- 
osophy a worthy complement of that excellent manual. The method 
pursued in both works is the same. Synthetic tables present the 
leading outlines at a glance, and are followed by an analytical ex- 
hibition of details in clear-cut divisions. The plan is a model of 
didactic procedure that greatly facilitates the student's work, while 
the luminous style in whigh the succinct paragraphs are written 
" makes philosophy [almost] easy ". The most noteworthy feature 
of the work, however, is its copious bibliography. In this respect it 
surpasses even Ueberweg, at least in the English translation of that 
author, the recent editions of the German original being much en- 
larged in their apparatus. Besides the special bibliographies at- 
tached to the individual sections there are supplementary lists cover- 
ing some seventy-five pages. Another special feature deserving 
notice is the unusually large space devoted to the Renaissance (pp. 
282 to 459), while the bibliography appended to this alone occupies 
some twenty-five pages. The student therefore finds himself almost 
embarrassed by the wealth spread out before him. 


A second volume in course of preparation will treat the history 
of Modern Philosophy. 

Dr. Hyde is concerned with illustrating certain dominant prin- 
ciples working in the ancient systems of philosophy. " The five 
centuries from the birth of Socrates to the death of Jesus produced 
five such principles: the Epicurean pursuit of pleasure, genial but 
ungenerous ; the Stoic law of self-control, strenuous but forbidding ; 
the Platonic plan of subordination, sublime but ascetic ( !) ; the 
Aristotelian sense of proportion, practical but uninspiring; and the 
Christian spirit of Love, broadest and deepest of them all" (p. v). 
These are the principles — principles of personality. Dr. Hyde lets 
their " masters talk to us in their own words ; with just enough of 
comment and interpretation to bring us to their point of view and 
make us welcome their friendly assistance in the philosophical guid- 
ance of life ". Study of our Lord's teaching viewed simply as " a 
philosophy of life " shows that in its embodiment of love as the 
supreme and universal law are found the only adequate solutions of 
life's problems, the only secure norm for mind and heart and con- 
duct. This of course is no new conclusion. However, it is attrac- 
tively and suggestively drawn out and developed in the present 

While love is indeed the fulfillment of the law, love itself is 
tested only by obedience; and obedience involves subjection of the 
intellect to Christ's positive teachings. The Creed as the formulation 
of that teaching is the law of love as well as of faith. Dr. Hyde's 
ideas on this subject are somewhat confused, to say the least (pp. 
241 ff.), but they are those with which everybody is familiar and 
they are not likely to do any harm. 

It should be noted that the book is on the whole a reissue of an 
edition which appeared about eight years ago under the title of 
From Epicurus to Christ. 

LOS 6EEMI0S. By Estanislao Segarra, Abogado. Barcelona; Imprenta 
de P. Altes y Alabart. Pp. 395. Indice (tabulated contents). 

A Spanish advocate's analytical review of medieval guilds 
(gremios: corporations, Ziinfte). Some emphasis is also to be at- 
tached to the author's expressed adjunct, Abogado ] because his 
work not only presents a succinctly detailed study of guilds from 
their early Hellenic and Roman antecedents forward, but is also 
frankly a special pleading, or propagandist advocacy of " our 
institution ", the medieval trade corporation. Its positive merits 
are commended, as they deserve to be; and not, perhaps, with un- 


due bias, even in a declared " advocate " of his theme ; whilst furth- 
ermore, the guild is upheld in challenge against all other economic 
modes of production, whether individual, communistic, or " corpor- 
ate " in the sense of modern trusts and exaggerated monopolies. 
Dispassionate readers will probably concur with his general findings 
in favor of the guilds, and share his aspirations for a salutary re- 
action from our contemporary domination by monopolistic " in- 
famies " : yet one may not forget that it is not possible at will to 
reproduce this or that admired golden age of human affairs ; tempora 
mutantur et nos mutamur in illis. 

Catholics, indeed, might altogether gratefully welcome some 
genuine and practical recovery of that common religious back- 
ground of faith and Christian ideals which pervaded medieval so- 
ciety, and ethically leavened its industrial exponent, the guild. In 
its best estate, the medieval guild was but an elaborated Christian 
family at work in shop or factory, whose conscientious " master " 
bore much the same " patriarchal " relation to his foremen, officers, 
craftsmen, and apprentices, as the father of an orderly household 
to his children and faithful servants. There was no shadow of such 
sullen or fermenting disaffection as too often mars the lot of modern 
" bosses " and their subjects or dependents. Restrictions on ap- 
prentices were hardly more stringent than those which everywhere 
govern the conduct of minors and subordinates with a view to their 
own good and public morality, in Christianized communities. 
Neither, in turn, did a medieval guild " patriarch " draw the fabul- 
ous emoluments nowadays proper to corporate magnates, trust presi- 
dents, vice-presidents, treasurers, directors. Under patronage of 
Our Lady and the Saints, observing the Calendar festivals and fast 
days, providing for special Mass in honor of the guild patron, and 
remembering the poor by particular bounties on such pious occasions, 
the guild officers would have stood aghast and confounded at the 
grade of salaries in vogue with modern corporation chiefs. The 
very notion, too, of a medieval Catholic boss, counting his gains by 
round hundreds of millions, while some passing depression in the 
market forced his workmen to strike in behalf of bare hand-to- 
mouth subsistence, would have moved the reflective conscience, for- 
sooth, to deeds of signal penance, for in those days charity and 
justice were twin postulates of action. 

The author oi Los Gremios quite conclusively fixes the distinc- 
tion that, whereas everything shaping the economy of a well regu- 
lated medieval guild tended to protect the consumer and safeguard 
the worth of the product, besides ministering to the welfare of the 
craftsmen and relieving accidental misery among the poor and un- 
fortunate, everything devisable in the economy of modern mono- 


polies inexorably strives to fatten the producer, irrespective of 
spurious quality in the product, or principles of equity in mani- 
pulating the market. After a studious analysis of the guilds and 
their development (more specifically in Spain, from the Visigoths 
down to the nineteenth century), several chapters are applied to 
a survey of modem industrial processes, both in Europe at large 
and in the United States; and there is a lucid outline of the na- 
tional differences which modify trusts and monopolies in various 

Perhaps the most interesting chapter in the volume, despite the 
array of technical terms in it, is Chapter V: El Arte. As here 
considered, " art " broadly includes the entire domain of technical 
craftsmanship; wherein, to be sure, the medieval guild, even apart 
from Catholic conscience of execution, had a subjective advantage 
over modern machinery labor. There was inmiensely richer in- 
centive to pride of artistic excellence where each workman wrought 
according to trained ideals of perfection, instead of mechanically, 
or as mere feeder and attendant in connexion with automatic pro- 
cesses, little or nothing dependent on his native bent and faculties. 
As is naturally to be expected in a Spanish survey of the guilds, we 
find large space reserved for wool and leather products, the silver- 
smith's trade, and the multitude of ways and means employed in 
maintaining the renown of Spanish markets, at home and abroad, 
for articles in those branches of conomerce. For illustration of the 
importance of wool and leather alone, we are told that the Spanish 
flocks, in the sixteenth century, numbered 30,000,000 sheep, besides 
7,000,000 migratory sheep (of nomadic habits for change of pasture, 
winter and summer). Even where modern progress has hugely 
distanced medieval rudiments, as in printing facilities, the author 
justly notes the point that a select Elzevir still nowadays prompts 
respectful attention; let alone the disastrous fate awaiting modem 
wood pulp paper, which threatens to perish while antiquarian 
Elzevirs remain freshly intact whole centuries hence. A vile heath- 
enish sneer by apostate Renan, to the effect that your consistent 
Christian despises beauty, out of homage to a macerated Culprit, 
" suspended by four nails ", impels the author to eloquent defense 
of " the first painter in the world, our Velasquez." 

Those who depreciate the Middle Ages as landmark eras of 
ignorance and corruption, ought to study the merely moral vir- 
tues everywhere cultivated, prized and fruitful, in the guilds at 
their best estate; since, notwithstanding the pretensions of ra- 
tionalistic sociology, the guilds exhibited a high level of reverence 
toward God, of charity and honesty toward man, putting modem 
reformers to the blush for their feeble achievements in contrast 


with social conditions where the guilds normally flourished. If 
there were few " colossal " fortunes, neither were there slums of 
tenement squalor; and the scale of wages indicated a purchasing 
value so much as twice to four times that of monopoly wages to- 
day: this, in Spain, at least. The working hours were usually 
twelve, but this included an allowance of three hours for meals, 
leaving nine hours net; and holidays, of course, were far more 
frequent. Medieval society knew little of nervous high pressure, 
nor feverishly struggled for anxious to-morrow. Yet there was 
ample solidity and stability of living; and which of our sky- 
scraper American cities, peradventure, will survive so fairly secure 
against the wear and tear of time, say by A. D. 2300, as Nurem- 
berg, Gothic Toledo, Rouen, medieval remnants of Paris and 
Brussels, from 1500 to 1900. For that matter, the old Spanish 
mission structures, firmly surviving many shattered modem edifices 
after Califomian earthquakes, are no mean apology for medieval 
Catholic " traditionalism ". Pope Leo XIII endorsed a return to 
the guild in solution for current labor troubles, inordinate mono- 
polies, intermittent surfeit and famine of production ; only, one must 
needs realize the appalling obstacles to Church corrections in modem 
society, through breach of Catholic unity, waste and contempt of 
Christian forces under the twofold assault of overt unbelievers and 
quicksand relaxations consequent upon Protestant schisms never 

Xitetari2 Cbat 

The cheaper reissue by the Macmillan Co. of Dr. John Ryan's A Living 
Wage places within the reach of even the most impecunious this thoughtful 
and timely study of one of the most vital problems of present economic organi- 
zation. The clergy interested in the wage question are doubtless familiar with 
the work. The small price ($0.50) at which it is now republished (and in 
style and material not inferior to the original issue) will enable them to spread 
the book amongst intelligent laymen and women and thus help to disseminate 
true ideas concerning the relations of ethics to economics. 

Such hazy as well as erroneous conceptions of rights prevail these days that 
there can be no solution of the wage question without a broader diffusion of 
the truth concerning this fundamental idea. Not the least meritorious por- 
tion of Dr. Ryan's little book is the chapter on the basis and justification of 
rights. In a simple straightforward style he there lays down the philosophy 
of the juridic claim, the " facultas moralis in rem suam," and thus establishes 
an unshakable groundwork for the ethics of the wage question. 

We have previously called attention to the Studies in Social Reform issued 
by the Catholic Social Guild in London. They are well written, thoughtful, 
and timely monographs, and can be had in their neat make-up through Herder 
(St. Louis) at two dimes each. Of the two numbers published, the first deals 


with the difficult problems of destitution; the second with sweated labor. In 
the latter, good use is made of Dr. Ryan's Living Wage. 

Story books for children are hardly less serviceable allies to pastoral activity 
than are brochures on economics. Perhaps, too, they are more difficult to 
find, or at least to select. Told in the Twilight is a collection of some fifty 
tales most of which are tellable as well as readable. When we have said that 
they are made up (?), no, told, by Mother Salome, we have said enough to 
assure the priest that he may spe jelicis exitus put the book into the hands of 
small boys and girls (Benziger Brothers). 

" Jinks " was just a little gutter waif, but somewhere near his middle there 
was a spot that not even all the mud, physical and moral, of Paradise Alley 
could keep from breaking out on the surface now and again ; and when Jinks 
once came to recognize " the inside " of him, " the God-spark radiating into 
his consciousness ", he held on to it, nourished it till it grew warm and bright, 
— when it became a lamp to his feet that never faltered along whatever way, 
howsoever rough and thorny, it led him. All this is charmingly told by 
Harriet Hobson in a somewhat recent book entitled Jinks' Inside (Philadel- 
phia, Jacobs & Co.). The characters of Jinks and Sis; Jinks's waking-up to 
his " inside ", and Sis's pluck in fight and right are well drawn and sustained. 
Peter Flanagan, the big and rich grocer, also finds his " inside " and it leads 
him to deeds of beneficence both beautiful and enduring. Jinks' Inside is a 
book that tells the story of the poverty and misery that stalk within the 
shadow of princely mansions — tells it graphically, but naturally. There are 
smiles and tears, vivid realism touched by noble idealism in this book, which 
grips you tight and holds you so to the finish. 

One always finds it worth while to glance over at least, but better still to 
study, the pages of the Italian bi-monthly Rivista di Filosofia neo-Scolastica. 
The neo- and the scolastica, the new and the old, are sure to be found blend- 
ing harmoniously and supplementingly in its programs. One recognizes the 
mind of an editor back of it, a mind for organic unities and not simply for 
mechanical connexions. Happily, too, the Rivista is in the hands of a pub- 
lisher who knows how to give good shape and neat appearance to worthy con- 
tents (Florence, Editrice Florentina). 

The Dark Beyond is a short treatise on the reality of hell and the paths 
that lead thereto. 

The first book to treat of politeness, good breeding, and good manners is 
said to have been issued by the Bishop of Benevento in the sixteenth century, 
and Lord Chesterfield is supposed to have made good use of the volume in 
formulating his rules for polite society. Dean O'Brien, of Kalamazoo, has 
induced the Sisters of St. Joseph, who are directed by the rule of their 
Institute to teach their pupils politeness, to write a little brochure under the 
title of Politeness. It is a part of pastoral care which it is wise to cultivate, 
and it is this feature of the small booklet which strikes us as most important 
in showing the interest of the priest who uses the adjuncts of social training 
to perfect the work of religion. 

Entreiiens Euckaristiques by the Abbe Jean Vaudon is now published in a 
new and improved edition (Pierre Tequi, Paris). It is meant especially for 
priests, and besides reflections on the sacerdotal life in reference to its central 
interest, the Blessed Sacrament, the volume contains a number of discourses 
suitable for the first Mass of a newly-ordained priest. The book has been 
quite popular before and will be more so with the additions. 

There are two volumes now published of the five contemplated for the 
completion of The Beauty and Truth of the Catholic Church bv the Rev. 



Edward Jones. The work is a translation from the German, but made with 
due discretion so as to keep the English idiom free from the peculiarities of 
expression and imagery to which the German language lends itself. It is 
highly praised in the Introduction by Archbishop Ireland. The author does 
not apparently follow any special line of catechetical development, but treats 
of dogma, liturgy, and devotion, in a popular form. (Herder.) 

The Dominican Mission Book is a practical manual of devotion, compiled, 
as its name indicates, from sources chiefly Dominican, such as St. Thomas and 
Blessed Henry Suso. It has several methods of devotion for the Holy Hour, 
devotions to the Holy Ghost, etc., and gives particulars regarding the various 
Dominican Confraternities. (Benziger Brothers). 

With God, a book of prayers and reflections by the Rev. F. X. Lasance, 
to whom we owe many good devotional manuals, prepares the way to habitual 
meditation, and at the same time furnishes all sorts of practical directions for 
spiritual and missionary work. It is a good vade-mecum for the parish 
priest, and very useful in the sacristy, since it contains the various novenas, 
litanies, hymns, blessings, the method of giving the " pledge," etc. A good 
index adds to its usefulness. (Benziger Brothers.) 

The volume of Meditations for Every Day in the Month by Fr. Francis 
Nepveu, S.J., though a translation from the French, is thoroughly practical, 
and, we may say, an exceptionally good setting forth of the traditional themes 
for reflection. The volume is handy, the language concise, the print good, 
— which is saying much for a meditation book. 

Of handsome manuals that serve as aids to devotion before the Blessed 
Sacrament, there is now no dearth. Come, Let Us Adore, a Eucharistic prayer 
book compiled by the well-known Franciscan Father Bonaventure Hammer, 
contains Instructions on the Blessed Sacrament, a Triduum of Meditations, 
Prayers especially for Holy Communion, Indulgenced Devotions, and a series 
of thirty visits to the Blessed Sacrament by St. Alphonsus. (Benziger Bros.) 

Another manual, constructed on a somewhat diff"erent plan and consisting 
chiefly of meditations under the title of Eucharistic Soul Elevations, is by 
Father William F. Stadelman of the Holy Ghost Fathers. It deals also with 
the motives for frequent Communion and dissipates the scruples which are 
often experienced by devout souls in regard to the daily reception of the 
Bread of Life. This is not a very recent publication ; though that does 
not lessen its value. (Benziger Brothers.) 

Communion Prayers of the Saints, compiled by the Redemptorist Father 
Peter Geiermann, assembles within a handy compass the considerations and 
affections that serve as preparation and thanksgiving for Holy Communion. 
They are chiefly drawn from St. Alphonsus, with devout aspira'tions from the 
writings of St. Francis de Sales. (B. Herder.) 

A charming little Spanish manual, consisting of reflections upon the dignity, 
duties, and the right manner of the clerical life, is Mision Sacerdotal by 
Padre Eutimio Tamalet, a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts 
and of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. The sublimity of the 
priesthood, its need for the purifying and enlightening of the world to-day, 
the requisite qualities for its right fulfilment, and the means, are set forth in 
certain practical rules of life, mainly for seminarists. The second part, 
" Directorio Pastoral," speaks of the priestly life in the parish, in the church, 
in the world at large, and is full of thoughtful suggestions for pastoral 
activity. (B. Herder.) 


Stay-at-homes who were able to make a 'round-the-world tour by the aid of 
Fr. Roche's letters as they appeared serially " in a half-dozen Canadian and 
American newspapers", can renew the pleasures of the journey by means of 
the compact volume wherein those letters are now permanently collected 
{Around the World. By the Rev. J. T. Roche, LL.D. New York, P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons). The letters deal with the essentials — with human beings 
more than with things and with vital problems, religious, social, economic, 
not with the " canned " goods of the guide book ; hence their value and their 
interest. A new edition will give opportunity to correct some " infelicities " 
of the types, such for instance as " Pneumonic plague " for Bubonic (pp. 206 
and 211); " moonsoon " for monsoon (p. 198); "ghastly" for beastly (p. 
199), and others. 

Lourdes is first and last a hallowed spot, a sanctuary. None the less, how- 
ever, is it a scene redolent of beauty upon which the imagination may feed 
forever, a centre of marvels from which fancy may take its flight in dreams 
that can never be so strange as the reality. The charming story that has 
recently been woven out of the material supplied by Dr. Boissarie's UCEuvre 
de Lourdes, and entitled The Unbeliever, a Romance of Lourdes, blends all 
the colors of a chaste literary art with the facts of the history of the Pyrenean 
sanctuary. The facts are the restoration to health of a young girl suffering in 
the last stage of consumption, the restoration to health and conversion of a 
paralytic who had also been a blasphemer almost to the moment of his re- 
ceiving the boon of health, and lastly the singular conversion of an infidel. 
These facts, together with some others belonging to the history of Lourdes, 
are gracefully woven into a romance whose interest wins and holds the 
reader on to the end. The story is written by " a non-Catholic ", and with the 
sole aim of giving an honest account of the impression Lourdes and its 
miracles can make, even on an " unbeliever ". How the author could remain 
a non-Catholic, after having once accepted the evidences and motives of faith 
accumulated in the book, is not easy to understand, although the story itself 
presents incidents that help to make the problem less perplexing (London, 
Washbourne; New York, Benziger Brothers). 

Books IRecefveb. 


Das Evangelium nach Lukas. Uebersetzt, eingeleitet und erklart von E. 
Dimmler. M. Gladbach : Volksvereins-Verlag. 1912. Pp. xiv-364. Preis, 
M. 1.20. 

Das Evangelium nach Markus. Uebersetzt, eingeleitet und erklart von E. 
Dimmler. M. Gladbach: Volksvereins-Verlag. 1912. Pp. vii-217. Preis, 
M. 1.20. 

Die Ethik des Apostels Paulus. Von Dr. Karl Benz. (Biblische Stu- 
dien) — Freiburg Brisg., St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 187. Price, 

Searching the Scriptures. By the Rev. T. P. Gallagher, S.T.L., B.C.L. 
Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son. 1912. Pp. xx-431. 

La Didascalie des Douze Apotres. Traduite du syriaque pour la premiere 
fois. Par F. Nau, Professeur a I'Institut Catholique de Paris. {Ancienne 
Litter ature Canonique Syriaque. Fascicule I.) Deuxieme edition. Revue 
et augmentee de la traduction de la Didache des douze apotres, de la Didas- 
calie de I'apotre Addai et des empechements de mariage (pseudo) apostoliques. 
Paris: P. Lethielleux. 1912. Pp. xxxii-264. 




God, the Author of Nature and the Supernatural (De Deo Creante et 
Elevante). A Dogmatic Treatise by the Rev. Joseph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D., 
Formerly Prof, of Fundamental Theology in the Catholic University of 
America, now Prof, of Dogma in the University of Breslau. Authorized trans- 
lation, based on the fifth German edition ; with some abridgment and many 
additional references by Arthur Preuss. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 1912. 
Pp. 365. Price, $1.75. 

The Living Flame of Love. By St. John of the Cross. With his Letters, 
Poems, and Minor Writings. Translated by David Lewis. With an Essay by 
Cardinal Wiseman and additions and an Introduction by Benedict Zimmer- 
man, O.C.D., Prior of St. Luke's, Wincanton. London : Thomas Baker. 1912. 
Pp. iv-317. Price, 6s. 6d. net. 

Sermon Notes. A Scheme for a Course of Three Years on the Chief 
Points of Christian Doctrine with Synopses and References. By F. P. Hickey, 
O.S.B., author of Short Sermons (Two Volumes). With a Preface by the 
Right Rev. F. W. Keating, D.D., Bishop of Northampton. New York, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago: Benziger Bros. 1912. Pp. xiii-162. Price, $0.90 net. 

How TO Get Married. By the Rev. John A. Schmitt, St. Andrew's Cathe- 
dral, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Grand Rapids: F. H. McGough & Son. 
Price, $0.10; postpaid, $0.12; 25 copies, $2.00; 50, $3.75; 100, $6.50. 

GoD Made Man. By the Rev. P. M. Northcote, author of Thoughts of the 
Heart, The Idea of Philosophy, etc. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : Ben- 
ziger Bros. 1912. Pp. 231. Price, $0.90 net. 

La Predication contemporaine. Pensees et Conseils homiletiques. Par 
Mgr. de Keppler, l&veque de Rottenburg. Traduit de I'allemand par I'abbe 
Leon Douadicq. Paris: P. Lethielleux. 1912. Pp. viii-139. Prix, 2 fr. 

Le Pain ^vangelique. Explication Dialoguee des :6vangiles des Dimanches 
et Fetes d'Obligation a I'Usage des Catechismes, du Clerge et des Fideles. 
Par I'Abbe E. Duplessy. Tome III : De la St.-Pierre a I'Avent. Paris : Pierre 
Tequi. 1912. Pp. 240. Prix, 2 fr. 

Practical Marriage Laws. Some Aids in the Application of the Marriage 
Laws of the Church. For the Use of Priests and Laity in Arkansas. By the 
Right Rev. J. M. Lucey, V.G., Pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Pine Bluff, 
Arkansas. Pp. 59. Price, $0.10; 25 copies, $0.08 apiece; 100, $0.07, all post- 

The Darkness Beyond. By John Haw, of Treves, Germany. Transl. by 
the Rev. James Walcher. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. Pp. 102. Price, $0.15. 

La Vocation au Mariage, au Celibat, a la Vie Religieuse. Par le R. P. 
J. Coppin, Redemptoriste. Troisieme edition, onzieme mille. Paris : Pierre 
T^qui. 1912. Pp. vii-389. Prix, 3 fr. 50. 

La Vraie Politesse. Petit Traite sous forme de Lettres a des Religieuses. 
Par I'Abbe Francois Demore. Nouvelle edition. Paris: Pierre Tequi. 1912. 
Pp. xi-226. Prix, 2 frs. 

A Practical Guide to the Divine Office. By Andrew B. Meehan, St. 
Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York. 1912. Pp. 132. Price, $0.60. 

The Reign of Jesus. Being an Abridgment of the Work of the Blessed 
Jean Eudes. By the Abbe Granger, Honorary Canon of Bayeaux, Formerly 
Missioner of Notre Dame de la Delivrande. Translated from the second 
French edition by K. M. L. Harding. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : Ben- 
ziger Bros. 1912. Pp. xxxvi-370. Price, $1.25 net. 

Peronne Marie. A Spiritual Daughter of Saint Francis of Sales, 1586- 
1637. By a Religious of the Visitation. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : 
Benziger Bros., London: Burns & Oates. 1912. Pp. 256. Price, $1.25 net. 




HiSTOiRE DE LA Philosophie Ancienne. Antiquite Classique. ^poque 
Patristique. Philosophie Medievale. Renaissance, Par Gaston Sortais, An- 
cien Professeur de Philosophie. Paris: P. Letheilleux. 1912. Pp. xviii-627. 
Prix, d fr. 

Catholic Studies in Social Reform. A series of Manuals edited by the 
Catholic Social Guild — I. Destitution and Suggested Remedies. With a Pre- 
face by the Right Rev. Monsignor Henry Parkinson, D.D., President of 
Oscott College, Birmingham. — II. Sweated Labour and the Trade Boards Act. 
Edited by the Rev. Thomas Wright, President of the Hull Branch of the 
Catholic Social Guild. London: King and Son; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 
Pp. 69 and 58. Price, $0.20 each. 


The History of the Royal Family of England. By Frederic C. Bag- 
shawe, Barrister at Law. In two volumes. London : Sands & Co. ; St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 704. Price, $6.00. 

Lettres de Louis Veuillot a Mademoiselle Charlotte de Grammont. 
Suivies d'un Appendice contenant le Preface des Lettres d'Espagne et un 
Choix de Lettres de Mile. Ch. de Grammont a Louis Veuillot. Publics avec 
une Introduction et des Notes. Par J. Calvet, Professeur Agrege des Lettres 
au College Stanislas. Paris: P. Lethielleux. 1912. Pp. xxiv-260. Prix, 
3 fr- 50. 

Early History of the Christian Church from its Foundation to the 
End of the Fifth Century. By Monsignor Louis Duchesne, de 1' Academic 
Frangaise, Hon. D. Litt. Oxford, and Litt. D. Cambridge, Membre de I'ln- 
stitut de France. Rendered into English from the Fourth Edition. Volume 
II. New York and London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1912. Pp. xix-544. 
Price, $2.50 net. 

The Pilgrim's Guide to Lourdes and the Chief Places en route. By the 
Rev. G. H. Cobb. With a Preface by the Cardinal Archbishop of West- 
minster. St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder ; Edinburgh and London : Sands and 
Co. Pp. 74. Price, $0.40. 

Prosperity, Catholic and Protestant. By Rev. Father Graham, M.A., 
Motherwell, author of Where we got the Bih'e. With an Introduction by the 
Right Rev. John Vaughan, D.D., Bishop of Sebastopolis. St. Louis. Mo. : 
B. Herder; Edinburgh and London: Sands and Co. Pp. 116. Price, $0.15. 

The Life and the Religion of Mahommed, the Prophet of Arabia. Com- 
piled from the best and most trustworthy authors. By the Rev. Fr. J. L. 
Menezes, Priest of the diocese of Mangalore, India. With a familiar and 
friendly talk at the end as an appeal to candour and common sense. London : 
Sands and Co. ; St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 1912. Pp. 194. Price, $0.60. 

A Chronicle of the Popes from St. Peter to Pius X. By A. E. Mc- 
Killiam, M.A. New York: The Macmillan Co.; London: G. Bell & Sons. 
1912. Pp. xiii-487. Price, $2.50, net\ Ts. dd. 

The Mirror of Oxford. By C. B. Dawson, S.J., M.A. (Exeter College). 
With 40 Illustrations and a Map. London and Edinburgh : Sands and Co. ; 
St. Louis Mo. : B. Herder. Pp. 265. Price, $1.50. 

The Sodality of Our Lady studied in the Documents. By Father Elder 
Mullan, S.J. Third edition (first in English). Revised and enlarged by 
the author. New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 1912. Pp. xxv-180-326. 

Une Petite Sainte. Visite au Carmel de Lisieux aux Reliques a la 
Tombe de Sceur Therese de 1' Enfant Jesus. Par Jean Saint- Yves. Dfeuxieriie 
edition. Paris: P. Lethielleux. 1912. Pp. 85. Prix, i fr. 


Fifth Series. — Vol. VII.— (XLVI I). —October, 19 12.— No. 4. 


WE American Catholics naturally look upon our religious 
liberty as a thing to be taken for granted. Some few 
of us possibly recall the bigotries, great and small, of " Know- 
nothing " days. More of us are aware of trifling, sporadic, 
local, anti-Catholic opposition. But most of us have never 
been really touched at all by violent public antipathy in the 
matter of our religion. As we know it is but just and reason- 
able, so we may think it is but ordinary and commonplace 
that the Church of God should be free and untrammeled. We 
may forget that it was once far otherwise indeed; that we 
trace our history back through a succession of fierce local and 
national persecutions to a time of universal persecution; and 
that in the beginning the Church of Christ, like the mustard- 
seed to which its Founder had compared it, was quite literally 
buried in the earth. In this month of October we commem- 
orate the sixteen-hundredth anniversary of the first great 
change from persecution to liberty, when the mustard-seed 
that had been developing and sending out roots in the dark 
earth, suddenly and miraculously burst forth into a great tree, 
to shelter all nations and peoples. 

For nearly three hundred years persecution after persecu- 
tion, with little breathing-spells between, had raged against 
the Church. In all that time, to be a Christian was to be 
little better than a hunted animal. Nero, Domitian, Trajan, 
Decius, Valerian, are names that almost sum up -for us the 
terrible yet glorious history of the " gens lucifuga ", the heroes 


of the Catacombs, of the waste places of earth, of the savage 
amphitheatre. Through it all the gospel teachings marched 
steadily across the world, spread amongst the lowly and the 
exalted, in obscure villages, in great Rome, in the army, the 
senate, the households of the emperors. 

Then came the last, and in some ways the most dreadful, 
of assaults. On 23 February, 303, Diocletian published at 
Nicomedia new edicts against the Christians. Again the fires 
of torture blazed and the sands of the arena were reddened 
with the blood of martyrs. But the end was already in sight. 
Only nine years were to elapse before imperial Rome itself 
should be subdued to Christ. The 28 October of this year 
191 2 marks the sixteenth centenary of the battle of the Mil- 
vian Bridge, the turning-point in the external history of 
Christianity; a battle which gave to Constantine the empire^ 
and to the Church peace and protection under the power which 
had so long persecuted it. 

On I May, 305, Diocletian, in pursuance of his unselfish 
broad policy for the empire, abdicated the purple and in- 
duced his colleague, Maximian, to follow his example. Con- 
stantius Chlorus, the father of Constantine, and Galerius, the 
Caesar of the East, succeeded as Augusti. But the following 
year Constantius died, and his army proclaimed Constantine. 
Galerius unwillingly acknowledged Constantine, not indeed as 
Augustus, but as Caesar, raising to the higher rank his friend, 

For six years Constantine ruled his provinces of Gaul and 
Britain with great skill and humanity. He built up a formid- 
able army, and by his courage and brilliant generalship won 
its steadfast devotion. Meanwhile, Maxentius, the son of the 
ex-emperor Maximian, claimed the empire. With the aid of 
the Pretorians he seized Rome and became master of Italy. 
Campaigns made against him by Severus and Licinius were 
defeated or fell short. But in 312 Maxentius declared war 
upon Constantine, and thereupon affairs took quite a different 
turn. Although he had only some 40,000 men to oppose to- 
Maxentius's 180,000, Constantine came down from the north 
with masterly rapidity, in sixty days took Susa, Turin, Milan,. 
Verona, and driving in the outposts of Maxentius, advanced 
upon Rome. 



Three miles to the north of Rome the Flaminian Way 
crosses the Tiber over the Milvian Bridge, then swings north- 
east and up through the plains of Italy. Maxentius, with 
profound ignorance of strategic principles, drew up his forces 
north of the bridge, with the Tiber in their rear. He was 
not a soldier, nor was he distinguished for courage, but under 
the taunts of the Romans and in the misleading hopes of the 
oracle which prophesied that " that day would fall the enemy 
of the Romans ", he went forth himself with his troops. Con- 
stantine, still outnumbered more than three to one, met the 
enemy at Saxa Rubra, five miles north-east of the Milvian 
Bridge. The battle was fiercely contested ; the Pretorians, as 
a contemporary orator says, " dying where they stood ". But 
the seasoned veterans of Constantine, lead by the young gen- 
eral in person, charged irresistibly, broke and routed the vast 
army of Maxentius, and drove them into the Tiber, where 
Maxentius himself perished ignobly in the mud. 

Constantine gave the credit for his victory to the God of 
the Christians, and in March of the year following issued the 
famous edict of Milan, guaranteeing absolute civil and reli- 
gious freedom to Christians and assuring the Church of im- 
perial protection and favor. Although Constantine was not 
baptized until he was on his death-bed, twenty-five years later, 
he identified himself from that time forth with the Christian 
cause and interests. 

A tradition, which for over 1300 years was received every- 
where without question, which Godefroy first attacked in 
1643, ascribes the conversion of Constantine and his victory 
over Maxentius to the miraculous intervention of Providence. 
Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Life of Constantine written in 
338, a year after the emperor's death, is the only con- 
temporary who gives a complete and detailed account of this 
miracle. After recounting Constantine's misgivings before 
his campaign against Maxentius, and his realization of the 
need of other than natural help, his recalling how, whilst 
those who had worshipped a multitude of gods perished miser- 
ably, his own father Constantius had been blessed in the wor- 
ship of the one God, Eusebius goes on to tell us, in Bk. I, 
cc. 28, 29 : 


Therefore he [Constantine] began to implore the aid of this God, 
with earnest prayer and supplication that He would reveal to him 
who He was and that He would reach forth a helping hand in the 
present difficulties. And whilst the emperor was thus praying with 
fervent entreaty, there appeared to him a wonderful sign sent from 
God. And this indeed, if it had been related by any other, could not 
easily be believed. But since the victorious emperor himself told it 
long afterward to the writer of this history, when he was received 
into his familiar acquaintance, and confirmed his account with an 
oath, who shall hesitate henceforth to accredit the relation, especially 
since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? 

He said that at midday, when the sun was beginning to decline, 
he had seen with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the 
sky, just above the sun, and bearing the inscription, " Conquer by 
this " ; and that at this sight he himself was utterly astounded, as 
were all the soldiers who were following him on some expedition 
or other and who were witnesses of the miracle. 

He said, moreover, that he marvelled what this vision might 
mean. And whilst he continued to ponder and reason greatly upon 
the matter, night imperceptibly drew on. Then as he slept, the 
Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had 
seen in the sky, and commanded him to fashion a standard in the 
likeness of that sign and to use it as a safeguard in his battles. 

Naturally, this account of Eusebius has been fair game for 
the rationalists, to v^hom all miracles are as a red rag to a 
bull. Naturally also, much of rationalistic opposition to the 
tradition has taken the form of mere sneering charges of men- 
dacity, with little or no attempt at argumentation. Gibbon, 
for instance, in his discussion of what he calls " the secret 
vision of Constantine ", says : '' The philosopher, who with 
calm suspicion examines the dreams and omens, the miracles 
and prodigies, of profane or even of ecclesiastical history, will 
probably conclude that if the eyes of the spectators have some- 
times been deceived by fraud, the understanding of the readers 
has much more frequently been insulted by fiction." ^ 

As applied to Eusebius, such an accusation scarcely merits 
s'erious consideration. His reputation for veracity is uni- 
versally accredited. He is far from being an over-zealous de- 
fender of the miraculous ; even omitting from his pages many 
events, the miraculous character of which is asserted, and not 

1 Decline and Fall, c. xx. 


without good reason, by other grave historians. The plea 
that he was influenced by a desire to praise at any cost his 
imperial friend must be disallowed both on intrinsic and ex- 
trinsic grounds.^ 

So obviously futile is this attack that most opponents of the 
miracle abandon it, and shift the burden of falsehood rather 
upon Constantine himself. Gibbon bluntly declares : " The 
Protestant and philosophic readers of the present age " — the 
two adjectives being, as all the world knows, inseparable — 
" will incline to believe that, in the account of his own con- 
version, Constantine attested a wilful falsehood by a solemn 
and deliberate perjury." Yet even Gibbon, a little later, is 
compelled to add: "A conclusion so harsh and so absolute is 
not, however, warranted by our knowledge of human nature, 
of Constantine, or of Christianity." * 

When we consider the contemporary evidence supporting 
the testimony of Constantine, we shall see that Gibbon's re- 
luctant admission is well within the limits of truth and honesty. 

The author of the book '' De Morte Persecutorum," who is 
rather generally assumed to be Lactantius, touches upon the 
miracle in his forty-fourth chapter. '' Constantine," he says, 
" was warned in sleep to mark upon his shields the heavenly 
sign of God, and so to begin the battle." 

This was written about a year after the battle of the Milvian 
Bridge, and of course is entirely independent of Eusebius's 
account. It is true, the writer speaks only of a vision in a 
dream, and makes no mention of a cross appearing at noon- 
day in the sky. But to what do the words " coeleste signum " 
refer, if not to some such portent? Moreover, the whole 
treatise is very brief and condensed, and hence we should not 
look for any but a summary mention of the miracle. 

Other testimonies are found in the written speeches of two 
pagan orators. The first of these, supposed by many to be 

2 Marion briefly dismisses it thus : " His [Eusebius's] narrative is given after 
the account of the motives for Constantine's conversion. These motives are 
portrayed as by no means lofty, as of the earth earthy. Eusebius does not 
flatter his hero. The emperor was dead when the '' Life of Constantine " was 
published. The historical probity of Eusebius is well known. The Father of 
Church History could exaggerate in his appreciations, he could also sin by 
omission; but he never gives as true mere facts of his own inventing and of 
which he knew the falsity." Hist, de I'Eglise, Vol. I, p. I59- 

3 Decline and Fall, Vol. II, p. 200. 


Eumenius, speaking at Treves in the presence of Constantine, 
and less than three months after the battle, addresses the 
emperor thus : '' What God, what Divine Presence encour- 
aged thee, that when nearly all thy companions in arms and 
commanders not only had secret misgivings but had open fears 
of the omen, yet against the counsels of men, against the warn- 
ings of the diviners, thou didst by thyself perceive that the 
time of delivering the city was come? Thou hast surely, O 
Constantine, some secret pact with that Divine Intelligence, 
which, leaving to lesser gods the care of us, deigns to manifest 
itself to you alone." 

He speaks of an omen, which he seems studiously to avoid 
specifying; an omen which was a public fact; which Con- 
stantine's soldiers and officers were cognizant of; and from 
which, not all indeed, but nearly all, shrank in fear and 
horror. Now, of all omens of bad augury amongst the Ro- 
mans the most dreaded was the cross. What more reasonable 
then, than to conclude that the orator is speaking of a cross 
seen by Constantine and all his army, and disturbing the minds 
of that great majority of the beholders who were not Chris- 
tians? Moreover, it is quite evident from his words that this 
omen was not some obviously natural phenomenon, but some- 
thing which all at once considered a distinctive manifestation 
of Divinity and of a special Providence in Constantine's 

The second pagan witness is Nazarius, an orator of high re- 
pute in his day, who on I March, 321, nine years after the 
battle and seventeen years before Eusebius wrote his account, 
recalls the great victory and says with rhetorical flourish : 

It is the talk of all the Gallic provinces that hosts were seen who 
bore on them the character of divine messengers. And though 
heavenly things use not to come to sight of man, in that the simple 
and uncompounded substance of their subtile nature escapes his 
heavy and dim perception, yet those, thy auxiliaries, bore to be seen 
and to be heard ; and when they had testified to thy high merit, they 
fled from the contagion of mortal eyes. And what accounts are given 
of that vision, of the vigor of their frames, the size of their limbs, 
the eagerness of their zeal ! Their flaming bosses shot an awful 
radiance, and their heavenly arms burned with a fearful light ; such 
did they come, that they might .be understood to be thine. And 


thus they spoke, thus they were heard to say, " We seek Constantine ; 
we go to aid Constantine ". 

In these three accounts, of Lactantius, Eumenius, and 
Nazarius, there are both vagueness and wide diversity. In the 
last there is a hint also of the pagan myth of Castor and 
Pollux. But still there is in all three confident reference to 
some heaven-sent sign, some token not of this earth, of vic- 
tory for Constantine. And the vagueness and diversity are 
not hard to explain. In the speech of Nazarius, note the 
statement, '' It is the talk of all the Gallic provinces " and the 
exclamation, " What accounts are given of that vision !" Evi- 
dently, this speaker is no eye-witness of the events he speaks 
of. He has only heard from others. And from whom? His 
very words indicate clearly that he is repeating a current or 
popular version of the facts now some nine years past; facts 
received originally from an army which was here to-day and 
gone to-morrow; spread, by word of mouth only, amongst a 
pagan people, who had no written account to check their own 
imaginings, who embroidered the truth with popular super- 
stitutions as they passed it on, one to another. No wonder 
it has come to him in such strange guise ! But all its strange- 
ness does not lessen the moral certainty that it rested pri- 
marily upon an historic happening of a marvelous nature. 
This method of propagation of the story accounts in a very 
obvious way for the vagueness and discrepancies in Lactantius 
and Eumenius as well ; and cannot be too strongly taken into 
consideration. We are apt to forget in this twentieth cen- 
tury the crude conditions of sixteen hundred years ago and 
the awkward inefficiency of preserving truths by popular re- 
petition alone. 

Finally, as testimony to the striking occurrences that sur- 
round the victory of Constantine, we have the Labarum itself, 
the standard which Constantine declared upon oath was fash- 
ioned in the likeness of the cross seen in the vision, and which 
became the acknowledged imperial emblem; we have the 
statue of Constantine, which he had erected in Rome almost 
immediately after the event, with the Labarum in its hand, 
and bearing on the pedestal this inscription, *' By the aid of 
this salutary token of strength I have freed my city from the 
yoke of tyranny and restored to the Roman Senate and People 


their ancient splendor and glory " ; we have the triumphal 
arch which he erected also in Rome, less than three years after 
the battle, and which still remains, with an inscription testi- 
fying that he had gained the victory " instinctu divinitatis " ; 
we have medals struck by Constantine, stamped with the figure 
of the Labarum and with the words of the vision, " By this 
sign thou shalt conquer ". 

What motive could have urged Constantine, still a pagan, 
under no obligations to Christianity save such as the Divine 
vision itself might have put upon him, to expose himself to 
ridicule in the eyes of his pagan army by monuments and 
medals commemorating with solemn falsehood a Christian 
miracle which never occurred? Constantine's attesting oath 
may be lightly dismissed by " Protestant and philosophic 
readers " as a gratuitous perjury: but Constantine's public ap- 
peal to a merely pretended Divine aid demands in explanation 
the charge of frank idiocy; and that charge has not yet been 

In these contemporary accounts of the miraculous vision, 
it is to be observed that the time and place of the vision are 
not given explicitly. Nor do their implicit indications agree. 
Some lead us to believe that it occurred near Rome and im- 
mediately before the battle of the Milvian Bridge. Eusebius 
gives the impression, more probably the correct one, that it 
took place earlier in the campaign and, in all likelihood, be- 
fore Constantine and his army had entered Italy. There are 
no contradictions in the matter, because there simply are no 

As to objections to the truth of the vision, outside of a 
priori rejection of all miracles and sheer prejudice, there are 
a few genuine arguments. In the first place, it is urged that 
Eusebius does not mention the miracle in his Ecclesiastical 
History. In reply we must note two things : first, that al- 
though Eusebius in his History does not speak expressly of the 
vision, he does say that Constantine invoked '* the God of 
Heaven, and His Son and Word, our Lord Jesus Christ ", 
and that the emperor was " stimulated by the divine assist- 
ance " ; second, that his Ecclesiastical History was written at 
least thirteen years before his Life of Constantine, at a time 
when Eusebius's knowledge of the vision was probably no 


more than the popular versions, which he, as is abundantly- 
evident throughout his History, in general regards with mis- 
trust and scepticism. So that his silence in regard to the 
vision, offset as it is by his plain reference to some *' divine 
assistance " granted to Constantine, and easily explained by 
his severely critical attitude toward all popular traditions of 
the marvelous, by no means proves either that no such miracle 
occurred or that Eusebius was unaware of it. 

Another objection is based on the fact that in the writings 
of the Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries not a single 
testimony is found in favor of the visions. But this again is 
easily accounted for. As Newman has pointed out, " the only 
writer of note extant during the first fifty years of the 
(fourth) century, besides Eusebius, is Athanasius; and his 
writings are taken up with later transactions and a far differ- 
ent subject " — namely, with the rise of Arianism and the de- 
fence of Catholic dogma. And Gibbon himself who ad- 
vances the objection, also supplies the explanation; on the 
ground that the Fathers of the succeeding century simply did 
not know of the Life of Constantine by Eusebius. '' This 
tract," says Gibbon, " was recovered by the diligence of those 
who translated or continued his Ecclesiastical History." 

Attempts have been made, with the persistent inanity char- 
acteristic of rationalists, to explain the cross seen by Con- 
stantine as a natural phenomenon, a halo about the sun. The 
first of these attempts Gibbon, in a curt note, ridicules thus : 
" Fabricius, who is abused by both parties, vainly tries to in- 
troduce the celestial cross of Constantine among the solar 
Halos." Nor have those who followed him succeeded any 
better. No solar halo can account for the words, rovTL> viKa, 
which accompanied the cross in the sky, or for the apparition 
and command of Christ in the night following. 

In conclusion, we may sum up the discussion thus. Con- 
stantine, engaged in a perilous campaign against vastly su- 
perior forces, implores aid of the God of the Christians, and 
thereupon wins a remarkable victory. He publicly makes 
acknowledgment of divine assistance in his victory, by monu- 
ments erected and medals struck immediately after the battle. 
The tradition of a miraculous intervention spreads every- 
where, with great rapidity, and evidently disseminated by the 


testimony of his own soldiers. Contemporary pagan orators 
and Christian writers refer with easy confidence to some such 
miracle, though with a vagueness entirely natural in view of 
the circumstances and the news-mongering limitations of the 
age. Eusebius, a cann}^, critical man, makes only cursory 
mention of the divine interference in his History, written thir- 
teen or fourteen years after the event. Later, having in the 
meantime become intimate with Constantine and learned from 
his own sworn testimony the details of the vision, he embodies 
these details fully and circumstantially in his Life of Con- 
stantine. This Life is published after the emperor's death, 
but whilst thousands were still living of those whom he cites 
as eye-witnesses of the miracle. The narrative is lost for a 
time, and recovered only a century or more later, so that 
ecclesiastical writers immediately succeeding make no men- 
tion of his account. After the recovery of the Life of Euse- 
bius, the miraculous vision is universally accepted. Even the 
Centuriators of Magdeburgh uphold it strongly. It is only 
after more than a century of Protestantism that it is first 
denied, and neither then nor since then upon any arguments 
not known to all the world during the thirteen centuries in 
which no voice was raised against it. 

Hence, that some marvelous sign occurred, witnessed by 
Constantine and his army, is as certain as any fact in history. 
That this sign was of a miraculous character is equally certain. 
For these truths are decided by a variety and weight of testi- 
mony which leave no room for doubt. But that all the details 
narrated by Constantine to Eusebius are exactly correct, is 
not equally certain, since it rests finally upon the sole word and 
oath of one man, Constantine. And whilst that word and 
oath, taken in all the accompanying circumstances, is amply 
sufficient evidence to the present writer, still he does not 
venture to damn incontinently those who- may demand more 
convincing proof, or who may agree with Father Funk when 
he says that some undeniably " real phenomenon — may have 
been enlarged upon and explained in the light of subsequent 
events." * 

William T. Kane, S.J. 

St. Louis University. 

* Manual of Ch. Hist., Vol. I, p. 48. 




THE Sacred Congregation of Consistory ^ through its offi- 
cial secretary, Cardinal De Lai, addresses to the Or- 
dinaries of Italy a circular letter in which the subject of the 
general discipline and the course of studies in the diocesan 
seminaries is brought to the attention of the Bishops. What 
the prevailing custom in this regard has been in the Roman 
Seminaries is made plain in an article on the subject which 
appears in this number of the Review^ and which comes from 
one who has gained his knowledge by actual experience dur- 
ing years of study and residence in one of the chief and 
typical institutions of the Roman Propaganda. 

Whilst the Instruction of the Sacred Congregation is ad- 
dressed directly to the Italian Bishops, its lessons are by no 
means confined to the provinces of Italy. It has a message 
for outside countries, as it indicates certain fundamental re- 
quirements in the proper management of institutions for the 
training of ecclesiastics. The lessons it contains have indeed 
been anticipated in some instances by the zeal and forethought 
of our American Bishops ; but there is still room for improve- 
ment in many respects, and the present document gives a good 
opportunity to direct attention to the fact. The first point 
of which the Roman instruction speaks is 

The Lack of Vocations. 
In Italy as elsewhere there is an evident decrease of voca- 
tions to the ecclesiastical state. The Sacred Congregation 
finds the reason for this defection partly in the hostile atti- 
tude toward the Clergy on the part of an infidel and anti- 
religious society, which attitude discourages parents from 
urging their sons to enter a state of life that promises only 
persecution and hardships. On the other hand, the youth 
find opened to their aspiration and ambition a large and ever- 
increasing number of avocations which promise success and 
prosperity. The clerical calling, now that the State has ap- 
propriated to itself most of the endowments, holds out at most 
the prospect of a modest livelihood, with continuous respon- 

1 See below, under Analecta, or the Acta Apostolicae Sedis,.Vo\. IV, num. 
14 for the Italian text of the document. 


sibilities amid a constant demand for sacrifice. These rea- 
sons may be found everywhere, and the fact that they are 
advanced indicates that the former system of endowments 
(which caused the Church to prosper in temporals), whilst it 
multiplied the number of priests, did by no means always in- 
crease their efficiency, a thing which the generous impulses 
of the princes who furnished the endowments did not foresee. 
To counteract the apparent lack of vocations the Bishops are 
admonished to encourage the youth by preaching and example 
to assume the yoke of Christ, to labor for the conversion of 
souls in a generous spirit of self-denial, and, by emphasizing 
the great merit and the eternal reward of such noble devotion 
as the priesthood imposes, to draw the young to the sanctuary. 

The Preparatory Seminary to be separated from the 
Theological Seminary. 

The next step to be taken to secure the permanency of voca- 
tions to the priesthood is to have the junior students of the 
Preparatory Seminary separated entirely from the candidates 
of the theological department, in order that each may receive 
that special training which their mental condition and dis- 
position of heart demand. For the lessons of discipline and 
piety, the exhortations and readings in common, the lectures 
and classes, and even the recreations which befit the senior semi- 
narists are not always suited to the younger students, whose 
minds and habits are not as yet fully developed and who need 
special supervision and direction. On the other hand young 
students require a greater amount of freedom so that they may 
manifest their dispositions and allow the early correction of 
their faults. The training of the younger boys in the rudi- 
ments of spirituality, likewise, aims less at details of conduct 
than does the training of the students who approach more 
closely to the sanctuary. The daily exercises of piety to which 
the juniors are bound need to be less exacting than in the 
case of those who are no longer fed with the milk of babes 
but receive the stronger food of men for the warfare in which 
they are soon to engage. The same professors moreover are 
not suited for both departments, since those who devote them- 
selves to the teaching of the higher branches are rarely pre- 
pared to give that attention and time to the details of ele- 


mentary classes which are absolutely necessary for the proper 
instruction of the young. A point not to be lost sight of is 
likewise the fact that there exists also in most institutions of 
a conservative character a spirit unconsciously aiming at the 
perpetuation of certain traditions. Sometimes these traditions 
stand in the way of needed reforms. The combination of 
Preparatory School with the Higher Seminary makes it often 
impossible to eliminate abuses in the form of long-standing 

Continuous Residence in the Seminary and Vacations. 

It has long been the custom in European, and especially in 
the Italian, seminaries to transfer the seminarists during the 
hot season to some country house, where they may enjoy not 
only rest and recreation, but also that freedom from academic 
restraint and scholastic associations without which it is diffi- 
cult to relax the mind after the tense application to the regu- 
lar curriculum during the greater part of the year. 

The long vacations are therefore to be spent in the country, 
but under the supervision of the directors of the Seminary. 
A brief furlough of ten or fifteen days is allowed the student 
during the year to visit his parents or guardians,' and to pro- 
vide himself with the required means for carrying on his 
studies uninterruptedly during the remainder of the scholastic 

There are evident advantages in this method of keeping 
the seminarist under the discipline which in a certain sense 
is to become his life habit even after ordination. In this way 
he is not exposed to the necessity and danger of conforming 
for three months to the spirit of the world, against which he 
does not yet possess those safeguards which priestly life in 
some recognized field of pastoral labor provides for the or- 
dained cleric. The home circle too is in many cases relieved 
from embarrassments caused by having to entertain a mem- 
ber of the family who, however much beloved and attached 
to the home, finds there neither the occupation nor the as- 
sociations quite suited to his present and future sphere of 
life. Furthermore there are advantages in remaining in touch 
with the teachers and fellows of one's seminary, life during 
the period of a vacation which, without lessening the fullest 


enjoyment of liberty and recreation, helps the student to sup- 
plement the scholastic work of the year by that liberal culture 
which comes from spontaneous exchange of views and opinions 
with others, from the easy method of familiar repetitions, and 
from the coaching and reading without scholastic restraint 
for which this kind of vacation offers every opportunity. 

Some of our Bishops, following the Roman method, have 
introduced this system of vacation in the seminary, no doubt 
with good results. The S. Congregation wishes that it be 
observed for all the Italian seminaries, both preparatory and 

Of course there is something to be said for the custom 
which permits the student to go out into the world for some 
months each year, to recreate after the confinement and routine 
life of the seminary, and to exercise his moral strength in 
maintaining a stand as cleric which proves him to be the chosen 
material for the pastoral service no less than for the seclusion 
of the sanctuary. The young oak takes a firmer hold upon 
the soil by means of its roots in proportion as its slender trunk 
is swayed by the buffeting of the storm, and its exposure to the 
winds becomes an advantage rather than a danger to its sturdi- 
ness of growth. Hence there may be good reason why many 
of the ecclesiastical educators in Germany prefer to maintain 
the system of the university freedom for theological students, 
assuming that the candidate who elects to apply for sacred 
orders after years of deliberate and persevering study, and 
without supervision or moral coercion of any kind, is much 
more to be trusted as a man of convictions and principles than 
the youth who, once having entered the seminary, is prac- 
tically coached along the lines of perseverance until his ordin- 
ation without having given any proof that he could endure the 
test of temptations that are sure to beset him in the actual life 
of the ministry. 

To our mind it is a question of individual temperament, in 
which probably nationality plays some part. The German is 
by nature more sturdy, less impulsive, rather given to reason- 
ing than to feeling his way. His habits remain with him, and 
he lacks on the whole that sensitiveness which keeps asking 
itself what others think of his actions — an element which 
largely controls the Celtic temperament. The difference in 


this respect may be noticed even in our American institutions 
among students who are the sons of German parents when 
compared with students of Italian, Irish, French, or Sla\ 
descent. The latter are often brighter and quicker to appre- 
hend, perhaps also more docile, because more impressionable 
and sensitive. But they lack the sturdiness, the capacity for 
continuous work, the reasoned consistency, which steady the 
course of the Teutonic student and make him reach results 
which he holds and exploits. All this would justify the 
German method of training under certain conditions, not to 
be found in Italian or French seminaries, and which exist 
only to a limited extent among ecclesiastical students in the 
United States. 

Young Priests as Prefects. 

The S. Congregation advocates likewise the employment of 
the newly-ordained priests as assistant masters of discipline 
in the seminary, before they are permanently appointed to 
parish work. The advantage of this method of securing dis- 
ciplinary supervision and in a measure of supplying a body of 
assistant tutors, especially in the preparatory seminary, is 
obvious. The young priest is thus given an opportunity of 
exercising a useful function in the diocese, while gradually 
reaching out and preparing himself for the practical ministry. 
He is given a breathing-spell during which he may gather 
his mental and moral forces, between his leaving the class- 
room and his going into the service of preaching, hearing 
confessions, and the other responsible work of the public 
ministr}^ For whilst he remains a resident in the seminary 
as prefect, he may yet from time to time be called on to assist 
in parish work wherever there is a demand. 

There can hardly be any doubt about the beneficial influence 
both on the seminar}^ and the young priests themselves under 
this system, if carried out consistently in our large diocesan 
institutions. The objection that will leap up against the 
suggestion would be of course that the need of priests on the 
mission with us is, as a rule, so great and imperative as to 
allow no delay in placing the newly-ordained in active parish 
service. But the difficulty is only apparent, not real, since the 
priests who act as prefects during an intermediate year would 
be available in the regular course, just as they were when 



first ordained. Indeed there is a distinct advantage in hav- 
ing a number of young priests who may be called on to sup- 
ply temporarily a certain amount of mission service. In 
many of our smaller parishes there are at present assistants 
who are insufficiently employed. They are required merely 
for a certain number of Masses and in the confessional on 
Saturdays and Sundays. Beyond this they are free during 
the week. In all such places one priest could easily attend 
the sick and make other pastoral calls if he had some priest 
to assist him on Saturdays and Sundays. Here the prefects 
of the seminary could do occasional or regular service with- 
out detriment to discipline and with profit to themselves. It 
might mean, too, considerable saving in expense for the 
poorer parishes throughout the diocese. 

By this means the young priest would be introduced gradu- 
ally to missionary service; would get an opportunity not only 
to observe, consult, and reflect upon his future pastoral duties, 
but would also be enabled to cultivate a habit of pastoral ac- 
tivity on perfect lines, alike beneficial to himself and to the 
flock over which he may be appointed. 

Obviously the plan means simply the adding of a post- 
graduate year, in which the young priest will find opportun- 
ity for the exercise of direction and instruction in the office of 
prefect, and for the exercise of pastoral work by degrees in 
the cure of souls. 

It would be necessary, of course, that the newly-ordained 
priest be assigned for a given time as prefect of some division 
in the seminary, and likewise for a definite service at some 
parish church as supernumerary, with the understanding that 
a fixed (not voluntary) compensation be made for such ser- 
vices. The reason for this latter condition is the necessity 
of preventing local and personal preferences, which could 
only harm the candidates and give rise to scheming and 

Recreation and Studies. 

Among the subjects which appertain to the training of ec- 
clesiastical students is that of inculcating in them the spirit 
of devoutly observing the liturgical feasts with such conform- 
ity to ceremonial and ritual interpretation as is apt to foster 
piety and edification. Hence these feasts are to be observed 


without taking account of the time which they draw from the 
routine work of studies or classes. Nor are the holidays spent 
in observance of the ceremonial of the Church to cause a les- 
sening of the requisite recreation of the students. They shall 
have one full day of every week, besides Sundays and holi- 
days, to rest from class-work and from the course of studies 
assigned for the other days of the week. 

As to the order of classes, the S. Congregation ordains that 
the hours be so arranged as not to make the lectures conse- 
cutive, nor to allow them to extend over more than four (or 
at most four and a half) hours each day. 

A certain conformity to the standard and demands of public 
-education is likewise to be kept in mind in the matter of 
secular and classical teaching. This is important. If the 
clergy are to direct and influence public opinion it is neces- 
sary that they possess a well-rounded education so as to en- 
able them to meet on equal ground the men of culture around 
them who are the natural leaders of the less educated. Be- 
yond this, however, special attention is to be given to Latin, 
not only as a medium of exact thinking during the study of 
philosophy and the scholastic branches of theology, but also 
because it is the liturgical language and the mother tongue 
of the Catholic priesthood throughout the Western world. 
But apart from the classes of philosophy, or dogmatic and 
moral theology, Latin need not be made the medium of the 
teaching, and even in these classes some liberty must be al- 
lowed so as to render the study of practical service. 

Another point, mentioned in the Instruction of the Sacred 
Congregation, which may serve us in the improvement and 
perfecting of our seminary education is the method of teach- 
ing the philosophical and theological braitches. The prevail- 
ing system of imparting knowledge in the higher studies by 
means of lectures, which is the vogue in most of our universi- 
ties, needs to be supplemented by oral examinations and by 
discussions, whether in the form of the German seminars or 
in that of scholastic " disputations." According to the Roman 
program, one hour of the five given to the study of philosophy 
each week is to be devoted to " repetition," and one hour each 
fortnight to debate, in the form of a defence of a thesis. The 
customary branch of " propaedeutics," which covers one year's 
course, is entirelv abolished. 


The Course for the Students of Theology. 

The course of theology prescribed for the students of the 
higher seminary comprises the dogmatic and moral disciplines, 
Sacred Scripture, and ecclesiastical history. 

To the study of dogma is assigned one hour daily during the 
entire four years' course. But this includes the apologetic 
branches of theology, which are to supplement the scholastic 
matter as hitherto taught from such texts as the Summa of 
St. Thomas, etc. 

In like manner Moral Theology is to be supplemented by 
the study of Fundamental Sociology and Canon Law. 

Four hours a week are to be given in the theological depart- 
ment to the study of Sacred Scripture; the first two years to 
be devoted to Introduction, the last two years to Exegesis, — 
in particular of the Psalms, the Gospels, and the Epistles. 

For the study of ecclesiastical history the special recom- 
mendation is made that it consist not merely of a retailing of 
historical facts, but that the supernatural character of the life 
of the Church be duly considered in connexion with the events, 
so that the student be led to a due consideration of the philoso- 
phy of history^ as it was regarded by the Christian Fathers 
of old and by men like Cardinal Newman of our own times. 
For the Church is not merely a human institution but rather 
one that bridges the human and the divine, a semblance of the 
Incarnation of the Son of God. 

Adequate time is to be allowed for the mastery of sub- 
sidiary studies, such as that of the Biblical languages, homi- 
letics, liturgy, sacred art, and music. The rector and prefect 
of studies are directed to see that the professors cover the 
entire matter of the prescribed program during the allotted 
years of the course. Hence the teachers are cautioned to 
avoid disproportionate discussions of special topics at the 
expense of the full course. 

These regulations seem well calculated to improve the dis- 
cipline and teaching in ecclesiastical seminaries ; and that there 
is room for improvement, not only in Italian seminaries but 
amongst ourselves as well, must be allowed by all who are 
familiar with the instruction and the methods in use, the de- 
fects of which have been pointed out from time time by men 
of unquestioned authority in such matters. 



THE following remarks on Roman seminary life are based 
upon the experience of a student who spent five years in 
a Roman college. With but few, if any modifications, none 
of them essential, they will apply to any of the numerous na- 
tional colleges in the Eternal City, for these are all under the 
same method of management. This article does not regard 
any particular institution, since the system is contemplated as 
a whole. The Propaganda is the only University mentioned. 
The purpose of the remarks is to present the main features of 
student life in Rome in a general way and in an objective 
manner, without any personal reference to individual super- 
iors, or students; to state existing conditions with candor and 
sincerity, and with a due and reverent regard for the authority 
entrusted with the actual status of affairs then and now pre- 
vailing. A broad classification will throw what follows under 
four heads, each with a number of subdivisions, — A. Dis- 
cipline; B. Intellectual Life; C. Recreations; D. General 

A. Discipline. 


Each Roman seminary has a rector and vice-rector, who 
exercise a general supervision over its government. The dis- 
cipline, however, is to a large extent in the hands of the stu- 
dents themselves, and forms a striking and characteristic fea- 
ture of Roman seminary management. All the students in 
the college are divided into camerate. Each camerata has a 
prefect and an assistant prefect, both appointed by the rector, 
who are in charge of from eight to fourteen men, more or 
less, there being no fixed number. The prefect is the respon- 
sible person, and only in his absence has the assistant prefect 
any authority. The prefect is ordinarily, although not al- 
ways, of a higher class, and theologians are always placed in 
charge of philosophers. Under no circumstances may a stu- 
dent leave his own camerata and go to another camerata for 
any purpose whatsoever, except with the permission of the 
rector. Each man must keep to his own room during the time 
the rule requires him to be there. Not even during recreation 



may he go to his own room, but is required to take recreation 
in common with the members of his own camerata. Every 
exercise must be attended by the entire camerata in a body, 
all its members waiting for the signal of the prefect before 
starting for chapel, meals, class, or walks. No man may en- 
ter another's room. Even to leave chapel during a religious 
exercise requires the previous permission of tlie prefect of the 
camerata to which the student belongs, and the granting of such 
permission must afterward be reported to the rector. To be 
late for any common exercise requires similar report, as does 
sickness, whilst absence from class requires the previous con- 
sent of the rector. Since the students are so largely occupied 
in maintaining the discipline of the seminary, it comes to 
pass that in a great measure they take care of themselves, as 
the prefects are also students, and they too must study, and 
cannot be about watching the members of their camerata con- 
tinually. A man feels that he is not watched, nor subjected 
to petty surveillance, and is left largely to his own honor. 
Even when an infraction of the rule does occur, unless it be a 
grave offence, it is usually, though not always, settled directly 
between the prefect and the man himself, without bringing 
the affair to the attention of the rector at all. In grave mat- 
ters, where the intervention of the superior is deemed neces- 
sary, the offender himself is sent to the rector, \to whom he 
presents his own case, making his own accusation and his own 
defence. The rector sometimes, though not always, sends for 
the prefect to hear the other side, but in the majority of cases 
the prefect does not find it necessary to go to the rector at 
all to report a man. This saves the prefect from the accusa- 
tion of tale-bearing, and insures a first-hand report of the 
infraction of the rule by the offender himself. 

The camerata system by its very nature imposes the neces- 
sity of constantly associating during one's entire course with 
practically the same group of from eight to fourteen men. 
The camerata always moves as a; unit, and always preserves its 
individuality. The men composing it go in a body to chapel ; 
they are so grouped there, as well as in the refectory, and on 
the walks; and with but few exceptions they rarely meet 
members of other camerate. It does not take long to exhaust 
the information that one man can impart to another, and after 


the first two or three months it is probable that the conversa- 
tion will be confined to trivialities, and the little round of 
each day's duties. Newspapers are forbidden, and as a result 
there is a temptation to talk of nothing except the day's work. 
That, however, could be made a source of great profit, should 
the students avail themselves of the opportunity. But it is 
only in exceptional cases that any great intellectual advant- 
ages are derived from camerata life. Recreation is just as 
obligatory as any. other duty, and to be forced by the rule to 
take exercise with students who are clever, splendid, virtuous 
men, but, nevertheless, with whom one may have little in com- 
mon, and whose intellectual tastes run along different lines, 
thus being deprived of the opportunity to choose congenial 
and stimulating companions, is no small trial to a man's char- 
acter. He may complain, or he may comport himself with 
Christian resignation, and practise patience often in an heroic 
degree. But after a course of four years or more, if he makes 
the most of the situation, he will leave the seminary a trained 
man, able to adapt himself to, and rise above, almost any en- 

The camerata system contemplates having a prefect with 
his students continuously. They do not go out alone until 
they are in major orders, although this rule admits of some 
few and occasional exceptions. To go out jn the city to 
purchase a book or to consult a physician, or to attend to any 
business, even the most trifling, requires that the student be 
accompanied by his prefect. In some colleges in order to 
economize the time of the prefect, or for other reasons, the 
students are sent out with the servants of the college, a 
practice deplored by the entire student body. 


Even though the students are the subordinate disciplinarians, 
the rector is the animating and controlling spirit, and it is 
his personality that gives a character to the college. The 
rector has regular office hours when he may be consulted by 
any of the students, whilst the prefects interview him weekly 
and even oftener. Without unduly intruding himself, or play- 
ing the part of an ecclesiastical gendarme, or scrutinizing the 
minutiae of daily life, the rector knows what is going on, and 


he is able, if he desires, to test the intellectual, moral and 
spiritual fibre of every man under his control, so that at the 
end of four, five, or six years, living under the same roof with 
the students, observing them under various conditions, at 
work and at recreation, studying, playing, and praying, he can 
measure their fitness for Holy Orders. The man who after 
such a period of trial can succeed in deceiving the rector of a 
Roman seminary would deceive the rector and combined 
faculty of any seminary in the world. 

The relations between the rector and the students, however, 
can scarcely be called intimate or familiar. It is possible 
(although indeed it would be a very exceptional case) for 
a man to live within a few feet of the rector's apartments for 
weeks at a time and yet not find it necessary to exchange a 
dozen words with him, the rector exercising his' authority 
meanwhile through the prefects. The rector and students 
neither associate with one another, nor do they recreate in 
common; and whilst it is done in some few cases, it is not 
a general rule for the rector to be accompanied on his after- 
noon walk by one or two of his students. Such a practice 
would, however, lead to more friendly relations between the 
rector and his men. The rector judges of the intellectual 
ability of the students from the notes furnished by the Pro- 
paganda. If the rector never sees nor hears of a man break- 
ing a rule, or getting into difficulty with his prefect, or with 
other students, and there is no unfavorable testimony from the 
Propaganda, he is justified in arriving at the conclusion that 
the man must be a good student, because he gives no cause for 
complaint. There is no vote of a faculty of professors or 
other superiors when the time arrives for receiving minor or 
major orders: the decision in this momentous step rests with 
the rector. 


In some colleges the use of tobacco is absolutely prohibited; 
in others snuff is allowed, but smoking is put under the ban. 
Other seminaries, however, are to be found where smoking, 
while not encouraged, is tolerated. The vast majority of 
students learn to smoke before entering the seminary, and 
they will continue to smoke in spite of all regulations to the 
contrary. Breaking the smoking rule paves the way for the 


violation of other regulations, and there is a belief gaining 
ground that the moral force of college discipline will be 
strengthened by lifting the interdict on smoking. 

Paradoxical as it may seem, it is very often quite as difficult 
to visit a Roman seminarian as it is to see the Pope. " Visi- 
tors not welcome " is substantially, if not actually, written 
over the entrance to every national college in Rome. Receiv- 
ing callers is discouraged; and whilst an hour, more or less, 
on Thursdays and Sundays is set apart for the purpose of re- 
ceiving visitors at the college, unless callers conform to this 
regulation, they and the students will be disappointed. For 
men 5,000 miles from home, suffering now and then from 
homesickness, scarcely any self-denial can be compared to the 
inability to have a few brief words with relatives or friends 
who bring news of their families across the broad Atlantic. 
Many a student returns to his native land after a residence 
of four, five, or six years in the Eternal City, to learn for the 
first time that several friends called upon him at his college in 
Rome, but were denied the privilege of seeing him because 
they failed to come on the regular visiting day or hour. This 
creates the false impression on the part of outsiders that the 
superiors are tyrannical, and that Roman seminary life is in 
a prison. Grave reasons are put forward by seminary au- 
thorities for this procedure, although the arguments are not 
conclusive to the vast majority of students. From the rec- 
tor's point of view, visitors are a distraction ; they wish to- in- 
vite the students out for lunch, or to take them for a holiday 
in the city or country, when they really desire them to be the 
party conductor through the wonders of Rome. Valuable 
time is thereby lost, and an opinion is created in Rome that 
there is no discipline at all in that college whose students 
are frequently seen on the streets in the company of tourists. 

B. Intellectual Life. 


The lecture system is employed. Few classes have an offi- 
cial text-book that is used to such an extent that a student can 
afford to dispense with taking notes in class. In the majority 


of classes notes are relied upon to the exclusion of any text- 
book whatsoever, thus developing an absolute dependence on 
class notes, an author being consulted but rarely. There is^ 
therefore, too frequently no work upon which a student can 
rely if he be compelled by sickness, retreat, or other cause ta 
be abse»t from class. To acquire the matter covered during 
his absence, he must either study from another student's notes, 
or copy the notes himself. Those who have experienced the 
tedious labor of transcribing back notes have had ample reason 
to wish for a text-book to which they could refer in such a 
necessity. The very drudgery of supplying lost lectures has 
tempted many students to omit them altogether, taking a risk 
on the matter at the examination. Each class has its own 
instructor, a specialist in that department. There are ordin- 
arily five scheduled class days each week, Thursdays and Sun- 
days being free. The actual number of class days for the 
scholastic year, after making all deductions for vacations, holi- 
days, and examinations, will not reach much beyond 130. 
There are four hours of class every day, Iwo in the morning 
and two in the afternoon; but with intermissions and delays 
between classes, incident to the assembling of the various, 
national colleges for the lectures, it is rare that any professor 
lectures longer than 50 minutes. 

The professors come to class at the appointed time, de- 
liver their lectures and leave, and except for those students 
who speak Italian or Latin easily and who can talk to the: 
professors in the corridors while waiting for class, there is but 
scant opportunity for the students to meet them or consult 
them either before or after the lecture; and even should the 
occasion offer, it is so brief as to be scarcely sufficient for in- 
structors and students to become well acquainted. The pro- 
fessors do not seek out the students to learn the mental 
strength and weakness of each individual. They do not live 
in the same college with them, much less visit them, and the 
seminary regulations forbid the students making calls in the 
city. In this way it is possible for a backward student to 
spend half a dozen years in Rome and, except for a formal 
salutation occasionally, only speak to his professors whilst he 
is being examined. The professors are ordinarily unaware 
of the capabilities of the students, for repetitions in class,, 


dissertations, and disputations are usually not given by the 
same man twice in succession, and they are thus unable to give 
direction or stimulus to their studies. This is another char- 
acteristic phase of Roman seminary training. It leaves men 
largely to themselves, and what they make of themselves is 
due in great measure to their own unaided efforts. Develop- 
ment comes from the inside. This may have its disadvantages, 
but it has its good features, and not the least of its results is 
that it tends to make men self-reliant, self-supporting, able 
to stand alone on their own merits, and to make their way 
themselves without constant external assistance and stimulus. 


Latin is the language used by the professors in their lec- 
tures. It is so, not only because Latin is the official language 
of the Roman Church, but also from the very nature of the 
complex student body attending the classes. To teach simul-' 
taneously the representatives of nearly half a hundred nations 
requires a universal medium of intercourse. To these might 
be added a further reason, the voluntary choice of both pro- 
fessors and students. The immense literature of Scholastic 
Philosophy and Theology is so intimately bound up with Latin, 
its terminology is so precise and well-defined, its expressions 
so direct and forceful, that the vernacular is scarcely adequate 
to express its full meaning. Four hours a day of Latin 
lectures for four, five, or six years, ought to give a man a fair 
command of the language, so that at the completion of his 
course he should be able to think in it, to write it, and speak 
it easily and correctly. As may be expected, the language 
of the professors lecturing on a technical subject is not always 
classical, but often in bursts of eloquence one may catch phrases 
and sei^ences having all the warmth and terseness and all the 
energy and sonorousness of the finest Latin prose. 

Latin, however, has its disadvantages. The professors do 
not talk slowly for beginners, nor do they wait on laggards. 
They enunciate with the rapidity of an ordinary lecturer in the 
vernacular, with a speed varying from 125 to 250 words a 
minute, and as a result there are many students who lose in 
whole or in part the first two months or more of class while 
their ears become accustomed to what is for them a new Ian- 



guage. Shorthand is gaining favor as a means of economiz- 
ing labor and increasing the efficiency and quantity of notes. 
From six to ten per cent of the students now use with great 
satisfaction some of the many standard systems of phono- 
graphy. Class notes are mimeographed and multigraphed, 
and typewriters are being introduced. A more formidable 
obstacle, which is never really overcome, arises from the in- 
ability or impracticability of conversing freely with the pro- 
fessors in order to solve a difficulty, or to clarify a point in 
study. Not every student can speak Italian with fluency and 
the fear of making grammatical blunders in Latin prevents 
many from approaching their instructors to secure additional 
information. This difficulty is increased in the oral examin- 
ations. Students who lack the " facultas dicendi " sometimes 
obtain a lower mark than their actual knowledge of the matter 
justifies. Professors, however, reply to this by saying that 
the ability to speak Latin is in itself a matter for examination. 
The Italian pronunciation of Latin is also a source of some 
annoyance, but it soon disappears. At the end of from four 
to eight weeks, even though the student has been previously 
unaccustomed to Latin lectures, he should be able to take 
full and reliable notes. 

The great majority of Roman students bitterly lament the 
deplorable lack of time available for study. The very fact 
of being required to assemble daily at the Propaganda for 
lectures is in itself a loss of many valuable minutes. The 
journey to and from the various national colleges and the 
Propaganda, the waits and delays incident to the camerata 
system of discipline, dressing and undressing, going to and 
returning from class, all this consumes much valuable time, 
greater or less according to the distance of the respective col- 
leges from the Propaganda. A concrete case will illustrate 
this. Suppose a college is seven minutes distant from the 
Propaganda (and there are very few colleges so close as that 
to it), its students must leave their college at 7.53 A. M. to 
be in time for the first class at 8 A. M. Allowing but four 
minutes for emptying the class rooms at ten o'clock and assem- 
bling the camerata groups, it will be 10. 11 before the stu- 


dents reach their college after the morning session. They 
have been absent 138 minutes, during which time they have 
had two lectures of perhaps 50 minutes each, or 100 minutes. 
There is, therefore, a difference of 38 minutes to be accounted 
for. Repeat this for the afternoon session, and the result is 
jG minutes, or an hour and a quarter each day spent in going 
to and from class. This time would be available for study 
were it not cut up into such brief periods as to practically 
preclude the possibility of utilizing it. These figures are very 
conservative, and any one who has spent several years in Rome 
could easily augment them. There are some students who do 
manage to utilize some of these odd minutes by studying while 
walking to and from class, or while waiting on the bell at the 
Propaganda, but to do so requires an extraordinary force of 
will, a vast quantity of patience and concentration, and con- 
genial walking companions, a combination not always to be 

The time available for study never exceeds four hours a 
day, and the interruptions incident to the ceaseless round of 
each day's duties, such as letters, confessions, barber, inter- 
viewing superiors, etc., often diminish this. To attend class 
practically four hours every day at the Propaganda, and per- 
haps an hour or two at home, as the National College may be 
called, and then to have less than four hours a day to as- 
similate and digest the matter there treated is scarcely suffi- 
cient for the intellectual requirements of the average student. 
It has a tendency to create weak nerves, since students who 
are conscientious are always in distress about their studies, 
and they begin to neglect necessary recreation and sleep in 
order to keep pace with the advancing tide of matter for the 

The time available for study is further diminished by the 
various classes in the respective colleges or elsewhere, in- 
dependent of the course at the Propaganda. Italian, Music, 
Liturgy, Moral Theology, Canon Law, and Philosophy con- 
sume from one to three hours a week, and often more. And 
as if this were not enough to swallow up what little time is 
left, in some of the colleges, and for some of the classes, there 
is what is called a " Repeater " who reviews the matter 
treated in the Propaganda. The purpose is to make it easy 


for the students ; but what the students need is not more pro- 
fessors, but more leisure to study and absorb and make their 
own the vast mass of material given them day by day at the 


This condition so lamentable in theory, and a constant source 
of complaint in practice, produces in earnest students such a 
thorough aversion to idleness that they scarcely waste a mo- 
ment. Every possible opportunity for study is utilized, often 
to the utter neglect of necessary physical exercise. How to 
keep students from applying themselves too closely is one of 
the problems of a rector of a Roman seminary. Men are not 
ashamed to study hard and long, and they do so at all times, 
in all places, and under the most varied circumstances. The 
shady walks on the Pincio, the broad avenues in the Villa 
Borghese, the open sunny square on the Janiculum, or the en- 
closed gardens of the Villa Mattel, become so many open air 
study halls, especially as the time for examination approaches. 
Incessant activity and patient industry become the order of 
the day, by reason of the constant effort to make the most of 
every moment of time, and while there is a penalty of an hour 
and a quarter or more exacted every day for attending the 
lectures at the Propaganda, the very fact of having so little 
time to study makes the student appreciate what a really 
precious thing time is, and the constant hunting for minutes 
for four or five years forms habits of industry and concen- 
tration that should last through life. 

The fact that so many different colleges attend the lectures 
affords a stimulus for a man to study. Legitimate pride in 
his own college and his native country leads him to prepare 
himself well for a repetition or a dissertation, in order to 
reflect credit upon both the one and the other. There are 
frequent opportunities during the year for the display of talent 
by appearing in one of the many disputations held in all the 
classes at the Propaganda. Occasionally the professors ap- 
point at random a man from some college, but as a rule the 
first prefect of each college chooses the student to represent 
his college. In some classes matter not of prime importance 
is left to the diligence of the students, a man from one of the 
colleges being appointed to treat it in class in concise form. 


Such dissertations often occupy the time of two classes, and are 
usually delivered from memory. They greatly develop 
fluency in Latin and cogency in the grouping of arguments, 
results which more than repay the great amount of extra work 
that the student is required to expend upon them. 

This spirit of study naturally has its reflection in all of the 
national colleges. No college cares to be eclipsed, and as a 
consequence there is a constant striving for points and places 
and the rewards of intellectual supremacy. The inter- 
collegiate written examination at the end of the scholastic year 
affords field for individual and collective effort, and the an- 
nouncement of the prize winners is awaited with interest both 
by rectors and students of the different colleges. 


Another difficulty which disturbs new students and some 
old ones, for it sometimes requires many months to become 
accustomed to it, is the obligatory change in the hours de- 
voted to study. The afternoon life of a Roman student is 
regulated by the Angelus, called the Ave Maria, which rings 
half an hour after sunset. At that time all students must be 
home in their respective colleges. As there are no recreation 
grounds surrounding the colleges of Rome, the students are 
obliged to take walks every day as their exercise. These 
walks last one hour and a half, and the time of walk depends 
upon the Ave Maria, ending at that time every night. Two 
hours of class must be attended every afternoon, which, if 
added to the hour and a half for walk, make three hours and a 
half of fixed employment every afternoon. By deducting 
three hours and a half from the time of the Ave Maria, the 
time for reporting at the Propaganda for the first lecture in 
the afternoon is obtained. For example, when the Ave Maria 
rings at 5 P. M., the earliest it ever rings, the first class at 
the Propaganda commences at 1.30 P. M., and the second at 
2.30, ending at 3.30. The walk begins immediately after class, 
lasts one hour and a half, ending precisely at the Ave Maria, 
at the college of the students, and brings them home for the 
night. But as the Angelus does not ring at the same hour 
always, since it depends upon the changing time of the setting 
sun, the Ave Maria drops fifteen minutes every ten days or two 


weeks, and instead of going to class every day at 1.30 during 
the autumn, and studying from five o'clock until 7.30 in the 
long winter evenings, the whole thing becomes reversed about 
the middle of June, when the Ave Maria rings at 8.15 P. M., 
the latest it reaches. At that time the students must go to 
class at 4.45 P. M., start on their walk at 6.45 P. M., and ar- 
rive home for the night at 8. 15. As a consequence of this all 
study must be done in the heat of the afternoon before class, 
and at this time the customary siesta of an hour cuts down 
the time available for study. Thus in the winter there is a 
stretch of two and a half hours in the evening after class to 
study. At other times in the year half the afternoon's study 
is before class, and half after class. In June, however, there 
is absolutely no time for study after class, the students return- 
ing from their walk just in time to partake of the evening 
meal. Consequently to adapt oneself to do effective study in 
the morning, afternoon, or evening, or at any other time, and 
not to wait until evening exclusively, is in itself a distinct 
advantage, making a man independent of local conditions, 
and fitting him for study at all times. 


The examinations are held about Easter time and at the end 
of the scholastic year. Both are oral, and to obtain permis- 
sion to pass to the next higher class, six points are required, 
notes being given on a scale of ten. At the end of the oral 
examinations in July, there is held a written Concursus, par- 
ticipated in by nearly all the colleges and religious orders 
attending the Propaganda. A theme is proposed; five hours 
are given to write the paper, and the results are announced 
six months later, upon publication of the official catalogue of 
the Propaganda. 

Each candidate for Holy Orders must previously pass an 
examination at the Vicariate of Rome. One examination suf- 
fices for Tonsure and Minor Orders, but a separate test is 
required for each of the three Major Orders. One tract is 
required for Subdiaconate, two for Diaconate, and three for 
Priesthood, making six different tracts chosen at the option 
of the student from a list of about a dozen prepared by the 
Vicariate. The personal equation enters largely into these 


examinations. For Priesthood some men are detained an 
hour or more, whilst others are rushed through in from seven 
to ten minutes. It depends upon who you are, where you are 
from, and what examiner you draw. A retreat of ten days for 
each major order is required, the retreats being ordinarily 
made in the house of some religious order or congregation. 
There are from twelve to fourteen ordinations held every year, 
St. John Lateran and Sant'Apollinare being the places most 
frequently selected. The ordinations at Trinity and Easter 
are the largest, at which time it is not rare to see lOO candi- 
dates for Major Orders in the prostration at St. John's, a 
truly solemn spectacle. 


The Degree of Bachelor of Theology is obtained at the 
end of the first year of Theology, and embraces the entire 
year's work. The Licentiate is obtained at the end of the 
third year ,and likewise embraces one entire year's work, while 
the Doctorate is awarded at the end of the fourth year, and 
embraces the work of the entire four years' course. All the 
degrees are obtained only after examinations, oral for all 
three, and a written one in addition for the Doctorate. The 
Doctorate embraces lOO theses taken from Scripture, Dogma, 
Sacraments, Apologetics, Moral Theology, Canon Law, His- 
tory, and Liturgy. This is not the place to dwell upon the 
relative merits of the Roman Doctorate. The least that can 
be said of it is that, being the diploma awarded at the com- 
pletion of a four years' course of studies, and having been 
obtained after both written and oral examinations before the 
entire board of professors, it is a certificate of application, and 
those who attain that diploma are able to produce documentary 
evidence that they have finished their course. 

The proportion of doctors to the total number of yearly 
graduates at the Propaganda is not very large; only from 
thirty to forty per cent of the total number of graduates ob- 
tain the degree. In 1904 but seventeen doctors were created, 
and the figures are almost the same every year, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that about sixty men are annually graduated from 
the Propaganda. 

At the Propaganda the Philosophy course embraces two 
years, including Mental Philosophy, Mathematics, Physics, 


and Chemistry. Philosophy is taught in Latin, but the science 
classes are taught in Italian. The Bachelor degree is obtained 
after an oral examination at the end of the first year. The 
Licentiate can be obtained after an oral exarnination at the 
end of the second year, while to secure the Doctorate an 
examination, both written and oral, is required covering the 
two years' matter, the written examination embracing 80 


It is not easy^ although it is possible, for a Roman student 
to acquire proficiency in the Italian language, one or two 
hours' class a week being devoted to it. The vernacular of 
each country is spoken in the respective national colleges, and 
as the seminary rule forbids speaking not only to persons 
outside the college, but also to the Italian servants in the 
house, it is an uphill struggle to get such practice in Italian 
conversation as will fit a man for preaching in Italian upon 
the completion of his course. 

C. Recreation. 

There is a walk of an hour and a half every day, weather 
permitting. On free days the walk is an hour and a half in 
the morning, and three hours in the afternoon. Very often 
the morning and afternoon walks are extended to visit some 
distant point of interest, or to visit a gallery or museum. Not 
all the time is spent in walking. The chief exercise of a 
Roman student consists in these walks about the city. The 
walks may be taken to a different place every day, being 
under the control of the prefect of each camerata. They fur- 
nish untold capabilities for independent study outside class, 
unless those opportunities be thwarted and nullified. To con- 
crete one's idea of history by standing in the theatre of great 
events, to tread the ground sanctified by saints and heroes, to 
visit repeatedly for years, churches, galleries, museums, and 
monuments, with their stupendous treasures, is to acquire 
leisurely and without much effort a liberal education. The 
very richness of the possibilities for private study simply be- 
wilder the observer. Paintings, sculpture, architecture, their 
birth, gradual development, culmination, and decline, for more 


than twenty centuries, can be traced in Rome. In perhaps no 
other gallery in Europe can some features of the history of 
Italian Renaissance art be studied so well as in the Sistine 
Chapel. Archeology, pagan and Christian, has its home pre- 
eminently in the ruins and excavations of ancient Rome, and 
nowhere else on earth can life and color be given to some 
periods of the vanished past so clearly and so distinctly as 
in the Eternal City. History, ecclesiastical and profane, can 
be learned from the very stones, as they call out to us across 
twenty centuries of time from the ruins and existing monu- 
ments of popes, emperors and kings. All this can be drunk 
in and absorbed almost unconsciously, and with but ordinary 
powers of observation. The only difficulty is in choosing 
when there is such an overwhelming mass to attract and en- 
chant the beholder. In this way it comes to pass that an ob- 
servant student, and one who is intellectually curious, may in 
a few years acquire a vast amount of information at first hand 
concerning many objects altogether extraneous to his studies 
at the Propaganda. 

The enforced walks are, however, a great source of annoy- 
ance. The system of discipline makes it obligatory for every 
man to go out on the walk at the appointed time, and to be ex- 
cused from that duty requires the permission of the rector. It 
is sometimes not expedient to see the rector, because repeated 
requests to make exceptions to the general rule may engender 
the suspicion in the minds of superiors that the student is dis- 
satisfied, or desires special treatment, and other inconveniences 
or prejudices may arise. The consequence is that many times 
students who are of a retiring backward disposition will go 
out on long walks of three hours or more when they ought to 
be in bed or resting, and the disinclination of such students 
to ask for permissions and special privileges will prompt them 
to put up with such inconveniences, even if they be required 
to rest from their exertions when they should be studying. In 
this way the enforced walks become a great burden, and de- 
feat the very end for which they were designed. 


While the daily walks open up many advantages to a serious 
student, those very possibilities for education may be mini- 


mized or almost nullified owing to circumstances over which 
the student himself has no control. For instance, the walks 
are under the control of the prefect. The entire camerata 
must go where he directs. In this way it is possible, and, 
alas how many regret it! to see a prefect send his whole 
camerata to the Pincio or the Villa Borghese day after day 
for years at a time, so that after a residence of four or five 
years in Rome a man may actually forget all he ever learned 
during his first year, when it was in a limited degree prac- 
tically obligatory for the prefect to take the men, who are all 
new students, to the various points of interest during their 
walks. Under such conditions a studious man may desire and 
thirst for knowledge, without even a chance to quench his 
thirst. There are many students who have a taste for archeo- 
logy, but as the Catacombs are a long distance outside the 
walls, and an extension of time is required to visit them, his 
prefect may, or his fellow students may influence his prefect to, 
deny him this privilege. In this way it is possible for a man 
to spend several years in Rome and never visit the Catacombs 
at all ; and although the case is very rare, it has actually hap- 
pened, to the personal knowledge of the writer. 

The conditions of the camerata system of discipline obliging 
each camerata to maintain its individuality, and precluding 
the possibility of different groups of students associating to- 
gether for the purpose of visiting libraries, museums, galleries, 
or historic ruins, make it impossible for serious students of 
different camerate with a special aptitude for painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, music, archeology, history. Christian or 
pagan antiquities, to go out together, even in charge of a 
prefect, for the purpose of studying at first hand the immense 
treasures drawing them with an irresistible impulse and at- 
traction. It must be confessed, however, that many students 
desire to study nothing but the bare class work assigned at the 
Propaganda. They do that and do it well, but think it suffi- 
cient. Such men might just as well be in Timbuctoo or 
Zanzibar as in Rome, for they could study their class matter 
as hard elsewhere. Hence those who wish to profit to the 
utmost by their residence, all too brief, in the Eternal City, 
are penalized by reason of being denied permission to develop 
whatever special talent they may have or desire to cultivate 


in the realms of knowledge lying altogether outside their 
work at the Propaganda. 


Classes cease about 21 June, the time between that date and 
15 July being spent in preparing for examinations. Immedi- 
ately after the last written examination the students leave 
Rome for the extremely long summer vacation, which lasts un- 
til about 5 November. This vacation period of more than 
three months and a half is spent in the mountains, the delight- 
ful woody slopes of the Sabine and Alban Hills being the 
favored places for the summer villas. The routine of villa 
life is but slightly different from that of the life in the City, 
if the attendance at classes be excepted, although even dur- 
ing the vacation there are classes in Italian, Music, Homiletics, 
etc. With but few exceptions, there is the same system of 
camerata discipline; the same rules must be observed; there 
are the same companions, the same food, the same mode of 
life. It would be a welcome change to a large number of 
students if the long vacation were shortened a full month. 


All students desire to travel during the summer vacation 
and they are often disappointed at being denied this privilege. 
The refusal may arise from a multitude of causes. The per- 
mission of the Ordinary is required, and in almost every case 
the bishops grant such permission subject to the decision of 
the rector. Consequently in a last analysis it resolves itself 
into the pleasure of the rector. There is much to be said in 
favor of students traveling. Travel is unquestionably a great 
educator, provided a man is capable of receiving all the edu- 
cation that traveling is capable of imparting, and there are 
few persons indeed to whom even the most hurried trip 
through Europe will not teach something. From the point 
of view of the individual student, and apart from his mem- 
bership in a community whose general good he is bound to 
regard and promote, there can be no doubt that travel in 
vacation is a magnificent opportunity to study. After a year's 
residence in Italy a man ought to have acquired sufficient of 
the Italian language to enable him to make his way with 
ease. Not only this, but while he is a student, the vigor and 


enthusiasm and buoyancy of youth are still upon him, his 
receptive capacity is larger, his powers of locomotion are 
greater, and he can put up with the inconveniences of travel 
better than at any other period of his life. For many men 
it is well-nigh impossible to return to Europe until after the 
lapse of many years, if even then, when they are past the 
age of enjoying things so intensely as they would have done 
in their youth or early manhood. 

If a student has any interest at all in art, architecture, or 
history, if he desires to visit famous places, if he wishes to 
know the great galleries of Italy and Europe, if he longs to 
see the glorious buildings which are the envy and the admir- 
ation of the world, then certainly to deprive him of that pleas- 
ure and that profit is simply to stifle his intellectual progress. 
Who, for instance, standing in the vast sunny square of St. 
Mark's at Venice, and looking at that ecstasy of sculptured 
spray has not experienced a tonic and ennobling efl'ect akin to 
that produced by classical music? Or who, from the Via del 
Proconsolo, in Florence, gazing on Brunelleschi's Dome, has 
not felt tingling in every fibre the unique beauty of that 
wondrous curve? 

And yet there are students who have traveled in their vaca- 
tions when they have had every opportunity that leisure could 
present to study, and who after returning from Venice will 
look with a blank stare if they are asked the style of archi- 
tecture of St. Mark's. The writer has known men who, after 
seeing and visiting the Church of Santa Teresa in Rome re- 
peatedly for years, have actually argued that it is a Gothic 
structure. Upon such men travel is no educator at all, and 
they might just as well stay at home, if we contemplate only 
their artistic education. 

There are multitudes of serious students who feel no thrill 
as they gaze on the Pitti Palace, and who experience no in- 
crease of devotion at the deep religious atmosphere of San 
Zeno in Verona. If nature has not so constituted them, they 
should not on that account be denied the opportunity to travel 
in vacation. Art is not the only thing for which one travels. 
The routine of seminary life, with one day the same as an- 
other, year after year, is, to say the least, monotonous, even 
with the best intentions to submit to it with the highest spirit- 


ual motives. Therefore to have a complete change of air, 
scene, food, companions, and of occupation for several weeks 
cannot but be beneficial physically and intellectually. 

The intellectual profit to be derived from a trip in the 
summer will of course depend upon the student himself. 
Travel is able to inipart just what the traveler is capable of 
receiving. " Quidquid recipitur, ad modum recipientis re- 
cipitur." The almost fabulous treasures of Italy and con- 
tinental Europe cannot be studied in one visit. To put off 
seeing them until one is leaving for his native country after 
completing his course is simply to neglect them. How many 
men with the very best intentions have been compelled by 
circumstances over which they had no control to devote a 
scant hour or two to the Louvre, and never see the Bargello 
at all, simply because they were denied the opportunity of 
traveling during their course when they had the leisure to 
study what they desired. 

All the numerous advantages of travel are not unknown to 
the rectors of the various colleges. They are themselves stu- 
dents and men of culture and experience, and they are anxious 
to educate their students in the fullest sense of the word. 
No rector would willingly stifle a man's intellectual growth. 
The prohibition to travel, therefore, often arises from the 
abuses to which the practice may easily give rise. If the 
students would guarantee their rectors that they were always 
the same, in college or in Munich, Milan or Paris ; that their 
recreations while traveling were always legitimate; that they 
conducted themselves alw