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OF THE 






NATORAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETT 



FOR THK 



S E S S I O IT lSQS-99. 



BELFAST : 

FEINTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(printers to queen's college.) 

1899. 



G12447 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Eeport . . . . . . . . 

Balance Sheet 

Donations to Museum 

Books Received . . . . . . . . 

President's Inaugural Address — T. Workman 
Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification — W. Chambers 
The Purification of Sewage by Bacteria — A. J. Martin 
The Viagraph— J. Brown .. .. 

Tlie Boyne VaUey_S. F. Milligan 
Pathogenic Bacteria — J. Lorrain Smith, M.A., M.D. 
Electric Discharges in Rarified Gases — J. Finnegan, B.Sc. 
liist of Ofiice-BearerB , . . . . . . . 

List of Shareholders and Subscribers . . 



1 

6 

7 

8 

17 

22 

32 

41 

53 

64 

68 

72 

73 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



:o:- 



EST.A.BL1 SI3:E33D 1821. 

' — :o : 

SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, cost £14. 

3 Shares „ oost £21. 

The Proprietor of 1 Share pays lOa. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 Shares 
pays 5s. per annum ; the proprietor of 3 or more Shares stands exempt from 
further payment. 

Shareholders are only eligible for election on the Council of Management. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes — Ordinary Members, who are expected to read Papers, 
and Visiting Members who, by joining under the latter title, are understood to 
intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for Lectures extends 
from November in one year till May in the succeeding one. Members, Ordinary 
or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due 1st November in each year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to the 
Museum and Library for himself and family, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections for any friend not residing in 
Belfast. 

Any further informatiou can be obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 10 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
■will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



Belfast Batural Ibistor^ aiiv) pbilosopbical 



■:o:- 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1898. 



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The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders of this Society was 
held on i8th July, at three o'clock, in the Belfast Museum, 
College Square North. Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President, 
occupied the chair, and the attendance included Drs. MacCormac 
and Leathern, Messrs. Geoge Kidd, J.P.; Robert Young, J.P.; 
Edward Allworthy, W. H. Patterson, J. H. Davies, Joseph 
Wright, John M'Knight, W. M. F. Patterson, Isaac Ward, 
Seaton F. Milligan, John Brown, W. Faren, G. F. Patterson, 
and Robert M. Young, B.A., M.R.I.A., Hon. Secretary. Letters 
of apology for non-attendance were received from the Lord 
Mayor (Mr. Otto Jaffe, J.P.) and Sir James Henderson. 
The notice convening the Meeting having been read, 
Mr. Robert Young, Hon. Secretary, submitted the annual 
report, which stated : — " The Council desire to submit to the 
shareholders their report of the working of the Society during 
the past year. The winter session was opened on 8th November, 
1 898, when the President of the Society, Mr. Thomas Workman, 
J.P., delivered an inaugural address on the subject " Incentives 
to the Study of Natural History," illustrated by limelight views, 
&c. The second meeting was held on 6th December, 1898, 
when a paper was read by Mr. Walter Chambers, C.E., on 
" Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification," illustrated by 
diagrams, &c., followed by an interesting discussion. The third 
meeting was held on 13th December, 1898, when a paper was 
read by Mr. Arthur J. Martin, A.M.LC.E., Exeter, on " The 
Purification of Sewage by Bacteria," illustrated by limelight 



2 Annual Meeting. 

views. The fourth meeting took place on loth January, 1899, 
when Mr. John Brown read a paper on " The Viagraph, a new 
Instrument for Testing Road Surfaces," illustrated by diagrams 
and exhibition of the viagraph. A discussion followed at its 
close. The fifth meeting, on 7th February, 1899, was devoted 
to a popular lecture in the Y.M.C.A. Hall, at which the Lord 
Mayor (Mr. Otto JafFe, J.P.) presided. Mr. Seaton F. Milligan 
delivered an interesting lecture upon '' The Boyne Valley, its 
History, Scenery, and Antiquities." which was illustrated by 
over one hundred lantern slides. The proceeds were in aid of 
the Giant's Causeway Defence Fund, and there was a large 
attendance of members and the general public. The sixth 
meeting was arranged for the 14th March, when Dr. J. Lorrain 
Smith, M.A., kindly lectured on " Pathogenic Bacteria, with 
Special Reference to the Typhoid Bacillus," illustrated by 
actual specimens and lantern views. The closing meeting took 
place on nth April, 1899, when Mr. John N. Finnegan, B.A., 
B.Sc, gave a lecture on " Luminous Discharges in Rarefied 
Gases," illustrated by experiments and photograph slides. All 
these meetings were well attended, both by the members and 
the general public, the two on sanitary subjects attracting 
special audiences. Largely through the good offices of Mr. 
John Horner, your Council have secured that the Gilchrist 
lectures for a second time be given in Belfast, commencing in 
September next. A public meeting will be summoned at an 
early date to make detailed arrangements in connection with 
their delivery. It will be observed from the Hon. Treasurer's 
statement of accounts that the usual satisfactory balance in 
favour of the Society is fully maintained. The number of 
societies meeting in the Museum shows no falling off, and its 
accommodation was sometimes taxed to provide for two 
meetings on the same evening. Mr. Stewart, our Curator, 
reports that during the year further additions have been made 
to the herbarium of local plants, and many specimens have 
been mounted and placed in their order in the cabinet. The 
local collection is now almost complete, but the type set of 



Annual Meeting. 3 

British plants is still far from being so. At the Easter holidays 
the Museum was less crowded than it has been on some former 
occasions. Nevertheless the attendance was very large, and at 
times the building was taxed to its utmost capacity. On 
ordinary days the admissions continue much as in recent years. 
Since the last annual meeting the Society has to deplore the 
loss of one of its most valued members — the late Mr. Lavens M. 
Ewart, J. P. He was a most useful and active member of the 
Council since 1894, and took the greatest interest in the well- 
fare of the Society in every way. A vote of condolence with 
his widow and family was passed at the first public meeting 
after his lamented decease. Your Council have co-opted the 
Lord Mayor of Belfast (Mr. Otto JaflFe, J.P.) to fill the vacancy 
caused by his untimely death. They have received with much 
regret Mr. John H. Greenhill's resignation from the Council 
owing to change of residence. A list of donations to the 
Musem and of publications received in exchange from home and 
foreign scientific societies will be printed with the present 
report. The Council desire to tender their best thanks to the 
local Press for their admirable reports of the Society's meetings. 
This meeting will be asked to elect five members of Council in 
place of the following gentlemen, who retire by rotation, the 
first three of whom are eligible and ofifer themselves for re- 
election : — Messrs. John Brown, William Swanston, W. H. F. 
Patterson, Professor FitzGerald, and John H. Greenhill." 

Mr. Wm. H. F. Patterson, Assistant Treasurer, read the 
Treasurer's report, which showed a balance in hands of 
^76 is. 2^d. The donations had increased during the year, 
but there was a slight decrease in subscriptions. 

Dr. MacCormac, in moving the adoption of the report and 
statement of accounts, said it afforded him much pleasure to do 
so on account of their financial condition, and also because of 
the growing interest taken by the general public of Belfast and 
the surrounding districts in the working of that Society. It 
could not be otherwise when they remembered the valuable 
scientific information brought before the meetings held there. 



4 Annual Meeting. 

Those scientific investigations, he thought, must be of incalcul- 
able value to the general community. 

Mr. EnwARD Allworthy seconded the motion. He was of 
opinion that the general public did not take that interest in 
the proceedings of that Society as its worth demanded, and he 
urged that some special effort should be made to create a fresh 
interest from the citizens, which, he felt sure, would be a boon 
to the people themselves and a blessing to the community 
where they lived. It was remarkable how few out of the three 
hundred thousand in Belfast and the numerous visitors to the 
city who came into the Museum. Speaking of the late Mr. 
Ewart, he referred to him as a very able, excellent, and good 
friend to that Society, and had done more than had ever been 
made public. He was always doing a little towards gathering 
in articles and information, and, now he was gone, they felt his 
loss. In conclusion, he expressed the hope that the Council 
and President would endeavour to make next year still more 
attractive than the past. 

Mr. John Horner supported the resolution, and, in doing 
so, said on account of the immense success of the Gilchrist 
lectures the last time they were held in Belfast, the trustees 
had decided to allow a series to be given in the five towns, as 
before, on the understanding that a certain amount of money 
will be subscribed to the trustees for the purpose of helping on 
educational work in Ireland. Another condition was that there 
should be some educational movement or scheme brought out 
from the lectures. In that matter it was suggested that repre- 
sentatives from the other towns should meet at a meeting in 
Belfast, under the auspices of the Lord Mayor, to discuss some 
feasible scheme for university extension or some other form of 
education. At that meeting resolutions could be passed on the 
subject. He (Mr. Horner) had spoken to the Lord Mayor, and 
he had kindly consented to co-operate and do all in his power 
on behalf of the scheme. 

The Chairman referred to the great loss which the Society 
had sustained by the death of Mr. Lavens M. Ewart. He had 



Annual Meeting. 5 

for a long time taken a very great interest in that Society, as 
well as in kindred societies. At the same time, he (the Chair- 
man) thought they had good reason to congratulate themselves 
in co-opting the Lord Mayor to fill the vacancy created by Mr. 
Ewart's death. Already his Lordship had shown a great deal 
of interest since his appointment on the Council. 

The motion was passed by acclamation. 

Messrs. John Brown, W. Swanston, -W. H. Patterson 
Andrew Gibson, and Seaton F. Milligan were unanimously 
elected members of the Council of Management for 1899- 1900, 
in place of the retiring members. 

Mr. John Brown moved, Mr. Robert Young, J. P., seconded, 
and it was passed, that the meeting approves of the Council's 
decision to appoint delegates to confer] with other kindred 
societies to invite the British Association to Belfast. In mak- 
ing the proposition, Mr. Brown said the Association had not 
met in Belfast since 1874, and the meeting prior to that was 
1852. On both occasions the initiative was taken by their 
Society, and consequently he felt they should strengthen the 
Council's hands in every possible way. 

On the motion of Mr. George Kidd, J. P., seconded by Dr. 
Leathem, a cordial vote of thanks was passed to the Chairman 
and Hon. Secretary for the amount of attention they bestowed 
upon the working of the 1 Society during the year. Each of 
these gentlemen having returned thanks, the meeting 
terminated. 

The members of the Council then proceeded to elect office- 
bearers for the ensuing year as follows : — President, Mr. 
Thomas Workman, J. P. ; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. John 
Brown, W. Swanston, F.G.S. ; and Robert Young, J.P. ; Hon. 
Librarian, Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. ; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. 
William H. F. Patterson ; Hon. Secretary, Mr. R. M. Young, J.P. 






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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1898-99. 



From Dr. W. S. Young. 
Lignite and clay concretions from a well sinking in County 
Donegal. 

From Miss Montgomery. 
A birch rod used at school in the North of Ireland over 100 
years ago. 

From Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S. 
Five wooden food dishes, three wooden spoons, eight vessels of 
pottery used as cooking utensils, one cane basket-work 
dish, from South Africa, and three war knives, from 
India. Also a collection of Eocene fossil plants from 
County Antrim. 

From Mr. Lavens M. Ewart, J.P., M.R.I.A. 
A pair of pampooties, or cowhide shoes, from the Arran 
Islands. 

From Mr. George Donaldson. 
A mounted collection of North American Lepidoptera, in- 
cluding Vanessa Milbertii and Colias ccesonia. 

From Mr. R. J. Welch. 
A number of the rarer land and freshwater shells. 

Fj'om Mr. Wm. J. King. 
Ancient sword and scabbard, found eight feet below the 
surface in White Mountain Quarry, Co, Antrim. 

From Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, M.R.I.A., and Mr. S. A. 

Stewart, F.B.S.Edin. 
A large number of native plants of the North of Ireland. 

From Egypt Exploration Fund. 
A collection of various objects excavated at Oxyrhynchus. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, ist MAY, 1898 till 
1ST MAY, 1899. 

Adelaide. — Transactions of the Royal Society of South Aus- 
tralia. Vol. 22, parts I and 2, 1898. 

Albany. — Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Regents of the 
New York State Museum, 1897. 

The University of New York. 

Belfast. — Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 
Ser. 2, vol. 4, part 5, 1898. The Club. 

Bergen. — Bergens Museums Aarbog, for 1898 ; also Account 
of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 2, Isopoda, 
parts 9-12, 1898. Bergen Museum. 

Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Vol. 
25, nos. 4-10, 1898 ; and vol. 26, nos. 1-4, 1899. 

The Society. 

Boston. — Memoirs of Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. 
5, no. 3, 1898 ; and Proceedings, Vol. 28, 
no. 6, 1897 ; and nos. 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12, 
1898. The Society. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen. Vol. 14, 
part 3 ; and vol. 15, part 2, 1897 > *iso vol. 16, 
part I, 1898. The Society. 

Breslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie herausgegeben vom 
Verein fiir Schlessiche Insektenkunde zu 
Breslau. 2he Society 

Brighton. — Annual Report of Brighton and Sussex Natural 
History and Philosophical Society, 1898. 

2he Society. 

Brussels. — Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique. 
Vol. 42, 1898. The Society. 



Books Received. 9 

Annales de la Societe Malacologique de Belgique. 

Vol. 28, 1893 ; vol. 29, 1894 ; vol. 30, 1895 ; 

and vol. 31, fasc. i, 1896 ; also Proces- Verbal, 

June, 1895, till July, 1898. The Society. 

BuFNos Ayres. — Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de 

Buenos Aires. Vol. i, nos. i and 2, 1898. 

The Director. 
Buffalo.' — Bulletin of Buffalo Society of Natural Science. 

Vol. 5, nos. 2-5, 1896-1897 ; and vol. 6, no. i^ 

1898. 2 he Society. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 

(Palaeontologica Indica). Ser. 15, vol. i, part 

3, No. I, 1898. 
Manual of the Geology of India — Economic 

Geology. Part i, Corundum, 1898 ; and 

General Report of the Survey, 1898. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Cambridge. — Proceedings of Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Vol. 9, part 5, 1897 ; and parts 8 and 9, 1898 ; 

also vol. 10, part i, 1899. The Society. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 

Anatomy. Vol. 28, nos. 4 and 6, 1898 ; vol. 

31, no. 7, 1898 ; and vol. 32, nos. i-q, 1898-99. 

Also Annual Report. 1898. The Curator. 
Cardiff. — Transactions of Cardiff Naturalists' Society. Vol. 

29, 1897. The Society. 

Cassel. — Abhandlungen & Bericht des Vereins fiir Naturkunde 

zu Kassel (43), 1898. The Society. 

Colorado Springs. — Colorado College Studies. Vol. 7, 1898. 

Colorado Coll. Scientific Society. 
Christiania. — Forhandlinger i Videnskabs Selskabet i Chris- 

tiania, for 1897 ; and nos. i-6, 1898 ; Oversigt, 

1897 and 1898 ; and Royal University Program, 

2nd semestre, 1895 ; and ist and 2nd semestre, 

1897. '£he Royal Norske Frederiks University, 



10 Books Received. 

Dantzic. — Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 
Danzig, Vol. 9, parts 3 and 4, 1898. 

The Society. 
Dublin. — Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. 
Ser. 2, vol. 6, parts 14-16, 1898 ; and vol. 7, 
part I, 1898 ; Proceedings, vol. 8, part 6, 1898. 

The Society. 

Edinburgh. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
Vol. 21, 1897. The Society. 

Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. Vol. 
13, part 3, 1897. The Society. 

Emden. — Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 
Emden fiir 1896-97. The Society. 

Genoa. — Giornale della Societa di Letture et Conversazione 
Scientifiche di Genova. Anno 20, fasc. 3 and 4, 
1898 ; and vol. 21, fasc. i, 1899. The Society. 

Glasgow^. — Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glas- 
gow. Vol. 29, 1898. The Society. 

GoRLiTZ. — Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu 
Gorlitz. Vol. 22, 1898. The Society. 

Gothenburg. — Goteborg's Kungl. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets 
Samhalles Handlingar, Fjarde folgden. Part 
1, 1898. The Society. 

Halle. — Leopoldina Amptliches Organ der Kaiserlichen 
Leopoldine-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie 
der Naturforscher. Part 33, 1897. 

The Academy. 

Hamburg. — Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen 
Vereins. Ser. 3, parts 5, 1898, and 6, 1899. 

The Society. 

Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen Karpathen Vereines. 25th 
year, 1898. The Society. 

Indianapolis. — Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 
for the year 1897. ^^^ Academy. 



Books Received. 1 1 

Jalapa. — Boletin Mensual Meteorologica del Observatorio 
Central del Estado de Veracroz. Nov. and 
Dec, 1897, and January, 1898. The Director. 

KiEW. — Memoirs of the Kiew Naturalists' Society. Vol. 14, 
part 2, 1 897 ; and vol. 1 5, part i , 189b; and part 
2, 1898. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vandoise des Sciences, 
Naturelles. Vol. 34, nos. 127-130, 1898. 

The Society. 

Lawrence, Kansas. — The Kansas University Quarterly. Ser. 
A, vol. 7, nos. 1-4, 1898 ; and vol. 8, no. i, 
1899 ; ser. B., vol. 7, nos. 1-3, 1898. 

The University. 

Leipsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 

1897. The Society. 

London. — Report of the Meeting of the British Association at 
Bristol, 1898. The Association. 

„ Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 

London. Vol. 54, part 4, 1898 ; vol. 55, part 
I, 1899 ; and List of Fellows, (898. 

The Society. 

,, Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Parts 

3-6, 1898, and part i, 1899. 7 he Society. 

„ Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 

Vol. 14, parts 6-8, 1898, and vol. 15, part i, 

1898. Proceedings, parts 1-4, 1898 ; also, List 
of Fellows, 1898. The Society. 

Madison. — Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters. Vol. 11, 1898. 

The Academy. 
,, Bulletin of the Wisconsin Geological and Natural 

History Society. Nos. i and 2, 1898. 

The Society. 



1 2 Books Received. 

Madras. — Bulletin of Madras Government Museum. Vol. 2, 
no. 2, 1898 ; also, Administration Report for 
1897-98. 'J'he Superintendent. 

Manchester. — Journal of Manchester Geographical Society. 
Vol. II, nos. 10-12, 1895 ; vol. 13, nos. 7-12, 
1897 ; and vol. 14, nos. 1-6, 1898. The Society. 

„ Transactions of the Manchester Geological 

Society. Vol. 25, parts 15. 16, 20, 21 ; vol. 26, 
part I, 1898 ; and parts 2 and 3, 1899. 

The Society. 

Marseilles. — Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 
Vol. 8, fasc, 5-10, 1898. The Librarimi. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings ot the Royal Society of Victoria. 
New series, vol. 10, part 2 ; and vol. 11, part i, 
1898. The Society. 

Meriden, Conn. — Transactions of Meriden Scientific Associa- 
tion. Vol. 8, i8q8. The Association. 

Mexico. — Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico 
Central de Mexico. January to November, 
1898. The Director. 

, Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de 

Tacubaya. Nos. 3 and 4, 1898. The Director. 

„ Boletin del Instituto Geologico de Mexico. No. 10, 

1898. The Institute. 

Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Vol. 3., fasc. 9 and 10, 1898. The Director. 

Moscow. — Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Naturalists of 
Moscow. Nos. 3 and 4, 1897 ; and nos. 1-3 
1898. The Society. 

Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
I'Ouest de France. Vol. 7, part 4, 1897 ; and 
vol. 8, parts 1-4, 1898. The Society. 



Books Received. 13 

New York. — Transactions of the New York Academy of 
Sciences. Vol. i6,nos. 1-12, 1898 ; and Annals, 
vol. 10, 1898 ; and 11, parts i and 2, 1898. 

The Academy. 

,, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 30, no. 25, i8q8 ; and vol. 31, no. i, 1899. 

The Society. 
„ Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 

History. Vol. 10, 1898. The Museum. 

Odessa. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 
Vol. 18, part 2, 1897; vol. 21, part 2, 1897; 
and vol. 22, part i, 1898. The Society. 

Oporto. — Annaes de ScienciasNaturaes. Vol. 5, nos. 1-3, 1898. 

The Editor. 

OSNABRUCK. — Twelfth Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaft- 
lichen Vereins zu Osnabruck, 1897. 

The Society. 
Ottawa. — Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Canada. 
New series, vol 9, 1898. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Padua. — Atti del la Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Natu- 
rali. Series 2, vol. 3, fasc. 3, 1899 ; also 
BuUettino. Vol. 6, no. 3, 1898. The Society. 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Part 3, 1897 J ^"d parts 1-3, 1898. 

The Academy. 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 
No. 156, 1897 , and nos. 157 and 158, 1898. 

The Society. 
Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of 
Science. Vol. 4, part 4, 1898 ; and vol. 5, 
part I, 1898. The Institute. 

PisA. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Natural! Process! 
Verbali. January- July, 1898. Ihe Society. 



14 Books Received. 

Rio de Janeiro. — Revista do Museo Nacional do Rio de 
Janeiro. Vol. i, 1896. The Director. 

Rome. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Ser. 5, vol. 7, 
semestre i, fasc. 8-12, 1898 ; semestre 2, nos. 
1-12, 1898; vol. 8, semestre i, fasc. 1-6, 1809 ; 
al?o Rendiconto del Adunanza Solenne, 1897. 

The Academy. 

Bollettino della Societa Romana per gli Studi Zoo- 
logici. Vol. 6, fasc. 5 and 6, 1897 ; and vol. 7, 
fasc. 1-6, 1898. The Society. 

Journal of the British and American Archaeological 
Society of Rome. Vol 2, no. 8, 1898. TheSociety. 

San Francisco. — Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences. Ser. 3, vol. i., nos. 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
1898. The Academy. 

Stay anger. — Stavanger Museums Aarsberetning for 1897. 

The Miiseicm Trustees. 
Stirling. — Transactions of Stirling Natural History and 
Archaeological Society, 1898. The Society. 

St. Louis. — Ninth Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, 1898. The Director. 

Stockholm. — Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens 
Handlingar. New series, vol. 30, 1898 ; 
Bihang, vol. 23, parts 1-4, 1898 ; and Ofver- 
sigt ; no. 54, 1897. ^^^ Academy. 

Sydney. — Science of Man. Vol. 2, no. i, 1899. The Editor. 

Tokyo — Die Sprichworter. Two parts, 1898. The Author. 

ToPEKA. — Transactions of Kansas Academy of Science. Vol. 
15, 1898. The Academy. 

Toronto. — Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 5, 
parts, 1898 ; Proceedings, new series, vol. i, 
parts 4-6, 1898. The Institute. 



Books Receivea. 1 5 

Upsala. — Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the Univer- 
sity of Upsala. Vol. 3, part 2, 1897. 

The University. 

Vienna, — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoolo- 
gisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft. Vol. 48, 1898. 

The Society. 

Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Geolo- 
gischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 4-18, 1898; and 
nos. 1-4, i8q9. The Society. 

Washington. — United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bulletin. Nos. Q, 10, 11, and 50, 1898 ; also, 
Secretary's Report for 1898 ; and Year-book of 
Agriculture for 1897. 

The Secretary of Agriculture. 

Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey. 
No. 149, 1897 ; and nos. 88 and 89, 1898 ; also, 
Monographs ; vol. 30, 1898. The Director. 

Annual Report of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation for the year 1896. Vols, i and 2, 1897. 

The Association. 

Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, part 
2, i8g6. The Director of the Bureau. 

Annual Report of the United States National 
Museum for the year 1895, and Report for 
1896 ; also Proceedings of U.S. Museum, vol. 
19, 1897 ; and Annual Report of Smithsonian 
Institution, tc July, 1896 ; Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Knowledge, no. 1,126, 1898 ; 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, nos. 
1,087, ^09C, 1,093, ^i^d 1,125, ^^98 ; also 
vol. 39, no. 1,170, 1899. 

The Smithsoniati Institution. 
York. — Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society 
for 1898, The Society, 



1 6 Books Received. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 
in Zurich. 43rcl year, parts 1-4, 1898. Neu- 
jahrsblatt ; no. loi, 1899. The Society. 

From Egypt Exploration Fund. — The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. 
Part I, 1898 ; also Archaeological Report for 
1896-97. 

From MoNS. Charles Janet. — Etudes sur les Fourmis, les 
Guepes, et les Abeilles. 5 nos., 1897-98 ; also, 
Notice sur les Travaux Scientifiques of M. 
Janet. 

From Mr. R. Lloyd-Patterson, J.P., F.L.S. —Journal of the 
Linnean Society — Botany. Vol. 33, nos. 232 
234, 1898 ; vol. 34, no. 23s, 1898 ; and 236,1899. 

From Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. — Exploration Scientifique 
de la Tunisie. Illustrations, plates, 1-20, 
Champignons and Phanerogames ; also. Cata- 
logue Raisonne des Plantes Cellulaires de la 
Tunisie, 1897. 

From Miss Carruthers. — Belfast Almanac, 1809 ; and Belfast 
News-Letter^ Dec. 8th and Dec. 15th, 18 18. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION 1898-99. 



8//z November^ 1898. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. 



{Abstract.) 



It appears to me that of late years this Society has largely 
drifted away from the study that was the life-work of our 
illustrious founders. I refer to Natural History ; and seeing 
that your Council has done me the honour of electing me 
President for this Session, I think I cannot better occupy your 
time than by addressing you on " Incentives to the Study of 
Natural History." We must all feel that there is much going 
on in Nature around us to which we shut our eyes, and to not 
a few Nature has no more interest than it had to Wordsworth's 
Hero — 

" . . . Nature ne'er could find the way 
Into the heart of Peter Bell. 
In vain through every changeful year, 
Did Nature lead him as before ; 
A pimrose by a river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more." 

I had intended to take as incentives some of the interesting 
facts that are known about the lives of plants and animals. 
I found, however, that this would be too extensive, and 
2 



1 8 Inaugural Address hv the President. 

therefore shall confine my remarks this evening to the 
botanical part only. 

Ordinary flowering plants may be divided into three pretty 
well marked groups — 

The single flower, 
The grouped flower, 
and The compressed flower. 

We quite understand why a plant has a root, as it must 
have a hold on the ground, from which it pumps up water and 
mineral salts. Also the need to it of stalk and branches ; that 
it may be raised from the ground and have its leaves spread 
out to the sun and air ; and the use of the leaves are quite 
apparent, as we know them to be the mouths and lungs of 
plants. But have we grasped the need to it of the wonderfully 
shaped and beadtifully coloured parts we call the flower. 

All these curious shapes and bright colouring of flowers are 
simply an advertisement to the wandering hordes orf" flying 
insects that " good honey is kept here." The floral world no 
more believes in the old adage, that " good wine requires no 
bush," than do our modern houses of entertainment, as one 
can see by our city hoardings. 

Our modern advertisers do not off"er to give away their goods 
for nothing, and, though flowers seem to do that, it is only in 
appearance, for their little deceits are very wily. Before or 
after they entertain their insect visitor they ask for no fee or 
payment. They simply practically say, after having feasted 
him, "Thanks, old fellow, for your visit — come soon back," and 
then pat him on the head or back, or rub a little pollen on 
his whiskers, so that he goes away quite satisfied, feeling that 
he has got quite a lot for nothing, little thinking that he is 
doing a good hard day's work for the flower for very little pay. 
Just look at the work a humble bee does from early morning to 
late at night, visiting hundreds and hundreds of flowers, and 
carrying the pollen from the stamen of one flower to the pistil 
of another, so that they may be fertilised. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 19 

It is to this insect industry that we owe the glorious masses 
of colour in heaths and whins and buttercups, that make the 
fields so beautiful in spring and summer. 

Several of our native plants, are very curious and of great 
interest, such as the Cuckoo Pint (Arum maculatum), so 
conspicuous in the early spring with its curious heated chamber 
or fly prison, and the spotted orchid {Ophrys macula ta) that has 
its pollen in two club-like masses called pollinia which have a 
viscid disk by which they are fastened to the proboscis of the 
bumble bee when it comes to suck the honey from the flower. 
The pollinia after being fastened on the proboscis in a vertical 
position automatically turn to a horizontal position so as to 
project forward and thus to strike the stigma when the bee 
visits a fresh flower. Among the interesting foreign plants, is 
the Marcgravia nepenthoides, described by Belt in his remarkable 
book " The Naturalist in Nicaragua." The flowers of this lofty 
climber are disposed in a circle, hanging downwards, like an 
inverted candelabrum. From the centre of the circle of flowers 
is suspended a number of pitcher-like vessels, which when the 
flowers expand, in February and March, are filled with a 
sweetish liquid. This liquid attracts insects, and the insects 
numerous insectiverous birds, including many kinds of humming 
birds. 

The flowers are so disposed, with the stamens hanging 
downwards, that the birds, to get at the pitchers, must brush 
against them, and thus convey the pollen from one plant to 
another. 

This writer also describes the curious bull's horn thorn. It 
is a species of acacia, belonging to the section Gummiferce^ 
growing to the height of fifteen or twenty feet. The branches 
and trunk are covered with strong curved spines, set in pairs, 
from which it receives the name of the bull's horn thorn, they 
having a very strong resemblance to the horns of that quadruped. 

These thorns are hollow, and are tenanted by ants, that make 
a small hole for their entrance and exit near one end of the 
thorn, and also burrow through the partition that separates the 
two horns ; so that the one entrance serves for both. 



20 Inaugural Addi'ess by the President. 

Here they rear their young, and in the wet season every one 
of the thorns is tenanted ; and hundreds of ants are to be seen 
running about, especially over the young leaves. If one of them 
be touched or a branch shaken, the little ants {Pseudomyrma 
hicolor Guer.) swarm out from the hollow thorns, and attack 
the aggressor with jaws and sting. These ants form a most 
efficient standing army for the plant, which prevents not only 
the mammalia from browsing on the leaves, but delivers it 
from the attacks of a much more dangerous enemy — the leaf 
cutting ants. For these services the ants are not only securely 
housed by the plant, but are provided with a bountiful supply 
of food ; and to secure their attendance at the right time and 
place, this food is so arranged and distributed as to effect that 
object with wonderful pertection. The leaves are bi-pinnate. 

At the base of each pair of leaflets, on the mid-rib, is a 
crater-formed gland, which, when the leaves are young, secrets 
a honey-like liquid. Of this the ants are very fond ; and they 
are constantly running about from one gland to another to sip 
up the honey as it is secreted. But this is not all ; there is 
a still more wonderful provision of more solid food. At the 
end of each of the small divisions of the compound leaflet there 
is, when the leaf first unfolds, a little yellow fruit-like body 
united by a point at its base to the end of the pinnule. 
Examined through a microscope, this little appendage looks a 
golden pear. When the leaf first unfolds, the little pears are 
not quite ripe, and the ants are continually employed going 
from one to another, examining them. 

When the ant finds one sufficiently advanced, it bites the 
small point of attachment ; then, bending down the fruit-like 
body, it breaks it off and bears it away in triumph to the nest. 

All the fruit-hke bodies do not ripen at once, but successively, 
so that the ants are kept about the young leaf for sometime 
after it unfolds. 

Thus the young leaf is always guarded by the ants ; and no 
caterpillar or larger animal could attempt to injure them 
without being attacked by the little warriors. These facts 



Inaugural Address by the President. 21 

seem to show that the ants are really kept by the acacia as a 
standing army, to protect its leaves from the attacks of 
herbiverous mammals and insects. 

. hark ! how blythe the throstle sings ! 
He, too, is no mean preacher ; 
Come forth into the light of things ; 
Let Nature be your teacher. 

She has a world of ready wealth, 

Our minds and hearts to bless — 
Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health, 

Truth breathed by cheerfulness. 

One impulse from a vernal wood 

May teach you more of man, 
Of moral evil and of good. 

Than all the sages can. 

Sweet is the lore which Nature brings j 

Our meddling intellect 
Misshapes the beauteous forms of things j — 

We murder to dissect. 

Enough of Science and of Art ; 

Close up those barren leaves ; 
Come forth, and bring with you a heart, 

That watches and receives. — JVordsivortk, 1798. 



22 



iith December^ 1898. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President in the Chair. 



REFUSE DISPOSAL AND SEWAGE PURIFICATION, 
By W. Chambers. 



{Abstract^) 



From an economic standpoint, much of the rubbish of to-day 
is quite unessential and due to habits of wastefulness, which 
will doubtless be corrected as education advances and science 
works out her destiny. It may be considered under four 
divisions : — 

1. Road scrapings, which are comparatively harmless 

2. Stable manure, abattoir and fish offal, all containing good 
manurial properties. 

3. Refuse from household operations, constituting legitimate 
sewer matters. 

4. Dustbin and market refuse, of which our urban population 
contributes, it is estimated, about six million tons per annum ; 
that can only be disposed of in one way to satisfy the require- 
ments of public health, viz. : destruction by burning. A 
destructor furnace reduces all organic matter to its component 
gases, and by a system (illustrated on the diagram) they are 
rendered odourless and innoxious. The resultant heat is 
utilised in boilers of large size, having supplementary fire grates 
to augment the power, and so make it available for generating 
current for tramway traction, at a cost of less than one penny 



Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 23 

per B.T.U. The Corporations of St. Helens and Llandudno 
are arranging to use current from their destructor stations for 
working the tramways, and at Bradford electric current is 
supplied to the tramways at one penny per B.T.U. , and at that 
price yields a profit of 25 per cent. This question has an 
important bearing on the economic and efficient administration 
of municipal matters. At St. Helens the Corporation are 
laying and equiping a network of tramways, leasing them to 
a private company, and supplying current at a nominal price, 
to enable a large scattered industrial population to have rapid 
communication at cheap fares. Professor Forbes estimates 
ashbin refuse to contain 50 per cent, breeze and cinders, 25 per 
cent, incombustible matter, and 25 per cent moisture. The 
non-combustible elements, chiefly mineral, leave the furnace in 
the form of hard clinker, which is perfectly innocuous and 
serviceable for concrete, mortar, and — when mixed with a 
proportion of fine dust from the flues together with cement — 
can be formed into paving slabs, both they and the mortar 
being produced at a cheap rate, and adding to the profit 
bearing revenue derived from destructor stations. From an 
economic standpoint water-carriage for sewage is a wasteful 
system, as Sir William Crookes estimates this national loss to 
the soil of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash at ^16,000,000 per 
annum. 

Sewage purification involves biological problems, and in a 
great measure it is due to the researches of Mr. S. R. Lowcock, 
Mr. W. E. Adeney, and Mr. Donald Cameron that general 
acceptance is given to the idea that bacteria are the scavengers 
of nature. Dead organic matter is perpetually undergoing 
decomposition into the gaseous and saline compounds that, in 
the economy of nature, go to sustain vegetable life, this 
decomposition being brought about by the agency of micro- 
organisms of various kinds, which may be either putrefactive 
or by oxidation, the latter being the work of those healthy 
micro-organismal scavengers that cover the whole surface of 
the earth, and without whose beneficient work all terrestrial 
life, vegetable and animal alike, would cease to be. 



24 Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 

In the system originated by Mr. Adeney the polluted liquid 
sewage, after separation of solid matter, is reduced to simple 
substances by micro-organisms, the process being facilitated by 
the introduction of materials into a series of tanks for main- 
taining a healthy condition of the microbes, the operations 
being continued until the fluid is sufficiently purified to enable 
it to be safely discharged into any ordinary outfall. 

The septic system is of a different character, and is difi"erenti- 
ated from the previous process by encouraging putrefaction of 
the solid elements in sewage. It is an accepted dictum that 
"the tendency of nature is to return to the status quo,'' and the 
modern science of bacteriology teaches that if seriously pol- 
luted water is given sufficient time and oxygen, it will be 
changed back to a wholesome fluid. Mr. H. E. P. Cottrell 
states that water bacteria consume all substances that are 
eatable, including putrefying matter, the germs and spores of 
other bacteria, and even each other. A lack of food produces a 
curious phenomenon : the dead bodies of myriads of deceased 
generations which preceded them exert a toxic effect, by 
which the living are quickly exterminated, and the water 
becomes sterilized. 

Mr. Cameron proves that the disappearance of solids in 
sewage is due to micro-organisms feeding on the organic matter 
which they exude in a simpler and liquid form ; this action 
taking place in a closed tank. The fluid is then subjected to 
filtration and a clear effluent obtained. 

Sewage farming offers three great advantages : — i. The 
effluent is thoroughly purified, 2. A profitable agricultural 
return is ensured. 3. Under proper management the public 
health is not endangered. These essentials are not easily 
realised owing to the difficulty of obtaining suitable land near 
large cities, but farming may be used as an adjunct to any 
sewage scheme for utilizing the resultant sludge. Chemical 
precipitation has now been in constant operation for over thirty 
years, and is a ready process for effecting a clear affluent. It 
involves the use of collecting tanks, which, however, can be 



Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 25 

emptied at any time, so that the process is a continuous one. 
In dealing with a large quanity of sewage there is necessarily a 
considerable deposit of solid matter, commonly called sludge, 
and its ultimate disposal involves careful consideration. Practical 
science is at fault in not determining its utilization as manure. 
It can be applied to raise the level of low-lying lands which can 
be afterwards cultivated with advantage, or carried away and 
dumped into the sea, or pressed, to remove the surplus water) 
and then burnt in destructor furnaces. The mal-odorous 
condition of the fore shore of Belfast Lough demands that the 
sewage should be treated so as to produce a clear effluent. So 
far back as 1866 Mr. Montgomery, the then Borough Surveyor, 
considered it to be essential to his able and comprehensive 
Main Drainage Scheme to prevent any pollution to the shores 
of the Lough. Had that proposal been carried out as intended 
22 years ago, there can be no reasonable doubt that the surface 
soil of our city would have been free from the disease germs 
that now render some portions of the city unhealthy. 

The adoption of a clarification process requires that the 
collecting tanks be fitted with a stirring apparatus to thoroughly 
mix the chemicals used for precipitation of the solid matter. 
The direct result of such mixture is that the solid particles are 
thrown into a flocculent state, permeating the entire contents 
of the tank, which gradually settle down, leaving the liquid 
clear and innoxious. The chemical combinations necessary to 
produce this hygienic effect are prepared chiefly from iron 
oxide, alumina, and lime. All these exist in immense quanti- 
ties in our own immediate neighbourhood, and under these 
favourable local conditions it follows that the cost of precipitat- 
ing materials should be cheaper here than in any other part of 
the United Kingdom. 

Refuse disposal and sewage purification are pregnant with 
possibiUties for our material welfare. The destructor, while 
absolutely destroying those germs of evil that are the accom- 
paniments of disease, will furnish the power for locomotion, 
lighting, or other useful purposes. A precipitation process 



l6 /Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 

furnishes plant nourishment from its residuals, and at the same 
time confers the beneficent result of a comparatively pure 
effluent from the sewer outfall, and so contribues to the public 
weal by establishing a thorough sanitary system. 



Mr. R. M. Young, B.A., M.R.I. A. (Hon. Secretary), an- 
nounced that letters of apology for non-attendance had been 
received from Professor Letts, Messrs. H. H. M-Neilt, D.L., 
Parkmount ; Thomas Andrews, J.P. ; and John Lanyon, C.E. 

Mr. Young read the following letter from Prof. Letts : — 

"Dear Mr. Young, — I very much regret that owing to 
another engagement I shall not be able to have the pleasure 
of attending the meeting on Tuesday evening and of listening 
to what will, I am sure, prove a most interesting paper. It 
comes at a very opportune time, for, as you are aware, we who 
live on the shores of the lough suffer from a nuisance which at 
times is well nigh intolerable, and which we are convinced is 
caused almost entirely by the discharge of the untreated 
sewage of the city of Belfast into the lough. I say almost 
entirely, because we do not deny that small quantities of 
sewage are discharged from the villages on the lough shores, 
but it must be recollected that a large proportion of this 
sewage is from cesspools, and is theretore free from solids — a 
very important distinction between it and the Belfast sewage, 
which runs bodily into the lough, solids and all. 

" The deputation which waited upon the City Council last 
Friday was gratified to learn from the Lord Mayor that some- 
thing would have to be done in a comprehensive way as 
regards the whole subject of the disposal of the Belfast sewage, 
but it was by no means so satisfactory to hear that nothing 
could attempted until the Royal Commission on Sewage 
Disposal, which is now sitting, had furnished its report. This 
may take a long time, and the questions arise — (i) Can we 
afford to wait so long? and (2) Is there any necessity for the 
delay ? 



Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification, 27 

"There are three, and only three, alternative methods for 
the disposal of the Belfast sewage I believe, viz. : (i) irrigation ; 
(2) the construction of a main sewer to Blackhead, or at all 
events to some spot on the coast where the sewage would be 
swept out to sea by the turn ocean tide ; and (3) chemical 
treatment. 

" Of these three the conditions for the first are so unsuitable 
that there is no chance of its being adopted, while the cost of 
the second would, I understand, place it out of the question. 
This leaves the third as alone within the range of practical 
politics. If that is the case can anything be gained by a delay 
in executing the necessary works and in immediately starting 
some precipitation process ? 

"I do not think that the local conditions require any very 
elaborate treatment of the sewage, because it is not a question 
of running the effluent into a river or watercourse, but into a 
shallow-sea lough, where a large aerating surface exists quite 
sufficient, I believe, to cope with the dissolved organic matter 
which would remain after the employment of any of the 
present precipitation processes. 

" One of the chief advantages of the immediate adoption of a 
precipitation process would be that the effluent could be run off 
at any time of the tide, and not as at present (under the Main 
Drainage Act) during a restricted interval which I am told 
is impossible frequently. — Yours, &c., E. A. Letts." 

The Chairman then called for discussion, and said he would 
ask Mr. John Macllwaine to open the discussion on Mr. 
Chambers's able paper. 

Mr. MacIlv^^aink said they were much obliged to Mr. Chambers 
for the most interesting paper he had read. He (Mr. 
Macllwaine) could offer nothing but friendly criticism on the 
paper. He knew something about combustion, and, judging 
the paper from that part of the subject with which he (Mr. 
Macllwaine) was famihar, he would say that the other part wag 
all right. They owed a debt of gratitude to their American 
cousins for having, after twenty years' experience, brought 



28 Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 

electric lighting and electric traction to perfection, and he 
thought the time had come when they in this country might 
profit by that experience, and go in at once for electric tram- 
ways and electric lighting. 

Mr. Otto Jaffe, J.P., T.C., said that, speaking as a Town 
Councillor, he was in the unfortunate position of not being a 
member of either the Improvement Committee or the Public 
Health Committee, but perhaps he had the advantage of being 
able to speak more freely about the subject. He might say 
that the Town Council had decided to adopt refuse destructors, 
and the only question at issue was what was the best kind of 
destructor to get ? The deputation that had visited various 
centres in England in connection with the subject had not yet 
made up their minds on that point, but he believed they were 
gradually coming to a decision. He might say that the 
destructors at first would not be put up at the electric station, 
but would be erected at the outfall pumping station, where the 
power could be used in the pumping. Mr. (Chambers had 
estimated the amount of the refuse at 30,000 tons per year, but 
he (Mr. Jaffe) understood that, with road scrapings, the refuse 
amounted to loo.coo tons a year, and the plant which the 
Corporation would put down would deal with the destruction 
of one-fourth of that quantity. Some people condemned the 
main drainage system, but, as the Lord Alayor had told the 
deputation at the last meeting of the Corporation, there was no 
doubt that when the present system was put down it was done 
under the best technical advice of the time. If the citizens 
agitated he was quite sure that the Corporation would see its 
way very soon to chemically precipitate the sewage at the out- 
fall station. There was no doubt that when the main drainage 
scheme was designed it was assumed that the sewage would 
run further into the tidal part of the lough than it did now. 
In other words, the tide brought it back sooner and nearer 
than was anticipated. He feared that Mr. Chambers's estimate 
of ^'4,500 a year as the cost of precipitating the sewage was 
one-half lower than the actual cost would be ; for he (Mr. Jaffe) 



Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 29 

believed that if an expenditure of ;^4,5oo a year would purify 
the sewage of Belfast it would not be necessary to call on the 
liberaHty of the Council at all — they would vote that sum with 
the greatest of pleasure in two minutes. And when the proper 
time came he believed the Council would not hesitate about 
voting four or five or six times the amount mentioned for the 
purpose referred to. 

Professor Fitzgerald said he had listened to the paper with 
great satisfaction, and admired the practical way in which Mr. 
Chambers had attacked his subject, and treated it in general. 
He (the Professor) took it they did not want particularly any 
wonderful plan, with elaborate chemicals, much machinery, and 
so-forth, which was to produce an affluent that could be put 
into a small stream, the size, for instance, of the Dodder, near 
Dublin. What they wanted was a simple precipitation plan, 
which would render the sewage matter sufficiently innocuous to 
be put safely into the lough, and unlikely to lead to the 
accummulation of sludge banks, which seemed to be certainly 
going on now in a way very much analogous to what began to 
be noticeable in the Thames about the year 1872, and the 
result of which was that the London sewage had to be precipi- 
tated, and the sludge taken out to sea as it was now. With 
regard to the use of the destructor, and the advantage of 
utilising the heat, he thought the destructor which Mr. 
Chambers had shown them was an extremely well-designed 
one, but in spite of Edinburgh, he had not been converted to 
the belief that there was really anything to be got out of the 
utilisation of the heat in the way of raising steam. 

Dr. St. George (Lisburn) favourably criticised the paper. 
He said that in Lisburn they laboured under difficulties some- 
what similar to those in Belfast with reference to the disposal 
of sewage. They discharged the sewage into the River Lagan 
— but they did not want to make it a gigantic cesspool arty 
longer, and they had now a Bill before Parliament to get their 
sewerage system into a better state. 

Alderman James Dempsey spoke of the absolute necessity of 



3© Refuse Disposal and Sewage Purification. 

destroying the sewage by either a burning process or taking 
out to sea in barges, and the latter method was said to be 
attended with danger, considering the state of the weather at 
certain periods. The question of precipitating the sewage 
matter was a much more serious one than that of erecting a 
destructor. The erection of a destructor was within measurable 
distance, and the precipitating business must come within 
measurable distance also. 

Mr. F. D Ward, J.P., said he had visited Paris ten or twelve 
years ago, and a friend had brought him to see the wonderfully 
complete system of sewerage that existed in that city. All the 
sewage went into a river, and this river ran through a district 
where there was a wonderful irrigation farm, and here the 
water came out perfectly pure, as he (Mr. Ward) could testify 
by having tasted it. He would like to hear from the lecturer 
whether the system of Paris had been improved or not since 
the time he referred to. 

Mr. Conway Scott, Executive Sanitary Officer, disagreed 
with Mr. Chambers's estimate of is. 6d. per ton for carting 
rubbish to burn in the destructors. He did not believe the 
work could be done for that. The sludge was comparatively 
worthless — it was the liquid form of sewage that supplied plant 
life — and the sludge of London sewage was so valueless that 
they towed it out into the channel and dumped it into the sea. 
He thought the real question was how to get rid of it in the 
cheapest possible way. He also disagreed with Mr. Chambers 
about the power to be obtained from the destructor. While 
he admitted there was power to be gained, the citizens need 
not imagine that the rates would be reduced immediately by 
the introduction of electric lights and electric trams through 
the power derived from destructors. There was no doubt that 
sewage could be purified, but it was all a question of expense. 
The reason the Corporation did not purify the sewage was 
because it was a matter of ^ s d, and that appealed to the rate- 
payers. 

Mr. MuNCE, Assistant City Surveyor, said that Mr. Chambers 



Refuse Disposal and Sewage FurificaHon. 3 1 

spoke of 6,000,000 gallons of sewage having to be dealt with 
every day in Belfast, but the usual amount was about 12,000,000 
gallons daily, and very often it was much more, so that Mn 
Chamber's estimate of the cost fell far short of the mark. 

Mr. Chambers, in replying to the various speakers, said that 
in estimating ;^4,5oo a year as the cost of precipitating the 
sewage he only meant the cost of the materials to be employed, 
without reference to labour, but the latter was a small item. 
The cost of precipitation depended upon the quantity of 
materials used and the degree of excellence of the resulting 
effluent. As to the sludge, it could be used for reclaiming land, 
or it could be used on sewage farms, or dumped into the sea. 
Paris did not come within the scope of his paper, but, as they 
all knew, it was a model sewage farm that was in the village 
outside the French capital. With regard to the destructor, he 
believed the mere work of burning could be done for the 
amount he had stated, but the wages bill and other charges 
would increase it. He was surprised at the figures given by 
Mr. Munce as to the quantity of sewage matter daily. He (Mr. 
Chambers) took the population of Belfast at 300,000, including 
the added area, and, allowing 30 gallons per head, which was 
the general estimate, that would give 9,000,000 gallons per day. 
But, as the whole of the area was not included in the main 
drainage scheme, he deducted one-third, and that gave his 
figures 6,000,000 gallons. 



32 



I2)th December, 1898. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President, in the Chair. 



THE PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE BY BACTERIA. 
By Arthur J. Martin, Assoc. M.Inst. C.E. 



(Abstract.) 



I CANNOT pass on to the special side of my subject without first 
referring briefly to the nature and properties of sewage, as a 
proper understanding of these is absolutely necessary for the 
comprehension of a process of purification. There is often a 
disposition to regard sewage as consisting, either wholly or in 
great part, of excremental matter. This is very far from being 
the case. There are, for instance, many towns in the North of 
England where the excreta are dealt with on the dry-earth or 
privy system, and do not find their way into the sewers ; but 
in such cases, as the Rivers Pollution Commissioners have 
shown, the sewage differs very slightly in composition and 
strength from that of water-closeted towns, in which the whole 
of the excrement is admitted to the sewers. 

Fresh sewage is generally comparatively free from smell ; but 
when it has lain about for any length of time, as it does in the 
depressions of badly-laid sewers, it often becomes exceedingly 
offensive. In other words, it begins to decompose. This 
process of decomposition serves a definite purpose of supreme 
importance in the economy of nature. The materials which 
are suitable as food for the vegetable and animal world exist in 
extremely limited quantities, and must therefore be used over 
and over again. But the refuse of animal life has to be 



The Piirificahon of Sewage by Bacteria. 33 

prepared for the plants before they can feed upon it. This all- 
important work is performed by myriads of unpaid scavenorers, 
whose existence was not even suspected until late in the 
seventeenth century. They are so tiny that it required the 
powerful microscopes of the present day to make them, visible 
at all ; they are known as " bacteria " or more familiarly as 
" microbes." There are other low forms of life which bear a 
part with them ; but it will simplify our task to-night if we 
confine ourselves to bacteria and their work. It is they who 
seize on the foul matter given off by the animal world, and 
bring it into such a condition that it can support vegetable life. 
This work is accomplished in at least two stages. The products 
of animal life become first of all the prey of the decomposition 
moulds and bacteria, whereby they are converted into the 
various products of decomposition, such as ammonia and nitrites. 
These, again, are seized upon by the other workers, which it is 
convenient to classify as nitrifying bacteria, and converted by 
them into nitrates, which I need hardly remind you, are among 
the most valuable of our artificial fertilisers. 

As I shall point out later, the decomposition moulds and 
bacteria are made use of in the septic tank to break down the 
polluting matter of sewage ; and the work of purification is 
completed by the nitrifying bacteria in the filters. 

When the sewage problem first began to make itself felt, the 
eyes of sanitary authorities turned hopefully towards sewage 
farms. They expected not only to get rid of their sewage, but 
also to derive a profit from its utilisation on the land. 'I he 
creed of many sanitarians was summed up in the phrase *• The 
rainfall to the river, the sewage to the land." These hopes 
were, in nearly every instance, doomed to be blasted. In all 
but a very small minority of instances, where local circumstances 
were exceptionally favourable, the sewage farm has turned out 
a source of 1 ss instead of profit ; and in too many cases it has 
completely failed to purify the sewage. Often enough it has 
proved to be an unmitigated nuisance. The reason for this is 
not far to seek. Land is undoubtedly the natural receptacle 
3 



34 The Purification of Sewage bv Bacteria. 

for the refuse of the animal world ; and, if we were content to 
live the life of the primitive man. we might safely throw upon 
the soil the duty of dealing with our leavings. But it does not 
follow that this is the natural \v2.y to deal with town sewage. 
It is not a natural state of things to concentrate the excrement 
of several thousand people upon a few acres of land. It is still 
less a natural proceeding to swamp this land daily with several 
thousands of tons of dirty water in addition. It is because we 
do these things that nature rebels, and our sewage farms turn 
out failures. The successful purification of sewage by means of 
land, day in and day out throughout the year, demands far 
larger areas than are generally available. And, what is not less 
important, the task requires skilled management of a high 
order, which it is hard to find, and still harder to induce a 
sewage committee to pay for. We are therefore thrown back 
on what are called " artificial '' processes of sewage purification. 

For many years attempts have been made to solve the 
diflBculty by means of strainers, followed by chemical precipita- 
tion. This process, when properly carried out, does undoubtedly 
remove from sewage the larger proportion of the suspended 
impurities, that is to say, of the solid matter visible to the eye, 
as well as part of the dissolved polluting matter. But the 
suspended matters are not got rid of by precipitation : they are 
merely thrown down as sludge. Great expectations were at 
one time entertained of the manurial value of sewage sludge ; 
but here again the hopes formed have been doomed to 
disappointment ; and in most cases the cost of disposing of this 
embarrassing substance adds very largely to the expense of 
dealing with the sewage. 

The capability of filters, when properly handled, to deal with 
the liquid portion of sewage has long been recognised. It 
remained to find an effective and inexpensive means of preparing 
sewage for filtration by freeing it from its suspended solids, and 
of grappling with the sludge difficulty. Among others whose 
duties brought them face to face with this problem was the 
City Surveyor of Exeter, Mr. Donald Cameron. After many 



The Furificatioii of Seivage by Bacteria. 35 

years of study and research Mr. Cameron came to the con- 
clusion that the polluting matter of sewage might be so changed 
as to be rendered harmless solely by the operation of natural 
agencies, provided that these were properly directed and con- 
trolled. The outcome of his work in this direction is the septic 
tank, which is probably known by name, at least, to most of 
those present. 

The septic tank and filters at Belleisle have now been dealing 
for more than two years with the sewage of St. Leonards, a 
suburb of the city of Exeter, having a population of about 1,500. 
The sewage is turned without any screening or preliminary 
treatment into the septic tank, in which the solid matter is 
retained, the clear water then being drawn off between the 
scum on the surface and the heavy deposit which lies at the 
bottom of the tank. 

If we did nothing more than arrest the solid matter of the 
sewage, we should still be confronted with the difficulty of 
getting rid of the sludge. But, fortunately, sewage contains 
within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Dr. Poore, 
among others, has drawn attention to the fact that excrement 
simply teems with bacteria. Under the conditions provided in 
the septic tank, these tiny scavengers attack the impurities of 
the sewage, and gradually resolve them into simpler and 
simpler forms. The scum which covers the surface is full of 
bacteria, and serves as the " barm " so to speak, which sets up 
the fermentation or decomposition by which the solid matter 
is eventually broken down. 

As the outcome of these operations we get an effluent 
practically free from solid matter, and showing a marked 
purification even as regards the impurities in s(jlution. 

Among the final products of the decomposition which takes 
place in the septic tank, are marsh gas and free hydrogen, both 
of which are highly inflammable gases. The flame from these 
gases, though a very hot one, is not luminous ; but it becomes 
so by the aid of an incandescent mantle. For some months 
past the works at Exeter have been lighted at night with the 
gases generated in the tank. 



36 The Pzirification of Setvage by Bacteria. 

During the preliminary decomposition in the septic tank, it 
was important to exclude oxygen as far as possible ; but having 
brought the solids into solution, it becomes necessary to oxidise 
them ; and this process requires the free access of air. 
Accordingly the effluent, after flowing through an aerator, 
passes into the filters, in which the work of oxidation is chiefly 
accomplished. This duty, like the preliminary liquefaction of 
the solids in the tank, is the work of bacteria ; but the workers 
in the filters, unlike those in the tank, which only thrive in the 
absence of air, require a plentiful supply of oxygen to enable 
them to perform their functions. Each filter therefore is 
first filled, then allowed to rest full for a certain time, then 
emptied, and finally left to drain and aerate. In this way the 
nitrifying bacteria obtain the necessary supply of oxygen. The 
need for constant attention is done away with by means of an 
alternating gear, which automatically opens and closes the 
valves in their proper order. The works are thus rendered 
completely automatic, and one man, visiting ihem for a few 
minutes on two or three days per week, is able to give all the 
attention which the}' ordinarily require. The filtered effluent 
from these works has been examined at various times by many 
of ihe foremost chemists in the kingdom, and found to be of a 
high quality and perfectly inoffensive ; and it remains so when 
kept for any length of time. 

A marked characteristic of works on this system is their entire 
freedom from nuisance. At Exeter there is a good house with- 
in seventy yards of the works, and three other high-class 
residences within two or three hundred yards. At the Local 
Government Board Inquiry held at Exeter with reference to 
the scheme for laying down tanks and filters for the whole 
city, there was not one word of opposition thereto, although 
the new works will be some thirty times as large as the in- 
stallation already laid down, and right under the windows of 
these houses. 

At Yeovil there is a factory within three paces of the works, 
and the proprietors state that they have never experienced any 



The Fiirification of Sewage by Bacteria. 37 

nuisance therefrom. A doubt has often been expressed whether 
the system would be as successful in dealing with sewage 
strongly charged with manufacturing refuse as it is with an 
ordinary domestic sewage ; but this has now been completely 
demonstrated at Yeovil with a sewage which is pronounced by 
competent judges to be one of the foulest in England. 

There is one function of sewage works which must not be 
overlooked. The bacteria which bring about the decomposition 
of sewage matter are the sworn foes of disease germs ; and it is 
by their means that the ravages of disease are kept within 
bounds. In the septic tank, and again in the filters, any disease 
germs which the sewage contams are systematically exposed to 
the attack of their deadly enemies, first of one kind, then of 
another. The works thus furnish an efficient safeguard against 
the propagation of disease by the sewage with which they are 
dealing. 

Professor Redfkkn, in proposing a vote of thanks to the 
lecturer, said Mr. Martin's discourse had been so lucid and able 
on the new method of sewage treatment, that everyone who 
had thought anything on the matter should be deeply interested. 
The world seemed to have come to a general conclusion that 
bacteria did nothing but mischief, but Mr. Martin had shown 
that they were the great scavengers of eflfete matter, and played 
an important part in the economy of nature. Belfast had been 
recently visited by a typhoid epidemic, but so had other towns 
and cities, and that ought to be remembered when the present 
outcry was raised. The lecturer had shown — and he (Professor 
Redtern) was prepared to believe it — that these bacteria 
destroyed the solid matter in sewage. Exeter had already 
shown in this matter of sewage purification what could be done 
on a small scale, and they all looked forward with great zest to 
its showing them the way in what could be done on a large 
scale in this very important matter. 

Mr. J. W. GiLLiLAND, C.E., seconded the vote of thanks. He 
said that a sewage farm, which system seemed to find favour 
with some, was quite impracticable for a large city like Belfast, 



38 The Purification of Sewage by Bacteria. 

as the area required would be about 3,000 acres , and chemical 
precipitation he did not favour. because it left the sludge question 
undealt with, which was the bete noir of sanitary engineers. 
The question of the disposal of the sludge had practically 
sounded the death knell of chemical precipitation as a means 
of purifying sewage. '1 here was. then, only left the bacterial 
method, which the septic tank treatment carried out. They in 
Belfast therefore should not be any longer lax in this matter, 
but should benefit by the able lecture they had heard from Mr. 
Martin and see that the sewage of the city should not be any 
longer discharged in a crude state into Belfast Lough. The 
question of the purification of the sewage was, as has been said, 
one of _^ s d ; but the septic tank treatment was merely one of 
first cost, with practically a minimum of working expense after- 
wards, the system being automatic. 

Dr. St. Gkorge (Lisburn), after complimenting Mr. Mai tin 
on the clearness of his lecture, said that dirt was only matter in 
a wrong place, and that sewage only was a nuisance and 
required to be grappled with on acccount of the aggregation ot 
people in towns, therefore the disposal of it (sewage) by nature's 
methods was at once the simplest, the cheapest, and the best. 
The sooner the public could be made to understand that 
Bacteria were not all raging lions ready to prey on the human 
race the better, but that even bacteria had their part in the 
cycle of nature, acting and reacting, each in its proper sphere. 
There seemed no manner of doubt that the septic tank 
system fulfilled this, and from personal observation during 
August, 1897, ^s ^^'^s prepared to support all that had been 
said by the lecturer. The other systems he had visited first' 
screened their sewage, none admitting raw sewage in the true 
sense of the word. The chemical precipitation left enormous 
quantities of sludge to be disposed of, which was valueless as 
manure, being deprived of nearly all its nitrogen. Then the 
initial cost being the only expense was a very considerable 
factor for the system, one labourer being sufficient to look after 
the works. The effluent having no chemicals, solution could 



The Purification of Sewage by Bacteria. 39 

be freely discharged into any stream without fear of damage, 
and the sample to be shown by Dr. Jefferson, M.O.H for 
Lisburn, taken August, i''^97, showed no signs of change or 
decomposition at that time. 

Dr. Jkffflrson (Lisburn) said — Mr. Chairman, I can add very 
little to what Dr. St. George has said, but shall, with your 
permission, read a few notes I took when examining the 
different schemes. Tn the universal system at Ilkeston there is 
an Ives Settling Tank, the sludge is pumped out night and 
morning with a gas engine, and during this operation gives off 
a most offensive smell. The effluent is very cloudy, and gives 
off a strong smell of sewage. The International at Hendon has 
a Candy's Patent Sludge Removal Apparatus. There is an 
enormous quantity of sludge, viz. — 1,300 tons for a population 
of 14,500. The treatment and disposal of the sewage cost 
_^979 17s. 7d. for years iy96-i8g7. In the above systems 
chemicals are used. The solids are screened, raked out every 
hour, carted away and buried. The Hendon authorities were 
threatened with an action by the River Conservators for 
pollution of the river Brent, on account of the reaction that 
occurred when chemicals are used. The following are, in my 
opinion, the advantages of the Exeter system, viz. — i, no 
screening ; 2, no chemicals, and consequently no reaction in 
rivers ; 3, no expensive machineiy, it is automatic ; 4, working 
expenses very light, a man about an hour two days in the week 
would be quite sufficient ; 5. very little sludge, which would 
not require removal for several years ; 6, effluent very good, no 
smell whatever, and may be discharged into a river without 
further treatment of any sort. 

Mr. Peddie (Belfast) was in favour of the system, and showed 
that there would be a great saving in both the initial expense 
and also in the upkeep of this system, as compared with the one, 
that had been promoted for Armagh. 

Mr. MuN'CE, Assistant City Surveyor, Belfast, said he had 
from the first formed a good opinion of the septic tank system, 
and he believed the precipitation idea was dead, because the 



40 The Purification of Sewage by Bacteria. 

cost of disposing of the sludge completely barred its adoption 
in any large town. 

Mr. J. Brown said he had listened to the paper with great 
interest, an interest enhanced by his long acquaintance with 
the inventor of the Septic Tank System, Mr. Donald Cameron, 
for whom he had the highest regard. He believed that any- 
thing recommended by Mr. Cameron would merit their most 
careful consideration. 

Mr. Martin then acknowltdged the vote of thanks, and 
replied briefly to questions which had been asked during the 
discussion. He concluded by thanking the Chairman for 
presiding. 



41 



wth January^ 1899. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J. P., President, in the Chair. 



THE VJAGRAPH, A NEW INSTRUMENT FOR 
TESTING KOAD SURFACES. 

By J. Bkown. 

{Abstract.) 



It is almost needless to refer to the importance to all classes 
of the public highways, or to the necessity of good roads for the 
purposes of that commerce which is the mainstay of our empire 
and of our power as a nation, and which depends for its 
existence on the interchange of commodities. In England the 
need of good roads has been long recognised. In Ireland there 
is still much room for improvement. Those who have become 
acquainted with the highways in both countries, either by 
cycling or driving over them, tell us there is a vast difference, 
that the worst road in England, for instance, is better than the 
best in Ireland, and so on ; and they endeavour to convey 
some idea from their observations of the comparative qualities. 
Till now, however, no means existed of making an accurate 
comparison, of telling how much and in what way English or 
foreign roads were better than ours. It was in the hope of 
providing such means, and thereby attempting to convince our 
local authorities of the great need of improvement, that the 

viagraph has been designed. 

The viagraph consists practically of a straight edge applied 
continuously to to the road surface along which it may be 
drawn, and conveying an apparatus for (ist) recording on paper 



42 Ihe Viagraph. 

a profile of the road-surface, and (2nd) indicating a numerical 
index of the unevenness of the surface. These taken together 
give a quite fair estimate of the qu:ility of the road at the pait 
tested. 

Fig. I gives a general view of the instrument, the frame of 
which is in form like a sled, with straight runners. On this 
are mounted the working parts shown in Fig. 2. The lever 
T, pivoted to the main frame at H, carries on its free end a 
serrated wheel, the upper part of which is seen at V. While 
the main frame, in being drawn along the road, preserves a 
sufficiently even line, the road wheel V rises and falls over all 
the unevennesses of the surface, carrying with it the lever 
T, and thereby transmitting its movements by means of the 
link and lever S to the pencil P, which marks the full ampli- 
tucle of these motions on the paper passing round the drum 
A. (In the figure this pencil is raised above its usual position, 
from the necessity of raismg the road-wheel V so as to bring 
it into view.) While the motion of the pencil takts place in a 
vertical direction, the paper on which it marks is carried under 
it by the drum A, which is rotated by a worm and wheel below 
it connected by a shaft and bevel gear with the road wheel V. 
The paper is thus drawn from the stock-roll C, passed under 
the pencil and wound up on the receiving-drum B. The 
result is a profile of the road surface, of which the scale xi full 
size vertically^ and ^in. to \ft. longitiidijially. A second pencil 
seen below P draws a datum line corresponding to that which 
the indicating pencil P would produce from a perfectly even 
road. From this can be measured the depths of the '' ruts ' or 
" cups," or other unevennesses indicated on the diagram. The 
sum of the depths of all these unevennesses constitutes the 
numerical index of unevenness, and is indicated on the decimal 
counter W, which is worked as follows : — A cord attached to 
the free end of the lever T is passed once round the double- 
grooved pulley X, and connected to the stretched rubber band 
at O. When the lever T descends, owing to the fall of the 
road-wheel V, into a rut or cup in the surface, this cord rotates 






^i 
.^^P 



i 



^x 

s 




GUILDFORD AND LEATHERHEAD ROAD, SURREY 

-i\ — ^ \y JVo^ 



LIVERPOOL AND PRESCOT ROAD 



v/p^vv>i?^>d^f 



BELFAST AND LISBURN ROAD 




The Viagraph. 43 

tlie pulley X by the amount of the drop, the rubber band O 
stre'ching to allow the necessary movement of the cord. 
When the road-wheel and lever rise again the cord slips back 
on the pulley, the rubber taking up the slack while the puUty 
is held fast by a brake, consisting of a quite similar rubber- 
tightened cord attached to a rigid part of the frame instead of 
the lever T, and passing round a separate groove on X. The 
pulley X therefore rotates intermittently, in one direction only, 
to an amount proportionate to the sum of all the unevennesses 
passed over, which amount is indicated in inches on the decimal 
counter, and constitutes the index of unevenness. 

In order to compare the index of one road with another, it is 
obviously necessary that the same length of each be taken as a 
unit. For this purpose a length of 88 yards, being one- 
twentieth of a mile, is convenient, and this is measured in 
inches of paper, run off the roll C, proportionate to the scale 
arranged. That is to say, when 88 yards of road have been 
traversed 33in. of paper will have run off the roll. Each 33in. 
length is measured off by the pulley at M in contact with the 
stock roll of paper, and at the end of the length it rings the bell 
above it, thus indicating that the unit length of road has been 
traversed. 

In a newer form of the instrument this alarm-bell has been 
transferred to the interior of the drum A, thus making it more 
simple and compact, and the working parts are protected from 
passing showers by a suitable glass case. 

A number of diagrams are on the table, showing profiles of 
roads in Antrim, Down, Norfolk, Suffolk, Surrey, and 
Lancashire taken by myself, also of roads near Exeter, for 
which I am indebted to Mr. Donald Cameron, City Surveyor of 
that town. Three examples of these profiles are given. Fig. 
2. The first is a flint road, once a main coaching route 
from London to Portsmouth, and still carrying considerable 
heavy traffic. It was selected by the advice of Mr. Shipton, 
Secretary Cyclists' Touring Club, as an example of a good bit 
of a good English country road. The second is chosen for 



44 "Ihe Viagraph. 

the special reason that in point of amount and weight of traffic 
it may compare with the one below it, our own awful example 
of a main road. This last diagram was taken in December near 
Lambeg, a part of the road which b.ad been thoroughly coated 
with stone and steam-rolled in the previous August, The 
Prescot road had also been repaired just about four or five 
montlis before this test was taken last May, so that the com- 
parison as regards lapse of time since each was repaired is fair. 

The diagram of the Prescot road is an average specimen, and 
was not taken from the best part of this road. Further 
comment on the comparison between these roads is almost 
superfluous, but it may be noted that, while the greatest depth 
of ruts generally found on these English roads is usually a 
fraction of an inch, those on the Lisburn and other Irish main 
roads quite commonly exceed i inch in depth, and can easily 
be found over 2 inches, as in the diagram above. 

The index of unevenness, as measured in the manner described 
above for each of the three roads, of which diagrams are here given , 
is as follows : — For the Gilford road the sum of the depths of 
ruts is 12 to 14 feet per mile ; for the Prescott road, 42 feet 
per mile (an average of all the indications taken) ; for the 
Lisburn road in the part here taken, 134 feet per mile. 

Besides the discomfort of travelling and the extra wer.r and 
tear on vehicles entailed by such roads as this last, there is 
another objection distinctly brought out by the viagraph. In 
considering the passage over a rough road of a carriage whetl 
we may probably assume that there is no impetus gained in 
dropping into a rut which is available as a help to rise out c fit 
at the other side. We may therefore conclude that the po\.'er 
necessary to raise the wheel out of each and every rut mu.t be 
supplied from the horse or other tractive force. We may 
accordingly take the sum of unevenness as representing in 
effect an artificial hill interposed by the badness of the road. 
On our Lisburn road, for instance, taking the average sum of 
unevenness as ico feet per mile, we have an artificial hill of 
that amount in each mile \ consequently any vehicle making 



The Viagraph. 45 

a ^,0 mile journey on such a road has in effect to climb a hill 
(over and above any recognised hills on the road), which is 
greater in height than Slieve Donard, and is made up of ruts 
alone. A simple calculation shows that if we consider a vehicle 
weighing with its load one ton, and travelling at 7 miles per 
hour, the extra power required to take it over these ruts is 
just over | horse power ; or, if we take as an example of 
heavy traffic a weight of 35 cwt., at 3i miles per hour, the extra 
power required is just under | horse- power. The same 
calculation, applied to the Liverpool and Prescot road gives 
about \ horse-power in each case. A comparison therefore 
shows that the ruts on the Lisburn road entail either the use 
of about half as many more horses than are really needed on 
a good road, or a loss to an equivalent amount in speed or in 
weight carried. 

The instrument here shown, was constructed to my design, 
by Mr. Alexander Gass. of College Street South, and is a very 
creditable example of finely-executed work. The name of the 
workman chiefly employed on it, Alexander Cook, ought also 
to be mentioned as having taken great pains in carrying out 
the details. 

The records of the instrument would be of use to those 
criticising the state of the roads in any district, also to surveyors 
wishing to test various methods of road maintenance or to 
convince their county authorities of the need of improvement 
or of the advantages already obtained by a given treatment. 
They would also be valuable to cyclists and others desirous of 
knowing the condition of the roads in any distant district in 
which they proposed to travel. 

Having shown that our Irish roads compare so unfavour- 
ably with those across the Channel, it may be asked 
why, and how can they be improved. Not being an expert in 
road management, I feel diffident about saying much on this 
question. T would point out, however, that Macadam, the 
father of the modern English road, insisted chiefly on three 
points — first, thorough drying of the road-bed by underground 



46 The Viagrant. 

drains or other means ; second, no stone in the road to exceed 
60Z. in weight, or, as he sometimes put it, '' any stone you can 
put in your mouth may go on the road ;" third, cleanness of 
the metal. Now, none of these points appear to be sufficiently 
recognised here, while they appear to be still accepted in 
England, except of course that Pelford's system of paving the 
bottom with large stones first may be use4, instead of the 
macadam metalling only. In our neighbourhood the modern 
practice seems to omit all subsoil drainage ; consequently all 
the evils of wet roads are multiplied, though in our climate 
drainage would seem doubly necessary. The grade of road 
metal used here would seem to be excessively large. Samples 
of stones from English roads are on the table, which weigh 
between loz. and 2oz., and measure ifin greatest diameter. 
While English engmeers with whom I have spoken seem 
to be in doubt whether 2in. or 2|in. metal was best, on 
the Lisburn road the stones (specimens of which are shown) 
seem to average 3:|-in., and weigh looz. to 150Z., even 4in. to 
5in. being not uncommon. A piece of road met^l from the 
Malone Road, some distance within the city boundary, is on 
the table, measuring siin. long and weighing ilb. 6oz. In 
County Down, however, a more reasonable grade of metal is 
now observable, and it will be generally admitted that the 
roads in that county are at least somewhat smoother than those 
in County Antrim This is apparent in the diagrams from the 
Belfast and Saintfield Road exhibited. No excuse for bad roads 
in the North of Ireland could be offered on account of the 
inferiority of the material available. Basalt and eraniie are 
both excellent if selected of a tough and wear-resisting quality 
— a matter perhaps not always attended to. Basalt metalling 
can be delivered in the neighbourhood of Belfast for little more 
than 3s per ton, whereas in Cambridge, for example, the 
granite metalling is said to cost 25s per ton, and in Lancashire 
the broken syenite used on the Prescot Road costs los to 12s 
per ton. Referring to the recognised smoothness of the flint 
roads in England, such as that shown above, I hope that 



The Via graph. aj 

some of the road engineers, if present, will say why a similar 
smooth and good road for moderate traffic has not been made 
here from the abundance of flint now thrown aside as a waste 
product in our limestone quarries. 

As to cleanness of metal, it would appear from the descrip- 
tion of the practice on the Prescot Road, given by its Sur- 
veyor (Mr. Gcldsworth), and also from a very well-considered 
opinion kindly given ly the Surveyor of County Down, that a 
little road scrapings judiciously applied after the first rolling 
may be requisite. Too much mud, Mr. Cowan remarks, is a 
real fault. If, however, the local authorities do not consider that 
the above are the causes of the defects, or if they doubt the 
applicability of the English methods to this country, might I 
suggest that these be at least tried. Let an experiment on the 
most approved lines be earnestly and faithfully carried out, 
say, upon loo yards of the Lisburn, the Malone, or any other 
of our wretch-ii leading thoroughfares. Once it was understood 
what a road might be, we should never permit the present 
state of things to occur again. 

The Phksid^nt said he was sure they were nil pleased highly 
with Mr. Brown's exceedingly interesting lecture. It was 
remarkably lucid and clear, and they owed a great deal to Mr. 
Brown for the way in which he had brought the subject before 
us. 

Professor Dougan said he had been much impressed with 
• the ingenuity and usefulness of Mr. Brown's invention. The 
viagraph gave a very convincing test for any road which anyone 
might wish to examine, and it came at a very opportune 
moment and should be forced upon the attention of everyone 
responsible for the care of our roads. Cyclists took a great 
interest in the condition of the roads. It might be supposed 
by non-cyclists, who were still a considerable body, that the 
cyclist is fastidious ; his tendency to go to the footpath m'ight 
blind non-cyclists as to his real character. When the history 
of cycling comes to be written it will be seen that the cyclist 
is not fastidious, and that the qualities which will be forced 



48 The Viagraph. 

upon the historian of that movement would be the patience 
and moderation of the cvcHst. 

The condition of the road, however, was not peculiarly a 
matter for the cyclist only, it was a subject which engaged 
the attention of every section of the community. The 
roads of the country were a distinct portion of the national 
wealth, and. moreover, they were not an unproductive portion, 
and it was obvious that the more efficient the roads were, the 
more valuable they were. They might be sure that visitors to 
these parts, whtther British or foreign, when endeavouring to 
form an opinion as to the stage in civilisation to which the 
people in these districts had attained, would take the quality 
of the roads into account. It would be an element in forming 
their opinion. Good roads were cheaper to the taxpayer than 
bad roads in the long run, and not in the very long run either. 
The surface of the roads around Belfast turned to dust in dry, 
and mud in wet weather, at a far too rapid rate. He believed 
this was due to want of drainage, and if that w-ere so it would 
pay the taxpayer to have the roads drained as a fresh start. 
The work done by the steam roller did not seem to be as 
effective as it ought to be. Many of the roads are dotted with 
pools of water. The road from Belfast to Holy wood is a county 
road, and it is in this state, though only six weeks ago the 
steam-roller passed over it. He thought the new County 
Councils should bonow a sufficient sum of money, to put the 
roads into perfect order, draining them, and giving them a 
proper convexity of surface. That amount the taxpayer would 
not have to pay all at once, it would be spread over a few 
years. 

Mr. John Horner felt that Mr. brown had entered upon a 
field of real philanthropy and was bringing before them a tiue 
Irish grievance. '1 heir English friends did not suffer in the 
same way as the people of Ireland. The apparatus which Mr. 
Brown had produced w?s undoubtedly one of very gieat 
ingenuity and it opened up a field for investigation as to their 
roads in a way which was probably never done before. He 



The Viagraph. 49 

could not help remarking on the enormous *' ruts'* or indeed 
chasms which appeared on the Lisburn road, but if Mr. Brown 
were to take his apparatus to the Antrim road it might be 
almost swamped in ;ome of the " ruts " there. They should 
give Mr. Brown their heartiest thanks for his excellent lecture. 

Mr. William Armstrong, speaking as a cyclist, believed the 
viagraph would be most valuable in the future. The whole 
success of tramway traction was entirely owing to the fact that 
the cars had a beautiful level surface to go upon. Cyclists were 
an increasing community and had a right to be considered. 
In Ireland the roads were tremendously behind what they were 
in England and on the Continent, and it would take a con- 
siderable time to bring the Irish roads up to what they should 
be. He believed that expenditure upon the proper maintenance 
of roads was bound to be remunerative. A scientific appliance 
like the viagraph would soon speak for itself. He hoped it 
would be extensively adopted. 

Mr. Stkwart C. Kklly thought the County Antrim roads 
had been a glaring eye-sore to a great number of people for a 
length of time past, and they seemed to be getting worse 
instead of better. It used to be said they were better than 
the County Down roads, but now it was the reverse. That he 
believed was owing to the amount of scientific knowledge 
brought to bear upon the roads in Down by Mr. Cowan, 
County Surveyor. (The speaker here produced stones of large 
size which he had picked up on some of the County Antrim 
roads — the Crumlin, Antrim, and Lisburn Roads). It was 
largely owing to the size of the metal used that the roa Is were 
getting into such bad form. The County Down roads had 
immensely improved during the last few years, and that was to 
be attributed to the class of metal Mr. Cowan had been using. 
In Antrim an inferior class of metal was used in the city as 
well as in the county. 

Mr. P. C. Cowan, M. Inst., C.E., Chief Engineering 
Inspector to the Local Government Board, Ireland (lately 
County Surveyor of Down), said the viagraph must be of great 
4 



£0 The Viagraph 

use in settling the constantly occurring disputes with contractors 
for road maintenance. Mr. Brown showed the usual Irish 
modesty in attributing the indifferent quality of Irish roads to 
want of knowledge, but the real want was money. Too little 
was allowed for supervision in Ireland, for example, in County 
Down, about _^6o,ooo per annum was spent on roads, bridges, 
&c., and only about ^1,500 on the surveyor's staff, including 
all travelling expenses. The deficiencies in the County Down 
roads were serious on account of very imperfect construction 
and long periods of insufficient maintenance, and he did not 
see how the roads could be made much better without a very 
large expenditure of money. He had lately reported to the 
Grand Jury of County Down that to put the 2,500 miles of 
roads in the county into really good order, to a not unieason- 
able standard, would require an immediate outlay of about 
^3,000,000, which, even if the money were borrowed on the 
most favourable terms, would raise the county rate to four 
times its present figure for a generation. However, such a 
sweeping policy was not necessary, and the fact was that most 
of the County Down farmers did not seem to want much bettei 
roads, and considered any improvement, especially at increased 
cost, unnecessary, 'i'imes had not been prosperous with the 
farmers for many years, and he thought unless some of the 
millions said to be due by England to Ireland could be obtained 
for the expenditure on Irish roads, only a very slow rate of 
improvement was possible. However, a liking for good roads 
was apparently spreading in Ireland, and now that the burden 
of road maintenance was partly taken off the landholders by 
the new Local Government Act, more money might be granted 
for road maintenance. The only way in which Irish roads 
might be improved without a greater expenditure would be by 
the use of v»'ider tyres on cart wheels, and by regular cutting 
down of high hedges. At present the narrow farm cart wheels 
cut the weak roads like knives, and it is most difficult to induce 
the farmers to keep their hedges low. 

Dr. Cecil Shaw spoke of the importance of the road question 



The Viagraph. 51 

in connection with tourist development. He believed that last 
summer a great many more tourists came to Ireland than ever 
came before. A great niany of them were cyclists and they 
were somewh.-t disgusted with the condition of the roads. 
Some declared they would never come back, the roads were in 
such a bad state. The Irish roads should be improved so as to 
induce the C3'clist to come to the country. 

Professor Fitzgerald said Mr. Cowan had spoken of a good 
many of the things to which he had intended to refer, concern 
ing the condition of our roads, far better than he could have 
done. Mr. Cowan mentioned the very heavy expense that 
would be required to bring the roads into anything like decent 
condition, and it was sufficient to look at Mr. Brown's diagrams 
to see how much would have to be done. Those diagrams 
were far more eloquent than any words descriptive of the state 
of the roads. Mr. Cowan had mentioned ^^3. 000, 000 as the cost 
of putting the County Down roads in good condition through- 
out. He (Professor FitzGerald) believed that the value to the 
county of good roads was so great that that sum of money, if it 
were obtainable, would be well spent for the purpose. The 
City of Belfast was certainly much to blame for permitting 
stones of the size produced to be used ; he had often seen 
similar stones on the roads and wondered how they had got 
there. He thought Mr. Brown's machine most ingenious and 
suggested that Mr. Brown should show, after the lecture, how 
thfe machine could be folded up into a reasonable compass. 
Twelve feet was, no doubt, an inconvenient length for carriage, 
but Mr. Brown had so contrived that the machine would fold up 
into half that length. 

The Pkesident, while joining in the expressions of thanks to 
Mr. Brown for this most interesting paper describing his very 
ingenious appliance, said that in reference to the question 'of 
road surfaces in Belfast, he thought they should not use square 
setts so extensively. In some thoroughfares the noise was so 
great that at times nothing else could be heard. 

Mr. Brown, in replying, said he agreed very cordially with 



$i The Viagraph. 

the remarks of Professor Dougan, and desired to thank him, as 
also Mr. Horner, Mr. Armstrong, Mr. Cowan, and Professor 
FitzGerald, for the approval they had expressed of the subject 
of the paper. He was pleased to hear Mr. Kelly confirming his 
views regarding road metal, and he felt sure they were all 
greatly indebted to Mr. Cowan for his very full and clear 
reference to the road question generally. Mr. Cowan was, no 
doubt, quite right in advising more effective supervision. 
Since, in the paper, a rather pointed comparison had been made 
between the Lisburn Road and the Prescot Road showing that 
while alike in size, importance, amount of traffic, and subsoil, 
they were very different in quality of surface, attention 
should be drawn to another point of difference — viz., cost of 
repairs. It was stated on the best authority that the Lisburn 
Road (buying its metal at, say 4s per ton) cost ^220 per mile 
per annum, while the Prescot Road (with metal at los to 12s 
per ton) costs X'^° <^rily- Truly a bad road was dearer than 
a good one. It might be suggested that the difference in these 
items, if capitalized, would put the Lisburn Road in a good 
condition to start with. In reference to the difference in 
width of Irish cart wheel tyres as compared with English, it 
should be pointed out that the loads commonly carted here are 
much less than in England. The load per inch width of tyre 
was therefore perhaps not very different. While agreeing with 
the President as to the discomfort of the noise from our square 
setts, Mr. Brown thought one must admit that the smallness 
of the tractive force required on square setts is very advan- 
tageous. He observed this markedly when driving a motor 
car over them. 



53 



']th February, 1899. 



Thk Lord Mayor (Mr. Otto Jaffe, J. P.) in the Chair. 



THE BOYNE VALLEY: LPS HISTORY, SCENERY 
AND ANTIQUITIES. 

Bv S. F. Mii.LiGAN, M.R.I.A. 

{Abstract.) 



In Ireland the Boyne Valley was the first inhabited terrii< ly, 
as well as the seat of central sovereignty for a period of two 
thousand years. It has within its borders the richest and most 
fertile soil ; its lands have always been eagerly sought after ai d 
fought for by every race that landed on our shores. From iis 
source in County Kildare to Drogheda, where it empties niio 
the Irish Sea, it has a course of seventy miles. It flows through 
a level country, beautifully wooded. Its banks are adorned 
with memorials of every age — Pagan, Early Christian, Anglo- 
Norman, Elizabethan, and modern. It may be necessary heie 
to mention that the kingdom of Meath was formed in the first 
century of the Christian Era by the King of Ireland, Tuathai 
Teachtmar, who took from each of the existing four provinces 
a portijn of territory which, put together, formed Meath. The 
newly-formed kingdom henceforth was to belong to the Ard 
Righ, or Head King, as his special patrimony. Tuathai Teacht- 
mar, after a long and prosperous reign, fell in a battle in County 
Antrim, and his grave is still pointed out (a Kistvaen), the King 
of Ireland's gr.ive on a hill side lying between the village of 
Ballynure and Ballyeaston in this county. Meath comprised 
the greater part of the English Pale ; was the seat of Anglo- 



54 'ihc Boync Valley. 

Norman power, as it had previously been of Irish. This unique 
and lovel}' vale, so dear to students of Irish history and archae- 
ology, is now most accessible from evey part of the British 
Isles. Travellers from Belfast or the North proceed to 
Drogheda, from whence, in the summer months, there are 
public conveyances provided by the Great Northern Railway 
Company. The distance from Drogheda to Navan is seventeen 
miles, Slane being about midwa}?-, and a convenient resting 
place ; Navan to Trim is twelve miles, and from thence to 
Clonard fourteen miles, which covers all the points of greatest 
interest. The River Blackwater, the ancient Sele, joins the 
Boyne at Navan, and in its course of twenty miles from Lough 
Ramor, in County Cavan, passes several places of great historic 
interest. In sylvan beauty, rare monuments of past ages, and 
historic interest, the valley's of the Boyne and Blackwater stand 
in the foremost rank of Irish river valleys. Scattered along the 
Valley of the Boyne are relics of every age, from the Belgae 
or Firbolgs, I, coo B.C., down to the present century — a period 
of about 3,000 years. These consist of cairns, cromleachs, 
chambered pyramids, pillar stones, kistvsens, souterraines, raths, 
duns, lisses, and all classes of earthen forts. Of the early 
Christian period, Celtic churches and hermitages, dating from 
almost the time of Saint Patrick ; round towers, sculptured 
crosses, and moasteries; Anglo-Norman castles in great numbers, 
dating from the end of the twelfth century, and other relics of 
early Norman power. The Boyne rises at Trinity Well, close 
by the village of Carbury, in County Kildare, four miles from the 
town of Edenderry. It flows through King's County for a few 
miles, next becomes the boundary between Meath and Kildare, 
then enters Meath, through which it flows until it empties into 
the sea four miles east of Drogheda, as already stated, a total 
distance of seventy miles. It receives several rivers in its 
course, the principal one being the Blackwater, already 
mentioned. Many remarkable events have occurred in the 
Boyne Valley, not the least of which was the arrival of St. 
Patrick to preach the; Gospel to the King and nobles and 



The Boyne Valley. 55 

others at the Royal residence of Tara, for he rightly judged if 
he converted the chiefs the people would certainly follow. He 
came up the Boyne in a coracle similar, I have no doubt, to 
those still peculiar to that river. When he reached Slane, 
being Easter Eve, he ascended the hill which is the highest 
ground in Meath, and lighted his fire, which was distinctly 
visible from Tara. The ruins of a monastery now stand on 
that hill, and from the top of the church tower a view may be 
obtained from the yellow steeple in Trim to the maiden tower 
at Drogheda, a view of fully five-and- twenty miles as the crow 
flies. Every spot in this extended view is historic ground, 
trodden for centuries by kings, and lords, and saintly men, as 
well as by all the race of invaders alread}' mentioned. In the 
early ages of our era, Con, the hundred fighter, and his grand- 
son, Cormac, the son of Art, that chivalrous and wise king and 
law-giver, the greatest who reigned at Tara up to his time, and 
to whom we shall again refer ; Nial, also of the hostages, the 
conqueror of Alba and of Britain, trod this soil, and was finally 
assassinated in Gaul, whilst invading that country. In review 
ing this remote age, there arises before our mental vision 
Leary, son of Niall, Ard Righ, or High King, when Patrick 
came, and, though his chief druid and principal nobles embraced 
the new faith, Leary, like a stout Pagan which he was, died as 
he hid lived, and was buried in the rampart of his own fort on 
Tara Hill, in a standing posture, with his great war spear irj 
his hand and his face towards Leinster, the territory of his 
hereditary enemies. A few centuries later bands of Northern 
foreigners might be seen pillaging this same district. The 
Annals relate that the caves of Knowth, Dowth, and New 
Grange were pillaged by AmlafF, Imar, and Ansilie, three of the 
leaders of the Danes or Dublin. We can contemplate another 
and a more peaceful scene, one hundred years after King Leary 
had been interred. Up the Valley of the Boyne, at Clonai*d, 
in the year 520, St. Finnan established a school for the youth 
of Erin, which became the most celebrated seat of learning in 
the island. He had for pupils men such as St. Columba, St. 



56 The Boyne Valley. 

Kieran, of Clonmacnois.and St. Brendan, of Clonfert. Columba, 
af"ter founding innumerable churches and monasteries, became 
the apostle of the Northern Picts ; St. Brendan, it is believed, 
preached the Gospel as far as Iceland, and St. Kieran founded 
the famous school of Clonmacnois in tlie centre of the island, 
near Athlone. From this period and several centuries latei 
Ireland was known as the Island of Saint-. So famous was 
the great school of Clonard, and so celebrated for its learning, 
that pupils flocked to it from Britain, Alba, Gaul, and Germany, 
until their numbers, it is said, reached 3,000. The village of 
Clonard, the site of this ancient seat of learning, is the first 
historic place of importance coming down the river from its 
source. A Round Tower formerly stood here, but it is recorded 
in the Annals that in the year lo^Q the steeple of Clonard fell. 
A great loss, not alone to Clonard, but to the entire country, 
was the destruction by fire in 1 143 of the library of the 
monastery, in which a great number of manuscripts were con- 
sumed. Clonard passed through many vicissitudes of fortune. 
Dermot MacMorrough and his English allies plundered it in 
the year 1170. When the Anglo-Normans took possession 
they superseded the Irish monks by countrymen of their own. 
Simon de Rochford assumed the title of Bishop of Meath, and 
removed the Episcopal chair from Clonard to Newton, near 
Trim, where he founded the great Augustinian abbey dedicated 
to St. Peter and St. Paul, the ruins ot which form a notable 
picture there to the present day. The great monasteries of 
this period were so constructed that they could be used for 
purposes of defence, and were loopholed for bowmen. The 
Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Newton, is remarkable 
in this respect. Ath Truim (Ford of the Alder Trees), now 
called Trim, is the next great historical place down the river 
from Clonard. It is one of the most interesting towns 
in Ireland for the antiquarian, containing ruins of several 
monasteries and castles. The view approaching b}^ the Dublin 
road, seen under favourable circumstances, will never be for- 
gotten. This view includes all the ruins of Newtown and 



The Bovne Valley. 57 

Trim, with the Boyne flowing beneath them ; the Priory of 
Saint John, the old bridge and its protecting tower, and the 
great Abbey of Peter and Paul are in the foreground. In the 
distance rises up King John's Castle, a splendid ruin ; next the 
Yellow Steeple, rising to a height of 125 feet, close by which is 
one of the ancient gates of Trim, known as the Sheep Gate, 
whilst still further off" stands the square and massive tower of 
the Parish Church, built by Richard Duke of York, father of 
Edward the Fourth, in the year 1449. In Anglo-Norman Trim 
there was the Grey Friary of Observantines and the Black 
Friary of the Dominicans, the latter founded by Geoffry de 
Joinville, Lord of Meath, in a.d. 1263. There was also Saint 
Mary's Abbey, of which the Yellow Steeple is the only surviving 
relic. It is stated that Oliver Cromwell battered down this 
abbey in consequence of a number of men holding it against 
him. Henry the Second granted the entire Kingdom of Meath 
to Hugh de Lacy for the service of fifty knights, and he fixed 
on Trim as his residence, and built King John's Castle. It 
covers an area of two acres or more on the sloping bank of the 
Boyne. The river flows on one side, and on the other has a 
broad and deep fosse, filled with water from the river, which 
isolated it completely, and rendered it almost impregnable before 
the invention of artillery. King John lodged in Trim in July, 
1210 ; Parliaments were held in it, and there was a mint for 
coining money ; in fact it was the capital in the early Anglo- 
Norman period. Henry the Fith, the hero of Agincourt, was 
left here when a youth, confined in one of the towers of the 
castle, by Richard the Second. The Duke of Wellington 
received his early education in Trim in a schoolhouse still 
occupied, and he represented it when he was twenty-one years 
of age in the Irish Parliament. A monument stands in the 
town, erected to the Iron Duke, as the hero of Waterloo. 
About six miles further down the river from Trim are the 
ruins of Bective Abbey, situated on the northern bank of the 
Boyne. It was founded in 1146 by O'Melaghlin, King of 
Meath, for monks of the Cistercian Order. It was richly 



58 The Boyne Valley. 

endowed, the demesne consisting of 245 acres, with a mill and 
fishing weir on the rivtr. The Abbott of Bective sat as a 
Lord of Parliament, and it was the only house of the Order in 
Meath. Bective Abbey being built before the arrival of the 
Anglo Normans, possesses more interest for Irish archaeologists. 
The cloisters are very fine and fairly well preserved. The 
great tower above the porch is quite perfect, and was evidently 
intended for defensive warfare, in fact, for the Church militant, 
as its battlements and loopholes testify. We now reach Navan, 
where the Blackwater forms a junction with the Boyne. The 
ancient moat is the principal object of interest to the anti- 
quarian at Navan. Tara can be readily reached, either from 
Bective or Navan ; the distance from the former is about five 
miles and the latter six to the ancient seat of the kings of 
Ireland. The drive lies through a beautiful and well-wooded 
country, with some very pretty views of the river. The Hill 
of Tara was the seat of Irish sovereignty for ages ; it was there 
the laws were promulgated and there the great assemblies of 
the nobles and people were held. The hill, which is about 
550 feet high, has a commanding view, extending over several 
counties. It has always been kept in grass, and the outlines of 
the ancient raths and forts have been well preserved ; also the 
earthworks which outlive the great banqueting hall celebrated 
in poems and story called Miodh-Chuarta, or the middle house 
of the Palace of Tara. The buildings were constructed of 
timber and protected by earth works ; the former have 
perished years ago, whilst the latter have remained to the 
present day. Standing on a mound in one of the raths is the 
Lia Fail, or stone of destiny, on which it is recorded the kings 
of Ireland were inaugurated. The glory of Tara was brought 
to an untimely end. The annals of Clonmacnois relate that in 
the year 563 the hill was deserted in consequence of a curse 
pronounced against King DermoJ by Saint Ruadhan, because 
of the king's determination to punish Hugh Guarry, his 
relative, for killing one of the king's officers. Having examined 
the raths and forts of Tara, as well as the very ancient church 



The Boyne Valley. 59 

on the hill, we may return to Navan ; and before proceeding 
to Drogheda a visit should be made to Kells and the valley of 
the Blackwater, where there are some most interesting places 
well worthy of a visit. The ruins of Saint Kieran's Church 
and the Holy Well, situated under a wide-spreading ash tree, 
and the Termon Crosses should all be seen ; they are situated 
three miles from Kells. One of the most celebrated places in 
the ancient eccle^iastical history of Ireland is Kells. Amongst 
the antiquities still leraaining is a round tower and a beautifully 
sculptured cross close by it, a handsome shaft of another cross 
in the churchyard, and the great Cross of Kells standing in the 
Market Square. In addition to these, there is the ancient 
house or church of Saint Columba, stone roofed, having stood 
the battle and I he breeze for more than one thousand years. 
The Book of Kells was kept '\l the monastery here for ages, 
and, as everyone knows, is the most valued treasure in the 
great library of Trinity College, Dublin. Kells was burned 
and sacked many times by Danes and Normans, as well as by 
Edward Bruce in the year 13 15, and it is wonderful that so 
many remains of such extreme antiquity should have survived. 
Telltown, the ancient Tailtean which, next to Tara, was one 
of the greatest Royal residences in ancient times, is situated 
midway between Kells and Navan on the banks of the Black- 
water. There still may be seen the remains of three great 
raths close by the river. Here the great National Assembly 
or Aenach was held once a year, commencing on the first day 
of August and lasting for a week. Games and athletic contests 
somewhat similar to the Olympian games were held here. It 
was established by King Lugh Lamhfhada about 600 years B.C. 
in memory of his foster mother, and continued till the 12th 
century a.d. ; the last fair being held in the reign of Roderic 
O'Connor last Ard Righ of Ireland. Proceeding from Navan 
towards Drogheda, the Boyne is much increased in volume by 
the junctions of the Blackwater. The beauties of the river and 
the most lovely scenery is situated between Navan and Slane. 
A canal has been made from Navan to Drogheda, and the tow- 



6o The Bovne Valley. 

path of the canal is a very convenient way from which to view 
the beauties of the river. About i^ miles from Navan stands 
the round tower and ancient church of Donaghmore ; a little 
further down the river we see the Castle of Dunmoe on our 
left and the ancient church of Ardmulchan on our right. 
We next reach Slane, to which we have already referred in 
connection with the coming of Saint Patrick. The river is 
very beautiful between Beauparc and Slane, and the hill on 
which it stands commands the most extended view in the 
county. Close by the monastery on the top of the hill is a 
great tumulus or mound, probably the burial-place of King 
Slanius, after whom the town was probably named. The 
burial-place of King Cormac iVlac Art, who died in 266, and was 
buried at Rossnaree, is about two miles from Slane, further 
down the river. The burial mound is within a stone's throw 
of the Boyne. On the opposite side, on a hill, is the great 
tumultus of Knowth. King Cormac's burial has been made 
famous by Sir Samuel Ferguson in his splendid poem, and the 
exact place of interment has been handed down for over 1,600 
years, and never lost sight of by b.i , countrymen. The lecturer 
next described the three great sepulchral pyramids of Knowth, 
Dowth, and Newgrange, the most ancient and most remarkable 
monuments in Western Europe. The lecturer next referred to 
the Abbey of iVIellifont, founded m 1142 by O'Carroll, Prince 
of Oriel, at the suggestion of St. Malachy, Primale of Ireland, 
for monks of the Cistercian Order. The monks were brought 
from Clairvaux, and were principally French. It was here the 
faithless Dearvorgail, wife of O'Rorke of Breffney, who had 
eloped with M'Murrough, ended her days in penitence. It was 
here also, towards the close of the sixteenth century, that Hugh 
O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, submitted to Mountjoy, in the House 
of Garrett Moore, ancestor to to the Marquis of Drogheda. 
Monasterboice Rciund Tower and sculptured crosses were next 
referred to. There was an Irish monastery founded here in the 
year 522. The only ruins of this ancient foundation now 
remaining are the round tower and sculptured crosses, the 



The Boyne Valley. 6 1 

monastic buildings and ancient church having disappeared. 
The next and last place of interest on the river is the very 
ancient town of Drogheda, which would be an ample text for 
an entire lecture. The great tumulus now called Millmount is 
similar in type to those already referred to, and is probably 
chambered in the interior. From the time of Saint Patrick in 
432 to it)49, when it was stormed by Cromwell, and in 1690, 
when it was occupied b}- James II., its history can be traced all 
through the ages. Turgesius, the Danish king, occupied and 
fortified it early in the 9th century, and King John visited it in 
year 1210 and gave it a charter. Parliaments were held in 
Drogheda, and the law known as Poynings Law was passed 
there. King Richard II. received the Irish chiefs in St. Mary's 
Abbjy when they came to make their submission. The learned 
primate, James Ussher, lived in Drogheda near to St. Lawrence's 
gate. He it was who secured the Book of Kells for the 
library of Trinity College. Phelim Roe O'Neill in 1641 
besieged Drogheda, when it was successfully defended by Sir 
Henry Tichbourn. Few towns in Ireland can boast of so 
many famous men having visited it. St. Patrick first, next 
Tingesius, the Danish King, King John, Hugh De Lacy, 
Richard II. and the northern princes who came to pay their 
respects to him, Red Hugh O'Donnell, and the great Earl of 
Tyrone, Phelm Roe O'Neill, Oliver Cromwell, James II., and 
William HI. St. Lawrence's gate still stands in a good state 
of preservation, as well as some portions of the ancient walls- 
The Magdalene steeple is the only remains of the Dominican 
Monastery of Saint Mary Magdalene. In the cemetery 
attached to the Parish Church of St. Peter's there are many 
curious tombstones. Of modern buildings there are two 
extremely fine Roman Catholic Churches just completed ; also 
the great railway viaduct, the finest in Ireland. At the Inver 
or mouth of the river stands the Maiden Tower, a Pharos or 
lighthouse, erected in the time of Queen Elizabeth. This 
brings us to the end of the river and the end of our subject 
also. We have now surveyed the Boyne from its source to the 



62 The Boyne Valley. 

sea at Drogheda, attempted to picture and describe some of its 
antiquities and scenery, and I must confess that I do nut know 
any portion of Jreland that offers such attractions to the 
student of Irish history, the archaeologist, the lover of the 
beauties of nature, as well as the huntsman and the angler, as 
this lovely Irish valley along the banks of the Boyne. 

One hundred specially prepared lantern slides were shown of 
the Boyne Valley, illustrating the scenery and antiquities. 

Mr. Walter H. Wilson proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Milligan for his instructive lecture. Personally, he thought no 
prettier bit of river scenery could be wished for than that from 
Navan to Slane. There was no doubt that Irish scenery was 
not properly known ; and if the result of the lecture, which 
iMr. Milligan had delivered that night, was to encourage 
people to visit that historic district, it would be a God-send to 
that sadly-neglected part of the country. 

The resolution was seconded by Mr. William Gray, and was 
passed with acclamation. 

The Lord Mayor, in conveying the vote, said that not only 
as citizens, but as Irishmen — in which he took the liberty of 
including himself — they felt obliged to Mr. Milligan for his 
instructive and interesting lecture. He was pleased to hear 
Mr. Milligan refer to technical instruction as having been in 
force in Ireland at an early date. In the Queen's speech that 
day reference was made to the Agriculture and Industries Bill 
for Ireland, and he hoped that when that Bill was passed 
Ireland would prosper more and more, and he further hoped 
that Belfast would get a liberal slice of whatever grant Parha- 
ment would give to Ireland. 

Mr. Milligan suitably replied. 

Professor Redfkrn proposed a vote of thanks to the Lord 
Mayor for presiding. 

Professor Fitzghrald seconded the motion, which was 
enthusiastically passed. 



The Boyne Valley. b3 

The Lord Mayor, in acknowledging the compHment, said it 
gave him great pleasure to be present there that night, and he 
could assure them that he would not spare himself in attending 
as far as he could to the many duties devolving upon him as 
Lord Mayor, of which position he was proud. 



64 



\^th March, 1899. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President, in the Chair. 



PATHOGENIC BACTERIA WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO THE TYPHOID BACILLUS. 

By J. LoRRAiN Smith, M.A., M.D. 
{Abstract.) 



The natural processes for which bacteria are responsible are 
very numerous, but a rough classification of these may be made 
by dividing them into three groups — viz., fermentation, putre- 
faction, and the production of disease. 

In regard to fermentation, suggestive conclusions were 
established in the first instance, showing that the ferment 
producer is a living organism which has in suitable conditions 
the power of indefinite self-multiplication, and that in unsuit- 
able conditions it dies out and cannot be revived except by the 
introduction anew of living organisms of the same kind. 
Subsequent study revealed many characters whereby the 
different organisms could be recognised, and also the condi- 
tions, which were most favourable to their activity. The same 
methods of study applied to disease have shown that many acute 
infectious fevers and allied conditions are due to microbes, and 
it is to this branch of the science of bacteriology that I wish now 
to refer. 

A short introduction in regard to general principles will be 
of service. 

We have, in the first place, to devise means for giving to the 
microbes we wish to cultivate the most suitable conditions for 
their growth, and for this purpose various ingenious methods 
have been adopted. The food which the microbe requires is 



Pathogenic Bacteria. 65 

obtained by preparing a fluid or solid substance in which are 
present the same constituents as exist in the fluids in which the 
microbe naturally dwells. We have, accordingly, various extracts 
of meat in common use as the so-called media. The extract is, 
in the first place, in the form of a clear fluid broth, and this may 
be solidified without losing its clearness by gelatine and other 
substances. 

If we take such a substance and inject it under the skin of an 
animal in a moderate dose, it has no harmful effect. If, how- 
ever, we allow a pathogenic or disease-causing microbe to 
grow in it for some time before we make the inoculation, we 
find that the harmless broth has become more or less poisonous. 
The poisonous effect varies with the form of the microbe, and 
this difference corresponds with the difference in the diseases 
with which the microbe is associated. We can therefore pro- 
duce disease in two ways. Either we can inject the microbe 
which multiplies in the tissues of the bodv, and so causes the 
disease, or we can obtain the poison outside the body by grow- 
ing the microbe and cause the disease, or a condition closely 
akin to it, by injecting the poison. The microbe flourishing in 
the tissues of the body produces disease, because it manufactures 
poisons as it grows, and from the action of these poisons the 
eflfects arise. It is of the utmost importance, therefore, for the 
understanding of the nature of disease to understand the nature 
of the poisons which are produced in this way, and to ascertain 
their effects on the animal body. The study of these poisons 
or toxines, as they are often called, has given great definite- 
ness to the study of infectious disease. 

One aspect of disease in particular, to the explanation of 
which this study has made important contributions, is that form 
of resistance to attack which is known as immunity. A man is 
said to be immune to a disease when he, after exposure to infec- 
tion, fails to contract the disease. When this power of resistance 
is an original attribute of the man it is called natural immunity. 
If, however, by some artificial process, this power has been con- 
tributed to the man, he is then said to have acquired immunity. 



66 Pathogenic Bacteria. 

In the study of the action of bacterial poisons it was found 
that, when a dose is injected insufficient to cause death, and yet 
such as to lead to more or less disturbance of the bodily 
functions, there results finally an immunity to the disease on 
the part of the animal so inoculated. In such investigations 
the method is to inject a small dose in the first instance and to 
increase the dose subsequently until a dose is reached which, 
without the preliminary inoculations, would certainly have been 
fatal. The nature of the change which this series of inoculat ions 
induces so as to establish the state of immunity is very imper- 
fectly understood. One result, however, of great practical 
importance is, that the serum of the blood is charged with 
immunising power, and that this power can be conveyed to a 
second animal by injecting into that animal some of the serum 
of the first. This is the principle on which the modern treat- 
ment of diphtheria is based. A horse is made imnmne to the 
poison of the diphtheria bacillus, and when this is successfully 
carried out the immunity which the horse acquires enables it 
to resist the effects of enormous doses of diphtheria poison. The 
serum of its blood is then obtained and prepared for injection 
into the tissues of children who have been attacked by the 
disease. The child in this way gets at once the advantage of 
the tedious process of acquiring the immunity to which the 
horse has been submitted. Such a serum is called an antitoxic 
serum. 

In regard to the bacteriology of Typhoid Fever one or two 
general points of interest may be noted. The avenue of infec- 
tion by which the microbe reaches the body is the alimentary 
canal. Here also occur some of the structural changes which 
characterise the disease. The bacillus is discovered in the tissues 
of various abdominal organs — viz., the lymph glands, the spleen, 
and the liver. 

The bacillus has no very clear character by which it can 
be at once distinguished from all other bacilli. It is very closely 
allied to the other groups of bacilli, and from these it is a 
matter of no small difficulty to distinguish it. The obscurity 



Pathogenic Bacteria. 67 

which naturally results from this circumstance is increased by 
the fact that it has been found impossible to produce the disease 
in animals. It is possible to inoculate animals and to find that 
they die, but such cases do not show the character'r- of the 
disease as it occurs in the human subject. 

Such difficulties, however, do not gainsay the evidence which 
we otherwise possess of the connection of the typh-:id bacillus 
with the disease. Since the place of the disease is in the intes- 
tine, the rule which is observed in public health is to regard 
any contamination of food or water used for drinking, with 
intestinal excreta as a possible source of typhoid infection. 

The lecture was illustrated by actual specimens and by lantern 
views. Mr. Mayne manipulated the lantern, and the slides, 
which were referred to by the Lecturer as in every way suitable 
for his purpose and generally approved of, were specially pre- 
pared by Mr. J. J. Andrew. 

Professor Rkdfern moved, and Dr. Sheldon seconded, a 
hearty vote of thanks to Professor Smith for his very instructive 
lecture. 

The Chairman, in putting the motion to the meeting, said 
they owed a great deal to such men as Dr. Smith, who put 
forth such praiseworthy efforts in order to alleviate suflFering. 

The motion was warmly passed. 

Subsequently an interesting exhibition of bacteria under the 
microscope took place in the Library of the Museum. 



68 



Aprd 1 1///, 1H99. 



iMr. T. Workman, J. P., President, in the Chair. 



ELECTRIC DISCHARGES IN RAREFIED GASES, 
WIIH EXPERIMENTS AND LANTERN SLIDES. 

By J. FiNXEGAN, B.A., B.Sc. 



The experiments on this subject have attracted the attention 
of numerous observers, not onlj' because of their beauty and 
and variety, but also from the widespread belief that this is the 
most promising field in which to discover the relationships 
between electricity and matter. 

Consider the discharges in electrodeless tubes. Take a coil 
of wire, of which one end is connected to the inside coating and 
the other end through a spark gap to the outside coating of a 
Leyden jar, charged by an induction coil. When the jar is 
discharged enormous and very rapid alternating currents flow 
through the coil, sufficient by their induction to produce 
bright discharges in bulbs placed in the coil. If the bulb 
is connected to pump and exhausted, when the piessure 
is high no discharge appears, but when the pressure is 
about imm. of mercury a thin red line runs round the bulb 
in the plane of the coil ; continuing the exhaustion, the colour 
changes to white, the ring gets thicker, and the brightness 
becomes a maximum ; it then diminishes, and when we have a 
very good vacuum the discharge no longer passes. If a metallic 
diaphragm crosses the bulb there are produced two separate 
bright rings, just as with a non-conducting diaphragm. 

There is always considerable difficulty in producing the first; 



Electric Discharges in Rarefied Gases. 69 

discharge in rarefied gases. The gas first breaks down along 
the line of maximum E.M.F. intensity, and a small discharge 
takes place, producing a supply of dissociated molecules, along 
which the succeeding discharges can more easily pass. 

Observe discharge with electrodes. When the pressure is 
about \ millimetre of mercury, we see that the cathode is 
irregularly covered with a velvety light, its distribution depend- 
ing on the pressure and quantity of current ; then comes 
Crookes' dark space, after this a luminous column, the negative 
glow, independent of the position of the electrode, its size 
depends on the shape of the vessel near the cathode ; next, the 
Farady dark space, of variable length ; lastly, the luminous 
column extending to the anode, very regularly striated, and 
beautiful. Attempts have been made to explain the striae on 
the hypothesis that the discharge through an exhausted tube is 
not continuous but intermittent. 

Pliicher first investigated the fluorescence on the walls of the 
tube near the cathode. Hittorf next discovered that the surface 
of the electrode is the origin of a motion spreading uniformly 
through the gas. Goldstein showed that a pointed cathode 
produces a well-defined shadow on the walls of the tube of a 
body in front of it, while a cathode of large surface produces a 
clear but not very sharp shadow, thus proving that the cathode 
rays, as he called them, came off" nearly normally from the 
cathode, and not like light in all directions. 

In 1879 Crookes wrote his first papers on this subject, and 
his experiments became popular in this country. The most 
striking property of cathode rays is their power of producing 
fluorescence, not only in the gas through which they pass, but 
also in many substances on which they fall. To show these 
effects most strikingly we use " solid solutions," which are 
formed when two salts are simultaneously precipitated from a 
solution. They are then particularly sensitive to the rays 
coming from an electric discharge. 

Goldstein discovered that if there are two adjacent cathodes 
the rays from one are deflected by the other. 



70 Electric Discharges in Rarefied Gases. 

Again, using a tube with the cathode in the centre, the anode 
at one end, the cathode being pierced with one or more small 
holes, Goldstein found that the front side of the cathode shows 
the usual cathode light. From the back of the cathode rise 
high columns of reddish-yellow light, the blue rays being 
entirely absent. These were called " Canal Rays." It seems 
to me proved that they are identical with the luminous glow 
on the front of the cathode, and that both are produced by 
positive ions travelling from the anode to the cathode, and, if 
the cathode is pierced, some pass through and produce the 
canal rays. Wien showed that they carried with them a posi- 
tive charge. An object, placed in the dark space in front of 
the cathode, throws a shadow on the cathode, as if it protected 
the cathode frorn the impact of particles striking it normally. 
If holes are pierced in the cathode in this shadow no canal rays 
appear there. Metals placed in the path of the rays become 
oxidised, so that if an object be placed in the dark space in 
front of a cathode, consisting of wire gauze and a polished metal 
plate placed behind it, we have on the plate an image produced 
of the object placed in front of the cathode. If now a luminous 
screen be placed in front of the cathode, Vi^e have a shadow of 
the object again produced, which is larger than the object if 
this latter is inside the cathode dark space, and about the same 
size if outside, so that cathode rays only come from the parts 
struck by these anode ions. 

In the simple case of the discharge passing as a thin line of 
reddibh light, we may describe the effect of a magnet by saying 
that the displacement of the discharge is like that of a perfectly 
flexible wire carrying a current. " If a magnet be applied to a 
striated column, each striae is subjected to a rotation or deform- 
ation, as if the striae marked the termination of flexible currents 
radiating fiom the bright head of the striae behind it, and ter- 
minating in the hazy inner surface of the striae in question." 

The negative glow behaves in a magnetic field, like a 
magnetic substance without weight, and perfectly free to move. 
The magnetic effect on the cathode rays may be expressed by 



Electric Discharges in Rarefied Gases. 71 

stating that the negative rays mark the path of a sheaf of 
charged particles, and therefore in general it is a spiral in a 
uniform field. A sheaf of rays normal to a pole of a magnet 
forms loops and nodes, as shown by Poincare. 

Crookes' theory regards the cathode rays as streams of nega- 
tively electrified particles driven with great speed away from 
the cathode. The heating efftcts are explained by supposing 
that the kinetic energy of the particles is partly transformed by 
impact. 

A rapidly moving particle acts like an electric current, and 
produces round it a magnetic field ; when the particle is stopped 
the field is destroyed. This rapid change in the field produces 
rapidly changing electro-magnetic forces, analogous on the 
electro-magnetic theory to the conditions which accompany 
ultra-violet light, and therefore phosphoresence. 

The phenomena of the discharge have led us to believe that 
the molecules are broken up, and that chemical actions essen- 
tially accompany the passage of electricity through gas. 

We can readily admit that the molecules of gases, which con- 
sist of two atoms, can be broken up by the current ; but there 
is a difficulty in the case of mercury vapour, which must be 
regarded as mon -atomic. 

If, then, the dissociation theory is correct, we must, as War- 
burg pointed out, suppose that the mon-atomic mercury vapour 
may also be further analysed, and, by electric discharges, 
carriers of electricity are produced, which are small in com- 
parison with the ordinary atom or molecule. 



iBatiiral listorg $c i^ijilosopljical Socittg. 



Officers and Council of Management for i8gg-igOO, 

THOMAS WORKMAN, j.p. 

'gJtcc-S'rcsibenfs. 

JOUN BROWN. I WM. SVVANSTON, f.g.s. 

EGBERT YOUNG, c.e., j.p. 

^on- '^reosurer: 
W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

<iaon. librarian : 
THOMAS WORKMAN, j.p. 

^Oii. ^ccrefarp: 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a. 

Council : 

JOHN BROWN. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

PROFESSOR J. 1). EVERETT, f.r.s., d.c.l. 

ANDREW GIBSON, f.r.s.a. 

JOHN HORNER. 

OTTu J A FEE, J.p. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a. 

R. LLOYD PATTERSON, j.p., f.l.s. 

WM. H. PATTERSON, m.r.i.a. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

TUOMAS F. SHILLINGTON, j.p. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 

THOMAS WORKMAN, j.p. 

ROBERT YOUNG, j.p., c.e. 

E. M. YOUNG, B.A., J.P., M.R.I.A. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

[^Denotes holders of three or more Shares."] 

♦Alexander, Francis, b.e., Belfast. 

Alhvorthy, Edward, Ardgreenan, Cavehill Road, do. 

Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s., East Hillbrook, Holywood. 

Andrew, John J., l.d.s., r.c.s. Eng., University Square, Belfast. 
Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., 7 Donegal! Square West, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, j.p., Ardville, Marino, Holywood, 

Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton, Portglenone. 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Bland, Robert H., j.p., Lisburn. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Belfast. 

Boyd, William, Great , Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Braddell, Edward, The Limes, Malone Park, do. 
Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, do. 

Brett, John H., c.e., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Brown, John, Longhurst, Dunmurry. 

Brown, William K. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burnett, John R., College Gardens, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d., Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell, William, m.a., m.d., College Square North do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

Carlisle, A. M., Elmwood House, do. 



74 



Shareholders. 



Carr, A. H. R., Rathowen, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Carson, John, Walmer 'J'errace, Holywood. 

*Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor. 

Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry. 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p., Queen's Elms, Belfast. 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, Strandtown. 

Cowan, P. C, m.i.c.e., Dublin. 

Crawford, William, Mount Randal, Belfast. 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown. 
Cuming, Professor James, m.a., m.d., (Reps, of the late) 

Wellington Place, Belfast. 
Cunningham, Professor Robert O., m.d., f.l.s., 

F.G.S., Mountpellier, Malone Road, do. 

Davies, John H., 45 Castle Street, Lisburn. 

*Deramore, Lord d.l. (Representative of), Newtownbreda. 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonards, Newcastle. 

*Donegal, Marquis of, Belfast. 

*Downshire, Marquis of, The Castle, Hillsborough. 

Drennan, W. H., Wellington Place, Belfast. 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., University Square, do. 

Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park (Reps, of), Ballywalter. 

Everett, Professor Joseph D., m.a., d.c.l., f.r.s., 

22 Earlscourt Square, London. 

Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Ewart, Lavens M., j.p. (Reps, of), Glenbank House, do. 

Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., Glenmachan 

House, do. 



Faren, Wm., TJountcharles, 
*Fenton, Francis G., 
Ferguson, Godfrey W., Donegall Park, 
Finlay, Fred. W., j.p., Wolfhill House, 
Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, 



do. 
London. 

Belfast. 
Ligoniel. 

Belfast. 



Shareholders, 75 

Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic Avenue, 

Belfast. 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a., m.i.m.e., Assoc. 

M.I.C.E., Eglantine Avenne, do. 

*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of"), do. 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.l, Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, Catherine, Mountpleasant, do. 

Gordon, Robert W., J. p. (Reps, of), Bangor. 

Graham, Thomas, J. p., Holywood. 

*Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d., m.r.i.a., 

(Representatives of), Broughshane. 

Grey, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast. 
Greenhill, John H., Mus bac, do. 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 

*Hall, Frederick H., Waterford. 

*Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Harland, W., University Road, do, 

Henderson, Miss Anna S. (Representatives of), do. 

Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., Oakley, Windsor Park, do. 

Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte, Clarges Street, London. 

Herdman, John, j.p., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

*Herdman, Robert Earnest, j.p., Rosavo, Cultra. 

Hermann, Walter, m.a., ph.d , R.A. Institution, Belfast. 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, do. 

Hind, John, junr., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 
Hodges, Professor John F., m.d., f.c.s., j.p., 

Sandringham, do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 

Horner, John, m.i.,m.e., Chelsea, Antrim Road, do. 
*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., m.p., Orangefield, do. , 

*Hughes, Edwin, Dalchoolin, Craigavad. 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., Windsor, Belfast. 

Inglis, James, J.P., Abbeyville, Whiteabbeya 



76 Shareholders. 

Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie 

Avenue, Belfast. 

Jaffe, Otto, The Rt. Hon. The Lord Mayor, Kin 

Edar, Strandtovvn, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey. 

Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Richmond Lodge, Belfast. 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, do. 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry. 
*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 

Lanyon, John, c.e., j.p., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Larmor, Joseph, m.a., f.r.s., St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Leathern, Dr. R. R., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast. 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, 

Strandtown, do. 

Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down. 

Letts, Professor E. A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra. 

Lindsay, James A., m.a., m.d.. College Square East, Belfast. 
Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House, do. 

Lytle, Joseph H., j.i"., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e., Stanley House, 

Holy wood. 
Macfarlane, John, Bladon Park, Belfast. 

Mackenzie, John, c.e., Strathavon, Lisburn Road, do. 

*Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), do. 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonvllle, do. 

Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 

Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.e., The Elms, Strandtown. 
Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, Belfast. 

Milligan, Seaton Forest, m.r.i.a., The Drift, Antrim Road, do. 
Mitchell, Robert A., Marmont, Strandtown. 

Montgomery Henry C, Bangor. 



Shareholders. 



77 



Montgomery, H. H., Knock, Belfast. 

Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain House, Dunmurry. 

Moore, James, The Finaghy. Belfast. 

Mullan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, do. 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p., Tudor House, Holywood. 

*Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh. 

*Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of). Belfast. 

Murray, Robert Wallace, j.p., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

Musgrave, Sir James. Bart., j.p., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

M 'Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, Mallusk, do. 

M'Bride. Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*iM'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London. 

*M'Cammon, Lieut. Col. Thomas A., Woodville, Holywood. 

M'Cance, H. J., j.p., d.l., Larkfield, Dunmurry. 
M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., j.p., d.l. (Reps, of), 

MacColl, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Strandtown, Belfast. 

MacCormac, John, m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Ardmara, Craigavad. 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), 

jM'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood. 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, University Street, Belfast. 

Maclhvaine, John H., Bangor. 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d., College Square East, Belfast. 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

MKnight, Jonn P., Nevara, Chichester Park, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Rowandean, Marlborough Park, do. 

Nicholson, Henry J., College Square Noith, do. 



O'Neill, James, m.a., College Square East, 
*0'Rorke, Ambrose Howard, Dunratho, 



do. 

Craigavad. 



f ark, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University St., Belfast. 



78 Shareholders. 

Patterson, Edward Forbes, Adelaide Park, Blfaset. 

Patterson, Mrs. Isabella, Bonn, Germany. 

Patterson, Richard, J.P., Kilmore, Holywcod. 

*Patterson, Robert Lloyd, J.P., f.l.s., Croft House, do. 

Patterson, Robert, F.z.s., Malone Park, Belfast. 

Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a., Garranard, Strandtown. 

Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Marlboro Park, Belfast. 
Patterson, William R.. Windsor Avenue, do. 

Pim, Edward W., J.P., Elm wood Terrace, do. 

Pim, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey. 

*Pirrie, Elizabeth, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.k., m.r.i.a.. National Library, Dublin. 

Purser, Prof. John, ll.d., m.r.i.a., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rea, John Henry, m.d., University Street. do. 

Rea, William R., Gardtia, Fortwilliam Park, do.. 

Reade, Robert H. S., J.P., Wilmont, Dunmurry. 

Riddel], Samuel, Beechpark, Belfast. 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown, do. 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc, Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shillington, Thomas Foulkes.j.p., Dfomart, Antrim Road, do. 
Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., j.p., d.l., Hopefield, do. 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r.c.s. Eng., Howard St., do. 
Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, John, m.a., c.k., Milltown, Banbridge. 

Speers, Adam, B.sc, Riversdale, Holywood. 

Steen, Robert, ph.d. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 
Stelfox, James, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 



Shareholders. 

*Tennent, Robert James (Reps. of). Rushpark, 
*Thompson, James, j.p., \Iacedon, 
Thompson, S. B., Short Strand. 
Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H. (Representatives of), 
*Turnley, John (Representatives of), 



79 

Belfast. 
Whiteabbey. 

Belfast. 
Whiteabbey. 

Belfast. 



Walkington, Mrs., Thornhill, Malone, do. 

Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtovvn, Belfast. 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 
Walter, Hermann, m.a., ph.d., Royal Academical 

Institution, Belfast. 

Ward, Francis D., j.p., m.r.i.a.. Chlorine Gardens, do. 

Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, j.p.. Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Knock, do. 

Whitla, Prof. William, m.d., j.p.. College Sq. North, do. 
Wilson, James, m.e., Oldforge, Dunmurry. 

Wilson, John K., Donegall Street, Belfast. 

Wilson, Walter H., Stranmillis House, do. 

*Wilson, W. Perceval, ' do. 

*Wolflf, G. W , M.P., The Den Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, Drummena, Bladon Park, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., Rubane House, Glastry. 
Workman, Rev. Robert, b.d.. The Manse, Newtownbreda. 

Workman, R. D , Upper Crescent, Belfast. 
* Workman, Thomas, j.p., Craigdarrah, Craigavad. 

Workman, William, Nottinghill, Belfast. 

Wright, James, Lauriston, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, p.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, c.f,., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 
*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



-J 



8o 



Anrrnal Subscribers, 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 
Dufferin and Ava, k.p., The Marquis of, Clandeboye, Co. Down. 
Slokes, Miss M., Hon. m.r.i.a., Carrig Breac, Howth, 

Co. Dublin. 



HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, 

Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s. Edin, Belfast Museum, 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, 



Belfast, 
do. 
do. 



Tate, Prof. Ralph, f.g.s., f.l.s., Adelaide, South Australia. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, Belfast. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast. 

Northern Banking Co., Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E., Stormont Castle, Dundonald. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, Belfast. 

Barr, James, Beechleigh, Windsor Park, do. 

Barton, H. D. M., The Bush, Antrim. 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast. 

Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay. 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast. 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Chambers, Walter, c.e., Waring Street, do. 

Cleaver, A. S., b.a., Dunraven, do. 

Craig, James, j.p., Craigavon, do. 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor. 



Aiitiual Subscribers. 



Dunvnlle, Robert G., J.P., d.l., Redburn, Holyvvood. 

Fulton, G. F.. Howard Street, Belfast. 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do. 

Green, Isaac, Ann Street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Clittonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington, Park, do. 

Jones, R. M., M.A.,RQyal Academical Institution, do. 
Kelly, W. Redfern, M.r.c.K., f.r.a.s., Dalriada, 

Malone Park, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

Malone, John, Brookvale House, Cliftonville, do. 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Brookville House, do. 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f.r.cs.i.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Scott, Conway, c.e., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 
Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Tate, Alexander, c.e., Rantalard, Whitehouse, do. 

Taylor, John, Brown Square Works, do. 

Thompson, John, Limestone Road, do. 

Turpin, James, Waring Street, do. 



|[^|0i[t Hnd iii0iii|i{dinfls 



BE LB'-A.Sa? 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



FOR THK 



S 3E3 S S I O IsT 1890-1900. 



BELFAST : 
PRINTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(printers to queen's college.) 



T9OO. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Donations to Museum ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Books Received ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

President's Inaugural Address — T. Workman ... ... ... 18 

Personal Impressions of the Transvaal, Natal, and Cape Colony — 

Robert A. Mitchell, LL.B. ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Ireland and the Scottish Isles ; Ancient Connexions and Intercourse — 

S. F. Milligan, M.R.I.A. .. ... ... ... ... 34 

Some Thoughts on Rome — Conway Scott, C.E. ... ... ... 41 

The Growth of the Ink Blot— W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A. ... ... 42 

The Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction under the 

Agriculture and Technical Instruction Act — William Gray, M.R.I.A. 44 
Some of the Work Done by Committees of the British Association — 

Professor Maurice F. FitzGerald, B. A., M.I. M.E. ... ... 57 

An Ancient Bombshell— Robert M. Young, B. A., M.R.I.A. ... ... 64 

List of Office-Bearers ... ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Liist of Shareholders and Subscribers ... ... ... ... 67 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



■:o:- 



EST-A^BLISUBJID 1821- 
:o: 

SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, cost £14. 

3 Shares ,, cost £21. 

The Proprietor of 1 Share pays 10s. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 
Shares pays 6s. per annum ; the proprietor of 3 or more Shares stands exempt 
from further payment. 

Shareholders are only eligible for election on the Council of Management 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes — Ordinary Members, who are expected to road 
Papers, and Visiting Members who, by joining under the latter title, are 
understood to intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for 
Lectures extends from November in one year till May in succeeding one. 
Members, Ordinary or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due 1st November in 
each year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to 
the Museum and Library for himself and family, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections for any friend not residing in 
Belfast. 

Any further information can ba obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 10 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



:Belfa9t Natural Ibietor^ anb ipbilosopbical 
Society* 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1899. 



■:o:- 



The Annual Meeting of Shareholders of the Society was held 
©n 14th June, in the Museum, College Square North. On the 
motion of Mr. Robert Young, C.E., J.P., seconded by Dr. 
MacCormac, the chair was taken by Mr. John Brown, and 
there were also present Rev. Dr. Hamilton (President of 
Queen's College), Professor Fitzgerald. B.A., M.T.M.E. ; R. L. 
Patterson, D.L., F.L.S. ; T. F. Shillington, J.P."", James 
O'Neill, M.A. ; Joseph Wright, F.G.S. ; J. H. Davies, John 
M'Knight, J. Horner, M.I.M.E. ; Wm. Faren, J. E. MagiU, 
Isaac Ward, Conway Scott, C.E.; R. Patterson, M.B.O.U. ; 
Robert M. Young, J.P. (honorary secretary) ; and W. H. F. 
Patterson (honorary treasurer). 

Mr. R. M. Young, Hon. Secretary, having read the notice 
convening the meeting, presented the report of the Council, 
as follows : — 

The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society desire to submit to the Sharcsholders their report of the 
working of the Society during the past year. 

The Winter Session was opened on 7th November, 1899, 
when the President of the Society, Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., 
delivered an address, subject : '' Incentives to the study of 
Natural History," with lime-light illustrations. 

The Second Meeting was held on 5th December, 1899, at 
which a lecture was given by Mr. Robert A. Mitchell, LL.B , 
subject : '' Personal Impressions of the Transvaal, Natal, and 
a 



2 Annual Meeting. 

Cape Colony," illustrated by a large series of lime-light views 
from photographs taken by the lecturer recently in South 
Africa. 

The Third Meeting took place on 2nd Januarv, iqoo, when 
Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.T.A., lectured on "Ireland and the 
Scottish Isles : Ancient Connections and Intercourse," illus- 
trated by a large series of specially prepared lantern views. 

The Fourth Meeting was arranged for 6th February, when 
Mr. Conway Scott read a paper, subject : " Some thoughts on 
Rome." Afterwards, Mr. W. H. Patterson described the 
" Growth of the Ink Blot," Avith illustrations. 

The Fifth Meeting, on 6th March, was devoted to the con- 
sideration of technical instruction in Belfast, when Mr. W.Gray 
read a paper on " The position of Belfast in relation to Technical 
Instruction under the Agricultural and Technical Instruction 
Act." This was followed by an interesting discussion. 

The Closing Meeting was held on 3rd April, when a paper 
was given by Prof. Fitzgerald, B.A., A.M.I.C.E., subject : 
" Some of the Work Done by Committees of the British 
Association." 

These meetings were well attended, particularly those 
devoted to Technical Instruction. 

The Gilchrist Course of Lectures mentioned in the last 
Annual Report were very successful, and a moiety of the 
balance remaining after all expenses were paid was handed to 
your council by the Committee, with the recommendation that 
artizans should be admitted by ticket on certain days. The 
number of kindred societies holding their meeetings in the 
Museum exhibits no reduction. At the Easter holidays the 
attendance of the public was similar to last year, although no 
special attractions were on view. The ordinary days admissions 
vary little of late years. As will be seen by the Hon. 
Treasurer's Statement of Accounts, a substantial balance in 
favour of the Society still continues to be shown after payment 
of all liabilities. 

A list of donations to the Museum and of the publications 



Annual Meeting. 3 

received in exchange from home and foreign societies will be 
printed with the present Report. 

Such donations as were received during the year have been 
incorporated with the Museum collections and exhibited in 
their proper place in the several cabinets. Amongst the speci- 
mens given maybementionedMr. R Welch's land and fresh water 
shells, some of which are rare species, and some only recently 
added to the Irish fauna. Owing to evaporation many 
specimens in jars require attention ; some of these have been 
renewed, and others must shortly be dealt with. Further 
additions to the herbarium have been selected, mounted, and 
placed in their systematic order, and several cases of birds have 
been cleaned and renovated. The curator and his assistant 
have been fully occupied with the work, in addition to the 
usual attention and oversight of the entire collections during 
the session. Your council have to deplore the loss of their 
president, the late Mr. Thomas Workman, J. P., who died after 
a short illness at St. Paul's, Minnesota, on nth May last. He 
had been for many years an active and valued member of our 
society, and of the council, in which he was a vice-president 
and librarian. During the two years in which he held the office 
of president he was most zealous for the interests of the society, 
and in last September he was chosen to voice at the Dover 
meeting the city's invitation to the British Association. He 
took the chair at our March meeting, and had made arrange- 
ments to be home in time for our annual meeting, and that to 
be held for the renewal of the invitation to the British Associa- 
tion. Your council also received with much regret the 
announcement of the death of Professor John F. Hodges, M.D., 
a former president of the society, and of Mr. Jas. Thompson, 
J. P., one of the oldest and most valued members, whose 
brother William died while president in 1852. Captain Robert 
Campbell, the donor of many valuable specimens in the 
museum, has also passed away, much regretted. 

Mr. W. H. F. Patterson submitted the financial statement, 
which showed a substantial balance in favour of the society, 
though the subscriptions had slightly decreased. 



4 Annual Meeting. 

The President of Queen's College, in moving the adoption of 
the report and statement of accounts, said that the Belfast 
Natural History and Philosophical Society was one of the 
few old things that our comparatively modern city had, and 
was one of the most useful and most interesting of all the 
societies that Belfast could boast of. He hoped the day was 
far distant when it woul 1 cease to perform its very excellent 
functions in the midst of this busy community. 

The report reminded them that duringtheyear the society had 
lost four very valued and old friends, all of whom he knew, 
and all of whom the society had good reasons to prize. The 
death of Mr. Thomas Workman was specially sad. He was the 
second president who had died during his term of office, the 
first being their eminent and well-known Belfast naturalist, 
Mr. William Thompson, whose death occurred in 1852. Mr. 
Workman, as they all knew, was a man of very varied and large 
scientific attainments. He was one of the type of men who 
helped long ago to earn for Belfast the appellation of the Athens 
of the North, and who at the present day enabled it to still lay 
claim to some extent to that name. Another death chronicled 
in the report was that of Professor Hodges. They in Queen's 
College had already in their own way taken note of that death, 
which deprived them of the last of the old staff of original 
professors. He had occupied a chair in the college for fifty 
years, and he (the President) was glad to say that in a short 
time a portrait of him, subscribed for by his friends in the 
college and city, would be hung on the walls of the Ex- 
amination Hall. In the Natural History Society the 
late professor occupied a very prominent place, and in its 
working he took a large share. In connection with his name it 
ought to be said that very long ago he took steps in his own 
private capacity to do, in of course a small way, what this very 
year was being carried out by the Government through the 
operation of the Agriculture and Technical Schools Act. 
He established, many years since, a little farm of his own not 
far from the College, for experimenting with seeds, plants, and 



Annual Meeting. 5 

manures, and from that time up to his death he was continually- 
endeavouring to infuse a spirit of science into the agricuUure 
of the North of Ireland. They who knew him best in his 
latter days deplored the loss of a valued friend, whose genial 
conversation and sage experience made intercourse with him 
peculiarly valuable and pleasant. He was undoubtedly one of 
the best types of the fine old Irish gentleman. 

Mr. James Thompson did not latterly take a very prominent 
part in the working of the Society, but he belonged to a family 
which gave to Belfast one of the most eminent men of whom 
the city could boast, namely, the late Mr. William Thompson. 
As to Captain Campbell, he (the President) had known 
him from boyhood, and a finer or braver fellow never trod 
the quarter-deck of a British ship. It could be wished that 
many more of their seafaring men would use their opportunities 
abroad in collecting rare specimens for that Museum. 

Those were the sad points referred to in the report, but there 
was a bright side, and it might be summed up in a single 
sentence, that the Society continued to do good and useful work 
for the objects lor which it was instituted. It had had a busy and 
useful year. Many of its members had taken a lively interest 
in its work, and he could only express the hope that as the old 
members passed away new ones might be found to come in to 
fill their places, so that the Society might be continued, not 
only in unimpaired, but, if possible, increased efficiency, and 
handed down to future generations of Belfast men as they had 
received it from the Belfast of long ago. 

Mr. R. L. Patterson, in seconding, mentioned that at a town 
raeetmg on Wednesday last it was decided to invite the British 
Association to meet in Belfast in 1902 — that would be fifty 
years after ttieir tirst meeting in 1852. On that occasion that 
society took a leading part in the issuing of invitations, while 
many of its members took an active part in the reception of 
that distinguished body both mdividually and collectively. He 
had no doubt that, as he hoped and expected the association 
would accept the invitation, the present members of the society 



6 Annual Meeting. 

would do their best to make the gathering a distinct and 
striking success. He regretted to hear that the subscriptions 
showed a slight falling off. He did not exactly know that they 
could increase the number of their shareholders, but occasionally 
a little effort might get them recruits in the way of annual 
subscribers, and thus they would increase the usefulness of the 
society. In connection with their active membership there 
was one point he should Hke to mention. On the list of share- 
holders there figured the names of a good many deceased 
shareholders, or rather the representatives of so and so deceased. 
President Hamilton had suggested to him that they might try 
and get Lord Shaftesbury to join the Society and he thought 
the suggestion a good one. 
The resolution was adopted. 

The fcillowing five members, who retired by rotation, were 
re-elected on the Council: — Sir Otto Jaffe, J. P.; President 
Hamilton, D.D., L.L.D., Professor Fitzgerald, Mr. T. F. 
ShiUiugton, J.P. ; and Mr. R. M. Young, J. P. 

Mr. R. M. Young announced that Mr. J. H. Davies, a 
member of the Council, had recently discovered in County 
Antrim three species new to the Irish moss flora — namely, 
lor tula marginata^ Amblystegium jfiiraizkaniim and Amhly- 
stegium varium — specimens of which would be placed in the 
Museum Herbarium. 

Mr. R. Young gave an interesting description of some rare 
specimens of worked flints (Wadi el Sheikh, Egypt), received 
from the Free Museum, Liverpool, in accordance with the 
system of duplicate exchange recently adopted. 

The following Officers were elected : — President, John Brown ; 
Vice-Presidents, President Hamilton, William Swanston, 
F.G.S.; Robert Young, C.E., J. P.; R. L. Patterson, D.L., 
F.L.S. Honorary Treasurer, W. H. F. Patterson ; Honorary 
Librarian, J. H. Davies ; Honorary Secretary. Robert M. 
Young, B.A., J.P., M.R.I.A. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman, proposed by Dr. 
MacCormac and seconded by Mr. Isaac Ward, concluded the 
proceedings. 



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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1899-1900. 



From Mr. John Fisher, Kilkeel. 

Transverse section of a yew tree from Kilkeel, Co. Down, the 
trunk was 20 feet long. 

From Mr. W. H. M'Laughlin. 
Specimen of goat moth ( Cossiis lignaperda)^ and its cocoon 
embedded in a block of ash wood. 

From The City of London. 
Medal struck by the City in commemoration of the 60th year 
of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

From Mr. I. A. Richardson. 
A flint lock musquet of a Broomhedge yeoman. 

From Mr. Osborne Grimshaw. 
Specimens of the submerged forest at Portrush. 

From Mr. Robert Welch. 
A large number of the rarer Irish land and Iresh water shells. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, isx MAY, 1899, till 
1ST MAY, 1900. 

Adelaide. — Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia. 

Vol. I, part I, and Transactions, vol. 23, parts i 

and 2 — 1899. -^^''^ Society. 

Albany. — Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Reports of the New, York 

State Museum, 1895 and 1896. 

The University of the State of New York. 
Austin. — Transactions of Texas Academy of Science. Vol. 2, 

no. 2, 1899. The Academy. 

Belfast. — Report and Proceedings of Belfast Naturalists' Field 

Club. Series 2, vol. 4, part 6, i89q. 

The Club. 
Bergen. — Bergens Museums Aarbog, 1899 ; also Crustacea of 

Norway. Vol. 2, parts 13 and 14, 1899; and 

vol. 3, parts I — 4, 1 899- 1 900. 

Bergen Museum. 
Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Vol. 

26, nos. 4 — 10, 1899; and vol. 27, nos. I — 3, 

1900. The Society. 

Boston. — Memoirs of Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. 

5, nos. 4 and 5, 1899; also Proceedings, vol. 

28, nos. 13 — 16, 1899; and vol. 29, nos. i — 8, 

1899. 2 he Society. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen Herausgegeben vom Naturwissen- 

schaftlichen Verein zu Bremen. Vol. 16, part 

2, 1899. The Society. 

Breslau — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie Herausgegeben vom 

Verein fiir Schlessiche Insektenkunde zu Breslau. 

Part 24, 1899. The Society. 

Brighton. — Annual Report and Abstract of Papers of Brighton 

and Sussex Natural History and Philosophical 

Society for the year 1898-99. The Society. 



3 Books Received. 

Brussels. — Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique. Vol. 37, 1898; and Vol. 39, 1899. 

The Society. 
„ Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique- 

Vol. 43, 1899. T/ie Society. 

„ Annales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de 

Belgique. Vols. 21 — 23, 1896-98; also Bulletins 
des Seances. The Society. 

Buenos Ayrrs. — Annales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 
Series 2, vol. 6, 1899; and Comunicaciones, vol. 
1, nos. 3 — 5, 1899. 77/1? Director. 

Buffalo. — Bulletin of Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 

Vol. 6, nos. 2 — 4, 1899. The Society. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. 
28, part 1, 1898. Palaeontologia Indica. Series 
15, vol. 1, part 2, 1899; "^^^ "^^v series, vol. i, 
parts I and 2, 1899 ; also General Report of the 
Survey for year 1898-99. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Cambridge. — Proceedings of Cambridge Philosophical Society. 
Vol. 10, part 2, 1899; and parts 3 and 4, 1900. 

The Society. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 

Zoology. Vol. 32, no. 10; vols. 33 and 34; and 

vol. 35, nos. I — 7, 1899. 2 he Curator. 

Cardiff. — Report and Transactions of Cardiff Naturalists' 

Society. Vol. 30, 1899; and vol. 31, 1900. 

The Society. 
Cassel. — Abhandlungen and Bericht (44) des Vereins fiir 

Naturkunde zu Kassel, 1899. The Society. 
Chicago. — Fortieth Annual Report and Bulletin of Chicago 
Academy of Sciences, No. 2, 1897. 

The Academy. 
,, Occasional Memoirs of Chicago Entomological 

Society. Vol. i, No. i, 1900. 

The Society. 



Books Received. Ii 

Christiania — Christiania Videnskabs Selskabs Forhandlinger. 
No. I, 1899. 

The Royal Norske Frederiks University. 

Edinburgh. — Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh. Vol. 31, part I, 1897; part 2, 1898 ; 
and part 3, 1899. The Society. 

„ Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 

Session 1897-98 and 1898-99. The Society. 

Elberfeld. — Jahresbericht derNaturwissenschaftlichen Vereins 
in Elberfeld. Part 9, 1899. The Society. 

Emden. — Eighty-third and eighty-fourth Jahresbericht der 
Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Emden, 
1898-99. 2 he Society. 

Genoa. — Giornale della Societa di Letture e Conversazione 
Scientifiche di Genova. Anno 20, fasc. 2 — 4, 

1899, also Rivista Ligure ; anno. 22, fasc. i, 

1900. The Society. 
GiESSEN. — Thirty-fourth Bericht des Oberhessichen Gesellschaft 

fiir Natur and Heilkunde, 1897-98-99. 

The Society. 
Glasgow. — Transactions of the Natural History Society of 
Glasgow. New ser. vol. 5, No. 3, 1900. 

The Society. 
„ Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of 

Glasgow. Vol. 30, 1899. The Society. 

GoTHENBERG. — Goteborg's Kungl. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets 

Samhalles Handlingar, 1899. 2 he Society. 
Halifax. — Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotian 
Institute of Science, Vol. 9, part 4, 1898. 

The Institute. 
Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen Karpathen Vereines, 26th 

year, 1890. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vandoise des Sciences, 
Naturelles. Vol. 35, n s. 131-133, 1899. 

The Society. 



12 Booksl Received. 

-Lawrence. — Kansas University Quarterly. Vol. 8, nos. 2 and 

3, 1899. Ihe Kansas University. 

Leipsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 
i898,andWisscnschaftliche Veroffentlichungen. 
Vol. 4, 1899. The Sociaty. 

„ Sitzungberichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu 
Leipzig, 24th and 25th years, 1897-98. 

The Society. 
London. — Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vols. 
52 and 53, 1896-1899. The Society. 

„ Report of the 69th Meetingof the British Association ; 

Dover, 1899. The Association. 

,, Fifteenth Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund 

of the Egypt Exploration Fund (Deshasheh), 
1898, Sixteenth Memoir (Deir el Bahari), 1898, 
and Seventeenth Memoir (Dendereh), 1900. 
The Committee of this Fund. 
„ Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 

London. Vol. 55, parts 1 — 3, 1899. Vol. 56, 
part I, 1900; also Geological Literature added 
to the Library during 1898, and List of Fellows 
of the Society. 2 he Society. 

„ Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Nos. 

129—133, 1899, and Nos. 134 and 135, 1900. 

The Society. 
,, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 

parts I — 4, 1899, and Transactions, Vol. 15, 
parts 2 — 4, 1899; also List of Eellows of the 
Society. The Society. 

Madison. — Transactions of Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters, Vol. 12, 1898. 

The Academy. 
Madras. — Bulletin of Madras Government Museum. Vol. 2, 
No. 3, 1899, and Administration Report for 
i898-'99. The SuperintendetiL 



Books Received. 13 

Manchester. — Journal of Manchester Geographical Society. 
Vol. 14, nos. 7 — 12, T898, and Vol. 15, Nos, 
I — 9, 1899. The Soeietv. 

„ Transactions of Manchester Geological Society, 

Vol. 26, parts 4 — 9, 1899, and part 13, 1900. 

The Society 

Marseilles. — Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 
Vol. 9, fasc, I — 5, 1899. The Lihrariaii. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 
New ser., Vol. 11, part 2, 1899. The Society. 

Mexico. — Boletin del Institute Geologico de Mexico. No. 11, 
1898, and 12 and 13, 1899. The Institute. 

„ Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico 

Central de Mexico. No. for December, 1898, 
and Nos. for January — September, 1899. 

The Director. 

,, Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de 

Tacubaya. Vol. 2, No. 5, 1899 ; also Obser- 
vaciones Meteorologicos, 1897, and Anuario 
20, for year i Qoo. The Director. 

Milwaukee. — Bulletin of Wisconsin Natural History Society. 
New seiies, vol. i, no. i, iqoo ; also i6th 
Annual Report of Milwaukee Public Museum. 

The Society. 

Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Vol. 2, fasc. Ti and 12, 1899. The Director. 

Moscow.— Bulletin ot the Society of Naturalists' of Moscow. 
No. 4, i8q8; and no. 1, 1899; also Memoirs. 
Vol. 15, part 7, 1898; vol. 16, part 1, 1898; and 
part 2, 1899. The Society. 

Nantes.— Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 1' 
Quest de France. Vol. 9, parts i — 3, 1899. 

The Society. 



14 Books Received. 

New York. — Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 
II, part 3, i8q8 ; and vol. 12, part i, 1899; also 
Constitution, Bye -Law?, and List of Members, 
1899. The Academy. 

,, Bulletin of American Geographical Society. Vol. 

31, nos. 2 — 5, 1899; and vol. 32, no. i, 1900. 

The Society. 

Odessa. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 
Vol. 22, part 2, 1898; also Memoirs of the 
Mathematic Section. Vols. ^6 and 19, 1899. 

The Society. 

Oporto. — Annaes de Sciencias Naturaes. Vol. 5, no. 4, 1898. 

The Editor. 
OSNABRUCK. — Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins 
zu Osnabruck for year 1898. The Society. 

Ottawa. — Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Canada. 
New series, vol. 10, 1897; and Maps to accom- 
pany Report; also Contributions to Canadian 
Palaeontology. Vol. i, part 5, 189J; and vol. 4, 
part I, 1899. The Director of the Survey. 

Padua. — Bullettino della Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze 
Naturali. Vol. 6, no. 4, 1899; and Atti; series 
2, vol. 4, fasc. I, 1900. The Society. 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Parts i and 2, 1899. 

The Academy. 
„ Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

Vol. 38, no. 159, 1899. The Society. 

„ Transactions of Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. 6, 1899. The histittite. 

,, Report of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum; 
also Monograph on the State of Nicaragua, and 
Monograph on Costa Rica, 1898. 

The Museum. 



Books Received. 15 

Pisa. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Natural!. Vol. 

11, January to July, 1899; and Process! Verbali. 
Vol. 12, Nov. 1899. ThQ Society. 

Reigate. — Proceedings of Holmesdale Natural History Club, 

iSqg. The Club. 

RoMF. — Atti della Reale Academia dei Lincei. Series 5, vol. 

8, semestre i, fasc. 7 — 12. Semestre 2, fasc. 

I — 12, 1899; vol. 9, semestre i, fasc. i — 7, 

1900; also Rendicontodeir Adunanza Solenne, 

June, 1899. The Academy. 

San Francisco. — Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences. 

Series 3, vol. i, nos. 5, 6, 11, 12, 1899; and 

Occasional Papers, no. 6, 1899. 

The Academy. 
St. Louis. — Tenth Annual Report of Missouri Botanical 

Garden, 1899. The Director. 

Stavanger. — Stavanger Museums Aarsberetning for 1898. 

The Museum Trustees. 
Stirling. — Transactions of Stirling Natural History and 

Archaeological Society for year 1898-99. 

The Society. 
Stockholm. — Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens 

Handlingar, Vol. 31, 1898-09. Bihang, vol. 

24, parts 1 — 4, 1899; and Ofversigt, vol. 55. 

1 898. The Academy. 

Sydney. — Science of Man. New series, vol. 2, nos. 3, 5, 10 and 

12, 1899 ; and vol. 3, no. i, 1900. 

The Editor. 
Tokyo. — Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur 

und Volkerkunde Ostasiens. Vol. 7, parts 2 

and 3, 1809. The Society. , 

Topeka. — Transactions of Kansas Academy of Science. Vol. 

16, 1899. The Academy. 

Toronto. — Proceedings of the Canadian Institute. New ser. 

Vol. 2 parts, 1899. The Institute. 



1 6 Books Received. 

Upsala. — Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the Uni- 
versity of Upsala. Vol. 4, part i, No. 7, 1898. 

The University. 

Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglischen Reich- 
sanstalt. N-s. 5 — 18, 1899, and Nos. i and 2, 
T900. The Society. 

„ Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Konglichen Zoolo- 

gisch-Botanischen Gelleschaft. Vol. 49, 1899. 

The Society. 
Washington. — Year Book of United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1899, ^"d Bulletins, Nos. 14 and 
15, 1899. Ihe Secretary of the Department. 

„ United States Geological Survey Reports — 

1 8th Annual Report, parts i — 5 and 5 con- 
tinued, 1897-98; 19th Annual Report, part i 
1898; part 2, 1899, part 4, 1899, part 6, 1898, 
and part 6 continued, 1898 ; 20th Annual 
Report, part 6, and part 6 continued, 1899 ; 
also Monographs, Vols. 29, 31, and 35, and 
Atlas to Vol. 31, 1898. The Director. 

„ Proceedings of the United States National 

Museum, Vol. 20, 1898, and Vol. 21, 1899 ; also 
Bulletin, No 47, parts 2 and 3, 1 898, and Annual 
Report for 1899 ; Annual Report of the Smiths- 
onian Institution, 1898 ; Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, Nos. 1,171 and 1,173, 1898. 

The Smiihsoniajt Inititiition. 
York. — Annual Report of Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
1899. The Society. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahresschrift der Naturfor chenden Gesellschaft 
in Zurich, 44th year, parts i — 4, 1899. 

The Society. 

From Mr. Victor Coaths, D.L. — The Zoologist, Vol. 5, 1847. 
Vol. 6 of sen 3, 1882, and Vol 7, 1883. 



Books Received. 17 

From Mr. R. Lloyd-Patterson, J.P., F.L.S.— Journal of the 
Linnean Society (Botany.) Vol. 26, No. 178, 
and Vol. 33, Nos. 237 — 239, 1899. 

F)'om Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. — Malaysian spiders. Vol. 
2, parts I — 4, 1899. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION 1899-1900. 



7/// November^ 18Q9. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P. 



Incentives to the Study of Natural History, 



(Abstract.) 



It has no doubt been the privilege of many of you to ascend the 
St Gothard valley by the wonderful railway that has been so skil- 
fully engineered up it. At one moment the traveller is carried 
in a straight line towards the snow crested alps at the summit, 
as if no obstacle stood in the path, but that lasts only for a 
little way. In another moment, with a shrieking whistle, you 
enter into a darksome cavern of a tunnel, and the traveller 
knows not whether his course is away from or towards the 
object of his aspiration. However, when you again emerge into 
the sunlight you find, though you have taken an enormous 
spiral, you are till going onwards and upwards, and you can 
see far below you th road you formerly traversed, and that 
even your backward course was an onward one. 

Such, it appears to me, is scientific progress ; we seem never 
for any time on the straight course to perfect knowledge, but 
ever on a spiral one if we follow after truth. 

We cannot follow absolute truth, but only truth as it appears 



Inaugural Address by the President. 19 

to us at every moment ot our progress. Our path must 
necessarily be on the line of the least resistance. 

Too many incline to the line of no resistance, and taking 
the river as their guide become the creatures of circumstance. 
Like Tennyson's Lotus Eaters, they say — 

Let us alone. What is it that will last ? 

All things are taken from us and become 

Portions and parcels of the dreadful Past. 

Let us alone. What pleasure can we have 

To war with evil ? Is there any peace 

In ever climbing up the climbing wave ? 

All things have rest, and ripen towards the grave 

In silence ; ripen, fall and cease : 

Give us long rest or death, dark death or dreamful ease." 

But your presence here to night assures me that you are not 
of those, but that you are ever willing to struggle on towards 
the light. Now though the nineteenth century has still a few 
months to run, this is the last session of the Belfast Natural 
History and Philosophical Society which will use the numbers 
eighteen hundred to mark its date, and as I think the study of 
Natural History has, after the tremendous development when 
Darwin published in 1859 ^^^ epoch making book on the 
Origin of Species, entered somewhat one of these dark 
tunnels, or at least shady places whe;eweare inclined to ask 
are we making any progress, or what is the good of it all. 
Believing thus, I think I cannot do better in my opening 
address of this session, 1899-1900, after thanking you for the 
honour you have shown me by again electing me as your 
President, than by continuing my former address, " Incentives 
to the Study of Natural History " ; treating on this occasion 
the ways, colours, and instincts of Animals. 

It had not been my intention to urge as an incentive, the 
good we may do by the study of Natural History, but an 
important instance has I'ust been brought before the public to 
which I think it right to refer. 

All persons who have lived or had friends living in tropical 
or other hot countries must have heard something of the ravages 



20 Inaugural Ad^/ress by the President. 

of malarial fever or ague. The cause of the fever has long 
been a mystery but at last it is to be hoped that naturalists will 
be able to solve the mystery and that we are on the track of 
the fell destroyer. It would appear that the cause is a living 
organism which gets into the biood and there sets up a 
disturbance of the system that brings on the fever. This 
organism has been found to be not only carried to the victim 
by a species of mosquito but actually the organism goes through 
a change or metamorphosis in the body of the mosquito. It is 
hoped, therefore, that if we can destroy the mosquito we will 
be able to annihilate the disease. 

In Rome, where malarial fever never originates but only in 
the Campagna around the city, some of these mosquitos have 
been allowed to suck the blood from a patient suffering from 
malarial fever and after a few days allowed to eject their poison 
into another human being and it was found that he was 
inoculated with the fever. If the mosquito is ac once allowed 
to attack the subject it can do no harm as the metamorphosis is 
not completed and the organism is not in a fit slate to live in 
the human system. 

The eggs of this mosquito are eagerly sought after and 
devoured by fish, so that they have no chance of coming to 
maturity if laid in deep water where fish are, atid thus they can 
only come to maturity in puddles or shallow surface water 
where fish cannot live. Their larv^ae also float along the 
surface of the water, getting the oxygen necessary for their life 
from the air, so they can easily be destroyed by pouring a little 
paraffin oil on the surface of the water which, spreading out, 
cuts them off from the air. Of course belter surface drainage 
Avill also have the effect of destroying them. 

If these statements should prove true, as we have every 
reason to expect they will, we have very direct evidence of the 
good of this ennobling study. 

It has always been most interesting to the student of Natural 
History to investigate the similarity in structure existing be- 
tween animals from separate parts of the globe, and if possible 



Inaugural Address, by the President 21 

to discover if these similarities are the result of a connection in 
former times. For such an investigation a knowledge of the 
forms that lived during the past history of the earth is 
imperative. 

Unfortunately it is most difficult to get the remains of 
invertebrates well preserved in geological strata, owing to their 
perishable nature, but there is one substance in which we have 
them well preserved, even better than the larger animals. 
That substance is amber. Great numbers of spiders, as well as 
other articulata are found embedded in the amber which is 
copiously cast up on the southern shores of the Baltic, many in 
a complete state of preservation. The principal work by Koch 
and Berendt, on the subject of these remains describes these 
amber spiders, three of which are remarkable for their strangely 
elevated heads, and are grouped in one genus Archaea. Type, 
Archaea paradoxa. 

Koch considered this genus not to be related to any known 
spiders, while the late Professor Menge of Danzig, believed 
them at lirst to have most affmity with letragnatha, but after- 
wards refers Archaea to the Laterigrades. However within 
the last few years living spiders have been discovered closely 
related to Archaea^ but strange to say, in widely separated 
parts of the world. 

The first of these sent by me to the Rev. O. Pickard- 
Cambridge and described by him under the name of Eriaiich- 
eniui Workmani was found in Madagascar. He said " It is of 
great interest, not only on account of its singularly elevated 
caput, but because the elevation is of a type quite distinct from 
anything I have ever before met with." 

Some specimens of Walckenaera have the upper part of the 
caput elevated to a great height, and the eyes are (some or all) 
carried up with it; but in the present spider not only the eyes 
but the falces are carried up, necessitating the extraordinary 
development of the latter to enable them to meet and cooperate 
with the other parts of the mouth. These parts would other- 
wise have been left open and exposed and the spider itself 



22 Inaugural Address by the President. 

would have been in danger of starvation since the anterior 
extremities of the falces, with their fangs and teeth, are the 
main instruments for holding and compressing the spider's 
prey, the juices of which flow thence into the mouth itself. 
Another of these curious spiders came from Landana on the 
river Congo on the west coast of Africa and has been described 
by M. Eugene Simon and he has named it Landana Petiti dSttr 
the discoverer M. L. Petit. 

M. Simon has not only described a third living species under 
the name of Mecysmauchenius segmentatus but also another 
fossil species, Archaea pougnetiio\xx\6. embedded in amber from 
the shores of the Baltic. 

M. Simon in his splendid work on spiders, just being issued, 
says, that he can see no difference between Archaea and 
Ertauchenius, and therefore does away with the latter genus. 
He also says of these spiders, " The geographical distribution of 
the Archaeidae is not less curious than the details of their 
strange structure. Although during the Tertiary epoch the 
genus Archaea inhabited the North of Europe, the genera 
actually living, which we must suppose to be its descendants, are 
relegated to the most southern parts of the Old and New 
world. The genus Archaea is found in Madagascar, the genus 
Landana in the Congo districts, while the genus Mecysmau- 
cheniiis comes from Cape Horn. The first two genera Simon 
considers to be allied to the Argiopae, of which our common or 
garden spider Araneus diadematiis belongs. Landana he has 
placed in the Therididae. It would be of great importance to 
know what sort of webs they make. 

The L-ung-fishes, Jivmg representatives of the Dipnoi^ an order 
of fish that goes back to the Devonian period, has also a similar 
distiibution, represented by the Protopterus in Africa, the 
Lepidosiren in South America, and the Ceraiodus in only one 
or two rivers in Queensland. 

In the skunk {Mephitis sufficans) we have a curious instance 
of a mammal protected by warning colours, and a disagreeable 
smell. The skunk goes about freely with its white tail erect 
as a danger signal, fearing neither man or beast. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 23 

In 1881, when crossing the Pampas ot Uruguay, between the 
Brazilian frontier and the city of Monte Video, in a diligence, 
with a party of Spaniards, I had a personal interview with a 
skunk in a state of nature, and can therefore speak from 
experience of its defensive or rather offensive armature. While 
stopping to change horses I wandered a little way from the 
station, searching for spiders. While in the act of catching 
some red ones in a crevice among rocks, I heard a curious 
sound like that emitted by a large moth or butterfly flapping 
its wings. I peered down into the opening, expecting to see 
some insect trying to get out, but instead, I saw a funny little 
pig like nose and two bright eyes looking up at me with a very 
comical expression. This explained where the hist ! hist ! hist ! 
came from. But what was the thing. At first I thought it was 
a young pig, but a pig does not make that noise, nor is it armed 
with long claws as this animal was. It then began to show 
signs of attack, and not liking the look of the long claws I 
kept my distance and hallooed for the others, who soon came 
running down to see what was wanted. When they came near 
they did not seem to like the look of the creature. 

borne of the party would not go within yards of the rock 
where it was, but no one explained the nature of the beast and 
why they feared it, except that it would not bite. Seeing they 
were really in earnest that it would not bite I felt quite anxious 
to capture it alive. So taking great precautions I slipped my 
hand down the cleft until I got firm hold of the animal by the 
back of the neck and, with difficulty, dragging it out, I began 
to carry it to the diligence, congratulating myself on the hand 
some capture I had made, for it looked very nice and mild with 
its black body and long bushy tail. 

My companions seemed strangely elated and laughed im- 
moderately. Indeed if I had not been such a self-satisfipd 
tenderfoot their strange behaviour would have aroused my 
suspicions and I would have smelt a rat. The creature now 
began to show signs of dissatisfaction as if it thought the joke 
had gone far enough and being afraid it was making round to 



24 Inaugural Address by the President. 

bite my hand I let it drop to the ground, expecting it 
immediately to bolt off. But such a thought seemed never to 
have entered its mind. It apparently thought itself master of 
the situation and when I poked my hat at it, it acted very 
much like a playful kitten, sitting up on its hind legs and 
jumping at the hat as if in fun. I got more than ever pleased 
with my new-found pet and proceeded to re-capture it. When 
suddenl}' it turned tail . . whew ! ! I The murder was 
out, the laughter explained ; for feeling a most horrible 
effluvium in my nose and smarting in my eyes I needed no one 
to tell me what I had captured. A skunk, a beast I had smelt 
before but never seen and handled and don't want to again. 

I am sure I cannot better close my lecture than in the noble 
words in which Professor Charles Richet, of Paris, opened that 
address on Nerve Waves which entranced the British Associa- 
tion at Dover last September. 

" If, owing to the stupid prejudices and barbarian hate, 
nations are still separated by divisions which may lead them 
into fratricidal war, it falls to the men of science at least to set 
the example of concord, in order that by their teaching, based 
on reason, they may bring to all peace, sweet peace — the 
chimera of the past, the reality of to-morrow." " To this 
end nothing can be more effective than the great example of 
the British Association and the Association Fran9aise, who, 
within the space of a few days, are to meet twice as partners 
in their fertile work : to-morrow on English soil, in this 
hospitable town of Dover ; five days later on the soil of France, 
on the shores you can see from here, where you will find the same 
courteous and cordial welcome as our countrymen will receive 
on this side." '• Yet, after these words of peace must come 
words of war — nay, its open declaration.'' 

" Men of science have not the right to stay within the closed 
gates of their tower of ivory ; it behoves them also to wrestle, 
and to wrestle unceasingly for justice, to turn the united forces 
of all generous minds against the common foe, the worst enemy 
of mankind, and this is ignorance. 



Inaugural Address hy the President. 25 

" We must not value unduly the admirable conquests won 
by science in this century. Admirable as they are, they are 
yet nothing as compared to the great mystery beyond. 
Newton compared our science to that of a child, who should 
pick up a pebble on the seashore, and think he has penetrated 
the secrets of ocean." 

" After all our searching and all our efforts, we to-day can 
hardly say more. The shades tliat surround us are as deep as 
in the time of Newton ; and in this universe, vast and obscure, 
at most, scattered glimmers of light, few and far between, reach 
our straining eyes. We need all the co-operation of all men 
of science, of all nations, to dispel some of these shades." 

" What madness it would be not to unite, not to walk hand 
in hand, but to strive apart ! The reward of this union 
will be above all price ; the conquest of truth, the control of 
brute matter, the gift of a life less precarious and less painful to 
man, feeble man." 

Also his closing words, 

" Vast as is the world, mighty as are the fires of the infinite 
stars, the intelligence of man is of a higher order than these ; 
and I would fain exclaim with the great philosopher Immanuel 
Kant : ' More than the starry heaven above my head, one 
thing fills me with admiration : the moral law in the heart of 
man. 



Dr. Charles Sheldon in proposing a vote of thanks to the 
lecturer, said that the President was not the least notable 
among the members of the Workman family, who had done so 
much in various forms to increase research in Belfast. They 
had been delighted with the manner in which he had revealed 
to them the results of his own investigation, and he (Dr. 
Sheldon) hoped that the President's desire might be gratified 
that the British Association would visit them at a future date. 

Mr. G. W. Ferguson seconded and Mr, W. Gray supported 
the motion, which was passed by acclamation. 

The President thanked the mover of the vote of thanks and 



26 Inaugural Address by the President. 

the other gentlemen who had spoken for their kind remarkS; 
and said he could promise the British association a very warm 
welcome indeed if they visited Belfast in 1902. 



27 



Ith December^ 1899. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President, in the Chair. 



PERSONAL IMPRESSIONS OF THE TRANSVAAL, 
NATAL, AND CAPE COLONFY. 

By Robert A. Mitchell, LL.B. 



{Abstract.) 



South Africa has attracted a great deal of pubHc attention 
of late years, especially since the important episode of the 
Jameson Raid, and the denouement now taking place had not 
been altogether unexpected by those who really knew. It has 
been said that South Africa was the '' grave of the reputations 
of prominent men," but it has also produced its successes, 
among whom are Cecil Rhodes and Sir Alfred Milner. To 
Mr. Rhodes Great Britain owes her predominance in South 
Africa to-day, ana to him is due the fact that we have a vast 
empire in that part of the world. Sir Alfred Milner is a star 
which has shot into brilliancy at a later date, but his conduct of 
affairs during the crisis has marked him as a coming man. 

South Africa is at present in a transition state, and we can 
only guess at what its future will be. Unlike some of our 
other colonies, which are entirely white men's country, South 
Africa has its great native question always present, and always 
will have it, for Great Britain has stopped the cruel and bloody 
wars by which thousands formerly lost their lives, and has taken 
measures to keep down epidemic diseases, such as smallpox, 
which claimed its thousands of victims also. This is character- 
istic of us as a colonising power, for whenever Britain puts her 



28 Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 

shoulder to the wheel, ignorance, cruelty, and injustice vanish. 
Great Britain alone has made a thorough success of colonising, 
and we await with interest the advent of a new colonising 
power across the Atlantic which may sometime equal, but 
never eclipse us. Wherever Great Britain goes, unlike the 
other nations of the world, she holds her possessions in trust for 
mankind ; that is at once the keynote and the invisible strength 
of her Empire. 

South Africa is politically divided into many spheres, but 
the principal divisions are Cape Colony, Natal, Rhodesia, 
Orange Free State, and the South African Republic or 
Transvaal. Germany and Portugal hold territories on the 
borders of these, but one possession in the hands of the latter 
power I hope will now become British, I refer to Delagoa Bay. 
Cape Colony is the oldest and most important of the places 
just named. Its length is about 440 miles, its breadth 600, and 
its area 199,950 square miles (more than twice that of Great 
Britain), but including dependencies it has an area of 355,171 
square miles. To this vast area must be added that of 
Bechuanaland, Chartered Company, Mashonaland, and .Mata- 
beleland, which is 963,000 square miles, and Natal and Zululand, 
or a grand total of 1,352,821 square miles owned by Great Britain 
in South Africa. The population of Cape Colony and depen- 
dencies is 410,000 whites and 1,500,000 blacks. 

Natal and Zululand have an area of 34,650 square miles and 
a population of 50,000 whites and 700,000 blacks. 

The area of the South African Republic is 113,700 square 
miles, and the population 204,000 whites and 645,000 blacks. 

The Orange Free State has an area of 43,000 square miles 
and a population of 95,000 whites and 130,000 blacks. 

From Capetown to the Zambezi is about 1,200 mile:^, and from 
the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean is ab ut 1,300, and when we 
assimilate the Orange Free State and the South African 
Republic our empire in South Africa will be a gigantic one in 
point of area, but this vast country is peopled by but 720,000 
whites and 4,000,000 blacKs, the two added together not much 



Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 29 

more than the population of Ireland and the total white 
population 's only about twice that of Belfast. 

As regards the nature of her population, it is made up of 
Cape Dutch, Britishers, Negroes, Malays and Indians. The 
Cape Dutch are a mixed race, being descendants through inter- 
marriage of the original Dutch settlers and the French 
Huguenots who came to the country in the 17th century. 
Their language is not pure Dutch, but a patois called the 
" Taal." The lead in social improvement and the amassing 
of wealth is taken by the British, and their superiority is due 
to their greater application to habits of industry. The native 
races comprise Kaffirs, Bechuanas, Hottentots, Fingoes, Zulus, 
Mashonas and Matabele. The Zulu is the first type of the 
coloured people of South Africa — he is at once a warrior and 
a gentleman, and until Cetewayo was crushed in 1879 he never 
soiled his fingers with work, as his women folk did all that for 
him. Each native man who is not a Christian is entitled to as 
many wives as he can buy, and his ideal number is four. The 
price of wives when I was there last being 10 cows, and a 
commission of one to the prospective mother-in-law. 

The Malays who inhabit chiefly Cape Colony were brought 
therefrom the East Indian Islands by the Dutch as slaves, and are 
very energetic and industrious. Another element of the popu- 
lation, and a serious one, is the Indian element. Natives were 
brought from India to work in Natal, and are to a ver}'' appreci- 
able extent supplanting the white man in that colony, and so 
causing a burning question that will have some day to be 
settled by the Home Government. Broadly speaking Cape 
Colony is more Dutch than British ; Natal has only a sprinkling 
of Dutch inhabitants ; in the Orange Free .State there are five 
Dutch to one Britisher, and in the Transvaal almost two 
Uitlanders to one Boer. 

As may be observed in the several views at this stage thrown 
on the screen, Cape town and Table Bay present a magnificent 
sight to the visitor. Towns up country, however, are hardly 
worth being called towns, they are small collections of houses 



30 Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 

and at best what we would call villages, but as such they look 
large in the estimation of the population unused to anything 
greater. Places like Colesberg and De Aar, lately come into 
prominence, are very small. The other important =eaports of 
Cape Colony are Port Elizabeth and East London. Some of 
the finest buildings in South Africa are in Capetown, which is 
so much in advance of Belfast that it possesses an electric tram 
service. Simonstown is the British Naval station for the Cape 
and it was here that the naval brigade, which had won so much 
fame for itself in recent battles had been organised, and it was 
here that the bulk of the Boer prisoners were detained. 

There are two ways to choose from for the traveller on his 
way to Johannesburg, one is by train direct from Capetown a 
hot and weary journey of 62 hours, and the other way via 
Natal, first by sea and then by rail, which is preferable to the 
long train journey from Capetown, but which gives travellers a 
good chance of seeing Cape Colony scenery. The greater part 
of Caie Colony consists of Karoo. Any one seeing it for the 
first time would imagine himself to be in a desert and the very 
look of the place would drive a County Down Farmer to 
madness, and yet vast herds of cattle and flocks of sheep manage 
to exist there. Port Elizabeth is the most English town in 
the colony. Its chief export is wool. One remarkable feature 
of Cape Colony scenery is the want of trees. What trees did 
grow are not more than 20 feet high except the blue gum 
tree which has been brought from Australia, and which reaches 
a good height, and which are alwavs planted near the farm 
house for the shade. Almost all South African trees bear 
flowers. 

Natal was first settled in 1820, and differs considerably from 
Cape Colony as it is more fertile and is called the " Garden 
Colony " in consequence. The Natal natives are for the greater 
part of the Zulu stock ; they live in Kraals and are governed by 
their own chiefs. The Colony of Natal is essentially British, 
much more so than Cape Colony. Natal slopes upwards from 
the coast to the great Central African tableland at a rapid 



Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 31 

angle, and so causes an astonishing variety of climate from 
tropical to quite cool in the neighbourhood of Langs Nek, about 
5,500 feet above sea level. Pietermaritzburg is the prettiest 
town in South Africa, and the railwa}'^ which connects it with 
Johannesburg is a great feat of engineering skill, having been 
brought round mountains and alongside precipices with wonder- 
ful engineering skill in negotiating the several thousand feet 
between the sea coast and Johannesburg. Travelling, apart 
from railways, is rather rough and attended with considerable 
danger. There are few bridges across rivers and streams, and 
these have therefore to be crossed by drifts or fords, which is 
a difficult matter in time of rain. Ladysmith, when I visited 
it, was a very small place with very miserable hotel accommo- 
dation. It stood on a plain, surrounded by hills on two sides. 

Crossing into the Transvaal we may glance at its past history, 
and the causes that led up to the present war. The Boers who 
ruled it had formerly peopled Cape Co ony, had gone north 
rather than live under the flag of the most liberty-loving 
nation in the world. In 1877 the Transvaal was annexed by 
the British in order to save it from extinction by the natives, 
but through the weakness of the Government then in power, 
when the Boers rebelled in 1881, it was again allowed its 
independence. Conventions were entered into between the 
Imperial Government and the Transvaal in 188 1 and 1884. 
Almost everv provision of each of these conventions has been 
systematically and deliberately broken by the Boer government 
since they were signed. The result has been the present war. 
The Transvaal has a very fine climate which is almost perfect 
for consumptives, being dry and bracing. All the land 
is covered with grass and there is plenty of water^ 
and so it is most suitable for stock farming. Rolling 
grassy plains with blue gum trees here and there round 
the farms and distant hills are the characteristic features 
of the Transvaal landscape Johannesburg is about 5,000 
feet above sea level and in the winter is quite cold. The 
mineral resources of the country are not yet fully known, but 



32 Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 

from what is known it is one of the richest places in the world 
and has a great future before it. Johannesburg has been built 
up within the last 14 years by the industry and skill of the 
Uitlander. It is a very f ne city and a credit to our fellow- 
countrymen. So oppressive, however, was the Boer Govern- 
ment that the guns of the fort were kept constantly trained 
upon it. Johannesburg was founded in 1886, and in 1897 it 
had a population of ico,ooo, one-half white. Mr. Bryce, the 
historian, says, '' Johannesburg with its mining environs has 
nearly all the industry and wealth and half the whole white 
population of the Transvaal, a country, be it rememberd, as 
large as Great Britain, Pretoria and the lonely country to the 
north, east, and west has the rest of the population and all the 
power.'' 

Considering the political situation before the war and the 
grievances of the Uitlanders, instances of which I met with in 
Johannesburg, it seemed to me clear that the war was inevit- 
able, and was directly brought about oy the Boer government 
for its own ends. The Boer does not care for hard work, 
but has no objection to enjoy the fruits of others labours. 
This explains in a great measure their attitude towards the 
Uitlanders, and their barbarity to the Natives. 

The South African Republic was only a Republic in name, 
and was really a corrupt oligarchy, almost all the members of 
the government and most of the public men being known to 
accept bribes freely, and President Kruger has pushed into 
public and well paid offices as many of his 108 grandchildren 
as he could, whether they had the necessary qualifications 
or not. The fact is that the Boers are far behind the 
times ; they are ignorant, taciturn, and suspicious — their ideas 
in dealing with others is to be " slim," i.e.^ crafty. The 
Uitlanders had many grievances to complain of ; it had been in 
trying to bring about a redress of those grievances that the 
present war originated. It is to be hoped that the issue will 
be on the side of right and justice. 

In showing some slides of Pretoria, I may explain that 



Personal Impressions of the Transvaal. 33 

Pretoria is quite unlike Johannesburg, and presents a great 
contrast to it, being a quiet little country town, rather pretty, 
and surrounded by hills — upon the summit of each a fort. 
The only fine building in Pretoria is the Raad Zaal or Parlia- 
ment House which cost _^20o,ooo. 

The Orange Free State is almost entirely a stock raising 
country. Farming and shop-keeping are the only industries. 
Bloemfontein is a small country town, with nothing to claim 
attention. The climate of the Orange Free State, like that of 
the Transvaal, is almost perfect for consumptives. It is, 
however, like the rest of South Africa, subject to violent 
thunderstorms. While travelling in the Orange Free State 
I experienced one of the most tremendous thunderstorms it is 
possible to imagine, which raged for many hours. About 6 
p.m. the sky clouded over, the rain fell in torrents and for 
hours the thunder rolled and the lightning flashed. Forked 
lightning, sheet lightning, and balls of fire followed each other 
in quick succession so that the illumination of the landscape 
was practically continuous. My friends and myself endeavoured 
to count the flashes per minute, but as they were coming in all 
directions we had to fall back on an estimate of 30 or 40 
flashes. 

In concludmg, may I express the pleasure I have had in 
helping any one to-night to understand, even if faintly, the 
main features of our future Great Dominion in South Africa 
and the conditions which, until recently, obtained in one 
portion of it more particularly. 



3+ 



2nd January^ igoo. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J. P., President, in the Chair. 



IRELAND AND THE SCOTTISH ISLES ; ANCIENT 

CONNEXIONS AND INTERCOURSE. 

By S. F. Milligan, M.R.I.A. 

{Abstract.) 



I have been led to think of this subject in consequence of 
being one ot a large party who visited these islands in the 
month of June last. On the occasion referred to two of the 
leading archaeological societies — viz., the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland and the Cambrian Archaeological Asso- 
ciation — chartered a fine steamer, and paid a visit to the Inner 
and Outer Hebrides, as well as several islands lying outside the 
track of tourists and ordinary steamers. I was much impressed 
with the similarity of the surroundings, physical appearance, 
and social conditions of the islanders as compared with our own 
people in Mayo, Galway, and islands on the Western Atlantic 
seaboard. In most of the islands Gaelic was still spoken, and 
was easily understood by Irish-speaking people. Their inter- 
course with Ireland was much greater three or four hundred 
years ago than it is now, due to the fact that in the early 
ages of Christianity and for many centuries afterwards Irishmen 
had a great disposition for roaming all over Western Europe, 
either as teachers, missionaries, or soldiers. About the year 
560 a.d. Saint Columba formed the idea of going to Scotland 
to attempt the conversion of the Picts to Christianity, and, if 
successful, he hoped it would alleviate the condition of his 
countrymen who had settled in the Scottish Dalriada. Columba 
by his grandmother was related to the Dalriada Kings of 
Scotland, and his sympathies were drawn out towards his 



Ireland and the Scottish Isles. 35 

kinsmen who were so harassed by the Picts. He had spent 
the first forty years of his life in Ireland, founding churches 
and monasteries, and, as an itinerant missionarj^ preaching all 
over Ireland. He started from Derr} , founded by himself, 
where stood his favourite monastery. He proceeded, accom- 
panied by twelve of his followers, along the beautiful shores of 
Lough Foyle to Innishowen Head, where the little bay is still 
shown from which his curragh sailed to the Scottish Isles. It 
was about the year 563 he left Ireland, and, as he was born in 
521, he was then forcy-two years of age. He was full of energy 
and zeal, and had vast experience of mission work, when he 
made this new departure. Monasticism was taking a firm hold 
in Ireland about this time, and the more zealous of the Irish 
clerics were founding monasteries in the islands around the 
Irish coast as well as in the islands on the larger lakes. Islands 
were the favourite spots where these institutions first flourished. 
It is supposed that monasticism originated in Egypt in the 
third century, and rapidly spread over the then Christian 
world. What was for their safety and security at first — that 
is, their isolated position — ultimately durmg the Danish period 
led to their destruction. Columba stopped at several islands 
on his way. He called at Oronsay with the idea of remaining, 
but as he could see the summits of the mountains of Ireland 
from it he proceeded on to I, or Hy, now known as lona, 
where he got a grant of land, and founded his famous 
monastery. For two years he never lefi the island, getting 
the little community into order, building his monastery, and 
tilling the ground. By his holy life, example, and conversation 
he impressed most favourably all who came in contact with 
him. His little colony was like an oa'is in the desert of that 
wild country. He was entirely successful in his mission to 
Brude, the Pictish King, who became a convert to the Christian, 
faith. The leading nobles followed, and for years afterwards his 
labours amongst the Pictish nation never flagged until the 
whole nation embraced Christianity. The result he anticipated 
followed, and the mellowing influence of the Gospel caused a 



36 Ireland and the Scottish Isles. 

marked improvement in the relations between the Picts and 
the Scots, and led to their ultimate union into one Scottish 
kingdom. The monastery of lona became celebrated over 
Western Europe, and for centuries afterwards shone as a bright 
beacon of Christianity in this far-off isle of the sea. In the 
burial-ground known as the Relig Oran there are buried 48 
Scottish kings, 4 Irish kings, 8 Norwegian kings, and Egfrid, 
a king of Northumbria, also many great Highland chiefs and 
lords of the isles, so that very few spots on earth contain more 
lemains of illustrious dead than does lona. It was the parent 
of many monasteries not alone in Scotland and the Isles, but 
in Ireland and the North of England. Columba returned to 
Ireland at the close of his life to attend a great national 
convention held at Drumceatt, near to where Limavady now 
stands. 

The Macdonnells became connected with Antrim, and 
formed an Irish family, the head of which is the Earl of Antrim. 
John Mor Macdonnell, son of Eion of Islay, and grandson by 
his mother of King Robert II., came to Antrim for a wife. 
He came over to seek the hand of Margery Bysett, a handsome 
woman, and heiress to all the lands included in the Glens of 
Antrim. The Bysetts were a noble Scotch family, who about 
the year 1242 were outlawed from Scotland for the supposed 
murder of the Earl of Athol, which charge was never proved. 
Leaving Scotland with all their means, they acquired the 
territory included in the Glens. Margery's father had married 
a daughter of The O'Neill, and, having no other child, the 
property fell to her. John Macdonnell was married in 1399 to 
Margery Bysett at Glenarm, where her family had a castle. 
They resided afterwards in Cantire, and occasionally at Glenarm. 
From the period of their marriage a greater number of the 
islanders settled in the Glens, which continued a favourite 
resort and hiding-place when any trouble arose in Scotland. 
The intercourse between Antrim and the Isles, particularly 
Islay and Cantire, from this time became very close. There 
was constant going to and from the Isles, and occasional forays 



Ireland and the Scottish Isles. 37 

were made as far as Castlereagh, when large preys cf cattle 
would be driven back to the Glens, and thence to Rathlin, to 
be taken afterwards to Tslay at their convenience. In the year 
1 55 1 a feud existed between the O'Neills of Castlereagh and 
the Macdonnells, and the latter made an incursion into Clan- 
naboy, from which a great prey of cattle and other valuables 
were lifted and removed to Rathlin. The Macdonnells were 
able to strike a blow at England more easily through the North 
of Ireland than any other quarter, and the Government in 
Dublin made up their mind to put them down. This was in 
1 55 1, when Elizabeth was Queen. Four ships were fitted out, 
and a large number of soldiers placed on board to proceed to 
Rathlin, and, if possible, carry off the plunder that was supposed 
to be stored there. The ships, on their arrival, proceeded to land 
an armed force of three hundred men, part gunners and part 
archers. The Macdonnells awaited them on the shore, prepared to 
give them a warm reception, By a sudden upheavel of the sea 
or a great Atlantic roller the boats were driven high on the rocks, 
and before they could recover themselves the Macdonnells 
attacked and slew every man except the two captains. These 
were retained as hostages, and afterwards exchanged for the 
younger brother of the chief, the afterwards celebrated Sorley 
Boy, who was then a prisoner in Dublin Castle. The Macdon- 
nells at this time owned Dunluce Castle, which they had taken 
from the MacQuillans, also Kenbane Castle and Dunanynie 
Castle, built on a cliff near the sea at Ballycastle, which was 
the favourite residence of Sorley Boy. Ballycastle was pre- 
viously called Port Brittas, and was the place principally used 
for landing or embarking for Cantire. It was also from here 
that Fergus was supposed to have embarked when he and his 
brothers founded the Scottish kingdom. A little to the east 
of Ballycastle is Port Usnach, from where Naysi and Derdrie 
sailed to Alba. 

There were frequent intermarriages between the Macdon- 
nells and the leading families in the North of Ireland. The 
Macdonnells succeeded in holding a large portion of their 



38 Ireland and the Scottish Isles. 

Irish property, whilst they lost Islay and Cantire. We have 
<ried to show that an ancient and intimate connection existed 
between Ireland and the Scottish isles ; that they were of the 
same race and language ; and that hundreds of years ago there 
was a close and intimate union existing. They retain the 
name that we have lost — that is, Scots, whilst we are called 
Irish. When in Dunvegan Castle we were shown a drinking 
cup made in the North of Ireland 400 years ago. Maguire, of 
Fermanagh, in the fifteenth century married a lady from Skye, 
Catherine Magrannal, and this cup was made at her expense 
and forwarded as a present to her relatives there. The high 
crosses of Ireland were reproduced in Scotland and the isles, 
and the island monasteries of Ireland and Scotland were similar 
in both architecture and discipline. The ruins we examined 
on the Flannan Islands and North Rona have their counter- 
parts in Innismurray, Arran, and the Skelligs. If you would 
understand the social condition and the mode of life in Ireland 
in the Tudor period, you may study it at present in the Island 
of Lewis and other islands, where the mode of living has 
altered very little for hundreds of years. Fynes Morrison, who 
was secretary to the Lord Deputy, and who visited the Scottish 
islands, writes in 1598 that the West of Scotland carried on 
trade with Ireland in red and pickled herring, sea coal, and 
aquavitae, in exchange for yarn and cow hides. The Scottish 
Parliament passed an Act to promote temperance and stop the 
importation of wine to the islanders. The large landowners, 
however, were permitted to import wine, and the quantity was 
fixed in proportion to their property. MacLeod, of Dunvegan, 
might purchase 876 dozen bottles, smaller proprietors 220 
dozens. Claret was the wine in most demand. 

The Scottish people have done a great deal to attract 
tourists to their country. Besides providing extremely cheap 
railway and steamboat travelling, they have availed themselves 
of the halo of romance that Scott has shed on so many spots in 
Scotland in his poems and stories, and they continue to keep 
them well to the front as an additional attraction to their fine 



Ireland and the Scottish Isles. 39 

scenery. We might do a little more in this way in Ireland. 
Our country is not devoid of places possessing great historical 
interest. All around our Antrim coast, no further back than 
three hundred years ago, was bristling with stirring events. 
Even two hundred years ago matters of che first importance 
took place in our immediate neighbourhood — the landing of 
William III. at Carrickfergus, and his march to Belfast on his 
way to the Boyne. The old town of Carrickfergus, which took 
its name from the Dalriadan King, has a history of very great 
interest all through the Anglo-Norman times. What varied 
people trod its streets — the great De Courcey, King John, and 
many a gallant Norman knight ; Irish chiefs and gallowglasses, 
the Chichesters, lord deputies, and others who lived there or 
came to visit this stronghold of English power. We can almost 
fancy we can hear the clash of swords when Sir James 
Macdonnell attacked Sir John Chichester when returning after 
collecting taxes over the glens. The battle took place a little 
on the Larne side of Carrickfergus, and resulted in Sir John 
being slain and his army of Englishmen being defeated. The 
old ruin of Olderfleet at Larne marks the spot where Edward 
Bruce landed with io,oco Scots in the year 131 5 for the conquest 
of Ireland. As we proceed around the coast we reach Glenarm, 
where the castle of the Bysetts stood on the south side of the 
river, opposite to where Glenarm Castle now stands. Near 
Waterfoot stand the ruins of Red Bay Castle, which was re- 
paired and lived in by the Sir James to whom we have now 
referred. Further round near Cushendun Shane O'Neill, the 
great chieftain of Tyrone, fell, slain at a banquet by the 
Macdonnells in revenge for the death of their chief James, 
whom O'Neill kept prisoner till his death. Shane's head was 
cut off and taken by an Englishman to Dublin Castle, where it 
was placed on a spike over the gateway. Further along the 
coast we reach Ballycastle, the ancient Port Brittas, where the 
Scots landed and embarked on their journey to and from 
Cantire. Here still stands the ruins of Sorley Boy's Castle of 
Dunanynie, his favourite abode in life, and where he died. A 



40 Ireland and the Scottish Isles, 

little distance outside Ballycastle along the base of Knocklayde 
there was fought one of the fiercest and most sanguinary 
battles of that time. Shane O'Neill, without any justifiable 
reason, attacked unexpectedly and treacherously the Macdon- 
nells before the latter could collect their full forces. The army 
of the Scots was almost exterminated, and the chief and his 
brother — Sorley Boy — were taken prisoners. James was sent 
to a castle of O'Neill's at Carrick, in Tyrone, and all ransom 
refused, while his brother Sorley Boy was sent to Dublin Castle. 
We cannot omit a reference to Dunluce Castle, which all 
through the Elizabethan age held an important position in 
Irish history. Here the eldest son of Sorley Boy — the brave 
Alexander — defended the castle most heroically against Perrott, 
the Lord Deputy. Between the Causeway and Ballycastle is 
the ancient castle of Dunseverick, much older than any we 
have mentioned, which brings us back to Cormal Cearnach, a 
Red Branch knight, who resided there. On a hill near to 
Cushendall is pointe-! out the grave of Ossian, the great Irish 
bard and poet. These few references, taken hurriedly, may 
suffice in the direction I have indicated, and point to the course 
that should be taken to popularise travel in Ireland, which, 
added to its scenic beauties, should make our country the 
favourite resort of travellers. 

The lecture was illustrated by upwards of eighty specially- 
prepared lantern slides of both Pagan and Christian antiquities 
and scenery taken during the visit already referred to by Mr. 
MiUigan. 

The cordial thanks of the meeting was accorded to Mr. 
MiUigan on the motion of Dr. Moran, seconded by Mr. Wm. 
Gray, M.R.I.A. 



41 



6th February^ igoo. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J. P., President, in the Chair. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON ROME. 
By Conway Scott, C.E. 



{Abstract.) 



At the outset the reader surv 'vei the early history of the city 
OD the Palatine hills, and inquired into th^ causes contributing 
to the greatness of the Roman power. But walking through 
the streets of the Rome of to-day, with the mind full of 
memories of the past, one could hardly realise that it was 
Rome, the once mighty mistress of the civilised world. Every- 
thing became so modernised that little remained of the old 
Pagan city on the Tiber. The ancient architectural magnifi- 
ce ce of Rome was dealt with, and a minute description given 
of the present state of the ruins of those monuments of former 
greatness. He considered that one of the causes of the fall of 
Kome was the extent ot her possessions, which more or less 
extinguished her early spirit of patriotism. Another cause was 
her opposition to Christianity, which in the end won its 
triumph, and subdued a far vaster realm than ever was held 
sway over by Roman dictator or Emperor. But the Roman 
civilisation formed a splendid basis for the Christian civilisation, 
and to day the once capital city of the world was as famous for 
sending out the soldiers of the cross to conquer the world f6r 
Christ, as ever it was for sending out its legions to win earthly 
dominions. 



42 



THE GROWTH OF THE INK BLOT. 
By W. H. Pattekson, M.R.I.A. 



{Abstract.) 



The author described some experiments on the markings 
produced by the appHcation of various coloured inks to 
blotting paper and exhibited some remarkably brilliant ''blots" 
which he had made, or rather which had made themselves by 
the methods described below. Some of them bore a wonderful 
resemblance to the pictures that have been produced of the 
corona during an eclipse of the sun, others looked like paintings 
of botanical subjects, but all possessed a strange kind of con- 
structive beauty and harmonious blending of colour. Very 
frankly Mr. Patterson admitted that the " blots," so far as he 
knew, were of no practical use further than to illustrate in a 
pleasing manner the principal of capillary attraction. 

In forming the blot, the materials or appliances required 
are some ink, some white blotting paper, and a piece of cotton 
cord to serve as a wick. The most convenient way of causing 
the blots to grow is by placing a wick in a bottle of ink so that 
the ink can freely rise to the upper point of the wick. The 
lower side of a sheet of blotting paper is then brought in 
contact with the point of wick, and supported there in any 
convenient manner, for instance, on the edge of a bowl or basin, 
inside which the bottle of ink may stand. 

The ink immediately commences to rise through the wick 
into the paper, and quickly or slowly, according to the nature 
of the ink, spreads into a blot of more or less circular form, until 
it reaches the edge of the paper, but it is not well to let it go 



The Growth of the Ink Blot. 43 

quite so far if one wishes to have a pretty well shaped blot. By 
transferring the blotting paper from an ink of one colour, say 
red, to a bottle containing a different coloured ink, say green, 
and letting the paper take up more or less of the various 
colours, a great variety of very remarkable and unexpected 
results will be obtained. Very soft and pretty blots can be made 
if some clear water is led with a camel's hair brush to the upper 
side of the blotting paper, while the lower side is still receiving 
a supply of ink from the wick. The character of the blot can 
in this way be varied in an almost endless manner. 

In the case of black or blue black inks, it is a curious fact 
that nearly every different make of ink forms a different kind 
of blot, more especially as regards the edge, which is sometimes 
beautifully branched or scalloped. There are also remarkable 
differences as to the rates at which different inks will flow or 
travel through the paper while the blots are growing. 



44 



6th March, igoo. 



Mr. Thomas Workman, J.P., President, in the Chair. 



"THE POSITION OF BELFAST IN RELATION TO 

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION UNDER THE 

AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 

INSTRUCTION ACT." 

By William Gray, M.R.LA. 



Mr. Gray said that the time had arrived when it became 
necessary to readjust our arrangements for imparting technical 
instruction in Belfast, and that he proposed to discuss the 
merits of that portion of the Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion Act of last Session that applied more particularly to 
technical instruction in County Boroughs. He would briefly 
indicate the lines along which our present system of industrial 
education has been developed. In the middle of last century 
the lirst institutions were founded in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland for the promotion of technical instruction, or for the 
practical application of Art and Science to industries. Mr. 
Gray related the history of the first agencies founded in Great 
Britain and Ireland for the practical application of Art and 
Science to industries. The Board of Trustees in Scotland, 
founded in 1727, the Dublin Society, incorporated by Royal 
Charter in 1749, and the Society of Arts, London, founded in 
1754. He referred particularly to the original School of Design 
established in London in 1837, and its result, the founding of 
what we now know as " The Department of Science and Art." 
In Ireland the Dublin Society originated the Botanic Gardens, 
the Industrial Museum, School of Art and Library, which 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 45 

in 1877 were transferred from the Royal Dublin Society, a 
voluntary agency, to the care of the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, under the Crown. 

Reference having been made to the schools established by its 
agency and to the opposition with which the Government 
arrangements were met before the desired aims were accom- 
plished, Mr. Gray went on to say that it was this spirit of inde- 
pendence that must govern our aclion in dealing with the 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction Act, which should 
assist, but not supersede voluntary effort. 

In the first quarter of this century the industrious and 
progressive artisans began to feel the necessity for some form of 
technical intstruction, and under the skilful leadership of Dr. 
Birkbeck mechanics' institutes were founded in most manu- 
facturing localities. At that period Belfast was not behind ; 
indeed, it was then foremost among the towns in the kingdom 
in the cultivation of literature, art, and science. This 
educational work was in fact the foundation of that measure of 
material prosperity Belfast has enjoyed in modern days. A 
meeting was held in 1807 to receive " The report of the com- 
mittee appointed to arrange a plan for the Government of the 
Belfast Academical Institution." That plan embraced techni- 
cal instruction in Chemistry, Botany, and Agriculture, and 
such subjects as may be "conducive to the improvement of the 
agriculture, arts, and manufactures of the country." What a 
clear vision those old Belfast folk had of what is now about to 
be unfolded possibly on their own premises?* 

Mr. Gray then proceeded to explain how the old " Schools 
of Design " originated with the Select Committee of the House 
of Commons appointed in 1835 " to inquire into the best means 
of extending a knowledge of the arts and the principles of 
design among the people, especially the manufacturing popula- 
tion." As the first School of Design founded in Somerset 
House was not quite a success, because of its limited sphere 

* Since the lecture was delivered the County Borough Council has taken a site tor 
the proposed Technical College on the grounds of the Royal Academical Institution. 



46 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 

of action, the Government in 1841 determined to further the 
creation of schools of design in certain manufacturing 
centres and to provide teachers for this purpose. Under 
this arrangement the School of Design was established 
in Belfast, subsequent changes in the conditions under which 
aid was given to local schools, caused the Belfast school to be 
given up although it had contributed works to the first 
exhibition of students' works ever held in London. The 
Belfast School of Art, which suceeded the old school 
of design after some years, was opened in 1870, had 
made steady progress, and in the School of Science, established 
two years later in connection with the Working men's Institute, 
pupils had taken high positions in the annual national 
competitive examinations. The labours of the Royal Com- 
mission on Technical Instruction during 1882 and 1883 gave 
a powerful stimulus to local efforts lor the promotion ot 
technical instruction, and while the Commission was sitting 
Belfast was stirred up to establish the Hastings Street School, 
which has steadily maintained a precarious existence ever since, 
under most discouraging circumstances. The fact, then, that 
we have struggling for existence a school of art, a science school, 
and a certain form of Technical school demonstrated the 
desirability and possibility of having a good combined central 
Technical school if sufficient funds were forthcoming. Belfast 
has always for its voluntary educational agencies but limited 
means, and divided interests hindered their effective operation, 
as in the case of the scheme formulated in 1887. Having 
noted the want of co-operation among the various agencies 
engaged in technical instruction in Belfast, and the evil 
consequences arising therefrom, Mr. Gray drew attention to the 
fact that by the Technical instruction Act of 1889 city councils 
were enabled to aid local effort to provide technical 
instruction to the extent of id in the £\. The Act was 
welcomed throughout the kingdom, and new schools were 
everywhereestablished under its provisions. In Belfast, although 
every effort had been made by public appeal, deputations, and 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 47 

personal application to induce our City Council to follow the 
lead of the chief cities and towns of the kingdom, up to the 
present the County Borough Council of the city only 
granted from the rates the sum of ^800 per annum, 
which is distributed in an arbitrary way between our 
four industrial schools, that for many years have been 
hampered by straightened financial difficulties, to the 
serious disadvantage of the technical educational prospects of 
the city. Mr. Gray referred very fully to the effect of the Cus- 
toms and Excise Act of 1890, under which large sums are ren- 
dered available for technical instruction in England, Wales, and 
Scotland, and the establishment of the City and Guilds of 
London Institute, which in 1878 founded a central and other 
colleges in London, in which technical instruction was carried on 
to an advanced stage. Mr. Gray clearly pointed out how Ireland 
was handicapped by having no advantage under the Customs and 
Excise Act for the promotion of Technical Instruction, and that 
owing to the apathy of our City Council, the Technical 
Instruction Act of 1889 was not put into operation. 

Mr. Gray said that, amid the chaos and confusion that 
prevailed in the political atmosphere of Ireland in 1895, ^ far- 
seeing intellect perceived and followed up an opening that gave 
some prospect of securing a substantial advantage for Ireland in 
favour of the agricultural and industrial classes of the country. 
The steps taken in the formation of the Recess Committee by 
the Right Hon. Horace Plunkett, M.P., and the important 
report of the Committee's labours laid before the Chief Secretary 
in August, 1890, was the origin of the Agriculture Act intro- 
duced into Parliament in 1897. Fortunately this as then 
drafted was not passed, owing to pressure of other business, but 
it was reintroduced in an amended and much-improved form, and 
and, without any help fromthe Belfast municipal authorities, was 
passed into law last year under the title of " The Agriculture 
and Technical Instruction Act." Under the provisions of 
this most welcome Act Belfast and other county boroughs 
in Ireland will be enabled to readjust the local arrangements 



48 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 

for technical instruction, and if Belfast County Council 
would but do its duty and try to make up for 
past delay it would be enabled to formulate and carry 
out such a scheme as would equal that of any city in 
the kingdom, and be worthy of our educational and indus- 
trial traditions and advancement. The Act provides for the 
establishment of a Department of Agriculture and other 
Industries and Technical Instruction, with the Chief Secretary 
as President, and a Vice-President appointed by the Crown. 
Mr. Gray mentioned that the technical instruction branch 
referred more particularly to Belfast, and noted several matters 
of importance connected with the duties of the Board ot 
Technical Instruction and the consultative Committee. The 
funds at the disposal of the department, in addition to the cost 
of administration, will be about ;^i66,ooo per annum, or 
including departmental expenses, a total of ^200,000 per 
annum. Of this amouut a sum of _;^55,ooo per annum will be 
allocated exclusively to technical instruction in Ireland, not 
depending on an annual Parliamentary vote, but conferred by 
direct endowment. It is not only possible, but it would be 
desirable, for the county councils, say of Antrim and Down, to 
work in unison with Belfast County Borough Council in the 
working out of their respective schemes. All educational efforts 
should be co-operative, and for this purpose scholarships may 
be founded connected with National and other country and 
town schools to enable students to pass on to the more im- 
portant central school in Belfast. All educational agencies 
should be considered in the scheme, so as to avoid friction or 
overlapping. For this reason no really effective scheme can be 
formulated unless with the co-operation of all our educational 
agencies. The actual amount to which Belfast may be entitled 
will depend upon the division to be made of the £55,000 by the 
department with the concurrence of the Board of Technical 
Instruction. Assuming that the division will be in equal parts, 
then Belfast, in proportion to its population, would receive a 
little over ^10,000 a year from this source of income, exclusive 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 49 

of the income from the penny rate under the Act of 1889, and 
the additional penny rate under the act of last year. The 
purposes on which the money is to be expended will be deter- 
mined by the Department and not by the City Council. 
As the powers and duties of the Science and Art 
Department in Ireland and the administration of grants 
for teaching art and science will be transferred to the 
new department, the usual result fees and wrints hitherto 
paid are still available, from which we may calculate upon an 
increase of ^1,000, and, if the local contribution from the rates 
is only id in the £\^ a total income of j^i5,ooo a year may be 
calculated upon, exclusive of pupils' fees, provided that the 
^55,000 is divided mto two equal portions by the department.* 
Attention was called to the fact that the " department will not 
approve of any scheme that is not assisted from money provided 
by local authorities or from local sources," and that the financial 
aid under the Act will not be limited to any one institution, 
and the amount to be given to the Central School will depend 
upon how far it will be conducted in harmony with all the 
other local educational agencies. 

Mr. Gray strongly advocated the immediate formation of a 
composite managing committee, and said that it was shown by 
the records of Europe and America that when the agencies 
employed for the management and maintenance of educational 
institutions are limited to municipal control such institutions 
are rarely successful, but similar institutions become living 
realities when they command the liberality and active exertions 
of individual citizens in their private personal capacity, un- 
trammelled by the formalities of office. Hence it will be very 
desirable that a good Composite Committee should be formed 
to draft the scheme and carry it into execution, as has been 
found to work well in all the chief towns of the kingdom, and 
in the County Council. The appointment of a composite 
executive committe in Belfast was recommended by the Chief 

*The Department has for the present apportioned ;^20,ooo to the County Boroughs, 
;^20,ooo to the Rural districts, and keep in reserve ;{, 15,000. 

d 



50 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction, 

Secretary and Mr. Horace Plunkett. Assuming that it was 
formed, Mr. Gray expressed the opinion that it could not set 
before it a higher or better aim than to fully realise that form 
of a technical instruction institute suggested by the composite 
committee that met during the Mayoralty of Sir James Haslett, 
M.P., in 1887, which proposed to establish " a central institution 
for the teaching in a combined form of art, science, and 
technology, as applied to the trade and manufacturers of the 
district, utilising and combining so far as possible for this 
purpose the school of art, schools of science and technology, 
and the technical school." A full definition of what was meant 
by the expression '' technical instruction " was given, and the 
views of many well-known authorities quoted. Proceeding, 
Mr. Gray said they could not do better than to provide without 
delay a central institution in which our present excellent Art, 
Science, and Technological classes may be properly and com- 
fortably housed, with ample space, class-rooms, laboratories, 
and lecture-rooms, equipped with all necessary fittings and 
appliances of the most approved kinds, and conducted by a 
staff of specially qualified teachers for each department of the 
work, capable of rendering teaching assistance or advice to any 
school or class in the city. Thus appointed, together with 
bright, cheerful, and attractive surroundings, they might fiirly 
calculate that the 1,500 pupils now receiving instruction in 
their local art, science, and technological classes would be in 
creased to not less than 3,000 in the r.ear future, with a promise 
of proportionate advantage to our local industries. Enlisting 
into their educational scheme every available auxiliary, they 
should extend and should complete the intended Technical 
Museum and Art Gallery connected with the Public Library, 
and every function connected with that institution should be 
subordinated to the purposes of technical instruction in its 
widest and most liberal aspects, and placed under the manage- 
ment of the composite technical committee, and conducted by 
them as part of the Technical Instruction Scheme for the city.* 

*The County Borough Council have joined the Library Committee and the Technical 
Instruction Committee into one Committee. 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 51 

Although elementary teaching will be excluded from the 
proposed technical institution, the elementary schools under 
the National Education Commissioners must not be altogether 
overlooked in our technical scheme. When the national 
education scheme was drafted in 1838 it was far in advance of 
an educational system in Britain, and it was intended to be 
technical in its character, but sectarian conflicts eliminated 
that important element from our national system of industrial 
education. This form of technical instruction should be 
restored The late Commission had recommended its renewal, 
and in future technical instruction would be encouraged so as 
to prepare the young pupils for the next step in the technical 
institutions of the county boroughs, our National schools 
would then be helpful auxiliaries to the central institution ; 
their students at entrance to the Technical College would no 
doubt be tested by examination, and classed accordingly 
Scholarships may be founded for competition among the 
National school pupils preparing to enter the Technical 
Institute, and also scholarships to enable advanced pupils of the 
Technical Institute to go forward to the technical branch of 
the Queen's College, the Royal University, and the Royal 
College of Science in Dublin. 

Evening continuation classesshouldbe promoted in connection 
with our National schools, and to this end, as well as to supply 
the necessary school accommodation now required for Belfast, 
Mr. Gray advocated the opening of four National schools in 
Belfast under the Technical Committee to become models for 
their respective localities, if not for the whole country. These 
would be evening as well as day schools, and they may be further 
used as branch Libraries. These should be properly equipped, 
and officered by a staff of qualified teachers enabled to discharge 
their professional duties untrammelled by clerical obligations: 
Mr. Gray in conclusion referred to the fosterage laws of ancient 
Ireland that provided for certain forms of technical instruction, 
then the native Irish were disposed to indu?try, and skilled in 
workmanship, qualities that may be revived with great advan- 



52 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction, 

tage to our industrial progress. Tlie opportunity is given 
Belfast to-day to help to revive the best forms of our national skill 
open up new fields of industry, and by a well considered scheme 
of technical instruction set an example for all Ireland, and 
justify anew the imputed title of Belfast as the industrial 
metropolis of Ireland. 

Professor Fitzgerald, in opening the discussion, said he wished 
to emphasise what Mr. Gray had said as to what the old Belfast 
people were in the beginning of the century, compared with 
what they were at the present time. What Mr. Gray had said 
was a most interesting lesson, and showed that Belfast was fifty 
years behind the place where it was fifty years ago. Could 
they conceive that the old Belfast people, who were willing to 
allow a little money out of their pockets to build such insti- 
tutions as that in which they were met — could they conceive 
that they would allow such an important place as the Victoria 
Institute to break down in the way it ha i been allowed to go ? 

With regard to the necessity of breadth of the local 
scheme touched upon by .Mr. Gray, he might say the Cor- 
poration had got a peculiarity of never saving anything 
about anything that they cojld help. They appointed a mixed 
Committee, who drew up a scheme which was fairly broad, and 
as he was on that Committee he could give them some idea of 
the plan. The general notion was that the Corporation Tech- 
nical Committee should co-ont a number of outsiders, not 
exceeding one-half of the members of the Corporation, to form 
a mixed Committee for working the technical education scheme 
in Belfast, and that the immediate working of schools should be 
regulated by a board of heads of departments of schools. 
The departments of the school were not precisely finally 
settled, there was a list made by the Committee, bu': it would 
be liable to alteration from time to time. Among the depart- 
ments of the school it was intended to comprise a set of 
preparatory evening classes for youths, some of whom were 
serving their apprenticeship at the present time. It has been 
found that this was necessary in other large towns. In order 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 53 

that boys should not be debarred from taking advantagj of the 
superior classes of the technical schools it was neces-ary to 
have preparatory classes. The schools were to be built 
exactly opposite the building in which they were . ssembled. and 
pupils would not be admitted to the regular technical classes 
who were not properly prepared. A subject which had not 
been mentioned by the lecturer, but which he (Professor 
Fitzgerald) hoped would be included, was cookery. It was an 
historical fact that the ancient Irish never seemed to mind what 
the}' ate. He himself thought the preparatory classes should 
be held in various parts of the city, but he believed they were 
to be held only in the central institute. With regard to the 
b eadth of the scheme, he did not know whether those present 
in the Y.M.C.A. when Mr. Balfour was there paid sufficient 
attention to the strong reference that was made to the necessity 
in Ireland within the next few years of training a large number 
of teachers. That ap^ eared one of the primary difficulties with 
technical instruction. In the scheme special provision was 
made both for the agricultural and technical instruction teachers. 
The agricultural teachers, he thought, meant nothing more 
than teachers in technical schools outside the county boroughs. 
He had noticed in the papers that a considerable number of 
national school teachers were wanting to be trained in manual 
instruction, and existing teacher.-, with few exceptions, had no 
training in work of that kind ; but to that he would not refer. 
The agricultural teachers would be paid out of the grant which 
would go to the agricultural division out of the .^55,000 to 
which reference had been made. 

]\lr. Stevenson was of opinion that the apithy with which 
technical instruction , as regarded in Belfast was decidedly 
disheartening to all interested in the subject. It would seem 
as if Belfast manufacturers had a poor opinion of their fello\Vs 
when it came to anything affecting the arts or sciences. He 
believed a great number of the young people in Belfast who 
used their hands might increase their comfort and usefulness 
very much if they could add a little brainwork to their labours. 



54 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 

The new institution would assist such, and no doubt there 
would be a great improvement in the prosperity of the city 
after its establishment. He had had recently several hundred 
designs sent him from various parts of the country, and, while 
the senders no doubt were well educated, the results from an 
artistic point of view would have been laughable had one not 
felt some sadness in looking at them. In conclusion, he wished 
to express the pleasure he felt at listening to Mr. Gray's paper, 
and his entire confidence in the far-reaching effect which the 
establishment of this institution would have in their midst. 

Mr. MiUigan said everyone had been delignted with Mr. 
Gray's admirable paper. One of the most intelligent and 
cultured audiences he had ever seen in the hall he looked 
upon that night, and it was a great pity the members of the 
Council did not come there for information — the mformation 
which they needed very much. They had made a move as to 
site for the new buildmg, but he would have preferred it at 
Marcus Ward's, because it would have saved them ^i,ooo a 
year. However, money was of no importance to the Council, 
and it was better to have the present site than none. He hoped 
that Mr. Gra}''s Lecture would be printed, and that the 
members of the Town Council would read it, for he felt assured 
it contained information they would get in no other place. 
Though late, they were not too late to do well. The future 
prosperity of the city depended largely upon the interest taken 
iu the matter, and he hoped the technical school would be 
pushed forward as quickly as possible. 

Mr. W. Armstrong regarded the subject from two points of 
view — the cosmopolitan and the patriotic. He expressed the 
opinion that they were bound to go on with it, because other 
nations were making progress, and if ifiey would simply sit still 
and pat each other on the back they would soon find them- 
selves fifty years behind the times. 

Mr. Shaw thought the great linen manufacturers of Belfast 
might have established a school of design for their own purposes, 
and that the great shipbuilding concerns might have done 



Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instruction. 55 

something similar for their respective places of business. 
Nothing, however, had ever been done. He spoke in favour 
of drawing and the teaching of the chemistry of common 
things, and said that without some practical work even the 
elementary teaching of chemistry would be useless. There 
might be a danger of the cry of technical schools supplanting 
the proper work of other schools. 

Mr. Wheeler asked on what principle Mr. Gray had arrived 
at the figures representing the two divisions of the ;^5 5,000 
grant. 

Mr. May inquired what class of people would be benefited by 
the teaching in the school regarding woodcarving. 

Mr. Gray in replying said there would be a prescribed course tor 
pupils, with an examination, and after two years they would be 
put to practical work. The Technical instruction given in the 
Central School would be limited as much as possible to those 
practising it in the way of trade. No encouragement should be 
given to mere amateur aims after educational embellishments. 
All must be practical, and calculated to promote our local 
industries. Replying to a question, Mr. Gray said that the 
amount available was clearly given in the Act, and included not 
only aid to the Central School, but was available also for any 
other educational effort. It was a mistake to think that all the 
funds provided by the Act will be devoted to the Central College. 
In replying to Professor Fitzgerald, he might say it was an 
extraordinary thing that after ten years waiting we had no official 
knowledge of what the Town Council proposed to do. If the 
project was to be successful it must be kept in touch with the 
public, and the people should know what the members of the 
Council were doing.* Of all the sites best adopted for the 
purposes of a technical school, he thought the one chosen in 
1887, immediately behind the Public Library, was the best, 
because in that place they could have had all their schools to- 

* Up to the time of going to press no acceptable scheme has been devised. No 
composite committee has been formed, and the persons most interested in Technical 
instruction have not been consulted. 



56 Position of Belfast in Relation to Technical Instrnction. 

gether. We do not object to the site selected on the grounds 
of the Royal Academical Institute, only for its cost, which must 
come out of the ratepayers pocket, and not out of the funds 
available under the provisions of the Technical Instruction 
Act. The Council should go in for a building for educational 
purposes, and not for a building to simply decorate the city. 



57 

3rd April^ igoo 
Mr. Robert Young, C.E,, J.P., Vice-President in the Chair. 



SOME OF THE WORK DONE BY COMMITTEES 
OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

By Professor Maurice F. FitzGerald, B.A., M.I.M.E, 



The Lecturer began by remarking that many people, including 
some ^who might have attended meetings of the British 
Association, had little, if any, conception that that society was 
more than an organisation for carrying out annually a sort of 
scientific picnic. The Association, like many other societies, 
had a yearly meeting or conference, held usually in the end of 
summer or beginning of autumn, which lasted for a week, and 
which constituted, to the outsider, the most obvious and 
apparently important part of the work of the Associa- 
tion. This impression was natural enough, and was encouraged 
by the large attendance of scientific and other notabilities, and 
by the immense number of papers read and discussed, during 
this annual meeting, the Association being divided into sections 
(now numbering nine) which have separate meeting rooms, 
so that a large number of papers are read, or subjects discussed 
every day simultaneously. As an example taken at random, 
the Bristol meeting of 1898 might be instanced, when the 
number of items in the sectional proceedings was 304. It was 
pointed out, that however large the amount of work represented 
by the labour undergone in listening to the maximum possible 
number of these communications, by any person attending the 
meeting, such work was not itself of any particular scientific 
value, and that the real importance of the Association was 



58 Work Done by British Association Committees, 

liable to be more or less masked by the " fuss " attached to 
the Annual meeting. It was remarked that, as in other 
societies holding periodical meetings or conferences, a 
great part of the really valuable work of the British 
Association was done by committees appointed to in- 
vestigate particular matters, and to report on them to the 
annual meetings. The committees pursued their work all the 
year round, sometimes for many years in succession, and were 
aided by money grants from the Association. The total sum so 
granted since the formation of the Association in 1832 up to 
the present time amounted to about ;^66,7oo. In the Report 
of the meeting of British Association at Bristol in 1898, 
above referred to, 723 pages were occupied by Reports of 
Committees and 303 by transactions of the Sections at the 
Bristol meeting itself, the total number of Reports of Com- 
mittees being nearly fifty, and a good many of these were 
interim reports of Conimitltes, some of which have been at 
work for over thirty years. The Lecturer proceeded to remark 
on the character and influence of the work of various com- 
mittees of the Association, beginning with reports by Fairbairn 
and Hodgkinson, so far back as 1837, on Hot and Cold Blast 
Iron, whose relative merits were at that time a matter of con- 
siderable importance, in consequence of the then just beginning 
development of railways, and the free use of cast iron in bridges 
and girders. Ultimately, as we now see, improvements in the 
manufacture of wrought iron and steel and the consequent 
reduction in the cost of bridges constructed of these materials, 
compared with the cost of cast iron, coupled with the relative 
disadvantages of the latter, had led to the abandonment of cast 
iron as a material for bridge structures of any size, but until well 
on in the fifties cast iron was an important part of the structure 
of many bridges, and its properties formed the subject of in- 
vestigation by the Association. These investigations were of 
material use and assistance to the Commissioners on Railway 
structures, whose report, made in 1848, forms the basis of the 
present Board of Trade regulations for Railway Bridges and 
similar works. 



Work Done by British Association Committees. 59 

During the period from 1830 to i860 a vast increase 
in the use of steam power for manufacturing purposes took 
place, and steamships came into existence capable of making 
long sea voyages. Among the matters of importance on 
which information was deficient at the time, not the 
least was the provision of adequate strength in boilers, 
since the problems arising from increase of steam pressure have 
always been prominent, and steam pressure has steadily risen 
since the days of Watt. Accordingly there were found in the 
records of the Association the investigations of Fairbairn on 
the effects of temperature on the strength of wrought iron in 
1856, and on the collapse of circular flues in 1857. This latter 
may be described as formmg the foundation for the design of 
all furnace flues since, and is still the ruling authority in this 
matter, its conclusions having been early embodied in the rules 
for the strength of circular marine boiler furnaces adopted by 
the Board of Trade, as well as in the principles of design used 
by all the leading manufacturers of land boilers of the Cornish 
and Lancashire types. About i860 another matter connected 
with the strength of iron and steel came into greater promi- 
nence than before, namely, the effects on the material of 
repeated loadings and unloadings, reversal of stress from 
tension to compression and vice versa at short intervals, 
and of vibration. Again here we find the most impor- 
tant part of the early woik reported on by the British 
Association, beginning about i860. This work was, some seven 
or eight years later, taken up by the Prussian Government in 
a more thoiough and complete manner than could have been 
effected with the resources ot the Association, and has been 
continued at Government expense ever since. It is of a kind 
which must unavoidably take up much time to carry out. 

Another matter which occupied much attention for a good ' 
many years was the performance of steamships in respect ot the 
relations of power and speed. Up to about i8b5 little real 
progress was made owing largely to false impressions as to the 
importance of details of form, and the consequent controversies 



6o WorA Done by British Association Committees. 

as to the merits of '' wave line " forms, " hollow" versus " full " 
lines, and the like. The Association, however, got together a 
committee of men, including Mr. Froude, Professor Rankine, 
Robert Napier, and others, who really did understand what 
they were about, and, after a few years, placed the question on 
a proper basis. In about ten years, that is in 1874, the 
Admiralty became so impressed with the importance of this work 
that they established their experimental tank at Torquay for the 
testing of ship's models, and the German and U.S. Admiralties or 
Navy Boards have since followed suit. It may seem strange 
that a body so difficult to move in any new direction 
as ihe British Admiralty is commonly assumed to be, should 
have taken up this matter before any private shipbuilder or 
foreign government did, but apart from the fact that govern- 
ment departments occasionally have the sense to act rightly, 
the difficulties of predicting, even roughly, the speed and horse- 
power of new ships always pressed much more Lcverely on the 
Navy designers than on others, partly on account of the pro- 
portions of the ships they dealt with diverging, as a rule, much 
more from the ordinary types of cargo or passenger steamer 
than these do from one ancther, and partly from the wide 
differences between different ships ot tiie Navy itself, specially 
accentuated at the time referred to, by the then recent intro- 
duction of ironclads. Besides this, the Admiralty had received 
a very severe lesson on the unwisdom of neglecting good advice 
from sensible people, it having been made abundantly manifest 
that, it they had attended to reports on the stability of ships 
which had been pressed on their attention by the British 
Association about 1863, and carried out very simple tests fully 
explained theiein, but vyiiich the Admiralty officials stated were 
not practical, the " Captain " would have been ascertained to 
be unfit for being sailed in the way which led to her capsizing. 
After the accident of course, it was found that the tests of 
stability proposed were quite easy to carry out, and they 
have been ever since made on every new ship in the 
Navy. 



Work Done by Br^'frs/^ Associatioii Committees. 6i 

The enormous strides made by the electrical industries 
in the last twenty five years were referred to by the lecturer, 
and it was shown that, until the matter was taken up by the 
British Association, the commercially necessary means of 
measurino^ electric quantities were so deficient as to be, for 
most practical purposes, altogether wanting. For telegraphic 
purposes — or at least most telegraphic purposes — the actual 
amount of electric energy required to be supplied was too small 
to call for any particularly accurate measurement, nor did the 
apparatus involve, as a rule, any verv close regulation of 
voltage or current. Consequentlv although the scientific 
principles on which the measurement of electric quantities is 
made had been laid down, and some standards of measurement, 
corresponding, in matters electrical, to the standard yard and 
pound in matters of ordinary measurement, had been made or 
proposed to be made, still the whole subject of dealing with 
electricity on an industrial scale was practically as much in a 
state of chaos as the buying and selling of coal would be if the 
mines all sold it by the truck load, but every mine had a 
diflPerent sized truck, whose capacity had never been measured, 
to shippers who dealt in it by the shipload, every man according 
to his ship, but the tonnage of the ships was not ascertained, and 
the consumer received it bv the cartload, every dealer pleasing 
himself as to the size of his cart, and building new carts when 
the old ones were worn out, as near the former size as he could 
judge by the eye. 

About thirty eight years ago the Association set itself 
to rectify this state of things, and for that purpose appointed 
a committee on Electrical Standards, with a view to pro- 
viding means for doing with electricity what corresponds to 
providing foot rules, weighing machines, and pounds or other 
weights to measure the coal trucks, ship loads, and cart loads, in 
the case of the coal. The Committee rightly judged the matter 
to be one of international importance, and began by collecting 
advice on the system of measurement to be employed, as well 
as all other information relating to existing standards from 



62 Work Done by British Association Committees. 

foreign as well as British sources. It very soon appeared that 
even among scientific workers, methods of measurement were 
often used which were (comparatively speaking) not much 
more accurate for the purpose in hand than measuring- off 
lengths of cloth by the reach from finger tip to shoulder are, 
and that one of the very first steps to be taken was to find out 
accurate methods in measurement, and to construct accurate 
instruments. The trouble occasioned by these things may 
be realised when it is found that it took about seven years to 
produce a really reliable standard resistance. Everything about 
it was ill understood at first. The most suitable material 
was unknown ; wires which were supposed to be exactly alike 
in constitution were found, on exact testing, to differ materially: 
alloys supposed to be permanent were found to alter irregularly 
in time. Different experimental methods for arriving at the 
same result were found to give discordant results, and the 
apparently small and obscure causes of the discrepancies had to 
be searched out and corrected. The result has been that 
electricity can now be dealt in for industrial purposes as easily 
and accurately as any other commodity, and in some respects 
more easily, since the fundamental system of weights and 
measures used is international, both in actual value and names 
of the quantities, so that pressure in volts, current in amperes, 
and power in kilowatts mean the same things all the world 
over. 

It is probably not too much to say that no authority 
except the British Association could have been brought 
about this result. No other body possessed the scientific 
weight and insight required to initiate the system, no other 
body could have enlisted such able assistance, and no other 
bodv could so effectually insure the universal adoption by the 
world of the system of measures and nomenclature brouo;ht 
forward by it, and have led up to the international conferences 
required for that adoption to be oflficially ratified. The Lecturer 
adverted to the small cost at which the work of the Associa- 
tion's Committees was done, for though the sum total of the 



Work Done by British Association Committees. 63 

grants for scientific purposes already referred to (£66,700), 
expended since 1832, mi^ht seem pretty large, it really repre- 
sented but a fraction of what would have been paid if the same 
investigators had been employed to do the work as part of their 
regular paid professional or commercial work. Many eminent 
^professional men, whose fees when called in for advice might 
sometimes be reckoned at pounds a minute, or men, like 
Sir W. Fairbairn and others, who gave the use of 
their works, materials, and the assistance of their staff, carried 
out lengthy and troublesome investigations without charge. 
It would be but fair to say that the ^66,700 would have been 
expanded into probably a quarter of a million, if all the work 
done had been paid for in the commercial sense, as the Railway 
Commissioners, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, and others 
would have had to do if they had not had the British Associa- 
tion to do so much for them as it had done. 

The Lecturer desired to draw attention to the many valuable 
Reports made to the Association on educational subjects ; it 
would, however, occupy too much time to enter into any 
any review of these. Some were statistical and were mainly 
valuable as an index of the progress or otherwise made in in- 
troducing scientific and technical subjects into the courses of 
various schools. Others contained reports from various 
authorities, scholastic and otherwise, on their experience as to 
the effectiveness of particular methods of teaching, and the 
value of particular subjects as expanders of the general 
faculties of the pupils. Others again dealt with such matters 
as the proper fitting up and uses of museums and collections, 
and the necessary provision in the way of demonstrator and 
apparatus required to render these most useful. This matter 
was especially worthy of attention, and was one in which most 
museums were specially deficient, insomuch that the great 
majority of the persons to whom museums or trade collections ' 
should be useful were, partly from want of training, and 
partly from want of assistance, quite unable to take any 
practical value out of the collections of objects before them. 



64 Work Done by British Association Committees. 

The Lecturer was obliged to omit reference to the immense 
value of the great mass of the British Association reports on 
purely scientific subjects. There were in Belfast many persons 
fully competent to appreciate, and infinitely better qualified 
than himself to discuss, the reports on subjects connected with 
Natural History. In pure science, the computation of tables 
of the values of special mathematical functions, the bibliography 
of particular scientific information, and the like, did not lend 
themselves to exposition before a popular audience without 
previous explanation at considerable length of how and why 
the matters on which so much trouble was spent were of 
importance, so that a whole evening would, in many cases, 
have to be devoted to a single Report, but the Lecturer hoped 
that some of those able to do so would endeavour to make this 
society and the public realise the value and magnitude of the 
work of the British Association in relation to Natural History 
and kindred subjects. 



AN ANCIENT BOMBSHELL. 

By RoBFRT M. YouxG, B.A., M.R.LA. 

{Honorary Secretary.) 



This ancient bombshell, which is exhibited by the courtesy of 
Mr. E. G. MacGeorge, J.P., was found at a depth of 8 feet in 
estuarine clay adjacent to the Scottish Provident Buildings. 
It weighs about I cwt., is 10 inches in diameter, and 2 inches 
thick, of cast iron. There is a fuse hole in which a wood plug 
4 inches long and i^ thick was found. Small handles of iron 
rod are inserted at each side. The discovery of the bomb was 
made when Mr. Robert Corry, contractor for the additional 
buildings of the Scottish Provident Institution, was excavating 
on the ground adjoining their present block. By reference to 
old maps of Belfast it would seem that this site lay outside of 



An Ancient Bombshell. 65 

the old town rampart, one of whose bastions was erected on the 
side of Donegall Square North, near Fountain Street. The 
ground seems to have been marshy, and drained by the Malone 
ditch, which is shown as extending to Sandy Row about 1790. 
Since no artillery of heavy calibre is mentioned in the various 
accounts of Belfast as regards 1 7th century struggles, the missile 
in question may be probably referred to the next century, when 
the volunteer movement originated. The Alall passed the 
spot, and many of the military displays took place in its 
vicinity. Howitzers of 6-inch calibre were used in some of the 
reviews. Notably in 1781, when 5,300 men were under arms. 
On this occasion it is stated that shells were discharged of such 
a composition as to afford the appearance of real shells without 
the danger. 



ii^atural 2|istors $c Pjjilosnpijital Sotietg* 



Officers and Council of Management for igoo-iqoi. 

^rcsibent : 
JOHN BROWN 

■^tce-'g'rcsibents : 
EEV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d. | WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 
R.LLOYD PATTERSON, D.L.,r.L.s. | ROBERT YOUNG, c.e., j. p. 

iboxK. 'ireosurer : 
W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

j^on- j£ibrarion : 

JOHN. H. DAVIES. 

^ott. §ccrefa»:i> : 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, h.a., j.p., m.r.i.a. 

gouncil : 

JOHN BROWN. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

PROFESSOR M. F. FITZGERALD, li.A., m.i.m.k. 

ANDREW GIBSON, f.k.s.a. 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d., president g.c.b. 

JOHN HORNER, m i.m.e. 

SIR OTTO JAFFE, j.p. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.r.i.a., f.k.s.a. 

R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., j.p., f.l.s. 

AVM. H. PATTERSON, m.r.i.a. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

THOMAS F. SHILLINGTON, j.p. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.q.s. 

THOMAS WORKMAN, j.p. 

ROBERT YOUNG, j.p., c.e. 

R. M. YOUNG, ]i.A., J.P., m.r.i.a. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

[* Denotes holders of three or more Shares.^ 

*Alexander, Francis, b.k., Belfasl. 

AUworthy, Edward, Ardgreenan, Cavehill Road, do. 

Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s.. East Hillbrook, Holywood. 

Andrew, John J., l.d.s., r.c.s. Eng., University Square, Belfast. 
Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., 7 Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do, 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, j.p., Ardville, Marino, Holywood. 
Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton, Portglenone. 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Bland, Robert H., j.p., Lisburn. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Belfast. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Braddell, Edward, The Limes, Malone Park, do, 
Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, do. 

Brett, John H., c.k., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Brown, John, Longhurst, Dunmurry. 

Brown, WiUiam K. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burnett, John R., Elmwood Avenue, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell, William, m.a., m.d.. College Square North, do. 

•Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

Carlisle, A. M., Elmwood House, do. 



68 



Shareholders. 



Carr, A. H. R., "Rathowen, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Carson, John, Walmer Terrace, Hol5rwood. 

*Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor. 

Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry. 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p., Queen's Elms, Belfast. 

Combe, George. Cranethorpe, Strandtown. 

Cowan, P. C, M i.c.E., Local Government Board, Dublin. 

Crawford, William, Mount Randal, Belfast. 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown. 
Cunningham, Professor Robert O., m.d., f.l.s., 

F.G.S., Mountpellier, Malone Road, Belfast 



Davies, John H., 45 Castle Street, Lisburn. 

*Deramore, Lord, d.l. (Representatives of), Newtownbreda. 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonards, Newcastle. 

♦Donegal, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast. 
*Downshire, Marquis of (Reps, of). The Castle, Hillsborough. 

Drennan, W. H., Wellington Place, Belfast. 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., University Square, do. 

Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park (Reps, of), Ballywalter. 



Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Ewart, Fred W., Derryvolgie, Lisburn. 

Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., Glenmachan 

House, Belfast. 



Faren, Wm., Mountcharles, 

*Fenton, Francis G., 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., c.e., Donegall Park, 

Finlay, Fred. W., j.p., Wolfhill House, 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, 



do. 
London. 

Belfast. 
Ligoniel. 

Belfast. 



Sharehola'ers. 69 

Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic Avenue, 

Belfast. 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a , m.i.m.e., Assoc. 

M.I.C.E., Eglantine Avenue, do. 

*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), do. 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, Catherine, Mountpleasant, do. 

Gordon. Robert W., j.p. (Reps, of), Bangor. 

Graham, Thomas, j.p., Holywood. 
•Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d., m.r.i.a., 

(Representatives of), Broughshane. 
Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast. 

Greenhill, John H., mus. bac, Southampton. 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 

*HalI, Frederick H., Waterford. 

Hamilton, Rev. Thos., d.d.. President, Queen's College, Belfast. 
*Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), do. 

Harland, W., do. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S. (Representatives of) do. 

Henderson, Sir James, a m., j.p., Oakley, Windsor Park, do. 
Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte, Clarges Street (Reps, of), London. 
Herdman, John, d.l., j.p., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

*Herdman, Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo. Cultra. 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, Belfast. 

Hind, John, junr., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Hodges, Professor John F., m.d., f.c.s., j.p., 

Sandringham (Representatives of), do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 

Horner, John, m.i.m.e., Chelsea, Antrim Road, do. 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., m.p.. Orangefield, do. 
*Hughes, Edwin, Dalchoolin, Craigavad. 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., Windsor, Belfast. 

IngHs, James, j.p., Abbeyville, Whiteabbey. 



yo Shareholders. 

Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie 

Avenue, Belfast. 

Jaffa, Sir Otto, j.p., Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey. 

Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Richmond Lodge, Belfast. 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, do. 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry. 
*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 

Lanyon, John, c.e., j.p., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, 

(Representatives of), do. 

Larmor, Joseph, m.a., f.r.s., St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Leathern, Dr. R, R., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast. 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, 

Strandtown, do. 

Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down. 

Letts, Professor E. A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra. 

Lindsay, Professor James A, m.a., m.d., College Square 

East, Belfast. 

Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House, do, 

Lytle, Joseph H., j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e., Stanley House, 

Holywood. 
Macfarlane, John, Bladon Park, Belfast. 

Mackenzie, John, c.e., Strathavon, Lisburn Road, do. 

*Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), do. 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, do. 

Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 

Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.k., Kirkliston Drive, 

Strandtown. 
Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, Belfast. 

Milligan,Seaton Forest, m.r.i. a., The Drift, Antrim Road, do. 
Mitchell, Robert A., ll.b., t.c.d., Marmont, Strandtown. 

Montgomery, Henry C, Bangor, 



Shareholders. 



71 



Montgomery, H. H., Knock, Belfast. 

Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain House, Dunniurry. 

Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast. 

MuUan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, do. 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p , Tudor House, Holywood 

*Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh. 

*Murphy, Joseph John, (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Murray, Robert Wallace, j.p., Newcastle. 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, Belfast. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 
Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., d.l., j.p., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

M'Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, Mallusk, do. 

M'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

•M'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London. 

*M'Cammon, Lieut. -Col. Thomas A., Woodville, Holywood. 

M'Cance, H. J., j.p., d.l., Larkfield, Dunmurry. 
M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., j.p., d.l. (Reps, of), 

MacCoU, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Strandtown, Belfast. 

MacCormac, John, m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Ardmara, Craigavad. 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), 

M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood. 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, University Street, Belfast. 

Macllwaine, John H., Bangor. 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d., College Square East, Belfast. 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

M'Knight, John P., Nevara, Chichester Park, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Holywood. 

Nicholson, Henry J., College Square North, Belfast.. 

O'Neill, James, m.a.. College Square East, do. 

♦O'Rorke, Ambrose Howard, Dunratho, Craigavad. 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University St., Belfast. 



72 Shareholders. \ -vsrovi j 

Patterson, Edward Forbes, Adelaide Park, Belfast. 

Patterson, Airs. Isabelle, Bonn, Germany. 

Patterson, Richard, j.p., Kilmore, Holyvvood. 

*Patterson, Robert Lloyd, j.p., d.l., f.l.s., Croft House, do. 
Patterson, Robert, f.z.s., M alone Park, Belfast. 

Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a., Garranard, Strandtown. 

Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Knock, Belfast. 

Patterson, William R. (Representatives of) do. 

Pim, Edwara W., j.p., Elmwood Terrace, do. 

Pirn, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whileabbbey. 

*Pirrie, Elizabeth, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.k., m.r.i.a,, National Library, Dublin. 

Purser, Prof. John, ll.d., m.r.i.a., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rea, John Henry, m.d., University Street do. 

Rea, William R., Gardha, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Reade, Robert H. S., j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry. 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark, Belfast. 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown do. 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc, Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shillington, Thomas Foulkes, j.p., Dromart, Antrim Road, do. 
Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., j.p., d.l., Hopefield, do. 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r.c.s. Eng., Howard St., do. 
Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, John, m.a., c.e., Milltown, Banbridge. 

Speers, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywood, 

Steen, Wm. C, m.d., Windsor Crescent, Belfast. 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 
Stelfox, James, Oakleigh,.Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

*Tennent, Ro.bert (Kepresentatives of), Rushpark, do. 



Shareholders. 



73 



♦Tennent, Robert James (Reps, of), Rushpark, Belfast. 

♦Thompson, James, j.p. (Reps, of), Macedon, Whiteabbey. 

Thompson, S. B., Short Strand, Belfast. 

Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H. (Representatives ot), Whiteabbey. 

•Turnley, John (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Walkington, Mrs., Thornhill, Malone, do. 

Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtown, do. 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 
Walter, Hermann, m.a., ph.d., Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 
Ward, Francis D., j.p., m.r.i.a., Ivydene, Malone Park, do. 

Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, t-P-, Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Knock, do. 

Whitla, Prof. William, m.d., j.p., College Sq. North, do. 

Wilson, James, m.e., Oldforge, Dunmurry. 

Wilson, John K., j.p., Donegall Street, Belfast. 

Wilson, Walter H., Stranmillis House, do. 

•Wilson, W. Perceval, do. 

*Wolff, G. W., M.P., The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, Drummena, Bladon Park, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., Rubane House, Glastry. 
Workman, Rev. Robert, b.d.. The Manse, Newtownbreda. 
Workman, R. D., Sans Souci, Harrow View, 

Wealdstone, Middlesex. 

*Workman, Thomas, j.p., Craigdarrah (Reps, of), Craigavad. 

Workman, William, Nottinghill, Belfast. 

Wright, James, Lauriston, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, c.e., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



74 Annual Subscribers. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

DufFerin and Ava, k.p., The Marquis of, Clandeboye, Co. Down. 
Stokes, Miss M., Hon. m.r.i.a., Carrig Breac, Howth, 

Co. Dublin. 



HONORARY ASSOCIATES; 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park. Belfast. 

Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s. Edin, Belfast Museum, do 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Tate, Prof. Ralph, f.g.s., f.l.s., Adelaide, South Australia. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, Belfast. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast. 

Northern Banking Co., Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E., Stormont Castle, Dundonald. 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast. 

Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay. 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast. 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Cleaver, A. S., b.a., Dunraven, do, 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor 



Annual Subscribers. 75 

Fulton, G. F., Howard Street, Belfast. 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do. 

Green, Isaac, Ann street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Clittonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park, do. 

Jones, R. M., m.a., Royal Academical Institution, do. 
Kelly, W. Redfern, m.i.c.e., f.r.a.s., Dalriada, 

Malone Park, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

Malone, John, Brookvale House, Cliftonville, do. 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Brookville House, do. 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f.r.c.s.i., Lower Crescent, do. 

Scott, Conway, c.e., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 
Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Tate, Alexander, c.r., Rantalard, Whitehouse, do. 

Taylor, John, Brown Square Works, do. 

Thompson, John, Mount Collyer, do. 

Turpin, James, Waring Street, do. 



|[i[pi|t mA §\mm\mp 



OF THE 



BE LB".A.ST 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIEiy 



FOR THE 



SEssionsr iqoo-iqoi. 



BELFAST : 

PRINTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(printers to queen's college). 



IQOI. 



. •• • f . mmm^mo^* 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Eeport 

Balance Sheet ... 

Donations to Museum ... 

Books Received 

President's Inaugural Address — J. Brown 

The Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh — John H. Davies 

Ohj'ects Comprised in Lord Deramore's Eecent Donation — W. H 

Patterson, M.fl.I. A., and S. A. Stewart, F.B.S., Ed. ... 
Notes on some Clay Concretions from the Connecticut Valley, U.S.A.— 

W. Swanston, F.G.S. 
Some Side Lights on the China Question — Rev. A. R. Crawford, M.A. 
Report of Delegate to Corresponding Societies' Conference — J. Brown . 
Irish Railways and the State — Lynden Macassey, C.E. 
Colour— W. B. Morton, M.A. .. 
Scenery and Antiquities of Sligo, Connemara, and Clare — Seaton F 

Milligan, M.R.I. A. 
List of Office- Bearers ... 
List of Shareholders and Subscribers 



6 
7 

17 
35 

43 

49 
51 



60 

63 
81 
82 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST.A.BLISIIEir) 1821. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, costs £14. 

3 Shares ,, costs £21. 



The Proprietor of 1 Share pays 10s. per annum ; the proprietor of 2 
Shares pays 5s. per annum ; the proprietor of 3 or more Shares stands exempt 
from further payment. 

Shareholders are only eligible for election on the Council of Management. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes — Ordinaay Members, vrho are expected to read 
Papers, and Visiting Members who, by joining under the latter title, are 
understood to intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for 
Lectures extends from November in one year till May in succeeding one. 
Members, Ordinaiy or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due 1st November in 
each year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to 
the Museum and Library for himself and family, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspectiag the collections for any friend not residing in 
Belfast. 

Any further information can be obtained by application to the Secretary. 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 10 till 4 o'clock 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



Belfast matural IbiQtox^ anb pbiloeopbical 

Society. 



■:o: 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1901. 



The Annual Meeting of Shareholders of the Society was held 
on the 1 6th July, in the Museum, College Square North. Mr. 
John Brown, President, occupied the chair, and the attendance 
included— Messrs. R. Lloyd-Patterson, D.L., J.P. ; W. H- 
Patterson, M.R.I.A.; T. F. Shillington, J.P. ; R. Young, J.P., 
C.E. ; Andrew Gibson, George Kidd, J.P.; R. M. Young, J.P. ; 
Henry Musgrave, Davys Bowman, A. J. Jackson, W. Armstrong, 
R. Patterson, M.R.T.A. ; Isaac Ward, James O'Neill, M.A. ; W. 
F. Faren, and W. H. F. Patterson. Letters of apology regret- 
ting their inability to be present were announced as having been 
received from Sir James Henderson, D.L. ; and Mr. Seaton F. 
Milligan, M.R.I. A. 

Mr. R. M. Young, Hon. Secretary, having read the notice 
convening the meeting, submitted the report of the Council, 
as follows : — 

The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society desire to submit their report of the working of the 
Society during the past year. 

The Winter Session was opened in the Museum on the 6th 
November, 1900, when the President of the Society (Mr. John 
Brown) delivered an inaugural address ; subject — " Some 
Matters Electric," with lantern and experimental illustrations. 

The Second Meeting was held on the nth December, when 
the following papers were read :— i, Mr. John H. Davies, on 
"The Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh ;" 2, Mr. W. H. 
Patterson, M.R.I A., " Some Account of the Objects Comprised 
in Lord Deramore's Recent Donation, Principally Antiquarian;" 
3, Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S., " Notes on Some Clay Concretions 
from the Connecticut Valley, U.S.A." 



2 Anniinl Meeting. 

The Third Meeting was held on the 20th December, when a 
lecture was kindly given by Rev. A. R. Crawford, M. A., Kirin, 
Manchuria ; subject, " Some Sidelights on the China Question," 
illustrated by special limelight views. 

At the Fourth Meeting, held on 8lh January, 1901, two 
papers were read: — i. The President, subject, "Report as 
Delegate of the Society to the British Association Meeting at 
Bradford ;" 2, Mr. Lyndon Macassey, C.E., B.A., LL.B., 
subject, " Irish Railways and the State," followed by a dis- 
cussion. 

The Fifth Meeting was held on 5th February, when a 
lecture was kindly given by Professor Morton, M.A. ; subject, 
'■ Colour,'' with experimental illustrations. 

Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I.A., gave the sixth lecture, on 
5th March ; subject, " Scenery and Antiquities of Sligo, 
Connemara, and Clare," illustrated by a series of 150 lantern 
slides. The chair was taken by Sir James Henderson, D.L., in 
the unavoidable absence of the President. 

The Seventh Meeting was held on 2nd April, when a 
lecture was kindly delivered by Mr. George Cof!ey, M.R.I.A., 
keeper of the Irish antiquities. National Museum, Dublin ; 
subject, " The Antiquity of Man and the Dawn of Art," 
illustrated by a special series of lantern slides of palaeolithic 
implements. 

The attendance al the meetings was well maintained, and 
several were inconveniently crowded. 

The number of allied societies holding their meetings in the 
Museum shows no reduction. This was also the case with the 
ordinary admissions of visitors to the Museum, which have been 
above the average, and many who took an interest in some or 
the subjects illustrated expressed their gratification with what 
they saw in the collections. At Easter the Museum was thrown 
open, as usual, at a nominal charge, and full advantage of this 
ooportunity was taken by the public, particularly children. No 
damage was done to any part of the collections. As will be 
seen by the Hon. Treasurer's Statement of Accounts, duly 



Annual Meeting. 3 

audited by the Local Government Board, a slight diminution 
is shown by the balance in hand, but this is fully accounted for 
by the large sum spent on necessary repairs to the building and 
the cases. 

A list of donations to the Museum and of the numerous 
publications received in exchange from home and foreign 
societies will be presented with the present Report. 

Amongst the donations, that of Lord Deramore is specially 
noteworthy, comprising as it does a large number of valuable 
Irish antiquities, and some Greek and Roman. The Irish 
bronzes have been arranged by themselves in the Benn Room, 
and the stone implements and some ethnological specimens 
have been incorporated with the general collections. A number 
of good fossils remain, for which there is no space available at 
present. Many valuable objects from the recent excavations at 
Abydos have been presented by the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
through the good offices of Mr. John Ward, J. P., F.S.A. Such 
other donations as have been received during the year have 
been placed in their proper cabinets. Your Council have under 
serious consideration the necessity of rearranging the contents 
of the Museum, and making as complete as possible the Irish 
natural history collections. In view of the meeting of the 
British Association next year in Belfast, they have also decided 
on having a loan collection of Irish antiquities, &c., following 
the precedent of their action when the first meeting was held 
here in 1S52. The Council desire to express their best thanks 
to the local Press for their admirable reports of the Society's 
meetings. Five members of Council retire from office, of which 
four are eligible and offer themselves for re-election — viz., 
Messrs. R. Lloyd- Patterson, J. PI. Davies, John Horner, and 
Robert Young. 

The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. W. H. Patterson) submitted the 
Statement of Accounts, from which it appeared that the 
expenditure amounted to ;^252 los. 2d., while the income was 
;^3I5 14s. 6d., leaving a balance in hands of £6-^ 4s. 4d. 

Mr, Lloyd-Patterson moved the adoption of the Report, He 



4 Annual Meeting. 

much regretted he had not been present at the last meeting of 
the Council. There were two subjects he would like to draw 
the attention of the meeting to, first, their large and successful 
meetings, and, secondly, the rearrangement of their collections. 
The latter was a matter upon which he felt strongly, and he 
would not trust himself to speak as strongly on it as he felt. 
Many of the specimens were very old, and while every care had 
been taken of them that circumstances would permit, they were 
clearly worn out. For his part, he thought it would be better 
to have a small and perfect collection, as far as it went, than a 
large and faulty one. The financial report showed that the 
slight diminution in the balance-sheet is accounted for chiefly 
by expenditure on the building. 

Dr. MacCormac, in seconding, regretted that he could not 
use the superlative degree when speaking of the monetary side 
of the question ; but, considering the admirable lectures they 
had had, he was bound to speak in the superlative degree. He 
was present at one, the most interesting he had ever had the 
opportunity of listening to, apart from its literary aspect, and 
he was sorry to see so few present. He might say if the Belfast 
public knew the merits of the lectures they had in that room 
they would always have the room filled, and filled to overflowing. 

Mr. Henry Musgrave proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Brown for having presided, and to Mr. Young, Secretary. He 
paid a high compliment to Mr. Brown's ability, and said he 
understood he had consented to occupy the presidency for 
another year. He (Mr. Musgrave) thought that very proper. 

Mr. Davys Bowman seconded the motion, which was sup- 
ported by Mr. William Armstrong, and carried by acclamation. 

The Chairman briefly replied, after which the lollowin^y were 
elected members of Council : — President, John Brown ; Vice- 
Presidents, President Rev. T. Hamilton, D.D., LL.D. ; R. L. 
Patterson, D.L., F.L.S. ; W. Swarstcn, F.G.S. ; Robert Young, 
C.E., J.P. ; Hon. Treasurer, W. H. F. Patterson ; Hon. 
Librarian, J. H. Davies ; Hon. Secretary, Robert M. Young, 
B.A., J.P., M.R.I.A. 



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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1900-1901. 



From Head Constable John Raynor. 

A fresh specimen of Palimiriis vulgaris, which is a cray fish 
known as the spring lobster. Caught at Portrush. 
From Mr. Walter Smyth, Holywood. 
A specimen of the bittern {BotaiLrus stellaris). 

From * * # * 
A Hving specimen of a longicorn beetle {Astyomus aediliis) 
captured on Queen's Island, Belfast. 

From Miss Perry, Wellington Place. 
A snake's skin from West Africa. 

From Lord Deramore. 
A large number of bronze celts, swords, spearheads, rings, etc. 
Flint arrowheads, stone celts, fossils, minerals, classic 
pottery, Egyptian curios, leather water bottles, etc. 
From Egypt Exploration Fund. 
A number of specimens obtained in the recent excavations at 
Abydos. 

From Mr. R. M. Young, J. P., M.R.I.A. 
Portrait of R. Lloyd-Patterson, Esq., D.L., F.L.S., former 
President of the Society. 

From Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S. 
Clay concretions from the Connecticut Valley. 
From Miss M. K. Andrews. 
Rock specimen, showing granite intrusion in Silurian rocks of 
Mourne ; also specimens of a number of local rocks. 
From Mr. A. S. Oswald. 
A beggar's badge, in brass, inscribed "St. Field, 25." 

From Mr. Richard Hanna. 
Portion of the planking of a wooden ship perforated by the 
shipworm {Teredo). Found at Newcastle sandhills. 



ADDITION'S TO THE LIBRARY, ist MAY, 1900, till 
1ST MAY, 1 901. 

Adelaide. — Transactions of the Royal Society of South 
AustraHa. Vol. 24, parts i and 2, 1900, and 
Memoirs, vol. i, part 2, 1900. The Society. 

Albany. — Forty-ninth Annual Report of New York State 
Museum, vol. 3, 1895. Fiftieth Report, vol. 2, 
1896, and Fifty-first Report, vols, i and 2, 1897. 
The Regents of the University. 

Bergen. — Bergens Museums Aarbog, 1899, part 2, and 1900, 
parts I and 2 ; also Aarsberetning for 1899 and 
1900 ; and Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 3, parts 
5 — 10, 1900. Bergen Museiun. 

Berlin. — Verhandlungen dtr Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu 
Berlin. Vol. 27, nos. 4 — 10, 1900; and vol. 28, 
Nos. I — 3, 1 901. 2 he Society. 

Birmingham. — Proceedings of Birmingham Natural History 
and Philosophical Society. Vol. 10, part i, 
1896; and part 2 — 1897; and vol. 11, part i, 
1899; also Records of Meteorological Observa- 
tions for 1896 and 1897. 2 he Society. 

Bologna. — Rendeconto della R. Accademia delle Scienze dell' 
Istituto de Bologna ; new series, vol. 2, fasc. 
I — 4, 1898, and vol. 3, 1899. The Academy. 

Boston. — Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Vol. 29, nos. 9 — 14, 1900. Memoirs, vol. 6, no. 
6, 1900; and no. 7, 1901; also Occasional 
Papers, vol. i, no. 4, 1900. The Society. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen Herausgegeben vom Natuiwissen- 
schaftlichen Verein zu Bremen. Vol. 16, part, 
3, 1900. The Society. 

Breslau — Zeitschrift fur Entomologie Herausgegeben vom 
Verein fiirSchlesiche Insektenkunde zu Breslau. 
New series, part 25, 1900. 2 he Society. 



8 Books Received. 

Brighton. — Annual Report of Brighton and Hove Natural 
Histor_v and Philcsophical Society for 1899-1900. 

2he Society. 
Brisbane. — Annals of the Queensland Museum, no. 5, 1900. 

Tlie Director. 
Brussels. — Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique. Vol. 39, 1900. The Society. 

,, Annales de la Sociele Entomologique de Belgique. 

Vol. 44, 1900. The Society. 

„ Annales de la Societe Royale de Malacologique de 

Belgique. Vol. 34 (part of), 1899. 

The Society. 
Buenos Ayres. — Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de 
Buenos Aires. Vol. i, Nos. 6 and 7, 1900. 

The Director. 
Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. VcJ. 
28, part 2, 1900; vol. 2q, 1899 ; vol. 30, parts 1 
and 2, 1900 ; and vol. 33, part I, 1901. 
Palseontologia Indica. Series 9, vol. 2, part 2, 
1900; and vol. 3, part i, 1900; also series 15, 
vol. 3, parts I and 2, 1899; and General Report 
of the Work of the Survey for 1899. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Cambridge. — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society. Vol. 10, parts 5 — 7 ; and vol. 11, parts 
I and 2, 1 900- 190 1. The Society. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Vol. 35, no. 8, 1900; vol. 36, nos. i 
— 6, T900; vol. 37, nos. I and 2, 1900; and vol. 
38, nos. 2 and 3, 1901; also Annual Report for 
1899-1900. The Secretary, Ale.x. Agassiz. 

Cardiff. — Report and Transactions of Cardiff Naturalists' 
Society. Vol. 32, 1901. 7 lie Society. 

Casskl. — Abhandlungen und Bericht (45) des Vereins fiir 
Nzturkunde zu Kassel, 1900. 2 he Society. 



Books'_Received. 9 

Chicago. — Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, No. 

3, 1898. The Academy. 

Christiania. — Christiania Videnskabs Forhandlinger. Nos. 2 
— 4, 1899; and Oversigt for 1899; also Norway 
Official Publication for the Paris Exhibition in 
1900. 

llie Royal Norskc Frcdenks University. 
Cincinnati. — Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany, 
Pharmacy, and Materia Medica, No. i, I ,00. 
The Messrs. Lloyd. 
Colorado Springs. — Colorado College Studies. Vol. 8, 1899. 

Colorado College Scientific Society. 
Dantzic. — Schriften der Naturtorschenden Gesellschaft in 
Danzig. New series, vol. 10, part i, 1899. 

The Society. 
Davenport, Iowa. — Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Sciences. Vol. 7, 1900. 

The Academy. 
Dublin. — Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. 
Series 2, vol. 7, parts 2 and 3, 1899; and par'is 
4 — 7, 1900. Scientific Proceedings. New 
series, vol. 9, part i, 1899; and part 2, 1900. 
Economic Proceedings. Vol. i, parts i and 2, 
1899; and Index, 1899. The Society. 

Edinburgh. — Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 21, part 4, 1900. 

The Society. 
,, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Vol. 22, 1897-99. ^^^^ Society. 

„ Transactions of the Scottish Natural History 

Society. Vol. i, part i, 1900. The Society. 

Genoa. — Rivista Ligure di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. Anno, 
22, fasc. 2, 4, 5, and 6, 1900; and fasc. i, igoi. 

The Society. 

Glasgow. — Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 
Vol. 21, 1900. The Society. 



lo Books Received. 

Halifax, N.S. — Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova 

Scotian Institute of Science. Vol. lo, part I, 

1899 ; and part 2. 1900. The Institute. 

Hamburg. — Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen 

Vereins in Hamburg. Ser. 3, vol. 7, 1900; and 

Abhandlungen, vol. 16, part i, 190c. 

The Society. 
Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen Karpathen Vereines, 27th 

year, 1900. The Society. 

Tndianopolis. — Proceedings cfthe Indiana Academy of Science 

for 1891 and 1899. I'he Academy. 

Khakkow. — Proceedings of the Society of Sciences, Physico- 

Chimiques, of the University of Kharkow. 

Part 24, 1898; and parts 25 — 27, 1900. 

The Society. 
KiEW. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists' of Kiew. Vol. 

16, part I, 1899. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vandoise des Sciences 

Naturelles. Ser. 4, no. 134, 1899 ; and nos. 

135 — 137, 1900. The Society. 

Lawrence. — The Kansas University Quarterly. Vol. 8, no. 4, 

1899 ; and Bulletin of the University of Kansas. 

Vcl. I, nos. 2 and 3, 1900. The Cniversitv. 
Lripsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 

1900. The Society. 

London.— Report of the Seventieth Meeting of the British 

Association ; Bradford, 1900. 

The Association. 
,, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 

London. Vol. 56, parts 2 — 4, 1900; and vol. 

57, part I, 1901; also Geological Literature for 

1899 ; and List of Fellows, 190-. 

The Society. 
,, Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Nos. 

136 — 139, 1900 ; and Nos. 140 and 141, T901. 

The Society. 



Books Received. II 

London. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
parts I — 4, 1900. Transactions, Vol. 15, parts 
5 — 7, and vol. 16, part i, 1900-1901; also List 
of Fellows, 1900. The Society. 

Madison. — Bulletin of the Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Wisconsin, Nos. 3 and 4, 1808, and 
Nos. 5 and 6, iqoo. The Director. 

,, Transactions of the Wisconsin Acadenw of Sciences, 

Arts, and Letters. Vol. 12, part 2, 1900. 

The Academy. 
Madras. — Bulletin of Madras Government Museum. Vol. 3, 
Nos. I and 2, 1900; and Vol. 4, No. i, 1901 ; 
also the Administration Report for 1 899-1 900. 
The Superintendent. 
Manchester. — Journal of the Manchester Geographical 
Society. Vol. 11, nos. 9 — 12, 1895; vol. 14, nos. 
9-< 12, 1898; vol. 15, nos. 10 — 12, 1899 ; and 
vol. 16, nos. I — 9, 1900. The Society. 

,, Transactions of the Manchester Geological 

Society. Vol. 26, parts 14 — 19, 1900. 

The Society. 
Marseilles. — Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 
Vol. 10, preface and fasc. 1--6. 

The Librarian. 
Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 

New ser., vol. 12, part 2, 1900. The Society. 
Mexico. — Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico. 
Central de Mexico. Oct. — Dec, 1899, and 
Jany. — June, 1900. The Director. 

,, Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de 
Tacubaya. Vol. 2, No. 6, 1900 ; also Anuario, 
Ano. 21, 1900, and El Clima de la Republica 
Mexicana, Ano. 2, 1900. The Director. 

„ Boletin del Instituto Geologico de Mexico. No. 14, 
part 1 , 1 900. The Institute. 



12 Books Received. 

Milwaukee. — Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History 
Society. New ser., vol. i, nos. i and 2, 1900. 

The Society. 
,, Seventeenth Annual Report of the Trustees of 

Milwaukee Public Museum, 1899. 

The Trustees. 
Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Vol. 2, fasc. 15 and 16, 1900; fasc. 17, 1901 ; 
and vol. 3, fasc. 13, 14, and 18, 1900. 

The Director. 
Moscow. — Bulletin of the Society of Naturalists of Moscow. 
Nos. 2 — 4, 1899, and nos. i and 2, 19CO. 

The Society. 
Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences de 1' Quest de la 
France. Vol. 9, part 4, 1899, and vol. 10, parts 
I and 2, 1900. The Society. 

New Yokk.— Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
Vol. 12, parts 2 and 3, and vol. 13, part i, 1899 

1900. Memoirs, vol. 2, part i, 1899, and part 
2, 1900. The Academy. 

,, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 32, nos. 2 — 5, 1900, and vol. 33, no. i, 

1 90 1 . The Society. 
Nottingham. — Report and Transactions of Nottingham 

Naturalists Society for 1899-iqoo. 

The Society. 
Oporto. — Annaes de Sciencias Naturaes. Vcl. 6, 1900. 

The Editor. 
Ottawa. — Preliminary Report on Klondyke Goldfields of 
Yukon, Canada, and Geological Map ; also Note 
on the Sydney Coal Field, Nova Scotia, and 
Maps 652-654, 1900. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 3, 1899, and 
parts I — 3, 1900. The Academy. 



Books Received. 13 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, No. 160, 1899, and nos. 161 — 164; 1900. 

The Society. 
„ Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of 
Science. Vol. 3, part 5, 1900. 

The Institute. 

Pisa.— Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Natural!, Processi 
Verbali, January, November, 1900. 

The Society. 

Rochester. — Proceedings of Rochester Academy. Vol. 3, 
brochure 2, 1900. The Academy. 

Rome. — Atti Rcale Accademia dei Lincei. Vol. 8, semestre i, 
fasc. 12, 1899. Vol. 9, semestre i, fasc. 8, 9, 11, 
12, 1900. Semestre 2, fasc. i — 3 and 7 — i?, 
1900 ; vol. 10, semestre i, fasc. i — 6, 1901 ; and 
Rendiconto dell' Adunanza Solenne del, lolh 
June, 1900. Tlie Academy. 

,, Journal of the British and American Archaeological 
Society of Rome. Vol. 3, no. 2, 1900. 

The Society. 
,, Bollettino della Societa Zoologicaltaliana. Ser. 2, vo'. 
I, fasc. 2 — 4, iqoo. The Society. 

San Francisco. — Proceedings of the Californian Academy cf 
Sciences. Geology, vol. i, nos. 7 — 9, 1900. 
Zoology, vol. 2, no. i, i89q, and nos. 2, 4, and 
6, 1900 ; also Occasional Papers, no. 7, 1900. 

The Academy. 

St. Louis — Eleventh Annual Report of Missouri Botanical 
Garden, 1900. The Director. 

Stavangek. — Stavanger Museum Aarsberetning for 1899 

The Museum Triistees. 
Stirling. — Transactions of Stirling Natural History and 
Archaeological Society for 1899- 1900. 

The Society. 



14 Books Received. 

Stockholm. — Handlingar of the Royal Swedish Academy. 
New ser., vol. 32, 1899. Ofversigt, no. 56, 

1899, and Bihang, vol. 25, parts I — 4, 1900. 

The Academy. 
Sydney. — Science of Man, new ser., vol. 3, nos. 3 — 12, 1900, 

and vol. 4, no. l, 1901, The Editor. 

ToKio. — Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fi'ir Natur 

und Volkerunde Ostasiens. Vol. 8, part 2, 

1 900. The Society. 
Toronto. — Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 6, 

1899. Proceedings, new ser. vol. 2, part 3, 

1900, and part 4, 1901. The Institute. 
Upsala. — Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the Uni- 
versity cif Upsala. Vol. 4, part 2, 1899. 

The University. 
Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Geolo 
gische.i Reichsanstalt. Nos. 3 — 18, 1900, and 
I — 3, 1 901. The Society. 

„ Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Zoolo- 
gisch Bolanischen Gesellschaft. Vol. 50, 1900. 

The Society. 
Washington. — Year Book of the Department of Agriculture 
for 1899. Report of the Secretary for 1900. 
Bulletin of the Department, nos. 12 — 14, 1900, 
and North American Fauna, nos. 16 — 18, 1899- 
1900. The Secretary of the Department. 

„ Seventeenth Annual Report of the American 

Bureau of Ethnology. Part 2, 1895-96. 

The Director of the Bnrean. 
,, Nineteenth Annual Report of the United States 

Geological Survey. Parts 3 and 5, with Atlas, 
1897-98, and Twentieth Report, part i, 1898- 
99; also Bulletins, nos. 151 — 156, 1898, and nos. 
157 — 162, 1899. Monographs, vol. 32, part 2, 
vols. 33, 34, 36, 37, and 38, iSgo. 

The Director, 



Books Received. 15 

Washington. — American Monthly Microscopical Journal. Vol. 
21, nos. I — T2, iqoo. The Fiihlisher. 

„ Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 

1898. Special Bulletin, part i, 1900. Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1,253, 1901. 
Annual Report of the United States Museum, 
1898. Bulletin of the U.S. Museum, no. 47, 
part 4, iqoo. 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Xalapa. — Boletin Mensual Meteorologico y Agricola del 
Observatorio Central del Estado Vera Cruz, four 
numbers, 1898 1900. The Director. 

York, — Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
1901. The Soeietj. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 
in Zurich, 44th year, parts i and 2, 1900. 

The Society. 

From Mr. R. Lloyd -Patterson, D.L., F.L.S. — Journal of the 
Linnean Society (Botany). Nos. 240 and 241, 
1900, and 242, 1901. 

From James Green, Esq. (Massachusetts Bar), Worcester, 
Mass, U.S.A. Causes of the War in South 
Africa. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION 1900-1 901. 



6ih November^ igoo. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
Mr. J. Brown. 



Some Matters Electric. 



At this opening meeting of our Session there is wanting a time 
honoured ceremony that usually graces the occasion. I allude 
to the introduclion to you of your president elect by his outgoing 
predecessor. 

For the second time in the history of the Society death has 
removed its President during his term of office. On the present 
occasion I feel the loss of one of my earliest Belfast friends, one 
who was always ready in sympathy whether of condolence and 
help in times of sorrow or of congratulation in times of success. 
One whose advice and counsel were freely available. One from 
whom I have received many kindnesses, and with whom I have 
spent many pleasant and profitable hours. I feel sure these 
sentiments find an echo in the hearts of all those who knew our 
late President. 

In his death the Society has to deplore the loss of one who 
had its best interests at heart, whose shrewdness made him quick 
to discern these interests, and whose energy left no stone 
unturned in working for them. During my thirteen years official 
connexion with the working of the Society as its Honorary 



1 8 Inaugural Address by the President. 

Treasurer I had often occasion to observe the disinterested and 
completely unostentatious way in which Mr. Workman gave 
his mind to the good of the Society. Several important steps 
which turned out advantageously were initiated by him. 

Mr. Workman's membership was an honour to us. He was 
one of the few business men in our city who found time for 
original scientific research. Mr. Workman not only spared 
time from his business for this purpose, but actually took 
advantage of his far business connexions to assist him in the 
successful study of that branch of natural history which he had 
made his own. 

Memoirs published in our own proceedings and elsewhere 
bear witness to the success attending his researches — the 
discovery of new species and the more careful observation of 
the habits of others. 

The volume of plates illustrating in detail so many of the 
Arachnida, which has been so carefully prepared by his own 
hands, assisted sometimes by his daughter, and of which a 
beautiful copy was presented by him to the Society bear^ 
witness to the interest with which he pursued his subject. 

Offering to the memory of our late President this tribute of 
esteem and regret, I turn to my own duties unannounced. 

In seeking a subject on which to address you, it seemed that 
either something pertaining historically to the Society, or 
something with which I myself was connected or interested, or 
some topic of new and general interest might be appropriate. 

The first mentioned has been ably treated already. I have, 
therefore, thought it might not be amiss to take up a little of 
the two last. 

I shall first deal as briefly as possible, with my own work on 
a subject of much scientific interest, though not perhaps of a 
very popular kind, " The Theory of Voltaic Action." It seems 
proper that some record of this should find a place in our pro- 
ceedings, and this has not yet been the case. Afterwards I hope 
to describe experimentally some modern applications of 
electricity. 



Inaugural Address by the Presiaent. 19 

As my work on voltaic theory is on the main line of research, 
I would lead up to it by a brief reference to the history of the 
subject. The earliest experiment in this connexion was a very 
simple and now well-known one described by Sulzer^, in 1760, 
in a paper on " The theory of agreeable and disagreeable 
sensations" The experiment consisted in placing under the 
tongue a plate of silver, and on top of the tongue a plate of lead 
or zinc or other suitable metal. In bringing the outer ends of 
these metals in contact a peculiar sensation is experienced in 
the tongue. That this is really due to the formation of an 
electric current passing through the tongue between the metals 
was not even guessed at the time of its observation, nor for 
many years afterwards. Yet its discoverer (if he had only known 
it) was the first to observe the current from a voltaic cell. 

Science, however, does not progress by such co-ordinated 
observations of isolated efTects, and the first step towards the 
discovery of the true character of the phenomenon was made by 
the observation and connexion of two almost accidental efTects 
noted by Galvani,^ professor of anatomy at Bologna. 

In 1780 when investigating the nervous irritability of cold 
blooded animals he observed that the limbs of a recently killed 
frog, when hung by the crural nerve on a metal support near an 
electric machine, contracted convulsively at the occurrence of 
each spark drawn from the machine. Six years afterwards he 
observed the same contraction when a copper hook, on which 
the nerve hung, and the limb itself came simultaneously in con- 
tact with an iron railing — the copper hook, the iron railing, 
and the frog's leg forming thus a circuit of three bodies in 
contact. The similarity of the result pointed to the same 
cause — electricity. But how in this last mentioned case was 
the electricity produced ? 

This question has exercised the scientific world ever since. ' 
Galvani thought it was produced in the animal tissues, and 
even went so far as to connect it with the spirit of the animal. 

1. ^/Wf Electrochemie, Ostwald, p. 41. 

2. Ibid, p. 27. 3. Ibid, p. 45. 



20 Inaugural Address by the President. 

A year after the publications of his work, which naturally 
excited the greatest interest, it was criticised by his great com- 
patriot, Alessandro Volta,^ Professor of physics at Pavia. 
Galvani's attention had been devoted to the nerves and muscles 
of the frog. Volta's was directed upon the metallic matters in 
contact with them. He emphasised (what Galvani had already 
noticed) that strong muscular contractions were only obtained 
when the connecting arc is composed of two metals in contact, 
and he maintained that the electric current causing the muscular 
contractions was produced at the contact or Junction of the 
metals ; and he describes this theory of hjs, without reticence or 
modesty, as a discovery of the highest order. 

H:id Volta's observations been made half a century later, 
when the splendid researches of Faraday emphasized the 
beginning of a more perfect knowledge, a truer view of science 
would doubtless have supported and intensified the leaning 
which he himself at first possessed towards the assumption that 
the source of the electric action was to be found in the chemical 
activities at the contact between the metals and the liquids of 
the fresh animal tissues. 

That the electricity was produced by chemical action of 
these fluids on the metals was indeed suggested by Fabroni,* 
in 1792, and by Creve,* whose explanation of the action bears 
a quaint resemblance to that which a wider knowledge has 
brought foith in modern times. ^ 

Volta, however, was carried away by the (merely apparent) 
simplicity of the metallic contact theory and by the result of a 
most ingenious form of experiment which seemed to preclude 
the possibility of any such chemical action on the metals. The 
apparatus used is represented by that on the table and is 
known as Volta's condenser. Here the two metals are in the 
form of plates, having plain surfaces, and mounted on insulating 
supports so as to be capable of being approached very closely 
to one another without touching. If when so approached the 

4. Wilkinson's Galvanism I, p. 313 — 15. 

5. Ibid, p. 311. 6. Ibid, p. 104. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 21 

two plates be joined for a moment by a metallic wire and then 
separated, it is found that the zinc appears to be positively and 
the copper negatively electrified. I say appears advisedly. 

If we neglect any possible actions of the atmosphere on the 
metals we are tied to Volta's view. It is surprising, considering 
the clear insight and the careful and persevering nature which 
Volta possessed, that he did neglect such atmospheric action, 
and continued to do so even after his brilliant invention of the 
Voltaic pile and cell in 1799, in which, notwithstanding, the 
obvious presence of cheu ical action, he still placed the seat o^ 
generation of the current at the contact of the two metals. I 
am inclined to think that the largi acceptance which Volta's 
contact theory obtained subsequently was due in great measure 
to his impressive and self-confident style of writing, to the care 
he took to publish widely, and to the respect due to his 
undoubted genious rather than to any convincing characteristic 
in his experiments. For it is to be noticed that beginning with 
Fabroni and Creve and culminating with our own immortal 
Faraday, there was a succession of philosophers who maintained 
that in all cases the electric effect was due to chemical action 
upon the metals whether of the atmosphere on Volta's condenser 
plates or of liquid in his cell. In the cell indeed the presence 
of chemical action is evident, and the need of some such source 
of energy to produce the continuous current of the cell is more 
obvious. 

To illustrate this, I have here two metallic plates, one of 
copper and one iron, placed in the necessary metallic contact 
through a wire which forms part of this galvanoscope. When 
placed in this jar of acidulated water the current generated 
immediately deflects the pointer of the instrument. If the 
experiment be continued for some hours, we find the iron has 
been dissolved by the acid while the copper remains unacted 
on. In Faraday's researches'" on many varieties of such cells it 
was clear inter aha that contact of dissimilar metals was not 
necessary (one metal and two liquids being also active), also that 

7. Experimental Researches in Electricity II., p. 18. 



22 Inaugural Address by the President. 

the direction of the current was always from the chemically 
active surface of metal through the liquid to the inactive one. 
A very remaikable experiment arises from this last-mentioned 
law. 

You observed that when we dipped these metal plates in the 
acidulated water the pointer moved to the right, and I told you 
that in this case the iron was being attacked. We now place 
them in another solution, a solution of potassium sulphide 
which attacks the copper most, with the result that the current is 
reversed, and sends the pointer to the left. It now flows from 
the copper by liquid to iron. I point especially to this experi- 
ment with its reversal ot current for a reason which follows 
later. 

After Faraday's brilliant researches, men's minds seemed to 
have inclined towards belief in the chemical source of the current 
till about 1862, when Lord Kelvin (then Sir William Thomson) 
published what he described as a new proof of Volta's contact 
force,* which was really only a very elegant variation of Volta's 
fundamental experiment, and does not to my thinking throw 
any further light on the subject. Lord Kelvin, however, 
became himself convinced that the contact theory was the true 
one, and this seems very remarkable when we remember that 
it is to Lord Kelvin we owe the enunciation of the law (now 
known as Thomson's law) defining the intimate and exact 
connection between the electromotive force of the cell and the 
chemical actions in it. The great authority belonging to Lord 
Kelvin's high order of genius however swayed the scientific 
world towards what he accepted as true. 

We have now come to the period when I was tempted to 
enter the lists. I found then two opposing camps, one led by 
the genius of Faraday holding that the Voltaic current and all 
Voltaic action was due to chemical action at the surface of the 
metal and liquid, the other maintaining that the seat of the 
force generating the current was at the contact of the two 

8. Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 317. 




Fiff. I. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 23 

metals and pointing to the Volta condenser experiment as 
precluding the possibility of chemical action. They pointed 
out that this condenser experiment gave the same result in 
vacuo where they said no atmospheric action could take place. 
They omitted to consider, however, that there was no such 
thing as a vacuum attainable. After the best means of exhaustion 
known there is always amply sufficient gas left to cause the 
minute amount of chemical action required for this particular 
electric effect. 

Since it seemed hopeless to attempt to nullify the electric 
effect by removing the atmosphere, it occurred to me to try if 
varying the chemical nature of the atmosphere Avould cause a 
corresponding variation of the electric eflFect.^ In fact I con- 
sidered that if with a Volta condenser we could arrange a 
change of the chemical activities of the atmosphere surrounding 
the plates analogous to the change of the chemical activities of 
the liquid in the cell which I have just described, we should find 
a reversal of the electric charges analogous to the reversal of 
current in the cell. 

I chose the same metals as Faraday, copper and iron, and of 
these this small condenser Fig. i was made so as to be enclosed 
under a glass bell on insulating supports. When tested in 
ordinary atmosphere the chemical action of which is chiefly 
directed towards the oxidation of the iron, the usual Volta effect 
was produced. The iron plate communicated a positive charge to 
the electrometer. Then, without changing any of the metallic 
contacts, I passed into the glass bell a stream of hydrogen 
sulphide gas. The copper was actively attacked and tarnished by 
the gas and at once took, electrically speaking, the place of the 
iron in the first case, and a positive electrification was now 
obtained from it. 

My satisfaction and indeed elation at finding my hypothesis, 
so clearly verified was very great. Indeed I believed that this 
experiment would end the dispute between the contact and 

9. Phil. Mag. VI., p. 142, 1878. 



24 Inaugural Address by the President. 

chemical theories that had gone on for nearly a century. 

Immediately afterwards I arranged the experiment in the 
form devised by Lord Kelvin where a metallic ring is formed — 
half of one metal here copper, and the other half of a different 
metal, here iron. Over the junction swings a delicately 
suspended needle capable of being electrified. Lord Kelvin 
showed that when positive the needle swings towards the 
copper attracted by a negative electrification, if negative towards 
the iron. I showed that these deflexions are reversed if the 
atmosphere be charged with hydrogen sulphide in this case as 
in that of the condenser method. 

Using copper and nickel plates in air and in hydrochloric 
acid gas,^" the electrification is also reversed following its 
analogous reversal in the corresponding cell. Finally, although 
the requisite conditions obtain with only a few metals and 
liquids, I was able to arrange five different experiments of an 
analogous kmd, and in all these the hypothesis was amply and 
decidedly confirmed.^^ 

An attempt to annul the Voltaic efTect by a removal of all 
active chemical atmospheric matters from about the metals in 
a more thorough way than had hitherto been employed was 
made by sealing up in an exhausted glass tube this small Volta 
condenser, together with a quantity of potassium intended to 
absorb oxygen, etc.^^ Means were provided for testing the 
electric difference of potential. Lord Kelvin, I may mention, 
told me I should not succeed in annulling the difference of 
potential by these means. 

Tn my first experiment, which lasted six months, it was 
reduced somewhat and increased on re-opening the tube. In a 
second experiment lasting i8 months, and in a third lasting 
seven years, there was no such effect observed. Lord Kelvin 

10. Phil. Mag. VII., p. 109, 1879. 

11. Proc. Roy. Soc, XL!., p. 301, 1886. 

12. Ibid., LXIV., p. 369, 1899, 



Inaugural Address by the President. 25 

was therefore correct in his prophecy. I attribute this negative 
result to the extreme difficulty of removing the chemically 
active matters from about the plates. 

Several other forms of experiment were devised to obtain 
evidence on the question. In the result I can say that I have 
found nothing to definitely contradict and much to support the 
hypothesis I adopted originally. 

In considering the true nature of the effect in Volta's funda- 
mental experiment, I concluded that its explanation would be 
found in a modification of the theory originally put forth by 
De la Rive,^^ that the electrification was produced by electrolytic 
chemical action on the metallic surfaces, and that the electrolyte 
acting on these sui faces was condensed on them in the form of 
a liquid film. In the ordinary atmosphere this film is doubtless 
chiefly water with oxygen, carbonic acid, etc., in solution. Its 
basis is doubtless in all cases water, while any gases present 
would dissolve in this aqueous film. In confirmation of this it 
was found that when by exceedingly careful and patient 
manipulation the plates of the zinc-copper Volta condenser 
were brought exceedingly close together, but not actually 
touching, the films on their surfaces came together and acted 
together as the liquid conductor of a cell, and a continuous 
current could be obtained from the cell so formed^* sufficient to 
deflect a galvanometer connected to the condenser plates. 

Such a theor}^ explains the action of the Volta condenser and 
that of the cell as really the same, in so far as either can be 
explained. In so doing it has to admit that we know very little 
about either of them. I believe that is one of the attributes 
that characterises it as non-acceptable in comparison with 
theories which, based on large and ill-supported assumption, 
profess to explain everything. 

13. Traite d' Elecfrieite II., p. 776. 

14. Proc. Roy. Soc, XLI., p. 307, 1886, also Repertorium der Physik, XXIII., 
P 732- 



26 



Inaugural Address by the President. 




^ 



^ 



E 




Fisf. 2. 



In Figure 2 D represents an ordinary Voltaic cell — a plate of 
copper and one of zinc connected and immersed in an oxidizing 
electrolyte. A current flows with the arrows, round the circuit 
copper, zinc, electrolyte, copper. 

Now, if we cut this circuit at a point in the copper, as shown 
at E, we get a diiference of potential between the copper ends 
at the division, positive in the part next the immersed portion 
of the copper, negative in the other end. Similarly if we cut 
the zinc as at F, we get the positive end above towards the 
contact, negative end below, and if we divide through the 
electrolyte as at G we have still the same effect, positive at the 
side in which the zinc is immersed, negative in that containing 
the copper. Now supposing we let this dividing diaphragm 
through the electrolyte be composed of air, and let it gradually 
increase so as to occupy so much of the space between two metal 
plates that only a mere film of the electrolyte is left on each metal 
surface, we have at once the whole effect as observed in the 
Volta condenser experiment or in the contact experiment of 
Lord Kelvin. I have shown this to be the case experimentally^^ 
and, further, if instead of merely dividing a single electrolyte, 
we use two electrolytes^*' such as a layer of copper sulphate 
solution on the copper, and zinc sulphate solution on the zinc 



15. Phil. Mag. VII., p. 110, 1879. 

16. Proc. Roy. Soc, XLI., p, 306, iS 




Fig- 3- 




Fig. 




Fig 4. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 27 

we get the difference of potential equal to that of the Daniell 
cell analogous with this arrangement of films. 

As touching the reception of my conclusions by the scientific 
world, it may be said that some accepted them fully, while 
others merely modified their definitions so as to save them from 
contradiction by my experiments. Professor Clerk Maxwell^'^ 
was among the first to agree with me, and the interest taken 
in the experiments and acceptance of the conclusions drawn 
from them by one occupying a place so high in the scientific 
world doubtless led others to consider them. 

Having now completed the more drily scientific part of my 
address, I shall ask your permission to describe a few 
applications of electric power arranged for the convenience of 
my own home, and afterwards to describe and exhibit experi- 
ments on the more important modern developments of electric 
art in wireless telegraphy and the Wehnelt interrupter. 

At and about my home at Longhurst we employ, besides 
electric lighting eight electric motors and five pieces of apparatus 
in which electric heating is used. Fig. 3 represents an 
electrically driven gravel sitter. The motor is seen on the top 
driving the barrel screen which separates out the coarsest gravel, 
delivering it at the end into a barrow. Below the barrel screen 
is a sieve hung on springs and caused to vibrate and shake 
about by blows on its edge from the cams on the barrel screen. 
This delivers fine gravel into a second barrow and lets the sand 
fall through into a third. The economy over the usual method 
with two inclined flat screens is in the fact that only one 
shovelling is needed instead of say three or four for the two 
screenings, and the subsequent filling of the barrows with the 
product to be wheeled away. 

The spiral shaped cam seen on the top is arranged to rise 
periodically with its supporting piece (which is hinged to the 
main frame) and fall suddenly as it is being rotated by contact 
with the revolving drum of the screen. The blow given by its 
fall shakes out any stones that may have become wedged 
between the rods of the screen. 

17. Elementary Treatise on Electricity, p. 14.9. 



28 inaugural Address by the President. 

Fig. 4 illustrates an electric motor arranged to drive either 
a mangle or an ice making machine. 

At present it is connected by the strap to the mangle which 
it drives very agreeably on washing days. By changingTthe 
belt it may work the ice maker, the product of which was found 
acceptable in the hot weather. You simply enclose about a 
pint of water in the receptacle, switch on the current, and come 
back in twent}' or thirty minutes for the ice. Water or wine 
can be iced in a very few minutes, and ice cream can be made. 

Fig. 5 shows our electric motor car, or as a friend calls it the 
electric street boat. In it the motor and gearing are at the 
back over the driving wheels. The accumulator to carry the 
store of electricity needed for a 20 mile ride is under the middle 
of the car. The steering is effected by the wheel in front acting 
on the front wheels. 

On the table is an electrically driven meat chopper, in which 
I have arranged a small motor simply coupled up to the usual 
hand chopping machine. The only disadvantage m introducing 
a machine of this kind into one's domestic arrangements is the 
continuous monotony of croquettes and rissoles which its 
handiness suggests to the housekeeper. By removing the 
chopping arrangements, and substituting egg beating apparatus, 
it is converted into a very efficient egg beater. 

When this machine had been working for a year or so in my 
kitchen it occurred to me that the effect could be got more 
directly and simply. The magnetic pull which drives the 
rotary motor acts, like all other pulls, in straight lines and 
would produce the rectilinear motion required for meat chopping 
and egg beating, if we did not employ complicated means in 
the motor to produce rotary motion which we do not want, 
and are obliged to render rectilinear by further contrivances 
before we can use it. 

It would be evidently simpler and better to allow the 
rectilinear pull to produce directly rectlinear motion. This is 
accomplished in the new form ot apparatus Fig. g (here 
arranged as a meat chopper) in which the well known action 
of a solenoid on a soft iron core is employed. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 



29 






The current in passing 
round the coil attracts 
upwards the core E 
and its attachments, 
including the knife F^ 
with a force of 3 to 4 
lbs. In order to let it 
fall again it is only 
necessary to break the 
current, which is dene 
by the sliding break or 
collar G. The current 
in entering the coil D 
passes through the two 
contact springs J J and 
the sliding collar G, 
making connexion bet- 
ween them, but as soon 
as the core in rising has 
stretched out the spring 
supports H H of the 
collar far enough to 
draw it up out of con- 
tact, the circuit is 
broken and the core 
falls by its own weight 
assisted by the re- 
silience of a buffer 
spring E^ under the 
coil. The sliding collar 
break follows it down 
and again completes 
the circuit, and so the reciprocating action continues. The 
material to be chopped is placed in a vessel with a wooden 
bottom as indicated in the figure by broken lines. 

Besides this vertical motion it is necessary to rotate the 




30 Inaugural Address by the President. 

knife F^ so as to distribute its strokes over the whole of the 
meat. This rotation is effected by the inclined grooves G^ in 
the collar break which engage with catches on the heads of the 
contact springs causing a turning movement each time the 
collar is drawn upwards. 

A quick reciprocating motion of the kind we have here 
might be applied to many things svich as hammering, rock 
drilling, etc. I have, as an experiment, fitted a hammer to this 
apparatus which can be controlled like a steam hammer. 
Again by turning the whole thing upside down and attaching 
to the cone a fret-saw or jig-saw with a spring take up, it has 
been made to saw also. 

By substituting another core with a suitable plunger it is 
converted into an egg beater of great convenience and efficiency. 
The addition to this of an adjustable oil dropping arrangement 
gives it the power of making an excellent mayonnaise. 
Mayonnaise making, according to a high authority, requires 
" time, patience, and nicety." When these matters are 
arranged for in the machine one simply puts in the egg, oil, 
vinegar, and condiments, switches on the current, and in 
twenty or thirty minutes there is an excellent mayonnaise. 

I now pass on to what is perhaps the most important electric 
invention of the last few years, namely, wireless telegraphy. 
In ordinary telegraphy the message is transmitted by means of 
electric currents in an insulated wire from the sender to the 
receiver, returning by the earth through earth plates, connected 
one to each end of the wire and buried in damp soil or in water. 
In returning through the earth the current does not confine 
itself to one path but spreads out through the earth. If we 
insert in the path of a portion of this earth current a second 
pair of earth plates and wire, we shall get a part of the earth 
returned current in a wire connecting these plates sufficient to 
affect a telephone, so that signals made by the current, in the 
first mentioned wire, can be heard in the telephone. Such a 
system is, I understand, in successful operation between Rathlin 
Island and the mainland at Ballycastle. 



Inaugural Address by the President. 31 

A method of much greater scientific interest as well as of 
later invention is that which has been recently perfected and 
brought into notice by Marconi. In this form of wireless 
telegraphy the message is carried by wave motions in the 
aether. In one sense it is not more wonderful than signalling 
by flashes of light ; light waves being also wave motions in 
the sether, but with waves very much shorter than those used 
in telegraphy. 

It will be interesting to recall briefly the history of the dis- 
covery of these electromagnetic aether waves. 

In the year 1845 that greatest of all experimental philosophers 
Michael Faraday, tells us — " I have long held an opinion almost 
amounting to conviction, in common I believe with many other 
lovers of natural knowledge, that the various forms under which 
the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin, 
or in other words are so directly related and mutually dependent 
that they are convertible as it were one into another and 
possess equivalents of power in their action. This strong 
persuasion extended to the powers of light and led to many 
exertions having for their object the discovery of the direct 
relation of light and electricity, but the results were negative. 

These ineffectual exertions could not remove my strong 
persuasion derived from philosophical considerations, and, 
therefore, I recently resumed the enquiry by experiment in a 
most strict and searching manner, and have at last succeeded in 
magnetizing and electrifying a ray of light." 

We can imagine the great philosopher standing thus, as it 
were, on the farthest bound of knowledge, at the utmost point 
of discovery jutting out into the misty waters of the as yet dim 
unknown, gazing, examining into the depths of the infinitely 
possible, watching each dim foredawning of those gigantic 
truths, which that finest almost supernatural intuition with 
which he was endowed, convinced him existed there. 

With this intuitive experimentalization of Faraday we 
contrast — but cannot compare — the brilliant deductions of 
Clerk Maxwell, who, in a later time, working on the experi- 



32 Inaugural Address by the President. 

mental data of Faraday and others, and throwing on them the 
clear decisive light of mathematical deduction, concluded not 
only that there was a connection between light and electricity, 
but that light itself was really an electromagnetic phenomenon. 
He showed also that disturbances in the aether were produced 
by electric discharges, and that if such discharges were repeated 
with sufficient rapidity they would become the source of aether 
waves similar to light waves, but much longer, and having 
many surprising peculiarities. To such waves, for instance, 
certain opaque non-conducting substances such as pitch vulcanite 
and so forth would be found transparent. To these they would 
offer no more opaqueness than glass does to light. Metals 
would be opaque, but would have electric disturbance produced 
in them by the impact of these electromagnetic aether vibrations. 

The experimental confirmation of these deductions was, 
however, still to be made. In 1883 Prof. George F. FitzGerald 
drew my attention to this, and pointed out that if we could 
produce electric discharges at the rate of 50 or 100 million per 
second we could verify Maxwell's prophesy. I could think of 
no current breaker which could work at such a rate. I 
mention this to show how narrowly one sometimes misses 
becoming famous. If we had only thought of the oscillatory 
discharge of an ordinary induction coil or leyden jar it would 
not have been left to Herz five y^ars later to show that the 
oscillations of such discharges have the required frequency for 
radiating Maxwell's waves and to invent also means for detect- 
ing the radiations at a distance from their source. 

In the working of such an induction coil as this now before 
you, at each spark there is an inconceivably rapid surging 
backwards and forwards of the current forming the spark, so 
that what looks like one spark is really a discharge oscillating 
in opposite directions between the brass knobs with extreme 
rapidity. By means of a suitable receiving instrument, telegraphy 
can be carried on by the usual code of short and long flashes. 
Such elementary apparatus as I can show you here works very 
well across the lecture room as you see. Marconi has been able 
by more perfect arrangements to send messages over 40 miles. 



Inait,giiral Address by the President. 33 

If I have not wearied you too much I would now attempt to 
show two or three rather interesting experiments with another 
new electric invention. Wehnelt's electrolytic interrupter as 
applied to the induction coil. 

The construction of the Wehnelt is very simple — merely a 
jar containing dilute sulphuric acid into which dips a lead plate 
forming the negative terminal of a supply at 100 volts or so. 
The other terminal is a platinum wire about the thickness of 
a darning needle enclosed in a glass tube so as to expose only 
half an inch or so to the liquid. When the current is switched 
on it passes by the platinum wire through the liquid to the lead 
plate. In doing so it heats the little platinum wire red hot. 
The heated wire electrolyses and also boils the acidulated water 
in contact with it, and surrounds itself with a layer of steam 
and electrolysed gas. Steam being a non-conductor the 
current cannot pass it, and so the needed interruption of the 
current occurs. The steam then promptly condenses thus 
allowing the dilute acid to come again in contact with the 
platinum wire. The current again flows, only to be interrupted 
again and so on at the rate of several hundred times per second, 
the rate of frequency depending on the make of the interrupter, 
and the self-induction of the coil employed. The result at the 
secondary terminals is a torrent of sparks succeeding each other 
so rapidly as to resemble a flame of fire. If the terminals be in 
the form of circles placed one over the other the discharge 
between them may be made to move round the circles by the 
proximity of a magnetic pole according to well known laws 
Again if the terminals be prolonged two or three feet in an 
upward direction, but diverging slightly as they rise, the dis- 
charge will form at the lower part, be carried up by the heated 
air formed in its track till it breaks at the top to reform below. 
Sir Otto Jaflfe, in moving a vote of thanks to the President, 
said it would be an impertinence on his part to attempt to 
criticise the lecture they had heard. He congratulated the 
President in that he had not only attempted but had been 
successful in scientific researches on one of the most difficult 
subjects of the present day. 



34 Inaugural Address by the President. 

Professor Purser, in seconding the motion, said he thought 
they would all agree with him in saying that they had seldom 
listened to a lecture so lucid and so well arranged. The experi- 
ments in wireless telegraphy had been wonderfully successful. 
The motion having been passed by acclamation, 
The President, in acknowledging the vote of thanks, said that 
after all, the success of an experimental lecture mainly depended 
not so much on the lecturer as on the care and efficiency of his 
assistants, and in this case their very best thanks were due to 
his friend Mr. MacWhirter, of Glasgow, who had come over 
specially and had given so much care and time to the prepara- 
tion and carrying out of the experiments. They were also 
indebted to Mr. MoUan for his efficient assistance, to Professor 
Whitla lor the use of the current from his house, to Mr. 
M'Cowan for making provision for this, and to Professor 
Morton, Mr. Finnegan, and Mr. Drennan for their kindness in 
lending apparatus. 



35 



///// December^ I goo. 



Mr. J. Brown, President, in the Chair. 



THE BOTANY OF THE SHORES OF LOUGH NEAGH. 
By John H. Davies. 



(Abstract. ) 



Mr. Davies said that prior to the close of the seventeenth 
century there had been very Httle, if any, systematic investi- 
gation of the botanical productions of Lough Neagh. The 
first records were those supplied by the celebrated English 
botanist, Dr. William Sherard, who endowed the chair of 
Botany at Oxford, the distinguished Dillenius being the first 
Sherardian Professor. When visiting his friend, Sir Arthur 
Rawdon, at Moira, in 1692, Sherard spent some time in 
herborising along the lake shores. Following Sherard about 
the end of the next century, nearly 100 years later, came their 
townsman, John Templeton, than whom there had been 
no more zealous and devoted naturalist. In the course of his 
frequent visits to the lough and to Portmore, which are con- 
nected, he added much to the then meagre knowledge of its 
botanical history. In 1833 Dr. David Moore, when associated 
as botanist with General Portlock in the Ordnance Survey of 
Derry, had splendid opportunities which, at Lough Neagh, he ' 
used with the greatest advantage in the exercise of bis love of 
botanical research. In more recent years their knowledge of 
the lake flora had been extended by not a few of the ardent 
and active botanists of the present time. Mr. Davies described 



2)6 Botany of the Bhores of Lough Ncngh. 

the character of the rich and varied flora of the lough, and 
made allusion to the most noteworthy discoveries of those 
whose names he had mentioned. Some of the plants detected 
there by the earlier explorers, he said, were supposed to be now 
lost through the lowering of the level of the lake by the 
drainage works in the Lower Bann, but careful observation 
might probably result in the restoration of some of them to the 
list of Lough Neagh plants. One of the most important recent 
discoveries, by which the flora had been enriched, was that of 
a little sand-loving cress, Teesdalia imdicatiHs, at Washing Bay, 
Co. Tyrone. It occurred in some abundance, but there was a 
question as to whether it might be indigenous. His own 
observations led him to believe that it had long been established 
there, and, though the ways in which a plant of the kind may 
be introduced were manifold, one was inclined to think it might 
be native. Recalling to mind, soon after it had been seen there, 
that the great bulk of the sand brought from the lough b) 
canal to Lisburn and Belfast for building and filtration purposes 
is taken from the place where the plant is found, two of the 
spots along the canal where the sand is discharged were 
examined. In both, the plant was seen in quantity, with every 
appearance of having been there for some time, which was in 
support of the view that if not native at Lough Neagh, it was 
by no means a recent introduction. 

Continuing, the lecturer said that the mterest belonging to 
tht occuxrQnctoi Polygonum mite at Lough Neagh, where he 
had the good fortune to meet with it very recently on both 
the County Antrim and County Armagh margins, consisted in 
its being a very rare plant in Ii eland. There were, indeed, 
only two other stations for it. In England it was also a scarce 
plant, and it was not known in Scotland nor in Wales. 

Sometimes one saw in the lake on the Antrim border con- 
siderable quantities of a very rare water crowfoot, Ranunculus 
fluitans^ but on examination it was found to be floating loose in 
the water, not a single stem being attached. Were it not 
known that it occurred in the Sixmilewater, discovered there by 



Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh. 37 

his friend Mr. Stewart, some years ago, that river still remain- 
ing its only Irish station, it might possibly be mistaken as a 
lake plant. It was carried from the river to the lake in times of 
flood. Though producing abundant fruit, much of which must 
frequently find its way to the lough, the plant did not grow 
there. So nice was it in its choice of habitat that it occurred 
only in streams having a rapid current. 

Proceeding, Mr, Davies said that notwithstanding the 
attention that had been given to the investigation of its flora by 
those to whom allusion had been made, it might not unreason- 
ably be supposed that in the case of a lake having an area of 
over 150 square miles, there were some parts of its margins that 
had never been thoroughly explored. For a botanist he could 
conceive nothing more likely to afford profitable enjoyment 
than to spend a long summer holiday there, to examine its 
diversified shores, to visit its islands, and to dredge its waters 
for Characese and other hydrophytes. The student of nature 
who found pleasure in mingling with his pursuits matters of 
human interest would have opportunity. The hardy and 
intelligent fisherman you met by the way, or who invited you 
into his cottage for acceptable shelter from a passing thunder 
shower, would ask you about '' them quare weeds," and impart 
his views on the affairs in which he took interest. If you fell 
in with him on the beach at his noontide meal of freshly-caught 
pollan, cooked on the embers of a wood fire, you were heartily 
welcome to a share, and he (Mr. Davies) could avouch that those 
same pollan, cooked after that fashion, and served to you on 
fresh, cool sycamore leaves, were fish most excellent that would 
not be lightly esteemed by the most fastidious epicure. He was, 
moreover, kindly and obliging in other ways, and would deem it 
no trouble to help you en your way by ferrying you over an 
intervening stream or inlet. But, however it may have been 
with him aforetime, he was now not much given to straying along 
the banks at the " clear, cold eve," or other time of day. 
His energies were devoted to the care of his nets and the 
baiting of his lines, to the capture of his pollan and trout and 



38 Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh. 

eels, and he was not overmuch concerned in searching for the 
submerged architectural structures of poetic fable. The old 
order changeth. Now-a-days he must take account of railroads, 
and his fish must be packed and despatched in time to catch 
the Liverpool steamer. 

Continuing, Mr. Davies said that one of the most in- 
teresting features of the lough flora was the presence there 
of a small group of plants, some of which were not found 
inland elsewhere in Ireland, and others which seem never 
to have been seen inland throughout the British Isles. The 
main difference between some parts of the shores of their 
large lakes and the seaside consisted in one case of the absence, 
and in the other the presence, of salinity. In both, the degree 
of humidity was much the same, and in some other respects 
there was more or less similarity. In their island, save at the 
seaside and parts of their lake shores, they had very little, or 
none, of the loose shifting sands which influence the character 
of the flora. It was necessary to have some understanding of 
this before looking for or attempting to explain the presence 
Inland of plants which are regarded as maritime. As was well 
known, there are species having a partiality for situations in 
close proximity to the sea, which occur on some of their highest 
moui tains. Examples of some of these were given, the popular 
and scientific names of which sufficiently indicated their 
preference for the sea coast. In the high altitudes inland, in 
which they occur, it was to be assumed they found atmospheric 
conditions necessary for their growth and sustenance, their 
distribution not being solely influenced by salinity of soil 
Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that they had at Lough Neagh, 
and that only on the County Antrim shore, a number of plants 
usually regarded as maritime, which, in Ireland, had not been 
met with elsewhere in distinctly inland localities. The names 
of some of these were mentioned, and, in particular, allusion 
was made to the Sea Club-rush, Scirpiis iiiarttimus, which, so 
far as he knew, did not occur otherwhere inland in any part of 
the British Isles. A well-known botanist, Mr. Nathaniel 



Botany of the Shores of Lough Ntagh. 39 

Colgan, knowing Mr. Davies' interest in the matter, had 
given him references to its continental range of distribution. 
There it was known to occur in the regions adjacent to the 
Jura Mountains. Yet, it remained that in this island it was 
restricted to the seaside, Lough Neagh, so far as he could 
ascertain, being the only exception. In the course of last 
summer he had seen there another plant, a sand spurrey, 
Spergidaria rtipestris, which held the same position. How 
came these plants ? Not carried by sea-birds which visit 
the lake, since in that case the}' might be expected at the 
margins of other large lakes, also frequented by sea-birds. 
There were considerations which pointed to geological 
possibilities. One incident bearing on this he might mention. 
In 1874 the British Association met in Belfast under the 
presidency of Professor Tyndall. That meeting was most 
memorable, and of some of the discussions that then arose, and 
were for some time continued, there were those of them, who 
retained a lively recollection. On that occasion a well-known 
geologist, Mr. Hardman, brought forward a paper on " The 
age and mode of formation of Lough Neagh." He sought 
to prove that the clays overlying the basalt were lacustrine 
deposits of Pleiocene age. Two years later, during a visit to 
Crumlin in company with Professor Hull, they found in the 
clay at that place fossil shells, the only fossils save those 
of plants previously known to occur in the Lough Neagh clays. 
They were considered to be fresh water shells, and their 
discovery was held to be in support of a theory that there 
was a former very large Lough Neagh, also fresh water, with 
an area probably twice as great as at present. This aroused 
so much interest that three of their members, his friends, Mr. 
W. Swanston, Mr. Stewart, and Mr. Wright, made a thorough 
investigation of the deposits, which led to widely different 
conclusions. The shells, which were in loose drift over-lying 
the boulder clay, were found to be, not fresh water shells, but 
those of the common mussel. It was found also that the deposit 
contained several species of microzoa now living along their sea 



4© Botany oj the Shores of Lough Neagh. 

coasts. These had lived and died, where their remains were now 
to be seen at Crumlin Waterfoot. The deposit in which they 
occur must have been formed by the action or within the 
influence of the sea. That being so, it seemed not very unHkely 
that at least some of the group of plants to which he had called 
their attention were survivals of a once littoral flora at Lough 
Neagh, when, through subsidence of the land in Pleistocene 
times, the country along the course of the Lower Bann was 
probably an arm of the sea. 

Mr. Davies concluded by stating that he had been inviting 
their attention to the Lough Neagh flora, but he thought 
he might say that they in the North of Ireland, possessing 
the largest lake in the United Kingdom, were perhaps 
scarcely alive to the many debatable points in connection 
therewith. The physical problems as to the origin of the 
Lough itself would afford subjects for much discussion. Was it 
glacier formed, or was it due to some geological flexure ? or, was 
the depression caused by a fracture of the strata at that place 
as suggested by Portlock's report ? Then, the geological 
deposits surrounding it, its great bed of clay, with its petrified 
trees and its nodules of ironstone in which are preserved the 
fossilised leaves of a flora long since extinct in these regions, 
required more investigation. Zoology offered for research 
another field which had not yet been exhausted. The avifauna 
was most attractive, and a further study of its unusual fish and 
crustaceans would be instructive. 

Mr. S. A. Stewart, in the course of some brief remarks, said 
he had listened with great pleasure to the paper which Mr. 
Davies had just read. The shores around Lough Neagh sup- 
ported a rich and varied flora, and its waters yielded an 
abundance of aquatic plants, some being of considerable rarity. 
Lough Neagh was often resorted to by the botanist; and 
seldom failed to reward his research. Mr. Davies had just 
shown that it had not yet been exhausted, and no doubt the 
list of its plants will be still more extended when its western 
shores have been scanned by keen eyed Naturalists as well as 



Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh, 41 

the eastern had been by Mr. Davies and others. A most 
interesting point, briefly referred to in this paper, is the 
occurrence of certain maritime plants at a locality so far 
removed from the influence of sea water. The existence of 
shells of littoral molluscs in a clay bed on the Crumlin River 
had been cited as evidence proving that the sea, in a most 
recent geological period, extended up into the depression of 
Lough Neagh. Owing to one of the latest elevations of our 
land this anciently maritime lough was now a freshwater lake ; 
but these plants, which usually flourish by the seacoast, remain 
to corroborate the evidence of the mussel shells of Crumlin 
River. 

Mr. Wm. Swanston remarked that the occurrence of plants 
whose natural habitat is along the sea coast so far inland, and 
established on the margins of Lough Neagh, is a most valuable 
point brought out by Mr. Davies, which goes far to confirm the 
view that at no very distant geological date the Lough was 
marine. This botanical evidence is new, but as far back as 
187Q the same conclusion was surmised on geological grounds 
by the discovery of beds, near the southern shore, containing 
shells of the common mussel {Mytihis edulis). These shells — 
or rather fragments — were determined by the late Dr. Gwynn 
Jeffreys, the greatest authority on British Mollusca then living. 
The microscopic examination by our fellow-member, Mr. Joseph 
Wright, of the strata in which the shells were found, also 
prove the marine origin of the beds, Mr. Wright being able to 
record several species of Foramenifera (a group of minute 
organisms exclusively marine) from the small quantity of 
material exammed, those being forms such as may readily be 
found any day on our sea shores. Quite recently zoological 
evidence was unexpectedly established by Mr. Robert Welch, 
of our city, and Dr. Scharff, of Dublin, who, while dredging in 
Lough Neagh, found in some plenty a small crustacean {Mysis 
relictd), new to Britain, but a member of a marine group of 
which four species are recorded by the late Wm. Thompson 
from the Irish coasts. These scattered pieces of evidence — very 



42 Botany of the Shores of Lough Neagh. 

interesting in themselves — when brought together, are, in my 
opinion, conclusive, and show in a very remarkable manner the 
value of noting and recording observations seemingly trifling in 
themselves. Mr. Davies' paper deserves the fullest notice the 
Society can give it. 

Mr. Davies, in replying, thought that little remained to be 
said save for him to express his best thanks for the manner in 
which the paper had been received, and for the kind words that 
had been spoken. Sometimes one heard the conjecture 
expressed that the Pollan, to which allusion had been made, 
was possibly a transformed herring, but he hardly supposed 
that that was intended to be taken seriously. If it were such, 
the transformation was positively marvellous in that it did not 
possess the generic characters of the herring. There was a 
prevalent notion that it was peculiar to Lough Neagh, but he 
believed that it also occurred in Lough Erne and in Lough 
Derg. Closely allied species were met with in Wales and on 
the Continent. For the natnralist there were not many places 
with more varied enticements than Lough Neagh. 



43 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE OBJECTS COMPRISED IN 
LORD DERAMORE'S RECENT DONATION, PRIN- 
CIPALLY ANTIQUARIAN. 

Part. I. — Antiquarian. 

By W. H. Patterson, M.R.LA. 

{Abstract?} 

The Society is much indebted to Lord Deramore for his 
kindness in presenting to their Museum a large collection of 
objects of scientific and antiquarian interest. It is quite fitting 
that the antiquities, being mainly Irish, should find an abiding 
place in an Irish Museum, and especially in one where Irish 
antiquarian remains already form an important feature. Lord 
Deramore's gift makes our series of ancient implements still 
more complete, and in this way helps us to realise how these 
primitive or barbaric people lived, and what means they had 
for carrying on their occupations of war and the chase. 

The stone implements in the Deramore collection are not 
numerous as compared with those of bronze. Two hammer 
stones of a tough quartzite, with hollows in the sides for con- 
venience in holding, represent this class of antiquities. One of 
these is oval, measuring 6 inches by 4 inches ; the other 
is almost round, measuring 3 inches across. 

And here I may say that, most unfortunately, none of the 
antiquities, either stone or bronze, have any labels attached 
(with one or two exceptions only), stating where or when they 
were found. If collectors would only realize in time how the 
value of a specimen of any kind is enhanced by the preserva- 
tion of full particulars of place and date, and circumstances of 
finding, their collections would be of much greater scientific 
value than they often are. 

The Deramore antiquities, we must assume, are in the 
main Irish, but we do not know any of the circumstances con- 
nected with the discovery of the objects themselves. 



44 Objects comprised in Lord Dcramores Recent Donation, 

The collection contains fourteen polished stone celts, vary- 
ing from 2\ inches to 13 inches long. These are the hatchet- 
shaped implemeuts, which are so well represented in all collec- 
tions of Irish antiquities, and of which vast numbers have been 
found, and are still being found, in Ireland ; perhaps I might 
say especially in County Antrim. Most of these fourteen celts 
are of close-grained black stone, in fact, varieties of basalt, but 
the largest, and another next to it in size, are of a whitish 
coloured stone. Some of the middle-sized ones, say from 4 to 
5 inches long, are in very fine and perfect condition, and there is 
one of very unusual form with the side edges flattened and 
hollowed ; one of the larger, about 6 inches long has been 
made from a slaty rock, and large flakes have weathered off 
both sides, leaving, however, the edge intact. 

The objects of flint are few in number ; there are two well- 
marked flint-flakes of light-coloured flint, both showing 
secondary working. 

There are twenty-five flint arrow-heads, barbed, stemmed, 
and leaf-shaped, from | inch to 2\ inches in length. Many of 
these are beautifully chipped into form, and show what exquisite 
skill the flint workers of our stone-age had attained to. 

We come now to the antiquities formed of bronze. This 
fine metal, which has been found by analysis to be made up of 
about ten parts of copper and one part of tin, is exceedingly 
hard and close grained, and is capable of taking an edge almost 
as fine and sharp as iron or steel. The ancient bronze age 
people made their weapons and implements by casting, in the 
first place, and then, by hammering and grinding, they were 
finished to form the things as we now find them. 

Many of the moulds have been found in Ireland in which 
spears, hatchets, and other weapons were cast, and in some 
places finds have been made of moulds, broken -up bronze, and 
finished and partly finished implements, showing plainly that 
such sites were the workshops of old artificers in bronze. 

In the Deramore collection there are nineteen flat bronze 
celts, from 4 inches to 8 inches in length, varymg very 



Objects comprised in Lord Deramore's Recent Donation. 45 

much in breadth, and also in the shape and curve of the 
cutting edge, some having the edge almost straight, others 
half-moon shaped. This is the simplest form of bronze celts, 
and is supposed to have been suggested by the stone celts 
which were in such common use in the stone age. These fiat 
celts were either cast in sand, from models of wood or metal, or 
in moulds cut in sandstone. Some of these moulds have been 
found. 

The next development of the bronze celt has been called 
the flanged celt. In this form the sides have been 
hammered so that a flange has been raised, sometimes scarcely 
perceptible, and sometimes of considerable breadth ; and 
later on, if we may use the expression, when a still broader 
flange was wanted, the moulds were altered or were so made 
that a bold flange was made in the casting at once. The 
collection contains nine flanged celts, very interesting specimens, 
from 4 inches to 5^ inches long, and showing a gradation 
of flanges from the very slightest to ones that are broad and 
bold. 

We now come to a most interesting series of celts, called 
by antiquaries " palstaves," or winged celts. This type shows 
a distinct advance upon those just named, and has been planned 
for the much more eflective fixing of the wooden handle. The 
side flanges have been enlarged and strengthened, and in this 
way deep hollows have been formed; a "stop ridge" right 
across the centre of the celt has been added at both sides, and 
we can readily see what a fine weapon or implement for war, 
the chase, or agriculture a well-handled palstave celt would 
be. 

The Deramore collection contains twenty-six palstaves, 
from 4 inches to 7 inches long, and of great variety in form and 
strength. Some show a little ornament. One of the palstaves; 
6 inches long, has been labelled " Found along with a skeleton 
near Armagh." Among the palstaves there are three small 
unfinished narrow celts, about 4^^ inches, much weathered, and 
almost exactly alike. As these have not an Irish look, I 



46 Objects comprised in Lord Deramore's Recent Donation. 

submitted one of them to Sir John Evans, who writes me that 
he thinks it is of EngHsh origin, and is in all probability from 
the great hoard found at Stibbard, in Norfolk, where about 
seventy such rough castings were found, as well as ten castings 
for spear-heads, evidently the factory of an old English worker 
in bronze. 

We now come to the most advanced and perfect form of 
bronze, axe-shaped objects — namely, the socketed and looped 
celt. Of these celts there are twenty-two in the Deramore 
collection, from the large, strong celt, measuring 4^ inches 
long down to tiny ones, little more than i^ inches long. What 
these very small ones were used for it is hard to conceive, and 
yet they must have had their use, although this could not have 
been to strike a hard blow ; they are too light and small for 
that. 

The way in which socketted celts show a great advance in 
the metal-workers' art is the clever way by which the deep 
socket or hollow was formed, and the casting left comparatively 
thin, except, of course, near the edge, where some thickness of 
metal was wanted for frequent grinding and sharpening. The 
socket was made by the introduction in the mould of a core, 
and this was probably done in just the same way that a modern 
moulder or brassfounder would adopt. Celts of this type had 
almost always a bronze loop cast on, close to the opening of the 
socket. This, no doubt, was for the purpose of receiving a 
thong or other tie to secure the bronze head to the wooden 
handle, and thus prevent its falling off and being lost in battle. 
All the Deramore socketted celts have loops. 

There are twelve bronze spear-heads, some unfortunately 
in a rather fragmentary state ; eight of these have each two 
loops fixed against the socket for helping to secure the spear 
head to the shaft. The largest of these is only 9 inches in 
length, and the shortest about 4 inches, so that there are 
none of the ver}^ fine long spears seen in some collections. The 
broad, keen blades and deep sockets are so cleverly fashioned 
that these spears may be pronounced masterpieces of the bronze* 



Objects comprised in Lord Deramoris Recent Donation. 47 

workers' art. There are two other spears of quite a different 
type, with long openings in the blades ; one of these is labelled 
"Spear from Naples, R.B. 1849." The R. B. is obviously the 
late Sir Robert Bateson, first baronet, grandfather of the 
present Lord Deramore. The second spear is very similar in 
shape, but fresh and clean, instead of being deeply corroded. 
There are two broad, thick and short blades with rivet holes at 
base, which may have been battle axes. 

There is a dagger-knife blade, 5 inches long, labelled 
" Irish skeyn, Co. Kildare," and there is another somewhat 
similar, with socket and rivet holes. 

Of the leaf-shaped swords, which are usually seen in col- 
lections of Irish antiquities, Lord Deramore's collection con- 
tains eight ; some are much broken ; the largest of these is 20 
inches long. There is an object of bronze which seems to be 
the point of a scabbard ; it is 6;^^ inches long, and is decorated 
with fine engraved lines. 

I find among the bronzes two socketted gouges ; they are 
of small size, and are of a well-known type. 

There are forty-eight bronze rings, some of them hollow, 
varying from i inch to 3^ inches in diameter. Such rings 
have been found in great numbers in Ireland, the Museum 
of the Royal Irish Academy containing more than one thousand 
of them. It is supposed that they were for personal use, and 
may have been sewed on clothing to serve as ornaments, or as 
a protection against sword cuts. 

There is also a large ring, 4 inches across, which appears 
to be made of jet. 

In the collection there is a bronze crucifix ; it is 12 inches 
high ; the figure which is 4 inches high seems quite archaic, 
but the cross looks rather modern. 

There are a few more objects of bronze in this interesting 
collection, which may be briefly named : — two bronze spurs ; a 
bronze smoking pipe ; a bronze or brass cup, egg-cup shaped, 
4 inches high ; a bronze boss z\ inches in diameter ; a circular 
spoon or ladle, 4 inches across, and a few things that were 



48 Objects comprised in Lord Dcr amoves Recent Donation. 

probably for domestic use, such as buckles, etc. 

I should say that there are also a few objects of stone, 
pottery, etc., apparently from Egypt, Greece, or other Eastern 
countries, and there is a fine black stone adze, probably from 
New Zealand. 



Part IT. — Geological. 

By S. A. Stewart, F.B.S.Edin. 

The geological specimens in the Deramore collection are 
numerous and varied. There are specimens from several 
iormations, mainly of the Secondary or Mesozoic Period. A few 
of the fossils are of species which are found in the Carboniferous 
rocks, but the greater part come from the Cretaceous and 
Liassic formations. There are a good many Ammonites, some 
of them very good examples, especially those from the Lias. 
Two of the Liassic oysters are remarkably fine, as are also some 
of the bivalves from the chalk. One very fine palate or crushing 
tooth is also from the chalk — presumably English. There are 
some small pieces of silicified wood, and also a number of rock 
specimens, and minerals, but not being furnished with localities 
these are much less instructive than would otherwise be the 
case. This remark applies also to the fossils. As to them we 
can fix the genera under which they must be placed, and with 
a little trouble the specific names may be ascertained. In many 
cases the locality of their origin may be inferred with strong 
probability, but without entire certainty on this point the value 
of fossils is much diminished. The necessity of attention to 
this matter of indicating on each specimen the locality whence 
it came deserves to be impressed very strongly on all collectors. 



49 



NOTES ON SOME CLAY CONCRETIONS FROM 
THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY, U.S.A., 

By W. Swanston, F.G.S. 

{Abstract.) 

In introducing this remarkable series of concretionary 
nodules I should state that, as I have not personally collected 
them, I am unacquainted with such details of their occurrence 
as I should have been glad to bring before the meeting. They 
were collected near Hartford, U.S.A., in beds of the Triassic 
series. Nodules and concretions of similar character occur in 
most sandstone and clay deposits irrespective of geological age. 
We may therefore safely infer that, under similar conditions, 
their mode of formation will be somewhat alike. The following 
appears imder the heading " Concretions " in an authority 
consulted. " Concretions are nodules, balls, or irregular 
masses which occur scattered through the body of the rock, and 
consist of mineral matter which was formerly diffused through 
the material of the rock. Some are crystalline, as gypsum in 
clay ; others may have mternal radiating structures, as iron 
pyrites in shale, etc. Fantastically shaped concretions are not 
uncommon in fine clays, and are known as 'fairy stones' by the 
country folk in some districts. They are produced by mole- 
cular aggregations subsequent to the deposition of the strata, 
whereby the substance of the rock is forced into spherules or 
balls." Similar nodules, but of less delicate form and texture, 
are occasionally found in stream courses cutting through the 
new red sandstones of County Antrim, the softer body of the 
rock having been removed by the action of the water, the . 
concretions are found adhering to the sides of the miniature 
canyons. The extremely delicate character of the examples 
exhibited is doubtless due to the finer texture of the rocks in 
which they were found. Their stratified appearance — which 



5o Azotes on Some Clay Concretions. 

is only external — is probably due to the different degrees of 
hardness of the more minute strata of the beds in which they 
are found, the more pervious strata allowing the seggregation 
to push along their parallel lines, subsequent weathering giving 
the strange resemblance some of them have to objects produced 
on the lathe. 

After an examination of the specimens a series was presented 
by the reader to the Museum. 



Kt 



20th December^ igoo. 

Mr. J. BROWN, President, in the Chair 

SOME SIDE LIGHTS ON THE CHINA QUESTION, 

By Rev. A. H. Crawford, M.A. 

{Abstract) 

The first portions of Mr. Crawford's paper were devoted to 
the Chinese view of human Hfe. The general incapacity of 
Chinese government, especially in regard to its foreign relations, 
and the civilisation and religion of the country having been 
very ably discussed, Mr. Crawford dealt with the recent Boxer 
movement, which created such anxiety amongst the civilised 
governments of the world. He said it was undoubtedly 
patriotic, but in a limited sense of the word. Its aim was 
negative — the ridding of the country of foreign influence. It 
had nothing positive to suggest wiih a view to remedying the 
acknowledged unsatisfactory condition of the country. 
Amongst the causes which produced the revolt were to be 
found the superstitious element and a long-continued drought 
in the spring of the present year, which brought large numbers 
of the population in the Northern Provinces to the brink of 
starvation, and produced a widespread feeling of dissatisfaction. 
A very important reason for the outbreak had been the aggres- 
sive attitude of the various European nations. Unfortunately 
we had got into the way of speaking of the " partition of 
China,'' and of claiming " spheres of influence " in a way which 
must have been very galling to any Chinese who were possessed 
of the slightest spark of patriotism. Proceeding, Mr. Crawford 
said they could not omit from the list of aggravating causes the 
missionary problem. Although his testimony might be ruled 
out of court as being ex parte, he thought it might be fairly 
claimed for Protestant missionaries at least that they had not 
sought to intermeddle with Chinese politics. In spite of the 



52 Some Side Lights on the China Question. 

magnitude of the outbreak, we must not for a moment imagine 
that the whole of China was against us at this time. In 
provinces where there seemed for a time to be a serious out- 
break the motive was anti-dynastic rather than anti-foreign, 
and since the time when the allies began to obtain the upper 
hand in the North the source of danger had subsided. He for 
one could not bring himself to believe in a ''yellow peril" as 
an actual, practical menace to the world's peace. It must be 
remembered what Sir R. Hart, in expressing grave fears on that 
score, wrote but a few days after the raising of the siege of the 
legations. It was not surprising that he should at such a time 
have looked at things through dark spectacles. It should be 
noted that combination had always been China's weak point, 
and that, strong as the Boxer movement had been, it would 
have been a mere rabble but for the adhesion of the Imperial 
troops. It was now for the allied powers to take effective 
measures for restricting the introduction of firearms into 
China. Much, Mr. Crawford thought, had been learnt on both 
sides, and if toleration was mixed with firmness and due regard 
to justice they must all believe and hope that China would yet 
take her place in the comity of nations, and that in time she 
would become a source of strength, and not of danger, to the 
whole civilised world. 

The lecture was profusely illustrated by special limelight 
slides and maps. 

The hearty thanks of the society were accorded to Mr. 
Crawford, on the motion of Mr. T. F. Shillington, J.P., 
seconded by Mr, F. R. Lepper. 



Mr. Robert M. Young, B.A., M.R.I.A. (Hon. Secretary), 
presented the Society with a well-executed portrait of Mr. 
Robert Lloyd Patterson, D.L., F.L.S., who on several occasions 
filled the position of its president. 

The President acknowledged the receipt of the interesting 
gift, and said it was most appropriate that the Society should 
possess portraits of its presidents. 



8th Ja7itcary, igoi. 

Mr. J. BROWN, Presidrnt, in the Chair. 

REPORT OF DELEGATE TO CORRESPONDING 
SOCIETIES' CONFERENCE, BRITISH ASSOCIA- 
TION MEETING, 1900. 

By J. Brown. 

{Abstract) 

As your delegate I attended both meetings of the Conference. 
At the first meeting two resolutions on proposed changes in 
the arrangement of the proceedings were negatived, but the 
discussion threw light on the wishes of the delegates, implying 
that they did not desire to hear papers at the conference, but 
rather to discuss methods of procedure that might make local 
societies successful. The question of the protection of copy 
right of societies in their proceedings was brought up and 
referred to the general committee. 

At the second meeting, after hearing and discussing a paper 
on '' Dew Ponds," the conference received the usual reports 
from sections. Section C is anxious for co-operation of corres - 
ponding societies in the work of the Geological Photographs 
Committee and the Erratic Blocks Committee. Mr. Sower- 
butts, representing Section E, made suggestions for more active 
co-operation of corresponding societies. Mr. Hartland, repre- 
senting section H, brought forward the request of the Anthro- 
pological Photographs Committee for photographs of pre- 
historic stone monuments, stone implements, primitive pottery, , 
and of objects connected with local superstitions. Such 
objects were frequently met with in local museums. I am asked 
to bring these requests before the Society, and I feel sure there 
are many members competent to comply with them, I should 



54 Report of Delegate to Corresponding Societies' Conference, 

be glad to take charge of any photographs, and the names of 
senders would be published in the annual report of the British 
Association. 

As items of general interest to our members, T may mention 
that our distinguished fellow- member, Dr. J, Larmour, presided 
over Section A, and delivered a characteristic address- 
Professor John Perry, another distinguished student of Q.C.B., 
now President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, also 
took an active part. Professor Letts, who is making the new 
Queen's College Laboratory the home of important original 
research, read several papers, and I had the honour of exhibit- 
ing the viagraph (including the usual striking diagram of the 
Lisburn Road) at the Lord Mayor's conversazione and before 
Section G, where there was also read a paper by Professor Hele 
Shaw on "Tractive Force on Roads." Subsequently the 
Association appointed a committee to further investigate this 
question. As your President I was honoured by a request to 
act as first spokesman of the deputation to invite the Associa- 
tion to Belfast in 1902. Professors Letts and Symington and 
Mr. W. Gray added their promises of welcome, in which I 
doubt not the city will generously bear us out." 



IRISH RAILWAYS AND THE STATE. 

By LYNDEN M^CASSEY, C.E., B.A., LL.B., B.L., 

Lecturer Railway Department, London School of Economics. 

{Abstract.) 

The relations that should exist between railways and the 
State possess great commercial and political importance. Rail- 
ways may be privately or State owned, and four relations are 
found — railways privately owned and subject to or free from 
the control of the State, as in England and America, and rail- 
ways State owned and worked by the State or by private in- 
dividuals, as in Prussia and France respectively. For the 
distinction, the Continental disposition to leave everything to 
the State, as compared with the Anglo Saxon inclination to 
give private enterprise full sway, really is the explanation. 

In Ireland railways are privately owned, but State con- 
trolled. That control is directed to construction, public safety, 
public convenience, and rates. As regards the first three sub- 
jects mentioned, the control is perhaps too effective ; the real 
question is that of rates. There exists a maximum schedule 
of goods rates in excess of which Irish railways may not charge. 
But the limits are rightly high, and the companies do not now 
charge anything like full rates. Railways do not try to in- 
crease profits by raising rates, but by lowering them and so 
swelling their traffic. Nor can you limit dividends. If you do 
you make it to the advantage of a company to do a small 
business at a high rather than a large business at low rates. 
All proposals for nationalisation are grounded on the in- 
efficiency of the present system of control, and on the defects 
in management of Irish railways. As the latters' profits are 
not excessive, their charges are not either. The average divi- 
dend paid in 1900 on the capital invested was only 3.9 per 
cent. Rates certainly are not unreasonable. Eggs are carried 
from Gahvay to London for |d per dozen, fish from |d and 



56 Jrish Railways and the State, 

|d per lb., according to the class. Special trains are given to 
the fish traffic for consignments as low as 20 tons. 

Increase in train mileage represents increase in public 
facilities, and in respect of increase in passenger and goods 
train mileage Irish railways are i per cent, and 8 per cent, 
respectively ahead of English railways, while the tonnage and 
number of passengers increased by 21 per cent, and 28 per 
cent., which compares very favourably with England. The 
corresponding receipts only increased by 17 per cent, and 13 
per cent. Irish railways therefore do not seem to be neglecting 
the public. The recent amalgamations will be a benefit, 
working expenses will be reduced ; competition in Ireland is 
impossible, and itself would merely result in amalgamation or 
the pooling of traffic. Dissatisfaction with Irish railways is 
therefore unreasonable ; the requirements of Ireland are 
served ; to provide facilities in excess would be financially im- 
possible. 

Defects in private management are not the cause of State 
management of railways on the Continent. There the Govern- 
ments had generally to construct railways themselves in the 
absence of effective private enterprise, or they acquired private 
lines merely to consolidate their military strength. In France 
unimpared company monopoly has been the price of State 
control ; in Belgium the efficiency of the State railways is due 
to their long competition with once privately-owned railways. 
I^ates founded on ' cost of service' is the motto on which every 
Government started business. The theory proved unworkable, 
and Governments had, like companies, to charge ' what the 
traffic would bear.' The latter principle makes to a large ex- 
tent the advancement of railway prosperity involve the ad- 
vancement of the district served. 

Governments cannot manage commercial undertakings well. 
They do not reduce rates, except on popular agitation. The 
history of the Post Office proves this : penny postage and six- 
penny telegrams were the outcome of great pressure. 

Irish trade particularly needs careful nursing. That, we 



Irish Railways and the State. 57 

could not trust the State to do. The purchase of Irish rail- 
ways would be a financial impossibility for Ireland itself to 
stand. England would scarcely contribute. Although nation- 
alisation is inadvisable, the relations between the State and 
Irish railways may be improved. At present the Board of 
Trade compels a Hne in Connemara to be as substantially con- 
structed as a line in London, without regard to the probable 
traffic. So, too, with regard to safety appliances, a line in 
Galway must be as perfectly signalled and equipped as a line in 
England with heavy traffic. This all involves a heavy sinking 
of unremunerative capital, and is not business. ' As the traffic, 
so the road,' the principle in America, is founded on common 
sense. The procedure for acquiring land for railways is more 
expensive in Ireland than in England. A landowner in Eng- 
land gets one hearing before an arbitrator or a jury ; in Ireland 
he gets three. The costs on acquiring a single acre often 
amount to two or three times the value of the land. The State 
should perfect their present S3^stem of control by cheapening 
the procedure of the Railway and Canal Commission Court, 
entirely out of the reach at present of humble litigants. 
,^ Future railway extension in Ireland must depend on the 
State, which in the past has adopted a restrictive policy. 
Baronial guarantees are wrong. If a district cannot support a 
railway, to tax it for the support will be a burden. Free grants 
or cheap loans to judiciously located lines — not to lines con- 
structed merely to give employment — would promote railway 
extension. Railways the subject of State aid at present are 
limited to light railways, but the construction of light railways 
has shown how much the State can do to open up and develop 
Ireland. 

Mr. Isaac J. Murphy said he had very seldom heard a lecture 
of the kind with the leading ideas of which he was in such 
absolute agreement. This was a subject on which he had a 
considerable amount of information, and, in these days when 
the old principles of Cobden and Bright on free trade and pri- 
vate enterprise were supposed to be exploded, he was glad to 



58 Irish Railways and the State. 

hear those sound principles so clearly and strongly enunciated 
by Mr, Macassey. 

Mr. Robert Dunwoody thought a change in the heads of 
departments and the directorate on some of the Irish railways 
would be one of the very best things that could happen. 
There had been a great improvement in recent years in the 
management of some of their local railways, and he instanced 
the Great Northern in particular. He knew of one industry 
that had been immensely helped by the generous way in which 
Mr. Plews, the manager of that line, had helped it. 

Professor Fitzgerald sympathised especially with that part of 
the paper which pointed out the annoyance caused by applying 
the same elaborate system of signalling to small lines over 
which there ran two or three trains per day as was applied to 
lines which had trains running every two minutes. 

Mr. John Carson said he would have been glad if Mr. Ma- 
cassey had gone a little further than he had. Ireland was a 
very poor country, and required Government aid, especially in 
the important matter of her railways. He thought the manage- 
ment of some of cur lines could be very greatly improved, and 
he suggested that excursion trains at cheap fares should be run, 
say, two days per week, between Belfast and Dublin and Dublin 
and Belfast, in order that the people of the metropolis and the 
people of the Northern capital might become better acquainted 
with each other. Intercourse between the two cities should 
certainly be encouraged. Mr. Macassey had not in his paper 
dealt with the subject of electrical lines. In the Isle of Man 
the electric system, as far as passenger traffic was concerned, 
had worked well, and he did not see why it should not be ap- 
plied to goods traffic as well. He thought the Bangor and 
Holywood line should be worked by electricity instead of 
having fifty-ton engines employed. The system on this line 
should be made more like a tramway system with, say, a ten 
minutes' service. 

Mr. H. Leslie Thomas was in favour of State-owned railways. 
They were a success in India, Egypt, and Belgium, and he did 



Irish Railways and the State. 59 

not see why they should not be a success in Ireland. Germany 
failed because she neither left this matter to private enterprise 
nor took it entirely over. 

The Post Office would not be nearly so well managed in 
private hands. There is, for instance, much to be desired in 
the present management of the telephone. In the hands of 
Government the service would be better and cheaper. The 
tendency at present was in favour of State aid being given, not 
only to railways, but to every large industry that was a neces- 
sity to the general public. He thought electrical traction 
would be safer and cheaper than steam traction. 

Mr. Walter Bailev said he was surprised to find that no one 
present had made a serious suggestion that the State ownership 
of Irish railways would be a benefit to the country at large. He 
was under the impression that the State purchase of Irish rail- 
ways was one of the strongest planks in the platform of many 
gentlemen in Belfast to-day. He thought, however, that most 
people believed that private enterprise was, upon the whole, 
far better than the State working of Irish or any other rail- 
ways. The subject of the price to be paid for Irish railways, 
should the Government think the scheme feasible, was one of 
the greatest circumstance, and on it a great deal might have 
been said, but the point had not been raised. Indeed, the dis- 
cussion had been of a very cursory description, and he did not 
wish to trouble the meeting with statistics on that particular 
point. 

On the motion of Dr. Redfern, seconded by Mr. Adam 
Speers, Holyvvood, the hearty thanks of the meeting were ac- 
corded to Mr. Macassey. 



6o 



Sih February^ IQOI. 
Mr. J. BROWN, President, in the Chair. 

The President moved the following resolution : — " That the 
members of this Society desire to express their deep sorrow at 
the death of her Majesty Queen Victoria, their sense of the 
great loss thereby sustained by the British nation, and to tender 
their most humble and loyal duty to his Majesty King Edward, 
with the fullest confidence that he will worthily occupy the 
high place of her late revered Majesty." 

Mr. Robert Young, J. P., seconded the resolution, which, on 
being put, was passed unanimously, the audience standing. 

COLOUR. 

By Professor W. B. Morton, M.A. 

{Abstract.) 

The subject of colour had been selected as lying in the 
borderland between science and art, in the hope of interesting 
the many members of the Society who were artistic in their 
tastes. The discussion would be limited to the treatment of 
colour as a sensation, and would leave untouched the purely 
physical side of the question. The origin of all the colour in 
nature was found in the composite nature of white light. In 
illustration of this, experiments were shown with a spectrum 
thrown on the screen. The colours of transparent bodies were 
due to the fact that they absorbed some of the constituent rays 
of white light, and allowed the rest to pass. Opaque coloured 
bodies absorbed some rays, and scattered the rest back from their 
surfaces. The colour shown by any surface must, therefore, 



ColoiLV. 6 r 

depend on the quality of the illumination. This was illustrated 
by holding different coloured papers in different parts of the 
spectrum, and also in the pure yellow light of a sodium flame. 
All the various tints and shades could be got from the separate 
spectrum colours by altering either their intensity or their 
purity, with the exception of purple tints, for which it was 
necessary to mix the extreme colours of the spectrum. In very 
bright light colours tend to become yellowish ; \\\ dim light, 
such as moonlight, the bluish colours are alone visible. 

The laws of mixture of colours were then explained and 
illustrated experimentally by making coloured patches on the 
screen overlap, and by whirling rapidly parti-coloured discs. 
The results obtained had to be distinguished from those got by 
mixing pigments, and led to the assumption of red, green and 
violet as the primary colour sensations. The treatment of the 
rather complicated facts of colour-mixture was rendered easy 
by the use of a colour diagram in the form of a triangle, with 
the primary colours at its angles. Attention was drawn to the 
unique position occupied by green, and the artistic consequences 
of this. Specially important from the artistic point of view 
was the grouping of colours into complimentary pairs, which 
combine to give white or grey — e.g..^ blue and yellow, green 
and purple, red and greenish-blue. The phenomena of con- 
trast depended directly on these groupings. They might be 
explained as an error of judgment on the part of the eye, the 
standard of white being affected by the prevailing colour. 
Thus in a prevailing yellow illumination the standard of white 
would be displaced towards a yellowish tint, and surfaces which 
were really grey would look to have the complementary colour 
blue. This was illustrated by the well-known effects of 
coloured shadows, seen, for instance, in a room lit by both 
ordinary and incandescent gas burners. In general, coloured 
objects seen on an extended coloured background had their 
true colours mixed with that complementary to the back- 
ground. A number of instances were shown in which two 
rings, cut from the same coloured paper, but pasted on back- 



62 Colour. 

grounds of different colours, looked of entirely different shades. 
The effect was best seen when the colours were made paler by 
covering with a sheet of white tissue paper. It was shown that 
phenomena of this kind gave a clue to the explanation of the 
fact that certain pairs of colours " go badly together." 

The lantern was manipulated by Messrs. John Wylie, B.A., 
and T. B. Vinycomb, B.A., upon the capable performance of 
whose duties in this respect the lecture in considerable degree 
depended. 

Professor Redfern commented upon the brilliance and in- 
structiveness of the lecture, and moved that the best thanks of 
the Society be accorded to Professor Morton for having 
delivered it. 

Rev. Robert Workman seconded the motion, which was 
supported in warm terms by Mr. William Workman, Mr. 
George Coulter, Mr. William Gray, M.R.I.A., and passed by 
acclamation. 

Professor Morton briefly acknowledged the vote of thanks. 



63 



5th March, IQOI. 



Sir JAMES HENDERSON, D.L., in the Chair. 



SCENERY AND ANTIQUITIES OF SLIGO, 

CONNEMARA, AND CLARE. 

By Seaton F. Milligan, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a. 

{Abstract.) 

The Chairman said probably every one present had already 
heard Mr. Milligan describe the scenery of what they all 
believed to be the finest country in the world, and consequently 
it was unnecessary to use many words in introducing him on 
that occasion. A lecture on the scenery of the West of Ireland 
was very appropriate, because in the coming season they wanted 
to attract as many visitors to Ireland as possible so as to benefit 
the country. He was of opinion that the Irish Tourists' 
Association reached the zenith ot their success last April, when 
Queen Victoria, the greatest and most important lady in the 
British Empire, visited Ireland ; but they should not slacken 
their efTorts in developing the tourist traffic as much as pos- 
sible in future. It was a matter of regret that the King and 
Queen could not visit the country this year for reasons which 
weighed with all of them, but it was their hope that next year 
they would have the pleasure of welcoming their Majesties. 

The Lecturer said — It is admitted by well-informed people 
that Ireland is one of the most healthful and picturesque coun- 
tries in Europe, but its charms had remained hidden, and its 
beauties were only known to those who had ample means and 
time to explore them. The most interesting places and the 
finest scenery are situated in remote parts difficult of access and 
expensive to reach. 

This drawback has been removed in recent years by the 



64 Scenery and Antiquities of 

opening of new lines of railway and the erection of comfortable 
and commodious hotels in the centres where the best scenery is 
situated. Tourists and visitors in search of health, possessed 
of moderate means, can visit these hitherto exclusive districts 
at a comparatively small outlay. The railway from Galway to 
Clifden has opened up the district of Connemara. The exten- 
sion of the railway from Westport to Mallarany and the Sound 
of Achill has made that island quite accessible with all its 
wealth of chflF and mountain scenery, and its invigorating 
breezes fresh drawn from the Atlantic. Further south the West 
Clare Railway opens up in County Clare a most charming and 
interesting district — viz., Lahinch, Miltown Malbay, and Kil- 
kee. The hotel and golf links at Lahinch, overlooking Lis- 
canor Bay, are attracting quite a crowd of tourists. Nature 
has made Kilkce one of the finest, if not the very finest, 
watering-places in Europe, where the great Atlantic rolls in 
on its gently-sloping silver strand or dashes with thundering 
force on its huge cliffs, carrying spray and foam upwards over 
their topmost summit to be carried landward on the gale for 
miles. County Clare is comparatively unknown to North of 
Ireland people. It lies away in the South-West, out of the 
beaten track of travellers, and until quite recently was most 
diflficult of access. Since the opening of the Balfour railways 
this remote district has become much better known. Lis- 
doonvarna, in North Clare, is noted for its sulphur, iron, and 
magnesian spa, which is said to equal any in England. We 
can reach these places by various routes — by rail from Athenry 
to Ennis, and thence by the narrow guage to Kilkee, or to 
Ennistymon and thence by coach to Lisdoonvarna. I went 
straight, via Galway, thence across the bay by steamer to 
Ballyvaughan, and public car, fare one shilling. The steamer 
goes three days a week, and it is the most direct route. From 
Lisdoonvarna to Ennistymon is nine miles, fare by public car 
IS 6d ; you can take train from thence to Kilkee, or stop at 
Lahinch for the golf links. In July last I spent a week at 
Lisdoonvarna with the Royal Society of Antiquaries, who held 



Sligo, Connemara and Clare dz, 

their summer meeting there. I next proceeded to Kilkee, and 
finished up by returning to Gahvay by rail, and from thence 
to Recess in Connemara. Recess is an extremely good centre 
from which to explore Connemara, and the hotel there is owned 
and managed by the railway company, who have done every- 
thing possible to attract visitors to it. 

I will now refer to the western seaboard of Ireland, and 
describe as briefly as possible some of the sights that will meet 
the traveller coming from Sligo in the north-west to he reaches 
Kilkee in the south-west. The people who inhabit these parts 
of Ireland are bilingual, and speak Irish and English, the former 
from choice and the latter from necessity. These people are 
most interesting to meet and speak to, the older people are 
conversant with the habits and customs of the ancient Celtic 
race, and relate old stories and folk tales, and croon you some 
of the ancient airs that we are now trying to write down and 
preserve from being entirely lost. Through Mayo, Galway and 
Clare the old manners and customs can be studied, which are 
surely and slowly dying out through the increased contact with 
visitors and tourists. The sublime cliff scenery of Achill and 
Clare can now be visited with comparatively little fatigue, as well 
as the rivers, lakes, and bens of Connemara. The Midland Great 
Western Railway runs right across the centre of Ireland from 
Dublin to Galway, and from thence through Connemara to 
Clifden, the capital of that district. From Athlone, almost the 
centre of Ireland, it extends through Roscommon and Mayo to 
Westport, and thence to the Sound of Achill, and to Ballina 
and Killala. Here on the line at Mallarany the railway com- 
pany have erected a fine and commodious hotel on a site com- 
manding a view of Clew Bay. The tourist visiting Connemara 
and Achill will be delighted with many miles of the grandest 
and most picturesque lake and mountain scenery in the United 
Kingdom. The panoramic view of Killary Bay for eight miles, 
with its wild, romantic mountains towering into the sky, and 
the volcanic-like " Mweelrea " (2,688 feet) at the entrance, can- 
not be surpassed. The wild grandeur of Kylemore Pass and 



66 Scenery and Antiquities of 

Lake, with the "Twelve Bens" (2,000 feet) in the background, 
is unrivalled. The silvery lakes — Glendalough, Derryclare, 
Inan — teem with salmon and trc>ut, and offer inexhaustible 
sport. The seacliflFs and headlands of Clifden and Achill, 
washed by the broad Atlantic, are grand and wild. Clew Bay, 
comprising an area of 28 square miles, studded with over 100 
islands, aflFords from Croagh Patrick (2,500 feet) one of the 
rarest panoramic views in the world, not excepting the 
Thousand Isles of the St. Laurence. Lough Corrib, 18 miles 
long, is a small, fresh-water, inland sea. The venerable ruins 
of Cong Abbey are not only beautiful, but traditional and 
legendary. Loughs Conn and CuUin, the former eight miles 
long, affords views that are the real of the extravagant scenic 
artist's ideal — wild foreground, water-jutting headlands, backed 
by numerous lines of hills and high mountains. Lough Gill 
and Hazlewood Demesne afford a change from the wild and 
romantic to the wooded class of scenery, still, however, blended 
in the background with desert-looking, serrated mountains. 
To the scenic tourist, the health-seeker, the angler, the sports- 
man, the botanist, the geologist, the archaeologist, the artist, 
or the pedestrian, the attractions offered by the Western High- 
lands are unrivalled, with the additionalcharmof being in parts 
unexplored. Its streams and waters are as pure as its breezes 
wafted in by the Atlantic. No barriers on its rivers stop the 
fish from running up from the sea, nor does any product of 
manufacture poison them. The coracle skims over its bays and 
inlets, reaping the harvest of the deep. The western peasant 
believes in home manufacture, as he and his family produce 
almost all they require of food and clothing, and are technically 
educated to an extent that the peasant of the North is not- 
They spin, weave and dye the wool of their sheep, knit their 
hosiery, make their shoes, coracles, and many other articles. 
They are good builders of walls without mortar, and frequently 
erect their own dwelling-houses. Nature provides for these 
western districts many things that in our cities could not be 
procured at any cost. Scientists state that ozone is produced 



Sh'go^ Connemara and Clare. 67 

when the waves of the sea are dashed and split up against the 
cliff. No place known to me are the waves so smashed up into 
what I may term waterdust as along the coast of Achill and 
Clare. Here the greatest production of ozone in Europe is 
constantly in operation. We have a nature's own factory for 
the production of the most life-sustaining and health-giving 
air in the world. No such invigorating supply is produced on 
any part of the coast of the Riviera, where people flock for 
health, whilst the temperature along this western county is 
very equal and mild all the winter through. The breezes from 
the gulf stream so temper the air that fuchsias grow into great 
trees and bloom in mid-winter. I have seen at Kilkee the 
Atlantic stirred up by a western gale, particles of white foam 
flying high up in the air and carried inland for a great distance 
out of sight. We will show views of Kilkee in fine weather, 
and also the wave effects during a gale ; but no views can do 
justice to the grandeur and sublimity of the scene during a stiff 
gale from the west. We think that the health-giving and in- 
vigorating properties of the air at Kilkee are not sufficiently 
known to the public or the medical profession. The out-door 
life now recommended in case of lung disease where the air is 
pure should be tried in some of the sheltered valleys of the west 
coast ; there the force of the wind would not be felt, but where 
its purity would remain unimpaired. 

COUNTY SLIGO. 

Our tour naturally divides itself into three parts — Sligo, 
Connemara, and Clare. If we start from the north-west at 
Sligo, we find it has a class of scenery peculiarly its own. It 
differs entirely from Connemara and Clare. It has fine moun- 
tain ranges, beautiful lakes, with well wooded islands, and 
picturesque fishful rivers. Its fields are green and fertile, its 
valleys and hill slopes are well wooded, giving a richness and 
warmth to the scenery not found elsewhere in the west. The 
farm houses are comfortable, clean, and well kept, so that no 
one would imagine this to be in the poor Ireland so often 



68 Scenery and Antiquities of 

pictured. It differs widely from the districts in Mayo and 
Galvva}^, both in its appearance and people. Many Crom- 
wellian soldiers were settled in County Sligo as the border 
county of Connaught. They were mostly of English descent, 
and they introduced improved methods of farming, which are 
visible to the present day. Lough Gill, close by Sligo town, 
is a charming lake five miles long, by about a mile and a half 
wide. It contains several well wooded islands, and the ruins 
of an ancient Celtic Church on one. It is surrounded on 
almost every side by high mountains, which give it quite the 
appearance of Killarney, but on a smaller scale. The arbutus 
grows in Hazlewood Demesne on the northern side of the lake, 
the hills of Cleveragh, overlooking lake and river, are also finely 
wooded. There is a holy well and altar at Tober Nalt on the 
margin of the lake, where a pattern is held on the last Sunday 
in July called Garland Sunday. The river Garvogue, which 
discharges the surplus waters of the lake, is the earliest salmon 
river in Ireland, as fishing commences on the ist of January, 
when the fish are found to be in prime order. The Owenmore 
that empties into Ballysodare Bay very close to the Sligo 
river, strange to say, is fully three months later. The rapids 
and falls of the latter river at Ballysodare are very fine, par- 
ticularly when the river is in flood. For several hundred yards 
the rapids extend from the bridge towards the sea, and finally 
tumble over a fine fall, and are lost in the bay. Glencar Lake, 
on the northern side of Sligo, some ten miles distant, lies right 
under the Benbulbin Mountains ; it contains two crannoges, or 
artificial islands, which in ancient times were used as strong- 
holds. Bronze and stone implements have been found in 
them, also great quantities of bones of the red deer, ox, goat, 
and other animals. There is a celebrated waterfall at Glencar, 
with the peculiar feature that when the wind blows strong 
from a point in front of it the water seems to rise up the face 
of the mountain and is lost in spray. The visitor to Glencar 
can return to Sligo by the village of Drumcliff, founded by St. 
Coiumba. It possesses a beautiful sculptured cross and a por- 



Sligo^ Connemara and Clare. 69 

tion of a round tower. The ancient church has disappeared, 
but the cross and round tower point to the antiquity of the 
place. Close by this village is the charming district of Lisadell, 
and the seat of Sir Henry Gore Booth, Bart. This district is 
noted for ancient forts, cashels, cromleachs, giants' graves, and 
other interesting objects of ancient times. In one day the 
traveller can visit Glencar, Drumcliff, and Lisadell, returning 
to Sligo same evening. Another interesting tour from Sligo 
is to Carrowmore, to see the cromleachs and stone circles ; 
thence to the Glen, and finally to Knocknarea. Driving as far 
as Primrose Grange School, where a twenty minutes' climb 
will bring us to the summit, 1,078 feet above sea-level. It lies 
exactly between the bays of Sligo and Ballysodare, and com- 
mands a most extensive view across Donegal Bay and south- 
wards to the Curlews. The greatest cairn in Ireland crowns 
its summit, called Mescaun Maeve, supposed to have been 
erected about the period of the Christian era, in memory of 
Maeve, Queen of Connaught. Close by the river side in Sligo 
town are the ruins of the abbey founded about the year 12^2 
by Maurice Fitzgerald, for the Order of Dominicans. This 
Maurice, who was Lord Justice of Ireland at this time, was the 
ancestor of the Leinster Fitzgeralds, now represented by the 
Duke of Leinster. A drive around the lake should not be 
missed. It passes around the southern side, reaching the little 
town of Dromahaire, and returning back by the Enniskillen 
Road. The ruins of the Franciscan monastery of Creevelea can 
be included on the way back, as well as the great prehistoric 
sepulchral monument in the deerpark, known as the Irish 
Stone Henge. We next proceed to County Mayo, on our way 
to Connemara. We can go by two routes — take train via 
CoUooney and Claremorris for Westport, or by long car from 
Sligo, via Ballysodare and Dromore West, for Ballina, from 
which a short train journey reaches Westport. This drive 
enables us to see the rapids and falls of Ballysodare and the in- 
teresting scenery by Dromore West until we cross the river 
Moy at Ballina, which divides Mayo from County Sligo. The 



7© Scenery and Antiqtnties of 

Moy is a hue salmon river, and Lough Conn is also close by, 
where there is extremely good fishing. In the vicinity of 
Ballina there are several places of great antiquarian interest. 
Rosserck and Moyne Abbeys and the Round Tower of Killala; 
a circular drive from Ballina will take in all three. The place 
where the French landed in 1798 is pointed out about three 
miles from Killala. We can proceed by train direct to West- 
port via Manulla junction from Ballina. 

ACHILL ISLAND. 

Westport is situated at the head of Clew Bay, and is the 
most convenient place from which to visit Achill Island, or 
start for Connemara. It is a very picturesque town, with a 
river running through the centre of it, and trees planted on 
either bank, which has a very pretty effect in summer. Lord 
Sligo has a seat quite close, and the entrance gate opens from 
the town ; the demesne, which is very extensive, should be 
visited, and many fine views of Clew Bay may be had from it. 
We proceed by rail from Westport to Mallarany, where the 
railway company have erected a fine and commodious hotel. 
We can visit from Mallarany all the places of interest in Achill, 
going by rail to Achill Sound, taking a car there, and driving 
to the various places, returning again to Mallarany by last 
train in the evening. We may, after seeing all the places of 
interest at or near Mallarany, proceed to Dugort, where Mr. 
Sheridan, the popular proprietor of the Slievemore Hotel, can 
put us up most comfortably, and also guide us to every spot of 
interest in the island. The population of this interesting 
island in 1891 was 4,677. Tillage on a small scale and fishing 
are the only employments of the people. The distance from 
Dublin to Achill Sound, where the line terminates, is 187^ 
miles, the extension from Westport to the Sound is 26^ miles. 
The Sound is a narrow strait connecting Clew and Blacksod 
Bays. A bridge now crosses the Sound, opening in the centre 
on a swivel to allow small vessels to pass, and is a great con- 



Sh'go, Connemara and Clare. 71 

venience to all going to or from the island. The bridge was 
built mainly through the efforts of Mr. John G. Porter, of 
Lisbellaw, County Fermanagh, who contributed about one- 
third of its total cost. Achill is about 15 miles long by 11 
broad, and is the largest island off the Irish coast. It has very 
fine cliffs and seal caves. Croghaun is 2,192 feet high, present- 
ing a magnificent section to the Atlantic. Slievemore is 
2,204 feet high. The village of Dugort at its base contains the 
hotel, church, police barracks, and principal buildings. From 
Dugort all the sights are easily reached, the ascent of Slieve- 
more and Crogham, the seal caves, and cliffs of Menawn, the 
cathedral, rocks, and the native village of Keel. There is a 
fine strand near this village, extending for about three miles, 
and close by the village of Slievemore are the remains of many 
objects of antiquarian interest. Dugort is about nine miles 
from the sound, and cars run in the tourist season on arrival of 
the trains. From the summit of Croaghhaim a magnificent 
sea clift, only equalled by Slieve League in Donegal, a most ex- 
tensive view can be obtained either inland towards Westport 
and Connemara, or seaward towards Clare Island and the other 
islands scattered along that portion of the Atlantic seaboard. 

CONNEMARA. 

Leaving Achill we return to Westport, which is the starting 
place for Connemara. We take our seat on the tourist car for 
Leenane, by the lovely Erriff Valley, through which the Erriff 
River, a fine trout and salmon stream, flows into Killary 
Harbour. We stop at the Leenane Hotel, from which a series 
of excursions may be taken. There is fine lake, river, and sea 
fishing to be had here, some free and also at a moderate rental 
by the day or week. For those fond of mountaineering there 
are several most interesting excursions — the ascent of Leenane' 
Mountain (at the foot of which the hotel is situated), which 
rises 1,404 feet, and commands a splendid view of the twelve 
Bens, Killary Harbour, and the lakes and rivers of Connemara, 
the Delphi pass, and the ascent of Mweelrea, which lies along 



72 Scenery and Antiquities 0/ 

the northern side of the Killary, rising to a height of 2,688 
feet, can be made from Leenane. If I were asked to describe 
the scenery of this district around Leenane in as few words as 
possible, I would reply, huge mountains dotted all round, con- 
nected by deep, dark valleys, through which lakes wind, and 
from which rivers flow to other lakes or to the sea. Many of 
the mountains are bare rock, others clad in heather, and 
vegetation very sparse. Interesting excursions can be made 
from Leenane as a centre by car, boat, or small steamer, and 
the tourist car from Clifden to Westport passes the door. 
Leaving Leenane by the tourist car for Clifden, we pass by 
Kylemore and Letterfrack. Kylemore Lake and Castle, the 
property of Mr. Mitchell Henry, is a charming place, its natural 
beauties being developed by all that good taste and money 
could do. Letterfrack is a well-to-do village, founded by a 
Quaker gentleman, who has done a great deal to found indus- 
tries and improve the locality. There is a comfortable hotel, 
owned by Mrs. O'Grady, in the village. Renvyle Hotel is 
about five miles from here. The house was the family mansion 
of the Blake family, who some twenty years ago turned it into 
a hotel to provide accommodation for those coming here for 
fishing, shooting, and sea bathing. It is exceedingly comfort- 
able, homely, and well-kept. Renvyle is an extremely good 
centre from which to explore this district. From Letterfrack 
to Clifden occupies one hour and a half to drive. It is the 
capital of Connemara, built on rising ground overlooking a 
beautiful inlet of the sea called Ardbear Harbour. Clifden is 
built on the property of the D'Arcy family ; population, about 
one thousand. From Clifden we may drive to Roundstone, or, 
if we are interested in angling, can go by rail to Recess. At 
Recess the Railway Hotel, which is owned by and under the 
management of the Midland Railway Company, is adjacent to 
the Recess Station on the Galway and Clifden line. The 
hotel, which is furnished with every modern comfort and 
convenience, occupies a picturesque situation in the midst 
of the well-known lake district of Connemara. It is 



SHgo^ Connemara and Clare. 73 

sheltered from the north-easterly winds by the Maam Turk 
Mountains, and from its position it affords magnificent views 
of the famous Twelve Bens. When stopping at Recess we 
observed the anglers had all well -filled baskets on their return, 
principally salmon and trout. The climate is very mild in 
winter, so that it should be a good winter resort for invalids 
who could enjoy a soft, balmy air in mid-winter coming direct 
oft the Gulf Stream, which flows along the coast. When finally 
leaving Recess a minutes' walk brings us to the special hotel 
platform, where our luggage has preceded us, and from whence 
we take train to Galway, which we reach in about two hours. 

ARRAN ISLANDS. 
Galway city is now so well known that it will be unnecessary 
to dwell on the various places of interest still remaining from 
bygone days. The Airan Islands, which we reach by steamer 
from Galway, have also become much better known since the 
visit of the Royal Society of Antiquaries in 1895. They issued 
a very fully illustrated handbook, giving copious illustrations 
and descriptive sketches of all places of interest in the islands. 
These islands possess a special charm, no matter how often 
visited; they contain the finest specimens of prehistoric Pagan 
forts in Europe — viz.. Dun Angus, Dun Oghill, and Dhu Caher 
in the north island, and Dun Connor, situated on the summit 
of the middle island. Arran of the Saints contains as well 
many examples of our earliest churches — the Seven Churches, 
or Temple Brecan, and Temple Mac Duach, on the north side 
of Arranmore ; on the south side is Temple Benen and 
Monaster Kieran, together with the remains of a round tower. 
On the shore of the bay at Killeany is Arkin Castle, or Crom- 
well's Fort, built during the time of the Protector and gar- 
risoned by his troops. There is plenty of material on the • 
islands to employ the visitor for a week, and accommodation 
may be had at the Atlantic Hotel, Kilronan. The cliffs cf 
Moher and the coast of Clare can be distinctly seen from the 
islands on a clear day. The steamer from Galway goes daily 



74 Scenery and Antiquities of 

in the summer months, and takes three hours to reach Kil- 
ronan pier. The Irish language is that commonly used by the 
people amongst themselves, but most of the young people can 
speak English as well. Many rare ferns grow on the islands, 
including maiden hair and royal tern 

COUNTY CLARE (LISDOONVARNA.) 
We went from Galway to Lisdoonvarna by the direct route 
across the bay by steamer to Ballyvaughan, which lies on the 
opposite or Clare side of the bay ; from here we afterwards 
drove by the public car to Lisdoonvarna. Ballyvaughan is the 
best and nearest point from which to visit the celebrated ruins 
of Corcomroe Abbey. A great battle was fought in this 
locality in the year 13 17, when many of the O'Briens fell, and 
were buried within the Abbey. The drive from Ballyvaughan 
goes through the Shale district, across the high hills, by the 
well-known Corkscrew Road. On reaching the summit a fine 
view of the Bay of Galway may be obtained, with the ancient 
city of the tribes and a great rocky amphitheatre lying in the 
foreground of the picture close to us. The visit of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries here took place in July, 1900. The 
party numbered almost 100, and though it was the busy season 
they all managed to get comfortably provided for amongst the 
various hotels. The town is situated about 600 feet above sea 
level on a limestone subsoil, within three miles of the Atlantic. 
The air is very bracing, and the spa is said to equal any in 
England. The Gowlan river flows through the place in a deep 
gorge or ravine which it has cut in the course of ages through 
the rock. The principal sulphur spa is situated at the foot of 
the hill from the Queen's Hotel at one side, and the Eagle and 
Atlantic View on the other. There is a pump house built 
over the spring close by the river side. The water is pumped 
up through glass-lined pipes, and supplied to visitors at a very 
moderate charge. The following ate amongst some ot the 
places visited during our s<-ay at Lisdoonvarna — Ballinalackin, 
a 15th century tower belonging to the O'Brien's. It is situ- 



Sligo, Connemara and Clare. 75 

ated on the top of a high rock, which is perpendicular on two 
sides. The cHffs of Moher extend for a distance of about seven 
miles along the coast of Clare, the most prominent points of 
which are Slievenageeragh, 668 feet high ; Ailnasharragh. the 
fool's clifiF, 603 feet ; O'Brien's Tower, 58;' feet ; and the Hag's 
Head (in Irish Cearn, Calliach) 407 feet. From the cliffs of 
Moher a most glorious view may be had of the cliffs them- 
selves, as some portions project from which a view may be ob- 
tained. You can see towards the north Innishmaan, crowned 
with the great fort of Pun-Connor, The Bens of Connemara ; 
southward Liscanor Bay, the spire of Miltown Malbay behind 
Spanish Point, Caherrush, Mutton Island, the bold head of 
Boltard, and Loop Head. And on a clear day the mountains 
of North Kerry may be seen, and inland Bureen, Elva, Callan, 
and the distant peak of Telegraph Hill, 1,746 feet high, at the 
remote end of Clare. The cliffs derive their name from an 
ancient stone fort or caher which stood on the top of the cliffs, 
but now dismantled. Leaving the cliffs of Moher after lunch- 
ing, we drove downhill by the village and ruined castle of Lis- 
canor, passing by St. Bridget's Holy Well, where the scene of 
the picture for " The Blind Girl at the Holy Well" was taken. 
We stopped to examine the ancient Church of Kilmacreehy, 
standing on the shore of Liscanor Bay. A little further round 
is the village of Lahinch, and the Norwegian-built Golf Hotel, 
similar to Rosapena, where you will find the finest i8-hole golf 
links in Ireland, two miles long and a mile and a half broad. 
These various places were all included in a circular drive from 
Lisdoonvarna, returning there in time for dinner. Another 
day's excursion was to the ancient Cathedral Church of Kil- 
fenora, where there is a very fine sculptured high cross ; from 
thence to a fine stone fort, or caher, called Ballykinvarga. The 
walls of it are from 12 to 15 feet thick, built in three concentric 
sections, like the coatings of an onion. For external defence 
a very fine chevaux-de-frise extends to a distance of 100 feet 
from the wall of the fort. The entrance is by a single door- 
way, with a stone lintel, seven feet long. The wall stands at 



7 6 Scenery and Antiquities of 

present from 12 to 16 feet high. A fine and never-failing 
spring of water near the entrance suppHed the fort. It has 
never been tampered with by any restorer, and is a good 
example of a pre-historic fort. After leaving Ballykinvarga, 
we returned homeward, calling on our way at the ancient 
castle of Leemaneagh. It consists of a tall tower, built in 1480, 
to which a large Tudor house was attached a century later. 
This castle belonged to a branch of the O'Brien family of Clare. 
A gateway and arch have the arms of Conor O'Brien, dated 
1643. Many other places possessing both historic and pre- 
historic interest are situated within reach of Lisdoonvarna. 
The examples we have referred to may suffice to point out 
what an interesting antiquarian centre it is, in addition to the 
curative properties of its famous spa. 

KILKEE TO LOOPHEAD. 

We left for Ennistymon, where we were fortunate in seeing 
an extremely fine waterfall under favourable conditions. The 
river was in flood, and the mass of water was enormous, 
sufficient to drive several factories and light the town by 
electricity. We took the train from here on the West Clare 
line for Kilkee. Time will not permit us to speak of the many 
interesting places on our way. Our time is all too limited for 
Kilkee and vicinity. After seeing all the watering places of 
Ireland, none of them can approach Kilkee for magnificent 
cliff scenery, wave effects, or the extreme purity of its air. The 
town is built around a horseshoe-shaped bay, called Moore 
Bay. It is about one mile around. The old portion of the 
town, where the shops, telegraph, and post office, banks, and 
other public buildings are is on the eastern side ; also the rail- 
way station. The water flows in from the Atlantic over a 
ledge of rocks that breaks the force of the waves approaching 
the strand, which has a gentle slope over a floor of fine, firm 
silver sand. It is sheltered from the north by the lofty cliff of 
George's Head. Outside the town, both north and south, are 
great sea cliffs, against which the huge Atlantic billows strike 



Sligo^ Connemara mid Clare, 77 

with a force we have never seen equalled elsewhere. During 
the season the strand at Kilkee presents a very lively sight. It 
is dotted with bathers and bathing boxes, which are drawn 
backward and forward to suit the tide by donkeys, whilst 
cricket and tennis may be seen in progress at the same time. 
The esplanade is protected from the sea by a very thick, low 
wall, that does not rise high above the road, and which forms a 
convenient place for people to sit upon whilst looking out to 
sea. From the fact that the force of the waves is broken before 
they reach the strand by the Duggerna and Edmond rocks, it 
is perfectly safe for ladies and children to bathe there, whilst 
the gentlemen have a spring board and iron ladders further 
round towards the west where they can have a plunge in deeper 
water. There are also pools left by the receding tide to suit 
bathers who wish to get a plunge at a moderate depth in 
safety. Walking towards the west end the road leads up over 
a green sloping hill covered with short crisp grass. Diverging 
oflF this road we come to the cliffs which continue for a long 
distance towards the south. There are caves in the rocks 
along the shore that can be entered when the tide is out. 
Many varieties of shell fish may be collected here, also dulse, 
and Carrigeen moss. The latter when boiled forms a jelly, 
which is very nutritious, and said to be good for weak lungs. 
Large quantities of it were used in 1846 during the famine, by 
which many were saved from starvation. Further along the 
strata is quite horizontal, and you can descend to the sea level 
by natural steps from layer to layer. Proceeding still further 
south, the rocks again become perpendicular and much higher. 
There is a puffing hole here, which acts when the wind blows 
the sea in from the west. The water is forced up to a great 
height, and in falling again in spray, if it is sunshine, all the 
prismatic colours are shown, which adds to the beauty of the' 
scene. Towards Bishop's Island is the amphitheatre, so called 
from its crescent shape. The waves here during a western gale 
are magnificent, and strike the rocks with thundering force, 
rising in spray occasionally to their highest summit to be blown 



7 8 Scenery and Antiquities oj 

in foam landward on the gale. There is a cave here extending 
backward for 60 feet and 30 feet wide at the entrance. 
Mackerel is the principal fishing, which are cured and exported 
to America. Herrings, haddock, whiting and cod are also 
plentiful In addition to its good fish supply, it is well provided 
in the season with excellent mutton, and a plentiful supply of 
fowls, which the peasants bring to the doors of the various 
lodges for sale. Board and lodgings can be had at the best 
hotels at £'i per week, and apartments with cooking and 
attendance can be had at a reasonable rate. There is a good 
bath house where hot and cold sea water baths may be had. 
The roads are good for cycling, and most attractive scenery all 
the way to Loop Head, a distance of some 15 miles. Return 
journey may be made by Carrigaholt, situate on the north side 
of the Shannon estuary. It has the additional advantage of a 
water supply of the purest and coolest from a holy well, the 
patron saint of which is Senanus, or St. Senan, as he is some- 
times called. There is a little distance further off a second holy 
well called Tober Kee, after the saint who gave his name to 
Kilkee. It is a picturesque sight to see the people with pitchers 
of water on their heads and others praying around the well. 
On the east end of the town there is an ancient chambered rath 
surrounded by a moat about twenty feet broad. In a field at 
the rere of Moore's Hotel there is a fallen cromlech, whilst on 
Bishop's Island there is an ancient beehive oratory. All the 
way on the Atlantic side of the peninsula, which extends from 
Kilkee to Loop Head, are a series of most interesting views of 
cliffs and headlands and sea caves, and huge rock monoliths 
standing up isolated in the water, and defying all the fury of 
the Atlantic. Dunlicky Castle is an object of great interest. 
Built on a promontory, which is joined to the land by a very 
narrow neck, in ancient times it was impregnable. The natives 
have a legend that it was owned by pirates, who decoyed 
vessels in here, and had an armed sloop in hiding to fall on the 
hapless vessel when it came in. A mile beyond Dunlicky is 
the pretty fishing village of Goleen. Standing above Goleen 



Sltgo, Connemara and Clare. 79 

is the lofty Knockmagarron Hill, 410 feet above the sea, and 
formerly used as a signal station. The natural bridges of Ross 
are the next objects of interest, situated near to the village of 
that name. There are two bridges ; the largest is about 45 
feet in length, 30 feet broad, and three feet in thickness. The 
layers of rock are horizontal ; the bottom of the span is about 
40 feet above low water. Two very beautiful arches, called the 
cathedral arches, may be seen close by. Reaching Loop Head, 
the lighthouse should be visited for the extensive view that it 
commands. Leap Head, now Loop Head, took its name from 
the extraordinary leap of the great Irish hero Cuchullin, who, 
to escape a too importunate lover, leaped the chasm separating 
the head from the cliff adjoining. The lady leaped it success- 
fully, but in returning to follow him she fell and was killed. 
We have now reached a point north of the great estuary of the 
Shannon, and can return by a diflFerent route, calling at the 
ancient Castle of Carrigaholt, thence to Kilrush, Scattery 
Island, with its round tower and ancient churches, the abode of 
St. Senan. The group of ruins are extensive, embracing an 
early Irish church, a round tower, and cathedral of the middle 
ages. 

I have now briefly attempted to describe some of the beauties 
of Ireland lying along its western seaboard, which gives a very 
imperfect idea of the reality. We will now proceed to illus- 
trate what we have been describing with photographs, the 
majority of them never before exhibited in Belfast, and some 
of those taken at Kilkee during a storm show wave effects that 
could not be described by any words of mine. 

The views were then thrown on the screen and much ap- 
preciated, the lantern being skilfully manipulated by Mr. F. 
M'Gibney, of Messrs. Lizars. 

Mr. Garrett Nagle, R.M., moved a hearty vote of thanks to 
Mr. Milligan for his most interesting and charming lecture, 
which he was sure would long be remembered by all who had 
had the pleasure of listening to it. To himself it had, indeed, 
been a special pleasure, for he was born and brought up in the 



8o Scenery and Antiquities of 

South of Ireland, and the pictures and the descriptions of them 
had brought before his mind famihar scenes. They must all 
feel grateful to Mr. Milligan for his efforts to bring the scenery 
of Ireland under the notice of the people of England and 
Scotland and foreigners. 

Mr. John Carson seconded the motion. 

The motion was passed by acclamation, and appropriately 
conveyed to the chairman. 

Mr. Milligan, in replying, said he felt greatly indebted to 
Mr. Nagle for his kind words, and he assured them that he 
took a delight in increasing an interest in their country. 

Dr. Moran moved a vote of thanks to vSir James Henderson 
for presiding. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, M.R.I. A., seconded the motion, and after 
alluding in appreciative terms to the chairman's interest in the 
well-being and progress of their country, joined with him in 
the hope that the King and Queen would visit them next 
year. 

The vote was passed with great heartiness, and the com- 
pliment suitably acknowledged, 



2nd Aprils igoi. 



Mr. J. BROWN, President, in the Chair. 



Mr. George Goffey, M.R.I.A., read a paper on 
THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN AND THE DAWN OF 

ART, 

Illustrated by a Special Series of Lantern Slides of Paleolithic 

Implements, etc. 






Officers and Coimcil of Management for 1901-1902. 
JOHN BROWN. 

"^ice-'g'resibents : 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d. i WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 
R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., f.l.s. | ROBERT YOUNG, c.b., j.p. 

,^ott- "ircasutrer : 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

Jjon. (iLibrarittn : 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

^on. gccretarg : 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, b.a., j.p., m.k.i.a. 

Council : 

JOHN BROWN. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

PROFESSOR M. F. FITZGERALD, b.a., m.i.m.e. 

ANDREW GIBSON, f.r.s.a. 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d., pkbsident q.c.b. 

JOHN HORNER, m.i.m.e. 

SIR OTTO JAFFE, j.p. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.e.i.a., f.r.s.a. 

R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., j.p., f.l.8. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

THOMAS F. SHILLINGTON, j.p. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 

JOSEPH WEIGHT, f.g.s. 

ROBERT YOUNG, j.p., c.e. 

R. M. YOUNG, B.A., J.P., M.R.I.A. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

\^ Denotes holders of three or more Shares.'] 

*Alexander, Francis, b.e., Belfast 

AUworthy, Edward, Ardgreenan, Cavehill Road, do. 

Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s., East Hillbrook, Holywood 
Andrew, John J., l.d.s., r.c.s. Eng., University Square, Belfast. 

Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun, Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, j.p., d.l., Ardville, Marino, Holywood. 
Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton, Portglenone. 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.l.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Bland, Robert H., j.p., Lisburn. 

Bottomley, Henry H., Belfast. 

Bowman, Davys, Chichester Street, do. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Braddell, Edward, St. Ives, Malone Park, do. 
Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, do. 

Brett, John H., C.E., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Brown, John, Longhurst, Dunmurry. 

Brown, William R. (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burnett, John R., Elmwood Avenue, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D,, do. 

Calwell, William, m.a., m.d,, College Square North, do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

Carlisle, A. M., Elmwood House, do. 



Shareholders. 



^3 



Carr, A. H. R., Waring Street, Belfast. 

Carson, John, Walmer Terrace, Holywood. 

♦Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor. 

Christen, Madame, Carnbinn, Whitehouse 

Clark, George S., Dvmlambert, Belfast. 

Clarke, E, H.. Notting Hill, do. 

Coates, Victor, J.P., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry. 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p,. Queen's Elms, Belfast. 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, Strandtown. 

Crawford, William, Mount Randal, Belfast. 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown. 
Cunningham, Professor Robert O., m.d., f.l.s., 

F.G.S., Mountpellier, Malone Road, Belfast. 

Davies, John H., Castle Street, Lisburn. 
*Deramore, Lord, p.l. (Representatives of) 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonards, Newcastle. 

*DonegaI, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast. 

*Downshire, Marquis of (Reps, of), The Castle, Hillsborough. 

Drennan, W. H., Wellington Place, Belfast. 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., University Square, do. 

Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park (Reps, of), Ballywalter. 



Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast. 

Ewart, Fred W., Derryvolgie, Lisburn. 
Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., Glenmachan 

House, Belfast. 

Faren, Wm., Mountcharles, do. 

*Fenton, Francis G., London. 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., C.E., Donegall Park, Belfast. 

Finlay, Fred. W., j.p., Wolfhill House, Ligoniel. 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, Belfast. 
Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic 

Avenue, Belfast. 



84 



Shareholders. 



FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a., m.i.m.e., Assoc. 
M.I.C.E., Eglantine Avenue, 



Belfast. 



*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), do 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, Catherine, Mountpleasant, do. 

Gordon, Robert W., j.p. (Reps, of), Bangor. 

Graham, Thomas, j.p., Holywood. 
*Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d., m.r.i.a. 

(Representatives of), Broughshane. 
Gray, William, m.r.i.a , Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast. 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus. 

*HalI, Frederick H.. Waterford. 

Hamilton, Rev. Thos., d.d., President, Queen's College, Belfast. 
♦Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), do. 

Harland, W., do. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S. (Representatives of), do. 

Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., d.l., Oakley, Windsor 

Park, do. 

Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte (Reps, of), Clarges Street, London. 
Henry, R. M., m.a , Royal Academical Institution, Belfast. 

Herdman, John, d.l., j.p., Carricklee House, Strabane. 

*Herdman, Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo, Cultra. 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, Belfast. 

Hind, John, junr., Clifton Park Avenue, do. 

Hodges, Miss, Wellington Place, do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 

Horner, John, m.i.m.e., Chelsea, Antrim Road, do. 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.L., Orangefield, do. 

•Hughes, Edwin, j.p., Dalchoolin, Craigavad. 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., Windsor, Belfast. 



Inglis, James, j.p., Abbeyville, 



Whiteabbey. 



Shareholders. 8 5 

Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie 

Avenue, Belfast. 

Jaflfe, Sir Otto, j.p.. Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey. 

Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Dalguise, Monkstown, Dublin^ 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, Belfast. 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry. 

*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Kinnaird, George Y., Malone Park, do. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 



Lanyon, Mrs., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast, 

Larmor, Joseph, m.a., f.r.s., St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Leathem, Dr. R.R., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast. 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, 

Strandtown, do. 

Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down. 

Letts, Professor E.A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra. 

Lindsay, Professor James A., m.a., m d.. College Square 

East, Belfast. 

Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House, do. 

Lytle, Joseph H., j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e , Stanley House, 

Holywood. 
Mackenzie, John, c.e., Strathavon, Lisburn Road, Belfast. 

*Macrory, A. J. (Representative of), do. 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, do. 

Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 

Maxton, James, m.i.na., m.i.mar.e., Kirkliston Drive, 

Bloomfield, do. 

Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, Belfast. 

Milligan, Seaton Forest, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a., Bangor. 

Mitchell, Robert A., ll.b., t.c.d., Marmont, Strandtown. 

Montgomery, Henry C, Bangor, 



86 



Shareholders. 



Montgomery, H. H., Knock, Belfast. 
Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.t... Ballydrain House, Dunmurry. 

Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast. 

Morton, Professor W. B., m.a., NottinghiU, do. 

Mullan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, Belfast. 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p., Tudor House, Holywood. 

*Murphy, Isaac James Armagh. 

•Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, Belfast. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 
Musgrave, Sir James, Bart, d.l., j.p., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

•M' Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, ?v1allusk, do. 

M'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London. 

*M'Cammon, Lieut. -Col. Thomas A., Woodville, Holywood. 
M'Cance, H. J., j.p., d.l. (Representatives of), 

Larkfield, Dunmurry. 
M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., j.p., d.l. (Reps, cf), 

MacCoU, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast. 

MacCormac, John, m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Ardmara, Craigavad. 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of), 

M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood. 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, University Street, Belfast. 

Macllwaine, John H., Bangor. 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d.. College Square East, Belfast. 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p.. Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

M'Knight, John P., Nevara, Chichester Park, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Holywood. 

Nicholson, Henry J., College Square North, Belfast. 



O'Neill, James, m a.. College Square East, 
*0'Rorke, Ambrose Howard, Dunratho, 



do. 
Craigavad. 



Shareholders. 87 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University St., Belfast. 
Patterson, Edward Forbes, Bangor. 

Patterson, Mrs. Isabelle, Bonn, Germany, 

Patterson, John, Windsor Avenue, Belfast. 

Patterson, Richard, j.p., Kilmore, Holywood. 

*Patterson, Robert Lloyd, j p., d.l., f.l s.. Croft House, do. 
Patterson, Robert, m.b.o.u., Malone Park, Belfast. 

Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a,, Garranard, Strandtown. 

Patterson, William H. F.,,Stalheim, Knock, Belfast. 

Pirn, Edward W., j.p., Elmwood Terrace, Belfast. 

Pirn, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey. 

*Pirrie, Elizabeth, Newrastle-on-Tyne. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e., m.r.i.a., National Library, Dublin. 

Purser, Prof. John, ll.d., m.r.i.a., Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rea, John Henry, m.d., University Street, do. 

Rea, William R., Gardha, Fortwilliam Park, do, 

Reade, Robert H. S., j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry, 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark, Belfast. 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown, do. 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc. Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shilhngton, Thomas Foulkes, j.p., Dromart, Antrim Road, do. 
Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a.. j.p., d.l., Hopefield, do. 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r.c.s. Eng., Howard St., do. 
Smith, John, Castleton Tetrace, do. 

Smyth, John, m.a., c.e., Milltown, Banbridge. 

Speers, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywood.' 

Steen, William C, m.d., Windsor Crescent, Belfast. 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 
Stelfox, James, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do, 



88 Shareholders. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, Belfast. 

*Tennent, Robert James (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 
Thompson, S. B., Short Strand, do. 

Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H. (Representatives of), Whiteabbey. 

*Turnley, John (Representatives of), Belfast. 

Walkington, Mrs. (Representatives of), Thornhill, Malone, do. 
Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtown, do. 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 

Ward, PVancis D., j.p., m.r.i.a., Ivydene, Malone Park, do. 
Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, j.p., f.s.a., Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Knock, do. 

Whitla, Prof. William, m.d., j.p.. College Sq., North, do. 
Wilson, James, m.e., Oldforge, Dunmurry, 

Wilson, John K., j.p., Donegall Street, Belfast. 

Wilson, Walter H., Belvoir Park, do. 

*Wilson, W. Perceval, do. 

*WolfF, G. W., M.P., The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, Drummena, Bladon Park, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, ma., Rubane House, Glastry. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a.. The Manse, Newtownbreda. 
*Workman, Thomas, j.p., Craigdarrah (Reps, of), Craigavad. 
Workman, William, Nottinghill, Belfast. 

Wright, James, Lauriston, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, c.e., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



HONORARY MEMBER- 

Duflferin and Ava, k.p.. The Marquis of, Clandeboye, Co. Down. 



Annual Subscribers. 
HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 



89 



Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Belfast. 

Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s. Edin., Belfast Museum, do. 
Swanston, William, f.g s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Tate, Prof. Ralph, f.g.s., f.l.s , Adelaide, South Australia. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, Belfast. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast. 

Northern Banking Co., Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E., Stormount Castle, Dundonald. 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast. 

Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay. 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast. 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Cleaver, A. S., b.a., Dunraven, do. 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor. 

Fulton, G. P., Howard Street, Belfast. 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do'. 

Green, Isaac, Ann Street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., j.p.. Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Cliftonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park, do. 



96 Annual Subscribers. 

Hutton, A. W. Chichester Street, Belfast. 

Jones, R. M., m.a.. Royal Academical Institution, do. 

Kelly, W. Redfern, m.i.c.h., f.r.a.s., Dalriada, 

Malone Park, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace. do. 

Macassey, Lyndon, c.e., b.a., ll b., Holywood. 

Malone, John, Brookvale House, Cliftonville, Belfast. 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Brookville House, do. 



Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f,r.c.s.i.. Lower Crescent, 



do. 



Scott, Conway, c.e., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Stephens, S. Holywood. 

Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella, Vista, Antrim Road, Belfast. 



Tate, Alexander, c.e., Rantalard, Whitehouse, 
Thompson, John, j.p.. Mount Collyer, 
Turpin, James, Waring Street, 



do. 
do. 
do. 



^i|U0i[t and pr04i|[|dmp 



BELB^,A.ST 



iTURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



SESSionsr iQoi-isoa. 



BELFAST: 

PRLNTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(PRINTKRS TO QUKEn's COLLEGE.) 



1902. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Annual Report ... ... ... ... . ... 1 

Balance Sheet .. ... ... ... 7 

Donations to Museum ... ... ... ... . 8 

Books Received ... .. ... ... '■> 

The Belfast Municipal Institute: Its Aims and Aspirations — F. C. 

Forth, Assoc. R.C.Sc.I. .. .. ... . 18 

Respiration — Joseph liarcroft, M.A. ... ... ... ... 26 

Notes on I^ocal Survivals of .Ancient Harvest Customs . 32 
The Northern Blackwuter : Its Scenery, .Antiquities and Battlefields — 

John J. MarshaU. .. .. ... . ... 34 

The Irish Industrial Awakening — Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I. A. .. 36 
Report of Delegate to Corresponding Societies' Conference, British 

Association Meeting, 1901— J. Drown, F.K.S. ... ... 36 

The Mourne Scheme for the Supply of Water to the City of Belfast — 

John L. Macassey, C.E. ... . ... ... 38 

List of Office Bearers ... ... .. ... .. 39 

List of Shareholders and Subscribers ... .. ... 40 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST.A.BLISI3:E1ID 1821. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

1 Share in the Society costs £7. 

2 Shares ,, costs £14. 

3 Shares ,, coats £21. 



The Proprietor of I Share pays 10s. per annum : the proprietor of 2 
Shares pays o shillings per annum ; the proprietor of 3 or more Shares stands 
exempt from further payment. 

Shareholders are only eligible for election on the Council of Management. 

MEMBERS. 

There are two classes — Ordinary Members who are expected to read 
Papers, and Visiting Members who by joining under the latter title, are 
understood to intimate that they do not wish to read Papers. The Session for 
Lectures extends from November in one year till May in succeeding one. 
Members Ordinary or Visiting, pay £1 Is. per annum, due 1st November in 
eafh year. 

Each Shareholder and Member has the right of personal attendance at all 
meetings of the Society, and of admitting a friend thereto ; also of access to 
the Museum and Library for himself and family, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections for any friend not residing in 
Belfast. 

Any further information can be obtained by application to the Secretary 
It is requested that all accounts due by the Society be sent to the Treasurer. 



The Museum, College Square North, is open daily from 10 till 4 o'clock. 
Admission for Strangers, 6d. each. The Curator is in constant attendance, and 
will take charge of any Donation kindly left for the Museum or Library. 



Belfast Batural Ibietor^ ant) pbilosopbical 

Society. 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1902. 



■:o:- 



The Annual Meeting of Shareholders of the Society was held 
on 3rd July, in the Belfast Museum, College Square North. 
Mr. John Brown, F.R.S., President, occupied the chair, and 
amongst those present were — Messrs. R. Lloyd Patterson, D.L.; 
R Patterson, F.Z.S., M.R.T.A.; John Horner, M.I.M.E.; Joseph 
Wrigh, F.G.S.; W. Swanston, F.G.S.; S. F. Milligan, M.R.I. A.; 
W. Gray, M.R.I.A.; R. Dod, J.P.; Conway Scott, C.E.; J. E. 
Magill, A. Kinnaird, William Faren, Isaac W. Ward, and 
Davys Bowman. 

The Hon. Secretary (Mr. Robert M. Young, B.A.) read the 
Annual Report which contained the following : — 

The Winter Session was opened in the Museum on loth 
December, 1901, when an address was kindly given by Mr. 
Francis C. Forth, Assoc. R.C.Sc.L, Principal of the Municipal 
Technical Institute, Belfast; subject — " The Municipal Technical 
Institute, its Aims and Aspirations." 

The Second Meeting was held on 6th January, 1902, when 
Mr. Joseph Barcroft, M.A., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, 
gave a lecture on "Respiration," illustrated by experiments. 

On the 4th February the Third Meeting was held, when Mr. 
John M'Kean contributed " Notes on Local Survivals of 
Ancient Harvest Customs,'' with specimens ; and Mr. John 



2 Annual Meeting. 

J. Marshall lectured on " The Northern Blackwater : its 
Scenery, Antiquities, and Battlefields," illustrated by special 
lantern views. 

The Fourth Meeting was held on 5th March, when Mr. 
Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I. A., gave a popular lecture, fully 
illustrated ; subject — " The Irish Industrial Awakening." The 
chair was occupied, in the absence of the President, by Sir R. 
J. M'Connell, Bart., and the proceeds were devoted to the 
reduction of the debt owed by the Causeway Defence Fund. 

The Closing Meeting was held on the 8th April. Mr^ John 
L. Macassey, C.E., read a paper ; subject — " The Mournc 
Scheme for the Supply of Water to the City of Belfast," illus- 
trated by special lantern views. 

The President also gave an account of the meeting of 
delegates to the British Association in Glasgow. 

The meetings were less in number than usual, mainly owing 
to the renovation of the Museum building, which delayed the 
opening of the session. There was a satisfactory attendance of 
the members and general public at all the meetings, and several 
of the papers submitted were subsequently favourably referred 
to and discussed in the local Press. The number of societies 
holding their meetings in the Museum shows no diminution. 
As usual, the attendance of the public was very large at Easter, 
when the Museum was opened at a nominal charge. 

As will be seen from the Hon. Treasurer's Statement 01 
Accounts, duly audited by the Local Government Board's 
Auditor, a reduction of balance has been caused by the special 
expenses involved in renovating the Museum premises. This 
will, however, be partially met by subscriptions given by 
members towards this purpose. 

Owing largely to the zealous efforts of Mr. Robert Patterson, 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., a considerable sum has been contributed by 
friends of the Society with a view to place the collections of 
objects of natural history on a satisfactory footing. Old and 
worn-out examples in the Thompson collection of Irish birds 
will be replaced by new specimens, partly presented by local 



Annual Meeting. 3 

collectors, and the balance acquired by purchase. Your council 
have arranged, as intimated in their last report, for the renewal 
where required, of other collections, including local geology, 
conchology, and antiquities. Everything will be completed in 
time for the meeting of the British Association in September 
next. The painting of the interior of the Museum has caused 
an amount of extra work in taking down such specimens as 
are displayed outside the cabinets, and cleaning and replacing 
them. This prevented, to some extent, attention being paid 
to other portions of the collections, not only during the 
improvements, but for some time after. Subsequently the 
revision of the MacAdam collection of local fossils has been 
proceeded with. This collection is an extensive one. It was 
accumulated at very great expense and labour by the late Mr. 
James MacAdam, F.G.S., and contains many specimens ot 
species which have been only rarely or not at all obtainable by 
recent geologists. It is the most complete collection of Irish 
cretaceous fossils ever miade by one individual. Amongst 
many other good things the type specimen of Loricula Alaca- 
dami has been recovered. As far as can be ascertained at 
present, this is unique. Your Council took advantage of the 
inquiry held in Belfast by the Royal Commission on University 
Education in Ireland to present a memorial to them on the 5th 
April, setting out their views on the question of the teaching 
of natural history in Queen's College, and advocating increased 
facilities in that direction. Your Council received with deep 
regret the announcement of the death of the Marquis of 
DufFerin and Ava, the only surviving honorary member of the 
Society. Several members of Council represented the Society 
at his funeral. 

A list of donations to the Museum, and of the publications 
received in exchange from home and foreign societies, will be 
printed with the present report. 

Your council desire to express their best thanks to the local 
Press for their reports of the various meetings. 

The following members retire from office, and offer themselves 



4 Annual Meeting. 

for re-election : — S. F. Milligan, John Brown, Andrew Gibson 
William Swanston, and W. H. F. Patterson. 

The Hon. Secretary stated that he had received a letter from 
the Hon. Treasurer, who apologised for his inability to attend 
the meeting. The Statement of Accounts showed a balance of 
£iG i6s. yd. in favour of the account. 

The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, said 
perhaps the most important matter contained in it was with 
regard to the renovation of the collections and the painting of 
the Museam. This was undertaken with the object of making 
the premises as presentable as possible in view of the approach- 
ing visit of the British Association to Belfast. Owing to the 
zealous efforts of Mr. Robert Patterson a considerable sum of 
money had been collected, but he did not think that Mr. 
Patterson was yet satisfied, and he would be glad to receive 
further donations. They would see that a beginning of the 
work had been made as regards the collection of birds. Un- 
fortunately Mr. Robert Patterson was not on the council, but 
especially since he was devoting so much time and talent to 
the Museum it was very desirable that he should be on it, 
and if there had been an opportunity they would have been 
glad to have co-opted him. There was, however, still an 
opportunity of electing him, and they thought it best to leave 
the matter to that meeting. The Statement of Accounts 
showed that the balance had decreased, but indeed he was 
surprised it had not decreased more, because of the expense 
incurred in the renovations already mentioned. 

Mr. John Horner seconded the adoption of the report. 

Mr. R. Lloyd Patterson, drew attention to the paragraph in 
the report in which there was an allusion to the renovation of the 
natural history collections. This was partly the outcome of a 
report which he and his nephew Mr Robert Patterson, were 
asked to make a year ago. They had reported on the 
specimens, many of which were in a bad condition, and some 
of them worthless. After some little time the usual difficulty 
presented itself to the Council. That was the difficulty about 



Anmcal Meeting. 5 

funds, as it was only with the most rigid economy they could 
keep their expenditure within their income. A certain 
member of the Society offered a donation of £10 to start a 
substantial fund for this work, and his nephew took up the 
matter energetically, and was able to raise a sum of money by 
which the collection of birds would be entirely renovated and 
a general rearrangement of the collections made, which would 
bring them up to date, so that by the avoidance of unnecessary 
duplications a large amount of space would be saved and room 
made for other specimens. He thought attention should be 
drawn to the matter, so that, in view of the approaching visit of 
the British Association, they should have the place in as good 
order as possible. He was afraid that owing to the generosity 
of Sir Wm. Whitla, who was defraying the cost of the erection 
of a Medical Institute, they would lose the Medical Society as 
tenants, and consequently they would lose the rents which 
that eminent and learned body had up to now paid to them. 
He expressed the hope that there would be a general " beating 
up " for new members and new shareholders, and that they 
would not experience the discomforts of a diminished income, 
which at the present moment was staring them in the face. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Patterson also mentioned a suggestion which had been 
made to him as to the desirability of holding their meetings in 
the afternoon instead of in the evening. This practice was 
followed in London and many other places. 

Several members spoke against such a change being made, 
and, as the feeling of the meeting was evidently against it, the 
suggestion was not adopted. 

Mr. Wm. Gray proposed that Mr. Robert Patterson be 
elected on the Council. He said that Mr. Robert Patterson was 
a young man, who had inherited the traditions of his family in 
the investigation of natural history, and he was one of the 
most active and successful, as well as most modest, member of 
their community. 

Mr. R. Young seconded the proposition. 



6 Annual Meeting. 

Mr. George Horner proposed that the five retiring members 
of the Council be re-elected. 

Mr. R. Young seconded. 

A ballot having been taken, the Chairman declared that the 
following gentlemen had been elected on the Council : — 
Messrs. R. Patterson, John Brown, William Swanston, 
W. H. F. Patterson, and S. F. Milligan. 

Mr. Conway Scott proposed a vote of thanks to the Chair- 
man for presiding. He congratulated him on being elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, and hoped he would be elected 
president of that body. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, in seconding the motion, said it was a great 
honour to Belfast when an amateur, as their Chairman, by his 
original research, should obtain a distinction which some of 
their biggest Professors did not. They ought to be proud of 
their President, as he was a representative of the traditions of 
the old Natural History Society of Belfast, which was the first 
established in the kingdom seventy years ago. 

The motion having been unanimously passed, the Chairman 
briefly returned thanks. He said he prized very nmch the 
honour which had been conferred upon him, and it was made 
doubly pleasing by the many kind words of congratulation 
that he had received, none of which he valued more than 
those offered by that Society. 

The election of Office-Bearers for the ensuing year was then 
proceeded with in Committee. The following were elected : — 
President, John Brown, F.R.S. ; Vice-Presidents, Robert 
Young, J. P., C.E.; William Swanston, F.G.S. ; R. L. Patterson, 
D.L., F.L.S.; Rev. T. Hamilton, D.D., LL.D., President 
Queen's College ; Hon. Secretary, R. M. Young, J.P., M.R.I. A.; 
Hon. Treasurer, W. H. F. Patterson ; Librarian, J. H. Davies. 







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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1901-1902. 



From Mr. Granby Higginbotham. 
Cast of a fossil brachiopod shell {Spirifer disjunctd) from 
Silurian rocks at Tintagel, Cornwall. Similar specimens 
are sold there as fossil butterflies. 

From Representatives of Mr. J. S. Alexander, D.L. 

A singular stone implement found in the River Bann, at Port- 
glenone. 

From Miss M. E. Reid. 
Three butterflies from the Argentine Republic, South America. 

From Miss Duffin. 
A cabinet of marine and freshwater shells, minerals, etc., Native 
and Foreign. 

From Mr. R. Welch. 
A series of shells of Limnea peregra^ var. lactistris, from the 
Bann River at Toome, also specimen of the coralline 
strand at Greatman's Bay, Co. Galway. 

From Mrs. Coulter. 
A collection of marine shells gathered near Bangor, Co. Down. 

From Mr. Victor Coates, D.L. 
A Royal seal which was attached to a patent. 

From Mr. S. A. Stewart, F.B.S., Edin. 
A number of Cretaceous fossils from Chalk and Greensand rocks 
of Antrim and Derry. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, ist MAY, 1901, till 
:sT MAY, 1902. 

Adelaide. — Transactions of the Royal Society of South 

Australia. Vol. 25, parts i and 2, 1901. 

The Society. 
Basel. — Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Basel. Vol. 13, part 2, 1901, and Sachregister, 

1 875-1 900. The Society. 

Belfast. — Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' 

Field Club. Ser. 2, vol. 4, part 7, 1902. 

The Club. 
Bergen. — Bergens Museums Aarbog, parts i and 2, 1901. 

Meresfauna, part i, 1901. Aarsberetning for 

1901 ; and Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 4, parts 

I and 2, 1901, and 3 — 6, 1902. 

Bergen Museum. 
Berlin. — Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu 

BerHn. Vol. 28, parts, 4 — 10, 1901. 

The Society. 
Bremen. — Abhandlungen vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein 

zu Bremen. Vol. 15, part 3, 1901, and vol. 

17, part I, 1 90 1. The Society. 

Breslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie vom Verein fiir Schjes- 

siche Insektenkunde zu Breslau. New series, 

part 26, 1 90 1. The Society. 

Brighton. — Annual Report and Abstracts of Papers of Brighton 

and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 

Society, 1901. The Society. • 

Brooklyn. — Science Bulletin of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 

and Sciences. Vol. i, No. i, 1901. 

The Institute. 
Brussels. — Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique. 

Vol. 45, 1 90 1. The Society. 



lo Books Received. 

Brussels. — Annales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de 
Belgique. Vol. 35, 1901. The Society. 

Buffalo. — Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 
Vol. 7, No. I, 1 90 1. The Society. 

Buenos Ayres. — Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de 
Buenos Aires. Vol. i, Nos. 8 — 10, 1901. 

The Director. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. 
30, parts, 3 and 4, 1901 ; vol. 31, parts, i — 3, 
1901 ; vol. 32, parts i and 2, 1899 ; vol. 33, 
part 2, 1 90 1, and vol. 34, part i, 1901. Also, 
Palseontologia Indica, new series ; vol. i, part 
3, 1901 ; and General Report for year 1900- 

190 1. 2 he Director of the Survey. 

Cambridge. — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society. Vol. 11, part 3, 1901, and part 4, 

1902. The Society. 
Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 

Zoology. Vol. 36, Nos. 7 and 8, 1901 ; vol. 37, 
No. 3, 1901 ; vol. 38, 4 Nos., 1900-1902, and 
vol. 39, No. I, 1 90 1. Also Report of the 
Keeper for the year 1 900-1 901. The Keeper. 
Cassel. — Abhandlungen und Bericht (46) des Vereins fiir 
Naturkundezu Kassel, 1901. The Society. 

Christiania. — Forhandlinger, I. Videnskabs Selskabet I. 
Christiania, for year 1900. 

The Royal Norske Frederiks University. 
Cincinnati. — Reproduction Series, Bulletin No. 2 of the Lloyd 
Library, 1901. Mycological Scries, No. i, 
1902, and Mycological Notes by C. G. Lloyd, 
No. 5, 1900, and Nos. 6 — 8, 1901. 

The Messrs. Lloyd. 

Colorada Springs. — Colorado College Studies, vol. 9, 1900. 
Colorado College Scientific Society. 



Books Received. ii 

Columbus. — Bulletin of Ohio State University, series 5, No. i, 
1900, and series b, No. i, 1901. 

The University. 

Dantzic. — Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 
Danzig. New series, vol. 10, parts 2 and 3 
1 90 1- The Society. 

Dublin.— Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, series 2, 
vol. 7, No. 8, 1900, and Nos. 9 — 13, 1901 ; also 
Scientific Proceedings. New series, vol. 9, 
part 3, 1900, and part 4, 1901. The Society. 

,, Report of the Director of the Institutions of Science 

and Art. 1901 ; also Directory of the Royal 
College of Science, session 1901-1902. 

The Technical Instruction Department. 
Edinburgh. — Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 129th 
session, 1901. The Society. 

Emden. — Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 
Emden, 1899-1900. The Society. 

Genoa. — Rivista Ligure di Scienze Letture ed Art. Anno 23, 
fasc. 2 — 5, 1901, and anno 24, fasc. i, 1902. 

The Society. 

Glasgow. — Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow. 
Vol. II, part 2, 1900. The Society. 

„ Transactions of the Natural History Society of 

Glasgow. New series, vol. 6, part i, 1901. 

The Society. 
„ Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glas- 

gow. Vol. 32, 1 90 1. The Society. 

GoRLiTZ.— Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 

zu Gorlitz, vol. 23, 1901. The Society. 

GoTHENBERG. — Gotcborg's Kungl. Vetenskaps Och Vitterhets 
Samhalles Handlingar for 1898 — 1901. 

The Society. 



12 Books Received. 

Hamburg. — Verhandlungen [des Naturwissenschaftlichen Ver- 
eins in Hamburg. Series 3, vol. 8, 1901, and 
vol. 9, 1902 ; also Abhandlungen, vol. 16, part 
2, 1 90 1. The Society. 

Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen — Karpathen Vereins, 28th 
year, 1901. The Society. 

Indianopolis. — Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 
for 1 900. The Academy. 

Kharkow. — Proceedings of the Societie des Sciences Physico- 
Chimiques, of the University of Kharkow. 
Part 27, for 1899. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 
Naturelles, vol. 36, No. 138, 1900, and vol. 37, 
Nos. 139 — 142, 1 901. Also Observationes 
Meteorologiques, 1901. The Society. 

Lawrence. — Bulletins of the University of Kansas. Vol. Q, 
Nos. 3 and 4, 1900, and vol. 10, Nos. i and 2, 
1 901. The U7iiversity. 

Leipsic. — Mittheilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 
for 1900 ; also Wissenschaftliche Veroflfent- 
lichungen, vol. 5 and Atlas, 1901. 

The Society. 
,, Sitzungbeiichte der naturforschenden Gesellschaft 

zu Leipzig, 26th and 27th years, 1 899-1 900. 

The Society. 

London. — Report of the seventy-first Meeting of the British 
Association, Glasgow, 1901. 

The Association. 
,, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 
London. Vol. 47, parts 2 — 4, 1901, and vol. 
48, part T, 1902. Also Lists of Fellows of the 
Society, and of the Geological Literature 
added to the Library in 1900. The Society. 
„ Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Nos. 142 
— 145, 1901, and 146 and 147, 1902. 

The Society. 



Books Received. 13 

London. — Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 
vol. 16, parts 2 and 3, 1901, and part 4, 1902 ; 
Also Proceedings, vol. i, parts i and 2, 1901, 
vol. 2, part I, 1 901, and part 2, 1902. 

The Society. 

Madison. — Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts and Letters. Vol. 13, part, i, 1901, 

The Academy. 
„ Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. 

Bulletin 7, part i, 1901. The Director. 

Madras — Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum. Vol. 
3, No. 3. 1 901, and vol. 4, No. 2, 1901 ; also 
Catalogue of Prehistoric Antiquities. 1901, and 
Administration Report for 1900-1901. 

The Superintendent. 
Manchester. — Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 
Vol. 16, Nos. 10 — 12 ; Vol. 17, Nos. i — 3, 1901 ; 
and Supplement to vol. 13, 1901. The Society. 
„ Transactions of the Manchester Geological 

Society. Vol. 27, parts i — 7, 1 901, and parts 8 
and 9, 1902. The Society. 

Marseilles. — Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 
Vol. II, fasc. I — 9, n.d. The Librarian. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 
New series, vol. 13, part i, 1900, and part 2, 
1901 ; also vol. 14, part, i, 1901. The Society. 
Mexico. — Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico 
Central de Mexico, July, 1900 — July, 1901. 

The Director. 
„ Boletin del Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de 

Tacubaya. Vol. 2, No. 7, 1901 ; and Anuario 
22,1901. The Director. 

Milwaukee. — Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History 
Society. New series, vol. i, No. 4, 1901. 

The Society. 



14 Books Received. 

Minneapolis. — Bulletin of the Minnesota Academy of Natural 
Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 1901. The Academy. 

Missoula. — Bulletin of the University of Montana. Biological 
series, No. i, 1901. The University. 

Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Vol. 3, parts 20 and 21, 1901, and vol. 4, parts 
19 — 22, 1 90 1. The Director. 

Moscow. — Bulletin of the Society of Naturalists of Moscow. 
Nos. 3 and 4, 1900 ; Nos. i and 2, 1901 ; and 
Nos. I and 2, 1902. The Society. 

Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
I'Ouest de la France. Vol. 10, parts 3 and 4, 
1900, and series 2, vol. i. parts i and 2, 1901. 

The Society. 

New York. — Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
Vol. 13, parts 2 and 3, 1901 ; vol. 14, part i, 
1901 ; and Memoirs, vol. 2, part 3, 1901. 

The Academy. 
,, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 23, Nos. 2 — 5, 1 90 1. The Society. 

Nottingham. — Report and Transactions of the Nottingham 
Naturalists' Society for 1900 1 901. 

The Society. 
Odessa. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 
Vol. 23, part I, 1899, and part 2, 1900 ; also 
Mathematical Memoirs, vol. 19, part 2, 1899. 

The Society. 

Osnabruck.— Fourteenth Jahresbericht des Wissenschaftlichen 
Vereins zu Osnabruck, 1901. The Society. 

Ottawa. — Annual Report of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. New series, vol. 11, and Maps. 
General Index to the Survey Reports from 
1863 to 1884. Also Canadian Birds, part i, 
1900. The Director of the Survey. 



Books Received. 15 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Sciences. Vol. 53, parts i and 2, 1901. 

The Academy. 
„ Proceedings of the American Philosophical 

Society. Vol. 11, Nos. 165 and 166, 1901 ; also 
Memorial Volume, vol. i, 1900. The Society. 
Pisa. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Pro- 
cessi Verbali. Vol. 12, March — July, 1901, 
and vol. 13, November, 1901. The Society . 
Portland, Maine. — Proceedings of the Portland Society of 
Natural History. Vol. 2, part 5, 190T. 

The Society. 
Rochester, N.Y. — Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of 
Science. Vol. 4, pp. 1—64, 1891. 

The Academy. 
Rome. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Vol. q, 
semestre 2, fasc. 4 — 6, 1900 ; vol. 10, semcstre 
I, lasc. 7, 8, 9, II, 12, 1901 ; semestre 2, fasc. 
I — 10 and 12, 1901 ; vol. 11, semestre i, fasc. 
I — 6, 1902 ; also Rendiconto dell' Adunanza 
Solenne del, June 2, 1901. The Academy. 
,, Bolletino della Societa Zoologica Italiana, series 2, 

vol. 2, fasc. 1—6. 1 90 1. The Society. 

,, Journal of the British and American Archaeological 
Society of Rome, vol. 3, No. 3, 1901. 

The Society. 
San Francisco. — Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences, series 3, Geology, vol. i, No. 8, 1900, 
and Zoology, vol. 2, Nos. 3 and 5, 1900. 

The Academy. 
St. Louis. — Twelfth Annual Report of the Missoura Botanical 

Garden, 1901. The Director. 

Stav ANGER. — Stavanger Museum Arsberetning for 1900. 

The Museum Trustees. 
Stettin. — Bericht der Gesellschaft fiir Volker-u, Erdkunde zu 
Stettin, 1 90 1. 2 he Society. 



1 6 Books Received. 

Stirling. — Transactions of the Stirling Natural History Society, 
for 1 900- 1 901. The Society. 

Stockholm. — Handlingar of the Royal Swedish Academy, new- 
series, vol. 33, 1900 ; vol. 34, 1 901. Bihang, 
vol. 26, parts I — 4, 1901. Ofversigt, vol. 37, 
1900, and Lefnadsteckningar, vol. 4, part i, 
1899, and part 2, 1901. The Academy. 

Sydney. — Science of Man (Journal of the Royal Anthropolo- 
gical Society of Australasia), new series, vol. 4, 
Nos. 2 — 12, I90i,and vol. 5, Nos. 1 and 2, 1902. 

The Editor. 

Tokyo. — Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur 
und Volkerunde Ostasiens. Supplement, 1901. 

The Society. 

ToPEKA. — Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 
Vol. 17, 1901 The Academy. 

Toronto. — Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 7, 
part I, No. 13, 1 901. I'he Institute. 

Upsala. — Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the Uni- 
versity of Upsala. Vol. 5, part i. No. 9, 1901. 

The University. 

Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Geo- 
logischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 4 — 18, iqoi,and 
Nos. I and 2, 1902. The Society. 

„ Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoo- 
logisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Vol. 
51, 1 901. The Society. 

Washington. — Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Vol. i, 1900. 

The Director. 

„ Year-book of the United States Department 

of Agriculture, 1900, and North American 
Fauna, Nos. 20 and 21, 190T. 

The Secretary 0/ the Department, 



Books Received. 17 

Washington, — Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of 

American Ethnology, part I, 1898, and 

Eighteenth Annual Report, parts i and 2, 1899. 

The Director of the Bureau. 

,, Twentieth Annual Report of the United States 

Geological Survey, parts 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, 1900, 

and 3, 4, 6 and 6 continued, 1901. Also 

Monographs, vols. 39 and 40, 1900, and volume 

of Maps. Bulletin of the Survey, Nos. 163 — 

176 ; and Preliminary Report on the Cape 

Nome Gold Region, 1900. The Director. 

„ American Monthly Microscopical Journal. Vol. 

22, Nos. 1 — 7, 1 90 1. The Editor. 

„ Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washing- 

ton. Vol. 13, 1900, and pp. i — 178. 1900- 
1901- The Society. 

, Second Report of the United States Board on 

Geographic Names, 1901 ; and Special Report 
on Philippine Names, 1901. The Secretary. 
„ Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, for 

1898-99. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions: vols. 42 and 43, 1901. Annual Reports 
of the United States Museum for 1897, 1898, 
and 1899. Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, vol. 22, 190c ; and Bulletin, 
No. 50, part I, 1 901. 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 
in Zurich, parts 3 and 4, 1901 ; also Neujahres- 
blatt, 103 and 104, 1901 and 1902. 

From Mr. R. Lloyd Patterson, D.L., F.L.S.— Journal of 
the Linnean Society (Botany). Vol. 35, No. 
243, 1901. 

From Mr. F. B. Simms. — A bound volume of the Proceedings 
of Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, and seven unbound parts. 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION, 1901-1902. 



^oth December, 1901. 



Mr. J. Brown, President, in the Chair. 



THE BELFAST MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL 

INSTITUTE : ITS AIMS AND ASPIRATIONS. 

By F. C. Forth, Assoc. R.C.Sc.I. 



{Abstract.) 



In the course of his remarks, Mr. Forth stated that as early 
as the year 1807 a meeting was held in Belfast for the 
furtherance of instruction in Science and Technology. At a 
more recent period, viz., in the year 1883, the Royal Commission 
on Technical Education had held an enquiry in Belfast as to 
the facilities provided for technical instruction. Extracts read 
from the report of the Commissioners went to show that ihe 
educational facilities provided in the city were at that period in 
a very unsatisfactory state. 







to 







CO 



Belfast Municipal Technical Institute : 1 

The lecturer then reviewed the steps which had led up to the 
recent revival of interest in technical instruction, beginning by 
referring to the labours of the Recess Committee. He then 
detailed the steps that had been taken for the development of 
the Municipal Technical Institute scheme, and stated that the 
classes recentl)' established had been largely availed of, and that 
the numbers in attendance were well above the estimated 
numbers. 

Reference was then made to the imperfect accommodation 
which is at present available for the majority of the classes, and 
the proposals with regard to the new Technical Institute were 
explained, the remarks being illustrated by reference to views 
of the proposed new building, the views being projected on the 
screen by means of the optical lantern. The perspective view 
of the building is shown in fig. i, and the ground plan in fig. 2. 
The dual character of the Institution was dwelt upon, the 
explanation being given that there would be a Day Department 
and an Evening Department. The functions of these 
Departments were outlined, and explanations supplied as to 
the training which would be imparted to the students in the 
respective departments. Special emphasis was laid on the fact 
that it was necessary to adapt the courses of study to the 
industrial requirements of the City, care being taken that as 
far as possible the instruction should be well balanced. It was 
explained that students trained in this way would be fitted to 
take up situations as foremen and managers, and to fill other 
like positions of responsibility. 

It was stated that the building is intended to be erected 
on a site bordered by College Square North and College Square 
East. Various details in regard to the areas of the building, 
the style of architecture, the position of the entrance hall, 
vestibule, corridors, classrooms, and the departmental accommo- 
dation were then supplied. 

Mr. Forth next proceeded to discuss the question of the 
supply of suitably prepared students for the Institution, stating 



20 



Belfast Municipal Technical Institute : 



'VIDUALS 

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Fig. 3- 



Its Aims a}id Aspirations. 21 

that these would have to come from the National Schools and 
Secondary Schools. He drew attention to the inadequacy of 
the training given in the Primary Schools, and offered the 
opinion that some facilities should be provided for higher 
primary instruction, suggesting that four or five schools might 
be established in special districts of the City to deal with 
children who had passed beyond the sixth standard of the 
ordinary National School. He explained that scholorships 
would be available, giving admission to the Day Department 
of the Technical Institute, and stated that Free Studentships 
admitting to the Evening Department were already in 
operation. 

Referring to the existing Evening Department he mentioned 
that over ■ three thousand * tickets for evening courses of 
instruction had been issued, and that over two thousand t 
tickets had been issued for single lectures. 

It was shown by means of a diagram (figure 3) that the 
students were not of immature age, as was sometimes 
imagined, but that the proportion of those eighteen years of 
age and over, to those under eighteen years was as five is to 
two. 

He spoke of the fear that had been expressed that the 
Technical Institute might prejudically affect some of the 
existing institutions, and said that, in his opinion, this fear was 
unfounded. He also deprecated the unnecessary duplication of 
courses of study. He pointed out the economy resulting from 
the co-ordination of institutions running on similar lines 
instancing the various institutions which had been recently 
merged in the Technical Instruction Scheme. The lecturer 
stated that his main fear was not that overlapping would take ' 
place, but that the chief difficulty would be found in filling up 
the hiatuses in the present education system. By means of a 

* Now (April 1902) over 4,000. 
■f Now (April 1902) over 4.500. 



22 



Belfast Municipal Technical Institute . 




f'. 



TICESHIP 

J 

EVENING SCHOOLS fOR SCIENCE ART 
COMMERCIAL AMD TECHNICAL SUBJECTS 

CONDUCTED «YTHS TECHNICAl. INSTRUCTION COMMITIEC 
16 YE ARS AMO UPWARDS 

— t ~" 

EVENING CONTINUATION SCHOOLS 

12 TO 16 YEARS 



^ 



ELEMENTARY DAY SCHOOLS 

6 TO 14 YEARS 



DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE 
CORRELATION or EDUCATION 



Fig. 4. 



Its Aims and Aspirations. 23 

diagram (fig. 4) projected on the screen, he then illustrated an 
educational programme showing a direct connection between 
the Primary Schools and the Municipal Technical Institute and 
the University. 

Mr. R. H. S. Reade proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. 
Forth for his very able lecture. Although Belfast had been 
slow to assimilate the idea of the necessity of technical in- 
struction, he thought from what they had heard that they 
might be satisfied that it had embarked on the course in a 
right spirit, and that the work would be done properly under 
the guidance of Mr. Forth. He had proved that evening that 
he had grasped the whole subject of education, and showed 
them that technical education was only a part of the great 
system of education in the country, which ought to be co- 
ordinated, and that technical instruction should form an 
outgrowth from it. He had brought under their survey the 
whole system of education, which he (Mr. Reade) believed was 
bound to be taken up and re-organised if they were to hold 
their place with the other nations of the world. 

Professor FitzGerald, in seconding the motion, thought the 
Technical Instruction Committee was to be congratulated upon 
the vanishing cf a large amount of obstruction which at one 
time existed in the city — and he thought in the Corporation— 
to counting many of those subjects as technical at all. It was 
supposed then that technical instruction must necessarily be 
confined absolutely to trade instruction, without teaching 
anything in the matter of scientific subjects. With regard to 
Mr. Forth's remarks in regard to primary schools, he did not 
know what powers the Corporation possessed as to constituting 
themselves managers under the National Board of any model 
schools which might be established in the city. But now that 
the Corporation had made a start in the matter of technical 
education, after a delay of seventeen years, they would have to 
do more. He had long ago advocated the establishment of a 
system of evening continuation schools by the Corporation, and 



24 Belfast Mnnicipal Technical Institute : 

was glad to find that it seemed likely that what would be, in 
effect, such a system, was now under consideration. 

Sir James Henderson endorsed all that had been said by Mr. 
Forth, who, he thought, had hit the weak spot in our 
educational system. Something was required between the 
national school and the higher educational establishments 
in the future. With regard to the Technical School in 
Belfast, the large sum of ;^85,ooo would be necessary 
to put the building into the from which had been so 
admirably described by Mr. Forth, therefore the Committee 
were compelled to ask the ratepayers for id in the £\, which 
would bring them ^^5,000. At the present time this sum, 
together with the ;^io,ooo which they were receiving from the 
Department of Technical Instruction in Dublin, was the annual 
amount available for technical education in Belfast. The 
Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society was deserving 
of the highest praise for allowing them the privilege of hearing 
that lecture, which would be of great assistance in spreading 
technical instruction in Belfast. 

Sir Olto Jaffe considered that at an early period they would 
see a fair amount of progress in Belfast as a result of their 
efforts. The Corporation in selecting Mr. Forth as the 
principal of the new school had got one of the best officers they 
could have obtained for this department. 

Dr. M'Keown said in the matter of primary education he 
saw little hope of any great improvement so long as they had 
such a Board of National Education as existed at the present 
in Dublin. It was his firm conviction that until the people 
took the control of education into their own hands it would never 
be right. They wanted in a city like Belfast a board representing 
the people for the purpose of regulating this primary education. 
Now, many of the schools from a sanitary point were unfit for 
occupation by children. He believed that the time would 
come when the Corporation would have to build schools of 
their own, and not allow them to be appendages to any Church 
whatever. A teacher in a primary school was an important 



Its /!ms nnd Aspirations. 25 

individual, and until his position was elevated and he was 
removed from being the slave of the manager, matters never 
would be right. Although teachers are paid by the State, 
many of them were slaves to the managers, which should not 
be the case. They wanted a proper guiding liand to undertake 
the co-ordination of primary, secondary, and university 
education. Coming to the matter of technical education, it 
was well to point out that at the present time there was a 
Commission of Inquiry sitting in this country inquiring into 
technical education, and it was a very extraordinary body. 
The Irish members of that Commission, who sat recently in 
Dublin, and took evidence on technical education, were 
excellent men in their own way, but there was not one 
of them who was fit to deal with technical education, and only 
one known to have had a scientific education. That solitary 
individual was a pathologist, not likely to have much knowledge 
of trade and industry. He would not like to say much about 
their finding on technical education, but he did know a 
remarkable fact, that two gentlemen who could have given 
valuable evidence, and who tendered it, had not yet been 
examined. It was to be hoped their evidence would be taken 
at a later sitting. 

Mr. William Gray, was of the opinion that the prospects 
were exceedingly encouraging, judging by the number of 
pupils who were coming forward, and they trusted that the 
anticipations of Mr. Forth would be fully realised. The time 
had come when they ought to take some positive steps in 
Belfast to improve the primary education of the rising 
generation. 

Dr. MacCormac held that teaching results would accrue 
mentally to those attending the continuation schools. 

The Chairman then put the motion, which was passed by 
acclamation. 



r: 



26 



6/// January^ 1902. 



Professor Redfekn, M.D., F.R.C.S.I., in the Chair. 



RESPIRATION. 
By Joseph BARCKor^T, M.A. 



{Absiract.) 



Mr. Barcroft said that on a previous occasion he had the 
pleasure of addressing the Belfast Natural History and 
Philosophical Society upon a subject which, among physical 
phenomena, has always been of peculiar interest to himself — 
namely, " The Properties of Liquid Surfaces." The interest of 
such a subject as that seemed, however, to fade before the 
fascination possessed by even the simplest process of living 
matter. There is a subtlety about the secret of life, an 
uncertainty as to whether the chemical changes which take 
place in living matter are governed by the laws which are 
enunciated in the laboratory that make the study of the 
functions of living matter especially alluring. 

On occasions the physical and chemical properties of living 
matter seem to be exactly the opposite of those displayed by 
that which is inanimate. He would take two examples. 
There could be no greater travesty of their ordinary ideas than 
that water should flow upwards, yet when they got into the 
domain of life they saw trees one hundred, two hundred feet 
high, and in the fine tubes composing the wood of those trees 
they knew that the sap is continually ascending. 

Drawing attention to the burning of a match, the lecturer 
proceeded to say that the wood was decomposing with evolution 



Respiration. 27 

of heat, and the soHd material was being oxidised and dissipated 
into the air as aqueous vapour and carbonic acid gas ; but could 
they, he asked, reverse the process, and, by supplying the 
necessary heat, make wood out of carbonic gas and water ? 
That would be like expecting water to flow up a hill, for the 
laboratory rule is that chemical changes are such as to produce 
heat and do not take place in the opposite direction. Yet this 
is exactly how the wood has been made ; the tree has silently 
absorbed these very substances and built them up into wood. 

Of the ordinary functions which living bodies perform, the 
one which is most nearly understood is respiration, and therefore 
he had chosen it for the subject of that night's lecture. 
Respiration in its most superficial sense means the breathing in 
of pure air, and the exhalation of impure air. But they might 
give a larger meaning to the word. He had alluded to a 
burning match, and said that the wood of this match was being 
oxidised by oxygen drawn from the air, that it emitted heat, 
and that the substance got dissipated. The same process, he 
pointed out, is taking place continually in every part of the 
human body. When he moved his finger some oxygen was 
used up and some carbonic acid gas and water were parted with ; 
the oxygen was breathed in by the lungs, the carbonic acid and 
water would in due time be breathed out by them. The 
problem was to investigate the processes by which the oxygen 
of the inspired air is carried to the hidden recesses of the body, 
and those by which the carbonic acid is carried from the tissues 
to be cast out into the air of the lung. 

They would observe on the screen a slide representing 
human blood ; it was made up of numerous corpuscles which 
float in a clear fluid. Each of these corpuscles is a sort of 
submarine boat plying between the lungs and the tissues, and, 
at every journey it takes in a cargo of oxygen at the lungs, 
which it unloads on reaching the small blood vessels of a 
nmscle or other tissue. The corpuscle is composed largely of a 
red material — haemoglobin — to which the colour of the blood 
is tiue. This red material has the power of absorbing oxygen 



(. 



28 Respiration. 

when exposed to the atmosphere. There are other substances 
such as pyrogaUic acid which do the same, but the red substance 
of the blood differs from pyrogallic acid in the fact that when it 
is exposed to an atmosphere devoid of oxygen it disgorges all 
the oxygen which it has previously absorbed. 

The lung is an apparatus for exposing an immense surface of 
blood to the air. While thus exposed each corpuscle takes up 
its cargo of oxygen, and then gets propelled with extreme 
rapidity in the blood stream to some indigent muscle or nerve 
which has used up all the oxygen that it possesses. Here, not 
being surrounded by oxygen, the corpuscle gives up its store of 
that gas just as a wet sponge-rag would yield up its store of 
water when removed from a damp to a dry atmosphere. 

It was formerly a matter of great labour, involving the use 
of large quantities of blood, to demonstrate the relative amounts 
of oxygen in blood going to and comiing from the lungs, but 
recent researches had made it so simple that he could easily 
show them how much oxygen the blood loses at its ports of 
call. 

He had compared the colourless fluid portion of the blood 
to a waterway, and he could press the comparison a stage 
further. The clear fluid part is more than a medium for carry- 
ing the corpuscles — it serves to flush out every piece of muscle 
and nerve and bone. Each of these accumlates its little store 
of carbonic acid as it does its work, but this gas si exceedingly 
soluble in water, and so as fast as it is produced it gets caught 
up in the colourless part of the blood and carried to the lungs. 
A pint of water would absorb about a pint of carbonic acid 
gas. If the solution be shaken up with air the water would 
lose carbonic acid till both the air and the water contained the 
same percentage of the carbonic acid. He had almost said 
that that was an illustration of how the blood lost its carbonic 
acid in the lung ; that an immense surface of blood was con- 
tinually circulating through the lung separated only by the 
thinnest of membranes from the air in that organ ; that it 
tended always to share its carbonic acid equally with the air, 



Respiration. 29 

but that, as the air was always changing, it never had time to 
obtain as much carbonic acid as the blood would give up, and 
so a continual stream of carbonic acid passed from the blood 
to the air in the lung. 

But he must pause, for whilst many distinguished physio- 
logists would endorse such a statement, there were others who 
considered that they were confronted at that point with a 
paradox of life such as he had already mentioned; that in the 
ordinary way after the blood has given up its quotum of 
carbonic acid the living wall of the lung exerts an influence on 
the blood which no dead membrane could exert, and makes the 
blood concede yet further stores of carbonic acid to the air, 
thus enormously increasing the efficiency of the respiratory 
apparatus. The point is one of great interest to physiologists, 
and it is one on which much careful work has been done. 
While the matter remains unsettled it would ill befit him to 
express an opinion upon il, in view of the fact that some of the 
most recent and telling researches on the subject have been 
those of Dr. John Haldane and Professor Lorrain Smith in 
the laboratory of Queen's College, Belfast. 

Professor Lorrain Smith said their Secretary had asked him 
to move a vote of thanks to Mr. Barcroft for his interesting 
lecture, but he would preface his remarks by a promise to and 
no more details to the many facts Mr. Barcroft had put before 
them. He himself had followed the lecture with the greatest 
interest, and he was sure this had also been done by everyone 
present. As one whose duty it was to lecture and experiment 
at the same time, Mr. Barcroft had managed to get through a 
subject which was perplexity itself with wonderful rapidity. 
The success with which he had carried out the experiments at 
the end of the bench, where he had been engaged analysing 
the blood from oxygen, was remarkable. It was not so very 
long ago since it took a large part of a day to carry out an 
experiment of that sort, but Mr. Barcroft had shown them that 
night that this observation can now be carried out with the 



30 Respiration. 

simplest possible apparatus with perfect accuracy and great 
rapidity. The method was new, and the easy way in which it 
could be carried out gave rise to great hopes in the medical 
profession that they would be able to apply this method to the 
human body both in health and disease. He had great 
pleasure in moving that vote of thanks to Mr. Barcroft for his 
lecture. 

Professor Thompson, in seconding the motion, said Mr. 
Barcroft had handled an exceedingly difficult subject with 
great skill. He came to Belfast with the reputation of being 
a neat and skilful experimenter, and he had very successfully 
maintained that reputation. He had indeed a very difficult 
subject to make clear to them, but he had managed to make 
clear to everybody in the room what the essential features o^ 
respiration are. He (Professor Thompson) had great pleasure 
in seconding the motion. 

The Chairman, in putting the motion to the meeting 
said they had come there that night to learn something of 
respiration, and they had not been told what sort of process it 
was, but they had been made to see it. Every step of the 
process had been shown them most successfully, and not one 
tittle of the experimental truth had in any degree failed. As 
they came there that night to learn something of respiration, 
he would advise them when they went to their respective 
homes to take a sheet of paper and jot down the particulars of 
the facts shown them, and in that way they would remember, 
have before them, an account of respiration such as, he 
ventured to say, they had never had before, and were not 
likely to get again for a long time. The various demonstrations 
had been most admirable, complete, and perfect. It was rarely 
indeed they found when a series of experiments had to be 
performed that some little thing did not go wrong, but 
nothing of the sort had happened that night from start to 
finish. He trusted that in the study of physiology, which is 
becoming an experimental science for the purpose of the 
investigation of the process of life, Mr. Barcroft would not only 



Respiration. 31 

have a happy year, but that he would continue a great number 
of years to teach as he had taught them that evening. 

The resolution was heartily passed. 

Mr. Barcroft, in acknowledging the compliment, said he 
wished to thank the mover and seconder of the motion for 
their kind words, and the members of the audience for the 
patient way in which they had listened to that subject, which, 
as Professor Lorrain Smith had stated, was complicated. He 
also thanked Professor Thompson for having put his laboratory 
at his disposal for the purpose of having the experiments 
prepared. 



32 



a^th February^ 1902. 



Mr. J. Brown, President, in the Chair. 



NOTES ON LOCAL SURVIVALS OF ANCIENT 

HARVEST CUSTOMS. 

By John M'Kkan. 



The Hare, Churn or Collya. 



This Harvest custom is widely spread over the North-East 
corner of Ireland. When the corn is being cut the last handful is 
plaited up as shown in this specimen. Then the harvesters all 
gather round and proceed as follows : — 

They either stand about 9 feet off and throw their sickles in 
turn at it until it is cut down, or each is blindfolded in turn, 
advances towards it, and has one cut at it with a scythe till it 
is mown down. Or again, each pulls up a root in turn till all 
the roots are pulled up. 

Two other modes, obviously degenerate forms are to cut it 
with the scythe or the machine without any ceremony. 

In those cases where the ceremony still survives, the 
harvester who cuts the ears or the harvester who pulls the last 
root is honoured in different ways. Generally he gets the first 
drink at the harvest-home, which is everywhere called the 
'' churn." Near Glenarm, he or she hangs the " hare," as it is 
there called, over the doorway and has a right to kiss the first 
person of the opposite sex who enters. In one part of Armagh 



Local Survivals of Ancient Harvest Customs, 33 

the reaper's hand is crossed with silver. Near Keady, in days 
gone by, the successful person led the " churn " or harvest 
dance. 

The " churn " is kept for the whole year or even longer 
where the custom still lingers strongly. This specimen is one 
of three got at one farm, but more usually the custom has 
decayed and the churn is kept only for a short time. In one 
place the " churn " is said to guard one's store, but as a rule the 
country folk give no reason for the custom except sometimes a 
vague idea that it is lucky. 

The three names which I have given are not all used 
together. The name "churn" is by far the commonest, the 
name " hare" I have found only in the glens, the name "collya " 
only in Armagh. It is worth noticing that the name " churn " 
is applied to the harvest-home even in places where the queue 
of oats has a different name. 

I have found the custom both in the extreme north and 
south of Antrim, in Down about Newtownards and perhaps 
near Newcastle, and in north Armagh. In fact I have found it 
everywhere where I have been able to search for it. I have 
also heard vague accounts of such a custom in Tyrone but the 
accounts are not accurate enough to mention. 

The " churn " should be compared with customs like the 
English " Kernababy," and the Scotch kern-maiden, and a host 
of other examples given in Mr. J. G. Frazer's " Golden Bough." 
The same authority, vol. ii, p. 269 (second edition), mentions 
exactly the same custom in Ayrshire and Galloway where the 
plait is called the Hare. 



34 



THE NORTHERN BLACKWATER : ITS SCENERY, 

ANTIQUITIES AND BATTLEFIELDS. 

By John J. Marshall. 

{Abstract.) 



AIr. Marshall introduced his subject by stating thai in the 
history of all countries rivers had ever played an important 
part, whether as waterways to bear the argosies of commerce 
upon their breast or as the fitting theatre of events exercising 
a decisive influence on the nation's future. The rivers of 
Europe recalled to memory many historic scenes enacted on 
their banks, and to Ulstermen the Blackwater was ever associ- 
ated with the memories of the brave O'Neills, and in later 
years with Charlemont and Grattan. Though the stately 
ruins of no cloistered abbey were reflected in Blackwater's 
wave, yet sacred legends and hallowed associations were con- 
nected with the stream from the dawn of Christianit}' in Erin, 
while earlier still the cairn on the summit of Knockmany, 
overlooking the fort of Rathmore, carried them back to Ireland's 
heroic age. Rathmore, in Magh-Lemna, as it was usually 
called, to distinguish it from the Rathmore in County Antrim, 
was the great fort situated in the Palace grounds at Clogher, 
and, according to the annalist, was dug by " Baine, daughter 
of Seal," the date being early in the second century. The 
lady was buried on the summit of the adjoining hill of 
Knockmany; hence its name. There was also in this district 
the remains of Aughentaine, another interesting Plantation 
castle, noteworthy as the birthplace of William Montgomery, 
author of the Montgomery MSS. The next important place 
on the river was the town of Aughnacloy, founded by the 
Moore family. Here Wolfe Tone passed a night on his way as 
a prisoner from Derry to Dublin in 1798. Tynan, so long 
associated with the name of Dr. Reeves and also famous for its 



Northern Blackivater : Its Scenery^ Antiquities, Battlefields. 35 

stone crosses, next claimed attention, as well as Tynan Abbey, 
the picturesque residence of Sir James H. Stronge ; while on 
the opposite bank of the river stood Caledon, with its memories 
of Sir Phelim O'Neill and the days of 1 641, with many a 
stirring tradition of fight and foray in still earlier times, when 
it was a residence of the O'Neills. Continuing down the river, 
the Battleford Bridge was reached. It was here that in 1646 
the Scots' army, under Munro, was defeated by Owen 
Roe O'Neill, and driven with great slaughter across the 
Blackwater. One of the most important places in Ulster 
during the latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign was 
Porlmore, or the Fort of Blackwater, erected as a curb on 
the power and independence of O'Neill. It was taken 
and retaken several times, and it was in order to effect its relief 
that the celebrated battle of the Yellow Ford was fought in 
1598, in which the English army suffered a crushing defeat at 
the hands of O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell. It was finally 
allowed to fall into decay when Charlemont was erected by 
Lord Deputy Mountjoy, the modern castellator of Ulster, in 
what he considered to be a more suitable place. From 
Charlemont onward the river flowed through fertile pasture 
lands unmarked by any object of interest until it discharged its 
waters into Lough Neagh, some seven miles farther down, at 
the village of Maghery. At this point the river divided into 
two branches, forming a delta known as Derrywarrgh Island. 
On this island, if so it might be termed, there stood a chimney 
and part of a gable, being the only remaining portions of the 
Fort of Blackwater at the river foot, which was planted there 
during the rebellion of 164 1 as a check on the garrison of 
Charlemont. 

The lecture was illustrated with upwards of seventy limelight 
views, specially taken by Mr. Marshall, and shown by Mr. 
M'Gibney, of Messsrs. Lizars. 

A hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer brought the meeting 
to a close. 



36 



Ith Marchy 1902. 



Sir R. J. M'CoNNELL, Bart., in the Chair. 



THE IRISH INDUSTRIAL AWAKENING. 
By Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I. A. 



A POPULAR lecture, illustrated by Lantern views ; the proceeds 
were devoted to the reduction of debt of the Causeway Defence 
Committee. 



%th April. 



Mr. J. Brown, President, in the Chair. 



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES' CONFERENCE, BRITISH 

ASSOCIATION MEETING, 1901. 

By J. Brown. 



As your delegate I attended both meetings of the Corresponding 
Societies' Conference, and now beg to offer a very brief report 
referring merely to the chief points brought forward, and 
leaving the further elucidation of even these to be looked for 
in the full report issued by the Association. At the first 
meeting, Mr. F. W. Rudler, F.G.S., presided, and m his 



Report of Delegate^ ^c. 37 

address dealt chiefly with the importance of the Registration of 
Type Specimens in Local Museums in order that reference to 
such specimens might be readily attainable by those interested 
in the particular domain of science to which they belonged. 

After a long discussion, the Chairman called on the 

Rev. J. O. Bevan to open the subject accepted of him by the 
Corresponding Societies' Committee for discussion at this 
Conference: — ''That the Committees of the Corresponding 
Societies be invited to lay before their members the necessity 
of carrying on a systematic survey of their counties in respect 
to ethnology, ethnography, botany, meteorology, ornithology, 
archaeology, folklore, etc." 

The discussion resulted in the appointment of a small 
Committee, whose report, as follows, was adopted at the second 
Conference. 

" The following provisional list of subjects, together with the 
names of some of the Societies which have already done work 
in connection therewith, and the names of persons who would 
be willing to receive communications thereon is recommended 
by the Conference of Delegates for adoption by the Correspond- 
ing Societies' Committee of the British Association, and to be 
issued by them lo the Correspondmg Societies in the hope that 
those Societies not already engaged in similar work may take 
part in so much ot it as comes within their scope, in order 
that the work may be extended over a wide area, and be done 
as far as possible upon a uniform system. 

"Registration of Type Specimens," Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

" Coast Erosion," Mr. W. Whitaker. 

" Record of Bore Holes, Wells, and Sections," North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and 
Prof. J. H. Merivale. 

" Tracing the Course of Underground Water," Yorkshire 
Geological and Polytechnic Society, and Mr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house. 

"Erratic Blocks," Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and Pro- 
fessor P. F. Kendall. 



38 Report of Delegate^ &c. 

" Geological Photographs," Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 
and Professor W. W. Watts. 

" Underground Fauna," Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

" Variations in the Course of Rivers and Shape of Lakes,'' 
Dr. H. R. Mill. 

'' Archaeological Survey by Counties " Woolhope Field Club, 
and Rev. J. O. Bevan. 

" Ethnographical Survey," Anthropological Institute. 

*' Botanical Survey by Counties," Mr. W. G. Smith. 

" Photographic Record of Plants," Mr. A. K. Coomra- 
Swamy. 

Professor H. M'Leod, on behalf of Section B, said they had 
nominated a Committee to register the Scientific Chemists who 
are at work in Manufactories, and would be glad of assistance 
in finding out the names of such persons. 

Section C (geology) again asks for Geological Photographs 
and information regarding erratic blocks. 

Section H (Anthropology) wants records of the survival of 
primitive customs, industries, appliances, etc. 

Section K (Botany) would be glad to receive specimens of 
blue-green algae of various conditions for examination, also 
photographs of bctanical interest. 



THE MOURNE SCHEME FOR THE SUPPLY OF 

WATER TO THE CTfY OF BELFAST. 

By John L. Macassey, C.E. 



i^atural Itstorg & pijilosapljical Soctetg. 



Officers and Council of Management for 1 902-1 903. 
■g'resibenf : 

JOHN BROWN, F.R.S 

"§)ice-"^rcsi6cnfs : 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.u., ll.d. i WM. SWANSTON, f g.s. 
R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., f.l.s. | ROBERT YOUNG, c.e., j p. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

^on. gecrciarp : 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, b.a., j.p., m.r.i a. 

Council : 

JOHN BROWN, F.R.S. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

PROFESSOR M. F. FITZGERALD, b.a., m.i.m.e. 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d., pkesidknt g.c.b. 

JOHN HORNER, m.i.m.e. 

SIR OTTO JAFFE, or.p. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.r.i.a.. f.k.s.a. 

SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., j.p., f.l.s. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

THOMAS F. SHILLINGTON, j.p. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 

JOSEPH WRIGHT, f.g.s. 

ROBERT YOUNG, j.p., c.e. 

R. M. YOUNG, B.A., J.P., M.R.I.A. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, f.z.s., m.b.o.v. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

[* Denotes holders of three or more Shares~\. 

*Alexander Francis, b.e,, Belfast 

Allvvorthy, Edward, Ardgreenan, Cavehill Road, do. 

♦Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s., East Hillbrook, Holy wood 
Andrew, John J. l.d.s., r.c.s. Eng., University Square, Belfast 

Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, J.p., Ardville, Marino, Holywood 
Beattie, Rev. A. H. Hamilton, Portglenone 

Bigger, Francis, J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Bland, Robert H., j.p., Lisburn 

Bottomley, Henry H., Belfast 

Bowman, Davys, Upper Arthur Street, do. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

Braddell, Edward, Wilmington Square, Eastbourne 
Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, Belfast 

Brett, John H., C.E., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Brown, John, Longhurst, Dunmurry 

Brown, William K. (Representatives of), Belfast 

Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burnett, John R., Elmwood Avenue, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d.. Lower Crescent, do. 



Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell William, m.a., m.d.. College Square North, do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

CarHsle, A. M., Elmwood House, do. 



Shareholders. 



4' 



Carr, A. H. R.. Warinpr Street, Belfast 

Carson, John, Walmer Terrace, Holywood 

*Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor 

Christen, Madame Rodolphe, Carnbinn, Whitehouse 

Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast 

Clarke, E. H., Netting Hill, do. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p., Queen's Elms, Belfast 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, Strandtown 

Crawford, William, Mount Randal, Belfast 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown 
Cunningham, Professor Robert O., m.d., f.l.s., 

F.G.S., Montpellier, Malone Road, Belfast 

Davies, John H., Parkmount, Lisburn 
*Deramore. Lord, d.l. (Representatives of) 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonards, Newcastle 

•Donegal, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast 
*D()wnshire, Marquis of (Reps, of), The Castle, Hillsborough 

Drennan, W. H., Wellington Place, Belfast 

Duflfin, Adam, ll.d., Dunowen, Cliftonville do. 
Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park 

(Representatives of). 



Ballywalter 

Belfast 
Lisburn 



Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, 

Ewart, Fred W., Derryvolgie, 

Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., d.l., Glen- 

machan House, Belfast 

Faren, Wm., Mountcharles, do. 

*Fenton, Francis G., Paris 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., c.e., Donegall Park, Belfast 

Finlay, Fred W., j.p. Wolfhill House, Lio-oniel 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, Belfast 
Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic 

Avenue, Belfast 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a., m.lm.fj., Assoc. 

M.I.C.E., Eglantine Avenue, do. 



42 



Shareholders. 



Foster, Nevin Harkness, Hillsborough. Co. Down 

*Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, Catherine, Mountplcasant, do. 

Gordon, Robert W., j.p. (Representatives of), Bangor 

Graham, Thomas, j.p., Holywood 

*Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d.,m.r.i.a. 

(Representatives of; Broughshane 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus 

*Hall, Frederick H., Waterford 

Hamilton. Rev. Thos., d.d.. President, Queen's College, Belfast 
*Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), 
Harland, W., 

Henderson, Miss Anna S., (Representatives of), 
Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., d.l., Oakley, Windsor 
Park, 

Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte (Reps, of) Clarges Street, 

Henry, R. M., m.a., 

Herdman, John, j.p., d.l , Carricklee House, 

*Herdman Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo, 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, 

Hind, John, junr., Clifton Park Avenue, 

Hodges, Miss 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, 

Horner, John, m.i.m.e., Chelsea, Antrim Road, 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., Orangcfield, 

*Hughes, Edwin, j.p., Dalchoolin, 

Hyndman, Hugh, l.l.d., Windsor 



do. 
do. 
do. 



do. 
London 
Belfast 
Strabane 
C ultra 
Belfast 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Craigavad 
Belfast 



Inglis, James, j.p., Abbeyville, 



Whiteabbey 



Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie 

Avenue, Belfast 

Jaffe, Sir Otto, j.p., Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey 



Shareholders. 



43 



Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Dalgaise, Monkstown, Dublin 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, Belfast 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry 

*Kinghan, John R.. Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Kinnaird, George Y., Malone Park, do. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 

Lanyon, Mrs., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Larmor, Joseph, m.a., Sec. r.s., St. John's College, Cambridge 

Leathem, Dr. R. R., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast 
Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, 

Strandtown, do. 
Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down 

Letts. Professor E. A., PH.D., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra 
Lindsay, Professor James A., m.a., m.d., College Square 

East, Belfast 

Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House, do. 

Lytle, Joseph H., j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 



Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e., Stanley House, 

Holywood 
Mackenzie, John, c.e., Strathavon, Lisburn Road, 
*Macrory, A. J., (Representative of), 
Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, 
Malcom, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road^ 
Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.e., Kirkliston Drive, 

Bloomfield, 
Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, 
Mayes, William, 5 Mount Pleasant, 
Milligan, Seaton Forest, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a., 
Mitchell, Robert A., ll.b., t.c.d., Marmont, 
Montgomery, Henry C, 
Montgomery, H. H., Strandtown, 
Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain House, Dunmurry 
Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast 



Belfast 
do. 
do. 

do. 



do. 
do. 

do. 

Bangor 

Strandtown 

Bangor 

Belfast 



44 



Shareholders. 



Morton, Professor, m.a., Nottinghill, Belfast 

Mullen, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park do. 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p., Tudor House, Holywood 

*Murphy, Isaac James, Armagh 

*Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of), Belfast 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone do. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 
Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., d.l., j.p., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of) do. 

M'Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, Mallusk, do. 

M'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London 
*,VI'Cammon, Lieut. -Col. Thomas A. (Representatives 

of) Woodville, Holywood 

M'Cance, Miss Charlotte Gcorgianna, Larkfield, Dunmurry 
M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart, j.p., d.l. (Representatives 

of) 

MacColl, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast 

MacCoimac, John, m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Cultra House, Holywood 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of) 

M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood 

M'Gee, Samuel Mackey, University Street, Belfast 

Macllwaine, John H., Mornington Park, Bangor 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d.. College Square East, Belfast 

M 'Knight, John P., Nevara, Chichester Park, do. 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p., Queen's Elms do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Holywood 

Nicholson, Henry J., College Square North Belfast 

O'Neill, James, m.a., College Square East do. 
O'Rorke, Ambrose Howard (Representatives of) 

Dunratho Craigavad 

Orr, Hugh L., Woodstock Road, Belfast 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University St., Belfast 



Shareholders. 45 

Patterson, Edward Ferrar, Bangor 

Patterson, Mrs. Isabella, Bonn, Germany 

Patterson, John, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Patterson, Richard, j.p., Kilmore, Holy wood 

*Patterson, Robert Lloyd, j.p., d.l., f.ls.. Croft House, do. 
Patterson, Robert, m.r.i a., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., Malone Park, Belfast 
Patterson, William H., m.r.i. a., Garranard, Strandtown 

Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Knock, Belfast 

Pirn, Edward W., j.p., Elmwood Terrace, do 

Pim, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey 

*Pirrie, Elizabeth, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e., m.r.i. a., National I-ibrary, Dublin 

Purser, Prof. John, ll.d., m.r.i.a., Rathmines Castle, do. 

Rea, John Henry, m.d., University Street, Belfast 

Rea, William R,, Gardha, Fnrtwilliam Park, do. 

Reade, Robert H. S , j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark, Belfast 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown do. 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc, Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shillington, Thos. Foulkes, j.p., Droinart, Antrim Road, do. 
Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., j.p., d.l., Hopefield, do. 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r c.s. Eng., Howard St., do. 
Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, John, m.a., c.e., Milltown, Banbridge 

Speers, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywood 

Steen, William C, m.d., Windsor Crescent, Belfast 

Stcen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 
Stelfox, James, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representative of), Rushpark. do. 



46 Shareholders. 

*Tennent, Robert James (Reorescntatives of), Rush- 
park, Belfast 
Thompson, S. B., Short Strand, do. 
Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H. (Representatives of), Whiteabbey 
*Turnley, John (Representatives of), Belfast 

Walkington, Miss Jane A., Wolsley Villas, Malone Park, do. 
Walkington, Thomas R., Edeiivale, Strandtown, do. 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 

Ward, Francis D., j.p., m.r.i.a., Ivydene, Malone Park, do. 
Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, j.p., f.s.a., Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Knock, do. 

Whitla, Prof., Sir William, m.d., j.p., College Sq., North, do. 
Wilson, James, m.e., Oldforge, Dunmurry 

Wilson, John K., j.p., Donegall Street, Belfast 

Wilson, Walter H., Belvoir Park, do. 

*Wilson, W. Perceval, do. 

*WolfT, G. W., M.P., The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, Drummena, Bladon Park, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, ma., Rubane House, Glastry 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., b.d., The Manse, Newtownbreda 
♦Workman, Thomas, j.p. (Representatives of), Craig- 

darragh, Craigavad 

Workman, William, Nottinghill, Belfast 

Wright, James Lauriston (Representatives of), Derry- 

volgie Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, F.G.S., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, c.e., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



Annual Subscribers. 



47 



HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Belfast 
Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s. Edin., Belfast Museum, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 



Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., 
Northern Banking Co., Ltd., 
Ulster Bank, Ltd., 
York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., 



Belfast 
do. 
do. 
do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 



Allan, C. E. Stormont Castle, Dundonald 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast 

Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Cleaver, A. S., b.a., Dunraven, do. 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor 

Fulton, G. F., Howard Street, Belfast 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do. 

Green, Isaac, Ann Street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., j.p.. Marietta, Knock, do. 



48 Annual Suhscrihers. 

Hazelton, W. D., Cliftonville, Belfast 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park do. 

Hutton, A. W., Chichester Street, do. 

Jones, R. M., m.a., Royal Academical Institution, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

Macassey, Lyndon, c.E., b.a., ll.b., Holywood 

Malone, John, Brookvale House, Cliftonville, Belfast 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Brnokville House, do. 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f.r.c.s.l, Lower Crescent, do. 

Scott, Conway, c.E., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Stephens, S., Holywood 

Storrar, W. Morrison, l.r.c.p., Mountcharles, Belfast 
Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Tate, Alexander, c.e., Rantalard, Whitehouse, do. 

Thompson, John, j.p., Mount Collyer, do. 

Turpin, James, Waring Street, do. 



c|l0rt Mil lr0r^^^injgs 



BBLF^^ST 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



SESSIOnsr 1902-1903. 



BELB^AST : 

PRINTED BY ALEXR. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET 

(printers to quekn's college.) 

1903. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report 

Balance Sheet 

Donations to Musaum ... 

Books Eeceived 

The Liquefaction of Gases — J. Brown, F.R.S. 

Recent Fishery Research — Professor Gregg Wilson, .D.Sc 

Evidence of the Caves — R. J. Ussher, J. P. 

Heredity in its Relation to the Nervous System — John M. MacCormac 

M.D., L.R.C.P. &S. Edin. ... 
The Micro-Fauna of the Boulder Clay— Joseph Wright, F.G.S. 
Notes on Some Igneous Rocks in Down and Antrim — Miss Mary K 

Andrews ... 
Note on Some Experiments on Irish Stone for Street Paving — H. Gullan 
The Armada Wrecks on the Irish Coast — Rev. W. S. Green, M.A. 
Note on Some Effects of the Cyclone of February 27 — R. Welch 
A Lost Principle in Art — George Coffey, M.A., M.R.I. A. 
List of Office Bearers ... 
List of Shareholders 



1 

8 
9 
12 
21 
30 
35 

41 
47 

51 

57 
59 
63 
64 
68 
69 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST-A-BLISHEID 1821. 



CONSTITUTION. 

The membership of the Society consists of Shareholders in the Museum, 
Annual Subscribers (Associates), Honorary Members and Honorary Associates. 

Shares in the Museum cost £7 each. A holder of one Share paj-s an 
annual contribution of ten shillings ; a holder of two Shares (in one certificate) 
an annual contribution of five shillings ; while a holder of three or more Shares 
(in one certificate) is exempt from annual payments. Shares on which the 
annual payments as above are in arrear are liable to forfeiture. The Council 
retain the right to decline to consolidate two or more share certificates into one 
certificate. 

Annual Subscribers (Associates) pay £1 Is. (one guinea) due 1st November 
in each year in advance. 

A General Meeting of Shareholders in the Museum is held annually in 
May or June, or as soon thereafter as convenient, to receive the Report of the 
Council and the Statements of Accounts for the preceding year, to elect 
members of Council to replace those retiring by rotation or from other reasons, 
and to transact any other business incidental to an annual meeting. Share, 
holders only are eligible for election on the Council. 

The Council elect, from among their own number, a President and other 
officers of the Society. 

Each Member has the right of personal attendance at the ordinary lectures 
of the Society, and has the privilege of introducing two friends for admission to 
such ; and he has also the right of access to the Museum and Library for 
himself and family residing under his roof, with the privilege of granting 
admission ciders for inspecting the collections in the Museum to any person not 
residing in Belfast or within five miles thereof. The session for lectures 
extends from November till May. 

The Museum, College Square North, is open daily for the admission of 
visitois, for such hours as the Council may from time to time decide ; tl^e 
charge for admission to non-members is sixpence each. The Curator is in 
constant attendance, and will take charge of any donation kindly presented to 
the Museum or Library. 

Any further information required may he obtained from the Honorary 
Secretary. 



Belfa6t Natural Ibistor^ anb pbilosopbical 

Society. 

:o: 

ANNUAL REPORT, 1902-3. 



■:o:- 



The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders of this Society was 
held on 31 d July, 1903, in the Belfast Museum, College Square 
North. The chair was occupied by Mr. John Brown, F.K.S. 
(President), and there were also present — Sir Robert Lloyd 
Patterson, D.L., F.L.S.; Professor Johnson Syminjjton, M.D., 
F.R.S.; Rev. Lamont Orr, Dr. John MacCormac ; Messrs. 
George Kidd, J.P.; Robert Young, J.P.; R. M. Young, J. P., 
M.R.I.A., Hon. Secretary ; Joseph R. Fisher, B.L.; W. Gray 
M.R.I. A.; R. Patterson, M.R.I.A., F.Z.S.; John Smyth, M.A 
Nevin H. Foster, John Horner, Isaac W. Ward, W H. F. 
Patterson, Hon. Treasurer. 

The Hon. Secretary having read the notice convening the 
Meeting, submitted the Annual Report as follows : — 

"The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophica 
Society desire to submit their Report of the working of the 
Society during the past year. The Winter Session was opened 
in the Museum, on the 5th November, 1902, when the 
President, Mr. John Brown, F.R.S., gave an opening address 
taking a^ his subject ' The Liquefaction of Gases,' illustrated 
by numerous experiments. The Second Meeting was held on 
2nd December, when Professor Gregg Wilson, D.Sc, kindly 
delivered an address on ' Recent Fishery Research,' illustrated 
by special lantern slides. The Third Meeting (a special one) 
>vas held on 17th December. On this occasion xMr. Richard J 



2 Anntial Meeting. 

Ussher, M.R.I.A., Waterford, gave a lecture, subject ' Evidence 
of the Caves,' illustrated by lantern views. On the 6th January) 
1903, the Fourth Meeting was held, when Dr. John MacCormac 
lectured on the subject of ' Heredity in its Relation to the 
Nervous S3^stem,' illustrated by specially prepared lantern 
slides. The Fifth Meeting took place on the 3rd February, 
when two papers were read. i. 'The Micro-fauna of the 
Boulder Clay, with some Remarks on the Movement of Glaciers, 
illustrated with tables, diagrams, and lantern slides, by Mr. 
Joseph Wright, F.G.S. II. ' Notes on Some Igneous Rocks in 
Down and Antrim,' illustrated by specimens, slides, and 
microscopic sections, by Miss Mary K. Andrews. The Sixth 
Meeting was held on the 3rd March, when Rev. W. Spotswood 
Green, M.A., kindly gave an illustrated lecture, subject ' The 
Armada Wrecks on the Irish Coast.' The Seventh Meeting 
took place on the 7th April, when Mr. George Coffey, M.A., 
M.R.I. A,, kindly lectured on ' A Lost Principle in Art,' 
illustrated by a special series of lantern views of ancient and 
mediaeval buildings. At all these meetings the attendance of 
members and of the general public showed no diminution, and 
several of the lectures were the subject of reference and 
discussitin in the Press. 

Owing to the erection of the new Medical Institute, our 
Society has lost the Ulster Medical Society as tenants. This 
is to be especially regretted, as the relations between the two 
Societies have been uniformly harmonious. The room which 
was occupied by them has been taken by the Belfast Naturalist 
Field Club for the purpose of a library and meeting place for 
members. The other societies holding their meetings in the 
Museum continue to do so. 

The attendance of the general public has been, as usual, 
very large at the Easter holidays, when the Museum was 
opened at a nominal charge, and no damage was done to the 
collections. 

As will be seen by the Hon. Treasurer's Statement of 
Accounts, duly audited by the Local Government Board's 



Annual Meeting. 3 

Auditor, a satisfactory balance remains after paying all expenses. 
This, however, it must be borne in mind, results from the 
thoughtful generosity of the local committee of the British 
Association, who decided to pay to the Society the balance of 
the general fund raised for last year's meeting. 

Mainly as a result of the suggestions made by Professor 
Gregg Wilson in his lecture on ' Recent Fishery Research ' on 
2nd December, a meeting of representatives of our own Society, 
the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, and the Queen's College 
was convened by your Secretary on the i6th December to 
consider the advisability of the establishment of a marine 
biological laboratory. As a result the Ldster Fisheries and 
Biology Association has been established, with Mr. Robert 
Patterson, M.R.I.A., F.Z.S., as its Honorary Secretary and 
Treasurer. Already good work has been done, and much 
interest aroused for its future welfare. 

The natural history collections in the Museum have received 
a great amount of attention during the year, and the much- 
needed work of revision and rearrangement has to a large 
extent been carried out by a number of volunteer experts. 
The Irish fossils, which form a large and valuable series, have 
been taken off the old tablets and remounted on a new system 
by Mr. W. Svvanston, and now make a most effective display. 
The important set of County Down graptolites is not yet in 
place, but is being renamed and classified by Professor Lapworth 
and will then form a standard collection of the Irish species of 
these ancient fossils. 

The collections representing Irish vertebrate zoology have 
been taken in hand effectively by Mr. Robert Patterson. Old 
and imperfect specimens have been replaced, and those retained 
carefully cleaned, adding much to the brightness and attractive- 
ness of the rooms. Seven drawers of bitds' eggs have been' 
classified and mounted on the modern system by Messrs. Nevin 
H. Foster and John Cottney. Many clutches of eggs, hitherto 
absent or imperfectly represented, have been added, and there 
is now a complete series of the eggs of Irish nebting birds. 



4 Annual Meeting. 

The Rev. W. F. Johnston and Mr. H. Lamont Orr have 
done much work in supplying, arranging, classifying, and 
mounting the collections of native insects. Some of the 
groups are fairly well represented, especially coleoptera, but 
large gaps still remain. It is to be hoped that some of these 
will ere long be closed up. 

xMr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., took up the arrangement of the 
Foraminifera. A large number of specimens were added by 
him to the existing collection. All were re-mounted on the 
most effective system known, and by Mr. Wright's kindness 
the Museum now possesses a series of Irish Foraminifera, both 
recent and fossil, more complete than that of any other 
institution in the country. 

There have been many valuable recent additions to the 
Museum collections. The specimen of golden eagle from 
County Donegal, presented by Sir James Musgrave, is note- 
worthy by reason of the ever-increasing scarcity of this bird in 
Ireland. Two case^ of salmon, pictorially mounted, presented 
by Mr. Robert Patterson, are also specially attractive additions- 
The collections generally have been removed from the cabinets 
cleaned, and replaced, and the relabelling of the objects is now 
being carried out by the assistant curator. Dr. A. Harris, of 
Stewartstown, has kindly placed in the Museum on loan his 
very valuable collection of Naga weapons and personal 
ornaments of the hill tribes of India. These while they remain 
will form an interesting and attractive exhibit. A list of 
donations to the Museum and of the publications received 
during the Session from the various societies with whom we 
are in correspondence will be printed with the present report. 
Five members of the Council retire from office as usual, of 
whom four are eligible for re-election. 

The Hon. Treasurer read the Statement of Accounts, which 
showed that the year had commenced with a balance of 
£\^ 1 6s. 7d., the total receipts being ^361 17s. 5d. The tw^o 
principal items were bequests and donations, ^136 is., and 
subscriptions, -£\\i ids. The expenditure for the year 



Anmcal Meeting. 5 

amounted to ^^303 4s. 5d., the balance in Treasurer's hands 
being ^58 13s., while ^400 worth of the York Street Spinning 
Company's Debenture Stock is still held by the Shareholders. 

Professor Symington said that he had much pleasure in 
moving the adoption of the Report and Statement of Accounts. 
He need not say much, because it appeared to him that Report 
generally was of a very satisfactory nature. During last winter 
they certainly had a very excellent series of lectures, and he 
was glad to hear that the valuable collection in the possession 
of the Society was being taken good care of, and in many 
respects rearranged and brought up to modern requirements. 

Sir Robert Lloyd Patterson expressed his pleasure in 
seconding the resolution. He need not take up much of their 
time, for in every way they considered the Rtport satisfactory. 
He wished, however, to point out that but for the fortunate 
circumstances of receiving a cousiderable sum from the local 
committee of the British Association their finances would not 
have been in the satisfactory condition they were. They could 
not expect that item to arise again, and he would urge, as he 
had done often before in that room, the importance of that 
Society and the claims it has on public support, which claims, 
he was sorry to say, were not recognized as the members felt 
they ought to be. 

The President said he ought to take this opportunity of 
expressing the great regret which he was sure they all felt at 
hearing of the death of one of their oldest members, Mr. Isaac 
J. Murphy. At one time he was a very frequent attender at 
their meetings, and gave many interesting lectures, while he 
also presented to the Society considerable apparatus. They all 
regretted very much that he had passed away. 

In speaking of the Report, one of the things he was happy 
to notice was the great preponderance of natural history papers. 
Although he was not a naturalist himself, that was a naturalists' 
society, and it was many years since they had so many, and so 
good, papers on the subject. In former years it was left to the 
engineers and other such people to save the Society from utter 



6 Annnal Meeting. 

extinction, so far as the reading of papers was concerned, by 
bringing forward subjects in which they were interested. 

A very important event in the past Session was the 
nauguration of the Ulster Fishery and Biological Association, 
which had largely emanated from Professor Gregg Wilson's 
lecture on ' Fishery Research.' 

It was satisfactory to see that donations still flowed in, and 
almost seemed to increase through the kindness of the people 
named in the Report. He was pleased to note also that others 
had been kind enough to help them to rearrange the collection, 
which was now in a much better state than it had been for a 
long time ; the balance in hands was satisfactory, and altogether 
he thought they might be congratulated upon having had a 
prosperous year. 

The Report and Statement of Accounts were then passed. 

Mr. Robert Young suggested that it would be desirable to 
send a letter of condolence to the family of the late Mr. Isaac 
Murphy. 

Sir R. Lloyd Patterson seconded, and the suggestion was 
unanimously approved of. 

The following gentlemen were elected to the Council of 
Management for the ensuing year : — Rev. Dr. Hamilton 
(President, Queen's College), Professor Symington, F.R.S., 
Professor Gregg Wilson, Mr. R. M. Young, J. P. ; and Mr. T. F. 
Shillington, J.P. 

Mr. Joseph K. Fisher said he had pleasure in rising to move 
a vote of thanks to the President for his conduct in the chair 
during his term of office. As a new member, he was not in a 
position to speak with any amount of experience of Mr. 
Brown's services in that particular capacity, but generally his 
great scientific attainments and knowledge of business had 
fitted him to carry on the invaluable work of that Society. 
He (the speaker) would simply move that the best thanks of 
the Society be given to Mr. Brown for his presidency during 
the last three years. 

Mr. William Gray, in seconding, said he thought it ought to 



Annual Meeting. 7 

be a great satisfaction to the citizens of Belfast to have amongst 
th;;m a gentleman of Atr. Brown's attainments, and whose 
family was connected with the material progress of the city ; 
one who had distinguished himself by his original research. 
As members of that Society, he thought they ought to be very 
grateful indeed to him for applying his high attainments in 
promoting the best interests of the Society. 

The vote of thanks was heartily accorded. 

Mr. Brown, in response, said that he was very much obliged 
to the members for their kindness. Any work he had done for 
the Society had been a labour of love, and he had only been 
anxious that it should be on the right track, and productive of 
good results. Although he was retiring from the office of 
President, his interest in the Society would be just the same as 
ever, and he hoped to do what he could for it in the future as 
in the past. 

The public meeting then terminated. 

The following Officers of the Society for the year 1903-4 
were elected at this and a subsequent meeting of the Council: — 
President — Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S. ; 
Vice-Presidents— Sir Robert Lloyd Patterson, D.L.,J.P.,F.L.S. ; 
Wm. Swanston, F.G.S. ; Rev. T.Hamilton, D.D., LL.D., M.A., 
and Robert Young, J.P., C.E. Hon. Treasurer— W. H.F.Patter- 
son. Hon. Librarian— J. H. Davies. Hon. Secretary— Robert 
M. Young, J.P., M.R.LA. 



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9 
DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1 902-1903. 



From Mrs. Carroll. 
A mounted specimen of the Gannet {Sula alba). 

From Mr. Robert Bell. 
A fine specimen of Natrolite from Trap rock at Whitewell. 

From Sir James Musgrave, D.L. 
A mounted specimen of the Golden Eagle [Aqiiila chryscetos) 
shot in County Donegal. 

From Sir R. Lloyd Patterson, D.L., F.L.S. 
A mounted specimen of the Crane {Grus cinerea). 

From Mr. Robert Young, J.P. 
Two vertebral joints of an Icthyosaiiriis from the Lias at 
Woodburn, County Antrim. 

From The Egypt Exploration Fund. 
Numerous specimens of ancient pottery and other objects 
obtained by recent researches and excavations at Abydos. 

From Mr. Robert Patterson, M.R.LA., F.Z.S. 
Two large specimens of Salmon {Sahno salar) from Glenarm 
River, pictorially mounted in glazed cases ; also many 
specimens of Irish birds, including the Common Buzzard 
[Btiteo vulgaris)^ Redbreasted Merganser {Mergits serrator)^ 
and a Velvet Scoter [QZdemia fiisca) shot in Belfast 
Lough. 

From Mr. George A. CARRUTHiiRS, Weymouth. 
Stem of a Cycad from the " Dirt Bed " at Portland, Dorset. 
Portion of fossil tree stem from the Oolitic limestone of 
Portland. Three gigantic Ammonites. Casts of oysters, 
and of Trigonia, and of Cerithmm portlandicum from the 
same bed. Two fossil oysters from the Oxford clay at 
Weymouth, also specimen of crystallised carbonate of 
lime. 



10 Donations to the Museum. 

From Messrs. J. P. Corry & Co. 
Two planks of elm in which a stake of ash is included. The 
stake had been fastened by pegs to the young elm tree, 
and the elm has grown around the ash stake and completely 
enfolded it. 

From Mr. W. D. Barrett. 
A specimen of lead ore {Galena) from Co. Kerry. 

Fro7n Mr. R. M. Patterson. 
A specimen of the gi-int puff bull {Lycoperdon giganteum). 

From Mr. Charles Halliday, Banbridge. 
One of the old six-barrelled revolver pistols. 

From Mr. Victor Coates, D.L. 
The Skin of a Vulture {Gypcetos mcridinnalis) from South 
Africa. 

From Mr. H. Marshall, Newry. 
Preseived specimens of Otter, Woodpecker, Water Rail, etc. 

From Mr. F. B. Simms. 
Eggs of Gannet from the Bass Rock, and Eggs of Tern from 
Copeland Islands. 

From Mr. Wm. R. Sinclair. 
Skin of a reptile {Iguana ?) from South Africa. 

From Mr. James Sloan. 
The upper stone of a Quern. 

From Miss Rea. 
A large collection of geological specimens. 

From Miss M. K. Andrews. 
A framed photograph of coast erosian at Cultra. 

From Mr. Robert Welch. 
A specimen of the curiously perforated limestone at Lough 
Corrib. 



Donations to the Miiseiitn. ti 

From Mh. William Swanston, F.G.S. 
A numerous series of fossil specimens. 

From Mr. S. A. Stewart, F.B.S 
Glaciated lim.estone from Castle Espie, and a number of fossils. 

From Messrs. R. J. Ussher, Nevin Foster, 
AND John Cottney. 
A large number of eggs of Irish birds. 

From Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S. 
A large number of mounted specimens of Irish Foraminifera. 

From Mr. Granby Higginbotham. 
Specimen of a fossil plant from the Coal Measures, 



12 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, ist MAY, 1901, till 
1ST MAY, 1902. 



Received from 

Adelaide. — Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia. 

Vol. 2, part I, 1902. Transactions, vol. 26, 

parts I and 2, 1902. 

Presented by the Society. 
Basel. — Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Basel. Vol. 13, part i, 1901, and part 2, 1902 ; 

vol. 14, 1901 ; and vol. 15, part i, 1903 ; also 

Zur Erinnerung an Tycho Brahe, 1901. 

The Society. 
Belfast. — Catalogue of Early Belfast Printed Books, second 

supplement to third edition. 

The Linen Hall Library. 
Bergen. — Bergens Museums Aarbog for 1902, parts 1 and 2, 

1902, and part 3, 1903 ; also Crustacea of 

Norway, vol. 4, parts 7 — 12, 1902, and parts 13 

and 14, 1903. Bergen Alnseum. 

Birmingham. — Proceedings of the Birmingham Natural History 

and Philosophical Society. Vol. 11, part 2, 

1902. The Society. 

Boston, U.S. — Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 

History. Vol. 29, No. 15, 1900, Nos. 16 — 18, 

1901, and vol. 30, Nos. i and 2, 1901 ; also 

Occasional Papers, No. 6, 1901. 

The Society. 
Boulder, Colorado. — College Studies. Vol. i, Nos. i and 2, 

1902 ; and Quarto Centennial Celebration of 

Colorado Tfniversity, 1902. 

Colorado University. 



Books Received. 13 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen vom Natarwissenschaftlichen Verein 
zu Bremen. Vol. 17, part 2, 1903. 

The Society. 

Brrslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie vom Verein fiir Sclesiche 
Insektenkunde zu Breblau. New series, part 
27, IQ02. The Society. 

Brighton. — Annual Report and Abstract of Papers of Brighton 
and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, 1902. The Society. 

Brussels. — Anales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de 
Belgique. Vol. 36, 1902. The Society. 

BuHNOS Ayres. — Annales de Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 
Ser. 2, vol. 7, 1902. The Director. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. 
33, part 3, 1902 ; vol. 34, part 2, 1902 ; vol. 35, 
part 1, 1902. Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 16, 
vol. 2, parts I — 3, 1902 ; and General Report 
for 1 901 -1 902. The Direct jr of the Survey. 

Cambridge. — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society. Vol. 11, parts 5 — 7, 1902 ; and vol. 
12, parts I and 2, 1903. The Society. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard. Vol. 38, No. 7, 1902 ; 
vol. 39, Nos. 2 — 5, 1902; vol. 40, Nos. 1—3, 
1902 ; and Nos. 4 and 5, 1903 ; also Annual 
Report, 1902. 7 he Keeper of the Mtiseinn. 

Cassel. — Abhandlungen und Bericht (47) des Vereins fii 
Naturkunde zu Kassel, 1902. The Society. 

Cherbukg. — Memoires de la Societe Nationale des Sciences 
Naturelles et Mathematiques de Cherbourg. 
Ser. 4, vol. 33, fasc. 3, 1902. The Society. 

Chicago. — Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 
Vol. 2, Nos. 3 and 4, 1900. The Academy. 

Christiania. — Forhandlinger i Videnskabs Selskabet i Chris- 
tiania for year 1901. 

The Royal Norske Frederiks University. 



14 Books Received. 

Cincinnati. — Bulletin of the Lloyd Library. Nos. 4 and 5, 

1902. The Messrs. Lloyd. 

Dantzic. — Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Danzig. New series, vol. 10, part 4, 1902. 

The Society. 
Davenport, Iowa. — Proceedings of the Davenport Academy 

of Sciences. Vol. 8, 1901. The Academy. 
Di;blix.— Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. 

Series 2, vol. 7, parts 14 — i6, 1902 ; vol. 8, 

part I, iqo2 ; and vol. 9, part 5, 1903 ; also 

Economic Proceedings, vol. i, part 3, 1902. 

The Society. 
Edinburgh. — Pioceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Vol. 14, part 4, 1901. The Socety. 

Ei.BERFELD. — Jahresbcricht des Naturvvissenschaftlichen Vereins 

in Elberfeld. Part 10, 1903. The Society. 
Emden. — Jahresbcricht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Emden for 1900-1901. The Society. 

Genoa. — Rivista Ligure di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. Ease. 

2 — 6. 1902, and fasc. i, 1903. 

The Society di Lctture e Conversazioni ed Art. 
GiESSEN. — Thirty-third Bericht der Oberhessichen Gesellschaft 

fiir Natur und Heilkunde, 1902. 

Ihe Society. 
Glasgow. — Transactions of the Natural History Society of 

Glasgow. New series, vol. 6, part 2, 1902. 

The Society. 
,, Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of 

Glasgow. Vol. 33, 1902. The Society. 

Gothenburg. — Goteborg's Kungl Vetenskaps Och Vitterhets" 

samhalles Handlingar. Part 4, 1898. 

The Society. 
Hamburg. — Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissen- 

schaften. Herausgegeben vom Naturwissen- 

schaftlichen Verein in Hamburg. Vol. 17, 

1902] The Society. 



Books Received. 15 

Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen — Karpathen Vereins. 29th 
year, 1902. The Society. 

KiEW. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of Kiew. Vol. 
17, part I, 1901 ; and part 2, 1902. 

The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 
Naturelles. Vol. 38, Nos. 143 — 145, 1902 ; 
also Observationes Meteorologiques, 1902. 

The Society. 

Lawrence. — Bulletin of the University of Kansas, Science. 
Vol. I, Nos. I — 4, 1902. The University. 

Leeds. — Eighty-second Annual Report of Leeds Philosophical 
and Literary Society, 1902. The Society. 

Leipsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 
1 90 1. The Society. 

Lima. — Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas dei Peru. 
Nos. I and 2, 1902. The Director. 

London. — Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of 
London. Vol. 58, parts 2 — 4, 1902 ; and vol. 
59, part I, 1903 ; also List of Fellows, and 
Geological Literature, 1902. The Society. 
, Series of British Museum Guide Books as under. 

Guide to Mammalia ; to Reptiles and Fishes ; 
to British Echinoderms ; to Shells and Starfish ; 
to Sowerby's Models of Fungi ; to the M}'Ce- 
tozoa; to Coral Gallery ; to Fossil Reptiles and 
Fishes ; to Fossil Invertebrata and Plants 
(2 parts) ; Introduction to Study of Meteorites ; 
to Study of Rocks ; to Study of Minerals ; 
Guide to Mineral Gallery, and Students' Index 
to the Minerals ; also ten pamphlets of Direc- 
tions for Collectors. The Director. 
Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Parts 
148 — 151, 1902 ; and 152 and 153, 1903. 

The Society. 



1 6 Books Received. 

London. — Transactions of the Zoological Society of London- 
Vol. 1 6, parts 5 — 7, 1902. Proceedings for 
1901, vol. 2, part I ; and 1902, vol. i, parts i 
and 2 ; vol. 2, part i ; also Index for 1 891 -1900. 

The Society. 

Madras. — Administration Report of the Government Museum 
and Public Library, T901-1902. 
The Superintendent of the Central Mnseum. 
Manchester. — Journal of Manchester Geographical Society. 
Vol. 17, Nos. 7 — 12, and Supplement, 1901 ; 
vol. 18, Nos. I — 3, 1902, and Supplement for 
1896. The Society. 

,, Transactions of Manchester Geological Society. 

Vol. 27, parts 10, II, 12, 13, and 17, 1902. 

The Society. 
„ Annual Report and Transactions of Manchester 

Microscopical Society, 1 900-1 901. 

The Society. 
Marseilles. — Anales de la Facultc des Sciences de Marseille- 

Vol. 12, 1902. The Librarian. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 
New series, vol. 14, part 2, 1902 ; vol. 15, part 
I, 1902 ; and part 2, 1903. The Society. 

Mexico. — Boletin del Instituto Geologico de Mexico. No. 15, 
iqo2, and No. 16, 1902. The Institute. 

„ Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico 
Central di Mexico. August till November, 
1 901, and January, 1902. Informe (text and 
atlas) 1901-1902. Anuario, No. 23, 1902. 

The Director. 
Milwaukee. — Bulletin of Wisconsin Natural History Society. 
New series, vol. 2, No. 4, 1902. 

2 he Society. 
Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Vol. 4, part I, 1902. Ihe Director, 



Books Received. 17 

Moscow. — Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Naturalists of 
Moscow. Nos. 3 and 4, 1902, and No. 3, 1903. 

77/1? Society. 
Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
rOuest de la France. Scries 2, vol. i, parts 3 
and 4, 1 901 ; vol. 2, parts i and 2, 1902 ; also 
Table des Matieres de la Premiere serie, 189 1 
1900. The Society. 

New York. — Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 
Vol. 14, part 2, 1902. The Academy. 

„ Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 24, Nos. I — 5, 1902, and vol. 25, No. i, 
1903. The Society. 

Nottingham. — Report and Transactions of Nottingham 
Naturalists' Society, 1901-1902. 

The Society. 
Odessa. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 

Vol. 24, part I, 1901. The Society. 

Ottawa. — Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology. Vol. 2, 
part 2 (Fossil insects), 1900 ; vol. 4, part 2 
(Palaeozoic Corals), 1901 ; and vol. 3 (quarto), 
1902 ; also Catalogue of the .Vlarine Invertebrata 
of Eastern Canada, 1901. 

The Director of the Survey. 
Padua. — Atti della Societa Veneto Trentina di Scienze Naturali. 

Series 2, vol. 4, fasc. 2, 1902. The Society. 
Philadelphia. — Proceedings of Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Science. Vol. 54, part i, 1902. 

The Academy. 
„ Proceedings of the American Philosophical 

Society. Vol. 41, Nos. 168 — 170, 1902. 

The Society. 
„ Ressources Vegetales des Colonies Francaises, 

by Gustavo Niederlein, Chef de Department 
Scientifique des Philadelphia Museums. 

The Author, 
k 



i8 Books Received. 

Pisa. — Atti della SocietaToscana di Scienze Naturali, Processa 
Verbali. Vol. 13, January, iqoz — January, 
1903. The Society. 

Rome. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Vol. 11, 
semestre i, fasc. 7 — 12, 1902 ; semestre 2, fasc. 
I — 12, 1902 ; vol. 12, semestre T, fasc. i — 6, 
1903 ; and Rendiconto dell' Adunanza Solenne 
di 1st Guigno, 1902. The Academy. 

,, Bollettino della Societa Zoologico Italiana. Series 2, 

vol. 3, fasc. I — 3, 1902. The Society. 

San Francisco. — Occasional Papers of California Academy of 
Sciences, No. 8, 1901. Proceedings (Zoology), 
vol. 2, Nos. 7 — IT, 1901 ; and vol. 3, Nos. i — 4, 
1901-1902. The Academy. 

St. Louis — Thirteenth Annual Report of Missouri Botanical 
Garden, 1902. The Director. 

Stavangfr. — Stavanger Museum Aarshefte for 1891. 

The Museum Trustees. 

Stettin. — Bericht der Gesellschaft fiir Volker und Erdkunde 
zu Stettin, 1902. The Society. 

Stirling. — Transactions of Stirling Natural History and 
Archxlogical Society, 1902. The Society. 

Stockholm. — Handlingar of the Royal Swedish Academy. 
Vol. 35, 1902. Bihang, vol. 27, parts i — 4, 
iqo2. Ofversigt, No. 58, 1901, and No. 59, 
1902. The Academy. 

Sydney — Science of Man (Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Society of Australasia). New series, vol. 5, Nos. 
3 — 12,1901-1902. The Editor. 

Tokyo. — Mittheilungen der Gesellschaft fiir Natur — und Vol- 
kerunde Ostasiens. Vol. 8, part 3, 1902 ; and 
vol. 9, part I, 1902 ; also Supplement, No. i, 
1902, and Festschrift, 1902. The Society. 

Toronto. — Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 7, 
part 2, 1902, and Proceedings, vol. 2, part 5 
1902. The Institute. 



Books Received. 19 

Upsala. — Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the Uni- 
versity of Upsala. Vol. 5, part 2, No. 10, 1901. 

The University. 

Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Zoo- 
logisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Vol. 
52, 1902. The Society. 

„ Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Geo- 
logischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 3—18, 1902, 
and Nos. i — 4, 1903. The Society. 

Washington. — Year-book of the Department of Agriculture, 
1901, and North American Fauna, No. 22, 
190-. 
The Secretary of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture . 

,, Bulletin of the Bureau of Ethnology. No. 26, 

1 90 1. The Director of the Bureau. 

„ Twenty-first Annual Report of the United 

States Geological Survey, parts 5 and 7, and 
Atlas, 1899-1900. Monographs, No. 41, 1902. 
Bulletin of the Survey, Nos. 177 — 190, 1901- 
19C2, and Nos. 192 — 194, 1902. Mineral 
Resources of the United States, 1902. Recon- 
naissances in Cape Nome Region, Alaska, 1901. 
Also Geology and Mineral Resources of Copper 
River District, Alaska, 1901. 

The Director of the Survey. 

„ Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution 

for 1900 and 190T. Smithsonian Contributions 
to Knowledge, No. 1309, 1901. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, Nos. 1312 — 1314, 
1902 ; also 1174 and 1259, 1902. 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

,, The American Monthly Microscopical Journal. 

Vol. 22, Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 12, 1901, and vol. 23, 
Nos. I — 4, 1902. The Publisher, 



20 Books Received. 

Washington. — Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washing- 
ton. Vol. 14, pp. 179—204, 1902. 

The Society, 
York. — Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society 

for 1902. The Society. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrsschrift der Natursforschenden Gesellschaft 
in Zurich. Parts i and 2, 1902. 

The Society. 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION 1902-190 3. 



5//? November^ 1902. 

THE LIQUEFACTION OF GASES. 

Inaugural Address by the President, J. Brown, F.R.S. 



{Abstract.) 



Before taking up the subject proper of my address, will you 
permit me to express my very grateful appreciation of the 
honour conferred upon my unworthiness by your Council in 
electing me as your President for a third term ? There is no 
honour which I value more highly, nor any commendations 
which appeal to me more than such as come from our own 
Society, in which I have for the last twenty years or more 
taken a lively interest and an active part. 

In dealing with the subject generally of liquefied gases in, 
this place I feel that I have the privilege of entering on a field 
made famous by the work of one of our own citizens in our 
own town. I think it was my friend Professor Fitzgerald who 
remarked that if the name of our city were to be mentioned 
in any university in the civilised world the name of one man, 



21 Mr. /. Broivn on 

and one only, would be recalled by the word " Belfast." It 
would not be a name connected with our boasted manufactures, 
our great political lights, or our popular celebrities of any kind. 
It would be the name of Thomas Andrews, the fame of whose 
work on the continuity of the liquid and gaseous states is of 
course world-wide. 

Before Andrews's time, we find that in 1823 Faraday had 
succeeded in liquefying chlorine, sulphuric acid, and some 
other gases. Faraday, however, did not succeed in liquefying 
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, &c. 

In 1861 Andrews subjected these intractable gases to very 
great pressure, also without success, but on more easily con- 
densible gases his subsequent work had a value far exceeding 
this in scientific interest. 

In order to fix our ideas as to the conditions necessary for 
the liquefaction of gases let me point as an illustration to the 
homely matter of water boiling under ordinary conditions. 
Evidently heat is required. It is the tendency of heat to 
produce vapour or gas from liquid. Conversely we may 
conclude it Is a tendency of cooling to produce liquid from a 
gas or vapour like steam. Here, however, is only half the 
matter. When water boils in ordinary conditions it is under 
the atmospheric pressure of 151b. per square inch on its surface, 
and the vapour rising from it has to lift this 151b. off before il 
can form. As a matter of experiment we know that it will not 
lift this pressure till the temperature is raised to 100 degrees C. 
It would be natural to expect, however, that if we lift this 
atmospheric pressure off by other means a less temperature 
would suffice for converting the liquid into gas. We shall 
therefore not be very much surprised to see water boiling and 
freezing at the same time. Having exhausted the air from 
above the water in a glass vessel, you see it boiling violently, 
although quite cold enough to form ice, which is presently seen 
on its surface. 

From this experiment we draw the conclusion that the 
essening of pressure tends to form gas from liquid, and 



The Liquefaction of Gases. 23 

conversely that increase of pressure would tend to form liquid 
from gas. We also note incidentally that evaporation is here 
also attended bv loss of heat, producing in this case actual 
freezing of the liquid. Thus we see that the two conditions 
tending towards liquefaction of gases are pressure and cold. 

Before Andrews's time it was tacitly assumed that any defect 
in one of these could be made up for by increasing the other. 
If too little cold, more pressure would cause liquefaction. 
Andrews, however, discovered that for each gas there was a 
certain temperature above which no amount of pressure would 
liquefy that gas. This temperature he called the critical 
temperature for that particular gas. Below that temperature 
and at a sufficient pressure, called the critical pressure, the gas 
would liquefy with a decrease of volume. Above it no 
liquefaction could be observed ; yet when not much above it 
there was as the pressure increased a somewhat more rapid 
decrease in volume, than would correspond with the behaviour 
of what is called a perfect gas. Yet, again, when above the 
critical point, and therefore in a gaseous state, the gas, when 
reduced to about the volume which it would have occupied 
when liquefied at a lower temperature, yielded only slightly to 
further pressure. As regards its elasticity, it behaved then as 
a liquid. These researches were carried out with carbonic acid 
as an experimental agent, and in them is illustrated what 
Andrews aptly called the continuity of the gaseous and liquid 
states of matter. As he says, " From carbonic acid as a perfect 
gas to carbonic acid as a perfect liquid the transition may be 
accomplished by a continuous process." 

Andrews, who began with an attempt, unsuccessful as it waS) 
to merely liquefy the most refractory gases — oxygen, hydrogen, 
nitrogen, etc. — was thus led aside to a path rich in scientific 
interest — perhaps richer even than that which he set out to 
pursue. This was left to later investigators. 

In 1877 Pictet achieved the liquefaction of oxygen by 
combined pressure and cold, produced by elaborate and costly 
machinery. A few days only after Pictet's success Cailletet 



^4 ^'^'f'- !• Brown on 

announced a similar achievement. Following oxygen, all the 
other senses known at that period soon yielded likewise. About 
the case of hydrogen it is true doubts and difficulties seem to 
hang. At all events six years elapsed before Wroblewski and 
Olszewski obtained hydrogen in the form of a static liquid, 
and to collect liquid hydrogen in some quantity, as Professor 
Dewar remarks, has taken twenty years from the date of 
Pictet's experiments. 

Though Siemens had suggested the principle earlier, it was 
about 1895 that Linde, and also Hampson, devised perfect and 
simple apparatus. It is true that others in the meantime were 
approaching perfection, Dewar, for instance, having described 
in 1886 an apparatus embodying this principle. The chief 
difficulty is the production of a sufficient degree of cold. 
Lowering of temperature is, in modern apparatus, attained by a 
device which I shall try to explain in a simple way. In the 
antique apparatus for obtainmg fire known as the fire syringe 
(a specimen of which has been kindly lent us by Mr. Robert 
May, whose interesting collection of antique candlesticks is at 
present on view in the Free Library) heat is obtained by the 
compression of air. The syringe consists of a strong brass 
tube with an airtight plunger reaching nearly to the bottom of 
the tube. On driving the plunger rapidly down, the air 
beneath is so heated as to set fire to a piece of touch cotton 
(cotton wool treated with saltpetre and sulphur or with solution 
of phosphorous), which has previously been attached to the 
end of the plunger. When the plunger is withdrawn the air, 
which has been hot enough to set fire to our cotton wool, cools 
again. To do so it absorbs heat. From this simple experiment 
we conclude generally that air in expanding cools itself. Thus 
by the device of first compressing air, and, as it were, squeezing 
some of its heat out, and then allowing it to expand again, we 
cool it below the temperature at which we started. 

This is the first process in the air liquefying apparatus. Air 
is compressed in water-cooled pumps to 120 atmospheres, say 
i,70olb. per square inch, further cooled by passing through 



The Liquefaction of Gases. 2^ 

coils of tube immersed in water, and finally allowed to escape 
through a specially constructed valve, whereby in expanding it 
cools itself further, though not enough tor the purposes of lique- 
faction. For this there is necessary the so-called self-intensive 
principle. Just before the air escapes by the valve it has to 
pass through a coil containing very many turns of tube 
contained in a non-conducting casing. Through this casing 
and among the coils of tube the recently escaped and therefore 
cold air circulates, imparting its cold to the coils, and therefore 
to the compressed air circulating in them. We have thus a 
continuous interacting process of cooling, by which in a short 
time the air in the coils is reduced to a liquefying temperature. 
This is the self-intensive principle used by Linde, Dewar, 
Hampson, etc., for liquefaction of air, and finally by Travers for 
liquefaction of hydrogen, a much more difficult matter. 

It would be quite impracticable to keep liquid air in closed 
vessels because of the enormous pressure that would result when 
the liquid, by absorbing heat from the surrounding atmosphere 
through the walls of the vessel, would evaporate and regain its 
gaseous form. In an ordinary open glass vessel it evaporates in 
time, of course ; but if we reduce the influx of heat by surround- 
ing the vessel with a non-conducting envelope we may retard this 
evaporation. The best non conducting envelope known is a 
vacuous or highly-exhausted space, consequently what are 
called vacuum jacketed vessels are employed — i.e., the glass 
tube or flask containing the liquid is surrounded by a second 
larger glass tube or flask, sealed on so that the interspace can 
be exhausted of air. Through this space conduction of heat is 
very slight. Radiation of heat into the vessel is prevented by 
silvering the interior between the two vessels, and so reflecting 
the heat rays that strike upon it. The invention of these 
vessels is claimed by Professor Dewar. 

For the opportunity of seeing and experimenting with 
liquefied air we are indebted to the very great kindness of Mr. 
Richard J. Moss, of the Royal Dublin Society, who with the 
greatest cordiaUty acceded to a request from me for a supply of 



26 Mr /. Broivn on 

the liqi.id. On a former occasion when sending me a supply 
for use in my own laboratory, Mr. Moss expressed a doubt if 
the Dublin atmosphere would suit Belfast, but on this occasion 
he expressed the conviction that an abundant supply of some 
cooling medium will not be out of place on Guy Fawk.es Day 
in the North. May I assure Mr. Moss, on your authority, that 
it is not by any means out of place, and that we tender our 
warmest thanks for this coldest of gifts ? 

Liquid air is a clear, transparent fluid. The boiling point is 
about 1 90° to 200° under atmospheric pressure. The experi- 
ments that can be performed with liquid air depend chiefly on 
the effects produced by this very low temperature. Poured 
upon water, liquid air floats, forming a cup of ice, in which it 
boils. Immersed in liquid air, mercur}' may be frozen, and 
forms a mercury casting, which can be forged cold into a hook, 
on which we may suspend a weight, till the warmth of the 
surrounding atmosphere melts it into liquid drops, when the 
weight of course fails. Alcohol may be frozen, ice hardened 
till it is said to cut glass, and indiarubber becomes brittle like a 
pipe stem. Sulphur, vermilion, and a solution of cobalt 
chloride in alcohol lose their colours. The electric resistance 
of metals is decreased manifold. Owing to the fact that the 
nitrogen in air is more volatile than the oxygen, it evaporates 
first, and in liquid air which has been standing some time the 
residue is chiefly oxygen. On this account a process of obtain- 
ing oxygen sufficiently pure for many purposes has been pro- 
posed. To illustrate this a shaving splinter of wood burns up 
brightly over such stale liquid air. Felt or cotton wool soaked 
in the liquid burns with explosive violence. A jet of hydrogen 
will burn under the surface of liquid oxygen. Liquid air has 
been proposed as a carrier of power by using it to drive motors 
of the steam engine type. Here is an illustration where a tube 
of liquid air enclosed in an appropriate closed vessel gives off 
air at sufficient pressure to drive the model engine, and on the 
screen is a slide of a motor so driven. Here however con- 
venient in some respects the process might be, the question of 



The Liquefaction of Gases. i"] 

economy comes in. On this point Dr. Hampson states that 
lib. liquid air at id. will expand to 800 volumes at atmospheric 
pressure ; lib. steam to 1,700 volumes. One pound steam can 
be made under good conditions by the combustion of i-iolb. of 
coal, or at a cost of i -120 of a penny, putting coal at 15s per 
ton. Therefore the power contained in lib of liquid air at id 
is, roughly speaking, equal to that contained in -^Ib. of steam at 
i-240ths of a penny. Of course if liquid air could be produced 
at i-240ths of its present cost, allowing for loss in carrying 
about, it could very favourably compete with steam. 

Some years ago a Mr. Tripper, of the United States, claimed 
that he could make it for less than nothing. We have heard 
nothing of Mr. Tripper lately. 

Liquid air has also been proposed as a cooling agent. Much 
tall talk was indulged in by the American Press in this 
connection also. Hampson points out that liquid air would 
have only i-ioth the cooling power of ice weight for weight, 
and; as ice is usually less than id. per pound, the price of liquid 
air, the inefficiency is so much the more evident. Liquid air 
or oxygen as an explosive has been proposed. When mixed 
with petroleum and infusorial earth it explodes violently. 
Probably the difficulty of transporting it comes in the way here. 

Liquid hydrogen in sufficient quantity to be properly 
observed and investigated seems to have been first obtained by 
Professor Dewar in 1898. It is a clear, colourless liquid, per- 
fectly transparent, and about i-ioth the specific gravity of 
water. It boils at — 250 deg. C, under atmospheric pressure, 
or within 23 deg. of absolute zero. As a cooling agent, it will 
lower temperature to within 13 deg. to 15 deg. of absolute 
zero. Its critical temperature is — 240 deg., and critical 
pressure 13*3 atmrspheres. Professor Dewar considers the 
step from the liquefaction of air to that of hydrogen is re- 
latively as great in the thermo-dynamic sense as that from 
chlorine to liquid air. Some idea of the difficulty of its 
production may thereby appear. The solidification of the 
gases is the next step beyond liquefaction. Atmospheric air 



zS Mr. J. Brown on 

was frozen by Professor Dewar in 1893. A litre of liquid air 
subjected to exhaustion in a silvered vacuum vessel yielded 
about half a litre of a colourless, transparent solid, consisting of 
a nitrogen jelly containing liquid oxygen. Solid oxygen is 
obtained by subjecting liquid oxygen to cooling by immersion 
of the tube containing it in boiling hydrogen. It is clear blue 
ice. Solid hydrogen has been produced by the same kind 01 
process. It is a transparent ice. 

The really important uses of liquefied gases are comprised in 
their application to low temperature research, providing as 
they do a means of cooling other bodies hitherto unattainable. 
We may glance at a general view of this part of the subject. 
It was at first supposed from the change in the electric 
resistance of metals produced at this temperature that all 
metals would become perfect conductors at absolute zero. 
Further cooling by liquid hydrogen showed, however, that a 
certain amount of resistance would still exist at deg. absolute. 
Phosphorescence is much increased by the cold of liquid air, 
and much more by that of liquid hydrogen. Chemical affinity 
is almost abolished by cold. Potassium, which bursts into 
flame on water, remains inert on liquid air or oxygen. 

Fractionation by distillation at these low temperatures has 
been effectively employed by Professor Ramsay and Dr. Travers 
in 1S98 for the extraction from the atmosphere of the new 
gases, krypton, neon, and xenon, following on the discovery of 
argon in 1895 by Lord Rayleigh, and helium later. 

In connection with the last mentioned, it is interesting to 
recall how the name arose. In the spectroscopic examination 
of the sun one line was observed which could not be detected 
in any terrestrial substance. It was therefore supposed to be 
peculiar to the sun, and so called the helium line. Subsequently, 
however, it was proved to be like the other constituents of the 
sun, terrestrial also, a gas more volatile than hydrogen, and 
which has not yet been liquefied and solidified. 

The influence of very low temperatures an the vital force of 
living organisms has also been examined. The cold of liquid a;r 



The Liquefaction cf Gases. 29 

has no apparent effect on bacteria. After twenty hours at — 1 90 
deg. no diminution in any of their powers was perceptible. 
Phosphorescent organisms under alternate cooUng and thawing 
showed a remarkable instance of suspension and renewal of 
vital processes. Cooled down by liquid air, they became non- 
luminous, but phosphorescence began again with its usual 
strength when removed into ordinary conditions. In a paper 
communicated to the Royal Society last August Dr. M'Fadyen 
states that several forms of bacteria, including typhoid bacillus, 
survived perfectly an exposure to — 190 deg. C. for six months. 
Even at the temperature of liquid hydrogen ( — 252 deg.) these 
much-enduring though minute organisms suffered no injury. 

Professor Fitzgerald moved a hearty vote of thanks to the 
President who, he said, had given them a most profitable 
evening, and whose experiments with liquid air they had all 
witnessed with wonder and delight. They all appreciated, too 
Mr. Brown's tribute to Professor Andrews and his work. To 
Dr. Moss, of Dublin, and to Mr. Brown's son who had acted so 
efficiently as his assistant, their best thanks were also due. 

Mr. R. M. Jones, in seconding the motion, said Mr. Brown, 
in addition to being an eminent scientist, was one of the most 
public-spirited men in Belfast. He had introduced them to 
many new and interesting discoveries, including the motor-car, 
wireless telegraphy, and that very ingenious invention of his 
own for the improvement of our roads. That evening he had 
introduced them to liquid air, and shown them some of its 
marvellous properties, in addition to giving them a wonderfully 
able and concise history of modern research in connection with 
the liquefaction of gases. 

The vote was passed by acclamation, and briefly replied to 
by the President. 



On the motion of Mr. W. S. Swanston, seconded by Mr. 
Robert Patterson, authority was given to dispose of some 
duplicate specimens in the Museum. 



30 



2nd December^ 1902. 



PuoFiiSSOR Redfern, M.D., F.R.C.S.I., in the Chair. 



RECENT FISHERY RESEARCH, 
By Professor Gregg Wilson, D.Sc. 



{Abstract.) 



Professor Wilson said the subject of sea fisheries ought to 
be an interesting one to every member of a British audience. 
He wanted to remind them that the British fisheries were 
worth a great deal of money. They yielded the fishermen 
something like _;^io,ooo,ooo a year. He was sorry a very small 
part of that money was gained by Irish fishermen — some 
^^300, 000 or ;^400,ooo. He ventured to hope that the fisheries 
were worth a great deal more than ^io,coo,ooo to the con- 
sumers. He wished to call their attention to the work done by 
scientific men in recent years in connection with preserving 
and improving the fisheries. 

First, he wanted them to grasp very firmly that their fish 
area was a small one. The great bulk of the ocean was deeper 
than 2,000 metres, or yards. For a long time it was believed 
that there was no life in the deep seas, in the waters beyond 
about 100 fathoms. One of the most prominent professors of 
last century maintained that fact, but that idea was got rid off. 
It was first really proved by the electric cables that had been 



Recent bishery Research. 31 

laid in deep water. They were lifted after a time for repairs, 
and were found to be covered with marine organisms. This 
proved the fact that there was life in the depths of the ocean, 
and in this connection he could not refrain from referring to 
the magnificent work that was done by Sir W. Thompson, a 
former professor of Queen's College, who carried out work on 
the Challenger, the results of which had been given to the 
world in many volumes. 

He was particularly anxious that they should grasp the fact 
that deep-sea life was not the kind of life that was any use to 
them. The lecturer then called attention to characteristics of 
some of the curious looking creatures that they found in the 
deep sea. He showed that some of these were provided with 
luminous organs, as the water beneath 100 fathoms is com- 
pletely dark, and he also pointed out that they were so formed 
as to be able to exist under the great pressure to which they 
were subjected so far beneath the surface. Those physical 
conditions prevented fish living in the higher waters migrating 
to the lower, and vice versa. Fish taken from those deep 
waters practically exploded by being brought to the surface 
and relieved of the pressure which they were formed to resist. 
The ordinary fishtrman in the North Sea knew how to mini- 
mise the effects of slight change of pressure. When they took 
a cod out of even twenty fathoms of water, and wishei to keep 
it alive, they resorted to the precaution — at least they used to 
— of running a needle into the bladder and letting out some of 
the gas or air, so that the bulk of the fish might diminish 
rapidly and accommodate its size to the lesser pressure of sur- 
face water. Another preventative from the passage of fish from 
higher to lower waters, and lower to higher, was the diffe*-- 
erce in temperature. They had found that the temperature 
in those deep waters was very little above freezing point. 

After alluding to figures which showed a decline in some 6f 
our fisheries, especially those for turbot and soles, the lecturer 
said that fall in the fisheries took place in spite of the fact that 
there was an enormous increase of fishing apparatus at work. 



32 Professor Gregg Wilson on 

Their great steam trawlers went further afield than they did a 
few years ago. They were managing to take about the same 
quantity of fish out of the water by fishing with an enormous 
amount of apparatus. They had got to face the fact that there 
was at least the danger of a very serious decline in their 
fisheries. On the recognition of that fact there was a sudden 
impulse to study the question of their fisheries. The Ameri- 
cans, Canadians, Norwegians, Danes, the British, especially the 
Scotch, had been engaged on that question, and he would like 
to indicate to them the sort of work that had been going on 
amongst scientific men who had put themselves to consider the 
fishery question, and he hoped that sooner or later they would 
do some fishery work in this district. In the first place, they 
had been studying fish eggs and the spawning of fish. 

The most important fact discovered about the spawning 
habits offish was discovered in 1864. That was the fact that 
most of their food-fishes produce eggs that float. Why was it 
that they did not see them ? Because they were like little 
beads of glass, they were so transparent. A false idea existed 
that the spawn of most fish was produced near the shore, 
Avhereas many of the best spawning grounds were far from the 
shore, and legislation to protect the same would require to 
take that fact into consideration. 

He advocated the provision of fish hatcheries in certain cir- 
cumstances only, and more especially in fresh waters, when 
spawning ground was deficient. The Americans as early as 
1 87 1 went in for hatching. He instanced what they had done 
in shad hatching as an example of its success. They carried 
the shad across to the Pacific waters. In the case of salmon 
and trout, river hatching had been an enormous success. 
Where they had too little spawning ground and plenty feeding 
ground hatching was an advantage. 

Naturalists were also studying the young of fish. There was 
the question of the destruction of young fish by trawlers and 
others, and associated with that question was the study of what 
he might call fish nurseries. The latter were places where 



Recent P-shcry Research. 33 

young fish were crowded together, and where there were com- 
paratively few old fish. Trawlers were more successful in . 
catching the young fish than the old fish. All he had to say 
was, if they emptied the nursery he took it for granted that the 
drawing-room would not be full in a little time. In Lancashire 
this matter was being considered, and they were regulating the 
size of the mesh of fishing nets. 

Naturalists had also been considering the food of fish and 
their feeding habits. A popular belief was that the larger fish 
fed on the smaller, and so on, but ultimately they found their 
fishes were dependent on plant life It was the plants that 
made organic stuff. 

Dealing with the question of artificial baits, the lecturer said 
some fish distinguished their food by smell almost, others by 
sight almost entirely. 

The lecturer then referred to the enemies of our food fishes, 
and pointed out that naturalists were principally engaged on 
how to get rid of them by encouraging the enemies of the 
enemies of our food fish. 'J"he question arose could men over- 
fish the seas ? Professor Huxley had been of opiiuon that 
this was impossible, and that the damage done by man was 
infinitesimal compared with what was done by other enemies. 
It was the last straw that broke the camel's back, and if they 
put en that last straw it made all the difference, and he 
thought man could play the part of the last straw. There was 
a great deal of injury which might be prevented, and it was 
with that he wished to interfere. 

In conclusion reference was made to the importance of 
properly equipped marine stations for ihe study of all questions 
relating to the fisheries, and a hope was expressed that before 
long such a station might be instituted near Belfast. 

Professor Symington moved a vote of thanks to Professor ' 
Gregg Wilson for his lecture. He thought it was appropriate 
that they should consider on that occasion what could be done 
in connection with their own fisheries. With the exception of 
what was beingdone by Mr. Holt, under the Agricultural Depart- 



34 Professor Gregg Wilson on Recent Fishery Research. 

ment, on the Western-Southern Coasts there were absolutely 
no scientific investigations being conducted in any part of 
Ireland with regard to that question. In connection with that 
Society something might be done on the North-East Coast. 
There was no difficulty in getting a suitable site for starting 
a modest modern laboiatory. Professor Wilson spoke to them 
that evening as an expert, and he was sure he would be only 
too anxious and willing to assist any of them that wished to 
take up that department of the work. 

Rev. D. A. Purves, in seconding the motion, as an outsider, 
was sure that in Professor Gregg Wilson not only Queen's 
College, but the city of Belfast, had received a great acquisition. 
While he had given them a scientific lecture, they would 
all agree that he had been perfectly lucid. He concurred 
with the suggestion that had been thrown out that the services 
of a man like Professor Gregg Wilson should be in some way 
secured to that neighbourhood, and he did trust that the out- 
come of that meeting would be that steps would be taken to 
instal a modern laboratory in the region of Belfast. 

The motion was carried and suitably conveyed by the 
Chairman, who referred to the time when many of the most 
eminent naturalists of Great Britain belonged to the North of 
Ireland. 

A similar compliment was paid to Professor Redfern, on the 
motion of Mr. J. J. Andrews, seconded by Mr. William Shuw. 



i']th December, 1902. 



Mr. Robert Young, J. P., in the Chair. 



EVIDENCE OF THE CAVES. 
By R. J. UssHER, J.P. 



[Abstract.) 



Kent's Cavern, in Devonshire, is very extensive, and cdntains 
many chambers and passages. On the top of its deposits were 
blocks and masses of limestone that had fallen from the roof, 
and the uppermost deposit, a black mould, lay between these. 
It was largely formed of leaves blown into the cave, and con- 
tained miscellaneous relics, from the soda-water bottle of the 
modern tourist to relics of mediaeval, Roman, and pre-Roman 
times — bronze articles, spindle-whorls, broken pottery, including 
Samian ware ; ancient bone implements, amber beads, and 
charred wood ; also human bones, bones of brown bear, red 
deer, and of domestic animals, such as dog, pig, ox, and sheep. 
Beneath the black mould no remains of sheep occurred. None 
of these relics carry us back beyond historic times. 

The second deposit was a floor of granular stalagmite varying, 
from a mere film to five feet in thickness. 

The third deposit was confined to one part of the cavern, 
and was called the black band. It was composed of little bits 
of charred wood, the hearthplace of the palaeolithic cave men. 
Three hundred and sixty flint weapons or tools were found here, 



6 Mr. R. J. Lssher on 



with bones that had been roasted, and bone tools, an awl, a 
harpoon, a fish-spear, and a needle of bone. With these were 
bones of hysena, rhinoceros, horse, ox, and deer. Here was the 
home of those ancient hunters who lived in England with the 
hysena, the mammoth, and the rhinoceros, and who used flint 
weapons, which they manufactured round this fireplace. 

The next deposit, which extended throughout the cave, was 
a reddish cave earth, and it yielded the greatest store of animal 
remains. They represented hyaena, horse, Avoolly rhinoceros, 
mammoth or woolly elephant, Irish elk, reindeer, red deer, 
lion, and other animals, some of which exist at the present da}-, 
while others are long since extinct. Among the relics of the 
latter were some teeth of the machairodus, or sabre-toothed 
lion, whose upper canine teeth were of enormous size and 
serrated. It was a very ancient and pliocene animal. Hyaenas 
appear from their numerous bones to have been very abundant, 
and some of the others, as the reindeer, were suited for life in 
Arctic countries. But, besides the beasts of prey, human in- 
habitants — doubtless a race of hunters — lived there at times. 
They probably lighted large fires near the cave's mouth, where 
the black band occurred, to keep out the wild beasts during 
their stay. The objects these hunters left behind them were 
chiefly spear heads of flint, carefully chippedinto shape with great 
labour, as is still done by some savage nations. Carved bone 
harpoons were also found in the cave earth, and a bone pin, 
which was in contact with the tooth of a rhinoceros. 

But there was an older chapter still in the history of Kent's 
cave. Another stalagmite floor lay beneath the cave earth, 
crystalline in structure, which showed its greater age, and it 
attained in places twelve feet in thickness. 

The lowest deposit, which lay under the crystalline stalagmite, 
was a dark-red sandy paste in places, but was often found in 
masses of rocklike hardnes?, and was called the Breccia. It 
was largely composed, not of limestone fragments, but of pieces 
of red grit, a rock which is not to be found in the cavern hill, 
but in hills now separated from it by a valley seventy feet deep 



Evidence of the Caves. 37 

below the cave level. Therefore this red grit must have here 
drifted into the cave before this deep valley had been gradually 
scooped out by rains and streams. The Breccia contained 
numbers of bones, but they were all of the greit cave bear, 
except two jaws of lion and another of fox, and none of these 
bones had been gnawed by hyaenas, like those in the cave earth 
above. Even here, however, human implements of flint were 
found, not so finely wrought as those in the cave earth above, 
but unmistakably the work of rnen. No one can assign a date 
to these things, but, ancient as must have been the men of the 
cave earth who lived when mammoths and their companions 
existed, the people who made the weapons found in the Breccia 
were vastly older. We can only say that they represented a 
very far-off age, as when one sees the snowy peaks of lofty 
mountains rising against a clear sky he is sure they are further 
than any other visible object, but cannot say how great their 
distance is. 

In 1858 quarrymen working on the site of an ancient cave at 
Shandon, near Dungarvan, in County Waterford, found the 
remains of a mammoth with those of reindeer. They were 
brought to light by the late Mr. E. Brenan, of Dungarvan, and 
are now in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin. Bones of 
horse, bear, and other animals were also found in Shandon 
Cave by Professor Leith Adams, who had done cave exploration 
work in Malta. 

In company with him in 1879 I opened up a small cave half- 
a-mile south of the Cappagh Station, in the townland of Bally- 
namintra. It was nearly filled with deposits ; but, now that it 
is cleared, it forms a tunnel about eight feet wide When we 
began to dis we found in the brown earth which lay uppermost 
many bones of domestic animals — as cows, sheep, pigs and dogs 
— with some human bones ; but as we dug deeper we came to' 
a grey earth that contained more ancient-looking blackened 
bones of a larger size. These were fragmentary, but when we 
came upon pieces ot palmated antlers my friend pronounced 
them without doubt to belong to the Irish elk. Its remains. 



38 Mr. R. J. Ussher on 

though frequently found in bogs, had never been discovered 
before in a cave in Ireland, nor associated here with evidences 
ot man ; but no sooner did Dr. Leith Adams find the bones of 
this gigantic deer in the same bed with charcoal and other 
relics of man than he freely confessed we had found proof that 
the Irish elk had existed in the human period in this country. 
In England Irish elk had been found with man in Kent's 
cavern. The gigantic size of the stately and beautiful animal 
may be judged by the skeletons and antlers in our museums. 
Though found in other countries it has nowhere been found so 
abundantly as in Ireland, where it had probably had fewer 
enemies, as there were not so many species of beasts of prey, 
and it certainly multiplied and flourished largely throughout 
this island, where its remains are often found in, or rathei 
under, bogs, most commonly in the shell-marl. At Cappagh 
luy father found the bones and antlers of at least sixteen, and in 
Ballybetagh Bog, County Dublin, no fewer than one hundred 
and thirty individuals were discovered. It is chiefly the males 
that are thus found, probably owing to the enormous weight of 
their antlers having made them more likely to be drowned or 
bogged. 

But to return to the Ballynamintra cave, we found in the 
earth of the second stratum or in crevices of the rocky walls 
many bones of the Irish elk. They were split and broken, the 
ends of the narrow bones being invariably knocked off, as used 
to be done by all ancient peoples to the bones of an ox and 
other beasts. Moi cover, the pieces of Irish elks' antlers could 
hardly have been brought into that small cave except by man, 
the animal being too large to enter it alive. These facts of 
themselves show that we had found the retreat of an early 
people who had hunted the Irish elk, of which at least five 
individuals were represented by their remains. In the same 
stratum that contained them were quantities of burned wood, 
and this charcoal, which formed a seam in the midst of the 
grey earth, marked an ancient floor or hearth, and proved that 
the bed had not been disturbed. There were aho sea shells in 



Evidence oj the Caves. 39 

it, brought bv the human inhabitants, and a number of stones 
suitable for taking in the hand and striking with, which were 
chipped along their edges in a way that leaves no doubt they 
had been used to break the bones with. Beneath the grey 
earth were remains of a great stalagmite floor, four feet thick in 
places, which had crystallised. In the lower part of this, 
which lay upon a bed of gravel, were found embedded the 
teeth and bones of a huge bear, pronounced by Professor Busk 
to have been the grisly bear, now confined to the Rocky Moun- 
tains of North America. The deposits of this cave also con- 
tained some teeth and bones of reindeer. Thus the Ballyna- 
niintra Cave yielded relics of three distinct ages — the neolithic, 
with its polished stone axe and domestic animals ; then the age 
of the elk-hunters ; and before that the time of the grisly bear. 

Within the last two years good work has been done in other 
Irish caves by a Committee appointed by the British Associa- 
tion, under Dr. Scharff, who has organised the movement, and 
assigned to me the execution of the excavations. In 1901 we 
worked in caves in Keish Corran Mountain, County Sligo, in 
which were found two distinct strata — the uppermost of grey 
earth, containing a stone celt, bronze pins and objects of iron, 
abundance of charcoal, bones of domestic animals, and some 
oyster and mussell shells. Bones of bear were also found, and 
a shin bone of reindeer, beneath which charcoal occurred, in the 
same stratum. This was fair evidence that the reindeer had 
been contemporaneous with man in Ireland. The second 
stratum was a clay in which the characteristic animal was the 
brown bear ; but in these caves the jaws and bones of the Arctic 
lemming were found in abundance. This was the first dis- 
covery ot it in Ireland, and the species differs from the lemming 
of Norway, and is not found nearer than Greenland at the 
present day. 

During the summer of 1901 two groups of caves have 
been excavated at Edenvale, in County Clare. In these the 
upper stratum has, as usual, yielded in profusion charcoal, bones 
of domestic animals, many human bones, and other relics of 



40 Mr. R. J. Ussher on Evidence of the Caves. 

ancient art, knives of iron, objects of bronze, bracelets of metal, 
an amber bead, pins or awls of bone ; but besides these, chiefly 
in the second stratum, we found great numbers of bones and 
teeth of reindeer and bear, and some of the latter of enormous 
size, whose species remains to be determined. Some relics of 
the Irish elk also have occurred in the Edenvale caves, which 
are very complicated and extensive, and are by no means dug 
out. 

In the chalky limestone of the Antrim cliffs numerous caves 
occur, and during the formation of the new walk at the Gobbins 
last summer by the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway 
Company a large cavern was found, closed by a slipped piece of 
the cliff, and full of the shingle of an old raised beach. In this 
Mr. Welch has found many bones of domestic and wild 
animals, and some portions of red deer's antler of large size, 
which are exhibited. It is hoped that further researches of 
various parts of Ireland will lead to a much fuller knowledge of 
its prehistoric past. 

Mr. John M. Dickson moved a vote of thanks to the lecturer. 

Professor J. Symington, in seconding the motion, said, 
though Mr. Ussher was a well-known ornithologist, in recent 
years he had become possibly better known as a cave explorer. 
He believed interesting investigations could be made on the 
Northern coast as regarded cave exploration. 

iMr. William Gray, from personal research, believed that in- 
teresting results would reward the proper investigation cf the 
caves along the North coast of Antrim, from White Park Bay 
to Carrick-a-Rede. A cave near Pulbraddan was well worth 
exploring. 

Mr. R. Knowles thought the question was deserving of the 
consideration of the Field Club. 

The motion was passed. 



41 



']th January, 1 903. 



Mk. J. Brown, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 



HEREDITY IN ITS RELATION TO THE NERVOUS 

SYSTEM. 

By John M. MacCormac, M.D., L.R.C.P. k. S.Edin. 



(^Abstract.) 



In assuming that the mind of a child is devoid of character or 
ideas, Locke attributed nothing to heredity. Man enters this 
world as a stranger, it is true, but he can investigate and 
explore, and his mind is ever active to receive various per- 
ceptions, and it is a matter of common observation that the 
same objects produce different effects upon different minds. A 
poet, painter or geologist looks at a landscape with entirely 
different ideas. While the country lad knows every bird song 
and the intricacies of every glade, the town-bred boy revels 
in bricks and mortar and despises the dirty lanes. In all there 
is a special quality, which responds to external perceptions, and 
which is due to heredity. 

The broadest principle of heredity is, that like produces like, 
that all the physiological and psychological characteristics of 
the parent are transmitted to the child. Hence Darwin's 
theory of Pangenesis, which supposes that every cell gives off 
gemmules or germs, which permeating the whole body, and 



42 Mr. John M. MacCormac on 

becoming collected in the generative cells, can reproduce the 
whole organism. This theory was too complex to commend 
itself to physiologists. 

Sanson defines heredity as the transmission of natural or 
acquired qualities from predecessor to descendants. Professor 
Weisman founds a theory of heredity, which assumes that 
acquired characters cannot be transmitted, while many consider 
that they can be inherited. It is clear that acquired characters, 
such as mutilations, e.g., the clipping of dogs' ears and tails, 
the piercing of women's ears, the deformity of the feet of 
Chinese women, affect the individual only. Dr. Archdall Reid 
remarks that there are two classes of characters, inborn and 
acquired, and the question of the transmission of the latter 
has been warmly debated. This diff'erence of opinion arises 
from the difficulty of deciding what is due to heredity, and 
what to environment. It is commonly saii that all theories of 
heredity are in essence theories of evolution, but theories of 
evolution depend directly upon environment, while theories of 
heredity are closely associated with the nervous system. 
Professor Titchencr maintains that every child is born with 
certain tendencies, which differ according as the child takes 
after this or that predecessor. The nervous system of each is 
the product of a long course of development, and all sorts of 
influences have combined to aff"ect it. Hence the different 
mental characteristics. 

But are physiological and psychological heredity mutually 
dependent or not ? Science cannot settle this, unless we are 
prepared for materialism, and to deny the existence of the soul. 
This must be considered. The ancients believed that souls 
migrated from men to animals and vice versa, and this belief, 
finding its way into the early church, gave rise to different 
theories of the soul's existence. Later arose the question 
whether the soul was not generated at the same time as the 
body, and the theory " Traducianism," arising out of this, was 
adopted by many of the early Fathers. Lactaniius asked from 
which parent the soul sprang, and exploded the theory. 



Heredity in its Relation to the Nervoiis System. 43 

A later theory " Creationism " suggested that the Creator is 
perpetually creating souls, and infusing them into bodies. 
This subjects the work of the Almighty to the will of human 
beings. A third theory teaches that the Creator, at the 
beginning, imparted to man a spiritual element, which should, 
in due course, develop into a force, controlling the body, and 
becoming fitted for a continuous existence. Thus may be 
understood the possibility of a permanent physiological state, 
producing or developing a permanent psychological state 
corresponding with it. To admit psychological heredity 
therefore follows the admission of the principle of physiological 
heredity, and establishes the direct influence of the nervous 
system upon mental processes. We therefore hold with 
Spencer that Consciousness is a continuous adjustment of 
internal with external relations, that every psychical pheno- 
menon is inherent in some organ, and that mental and physical 
tendencies are alike transmitted. 

Evolution, to which reference must be made, depends upon 
external influences or environment, and influences both the 
physical and mental characteristics. This influence can be so 
directed as to considerably affect earlier hereditary traits, and 
produce variation within the species. Illustrations of this fact 
are well known. The modified theory of evolution of Monsieur 
Naudin is that its object is to produce a definitive species, since 
in the earliest period living creatures had a more plastic and 
variable habit than now, and that this plastic character is an 
evidence of design. It is however for Science yet to confirm 
this, as well as the Darwinian theory of the variability of species. 
No evidence can be found of the transformation of species, 
while the weak as well as the strong find room for existence. 
Moreover palaeontology establishes the identity of seeds, plants 
and species with those of ages far remote, while another strong 
objection to the transformation theory is the uniform sterility of 
hybrids. It must also be observed that as soon as the operation 
of environment ceases, there is a gradual return to the 
primitive type. As Professor Drummond pointed out, choice 



44 Mr. John M. MncCormac on 

roses, strawberries, raspberries, and fruit trees, if left untended, 
without culture, return to the briar, the wild fruit of the 
woods, the bramble, and the useless undergrowth. Similarly 
fancy pigeons soon revert to the plain, uniform colour of the 
original type. The same is observable in human beings, who 
neglect themselves, and are removed from beneficial and 
improving influences. These considerations show how closely 
interwoven are the laws of heredity and evolution, and afford 
striking evidence of design. One of the greatest of naturalists. 
Professor Agassiz maintains this, when he says : — " Nothing in 
the organic kingdom is calculated to impress us so strongly as 
the unity of plan, which is apparent in the structure of the most 
various types." And after pointing out the wonderful relations 
and admirable harmony, he says : — " If all these relations are 
beyond man's intellectual power to grasp, if man himself is but 
a part or fragment of the whole system, how could this system 
have been called into being it there were not a supreme 
intelligence the author of all things ?" Monsieur Ribot raises 
the ascertained fact of the physiological and psychological 
transmission of general specific characters to the dignity of a 
law, with the necessary reservation, that heredity is twofold 
and that the operation of the law must be in favourable 
circumstances, otherwise the blind fatality of its laws might 
make decadence the rule. But as universal life develops in the 
direction of progress, heredity is not abandoned to a blind 
fatality. There must be a presiding directing power. So 
Darwin has taught us that the laws of evolution point to a 
supreme intelligence. His theory, however, like those of 
Haeckel and Spencer, is intensely materialistic. While 
enforcing his law ol the persistence of force, Spencer had to 
admit the possible existence of an intelligent causation ; but 
Haeckel recognised only the materialistic principle, starting 
with the theory of spontaneous generation. Professor Tyndall 
and Dr. Dallinger have however disproved this theory by 
showing that life can only come from the touch of life. Dr. 
Archdall Reid asks us to consider the vast complexity, physical 



Heredity in its Relation to the Nervous System. 45 

and mental, of man, to think of our futile microscopes and our 
infantile chemical analyses, and so to gather some idea of the 
vanity of attempting to pry into the how of the inheritance of 
either inborn or acquired trails. The law exists, and from a 
physiological standpoint argues in favour of determinism. But 
psychology must also be considered, and hence the influence of 
the nervous system. If the mind is merely a physical outcome 
of the brain, then psychological and physiological phenomena 
cannot be distinguished, but the theory of the soul's existence 
is an important factor here. Luys and Vfaudsley both hold that 
the physical operations of the brain constitute intellectual and 
moral life, and that by means of these, it feels, remembers, and 
re-acts. This materialistic doctrine, which asserts the identity 
of brain and thought, sets aside all idea of free will. It 
maintains that " The organism is the man himself," that 
" intelligence is the result of organic phenomena," that 
" thought is only a functic n of the nervous centres." But is 
this so ? Internal phenomena can only be perceived b)' one 
faculty — consciousness, and Maudsley himself admits that they 
are incapable of experimental demonstration. The moral and 
physical are not identical, for the mind, conscious of motion, is 
also conscious of itself. It is an " ego" and cannot be produced 
by a material organ. The brain is the organ of thought, as the 
eye is the organ of vision, and as perfect vision depends up..n a 
perfect eye, so perfect thought depends upon a perfect brain. 
Now the nervous system has certain leanings in a definite 
direction, and what that direction is, is determined by influence, 
which even afl'ected remote ancestors. But it is in youth easil}'' 
moulded. Hence the great problem of Education for habit 
becomes second nature. 

Psychologically "apperception" is defined as a psychical 
activity by which individual perceptions are brought into 
relation to our previous intellectual and emotional life, 
assimilated with it, and raised to greater clearness and 
significance. It thus indicates the intimate relationship between 
Heredity and the Nervous System, and may be considered the 



46 Heredity in its Relation to the Nervous System. 

connecting link between physiological and psychological 
developments. This common ground presupposes a mental 
bias, but what that bias is we cannot predict, we can only learn 
by experience. That this bias can be altered or modified by 
attention, an act of volition, to other influences, is a matter of 
daily observation and experience. We cannot therefore but 
conclude that the nervous system is seriously affected by 
environment, habit and volition, and that there is an influence 
directly transmitted from one generation to another. How far 
this influence may be directed or counteracted by the will is a 
question to be determined. If to-day we are the subjects of it, 
this arises from the freedom of yesterday. Our good or ill may 
be referred to the free acts of our predecessors, so we, by the 
ferce of our own will, are the parents of our own acts, and may 
influence the acts of others. Our consciousness convinces us 
that, while we have acted in a certain way, it was m our own 
power to have acted otherwise. The great past is the outcome 
of human freedom, and it is to that freedom we must look for 
the improvement or depreciation of the influences affecting 
future genetations. 

Professor Gregg Wilson, in proposing a vote of thanks to Dr. 
MacCormac for his lecture, said he was not going to say very 
much, because after considering such grave matters as those 
treated in the lecture one was more in a condition to think than 
to talk. He believed Dr. MacCormac would have the effect of 
stimulating a great deal of thought and controversy amongst 
his audience. 

Mr. Robert Patterson seconded the vote of thanks, which was 
uuanimously passed. 

Dr. MacCormac briefly replied in acknowlegement of the 
vote. 



47 



'^rd February^ I903- 



Mr. Robert Young, J.P,, in the Chair. 



THE MICRO-FAUNA OF THE BOULDER CLAY, 
WITH SOME REMARKS ON THE MOVEMENT 
OF GLACIERS, 

By Joseph Wright, F.G.S. 



(Abstract.) 



Boulder Clay is a stiff compact clay, containing numerous 
boulders as well as smaller stones, the greater portion of which 
are more or less rounded, their surfaces being often striated and 
scored. It formed the subsoil of the greater part of this 
country — it occurred at all elevations, from the sea level to a 
height of upwards of 1,500 feet above the sea. Foraminifera 
have been found at many places in the clay. I have examined 
samples of it from 134 localities — from Ireland, England, 
Wales, Scotland, Isle of Man, Canada, and Novaia Zemlia. and 
in 105 of these Foraminifera had been found. In some places 
they were very rare, in others they were abundant, but their 
presence was demonstrated in three-fourths of the instances. 
With one or two exceptions all the species found in the clay 
occurred recently off our coast, the fossil specimens havino- 
usually the fresh lustrous appearance of specimens brought up 
by the dredge. Ten of the samples were obtained from alti- 
tudes of 500 to 1350 feet, all of which, with one exception, 
contained Foraminifera. 



48 Air. Joseph Wnght on 

With the exception of sixteen samples received from Novaia 
Zemlia which, on account of the smallness of their size, had to 
be examined in detail under the microscope, floatings from the 
clays were alone examined. To ascertain how far the process 
of floating could be relied on for giving conclusive results, one 
ounce troy of the boulder clay from Woodburn, Carrickfergus, 
was examined with great care. The first floating contained 
1,400 specimens, this process having to be repeated twenty-four 
times before specimens ceased to come up. What remained 
of the clay was then examined under the microscope, and 
sixty-seven additional specimens were got from it. Upwards of 
2,100 specimens were obtained from this ounce of clay. This ex- 
perimentclearlydemonstrated that the process of floating cannot 
be relied on for proving the non-existence of Foraminifera in 
Boulder Clay. 

The micro-fauna of the Boulder clay is a peculiar one, 
more than half of the entire specimens found being referable to 
Nonioniiia depressula^ whilst Cassidtdina crassa^ though some- 
what rare as a recent British species, is often plentiful. The 
Porcellanous forms are usually very rare, whilst the Arenacca 
are represented only by the species Haplophra^miinn 
canariense. 

The marine fauna in a climate so rigorous as must have pre- 
vailed during the glacial period could not fail but be a poor 
one. .VTr. S. A. Stewart, in his " Alollusca of the Boulder Clay 
of the North East of Ireland, "says : — " MoUuscan shells occuring 
in the Boulder clay are not numerous. In most cases they are 
only got by patient searching, and then only in a fragmentary 
condition ; but in a few instances they are less rare, and include 
specimens in a perfect state. The presence of perfect shells of 
Lcda was known long since to General Portlock, and forced 
him to the same conclusion as arrived at by the author, that 
the Boulder clay is a marine sedimentary deposit."* 

No dovibt many of the shells in boulder clay were transported 

*Pi-oc. Belfast Nat. Field Club. App. 1879S0. 



The Micro-Fauna of the Boulder Clav, &e. 49 

by icebergs with stones and rock fragments, but some of them 
certainly lived at the places where they are now found, and 
with some few exceptions, all the Foraminitera must have done 
so, as these microzoa are usually as perfect and as fresh looking 
a? recent specimens brought up by the dredge. There were in 
glacial times both elevation and subsidence. First glacial 
striation, then depression, boulder clay, and marine organisms- 
At Woodburn and Knock Glen, Leda pygmcea and L. 
inimita are frequently found with their valves united, here also 
Foraminifera occur in the very greatest profusion, 100 species 
having been found at Woodburn and 79 at Knock Glen. 
Foraminifera in boulder clay are usually much smaller in size 
than recent British species, but many of the specimens at these 
two localities are fairly large in size, the following are the most 
notable in this respect : — M-iUoUna semimihim, Nomonina 
orbicularis and FolystomcUa arctica. Three of the species 
found at Woodburn and five of those from Knock Glen are 
only known as recent British species from gatherings taken off 
the West Coast of Ireland, two of them also occurring off the 
West Coast of Scotland. Some of these West of Ireland 
species have also been found in boulder clay at other places. 
Lagciia fimhriata was got at five other localities, one of them 
being Larch Hill, Co. Dublin, 650 feet above the sea, and 
Polystomella subnodosa was got at Deppel Burn, Ayrshire, at 
106 1 feet elevation. The presence of these West of Ireland 
Foraminifera in the boulder clay of Woodburn, Knock Glen, 
and some other places, would lead us to infer that when these 
clays were deposited the land stcod at a much lower level than 
new, and when the marine conditions were somewhat similar to 
what now prevails off the West Coast of Ireland. The fineness 
of the clay at these two localities, and their freedom from stones, 
the perfect condition of some of the Leda shells, the profusion 
of Foraminifera, and the large size of some of the specimens, 
would support the view that the clay at these two localities 
was deposited in deep and quiet water, and below the disturb- 
ing influence of ice action. Boulder clay with many stones in 

d 



50 Mr. Wright on The Micro- Fauna of the Boulder Clay, &c. 

it usvially contains few Foraminifera, and would be characteristic 
of deposits formed near exposed sea coasts, as such situations 
are not favourable for marine forms of life. 

Reference may be made to the slow downward movement of 
glaciers by gravity, and that when they terminated in the sea, 
as they frequently did in the Arctic regions, they sooner or 
later broke off into large masses, floating away as icebergs, 
carrying with them any stones or other material which they 
had accumulated in their course. As ice when submerged 
beneath the sea diminishes far more rapidly than when in air, 
so the bergs quickly melted away, depositing their burden over 
the floor of the ocean ; and to tl^.is cause, as also to the action 
of shore ice, may be largely attributed the formation of boulder 
clay. 

Should at any future time the sea bed between Labrador and 
Greenland be raised above the sea, one can readily imagine 
such a place to present a very similar appearance to that which 
we now find in boulder clay. There would be rock fragments 
and stones striated and scored by ice action, with shells more or 
less broken, and other material whicli had been dropped there 
by bergs floating southward from Arctic places. With these 
would be found associated mud and stones from the wearing of 
rocks in the vicinity, and also marine organisms that lived 
at the place. 




PLATE I. 
JCTNCnON OF GEAXITE AND SILURIAN ROCK, GLEN lUVER, NEWCASTLE, CO. DOWN. 

To the left a lamprophyre dyke, cut off by the granite. 0— Granite; S— Silurian shale; 
D— Dyke of Diorilic lamprophyre. (From a photograph by Miss M. K. Andrews : copyright). 



51 



NOTES ON SOME IGNEOUS ROCKS IN DOWN 
AND, ANTRIM.* 

By Miss Mary K. Andrews. 



{Abstract.] 



Thf, following brief notes refer to rocks exposed in the bed of 
the Glen River at Newcastle, Co. Down, to certain dykes on 
the Mourne Coast, north of Glasdrumman Port, to a few of the 
rhyolites of Co. Antrim, and to one or two points of interest 
connected with its Basaltic Plateau. 

Beginning with the granite of the Mourne Mountains, 
attention may be drawn to its well known resemblance in 
miarolitic structure and other characteristics to some of the 
granite of Arran, and to the probability that both are of 
Tertiary age. Direct evidence is still wanting, but one of the 
many points that support this inference, is that in its intrusion 
into the surrounding grits and shales, the Mourne granite has 
cut off a number of basic dykes, possibly belonging to the 
Tertiary " Lower Basalts," and is itself penetrated by a less 
numerous later series, probably representative of the " Upper 
Basalts." In the first lantern slide (reproduced in Plate I.), 
one of these older dykes is seen cut off by the granite. This 
very interesting section occurs at an approximate height of 550 
feet above sea level, and about 300 yards from the second stone 
bridge in Donard Lodge Park. The photograph shows the 
junction of the granite and Silurian rock in the bed of the 
Glen River. The head of the hammer is on the line of 

* The paper was mostly illustrated by lantern slides from the author's geological 
photographs, and bv microscopic sections of specimens she had collected. 



52 Miss M. K. Andrews en 

junction, where the two rocks are united into so hard a mass, 
it was difficult to obtain specimens. Towards the middle of 
the river granite veins penetrate the sedimentary rock, whose 
normal colour becomes lighter in its vicinity. Microscopic 
sections of the granite obtained at and above this junction 
show beautiful examples of the micrographic intergrowth of 
quartz and felspar characteristic of granophyres. At the left 
side of the photograph, close to the rieht bank of the river, a 
dyke of dioritic lamproph\re is seen traversing the Silurian 
rock in a N.N.W. direction, and is cut off by the granite. The 
shale in contact is greatly indurated, and so similar in colour 
to the dyke, that it was not easy to trace the exact line of 
demarcation. In microscopic section, the intermingling of the 
green hornblende bands, probably of igneous origin, with the 
brown clastic patches cf the sedimentary rock is very striking.* 
(Plate 2.) When the river is exceptionally low a continuatioVi 
of one of the granophyric veins already referred to, can be seen 
crossing the dyke. 

Donard Tunnel passes close to this junction, and there are 
large specimens from it on the table — baked sedimentary rock, 
penetrated by eurite bands. In the course of its construction, 
I had in September, 1897, an opportunity of seeing dykes of 
the later series. A very interesting section was then tem- 
poral ily exposed in the " cut and cover " to this tunnel, about 
a quarter cf a mile south of the Bloody Bridge River. The 
normal granite of the district was here seen to about six feet in 
depth, capped b}^ four feet of drift deposit. Two basalt dykes 
traversed the granite at an interval of fort\^ yards from each 

* This microscopic section, with one of the dyke itself, was submitted to Professor 
Cole, to whom I am indebted for the following interesting remarks. "Your 'dioritic 
lamprophyre ' is a curious rock, with its sparse triclinic felspars, and its groundwork of 
biotite and green hornblende. It looks as if a magma capable of making biotite 
and pyroxene had remained as a groundwork after the felspar had developed, 
and then this magma crystallised out, the pyroxenic matter finally passing into granular 
ampKibole. But the Silurian contact-rock fhows similar patches of granular horn- 
blende, and an abundance of the same brown mica. Is this rock permeated by the 
igneous one in intimate streaks, or does the igneous one owe some of its matter to 
absorption of the adjacent sediment ? The former view looks to me more probable." 




Photo and Process Block by Bemrose d: Sons, Limited, Derby. 



/PLATE II. 

MICROSCOPIC SECTION showing junclion of Dioritic lamprophyre dyke, with 
indurated Silui'ian shale. The lamprophyre is at the top. Intermingling of igneous and 
sedimentary rock below. The hornblendic bands are the darkest. The lighter parts arc 
sedimentary, traversed by short dark bands composed of biotite (X4S \ 



Some Ig)ieous Rocks in Down and Antrim. 53 

other, and thirty yards further south, it was also traversed by a 
conspicuous greenish granite band about five feet wide. A 
microscopic section of the more southern basic dyke shows 
it to be a true basalt. Newer thun the granite which it 
penetrates, it probably represents the Tertiary "Upper Basalts." 
The greenish granite is a handsome rock, with fairly large 
crystals of quartz and felspar, coarser in texture than the 
normal granite, but the difference microscopically is not very 
great. 

The next slides show dykes on the sea coast, and in connec- 
tion with these, I may refer to Major Patrickson's paper read 
before the Geological Society of Dublin in 1835, entitled, "A 
descriptive list ot the dykes appearing on the shore which 
skirts the Mourne Mountains." His list includes 76 dykes. 
One of these, No. 48, he mentions as a porphyritic dyke, 
a quarter of a mile North of Mullartown, and describes Nos. 47 
and 49 as hornblende dykes in parallel contact with it. These 
have been identified by Professor Cole with the now well known 
composite dyke at Glasdrumman Port, minutely described by 
him in a paper " On derived crystals in the Basaltic Andesite of 
Glasdrumman Port," * in which he shows that " crystals may be 
floated away into a pre-existing rock of a low degree of 
fusibility from one of a higher degree which has intruded into 
it." The igneous contact described by Professor Cole is 
illustrated by the next two lantern slides, from Mr. Welch's 
scries of " Irish Geological Views." Hand specimens from this 
interesting dyke are on the table. 

Passing on to Dunmore Head it may be of interest to note 
that this is one of the few localities in the British Islands where 
variolite has been found, and with specimens of the Dunmore 
variolite, there are others from Annalong, Anglesey, and 
Australia, the latter particularly interesting as being tlie fii'st 
variolite discovered there. It was found in the bed of the 
Saltwater River, near Sydenham, upon an excursion, conducted 

* Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc. Vol. V., Scr. 11., Aug. 1894. 



54 il^m M. K. Andrews on 

in April, 1902, by Dr. Gregory. For this specimen 1 am 
indebted to Mr. Chapman, Palaeontologist of the National 
Museum, Melbourne. 

The next slide shows the position of a large porphyrite 
(altered andesite) dyke, about a quarter of a mile south of 
Green Harbour, apparently No. 23 of Major Patrickson's list. 
In the mam central part of the dyke there are very numerous 
and large crystals of labradorite, and in microscopic section, the 
schillerization of the labradorite, and the " strain shadows " 
have a very beautiful effect. 

In the little creek, called ''Goat's Cove," shown in the next 
slide, there is a small composite dyke I have not seen noted 
elsewhere. The quartz-porphyry in the centre has an average 
width of three feet, and is bounded on both sides by a basic dyke 
into which the acid rock has probably intruded. A few dark 
inclusions are found in the quartz-porphyry, which in micro- 
scopic section appear to be altered shale. The position of this 
creek is a little south of Bloody Bridge, almost immediately 
below the interesting old ruin of Ballaghanery church, 
popularly known as St. Mary's. Another composite dyke 
occurs at Dullisk Cove, just north of this creek. 

The next two views show parts of a very interesting dyke on 
the sea coast, a little north of Bloody Bridge, in front of a low 
hill known as Rock-a-bill. It travel ses Silurian strata in a 
north and south direction, and at the northern end, consider- 
able patches of the Silurian beds are seen at the surface. The 
rock appeared at first sight to be a typical quartz-felsite, but 
microscopic examination of the first slide made, revealed certain 
characteristics of rhyolites, which indicate the intermediate 
position it holds between these well marked types. Dr. Cullis, 
to whom it was shown, described it as a " stony rhyolite 
approaching quartz-felsite." * Other microscopic sections show 
the base in various stages of devitrification. This dyke cuts 

S {* Mr. H. J. Seymour asked for the loan of this microscopic section to exhibit before 
the Dublin Microscopical Club, and the details he then gave are published in "The 
Irish Naturalist," Sept., 1897, p. 24-8 



Some Ignco2is Rocks in Down and Antrim. 55 

through one of basalt, which may be seen in the bottom of a 
deep gully. Between this and Newcastle there are several 
basic dykes, one large one occurring just below the houses 
known as the " Widow's Row." 

As the granite of ihe Mourne Mountains is now regarded 
as probably contemporaneous with the riiyolites of Co. Antrim, 
I have selected for the first two views in that county slides 
showing the rhyolite at the east and west ends of the quarry 
at Templepatrick Railway Station. It was here that Mr. 
M'Henry obtained the interesting evidence which led him to 
the conclusion that the rhyolite had intruded in the form of a 
laccolite into the Lower Basalt series, now regarded as of Eocene 
age, while further evidence obtained at Ballypaladyand Gleuarm, 
showed it to be older than the Upper Basalt sheets, or, so to 
speak, of mid-basaltic age.* It is interesting to note that, in 
this respect, these later observations bear out the view of Sir 
Richard Griffith, who in his address to the Geological Society 
of Dublin in 1836, placed the relative age of the " Sandy Brae 
Porphyry " between that of the "Lower" and " Upper tabular 
trap.'' 

The chiei locahties in Co. Antrim for rhyolites, besides 
Templepatrick, are Tardree, Sandy Braes, and Ballymena. 
Specimens from these districts are on the table, for several of 
which I am indebted to Mr. Robert Bell, whose fine collections 
of fossils and rock specimens are well known. 

The next lantern slide shows an exposure of beautifully 
banded rhyolite in a quarry between Tardree and Sandy Braes 
and it will be followed by two slides showing a small protrusion 
of rhyolite at Clough water. /' The whole mass," Professor 
Cole writes, '' is so small, that it might possibly be a displaced 
portion of a lava-stream, as it stands we must regard it as 
representing a volcanic neck." | 

* " On the Age of the Trachytic Rocks of Antrim," by A. M'Henry, M.R.I. A. 
Geol. Mag., Dec. 4, Vol. 2, p. 260. 

t The RhyoUtes of the Co. of Antrim. By Grenville A. J. Cole, M.R I A 
F.G.S. Sc. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc, vol. VI., Ser. II., p. 112. 



56 Miss M. K. Andreivs on 

The second view of this rhyohte boss includes the moorland 
behind, and Slemish, the finest example in our district of a 
volcanic neck, in the extreme distance. 

In connection with the dolerite of which Slemish is 
composed, I may mention that it was in this rock that my 
father, Dr. Andrews, by a magneto-chemical process, discovered 
native iron widely diffused in microscopic particles. The 
observation was unexpected, as except in meteorites, native 
iron is of very rare occurrence. Dr. Andrews detected it also 
in various basalts, in the induiated lias ofPortrush, and in a 
trachyte from Auvergne, but the largest indications were 
obtained from the olivine dolerite of Slemish. 

The next lantern slides show views of Kenbaan, one of the 
most striking headlands of our coast. The intrusion of basalt 
below the chalk anticline is of special interest in connection 
with the well known controversy between " Neptunists " and 
" Vulcanists " in regard to the origin of basalt and other 
igneous rocks. 

My last slide is of Scrabo Hill, which although in Co. 
Down, is regarded as an outlier of the Antrim Ba&altic Plateau. 
It affords very fine examples of sills and dykes, exposed in its 
large quarries of Triassic sandstone. The sandstone has been 
protected on the top by a cappmg of dolerite, and the lantern 
slide shows a typical section v/ith intrussive sills, cut through 
by a vertical dyke of later age. 

The economic importance of the igneous rocks of Antrim 
and Down is well known, and in regard to this it is suflScient 
to note the employment of Castlewellan granite in the Albert 
Memorial, Hyde Park, and to refer to the important inquiries, 
instituted by Mr. Wilkinson, into the qualities of the various 
kinds of stones used for building purposes in Ireland. The 
results of his experiments are given in his work, entitled, 
"Practical Geology, and Ancient Architecture of Ireland," 
published in 1845. 

In addition to the ordinary tests, I wish to draw attention to 
the great value of microscopic sections in determining the 



Some Tgneotis Rocks in Down ana Antrim. 57 

qualities of building stones, and in this connection the following 
quotation from a letter just received from the eninent geologist 
Professor Judd, is of much interest. "Microscopic sections" 
Professor Judd writes, *' are not infrequently employed to dis- 
criminate between the hardness and durability of different 
kinds of building materials, and of other rocks used for 
economic purposes. 

There are two kinds of observations that can be made, ist, 
as to the nature of the cement between the grains of a rock ; 
2nd, as to the amount of incipient decomposition the particles 
of a rock have undergone." 

I have only now, in conclusion, to add — we are all justly 
proud of our coast scener)^, do not let quarrying operations 
mar its beauty nor accelerate its erosion. On the other hand, 
geology may be largely aided by quarrying, and may we not 
hope that, especially in the inland rhyolite districts, further 
sections, as interesting as the classic section at Templepatrick, 
may yet be revealed. 



Note on some Experiments on Irish Stone for Street 
Paving hy H. Gullan. 



Mr. H. Gullan, Superintendent of Works to the Corporation, 
referring to the use of Irish stone for street paving, informed , 
the members present that the Works Department were about 
to lay down a series uf lengths of sett paving in Corporation 
Street with stone from several Irish quarries, with a view of 
testing the quality of the various stone for the purpose of 
street paving. He also mentioned that a similar experiment 



58 Mr. H. Gullan on Some Experiments on Irish Stone^ &c. 

was being carried out iu connection witli road metal in Upper 
Townsend Street. 

These experiments, he pointed out, would be of great value 
in determining the relative qualities of the stones, and he 
also trusted would result in the further development of Irish 
quarries. 

Professor Redfern moved, and Mr. R. Patterson, seconded, a 
vote of thanks to the lecturers, which was heartily passed. 



59 



2)rd March ^ 1903- 



Mr. J. Brown, F.R.3., President in the Chair 



THE ARMADA WRECKS ON THE IRISH COAST. 
Bt Rev. W. S. Green, M.A. 



{Abstract.) 



Rev. W. S. Green said that during the last dozen years a 
great deal of his life had been spent in the West Coast of 
Ireland. In the early part of that time he had to make a 
survey of the fishing grounds when Mr. Arthur Balfour was 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. It was natural that his interest 
should be awakened in the history of the past. There were a 
great many periods pressed on their attention when they were 
wandering round those places and had time to think, and there 
was no time more remarkable or striking when they tried to 
picture it than those days when the galleons of the great 
Spanish Armada were drifting ashore on all the bays of the 
West of Ireland. «■ 

At first it was difficult to get at any history on that point, 
but all the time he had been wandering in the West a good 
deal ot publishing had been going on, publishing of the State 
papers not only British, but Spanish and Venetian, and all 
those documents had been made accessible by order of the 
Master of the Rolls. Anyone who took the trouble could find 
out in those pages the facts he would tell them, though a good 
deal of digging was required to get at the ore. 

From days long before the dawn of history traffic appeared 
to have existed between the Iberian Peninsula and Ireland. It 
mighc have commenced when the Phoenician colonists were 
exploring the Western ocean. When history opened they 
found trade with Spain thoroughly established. Several 



6o Rev. W. S. Green on 

incidents in the histories of Galway and of Watertord formed 
good illustrations of this, as Spanish ships bearing wine and 
other commodities were constantly coming, and taking back 
hides, tallow, and fish. The fishing banks of the Irish coast 
were annually visited by Spaniards, who had permanent 
establishments in the harbours and creeks. In the early days 
of Oueen Elizabeth as many as 600 Spanish fishing vessels were 
reported on the Irish coast in a single year, and Spaniards had 
permanent curing establishments. 

Turning from peace to war, they read of a great sea fight in 
the Harbour of Kinsale in the year 1380, when Spanish and 
French galleys were attacked, and destroyed by English and 
Irish. Later on, when Europe was convulsed by the wars 
resulting from the Reformation and the breaking up of the 
great empire of Charles V., Ireland came in for her share of 
disturbance, but In those times Spanish experiences in Ireland 
were almost a series of terrible disasters. The first act of 
invasion was followed by the massacre at Fort Del Ore in 1580, 
in Smerwick Harbour, in Kerry. 

This, however, paled into insignificance when compared with 
the loss of the ships of the great Armada, which took place 
eight years after. In Connaught alone Sir Richard Bingham 
reported between 6,000 and 7,000 men drowned, and that he 
had executed 1,100 wretches who had escaped from the sea, 
many of them being notable grandees of Spain. Besides these 
losses thousands were drowned or slain in Ulster, while others 
perished on the coast of Kerry. 

Though they had read long ago in their story books that the 
English fleet which went to attack the Armada was a small 
fleet, and that the vessels were small, yet when they came to 
look up the State papers they found that the vessels were fairly 
matched, and at least in the battle fought at Calais the English 
fleet outnumbered the Spanish considerably. There were about 
100 Spanish vessels engaged against 140 ordinary English 
ships, with 9,000 English sailors. The Spaniards had 7,000 
seamen. The largest guns in those days were the 42-pounders, 



The Armada Wrecks on the Irish Coast. 6i 

and the Enslish had a gieat many more cf those heavy guns 
in that fight. The Spaniards ahvays wished to come into close 
quarters, but the English kept them at arm's length. 

When the Spaniards were beaten they had to retreat round 
the North of Scotland and down the West of Ireland back to 
Spain, which the remainder of them reached starving, sick, and 
in a miserable plight. 

The largest ship in the Armada was 1,300 tons, and carried 
about 40 guns. The largest English ship was about i,too tons, 
so that there was only about 100 tons difference in size. The 
poops of the Spanish vessels were very high ; the English cut 
their ships lower, and had an advantage in sailing. The 
English ships had been greatly improved in rigging. They 
were able to sail within five points of the wind ; the Spanish 
ships could only sail within six points of the wind. There was 
about one point of difference, and it made all the difference in 
the world. It enabled the English ships to keep the Spaniards 
to leeward. The reason why the English ships sailed closer to 
the wind was described in a book by Sir Walter Raleigh. The 
Spanish and English vessels carried big sails, and the English 
adopted bowlines, which were a great invention of that day, 
and enabled the English to sail roimd the Spaniards. 

Some of the Spanish vessels, the lecturer pointed out, were 
propelled by three hundred rowers each, the idea being that 
they should be able to attack when they liked, and in the calm 
weather that no vessel could stand an attack from them. Un- 
fortunate! v there was very little calm weather. The galleys, 
with hundreds of slavcs chained to the oars, were always 
worsted. 

The lecturer then gave an account of the battle aiid the 
retreat of the Spaniards up the North Sea and down the West 
Coast of Scotland and Ireland. Out of 131 vessels only 65' 
returned. Large numbers of the vessels perished on the Irish 
coasts. He gave a resume of what had been learned of the 
adventures of the following vessels, illustrating his discourse by 
old maps, charts, and photographs, for the most part taken by 



62 Rev. W. S. Green on 

himself, on the Irish coast :— The Gerona, lost at the mouth of 
the River Bush, in Antrim ; the Valencera, in Glenagivney 
Bay ; the Duquesa Santa Ana, in Louohrosmore ; the Juliana 
and La Via, also in Donegal ; the San Juan de Sicilia, on the 
Sligo coast ; the Rata Encoronada, in Blacksod Bay ; El 
Gran Grin, on Clare Island ; the Falco Blanco Mediano, in 
Connemara ; and Nuestra Senora de la Rosa, in the Blasket 
Sound, County Kerry. The lecturer devoted special attention 
to the story of the Rata and to the adventures of Captain 
Cuellar, whose letter, recently translated from the Spanish, has 
proved so interesting to Irish readers. 

So far as the literature of the subject was concerned, he 
referred specially to Mr. Froude, Professor Lawton. Major 
Hume, Mr. Allingham,and to the British, Spanish, and Venetian 
State papers. In relating Captain Cuellar's adventures after 
his miraculous escape from drowning in the wreck of the 
Spanish galleon on which he sailed, he told the story of his 
wanderings through the country. He made himself very 
agreeable to the people, and stopped for some time with 
a certain M'Clancy. One day when sitting in the sun 
M'Clancy's M'ife asked him to tell her fortune. He stated that 
be manufactured ten thousand falsehoods, which pleased her so 
much that all the country round were coming to him, and a 
special guard had to be appointed to protect him from these 
people. M'Clancy was so delighted with him that he insisted 
upon him marrying his sister, but that was too much for the 
Spanish grandee, and he asked to be shown the shortest way 
to Donegal. Eventually he managed to get to Scotland and 
round home. 

The lecturer, having referred to some relics oi the Armada, 
hoped in conclusion that he bad been able to give them some 
points that would make the reading of that very interesting 
time in Irish history a little bit more interesting. 

Professor Boas moved a vote of thanks to the lecturer. He 
said that the admirable address to which they had listened that 
evenino" was a most interesting exhibition of what he might 



The Armada Wr-ecks 07i the Irish Coast. 63 

call the new historical method. The older school of historians 
had been content to base their narratives on the literary records 
of the past. But the newer school, while not neglecting these, 
drew upon two additional sources of information. Firstly they 
went to the State papers, and other first-hand documents. It 
was plain from his lecture that Mr. Green had made abundant 
use of these — not only of the English State papers bearing on 
the Elizabethan period, bu: of those belonging to foreign 
countries. Secondly, the new school of historians, headed in 
this respect by J. R. Green, called topography into their 
service, and were not content without surveying, as far as 
possible, the actual localities of the events which they described. 
The value of this method had been illustrated in the clearest 
possible way by the lecture that evening. Mr. Spctswood 
Green had gone carefully over all the localities associated with 
the wrecks of the Armada, and had used his camera to the best 
advantage. He had thus been able to fill in with vivid detail 
the narrative of events which they all knew in outline, and no 
one could come away from the lecture without a heightened 
historical sense, and a fuller grasp than before of the tragic 
story of the Armada. 

Professor Fitzgerald seconded the motion, which was heartily 
carried, conveyed by the President, and suitably acknowledged 
by the reader of the paper. 



Note on some Effects of the Cyclo7ie of Fehruary, 
27th, by R. Welch. 



Photographs illustrating the effects of the cyclone of February 
27th, at the Eastern intake at Limavady Junction were shown, 
by Mr. R. Welch. The intake was flooded to the depth of eight 
feet in some places as the result cf the embankment giving 
way, the railway line being submerged also three feet at each 
high tide. 



64 



7/// April ^ 1903. 
Mr. J. Bi-ioWN, F.R.S., President in the Chair. 



A LOST PRINCIPLE IN ART. 
By George Coffry, M.A., MR.I.A. 



{Abstract.) 



Mr. George Coffey said the actual subject of the lecture was 
really certain requirements, optical and artistic, which were 
practised by old artists, and which h".d actually perished out of 
art. Those discoveries, the great majority of them, were chiefly 
due to Mr Good) ear, curator of Brooklyn Fine Art Institution, 
who had made a toui in the North of Italy examining 
mediccval architecture, and he reported certain refinements. 
He had met Mr. Goodyear in England, and was in the position 
of being able to show them that evening a number of vievi's of 
those buildings, many of which would be seen on this side of 
the Atlantic foi the first time. 

English architects had pooh-poohed those discoveries, but he 
was glad to say, because he believed in those theories, that on 
the Continent those views were rapidly extending, and in 
America they were being put into practical operation, so that 
he h;d no doubt that in a very short time they would have 
extended to this side of the waler. They knew the ordinary 
Greek temple. Taking the Parthenon, it had been supposed 
that the columns were perpendicular, that lines which appeared 
horizontal were horizontal, and that it was laid out mathe- 
matically correct, and it had been assumed that the intervals 
between the columns were equal. Mr. Penrose, who died a 



A Lost Principle in Art. 65 

few years ago, discovered that it was filled with the most 
wonderful refinements. The columns, which appeared to be 
erect, leaned in slightly. The platform on which the temple 
was built, instead of being flat, was delicately curved. A 
delicate rhythm was given through the whole of the spacing of 
the columns. There were a number of other refinements. A 
sense of touch was given to the whole building, and every line 
of it was considered with a view to its effect. 

The curves were first discovered by an Englishman named 
Pennythorn, and the general idea was that the curved line was 
to give a greater appearance of strength. Since Penrose's time 
it had been discovered that every Greek temple had its refine- 
ments, and Goodyear's discoveries went to show that not only 
did Egyptians and Greeks employ those refinements, but that 
they passed on to Roman and came down to mediaeval times. 
The principle was called assymmetry, and he thought they 
would find that the principle of symmetry was death and the 
principle of assymmetry life. 

Repetition was part of a tendency in the world towards 
uniformity, and there could be no manifestation of power 
except there was difference, and unless there was something 
vital and human in art there could be not relation between art 
and them. In those commercial days, when they turned out 
prints mechanically, commercial men had actually found it 
necessary to devise machines with eccentricities to try and 
imitate the life that was not in them. 

In conclusion, he wanted to say let them not imagine this 
was an artistic age. They had for the present done with art. 
It died about 1600. But let them not imagine that by 
crowding their rooms by a whole lot of manufactured art that 
they were adding to the pleasure of life. Let them have plain 
and comfortable rooms, and let them purchase at least if they 
could one work of art. 

The Chairman thought that, except in a few cases, they 
could not call the architecture of Belfast art. It was 
rather of the nature of a hereditary utilitarianism. 



66 Mr. George Cojfey on 

Sir Otto Jaffe moved a vote of thanks to the lecturer, and 
believed if they should have the good fortune to visit any of 
the places touched upon they would be able to recall the 
instruction they had received that night with particular 
pleasure. 

Mr. Gray said that variety was an element of beauty in 
architecture, as it was in nature. In his opinion the departures 
from perpendicular, horizontal, and straight lines detected in 
the ruins ot ancient Grecian and other buildings, were the 
result of pressure, heat, and natural decay, and not to the 
intentional design of the architect. Symmetry and not 
assymmetry seem to have been the rule with the Greeks. 

Mr. W. J. Fennell offered his tribute of thanks to the 
lecturer for his valuable paper. He took exception to the 
praise bestowed on the irregular designs of Pisa, and considered 
the attempt of its builders to enhance the perspective defeated 
its object, and compared its "crossing" and heavy looking 
dome to that of Ely, considered that the latter was immeasur- 
ably superior, and without laboured attempts at perspective. 
He also considered chat the irregular arcading of Pisa had not 
the same good effect as the more regular design of Gloucester. 
That the art was not altogether " lost " he instanced that the 
modern classic columns always bore evidence of the " swelling" 
required for the perfect harmony that the eye demanded. 

Mr. R. May said that it was a well known rule and principle 
in all good carving shops in the executing of freize ornament 
or good panels, where it was desired that the ground should 
appear fiat, a fulness of over a sixteenth of an inch to the foot 
was left in the centre, where, had the ground been finished 
quite fiat, a weak or hollow appearance is the result. This 
principle must have been handed down from very early times. 

Mr. R. A. Dawson desired to add a word of thanks to the 
lecturer for coming amongst them, and pointing out the various 
refinements in architecture which were so easily neglected. 
With the lecturer he believed in the unity of the arts, and that 
all the arts clustered round architecture. He was glad that this 



A Lost Principle in Art, 67 

was being more and more recognised in our schools of art. 
In their own school at Belfast chey had special classes for 
architecture, and in order to get this unity in art work 
architectural students were encouraged to study other branches 
of work, and students in other classes were encouraged to 
study architecture, so as to see its bearing on their own special 
craft. No doubt we lived in a mechanical and material age, 
tending to a loss of refinement, and the stamping out of 
humanity and life in art. What we wanted nowadays to bring 
back the refinement mentioned by Mr. Coffey, was more 
recognition of the human element in art work, as against the 
merely mechanical ; more hand work as against machine wcrk; 
more work in situ as opposed to that worked out entirely 
in the studio or office, and more craftsmen who were also 
designers, and not mechanical copyists of designs by other 
men, with which they had no sympathy. He had pleasure in 
supporting the vote of thanks. 

The motion was heartily passed, and the lecturer, in replying, 
said he had only been able to touch the fringe of the subject, 
and he referred those who would like to study the subject to 
the Brooklyn Institute of Fine Arts' memoirs on the subject, 
which they would probably find in the library. 



i^atutal list0rg & IBIjilasopIjical Smttv. 



Officers and Cou?icil of Maftagetnetit for ig>oj-ig04. 

■^resibeiti : 

PEOFESSOR JOHNSON SYMINGTON, M.D., F.E.S. 

■^ice-"g*tresibcttfs : 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., il.d. I WiM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 
SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l. 1 ROBERT YOUNG, c.e., j.p. 

F.L.S. 

/aon. ■treasurer : 
W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

<^on. (£ibratrian: 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

/»on. gccrefarg. 

ROBERT M. Y'OUNG, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a. 

JOHN BROWN, F.E.S., a.m.i.e.e. 

JOHN H. DAYIES. 

KEY. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d., prfsident q.c.b. 

JOHN HORNER, m.i.m.e. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN. m.r.i.a., f.k.s.a. 

SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., j.p., e.l.s. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, m.r.i.a., f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

THOMAS F. SIIILLINGTOX, j.p. 

WM. SWANSTON, r.c.s. 

PROFESSOR JOHNSON SYMINGTON, m.d., f.r.s. 

PROFESSOR GREGG WILSON, d.sc. 

JOSEPH WRIGHT, f.g.s. 

ROBERT YOUNG, j.p., c.e. 

R. M. Y'OUNG, B.A., J. p., M.R.I.A, 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

\^ Denotes holders of three or more Sharcs?\ 

*Alexarider, Francis, b.k., Belfast 

Allworthy, S. W., m.d., Manor House, Antrim Road. do. 

*Anderson, John j.p., f.g.s., East Hillbrook, Holyvvood 

Andrew, John J., l.d.s., r.c.s. Eng., University Square, Belfast 
Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, j.p., Ardville, Marino Holywood 

Beattie, Rev. A. H. Hamilton, Portglenone 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Bland, Robert H., j.p., Lisburn 

Bottomley, Henry H., Belfast 

Bowman, Davys, Holyrood, Malone Road, do. 

Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

*Boyd, J. Sinclair, m.d., Chatsworth, Malone Road, do. 

Braddc-11, Edward, Wilmington Square, Eastbourne 

Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, Belfast 
Brett, John H., c.e., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Brown, John, f.r.s., a.m.i.e.e., Longhurst, Dunmurry 

Brown, William K. (Representatives of), Belfast 

Bulloch, Alexander, Kversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burrowes, W. B., Ballynafeigh House, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell, William, m.a., m.d., College Square North, do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

Carr, A. H. R., Waring Street, Belfast 



70 



Shareholders. 



Carson, John, Walmer Terrace, Holywood 

*Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor 

*Chrislen, Madame Rodolphe, Carnbinn, Whitehouse 

Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast 

Clarke, E. H., Netting Hill, do. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p., Queen's Elms, Belfast 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, Strandtown 

Crawford, William, Mount Randal, Belfast 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown 

Davies, John H., Lenaderg House, Banbridge 
*Deramore, Lord, d.l. (Representatives of) 

Dixon, Professor, Almora, Myrtlefield Park, Belfast 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonards, Newcastle 

^Donegal, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast 
*Downshire, Marquis of (Reps, of). The Castle, Hillsborough 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., Dunowen, Cliftonville, Belfast 
Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park 

(Representatives of), Ballywalter 

Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Ewart, Fred W., m.a., b.l., Derryvolgie, Lisburn 
Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., d.l., Glen- 

machan House, Belfast 

Faren, Wm., Mountcharles, do. 

*Fenton, Francis G., Paris 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., C.E., Donegall Park, Belfast 

Finlay, Fred W., j.p.. Wolf hill House, Ligoniel 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, Belfast 
Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic 

Avenue Belfast 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a., m.lm.e., Assoc. 

M.LC.E., Eglantine Avenue, 



Foster, Nevin Harkness, Hillsborough, 



do. 
Co. Down 



Shareholders. 



V 



*Getty. Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, Miss, Mountpleasant, do. 

Gordon, M., Hilden, Lisburn 

*Grainger, Rev. Canon, D.n , m.r.i.a., 

(Representatives of) Broughshane 
Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus 

*Ha]I, Frederick H., Waterford 

Hamilton, Rev. Thos., d.d.. President, Queen's College, Belfast 
*Hami]ton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), do. 

Harland, W., 3 Crescent Gardens, University Road, do. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S., (Representatives of), do. 

Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., d.l., Oakley, Windsor 

Park, do. 



Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte (Reps, of), Clarges Street, London 

Henry, R. M., m.a,, 

Herdman, John, j.p., d.l., Carricklee House, 

*Herdman, Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo, 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, 

Hind, John, junr., Clifton Park Avenue, 

Hodges, Miss 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, 

Horner, John, m.i.m.f.., Chelsea, Antrim Read, 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., Orangefield, 

*Hughes, Edwin, j.p., Dalchoolin, 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., Windsor, 



Inglis, James, j.p., Abbeyville, 



Belfast 

Strabane 

Cultra 

Belfast 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Craigavad 
Belfast 

Whiteabbey 



Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie 

Avenue, Belfast' 

Jaffe, Sir Otto, j.p.. Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey 



Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Dalguise, Monkstown, 



Dublin 



72 ShareJinlders. 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, Belfast 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry 

*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Kinnaird, George Y., Malone Park, do. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 



Lanyon, Mrs., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, do. 
Larmor, Joseph, m.a , d.sc, ll d, f.r.a.s , f.r.u.i.. 

Sec. R.S., St. John's College, Cambridge 

Leathern, R. R., m.d., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast 
Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, 

Strandtown, do. 
Lepper, F. R., j.p , Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down 

Letts, Professor E. A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra 
Lindsay, Professor James A., m.a., m.d., College Square 

East Belfast 

Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House, do. 

Lytle, Joseph H., j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.t,., m.i.c.e., Dunmurry 

Mackenzie, John, c.E., Strathavon, Lisburn Road, Belfast 

*Macrory, A. J., (Representative of), do. 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, do. 
Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 
Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.r., Kirkliston Drive, 

Bloomfield, do. 

Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, do. 

Mayes, William, 5 Mount Pleasant, do. 

Milligan, Seaton Forest, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a., Bangor 

Mitchell, Robert A., ll.b , t.c.d., Marmont, Strandtown 

Montgomery, Henry C, Bangor 

Montgomery, H. H., Strandtown, Belfast 

Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain House. Dunmurr}' 

Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast 

Morton, Professor W. B., m.a., Nottinghill, do. 



Shareholders. 



73 



Mullen, William, Lindistarne, Marlborough Park, 
Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p.. Tudor House, 
*Murphy, Isaac James, 

*Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of), 
Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, 
*Musgrave, Henrv, Drumglass, Malone, 



Belfast 

Holywood 

Armagh 

Belfast 

do. 

do. 



Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., d.l., j.p., Drumglass, Malone, do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

M'Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, Mallusk, do, 

M'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*'Vl'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London 

*M'Cammon, Thos. Plaisted, Woodville, Holywood 

M'Cance, Miss Charlotte Georgianna, Larkfield, Dunmurry 
M'Clure, Sir Thomas, Bart., j.p., d.l. (Representatives 

of) 

MacColl, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast 

MacCormac, John M., m.d.. Victoria Place, do. 

MacCormac, Hugh M'Neile, Cultra House, Holywood 
*M'Cracken. Francis (Representatives of) 

M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood 

Macllwaine, John H., Mornington Park, Bangor 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d.. College Square East, Belfast 

M'Knight, John P., Nevara, Chichester Park, do. 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Holywood 

Nicholson, Henry J., College Square North, Belfast 

O'Neill, James, m.a., College Square East, do. 

O'Rorke, Mrs., Dunratho, Craigavad 

Orr, Hugh L., Woodstock Road, Belfast 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University St., Belfast 

Patterson, Edward Ferrar, Ballyholme Road, Bangor 

Patterson, Mrs. Isabella, Bonn, Germany 

Patterson, John, Dunallan, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 



74 Shareholders. 

Patterson, Richard, j.f., Kilmore, Holj^wood 

*Patterson, Sir, Robert Lloyd, j.p., d.l... f.l.s., Croft House do. 
Patterson, Robert, m.r.i.a., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., Malone Park, Belfast 
Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a., Garranard, Strandtown 

Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Knock, Belfast 

Pim, Edward W., j.p., Elm wood Terrace, do. 

Pim, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e., m.r.i.a., National Library, Dublin 

Rae, John Henry, m.d., University Street, Belfast 

Rae, William R., Gardha, Fortwiiliam Park, do. 

Reade, Robert, H. S. j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark Belfast 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown do. 

Robinson John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc. Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shillington, Thos. Foulkes, j.p., Dromart, Antrim Road, do. 
Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., T-P-j r).L., Hopefield, do. 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, M.i;., f.r.c.s. Eng., Howard St., do. 
Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, John, m.a., c.e., Miletown, Banbridge 

Speers, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywocd 

Steen, William C, m.d., Windsor Crescent, Belfast 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 
Stelfox, James. Oaklcigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Symington, Prof. Johnson, m.d., f.r.s., Queen's College, d®. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representative of), Rushpark, do. 
*Tennent, Robert James (Representative of). Rush- 
park, Belfast 
Thompson, S. B., Short Strand, do. 



Shareholders, 75 

Torrens, Mrs. Sarah H. (Representative of), Whiteabbey 

*TurnIey. John (Representatives of), Belfast 

Walkington, Miss Jane A. Wolsley Villas, Malonc Park, do. 
Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtown, do. 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 

Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, J.P., f.s.a., Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard, T., Shandon Park, Knock, do. 

Whitla, Prof. Sir William, m.d., j.p., College Sq., North, do. 
Wilson, James, m.e, Oldforge, Dunmurry 

Wilson, John. K., j.p., Donegall Street, Belfast 

*Wilson, Walter, H. Belvoir Park, do. 

*Wilson W. Perceval, do. 

*Wolflr, G. W., J. p., M.p., The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, Drummena, Bladon Park, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., Rubane House, Glastry 

Workman, Rev. Robert m.a., B.n., The Manse, Newtownbreda 
* Workman, Thomas, j.p. (Representatives of), Craig- 

darragh, Craigavad 

Workman, William, Nottinghill, Belfast 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, c.e., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



76 



Animal Subscribers. 
HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 



Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Belfast 
Stewart Samuel Alex., f.b.s., Edin., Belfast Museum, do. 
Swanston, William, f.g.s., Clittonville Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast 

Northern Banking Co., Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E. Stormont Castle, Dundonald 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast 

Brown, G. Herbert., j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Cleaver, A.S., b.a., Dunraven, do. 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor 

Fulton, G. F., Howard Street, Belfast 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace. do. 

Green. Isaac, Ann Street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., j.p., Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Cliftonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park, do. 

Hutton, A. W., Chichester Street, do. 

Jones, R. M., m.a., Royal Academical Institution, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 



Aiuiual Subscribers. 77 

Macassey, Lyndon, c.e., b.a., ll.b., London 

Malone, John, Brookvale House, Cliftonville, Belfast 

Morrow, W. A. G., Clifton Street, do. 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Macedon, do. 

Parr, William, St. Marks, Ballysillan, do. 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f.r.c.s.i.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Pullman, S. H., Claremont, Knock, do. 

Scott, Conway, c.e., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Storrar, W. Morrison, l.r.c.p., Mountcharles, do. 
Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Tate, Alexander, c.e., Rantalard, Whitehouse, do. 

Thompson, John, j.p.. Mount CoUyer, do. 

Turpin, James, Waring Street, do. 



I 



epijt ami irorceiiitflH 



BBLB^.A.ST 



NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIEiy 



SESSIOlSr 1903-1904:. 



BELFAST : 

PRINTED BY ALEX. MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET. 

(printers to queen's college.) 

1904. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report 

Balance Sheet 

Donations to Museum .. 

Additions to Library 

John Grattan : A Sketch of his Work as a Craniologist — Professor 

Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E 
Sayings, Proverbs, and Humours of Ulster — Professor Byers, M.A., M.D. 
Radium — John Finnegan, B.A., B.Sc 
A Historic Trial : The 1 imavady Gold Ornaments Case— R. Lloyd 

Praeger, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A 
Around Youghal and the Blackwater— Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.LA., 

F.R. S.A.I. 
Presentation to Mr. S. A. Stewart, A.L.S., F.B.S. 

The National Expenditure on the Maintenance of Gulls— J. Brown, F.R.S. 
Blinking or 111- wishing— E. J. M'Kean, B. A. (Oxon.) 
Report of Delegate to British Association — Professor Gregg Wilson, 

M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc, M.R.I.A. 
List of OtBce- Bearers ... 
List of Shareholders 



PAGE 

1 

9 

10 

11 

19 

41 
44 

50 

53 
59 
63 
70 

74 
76 

77 



i 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST-A^BLISiaiEID 18121. 



CONSTITUTION. 

The membership of the Society consists of Shareholders in the Museum, 
Annual Subscribers (Associates), Honorary Members and Honorarj' Associates. 

Shares in the Museum cost £7 each. A holder of one Share pays an 
annual contribution of ten shillings ; a holder of two Shares (in one certificate) 
an annual contribution of five shillings ; while a holder of three or more Shares 
(in one certificate) is exempt from annual payments. Shares en which the 
annual payments as above are in arrear are liable to forfeiture. The Council 
retain the right to decline to consolidate two or more share certificates into one 
certificate. 

Annual Subscribers (Associates) pay £1 Is. (one guinea) due 1st November 
in each year in advance. 

A General Meeting of Shareholders in the Museum is held annually in 
May or June, or as soon thereafter as convenient, to receive the Report of the 
Council and the Statements of Accounts for the preceding year, to elect 
members of Council to replace those retiring by rotation or from other reasons, 
and to transact any other business incidental to an annual meeting. Share- 
holders only are eligible for election on the Council. 

The Council elect, from among their own number, a President and other 
officers of the Society. 

Each Member has the right of personal attendance at the ordinary lectures 
of the Society, and has the privilege of introducing two friends for admission 
to such ; and he has also the right of access to the Museum and Library for 
himself and family residing under his roof, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections in the Museum to any person not 
residing in Belfast or within five miles thereof. The session for lectures 
extends from November till May. 

The Museum, College Square North, is open daily for the admission of 
visitors, for such hours as the Council may from time to time decide ; the 
charge fur admission to non-members is sixpence each. The Curator is in 
constant attendance, and will take charge of any donation kindly presented to 
the Museum or Library. 

Any further information required may be obtained from the Honorary 
Secretary. 



ifiSelfast IRatural 1bi5torv> an^ jpbilosopbical 

Society. 



ANNUAL REPORT, 1903-4. 



The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders was held on 20th June, 
1904, in the Museum, College Square North. Professor Symington, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., President, occupied the chair, and amongst 
those present were — Rev. Dr. Hamilton (President Queen's Col- 
lege) ; Dr. John MacCormac ; Messrs. John Ward, J. P., F.S.A. ; 
Geo. Kidd, J.P. ; R. M. Young, J.P. (Hon. Secretary) ; John 
Horner, J.P.; J. H. M'llwaine, John Carson, Robert Patterson, 
M.R.I.A. ; W. Gray, M.R.I.A.; W. H. F. Patterson, R. A. Kyle, 
W. Swanston, F.G.S.; J. E. Magill, and H. C. Montgomery. 

The Hon. Secretary, Mr. Robert M. Young, M.R.I.A., J.P., 
read the Annual Report, which was as follows : — 

The Winter Session was opened in the Museum on the 3rd 
November, 1903, when the President, Professor Johnson Symington, 
M.D., F.R.S., gave an inaugural address, subject, "John Grattan : 
an Appreciation of his Scientific Work," with illustrations. The 
second meeting was held on the ist December, when Professor 
J. W. Byers, M.A., M.D., delivered a lecture, subject, " Sayings,. 
Proverbs, and Humour of Ulster." The third meeting took place 
on the 28th of January, 1904, when Mr. John M. Finnegan, B.A'., 
B.Sc, gave a lecture on " Radium," illustrated by experiments, 
&c. The fourth meeting was held on 17th February, when a 
lecture was kindly given by Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, B.A., B.E., 



2 Annual Meetiftg. 

M.R.I.A., subject, " A Historic Trial : the Limavady Gold 
Ornaments Case." Fac-similes of the gold objects were exhibited. 
Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S., Vice-President, occupied the chair in 
the unavoidable absence of the President. The fifth meeting 
took place on the 22nd March, when Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, 
M.R.I.A., delivered a lecture, subject, " Around Youghal and the 
Blackwater with the Royal Society of Antiquaries," illustrated with 
a special series of lantern views. The closing meeting was held 
on 26th April, when two papers were read — i. "The National 
Expenditure on the Maintenance of Gulls," by Mr. John Brown, 
F.R.S. 2. " BHnking or Ill-wishing," by Mr. John M'Kean, B.A. 
(Oxon.). Professor Gregg Wilson, D.Sc, then gave an account 
of the work done as our delegate of the allied societies at the last 
British Association meeting. 

The attendance of members and of the general public at all 
these meetings was good. The various societies holding their 
meetings in the Museum continue to do so, and the Ulster 
Amateur Photographic Society have taken over the rooms on 
ground floor formerly occupied by the Naturalists' Field Club. 

At the Easter holidays the Museum was opened as usual at a 
nominal charge and the attendance was fully as numerous as in 
recent years. 

On the occasion of the Royal Visit to Belfast in last July your 
Council prepared a loyal address, which was presented to their 
Majesties, King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra, by Sir R. 
Lloyd Patterson, D.L., and the Honorary Secretary, on behalf of 
the Society, and was graciously acknowledged.* 

Since the last Annual Meeting the Society has to deplore the 
loss of several of its oldest members. Sir James Musgrave, Bart., 
was a warm friend of the Society and his time and purse were 
always at its disposal when required. Messrs. D. B. Lytle and 
Walter H. Wilson also took a lively interest in its welfare. Dr. 
John Purser, a former president and for many years on the 
Council, will also be much regretted, as until his removal to 

* The text of this address is appended below. 



Annual Meeting. 3 

Dublin he took much interest in the work of the Society. Mr. 
James O'Neill, M.A., and Mr. H. H. Bottomley, who passed away 
during the year, were both valued members of long standing, 
while Mr. Davys Bowman had more recently joined the Society. 
The death of Mrs. Bryce, in August last, severed another link 
with the past history of the Society, as her husband. Dr. James 
Bryce, was one of the early members and a former secretary. His 
portrait was presented by his wndow to the Museum some years 
ago. 

Your Council were much gratified to know that your Curator's 
scientific researches have received well-merited recognition from 
the Linnean Society of London, of which he has been elected an 
Associate. Advantage was taken of the occasion by some members 
of your Society and of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club to 
present Mr. Stewart with a testimonial at the last meeting on 26th 
April. 

During the year a good number of plants have been mounted 
for the local herbarium. Many of these are to replace unsatisfactory 
specimens already in the collection, but many are of the rarer 
Irish species, including the set recently presented by Mr. R. Lloyd 
Praeger. These were collected lately in Antrim and Down, and 
are additions to the lists of those counties. Some progress has 
been made in remounting and labelling the large collection of 
foreign mollusca and echinodermata, and a considerable amount 
of time has been occupied in replacing the labels in the different 
rooms of the Museum. 

Amongst the donations to the Society of special interest are two 
fragments of papyrus from Oxyrhynchus presented by the Egyptian 
Exploration Fund, through the good offices of Mr. John W^ard, 

J-P- 

In accordance with the constitution of the Society, five members 
of Council now retire from office, four of whom are eligible for 
re-election. 

Mr. W. H. F. Patterson, Honorary Treasurer, submitted the 
financial statement, which showed that the accounts for the year 



4 Annual Meeting. 

ending 30th April, 1904, had been closed with a balance on hand 
of £^^ 3S. 3d. 

Mr. John Ward, in moving the adoption of the Report and 
Statement of Accounts, said that on his recent visit to Egypt he 
was requested by Professor Maspero to obtain photographs of any 
existing portraits of the late Dr. Edward Hincks, the great 
Egyptologist, in order that a distinguished sculptor might be 
employed to make a bronze bust which would be erected along 
with those of Mariette and Champollion in the Museum at Cairo. 
Professor Maspero said that as Hincks was one of the pioneers of 
the knowledge of Egyptology he considered it right that his bust 
should be enshrined in the greatest Egyptian museum in the 
world. As Dr. Hincks was one of the founders of that Society, 
and as their Museum was full of his works, especially the translation 
of the inscriptions upon the Egyptian mummy, he (Mr. Ward) 
thought this information must be very interesting to his admirers 
in his native town. 

The President of Queen's College, who seconded, said it seemed 
to him it was very important that Belfast should have a society 
like that, for it provided for men who were engaged in different 
pursuits in natural history, philosophy, and other departments of 
science, an excellent medium for the promulgation and discussion 
of their views. The Society had now been in existence for a great 
many years, and had had connected with it not a few distinguished 
men. The reports laid before them that day show that, although 
it was getting older it was still bringing forth fruit in its old age. 
Indeed the proceedings of last session could scarcely have been 
other than successful. On the bridge of the vessel they had a 
most excellent commander in Professor Symington, and in the 
Secretary they had a most experienced and capable man at the 
wheel. They all lamented that day that they had lost by death 
so many old and respected members. Their removal had been 
referred to from time to time at the winter meetings ; but he 
thought they ought again that day to pay another passing tribute 
to their memorv. Thev wo ild not see their familiar faces again, 



Annual Meeting. 5 

but he could not help expressing the hope that their places would 
be supplied by others, able and willing to do something for the 
advancement of science. The financial position of the Society 
seemed to be fairly satisfactory, although the balance was rather 
less than last year. He was perfectly certain they were all delighted 
at the mention in the Report of their old friend Mr. S. Stewart, 
a man whose modesty prevented him from being as well known 
as he deserved to be. In his knowledge of botany he was 
unsurpassed by anyone in the North of Ireland. Indeed, he was 
entitled to be classed among the most eminent botanists in the 
United Kingdom. He happened to know that in a few days 
there would be made known another well-deserved honour which 
was to be bestowed on Mr. Stewart, but of that he was not at 
present at liberty to say more. He was sure they would all 
congratulate their old and esteemed friend on the well-deserved 
distinction he had achieved during the past winter, and they 
sincerely hoped he might long be spared to help forward the work 
of the Society and of the Museum. 

The motion was carried. 

The Secretary then said there were five vacancies on the 
Council of Management, and the following gentlemen, who were 
retiring members, were eligible for re-election : — Sir R. L. Patterson; 
Messrs. J. H. Davies, John Horner, and R. Young. The other 
vacancy was caused by the retirement of Mr. Joseph Wright, who 
did not seek re-election, and in his place the Council had 
nominated Professor Morton, who had been a very warm friend of 
the Society, and had given one or two lectures, which were much 
appreciated. 

On the motion of Mr. Gray, seconded by Mr. George Kidd, 
these gentlemen were unanimously elected. 

The Secretary said since the last meeting the Society had 
received gifts as follow : — From Mr. Robert Bell, a specimen of 
the rare mineral dopplerite, recently discovered by the donor at 
Randalstown ; a large fossil nautilus from the lias at Waterloo, 
near Larne ; and a very fcssiliferous block of lias limestone from 



6 Annual Meeting. 

the same place. From Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, M.R.I. A., a number 
of the rare plants recently found by the donor, mainly in Down 
and Antrim. From Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., Melbourne University, 
a number of Australian marine shells. From Mr. J. R. Bristow, 
a number of geological specimens. 

Mr. W. Gray, in proposing a vote of thanks to these gentlemen, 
said the principal gifts to the Society in former times had come 
from intelligent citizens who had travelled abroad, and he was 
glad that the practice still survived, as was evidenced by the 
travels of their old friend, Mr. John ^^'ard, who had been in 
Egypt, where he had done good work. Mr. Ward had remembered 
the Society in his travels, and had been the means of obtaining 
very valuable contributions, for which they were much obliged. 

Mr. J. H. M'llwaine seconded, and said if it were better known 
that such donations were acceptable they might get more of them. 
He would undertake to give a tomtit's nest built in an elm tree, 
which, judging from the marks, had been there for twelve years. 

The motion was agreed to. 

Dr. MacCormac next moved a vote of thanks to the Chairman, 
who, he said, had done much in the cause of science, and was an 
honour to the Society. He need not attempt to give expression 
to any feelings of his own concerning Professor Symington's 
merits, as they were known to all of them, and he would therefore 
content himself by moving a hearty vote of thanks to him for the 
manner in which he had discharged his duties during the year. 

The motion, seconded by Mr. John Horner, was carried with 
acclamation, and, in responding. 

The President said he did not propose to detain them at any 
length by reviewing the present condition or the future prospects 
of the Society. He thought their presence there was an evidence 
that it was doing a good and useful work, and was worthy of their 
support. It behoved all of them, however, to endeavour to secure 
for the Society a greater amount of support than it had yet 
received. Practically that was the only Society of the kind which 
they had in Belfast, and it certainly ought to receive from the 



Annual Meeting. 7 

inhabitants of the city a very much larger measure of assistance. 
There were various duties devolving on the Society, such, for 
instance, as the maintenance of the Museum and the diffusion of 
general information with regard to scientific progress. No one 
could be at all familiar with the character of museums in other 
towns without feeling that they really required, not exactly to put 
their house in order — a considerable part of it was already in 
order — but undoubtedly they still wanted more means to furtiier 
improve the character of the Museum. That institution must 
form a very interesting record of the conditions of nature and the 
social state of the people in future times. It would undoubtedly 
some day or other form the nucleus of a very large and important 
museum, and if the specimens there were not taken proper care of 
their loss would be irreparable. It would be quite impossible to 
replace many of the existing specimens. He would like to direct 
their attention to the fact that the Museum was threatened with 
some damage owing to the erection of the municipal building on 
the opposite side of the road. They all recognised the importance 
of that institution, and wished it all success, but they trusted that 
they would receive some compensation from the city for any 
injury that the Museum might suffer by its construction. Another 
matter he might refer to was the noise caused by passing vehicles 
on the street. He thought that if wood pavement were laid down 
it would do a great deal to do away with the present cause of 
complaint. Personally he could only thank them for the honour 
they had done him in electing him as their President, and for the 
support they had given to him during his term of office. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Council Mr. W. H. F. Patterson 
resigned his office as Hon, Treasurer, and Mr. John Horner, J. P. 
was appointed to succeed him. Professor Symington, M.D.,F.R.S., 
F.R.S.E., was re-elected President, and the following Vice-Presi- 
dents were also chosen for another term : — Rev. Dr. Hamilton, 
M.A., D.D., LL.D. (President of Queen's College), Sir R. L. 
Patterson, D.L., J.P., F.L.S., Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S., and Mi. 
Robert M. Young, J. P., C.E. For the position of Hon. Librarian, 



8 Anmial Meeting. 

Mr. J. H. Davies was selected, and for Hon. Secretary Mr. R. M. 
Young, B.A., J.P., M.R.I. A. 



To their Most Gracious Majesties Edward VII., by the grace of 
God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
King, and Queen Alexandra. 
May it please your Majesties — In the name and on behalf of 
the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, we, the 
members of Council, desire to express the pleasure and .satisfaction 
we so cordially feel at your Majesties' visit to Ulster, and to offer 
our most respectful and sincere welcome to the city of Belfast. 
We fully recognise the importance of your Majesties' Royal 
progress through Ireland, and entertain the most sincere conviction 
that it will be productive of much permanent good to our country. 
Our Society was formed in 182 1 for the cultivation of geology, 
botany, and mineralogy in all their branches, more especially the 
investigation of the natural history and antiquities of Ireland. In 
later years our efforts have been more especially directed to the 
advance of science and the spread of knowledge among the 
people. We cannot but feel encouraged to greater zeal by 
observing the practical interest your Majesties take in the social 
and intellectual improvement of your subjects, and the encourage- 
ment your Majesties accord to the progress of scientific research 
at home and abroad. In conclusion, we would again assiu'e your 
Majesties of our devotion to your Majesties and to all the members 
of the Royal family. Wishing your Majesties long life and every 
prosperity, we have the honour to remain your Majesties' most 
humble, lo3'al, and devoted servants. 

(Signed on behalf of the Belfast Natural History and Philo- 
sophical Society.) 

Johnson Symington, President. 
Robert M. Young, Secretary. 






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DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1903-1904. 



From Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, M.R I.A. 
A number of rare plants found in the North of Ireland. 

From The Egyptian Exploration Fund. 
Second Century Document, and Homeric Fragment ; also carving 
in limestone, and various specimens from the recent excava- 
tions at Abydos, Egypt. 

Fro7n Mr. J. R. Bristow. 
Vegetable Ivory, and Geological specimens. 

From Mr. Henry Craig. 
Specimen of Sphinx convolvuli captured in a house in Belfast. 

From Mr. Lionel L. Fletcher, Caterham, Surrey. 
Plaster-cast of an Irish token, the " Belfast Ticket," in the 
possession of Mr. L. L. Fletcher. 

Fro7n Mr. Robert Welch. 
A number of the rarer recent Irish shells. 

From Mr. Robert Patterson, M.R.I.A. 
Contents of a Pellet, cast up by a Herring Gull. 

From Lord Shaftesbury. 
Ancient Leaden Trunkhead of a Spout, from John M'Cracken's 
Cotton Mill, Donegall Street. 

From Mr. Robert Bell, 
Specimen of the mineral Dopplerite, from Sluggan Bog, near 
Randalstown. Specimen of a fossil Nautilus, from the Lias, 
at Larne, also a fossiliferous block of Lias Limestone from 
Carr's Glen, Belfast. 



II 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, ist May, 1903, till 
1ST May, 1904. 



Adelaide. — -Transactions of the Royal Society of South AustraHa. 
Vol. 27, parts I and 2, 1903. 

From the Society. 
Albany. — Fifty-fourth Annual Report of the New York State 
Museum. Vols, i — 4, 1900, and 55th Annual 
Report, 1 901 ; also Index to Publications, 1903. 

The Director. 
Austin. — Transactions of Texas Academy Science. Vol. 3, 1900^ 
and vol. 4, part i, Nos. i — 8, 1900-1901. 

The Academy. 
Basel. — Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Basel. Vol. 15, part 2, 1904. The Society. 

Belfast. — Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' 
Field Club. Ser. 2, vol. 5, parts i and 2, 1904. 

The Club. 
Berkeley. — University of California Publications. Vol. i, part 

I, 1902. The University. 

Bergen. — Bergens Museum Aarsberetning for 1902, and Aarbog 
for 1903, parts i — 3, 1903-1904 ; also Crustacea 
of Norway. Vol. 5, parts i and 2, 1903. 

The Aluseuvi Director. 
Birmingham. — Records of Meteorological Observations for 1902 
and 1903, by A. Cresswell, Curator of the Ob- 
servatory. Birmingham Institute. 

Boston. — Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Vol. 5, No. 8, 1902, and No. 9, 1903. Proceed- 
ings, vol, 3, Nos. 3 and 7, 1902, and No. i, 1903, 

The Society. 



12 Books Received. 

Boulder. — University of Colorado College Studies. Vol. i, Nos. 

3 and 4, 1903. The University. 

Bremen. — Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaft- 

lichen Verein zu Bremen. Vol. 17, part 3, 1903. 

The Society. 
Breslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie vom Verein fiir Sclessiche 

Insektenkunde zu Breslau. New series, part 28, 

1903. The Society. 

Brighton. — Report of Brighton and Hove Natural History and 

Philosophical Society, 1903. The Society. 

Brooklyn. — Science Bulletin of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 

and Sciences, No. 2, 1902, and Monographs, i 

and 2, 1903. The Institute. 

Brussels. — Annales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de Bel- 

gique. Vol. 37, 1902. The Society. 

,, Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique. 

Vol. 46, 1902. The Society. 

Buenos Ayres. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 

Ser. 3, vol. I, parts i and 2, 1902. 

The Director. 

Buffalo. — Bulletin of Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Vol. 
8, Nos. I — 3, 1903. The Society. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. 
34, part 3, and vol. 35, part 2, also General 
Report and Index, 1903. Palceontologia Indica, 
ser. 9, vol. 3, part 2, No. i, and ser. 15, vol. i, 
part 5, 1903. The Director of the Survey. 

Cambridge. — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 
Vol. 12, part 3, 1903, and parts 4 and 5, 1904 ; 
also List of Fellows, 1903. TJie Society. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Anatomy. Vol. 39, Nos. 6 — 8, 1903 ; vol. 40, 
Nos. 6 — 7, 1903 ; vol. 41, No. 2, 1904 ; vol. 42, 
Nos. I — 4, 1903, and No. 5, 1904; vol. 43, No. 
I, 1904, and vol. 45, No. i, 1904; also Annual 
Report, 1903. The Keeper of the Museum. 



Books Received. 13 

Cardiff. — Transactions of Cardiff Naturalists' Society. Vol. 34, 
1902, and vol. 35, 1903. The Society. 

Cassel. — Abhandlungen und Bericht der Vereins fiir Naturkunde 
zu Kassel. Vol. 48, 1903. The Society. 

Christiania. — Forhandlinger i Videnskabs Selskabet i Christiania, 
1902. 

T]ie Royal Norske Trederiks University. 

Cincinnati. — Bulletin of the Lloyd Library, No. 6, 1903 ; also 
Mycological Notes, Nos. 10 — 12, 1902, and Nos. 
13 and 14, 1903. The Messrs. L,loyd. 

Colorado Springs. — Colorado College Studies, 1903. 

Colorado College Scietitific Society. 

Dublin. — Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. 
Ser. 2, vol. 8, Nos. 2 — 4, 1903. Scientific Pro- 
ceedings. New Series, vol. 10, part i, and 
Economic Proceedings. Vol. i, part 4, 1903. 

The Society. 

Edinburgh. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
Vol. 22, 1 889-1 90 1. The Society. 

„ Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. Session 

1901 1902. The Society. 

Emden. — Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Emden, 1903. The Society. 

Genoa. — Rivista Ligure di Scienze, Littera ed xA,rti. Anno 25, 
fasc. 2 — 6, 1903, and Anno 26, fasc. i, 1904. 
Societa Letture e Conversazione Scientifiche. 
Glasgow. — Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of 

Glasgow. Vol. 34, 1903. The Society. 

Gothenburg. — Goteborg's Kungl Vetenskaps Och Vitterhets 
Samhalles Handlingar. Parts 5 and 6, 1898. 

The Society. ' 
Halifax. — Proceediiigs and Transactions of the Nova Scotian 
Institute of Science. Vol. 10, parts 3, 1902, and 
4, 1903. The histitute. 



14 Books Received. 

Hamburg. — Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissen- 

schaften herausgegeben vom Naturwissen shaft - 

lichen Verein in Hamburg. Vol. i8, 1903 ; also 

Verhandlungen, 190304. The Society. 

Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen-Karpathen Vereines, 30th year, 

1903. The Society. 

Indianopolis. — Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 

1 90 1. The Acadej?iy. 

Kharkow. — Proceedings of the Society of Physico-Chimiques of 

Kharkow University. Nos. 25 — 31, 1 901-1903. 

The Society. 
Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 

Naturelles. Ser. 4, vol. 39, Nos. 146 — 148, 1903. 

The Society. 
Lawrence. — Bulletin of the University of Kansas. Vol. 3, Nos. 

6 — 8, 1901-02. The University. 

Leicester. — Thirteenth Report of Leicester Museum and Art 

Gallery, 1902. Tlie T>irector. 

Leipsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig, 

1902 ; also Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen. 

Vol. 6, 1904. The Society. 

Lima. — Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, No. 

2, 1902, and Nos. 3 and 4, 1903. 

The Director. 
London. — Report of the British Association Seventy Second 

Meeting, Belfast, 1902. The Association. 

,, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 

Vol. 59, Nos. 2 — 4, 1903, and vol. 60, No. i, 

1904; also List of Fellows, 1903 The Society. 
,, Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Parts 

3 — 6, 1903, and parts i and 2, 1904. 

The Society. 

„ Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 

Vol. 16, part 8, and vol. 17, parts i and 2, 1903. 
Proceedings for 1902, vol. 2, part 2, and vols, i 
and 2, 1903 ; also List of Fellows, 1903. 

The Society. 



Books Received. 15 

Madison, — Bulletin of Wisconsin Geological and Natural History 
Survey. Economic Series, Nos. 5 and 6, 1903, 
and Educational Series, No. 2, 1902. 

The Director. 
Madras. — Bulletin of Madras Government Museum. Vol. 4, 
No. 3, 1903, and Administration Report for 
year, 1 902-1 903. The Snperintendetit. 

Manchester. — Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. 
Vol. 18, Nos. 4 — 12, 1902, and vol. 19, Nos. 
I — 3, 1903. The Society. 

,, Transactions of the Manchester Geological 

Society. Vol. 28, parts 4 — 8, 1903, and parts 9 — • 
12, 1904. The Society. 

Marseilles. — Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 

Vol. 13, 1903. The Librarian. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Vol. 
16, part I, 1903, and part 2, 1904. 

The Society. 
Mexico. — Boletin Mensual del Observatorio Meteorologico Mag- 
netico Central de Mexico. 3 parts, 1902 ; also 
Informe, Obs. Astronomical, i part, 1903, and 
Anuario for 1904. The Director. 

„ Instituto Geologico de Mexico, Parergones. Vol. i. 

No. I, 1903. 77/1? Institute. 

Milwaukee. — Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society. 
Vol. 3, Nos. I — 3, 1901 ; also Annual Report of 
the Public Museum, 1903. The Society. 

Missoula. — Bulletin of the University of Montana. Biological 
Series, No. 3, 1902 and Nos. 5 and 6, 1903. 
Geological Series No. i, 1903, and President's 
Report for 1902-03. The University. 

Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. Vol. 
2, part I, 1903, and vol. 4, parts i and 2, 1903. 

The Director. 



1 6 Books Received. 

Moscow.^ — Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Naturalists of 
Moscow, No. 4, 1902, and Nos. i — 3, 1903. 

The Society. 

Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
rOuest de la France. Ser. 2, vol. 2, parts 3 and 
4, 1902, and vol. 3, parts i and 2, 1903. 

The Society. 

New York. — Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 
14, part 3, and vol. 15, part i, 1903. 

The Academy. 
,, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 35, Nos. 2 — 5, 1903, and vol. 36, Nos. i 
and 2, 1904. The Society. 

Nottingham. — Report and Transactions of Nottingham Naturalists 
Society for 1902-03. The Society. 

Odessa. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 
Vol. 24, part 2, 1902, and Memoirs of the 
Mathematical Section, vol. 20, 1902. 

The Society. 

OsNADRUCK. — Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins 
zu Osnabruck, 1903. The Society. 

Ottawa. — Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Canada. 
New series, vol. 12, 1902, and Maps of Alberta ; 
also Altitudes in the Dominion of Canada, and 
Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Part 2, 1903. 
The Director of the Survey. 

Philadelphia. — Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural vSciences. Vol. 53, part i, 1901, vol. 54, 
parts 2 and 3, 1902, and vol. 55, parts i and 2, 
1903. The Academy. 

„ Proceedings of the American Philosophical 

Society. Vol. 41, 1900, and vol. 42, parts 2 and 
3, 1903. The Society. 

Pisa. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Processa 
Verbali, 1903-04. The Society. 



Books Received. 17 

Rochester, N.Y. — Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of 
Science. Vol. 4, 6 parts, 1902-03. 

The Academy. 

Rome. — Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Ser. 5, Vol. 12, 
semestre i, fasc. 7 — 12, 1903; semestre 2, fasc. 
I — 12, 1903; vol. 13, semestre i, fasc. i — 6, 
1904; also Rendiconto dell' Adnnanza Solenne, 
June, 1903. The Academy. 

,, Bulletin del Societa Zoologica Italiana, Anno, 11, fasc. 
4^ — 6, 1902, and Anno 12, fasc. i — 6, 1903. 

The Society. 

San Francisco. — Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences. Ser. 3, vol. 2, No. i, 1900, and vol. 3, 
Nos. 5 and 6. The Academy. 

St. Louis. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Missouri Bot- 
anical Garden, 1903. The Director. 

Stavanger. — Stavanger Museums Aarshefte for 1902. 

The Museum Trustees. 

Sydney. — Science of Man. New Series, vol. 6, Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, 
10, I r, 12, 1903, and vol. 7, Nos. i and 2, 1904. 

The Editor. 

Tokyo. — Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur. 
und Volkerunde Ostasiens. Vol. 9, parts 2 and 
3, 1903. The Society. 

ToPEKA. — Transactions of Kansas Academy of Science. Vol. 18, 

1903. The Academy. 

Vienna. — VerhandlungenderKaiserlich-KoniglichenGeologischen 
Reichsanstalt, Nos. 5 — 18, 1903, and i — 4, 1904. 

The Society. 
„ Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Zoologisch- 

Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Vol. 43, 1903. 

The Sofiety. 
Washington. — Annual Report of the American Bureau of 
Ethnology for 1897-98, parts i and 2, 1900 ; also 
Bulletin 25, 1903, and 27, 1902. 

The Director of the Bureau. 



1 8 Books Received. 

Washington. — Twenty-Second Annual Report of the United 
States Geological Survey. Parts i and 2, 1901, 
parts 3 and 4, 1902, and 23rd Report, 1902 ; also 
Monographs, 42 — 45, 1903, and Atlas. Bulletin 
No. 191, and 195 — 204, 1902, 205 — 207, 209 — 
217, 1903. Professional Papers, Nos. i — 8, 
1902. Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, 
several numbers. Mineral Resources of the 
United States, 1902. 

The Director of the Survey. 
„ Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 

1901-02. Annual Report of the United States 
National Museum for 1900, 1901, and 1902. 
Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum. Vol. 23, i9oi,vol. 24, 1902, and vols. 
25 and 26, 1903. Bulletin of the United States 
National Museum, Nos. 50 — 52, 1902. Directions 
for Collecting and Preserving, 8 Nos., 1895 — 

1 90 1. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 
Nos. 1373 and 141 3, 1903. Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, No. 1372, 1902, and No. 
1376, 1903. The Smithsoniati Institution. 

„ Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washing- 

ton. Vol. 14, 2 Nos., 1903. The Society. 

York. — Annual Report of Yorkshire Philosophical Society for 

1902. The Society. 
Zurich. — Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 

in Zurich. Parts 3 and 4, 1903, and parts i — 4, 
1903-04; also Neujahrsblatt, 1903. 

The Society. 
From Mr. \\\ J. Knowles. — Irish Flint Arrow and Spear-Heads, 
1894. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

SESSION 1903-4. 



3rd November^ 1903- 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

JOHN GRA ITAN : A SKETCH OF HIS WORK AS A 
CRANIOLOGIST. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, — My first dut}' is to offer my warmest 
thanks to the Council for the honour they have conferred upon 
me in electing me President of this Society. It is certainly an 
honour to be identified with the government of an Institution 
which has existed for more than 80 years without state aid or 
municipal support, whose object is the extension of a knowledge 
of nature and of art, and the encouragement of learning and 
research, and which during this period has received not only the 
sympathy, but the active support, of such men as Thomas Andrews, 
^^'illiam Thompson, Robert Patterson and \\''yville Thomson. I 
am fully aware that I have done but little to deserve this honour, 
and that the invitation so cordially extended to me was intended 
(juite as much as a compliment to the College which I have the 
honour to serve, as to myself personalh'. Indeed, it was the 
consciousness of this fact that led me to accept a position for 
which my other duties leave me but little time to discharge as I 
should wish. 

Many of those who have contributed to our proceedings havp 
been engaged in some industrial or professional occupation, but 
have found a change of thought and a relaxation from their ordinary 
work in the study of some department of the physical, or of the 
biological sciences. They have been the fortunate possessors of 
a scientific hobby, which they followed without any idea or hope 



Jo/ni Grattan : 
20 -' 

of material gain. Fortunately for the progress of science, and the 
prospects of a general recognition of the intellectual and material 
value of scientific research, such men have always existed in our 
midst, and this Society is justly proud of having enrolled amongst 
its members not a few who have made important and \aluable 
contributions to the sum of human knowledge. During its earlier 
history our Society was singularly fortunate in this respect. The 
work of some of these pioneers is well known locally, and has 
received general recognition in scientific circles, while the labours 
of others have not only failed to gain that amount of credit to 
which they are justly entitled, but are even in danger of being 
entirely ignored. Amongst the latter I would ])lace the investiga- 
tions of John Cirattan, and I desire to take this opportunity of 
attempting an appreciation of his scientific work. I do so with 
the more confidence, since it involves questions to which I have 
personally devoted some attention. 

John Grattan was born in 1800 in the neighbourhood of Dublin 
and he obtained the diploma of the Apothecaries' Hall about 
1823. 

The reasons, given to me on excellent authority, for his starting 
business in Belfast may be of interest to some, although not 
entirely creditable to the state of pharmaceutical science at that 
time in this city. It appears that Grattan had decided to settle 
in some provincial town in Ireland, and with this object in view 
he visited various places accompanied by his employer's son. In 
the course of their travels these young men came to Belfast and 
going into a druggist's shop in the centre of the town one of them 
asked for a pennyworth of Epsom's salts. The attendant took 
down a bottle from one of the shelves, extracted a handful of the 
salt which he placed on a fragment of a newspaper and secured 
by gathering up the edges of the paper and twisting them round 
one another. As soon as they left the shop Grattan's companion 
(-urned to him and said " Belfast is the place for you." 

Grattan came here in 1825, and at that time there were, of 
course, no railways to the town, while the population was only 
about one-tenth of what it is now. According to tradition he 



.'/ Skt'/r/i of his Work as a C/yr///o/oi^7.s'/. 

arrived on a stage-coach with a large buttle, .similar to thos':: still 
shown in many chemists windows, between his legs. Grattan was 
not only the founder of the well-known firm which still bears his 
name, but he also started the manufacture of the now celebrated 
Belfast aerated waters, which for many years were exclusively 
manufactured by his firm. I mention these facts to show that his 
scientific tastes and pursuits did not prevent him from conducting 
his business with marked ability, enterprise and success. 

During his long residence here, Grattan took an active interest 
in the existing literary and scientific societies. Thus he was 
President of the Belfast Literary Society during the session 1843-4, 
and read two papers on phrenology — one on the 2nd May, 1842, 
entitled, "Phrenological Ethics," and the other on 12th February, 
1844, "Phrenological observations on the treatment of criminals.' 
P\:)r many years he was an office-bearer in our Society, to which he 
contributed three pajJers. His first communication "On the 
importance, to the Archaeologist and Ethncjlogist, of an accurate 
mode of measuring human crania and of recording the results, — ■ 
with the description of a new Craniometer," was read on the 6th 
April, 1853, and was published in the Ulster Jour )ial of ArcJic?- 
ology, Vol. i., 1853, illustrated by 5 plates. Again, on the 20th 
January, 1858, he read a paper "On some ancient Irish skulls, 
and on an exact method of taking and recording cranial measure- 
ments." Part of this communication was published in the Ulster 
Journal of Archceology, Vol. ^•i., 1858, with 3 plates, under the 
title, "Notes on the human remains discovered within the Round 
Towers of Ulster, with some additional contributions towards a 
Crania Hibernica." This appears to have been his last contribu- 
tions to Craniology at our meetings, but in i860 he gave an 
interesting demonstration on the oxy-hydrogen light and its uses 
for illuminating the microscope and throwing pictures upon a screen. 

AVe have just seen that his last published paper on craniol6gy 
appeared in 1858; but after that date he was engaged in the 
preparation of another contribution to this subject. He went so 
far as to print 16 pages of letterpress and to prepare a number of 
plates. After his death his daughters, the Misses Grattan, bound 



2 2 foliji Crafta)! : 

into a single volume the various portions of his unfinished work, 
along with " Notices of the Round Towers of Ulster," by Edmund 
Gett}', M R.I. A., and presented copies to a number of his friends. 
It was a specimen of this volume, which I obtained from a second- 
hand bookseller, that first directed my attention to his methods of 
skull measurement. On enquiry I found that Grattan's work was 
unknown to many of our leading anatomists and to others interested 
in physical anthropology, as it had previously been to myself- 
The cause of this is easily explained. The earlier part of Grattan's 
investigations appeared in a journal which is not readily accessible 
to, and is rarely consulted by, the great majority of those interested 
in craniology, while the later unpublished portion, issued privately, 
was still less likely to fall into the hands of such workers. 

Before proceeding to discuss the nature and ^alue of Grattan's 
scientific work it is advisable that I should explain, as briefly as 
po.ssible, the circumstances that led him into this line of research 
and the problems that were then engaging the attention of anthro" 
pologists and ethnologists. 

About the tune when Grattan came to Belfast, phrenology was 
at the zenith of its popularity. It is evident from his writings that 
he was a convert to the theories of Gall and Spurzheim, and indeed 
he ai)pears to have been personally acquainted with the latter. 
He collected a large number of skulls and casts of heads, and 
naturally became interested in the variations in their form. 

Further, the long period during which Grattan pursued his 
craniological investigations witnessed the rise of a scientific 
ethnology. 

Anthropologists began to collect material from barrows, caves 
and other ancient burial grounds to determine the physical 
characteristics of their remote ancestors ; and to procure specimens 
and make observations in all parts of the world to ascertain the 
structural peculiarities of existing races. It soon became evident 
that for anthropological purposes the skull was the most important 
part of the skeleton, and attempts were made to utilise certain 
differences in the form of the skull for purposes of racial 
classification. 



A SA'c/c'// oj his ]\'ork as a Craniologist. 23 

Towards the end of the i8th century Blumenbach had drawn 
attention to the significance of variations in the form of the skull 
in different races, but it was reserved for Anders Retzius to place 
this subject upon a scientific basis. In 1840 he made his first 
communication to the Academy of Science of Stockholm. 
Blumenbach had attached special importance to the shape of the 
anterior part of the skull, such as the forehead and jaws, but 
Retzius showed that it was even more important to examine the 
cranium, or that part of the skull which contains the brain. It is 
to him that we are indebted for the division of skulls into long, or 
dolichocephalic, and short, or brachycephalic, according to their 
relative length and breadth. He maintained that the Caucasian 
race of Blumenbach was a mixed one, since it consisted of both 
short and long-headed people, the proportion between these two 
varying in different places according to the degree to which the 
primitive stock had been invaded, or replaced, by a foreign 
element. Anders Retzius devoted himself with great energy to 
the determination of the distribution throughout Europe, both 
amongst the living races and prehistoric remains, of these two 
types of heads. His work slowly, but surely, gained general 
recognition, and before his sudden death in i860 craniology was 
engaging the attention of many distinguished workers. Several 
events which happened about this time tended to create a more 
general interest in this subject. Thus the discovery in 1857 in a 
limestone cave in the Neanderthal of the remains of an extinct 
race whose skulls had a very remarkable form, and in some respects 
ape-like appearance, raised a keen discussion as to the significance 
of certain cranial characters, while the publication two years later 
of Charles Darwin's work "On the origin of species by means of 
natural selection," inevitably turned men's attention to all biological 
problems with wider interest and renewed energy. 

Grattan's work was almost cotemporaneous with that of Anders 
Retzius, and nearly all of it was done before the German and 
French Schools had elaborated their schemes of skull measurements. 

The general plan which he devised for this purpose is given in 
his paper published in 1853, and it is not essentially altered, but 



24 



John Grattan 



only more fully elaborated in his subsequent contributions lo the 
subject. 

The spirit and aims of Grattan's work are so admirably expressed 
in a paper he published in the Ulster Journal of Archceology 
for 1858 that I cannot refrain from quoting it. .Vfter discussing 
the craniological methods then in vogue he wrote as follows : — 

" So far, we look in vain, therefore, for that uniformity of 
method and that numerical precision, without which no scientific 
investigation requiring the cooperation of numerous observers can 
be successfully prosecuted. The mode of procedure hitherto 
adopted furnishes to the mind at best nothing but ^■ague gene- 
ralities which it cannot by any intellectual effort reduce into 
general shape and form ; and until we can accomplish something 
more than this — until we can record with something approaching 
towards accuracy the proportional development of the great sub- 
divisions of the brain, as indicated by its bony covering, and by 
our figures convey to the mind determinate ideas of the relation 
they bear towards each other we shall not be in a position to do 
justice to our materials, or to interpret faithfully or profitably the 
natural hieroglyphs thus submitted to our examination. "What we 
specially stand in need of is some method of measuring cranial 
forms and magnitudes which by combining perfect simplicity and 
facility of application with rigid scientific accuracy shall command 
our confidence ; so that the ethnologist may be able to record his 
own observations, and to profit by the recorded observations of 
others without the risk of misinterpretation, and the phrenologist 
possesses a sound numerical foundation u})on which to base his 
special measurements. But although an improved method of 
taking and recording cranial measurements would admittedly be 
of great importance to the phrenologist, to the ethnologist it is 
absolutely indispensible. The phrenologist can pursue many of 
his enquiries and test the soundness of most of his inferences, by 
the aid of detached or isolated specimens, each head itself 
affording the necessary data by which its mental capabilities may 
be -determined. But the ethnologist has to deal with tribes and 
nations. He stands somewhat in the position of the artuary Avho 



25 

A Sketch (I I /lis II ork as a Cra/iiologist. 

has to deduce congruous and general laws from an extensive 
collection of apparently incongruous and heterogeneous facts. 
In every age, and amongst all races, special individuality of 
character must necessarily have been accompanied by considerable 
modifications of typical form so that no single cranium can, per 
se, be taken to represent the true average characteristics of the 
variety from which it may be derived. It is only from a large 
deduction that the ethnologist can venture to pronounce with 
confidence upon the normal type of any race, or reasonably 
expect to attain in his craniological investigations that measure of 
completeness necessary to rescue them from their present objectless 
character, and to impart to his conclusions scientific definiteness 
and value. If an improved method of measurement be thus 
desirable when treating of existing races whose crania form but 
one, though by no means tlie least important, element for 
determining the influences that may have contributed to their 
development and progress, still more necessary does it become 
when we endeavour to investigate the moral, social and intellectual 
condition of our remote predecessors, of whom we possess few, if 
any, records, save such as remain to us in their rude structures 
and works of art, and. in their own osseous remains. These 
latter are, necessarily, few in number, widely scattered, singularly 
frail and perishable, and are, day by day, irretrievably disappearing 
before the unavoidable encroachments of extending ci\"ilization. 
If we are to indulge, therefore, in any well-grounded expectation 
of our being able to render the fleeting records of the past 
available for contrast with the more accessible materials of the 
present, it is of the first importance that our description of such 
should be as accurate and as free from ambiguity as the nature of 
the subject will permit — the paucity of (jur material affording but 
little prospect of our accumulating the necessary data, unless we 
can succeed in concentrating upon some recognized scientific plan 
the detached labours of every competent observer." 

Grattan's attention to these questions appears to have been due 
to the action of his friend Edmund Getty who had collected a 
considerable number of skulls during his well-known researches 



2^ Jo Jul Graf fan : 

on the Round Towers of Ulster. At Getty's request Grattan 
agreed to describe these skulls, but like the most of us he found 
it easier to promise than to perform. As we have just heard, 
Grattan was convinced that the various methods of measuring 
skulls then in vogue were too indefinite and incomplete to admit 
of a thorough and scientific description of individual specimens, 
or of a comparison of groups of skulls with one another. 
Accordingly he set to work to frame a new plan of skull measure- 
ments, and in so doing he found it necessary to construct a 
suitable instrument with which to take these measurements. For 
a number of years Grattan worked at this subject, modifying his 
methods and improving his instrument, until they were not onl\- 
greatly in advance of those then in use, but in many respects will 
bear favourable comparison with those now generally employed. 

Through the kindness of Professor Haddon I am able to show 
you what I believe was the latest and most improved form of 
Grattan's Craniometer. No account of this instrument has been 
published, although Grattan prepared a fine illustration and wrote 
an excellent description of it for a paper which was not completed 
at his death. He appears to have used this instrument in the 
preparation of his " Notes on the Round Towers of Ulster, with 
some additional observations towards a Crania Hibernica," which 
appeared in the Ulsfer Journal of Archaoiogy in 1858, and it was 
probably shown before the Society on the 20th of January of the 
same year. An instrument constructed on much the same principle 
as the one before you, but differing considerably from it in ap- 
pearance, was described and figured in the Ulsfer Journal of 
Archceology for 1853. 

I will now endeavour to explain, in a manner as simple and as 
free from technicalities as possible, the problem with which 
Grattan had to deal and the main peculiarities of his methods and 
instrument. 

.'\s the cranium is an irregular ovoid box we can obtain data 
for a rough estimate of its size and general form by measuring its 
greatest length, breadth and height. Further, by taking its length 
as 100 we can express the proportions of length to breadth and of 



A Sketch of his JJ'or/c as a Cranioh)gist. ^7 

length to height by indices. This plan is adopted in distinguishing 
between round and long, or flat and high heads. Such a method 
is simple, and in ])ractice has been found useful in classifying 
skulls and in distinguishing races. It is obvious, however, that 
two skulls differing considerably from one another both in capacity 
and shape might have the same length-breadth and length-height 
indices. If we examine the median longitudinal arc of the 
vaulted portion of the skull we find that it passes from the root 
of the nose upwards and backwards to the vertex forming two 
curves, with their convexities directed forwards and upwards, it 
then turns downwards and backwards to the most posterior part 
of the skull, and finally forwards and downwards to end at the 
posterior margin of the large hole at the base of the skull through 
which the brain becomes continuous with the spinal cord. Now, 
the form of these curves from the nose to the vertex, and from the 
vertex to the back of the head, may differ greatly in two skulls 
which have the same length and height. Thus, in one the fore- 
head may be high and protruding, the roof of the skull be directed 
nearly horizontally for a considerable distance and then descend 
abruptly to the occiput, while in the other the forehead may be 
low and retreating, and the longitudinal arc only gain the same 
height as the other skull for a very short distance before it begins 
to descend again. The problem was, and indeed still is, How can 
we best give numerical expression to these differences ? The plan 
often adopted of measuring the length of the three portions of this 
arc, viz., frontal, parietal, and occipital, gives the respective share 
the bones so named take in the formation of the arc, and hence 
may be supposed to show the relative development of the anterior, 
middle and posterior parts of the vault of the skull. In some skulls, 
however, owing to irregularity in, or disappearance of, the lines of 
union b-:ftween these bones, their respective lengths cannot ,be 
definitely ascertained, and in any case such measurements do not 
show the contour of the arch. For this purpose I believe that the 
best method yet devised is that of Grattan's. By means of his 
craniometer the skull is firmly fixed in position by passing two pegs 
into the external openings of the ears and pressing another screw 



28 

Jo/in G?-affa/i : 

against the base of the skull. The skull can then be rotated along 
with the stage to which it is fixed, round an axis passing through 
the external auditory oi)enings, or it can be rotated along with its 
stage round an axis perpendicular to the first. In each case the 
exact amount of rotation is indicated by a dial. The instrument 
has a brass carriage, a brass slide and a curved tracer, all suitably 
adjusted, so that the distance of any part of the median line of the 
skull from the point where the axis passing from the centre of one 
ear-opening to the other crosses the median plane, can be read on 
a graduated scale marked in inches and tenths of inches. Grattan 
selected as his starting-point, or zero, the distance from this point 
on the auditory axis to the nasion, or depression just above the 
root of the nose. After this is ascertained the brass slide is with- 
drawn, the skull rotated io°, the brass slide carrying the pointer 
again pushed towards the skull and the distance measured in the 
same way as from the nasion. This process of skull rotatiou 
through lo'^ and of measurement is repeated along the entire 
extent of the arc. From such a series of measurements a profile 
drawing of the skull can be made showing the position of the 
external auditory meatus and the contour of the vault at intervals 
which, in an ordinary skull, are less than an inch apart. If necessary, 
the skull can be measured at shorter intervals by rotating the skull 
between each measurement a smaller number of degrees. By 
other adjustments the same instrument can be used to make a 
tracing on paper of the external contour of this arc. After the 
vault has been measured the rotation of the skull can be continued 
so as to determine the amount of projection of the nose, jaws, and 
teeth below and in front of the cranium. Grattan measured a 
number of skulls in this wa}' and compared them with one another 
in a series of tables showing the proportion of the radial diameters 
at lo' interval from zero to i8o° with the length of the skull 
estimated at 100*^. 

It is difficult to imagine a more ingenious and accurate method 
of measuring this part of the skull. 

The length-breadth index expressed by comparing the greatest 
length of the cranium with its greatest breadth is open to the 



29 

A Sketch of Jin JI ork as a Craniologist. 

same objection as the length-height index which we have just 
discussed. Thus, in some skulls the greatest transverse diameter 
is high up on the parietal Ixjnes, this means that the sides of the 
skull have a slight inclination outwards from the base until near 
the top; in other specimens the lateral walls begin to slope inwards 
from near the base, so that the greatest transverse diameter is 
much lower. Further, the maximum tran.sverse diameter may be 
the same in two skulls, but towards the anterior or smaller end of 
the oval one of these skulls may be much narrower than the other. 
To correct these sources of fallacy the transverse diameter is often 
taken in the frontal as well as the parietal regions, and the level of 
the greatest transverse diameter is roughly indicated by stating 
whether this occurs high up between the parietals, or nearer the 
base between the temporals. It is interesting to see how Grattan 
recorded these variations of the transverse diameter at different 
points from before backwards and from below upwards. A\'ith his 
craniometer lines are drawn on the skull from one external ear, 
opening to the other, opposite selected angular intervals from the 
nasion. The cranium is thus blocked out into a series of wedges, 
each having a convex base on the \-aulted part of the skull and a 
sharp straight edge at the auditory axis at the base of the skull. 
The arched lines over the surface of the skull from one ear opening 
to the other he called coronal arcs, and he selected for special 
examination the arcs at intervals of io°, 30°, 60°, 90", 120° and 
150° from the ear-nasion arc. He divided each of these arcs into 
three parts of e(]ual vertical elevation, by two lines parallel to their 
bases, and the extremities of these lines and the base line furnished 
so many fixed points between which the transverse diameters could 
be taken. 

I must admit that this part of Grattan's method looks somewhat 
complicated, but it is not so laborious in actual practice as it might 
at first sight appear. Grattan's own remarks on this point are 
very characteristic. He writes as follows : — " It may possibly be 
objected to this method that it involves too large an array of 
arithmetical figures and demands too great an expenditure of 
labour ; but v^■hat was c'\'er yet accomplished, of any \'alue, without 



30 John Gnftian : 

some labour? And if it be desirable to furnish measurements at 
all (and from the fact that almost every writer upon the subject 
gives them after some fashion this is manifestly the case), surely 
it is of some importance that they should be adequate to accomplish 
the object in view, and at least be so taken and recorded as to 
convey truthful and intelligible impressions to the mind." — 
Ulster Journal of Archceology, Vol. vi., p. 35. 

An examination of present-day craniological methods will show- 
that various attempts are made to amplify and check the data 
afforded by the greatest length, breadth and height measurements 
of the cranium. Thus, the transverse diameter is taken between 
several different points, the chords of the frontal, parietal and 
occipital arcs are measured, and the lengths of radii drawn from a 
point on the base of the skull to various spots on the median 
longitudinal arc of the vault are recorded. The points selected in 
many cases correspond to the union of certain of the skull bones. 
These, however, may vary without affecting the general shape and 
dimensions of the skull, and have not the mathematical precision 
of Grattan's points. On the whole, it appears to me that fo"" 
completeness and accuracy, and for facility in making a thorough 
comparison between the external form of different skulls, Grattan's 
method, devised about 50 years ago, when craniology was in its 
infancy, can hold its own against any scheme yet formulated- 
Curiously enough he made no attempt to measure the diameters of 
the cranial cavity, or to ascertain how far the inequalities of the 
outer surface of the skull correspond to those on its inner aspect. 
Possibly his phrenological view led him to suppose that this 
question had been settled. 

There is one feature in Grattan's method to which I must 
allude, viz., his selection of the middle of the auditory axis as a 
starting point from which to measure the various radii and 
diameters of the cranial vault. The point usually selected for 
this purpose is the anterior edge of the foramen magnum and on 
morphological grounds there is much to be said in its favour. It 
represents, as Huxley long ago })ointed out, the posterior end of 
the true base of the skull, and he used this point from which to 



./ S/.r/i// of //is ll'ork <is a Craiiiol():^isl. 3^ 

start in measuring the length of the basi-cranial axis and com- 
paring it with the vaulted portion of the cranium. At certain 
times, however, craniologists have recognised the fact that the 
external auditory opening presented certain advantages over the 
anterior edge of the foramen magnum as a basal point from which 
to measure the cranial vault, and curiously enough this view was 
adopted very strongly by the late General Pitt-Rivers, who in the 
last volume of his celebrated " Excavations in Cranborne Chase" 
wrote as follows in discussing this question : — 

" There are other considerations which may perhaps operate in 
ultimately bringing about a change of system. Mr. Busk, F.R.S., 
was a strong advocate for measuring from the meatus auditorius 
and contrived an instrument for this purpose, but it was somewhat 
clumsy in use and was not generally adopted on that account. 
His method, however, was sound in principle. No comparison 
between the skull and the living head can be made by an)- 
measurements other than those taken from the meatus. Three 
profils of living heads taken by my instrument are given in Plates 
290 and 292 and they are recognised as striking likenesses of the 
originals. This instrument is made of aluminium and the legs 
are movable so as to be light enough for use with a living head. 
The profile can be taken much more cjuickly than with Mr. Busk's 
instrument. There is also this great objection to the anterior 
margin of the foramen magnum as a base for measurement that 
in ancient skulls which have been buried for ages it is one of the 
first parts of the skull to decay, whereas the meatus auditorius is 
much more frec^uently preserved and a larger number of skulls 
can be measured by this methcxl, a point of great importance 
when it is considered what a small number of the ancient skulls 
found in tumuli and other places are sufficiently perfect to be 
available for measurement." 

I have been assured by an old friend of Grattan that he had a 
remarkable aptitude for the construction of mechanical instru- 
ments, and his craniometer affords ample proof of the correctness 
of this opinion. Grattan endeavoured to base his measurements 
upon mathematical principles and to avoid as far as possible the 



fohii Grattaii : 

selection, as points between which to measure, tliose liable to 
vary from irregularities in the sutures on the vault of the skull. 
Thus in taking the height he did not choose the spot where the 
frontal and the two parietal bones join, but one on the vault 60° 
from the nasion. His preference for definite angular intervals is 
again shown by the fact that he took the length and breadth of 
the cranium at a horizontal plane passing anteriorly 10° and 
posteriorly 150° from the nasio-auditory plane as zero. He found 
such a section usually intersected the cranium at its longest and 
broadest diameters. 

The capacity of the cavity of the cranium is obviously of im- 
portance as an index of the size of the brain, but the determination 
of its amount is subject to various fallacies. The cavity is filled 
with some material made up of small solid particles, and the 
quantity needed for this purpose is then measured. Many of the 
earlier estimates of cranial capacities are \ery inaccurate owing to 
the use of unsuitable substance and the absence of proper pre- 
cautions when filling the cranial cavity and the measures. Grattan's 
remarks on this subject show the care and thoroughness with which 
he pursued his investigations. Thus, he states that he tried sand, 
sago, and mustard seed, but they all gave unsatisfactory results, 
since none of these indicated the same capacity when the same 
experiment was repeated. He found, however, that small round 
shot gave reliable results, and it is interesting to note that tliis is 
the material now generally used. Davis tS: Thurnam, in the first 
jiart of their great work, entitled Cra/z/a Brifaiuiica, published in 
1856, state that they employed sand. Grattan refers to this fact, 
and expresses his regret that they did not use a more reliable 
material. 

In addition to devising instruments and methods for taking 
skull measurements he employed them in the study of numerous 
Irish skulls. Thus, in the Ulster /ournal of Archeology, "S'ol. i., 
1853, he had a "Notice of an Ancient Sepulchural Mound." 
From this Mound which \\as apparently a pre-christian burial 
place, he obtained 8 skulls sutificiently well preserved to admit of 
satisfactory measurements. These specimens were probalily all 



A S/cr/r// ,>/' //is U.'ork as a Cnun'i>/oisisf. 

interred al)()ut the same time, and yet they exhibit considerable 
variations in cranial form. Again, in the same Journal, Vol. vi., i S58, 
p. 241, he gives a chronological classification of 104 skulls from 
various Irish sources which he had measured. P>om an examina- 
tion of some prehistoric Irish skulls he came to the conclusion 
that they were divisible into two distinct groups. The majority 
were long-headed like the majority of the existing inhabitants, 
and he considers them Celtic. The minority were round-headed, 
and Grattan agrees with Retzius in holding that these were of 
" Turanic " origin, had preceded the Celtic population, and have 
their living representatives in the Fins or Laplanders. He further 
concluded from the cranial testimony that the Celtic population of 
Ireland, no matter by how many immigrations introduced, must 
be originally from one part stock. 

It will thus be seen that Grattan belonged to that group of 
scientific investigators who have endeavoured to ascertain the 
physical characteristics of the prehistoric races of this country 
and that his own researches and inventions were calculated to aid 
in the accurate determination of the differences between the 
various races of mankind and the zoological position of man 
himself. 

Grattan was an acti\e member and an important contributor to 
the Proceedings of this Society about half a century ago, and his 
researches may serve as a typical illustration of the general 
character of the work of some of its early supporters. 

This Society was not founded upon any narrow and merely 
utilitarian basis and has not limited itself to any one department 
of scientific work. It has welcomed contributions from those 
interested in any of the physical or biological sciences, and while 
glad to receive contributions illustrating the practical application 
of scientific discoveries to the improvements of our arts and 
manufactures it has shown an equal appreciation for observations 
and experiments tending to increase our knowledge of nature and 
its workings, irrespective of whether or not they were likelv to 
increase our wealth or contribute to our material comfort. 

Natural History, Botany, Geology and Ethnology have been 



34 John Graf fan : 

fovoLirite departments of study amongst our members. The 
gradual accumulation of carefully recorded facts by a multitude of 
humble workers in these subjects, no less than the capacity for 
broad generalisations possessed by a few brilliant minds, have 
taught us the great antiquity of this earth and the gradual 
evolution of its organic life. Darwin's work on board the 
" Beagle '' and his studies amongst his flowers and his domestic 
animals must have appeared to many as a useless, if harmless, 
amusement, and yet what department of human thought and 
activitv has not been influenced by them. 

It not unfrequently happens that in the attempts to solve a 
difficult and complicated scientific problem a frontal attack is as 
ineffectual, if not as disastrous, as our Generals found it to be at 
Colenso. The foundations of the science of bacteriology were 
laid by botanists who probably never dreamed that in the hands 
of such men as Pasteur it was destined to create a re^"olution in 
the treatment of many diseases and in our views of sanitation and 
preventative medicine. 

In these times when the steam engine is disappearing to be 
replaced by the electric motor we ought not to forget what we owe 
to such men as Galvani with his apparently trivial experiments 
with frogs, muscles, and bits of copper and iron. It will be an 
unfortunate day for our material prosperity, no less than for the 
progress of science, when the scope and nature of our scientific 
work is limited to what at the time may appear of practical 
utility and when the pursuit of truth for its own .sake can no 
longer claim its devotees. Let us hope that this Society will 
always maintain its high traditions, and will continue to produce 
members as able, industrious, and energetic in scientific research 
as John Grattan. 



A Sketch of /lis ll'orh as a Cra/iio/oo/s/, 35 

APPENDIX. 



The following appendix (xjnsists of reprints from some of 
Grattan's unpublished work. Plate (I) is a drawing of Grattan's 
craniometer. The explanation of this plate and the description of 
the method of using the craniometer are reprinted from the paper 
prepared by Grattan, but unpublished at the time of his death. 

Plate II. is reproduced from one made by Grattan to illustrate 
his method of cranial measurements. It has been reduced to 
about 731-ds of the size of the original figure. A somewhat similar 
illustration will be found in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 
Vol. VI., 1858, showing a profile view of the dimensions of 
Spurzheim's skull. 

A table has also been added showing Grattan's scheme of skull 
measurement ; some facial measurements have been omitted. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 
Grattan's Craniometer. 

A. — A flat Board, 20 inches scjuare, and 5<(ths of an inch thick, 

forming the stand of the Instrument. 
B. — A movable wooden foot, 9 inches long, 3 broad, and i 

thick. It narrows to ^ of an inch in front, where it has 

affixed to it a brass mounting, which carries the Pivot P. 
C. — Nut and screw for securing B to A. 
D. — A wooden upwright, i 2 X 3 X i inches, firmly mortised into 

the foot B. 
E. — A brass frame attached to 1) by means of pivot F, upon 

which it can be made to rotate in a vertical plane. Its 

centre (the pivot K), is 9 inches above the board A : and 

its arms project forward •] }{ inches from I), and are 7^4 

inches apart. 
F — The pivot and nut which secure E in its place, and allow 

of its being fitted and rotated at will. 
G. — A second brass frame or stage, attached b\- its extremities 

to the extremities of E. 



26 /oliii Gtaifau : 

HH. — Two screws, passing through the extremities of J'^ and G, 
constituting the axis upon which G revolves, in a plane 
always perpendicular to the plane of rotation of E. The 
inner ends of these screws terminate in smooth cylindrical 
pivots, of suitable dimensions, to permit of their being 
introduced into the external auditory foramina. They can 
be screwed backwards or forwards with the utmost facility ; 
and when adjusted to a skull, are fixed in a postion by 
means of the nuts II. 

II. — Binding nuts, for fixing the stage G firmly to the screws 
HH, in order that they may rotate with it in its progress. 
J. — A brass semicircle, divided into degress, and firmly secured 
by screws upon the upper arm of E. Its centre coincides 
with the axis of G, and it is traversed by an index K, 
secured upon H by the binding-nut L, so as to insure its 
accompanying H and G in all their movements, the ex. 
tent of which can thus be read off in degrees. 

K. — The hidex attached to the screw H. A\'lien E stands in 
the position in which it is placed in the diagram, the faces 
of I and Iv lie horizontally, and conseciuently only their 
edges can be seen ; but a detached diagram of them is set 
out separately. 

L. — A binding-nut, for fixing the index K in position when 
adjusted. 

M. — A piece of whalebone 2>f\ iiiches long, i '_. broad, and 
2-:oths thick, securely, Ijut slackly attached 1)\- twine to the 
upper surface of the short projecting arm of(i, so as to 
allow it a sort of hinge-like motion. It is imperfectly 
visible in position in the diagram, but a detached outline 
of it is given ; two dots upon it, and upon G, respectively, 
indicating the holes by which they are secured to each 
other. 

N. — A thumb-screw passing through G, and pressing against the 
back of M, by means of which the distance of M from G, 
and the pressure exerted upon M can be regulated. 



A SkeicJi of his Work as a Craiiioloi^^isf. ^' 

O. — A binding-nut, for securing the stage G in position when 

its adjustments have been completed. 
P. — A pivot, rising vertically from the brass mounting of the 
foot B. Its centre coincides with the axis of the stage G, 
when the poles of the latter are placed perfectly vertical, 
and if extended vertically, would exactly bisect the same 
axis when adjusted horixontally. 
Q. — A brass carriage, 12 inches long and 2^^ broad. One of 
its extremities is perforated to make it fit pivot P, round 
which, resting upon B, it moves horizontally ; the other 
extremity resting upon a brass foot, R, which raises its 
under surface to the level of the top of B. When moved 
round P, it describes a circle, of which P is the centre, and 
its left limb is graduated to permit of the distance from P 
to U being read off in inches and tenths. 
K.. — The foot upon which Q rests, secured to it by screws. 
S. — A brass slide, which travels backwards and forwards in a 
slot upon the carriage Q, carrying at one end the upright 
T, and having at the other end a tube for receiving the 
pencil U. 
T. — A perpendicular triangular brass upright. 12^ inches long, 

attached to S. 

U. — A pencil, passing freely through S, which it accompanies 

in all its movements, with its point resting on the paper Y. 

V. — A spring slide, fitting accurately upon, and moving freely 

up and down T. It carries in front a horizontal pivot, 

upon which rotates the curved tracer A\' ; and at the back^ 

a binding-screw, to fix it in position when requisite. 

W. — A curved tracer, so adjusted as always to have its points in 

the same perpendicular line as the point of the pencil U. 
X. — A pointed steel pin, furnished with a wooden handle. ' It 
passes through the exact centre of P ; pierces the paper Y ; 
and indicates the precise point from whence all the measure- 
ments are taken. 
Y. — A sheet of paper, extending under a portion of the foot B ; 
which, when screwed down, holds it firmly in its place. 



38 John Gratfan : 

a I, and a 2. — Two lines scribed upon the board A. a i, passing 
transversely through the central point, indicated by 
X ; and a 2, backwards therefrom, and perpendicular to 
a I. They enable the paper Y, when correspondingly 
marked, to be removed, and accurately replaced, if lequisite. 
To employ this instrument, let the frame E be turned upon its 
axis, until the axis of G shall be perfectly horizontal, indicated by 
the mark upon the edge of E ; touching the point c)f the arrow 
upon D ; and by the graduated semicircle J, standing perpen- 
dicularly at the left hand of the operator as he faces the upright 
D : then let the stage G be turned upon its axis, until it depends 
vertically from the extremities of E, when its projecting arm, 
carrying the thumb-screw N, will be underneath — the whaJebone 
lever M lying loosely upon it above. If a skull be now placed 
upon its base, centrically on the stage G, with its face towards the 
operator, and the screws HH be introduced mto the external 
auditory foramina, the bony palate will rest upon the hinge-end of 
M ; whilst, by means of the thumb screw N, the forked extremity 
of M can be pressed upon the occipital condyles, with any 
amount of force requisite to keep the skull fixed and steady. The 
binding-nuts, II are then to be screwed home, after which the 
stage G mav be rotated completely round its axis, carrying with it 
the skull, which will not require to be shifted upon the stage in 
any subsequent operation. Let the carriage Q be now moved, 
until, upon sliding S backwords and forwards, the point of the 
pencil U exactly traverses the line A 2. Let it be fixed in this 
position by passing the pin X through a hole in the foot R, into 
a corresponding hole in the board beneath, and let the ])oint of 
the tracer \V be adjusted precisely upon a level with the axis of E, 
which will be when the under edge of the slide V touches the 
point of the arrow upon T. It will now be manifest, that by 
rotating the stage G, any portion of the median periphery of the 
skull may be brought into immediate contact with the point of the 
tracer W, and the distance of any part of it from the axis of the 
auditory foramina be read off in inches and tenths upon the grad- 
uated scale in O: the angular distance t;f any one i Joint i>om 




PLATE II. 



A Sketch of his fTarh as a Crauioloi;;ist. 39 

another, adopting the same axis as a centre, being indicated upon 
the graduated circle J by its index K. In this manner mesial 
measurements, mathematically accurate, both as regards extension 
and position, may be taken with surprising facility. For the 
reasons already advanced, however, it has been found to be much 
preferable to make outline tracings instead, which may be accom- 
plished with very little additional trouble. To do this — replace E 
in the position it occupies in the diagram ; set A free by removing 
the pin from R, and then carefully move Q round P as a centre ; 
keeping, at the same time the tracer "W in contact with the skull, 
and tracing upon the paper Y, with the pencil U, the course the 
latter takes, which will coincide exactly with the line described by 
the point of W in its progress ; the position of sutures, and other 
important points, being indicated as we proceed b\- short lines 
perpendicular to the skull. By this means we shall succeed in 
producing a faithful outline of the entire median section of the 
skull ; and may, in like manner, jiroduce transverse sectional out- 
lines at any desired point, by simply replacing E in the horizontal 
position, and by rotating G, bringing the section to be outlined 
into the same horizontal plane as the point of the tracer W. A 
series of outlines thus taken (see Plates 2 and 3), affords per- 
manent and unimpeachable materials from which measurements may 
be taken with perfect accuracy and facility : and I shall now 
proceed to explain how the exact dimensions, and the more 
prominent characteristics of the skill, maybe expressed numerically, 
with the precision and fidelity necessary for scientific purposes. 



4° 



GRATTAN'S TABLE, 
Showing his Schema of Skull Measurements: — 



Section I. 
DIMENSIONAL MEASUREMENTS. 
Capacity in cubic inches 
Length in inches and tenths 
Breadth 

Veitical height at 60 decrees 
Circumference 
Occipito- frontal Arch 
Transverse Arch at 90 degrees 

Capacity in cubic Centimetres 

I>ength in ISIillimelres 

Breadth 

Vertical height at 60 degrees 

Circumference 

Occipito-f rental Arch 

Transverse Arch at 90 degrees 

Section IT. 

PROPORTIONAL MEASUREMENTS 

in lOnths of Long Diameter of Cranium, 

Group I. 

L.ngth 

Breadth 

Vertical height at 60 degrees 

Circumference 

Occipito frontal Arch 

Transverse Arch at 90 degrees 

Section II. 
MESIAL RADII. Group 11. 







1 





At 






10 


^Angular 






20 


Intervals 






30 


of 






40 


10 degrees 






50 


from the 






60 


Naso- frontal 






70 


Suture 






80 


as 




,^ 


90 


Zero, 






100 


and Avith tlie 






110 


Axis 






120 


of the 






UO 


Auditory 






140 


Foramina 






150 


as 






160 


Centres. 






170 








180 


To posterior edge of F 


]M 


agnum 




.. anterior do. 




do. 




,, front edge of Upper 


M 


axilla 




,, Symphysis Mcnti 









Skction it. 

CORONAL ARCS. <Jroup III. 

^ \ Frontal 
■^ I Parietal 
■p i Occipital 

; Total of, or Occiptio Frontal 

f At 10 degrees 
^ 30 ,, 

> \ 60 „ 

ci 90 

2 I 120 



Section IT. 

TRANSVERVE DIAMETER, Group IV 

Mastoidal 
Mentoriai 



Temporal 

(A) 
Zone 



at 



Supra-Temporal 

(B) 

Zone 



at 



f 10 degrees 

I 30 

I 60 „ 

<; 90 

1 120 „ 
1150 

f 10 degrees 

30 
I 60 

i 90 ,, 
I 120 
1150 



Section III. 

MISCELLANEOUS MEASUREMENTS. 

Long Diameter of F. Magnum 
Tiaiisverse do. do. 

Cerebellar Depression below 1 .50^ 

Angular Position of — 
Coronal Suture 
Lambdoidal do. 
Posterior edge of F. Magnum 
Anterior edge of do. 

,. Upper Maxilla 

Symphysis Jlenti 



41 
1st December, igoj. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
President, in the Chair. 



SAYINGS, PROVERBS, AND HUMOUR OF ULSTER. 
By Professor John W. Byers, M.A., M.D. 

(Abstract.) 



The lecturer pointed out how sayings, proverbs, and humour were 
characteristic of a distinct race, and that a study of these features 
enabled us to form some opinion of the history and character of 
the people, to understand their habits and peculiarities, to in- 
vestigate their methods of speech, and in some measure to explain 
why they have exerted such an influence in the world's history. 

For three hundred years there had existed in Ulster (and mainly 
the north-eastern part of that province) a race of people who by 
their power of work, their level-headedness, and thorough self- 
reliance, have made Belfast the great centre of Irish industries, 
have contributed to all parts of the British empire men distinguished 
in commerce, science, literature, statesmanship, and the arts of 
war ; and, as pointed out by President Roosevelt in his great work 
" The Winning of the West," have done so much in colonising 
what was formerly called the AVestern States of America — those 
lying beyond the Alleghanies. 

The Northern Irish are a mixed people, and the Ulsterman 
from his heredity is a product by himself. Through his veins 
there courses a stream of Scotch, English, French Huguenot, and 
Irish blood, and so in the same individual you may sometimes 
find the pluck and grit of the Englishman, the tenacity and fore- 
thought of the Scotch, the industry of the Huguenot, with the keen 



42 Professor Byers on 

sympathy, pugnacity, and ready wit of the native Irishman. The 
characteristics of a race so constituted find expression in the 
quaint sayings, proverbs, and humour of the people of the Northern 
Province of Ireland, which are inspired more by a shrewd obser- 
vation of men and nature than by mere book-learning. They are 
met with in their most pronounced form in the country districts 
as distinguished from the towns, and the clergy and the medical 
profession who are brought into intimate relationship with the 
people hear them most frequently. 

The explanation of some of these sayings is at times difficult, 
and, as examples, the following were discussed : — " The rale 
M'Kay," "A Morgan Rattler," " Tibb's Eve," and "Paying on 
the Nail." A large variety of other phrases and proverbs having 
been considered, attention was called to the folk-lore, superstition, 
and fairy-lore of Ulster, and illustrations were given from the 
writings of " Moira O'Neill," Allingham, W. S. Drennan, as well 
as from personal observation. 

Various " omens " were mentioned, the " Banshee " was discussed 
as well as terms and phrases used, indicating the power of 
observation possessed by the Ulster race. 

Finally, reference was made to the " Humour " of the Northern 
Province of Ireland, which differs from that of the South in not 
being so apparent and spontaneous, and not so topsy-turvy ; it 
was of a drier kind, but at the same time could be as sparkling as 
that met with in any other part of the country. One feature 
about the Northern humour was that while it is not so much on 
the surface and in many cases was not so evidently prepared 
beforehand as is found in the South of Ireland it is not so readily 
exhausted. In driving through Dublin the jarvey will at once 
when you mount his vehicle fire off some humourous saying ; in 
the North of Ireland, the carman, on the contrary, waits until you 
draw it out of him by some remark, but while the carman in the 
South shows by the twinkle in his eye that he is amusing you, his 
Northern confrere never exhibits by any emotional evidence that 
he is poking fun at you. Examples were given to illustrate the 
Ulster Humour. 



Savings, Proverbs, and Humour of Ulster. 43 

[The lecture of which the above is a very short abstract appeared 
in the March number (1904), of the "Victoria College Magazine," 
and has since been published, along with " Ulsterisms," in book 
form.] 

Rev. Professor Todd Martin said he thought they should not 
separate, whatever was their custom, without tendering their hearty 
thanks to Professor Byers for that lecture, which no other man in 
the North of Ireland could have given them. Professor Byers had 
a full acquaintance with Ulster, and that evening he had brought 
before them some of the traits of the Ulster people in a wonder- 
fully interesting way. They were under a deep obligation to him 
for that lecture. He was sorry to see that the distinctive charac- 
teristics of the Ulster people seemed to be vanishing. The spread 
of education was driving out a good deal that was distinctive of 
the province, and it was a great pity that some of the traits of the 
people could not be seized upon before they passed away. They 
had unfortunately not been provided with a picture of the province 
as other parts of Ireland had been presented. Prefessor Byers, he 
hoped, was on the way to do something of that kind. He moved 
the vote of thanks heartily, and hoped it would be heartily sup- 
ported. 

Mr. William Crawford seconded the vote of thanks. The lecture 
had been extremely interesting in every part, and he had the greatest 
pleasure in seconding. 

The Chairman said the lecture was a singularly appropriate one 
to a society like theirs. Their Museum contained numerous 
memorials of the work of the ancient inhabitants of this province, 
and Professor Byers had brought before them that evening not less 
interesting points that they ought to preserve and treasure as very 
interesting historical facts. 

The vote of thanks was passed by acclamation. 



44 



2Sth Jafu/ary, 1^04. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E, 
President, in the Chair. 



RADIUM. 
By John Finnegan, B.A., B.Sc. 



(Abstract.) 



The meaning of lonisation was first explained, then the nature 
of Kathode rays, canal rays and X-rays. Becquerel's discovery 
that Uranium and its salts are continually emitting rays that affect 
the photographic plate was discussed. 

After the discovery of the uranium radiation only one other 
chemical element — thorium — was found to possess similar powers. 
About the close of 1897 Madame Curie began the study of 
Becquerel rays. She soon found that the emission of rays by the 
compounds of uranium was strictly proportional to the quantity of 
metal present, and must be an atomic property of tlie element 
uranium and independent of its chemical or physical state. 

Uranium is chiefly obtained from pitchblende, a velvety black 
mineral found in the Erzgebirge and in Cornwall. M. and 
Madame Curie resolved to investigate the radio-activity of pitch- 
blende, and they discovered that some specimens had a radio- 
activity four times greater than metallic uranium itself, and they 
immediately set about separating chemically from pitchblende one 
substance after another, testing each portion for radio-activity. 
In this way they discovered that, with the separate bismuth, there 



Radium. 45 

came away a very active sulistance which they named polonium, 
and with the barium another intensely active substance, which 
they called radium. 

A third highly radio-active substance was discovered in pitch- 
blende by M. Debierne, and called by him actinium ; it accompanies 
certain bodies of the iron grou{), and is a near neighbour of 
thorium. All these radio-active substances occur in pitchblende 
in absolutely infinitesimal quantities. A ton of the uranium residue 
— that is the dross of the pitchblende after the uranium is 
extracted — yields about two or three grains of radium salt. The 
radiation from radium is extraordinarily intense — it emits constantly 
all the different rays produced in a vacuum tube — and a specimen 
of a pure radium is more than one million times as active as an 
equal weight of uranium. A few centigrams of radium bromide 
discharge an electroscope four or five metres distant, and one can 
easily discharge an electroscope through a screen of lead or glass 
three inches thick. Photographic plates placed near radium are 
almost instantly fogged. Radium can be used like X-rays for the 
production of radiographs. 

Rutherford, Becquerel, and others have shown that radium 
radiations comprise three different classes of rays. (i) The 
"Alpha" rays, formed of material particles, atomic in size, charged 
positively, thrown off with a velocity about one-tenth that of light, 
easily absorbed by thin sheets of aluminium foil, or by a few 
millimetres of air. About 90 per cent, of the discharging effect is 
due to those rays. They resemble the canal rays of Golstein, but 
have much greater velocity. According to Rutherford, these 
resemble closely helium. (2) The " Beta " rays, absolutely 
analogous to Cathode rays, are swarms of flying corpuscles, 
strongly active and much more penetrative than the Cathode rays 
of our tubes, moving with enormous velocities, many as fast 
as light. (3) The " Gamma " rays, not deflected by a magnet, 
traversing thick sheets of lead, are generally believed to be 
etherical pulses of the Rontgen ray type. 

Radium radiation has an intense physiological effect, producing 



46 Mr. John Finnegan on 

skin sores that heal slowly. M. Curie allowed an impure radium 
salt for ten hours to rest upon his arm ; immediately a red spot 
appeared, and a sore was produced that required some months to 
heal, leaving a very marked scar. 

M. and Madame Curie observed that every substance which 
remains some hours near a radio-active salt becomes itself radio- 
active, possessing induced radio activity. Professor Curie found 
that the zinc, iron, and lead fittings, the air of his laboratory, the 
clothing of the workers, their very persons, in presence of radium, 
start into activity, and give out rays capable of affecting a photo- 
graphic plate and discharging electricity. Sometimes he himself 
could not enter his laboratory or approach his electrometer for 
days. It has been found that these .substances are continually 
giving out a kind of gas, and this is called elimination ; the radio- 
activity is caused by particles from this emanation depositing on 
the surrounding bodies. We have five disintegration products of 
radium — (i) a very active substance continually produced called 
radium X ; (2) the luminous emanations arising from it ; (3) the 
resulting precipitate of this, also self-luminous ; (4) Cathode rays ; 
(5) "Alpha" rays, and accompanying these a continuous emission 
of heat. 

Rutherford explains the phenomenon of radioactivity by the 
theory that radium atoms are disintegrated, producing others of 
less intrinsic energy. 

He supposes that a small number of atoms, perhaps one in one 
hundred thousand millions, becomes unstable every second, and 
explodes, a part the " Alpha " particle is violently expelled. 

The remainder is the radium exonation. This is also unstable 
and expels another " Alpha " particle, becoming emanation X, 
which behaves like a solid. 

This again is unstable, disintegrating with production of "Alpha," 
" Beta," and " Gamma " rays. All these are lost to the original 
radium, and the loss is continuous, but so small that we cannot 
detect it by weighing. Radium, then, cannot survive indefinitely, 
and the wonder is that it has survived so long. 



Radium. 47 

Early last summer Professor Ramsay discovered that the fresh 
emanation from radium does not show the helium spectrum, but, 
with its decay, helium is produced in ever-increasing quantities, 
and if this very important conclusion is confirmed it will verify 
Rutherford's idea that radium is being constantly transformed into 
helium, and a proof will exist that a transmutation of the elements 
is possible. Assuming the truth of these laboratory results, we 
find ourselves in presence of quite startling phenomena. 

No one has hithereto observed the transition from one form of 
matter to another, although everyone knows that such a trans- 
mutation was the dream of the alchemists. In recent times skilful 
observers have suspected such changes from spectroscopic details 
of solar and stellar spectra. Some chemists have maintained the 
evolution of matter on the strength of Mendelejeff's law that the 
elements form a kind of family or related series, and suspected 
that the barriers between the members were not impassible. All 
this was the speculation of the very boldest ; but in radio-active 
substances the process appears going on before our eyes. Radium 
thorium, and uranium are only extreme cases. Atoms of all sorts 
are reservoirs of energy, and have no guarantee of absolute 
durability ; and Strutt finds that most ordinary materials are 
slightly radio-active. If we allow ourselves to use our scientific 
imagination and to push the electronic theory of the construction 
of matter to its logical limits we may be witnesses of the spon- 
taneous disintegration of radium, and we commence to doubt the 
permanent stability of matter. The chemical atom may, in fact, 
undergo a transformation, but so slowly that if one million atoms 
escape per second from a gramme the weight would hardly 
diminish one milligramme in one century. A well-known scientist 
says : — " This fatal quality of atomic dissociation appears to be 
universal, and operates whenever we brush a piece of glass with 
silk ; it works in the sunshine and raindrops, in lightning and 
flame ; it prevails in the water fall and stormy sea. Matter is 
doomed to destruction. Sooner or later it will have dissolved 
into the formless mist of protyle, and the hour Imnd of eternity 



48 Afr. John Finnegan on 

will have completed one revolution." Of atoms, as of men, it 
may be said with truth, " Quisque suos patitur manes." 

Among the experiments which Mr. Finnegan conducted during 
his lecture was the discharging of an electrometer by bringing near 
it a tube containing three-fortieths of a grain of radium, the tube 
enclosed in a metal match-box, and that again in a wooden box. 

The Lord Mayor, in moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Finnegan, 
said they had to thank that gentleman for an evening which he 
felt sure they had all enjoyed very much. During the last twenty 
years there had been from time to time scientific discoveries 
which had sent a thrill of wonder and admiration through them, 
and of these none was more admirable and wonderful than the 
new discovery — radium. The world was to be congratulated that 
it was a lady who had been the means of making them acquainted 
to some extent with one of nature's greatest secrets. For the 
welfare of humanity they hoped that these grand discoveries of 
modern science would continue. 

Mr. John Brown, in seconding, congratulated Mr. Finnegan on 
the attractive manner in which he had treated his subject. To 
old chemists like himself it was hard to have some cherished 
belief shattered, but, though he bowed to some of the more 
modern scientists on some of the points, he positively declined to 
accept the dissociation theory, which he took leave to say was all 
humbug. He did not refer to gases, but to electrolytic dissociation. 
It was a theory made in Germany, and built upon a most 
unsubstantial basis. He agreed with the Lord Mayor that they 
ought to do all honour to the great French woman, Madame 
Curie, whose work had been so attractively put before them by 
Mr. Finnegan. 

The Chairman, in putting the motion, endorsed all the mover 
and seconder had said in praise of the lecture, which, however, 
was given under certain disadvantages owing to the want of 
equipment in the room. Two names had been specially mentioned 
that evening — Madame Curie and Professor Rutherford. To the 
former all honour was due. The latter, as they knew, held a 



Radium. 49 

chair at Montreal, and it was fortunate that he did so, for in 
no laboratory in Ireland would he have found the equipment 
necessary for the conduct of his experimental work. He might 
be regarded as somewhat fanatical on this point, but he must say 
that it appeared to him a national disgrace to any country not to 
provide adequate opportunities for research into problems which 
were of interest to every intelligent man, and which had a practical 
bearing upon almost every department of work. They knew that 
many of the discoveries of modern science were already largely 
employed in medicine, and there was hope that some of them 
might be of even greater utility to suffering man than they had 
yet been. They ought, he thought, to all try and do their best to 
remove what he considered a standing disgrace to the country — 
the want of proper equipment for scientific research. If all their 
public men in Belfast were as energetic and active in support of 
scientific research as their present Lord Mayor, who took the 
keenest interest in scientific work, especially in physical and 
electrical research, the reproach would soon be wiped out. 

The vote was passed with acclamation. 

Mr. Finnegan, in acknowledging it, endorsed what Professor 
Symington had said about their poor equipment in Belfast. In 
going about the scientific appliance shops in London he had more 
than once been shown a splendid scientific apparatus which was 
going out to Mr. Rutherford at Montreal. It was a standing 
disgrace that up to the present there was no physical laboratory at 
the Queen's College, Belfast. However, they had been promised 
such a laboratory by Mr. Pirrie, and when they obtained it he 
hoped it would be more perfectly equipped with men as well 
as good appliances. 



50 



I'jth February, 1^04. 



Mr. William Swanston, F.G.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



A HISTORIC TRIAL : THE LIMAVADY GOLD 

ORNAMENTS CASE, 

By R. Lloyd Praeger, B.E., M.R.I.A. 



(Abstract.) 



Mr. Praeger, in the course of his lecture, pointed out that the 
Limavacly gold ornaments case had been in many respects a most 
remarkable one: The action had been at the suit of the Crown 
against the trustees of the British Museum for the delivery up of 
certain ancient golden Celtic ornaments. The matter had origin- 
ated through the finding by a ploughman named Nicholl in April, 
1896, on a farm near Lough Foyle, of the following articles : — (i) A 
hollow collar, in two sections, with elaborate repousse ornament- 
ation of eccentric curves ; (2) a model boat, with eight thwarts 
(originally nine) and a number of oars and spars ; a hemispherical 
bowl of tliin metal, with four rings at the edges for suspension ; 
(4) a solid gold tore of stout wire, with a thin wire twisted round 
it ; (5) one half of a similar tore ; (6) a necklace, formed of three- 
plaited chains, with a peculiar fastening; and (7) a thin single 
chain of same plaiting. 

The articles were found some fourteen or fifteen inches below the 
surface of the earth and packed together within a radius of nine 
inches, showing that they had been deposited there. 

The lecturer proceeded to describe how the ornaments were 



A Historical Trial : The Li?iiavady Gold Ornaments Case. 51 

exhibited at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of London, in 
Januaiy, 1897, when a paper was read about them, and how the 
British Museum subsequently purchased them for the sum of 
^600. The Royal Irish Academy took action, claiming that all 
such articles should be deposited in the national collection, and 
five years of agitation ensued. The Government agreed to have 
the question thrashed out in a court of law, and ultimately the 
action was brought in the name of the Attorney-General on 
behalf of his Majesty the King, the trial taking place before Mr. 
Justice Farwell in June of last year. 

The evidence for the Crown and for the defence was fully dealt 
with, and some of the most interesting extracts therefrom were 
read by the lecturer. 

The questions opened up by that portion of the defence which 
urged that the articles constituted a votive offering made to a deity 
at a time when the site was still below the sea, w^ere extremely 
varied and interesting. Witnesses were examined as to the customs 
pertaining to votive offerings at all times and in all countries, and 
a court of law heard quotations from Herodotus, Strabo, and 
Tacitus, and particulars relative to votive offerings found in Danish 
bogs, or made at the present day in the Malay Peninsula. The 
theory of votive offerings was also dealt with by the lecturer. 

The geological evidence was also interesting. The fluctuations 
of level of our coasts since the glacial period were fully dealt 
with, and descriptions given of the post-glacial series at Belfast, 
Lame, and elsewhere. The evidence of the age of these move- 
ments was argued out, in the light of contemporary human remains. 

The result of the trial was that the Judge finally made a 
declaration that the articles were treasure-trove, belonging to his 
Majesty by virtue of the Prerogative Royal, and accordingly 
ordered delivery of them. I'he final scene in connection with 
the matter was enacted in the rooms of the Royal Irish Academy 
at their first meeting this session, when the Academy formally 
received the articles, and they were now in the National Museum 
in Dublin. 



52 Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger o)i A Historical Trial. 

Professor Boas, in moving a vote of thanks to the lecturer, said 
the lecture had been a most admirable one, and he was sure he 
spoke for everyone present when he said they had listened to it with 
intense interest. Indeed, he had not heard anything so interesting 
of its kind since he heard Mr. Evans in Oxford give an account of 
his discoveries in Crete. They had all derived added interest from 
it by the fact that facsimiles of the gold ornaments had been 
exhibited that night. He (Professor Boas) had not the shadow of 
a doubt that the proper home for the ornaments was the Museum 
in Dublin, where there was a marvellous collection of Celtic 
ornaments. 

Mr. Wilson seconded the motion, which was heartily passed. 

Mr. Fennell said that facsimiles of the ornaments were now in 
the possession of the Belfast Corporation, and might be inspected 
by those who cared to see them in the Free Library. 

Mr. Praeger suitably acknowledged the vote of thanks. 



53 



22nd March, igo4. 



Professor Johnson Svimington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
President, in the Chair. 



AROUND YOUGHAL AND THE BLACKWATER WITH 

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

By Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I.A., F.R.S.A.I. 



Mr. Milligan said they were all aware that the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland had stated meetings quarterly, one held in 
Kilkenny, two in Dublin, and the Summer meeting which went 
the round of the four Provinces in rotation. 

Last year this meeting was held in Munster, and the place 
selected was Youghal, a very interesting old town. One of the 
objects of these meetings was to interest the people of the country 
in preserving antiquities and creating an interest in archaeology, 
which they have done to a very great extent. Their meeting in 
Youghal was a very enjoyable one, not alone on account of the 
antiquities, but also on account of the fact that the scenery every- 
where was most picturesque. He would attempt to take them in 
spirit with him to the South of Ireland. 

They would first of all go to the city of Cork, and from thence 
they came to Youghal. On arriving at the terminus and going up 
the platform, they observed on one side a bay, something like 
Belfast Lough as it looked from Bangor, but not quite so large, 
and on their left numerous villas and terraces, usually let as 
marine residences and lodges for visitors during the summer 



54 Mr. Seafo/i F. Milligan on 

months, as Youghal was a well-known and largely-frequented 
seaside resort in the South. The walk from the station to the 
town proper, fully half a mile or more, afforded a fine view of the 
bay, the strand, and the town of Youghal lying on the lower 
ground. 

The town, which was picturesquely situated where the Southern 
Blackwater emptied into the sea, consists of one street fully a mile 
or more in length, with some small cross-streets at intervals. It 
has an ancient history, something like that of their own old town 
of Carrickfergus, but it went further back into the early period of 
the ancient Celtic Church. Certainly during the Viking period it 
was an important place, and had a well-authenticated history 
through the Anglo-Norman period, as its various ancient charters 
testified. In a town of such a character they naturally expect to 
find many relics of the past ages, and in this they were not 
disappointed. The main street was narrow, and about half-way 
through they passed underneath an arched gateway, on which was 
erected a building of four storeys, surmounted by a clock tower. 
The members were welcomed in the Town Hall by the chairman 
and members of the urban council, who exhibited their ancient 
charters and various local curios. They were fortunate in having 
such an intelligent and well-informed guide as Mr. J. C. Buckley, 
the honorary local secretary of the Society, who was possessed of 
vast stores of knowledge on all local subjects, and conveyed it to 
them in most fluent and eloquent language. 

Their first, and part of the second, day was passed in examining 
the antiquities and places of interest, the most important of which 
w'as the Collegiate Church of Saint Mary and the warden's house, 
commonly called Raleigh's House. Portions of the old town hall 
and the ruins of the two monasteries, called respectively the North 
and South Abbeys, were still standing. The North was of the 
Dominican, and the South of the Franciscan order, and the latter 
was the first house of the order erected in Ireland in the early 
part of the 13th century by a member of the Desmond family. 
The Dominican Friary was also founded by another member of 



Around Youi^hal and the Blackwaier. 55 

the same illustrious family, who owned the town of Youghal and 
surrounding district. There was also in the main street the ruins 
of an ancient keep called Tynte's Castle, built in the 1 5th century, 
and opposite this was a fine specimen of domestic architecture, 
built between 1706 and 17 15 — a fine type of Dutch house of that 
time. 

Youghal was noted for the excellent brick made there, and the 
bricks in this house may have been of local manufacture, though 
some authorities said they were Dutch. Hayman in his guide 
stated that the Church of St. Mary at the north end of the town 
was founded in the nth century, and no doubt an earlier church 
existed on the site and was replaced at that period by a church 
built in the Hiberno Romanescjue or Norman style of architecture. 
On nearly the same site a new church was erected by Richard 
Bennett, a knight from Wales, and Ellis Barry, his wife, in 1220. 
During the rebellion in the year 1579 it was ruined by Gerald, the 
1 6th Earl of Desmond, and lay roofless for a period of 270 years. 
In the year 1852, the rector, Rev. William Pierce Drew, aided by 
generous contributions, had the choir roofed and tiled, rescuing it 
from ruin, but not restoring it to its original beauty. Raleigh's 
house stood close by St. Mary's Church. It was on record that 
Sir Walter Raleigh resided here in the years 158S and 1589, when 
he was Mayor of the town. 

It was from Youghal Edward Spenser embarked when he went 
to London to publish the first three books of the " Fairie Queen." 
It was also supposed that the first potatoes planted in Ireland was 
at Youghal, in the garden attached to Raleigh's house, and also 
that the first tobacco smoked in Ireland was under the shade of 
the myrtle trees in the same grounds. The name Youghal was 
derived from two Celtic w^ords, meaning yew-wood, and certainly 
the yew seemed indigenous to the place, and grew luxuriantly. 

After referring to the industries of Youghal and its history as 'a 
trading port, Mr. Milligen proceeded to describe a journey on 
waggonettes to the interesting places near Youghal. First the 
Preceptory of Rhincrew, a stronghold of the Knights Templars, 



56 Mr. Seaton F. Miiligan o/i 

said to have been founded in 1183 by Raymond Le Gros, and the 
ancient castle called Temple Michael, which was erected by one 
of the Desmond family in the fourteenth century to protect an 
important ford on the Blackwater. It was battered by Cromwell 
during his campaign, and the last of the Fitzgeralds who held it 
assisted Lord Castlehaven in the year 1645 '^o cross the ferry that 
he might bombard Youghal. A little further was the ancient 
Celtic monastery known as the Abbey of Molana. 

Driving to Ardmore, Mr. Usher, who is well known in Belfast 
as local secretary for County \\''aterford, became their guide. The 
beauties and the antiquities of this lovely spot would be very 
difficult to do justice to. Ardmore was a well patronised watering- 
place for County A\'aterford and County Cork, and many families 
from Cork city came there to enjoy the fine sea bathing and 
splendid air from the Atlantic. The village was built on the high 
rocky ground overlooking the bay, and at the foot of the rocks 
was a sandy shore or strand, where the sea was making inroads. 
On the occasion of his previous visit they were shown as a great 
curiosity the remains of a crannoge down on the sea shore. The 
stakes were there, and no doubt that the sea had encroached to 
where the crannoge was, which was formerly a bog, and some of 
the peat or turf still remained. 

The Holy Well was situated on the top of the cliff, close to the 
sea side. They usually found an attendant ready to provide them 
with a drink at this Holy Well. Close to the cathedral was the 
round tower, St. Declan's Oratory, and the ogham stones. Great 
uncertainty exists about the date of the birth of Declan, the 
founder of the Christian Church at Ardmore. Some placed his 
birth as early as 347 a.d., which would put him before St. Patrick. 
Be that as it might, at a very early date St. Declan, who was of 
Royal descent, founded the first Christian Church here, and his 
oratory, still remaining, was supposed to be the original church. 
The reputed burial place of St. Declan was within his little church 
or oratory at Ardmore. It stood about 70 feet from the cathedral, 
and measured internally 13 ft. 4 ins. by 8 ft. 9 ins., and the walls 



Arou)id Yoiighal and the Bhukwaier. 57 

were 2 ft. 5 ins. thick. The ground had risen from the great 
number of interments, until it was within a foot of the Hntel of 
the west doorway, which was intact. 

The round tower was one of the finest in Ireland, and most 
graceful in shape. It was 95 ft. 4 ins. high, tapering to the top. 
At the base it was 17 ft. diameter; at the door sill, internal 
diameter, 9 ft. i^ ins.; and the walls 3 ft. 5 ins. thick. The 
internal diameter at the top storey was 4 ft. 7 ins. It had three 
projecting string courses, and the internal floors had disappeared. 
The doorway faced east, and was round-headed, and stood 12 ft. 
10 ins. high. There were 4 storeys, an opening to the back 
storey, and four on the top, facing the cardinal points. The 
records of the cathedral were scanty. It appeared to have been 
built originally in the Hiberno-Romanesque or Norman style. 
The transition from Norman to Gothic appeared in the chancel 
and its pillars, and, lastly, the east window was of late Gothic. 

After describing the interior of the cathedral in minute detail, 
the lecturer said their concluding excursion was a drive to Lismore, 
and return by steamer in the evening down the Blackwater from 
Cappoquin. Lismore, like Ardmore, was a very ancient seat of 
learning and Christianity, going back to early in the sixth century. 
The name of a bishop who died in the year 588 was given, but 
St. Carthagh in the first half of the 7th century was more 
associated with Lismore as the founder of the cathedral and 
college. Here was an ancient monkish school similar to Bangor 
in Down, to which scholars came for general education and to 
learn the principles of the Christian faith. 

The Danes, who came up the river from Youghal, plundered 
and burnt Lismore in 819, and laid waste the whole country. It 
was burned again in 869, and plundered in 913 by the Danes. 
Notwithstanding all it passed through in the Viking period, it 
arose phcenix-like from its ashes and produced many famous mdn 
and great scholars. There were no relics of this early period now 
remaining, if they excepted the Crozier and the ancient M.S., 
known as the Book of Lismore, found concealed in a receptacle 



58 Mr. Seafon F. Milligan on Yougkal afid the Blackwater. 

within a wall of the castle. The crozier was made for a bishop 
who died in the year 11 13. 

The only buildings of interest in Lismore were the cathedral 
and the castle. The cathedral was almost a ruin when Richard 
Boyle, Earl of Cork, in the year 1633 commenced to restore it. 
The castle was the most interesting feature in Lismore. Some 
portions of it were old, but the greater part of it was modern. 
The site on which it stood was said to have been the monastery 
of St. Mochuda, and the view from the bay window was one of 
the finest imaginable. 

Having commented on the great beauty of the scenery along 
the Blackwater, and made some valuable suggestions to intending 
excursionists to the district, Mr. Milligan concluded by saying the 
visit of the Society to Youghal was most enjoyable, and they all 
left feeling the invigorating effect of the fine sea breezes from the 
Atlantic. 

On the motion of Mr. W. H. Patterson, seconded by Mr. Wm. 
Gray, the best thanks of the meeting were conveyed to Mr. 
Milligan for his most entertaining and instructive lecture. 



59 



26th April, 1004. 



Mr. William Swanston, F.G.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



PRESENTATION TO MR. S. A. STEWART, 
A.L.S., F.B.S. 



The Presentation was made jointly by the Society and the Belfast 
Naturalists- Field Club on the occasion of the election of Mr. 
Stewart as an Associate of the Linnean Society. 

The Chairman said there was no one in Belfast, or perhaps in 
Ireland, who had done so much for natural history in its various 
departments. He had done a great deal for botany and geology, 
and also, though it was not generally known, for zoology. He 
stood at the top of the tree in natural history. He (the Chairman) 
regretted the absence of the President, which was unavoidable, and 
hoped that Mr. Stewart would long continue to enjoy the honour 
that had been conferred on him. 

Mr. W. J. Fennell said, as President of the Belfast Naturalists' 
Field Club, he would like to add, on behalf of their members, an 
expression of the high esteem and regard in which they, one and 
all, held their old friend and companion. The address was an 
official one, but no words could justly express their admiration for 
a veteran who had made no enemies and retained the fast love 
of a long roll of friends. For forty years he had worked for 
and with the club, which he helped to found, and now, at last, he 
had received a high distinction. He was still the living encyclo- 
pedia to whom many of them gladly turned when seeking 
information, which was always cheerfully given. There were 
comparatively few men whose records were so quiet and so 



6o Presentation to Mr. S. A. Stewart. 

brilliant. Mr. Fennell then read a number of extracts from letters 
received congratulating Mr. Stewart on his well-earned honour. 
Amongst the writers were Lady Harland, Sir AVilliam Quartus 
Ewart, Bart. D.L. ; Miss Hodges, Rev. C. H. Waddell, Messrs. 
James Davidson, Corry, and others. 

The Address was read by the Honorary Secretary — Mr. R. M. 
Young : — 

To SAMUEL ALEXANDER STEWART, A.L.S., F.B.S., 

Edin. ; Curator of the Collections in the Belfast Museum, 
and Hon. Assoc. Belfast Nat. Hist, and Phil. Soc. 

"pvEAR MR. STEWART,— We the President and Members of 
the Natural History and Philosophical "■ Society, and the 
Members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, desire to place on 
record the high sense of satisfaction with which we have learned 
that you have been elected an Associate of the Linnean Society, 
as a recognition of your long and valuable services in botanical 
research, and we desire to congratulate you most heartily on it. 
And we trust that you may long be spared to wear your well won 
honours, and to pursue the studies that have brought you such 
distinction. 

We also request that you will accept this Purse of Sovereigns as 
a slight token of our friendship and esteem. 
We are, dear Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

JOHNSON SYMINGTON, 

President N.H. and P.S. 
ROBERT M. YOUNG, 

Hon. Sec. N.PT. and P.S. 
W\ J. FENNELL, 

President B.N.F.C. 
ROBERT PATTERSON, 
NEVIN. H. FOSTER, 

Hon. Sees., B.N.F.C. 
Belfast, 26th April, 1904. 



Presentation to Afr. S. A. Steivart. 6i 

Mrs. Fennell, amid applause, then presented Mr. Stewart with 
a purse of sovereigns. 

Mr. Stewart, in responding, said it was with feelings of the 
utmost gratification that he received that complimentary address 
and its valuable gift. His sense of its value was enhanced by the 
fact that it came from the officers and members of the two societies 
which cultivated natural science in Belfast and the North of Ireland. 
It was a red-letter day for him when he was elected an Associate 
of the Linnean Society. That the premier natural history associ- 
ation of the country should, without any solicitation on his part, 
have conferred upon him that distinction came as a surprise, and 
he could honestiy say that it was the most prized of all the honours 
possible to him. The climax came when the naturalists with 
whom he had worked so long accorded him the present token of 
their approbation. He felt that his work had to a great extent now 
been done. Tate, Robinson, and many others who helped it 
forward, and who were instrumental in establishing their field club, 
had gone. They had followed Drummond, Patterson, Templeton, 
Thompson, and many old-time worthies of the Natural History 
Society. The associations which they founded, however, remained, 
and new workers had come and were coming forward. He wished 
those workers every success, and hoped that in nature studies they 
would enjoy the same pleasures as had rewarded him. 

Mr. John Brown said, he was not a naturalist, but he had for 
many years been associated with his friend Mr. Stewart in his 
duties as an official of the Society. He could not allow that 
occasion to pass without saying that a more sterling man and more 
careful worker he had never found anywhere. 

Mr. Wm. Gray said, he had been associated with Mr. Samuel 
Stewart since 1863, and could say that that gentleman had main- 
tained the tradition of Belfast for knowledge of zoology, geology^* 
and botany. He was a perfect naturalist, and had always 
attended to his work with persevering energy, and was in the fore- 
front of anything connected with the literature of botany and the 
other sciences. 



62 Prese7itation to Mr. S. A. Stetvart. 

Mr. Joseph Wright also paid a glowing tribute to the merits of 
Mr. Stewart and the work done by him. 



63 



THE NATIONAL EXPENDITURE ON THE 

MAINTENANCE OF GULLS. 

By J. Brown, F.R.S. 



(Abstract.) 
During most part of last summer I sojourned at a pretty fishing 
village on our coast where the industry was herrings, the talk was 
herrings, the very smell was herrings, and when we sailed out of 
the harbour we were reminded of herrings by the cries of the 
gulls. 

The fishermen said the gulls were playing, but if one knew the 
views of the baby herrings who were invited to the game, these 
would probably be comprised in the old saying, " what is play to 
you is death to us." 

The play is thus. The razor bills and other diving birds with a 
skill worthy of even a " Bobs " have driven the fry into a little 
Paardeberg of their own at the surface. The sea has two surfaces, 
top and bottom. The razor-bill prefers the top for breathing 
purposes. This suits the gulls admirably, and no quarter is given. 

If one stand on the bows of a boat which is rapidly sailed 
through such a "play " one may see the " ball " of fry a wreathing- 
writhing semi-solid mass of baby herrings. 

Every one of them knows what he is about, and that it is a 
matter of life or death to him to get as near the centre of the ball 
as possible. Below the razor-bill awaits him ; above the no less 
pitiless beak of the gull. Truly " Nature is red in tooth and 
claw." 

Let us now become hypothetical and mathematical. 

Supposing each bird ate 200 herring-fry in a day, which, 
considering the activity of the bird and his opportunity and the 
smallness of the fry, seems a fair estimate, and as his play-time 



64 Mt\ J. Broivri on the 

lasts for about two months, it makes 12,000 fry every season. 
Now let us consider that each of these r 2,000 baby herrings 
would become a mature herring if let alone, and that the average 
price of herrings on the pier is about ;£\ per i,coo, we see that 
the keep of each gull for two months costs the nation ^12. 
A\'hat he costs for the other ten months of the year I leave to the 
officials of the Marine Laboratory at Larne to investigate. 

In making this estimate, I would point out that in fishing the 
product of the business does not, as in the making of shirts and 
shoes, depend solely on the capital and labour expended. It is 
chiefly dependent on the available fish in the sea, since the 
expenditure involved is practically the same, whether the night's 
take be large or small. 

In a paper recently read before the Belfast Natural History and 
Philosophical Society by Professor Gregg Wilson, the question 
was asked " Could men over fish the seas ? " and, in reply, the 
learned author said : — Professor Huxley had been of opinion that 
this was impossible, and that the damage done by man was 
infinitesimal compared with what was done by other enemies. It 
was the last straw that broke the camel's back, and if they put on 
that last straw it made all the difference, and he thought man 
could play the part of the last straw." Would it not be better to 
remove the larger part of the whole load, and let man keep, not 
only his one straw, but more in addition ? 

Let us consider the amount of the load that might be removed. 
At a low estimate there might be 100 birds in each play such as I 
have described, and say 5 plays per mile of coast and taking the 
coasts of the three kingdoms and adjacent islands, omitting the 
smaller inlets, as 4,000 miles, we get a total of 2,000,000 birds 
whose keep for two months in herrings alone would amount to 
the grand total of ^24,000,000 sterling. When magpies and 
hawks feed on game in the egg or bird, when rats eat the farmer's 
corn, or mice the housewife's cheese, they are called vermin 
and destroyed. But when seabirds devour ^24,000,000 worth of 



National Expenditure on the Maintenance of Gulh. 65 

herrings annually Parliament enacts a law to preserve these 
seabirds. 

In the good old times there was, I believe, a reward of so much 
each for wolves' heads, and there are now no wolves in these 
countries. We could hardly hope to extirpate these wolves of the 
sea, but if the State were to offer ^d. per head, thereby saving 
;^i2 worth of herring for each ^d. expended, their numbers might 
at least be reduced. The shooting of seabirds at |d each would 
be a profitable industry, since when crowded in a play a dozen or 
so might fall to one shot, but even a penny would not be thrown 
away in purchasing 12,000 herrings. 

As to the distribution of the reward, I would suggest that the 
coastguards have a good deal of spare time on their hands. 

Finally, it might not be amiss to add that, as I have been 
credibly informed, some of these seabirds were quite good eating. 

People to whom I had given somehint of the above propositions 
told me I was a heartless wretch to propose the destruction of 
the graceful and beautiful seagull. I quite appreciate his grace 
and beauty, just as I appreciate the glistening gracefulness of the 
snake or the striped beauty of the tiger, but there were excellent 
reasons of another kind why I do not encourage those animals 
on my premises or try to preserve them, as Parliament preserves 
the gulls about the domain over which it rules. 

Professor Gregg ^^'ilson cordially agreed with Mr. Brown that 
it was far better to destroy the enemies of the food fishes than to 
limit man in his working ; far better to kill a hundred gannets 
than to starve a few fishermen's families. But it was a very 
complicated question. If the herrings were allowed to grow 
unchecked the sea would not be able to contain them, and though 
he would prefer that the herrings should be eaten by usefuf fishes 
rather than gulls, still the gulls did not do so much damage. as 
might appear at first sight. The fuller study of fisheries we had, 
he thought, the better. 

Mr. Wm. Gray said the author of the paper had overlooked one 



66 Mr. J. Brown on the 

important thing, the utility of gulls' wings, Src, for decorations. 
He thought the gulls were useful in thinning the multiplication of 
the herrings, and they should be very careful before they sought 
their wholesale destruction lest they should injure their fisheries. 

Mr. Hamilton said that many seabirds when properly prepared 
were quite eatable. 

Professor FitzGerald pointed out that while no doubt seabirds 
had fed on herrings for thousands of years and thereby kept a 
certain balance, in more recent times man had begun to fish also 
thus disturbing the balance. In order to restore it he presumed 
some birds would have to be sacrificed. 

Mr. W. J. Fennell said by a rather peculiar coincidence he had 
received a letter that day from an American who had recently 
paid a visit to Belfast and Portrush, and who wrote protesting 
against the destruction of gulls. 

Mr. Brown in reply, said he felt gratified that the criticism was 
on the whole favourable, and mentioned that since the paper was 
written he had observed that the Royal Commission of 1879, 
appointed to enquire into the Herring Fisheries of Scotland, 
consisting of Frank Buckland, Spencer Walpole, and Archibald 
Young, recommended the repeal of the Seabirds Preservation Act 
so far as it applied to Scotland. 



Note added October, 1904. 

In the title of this paper it would have been more correct to 
have put "Seabirds" for "Gulls" since the paper really deals 
with various kinds of birds. 

The numerous notices of the paper published in the press of 
the United Kingdom would indicate that it dealt with a subject 
of considerable interest. An article on the subject, revised and 
enlarged, was prepared for the Manchester Guardian of August 
8th. 

Criticisms for and against were about equally divided. Amongst 
the latter it was urged that the birds were beautiful, useful as 
scavengers, and that destroying them was cruel, that if herrings 



National Expenditure on the Alain te nance of Gulls. 67 

were left unchecked they would multiply till the sea would not 
contain them, and that the quantity of fry destroyed by birds was 
exaggerated. The Hon. Secretary of the Society for the Protection 
of Birds, London, stated also that the cries of the gulls warned 
the fishermen of hidden rocks and shoals, and quotes some lines 
in illustration of this idea. It is a pretty poetic fancy, but if 
the fisherman fled from every collection of screaming birds, he 
would have a busy time. 

It is possible that before the era of lighthouses and steam fog- 
horns the cries of seabirds may have been a feeble substitute on 
cliffs on which they were known to breed. 

The weakness -of these arguments indicates the scarcity of real 
support for the other side. The amount of scavenging is probably 
relatively unimportant. 

The true objection is doubtless of a sentimental kind, partly 
based on a feeling that the destruction of seabirds would involve 
open cruelty. A correspondent of Truth points out that this 
could be obviated by collecting the eggs for consumption as human 
food. 

The author of that trite and obvious statement about unchecked 
herrings might have chosen a more prolific species, since according 
to Buckland, the herring has, weight for weight, only one-third the 
number of eggs of the average of other food fishes, or taking 
individual fishes, the turbot has 300 times as many. At present 
navigation is not impeded by any approach to the " stiffening 
of the sea " by either herrings or turbot. 

On the question of exaggeration it is possible that the number 
of plays per mile may have been overestimated. On the other hand 
I have not included the fry consumed by the grampus which 
swallows the whole ball of fry at one gulp, a feat which he can 
only accomplish after the divers have collected the fry into a ball. 
Indeed the divers are the chief culprits since they not only 
consume but also collect for both gulls and grampus, and if a 
compromise must be made, let us sacrifice them and keep the 
gulls, if the sentimentalists insist. The question as to whether 
fish assist in this rounding up of the fry is a difficult one. I have 
never observed that they do. 

In addition there are the depredations of the gannet and tlie 
cormorant which devour mature fish. The former will even take 
the herrings out of the nets as these are being hauled and the 
fishermen complain, not so much of what they eat, but of what 
they shake out and lose. 



68 Mr. J. Brown on the 

Mr. Herewald Wake, writing to the Morning Post, states that 
for the most part gulls live on Crustacea and mollusca, etc., found 
on mud flats. These, he states, prey on ova and embryos of our 
food fishes which would almost be extirpated if the mollusca, etc., 
were not kept in check by the gulls. Mr. Wake appears to base 
his remark on the old and obsolete theory that fish came into 
shallow water to spawn. It is now well known that practically all 
food fishes are known to spawn in the open sea and nearly all 
kinds of spawn float on the surface, and there appears to be no 
evidence that ova or embryos are found on mud flats. Moreover, 
several species of molluscs devoured by the gulls are useful for 
bait. 

As an argument somewhat stronger than any of the above, it 
was pointed out that if the supply increased the price would fall. 
But we have to consider that herrings are cured and exported 
and that the world's population is increasing, and that by better 
means of transit new markets are opened. Again on the other 
hand, if catching herrings were easier, less hands and gear would 
sufiice, and so the cost of production be lessened. 

It is also stated that gulls devour the eggs of other sea-fowl thus 
helping toward reducing their numbers. 

Several of my critics say that even if the fry escaped the birds 
they would be snapped up by other fish. The cod, mackerel, 
gurnet, pollack, etc., being food fishes, may be perhaps forgiven — 
the dog fish not so easily. 

At all events, if the herring has so many enemies the more he 
needs protection, and as his allies we can best begin with those 
most easily got at — the birds. 

Among the many critics who agreed with my view I may 
mention Mr. Matthias Dunn of Megavissey, who is evidently well 
informed on the question of fisheries. Writing in the Western 
Morning News Mr. Dunn takes a view like that of Professor 
FitzGerald, and points out that a century ago our fisheries were 
primitive and local, but in the last twentyfour years alone, since 
the introduction of steam and of cotton nets they have doubled in 
capacity. As a natural result of this disturbing of the balance the 
fish are diminishing in numbers, whole areas of the sea are 
denuded of them, and the fishermen forced gradually to fish 
farther off, as far north as Iceland, and as far south as Africa. 

On the other hand, Mr. Dunn says since the introduction of the 
close season the birds are increasing. In the interests of mankind 
they and their associates should be diminished. 



National Expetiditure on the Maintenance of Gulls. 69 

^\Titing to The Field Mr. J. Harvie Brown states that certain 
species of gull, if not all, are far too numerous not only ori 
account of the fish they destroy but other birds eggs and young. 

In a correspondence in The Scotsman the interest drifts also 
into the increase of gulls on the upper reaches of rivers and the 
destruction of trout and salmon fry there and of the young of 
wild duck and grouse. Four correspondents describe reliable 
evidence of this and four others express doubts since they have 
not seen it. 

I am informed that the Irish Fishery Board gives already i/- each 
for cormorant's heads to save fresh water fish. 

It is at all events well to see the subject so widely discussed 
from many points of view. 

J. B. 



70 



BLINKING OR IL L-W I S H I N a 
By E. J. M'Kean, B.A.(Oxon.) 



The belief in the evil eye is very old and we meet it in diverse 
forms in Saga and Folktale. Medusa's glance in the well-known 
Greek story and Balor Beimenach's destructive glare in Irish myth 
are but instances of it. It is still dreaded, in Italy especially, and 
in all countries of the world besides. The evil eye is not always 
destructive : it may be used to divert to its owner things which 
should have gone to another, and in this it usually is aided by 
magic ceremonies. This is the form which it generally takes in 
North-West Europe and which is usually found in Ulster and of 
this my paper is to treat. 

This kind of charming is perhaps the most important department 
of witchcraft and is possibly the oldest. It involves ideas which 
belong to an early stage of the human mind. It is simple, 
another point in favour of its antiquity, and it requires no 
extraneous aid. The 'blinker' as we call him in Ulster, can act 
without the help of ghost or devil. 

All witchcraft depends on the idea that some men can of their 
own will alter the courses of nature by dread powers not given to 
all, and this idea, which long survived the advent of Christianity, 
fell finally not by persecution but by the fuller knowledge of the 
universe which science gave. Like drove out like : the new 
knowledge broke down the older theory of the world. 

The English statute against witchcraft was repealed in 1736, 
and the last condemnation for witchcraft in Ireland took 
place at Carrickfergus in 171 1, yet we still have in our midst a 
wide-spread belief in ' blinking ' and not a few blinkers. The 
blinker seldom attacks persons but usually seeks to satisfy malice 
and interest by blinking cattle and " taking the good" of milk or 
crops. But nowadays the art is degenerating, its outlines are 
growing dim, and we have to compare what we learn of it with 



Blmking or Ill-'ivishing. 71 

the lore of earlier days, of other nations, or of barbarians and 
savages, to know fully its meaning. 

The blinker may be either a man or a woman and I have not 
found how he gets his power. Some say he serves an apprentice- 
ship. I have never found any certain way of recognising a blinker. 
Position is, I regret to say, no security, for in one parish in Co. 
Tyrone both the collectors in church are blinkers. Undue 
prosperity is ground for suspicion and it is well to bless the churn 
and take a ' brash ' at it if you happen on butter-making in a 
house. It is suspicious to smoke when churning is proceeding 
or to ask a piece of turf out of the fire on such occasions or even 
to be about if you already have the repute of a ' blinker.' A blinker 
has power to become a hare at times and this belief is very old and 
widespread for it is akin to the changes of the werewolf and such 
like men-beasts and to our enchanted white cats and fox-princes 
of the nursery stories. Sometimes the blinker uses his powers 
involuntarily and then we have the evil eye in its simplest and 
most unmixed form and sometimes it is beyond the will of the 
owner. So a pedlar assured me that once he saw healthy cattle 
yield not a drop of blood when bled previous to going to grass, as 
was the old custom, and this because a blinker was present. 

Yet though such is his power to hurt he must generally use 
some ceremony to get control over his neighbour's kine and their 
produce. Sometimes he goes to skim the dew of his neighbour's 
grass, especially on May morning, that day so marked in the 
Celtic calender when many uncanny things are active. Sometimes 
he skims the froth off the stream from which the cows drink. 
Sometimes he takes hairs from the tails of the neighbour's cows 
and twists them into a rope which he trails over the dewy grass in 
a neighbour's field. So it is unlucky to lend a blinker anything, 
especially a piggin or a churnstaff. 

All these instances have one thing in common : the blinker 
wants to establish a connection with his victim, but he is satisfied 
if he gets something associated in idea with it, and this is the 
root-fallacy in all witchcraft whether the ill-wisher assaults by the 



72 Mr. E. J. M'Keaji on 

methods above-mentioned or by images of clay or wax or by 
burning a lock of hair belonging to his victim. 

When the spell is done and the cattle are blinked they are 
distressed and ill and yield no milk, or if they remain healthy and 
yield milk, no butter comes in the churn. Then either proceed of 
your own knowledge to cure them or consult a wise man who will 
probably give you one of two kinds of cure or perhaps both. The 
first is to watch the suspected person till you are sure of his guilt 
and then to get him into your house and secretly to cut off a piece 
of his clothing which is burnt before the cattle. This ends the 
spell. The blinker is conscious of the burning and will rush out 
of the house when it takes place. 

What has happened is this : — the blinker has something associated 
with you through which he hurts you : you then get something of 
his and hurt him through it and you are quits, or it may be you 
gave his victims strength of the blinkers to make up for their 
strength taken away. 

There is another counterspell which I have not yet met in Ulster 
but which is so common elsewhere as to deserve mention. The 
blinker is connected with the milk ; well and good ! the milk is 
in connection with him and he shall know it. So take some of 
the milk and boil it and, if you will, put pins and needles therein. 
Then he will come bawling to your door and you may make your 
own terms, for the boiling milk and the pins are causing him most 
awful agonies. If the cattle yield no milk or have died ; burn 
them or parts of them, and you will easily find and punish the 
ill-wisher, as is shown in Patrick Kennedy's " Legendary Fictions 
of the Irish Celts," page 135, and in Rhy's "Celtic Folklore," 
vol. I., page 304. 

The other Ulster cure probably did not once apply to witchcraft 
but has come from folk-medicine. It consists in transferring the 
spell from the cattle to a bottle and then burying or hiding the 
bottle, in one case under a fairy thorn, in another in the suspected 
blinker's field. Now to get rid of a disease by transferring it to 
someone or something else is well-known in early medicine, but I 
never heard of such an idea in witchcraft. 



Blinking or Ill-wishing. 73 

We have many charms against the bh'nker : — A stalh'on's shoe, 
of the meaning of which there is much doubt. Iron is ever a 
mystic metal, ghosts and fairies may not face it, some say because 
they are of the Stone Age, but the insistence on the stallion seems 
to point to more and we may not forget that some races have held 
the horse sacred. A he-ass is a sure defence, as is a four-leaved 
shamrock, a holed stone, or in some cases an arrow head of black 
flint. It is well to milk a heifer at her first milking into a can 
with a sixpence in it, and it is wise in shooting at a witch-hare to 
use a silver bullet. Salt is a good counter-charm. 

Witchcraft is no new thing and was once in high honour, for in 
" Irish Magic in the Days of Cormac," an article in the " Dublin 
Penny Journal," we read that Cormac had invaded Munster and 
" at last the Druids got new orders from Cormac, and they flung 
a baleful Druidical breath on the horses, and asses, and cows, and 
sheep, and goats of Leath Mocha, and their milk was stayed, and 
nothing was heard through the land but the neighing, and lowing, 
and braying, and bleating, and sneezing of the cattle." So that 
blinking is no new thing, and our examination of present day 
Ulster has thrown light on the Ulster of the distant past when the 
blinker was a friend of Kings, before Christianity put him under 
its ban as a servant of the old gods, later identified with the devil. 

Yet before we laugh at antiquity for its folly let us look to 
ourselves. I have heard that one fashionable spiritualist in 
England, firmly credited by my informant, requires all who would 
know their future to hold a crystal long in their hands till it is 
warm and some of their " life-fluid," as she says, has entered it 
so enabling her to see the inquirer's future in it. Now this is 
nothing but our old friend the fallacy that Association in Idea is 
Connection, only that the old hag wears a Worth gown and charges 
a guinea a seance, which makes a great difference to some people. 



74 



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO CORRESPONDING 
SOCIETIES' CONFERENCE, BRITISH ASSOCIA- 
TION MEETING, 1903. 

By Professor Gregg Wilson, M.A., PhD., 
D.Sc, M.RT.A. 

(Abstract.) 

I was present as representative of the Belfast Natural History 
and Philosophical Society, at the First Conference of Delegates 
of the Societies corresponding with the British Association, on 
September loth, 1903. The chief business of that meeting was 
to hear the President of the Association, Sir Norman Lockyer, 
and to discuss his proposal for the organisation of scientific 
workers. Sir Norman advocated the formation of a kind of Guild 
of Science, whose function should be to promote in every way 
scientific training. He pointed out that other countries were 
ahead of us in applying science to industry ; that there was urgent 
need that the claims of science should be pressed upon our 
government, as many of the responsible authorities knew little, 
and cared less about science, so that it was necessary to bring 
home to these the fact that it is the duty of a State to organise its 
forces as carefully for peace as for war ; that Universities and other 
teaching centres are as important as battleships or big batallions, 
are, in fact, essential parts of a modern State's machinery. 

Sir Norman suggested that the Corresponding Societies working 
in connection with the British Association might play a great part 
in infusing a scientific spirit into county councils, town councils, 
and district councils, and might even control votes in the House 
of Commons. The future British Association he pictured as a 
kind of Parliament of Science, dealing with all matters great or 
small relating to Science. 

The discussion that followed was not altogether to the point, but 
sundry interesting facts were elicited. Principal Griffiths maintained 



Report of Delegate to Corresponding Societies' Conference. 75 

that what we have to do is to educate the man in the street, and 
convince him that pure science is a good thing for him. The 
Principal did not seem to think that we could hope to get at the 
government till the masses were converted. Another speaker 
advocated commencing with the " boy in the street," and others 
dealt with their success or their difficulties in working this lowest 
stratum, rather than with Sir Norman's proposal to force the 
government to give more help. 

Mr. Munn Rankin afterwards read a valuable paper on "The 
Methods and Results of a Botanical Survey of Counties." He 
called attention to the great interest of plant-groupings or 
associations, and showed how new life may be put into the study 
of systematic Botany by the consideration of plants in relation to 
their neighbours and their environment. He called upon Natural 
History Societies throughout the country to do their part in 
mapping out the areas of the various well-marked associations. 

I strongly recommend consideration of this subject to Belfast 
botanists, and may mention that Mr. Praeger has already taken up 
the mapping of a district near Dublin in the way suggested. 






Oncers and Council of Majiagemcnt for 1^04-1^03. 

PKOFESSOR JOHNSOxX SYMINGTON, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

'g5ice-jl"'rcsi6enf5 : 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d. | WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 
SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, D.L. I ROBERT YOUNG, c.k., j.p. 
r.L.s. 

/aoit. 'ireasitrci- : 
JOHN IIORXER. 

/aon. c£tbv-attan : 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

/aoit. ^ecretarg : 

ROBERT M. young, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a. 

@OUltciI : 

JOHN BROWN, F.K.S., a.m.i.e.e. 

JOHN II. DAVIES. 

REV. T. HAINIILTON. d.d., ll.d., president q.c.b. 

SIR JAMILS HENDERSON, d.l., j.p., a.m. 

JOHN HORNER. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a.i. 

PROFKSSOR W. B. MORTON, .m.a. 

SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, d.l., j.p., f.l.s. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, m.r.i.a., f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 

PROFESSOR JOHNSON SYMINGTON, m.d., f.r.s. 

PROFESSOR GREGG WILSON, d.sc. 

ROBERT Y7)UNG, j.p., c.e. 

R. M. YOUNG, B.A., J. p., m.r.i.a. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

\* Denotes holders of three or more Shares ^^ 

♦Alexander, Francis, b.e., Belfast 
Allworthy, S. W., m.d.. Manor House, Antrim Road, do. 

*Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s., East Hillbrook, Holywood, Co. Down 

Andrew, John J., l.d.s., R.c.s.Eng., University Square, Belfast 
Andrew^s, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, , do. 

Barbour, James j.p., Ardville, Marino, Holywood, Co. Down 

Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton, Portglenone, Co. Antrim 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast 
Bottomley, Henry H. (Representatives of), do. 

Bowman, Davys, Holyrood,Malone road (Representatives of) do. 
Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do, 

Boyd, William Sinclair, Ravenscroft, Bloomfield, do. 

*Boyd, J. Sinclair, m.d., Chatsworth, Malone Road, do. 

Braddell, Edward, Parkfield, Park Road, Ipswich 

Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, Belfast 
Brett, John H., C.E., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Bristow, James R., Lismore, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Bristow, John, Wellington Place, do. 

Brown, John, f.r.s., a.m.i.e.e., Longhurst, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Brown, William K. (Representatives of), Belfast 
Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burrowes, W. B., Ballynafeigh House, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d., Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell, William m.a., m.d., College Square North, do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 

Carr, A. H. R., Waring Street, do. 



78 Sha re holders. 

Carson, John, \\'ali'ner Terrace, Holywood 

*Charley, Phineas H , Mornington Park, Bangor, Co. Down 

*Christen, Mrs. Rodolphe, St Imier, Brig o' Gairn, Ballater, N.B. 
Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast 

Clarke, E. H., Netting Hill, do. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p.. Queen's Elms, Belfast 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, vStrandtown, do. 

Crawford, William, j.p., Mount Randal, do. 

Crawford, ^^^illiam, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown, do. 

Davies, John H., Lenaderg House, Banbridge, Co. Down 

*Deramore, Lord, d.l. (Representatives of). 

Dixon, Professor, m.a., sc.d., f.r.s., f.r.u.i., Almora, 

Myrtlefield Park, Belfast 

Dods, Robert, b.a., St. Leonard's, Newcastle, Co. Down 

*Donegall, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast 

*Downshire, Marquis of (Representatives of). 

The Castle, Hillsborough, Co. Down 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., Dunowen, Cliftonville, Belfast 

Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park 

(Representatives of), Ballywalter, Co. Down 

Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Ewart, Fred. W., m.a., b.l., Derryvolgie, Lisburn 
Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart, m.a., j.p., d.l., Glen- 

machan House, Belfast 

Faren, Wm., Mountcharles, do. 

*Fenton, Francis G., Paris 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., c.e., Donegall Park, Belfast 

Finlay, Fred. W., j.p., Wolfhill House, Ligoniel, do. 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, do. 

Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic Avenue, do. 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., b.a., m.lm.e., Assoc. 

m.lc.e.. Eglantine Avenue, do_ 

Foster, Nevin Harkness, Hillsborough, Co. Down 



Shareholders. 79 

Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, H. M., Broughton Flax Mills, Manchester 

Gordon, Malcolm, Hilden, Lisburn 

Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d., m.r.i.a., 

(Representatives of), Broughshane, Co. Antrim 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Cavehill Road, Belfast 
Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus 

*Hall, Frederick H., Waterford 

Hamilton, Rev. Thomas, d.d.. President, Queen's College, Belfast 
*Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), do. 

Harland, W., Eaton Terrace, London, W. 

Henderson, Miss Anna S. (Representatives of), Belfast 

Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., d.l., Oakley, Windsor Park, do. 
Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte (Representatives of), Clarges 

Street, London 

Henry, R. M., m.a., Belfast 

Herdman, John, j.p., d.l., Carricklee House (Representatives 

of), Strabane 

*Herdman, Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo, Cultra, Co. Down 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, Belfast 

Hind, John, junr., Clifton Park Avenue, do. 

Hodges, Miss do. 

Hogg, John, Academy Street, do. 

Horner, John, Chelsea, Antrim Road, do. 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., Orangefield, do. 

*Hughes, Edwin, j.p., Dalchoolin, Craigavad, Co. Down 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., ^^■indsor, Belfast 

Inglis, James, j.p., Merrion Square East, Dublin 

Jackson, A. T., c.e., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie Avenue, Belfast 
Jaffe, Sir Otto, j.p., Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim 

Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Dalguise, Monkstown, Dublin 



So Shareholders. 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, Belfast 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunniurry, Co. Antrim 

*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Kinnaird, George Y., Malone Park, do. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 

Lanyon, Mrs., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Larmor, Joseph, m.a., d.sc, ll.d., f.r a.s., f.r.u.i., Sec.R.s., 

St. John's College, Cambridge 

Leathern, R. R., m.d., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, Strandtown, do. 
Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down 

Letts, Professor E. A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra, do. 
Lindsay, Professor James A., m.a., m.d., College Sqr. liast, Belfast 
Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House (Representatives of), do. 
Lytle, Joseph PL, j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e., St. Clair, Windsor Av., do. 
Mackenzie, John, c.e.. 412 Lisburn Road, do. 

*Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), do 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, do. 

Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 

Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.e., Kirkliston Drive, 

Bloomfield, do. 

Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, do. 

Mayes, William, 5 Mount Pleasant, do. 

Milligan, Seaton Forest, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a.i., Bangor, Co. Down 
Mitchell, Robert A., ll.b.,t.c.d., Marmont, Strandtown, Belfast 
Montgomery, Henry C, Bangor, Co. Down 

Montgomery, H. H., Strandtown, Belfast 

Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain 

House, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast 

Morton, Professor W. B., m.a., f.r.u.i., Nottinghill, do. 

Muir, A. H., Scottish Provident Buildings, do. 



Shareholders. 8 1 

Mullen, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, Belfast 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p., Tudor House, Holywood, Co. Down 
*Murphy, Isaac James (Representatives of), Armagh 

*Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of), Belfast 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

*Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone do. 

Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., d.l., Drumglass, Malone 

(Representatives of), do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

M 'Bride, Henry James, Hyde Park, Mallusk, do. 

M 'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London 

*M'Cammon, Thos. P., Plaisted, Woodville, Holywood, Co. Down 
M'Cance, Miss Charlotte Georgianna, Larkfield 

(Representatives of), Dunmurry, Co. I-)own 

MacColl Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast 

MacCormac John M., m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Cultra House, Holywood, Co. Down 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of). 
M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood, do. 

Macllwaine, John H., Mornington Park Bangor, do. 

M'Kisack, H. L., m.d.. University Square, Belfast 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p.. Queen's Elms do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone road, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Ivlartello Terrace, Holywood, Co. Down 

Nicholson, Henry J., Bedford Street, Belfast 

O'Neill, James, m. a., College Square East (Representatives of), do. 
O'Rorke, Mrs., Dunratho, Craigavad, Co. Down 

Orr, Hugh E., Woodstock Road, Belfast 

Orr, Rev. R. J., Fitzroy Avenue, do. 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Somerset House, University Street, do. 
Patterson, Edward Ferrar, Ballyholme Road, Bangor, Co. Down 
Patterson, Mrs. Isabelle, Bonn, Germany 



82 Shareholders. 

Patterson, John, Dunallan, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 
Patterson, Richard, j.p., Kilmore, Holywood, Co. Down 
♦Patterson, Sir Robert Lloyd, j.p., d.l., f.l.s.. 

Croft House, do. do. 
Patterson, Robert, m.r.i.a., f.z.s., m.k.o.u., 

St. Clare, do. do. 
Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a., Garranard, Strandtown, Belfast 

Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Knock, do. 

Pim, Edward W., j.?., Elmwood Terrace, do. 

Pirn, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e., m.r.i.a., National Library, Dublin 

Rea, John Henry m.d.. University Street 

(Representatives of), Belfast 

Rea, William R., Gardha, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Reade, Robert H. S., j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark (Representatives of), Belfast 

Robertson, William, j.p., Netherleigh, Strandtown, do, 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc. Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

Shillington, Thos. Foulkes, j,p., Dromart, Antrim Road, do. 

Simms, Felix Booth, Queen Street, do. 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., j.p., d.l., Hopefield, do. 

Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r.c.s. Eng., Howard Street, do. 

Smith, John, Castleton Terrace, do. 
Smyth, John, m.a., c.e., Milltown, Banbridge, Co. Down 

Speers, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywood, do. 

Steen, William C, m.d., Windsor Crescent, Belfast 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, do. 

Stelfox, James, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Symington, Prof Johnson, m.d., f.r.s.e.. Queen's College, do. 



Shareholders. 83 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, Belfast 

•Tennent, Robert James (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

Torrens, T. H., j.p., Wellington Place, do. 

•Turnley, John, (Representatives of), do. 

Walkington, Miss Jane A., Sefton Park, Liverpool 

Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtown, Belfast 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 

Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, j.p., f.s.a., Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Kensington Villa, Knock Avenue Road do. 
Whitla, Prof. Sir William, m.d., j.p., College Square North do. 
Wilson, Prof. Gregg, m.a., ph.d., d.sc, m.r.i.a., Queen's 

College, do. 

Wilson, James, m.e., Oldforge, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Wilson, John K., j.p., Donegall Street, Belfast 

*Wilson, Walter H., Belvoir Park (Representatives of), do. 

*Wilson, W. Perceval, do. 

*Wolff, G. W., J.P., M.p. The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, The Moat, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., Rubane House, Glastry, Co. Down 
Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., d.d., The Manse, Newtownbreda, do. 
*Workman, Thomas, j.p. (Representatives of), Craig- 

darragh, Craigavad, do. 

Workman, A\'illiam, Nottinghill, Belfast 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, C.E., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



84 Annual Subscribers. 

HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 

Gray^ William, m.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Belfast 

Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s. Edin., a.l.s., Belfast Museum do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast 

Northern Banking Company, Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E., Stormont Castle, Dundonald, Co. Down 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast 

Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay, Co. Down 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Cleaver, A. S., b.a., Dunraven, do. 

Davidson, S. C, Sea Court, Bangor, Co. Down 

Fulton, G. F., Howard Street, Belfast 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do. 

Green, Isaac, i\.nn Street, do. 

Hanna, J. A., j.p.. Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Cliftonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park, do. 

Hutton, A. W., Chichester Street, do. 

Jones, R. M., m.a.. Royal Academical Institution, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 



Annual Subscribers. 85 

Morrow, W. A. G., Clifton Street, Belfast 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Macedon, do. 

Parr, William, St. Mark's, Ballysillan, do. 

Pullman, G. H., Claremont, Knock, do. 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, M.Dy f.r.c.s.i.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Scott, Conway, c.e., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Storrar, W. Morrison, l.r.c.p., Mountcharles, do. 

Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Thompson, John, j.p., Mount Collyer, do. 

Turpin, James, Waring Street, do. 




1 ■" 

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BE LIF-A-ST 



Natural History and Philosophical Society 



SESSIOJSr 1904-1905. 



BELFAST : 

PRINTED BY MAVNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STREET. 

(printers to queen's college.) 



1905. 



CONTENTS. 



Technical Instruction in Belfast — Francis C. Forth, Assoc.R.C.Sc.I 

Stained Glass — ^James Taylor 

National Antarctic Expedition— Hartley T. Ferrar, B.A., F. 

The Work of the Ulster Fisheries and Biological Association- 
Gregg Wilson, M.A., D.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

With the Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland) on a Cruise 
Irish Coast— S. F. Milligan, M.R.I.A. 

Russia : Its People and Politics — ^John Horner 

Irish Ghost-Lore— E. J. M'Kean, B.A., B.L. 

Annual Report 

Balance Sheet ... 

Donations to Museum ... 

Additions to Library 

List of Office-Bearers ... 

List of Shareholders 



.OC.l. ... 


1 

lO 


.s. ... 


14 


Professor 






15 


ound the 






18 




24 




32 




37 




45 




46 




47 




56 




57 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST-A-BLISHIEID 1S21. 



CONSTITUTION. 

The meml:)er.ship of the Society consists of Shareholders in the Museum, 
Annual Subscribers (Associates), Honorary Members and Honorary Associates. 

Shares in the Museum cost £,"] each. A holder of one Share pays an 
annual contribution of ten shillings ; a holder of two Shares (in one certificate) 
an annual contribution of five shillings ; while a holder of three or more Shares 
(in One certificate) is exempt from annual payments. Shares on which the 
annual payment as above are in arrear are liable to forfeiture. The Council 
retain the right to decline to consolidate two or more share certificates into one 
certificate. 

Annual Subscribers (Associates) pay^i is. (one guinea) due ist November 
in each year in advance. 

A General Meeting of Shareholders in the Museum is held annually in 
May or June, or as soon thereafter as convenient, to receive the Report of the 
Council and the Statement of Accounts for the preceding year, to elect 
members of Council to replace those retiring by rotation or from other reasons, 
and to transact any other business incidental to an annual meeting. Share- 
holders only are eligible for election on the Council. 

The Council elect, from among their own number, a President and other 
officers of the Society. 

Each Member has the right of personal attendance at the ordinary lectures 
of the Society, and has the privilege of introducing two friends for admission 
to such ; and he has also the right of access to the Museum and Library for 
himself and family residing under his roof, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections in the Museum to any person not 
residing in Belfast or within five miles thereof. The session for lectures 
extends from November till May. 

The Museum, College Square North, is open daily for the admisson of 
visitors, for such hours as the Council may from time to time decide ; the 
charge for admission to non-members is sixpence each. The Curator as in 
constant attendance, and will take charge of any donation kindly presented to 
the Museum or Library. 

Any further information required may be obtained from the Honorary 
Secretary. 



BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY 
AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

SESSION I 904- I 905. 



22nd November^ 1^04. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
in the chair. 



TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN BELFAST : 

A RETROSPECT AND A PROSPECT. 

By Fras. C. Forth, Assoc. R.C.Sc.L, Principal of the 

Municipal Technical Institute. 

(Abstract.) 



Mr. Forth began his Address -with a short review of the paper 
he had read before the Society in December, 1901, entitled, 
"The Municipal Technical Institute : its Aims and Aspirations," 
touching upon, the leading points then discussed, and comparing 
the work then projected with that which had since been accom- 
plished. 

Referring to the class entries for the First Session as compared 
with the current Session, it was stated that whereas at the end of 
the tenth week in the First Session the class entries totalled some 
3,000, at the end of the tenth week in the present (the Fourth) 
Session, the class entries totalled over 6,000 (the actual figures 
being 6,180). The number of students enrolled has propor- 
tionately increased, the number now being 4,555, with 103 in the 
Day (or Trade Preparatory) School ; making a total of 4,658 
individuals. 



2 Technical Itist ruction in Belfast : 

With regard to the efficiency of the work of the students it was 
stated that during the past three years a marked increase had been 
observed in power of appHcation, in regularity of attendance, and 
in the interest shown in study ; but that comparing the students 
of the present with those of three years ago, no perceptible 
improvement was noticeable in regard to the educational pre- 
paredness of students taking up science and technical studies. 

The evening preparatory classes conducted by the Library and 
Technical Instruction Committee in the Branch Schools are 
attended by an earnest body of students, and quite a number of 
these young people are coming forward to the higher departments 
in order to study science, technology, or art. The imperfection 
of training makes itself markedly felt, and to this may be traced 
a distinct percentage of that falling off in attendance which occurs 
as the session progresses, more especially in the elementary 
classes. 

Teaching Staff. 

A factor which has contributed in a marked degree to the 
development and uplifting of the Institute's work was the ap- 
pointment of responsible Heads of Departments. The plan had 
been followed that as the Institute progressed, and as a Depart- 
ment could fully employ a head teacher, to make the appointment. 
In this way the chief positions in art, in chemistry, in physics, 
and in mathematics have been filled ; and quite recently a Head 
of the Textile Department and a Head of the Mechanical 
Engineering Department have been appointed. The Department 
of Naval Architecture is not yet provided for ; but in view of the 
immense local importance of the shipbuilding industry it is hoped 
that the development of the Naval Architecture section of the 
Institute's work will soon be on so satisfactory a scale as to 
warrant the appointment of an expert teacher for this section 
also. 

The next point touched upon was the Trade Preparatory 
Day School, intended for boys who have passed through the 
curriculum of a national school, and who are intended to enter 



A Retrospect and a Prospect. 3 

into industrial occupations. In referring to this the lecturer said 
he felt on dangerous ground, for possibly no branch of the 
Technical Instruction Committee's efforts had been more debated 
and more strenuously opposed than this one, mainly for reasons 
which it might be said after two years' experience, had been shown 
to be almost entirely without foundation. Continuing, the 
lecturer said it was worth devoting a few moments to examining 
tlie motives which actuated the Technical Instruction Committee 
to embark upon this portion of their work. In planning their 
earlier programme the Committee had recognised that of the 
62,000 children on the rolls of National Schools a proportion of 
boys leave school every year, having no opportunity under the 
then existing conditions of obtaining a higher education. Of this 
number a certain proportion must unquestionably enter upon 
some one or other of the industrial occupations carried on in 
Belfast and neighbourhood, and the problem was how to provide 
educational facilities for such boys. The Department of Agri- 
culture and Technical Instruction, as part of its experimental 
science programme, had arranged a course of instruction in 
mechanical science, and this course supplied the solution, and 
enabled the Committee to provide a grade of education not 
already available. The Trade Preparatory School of the Muni- 
cipal Technical Institute was accordingly established. Last year 
some seventy-nine pupils passed through the First Year's course, 
and this year one hundred and three pupils are entered in the 
books — fifty-two in the first year and fifty-one in the second year. 
These boys, after completing their studies, should be found 
exceptionally useful in industrial estabhshments, as their training 
is being made as practical as possible, consistent with due atten- 
tion being paid to the broader subjects of a general education. It 
is anticipated that later on these boys will become students of the 
evening division, and it is hoped to find them carrying their 
studies further, and incidentally raising the whole standard of the 
work in the evening classes. 

It was stated that at the time of the establishment of the Trade 



4 TecJmical Instruction in Belfast : 

Preparatory School great fear was expressed by those interested in 
Secondary Schools that the new School would act detrimentally 
upon existing Secondary Schools ; but the question having been 
looked into with an earnest desire to arrive at the bare facts, it 
could not be discovered that such injury had resulted, and it was 
asserted that the fear was rather that it would not be possible 
within a reasonable time to make up the leeway and fill up the 
educational gaps which abounded. The view was also given that 
the Trade Preparatory School, instead of acting detrimentally, is 
having the very reverse effect, for there are not wanting signs that 
it has had the effect of stimulating to greater efforts more than 
one local Educational Institution. 

Passing on to the effect of the Technical Instruction Com- 
mittee's efforts on the life of the city, it was stated that a 
distinctly increased appreciation was being attached to education 
in all its phases ; as evidence of this it was pointed out that an 
increasing number of employers are sending their employes to 
attend classes of the Institute, and are paying the fees, offering 
prizes, and in other ways encouraging those who have been sent 
to the School. This interest is shown not only by employers, but 
is found equally amongst the artizan population, some of the 
trades societies having gone the length of devoting a portion of 
their funds to provide prizes to encourage members of their trade 
to avail themselves of the instruction provided in the Institute. 
The keenness of the students to secure tangible evidence of their 
progress is also most noteworthy. The certificates won are 
greatly valued and the class prizes eagerly sought after. As 
independent evidence bearing upon these statements and testifying 
to the general increase of interest in education, the following 
letters were read. One from Sir ^^'illiam Quartus Ewart as 
follows : — 

Glenmachan, Strandtown, Belfast. 

November 19th, 1904. 
Dear Mr. Forth, — I am sorry that I cannot be present at 
your lecture on Tuesday evening. Very few who see the fine 



A Retrospect and a Prospect. 5 

building rising in College Square for technical instruction in 
Belfast can realise the change that has come over the spirit of the 
people. For many years a few townsmen — perhaps ten or 
twelve — who were in earnest on the subject, held their little 
meetings and gathered in small subscriptions, often with difficulty ; 
they held an annual meeting in the Ulster Minor Hall or other 
such place, in general thinly attended, and often the little effort 
was in danger of not surviving for another year. But that small 
band of men, though disheartened, held on tenaciously. There 
was the late Sir James Musgrave, Professor Fitzgerald, Mr. R. H. 
Reade, Mr. John Malone, Mr. H. J. Nicholson, Mr. Loewenthal, 
Sir James Henderson, Dr. Kyle Knox. There were others 
equally faithful, whose names do not occur to me at this moment ; 
and my reason for writing this letter at all is to bring forward the 
fact of how much those who will benefit by the new great School 
owe to those gentlemen for their foresight and self-denying 
perseverance. — Believe me, yours very truly, 

(signed) ^VM. Q. EWART. 

Another letter was from the Secretary of the Sheet Metal 
Workers' and Gas Fitters' Union. This letter, after giving infor 
mation bearing upon the needs of their members in regard to 
technical education, continued : — " I might also add that the 
members of above Union have agreed to voluntarily subscribe 
towards providing a prize for the most successful apprentice." 

Referring next to the accommodation provided by the Library 
and Technical Instruction Committee, a number of lantern views 
were shown illustrating the extensions and developments which 
have been planned in connection with the new building in order 
to keep pace with the growth of the number of students attending 
the Institute. Particulars were given of the building as first 
planned by the architect, Mr. Stevenson, in 1900, and these were 
supplemented with various details in regard to area, (S:c. It was 
then shown how in 1901 these plans were found inadequate, and 
a first extension took place. Another extension was made later, 
and it was decided to build across the central well and to 



6 Technical l7istrucfion in Belfast ; 

construct a central hall. Finally, within the past eighteen months, 
after considerable consideration and examination of the whole 
subject, the erection of a fifth storey has been decided upon and 
sanctioned by the Corporation. The total net floor area of 
rooms as now provided for is 109,000 superficial feet, the gross 
floor area being 1 34,000 superficial feet. The total cost of the 
structure, as now planned, will be about ^^T 100,000, exclusive of 
equipment, furnishing, and lighting. The Committee is making 
provision for the expenditure upon these additional items. 

(Here a number of slides were shown of the site as it stood 
originally, and also of the different plans prepared for the building, 
including the present or final scheme.) 

With regard to the financial position, it was explained that the 
Corporation levy a penny rate for technical instruction, and that 
this rate produces about ^"4,500 per annum. On condition that 
this rate is levied, the Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Instruction make a payment which amounts in the case of Bel- 
fast, in round figures, to ^^ 11,000 per annum. Added to this 
there are other sources of income such as fees, science and art 
grants, interest on sums invested, bringing the total income of the 
Committee to close upon /"2o,ooo per annum. 

It was pointed out that, for each penny raised by the rate, 
about three pence is received from other sources. 

In concluding, reference was made to the day technical depart- 
ment which it is hoped to establish, and also to the development 
of instruction for apprentices in engineering and other industries. 

Mr. J. M. Finnegan proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Forth for 
his able and interesting lecture. He said he fully appreciated 
Mr. Forth's difficulty in regard to the want of preparation on the 
part of students. Looking back to the time when he was in a 
national school, he could not find in the higher class of schools at 
present the same amount of thoroughly good work that used to be 
done. In many a country national school a boy used to be 
turned out who had a very good knowledge of algebra, arithmetic, 
and mensuration. He was afraid in that direction they had gone 



A Reir aspect and a Prospect. j 

behind. He had often thought how long must they wait until 
Belfast got a decent system of national education. 

Mr. W. Swanston seconded the resolution. 

Mr. Mann Harbison said, at the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation in Belfast, two years ago, they heard a great deal about 
the co-ordination of education, but they had seen nothing of it 
yet. 'W^ith regard to students being properly prepared for entering 
the Technical Institute, he believed that was quite practicable if 
it were set about in the proper way. The National Board should 
look after the matter through their Inspectors, and see that a 
class of boys in every school was properly prepared in the pro- 
gramme that would be necessary. They might also have co- 
ordination at the top as well as at the bottom ; and if diplomas 
were given to the technical students, perhaps the Universities 
might accept from these students one examination, in order to 
obtain the B.Sc. degree. 

Mr. D. B. Elliott said it was admitted that the national system 
of education was very far from perfect. There was overlapping of 
Boards, and until the whole system, or series of systems, were 
swept away, and some national system introduced, they would 
never have proper education in Ireland. Primary education was 
most in need of reform. Mr. Forth had justly complained of the 
want of preparation, but that was not the fault ot the teachers. 
It was the fault of the system. 

Mr. William Gray spoke of the necessity of correlation, and 
advocated the desirability of correlating the Municipal Library, 
Art Gallery, and Museum, and also the Elementary or National 
Schools with the other educational agencies embraced by the 
Municipal Educational Scheme, the ultimate success of which 
must depend very much upon the efficiency of the Elementary 
Schools, as the stability of a superstruction depends upon the 
efficiency of its foundation. 

Mr. F. Curley said the success which had attended technical 
education under the Belfast Corporation was largely due to the 
course Mr. Forth had pursued from the time he was appointed 
Principal. 



8 Technical histruction in Belfast : 

Mr. S. F. Milligan briefly alluded to the efiforts made on behalf 
of technical education before the introduction of the municipal 
scheme, and said that many more names could be added to Sir 
William Q. Evvart's list, including that of Mr. William Gray. He 
also pointed to the warm interest taken in the subject by Sir 
James Henderson. 

Mr. Horner said the work done by the late Sir James Mus- 
grave and others in the old technical school should not be 
forgotten. As to primary education, unless something was done 
to free the primary schools from all sectarian control, Mr. Forth 
could not possibly get into his Institute the class of scholars that 
he wanted. 

Dr. Sheldon made some remarks regarding the correlation of 
primary with secondary schools. Referring to the Trade Pre- 
paratory School, as a ratepayer he objected to maintenance 
scholarships being provided for other than the clever children of 
indigent parents. He did not think public money should be 
provided to keep the child of a man whose salary was, perhaps, 
much higher than that of the people who paid rates. Mainten- 
ance scholarships ought to be given only in cases where the 
father's salary was decidedly low and the child's talents decidedly 
high. From personal knowledge he could say that the training 
given in the Municipal School of Art was highly satisfactory. 

The Chairman said, before calling upon Mr. Forth to reply, he 
would like to refer very briefly to one or two points which had 
been raised in that discussion. In the first place he certainly 
thought they ought to congratulate Principal Forth very cordially 
on the great success which had attended his work in Belfast, and 
he (Professor Symington) thought that success had been well 
deserved. Mr. Forth had certainly worked very hard to instil 
into the minds of a somewhat apathetic public the importance of 
technical education, and if that Institute did not ultimately turn 
out a great success, it certainly would not be the fault of Mr. 
Forth. He was very pleased to hear from Mr. Forth that he 
attached very great importance, not merely to having a very fine 



A Retrospect a?id a Prospect. 9 

building, but also to having that building properly manned. That 
was a point on which, he thought, they ought to express them- 
selves in very decided terms, as they knew from the daily papers 
that objections were made to the supposed high salaries to be 
given to the heads of departments connected with that Institute. 
He (the speaker) happened to have had some experience of various 
Universities in various countries, and he must say everyone who 
had had experience knew that it was the brains that were required 
very much more than bricks and mortar. He could point to very 
finely-housed Institutions which were producing practically nothing 
on account of the fact that the heads of the departments were not 
the right kind of men ; and he could point to Institutions where 
the buildings were utterly inadequate for the purpose for which 
they were designed, but which, through the ability of the men 
conducting these departments, were of world-wide repute. If the 
Belfast Institute was to be a success it must be properly manned, 
and they would not get good men unless they paid for them. It 
was also necessary that they should not overburden the teachers 
with work. He trusted time would be allowed to the heads of 
departments to do some original work. If the Institution was to 
merely extend knowledge already gained, and had nothing to do 
with the acquisition of new facts and the evolution of new theories, 
it would fail in an extremely important function. In conclusion, 
he would convey to Mr. Forth the thanks of that Society for his 
extremely interesting lecture. 

Mr. Forth, in replying, said he was especially pleased at the 
very healthy and vigorous discussion which had taken place. He 
held that the educational question was of such a character that 
they would only arrive at practical results by free and full discus- 
sion. In reply to Mr. Harbison's suggestion, they hoped to issue 
a certificate that would have a very definite value to students. 
In conclusion, he thanked them very much for their expression of 
opinion on his lecture. 



20th December^ igo4. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
President, in the chair. 

STAINED GLASS. 
By James Taylor. 



(Abstract.) 



This curious and beautiful Art was so long relegated to a position 
of obscurity and neglect that it may be said to have altogether 
ceased to exist. In Oxford itself it had so far ceased to interest 
even Antiquarians that until a few years ago the many beautiful 
examples of medieval glass in that venerable City had never been 
so much as catalogued. The modern Revival of Stained Glass as 
a fine art dates back to the beginning of the XIX. century, the 
same movement which reawakened interest in Gothic Architecture 
leading to a corresponding interest in what was supposed to be 
Gothic Glass. At that time, however, glass was merely welcomed 
as a helpful accessory in an Ecclesiastical Revival, no idea of 
developing its use for the legitimate expression of artistic feeling 
having entered the heads of the RevivaHsts. The glass worker 
was neither asked nor expected to utilise whatever talent he may 
have possessed in his particular craft — the demand was simply for 
windows which were supposed to resemble those of the XIII. 
century. That was the first great misfortune which befel the 
Art ; but it was not very long before a still greater misfortune 
overtook it. Few, if any, real artists were connected with the 
craft, and as the demand was a growing one, the making of 
windows fell into the hands of enterprising business houses, who 



Stained Glass. ii 

soon began to do a lucrative trade in whatever style happened to 
be in vogue. 

Practically nothing had been done in England until 1838 to 
raise the standard of Glass painting, or to acquaint the public 
with its true principles ; but in that year, Mr. Charles Winston, of 
the Inner Temple, who had devoted much time and energy in its 
study, compiled a treatise in which he classified the various 
medieval styles on the lines of Rickman's " Classification of 
Gothic Architecture." This treatise developed into the larger 
"Enquiry" which was published in 1847, and that work still 
retains its position as one of the foremost authorities. Winston 
was one of the first to impress upon the public the self-evident 
truth that Glass Paintings are likely to rank as works of art only 
in so far as they are the creation of artists, and he strove in- 
cessantly to liberate the craftsmen of his day from the mechanical 
imitation of ancient workmanship. 

Near the close of Winston's career, Mr. Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
directed the attention of Messrs. Powell, the well-known Glass- 
makers of Whitefriars, to the work of a young artist — Edward 
Burne-Jones — whose talents were rapidly obtaining recognition 
amongst patrons of art. Burne-Jones executed several designs for 
Messrs. Powell, notably the " St. Frideswide " window in Christ 
Church Cathedral, Oxford ; but his name soon became associated 
with that of William Morris, v>ho had by this time thrown him- 
self heart and soul into the cause of art, and until Burne-Jones' 
death, his designs for windows were executed by the little colony 
of workers at Merton Abbey, founded by Morris. Morris not 
only brought together a band of gifted men sincerely devoted to 
art, but he worked in Stained Glass with his own hands, and in 
co-operation with his friend. Sir Edward Burne-Jones, who, as I 
have said, furnished the designs, he gave to the world a series of 
windows which exhibit an originality of thought, a delicacy of 
expression, and a splendour of colour never before attained by 
contemporary craftsmen. Old vices die hard, however, and not- 
withstanding the influence of ^Vinston and Morris, a great deal 



1 2 Mr. James Taylor on 

remains to be done in the furtherance of this attractive form of 
art. Many popular misconceptions call for correction, and the 
warfare against the trafific in commercial glass must be carried on 
almost as relentlessly as ever. The notion that modern craftsmen 
should model their designs after those of medieval times is still 
widely held, and although the commercial houses have been com- 
pelled to raise the general standard of their work, both as regards 
colour and design, it still remains true that a large proportion of 
present-day work is entirely destitute of aitistic value. Real 
progress will only be possible when the public come to under- 
stand that stained glass is a decorative art whose expression and 
application alike are governed by technical conditions, and that 
the glass painter cannot enter into any sort of rivalry with the 
painter in oils or water colours. The uninitiated invariably 
insist on obtaining the effects of pictorial aft, but this is exactly 
what the glass painter cannot supply. The primary object of a 
window is to admit light and to exclude the atmospheric elements, 
and the decorative possibilities of the glass are secondary to that 
object. In so far, indeed, as the glass painter is a genuine artist, 
his work will frankly recognise and turn to good account the iron 
bars and lead lines which the untrained mind would so gladly 
dispense with. Knowing the technical limitations under which 
his material is applied, his chief concern will be to enhance the 
beauty of the glass itself. Window decoration of the best kind 
has always been, and is still, a mosaic art, and the laws of mosaic 
prevent the glass-worker competing on equal terms with the 
painter in oil or water colours. To say so is not in any way to 
despise the power of glass in the hands of a competent artist. 
Every form of art is more or less limited in its application. The 
painter in oil or water colours can never attain to the perfection 
of rounded form produced by the sculptor's chisel, nor can the 
glass-worker apply his colour with the subtle gradation of tone 
demanded by the more complicated forms of pictorial art. His 
composition is executed in innumerable pieces of coloured glass 
arranged within a framework of arbitrary formation, and such a 



Staified Glass. 13 

composition cannot possibly be appreciated or understood if it be 
thought of as a picture. 

Nothing is more striking in ancient glass than the evidence it 
affords of the primitive worker's grasp of the essential conditions 
of his art. To him nothing was so priceless as the inherent 
beauty of the glass itself. All his efforts were directed to bring 
out the glorious colours of which the material is capable. Window 
decoration was the object he aimed at — never the making of glass 
pictures. 

Probably the oldest glass to which a definite date can be 
assigned is to be found in Le Mans Cathedral ; but very early 
windows are to be seen almost everywhere on the Continent 
(more especially in France), as well as in some of the English 
Cathedrals. By far the finest ancient glass in existence is in the 
Cathedrals of Chartres and Bourges ; but the student can begin 
his studies much nearer home. York Minster contains not only 
a fine example of ancient Grisaille in the famous "Five Sisters" 
window, but almost the whole field of glass painting from the 
XIII. to the XVI. centuries is to be found there. Wells Cathedral 
contains an exquisite "Jesse" window of late XIII. or early XIV. 
century work, and beautiful XIII. century glass is to be found in 
Lincoln Cathedral. XVI. century glass may be conveniently 
studied in the Lady Chapel of Lichfield Cathedral, Fairford 
Church (Oxfordshire), and King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 

But however fascinating the study of ancient glass may be, it 
must never be forgotten that if the art is to be rekindled into 
life in our midst, this can only be effected by encouraging the 
modern craftsman to put whatever individuality he is possessed 
of into his workmanship. When all is said, the modern worker 
has many advantages over his primitive rival. He has a much 
larger range of coloured glass to choose from, and his draught- 
manship is incomparably superior. Given a subject suitable to 
the situation of his window, he is without excuse if he fails to 
produce an effecting work of art. 

Anyone who is inclined to despair of the future of stained glass 



14 Mr. J. Taylor on Stained Glass. 

should see the Morris windows in Manchester College, Oxford, 
and Oxford Cathedral,- or Henry Holiday's " St. Hugh " window 
in Lincoln Minster. Windows such as these show what the art is 
really capable of in the hands of artists. They demonstrate con- 
clusively that the chief barrier in the way of progress lies with the 
public, who go on from year to year filling church windows with 
the mechanical productions of tradespeople. The charm of 
stained glass lies in its richness of translucent colour, its tones of 
glittering contrasts, its solemn splendour and wistful impressive- 
ness. Beautiful, it may be, alike in arrangement and design, but 
in the final analysis its glory will be found in its colour. 

On the motion of Mr. Forth (Principal of the Municipal Tech- 
nical Institute), seconded by Mr. John Brown, and supported by 
Dr. Sheldon, a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Taylor. 



4th January., JQOJ. 



The Lord Mayor (Sir Otto Jaffe, J.P.) in the chair. 



NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 
By Hartley T. Ferrar, B.A., F.G.S. 



A lecture, illustrated by lantern views, delivered in the Young 
Men's Christian Association Hall, Wellington Place. 



15 



8th February^ ^90S- 



Mr. W. H. Patterson, M.R.I.A., in the chair. 



THE WORK OF THE ULSTER FISHERIES 

AND BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

By Professor Gregg-Wilson, M.A., D.Sc, M.R.I. A. 



(Abstract.) 



Dr. GREGfi-WiLSON said the Ulster Fisheries and Biology Asso- 
ciation was started nearly two years ago. It was soon decided to 
establish a marine laboratory at Larne Harbour with a view to the 
investigation of local waters. Larne was chosen because the 
lough offered shelter in almost all conditions of weather and 
because the neighbourhood was so varied in character that large 
tracts of sea-bottom covered with mud, sand, gravel, and rocks 
might be found close at hand. A small house in Ship Street was 
rented, and fitted with all the necessaries for studying and pre- 
serving marine animals. A launch was procured, and collecting 
apparatus of various kinds. Then Mr. Joseph Pearson, B.S., was 
engaged as naturalist, and the services of a very efficient boatman 
were secured. The ordinary work of the Association was largely 
carried on by means of the dredge and tow-net. With the former 
the animals that lived on or in the bottom of the sea were cap- 
tured ; with the latter such creatures as drifted with the tides were 
obtained. Fishing with larger nets for the more active inhabi- 
tants of the sea was practised, and shore hunting with spade or 
graip or hand-net was also largely pursued. The results of the 
work of the Association had been many. In the first place, the 
waters of the Larne district had been sub-divided into areas, and 



1 6 Professor Gregg- Wilson on 

records of all animals found in these had been kept. They were 
thus gradually getting an idea not only of all the local animals, 
but of their associations. In the course of this work a considerable 
number of species not known previously as Irish had been met 
with, and a few of these had been recorded in the " Irish 
Naturalist." Further, in connection with the local work it had 
been found necessary to prepare lists of all known Irish species 
of some groups, and several such lists had been compiled. One 
of them — a list of the copepoda of Ireland, by Mr. Joseph 
Pearson — was now in the printer's hands, and would be published 
by the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agriculture. This 
list would be of great use as showing in handy form the results of 
all previous work at Irish copepods, besides recording new species 
obtained by Mr. Pearson. The group was one of the most im- 
portant for the marine biologist, as members of it were largely fed 
on by fishes. Besides their lists of marine animals they had now 
a list of the sea-weeds of Ulster, prepared by a Dublin visitor to 
their laboratory — Mr. J. Adams. A totally different but equally 
important kind of work had been carried on by Mr. C. Cunning- 
ham, who had undertaken the investigation of the drifts of our 
waters by means of bottles containing postcards. The bottles 
were prepared so as just to float, with very little surface exposed 
to the action of the wind. They were distributed at intervals 
along definite tracts, and the distribution was repeated with 
changed conditions of wind and tide. From such work very 
definite results had already been obtained, and these would soon 
be published. The facts were important in connection with the 
drift of floating eggs of fishes, as well as with reference to the 
movements of minute animals that served as food for fish. A 
great deal of attention had been given of late by members of the 
Association to the study of the herring. This fish was increas- 
ingly important for Ireland, but very little was really known as to 
its habits and the reason of its movements. Yet every stage of its 
life-history offered problems for study. Its eggs were eaten by 
fishes and destroyed by fishermen, but the numbers of adults 



Ulster Fisheries and Biological Associaiiott. 1 7 

were maintained wonderfully. The larval forms and young were 
consumed in vast numbers by other fishes, by porpoises, and by 
birds ; and the very interesting question arose as to the wisdom of 
our not waging war on these enemies of the herring. The 
migrations for food with a view to spawning were no less in need 
of study. It was necessary, however, before pronouncing on such 
subjects to take a broad view of the facts, and the work of the 
Association would, it was hoped, help them to obtain that. With 
regard to the future, it might be said that, besides carrying on the 
present investigations, it was proposed to make a special study of 
plant associations in their waters, to greatly extend their work at 
Lough Neagh, where poUan, eels, and mysis all were attractive, 
and to endeavour to secure for the Association a new and suitable 
laboratory at Lame Harbour. That would be of the greatest 
service to workers, and would probably be of great use for future 
teachers of nature knowledge. 

Mr. John Dickson, in proposing a vote of thanks to the lec- 
turer, urged the necessity for a thorough investigation into the 
question of fish food and spawning. By so doing the Association 
would confer a great benefit on both Irish and English fisheries. 

Mr. William Faren formally seconded the motion, which was 
passed. 

Professor Gregg-^^'ilson briefly replied. 



14th March, 1905. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E., 
in the chair. 



WITH THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
(IRELAND) ON A CRUISE ROUND THE IRISH 
COAST. 

By S. F. Milligan, M.R.I. A., Vice-President for Ulster. 



Thp: cruise, which commenced on 21st June, 1904, was the 
fourth inaugurated by this Society, and was a source of un- 
diminished pleasure to all concerned. 

There were two previous cruises around portions of the Irish 
coastline, and another to the Hebrides, but this was the first 
occasion on which a tour was made all round Ireland from Bel- 
fast to Kingston, going by the North, the Western, and Southern 
shores, and calling at all points of special interest efi route. 

The s. steamer " Magic," belonging to the Belfast Steamship 
Company, started at lo-o o'clock a.m. with about 140 members, 
including a number of the members of the Cambrian Society, who 
were privileged to join. 

The sail along the Antrim Coast was very pleasant, as the 
course was quite close to the shore until Rathlin was reached, 
when a stop of about two hours was made. The vessel anchored 
in Church Bay, close in, and a good view of that part of the 
Island was obtained. 

It had been arranged to land here, but when it was considered 
how few objects of antiquarian interest were within reach, it was 
decided by the majority that we should proceed around the North 
Coast as closely as possible and enjoy the view, the weather being 



A Cruise Round f/ie Irish Coast 19 

most favourable. Fair Head is always a most striking object on 
the Northern coast, and looked very fine on this occasion. The 
headlands of the Causeway soon came into sight, and an extremely 
fine view of it was obtained, as well as of the White Rocks towards 
Portrush. After passing quite close to the well-known Northern 
watering-place, the vessel steamed straight for Malin Head, the 
most Northern portion of Irish land. There is always, even on 
the calmest day, a jumble in the water between the Island of 
Innishtrahull and Malin Head, and the present was no exception. 
We soon entered Lough Swilly and got into quiet water, anchor- 
ing close to the little town of Buncrana. It was a lovely moonlight 
night, and a large number, after dinner, landed to inspect the town 
of Buncrana, which is a charming little watering-place, with good 
golf ground, connected with Londonderry by rail, from which it is 
distant about 15 miles. The castle of Sir Cahir O'Doherty is the 
principal object of interest at Buncrana. Sir Cahir was a notable 
personage in Innishowen in the days of good Queen Bess, and 
his castle and grounds are now owned by Mr. Richardson, of 
Belfast. Lough Swilly is notable in Irish history as the place 
from which the Earls took their flight from Ireland — viz., Tyrone, 
and O'Donnell. It was also from here that young Hugh 
OT)onnell was enticed aboard an English merchant ship, and 
conveyed a hostage to Dublin Castle, from which he afterwards 
escaped. The scenery of Lough Swilly is very fine, high moun- 
tains surrounding it on all sides, and the entrance and some of 
the islands are strongly fortified, so that it can be used as a naval 
base in time of war. 

We left Lough Swilly early on the morning of Wednesday, 
22nd, for a very long sail — viz., for Blacksod Bay on the coast 
of Mayo. A delightful view of the coast of Donegal was 
obtained, also of Horn Head, and on to Torry Island, on which, 
however, we did not land, having visited it before. A view of 
ever varying beauty was unfurled as the vessel's course lay along 
the indented coast of Donegal, passing Glen Head, and reaching 
Slieve Liag, to which we approached very closely, and a fine view 



20 Mr. S. F. Milligan vn 

was obtained of these noble cliffs, rising 2,000 feet in perpen- 
dicular height, and extending for miles in length. The course was 
now for the Island of Innishmurray, in Sligo Bay, a veritable store- 
house of ancient Irish structures, and which we visited in 1895. 
It contains a cashel, in which are bee hive huts, ancient churches, 
standing stones, and altars, dating back to Pagan times, all of 
which have been minutely described in our transactions. 

The kindness and hospitality of the people is well known, and 
many old customs still continue, including the use of stone querns 
or hand mills, which are still in use. 

We left the Island about 6-0 o'clock p.m., and steered for 
Blacksod Bay, which was reached at lo-o p.m. Here we 
anchored for the night in perfectly smooth water, being protected 
by a long strip of land called the Mullet, about eighteen miles in 
length, running north and south, and giving perfect shelter from 
the Western Atlantic. The Island of Achill lay south of us, and 
the huge mountains of Slieve More and Crohaun rose high in the 
moonlit sky, and added greatly to the charm of the scenery. 

Next morning, mid-summer day, we called at a little village 
called Falmore, and examined the ruins of an ancient church and 
a holy well close by the church. The latter possesses many 
points of special interest. We continued our course around the 
great cliffs of Achill, and entered Clew Bay, making for Clare 
Island, which we reached in the afternoon, and landed. We 
visited a little village where are the ruins of Grace O'Malley's 
castle, and walked across the Island for a couple of miles to the 
ruins of a small Monastery of the Cistercian Order, which is 
probably early 15th century date. 

The Congested District Board have bought the Island, and 
divided it into separate farms, and have in many ways greatly 
benefitted the inhabitants, who are now fairly prosperous. We 
procured a pilot at Clare Island, and sailed to the opposite coast 
of Mayo, and entered the well-known estuary of Killery Harbour, 
which runs up amongst the mountains for fully seven miles from 
the sea. The great mountain of Mweelreagh, 3,000 feet in 



A Cruise round the Irish Coast. 2 1 

height, guards its entrance on the northern side, and as the vessel 
proceeded amongst the hills a scene of ever-changing beauty was 
presented to the view. The Channel Pleet, some nine large 
vessels, have gone up the channel and anchored almost within 
sight of M'Keown's Hotel at Leenane. 

When we anchored, a steam launch belonging to the " Magic," 
with a number of life-boats in tow, proceeded and landed us close 
to the hotel. Being Mid-summer Eve, a number of Baal fires 
were burning on the high grounds all around, a custom which is 
not yet abandoned in the Irish-speaking districts of Ireland. 
Leenane is the finest centre from which to see Connemara ; 
tourist coaches pass to Westport and to Clifden, there is good 
fishing, boating, and shooting, and splendid mountain and sea 
air. 

The party enjoyed themselves at Leenane, where there were 
Irish fiddlers, Irish jigs, and Irish songs galore. An early start 
was made next day, after taking in a supply of salmon fresh out of 
the water, fresh meat, eggs, &c., which had been previously 
ordered. The Arran Islands was the next stopping place. 
Innishmore, or the great Island, was reached early on Friday, 
24th, and on the remainder of that, and the following day (Satur- 
day), was spent visiting the points of interest in the three Islands ; 
but as they have been so frequently described, we shall only add 
that for very early churches and prehistoric forts they stand 
unrivalled in Europe. On Saturday afternoon we sailed up to 
Galway City, and anchored at Mutton Island. A number of the 
members visited the city on Saturday evening, and also on the 
forenoon of Sunday to worship in the various churches. A special 
early service was held in St. Nicholas' Church for members of our 
party, at 8-0 a.m., and a great many attended and greatly enjoyed 
the service. 

We left Galway at 3-0 o'clock p.m. on Sunday, and sailed 
direct for Dingle Bay, anchoring for the night in Ventry Harbour. 
The magnificent panoramic view of the Western coast of Ireland 
from Galway Bay to Dingle, on a brilliant day in June, sailing 



22 Mr. S. F. Milligan on 

close to the coast, is one which will never be forgotten by those 
who were privileged to see it. We passed close to the cliffs of 
Moher, and saw Kilkee shining brilliantly in the sunlight, and on 
southwards past Tarlee Bay, Smerwick Harbour, the vast 
mountain chains of Slieve Mish and Brandon, ending in Brandon 
Head. Before entering Dingle Bay the group of islands known as 
the Blasquets were passed, and then Ventry Harbour. Here we 
anchored for the night ; the moon was full and shining brightly, 
the little inlet was unruffled, the tide flowing gently in, and on 
board a choir of ladies and gentlemen singing hymns, being led 
by a lady at the piano — the whole was soothing and restful after 
the week's excursions. 

Next morning, after landing, a start was made. We had a walk 
before us of six miles, as no vehicles were obtainable. The walk 
led along the coast from Ventry to Dunmore Head, and the whole 
coast line was dotted with prehistoric buildings, bee hive huts, in 
groups and singly, between Dunbeg and Dunmore. It is an Irish- 
speaking district, English is not spoken or understood except by 
some of the children, who speak both tongues. Space will not 
permit any attempt at describing the unique fort of Dunbeg, 
which is a fortified headland, or the lovely scenery or the bee hive 
huts, which have been called the ruined City of Fahan, in the 
district of Glen Fahan. 

The steamer followed us, and we embarked in boats at a 
pier built by the Congested Board, and rejoined the " Magic," 
starting at once for the Skellig Rocks. A boat load of about 
twenty-eight persons got landing on Skellig Michael, of which the 
writer was one. It was intended others should follow, but when 
the sailors who landed our party returned to the ship, they refused 
to bring any more out, saying it was too great a risk. It was a 
great disappointment, but I believe the sailors acted wisely, as the 
landing-place is very dangerous. The walk up the cliff, cork- 
screw wise, and then the final climb to the top of 650 steps, or 
rude stone stairs, required good climbing powers. The view was 
glorious beyond description. There were birds everywhere, the 



A Cruise Round tJte IrisJi Coast. 23 

only occupiers besides the birds being three Hghthouse keepers. 
The smaller Skellig was white as snow with the birds, which are 
very tame, and would sit on the rock till touched. 

We rejoined the ship, happily without accident, and the visit to 
the Skelligs terminated. Many were disappointed at not landing, 
but that could not be helped. We continued our course, and 
entered Bantry Bay, one of the finest, if not the very finest, in the 
United Kingdom, and sailed past Beare Island, anchoring close 
to Glengarriff. ']'he Channel Fleet was lying at anchor in the 
bay — some ten vessels — as we passed, which added very much 
to the effect, combined with the splendid scenery. 

On Tuesday morning we left Bantry Bay, calling at Clear 
Island, and afterwards at Baltimore, the great fishing village of the 
South. On an island here is Sherkin Abbey, built for the Fran- 
ciscan Order. We left Baltimore for Cork Harbour, which we 
reached after a fine sail along the South Coast, in the track of the 
American liners, one of which we passed. We stayed at Queens- 
town for the night, and left the following morning, calling at 
Ardmore, in County Waterford, to visit the ecclesiastical an- 
tiquities of that well-known place — viz., round tower, ancient 
church, and 15th century cathedral, holy well, &c. We next 
called at Bag-in-Bun, in County Wexford, the spot where the 
Anglo-Normans first landed in Ireland, and after examining the 
earthworks supposed to have been made by Raymond-le-Gros, we 
proceeded to Kingstown, which was reached as the clock at the 
harbour was striking 9-0 p.m., the hour arranged in our pro- 
gramme before we started. The English and Welsh visitors 
remained on the " Magic," which proceeded direct to Liverpool, 
and the others proceeded homewards by rail. Thus ended the 
most delightful cruise that the Society have so far carried out. 



24 



4th April, igoS- 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
President, in the chair. 



RUSSIA : ITS PEOPLE AND POLITICS. 
By John Horner. 



(Abstract.) 



Mr. Horner said at the present time, when Russia was ab- 
sorbing so much of the attention of the world, it might be 
considered not unprofitable to initiate a discussion with the object 
in view of arriving at a better understanding of her people and her 
politics, and of forming an opinion of the mighty struggle for 
mastery in Asia with somewhat less of partiality. It was difficult 
for them to look upon Russia in any other light than that of a 
hereditary enemy, whose aggression would interfere with their 
established rights, and it must be confessed that fears of such 
aggressions were not unfounded, for Russian Foreign policy from 
the time of Peter the Great had been one of expansion. Up to 
the 1 6th century little was known to other European nations of 
that great country ; its intercourse with them was thus of com- 
paratively modern origin. The various events relating to the 
Russification of Poland and Finland having been referred to by 
Mr. Horner, he showed that for the absorption of those countries 
Russia was defended by reasons geographical and strategic. 
Although they looked with suspicion on her southward march, 
they must in full justice give credit to her for keeping alive the 
spirit of Christianity in the Balkans. An impartial study of the 
history of Turkey and her dealings with her Christian subjects 



Russia : Its People and Politics. 25 

would show conclusively that Russia's interference was not one 
solely of land-grabbing. Her motives were higher, and those 
motives seemed to be recognised when in her last war with Turkey 
Europe stood aside and permitted the Turk to receive the chas- 
tisement he so richly deserved. Turning to the acquisitions of 
Russia in Asia, and tracing them step by step through the vast 
continent, they found Russia now at the Pacific Ocean and face 
to face with Japan, a foe more formidable than any she ever faced 
in Europe. Russia's first advent in Asia began in the early part 
of the 1 8th century, although long prior to that time a considerable 
fur-hunting trade had been established. Her march through Asia 
had left in its train order and civilisation. It was but natural 
that a great and civilised Power like Russia should extend her 
influence over Siberia, bringing under subjection the barbarous 
hordes which for centuries had run riot. They, therefore, found 
along the line of the trans-Siberian Railway flourishing towns en- 
dowed with universities and first-class educational establishments 
and technical schools of a high order, and as a natural conse- 
quence of those manufacture, trade, and commerce extending. 
The barbarities which made Central Asia a hell upon earth had 
passed away, and the horrible tortures perpetrated had been 
abolished. Russian rule in Mohammedan Asia kept in check 
any possibility of a pan-Islamic movement of the Crescent against 
the Cross, which the fierce religious fervour of the Mussulmans 
was only too prone to bring into great activity. A spark would set 
the movement ablaze but for Russian power, and start again the 
vengeful wars and cruel massacres which for centuries were rife in 
Turkestan. Let them glance at the present war and the probable 
outcome of its results. Russia, as shown, had marched steadily 
across Asia. Her work in reducing to subjection the nurnerous 
tribes which opposed her path had been fraught with great benefit. 
A huge railway had been built at a cost of ^ 100,000,000 sterling, 
which enabled the Atlantic and Pacific to be united across two 
continents. This work had been done at the cost of valuable 
life and treasure, and the natural return for all this outlay was a 



2 6 Mr. John Hornier on 

free Pacific seaboard. The trans-Siberian Railway was built 
politically for Russia, commercially and practically for the whole 
of Europe. The trade which Russia had opened up in Asia was 
carried on in a greater degree by Europeans. The railway gave a 
great stimulus to thatjrade, and the result of the present war 
would probably lead to the abandonment by Europe of a com- 
merce which had every prospect of being large and profitable. A 
momentary look at the commercial relations of the two con- 
tending Powers with other nations would serve to explain what 
was meant. Russia was free to foreign enterprise, as free as 
Britain or the United States. Most important manufacturing 
interests were owned by these countries and other nations, notably 
France, Germany, and Belgium. Flax and cotton manufacturing 
concerns, machine works, and other commercial and industrial 
enterprises were owned and controlled by different nationalities, 
every facility being given and every protection accorded. Besides 
this, Russia was a good customer to other European States, con- 
suming some ;^7o,ooo,ooo sterling of goods annually. What of 
Japan ? European trade there was very limited. The Japanese 
were rapidly becoming dangerous competitors. Commercially, 
Japan was closed to foreign settlement. No foreigner was 
allowed to own land or engage in industrial pursuits. The natural 
imitative faculty of the Japanese enabled them to produce goods 
of European design, stamped with European trade marks, perhaps 
not yet equal to European standard, but quite good enough for 
Asiatic consumption. Our vast floating capital, with loss of 
interest and freight and insurance charges, was saved. A Jap 
would live at one-fifth the cost of a European. Consider, then, 
that Japan was making all and more than she needed for herself 
how enormous w^ere the advantages she had against her com- 
petitors in Asiatic markets. They had often heard of the yellow 
peril and of the possibility of the Mongol race one day dominating 
the world. Did there not seem a possibility of Asia being com- 
mercially dominated by the yellow race at no very distant period 
of time. Once Corea and Manchuria got into the hands of Japan 



Russia : lis People atid Politics. 2 7 

or under Japanese jurisdiction, the outlets of the trans-Siberian 
Railway would be theirs at the expense of Europe. The Mon- 
golian Powers were geographically divided. Manchuria stood 
between Japan and Corea and China. Manchuria in the hands of 
Japan would remove this impediment, and a victorious Japan, 
with all the power and prestige gained by war, would be in a 
position to undertake the regeneration of the Mongolian people. 
When the countless millions of China were brought under 
economic and military organisation by Japan they might say good- 
bye to European prospects, commercially or otherwise, in Asia. 

Agriculture was the main industry in most countries, but more 
especially in Russia, where the peasants numbered 82 per cent, of 
the entire population, a proportion somewhat similar to Ireland, 
and the agrarian question there, as with us, was the most im- 
portant question of internal politics. A character sketch of the 
peasant serves as a sketch of the people. One thing which 
impresses a stranger was the extreme devoutness displayed by the 
people. A Holy Shrine was never passed without due reverence 
being paid to it ; the churches were filled with kneeling, prostrate 
forms. Naturally one asked the question — Was all this real ? 
Tolstoi said it was. On the other hand, a Russian historian 
stated that the people were remarkable for a state of religious 
indifference, as to be without parallel in the annals of Christian 
nations. These opinions app^eared conflicting, but if analysed 
showed a harmony. The Russian peasant was undoubtedly in- 
different to religion, as we term it, for the simple reason that he 
did not understand it ; but apart from religious doctrines, he 
carried with him into his everyday life the moral principles which 
regulated the relations between himself and others. The want of 
religious knowledge — of theology — was to be attributed to the 
relations existing between the peasant and his priest, or pope,, as 
he was called. It was an extraordinary fact that the Russian 
revered his church and despised his priest. There was un- 
doubtedly no spiritual relation between the Moujik and his pope, 
the latter had no influence, moral or otherwise, over the masses, 



28 Mr. John Horner on 

and enjoyed no confidence among them. They were looked 
upon by the people simply as traders, who made a profit by per- 
forming the Sacraments. Beyond such functions the power of the 
priest was not felt. It was said that the Russian Moujik may be 
called religious if the term is applied to social philosophy based 
on ethics, and not on theology. There was a system of moral 
principles dominating the life of the Russian peasant which, from 
whatever cause it sprang, may be termed religious, although it may 
be apart from any religious doctrine. The moral principles 
taught by the church have been inculcated, owing probably to the 
fact that the people were predisposed to accept them, although 
they seemed to have little conception of the general structure of 
their religion. Living in communities as they did, they were 
loyal to each other, and more than charitable, not alone to, mem- 
bers of their own class. One writer spoke of "The wonderful 
preservation of the purity of the moral character of the Russian 
people through such a terrible ordeal as three centuries of slavery, 
which passed over without ingrafting into it any of the vices of 
slavery ' could find no other explanation than this,' the 
peasant was never separated from the ploughshare, from the all- 
absording cares and poetry of agricultural work." There was one 
vice, however, to which the Russian peasant was addicted — viz., 
that of imbibing strong drink when he has money enough to give 
him the opportunity. The Government was now grappling with 
the question, and had succeeded in mitigating the evil consider- 
ably. It was to be wondered that in the midst of all his 
surroundings the Russian peasant was what he was — good 
humoured, kindly, sociable, and hospitable. His privations were 
often great, his earnings at the most scanty. Hygienic arrange- 
ments were poor, and disease and death rife, and still he remained 
working hard for mere existence, and fighting his terrible winter 
with a dignity all his own. A Russian writer thus spoke of him : 
" Through all the varieties of types, tribes, and past history, the 
millions of our rural population present a remarkable uniformity 
in those higher general ethical and social conceptions, which the 



Russia : Its People and Politics. 29 

educated draw from the divers social and political sciences, and 
the uneducated from their traditions, which are the depositories of 
the collective wisdom of past generations." Statistics recently 
taken showed only 20 per cent, of recruits literate. This is a most 
deplorable state, but it seemed to point to what the future of 
Russia must be when some 60 millions of her peasantry received 
the benefits of an education which would enable them to rise to a 
sense of their duty to their country and themselves. 

President Hamilton said he was not one of those who were 
possessed by a great admiration of Russia. Mr. Horner, he 
believed, was, as he knew from personal conversation with him. 
But it did not seem to him that the Russian Empire ought to be 
very much an object of admiration. One ought, however, to draw 
a distinction between the moujik and the empire. The Russian 
peasant was all, he thought, that had been claimed for him by Mr. 
Horner — a well-meaning, honest, ignorant man — but, taking the 
country as a whole, it seemed to him (the speaker) to be a vast, 
unwieldy mass of semi-educated, semi-barbarous people, governed, 
he supposed, by one of the worst systems of government which 
had ever cursed a nation. Mr. Horner had held up before them 
a picture of what might happen to them from what was currently 
described as the yellow peril ; but he did not know that they need 
very much dread the ascendency of the yellow race if that yellow 
race was to be such a people as they had seen in recent years 
the Japanese prove themselves to be. It might be that Russia 
could call itself Christian, while Japan was not Christian ; but 
he confessed if he had to make a choice between seeing Asia 
dominated by a Christian nation of the type of Russia, or by a 
non-Christian nation of the type of Japan, he should not for a 
moment hesitate to choose the latter. They had within the last 
year had a marvellous revelation of what a little nation by means 
of education, by means of a splendid patriotism, and by means of 
adapting itself to Western ideas, had been able to accomplish in a 
short space of time. He very much questioned if throughout the 
entire audience that evening there could be found half a dozen 



30 M?-. JoJm Horner nn 

people who would prefer to see Asia ruled by Russia to Asia 
dominated by ideas and sentiments such as they had seen put to 
the test in the case of Japan. He had been very much interested 
in the latter part of the paper, in which Mr. Horner had described 
to them so vividly and accurately the internal economy of Russia ; 
and, although many of them differed from the lecturer, they were 
indebted to him for the mass of information he had placed before 
them, and for the pains he had taken to give it to them in a 
manner so succinct and interesting. 

Mr. William Armstrong asked if it was not the case that the 
import duty in Russia was heavier than in Japan. 

Mr. Seaton F. Milligan said Mr. Horner had not dealt with a 
subject which he expected to gain some information upon ; that 
was as to the system of bribery and corruption which was so 
flagrant in Russia. He believed the Japanese would be a 
Christian nation before the end of this generation, and that the 
danger of the yellow peril referred to by Mr. Horner was not so 
great as he represented. 

The Chairman regretted that Mr. Horner's paper had not 
excited keener discussion. One would have thought it was only 
necessary to mention the name of politics in this town to provoke 
very keen discussion, and apparently they had fallen upon very 
peaceful days. 

In replying, Mr. Horner said he had purposely made the paper 
pro-Russian to evoke discussion. There was a feeling of an- 
tagonism to Russia which he honestly believed was not a true one. 
There was no question, he thought, that the Mongols despised the 
European races. They had a religion, a philosophy, of their own 
which was far older than theirs, and they looked upon it with so 
much reverence that he very much feared that the next generation 
would not see the Mongol races Christianised. Even the 
civilisation which Japan had copied showed that that country was 
open to adopt what she might consider right for her best interests, 
but she had not copied their philosophy or religion. Mr. Arm- 
strong had asked regarding the duty versus Russia and Japan. 



Russia: Its People and Politics. 31 

He could not say, but he believed it was a fact that Japan's 
imports were small in comparison to Russia's. Japan was prac- 
tically making everything she wanted. Mr. Milligan had alluded 
to bribery and corruption. He had not referred to that subject 
owing to the exigencies of time. He had stated that the Govern- 
ment of Russia was one of the worst which ever cursed a nation. 
He thought the bribery and corruption which came from that 
system of government could not be defended by him or anyone 
else. Bribery, which at one time was exceedingly rife in Russia, 
was largely diminished during the reign of Alexander HI., who 
did much to purify Russian officialism in this respect. Mr. 
Horner proceeded to defend the Russian Church from the charge 
of intolerance, and in conclusion referred to certain authorities, 
the reading of which he was sure would give them a more favour- 
able idea of the Russian people. 



32 



IRISH GHOST-LORE. 
Bv E. J. M'Kean, B.A., B.L. 



Even the most superficial collector of Irish folk-lore cannot fail 
to see that in Ireland we have a really enormous number of ghost 
stories. This statement is true of all parts of the island, and 
these stories have been greatly neglected. 

Our Irish ghost-lore is scattered broadcast through town and 
country. Perhaps no Irish town is without its ghost or spectre, 
or at least a phantom carriage. Probably it is not too much to 
say that every country parish has its "bad spot." A "bad spot" 
means an uncanny place where eerie things happen, nothing very 
alarming, but plenty to cause goose-flesh. These " bad spots " 
are generally on the roadside, and often enough no one knows 
how they come by their reputation. 

There are, too, abundant stories of wraiths. In and round 
Belfast it is said that to see a wraith in the morning is of good 
omen, and fortells a long life ; but if seen at night it bodes death. 
W. S. Smith, in one of his pamphlets, says "sudden death," but I 
have never heard of this belief, if he does not mean " speedy 
death." A Waterford working-man told me that the wraith is seen 
seven years before death, during which time the doomed man or 
woman " is with the fairies." 

The stories I am going to narrate all came under my notice as 
I was collecting folk-lore, and most of them are, so far as I know, 
quite new. One of the tales is indeed well known, but I think I 
am justified in telling it once more to a Belfast audience, if only 
to show that it probably still lives in tradition. 

A ghost said to be well-known in several parts of Ireland is 
Petticoat loose. There is a story that she is a woman who 
danced her feet off, but this tale I have on no authority, nor do I 
know whence the account comes. She used to appear at one 



Mr. E. J. M'Kean on Irish Ghost-Lore. 33 

place near Dungarvan, County Waterford, and the Waterford man 
above-mentioned told me she haunted a road near the town. So 
strong and fierce was she that she would kill passers by at her 
caprice. She also at times jumped up on a horse's back behind 
butter kegs going to the market, and so heavy was she that she 
sometimes killed the horse. At last a priest laid her "by his 
calling," and she is now at the Red Sea making ropes of sand. 

Dublin has a copious ghost-lore, but I was unfortunately not 
much with those who could best tell me it. For this reason I 
have been obliged to pass over many tales as worthless to me 
because I know nothing of their origin, or because they are 
obviously either made or moulded by educated persons. Still, 
one fine day late in October, 1903, I walked up past Glasnevin 
Cemetery, and found a labourer leaning against the bridge over 
the Tolka. He after some time yielded me up the following two 
stories : — 

There was a house near Glasnevin supposed to be haunted. 
Some people took it, and one evening when a little girl was there 
alone a man, or woman, in white came out of a door of one of the 
rooms and blew at her. The child pined and died. The tenants 
got a priest to come and say Mass in the house, and since then it 
has been quite safe. 

He also told me that his grandfather, who lived to be over a 
hundred, said that once in his youth he knew a man named Mike 
(I am not quite certain of the name). This man had a piece of 
land near Glasnevin, and employed there a labourer named John 
Byrne, who was with him a long time. This Byrne had a 
daughter who died. Some four years after her death Mike was 
going along the road to his field, and, as he thought, passed the 
girl. He wondered, but went on. On his return he again met 
her, and said, " In the name of God, is that Maggie Byrne?''' 
" It is," said the girl. " But I thought you were dead." " I have 
been dead four years : but don't be afraid ! Take your boots off, 
turn them upside down, and stand on the nails." She then asked 
him to do for her some commission, which he never told ; and she 



34 Mr. E. J. M'Kean on 

further told him that he would be dead within twelve months. 
'And sure enough, he died on that day twelvemonth.' 

There is a belief in Dublin that to have any dealings with a 
ghost means death within the year. 

Another town of superstitions is Drogheda. There is a ghost in 
the barracks there, said to be that of the occupant of an old 
barrow on which part of the barracks is built ; and a fairy dog is 
seen in one of the streets at twelve o'clock each night. The fol- 
lowing story was given me by a servant coming from this town : 
A landlord in the neighbourhood of Drogheda, as he lay dying, 
had all his live-stock brought under the window of his room, 
where he could see them. As he died, he exclaimed, " — town, 
beautiful — town ! how can I leave you ? " After his death " his 
spirit " haunted the place for many a day. It attacked men in the 
grounds and "walloped them so that they never got over it." No 
one could live about the place, and priests were got to lay the 
ghost. The first ten or eleven priests were unsuccessful, and none 
got over their dealings with the fierce spirit. The eleventh or 
twelfth priest succeeded. When the ghost saw him, " having got 
leave to speak," he said, " You're the man for me." The priest 
got him into a " wee red house " that had been built on the hill, 
and there he remains. He was the great-grandfather of the 
present owner of — town. 

Belfast is a more modern city than any of these three places, 
yet it has its ghost stories. 

Donegall -Street has had its ghost, that of a well-known Belfast- 
man, who was seen after death walking about his office and 
sometimes coming to the window and looking out. He always 
appeared after nightfall, and was always in evening dress. 

Another ghost came every night for his horse. He was not 
seen, but at twelve o'clock each night three blasts of a horn 
were heard, the horse went out of its stable, and was afterwards 
found covered with mud. This ghost was laid by a priest, as I 
was told by an old beggarman. The priest — who was afterwards 
Roman Catliolic Bishop of Belfast — laid the ghost by long fasting 



Irish Ghost- Lore. 35 

and prayer. He fasted four days, " reading " all the time, and the 
ghost appeared to him. He then compelled the ghost to enter a 
bottle, but without saying a word to him. " The Word " was 
sufficient, says my informant. The priest then banished him in 
the bottle to the Red Sea, where he is to remain for the rest of 
his " natural life," which was explained to mean "as long as there 
were people living on the earth." 

There is said to be a tombstone in Newtownbreda Churchyard 
laid flat on a grave. This covers the bones of a man who said 
that whatever was done he would not rest quiet in his grave. His 
wife was resolved that he should, and laid a heavy stone above 
him. But the restless ghost is always struggling to escape, and, it 
is said, has already broken two tombstones, and by this time has 
succeeded in cracking a third. 

A servant girl told me that there is a ghost laid in Ballydrain 
Lake. She did not know much of the story ; but it seems this 
ghost used to appear frequently to a Roman Catholic girl who 
lived near the lake. She complained to her priest, who asked her 
where she would have it laid. She told him to lay it in the lake, 
and it was laid there. Many are afraid to pass the place after 
dark. 

From the same girl I got an account of the best known of all 
our local ghosts — James Haddock. She gave me the traditional 
account; but as she told me she got it "from a newspaper, and 
also from hearing people talk about it," I cannot be sure that the 
tradition is still current in the countryside. 

James Haddock, of Drumbeg, at his death, told his wife to 
keep his farm till his son was twenty-one, and then to hand it 
over to him. Instead the wife remarried, had a second family, 
and with them continued to live on the farm. At this Haddock 
came to a man whom he met on horseback on the road, and told 
him to tell her to do as he had desired. If she refused, the 
messenger was to tell her "that he (the ghost) would wreck the 
whole place." The ghost got up behind the rider to tell him this. 
At first the man did not go, and Haddock appeared to him 



36 Mr. E. J. APKean on Irish Ghost-Lore. 

several times, the second time " at a dinner-party, when he went 
into a room by himself." The haunted man went at last to the 
lawyers, who laughed at him and asked him for his witness, 
refusing to pay heed to the ghost. The disappointed suitor then 
went back to the ghost, who said, "They were to call him three 
times, and he would appear in court " as a witness. The triple 
call was made, and " a hand and part of an arm appeared and 
struck the table three times," so that the court shook. The 
lawyers then believed, and gave the lad the farm. The man 
went back, and the next time he met the ghost asked him if he 
was satisfied. The ghost said he was, and thanked the man 
greatly. Some one had put the man up to ask the ghost whether 
"he was happy," but the ghost told him that if it was any one 
else he would have torn him in pieces for the question. They 
have thrown down his gravestone in Drumbeg Churchyard to 
keep Haddock down, and it remains so to this day. 

In the Ulster Journ. Arch. III.,* 325, W. Pinkerton has an 
excellent article on this story, giving the tradition and also the 
old accounts from More's editions of Granvil's " Sadducisinus 
Triumphatus " and Richard Baxter's " Certainty of the World of 
Spirits." 

It will thus be seen that everywhere about us is a multitude of 
these stories. They are well worth collecting, if only for the 
dramatic nature of some of them ; but if they are collected at all 
they should be most carefully committed to paper or they are of 
no value as folklore. 



ANNUAL REPOR T, igoS. 

The Annual Meeting of the Shareholders of this Society was 
held on 14th July, in the Belfast Museum, College Square North. 
The President (Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S.) 
occupied the chair, and there were also present — Sir James 
Henderson, D.L. ; the President of Queen's College (Rev. Dr. 
Hamilton) ; Dr. Wm. Calwell ; and Messrs Robert Young, J. P. ; 
George Kidd, J. P. ; R. M. Young, B.A., J.P., M.R.I. A. (Hon. 
Secretary) ; John H. Davies ; Wm. Gray, M.R.I. A. ; Seaton F. 
Milligan, M.R.I. A. ; W. R. Rea ; Wm. Armstrong ; Joseph 
Wright, F.G.S. ; John Horner ; William Workman ; H. C. 
Montgomery ; D. A. Maxwell ; Isaac W. Ward, and Nevin H. 
Foster. An apology for inability to be present was received from 
Sir Robert Lloyd Patterson, D.L. The minutes of the last 
meeting having been read and confirmed, 

Mr. R. M. Young (Hon. Secretary) submitted the Annual 
Report, which stated : — 

The Council of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society desire to submit their Report of the Working of the 
society during the past year. The Winter Session was opened 
in the Museum on the 22nd November, 1904, when an illustra- 
ted lecture was kindly delivered by Mr Francis C. Forth, Assoc. 
R.C.Sc.L, Principal of the Belfast Municipal Technical Institute, 
on "Technical Instruction in Belfast : a Retrospect and a Prospect", 
followed by a discussion in which the President and other educa- 
tionalists took part. 

The Second Meeting was held on 19th December, 1904, 
when Mr. James Taylor kindly gave a lecture on "Stained Glass, 
Ancient and Modern," illustrated by a series of special lantern 
slides, 



38 Annual Meeting. 

The Third Meeting was held on the 3rd January, 1905, in the 
Wellington Hall, with the Lord Mayor (Sir Otto Jaffe) in the chair, 
when an illustrated lecture on " Some Results of the National 
Antarctic Expedition " was kindly given by Mr. Hartley T. Ferrar, 
B.A., F.G.S., geologist to the "Discovery" Expedition 1901-04. 

The Fourth Meeting was held on 7th February, 1905, when a 
lecture was given by Professor Gregg Wilson, D.Sc. M.R.I A. ; 
subject, "The Work of the Ulster Fisheries Association," illustra- 
ted by numerous lime-Hght views. 

The Fifth Meeting was held on 14th March, 1905, when Mr. 
Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I. A., delivered a lecture ; subject, 
"Cruise around Ireland with the Royal Society of Antiquaries, 
June, 1904," illubtrated by lantern views. 

The concluding meeting took place on 4th April, 1905, when 
the following papers were read: — (i) "Russia: Its People and 
PoHtics," by Mr. John Horner ; (2) Some Irish Ghosts," by Mr. 
E. J. M'Kean, B.A., B.L. 

There was a good attendance of the members, and of the 
general public at all these meetings. The different societies who 
hold their Meetings in the Museum continue to do so. As usual 
the public were admitted to the Museum at a nominal charge 
during the Easter Holidays, but the attendance was not as large as 
on some previous occasions, probably owing to the fine weather and 
various counter attractions. 

The Members of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 
attending the Ulster meeting in July were admitted free to the Mu- 
seum, as on the last occasion of their visit in 1892. Those visiting 
the Museum expressed their gratification at seeing such a fine col- 
lection of Irish Antiquities belonging to a provincial society as 
contained in the Benn Room, especially such recent additions as 
the recent inauguration chair of the O'Neils, and other local 
objects. In regard to the museum collections there have been no 
changes of any note to report during the past year. The assistant 
curator has been much occupied in the cleaning, re-labelling, and 
otherwise looking after the collections in the various rooms. Some 



Annual Meetins:. 



39 



valuable donations have been received during the year, especially 
a set of fine quartzite primitive implements from India presented 
by Mr. H. W. .Seton Karr. A large number of valuable publica- 
tions issued by the various scientific societiesin the United Kingdom, 
and in foreign Countries have been received. Many of these 
works are of much interest. In this connection a notable addition 
is the highly illustrated work of the American Ethnological 
Survey of the Philipines. The United States Bureau of Ethnology 
continues to send us their important publications illustrative of 
the habits and customs of the various aboriginal peoples of 
America. 

In accordance with the constitution of the Society, five members 
of council retire from office, all of whom are eligible for re-election. 
These are Mr. John Brown ; Sir James Henderson ; Mr. 
S. F. Milligan ; Mr. Robert Patterson, and Mr. William 
Swanston. 

Mr. Horner presented the financial statement, which showed 
that the total income for the year had been ^209 5s. 2d, includ- 
ing subscriptions amounting to ^97 17s, and that the expenditure 
had been ^199 2s. 5d, leaving a balance of £^\o 2s. 9d. He 
regretted to say that during the year the Easter receipts had fallen 
off nearly ;^6, which was to be expected owing to the fine weather, 
and the subscription account had been reduced by ^9 5s, princi- 
pally in annual subscribers. He would like to draw attention to 
the fact that either more annual subscribers or more members 
should be introduced for the purpose of keeping up the funds of 
the Society. 

Rev. Dr. Hamilton, in moving the adoption of the Report, 
said there was nothing very outstanding in the history of the 
Society during the year. The report was a record of plain, hard 
good work done in the interests of the objects for which the 
organisation was founded many years ago, and it was pleasant to 
them all to find that it continued to prosper. That was the second 
year during which Professor Symington had presided over the 
Society, and it was a matter of satisfaction to them all — and he 



40 



Annual Meeting. 



was sure a matter of surprise to no one who knew him — to discover 
that during those years it had not only held its ground, but had 
increased in prosperity and usefulness. He only hoped the 
president would be s xceeded by another who would maintain 
the traditions of the society as honourably as he had done, or it 
would be still better if for a third year he could be prevailed upon 
to succeed himself. The Natural History Society occupied in his 
opinion a very useful place in Belfast. It would be a pity if 
they had no such organisation to be a rallying place for those who 
were interested in the subjects which that .Society sought to look 
after, and it would be a still greater pity if the scientific worthies 
whose portraits hung on the walls of that building, who were the 
pioneers of their local scientific research — men like William 
Thompson and Robert Patterson — had no successors in these 
days when Belfast had reached a height of prosperity of which 
they in their day little dreamed. Even if the Society did almost 
no work it would be a good thing to have it there for these reasons, 
and at the same time for this additional reason — to hold up the 
torch of science before the inhabitants of their City, and to keep 
them in continual mind that men had something else to live for 
than the making of money. 

During the past winter many useful papers have been read, and 
many important discussions had been held, and he had no doubt 
a great deal of valuable information had been diffused. The 
Society's collections in zoology, geology, palaeontology, and archae- 
ology were an honour to Belfast, and ought to be more generally 
availed of than unfortunately they were. They were exceedingly 
valuable, and they would be poorer without them. They had a 
small balance to carry forward, and he hoped the public would not 
forget the appeal Mr. Horner had made for additional help. The 
only thing they required was a little more money. The Society 
was pursuing the even tenour of its way successfully and creditably, 
and he hoped it would long continue in Belfast, maintaining the 
honourable traditions of bye-gone days. 

Mr. William Gray, in seconding the motion, said he had a great 



Annual Meeting. 41 

respect for the Society, and he joined Dr. Hamilton in hoping 
that it would maintain its position for many years to come. It 
would be a disgrace to the City if it was not properly supported 
and enabled to continue its good work. There was a field open 
to the Society independent of making a collection in which they 
had been so successful up to the present, and now the time had 
come when it might be judicious to separate the two interests — 
Natural History Society proper and the collection. He did not 
think that with all the surroundings the Society could be expected 
to maintain efficiently the collection of which they had now 
charge, and there should be some effort on the part of the public 
outside to come in and relieve them to some extent of that 
responsibility. 

Mr. John H. Davies, in supporting, said it might be of interest 
to mention that when recently on a visit to Kew he met there 
some distinguished botanists, one of them being his old friend 
Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., and the latter informed him that the 
high standing of Mr. S. A. Stewart — who was so well known to 
them all — as a systematic botanist, and the value of the wide 
service he had rendered to the knowledge of Irish Botany, were 
fully recognised. When his name was brought before the 
Linntean Society for election for the distinction of associate the 
proposal was received with the utmost cordiality and approval 
and it was considered that the name of no one more worthy of 
the honour could have been submitted. He thought it would 
be gratifying to Mr. Stewart's many friends in Belfast to know that. 

The resolution was carried. 

On the motion of Mr. W. Gray, seconded by Mr. Nevin H. 
Foster, the five retiring members of the Council were re-elected — 
Sir James Henderson, and Messrs. John Brown, S. F. Milligan, 
R. Patterson, and W. Swanston. 

Sir James Henderson, in moving a vote of thanks to the 
chairman, said he wished to endorse all that the President of 
Queen's College had said regarding Professor Symington. They 
were all so pleased with the way in which he had assisted in 



42 Annual Meeting. 

carrying on the work of the Society during the past year that, 
though they could not forestall what might take place at the 
Council meeting, they would be glad if he would consent to fill 
the office for a third year. Personally he thought no man was 
more entitled to a position of that kind than Professor Symington, 
and he was very pleased indeed to see him in the chair. 

Mr. George Kidd seconded the motion, and it was heartily 
passed. 

The Chairman said he was exceedingly obliged for the manner 
in which they had shown their appreciation of any small services 
he had been able to render to the Society. It had been a matter 
of extreme regret to himself that it had not been possible for him 
to devote more time to the general interests of the organisation, 
but his other duties kept him busy, and he had not very abundant 
leisure for outside work. At the same time he thought it was the 
duty of himself and of all persons occupying similar positions to 
do everything they could to maintain that Society. It seemed to 
him, as had already been stated by the President of Queen's 
College and Mr. Gray, that it would be a disgrace to a city of the 
size and importance of Belfast if it could not support a society of 
that character. In the first place, they started with very high 
traditions. The Society had, he believed, been in existence for 
more than eighty years, and for a very considerable time it had 
possessed an extremely valuable collection of objects illustrating 
the zoology, botany, geology, and archaeology of that district. 

Then it had enabled the workers in any or all of those branches 
of knowledge to bring their views before the members and the 
public generally. 'J'hey also possessed a very valuable library. It 
was well known that while text-books of science very soon lost their 
value, the "proceedings" of learned societes in many cases increa- 
sed in value as time went on, and it was very difficult to get a 
complete set of some important journals of that kind. They had 
in their library very valuable " Proceedings," extending over long 
periods. It would be a shame if the Society could not find in 
Belfast sufficient persons interested in the subject to maintain it 



Annual Meeting:;. 43 

and to increase its reputation. Perhaps he might be pardoned for 
referring to various observations that appeared in the newspapers 
in the spring of this year with regard to the fate — not of the Society 
he was glad to say — but of its museum. He thought it should 
be clearly understood that the gentlemen who wrote to the news- 
papers did so on their own responsibility, and that they had not 
any special authority from the Council to express any views on 
that very debatable subject. He occupied the same position — he 
had no authority from the Council to express any opinion — but 
they must admit that they were surrounded now by altered 
circumstances from those which attended the earlier work of the 
Society. The city — he was not quite certain from what reason, 
whether from an innate love of the subject or in order to carry 
out some Act of Parliament^ — had undertaken to do the work that 
that Society did to some extent. He was thoroughly in sympathy 
with the idea of the city undertaking work of that kind. There 
was no doubt there were many advantages connected with the 
maintenance of museums either by Government or municipal 
authorities. At the same time, there were undoubtedly advantages 
associated with the direction of a museum by persons who had 
evinced a personal interest in the subject. He presumed that 
none of the members of the Corporation were elected for their 
knowledge of archceology or any of the sciences with which that 
Society was specially identified, though they were perhaps quite 
qualified to undertake that work. Speaking for himself, it would 
be with some reluctance, though it might be necessary, that he 
would see an extremely interesting and valuable collection passing 
out of the keeping of those specially interested in the subject. 
Then he would like, with reference to the general affairs of the 
Society, to say that it seemed to him that it would be a calamity 
for the organisation to part with its building. Some people thought 
that a Society like that should dispense not only with its museum, 
but also with its building, and trust to charity to find the members 
occasional accommodation for their meetings. He believed it was 
extremely important to the healthy life of the Society and for the 



44 



Annual Meeting. 



cultivation of the subjects in wliich they were interested that they 
should have a building of their own. Whatever might be the fate 
of their museum, it was essential that for the continued success of 
that Society a larger number of their citizens should take a more 
active interest in the organisation. Fifty years ago there were 
probably a larger number interested in the Society than at the 
present time and it said very little for their advance in civilisation 
and their improved methods of education if a society of that kind 
was as successful half a century ago as it was to-day. They ought 
to have a very much larger membership and to be engaged very 
much more actively in the work of the Society. He trusted all 
the members present would do their best to induce others to join. 
Whatever might be in store in the future, they had in the mean- 
time to keep the Society going and to add to their collection, as 
well as to preserve the specimens they had, and they could not do 
that unless they were adequately supported. He had felt that he 
should be relieved of the duties of president, but if it was the 
wish of the Council and the Society generally that he should 
continue in office for another year he would be very happy to do 
his best for them. 

The Proceedings then terminated. 

A meeting of the Council was subsequently held, with the 
President of the Queen's College (Rev. Dr. Hamilton) in the chair. 

On the motion of the Chairman, seconded by Sir James 
Henderson, Professor Symington was unanimously re-elected 
President for the ensuing year, and he kindly consented to accept 
the position. 

The other office-bearers appointed were — Vice-Presidents, the 
Presid<;nt of Queen's College (Rev. Dr. Hamilton), Sir James 
Henderson, M.A., D.L. ; Sir R. Lloyd Patterson, D.L., F.L.S., 
and Mr. W. Swanston, F.G.S. ; Honorary Treasurer, Mr. John 
Horner ; Honorary Librarian, Mr. John H. Davies ; Honorary 
Secretary, Mr. Robert M. Young, B.A., J.P., M.R.LA. 





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46 

DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, 1904-1905. 



From Mr. W. Seton Karr, M.P. 
Thirty-three quartzite implements from Cuddapah, India. 

From Mr. William Parr. 
An ancient Greek coin found near Ligoniel, Belfast. 

From Rey. W. C. Cunningham, Ballyrashane. 
A beggar's badge of Dunluce. 

From Mr. John Brown, F.R.S. 
A specimen of the shell of Tellina balthica found, sub fossil, in 
esker gravels, near Dunmurry. 

From Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S. 
A microscope slide of a spicule of Synapta, a rare Holothurian 
from Lias clay at Gloucester, England. 

From Mr. Thomas Nolan Murray, Hon. Sec. Ulster 
Amateur Photographic Society. 
A photograph of the gigantic plant, Giinnera manicata, which is 
growing at Narrowater, Co. Down. 

From Rev. Canon Bristow. 
Thirty-six cameos and two agates. 

From Mr. J. H. MacIlwaine. 
A tomtit's nest and eggs found in the heart of a large tree when 
sawn open. 

From Mr. Quinton Dunlop. 
Letters patent, dated 1869, and massive seal attached thereto. 

From Mr. W. Guiney. 
A cast of the shell of a fossil Pecten, from Malta. 



47 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, ist MAY, 1904, till 
1ST MAY', 1905. 



Adelaide. — Transactions of the Royal Society of South 

Australia. Vol. 28, 1904. The Society. 

Basel. — Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 
Basel. Vol. 15, part 3, and vol. 17, 1904. 

The Society. 
Belfast. — Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' 
Field Club. Sen 2, vol. 5, part 3, 1904. 

The Society. 
Bergen. — -Bergens Museum Aarsberetning for 1903 and 1904. 
Aarbog, parts, i — 3, 1904. Also Account of the 
Crustacea of Norway, vol. 5, parts 3 — 6, 1904, 
and parts 7 and 8, 1905. 

The Director of the Aluseiim. 
Birmingham. — -Records of Meteorological Observations for 1904. 

Birmingham and Midland Itistitute. 
Bologna, — Rendiconto della R. Accademia delle Scienze. New 

ser., vol. 4, 1904. The Academy. 

Boulder.— University of Colorado College Studies. Vol. 2, 

Nos. I — 3, 1904. The University. 

Breslau. — Zeitschrift fiir Entomologie vom Verein fiir Sclessiche 
Insektenkunde. New ser. part 29, 1904. 

The Society. 
Brighton. — Abstract of Papers and Annual Report of Brighton 
and Hove Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, 1904. The Society. • 

Brooklyn. — Memoirs of Art and Archaeology. Vol. i, Nos. i 
and 2, 1902, and No. 4, 1904 : also Memoirs of 
Natural Sciences. Vol. i. No. i, 1904. 

Brooklyn Institute. 



48 

Brussels. — Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique. Vol. 41, part 3, 1904. 

The Society. 

„ Annales de la Societie Entomologique de Belgique. 

Vol. 47, 1903, and 48, 1904. T/?e Society. 

„ Annales de la Societie Royale Zoologique et Mala- 

cologique de Belgique. Vol. 38, 1903. 

The Society. 
Buenos Ayres. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 

Ser. 3, vol. 2, 1903. The Director. 

Calcutta. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. 
32, part 4, 1904, vol. 35, part 3, 1904, and vol. 36, 
part I, 1904. Palffiontologia Indica, ser. 15, vol. 
4 (one part only), 1903. Records of the 
Geological Survey of India. Vol. 31, parts 1—4, 
1904, and vol. 32, part i, 1905. 

The Director. 
Cambridge." — Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 
Vol. 12, part 6, 1904, and vol. 13, part i, 1905. 

The Society. 
Cambridge, Mass. — Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Anatomy. Vol. 39, No. 9, 1904; vol. 43, Nos. 2 
and 3, 1904; vol. 44, 1904; vol. 45, Nos. 2 — 4, 
1904, and vol. 46, Nos.. i and 2, 1904. 

The Keeper of the Musaun. 
Cardiff. — Transactions of the Cardiff Naturalists' Society. Vol. 

36, 1903. The Society. 

Christiania. — Forhandlingar i Videnskaps-Selskabet i Christiania, 
1903. Den Norske Sindssygelovgivning Fore- 
lesninger, i 901. 

Royal Norske Frederiks University. 
Colorado Springs. — Colorado College Studies. Vol. 12, Nos. 

15— 17> 1904- 

Colorado College Scientific Society. 



49 

Dantzic. — -Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig 

New Series, vol. ii, parts i and 2, 1904; also 

Library Catalogue, 1904. Thi Society. 

Dublin. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey — the Geology of the 

country around Belfast, 1904. The Survey. 

Edinburgh. — Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 22, parts i, 1901, 

2, 1903. 3) 1904, and part 4, 1905. 

The Society. 
„ Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. Vol.15, 

No. 2, 1904; vol. 16, No. I, 1904, and No. 2, 

1905. The Society. 

Emden. — Jahresbericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in 

Emden, 1904. The Society. 

Genoa. — Rivista Ligure. Vol. 26, fasc. 2 — 6, 1904, and vol. 27, 

fasc. I, 1905. 

Societa Letture e Conversazione Scieiitifiche. 
Glasgow. — Transactions of the Natural History Society of 

Glasgow. New sen, vol. 6, part 3, 1905. 
„ Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of 

Glasgow. Vol. 35, 1904. The Society. 

GoRLiTZ. — Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu 

GorHtz. Vol. 24, 1904. The Society. 

Iglo. — Jahrbuch des Ungarischen Karpathen Vereines, 31st year, 

1904. The Society. 

Indianopolis — Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences. 

Volumes for 1902 and 1903. The Academy. 
Kharkow. — Transactions of the Society for Physico Chimiques 

of Kharkow University, No. 31, with two 

Supplements, 1903. The Society. 

KiEw. — Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of Kieff. Vol. 18,, 

1904, and vol. 19, 1905. The Society. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences 

Naturelles. Vol. 40, Nos. 147 — 151, 1904. 

The Society. 



5° 

LwvRENCE. — Bulletin of the University of Kansas. Vol. 2 No. 7 
1 901, and vol. 4, Nos. 6 and 8, 1903. 

The University. 
Lkipsic. — Mitteilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig. 
Part I, 1903. The Society. 

„ Sitzungsberichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu 

Leipzig. 28th and 29th years, 1901 and 1902. 

The Society. 
Lima. — Boletin del Cuerpo de Ligenieros de Minas del Peru. 
Nos. 4 and 5, 1903, 6 — 18, 1904, and No. 19, 
1905. The Director. 

London. — Report of the Southport Meeting of the British 
Association, 1903. The Association. 

„ Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical vSociety. Vo^l. 

54, and 5 appendices, 190 1-4, vol. 55, ana' 
appendix, 1904. The Society. 

„ Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 

Vol. 60, Nos. 237 — 240, 1904, and vol. 61, No. 
241, 1905 ; also Geological Literature for 1903, 
and List of Fellows, 1904. The Society. 

„ Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, parts 3 — 6, 

1904, and parts i and 2, 1905. The Society. 
„ Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 

Vol. 17, part 3, 1904. Proceedings, vol. i, parts 
I and 2, 1904, and vol. 2, part i, 1904, also List 
of Fellows for 1904. The Society. 

„ Guide to the Fossil Mammals and Birds in the British 

Museum . 8th ed., 1904. Guide to the Gallery 
of Birds, 1905, and pamphlets on Diptera and 
Blood Sucking Flies. 

The Trustees of the British Museum. 
Madison. — Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters. Vol. 13, part 2, 1902, and 
vol. 14, part I, 1903. The Academy. 



51 

Madison. — Bulletin of Wisconsin Geological and Natural History 
Survey. Nos. ii and 12, 1903. 

The Commissioners of the Survey. 
Madras. — Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum. Vol. 5, 
No. I, 1903, and Administration Report, 1904. 
The Stiperintendent. 
Manchester. — Journal of Manchester Geographical Society. 
"A^ol. 19, Nos. 4 — 12, 1903, and vol. 20, Nos. 
I — 3, 1904. The Society. 

„ Transactions of Manchester Geological and Mining 

Society. Vol. 28, Nos. 13 — 15, 1904. 

The Society. 
Marseilles.— Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Marseille. 

Vol. 14, 1904. The Librarian. 

Melbourne. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 
New ser., vol. 17, part i, 1904, and part 2, 1905. 

The Society. 
Mexico. — Anuario del Observatorio Astronomico de Tacubaya. 
Ano 25, 1904. Boletin Mensual del Observatorio 
Meteorologico de Mexico. No. 3 and Nos. 6 — 8, 
1902. The Director. 

„ Parergones del Instituto Geologico de Mexico. Vol. i, 

Nos. 2- — 6, 1904. ■ The Institute. 

Milwaukee. — Twenty-second Annual Report of the Trustees of 
Milwaukee Public Museum, 1904. 

The Trustees. 
Missoula. — Bulletin of the University of Montana. Nos. 21 — 23, 
1904, and Biological Series, No. 5, 1903, and 
No. 7, 1904. The University. 
Montevideo. — Anales del Museo Nacional de Montevideo. 
Ser. 2, part i, 1904. Section Historico Filosofica,, 
Vol. I, 1904. The Director. 
Morelia. — Relacion de los Ceremonias y Ritos y Poblacion y 
Gobernacion de los Indios de la Provincia de 
Mechuacan. 



52 

Moscow. — Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Naturalists of 
Moscow. No. 4, 1903, and Nos. 2 — 4, 1904. 

The Society. 
Nantes. — Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de 
rOuest de la France. Ser. 2, vol. 3, Nos. 3 and 4, 
1903, and vol. 4, Nos. i and 2, 1904. 

TJie Society. 
New York. — Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
Vol. 14, part 4, and vol. 15, parts 2 and 3, 1904. 

The Acadetny. 
„ Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

Vol. 36, Nos. 3 — 12, 1904, and vol. 37, Nos. r 
and 3, 1905. The Society. 

Odessa.— Memoirs of the Society of Naturalists of New Russia. 
Vol. 25, part I, 1903, part 2, 1904, vol. 26, 1904, 
and vol. 27, 1905. The Society. 

Oporto. — Annaes de Sciencias Naturaes. Vol. 8, 1903. 

Sefior Augusta Nobre. 
Ottawa. — Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology, part 3, 1904. 
Canadian Birds, part 3, 1904, and also Dictionary 
of Altitudes in Canada, 1903. 
The Director of the Canadian Geological and Natural 
History Survey. 
Padua. — Atti della Accademia Scientifica Veneto-Trentina- 
Istriana. New ser., Anno i, fasc. i and 2, 1904. 

The Academy. 
Philadelphia, — Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences. Vols. 65 and 66, 1904. 

The Academy. 
„ Proceedings of the American Philosophical 

Society. Vol. 40, No. 167, 1901, and vol. 43, 
Nos. 175 and 176, 1904. The Society. 

Pisa. — Atti della Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Processa 
Verbali. Vol. 14, Nos. 3 — 5, 1904. 

The Society, 



53 

Rennes. — Travaux Scientifiques de I'Universite de Rennes. 
Vol. 2, 1903. The University. 

Rio de Janeiro. — Archivos do Museo National do Rio de 
Janeiro. Vol. 10, 1899, vol. 11, 1901, and 
vol. 12, 1902. The Director of the Miesemn. 

Rome. — Journal of the British and American Archaeological 
Society of Rome. Vol. 3, No. 6, 1904. 

The Society. 
„ Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Ser. 5, vol. 13, 
semestre i, fasc. 7 — 12, 1904; semestre 2, fasc. 
I — 12, 1904; vol. 14, semestre i, fasc. i — 7, 
1905, and Rendiconto Adunanza Solenne, 5 June, 
1904. The Academy. 

, Bollettino della Societa Zoologico Italiana. Vol. 5, fasc. 
I — 8, 1904, and vol. 6, fasc. i — 3, 1905. 

The Society. 

St. Louis.— Fifteenth Annual Report of Missouri Botanical 
Garden, 1904. The Director. 

Stavanger.- — Stavanger Museums Aarshefte. Fourteenth year, 
1904. The Mifsetim Trustees. 

Stirling. — Transactions of Stirling Natural History and Archseo- 
logical Society, 1904. The Society. 

Stockholm. — Kungl Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Hand- 
lingar. Vol. 37, Nos. 3 and 4, 1903, and Nos. 7 
and 8, 1904 ; vol. 38, Nos. 1—5, 1904. Arkiv 
for Botanik, vol. i, part 4; vol. 2, parts i^ — 4, 
and vol. 3, parts i — 4, 1904. Also Arkiv for 
Matematik, Astronomi, och Fysick, vol. i, parts 3 
and 4, 1904. Arkiv for Mineralologi, Kemi, och 
Geologi, vol. I, parts 3 and 4, 1904. Arkiv for 
Zoologi, vol. I, parts 3 and 4, 1904, and vol. 2, 
parts I and 2, 1904, and Arsbok, for 1904. Also 
Les Prix Nobel, 1901-1904. The Academy. 

Sydney. — Science of Man. Vol. 7, Nos. 2 — 7, 1904. 

The Anthropological Society of Australasia. 



54 

Tokyo. — Mittielungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur und 
Heilkunde Ostasien. Vol. lo, part, i, and 
Supplement, 1904. The Society. 

Toronto. — Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Vol. 7, part 
3, and Proceedings, vol. 11, 1904. 

The Instihite. 
Vienna. — Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Geolog- 
ischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 5 — 18, 1904, and 
Nos. I and 2, 1905. The Society. 

,, Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoologisch- 

Botanischen Gesellschaft. Vol. 44, 1904. 

The Society. 
Washington. — Year Book of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903. 
„ Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, Nos. 80 — 87, 

1903. Professional Paper, No. 9, 1903, No. 10, 
1902, and Nos. 13 — 15, 1903. 

The Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
„ Twentieth Annual Report of the Bureau of 

American Ethnology, 1903. 

The Director of the Bureau, 
,, Report of the United States National Museum 

for 1902, and Proceedings, vol. 27, 1904, also 
Special Bulletin. American Hydroids, part 2, 

1904. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 
Vol. 45, parts I — 4, 1904; vol. 47, i, 1904; 
No. 1,374, 1903, and Nos. 1,417, 1,441, 1,543, 
and 1,544, 1904. 

The S7nithsonian Instittition. 
York. — Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 

for 1903. The Society. 

Zurich. — Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturfoschenden Gesellschaft in 
Zurich, 94th year, parts i and 2, 1904. 

The Society. 



55 

J'rom The Author, Mons. Charles Janet, Limogp:.s. — 
Observations sur Guepes, 1903. Observations 
sur les Fourmis, 1904. Anatomic du Gaster de 
la Myrmica rubra, and seven other of his 
Zoological Papers, 1 894-1 899. 

I<rom Professor Rupert Jones, F.R.S. — His Paper on the 
Estheriella Shales of the Maylay Peninsula ; also 
Paper on some Palsezoic Ostracoda from Mary- 
land. 

From Mons. Emile Boulanger. — Germination de I'Ascospares 
de la Truffe, 1903. 



BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY 
AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Officers and Council of Managemetit for igoj-igo6. 

Iprc0(&ent : 

PROFESSOR JOHNSON SYMINGTON, m.d., f.r.s., f.r.s.e. 



DiceslpresiDents 

REV. T. HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d 
SIR R. LLOYD PATTERSON, 

F.L.S. 



SIR JAMES HENDERSON, 

A.M., D.L., J.P. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 



1f>on. C^reasurer : 

JOHN HORNER. 

Ibon. ILibraiian : 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

Ibon. Secretary : 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, b.a., j.r., m.r.i.a. 

Council : 

JOHN BROWN, F.R.S. 

JOHN H. DAVIES. 

REV. THOMAS HAMILTON, d.d., ll.d., president q.c.b. 

SIR JAMES HENDERSON, d.l., j.p., a.m. 

JOHN HORNER. 

SEATON F. MILLIGAN, m.r.i.a. 

PROFESSOR W. B. MORTON, m.a. 

SIR ROBERT LLOYD PATTERSON, D L., f.l.s. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, m.r.i.a. 

W. H. F. PATTERSON. 

WM. SWANSTON, f.g.s. 

PROFESSOR JOHNSON SYMINGTON, m.d., f.r.s. 

PROFESSOR GREGG WILSON, d.sc, m.r.i.a. 

ROBERT YOUNG, c.e., j.p. 

ROBERT M. YOUNG, h.a., j.p., m.r.i.a. 



SHAREHOLDERS. 

^Denotes holders of three or more Shares?\ 

*Alexander, Francis, b.e., Belfast 

Allworthy, S.W., M.D., Manor House, Antrim Road, do. 

*Anderson, John, j.p., f.g.s.. East Hillbrook, Holywood, Co. Down 

Andrew, John J., l.d.s., r.c.s.kng., University Square, Belfast 

Andrews, Miss Elizabeth, College Gardens, do. 

Andrews, George, j.p., Ardoyne, do. 

Armstrong, Thomas, jun., Donegall Square West, do. 

Armstrong, William, Chichester Gardens, do. 

Baird, Wm., Royal Avenue, do. 

Barbour, James, J.P., Ardville, Marino, Holywood, Co. Down 

Beattie, Rev. A. Hamilton, Portglenone, Co. Antrim 

Bigger, Francis J., m.r.i.a., Ardrie, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Bowman, Davys, Holyrood, Malone Road (Representatives of) do. 
Boyd, William, Great Victoria Street, do. 

*Boyd, J. Sinclair, m.d., Chatsworth, Malone Road, do. 

Braddell, Edward, Parkfield, Park Road, Ipswich 

Brett, Charles H., Gretton Villa South, Malone Road, Belfast 

Brett, John H., c.e., Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Biistow, James R., Prospect, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Bristow, John, Wellington Place, Belfast 

Brown, John, f.r.s., a.m.i.e.e., Longhurst, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 
Brown, William K. (Representatives of), Belfast 

Bulloch, Alexander, Eversleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Burrowes, W. B., Ballynafeigh House, do. 

Byers, Prof. John W., m.a., m.d.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Calwell, Alex. M'D., do. 

Calwell, William, m.a., m.d., College Square North, do. 

*Campbell, Miss Anna (Representatives of), do. 



58 Shareholders. 

Carr, A. H. R., Waring Street, Belfast 

Carson, John, Walmer Terrace, Holy wood, Co. Down 

*Charley, Phineas H., Mornington Park, Bangor, do. 

*Christen, Mrs. Rodolphe, St. Imier, Brig o' Gairn, Ballater, N.B. 
Clark, George S., Dunlambert, Belfast 

Clarke, E. H., Notting Hill, do. 

Coates, Victor, j.p., d.l., Rathmore, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Connor, Charles C, m.a., j.p., Queen's Elms, Belfast 

Combe, George, Cranethorpe, Strandtown, do. 

Crawford, William, j.p.. Mount Randal, do. 

Crawford, William, Calendar Street, do. 

Craig, Edwin E., Craigavon, Strandtown, do. 

Davies, John H., Lenaderg House, Banbridge, Co. Down 

*Deramore, Lord, d.l. (Representatives of). 

Dixon, Professor, m.a., sc.d., f.r.s., f.r.u.i., Almora, 

Myrtlefield Park, Belfast 

Dods, Robert, b.a., j.p., St. Leonard's, Newcastle, Co. Down 

*Donegall, Marquis of (Representatives of), Belfast 

*Downshire, Marquis of (Representatives of). 

The Castle, Hillsborough, Co. Down 

Duffin, Adam, ll.d., Dunowen, Cliftonville, Belfast 

Dunleath, Lord, Ballywalter Park 

(Representatives of), Ballywalter, Co. Down 

Ewart, G. Herbert, m.a., Firmount, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Ewart, Fred. W., m.a., b.l., Derryvolgie, Lisburn 
Ewart, Sir Wm. Quartus, Bart., m.a., j.p., d.l., 

Glenmachan House, Belfast 

Faren, ^Vm., Mountcharles, do. 

*Fenton, Francis G., Paris 

Ferguson, Godfrey W., c.e., Dunedin, Antrim Road, Belfast 

Finlay, Fred. W., j.p., Wolf hill House, Ligoniel, do. 

Finlay, Robert H. F., Cavehill Road, do. 



Shareholders. 59 

Finnegan, John, b.a., b.sc, Kelvin House, Botanic Avenue, Belfast 
FitzGerald, Professor Maurice F., k.a., m.i.m.e., Assoc. 

M.I.C.E., Eglantine Avenue, do. 

Foster, Nevin Harkness, Hillsborough, Co. Down 

Getty, Edmund (Representatives of), Belfast 

Gibson, Andrew, f.r.s.a.i., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Girdwood, H. M., Broughton Flax Mills, Manchester 

Gordon, Malcolm, Hilden, Lisburn 

Grainger, Rev. Canon, d.d., m.r.i.a. 

(Representatives of), Broughshane, Co. Antrim 

Gray, William, m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a.i., Glenburn Park, 

Cavehill Road, Belfast 

Greer, Thomas, j.p., m.r.i.a., Seapark, Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim 

*Hall, Frederick H., Waterford 

Hamilton, Rev. Thomas, d.d., ll.d.. President, Queen's 

College, Belfast 

*Hamilton, Hill, j.p. (Representatives of), do. 

Harland, W. m.a., Eaton Terrace, London, W. 

Henderson, Sir James, a.m., j.p., d.l., Oakley, Windsor Park, Belfast 
Henderson, Mrs. Charlotte (Representatives of), Clarges 

Street, London 

Henry, R. M., m.a., Belfast 

Herdman, John, j.p., d.l., Carricklee House (Representatives 

of), Strabane 

*Herdman, Robert Ernest, j.p., Rosavo, Cultra, Co. Down 

Heyn, James A. M., Strandtown House, Belfast 

Hind, John, junr., Clifton Park Avenue, do. 

Hodges, Miss do. 

Hogg, John, x\cademy Street, do. 

Horner, John, Chelsea, Antrim Road, do. 

*Houston, John Blakiston, j.p., v.l., Orangefield, do. 

*Hughes, Edwin, j.p., Dalchoolin, Craigavad, Co. Down 

Hyndman, Hugh, ll.d., Windsor (Representatives of), Belfast 



6o Shareholders. 

Inglis, James, j.p., Merrion Square East, Dublin 

Jackson, A. T., C.E., Tighnabruaich, Derryvolgie Avenue, Belfast 
Jaffe, Sir Otto, j.p., Kin Edar, Strandtown, do. 

Johnston, Samuel A., j.p., Dalriada, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim 

Kennedy, Mrs. Amelia, Dalguise, Monkstown, Dublin 

Kertland, Edwin H., Chlorine Gardens, Belfast 

Kidd, George, j.p., Lisnatore, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

*Kinghan, John R., Altoona, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Kinnaird, George Y., Malone Park, do. 

Kyle, Robert Alexander, Donegall Place, do. 

Lanyon, Mrs., Lisbreen, Fortwilliam Park, do. 

Larmor, Joseph, ini.a., d.sc, ll.d., f.r.a.s., f.r.u.i., sec.r.s., 

St. John's College, Cambridge 

Leathem, R. R., m.d., Belgravia, Lisburn Road, Belfast 

Lemon, Archibald Dunlop, j.p., Edgecumbe, Strandtown, do. 
Lepper, F. R., j.p., Elsinore, Carnalea, Co. Down 

Letts, Professor E. A., ph.d., f.c.s., Shirley Lodge, Cultra, do. 
Lindsay, Professor James A., m.a., m.d.. College Sqr. East, Belfast 
Lytle, David B., j.p., Bloomfield House (Representatives of), do. 
Lytle, Joseph H., j.p., Ashleigh, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Macassey, L. Livingstone, b.l., m.i.c.e., St. Clair, Windsor Av., do. 

Mackenzie, John, c.E., 412 Lisburn Road, do. 

*Macrory, A. J. (Representatives of), do. 

Magill, J. E., Easton Terrace, Cliftonville, do. 
Malcolm, Bowman, m.i.c.e.. m.i.m.e., Ashley Park, 

Antrim Road, do. 
Maxton, James, m.i.n.a., m.i.mar.e., Kirkliston Drive, 

Bloomfield, do. 

Maxwell, David A., College Gardens, do. 

Mayes, William, Drumcairn, Deramore Park, do 

Milligan, Alexander H., do. 



Shareholders. 6i 

Milligan, Seaton Forest, .m.r.i.a., f.r.s.a.i., Bangor, Co. Down 
Mitchell, Robert A, ll.p,.,t.c.d., Marmont, Strandtown, Belfast 
Montgomery, Henry C, Craigavad, Co. Down 

Montgomery, H. H., Strandtown, Belfast 

Montgomery, Thomas, j.p., d.l., Ballydrain 

House, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Moore, James, The Finaghy, Belfast 

Morton, Professor W. B., m.a., f.r.u.l, Nottinghill, do. 

Muir, A. H., Scottish Provident Buildings, do. 

Mullan, William, Lindisfarne, Marlborough Park, do. 

Murney, Henry, m.d., j.p., Tudor House, Holywood, Co. Down 
* Murphy, Isaac James (Representatives of), Armagh 

*Murphy, Joseph John (Representatives of), Belfast 

Musgrave, Edgar, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

^Musgrave, Henry, Drumglass, Malone, do. 

Musgrave, Sir James, Bart., d.l., Drumglass, Malone 

(Representatives of), do. 

MacAdam, Robert (Representatives of), do. 

M'Bride, Henry James, j.p., Hyde Park, Mallusk, do. 

M 'Bride, Samuel, Edgehill, Lennoxvale, do. 

*M'Calmont, Robert (Representatives of), London 

*M'Cammon, Thos. P., Plaisted, Woodville, Holywood, Co. Down 
M'Cance, Miss Charlotte Georgianna, Larkfield 

(Representatives of), Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

MacColl, Hector, Kirkliston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast 

MacCormac, John M., m.d., Victoria Place, do. 

M'Cormick, Hugh M'Neile, Cultra House, Holywood, Co. Down 
*M'Cracken, Francis (Representatives of). 

M'Gee, James, Woodville, Holywood, do. 

Macllwaine, John H., Mornington Park, Bangor, do. 

M'Kisack, H. L., iM.u., University Square, Belfast 

*MacLaine, Alexander, j.p., Queen's Elms, do. 

M'Neill, George, Beechleigh, Malone Road, do. 

Neill, Sharman D., Martello Terrace, Holywood, Co. Down 



62 Shareholders. 

Nicholson, Henry J., Bedford Street, Belfast 

O'Neill, James, m.a.. College Square East (Representatives of), do. 
*0'Rorke, Mrs., Dunratho, Craigavad, Co. Down 

Orr, Hugh L., Charnwood Avenue, Belfast 

Orr, Rev. R. J., Fitzroy Avenue, do. 

Park, Rev. Wm., m.a., Garthowen, Sans Souci Park, do. 

Patterson, Edward Ferrar, Ballyholme Road, Bangor, Co. Down 
Patterson, Mrs. Isabelle, Bonn, Germany 

Patterson, John, Dunallan, Windsor Avenue, Belfast 

Patterson, Richard, j.p., Kilmore, Holy wood, Co. Down 

*Patterson, Sir Robert Lloyd, j.p., d.l., f.l.s., 

Croft House, do. do. 

Patterson, Robert, m.r.i.a., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., 

St. Clare, do. do. 

Patterson, William H., m.r.i.a., Garranard, Strandtown, Belfast 
Patterson, William H. F., Stalheim, Knock, do. 

Pim, Edward W., j.p., Elmwood Terrace, do. 

Pirn, Joshua, Slieve-na-Failthe, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e., b.a., m.r.i.a.. National Library, Dublin 

Rea, John Henry, m.d., University Street 

(Representatives of), Belfast 

Rea, William R., Abbeylands, \\'hiteabbey, do. 
Reade, Robert H. S., j.p., d.l., Wilmont, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Riddell, Samuel, Beechpark (Representatives of), Belfast 

Robertson, William, j.p., (Representatives of), do. 

Robinson, John, Sydenham Road, do. 

Scott, R. Taylor, Richmond Villa, Derryvolgie Avenue, do. 
Sheldon, Charles, m.a., d.lit., b.sc. Royal Academical 

Institution, do. 

ShiUington, Thos. Foulkes, j.p., Dromart, Antrim Road, do. 

Simms, FeUx Booth, Queen Street, do. 



Shareholders. 63 

Sinclair, Right Hon. Thomas, m.a., j.p., d.l., Hopefield, Belfast 
Sinclair, Prof. Thomas, m.d., f.r.c.s.eng., University Square, do. 
Smith, John, c.E., Castleton Terrace, do. 

Smyth, John, im.a., c.e., Milltown, Banbridge, Co. Down 

Spears, Adam, b.sc, Riversdale, Holywood, do. 

Steen, William C, m.d., Laleham Corner Lower, North 

Down Road, Margate 

Steen, William, b.l.. Northern Bank, Victoria Street, Belfast 

Stelfox, James, Oakleigh, Ormeau Park, do. 

Swanston, William, f.g.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Symington, Prof. Johnson, m.d., f.r.s., f.r.s.e., Queen's 

College, do. 

*Tennent, Robert (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

*Tennent, Robert James (Representatives of), Rushpark, do. 

Torrens, T. H., j.p., Wellington Place, do. 

*Turnley, John (Representatives of), do. 

Walkington, Miss Jane A., Sefton Park, Liverpool 

Walkington, Thomas R., Edenvale, Strandtown, Belfast 

Wallace, John, Chlorine Gardens, Malone Road, do. 

Ward, Isaac W., Camden Street, do. 

Ward, John, j.p., f.s.a., Lennoxvale, Malone Road, do. 

*Webb, Richard T., Kensington Villa, Knock Avenue Road, do. 
Whitla, Prof. Sir William, m.d., j.p.. College Square North, do. 
Wilson, Prof. Gregg, m.a., ph.d., d.sc, m.r.i.a.. Queen's 

College, do. 

Wilson, James, m.f;., Oldforge, Dunmurry, Co. Antrim 

Wilson, John K., j.r., Donegall Street, Belfast 

*Wilson, Walter H., Belvoir Park (Representatives of), do. 

*Wilson, W. Perceval, do, 

*Wolff, G. M'., J. p., M.P., The Den, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, Francis, The Moat, Strandtown, do. 

Workman, John, j.p., Lismore, Windsor, do. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, im.a., Rubane House, Glastry, Co. Down 



64 Shareholders. 

Workman, Rev. Robert, m.a., d.d., The Manse, 

Newtownbreda, Co. Down 

*Workman, Thomas, j.p. (Representatives of), 

Craigdarragh, Craigavad, do. 

Workman, WilHam, Nottinghill, Belfast 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 

Young, Robert, C.E., j.p., Rathvarna, do. 

*Young, Robert Magill, b.a., j.p., m.r.i.a., Rathvarna, do. 



Annual Subscribers. 65 

HONORARY ASSOCIATES. 

Gray, William, ri.r.i.a., Glenburn Park, Belfast 

Stewart, Samuel Alex., f.b.s.edin., a.l.s., Belfast Museum, do. 
Swanston, William, f.o.s., Cliftonville Avenue, do. 

Wright, Joseph, f.g.s., Alfred Street, do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Belfast Banking Company, Ltd., Belfast 

Northern Banking Company, Ltd., do. 

Ulster Bank, Ltd., do. 

York Street Spinning Company, Ltd., do. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Allan, C. E., Stormont Castle, Dundonald, Co. Down 

Boyd, John, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast 
Brown, G. Herbert, j.p., Tordeevra, Helen's Bay, Co. Down 

Bruce, James, d.l., j.p., Thorndale House, Belfast 

Carr, James, Rathowen, Windsor, do. 

Fulton, G. F., Howard Street, do. 

Gamble, James, Royal Terrace, do. 

Hanna, J. A., j.p.. Marietta, Knock, do. 

Hazelton, W. D., Cliftonville, do. 

Higginbotham, Granby, Wellington Park, do. 

Hutton, A. W., Chichester Street, do. 

Lynn, William H., Crumlin Terrace, do. 

M'Laughlin, W. H., Macedon, do. 

Parr, William, St. Mark's, Ballysillan, do., 

Redfern, Prof. Peter, m.d., f.r.c.s.i.. Lower Crescent, do. 

Scott, Conway, C.E., Annaville, Windsor Avenue, do. 

Swiney, J. H. H., b.a., b.e., Bella Vista, Antrim Road, do. 

Thompson, John, j.p.. Mount Collyer, do. 



eprt and ^ra^cciliujgjj 



BE LF.A-ST 



Natural Historf and Philosophical Society 



SESSionsr isos-isoe. 



BELFAST: 
PRINTED BY MAYNE & BOYD, 2 CORPORATION STKEET. 

(PKINTERS TO QUBEN's CoLLEGK.) 



1906. 



CONTENTS. 



Belfast Civic Undertakings — Arthur H. Muir, C.A. 

On Prehistoric Man in Southern France — W. P. De \'ismes Kane 

M.A., D.L., M.R.I.A. ... 

Ulster Sayings and Folk-lore— Professor Byers, M.A. , M.D. 

With the British Association in Africa^John Brown, F.R.S. 

Magic in the Greek and Roman World — R. M. Henry, M.A. 

Report of the Work of the Marine Laboratory, Larue Harbour — Professor 

Gregg Wilson, D.Sc, M.R.LA. 

The Teleautograph \ ^ ^ ^^^^^. ^j_j j, ^^ g^ A.M.LE.E 
Frahm s Indicator ) 

Annual Report 

Balance Sheet 

Donations to Museum .. 

Additions to Library 

List of Office-Bearers ... 

List of Shareholders 



PAGE 

I 

14 
17 
19 
33 

36 

38 

39 
46 

47 
48 

57 
58 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 



EST-A.BLISHEJID leSl. 



CONSTITUTION. 

The membership of the Society consists of Shareholders in the Museum, 
Annual Subscribers (Associates), Honorary Members and Honorary Associates. 

Shares in the Museum cost £"] each. A holder of one Share pays an 
annual contribution of ten shillings ; a holder of two Shares (in one certificate) 
an annual contribution of five shillings ; while a holder of three or more Shares 
(in one certificate) is exempt from annual payments. Shares on which the 
annual payment as above are in arrear are liable to forfeiture. The Council 
retain the right to decline to consolidate two or more share certificates into one 
certificate. 

Annual Subscribers (Associates) pay £,\ is (one guinea) due ist November 
in each year in advance. 

A General Meeting of Shareholders in the Museum is held annually in 
May or June, or as soon thereafter as convenient, to receive the Report of the 
Council and the Statement of Accounts for the preceding year, to elect 
members of Council to replace those retiring by rotation or from other reasons, 
and to transact any other business incidental to an annual meeting. Share- 
holders only are eligible for election on the Council. 

The Council elect, from among their own number, a President and other 
officers of the Society. 

Each Member has the right of personal attendance at the ordinary lectures 
of the Society, and has the privilege of introducing two friends for admission 
to such ; and he has also the right of access to the Museum and Library for 
himself and family residing under his roof, with the privilege of granting 
admission orders for inspecting the collections in the Museum to any person not 
residing in Belfast or within five miles thereof. The session for lectures 
extends from November till May. 

The Museum, College Square North, is open daily for the admission of 
visitors, for such hours as the Council may from time to time decide ; the 
charge for admission to non-members is sixpence each. The Curator is in 
constant attendance, and will take charge of any donation kindly presented to 
the Museum or Librrry. 

Any further informatiou required may be obtained from the Honorary 
Secretary. 



B BELFAST 

NATURAL HISTORY 
AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

SESSION 1905-6. 



Jth November, igo^. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
in the chair. 



BELFAST CIVIC UNDERTAKINGS. 

By Arthur H. Muir, C.A. 

{Abstract). 



As the population of any town grows, the interdependence of 
its inhabitants increases. The mere fact of a large number of 
persons living within a comparatively small area necessitates a 
great number of activities not previously required, e.g. Scheme 
of Drainage and Sewage Disposal, Public Health Precautions, 
Street Lighting, Policing, Public Parks, &c., and renders possible 
a number of other activities mutually beneficial, but impossible 
without a centre of population, e.g. Tramways, Public Baths, Gas 
Manufacture, Electric Light and Power Manufacture, Markets, 
Free Libraries, and Cheap Concerts for the people. 

Under the title of "Belfast Civic Undertakings" are included 
all undertakings for the good of the Community which are con- 
trolled by Local Authorities. These consist of the undertakings of 

1. Belfast City Corporation. 

2. Belfast Harbour Commissioners. 

3. Belfast City and District Water Commissioners. 

4. Belfast Poor Law Guardians. 



2 Mr. Arthur H. Muir on 

I. Belfast City Corporation. — For the purposes of Muni- 
cipal Government the City is divided into fifteen wards, which are 
of various sizes, and in which the number of voters ranges from 
2,400 in Smithfield Ward to 5,713 in Pottinger Ward. Each 
Ward is represented on the City Council by three Councillors and 
one Alderman, thus making a Council of sixty. 

Most of the great English Cities have an Official so far unknown 
in Belfast, viz: an Elective Auditor. It will be said that the Cor- 
poration Accounts are audited by the Local Government Board 
Auditor, but practically he confines himself to the question as to 
whether the payments are properly authorised and are legally made. 
The functions of the Elective Auditor are different. He acts for 
the ratepayers. He is more particularly concerned with the 
question of whether the payments are wisely made, and whether 
the various departments are being worked on an economical and 
businesslike basis. He reports to the ratepayers on the under- 
takings of the Corporation from a business point of view, and 
brings the light of his business experience to the gloomy shades of 
overstaffed offices, and expensively managed public departments. 
He also draws up reports on the financial aspects of the aspirations 
of committees anxious to develop fresh schemes at the expense of 
the ratepayers, and endeavours to keep the citizens posted up in 
the true facts of the various matters in hand. The ofifice should 
be created in Belfast. 

The Lecturer then gave descriptions of the following Undertak- 
ings: -Public Llealth, Upkeep of Monuments, Roads and Bridges, 
Maintenance of Order, Public Baths, Lodging House, Public 
Parks, Cemeteries, Free Libraries, Municipal Technical Listitute, 
Fire Brigade, City Surveyor's Department — -Planning of Streets, 
Supervision of Drainage and Sewage Disposal, Passing of Plans 
for New Buildings; Ulster Hall, Scavenging, Markets and Abattoir, 
Gasworks, Electric Light Station, Tramways. 

Referring to the Planning of new streets, the cities of the 
United Kingdom lack a power which is very necessary, namely) 
the power of planning out the lines on which the City shall develop, 



Belfast Civic Undertakings 3 

and of compelling all property owners both inside and immediately 
outside the city boundary to comply with the plan of development. 
Straight wide streets and roads are laid down on the plan where 
they do not at present exist. Certain areas are reserved for 
dwelling-houses, and certain other areas for factories and work- 
shops. The result is a healthy development along the lines of a 
scheme laid down by the Municipality, under the advice of the 
most skilled advisers. No landowner, in order to make the most 
of his little patch, may run awkward streets across his property 
contrary to the general scheme, nor may he put up a different class 
of property from that laid down. No fabulous sums are required 
to be paid for street improvements, or for the pulling down of 
buildings put up in awkward places. Sooner or later such powers 
must be obtained. 

2. Belfast Harbour Commissioners. — In 1785 an Act was 
passed appointing a separate Corporation to look after the interests 
of the Port of Belfast. For the previous forty years the control 
had been exercised by the equivalent of the modern Town 
Council. The Commissioners are twenty-one in number, and are 
elected for a period of three years. 

3. Belfast City and District Waier Commissioners. — 
Water is an absolute essential for cities, and for large centres an 
abundant supply must be procured if the city is to grow either in 
population or commercial importance. The necessity for an 
ample water supply has, therefore, caused many cities to spend 
enormous sums on colossal schemes. In fact the greater the 
city, as a rule, the more costly the water supply. 

The Water Commissioners number fifteen, one from each Ward, 
and are elected for a period of three years. They were incor 
porated in 1840, when they took over the water supply as it then 
existed from the Belfast Charitable Society. 

The Lecturer referred to the Water Supply in 1840. Woodburn 
Reservoirs, seven in number, storing 15 15 miUion gallons, and 
capable of giving 8 million gallons per day. Stoneyford Reser- 
voirs, two in number, storing 820 million gallons, and capable of 



4 Mr. Arthur H. Muir on 

giving 4 million gallons per day. Filtration beds, Oldpark and 
Antrim Road Works, Pumping Station, Ligoniel Storage Tank. 
Mourne Scheme, when completed, consisting of two reservoirs, 
capable of storing 3750 million gallons, and of giving 30 million 
gallons per day through a conduit 35 miles long. 

4. Belfast Poor-Law Guardians. — This Board is one elected 
from the fifteen Wards of the City, together with nine other 
adjoining districts, making twenty-four divisions in all, each re- 
presented by two Guardians. In addition to these forty-eight 
Guardians six are co-opted. 

A very common impression is that the inhabitants of the Work- 
house consist of a large number of men who won't work, and 
who are kept in comparative comfort and ease at the expense of 
the community. As a matter of fact out of the 3,489 inmates on 
the night of 3rd November, 1905, only loi were of this class. 
The balance was made up of 1,437 infirm old men and women, 
1,544 people sick in the Hospital Wards, 275 children, and 132 
mothers. The small percentage of healthy out-of-works, who 
find themselves there, do not get an easy time of it, and usually 
do far more work inside the ^^'orkhouse for nothing, than they do 
outside for pay. There is, unfortunately, a marked and steady 
increase in the number of old men, who have been working con- 
stantly all their lives until a short time previous to admission. It 
is thought that the Workmen's Compensation and Employers' 
Liability Acts have been a factor in this. 

A marked feature of all cities during the past 25 years has been 
the enormous increase in Local Indebtedness. Belfast forms no 
exception, and Diagram No. 1 gives some idea of the increase during 
the last 15 years. Along the foot of the Diagram is measured a 
number of equal spaces, each representing one year, while up the 
side each space represents one quarter of a million pounds sterling. 
By placing a point in each year opposite the amount of debt in 
that year, a series of points result which, when joined by a line, 
give the best representation of the increase or decrease of debt 
over a series of years. It will be noticed that the debt of the 



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Belfast Civic Undertakings. 7 

Poor- Law Guardians fell considerably between the years 1898 and 
1900, owing to the Public Health Department being taken over 
by the Corporation, but that it has risen since owing to the 
Whiteabbey Sanatorium being acquired. 

The Water Debt shows a very rapid rise up to 1901 owing to 
the Mourne Scheme, but since then it has not been going up so 
much, as that scheme is not going on to completion immediately. 

The Harbour Debt has gone up steadily, but not rapidly. The 
Debt of the Corporation has gone up both steadily and rapidly on 
the whole, and will show a great leap upwards when the Tramway 
Debt of ;!^i, 000,000 is included. And as the Corporation takes 
over other undertakings that debt will probably go on increasing 
as in other cities. With reference to the contention that the 
assets of the various bodies are of far greater value than the exist- 
ing debts, it should be pointed out that these assets are not liquid, 
and that most of the debts have to be repaid in a limited number 
of years. In some cases this is provided for out of the revenues 
of these assets, but in other cases it must come out of the rates. 

Each step in Diagram No. 2 represents _^"i, 000,000, and the line 
shows the total of the Debts, which were set out singly on 
the first chart. The responsibilities of the community have 
therefore increased from ^2,473,114, in 1890, to ;^5, 116,658 in 
1904. The lower of the lines shows the increase in valuation of 
the city during the same period. The somewhat rapid rise of the 
valuation about the year 1898 is explained by the extended area 
of the city. 

Diagram No. 3 shows the increase in the population of Belfast. 
The black columns represent the census years, while the light 
columns are interpolated from 1890 onwards to give a complete 
series from that year. The sudden rise from 1897 to 1898 is 
explained by the extending of the city boundary. 

It is not fair to take the figures representing the increasing 
debt of a rapidly increasing city, without also taking into account 
the increased population. Diagram No. 4 shows the debt per 
head of population for the period from 1900, and is obtained 



Mr. Arthur H. Muir on 



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lo Mr. Arthur H. Muir on 

by dividing the population in each year into the total debt as 
given on second diagram. The drop in 1898 is caused by 
the debt having been divided by the population for that year, 
which was increased by the inhabitants of the added area. 

Diagram No. 5 gives a view of the progress of taxation during 
the past 15 years. 

In any rapidly growing city the number of immigrants coming 
to take advantage of the positions offered must fill the municipality 
with many who take little or no interest in its public affairs. 
They are in it but not of it, and are content to leave all such 
matters in other hands. Now the tendency of such apathy is to 
permit public bodies to be run by interested cliques for purposes 
other than the good of the community. If, under such condi- 
tions, the personnel of the governing bodies depreciates, and 
administration is not so efficient as it should be, the citizens of 
course have themselves to blame. 

A difficulty is always present which helps to make many voters 
apathetic as regards civic affairs, namely : — that they pay no direct 
taxes. It is true of course that in the long run, and on the 
average, the taxes levied on the properties in which they live come 
out of their pockets, but this is not apparent to many of them- 
The result is that frequently they demand expenditure on projects 
in the hope of an immediate benefit for which, however, they 
themselves have ultimately to pay in increased taxation. 

Another instance of this tendency is the cry that because one 
Ward has something another Ward must get it also ; because one 
Ward has Public Baths another Ward must have it ; because one 
Ward has a Branch Library another must be provided in another 
Ward. Such a policy would build up a most serious burden on 
the ratepayers. 

To load up our local authorities with a multiplicity of duties 
further increases the time which is required of the city's repre- 
sentatives. It makes it more and more of a tax upon those men 
who undertake those duties, and it tends to prevent the men who 
are most competent for the position from accepting office. The 
tendency is towards a decreasing efficiency in the representatives. 



Belfast Civic Under taki^igs. 



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12 Mr. Arthur H. Mnir on 

The development of municipal trading also brings into existence 
a number of employees paid directly by the municipalities, with 
the temptation to use their vote on personal rather than on public 
grounds. 

For many years the Belfast Conservative Association has been 
the most potent factor in our Municipal affairs, and the citizens 
are deeply indebted to this organisation for its efforts in putting 
forward good men, and returning so many in the face of the 
apathy of the great bulk of the citizens. It suffers, however, from 
the drawback common to all associations representing party politics, 
namely, that it cannot secure public confidence outside its own 
party, and this would be equally true if it were a Liberal 
Association. 

But after all, political or religious opinions are largely irrelevant 
to efficiency in civic matters, and the danger of making party 
politics a motive for municipal elections is that every now and 
again men are bound to be put forward for the mere purpose of 
opposing the opposite party, without reference to their fitness for 
civic administration. 

It should be the aim of the ratepayers to return the best men, 
be they Conservative, Liberal Unionist, or Radical, Protestant or 
Catholic. 

The rise in the population of Belfast is not now as rapid as it 
was, and we have a more settled community. Such a condition is 
more conducive to the development of a high ideal of citizenship. 
We require to rouse the body of the people from their apathy re- 
garding the duties and responsibilities of citizenship. An interest 
in civic affairs must be aroused, and a spirit of civic patriotism 
created. Our men of means and leisure must recognise that there 
is a duty which they owe lo the community, and that they are 
called upon to lay their powers on the altar of the common good. 
It is no use criticising the City Council and howling anathemas 
at the members of our public Boards. It is ourselves as citizens 
who are at fault if anything is really wrong. All is in our own 



Belfast Civic Undertakings. 13 

hands. These beneficent agencies and public services are ours to 
make or to mar. 

The object which must be set before us is a great one, and 
requires the assistance of every citizen. It is to make Belfast an 
ideal city. Knowledge of its activities must be disseminated. 
Love for its prosperity must be created. A sense of civic patriot- 
ism must be brought into being. Our aim should be to raise the 
tone of our local bodies to such a level that they shall be models 
to the other cities of the Kingdom. Then every citizen will be 
able, thinking of his part in the life spreading around the magnifi- 
cent pile of his City Hall, to say with pride, and justifiable pride, 
" I am a citizen of no mean city." 

Alderman King Kerr, in moving a vote of thanks to the 
Lecturer, said all present would go away with more information 
than they possessed before they entered the room, and also with a 
deeper sense of pride in their city. He thought the public, so far 
from criticising the corporators and other municipal governors, 
ought to criticise themselves. If they were not satisfied with the 
government of the city the fault was their own, for the people had 
the remedy in their own hands. 

Mr. John Finnegan seconded the vote of thanks, which was 
passed by acclamation. 

The Chairman, in conveying it to Mr. Muir, said Mr. Muir 
had treated his subject with great tact, and the Society would like 
to have some more papers on the same lines as those taken by 
the lecturer. 

Mr. Muir suitably replied, and paid a tribute of praise to Mr. 
Hogg, who had taken the views which had added so much to the 
success of the lecture. 



14 



^th December IQO^. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E., 
President, in the Chair. 



ON PREHISTORIC MAN IN SOUTHERN FRANCE 
By W. p. De Vismes Kane, M.A., D.L., M.R.I.A 

(Abstract. ) 

The lecturer first described the great Umestone plateaux of 
Aquitaine, which are broken up by great canons into separate 
units called Les Causses. He then showed a series of lantern 
slides representing the wonderful cliff scenery of the canon of the 
river Tarn, down which he voyaged for 30 miles. The Causse of 
Gramat was then referred to, which is very similar in its appear- 
ance to the limestone plains of Galway or Clare, and likewise full 
of subterranean rivers and streams, but running at vast depths 
below the surface, and excavating caverns of enormous size and 
extent, the roofs of which in many cases have fallen in, and so 
have opened great chasms and gulfs in the flat levels, many of 
which have been explored by Monsr. Martel. Views of several 
of these abysses were given, some of them photographed by 
magnesium light. The barrenness of the plateaux of the higher 
levels abutting on the Cevennes was traced largely to the destitute 
condition of the peasantry, in consequence of the equal division 
among the children of the property of the father at his death, and 
the cutting of all timber to pay the debts, so that the whole country 
now lies bare to the sun in summer, and to the rain in winter, 
which washes away gradually the fertile soil into the fissures. 
The chalk plateaux were then described, which are the lowest in 
elevation, and most westerly, and the lecturer proceeded to 



Prehistoric Mati in Soutk<rn France. 15 

describe the caverns and rock shelters of the Department of 
Dordogne, chiefly dealing with those about the village of Les 
Eyzies. Here he described the rock shelters of Cro-Magnon, in 
which three human skeletons were exhumed from among the 
debris of a "kitchen midden," composed of the relics of reindeer, 
bison, and mammoth, which had formed the food of the men who 
lived at that period. Another human skeleton was also referred 
to, which lay in a similar heap of debris, in the position in which 
he was killed by the falling down of the cornice of rock overhead. 
FHnt weapons and flakes found by the lecturer in the refuse heap 
in which his remains were discovered were exhibited, and were 
referred to the close of the mid quaternary, or more properly the 
beginning of the upper quaternary period. Other skeletons such 
as that found in similar conditions at Raymondeu were mentioned 
belonging to the same age, namely, the late quaternary. All these 
were shown to have in common a very high type of dolicocephalic 
cranium, and the method of interment and the personal ornaments 
to be similar. The eleven human skeletons found in the Mentone 
caves in the extreme south-east France were then alluded to, 
where also a red ochreous earth was used to cover the bodies, 
while the flint weapons found in their hands and the correspond- 
ing style of ornaments proved the age to be late quaternary. The 
skulls corresponded in shape with those of Cro-Magnon, and 
showed a high index, and the stature of the men of that period 
proved to be on an average above 6 feet. This race of men, the 
lecturer said, were the earliest racial type which could be certainly 
ascertained to belong to any particular prehistoric period ; for the 
Engis skull, though found in a layer of debris in which mammoth 
remains existed, was also accompanied by a fragment of pottery, 
which left the question of age open. Similarly he was unable to 
accept the evidence as to age of the Neanderthal skull, which is' 
usually referred to the mid quaternary epoch. Illustrations of 
the chief types of weapons and implements of flint and bone were 
then shown, and various fragments of deer's antlers, with carvings 
of extinct animals, were thrown on the screen, among which 



1 6 Mr. Kane on Prehistoric Man in Southern France. 

cleverly executed outlines of elephants, mammoth, rein- and other 
deer, saiga antelope, bison and horses were shown. And lastly a 
description was given of cleverly executed outlines incised on the 
rough interior walls of caves at Les Eyzies, far away from the 
entrance, many of which were crusted over with a film of stalag- 
mite, proving that they were not executed in modern times. This 
race of men contemporary with the age of the reindeer and 
mammoth in southern France were shown to be of a high type 
both as regards the capacity and contour of their skulls, intelli- 
gence in ornament, and manufacture of implements from flint and 
ivory, so that one must look to the Tertiary period, long before 
the epochs of Southern European glaciation, for relics of any 
ancestors of the human race that approached the Simian type ; 
though single specimens of debased shape were found both 
anciently as at Neanderthal, and in historical times as in the 
Peruvian tombs, and even in quite modern races. 

On the motion of Mr. Garrett Naglk, seconded by Mr. 
Knabenshue, Mr. Kane was heartly thanked for his interesting 
and valuable paper. 



It? 



4th Jatiuary, igo6. 



Sir James Henderson, A.M., D.L., Vice-President, in the chair 



ULSTER SAYINGS AND FOLK-LORE. 
By Professor Byers, M.A., M.D. 

{Abstract). 

In this lecture, which was a continuation of a contribution 
brought before the Society — "Sayings, Proverbs, and Humour of 
Ulster" — on December ist, 1903, and since published, Professor 
Byers discussed first various sayings and folk-lore used in reference 
to the weather and the seasons. That the Ulsterman can, when 
provoked, be severe, ironical, and sarcastic, was fully established 
by a variety of expressions; various phrases employed by him in 
bargaining were given ; and, finally, examples were brought forward 
to show that even in Ulster, where the native Celtic element has 
been much displaced by the English and Scotch settlements, that 
topsy-turvy method of expression known as a "bull" is just as pre- 
valent as in any other part of Ireland, and that, curiously, it is 
sometimes met with among those, otherwise learned and cultivated, 
as well as amongst the uneducated. The Lecture appeared in a 
series of articles in the Northern Whig, and will, with additions, 
be published. 

Mr. William Crawford, in moving a vote of thanks to Pro- 
fessor Byers, said his lecture was as interesting and full of amuse- 
ment and charm as the lecture he gave on the same subject on a 
previous occasion, and he hoped he would find time to give them 
a third edition. 

Mr. Adam Speers, in seconding the motion, said the lecture 
was by far the best he had ever listened to on that subject 
—a subject to which he had himself been giving a good deal of 



1 8 Professor Byers on Ulster Sayings and Folk- Lore. 

attention for the past thirty or forty years. The lecture Professor 
Byers had given that night, added to what he had said before on 
that subject, would make a very interesting treatise, and he hoped 
such a book would be produced by the lecturer soon. Perhaps 
the best work done in the way of collecting a vocabulary of Ulster 
words and phrases had been done by a gentleman whom he saw 
present that night — he referred to Mr. W. H. Patterson — in the 
treatise he had produced for the English Dialect Society. 

The resolution was passed by acclamation, and was appropriately 
conveyed by the Chairman. 

Professor Byers, in responding, said he might perhaps on some 
future occasion take up the subject of "The Ulster Child: His 
Games and Amusements," which, he thought, would be an in- 
teresting topic to the members of the Society. 



19 

gth Fclnuary, igo6. 



Professor SviMington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., Prksident, 
in the chair. 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION IN AFRICA, 

By John Brown, F.R.S. 

(Abstraci). 



To attempt to give in one evening anything more than a few salient 
impressions of a trip of 20,000 miles over land and sea would be 
impracticable. Quite the strongest impression remaining is that 
of the extraordinary cordiality and hospitality of our colonial 
cousins. Too much cannot be said for the careful forethought and 
organising power shown by the local stewards in their arrangements 
for entertaining a party of 376. 

The members went out chiefly in two ships of the Union-Castle 
line, the Saxon and the Durham Castle. After the delightful 
voyage with its tropical seas, fishes, and birds, we had to awaken 
from the pleasant dreamy days on the ocean to land at Capetown. 
The members of the official party were hospitably entertained by 
the chief residents ; the Hon. C. Dempers, a member of the Upper 
House of the Cape Parliament being "mine host." 

Capetown is of course a quite old, settled, and flourishing city, 
set in most picturesque surroundings, within easy reach by driving, 
walking, or electric trams. The views from the summit of Table 
Mountain are very fine. A reception at the Royal Observatory 
was also interesting. The place was established by Royal charter 
in 1820. The site is not ideal, but it was the only available English 
possession at that time in the Southern Hemisphere. The gardens 
and botanical museums are most interesting, and the new City 
Hall a very fine building ; in fact, all over South Africa one is 
struck by the size and excellence of the public halls available. 



20 Mr. Johii Brown — 

The opening half of the President's address was deHvered here 
and sections met for three days. 

On Saturday, 19th August, we sailed for Durban, a bright and 
busy, well-kept town, with a fine harbour, well filled with shipping. 
The streets are good, and there are electric trams, fare 3d. There 
are also rickshaws, drawn by natives ; very fine men in fantastic 
dresses, very active, graceful, and full of antics. We were told 
they did not last long at this arduous work, partly on account of 
the damper climate near the sea. There is a sugar industry also a 
good locomotive works. Much of the retail trading appeared to 
be done by Hindus. 

There is a beautiful suburb (the Berea). The vegetation in 
Natal is luxuriant, and the soil appears fertile. Tea, tobacco, 
sugar and maize are cultivated. Most delicious pine apples are 
sold at 2d. and 3d. each; they grow in drills like turnips. 

Our next stay was Pietermaritzburg, another bright and pleasant 
town, near which, among the hills at Henly, a Kaffir dance was held 
in our honour by command of the Governor of the Colony, Sir 
H. M'Callum. The natives assembled to the number of i.ooo or 
more in war dresses of skins and beads, and with shields and poles, 
representing assegais. They saluted the Governor and suite, the 
salute being first a general hiss and then a crouching or " hunkering" 
down, and then rising to full height with a terrifying yell or howl. 
The dance was most strange. It was accompanied by a weird and 
monotonous chant, and the prevailing step was a stamping in 
unison with earth shaking power. The historians of the tribe 
marched back and forth, across the front, reciting the victories 
over their enemies. Occasionally a bevy of women would move 
across in crouching or fantastic attitudes. Some of them waving 
rolls of paper, which we imagined niight be important documents, 
but whicli turned out to be bright coloured advertisements of 
somebody's patent pills. 

After the dance came the marriage of a chief of the Inadi 
tribe to a lady who was to be his chief wife and mother of his 
principal heir. I'he ceremony began by dances of the bride's father. 



JVith tJie British Associatioji iii Africa. 2 1 

the bridesmaids, and marriageable girls. The amount of obole or 
consideration given for the bride was then arranged. The bride 
was asked if she were willing, presents were exchanged, and the 
ceremony concluded with a dance, during which the bride had to 
run away and be recaptured. After the dancing, etc., a number of 
oxen were killed, cut up, roasted, and eaten with great gusto. 

At Colenso which is merely a station and a few shops, a hotel 
and a Hindu temple, we visited the battlefield, a plain, with low 
hills to westward on the banks of the Tugela, on which the Boers 
were entrenched or sheltered in schances. There are still shrapnel 
bullets and pieces of shell scattered here. The bravery of our 
troops and the incompetence of their leader was here fully 
recognised. The more we heard of the story of Colenso and 
Spion Kop the more miserable and foolish it appeared. There 
were monuments commemorating the bravery of officers and men, 
notably one where Lieutenant Roberts fell when trying to recover 
the guns. 

All along the railway to Ladysmith are soldiers' graves, 
sometimes two or three, sometimes scores, marked with crosses, and 
protected with white palings. Those graves are kept in order by 
the Loyal Women's League of South Africa. 

Ladysmith is said to be unhealthy since the war, owing to the 
germs of enteric fever left in the water, and is chiefly interesting 
on account of the mementoes of the siege. The tower of the 
Town Hall is preserved as it was left by a shell. The forts on 
the river bank still remain. 

Speaking of the war leads to questions of policy, and it might be 
expected that one should have formed accurate impressions of the 
political views of the colonists. South Africa, as you probably 
know, has always shared with Ireland the role of scapegoat for 
the party Government of England. In South Africa the disastrous 
effects of the vacillation caused by this silliest of plans of ruling 
an empire became prominent. Distance is said to lend enchant- 
ment to the view — not, however, of the view by a colony of party 
government at headquarters. Chiefly on account of this uncertainty 



2 2 Mr. John Broivn — 

bred of party changes of policy the Home Government met with 
much condemnation, and the colonists were driven to wish for 
self-government, which they hoped could at least make up its 
mind to pursue one continuous policy. It was even said that 
many who were on the English side in the war would now be on 
the other, and it was maintained that the present Government 
was more extravagant, costly, and full of red tape than even that 
of the Boers was. The farmers and Boers seemed to think a 
local Government would give them protective taxes, put heavier 
taxes on the diamond mines, and they thought the Katifirs should 
be forced to work by some means. Some said by a heavier hut 
tax, others by making them wear more clothes, which they would 
have to earn money to buy ; others again by more forcible 
measures. I gathered from those with whom I happened to speak 
that Lord Milner was not approved of, was considered to have 
been weak, extravagant in appointments, and inclined to favouritism. 
By others some of these faults were attributed to the home 
Government. Cecil Rhodes was the one man in the colony of 
whom one always heard approval. 

Johannesburg is a red city ; the soil is red, the streets, the roofs, 
even the trees are red from the red sand carried by the dust-storms, 
to which it is subject. It has an unfinished, scattered look, very 
poor roads, and an air of hurry and excitement like all mining 
places. Ten of us were most hospitably entertained at Hohenheim, 
the residence of Sir Percy Fitzpatrick. 

In Johannesburg the remainder of the President's address was 
delivered, and a very good lecture by Professor Ayrton on electric 
transmission of power. Speaking of A^ictoria Falls, he informed 
them that in the dry season the amount of horse power available 
was only one-tenth of that of Niagara, and he did not seem to 
think extremely favourably of the chances of utilising its power at 
Johannesburg, some 800 miles distant. He concluded, " Jealously 
guard the beauty of your Falls. Niagara was glorious nature, 
to-day it is power ; Victoria is poetry." In a paper published 
since the meeting, Mr. W. B. Essen disagrees with Professor 



IVith the British Association in Africa. 23 

Ayrton's view and estimates the cost of transmitting the power as 
reasonable. 

In the various sections some important papers on vSouth African 
subjects were read — one by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh on the Victoria 
Falls and others on mining and engineering. These papers 
connected with South Africa were to be published in one volume 
by subscription in Johannesburg. I made a communication on a 
new form of Daniell's battery suitable for laboratory use. 

The chief interest in Johannesburg is centred in the gold mines 
on the Rand. The gold occurs in the finely-divided metallic form 
in widely-extended reefs. What strikes one is the enormous outlay 
in plant and machinery, and the extent of the mines. The ore on 
being brought to the surface is machine broken, and then crushed 
by stamps, worked on the principle of our beetling engines, to fine 
powder, from which the gold is extracted first by amalgamation 
and then by cyanide of potassium solution, which extracts the 
finer particles. The drilling and work in the mines is done by 
Kaffirs. 

The Kaffirs employed on the mines earn about 50s. per month, 
and are fed on mealie (maize) porridge, with occasionally meat, 
and they drink Kaffir beer, which is of the colour and consistency 
of thin gruel, tasting rather sour. They are well housed, sleeping 
side by side on shelves with feet towards a fire in the centre of 
the room. The rooms look about 20ft. high, and the boys look 
comfortable enough. These sleeping houses surround the yard 
of the compound. There is a hospital in the small compound 
adjoining, very clean and airy. The Kaffirs are engaged by 
recruiting agents sent out to their kraals, aud the chiefs appeared 
to have a say in the matter, as I was informed they had on some 
occasions objected to send boys to compounds which were not as 
sanitary as others. 

The general opinion among employers of Kaffirs, both in the 
mines and farms, and in domestic service, is that it was best to 
engage the raw native fresh from the kraal. He is more to be 
trusted than the schooled and christianised native who has lost 



24 Mr. John Brotvn — 

the sanctions of his old beHefs, and has probably received a surface 
smattering of religion and morals which he does not quite 
assimilate, and he has learnt other things which he would be as 
well without. Rev. Mr. Flint, librarian of the Cape Parliament, 
however, was the only person I met holding the opposite view. 
He contended that the gaol statistics showed this. But then we 
must remember that every crime or misdemeanour, especially 
among the servant class, is not brought to justice or to gaol. 

Many of the natives, especially the young, are very graceful and 
easy in movement and gestures. They are said to be good 
orators. There was rumoured talk of a Kaffir rising, but a very 
intelligent and sensible owner ot a fruit farm near Stellenbosch 
told me he thought it was merely circulated as an excuse for 
attacking the natives. 

No Chinese are employed at the mines nearest the city, but at 
my suggestion an opportunity was arranged for a party of us to 
visit a mine employing Chinese. On the general question of 
Chinese labour, I gathered it was somewhat disappointing to the 
managers. Kaffirs, when obtainable, were preferred. I was 
informed the Chinese are hard to control, and very tricky. They 
began by carefully cutting half a foot off the end of the measuring 
rods for measuring the depths of the holes drilled, and fixing up 
the ends again with true Chinese artfulness, so that they were paid 
for six inches more ])er hole for some weeks before it was 
found out. They could not be induced to take care of their tools, 
and were otherwise disorderly at work. On the other hand, they 
learned quicker than Kaffirs, and earned rather more — 2S. per day 
on a three year's contract. They appoint their own police in the 
compound. 

Their food is a hotch-potch of meat and vegetables, very 
savoury, and cleanly cooked by Chinese cooks. Occasionally they 
had rice. The meals are served in a large, airy dining-hall. Their 
sleeping-rooms are even larger than the Kaffirs' and of the same 
style. They seem to be well cared for, if for no higher reason 
than that they cost so much, including their passage over, that it 
paid to keep them in good order. There is also a hospital. 



Wifh the British Associatioti in Africa. 25 

On the whole, I gathered that the mine managers preferred 
Kaffirs, but the Chinese importation has brought the Kaffirs to a 
more reasonable frame of mind, and they are more easily dealt 
with, both by the mine-owners and farmers in the country. If the 
Chinese were sent home it is reasonable to suppose the Kaffirs 
would hold out again for higher pay from both managers and 
farmers. It has been said that if high pay were offered it would 
produce a larger supply of Kaffir labour. Probably it would 
ultimately do just the reverse. The Kaffirs are naturally easily 
contented and disinclined to work, so the Kaffir " boy " merely 
works long enough to earn sufficient to pay his hut tax and to 
purchase a couple of oxen, which he can exchange for a wife, who, 
according to the custom of his country, will do all the hard work 
at home. High pay would enable him to cease working sooner, 
a result seen after the high wages paid him during the war. Yet 
the native Commissioners reported that all over South Africa 
270,000 more labourers were still needed. 

There is absolutely no question of competition between Kaffirs 
or Chinese and white men. Both on account of the comparatively 
small wages the mining, farming, and other South African industries 
can afford, and the hard work in a hot climate, the white man 
prefers to be the overseer, the clerk, the responsible " boss." As 
a matter of fact, according to Sir George Farrar, the importation 
of Chinese gave employment to 4,000 white men. 

As to the cry that the Chinese were in slavery, I must confess 
I do not understand it. It is scarcely polite to the Emperor of 
China to assume he would permit it. Mr. Douglas Blackburn, 
ex-assistant editor of the " Johannesburg Daily Express," writing 
to the " Times " recently, stated that, while at first there was 
injustice by incompetent compound managers, the Chamber of 
Mines took steps to remedy the evil, and now the treatment of 
Chinese was luxurious, compared with that meted out to the Kaffirs 
under the old regime, but Mr. Blackburn could not induce the 
Liberal English papers to ventilate Kaffir grievances. A\'hy this 
touching sympathy for the Chinese in their comparative luxury ? 



2 6 Mr. John Brown — 

Just at the time of our visit a few Chinese had got away from the 
compounds, and had committed crimes, even murders, but strong 
measures were being taken to round up these miscreants and 
prevent further misdeeds. I saw a gang of these being brought 
in, and no doubt such things would in future be prevented. A 
large party of us visited Pretoria and the Premier Diamond Mines, 
and saw Kruger's house and the Government Buildings, which 
were very fine. 

Bloemfontein has a rural air, and seems a prosperous and 
growing town. There was a fair going on, and the Boers bringing 
in their produce struck me as rather like our own Northern Irish 
farmers. I was hospitably entertained here by Mr. W. S. Johnston, 
formerly principal of Larne Grammar School. 

From Bloemfontein the line runs through miles and miles of 
lonely veldt with here and there a herd of cattle or flock of 
ostriches, apparently trying to eat stones and sunburned grass. At 
the end of the dry season the country gave an unfairly bad 
impression. 

At Kimberly I was received by Mr. John Orr and his lady with 
true Irish hospitality. The diamond mines here again struck one 
as very costly undertakings. The diamonds occur in the famous 
" blue ground " contained in the immense " pipe " or outlet of an 
extinct volcano. When brought to the surface it is first spread on 
the ground to be " weathered," then washed from mud and waste, 
concentrated, and finally put through a most ingenious apparatus, 
where it is carried by streams of water over plates covered with 
grease, to which the diamonds stuck, while the waste was carried 
on by the water. Kaffirs were employed in these mines, strictly 
guarded, and thoroughly searched on leaving. We were told, 
however, that one ingenious person evaded the searchers by 
concealing diamonds behind his glass eye. Sir William Crookes 
gave a most interesting lecture on diamonds here. Kenilworth, 
a kind of garden city arranged by Rhodes for the white employes, 
was very interesting, with the adjoining experimental fruit gardens 
and zoological park. 



With the British Association in Africa. 27 

From Kimberly the line runs north through a wilderness of 
sparse dried grass, with scattered small trees and occasional 
ant hills, some containing 40 to 50 tons of stuff. There seemed to 
be no humus or vegetable mould. We assumed that all vegetable 
remains were washed away as soon as formed in the wet season. 

I venture with much diffidence to express an opinion on the 
question of agriculture in South Africa, which is a difficult one. 
Most of the country is very dry when it is dry and very wet when 
it is wet ; also subject to disastrous hailstorms, and occasionally to 
continued droughts, and the locust and other insect plagues are 
also to be reckoned with. Animals suffer from various diseases, 
but it was said that in mixed farming out of all the various crops 
and stock a portion would survive out of which sufficient profit 
might be made, especially as the population increased and markets 
improved. The soil varies in quality a good deal, and land of 
course could be had at a low price, from a free grant upwards. 
With their large tracts of ground and native labour, the Boers 
made it pay. The dearth of Kaffir labour owing to the high wages 
of the war time made it more difficult now, and the Boers, it was 
said, complained that their products were cut out by imported 
goods and the cold storage companies. Others thought they were 
only making a poor mouth in view of getting compensation after 
the war. Fruit-farming and vine-growing appeared to succeed in 
parts suitable to these. I was advised that no intending settler 
should go out without a billet arranged for. 

The climate on the high veldt is considered healthy by those 
who did not mind heat. All over South Africa dust is a great 
enemy. A doctor told me that they had to eat sand and worse 
than sand and the alimentary canal suffered. The great agricultural 
want is water, and it has been said that only by irrigation could 
South Africa ever hope to become a prosperous agricultural, 
country. The difficulty is to obtain water. Attempts to obtain 
it by artesian boring have not been encouraging, and the rivers have 
a comparatively small supply in the dry season, when the water 
is most needed. By means of dams the flow of the wet season 



28 Mr. John Brown — 

might be saved, but the size of such dams necessarily would limit 
their application when we consider that besides the water used 
a depth of four to seven feet is wasted by evaporation in the hot 
season. It is estimated that it takes a square mile of catchment 
area to provide water for one acre in the drier districts. A large 
dam in Rhodesia, begun by Mr. Rhodes, has been too recently 
finished to obtain results as yet. Irrigation works are also being 
carried out in Natal. Considering the enormous increase in the 
value of land produced by irrigation, it seems likely that when the 
country has settled down after the disturbance caused by the war 
more works of this kind would be undertaken in suitable districts 
either by private enterprise or Government funds. 

Buluwayo is a place of magnificent distances — acres of streets, 
or where streets might be, with here and there a building, some 
pretentious, others mean. Among the finer are the offices of 
the mining companies. 

I gathered that Rhodesia has not yet been at all thoroughly 
prospected. Except the newly-started Banket reef, of which 
much was expected, the gold hitherto discovered is not paying 
to large mines, but small reefs are found which would pay a 
small capital outlay. I gathered also that the former management 
of the Chartered Company was much open to criticism. 

The Buluwayo Museum was opened by our President. It 
already contained many interesting geological, ethnological, and 
antiquarian specimens. A lecture was delivered in Buluwayo by 
Mr. M'lver on Rhodesian ruins, his view being that they were of 
much later date than formerly supposed, a view meantime not 
shared by some other antiquarians. 

An excursion to the Matopo Mountains, where Cecil Rhodes 
is buried, was very enjoyable. The rock is granite, and the 
formation said to be due to water denudation. I imagine ice had 
something to do with it, but this is a moot point. The view from 
Rhodes' grave is charming. I should not go so far as to call it 
" the world's view." North of Buluwayo the country is of the 
same arid type of wilderness. The line being recently made, big 



Wii/i the British Associatioti in Africa. 29 

game are still sometimes seen in its neighbourhood. Two 
hunters who came after lions were attacked in their sleeping car 
standing on a railway siding one night, and only one hunter 
remained in the morning. Elephants had been seen by the train 
staff. A scarcity of bird life was noticed everywhere on the trip. 

The Victoria Falls, on the Zambesia, which is here a mile wide, 
fall into the upper end of a zig-zag gorge, which, in the opinion of 
geologists, has been gradually formed by the action of the river. 
In the way of waterfalls I have not yet seen anything so grand 
and yet so delicately beautiful. The quantity of water at Niagara 
is more impressive. It is to be remembered our visit was at the 
end of the dry season. We arrived before daylight on September 
1 2th, and I saw the falls at sunrise. The water falls into the gorge 
(380 feet deep and a mile long) in various streams and cataracts, 
and when the sun got a little higher a beautiful rainbow appeared 
below me in the spray which issued out of the gorge in flying 
clouds borne by the wind from the falling water. 

A roar of many waters — mist, spray, foam — 

A mighty gorge; 

Deep in the black abyss a rainbow shone, 

Bright steadfast spirit of hope in this chaotic fall. 
We saw the falls by moonlight, also very beautiful with mystery. 
In the afternoon we were taken in boats manned by natives in 
their scant costumes to Livingstone's Island in the middle of the 
falls, where the great traveller had made a garden. A tree was 
pointed out on Avhich he had carved his name. 

Walking on the river bank some distance above the falls, where 
the river was studded with islands and shoals I heard a great splash 
and saw a large animal (no doubt a hippopotamus) raise its head, 
and then disappear. I bathed in the Zambesi twice, and it was 
delightful to feel and see water after the dreadfully arid country we 
had come through. 

The Victoria Bridge, the highest in the world and carrying the 
railway towards distant Cairo, was opened by the President. It 
was here that occurred perhaps the most glaring instance of 



30 Mr. John Brown — 

separation of the party into cliques by a most injudicious manage- 
ment of the Association authorities, which had been all along a 
great blot on the otherwise harmonious character of the trip. Only 
a select few were permitted to view the ceremony. The majority 
of the members were brought to the bridge and there held back 
out of sight by a military cordon. Among many other such 
instances might be given the high-handed attempt at Capetown to 
evict the less distinguished members from their berths on the 
Durham Castle to make room for the so-called official party ; also 
the attempt to evade promises of free passes to certain members of 
the party. Both of these latter attempts met with an undignified 
but well-deserved collapvse. The berths were retained and the 
promises kept. This matter is mentioned to show that, while it 
is desirable to induce distinguished people to join these far-away 
meetings, it is the reverse to emphasise their separation into 
cliques. The business capacity and organising power of the B.A. 
officials was also sadly lacking, especially when compared with that 
of the local officials. 

The party now returned to Buluwayo, and divided, some going 
home via Capetown and the rest of us via Beira and the East 
Coast in the Durham Castle, specially chartered for the trip, 
though most of us were greatly afraid of the hot Red sea or red-hot 
sea, as it was sometimes called. We called at Salisbury, and 
enjoyed a well-arranged luncheon, and we also spent a few hours 
at Umtali. 

I endeavoured to ascertain from various people in those places 
what were the agricultural conditions in Rhodesia, and gathered 
that so far there were difficulties in transport and want of markets 
and in disease of stock, though one man was hopeful, and said a 
settler could recoup his outlay in a year or two. The unhealthiness 
of the country, the dust and dryness, and the tendency to a craving 
for drink were mentioned. 

As we journeyed eastward into Portuguese territory the 
vegetation improved till near the coast it became green once more. 
At Beira the Portuguese gave us a most hospitable reception, after 



Ulfk the British Associatioji iti Africa. 31 

which we were glad to embark, and sail northwards the same 
afternoon, calling at Mozambique and at Mombasa, a very pictur- 
esque island and town among tropical foliage. The old fort had a 
varied history and is now a prison. The soil appeared more 
fertile on the Uganda Protectorate, at least where they were, near 
the coast, as it usually is near the sea. 

I have almost finished but as we now leave the more southern 
portion of Africa, I may show just one slide illustrating very 
generally the physiology of that portion of the Continent. We all 
know this familiar and frequent flat topped hill, a common object 
in South African landscape. The theory of the geologists is that 
the original surface of the Country was formed by a layer of hard 
dolerite or igneous rock such as seen on the top of this hill. De- 
nudation by torrential rains gradually washed away the softer parts 
leaving only more resisting portions forming the table tops of these 
kopjes. This denudation reduced the level of the surface of the 
land to the present veldt, which although to appearance seems to be 
an irregular plain is really made up of a number of very shallow 
valleys, making up what the geologists call a peni-plain that is 
almost a plain. Each of these valleys drains into a larger valley 
and so ultimately into one of the permanent rivers, l^own these 
rivers the soil or sand or stuff forming the difference in height from 
the original level has been swept during ages into the sea. 

It will be clear that such a peni-plain must have originally 
terminated on or near the sea level but at present the veldt is 
several thousand feet above the sea and it is therefore thought 
that after the peni-plain was formed either the whole continent 
rose or the sea sank. The former seems to be more probable. 
Denudation is now again going on along the coast line and very 
beautiful examples of the formation of these branching valleys 
with their watercourses on the hill side may be seen from the 
railway line running up through Natal. 

An unexpected delay gave us leisure to see Cairo and a bit of 
Egypt. I seemed to see in these two protectorates how well the 
Englishman could organise a country when he was more free from 



32 Mr. John Brotvn — With the British Association in Africa. 

the interference at every step by the home Government and its 
parties and red tape. 

We got cool in the Mediterranean, and saw StromboH firing out 
his incandescent ashes and lava. We passed Gibraltar after night- 
fall, flashing its slow-sweeping searchlights like two eyes of the old 
lion guarding the narrow seas, and arrived at Southampton on the 
24th October, much pleased with our delightful trip. 

Professor Symington expressed thanks to Mr. Brown for his 
admirable lecture, and the lecturer appropriately replied. 



33 



6th March, igoo. 



Professor Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
in the chair. 



MAGIC IN THE GREEK AND ROMAN WORLD 
By R. M. Henry, M.A. 



(Abstract. ) 



The history of primitive Magic has of late years assumed an 
increased importance in view of its bearing upon the question of 
the origin of religion, many authorities holding that all primitive 
religions are based in the last resort upon Magic. By Magic is 
understood the savage principle of thought that like produces like 
and the practices (such as rain making, healing diseases by 
homoeopathic ceremonies and the like) to which it gave rise. 
There are many survivals of this primitive stage of thought to be 
found in the practices described by such writers as Lucian and the 
Elder Pliny. Many of these ceremonies were accompanied by 
spells which at a primitive period were merely statements that the 
desired effect had been or would be produced. With a growth of 
a belief in gods spells tended to become prayers, though the old 
form still survived side by side with the later. In the spells of the 
Magical Papyri of Paris, Berlin, Leyden, and London several 
varieties can be discriminated. The long lines of unintelligible 
formulae contain many words of Egyptian, Babylonian, and Hebrew 
origin, pointing to borrowing with more or less intelligence fro