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,,«f ERSEO TO 


/)/i^ /?i&'5- 3./6'' 

Igarbatl) College Htbrars 




'For books relMing 10 Politics and Fine Arts" 




Pottery ]V\arks 


W. Percival J 



" Rough Notes on Pottery," " An Encyclopedia 

of Ceramics," etc. 

<=r. ^ 





DEC 12 1919 

Copyrighted by 

W. p. JERVIS, 

Newark, N. J. 


Press of 

Hayes Brothers, 




Copyriffhted. All Rights Reserved. 

IN COMPILING this list of Pottery Marks I have endeavored to adapt my- 
self more particularly to the requirements of American readers rather 
than attempt the collation of a great number of marks, many of which exist 
only on single specimens, carefully stored away in some public or private 
collection, inaccessible to any but a favored few. In the case of Delft marks, 
for instance, it appears to me useless to encumber my pages with marks from 
the historical records of the Hotel de Ville, some of which have never been 
seen except in the records of registration ; so I have presented only a few 
specimens of the best-known makers, reserving my space, as far as possible, 
for the marks of to-day, though the past has so many honorable traditions 
that it was impossible to altogether ignore it. 

I was fortunate with regard to Japan — my friend, Mr. H. K. Tetsuka, 
himself the son of a well-known Japanese potter, having kindly drawn a 
collection of representative Japanese marks of to-day, and supplemented 
them with brief explanatory notes. 

Very many of the marks here given have never before been published. 
Some of the old ones are copied from examples of collectors who have placed 
their collections at my disposal ; others have been freely drawn from existing 
works on the subject; and I believe all prominent makers are represented 
with a sufficient degree of fullness. 

Great care and no small amount of trouble has been taken with the 
American section ; and if my design to make this the feature of the work has 
not been accomplished I could easily vindicate myself. But I was the recipi- 
ent of many courtesies at the hands of American manufacturers, for which I 
am not ungrateful ; and I trust they will find their reward in the public 
recognition of their honesty of purpose to elevate their art and to make 
American pottery representative of American skill and all that is noblest in 
American art. 


Geo. L. Ashwoeth & Bbos., Hanle^. — 
Mason's IronstoDe was patented in 1813 by V. 
J. Mason. In 1851 F. Morley purchased the 
patent. He retired in 1859, and sold the busi- 
ness to George L. and Taylor Ashworth. 

-^<'^ff y^m"*^" ™'^' 

Abbolok, Yarmouth. — End of eighteenth 
century. A decorator. Principally flower 
He also used silver (platinum) lustre. 




J. &, O. Alcock, Cobridge. Established 1843 
and catered principally to the American market. 

Wh. Addebly, Longtoi 
en ware. 

—China and earth- 

Henrt Alcock & Co. Cobridge, successors 
to John Alcock. — Fine semi- porcelain. The 
colors and designs of their prints are oi^^al 

and striking. 

W. AcLT, Burton -on -Trent, — A modem fac- 
tory, making ornamental goods in richly colored 

Abbey Richabu.— See Herculaueum. 


Edward Abtbc&y & Co., LoDgtoa. — 
ChiDa. EsUblisbed March 10, 1863— the 
wedding day of the Prioce of Wales — by 
Shirley & Freeman. The successive 
firms were Hammerely, Freeman & Co., 
Hammersly & Asthurv (1870), and Ed- 
ward Aatbury & Co. (1875). 

Cbas. Allerton & Sons, Longton. — 
China and lustre ware. 

Belleee (Ireland). McBibnet & 
Armstrong.— Established 1863. With 
the aid of some Stoke potters the manu- 
facture of cast parian, decorated with the 
iridescent lustres of Henri Braincbou, 
was successfully inauf^urated. It had for- 
merly been produced by W. H. Gobs in 
limited quantities. 

Isaac Baquley, Sotherham. — A 
punter first at the Derby China Works, 
and afterwards at the Rockingham Works. 
At the close of the latter, in 1842, he 
started in business as a decorator, sod 
continued the use of the BockiDgbam 
crest as a trademark. 

J. & M. P. Bell & Co., Glasgow.— 
Earthenware. Established in 1843. 

Bellevub Pottery, Hull, 1802-41. — 
JobRidgway, of Shelton, and two gentle- 
men named Smith founded an earthen- 
ware manufactory here, but the partner- 
ship only lasted until 1804. In 1806 the 
works again came into the possession of 
Job Ridgway and his brother George, who 
continued them until 1816, when they 
were succeeded by BelL Cream color, 
green glaze and bine printed earthenware 
were the staple productions. 

8. Barker & Son, The Don Pottery, 
Bwinten.— Eatahliahed 1790. Vp to 1834 was in 
the hande of Green, of Leeds, \vhen it was 
bought by Samuel Barker, and in 1851 became 
Samuel Barker & Son. A general line of earth- 
enware and pierced ware, almost identical in 
shape and design with that of Leeda, was made. 
Prom 1810-1812 a small quantity of china was 
made. The first two are the earliest marks; 
the next was adopted in 1S51 ; the lost lathe 
present mark. "Don Pottery" was also used, 
both as an impressed and penciled mark. 

E. P. BODLEY & Co., Burslem.— Earth- 


T. & R. Boots, Burslem. — la addition to the marks given here, Bootes used 
one with a greyhound couchant, collared and slipped betweea two laurel 
wreaths. The works were founded at the end of the last century by Walter 
Daniel, whowasBucceededby Timothy and John Locket. 

1809 : Joseph Machin and Jacob Baggaley. 

1831 : Wm. Machin and Jacob Baggaley. ^Richard Daniel and Thos. 

Edwards. 1850 : T. & E. Boote. (see appendix 



>f I 




Sampson Bridgwood & Son, Longton. — 
Earthenware and china. The mark on china 
will be found in the appendix 

Bristol. — The first mark is the earliest 
dated example of Bristol Delft. The third 
occurs on a high-heeled shoe, and the others on 
various Delft pieces. The two Bristol makers 
of this ware were Richard Frank and Joseph 
Flower. Joseph Ring, who succeeded Richard 
Frank in 1786, engaged Anthony Hassel, a 
Shelton potter, bought his moulds, etc., and 
removed them to Bristol so as to make queens- 
ware, and the manufacture of Delft at Bristol 
came to an end. 




SKAMEtP * * 

3ltAMeiil> S( CO* 

BHAfreLD * *«" 

Bbameld & Co., Rockingham Works, 
Rotherham. — This factory flourished late in 
the last century and was chiefly remarkable 
for the flne brown glaze invented there, 
and which they called Rockingham, after 
the name of the patron of the works. 
In 1825 the manufacture of china was added, 
but it was not a commercial success, and 
the works were closed in 1842. The name 
" Mortlock '' appears on some pieces. This 
is the father of the present Mortlock, of 
Oxford street, London. The early Rocking- 
ham has the color delicately varied, often 
deepening towards the lower part of the 
piece. The color is in the glaze itself, and 
is due to manganese containing a little iron. 

The White 
House service 
during Jeffer- 
son's adminis- 
t ration was 
made here. 

Bates, Elliott & Co. — Joseph Stubbs, 
founded the Dalehall Works in 1790, and 
owned them up to 1829. He was succeeded by 
Thomas, John and Joshua Mayer, who after- 
wards traded as Mayer Bros. & Elliott. The 
successive firms were Liddle, Elliott & Co., 
Bates, Elliott & Co., Bates, Walker & Co., 
Bates, Gildea & Walker, and Gildea & 
Walker. Keeling & Co. are the present 
proprietors. Early impressed marks are: 
T. J. & J. MAYER 

Jas. Beech, Tunstall, successor to Pod- 
more. Walker & Co. 



CoBBiDGB WoBKS. — Chaffers states that 
these works were started by Stevenson & Dale 
in 1780, and that in 1815 it was A. Stevenson 
alone. Jewett gives the date of the erection of 
the works as 1808 , by Bucknall & Stevenson, 
who were succeeded by A. Stevenson, who 
occupied them until 1820, when they passed 
into the hands of James Clews. 

The first is an impressed mark. The se«ond 
is by Chaffers ascribed to A. Stevenson, but I 
am inclined to think in error. There were 
several Stevensons in the Potteries manufactur- 
ing a similar grade of goods. The third and 
fourth are also impressed marks. 

Clews gave up the Cobridge Works in 1829, 
and in 1836 came to this country and estab- 
lished a works at Troy, Ind. In the American 
section this epoch in his life will be more fully 
treated. In 1836 the Cobridge Works were 
re-opened by Robinson, Wood and Brownfield ; 
in 1850 they were succeeded by W. Brownfield, 
who afterwards traded as W. Brownfield & 
Son. A few years ago the works were turned 
into a co-operative society, aud are now known 
as the Brownfield Guild Pottery. 

Barker & Son, Burslem. — Earthenware. 
From 1851 to 1860. 

Brownfield & Son.— See Cobridge Works. 


CMJLDiw\£U# v» n c 


E. BoTJBME and J. E. Leiqh, Burs- 
lem, — Earthenware. 

Booths, Church Bank Works, Tun- 
stall. This manufactory passed into 
the hands of T. Booth & Son in 1870. 
The firm commenced bUHness in 1864 
at the Rnowles Works, Burslem, under 
the style of Evans & Booth, whlcli in 
1S68 was altered to Thos. Booth & Co. 
In 1S72 it was changed to T. G. & F. 
Booth, and Is now conducted by Mr. 
T. O. Booth only under the style of 

Bbown-Westhead, Moore & Co., 
Stoke. — Manu&ctnrers of the well- 
known " Cauldon " china. The works 
were founded by Job Ridgway in 1794, 
and continued by his sons, John and 
William. This partnership was dis- 
solved, and John continued the busi- 
ness alone until his death in 1860, 
when Mr. Brown -Westhead obtained 
the controlling interest, and in con- 
junction with W. Moore carried on a 
most successful business. Mr. Moore 
died in 1863 and his brother James 
was made a partner in 1875. He die<! 
in 1881 and the present proprietors arc 
hia nephews, Messrs. T. F. and W. B. 
Moore, Mr. Brown- Westhead having 
died in 1882. The productions of the 
firm are of great diversity, and evince 
artistic conception and great care In 
every minuti^ of workmanship. 


] o > 

X A, 

•T -F 

Bow China Works, London.— Founded 
prior to 1744. There is a good deal of doubt 
about Bow marks, but those given are gen- 
erally accepted as such. The last two of 
the series are the marks of a celebrated 
decorator there named Thomas Fry, and one 
of the original patentees. Bones were for 
the first lime used here as a compouent part 
of the body. Clay from the Cherokee Terri- 
tory, North America, was also employed. 
Cookworthy's discovery of china clay in 
England dates ten years later (1754). The 
Bow china was a hard and rather coarse 
body. The factory was known as the New 
Canton Works, and was in existence until 
1775. It was then purchased by W. Dues- 
bury, of Derby, and the moulds, etc. were 
removed there. 

BuBOESS & Leioh, Middleport Pottery, 
Burslem . — Earthenware. 

Stonier, Hauley. — 
Originally Llvesley, Powell & Co., 
who were succeeded in 1865 by 
Powell & Bishop. Later Mr. Sto- 
nier, of Liverpool, was admitted 
as a partner, and the firm became 
Bishop & Stonier. They operate 
three worfcs at Hanley — the Staf- 
ford Street Works, formerly Reu- 
ben Johnson & Co.; the Church 
Street Works, formerly W. Eidg- 
way, and the Waterloo Works, 

Clembntbon Bbob., Hanley.— In 1832 the present hua- 
iuess was started by Keed & Clementson, Jos. Clementaon 
shortly afterwards becoming sole proprietor. In 1856 he 
purchased the Bell Works, formerly operated by Wm. 
Ridgway. He retired in 1867 and died in 1871. His four 
sons continue the business. 


Chelsea.— A. D., 1745-69. "Chelsea, 
1745" is the earliest do/ed piece of English 
china. The Anchor is the true Chelsea 
mark. It is sometimes painted and some- 
times embossed. 


Cadghlby, Coalport. — The Caughley Works were established about 1750, 
and were purchased by Rose in 1799, and transferred to Coalport in 1814, 
The first nine marks were used both by Caughley and Coalport, and the 
crescent was also used by Worcester. The next five are Caughley marks, 
the last two being impressed. C. D, is an abbreviation of Coalbrookdale. C. 
8. N. stands for Coalport, Swansea and Nantgarw, the two latter works hav- 
ing been absorbed by Coalport. This mark was used after 1820. In 1820 a 
mark waa adopted of a laurel-wreath with "Coalport Impressed Feld Spar 
Porcelain." Encircling the wreath are the words "Patronized by the 
Society of Arts. The gold medal awarded May 30, 1820." Beneath and 
outside the circle is the name, J. Bose & Co. Coalport china was rarely 
marked until about 1876, when the present mark (the last of the series) was 







Cauohley-Coalpoet. — The succession 
is as follows : 

John Turner, 
John Rose & Co., 
Rose & Blake way, 
Rose, Blakeway & Rose, 
Rose, Johnson & Winter, 
Rose, Johnson, Clarke & Winter, 
Rose, Winter & Clarke, 
Rose, Clarke & Madison, 
Madison, Pugh, Rose & Rose, 
W. Pugh & W. F. Rose, 
W. Pugh, 
— Bruff; 

but since 1799 the style has always been 
J, Rose & Co. 

XII a. 


W ObcAwor(Ays 


+ x 

W. CooKWOETHY, Plymouth. — The discoverer of 
china clay in Cornwall. From 1768 to 1770. He was 
granted a patent for the manu&cture of china, which 
after a year or two he transferred to Richard Champ- 
ion, of Bristol. The distinctive mark of Plymouth 
china is the alchemist's sign for tin (Jupiter). This is 
often used in conjunction with numerals— probably 
workmen's marks. It was in blue underglaze and 
brown on the glaze. The same mark was used by 
Champion, generally in gold, who continued the man- 
ufacture at Bristol. The Staffordshire posters, con- 
spicuous among them being Josiah Wedgwood, tried 
hard to have the patent rights cancelled, but in this 
they were unsuccessful. ' His productions were 
much in advance of those of Cookworthy, but 
the costs of litigation and losses in manufacturing 
compelled him so dispose of his patent to a syndi- 
cate of Stafifordshire manufacturers, who com- 
menced operations at Tunstall, but later removed 
to the New Hall Works, Hanley (which see). 
Champion shortly afterwards came to this coun- 
try, where he died. The first six marks are Ply- 
mouth, the remainder are Bristol. 





Cliffs, Limited| Hanley. — Earthenware. Suc- 
cessors to John Dimmock & Co 





Felspar Porcelain 




Undoubtedly a Staffordshire mark, out i can 
find no record of the firm. Barker & Son (which 
see) had the Hull Works, Burslem, from 1851 to 
1860. There is also a Chas. G. Barker at the 
Sylvester Pottery, Burslem. 

W. T. CoPELAND & Sons, Stoke-upon-Trent. — 
Founded in 1770 by Josiah Spode, one of the 
many successful potters educated by Whieldon. 
He was later joined by Wm. Copeland, and suc- 
cess quickly followed their united efforts — Spode 
busy at the factory experimenting with a view to 
produce improvements, and with a watchful eye 
that the standard attained did not depreciate, and 
Copeland in disposing of the product of the factory. 
In 1800, under the second Josiah Spode, who 
proved as good a potter as his father, the manu- 
facture of china was commenced. This was quickly 
followed (1805) by an opaque porcelain known as 
ironstone china, which won an instant success. 
There were three generations of Spodes, all named 



2. 5POI5E S 

Josiah, and these, with three generations of Cope- 
lands, have always constituted the firm, with the 
exception of Thos. Garrett, who was a member of 
the firm from 1833 to 1847. The Spodes died in 
1797, 1827, and 1829 respectively. Wm. Cope- 
land died in 1826, his son, W. T. Copeland, suc- 
ceeding him. From 1847 to 1867 he conducted 
the business alone, and then admitted his four 
sons, who now carry on the business, into partner- 
ship. The productions of this house have been 
very varied, sometimes strikingly original — the 
first use of transfer printing at Stoke, tiles with 
granulated surface, giving a particularly soft effect 
to the subjects painted on them, and the introduc- 
tion of Parian, being among the number. The 
marks are given in chronological order, the last 
one being the mark on jasper. 




^ 7m/>7 






D. Chapman, Longton. — China. 

B. Chakfeks, Liverpool.- -China 
and Delft ware, eighteenth eentury. 

B. CocHBANE & Co., Oloagow.— 

Dekbt. — Founded in 1756 by John 
Heath tind Wm. Duesbury. la 
1769 both the Bow and the Chelsea 
Victories were absorbed by Dues- 
bnry, who removed the molds and 
engravings to Derby, The D for 
Derby and the anchor for Chelsea 
were then combined in the trade- 
mark. About 1781 bisque figures 
were first made. Bobert Bloor 
leased the premises in 1815 from 
the then proprietor — the third Wm. 
Duesbury. Jealous of the reputa- 
tion their products had acquired, 
the Duesburys had never allowed 
an imperfect piece either to be deco- 
rated or leave the foctory. The 







accumulatioa of such pieces was 
thrown upon the market by Bloor 
and met with ready sale, and the 
temptation to produce large quan- 
tities of goods was too great to be 
resisted, so but little care was 
taken in selection, and the decline 
of the works commenced. Bloor 
was succeeded in 1846 by Thomas 
Clark, who discontinued the works 
and sold the molds, etc., to Stafford- 
shire potters. Some of the old 
workmen comme4ced business on 
their own account under the style 
of Locker & Co., changed in 1859 
to Stevenson & Co. , and finally to 
Hancock & Co. The Derby periods 
are: Chelsea Derby, 1769-84, dis- 
tinguished by the first four marks ; 
Crown Derby, 1773-82—1782-1831 
— the next six marks, with the 
crossed swords added to the Crown 
and D; Duesbury & Kean, 1795, 
bearing the next three ; Bloor, 
1815-81, the succeeding six marks; 
Late Crown Derby, 1831. 

In 1877 Edwards Phillips, W. 
Litherland and John Mclnnes 


formed a company for the manufacture 
of china at Derby under the style of 
•* The Crown Derby Porcelain Co/' 
In 1891 the privilege of adding the 
word " Royal ' ' to the title was granted 
them. Their mark is the last one 

CCNUIME Dunn, Bennett & Co., Burslem. — 

IKoNSTONK Earthenware. 



^5seiipor/ -pf^NPoi^^ -s,o^^GP05^ 
hjf 'vp JDf 





DouLTON & Co., Lambeth and 
Burslem. See appendix. 

Francis Dillon, Cobridge, 1843. 

Davenport, Longport — Establish- 
ed in 1794. 

Mark No. 7 was used after 1806. 

China and earthenware, both of ex- 
cellent quality, were produced. 

John Davenport died in 1834, his 
■uccessor William, in 1869, after which 
the works declined and were some few 
years afterwards closed. 

John Edwards, Fenton. — Earthen- 


ir.B.M. & CO J 

Edge, Malkin & Co., Burslem. — ^Earth- 
enware and tiles. 







F. J. Emery, Cobridge. — Earthenware. 
Closed in 1893. 

PuRNiVALS, Ltd. Cobridge. — Thos. Furni- 
val, Jr. & Co. succeeded Reuben Johnson & 
Co. at the Stafford Street works, Hanley. 
The form afterwards changed to Furnival & 
Clark and so continued until 1851, when the 
works at Cobridge were taken and the firm 
was changed to Thos. Furnival & Sons, 
later succeeded by "Furfiivals, Limited." 
Their toilet ware and punch bowls are char- 
acterized by excellence of design and careful 


Fell & Co, Newcastle on Tyne. — Founded 
TELL % Co. 1817. One of the North of England fac- 

tories, of which there remained about twenty-five on the Tyne, the Wear and 
the Tees thirty years ago, many of them founded the latter part of the 
18th century. The ware was inferior to that of Leeds, but some well 
modeled statuettes were produced, often spoiled by poor coloring and crude 
attempts at marbling the bases. A coarse kind of purple gold lustre was 
often smeared over printed patterns. 


W. H. Goss, Stoke-upon-Trent.— Parlao and 
Belleek. All pieces very carefully potted. 

W. H. Grindley & Co., TuQstall.— Earthen- 
ware of good quality. 

B. &. S. Hancock, Stoke-on-Trent. — Earthen- 

K. Hammerslet &Son.- 

Hope & Carter. — Burslem. 

Herculaneum Pottery, Liverpool, — From 
1790 to 1833. One of the most important and 
progressive of the Liverpool potteries. Founded 
by Richard Abbey, it passed in 1796 into the 
hands of Worthington & Co., who called it the 
Herculaneum Pottery. The carlieBt mark was 
HERCTTLANEUM imprcBsed. The liver, the crest of 
Liverpiool, was used after 1S22. Many pitchers 
with prints in black relating to the history of this 
country were produced by this compauy, and date 
from 1790 to 1825. 

Hammebsley, Freeman & Co. See Astbury, Ed. 
Hammerbley & Astbury. See Astbury, Ed. 




D. H. 




Jos. HoLDCROFT, LoDgtoD. — MajoUca. He also used 
a globe as a trademark. 

Geo. Jones & Sons, Stoke-on-Trent.— China, earth- 
enware and majolica. A high order of merit is aimed 
at and attained by this firm, and their products are dis- 
tinguished by great individuality of style. 


Johnson Bros., Hanley. White 
granite and semi-porcelain. Estab- 
lished 1882. 


Knapper & Blackhurst, Dalehall.— Founded by 
John and James Rogers. The latter died in 1815, and 
Spencer Rogers joined his father, and the business con- 
tinued as John Rogers and Son. In 1842 the works 
were purchased by James Edwards, and eventually 
passed into the hands of Knapper & Blackhurst. Rog- 
ers made a number of American historical designs, in- 
cluding the Boston State House plate. The first, fourth 
and fifth are impressed marks ; the second and third 
are printed. 

Keeling & Co, — See Bates, Elliot & Co. 


LowESBY. — Leicestershire Terra Cotta. 1835 to about 

LiVESLEY, Powell & Co. See Bishop & Stonier. 



W. Littler, Longton Hall. — China. 175— 


Leeds. — Celebrated for its cream-colored 
wares, which rivaled those of Wedgwood. Es- 
tabliahed by two brothers, named Greeo, in 
175S. In 1775 the firm waa Humble, Green & 
Co.; ID 1783, Hartley, Green & Co.; in 1825, 
Samuel Wainwright & Co.; in 1832, Leeds 
Pottery Co.; in 1840, Stephen & James Chap- 
pell, and afterwards Warburton & Britton. 
Old Leeds cream-colored ware is justly esteemed 
for ita fine body and glaze, the basket and 
reticulated pieces being especially good. 

T. Mayes, Stoke. — Established prior to 
1829. The works was formerly carried on by 
Daniel Bird, who was called the flint potter, 
through his having ascertained the exact pro- 
portions of flint and clay required in order to 
prevent crazing. Both marks are from an 
historical American blue plate. 

Moore Bros., Longton. — Fine ornamental 




JoHK Maddock & Sons, Burslem. — This well 
known firm was founded by John Maddock in 
1830. His son, James Maddock, the present head 
of the house, came to America in in 1876, and 
upon his return home considerably enlarged the 
works, which now give employment to over six 
hundred employees. His efforts have always been 
directed to the improvement of useful rather than 
ornamental goods, and being able to concentrate 
his energies on this, he has been happily success- 
ful ; a success which has had its reward in a yearly 
increasing volume of business, which is after all 
the best expression of appreciation a manufacturer 
can obtain. The ohromo-lithographic process is 
now happily employed, the effect being heightened 
by the vitreous nature of the body, and some 
charming results are obtained. Mr. Maddock has 
been the recipient of all the honors his fellow 
townsmen could bestow upon him, having been 
elected as Mayor of the ancient borough of Burs- 
lem, in addition to other local appointments. His 
nephew, John Francis, has been admitted as a 
junior partner by his uncle, and much of the pre- 
sent management of the firm devolves upon him. 
The two last are the present marks, the last one 
being used on hotel ware. 




Alfred Meakin, Tunstall. — Earthenware. Es- 
tablished 1881, having bought the works formerly 
occupied by Turner & Tomkinson. The first is 
the white granite mark ; the next is discontinued ; 
the last on semi-porcelain. 







MiNTONB, Limited, Stoke-upon-Trent. — 
The first mark is from a printed pattern iss- 
ued about 1837. The next four are early 
painted marks, the first two being imitations 
of the Sevres mark. The following two are 
printed marks on china used before 1868. 

The printed names **Minton'' and 
" MiNTON «fc Co." are impressed marks, and 
were not used before 1861. The globe was 
adopted as a trade-mark in 1868. Chaffers 
gives this mark as that of HoUins, Minton 
& Co., but there never was such a firm. 
Minton, Hollins & Co., who own the right 
to mark their tiles "Minton & Co." make 
tiles only. The globe with flags was printed 
in gold on all goods exhibited at the Phila- 
delphia Exhibition. The last mark but one 
is used only on ungilt china ; the last one is 
the present trademark. 

Founded in 1788 by Thos. Minton. 1790, 
Minton & Poulson. 1793, the firm consisted 
of Thos. Minton, Jos. Poulson and — Pownall. 
1809, Thos. Minton alone. 1817, Thomas 
Minton and his two sons, Herbert and 
Thomas Webb Minton. 1823-31, Thomas 
Minton alone. 1831-36, Herbert Minton and 
John Boyle— Minton & Boyle; 1836-48, 
Herbert Minton, Michael Daintry Hollins. 
1848 58, Herbert Minton, Michael Daintry 
Hollins, Colin Minton Campbell— H. Minton 
& Co, 1858-67, Michael Daintry Hollins, 
Colin Minton Campbell. Same firm name. 
1867-83, Colin Minton Campbell, T. W. 
Minton, Herbert Minton Senhouse — Minton 
& Co. 1883, formed into a limited liability 
company under the style of "Mintons, 

J. & G. Meakin, Hanley, — One of the 
largest earthenware manufacturers in the 


Mellor, Taylor & Co. — Earthenware. 





NANT-GARW. Printed. 

Miles Mason, LoDgton. — Esta- 
blished the latter part of the last 

Founded in 1813. 

Sold to Coalport in 1820. 

Jewett thinks the G (?) W may stand for George Walker, Billingsley's 
partner ; but the letter is clearly a C. It may be intended as an abbrevia- 
tion of China Works. 

C . 



I. Neale, Hanley.— 1776. Suc- 
cessor to J. Palmer ; succeeded by C. 
Wilson. They made excellent wares 
in imitation of Wedgwood. 

The New Hall Co., Hanley, who 
made the only hard porcelain ever 
made in StaflTordshire. 1778-1810. 
(See Champion.) 

The Old Hall Works, Hanley. — 
Founded in 1790 by Job Meigh. He 
was succeeded by his son, and the 
works were afterwards converted into 
a limited liability company, under the 
style of the Old Hall Earthenware Co. , 
Limited. Their productions consist of 
ornamental pieces in earthenware, 
stoneware and a general line of dinner 
and toilet ware. 


New Wharf Pottery Co.— Burs- 
lem. — Earthenware. 

Powell & Bishop 

See Bishop & Stonier. 
See Cookworthy. 


PoiNTONB, Shelton. — China, both useful and 
T*olNToAti ornamental goods. 


PiTCAiRNS, Limited, Tud stall. — Earthen - 
ware. A new and progressive factory. 

POUMOKE, Walkek & Co., Tunstall. — Sue- 
oesaora to Ralph Hall. (See James Beech.) 

PiKUKR, Bourne & Co., Burslem. — Suc- 
ceeded by Doultona. 

PiNXTON, Derbyshire. — China. John Coke 
7>' , 'P ~P and Wm. Billingsley established a small factory 

rtnxron. c a. here in 1793. Closed in 1812. 

PooLB & Unwin, Longtou. 

J. Pennington, Liverpool. — About 1750. 
Punch howls, earthenware vases and china. 

Plant Bros., Lougton. — Earthenware. 

H. Palmer, Hanley. — Imitations of Wedg- 
wojd. In 1776 he became partner with Neale. 

RiDGWAY, Job.— See Bellevue Pottery and Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co. 
" Georof.. — See Bellevue Pottery. 

" John. — See Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co. 

" E. J.— See E. J. Ridgway & Sons. 

BiDGWAYS, BheltoD. — EEkrtheaware. 
Wm. Bidgway, brother of John Eidg- 
way, of the Cauldon works, after the 
dissolution of partnership, occupied at 
one time or another at least six factor- 
ies, and at oae time was erecting a 
large pottery plant in Kentucky, but 
his affairs becoming involved, it was 
never completed. He died in 1864. 
His son, E. J. Ridgway, formed a 
partnership with J. T.. Abingtou, 
which was diaaolved in 1866. The 
style of the firm was nex't Ridgway, 
Sparks & Ridgway, and on Mr. Sparks' 
death was changed to " Ridgway s." 
See also appendix. 

Swansea. — Qeorge Haynes estab- 
lished a pottery here about 1750. In 
1800 be introduced a body called 
"opaque china." In 1802 the works 
passed into the hands of L. W. Dill- 
wyn. Ten years later W. Biilingsley 
was engaged, and made a soft paste 
Dli-LWYN ^-Co t'^''**! **"* **^ ^^^ finest bodies ever 
made in England. It was only made 
about four years, and the manufacture 
of earthenware and stoneware was re- 
sumed. The china mark was the first 
of the series. The others are of later 

Spode, Josiah. See Copeland. 
Stevenson, A. See Cobridge Works. 
Shirley & Freeman. See Astbury, Ed., & Co. 

R. G. Scrivener & Co., Shelton. 
—China. Established 1870. 


R. Stevenson, Cobridge. — This 
mark must not be confused with that 
of A. Stevenson, though both had fac- 
tories at Cobridge. Both marks are 
from a very interesting plate, with a 
view of Castle Garden. The first mark 
is impressed ; the second, printed. 

Thos. & Ralph Toft. — From slip 
painted dishes of the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 



John Turner, Longton. — Estab- 
lished 1762. 


Tooth & Co., Bretby. — Colored 
glaze ware. 




Enoch Wood & Sons, Burslem. — Enoch Wood, 
an apprentice of Palmers of Hanley, called " The 
Father of the Potteries,'* commenced business in 
1784. His best work was on statuettes. From 
1790 to 1818 the firm was Wood & Caldwell. 
Wood then took his three sons into partnership, 
and the firm became E. Wood & Sons, which con- 
tinued until 1846. To Enoch Wood we are in- 
debted for much valuable information respecting 
Staffordshire pottery, as he was a systematic and 
indefatigable collector. Many of the beautifully 
printed historical American plates were issued 
from this house. The first three marks are taken 
from such plates ; the last, from a stoneware 




Whittaker, Heath & Co., Hanley. — Earthen 
ware. Formerly Whittaker & Co. 

F. W. Winkle & Co., Hanley. — Earthen- 


Uppeb Hanley Pottesy Co.,Hanley. — 

Trent. — Eiarthenwarc. 

"1 "°^'" 

J, H. Wether BY & Sons, Hanley.— 

Wood & Son, Buralem. — Eartbenwftre. 

^fftTCWT ,^^^ 


A. J. Wilkinson, Burslem. — Earthen- 
ware. Succeeded E. Alcock, who was pre- 
ceded by Burgess & Leigh, Thomas Hulme, 
Hulme & Booth, Hopkins & Vernon. 

A, J. Wilkinson & Co., 

Po«\tlan:» Vasf 

JosiAH Wedgwood & Sons, Etruria, — On 

l^/FnO^^f QQP old specimens the main mark is the nanie 

impressed in the clay, varying from 1-4 to 

1-82 of an inch in height. Sometimes the 

initial letter only was a capital. During 

Wedgwood's partnership with Bentley the 

names were conjoined, 


and also as shown in the second and last two 
marks. Bentley' s partnership only extended 
to ornamental pieces. The mark 

with a date underneath, belongs to the time 
when the works were carried on by the son 
of the founder. In the older stamps the O 
was always wide ; in the later ones it is al- 
ways narrow. The Portland vase mark is 
the present mark on china only. 

The following data will be of interest : 
Josiah Wedgwood was born July, 1730. 
School attendance ceased with his father's death in 1739. Bound apprentice 
to his elder brother, Thomas Wedgwood, 1744. Entered into partnership 
with Harrison about 1752. With Whieldon about 1754. Established in busi- 
ness for himself 1759. Took Thomas Bentley into partnership 1766. Married 
to Sarah Wedgwood January 29, 1764. Removed to Etruria 1771. Jasper 
dip invented 1777. Bentley died 1780. Portland vase copied 1790. Took 
his sons, John, Josiah and Thomas, and his nephew, Thomas Byerley, into 
partnership 1790. Died 1795. 

The life of Wedgwood has been written so fully and sympathetically, 
with such an appreciation of his influence, not only on English ceramics, but 
on those of the entire world, that this bare epitome of dates must suflfice here. 
Wedgwood the man finds his happiest biographer in Samuel Smiles. Wedg- 
wood the potter is equally well portrayed by Llewellyn Jewett and Miss 

WiLEMAN & Co., Longton. — China. 






\\^ ^ M 




From 1752 to 1800. The crescent is 
the true Wopcester mark. It was 
taken from one of the quarterings in 
the Warmstry arms. 

Crescents with additions. Rare, and 
generally on blue ware. 

Found on a great variety of patterns 
of early date. 

Square marks. These are freely 
forged at the present day. 

Copies of Chinese and Japanese pat- 
terns ; usually found on ware of that 
class ; sometimes with the addition of 
the crescent or W. 

Same as preceding. 

Imitations of Dresden marks, but 
not confined strictly to this class of 
decoration, appearing sometimes on 
plain printed ware. 

Appear only on black transfer prints 
between 1756 and 1774. 



Imitations of Dresden marks. 


^liif^ l^ liarr. 





Rfl)fAi FflTcelain Works. 

^L on J on House 

NrlCoVMilry StTccl 






Re^rit China, , 

^ 155. 

Impressed, 1783 to 1791. 

First in blue underglaze, same 
period ; second on royal service 
made for the Duke of Clarence ; 
third scratched in the clay. From 
1793 to 1800. 

From 1793 to 1807. 

Prom 1807 to 1813. 

From 1813 to 1840. 

From 1798 to about 1804. 

About 1814. 

Printed mark. From about 1814 
to about 1820. 


B0jaL ¥§TeeUun Man ujadums. 


k HO. h 


CJiamiin/ain O' Co.. WareeMten 

Prhitod, firom 1820 to 1840. 

PHnted, from 1840 to 1845. 

Printed, from 1847. 

Printed and impressed, 1847 to 1850. 

Printed, 1850 to 1851. 

The first, 1852 to 1862 ; second used by 
Kerr and Binns on special pieces. 


The first is the mark used by the pres- 
ent company since 1862; the second, 
George Grainger & Co.; since 1889, 
owned and operated by the Worcester 
Porcelain Co. 

Pounded by Dr. Wall in 1751. Dr. Wall died in 1776. Business sold to 
Flight, the Company's London agent, 1783. Conducted by his two sons, 
John and Joseph, until 1792. Royal warrant granted by George III, 1788; 
Flight A Barr, 1793-1807 ; Barr, Flight & Barr, 1807-1840 ; united to Cham- 
berlains 1840 as a joint stock company ; dissolved in 1848 ; 1850, W. H. 
Kerr admitted partner ; 1852 to 1862, W. H. Kerr & R. W. Binns; 1862, 
present stock company formed, Mr. Binns left the company this present 






^'^ VK iMt * 


1. — Liege, F. The first manufactory was established here by Baron de 
Bulow in 1752, but was not successful, and his privilege was revoked in 1767. 
Lefebure and Gavron h^d no better success. J. Boussemaert, of Lille, in 
1772 started in a small way and in a few years was able to purchase a large 
works which he converted into a pottery. The decorations were principally 
copies of Rouen and Strasburg. 

2-4. — TouRNAi, F. and H. P. Pierre Joseph Fanquez early in the 
18th century established a works here. After his death in 1741 he was 
succeeded by his son, who afterwards (1751) disposed of the. works to 
Peterynck, of Lille. He continued to make faience, and added china, engag- 
ing principally English workmen. The blue de roi produced equaled that of 
Sevres. Many imitations of Sevres came from here. 

5-6. — BocH Bros., La Louviere, F. They have successfully produced 
good copies of Rhodian ware. The mark 6 is only used on reproductions and 
imitations of Delft. 

7. — Bruges, F. Henri Pulinex had a factory here in 1753, 

8. — ^Tervueren, near Brussels, F. A small factory established in the 
park of the Chateau of Tervueren by the Duke of Loraime for Marie 
Therese. It only existed from 1767 to 1781. 








1-3 — Kiel, F, A manufacture of faience "was founded here by Jean 
Buchwald about 1760. The principal artist was Abraham Leihamer. Pure 
and elegant forms combined with admirably executed decorations, usually on 
the glaze, gave the products of Kiel an excellent reputation. Specimens are 
rare and highly valued, and generally marked as above. 

4. — Copenhagen. Founded in 1772 by a chemist named MuUer and 
afterwards purchased by King Christian YII. The works of the celebrated 
Danish sculptor Thorwaldsen were spiritedly reproduced and at once gave 
the factory prominence. But it is the work of to-day more than the tradi- 
tions of the past that will form the standard in ages to come. These are too 
well known to need exploiting here. 

5. — Copenhagen, F. About the middle of the 18th century. 



1. F., MuHAMED Ali, 1861 ; 2, on a flask in the 
possession of Mr. Fort num. 


Hadji Minas. — A modern factory producing imitations of 
Persian wares, very carefully and conscientiously executed. 



Abbreviations. — S. P., soft paste ; H. P., hard paste; F., faience. 
12 3 4 


A J^ ^J L^ J?v 




1-4. St. Amand les Eaux, F. — Founded in 1740 by Pierre Joseph 
Fanquez, who was succeeded by his son and grandson. The latter in 1773 
copied the style of Rouen and Strasbourg, but later originated a special 
decoration consisting of delicate designs in white enamel on brown and blue 
enamel grounds. A manufacture of soft paste china was commenced here 
in 1815 by De Bettignies. Copies of the finest Sevres works are beautifully 

5-9. Aprey, F. —Established about 1750 by Lallemand de Villehaut 

(Baron d'Aprey). Distinguished for the elegance of its shapes, which were 

mostly copies of goldsmiths' models. Also for the beautiful bird and flower 

paintings by Jarry. Nos. 6 and 7 are his marks. The factory afterwards 

passed into the hands of Baron d'Anthes, who was succeeded in 1789 by 


10 11 


. L L 

10-11. Arbas, S. p. — Established about 1784, but only existed for a 

few years. Specimens are highly esteemed, the work often equalling that of 


12 13 14 15 







I 12. Bordeaux, H. P. — Period uncertain. The mark i^ ascribed to Yer* 


13. F. — A mark of the modern factory at Bordeaux, recently closed in 

I the interests of the Comptoir Ceramique, who control the output of French 

! earthenware and faience. 

14. Brancas Lauraguais made hard porcelain in 1764. Mostly dec- 
orated in blue. He went to England and obtained a patent, claiming that 
he had found the materials there for making porcelain. This antedates 
Cookworthy's patent by two years. It is a matter of dispute, but it seems 
probable that the first discovery of kaolin in France was made by Count 
Brancas Lauraguais in 1758 in the neighborhood of Alencon. 

15. Bourg-la-Reine, H, P. — Founded about 1773. At a later period 
faience was made. 

16. Caen, H. P. — The manufactory here only existed from 1798 to 
1810. The workmanship is excellent. A distinguishable feature is a peculiar 
yellow ground, on which are painted bouquets of flowers, garlands and 
lover's knots. 

17. Choisy-le-roi, H. P. — A factory was established here in 1786 by 

18. Choisy-le-roi, F. — Messrs. H. Boulanger & Co. make a large 

variety of popular priced goods. 

19-20. Chantilly, S. P. — Founded in 1725 under the patronage of the 
Prince de Conde. Imari and Corean decorations were freely copied. To 
give increased whiteness the china was covered with a thin tin glaze 
greatly enhancing the harmony and delicacy of the decorations. 

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 


I M yr 

28 20 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 

21-25. Clignancourt, H. P.— Established in 1775. The marks 21-23 
show different forms of the windmill mark. No. 24 was suppressed by the 
authorities on account of its resemblance to the Sevres cypher. 

26-27. — La Courtille, H. P. — Founded in 1711, and afterwards passed 
into the hands of Pouyat, of Limoges. I have at some length traced the 
history of this factory in ** Rough Notes on Pottery.'* 

28. Dagoty, p. L.J H. P. — Was later styled and the ware marked 
"Manufactur de S. M. I'lmperatice.*' 

29. Etiolles. — Established in 1776 by Monnier as a soft paste factory. 
Early work was in imitation of St. Cloud. At a later date hard porcelain 
was made. 


Faience d^OEiON. — Often called Henri Deux ware from the 
fact that his emblem often formed a component part of the deco* 
ration. It is now conclusively proved that it was made between 
the years 1524 and 1537 at the Chateau d'Orion by Francois Cher- 
pentier and Jehan Bernait, under the direction of the accomplished Helena 
d'Hengest. Only about fifty pieces are said to be in existence, and their 
beauty and rarity have made them — in the case of the choicest specimens — 
worth their weight in gold. The shapes are elaborate, and consist of ewers, 
tazzas, saltcellars, etc. The patterns seem to have been suggested by the 
highly ornate book covers of the period, and were first incised or impressed 
in a fine white clay, and these sunken portions were filled in with different 
colored clays in dark brown, soft yellow and buff. The known specimens 
may be divided into three periods : 1st. Under the personal artistic super- 
vision of Helene d'Hengest. 2d. After her death, when under her son the 
same workmen were employed; and the third period after the death of 
Bernait and Cherpentier, when the manufacture fell into inexperienced hands 
and gradually decayed. 

30. Chas. Hannong; 31, Paul A. Hannong; 32, J. Hannong; 33, Ohas. 
H. Hannong ; 34-36, Paul A. Hannong ; 37-38, Jos. A. Hannong. The Han- 
nongs occupy an important place in the history of pottery of the eighteenth 
century. Charles Hannong in 1709 was making pipes and large stoves in 
Strasbourg. In 1721 a workman named Wackenfeld, who had escaped from 
Meissen, became associated with him, and they commenced the manufacture 
of porcelain under the direction of his son, Paul Antoine. They were emi- 
nently successful — so much so that the Royal factory, jealous of their success, 
obtained an order from the King prohibiting its manufacture. Paul Antoine 
was obliged to leave the country. The manufacture of faience was continued 
in Strasbourg by Paul A.'s sons, Pierre and Joseph. Paul Antoine went to 
Frankenthal ; Pierre to Yincennes. It is claimed that his mark here was two 
crossed pipes with or without the letter H, but M Garnier in his " Diction- 
aire de la Ceramique,''' says he has never met with a specimen. This mark is 
used by one or two German houses to-day. 

39 40 41 42 












89-42. Keller & Guerin, Luneville. — 39 is the mark of Cyflfle, a 
famous sculptor (1746), whose statuettes of humble life, modeled with so much 
skill and delicacy of touch, gave an added reputation to the factory. 
Founded in 1729 by Chambrette, in 1778 it passed into the hands of Sebastien 
Keller, whose direct descendants are now the proprietors. 40-42 arc modern 

43-47. Lille, F. and H. P. — A manufactory was founded here in 1696 
by Jacques Feburier (or Febvrier), a modeler from Tournai. After his death 
in 1729 his widow, in conjunction with Francois Boussemaert, continued the 
manufacture with great success, and obtained for it the title of the Royal 
manufactory. Boussemaert died in 1778. Nos. 43-44 are his marks. He was 
succeeded by Petit. Nos. 45-47 are marks on china. Another manufactory 
was started in 1711 by Dorez and Pelissier; a third in 1740 by a Hollander 
named Wamps ; and a fourth in 1758 by Hereng ; a fifth factory was estab- 
lished in 1773 by an Englishman named Clarke. 





dt /S ^ may 




52 58 


48-63. Limoges. — The earliest factory at Limoges of which we have 
any knowledge was that of Sieur IVJassier, for which, in 1737, he obtained a 
decree empowering him to establish a faience manufactory. The mark No. 
48 is from a dish made by him, now in the Limoges Museum. The discovery 
of kaolin at St. Yrieix turned the attention of potters to the manufacture of 
porcelain ; but as late as the close of the eighteenth century there appears to 
have been two porcelain works at Limoges apparently producing white ware 
only for the Paris decorators. Undoubtedly the introduction of American 
brains and capital made of Limoges the pottery centre it has now become. 

Nos. ^-50 are respectively the marks on white and decorated china made 
by Tressemanes & Vogt. The factory was founded in 1852 by J. F. H. Vogt, 
and in 1882 the style was changed to that of the present proprietors. 

51. W. Guerin & Co., Limoges. 

52-53. J. PouYAT, Limoges. — Pierre Pouyat established a faience manu- 
factory at St. Yrieix, afterwards purchasing the La Courtille works at 
Paris, where he made hard porcelain. His son, J. Pouyat, succeeded him, 
and founded in 1842 a factory at Limoges which soon assumed considerable 


importance. Pouyat china has always been celebrated for its fine texture^ 
and to keep pace with the demand a new factory was built in 1849. One of 
their specialties is underglaze Sevres blue, equaling, if not rivaling that of 
Sevres. No. 52 is the mark on white ware ; 53, on decorated pieces. 

54. A. Lanternier, Limoges. — Established in 1885. 













55. M. L. Redon & Co., Limoges. — The paste is excellent. 

56. Theodore H aviland, Limoges. — The Cross of the Legion of Honor 
is also used as a trade-mark in connection with the name. Mr. Theodore 
Haviland, formerly of Haviland & Co., after the dissolution of partnership 
January 1, 1890, built a new factory, and the quality of the goods, the taste 
shown in the decorations, and the purity of style of the shapes, quickly 
secured generous recognition and placed him in the front rank of Limoges 

57-8. Delinieres & Co., Limoges. — Established about 1846, but prior 
to 1881 they only made white china. No. 57 was used up to 1893. 58 is the 
present mark on white ware, the decoration mark being the name of the firm 
in small script in red. 

59. Made at Limoges for a New York importer, P. H. Leonard. 

60. Barny, Rigoni & Langle, Limoges. 

61. — The plain white and decoration marks of L. Sazerat, Limoges. 
Comparatively a new house to the United States ; although an old estab- 
lished one whose honors have been reaped principally in the old world 
through their soft and harmonious decorations ; have already attracted much 
attention here. Mr. Sazerat has been decorated with the Cross of the 
Legion of Honor. 

62. Gerard, Dufraisseix & Cie, Limoges. — The AUuauds, well- 
known citizens of Limoges, founded this manufactory of china in 1797 ; both 
father and son having filled the ofiice of mayor on several occasions. Some 
specimens made by them in 1815, having recently come to light, and are in^ 
teresting, as showing their acquaintance at this early date, with underglaze 
or " furnace fire '* color. The factory (known as the " Casseaux '*) continued 


under the control of the Alluauds until 1876, when Mr. Charles Field Havl- 
land succeeded — his wife being a grand-daughter of M. Alluaud. Prior to 
1868 the mark had been A E stamped in the clay. From 1868 to 1872 it was 
the mark C F H ^^^o impressed ; the same initials being used as a printed mark 
up to 1882. Mr. Haviland retired from active business in 1881, and was 
succeeded by E. Gerard, Dufraisseix & Morel, afterwards changed to E, 
Gerard, Dufraisseix & Cie, who now control the factory and are represented 
in the United States by Gerard, Dufraisseix & Abbot. When this change in 
the proprietorship occurred, the initials G D M were added to the mark CFH 
the word France being added in 1891. CFH The decoration G D M 
stamp /<^^lfp\ has always been used, up ^GDM^ to the present year. 
The f^f'^^i beginning of this year was ^ANv signalized by a radical 
depar \t^5jjT^y t^^© i^ ^^o productions of the house, and to the merely 
p r e t ^"""^^^ ty, wa^ added a higher class of decorations and designs. 
This, however, was not the only change, for inspired by absolute faith in the 
intrinsic and artistic merits of their goods, they put aside all aid or benefit from 
past marks and reputation, standing only on the merits of their wares, and 
adopted the following as their marks : 




A trade-mark is often a guide to value, but primarily is simply a guar- 
antee of good faith, and if a piece is purchased solely because it bears a certain 
mark, the specimens in your cabinets would better be reversed, and present 
the mystic mark only to the gaze of appreciative friends. Courage is an attri- 
bute everyone admires, and E. Gerard, Dufraisseix & Cie must be credited 
with a high confidence in their wares. A glance at their latest productions 
proves this to be well founded and the new marks have already made for 
themselves an enviable reputation for choiceness of design, quality and 

63. The white china mark of Haviland & Co. The decoration mark is 
the full name of the firm over the word Limoges. It was in 1839 that Mr. D. 
Haviland conceived the idea of introducing French china into his market — 
an idea that with characteristic American enterprise he tenaciously held until 
accomplished. His search for the maker of a cup of exceptionally fine paste 
led him to Limoges — a visit that was destined to revolutionize the products of 
•that city and to make its name more closely associated with French ceramics 
than that of Kouen itself. The existing shapes and decorations did not 
appear suitable for this market. New shapes were made for him, and organ- 
izing a large decoration shop, he, with the assistance of the ablest talent that 
money could command, eventually revolutionized the productions of Limoges, 
and gave them the distinctive character possessed by them until this day, and 


Of 3£ J 

inaugurated a business destined to grow to colossal proportions. From deco- 
rating he turned to manufacturing, adopting all the newest processes ; and 
the combination of labor-saving devices with the employment of an artistic 
element resulted in placing him easily in the front rank of ceramic manufac- 
turers. The body ^as equal to any produced at Limoges, the decorations 
characterized by an artistic restraint, never overloaded with color less beau- 
tiful than the glaze, but in strict harmony with it. The chromo-lithographic 
process of printing in colors, whereby very soft and harmonious effects are 
produced, found capable exponents here. Nor was the higher artistic ele- 
ment wanting, the best modelers obtainable furnishing forms on which skill- 
ful artists expended all that careful trai ing and their artistic talent sug- 

64 65 67 68 69 70 71 

w /T^r Q^ "^ 

72 73 74 75 76 

64-67. MousTiERS, F. — After Nevers and Rouen the most important 
faience-producing town in France. The manufacture flourished from the end 
of the seventeenth to the close of the eighteenth century. Nos. 64-5 are the 
marks of Olerys ; 66-7, those of Ferand. Pierre Clerissy, who died in 1728, 
was one of the earliest of the manufacturers. There is in the Marseilles 
Museum a dish signed ** G Viry fit a Moustiers chez Clerissy, 1711.*' Other 
marks are A.P : AB.L : E.F : FE. 

68. Marseilles, F. — Honore Savy, about 1770, afterwards known 
under the title of *^ Manufactur de Monsieur, frere du Roy.** 

69. Marseilles, F. — Veuve Perrin. 

70. Marseilles, F. — Joseph Robert; 

71. Mennecy, S. p. — Founded in 1735 by Francis Barbin, under the 
patronage of the Duke de Villeroy. The paste was coated with an enamel of 
perfect purity. The decorations were always executed with the utmost care, 
and consisted of flowers, landscapes, etc. Groups and statuettes were also 
made, and these were painted in very decided colors and Sometimes outlined 
in black. In 1773 the manufactory was united with that of Bourg la Reine, 
which then discontinued the making of porcelain and manufactured faience 

72-76. NiEDERViLLER, F. and H. P. — Founded in 1742 by Jean Louis 
de Beyerle, who enticed away many of Paul Hannong's best workmen. 
About 1774 the works passed into the hands of Count Custine, who appointed 
Francois Lanfrey, one of the ablest faience makers of his day. as director. 


After the Bevolution (1789), and the execution of Count Custine, the works 
passed into Lanfrey's hands. Chas. Sauvage, generally called Lemire, a 
very talented sculptor, added much to the success of the works. In 1827, 
Dryander, of Saarbuck, bought the works, but discontinued the making of 
china after a few years. No. 55 is Beyerle's mark ; 58, Lanfrey's ; 56, 57 and 
59, marks under Count Custine. 

77 78 79 80 81 82 

^ ^ I6?6 ^^ 1689. ^73f 

A A. A ^i^ Orlc»c\ns 

83 84 85 86 

77-82. Nevers, F. — Up to about the middle of the sixteenth century 
Italy had taken the load in ceramics, but about this time Louis Gonzaga, 
Duke of Nevers, sent for a lot of Italian workmen, and founded the first fac- 
tory at Nevers. The Conrade brothers established a second factory about 
1608, and under them the Italian style gave place to Oriental decorations, 
which in turn were gradually supplanted by the influence of Bouen. To- 
wards the end of the eighteenth century there was a marked deterioration, 
and the style became debased. No. 77 is the Conrade mark ; 78, that of 
Dennis Lefebvre, one of his workmen ; 79, Jacques Bourdu, a painter at 
Antoines; 80-81, Henri and Etienne Borne, modelers of statuettes; 82, 
attributed to Francois Rodrigues. Of the vast output of the Nevers factories 
very few specimens bear any mark. 

83 87. Orleans, F., S. P. — Orleans had several factories. March 13, 
1753, the title of " Manufacture Royale'' was given to the one founded by 
Jacques Etienne Dessaux de Romilly, who was succeeded in 1757 by Gerault 
Deraubert. Nos. 83-85 are ascribed to this factory. After the Revolution 
stencils (86-87) were used. 

88 89 90 91 92 93 94 

%^- >i W ^ A 


Totter C-P ^^ S'C 


I 'T^ T 

95 96 97 98 99 100 


88. Paris, H. P. — Marie Moreau, widow of A. ChicanDeau, in coDJunc- 
tion with Dominicque Chicanneau, established a works in Paris about 1773. 

89. Paris, S. P.— Pierre Antoine Hannong, 1722. 

90 92. Paris, H. P.— Porcelain k la Reine. Established in 1778 by 
Andre-Marie Leboeuf, and patronized by Marie Antoinette. In the early 
part of this century this factory belonged to Guy & Housel, who marked their 
war "G. H., Rue Theron k Paris.'' 

93-94. Paris, Rue de Bondy, H. P.— Founded in 1780 by Guerhard & 
Dihl. Its productions were skillfully manufactured and decorated, and are 
highly esteemed. They are known as "Porcelain du Due d'Angouleme,'* 
often erroneously called " Porcelaine d'Angouleme.'' The Duke's cypher 
forms the mark. After the Revolution the name of the firm in full was used, 
and this, after the Restoration, by '^ Manufac de Mgr le due d'Angouleme k 
Paris." Dihl was an able chemist, and many new colors are due to his skill. 

95-96. Paris, Pont aux Choux, H. P. — The mark is the cypher of its 
patron, the Duke of Orleans, This was replaced in 1773 by **Fabriquedu 
Pont aux Choux ". 


Jacob Petit, Belleville, Paris. — Established in 1790 at Belle- 
ville, and later removed to Fontainbleau, where he made imita- 
tions of Dresden china. 

97-98. Paris. — H. P. and earthenware. Potter, an Englishman, who 
introduced in Paris the manufacture of English earthenware. 

99-100. • St. Cloud, S. P. — This was the first manufactory to produce 
porcelain in France, if we except a few specimens made by Poterat, of Rouen. 
The St. Cloud works were established before 1693 by Chicanneau, his mark 
being a rough representation of the sun. No. 100 is the mark after 1712. 
Chicanneau died, and his widow, Barbe Coudray, having married Henri 
Trow, he assumed control of the works. They were burned down in 1773, 
and were not rebuilt. 

101 102 103 104 105 106 

■?- 32. 

107 108 109 110 111 112 
113 114 115 116 117 118 119 

PA II M- Mo A CO 'B 

















M' pa 







101-129. Rouen, F. — From the middle of the sixteenth to the close cf 
eighteenth century. The Rouen factories were in their zenith early in the 
eighteenth century. 101-109 are marks on patterns with radiating designs, 
mostly in blue ; 110-113, on decorations in blue, heightened with black ; 114- 
117, colored decorations with copper lustre ; 118-121, a la corne designs in 
bright colors ; 122127, on similar designs, but with citron yellow predominat- 
ing ; 128-9, the marks of A. Poterat, a celebrated Rouen faience manufac- 
turer, who made the first pieces of artificial china in France. 

■^ - „ , 

Sevres. — From 1753 to 1776 the'crossed L's 

were used as a mark, with the addition of a 

letter to indicate the year. Then double letters 

were commenced and continued until RR, in 

1793. Therefore No. 137 indicates 1754 ; 138, 

1791 ; 139, 1780. The mark was then changed 

to "Sevres," with the Republican monogram 

(140-143). This was abandoned in 1800, and the 

word "Sevres*' alone remained. In 1801 the 

use of letters was resumed as follows : 




Jevrej Sevre 



M. Imp 

cle Sevres 

— //— 

145 T 

















m « 
























■- 1 

-■ » 


, X 

— . ■* 

.« :.» 

^ t ' 


^ l.^a' 




^^ T*^*" 

-sia**'*^ ,*6*va--*- ,w^-'*^'" w 




de ^^- "^^ for 






164 165 166 167 168 169 170-71 

<s ^s sx 5x 4- s p ;5- 


172 * 173 174 175 176 

166-69. ScEAUx, F. and S. P. (near Paris) — Founded about 1750. It 
was for some time under the patronage of the Duchesse du Maine, and later 
that of the Due du Penthieve, Grand Admiral of France. It became 
celebrated under the direction of Chappelle, but reached its zenith under 
Richard Glot, a clever ceramist and skillful sculptor of ornaments. The 
faience body is very fine and hard. Figures, flowers, birds and arabesques 
are the usual decorations, and are generally enriched with delicately 
carved ornaments and mouldings. In 1790 Glot sold the factory to Cabaset, 
but he could not maintain the prestige his predecessor had given the work, 
and shortly afterward confined himself to domestic articles. Soft paste china 
was also made under Glot, and it was of the same perfect manufacture and 
delicacy of treatment as characterized the faience. The same marks were 
used on china as on faience, but on china they were incised ; on the faience 
painted on the glaze. 

170-71. SiNCENNY, F, — Established in 1737. Productions were in the 
style of Rouen. Pierre Pelleve, the first director, was a Rouen man, and 
brought with him many Norman workmen. Later the decorations became 
more original. A beautiful and vivid citrine yellow is a characteristic and 
conspicuous pigment. 

172-74. Sarreguemines. — Founded by Paul Utzchneider in 1770, and is 
still carried on under the name of Uztchneider & Co. To retain its claim as a 
French factory the firm has recently opened a branch works at Degoin, in 
France. The manufactures were varied, ranging from china and earthen- 
ware for household purposes to figures and groups in biscuit and "Wedgwood 
jasper ware, and have always had a good reputation. 173-74 are the modern 


175-76. Valenciennes, F. and H. P. — A faience factory was founded 
here in 1735 by Francis Louis Dorez. No. 175 is his mark. In 1785 Fran- 
ques founded a porcelain manufactory, but sold it soon afterward to Lamonin- 
ary, China of very fine quality was made in addition to terra cotta and 
statuettes. These were marked " Valenciennes*', or the abbreviated form 
** Valencien''. 

177. ViNCENNES, S. P. — Founded in 1740 by two brothers 

named Dubois, from the St, Cloud Works. It was later merged 

into the Royal Sevres factory. 



Hard porcelain, unless otherwise specified. 



8 Z.A 










X " 








1-2. Actien-Gesellschaft Norddeutsche Steingutfabrik Grohn 
—Established 1870. ' 

6. Annaburger Steingutfabrik, Annaburg.— Established 1874. 


7. Arnoldi, C. E. & F., Elgersburg. — A small factory employing about 
fifty workmen. Established 1808. 

8. Anspach. — In existence early part of this century. 

9. Baensch, Heinbich, Lettin. — Established 1858. 

10-16. Berlin Royal Factory. Established in 1751 by William 
"NVegeley. 10, 11 and 15 are his marks. No. 13 was adopted about 1840. 
After the seven years* war and the occupation of Dresden, Frederick the 
Great transported from the Meissen works both man and materials to enrich 
the Berlin works. Its productions have always been and are to-day of a 
very high standard of merit, and are of almost infinite variety. The sceptre 
in various forms is used on white ware ; the globe and cross when a decora- 
tion la added. 14 is the mark on a special paste not sold in white. 16 is the 
modern mark. 

17-18. Baden-Baden. —Hard paste china was made here from 1753 to 
1778 by the widow Sperl. • 

19. Bauer, Adolf, Madgeburg-Neustadt, — Established 1865. 

21-22. Benedikt Bros., Mayerhofen. — Established 1884. 

23. Bertram, Bernhard, Luftelburg. — Principally majolica. 

25. BoRDOLLO Bros. , Grunstadt. — Established 1818. 

27. Buckauer Porz. Manufactur, Madgeburg-Buckau. — Established 


31. Daehmel, Alfred, Hirschberg.— Established 1854, 

35. Eisenberger Steingutfabrik (Geyer & Korbitz), Eisenburg. 

36. Pirkenhammer.— This complete mark is usually reserved for im- 
portant pieces. 

38. Franke, a., Vordamm, near Dresden.— Established 1840. 

40-41. Furstenberger Porz. Fabrik, Furstenberg.— Established 1750 
by Bengraf, from Hochst. Was under the patronage of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick. No. 40 is the modern mark. 

4243. FuLDA.— Established 1763 by th6 Prince Bishop of Hesse. Fine 
vases, figures and services. Specimens are rare and highly prized. 

44-47. Frankenthal —Established 1754 by Paul Hannong. In 1764 it 
became the property of Elector Carl Theodore. The works were sold in 1800 
and removed to Greinstadt, and continued for a short time under private 
management. 45 is P. A. Hannong' s mark ; 46, Jos. A. Hannong j 47, 
initials of Carl Theodore. 

48-49. Goth A. —Founded in 1780 by Rothenburg. 

50. Gla&ser & Greiner, Schmiedefeld.— Established 1809. 

51. Glatz,. JoH ANN, Villen gen.— Established 1870. 

55. Hager, Horth & Co., Zell.— Established 1858. Majolica. 

58-62. Herender Porzellanfabrik.— A small factory established in 
1839, producing marvelous reproductions of Sevres, Dresden, and other cele- 
brated wares. 

66 67. Horn Bros. Hornberg.— Established 1817, Majolica and stone- 



w Sco 


R N 

68. HuBBE Bros., Neuhaldeaslebea Established 1875. 

69. HussL, J. Ant., Scbwaz Majolica and oruBmental pieces ia the 

Oriental and Benaissauce style. Eslabliebed 1801. 

70. HuTscHENREUTHER, C. M. Hobenberg.— Established 1814, and em- 
ploys 400 workmen. Makes principally china for decorators with the Royal 
Vienna mark in blue underglaze. 






























oC "-A-* 



35: -^ 


-V AV? 





73-77. HOCHST.— Pottery was made here prior to 1720. In that yeau 
BiDgler escaped from Vienna and assisted Geltz in adding hard paste to the 
production. The trade-mark is a wheel from the arms of Mayence, oflen 
used in conjunction with the initials of one of the artists. Melchoir^s figures 
produced here have never been surpassed. 74 is the mark of Geltz : 75, 
of Zeschenger ; 76-77, of Dahl. 













78. Jaoobi, Adler & Co., Grunstadt. — Established 1874. 

79. Jackson, G., Rheinsburg. — Established 1815. 

80. KoNiGLiCH Bayerische Porz. Manuf., Nymphenburg, 
Munich. — Established 1757. (See Nymphenburg.) 

81. Koos, Max, Miskolez.— Established 1882. Majolica. 

82. Krause, R. M. , Sohweidnitz. — Established 1882. Fine majolica. 

83. Krister, Carl. 

84-87. Limb ach.— Established 1761. 

88-93. LUDWIGSBURG. — Established in 1768 by Ringler, under the 
patronage of Charles Eugene, Duke of Wurtenburg. The factory is also 
known as Kronenberg. The cipher is that of Charles Eugene, used until 
1806. Second only to Berlin and Dresden in size, it equalled them in quality. 

96. Marseille. Arm and, Koppelsdorf. — Established 1865. 






102 103 










97-113. Meissen or Dresden. — The discovery in (iermany of kaolin, 
A. D. 1710, has been told too often to bear repeating here* It was an event 
of world-wide significance, as it quickly led to the making of hard porcelain, 
which had hitherto been imported into Europe in small quantities from 
China. Notwithstanding the rigid precautions to preserve Bottger's secret, 
in spite of the oaths of secrecy daily administered, and of the armed guards, 
one by one, workmen possessed of the secret managed to escape, and factor- 
ies were established at various points, generally under royal patronage. It 
was only natural that the first Dresden artists should copy the designs of the 
Chinese, and it was not until 1725 that more original patterns were executed. 


Flowers in miniature, tlie well-known Mayflower decoration, and stataettes 
with raised flower work were the principle features from 1731 to 1745, when 
purer and more classical designs Tollowed. But Frederic the Great robbed tbe 
the Meissen works of men and molds for the aggrandizement of his factory at 
Berlin, and when peace was restored Mei88en was no longer pre-eminent, 
but had prominent rivals in the field, I4os, 97-98 are Bottger's marks on red 



ware ; 99-100, on pieces made for the king from 1709 to 1726 ; 101-102, 
Caducus' mark, 17I7-I720; 103-104, King's period from 1770; 105, about 
1778; 106, Marcolina period from 1796 ; 107, first formsofswordsfrom 1719; 
108, Bruhl'a time, 1750; 109, about 1718; 110-111, about 1730; 112-llS, 
About 1718. 

114 115. Royal Bonn ware. 

116-18. Nymphenburg. — Founded in 1747 by Niedermayer and in 
1756 passed into the hands of Bingler. Old pieces are very highly esteemed. 
{For the modern mark see Koniglich Bayerische Porz. Manuf.) 

119-120. New York & Rudolstadt Pottery Co , Rudolstadt. — Estab- 
lished 1882. Controlled by L. Straus & Sons, New York. No. 119 is used 
for china and 120 for earthenware. An important line of finely decorated 
vases, principally with figure subjects, is issued. At Rudolstadt there is 
probably a larger stafiT of figure painters than in any other china manufactory 
in the world. 

121. Oest, F. S. W. &Co., Berlin.— Est. 1824. Majolica and faience. 

124. Ostdeutsche Steingutfabrik, Kolman. — Established 1854. The 
factory is operated by Heim, Pulvermacher & Co. 

125. Prague.— Impressed " Kriegel & Co.*' 

126. Paetsch, Theodor, Frankfort.— Established 1840. Stoneware. 

132. PoRZELLAN Fabrik VICTORIA, Altrohlau.— Established 1883. Con- 
trolled by Lazarus, Rosenfeld & Lehman, N. Y. This mark is also used with 
"Trade-mark " above and ** Victoria'' below, both on a band or ribbon, in 
place of the oval. 

135. Repovecki, Stefan, Zn aim. —Established 1835. Majolica and 

136. Reissberger & Co., Franz.— Established 1882. 

137. Rissler & Co., Freiburg.— Established 1847. This mark is about 
half the actual size. 

139. Carl Thieme, Potschappel. 

140. Saltzer, Aug., Eisenach.— Established 1858. Terra cottaand 

141-142. Schaaf, Carl, Zell, successor to J. F. Lenz.— Established 
1807. There appears to have been a pottery at Zell as long ago as 1560, 
founded by a grandson of the Duke of Hanover, from whom the English royal 
house of Brunswick was descended. 

152. Schmelzer & Gericke, Althaldonsbleu. — Established 1865. A 
large and progressive factory, employing 700 workmen. 

157. Schmidt, Albert, Walterhausen. — Established 1863. 

158. Schmidt, Gebruder, Gersweiler. — Established 1847. 

159. Schmidt, H., Freywalden. — Established 1842. 

160. Goth A.— Established 1767 by Rothenburg. 

163. Springer & Co., Elbogen. — Established 1815. A factory em- 
ploying about 1,000 workmen and producing a large variety of goods. 
Probably the largest oven in the world is here, being twenty-four feet in 
diameter and three stories high. 

164. J. Von Schwarz. — Fine majolica. 

165. Steiner & Adler, Falkenau.— Established 1889. 

166. Steingutfabrik Neiderweiler, formerly Dryander Bros. — Es- 
tablished 1750. 


168. Thibme, Cabl, Potectaapel.— Hark on imitatlone of Capo di 
Moute. General mark ie 189, 

169. Thieiot, Louis, Florabeim.— A small factory. 
172. RuiWLSTADT.— EsUbliBhed 1761. - 

I.T.M. «u««" 

174-180. Utzbchneider & Co., Sarreguemlnea. — Established 1770. 
They have also a factory in Degoin, Prance. ManufactureB havea very wide 
range, and include china, earthenware, majolica, tileB, etc. 

181. VuLKSTADr. — A youug student of Jena namen Macheleidt, experi- 
menting to find the secret of true china, made a ware resembling it, princi- 
pally of a particular kind of sand, and continued his experiments until he 
perfected the discovery. The Prince of Schwarzburg gave him permission to 
start a factory at Spiczerode, and this was in 1762 transferred to Volkstadt. 

182 183. Vienna.— Founded in 1718 by Claude Innocent Du Pasquier, 
and sold in 1744 to the Austrian Empress, Marie Theresa. It was continued 
as a royal factory until 1864, when it was closed, and most of the molds, etc., 
given to museums. The Austrian shield used as a mark from 1784 to 1864, 
and the pieces were impressed in the body with the three last figures of the 
year of manufacture— for instance, 826 for 1826. Being absolutely closed 













down, there can, of course, be no more " Royal Vienna,'' though it is adver- 
tised and offered for sale every day. 

188. LuDWiG Wessell. 

189. WiLHELMSBURGER Steingutfabrik, Wilhelmsburg.— Established 

190. WiTTENBERGER STEINGUTFABRIK, Wittenberg. —Established 1884. 

191. Ernest Wahleiss. 

194. ZsoLNAY, W., Funfkirchen.— Established 1885. The high quality 
always maintained. at this factory, and the artistic beauty of the products have 
given them a high place in the estimation of connoisseurs, and the five 
churches mark is usually accepted as a guarantee of excellence. Zsolnay has 
recently successfully produced reflete metaUiques. 


I9S-209. ViLLERoY & BocH, SeptfoDtaines. — Nob. 1-10, before 1795; 
11-14, between 1795-1830 ; 15, about 1880 ; 1, 2, 11, 12, 13 and 15 were im- 
printed ; 3-10 were painted in blue ; 14 was stamped in green. 



210-219. Mettlach.— 1, about 1810, painted in blue; 2,3 and 4, from 
1810.1S4I, imprinted; 5, from 1841-1860, imprinted; 6, from 1844-1860, 
stamped in blue ; 7, from I842-1860, laid on (for elone Bub8t«nces); 8, from 

1S52-1872, laid on (for Parian) ; 9, from 1865-1875, stamped (for colored im- 
pression) ; 10, 1876-1883, laid on (for chromolith) ; H, from 1860-1874, 
stamped in blue. 



■R a roe i-i 

■■"• B03H ^%^ ^^ f^^ 

JFB « i> i»i«'»*<»"? 'Jjf^ 

1. ^o** >- 2 

'4 ^ aM3ttuic[v ^ 



e JMtmACHfe 

220-230. Wallerfangen.-l, from 1790-1825, imprinted ; 2, from 1825- 
1841, imprinted; 8, from 1825-1841, painted in blue; 4, from 1825-1841, 

imprinted; 5, from 1844-1860, stamped in brown; 6, from 1852-1865, 
stamped (for porcelain) ; 7, from 1860-1874, stamped in black. The last 
four are the present marks. 

Since 1874 the factory mark with the head of Mercury has been intro- 
duced in all the earthenware factories of the firm. 










231. Thun, near Berne, Switzerland. 

232. Made for Hamburger & Co. 

233. Bawo & DoTTER, Fischern, near Carlsbad. — Established 1883. 

234. Bawo & Dottbr. — Fine Bavarian ware. Established 1838. 

235. C. L. DwENGER, late A. Klingenberg. 

236-237. PoRZELAN Fabrik Kloesterle. — Output controlled by Bawo 
& Dotter, New York. 






238 239 

238. STROBEL & WiLKKN Co. 

239-241. Austrian china. C. Ahrenfeldt & Son, New York. 



2 3 


"f '/ Dm 

9 2 

^ IB /^ 

6 7 8 

1. — Amsterdam, F. This mark is also ascribed to Arnheim, also in 
Holland. It occurs on some rare pieces very finely executed. A manufac- 
ture in Amsterdam was founded in 1780 by Hartog, of Breslau, whose pro- 
ductions may easily be confounded with the poorer specimens of Delft. 

2. — PiKTER Pares, sign of the Metal Pot. Established in Delft in 1759. 

3. — D. Pauw, sign of the Peacock. Delft. Established in 1651, and in 
existence until the end of the eighteenth century. 

4. — Martinus GouDA, sign of the Roman, Delft. Established in 1671. 
Blue decorations predominate. 

5.— Q. Kleynoven. Delft. Established 1680. 

6.— Keyser & Pynaker. Delft. Established 1680. Gilded Delft was 
a specialty. 

7. — Justus de Berg, sign of the White Star. Delft. Established 17G4. 

8. — JoosT or Justus Brouwer, sign of the Porcelain Hatchet. Estab- 
lished in 1759. The manufacture was of considerable extent, and the pro- 
ductions generally in polychrome. 








9. Jeronimus Pietersz van Kessell, Delft,— -Established in 1656 a 
the factory founded by his father. 

10. Jan Jansz Kulick, Delft.— From 1662 to 1680. A celebrated 
potter who had several establishments and produced very fine work. 

11. Pktrus Regout & Co., Maastricht. 

12. Thooft & Labouchere, Delft. — Modern potters, who by their 
careful and artistic work have already made for their productions a demand 
their merit deserves. 

The following are also Delft marks : 

A B — A. C. Brouwer. 

A K — A. Kruisweg. 

A J — Jans van der Meer. 

A R-— Augustijn Reygens. 

C — Cornelisz. 

B V S — L. Van Schoonhoven. 

C B — Cornells de Berg. 

C B S — Johannes Verhagen. 

C K— Cornells A. de Keiser. 

J V D W — Johannes van der Wal. 

C L — Lambertus Cleffins. 

L P K — Gerritt Brouwer. 

L V D — Lucas van Dale. 

L V S — L. van Schoonhoven. 

M B — Mathijs Boender. 

D S K — Thos. Spaandonck. 

C V K — Cornells van der Kloot. 

F 1680— Flyt. 

G K — Gerritsz Pieter Kam. 

P V B — Paulus van der Burch. 

G K— L. Kruyk Ghisbrtcht. 

G V S— G. Verstelle. 

H — J. A. van Harrimen. 

H — Damis Hofdick. 

G D K ) Hendrick and Gillis 

H D K I de Koning. 

H L — Johannes Harlees. 

H V H — Hendrick Van Hoorne. 

I D A — Johannes dea Appel. 

W K— Willem Kleftijus. 

I D M — Jacobus de Milde. 

I G — Johannes Gaal. 

J H — Jacobus Holder. 

K — Johannes Knoetter. 

A K—A. C. D. Keiser. 

A K and a star — Alburtus Kiel. 

A P — Anthony Pennis. 

I T D— Jean Thennis Dextra. 

B P — Paulus van der Burch. 

I K — Jacobus Kool. 

J P — Joannes Pennis. 

I V D B — Jan vaii der Buergen. 

L C — Lambrecht Ghisbrechts. 

J V D H — Jan Sicktis van der Houk 

L K — Lucas P. van Kessel. 

C V S — Cornells van Schagen, 

C W — Cornells Witzenburg. 

D — Jean Thennis Dextra. 

D H — Dirck Harlees. 

E M S — Johannes Mesch. 

M D K— Hendrick van Middeldyk 

P — Jeronimus Pieter. 

P V D — Pieter van Doom. 

M B — Matheus van der Bogaert. 

P K — Pieter Gerritsz Kam. 

P K — Jacobus Pynacker. 

P V B D— Peter van der Briel. 

H B — Hugo Brouwer. 

P V D S — Paulus van der Stroom. 

P V M — Pietrus van Marum. 

I W — Jacob Wemmers Hopestein. 

H V M D— Hendrick Van Middeldyk 

W V B— William van Beek. 

I D W— Jean de Weert. 

I G — Jan Greenland. 

I V H — Johannes Verhagen. 




Abbeeviations. — S. P., soft paste; H. P., hard paste; F., faience. 



T>iH f -» 


1-7. Capo di Monte, S. P.— Founded in 1736 by Charles III, near 
Naples. Much of the work produced here consisted of designs in relief, 
afterwards very carefully painted, the figure subjects being usually highly 
stippled. The coloring is bright and effective, the forms well modeled and 
very frequently found inspiration from marine objects. The factory was 
closed in 1821. 



a cj) 







/# t^ ^o 




8-10. Ohaffagiola, F,— 16th century, A selection from a number of 
marks of the Ohaffagiola pottery or potteries. The stanniferous glaze is of 
very even texture and purely white. The use of cobalt bl«e of great bril- 
liancy and intensity is one of the leading features. The wares were seldom 

11. Castel Durante, F. — The manufacture here was at its best from 
1525 to 1580. Placques with cupid subjects were freely produced. It was 
the rival of and only second to Faenza in the quality of its productions. 
The paste was a pale buff. A large quantity of pharmacy jars were made 
here. The works declined in 1631. The mark iathat of Francesca Durantin. 

12-15. Faenza, F.— 16th and 17th centuries. The most celebrated of 
the factories was that of Caso Pirota (14), dating from 1525. Pottery is 
known to have been made in Faenza as early as A. D. 590, and it is claimed 
the French word faience is derived from the name of this town. 

16-17. Medici, S. P. — The first factory in Europe to produce porcelain 
(artificial). It was in existence from 1575 to 1587, and but few specimens 
are known to exist. 

18-22. DocciA, S. P., H. P.— The Marquis Ginori founded a private 
factory at Doccia, near Florence, in 1737, and it has been continued by his 
descendants up to the present day. They issue some remarkable pieces, 
often duplicating old pieces with marvelous fidelity, notably the lustres of 
Gubbio. Some molds of the Capo di Monte factory are in their possession 
and they still issue reproductions, usually bearing the Capo di Monte mark, 
No. 1. 



a no 




^4 ^X 

23-24. Genoa, F.— Nineteenth century. 


25-26. Milan, F.— About 1750. Usually imitations of Chinese and 
often gilded. Decorations are over-glaze on a fine, well-glazed body. The 
best factory was that of Pasquale Rubati (25). 

27. Monte Lupo, F. — There are dated examples from 1627 to 1663, 
generally rudely painted. 

28-33. KovE, H. P., S. P., F.— In 1728 a factory was founded here by 
G. B. Antonibon, who in 1732 opened a shop in Venice for the sale of its 
productions. Pasqual Antonibon was at its head in 1741. In 1751, with the 
« aid of Dresden workmen, the manufacture of hard and soft porcelain was 
commenced. In 1802 the work» were leased to Baroni, but he was only in 
business for a few years. The factory again came into the hands of the 
Antonibon family, and they revived the manufacture of china, but since 
1885 they have only made faience. 

34-35. Savona, F. — Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The mark 
34 is the shield of arms of the city ; 35 is that of Gerolama Salomini (about 

36-37. Vezzi Bros,, Venice.— From 1726 to 1740. 



Maestro Giorgio, of Gubbio, F. — 1517- 
1537. Maestro Giorgio is credited with 
the invention of gold and silver lustres, 
and frequently pieces painted by other 
artists were sent to him to be lustred, 
and often bear his mark in addition to 
that of the original factory. His paint- 
ings were highly esteemed, in addition 
to which he was a modeler of no mean 





ctoL 6r6 

Urbino, F. — From early in the fourteenth centnry 
to A. D. 1630. There were employed here a numher 
of artists of exceptional ability. The first three 
marks are those of Francesco Xanta, whose copies or 
adaptations from Raphael have caused a good deal of 
divergence of opinion among the critics. His works 
date from 1530 to 1542. The next three are the 
marks ofOrazio Fontana, who, with his brothers, 
Guido and Camillo, are reckoned chief among Italian 
ceramic artists. The last mark is that of Nicola 
Urbino — probably the father of the three brothers. 


F A Grue eseplai 1677. 

C. A. G, 

Doctor Franc, Ant. Grue F. Neap. 
Anno 1718 

Liborius Grue Pt 

Saverio Grue fece in Caatelli 1747. 

Faience was made in Castelli from the 16th to the 18th century, but was 
at its best when under the direction of the Grues, a family of exceptional 
artistic excellence. In addition to what they themselves painted, they em- 
ployed artiiU of great ability and ** continued the work which educated the 
Neapolitan school of potters, and enabled the Capo di Monte factory at Naples 
to find artists who could produce those excellent paintings which made that 
ware more valuable than its relief work ". 

I have only given a few of the many well-known marks on Italian 
majolica — sufficient to indicate their character. The productions of the 
different factories resemble each other so closely that in many cases they 
could not be definitely placed, but have been ascribed rightly or wrongly to 
various factories. 



Mr. E. T. Tetauka has kindly compiled for m« the following marka of 
modern Japanese potters. No effort has been made to present those of the 
past. For these the reader is referred to "Marks and Monograms," by 
Chaffers ; and " Pottery and Porcelain," by W. C, Prime. 

1-4. Makuzu Kozan.— One 
of the first potters of Japan of 
the present age. First estab- 
lished in Kioto, but afterwards 
removed to Ota, near Yokohama. 
Hia underglaze colors on porce- 
lain are unrivaled, Noa. 1 and 
2 ar« generally signed in blue ; 
8 and 4 are either impressed or 
signed in blue. 

5-6. Haito Takemoto. — His imitation of famous old 
Chinese porcelains, such aa "Sang do bteuf," "Peach- 
blow," etc, are veritable triumphs in ceramics. He 
died in the year 1892, and was succeeded by hia son. 
No. 5 ia the impressed nutrk of Haito Takemoto. Ko. 
6 is that of his son. 

,5|_ 7, TOMOTARO Kato.— Established in 1880 at Koisbi- 

,_ kawa, Tokio. Hia special designs are landscapes and" 

J-* flowers in underglaze. The signature of an artist 
niuned Togioku Yen. Mark painted in blue. 

8-9. Bios A I Inouye, of Smida, 
Tokio. — Both are impressed marks. 


10. Shiraishi, Smida, Tokio. — The signature of 
Koji, who paints unique designs in underglaze on 


11. HiYooHiZKN. — A well-known artist of Tokio, 
for paintings generally on the glaze. 






12-13. Seifu Yohei, Gogiosaka, 
Kioto. — No. 12 is impressed. No. 
13 painted in blue. 

14. Chikusen, 

Gogiosaka, Kioto. — Fine por- 


15-16. Taizan Pottkry, Awata, Kiota. — No. 16 
is impressed ; 16 on the glaze in black. 

17. TozAN PcrrERY, Giwon, Kioto. — Decorations 
on the glaze in gold and various colorings^ Mark is 
in black or gold. 




18. KiNKOZAN PcyrrERY, Awata, Kioto. — Deco/a- 
tioDs in gold and colors. Mark either impressed or 
in gold. 

19. OKUMLuy^ PoTTKRY. — Unique decorations on 
the glaze. Mark in black. 


20. Yabou Mbizan, the foremost artist of Osaka. 
— Decorates Sateuma pottery. Mark is in gold. 


21. KiNZAX. — Another famous Satsuma decorator. 
Mark in gold. 

22, Banco Poitery, Yockaichi, Province of Ise. 
— Banco pottery is grayish in color, decorated with 
flowers and birds in relief. 

23-26. Seiji Kaibha, Arita, Province of Hizen. — 
Manufacturers of ^ fine porcelain for the Imperial 
Court. No. 23 is in blue or red on goods made for 
general trade. No. 24 in blue or gold for the Im- 
perial Court only ; 25 and 26 in blue, red and gold on 
art ware only. 




27. KoRANBHA, Arita, HizMi. — Fine porc«lai 
Marked in blue or red. 

28. Kaeiyemon, Iioari, Hizen. — Th« celebrated 
BttiBt in Imari ware. Hark in red. 

29. Watani, Eutani, Province o( 
Kaga. Marked in red. 

** lfl5^ P^ 80. WatAHI, Kutani, Kaga.—Marked in rod. 

^^ f\^ 31. GosuKK, Seto, Owari. — Tlie celebrated bine 

• J^ D>Q and wlilte porcelain. Alwaye marked in blue. 

^L^ 3^. Shubf.I, Seto, Owari. — Another well-known 

82 n^ I'T^ maker of blue and white porcelain. Mark in bine. 



t§P SoUuaVC^ 






Ai i, X 





1-2, 4-5. Alcora, near Valencia, F. — Founded in 1727 by Count d* Aranda 
with workmen from the factory at Moustiers. The productions generally 
resembled those of Moustiers, and are often mistaken for them, as Olery, who 
worked there, was afterwards employed at Alcora, and used the same 
mark at both places — an O and L conjoined (1). No. 2 is the abbreviation of 
the name of a decorator named Ferrer Vincente. Nos. 4 and 5 are also 
artists' signatures whose names are unknown. An important product of this 
factory was the large plaques with religious subjects painted in the centre, 
generally badly drawn, but harmonious in coloring. 

3, 6. Seville, F. — No 3 is here shown considerably reduced. There 
are some doubts as to these marks being correctly assigned to Seville. 

7. Vista Allegre, near Oporto, H. P. — Established in 1790 by Pinto- 
basso, and continued until 1840. 

8-14. BuEN Ketiro, Madrid, H. P. — Founded by Charles III, with 
workmen and artists from Naples, which accounts for the resemblance of its 
wares to Capo di Monti. The works were situated in the palace gardens, 
and public access was denied to them. The King had a room in the Escurial 
decorated with blue and white cameos made there. The works were blown 
up by Lord Hill during the Peninsula War in 1812. 

15-18. HisPANO-MoRESQUE, F. — 15, about 1840 ; 16, dated 1610 ; 17, 
about 1613 ; 18, date unknown. Dating from 1235, when the Moors founded 
the Kingdom of Granada, up to the accession of Ferdinand and Isabella. The 
Alhambra vase, one of the finest specimens of Moorish pottery known, dates 
about 1312. A rich metallic lustre was one of the principal characteristics. 









/3. ^,^_ 


1-6. St. Petersburg Royal Factory. — 1, EMpress Catherine, 1762 ; 
2, Empress Elizabeth, 1741 ; 3, Emperor Alexander I, 1801 ; 4, Emperor 
Nicholas, 1825 ; 5, Emperor Alexander II. 1855 ; 6, Dateo by dots adopted in 
1871, one dot for 1871, two for 1872, etc. 

7. Brothers Kornleff, St. Petersbui^. 

8-10. Gardners, Moscow. 

1 1-12. PoPOFF, Moscow.— Established 1830. 

IB. ZlBT. 




Vt/ i</ 










V 6 




- £: 

J( y £S ^^ 1^ 


1-5. RORSTRAND. — 

this factory, situated 
near Stockholm, was 
established in 1727. 
About 1780 the three 
crowns of Sweden were 
first used ns a trade- 
mark, an iibbreviated 
form of the name hav- 
ing previously been 
used. Of late years the 
factory has attained 
considerable distinction. 
9-10. Stralsund. — 
Founded in 1731 by 
one of the Eorstrand 
workmen. Present 

productions are similar 
to those of Rorstrand. 

6-8. Marieburg, near 
Stockholm. — Founded 
in 1758, and existed 
until 1780. The produc- 
tions resembled those of 
Strasburg and Nieder- 
willer, and are much 



1. Crown STAFFOBiieBiRE Porcelain Co.— T. A. & S. Oreen, 
Mloerva Works, Fentoa. 

2. Wilkinson & Co., Burelem. 

8. Brown- Westhe AD, Moore & Co., Stoke-on-Trent. 

4. DouLTON & Co., Burslem. 

6. Stubbb & Kent, Longport. 

6. W. EiDtiWAT & Co., Hanlejr. 

7. T. & R. BooTE, Burslem. 




8-15. DouLTON & Co., Lambeth. 

16. Wood & Barker, Burslem. 


18. T. C. Gbees & Co,, Burton-on-Trent. 

19. HuLME & Chhistie, Fenton. 

20-21. S. FiELOiNG & Co.,Stoke-upon-TreDt. 
22. R. H. Plant & Co , Longton.— China. 
28. Smith & Ford, Burslem. 
24. 8. Bridgwood & Son, LoDgton.— C&ina. 


CoPELANoa, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Smith & Binnall, TunBtall, 

g. & E. Collier, Beading. 

T. E. Maling & Sons, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Shekwen & Cotton, Hanley. — Tiles. 

Wedgwood & Co., Tunstall. 

T. C. Gbben & Co., Gresley. 

Gbimwabe Bros., Stoke-upon-Trent. 

J. HoLDCEOFT, Longton. 

Locke &, Co., Worcester. 

W. & J. A. Bailey, Alloa, N. B. 

EiDGWAVS, Uanley. 








^ LIM06CS ^ 





1. R. Lapoete, Limoges. 

2. Manufactured for C. Dwenger, New York. 

3. Martin Freres, Limoges. 

4-5. C. Ahrenfeldt & Son., Limoges and New York. 

6. Elite China, Bawo & Dotter, Limoges and New York. 

7. Manufiictured for Jones, McDufTee & Stratton, Boston. 



1-6. Edwin Bennett Potters Co., Baltimore, Md. — Mr. J&tnea Ben- 
neit came to this country in 1834, from Woodville, ia Derbyshire. After 
working at the Jersey City Pottery, and afterwards at Troy under James 
Clews, he established a smail pottery at East Liverpool, the first ever founded 
there. He waa joined in 1841 by bis brothers, Daniel, Edwin and William, 
and here they made the first rockingham ware made in America. The diffi- 
culties of transportation and the washing away of the banks of the river in- 
duced them in 1844 l» remove to Pittsburg, Pa., where until 1846 they con- 
ducted an increasing business. Edwin and William in this year withdrew 
from the firm^ and the former having found suitable clays at Druid's Hill, 
Baltimore, built a small works at Canton Avenue, where the business has 
been continued ever since. Yellow, rockingham, stoneware and majolica 
were made. In 1851 Mr. Bennett originated the familiar Kebekah teapot. 
The works were enlarged in 1SS9 and white ware was added to the products. 
From 1884 to 1887 both parian and egg-shell china were made, and in 1890 
the business was changed to its present form. The marks used up to 1857, 
consisted of an impressed stamp with the name of the firm. The first mark 
on white ware waa a phcenii, followed in 1873 by a seven-pointed star with 
the initials E B in the center. Nos. 1-2 were used in 1886 ; No. 3 in 1890 ; 
and Noe. 4, 5, and 6 are the present marks. 

J. U. Bauu, Wellaville, O.— White granite. Closed October, 
L. B. Bberbowsr & Co., Elizabeth, N. J. C. C. ware, etc. 
Belluare Pottery Co., Trenton, N, J. Sanitary ware. 

10-13. BuBF>ORD Bros., East Liverpool, 
porcelain, plain and decorated. 

White granite aud i 


B. r. CO. ^^^j t|„„, 

14. Brockman Pottery Co., Cincinnati, O.— Established in lS(i2 by 
Tempest, Brockman & Co., who were succeeded in 1877 by the present firm. 
The production of the works is limited to white granite and cream color 

15-16. Bt'itROiKiHS & MoUNTFORB, Treuton, N, J.— Established in 
1879. The character of the designs produced here was excellent, and had a 
very large influence on American pottery. Whilst partaking of the style of 
Doulton, they had an individuality of their own impossible to mistake. Un- 
fortunately, the body wa« sacrificed to the decoration, with the Inevitable 

result. This is much to be regretted, as the production promised much ; and 
had the same care been taken in manufacturing as in decorating and design, 
ing, their regretable failure would probably have been averted. The works 
aire now carried on as the Eagle Pottery Co. 

Cartlidge. — Mr. Chas. Cartlidge, who for a number of years had acted 
as New York agent for Wm. Ridgway, started a small factory at Greenpoint 
about 1848 for the manufacture of chin a,, producing at first, principally door 
furniture of excellent quality, and employing about sixty hands. Later, 
tableware was made in commercial quantities, at first in bone china, but later 
in a true hard porcelain. Elijah Tatler, whose son, Mr. W. H. Tatler, now 
conducts at Trenton one of the most successful decorating works in America, 
was one of the artists employed. Josiah Jones was the modeler, his figure 
pieces — busts of prominent men — and plaques being reproduced in parian. 
Imitation Wedgwood jasper ware was also made. In 1854 or 1854 Mr. Cart- 
lidge, through some outside investment, lost a considerable share of his for- 
tune. The firm was dissolved and reorganized under the style of the Ameri- 
can Porcelain Mfg. Co. , with Mr. Cartlidge as president ; but the new com- 
pany failed to successfully conduct the concern, and the factory was closed 
in 1856, the building being afterwards torn down, 

y. 18. The Chelsea China Co., New Cumberland. — This fac- 

vV tory was erected in 1888, but never paid interest on the investment. 
It was thoroughly equipped, but its eapacity was not sufficient to 
allow the output to yield a fair return for the investment — about 
$100,000. It was closed down in 1896, 

19-20. The Ceramic AIit Co. , Trenton, N. J. 
— Incorporated under the laws of New Jersey, 
May 18, 1889 — Mr. Jonathan Coxon, president, 
"^y^Qaj^ and Mr. Walter S. Lenox, secretary and treas- 
BELLEQi LEHOX urcr. Mr. Coxon retired in May, 1896, Mr. 

Lenox purchasing his interest, the present secretary being Mr. H. A. Brown. 
The product of the Ceramic Art Co. consists of fine china body, decorated in 
an artistic manner either in the style of Belleek, or with well executed painted 
subjects "distinguished for their individuality. Mr. Lenox has been fortun- 
ate enough to gather around him a staff of artists who share his ambition to 
make for the products of the Ceramic Art Co. a distinct character of their own, 
entirely original and entirely independent of any foreign influence. Their 
treatment of the loving cup, in a dozen different forms, exemplifies this. 
Painted in monochrome, usually a blue of exceptional softness, an underglaze 
color is applied on the glaze and then subjected to a glost fire, giving all the 
durability and softness of an actual underglaze decoration. The process is, 
however, fraught with peril, as frequently pieces have to undergo this heavy 
fire five or six times before a satisfactory finish is attained. In vases the 
variety of shape is very extensive and it is difficult to make a selection where 
purity of form is such a marked characteristic. The Egyptian lotus leaf has 
been cleverly adapted as a receptacle for flowers, sometimes with an attend- 


ant Cupid, and baa proved a popular novelty. It would partake too much of 
the nature of a catalogue to discuss in detail the large number of novelties 
produced by thia house, but scarcely without exception they bear the evi- 
dence of artistic thought, enhanced by Intelligent craflmanship and technical 
execution. Such a combination of qualities is exceptional, and when found is 
deserving of quick public recognition and appreciation. 



21-24. The Cuelhea Pottery, Dedham, Mass.— Established in 1866 
by A. W. Robertson, at Chelsea, Mass. He was joined in 1870 by Hugh C. 
Robertson, and in 1872 by Jas. Robertson; and they carried on business under 
thestyleoftheCeramic Art Works. From 1884 Mr. H. C. Robertson con- 
ducted the business alone, making many experiments in the regions of for- 
gotten arts, until 1888, when the factory was closed. Id 1891 a company 
was formed under the slyle of The Chelsea Pottery, U. S., and later the 
works were removed to Dedham. 




^9\S W/y^. 


25. Cook Pottery Co., Trenton, N. J. — This noted old foctory was 
founded in 1863 by an organization composed of three men — Wm. Bloor, Jos. 
OttandThos. Booth — the first two of whom have passed over to the great 
majority, Mr. Booth being the only survivor of the original firm. In 1864 
Mr. Booth retired from the firm, and was succeeded by Garret Bchenck Bur- 
roughs, and he in turn was succeeded by John Hart Brewer, who entered 
upon his long career as the active and progressive head of the concern in 
1865. Shortly after Mr, Brewer's entrance into the firm Mr. Bloor withdrew 
his interest, and the lirm then became Ott & Brewer, under which name the 
old pottery was known for many years. Up to 1875 white ware had formed 
the staple production, but in that year Mr, Brewer engaged the services of 

Isaac Broome, a noted sculptor and modeler, who began the preparation of a 
series of busts and figures in parian for the great Centennial Exhibition of 
1876. When the opening took place they had completed a display of artistic 
work in clay and enamels which came as a revelation to critics and con- 
noisseurs of that period. Encouraged by the success of their first efforts in 
the creation of artistic work, the firm began the production of the famous 
Belleek pottery — that delicately beautiful fabric which won for the house a 
high place in the estimation of the trade and the public. In this production 
Mr. Brewer had the assistance of Wm. Bromley, who, originally associated 
with Mr. W. H Goss, of Stoke-upon-Trent, later went to Belleek to assist in 
its production there. (Messrs. Ott & Brewer's marks on Belleek will be 
found under their name.) After the much-regretted failure of Ott & Brewer 
during the financial depression of 1892 and 1893, Mr. Chas. Howell Cook 
purchased the historic plant, and upon taking possession of the works he an- 
nounced his purpose of restoring the business to its old-time prestige, and the 
Etruria works is once again the workshop and repository of much that is 
best in native ceramics. 

28. East Morrisania China Works, 152d Street, New York. — 
D. Robitzek & Sods, proprietors. 








29. Fenton. — See United States Pottery, Bennington, Vt. 

30-31. Faience Mfg. Co., Greenpoint, L. I. — Founded in 1880. In 
1884 Mr. Edward Lycett, a capable potter and decorator, joined the com- 
pany, and under his able administration much progress was made. He in- 
troduced a fine body very nearly approaching china, and in this ware pro- 
duced many finely painted vases. He also succeeded in reproducing the fine 
metallic lustres of Spain and Italy, which at that time were despaired of by 
European potters. It is a fact worthy of mention that the Mexican Indians 
have long produced these reflets metalliques, though in the course of years the 
lustre fades from exposure to the light. Mr. Lycett severed his connection 
with the Faience Mfg. Co. in 1890, and two years afterwards the works were 

32-33. The Globe Pottery Co., East Liverpool, O. — The firm now 
known as above commenced business in 1881 under the style of Frederick, 

Shenkle, Allen & Co,, making yellow and rockingham ware. In 1888 they 
were incorporated as above, and at the beginning of the present year added 
the manufacture of semi-porcelain. 

34 35 86 

84-36. The Greenwood Pottery Co., Trenton, N. J. — This company 
was incorporated in 1863, the first officers being Chas. Brearley, president ; 
Jas. F. Stephens, secretary and treasurer ; Jas. Tams, superintendent. Sub- 
sequently Mr. Stephens became president and treasurer, Mr. Tams retaining 
his original position. To-day Mr. Tams is the president and Mr. Stephens 
the secretary and treasurer, so that practically the works from their inception 
to the present day have been under the same management. The early days of 
the factory were days to test the courage of the bravest. Experiment fol- 
lowed experiment, the trials seemed all that could be desired, but the bulk of 
ware was not satisfactory, and the contents of kiln after kiln were consigned 
to the rubbish heap. The Greenwood factory may fairly be said to be built 
on failure, but every failure taught something, and success came at last. It 
was a success when it came worth waiting for, and made ample amends for 
all the anxieties of the past. Distinctively an American production, the vitrified 
earthenware of the Greenwood China Co. was a manifest advance in ceramics. 
It C3n tains the best properties of both earthenware and china, and the mini- 
mum of objectionable qualities of either. It is popularly called '^ hotel china ' ' , 
but the definition is not sufficiently comprehensive. The firm also make in 
the same body a line of art pottery, principally with metallic decorations, the 
prevailing influence in shape being that of Persia and Japan, the forms in 
most instances being sufficiently modernized to make them adaptable to 
every-day requirement. A rich ivory glaze considerably enhances their ap- 
pearance. The stamp on tableware is the name of the firm impressed. No. 
34, from 1883 to 1886, on art ware ; Nos. 35 and 36, from 1886 to the 
present time. 






37-39. The Gwdwin Potteey Co., East Liverpool, O. — Established in 
1S44 by John Goodwin, a Burslem potter, who received his training, aa did 
his father before him, at the factory of James Edwards. Bbckinghom and 
yellow ware only were made until 1877, two years after his death. Messrs, 
Speeler and Taylor, the pioneers of the pottery industry at Trenton (1852), 
were both employes of Mr. Goodwin, In 1877 the manufacture of C. C. was 
added, soon followed by a decoratbg department, and under the able and 
energeticmanagementof his three SODS, James H., George S, and Henry J. 
Ooodwin, assumed important proportions. In 1893 the works were incor- 
porated under the present style, Mr. James H. Goodwin, its first president, 
died in November, 1896. 

40-43. D. P. Haynes & Son, formerly 
Haynes, Bennett & Co,, Baltimore, Md, — 
For some time no special stamp has been used 
on the product of this factory, the wares having 
such an individuality as to render a trade-mark 
unnecessary. The four given here are old 
marks formerly used on Clifton and Avalon 
wares, both of which belong to the majolica 
family ; on ivory, which is a sound, durable 
body of a soft, ivory tint, produced, not by a 
stain in the glaze, but by a combination of 
clays. The remaining one is the mark on semi- 
porcelain, Mr, D, F, Haynes Is to be credited 
with the leadership in that little coterie of 
American potters who initiated originality of 
design as applied to American pottery. The 
story cannot be fully told here, though it is one 
of great interest, and affords much food for 
reflection. Of late years a very considerable 
trade has been done in clock cases in decorated 

41 e^^ 

44-45. Habker Pottery 
Co., East Liverpool, O. — 
Benjamin Barker, Sr., estab- 
lished these works in 1840. 
After operating them for 
some years he was succeeded 

by his son, George S. Hftrker, who carried them on under the style of 
G. S. Harker & Co., until his death. Hia widow and two sons continued 
it under the same style until 1S90, in which year it was incorporated as 
the Harker Pottery Co. Rockingham and yellow ware were made until 
1879, in which year tbeir manufacture gave place to while granite. 

C»'^ TRE NTON-N. J. "M H^^^ 

46-58. The Inteenationai. Pottery Co., Treuton, N. J, — Organized 
in 1879, the Incorporators being James Moses, John Moses, Edward Oaik 
and Thomas Clark. In September of that year John W. Burgess, Wm. Bur- 
gess and John A. Campbell bought out the stock of the above-named gentle 
men, and became the proprietors of the International Pottery Co. From 
that date to the present the concern has run under the corporate name, 
stamping their goods with the trade-mark, Burgess & Campbell, The presi 
dent of the concern, Mr. Wm. Burgess, served the Qovemmeat and the in- 
terests of the American pottery manufacturers by representing this country 


in the Pottery district of Great Britain as Consul to Tunstall during President 
Harrison's administration. In the year 1895, Mr. John Campbell, for fifteen 
years treasurer of this concern, withdrew, and Mr. E. C. Williamson was 
elected to fill the vacancy. The present ofiicers are : Wm. Burgess^ presi 
dent ; E. C. Williamson, treasurer ; I. H. Nichol, secretary. 







59-65. The Jersey City Pottery Co., Jersey 
City, N. J. — The Jersey Porcelain and Earthen- 
ware Co. was incorporated December 10, 1825, but 
the venture was not a success, and the production 
ceased within a year or two. In 1829 it was re- 
opened by David and J. Henderson. In 1833 
David Henderson organized the American Pottery 
Co. Here, for the first time in America, printing 
on white ware was practiced. They also made a 
brown earthenware decorated in reliefs and colored 
enamels. Daniel Greatbatch, a clever modeler, 
was employed, and here he produced his well- 
known pitcher with hunting scenes in relief, and 
the handle in the shape of a hound. In 1845 a 
change took place, the proprietorship being vested 
in Wm. Khodes, Strong and McGerron, who made 
white and C. C, ware until 1854. In 1855 they 
sold out to Rouse, Turner, Duncan & Henry, and 
a little later House and .Turner carried it on alone. 
Some of their shapes were exceedingly good, both 
in earthenware and parian, and were largely used 
by decorators. The works were pulled down in 
1892. No. 59 is an impressed mark, about 1830 
No. 60 is printed ; No. 61 impressed, about 1840 
No. 62 dates from 1840 to 1845. 

63. J. E. Jeffords & Co., Philadelphia. — 
Established 1868. Earthenware and colored glaze 
jardinieres, etc. 


64-74. The Knowles, Taylor & Knowleb Co. East Liverpool, O. — 
This conoern, aow tlie largest pottery establiebment in America, bad its be- 
ginDiDg in 1863, wben ground was broken by Isaao W. Enowlea, the founder 
of tbe business, who commenced active operationa in the following year, 1854. 
Then tbe only kiln was used alternately for bisque and glost ware. The 
power was furnished by a horse. Tbe ware made waa yellow ware, known 
for many years aa " Liverpool ware." In 1870 John N. Taylor and Homer 8. 
Knowles, tbe latter a son of Isaac W. Knowles associated tbemselveB with 






'^.T .&^ " 




bim, the totnl kiln capacity of the works at this time being two kilns — one 
for bisqUe and the other for glost ware. This capacity was then increased to 
five kilnp — a very large institution for those days. Tbe firm, which was then 
called "Knowles, Taylor & Knowles," began the manufacture of white granite, 
drawing tbeir iirat kiln of this improved order of goods on September 5, 
1873. This waa tbe first white granite made in East Liverpool. The busi-* 
nesa grewand the firm put their earnings in the business, enlarged the plant, and 


extended their manufacturea, until to-day they stand one of the best equipped 
potteries in the world, the works covering six or seven acres of ground and 
giving employment to about 700 workpeople. In addition to semi-porcelain, 
white granite and hotel ware, the firm a few years ago produced a number of 
ornamental pieces they called " Lotus ware ", but the manufacture hoa never 
assumed large proportions. In 1891 a corporation was formed, with a p^d-in 
capitali of $1,000,000. The officers are as follows: Col. John N. Taylor, 
president ; Isaac W, Knowlea (the founder, now in his seventy-eighth year), 
vice-president ; Joseph O. Lee, secretary and treasurer. These, with Edwin 
M. Knowles, constitute the board of directors. 

75-78. The Homer Laughlin China Co., East Liverpool, O. — EetAb- 
lished in 1874 by Homer and Shakespeare Laughlin, under the title of 
Laughlin Bros., for the purpose of manufacturing white granite. Shake- 
speare Laughlin withdrew from the Grm in 1879, and from that year until 
January 1, 1897, when the business was incorporated under the above title, 
the firm name was Homer Laughlin. For several years a thin, translucent 
china was produced, but owing to the difficulty of making two entirely dis- 
tinct products in the same plant, the china was discontinued in 1889, and the 
product has since l>een confined to a high 'grade semi-vitreous earthenware. 
Mr. Laughlin, realizing the possibilities of his art, has never ceased to study 
and experinent for better results, and to this indefatigable striving after per- 
fection is in a large measure due the success that has, from the first, followed 
his efforts. These efforts have been fully appreciated, as witnessed by his 
steadily increasing trade and by the awards of the Philadelphia, Cincinnati 
and Chicago exhibitions. Mr. Laughlin seems to have exhausted the possi- 
bilities of further improvement in semi-porcelain, and might well rest on the 
success he has achieved ; but I understand that should trade conditions jus- 
tify it the output of the factory will be changed to atrue porcelain exclusively. 



7H. Keystone: PorrEity Co., Trenton, N. J.— Sanitary ware. 

80. The Lonhuda Pottery Co., Steubenville, O.— The name is de- 
rived from the names of the original promoters. Mr. W. A. (Lon)gy Mr. W. 
H. (Hu)nter, Mr. Alfred (Da)y. The productions are similar to Bookwood, the 
same beautiful blending of grounds being a noticeable characteristic of both. 
What has been said of Bookwood may fairly be applied to Lonhuda. Mr. Long 
may be credited with a distinct success, at least artistically. In 1896 the 
business was purchased by Mr. S. A. Weller, Zanesville, who is worthily con- 
tinuing the good work. 

81. Maryland Pottery Co., Baltimore, Md. — Formerly made a line 
of decorated earthenware, but for the last few years have made sanitary ware 

82. Morris & Willmore, Trenton, N. J. — The Columbia Art Pottery, 
as Messrs. Morris & Willmore' s works are called, was built in 1892-3. Mr. 
W. T. Morris was educated at the Worcester Porcelain Works, went after- 
wards to Belleek, and from there to the Ott and Brewer Works at Trenton, 
where Mr. Willmore was a decorator. Mr. Morris' training is evidenced by 
the graceful and artistic designs produced by the firm, both in Belleek effects 
and in ivory ware for decorators. Some very artistic figure painting on 
glazed parian is also produced here. 





J. A E. M. 

88-85. The Mayer Pottery Co., Limited, Beaver Falls, Pa. — Was 
established in 1881 by Joseph Mayer and Ernest Mayer, who are the sons of 
the late Joseph Mayer, of the firm of T. J. & J. Mayer, earthenware manu- 
facturers, of the Dale Hall Pottery in Burslem, Staffordshire, England. This 
latter firm is spoken of in Metyard's *'Life of Wedgewood,'' and also in 
Jewett'f ** Ceramic Art of Great Britain.'' Joseph Mayer, the president of the 
Mayer Pottery Co., Limited, was one of the Mayer Bros., importers of earth- 
enware in New York ; and Ernest Mayer served his apprenticeship in pot- 
ting with G. W. Turner & Sons, of Tunstall, Staffordshire, after which he 
was for some time manager of Clementson Bros.' Phoenix and Bell Works, at 
Hanley, Staffordshire. The Beaver Falls Pottery was originally owned by 
the "Economy Society,". a quaint religious community ot Germans, who 
were at one time very wealthy. The present owners purchased the plant 
and modernized it. As the name of the town indicates, there is an immense 
water-power derived from the Falls, and this pottery is probably the only one 
in the world ran entirely by water-power— at any rate, the only one in 


America. At first the only production was white granite, but after cod- 
siderable experiment and adaptation of English metbodd to American 
materia), a very superior grade of underglaze luati-e nand and sprig ware was 
produced which gave the firm considerable prestige ; but the demand for this 
class of ware was superseded by a call for more modem and artistic decora- 
tions, and attention was at once paid to producing a superior grade of under- 
glaze printed dinner and tea ware, and to-day a large portion of the produc- 
tion is confined to this class of goods, although great success has been ob- 
tMued in producing new and attractive colors in glazes, especially in olive 
green, which is applied to jardinieres, teapots, parlor cuspidores, etc. The 
manufactory was completely destroyed by fire in the fall of 1896, but has 
been rebuilt, and manufacturing has recommenced. 

86 87 

86. John Maddock & Sons, Trenton. — Sanitary ware. Commenced 
business in 1896. 

87. Maddock Pottery Co., Trenton.— Organized in 1893. They pur- 
chased the plant forinerty operated by the Trenton China Co., and manufac- 
ture a full line of thin semi- porcelain dinner and tea ware, and a high grade 
of toilet ware. Also umbrella stands, pedestals and jardinieres, Much taste 
is displayed in the decorations, and very rich effects are secured. It speaks 
volumes for the enterprise of the firm that in the few years they have been in 
business tbey should attain the high position unquestionably occupied by 

88-97. John Moseb & Sons CO., Trenton, N. J.— The Gla^ow Pottery 
was established by John Moses in 1863, and was one of the first ten potteries 
in Trenton. From a small two-kiln pottery it has gradually developed to its 
present importance Mr. Moses has catered principally to the wants of the 
million rather that a select few, producing large quantities of plain and 
decorated earthenware, and is prominently identiSed with the history of 
pottery in Trenton. In 1896, Howard B. Moses was taken into partnership. 
The marks given are : 88, white granite, 1876 ; 89, semi-porcelain, 1878; 
90, semi-porcelain, 1880; 91, white granite, 1882; 92, same, 1884; 93, 

vitreous earthenware, 1893 ; 94, C. C, 1894 ; 95, dinner ware, 1895 ; ' 
8ftppho toilet and dinner warp, 1897. The English arms are still used a 
ni»'k on white ware. 


y C... .•-■- SABBIO J.M.*s.C( 

'O J. M. ft s. CO, 

^ TRENTOH. N. 1 • " §5S^ 

Thomas Maddock & Sons, Trenton. — Their works are located on 
Perry, Ewing, Ogden and Carroll streets, and comprise nearly ten acres of 
floor space. The chief product of the factory is sanitary earthenware, be- 
sides which they manufacture extensively druggists' sundries, dinner and 
toilet ware, and a numbsr of specialties. The original establishment dates 
back to 1863, and was the first pottery in America to make sanitary ware. 
The founders were Millington & Astbury. In 1872 the firm became Milling- 
ton, Astbur^ & Maddock ; afterwards Astbury & Maddock, who in turn gave 
place to Thos. Maddock, who conducted the business until 1882, when the 
present firm was founded. The mark is an anchor and T M & 8. 

99. D. E. McNicoL Pottery Co., East Liver- 

Morrison & Carb had a pottery in New York 
from 1853 to 1888. 

Mercer Pottery Ck>., Trenton, N. J— The Mercer Pottery Co. has 
since ita iaoeption, in 1869, held a prominent position in American ceramics. 
The past year has seen the production of a rich decoration rivaling in brilliancy 
the ' ' Old Japan " , and executed with a vigor and freedom as remarkable as 

It is artbtic 'I^rge jardinieres and pedestals of graceful outline, boldly 
treated in a blue of extreme brilliancy, are equal to anything produced in the 
old world, and reflect the highest possible credit on the art director of the 
firm — Mr. John M. Pope. Mr. James Moees has been the president of the 
company, since 1875, when he purchased the business. M. W. B. Allen is the 
treasurer and Mr. James Barlow the General Manager. 

100-105, New ENGtAND PoTTGKV Co , Boston, Mass. —Founded by F- 
Meagher in 1854 as a yellow and rockingham factory, and afterwards worked 
by W. F. Homer, who continued it until 1875, when it was taken by L, W, 

Clark and Thomas Gray. In 1886, in addition to white ware, they commenced 
making a Bemi-porcelain body, finbhed and decorated in an eflfective manner, 
one oftheir best efforts being in mazarine blue with decorations in raised 
gold. This they christened "Eieti" ware, the product oonsisting princi- 
pally of chocolate jugs, jardinieres, individual sugars and creams, and such 
lilce utilitarian articles. Mr. Thos. H. Copeland, a designer and modeler o 
much taste, is to be credited with the success achieved by this ware, the 
manuiacture being abandoned on his commencing business as a decorator in 
Trenton. Marks : No. 100 used on earthenware from 1883 to 1886 ; No. 101, 
on C. C. ware ; No. 102. on white granite since 1886 ; No. 103, from 1886 to 

; No. 104, from 

1888 to 1889 ; No, 105, si 

Ohio China Co., East Palestine, O. Com- 
menced business as earthenware manufacturers 
last year. 


o. p. ea. 

107-113, Onondaga Pottery Co., Syracuse, N. Y.~This company was 
orgaoized in 1ST 1, and commenced the manufacture of white granite. Abont 
1874 the New York State coat-of-arms was adoptedas a trade-mark (107), and 
was continued on that class of ware until its manufacture was discontinued. 
In 1886 the manufactureofsemi-porcelainwascommenced, with the mark 108, 
the same being still in use. In the fall of 1891 a variety of very pleasing orna- 
mental pieces were made, the mark 100 (c), being confined to them. In the 
year following, the thin china tableware, which h.issince grown so popular, and 
lias made for the firm so high a reputation, wa.'i introduced. This was 
stamped with the mark 110, which in 1893 was changed to a globe (lU). 
Last year this was again changed to the present mark (112). 






113-115. Ott & Bkewer, Trenton, N. J.~(See Cook Pottery Co.) 
116. Ohio Valley China Co, — Now worked by the Wheeling 
Potttry Co. 

117-121, The Potters' Co-operative Co., Dresden Pottery Works 
East Liverpool — This pottery was established in 1876 by Brunt, Bloor, 
Martia &. Co., wlio received a diploma »t the PliiUdelphia CenteuDial. In 
1882 the worka were iDCorporated under their present form. Mr. H. A. 

SIcN'icol iB the president and treasurer, and Mr. H. A. KeSer, secretary. 
The last four marks are the names of toilet patterns, some of them seven 
years old, but which from their merit are still popular in the market. 

( ) 



125-127. Peoria Pottery Co., Peoria, El. — No. 125 is the white granite 
mark ; No. 126 that on C. C, and No. 127 on semi-porcelain. 

128-138. RooKwooD. — The Bookwood Pottery was founded in 1880 by 
Mrs. Storer, who bad in view the creation of some artistic pottery which 
should have an individuality all its own. This is not the place to speak of 
the long years of disappointment and ultimate triumph, which I have dealt 
with, however imperfectly, in another place, Mr, W, W. Taylor,herpartner 
and valued friend, sustained her by his unswerving faith, and to him, upon 
her marrii^^, she turned over her entire interest in the pottery. In 1890 the 
pottery became a stock company of which Mr, Taylor is the president and 
Mr. Bellamy Storer vice-president. The marks are as follows : 

A. Incised or painted, usually with a date. The most common mark 
prior to 1882. 

B. A variation of above, Stands for " Rookwood Pottery, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Maria Longworth Nichols." 

C. In relief or stamped. Sometimes in connection with a date. Prior 
to 1883. 


D, Kftrely uaed. 

E. Kiln mark, stamped in color oa the biscuit, or 

P. Impressed in the clay. It also appears in connectioo with dat«R. 

G. Impressed. Used for a short time only. 


H. Impressed. The regular mark from 1882, the date changed each 
year until 1SS6. 

I. Adopted in 1386. 

J, The flame at top indicates 188T. 

K. The addition of a flame each year marks the subsequent years. 






139. RiTTENHousE, Evans & Co., Trenton, N, J. 

140. The Seeking Pottery Co., East Liverpool. — This maoufactory 
was founded in the fall of 1887 as a two-kiln plant for white granite. A new 
plant with eighteen kilns has just been completed, and the production 
changed from white granite to semi porcelain. That the production should 
have been increased nearly ten times in as many years speaks volumes for 
the enterprise of the firm and the quality of the ware produced. 

142-150. The Steubenville Pottery Co., Steubenville, 0.~0r- 
ganized in the fall of 1879; flrst kiln of white granite drawn February 13, 

157161. UnioH Pobcexain Works, Brooklyn, N. Y.— Situated ia the 
rthern district of Brooklyn, known as Greenpoint. No. 157, 1876, im- 
presBed. In 1 377 the same mark was printed in green under the glaze. No. 
158, from 1878 io present time, printed in green underglaze ; on exhibition 
pieces the same mark is used as a tablet in relief. No. 159, 1879, decoration 
mark ia red on the glaze. No. 160, 1891, decoration mark. No. 161, 1893 
to present time, decoration mark printed on glaze in browu. 

164 165 



162-165 —The Vodbeit Potteky Co., East Liverpool. O.— Successors to 
Vodrey &Bro., who Bucceeded Woodward, Blakeley & Co. From 1857 to 
1875 rockingham and yellow ware ooly were made, when the manufacture of 
white granite and semi-porcelain was commenced. No. 162 is the mark used 
on Bemi-porcelain ; No. 163 on china ; No. 164 on white granite, and No. 165 
on a epedal toilet ware shape. The firm was incorporated in 1896. Jabez 
Vodrey, father of Col, W. H. and Jamea N. Vodrey, made yellow ware in 
PitUburg in 1827. 

166 167 168 169 


166-169. 8.AMUEL Wellee, Zanesville, O. — Lately Mr. Weller baa 
turned his attenliou to uaderglaze decorative paintings on jardinieres, 
pedestals, etc., somewhat suggestive of Rookwood, but bolder and broader in 
treatment. It ia not inappropriately termed " Dickens Ware ". 



170-173. WiLLETS MANnFACTi'RiNo Co., Trenton, N. J.— This fectory 
was erected in 1853 by William Young & Son, who made rockingham and 
C. C. ware. The present proprietors succeeded to the business in 1879, and 
under their energetic management it has assumed very considerable propor- 


tions. William Bromley, after being with Ott & Brewer, went there to intro- 
duce the manufacture of Belleek, which is carried on up to the present day with 
marked success, the designs being selected with special reference to the deli- 
cacy of the body in which they are produced, 

174 175 









179 ' 


174-176. The Warwick China Co. — The extensive potteries of the 
Warwick China Co. are situated on the left bank of the Ohio river in the 
city of Wheeling, W. Va., and are devoted to the manufacture of a superior 
line of semi- vitreous china, jardinieres, and an extensive line of novelties and 
art goods in a large assortment of rich and beautiful decorations. The com- 
pany was organized in September, 1887, with J. R. McCortney, president ; 
and M. N. Cecil, secretary. The board of directors consisted of J. R. Mc- 
Cortney, Henry Stamm, A. J. Clark and O. C. Dewey. In the spring of 
1889 Mr. McCortney retired, O. C. Dewey was elected president, and A. T. 
Young succeeded as director. In November of the same year O. C. Dewey 
retired from the presidency, and C. W. Franzheim was elected to fill his 
place, which position he held until February, 1893, when he retired, and 
Thomas Carr, who at that time was manager, was made president — a posi- 
tion he still holds. Since Mr. Carr assumed the management the product of 
this factory has made wonderful strides in the favor of both the dealers and 
the consuxre^ of the entire United States; and as he is never satisfied that 
the limitarons of his art have been reached, further progress may confidently 
be looked for. 

178-179. West End Pottery Co., East Liverpool, O. — The West End 
iPottery Co. was organized in 1893 by Wm. Burgess, Willis Cunning, Geo. W. 
lAshbaugh, E. B. Bradshaw, T. R. Bradshaw and Ida O. Bradshaw. The 
1^ company purchased the bone china works of Burgess & Co., and started the 
manufacture of ironstone china, in which they have proved very successful. 
Theinterestsof IdaO. and E. B. Bradshaw and of Mr. Peake have since 
been bought by the company. In June, 1896, T. R. Bradshaw sold his in- 
terest to W. A. Calhoun. The oflScers of the company at present are Wm. 
BurgesSy manager ; Willis Cunning, assistant manager ; W. A. Calhoun, 


aeoietory, uid Qeo. W. Ashbaugh, president. These, with the addition of O. 
C. Afihiwugh form the members of tlie company. 
180. Wick China Co., Kittanning, Pa. 


181-185. Wellsville PiOWEEB Pottery Co., Welbville, O.— Thiabusi- 
nesa was atarted by Morley & Co. in 1879. They made white granite and 
majolica. From 1882 to 1885 the mark 181 was used. In 1885 the concern 
was inoorpomted as the Pioneer Pottery Works Co., and the mark 182 
was used. From 1888 to 1890 the English arms were used on white granite, 
and 183 for semi-porcelain. In 1890 the works were burned down, but were 
rebuilt in the following spring. From that time until September, 1896, 184 
was used. On February 1, 1896, thecompany was oi^anizedand incorporated 
as the WellsvillePioneer Pottery Co., but 185 was not adopted until 8ep- 
t^nber, 1896. 







186-193. Wheeling PorrEity Co., Wheeling, W. Va.— Incorporated 

in 1879, Binoe which time the ciq[)Aeity hae been increased fourfold, and prac- 
tically continues under the same management as originally cemposed, with 
Mr. Ohas. W. Franzheim as president and general manager. One of their 
most notable successes has been in rich cobalt decorations, applied not only 
utilitarian articles, but to jardinieres and other specialties. *'Made in 
America*' is no longer a reproach, and the Wheeling Pottery Co., in adopt- 
ing it as a motto showed the courage of their convictions. The American 
march of progress is w^l exemplified here. The first three marks were Used 
from 1880 to 1886, and the next two from 1886 to 1897, oo white granite; 
the two following, since 1893, oh semi-porcelain ; and the last, since 1894, 
on C. 0. Their latest product is a china body known as cameo china, a thin 
translucent paste in which some effective decorations, mostly in blue and 
gold, have been introduced. The eagle and shield mark has been adopted 
during tha present year. 

Chittenango (N. Y.) Pottery Co. — This company was 
organized in 1897, for the manufiictUre of bone china, but to- 
wards the close of the year the manufactory was destroyed by 
fire and had to be rebuilt. It is now in working order and 
p ^eTnti production has commenced. The officers are F. H. Gates, 
* president; J. R. Eaton, vice president; W. H. Stewart, 
treasurer ; W, J. Logan, secretary. The progress of this company will be 
watched with interest, as the directors intend competing w^th the leading 
English firms. This is an ambitious venture, but with careful workmanship 
and competent art directorship the chances of success are largely in their favor. 




"^ PAGE 

Abbey, R 18 

Abington, J. L 25 

Absolon , 2 

Actien, Ge8ellschaft 47 

Adderley» H 2 

Ahrenfeldt G. Sc Son 5»-73 

Alcock, Hy. & Co 2 

" John 2 

" J. &G 2 

" Richard 29 

Alcora 69 

Allerton, Chas. & Sons 3 

Alluauds 89 

Alencon 86 

Armand, St. Less Eaux 85 

American Pottery Co 82 

Amsterdam 59 

Angouleme 48 

Annabury 47 

Anthes, Baron d..« 85 

Antoines 42 

Antonibon, G. B...^ 68 

Pascal..., 62 

Appel, J. den 60 

Aprey , 35 

Aprey, Baron d, 35 

Arnheim 59 

Arnoldi, O. E. & P 48 

Arras 35 

Astbury, E. & Co 8 

Ashworth, G. L. & Bros 2 

Ault, W 2 


Baden, Baden 48 

Baensch, H 48 

Bagaley, Jacob 6 

Baguley, Isaac 3 

Bailey. W. & J. A 72 

Banco 67 

Barbin, Francis 41 

Barker, C. G 12 

Barker & Son 7 

Barney Rigoni & Langle.... 89 

Baroni 68 

Bates, Elliott & Co 6 

Bates, Gildea & Walker 6 

Bates, Walker & Co 6 

Bauer, A 48 

Baum, J. H 71 

Bawo & Dotter 68-73 

Beech, Jas 6 

Beek, W. van 60 

BeerbowerL. & Co m.. 73 

Belgium 83 

Bell, J. & M. Co 3 

Belleek 8 

Belleville 43 

Bellevue Pottery 3 

Bellmark Pottery Co 75 

Benedict Bros 48 

Bennett, E. Pottery Co 74 

Berg, Cornells 60 

" Justus do 59 

Berlin 48 

Bernart Jehan 87 

Brrtram, B. 48 


Bettignes 35 

BQyerle, J. L. de 41 

Billingsley, W 23 

Bird, D 20 

Bishop & Stonier 10 

Bloor, R 14 

Boch Bros 83 

Bodley, E. J. D 4 

E.F. <&Co 4 

Boender 60 

Bogaert 60 

Bondy, Ruede 48 

Bonn 53 

Boote, T.&R 71 

Booths 8 

Booths T. & Son 8 

Bordeaux 86 

Borne 42 

Bordello Bros 48 

Bottger 51 

Bourdu 42 

Boulanger, H. &Co 86 

Boulton, Machin A Ten- 

nant 71 

Bourg, la Reine 36-41 

Bourne, E. & J, E. Leigh... 8 

Boussemaert, J 83-38 

Bow 9 

Brainchou, H 8 

Brameld&Co 6 

Brancas Lauraguais 86 

Bretby 26 

Bridgwood, S. Sc Sons 5-71 

Briel, P. van 60 

Bristol 5 

Brockman Pottery Co 75 

Broom, Isaac 78 

Brouwer, A. C 60 

G 60 

" Hugo 60 

" J 69 

Brownfteld, W. & Son 7 

" Guild 7 

Brown, Westhead Moore Sc 

Co 8 

Bruff CO 11 

Bruhl 52 

Bruges 83 

Buchwald 34 

Buckauer Porz. Mfgr 48 

Bucknall & Stevenson 7 

Buen, Betiro 69 

Burgen, J. van der 60 

Bulow, Baron de 33 

Burch, P. van der ., 60 

Burford Bros 75 

Burgess & Campl>ell 81 

& Leigh 9-28 

Burroughs & Montford 75 


Cabaset 46 

Caen 8i 

Campbell, CM 22 

*' John A 81 

Capo di Monte 61-62-64 

Cartledge, Chas 76 

Caso Pirota 62 



Castel Durante 62 

Castelli 64 

Caughley- 18 

Cauldon 6 

Ceramic Art Co ,... 72 

Chaffagiola 60 

Chaffers, R 14 

Champion, R 11 

Chamberlains 31-32 

Chambrette 38 

Chantilly 36 

Chapelle 46 ; 

Chapman, D 14 ' 

S. & J 20 

Chelsea 10 

•' China Co 76 

" Pottery 77 

Chirpentier 37 

Chicanneau, A 43 

D 43 

Chikusen Gogiosaka 66 

Chi ttenango Pottery Co 97 

Choisy-le-roi 86 

Clarke 38 

*' T 14 

Clefflns, L 60 

Clement 36 

Clementson Bros 10 

Clerissy, Pierre 41 

Clews, Jas 7 

Cliflfs, (Ltd.) 12 

Clignancourt 38 

Coalport 10 

Cobridge Works 7 

Cochrane, R. & Co 14 

Collier, S. & E 72 

Conrade Bros 42 

Cook Pottery Co 77 

Cookworthy, W 11-36 

Copeland, W. T. & Sons...l2-72 

Copenhagen 34 

Carnelisy 60 

Cotton & Barker 12 

CoudrayBarbe ^ 43 

Courtille, La 36 

Crown Derby Pore. Co 18 

Crown Pottery Co 76 

" Staff. Pore. Co 75 

Custine, Count 41 

Cyffle 31 • 


Daehmel, A 48 

Dagoty, P. L 36 

Dahl 50 

Dale, L. van 60 

Daniel, Walter 4 

Daniel, Rich 5 

Davenport, John 16 

Wm 16 

De Bettignes 35 

Degoin. 46 

Delinieres & Co 39 

Denmark 34 

Derabout, G 42 

Derby 14 

Dextra, J.T 60 

Dillon, F 16 

■■-' PAGE 

Dillwyn, W 25 

Dimmock, J. & Go 12 

Doccia 62 

Don Pottery 4 

Doom, P. van 60 

Dorez & Pelissier 38 

Dorez, F. L 46 

Doulton & Co 16-71 

Lambeth 71 

Dresden 51 

Dryander 42-53 

Dubois Bros 46 

Duranten, F 62 

Duesbury, W 14-15 

Dunn Bennett &, Co 16 

Dwenger, C. L 58-73 

East Morrisania 78 

Edge, Malkin & Co 17 

Edwards, Jaa 19 

John 16 

** Thomas 5 

Eisenberger 48 

Emery, F.J 17 

Etiollos 36 

Bvans A Booth 8 


Faenza 64 

Faience d'Oiron 37 

Mfg. Co 78 

Fanquez, P. J .33-35 

Feburier, Jacques 3S 

Fell & Co 17 

Fentdn 78 

Ferand 41 

Fielding, S. &Co 71 

Flights 31 

Flight & Barr 31 

" Barr & Barr 31 

Florence 62 

Flower, Jas 5 

Flyt 60 

Fontana 64 

Fontainbleau 43 

France 35 

Frank, Richard 5 

Franke,A 48 

Franques 46 

Frankenthal 37-48 

Fry, Thopias 9 

Fulda 48 

Furnival & Clark 17 

Furnivals 17 

Furstenburg , 48 


Gaal, J 60 

Gardners 70 

Garret, Thos 13 

Geltz 50 

Genoa 62 

Gerard Dufraissiex & Ab- 
bott 39-40 

Gerard Dufraissiex &. eo.39-40 

Geyer & Korbitz 50 

Ghisbrechts, L 60 

L. K 62 

Glot, R 46 

Glasser & Greiner 40 

Glatz, J 48 

Globe Pottery Co 78 

Ginori ,. 62 

Giorgio, Maestro 63 

Gonzaga, Louis Due 42 

Goodwin Pottery Co 80 

Goss, W. H 3-18 

Gosuke 68 

Gotha 48 

Goada, M 59 


Grainger, G. & Co 32 

Green,T.A. &S 71 

" T.G. &Co 71-72 

Green, Leeds 4-20 

Greenwood Pottery Co 79 

Grimwade Bros 72 

Orindley. W. H. &, Co 18 

Groenland, J 60 

Grue, F. A 64 

Gubbio 62 

Guerhard & Dihl 43 

Guerin, W. & Co 38 

Guy & Housel 48 


Hadji Minas •. » 84 

Haito Takemoto 65 

Hager Horth &, Co 48 

Hall, R 24 

Hamburger & Co 5S 

Hammersley & Astbury.... 3 

" Freeman A Co 3 ' 

" R. &Son 13 

Hancock & Co 15 

B&S 15 

Hannong, Chas 37 

Chas. H 37 

J 37 

" Joseph A.. 87-48 

Paul A 87-41-48 

•* Pierre 37-43 

Harlees, D 60 

J 60 

Harker Pottery Co 80 

Harriman, J. A 60 

Hartley Green &, Co ^ 20 

Hartog 69 

Hassell, Anthony 5 

Haviland, C. F. H 40 

" & Co 40- 1 

'* Theodore 89 

Haynes Bennett & Co 80 

•♦ D. F. & Co 80 

" &Son 80 

" George 25 

Henderson, D. & J 82 

Herculaneum 18 

Hengest, Helene d, 37 

Herend 48 

Helm Pulvermacher&Co.. 53 

Hereng 88 

Hispano-Moresque 69 

Hiyochizen 66 

Fochst 50 

Fofdick, D 60 

Foldcrofb, Jos 19-72 

Holder, J 60 

Holland 59 

Hollins, M. D 22 

Hoorne,H.Van 60 

Hope & Carter 18 

Hopkins & Vernon 28 

Hopestein, J. W 60 

Horn Bros 48 

Houk, J. S. van dcr 60 

Huhbe Bros 49 

Hulme& Booth 28 

'* & Christie 71 

'* Thomas 28 

" Green & Co 20 

Hossl, J. Ant -J9 

Hutschenreuther, C. M 49 


International Pottery Co... 81 
lUly 61 


Jackson, G 51 

Jacobi, Adler & Co 51 

Japan 65 

Jarry 35 



Jeffords, J. E. St Co 82 

Jersey City Pottery Co 89 

Johnson Bros ]2 

" Reuben & Co 10-17 

Jones, Geo. & Sons 19 

Jones, McDufFee &. Stratton 73 


Kakiyemon 68 

Kam, G. P .' 60 

Kato 65 

Kean 15 

Keeling & Co 6 

Keieer, A. C D 60 

Keller, Sebastien 38 

Keller & Guerin 38 

Kerr & Binns 32 

Ke^sel, J. P. van 60 

Kessel, L. L van 60 

Keyser & Pynaker 59 

Keystone Pottery Co 84 

Kiel 34 

Kiel, A 60 

Kiev 70 

Kinkozan 67 

Kinzan 67 

Kleftijus, W 60 

Kleynoven.Q 59 

Kloesterle, Porz. Fabrik.... 58 

Kloot, C. V 60 

Knapper& Blackhurst 19 

Knoetter, J Oo 

Knowles, Taylor & Know- 

les 83 

Kozan, Makuzu. 65 

Koning, H. D 60 

Kool J 60 

Koos, Max 51 

Koransha 68 

KornlefTBros 70 

Krause, R. M 51 

Kriegal & Co 53 

Krister, Carl 51 

Kruisweg, A..^ 60 

Kuleck, J. J 60 


La Courtille 36 

La Louviere 33 

Lamoninary 46 

Lanfrey, Francois 41 

Lanternier, A 39 

Laporte, R 73 

LaSeinie 45 

Laughlin, Homer 84 

Lauraguais, Brancas 36 

Lazarus, Rosen feldt &. Leh- 
man 53 

Leeds 20 

Lefeburedc Gavron 33 

Denis 42 

Lenz, F. J 53 

Lenox, W. 8 76 

Leonard, P. H 39 

Liddle, Elliott A Co 6 

Liege 33 

Lille 38 

Limbach 51 

Limoges 38-41 

Litherland, W 15 

Littler, W 20 

Livesley, Powell A Co 10 

Lebeouf, A. M 43 

Locke & Co 72 

Locker &, Co 15 

Locket, T. & J 4 

Lonhuda 84- 5 

Lowesby J9 

Ludwi^fibnrg 51 

Luneville 88 

Lycett, C. 77 

Machin, Jos 5 


■"'• PAGE 

Macheleidt 55 

Maddock, John Si Sons 21 

'* John A Sons, Tren.. 86 

*♦ Pottery Co 86 

" Thos. ASons 87 

Madison, Pugh, Rose & 

Rose 11 

MalihflT, T. £. A Sons 72 

Marieburg 70 

Marcolina 52 

Marseille, A 51 

Marseilles il 

Marum, Pietrus 60 

Maryland Pottery Co 85 

Martin Freres 73 

Mason, C. J 2 

Mason, Miles 23 

Massier, Sieur 38 

Mayer Bros 6 

'• Bros. & Elliott 6 

" Pottery Co 85 

" T.J.&J 6 

" T 20 

McBirney & Armstrong 3 

Mclnnes 15 

McNicol Pottery Co 87 

Meakin, Alfred 21 

J. &G 22 

Medici 62 

Meer,J. van der 60 

Meigh, Job 2? 

Meissen 37-51 

Melchoir 50 

Mel lor, Taylor & Co 22 

Mennecy. 41 

Mercer Pottery Co 88 

Mettlach 57 

Mesch.J 60 

Middledyk, H. van 60 

Milde, J. de 60 

Milan 63 

Minton& Boyle 22 

•* Hollins & Co 22 

•• Herbert 22 

»• Thomas 22 

" T. W 22 

Mintons, Ltd 22 

Monnier 36 

Monte Lupo 63 

Moore Bros 20 

Jas 8 

T. P 8 

»• W. B 8 

Moreau, Marie 43 

Morley, F 2 

&Co 2 

Morris & Willmore 85 

Morrison A Carr 87 

Mortiock, John. 6 

Moses, John, Sons & Co 86 

Moustiers 41-69 

Muhamed AH P4 

Muller— Copenhagen 34 


Nantg^rw 10-23 

Neale, J 23 

Nevers 42 

New England Pottery Co... 88 

New Hall Co 23 

New Wharf Pottery 23 

New York Sc Rudolstadt... 53 

Niedermayer 53 

Niederweller 41-53 

Nove 63 

Nymphenburg 51-53 


Oest, F. S. W. & Co 53 

Ohio China Co 89 


Ohio Valley China Co.. 89 

Okumura 67 

Old Hall Earthenware Co.. 23 

0]<»rv 41-69 

Olivier 35 

Onondaga Pottery 89 

Oporto 69 

Orleans 42 

" ducd* 43 

Ostdeutsche S ' fabrik 53 

Ott & Brewer 89 

Paet8ch,T 53 

Palmer, H 23-24 

Paree, Pieter 59 

Paris 43 

Pauw,D 59 

Pelleve, P 46 

Pennington, J 24 

Pennis, J , 60 

Paoria Pottery Co 90 

Perrin, Veuve 41 

Persia 84 

Peterynck 83 

Petit (Lille) 38 

*• Jacob 43 

Phillips, Ed 15 

Pieter, J 60 

Pinder, Bourne ^ Co 24 

Pintobosso 69 

Pinzton 24 

Pioneer Pottery Co 96 

Pirkenhammer 48 

Pitcairns. Ltd 24 

Plant Bros 24 

" B. H. &Co 71 

Plymouth 11 

yiPodmore, Walker & Co 24 

Pofntons 24 

PontauxChouz 48 

Poole &. Unwin 24 

Popoff 70 

Poterat 43-44 

Potter 43 

Potters* Co-operative Co.... 90 
Porcelained'Angouleme.... 43 

Porcelaine a la Reine 43 

Portugal 69 

Poulson, Jos 22 

Pouyat, J 86-88 

Powell & Bishop 10 

PrM^ue.. 63 

Pugh,W 11 

Pulinex, H 83 

Pynacker, J 60 


Redon, M. L. & Co 89 

Reed & Clementson 10 

Regout, P 60 

Reissberger &. Co 63 

Repovecki, S 53 

Reygans, A 60 

Ridgways 25-71-72 

Ridgway, E. J 25 

** Geo 8 

Job 3- 8 

John 8-25 

Sparks &, Ridg- 
way 26 

Ridgway. W 8-10-25.71-72-76 

Ring, Jos 5 

Ringler, J 51-53 

Riosai Inouye 65 

Ri88ler& Co 83 

Rittenhouse, Evans &. Co... 91 

Robert, J 41 

Robertson 77 

Robinson, W. & B 7 

Robitzek & Son 78 




Rodrigues 42 

Rogers, J. & Sons 19 

Romelly, J. £. Dde 42 

Rookwood 90 

Rorstrand 70 

Rose & Blakeway 11 

*' Blakeway & Rose 11 

" Clark A Madison 11 

'• John & Co 10-11 

*' Johnson ^Winter.... 11 
** Johnson, Clarke & 

"Winter 11 

Rose, Winter A Clarke 11 

Rothenburg 53 

RoUen 44 

Rubati, P 63 

Rudolstadt 53-54 

Rue deBondy 43 

Russia 70 


St. AmandlesEauz 85 

St. Cloud 43-46 

St. Petersburg 70 

Salomini, G 63 

Saltser, A 53 

Sarreguemines 46-54 

Sauvage, C 42 

Savona. 63 

Savy, Honore 41 

Sazerat, L 39 

Sceauz 46 

Schaaf, Carl 63 

Scbagen, L.van 60 

SchmeizerA Gericke 53 

Schmidt, A 53 

Schmidt, Gebruder 53 

Schmidt, H 53 

Schoonhoven, L. van 60 

Schwarz, J. van 63 

Scrivener, R. G. &, Co 26 

Sebring Pottery Co 91 

Seifa Yohei 66 

SeUi Kaisha 67 

Seville 69 

Sevres 44-45 

Sherwin & Cotton 72 

Shirley &. Freeman 8 

Shiraishi, Smida 66 

Shubel 68 

Sincenny 46 

Smith & Binnall 72 

Smith & Ford 33-71 

Spaandonck, T 60 

Spain 69 

Speeler 80 

Bpode, Josiah 12 

Springer k. Co 63 

Steiner& Adler 53 

Steubenville 91 

Stevenson, A 7 

" &. Dale 7 

&Co., 15 

R 25 

Stockholm 70 

Stralsund 70 

Strasbourg.. 87 

Straus. L. &Son8 53 

Strobel & Wilking 68 

Strooni, V. van der 60 


Stubbs A Kent 71 

Swansea 10-25 

Sweden 70 


Taizan 66 

Takemoto, H W 

Tatler, E 76 

*♦ W. H 76 

Tempest, Brockman & Co . 75 
Tervueren 8a 


Thieme, Carl 54 

.Thirlol, L 54 

Thompson, C C. Pottery 

Co 92 

Thoof & Labourchere 60 

Thorwaldsen 34 

Thun 58 

Toft, Balph A Thos 26 

Tomataro Kato 65 

Tooth & Co 26 

Tournai 83-38 

Tosan 66 

Trenton Pottery Co 92 

Tressemanes ic Vogt 88 

Trow, H 43 

Tucker Sc Hulme 73 

Turkey 84 

Turner. John 11-26 

** ATomkinsou 21 


Union Pottery Co 93 

Union Porcelain Works 94 

United States 74 

United States Pottery 93 

Upper Hanley Pottery Co.. 28 

Urbino 64 

Utzscbneider & Co 46-54 


Valencia 69 

Valenciennes 46 

Van Kessell, J. P 60 


Venice 63 

Verhagen, J 60 

VerneuiUes 86 

Verstelle, G .". 60 

Vezzi Bros 63 

Victoria Porz.Fabrik 63 

Vienna 55 

Villehaut..: 35 

Villeroy &. Boch 56-57 

Vincennes 87-46 

Vincente, F 69 

Viry, G. 41 

Vista Allegro 60 

Vodrey Bros 94 

Volkstadt 55 


Wahless, Ernst 55 

Wainwrigbt Sc Co « 20 

Wallerfaugen 57 

Wal, J. van der 60 

Wamps 88 

Watani 68 

Warburton A Button 20 

Warwick China Co 95 

Wedgwood &, Bentley 20 

J. & Sons 11-27 

*• A, Co 72 

Weort, J. de 60 

Wegley, W 48 

Weller. Samuel 91 

Wellsville Pioneer Pottery 
Co 96 


Wessell, Ludwig 55 

West End Pottery Co 95 

Wetherby, J. H. A Son 29 

Wheeling Pottery Co 96 

Whittaker, Heath A Co 27 

Wick China Co 06 

Wileman& Co 29 

Willielmsburger 55 

Wilkinson, A.J 28-71 

Wittenberger 55 

Willetts M'fgCo 94 

Wilson. C 23 

Wiltshire A Robinson 28 

Winkle, F. W.&Co 27 

Witzenburg 60 

Wood & Barker 71 

" A Caldwell 27 

" Enoch 27 

" B.&Sons 27 

" A Son ^ 28 

Worcester 30-31-32 

Worthington & Co 18 


Xanta, R 64 


YaboQ Meizan , 67 


Zsolnay, W J55 

Zeschenger 50 


Rough notes on ^ ^ o. 


65 ILLUSTRATIONS, and about 300 marks, and was 
written as a help to the dealer and as a text-book fof the 

ji jl jl It is the only book on Pottery ever issued at popular prices, 
as it is the only one dealing with the Pottery of today* 

jl jl jl The past^ with its honored traditions, has been by no means 
neglected, and the average reader will find here all he wants to 
know without resort to the expensive text-books* Some errors 
of former writers are pointed out, and much original matter is 

jl jl jl That the book is a valuable one is evidenced by the ex- 
tremely appreciative reception accorded to it by the press, some 
extracts of which follow* 

PAPER COVERS, 25 Cts*, dOTH, Gilt Lettered, 50 Cts*, Postpaid* 

*' Written by a connoisseur and enthusiast evidently, and is marked 
by many touches of originality. The book is especially valuable from a 
historical point of view, and presents many interesting fact^s connected 
with the inner family life of the early potters and their descendants." 

Chtna^ Glass and Lamps. 

" An ideal hand-book on a very interesting and much overlooked 
subject." Pittsburg Evening Record, 

'* Notwithstanding its unpretentious character, this book contains so 
much that is new and valuable that no student of ceramics can afford to be 
without it. Much has been written about Belleek, but it seems that our 
information was all wrong, not alone as to its origin, but as to the nature 
of the ware itself. The story of the Limoges factories is much fuller 
than any yet written, and will no doubt, form the basis from which future 
historians will work. Until now we had always regarded the second 
Spode as the inventor of bone chine, a mistake the best writers on 
ceramics have perpetuated. These are but a few evidences of the touches 
of originality found in its pages, and that will in time be recognized and 
make of it a standard text book." The Clay Worker. 

" Full of information about rare and fine earthenware of every de- 
scription. Mr. Jervis is a practical man, whose everyday knowledge of 
the English and Continental potteries is very extensive, and whose 
** Rough Notes " will supply many a woman with just the information 
she wants." Review o/ Reviews. 

" It contains much information of a valuable character, not found in 
any of the expensive text-books." Hamilton ( Ont,) Spectator, 


W. Percival Jervis. '^^^Ty 



3 2044 034 908 772 

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rtOV 13  If*'-' 

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