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OF THE (( 




Vol. LXII 


192 8 





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Vol. LXII January to December. 1928 Nos. 1-12 

[The index to illustrations will be found on p. xiii] 

(Special articles and names of authors indicated by small capitals) 


Aden, Fred: Education in Argentina 706 

Agriculture, industry, and commerce: 

Argentina 78, 1 86, 

293, 398, 505, 612, 716, 839, 938, 943, 1048, 1053, 1151, 1158, 1262 

Bolivia 79,293, 398, 506, 612, 717, 840, 939, 943, 1049, 1152, 1158, 1263 

Brazil 80, 187, 

294, 400, 506, 613, 718, 840, 939, 1049, 1054, 1152, 1159, 1264, 1267 
Chile_._ 81,189, 295, 402, 508, 614, 719, 842, 940, 1049, 1153, 1160, 1264, 1269 

Colombia 82, 

190, 296, 403, 509, 616, 720, 843, 940, 943, 1049, 1153, 1264, 1269 

Costa Rica 83,191, 297, 403, 509, 617, 844, 940, 1055, 1154, 1161, 1265 

Cuba 83, 191, 

297, 404, 510, 617, 720, 844, 940, 944, 1050, 1055, 1154, 1161, 1270 

Dominican Republic 84, 192, 298, 404, 511, 618, 721, 845, 941, 1051, 1055 

Ecuador 85, 192, 298, 405, 511, 619, 722, 845, 1265, 1270 

Guatemala 86, 193, 298, 406, 512, 619, 723, 846, 944, 1265 

Haiti 86, 193, 299, 406, 513, 620, 723, 847, 944, 1051, 1155, 1265 

Honduras 87, 194, 299, 407, 513, 620, 723, 847, 1155, 1266 

Mexico 87, 194, 

299, 407, 513, 621, 724, 847, 941, 945, 1055, 1155, 1161, 1266, 1270 

Nicaragua 88,194, 300, 409, 514,621,725,848, 1051 

Panama 88, 

194, 300, 409, 514, 621, 725, 848, 941, 945, 1055, 1156, 1162, 1271 
Paraguay _ _ _ 89, 195, 301, 410, 514, 622, 726, 849, 941, 1051, 1156, 1266, 1271 

Peru 89, 195, 

302, 411, 515, 622, 727, 849, 941, 1052, 1056, 1156, 1162, 1267, 1271 

Salvador 91, 196, 302, 516, 624, 850, 1053, 1163, 1272 

Uruguay 91, 197, 302, 412, 516, 624, 727, 850, 942, 945, 1053, 1156, 1267 

Venezuela 92, 198, 304, 413, 517, 625, 728, 851, 942, 1056, 1163 

Air Communication for Western Hemisphere (Shields) 1115 

American Historical Association 1220 

American Library Association, Mexican participation (Babcock)_- 781 

Archaeological work in Middle America in 1927 (Morley) 228 

Archaeology, TIME and American (Tozzer) 26 


Aden, Fred: Education in Argentina 706 

Aviation — 

Seville-Buenos Aires airline terminal 1200 

Banking, Argentina's structure (Cuneo) 887 

BuNGE, Alejandro E.: Seventy years of immigration 1026 


Argentina — Continued. Page 

CxJNEO, James A.: Argentina's Banking Structure 887 

Education in Argentina (Aden) 706 

Immigration, Seventy years of (Bunge) 1026 

Irigoyen, Hipolito, President of Argentina — _ 1087 

Lakes of Argentina, Andean (Key) 365 


La Palmera (poem) 148 

The Palm Tree (poem) 149 

Malbran, Manuel, Ambassador to United States 983 

Poetry, Modern Argentine (Noe) 832 

Tobacco plantations, Tucuman 484 

YeRBA mate GROWING 489 

Arosemena, Florencio H., President of Panama 1195 

Babcock, Charles E.: Mexican Participation in American Library 

Association 781 

Barth, Ernesto: Petroleum Resources of Bolivia 468 

Bibliography as Aid to International Understanding (Hasse) 908 

Blackwell, Alice Stone (tr.) : 

Arboles (Kilmer) 146 

Trees (Kilmer) 147 

Si una Espina me Hiere (Nervo) 146 

If A Thorn Wounds Me (Nervo) 147 

La mas Fermosa (Hernandez Miyares) 148 

The Most Beautiful (Hernandez Miyares) 149 

La Palmera (Lugones) 148 

The Palm Tree (Lugones) 149 

El Rio (Hiibner) 150 

The River (Hiibner) 151 

El Dulce Milagro (Ibarbourou) 150 

The Sweet Miracle (Ibarbourou) 151 

ExTASis (Nervo) 1214 

Ecstasy (Nervo) 1215 

A LOS Andes (Valencia) 1216 

To the Andes (Valencia) 1217 

America a Espana (Chocano) 1216 

America to Spain (Chocano) 1217 

La Canci6n DE las Palmas (Borrero de Luzan) 1218 

The Song of the Palms (Borrero de Luzan) 1219 

La Mujer (Palma) 1218 

Woman (Palma) 1219 


Bolivian Bureau of Financial and Economic Research 779 

DiEZ de Medina, Eduardo, Minister to the LTnited States 225 

Explorers Seek Historic Treasure 911 

Petroleum Resources (Barth) 468 

Borrero de Luzan, Dulce Maria: 

La Canci6n de las Palmas (poem) 1218 

The Song of the Palms (poem) 1219 


Agricultural Education in Minas Geraes 152 

Aviation facilities in Sao Paulo 252 

Brazil of To- Day (Kemmerer) 11X9 


Brazil — Continued Page 

Childeen's Bureatj 496 

Coffee Exposition, Sao Paulo (Cameron) 273 

Coffee propaganda methods 603 

Educational Advance, Some features of (Brainerd) 895 

Foreign Trade in 1927 (Phillips) 922 

Oliveira Lima, Manoel de (death) 439 

Brainerd, Heloise: 

Progressive Schools in Latin America 453 

Public Instruction in Uruguay 1003 

Some Features of Educational Advance in Brazil 895 

BuNGE, Alejandro E.: Seventy Years of Argentine Immigration. _ 1026 
Bustamante, Antonio S. de: Address at closing session of the 

Sixth International Conference of American States 345 

Calendar Simplification (Macdermott) 1234 

Calendars, New Year of Tropical American Indigenes (Nuttall) 67 

Cameron, C. R. : Sao Paulo Coffee Exposition 273 

Cardozo, Ramon I.: Public Instruction in Paraguay 1202 

Carranza, Emilio, successful flight of Mexico's lone eagle 703 

Costa Rica: 

Social welfare institutions 1223 

Castillo, Jesus: Autochthonic Music 356 

Castro Quesada, Manuel, Minister of Costa Rica 1091 


Collier, William M., United States Ambassador Retires 871 

Emigrants, 120,000 invited to repatriate 838 

Holiday in Southern Chile (Howland) 242 

HtJBNER, Jorge — 

El Rio (poem) 150 

The River (poem) 151 

National Library (Cruzat Vera) 998 

Navy, Notable Tribute to Chilean Sea Prowess (Worsley) — 914 

Nitrate, Romance of (Elliott) 1129 

Primitive man, new discoveries of 837 

Sanitary Education (Mayers G.) 1111 

School of Social Service in Santiago (Cordemans) 351 

Worsley, F. A.: Notable Tribute to Chilean Sea Prowess — 914 
Chocano, Jose Santos: 

America a Espana (poem) 1216 

America to Spain (poem) 1217 

Collier, William M., United States Ambassador to Chile Retires. 871 
Colombia : 

End of the Trail (Martin) 1019 

New law covering hydrocarbons (petroleum) 291 

Valencia, Guillermo — 

A LOS Andes (poem) 1216 

To THE Andes (poem) ; 1217 

Columbus Memorial Lighthouse competition 985 

Commerce, United States with Latin America, calendar year 1927 

(Phillips) 396 

Commerce, United States with Latin America, 1927-28 (Phillips) 1034 

Commission of expert bibliographers 556 


Communications and transportation: ^^se 

Argentina 1057, 1163, 1272 

Bolivia 1057,1163 

Brazil 946, 1057, 1164, 1272 

Chile 946, 1165, 1272 

Colombia 946, 1058, 1165, 1273 

Costa Rica 1274 

Cuba 947, 1058, 1165, 1274 

Dominican Republic 947, 1058, 1274 

Ecuador 948, 1166, 1275 

Guatemala 948, 1166, 1275 

Haiti 1058 

Honduras 1059 

Mexico 948, 1059, 1166, 1275 

Nicaragua____ 1059, 1167, 1275 

Panama 948, 1167, 1276 

Paraguay 1059, 1276 

Peru 949, 1059, 1168, 1276 

Salvador.-.^ 949, 1060, 1169 

United States 1169 

Uruguay 1060, 1169, 1276 

Venezuela 949, 1060, 1169, 1277 


CoRNYN, John Hubert: Lost Literature of the Aztecs 382 

Costa Rica: 

Castro Quesada, Manuel, Minister to the United States 1091 

Gonzalez Viquez, Cleto, President of Costa Rica 655 

Oreamuno, J. Rafael, retiring Minister to the United States. 763 

CouTiNHO, J. DE Siqueira: Need for Study of Portuguese in the 

United States 53 

Cruz at Vera, Manuel: National Library of Chile 998 



La Cancion de las Palmas (poem) 1218 

The Song of the Palms (poem) 1219 

Hernandez Miyares, Enrique — 

La Mas Fermosa (poem) 148 

The Most Beautiful (poem) 149 

Cuneo, James A.: Argentina's Banking Structure 887 

Cultural Peaks in Contemporary South America (Mackay) 475 

Dario, Ruben — 

Litany for Our Lord don Quixote 828 

Letania de Nuestro Senor Don Quijote 829 

DiEZ DE Medina, Eduardo, Minister of Bolivia 225 

Dominican Republic: 

Columbus Memorial Lighthouse competition 985 

Economic and financial affairs: 

Argentina 414, 626, 730, 1063 

Bolivia 198,731,852, 1064, 1173 

Brazil 92, 199, 518, 853, 950, 1064, 1282 

Chile 93, 304, 414, 519, 626, 731, 951, 1064, 1174, 1282 

Colombia 93, 304, 415, 519, 627, 731, 951, 1065, 1283 

Costa Rica 93, 415, 527, 732, 853 

Cuba 94, 199, 305, 415, 520, 853, 951, 1283 


Economic and financial affairs — Continued. Page 

Dominican Republic 416, 854, 1174, 1284 

Ecuador 306, 520, 628, 854, 952, 1065, 1284 

Guatemala 199, 306, 628, 855, 1067, 1174, 1284 

Haiti 94, 628, 854, 1175, 1284 

Honduras 521, 733, 952, 1067 

Mexico 521, 733, 953, 1067, 1176 

Nicaragua 953, 1068, 1176 

Panama 628, 733, 855, 953, 1068, 1285 

Paraguay 306, 416, 733, 855, 1176, 1285 

Peru 308,734, 1285 

Salvador 200, 417, 521, 856, 1177, 1285 

Uruguay 308, 417, 522, 1068, 1177 

Venezuela 200, 734, 1068, 1178, 1286 


From Tagtja to Buttons (Farrar) 801 

Zaldumbide, Gonzalo, Minister to United States 1197 

Elliott, L. E.: Romance of Nitrate 1129 

Exposition of Barcelona 376 

Exposition, Ibero- American at Seville 559 

Farrar, F. P.: From Tagtja to Buttons 801 

Feminism : 

Argentina 1083, 1297 

Brazil 972, 1083, 1190, 1298 

Chile 972, 1084, 1190, 1298 

Colombia 973, 1298 

Cuba 1191, 1299 

Mexico 1191 

Nicaragua 1084 

Panama 1191, 1299 

Peru 973, 1191, 1299 

Salvador 1192 

Uruguay 973 

Financial progress in South America 493 

General notes: 

Argentina 651, 758, 974, 1192 

Bolivia 113, 220, 327, 758, 974 

Brazil 113 

Chile 220, 542, 974, 1084 

Colombia 114,651,974 

Costa Rica 221, 1084 

Cuba 436, 759, 974, 1192 

Dominican Republic 436, 975, 1192 

Ecuador 221, 327 

Guatemala 327, 759, 1299 

Haiti 328,542 

Honduras 328, 543, 652 

Mexico 436,543 

Nicaragua 328, 543 

Panama -- 328, 436, 975 

Paraguay 1085 

Peru 221, 329, 543, 652, 976, 1085 

United States 652 

Uruguay 329,436 

Venezuela 221,329,652,976 



Gonzalez Viquez, Cleto, President of Costa Rica 655 

GoRGAS Memorial Laboratory (Thatcher) 767 


Castillo, Jesus: Autochthonic Music 356 

Constitutional reform 657 

Ibarra M., Alberto: Tourist in Guatemala 497 

Music, Autochthonic (Castillo) 356 

Recinos, Adrian, Minister to the United States 117 

Guerrero, J. Gustavo, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Salvador, 

Homage to 1 

GuGGiARi, Jose P., President of Paraguay 979 

Hasse, Adelaide R. : Bibliography as aid to International Under- 
standing 908 

Hernandez Miyares, Enrique: 

La Mas Fermosa (poem) 148 

The Most Beautiful (poem) 149 

History, inter-American cultural series 1220 

Howland, B. C: Holiday in Southern Chile 242 

HiJBNER, Jorge: 

El Rio (poem) 150 

The River (poem) 151 

Ibarbourou, Juana de: 

El Dulce Milagro (poem) 150 

The Sweet Miracle (poem) 151 

Ibarra M., Alberto: Tourist in Guatemala 497 

Immigration and population: 

Argentina 1062 

Brazil _ _ _ 950 

Chile 951, 1062 

Colombia ^ 951, 1172, 1280 

Cuba 951, 1280 

Dominican Republic 1280 

Ecuador 952 

Haiti 1173 

Honduras 952 

Mexico 953 

Nicaragua 953 

Panama 953 

Paraguay 1063, 1 173 

Peru 1 1 73 

Uruguay 1063, 1281 

Venezuela 1281 

Inter-American commission of expert bibliographers 1220 

Inter-American Historical Commission 1220 

International Conference of American States, Sixth 5,333 

International Institute for the Protection of Childhood (Kane)-_ 266 

International Social Service Conference 605 

International Social Welfare Fortnight, Pan American Con- 
tacts (Lenroot) 1119 

Fnternational treaties: 

Argentina-Brazil 73§ 

Argentina-Mexico g^Q 


International treaties — Continued. Page 

Bolivia 1256 

Bolivia-Brazil 860 

Bolivia-Chile 630, 956 

Brazil 1256 

Brazil-Paraguay 525, 1147, 1256 

Brazil-Uruguay 630, 1 147 

Brazil- Venezuela 311, 422 

Chile 1147 

Chile-Colombia 1 147 

Chile-Paraguay 956 

Chile-Peru 1256 

Colombia-Costa Rica 312, 1147 

Colombia-Panama 203 

Colombia-Peru 631 

Costa Rica 312, 1147 

Cuba 631, 860, 1046, 1257 

Cuba-Mexico 1046 

Cuba-United States 632 

Dominican Republic 42 1 

Dominican Republic-Pan American Republics 1046 

Ecuador 1046, 1148 

Guatemala-United States 1148 

Haiti 98, 202, 1148 

Honduras-Guatemala 632 

Honduras-Mexico-Salvador 632 

Honduras-Pan American Republics 738 

Honduras-United States 312, 738, 1148 

Mexico 98, 202, 421, 739, 1257 

Mexico-Pan American Republics 203, 1258 

Mexico-United States 203 

Panama 1258 

Panama-Pan American Republics 739 

Paraguay 98 

Peru 1148, 1258 

Peru-Spain — 632 

Salvador-Pan American Republics 1149 

Salvador-Uruguay 1259 

United States-Germany, etc 1149 

Uruguay 1259 

Uruguay-Pan American Republics 1047 

Venezuela 99,312,632 

Irigoyen, HiPOLiTO, President of Argentina 1087 

Kane, Francis Fisher: American International Institute for the 

Protection of Childhood 266 

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter: Brazil of To-Day 1120 

Kilmer, Joyce: 

Arboles (poem) 146 

Trees (poem) 147 

KosicKi, Bernard A.: Pan American Trade-Mark Registration 609 

KoY, Leon L.: Andean Lakes of Argentina 365 

30581-^29 2 


Labor: Page 

Argentina - 105, 431, 642, 866 

Bolivia 105, 211, 642, 866, 1061, 1277 

Brazil 212,431,642, 1170, 1277 

Chile 106, 431, 643, 964, 1277 

Colombia 749, 1061, 1170, 1278 

Costa Rica 431 

Cuba 212, 431, 866, 1170 

Dominican Republic 106, 212, 1278 

Ecuador 867, 964, 1171, 1278 

Guatemala 213, 534, 643, 749, 1061, 1278 

Honduras 432, 643, 750, 1171, 1279 

Mexico 1279 

Panama 1171 

Paraguay 965, 1171, 1279 

Peru - 213, 750, 867 

Salvador 107, 432, 534, 1279 

Uruguay 107, 965, 1062, 1171 

Venezuela 867, 965 

Labok Legislation in Latin America (Poblete-Troncoso) 586, 678 

Latin American experiments in silk culture 178 

Latin American libraries (statistics) 156 

Latin America through the Eyes of an Eminent Jurist (Scott) 661 

League of Red Cross Societies plans program for 1928 169 

Lee, Muna (Tr) : 

Litany for Our Lord Don Quixote 828 

Letania de Nuestro Sbnor Don Quijote 829 

Legislation : 

Argentina 94 

Bolivia 734, 856, 1047 

Brazil 309, 522, 1047, 1259 

Chile 95, 200, 309, 418, 522, 735 

Colombia 200,418, 953 

Costa Rica 857, 1149, 1259 

Cuba 201, 309, 735, 857, 954, 1260 

Dominican Republic . 954, 1057 

Ecuador 523, 629, 736, 857, 1149, 1260 

Guatemala 95, 201, 310, 418, 736, 1150, 1260 

Haiti 96, 201, 310, 524, 737, 858, 1150, 1261 

Honduras 201, 310, 737, 858, 954, 1150 

Mexico 202, 310, 419, 629, 737, 858, 954, 1048 

Nicaragua 202, 1261 

Panama 96, 859, 955 

Paraguay 96 

Peru 311, 420, 525, 738, 859, 955 

Salvador 97, 31I, 421, 1151 

Uruguay 525, 1261 

Venezuela 97, 421, 955, 1048, 1261 

Lenroot, Katharine F. : Pan American Contacts at the Inter- 
national Social Welfare Fortnight 1119 

Libraries of Latin America (statistics) 156 

Lugones, Leopoldo: 

La Palmera (poem) 148 

The Palm Tree (poem) I49 



Macdermott, Isabel K.: Progress toward Calendar Simplification_ 1234 
Mackay, John A.: Cxjltural Peaks in Contemporary South Amer- 
ica 475 

"Main Street" for Pan America (Pan American highway) 883 

Malbran, Manuel, Ambassador op Argentina 983 

Martin, R. A.: The End op the Trail 1019 

Martinez, Julia: Address, Sixth International Conference of 

American States 341 

Mayers G., Cora: Sanitary Education in Chile 1111 


American Library Association, Mexican Participation in 

(Babcock) 781 

Archaeology, Primitive American Art: Teotihuacan (Mujica 

y Diez do Bonilla) _, 810 

Archaeology, Time and American (Tozzer) 26 

Art: Maximo Pacheco: A Revolutionary Artist (Toor) 286 

Aviation: Successful Flight op Carranza 703 

Aztecs, Lost Literature (Cornyn) 382 

Carranza, Emilio, successful flight 703 

Cultural and Social Cooperation 176 

"Friends op the Mexicans" 176 

Libraries, Educational R6le (Velazquez Bringas) 785 

Literature op the Aztecs, Lost (Cornyn) 382 

Nervo, Amado: 

Si una Espina me Hiere (poem) 146 

If a Thorn Wounds Me (poem) 147 

ExTASis (poem) 1214 

Ecstasy (poem) 1215 

Pacheco, Maximo, A Revolutionary Artist (Toor) 286 

Poetry: Aztec — 

Hymn to Quetzalcoatl 387 

Ritual op the Fire Gods 386 

Railroads, new page in achievement 73 

Successful flight op Mexico's lone eagle 703 

Teotihuacan, Primitive American Art (Mujica y Diez de Bonilla) _ 810 

MoLA, Americo: Open-Air Schools of Montevideo 572 

MoRLEY, S. G. : Summary of Archaeological Work in Middle Amer- 
ica in 1927 228 

Mujica y Diez de Bonilla, Francisco: Primitive American Art: 

Teotihuacan 810 

Museum, Inter-American Cooperation 794 

Nervo, Amado: 

Si una Espina Me Hiere (poem) 146 

If a Thorn Wounds Me (poem) 147 

ExTASis (poem) 1214 

Ecstasy (poem) 1215 

NoE, Julio: Modern Argentine Poetry 832 

NuTTALL, Zelia: New Year op Tropical American Indigenes 67 

Oliveira Lima, Manoel de (death) 439 

Oreamuno, J. Rafael, Minister op Costa Rica, Retires 763 

Palma, Ricardo: 

La Mujer (poem) 1218 

Woman (poem) 1219 



Pan-American Arbitration and Conciliation Conference 558 

Pan American bibliography commission 556 

Pan American child congress 135 

Pan American commercial conference 556 

Pan American commission of women 875 

Pan American commission on customs procedure and port formali- 
ties ^'5 ' 

Pan American congress of architects 122 

Pan American congress of journalists 555 

Pan American congress of municipalities 557 

Pan American conference on eugenics and homoculture 144 

Pan American Contacts at the International Social Welfare 

Fortnight (Lenroot) 1119 

Pan American highway congress 1014 

Pan American pedagogical congress 556 

Pan American Round Table, San Antonio, Texas, dedication 42 

Pan American sanitary conference 132 

Pan American plant and animal sanitary control conference 557 

Pan American standardization conference 558 

Pan American trade-mark conference 557 

Pan American Union notes 932, 1036, 1139, 1243 

Panama : 

Arosemena, Florencio H., President of Panama 1195 

Paraguay : 

Economic progress 822 

GuGGiARi, Jose P., President of Paraguay 979 

Nanduti, an Indigenous Paraguayan Art (Roquette Pinto) 59 

Paraguay AND the United States (White) 1096 

Public Instruction (Cardozo) 1202 

Parks, Mercedes Gallagher de: Women and Social Welfare 

Work in Peru 601 

Perez Diaz, Lucila Luciani de: Miranda, Precursor of Feminism. _ 1105 

Chocano, Jose Santos — 

America a Espana (poem) 1216 

America to Spain (poem) 1217 

Museum of Archaeology 1100 

Palma, Ricardo — 

La Mujer (poem) 1218 

Woman (poem) 1219 

Women and Social Welfare Work (Parks) 601 

Phillips, Matilda: 

Brazil's Foreign Trade in 1927 922 

Trade of the United States with Latin America, Calendar 

Year 1927 396 

Trade of the United States with Latin America, 1927-28 1034 

Poblete Troncoso, Moises: Historical survey of labor legislation 

IN Latin America 586, 678 

Poetry, Hispanic American in English Translation: 

Litany for Our lord Don Quixote 828 

Letan^a de Nuestro Senor Don Quijote 829 

Extasis (Nerve) 1214 

Ecstasy (Nervo) 1215 


Poetry, Hispanic American in English Translation — Continued. page 

A LOS Andes (Valencia) 1216 

To THE Andes (Valencia) 1217 

America a Espana (Chocano) 1216 

America to Spain (Chocano) 1217 

La Cancion de las Palmas (Borrero de Luzan) 1218 

The Song of the Palms (Borrero de Luzan) 1219 

La Mujer (Palma) 1218 

Woman (Palma) 1219 

Arboles (Kilmer) 146 

Trees (Kilmer) 147 

Si una Espina Me Hiere (Nerve) 146 

If a Thorn Wounds Me (Nervo) 147 

La Mas Fermosa (Hernandez Miyares) 148 

The Most Beautiful (Hernandez Miyares) 149 

La Palmera (Lugones) 148 

The Palm Tree (Lugones) 149 

El Rio (Hiibner) 150 

The River (Hiibner) 151 

El Dulce Milagro (Ibarbourou) 150 

The Sweet Miracle (Ibarbourou) 151 

Portuguese and Spanish, summer courses 271 

Portuguese in the United States, Need for Study of (Coutinho) — 53 
Public instruction and education: 

Argentina 99, 203, 313, 422, 526, 633, 739, 956, 1069, 1178, 1286 

Bolivia 100, 527, 634, 740, 861, 957, 1179, 1287 

Brazil 100, 203, 313, 423, 528, 634, 741, 957, 1070, 1179 

Chile 100, 203, 314, 424, 528, 635, 741, 958, 1071, 1180, 1287 

Colombia 100, 204, 315, 424, 528, 635, 742, 861, 958, 1071, 1180, 1288 

Costa Rica 100, 206, 425, 529, 636, 742, 862, 960, 1072, 1180, 1288 

Cuba 101, 206, 315, 425, 529, 636, 743, 862, 960, 1181, 1289 

Dominican Republic 207, 316, 529, 637, 744, 862, 960, 1072 

Ecuador 207, 426, 637, 744, 862, 961, 1073, 1181, 1289 

Guatemala 101, 207, 316, 427, 530, 637, 745, 1181, 1289 

Haiti 207, 317, 637, 745, 1182 

Honduras 101, 208, 317, 427, 531, 638, 745, 862, 1073, 1182, 1290 

Mexico 102, 208, 318, 428, 531, 638, 745, 863, 961, 1073, 1183, 1290 

Nicaragua 209, 531, 639, 746, 863, 962, 1074, 1183, 1290 

Panama 103, 209, 531, 639, 747, 1074 

Paraguay 103, 209, 318, 429, 532, 639, 863, 962, 1075, 1184, 1291 

Peru 210, 318, 429, 532, 639, 747, 864, 963, 1075 

Salvador 103, 319, 430, 533, 640, 748, 864, 963, 1076, 1184, 1292 

United States 104, 748, 1076 

Uruguay 104, 210, 319, 430, 533, 640, 749, 865, 963, 1076, 1184, 1292 

Venezuela 105, 210, 430, 533, 641, 749, 865, 964, 1077, 1185, 1293 

Recinos, Adrian, Minister op Guatemala 117 

Red Cross Societies plan program for 1928 169 

Roads, "Main Street" for Pan America 883 

RoQUETTE Pinto, E.: Nanduti, an indigenous Paraguayan art 59 


Guerrero, J. Gustavo, Minister of Foreign Affairs, homage to. 1 

Schools in Latin America, Progressive (Brainerd) 453 

Scott, James Brown: Latin America through the Eyes of an Emi- 
nent Jurist -- 661 

Seris, Homero: Center of Historical Studies in Madrid 442 


Shields, Louise F.: Page 

Califoenia Botanic Garden Plant Exchange 449 

New Air Communication for Western Hemisphere 1115 

Silk Culture, Latin America Experiments in 178 

Sixth International Conference of American States 5, 333 

Smith, Jane Norman: Address, Sixth International Conference 

of American States 341 

Social progress: 

Argentina 213, 320, 432, 534, 644, 750, 867, 965, 1077, 1185, 1293 

Bolivia 535, 751, 868, 966 

Brazil 107, 214, 321, 536, 645, 751, 966, 1078, 1186 

Chile 108, 215, 321, 433, 537, 645, 752, 967, 1078, 1186, 1294 

Colombia 215, 322, 645, 753, 1186, 1294 

Costa Rica 108, 216, 322, 537, 646, 753, 967, 1079, 1187, 1294 

Cuba 109, 216, 323, 433, 538, 646, 753, 868, 967, 1079, 1187, 1295 

Dominican Republic 323, 538, 647, 968, 1188 

Ecuador 109, 216, 323, 433, 647, 754, 968, 1080, 1188 

Guatemala 110, 217, 434, 539, 968, 1080 

Haiti 110, 217, 434, 539, 647, 754, 968, 1080, 1188 

Honduras 217, 324, 539, 754, 969, 1080, 1188, 1295 

Mexico 217, 324, 540, 648, 755, 969, 1081, 1189, 1295 

Nicaragua 110, 218, 324, 434, 540, 648,^755, 970, 1081, 1296 

Panama 110, 218, 325, 540, 648, 755, 970, 1081, 1296 

Paraguay 111, 219, 434, 540, 649, 755, 970, 1081, 1189, 1296 

Peru 219, 325, 434, 541, 649, 755, 971, 1082, 1296 

Salvador 111, 326, 435, 541, 649, 756, 1082 

United States 756, 972 

Uruguay 111, 219, 326, 435, 541, 650, 757, 972, 1082, 1189, 1296 

Venezuela 112, 220, 541, 758, 1082, 1189, 1297 

Spain: Center of Historical Studies in Madrid (Seris) 442 

Spanish and Portuguese, Summer Courses in 271 

Silversmith, Work of the South American 256 

Stevens, Doris: 

Address, Sixth International Conference of American States. 340 

Women's Nationality 875 

Tagua to buttons (Farrar) 801 

Thatcher, Maurice H.: Gorgas Memorial Laboratory 767 

Thomasson, David: Uruguay's Tribute to the "Gaucho" 547 

TooR, Frances: Maximo Pacheco: A Revolutionary Artist 286 

TozzER, A. M.: Time and American Archaeology 26 

Trade of the United States with Latin America, Calendar Year 

1927 (Phillips) 396 

Trade of the United States with Latin America, 1927-28( PhiHips), 1034 

Trade-Marks, Pan American Registration (Kosicki) 609 

Translation, Transformation by 375 

United States: 

California Botanic Garden Plant Exchange (Shields) 449 

Kilmer, Joyce: 

Arboles (poem) 146 

Trees (poem) 147 

Pan American Round Table, San Antonio, Texas, dedication. _ 42 

Portuguese in the United States, Need for Study of (Coutinho). 53 

Trade with Latin America, Calendar Year 1927 (Phillips) 396 

Ti^iADE with Latin America, 1927-28 (PhiUips) 1034 


Uruguay: P^g^ 

Gaucho, Uruguay's Tribute to (Thomasson) 547 

Ibarbourou, Juana de: 

El Dulce milagro (poem) 15q 

The Sweet Miracle (poem) 151 

Interesting Pan American Gesture 1093 

Public Instruction in Uruguay (Brainerd) 1003 

Schools, Open- Air, Montevideo (Mola) 572 

Valencia, Guillermo: 

A LOS Andes (poem) 1216 

To the Andes (poem) 1217 

Varela, Jacobo: Address on Behalf of Delegates in General, 

Sixth International Conference of American States 347 

Velazquez Bringas, Esperanza: Educational R6le of the Library 

IN Mexico 785 


Library, National, Historical Sketch 880 

Miranda, Precursor of Feminism (Perez Diaz) 1105 

Thermo-mineral springs 172 

White, John W. : Paraguay and the United States 1096 

WiLGUs, A. Curtis: Proposed Critical Bibliography 1220 

Women, Part played in Sixth International Conference of Ameri- 
can States 340 

Women's Nationality (Stevens) 875 

WoRSLEY, F. A.: Notable Tribute to Chilean Sea Prowess 914 

Zaldumbide, Gonzalo, Minister of Ecuador 1197 


Archaeology, examples of Middle American Art 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40 


Airplane in Flight over Buenos Aires 1201 

Avenida de Mayo, Buenos Aires 1230 

Bariloche, town of 366 

Callao Street, Buenos Aires 1230 

Casa Pangue Cascade 372 

Experimental Class, Buenos Aires 463, 464 

Falls of the Rio de los Cantaros 368 

Irigoyen, Hipolito, President of Argentina Frontispiece, November. 

Malbran, Manuel E., Ambassador to United States 982 

Nahuel Huapi Lake 367 

National Board of Education 707 

Navy School of Mechanics, Buenos Aires 1232, 1233 

Paseo Col6n, Buenos Aires 1231 

Patios, Colonial 47, 51 

Pine Forest in Neuqu6n 373 

Post and Telegraph Office, Buenos Aires 1231 

Residence, Buenos Aires 129 

Residence, Colonial, Rosario 126 

Schools 709, 710, 711, 712, 713, 714 

Tobacco — 

Bright cigarette type 4°^ 

Field of Maryland type '^85 

View from Lake Frias 369 


Argentina — Continued. 

Yerba Mate — Page 

Carrying branches 489 

Forest depot 490 

Mate and bombilla 492 

Arosemena, Florencio H., President of Panama Frontispiece, December. 


Exhibit of American, Paris 811 

Gothic tapestry 797 

Portrait of a gentleman (Rembrandt) 798 

Perspective of a proposed temple to the glory of 818 


Diez de Medina, Eduardo, Minister to United States. Frontispiece, March. 
Petroleum — 

Buena Vista well No. 1 473 

Cutting down bank, drilling location 471 

Recently drilled well 472 

Transportation difficulties 469 


Avenida Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro 1122 

Avenida Sao Joao, Sao Paulo 389 

Aviation views of Sao Paulo 254, 255 

Copacabana Beach 1127 

Government Palace, Sao Paulo 390 

Grand Stands, Jockey Club 1125 

Flanaengo Beach, Rio de Janeiro 1125 

Flamengo section, Rio de Janeiro 1123 

Map of city of Sao Paulo 253 

Marechal Floriano Square, Rio de Janeiro 11 22 

Municipal Theater and Esplanada Hotel, Sao Paulo 392 

National Independence Monument, Sao Paulo 394 

New office building, Sao Paulo 391 

Office buildings, Sao Paulo 393 

Oliveira Linaa, Manoel de 440 

On the road to Piratininga 279 

Palace of Industries, Sao Paulo 276 

Panorama of Sao Paulo 395 

Partial view, Santos 282 

Post Office, Sao Paulo 390 

Residential section, Sao Paulo 395 

Rua Direita, Sao Paulo 389 

Santa Helena Theater, Sao Paulo 391 

Sao Jose Theater, Sao Paulo 392 

Schools 896, 897, 898, 899 

Section of Sao Paulo 388 

Silkworm raising, apparatus used in 180 

Ypiranga Museum, Sao Paulo 394 

Building, inspired by the Pyramid of Huatusco, Veracruz 820 

Calendar simplification, original working committee 1237 

Canal Zone: 

Gorgas Hospital buildings, Ancon 770 

Carranza, Emilio, visits Pan American Union 702, 705 

Castro Quesada, Manuel, Minister of Costa Rica 1090 



Chile: Page 

Agricultural Institute, Santiago 1211 

Alameda de las Delicias, Santiago 1212 

Army and Navy Mutual Benefit Association 1213 

Calle del Estado, Santiago 1212 

City Hall, Concepcion 243 

Indian women, Temuco 244 

Juan Fernandez — 

Chonta Palms 249 

Crusoe's cave 251 

Crusoe's lookout 250 

Selkirk tablet 252 

Lake Todos los Santos ' 371 

Land of contrasts 247 

La Moneda, Santiago 1210 

National Library, Santiago 999, 1210 

Nitrate — 

Oficina "Chacabuco" 1132, 1133 

Old Parada Oficina "Chinquiquiray" 1132, 1133 

Osorno volcano 245 

PeuUa, wharf at 370 

Puerto Montt 246 

Rios Gallardo, Conrado, Minister of Foreign Affairs_ Frontispiece, September. 

Tribunals of Justice, Santiago 1211 

Union Club, Santiago 1213 

CoUier, William Miller, Ambassador to Chile Frontispiece, September. 


Bogota, Partial view 1025 

Daza, Camilo 827 

Docks at Buenaventura 1020 

Gimnasio Moderno — 

Open-air drawing class 458 

Pupils at work in their garden 457 

Olaya, Enrique, Minister to the United States 827 

Pacific Railway, views 1021 

"Ricaurte, " Christening of the 1246 

Costa Rica: 

Castro Quesada, Manuel, Minister to the United States 1090 

National Congress, Assembly Chamber Frontispiece, July. 

Oreamuno, J. Rafael, Farewell of the Governing Board. Frontispiece, August. 

Saenz Gutierrez, Jorge 1228 

Sanatorium 1227, 1228 

Schools 1122,1223 


Bacchante Fountain, Habana 25 

Capitol, Habana 22 

Cathedral, Habana 1" 

Central Park, Habana ^^ 

Centro Gallego, Habana 

Children of the Menocal Asylum, Habana 140 

Clubs 22,24 

Golden key presented to Lindbergh ^^0 

Great Hall, University of Habana ^^' 

Lindbergh's arrival in Habana 


Cuba— Continued. Page 

Malec6n, Habana 16 

Marianao 23 

Marti Avenue, Habana 21 

Milk from Department of Health, Habana 139 

Morro Castle, Habana 17 

Mothers and children at Department of Health, Habana 138 

Municipal Hospital, Habana 19 

National Theater Building, Habana 335 

Oriental Park, Habana 25 

Palace Avenue, Habana Frontispiece, April. 

Panorama of a section of Habana 16, 17 

Patio, Department of Health, Habana 137 

President Machado decorates Lindbergh 345 

Presidential Palace 18 

Private residence, gardens, Habana 23 

School of Engineering, University of Habana 340 

Seventeenth Street, Habana 21 

Daza, Camilo 827 

Diez de Medina, Eduardo, Minister of Bolivia Frontispiece, March. 

Diploma presented to Kenneth M. Murchison 124 

Dirigible, Slate all-metal 1117 

Dominican Republic: 

Exhibit of Products Frontispiece, May. 

Tomb of Columbus 988 

Vazquez, Horacio, President of Dominican Republic 986 


Port of Guayaquil 808 

Tagua — 

Female palm 802 

Nuts before and after shelling 806 

Transportation of the nuts 804 

Zaldumbide, Gonzalo, Minister to United States 1198 

Gonzalez, Clara 877 

Gorgas, William C 768 

Guatemala : 

Antigua, View of 501 

Bananas for Export 503 

Buildings in Antigua 502 

Map, Relief 499 

Recinos, Adrian, Minister to United States 118 

Rio Dulce 500 

Special Passenger Train 504 

Guerrero, J. Gustavo: 

Banquet in honor of Frontispiece, January. 

Guests at luncheon to 2 

Guggiari, Jose P., President of Paraguay Frontispiece, October. 


Bridges 677 

Champ de Mars 673 

Customs Service Building 672 

Gendarmerie Headquarters, Cayes 673 

Hospitals 676 

Schools 674, 675 

Telephone and telegraph building 672 


International Conference of American States: P^jgg 

First — Delegates to 6 

Second — Delegates 8^ 9 

Third — Delegates H 

Fourtli — A session 13 

Fifth — Inaugural session 14, I5 

Miss Stevens addresses the 342 

President Coolidge and United States delegates __ Frontispiece, February. 

Irigoyen, Hipolito, President of Argentina Frontispiece, November. 

Lindbergh decorated by President Machado 345 

Luncheon in honor of the Chilean Ambassador to Argentina 1248 

Malbran, Manuel E., Ambassador of Argentina 983 

Map, Central America, international railways 498 

Mexico : 
Frescoes 286,289 

His Home 287 

The Hut 289 

The Storm 288 

Water Carrier's Recreation 287, 290 

Carranza, Emilio, visits Pan American Union 702, 705 

Carrillo, Senora de 45 

Chichen Itza — 

Caracol 232 

Duck's head pipe 237 

Lintel - 235 

Temple of Warriors 230 

Children's room, Library of the Ministry of Education 901 

Dances, picturesque 920, 921 

Doorway 48 

Libraries 900, 901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906 

Library delegation visits Pan American Union 782 

Lindbergh and Ambassador Morrow 900 

Patios 49,50 

Pupils, open-air art school at work 455 

Railroad construction work 74, 75, 76, 77 

Roads, Mexico City-Acapulco 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585 

Teotihuacdn — 

Detail of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl 815 

Head of God Quetzalcoatl • 813 

Reconstruction of the Temple Quetzalcoatl 814 

Relief from the Temple of Quetzalcoatl 813 

VeMzquez Bringas, Esperanza '89 

Mulberry trees 18^^ 


Cocoons, exhibit of 1'^ 

Cocoons, exhibit of silk flowers spun from 184 

Osigian grafted mulberry trees 1'9 

Olaya, Enrique, Minister of Colombia 827 

Oliveira Lima, Manoel de ^^^ 

Oratorical contest finalists with Doctor Rowe 114*^ 

Oreamuno, J Rafael, farewell of the governing board to.-- Frontispiece, August. 


Panama : ^^^^ 
Arosemena, Florencio H., President of Panama—. Frontispiece, December. 

Gonzdlez, Clara 877 

Santo Tomas Hospital '^'^'^ 

Pan American Child Congress, luncheon in honor of delegates 142 

Paraguaj^ : 

Cattle 824 

Customhouse and dock, Asuncion 824 

Government Palace, Asuncion 823 

Guggiari, Jose P., President of Paraguay Frontispiece, October. 

Lace, Nanduti 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66 

Quebracho logs 826 

Railroad station, Asuncion 824 

Schools 1007, 1203, 1205, 1207, 1208 

Perez Diaz, Lucila Luciani de ■- 879 

Peru : 

Mummy in burial position 1103 

Museum, archaeological, Lima 1101 

Recinos, Adrian, Minister of Guatemala 118 

"Ricaurte," christening of the 1246 

Ri'os Gallardo, Conrado, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile. 

Frontispiece, September. 

Rowe, L. S 827 


Banquet in honor of Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero, Minister of Foreign 

Affairs Frontispiece, January. 

Guests at luncheon to Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero, Minister of Foreign 

Affairs 2 

Silkworms 181 

Silverware 257,258,259,261,262,263,265 

Sinking of the "Endurance" 917 

Slate, Thomas B 1116 

Spain : 

Centro de Estudios Historicos, Madrid 443, 444 

Exposition at Barcelona — 

National Palace 377 

Palace of Agriculture 378 

Palace of Communications and Transportation 378 

Palace of Industrial and Applied Arts 381 

Palace of the Printed Book 379 

Palace of Science 379 

Stadium 380 

Exposition at Seville — 

Argentine Pavilion 561 

Bolivian Pavilion 562 

Chilean Pavilion 564 

Cuban Pavilion 570 

Mexican Pavilion 568 

Patio of "The American House" 571 

' ' Touring ' ' Palace 560 

United States Buildings 566 

Stevens, Doris 876 

Thatcher, Maurice H 774 


United States: Page 

Collier, William Miller, Ambassador to Chile Frontispiece, September. 

Gorgas, William C 768 

National Museum, Washington 795 

Pan American Room, San Antonio 43 

San Martin Monument, Washington, D. C 1245 

Santa Monica, Calif 450 

Stevens, Doris 876 

Thatcher, Maurice H 774 

University of North Carolina, views 1221 

Tree planting in the California Botanic Garden 451 

Uruguay : 

"The Conqueror " 550 

"Fountain of the Athletes" 551 

"Pieta" 551 

"Viejo Viscacha" 550 

Breadmaking class. Las Piedras 460, 461 

Dedication of the United States school 1094, 1095 

Monument to the Gaucho, Montevideo Frontispiece, June; 548, 549 

Schools 1004, 1005, 1006, 1011, 1013 

Schools, open-air Montevideo 573, 574, 576, 577, 1009, 1010 

Small house built by pupils, Las Piedras 462 

Tomb of Montevideo's first archbishop 552 

Vasquez, Horacio, President of Dominican Republic 986 

Velazquez Bringas, Esperanza 789 


Hotel, San Juan de los Morros 173 

Medallion of Miranda 1109 

The Morros 1 74 

Perez Diaz, Lucila Luciani de 879 

Tomb of Miranda 1106 

Women, Luncheon in honor of the United States committee 343 

Zaldumbide, Gonzalo, Minister of Ecuador 119S 



V V ▼ V T T 


Biajp^m OF THE 









JANUARY, 1928 

Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, Chairman 
Senor Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Vice Chairman 

■ Argentina Senor Dr. Honorio Pueyrredon, 

1806 Corcoran Street, Washington, D. C. 

i Bolivia Senor Don George de la Barra, 

Wardnian Park Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Brazil Snhr. Dr. Sylvino Gurgel do Amaral 

1704 Eighteenth Street. Washington, D. C. 

Chile Senor Dr. Carlos Davila, 

2154 Florida Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Senor Dr. Enrique Olaya, 

Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 

Costa Rica Senor Don J. Rafael Oreamuno, 

1830 Nineteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Seiior Dr. Orestes Ferrara, 

2630 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Dominican Republic. Senor Don Angel Morales, 
Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Senor Don Juan Barberis, 

Investment Building, Washington, D. C. 

Guatemala Senor Don Julio Montano Novella, 

1521 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Haiti M. Hannibal Price, 

2200 Q Street, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Senor Don Luis Bogran, 

1414 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mexico Senor Don Manuel C. Tellez, 

2829 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Senor Dr. Alejandro Cesar, 

1100 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Senor Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, 

1535 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Paraguay Senor Dr. Juan Vicente RAnfREz, 

Brighton Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Peru Senor Dr. Hernan Velarde, 

2633 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Senor Dr. Francisco A. Lima, 

2601 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

United States Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Senor Dr. Jacobo Varela, 

1317 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

Venezuela Senor Dr. Carlos F. Grisanti 

1102 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C, 








f ^ :^^^^ ^^ 




English edition, in all countries of the Pan American Union, $2.50 per year 
Spanish edition, " " " " " " 2.00 " 

Portuguese edition," " " " " " 1.50 " 

An ADDITIONAL CHARGE of 75 cents per year, on each edition, for 
subscriptions in countries outside the Pan American Union. 


Homage to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Salvador 1 

The Sixth International Conference of American States 5 

Views in and about Habana, Seat of Sixth International Conference of 

American States (Photographs) 16 

Time and American Archaeology 26 

By A. M. Tozzer, Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University. 

Dedication by the Pan American Round Table, San Antonio, Texas 42 

Old Hispanic American Patios and Portals (Photographs) 47 

The Study of Portuguese in the United States 53 

By Dr. J. de Siqueira Coutinho, Knight Commander of the Order of Santiago for Merit; 
Visiting Professor, Romance Department, Berlin University; Director of the Por- 
tuguese Department and Member of the Executive Faculty, School of Foreign Service, 
Georgetown University. 

Nanduti, an Indigenous Paraguayan Art 59 

By E. Roquette-Pinto. 

New Year of Tropical American Indigenes t.7 

By Zelia Nuttall, Honorary Professor of Archaeology, National Museum of Mexico; Fellow 
of American Anthropological Association; Member of American Philosophical Society. 

A New Page in Railway Achievement in Mexico 7b 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 78 

Argentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican 
Republic — Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — 
Panama — Paraguay — Peru — Salvador — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 92 

Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Haiti. 

Legislation 94 

Argentina — Chile — Guatemala — Haiti — Panama — Paraguay — Salvador — Venezuela. 

International Treaties 98 

Haiti — Mexico — Paraguay — Venezuela. 

Public Instruction and Education 99 

Argentina — Bolivia — BrazU — Chile — Costa Rica — Cuba — Guatemala — Honduras — 
Mexico — Panama — Paraguay — Salvador — United States — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Labor ^ 105 

Argentina — Bolivia — Chile — Dominican Republic — Salvador — Uruguay. 

Social Progress 107 

Brazil — Chile — Costa Rica — Cuba — Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Nicaragua — Pan- 
ama — Paraguay — Salvador — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

General Notes 113 

Bolivia — Brazil — Colombia. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 115 



JANUARY, 1928 

No. 1 



DURING a recent brief stay in Washington, His Excellency 
Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero, Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
the Republic of Salvador, and the charming Senora de 
Guerrero were the guests of honor at a sumptuous 
dinner given by His Excellency Dr. Francisco A. Lima, Minister of 
Salvador in the United States, and Senora de Lima, in the magnificent 
Hall of the Americas of the Pan American Union, a hall rich in asso- 
ciations for all dwellers on this continent. 

On this delightful occasion the distinguished company assembled 
about the flower-decked table included many eminent personages, 
among whom were Their Excellencies the Hon. Frank B. Kellogg, 
Secretary of State of the United States; Dr. Honorio Pueyrredon, 
Ambassador of Argentma; Dr. Hernan Velarde, Ambassador of Peru; 
Dr. Tsuneo Matsudaira, Ambassador of Japan; Dr. S. Gurgel do 
Amaral, Ambassador of Brazil; Dr. Alejandro Padilla, Ambassador 
of Spain; Dr. Orestes Ferrara, Ambassador of Cuba; Dr. Carlos Davila, 
Ambassador of Chile; Dr. Jacobo Varela, Minister of Uruguay; Dr. 
Enrique Olaya, Minister of Colombia; Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Minister 
of Panama; Dr. J. Rafael Oreamuno, Muiister of Costa Rica; Dr. Luis 
Bogran, Minister of Honduras; Dr. Carlos F. Grisanti, Minister of 
Venezuela; Dr. Angel Morales, Minister of the Dominican Repubhc; 
Dr. Alejandro Cesar, Minister of Nicaragua; the Honorable Vincent 
Massey, Minister of Canada; the Honorable Charles Evans Hughes, 
former Secretary of State; Dr. L. S. Rowe, Director General of the 



Pan American Union, and various other notables from Washington 
official and social circles. Additional beauty and brilliance were 
added to the festivity by the presence of the ladies. 

At the conclusion of the repast Doctor Lima, the genial host, 
offered a. t€.{;t§t itp tjie Pre&ideQtof the United States, in response to 
whicii^tiiaSeCrltaci' of Sa^e proposed the health of the President of 
^alya^Qr, Mr. KellQg&'sjQbsQUv^tiQns being in part as follows: 


Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero and Seiiora de Guerrero were entertained by the Director General of the Pan 
American Union at luncheon at the Pan American Union Annex November 17. In the group appear, 
seated, from left to right: Sefiora de Lima, wife of the Minister of Salvador; Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero; 
Seiiora de Guerrero; Mme. Philippe Roy. Standing: Dr. E. Gil Borges, Assistant Director of the Pan 
American Union; Sr. Don F. Alfredo Meiia, Secretary of the Legation of Salvador; Dr. Francisco A. 
Lima, Minister of Salvador in Washington; Hon. Julius Lay, United States Consul General to Chile; 
Seiior Don Roberto D. Melendez, Attache of the Legation of Salvador; Dr. L. S. Rowe, Director General 
of the Pan American Union. 

It affords me the greatest pleasure to welcome to Washington the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Salvador. It is these visits between high officials of our respec- 
tive countries which enlarge our acquaintance and bring closer together the 
sovereign nations of the Western Hemisphere. The more frequent these impor- 
tant visits, the more intimate the acquaintance, the more we will understand each 
other's social, political, and economic problems and the easier it will be to solve 
whatever differences may arise between us. It is, therefore, with special gratifica- 
tion that we have with us tonight Dr. J. Gustavo Guerrero, the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of our neighboring state El Salvador. 


The Minister of Salvador replied to the cordial phrases of the 
Secretary of State in the following words: 

Allow me to express to all of you, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, my very 
great appreciation of your kindness in accepting the invitation for this dinner to 
which the presence of His Excellency the Honorable Secretary of State and Mrs. 
Kellogg gives special significance. 

I have been looking forward with pleasure to the opportunity offered by Doctoi 
Guerrero's brief sojourn in Washington to have him meet the very prominent 
persons gathered here to-night. This is because I well know that his devotion to 
international welfare and the splendid and fruitful work that he has done for the 
promotion of international understanding and cooperation have aroused general 
applause not only in El Salvador but beyond our borders as well. 

Then, too, I know that it will be a source of great satisfaction for him to meet 
those who in this country, by their official duties, as well as by their brilliant 
careers and sound judgment, have contributed to a better international under- 

I know that I am expressing a national sentiment when I say that Doctor 
Guerrero, holding the high post in the Government of El Salvador, as Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, will be of inestimable value in promoting and sustaining the 
friendly relations that my country endeavors to maintain with all nations based 
on justice and equity. 

To greet Doctor Guerrero means to pay my highest homage to his distinguished 
wife, who by her devotion to the remarkable work developed by him and by her 
active participation in his important social duties is in every way his most effec- 
tive supporter. 

Let me ask you to join me in a toast to our distinguished guests. 

To these expressions of appreciation and friendship on the part of 
his host, Doctor Guerrero responded as follows: 

Mr. Secretary of State, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am indebted to the 
exquisite courtesy of my friend, the worthy representative of the Salvadorean 
Government in Washington, for the great pleasure of being present at this 
banquet, at which, side by side with grace and beauty, are gathered the prominent 
personages of the political and diplomatic circles of this capital. 

Doctor Lima knows the eagerness with which I accepted his kind invitation, 
and also that nothing could please me better than the opportunity of finding 
myself again with His Excellency the Secretary of State, and of discussing in 
this friendly meeting the mutual services we can render our respective countries. 

As a matter of fact, ladies and gentlemen, I believe that one of the best achieve- 
ments recently attained in modern diplomacy is the adoption of the policy of 
direct contact between the men responsible for international relations. Knowl- 
edge brings esteem, and esteem is the unfailing token of mutual confidence. 

I also knew that around this table I would find famihar faces and dear friends 
whom I have known for many years. 

In addition to the reahzation of my hopes I have been so fortunate as to find 
among the guests here, the Hon. Charles Evans Hughes, with whom I had the 
honor of laboring in a work of peace a few years ago. I was a witness of the 
service he then rendered Central America, in giving her with loyal unselfishness 
the assistance of his ripe judgment and experience. It is due to this and due also 
to his great achievements that Latin America believes that his presence in the 
coming conference at Habana will be exceedingly helpful to the cause of Pan- 
Americanism, in the sense of directing the moral unity it represents, in accordance 
with the clearly defined aspirations of the collective conscience of the Latin 
American nations. 


Among the exalted American personages here present, I must also mention in a 
special manner Representative Theodore Burton, who has held such a high place 
in my memory since I had the rare privilege of collaborating with him in another 
work of peace and world interest accomplished three years ago in Geneva. 

Finally, Mr. Secretary of State, ladies and gentlemen, permit me to share in 
the sentiment of deep gratitude expressed by Doctor Lima for the signal honor 
you have paid Senora de Guerrero and myself in adding, with your presence, to 
the significance of this manifestation of affection and friendliness. 

The Bulletin of the Pan American Union associates itself with the 
many friends of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Salvador and 
Senora de Guerrero in wishing them a safe return home and, for 
Doctor Guerrero, an eminently successful administration of the affairs 
of his Ministry in the New Year upon the threshold of which we 
now stand. 

^[x^oR e/v 


g_3 j^ jj <j-p3 ^^ yj, ^^ 


.^ I wl iCa iK. 11 1 

JUDGING from the important subjects included in the program, 
as well as the ability and capacity of the delegates named up 
to the present time by the respective governments of the 
American Republics, the Sixth International Conference of 
American States which will meet in the beautiful and pic- 
turesque city of Habana on the. 16th of the present month, promises 
to be the most important and transcendental of any hitherto held in 
the Western Hemisphere. 

As is well known, the first of these conferences met in Washing- 
ton in 1889-90 as a result of an act passed by the Congress of the 
United States in 1888 authorizing the President to extend an invita- 
tion to the other American countries to meet in a conference at 
Washington for a frank and friendly discussion of the problems of 
common importance in the development of their respective national 

The success of this conference, which was attended by the dele- 
gates from 18 of the 21 American Republics, was of such a marked 
character that it was resolved to hold other conferences of similar 
character in the future, a resolution which has been carried out in 
one after another of the American capitals. At the fifth, which 
met in Santiago de Chile in 1923, Habana was chosen as the seat 
of the sixth conference. 

Considering the careful and well-planned preparations made by 
the executive commission especially appointed for that purpose by 
the Cuban Government, the historic Pearl of the Antilles will undoubt- 
edly be seen at its best, and its distinguished guests will find on 
Cuba's hospitable soil ample opportunity for the study, in the most 
auspicious surroundings, of the problems set forth in the official 
agenda, the solution of which will contribute so greatly toward the 
strengthening of the bonds of friendship among the peoples of 

As the present edition of the Bulletin goes to press only the 
delegations which follow have been announced as official and definite, 
and even the most cursory glance through the eminent names which 
figure therein— the United States delegation being especially note- 
worthy — makes it clear that in the matter of representatives the 
American governments have indeed taken high ground! 






Honorio Pueyrred6n. 
Lorentino Olascoaga. 
Felipe A. Espil. 

Raul Fernandez. 

Manoel Villaboim. 

Eduardo Espinola. 

Jose Mattoso Sampaio Correia. 

Alarico Silveira. 


Enrique Olaya Herrera. 

J. M. Yepes. 

R. Urdaneta Arbeldez. 

Antonio Sdnchez de Bustamante. 

Orestes Ferrara. 

Jose Manuel Cortina. 

Carlos Garcia Velez. 

Jose B. Alemdn. 

Enrique Hernandez Cartaya. 

Manuel Marquez Sterling. 

Aristides Agliero. 

Fernando Ortiz. 

Nestor Carbonell. 

Angel Morales. 
Ellas Brache. 
Enrique Henriquez. 
Francisco J. Peynado. 
Federico C. Alvarez. 
Gustavo A. Diaz. 
Jacinto R. de Castro. 
Tulio M. Cestero. 


Luis A. Riart. 
Lisandro Diaz Le6n. 
Juan Vicente Ramirez. 


Charles E. Hughes. 
Henry P. Fletcher. 
Oscar W. Underwood. 
Morgan J. O'Brien. 
Dwight W. Morrow. 
Noble Brandon Judah. 
Ray Lyman Wilbur. 
James Brown Scott. 
L. S. Rowe. 


Santiago Key Ayala. 
Francisco Gerardo Yanes. 




Organization of the Pan American Union on the basis of a convention pre- 
pared by the Governing Board of the Pan American Union, in accordance with 
the resolution adopted by the Fifth International Conference of American States 
on May 1, 1923. 






1. Consideration of the results of the commission of jurists which assembled 
at Rio de Janeiro. 

2. In view of the fact that the codification of international law has been 
entrusted to the commission of jurists which assembled at Rio de Janeiro, the 
commission has been recommended to give preferential attention to the study 
of "Methods for the pacific settlement of international disputes"; but if the 
commission should not have time to dispatch this part of its work this topic 
will be considered included in the program and submitted to the consideration 
of the Sixth Conference. 

3. The commission of jurists which assembled at Rio de Janeiro was entrusted, 
by resolution of the Fifth International Conference of American States, with 
making comparative studies tending toward uniformity in civil law, commercial 
law, procedure law, and other branches of private law; and the governing board 
has recommended that they give preferential attention to the preparation of 
projects of uniform legislation on: 

(a) Commercial law and other branches of legislation in which uniformity is 
possible and desirable; 

(b) Maritime law, for the preservation of life and property on board ship; 

(c) Principles to which the juridical status of companies organized in a foreign 
State should be adjusted, with a view to securing uniform standards; 

(d) Legislative measures for extending to women the same civil rights as those 
enjoyed by adult males; 

(e) Bases for determining the nationality of individuals with a view to elimi- 
nating the conflict of laws on nationality; 

(J) Legislation designed to prevent the loss of nationality by a woman be- 
cause of marriage; 

(g) Recognition of the validity, by the authorities of the States represented 
at the conference or which adhere to its conventions, of the acts and documents 
relating to the civil status of persons, estates, and contracts made by foreigners 
before the respective diplomatic and consular agents, and the preparation of 
a standard form for each of the aforesaid instruments; 

(h) Commercial arbitration; 

(i) Elimination of the differences in the juridical system relative to bills of 
exchange and checks, by means of an international agreement or uniform 

(j) Organization and regulation of the international service of checks and 
postal money orders; and 

(k) Regulation of the use of water power and other uses or applications of the 
waters of international rivers for industrial and agricultural purposes. 

If the commission should not have time to prepare these projects, this topic 
will be considered included in the program and submitted to the consideration 
of the sixth conference. 

4. Frontier police. 




1. Consideration of the results of the work of the Inter-American Commission 
on Commercial Aviation, provided for by resolution of the Fifth International 
Conference of American States. 

2. Regulation of international automotive traffic. 

3. Means for facilitating the development of fluvial intercommunication 
between the nations of America. 

4. (a) International regulation of railway traffic. 

(6) Consideration of the report of the Pan American railway committee. 

5. Organization of a technical commission to study and recommend the most 
effective means for the establishment of steamship lines to connect the countries 
of America and to recommend measures for the elimination of all unnecessary 
port formalities. 

6. Consideration of the results of the Pan American Highway Conference, which 
met at Buenos Aires in October, 1925, in compliance with a resolution of the 
Fifth International Conference of American States. 

7. Consideration of the results of the Inter-American Electrical Communi- 
cations Conference, which met at Mexico City in compliance with a resolution 
of the Fifth International Conference of American States. 



1. Establishment of a Pan American geographical institute which shall serve 
as a center of coordination, distribution, and dissemination of geographical 
studies in the American States and as an organ of cooperation between the geo- 
graphical institutes of America for facilitating the study of boundary questions 
between the American nations. 

2. Recommendation to the countries of America that in their legislation they 
levy a minimum duty on the importation of books and minimum postal rates 
on books and periodicals. 

3. Recommendation to the countries, members of the union, that have not 
yet done so, to publish geodetic, geological, agricultural maps, etc., which will 
give an idea of their natural resources, possibilities of development, and also of 
their means of communication. 

4. Revision of the convention on intellectual property signed at Buenos Aires 

5. Establishment of scholarships and fellowships. 

6. Exchange of professors and students. 

7. To recommend the establishment of special chairs, supported or subsidized 
by the government, for the study of the Spanish, English, and Portuguese 
languages and of their respective literatures. 

8. To recommend the establishment in the universities of the countries, 
members of the Pan American Union, of special chairs for the study of the 
commercial legislation of the American Republics. 

9. Consideration of the results of the Pan American Congress of Journalists, 
which met at Washington in compliance with a resolution of the Fifth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States. 

! Conference met in Buei 
73898— 28— Bull. 1 2 

The Conference met in Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 12-August 30, 1910, the sessions being held in the 

Palace of Justice 



Courtesy of Caras y Caretag. Buenos Aires 


The Congress met in Santiago, 


1. Uniformity of legislation on consular fees. 

2. Conference of chambers of commerce and, as a part of its program, organiza- 
tion of an inter- American chamber of commerce. 

3. International aspects of immigration problems. 

4. Revision of the conventions signed at Buenos Aires in 1910 and at Santiago, 
Chile, in 1923, with a view to formulating changes which shall assure uniform 
and effective protection for trade-marks in the States members of the Pan 
American Union. 

5. Consideration of the results of the conference on uniformity of communica- 
tion statistics, which met at Lima in December, 1924, in compliance with a 
resolution of the Fifth International Conference of American States. 

6. Consideration of the results of the standardization conference which met 
at Lima on December 23, 1924, in accordance with a resolution of the Fifth 
International Conference of American States and the conference which will 
meet at Washington in 1927. 



1. Consideration of the action taken by the American States in complying 
with the recommendations of the Fifth International Conference of American 
States on the Pan American Maritime Sanitary Code. 

2. Consideration of the action taken by the American States in complying 
with the resolution on principles and procedure in public health administration 
approved by the Fifth International Conference of American States at its session 
of April 16, 1925. 



Chile, March 25-May 3, 1923 

3. Consideration of the results of the conference on eugenics and homoculture 
which will meet at Habana in 1927, in compliance with a resolution of the Fifth 
International Conference of American States. 

4. Consideration of the results of the conference of directing heads of public 
health services which was held at Washington in September, 1926, in compliance 
with a resolution of the Fifth International Conference of American States. 

5. Consideration of the action taken by the countries of America for the 
organization and development of national Red Cross societies, and the results 
of the Pan American Red Cross Conference referred to in the resolution adopted 
by the Fifth International Conference of American States on April 12, 1923. 



Submission by the delegates and consideration by the conference of reports 
on the action taken by the States represented at the previous Pan American 
conferences on the treaties, conventions, and resolutions adopted at said 



Unanimously approved by the Governing Board of the Pan American Union 
at the meeting of April 12, 1927. 

Frank B. Kellogg, Chairman. 
E. Gil Borges, Secretary. * 


In the background appear Morro Castle and the Cabana fortress, on either side the harbor entrance. In the 


This popular driveway extends from the harbor entrance along the ocean front of the city. Frequent and 
brilliant band concerts were given in the beautiful little Greek pavilion at the right (recently demolished) 



left foreground Marti Avenue may be distinguished and, at the extreme right, the new Presidential Palace 


The castle proper is a rambling confusion of weather-beaten masonry, rising precipitously to a height of 
120 feet above tide water. In the foreground may be seen an example of the "flamboyan tree, so 
characteristic of the Cuban landscape 



This regally imposing modern structure was completed in 1922 at a cost of $2,000,000. Lower: The recep- 
tion hall in the Palace. This room, 45 by 110 feet, is sumptuously decorated in cream and gold. An 
allegorical painting: "La Gloriflcacion de la Patria" adorns the ceiling 



This massive, picturesque structure is known as San Cristobal de la Habana and also as the Colon Cathe 
dral because of the fact that Columbus'slremains^at one time rested there 

One of the most modern hospitals of the Cuban capital 





Upper: A glimpse of Central Park, one of the most interesting and animated plazas of the city. In the 
right background is the monument to Jose Marti, the great hero of Cuba's struggle for independence. 
Lower: The " Centro Gallego," of which the National Theater is an integral part, is the most imposing 
of the numerous clubs of Habana 



Upper: Martf Avenue. This modern and up-to-date avenue in the Cuban capital was named in honor of 
Jose Marti, the George Washington of Cuba's struggle for independence. Lower: Seventeenth Street, 
one of the most attractive thoroughfares of Vedado, a suburb of Habana 



Architect's drawing of the imposing new Capitol in Habana, the construction of which was begun in April, 



The Casino Espafiol, one of the 
many club buildings erected 
by Spanish and other organi- 
zations in cosmopolitan 


The long vista of Columbus Avenue in the delightful new suburb of "Buen Retire" in Marianao 


The Roman arch, the tiled roof, 
the wrought-iron window 
grills, and the stone steps 
leading to flowers and sun- 
shine, are alike reminiscent 
of old Spain 



Upper: Golf club building in Country Club Park, the latter being an exclusive residential development 
in the suburbs of Habana. Center: The new palatial home in Marianao of the Habana Yacht Club. 
Lower: The Jockey Club which adjoins the grand stand at Oriental Park, where the racing season lasts 
three months each year 



Avenue leading to the famous Hippodrome in Oriental Park where Cubans and foreigners alike enjoy 

"the sport of kings" 

This spirited sculptural group is one of the many charms of the Casino grounds 

)£%. %^ ^ il <firik iCa \zM J=J 

By A. M. TozzER 

Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University 

FOR many decades the study of American archaeology was in a 
very nebulous state characterized, in many cases, by inaccu- 
rate observation, bold assumptions, and a general ignorance 
of the more scientific approach to the subject. These defects 
have, in great part, been remedied by a wider vision, a more careful 
training of investigators, more accurate observation, and a gradual 
tendency to place archaeology among the more exact sciences. 

American archaeology has also suffered a certain stigma for its 
failure to produce a literature as its handmaiden with an accom- 
panying chronology to give a certain vigor to its findings. It must be 
admitted that archaeological data have an inert quality, a certain 
spinelessness when unaccompanied by a more or less definite chrono- 
logical background. The psychologists may be able to tell us why 
we must have dates accompanying objects of antiquity to make them 
seem interesting and of value, whether these objects consist of furni- 
ture, a piece of pewter, or specimens coming from the graves of our 
early inhabitants. This paper is an attempt to give American 
archaeology an internal skeleton and thus to raise it to the status of a 

It should be pointed out at once that the classification and nomen- 
clature applied to European archaeology can not be used for the New 
World. This is not due to the scarcity of the data but to the fact 
that there are no metal ages in America. Iron was unknown as a 
metal before the advent of the white man ^ and the smelting of cop- 
per was not practiced except in certain regions on the western coast 
of South America, Central America, and parts of Mexico. Bronze, 
the resultant of a deliberate attempt at mixing copper and tin, was 
even less widely distributed. 

There are two aspects of chronology, the first of which is a relative 
one, self-contained, and dissociated with any larger aspect of time 
relation. In northern New England and the Maritime Provinces of 
Canada as well as in other parts of the eastern United States there 

1 From Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. LIX, Boston, 1926; and Natural History, 
The Journal of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, May-June, 1927. 

2 The Eskimo and the " Mound Builders" of Ohio made some use of meteoric iron. 



are well-defined evidences of an earlier and later pre-Columbian occu- 
pation, but there are at present no means of bringing these different 
cultures into the general background of history. 

The second variety of chronology, and the one that has far more 
interest for us here, has to do with definite epochs correlated with our 
own time system, prehistoric passing over to the historic. 

In the study of archaeology as a whole there are four elements of 
control : Geology, palsentology, stratigraphy, and the development of 
types from cruder to more developed forms. Geology and pala^ntol- 
ogy may be disregarded here as the question of primitive man in 
America, in the real sense of "first," does not concern us. No 
attempt will be made to prove or disprove the much-discussed ques- 
tion of the presence of man in the New World in geologically ancient 

Stratification is of the utmost importance as showing successive 
occupation of the same site, each stratum indicating a more or less 
distinct culture allied with a time element. In the Southwest, 
Doctor Kidder and Mr. Guernsey, of the Peabody Museum, have 
found four different levels of culture.^ On the original floor of caves 
has been found the evidence of a people called "The Basket Makers" 
who were without pottery but were expert in the making of woven 
objects, textiles, baskets, and sandals. They were at the very horizon 
of agriculture with only one variety of corn. Above this there are 
data indicating two cultures differing slightly from each other with a 
first knowledge of pottery making, this art developing rapidly. 
There are also included several varieties of corn, indicating a more 
varied agricultural life. Finally, there comes the topmost stratum, 
commonly called "Pueblo," with pottery and several of the other 
arts finely developed together with an abundant agriculture, devel- 
oped under very adverse conditions. Until a few years ago, the 
cliff dwellers and other Pueblo peoples belonging to the last epoch 
were the only early inhabitants recognized in this region. More 
intensive research has thus added three new elements in the archae- 
ology of the Southwest. 

Stratification has also come to our assistance in Mexico.* Four 
and five meters below the present floor of the Valley of Mexico and 
in some cases under many feet of volcanic deposits there has come to 
light the so-called Archaic culture, characterized by clay figurines 
and several types of pottery. Most botanists interested in the question 

3 Guernsey, S. J., and Kidder, A. V., Basket-maker Caves in Nortlieastern Arizona, Papers of the Pea- 
body Museum, Cambridge, VIII, No. 2, 1921; and Kidder and Guernsey, Archaeological Explorations in 
Northeastern Arizona, Bulletin 65, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1919. 

< Tozzer, A. M., The Domain of the Aztecs and Their Relation to the Prehistoric Cultures of Mexico: 
Holmes Anniversary Volume, Washington, 1916. Spinden, H. J., Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and 
Central America: Handbook Series No. 3, American Museum (2d ed.). New York, 1922. See also Summary 
of the work of the International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology: American Anthropolo- 
gist, N. S., vol. 17, 384-395, 1915. 

Courtesy of American Museum of Natural History. 


Photographs by Dr. Clarence Kennedy from originals in the Peabody Museum, Cambridge. Upper: 
a ront and profile of archaic head, from the Valley of Mexico. This type represents the earliest known 
examples of clay modelmg in Middle America. Lower left: Archaic head found by Mrs. Zelia Nuttall 
at uoyoacaii Valley of Mexico. Lower right: Archaic head found by Clarence L. Hay near Atzca- 
potzalco, Valley of Mexico 

Courtesy of American Museum of Natural History 


Photographs by Dr. Clarence Kennedy from origi- 
nals in the Peabody Museum. Upper left: Lime- 
stone head of youthful maize god, part of a facade 
decoration, dated about 515 A. D. A magnificent 
example of stone carving from Copan, Honduras. 
Upper right: A clay figure from Campeche, Mex- 
ico, representing a Maya woman when the Maya 
civilization was at its height. Lower: Stone head 
of a gargoyle-like serpent from Copan, Honduras. 
Typical work of the First Empire of the Mayas 
which probably formed a corner ornament of a 
temple dated about 525 A. D. 

73898— 28— Bull. 1- 


of the beginning of agriculture in America are now agreed that a 
grass, called Teocentli, found wild on the highlands of Mexico, is 
probably the progenitor of cultivated maize which the first American 
colonists found, on their advent, over the greater part of the New 
World. It is probable that the Archaic peoples were responsible 
for the artificial cultivation of this grass, the invention of agriculture, 
and also for the dissemination of this new industry over the arid 
portions of Mexico and Central America.^ 

The "Archaic" people are probably by no means the primitive or 
first inhabitants of this part of the New World. The ceramics and 
more especially the clay figurines made by them show much skill as 
well as evidences of weaving in the bands and fillets in which the heads 
of the figures are swathed. Their culture is far ahead of that of the 
Basket Maker of New Mexico who had not reached a pottery horizon. 
It is impossible to ascertain the language spoken by the "Archaic" 
peoples but there is little evidence that it was the same as that 
spoken by the Toltecs and Aztecs. Figurines characteristic of the 
archaic culture are found in Honduras and Salvador and modified 
types as far south as Nicaragua and Costa Rica with a possible ex- 
tension into South America. 

Returning to the Valley of Mexico, above the archaic horizon is 
found the Toltec culture, the greatest of all Mexican civilizations, 
and over this and only for a few inches on the surface appear the 
evidences of the Aztecs. As will be shown later, the Aztec and 
Toltec periods can be definitely dated. Stratification also gives 
definite results on the succession of cultures in Peru, showing that 
of the Inca as a very late product. 

The second chronological approach to the study of archaeology is 
the investigation of the development of stylistic methods of decora- 
tion, mainly on pottery, of architecture, and of other products of 
man's activities. By an intensive study of the different ceramic 
wares of the Pueblo culture and after taking into account the various 
data available, a definite sequence of pottery types and of decora- 
tion has been established from pre-Columbian down to modern times. ^ 

When successive forms of the artistic impulse are found in connec- 
tion with definite strata there is abundant proof of a time sequence 
as the basis of this development. When, as in the Maya area, 
various changes in architecture and in design go hand in hand with 
datable monuments, there is a solid foundation for history. 

Another approach to this chronological study is the migration of 
objects far from their original place of manufacture, trade pieces, 
foreign to their present habitat but easily recognized as coming from 

5 Spinden, H. J., The Origin and Spread of Agriculture in America: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, Washington, 1917. 

9 Kidder, A. V., An Introduction to the Study of Southwestern Archaeology with a Preliminary Account 
of the Excavations at Pecos: New Haven, 1924. 

Courtesy of the Museum of Natural History 

Fig. 1— the first EMPIRE OF THE MAYAS 
Shown here by dated monuments and a suggestion of the Maya influence on the early Toltecs 

Transitional period of the 

MAYAS (.630-960A.D. 




Courtesy of the Museum of Natural History 

Showing the abandonment of many of the First Empire sites with movements northward and southward 




Courtesy of the Museum of Natural History 

Fig. 3— the second EMPIRE OF THE MAYAS 
With the first appearance of the Toltec influences which later were to play a large part in Maya history 

Courtesy of the Museum of Natural History 


Showing the submergence of the Maya by Mexican influences and the extent of the greatest expansion of 
tne i oltecs, based somewhat on the distribution of Ball-courts and Chac Mool.figures 


afar. Red coral, for example, from the Mediterranean is found in 
graves of the early iron age in England. Dated Egyptian scarabs, 
found in Crete, were a great factor in establishing the entire chro- 
nology of the ^gean culture. The close association of objects in the 
same deposit proves that they are, in a sense, contemporaneous. 
This does not necessarily mean that they were made at the same time 
but that they were deposited at the same time. Heirloom pieces 
of carved jade, dating back several centuries, have been dredged 
from a great natural well in Yucatan. These are not later than the 
objects with which they are associated but, as a matter of fact, they 
are very much earlier than most of the associated remains. If 
shreds of a jar with a very special type of plaster cloisonne decora- 
tion are found in Pueblo Bonito in northern New Mexico and the 
home of this type of technique is in the Zacatecas region of Mexico, 
and, furthermore, if this same pottery is found in a late period of a 
site in northern Yucatan, there is every reason to suppose that a 
contemporaneous feature can be assumed here. Movement in the 
other direction from the Maya region to the northward is shown by 
one of the finest of Maya jade ornaments found at San Juan Teoti- 
huacan. This probably originated in the southern part of the Maya 
area as it is carved in the best Old Empire style, traveling from 
Guatemala to northern Yucatan and thence to Mexico during the 
Toltec period of Yucatan. Gold figurines, definitely made in Colom- 
bia, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, and found in late Maya deposits, 
again help in the elucidation of a relative chronology. No metal 
objects of any kind have ever been found in the early Maya sites so 
that it seems quite clear that the knowledge of metallurgy came 
from the south at a comparatively late period. 

These stray pieces also show the great importance of trade rela- 
tions in early times, stretching in this case from Colombia in the 
south to northern New Mexico in the north, a distance of about 30° 
of latitude or about 3,000 miles. 

The factors of stratification, stylistic development, and the asso- 
ciation of objects from widely separated areas are all useful in estab- 
lishing a relative chronology of a site or a series of sites, but it is 
only by means of dated monuments correlated with Christian chro- 
nology that we arrive on satisfactory historical ground. The Maya 
area in southern Mexico and northern Central America presents 
evidence of an elaborate calendar as shown in the hieroglyphic 
inscriptions, the most remarkable achievement of the intellect in 
the New World. It is in these inscriptions that a hterature is 
provided American archaeology. 

The material for the study of the hieroglyphic writing includes 
stone inscriptions carved on stelae and altars set up in front of the 
various temples, on the door lintels of buildings, a few painted 



Courtesy of American Museum of Natural History 

Fig. 5— temple II, TIKAL, GUATEMALA 

This temple, which reaches a height of about 140 feet, is a type common to the First Empire, 100 B. C- 
630 A. D. This restoration was made by F. F. Horter, under the direction of Dr. H. J. Spinden in the 
American Museum of Natural History 

inscriptions, three codices dating back to pre-Columbian times, and 
the so-cahed Books of Chilam Balam, manuscripts written in the 
Maya language but with Spanish characters. These are in many 
cases copies of original documents reduced to writing after the 
advent of the Spaniards.^ 

There were two steps necessary in the elucidation of the Maya 
calendar as shown in the hieroglyphic inscriptions, the first of which 

' Tozzer, A. M., The Chilam Balam Books and the Possibility of Their Translation: Proceedings of the 
19th International Congress of Americanists, Washington, 1915. Also, Tozzer, Maya Grammar: Papers of 
the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, IX, 182-192, 1921. 



was the determination of the calendar giving a relative chronology, 
the position of the different monuments in an inclusive series within 
the Maya area. This succession is definitely correlated with the 
stylistic developments of stone carving and of architecture. We 
are thus certain of the historical development of the Maya 

The second step was a correlation between the Maya and the 
Christian chronology. In both these fields the late Charles P. 
Bowditch played a very large part. From his pioneer work, so 
admirable and so necessary, advances have been made in this study 

Courtesy of American Museum o( Natural History 


Typical temple of the Transitional Period, 630-960 A. D. Photograph by R. E. Merwin and C. L. Hay, 
Peabody Museum Expedition, 1911-12 

by several others, among them being S. G. Morley, of the Carnegie 
Institution, and H. J. Spinden, of the Peabody Museum. The 
latter has shown conclusively that the Maya calendar began to 
function in 613 B. C.^ The earliest dated inscription is on a small 
jade statuette of 96 B. C. The oldest Maya remains are found in 
the district of Peten in northern Guatemala. 

8 Spinden, H. J., A Study of Maya Art: Memoirs of the Peabody Museum, VI; Cambridge, 1913. 

8 Bowditch, C. P., The Numeration, Calendar Systems and Astronomical Knowledge of the Mayas, 
Cambridge, 1910. Also by the same author. On the Age of the Maya Ruins: American Anthropologist 
{N. S.), Ill; 697-700. Morley, S. G., The Inscriptions at Copan: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
Washington, 1920, especially Appendix II. See also Morley 's bibliography in this volume. Spinden, 
H. J., The Reduction of Mayan Dates: Papers of the Peabody Museum, VI, No. 4, Cambridge, 1924, and 
other writings. 



The First or Great Empire of the Mayas (fig. 1) began about the 
fu'st century before Christ and continued until about 650 A. D. 
All the great cities of the south flourished within this period and an 
extension of the First Empire to the northward began about 300 
A. D., following the eastern coast of the peninsula of Yucatan. 
Sites with definite dates have been found at Chetumal, Tuluum, 
Coba, and at Chichen Itza.^" Jaina on the northwest coast was 
also probably a First Empire site. It is important to note that the 
stone stelae and lintels in northern Yucatan on which the dates are 
recorded, all seem to be reused stones. No buildings contemporane- 

Coiirlc-sy of American Museum of Natural History 

Fig. 7.— ball court GROUP, CHICHEN ITZA, YUCATAN 
The ball court is typical of the Toltec Period, 1200-1450 A. D. Restoration was made by M. A. Fernandez 

ous with this first occupation of this part of the country, even at 
Chichen Itza, have yet been found. 

In the first half of the seventh century the southern cities seem to 
have been abandoned, as no late dates occur there. The ancient 
chronicles in the Chilam Balam Books state that the inhabitants of 
northern Yucatan also left their homes about 630 and moved south- 
ward, not to return until 960. This has been called the Transitional 
Period (fig. 2.), and the sites at Chompoton,Tabasqueno, Hochob, and 
others in that vicinity, together with Rio Bee and others discovered 

i» The site of Coba was rediscovered in 1926 by the Carnegie Institution Expedition and the dated in- 
scriptions, read by Morley, are from 363 to 412 A. D. The Chetumal date (333 A. D.) was reported by 
Thomas Gann in Man, vol. 26, No. 37, London, 1926. 


in that region by Doctor Merwin and Mr. C. L. Hay, are probably 
to be placed in this epoch. It is also fairly certain that some of the 
wandering Maya peoples went southward along the Gulf of Mexico, 
while still others moved southward to the Guatemalan highlands and 
eastward into the Uloa Valley and Salvador. 

The Second Empire of the Mayas, 960-1200 (fig. 3), found its 
home in northern Yucatan at which time the most famous of the cities 
there, with the exception of Chichen Itza, were founded. The Toltec 
influence had arrived in Yucatan before the fall of Chichen Itza in 
1191. It was probably about this time that some of the Itzas mi- 
grated southward to Lake Peten in northern Guatemala where they 
were found by Cortes in his remarkable march to Honduras and where 
they remained unconquered by the Spaniards until 1697. 

The Toltec period, 1200-1450 (fig. 4), in northern Yucatan really 
began with the triumph of Quetzalcoatl-Kulkulcan over the Itzas. 
This figure was for a long time considered to have been purely mytho- 
logical, dimly related to certain historical events, but, as is common 
with all culture heroes, a vague and nebulous individual. Doctor 
Spinden has lately shown^^ that Quetzalcoatl, far from being a myth, 
was a very real person — "one of the great characters of history, a 
compound of warrior, priest, administrator, and scientist." He 
served as leader of a force of Mexicans who put down a rebellion of 
the Mayas in 1191, subduing Chichen Itza and making it a Toltec 
city. It was he who created much of the pomp and ceremony later 
used by the Aztec rulers and described with such vividness by the 

The Toltecs brought with them a new religion and new art forms, 
and the period from 1191 to 1450, when Mayapan fell and the Maya 
civilization practically ceased to exist, was marked, expecially at 
Chichen Itza, by a very strong Mexican influence. It has been pos- 
sible to identify in the frescoes and bas-reliefs at this site the battles 
of the Toltecs over the Mayas and the subsequent making of peace. 
The portrayal of the Maya and Mexican types is distinctive in all 
the carvings. Chichen Itza has the longest recorded history of any 
city in the New World, ancient or modern, of over 800 years. The 
Toltecs in Mexico proper had ceased long since to be a leading nation 
on account of civil wars. 

The arrival of the Mexicans in Yucatan with definite dates on the 
Maya side enables us to supply them with an historical background 
for the latter part of their history, thus supplanting to some extent 
their mythological dates of origins and of migrations. The early 
Toltecs had been strongly influenced by offshoots of the early Maya 
culture, perhaps at the breaking up of the First Empire (fig. 1), 
which reached them from the south and west as shown by Maya 
details occurring at Monte Alban and Xochicalco. There was also a 

" In Encyclopedia Britannica (13th ed.) under Archaeology, XVII, Mexico and Central America. 


migration of Maya features northward along the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico through Alvarado, the Totonacan area, and Papantla. 

The calendar of the Toltecs and later of the Aztecs undoubtedly 
was derived from that of the Mayas. The constantly increasing 
sphere of influence of this people (fig. 2, 3), was centered in the impor- 
tant site of San Juan Teotihuacan, which had its greatest period 
from about 1000 to 1200 A. D. The most extensive expansion of the 
Toltec power came after 1200 (fig. 4) and included practically all of 
the non-Maya-speaking peoples of central and southern Mexico, 
Guatemala, and as far south as Honduras and Salvador in addition 

Courtesy of American Museum of Natural History 

Typical of the Toltec period 

to the successful conquest of Chichen Itza and all the other Maya 
sites on the east coast of Yucatan. Thus the Toltecs, receiving the 
seeds of culture and the calendar from the early and southern Mayas, 
later played a large part in shaping the destinies of the northern 
Mayas in the last period of their history. 

The Aztecs, who receive most of the credit in the popular mind for 
the achievements in cultural lines in Mexico, were very late arrivals 
on the scene. They did not reach the shores of the lake, on an island 
of which they were later to build their capital, until 1325. They 
came as a wild hunting tribe from the north, remaining undisturbed 



until 1351, when they suffered defeat and enslavement at the hands 
of the Toltecs. Their period of expansion and preeminence did not 
begin until 1376, and even in 1519, under Montezuma, they held only 
a fraction of the territory that was included in the Toltec empire in 
1200. Every feature of their life was borrowed from the Toltecs 
and several of the Toltec cities in the Valley of Mexico never were 
completely subjugated by the Aztecs. 

There are several dark spots in the picture I have tried to draw. 
We do not know what led the Mayas to abandon their great cities in 
the South and move northward. The exhaustion of cultivatable 
land may have been one of the reasons. We are also ignorant as to 

Courtesy of th,' XiiiMiian \I ii^i iiii] mi Vatural History 

Restoration of this temple was made by Manuel Gamio 

the events which led up to the fall of this civilization about 1450. 
Civil war, the injurious effects of the presence of foreigners, and, in 
all probability, epidemics of yellow fever were all possibly con- 

The darkest spot, however, is our ignorance of the beginnings of 
the Maya peoples. It is certain that those responsible for this 
civilization were American natives, and that their development is 
not due to any influence outside the New World. The impossibility 
that such a culture could grow up in situ, as it were, is always brought 
forward by those who think they see superficial similarities between 
the Mayas and certain Mongolian peoples. The calendar alone, which 
no one has tried to prove originated outside of America, shows the 



mental equipment of the Mayas, the presence of genius in their 
midst. A few naturally gifted individuals, a knowledge of agri- 
culture, and a good environment are probably alone responsible for 
the beginnings of the Maya civilization. 

It will be remembered that the Archaic peoples were probably at 
the horizon of agriculture, and our next step must be to find a con- 
nection between them and the Mayas. Dr. S. K. Lothrop, of the 
Heye Museum, has lately found in central Salvador an early Archaic 
horizon from 20 to 40 feet below a deposit containing a mixture of 
pottery forms of the First Maya Empire, late Archaic, and other 
types. It is probable that similar conditions are to be found in 
the Uloa Valley, although here a redistribution by water seems to 

Courte&J ol the \ 

This building is typical of the late Toltec period of the Mayas 

have taken place. Further research in this general area ought to 
yield most important results. ^^ 

There must, necessarily, have been long centuries of slow beginnings 
and small achievements by the early Maya before they burst upon 
the world a century before the beginning of the Christian era with 
highly developed civilization, characterized by great cities, an elab- 
orate art and architecture, a highly organized theocracy, a remark- 
able astronomical knowledge, and a calendar system which was in 
actual operation for more than 1,900 years until it was destroyed by 
the Spaniards. Marginal corrections were applied to take care of 
the variation on the Maya year and of the true solar year, a means 

12 Indian Notes and Monographs, vol. 6, No. 5, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 
New York. 


more accurate than our method of interpolating days. It should be 
pointed out that it was not until 1582 that the Julian day was 
invented, which corresponded to the Maya day count, 2,000 years 
after the same principle had been adopted by the Mayas. 

With the definite chronology thus established and its day-for-day 
correlation with the Mexican cultures, there is every reason to hope 
that, with the study of the migrations of objects and stylistic con- 
tacts, there will come a time when the sequences of cultures in our 
own Southwest and also those of the great civilizations of South 
America will be attached to the historical fabric. 

Finally, as the result of modern research, a certain readjustment 
of values comes out clearly — the small contribution made by the 
Aztecs to the ancient cultures of Mexico, the large part played by 
the Toltecs with their far-reaching empire, and the far greater primary 
inpetus and development of a great civilization with astronomical 
knowledge and a calendar by the Mayas, who handed all this on to 
the other peoples of middle America. 

If there are included in our history the present inhabitants of 
Yucatan and the Lacandones of Guatemala, also a Maya people, who 
still carry out many of the pre-Columbian religious practices, ^^ a 
definite historical background has been supplied to American archae- 
ology, starting in the sixth century before Christ and extending in 
an unbroken series for more than 2,500 years. 

13 Tozzer, A. M., A Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones, New York, 1907. 



NOVEMBER 15, 1927 

A N important occasion in the history of the Pan American 
I ^ Round Table of San Antonio, Tex., the charter organiza- 
y % tion of that international association of public-spirited 
women who have banded themselves together to aid in 
"the development of spiritual and fraternal relations among the 
nations of the Western Hemisphere, that the inestimable heritage 
of civilization may be preserved immaculate . . . through the 
ages' V was the dedication on November 15, 1927, of the Pan American 
Room in the Gunther Hotel of San Antonio. 

With the exception of the Hall of the Americas in the Pan Ameri- 
can Union, Washington, D. C, this Salon, furnished and decorated 
for the assemblies of the Pan American Round Table, is the only 
one of its kind in the United States. Its panelled walls bear the 
names and national insignia of the 22 nations of this hemisphere 
and special chairs are provided for their delegates when in attend- 
ance. Across the head of the room are the panels containing the 
insignia of Canada, Mexico, the Pan American Union, and the 
United States, appropriate space around the other walls being given 
to the remaining Latin American Republics. Rugs, hangings, and 
other interior decorations in pale pinks, grays, and gold help to 
complete the all-pervading Latin American atmosphere. On this 
occasion an additional touch of color was lent by the brilliancy of 
the flags displayed. 

The reunion of November 15 was truly an affair of international 
importance. Mrs. J. C. Griswold, founder and president of the 
San Antonio Round Table, presided, more than 250 persons repre- 
senting the various American Republics, the National and State 
Governments, the Army, and civil and official circles of San Antonio 
being in attendance. 

At the conclusion of a brief reception, dedicatory exercises were 
opened with an invocation by the Rt. Rev. W. T. Capers, bishop of the 
Episcopal diocese of west Texas, the speakers who followed him being 

' "La Mesa Redonda Panamericana," La Eevista del Mundo, January, 1919. 

Photosraphs by Harvey Patteson 


The dedication of this room, on November 15, was an important occasion in the annals ot the Pan Amexican 
Round Table of San Antonio. Upper: The head of the room, showing the special chairs for the oliicers 
of the organization and delegates from the American Republics. Lower: Another view of the room. 
The walls are ornamented by the insignia of each of the American Republics. 


introduced by Mrs. Eli Hertzberg and Mrs. S. J. Wright, who also 
called the roll of the members of the local Round Table. The 
playing of the national anthem brought the program to a close, the 
benediction being pronounced by his reverence, Father Charles 
O'Gallagher, of the order of St. Vincent de Paul. 

During the banquet which followed, numerous messages of con- 
gratulation were received, among them being those from the Secre- 
tary of State of the United States ; the Director of the Pan American 
Union; the Governor of the Canal Zone; Mrs. Thomas M. Reynolds, 
vice president of the inter- American committee of women, Ancon, 
Panama; Mrs. Glen Levin Swiggett, executive secretary of th 
Pan American International Women's Committee, Washington 
Enriqueta R. Morales, superintendent of the National Red Cross 
of Panama; and Sra. Esther de Calvo, president of the International 
American Committee. 

J. L. Merrill, president of the Pan American Society of America, 
telegraphed : 

I take this means to express in behalf of the membership of the Pan American 
Society of the United States warmest fehcitations to the Pan American Round 
Table on the occasion of this practical manifestation of international good will 
identified with your inspiring mission of promoting cultural solidarity among the 
American Republics. 

The spirit of the occasion, however, was most fittingly voiced by 
Sra. Alejandro P. Carrillo, wife of the consul general of Mexico at 
San Antonio and the official representative of President Calles at the 
dedication, in the hope that the ceremony might be a step toward the 
inauguration of a new international epoch. She, in common with 
the other delegates from Latin American countries, made a strong 
plea for better understanding and cooperation between the nations 
of the Americas. 

Maj. Gen. W. D. Connor, commanding officer of the Second 
Division, in his speech of dedication declared that if the nations of 
the world adopted the principles promulgated by the Pan American 
Round Table international peace would be universal, a thought also 
stressed by Consul General Carrillo in an impromptu speech following 
the banquet. "Peace," he said, "is the greatest thing in the world, 
and the greatest work in the world is activity in the interest of peace. 
Progress of nations is dependent upon acquaintance, which in turn 
is an outgrowth of more ample means of communication." 

An unusual note was struck when Brig. Gen. Frank P. Lahm, 
commanding general of the Air Corps training center, recalled that 
the history of the local Round Table had been contemporaneous 
with the development of flying activities in the Army. He cited 
the Pan American flight from San Antonio to South America as an 


effort to promote good will in the Americas, pointing out that more 
than 40 Latin American aviators had been trained at Kelly Field, 
Texas' great flying school. 

The State of Texas was officially represented by Sr. Arturo Torres- 
Rio Seco, professor of Spanish literature in the University of Texas^ 
who predicted that the Pan American Round Table would before 
long become a powerful association with branches in all the important 
cities of the Americas. 


Official representative of President Calles at the dedication of the Pan 
American Room in San Antonio 

Other guests of note were Sra. Maria Castillo de Gerling, represent- 
ing the governor of the State of San Luis Potosi; Sra. Maria Suarez 
and Srta. Catalina Ayala, representing the governor of Coahuila; 
Mrs. Juan Long, representing the government of Sonora; Maj. 
R. J. Halpin, representing Major General Hinds, commanding general 
of the Eighth Corps Area; Dr. Charles W. Hackett of the University 
of Texas; and two representatives of Peru in the persons of two 
student aviators from Kelly Field. 

The movement of the Pan American Round Table was born of 
an impulse of human sympathy. When asked if their meetings 
73898— 28— Bull. 1 4 



would not excite suspicion and their purpose be misrepresented, the 
reply was: "In the past men have generally worked with political 
and financial ends in view. Women do not pursue such ends. Our 
purposes are exclusively humanitarian, our ideals are a spiritual 
union, and will not be misrepresented." Facts have proved this to 
be the case. 

At Mrs. Griswold's initiative the society was first organized in 
San Antonio among the American and Latin American residents 
there, but soon the idea of making it an inter- American organization 
in which the flags of all the American countries could be represented 
was evolved, and being thoroughly approved and recommended by 
the Auxiliary Congress of Women of the Second Pan American 
Scientific Congress, Washington, 1915-16, it was organized as a 
national association in October, 1916. 

The seal of the Pan American Round Table is symbolic of its 
spirit: Surrounding a map of the Western Hemisphere and the 
device "One for All and All for One", is a halo of light composed 
of rays emanating from a circular chain of 22 links — the whole sym- 
bolizing faith, truth, and love. 




Upper: Interesting 
old patio of which a 
colonial well is the 
central feature. 
What memories are 
evoked by the 
creaking of its rusty 

Center: This doorway 
was a mute witness „ 
to the turbulent % 
youth of the tyrant t 
Rosas, who dwelt ^* 

in the great house 
to which it gives 

Lower left: Patio of 
the old Anchorena 
mansion in which 
the past still 

Lower right: A lonely 
window with not a 
lingering suggestion 
of romantic memo- 

Courtesy of " Plus Ultra ' 


immm mi 


Courtesy of "Mexican Folkways" 


In this house of inexpensive apartments, the architect, Carlos Obregon, has achieved undeniably happy 
results with a new type of architecture. The building with its unusual, though simple, facade— stone in 
io ?i; T,®"^ P^!'- c'^ "'^]°^ ^^'^^°S in the upper stories— has ample access to the street. Of particular interest 
is the bas-rehef over the doorway— also the work of the architect 


Courtesy of "Mexican Folkways' 


This new building has been so carefully planned by the architect that even the outside piping and electric 
hght details add decorative touches. In the background the multicolored-tiled cupola and walls of a 
colonial church are seen. 


Courtesy of " Mexican Folkn ays ' 


Upper: An interesting pas- 
sageway leading from the 
street to the inner patio. 
Lower: Another view of the 
patio shown on the preced- 
ing page 



Two of the relatively few re- 
maining colonial patios in 
Buenos Aires, which have so 
far resisted the advance of 
modern building progress. 
Upper: Corner of a patio, the 
typical window grills of 
which recall romantic hours 
in the past of the Argentine 
capital. Lower: The de- 
serted entrance hall and pa- 
tio of an old Buenos Aires 
mansion now forms the sole 
embellishment of its time- 
stained walls. 

Courtesy of " I'Iub Ultra.' 


Courtesy of " Plus Ultra" 


Various types of interesting colonial portals are still to be found in many parts of Chile. Upper: Shows 
the central doorway of Santo Domingo Church in Santiago copied from an etching by the Chilean 
architect Roberto Davila Carson. Lower right: Type of colonial portal seen in the city of Rancagua. 
Lower left: An attractive doorway of the old convent of San Francisco, in the city of that name 

S"p^ Tf=xl 

/^] IFTp] W W Tp'N "^ 

By Dr. J. de Siqueira Coutinho 

Knight Commander of the Order of Santiago for Merit; Visiting Professor, 
Romance Department, Berlin University; Director of the Portuguese Department 
and Member of the Executive Faculty, Georgetown University School of Foreign 
Service, etc. 

NOTHING is more vital to our present civilization than the 
effective use of a system or systems of international cooper- 
ation, based on a solid foundation of mutual knowledge and 
understanding between nations. It has been the states- 
man's task to lead the nations to international agreements which, 
soundly estabhshed, prove beneficial to the countries concerned. 
But the work of the statesman must be followed — if it has not been 
preceded — by that of the educator, whose duty it is to prepare the 
minds of his fellow-citizens to take advantage of the new situations 
thus presented in order to derive due profit and benefit therefrom. 

Many years ago statesmen of the Americas had a vision of a plan — 
the only one in their judgment fitted to the New World — a plan for 
a better understanding of and closer relations with our neighbors 
on this continent. This idea has come to be known as Pan Ameri- 

As long ago as 1750 Alexander de Gusmao, a Portuguese of Brazilian 
birth, then acting as foreign minister of his country, was influential 
in introducing into a treaty between Spain and Portugal provisions 
for preserving peace between their respective colonies in South 
America in case the mother countries went to war with each other. 
The Monroe doctrine (1823) made impossible European interven- 
tion in the affairs, destinies, and doctrines of the American nations. 
The Pinheiro Ferreira Call (1821) and the congress convoked by 
Bolivar in 1826 were the precursors of the Pan American Conference 
held in Washington in 1889, which inaugurated definite international 
cooperation between all the Republics of this Hemisphere. 

In order that the new policies resulting from this association should 
be put to practical use, an international office was created in Wash- 
ington. This office, known as the Pan American Union, has since 



its formation constantly striven to promote closer relations between 
the nations of the Western World, enhsting friends for the cause and 
pointing out problems needing prompt solution in order that a clearer 
understanding might result. 

Among these problems one of prime importance is the apprecia- 
tion of other nations. This can not be based on the vague, frag- 
mentary, and often-times misleading items made public by the press. 
A careful study of a nation's aspirations, its needs and policies, its 
history and geography is necessary for any just estimate. It is 
therefore not rational to think of the possibility of cultivating the 
friendship of another nation unless we are well informed concerning 
it, and moreover, acquainted with its language, the bridge to a fuller 
understanding of its national problems and the fundamental princi- 
ples and events shaping and differentiating its life and history. 

Everyone realizes the disadvantage at which a person is placed on 
coming to the United States to promote a better understanding 
between his own country and ours, or to encourage better trade rela- 
tions, if he is not familiar with the English language, and also with 
those historical, geographical, economic, and cultural facts necessary 
to enable him to understand our current problems. A lack of knowl- 
edge concerning even our national holidays may much embarrass 
such a visitor in his official or business transactions, and a lack of 
knowledge of our national heroes may deprive him of an adequate 
view of our political accomplishments. Again, ignorance of the loca- 
tion of our principal industrial centers will prove a great handicap 
in the establishment of trade relations. But identical obstacles are 
encountered by the people of our own nation who may go, as usually 
they do, to foreign countries unprepared in knowledge of the respec- 
tive languages and cultural backgrounds. The lack of such prepara- 
tion has also been responsible for the failure of many persons engaged 
in problems of international interest. For instance, in the case of 
Brazil, one of our best friends in South America, how many of our 
educated people know who was her George Washington? When did 
she become independent? Moreover, the Republic of Brazil 
acknowledged and adopted the 4th of July as one of her national 
holidays; what led her to do so? 

The nations south of us, covering an area of more than 8,500,000 
square miles and sheltering within their borders a population of 
90,000,000 inhabitants, are the result of colonization by the Iberian 
nations; hence the first problem that confronts us is the difference 
in the mentality of the two groups of nations or races. The Latin 
civilization is often considered more cultured and less materialistic 
than the Anglo-Saxon. Next comes the problem of language and 
culture, which requires the study of Spanish and Portuguese, as well 


as of other subjects conducive to the understanding of the national 
and industrial situation in the Latin American countries. 

The study of Spanish and Spanish American subjects has been 
fairly well covered by the educational institutions of the United 
States; probably no other nation can boast as high an accomplish- 
ment in this field. However, the study of Portuguese and Brazilian 
problems, which has as yet received but scanty attention from our 
educators, is extremely backward. In this field we are far behind 
other nations. 

We should not forget that South America is not an agglomeration 
of Spanish-American nations like Central America. Nearly half of 
that continent is taken up by Brazil, in territory larger than the 
United States (excluding Alaska) where, since it was settled and 
colonized by the Portuguese, the language used is Portuguese, and 
not Spanish. In diplomacy Brazil has proved to be a very faithful 
friend of the United States, being the first nation officially to accept 
the Monroe doctrine, and even before that doctrine was formulated 
Pan Americanism was one of her most cherished policies. In late 
years three of our most distinguished Secretaries of State have seen 
fit to pay official visits to Brazil — Mr. Elihu Root, Mr. Bainbridge 
Colby, and Mr. Charles Evans Hughes. 

For the State Department Brazil is within easy reach, but for our 
educational institutions, without any plausible reason, Brazil might 
almost belong to another planet, since our youth has been deprived 
of the benefit of courses leading to a real appreciation of the Brazilian 
nation and of Portuguese-speaking people in general. On account 
of our policies and the importance of Brazil and Portugal, Portuguese 
should be offered in at least one high school in every important city, 
and a number of our colleges and universities should give Portuguese 
a place in their curriculum. 

The plan that was adopted for the introduction of Spanish into 
our educational system should be utilized on a perhaps more modest 
scale for Portuguese, and teachers should be prepared for this work in 
the same way as for other modern languages. For several years the 
famous University of Coimbra in Portugal has been offering summer 
courses for the training of teachers of Portuguese in foreign coimtries, 
held from July 20 to August 30, and a few Americans and many 
Germans have availed themselves of this opportunity. The Institute 
of Foreigners, located at the University of Berlin, has offered in the 
past special courses for American teachers of Spanish wishing to 
qualify for teaching Portuguese. These courses will in the future be 
conducted by the writer in the department of romance languages 
at the University of Berlin from June 18 to July 28, provided 
a sufficient number of students apply. The texts used in such 
courses are American texts, such as "A Portuguese Grammar," by 


Hills, Ford, and Coutinho,^ especially prepared for American colleges 
and high schools. After the intensive course at the University of 
Berlin the students may spend the month of August at the University 
of Coimbra and there enjoy Portuguese atmosphere in the full sense 
of the word. 

The first appeal made in this country for an extensive teaching of 
Portuguese was that of former Ambassador Nabuco, a highly distin- 
guished Brazilian scholar and one of the most brilliant foreign diplo- 
mats ever stationed in Washington. This famous diplomat addressed 
several universities in America in the endeavor to awaken enthu- 
siasm for Portuguese, but his efforts were not crowned with the 
success they deserved, the Brazilians being greatly disappointed at 
the failure of their great scholar, who had been signally honored by 
the greatest countries in the world. 

Another apostle of the Portuguese cause in the United States was 
that distinguished American scholar, the late John Casper Branner, 
president emeritus of Stanford University. Doctor Branner, a 
geologist by profession, worked for many years in Brazil, where he 
became so enthusiastic for the propaganda of Portuguese in the 
United States that he prepared a Portuguese grammar for the use of 
her students. 

Until about 10 years ago the teaching of the Portuguese language 
and literature in the United States was limited to a very few univer- 
sities, where it was conducted by romance language professors, 
chiefly for graduate students. For instance, the courses given at Yale 
University by Prof. Henry Lang, and at Harvard University by 
Professor Ford, were quite well known, but Portuguese was there 
being taught for purely philological purposes, the great masterpieces 
of Camoes, Gil Vicente, Sa de Miranda, etc., being read as classics. 

It was the privilege of George Washington University, Washing- 
ton, D. C, to initiate the modern movement in favor of Portuguese 
by establishing in 1916 the first chair of this language in the United 
States, under the direction of a Portuguese philologist with teaching 
experience gained in Lisbon. George Washington University, through 
the initiative and energy of Dean Howard Lincoln Hodgkins, was there- 
fore prepared to offer to American students courses in Portuguese of 
any grade and to assist scholars in their investigations. The step taken 
by Dean Hodgkins was highly appreciated by the late Brazilian ambas- 
sador. Dr. Domicio da Gama, by the officials of the Pan American 
Union, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and Govern- 
ment departments, all interested in Portuguese on account of the 
relations they maintain with Portuguese-speaking nations. The first 

1 Published in 1926 by D. C. Heath & Co., who also brought out in the same year a school edition of the 
notable Brazilian novel, "Innocencia," by Taunay. Prof. Maro Beath Jones, who edited this novel, has 
given some helpful information as to Portuguese grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks, imder the caption of 
"Suggestions for the Study of Portuguese," in Hispania for October, 1Q27.— Editor's note. 


Portuguese courses were attended by Government employees and 
graduate students of the university department of romance languages. 
When the United States entered the war Washington attracted large 
numbers of people from different sections of the United States, and 
because of the demand on the part of experts and clerks for a knowledge 
of Portuguese, the courses at George Washington University were 
exceedingly helpful. Many came in order to acquire a correct pronun- 
ciation, having previously studied in other universities, while others 
came to increase their knowledge, and a few registered for Portuguese 
philology. These courses were unfortunately discontinued in 1925. 

A few weeks after the armistice the directors of Georgetown Uni- 
versity passed a resolution creating a school of foreign service. The 
Reverend Dr. Edmund Walsh was placed in charge of the new school 
as regent. Portuguese was included as an elective subject in the 
curriculum of studies, and since then most of the Department of 
Commerce officials connected with Brazil either in Washington or 
in the field have been recruited from these Portuguese classes, the 
services rendered by these officials being rewarded with rapid promotion. 

Recently the University of California has added to its romance- 
language department courses in Portuguese under Prof. E. C. Hills, 
who recently spent some months in Portugal. 

If we turn to Europe we see that the teaching of Portuguese, 
although but recently added to the curriculum of the universities 
there, has been put on a firm basis, the chairs being occupied by 
professors maintained for the exclusive teaching of that language, 
while in the United States, in even the most favorable cases, Portu- 
guese is taught by professors or instructors giving part of their time 
to other languages. The University of Paris, for instance, appointed 
Professor Le Gentil to its chair of Portuguese. Doctor Le Gentil has 
spent many years in Portugal and devotes his entire time to Portu- 
guese subjects. Similarly, the University of London maintains the 
very well-endowed Camoes chair of Portuguese, the present incum- 
bent being Prof. Edgar Prestage, a man who has spent his entire life 
on Portuguese subjects both as an investigator and translator. The 
University of Berlin, instead of placing at the head of the Portuguese 
department one of their great scholars in Portuguese subjects, as has 
been done in France or England, has made arrangements for help from 
the University of Coimbra in the teaching of Portuguese, the latter 
sending such instructors as Dr. J. da Providencia Costa and Dr. 
Ferrand de Almeida to lecture to the German students and to present 
Portuguese subjects in their true Portuguese color and not as seen 
through German glasses. The University of Hamburg has adopted 
the same system. Dr. Mario Brandao being the Portuguese instruc- 
tor. Several other universities maintain Portuguese courses under 
German scholars who have spent a great deal of time in Portugal. 


The German universities, moreover, are not limiting the teaching of 
Portuguese to their own students. They also welcome foreign stu- 
dents, and they have even organized special courses conducted in 
English, with English textbooks, for American students and American 
teachers, as previously stated. 

When United States educators realize the progress Portuguese is 
making in the chief European nations, whose relations with Brazil 
are not so close as our own and whose intercourse with Portugal 
does not justify any extraordinary measure, they will undoubtedly 
find a place for this language in our educational system. 

Portuguese should interest the student, either for its utilitarian or 
for its cultural value, almost as much as Spanish or Italian. Portu- 
guese as a language is to-day spoken by over 50,000,000 people, scat- 
tered all over the world. Some 6,000,000 are living in Europe in 
that beautiful corner of the Iberian Peninsula known as Portugal, 
with its famous cities such as Cintra, Brussaco, Braga, and Oporto, 
its delightful seashore resorts, and its noted monasteries like Batatha, 
Alacobaga, Thomar, Jeronymos — all of them beautiful beyond com- 
pare. From the shores of this nation sailed the caravels which dis- 
covered much of the world. More than two-thirds of the Portuguese- 
speaking people (37,000,000) live in Brazil, the largest Latin country 
in the world. In Africa some 6,000,000 people live under the Portu- 
guese flag over an area of nearly 800,000 square miles. Over 1,000,000 
Portuguese-speaking people live in Asia and nearly 1,000,000 under 
the American and British flags. 

The area covered by Brazil and by Portugal with its colonial 
empire is nearly 4,200,000 square miles. The resources of Brazil 
and Portuguese Africa are inestimable, and in both Americans are 
most warmly welcome. But to take advantage of the opportunities 
offered, we need adequate preparation. Moreover, Pan Americanism 
can never become an accomplished fact unless things Brazilian are 
given their rightful place in our educational system, and due appreci- 
ation for this nation is shown, as in the case of the other nations of 
the Western World. 

A ^ 



Y interest in nanduti dates from 1911, when I was in Para- 
guay for the first time. This truly Paraguayan lace 
is as delicate in texture as it is wonderful in the sym- 
bolism of its patterns. At first sight certain minute details 
of interpretation escape the observer who is inclined to regard it 
as merely an artistic product of considerable commercial value. In 
reality, however, nanduti is considered by all who are famiHar with 
it as direct a manifestation of local color, in which are interwoven 
the dreamy fancies and highly artistic motifs evolved by Paraguayan 

In 1920, I made a stay of several months in Paraguay, and through 
the good will of the people whose friendship I was fortunate enough 
to secure I was able to interpret the delicate symbolism of the pat- 
terns and arabesques of this altogether unique native handicraft. 
For it is a fact that the greater part, if not all, the designs of nanduti 
are the ideographic representation of various indigenous elements, 
including in certain cases the physical reactions, gestures, and atti- 
tudes of the people, a fact which in itself is sufiicient to justify this 

The most characteristic feature of Paraguayan lace lies in the fact 
that the lines of all its fundamentally typical patterns are circular. 
As a matter of fact all nanduti designs appear like as many objects 
caught in a spider web. 

Paraguayan women now use cotton and silk almost exclusively 
in their lace making. Formerly, hromelia^ thread was employed 
for this purpose and, I am told, is still used in the interior, where 
imported thread happens to be scarce. Personally, however, I 
have seen nanduti lace of linen, cotton, and silk, only. 

The lace is made on a square wooden frame, which is held on the 
lap. Over this is stretched a piece of muslin (fig. 1) upon which 
by the aid of a glass or cup is drawn a pencil outline of the circles 
which are to serve as guides for the finished disks, called dejados de 
nanduti. These disks are units which after being worked are joined 
by means of special stitches to make large pieces of lace. 

' Translated from Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, March, 1927. 

2 The genus bromelia includes the ixtle and pineapple, from the leaves of which fiber is obtained. 




The groundwork of the lace is usually composed oijilete, or threads 
forming the radii of the circular pattern. After the radii, numbering 
about 140, have been made with needle and thread, they are gathered 
into groups forming quadrants on which the fundamental stitches, 
which are called Apyte, Aramaje, and Pasasinta, are worked. (Fig. 1 .) 
There are two patterns of nanduti which are exceptions to this rule 


A piece of muslin is stretched across a wooden frame, and on tliis the design is worked. Nos. 1, 2, and 3 
show fundamental stitches of iianduti called Apyte, Aramaje and Pasasinta, while Nos. 4, 5, and 6 illus- 
trate finished specimens of the lace 

in that they contain no Apyte, namely, the "filigree" (No. 16600) 
and "guava flower" (No. 16623) patterns. I believe, however, 
that these two ornamental designs do not really belong to the great 
primitive family of nanduti, but are extraneous types which in some 
way have been introduced therein. This belief is strengthened by 
the lack in both of these designs of the characteristic selvage finish 
of the circumference, which is present in each and all of the numerous 




Ideographic forms of nanduti in the collection of the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro. 16,623, Guava 
flower (.Psidium sp.}; 16,557, Rosemary; 16,576, Yvirayty Yovay (BromeUa sp.); 16,609 Boyaca {Acro- 
comia sp.) 

designs included in the interesting collection displayed at the National 
Museum in Rio de fJaneiro. 

Nanduti is made, exclusively, by women early trained in the intri- 
cacies of this delicate art. The older women guard jealously certain 
secrets of technique necessary to the successful working out of some 
of the designs. But the most difficult of all information to get from 
those old lace makers is the ideographic symbolical meaning of the 
arabesques. I do not believe that any one up to the present has been 
entirely successful in deciphering the secret meaning contained in 
each of the nanduti motifs. After working very patiently and visit- 
ing innumerable country families, especially in the Itaugua region, 
73898— 28— Bull. 1 5 




Collection of the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro. 16,599, Parrot's beak (Psitace); 16,586, Ibis (76m sp ); 
16,558, Scorpion (Forftculidae); 16,591, Turtle (Cheloniae) 

the writer has obtained reUable information sufficient to enable him 
to catalogue the nanduti motifs.^ 

3 Serior Nicholas Aymot published in El Orden, Asuncion, Paraguay, March 12, 1927, the following 
legend which he had heard from a Guarani Indian woman centenarian, near Piribebui : 

Long ago, preparation was being made in the Guarani tribe for the marriage of the chief's son to an Indian 
maiden. The youth, wishing to add a jaguar skin to the presents which he had prepared for his bride, set 
out for the woods. As night found him in the midst of a dense forest, he heaped a few vines about the trunk 
of a tree and, though unprepared for camping in such dangerous surroundings, fell asleep upon his impro- 
vised bed. He never returned to his tribe, and all attempts to find him were fruitless. 

Many years afterwards a hunter belonging to the same tribe chanced to find, lying side by side under a 
great forest tree, the skeleton of a man and the skeleton of a tiger. Near by were the bow and arrows and 
other articles which had belonged to the chief's son. 

Spiders had taken up their abode among the young man's bones and, as if to prepare a worthy shroud 
for one who had died in an attempt to please his beloved, completely concealed the remains of the youth 
with a finely woven, lacy covering. 

Upon seeing this, the widowed bride, whose grief had never been assuaged, became jealous of the spiders. 
She could not bear to think that any beside herself had protected the remains of her beloved dead. So for 
a long time thereafter she went every day into the forest to learn to spin from the spiders, and every time 
that the weather destroyed the shroud that covered the beloved remains another shroud, like the spider's 
web, but richer, finer, came to take its place. 

Thus in love find grief the idea of nanduti was conceived in the brain of this Paraguayan Indian woman. 



The ideographic forms of nanduti may be classified according to the 
following groups: 

(a) Phytomorphic motifs. 
(6) Zoomorphic motifs. 

(c) Skiagraphic motifs. 

(d) Miscellaneous motifs. 
(a) Phytomorphic motifs: 

Guava flower {Psidmm sp.) (16,623, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Amarnbahy or Samambahy {Filix sp.) (16,619, Coll. National Museum, Rio 

de Janeiro). 
La Una de Vaca {Bauhinia sp.) (16,552, Coll. National Museum, Rio de 

Rice (Oriza sp.) (16,553, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Rosemary (16,557, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Bocaya (Acrocomia sp.) (16,609, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Arasap^ Corvata {Psidium sp.) (16,607, Coll. National Museum, Rio de 

Janeiro) . 

Collection of the national Museum in Rio de Janeiro. 16,568, Oven; 16,593, Dew. 

Capiati (Killengia sp.f) (16,616, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Honeysuckle flower (16,595, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Yvirayty Yovay (Bromelia sp.) (16,576, Coll. National Museum, Rio de 

Janeiro) . 
Guayra [Psidium sp.) (16,580, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
(6) Zoomorphic motifs: 

Dog's head {Canis sp.) (16,620, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Parrot's beak (Psitace) (16,599, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Tuca-Yuru (Ramphastos) (16,582, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Fish (Piscis) (16,583, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Ibis {Ibis sp.) (16,586, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
latebu-Apesd (Ixodes) (16,563, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Tuvytd (Supercillium) (16,556, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Scorpion (Forficulidae) (16,558, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Ant (Termites) (16,559, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 




Collection of the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro. 16,600, Filigree; 16,588, Purua; 16,606, Puruabo; 

16,578, Guapivyeca 

(6) Zoomorphic motifs — Continued. 

Yapehusa (Decapodae) (16,594, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Sheep's tail (16,596, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Fish-bone (16,590, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Turtle (Cheloniae) (16,591, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Spider {Arachnidae) (16,592, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Hoof (16,581, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro), 
(c) Skiagraphic motifs: 

Lamp (16.617, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Hammer (16,601, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Brick (16,584, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Oven (16,568, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Loaf of Bread (16,573, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Small chair (16,554, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Arapajo (16,562, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Ant-nest and Cross (16,610, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Dew (16,593, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 


{d) Miscellaneous motifs: 

Filigree (16,600, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Purua (16,588, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Guapivyeca (16,578, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Puruabo (16,606, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 
Purua Care (16,565, Coll. National Museum, Rio de Janeiro). 

Here, as in all primitive art, representations of animals predomi- 
nate, owing, probably, to the familiar relationships which they sug- 
gest and which link them directly to the psychic life of the people. 

Primitive nanduti imitates with great felicity the spider web from 
which it takes its name — nandu-ti. It is still produced extensively 
in Carapegua, but the great lace center is the township of Itagua, 
where a calm, smiling village, ancient and clean, spreads out around 
a church of unusual proportions and striking ornamentation. A 
large number of the inhabitants of Itagua devote themselves to this 
delicate art. The lace makers tip back their chairs to work, leaving 
their lower limbs without support, an attitude which causes their 
feet to be swollen at the end of the day. The young women sing 
as they work, while the older ones smoke haguassu cigarettes. 

Nowadays, much nanduti is machinemade. In the instruction 
book for artistic embroidery published by a well-known sewing- 
machine company I find reference to nanduti under the name of 
Teneriffe. This, however, is but a coarse imitation of the real 
nanduti. The groundwork of the lace is similar and the circular 
form is preserved, but the finished product possesses none of the 
fine artistry of nanduti. 1 have never been able to discover why 
this lace is called Teneriffe. 

In Brazil, where nanduti is made by a different technique, the lace 
being held in a circular frame of cardboard or tin, it is sometimes 
called, according to good authority, sun lace.^ 

W. James Molins, who in 1916 devoted some interesting lines to 
Paraguayan lace,^ attributes the general characteristics and constant 
form of this lace to suggestion directly received from the web of a 
common spider of the genus Epeira. The Epeira is a cosmopolitan 
spider, spinning on a vertical plane. The threads of the spider web 
are so regular and delicate that they have even been selected for 
use in the reticles of optical instruments. As a matter of fact, 
each strand is formed of from 6 to 10 finer filaments. The web of 
the Epeira is formed of 15 radii and from 15 to 40 spiral curves. 

Is nanduti, as it would seem to be at first sight, directly inspired 
by the web of the Paraguayan Epeira? All that is known of the 
history of this lace seems to indicate recent origin. We do not find 
in the writings of the old chroniclers, whether priests or laymen, 

' Encyclopfidie des Ouvrages des Dames. = Paraguai. Cronicas Americanas. 


any reference to nanduti. Felix de Azara, that reliable historian of 
Paraguay and of the River Plate, referring to the indigenous Gua- 
rani population, says that the women did not spin, but that some 
among certain tribes utilized thread made from the caraguata 
(hromelia). No allusion, however, is made by the writer to nanduti. 

Showing the method of combining the small circles of lace 

Though the question is yet very obscure, I believe that the funda- 
mental idea of nanduti was really of relatively recent importation 
into Paraguay. Into this alien structure the imagination of Para- 
guayan women, inspired by the objects of their charming land, 
wove the delicate designs and fine symbolism which I have attempted 
to portray in this article. 



By Zelta Nuttall 

Honorary Professor of Archseology, National Museum of Mexico; Fellow of Ameri- 
can Anthropological Association; Member of American Philosophical Society 

IN FOUR previous lectures delivered within a period of 10 months 
before a scientific gathering in the university city of Oxford, the 
International Congress of Americanists in Rome, the Anthro- 
pological Society of Washington, and the "Antonio Alzate" 
Scientific Society of Mexico City, respectively, I presented the results 
of studies, covering a period of many years, on the calendars used in 
ancient seats of culture which were all situated within the Tropics, 
the majority within a zone 20° north and south of the Equator. 

Within this zone a curious solar phenomenon takes place on differ- 
ent days, according to the latitude, and at different intervals. In 
its annual circuit the sun reaches the zenith of each latitude twice a 
year, near noontime, and when this happens no shadows are cast 
by either people or things. 

This phenomenon is always closely connected with heavy rainfalls 
brought about by the heat of the vertical sun rays, and its first 
occurrence during the year marks the end of the dry season and the 
beginning of the rainy season. 

Within the tropical zone the year is practically divided into these 
two seasons only, thus differing widely from the northern countries 
where four fairly well-defined seasons are the rule, marked by the 
winter and summer solstices and the spring and autumn equinoxes, 
"markers" which are of little or no importance and almost disre- 
garded by the inhabitants of the tropical zone in distinguishing be- 
tween the seasons. 

In the lectures mentioned I submitted ample and uncontrovertible 
data showing that the ancient inhabitants of tropical America had 
not failed to observe the mysterious and impressive phenomenon of 
the momentary disappearance of shadows, twice yearly, and that they 
had, therefore, a perfect knowledge of the duration of the solar year. 

They ingeniously interpreted this phenomenon as the beneficial 
"descent" of the sun god to earth, because they had observed that 
it was invariably followed by heavy rainfalls which fertilized the 
arid soil, making it yield the sustenance necessary for the life of both 

men and animals. 



In more remote times the sages observed this phenomenon by 
means of gnomons consisting of some rod, stick, or vertical stone 
placed perpendicular to the ground. But with the gradual develop- 
ment of the solar cult, wishing to honor the "descent of the sun god" 
and to provide him with a resting place in order to keep him with 
them as long as possible, they erected in the centers of organized 
community life, pillars or stelae made of wood or stone, more or less 
richly carved; later, chairs, thrones, altars, towers; and, finally, 
temples, situated on the top of high pyramidal structures the sides 
of which could be completely bathed and sanctified (because of the 
absence of shadows) by the sun rays twice a year. 

The historian Garcilazo de la Vega, direct descendant of the Incas 
of Peru, wrote the most detailed and enlightening description we 
have about the ancient Indian system of observing the passage of 
the sun through the zenith, and the picturesque ceremonies observed 
to celebrate the descent of the God who brought new life to the world 
and marked the beginning of a new year. 

He stated that "they had erected very richly carved stone columns 
in the spacious patios or courtyards of the temples dedicated to the 
sun. When the priests thought that the time was drawing near, 
they each day observed carefully the shadows cast by these columns, 
which were built in the center of a large circle which occupied the 
entire width of the patio. From one point of this circle to the other, 
namely, from east to west, they drew a line. Long experience had 
taught them which parts of the circumference this line should cross. 
Watching the shadow cast by the column in the direction of the line, 
they observed the approach of the great moment and when, at noon, 
sunlight bathed the whole circumference without casting any shadow 
they knew it had arrived. Then, decorating the column with all 
the flowers and fragrant plants they could gather, they placed the 
chair for the sun on top of the column, saying that on that day the 
sun in all its splendor was seated on the column. And for this reason 
they worshipped the sun with greater fervor and festivities on this 
occasion, tendering him offerings consisting of gorgeous gifts made of 
precious stones, gold, silver, and other valuable minerals. 
The Indians greatly venerated these pillars and other seats of the 
sun, and because they appeared to worship them as idols, the 
governor and the Spanish captains-general throughout the Empire 
of Peru and Ecuador ordered all such columns to be destroyed. 

The same destructive orders extended to all regions in America, 
particularly throughout Mexico, the aim being to eradicate completely 
the solar cult which was the essential basis of the indigenous religion, 
social life, and calendar. 

Even toward the end of the sixteenth century the Spaniards con- 
sidered the eradication of the Indian solar cult so important that in 
1577, when King PhiHp II issued his famous decree of assistance in 


the good management of "The Indies," the sixth of the 50 questions 
to be answered by the indigenes of each town, was, "Ask them to 
tell the latitude of the town and the days of the year when the sun 
does not cast any shadow on the town." After getting this informa- 
tion it was easy for the Spaniards to watch for and prevent the 
observance of the sun cult by the Indians. 

It is very interesting to note that, for obvious reasons, when this 
question was put by the authorities of the towns of Teotihuacan, Acol- 
man, Tepechpan, and Tequiziztlan the answers contained false 
information, because, although they all truthfully stated that the 
sun first reached the zenith at the middle of May, they also said 
that the second time was toward the end of June, while, as a matter 
of fact, it takes place a whole month later, namely, in July. As 
historical records prove that it was precisely in Teotihuacan where, 
toward the end of July, 1519, the second of the annual descents of 
the sun god was celebrated with great pomp, everything seems to 
indicate that such information was either purposely erroneous, or 
that with the introduction of the Christian calendar the observa- 
tion of the solar phenomenon was already extinct. 

Considering that the observation of this phenomenon was a religious 
rite, it must have been confined to the priests in the temples, although 
the writings of the Spanish monks dealing with the religion and 
calendar of the ancient Mexicans have been searched in vain for an 
assertion as clear and direct as that of Pio Perez, who states that 
"The ancestors of the Maya Indians with no instruments, just using 
the naked eye, had fixed the beginning of the year on the day the sun 
reaches the zenith of this peninsula on its way to the austral regions," 
and "that they know the use of the gnomon and the results obtained 
by it even in the most stormy days of the rainy season." 

This goes to prove that the Maya priests knew perfectly well the 
number of days making up the interval between the first passage of 
the sun through the zenith in May and the second in July, in spite 
of the fact that many times, especially in the valley of Mexico, the 
phenomenon can not be observed by means of the gnomon due to the 
clouded skies of the rainy season. 

But there are a few scattered records which, put together, prove 
that in Mexico, as well as in Peru, Ecuador, and Yucatan the driving 
of sticks into the ground and the observation of the passage of the 
sun at noon were the most prominent ritual features of the Aztec 
New Year. The late Mexican scholar Francisco Troncoso y Paso 
and also Professor Soler were convinced that the Texcatl festival 
was that of the New Year and that it concurred with the passage of 
the sun through the zenith. We are convinced that this was the 
festival which was being celebrated in the main temple of Mexico 
when Pedro de Alvarado, in Cortes's absence, ordered that famous 
massacre of the noblemen and warriors who were assembled on a 


date equivalent to the 18th of May in our calendar. Answering 
the charge of cruelty made against him, Alvarado said that: "One 
morning previous to the festival many sticks, one taller than the 
others, were found driven into the ground of the courtyard of the 
main Cu.'' 

The report of another conquistador, Andres de Tapia, furnishes 
the only documentary evidence of which I have knowledge, that the 
Mexicans observed and adored the sun at noon. He said: 

The first time we entered Mexico peacefully, I was wandering idly when I saw, 
in Uichilobos, the main temple, that at 12 o'clock, sharp, as indicated to the 
Indians by certain signs of the heavens, they arose, blew through a big conch, 
and all of them went to the sacrifice. When other parishes heard the call of 
the conch they also arose, and, everyone dressed with the garments used in the 
worship of their particular deity, offered sacrifice consisting of their own blood, 
incense, straws dipped in their blood, or papers containing certain characters. 

No word is found about this in the text of Sahagiin's works, but 
the Laurentiano manuscript of his work contains a rough drawing 
made by an Indian artist representing a similar scene. It actually 
pictures the sun god descending on the circular brazier, ''the descent 
of the sun god" being announced by a priest blowing through the 
conch, while two other priests burn incense and two worshippers 
extract blood from their ears. 

Judging from other representations of the ''descent of the sun god " 
which, due to lack of space can not be mentioned here, it seems that 
in Mexico this religious ceremonial called for the presence of four 
priests wearing the insignia of the four main gods, who personifying 
the cardinal points and the elements, displayed symbolic colors: the 
blue of air, the green of water, the yellow of earth, and the red of fire. 

The work I have in preparation will deal extensively with incon- 
trovertible data which prove that in Mexico, as well as in all the 
tropical cultural centers of America, the interesting and magnificent 
phenomenon of the annual passage of the sun through the zenith 
was observed by the natives, who were fully aware of its infallible 
and regular recurrence as well as of its relation with the rainy sea- 
son, and who explained the mysterious disappearance of the shadow 
of the gnomon by the descent of a celestial being upon it. 

As the sun came back every year on the same date and hour, 
marking the beginning of a new year, the ancients had no need of 
observing the rise and set of the sun in the periods of the equinoxes 
and solstices or to make difficult and complicated calculations. 

The fact that in the year of the Spanish conquest the phenomenon 
was celebrated and observed in the main temple of Tenochtitlan, 
using poles as gnomons, shows that even then the ancient Aztec 
astronomers and priests still employed that primitive but thoroughly 
practical and effective method of measuring the solar year. 

Toward the end of the lecture I delivered before the "Antonio 
Alzate Scientific Society" in Mexico on the 18th of April, 1927, I 



made the following suggestion which I have long entertained, in 
the hope that it may be received with sympathy and interest. 

That the children and young people not only of Mexico but of the 
other Hispano-American countries as well, bring back to life, as a 
school festival, the observance of the new year of their ancestors, 
placing in the grounds and gardens of their schools more or less simple 
gnomons, orienting the circles and lines as of old. 

In my opinion it would be a charming as well as a patriotic and 
highly educational festival, the revival of such an ancient, such a 
typical, and such a purely Indian custom. Moreover, it would 
foster in children the observation of nature and interest in its mani- 
festations. In cultural centers such as the capitals of the different 


States in which this phenomenon occurs — which to my mind is 
deserving of the same interest as an eclipse — the great culminant 
moment might be celebrated by singing Beethoven's sublime hymn, 
"God in Nature," or other appropriate music. 

Children would derive a great deal of enjoyment from the festiv- 
ities, not only from the gnomon but also because, standing in the 
sun, they would see that they did not cast any shadow. They 
could also perform fantastic dances in which their arms extended 
horizontally would cast dark lines on the ground uniting their shadow- 
less bodies. The practice of exchanging appropriate presents on 
this occasion could be adopted. These presents would be natural 
products such as rare specimens from any of the three kingdoms. 


This would encourage in children the noble impulse of looking for 
and collecting the wonders of nature. 

It is a pleasure to state, here, that this proposition has been received 
with interest and enthusiasm by such distinguished men as Dr. 
Leoncio Y. de Mora, Peruvian consul and president of the society; 
Mr. Aguilar y Santillana, founder and permanent secretary of the 
same; Mr. Joaquin Gallo, director of the National Astronomic 
Observatory of Tacubaya; and many others. 

Thanks to the recommendation made in favor of it by such learned 
people, the annual passage of the sun through the zenith was cele- 
brated in several educational centers of Mexico on the 18th of May 
about 11.33 a. m. daylight saving time. 

I hope that this initiative of the effective restoration of a custom 
dating back to very remote times in this continent may constitute 
the first link of a chain which will each year unite more and more 
closely the members of the Indian race and their ancestors. 

The fact that after long and accurate observations the old Mexican 
race discovered that the passage of the sun through the zenith is 
the perfect method of measuring the solar year, is an honor to this 
race, and an intellectual contribution to the sum total of human 
wisdom which deserves world-wide appreciation for its originality 
and importance. 


[Furnished by W. W. Campbell, Director of the Lick Observatory, California] 

Mexico: Latitude 

Mexico City 19° 20' N May 17 July 26 

Merida 20° 50' N May 24 July 19 

Guatemala : 

New Guatemala 14° 37' N Apr. 29 Aug. 13 

Honduras : 

Tegucigalpa 14° 08' N Apr. 28 Aug. 14 

Salvador : 

San Salvador 13° 45' N Apr. 27 Aug. 16 


Managua 12° 07' N Apr. 22 Aug. 21 

Costa Rica: 

San Jose 10° 00' N Apr. 16 Aug. 27 

Venezuela : 

Caracas 10° 30' N Apr. 17 Aug. 26 

British Guiana: 

Georgetown 6° 49' 30" N._ Apr. 7 Sept. 5 

Dutch Guiana: 

Paramaribo 5° 44' 30" N__ Apr. 4 Sept. 8 

French Guiana: 

Cayenne 4° 56' 05" N._ Apr. 2 Sept. 10 


Bogota 4° 06' N Mar. 31 Sept. 12 



14' S--._._ Mar. 20 





Panama : 

Panama 3° 10' N Mar. 28 


Quito 6° 

Peru : 

Lima 12° 

Arequipa 16° 


La Paz ---- 16° 

Brazil : 

Pernambuco 8° 

Rio de Janeiro 22° 

Paraguay : 

Villa Concepcion 23° 

Sept. 15 
Sept. 23 




30' S Feb. 4 Nov. 8 






28' S Dec. 21 Dec. 21 

Note.— The writer would be deeply obliged for information addressed to her at Casa Alvarado 
Coyoacan, D. F., Mexico, from each of the listed capitals concerning the local climatic conditions at the 
time of the solar phenomenon, which would enable her to formulate a report, for publication in the 
Bulletin of the Pan American Union of great interest to all concerned. 




IN accordance with an agreement entered into between the Mexican 
Government and the Southern Pacific Railway Co. in March, 
1923, the former agreed to pay the company a sum of about 
eleven million pesos ($5,500,000) as partial indemnity for the 
damages and losses suffered by the Southern Pacific Railway during 
the revolution, with the understanding that the company would 
invest the entire amount in the construction of a line between Tepic, 
State of Nayarit, and La Quemada, State of Jalisco, thus uniting the 
northwestern States with the rest of the Republic. 

That same year the work was begun westward from La Quemada 
in March and eastward from Tepic in June; and although the distance 
between these two points is only 165 kilometers (102 miles), it was 
necessary to employ over 3,000 men during a period of four years to 
complete the line. 

The line leaves Tepic following a southerly direction in a 9 kilo- 
meter tangent to Pantanal, where it curves slightly to the east and 

* Translated and condensed from iJwJsto de Revistas, IVIexico, May 15, 1927, by Jose Tercero of the Bulletin 



The recently completed Tepic-La Quemada stretch of the Southern Pacific Railway forms the last link 
in the line uniting the northwestern States with the capital of the Mexican Republic. Upper: A tractor 
used in connection with the construction work. Center: Donkeys and mules were employed for trans- 
porting much of the material. Lower: A gang of workmen cutting rock for facing a tunnel. 



Courtesy of " ili-vi^t'i '1. Ur\ i.«f;is" 


Left: The Salsipuedes Gorge, spanned by the longest bridge of the raihoad. Right: Entrance to one 

of the numerous tunnels. 

continues in another 6 kilometer tangent to the mouth of the Mira- 
valles Canyon. Following the canyon for 10 kilometers, it passes 
through four tunnels and over five important bridges, and, proceeding 
into the mountains, circles the Ceboruco volcano, crossing broad 
expanses covered with lava from the 1873 eruption. 

Some idea of the tremendous difficulties which had to be overcome 
in laying out this stretch of road may be obtained from the following 
facts: In the 102-mile section between Tepic and La Quemada there 
are 32 bridges of importance, 340 culverts, and 31 tunnels, the tunnels, 
which have an aggregate length of 7,500 meters (about 4.65 miles), 
being distributed as fohows: 4 in the Miravalles Canyon, 1 in Mex- 
pan, and the remaining 26 in "Las Barrancas" in a stretch of only 
25 kilometers. The largest of these tunnels is 880 meters long and 
the next longest, 877. 

It took three years to dig the tunnels and haul away the rock and 
dirt extracted. For the interior revetment of the tunnels 2,187,800 
cubic feet of rubble and concrete were used, the sand, lime, and 
cement being hauled for miles on mule back. 



Courtesy of "Revista de Revistas" 

The 31 tunnels of this section of the railroad have a total length of nearly 5 miles 

With the exception of the steel bridges, which were manufactured 
by the American Bridge Co. of New Yorlv, the steel used in this work 
was manufactured at the Monterrey (Mexico) Foundry. The 
cement was manufactured by the Tolteca (Mexico) Cement Co. 
The largest bridge of the stretch is that across the Barranca de 
Salsipuedes (get-out-if-you-can gorge), a name which gives a clear 
idea of the depth and abruptness of this ravine. The bridge, which 
has a total weight of 1,200 tons, a span of 260 meters (over 850 feet), 
and a height of 70 meters (over 225 feet), is considered one of the 
finest of its kind in the continent. 

The Southern Pacific Railway Co., desirous of raising the standards 
of living among the workers in this zone, established a minimum 
wage of 1.50 pesos a day (SO. 75), thus doubling the average daily 
wage of 75 centavos (373^ cents) which prevails in that section. 
The immediate effect of such a raise was somewhat startling, as the 
peons, being accustomed to live on half the amount now paid them, 
wanted to work but three days a week, which augured ill for the 
progress of the work. However, they soon learned a better appre- 
ciation of the value of time and money. 



The work was carried on under the direction of E. B. Sloan, chief 
of the engineering division of the Southern Pacific Railway, a man 
of remarkable talent and character, whose ability and personal 
efforts made possible the completion of this gigantic enterprise, and 
who succeeded in carrying on the work in spite of the De la Huerta 
revolution in 1923. 

Although the concession had been granted early in 1905, con- 
struction work, due to various causes, chief of which was the need of 
relocation of original survey lines, did not begin until 1923. The 
task of relocating it after the original plans and survey of 1908 was 
assigned to Mr. Bassett, of the engineering staff, who succeeded in 
finding the original marker posts, lost for 15 years, in the difficult 
Barrancas gorge, with its maximum grade of 6 per cent and maximum 
curve radius of 3 degrees. 

This great achievement is not only of local but of national signifi- 
cance for Mexico, constituting, as it does, an important step toward 
the development of immensely rich zones which hitherto have re- 
mained almost unexploited, due to the lack of transportation facilities. 
The Tepic-La Quemada stretch, aside from its economic, social, 
and political significance for the Mexican Republic, will always be a 
magnificent testimonial to all those who with tireless energy and 
courageous perseverance bridged gorge and river, scaled mountain 
and range, and penetrated into the heart of the earth itself to open 
a new road to progress, peace, and a fuller life. 

■ :5^ 

Courtesy of "Revista de Reviatas" 

The construction of this bridge was one of the most difficult pieces of engineering 

73898— 28— Bull. 1- 




Eight months' foreign trade. — The General Bureau of National 
Statistics gave out the following foreign trade figures for the first 
eight months of the year: 

The foreign trade of Argentina for the first eight montlis of 1927 amounted 
to 1,250,466,000 gold pesos as against 1,121,776,000 gold pesos in the corre- 
sponding period of the previous year, showing an increase of 128,690,000 gold 
pesos, or 11.5 per cent. For the month of August the foreign trade amounted 
to 142,893,000 gold pesos, as against 149,423,000 gold pesos in the month of 

Real values of foreign trade in the first eight months of 1927 compared with the first 

eight months o/ 1926 


Real value in gold pesos 
first 8 months 

Difference plus or minus 





A. Imports: 

Dutiable . _ . 

384, 686, 397 
146, 795, 224 

405, 584, 292 
153, 447, 364 

-20, 897, 895 
-6, 652, 140 


Dutyfree,. . _ _ _ 


Total A 

6, 557, 871 

369, 820, 220 
349, 164, 273 

559, 031, 656 
1, 568, 254 

179, 883, 579 

-27, 550, 035 
+4, 989, 617 

+ 169,280,694 


Coin . 

+318. 1 

B. Exports: 

Dutiable... ... 


Dutyfree __ _. 


Total B 

718, 984, 493 

531, 481, 621 

562, 744, 455 

559, 031, 656 
562, 744, 455 

+156, 240, 038 

-27, 550, 035 
+156, 240, 038 


C. Foreign trade: 
Imports . 




Total C 

+187, 502, 872 

1, 121, 776, 111 
+3, 712, 799 

+128, 690, 003 
+183, 790, 073 


Favorable balance 

+4, 950. 2 

Public works. — In the latter part of September the Minister of 
Public Works sent to Congress a report of the public works constructed 
or improved during the year from June 1, 1926, to May 31, 1927: 

New railroad branch lines totaled 152 kilometers, which, added to the lines 
already built, made a total of 36,313 kilometers of State and private railroads 
under national control, and including provincial and secondary lines made the 
total of all lines 38,231 kilometers by the end of 1926. Traffic on these lines 
increased during the year, as 145,000,000 passengers were transported, or 5,000,000 
more than in 1925, and 45,000,000 tons of freight shipped, or 3,000,000 tons 


more than in 1925. Profits increased from 71,000,000 pesos in 1925 to 77,000,000 
in 1926, while operation costs were 6,000,000 pesos more than in 1925, when they 
were 179,000,000 pesos. 

The construction and conservation of bridges and roads from April 1, 1926, 
to March 31, 1927, in accordance with different appropriations, amounted to 
9,688,569.96 pesos, about 8,000,000 pesos being spent on roads, or 80 centavos 
per inhabitant. With provincial road taxes the total of highway funds amounted 
to 15,000,000 pesos, which averages about 1.50 pesos per inhabitant. Ninety 
highways constructed measured 1,422 kilometers, while highways repaired, 
including those leading to 180 railway stations, had a length of 1,957 kilometers. 

Port works involved the dredging of 20,646,787 cubic meters, or 1,400,000 
more cubic meters than during the previous year. Of this amount 13,473,889 
cubic meters were dredged in the Rio de la Plata to improve the entrances to the 
ports of Buenos Aires and La Plata. The remaining port works consisted of 
improvements to the ports of Necochea, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, La Plata, 
and Concepci6n del Uruguay, all ports for ocean steamers, and those of Villa 
Constitucion, Urquiza, Goya, Lavalle, Bella Vista, and Barranqueras, on the 
Parand,, Santo Tome, or Uruguay Rivers. New port works were begun in Dia- 
mante, San Pedro, Helvecia, Alvear, Yerua, Mai Abrigo, and Ituzaingo. 

Other public works included irrigation systems, buildings, waterworks, and 
similar improvements, the sum of 18,000,000 pesos being spent on waterworks 
and sanitary construction in general. 

State railroad lines to be extended. — -The Minister of Public 
Works, in accordance with Congressional authority, is preparing 
plans and receiving bids for the construction or completion of the 
five most important sections of the State Railroad lines still to be 
built, which are: Embarcacion-Formosa, 279 kilometers constructed, 
360 kilometers to be built; Metan-Barranqueras, 360 kilometers to 
be constructed to unite sections of 108 and 132 kilometers; Cordoba- 
La Puerta; La Paz-Feliciano-San Jaime; and San Juan-Jachal. 

International stock show. — The board of directors of the Argen- 
tine Rural Society has decided to make its 1928 annual livestock 
show international in character. The society has adopted a new 
plan for holding an international exposition every four years, keeping 
the intervening annual shows national. 

Twentieth anniversary of Argentine Touring Club. — The 
Argentine Touring Club celebrated its twentieth anniversary on 
October 2, 1927, with a parade of vehicles 10 blocks long, consisting 
of trucks, automobiles, road-building machinery, trucks displaying 
the signs to be used on highways, and cars from various clubs, as well 
as from automobile agencies. 


Construction of highways. — The Ministry of Public Works and 
Communications has established specifications for the construction 
of roads in Bolivia, said specifications becoming effective by Executive 
decree of August 2, 1927. Roads are divided into two principal 
classes, public roads and private roads. Public roads are subdivided 
as follows: 


(1) Roads connecting capitals of Departments, or a capital of 
Department with a capital of Province of more than 5,000 inhabitants; 
or roads which form a part of the highway system running to the 
frontiers of the country. 

(2) Roads which connect a capital of a Department with a capital 
of Province of less than 5,000 population; roads which connect 
capitals of Provinces; roads connecting a railroad with a mine or 
other industrial establishment; and all wagon roads not included in 
the first class. 

(3) Roads for pack animals, which are improved so as to be capable 
of transformation into one of the preceding classes. 

Railway construction tenders. — After considerable discussion 
as to the construction of an automobile road or a railroad from 
Cochabamba to Santa Cruz, the Government, having secured the 
funds necessary from the recent $14,000,000 loan floated in the 
United States, has decided in favor of the latter. A public call was 
made for tenders for the construction of this new and important 
railroad, giving two alternative routes, and fixing October 20 as 
the expiratory date for tenders, the acceptance or refusal of tenders 
to be made within a period of 45 days after the closing entry date. 

Aviation fields. — The Military Commission which has been in 
the cit}^ of Oruro in charge of exhibiting the film entitled Bolivian 
Centennial for the purpose of collecting funds for constructing aviation 
fields in the Chaco region has reported that the funds thus collected 
amount to 8,415.35 bolivianos. 


Commercial and Industrial Association. — The press announces 
the establishment of a Society for the Commercial and Industrial 
Expansion of Brazil by means of sample fairs and expositions in the 
countries bordering on the River Plate. Senhor Paulo Lausa, who 
has recently managed a similar exhibition of agricultural and indus- 
trial products in the Brazilian city of Bello Horizonte, as head of 
the new organization is meeting with the enthusiastic cooperation 
of consular officers. 

Japanese agricultural company. — A Japanese agricultural 
company has a settlement located on the Acara River 51 kilometers 
from Belem, the capital of the State of Para, where it plans to cultivate 
500,000 hectares, an area equal to one-fourth of the total cultivated 
area of the State. The company plans to raise foodstuffs and 
raw materials such as rice, coffee, cotton, cacao, tobacco and other 
products. The provisional contract made by the Japanese company 
with the governor of the State provided that within a year the contract 
should be made definite, the company thereby agreeing to exploit 
the concession with a capital of 30,000,000 yen. One-fourth of this 


sum is to be used in the preliminary work of forest-clearing and 
starting the plantations. The Japanese believe this land to be 
suitable for immigrants, as the northern part of Brazil does not offer 
so much competition as the southern States, where there are other 
foreigners; also there is little malaria and the climate is not too 
warm for the Japanese. 

Exposition building at Seville. — The Council of Fine Arts 
has opened a competition for plans for the Brazilian building to be 
erected at the Ibero American Exposition which will be inaugurated 
in October, 1928, in Seville, Spain. 

Centenary of Jornal do Commercio. — On October 1, 1927, 
the Jornal do Commercio, a leading daily of Rio de Janeiro, celebrated 
its first centenary with a solemn mass in the church of Sao Francisco 
de Paula, and a reception and ball for the personnel of the paper in 
the Automobile Club of Rio de Janeiro. This newspaper, the 
oldest in Rio de Janeiro, is the outgrowth of a small paper known 
as the Spedador Brasileiro established in a printing shop by Pedro 
Plancher in 1824. The Spedador passed out of existence in May, 
1827, to be followed by the publication on October 1, 1827, of the 
Jornal do Commercio, which has appeared regularly ever since. The 
first editor and publisher of the Jornal advanced from a printer's assist- 
ant to be a prominent publisher of books, such as editions of the works 
of Voltaire in 44 volumes, Talleyrand, and Benjamin Constant. 
The paper participated in the political activities of Brazil in the 
days of the Empire and the early Republic. On its hundredth 
anniversary the Jornal received congratulations from other papers 
all over the world, including the compliments of the Bulletin of the 
Pan American Union. 


National industries. — A Chilean company manufacturing woolen 
fabrics from the raw material through all the processes recently had a 
showing of its products in Santiago. The exhibits, which were 
attractively installed, also showed the raw wool, and methods of 
washing, dyeing, carding, spinning, and weaving, a power loom and 
other machines being operated for the benefit of visitors. The firm 
in question, whose factory is in Tome, supplies the cloth for Chilean 
Army and Navy uniforms, and was recently successful m securing a 
contract for 30,000 meters of material for Colombian Army uniforms, 
against the competition of bidders from five or more important 
manufacturing nations. 

Good roads around Santiago. — The General Inspector of High- 
ways has drawn up a plan for improving 250 kilometers (kilometer 
equals 0.62 mile) of the most important roads around the capital, at 
an estimated cost of 22,000,000 pesos. Most of the funds would be 


derived from ordinary receipts, but it is proposed to place a tax of 
1 per cent on communities benefited by the definite surfacing of 
these highways, and to collect toll for their upkeep. It is expected 
that easy communications will lessen the cost of foodstuffs brought 
into Santiago from short distances. 

Paving of Santiago. — A recent law provides for the paving of all 
Santiago's streets. 

Centenary of El Mercurio. — El Mercurio, one of the great 
newspapers of Chile and of South America, celebrated on September 
12, 1927, the centenary of its founding by Don Pedro Felix Vicuna in 
Valparaiso. For 25 years Santiago has also had its Mercurio, as well 
as an afternoon paper published by the same company. The cente- 
nary edition published in Santiago consisted of nearly 200 pages, con- 
taining a wealth of interesting and valuable material. This included, 
in a long table of contents, facsimiles of some of the early issues, 
articles on some of the famous members of the editorial staff, such 
as Sarmiento, Alberdi, Mitre, and Bello, reprints of some of the 
notable articles of the past, and articles on various important aspects 
of national life. 


Foreign trade with the United States. — According to infor- 
mation published in the Commerce Reports of the United States, the 
total trade between the United States and Colombia in 1926 amounted 
to $139,542,000, being five times greater than the total 10 years ago. 
Eighty per cent of the articles exported from Colombia are sent to 
the United States and 50 per cent of those imported into the country 
are exports of the United States. Colombia is the second largest 
producer of coffee and the largest producer of high grade mild coffee. 

Commercial aviation. — A new aviation enterprise, of which 
Dr. Alberto R. Osorio has been elected president, was recently organ- 
ized in Barranquilla under the name of Aero-Maritime Co. of Colombia 
with an authorized capital of 300,000 pesos. 

The object of the Aero-Maritime Co. will be the establishment of 
international coastal air lines, especially the Barranquilla-Gulf of 
Uraba-Colon and Barranquilla-Curagao lines. The interior routes 
will be maintained by the "Scadta," or Colombian-German Aerial 
Transport Co. According to Dr. Pedro von Bauer, its manager, 
this company plans to purchase more planes and establish a five- 
times-a-week service with transportation capacity sufficient to meet 
all requirements. 

Cable service. — Following negotiations between the Colombian 
Government and the All- America Cables Co., this company took 
over, on October 1, 1927, the maintenance and operation of the tele- 
graphic line constructed by the Government between Buenaventura 


and Bogota. As a result cablegraphic messages may now be sent 
from New York to Bogota in less than eight minutes. 


Unrestricted sea-turtle and mother-of-pearl fishing. — In 
accordance with a legislative decree issued on September 1, 1927, sea- 
turtle and mother-of-pearl fishing in Costa Rican waters will be open 
unrestrictedly to nationals and all foreigners who have been resident 
in the country for five years. Regulations establishing the fishing 
seasons will be issued by the executive power, while grants will be 
given by the municipal authorities in question. Mother-of-pearl 
fishing is authorized in two zones, one from Bahia Salinas to Cabo 
Blanco, and the other from Cabo Blanco to Golfo Dulce. 


Sugar defense law. — On October 3 a law was enacted by Con- 
gress creating a national commission for the protection of the sugar 
industry, charging said commission with the duty of informing and 
advising the Chief Executive on all matters pertaining to this industry 
and to the purposes of the aforesaid law, in order that the Chief 
Executive may fix the amount and distribution of the sugar crop in 
accordance with domestic and foreign consumption, and with the 
understanding that if other sugar-producing countries increase their 
planting of cane and their sugar mills, the Chief Executive may 
suspend for one year the restrictions on the Cuban sugar crop. The 
above-mentioned law authorizes the creation of a sugar-exporting 
company with a capital of $250,000, divided in 25,000 shares, all 
proprietors or lessees of sugar mills in Cuba being obliged to hold 
shares in said company in proportion to the number of sacks produced 
in their respective mills in the 1927 crop. Sugar planters maj^ also 
be shareholders. The company will sell pro rata in foreign countries 
all the crude sugar not needed for home consumption in Cuba or for 
export to the United States. The President may also provide that 
a maximum of 150,000 tons of existing stocks, supplied proportionally 
by warehouses and centrals, shall be transferred for sale to the 
exporting company, under penalty of a fine of $5 per sack of the 
allotted quota not supplied. The law will be in efi^ect for the next 
six crops. {Courtesy qf the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 

Cultivation of potatoes. — The Secretary of Agriculture and 
Commerce has extensive plans for promoting the cultivation of 
potatoes in the Republic, and with this purpose in view the Agricul- 
tural Department will import high-grade potatoes for distribution 
among farmers, forbidding at the same time the importation of 
potatoes of an inferior quality. During the year 1926, 1,258,000 



bags of potatoes were imported to Cuba from the United States, 
Canada, Bermuda, and the Canary Islands. 

Exports of woods. — During the first six months of the year 1927 
$309,302 worth of lumber, manufactured and unmanufactured, was 
exported to the United States and various European countries. The 
following tables give the classified exports: 






$68, 149 
197, 774 
33, 774 

Manufactured wood 



20, 636 
10, 207 

$8, 549 

Other articles - _ - ..- 


-(Courtesy of the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 

Distribution of sugar crop. — The following table gives the 
distribution of Cuba's sugar crop up to August 31, 1927: 




Ports north of Cape Hatteras 

New Orleans _ -._-... 

12, 673, 382 

3, 981, 511 

182, 342 

1, 175, 609 

914, 241 

809, 054 

179, 190 

238, 128 

6, 167, 844 

1, 810, 483 
568, 787 

Central United States _ . . . ... _. 

26, 049 

Galveston . ..._.. .-. ._. . .-. . . 

167, 944 

Savannah. ._..._... .._ . 

130, 606 

Canada _-.-_- 

115, 579 

South America . .. ... ... 

25, 599 

Japan and China ... ... ... _ 

34, 018 

Europe . . _ _ _ 

881, 121 


26, 321, 301 

3, 760, 186 

— (Courtesy of the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 

Air mail service between Cuba and the United States. — 
During the latter part of October, 1927, the first regular air mail 
service between Habana and Key West was inaugurated by the Pan 
American Airways Co. {Courtesy of the Cuban Embassy in Wash- 


Air TRANSPORT SERVICE. — The National Congress of the Domini- 
can Republic recently approved a contract with the West Indian 
Aerial Co. for the establishment of a weekly air passenger and mail 
transport service between the cities of San Juan (Porto Rico), Santo 
Domingo, Port au Prince (Haiti), Santiago and Habana (Cuba). 



In accordance with the terms of this contract the Government 
promises to pay the company $250 a pound for mail, absolutely 
guaranteeing $500 a month in the event that the weight of the mail 
should be less than 2 pounds, as well as the sum of $1,500 monthly 
as a subsidy to stabilize and encourage the enterprise. 

Communications. — According to recent press reports a radio 
broadcasting station for short distance and wireless station for long 
distance communication are being installed in Santo Domingo. The 
former, the cost of which is estimated at $25,000, will broadcast 
programs relayed from the principal stations of the United States and 
South America, while the latter will establish direct wireless communi- 
cation between Santo Domingo and the remainder of the American 


Living expenses and conditions in Ecuador. — The following 
table gives some interesting facts regarding the average prices of 
foodstuffs in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, showing the difference 
in prices in the two cities: 








Bread ._ _ _ _ -.- - --- 









0.40 to .50 


.30 to .40 





.60 to .80 

.05 to .15 



1. 50 to 2. 00 





















Sugar - - - - - - 



Coffee - - 



Beef - 




- do . 


Lamb chops . . 






Beans - ._. _-. 



Green peas 



Onions . ._ ._ _ - . . _ _ _ . . 



Grapes ._ __ _ _._- 









Eggs .-._.- 

For 15 



Chickens.,. .. . ....... .... 

2. 50 to 4. 00 

Living expenses in the interior and smaller towns may be calculated 
at about 20 per cent less than in these cities. 

The two best hotels in Quito are the Metropolitano and Savoy; at 
the former the rates per day are 20 sucres for double room and bath, 
meals costing from 5 to 8 sucres a day. At the Savoy daily rates 
range from 8 to 15 sucres for room without bath, and 22 sucres for 
room with bath, including meals. The three principal hotels in 
Guayaquil are the Ritz, Tivoli and Cecil, rates averaging from 6.50 
to 20 sucres a day, including meals. (The sucre at present exchange 
is about $0.20.) 

86 the pan ameeican union" 

Direct steamer service between New York and Guayaquil. — 
Through the courtesy of Sefior G. R. Ycaza, Consul General of Ecua- 
dor in New York, the Bulletin is informed that a new steamship 
service, called the Meridian Line, has been established to ply directly 
between New York and Guayaquil, making the trip in 10 days. 
For a long time such aline had been the desire of Ecuadorean importers, 
since much time was lost in transshipping merchandise in Panama. 

Button industry.— The Ecuadorean Government has under 
consideration a project for establishing a button factory, using for 
this purpose the native tagua, or ivory, nut. It is estimated that a 
capital of $2,000,000 is needed for establishing this industry, so as to 
allow a daily production of 30,000 or 40,000 gross of buttons. 

New coinage. — A recent decree authorizes the Central Bank to 
issue a new coinage. One million, two hundred thousand coins of 
two sucres denomination each will be coined; 3,400,000 coins of one 
Sucre each, and 1,115,060 fifty-centavo coins. Of nickel coins 500,000 
ten-centavo pieces will be struck; 800,000 five-centavo pieces; 100,000 
two-and-a-half-centavo pieces, and 50,000 one-centavo coins. 

TuocAN — San Gabriel highway. — On September 20 last the 
first automobile to travel over the newly completed highway from 
Tuocan to San Gabriel arrived in the latter place. This fine road, 
50 Idlometers in length (kilometer equals 0.62 miles), serves the towns 
of San Gabriel, Huaca, La Paz, Bolivar, and Los Andes. 


Agricultural society. — Recent information states that an agri- 
cultural society has been organized in Jalap a. Among the most 
important of its proposed objectives will be the establishment of an 
annual stock and forage plant show each December and a fair during 
the early part of August. 

Forestry law regulations. — See page 95. 


Foreign trade. — The Financial Adviser General Receiver's report 
for September is quoted as follows : 

Foreign trade. — For the fiscal year from September 1, 1926, to August 31, 
1927, imports amounted to 78,757,000 gourdes (5 gourdes equal $1), or 15,500,000 
gourdes less than in the previous year, and the exports to 76,495,000 gourdes, or 
24,746,000 gourdes less than during 1925-26. The total foreign commerce was 
155,252,000 gourdes, or 40,246,000 gourdes (20.59 per cent), less than in 1925-26. 

Both smaller volume in Haiti's principal export, coffee, and lower unit prices 
for several important commodities in both the import and export trade were 
responsible for the sharp decline. There was not, therefore, as great a decrease 
in volume of imports and exports as would be concluded from the declining 
values. Those commodities which were exported in greater value than during 
1925-26 were logwood, honey, goatskins, and raw sugar, sugar exports increasing 
from 5,974,000 kilograms to 9,841,000 kilograms, and the value from 1,606,000 
gourdes to 3,403,000 gourdes. 


Experiment station decortication plant. — On October 16, 
1927, President Borno inaugurated the installation of a sisal decorti- 
cation plant at the Hatte Lathan Agricultural Experiment Station. 
It will be remembered that sisal (henequen) plantations set out in 
the last few years have made excellent progress. . 


Electric plant for Nacaome. — On September 9, 1927, a contract 
was signed by the Civic Improvement Committee of Nacaome for 
the installation, at a cost of 21,000 silver pesos, of an electric plant, 
which it is hoped will be in operation by February, 1928. 

Water for Yoro. — -Work has been begun on the potable water 
system for the city of Yoro, capital of the Department of the same 

Pespire a city. — On September 18, 1927, Pespire celebrated its 
promotion by Congress from the category of town to that of city. 
Among the official guests present at the celebration were the Minister 
of Government, Justice, and Sanitation, the Minister of War and 
Marine, the Archbishop of Tegucigalpa, and the Departmental 

Fruit shipments. — The United States Commerce Reports for Octo- 
ber 3, 1927, give the following cable reports on fruit shipments: 

The fruit companies are experiencing a seasonal decline in banana exports. 
Banana shipments for July were 1,070,000 bunches, and for August 1,898,000 
bunches, bringing the total for eight months to 13,602,964 bunches, which is 
1,042,312 bunches more than in the first eight months of the previous record 
year, 1925. Although the total production figure of sugar is not yet available, 
the present crop is said to be a record, the latest estimate being 35,000,000 to 
40,000,000 pounds as compared to 33,753,769 pounds, the previous high pro- 
duction figure of 1926. 


Organization of Chambers of Commerce. — At the tenth General 
Assembly of the Confederation of Chambers of Commerce of Mexico a 
resolution was passed to organize the business of the entire country. 
For this purpose a Central Organization Committee was appointed 
to travel to different sections of the country and confer with local 
chambers of commerce on their problems, as well as to establish such 
organizations where none at present exist. The Organization 
Committee will also keep track of the functioning of local chambers. 

National Navigation Lines to California. — The establish- 
ment of a National Navigation Line calling at Mexican Pacific ports 
and running to Los Angeles and San Francisco has greatly increased 
the sales of Mexican products in the western section of the United 
States. The Boletin Comercial of October 18, 1927, reports that 


these imports by sea through the ports of Los Angeles and San Fran- 
cisco Cahf., amounted to $2,111,697, for the first six months of 1927. 
The following articles are shipped to Los Angeles and San Francisco 
from Mexico: Coffee, bananas, tomatoes, sugar, turpentine, lemons, 
bran, chick peas, brown sugar, chile peppers, tiles, glassware, earthen- 
ware, palm straw hats, sarapes, fresh shrimps, and other articles. 

Mexico-Cuba telephone inaugurated. — On November 1, 1927, 
President Calles of Mexico and President Machado of Cuba inaugu- 
rated the Mexico-Cuba telephone service by exchanging cordial 
greetings over the wire between Mexico City and Habana. The 
new line covers 7,309 kilometers (4,620 miles) between Mexico City 
and Habana. It connects with the American Telephone & Tele- 
graph Co. in its crossing of the United States to Key West, whence 
it goes by submarine line to Habana. This is said to be the longest 
telephone circuit in the world. 

AcAmbaro-Apatzingan Railway Extension. — The press re- 
ports that the National Railroads have authorized the preliminary 
surveys for the extension of the railway now running between Urua- 
pan, Morelia and Acambaro, to Apatzingan, Michoacan. The 
purpose of this extension is to give an outlet to the rich rice zone in 
the Apatzingan Valley in the State of Michoacan and also to the 
sugar produced around Taretan. 

Inhabitants per square kilometer. — The Department of Na- 
tional Statistics recently concluded a table showing the density of 
the population in the different States, the figures being the following: 

Inhabitants per square kilometer, Federal District, 610.96; Tlaxcala, 44.34; 
Mexico, 41.33; Pueb^a, 30.15; Hidalgo, 29.79; Guanajuato, 28.13; Morelos, 
20.83; Queretaro, 19.18; Colima, 17.63; Aguascalientes, 16.62; Veracruz, 16.13; 
Michoacan, 15.64; Jalisco, 14.77; Yucatan, 9.30; Oaxaca, 10.35; Guerrero, 8.79; 
Tabasco, 8.30; San Luis Potosi, 7.05; Nayarit, 6.00; Sinaloa, 5.83; Chiapas, 5.66; 
Zacatecas, 5.21; Nuevo Le6n, 5.17; Tamaulipas, 3.60; Durango, 2.72; Coahuila, 
2.61; Chihuahua, 1.64; Sonora, 1.51; Campeche, 1.49; Lower California, 0.44; 
Quintana Roo, 0.22. 


Contract for ice factory. — In August, 1927, a contract was 
approved by the Government for the establishment and operation 
of an ice factory in the city of Masaya. The factory, which is to be 
in operation 18 months after approval of the contract, must furnish a 
certain quantity of free ice to the city hospital and pay 5 per cent of 
its net profits to the municipality. The price of ice is limited to 1 
cordoba 20 centavos per Spanish quintal of 110 pounds. 


Agricultural experiment station. — In August the Govern- 
ment established an agricultural experiment station on grounds near 


the Bolivar Asylum in Panama City. The station, which will be 
part of the Department of Agricultm^e, will have sections on agron- 
omy, plant pathology, entomology, fruit and tree culture, physics and 
chemistry, and stock-raising, as well as a section for the cultivation of 
silkworms. The model farms at Aguadulce and David will function 
as subsections of this experiment station. 

Panaman exhibit at Seville exposition. — The commission in 
charge of arrangements for Panaman exhibits in the Ibero-American 
Exposition to be opened in Seville in October, 1928, has contracted 
provisionally for 120 square meters of space. In addition to samples 
of products of national agricultural and industrial products, there 
will be an important exhibit by the Department of National Educa- 
tion showing the progress of the country in this vital field. 

Silk production. — The press reports the formation of a $20,000 
company to establish the silk industry, beginning with the planting of 
mulberry trees for the raising of worms and continuing through the 
succeeding stages to the weaving of colored silks. The company 
has contracted for a large area of ground in the Canal Zone near Mount 
Hope where it will plant 100,000 mulberry saplings, and also has a 
lot in the city of Colon for its factory and office building. 


Importation of automobiles. — According to statistics quoted 
by El Diario, Asuncion, September 15, 1927, 249 automobiles and 
243 trucks, valued in total at 295,818 pesos, were imported into Para- 
guay during 1926 and the first three months of 1927. 

Further Mennonite colonization. — A new contingent of Men- 
nonite colonists composed of 109 persons arrived in Asuncion on Sep- 
tember 19, 1927. It is reported that they set out immediately for 
the Chaco, whither they had been preceded by many others. 


Protection for merchants selling on the installment plan. — 
A recent Executive decree provides for the immediate establishment 
of an official Installment Sales Registration Office where all merchants 
and distributors of the Callao-Lima district who follow the practice 
of selling merchandise on partial payments may register their sales. 
This decree covers the sale of automobiles, bicycles, typewriters, 
sewing machines, and, in general, all other articles customarily sold 
on the installment plan and which are distinguishable by means 
of factory numbers or other identifying marks. 

Association of automobile importers. — At a recent meeting of 
the board of directors of this Lima organization, which was estab- 
lished in December, 1926, resolutions favoring the following were 


(1) Organization of a system for selling cars on the installment plan. 

(2) Establishment of a special system for providing automobile importers 
with information regarding the financial status of prospective purchasers. 

(3) Establishment of a bureau of statistics of monthly automobile imports. 

(4) Uniformity of guarantees offered to purchasers of motor cars. 

(5) Plan for sales of tires, in order to arrive at understanding between 
importers of tires. 

(6) Organization of labor in the garages belonging to automobile importers. 

Production of sugar and cotton. — Agricultural products 
showed a considerable increase during the year reviewed by the 
Chief Executive in his last message to Congress. Sugar production 
was 375,000 tons, of which 329,516 tons were exported, valued at 
3,602,484 Peruvian pounds. Cotton reached a total of 53,595 tons, 
of which 48,931 tons, valued at 4,487,398 Peruvian pounds, were 

New wireless station. — Last September President Leguia inau- 
gurated the new wireless station El Progreso, erected in Lima by the 
Marconi Co. to take the place of the San Cristobal station. The new 
wireless station of El Progreso is built upon 88,000 square meters of 
land adjoining the avenue of that name. The antennae are spread 
from two towers of 300 feet in height and the earth screen consists of a 
network of wires suspended from 32 towers, each 30 feet high. The 
transmission plant consists of a 15 kw. Marconi continuous wave 
high-speed valve transmitter. The wave lengths are between 2,000 
and 3,500 meters. Total cost of construction of this station amounted 
to 22,431 Peruvian pounds. 

Ancient irrigation system discovered. — Mr. C. W. Sutton, 
chief of the irrigation commission of Piura and Lambayeque, has 
discovered in the Pampa de Sechura an ancient irrigation system 
consisting of a series of canals and reservoirs. It is apparent that 
they are of a very ancient origin, probably pre-Incan. This discovery 
is of great importance, in as much as the canals may be utilized in the 
present irrigation work. 

Good roads celebration. — El Dia del Camino, instituted by the 
Pan American Highway Congress, which met in Buenos Aires in 
October, 1925, was celebrated throughout Peru in October 5 with 
appropriate ceremonies inaugurating several new highways. For the 
past four or five years the Peruvian Government had been carrying 
out a very active road-building program, which has put in communica- 
tion many small and isolated towns and villages, as well as the larger 

Aviation in Peru. — As has been mentioned previously in the 
Bulletin, the Peruvian Government plans to establish an air service 
between Lima and Iquitos on the Amazon River. The planes for 
this service — two land and four seaplanes — have been received in 
Peru and it is expected the service will be definitely established in a 


month or so. Both passengers and mail will be carried. Strictly 
speaking, San Ramon, and not Lima, will be the western terminal of 
the air line. The Central Railway runs from Lima to La Oroya, a 
small town about 12,000 feet above sea level and approximately 100 
miles from Lima; from La Oroya a good macadam automobile road 
traverses the eastern slopes of the Andes to the village of San Ramon, 
where the air journey will begin. Land planes will cover in 40 
minutes' flight to Puerto Bermudez the stretch of country now 
covered in 7 days of mule-back riding. With present means of 
transportation the journey to Iquitos requires from three to five 
weeks; with the inauguration of the air service the trip can be made 
in comfort in three days. 


Monthly information bulletin. — The Ministry of Foreign 
Relations planned to begin issuing in October a monthly magazine 
to make Salvadorean industries and progress more widely known. 
{Courtesy of the Ministry of Foreign Relations.) 

National commercial register. — A legislative measure passed 
June 30, 1927, and later regulated by presidential decree, provides 
that an office for the registration of commercial establishments be 
established in San Salvador for the listing of all such enterprises 
worth more than 300 colones. Registrations are to be made within 
60 days after the office is established. Establishments worth not 
more than 5,000 colones will pay a registration fee of 10 colones, and 
those worth over 5,000 colones will pay 20 colones. 


Livestock exposition. — On October 2, 1927, the Livestock and 
Horse Breeding Association of Salto opened the Thirteenth Inter- 
national Fair and the Thirty-first National Livestock Show simul- 
taneously with the opening of the National Champion Exposition 
held under the auspices of the Rural Association of Uruguay. The 
cooperation of the two livestock associations has stimulated the inter- 
est of breeders, furnishing added encouragement for the raising of 
pedigreed and improved native stock. The sales made at the shows 
held by the Livestock and Horsebreeding Association of Salto during 
the 22 years from 1904 to 1926 amounted to 4,417,159.68 gold pesos, 
increasing from 47,494.90 gold pesos in 1904 to 152,668.75 gold pesos 
in 1926. 

First National Travel Congress. — The Uruguayan Touring 
Club plans to call the First National Travel Congress in Montevideo 
from December 8 to 15, 1927, in connection with which it will open 
the First Highway, Transportation, and Travel Exposition. Mem- 
bers of the National Committee for the Travel Congress include: 


The Ministers of Industry, Public Instruction, and Public Works; 
representatives of the Uruguayan Railway, the State Electric Rail- 
ways, the Commercial Society of Montevideo, the National Chamber 
of Commerce, the Highway Bureau, the Hydrographic Bureau, the 
Bureau of Mines, the Institute of Industrial Chemistry, the Patent 
and Trademark Office; the Bureau of Agriculture, the Superior Coun- 
cil of Industrial Education, the various rural associations, the Society 
of Architects, and a number of other organizations. 

Exhibition of plans for Seville exposition building. — The 
19 plans submitted in the competition for designs for the Uruguayan 
building at the Ibero American Exposition to be held in Seville in 
October, 1928, were exhibited in the latter part of September in 


Purchase of beacon lights. — According to El Universal of 
September 20, 1927, President Gomez has authorized the expenditure 
of 191,000 bolivars for the purchase of 4 automatic beacon lights, 
1 of which will be erected at La Guaira and Tucacas, respectively, 
and 2 on Margarita Island. 

Safety monument. — An interesting initiative toward impressing 
the need for caution among automobile drivers was recently taken 
by the Rotary Club and Associated Chauffeurs of Caracas, who un- 
veiled a monument dedicated to the need for safe driving on the 
Caracas-La Guaira highway. Upon the monument, which supports 
a broken automobile, are carved these words, "Despacio se va lejos," 
or "Go slow and you'll get there." 

l^k.* AFFAIRS ^ii^J 


Cooperative Credit Convention. — The Cooperative Credit 
Associations of Brazil on October 1, 1927, opened their convention 
in Rio de Janeiro which was attended by delegates from all the co- 
operative credit associations in the States. Among the resolutions 
passed were those proposing better regulation of credit associations 
for the protection of their members, and the prevention of swindling 
under the guise of credit associations. The President of Brazil con- 
gratulated the associations on the fact that they now number more 
members than are found in some European countries in cooperative 



American investments in Chile. — In a short article recently 
published in Gliile (New York), Dr. Carlos Davila, Chilean Ambas- 
sador in the United States, quotes an estimate of American invest- 
ments in Chile as follows: $162,000,000 in direct obligations of the 
Chilean Government and securities guaranteed by it; $10,000,000 in 
internal bonds; and $335,000,000 in Chilean industries and trade, of 
which $45,000,000 is invested in the nitrate industry. This makes a 
total investment of $507,000,000, or about 45 per cent of the total 
American investments on the South American continent. 

Reduction of rate on Mortgage Bank bonds. — The Mortgage 
Bank has decided to take up its issue of 8 per cent bonds, leaving its 
6 and 7 per cent debentures outstanding, as it is thought that this 
procedure will assist in bringing down the general interest rate. The 
bank has also increased the percentages of the loan it will make on 
property valuation, 50 per cent (an increase of 10 per cent) now 
being the maximum at 6 per cent interest, and 45 per cent (an in- 
crease of 5 per cent) that at 7 per cent. 


Carare railroad. — On September 14, 1927, a law providing for 
the floating of a foreign loan of 12,000,000 pesos and containing 
certain specifications for the construction of the Carare railroad 
which it is to finance was signed by the President. This railroad 
will link the city of Tunja with that point on the Magdalena River 
nearest Puerto Berrio, traversing a rich and well-populated region 
over a route which technical studies have proved to be the shortest 
and most economical. The contract will be awarded the company 
promising the earliest completion of the work, no preference being 
given Colombian companies. 


Currency circulation. — According to the Diario de Costa Rica, 
San Jose, of October 5, 1927, the total amount of currency in circula- 
tion in Costa Rica on September 30, 1927, was 23,822,204 colones. 
Of this amount 16,000,000 colones were International Bank notes, 
5,887,204 colones, notes of the Caja de Conversion, 1,400,000 colones 
recoined silver, and 535,000 colones, copper coins. 

Loan for public works. — On September 23, 1927, the Govern- 
ment authorized the Municipal Highway Commission of San Jose to 
issue a loan of 5,000,000 colones to be used for the construction of 
streets and sewerage and drainage systems. 
73898— 28— Bull. 1 7 


Costa Kican public debt.— According to data printed in the 
Diario de Costa Rica, San Jose, of September 27, 1927, the Costa 
Rican public debt is as follows: 

Floating debt: Colones 

Accounts in trust 1, 501, 865. 86 

Drafts payable 514,847.72 

Funds of charitable institutions on deposit 445, 636. 34 

Bills and copper money 805, 490. 57 

Accounts and correspondents 701, 300. 15 

Total 3, 969, 140. 64 

Foreign debt: 

English debt 32, 620, 320, 00 

American debt 31, 504, 000. 00 

English construction 2, 177,280. 00 

Total 66, 301, 600. 00 

Total debt 70,270,740. 64 


Revenues. — During the first six months of the year 1927 receipts 
collected at the various customhouses of the Republic amounted to 
$22,749,703.67, distributed as follows: Habana, $16,811,153.21; 
Santiago de Cuba, $1,524,039.36; Cienfuegos, $874,590.42; Nue- 
vitas, $642,855.80; and Caibarien, $435,222.71. The remaining 
$2,461,842.17 was collected in various smaller ports, {Courtesy oj 
the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 


Public debt. — At the close of the past fiscal year the public debt 
was decreased to 99,707,000 gourdes, a decline of 8,600,000, or 7.94 
per cent, from the 108,307,000 gourdes of public debt reported at the 
close of the previous fiscal year on August 31, 1926. {Bulletin of 
Financial Adviser-General Receiver.) 




Mortgage loans. — The President recently signed a decree 
approving the regulations for mortgage loans by the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Bank Employees' National Pension Fund. According to 
these regulations, loans from this pension fund may be made to 
bank employees who have served 10 years under the national retire- 


ment laws recognized by the banking institutions where they are 
employed. The amount of the loan may be from 60 to 65 per cent 
of the value of the real property mortgaged by the borrower but 
in no case exceeding 50,000 pesos. Such loans will bear 6 per cent 
annual interest and will have an annual accumulative amortization 
of 1, 2, or 3 per cent. 

Argentine Embassies. — On September 30, 1927, the Argentine 
Senate passed a bill previously approved by the Chamber of Deputies 
by which the Argentine Legations in France, Great Britain, Peru, 
Mexico, Uruguay, and at the Vatican were raised to the grade of 

An architectural competition is being held for plans for the new 
Argentine Embassy to be constructed at a cost of 400,000 gold pesos 
in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 


Lands for indigenes. — A law promulgated last September pro- 
vides for the division of communal lands held by indigenes in the 
region inhabited by the Araucanian Indians. A special court, 
sitting in Temuco, will proceed to divide the communal grant into 
sections, assigning to each head of a family or his heirs a part of 
equal value. Any indigene dissatisfied with his grant may ask for 
homestead lands. 

Real estate tax law. — A new real estate tax law for the Repub- 
lic of Chile goes into effect on January 1, 1928. In addition to the 
usual exemptions of national and municipal property, churches, 
schools, hospitals, and other institutions of general benefit, it is 
interesting to note that exemption is also given to property of indi- 
genes living in an indigene community, to land planted to trees in 
useful situations for 30 years from the time of planting, and on hal 
the value of hygienic houses for workers, provided that the rental 
does not exceed 120 pesos a month. 


Forestry law regulations. — On August 30, 1927, President 
Chacon issued regulations for the granting of concessions for the 
exploitation of the national forests. After establishing methods of 
procedure in the acquisition of concessions, the regulations forbid 
the concession to one person of more than 50,000 hectares (hectare 
equals 2.47 acres) for the cutting of wood or the extraction of chicle 
and other forest products, and fix the basis of amounts to be paid for 
export duties and the rental of the lands. Separate concessions wOl 
be required for each product obtained, and only those trees marked 
by the Government foresters may be used. . All concessionaries will 
be required to render a statement every three months covering the 
results of their activities. 



Constitutional amendments. — Amendments to the Constitu- 
tion drawn up by the Special Committee of the Council of State and 
approved by the legislative power are to be submitted to popular 
ratification on January 10, 1928. Articles 90, 91, 92, 95, 104, 105, 
106, and 119 of the present Constitution would be eliminated, and 
changes efl^ected in a number of other articles. 

Electoral law. — Le Moniteur, Haiti's official journal, for Sep- 
tember 29, 1927, published the text of an act amending articles 18^ 
25, 51, and 62 of the Electoral Law of August 4, 1919. 

Lotteries. — The operation of lotteries is regulated by a law passed 
by the Council of State on July 6, 1927. This law prohibits lotteries 
which do not contribute their earnings to the support of public utili- 
ties, or to the exclusive support of charity, industry, letters, sciences, 
or the arts. 


Regulations for consular fees. — On September 15, 1927, 
the President issued a decree combining various regulations govern- 
ing consular fees for services to trade, navigation, individuals, and 
for all other requirements. The full text of the decree was published 
in the Diario OJicial of September 26, 1927. 


Labor accident compensation law. — A law providing for labor 
accident compensation was passed by the Senate and Chamber of 
Deputies on August 31, 1927, and signed by President Ayala on 
September 7, 1927, being printed in the Diario OJicial of September 
8, 1927. Its chief provisions are as follows: 

All individuals or firms engaged in manufacturing, shopwork, or other industrial 
and commercial occupations, the construction and repair of buildings, railways, 
port works, dams, canals, etc., stockraising, refrigeration, and kindred industries, 
mining and quarrying, transportation or hauling, the manufacture or use of 
explosives, inflammable material, or electricity, and lumbering and the prepa- 
ration of yerba mate will be responsible for accidents occuring to their employees 
or laborers while at work when such injuries result either from unforeseen causes 
or causes inherent in the character of the work. 

Persons engaged in stockraising, lumbering, or yerba mate enterprises employ- 
ing fewer than six employees or any others in cases where the accident was 
provoked intentionally by the victim, when he was under the influence of liquor, 
or when the accident arises from force majeure shall be exempt from the provision 
of this law. A dependent provoking an accident to a victiin loses his right to 

Only an incapacity lasting more than 10 days shall be compensated. In case 
of death, the employer shall pay funeral expenses not exceeding 2,000 pesos and 
an amount equivalent to 1,000 times the average daily wage drawn by the work- 
man during the past year. Should the incapacity be total disability, similar 


compensation shall be given. In cases of partial and permanent disability the 
employee shall receive an amount equal to 1,000 times the daily reduction in 
salary suffered as a result of the disability, and in cases of temporary disability 
the compensation shall be two-thirds of the salary lost during incapacity. The 
total amount of compensation may not exceed 50,000 pesos, nor may the daily 
salary be computed at less than 15 pesos. In the event of the death of the 
employee only his wife or dependent minor children shall receive the compensa- 

In case the employee is incapacitated for further work or dies as a result of 
a disease contracted in the exercise of his work, he shall be compensated accord- 
ingly, with certain exceptions. 

In cases of accident produced without a legally excusable cause the employer 
shall provide free medical and pharmaceutical aid until the employee can return 
to work or is declared incapacitated. 


Regulations for electric installations. — A presidential decree 
of August 16, 1927, effective upon the date of its publication in the 
Diario OJicial, August 26, specifies the conditions under which electric 
plants for public service and electric power for private purposes may 
be installed. 


Trade-mark law. — A trade-mark law composed of the old law of 
May 18, 1877, with amendments was passed on June 30, 1927, being 
signed by the President on July 9, 1927. Its most important pro- 
visions are summarized as follows: 

Every natural or juridical person may obtain the registry and make use of 
any commercial or industrial trade-mark or any commercial name by complying 
with the requirements of the law. However, trade-marks suggestive of immoral 
ideas, which serve to distinguish immoral or scandalous objects, injurious articles, 
or consist of the flag, escutcheon, or other emblems of municipal. State, or Na- 
tional Governments, or specially authorized emblems or pictures of religious 
societies, meaningless terms, terms already in use, or terms similar to those in 
use shall not be registered. The exclusive right to a trade-mark the use of 
which is optional will remain in force for a period of 10 years, and may be renewed 
if application is made within six months after the expiration of that period. 
The protection of a trade-mark not used during two consecutive years is for- 
feited. Trade-marks may be transferred or sold under terms prescribed in the 
civil code. Foreign trade-marks shall also be registered and bear proof that 
they have been registered in the country of their origin. Fees for trade-marks 
vary from 50 to 1,000 bolivars according to the importance of the articles to 
which the trade-mark is applied. 

Patent law. — A patent law to supersede that of May 25, 1882, 
was passed by the congress of Venezuela on June 30, 1927, and signed 
by the President on July 9, 1927, providing that: 

Any person who has invented or discovered a new or useful art, machine, 
manufacture, or composition of material, or anything new and useful, unknown 
and not used previously in the country before its invention, may take out a 
patent thereon; if it shall have been known or used, proof that it has been aban- 



doned for at least two years shall be given. The patents, which are issued for 
a period of 5 or 10 years, also concede to the heirs or successors of the patentee 
the exclusive right to make, use, and sell the invention or discovery. Each 
patent covers only one industrial object. Invention or improvements prejudicial 
to health or public security, morals, or former rights shall not be patented. 
Patents for pharmaceutical compositions or remedies are subject to special legis- 
lation. Patents for inventions not used within two years shall be withdrawn. 
The Government does not guarantee the exactitude, priority, or utility of the 
invention or discovery patented. These privileges are assured not only to dis- 
coveries made in the republic but also to foreign patents duly registered, and all 
patents may be transferred or sold according to terms prescribed by the civil 
code. A fee of 100 bolivars will be charged for registration and an annual tax 
of 50, 100, or 200 bolivars, according to their classification, required. 






International Telegraph Convention ratified. — On June 3, 
1927, the Council of State ratified the International Telegraph Con- 
vention signed in St. Petersburg in July, 1875, and revised in Paris 
on October 29, 1925. On July 26, 1927, President Borno ordered the 
promulgation of the convention. {Le Moniteur, Port-au-Prince, July 
28, 1927.) 


Universal Postal Convention. — The Diario OJicial of October 
18, 1927, publishes a decree of the President of Mexico dated August 
5, putting into effect the provisions of the Universal Postal Conven- 
tion signed by representatives of Mexico in the city of Stockholm, 
Sweden, on August 28, 1924, ratified by the Mexican Senate on 
November 3, 1925, and signed by the President of Mexico on 
December 31 of the same year. 


Ibero American Aerial Navigation Convention. — The Ibero 
American Aerial Navigation Convention, celebrated between Spain, 
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Do- 
minican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Salvador, Uruguay, and Vene- 
zuela, and signed by representatives of the various nations in Madrid, 
October, 1926, was approved by the Congress of Paraguay on August 
24, 1927, and signed by the President on August 27, 1927. The full 


text of the act of approval as well as the convention was prmted m 
the Diario OJicial of August 27, 1927. 


Universal postal convention. — Regulations putting into effect 
the principal convention and the convention on the exchange of 
registered matter or parcels post entered into by delegates to the 
Universal Postal Congress at Stockholm on August 28, 1924, and 
approved by the National Congress of Venezuela on July 16, 1925, 
were issued by presidential decrees of May 31, 1927. {Gaceta OJicial, 
June 2, 1927.) 



Celebration of Mexican and Chilean independence days. — 
On September 16 and 17, respectively, the Buenos Aires schools 
named for the Republics of Mexico and Chile held special exercises 
commemorating the independence days of those sister republics. 

Education plans. — The President will present to Congress plans 
for increased school facilities, involving the expenditure of 130,- 
137,453 pesos for the construction of 145 buildings of different types 
for secondary, normal, and special schools throughout the Republic. 
This far-reaching plan, which will reduce the item of rent in the 
maintenance of public instruction, will require the issue of internal 
bonds to the amount of 110,000,000 pesos. 

Buenos Aires Public Library. — The Municipal Public Library 
Commission began its work of establishing reading rooms in indus- 
trial sections of the city by the opening of the first Municipal Public 
Library on October 16, 1927. The new reading room is named the 
Miguel Cane Library in honor of an ex-mayor whose wide culture 
was well known. The commission intends to establish other libraries. 
Buenos Aires has long enjoyed the great National Library, as well as 
those of the university and other institutions, such as the National 
Council of Women. 

Ethnographic Museum moved. — The Ethnographic Museum of 
the University of Buenos Aires has been moved to a more com- 
modious building permitting a better display of its interesting and 
valuable exhibits. At the suggestion of Dr. Norberto Pinero the 
museum was established by a decree of April 4, 1904, in the School of 


Philosophy and Letters, simultaneously with the establishment of 
the chair of archaeology. Since the founding of the museum 22 
expeditions into the interior of the country have investigated 70 
sites, bringing back 30,000 objects (described in 22 monographs on 
ethnological, archaeological, and anthropological subjects), thus 
making it one of the best museums of its kind in the South American 
continent. Its library contains 3,000 volumes on the subjects men- 
tioned above. 


iippROPKiATioN FOR EDUCATION IN Oruro. — In vicw of the increase 
of the population in the city of Oruro during the past two years, 
President Siles recently issued a supreme decree setting aside an 
annual appropriation of 29,940 bolivianos for the public school 
system of that city. 


Students' house. — The students of the University of Rio de 
Janeiro are undertaking a campaign for the building of a house for 
students of limited means. 

Arbor Day. — On September 21, 1927, Arbor Day was celebrated 
by the planting of trees in the Forestry Garden in Rio de Janeiro. 
Addresses were made by Dr. F. Iglesias, Director of the Forestry 
Garden, and other guests, recitations were given, and the Hymn to 
the Tree sung by the school children who participated in the 
tree planting. 


Bust of Andrew Carnegie. — Last September a bust of Andrew 
Carnegie, the gift of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace, was formally presented to the National Library by the Hon. 
William Miller Collier, Ambassador of the United States. Some 
years ago Mr. Carnegie gave about 3,000 volumes of English and 
American classics to the library, the collection being later increased 
by the Carnegie Endowment. 

Art notes. — The third annual Salon of the Fine Arts Society 
was held in Santiago last September, with an interesting showing of 
more than a hundred paintings and a few pieces of sculpture. Other 
exhibitions the same month were those of the Bach Society, which 
had Japanese paintings on view, and of Seiior Carlos Swinburn, a 
much admired Chilean painter. 

Marcos Bonta and Romano de Dominici, respectively a painter 
and sculptor, were the successful contestants in a Government 
competition for European fellowships. 


Bird day. — A unique festival was celebrated in the Mauro 
Fernandez School of San Jose on October 2, 1927, when under the 


able direction of the faculty the pupils presented a program in honor 
of Bird Day. The children taking part were dressed in colorful 
costumes. The whole program proved interesting to the large and 
appreciative audience, as well as instructing the children in the love 
and care of their feathered friends. 

School corner stone laid. — On September 30, 1927, in com- 
memoration of the sixty-seventh anniversary of the death of Juan 
Rafael Mora, an early President and statesman of the Republic, the 
corner stone of the new Juan Rafael Mora School of San Jose was laid 
with fitting ceremony. 


New bureau. — The Bureau of Secondary and Commercial Schools 
has been added to the Division of Higher Education and Fine Arts 
in the office of the Secretary of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. 
This bureau will have charge of the administration of secondary 
schools and elementary and advanced commercial schools, which are 
thus separated from the Bureau of Universities, Institutes, Academies, 
and Special Schools. 


Uniform examination regulations. — Rules for uniform exami- 
nations in public and private primary schools throughout Guatemala 
were recently issued by the Minister of Public Education. According 
to the Diario de Centro- America of September 9, 1927, the regulations 
establish stated periods for examinations, the manner of choosing 
examiners, and the methods to be employed for examination. 

School song competition. — According to the press the first of 
a series of annual competitions for school songs was opened on Sep- 
tember 15, 1927, with the approval of President Chacon. The songs, 
adapted with varying degrees of difficulty and difference of theme to 
children from 3 to 12 years of age, are to be 130 in all, being divided 
as follows: 40 songs for children from 3 to 6 years of age, and 30 each 
for children from 6 to 8, 8 to 10, and 10 to 12 years of age, respectively. 
The competition will close on March 15, 1927, a prize of $200 being 
awarded the composer of the best collection of songs for children 
from 3 to 6 years of age and one of $150 to the composer of the best 
collection for any of the other groups. 

New publication. — The fo^st number of the Bulletin of the 
National Board of Public Education has just appeared. It contains 
the regulations of the board and an account of its activities. We 
wish this colleague a long and prosperous life. 


Guatemalan poetess visits Honduras. — Sehorita Marta 
Josefina Herrera, a Guatemalan poetess, visited Tegucigalpa in late 
September after having traveled through Mexico. The Honduran 


capital gave a cordial reception to this talented young writer, who is 
known not only for her poems but also for newspaper articles, some 
of which have appeared in the Mexican papers. 


School attendance figures. — The Department of Education 
recently made public the following figures on enrollment in the 
elementary day schools maintained by the Federal Government in 
the various States during 1926: 

Aguascalientes, 964; Campeche, 3,067; Coahuila, 1,545; Colima, 2,070; Chiapas, 
3,211; Chihuahua, 861; Durango, 876; Guanajuato, 1,646; Guerrero, 750; 
Hidalgo, 2,957; Jalisco, 364; Mexico, 2,848; Michoacan, 2,836; Morelos, 2,253; 
Nayarit, 1,146; Nuevo Leon, 2,795; Oaxaca, 1,704; Puebla, 2,319; Queretaro, 
1,26«; San Luis Potosi, 1,679; Sinaloa, 1,073; Sonora, 403; Tabasco, 655; Tamau- 
lipas, 622; Tlaxcala, 1,310; Vera Cruz, 372; Zacatecas, 1,385. Of the 42,957 
pupils enrolled, 27,215 were boys and 15,742 were girls. The States which show 
the fewest pupils enrolled in the Government primary schools are those which) 
in response to the requests of the Secretary of Education, have established schools 
supported by their local governments. 

Educational missions. — Five special educational missions were 
to begin in October an extensive program in Tenango del Valle, 
Mexico State; Ciudad Guzman, Jalisco; Zacualtipan, Hidalgo; San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California; and Pozos, San Luis Potosi, respec- 
tively. These missions consist of a head, who teaches new educa- 
tional methods; a woman social worker, who teaches hygiene, domestic 
economy, and other subjects; and teachers of agriculture, physical 
education, and household industries. With one of the missions there 
is also a teacher of music and declamation. Educational missions 
which have been sent out by the Department of Education for the 
last five years or more have met with great success in rural districts. 

Festival in the House of the Indian. — On October 15, 1927, a 
festival was held in the Casa del Indio, the House of Indian Students 
who are receiving their education in Mexico City. The entertain- 
ment was given for the benefit of the students and also to give pub- 
licity to the music and poetry of the difi^erent Indian tribes of Mexico. 
Many of these melodies have already been made into popular music 
by such composers as Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, Alfonso Esparza 
Oteo, Mario Talavera, and "Tata Nacho." The songs were sung 
by Indian children and by the Classic Choir of the Department oi 
Education. Poetry attributed by legend to the Aztec poet king, 
Netzahualcoyotl, showing a spirit of world brotherhood, was recited 
by a pupil. 

Lincoln Library. — In the latter part of October it was planned 
to open the Abraham Lincoln Library in the Benito Juarez school of 
Mexico City with the 3,000 volumes sent at different times by 
Americans, mostly members of the American society known as 
"Friends of Mexico." 



Mexican professor in the United States. — -Dr. Jose Vascon- 
celos, educator, author, and lecturer, formerly Secretary of Educa- 
tion under the administration of President Obregon, will be visiting 
professor at the University of Chicago from January to May. 

Meetings with American EoucATORS.^Through members of the 
University of California extension division at San Diego a program 
of monthly meetings has been worked out with Mexican educators, 
to be held alternately in Tia Juana and San Diego. 


School park. — A contract has been let for the construction of a 
$12,000 school park with playground equipment on Seventeenth 
Street West, Panama City. 


Rockefeller fellowship. — According to El Diario, Asuncion, 
of September 24, 1927, Senor Paris Meuendez, a young Paraguayan 
pharmacist, has been awarded a fellowship to pursue further study 
in the United States. He will specialize in bacteriology, taking a 
three-year course in that subject. 

Peruvian scholarships.^ — Information has been received through 
the press that the Peruvian Government has offered to Paraguayan 
students scholarships in the engineering and technical schools of 
Lima, both of which are recognized for their excellent organization 
and high standards. A short time ago a similar offer for scholarships 
in the Military School of Paraguay was made to Peruvian students 
through the Paraguayan Minister in Lima. 


Industrial School. — October 3 was the date set for the opening 
of the National Industrial School in the capital. Classes in 16 small 
industries began on that date, and on November 15 the class in silk- 
worm raising. Classes in these industries are also to be held in the 
Central Penitentiary so that prisoners may have a trade when they 
are liberated after serving their terms. The full list of subjects 
taught is as follows: 

1. Electro-chemistry. 

2. Artistic iron work. 

3. Bee-keeping. 

4. Silkworm raising. 

5. Wicker furniture making. 

6. Weaving of soft straw hats. 

7. Soap making. 

8. Basket weaving. 

9. Preservation of fruits. 

10. Hammered work in metals 
burnt designs on wood. 


11. Hand and machine embroidery. 

12. Dressmaking. 

13. Milhnery. 

14. Artificial flower making. 

15. Mirror making. 

16. Dye making. 

17. Making of shoe pohsh and grease 

for machinery. 


FoEEiGN SEEViCE EXAMINATIONS. — On September 22, 1927, the 
Ministry of Foreign Relations held entrance examinations for ad- 
mission to the consular and diplomatic service of Salvador. {Courtesy 
of Ministry of Foreign A fairs.) 


Chairs of Latin- Amebic an Literature. — The University of 
Texas has established the first United States chair of La tin- American 
Literatm-e, to be occupied by Associate Professor Arturo Torres- 
Rioseco, a Chilean poet who has been doing distinguished work as a 
teacher at the university. The University of Texas already has a 
chair of Latin-American History. 

This announcement was followed by that of Stanford University's 
appointment of Dr. Alfred Coester as Professor of Spanish- American 
Literature. Professor Coester, whose books are weU known to stu- 
dents in this field, spent several months last year in Argentina 
gathering material for future publications. 


First Regional Conference of Teachers. — The First Regional 
Conference of Teachers from the departments of Artigas, Salto, 
Paysandu, Rio Negro, and Soriano, held in the city of Paysandu, 
was closed on September 22, 1927, after a week's session during which 
many interesting addresses dealing with education were delivered. 
There were lectures on school curriculums, rural schools, correlation 
of subjects, children's libraries, the Montessori method and other 
topics. Not the least unportant feature of the Congress was the 
opportunity afforded for teachers from different sections to meet 
and discuss their common problems, each benefiting by the experience 
of the others. 

Vocational school. — On September 14, 1927, two members of 
the National Council of Administration and the Minister of Public 
Instruction visited the vocational school maintained by the Society 
for the Protection of Children in Montevideo. This association 
provides an asylum for boys without proper homes and teaches them 
such trades as shoemaking, carpentry, and iron work. 

Chilean teachers in Uruguay. — The group of Chilean teachers 
which had just visited Argentina reached Montevideo on September 
23, 1927, where they were cordially received by the heads of the 
schools which they visited. They were especially interested in the 
methods of the Decroly schools in Uruguay of which they had heard, 
and which they have decided to establish on trial in Chile. The 
visitors were entertained with special exercises by the children of 
the Montevideo school named for the Republic of Chile. 

LABOR 105 

Art exhibition. — On September 17, 1927, the Uruguayan artist 
Carlos Alberto Castellanos opened an exhibition of his paintings 
and tapestries in Montevideo. Public officials, art lovers, and 
society in general found the exhibition most interesting, the vivid 
coloring of the canvases attracting especial attention. There were 
100 paintings and 22 tapestries, besides etchings and ceramics. 
One of the striking notes of the exhibition was the use of Indian 
motifs in the tapestries. Castellanos studied for 12 years in France, 
latterly under the artist Renois. 


Quarterly library report. — According to the Boletin de la Bi- 
hlioteca Nacional a total of 7,739 readers visited the National library 
in Caracas during the second quarter of 1927. As during the first 
quarter of the year, the greatest number, or 4,318, were interested 
in books, and the next largest number, or 1,918, in periodicals. 


First National Bakers Congress. — The First National Con- 
gress of Bakers was held in Buenos Aires the middle of September. 
At the closing plenary session of the Congress on September 15, the 
National Federation of Bakers was constituted by the representatives 
of the various bakers' organizations present as delegates. The pur- 
poses of the federation are to coordinate and unify the resources of 
the industry for the common good of the bakers and the improvement 
of their products. All other smaller bakers' unions are to be incor- 
porated in the federation, of which Sr. Agustin Allande was elected 


Labor conditions. — In his message to Congress on August 6 
last. President Siles, speaking of labor conditions in the Republic, 
said that everything possible was being done to improve the status 
of workers. A decree of October 16, 1926, stipulates that all mining 
companies shall pay laborers' wages every week, after 12 o'clock on 


Saturday, in order that the workmen may not have the opportunity 
to spend their wages in alcoholic drinks, whose sale is forbidden froiji 
that hour until noon of the following Monday. In order to avoid 
the excessive profits made by stores operated by mining companies, a 
decree was issued on February 7 last stipulating that the prices of 
all articles should be posted in front of the stores, said prices not to 
exceed, in any case, the cost, plus transportation and shrinkage and 
maximum of 10 per cent on account of administration expenses. 
Another decree prohibits the leasing of stores, which resulted in an 
undue increase in the prices of all articles. 


Occupational diseases. — The regulations issued in May, 1927, 
on the industrial accident compensation decree place occupational 
diseases on the same basis as industrial accidents, as far as compen- 
sation is concerned. The diseases for which compensation may be 
claimed are specifically mentioned, grouped under the headings of 
infectious diseases and poisoning from metals and from gases, 
occupational alcoholic and tobacco poisoning also being included. 

Trade-union officials protected. — A recent decree of the Gov- 
ernment provides that leaders of legally constituted trade unions 
may not be discharged by industrial or commercial firms or estab- 
lishments, except for reasons shown to be legal before the Court of 
Conciliation and Arbitration. This action is taken to protect the 
interests of workers organized in trade unions in conformity with 
Law No. 4,057 of September 29, 1924, membership in the union of 
the respective industry being compulsory. 

Eighth Convention of Labor Organizations. — The Eighth Con- 
vention of Labor Organizations was held in Santiago last September, 
with the attendance of more than 200 delegates from various cities, 
two Bolivian representatives being especially invited. Among the 
resolutions passed was one asking that home workers be given more 
facilities to avail themselves of the benefits of Laws Nos. 4054 and 
4057. The former has to do with compulsory health insurance of 
workers and labor accident compensation, while the latter is concerned 
with union organization. 


Farm laborers' and stock producers' union.- — A farm laborers' 
and stock producers' union was recently organized in the city of Moca, 
reports stating that it will probably soon become affiliated with the 
Federation of Labor. 



Dominican Federation of Labor. — Among other interesting 
questions discussed in the last meeting of the executive committee 
of the Dominican Federation of Labor were the following: 

Consideration of the need for the construction of a port in which ships of 
large draft can dock, limitation of size of estates, purchase of the Samand,-Santiago 
Railroad, restriction of sugar production, organization of manual training depart- 
ments in the urban schools and school gardens in the rural communities, the 
necessity of demanding a guaranty of all the insurance companies operating in 
the country, the National Bank, the emission of national currency and the 
retirement from circulation of all foreign money. 


Labor Arbitration Board. — On September 8, 1927, the President 
by decree appointed the members of the Labor Arbitration Board of 
Santa Ana. 


Railroad bonus for employees. — The Board of Directors of the 
Central Railway of Uruguay decided in September to distribute a 
bonus of 7 per cent on wages for the period of 1926-27 ended June 30. 
This bonus was first given in the year 1919-20, not being paid from 
1920 to 1923, due to the fact that dividends of stockholders did not 
amount to 5 per cent. In 1923-24, 5 per cent was paid; in 1924-25, 
6 per cent; and in 1925-26, 63^ per cent. 


Municipal day for babies. — On October 11, 1927, three muni- 
cipal competitions for child welfare were held in Rio de Janeiro, the 
first being for the healthiest babies, the second for the mother with 
the most children and the third for the best-kept home of persons of 
modest means. 

School lunch served. — Poor children in the Visconde de Ouro 
Preto school in Rio de Janeiro are provided with free milk during the 
noon recess so that they may not have to go without food until the 
close of the school day. 

President visits Red Cross. — Early in October President Luis 
of Brazil visited the Brazilian Red Cross building which is being 


completed in Rio de Janeiro. The various sections already in opera- 
tion are: 

The eye clinic; the sterilizer; the amphitheater for clinical lectures; 
the X-ray photograph room; the gynecology clinic; the laboratories; 
the nose, ear, and throat clinic; the Junior Red Cross section; the 
quarters of the Board of Directors; the Medical and Surgical Insti- 
tute of the Red Cross; the children's section; the nurses' section; and 
the quarters for students in the Nurses' Training School of the Red 

President Luis had many words of praise to say to Dr. Ferreira 
do Amaral, the president of the Red Cross, and the other officers 
present in regard to the progress made by this energetic association 
in bringing aid to the people of Brazil. 

New theory on cause of cancer. — Dr. Octavo Felix Pedroso, 
a young Brazilian physician who after completing his medical course 
in Brazil undertook further scientific work in Europe and the United 
States, has recently returned to his native land to carry out a series 
of experiments under the auspices of the National Department of 
Health to prove his new theory of the cause of cancer and an ap- 
propriate method of prevention and cure. His theory involves the 
principle of chemical changes in the blood and the derangement 
of the iso-electric points in the blood stream. The existence of iso- 
electric points was unknown until 1922, when they were discovered 
by Dr. Loeb, of the Rockefeller Institute of New York. 

Woman suffrage granted. — On November 8, 1927, the Pan 
American Union received a cablegram stating that woman suffrage 
has been granted in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. This is the 
first instance of woman suffrage in South America. 


Social-service information office. — The Social Service School 
in Santiago has recently added to its useful work an information 
office, which is intended to be a clearing house for social information. 
It will keep on file data regarding various entities offering social as- 
sistance, in order to be able to refer any person in need of aid to the 
organization best suited for his purposes. Moreover, the office will 
have a trained social worker who will investigate cases at the request 
of organizations or private philanthropists, obtaining the facts which 
have a bearing on the case. 


School lunch. — The formal act of inauguration of the Vaso de 
Leche, an organization formed in Cartago to assist the educational 
authorities in providing a lunch for under-nourished school children, 
took place on September 15, 1927. 



NuEsiNG SERVICE. — A child-welfare service, first established in 
Habana during the year 1913, now employs six nurses under the 
direction of a head nurse. This service provides consultations, pre- 
natal care, a dietetic laboratory, visiting nurses for expectant mothers, 
and other assistance for mothers and babies. The corps of public 
health nurses in Habana also consists of six nurses under the direction 
of a supervisor. 

At the present time there exist in the Republic six training schools 
for nurses — the school annexed to the General Calixto Garcia National 
Hospital, in Habana, with 50 pupils, superintendent, assistant super- 
intendent, and 28 graduate nurses; that connected with the Nuestra 
Sehora de las Mercedes Hospital (Habana), having 24 pupils, super- 
intendent, head nurse for night work, and 20 graduate nurses; the 
training school of the Santa Isabel y San Nicolas Hospital, in 
Matanzas, with 16 pupil nurses, superintendent, chief of night 
service, and 10 graduate nurses; the Cienfuegos hospital training 
school, with 16 pupils, superintendent, chief of night service, and 10 
graduate nurses; the Camagiiey hospital training school, with 15 
pupils, superintendent, chief of night service, and 6 graduate nurses; 
and the Santiago de Cuba hospital training school, with 15 pupils, 
a superintendent, and 10 graduate nurses. {Revue Internationale de la 
Croix-Rouge, Geneva, September, 1927.) 

Promotion op child welfare. — As part of an extensive campaign 
for the protection of mothers and infants the Secretary of Sanitation 
and Public Charities plans to establish a national child-welfare serv- 
ice, designating nurses in the various municipalities to cooperate in this 
work with the local health officers. In every municipality an ambu- 
lance service will be maintained for the exclusive use of expectant 
mothers. A staff of experts on infant welfare appointed by the 
Secretary of Sanitation will give lectures in the various cities on the 
care and feeding of infants and small children. {Courtesy of the 
Cuban Embassy in WasJiington.) 


Homes for workers. — Following the plan carried out on several 
occasions by the Quito Municipal Council of permitting fathers of 
large families distinguished for their honesty, devotion to work, and 
good behavior, to draw lots for a house, the Ecuadorean Government 
allotted 5,000 and 3,000 sucres, respectively, to Guayaquil and Cuenca 
for the purchase of a house which was awarded by lot as part of the 
celebration of the recent patriotic holidays in those cities. 

New asylum for children. — Early last September a new asylum 
for children called Albergue del Nino Jesus, was opened in Guayaquil. 
73898— 28— Bull. 1 8 


The creation of this welfare center is due to the patient and perse- 
vering efforts of the Belen del Huerfano benevolent society, composed 
of a group of prominent Guayaquil women under the presidency of 
Sefiora Ana Darquea de Saenz de Tejada. 


Sanitary campaign in schools. — ^With the cooperation of the 
Rockefeller Foundation, the Director General of Public Health has 
organized a sanitary campaign in the schools of Guatemala City. 
Examinations will be given the pupils and an attempt be made 
through treatment to eliminate intestinal infections, which now form 
a large proportion of the causes of death among young children. 


Association of Haitian Women. — Under the active and intelli- 
gent leadership of Mile. Rosinta Jean Joseph the Association of 
Haitian Women has recently been formed in Port au Prince for the 
development of small industries, the establishment of apprentice- 
ships for young girls or women unable to attend school to learn a trade, 
and the opening of commercial courses in stenography and typing. 
In addition a course of lectures is to be given. 


Dispensary for school children. — The Sanitary Section of the 
National Department of Health on September 17, 1927, announced 
in the press of Managua that it was establishing a disp'ensary for 
school children where any child registered in any of the Government 
schools may go for free advice. The dispensary will be maintained 
by monthly contributions of 10 centavos per school child, collected 
by the principal of each school. The dispensary will also give treat- 
ment for adenoids and supply glasses for defective vision. 


Junior Red Cross. — The Junior Red Cross of Panama was formed 
in the Normal School for Girls in Panama City on October 8, 1927, 
under the direction of Dona Ester Neira de Calvo. Dr. Ricardo 
A. Morales, representing his father. Dr. Eusebio A. Morales, expresi- 
dent of the Red Cross, spoke also upon this occasion, both he and 
Dona Ester Neira de Calvo stressing the idea of world brotherhood 
and the spirit of service expressed in the motto of the Junior Red 
Cross — "I serve." 


Aguadulce hospital. — The city of Aguadulce has made a con- 
tract for the construction of a modern hospital. 

Leper colony.— As the nmnber of patients at the leper colony at 
Palo Seco has increased from 80 to 105 in three years, more buildings 
are necessary to house the inmates comfortably. Plans have been 
drawn for a new kitchen and dining room to accommodate 120 patients. 
It is believed that now more patients come to the colony feeling that 
they may be cured, whereas formerly sufferers from this disease 
looked upon the colony as a place of lifelong exile. 


Health study.— Dr. W. A. Collier, an authority on the treatment 
of syphilis and tropical diseases of the Ehrlich Institute, Frankfurt, 
recently arrived in Paraguay, where he expected to visit the German 
colonies and make various scientific studies. 


Medical Society of Salvador.— The Medical Society of Sal- 
vador was founded in Rosales Hospital, San Salvador, in the latter 
part of September. 

Public Charity Society Building. — The Public Charity Soci- 
ety in September bought property in San Salvador on which to 
construct a 100,000 colon building for its offices and services. 

Salvadorean Red Cross. — The Salvadorean Red Cross recently 
presented the pupils of School No. 1 of Zacatecoluca and the Indian 
School of Nahuizalco with supplies of clothing for needy children. 


Housing Board decision. — The Montevideo Housing Board 
recently decided to amend the ordinance of September 21, 1925, on 
rented buildings to include provisions that its approval of sanitary 
conditions in houses, rooms, buildings, etc., for rent should be valid 
for six months only. New permits for renting will be granted upon 
the fulfillment of requirements by the interested parties and after 
another inspection by the office in question. The proprietor or 
agent who displays ''for rent" signs on property for which his renting 
permit has expired, will be fined 10 pesos. 

Child-welfare bathing beach stations. — The National Council 
of Public Assistance has resolved to establish two kiosks, one at 
Pocitos Beach and another at Ramirez Beach near Montevideo, to 
afford protection to children who come to bathe or play in the sand. 


These stations, in charge of trained nurses, will be prepared to 
render first-aid service, will examine the children for evidences of 
disease, will conduct health campaigns to educate the public in child 
care by means of posters, pamphlets, and leaflets, with emphasis on 
the benefits of sunlight and fresh air, and will receive lost children. 
From the part of the beach near these stations, which is to be known 
as the "Children's Health Zone," all children with contagious dis- 
eases are to be barred. It is also planned to have other similar 
stations at the beach for children below normal in health. Later 
child-welfare stations will be established at other near-by beaches. 

Tacuarembo Hospital. — -The hospital at Tacuarembo was re- 
cently opened, the Director of the National Public Charity Depart- 
ment attending the ceremony in company with other officials of the 
Government. The National Public Charity Department contrib- 
uted toward the hospital 181,341.80 pesos, while the remaining 
30,000 pesos were raised by the residents of the city. 

Personal hygiene' pamphlets. — The Montevideo Popular Com- 
mittee on Sex Hygiene has recently issued pamphlets giving informa- 
tion on the subject of venereal disease, the statistics on children 
born with syphilis, the symptoms of disease, and the clinics where 
patients may receive free and effective treatment. 

First Uruguayan woman engineer. — Senorita Emilia Z. Loedel 
Palumbo, the first Uruguayan woman engineer, recently gave an 
interview, published in the Mundo Uruguay o for September 15, 1927, 
in which were interesting facts about her career. Her mother 
taught school in order to be able to keep her children together. As 
a child Senorita Loedel Palumbo exhibited such ability in mathe- 
matics that upon the advice of her teachers she took up engineering. 
She now holds a position in the Ministry of Public Works, where she 
makes plans and specifications for much Government construction. 


Health campaign. — In conformity with plans made by the 
Director of National Health, the presidents of the several States 
in which malaria and hookworm are prevalent have organized 
campaigns for combating the disease. Great quantities of quinine 
and other medicines have been sent the respective State authorities 
and thanks to their whole-hearted cooperation the number of cases 
has been materially reduced. 

Yearly report of Simon RodrIguez Institute. — Significant of 
the extensive beneficent work being carried on by the Simon Rodriguez 
Institute of Caracas is the following report submitted for the year 
1926-27 by that institution. 


Children under 2 years of age: 
General medical service — 

Registered 1,071 

Free consultations 4, 987 

Prescriptions given 4, 834 

Milk station — Milk distributed, liters 16, 000 

Children over 2 years of age and adults : 

Consultations 5, 371 

Operations 79 

Laboratory examinations 533 

X-ray examinations 69 

Quartz lamp treatments 239 

Prescriptions given 1, 324 

Injections 6, 980 

Casts applied 3 

Improvements for leprosarium. — An expenditure of 289,255 
bolivars for the construction of additions and repair work in the 
Cabo Blanco leprosarium recently received Government authori- 
zation. It is expected that with these improvements 500 patients 
may be accommodated in the leprosarium. 


National poet honored. — Senor Rosendo Villalobos, considered 
by many the first poet of Bolivia to-day, has been nationally honored 
by a coronation, special delegations from Chuquisaca, El Beni, 
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Tarija, and Oruro coming to 
La Paz the latter part of July to take part in the celebrations, at 
which a representative from each delegation was given several 
minutes to voice the appreciation of his city for Senor Villalobos. 


Bust of Nilo PEgANHA. — On October 3, 1927, a bust of the late 
Nilo Peganha, a distinguished Brazilian statesman, was unveiled in 
one of the city parks in Nictheroy. The ceremony was attended by 
Dona Annita Peganha, widow of the eminent Brazilian, national 
deputies and senators. State authorities, groups of pupils from the 
city schools, and the president of the League of National Defense. 



Centenary of the death of the Liberator. — A bill providing 
for the coniniemoration of the centenary of the death of Simon 
Bolivar, the Liberator, and the maintenance and improvement of 
the San Pedro Alejandrino estate near the city of Santa Marta where 
he died was recently presented in the Colombian congress. Its 
sponsors propose that a large modern iron bridge be built across the 
Manzanares River to afford easy access to the estate; that a permanent 
guard of honor taken from the National army garrison stationed at 
Santa Marta be maintained, and that each department contribute 
toward the celebration planned by presenting a bronze bust of some 
one of its most noteworthy sons to be placed along the Avenue of the 
Liberator, who led five of the South American Republics to freedom. 






Argentine railway? in 1926. 

Condition of Buenos Aires banks, including branches in Argen- 
tina, on Aug. 31, 1927. 
Argentine grain exports 

Oct. 4 


Foreign trade of Argentina, 8 months of 1927 

Production and consumption of yerba mate in Argentina 


Report on commerce and industries in Bolivia for September, 


Amazon rubber crop in 1927 

Budget for the State of Ceara for 1927 

Finances of the State of Sergipe during 1926 and 1927.. 

Law governing the sale of fertilizers and chemical preparations 

for agriculture or livestock. 
Textile imports into Brazil during 1926.. 

Training school for nurses in State of Pernambuco 

New bond issue by the State of Pernambuco 

Amazon Valley rubber market in September, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries at Bahia for quarter ended 

Sept. 30, 1927. 
Preliminary report of commerce and industries, Santos consular 

district, quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 

Declared exports from Bahia, during September, 1927 

The carnauba wax market at Bahia 

Program of second centennial of coffee in Brazil 

Tobacco exports from Bahia, September, 1927 

Declared exports from Manaos first 9 months of 1927 

Cocoa movement at Bahia during September, 1927 

Flotation of loan by the State of Sergipe 

Exports of manganese ore from Rio de Janeiro during September, 

Statement of declared exports; coffee exported, and movement 

of vessels, during September, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of Sao Paulo, quarter ended 

Sept. 30, 1927. 
Commerce and industries of Manaos for September quarter, 1927. 
Review of Brazilian commerce and industries for September, 1927 

Livestock breeding stations for Amazonas 

Road building in State of Bahia 

Oct. 19 

Sept. 30 

Sept. 15 
Sept. 22 

Sept. 27 
Sept. 28 

Sept. 29 
Sept. 30 


Oct. 5 
Oct. 7 
Oct. 8 


Oct. 10 

Size of Chilean flag determined 

Principal imports into the Territory of Magallanes, during the 
1926 calendar year. 


The postal service, Buenaventura 

Exports from Buenaventura during September, 1927. 

Articles imported through port of Buenaventura dming June, 

Review of commerce and industries of Santa Marta for quarter 
ending Sept. 30, 1927. 

General survey of business conditions Cartagena consular dis- 
trict for September, 1927. 

Review of commerce and industries of Buenaventura, quarter 
ending Sept. 30, 1927. 


September report on commerce and industries 

Review of commerce and industries of Port Limon consular 
district, third quarter. 

Exports from the port of Puntarenas for July, August and Sep- 
tember, 1927. 


Review of general business conditions in Santiago de Cuba con- 
sular district for third quarter, 1927. 

Annual report of the Province of Matanzas consular district for 
the year 1926. 

Oct. 12 
Oct. 15 

























Tracy Lay, consul general 
at Buenos Aires. 

Dana C. Sycks, consul at 
Buenos Aires. 

G. H. Butler, vice consul at 
La Paz. 

George E. Seltzer, vice 

consul at Manaos. 
Nathaniel P. Davis, consul 

at Pernambuco. 
Howard Donovan, consul at 

C. R. Cameron, consul at 

Sao Paulo. 
Claude I. Dawson, consul 

general at Rio de Janeiro. 
Nathaniel P. Davis. 

John R. Minter, consul at 

Howard Donovan. 

Fred D. Fisher, consul at 

at Santos. 
Howard Donovan. 

C. R. Cameron. 
Howard Donovan. 
George E. Seltzer. 
Howard Donovan. 

Claude I. Dawson. 

FredD. Fisher. 

C. R. Cameron. 

George E. Seltzer. 
Calude I. Dawson. 
George E. Seltzer. 
Howard Donovan. 


John T. Garvin, vice consul 
at Punta Arenas. 

R. Hudson Fetner, vice 
consul at Buenaventura. 

Charles Forman, consul at 

Lawrence F. Cotie, vice 
consul at Santa Marta. 

Edward B. Rand, vice con- 
sul at Cartagena. 

Charles Forman. 

Roderick W. Unckles, vice 

consul at San Jose. 
Thomas J. Maleady, vice 

consul at Port Limon. 
Roderick W. Unckles. 

Francis R. Stewart, consul 
at Santiago de Cuba. 

Augustus Ostertag, vice con- 
sul at Matanzas. 




Reports received to November 15, 1927 — Continued. 


CUBA— continued 
September review of commerce and industries of Cuba. 

Value of exports from Cuba, January- June, 1927 

Review of commerce and general conditions at Nuevitas, quarter 

ending Sept. 30, 1927. 
Declared exports from all consulates in Cuba during October, 



Exports of cocoa beans from Puerto Plata consular district, for 

quarter ended June 30, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of district, quarter ended 

Sept. 30, 1927. 
Review of Santo Domingo consular district, for third quarter, 

1927. General conditions. 

Dominican Government revenues for September, 1927 

The tobacco crop 


September review of commerce and industries 


Coflee crop and exports for quarter ending Sept. 30, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries for September, and for 
quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 

Sugar and sugar exports for the years 1925 and 1925 

Increase in postage on mail originating in Guatemala 

Review of commerce and industries for quarter ending Sept. 30, 

^^^'''' HONDURAS 

Review of commerce and industries of Honduras for September, 

Review of commerce and industries of Puerto Castilla for quarter 

ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Statistics of import and export movements through the customs 

of La Ceiba, during fiscal year Aug. 1, 1926, to July 31, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of La Ceiba, quarter ended 

Sept. 30, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of Puerto Cortes, third 

quarter, 1927. 
Export figures of the Republic of Honduras for fiscal year 1925-26 
New stamp tax law --- 


Oct. 24 


Oct. 29 

Nov. 2 

Oct. 7 

Oct. 10 

Oct. 15 

Oct. 29 

Oct. 12 

Oct. 21 

Oct. 24 

Oct. 28 

Nov. 1 

Oct. 2 

Oct. 1 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 8 

Oct. 10 

Oct. 13 

Oct. 17 

Oct. 20 


Supplies of balsa, or corkwood 

Economic conditions in Salina Cruz consular district, quarter 

ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Construction, public and private, for Torreon district, quarter 

ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Street paving at Durango . 

Long distance telephone service established from Mexico City 
through Monterey with the United States. 


Condition of the 1927 coffee crop, and exports of coffee for third 

quarter of 1927. 

Review of commerce and industries of district, third quarter 

Review of commerce and industries of Bluefields district, third 

quarter of 1927. 
Destination of Nicaraguan coffee crop 


September report of commerce and industries of Republic of 

P^'^^^a- SALVADOR 

September review of commerce and industries of El Salvador, 

financial conditions. 
Budget of Salvador for fiscal year 1927-28 


Business conditions in Uruguay for the September, 1927, quarter. 


Venezuelan trade-mark law, published in the Official Gazette of 

July 22, 1927, No. 16, 255. 
Changes and additions to customs tariff of Venezuela, published 

in El Universal of Oct. 18, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of Puerto Cabello consular 

district, quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 


L. J. Eleena, consul general 

































Lawrence P. Briggs, consul 

at Nuevitas. 
L. J. Keena. 

W. A. Bickers, consul at 
Puerto Plata. 

William B. Lawton, vice 
consul at Santo Domingo. 
W. A. Bickers. 

W. Allen Rhode, consul 
■ general at Guayaquil. 

H. Eric Trammell, vice con- 
sul at Guatemala City. 


Winthrop R . Scott, consul at 
Cape Haitien. 

Geo. P. Shaw, consul at 

Winfleld H. Scott, vice con 

sul at Puerto Castilla. 
Nelson R. Park, consul at La 


Ray Fox, consul at Puerto 

Geo. P. Shaw. 

Paul H. Foster, consul at 
Salina Cruz. 

Wm. I. Jackson, consul at 

David J. D . Myers, consul at 

William E. Chapman, con 

sul at Monterey. 

Christian T. Steger, consul 

at Corinto. 
A. J. McConnico, consul at 

Bluefields . 
Christian T. Steger. 

H. D. Myers, vice consul at 
Panama City. 

Le Roy F. Beers, vice consul 
at San Salvador. 

C. Carrigan, consul general 
in charge at Montevideo. 


Daniel J. Driscoll, vice con- 
sul at Caracas. 

George R. Phelan, vice con- 
sul at Puerto Cabello. 






Argentina ........ Gold . 

Bolivia Gold . 

Brazil Gold . 




Costa Rica 


Dominican Republic . 








Paraguay 2 


Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Gold . 
Salvador I Gold . 

United States. 
Uruguay. . . . 
Venezuela. . . 


Peso . . 



Peso . 

Peso . 


Peso . 

Peso . 

Sucre . 




Peso . 



Peso . 




Peso . 


Value Pan- 
americanos i 


U. S. Gold 

$0. 965 

' Money of account recommended by the Inter-American High Commission at a 
meeting held in Buenos Aires, April 12, 1916. Equivalent to 0.33437 gram of gold 
0.900 fine. 

2 The theoretical standard of Paraguay is the silver peso, but actually the standard 
is the Argentine gold peso as above given. 


Metric measures most commonly appearing in market and statistical reports of 
Latin- American countries with equivalents in units of United States customary 


Centimeter 0. 39 inch 

Meter 3. 28 feet 

Kilometer 0. 62 mile 

Liquid Measure 

Liter 1. 06 quarts 

Hectoliter 26. 42 gallons 

Weight— Avoirdupois 

Gram 15. 42 grains 

Kilogram 2. 2 pounds 

Quintal 220. 46 pounds 

Ton 2, 204. 6 pounds 

Surface Measure 

Square meter 10. 26 sq. feet 

Hectare 2. 47 acres 

Square kilometer. ... 0. 38 sq. mile 

Dry Measure 

Liter 0. 91 quart 

Hectoliter 2. 84 bushels 

Weight— Troy 

Gram 15. 42 grains 

Kilogram 32. 15 ounces 

Kilogram 2. 68 pounds 


1 A/ 














Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, Chairman 
Sefior Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Vice Chairman 

Argentina Sefior Don Conrado Traverso, 

1806 Corcoran Street, Washington, D. C. 

Bolivia Sefior Don George de la Barra, 

Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Brazil Snhr. Dr. Sylvino Gurgel do Amaral, 

1704 Eighteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Chile Serior Dr. Carlos Davila, 

2154 Florida Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Senor Don Jose M. Coronado, 

Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 

Costa Rica Sefior Don Guillermo E. Gonzalez, 

1830 Nineteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Sefior Dr. Rafael Rodriguez Altun aga 

2630 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Dominican Republic .Sefior Don Maximo L. Vasquez, 
Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Sefior Don Juan Barberis, 

Investment Building, Washington, D. C. 

Guatemala Sefior Dr. Adrian Recinos, 

1521 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Haiti M. Hannibal Price, 

2200 Q Street, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Sefior Don Luis Bogran, 

1414 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mexico Senor Don Manuel C. Tellez, 

2829 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Sefior Dr. Alejandro Cesar, 

1100 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Sefior Don Juan B. Chevalier, 

1535 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Paraguay Sefior Dr. Juan Vicente Ramirez, 

Brighton Hotel, Washington, T>. C. 

Peru Sefior Dr. Hernan Velarde, 

2633 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Senor Dr. Francisco A. Lima, 

2601 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

United States Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Senor Dr. Hugo V. de Pena, 

1317 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

Venezuela Sefior Dr. Carlos F. Grisanti, 

1102 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

t. ■■■ II ■■■■■■■■ mill im nil 










THE ^ 



English edition, in all countries of the Pan American Union, $2.50 per year 
Spanish edition, " " " " " " 2.00 " 

Portuguese edition," " " " " " 1.50 " 

An ADDITIONAL CHARGE of 75 cents per year, on each edition, for 
subscriptions in countries outside the Pan American Union. 


The New Minister of Guatemala in Washington 117 

Four Recent Successful Pan American Conferences 122 

I. Third Pan American Congress of Architects. 
n. Eighth Pan American Sanitary Conference. 

III. Fifth Pan American Child Congress. 

IV. First Pan American Conference on Eugenics and Homoculture. 

Group of Translations of American Verse 146 

Agricultural Education in Minas Geraes, Brazil 152 

Latin American Libraries 156 

League of Red Cross Societies Plans Program for 1928 169 

Venezuela's Most Famous Thermomineral Springs 172 

Cultural and Social Cooperation with Mexico 176 

Latin America Experiments in Silk Culture 178 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce ^ 186 

Argentina — Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecua- 
dor — Guatemala — Haiti— Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Panama — Paraguay — Peru — 
Salvador — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 198 

Bolivia — Brazil — Cuba — Guatemala — Salvador — Venezuela. 

Legislation 200 

Chile— Colombia— Cuba— Guatemala— Haiti— Honduras— Mexico — Nicaragua. 

International Treaties 202 

Haiti — Mexico — Mexico-Pan American Republica — Mexico-United States — Colombia- 

Public Instruction and Education 203 

Argentina— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Costa Rica— Cuba— Dominican Repubhc— Ecua- 
dor — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Panama — Paraguay — Peru — 
Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Labor 211 

Bolivia — Brazil— Cuba — Dominican Republic— Guatemala — Peru. 

Social Progress 213 

Argentina— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— CostaRica— Cuba— Ecuador— Guatemala— Haiti— 
Honduras— Mexico — Nicaragua— Panama— Paraguay— Peru— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

General Notes 220 

Bolivia— Chile— Costa Rica— Ecuador— Peru— Venezuela. 
Subject Matter of Consular Reports 222 


S *^ <„ +3 s 

oO ^Ph 

Vol. LXII 


No. 2 

,W li 


THE vacancy caused by the grievous and untimely death of Dr. 
Sanchez Latour has recently been filled by the appointment 
by Dr. Chacon, President of Guatemala, of Dr. Adrian 
Recinos as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of Guatemala before the Government of the United States. 
The new Minister of Guatemala on the occasion of presenting his 
letters of credence at the White House, January 11, just prior to 
President CooHdge's departure for the Sixth International Conference 
of American States at Habana, Cuba, expressed himself in part as 
follows : 

The President of the Republic, aware, doubtless, of my admiration and sincere 
affection for the people of the United States, has conferred on me the high honor 
of appointing me to represent the Government of Guatemala before the Govern- 
ment of which your Excellency is the worthy President. I have accepted this 
high charge with special pleasure, hoping to merit your excellency's support and 
generous aid in maintaining the friendship which exists between the two countries 
and in making even stronger the ties which happily have united them throughout 
their history as independent States. 

The Guatemalan Nation, Mr. President, is striving every day to open the way 
toward a better future by means of continued peace and work; and with the help 
and valuable counsel of friendly nations, which like the United States have 
always given us their precious aid, we hope to reach the full development of our 
natural resources. 

I shall consider myself very fortunate if, in the exercise of my mission and with 
the cooperation of your excellency's Government, I can contribute to the increase 


Photograph by Underwood &1Jnderwood 


The new Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Guatemala to the United 



of economic and commercial relations between our countries and to the greater 
moral approximation of our peoples which have so many times shown that they 
are united by common ideals and aspirations. 

From the President's cordial reply the following is quoted: 

It is a genuine pleasure for me to receive from you the letters which accredit you 
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Guatemala near the 
Government of the United States. At the same time I desire to express once 
more to you the sincere regret felt by me and all the other members of this Govern- 
ment at the untimely demise of your esteemed predecessor, Senor Sdnchez Latour. 

The friendly relations between our two countries are founded upon a solid 
structure of mutual esteem, and in the work of maintaining them as they have so 
long existed, and of further strengthening them, I am pleased to be able to assure 
you of my own cordial cooperation as well as that of the other officers of the 

Dr. Adrian Recinos was born in Antigua, Guatemala, but his 
parents and ancestors were from the rich Province of Huehuetenango, 
situated among the mountains in the western part of Guatemala. 
It was here that Doctor Recinos spent his childhood days, amid 
scenes of highland grandeur which strongly influenced his character. 

His first schooling was received in the city of Quezaltenango, but 
later he went to Guatemala City, where he received the degree of 
bachelor of science and letters and that of advocate and notary in 
1907, from the faculty of law and social and political science. Upon 
graduation from the university, Doctor Recinos at once entered the 
diplomatic service. His first post was that of secretary of the Lega- 
tion of Guatemala in San Salvador, which was followed by his ap- 
pointment as first officer of the Ministry of Foreign Relations. In 
1910 he became Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs. 

Doctor Recinos supplemented his diplomatic duties by giving 
several courses in the school of law and in the colleges of Guatemala 
City, his major interest there being philosophy. An outgrowth of 
these teaching courses was a work entitled "Lessons in Philosophy," 
which has gone through several editions, being used as a textbook 
in all of the five Central American Republics. 

His first visit to the United States was in 1915, when he came as 
the delegate of his country to the International Dry Farming Con- 
gress at Denver, the Second Pan American Scientific Congress at 
Washington, and the Nineteenth International Congress of Amer- 
icanists at Washington. 

Doctor Recinos has been especially interested in recent investiga- 
tions of the ruins of ancient civilizations in Guatemala, and has 
given a great deal of assistance to the scientific expeditions of the 
American School of Archaeology, the Carnegie Institution, Tulane 
University, and museums of New York and Washington, which have 
been studying with marked success the ruins of Maya cities of Guate- 
mala and Yucatan. He has for many years been a member of the 


American Institute of Archaeology, Washington; founded the Society 
of Geography and History of Guatemala; is an honorary member of 
the Mexican Society of Geography and Statistics; and is a corre- 
sponding member of the Maya Society. His work, ''A Monograph 
on the Department of Huehuetenango," is an important contribu- 
tion to the study of the archaeology, geography, and history of that 
considerable part of the territory of Guatemala. 

A member of the Liberal Party, Doctor Recinos was the leader of 
the political movement which placed Gen. Jose Maria Orellana at 
the head of the State, December 5, 1921. At the request of the 
President, in 1922, he became head of the Ministry of Foreign Rela- 
tions. As such he brought about the satisfactory settlement of 
several claims which had been pending since the administration of 
President Herrera, among them the claim relating to the railroad from 
Zacapa to the frontier of El Salvador, which was settled by a friendly 
arrangement promoted by the efforts of Doctor Recinos and the media- 
tion of the United States minister, Mr. Arthur H. Geissler. This 
arrangement, approved by the Government of General Orellana, 
upon being submitted to the legislative assembly was strongly 
opposed by a group of deputies. Doctor Recinos accordingly resigned 
from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and sought reelection to Congress 
at the hands of his constituents in Huehuetenango. Again in Con- 
gress, he entered into a full explanation of the claim, its antecedents, 
and the d,ifficulties arising from the cancellation by the Herrera 
Government of the concession for the construction of the Zacapa 
branch, pointing out the advantages of the arrangement which he had 
secured. Thanks to his personal influence and to his complete 
knowledge of the matter, the arrangement was approved after a 
considerable parliamentary debate. The Government was at last 
rid of a troublesome matter, while the branch railroad which is to 
unite Puerto Barrios with the capital of the neighboring State of 
El Salvador will soon be a reality, as it has been announced that it 
will be completed by next September. This labor was important, 
because it promotes easy communication between the several Central 
American Republics, and completes the Guatemalan section of the 
Pan American Railway, thus bringing the United States and Mexico 
into direct rail contact with the eastern section of Guatemala and the 
whole of the Republic of El Salvador. 

In 1923, Doctor Recinos was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to France, Spain, and Italy, and during his 
residence in Paris, Madrid, and Rome, he visited practically all the 
countries of Europe. As delegate from Guatemala he attended the 
Assembly of the League of Nations in 1924. In the same year he 
had the opportunity of renewing his participation in the labors of the 


congress of Americanists, by attending its twenty-first meeting at 
The Hague and Gothenburg, Sweden. 

Among the honors he has received from the nations of Europe may 
be mentioned his decoration as commander of the French Legion of 
Honor, his election to membership in the Institute of Comparative 
Law of Brussels, and the Ibero-American Institute of Comparative 
Law of Madrid. 

In December, 1925, after resigning his European post. Doctor 
Recinos returned to Guatemala again to take up his duties in Con- 
gress, of which he was elected President in 1926. Following the 
sudden death of President Orellana in September, Doctor Recinos 
was among the candidates who were considered for the presidential 
office, his nomination being favored by the Liberal Party and other 
political organizations which had confidence in his experience and 
patriotism. However, after analyzing the situation with calmness 
and detachment. Doctor Recinos stated that in his opinion it would 
be wise to avoid the ills of the political contest made possible by the 
unexpected death of President Orellana, by supporting Gen. Lazaro 
Chacon, who had been elected as First Designate by the Legislative 
Assembly in 1926 and who was now provisionally exercising the 
executive power. Doctor Recinos' friends thereupon gave their 
support to General Chacon, thus ensuring his election. 

Upon the occasion of the death of Dr. Sanchez Latour, Minister 
of Guatemala to the United States, President Chacon found it advis- 
able to send to Washington a man of the capacity and influence of 
Doctor Recinos, who is favorably known in governmental and Pan 
American circles. Accordingly, in spite of the great desire of the 
latter to work in his own country for the progress of agriculture, 
Doctor Recinos has returned to Washington as the diplomatic 
representative of that country. 

An interesting phase in the career of the new Minister of Guate- 
mala is his practice of journalism, in which he has been engaged for 
a number of years in his country. He is a writer of prominence in 
Central America, and is one of the most distinguished members of 
the Ateneo of Santiago de Chile, the American Historical Society of 
Buenos Aires, and the Ateneos of Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador 
and Guatemala. 

The Bulletin joins with Doctor Recinos' many friends in Wash- 
ington and elsewhere in wishing him a pleasant stay in this capital, 
and a full measure of success in his important mission. 


. Ll^ 


BUENOS AIRES, JULY 1-10, 1927 

The delegation appointed by the president of the American In- 
stitute of Architects, and designated by the Secretary of State of 
the United States of America to represent the institute and the 
United States at the Third Pan American Congress of Architects at 
Buenos Aires, sailed from New York for Buenos Aires aboard the 
Lamport & Holt Line Steamship Vauban on June 11, 1927. The 
voyage was uneventful and exceedingly comfortable, over smooth 
seas and under sunny skies, the weather being ideal and never 
uncomfortably warm. 

A number of meetings were called during the voyage by the chair- 
man of the delegation, Mr. Frank R. Watson, for the purpose of 
getting together and organizing, of outlining the work of the mem- 
bers at Buenos Aires so far as it could be anticipated, and of discussing 
the "General Regulations" of the Congress as promulgated by its 
executive committee. Several important points of policy were 
decided at these meetings. 

In the light of the experience of Mr. Watson and Mr. Plack at 
the Second Congress in Santiago, it was decided that the delegation 
should have an official spokesman at the Congress in Buenos Aires 
in acknowledging and responding to addresses of welcome and the 
like, in representing the delegation on all occasions official or social, 
and in introducing the various delegates on occasions when the duty 
of speaking on a given subject had been assigned by the delegation 
to an individual member. By unanimous vote, Mr. Watson, the 
chairman, was requested to assume the functions of such official 
spokesman. In the same manner Mr. Howard was made secretary 
of the delegation. 


A thorough discussion of the topics to be treated at the Con- 
gress resulted in the assignment of subjects to the various delegates 
as follows: 

To Mr. Watson, Topic 4, "Spiritual bearings of the architect in 
America." This subject was taken to refer to the Ethics of the 
profession, and Mr. Watson's response was to be accompanied by 
the Code of Ethics of the American Institute of Architects. 

To Mr. Plack, Topic 3, ''How should the architects defend the 
rights of their profession, and which should be the best way to asso- 
ciate in order to obtain an efficient action?" and Topic 5, "The 
importance of periodical revisal of building legislation in accordance 
with technical progress and modern architectural demands." 

To Mr. Murchison, Topic 9, "What should be the architect's atti- 
tude toward modern social problems? The architect's share in the 
making of the laws"; and Topic 10 (among the "free topics" provided 
for, and devoted to all technical, artistic, legal, and social matters 
of interest to the profession), an address on "Arbitration." 

To Mr. Laird, Topic 1, "How is the architect to define himself in 
America, and which should be the scope of the professional activi- 
ties?" Also Topic 2, "Minimum curriculum for the architectural 
student in all American schools, so as to provide only one degree for 
the free practice of the profession in all American countries"; and 
Topic 8, "Public and private competitions throughout America 
and the importance of their efficient control by the architectural 

To Mr. Howard, Topic 7, "City Planning, and its relation to 

In addition to the above the delegation decided to ask Senor Fran- 
cisco Squirru (the general secretary of the Congress and a former 
student at the University of Pennsylvania School of Architecture), to 
read a paper written by Professor Parker (of that school) on Topic 6, 
"Ways and means to render a practical teaching of the science of 
construction in the Architectural Schools of America." 

A general discussion of paragraph 12 of the "General Regulations," 
which provides that in its closing session "the Third Congress will 
decide the place and date of the Fourth Congress," brought out a 
unanimous expression of cordial feeling that the Congress should 
at some time in the near future be invited to meet in the United 
States, preferably in Washington, at the headquarters of the American 
Institute of Architects as well as the Capital of the United States, 
and in conjunction with the Pan American Union; but that the 
delegation would be exceeding its powers if it issued such an invita- 
tion, which should come officially from the American Institute of 
Architects. The delegation unanimously agreed, however, that 

Courtesy of "Revista de Ar 

; Aires 



At the luncheon in honor of the various delegates given by the Sociedad Central de Arquitectos of Argentina 
the title of "Gaucho Argentino Honorario," together with the diploma pictui'ed above, was bestowed 
on Kenneth M. Murchison of the United States delegation, in recognition of the high esteem in which 
he was held by members of the Conference. A colleague, Hugo Garbarini, executed with ability and a 
keen sense of humor the cartoon of Mr. Murchison 


members of the Pan American Congress should be cordially invited 
to attend conventions of the Institute. . . . 

A question having been raised as to the scope and definition of the 
functions of the delegates, particularly with relation to the United 
States Government, the chairman read the letter of Francis White, 
Assistant Secretary of State, which transmitted to him the certificates 
of designation, in which it was stated that the certificates had "been 
issued on the understanding that no part of the expenses of these 
gentlemen will be borne by the United States and that they are in 
no wise authorized to commit this Government." 

The chairman communicated the information that Mr. Albert 
Kelsey had written him that he had been officially appointed the 
professional adviser in an international competition for a memorial 
to Columbus in Santo Domingo, in the shape of a lighthouse, and 
expressing the wish that, as a gesture of magnanimity, the first 
public announcement of this competition, with cordial invitation to 
participate, be entrusted to the Congress. The delegation being in 
full accord with this suggestion, the matter was left to Mr. 

Among the passengers of the Vauban was a member of the Chilean 
delegation to the congress, Senor Risopatron, professor of architec- 
ture at the Catholic University of Santiago, who, at the request of 
the United States delegation, very kindly consented to translate into 
Spanish, for use at the Congress, the Code of Ethics of the American 
Institute of Architects. 

While still at sea a wireless message was received by the chairman 
from the American ambassador to Brazil, the Hon. Ed"win Morgan, 
stating that he would meet the delegation on its arrival at Rio de 
Janeiro. The Vauban came to dock at that port at 6 p. m., Sunday, 
June 26, and Mr. Morgan immediately came aboard with his suite 
to welcome the delegation and to invite the members and the ladies 
of the party to dine at the embassy that evening. Representatives 
of the Brazihan Instituto Central de Architectos, Mr. John P. Curtis 
and Senhor Edgar P. Vianna (both former students at the University 
of Pennsylvania School of Architecture) also came aboard to extend 
the greetings of their organization and to arrange for a reception at 
its headquarters the following day. . . . 

The following morning, Monday, June 27, Mr. Curtis and Senhor 
Vianna appeared bright and early at the Hotel Gloria to conduct 
Messrs. Laird, Murchison, and Howard by automobile on a round 
of sightseeing through the extraordinarily beautiful city, while 
Ambassador Morgan accompanied Messrs. Watson and Plack, who 
had visited the city before, on a shghtly different route. The two 
parties met at Solar de Monjope, a villa which is being built and 





Courtesy of "Revista de Arquitectura," Buenos Aires 

The unusually attractive fagade is a modernized version of Spanisli colonial architecture 


furnished in the old BraziHan manner by Senhor Mariano, Junior, 
an admirable work, the collection of genuine old Brazilian furniture 
and decorative materials being of unique interest and value. Senhor 
Mariano himself received the delegation most graciously, and was 
indefatigable in conducting his guests over the entire establishment, 
which, while thoroughly modern in its appointments, gives a most 
vivid idea of a big Portuguese colonial residence of the olden time 
in the Tropics. 

At 4 o'clock the delegation was received by the Instituto Central 
de Architectos in their quarters, Rua Quitanda, 21-20. An address 
of cordial welcome, in English, by the president, was fittingly re- 
sponded to by Chairman Watson in English and by Mr. Murchison 
in French. After an all too brief opportunity for informal conver- 
sation, the delegation, accompanied by the American Ambassador, 
returned to the steamer, which weighed anchor for the south at 5 

The Vauban was due to reach Buenos Aires the morning of July 
1, on which day the opening session of the Congress or rather the 
preconvention meeting of the "Comite Permanente," was to be 
held. Arrival, however, was delayed one day, the Vauban making 
the port of Montevideo, a night's voyage from Buenos Aires, at dusk 
of June 30, there to remain 24 hours for cargo. The committee at 
Buenos Aires had made every effort to arrange for the delegation's 
transshipment by river boat, sending the chairman a wireless mes- 
sage to that effect. Through some slip in official quarters the plan 
failed of execution, and the delegation was compelled to remain at 
Montevideo; but fortunately the Uruguayan architects were on hand 
with a cordial welcome and generous hospitality, so that the day was 
spent very agreeably and profitably in visiting the city, conducted 
in automobiles by a group of representative local members of the 
profession, who in addition entertained the delegation at lunch and 
dinner. The visit to the very attractive city of Montevideo under 
such delightful auspices renewed and confirmed the favorable im- 
pression received at Rio de Janeiro of the high character and ex- 
ceeding friendliness of South American architects. 

The following morning, Saturday, July 2, the steamer docked at 
Buenos Aires, where the delegation was taken possession of by a large 
group of architects representing the committee of arrangements. 
Nothing could have exceeded the warmth of their reception. For- 
malities at the customhouse were reduced to a minimum and within a 
few minutes tne delegates were on their way, in private automobiles, 
to their hotel quarters. 

From the moment of arrival, throughout the week and more of the 
Congress, there was an uninterrupted series of activities, official, 
professional, and social. The program had been admirably arranged 


to include not only a large amount of hard work on the part of all 
delegates, but also visits to many of the important institutions of 
the city and the near-by region, and opportunities to meet the 
highest officials of the Government, as well as to see something — all 
that time permitted — of Argentine social life. As a full account of 
the week's work would far exceed the desirable limits of this report, a 
brief resume only of the engagements provided for by the "Programa 
Oficial" follows: 

On Saturday, July 2, the inaugural meeting of the Congress was 
held in the assembly room of the great new post-office building, the 
entire top story of which, as well as portions of the floor below, had 
been given over to the use of the Congress for offices, committee 
rooms, and an expostiton of architectural drawings and materials. 
This meeting was an impressive function under the auspices of His 
Excellency the President of the Argentine Nation, the Minister of 
Foreign Relations, the Minister of Public Works, the Minister of 
Public Instruction, the Municipal Intendente of the Capital, the 
President of the Concejo Deliberante, the Director General of 
Architecture, the rector and the dean of the faculties of the National 
University of Buenos Aires. The assembly room was packed not 
only with the delegates from the various Pan American nations but 
with a notable gathering representative of the social and official life of 
Buenos Aires. The address of welcome was pronounced by Seiior 
Raul E. Fitte, president of the executive committee, which was 
followed by responses from representatives of each of the national 
delegations, Chairman Watson speaking for the United States. 
The Architectural Exposition was then thrown open, and the after- 
noon terminated with a sumptuous "vino de honor," which afforded 
an opportunity to meet all present in the most delightful informal way. 

Sunday, July 3, was devoted in the morning to visits to two of the 
great hospitals of Buenos Aires, followed in the park by a joyous 
barbecue lunch in the native Argentine manner. In the afternoon 
the delegates were the guests of the Buenos Aires Jockey Club at the 
races in the hippodrome. 

Monday, July 4, was observed by the Congress, in honor of the 
United States delegation, with a special session at which addresses 
of congratulation and cordial friendship, personal and national, 
were exchanged. A gracious feature of this session was the presenta- 
tion of diplomas by the chairman of the Chilean delegation conferring 
honorary corresponding membership in La Association de Arcuitectos 
de Chile upon Messrs. Plack and Watson, in recognition of their 
"distinctive service in establishing responsive relations between 
North and South America at the Second Pan American Congress 
of Architects at Santiago in 1923." In the morning visits were made 
to the Casas Baratas de Barrio Alvear and the Casas Colectivas at 


Courtesy of " Revista de Arquitectura," Buenos Aires 


The front and side of an attractive home designed by the Argentine architects, Sres. Biraben and 

Lacalle Alonso 

Flores and Barrio Rawson. The two juries of award for the different 
classes of work in the exhibition met, organized, and began their 
labors. Of the United States delegation, Messrs. Watson, Plack, 
and Mnrchison, were placed on the jury in charge of awards for the 
architects' section (projects for public buildings and monuments, 
for private buildings, for private monuments, and for decoration, 
architectural motifs and details, city planning and landscape architec- 
ture, works on American archeology, and photographs of completed 
buildings or projects), and for the section of public and private 
institutions (departments and administrations of public works, 
offices of architecture with national, state or municipal character, 
private offices and business firms and private companies of architec- 
ture and construction). Messrs. Laird and Howard were placed on 
the jury of awards for the students' section (school work and proj- 
ects of candidates for degree), of which jury Mr. Howard was elected 
chairman. There were also meetings of the committees on Topics 
1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. In the evening His Excellency, the Minister of 
Public Works, Seiior Dr. Roberto M. Ortiz, gave a banquet to the 
Congress at the Jockey Club. 

The morning of Tuesday, July 5, had been reserved for a visit 
to the Port of Buenos Aires and the works of the C. H. A. D. E., 
79371— 28— Bull. 2 2 


but this excursion was given up on account of heavy rain. The 
entire day was devoted to the dehberations of the juries and of the 
committees on Topics 2, 4, 6, and 8, of the last of which, ''Com- 
petitions/' Mr. Laird was made Chairman. In the evening the 
entire Congress was entertained at a gala performance at the Teatro 
Colon, a magnificent opera house of the continental European 
type, rivaling in some ways the Grand Opera in Paris. 

Wednesday, July 6, was devoted to an excursion to the city of La 
Plata, the capital of the Province of Buenos Aires, including a 
reception by the intendente in the Palacio Municipal, a lunch offered 
by the Sociedad Central de Arquitectos in the fine new building of 
the Jockey Club at La Plata, a visit to the La Plata Museum, with 
its extremely interesting palaeontological collection, a drive through 
the town, and an official visit to the Governor of the Province. 

The Escuela Rawson and the Institute Bernasconi in Buenos Aires 
were visited the morning of Thursday, July 7, and the Congress was 
entertained at lunch by the University Club in their new building 
just approaching completion. An official call on the President of 
the Nation and his ministers, meetings of the juries and committees, 
and a plenary session of the congress to consider Topics 1, 3, 5, 7, 
and 9 occupied the rest of the day. That evening the visiting dele- 
gations entertained their Argentine hosts at a banquet in the Hotel 

A visit to the Buenos Aires branch of the First National Bank of 
Boston, the Edificio Tornquist, and the Bolsa de Comercio, together 
with meetings of the juries and committees, and a plenary session to 
consider Topics 2, 4, 6, and 8 filled the day of Friday, July 8. In 
the evening the members of the congress were entertained at a ball 
given by the Club Belgrano. 

Saturday, July 9, was the Argentine national holiday, celebrating 
the Declaration of Independence. The closing session of the congress 
which had been programmed for the forenoon was postponed to the 
following day because of unfinished business, the juries and com- 
mittees taking this time to complete their labors. In the afternoon 
the Congress was entertained by the intendente municipal from 
whose balconies was viewed the ''Desfile de Tropas" in honor of the 
day. The farewell banquet tendered the visiting delegations by the 
Sociedad Central de Arquitectos took place that evening, and the 
United States delegation took the opportunity to present the follow- 
ing resolution, translated into Spanish and pronounced by Mr. Mur- 
chison : 

On this 9th day of July, when the Republic of Argentina celebrates the anni- 
versary of its independence, the brotherly love and cordial sympathy of all 
good Americans from the United States must go out to her with peculiar depth 
and force. We remember our own independence day — the glorious Fourth 


of this same month; we remember our own beloved liberator, Washington; 
and in so remembering, we can not fail to recognize with kindred honor and 
affection Argentina's day, and Argentina's liberator, the great San Martin, 
whose name is blazoned with that of Washington among the immortal few who 
have brought freedom to mankind. 

To the members of the United States delegation to the Third Pan American 
Congress of Architects, these feelings come with special power. We have experi- 
enced at first hand the warmth of friendly welcome. We have worked shoulder 
to shoulder with our fellows of the south to find solutions for the problems of our 
profession. We have been privileged to enjoy a splendid and unforgettable 
hospitality. Great as our admiration and our affection for our neighbors of 
South America have always been, we shall return to our own land with those 
sentiments magnified a hundred fold and with a new keenness born from personal 
contact. We can not go away without recording the expression of our apprecia- 
tion. Therefore: be it 

Resolved, That the United States delegation offers its heartfelt thanks for the 
distinguished hospitality with which Argentina has favored us, and hopes that 
at no distant day the Pan American Congress of Architects will visit our shores 
and give us an opportunity to reciprocate. 

The final session of the Congress took place on Sunday, July 10. 
A statement of the conclusions reached by the Congress, together 
with a list of the awards made by the juries to exhibitors, will be 
forwarded to the institute in due course. 

To say that the members of the United States delegation are in 
cordial sympathy with the purpose and conduct of the congress 
would be to understate the enthusiasm which they all feel. It is 
their unanimous conviction that the Pan American Congress has 
begun a great professional work in a notably worthy way and that 
its continued activities bid fair to accomplish a far-reaching and 
beneficent result. They believe that every opportunity should be 
sought to draw closer the bonds of fellowship between the congress 
and the institute. 

In closing its report this delegation makes the following recom- 
mendations : 

First. That the American Institute of Architects take under 
consideration the advisability of extending its membership, or of 
establishing a new class of membership, to include architects of other 
American countries than the United States. 

Second. That the American Institute of Architects consider the 
advisability of extending a formal invitation to the Pan American 
Congress of Architects to hold one of its triennial meetings in 
Washington at as early a date as practicable. 

Frank R. Watson, Chairman. 
William L. Plack. 
Kenneth M. Murchison. 
Warren P. Laird. 
John G. Howard, Secretary. 




LIMA, OCTOBER 12-20, 1927 

There is a very deeply-rooted conviction among those who were 
privileged to attend the Eighth Pan American Sanitary Conference, 
called by the Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, and 
held in Lima, Peru, October 12 to 20, 1927, that it was both in 
attendance and the actual progress realized one of the most satis- 
factory Pan American conferences ever assembled. 

In the first place, the Peruvian Government, particularly President 
Leguia, the Minister of Foreign Relations and the Minister of 
Promotion, spared neither pains nor expense to make the meeting 
a success. No labor or sacrifice of personal convenience was too 
great for the organizing committee of whom Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz 
Soldan, that eminent physiologist, educator, and social worker, was 
the heart and soul. 

Then, too, the program, broadly conceived and skillfully executed, 
was printed and distributed well in advance of the meeting. In view 
of these none too usual antecedents and in view also of the close 
contacts maintained with the respective national sanitary chiefs of 
the American Republics during the entire period of inception and 
preparation, the marked success of this conference is not surprising. 

The United States Government was represented by Surgeon 
General Hugh S. Gumming, chief of the United States Pubhc Health 
Service, Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, and one of 
the most widely known and most highly respected sanitary authori- 
ties in the Americas; by his assistant. Dr. Bolivar J. Lloyd and 
Dr. John D. Long, both of the United States Public Health Service 
and welcome and simpatica figures in the sanitary headquarters of 
almost every port of the Americas, Doctor Long being, in addition, 
the chief quarantine officer of the Canal Zone. 

A special word of appreciation must be given to the Peruvian daily 
press, which gave precedence to the conference reports during the 
entire sessions. Indeed, it is said that no previous Pan American 
conference has ever been so well reported as this. 

The sessions throughout were extremely harmonious, being dis- 
tinguished by the utmost good will not only on the part of the members 
of each national delegation but on the part of the various delegations 
as a whole. 

Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldan, of Peru, was elected president of 
the conference. Dr. Baltazar Caravedo, also of Peru, secretary general, 
and Dr. Bolivar J. Lloyd, of the United States, Dr. Benito Oswaldo 
Cruz, of Brazil, and Dr. Alfredo Sordelh, of Argentina, secretaries. 


The results of the conference, which will be set forth in detail in 
the official report now in preparation — a report of the final session, 
including resolutions adopted, having already been published for the 
use of delegates to the Sixth International Conference of American 
States — have been briefly summarized by Doctor Lloyd for the 
Bulletin, as follows: 


(1) Interpreting certain parts of the Pan American Sanitary Code. 

(2) Reminding signatory powers of their obligation to adopt the prescribed 
form of bill of health for vessels. 

(3) Suggesting to signatory powers the desirability of establishing board of 
physicians in their respective ports, whose duty it shall be to render a diagnosis 
in doubtful cases of infectious or contagious disease. 

(4) Recommending that the Pan American Sanitary Bureau indicate to naval 
architects and to steamship companies the desirability and convenience of the 
rat-proofing of all seagoing vessels. 

(5) Recommending to the Governments of the American Republics the 
construction of rat-proof wharves and docks in all seaports. 

(6) Recommending that the Pan American Sanitary Bureau secure, as soon 
as possible, the execution of the recommendation of the Scientific Congress which 
met in Lima in 1924, to the effect that all American Republics adopt the nomen- 
clature of diseases approved by the Convention of Paris of 1920 and now effective 
in the United States. 

(7) Recommending the placing of sanitary inspectors on vessels. 

(8) Recommending to the signatory powers faithful compliance with articles 
3, 4, and 5 of the Pan American Sanitary Code. 

(9) Recommending to the several American Governments adequate social 
defense against the abuse of narcotics. 

(10) Recommending to those Governments not already having such, the 
creation of a ministry of health. 

(11) Recommending certain procedures for the control of bubonic plague. 

(12) Recommending that the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, in cooperation 
with the various health organizations of the American Republics, undertake the 
collection and publication of data showing the geographical prevalence of human 
parasites prevalent in the Americas. 

(13) Recommending certain measures for the prevention and control of 
venereal disease and of prostitution. 

(14) Providing that the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, in cooperation with 
the International Office of Paris, act as a regional organization for the collection 
and transmission of information with regard to the prevalence of contagious 

(15) Recommending that all American Governments (through their depart- 
ments of health) forward to the Pan American Sanitary Bureau all available data 
with regard to the results of vaccination against tuberculosis, and directing the 
bureau to present this information in suitable form to the next Pan American 
Sanitary Conference. 

(16) Suggesting to the American Governments for consideration the advisa- 
bility of making pre-nuptial physical examinations, as a part of its campaign 
against venereal disease. 

(17) Recommending certain measures in the interest of the working class. 

(18) Declaring that alastrim should be considered as smallpox until such time 
as the contrary may be proven. 


(19) Recommending the sending of copies of all laws and regulations per- 
taining to health and sanitation to the Pan American Sanitary Bureau. 

(20) Providing for the calling together of the members of the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, in Washington, once in 12 to 18 months, and providing for 
the payment of their traveling expenses from the funds of the Bureau; also pro- 
viding that any member or representative of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau 
may be caUed to duty at some place other than his residence, and that when 
so assigned to duty, his traveling expenses and a per diem when not traveling 
(but not a salary) may be paid from the funds of the bureau. 

(21) Creating the position of traveling representative and providing for the 
traveling expenses and a per diem when not traveling of the occupant of this 
position from the funds of the bureau. 

(22) Recommending for consideration and study by the Ninth Pan American 
Sanitary Conference the hospital situation in the American Continent, and 
that information on this subject be collected by the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau for presentation to the conference. 

(23) Recommending to the Ninth Pan American Sanitary Conference the 
drafting of a model law for the safeguarding of milk intended for human con- 

(24) Approving in principle the draft of a project of law for the safeguarding 
of milk to be sold in the Republic of Peru. 

(25) Recommending the creation of Institutes of Hygiene and Social Medicine. 

(26) Inviting the attention of the American Governments to the importance 
of combating the evils of alcoholism. 

(27) Suggesting that the Pan American Sanitary Bureau solicit from each 
signatory Government, on behalf of future conferences, a list of subjects whose 
study is of special interest to the country proposing the questions; that such 
list be forwarded to the bureau 18 months prior to the assembling of a conference 
and that the sanitary bureau examine the topics submitted and, selecting from 
these, prepare a program for the impending conference. 

(28) Recommending that the several Governments of the American Republics 
give their attention to the problems of school hygiene and that one year prior 
to the assembling of the next Pan American Sanitary Conference, reports of such 
activities as may have been realized, be forwarded to the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau, and that the subject of school hygiene be given a place on the program 
of the ninth conference. 


Ratifications of the code shall be deposited with the Secretary of State of the 
Republic of Cuba; the Government of Cuba will notify all other Governments, 
which notification shall constitute a mutual exchange of ratifications. The 
agreement will begin to be effective in each country as soon as ratified by it and 
will remain in force indefinitely, provided that any country maj' have the right 
to withdraw from the agreement after one year's notice given to the Govern- 
ment of Cuba, 

Upon the removal of the remains of Unanue to their final resting place, a cer- 
emony performed under the auspices of the Organizing Committee of the Con- 
ference, the delegates contributed a suitable fioral offering. 

A plaque of gold, suitably inscribed and commemorating the conference and 
President Legula's activities in connection therewith, was presented to him by 
the delegates. 

The personnel of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau was reconstituted as 
follows: Honorary director, Dr. Enrique Paz Soldan, professor of hygiene of 


the University of Lima, Peru; director, Dr. Hugh S. Gumming, Surgeon General, 
United States Public Health Service; vice director, Dr. Mario G. Lebredo, di- 
rector of Hospital "Las Animas" and chief of the section of epidemiology of 
Cuba; members of the board: Dr. Sol6n Nunez F., Secretary of Health and 
Public Welfare of the Republic of Costa Rica; Dr. Ram6n Baez Soler, sub- 
secretary of Health and Public Welfare of the Dominican Republic; Dr. Justo 
F. Gonzalez, professor of medicine and member of the Congress of Hygiene of 
Montevideo , Uruguay; Dr. Joao Pedro de Albuquerque, director of public 
hygiene and vice-president of the League for Health of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Buenos Aires was selected as the next meeting place of the conference. 

In view of these resolutions and the active steps being planned 
toward their realization, we may look hopefully forward to the 
next Pan American Sanitary Conference, to be held in the city of 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 1930. 


HABANA, DECEMBER 8-13, 1927 

Little space was given by the press outside of Habana to the first 
of the series of Pan American congresses to be held this season in 
that beautiful city, a congress of physicians, educators, and social 
workers. Yet the formulation of fundamental principles of child- 
welfare work, the interchange of ideas and experience, the ties of 
friendship growing out of a week of close association, will have 
results perhaps no less far reaching than those of the larger congress 
of statesmen, diplomats, and experts in international law and inter- 
national commerce, which will assemble on January 16. 

The child congress, which met from December 8 to December 13 
under the auspices of the Government of Cuba, was the fifth such 
congress to be held ia a period of 11 years — the others having met 
in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, and Chile. The sixth congress will 
be held in Lima, Peru, in 1929. 

Official delegates from 14 American countries participated in the 
congress, and several papers by a delegate from a fifteenth country, 
Brazil, who was not able to be present^ were read. The President of 
Cuba, Gen. Gerardo Machado, was named honorary president of the 
congress, and the presidents of the other American Republics were 
also named honorary presidents. The president of the congress was 
the distinguished and beloved Cuban pediatrician. Dr. Angel A. 
Aballl, professor in the University of Habana and director of a chil- 
dren's clinic, and the secretary was Dr. Felix Hurtado, also professor 
of pediatrics in the university. Among the 15 other members of the 
organizing committee appointed by the Cuban Government and 
designated by the congress as its executive committee were the sec- 
retary of the National Department of Health and Charity, the 


director of the Pan American office of the State Department, a high 
official of the Department of Justice, members of the National Con- 
gress, pediatricians and educators, many of whom were professors in 
the university. The expense of the congress was borne by the Gov- 
ernment of Cuba. The excellent arrangements made by the organ- 
izing committee, the delightful entertainments given by the officials 
and cooperating organizations, and the spirit of hospitality and 
sincere friendship which prevailed, will long be remembered by 
those who were privileged to be delegates. Members of the United 
States delegation were especially grateful for the services of the 
excellent interpreter assigned by the executive committee. 

Although the United States participated in previous congresses, 
the Habana congress was the first Pan American Child Congress to 
be attended by a large number of North American delegates. Four- 
teen delegates designated by the United States Government and five 
representatives of other organizations were present, and the papers 
of five official delegates who at the last moment were unable to attend 
were read. Included in the United States delegation were repre- 
sentatives of three Federal bureaus, the State of Indiana, the Terri- 
tory of Porto Rico, and 10 private nation-wide organizations. Many 
of these organizations and several not represented in the delegation 
contributed to the child-welfare exhibit held in connection with 
the congress. The participation of so representative a delegation 
can not fail to result in greatly increased cooperation between the 
children's workers of North America and those of South America. 

Among the delegates from Latin-American countries were the 
director of the child-welfare service for infants and the director of the 
child-welfare service for older children of the national public assist- 
ance department of Uruguay, both connected with the International 
American Institute for the Protection of Childhood; a pioneer in 
methods of study and treatment of delinquent children in Argentina; 
the president of the pediatric society of Argentina; eminent pedia- 
tricians and public health workers from Peru; the chief of the depart- 
ment of psycho-pedagogy and health in the department of education 
of Mexico; and distinguished representatives of child-welfare activi- 
ties in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, 
Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela. 

Women were not included in the official delegations of any of the 
Spanish- American countries, though a woman served as secretary of 
one of the sections. Six of the fourteen official delegates from the 
United States and four of the five unofficial delegates were women. 
Several Cuban women participated in the plenary sessions and section 
meetings, presenting able and carefully prepared papers. 

The opening session of the Congress was under the presidency of 
the Secretary of State, Dr. Rafael Martinez Ortiz, who declared that 



In this building were held the " Concurso de Maternidad," and the child welfare exhibit, features of the 
Fifth Pan American Child Congress. A bust of Dr. Carlos Finlay, the noted Cuban scientist, occupies of the patio 

it is as necessary to have a national policy of education as it is to 
have a national policy of international relations. "It can even be 
said," he stated, ''that the second can not be well directed and 
positive if the first be entirely lacldng." 

Plenary sessions were held each morning, at which papers from 
the various sections were read. Afternoon sessions were held by 
each of the six sections — medicine, hygiene, education, sociology, 
psychology, and legislation. Twelve papers were read at the plenary 
sessions and more than 100 in the section meetings. The press of 



Habana rendered notable service in giving excellent reports of the 
papers and discussions. 

As a result of the deliberations, 120 resolutions, covering prac- 
tically all the subjects considered, were reported by the committee 
on conclusions and adopted by the congress. One of the most impor- 
tant commended the inauguration of the International American 
Institute for the Protection of Childhood in Montevideo and recom- 
mended that it receive the official support of the American Govern- 
ments that have not yet adhered. Another resolution recommended 
the erection of a statue in the Republic of Uruguay in "memory of 
the great master of Spanish-American youth, the great author, Jose 

Courtesy of Katharine F. Lenroot 



Enrique Rodo." Recommendations that laws for the protection of 
childhood be enacted and that child-welfare laws be harmonized and 
coordinated were adopted, as were detailed recommendations relating 
to the organization of juvenile courts. Some of the many other sub- 
jects covered by the resolutions were the following: Laws providing 
for rest before childbirth and aid to mothers during this period; 
investigation of paternity and the enforcement of parental responsi- 
bility; training of child-welfare workers; development of visiting 
teacher work; measures against poverty; infant mortality; Pasteur- 
ization of milk; and supervision of wet nurses and protection of 
their children. 

In his eloquent farewell address summarizing the work of the con- 
gress, Dr. Nester Carbonell, one of the vice presidents, emphasized 


the necessity of making these recommendations effective, and not 
merely so much worthless paper. "It is necessary/' he said, "that 
the American Governments which have not yet developed all their 
resources for the welfare of childhood should hasten to undertake 
the work of improvement. It is time to terminate that brutal law 
of selection existing in some of our countries, not by reason of the 
Spartan code, but for lack of protective laws for the mother and 
child and of real public health institutions; in a word, because they 
do not cultivate the health of the child, but view with indifference 
the empty cradles and the constant procession of little white coffins 
to the cemeteries." 

The Fifth Pan American Child 
Congress was notable for many \ " ** * * 
reasons, among which the follow- 
ing are deserving of special men- 

1. It was the first congress 
which could look to a permanent 
Pan American Children's Bureau 
to serve as a center of research 
and a clearing house of informa- 
tion between the meetings of the 
Child Congresses. The Interna- 
tional American Institute for the 
Protection of Childhood, which 
has been functioning in Monte- 
video since last July under the 
direction of the distinguished 
child specialist of Uruguay, Dr. 
Luis Morquio, is an outgrowth of 
the Child Congresses. Ten coun- 
tries are now represented on the 
governing board, and others have 
indicated their intention of be- 
coming members in the near 
future. It is hoped that suffi- 
cient resources will soon be forth- 
coming to enable the institute to become more completely organized 
for the important work assigned to it. 

2. The membership of the congress and its plan of organization 
were evidence that the child-welfare program in America is to be 
not only continuous, but well-rounded, viewing the child in all phases 
of his life and development — physical, intellectual, and social. The 
majority of the delegates were pediatricians, though lawyers and 
educators were also represented. It is to be noted that only the 
delegation from the United States included social workers, and that 

Courtesy of Katharine F. Lenroot 


The boy is carrying home a bottle of Pasteurized 
milk which is distributed by the department to 
the needy of Habana 


public-health nurses -were not included in any of the official delega- 
tions. These t-wo professions are in their infancy in Latin America, 
but the realization of the need for their development is keenly felt 
in many quarters, and very promising beginnings in establishing 
training centers have already been made. The plenary sessions en- 
abled the specialists in the different fields to "work together, thus 
becoming familiar "with the problems of other professions than their 
o"wn. The opportunities for interchange of experiences and points 
of view were much greater than in the fourth congress, in which all 
the technical discussions were in the specialized section meetings. 

3. It was evident that as a general rule child-welfare programs 
in Latin-American countries are to be public programs. It is true 
that numerous charitable institutions exist, and that some associa- 
tions are carrying on important pioneer work. On the whole, how- 


Courtesy of Katha-ine F. Lenroot 

ever, pioneer work in modern methods of maternity and infant 
hygiene and child care is being developed by public departments. 
The Government of Uruguay, a country with about 1,500,000 in- 
habitants, spends more than $8,000,000 a year for its department of 
public assistance, which has under its care over 5,000 dependent chil- 
dren. The Government of Cuba, with a population of about 
3,500,000, spends nearly $5,500,000 a year on its Department of 
Health and Charity, the secretary of which is a member of the 
President's cabinet. 

4. Recognition was given to the mothers themselves as the most 
important partners in any undertaking in behalf of children. A 
luncheon to promote interest in parent-teacher associations was given 
by Mrs. Margaretta Willis Reeve, of the United States delegation, 
and attended by practically all the delegates and many citizens of 


Habana. The most interesting feature of the congress was the 
"Concurso de Maternidad," an annual nation-wide contest in mater- 
nity and child care under the auspices of the Government of Cuba, 
which this year was held in conjunction with the child congress. 
Prizes were awarded by the President of Cuba in the National 
Theater, and later the delegates participated in the beautiful and 
touching homage to maternity in the stadium of the National Uni- 
versity, the prize-winning mothers receiving the homage of Govern- 
ment officials, the delegates to the child congress, society leaders, 
and school children. 

Naturally the experience of each international gathering like the 
child congress furnishes suggestions for the organization of future 
congresses. In the opinion of the writer, the time has now come to 
limit the program to fewer subjects, not attempting to cover all 
topics at each congress. For example, the organization of juvenile 
courts has been thoroughly considered by at least two congresses, 
and time should not be given to a theoretical discussion of this subject 
at the next congress. It would be most desirable, however, if brief 
reports could be made of actual progress in juvenile court organiza- 
tion in various countries since the preceding congress. The existence 
of the Child Welfare Institute in Montevideo should make it possible 
for the deliberations of future congresses to be less theoretical and 
more in the nature of a biennial taking stock of accomplishments 
and of goals yet to be reached. 

The plan of holding plenary sessions should be continued. The 
section organization should be reviewed and, in the opinion of the 
writer, the sociology and legislation sections should be combined 
into one section of social work. It is probable that most of the papers 
of the psychology section could be assigned either to the education 
or the social work sections. Public health nursing should be given 
adequate recognition in the hygiene section. 

Important as are the problems of childhood to individual and 
national well-being, the Pan American Child Congresses have an 
even wider significance. To quote again from the farewell address 
of Doctor Carbonell, the Director of the Pan American Office of the 
State Department: "The times in which we live are not propitious 
for isolation, but for association. ... If these congresses had no 
other result than the friendship of Americans of various regions, they 
would be worth while for this reason alone. In these congresses 
the man from the south becomes a friend of the man from the north, 
and between friends difficulties are easily resolved. . . . America 
some day will be one in justice, one in love, and one in the conquests 
of progress and of civilization." 

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OjBScial delegates of the United States to the Fifth Pan American 
Child Congress were as follows: 

Katharine F. Lenroot, assistant to the Chief, Children's Bureau, United States 
Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

Rodney H. Brandon, executive secretary, Loyal Order of Moose, Moose- 
heart, 111. 

C. C. Carstens, Ph. D., executive director. Child Welfare League of America, 
130 East Twenty-second Street, New York City; also representing the National 
Conference of Social Work. 

Charles L. Chute, general secretary, National Probation Association (Inc.), 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

Mary Dabney Davis, Ph. D., specialist in nursery-kindergarten-primary 
education. Bureau of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D. C. 

Arthur WiUiam Dunn, ^ national director, American Junior Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

A. Fern6s Isern, M. D., assistant commissioner of health. Government of 
Porto Rico, Department of Health, San Juan, Porto Rico. 

John Foote, M. D., professor diseases of children, Georgetown University 
Medical School, 1861 Mintwood Place, Washington, D. C; also representing the 
American Medical Association. 

Grover A. Kempf, M. D., surgeon, chief of field investigations in child hygiene 
of the Public Health Service, United States Department of the Treasury, 
Washington, D. C. 

Rose J. McHugh, director of field studies, department of social action. National 
Catholic Welfare Conference, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, D. C. 

Rev. Dr. John O'Grady, secretary. National Conference of Catholic Charities; 
director Catholic Charities of the District of Columbia, 305 Vermont Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Margaretta Willis Reeve, president, National Congress of Parents and 
Teachers, Ambler, Pa. 

Miss Anna E. Richardson, field worker in child development and parental 
education, American Home Economics Association, 617 Mills Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Frederic W. Schlutz, M. D., professor of pediatrics, University of Minnesota 
Medical School, and representative of the American Pediatric Society, 
121 Millard Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Ada E. Schweitzer, M. D., director, division of infant and child hygiene. 
State Board of Health, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Official delegates of the United States to the Fifth Pan American 
Child Congress who were not able to be present but whose papers 
were read: 

Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, Ph. D., professor of social economics, graduate 
school of social service administration. University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

John A. Lapp, Ph. D., professor of sociology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, 

Anna B. Pratt, director, the White- Wilhams Foundation, 1421 Race Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

1 Died Nov 15. 


Frank Howard Richardson, M. D., fellow of the American College of Physicians, 
102 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In addition to the foregoing, the following delegates, official and 
of private organizations in the United States, also attended the 
Fifth Pan American Child Congress: 

Miss Marguerite Boylan, executive secretary of the Diocesan Bureau of Social 
Service, 244 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Mrs. E. E. Kiernan, national corresponding secretary. National Congress of 
Parents and Teachers, 5996 Woodbine Avenue, Overbrook, Pa. 

Mrs. J. K. Sparkman, Cayo de la Rosa, Hoyo Colorado, Cuba, representing 
the International Federation of Home and School. 

Miss Elsie Mae Willsey, University of Porto Rico, Rio Piedras, P. R. 

Mrs. Francisco Vizcarrondo, department of education, San Juan, P. R. 


HABANA, DECEMBER 21-23, 1927 

Convoked in compliance with a resolution of the Fifth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States (Santiago, 1923), the First 
Pan American Conference on Eugenics and Homoculture met in 
Habana, December 21, 22, and 23 of last year. Delegates of 15 
nations took part in the deliberations, which were under the presi- 
dency of Dr. Francisco Maria Fernandez, Secretary of Health and 
Charity of the Republic of Cuba. The secretary general was Dr. 
Domingo F. Ramos, whose paper advocating a Pan American asso- 
ciation of eugenics and homoculture, read before the Sixth Latin 
American Medical Congress, gave rise to the introduction of the 
subject in the Santiago conference. 

Important among the numbers on the program were addresses by 
Dr. Charles B. Davenport, director of the eugenics record office of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, on "Racial Crosses," and 
by His Excellency Dr. Manuel Bianchi, Minister of Chile in Cuba, 
on "the physical training of the Chilean armed forces." Both 
addresses were accompanied by motion-picture films. 

Several sessions were devoted to the discussion of a "Project for 
Pan American Bases of Eugenics and Homoculture." This project, 
as approved, contained 23 paragraphs advocating, among other 
things, the following: 

Establishment in Habana of a Pan American bureau of eugenics 
and homoculture; the foundation of national institutes of anthro- 
pology and homoculture; popular education in eugenics, homocul- 
ture and social problems; standards for the anthropological classi- 
fication of man in the Americas; the passage of laws by the American 
Republics excluding immigrants biologically unfit; the pre-nuptial 
medical certificate; a month's rest for women before and after 


childbirth; breast feeding for babies; pure milk supply; physical 
training in schools and other institutions; and a course in all medical 
schools in eugenics and homoculture. 

In compliance with the clause in the resolution passed by the 
Fifth Conference of American States which provides that the "First 
Inter- American Conference on Eugenics and Homoculture shall elect 
an executive board to be called the 'Inter-American Bureau on 
Eugenics and Homoculture/ which shall have its seat in the city 
to be named by said conference," the Conference on Eugenics and 
Homoculture designated as provisional members of this bureau the 
Cuban delegation to that conference, this nomination to await the 
action of the Sixth International Conference of American States, 
now meeting in Habana. 

The delegates to the Conference on Eugenics and Homoculture 
united with the officials of the Fifth Pan American Child Welfare 
Congress, the Seventh National Medical Congress, and the Cuban 
Medical Press Conference in presenting to President Machado of 
Cuba a gold plaque, in token of their appreciation for the generous 
hospitality of which they were the recipients in the beautiful Cuban 

Visits to hospitals and other interesting institutions in combina- 
tion with numerous social events, notably a luncheon offered by 
Dr. Francisco M. Fernandez, rounded out the program of the Con- 
ference on Eugenics and Homoculture, which adjourned to meet in 
Buenos Aires not later than 1930. 

79371— 28— Bull. 2- 


Por Joyce Kilmer (United States) 

Imagino que nunca me serd, dado ver 
un poema tan hello coma un drhol. Su ser 

lo amamantan los jugos de la tierra feraz 

que en sus venas circulan como savia en agraz. 

El drhol, cara al cielo, contempla a su Creador 
con sus velludos brazos en extasis de amor. 

El drhol, en los ortos del Estio es un don 
coronado de trinos en loca floracion. 

Vive en manso connuhio con la lluvia otonal; 
cuelga la nieve de su armino virginal. 

Poemas son hechuras de simples como yo: 
ipero un drhol! un drhol sdlo Dios lo creo! 

— Revista de Educacion agosto a octubre. 
1926, La Plata, Argentina. 

Por Amado Nervo (Mexico) 
iSi una espina me Mere, me aparto de la espina 
pero no la ahorrezco! Cuando la mezquindad 
envidiosa en mi clava los dardos de su inquina, 
esquivase en silencio mi planta, y se encamina 
hacia mds puro amhiente de amor y caridad. 

jRencores! sDe que sirven? SQue logran los rencoresi 
Ni restanan heridas, ni corrigen el mal. 
Mi rosal tiene apenas tiempo para dar flores 
y no prodiga savias en pinchos punzadores. 
Si pasa mi enemigo cerca de mi rosal, 

se llevard las rosas de mds sulil esencia, 

y si notare en ellas algun rojo vivaz, 

Jserd el de aquella sangre que su malevolencia 

de ayer vertio, al herirme con encono y violencia, 

y que el rosal devuelve, trocada en flor de paz! 


TIONS OF amf:]^ican 


By Joyce Kilmer {United States) 

I think that I shall never see 
A poem lovely as a tree. 

A tree whose hungry mouth is prest 
Against the earth's sweet flowing breast; 

A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 

A tree that may in Summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair; 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 
Who intimately lives with rain. 

Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only God can make a tree. 

By Amado Nervo (Mexico) 

// a thorn wounds me, I draw back from it: 

I do not hate the thorn. If, hating me. 
Some base hand pierces me with malice blind, 
Silent I turn away, and go to find 

A purer air of love and charity. 

Rancor? For what? Has good e'er sprung from it? 

No wound it staunches, puts no evil right. 
Scarce has my rosetree time to bear its flowers, 

It wastes no vital sap on thorns of spite. 

And if my foe should near my rosetree pass 

He shall pick from it many a fragrant bud; 
And if he sees in them a vivid red. 

The tint will be the redness of my blood — 

Blood drawn by his ill will of yesterday, 

In hatred that it seemed could never cease, 
And which the rosetree now in perfume sweet 
Returns to him, changed to a flower of peace! 

( — Translation by Alice Stone Blackwell.) 



For Enrique Hernandez Miyares (Cuba) 

Que siga el caballero su camino 
agravios desfaciendo con su lanza; 
todo noble teson al cabo alcanza 
fijar las justas leyes del destino. 
Cdlate el roto yelmo de Mambrino 
y en tu rocin glorioso altivo avanza, 
desoye al refranero Sancho Panza 
y en tu brazo confia y en tu sino. 

No temas la esquivez de la Forluna; 
si el caballero de la Blanca Luna 
medir sus armas con las tuyas osa 
y te derriba por contraria suerte, 
de Dulcinea, en ansias de tu muerte, 
di que siempre serd la mas fermosa! 

Por Leopoldo Lugones (Argentina) 

Al llegar la hora esperada 
En que de amarla me muera, 
Que dejen una palmera 
Sobre mi tumba plantada. 

Asi, cuando todo calle, 
En el olvido disuelto, 
Recordard el tronco esbelto 
La elegancia de su tails. 

En la copa, que su alteza 
Doble con melancolia, 
Se abatird la sombria 
Dulzura de su cabeza. 

Entregard con ternura 
La flor, al viento sonoro, 
El mismo reguero de oro 
Que dejaba su hermosura. 

Y sobre el paramo yerto, 
Parecerd que su aroma 
La planta florida ioma 
Para aliviar al desierto. 

Y que con deleite blando, 
Hasta el nomade versdtil 
Va en la dulzura del ddtil 
Sus dedos de ambar besando. 

Como un suspiro al pasar, 
Palpitando entre las hojas, 
Murmurard mis congojas 
La brisa crepuscular. 

Y mi recuerdo ha de ser, 
En su angustia sin reposo, 
El pdjaro misterioso 

que vuelve al anochecer. 



By Enrique Hernandez Miyares (Cuba) 

Keep on thy way, knight, with courage free, 
Redressing wrongs and griefs with mighty spear! 
All noble firmness brings at last more near 
The founding of just laws in equity. 
Mambrino's broken helmet take to thee; 
Ride forward, proud, elated, without fear; 
To Sancho Panza's proverbs lend no ear. 
Trust in thine arm and in thy destiny. 

For the disdain of Fortune have no care; 

And if the Knight of the White Moon should dare 

Measure his arms with thine, and thou shouldst fall 

By evil fate, say with thy latest breath. 

Of Dulcinea, ^mid the pangs of death, 

That she will ever be most fair of all! 

( — Translation by Alice Stone Blackwell.) 

By Leopoldo Lugones (Argentina) 

When comes the hour I long for, 

When I shall die of love. 
Then let them leave a palm tree 

Planted my grave above. 

For thus, when reigns deep silence, 

Oblivion covering all. 
The trunk, so tall and shapely, 

Will her fair form recall. 

Its crown of leaves, that^sadly 

Droop from their height in air. 
Will be her head's dark sweetness, 

Down bending towards ?ne there. 
And tenderly the blossoms 

Will strew upon the ivind 
The selfsame golden traces 

Her beauty left behind. 

The flowering tree that stands there 

Amid the desert drear, 
Will seem to take her fragrance 

The wilderness to cheer. 
And even the wandering nomad, 

With soft and quiet bliss. 
Will seem her amber fingers 

In the sweet dates to kiss. 

And like a sigh in passing, 

The twilight breeze that blows, 
Among the branches throbbing. 

Will murmur of my woes; 
And my remembrance, grieving 

Forevermore, will be 
The mystic bird, at nightfall 

Returning to the tree. 

( — -Translation by Alice Stone Blackwell.) 



For Jorge Hubner (Chile) 

La milsica del rio llena de llanto humano 
por los campos nocturnos, como un ensueno yerra, 
y les cuenta a los tristes que a un hondo mar lejano 
van llevando sus aguas el dolor de la tierra. 

Los dolientes lo saben liquida luz de estrellas 
que despenan al valle las cirnas de los monies, 
y de pie ante sus aguas su alma se va por ellas 
en un vertiginoso devenir de horizontes. 

Va como los cristianos a cumplir su desiino, 
y oculta sus combates entre gasas de bruma, 
y cuando lo desgarran las rocas del camino 
embellece a las rocas con sus chales de espuma. 

Cuando la soledad temblorosa de frio 
comience a deshojar las flores de mi ruta, 
dime como fundiste dos rios en un rio 
/maestro melodioso de la union absoluta! 

Y cuando mi inquietud llore por el descanso 
dime como aquietaste tus aguas tormentosas, 
y adormire mis dias en la paz de un remanso 
donde el recuerdo flote con la levedad de rosas . . . 


Por JuANA DE Ibarbourou (Uruguay) 

SQu4 es esto? iProdigio! Mis manos florecen; 
rosas, rosas, rosas a mis dedos crecen. 
Mi amante besome las manos, y en ellas 
ioh, gracia! brotaron rosas como estrellas. 

Y murmura al verme la gente que pasa: 
SNo veis que estd loca? Tornadla a su casa. 
/Dice que en las manos le han nacido rosas 
y las va agitando como mariposas! 

/Ah, la gente necia que nunca comprende 
un milagro de estos, y que solo entiende 
que no nacen rosas mas que en los rosales 
y que no hay mas trigo que el de los trigales! 

Que me digan loca, que en celda me encierren; 
que con siete Haves la puerta me cierren; 
que junto a la puerta pongan un lebrel, 
carcelero rudo, carcelero fiel. 

Cantare lo mismo: Mis manos florecen, 
rosas, rosas, rosas a mis dedos crecen ... 
/Y toda mi celda tendrd la fragancia 
de un inmenso ramo de rosas de Francia! 


By Jorge Hubner (Chile) 

The music of the river, full of our human wee-ping, 

Through dark fields in the nighttime goes wandering like a dreatn. 

And says to those who sorrow that to afar, deep ocean 

The woe and anguish of the world are home upon its stream. 

Those that are heavy hearted know it is liquid starlight 

Which the high forest summits into the vale downpour. 
They stand beside its waters and let their souls float with them 

Through new and strange horizons, swift changing evermore. 

On to fulfill its destiny it journeys, like the Christians; 

It hides its conflicts in light mists, that o'er the surface play; 
And when the rocks along its course with sharp teeth rend it fiercely, 

It beautifies the rugged rocks with veils of shining spray. 

When loneliness that shivers with cold begins to scatter 
The petals of my wayside fiowers, as I go journeying on, 

thou melodious master of full and perfect union. 
Then tell me how thou blendest two rivers into one! 

When weary grows my restlessness, then tell me how thou stillest 
Thy rough, tempestuous billows with stormy foam agleam; 

And I ivill put my days to sleep in a stretch of quiet water, 
Where memory floats as lightly as the roses on the stream. 

( — Translated by Alice Stone Blackwell.) 


By JuANA DE Ibarbourou (Uruguay) 

Oh, what is this? A miracle! My hands are blossoming. 
See, roses, roses, roses forth from my fingers spring! 
My lover kissed my hands, and then a charm ivrought silently; 
Upon them fiowers came softly out, as stars do in the sky. 

And now the people murmur who behold me as I roam: 
"Don't you see that she is crazy? Poor woman! Send her home. 
She says that roses from her hands are born in wondrous ivise. 
And as she goes she waves them, like flitting butterflies." 

Ah, foolish, foolish people, with minds too dull and slow 
To grasp a marvel such as this! Alas, they only know 
That nowhere save on rosebushes are born red roses sweet, 
And only in the wheat flelds men gather ears of wheat. 

But let them call me crazy, and shut me in a cell. 

And lock the door with seven keys, to close it fast and well; 

And let them set a watchdog beside the portal, too, 

A warder rough and savage, a warder tried and true. 

I still shall sing the same thing: "My hands are blossoming! 

Sweet roses, roses, roses out of my fingers spring!" 

And wondrous fragrance through my cell will breathe by night and day, 

As if 'twere filled with roses fair of France, a vast bouquet. 

( — 'Translated by Alice Stone Blackwell.) 

it A 

r!iv=i3 c 

MINAS GERAES, with an area of approximately 216,000 
square miles, and a population of 5,841,237 inhabitants, is 
one of Brazil's greatest States in area and its greatest in 
population, being about equal in both respects to the State 
of Texas. In colonial times, the wealth of Minas Geraes was derived 
from its deposits of gold and precious stones — whence its name, 
meaning "General Mines" — and while there is no doubt that its 
subsoil still holds prodigious mineral treasure, the people of that State 
have for many years depended on agriculture and stock raising as the 
basis of their prosperity. 

From the beginning of the present century each successive State 
administration has made the most strenuous efforts toward the 
modernization of agriculture through the establishment of agricultural 
schools and model farms employing up-to-date methods and ma- 

The establishment of the Gamelleira model farm in 1906, during 
the administration of Governor Joao Pinheiro da Silva, marks the 
beginning of an uninterrupted series of improvements in agricultural 
education, the result of which has been a complete transformation in 
agricultural methods, with immense gain to the farmers themselves 
and to the coffers of the State, the latter deriving the greater part of 
its revenue from agricultural interests. 

As now organized, agricultural education is offered by this State 
through the following agencies: Model farms and demonstration 
fields; farm schools for destitute boys; agricultural courses in other 
schools; and a college of agriculture, besides a large number of private 
agricultural schools subsidized and supervised by the State Govern- 


The chief purpose of the model farms and demonstration fields is 
to provide facilities for training in farming or cattle raising, depending 
on which of the two is more important in the respective region. 

Model farms are of four types, occupying, respectively, a minimum 
area of 86, 215, 420, or 688 acres. The instruction in these types 

1 Condensed from O Ensino Agronomico no Estado do Minas Geraes, 1925. 


varies progressively, according to the size of the farm, from the 
teaching of the simplest aspects of agriculture with the use of the 
simplest implements, up through successive grades to a curriculum 
offering thorough instruction in agriculture and in the use of many 
kinds of implements and machinery for the cultivation of crops and 
the preparation of their products. The primary object of these farms 
and the schools connected therewith is to teach agriculture to young 
men intending to take up farming in a modern scientific way. A 
number of courses, however, especially those devoted to practical 
work, are open to laborers sent by their employers to the model farms 
to secure training calculated to increase their usefulness in farm work. 
Regular students who wish to do so may take an examination at the 
end of the 10 months' course, successful candidates being entitled to a 
Government certificate accrediting them as teachers of farming. 
Each of the five students scoring the highest marks during the course 
and in the examination is awarded one of the best farm lots in any one 
of the State colonies. All model farms are provided with pedigreed 
breeding stock, which is also used for the benefit of the neighboring 


One of the most interesting aspects of agricultural education in the 
State of Minas Geraes is presented by the farm schools for destitute 
boys. Serving both as homes and schools, these six state-supported 
institutions have a capacity of 345 boys between the ages of 8 and 12 
who, as a rule, are sent out into the world at the age of 17, although 
sometimes not until they are 21. The schools are of the cottage 
system so as to give the boys as nearly a normal family life as possible. 
Two years after entrance each boy's work is given a money value, of 
which 70 per cent is returned to the school, the boy thus learning to 
pay for his education and other needs; 15 per cent is put in the State 
Savings Bank in order to provide him with a small capital when he 
begins life for himself; 10 per cent goes to a reserve fund for improving 
the school and establishing others of the same type — the student thus 
passing on to others some of the benefits he has received; while the 
remaining 5 per cent is given to the boy to spend as may be necessary. 
A regular scholastic program of instruction in agriculture and in a 
supplementary trade is carried out. 


Complementary agricultural courses were created by a decree of 
October 13, 1925, the prime object of which is to provide class instruc- 
tion and practical training in agricultural subjects. Many of their 
activities are also important from a purely cultural point of view. 


These courses include: Physics and chemistry; natural history; 
drawing; agronomy; and farm accounting, each treated at length. 
Under agronomy is included a multitude of matters of a general 
nature but presenting particular aspects of local and regional interest 
in the State, such as improvement of soil by tillage, clearing by fire 
and objections thereto, draining, destruction of weeds, irrigation, and 
manuring; the intensive study of corn, rice, tobacco, manioc, sugar 
cane, forage plants, and other crops of special interest to that State. 
Cattle raising is studied with all the care that it deserves in a region 
peculiarly fitted by nature for that industry. The courses also 
embrace the study of rural health and hygiene, with particular refer- 
ence to the future of the race and the country. 


This school dates from 1920. As its name implies, it is devoted to 
higher education in agriculture. It includes 12 departments: 
Veterinary science and medicine, stock raising, agronomy, horticul- 
ture, phytopathology, insect pests and soils, rural engineering, agri- 
cultural chemistry, forestry, mathematics, Portuguese and Brazilian 
history. The school, which is housed in a magnificent building not 
far from Vigosa, is well equipped for each of its activities. 


The Instituto Agricola de Lavras, which is affiliated with the 
Instituto Evangelico near the city of Lavras, is worthy of particular 
mention. This institute, founded 32 years ago, is an outgrowth of the 
Collegio Internacional, established by an American organization at 
Campinas, in the State of Sao Paulo, in 1869. It began its activities 
in Lavras as a school for girls, afterwards taking the name of ''Collegio 
Carlota Kemper," in honor of that venerable educator, a native of 
Virginia, who devoted more than 40 years of her life to the education 
of Brazilian youth. In 1904 a boys' school was founded in connec- 
tion with the collegio, which a few years later was granted a charter 
placing it on a par with the Collegio de Pedro II, in Rio de Janeiro. 
Ipso facto, its credits receive recognition at all establishments of 
higher education throughout the Republic. The agricultural school, 
founded in 1908 and governed by a board of trustees duly incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the country, offers a four-year course modeled 
after that given by the Federal Government. 

The "Aprendizado Agricola Carlos Prates" is another institution 
worthy of mention here. Situated in the muncipality of Theophilo 
Ottoni, it was founded in colonial times by Capuchin friars, who 
devoted themselves to the conversion and education of the Indians, 
establishing a colony and training school at that place. Although 



the school has been reorganized, it continues to be administered by 
the religious order which founded it. Like all other subsidized schools 
it is imder the supervision of the State government. 

Among other important subsidized schools which limitation of 
space permits us only to mention, are: The Aprendizado Agricola 
Leopoldina, a boarding and day school in the vicinity of Leopoldina; 
the Aprendizado Agricola Eduardo do Amaral, near Porto Alegre, 
subsidized by a recent decree; the Aprendizado Agricola Delfim 
Moreira which, although small, is faithfully carrying out the purposes 
for which it was established; the Collegio Agricola Sao Francisco, 
an admirable institution near Conceigao, in the northern part of the 
State; and the tobacco demonstration farm at Ligagao, which has all 
kinds of equipment for use in experiments concerned with the tobacco 
culture and industry. 

Besides the above school and demonstration farms, the State has 
a number of cooperative cotton fields, the object of which is to provide 
centers for special study of such subjects as methods of culture, 
control of pests, selection of varieties, and the best methods for the 
preparation of the product. 

The present sketch as has been stated affords a' mere glimpse 
of the agricultural school system in Minas Geraes. It is hoped, how- 
ever, that some idea may be obtained of the scope of agricultural 
teaching in this State and of the complete transformation it is 
effecting in the economic life of that important unit in the Brazilian 

:: tAi 1 



SINCE in all the countries forming the area commonly known as 
Latin America the library has long been recognized as a 
' necessary aid in the general intellectual development of the 
people, from the earliest times the Governments have encour- 
aged the establishment and maintenance of such collections. This 
was equally as true during the colonial period under the Spanish 
regime as since independence, for as early as 1551 the Viceroy of 
Peru established what is believed to be the first library in the West- 
ern Hemisphere, a library which is still in existence. One of the 
earliest acts of that great hero, San Martin, looking toward the 
improvement of a people just liberated, was to found a library. 
Other libraries established in 1600, 1614, 1654, and 1692 are still 

To-day modern library progress is to be observed in practically 
all Latin American countries— beautiful, modern buildings that are 
the last word in library architecture; classification in accordance 
with one of the several systems recognized as authoritative; extension 
work; and the keenest desire on the part of the respective librarians 
that their organizations perform real service to the people of their 
cities. In one country many thousands of dollars have been spent 
during the past few years in providing libraries for every town in the 
Republic, and from another thousands of volumes of national liter- 
ature have been distributed to notable libraries throughout the 

To enable students of library affairs to gain some idea of the 
immense stores of volumes in the Latin American countries the Pan 
American Union sent a questionnaire to a selected list of libraries, 
with the result shown in the following statistical table. This ques- 
tionnaire was not a survey of library matters in general, but a pre- 
liminary inquiry on the part of the Union, with the expectation that 
the result will point the way for more extended work in the future. 
The table, which lists 106 libraries containing 4,791,407 titles,^ we 
believe to be the first ever compiled for Latin America. Since it is 
confessedly incomplete and some of the figures are evidently esti- 
mates, any subsequent list will undoubtedly show many changes. 
The supplementary list of libraries for which statistics are not yet 
available was also prepared from original source material. 

1 Prepared by Charles E. Babcock, librarian of tlie Pan American Union. 

2 Data covering 70 additional Mexican libraries now in hand.— Editor's note. 






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Libraries for which statistics are not yet available 



Biblioteca Bernardino Rivadavia. 
Biblioteca de "Los Estudiantes." 
Biblioteca del Partido Socialista. 
Biblioteca del Pueblo Unido. 
Biblioteca Mariano Moreno. 
Biblioteca Municipal. 


Biblioteca de la Asociacion Bernardino 

Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho y 

Ciencias Sociales. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Medicina. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Filosofia y 

Biblioteca de la Naci6n. 
Biblioteca de la Sociedad Luz. 
Biblioteca de Policla. 
Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional. 
Biblioteca del Consejo de Educacion. 
Biblioteca del Jockey Club. 
Biblioteca del Museo Mitre. 
Biblioteca Juridica Argentina. 
Biblioteca "Mariana Chertkoff." 
Biblioteca Nacional de Maestros. 
Biblioteca Nacional de Marina. 
Biblioteca Obrera. 
Biblioteca Sarmiento. 


Biblioteca de la Legislatura. 
Biblioteca de las Facultades de Derecho, 

Medicina, e Ingenieria. 
Biblioteca "General Paz." 
Biblioteca "Velez Sarsfield." 


Biblioteca Ateneo Estudiantil. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho. 
Biblioteca del Museo. 
Biblioteca Martin Iraola. 
Biblioteca Mendelssohn. 
Biblioteca Obrera. 
Biblioteca Sarmiento. 
Biblioteca Tipogrdfica. 
Biblioteca V. Serras Prats. 

Biblioteca del Consejo Nacional de 

Biblioteca Mariano Moreno. 
Biblioteca Publica de la Facultad de 

Ciencias Economicas. 


Biblioteca de la Asociaci6n de Em- 
pleados Piiblicos de la Provincia. 

Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho. 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad Cosmopolita 
de S. Mutuos. 

Biblioteca de la Universidad del Litoral. 

Biblioteca "Emilio Zola." 

Biblioteca Popular Monteagudo. 


Biblioteca Alberdi. 

Biblioteca del Circulo del Magisterio. 

Biblioteca Sarmiento. 


Biblioteca de la Academia Aymard,. 

Biblioteca de la Compania de Jesus. 

Biblioteca de la Oficina de Estadistica 
y Propaganda. 

Biblioteca de la Oficina Nacional de 
Inmigracion y Estadistica. 

Biblioteca de la Recoleta. 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad Geografica. 

Biblioteca de la Universidad. 

Biblioteca de la Universidad Mayor de 
San Andres. 

Biblioteca del "Centro MiUtar." 

Biblioteca del Colegio de Abogados. 

Biblioteca del Convento de San Fran- 

Biblioteca del Museo Nacional. 

Biblioteca y Museo Pedag6gicos. 


Biblioteca Arana. 

Biblioteca de la Escuela Normal de la 

Biblioteca de la Excelentfsima Corte 

Suprema de Justicia. 



Biblioteca de la Recoleta. 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad Geografica 

Biblioteca de la Universidad de San 

Francisco Xavier. 
Biblioteca de San Felipe Neri. 
Biblioteca del Colegio Nacional Junin. 
Biblioteca del Institute Medico Sucre. 
Biblioteca "Gabriel Rene Moreno." 
Biblioteca Iturricha. 
Biblioteca "O. Ernesto Riick." 
Biblioteca Piiblica. 


Bibliotheca da Faculdade de Medi- 

cina da Bahia. 
Bibliotheca do Gabinete Portuguez de 



Bibliotheca do Gabinete de Leitura. 

Bibliotheca de Gayama. 
Bibliotheca de Nazareth. 
Bibliotheca de Pau d'Atho. 


Bibliotheca da Associagao dos Empre- 

gados no Commercio. 
Bibliotheca da Camara dos Deputados. 
Bibliotheca da Escola Militar. 
Bibliotheca da Escola Nacional de 

Bellas Artes. 
Bibliotheca da Escola Polytechnica. 
Bibliotheca da Faculdade de Direito. 
Bibliotheca da Sociedade de Geogra- 

phia do Rio de Janeiro. 
Bibliotheca da Uniao Catholica Brasi- 

Bibliotheca do Club Germania. 
Bibliotheca do Club MiHtar. 
Bibliotheca do Club Naval. 
Bibliotheca do Conselho Municipal. 
Bibliotheca do Convento do Carmo. 
Bibliotheca do Departamento Nacional 

de Sadde Publica. 
Bibliotheca do Exercito. 
Bibhotheca do Externato do CoUegio 

Pedro II. 
Bibliotheca do Institute da Ordem dos 

Advogados Brasileiros. 



Pedro II. 





do Institute Nacional de 

do Internato do CoUegio 

do Jardim Botanico. 
do Museu Nacional. 
do Supremo Tribunal Fe- 

do Supremo Tribunal Mili- 



Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. 



da Camara Municipal, 
da Escola Polytechnica. 
da Faculdade de Direito. 
da For§a Publica. 
da Secretaria de Agri- 

do Museu do Estado. 


Bibliotheca do Gabinete de Leitura, 

Bibliotheca do Gabinete de Leitura. 


Biblioteca del Liceo de Hombres de 


Biblioteca Publica de Concepcidn. 


Biblioteca del Liceo de Hombres de 


Biblioteca del Liceo de Hombres de 
La Serena. 


Biblioteca de la Escuela de Derecho. 
Biblioteca de la Recoleta Dominica. 
Biblioteca de la Sociedad de Fomento 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad Nacional de 




Biblioteca del Institute Pedag6gico. 
Biblioteca del Seminario Conciliar. 

Biblioteca del Liceo de Hombres de 


Biblioteca Publica de Valparaiso 
(Severin) . 


Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de 

Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Medicina. 
Biblioteca del Gimnasio Moderno. 
Biblioteca del Seminario Conciliar. 
Biblioteca "Jorge Pombo." 

Costa Rica 


Biblioteca de la Corte Suprema de 

Biblioteca del Colegio de Seiioritas. 
Biblioteca del Liceo de Costa Rica. 


Biblioteca de la Asociacion de Depen- 

Biblioteca de la Gran Logia. 
Biblioteca del Centre Asturiano. 
Biblioteca del Centre Balear. 
Biblioteca del Centro Valenciano. 
Biblioteca del Centro Vasco. 
Biblioteca del Circulo Medico. 
Biblioteca del Club Atenas. 
Biblioteca del Ejercite. 
Biblioteca Municipal. 
British Club Library. 


Biblioteca de la Colonia Espanola. 
Biblioteca de la Instituci6n Luz y 

Biblioteca del Institute de Segunda 




Biblioteca Amador Baquerizo. 
Biblioteca de Autores Nacionales. 
Biblioteca de la Asociaci6n Escuela de 

Medicina y la de Derecho. 
Biblioteca del Colegio Vicente Roca- 

Biblioteca Gonzdlez Rubio. 


Biblioteca de la Universidad Central. 
Biblioteca de Relaciones Exteriores. 
Biblioteca del Clero. 
Biblioteca del Colegio Mejia. 
Biblioteca Municipal. 


guatemala city 

Biblioteca Nacional del Partido Libe- 
ral Federalista. 


Biblioteca Publica. 

mexico city 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad "Antonio 

Biblioteca de la Sociedad Geogrdfica 

y Estadistica. 



Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Agua- 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Anton. 


BibHoteca Escolar Popular de Bocas 
del Tore. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Chitr^. 


BibHoteca Escolar Popular de la 



Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Col6n. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de La 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de David. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Reme- 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Las 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Nombre 
de Dios. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Pes6. 


Biblioteca de la Escuela de Artes y 

Biblioteca de la Escuela Normal de 

Biblioteca de la Escuela Profesional. 
Biblioteca del Centre Escolar Manuel 

Amador Guerrero. 
Biblioteca del Instituto Nacional de 



Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Peno- 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de San 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Santiago. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Sond. 


Biblioteca Escolar Popular de Taboga. 

Biblioteca Americana. 

Biblioteca de la Escuela de Ingenieros. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Medicina. 
Biblioteca de la Sociedad Geografica. 
Biblioteca del Club de la Uni6n. 
Biblioteca del Instituto Hist6rico. 
Biblioteca Municipal. 
Biblioteca Obrera. 


san salvador 

Biblioteca Municipal. 



Biblioteca de Arquitectura, Universidad 

de Montevideo. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Ingenierfa. 
Biblioteca de la Facultad de Medicina. 
Biblioteca de la Seccion de Enseiianza 

Biblioteca de los Maestros. 
Biblioteca del Ateneo de Montevideo. 
Biblioteca del Circulo de la Prensa. 
Biblioteca Municipal. 


Biblioteca de la Academia de la Lengua. 
Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de 

Biblioteca de la Alta Corte Federal. 
Biblioteca de la Escuela de Derecho. 
Biblioteca de la Universidad Central de 

Biblioteca del Arzobispado. 
Biblioteca del Club Venezuela. 
Biblioteca del Colegio de Abogados. 
Biblioteca del Colegio de Ingenieros. 



i^..\ Oli ^iriiii^ 

UNUSUAL interest from the Pan American standpoint attache? 
to the meeting of the executive committee of the board of 
governors, League of Red Cross Societies, held at head- 
quarters in Paris, September 30 and October 1 last. Of 
the 1 1 members present on that occasion three were Latin Americans : 
Senor E. J. Conill of the Cuban Red Cross, one of the vice chairmen; 
Professor Calderon of the Colombian Red Cross, and Senor Pani of 
the Mexican society. 

After discussing and taking action upon a full report on the interna- 
tional Red Cross situation — which for lack of space can not be given 
here, notwithstanding its importance — and the reports of the secre- 
tariat for the period ending September 30, 1927, the committee 
approved a further report presented by the secretary general regarding 
the proposed activities of the secretariat in 1928, outlined as follows: 

The attention of the secretariat during the coming year should be 
concentrated more particularly upon closer and more effective 
collaboration with the national societies in carrying out activities 
already undertaken or planned by the latter. With this end in view, 
the executive committee has authorized the secretary general's 
proposal for a reorganization of the secretary general's office. This 
office, as from October 1, is divided into three bureaus — a bureau of 
general affairs, a Pan American bureau, and an administrative 

The Pan American bureau, for the English, Spanish, and Portu- 
guese speaking societies of America, and the bureau of general affairs 
for all other Red Cross Societies, will be especially charged with the 
study of problems of general interest to Red Cross Societies which 
lie outside the purview of the different technical divisions. These 
bureaus will work in close contact with the publication service and 
with the propaganda service, and will aim at collaborating with 
national societies, particularly in regard to such measures as the latter 
may contemplate for strengthening their membership and increasing 
the resources at their disposal. 

' Condensed from League of Red Cross Societies Information Bulletin, Paris, Oct. 15, 1927. 



Special efforts will be made by the secretary general's office 
during 1928 to secure the recognition of Red Cross Societies in the 
relatively few countries where the necessary formalities for this 
purpose have not yet been carried out. It is also intended that plans 
should be carefully worked out for more effective cooperation than has 
been possible in the past between the league secretariat and the 
Latin American Red Cross Societies. 

The propaganda service, while continuing its present activities, 
will concentrate more particularly upon the study of available prop- 
aganda material, with special reference to the material organization 
connected with the arrangement of ''Red Cross Weeks" or "Red 
Cross Days" by national societies. It is hoped that the study of 
this question will progress sufficiently during the course of the year 
to allow of the publication of a summary of the special methods 
employed in this connection in the different countries. Other studies 
of a general character will be undertaken with a view to the eventual 
publication of the general system of internal organization of the 
different national societies and the methods used by them, apart 
from the institution of special Red Cross Weeks or Days, for the 
purpose of raising funds. Plans in connection with the proposed 
production of a Red Cross propaganda film were also submitted to 
the executive committee, and approved. 

In regard to nursing, the plans sanctioned contemplate the intro- 
duction of certain improvements in the international nursing courses 
in London and the arrangement for the summer of 1928 of a "refresher 
course" for graduates of the international courses. The execution 
of this project has been made possible by a special grant from the 
American Red Cross for which the executive committee voted a 
hearty resolution of thanks, as also for its continuous support of the 
Junior Red Cross activities of certain European societies. 

The nursing division intends to make a detailed study of the 
nursing services afforded by the different national Red Cross Societies, 
and cherishes the hope that in 1929 it may be found desirable to 
convoke a conference of the directors of such services for the purpose 
of comparing methods and discussing the technical questions of 
special interest to these services. In all this work close relations 
will, of course, be maintained with the International Council of 

The Junior Red Cross division has been authorized to continue its 
activities as in the past. Its plans include the publication in 1928 of 
an illustrated Red Cross manual and of new Junior Red Cross posters. 
Special attention will be given to the study of international school 
correspondence methods, with a view to the convocation at a later 
date of a special conference to discuss the different problems presented 
by this important Red Cross activity. The division will continue to 


keep in close touch with modern educational movements and will be 
represented at educational conferences at which questions affecting 
the Junior Red Cross are tabled for discussion. It is also proposed to 
give special attention to plans for a further development of the Junior 
Red Cross in the Latin American countries and to assist a number of 
individual societies in putting into effect Junior projects in which they 
have expressed particular interest. The special subvention furnished 
by the American Red Cross for the furtherance of the Junior Red 
Cross movement in certain European countries will be administered by 
the Junior Red Cross division as in the past. The Laura Spelman 
Rockefeller Fund having intimated that it will not be able during 
1928 to provide any subvention to the League for Junior Red Cross 
purposes, the possibilities of obtaining support from other sources 
will be explored. 

The emigration division of Red Cross work will continue its study 
of migration problems in collaboration with other organizations con- 
cerned with these questions, and the results of its investigations will 
be made available in due course to the national Red Cross Societies 

The league secretariat has been authorized by a special resolution 
of the executive committee to participate actively in the organization 
of the Social Service Fortnight which is to be held in Paris in July, 
1928. Dr. Rene Sand, technical counsellor, will act as secretary 
general of the Social Service Conference and as one of the secretaries 
general of the Child Welfare Congress. 

At the meeting on October 1 Mr. van Slooten Azn, on behalf of 
the finance committee, presented the report of that committee, which 
was adopted by the executive committee. This report gave approval 
to the administration of the league's financial affairs during 1927, and 
the executive committee's resolution gave authority for continuing 
that administration on the same lines for the remainder of the year. 
The finance committee further reported in favor of the league's 
acquiring, by purchase or construction, a house in Paris as a permanent 
headquarters, and the executive committee instructed the secretariat 
to investigate possibilities in this direction. 

The budget for 1928, as approved by the finance committee and 
adopted by the executive committee, envisages a total expenditure 
for the general purposes of the league of a sum of $225,000 and of 
special funds to the amount of $50,000. 

Further resolutions authorize the undertaking of two missions 
of outstanding importance. It is hoped to obtain from the British 
Red Cross the loan of the services of Brig. Gen. H. B. Champain, 
secretary general of that society, to undertake visits, on the league's 
behalf, to the Red Cross Societies of Australia, New Zealand, and 
South Africa which no representative of the league has hitherto had 



occasion to visit; and the chief of the Pan American Bureau will 
visit those Central and South American countries whose Red Cross 
Societies have not as 3^et been visited by a league representative, or 
whose Red Cross committees, provisionally formed, have not yet 
completed the formalities necessary to obtain international recognition. 
It is expected that Mr. Larrosa, the chief of the Pan American bureau, 
will at the same time visit Habana during the sessions of the Sixth 
International Conference of American States in January, 1928, where, 
with Mr. Conill, vice chairman of the board of governors, he will estab- 
lish contact with the respective national delegations of this conference, 
on the agenda of which the question of Red Cross activities on the 
American continent occupies a prominent place. It is anticipated 
that, following this conference and the return of Mr. Larrosa from his 
visit to Central and South America, a special subcommittee consisting 
of Mr. Conill and Professor Calderon, in consultation with the Pan 
American Bureau, should formulate, for submission to the executive 
committee, plans covering the league's collaboration with Latin 
American societies during the coming year. 

From these and other plans in hand or under way it may be con- 
fidently expected that 1928, with respect to the enlargement of Red 
Cross work, particularly in Latin America, will be a "banner" year. 



IN San Juan de los Morros, State of Aragua, Venezuela, there are 
thermomineral springs of prehistoric fame whose empiric repu- 
tation has of late been reaffirmed through the chemical analysis 
of their waters by several well-known physicians and chemists. 
Among these may be mentioned the two able studies by Dr. Luis G. 
Blanc, of the Academy of Medicine, Paris, and Dr. G. Delgado 
Palacios, head of the chemical laboratory in the central office of the 
Venezuelan National Department of Health, on which the following 
account is largely based. 

The several virtues of the sulphur springs at San Juan de los 
Morros were so well appreciated in pre-Columbian times that the 

Venezuela's most famous thermo-mineeal springs 173 

Cacique Indians disputed their possession as a rare treasure. During 
the past century they have been visited by many distinguished 
explorers, among whom were Baron von Humboldt, Boussingault, 
Karsten, Ernst, and Vicente Marcano who, attracted by the strange 
geological formation in which these springs are located, investigated 
the chemical and therapeutic properties of the waters supplied. 
Moreover, reports of the numerous cures effected by their use have 
been so widespread that large numbers of people from the most 
remote points of the Republic come to the Morros de San Juan in 
search of the health which they have failed to find elsewhere. 

A two hours' ride over the 36 kilometers (kilometer equals 0.62 
miles) of well-constructed railroad, considered a daring engineering 
feat, brings the traveler from the port of La Guaira to Caracas, and 


Modern hostelry at the famous hot sulphur springs of Venezuela. This resort, within convenient reach 
of La Guaira and Caracas by railroad and motor highway, boasts a temperate and healthful climate 

from the Valley of Caracas, situated to the south of the coastal range 
at an altitude of from 850 to 1,050 meters (meter equals 3.28 feet) 
above sea level, with a pleasant and healthful climate, direct com- 
munication may be made by train to the point on the Valencia line 
which is connected by an automobile highway with Los Morros. 
There is also a splendid macadam highway leading up from La 
Guaira to the hot springs. 

The Morros de San Juan consist of a series of peaks the largest of 
which, more or less vertical and shaped like an obelisk, rises to an 
altitude of 1,015 meters above sea level. It is composed of masses 
of yellow marble covered by dense vegetation the intense verdure 
and variety of which are in strong contrast with the yellow slopes 
and peaks they clothe. 



At the base and toward the east side of the Morros are a series of 
five small hills called "Los Morritos," (the little Morros) which are 
formed of the same marble, have the same cavernous structure, and 
are as thickly forested as Los Morros. It is at the foot of these 
hills that the hot mineral spring of San Juan de los Morros gushes 
forth with a flow of 164,500 liters (liter equals LOO quarts) per day 
or L9 liters per second. To the east of the Morros de San Juan, 
at a distance of 20 kilometers, are the sulphur springs of the Morros 
de San Sebastian and, farther on in the same direction, the Morros 
de la Santa Cruz and the Guarume hot springs. , 

The Morros de San Juan springs form a great transparent pool 
6 by 13.5 meters with a depth varying from 1.50 to 2.14 meters, 

The Morros de San Juan consist of several peaks, the highest of which rises to an altitude of 3,300 feet 

the bottom of which is covered by thick black mud, streaked in 
spots with various colors, ranging from pale yellow to dark blue. 
Brought to the surface, this mud, which is reputed to possess cur- 
ative virtues, turns perfectly black. 

On approaching the pool one detects the presence of hydrogen- 
sulphite, an odor which causes the people who live near by to call it 
the pool of ''stinking water." To the taste, however, it is noticeably 
sweet, leaving an itching sensation on the tongue and lips which 
together with a slightly bitter and metallic flavor often lasts several 

During recent years General Juan Vicente Gomez, Constitutional 
President of Venezuela, has arranged for the construction of modernly 
appointed baths and a high-class hotel at San Juan de los Morros 

Venezuela's most famous theemo-minekal spkings 175 

which has already become a popular resort visited by Venezuelans 
and foreigners alike. 

The pool or tank is now located within the bathhouse, being 
raised slightly above the individual baths. These latter, which are 
32 in number, are in separate rooms, are of sufficient size to contain 
800 liters of water, and have been equipped with everything needed 
to make the operation of bathing both comfortable and pleasant. 

The greater part of the water is of a distinctly bluish color, the 
temperature in the outermost circle of the pool being 32° C. (89.6° 
F.), and in the center near the pipe which feeds the baths, 33° C. 
(91.4° F.) at the surface, and 37° C. (98.66° F) at the bottom, where 
the water and gases gush forth. At the beginning of the last century 
Baron von Humboldt, who was the first to test the temperature of 
these waters, found them to be 31.3° C. (88.34° F.); 50 years later 
Karsten found it to be 36.30° C. (97.34° F.). In contact with this 
water the skin becomes softened and feels as if it had been rubbed 
with soap. 

The hotel, which is 150 meters distant from the spring, is a splendid 
modern building, simple in design yet spacious. From its terraces 
and dining rooms one may enjoy the stupendous spectacle of the 
Morros as a whole which, as Miguel Tejera very well said, ''resemble 
the ruins of an immense Gothic cathedral of which only the high 
towers and pointed spires remain." Here guests find everything 
needed for their comfort and enjoyment, including an excellent 
cuisine. The water served in the hotel comes from the purest bicar- 
bonate sodium-calcide springs and, issuing from the rocks at the 
base of the Morros, is conveyed through impermeable iron pipes to 
the hotel table itself. 

A modern country park with picturesque suspension bridges over 
the stream which flows a short distance from the hotel has recently 
been laid out, and everywhere enchanting views greet the eye. 
Tennis courts, golf links, and a swimming pool with every possible 
accommodation have been provided for the enjoyment of the guests. 
Dances are held nightly and moving pictures shown. Both private 
and public telephone service with the principal cities of the Republic 
is also available. 

The atmospheric conditions in the San Juan Valley are ideal for a 
temperate and healthful climate. Barometer readings record but 
slight changes in the atmospheric pressure at various hours of the 
day — two or three milhmeters of mercury at most — while the normal 
mean temperature is 28° C. (82.4° F.) with a minimum of 18° C. 
(64.4° F.) and a maximum of 33° C. (91.4° F.) 


FOREMOST among the institutions sponsoring intellectual 
cooperation with Mexico is Pomona College, at Claremont, 
Calif. Seven years ago Pomona organized an annual con- 
ference of the ''Friends of the Mexicans." Originally con- 
fined to teachers interested in Mexican child and adult education, 
the scope of its work has widened until it covers practically all prob- 
lems pertaining to the Spanish-speaking population of the United 
States. Under the able leadership of Mr. James H. Batten, director 
of the department of regional service of Pomona, the conference has 
not allowed itself to foster any type of propaganda, nor has it sought 
to function as an "uplift" movement in the generally recognized 
sense of the term. It annually brings together educators, social 
workers, agriculturists, and others who discuss from the standpoint 
of practical men and women the mutual interests of the American 
and the Mexican in the Southwest. Out of the conference have 
grown movements toward better housing, better sanitation, better 
school facilities, and better understanding of the Mexican tempera- 
ment and character. 

The 1927 conference was held at Pomona College on November 11 
and 12. The topics selected for special consideration show the 
extensive field that the meetings of to-day are covering. They 
include "Housing and sanitation," "Welfare work among Mexicans," 
"The Mexican immigrant," "The Mexican and American citizen- 
ship." Several addresses delivered by experts on the above topics 
were followed by discussions under selected leaders. In the evenings 
entertainment was provided in the form of a musical fiesta consisting 
of native songs and dances in costume by 40 Mexican artists and 
speeches by Mr. F. A. Pesqueira, consul of Mexico in Los Angeles, 
and others. In the same building with the conference there was an 
exhibit of Mexican art and handiwork and one of model housing 
projects and welfare and settlement houses, with data concerning 
their work. 

Several resolutions were passed by the conference, one of which 
recommends the appointment by the Governments of the United 
States and Mexico of a joint commission on emigration and immigra- 


tion, to make a thorough study of these questions and to recommend 
to the two Governments intelhgent and equitable legislation. An- 
other resolution provided for the appointment of local research 
committees, to make a thorough study of the situation of the Mexican 
population, especially as to methods for the control of seasonal 
Mexican labor, to study successful efforts for better housing of Mexi- 
can families, and to suggest minimum standards of wholesome hous- 
ing and sanitation for Mexican workers. 

One of the most important developments from these conferences 
has been the inauguration in 1926 of a plan whereby summer-school 
students are exchanged by Pomona College and Mexico. Through 
the cooperation of Mr. F. A. Pesqueira, the governors of the States 
of Baja California and Sonora gave financial aid to 15 Mexican 
teachers of those States, so that they might study English and 
educational methods at the Pomona College summer school. In 
time, Pomona hopes to extend this work to Central and South 

An exchange was also arranged with the University of Mexico by 
which two students went to Pomona, while two Pomona students 
attended the summer school in Mexico City. Upon their return to 
Pomona these students gave an enthusiastic account of their experi- 
ences in Mexico. Extracts from their letters to the college show 
that they were deeply impressed with the value of this plan. One 
student says, "I have often stated, on being asked what my estimate 
was of the value of my summer in Mexico, that it was worth at 
least a year in college. I feel that I gained as much cultural enrich- 
ment, as much general understanding of the world, as much actual 
knowledge, and, finally, as much pleasure as I would have obtained 
or could have obtained from a year at any educational institution 
in this country. Through my experiences during the summer I 
was enabled to know a people other than my own, and in a measure 
understand them. A new field of interest was created for me. All 
things and events which pertain to Mexico are now of a live general 
interest to me because of the time that I spent in studying first 
hand the conditions of the country. In fact, my interest is so great 
that I am keenly anticipating a return to Mexico City in the near 
future." Another student writes, "I think that the value of these 
exchanges lies in the formation of a group of students intensely 
interested in Mexico and eager to correct prejudices concerning the 
country across the border. There is so much that is worth while 
in Mexico that it seems to me it is the duty of the college to bring 
these things to the attention of its students, especially since we are 
so close to the border, and Spanish receives so much attention in the 
departments of foreign languages." 
79371— 28— Bull. 2 5 



Another development of the conference of "Friends of the Mexi- 
cans" has been the organization of a travel committee at Pomona 
College, under whose auspices a combined vacation and study tour 
to Mexico City was conducted in 1927. Although some of the 
members of the party did not know Spanish, they enjoyed the trip 
very much and found it extremely profitable. 

Because of this spirit of cooperation, Pomona has won a high place 
in the esteem of Mexican educators, who are cooperating in every 
way possible with her plans. Furthermore, such close contact 
with Mexico places Pomona in a unique position among the colleges 
of the United States. The presence of the Mexican group at the 
summer school and the special opportunities offered for the study of 
the history and literature of Mexico and of the Spanish language are 
bringing to Pomona students from all over the United States who have 
an interest in Mexico and in Latin America. 


lAIi J 

IN view of the constant succession of crises in the agricultural 
countries of the world, particularly in those limited to one or 
two products, any initiative looking toward the introduction 
of new staples, such as silk culture, for example, commands 
immediate and close attention on the part of national and inter- 
national authorities in industrial economy. 

Among the staple industries of the world few rank higher than 
that of silk culture, the related textile industries of which, in the 
United States alone, call for yearly imports of from $300,000,000 to 
$475,000,000 worth of raw silk, and occupy a place in the foremost 
rank as sources of national and individual prosperity. 

The efforts which from time to time have been made to introduce 
silk culture into the United States have been consistently unsuccess- 
ful, due partly to unfavorable climatic conditions and, to a much 
greater degree, to the high price of labor. 

These drawbacks do not, however, 'apply to extensive regions 
in several of the Latin American Republics, notably, Cuba, Panama, 
Brazil, and Nicaragua, in each of which interesting experiments in 
silk culture are now being carried on with considerable promise of 
eventual success. 

In Cuba, where the world decline in the price of sugar is a matter 
pf constant national concern, the experiment is taking practical 

Courtesy of the Panama Times 


Note the height of these five-month old-trees. In European countries a mulberry tree requires five years 

to attain equal growth 

Courtesy of the Panama Times 


The first crop of cocoons from various parts of the Republic, as a result of the introduction of silkworm 
culture by Dr. Vartan K. Osigian, who comes of an Armenian family which has been engaged m the 
silk industry for seven centuries. The natives of Nicaragua learn the detaUs of the business very quickly, 
and find the employment both interesting and remunerative. 




Upper left: Trays constructed of wooden slats and wire netting raised one above the other on rough frames 
about 15 to 18 inches apart. The feet of this apparatus should be set in vessels containing water to 
prevent damage by ants and rats. Upper right: After the hatching of the silkworms the frames are 
utilized as feeding trays on which the mulberry branches and leaves are placed. Lower left: Frame 
showing the tufts of mulberry leaves which the adult worms climb without difficulty to make their 
cocoons. Lower right: A type of hanging frame suspended from the celling 

shape under the patronage of President Machado, the Secretary of 
Agriculture, and Doctor de Pamphilis, the latter an Italian authority 
of international reputation, the southern slopes of the mountains 
in the Province of Pinar del Rio having been recommended as suit- 
able sites for the silkworm 's permanent home in Cuba. It is hoped 
that within comparatively few years Cuba will be able to supply 
the spindles of the United States with a better quality of raw silk 
than is now imported from China and Japan, at a price as low as 
now paid, if not lower. 

Then there is the very practical experiment initiated recently in 
Panama by a national company, apparently well supplied with capital, 
to establish the silk industry in that Republic, beginning with the 
planting of mulberry groves and the raising of silkworms through 
each successive stage to the crude silk. The moving spirit of 




Ten-day-old silkworms feeding on 
a mulberry leaf 

Courtesy of the Silk Association of America 

Courtsey of the Silk Association of America 

A full-grown silkworm, natural size. Note the nine breathing holes along the entire length of the body 

this experiment is Dr. Vartan K. Osigian, who previously initiated a 
similar experiment in Nicaragua. 

The experiment in Nicaragua has proved beyond question that 
the mulberry tree can be grown and the silkworm raised at a reason- 
able profit in that country. Moreover, the Osigian Silk Co. has 
proved that silk can be manufactured in Nicaragua for national 
and externa] consumption. Doctor Osigian, the president of this 
company, an Armenian by birth and a citizen of the United States 
by naturalization, comes of a family which for seven centuries has 



been devoted to the silk industry, from the egg "seed" to the finished 
product from the loom. 

The climate of Nicaragua seems to be especially propitious for 
the production of the mulberry tree and the culture of the silkworm, 
trees five months after planting attaining a development which, in 
Europe, would require as many years. 

The business of raising silkworms, which is largely an individual 
house or cottage occupation, has been very quickly learned by the 
Nicaraguan country people, who find it both interesting and remuner- 
ative. In a recent exhibition of the Osigian Silk Co. products, a 

very creditable collection of un- 
usually fine cocoons, produced 
by women in various parts of 
Nicaragua, was shown. 

It is in Brazil, however, that 
silk culture experimentation is 
being taken most seriously. 
Among the various experimen- 
tation centers, that conducted 
by the Sociedade Anonyma In- 
dustrias de Seda at Campinas 
in the State of Sao Paulo is un- 
doubtedly the most compre- 
hensive, in both equipment 
and instruction. This society, 
which engages to purchase all 
cocoons available at the high- 
est market prices, furnishes free 
of charge the following mate- 

1. Mulberry seedlings of 

the best quality, in quantities 

varying according to the 

amount of labor available and the space to be devoted to silkworm 


2. Eggs of silkworms already acclimated in Brazil and carefully 
selected at the Institute de Sericultura at Campinas, are distributed 
from September to March. 

3. All technical and agricultural information necessary for silkworm 

The constant extension of silkworm raising in Brazil is strongly 
recommended for the following reasons, based on numerous experi- 
ments at the Silkworm Institute at Campinas and by many BraziHan 
silkworm farmers who have effected numerous mulberry cuttings in 
the last few years: 

The facility with which the hardy native mulberry tree can be 
cultivated and its rapid growth furnishing a constant supply of 

Courtesy of the Silk Association of America 


Showing the method of planting the cuttings in Brazil 


The distance between plants should be from 5 to 10 meters, or more. When the trunks have reached 
height of 1 to 2 meters the land between can be utilized for other crops, as depicted here 

vv/T? J//'^' 

■i6c — n 

// ///- ' ' 

When the mulberry trees are planted at intervals of from 30 to 50 cm. the branches can be trained to over- 
lap, forming a "live" fence or trellis 



healthy leaves for the sustenance of the silkworms. The mulberry 
tree may also be planted as live fences or hedges, as a shade and 
ornamental tree, and to replace fence-posts. It also furnishes good 
timber and its leaves are an excellent food for cattle; 

The favorable climatic conditions of Brazil which permit a number 
of hatchings during the year; 

The ease with which the silkworm is raised, since the work may 
be carried on by women, old men and children not otherwise occupied; 


In case of the inevitable losses attendant upon single crop raising, 
the farmer may within the short space of 30 to 45 days find a new 
source of income capable of compensating him at least in part for 
the losses suffered; 

The small amount of capital required for the planting of mulberry 
trees and the raising of silkworms. 

It should be noted, moreover, that one person, either a woman or a 
child, can raise 15 grams of eggs, from which it is possible to obtain 
30 kilos of cocoons, the profit from which would be 300 milreis. The 
present price of 8 to 10 milreis for a kilo of young cocoons is for the 
commercial type; that is, in perfect condition. As it is very easy to 



obtain 6 hatchings a year, a total return of 1,800 milreis is entirely 
feasible. Naturally, "with larger quantities of leaves and a larger 
amount of labor, more eggs could be raised, "with proportionally 
greater profit, the labor consisting principally in special attention to 
the "worms during the last week of the hatching. 

The Sociedade Anonyma also gives complete and detailed informa- 
tion as to best soils, locations, and exposures for young mulberry 
plantations, including fertilizers, both natural and commercial; 
instruction as to selection of seed and methods of multiplication by 
grafting and by cuttings; together with best methods of pruning 
and cutting, both for ''form" and yield of leaves. Nor are insect 
enemies and their control neglected. Of all the instruction given, 
the most practical is, perhaps, that relating to the simple apparatus 
required by the silkworm culturist, most of which is homemade, as 
may be seen by the illustrations in this article. 

In conclusion, no thoughtful person who has first-hand information 
as to the widespread experimentation in the countries named, more 
particularly in Brazil, can fail to be impressed by the enormous 
possibilities and implications of this potential new American industry. 




i3 £^ 


Great Southern Railway extension. — The Review of the River 
Plate for October 21, 1927, gives the following information in regard 
to the extension of the Great Southern Railway of Argentina: 

The general extension plans of the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway 
comprise the construction of 960 kilometers of new line (kilometer equals 0.62 
mile), including the 350 kilometers already being built, as follows: (1) From San 
Vicente station to the town of San Vicente; (2) from Napaleufu to Loberia; and 
(3) from Azul to Dorrego. The Napaleufu-Loberia extension will bring immediate 
benefit to no less than 90,000 hectares of very fertile country in the Province of 
Buenos Aires good for grain and potatoes. Growers were formerly 30 kilometers 
from the nearest railway but will now have their haulage much reduced and also 
be brought into direct communication with the port of Quequen. The Azul- 
Dorrego line will benefit settlers in an area of about 30,000 hectares. The 
additional lines for which the Southern Railway has applied for concessions are 
the following: Miramar to Pieres, 74 kilometers; Necochea to Energia, 61 kilo- 
meters; Carhue to Rivera, 50 kilometers; and Darwin to Patagones, 300 kilo- 

Other proposed extensions for which Government sanction has not yet been 
requested include 57 kilometers of line from Orense to Copetones and 65 kilo- 
meters from Tres Arroyos to Claromeco. Claromeco, which is 30 kilometers 
distant from the nearest inland railway station, at Copetones, is a point on the 
Atlantic coast about midway between Necochea and Bahia Blanca, a stretch of 
coast at present nowhere reached by railway. The extensions planned comprise 
a mileage equivalent to slightly more than 10 per cent of the existing mileage 
of the Southern Railway. 

Area planted to cereals. — On October 21, 1927, the General 
Bureau of Rural Economics and Statistics of the Department of 
Agriculture furnished the following estimates of total cereal plantings: 

Plantings in Provinces and Territories 

Province or Territory 








293, 800 

115, 400 

38, 500 

19, 400 

43, 400 

59, 300 




28, 100 



75, 300 

88, 400 

13, 000 

17, 000 


Buenos Aires 

Santa Fe 


Entre Rios 

San Luis 

Santiago del Estero.. 

La Pampa 

Other Provinces and 


3, 119, 000 
892, 000 
2, 247, 000 
465, 000 
73, 000 
23, 000 
088, 000 

48, 000 

600, 000 
960, 000 
420, 000 
668, 000 
22, 800 



986, 000 

44, 700j 

62, 600j 

100, 000 

2, 100 

1, 100 

57, 500| 

24, OOO; 


23, 200 








Coffee bicentenary. — As was announced in a preceding issue of 
the Bulletin, the bicentenary of the introduction of coffee into 
Brazil was celebrated by a large coffee exposition and congress held 
in the city of Sao Paulo for the month beginning October 12, 1927, 
The following account is condensed from an article appearing in the 
section devoted to the Monthly Bulletin of the American Chamber 
of Commerce of Sao Paulo in the Brazilian American for October 
29, 1927: 

In 1727 the first coffee plant was introduced into the Province of Pard, by the 
French, but its cultivation made little progress in Brazil until 1767, when it was 
extended to the Province of Maranhao. In 1774 a Belgian monk named Molke 
procured some plants from one of the prosperous Maranhao estates and carried 
them to Rio de Janeiro, the first one being planted in a monastery garden. 
Joachim Bruno, the then bishop of Rio de Janeiro, to whom Brazil is indebted 
for the introduction of many of its now valuable trees and plants, perceived the 
potential value of coffee cultivation. He therefore was accustomed to distribute 
the seeds of the coffee from Molke' s plantation among the religious institutions 
of his diocese, as well as among the laity. 

In the bicentennial exposition 18 States displayed exhibits, not only of coffee 
but of the many other products making up Brazilian wealth. There were in all 
473 exhibitors, comprising States, municipalities, banks, transportation, ma- 
chinery, and chemical concerns, coffee plantations, and other entities. The 
exhibits of coffee were divided into four main sections: Agriculture, industry, 
commerce, and subsidiary matters concerning coffee plantations, such as the 
health, welfare, and recreation of the workers. 

Included in the list of topics for the Coffee Congress were the following: 
Statistical studies of harvests and climatic factors, cultivation in many aspects, 
fertilizers, uses of coffee husks, irrigation, economic entomology, and vegetable 
pests. The congress also studied the questions of commerce, colonization, and 
agricultural credits, the last being of especial importance. 

It should be noted in this connection that out of a total of Brazilian 
exports in 1926 amounting to 3,181,715 contos of reis paper, the 
value of coffee exports alone was 2,347,645 contos. 

A more extended account of the exposition will be given in a later 

Commercial aviation.— On November 9, 1927, the Condor 
Syndikat started its commercial aviation service from Rio de 
Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul, with stops in Santos, Florianopolis, 
Porto Alegre, and Pelotas, using a twin-motored Dornier Wal plane 
of 10-passenger capacity. The connecting line to the northern ports 
of Victoria, Bahia, and Recife (Pernambuco) began operations on 
the 15th of the same month. The distance from Recife to Rio 
Grande do Sul is more than 2,000 miles. 

Ford Industrial Company of Brazil. — The Diario Official of 
the State of Para for October 23, 1927, reports the incorporation in 
that State of the Ford Industrial Company of Brazil with a capital 
of 8,000 contos (conto equals $120), the principal stockholder being 


the Ford Motor Co. Among the purposes of the company men- 
tioned in the articles of incorporation are the purchase of lands, the 
planting of rubber trees, the extraction of rubber, and the manufac- 
ture of rubber articles. 

Commercial arbitration. — A court of commercial arbitration 
has been established by the Sao Paulo Commercial Association, with 
the cooperation of the council of representatives of the foreign 
chambers of commerce in that city. 

Port works. — A decree of the Federal Government authorizes 
the expenditure of a sum not to exceed 15,000 contos (conto equals 
$120) on the improvement of port works at San Luiz de Maranhao. 
The State government of Pernambuco is also undertaking the increase 
of port facilities at Recife (Pernambuco), where it intends to con- 
struct 200 meters of quays in 10 meters of water (meter equals 3.28 
feet), and 330 meters of quays in more shallow water. It will like- 
wise build a cold-storage plant and install endless belts for loading 
and unloading coal, besides additional cranes and other improve- 
ments. At Victoria the port works begun some time ago by the 
Federal Government are being carried forward by the government 
of the State of Espirito Santo. Besides dredging, the extension of 
wharves, and the erection of three reinforced concrete warehouses, 
construction is under way on a bridge of six spans, each 65 meters 
long, connecting the mainland with Principe and Victoria Islands, 
on the latter of which the city is located. 

Brazilian-American Association. — The inaugural session of this 
association was celebrated on November 15, 1927, the thirty-eighth 
anniversary of the proclamation of the Brazilian Republic, by a 
luncheon held in New York, at which the following officers were 
elected: President, Mr. Frank Munson; treasurer, Mr. James S. 
Carson; and secretary, Mr. Renato Azevedo. 

In the course of his remarks Mr. Carson said that the object of 
the association is to increase the social, cultural, and commercial 
relations between the two largest Republics of this continent. Mr. 
Carson was followed by other speakers, chief of whom was Dr. S. 
Gurgel do Amaral, ambassador of Brazil in the United States. 
Doctor do Amaral took occasion to point out the harm done to inter- 
national relations by some motion-picture producers, who in their 
haste to make a film lose sight of the consideration and respect due 
to the feelings of foreign nations, and represent falsely their customs, 
language, standard of living, and social progress — a harm which also 
prejudices the motion-picture industry. 

The Bulletin welcomes a new colleague in Brazil, the magazine 
published monthly by the American-Brazilian Association. The 
first issue of Brazil, which appeared in November, contained many 
articles and items of interest concerning Brazil and Brazilian- 
American relations, as well as excellent illustrations. 



Port works at Antofagasta. — The port works at Antofagasta, 
the contract for which was let in 1918 to a Chilean firm, are rapidly 
approaching completion, the term of the contract being 12 years. 
A breakwater 1,454 meters long turns the former open roadstead 
into a safe harbor 36 hectares in extent (meter equals 3.27 feet; 
hectare equals 2.47 acres). Wharves and docks affording ample 
space for the trade of this important port will complete the plan, the 
total cost of which will be 120,000,000 pesos. 

National Agricultural Society.— From an interesting article 
in La Nacion of Santiago for October 25, 1927, which gives a brief 
history and description of the present activities of the National 
Agricultural Society, are taken the following data: 

Founded in 1869, the society's first efforts were directed toward promoting 
scientific farming. Later it undertook to aid agriculturists by its own scientific 
investigations, to inform and guide public opinion in agricultural matters, and to 
unite the farmers of the country. Its work now has three principal divisions — • 
the general promotion of agriculture, the scientific work of the Biological Insti- 
tute and the experimental station, and the commercial section, which facilitates 
purchases of seed and fertilizers for its members. It also publishes an excellent 
magazine. [This the Bulletin is happy to number among its exchanges.] 

Recent activities include the creation of a dairy section and a study of the lead- 
ing South American markets made by a personal representative of the society, 
with a view to increasing Chilean agricultural exports. 

The Biological Institute, founded seven years ago, prepares serums and vac- 
cines for use against animal diseases and makes other scientific examinations 
and investigations along many different lines. The increasing work of the insti- 
tute necessitated the erection, two years ago, of a large three-story building 
for offices and laboratories, behind which are situated stables for the animals 
used for the manufacture of serums or for research, and other dependencies, 
forming altogether a model plant. 

The Agricultural Society also conducts an experiment station where research 
in genetics is being carried out on various grains and other crops, selected seed 
being raised for distribution among farmers. Fine stock is also imported for 
breeding purposes. 

It is planned to erect a model dairy plant in order to promote the dairy industry 
in Chile. The chemical section is engaged in studying soils and fertilizers, motor 
fuels, and other problems. Poultry raising and beekeeping are also given careful 

The annual stock show organized by the National Agricultural 
Society took place in Santiago in October last, with especially fine 
entries. Exhibits of agricultural machinery added to the interest 
to the show. 

International highway. — As Bulletin readers are informed, 
Argentina has appropriated funds for the construction of a highway 
to the Chilean frontier via Uspallata, which will be continued on the 
Chilean side to Valparaiso. The Chilean Ministry of Promotion has 
allotted 300,000 pesos for the purchase of road-buUding machinery 
to be used on the mountainous section. 


Campaign in favor of Chilean manufactures. — The Minister of 
Promotion has appointed a representative to visit 20 Chilean cities, 
carrying with him an exhibit of Chilean manufactures from more 
than 60 factories. He will endeavor to foster a larger patronage of 
national products, and to secure a complete list of Chilean industrial 
plants for the use of merchants, consulates, and Government 

Chile in the Ibero-American Exposition. — Preparations are 
rapidly going forward for Chilean participation in the Ibero-American 
Exposition to be held in Seville this year. Among the different 
subjects on which exhibits are being prepared are the following: 
History, ethnography, archeology, folklore, fine and decorative arts, 
architecture, nitrate, iodine, mining, agriculture, industry, public 
education, dentistry, pharmacy, the theater, music, and publications. 
Models of mines and of a nitrate plant will be displayed, and part of 
the grounds about the Chilean building will be planted to crops on 
which the beneficial effect of fertilization with nitrate will be shown. 
Special phonograph records of Chilean music and dances will also be 
made. Don Jose Toribio Medina, the eminent Chilean historian and 
bibliographer, has been commissioned by the Government to go to 
Seville and make facsimiles of the letters of Pedro de Valdivia, 
conqueror of Chile, to Emperor Charles V, which letters are there 
preserved in the Archives of the Indies. 


Duty on coffee exports. — The President of the Republic has 
signed a law, passed by the National Congress, by virtue of which a 
duty of 10 centavos will be levied on each bag containing 60 kilo- 
grams of coffee for exportation. The proceeds will be applied toward 
the organization and support of an active scientific propaganda for 
Colombian coffee. The money will also be used to introduce the 
best methods of coffee cultivation, to establish general warehouses 
for this product, and to send commissions of experts to the different 
coffee producing and consuming countries to study methods of 
cultivation, sale, and propaganda. 

National merchant marine. — Last November the Treasury 
Department signed a contract with a Colombian company for the 
establishment of a national merchant marine. The company agrees 
to construct four modern ships having a capacity of from 5,000 to 
7,000 tons to be used for the transportation of passengers and freight 
between Colombian seaports on the Atlantic and New York. 

Reorganization of Ministry of Industry. — A law of October 
25, 1927, authorizes the Government to reorganize the Ministry of 
Industry, dividing it into bureaus which will be subdivided into 
sections. They will be placed in charge of experts who will make 
the work of the ministry more efficient. The Government will 



engage foreign experts to give advice on the execution of contracts 
for the exploration, exploitation, refining, and transportation of 
hydrocarbons, and, generally speaking, on all questions pertaining 
to the petroleum industry. Experts on mines will also be engaged. 

Ships for the Magdalena Kiver. — Last October saw the launch- 
ing of four new ships made in Germany which the Northeastern 
Railroad Co. had ordered for freight transportation. 

Paving machinery.- — The Government recently ordered from 
abroad all necessary machinery for paving the streets of Bogota 
according to the most rapid modern methods. 


Census reports. — Official reports of the census made in May, 
1927, state the total population of Costa Rica to be 471,524, the 
population of the several Provinces and their capitals being as 
follows : 







San Jos6 

153, 183 
97, 577 
70, 199 
38, 407 
51, 142 
28, 739 
32, 278 

San Jose 

50, 580 














14, 883 

15, 624 

Expansion of statistical office. — The creation of two new 
statistical sections, one to gather data on coastwise trade and the 
other to record labor and trade statistics, market quotations, inter- 
national exchange rates, and national and municipal financial state- 
ments was recently authorized by President Jimenez. 

Steamship line to San Francisco. — A new transport service from 
Limon to San Francisco was established by the United Fruit Co. 
on October 24, 1927. This service will not only insure the arrival in 
better condition of the fruit transported, but wUl be less costly than 
shipping it by train to a Costa Rican port on the Pacific and thence 
by sea. 


Six months' exports. — The information circular to diplomatic and 
consular officers sent out by the Cuban Department of State gives 
the following figures on the first six months' exports of 1927: 

Total exports amounted to $183,365,476 for the first six months of 1927. 
Exports of raw and refined sugar were valued at $153,315,462; those of tobacco, 


raw and manufactured, at $20,000,000; and those of fruits, grains, vegetables, 
animals, and animal by-products at lesser amounts. Exports to various countries 
ranged as follows: United States, $141,414,824; other American countries, 
$5,742,954; Germany, $1,150,639; Spain, $908,927; France, $3,393,620; United 
Kingdom, $20,088,095; other European countries, $5,977,791; other countries, 
$6,688,626. Imports amounted to $139,000,000 in round numbers. 

Estimated population. — The General Bureau of the Census gives 
the official estimate of the population of Cuba as 3,570,675. 

Cuban building in Ibero-American Exposition. — On Novem- 
ber 25, 1927, Colonel Quinones, delegate of the Cuban Government 
to the Ibero-American Exposition, sailed for Spain with two army 
officers to supervise the construction in Seville of the Cuban building 
for the Ibero-American Exposition, which building is later to house 
the Cuban consulate. The piece of ground assigned by the Spanish 
Government to Cuba is 65 by 70 meters, one of the largest of the 
American sites in the exposition. 


Irrigation engineer. — At the request of the Department of 
Agriculture of the Dominican Republic, an English specialist in 
irrigation works has come to cooperate with the civil engineer in 
charge of the irrigation works now being constructed in the Republic. 

Society for the Promotion or Agriculture. — Acting on the 
idea of the governor of the Province of Seybo, a group of prominent 
citizens and four of the leading farmers from each section of this 
Province met on October 9 last to organize a society for the promo- 
tion of agriculture and stock breeding. This society will also help 
to combat the diseases which destroy plants and livestock. 

New telephone line. — Telephone communication between Seybo 
and the village of Ramon Santana has been established. With the 
opening of this new line the whole Province of Seybo is served by 

Public buildings. — Several projects for the construction of 
important public buildings in the Republic are being considered. 
The buildings to be erected are the Palace of Justice, the university, 
the Normal School of Santo Domingo, and schools for 10 provincial 
capitals. The Bureau of Engineering and Public Works will render 
full assistance in this task as soon as the plans are approved by the 
Department of State, Justice, and Public Instruction. 


Foreign trade. — The Director General of Statistics recently gave 
out the following figures on the foreign trade of Ecuador during the 
first and second quarters of 1927: 





Excess of 

exports over 


First quarter 

Second quarter_ _ 

second quarter 

11, 920, 801 
15, 568, 060 

25, 270, 256 

3, 491, 105 
9, 702, 196 

Increase in 

3, 647, 259 

9, 858, 350 

6, 201, 091 

The value of the principal articles of export in the first half of 1927 
was: Cacao, 25,971,855 sucres; shelled tagua (vegetable ivory) nuts, 
1,831,658 sucres; unshelled tagua nuts, 385,816 sucres; bananas, 
257,567 sucres; coffee, 529,661 sucres; rubber, 805,096 sucres; "Pana- 
ma" straw hats, 3,211,220 sucres; and crude petroleum, 2,523,046 

Stock raisers' association. — On October 5, 1927, the leading 
stock raisers of the Provinces of Guayas and Los Rios met in the 
town of Salitre for the purpose of organizing an incorporated com- 
pany to deal in agricultural products, especially cattle, and to increase 
their production. 

Direct steamer service between New York and Guaya- 
quil. — It was mentioned in the last issue of the Bulletin that the 
Meridian Line had newly been established to ply directly between 
New York and Guayaquil. It may be added that the Grace Line 
likewise carries merchandise from New York to Guayaquil without 
transshipment in Panama, its steamers also calling at Colombian 
ports before reaching Guayaquil. 


Annual fair. — Reports state that the annual August fair held in 
Guatemala City attracted traders from all sections of the Republic, 
and even neighboring countries, unprecedented interest having been 
shown in the various exhibits of farm stock and machinery. 


Roads and bridges. — The financial adviser-general receiver's 
report for October gives the following information on roads and 
bridges : 

The Juan de Vera and La Hatte bridges were opened to traffic on October 15 
and 22, respectively. Work on bridges at Port Canal and La Matrie, Depart- 
ment of the North, was delayed on account of heavy rains. Work on the Jacmel 
road has progressed so as to benefit traffic considerably. Sections of road 
eliminating eight of the worst river crossings have been opened. Work on the 
abutments of the Grande Rivifire bridge is now completed so that the erection 
of the bridge can proceed. 

Agricultural schools. — See page 208. 

79371— 28— Bull. 2 6 



New highway. — President Paz Baraona has promised the citizens 
of Choluteca that a new highway to San Lorenzo shall be built. 

HoNDURAN INVENTOR RECEIVES PATENT. — The press reports that 
Marcial Bracamonte has received a patent from the United States 
Patent Office in Washington for his invention called a Telegrdfono 
which sends and receives telegraphic and telephonic waves silently. 
As soon as possible Sehor Bracamonte will give a public demonstra- 
tion of his invention, which he hopes to introduce into the telegraph 
system of Honduras and other countries. It is said that the invention 
is of simple and inexpensive construction, and enables the operator 
to utilize either the telegraph or telephone for communication. 


Mexico-Acapulco Highway. — On November 11, 1927, President 
Calles officially opened to traffic the fine new highway running from 
Mexico City through the States of Mexico, Morelos, and Guerrero 
to the port of Acapulco on the southern Pacific coast. 

The termination of this highway is an important event for the 
Republic as a whole and for the southeastern States, particularly 
Guerrero. The mountains of the latter State made highway con- 
struction there most difficult, but also offer what is perhaps the most 
picturesque scenery of Mexico now accessible to the tourist. The 
opening of this road marks the completion of another section of the 
extensive highway program which Mexico has been developing during 
the past few years. 


Highways. — The press of Managua stated recently that the 
Ministry of Promotion had imported three automobile trucks for 
work on the highway construction planned by that department, and 
that work was to be commenced in the middle of October on the con- 
struction of the 12-kilometer highway from Jinotepe to San Marcos. 


Improvements in Panama City. — The press reports that within 
less than a year the residential section of Panama City will be 
increased by the development of a tract of more than 10 hectares 
(hectare equals 2.47 acres). There are to be seven streets and a 
boulevard in the new section, known as Cangrejo Heights, which 
will contain 100 buildmg lots. All modern improvements, such as 
electricity, sewer and water systems, are to be installed and the 
streets bordered with trees. 

Mining in Veraguas Province.^ — An English'^ mining company 
was incorporated last November in London with a capital of £180,000 
for the operation of certain mines in Veraguas Province, where it is 


hoped to extract gold and other mmerals from the tract of 5,000 
square miles held by the company. 


Poet woeks. — On October 20, 1927, a decree was passed author- 
izing the Executive to enter into a contract for the construction of 
piers and retaining walls, the installation of necessary machinery, 
and the dredging of a deeper channel in the harbor at Asuncion. 
Work must be begun within six months after the approval of the 
plans submitted to the Government. 

Floue mill. — According to recent press reports, milling was to 
be begun on January 1, 1928, in the new flour mill at Villarica said 
to have a daily production capacity of 1,000 sacks of 70 kilograms 
each (kilogram equals 2.2 pounds). This enterprise will undoubtedly 
create a demand for more extensive wheat cultivation throughout 
the country. Seed has been distributed to the farmers of Inde- 
pendencia colony and with the arrival of Italian immigrants interested 
in the cultivation of wheat on scientific principles, production will 
be greatly stimulated. The initial capital of the company is 
1,500,000 Argentine pesos. 

DisTEiBUTiON OF EiCE SEED. — Seeking a solution for the most 
important problems in the cultivation of rice, namely, the selection 
of seed and the introduction of superior varieties, the Bureau of 
Agriculture has distributed among farmers 5,022 kilograms of seed 
of an acclimated Japanese variety. 

Guide and yeaebook. — -According to El Diario, Asuncion, of 
October 24, 1927, a combined guide and yearbook has been placed 
on sale in Asuncion. This publication, carrying exhaustive informa- 
tion on Paraguayan commerce, industries, agriculture, labor condi- 
tions, and press, as well as official statistics, is said to be the first of 
its kind to appear in the country. 

TouEiNG Club Review. — The first number of a publication by 
the Paraguayan Touring Club made its appearance on October 19, 
1927. Aside from highway information it contained other reading 
matter and graphic material. 


Tambo del Sol Railway. — The West Coast Leader of November 1, 
1927, gives the following information regarding one of Peru's railways: 

The Tambo del Sol Railway, under construction for several years past, is 
Peru's first line of penetration from the Pacific coast into the undeveloped 
country of the Amazonian Basin. Linked by the Central and Cerro de Pasco 
Railways with the port of Callao, the Tambo del Sol Railway has already been 
completed for a distance of 78 kilometers over the eastern Cordillera of the 
Andes. The present terminal, Queparacra, at kilometer 78 is at an elevation of 
3,000 meters, on the way to which the line crosses an elevation in the mountains of 
4,380 meters, whence it descends the ranges. A further 25 kilometers will 



bring the railway into excellent timber country. Along the route planned for the 
line, which is to terminate at Pucallpa, over 480 kilometers from the starting 
point, there is rich country to be opened to trade. At kilometer 160 is the town 
of Oxapampa in a southern section of a fertile valley settled over 50 years ago 
by immigrants from the southern Tyrol. Beyond Pozuzo for another 240 kilo- 
meters to Pucallpa on the Ucayali River at kilometer 480, is a stretch of some 
2,500,000 acres of rolling timber country suitable for agriculture. Practically 
all the region through which the railway will pass has mineral deposits and 
promising oil prospects. The contractor who has built most of the existing 78 
kilometers expects shortly to commence construction work at the other end of 
the line at Pucallpa on the Rio Ucayali. Pucallpa is in communication with 
Iquitos on the Amazon by means of river steamers which transfer their cargoes 
at the latter port to ocean vessels. A large consignment of railway construction 
material has already arrived at Iquitos for beginning the work at Pucallpa. 

Foreign trade. — The following table shows the comparative 
figures of the first half year's foreign trade in 1926 and 1927: 


January-June, 1926 

January-June, 1927 

Increase or decrease 


1, 156, 059 
1, 104, 498 

-51, 561 


19, 738, 338 
20, 332, 599 

+ 594,261 


1, 397, 621 

1, 345, 881 

-50, 740 













794, 849 
309, 649 

10, 877, 701 
9, 454, 898 

330, 964 
1, 015, 917 



Total __ 

834, 957 
321, 102 

10, 437, 461 
9, 300, 877 

330, 603 
1, 067, 018 

Total- __ 

1, 104, 498 

20, 332, 599 

1, 346, 881 

1, 156, 059 

19, 738, 338 

1, 397, 621 

Ibero American Exposition exhibit. — The president of the 
Peruvian commission in charge of the building and exhibits of Peru at 
the Ibero American Exposition to be opened in October, 1928, in 
Seville, Spain, recently told the press that cables from the architect 
stated that the Peruvian building would be completed by May, and 
that the commission was working industriously preparing the sections 
on agriculture, mines, bibliography, archaeology, the arts, etc. 


Good roads day. — The Information Bulletin of the Ministry of 
Foreign Relations of Salvador published the following in its issue 
dated October 10, 1927: 

Salvador, in fulfilment of the resolution of the First Pan American Highway 
Congress held in October, 1925, in Buenos Aires, to celebrate October 5 as Good 
Roads Day, on that date opened the new highways constructed during the year. 
Those officially opened on October 5, 1927, were: Soyapango-San Salvador, 
Mejicanos-San Salvador, and San Salvador-Aculhuaca. The Minister of Pro- 
motion, other Government officials, the diplomatic corps, the press and other 
persons were present at the ceremony. The President and members of his com- 



mittee rode over the new roads in an automobile. All three of these roads con- 
tribute to the progress of the towns near the capital. An omnibus service is now 
in operation. The Government plans to extend the asphalt highway system, 
opening more new roads each year. 


Foreign trade. — According to official information printed in 
La Mariana, Montevideo, of November 13, 1927, the total value of 
Uruguayan foreign trade for the first nine months of 1927 was 
131,246,394 pesos, or exports valued at 69,920,440 pesos and imports 
valued at 61,325,954 pesos, making a favorable balance of trade of 
8,594,486 pesos. The value of exports and imports during the 
similar period for the past four years is compared as follows: 

Year (first nine months) 




42, 151, 923 
45, 083, 293 

53, 616, 243 

54, 588, 079 
■ 61, 325, 954 

74, 483, 448 

1924___ ._ . 

82, 158, 661 

1925 -_ - 

78, 711, 547 


74, 582, 557 

1927 __ _ __ ' . 

69, 920, 440 

Prize plan for Seville exposition building. — By decision of 
the judges, the first prize in the competition for the Uruguayan 
building in the Seville exposition was awarded the plans by Mauricio 
Cravotto, while the second place was given those of Senor Alberto 
Munoz del Campo and Sefior Carlos Garcia Arocena. The subject 
awarded first place is designed along Spanish-colonial lines. The 
principal fagade is simple and dignified, the entrance being accentu- 
ated with a rich decorative note inspired b}" Moorish influence. An 
expenditure of 80,000 pesos has been authorized by the Government 
for the cost of construction. 

Forest nurseries. — In pursuance of the forestry program being 
developed by the Government, Senor Miguel Jauriguiberry, an 
agronomic engineer in government employ, made a trip through 
the Departments of Paysandu, Salto, and Artigas during November 
to initiate the planting of departmental nurseries. 

First annual engineering conference. — Sessions of the first 
Uruguayan engineering conference held in Montevideo closed on 
October 12, 1927. During the conference special visits of inspection 
were made the machinery room of the Department of Public Works 
and various port works of the city. So successful was the conference 
that it was decided to hold other similar conferences in the future. 

Pasteurization of milk. — Following a regulation making the 
Pasteurization of milk obligatory in Montevideo, several private 
enterprises have already been set in operation. One of these, which 


has a capacity of 7,000 liters (liter equals 1.06 quarts) per hour will 
soon establish a special department in which other milk dealers may- 
have their products Pasteurized. 


Petroleum production during July.— The total Venezuelan 
petroleum production during July, 1927, according to O'SJiaugJi- 
nessy's South American Oil Reports, August, 1927, was estimated at 
5,480,204 barrels of 42 gallons each, or an average daily production 
of 176,780 barrels, a total of 2,225,171 barrels more than the amount 
produced during July, 1926, and greater than the production of any 
one month of that year. Shipments during July, 1927, were esti- 
mated to have been 4,425,922 barrels. 


i^^^k^ AFFAIRS ^ii^ 


Public debt. — Data furnished by the National Treasury of 
Bolivia give as follows the public debt of that Republic as of June 30, 

External debt 

Balance in bolivianos 

Chandler loan 5, 080, 500. 00 

Ulen loan (sanitation bonds) 3, 763, 500. 00 

American loan of 1922 76, 533, 000. 00 

Loan for Potosi-Sucre Railroad 4, 799, 500. 80 

Dillon, Read & Co 42, 000, 000. 00 

132, 176, 500. 80 
Internal debt 

Internal debt bonds 2, 493, 724. 48 

Acre and Pacific bonds 1, 669, 990. 00 

Acre indemnity bonds 300, 468. 50 

State bonds of 1914 7, 848, 000. 00 

State bonds of 1924 8, 484, 700. 00 

Special State bonds of 1924 for the Antofagasta and Bolivia 

Railway Co 468, 800. 00 

Cini-Potosl road bonds 800, 000. 00 

22, 065, 682. 98 
Floating debt 

Banks — ordinary accounts 8, 694, 248. 04 

Banks — various accounts 1, 308, 650. 65 

Term obligations 7, 445, 223. 43 

Mortgage banks 854, 456. 31 

18, 302, 678. 43 



Thus the total of the public debt amounts to 172,544,762.21 
bolivianos. At the present rate of exchange a boliviano is worth 
approximately 40 cents United States gold. 


Foreign loan.^ — A new issue of 63^ per cent external sinking fund 
bonds of 1927 of the United States of Brazil to the amount of $41,- 
500,000 and £8,750,000 was offered simultaneously in the United 
States and Europe last October at 923/2 and interest. 


Public debt. — The following statement of the public debt is 
taken from the President's message read before Congress on Novem- 
ber 7, 1927: 

Comparatioe statement of national debts 

Feb. 28, 1927 

Sept. 30, 1927 

Paid between 
Feb. 28 and 
Sept. 30, 1927 

$25,000,000 5 per cent Speyer loan, 1904 . 

$17, 647, 000 

13, 747, 000 

7, 220, 100 

40, 850, 800 

$16, 606, 000 

13, 348, 000 

7, 158, 100 

39, 192, 400 

9, 000, 000 


$16,500,000 5}--2 per cent Speyer loan, 1904. . 

399, 000 

$10,000,000 5 per cent Morgan loan, 1914 

62, 000 

$50,000,000 5J/2 per cent Morgan loan, 1923 . 

1, 658, 400 

$9,000,000 5J^ per cent Morgan loan, 1927.. 

79, 464, 900 

85, 304, 500 

3, 160, 400 

Internal debt, 5 per cent, 1905 _ _..-._ 

8, 165, 200. 
2, 500, 000 


51, 000 

10, 665, 200 

10, 614, 200 

51, 000 



79, 464, 900 
10, 665, 200 

85, 304, 500 
10, 614, 200 

3, 160, 400 


51, 000 

90, 130, 100 


3, 211, 400 


Liquidation of debt. — In accordance with a contract celebrated 
between the Secretary of the Treasury and a representative of the 
Council of Foreign Bondholders, London, approved by the Govern- 
ment on October 15, 1927, bonds to the amount of £844,603 bearing 
4 per cent interest will be issued by the Government to be given as 
payment for interest due members of the council up to June 30, 1913, 
on Guatemalan Government bonds held by them. 

Increase in Government revenue. — Official reports state that 
the total Government revenue for the first six months of 1927 from 
customhouse receipts, liquor taxes, monopolies, the mail and tele- 
graph service, and other sources, was 388,419,836 pesos, an increase 
of 35,632,471 pesos over the amount collected during the same period 
of 1926. 



Reduction of budget.- — As a measure of economy the President 
of Salvador on September 23, 1927, issued a decree published in the 
Diario Ojicial of September 27, 1927, reducing the budget for 1927-28, 
already approved by the Legislative Assembly. The original budget 
allowed for expenditures amounting to 21,827,624.61 colones, which 
sum has now been reduced by 1,126,220 colones, leaving the authorized 
expenditures to be made during the fiscal year at 20,701,604.61 
colones. This decree went into effect on October 1, 1927. 


Public debt. — In his report for the year 1926, submitted to 
Congress of April 19, 1927, Sr. M. Centeno Graii, Minister of Finance, 
stated that the public debt of Venezuela had been diminished by 
7,346,483.50 bolivars during 1926, representing a total payment of 
2,713,812.95 bolivars for interest, 5,624,743.30 bolivars for amortiza- 
tion, and 107,636.64 bolivars for other expenses, or 8,446,201.90 
bolivars. The existing debt of the Republic remains as follows: 


3 per cent internal consolidated national debt 33, 791, 686. 18 

3 per cent inscribed debt 2, 098, 652. 50 

3 per cent diplomatic debt, emission of 1905 44, 276, 380. 00 

3 per cent national debt for diplomatic contracts: 

French emission, 1897 (Fabiani) 1, 078, 500. 00 

French emission, 1902-1904 2, 211, 375. 71 

French emission, 1905 (Plemley) 2, 986, 375. 70 

Dutch emission of 1903 570, 000. 00 

6, 846, 251. 41 

Total 87, 012, 790. 09 


New ministry. — A decree of September 29, 1927, created the new 
Ministry of Promotion, composed of the former Ministry of Agricul- 
ture, Industry and Colonization, and of the General Bureau of High- 
ways, Bridges and Rivers. Senor Adolfo Ibafiez was appointed the 
first minister of the new portfolio. 


Immigration law. — The National Congress recently enacted a 
law according to which every foreigner arriving in Colombia must 


have a passport issued by the competent authorities of his country 
and visaed by a Colombian consular agent. This law also determines 
what foreigners can be expelled from Colombian territory as unde- 
sirable aliens. 

New publication on Colombia.^ — An interesting pamphlet enti- 
tled Trading Under the Laws of Colombia, written by Mr. Joaquin 
Severa, chief of the section of legal information of the United States 
Commerce Department, has just been published. This pamphlet 
contains a complete description of the legal requirements that must 
be complied with in order to undertake any kind of commercial 
transactions in Colombia. It also includes very interesting data 
relating to sales registrations, insurance, accounting, industrial laws, 
patents, trade-marks, and banking legislation. 


New customs law. — The new customs law effecting changes in 
import and export duties went into effect on October 19, 1927. It 
was published in full in the Gaceta Oficial of October 20. 


Constitutional reforms. — According to recent press reports and 
official information, changes and amplifications in the Bill of Rights 
of the Guatemalan Constitution have been made by the constitu- 
tional convention in session at the date of writing in the articles on 
citizenship, education, patents and copyright, freedom of speech and 
the press, property rights, right to defense in case of trial, inviolable 
correspondence, and the mode of procedure in case of disputed 


Constitutional amendments. — The President on October 5, 
1927, proposed and the Cabinet adopted 13 amendments to the Con- 
stitution of 1881 which were published in Le Moniteur of October 8, 
1927. They were submitted to popular vote for ratification on 
January 10, 1928. 

Bureau of State's Private Domain. — A special section in the 
Department of Finance known as the Bureau of the State's Private 
Domain was created by presidential decree and sanction of the 
Cabinet on October 10, 1927, for the purpose of administering the 
private property of the Government. 


Disapproval of Cuyamel Fruit Co. contract. — The contract 
which the President signed with the Cuyamel Fruit Co. for the 
taking over of the railroads and further land concessions was dis- 
approved by Congress on October 5, 1927, as being counter to the 
provisions of article 149 of the Constitution of Honduras. This 



article deals with the duties of the President in making contracts. 
The Bulletin for October, 1927, gave an outline of the proposed 


Bureau of statistics. — The Chamber of Deputies on November 
29, 1927, unanimously approved the amendments proposed by the 
President to the act of December 30, 1922, which provided for the 
establishment of the Bureau of National Statistics. 

The amendments in question bring under the Bureau of National 
Statistics the statistical bureaus maintained in certain States, so 
that in the future the Bureau of National Statistics will be the only 
entity to compile official statistics on the collective life of the nation. 
This bureau will have charge of the censuses of industry, agriculture, 
commerce, finance and other classifications. The law provides for a 
Council of Statistics which is to be composed of members of the 
Bureau of National Statistics and representatives from the different 
offices of the Executive branch of the Government. 


Requirements for admittance of aliens. — The Minister of 
Government recently issued a circular letter to port officials and 
chiefs of border Departments to the effect that in order to be 
admitted into the country aliens would be required to have 100 
c6rdobas or the equivalent in foreign money in their possession. 
The other requirements of the immigration law of 1918 must also be 


^k^ TREATIES %^^ 



International Radio Telegraph Convention. — On October 3, 
1927, the President of Haiti ordered the publishing of the decree of the 
Council of State of the same date ratifying and putting into effect 
the International Radio Telegraph Convention signed in London 
no July 5, 1912. (Le Moniteur, Port au Prince, October 6, 1927.) 


Multilateral treaty on relations with China. — An Execu- 
tive decree of October 21, 1927, published in the Diario Ojicial of 
November 9, 1927, promulgated the treaty signed in Washington, 
February 6, 1922, by accredited representatives of United States, 
Belgium, Great Britain, China, France, Italy, Japan, the Nether- 


lands, and Portugal for agreement on the policy toward Chinas 
and adhered to by the Mexican accredited diplomatic representative 
in Washington on January 14, 1927. This treaty was approved 
by the Mexican Senate on September 29, 1927, and ratified by 
Executive decree of October 5, 1927. 


Treaty to avoid and prevent conflicts. — On October 5, 1927, 
President Calles signed an Executive decree ratifying the treaty 
signed by Mexico and other American nations in the Fifth 
International Conference of American States in Santiago, Chile, 
in 1923, for the avoidance and prevention of conflicts between 
American States. This treaty had been previously ratified by the 
Mexican Senate. (Diario Oficial, Mexico, November 11, 1927.) 

mexico-united states 

Extension of Mexican-United States General Claims Com- 
mission. — The convention extending two years from August 30, 1927, 
the term of the Mexican-United States Claims Commission signed by 
representatives of the two Governments in Washington on August 
16, 1927, was ratified by the President on October 5, 1927, after 
approval by the Mexican Senate. {Diario OJicial, Mexico, Novem- 
ber 15, 1927.) As this convention had been ratified by the President 
of United States on October 8, 1927, in pursuance of a Senate Res- 
olution of February 17, 1927, ratifications were exchanged at Wash- 
ington October 12, 1927. 


Delimitation of boundaries. — The Panaman Boundary Com- 
mission, composed of Engineers Leopoldo Arosemena, Jose Ramon 
Guizado, and Macario Solis, was notified to hold itself in readiness 
to start work in December, 1927, jointly with the Colombian Com- 
mission headed by Julio Garzon Nieto. 



School of Exact Sciences. — On October 21, 1927, the corner 
stone of the School of Exact Sciences of the University of Buenos 
Aires was laid in the presence of Dr. Ricardo Rojas, rector of the 
university, the Ministers of Public Instruction and Public Works, 
other officials, students, and many guests. 

204 THE PAlsr AMERICAISr uisrioN 

Bolivian teachers visit Argentina. — Bolivian teachers from 
the Argentine RepubHc School of La Paz arrived in Buenos Aires early 
in November. They visited the Buenos Aires school named for the 
Republic of Bolivia, and a number of other schools, in all of which 
they were graciously welcomed by their Argentine colleagues. 

Pan American fellowship. — The Argentine embassies and lega- 
tions in America have been notified of the establishment of a fellow- 
ship for advanced study in the Institute of Pathological Anatomy 
and Physiology, at Buenos Aires, for graduates of other American 
universities. The recipient will be a prosector in the institute from 
March 1 to February 28. Applications may be made in December of 
each year, and the fellow will be chosen by lot from these names. 


Centenary of observatory. — The National Observatory in Rio 
de Janeiro celebrated its centenary on October 15 of last year. 
Under its present able director. Dr. Henrique Morize, the scientific 
work of the observatory is being ably carried forward. Its regular 
publications include the Annual, the Seismological Bulletin, the 
Magnetic Bulletin, and the Tables of Tides, while other occasional 
studies are also issued. 

Brazilian teachers at Columbia University. — Five young 

women graduates of the Normal School of Bello Horizonte have been 

sent to study at Teachers College, Columbia University, by the State 

government of Minas Geraes. Miss Ignacia Guimaraes, who had 

previously studied at Teachers College, has received a fellowship for 

this year. 


Women celebrate educational anniversary. — The year 1927 
marked the fiftieth anniversary of the decree issued by Senor Miguel 
Luis Amunategui, when Minister of Education, by which women were 
admitted to the University of Chile on a parity with men. In 
commemoration of this event, the many women's organizations of 
Santiago prepared a women's exposition, held in that capital from 
October 2 to 12, 1927, the large attendance making it necessary to 
keep the exposition open three days longer than had been intended. 
Sehora dona Delia Matte de Izquierdo was chairman of the com- 
mittee in charge. The purpose of the exposition was to show the 
achievements of the Chilean woman in the many fields in which she 
is now an active worker. A brief account follows: 

As a preliminary to the exposition, a large mass meeting was held by the Na- 
tional Council of Women in honor of the first two women graduates of the univer- 
sity, Dr. Eloisa Diaz and Dr. Emestina Perez. Both have made contributions of 
high quality to public health, the former being noted for her promotion of school 
hygiene and the latter for her active campaign against social diseases. 


A prominent place in the exposition was naturally taken by the exhibits of 
schools for girls, both public and private. In addition to the examples of primary 
work, drawings, textiles woven by hand and by machine, embroidery and other 
fine hand sewing, canned fruit, cakes, and other products of the cookery classes 
were admired by the thousands of visitors. The most attractive feature presented 
by the schools, however, consisted of a gymnastic drill and dances in which the 
students in the seven Santiago secondary schools for girls united. This novelty 
attracted so much favorable comment that it had to be repeated. Mention 
should also be made of the normal school exhibits, which included classes taught 
by the Montessori and Decroly methods, and of the school dental clinic, in active 
operation, and the training of pupils in child care. 

Also along educational lines was the class of young women who are being 
taught to operate machines for bookkeeping and computation. It is thought that 
the wider use of these machines, which have been introduced into one of the 
leading banks, will open a new field of activity for women. 

Temporary offices for sending mail and telegrams and for making deposits in 
the National Savings Bank were features of the exposition, all being attended by 
women, who are largely employed in these services. 

Another interesting section was devoted to the display of a collection of 
children's books by Chilean women writers and of instructive books for women. 
The usefulness of this exhibit was much enhanced by the fact that information 
was given as to the libraries where these books could be consulted. 

The art division contained sculptures, paintings, drawings in pastel, batiks, 
decorations in velvet, and other works of art. 

Under agriculture considerable attention was devoted to beekeeping, a special 
hive invented by a Chilean woman being shown. 

It may be taken for granted that the social service organizations, in which 
women have so long played a prominent part, were well represented, both graph- 
ically and by actual services in operation. The Social Service School, the societies 
devoted to child welfare, the orphanages under the care of various religious organ- 
izations, the School of Nursing, the society giving lunches to poor children in 26 
schools, the Women's Charity Society, which disposes of the work of the poor 
women in its two homes, the Anti-Tuberculosis Society, and the Red Cross all 
had most interesting exhibits, more extended notice of which is unfortunately 
prevented by lack of space. 

Latin American University Congress. — This congress, which at 
first was planned for the latter part of 1927, has been postponed 
until March, 1928, when many universities are having vacations, thus 
making it easier to secure a good attendance of professors and students. 
The University of Chile in Santiago will be the host for this congress. 


Centenary of the University of Popayan. — ^In its last session 
the Senate of the Republic passed a resolution extending cordial 
greetings to the University of Popayan on the occasion of the first 
centenary of its founding, and expressing its ardent hope that this 
splendid institution will continue its honorable traditions of learning 
and culture. 

New rector of the law school. — To fill the place left vacant by 
the resignation of Dr. Pedro Maria Carreno, rector of the National 
Law and Political Science School, the Government appointed Dr. 


Eduardo Restrepo Saenz, a distinguished jurist who has occupied 
important Government positions. 


School gardens in Cartago Province. — Indicative of the grow- 
ing interest in the teaching and practice of agriculture by the schools 
of Costa Rica is a report submitted by the agricultural inspector of 
the Province of Cartago. The total number of fields under cultiva- 
tion for experimental purposes represented an area of 32,632 square 
meters (square meter equals 10.26 square feet), much of which had 
been sown to several crops in succession. Home gardens under super- 
vision numbered 2,068, while 3,305 trees, the majority of which were 
fruit treeS; were planted. 


School facts. — The following facts and figures relating to edu- 
cation were taken from the message of the President read before 
Congress on November 7, 1927: 

From April 4 to November 7, funds were allowed for 9 new elementary day- 
school teachers, 3 evening-school teachers, 10 kindergarten teachers, and five 
manual training and domestic science teachers, making a total of 27 new cen- 
ters of elementary teaching established within six months. 

During April, 1927, there were 3,702 schoolhouses open in the Repubhc with 
7,110 classes. During the past school year 321,821 children were enrolled in 
the pubUc elementary schools, of whom 243,528 were white and 78,293 were 
negro; 157,288 boys and 174,533 girls. The enrollment is as follows, by grades: 
Kindergarten, 15,411: first grade, 138,712; second grade, 74,719; third grade, 
46,453; fourth grade, 28,685; fifth grade, 10,929; and sixth grade, 6,930. 

Education of retarded children. — The Department of Public 
Instruction has appointed a commission to plan the organization of 
instruction for backward children now attending the public schools, 
and also the special training necessary for teachers of backward chil- 
dren. {Courtesy of the Cuban Embassy in WasTiington.) 

Agricultural course in schools. — Due to an arrangement be- 
tween the Secretary of Public Instruction and the Secretary of 
Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, agriculture will be taught in all 
public schools, the theoretical work to be supplemented by visits to 
the Government agricultural stations. (Courtesy of the Cuban Em- 
bassy in Washington.) 

Agricultural training in secondary schools. — According to a 
recent law all fourth-year secondary-school students must take a 
course in elements of agriculture, to be given in schools annexed to 
the provincial institutes of secondary education. The students of 
the Secondary School of Habana will receive instruction from one of 
their own professors. 



Practical courses for teachers. — The General Superintendent 
of Education of the Dominican Kepubhc is planning to institute 
practical courses for teachers on Saturdays. These courses will con- 
sist of a series of lectures and model lessons. 


Vocational school for girls. — As already announced, a new 
vocational school for girls of the middle class, given by Senorita Rosa 
Perez Pallares, will shortly be opened in Quito. The investment in 
the new school, including that for equipment, is estimated at more 
than 200,000 sucres. 


Uruguayan school named for Guatemala. — On September 15, 
1927, formal ceremonies marking the rededication and renaming of 
a primary school in Montevideo for the Republic of Guatemala took 
place in that city, an important part of the program being the 
presentation on behalf of the Guatemalan Government of a Guate- 
malan flag and bronze plaque containing the name of the school. 
Some years ago with a similar ceremony one of the normal schools 
in Guatemala City was named for Uruguay. 

Creation of national university. — In accordance with an 
executive decree of September 28, 1927, plans for the establishment 
of a national university on January 15, 1928, are being worked out 
by the Department of Education and the deans of the various schools 
which will form the university. 


Industrial schools. — The Financial Adviser-General Receiver's 
report for October, 1927, gives the following information on industrial 
schools : 

In the J. B. Damier Industrial School the linotype machine has been installed 
in the print shop. Five hundred copies of the Medical Society Bulletin were 
printed and 1,000 copies of the Public Works Service report were bound, in addi- 
tion to the regular monthly printing. An order of medicine cabinets is being 
completed by the boys, whose number is now 325, as many as the school can 

The Elie Dubois School for Girls opened with an enrollment of 175 girls who 
are being taught sewing in addition to regular school subjects. 

The St. Marc Industrial School for Girls was completed so as to open officially 
on November 6. Construction material has arrived for the J^r^mie and Cap- 
Haitien Industrial Schools, which it is hoped will be completed by February 
1, 1928. 

The Gonaives Industrial School this year has nearly 200 pupils who are doing 
good work in the automobile repair shop and other classes. The evening classes 
in this school have a large attendance, the subjects taught being English, French, 
shorthand, and typewriting. 


Agricultural schools. — Visits were made during October by 
the Director and his assistant to the agricultural schools in the 
districts of Jeremie and Cayes to supervise preparations for planting 
and to interview the local authorities with a view to getting a good 
attendance at the schools. Supplies and tools have been sent to 
most of the schools in operation, while new sites were chosen at 
Preville, Berthelot, Corail, Dame-Marie, and Anse-d'Hainault. 
The present school year was opened with 65 teachers, 46 schools, 
and 3,200 pupils. {Report of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver.) 


Telegraph School. — In the report of the Director General of 
National Telegraph and Telephone System for the past fiscal year 
are given the following facts on the Telegraph School : 

Due to the fact that few competent telegraph operators were to be had or 
retained in the service it was decided to estabUsh apprenticeships for training 
in local offices 20 students from the various departments. There is also a school 
in the central office with 30 students enrolled, of whom 13 are young men and 17 
girls. The curriculum includes Spanish, arithmetic, English, writing, typing 
and stenography, telegraph training, and telegraph laws and regulations. 


Education Week. — At the end of the 1927 school year, School 
Week was celebrated in the Federal District of Mexico between 
November 21-26, inclusive. The following program was carried out: 
Monday, Physical Education and Hygiene Day; Tuesday, Intellectual 
Education Day; Wednesday, Economic Education Day; Thursday, 
Domestic Education Day; Friday, Civic Education Day; and Satur- 
day, Moral Education Day. All the elementary schools of the 
District participated in the program ot Education Week, parents and 
friends attending the various exercises held. Both parents and school 
authorities were pleased with the success of Education Week and 
plan next year to carry out a similar program throughout the whole 

Library statistics. — From September, 1926, to August, 1927, 
580 new public libraries were established, and 471 of the libraries 
founded the previous year were enlarged; 3,312 volumes of Mexican 
books were distributed among foreign countries. 

Dentistry Week. — The governing board, faculty, and students 
of the School of Dentistry of the National University of Mexico 
organized a ''Dentistry Week," from September 26 to October 1. 
A program was arranged for every afternoon, which included lectures 
on the care of the teeth and practical demonstrations by members of 
the faculty and other dentists, and talks by dental students at the 
penal and charity institutions of the city. 


Campaign for cleanliness. — The Department of Rural Education 
is launching a cleanliness campaign. A club will be formed among 
the 12 pupils of a rural school who have dressed with the greatest 
care and cleanliness during a trial period of two weeks. The members 
of the club can wear an insignia of the national colors, and can elect 
their officers and future members. The hygiene committee, to be 
changed every month, is composed of 10 members who have charge 
of the inspection of the pupils, care of the books, furniture, school 
building, and yard. The committee will cooperate with the citizens 
in cleaning neighboring streets and w^ill arrange entertainments to 
raise money to purchase soap, toothbrushes, etc., for needy pupils. 
When the hygienic conditions are satisfactory the school will be 
given a white banner, to be hoisted for the first time at a celebration 
to which the neighboring schools are invited. 


Geographical and Historical Society. — The recently estab- 
lished Geographical and Historical Society of Leon has prepared the 
statutes for a national society of the same kind, which is to preserve 
the national archives, prepare a general official map of the country, 
establish libraries, reorganize the geographical and historical sections 
of the National Library and aid in the publication of books on 
on national geography and history, as well as other similar matter. 

Lectures on regional music. — The Ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion has engaged Seiior Luis A. Delgadillo to give a series of lectures 
on regional music in the Institute of Pedagogy and in the Normal 
School for Women in Managua. 


School physical drill. — On November 4, 1927, the Normal 
School of Panama City organized as part of the Independence Day 
celebrations a competitive physical culture drill by five elementary 
public schools of the capital. The entertainment, which was given 
in the National Theater, was accompanied by the orchestra of the 
National Band, and was much appreciated by the parents and other 
guests in the audience. 


School expenditures. — According to information published in 
El Diario, Asuncion, of October 6, 1927, the total expenditures for 
the construction and repair of school buildings in Paraguay for the 
year 1926-27 were 1,293,298 pesos, 106,702 pesos less than the 
amount authorized for that purpose in the budget. 

Medical fellowship. — By virtue of an executive decree of Oc- 
tober 24, 1927, Dr. Arnado Riquelme was awarded a fellowship to 
pursue further study abroad. Doctor Riquelme has the distinction 

79371— 28— Bull. 2 1 


of having made the highest averages in scholarship of any student 
in the medical school during the past academic year. 


National Institute of Social Medicine. — In connection with 
the VIII Pan American Sanitary Conference held in Lima, the 
National Institute of Social Medicine was formally opened on Octo- 
ber 17, 1927. The dean of the School of Medicine made the opening 
address, in which he said, in part: 

To-day Peru brings a modest contribution to the realization of the universal 
ideal — that the inhabitants of the earth may enjoy long, prosperous, and happy 
lives. The School of Medicine of Lima upon the occasion of the opening of this 
new branch sends a fraternal greeting to all other sanitary institutions, mention- 
ing especially the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation, which have 
contributed most to general welfare. The National Institute of Social Medicine 
will be the training school for professional sanitarians and hygienists. 

Indian schools. — The press reports that 20 new Indian schools 
are to be established in the Province of Chucuico for the benefit of 
the illiterate indigenes. 

Book Day. — On November 10, 1927, Book Day was celebrated in 
Lima with the collection of funds for school libraries. There are 
now 500 school libraries functioning in the Republic. These will be 
enlarged and others established with the funds collected. 

Industrial school for boys. — The Boys' Industrial School of 
Lima is nearing completion, the building being constructed at the 
order of the Government by the Foundation Co. 

United States ambassador receives honorary degree. — Dur- 
ing a recent pleasure trip through the southern Provinces of Peru, 
His Excellency William Miller Collier, Ambassador of the United 
States in Chile, received an honorary doctor's degree from the Schools 
of Law and Political and Economic Sciences of the University of 


Second annual art exhibit. — The second annual exhibition of 
free artists was opened in Montevideo on October 12, 1927, with an 
unusually representative collection of pictures submitted by many 
of the best-known Uruguayan artists. Prizes were awarded pictures 
in each class, including portraits in pastels and oils, landscapes, and 
marine studies, a special prize being given to the most popular 
picture of the exhibition. 

University interchange. — In a Peruvian review Senor Oscar 
Cosco Montalvo says: "The interchange of teachers and students 
between Argentina and Uruguay has been very successful the 
past year. The Argentine professors Alfredo L. Palacios, Floren- 
tino V. Sanguinetti, Arturo Orzabal Quintana, and Carlos Sanchez 

LABOR 211 

Viamonte taught at the University of Uruguay, and several Uru- 
guayan professors and students were received at the Argentine 

"Because of the success of this interchange, an international com- 
mittee has been formed with sections in Uruguay, Argentina, and 
Bolivia, while branches are being organized in Brazil and Paraguay." 

Educational encyclopedia. — The supervisor of primary and 
normal education has begun to publish the Educational Encyclopedia, 
a review which will bring foreign educational movements before 
Uruguayan educators. The first number contains interesting con- 
tributions by E. Duvillard, A. Hertz, E. Brandt, John Dewey, 
Gustavo Wyneken, and others. • 


Contribution of Uruguayan books. — Announcement was made 
in October, 1927, of the receipt of 305 works by Uruguayan authors 
sent to the Venezuelan National Library in Caracas by resolution of 
the Uruguayan Minister of Public Instruction. These works, by 
such well-lmown authors as Juana de Ibarbourou, Jose Enrique 
Rodo, Juan Zorrilla de San Martin, Carlos Reyes, V. A. Salaverri, and 
Carlos Roxlo, form a most valuable contribution to the National 

University registration. — Reports state that the total enroll- 
ment of the Central University for the academic year 1927-28 is 376, 
divided among the different schools as follows: School of Dentistry, 
13; School of Pharmacy, 13; School of Political Science, 118; School 
of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 67; Medical School, 154; and 
special diplomatic course, 11. Foreign students number 4, represent- 
ing Spain, Colombia, and England. 


Safety devices. — A recent Executive decree concerning the pro- 
tection of labor provides that building contractors and managers of 
mines, electric plants, factories, and storehouses for explosives, shall 
submit to the Department of Labor a list of safety devices used in their 
respective plants for the protection of their workers. Furthermore, 
reports on sanitation, ventilation, bathing facilities, and first aid 
must be submitted to the same department. 


Sanitary Mission for Yungas. — The Sanitary Mission appointed 
by the Government to investigate sanitary conditions in the Yungas 
district of the Department of La Paz plans to make the following 
studies in carrying out its work: 

1. To determine the total percentage of native population of that district, and 
the number of immigrants from the highlands. 

2. To check up the increase in the last 20 years of settlers and tenants on each 
farm and in towns, and to determine the causes of the increase or reduction as 
the case may be, of farmers and of the population in general. 

3. To investigate the actual death rate per thousand inhabitants. 

4. To prepare statistics on the diseases causing the greatest number of deaths. 

5. To determine the sections where certain diseases are most prevalent and 
take the corresponding measures for the eradication of those diseases. 

6. To prepare regulations for the various municipalities to enforce in their 
respective districts. 


Port and railway workers' pensions. — By decrees Nos. 17940 
and 17941, regulations on port and railway workers' pensions were 
issued under Act No. 5109 of December 20, 1926, which amplified 
the previous law on pensions. The two recent decrees, which are 
identical in many of their provisions, require contributions toward 
the pension fund of 3 per cent of the workers' monthly wage; 1}4 per 
cent of the employers' gross receipts; a 2 per cent increase in dock or 
railway rates; and other payments. The worker has a right to retire- 
ment on a pension at the age of 55 after completing from 20 to 30 
years of service, or to an invalidity pension after five years' service. 
His next of kin will receive a pension after the worker's decease 
provided he has been retired or has been employed more than five 
years, or a cash payment in case he has been employed less than five 
years. If a worker who has been employed more than five years is 
totally and permanently incapacitated through an industrial acci- 
dent, he has a right to an invalidity pension as well as to compensa- 
tion under the industrial accident act. The National Council of 
Labor is charged with the execution of both sets of regulations. 


Labor accidents. — According to the latest official statistics labor 
accidents in Cuba are relatively few. The number of deaths from 
labor accidents during the past year was 0.32 per 10,000 inhabitants, 
and 0.15 per 1,000 of the 75,298 workmen insured by the companies 
handling labor accident compensation. (Courtesy of the Cuban 
Embassy in Washington.) 

DOMINICAN republic 

Workmen's Union. — The Workmen's Union of San Pedro de 
Macoris was established on October 30. 1927. This union will 



devote all its activities to the improvement of the working class by 
means of education. 


Organization of federation of labor. — Statutes of the Guate- 
malan Federation of Labor with its seat in Guatemala City were 
approved on October 5, 1927, being printed in El Guatemalteco of 
October 18, 1927. 


Employees' federation. — The Confederation of Employees of 
Lima and Callao and six federations of employees from the Provinces 
met in Lima on October 15, 1927. The Confederation of Lima and 
Callao includes the organizations of the commercial clerks, bank 
employees, railway employees, graduates of the International Account- 
ing Academy, employees of the associated electric companies, post- 
oflSce employees, the cultural society of commercial employees, 
maritime employees, general association of employees of Callao, and 
the cultural association of commercial employees. President Leguia 
attended the opening meeting and addressed the gathering in terms 
of cordial interest and encouragement of orderly and constructive 
labor organization. 


First Pan American Tuberculosis Congress. — The press 
reported the meeting of the First Pan American Tuberculosis Congress 
in the city of Cordoba from October 10 to 15, 1927. This congress 
was one of the principal events with which the University of Cordoba 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation. A brief account 
follows : 

At the opening meeting the foreign delegations from Bolivia, Brazil, Costa 
Rica, Chile, Cuba, France, Panama, Peru, Spain, the United States, and Uruguay 
sat on the platform with other distinguished guests. Addresses were made by 
Doctor Cafferata, of Argentina, president of the Congress, the Minister of Foreign 
Relations, and the Minister of the Treasury, after which came speeches from 
representatives of the foreign delegations. Among the most notable delegates 
were Doctor Negr^, from the Pasteur Institute of Paris, and the Italian scientists 
Doctors Sanarelli and Carpi, of Milan. 

One of the most important recommendations made by the Congress in its 
closing session was as follows: As tuberculosis, because of its complication with 
economic, hygienic, and social conditions, is really a matter for governmental 
control, all governments should form commissions to centralize their antituberou- 


losis work and to study the questions of aid and prevention; also all nations 
should pass laws encouraging the construction of sanitary dwellings, restricting 
the sale of alcoholic liquors, establishing health and safety requirements in 
working conditions, limiting the working day, fixing the price and quality of 
prime necessities, and requesting governments to prevent would-be emigrants who 
are tubercular or pretubercular from leaving their own country. Also recom- 
mendations were passed that exchange be made through diplomatic channels of 
statistics, publications, and information on tuberculosis, and that obligatory in- 
struction in the prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis be given in elementary 
and secondary schools. Another recommendation urged governments to include 
the visiting nurse in the school medical service and to train in special schools 
normal graduate teachers for this work, which tends to prevent tuberculosis in 

In his closing address Doctor Caflferata expressed the hope that scientists of all 
nations would cooperate to fight tuberculosis and that a cure for it would be found 
before the meeting of the next congress. Tributes were paid to the Calmette 
Institute, a part of the Pasteur Institute of Paris, and to the memory of Dr. 
Oswaldo Cruz, founder of the institute of that name in Brazil. 

Third International Feminist Congress.- — ^At a recent meeting 
of the Argentine Women's Club, held in Buenos Aires, it was decided 
to call the Third International Feminist Congress to meet next 
November in the capital of Argentina to consider questions related 
to women's rights. While women's organizations of all countries 
will be invited, special efforts will be made to insure the presence of 
delegations from the countries of the American continent and Europe. 
A program involving seven main divisions has been planned, as 
follows: Sociology, hygiene (including narcotic drugs, eugenics, and 
child welfare), legislation dealing with various questions which affect 
women; and education, letters, industry, and the arts. The president 
of the executive committee for the Congress is Sefiora dofia Elvira 
Rawson de Dellepiane. 

Braille printing press installed in library. — In the Argentine 
Library for the Blind in Buenos Aires a Braille printing press has 
recently been installed, the ceremony of its inauguration being 
attended by the President and Sefiora de Alvear and the Minister 
of Justice and Public Instruction. This new machine will not only 
be used to print books for the blind, but also to print the magazine 
''Toward the Light," which is published by the library in question. 


Children's Day in Brazil. — The October 12, 1927, issue of the 
Jornal do Brasil, one of Rio de Janeiro's leading dailies, is notable 
for its 22-page supplement devoted to child welfare, the first supple- 
ment on this subject which members of the Bulletin staff recall 
to have seen in their reading of newspapers from the 21 Pan American 
countries. Among the many interesting articles in this edition for 
Columbus Day, known in Latin American countries as the Day of 
the (Iberian) Race, is one tracing the history of Children's Day in 


Brazil. It is the outgrowth of the work of Dr. Moncorvo Filho, 
the apostle of child welfare in Rio de Janeiro, who in 1899 started 
his campaign for that purpose. In connection with the Institute 
for the Protection and Assistance of Children, which Dr. Moncorvo 
Filho has long directed, there came into being a women's auxiliary, 
which, on every Christmas Day, and sometimes on New Year's and 
Epiphany as well, has had the custom of giving a great dinner and 
toys to thousands of poor children. This Dr. Moncorvo Filho made 
the occasion for starting, in 1901, a better babies contest, in which 
awards were made by a jury of physicians to the healthiest babies. 
All contestants were required to be breast-fed. These contests, 
which became semiannual, were imitated in other Brazilian cities 
and in foreign countries as well. Later the city of Rio de Janeiro 
made them official, and the First Brazilian Child Welfare Confer- 
ence, held in 1922, adopted the idea for the whole country, choosing 
October 12 as the day for their celebration. 

Other noteworthy articles in the child welfare supplement treat of 
the children's court in Rio de Janeiro, children's hospitals, institu- 
tional care, schools, books for children, scouting, the Junior Red 
Cross, nutrition, sun baths, physical education, and the care of 
blind children. 


Women celebrate educational anniversary. — See page 204. 

Sea air for pretuberculous children.^ — The Santiago Rotary 
Club decided at a recent meeting to raise funds for sending 1,500 
children a year in groups of 100 to spend 25 days at a sanitarium 
in Cartagena, where they can be benefited by sea air, sunshine, and 
baths. Physicians belonging to the Rotary Club will choose those 
most in need of this vacation, prescribing special treatment when 


Institutions for persons suffering special physical dis- 
ability. — During its last sessions the National Congress passed a 
bill promoting the work of the institute for the blind in Bogota, the 
institute for the deaf and dumb in Antioquia, and the institute for 
the deaf and dumb in Cundinamarca. The law provides for the 
construction of an adequate buUding for the first of these institutions, 
and to all it grants special privileges regarding communication and 
transportation facilities. It also provides that two Colombians be 
sent to other countries to study methods for the education of the 
abnormal. Each department of the country will have a right to 
five scholarships in the institution of Bogota. 



Activities of clinic. — According to a report made by the di- 
rector of the antisyphilitic clinic in San Jose for the months of 
September and October, 1927, 227 new patients have been examined, 
and all, with the few exceptions who were found not to be suffering 
from the disease, treated by the institution, 5,295 injections and 347 
prescriptions having been given. 


Mothers and Children's Day. — On December 11, 1927, Mothers 
and Children's Day was celebrated with the award of prizes to the 
winners in the child-welfare competitions organized annually by the 
Department of Health. President Machado awarded the prizes to 
the healthiest children judged in several classes according to age, 
the delegates to the Fifth Pan American Child Welfare Congress 
being present at the ceremony. 

These child-welfare competitions have been successfully celebrated 
in Cuba for a number of years, all social classes taking much interest 
in them. Local contests are organized in the various Provinces, the 
winners in which compete for the national prizes of $500, $300, and 
$200 for babies, and smaller amounts for older children. Special 
prizes are also offered by the city of Habana to residents of the 

Medical press congress. — On December 5 and 6, 1927, the Sixth 
Medical Press Congress was held in Habana under the presidency of 
the Secretary of Public Health and Charity. 


EcuADOREAN Red Cross. — The machinery for the Pasteurization 
of milk purchased by the Ecuadorean Red Cross in the United 
States through the American Red Cross has been set up in Quito 
and will be operated as soon as a sufficient supply of bottles is 
received. The cost of the equipment and installation was 15,000 
sucres. The Ecuadorean Red Cross, which desires to promote the 
general welfare, especially that of children, in every way possible, 
has chosen the supply of safe milk as one very practical and bene- 
ficial means toward its objective. 

New hospitals for children. — On October 13 last, thanks to the 
efforts of the Child Welfare Society, a new hospital for children was 
opened in Guayaquil. The spacious building, located in an out- 
lying section of the city, is a civic asset, and will be of especial benefit 
to the children of the poorer classes. 

Two philanthropic residents of Quito, Senor Hector Vaca and his 
wife, Sefiora Dolores Ortiz de Vaca, have given the sum of 250,000 


sucres to erect a hospital for children in Quito. The site, next to the 
Civil Hospital, has been granted free of charge by the President of 
the Republic. 


Study of European sanitary institutions. — A study of the 
sanitary institutions of France and other European countries is to 
be made for the General Bureau of Public Health by Dr. J. Espami- 
nondas Quintana, who was commissioned by an executive decree 
of October 1, 1927. 

Motion-picture censorship. — As a measure to alleviate the 
unfortunate social influence of certain motion pictures, all children 
under 14 years of age have been forbidden by an official decree of 
October 6, 1927, to attend any film attraction not approved by a 


Hospital statistics. — During October, 1927, the total admissions 
to hospitals for all causes were 595; discharges of patients, 604; 
deaths in hospitals, 69; outpatients including those in rural clinics, 
74,667; number of rural clinics, 323; major operations, 133; minor 
operations, 408; X-ray examinations, 29; Kahn and Wassermann 
tests, 1,046; and injections fortreponematosis (neosalvarsan, bismuth), 
43,059. (Report of Financial Adviser-General Receiver.) 


Fight against malaria. — Dr. Daniel Malloy, of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, who is directing public health work in Honduras, has 
undertaken a vigorous campaign against malaria. This disease has 
been so prevalent that every effort is being made to secure the coop- 
eration of the public. For this purpose a motion picture dealing 
with malaria and malaria-transmitting mosquitoes has been exhib- 
ited, and a full page devoted to pictures and descriptions of anti- 
malaria methods in one of the Tegucigalpa dailies. 

Second better babies' contest. — The second municipal contest 
for breast-fed babies was held in September by the city of Teguci- 
galpa, a number of very fine infants winning prizes. These compe- 
titions are part of the campaign of child welfare which is being carried 
on by the Department of Public Health. 


Public dormitory for boys. — On November 4, 1927, the first 
public dormitory for boys was opened by the public charities of the 
Federal District of Mexico. The building has three large dormi- 
tories with a total capacity of 120 beds, the furniture having been 


constructed at the Industrial School for Orphans. Among other 
rooms in the new building are a library, playrooms, gymnasium, a 
motion-picture hall where daily educational and patriotic pictures 
are shown, a laundry, shower baths, disinfection room, and a barber 
shop. Boys who go to the dormitory will be furnished with a supper 
at night and breakfast in the morning. President Calles gave a 
public site for this dormitory to the Department of Public Charity. 
Federation op Mothers' Clubs. — A Federation of Mothers' 
Clubs has recently been formed in Mexico City which includes most 
of the mothers' associations existing in the schools of the capital. 
This association is attempting to do more than bring the teachers and 
parents together for cooperation in benefiting the child; it hopes to 
carry out a campaign of social welfare which will reach through all 
classes of society, to organize entertainments of cultural value, and 
to combat vice and evils incident to poverty and crowded conditions. 


Venereal-disease clinics. — In the city of Granada a venereal- 
disease hospital for women has been established by the Public Health 
and Charity Commission. It is receiving assistance from the General 
Department of Health. 

The Section of Preventive Medicine of the Government proposes 
to establish venereal-disease clinics for men in each of the depart- 
mental capitals. These clinics will be supported in part by the 
municipalities and in part by the local boards of charity. 


Boys' week. — The Rotary Club of Panama recently held the 
annual Boys' Week planned by that organization. The program 
began on November 20 with Church Day, followed by Industries 
Day, School Day, Civic Day, Athletic Day, Girls' Day, and Parade 

General campaign for malaria eradication. — The press 
reports that the first systematic campaign for the eradication of ma- 
laria in the interior of the country is well under way. The work is 
being carried on under the direction of the new Sanitation Division of 
the Government, whose chief is Eduardo Icaza, jr., a Panaman gradu- 
ate on a Rockefeller Foundation scholarship of a special course in 
sanitation. He has the advice of experts of the International Health 
Board. The work includes the control of water supply, sewerage 
and drainage systems, and the sanitary phase of construction work 
in reference to schools and other Government buildings. Sanita- 
tion in Aguadulce is being paid for in part by the municipality and 
in part by the Government, while the municipality of David has 
also decided to appropriate $10,000 for similar work. 



Enlargement of prison workshops. — The expenditure of the sum 
of 23,298 pesos for the enlargement of prison workshops was author- 
ized by the Government on October 25, 1927. The work in these 
shops, which was but recently started, includes shoemaking, carpentry, 
saddlery, and bookbinding, and serves the excellent purpose of afford- 
ing the prisoners an occupation for which they receive wages. 


Municipal sanitary regulations. — The mayor of RImac munici- 
pality, within which Lima is situated, issued a regulation in the middle 
of November providing that all tenement houses be provided with 
a certain number of common shower baths within 30 days after the 
publication of the order. Property owners not providing the required 
baths are to be fined 50 per cent, in addition to the cost of the con- 
struction, which will be carried out by the municipality. 

Garbage-incineration plant. — On October 23, 1927, the munici- 
pal garbage-incineration plant was formally opened. It is situated 
on the left bank of the Rimac River near Monserrate, so that the 
ashes may be turned into the river. The present plant, which con- 
sumes 60 tons of garbage a day, can have its capacity doubled by 
the addition of another furnace in the three-story reinforced concrete 
structure. The cost of the incinerator was 30,000 Peruvian pounds. 

National Institute of Social Medicine. — See page 210. 


Antituberculosis dispensary. — Efforts of Dr. Jose Martirene, 
Director General of Pubhc Assistance, to establish an official anti- 
tuberculosis dispensary in which systematic antituberculosis vaccina- 
tion might be practiced, were given definite realization when the 
Calmette Dispensary was opened in Montevideo on November 10, 
1927. This dispensary, which has laboratory facilities to produce 
the vaccine, is said to be the first of its kind in America. 

New hospitals. — On October 30, 1927, official opening ceremonies 
took place in the hospital of San Ramon. Occupying a whole square, 
this new and well-equipped hospital is composed of a group of three 
buildings, containing wards, an operating room, a treatment room, 
pharmacy, offices, kitchen, dispensary, morgue, and storehouse. 
Information has been received that a hospital has also been opened 
in Treinta y Tres, where it will take the place of the dispensary 
formerly in use. 

Free child-health course. — According to La Manana, Monte- 
video, November 6, 1927, such great interest has been shown in the 
lectures of the free course in child hygiene given in the clinic of the 



Pereyra-Rossel Hospital under the direction of Dr. Luis Morquio 
that they are to be continued. Doctor Morquio, one of the leading 
Latin American pediatricians, is head of the International American 
Institute for Child Welfare in Montevideo. 


Quarterly hospital report. — iVccording to statistics printed in 
the Gaceta Oficial of October 18, 1927, 7,102 patients were treated in 
the 58 Government hospitals throughout the Republic during the 
second quarter of 1927 at an expenditure for the quarter of 670,271 

Activities of Sim6n Rodriguez Institute. — -The infant mortality 
among children registered in the Simon Rodriguez Institute, Caracas, 
during 1925, 1926, and up to June 12, 1927, was approximately 
7.20 per cent. Of 2,486 children under 2 years of age, 181 died within 
the time named. Through a bureau of nurses, a dining room in 
which meals are served free to mothers, a milk station for children 
under 18 months of age, and medical service by specialists in diseases 
of children less than 2 years of age, the institute is carrying on a 
beneficent work which should materially decrease the rate. At 
the present time plans are being perfected for the opening of a section 
for the hospitalization of children too ill to be properly cared for at 


News bureau. — The prefects of the various Departments have 
been notified by the Ministry of the Interior that daily news items 
will be forwarded to them by the Government relating to all branches 
of Government activities — political, administrative, military, social, 
etc. The idea of this service is to bring into closer contact and un- 
derstanding all the different capitals of Departments. 

National art exhibit. — Last October two very interesting exhibi- 
tions of paintings by national artists were held in La Paz. One was 
composed of the works of Henry Sene and Jose Malanca, while the 
other was the first salon of national artists. 


Colonial art. — A permanent exhibition of colonial furnishings 
and other beautiful antiques was recently opened in a fine old colonial 


house in Santiago. Three thousand persons visited the exhibit the 
first day, and it is expected that henceforth tourists will not want to 
miss this interesting display. 


National musical competition. — According to the Diario de 
Costa Rica, San Jose, of October 28, 1927, plans are being completed 
for a competition open to musical compositions strictly national in 
character. A commission has also been chosen to select and edit 
the best works of national composers for publication. 

Death of John M. Keith. — News of the death of John M. Keith 
on October 13, 1927, was received by his friends and acquaintances 
everywhere with the greatest regret. Aside from his great admin- 
istrative ability shown in his connection v/ith the United Fruit Co., 
this American banker, an adopted son of Costa Rica, proved himself 
an ever interested, socially minded resident, aiding with his time 
and money the charitable organizations of the capital. 


Decoration conferred on President. — The Minister of Bolivia 
in Ecuador called upon Dr. Isidro Ayora, Provisional President, 
on September 27, 1927, for the purpose of officially delivering to 
him the Grand Cross of the National Order of the Condor of the 
Andes, a decoration conferred by the Government of Bolivia on the 
Chief Executive of Ecuador. 


Decoration of an American lady. — Pursuant to instructions 
from his Government, Dr. Hernan Velarde, ambassador of Peru in 
the United States, recently presented the Order of the Sun to Mrs. 
Frank Barrows Freyer, whose husband was formerly a member of 
the American Naval Mission in Peru. During her residence in the 
sister Republic Mrs. Freyer took an active part in the organization 
of societies in behalf of children, prisoners, and the protection of 
animals. Mrs. Freyer is the first American woman to be the recip- 
ient of the Order of the Sun, which has only rarely been granted to 
Peruvian women. 


Cuban President honored. — By virtue of an Executive decree 
of October 12, 1927, the collar of the Order of the Liberator has been 
awarded Gen. Gerardo Machado, President of Cuba. 







Production and consumption in Argentina of verba mate 

Condition of banks in Buenos Aires, including branches in 

Argentina, at close of business Sept. 30, 1927. 
Argentine export taxes for the month of iSTovember, 1927 















, do 






























Tracy Lay, consul 
Buenos Aires. 


J. F. McGurk, 
La Paz. 

George E. Seltzer, 

at Manaos. 
C. R. Cameron, co 

Howard Donovan, 

John R. Minter, 

Fred D. Fisher, 

Howard Donovan. 
Nathaniel P. Davi 


Fred D. Fisher. 

C. R. Cameron. 

Howard Donovan. 
Fred D. Fisher. 

Claude I. Dawson, 
eral at Rio de Jan 
Howard Donovan. 

Claude I. Dawson. 


Howard Donovan. 

Stephen C. Worste 

sul at Iquique. 
George D. Hopper 
Carl F. Deichm,- 
general at Valparf 

Lawrence F. Cotie, 
at Santa Marta. 

Charles Forman, 

.'Alfred Theo. Burri 

Charles Forman. 

general at 

Review of commerce and industries for October, 1927 


October report on commerce and industries .- 

consul at 

Proposed law concerning the establishment of flour mills in 


Financial situation of city of Manaos-- _ - _ - 

vice consul 

Budget for the State of Amazonas _ - - -----_. 

Railroad concession in Matto Grosso 

nsul at Sao 

Export taxes in State of Para - _ . _ - . 

consul at 

Review of commerce and industries of Santos consular district, 

quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Budget for State of Sergipe for 1928 __. 

consul at 

Coffee production in State of Pernambuco 

>, consul at 

Agricultural education and development work in Alagoas, year 

Acquirement of the Southern Sao Paulo Railway by the State 

of Sao Paulo. 

Proposed public works for Sao Paulo - _ . 

Budget for the municipality of Santos for fiscal year ending 
Dec. 31, 1928. 

consul gen- 

New vehicle law of State of Bahia, decree No. 5,283 of Oct. 29, 

1927, published in Diario OflScial of Nov. 6, 1927. 
Review of Brazilian commerce and industries for October, 1927__ 
Utilizing Brazilian coal . 












Exports of manganese ore from Rio de Janeiro during October, 

Customs operations and receipts 6 months of 1927, compared 

with same period 1926. 
Exports from Bahia during first 7 months of 1927. _ 


Review of commerce and industries of Iquique consular 

district, quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Review of commerce and industries of Antofagasta, quarter 

ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Use of power shovels in northern Chilean mining enterprises. _ 
Declared exports to the United States from Valparaiso district, 

quarter ended June 30, 1927. 
Declared exports from Valparaiso, quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 


The Santa Marta Chamber of Commerce ... 

r, vice con- 
consul at 

n, consul 

vice consul 

Exports from Buenaventura during October, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries of Barranquilla district 

for the past four months. 
Proposed repair shops for the Ferrooarril del Paciflco 

consul at 
consul at 


Reports received to Decembes 15, 1927 — Continued 






Pamphlet entitled, Population of the Republic of Costa Rica, 

Census of May, 1927. 
Costa Rican economic conditions during 1925 and 1926 

Nov. 17 

Nov. 24 


S. L. Wilkinson, consul at San 


The population of Cuba as of Sept. 30, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries of Cuba for October, 1927__ 

The Cuban sugar defense program 

Extension of the 8 per cent profits tax 

Cuban-Canadian trade convention, Nov. 25, 1927 

Declared exports during the month of November, 1927 


Report on the Dominican coffee crop 

Condition of the Dominican cacao crop 


Review of commerce and industries for September, 1927. 


Review of commerce and industries for October, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries, quarter ended Sept. 30, 


September, 1927, report of commerce and industries 

Review of commerce and industries of Puerto Castilla district, 
quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 

Available statistics of import and export movements through 
the customs of La Ceiba, during fiscal year Aug. 1, 1926, to 
July 31, 1927. 

Review of La Ceiba consular district, September quarter, 1927, 

Review of September quarter, 1927, of the Puerto Cortes con- 
sular district. 

Export figures for the Republic of Honduras, fiscal year 1925-26. 

Financial report of the Department of Tegucigalpa for 1926-27. 

The opening to traffic on the Mexican National Highway from 

Acapulco to Mexico City on Nov. 11, 1927. 
Customs receipts at Vera Cruz during October, 1927 

Recreation resort planned for Piedras Negras. 


Review of commerce and industries of Western Nicaragua for 
October, 1927. 


October, 1927, report on commerce and industries 

Production of perillo gum 


Budget of Salvador for fiscal year 1927-28 

October, 1927, review of commerce and industries. 

New decree establishing 10-day limit for presentation of cus- 
toms control manifest. 

Customs collections in Uruguay for October, 1927 

1926-27 wool season in Uruguay 

Financial conditions in Uruguay 


Oil report for the Maracaibo Basin for the months of July, Au- 
gust, and September, 1927. 



L. J. Keena, consul general at 


















William B. Lawton, vice con- 
sul, Santo Domingo. 




Oct. 12 W. Allen Rhode, consul general 
at Guayaquil. 

H. Eric Trammell, vice consul 
at Guatemala City. 

Samuel W. Honaker, consul at 
Port au Prince. 

Geo. P. Shaw, consul at Tegu- 

Winfield H. Scott, vice consul 
at Puerto Castillo. 

Nelson R. Park, consul at La 

Ray Fox, consul at Puerto 

Geo. P. Shaw. 


Harry N. Pangburn, vice con 

sul at Acapulco. 
John Q. Wood, consul at Vera 

Oscar C. Harper, vice consul at 

Piedras Negras. 

Christian T. Steger, consul at 

H. D. Myers, vice consul at 

Panama City. 
Geo. M. Hanson, consul at 


Le Roy F. Beers, vice consul at 
San Salvador. 

C. Carrigan, consul general at 

Alexander K. Sloan, consul at 


















































Costa Rica 


Dominican Republic 








Paraguay 2 



United States . . . 






Peso . . 



Peso . 

Peso . 


Peso . 

Peso . 

Sucre . 







Peso . 




Peso . 


Value Pan- 


U. S. Gold 

$0. 965 

1 Money of account recommended by the Inter-American High Commission at a 
meeting held in Buenos Aires, April 12, 1916. Equivalent to 0.33437 gram of gold 
0.900 fine. 

2 The theoretical standard of Paraguay is the silver peso, but actually the standard 
is the Argentine gold peso as above given. 


Metric measures most commonly appearing in market and statistical reports of 
Latin-American countries with equivalents in units of United States customary 


Centimeter 0.39 inch 

Meter 3. 28 feet 

Kilometer 0. 62 mile 

Liquid Measure 

Liter 1. 06 quarts 

Hectoliter 26. 42 gallons 

Weight— Avoirdupois 

Gram 15. 42 grains 

Kilogram 2. 2 pounds 

Quintal 220. 46 pounds 

Ton 2, 204. 6 pounds 

Surface Measure 

Square meter 10. 26 sq. feet 

Hectare 2. 47 acres 

Square kilometer. . . . 0. 38sq. mile 

Dry Measure 

Liter 0. 91 quart 

Hectoliter 2. 84 bushels 

Weight— Troy 

Gram 15.42 grains 

Kilogram 32. 15 ounces 

Kilogram 2. 68 pounds 









MARCH, 1928 







Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, Chairman 
Senor Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Vice Chairman 

Argentina Seiior Don Conrado Traverso, 

1806 Corcoran Street, Washington, D. C. 

Bolivia . Senor Dr. Eduardo Diez de Medina, 

Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Brazil Snhr. Dr. Sylvino Gurgel do Amaral, 

1704 Eighteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Chile Senor Dr. Carlos Davila, 

2154 Florida Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Senor Don Jose M. Coronado, 

Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 

Costa Rica Senor Don Guillermo E. Gonzalez, 

1830 Nineteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Seiior Dr. Rafael Rodriguez Altunag a 

2630 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Dominican Repubhc-Senor Don Maximo L. Vasquex, 
Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Senor Don Juan Barberis, 

Investment Building, Washington, D. C. 

Guatemala Seiior Dr. Adrian Recinos, 

Southern Building Washington, D. C. 

Haiti M. Hannibal Price, 

2200 Q Street, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Seiior Don Luis Bogran, 

1414 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mexico Senor Don Manuel C. Tellez, 

2829 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Seiior Dr. Alejandro Cesar, 

1100 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Seiior Don Juan B. Chevalier, 

1535 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Paraguay Seiior Dr. Juan Vicente Ramirez, 

Brighton Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Peru Seiior Dr. Hernan Velarde, 

2633 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Seiior Dr. Carlos Leiva, 

2601 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

United States Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Seiior Dr. Hugo V. de Pena, 

1317 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

Venezuela Senor Dr. Carlos F. Grisanti, 

1102 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 










II -^r^^^^^^r^ III, 

THE ^ 



English edition, in all countries of the Pan American Union, $2.50 per year 
Spanish edition, " " " " " " 2.00 " 

Portuguese edition," " " " " " 1.50 " 

An ADDITIONAL CHARGE of 75 cents per year, on each edition, for 
subscriptions in countries outside the Pan American Union. 



./ '\i 

The New Minister of Bolivia 225 

Summary of Archaeological Work in Middle America in 1927 228 

By S. G. Morley, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Vacation Trips in Chile 242 

I. A Holiday in Southern Chile. 

By B. C. Howland. 
II. A Trip to Juan Fernandez. 
By Gladys Eleonor James. 

Aviation Facilities in Sao Paulo and Vicinity (Photographs) 253 

Work of the South American Silversmith 256 

The American International Institute for the Protection of Childhood 266 

By Francis Fisher Kane. 

Summer Courses in Spanish and Portuguese 271 

Sao Paulo Coffee Exposition 273 

Maximo Pacheco : A Revolutionary Artist 286 

By Frances Toor, Editor of Mexican Folkways, Mexico City. 

Colombia's New Law Covering Hydrocarbons 291 

Agriculture, Industry and Commerce 293 

Argentina — Bolivia — BrazU — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican 
Republic — Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Pan- 
ama — Paraguay — Peru— Salvador— Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 304 

Chile — Colombia— Cuba — Ecuador — Guatemala— Mexico— Paraguay— Peru— Uruguay. 

Legislation 309 

BrazU — Chile— Cuba — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico— Peru— Salvador. 

International Treaties 311 

Brazil- Venezuela — Costa Rica — Costa Rica-Colombia — Honduras-United States — Vene- 

Public Instruction and Education 313 

Argentina — Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Guatemala — 
Haiti — Honduras — Mexico— Paraguay— Peru — Salvador — Uruguay. 

Social Progress 320 

Argentina— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Costa Rica— Cuba— Dominican Republic — Ecua- 
dor—Honduras—Mexico — Nicaragua— Panama— Peru— Salvador — Uruguay. 

General Notes 327 

Bolivia — Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Nicaragua — Panama — Peru — 
Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 330 


Photograph by Underwood & Underwood 

The new Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Bolivia to the United States 

Vol. LXII 

MARCH, 1928 

No. 3 


511 11 

© G © 

© -a 

THE Government of Bolivia, which since April 2, 1927, had 
been represented in Washington by a charge d'affaires, 
recently appointed as its envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary in the United States the distinguished dip- 
lomat and eminent man of letters. Dr. don Eduardo Diez de Medina, 
who was officially received by President Coolidge at the White House 
on February 10 last. 

Upon presenting his letters of credence, Senor Diez de Medina 
spoke, in part, as follows: 

Excellency: The Government of Bolivia has intrusted me with its diplomatic 
representation near Your Excellency's Government, and to that end has given 
me the honorable mission of placing in your hands the letter which accredits me 
as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Bolivia to the United 
States of America, and which, at the same time, brings to an end the mission of 
my predecessor, Senor Don Ricardo Jaimes Freyre. In fulfilling this high trust, 
Excellency, I wish to express the deep satisfaction I experienced on treading the 
soil of this great Nation, the Nation in which Washington opened the furrows 
from which was to spring the marvelous strength of the world's leading Republic, 
in which, later, Wilson sowed the seed of peace, disseminating doctrines of world 
morality and justice, the gospel of each nation conscious of its duties toward the 
other nations, whether large or small, which in conjunction form the international 

Following the footsteps of your illustrious predecessor it has remained for 
your wise administration — through your illustrious Secretary of State — to 
recently point out a possible and just solution of the question of the South 
Pacific, demonstrating once again the consistent rectitude of the statesman who 
endeavors to achieve beyond his own frontier the realization of the noble princi- 
ples of morality and positive justice among the peoples. 

My country, Excellency, renders the warmest homage to your exalted spirit, 
a spirit patterned after those of the exalted Washington and Wilson; and it 
rests assured that the greatness and the extraordinary influence of the United 
States will in no distant future contribute to restoring the moral balance and the 
reign of justice throughout the world. This is the most exalted glory to which 



a great nation such as the United States can aspire, a nation whicli powerful 
and austere, leads the civilization of two continents. 

So far as Bolivia may, she will continue to work calmly toward the fulfillment 
of her own destinies, and in her noble and peaceful endeavor to contribute to 
the progress of the world, releasing from her mountain fastnesses, where they 
lie imprisoned, abundant streams of tin, wolfram, petroleum, silver, and copper 
which, shipped across the coveted sea, will strengthen the development of indus- 
tries, to the maintenance and enrichment of the world's greatest markets. 

It is a great honor to bring to Your Excellency the greetings of the Govern- 
ment and people of Bolivia for the Nation whose destinies you so worthily direct; 
and to these greetings I add the most sincere good wishes of His Excellency, the 
President of Bolivia, for your own personal happiness and for the greatest 
prosperity for the United States of America. 

To the eloquent words of the Bolivian diplomatic representative 
President Coolidge replied in part as follows: 

The sentiments of regard for the United States which you express, your felici- 
tous tributes, and your statement that Bolivia will continue to contribute in an 
eminently peaceful endeavor toward the progress of the world, are not only 
deeply appreciated, but afford me abundant assurance that your mission will be 
so conducted as to deepen that friendship which for almost a century has happily 
characterized the relations between Bolivia and the United States. 

I trust that your official residence in this capital will prove most agreeable to 
you and beg of you to convey to His Excellency the President of Bolivia assur- 
ances of my high regard for him and for the people of his country. 


Senor Diez de Medina was born in the city of La Paz on February 
8, 1882, the son of the well-known internationalist Don Federico Diez 
de Medina and Dona Maria Lertora de Diez de Medina. His early 
education was received in that city, where later he attended the 
Jesuit College, graduating therefrom with the degree of bachelor of 
philosophy and letters. 

At 16 he commenced his public career as a clerk in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, rising successively until he became the Minister of 
that important portfolio, a position which he has held thrice. In 
1905 he initiated his diplomatic career as second secretary of the 
Bolivian Legation in Argentina, being transferred the next year to a 
similar post in Spain. In 1907 he was accredited first secretary of 
the Legation in Great Britain. After an interruption in his diplomatic 
activities caused by ill health, he was appointed charge d'affairs in 
Chile, where he signed the Commercial Traffic Convention with that 
country still in force. 

In 1914 Dr. Diez de Medina was recalled to assume the position of 
Assistant Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and the next year that of 
prefect and commandant of Oruro. In 1916 he was appointed 
President of the Municipal Council of La Paz, and in 1917, on the 
occasion of the visit of the foreign embassies to the inauguration of 
the new president, he was made introducer of ambassadors and 
resident minister. In 1918 he was promoted to be envoy extraordi- 
nary and minister plenipotentiary before the Governments of Uruguay 
and Paraguay and, in 1920, during the administration of President 
Saavedra, he became director of international propaganda and, for 


the second time, Assistant Secretary of Foreign Affairs with the rank 
of minister plenipotentiary. In 1923 he was Acting Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, while in 1924 he was appointed envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary in Argentina and ambassador extraor- 
dinary on special mission to Paraguay at the presidential inaugura- 
tion. It was he who proposed that the United States arbitrate the 
important boundary question between Paraguay and Bolivia, a 
proposition which was accepted in principle by the Government of 
Paraguay. Again Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1925, he continued 
to hold this post until January, 1926, when he was sent to Chile as 
ambassador on special mission, where he remained as envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary. The same year he was trans- 
ferred to Peru in a similar capacity. 

Dr. Diez de Medina has also served during short intervals as 
Minister of Public Instruction, Promotion, and the Interior. As 
Minister of Foreign Affairs he reorganized the Bolivian diplomatic 
and consular services. He also signed the very important Diez de 
Medina-Carrillo boundary treaty between Bolivia and Argentina, 
which terminated the only serious question pending between the two 
countries, and the protocols settling the differences between Bolivia 
and Brazil also bear his name, with that of the Brazilian Araujo Jorge. 
The first treaty of friendship and commerce between Bolivia and 
Japan, which initiated diplomatic relations between the two countries, 
was also his work. 

Senor Diez de Medina is the author of numerous publications in 
prose and verse, among which the following may be named: Bolivia- 
Paraguay; Notes on International Topics; Bolivia- Chile; Land War 
in International Law; The Argentine Award in the Peruvian- Bolivian 
Dispute; The Continental Prohlem; and The Question of the Pacific 
and the International Policy of Bolivia. 

Dr. Diez de Medina holds the Decoration of Merit, Chile; the 
Cross of Boyaca, Colombia; the Grand Cross of the Rising Sun, 
Japan; the Grand Cross of Leopold II, Belgium; the Grand Cross of 
the Order of St. Sylvester, the Holy See; The Grand Cross of the 
Order of the Red Cross, Cuba; the Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Sun, Peru; the Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator, Venezuela; 
Commander with Star of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Spain; 
and Official of the Legion of Honor, France. Moreover, in 1923 the 
Bolivian Senate gave him a vote of thanks for his work as a publicist in 
defense of Bolivian rights. He is, furthermore, an honorary member 
of the Royal Geographic Society of Madrid; a member of the Insti- 
tute of International Law of Washington and of numerous other for- 
eign literary and scientific societies. He is also permanent Bolivian 
delegate to the Brussels Congress of Administrative Sciences. 

The Bulletin of the Pan American Union takes pleasure in extend- 
ing its warm greetings to this distinguished Bolivian diplomat and in 
wishing him a full measure of success in his exalted mission. 



By Dr. S. G. Morley 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 

DURING the spring of 1927 the Dhectioii of Archaeology of 
the Ministry of Public Education of the Government of 
Mexico sent an expedition to Yucatan composed of Mr. 
Jose Reygadas y Vertiz, the Dnector of Ai-chaeologj^, 
Mr. Enrique Juan Palacios of the Direction of Archaeology, and 
Mr. Federico Mariscal, the well-known Mexican architect. 

A number of the larger sites were visited and important decisions 
made concerning the care and preservation of buildings at these 

At Uxmal a serious fall of masonr}^ had occurred the preceding 
year m the fagade of the Palace of the Governors, probably the 
first example of native American architecture extant. Steps were 
taken to prevent further immediate deterioration and plans laid for 
more extensive repah during the season of 1928. 

At Chichen Itza, the Dnection of Archaeology centered its activi- 
ties upon the repair of the Castillo, the largest temple at this site. 
These operations were under the supervision of Mr. Eduardo Mar- 
tinez Canton and Mr. Felipe Erosa Peniche, of the Dnection of 
Archaeology, and were ably carried out. The fagade of the Castillo 
proper was built back, thus preserving the only feathered serpent 
columned doorway at Chichen Itza, which had smwived the vicissi- 
tudes of time; and the northeastern corner of the supporting pj^'a- 
mid and stairway on the northern side were partially repaked. This 
pyramid is composed of nine receding terraces of which the topmost 
and the lowest five have now been repaned at the northeastern 
corner, a very fine piece of architectural repair work. 

On January 13 Mr. Nazario Quintana Bello, Inspector of Archaeo- 
logical Monuments for the State of Campeche, discovered an un- 
portant Old Empne site in southern central Campeche. The first 
notices of this site told of an imposing temple five stories in height 


and many other pyramids and buildings of stone. Messrs. Rey- 
gadas, Palacios, and Mariscal visited this site in March, when two 
hieroglyphic monuments were discovered, one of which, Stela 2, had 
an Initial Series date upon it, deciphered by Mr. Palacios as, 4 Ahau 13 Yax, approximately 476 A. D. 

The name Tixmucuy, that of the nearest modern Indian village 
to the ancient city, was first applied to it, but this was later changed 
to Etzna, upon information supplied by the natives of the surround- 
ing region. 

Etzna means in Maya, etz, "grimaces" or 'Ho make a face," and 
na means ''house." Perhaps "House of the Grimaces" would be 
a fairly satisfactory translation of this name. The Maya of the 
region have a tradition that if they leave money at the ruins and 
return later food will be found in its place. 

The city would appear to have been an unportant provincial 
center of the Old Maya Empire, and to have been reoccupied in 
New Empire times. 


Two principal centers of the Maya civilization were under inves- 
tigation by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1927 under 
the direction of Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Associate in Middle Ameri- 
can Archaeology, as follows : 

1. The New Empire city of Chichen Itza in northeastern Yucatan, 
Mexico, a project now" having completed its fourth season of work. 

2. The Old Empire city of Uaxactun in northern Guatemala, a 
project now having completed its second season of work. 

Excavations at Chichen Itza, under the supervision of Mr. Earl 
H. Morris, were carried on at eight stations, as follows: 

1. Temple of the Warriors (station 4). 

2. Northwest colonnade (station 10). 

3. North colonnade (station 8). 

4. West colonnade (station 9). 

5. Caracol (station 5). 

6. Temple of the WaU Panels (station 14). 

7. Temple of the Interior Atlantean Columns and the House of 
the Grinding Stones (station 11). 

8. Temple of the Two Lintels (station 7), Old Chichen Itza. 

The outstanding accomplishment of the year at Chichen Itza 
was the completion of the work (both excavation and repair) at the 
Temple of the Warriors and the northwest colonnade in front of it, 
which has been the principal center of operations for the preceding 
two field seasons. 

When excavations were begun at the Temple of the Warriors 
in February, 1925, it appeared to be nothing more than a forest- 



covered mound, some 50 feet in height, its steep, even precipitous, 
sides showing loose stones lying here and there. Near the top at 
the back (east) a cornice could be distinguished for a few feet, and 
on the very summit the tops of some square columns. For the 
rest it was a tangle of thick undergrowth, with a respectable number 
of considerably higher trees. Little was it anticipated that this 
apparently plain and uninteresting mound represented all that was 
left of what had been the most elaborate and magnificent building 
in the city. 

The excavation of the temple proper was completed in 1925. 
Its repair and that of the greater part of the supporting pyramid, 

Courtesy of Carnegie Institution of Washington 

As it stood at the close of the 1927 working season of the Carnegie Institution stafl 

including the replacement of fallen sculptured elements wherever 
possible, and the excavation of the northwest colonnade directly 
in front of it, occupied the greater part of the 1926 season. Finally 
the excavation and the very extensive repair w^ork upon the earlier 
temple buried in the northwestern corner of the supporting pyramid 
were the principal activities of the current season. There has 
resulted from this great undertaking what is unquestionably the 
most impressive and beautifully decorated building at Chichen 
Itza, if not indeed in the whole Maya area. 

Another important center of investigation, where excavation and 
repair have been going on for three years, is the Caracol, or Astronom- 
ical Observatory. This massive round tower, rising from a double- 


terraced platform, is unlike every other building in the city; and its 
function, as being a place from which astronomical observations were 
made, early marked it for special study by the institution. During 
the present year the excavation of the interior and exterior corridors 
was completed, and the necessary repairs were carried to the point 
that it should be possible to finish the preservation of this highly 
important construction, perhaps the most important in the city from 
a purely scientific point of view, in another field season. 

A third center of investigation has been the section known as Old 
Chichen Itza, stretching from 0.5 to 2 miles south and slightly west 
of the area included in the original base map surveyed by J. O. 
Kilmartin in 1924. 

The discovery here of a re-used hieroglyphic lintel presenting a 
Baktun 10 Initial Series, not only the single Initial Series thus far 
found in the city, but also the earliest contemporaneous date, sug- 
gested the name Old Chichen Itza, by which this section is known. 
Excavations were commenced here in 1925 at the Temple of the 
Four Lintels (station 7), and resulted in the discovery of two more 
hieroglyphic lintels. In 1926, excavations were carried on at several 
places in the Group of the Initial Series (station 13), and again during 
the current season in the Temple of the Two Lintels, and the Temple 
of the Lintel (station 7), where three new hieroglyphic lintels were 
discovered on May 6 and 19, respectively. These latest finds, to- 
gether with the discovery of a fourth hieroglyphic lintel built into a 
stone water trough at the old abandoned plantation of Jalacal, 3 
miles east of the center of the city, make a total of 20 hieroglyphic 
lintels now known at this site. 

An increasing efficiency on the part of the native laborers has been 
noted during the current year. The Chichen Itza project has now 
completed four field seasons; some of the laborers have been with the 
project since its first year, and the great majority have served for at 
least two seasons. This is particularly noticeable among the masons, 
who have grown to understand the peculiar demands of the repair 
work, and who, in some cases, have developed a real appreciation of, 
and feeling for, the "old" quality of the stonework. Even the shovel, 
pick, and wheelbarrow men have become more proficient in handling 
these implements, so that the excavations have proceeded not only 
more smoothly but more rapidly. To this increased efficiency of the 
native labor is due in no small part the greater amount of work accom- 
lished in the 1927 field season as compared with any one of the pre- 
ceding three seasons. 

Through an arrangement reached with Mr. Reygadas during his 
visit to Chichen Itza in March, it was decided to turn over to the 
Mexican Government at the end of the season (May 28) the material 

232 THE PAN AMEKiCAlsr triSTlON- 

excavated during the first year (1924), and also the great bulk of 
the stones from the Temple of the Warriors showing fragments of the 
original frescoes, which Mrs. Morris had either copied or rejected as 
too incomplete and fragmentary for record. Thirty-eight stones 
only were reserved for further study. In addition to the foregoing 
material, custody was released of a number of sculptures, loose 
pieces, statues, Atlantean figures, carved panels, and lintels, elements 
which would never be replaced in their original positions in the fagades. 
Mr. Reygadas has decided to deposit the greater part of the port- 
able material resulting from the institution's excavations at Chichen 
Itza in the Museum of Archaeology and History at Merida, an 

Courtesy of Carnegie Institution of Washington 

Now being repaired by the Carnegie Institution 

organization supported by the State of Yucatan, the director of 
which is Mr. Luis Rosadas Vega. Mr. Rosadas visited Chichen 
Itza at the beginning of June, when Mr. Morley relinquished cus- 
tody of this material to Mr. Eduardo Martinez Canton, the local 
representative of the Direction of Archaeology, who in turn gave it 
to Mr. Rosadas Vega. A special exhibition hall, called the "Sala 
Carnegie," has been opened in the Museum in Merida for the dis- 
play of this material and proper credit given the institution for hav- 
ing been responsible for its acquisition. 

The principal additions to the staff quarters at Chichen Itza 
during the year were the erection of a house for Doctor Morley on 


the liill just east of and adjoining the former chapel of the plantation 
and the conversion of the building formerly used as a schoolhouse 
into a four-car garage. 

Larger operations closed at Chichen Itza on May 28, at the end of 
the ninth fortnight of excavations. Minor excavation and repair 
work continued at the Temple of the Warriors and the Temple 
of the Two Lintels at Old Chichen Itza for another month, until 
June 25, and repair work at the Temple of the Wall Panels for still 
another month, or until July 23. 

Just after the close of large operations, on June 4 and 5, Doctor 
Morley and Messrs. Ruppert and Chariot visited the ruins of Yaxuna, 
15 miles south and slightly west of Chichen Itza. This site, accord- 
ing to the accounts of Indians of the region, is the western terminus 
of the stone causeway which starts at Coba, 75 miles east of Yaxuna. 
The eastern terminus was explored last year for a distance of 9 miles 
west from Coba, but without reaching its end; and during the inter- 
mediate season (July to December, 1926) Juan Olalde, the head 
foreman at Chichen Itza, had pushed eastward from Yaxuna for a 
distance of 15 miles, also without coming to its end. Finally, since 
12 sculptured stelae had been found at Coba, the eastern terminus 
last year, it was hoped that others might be found at the western 
terminus this year, which was the immediate object of this visit. 

No sculptured stones of any sort were found, and only a few 
dressed blocks. Only one building is standing, and its masonry is 
altogether different from that of Chichen Itza and more like the 
remains at Coba — great masses, composed of roughly shaped, un- 
dressed stones — or even more like the buildings at Etzna on the other 
side of the peninsula, where the dressed blocks are small in size and 
comparatively few in number. This is very different from conditions 
at Chichen Itza, where there is a wealth of dressed blocks — standing 
in walls, lying strewn about through the bush near every fallen build- 
ing, and even built into masonry fills. Yaxuna has a very large 
acropolis surmounted by two lofty pyramid temples, standing side 
by side, both facing north. It is obviously of much earlier date than 
Chichen Itza. 

Its proximity to Chichen Itza, on the other hand, being only 12 or 
14 miles distant in an air line, as well as the fact that it stands at the 
western end of the great Coba-Yaxuna highway, strongly suggests 
that it was an important center, and possibly may have been the one 
from which Chichen Itza was first colonized. 

The Uaxactun expedition in charge of Mr. O. G. Ricketson, jr., 
devoted its time to the excavation of the astronomically significant 
elements of Group E at this city, with the result that the ground 
plans of Temple E I, E II, and E III were determined, as well as the 
stairway and the base of the platform on which these temples stand. 


The north and east sides of the base of Pyramid E VII and its stairway 
were also uncovered. 

Pyramid E VII was found to be without a structure on its top and 
with its stairway on the east. Its construction was of the crudest 
sort, consisting of rough broken stones covered with crumbHng 
plaster. Under this disappointing exterior, however, an earlier 
pyramid was discovered, built in terraces of well-wrought stone 
covered with plaster, still in excellent condition. Less than a week 
before the withdrawal of the expedition, made necessary by the ex- 
haustion of the water supply, a mask was uncovered on the eastern 
face of this inner pyramid, just north of the stairway of the outer one. 
This mask was about 8 feet square, and represented a human or a 
humanized animal head. It was constructed of stucco laid over a 
masonry core. The nose was extremely broad and flat, with a trans- 
verse, tapered decoration hanging in a catenary curve from the 
internal canthi of the two eyes. The pupils of the eyes were repre- 
sented by two vertical raised bands. The mouth, extending nearly 
across the whole face, showed as a narrow sunken slit, with two curling 
fangs hanging from beneath the canine teeth, which were also shown. 
In the center of the mouth were two incisors, overlaid with a trian- 
gular device roughly heart-shaped, the rounded apex pointing down 
and the base contiguous with the upper lip. Only the right ear was 
exposed; it was represented by shallow incised lines and moulding and 
had a pointed tip and a flare that is suggestive of a bat's ear. The 
head was covered with the conventionalized representation of a 
feather headdress. The execution of the whole is good, though 
markedly primitive. It is not done in bold relief. Further excava- 
tion of this mound will reveal other masks symmetrically placed, and 
will be necessary before a final report can be written. 

When the debris in front on Pyramid E VII was cleared, stela 20 
was found to stand on a raised dais, 1 foot 10 inches high. The stela 
is 6 feet 11 inches in front of the bottom step of the stairway. 

Temples E I, E II, and E III, on the east side of the plaza, were 
found to be in such a dilapidated condition that the greatest 
difficulty was encountered in finding the remains of walls. Each 
temple stands on a platform 10 feet high. The substructure terrace, 
upon which all three are located, is 15 feet high and is ascended by 
a central stairway 34 feet 6 inches wide consisting of 16 steps on the 
west side. 

Temple E I, like E II, faces west 0° 3' north. It consists of a 
small, two-room building reached by a central stairway of eight 
steps. The inner room is higher by a step, or 1 foot 2 inches, than 
the anterior room, and is divided by an altar against the back wall 
in such a way that it appears to be three very small rooms. This 
altar consists of a rectangular block 2 feet high, with L-shaped 


walls inclosing the two sides and partly inclosing the front. One 
step is cut into the edge at the entrance. Excavation in the altar 
itself revealed a nest of potsherds. The pots of which they were 
fragments had evidently been broken before they were put into the 
altar, as it was impossible to assemble even one whole piece, though 
the sherds were very carefully collected. Here were found the sherds 
which, when pieced together, made the fragment with the beautiful 
and unusually colored painting of three Maya priests in full regalia.' 
The colors used on this sherd were black, gray, white, yellow ochre, 
red, crimson, dark brown, and a rose pink which the writer has not 
seen elsewhere in Maya pottery. 

South of the altar in Temple E I, in a circular hole in the floor 
(cyst 2, 1 foot 6 inches deep and 1 foot 6 inches in diameter) were 
found two plain red-ware dishes with flaring rims, the upper one 


1^ 'li^rsK. — »-fc|, 


i^' t - 

Courtesy of Carnegie Institution of Washington 

ra?ade of carved lintel excavated in the Temple of the Two Lintels, Old Chichen Itza 

inverted over the bottom one. Each was 12.5 inches in diameter 
at the rim and about 4.25 inches deep. They inclosed some frag- 
ments of bone, a complete set of human teeth, nine small jade beads, 
two small, irregular jade ear plugs and a jade pendant representing 
an animal head. All of the jade pieces were of inferior material and 
workmanship. Similar burials were found in like positions in the 
other temples of this group and will be described with the temples 

Of the walls of Temple E I, for the most part only the inner surface 
remained standing, and only between the front and back rooms could 
the thickness of the wall be measured. It was found to be 4 feet in 
thickness. The walls of the anterior chamber and the outer facing 
over the rubble core of the building were entirely fallen, this condi- 
tion being due not only to the age of this section of the city but also 


to the poor quality of the limestone in this part of the Yucatan 
Peninsula and to the size of the trees which have taken root in the 
ruins. The platform beneath Temple E I was peculiar in that its 
southern retaining wall ran south 83° 18' east, or at an angle of 96° 
45' with the front line. 

Temple E II was a more complex structure. It was evidently 
the chief temple of the group, and stands directly behind the main 
central stairway from the plaza to the top of the mound. Although 
now in a very ruined condition, originally it seems to have been a 
four-room building on a platform, reached by 10 steps, each 6 feet 
6 inches wide and about a foot high; at a later date walls were added 
in front of the platform on the level of the top of the substructure 
terrace. These walls, when excavated, were only 2 to 3 feet in height; 
whether they formed a typical Maya room with vaulted arch it is 
not possible to say, but the relative thinness of the walls, 2 feet 
6 inches to 3 feet, and the lack of any cut vault stones in the debris 
would seem to argue against this hypothesis. In the southern end 
of this inclosed space traces of a low shelf or bench were found and 
a large quantity of sherds. 

From the back of this lower room or gallery the steps above men- 
tioned lead into the anterior chamber of the temple itself, and two 
more steps lead into the posterior chamber. This latter was divided 
into a middle and two lateral rooms by transverse walls pierced with 
doorways. The outer side walls in both of the lateral rooms had 
completely fallen, making it difficult to determine the original inside 
length, north and south, of the building. It was about 41 feet. The 
central room contained a rectangular, plastered bench or altar 8 feet 
3 inches deep by 8 feet 7 inches wide by 1 foot 4 inches high, which, 
upon excavation, proved most interesting. Inside it were two other 
earlier altars, one built over the other. The earliest and smallest one 
consisted of a rectangular plastered block 35 inches deep by 45 inches 
wide, with a basinlike depression in the center and two lateral walls 
framing it. These walls extended less than 18 inches forward from 
the back wall of the temple. The second altar extended the lateral 
walls to 57 inches from the back wall and completely covered the 
altar beneath. The second altar was 1 foot 1 inch high, painted red, 
and also contained a basinlike depression in the top. The third 
or outer altar completely covered the constructions beneath, though 
the lateral walls on the north and south had not been extended to 
the front margin but left as they were when the middle altar was 
constructed. The outer altar had been plastered many times, and 
painted differently each time, the most frequently occurring colors 
being red and gray. 

Above the surface of the second altar and below the surface of the 
third, i. e., apparently in the depression on top of the second altar, 



were found 71 small pieces of jade, all broken pieces, small useless 
chips of varying sizes and shapes. These were scattered throughout 
the rubble of the altar, as well as a large quantity of bones of small 
animals — bats and small rodents. In the southwest corner of this 
area a small red dish was found, upside down, and near it a small red 
pottery disk, a bird's head of red pottery, with eyes and wattle 
appliqued in the same material, and a few disassociated human bones 
and teeth, apparently of a child. In the latest part of the altar, i. e., 
below the surface of the outer altar but beyond the margin of the 
second one, innumerable skeletons of bats and rodents were found 
in a very fine, black dirt. Two very small and finely worked lancets of 
obsidian, 2 inches and 2.75 inches long, respectively, were found 


A notable discovery recently 
made by excavators of the 
Carnegie Institution in the 
floor of the colonnade front- 
ing the Temple of the War- 

Courtesy of Carnegie Institution of Washington 

among the bones, and Mr. Rickerson believes that these were the 
instruments used to kill the small animal offerings. In the southwest 
corner of this altar were two flat red-ware dishes with flaring rims, 
about 6.75 inches in diameter and 2 inches deep, the upper one in- 
verted over the bottom one, as already described in cyst 2, Temple 
E I. These dishes contained a fine dust, apparently fragments of 

South of the altar and in the center of the south room of the temple 
two more cysts, 6 and 5, respectively, were discovered in the floor. 
Cyst 6 contained two plain red-ware dishes with flaring sides, the 
upper one inverted over the bottom one. Between the dishes were a 
human cranium and atlas, in good condition when found. It seemed 
to be that of an immature person, possibly male. The two lower 
83458— 28— Bull. 3 2 


incisors were lacking and the bone healed over; the fronto-occipital 
deformation was slight; the teeth were unworn; there was visible a 
shrunken, brown, friable tissue in the nares and orbits, over the supra- 
orbital ridges, the forehead and the cheek bones, suggesting preserved 
periosteum. The skull discolored to a pronounced yellow after a few 
days' exposure to the air. The cephalic index, taken with improvised 
instruments, was about 91. Cyst 5 contained only black dirt, a few 
unrelated sherds, and a very crude pierced stone pendant with two 
holes drilled in it to represent eyes; the pendant is 1.4 inches long 
and of a dark-brown, unpolished stone. 

The back wall of Temple E II, immediately south of the altar, was 
pierced by a rectangular shaft at the floor level. This was approx- 
imately 1 foot square and must have served as a drain or ventilator. 
The doorway leading from the central room into the south room 
appeared to have been sealed. Two large stones formed a kind of 
threshold which had been plastered over on the side of the central 
room but not on the side of the south room. Moreover, 2 inches of 
black loam was found on the floor of the south room, but in neither of 
the other two; from this it might be inferred that after the south 
wall fell and before this black loam was deposited by decaying vegeta- 
tion the walling up of the doorway to protect the central room and 
altar was undertaken rather than the restoration of the whole south 
wall. If this hypothesis is correct, it would indicate that the Maya 
utilized these temples even after they had started to disintegrate. 

Temple E III, the southernmost of this group of three temples, 
differs from the others in that it faces west 7° 42' north, making an 
angle of 7° 39' with the other two (see the diagram). The platform 
under it, at least on the north side, is parallel to the south side of Tem- 
ple E II. The south side of E III is entirely fallen. In general, the 
ground plan of Temple E III duplicates that of Temple E I, except 
that the front edge of the altar has no step cut into it. Three cysts 
were found in Temple E III. One was in the altar against the back 
wall of the temple, cyst 3, and contained a barrel-shaped jar of ordi- 
nary ware with a flat, rimmed cover, the whole being 4.4 inches high 
and 4.8 inches in diameter. The jar contained an archaic mudstone 
figurine, sitting on a little heap of dust, with its face to the north. 
The figurine is extremely crude and represents a person squatting 
with the arms at the sides of the body, the hands folded over the 
knees. The eyes, rectangular in outline, are marked off by grooves. 
When found the figurine showed many traces of vermilion paint. 

The next cyst. No. 4, was found in the floor south of the altar. It 
contained two flat dishes of red ware with flaring rims about 3.75 
inches deep and 11.25 inches in diameter at the rim, the upper one 
inverted over the bottom one. These contained a craniimi complete 
with the atlas, the axis and the first cervical vertebra; the sutures of 



the skull were enclosed. On both right and left sides of both upper 
and lower jaws the second and third molars had erupted, but the 
deciduous first molars had not yet been pushed out; all of the teeth 
were absolutely unworn. It was impossible to determine the sex of 
the individual. As with the skull from cyst 6, the frontal region was 
covered with a friable brown coating; unfortunately, the condition 
of this skull was such that it fell to pieces even before it could be re- 
moved to camp. 

Courtesy of Carnegie Institution of Washington 


The three temples were so situated in relation to the observer at Stela 20 that the setting of sun behind 
each, severally, marked important periods in the Maya calendar 

The last cyst. No. 7, was found in the doorway between the outer 
and inner rooms of Temple E III. It contained two dishes similar 
to those already described as containing skulls, but broken. Frag- 
ments of bone, unidentifiable, but no teeth, were found inside. The 
lower pot differed from the others in that it had four sets of two per- 
forations midway between the rim and bottom. 

Excavation of the base of the substructure mound beneath Temples 
E I, EII, and EIII showed that it was terraced, the terraces being 
steep and shallow. The main stairway, probably balustraded, was 
set back 2 feet 2.5 inches from the front of the mound. Stelae 18 
and 19 were cleared, and it was noted that both are set in the ground 
obliquely; there was no evidence to show that this was not done 
intentionally. The altars in front of these two stelae were cleared, 

240 THE PAisr AMERICAN uiirioisr 

and they were found to be supported on a tripod formed of three 
large, roughly rounded bowlders. Excavations were extended in an 
effort to determine the exact position occupied by Stela E I before 
its fall, and a hole piercing three layers of plaza pavement and 
ending at a fourth was found 31 feet 5 inches south of stela 19; the 
measured distance between stelae 18 and 19 being 30 feet, this 
position for Stela E I was assumed to be the correct one. 


In the spring of the year Dr. H. J. Spinden, of the Peabody Museum 
of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, visited Mexico 
and Guatemala. During a brief exploratory trip in the southern 
part of the State of Vera Cruz he visited an unnamed site where he 
reports having found some 10 or 12 large stone monuments. These 
have hieroglyphics as well as figures of rulers or deities carved upon 
them; they present bar and dot numerals, and he regards the site as 
an important connecting link between the Toltecan cities of the cen- 
tral Mexican plateau region, on the one hand, and Chichen Itza, the 
principal center of Toltecan influence in Yucatan, on the other. 


An ethnological expedition was sent to the highlands of Guatemala 
by the Department of Middle American Research of Tulane Uni- 
versity under Mr. Oliver La Farge. Collections of textiles woven 
by the Indian women of the region were obtained, and a considerable 
amount of ethnological and linguistic data gathered. Perhaps the 
most important scientific discovery was the finding of a "day-count" 
in use in certain of the remoter Indian villages. In the limited time 
available Mr. La Farge was unable to ascertain whether this "day- 
count" had been maintained in unbroken continuity since Old 
Empire times or not, but the mere fact of its survival is at least 
highly significant and may well prove to be a vitally important link 
in correlating Maya with Christian chronology. 


Mr. J. Eric S. Thompson visited British Honduras in behalf of the 
Field Museum during the summer and spent some time among the 
Maya Indians of the village of San Antonio in the southern part of 
the colony collecting ethnological data. He found interesting sur- 
vivals among them of the ancient learning, among other things a 
knowledge of and veneration for the planet Venus, which, he thinks, 
probably go back to ancient times. He belives the Indians of San 


Antonio are descendants of the Mopanes, the Maya tribe living on 
the eastern confines of the territory of the Itza nation in the seven- 
teenth century. Further study among them, he beheves, will bring 
to light other cultural survivals. 

While at San Antonio he learned of a group of ruins farther south 
called Pusilha, said to contain sculptured stone monuments. He 
succeeded in reaching this site, which is located just inside the western 
boundary of British Honduras, and found seven sculptured stone 
monuments and a sculptured stone door lintel there. 

The seven monuments had fallen with their sculptured faces down- 
ward, and four of them were so large and heavy that Mr. Thompson 
was unable to turn them over with the two or three Indians who had 
guided him thither; but the remaining three monuments and the 
sculptured lintel yielded chronological material of considerable 
importance, no less than four Initial Series dates, the first dates of 
any kind which have been found in southern British Honduras. 
Mr. Thompson deciphers two of these as Ahau 3 Kankin 
and 10 Ahau 8 Yaxkin, approximately 316 and 416 A. D., 
respectively, the remaining two being uncertain. He believes the 
three monuments which he was unable to turn over also will be found 
to have Initial Series dates inscribed on the faces turned down, and 
he hopes to expose these when he returns to Pusilha in 1928, 


Under the joint direction of Mr. J. Eric S. Thompson and Mr. 
Cooper Clark, the British Museum sent an expedition to Lubaantun, 
in southern British Honduras, where excavations were carried on, the 
results of which are not available for publication at the present time. 

Mention should be made also of the exploration of Dr. Thomas 
Gann in the southern part of the Territory of Quintana Roo, Mexico, 
west of Lake Bacalar. He discovered a large site here with a number 
of standing buildings, and in one found a door lintel composed of 
wooden beams which had hieroglyphics carved on them. He is 
inclined to identify this site with the city of Bakhalal, mentioned in 
the chronicles of the Books of Chilam Balam as having been the 
center from which the discovery of Chichen Itza took place. 


By B. C. HowLAND 

HOLIDAY time in Chile comes during the northern winter. 
Early one day in January we start on our summer vaca- 
tion, leaving Concepcion and work, to visit the enchant- 
ing south of Chile. The train leaves Concepcion at 5.20 
a. m., but who minds the early hour on a glorious summer morning? 
The walk down to the railroad station is delightful — past the plaza 
with its lovely central fountain shaded by wide trees, past the old 
cathedral. Strange to see busy Concepcion so still! Living as we 
do in this metropolis of southern Chile, we are used to undiminished 
business activity. Situated at the foot of Chile's Central Valley, a 
great agricultural region, this southern town is the clearing house 
for all kinds of farm produce; pears, plums, olives, wheat, are 
exported, and farm implements are brought in by ships from the 
United States. 

Built on the banks of the clear Bio-Bio River in a bower of thick 
woods, separated from the ocean by a low range of hills, Concepcion 
is a most pleasant town. Towering over the city like a sentinel 
stands the Caracol, a hill 1,000 feet high. This whole hill is a huge 
public park and is reached by a wide road bordered with lofty pines 
and fragrant mimosa trees. From the top of the hill one may see 
Concepcion spread like a patterned rug at one's feet, the green 
plaza in the heart of the town, wide asphalt streets radiating from the 
plaza, charming terra-cotta roofed houses inclosing cool patios. Con- 
cepcion is a thoroughly modern city with golf links, polo grounds, 
even a race course with a mile track. 

At the end of April and during the rainy season until August 
snow-capped mountains loom in the distance, watching over Con- 
cepcion, but by Christmas practically all the snow has disappeared 
and central Chile is a garden of flowers and fruit. Harvest time 
begins to fill the countryside with busy scenes. Oxcarts move slowly 
here and there, in clouds of dust, dragging Chile's great agricultural 
wealth to the waiting markets. 

But none of this activity has started in the earl}^ morning. Con- 
cepcion is still sleeping, or so we think until we arrive at the railroad 
station. Here, in contrast to the sleeping town, we find bustle and 

2 International Telephone Review, New York, January, 1928. 



hurry. The "Valdiviano/' our tram, is a popular one, and long 
before the conductor blows his whistle the cars are crowded. 

After we leave the town we pass the Avenue Pedro de Valdivia, 
where the wealthy residents of Concepcion live. Lovely estates on 
our left, the cool green Bio-Bio River on our right — it is a beautiful 
scene as the train curves this way and that by the winding river. In 
the distance the towering peaks of the Andes give us fascinating 
glimpses of mountain scenery. 

At the important junction of San Rosendo we stop for our break- 
fast in the station restaurant. After a short wait here the train 
pulls out and we proceed southward, past Loja, where the luscious 
melons grow; past Santa Fe, where appropriately enough one 

Courtesy of "International Ti-U'phone Re 


changes for Chilean Los Angeles; through field after field of wheat 
scattered with stumps from the recent forest growth. At every 
little station on the way fruit vendors offer us baskets filled with 
peaches, plums, pears, cherries, and strawberries, all kinds of deli- 
cious fruit, for we are still in the orchard region of Chile. Farmers 
in gay native ponchos dash up on their spirited horses to meet friends 
on the train. They stand in the stirrups and wave their broad 
felt hats, giving us an unrivaled display of horsemanship. 

Finally we reach the thriving little city of Victoria, from which we 
get a clear view of the extinct craters of the volcanoes Tolhuaca, 
Lonquimai, and Llaima, the latter the source of the BIo-Bio River. 

Leaving Victoria, we pass through yet more fertile country. Little 
villages stand in the midst of meadows gay with wild roses, dahlias, 



margaritas, all kinds of vivid flowers. The flat-roofed adobe cottages 
are shaded by tall poplars, spreading willows, acacias, and eucalyptus 
trees. Farming in this region is carried on extensively with ox teams, 
strangely mingled with the most modern American machinery. 

Next comes Temuco, a surprisingly modern frontier city. It is the 
center of the Araucanian Indian Reservation, and we stop here to 
visit the Indian homes. Temuco dates from 1881, as the town was 

Courtesy of " Jiitpriiation:i ITelephone lievicw 

Temuco, a surprisingly modern town, is the center of the Araucanian Indian reservation 

not actually built until after the final breaking of the Araucanian 
frontier. As time has passed the Chileans have taken more and more 
land by peaceful penetration, and while the region around Victoria 
and Temuco is called "La Frontera" it is really a mingling of Indian 
reservations and Chilean farms. Temuco has had a phenomenal 
growth during the last few years. Here w^e find splendid streets, 
fine business houses, excellent schools and hospitals, and various 
Indian agencies where we can buy many-colored hand made ponchos 
and long tufted rugs called "choapinos." We find that these Arau- 
canian Indians, whose resistance in the past proved an unbreakable 
barrier to the ancient Incas, still live proudly apart from the white 
men. They live on small farms, in little thatched huts with no win- 
dows or furniture, and grow quantities of wheat. The floors of the 
huts are littered with rough farming implements. Onions, corn, and 
dried meat hang from the rafters. Cooking is done in iron pots over 
fires built on the dirt floors of the huts. The Araucanians dress in 



gay-colored ponchos, and the women wear heavy silver ornaments. 
A remarkably picturesque people, sturdy and solemn. 

From Temuco we take an afternoon train. As we travel farther 
south we begin to leave the region of rolling land covered with golden 
wheat and to find, mingled with the farming land, steep hills that 
show signs of recent dense forests. This section of southern Chile 
in the Valdivia Province is the source of the Chilean lumber supply. 
At such stations as Pitrufquen and Loncoche are extensive lumber 
yards, sweet smelling in the warm afternoon sunshine. 

At Antilhue, on the Valdivia River, instead of following the course 
of the stream to Valdivia, a great German center and one of the most 
prosperous farming sections in the whole Republic, we change trains 
and continue southwards to Osorno, a charming little city on the 
Damas and Rahue Rivers. 

We are going to spend part of our vacation on a farm very near 
Osorno. When we arrive at this little town and get off the train we 

Numerous glimpses of this majestic volcano are obtained during the southern trip 

scarcely have time to stretch our stiff legs before saddle horses are 
brought, which we must ride over 6 miles of very rough country 
before we may dismount at the hospitable door of our farmhouse. 
We find the farmhouse nestles on the shoulder of a great rolling hill 
and is surrounded by prosperous-looking wheat fields. 

As the pleasant days of our visit slip by the wheat ripens and is 
harvested. The harvesting of the crop is an interesting combination 


of modern and primitive methods. The new McCormick header is 
drawn by oxen, the wheat is threshed and cleaned by the latest type 
of machinery, the grain is hauled to the mill by clumsy old oxcarts, 
and is ground into flour by a modern mill. The harvest from this 
one farm yielded thousands of sacks of grain and enough straw to 
keep the cattle all the winter. 


The southern limit of the railroad system of Chile 

Before our holiday comes to an end and we start home to Concepcion 
we take the train to Puerto Montt, the southern limit of the Chilean 
railroad system. On this last lap of our railroad journey we find 
southern Chile unfolding perhaps her most impressive series of 
pictures before our dazzled eyes. Between Chile and Argentina, 
in this southern section, are a multitude of beautiful lakes, many of 
which lie in the cups of extinct volcanoes. There is Lake Llanquihue, 
along whose lovely shores our train runs for a while, splendid as 
any Swiss lake, wild and rugged as only such recently explored 
territory could be. All the more beautiful do the dark waters of 
Lake Llanquihue seem, in contrast to the glimpses we catch of the 
snowy-headed volcanoes glistening brilliantly in the clear air — 
"El Puntiagudo," ''El Tronador, " and "Osorno" as majestic as 
Fujiyama. At the new half-German city of Puerto Montt the rail- 
road ends, but not our journey. In the early morning we must 
take the tiny coast steamer, Seno de Reloncavi, which runs between 
Puerto Montt and Ancud on the Isla de Chiloe. 



It is a fine, clear morning — fortunately, for such days are not so 
common here as farther north in Concepcion. Chile is a land of 
color, and the dark southern waters of the Pacific, washing the shores 
of the rocky islands and inlets, reflecting the deep green of tangled 
forests that seem to climb the slopes of the steep mountains, create 
a scene of ever-changing beauty. Each of the myriad reflections in 
the calm inlet seems much more beautiful than the other. Great 
colored jellyfish float under the prow of our boat, gay water birds 
fly by. Tiny hamlets cluster round their little churches in forest 
clearings on the shore, desparately holding their own against the 
sea on the one hand and the thick underbrush on the other. 

We pass the fishing village of Calbuco and enter the narrow 
channel of Chacao, between the mainland and the Isla de Chiloe. 
We catch one more glimpse, far astern, a hundred kilometers away, 
of the snowy heads of our old friends ''Osorno" and "Calbuco," 
like pearls against the eastern sky. 

Photograph by Frank Harper 

Roses bloom in the foreground, with the snow-capped peaks of "El Tronador" in the distance 

As the sun sinks in the western ocean we reach the bay and city 
of Ancud, on Chiloe Island. We look toward the east again, and as 
far as we can see the glory of the sunset glow is reflected. It seems 
to hover like a benediction over Chile, blessing the snowy mountains, 
the fruitful valleys, the houses nestling in the gay meadows, but, 
above all, bestowing that glorious, almost unbelievable loveliness 
which makes an earthly paradise of southern America. 


By Gladys Eleonor James 

West to the setting sun! With beating hearts and eager eyes we 
stand on board the departing vesseL There are no tears, no sad 
good-byes, only merriment, expectancy, and laughter. Aloft, the 
flags of a score of nations flutter joyously in the breeze. On deck, the 
careless, happy passengers swarm the slowly receding liner. English 
and Spanish, German and French — a babble of tongues fills the air. 

There stands the English tourist on his trip through the "wilds 
of South America." Short and portly with checkered trousers and 
cork helmet, in his mouth the never-failing pipe, over his shoulder 
the ever-present camera. And by him his nineteenth century clad 
wife, with wide-brimmed hat and floating veils . . . 

Yonder trips the Argentine flapper. Her fluttering skirts reveal 
slender, silk-stockinged legs. Rouged, lipsticked, with Eton crop 
and pouting cigarette, she flashes a gay challenge at the sallow- 
cheeked, Oxford-bagged youth at her side. 

The darkness deepens. Valparaiso, the "Vale of Paradise," is 
fading in the distance, and the horizon, the glorious, mysterious 
horizon of a flaming sun, beckons us to her bosom. 

The dinner bell clangs. Reluctantly we obey its summons. The 
fluttering flags are lowered, the decks are deserted. With a sudden 
mighty roar the waves of the open ocean seize their new plaything. 
The sky is overcast and the wind hisses in the cordage. 

It is morning. White-faced, we stagger up the never-ending stair- 
ways. The wind lashes our clothes and plays havoc with our hair; 
the sea arises to welcome us; and the struggling sun sends its beams 
through the flying spray, to make rainbow babies dance in merry glee. 

It is a restless morning. Few defy the stormy elements. The 
merry faces of yesterday are hidden from view. But with the after- 
noon come games and races, and, with the spirit of conquest awake 
within us, all else vanishes from our minds. But what is that we see 
in the distance, what the shadow near the setting sun? Juan 
Fernandez! Robinson's island! The scene of a hundred childish 
fancies — the home of a thousand boyish desires! There it is, not 
brilliant in the sunshine, not clear and dazzling to our expectant 
sight, but mist-clad, enigmatic, mysterious. Sharp peaks beckon 
and yet repel, steep cliffs allure and yet chill. 

The sun is sinking behind the rugged profile. The pulsating 
engines drone down to a stop. With a sudden roar of chain and 
winch the anchor is dropped. Then a silence ensues, broken only by 
lapping waters — a silence so deep, so vast, that it seems to come from 
the remote ends of the ocean to concentrate in this diminutive bay. 

3 The South Pacific Mail, Valparaiso, Chile, Nov. 24, 1927. 





One of the most beautiful of the trees which flourish on the island is the Chonta palm. The top is edible, 
being used as cabbage, while the slender trunks are made into canes 

A mournful silence, which grasps our hearts and stills our laughter. 
The sun disappears. We have followed her across the swelling 
Pacific. Her work is done, and the black cliffs welcome her home. 

For these deserted islanders the festival of the year has come, their 
ephemeral holiday, their humble carnival. A ship has sailed in from 
the world beyond! And in the evening, when the moonlight laughs 
on the waters, from the darkened hillsides the inhabitants gaze in 
awe and wonder at this luxurious liner, ablaze with lights of many 
colors, at these care-free, happy tourists, jovial in masquerade, at 
the piercing wail and beat of the jazz band, at the sway and rhythm 




The cliff peak which Robinson Crusoe is said to have climbed to watch for a rescuing vessel. The small 
dark square in the clifl, a little to the right of the center, is the commemorative tablet, shown in detail 
in the illustration on page 252 

of the dancers — away on the darkened, hillsides the lonely inhabitants 
gaze in awe and wonder. 

Cumberland Bay in the morning! Cumberland Bay in the sun- 
shine! Resplendent in all its glories, returns the laughing sun god 
to shine on this lonely island, to waken the sleeping village. High 
and rugged cliffs arise from the clear water, but the sheer hills are 
softened by the green and lovely valleys, the feathery fronds of ferns, 
the wild and verdant cherry, the cool and sleepy fig tree. There, too, 
in the sheltered ravines flourishes the slender Chonta palm, with 
black, snakelike markings, wood that is soon eagerly bought by 
wondering tourists to be made into canes. And there, nestling in 
their orchards, cling the whitewashed cottages. Brilliant, indeed, is 



the coloring, picturesque and delightful the view. Chile's blue sky 
is still above us, the blue Pacific beneath, and there, in the shape of a 
horseshoe, the sun-baked cliffs, the verdant valleys, the peaceful 
homes, the flower-decked gardens. 

A shout of laughter, three lusty cheers, and on his flimsy raft 
Robinson Crusoe arrives on board. Upon the deck he clambers, 
Crusoe wild and forsaken, followed by Friday, cheerful and grinning. 
''Cock-cock!" protests the parrot at all this hubbub while the poor 
nanny goat, flabbergasted at so strange a procedure, stubbornly 
refuses to mount the modern stairways and must be carried laboriousy 


The cave on Juan Fernandez Island where Crusoe is supposed to have made his first habitation here 
before building a more convenient hut 

to the third deck. Then come the photographers! Every tourist is 
a photographer; from every cabin nook and cranny appears some one 
with the inevitable apparatus. Small and big, old and young — the 
procession is interminable, unceasing. And patiently benignant they 
stand — Crusoe, Friday, and the all-suffering captain! 

At 9 we disembark, to scan in wonder the rustic houses of these 
300 inhabitants, to climb the steep pathway that leads from the mini- 
ature beach, and to reach at last the cool, fern-lined caves; then, rest- 
ing after the strenuous climb through sand and gravel, to gaze out on 
Cumberland Bay and the unbroken expanse beyond, even as Selkirk 
"Tust have watched in his long, silent vigils over two centuries ago! 



Lunch in the open air, with keen appetites and delicious food. 
How the pine groves ring with merry laughter, how the cattle scatter 
in affright at the strange scene of hilarity unrestrained! But some 
would taste of the famous lobsters, nearly a hundred thousand of 
which are sent yearly to the Chilean mainland, and dine with great 
conviviality in the humble dwellings of the natives. 

Then comes the visit to Robin- 
son's summer residence. Skimming 
smoothly over the gentle waves, 
we cry in astonishment and delight 
at the diaphanous clearness of the 
water replete with swiftly moving 
multicolored fish. Dark, ominous, 
the forbidding cliffs arise at our 
left. No sign of life is upon them, 
no blade of grass clings to their 
hostile sides; lonely and forbidding 
comes a cry in the solitude as a 
fluttering bird wings its way back 
to the forests. The descent to the 
land is difficult; the rocks are jagged 
and rugged, and behind them the 
loose sand is knee-deep. But we 
reach at length the deserted beach, 
with its solitary cave and rusty 
cannon, abandoned over a century 
ago by the avaricious Spaniards, 
after a score of years on the de- 
serted island, defending with for- 
tress and gun these solitary isles 
from raiding pirates and daring 

It is evening. The day is 
drawing to a silent close. At mid- 
night the anchor will be weighed, 
the engines will renew then mo- 
notonous grind, and the giant 
of Cumberland Bay, the spirit of 


The inscription on this tablet, erected to the 
memory of Alexander Selkirk, the supposed 
prototype of Robinson Crusoe, reads as follows: 
"In memory of Alexander Selkirk, mariner. 
A native of Largo, in the county of Fife, Scot- 
land. Who lived on this island in complete 
solitude, for four years and four months. He 
was landed from the Cinque Ports galley, 96 
tons, 16 guns, A. D. 1704, and was taken off in 
the Dzike, privateer, 12th Feb. 1709. He died 
lieutenant of H. M. S. Weymouth A. D. 1723, 
aged 47 years. This tablet is erected near Sel- 
kirk's lookout by Commodore Powell and the 
officers of H. M. S. Topaze, A. D. 1868" 

liner will quietly steam out 
Crusoe behind. 

Reluctantly we bid adieu ui the gathering shadows. The sun has 
set; the stars appear and the moon shines softly on the waters. All 
is silent. Lights glimmer in the distant cottages. A last farewell, a 
single good-by, and in the fading twilight we dream our transient 
dreams. When lo! a sudden mist creeps up from the ocean and the 
island vanishes. On, on to the cities! East of the setting sun! 



Through the courtesy of the Department of State, the Pan American Union is able to reproduce this map 
of Sao Paulo and environs which has been annotated by Mr. Orton AV. Hoover, instructor in aviation 
attached to the Forca Publica (Armed Forces) of Sao Paulo. 1. The aviation field of the For^a 
Publica of Sao Paulo, to the north of the city. This area is about 750 meters by 200 meters and is a 
satisfactory aviation field for small planes. It was, however, judged to be of too restricted an area to 
provide for the landing of the large amphibian planes of the Pan American Flight. 2. The aerodrome 
of Ypiranga, a small aviation field, owned by a private concern at Ypiranga, a suburb of Sao Paulo on 
a direct line between the center of Sao Paulo and Santos. 3. A large, level and smooth area about 25 
miles east of the center of Sao Paulo, just south of the line of the Central Railway of Brazil, near Mogy 
das Cruzes. This tract is about 6 by 9 miles and is suitable for emergency landings. 4. The arti- 
ficial lake of the Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Co. (usually referred to as the "Light & Power"), 
at Santo Amaro, about 10 miles to the southwest of the center of Sao Paulo. The lake is more than 
15 miles long and the area especially suitable for the landing of hydroairplanes has been indicated in 
the northern part of this body of water. It was here that Marques de Pinedo, the Italian trans- 
Atlantic flier, landed with his mono-hydroairplane the Santa Maria on February 28, 1927. A m.onth 
previous to this date, at the time of Lieutenant Skemp's visit to Sao Paulo, this body of water had 
been selected by him as a landing place for the planes of the Pan American Flight and it was here that 
preparations were made for the landing of the amphibian planes which, however, were prevented from 
reaching Santo Amaro by darkness and the cloudy condition of the Serra. 5. The artificial lake, 
recently created by the dam of the Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Company at Cubatao, at the 
top of the Serra, about 5 miles on the way from Santos to Sao Paulo. This lake also offers a suitable 
landing for hydroairplanes. 6. The long wide beach on the south side of the island upon which the 
city of Santos is located. This beach is, at low tide, about 250 meters wide, with a total length of about 
7 kilometers, but it is broken in places by canals and streamlets. The sand is hard and quite level 
and the beach offers a splendid landing for airplanes, while the adjoining bay is inside the bar, and offers 
a very satisfactory landing place for hydroairplanes. It was in the bay tliat the amphibian planes of 
the Pan American Flight made their landing, alighting on the water and "taxi-ing" up onto the beach. 
7. The naval aviation base of the Brazilian Federal Government on the island of Santo Amaro, just 
across from the city of Santos. This, too, is a good landing for hydroairplanes and is usually kept free 
of small boats. Much of the body of water which surrounds the island upon which Santos is located, 
would be satisfactory for landing, if kept clear of small boats 

83458— 28— Bull. 3 3 


Photographs L., jm,ii W . lluuvtr 

Courtesy of United States Consul C R. Cameron 


Upper: A view of the city taken from a considerable height above the aviation field of the Forga Publica 
looliing toward the south. In the right foreground is the fiiver Tiete. Lower: Another view of Sao 
Paulo from above the clouds, looking more to the east 



Photograph by Orton W. Hoover 

Courtesy of United States Consul C. R. Cameron 


Upper: View of the center of the city looking toward the east. In the left center is seen the famous "Tri- 
angle," the banking center of Sao Paulo, just behind the two detached buildings which are: Left, the 
Prefeilura Municipal (City Hall); and right, the Automobile Club. The American Consulate is in the 
tall building on the nearest corner of the square (Praca Patriarcha) immediately beyond and opposite 
the Automobile Club. In the distance is the suburb of Ypiranga. Lower: A glimpse of the suburb 
of Perdizes in the western part of Sao. Paulo 




COLLECTORS, hunting all about the main traveled roads of 
South America, and especially up and down the west coast, 
have for many years acquired, amongst other treasures of 
colonial and precolonial days, plentiful examples of hand- 
wrought silverware. 

This South American silver to-day adorns shelves and cupboards 
and curio tables; it is legitimately regarded as a collector's prize. 
Yet, not so long ago, the majority of these pieces w^ere not regarded 
and were not used as ornaments or even as household treasures. They 
were the common domestic pots and pans, dishes and bowls and 
plates, ash trays, drinking cups and tankards of daily use in all the 
countries of Spanish America. Rarely will you find a piece of silver- 
ware of Spanish- American origin which was intended merely as an 
ornament. The little flower vases and bric-a-brac of to-day had no 
place in the home, while silver was in some regions considered as too 
commonplace to be used for the personal jewelry of aristocratic 

Not that trouble was spared in the making and decoration of these 
household utensils. The time of the handicraftsman was of no 
account; he might spend long weeks and months on the fashioning of 
a pair of silver stirrups or a box for mate or other tea, or for many 
kinds of spices, adorning his work with beautiful and intricate sprays 
of upstanding flowers; richly wrought candlesticks of that spacious 
period frequently represent the skilled labor of months. But many 
a rich and politically important family of colonial days maintained 
their own silversmiths, family servants whose rank and value stood 
high. A metal worker was as much a necessity as the carpenter and 
baker. The expert worker of silver, gold, and jewels was intrusted 
with the creation as well as the repair of personal ornaments in addi- 
tion to household plate, and the beauty and delicacy of some of the 
chains, brooches, and earrings made in Spanish- America between the 
early sixteenth and early nineteenth centuries render such pieces the 
prize of the collector to-day. 

The degree of wealth in precious metals of certain regions not infre- 
quently brought about and established permanently their political 

1 The Chilean Review, London, 1st quarter, 1928, 



importance. Thus the shining treasures of Mexico, in silver and gold, 
the rich ores and emeralds and pearls of "Cartagena de las Indias" 
(now Colombia), the gold and silver of Upper and Lower Peru, 
inevitably brought population and created markets, leading to the 
establishment of viceregal courts and all the panoply of civil and 
religious authority. Such cities as Cartagena, Panama, Mexico, and 
Lima were thronged, wealthy, full of movement; the great houses of 
the rich folk and officials were strong and self-supporting enough to 
stand a siege. These were of the ''patio" type, built with thick 
stone walls; the eyes of the inhabitants turned inward to the central 
courts and gardens. A house of any pretensions would possess at 
least three patios, leading from each other and entered only from the 



■ Courtesy of "The Chilean Review'' 


The two mates cups are in the form of birds, the bombilla or hollow spoon for sipping the tea being inside. 
In the center is a perfume burner in the shape of a turkey. These pieces are included in the Rose-Innes 

first with its great main zaguan door. The living rooms of the fam- 
ily centered about the first patio; kitchens and rooms for domestics 
filled the next; stables, storehouses, the shops of the craftsmen 
would occupy the third. But in great establishments the patios 
would extend even farther, and the serving men, maids and cooks, 
the array of tailors, leatherworkers and wood and metal craftsmen, 
created something like a private village, 


In metal working as in many other handicrafts the skilled Spaniard 
from overseas had something, but not everything, to teach to the 
"Indians," the native folk who were his assistants and pupils. For 



long before the Spanish conquest brought the arts of Europe to the 
Americas there had existed old and masterly handicrafts, slowly 
developed by the sons of the soil. The soldiers who accompanied 
Cortes to Mexico have recorded their amazement at the beauty and 
intricacy of the ornaments fabricated by the Aztec craftsmen who 




%\ft*\%f s' ^ ' ^- 

Courtesy of "The Chilean Review" 


These elaborate cups on special trays developed from the plain or crnamented gourd. The delicate 
chasing and silver flowers mounted on light springs are characteristic of these cups 

wrought in gold and silver and whose shining wares were displayed 
in the great market places near old Tenochtitlan, the city in the lake 
that preceded modern Mexico City. The historian and captain, 
Bernal Diaz, has left a description of one of these markets in his 
"Conquest of New Spain": 


Let us go on and speak of the skilled workmen Montezuma employed in every 
craft that was practiced among them. We will begin with lapidaries and workers 
in gold and silver and all the hollow work which even the great goldsmiths of Spain 
were forced to admire, and of these there were a great number of the best in a 
town named Atzcapotzalco, a league from Mexico. For working precious stones 
and chalchihuites, which are like emeralds, there were other great artists. 

These workers in precious metals were so skilled that they could 
make little metal birds with movable wings, fish with movable 
scales, and delicate filigree ornaments made with fine wire. In such 
quantities were these produced that thousands were melted down by 
the conquering Spaniards in the early sixteenth century and made into 
chains for convenience in carrying. In fact, the melting pot has 



Courtesy of " The Chilean Review " 


Showing how the silver-mounted gourd developed into a cup with its own tray. The chasing and the 
delicately modeled flowers prove the craftsman's taste and skill 

been for 400 years fed by these ancient ornaments, and there still 
remain considerable numbers. 

If Mexico and Central America with their arts and crafts of the 
Maya and their pupils, the Aztecs, yielded great stores of treasure, of 
gold and silver ornaments made by native artists, still greater stores 
were seized when the rich lands below Panama came under Spanish 
control. The region that is now the Republic of Colombia was (and 
is) rich in gold, elaborated by the old Chibcha craftsmen into a wide 
range of fine ornaments worn by chiefs and nobles. South of Colom- 
bia stretches the vast tangle of afforested and mountainous country 
where nature has sown precious and useful minerals with a lavish 
hand, and where, in the huge silver hill of PotosI, was one of the 
world's great storehouses of this beautiful metal. 

The moonlight sheen of silver, its soft and yet brilliant luster, and 
its many virtues as a metal, seem to have attracted the attention of 


the most simple-living as well as highly advanced tribes all over the 
world. This metal in good qualities is second only to gold and has 
always been one of the first to be used and admired. It will tarnish, 
while gold retains its undimmed and imperishable beauty through 
every kind of vicissitude, but it is a sweet, clean metal which has 
always endeared itself to manldnd. Not to speak of womankind, 
for what housewife lives who is not conscious of glowing pride when 
she surveys upon her dining table and sideboard fine silver of 
authentic purity and lovely luster? If her treasures are really old 
silver, most beautiful when it is worn, so much the better. 


The charm of silver had been realized in South America long before 
the conquest. The metal was reserved, with its high companion, 
gold, for private use. There was no trade value. Probably no one 
but rulers and great officials owned golden and silver ornaments, 
and the service of the gods certainly claimed great quantities. For 
instance, the great Temple of the Sun at Cuzco was radiant in the 
interior from the light reflected from golden plates covering the 
worked stones of the walls. There were moons of silver and suns of 
gold; and in one of the gardens of the Inca of Peru all the trees and 
flowers were wrought of silver and gold, cunningly made so that a 
light breeze moved the delicate leaves. And when Pizarro held the 
Inca Atahualpa to ransom, demanding that a certain room should be 
filled to the height of a man with gold, immense quantities of beautiful 
ornaments were piled in shining heaps in the hope, scandalously 
betrayed, of saving the semidivine Lord of Peru. 

Farther south, where the never-conquered Araucanian folk 
retreated before, but continued to show a bold front to, the Spaniard, 
there was little gold; but silver was in such demand that no Arau- 
canian girl who respected herself would lack necklaces and hair 
ornaments and a huge headed pin to fasten her shawl. Much of 
this silver doubtless came from what is now Bolivia, from the silver 
hill of PotosI, worked by the simplest processes. But Chile is rich 
in every kind of mineral, and silver and gold mines are scattered 
over the face of all the Andean folds and foothills. To-day the sur- 
face workings of silver in Chile are practically exhausted, though 
much wealth must lie beneath a cloak of verdure and in rocky hiding 
places; but in colonial times, and even into the years of independence, 
workings of both these precious metals were the source of many 

Finding thus, in the Americas, guilds of native craftsmen who had 
an ancient tradition of gold and silver working, the European new- 
comer in many regions had little to do except to place new patterns 
and models before the subjugated artist. The Spaniard needed plates 



and dishes for his table, so presently the South American metal 
worker, taught by alien masters, hammered out scores and hundreds 
of the delightful pieces still surviving in many regions. Peru and 
Bolivia yet contain many of these excellent examples; Colombia and 
Chile and Ecuador also, of course; Argentina and Paraguay, possess- 

Courtesy of "The Chilean Review" 


other silver objects in the Rose-Innes collection. Upper: The top photograph shows a highly chased 
silver cooking pot with handle for suspending over the fire, a tankard, and a tureen. Lower; Two silver 
stirrups of different patterns, and two designs in spurs; also, a beautifully worked stirrup slipper for a 
woman rider 

ing no mines, gradually acquired precious metals by exchange. And, 
in spite of persistent destruction and scattering, a number of fine 
collections of beautiful pieces have been made; some have passed 
overseas to Spain and others to England and France. It may almost 
be said that South American beaten and worked silver is not under- 



stood in the great salesrooms of Europe; for while everyone knows 
to a shilling the value from year to year of a Queen Anne or Georgian 
specimen of silverware, a hammered dish of pure silver from Potosl 
may be ''worth," according to the auction room, little more than its 
intrinsic value, simply because the market knows nothing about it. 
Such silverware carries no hall mark; no mark at all, frequently; 
and if there is an inscription of any kind it shows the name or initials 
of the owner. There was no question of falsification in colonial days; 
the point did not arise, for silver was the commonest metal. Alloys 
were not understood, and there was nothing with which silver could 
be readily alloyed by the craftsman. Nor was the art of silver plat- 
ing known. But here at the door, almost to be had for the picking 

Courtesy of "The Chilean Review" 

other objects in the Rose-Innes collection 

up, was silver, and therefore domestic utensils, as well as pieces 
of special equipment for man and horse, were wrought of this metal. 
Cooking pots, kitchen bowls, dishes, and serving plates and cups, 
as well as spoons and forks; stirrups, spurs, horse trappings; dainty 
ewers, washing basins, jugs for every sort of domestic purpose. From 
the silversmith's bench came an assortment of articles to fill the needs 
of kitchen, dining room, bedroom, boudoir, and stable. Silver was 
more readily accessible than tin or iron, could be easily obtained in 
regions where fine pottery and chinaware was an imported rarity, 
and it served a myriad of purposes. 

Most of the objects, the "artefacts," which were fashioned from 
silver in the most glorious period of Spanish colonial times, can to-day 
be assigned, almost at a glance, to their specific purpose. But here 
and there the collector is able to display pieces which would baffle 


the uninformed. Most conspicuous and most numerous are the mates 
that were used in the south of South America, both east and west 
of the Andes, in the seventeenth, in the eighteenth and nineteenth, 
and, lingeringly, into the twentieth centuries. 



Specimens of old silverwork ■- 

made by Araucanian In- 
dians of southern Chile - : - 

Courtesy of "The Chilean Review' 

The mate is a cup, a special cup, in which a certain herb native 
to South America, ilex hrasiliensis, is infused. The infusion of this 
ilex leaf makes a kind of "tea," the origin of which dates back into 
the mists of history. In spite of careful investigation, sifting the 
evidence of 400 years and more, it is still not certain that the native 


Courtesy of "The Chilean Review 

folk ("Indians," as the Spaniards mistakenly called them) used the 
leaf of this ilex to make an infusion before the coming of the Spaniards. 
Leaving aside this question of origins, it is clear that quite early 
in the history of the Spanish in South America the conquerors had 
begun to make an infusion of "yerba mate'^ as a household drink. 
The infusion was made first in a gourd, and then, as taste developed, 
in a gourd that was carved and mounted in silver. A homhilla, or 


perforated spoon for sucking up, and at the same time straining tke 
infusion, "vras the next invention, and the succeeding stage is the 
finely designed and \rrought mate whose outline still retained the 
shape of the gourd, but which was fashioned of silver, decorated with 
birds and flowers, which was furnished with silver feet, and wliich 
stood upon a silver stand or tray. 

A collection of mates, with their transition from the plain gourd 
or horn to the elaborate cup with its fihgree flowers, quivering upon 
slender silver springs, remains one of the most interesting and 
characteristic representations of South American silverware. From 
plain utihty to gracious ornament the step is gradual but logical; the 
progression shown in these cups is a tribute to the security of Spanish 
rule, to the wide liberty given to favored craftsmen, and to the 
loving care which such craftsmen lavished upon the work of their 
hands. Such work is not produced in this mechanical age. 

The Spanish- American house of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries may have been jealously inclosed and guarded; but it was 
enriched and made lovely with carved furniture, with gilded and 
brightly colored leather work, with tfles and pottery and silks brought 
from the Orient; and throughout its spacious rooms there shone the 
moonhght gleam of sflver mirrors, sflver brasiers with their glow of 
hot charcoal, sflver dishes on the dining table, reflect-ed in the soft 
rays of candles held in sflver sconces. ^lore comfortable, modern 
methods, with the turning of an electric switch for Hght and warmth? 
I am not so sure. The age of sflver had, too, its comforts, and added 
to comfort its charm and splendor. 

If anyone devoted to twentieth century electric Hght, heating, and 
cooking should doubt the amenities of the sixteenth century, he has 
but to look carefufly upon the photographs which fllustrate this 
article in order to attain faith. These pictures {mit}). one exception] 
have been speciaUy taken for the Cfolean Revieiv, and these lustrous 
specimens of old sflverware belong to the fine coUection of South 
American sflver work in the possession of George Eose-Innes, Esq. 
Here are dishes of noble proportions, whose sole decoration is the 
petal form of the outer edges and, sometimes, the finely \vTOught 
handles; here are stirrups and spurs and the single riding shoe which 
aristocratic ladies used when they traveled on horseback. Bowls for 
serving food at table — many showing double handles — are here, 
beautifuUy designed and ornamented; and here, too, are sflver tank- 
ards and household cooking pots and tureens. 

Sflver censers, for burning perfume in rooms, are here, one lovely 
example being designed in the form of a turkey (a native South 
American bird, unkn own to Europe before the Spanish conquest) 
with movable wings; birds, flowers, and fruit are seen as adornments 
of the remarkable series of mates in this coUection, of which some are 



pictured complete with their bombillas. A photograph of a silver 
cupboard in the Rose-Innes collection also displays a number of 
personal ornaments used by the Araucanian Indian women, a sepa- 
rate photograph showing pendants and a few of the characteristic 
"topos" or shawl pins. There are other beautiful collections in 
this country, notably the remarkable and highly representative 
heirlooms in the possession of Lady (Claude) Mallet, but space 
forbids in the present pages a due reference to their extent and charm. 

Photograph by Pan American Union 
Courtesy of Madame Calderon 


This group of articles includes two elaborately chased shawl-pins, a large platter, a carved and silver- 
mounted gourd mate, a pair of spurs, a combination pin and spoon, and a small bowl from the collec- 
tion of the late Don Ignacio Calderon, formerly Minister of Bolivia to the United States 



By Francis Fisher Kane 

Among the many excellent movements that have been 
/ \ started in the Americas within recent years there is no 
y \^ single project promising a greater and more lasting good 
than that which has led to the holding of Pan American 
conferences at stated intervals on the subject of child welfare. The 
first of these conferences was held in Buenos Aires in 1916, during 
the centennial year of the independence of Argentina; the second in 
Montevideo in 1919; the third in Rio de Janeiro in 1922; the fourth 
at Santiago in Chile in 1924; and the fifth at Habana the past 
December. The United States and nearly all of the nations of 
Central and South America were represented at these conferences. 
Many interesting papers were read and discussions had on the 
various questions relating to child welfare, particularly child health 
and the various medical problems involved, although educational 
and legal matters also claimed attention. The last conference at 
Habana was divided into six sections — medicine, hygiene, sociology, 
education, psychology, and legislation. There was also connected 
with the conference an exhibit showing methods of child-welfare 
work in the United States and in Uruguay, and a national maternity 
contest was held under the auspices of the Cuban Government. 

The idea of a permanent American international institute, which 
should function as a research center and a clearing house of infor- 
mation on all matters pertaining to child welfare, had its origin in 
the brain of Dr. Luis Morquio, the well-known Uruguayan pedia- 
trician. Doctor Morquio is the dean of the medical profession in 
Montevideo, and his work as respects the care and treatment of 
children is known throughout Europe, where his leadership has been 
recognized by many medical societies. He is professor of pediatrics 
at the University of Montevideo and in charge of a large children's 
hospital. It was he who, at the second child-welfare congress in 1919, 
proposed the founding of a permanent institute, and it was his 


plan for such an organization that was approved by the conference 
at Santiago in 1924. 

The statutes of the institute — what we should call its constitution 
and by-laws — provide that it shall be called the International Ameri- 
can Institute for the Protection of Childhood {Instituto Internacional 
Americano de Proteccion a la Injancia) and that its central office 
shall be in Montevideo. The institute is to arrange for Pan American 
conferences on child welfare to be held at stated intervals, and is to 
perform the following functions : 

(a) Collect and publish the laws and regulations in the various 
countries for the protection of childhood, as well as such reports as 
may be made upon the subject; 

(&) Keep a record of the various organizations, public and private, 
for the protection of childhood, their schemes of organization and 
methods of work; 

(c) Collect and publish such reviews and other articles as may be 
written by competent authors; 

(d) Collect and analyze statistics relating to childhood, particu- 
larly such data as bear upon the diseases and mortality of children; 

(e) Furnish institutions and individuals with information on child 
protection when called upon; and 

(/) Be, in brief, a center of study and information on child welfare 
for the whole of America. 

The statutes provide that the institute shall be governed by an 
international council and a director, the international council to be 
composed of one delegate from each country adhering to the institute. 
The council is to appoint from its number a president, a vice presi- 
dent, and a secretary, who shall serve for two years, and a director of 
the institute, who is to serve for an indefinite period, or until the 
council shall otherwise determine. The director is to present a 
report to the council at the end of each year, giving an account of 
the activities of the institute, together with such observations as he 
may care to make. Each nation joining the institute shall contribute 
S2,000 as its initial quota, the council to determine later the annual 
quota necessary to carry on the work. 

The statutes further provide that a bulletin, to be known as 
" Boletin del Instituto Internacional Americano de Proteccion a la 
Injancia," shall be published quarterly, the bulletin to contain laws, 
regulations, statistics, and statements of the accomplishments of 
different institutions; studies made by experts; information con- 
cerning international congresses; and a current bibliography of the 
publications and reviews bearing upon child welfare. Each member 
nation is to receive a certain number of copies of the bulletin for 
distribution among the child-welfare institutions of the respective 


The statutes for the institute were unanimously approved by 
the conference held at Santiago in 1924, the representatives of the 
United States concurring in the action of the conference. The 
delegates from the United States were: Dr. Samuel McCune Lind- 
say, professor of political science, Columbia University, New York, 
chairman; Miss Katharine F. Lenroot, assistant to the chief. Chil- 
dren's Bureau, United States Department of Labor; Dr. C. P. 
Knight, surgeon, United States Public Health Service; Miss Rose 
McHugh, assistant director of the department of social action. 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, Chicago; Mrs. Elisa P. de 
Migel, New York City. In signifying their approval. Doctor 
Lindsay said that he and his fellow delegates from the United States 
did not feel authorized to commit their Government in any way. 
Still, he could say that they heartily approved of the action taken 
by the conference, and that they hoped the institute would be organ- 
ized according to the scheme suggested. The matter of the United 
States becoming a member was subsequently laid before the National 
Legislature in Washington early in the year 1927, the President 
transmitting a message on January 5, 1927, in which he said: "I 
recommend to the favorable consideration of the Congress the 
inclosed report from the Secretary of State, with an accompanying 
paper, to the end that legislation may be enacted authorizing an 
appropriation of $2,000 to enable acceptance by the United States 
of membership in a Pan American Institute of Child Welfare at 
Montevideo, in accordance with the recommendation of the Secretary 
of Labor, joined in by the Secretary of State. " Favorable resolutions 
were afterwards adopted by the Committees on Foreign Relations 
of the Senate and House of Representatives. The resolution adopted 
by the House committee was formally approved by the House itself on 
January 17, but, unfortunately, Congress adjourned before the resolu- 
tion of the Senate committee could be acted on. On December 
13, 1927, the President renewed his recommendation that legislation 
be enacted enabling the United States to become a member of the 
institute, and it is hoped that bills will be speedily reported out 
of the committees with favorable recommendations. There ought 
then to be no difficulty in getting the bills passed. 

The institute was organized with due ceremony at Montevideo 
in June, 1927, representatives from 10 different countries being 
present: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, the 
United States of America, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, the 
delegate from the United States being present unofficially. Dr. 
Gregorio Araoz Alfaro was named president of the council and 
Dr. Victor Escardo y Anaya secretary. Dr. Luis Morquio, the 
founder of the institute, was elected director. The inauguration of 
the institute took place in the presence of the President of Uruguay 


the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Pubhc Instruction, 
and a large public gathering. 

The first two numbers of the Boletin have already appeared. It is 
printed in Spanish, and there are short summaries of the text in 
French and English. The first Boletin contains a full account of how 
the institute came into being — how the idea of an American inter- 
national association was taken up and discussed at the Pan American 
conferences on child welfare, and how, finally, the idea was crystal- 
lized, the statutes of the institute approved, and an organization 
effected. There is also in the Boletin an account of the conference 
that was held in Montevideo in June of the past year on the subject 
of infantile mortality under the auspices of the committee of hygiene 
of the League of Nations. That committee had been engaged for 
several years in the study of the subject and in March, 1927, at a 
meeting in Paris, decided to extend its investigation to certain 
countries in Latin America. Montevideo was agreed upon as a place 
of meeting, and a special congress of medical men was held in that 
city in June of last year. The presiding officers of the sessions were 
Professor Madsen, chairman of the committee of hygiene of the 
League of Nations, and Doctor Rajchman, medical director. The 
secretaries were Messrs. Vigier and Nogueira. Doctor Morquio was 
designated honorary president. It was decided to make the pro- 
posed investigation in South America during the year 1928. Plans 
of operation were discussed and questionnaires drafted, for use in 
the various communities studied. The proceedings of the conference, 
together with the resolutions adopted, are set forth in the Boletin. 
The good accomplished by the survey will, of course, depend to a large 
extent upon the cooperation of the governmental authorities in the 
countries where the investigation is to be made. 

The other matter contained in the Boletin is a report of the dis- 
cussion that has recently been had in Montevideo on the subject of 
school parks {Barques Escolarea). The proposition was originally 
put forward by Dr. Carlos Vaz Ferreira, a member of the Montevideo 
Board of Primary Instruction, who proposed that instead of continu- 
ing to erect school buildings in different quarters of the city the munic- 
ipality should purchase a tract of land outside the city and erect on 
it the necessary buildings, taking the children daily to and from the 
tract in question. In this way the children of the city would have the 
advantages of country air and country surroundings during school 
hours. It was also pointed out that a grouping together of separate 
schools would render possible the introduction of many economies. 
While it might be desirable to erect different schoolhouses where the 
recitations would be conducted, it would be possible to combine 
under one roof many different school accessories. It would be possible, 
for example, to have one museum, one library, one laboratory for 
83458— 28— Bull. 3 4 


the entire group of schools, as well as one medical and dental clinic 
for the children. And, of course, there would be need of only one 
administration building. It was argued that it would be entirely 
feasible in such a city as Montevideo to carry the children to and 
from the schools, and that the cost of transportation would be more 
than made up by the economies that might be introduced. Further- 
more, the value of the land bought outside the city would be consider- 
ably less than the total value of the separate properties needed under 
the present system. 

From the account of the discussion printed in the Boletin, it would 
appear that the authorities of Montevideo are divided in opinion as 
to whether "school parks" are practicable. Three members of the 
Council of Primary Instruction are favorable to the idea, four are 
opposed to it. The Minister of Public Instruction, Seiior Enrique 
Fabrigat, has a plan of his own. As originally suggested, the idea 
was to form one large park, but Seiior Fabrigat thinks that rather 
than attempt to put all the schools of the city on one tract it would 
be better to purchase a series of smaller areas and so create a number 
of small parks of not more than 20 or 30 hectares each, to accommo- 
date units of not more than 5,000 children. In this way all the advan- 
tages of country air and surroundings can be obtained and the prob- 
lem of transportation considerably simplified. 

As respects the differences of opinion on the part of the authorities 
in Montevideo, it is interesting to note that while the medical direc- 
tors of the schools stress the difficulties of transportation, and for this 
reason seem to be opposed to the plan, the National Council of 
Hygiene, the highest autliority in Uruguay in medicine, is altogether 
favorable to it. The Congress of School Inspectors also has declared 
in favor of the Barques Escolares, and the Directorate of Architecture 
in the Ministry of Public Works has prepared a complete study of a 
model park. This study was presented to the Pan American Congress 
of Architects at its recent meeting in Buenos Aires. It will be inter- 
esting to follow the discussion further and see what conclusion is 
ultimately reached. 

The second number of the Boletin, which has but recently come to 
hand, has apparently maintained the high standard set in the first 
issue. It is to be regretted that lack of space prevents the insertion 
here of more than the table of contents, which is as follows: 

The Children's Home of the La Plata Charity Society. 

The Brazilian Children's Bureau. 

Montevideo Open-Air Schools. 

The Illegitimacy Problem. 

Open-Air Schools from the Pedagogical Viewpoint. 

The Action Relating to Children of the Pan American Tuberculosis Confer- 
ence at Cordoba. 

Pan American Health. 

Conference on Infant Mortality under the Auspices of the Health Committee 
of the League of Nations. 

International Child Welfare Congress. 


!-/] 11 



C^Q^ I 

TEACHERS of Spanish are coming to feel, as French teachers 
have long felt, that their preparation is not complete with- 
out spending some time in a Spanish-speaking country. 
For many, however, a year abroad is an impossibility, and 
to such the summer session offers great advantages. The summer 
schools described below have been established for some years (with 
the exception of those at Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro), are 
planned especially for foreigners, and are drawing increasing numbers 
of American teachers. 

In Madrid the seventeenth summer session for foreigners will 
be conducted from July 9 to August 4, 1928, under the direction of the 
"Centro de Estudios Historicos, " an institution established by the 
Spanish Government, in connection with the "Junta para Ampliacion 
de Estudios e Investigaciones Cientificas, " with the assistance of the 
University of Madrid and other Spanish educational centers. The 
work of the session is supervised by Don Ramon Menendez Pidal 
and is under the immediate direction of Don Tomas Navarro Tomas. 
The program includes Spanish grammar and phonetics, many types 
of Spanish literature, and the fine arts, drama, and popular music 
of Spain. The diploma conferred is widely recognized in the United 
States. The formal instruction is agreeably supplemented by well- 
planned excursions to points of interest in Madrid and near-by 
cities. Full information may be obtained from Mr. William M. 
Barlow, Curtis High School, Staten Island, N. Y., who is in charge 
of the eighth annual trip to Spain under the auspices of the ''Institute 
de las Espanas" (affiliated with the "Junta para Ampliacion de 
Estudios") and the American Association of Teachers of Spanish. 

The eighth summer session of the National University of Mexico 
will be held from July 2 to August 15, with courses for both for- 
eigners and Mexican teachers. The former will include elementary 
and advanced work in Spanish grammar and phonetics; Spanish, 
Spanish-American, and Mexican literature and art; Mexican and 
Spanish- American history, geography, and institutions; life in 
Spanish America; Mexican archaeology; Mexican music and dances; 

Compiled from advance notices. 



commercial studies. The courses are conducted in Spanish, with the 
exception of a few designed for persons who have only a slight knowl- 
edge of that language. The certificate given for satisfactory work 
receives credit in a large number of colleges and universities in the 
United States. The teaching staff includes several eminent Alexican 
professors and generally one or more professors from the United 
States. An Institute of Inter- American Affairs for the discussion 
of relations between the United States and the other American 
Republics was inaugurated last year, and was so successful that it 
will be hereafter a permanent feature. The sight-seeing program 
includes, in addition to the many attractions of the City of Mexico — 
one of the oldest and most interesting on the American Continent — 
visits to marvelous archaeological monuments and remains and many 
other places of historical importance or scenic beauty. The climate 
of Mexico City during the summer is very pleasant, the temperature 
being similar to that of Denver. Full information regarding the 
1928 session, special railroad and steamship rates, etc., may be 
obtained by addressing the ''Director de la Escuela de Verano, 
Universidad Nacional de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. " 

A summer session has been held at the University of Porto Rico 
since 1922. The Department of Spanish Studies, working in collabo- 
ration with the "Centro de Estudios Historicos" of Madrid, and 
Columbia University of New York, under the direction of Prof. 
Federico de Onis, will hold a summer session from July 9 to August 22. 
Elementary and advanced courses in Spanish grammar, phonetics, 
literature, and history are offered. Dr. Americo Castro, Spanish 
lecturer and author, will be the visiting professor. The credits 
granted by the university are accepted by a large number of American 
institutions. A tour to the summer school is being organized under 
the auspices of the "Instituto de las Espaiias" of New York by 
Mr. M. D. Rice, 660 West One hundred and eightieth Street, New 
York. For general information on the summer school address 
Mr. A. S. Pedreira, University of Porto Rico, Rio Piedras, P. R. 

Special courses for teachers of Portuguese were inaugurated in 1926 
at the University of Berlin. This year, from June 18 to July 30, an 
intensive course for teachers and advanced students will be given cov- 
ering the Portuguese language, the literature, history, and geography 
of Portugal and Brazil. Further information may be obtained from 
Dr. J. de S. Coutinho, Catholic University of America, Washington, 
D. C, or the North German Lloyd, 32 Broadway, New York City. 
The University of Coimbra, Lisbon, also offers elementary and 
advanced courses in its summer session, July 20 to August 31, con- 
cerning which interested persons may inquire of Dr. Coutinho or 
Dr. J. Mendes dos Remedios, University of Coimbra. 


This year for the first time summer schools for foreigners are being 
organized in two South American capitals on the initiative of the 
Munson Steamship Line, which is offering tourist third-class rates 
and has secured reasonable hotel accommodations. The summer 
school at Buenos Aires, July 2-27, will be conducted under the 
auspices of the University of Buenos Aires, with the cooperation of 
the American Club, and will offer courses in the Spanish language 
and in Argentine history and development. At Rio de Janeiro, 
July 16-August 10, the Historical and Geographical Institute of 
Brazil will provide courses in the history, geography, and sociological 
development of Brazil, tropical biology, and elementary Portuguese. 
It is expected that these four weeks' sessions will cover as much ground 
as the ordinary American summer session, and certificates of attend- 
ance and accomplishment will be given. Information as to dates of 
sailing and other details may be obtained from the Munson Steamship 
Line, 67 Wall Street, New York. 

In closing this brief notice, a word of warning must be said against 
enrolling in any school or joining any party without first being 
convinced that it is of a responsible character. In some cases very 
alluring promises are made in advance notices of summer schools, 
promises which have not been fulfilled owing to the incompetence 
or the unscrupulousness, or both in combination, of the group leader. 
It behooves the prospective traveler, therefore, to satisfy himself 
by personal investigation as to what he may expect, and thus save 
himself not only great annoyance but serious inconvenience and 
financial loss. 

THE Grande Exposigdo de Cafe Commemorativa de Segundo 
Centenario da Introducgao do Cafeeiro no Brazil (Grand 
Coffee Exposition Commemorative of the Second Centenary 
of the Introduction of the Coffee Tree into Brazil), as it 
was officially named on the title page of the general catalogue, but 
usually referred to as the Sao Paulo Coffee Exposition, was formally 
opened in the Palace of Industries in Sao Paulo, on October 12, 1927, 
and formally closed on November 20, 1927. Official functions in 
connection with the exposition took place, however, as late as Novem- 
ber 26. 

1 The Bulletin is greatly indebted to Consul C. R. Cameron, of Sao Paulo, for his most interesting and 
detailed report, of which this article is a condensed compilation only. 



The scope and significance of the exposition may be appreciated 
from the following program of special ceremonies and commemora- 
tions held in connection therewith: 

October 12. — Inauguration of the exposition with the presence of 
the President of Sao Paulo, Consular Corps, and high offi.cials. 

October 15. — Rio de Janeiro State Day. 

October 16. — Visit to the agricultural school and experimental 
station "Luiz de Queiroz" at Piracicaba. 

October 17. — Inauguration of the new building of the Banco do 
Estado de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo State Bank), which is the official 
bank of the Coffee Institute. 

October 18. — Minas Geraes State Day. 

October 19. — Placing of a bronze wreath on the tomb of Albuquerque 
Lins, a former president of the State of Sao Paulo, who was a noted 
patron of agriculture. 

October ^0.— Unveiling of the portrait of Gustavo d'Utra in the 
Bureau of Agriculture of the State Department of Agriculture, 
Industry, and Commerce. Gustavo d'Utra was for a long time 
director of the Bureau of Agriculture and his notable scientific 
achievements caused him to be selected to succeed Dafert as director 
of the Institute Agronomico de Campinas. 

October 21. — Departure of delegates for Ribeirao Preto. 

October 22. — In the forenoon, visit to t]ie jazenda of Buenopolis at 
the station of that name near Ribeirao Preto. This is a well-orga- 
nized coffee fazenda of 1,200,000 trees, producing annually about 
25,000 sacks of coffee. The inhabitants of this fazenda number 
1,500 and the terreiro, or drying ground for the coffee, covers an area 
80,000 square meters (about 20 acres). 

In the afternoon the bust of Francisco Schmidt, the "Coffee 
King," was unveiled on Praga Schmidt in Ribeirao Preto. Fran- 
cisco Schmidt was a German immigrant of an extraordinarily enter- 
prising and kindly spirit, who in 1891 was in control of 60 coffee 
Jazendas in the vicinity of Ribeirao Preto aggregating 16,000,000 
coffee trees, all planted under his direction. 

October 25. — Coffee Brokers' Day. This was celebrated in the 
booth of the Commercial Association of Santos at the exposition 

October 26. — Placing of a bronze wreath on the tomb of Luiz 
Pereira Barreto in the Consolagao Cemetery, Sao Paulo. Luiz 
Pereira Barreto was a physician from Rio de Janeiro who came to 
Sao Paulo and devoted his attention to agriculture and cattle breeding. 
He analyzed the terra roxa (the famous "red earth" of Sao Paulo) and 
was a propagandist of its advantages for coffee culture, as well as of 


the variety of coffee called "Bourbon," which now constitutes half 
the coffee planted in Sao Paulo. He is famous as having been the 
first in Sao Paulo to apply scientific processes to agriculture in a 
thoroughgoing manner. 

October 27. — Espirito Santo State Day. 

October 29. — Bahia State Day. 

October 30. — Placing of a bronze wreath on the tomb of Theodoro 
Peckolt in Rio de Janeiro. Theodoro Peckolt was a great botanist 
and scientific student of coffee who immigrated to Brazil in 1847 and 
for 65 years devoted himself to the study of economic botany in 
Brazil. He is said to have personally analyzed the chemical content 
of more than 6,000 Brazilian plants. 

On the same day the municipalities of Sao Paulo gave a reception 
on the exposition grounds, this taking the place of a Sao Paulo 
State Day. 

November 3. — Press Day. 

November 5. — Parana State Day. 

November 9. — Pernambuco State Day. 

November 12. — Placing of a bronze wreath on the tomb of Count 
Alexandre Siciliano in Consolagao Cemetery, Sao Paulo. Count 
Alexandre Siciliano was an Italian immigrant who became a manu- 
facturer of agricultural machinery. As a member of the Agricul- 
tural Society of Sao Paulo he proposed the first valorization of 
coffee in 1906, his plan therefor having been adopted. His plan was 
also practically adopted for the valorization of 1921, and he was the 
first to advocate definitely the establishment of a government insti- 
tution to control the coffee situation, which later materialized as 
the Coffee Institute. 

November 18. — Placing of a commemorative bronze plate on the 
exterior of the Commercial Association building of Santos, this plate 
bearing the heading "1727 — Coffea Beasiliae Fulcrum— 1927" 
and the dates, with appropriate explanation, of the first exportation 
of coffee from Brazil (1797); its first direct exportation (103,260 
sacks in 1850-51); the foundation of the Commercial Association of 
Santos (1870); exhibit of coffee at the St. Louis Exposition (1904); 
maximum exportation of coffee during any one crop year (13,874,113 
sacks in 1906-07); and the foundation of the Coffee Exchange 
{Bolsa) of Santos (1917). 

November 20. — Closing of the Coffee Exposition. 

November 26.- — Unveiling of the bust of Franz Wilhelm Dafert in 
the grounds of the Agronomical Institute of Campinas and the inaugu- 
ration of the coffee monument in Campinas. 

Franz Wilhelm Dafert was an Austrian scientist who, in 1887, came 
to Brazil and for eight years was in the service of the State of Sao 
Paulo. As head of the Instituto Agronomico of Campmas, he made 




The Grand Coffee Exposition Commemorative of the Second Centenary of the Introduction of the Coffee 
Tree into Brazil was held in this building, October 12-November 20, 1927 

memorable experiments in coffee growing, especially as regards the 
effect of fertilizing, which are still regarded as authoritative. The 
coffee monument erected in the Praga do Para in Campinas is the 
work of a Brazilian sculptor, Celso Antonio, and is a square granite 
block having bronze plates set in the four faces, representing, respec- 
tively, an immigrant, a negro laborer (the first coffee laborers were 
slaves), a Santos stevedore bearing a sack of coffee on his back (the 
former method of loading ships), and a coffee tree laden with berries. 
It should be noted that a coffee congress was held in conjunction 
with the exposition, which for lack of space and other reasons can 
not be reported here, but which is well worthy of a special article 
by itself. 


The Coffee Exposition was a great success in spite of the consider- 
able difficulties which it encountered. . . . However, in spite of 
bad weather, the total number of admissions was about 200,000 and 
the soldiers of the Forga Puhlica, or State armed forces, as well as 
thousands of school children in addition, were given free admission 
to the grounds. Every afternoon during the continuance of the 


exposition certain schools sent their children in charge of the teachers 
for a visit. The price of admission was 1 milreis 200 reis, of which 
200 reis was the Government tax, the remaining milreis going into the 
coffers of the exposition. The total cost to the State government of 
the exposition is not known. . . . 


The following-named States displayed special exhibits and on the 
day devoted to each on the program of the exposition, lectures were 
given by the State representatives and usually films were shown 
relating to the agriculture and the resources of that particular State. 
At the same time, copy was given to the local press and the Sao 
Paulo newspapers carried reviews of the commerce and productions 
of the State being honored, especially, of course, with reference to 
its production of coffee. The States having special exhibits were 
as follows: 

Name of State State day 

Sao Paulo October 30 

Minas Geraes___ October 18 

Rio de Janeiro October 15 

Espirito Santo October 27 

Bahia October 29 

A few articles from other States were displayed, but the latter 
could scarcely be said to have exhibits. The Presidents of Rio de 
Janeiro and Minas Geraes were present at the exposition on their 
respective State days. 


The site of the exposition was the Palacio das Industrias in Pedro 
II Park. A few temporary buildings and sheds were erected near 
the main building, but nothing of a permanent or even of a semi- 
permanent nature. The whole building was profusely decorated 
with natural and artificial coffee trees, wreaths, and scenery and 
paintings of which coffee formed the principal theme. 

As one entered the main building, directly in front was the model 
of the fazenda, or coffee plantation, of Itaquere, State of Sao Paulo, 
constructed on a small scale with scenery, lights, etc., after the style 
of "panoramas." 

Then, following the routes indicated by arrows, the visitor pro- 
ceeded over the extensive building, visiting all the displays in order. 

The most complete and interesting of the coffee exhibits were, 
naturally, those of the State of Sao Paulo, which were largely con- 
centrated in the wing devoted to the municipalities of the State. 


Here 100 or more Sao Paulo municipalities had individual exhibits 
giving photographic views of the municipality and its plantations, 
samples of its coffee and other agricultural and manufactured prod- 
ucts, and frequently literature descriptive of its agriculture, its 
various industries, and its glowing future. In the center of this 
hall was a small structure devoted to "King Coffee," bearing on 
the top an enormous crown and having underneath a sack of gilded 
coffee beans. 

Another section of the Sao Paulo State exhibit was in charge of 
the Commercial Association of Santos, and here were shown the 
various grades of coffee, and the manner of determining the grade 
and quality, with practical daily demonstrations of coffee roasting 
and tasting. The coffee to be tasted was roasted and ground to a 
powder in electrical machines, 10 grams of the pulverized coffee 
being used for each sample. This pulverized coffee was put into an 
ordinary drinking glass and a certain fixed quantity of hot water 
added, this mixture being allowed to stand until it was lukewarm. 
The taster then with a spoon sampled the brew. The coffee so 
tasted, however, was never swallowed, but immediately expectorated. 
Should it be swallowed, the coffee would soon destroy the keenness 
of the sense of taste which is so necessary for the proper classification 
of the coffee into "soft" and "hard." "Soft" really means "mild," 
while "hard" refers to the bitter, acid taste. These characteristics 
of the coffee are said to be due largely to the qualities of the soil 
where the coffee is produced. In connection with the Santos exhibit, 
there was a cafe where coffee was served to the public. 

The coffee exhibits of the various States contained, of course, 
innumerable samples of coffee beans of all varieties, which to the 
ordinary layman mean very little, but a knowledge of which is an 
essential to the coffee trade. Apart from the defects and extraneous 
matter, these beans are usually marketed in four classes denominated, 
in order of increasing size, moJcinJia, small oblong round beans, known 
to the American trade as peaberries; moka, larger and better beans of 
the same kind; chato miudo, small flat-sided beans; and chato, large, 
well-formed, flat beans which grow two in a pod or berry, flat sides 
facing each other, to make the oblong round fruit which is the nor- 
mal coffee berry seen on the tree. The finest types and grades of 
commercial coffee usually are made up from chato, or large flat-sided 
beans, although excellent coffee is also made from the better types 
and grades of moka, or the oblong round beans known to the American 
trade as peaberries. 

The exhibits also showed samples of the terra roxa, or red earth, 
which has become so famous in connection with coffee production 
in this State. Other soil may produce coffee, but the terra roxa is 


always certain to produce it well. The peculiar red color of this 
soil, which is as red as the reddest brick, is said to be due to oxide 
of iron. These samples also looked uninteresting to the layman, 
but nevertheless on their chemical contents depends success or failure 
in coffee raising. 


The exhibit of Minas Geraes, besides the usual display of coffee, 
contained a general exhibit of the products of the State, including a 
splendid collection of diamonds, rock crystals, tourmalines, aqua- 
marines, topazes, amethysts, etc. These stones were almost all sold 
to visitors. An exhibit of silk from the experimental station located 
at Barbacena showed cocoons and the finished fabric. Another sec- 
tion was devoted to dairy products, especially cheese. Minas 
Geraes has numerous mineral springs producing waters of more or 
less national fame, and these waters were exhibited, including the 
brands called Caxambii, Baependy, Lambery, and Cambuquira, 
Judging from the wide advertising, these mineral waters are a source 
of considerable profit, the heavy expenses being advertising and 
containers. A most interesting and important exhibit was that of 
the Usina Queiroz Junior Ltda., a metallurgical firm which melts 
iron by the use of charcoal at Esperanga, Minas Geraes, and manu- 
factures all sorts of iron and steel articles and considerable machinery. 

Perhaps the most striking part of the Minas Geraes exhibit was 
the section devoted to maps, statistics, and publications. There 
was exhibited a large map of Minas Geraes containing all geograph- 
ical data available up to the very date of the opening of the exposi- 
tion. The State, furthermore, compiled and published during 1927 
volumes containing complete maps on the large scale of 1 : 200,000, 
or 1 : 500,000, giving all available geographical information in regard 
to each of the 173 municipalities of the State. This is the most 
complete work of its kind in Brazil, no other State having yet pro- 
duced a similar publication which can be compared with the achieve- 
ment of Minas Geraes. In this same section were collections of 
statistical, historical, and other informative official publications, all 
having been bound in red morocco and lettered in gold at the printing 
office of the State. 

Minas Geraes came to Sao Paulo determined to make the best 
possible impression. It distributed much literature and undoubtedly 
had the best-organized exhibit at the exposition. 


The exhibit of the State of Rio de Janeiro was limited almost 
entirely to coffee, showing samples and statistics in regard to coffee 
production in that State. 


The State of Espirito Santo, in addition to its coffee display, 
devoted considerable attention to timber, exhibiting hundreds of 
beautifully prepared samples of cabinet and construction woods. 
Among them were several varieties of the rosewood, locally known 
as jacarandd, of a beautiful deep rose color, also much prized as a 
flowering tree. In the spring of the year the parks of Sao Paulo 
are notable for their extensive display of lavender and yellow jac- 

Bahia presented not only coffee but many of its other products, 
including fine woods. A cross section of the trunk of a coffee tree 
asserted to be 130 years old was exhibited here. Bahia also dis- 
played many samples of cacau (cocoa), not only in the form of the 
dried fruit but also the unopened cacau pods. 


One of the most interesting sections of the Coffee Exposition was 
that devoted to coffee machinery, which was located on the covered 
porches of the large interior courtyard. Here all the principal 
makers of coffee cleaning and curing machinery had exhibits. . . . 

Many of the coffee-cleaning machines exhibited were operated 
daily to demonstrate the dry process of hulling, cleaning, polishing, 
and sorting the coffee berries. Naturally, the wet-curing process 
could not be here demonstrated, although the mechanism for sepa- 
rating the dry from the ripe and green berries was shown. The 
sacks containing a mixture of these three classes of berries, upon 
arrival from the field at the terreiro (drying grounds), are emptied 
into a vat of running water. The lighter dry berries float on the 
surface and are conducted to one part of the terreiro, whereas the 
green and ripe berries sink and are carried by the current to another 
part of the terreiro. . . . 

Various different makes of apparatuses for the preparation of coffee 
in Brazilian fashion were, of course, widely exhibited at the exposi- 
tion. The American method of boiling, or otherwise using coarsely 
ground coffee, for the preparation of the beverage, is wholly unknown 
here, and Brazilians always come back from the United States com- 
plaining of the quality of coffee as served there. Brazilians always 
use the finely pulverized coffee, and originally prepared the drink 
by placing the pulverized coffee in a cloth or towel, pouring boiling 
water through, and wringing it out. This, with variations, is still the 
method commonly used in the interior, the general principle being 
to pass boiling water through pulverized coffee in a cloth or sack. 

Recently, however, machines for making "expresso" cofl'ee ["ex- 
press©" (express) is used in its original sense of "press out"], appar- 
ently invented in Italy, have become popular. They produce 
much the same results, but more expeditiously and in a cleaner and 































































more sanitary manner. The "expresso" apparatuses look like the 
boilers used in restaurants in the United States, with the exception 
that they have steam pipes on either side with platforms on which the 
cups are placed. They are heated by gas, kerosene, or electricity, 
and operate under a steam pressure of from 20 to 30 pounds. To 
make coffee, a removable receptacle with handle, like a small dipper 
having apertures below, is filled with the pulverized coffee and by a 
half-turn securely screwed to the steam pipe. The coffee is served in 
cMcaras, about the size of the cup used for after-dinner black coffee 
in the United States, the quantity of pulverized coffee for each 
chicara being about equal in volume to the contents of the chicara. 
When the water is turned on, it drips slowly through the coffee pow- 
der, and in about a minute the process is completed, the chicara 
being full of black coffee. The pulverized coffee which has served 
once is thrown out, never being used for a second cJiicara. 

A chicara of coffee sells for 200 reis, or about $0,024 at the present 
average exchange rate of 8 milreis 400 reis for one dollar. The 
apparatuses are manufactured in various sizes with capacities for 
making from four to a dozen chicaras at one time, and sell at prices 
which range from $80 to $900 when converted into United States 
currency. One local company manufactures an "expresso" appa- 
ratus, three makes are imported from Italy, and one from Germany. 

No coffee drinker who has become accustomed to Brazilian-made 
coffee will be content with the beverage prepared as is usual in the 
United States. Incidentally, the amount of coffee required for 
a chicara of Brazilian coffee is considerably more than that required for 
a cup of ordinary American coffee. The best possible propaganda 
for Brazilian coffee in the United States would be to teach Americans 
to make coffee in the Brazilian way, since consumption of coffee 
would thereby be greatly increased. This is, indeed, exactly what the 
Coffee Institute is trying to do. . . . 

It is interesting to note that many persons who are adversely 
affected by the drinking of coffee in the United States come to Brazil 
and consume several chicaras of coffee daily without apparent ill 
results. Many Brazilians drink 20, 30, and even more chicaras daily. 
One old American resident of Sao Paulo has for years consumed up- 
ward of 20 chicaras of coffee daily without injurious effects. 


Among the other exhibits of interest were automobiles, tractors, 
pumps, typewriters, cash registers, adding and calculating machines, 
radio and electrical apparatus, freezers and ice boxes, arms and 
ammunition, roofing, paints, hand tools of all kinds, fertilizers, Chilean 
nitrates, grass and flower seed, insecticides and especially formicides, 


as ants are the arch enemy of BraziHan agriculture. About a dozen 
American firms were represented. Many of the banks of Sao Paulo, 
the railways of the State, and the Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power 
Co. (Ltd.), had interesting exhibits. ... 


Beyond doubt one of the most interesting displays of the exposi- 
tion was that of the S. A. Industrias de Seda Nacional (National 
Silk Industries Co.), which has its mill and center of operations in 
Campinas. This company, founded in 1924, is favored by national, 
State, and municipal legislation, and in return for the subsidy received, 
and in cooperation with the Government Instituto de Sericultura 
(Sericulture Institute) of Campinas, distributes silkworm eggs and 
young mulberries free of charge; gives advice regarding all phases of 
cocoon production; publishes a monthly journal of propaganda, 
Sericultura; and promotes the industry in every way. In the year 
August, 1926-July, 1927, there were in the State of Sao Paulo 
3,000,000 mulberry trees and 5,850 breeders of silkworms who deliv- 
ered cocoons weighing 133,000 kilos. It is asserted that while Italy 
hatches silkworm eggs but once a year and Japan only three times, 
Sao Paulo hatches continuously from September to April. As a 
matter of practice, eggs are distributed during this period every five 
days. The raising of silkworms is being advocated as a subsidiary 
industry on the farms and as a means of providing the colonos 
(families hired by the year to care for the coffee trees of the Jazendas) 
with an easy means of increasing their income and so makmg them 
more contented with their employment. The extraordinary way in 
which this industry has increased in Sao Paulo is illustrated by the 
fact that in three years it has increased from almost nothing to 
135,000 kilos of cocoons. The annual production of Spain is only 
95,000 kilos, of France, 335,000 kilos, and of Italy, 5,715,000 kilos. 

The exhibit of this company contained eggs and silkworms in all 
stages from the newly-hatched to the adult spinning its cocoon. 
Beautiful displaj^s of cocoons were shown illustrating how a new 
variety, the golden of Brazil, has been developed. Crowds sur- 
rounded the stands where the tiny worms, barely discernible on the 
finely-chopped mulberry leaves, almost visibly increased in size. 
At any time scores of the adult worms could be seen spinning their 
cocoons in the bundles of brush provided for that purpose, and 
doubtless many fazendeiros who had come to the exposition to see 
colfee only went home favorably impressed with the possibilities of 
sericulture. The development of this industry in Sao Paulo during 
the next few years will merit the closest attention. . . . 



The Coffee Exposition and the congress in connection therewith 
have undoubtedly caused Sao Paulo to consider its position from a 
broad standpoint, to take stock of its resources and its achievements, 
and to weigh carefully the possibilities of the future. It has prob- 
ably accomplished one of its purposes, which was to impress upon 
Brazil as a whole the importance of the coft'ee industry, and the 
necessity of its protection if Brazil as a nation is to continue to merit 
the consideration which it has, through the wealth produced by 
coffee, won for itself in international affairs. In the greatest speech 
which was delivered during the whole coffee celebration, namely, 
that of the ex-minister of transportation and present prefect of 
Sao Paulo, the Hon. Pires do Rio, at the dedication of the Coffee 
Monument in Campinas on November 26, 1927, emphasis was laid 
upon this fact, as in the following quotation: 

Before this monument of grateful admiration which we dedicate at this time, 
we register our patriotic desires for the prosperity of coffee culture to which 
Sao Paulo and Brazil owe the greatest factor in their own civilization in the 
modern world. 

The same speech shows the satisfaction felt by the Brazilian people 
with their achievements in coffee culture. The prefect reviewed the 
history of modern economic development and, lamenting the lack of 
coal in the industry of Brazil, continued: 

The Brazilian people can not be numbered among the richest nations in the 
world. Let it not be said that it is for lack of age; the richest country on earth, 
which is the United States of North America, is one of the peoples of most recent 
origin. Let it not be said, furthermore, that the form of government influences 
economic destiny; the three richest countries in the world — England, the United 
States, and Germany — had, before the Great War, profoundly different forms of 
government. Let not the relative poverty of Brazil be attributed to the ethnic 
qualifications of its governing class; Holland, so much poorer than Belgium, is 
not inhabited by a race which is considered inferior. 

It is necessary to search in the natural conditions of the soil for the great factor 
in the relative enrichment of the peoples who labor. A striking example is 
offered to us by coffee culture, in which the greater part of the riches of Brazil is 
concentrated. How, if not by the influence of the soil, is the strange fact to be 
explained that a small part of the population of the Republic produces more, 
much more, than all the rest of its inhabitants? 

The culture of coffee serves, in the eyes of an observer of the world of labor, to 
save the Latin race from the suspicion of inferiority as regards its economic 
capacity; no other people in a lesser agricultural area has concentrated greater 
wealth than the fazendeiros of the terra roxa of Sao Paulo. 

In other words, Brazil, prevented by lack of coal from developing 
along industrial lines, has by its intense development of coffee culture 
demonstrated that the economic capacity of its people is not inferior 
to that of any other country. 
83458— 28— Bull. 3 5 

By Frances Toor 

Editor of ^^ Mexican Folkways," Mexico City 

MAXIMO Pacheco is the youngest, yet an outstanding figure, 
of the famous group of revolutionary artists of Mexico, 
headed by Diego Rivera. He is entirely a product of their 
movement. When Pacheco had been a pupil only four 
months in the National Academy of Fine Arts his instructor, Fermin 
Revueltas, took him on as helper in fresco painting in the National 
Preparatory School. Later he became helper to Diego Rivera, with 



whom he worked for two years. In December, 1926, at the age of 
20, he surprised the public with his exposition of 80 drawings and 
some oils, executed with astonishing mastery of design and richness 
of imagination. He is now painting frescoes on the walls of the 
newest open-air school in Valbuena Park, and, although the influence 
of Diego Rivera is obvious in these as in his other works, Pacheco is 
sufficiently independent, original, forceful, and imaginative to make 
his work stand on its own intrinsic merits. 

Details of Pacheco 's life story greatly help to understand his work. 
He was born of Otomi parents in a small village in the State of 

1 From Mexican Folkways, vol. 3, No. 3. 




Hidalgo, where that race still thrives and is producing extraordinary 
art work in textiles. His father was a laborer on a hacienda. He 
was 5 years old when his mother died, but he still remembers accom- 
panying her to carry the basket of food to his father in the fields and 
of keeping awake late into the night awaiting his home-coming and 
then pretending sleep in order to listen to the conversation of his 
parents. After his mother's death Pacheco was sent to the home 
of a well-to-do relative — not to be cared for, but to work. 

I have myself seen boys in big households, of Pacheco's age and 
in his condition, treated like stray dogs, yet doing a man's work. 
Pacheco's job was to herd the cattle. At dawn he was sent off with 
a few tacos of beans rolled in tortillas for the day. "I used to pass 
an orchard on the way to the pasture," recalled Pacheco, "and there 
I always exchanged my tacos for fruit, which I liked better. Often 


One of the pictures in whicli 
the artist used himself as 

it would rain heavily, so I contrived a little house of twigs and 
leaves. It did not protect me entirely, but I used to crawl into it 
and fall asleep. Sometimes my herd would wander away while I 
was sleeping. I used to get many beatings for my neglect and others 
for no reason whatever." 

When Pacheco was 7 his father married again and they came to 
Mexico City. For six years he picked up a living on the streets, with 
more hardships and beatings until a kind aunt sent him to grammar 
school. Finding himself at a desk, with pencil and paper at his dis- 
position, he would draw, to the neglect of his other studies. His 
teacher suggested he enter the Academy of Fine Arts, from which 
his artist friends say "he was rescued just in time not to become 

Pacheco devoted himself completely to his work, without respite for 
social activities, diversions, or even reading. Into his drawings he 




puts all the experiences of his young life, and his colors are those that 
he has observed in nature. . . . Often he uses himself as a model 
by arranging a mirror so that he can draw and at the same time see 
himself. In the drawing "The Storm" the face is Pacheco's. He is 
especially fine in depicting mischievous boys in all sorts of pranks, and 
he enjoys them as if he were actually taking part. He has the rare 
faculty of putting himself into his work and then seeing it as a thing 
apart, living. 

Pacheco is now at the dangerous age of successful 21. He is 
decidedly lacking in Weltanschauung. His friends fear that unless he 
studies, travels, and learns more of life, he will not fulfill his great 
promise. I believe that Pacheco will go on and become a great artist. 
I have faith in Pacheco and his race, from which he has inherited the 
accumulated artistic experiences of centuries, skill, imagination, 

"What is your ambition, Pacheco? " I asked him as he sat nervously 
moving about in his chair. "What do you hope to accomplish? 
Would you like to study? To travel?" His dark, sensitive face 
lit up as he answered: 

"I want to become as good a painter as it is possible to be. I want 
to paint things real and imaginary about the country and the sea. 
I should like to travel abroad, but first I want to see all of Mexico." 





THE Congress of Colombia decrees: 
Akticle 1. The Nation reserves to itself the ownership of and the 
right to the exclusive exploitation of all deposits of hydrocarbons that 
may exist in the public lands and of those deposits which may belong 
to it by any title whatever. 

This provision shall also apply to those hydrocarbons that may exist in lands 
on which grants, leases or permissions have been given either for exploration or 
exploitation, and which have reverted or may revert to the Nation's domain for 
any cause whatever. 

Should the Government in the exclusive exploitation of the oil deposits 
referred to in this article exercise the powers given to it by existing laws, it 
shall submit the respective contracts to the approval of Congress. 

Art. 2. Any natural or legal person who, at the time this law is promul- 
gated, may be engaged in petroleum exploration by well-drilling within the 
territory of the Republic and on private property, must present in the Ministry 
of Industries, within six (6) months, documents proving the ownership of the 
lands in which such exploration is being carried on, and the lease or other contracts 
concluded with the owners of such lands, in case it is not the owners themselves 
who are making the explorations. 

Within a year from the promulgation of the present law, those persons who 
have acquired either by grant or otherwise portions of land belonging to the 
Nation, the area of which exceeds 500 hectares, shall present to the Ministry of 
Industries the corresponding title deeds. 

If on expiration of the above term the provision herein enacted shall not have 
been complied with, the Ministry shall fine the infractor from two hundred (200) 
to one thousand (1,000) pesos for each month of delay. 

Art. 3. Until a new law amending the provisions actually in force concerning 
this matter becomes effective, all proposals and contracts relating to hydro- 
carbons covered by article 1 which have been submitted to the Ministry of 
Industries, or the Cabinet Council, or the Council of State, or the Board of 
Finance, or to Congress, these last if they were not expressly approved by 
Congress, shall remain in abeyance; but, notwithstanding, exploration may still 
be made on terms to be laid down by the Government. 

Art. 4. The industry of exploiting hydrocarbons and of laying oil pipe lines 
having been declared by article 9 of Law 120 of 1919 to be of public utihty, the 
State reserves to itself the right to lay, use, or exploit, or of allowing to be laid, 
used or exploited within the territory of the Republic, such oil-pipe lines as may 
connect two or more petroleum exploitation areas, or one of these with a railway 

1 Seccion de Publicaciones, Bogota, Noviembre de 1927. 



leaving said area, or with a river or sea port. The State hkewise reserves the 
right of constructing, using, or exploiting petroleum refineries, or of allowing such 
refineries to be constructed, used, or exploited. 

The Government may grant the permissions referred to in this article in 
accordance with the special legislative acts concerning petroleum which may 
be enacted, or by means of contracts which shall be submitted to Congress for 
approval, so long as the said legislation does not provide otherwise. 

Akt. 5. The Government is hereby authorized to establish or to acquire on 
the Nation's account one or more refining plants for the purpose of refining the 
oil accruing to the Nation from petroleum exploitation, or from any other source 
within the country, and also to open negotiations with a view to the construction 
of one or more oil-pipe lines. To this end the Government is empowered to 
secure the necessary capital in the form of loans. 

Art. 6. On the exploitation of oil fields not belonging to the State a tax shall 
be paid to the Nation, to be levied as follows: Eight per cent (8%) of the gross 
production in the case of deposits located at a distance of more than four hundred 
kilometers from the seashore; twelve per cent (12%) of the gross production in 
the case of deposits located more than two hundred kilometers but not exceeding 
four hundred kilometers from the seashore; and sixteen per cent (16%) of the 
gross production in the case of deposits at a distance of less than two hundred kilo- 
meters from the seashore. 

Art. 7. This law in no way alters any of the legal provisions actually in force 
concerning the share participation of the Departments and municipaUties in the 
production from the exploitation of petroleum and hydrocarbons in general. 

Art. 8. Contracts for loans entered into by the Government by virtue of the 
authority conferred on it by article 5 of this present law shall require for their 
validity the approval of the National Loan Board created by Law 102 of 1922. 

Art. 9. The present law shall go into efi'ect as soon as it is signed. 

Given in Bogota on this fourteenth day of November, A. D. one thousand 
nine hundred and twenty-seven. 

The President of the Senate, (signed) Emilio Robledo. — The President of 
the House of Representatives, (signed) Prospero Marquez. — The Secretary of 
the Senate, (signed) Julio D. Portocarrero. — The Secretary of the House of 
Representatives, (signed) Fernando Restrepo Briceno. 

Executive Power, 
Bogota, November 17, 1927. 
Publish and execute this law. 

Miguel Abadia Mendez. 
The Minister of Industries: 

Jose Antonio Montalvo. 



Aid for fruit growers. — The Department of Agriculture, Live 
Stock, and Industries of the Province of Buenos Aires has begun a 
campaign to interest fruit-growers in grading, packing, and marketing 
fresh fruits and also in the idea of drying and preserving fruits so 
as not to glut the market with the fresh product. For this purpose 
the department has engaged experts to go into the fruit districts 
and start cooperative organizations. The railroads are also engaged 
in aiding the fruitgrower. 

Tenth Annual Automobile Show. — In March, 1918, the first 
Automobile Show was held in Buenos Aires under the auspices of 
the Argentine Automobile Club, with the cooperation of the Motor 
Club and the Argentine Federation of Cyclists. In that first ex- 
position cars of 11 manufacturers were shown. This year in the 
Tenth Show there were 134 exhibitors of automobiles and accessories. 

First Shorthorn Dairy Herd Exposition. — On December 4, 
1927, the First National Shorthorn Dairy Herd Exhibition was 
opened in General Rodriguez, a town in Buenos Aires Province, 
under the auspices of the National Minister of Agriculture and the 
Livestock Breeders' Association. Fine pedigreed animals were ex- 
hibited, which are available for breeding purposes. There were also 
good examples of mixed stock. In the opening address made by 
Sefior Imaz, founder of the Livestock Breeders' Association, attention 
was given to the bill now before the Argentine Congress for con- 
sideration at the coming session, to prevent the sale of tubercular 
sires, and mention was made of the fact that the Minister of Agri- 
culture furnishes the services of experts and serums to dairymen 
and breeders wishing to guard against tuberculosis. 


Measures to reduce cost of living. — With the purpose of 
reducing the present high cost of living in La Paz the municipality of 
that city has agreed to import articles of prime necessity, voting a 
sum of 100,000 bolivianos to effect purchases abroad or pay for the 
expropriation of articles in the possession of those local merchants 
who, by raising the price of commodities, are causing the public 

Another measure taken by the Government toward reducing the 
cost of living, is the granting of special rebates on freight rates of the 



Villazon-Atocha railroad to a British sugar-refining company in 
Argentina on the condition that the company export to BoHvia 4,000 
tons of sugar annually. 

Bill for promoting the flour industry. — The Chief Executive, 
considering the benfits to be derived from the increased production 
of flour in the Republic, has sent a bill to Congress proposing the 
promotion of this industry. The bill provides that an agreement 
shall be made with some reputable flour company for installing several 
flour mills under the following conditions: At least three central 
plants shall be established with a minimum annual production of 
10,000 tons each. The company shall purchase and use in as far as 
possible domestic wheat, and shall have agricultural experts to advise 
farmers on raising this crop. During the first five years of the 
concession the company may import foreign wheat free of duties, 
but only in such quantities as are strictly necessary, the quantity 
imported to be reduced each year. 

National products for army use. — The Ministry of War has 
adopted the resolution that all bread consumed in the army is to be 
made of national flour, as a measure toward the encouragement of 
national industries. It has also been asked that a similar resolution 
be adopted to the effect that all uniforms used in the army should be 
manufactured from wool actually grown in the country. 

Development of a road-building program. — The directors of 
the Bolivian Touring Club have created a road-building board for 
the purpose of promoting interest in the development of highways 
throughout the country. It will likewise repair and mark roads and 
prepare touring guides. This board will meet once a month and as 
many more times as the president of the board may deem necessary. 
The road building fund, which will be obtained from a tax on all 
vehicles leaving the city of La Paz, from the proceeds of the sale of 
maps and guides, and from other sources, will be administered by the 


First Brazilian Aviation Congress. — Upon the initiative of the 
Pioneers Club, the first Brazilian Congress of Aviation is to be held in 
Rio de Janeiro, opening on July 14, 1928. The Minister of Communi- 
cations informed the club that it might be assured of official sanction 
and support. Other organizations such as the Aero Club, the Mili- 
tary School of Aviation, the Naval Aeronautic School, and individuals 
will be invited to contribute to the success of the conference. The 
program will include a large exposition and aviation week with special 
honors for the Brazilian air pioneers, Bartholomeu de Gusmao and 
Santos Dumont. The subjects for discussion will include: 1, Organi- 
zation of the territory; 2, aerial traffic; 3, aeronautical technique; 4, 


plans for development of aeronautics; 5, education, travel, and propa- 
ganda; 6, specialized medicine; 7, aerial law; and 8, administrative 
organization of national aeronautics. 

Brazilian Sample Exhibit for Buenos Aires. — Due to the 
efforts of the Society for Brazilian Commercial and Industrial 
Expansion (Ltd.), a permanent sample fair of Brazilian products 
will open in Buenos Aires next October. The honorary commission 
of the exposition includes the Presidents of both Brazil and Argentina 
and many other government officials. The exhibits will include 
agricultural, industrial, and commercial products and information 
and views relating to their origin and manufacture. 

Yerba Mate Institute. — The Yerba Mate Institute has recently 
been established in the city of Joinville in the State of Santa Catharina, 
the yerba mate district, to serve as the organization for centralizing 
sales propaganda, and information on the best methods for the culture, 
perfection, and marketing of this product, also known as Paraguayan 
tea. A large quantity of this tea, which is a popular beverage in 
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and other South American countries, is 
grown in Brazil. 

Electrification op Leopoldina Railway. — The British company 
operating the Leopoldina Railway announced in December that the 
road was to be electrified throughout its entire length. 


CoNCEPCioN Week. — Beginning November 19, 1927, "Concep- 
cion Week" was celebrated in the city of that name with a regional 
agricultural and industrial exposition, conferences on medicine, 
dentistry, and education, and many social events. The occasion 
was honored by the presence of the President of the Republic and 
the Minister of Promotion. The mayor of Concepcion, chairman of 
the committee for the exposition, stated that its chief motives were 
to demonstrate the progress of the Province and to unite scattered 
initiatives into one movement for the common good. 

Projected transandine railway. — Government engineers have 
completed preliminary surveys for the Chilean section of a projected 
transandine railway from Valdivia, in south-central Chile, to Bahia 
Blanca, Argentina. This section would cost about 40,000,000 pesos, 
besides requiring rolling stock to the amount of 24,000,000 pesos. 
The engineers are enthusiastic with regard to the many advantages 
of this route and the rich zone which would be opened to commerce 
and industry. 

Port works at Iquique. — The Government has accepted a bid 
of 57,101,000 pesos for the construction of port works at Iquique, 
these to be completed within 53 months. 


Promotion of Chilean economic life. — Last November Senor 
Adolfo Ibafiez, Minister of Promotion, invited representatives of 
the leading organizations in Chilean economic life, such as the 
Agricultural Association and the Society for the Promotion of Indus- 
try, to meet with him for a discussion of the best means for the 
continued advancement of productive activities. Senor Ibafiez 
requested that the separate entities in each line of production organ- 
ize an association, in case one does not already exist, and that this 
association present to the Government its opinions and advice on 
the best means for furthering and protecting its respective branch of 
production. All these suggestions would later be combined, as far as 
possible, into a general plan for the nation. Workers are asked to 
organize in similar fashion. 

The minister also promised to study all administrative problems 
the solution of which would, it is thought, conduce to greater eco- 
nomic progress. Among these are the questions of technical educa- 
tion, transportation by land and sea, tax burdens, and the revision 
of the laws intended to promote social welfare. 

A ringing call to all Chileans physically able to do so to play an 
active part in strengthening the economic fabric of the nation was 
uttered by the minister, and heartily seconded by the President of 
the Republic, who honored the meeting by his presence. 

Electrification of railway. — A section of the railway from 
Tocopilla to Toco, 39 kilometers in length (kilometer equals 0.62 
mile), has been electrified and will soon be put in use. The fact that 
the grade in some places is as high as 4 per cent adds considerably to 
the difficulty of exploiting the line, which serves an important nitrate 
region. The power is developed by Diesel engines at one of the nitrate 
plants. Powerful locomotives able to draw heavy trains will make the 
service efficient. 


New AIR LINE. — In the latter part of November, 1927, air service 
was started between Barranquilla and Buenaventura. Passenger 
and mail planes will leave Barranquilla, then calling at Cartagena, 
after which they will fly along the coast to Turbo on the Gulf of 
Darien. From there they will follow the River Atrato to Quibdo, 
and then fly to San Juan, Istmina, and Buenaventura. Bulletin 
readers will remember that for a number of years there has been a 
most successful air service up the Magdalena River from Barran- 
quilla to Girardot, connecting there with the railroad to Bogota. 
Branch lines are also in operation. 

BoGOtX-CaRACAS automobile freight and PASSENGER SERV- 
ICE. — On November 18, 1927, a stock company with a capital of 
),000 was established in Bogota to operate an automobile pas- 


senger and freight service between Bogota and Caracas by way of 

Bogota streets to be paved. — On December 9, 1927, a con- 
tract was signed with an American company for the paving of the 
streets of Bogota. 

Agricultural and building loans. — On October 31, 1927, the 
Government made legal provision to purchase all shares held by 
private owners in the Agricultural Mortgage Bank of Bogota and 
to create in that bank an agricultural supply section to handle the 
purchase and sale of machinery, fertilizers, seeds, blooded sires, 
medicines, and insecticides for plants and animals. These will be 
sold at cost to farmers. The bank will also encourage the construc- 
tion or rebuilding of inexpensive houses for workmen in the depart- 
mental capitals and all cities whose population exceeds 20,000. 
These houses, which will be sold on the deferred-payment plan, will 
be exempt from national, departmental, and municipal taxes for 
10 years. 


Forestry study. — Information has been received that Mr. G. 
Proctor Cooper, who has for some time been making studies of the 
timber resources of northern Panama for the Yale School of Forestry, 
will soon begin a similar work in Costa Rica. With the cooperation 
of the New York Botanical Garden, the Field Museum of Natural 
History, and the United Fruit Co., investigations and collections 
have also been secured from Salvador and southern Panama and as 
a result of arrangements recently concluded with members of the 
staff of a lumber company in Nicaragua, the materials needed to 
make the Central American collection nearly complete will have 
been acquired. The main object of the Yale collections is to bring 
together in one place, where they may be available to specialists 
for intensive study, specimens of woods from all parts of the world. 


National Congress of Sugar Technologists. — On December 
8, 1927, the National Congress of Sugar Technologists was opened in 
the building of the Association of Engineers in Habana to consider 
problems relating to Cuba's chief industry. {Courtesy of the Cuban 
Embassy in Washington.) 

United States-Cuba Air Mail. — According to information sent 
to the diplomatic and consular officers by the Cuban Department of 
State the air-mail service between the United States and Cuba 
carried during November, 1927, a total of 1,411,694 letters. 

Santa Clara-Chambas Railway. — According to the press the 
new railway line from Santa Clara to Chambas affords an outlet to a 


large section of territory in the Provinces of Santa Clara and Cama- 
giiey, through which it runs for 130 kilometers. Fifteen new stations 
are now opened, and many sugar plantations are connected with the 
railway. Four passenger trains daily run over the new route. In 
addition, the Consolidated Railways have increased passenger service 
by two new passenger trains between Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus, 
while gasoline cars will soon be placed in service between Cumbre and 

Sixth Pan American Conference stamps. — Ten denominations 
of postage stamps are to be on sale in Cuban post offices to com- 
memorate the Sixth Pan American Conference. 

DOMINICAN republic 

Roman cement. — A number of bags of material which it is hoped 
may be suitable for the manufacture of Roman cement have been 
sent to Germany for analysis. If the verdict is favorable a factory 
with a daily production of 85 tons will be established. 

Automatic telephones. — Automatic-telephone service was started 
in the city of Santo Domingo on November 30 of last year. 


Public works. — During the first half of 1927 the Government of 
Ecuador expended almost 3,000,000 sucres on public works, as 
follows: Railways, 1,089,379 sucres; highways and bridges, 678,071 
sucres; public buildings, 123,050 sucres; school buildings, 69,330 
sucres; University of Cuenca, 19,836 sucres; and other public works, 
969,668 sucres. 

Button factory. — In a recent issue of the Bulletin a note 
appeared on a project for a button-factory contract, the material to 
be used being the tagua, or vegetable ivory, nut, which is a natural 
product of Ecuador. This contract has now been signed by the 
Government and the concessionary, who agrees to start work with a 
capital of not less than $2,000,000; to pay the Government 15 per 
cent of the annual profits; and at the end of 30 years to transfer the 
plant and equipment to the Government. The concessionary 
receives the exclusive right to manufacture buttons for 30 years, and 
exemption from import duties on machinery for such manufacture 
and from export duties on the finished product. 


Radio station. — Technical experts sent to install the broad- 
casting station recently given Guatemala by the Mexican Govern- 
ment arrived in Guatemala City on November 11, 1927. Thence 
they proceeded to Quezaltenango, where the station is to be erected. 


Readers of the Bulletin will remember that a similar gift was made 
Guatemala by Mexico several years ago, that station being installed 
in Guatemala City. 

Street-car service. — A contract for the establishment of street- 
car service in Guatemala City and its environs was recently submit- 
ted to President Chacon and approved by him. 


Control of sugar-cane mosaic. — In the agricultural experiment 
stations experiments have been made with several kinds of sugar 
cane, in which some varieties have been found that are immune to 
the mosaic disease, and other varieties which are almost completely 
resistant. Large quantities of these resistant species have been dis- 
tributed among farmers. {Monthly Bulletin of the General Receiver- 
Financial Adviser, November, 1927.) 

Entomology. — In November, 1927, a book on the insects of Haiti 
entitled Entomologie d'Haiti, written by Dr. George N. Wolcott to 
serve as a textbook, was published in the Republic. This is the 
second of a series of textbooks published by the Agricultural Service. 
(Monthly Bulletin of the General Receiver-Financial Adviser, Novem- 
ber, 1927.) 


San Juancito. — Construction work is almost completed on the 
waterworks for the town of San Juancito. 

Post Office library and records. — Upon taking office the 
Director General of the Post Office Department began the reorganiza- 
tion of the library and records, which had been destroyed by ffi'e in 
1924. The director requested all Spanish-speaking countries and the 
United States to send copies of their postal laws and works of national 
authors. As a result, valuable contributions have been made to the 
library in question. 


Quarantine against foreign bananas. — By executive decree of 
November 17, 1927, an absolute quarantine was established against 
foreign banana trees, their parts and fruit, in order to protect Mexican 
banana groves against the fungus Fusarium cuhense and the borer 
Cosmopolites sordidus, which have caused much damage in other 
countries but which have not yet appeared in Mexico. 

Production and consumption of tobacco in 1927. — The pro- 
duction of tobacco in Mexico and the consumption of the nationally 
grown product in 1927 were as follows, according to figures published 
in El Universal, Mexico City, January 1, 1928: 

Boxes of cigarettes 454, 367, 851 

Cigars 26, 123,804 

Cartons of loose cigarettes 2, 560, 826 

Packages of shredded tobacco 3, 560, 143 


The foregoing represents an expenditure of 40,550,000 pesos. It is 
estimated that the total number of cigarettes exceeded 9,000,000,000. 

Paper industry. — The National Bureau of Statistics has recently 
completed the compilation of figures on the paper industry in Mexico 
in 1926. According to these data, there were five paper mills, repre- 
senting an invested capital of 12,072,797 pesos. The joint production 
of these factories was as follows: Paper for printing, 16,392,869 
kilograms (kilogram equals 2.2 pounds); wrapping paper and bags, 
6,147,789 kilograms; cardboard, 1,120,959 kilograms; tissue and 
crepe paper, 182,425 kilograms; cigarette paper, 62,367 kilograms; 
and toilet paper, 42,650 kilograms. 

There were sold during the year paper products to the amount of 
21,788,937 kilograms, having a value of 7,827,359 pesos. Stocks on 
hand for 1927 were 2,225,304 kilograms. 

Increase in tomato crop. — According to the following figures 
published by the Department of Agriculture, the cultivation of 
tomatoes increased considerably last year, especially in the State of 


1927 (estimated) 

25,705 hectares- _ 

28,416 hectares. 

67,917,538 kilograms 

79,880,523 kilograms. 

Sinaloa crop 

32,571,000 kilograms.-. .. 

40,455,620 kilograms. 

2,642 kilograms 

2,811 kilograms. 

A large proportion of the tomato crop was exported to the United 

Exposition of Mexican products. — Last December a perma- 
nent exposition of Mexican products was opened in connection with 
the office of the Mexican Commercial Attache in Guatemala City. 

Protection of industry. — See page 310. 


Mail contract. — A contract has recently been made by the 
Nicaraguan Government with the Panama Mail Steamship Co. for 
the transportation of Nicaraguan foreign mail under the provisions 
of the Universal Postal Union. The service begins on January 1, 


Coffee plantation. — A group of Panaman business men has 
organized a company capitalized at $100,000, for the purpose of 
raising coffee in the Province of Chiriqul. The company will start 
planting a 200-acre tract with 100,000 1-year-old trees, which will 
probably bear a crop in four years. The coffee plantation is about 


20 miles north of the town of Concepcion in very fertile country 
near the end of the Chiriqui railroad. 

Exports of bananas, coconuts and tagua nuts. — Last Novem- 
ber all monthly records were broken for banana exports from the 
port of Colon, when they amounted to 398,018 bunches valued 
at $312,687. Coconuts were exported to the number of 884,400, 
valued at $15,012, and tagua (vegetable ivory) nuts to the amount 
of 60,500 kilograms (kilogram equals 2.2 pounds), valued at $2,200. 

National City Bank building. — The National Bank of the 
City of New York is planning to erect a $250,000 building for its 
new branch in Panama City. The building, which has been planned 
by a firm of New York architects, is to be constructed by a firm of 
Panaman builders. 

Plans for power plant. — Plans are under way for the damming 
of the Zarati River near Angostura Falls in the district of Penomene, 
Province of Code, for the establishment of a $250,000 power plant 
to furnish electric current to the entire Province. 


Air mail. — According to the press, the Post Office and Telegraph 
Bureau has been authorized to sign a contract with the Latecoere Co. 
for the establishment of aerial postal service between Asuncion and 
Buenos Aires. The contract does not imply an exclusive concession. 
The expense of the service will be entirely covered by the extra 
charges for mail carried. 

Paraguayan building at Seville Exposition. — Architectural 
plans and other arrangements for the construction of the Paraguayan 
building at the Ibero-Ainerican exposition are rapidly being com- 
pleted. The cost of the structure, which is to be colonial in design 
and built of lumber from Paraguayan forests, has been estimated 
at 10,000 pesos. 

Colonization. — An enterprise known as the Paraguayan Com- 
mercial & Colonizing Co. was recently organized in Paraguay for 
colonization purposes. This company, which has already acquired 
about 30,000 hectares (hectare equals 2.47 acres) of land in the 
department of Villa del Rosario, has agencies in various European 
cities, and at the present time is arranging for the arrival during 
February of the first contingent of German families. Five hundred 
families in all are expected. 

Construction of wharf at Pilar. — According to the press 
the construction of a wharf at Pilar, a work of vital interest to the 
commercial and economic development of the community, is in 
progress under the direction of the Department of Public Works. 

Distribution of cottonseed. — The Bureau of Agriculture 
reports that up until December 5, 1927, a total of 186,626 kilograms 
83458—38— Bull. 3 6 


(kilogram equals 2.2 pounds) of cottonseed had been distributed 
among the farmers of more than 100 different localities for this 
season's planting, additional seed having also been distributed 
by the Agricultural Bank and several commercial firms. 


Highways. — Funds have been appropriated for the construction 
of the road from Chepen to Cerro Colorado and of a highway to 
connect the Provinces of Celendm and Bolivar, and for a monthly 
subsidy of 100 Peruvian pounds for construction of the Lamas- 
Chazuta highway in the Department of San Marcos. A road is also 
to be constructed from the capital of the district of Yanahuanca 
through the towns of Rancas, Yaraghuanca, Quilacocha, and Cham- 
pacruz, where it joins the road from Cerro to the soft-coal mines of 
Quishuarcancha . 

A section of 11 kilometers of reinforced concrete highway from 
Lima through the Rimac Valley to Vitarte, the longest stretch of this 
type of road in Peru, was opened in December. It is a section of 
the highway from the Pacific coast to the mountain Departments. 

Peru in the Ibero American Exposition. — The Peruvian 
Commission for participation in the Ibero American Exposition to 
be opened in Seville, Spain, on October 12, 1928, is busily engaged in 
securing cooperation from Peruvian manufacturers and business men 
in preparing full exhibits to be sent to the Exposition. The commis- 
sion reports that a permanent, commodious building of a Peruvian 
type of architecture is being constructed to house large exhibits of 
mining, agriculture, and industries, and sections on history, art, and 
bibliography, while the archeological exhibit will be finer than any 
yet assembled in Peru. 

Foreign scholarships for agricultural graduates. — See 
page 318. 


Agricultural and industrial society. — On November 28, 1927, 
an agricultural and industrial society was founded at Izalco by the 
farmers and manufacturers of the Department of Sonsonate for the 
purpose of promoting the agricultural and industrial development of 
that prosperous section of the Republic. 


First National Travel Congress. — Sessions of the First 
National Travel Congress held in Montevideo under the auspices of 
the Uruguayan Touring Club were opened on December 8, 1927, 
before an audience representative of government circles, business 
houses, and the rural associations of the country. The principal 


conclusions reached by the congress advocated the following: Crea- 
tion of a national travel bureau with sufficient powers to solve the 
various travel problems facing the country; the publication of descrip- 
tive material and maps of Uruguay; the gradual improvement of the 
dirt road as a system of highway construction progress; the construc- 
tion of the Montevideo-Rio de Janeiro highway; better means of 
communication between Montevideo and Buenos Aires; and the free 
transit of automobiles into neighboring countries. Among other 
visits made by the congress to the outlying districts of Montevideo 
was one to Villa Colon on December 14, 1927, at which time the first 
road marker was placed in accordance with a plan authorized by the 
National Administrative Council. This route, designated as No. 1 
on a numerical plan which will be used everywhere in the Republic, 
unites Montevideo and Rivera, via Canelones, Florida, Yi, and 

Annual automobile show. — The Fifth Annual Automobile Show 
held under the auspices of the Automobile Center of Uruguay was 
opened in the Parque Hotel at Montevideo on November 19, 1927. 
Judging from the number and size of exhibits, and the interest shown 
by the public, the exhibition is to be considered a decided success. 

Approval of plan for international bridge. — Information has 
been received that the plan of October 2, 1927, for the construction 
of an international bridge between Brazil and Uruguay over the 
Yaguaron River at Yaguaron has been approved by Dr. Washington 
Luis, President of Brazil. 


New industries. — It was stated in the November, 1927, issue of 
Venezuela of Today, a publication of the Venezuelan consulate in 
New York, that the manufacture of automobile bodies, for which 
there has been a demand, was recently begun in Caracas. According 
to the same periodical the manufacture of rubber combs, heels, and 
soles from balata rubber, a native raw material, is a promising indus- 
try, while the production of native soaps and perfumes is increasingly 
important. It is said that several chemists who started soap manu- 
facturing on a small scale in Caracas have found the demand so great 
that they have been able to enlarge their output and make plans for 
the opening of a large factory in Maracay. 

Modern gasoline stations. — Up-to-date gasoline stations fully 
equipped for automobile service and provided with rest rooms and 
first-aid requisites have recently been constructed by a company of 
Maracay throughout the territory immediately surrounding that city. 
Plans have also been made to build similar stations at various points 
on the Maracay-Caracas highway. 



Population of Federal District. — According to data printed in 
El Universal, Caracas, of December 2, 1927, and taken from the 
official report of the fifth national census effected early in February, 

1926, the total population of the Federal District is 195,460. Caracas 
is reported to have a population of 135,253. 

Wheat milling. — Milling in the new wheat mill operating in con- 
nection with the sugar central at Trujillo was begun on November 28, 

1927. A new industrial field has thereby been opened and a stimulus 
to the greater agricultural development of the surrounding regions 

^k^ AFFAIRS *<»^*^ 


Government finances. — On presenting his report for the four 
months July to October, inclusive, Senor Augusto Merino, Treasurer 
General of the Republic, estimated that 1927 would close with a 
favorable national balance of 6,095,539.91 pesos. His statement 
was as follows: 

Receipts, 1927 


First half year 404, 543, 251. 58 

Juh^, August, Septem- 
ber, October 294,287,279.58 

November and De- 
cember (estimated). 185, 000, 000. 00 

883, 830, 531. 16 

Expenditures under the budget, 1927 

First half year 397, 787, 918. 73 

July, August, Septem- 
ber, October 316, 350, 610. 13 

Due in November and 

December 163, 596, 462. 39 

877, 734, 991. 25 

Senor Merino cahed attention to the fact that all salary payments 
had been made promptly and that funds had been set aside for all 
other expenditures provided for bj^ law. 

The customs collections for the first 10 months of 1927 were 381,- 
537,664 pesos, against 348,482,856 pesos in the first 10 months of 


National Budget for 1928. — On November 9, 1927, Congress 
approved the budget of ordinary receipts and expenditures for the 
fiscal year January 1-December 31, 1928, as follows: 







Branch of Government 


8, 385, 418. 47 

32, 168, 548. 94 

2, 585, 211. 44 

1, 754, 877. 87 
5, 050, 000. 00 

2, 000, 000. 00 

Ministry of Government -_ 

9, 197, 017. 10 


Ministry of Foreign Relations, 

676, 013. 60 

Treasury and Public Credit - 

7, 004, 340. 38 

Ministry of War _ .__ _- 

6, 927, 293. 95 

Ministry of Industries __ 

1, 573, 309. 70 

Probable surplus, 1927 . _ . . 

Public Instruction and Health 

Ministry of Public Works. ..- - - 

5, 354, 579. 63 

7, 947, 826. 35 

196, 626. 80 

523, 414. 32 

Mails and Telegraphs - -. 

5, 757, 639. 25 

Total expenditures - _ - 

51, 944, 056. 72 

45, 158, 061. 08 

The surplus would therefore be 6,785,995.64 pesos. 
The budget of extraordinary expenditures is as follows: 


Amortization of the foreign and internal debts 2, 835, 995. 64 

Construction of public works producing revenue 28, 950, 000. 00 

Total 31, 785,995. 64 

To cover this extraordinary expenditure the Government will have 
the surplus of 6,785,995.64 pesos from the ordinary budget and the 
proceeds of a loan of 25,000,000 pesos, w^hich has already been 

Bank statements. — According to figures published in the Bevista 
del Banco de la Bepublica the banks of the country showed on August 
31, 1927, the following balances payable on demand: 


Banco Aleman 8,450,064.14 

Mercantil y Royal 7,822,857.05 

Banco de Colombia 5,348,854.18 

Banco de Bogota .5,049,849.69 

Banco de Londres 3,699,378.03 

Comercial y Anglo 3,667,901.16 

Banco del Ruiz 2,740,822.07 

Banco del Pacifico 2,730,039.06 

Banco Central 2,427,808.54 

Hipotecario de Colombia 1; 

Comercial de Barranquilla 1, 

Banco Republicano 1, 

Banco Frances 1, 

Banco de Bolivar 

Other Banks 2, 

505, 328. 47 
426, 323. 47 
046, 420. 55 
685, 992. 85 

Total ._50,382, 792. 23 

The increase in deposits from June 30, 1924, to August 31, 1927, 
amounted to 28,000,000 pesos. 


Financial movement in 1927. — Sr. Lopez Morales, Chief of the 
Currency Section of the Treasury, gave a report on the financial 
movement of the country for the first six months of 1927 from which 
the following facts were taken: 

Banks and their branches operating in Cuba totaled 169. Total deposits in 
current accounts amounted to $141,894,185.68; the total in savings accounts 

306 THE Pan AMEEiCAN" tJNlOi? 

to $42,079,707.17. Cash on hand in the banks amounted to $51,293,026.19. 
In the last six months of 1926 current accounts amounted to $128,327,834.38, 
or $13,566,351.30 less than in the first half of 1927. Savings accounts in the 
latter half of 1926 totaled $39,236,497.03, or $2,834,210.14 less than in the first 
half of 1927. 

Foreign gold, silver, and bank notes in Cuban banks is shown as follows: 
Spanish pesetas, 701,403; French francs, 482,508; English pounds sterling, 
4,222; Mexican pesos, 16,969, and lesser sums from other countries. 

Banks and banking institutions during the first six months of 1927 sent drafts 
to foreign countries amounting to $184,085,780.08, or $23,405,588.28 more than 
the foreign drafts sent in the latter half of 1926. Foreign banks sent drafts to 
Cuba during the first half of 1927 amounting to $58,745,376.49 which, compared 
with the $50,750,398.38 sent during the latter half of 1926, shows an increase of 

Cable drafts on Cuba were as follows: By the United States, $184,332,396; 
England, $13,746,742; Spain, $8,956,928; France, $1,278,075; Italy, $610,721; 
Switzerland, $372,236; and by other countries in amounts less than $200,000. 


Agricultural Mortgage Bank. — -The sum of 8,000,000 sucres, 
which will be lent to the Government by a Swedish syndicate which 
has recently received a contract for a match monopoly, will be used 
to found an Agricultural Mortgage Bank for the promotion of na- 
tional agriculture. The institution will be organized on the basis 
of one of the projects formulated by the Kemmerer mission. 


Economic and financial commission installed. — The economic 
and financial commission created by an executive decree of January 
17, 1927, was formally installed on November 15, 1927. This 
commission, composed of seven members, who will act as a body of 
technical advisers cooperating with the Department of Finance, has 
been announced as follows: President ex officio, the Minister of 
Finance, Sr. R. Felipe Solares; Vice President, Sr. Licenciado Eni-ique 
Martinez Sobral; and Secretary, Sr. Alberto Velazquez; the other 
members being Sr. Licenciado Mariano Zecena, Sr. Licenciado 
Antonio Rivera P., Sr. Joaquin Torres, Sr. Licenciado Luis Bel- 
tranena, and Sr. Samuel E. Franco. 


Statement of Paraguayan banks. — The following statement of 
the assets and liabilities of state and private banks operating in 
Paraguay on June 30, 1927, was made by the Statistical OfRce of 
that Government, being transmitted to the Bulletin from the 
American Consulate in Asuncion: 







Cash on hand and in banks -__ .- __ _-_ _ _ 


' 58,691,032.58 

343, 029. 15 

Bills discounted _ . 

Current accounts -. -. . - .- 

Mortgages _ 

4, 055, 940. 37 

50, 289, 252. 83 

6, 119, 066. 54 

447, 105, 906. 32 

Various debtors-.- ----- _ - _ _-_ --- _ _ - 

707, 208. 43 

Branches and agencies -_- _ --_ --- 

30, 200. 60 

Various accounts -.-- . -- 

5, 899, 072. 82 


566, 261, 198. 64 

6, 979, 511. 00 


Cash on hand and in banks - .-- . ._ 

42, 256, 189. 65 
43, 810, 906. 98 
4, 769, 181. 26 
2, 964, 849. 54 

619, 460. 15 

Bills discounted - 

5, 131, 686. 94 

Current accounts _ _.. _ _ _ -.- 

1, 522, 580. 28 

Mortgages --- 

825, 313. 53 

Various debtors. 

21, 505. 57 

Branches and agencies . 

250, 000. 00 

Various accounts 

210, 943, 414. 99 

24, 693, 059. 21 

Total- . ... . . . 

383, 636, 261. 84 

33, 063, 605. 68 





Current account deposits. 
Administrative deposits. . 

Savings deposits 

Fixed deposits. _ 

Judicial deposits 

Various accounts 





Current account deposits. 
Administrative deposits.. 

Savings deposits 

Fixed deposits. 

Judicial deposits 

Various accounts. 


44, 762, 301. 24 
7, 408, 476. 91 

514, 090, 420. 49 

566, 261, 198. 64 

31, 108, 652. 00 

82, 818, 904. 15 

107, 994, 861. 66 

10, 047. 52 

26, 998, 607. 30 

18, 879, 527. 50 

9, 615, 535. 40 

106, 210, 126. 31 

383, 636, 261. 84 

962, 555. 70 

31, 486. 67 
289, 008. 02 

5, 696, 460. 61 

6, 979, 511. 00 

4, 690, 000. 00 
1, 133, 262. 10 

350, 121. 59 

577, 559. 58 

49, 601. 27 

24, 552, 009. 54 

33, 063, 605. 68 

Budget of Asunci6n for 1928. — The budget for the city of 
Asuncion as authorized for the year 1928 has been estimated at 
13,580,500 pesos, the expenditures being fixed as follows: 

Municipal council 138, 000 

Executive offices, Department of Finance 2, 931, 530 

Departments of Public Works and Health, Traffic Bureau 10, 510, 970 

Total - 13, 580, 500 



National loan. — A national loan of $50,000,000 in foreign gold 
bonds bearing 6 per cent interest to run from December 1, 1927, to 
December 1, 1960, with an amortization fund were placed on sale in 
New York last December at 913^. These bonds are a direct obliga- 
tion of the Government of Peru guaranteed by part of the national 
revenue. They are callable by lot on any interest date at par value 
plus interest. These bonds are the first series of a loan authorized 
to consolidate the entire guaranteed foreign debt of the nation. 
After retiring certain foreign obligations bearing a high interest 
rate, the balance of this issue will be used to refund short-time loans, 
to establish a gold reserve to aid in stabilization, to pay the Govern- 
ment's share in the capital of the Mortgage Bank, to carry out im- 
provements in the port of Callao, and to further other public works. 


Bank of the Republic of Uruguay. — The following statement of 
the Bank of the Republic of Uruguay was issued on October 31, 1927, 
being printed in La Manana of Montevideo of November 18, 1927: 


Capital issued 9,677,913.97 

Cash 58,992,401.20 

Advance payments on accounts current 29,613,252. 14 

Loan to French Government 2,962,967.97 

Other loans 52,478,491.50 

Farm credit 4,618,153.42 

Bills payable 4,325,093.03 

Various investments 8,012,697.25 

Bills receivable 5, 657, 444. 41 

Doubtful debts to be collected 588,722.61 

Bank buildings 2,373,926.32 

Furniture 794,665.59 

Various outstanding debts 1,883,365.08 

Deposits of securities 2.53,633,353.53 

Total 435,612,448.02 


Capital 35,000,000.00 

Reserve... : 652,553.93 

Circulating issue 62,641,200.20 

Silver certificates 480,000.00 

Certificates on accounts current 3, 000. 00 

Creditors in accounts current 37, 865, 640. 02 

Time and savings deposits 35,383,120.03 

Juridical and administrative deposits 3, 313, 360. 48 

Sundry accounts 5,953,814.66 

Balance in branches and agencies 686,405. 17 

Securities deposited 253,633,353.51 

Total 435,612,448.02 

Bills issued 62,641,200.20 


Gold 55,418,920.22 

Gold certificates 3,000.00 

Silver 2,922,611.40 

Silver certificates 480,000. CO 

Nickel 167,869.58 

Total 58,992,401.20 


Tax reductions and exemptions abolished. — The Brazilian 
Congress passed a law signed by the President on November 30, 1927, 
which went into effect on January 1, 1928, abolishing with certain 
exceptions all tax reductions and exemptions on imports, exports, and 
other taxable articles in future contracts. The law does not affect 
contracts already existing with the Federal Government under the 
Tariff Act and under the provisions of Article 3 of Decree No. 4,910 
of January 10, 1925, here revalidated. 

Article 8 of the law states that all exemptions, reductions, and franks 
are abolished in the postal and telegraph service, whether public or 
private, as well as all exemptions, reductions, and free transportation 
of passengers and freight on the Government railroads. The only 
exception is in the case of the transportation of troops or for the 
Federal public service authorized by the Ministers of State. 

Article 9 states that the postal and telegraph taxes will be collected 
according to the tariff attached to the present law. The full text of 
the law is published in the Diario Official of December 15, 1927. 

Bill for woman suffrage. — In December, 1927, a bill was intro- 
duced into the Brazilian Senate to give suffrage to Brazilian women. 
The women of the State of Rio Grande do Norte already have this 
right, granted by a recent State law, as noted in the Bulletin. 
When the bill has been passed by the Senate it will go to the Chamber 
of Deputies for discussion. 


Reorganization of Treasury Service. — A decree of last Novem- 
ber provided for the reorganization of the National Treasury Service, 
provincial and communal treasuries to be under the supervision of 
the General Treasury of the Republic. The purpose of the decree 
is to simplify tax collections for the public, to secure a more adequate 
personnel by unifying certain divisions and thus making possible 
larger salaries, and in general to promote the efficiency of the 


Regulation of children's entrance to motion pictures. — The 

Department of Government recently issued a decree signed by the 

President prohibiting the entrance of children under 14 years of age 

to motion picture theaters after 8 o'clock at night, excepting on 

Sundays and holidays. 




Labor Advisory Board. — A board of advisers composed of 12 
niBDibers chosen by the Secretary of Promotion from representatives 
of the various labor organizations of Guatemala was created by an 
Executive decree of November 21, 1927, for the purpose of cooperat- 
ing with the Labor Bureau in the study and solution of labor ques- 
tions. The decree will go into effect upon its approval by the national 
legislative assembly. 

Bakery regulations. — Bakery regulations formulated by the 
National Labor Bureau including, among other provisions, rules for 
labor contracts between master and journeyman bakers, and the 
payment of wages and sickness and accident compensation, received 
Executive approval on November 14, 1927. The regulations also 
establish an 8-hour day. 


Courts of Cassation. — A law dated December 21, 1927, defines 
the authority of the courts of cassation, thus remedying the lack of 
clarity of the former law on the subject. 


Conversion of credits. — In accordance with Legislative Decree 
No. Ill and the regulations for the amortization of the internal debt, 
the Conversion Office of the Ministry of Treasury and Public 
Credit began operations on November 21, 1927, its duties being to 
convert the following into bonds of the internal debt: (a) Credits 
without interest registered by the Public Credit Commission which 
functioned from 1921 to 1925; (h) credits represented by certificates 
of losses but not registered by the aforesaid commission; and (c) 
credits originating from subventions and subsidies. 


Protection of industry. — Last November the legislature of the 
State of Nuevo Leon passed a law for the protection of industry. 
The law provides that all industries already established whose 
growth would promote the development of the State's wealth and 
the economic welfare of the Republic, as well as similar new indus- 
tries, shall enjoy for 20 years a 50 per cent reduction in local taxes. 
New industrial plants and extensions of plants already in operation 
shall enjoy for 10 years a similar reduction. 

Regulations of the forestry act. — Under date of September 8, 
1927, President Calles issued regulations for the Forestry Act of 
April 5, 1926. The regulations give careful consideration to the 
various problems of forest conservation, protection, and exploita- 


tion, and to reforestation. Various forest reserves and several 
national parks are established. Provisions are given for the organi- 
zation of the Federal Forest Service, which is charged with the over- 
sight of the forest reserves and the national parks, and also with 
scientific investigations to promote forestry and the proper utiliza- 
tion of the forest resources of the nation. 


Regulation of cotton tax. — Law No. 5,871 of October 19, 1927, 
places a tax on all native cotton, as follows: Coast cotton, ginned, 
one silver sol per quintal of 100 Spanish pounds, gross weight; and 
mountain cotton, ginned, 50 centavos per quintal, gross weight. 
According to the regulations, the production tax on exported cotton 
will be payable at the same time as the export tax, while the pro- 
duction tax on cotton for domestic manufacture will be payable 
upon delivery to the mills. The proceeds of this tax will be used for 
the construction of two wagon roads in mountainous districts. Every 
payment of two Peruvian pounds will entitle the taxpayer to a bond 
good for a hectare of Government land in the mountains. Persons 
owning property along the route of the proposed roads are also 
required to pay a tax. 


Venereal disease regulations. — On November 10, 1927, an 
executive decree was issued providing for the regulation of prostitu- 
tion and specifying the means to be taken for the prophylaxis of 
venereal diseases. 

Regulation of labor accident law. — A regulation of the exec- 
utive decree of May 31, 1927, relating to commercial employees, was 
issued by the president on November 4, 1927. It includes specifi- 
cations on: Legal working hours, designating the nature of those 
industries which may have unusual hours; amount of leave to which 
employees are entitled; cases of sickness; the payment of wages; and 
the precautions to be taken by the employer to avoid accidents. 



Convention on internal uprisings. — A convention on internal 
political uprisings and the internment of persons or forces pro- 
posing to instigate or join such uprisings in the other contracting 
State, signed in Rio de Janeiro by the plenipotentiaries of Brazil 


and Venezuela on April 13, 1926, the ratifications of which were 
exchanged in Rio de Janeiro on October 19, 1927, was promulgated 
in Brazil by an executive decree dated December 6, 1927, and pub- 
lished in full in the Diario Official of Brazil for December 8. 


Universal and Pan American Postal Conventions. — The Uni- 
versal Postal Convention, its regulations and final protocol, signed in 
Stockholm August 28, 1924, and the Pan American Postal Convention 
and regulations signed in Mexico City, November 9, 1926, were 
approved by President Jimenez on September 27, 1927. (La Gaceta, 
November 12, 1927.) 


Mutual recognition of professional degrees. — The Costa 
Rican-Colombian convention on the mutual recognition of profes- 
sional degrees and exchange of academic credits, signed in San Jose 
on October 13, 1926, was ratified by the Costa Rican Congress and 
signed by the President on October 21 and 26, 1927, respectively. 
(La Gaceta, San Jose, October 30, 1927.) 


Treaty of commerce. — On December 7, 1927, a Treaty of Friend- 
ship, Commerce, and Consular Rights between the United States and 
Honduras was signed by the American Minister in Tegucigalpa and 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Honduras. The contents of this 
treaty are in general similar to the contents of other general com- 
mercial treaties recently negotiated by the United States with Ger- 
many, Hungary, Estonia, and Salvador. The new treaty will, when 
it becomes effective, replace the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and 
Navigation concluded by the two countries in 1864, the distinctive 
difference being the inclusion in the new treaty of an unconditional in 
place of a conditional most-favored-nation clause. The new treaty 
will introduce many changes to make it conform to modern conditions. 
(Release, United States Department of State, December 12, 1927.) 


Ratification of convention on traffic in arms. — By virtue of 
a legislative act of July 13, 1926, signed by the President on May 9, 
1927, Venezuela ratified the universal convention on the control of 
international traffic in arms, munitions, and other war materials; 
the specifications regarding the inclusion of Ifni in the special zones 
mentioned in Article 12 of the convention, the protocol on the pro- 


hibition of the use of asphyxiating, poisonous, or similar gases, and 
bacteriological methods of warfare; the final act and the protocol 
signed at the International Conference on the Traffic in Armaments 
in Geneva on June 17, 1925. The convention with the act of ratifi- 
cation was published in the Gaceta Oficial of Venezuela on December 
15, 1927. 

-^ k andEDUCATION ; ^J" 


Argentine school exhibits for Mexico and Japan. — On 
November 22, 1927, the Argentine school exhibits to be sent to Mexico 
and Japan were delivered to the diplomatic representatives of those 
countries in the School of Decorative and Applied Arts in Buenos 
Aires for transmission to the countries in question. The articles in 
the exhibits included 5,238 drawings from nature, 4,836 conventional 
drawings, 4,012 decorative compositions of original design, and 310 
different articles in wood, metal work, ivory, bone, leather and cloth, 
ceramics, glazed ware, and enamel. The normal and secondary 
schools contributing exhibits are located in various parts of the 

Yearbook of the National University of La Plata. — A com- 
plete description of the National University of La Plata is found in 
its recent publication, "La Universidad Nacional de la Plata en el 
ano 1926." Information given includes a historical outline beginning 
with its foundation as a Provincial University in 1897, regulations 
governing its reorganization as a national university in 1905, a 
detailed account of the work of each faculty and department, and 
a description of student life, amply illustrated by pictures of the 
buildings and equipment. 

Thrift Day. — In accordance with a resolution of the First Inter- 
national Savings Congress held in 1924 at Milan, many of the schools 
of the country celebrated October 31 as Thrift Day. 


Degrees of Mackenzie College. — On October 11, 1927, the 
Trustees of Mackenzie College, located in Sao Paulo, were notified 
by the Secretary of the Board of Regents of the University of the 
State of New York that the charter of the College had been amended 


SO that it may now confer its own degrees without reference to Albany 
for approval. Mackenzie College, which was incorporated in 1895 
under the University of the State of New York, has been obliged, 
like other independent institutions, to send its diplomas to Albany 
for signature by the Secretary of the University of the State of 
New York. The only other two institutions in foreign lands related 
to the University of the State of New York which have been given 
this right are Robert College in Constantinople, and the American 
University in Beirut. 

The engineering courses of Mackenzie College have been officially 
recognized by the Brazilian Government. 

New Member of Brazilian Academy. — On November 30, 1927, 
in the presence of a brilliant gathering of authors. Government 
officials, including the President, diplomats and other distinguished 
guests, the Brazilian Academy of Letters in Rio de Janeiro received 
a new academician, Dom Aquino Correa, Bishop of Cuyaba. The 
Bishop, who is a poet and prose writer as well as a finished orator, 
delighted the gathering with his discourse on the life and work of 
Lauro Miiller as academician, writer, and statesman, comparing 
him with Rio Branco, both of these famous Brazilians having been 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 

Primary school statistics. — In connection with the centenary of 
the establishment of primary schools in Brazil, celebrated late in 
1926, the Bureau of Statistics compiled as complete figures as possible 
regarding present-day primary education. Although data received 
from some of the states were incomplete, it is estimated that, count- 
ing public and private kindergartens, one-teacher and graded pri- 
mary schools, there are about 24,000 schools, 1,500,000 pupils 
enrolled, and over 35,000 teachers. 


Class for retarded children. — A class for retarded children, 
the first in Santiago, was opened last November at the instance of the 
school medical corps. 

Foreign savants in Chile. — Among distinguished foreign visitors 
to Chile in recent months were Mr. Robert Lemoine, commissioned 
by various United States universities to carry on geodetic investiga- 
tions, especially in the southern mountains; Prof. Enrique Diez 
Canedo, a leading Spanish critic of art and literature; and Doctor 
Boelitz, a prominent German educator. The last two delivered a 
number of interesting lectures in Santiago. 

New organic law for the university. — A new organic law passed 
on August 29, 1927, is causing many sweeping changes in the Uni- 
versity of Chile. The university now enjoys greater autonomy, 
both administrative and economic. The president and full professors 


of the University and the deans and directors of the various schools 
are nominated by the faculties and appointed by the President of the 
Republic. The president of the university is also head of university 
education in Chile. Another important feature of the new law is 
the redivision of the faculties and the addition of new schools of 
letters and of natural sciences, a change which places increasing 
emphasis on the cultural side of the university's program. 

Primary school teachers visit Argentina and Uruguay. — 
Taking advantage of the September vacation a large group of pri- 
mary school teachers visited Argentina and Uruguay in order to 
study the school organization of those countries and, at the same 
time, to disseminate information about the educational system of 

Educational Reform. — On November 4 solemn exercises were 
held to celebrate the President's signing, subject to ininor changes, 
the educational reform measure proposed by the Minister of Public 


Funds for school. — A Government subvention of 50,000 pesos 
annually for five years has been given to the Colegio de San Juan de 
Pamplona for its rebuilding, endowment, and expenditures. The 
construction, laboratory and office material, furniture and other 
equipment imported especially for this school will be duty free. 

Ministry of National Education. — On January 1, 1928, the 
Ministry of Public Instruction and Health was renamed by law the 
Ministry of National Education. The Directors of Public Instruc- 
tion are now to be called Directors of Public Education ; they are to 
be chosen by the President from three candidates presented by each 
governor and are to serve as the agents of the Government in matters 
of public education, and also as secretaries to the governors. 

Foreign scholarships. — On November 19, 1927, the Government 
made legal provision for 14 foreign scholarships, one from each 
Department, for young men and women to study fine arts, beginning 
January 1, 1928. The law also provides that when any works of 
Colombian artists are awarded prizes in foreign exhibits or open 
competitions the Government shall acquire such works of art for the 
national museums. 


School notes. — According to the recent presidential message in 
Cuba a national convention of superintendents, inspectors of the 
Provinces, and school directors was held for the first time last year, 
"from which," says the message, "great benefits can be expected, 
since the convention will open the broad path over which the teachers 


and schools can march forward freely and triumphantly toward 
increasmg progress." A meeting of inspectors was also held in which, 
among other resolutions, approval was given to the organization of 
supplementary training courses to improve the methods used in 
teaching different subjects. 

Due to the success of the advanced elementary schools opened as 
an experiment, 26 more schools of this type have been established, 
and the office of special technical inspector of advanced elementary 
schools has been created to provide for their inspection. 


Public library in Bani. — The city council of BanI has granted a 
site facing the town park for the erection of a public library. A local 
committee will have charge of securing funds for the construction 
of the building. 


New education law. — Under the Organic Law of Public Educa- 
tion promulgated December 14, 1927, the Government fosters and 
supports all branches of education in the desire to train capable 
citizens who will be useful to the nation. A brief summary of the 
law follows: 

Government schools and those enjoying official aid are to be laic. Education 
is primarily practical, aiming to develop the individual, and to promote the 
agricultural and industrial growth of the country. 

Public education comprises two divisions: That of general preparation which 
includes primary, secondary', normal, and special education, and that of the 
university, which prepares for the professions. Preliminary education, that of 
the nursery schools and kindergartens, is for children under 7 years of age; 
primary education is compulsory for children between 7 and 14 and, like pre- 
liminary education, is free in Government schools. Secondary education leads 
to a diploma of graduate in letters and sciences. 

The National University, which enjoys a considerable amount of independence, 
is formed of the Schools of Political and Social Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacy and 
Chemistry, Mathematical Sciences, Philosophy and Letters. 

The control and supervision of each branch of education is exercised by the 
Executive, through the office of the Secretary of Public Education, which has 
at its service an advisorj^ body called the National Council of Education. 

The owners of farms, mines, factories, workshops, or other business establish- 
ments in the country where there are more than 10 children of school age are 
obliged to establish at their own expense free schools under competent teachers. 

It is against the law to give work to children of school age during the hours 
required for attendance. 

A teacher who has taught more than 10 years has the right to demand that at 
least one of his or her children enjoy a scholarship during the complete course 
of his education in one of the Government schools. This law went into effect 
the first of Januarv, 


School building nearing completion. — According to the press 
of December 7, 1927, work on the construction of the new building 
for the Industrial School of Guatemala City is rapidly nearing com- 
pletion. This commodious structure, which wUl easily accommodate 
500 pupils besides having adequate living apartments for the faculty, 
will be provided with classrooms, well-equipped workshops, an 
assembly hall, shower baths, and a swimming pool. An athletic field 
will also be laid out. 

Mexican section in National Library. — Information has 
recently been received that a large collection of books by A4exican 
authors has been sent the National Library in Guatemala City by 
the chief of the library bureau of the Department of Public Educa- 
tion of Mexico. The collection, which includes a number of children's 
classics, will be a valuable addition to the library, forming the basis 
for a Mexican section in the Guatemalan library. 


School facts. — The following facts on school activities were taken 
from the Monthly Bulletin of tJie Financial Adviser-General Receiver 
for November, 1927: 

In the Central Industrial School, Port-au-Prince, the average attendance 
during November, 1927, was 94 per cent. The students were interested in both 
the theory and the practical work, advanced students in the industrial department 
si^ending all their time in the shops to fit themselves to serve as instructors in 
the new industrial schools now being opened in the country. 

In the J. B. Damier Industrial School, also in the capital, there were 310 
students enrolled, with an average attendance of 96 per cent. The work in the 
shops is very satisfactory; articles to the value of 283.50 gourdes were com- 
pleted. There has been an insistent demand for night classes including courses 
in English, shorthand, and typewriting. Since at the end of November there 
were nearly 100 applicants for night school, it was arranged to open classes 
December 5. Up to December 1, teachers in the night school at Gonaives 
worked voluntarily without compensation to demonstrate the value of these 
schools, after which they began to receive compensation for the extra service. 
On November 28 night classes attended by 55 were opened at Jacmel. Courses 
in English, shorthand, and typewriting were offered and shop work instruction 
was to be given soon after. 

The organization of the night-school movement is of special importance. By 
operating the schools during the day for boys and girls, and in the evening for 
men and women who are employed during the day, the industrial schools are 
able to meet a real need in the community. 


National Arts and Trades School Exposition. — The recent 
exposition of the work of the pupils of the National Arts and Trades 
School of Tegucigalpa was very successful as to the quality and 
73458— 28— Bull. 3 7 


variety of the objects shown. Examples of cabinet-making, car- 
pentry, weaving, wicker work, and mechanical work were on view. 
In the mechanical exhibit there were a number of utensils and tools 
of the kind heretofore imported for use in the country. It is thought 
that these well-made tools may be the first step toward new national 


Education statistics. — The Secretary of Education recently 
made public the following statistics on the status of schools through- 
out the Republic in October, 1927, which, it should be noted, are 
incomplete because of lack of full returns: 

Total number of schools, 15,479, divided as follows: Kindergartens, 378; rural 
schools, 10,136; other elementary schools, 4,467; secondary and preparatory 
schools, 67; normal schools, 65; professional schools, 57; schools of fine arts, 22; 
and technical, industrial, commercial and vocational schools, 278. 

Schools supported by the Federal Government were attended by 252,988 boys 
and 161,276 girls, while in those supported by the States and municipalities there 
were 402,616 boys and 348,525 girls. Pupils in private schools numbered 17,928. 
The total for the nation was therefore 1,183,333. 

Educational advances in Guanajuato. — Last November the 
Governor of the State of Guanajuato signed an important law to pro- 
mote education in that State. The law establishes eight rural normal 
schools, increases the number of rural and elementary schools, raises 
teachers' salaries, and provides for a much larger budget for educa- 
tion in general. 

Doctor Kandel visits Mexico. — At the invitation of the Secre- 
tary of Public Education of Mexico, Dr. I. L. Kandel, of Columbia 
University, New York, gave a few months ago at the National Uni- 
versity of Mexico, Mexico [City, a series of lectures on secondary 


Scholarships in vocational training. — During November the 
principal of the Vocational School for Women in Asuncion announced 
that 30 scholarships for vacation courses in vocational training had 
been placed at the disposal of the school board of the city. 

New school buildings. — The Allen-Stone Building given by Miss 
Cynthia Allen of Cleveland, Ohio, is soon to be opened at the Colegio 
Internacional in Asuncion. A girls' dormitory will also be completed 
this year. These two buildings which, exclusive of the land, will cost 
about $130,000, are said to be among the finest buildings in Paraguay. 


Foreign scholarships for agricultural graduates.- — The 
Executive Committee of the Peruvian Agricultural Experiment Sta- 


tion has decided to award two foreign scholarships annually to 
graduates of the National School of Agricultural and Veterinary 


School camps. — The Minister of Public Instruction has decided 
to establish school camps for the recreation and health of those 
children who may need it. 

Salvadorean Teachers' Manual. — The first copies of El Manual 
del Maestro Salvadoreno, a publication of the Council of Primary 
Instruction, recently made their appearance in San Salvador, It is 
expected that this periodical will prove especially helpful to teachers 
in the more isolated sections of the country. 

Night school for adults. — In a session of August 29, 1927, the 
Gerardo Barrios Cooperative Society approved a recommendation 
providing for the establishment in San Salvador of a night school 
for adults. 

Short courses for teachers. — According to recent information, 
special short courses for primary teachers were held during the vaca- 
tion month of January of the present year. 


Republic of Brazil School dedicated.- — On November 15, 1927, 
the thirty-eighth anniversary of the proclamation of the Republic of 
Brazil was celebrated in Montevideo with special exercises, one of 
which was the dedication of the the school named for the Republic 
of Brazil. A delegation of Brazilian teachers was present at the 
ceremony and the presence of high Uruguayan Government officials 
as well as Brazilian diplomatic officers resident in Montevideo was a 
manifestation of the esteem in which the two nations hold each 

School for Deaf-Mutes. — Especially interesting among the clos- 
ing exercises held in the various Montevideo schools during the last of 
November were those of the School for Deaf-Mutes. Features of 
the program were gymnastic exercises and an exposition of metal 
work, painting, carving, basketry, carpenter work, modeling, and 
drawing done by the pupils. 

The key to the world of the future and to the wise fraternity of all races lies in the 
liberation of the child from the bondage of others' error and sin; from disease and 
debility, from desertion and want, from ignorance and 'passion above all, that are 
visited on the helpless to the third and fourth generation. The heart of a child is 
friendly to all; like the baby of Delia Robbia its limbs are bound, but its arms go out 
to its fellows. Its single claim is to be allowed to love; its one revenge to die if, for 
an hour, we neglect it. — Romain RoUand, in The Save the Children Fund News 
Bulletin, London. 


Children below normal in health. — The National Council of 
Education of Buenos Aires has reopened the seaside camp at Mar 
del Plata for children who are in poor health or predisposed to various 
diseases. A month's stay will be afforded three groups of 220 each. 
There are six special schools in Buenos Aires for children below nor- 
mal in health, where they receive the benefits of fresh air, sunshine, 
special food and care. 

On December 1, 1927, certificates were awarded by the School 
Medical Corps to the teachers who have specialized as instructors of 
childi'en below normal in health. Of the teachers awarded diplomas 
73 were women and 7 were men. 

Young Men's Christian Association. — -In the latter part of 1927 
the Young Men's Christian Association of Buenos Aires completed 
its twenty-fifth year. It has grown from a small organization which 
in 1902 occupied five rooms in a house to an organization of 5,000 
members, 80 per cent of whom are Argentinians, with property valued 
at over a million pesos. Besides its large building with class and 
assembly halls it has an athletic field, an excellently equipped gym- 
aasium and a covered swimming pool. Two thousand young men 
visit the association every day. The Association gives classes in 
languages and other branches of education, physical culture, civics, 
and ethics and provides wholesome amusements and a gathering 
place for the youth of the capital city. The Association has many 
friends who are not members but who, persuaded of its good and 
wholesome influence, are always ready to aid in its development. 

Children's libraries and play centers. — In the city of Buenos 

Aires the Association for Children's Libraries and Recreation Centers, 

founded in 1913, during the 14 years of its existence has developed 

eight recreation centers to keep poor children away from the dangers 



of the street, and to give them manual training and healthful diver- 
sions outside of school hours. More than 1,000 children under 12 
years of age go to these centers to work or play as they choose, each 
receiving a daily allowance of 100 grams of bread and 200 grams of 
milk. The work and play is supervised by teachers. The centers 
are aided by an annual Government subvention of 50,000 pesos and 
a municipal subsidy of 30,000 pesos, support being also given by 
private contributions. 


Theory of cause of cancer. — On December 17, 1927, Dr. Octavio 
Felix Pedroso gave a lecture in Rio de Janeiro on his theory of 
the cause and cure of cancer and other diseases due to metabolic 
disturbances in the human body. The press states the following: 

His theory is based on the fact that there is a derangement of the iso-electric 
points of the blood and that when this occurs the patient falls prey to diseases of 
metabolic or microbic origin. Doctor Pedroso, who has studied in the United 
States and Europe, has continued scientific investigations on the iso-electric 
points of the blood which were unknown until discovered in 1922 by Doctor 
Loeb of the Rockefeller Institute. The Brazilian scientist at his lecture before 
Brazilian medical students and physicians demonstrated his apparatus for the 
reintegration of the iso-electric points of the blood. The theory is that lack of 
a proper amount of carbonic gas in the blood and tissues brings about the 
derangement of the iso-electric points in the blood, and when once the pressure 
is restored the patient is relieved. 

Campaign for prevention of cruelty to animals. — The Asso- 
ciation for the Protection of Animals of Rio de Janeiro is organizing 
a campaign for the enforcement of the law against those who are 
cruel to animals, the confiscation of instruments of torture, the 
installation of watering troughs and the establishment of hospital 
and veterinary service. 

Red Cross graduate nurses. — The Red Cross School for Trained 
Nurses of Rio de Janeiro graduated a class on December 19, 1927, some 
of whose members had specialized in obstetrics, surgery, hospital 
administration, and hygiene. 

Bill for woman suffrage. — See page 309. 


Hospital presented to town.- — Thanks to the generosity of 
Senor Carlos Justiniano, the town of Graneros is enjoying a well- 
equipped hospital of 30 beds, with wards for men, women, and chil- 
dren and a special maternity division. The hospital with its grounds 
occupies nearly an entire block, the total cost for plant and equipment 
having been 300,000 pesos. 

School of public health nurses. — The Government School for 
Public Health Nurses was opened in Santiago in February, 1927, with 


a registration of 25 graduate nurses, the principal being a graduate 
nurse from the United States. This class was given an intensive 
course in order that within the year the members might enter upon 
public-health work, in which then- assistance is urgently needed. 
Hereafter the length of the course will be three years. 

The school has a main building containing, besides offices, class- 
rooms, dining room, and kitchen, beds for 17 adults and 12 children. 
Patients are selected from the dispensaries, public assistance posts, 
and other sources to offer as broad a training as possible to the 
student nurses. The nurses are quartered in two cottages con- 
nected with the main building by a garden. An ample Government 
appropriation makes possible these facilities for study. 

Child health center in Punta Arenas. — It is of special interest 
to note that solicitude for child welfare has long been evident in 
Punta Arenas, on the Strait of Magellan, the city of commercial 
importance farthest south in the world. Here the Catholic Women's 
League has recently constructed an asylum which wUl be able to 
house more than the 40 children for whom the society had previ- 
ously been caring, as well as a few old people. The building also 
contains a child health center, in connection with which prizes are 
awarded for the healthiest babies. 


Charity day-nursery and infirmary. — The Policarpa Salvarrieta 
Day Nursery for the children of working women is soon to be opened 
in Bogota. The Day Nursery will also be supplied with a fully 
equipped infirmary and a dormitory for children. 

Hygiene laboratories. — On November 19, 1927, the Govern- 
ment made legal provision for establishing various sectional hygiene 
laboratories in the capitals of the Departments to cooperate in public 
health work with the National Bureau of Hygiene and the National 
Laboratory of Hygiene. All the laboratories will be in charge of 
bacteriological experts who will be part of the personnel of the 
National Laboratory and subject to its regulations. 


Antituberculosis campaign. — By virtue of a legislative decree 
of September 27, 1927, passed to supersede the decree of February 
24, 1923, free clinical treatments for persons suffering from venereal 
diseases will be continued in Costa Rica and a campaign against 
tuberculosis started. The proposed program of activity includes 
educational features, aid to milk stations, distribution of nourishing 
food to tubercular or pretubercular patients, and special training 
of visiting nurses for work among tubercular patients, the services 


of a nurse from Europe or the United States to be acquired for the 
last-named purpose. 

Red Cross. — A donation of 3,000 Swiss francs, an advance pay- 
ment of an annual sum given the Costa Rican National Red Cross 
from the Empress Shoken Fund, has been made that organization by 
the International Committee of the Red Cross. It is stated that 
this sum will be devoted to child welfare work, an activity which 
the national society is especially interested in furthering. 

The arrival last November of a number of motion-picture films 
on subjects relating to sanitation and personal hygiene marks the 
beginning of an educational program to be carried out by the national 
Red Cross. The films will be shown in the principal theaters and 
schools throughout the country. 

Pathological laboratory. — According to recent press reports, 
Dr. M. N. Nauk, a professor of pathology, has arrived in San Jose 
under a two years' contract with the Charity League to install a 
modern pathological laboratory in the San Juan de Dios Hospital 
of that city. Doctor Nauk has just returned from a scientific mission 
to China. 

Sanitary Bureau building. — The expenditure of 171,500 colones 
in the construction of a building for the Sanitary Bureau in San Jose 
was authorized by Congress on October 10, 1927. 


Prizes for attendance at child welfare clinics. — On Decem- 
ber 18, 1927, 300 prizes of 10 pesos each were distributed at the 
Office of Child Hygiene in the Department of Public Health and 
Charity, Habana, to mothers who had the best records for attendance 
at the child health clinic at the appointed times. These prizes were 
given as an incentive to mothers to persist in bringing their babies 
into the clinic for examination or treatment so that they may grow 
up to be strong and well. 

DOMINICAN republic 

Christmas dinner for poor children.— At the suggestion of 
the principal, each pupil in one of the Santo Domingo schools 
invited a poor child to a Christmas dinner, the guests numbering 150. 
The dinner was served by the small hosts, who also gave the guests 


Sanitation of Ibarra. — An executive decree of October 13, 1927, 
set aside the sum of 20,000 sucres and the money obtained from 
the sale of certain properties for use in the sanitation of the city 
of Ibarra. A water supply will be provided, sewers and drains 
constructed, and pavements laid. 


School for nurses. — The Provisional President of the Republic 
has created 10 scholarships in the School for Nurses connected with 
the University in Quito, these scholarships to be allotted by the 
Department of Public Instruction among the applicants who appear 
best fitted for nurses' training. The School for Nurses was opened 
ki October, 1927. 


Prizes for healthy children. — On Christmas Day, 1927, the 
child health center in Sonsonate awarded gold and silver medals 
and money prizes to the healthiest children presented in the better 
baby competition. Toys were distributed among all the babies at 
the clinic. 

Opening of the Children's House. — On January 1, 1928, the 
Children's House in Tegucigalpa was formally opened by the com- 
mittee of women who organized this institution for the protection 
of children. 


Restriction of use of alcoholic beverages. — A law recently 
passed in the State of Chiapas regulates the sale of liquors in that 
State. Among other restrictions, articles 48 and 49 of the law 
absolutely forbid the sale of alcoholic beverages to indigenes, students, 
and minors. Moreover, the law places a high tax on the sale of such 
beverages, irrespective of class or quality, with the definite purpose 
of restricting their use as far as possible. 


NiCARAGUAN WOMAN CONSUL. — The sccoud appointment by the 
Nicaraguan Government of a woman as consul was made on Novem- 
ber 9, 1927, with the naming of Dona Blanca Rosa de Schatt as 
Nicaraguan Consul in Hoboken, New Jersey. The appointment of 
the first Nicaraguan woman consular officer was made early in 1927, 
being that of Dona Aurora Rostrand, a Nicaraguan poetess, known 
in private life as Sefiora dona Maria de Ibarra, whose consular post 
is Detroit, Michigan. 

General Baptist Hospital. — The Baptist Women's Missionary 
Society of America has decided to establish a general hospital in 
Managua. The hospital is to be named the Evelyn Briggs Cranska 
Hospital, in memory of the mother of two of the chief donors of funds 
for its establishment. A property has been purchased and the 
building on that site, as soon as it is vacated, will be fitted as a hos- 
pital. A graduate nurse will be in charge of the hospital nurses. 



Sanitation in the interior. — On his recent return from Agua- 
dulce where he supervised the sanitation work being carried out by 
the sanitary engineering division of the National Health Department, 
Dr. Louis Schapiro, head of the Panama bureau of the International 
Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation made the following 

The progress of sanitation in the interior of Panama indicates that the people 
are slowly but definitely recognizing the necessity for the construction and use 
of latrines. A new hospital has been completed recently in the town of Sona, 
costing $8,000 and having 24 beds in its two wards. 

National Stadium to be built. — Construction work on the 
National Stadium on the outskirts of Panama City was begun on 
November 27, 1927, with a ceremony attended by the various sport 
organizations, the President, a number of officials and other prom- 
inent persons. 

National Sports Committee. — On November 8, 1927, President 
Chiari provided for the establishment of the National Sports Com- 
mittee, consisting of nine members and a secretary, to organize and 
supervise athletic games and contests for the physical development 
of the population; to encourage international sport relations on the 
part of national clubs; to establish rules for the use of the National 
Stadium, and to perform other similar duties. 


First National Medical Congress. — The First National Medi- 
cal Congress of Peru was held in Lima from December 15 to 23, 1927, 
for the discussion of problems relating to disease and its treatment. 
The week following the close of the Congress was devoted to a program 
of medical lectures, short post-graduate courses in the Medical 
Club, and propaganda for medical advancement. 

Importation of drugs. — The Department of Public Health has 
instituted chemical analyses of imported drugs at the customs houses 
to avoid the abuse of customs regulations, since it was discovered 
that alkaloids were being brought in under false labels to avoid the 
payment of duties. 

Pure Food Regulations. — The Municipality of Rimac, which 
includes the city of Lima, has issued regulations preventing the sale 
of food products on the public streets exposed to dust and ffies. 

Women's Athletic Meet. — The Women's Sport Federation of 
Peru held a women's athletic meet in the National Stadium at Lima 
on December 11, 1927, in which the events included: A 60-meter 
foot race; javelin throwing; broad jump; shot put; high jump; dis- 
cus throwing ; and other events. The press comments enthusiastically 


upon this femmine activity, predicting a benefit to the race and a 
liberation from the bonds of custom which have forbidden woman to 
develop either her body or her mind. 


Orphan asylum. — Work on the orphan asylum being constructed 
in San Salvador with funds given by Sehor Benjamin Bloom is re- 
ported to be progressing so rapidly that completion is expected by 

Tuberculosis, sanitarium. — A permanent league to aid in the 
opening and maintenance of a tuberculosis sanitarium in San Salvador 
as soon as funds are available was organized by a number of prominent 
women of San Salvador on November 15, 1927. Doha Eva Duke 
de Sol, one of the sponsors of the movement, was elected president. 

Ked Cross Review. — The Salvadorean Red Cross has com- 
menced to publish a quarterly review, containing many interesting 
articles and a list of the officers of 18 local chapters, besides those of 
the national organization. The Secretary General is Sehor Nicolas 


Public welfare congress. — The first national public welfare 
congress was opened in Montevideo on December 12, 1927, before a 
distinguished audience representative of all sections of the country. 
Important among the resolutions passed were those providing for the 
organization of an active campaign against tuberculosis by the 
establishment of dispensaries and institutes for medical and social 
assistance, and the appointment of a national commission to plan 
details of the campaign, supervise it, and propose necessary legislative 
measures. In addition to papers on the treatment of specific diseases, 
other subjects considered were standardization of hospitals, the reor- 
ganization of the system of home visits, changes in clinical service, 
the improvement of obstetrical assistance in the country, and the 
treatment of the insane. In connection with the congress an exposi- 
tion was held showing the progress of many national industries and 
laboratories supplying hospital and medical equipment, and featuring 
graphs and other exhibits prepared by the National Council of 


New Bolivian cabinet. — By virtue of a recent presidential 
decree the following cabinet was appointed: Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, Dr. Thomas Manuel Elio; Minister of Government and 
Justice, Sefior Minor Gainsborg; Minister of the Treasury, Senor 
Adolf Costa; Minister of the Interior and Communications, Senor 
Carlos Romero; Minister of Public Instruction and Agriculture, 
Senor Felix A. del Granado; and Minister of War and Colonization, 
Dr. Felipe Guzman. 


Honor paid to art critic. — On November 15, 1927, the Madrid 
Academy of Fine Arts voted to award a prize to the essay on Ecua- 
dorean sculpture during the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries written 
by Senor Jose Gabriel Navarro, Director of the Quito School of Fine 
Arts. The prize consisted of a gold medal and the title of corre- 
sponding member. It was also voted to publish his work at the 
Academy's expense, and to ask the Government to confer a decora- 
tion on the author. 

Readers of the Bulletin wiU recall Senor Navarro's interesting 
and valuable paper on Art in Ecuador published in the August, 1925, 


Four hundredth anniversary of the founding of Guatemala 
City. — The four hundredth anniversity of the founding of Guate- 
mala City in the Almolonga valley by Don Pedro de Alvarado was 
celebrated in Guatemala City on November 22, 1927. Important 
among the events taking place was an excursion to the old city of 
Guatemala, 27 miles to the southwest, by members and friends of 
the Geographical and Historical Society of Guatemala. On the site 
of the old city — -Antigua, as it is now commonly known — which was 
destroyed by an earthquake, another community has grown up. 

Death of noted author. — News of the death in Paris late in 
November of the well-known Guatemalan writer, Enrique Gomez 
Carrillo, came as a distinct shock to his compatriots in Guatemala. 
The whole literary world, as well as the Latin nations who knew him 
best, mourns his death as a great loss. 




President Borno visits Dominican Republic. — On December 
17, 1927, His Excellency President Borno of Haiti departed for the 
Dominican Republic to return the visit made by President Vasquez 
to Haiti during August of last year. In all the towns through which 
Madame Borno and he passed on their journey to Santo Domingo, 
they were greeted with enthusiasm and demonstrations of friend- 
ship. At a brilliant reception given in honor of the arrival of 
the Haitian Executive in Santo Domingo, both Presidents gave 
eloquent addresses in which they stressed the friendship which unites 
the neighboring Republics and expressed wishes for their continued 
prosperity and peace. 


Monument to Columbus on Guanaja Island. — On October 12, 
1927, the foundation stone of the monument to Columbus was laid 
on the Island of Guanaja with appropriate ceremonies. This island 
was the first land of Central America discovered by the Great 


Incan Symphony composed by Nicaraguan.- — Sr. Luis A. Delga- 
dnio, a Nicaraguan composer who studied in Milan, and has met 
with success in Buenos Aires and other South American cities, 
recently gave a much-applauded rendition of his Incan Symphony 
in Managua before an audience of 500. The symphony opens with 
an Andante of the Sacred Dance of the Incas, followed by the 
Savage Dance which begins with the light motif on the chirimlas, or 
Indian pipes, taken up and intensified by the other instruments of the 
orchestra. The symphony ends with a sonorous and majestic 


Success of Saint Malo, violinist.— Alfredo Saint Malo, the 
young Panaman violinist who has been giving concerts in the United 
States, in November gave another successful concert in Carnegie 
Hall, New York City, before an audience which is accustomed to the 
best music which the United States has to offer. This audience 
received Saint Malo with enthusiasm. Of all his numbers the most 
applauded was the "Incan Prayer to the Sun," a composition by 
Daniel Alomia Robles, based on the folk music of the Peruvian 
Indians and arranged for the violin by Saint Malo himself. He had 
engagements in the eastern States until January, 1928, after which 
he was to make a concert tour which may include South America. 

ge:n'ekajl, notes 329 


Peruvian sculptress. — The Peruvian sculptress Senora Carmen 
Saco returned in November, 1927, from Paris, where she has had 
very favorable criticism of her work, one of her statues having been 
purchased by the French Government for a Paris museum. Senora 
Saco was a student at the Peruvian National School of Fine Arts, 
but has since been in Europe for over a year, visiting Spain and 
Italy as well as France. One of her chief sources of inspiration is the 
ancient culture of the Incas, and another the native types of the 

Peruvian singer. — -Senorita Isabel Blanca, a young Peruvian 
singer, has been engaged to sing important roles in the Philadelphia 
grand opera. She is reported to have studied under the famous 
prima donna Emma Calve. 


Presentation of Alvear portrait. — An interesting ceremony 
took place in the auditorium of the National Historical Museum on 
December 3, 1927, when a copy of the famous Vanderlyn portrait of 
Carlos Maria de Alvear, the great general of Uruguayan birth who 
identified himself with the Argentine wars of independence, was 
presented the museum by Dr. Lagas Marmol, the Argentine Minister 
in Montevideo, on behalf of his Government. 


Gift of monument to Cuba. — By virtue of an executive decree 
of November 21, 1927, a bust of Bolivar will be presented to the 
Cuban Government by Venezuela. It will be erected in Habana, 
but as yet the place has not been chosen. 





Retail prices of foodstuffs and other household necessities for 

the month of November, 1927. 
Argentine onyx. - -- 

Areas sown in cereals and linseed.. 
Final forecast of the 1927-28 crops. 

Report on Bolivian commerce and industries for November, 


Review of commerce and industries of Para consular district 

for quarter ended Sept. 30, 1927. 
Statement of declared exports; coffee exported, and movement 

of vessels at Santos during October, 1927. 
Utilizing Brazilian coal 

Exports of manganese ore from Rio de Janeiro during Novem- 
ber, 1927. 
Budset of the State of Pernambuco for 192S 

New taxes on exports from State of Rio Grande do Nortc— 
Declared exports from Bahia during November, 1927 

Sugar valorization notes 

Statement of declared exports; coffee exported during Novem- 
ber, 1927, compared with November, 1926. 

Brazilian import trade in cement, 6 months of 1927 

Railroad construction in the State of Bahia 

Cocoa movement at Bahia during November, 1927 

Insect week at Sao Paulo 

Big coffee exports during November, 1927, and market condi- 
tions in Brazil. 

City planning in Sao Paulo 

Iron and steel in State of Sao Paulo 

Review of Brazilian commerce and industries for the month 

of November, 1927. 

Rural wages in Brazil 

Tobacco exports from Bahia during November, 1927 

Telephone service for Antonina, Parana 

New Government palace, plans to be presented not later than 

Jan. 25, 1928. 


The use of shovels in Chilean mining enterprises _. 

Proposed construction of paper factory in southern Chile 


Exports from Buenaventura during November, 1927 

Production of cane sugar in the Cartagena' consular district 
during the past 5 years. 


Economic conditions in Costa Rica during the vears 1925 and 

Increase in import trade of C osta Rica, first nine months of 1927 . 
New factor in Costa Rican coffee situation 


Nov. 19 

Nov. 22 

Nov. 23 
Dec. 1 

Nov. 11 
Nov. 16 
Nov. 21 

Nov. 23 
Dec. 1 

Dec. 6 
Dec. 9 


Dec. 13^.. 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 15 
Dec. 16 
Dec. 22 
Dec. 23 

Oct. 25 
Nov. 24 

Dec. 12 


John B. Faust, vice consul at 

Buenos Aires. 
Dana C. Sycks, consul at 

Buenos Aires. 
Robert Hamden, consul at 


J. F. McGurk, consul at I.a 

John R. Minter, consul at 

Fred D. Fisher, consul at 

Claude I. Dawson, consul 

general at Rio de Janeiro. 

Nathaniel P. Davis, consul at 

Howard Donovan, consul at 

Nathaniel P. Davis. 
Fred D. Fisher. 

Claude I. Dawson. 
Howard Donovan. 

C. R. Cameron, consul at Sao 

Claude I. Dawson. 

C. R. Cameron. 

Claude I. Dawson. 


Howard Donovan. 
C. R. Cameron. 

George D. Hopper, consul at 

Camden L. McLain, vice con- 
sul at Concepcion. 

Charles Forman, consul at 
Dec. 28 1 T. Monroe Fisher, vice consul 
i in charge, Cartagena. 


Automobile imports into Cuba, six months of 1926 and 1927 

Proposed new sugar-restriction bill 

November, 1927, review of commerce and industries 

Comparative schedule of rates of duty in Cuban customs tariff 

of Oct. 25, 1927. 
Live stock census of Matanzas Province 

Railway connecting Moron, Province of Camaguey, with 

Santa Clara opened to trafBc. 
Inauguration of new omnibus service in Habana 

Nov. 24 

Dec. 8 
Dec. 13 

Dec. 9 

Dee. 12 
Dec. 16 


Dec. 17 

Annual report on cocoa beans and cacao- 

Dec. 20 

Jan. 9 

S. L. Wilkinson, consul at 
San Jose. 

L. J. Keena, consul general at 





Charles F. Payne, vice consul' 

at Matanzas. 
L. J. Keena. 


Reports received to January 15, 1928 — Continued 






Automatic telephone system in Santo Domingo. 
New sugar refinery erected in Boca Chica 

Estimated customs revenues of the Republic for 1927. — 


Review of commerce and industries for November, 1927 

Establishment of Ecuadorian Government purchasing offices.. 


Review of the commerce and industries of Guatemala for 
November, 1927 


Review of commerce and industries for October, 1927 

Weather and business conditions, Gape Haitien district 

Production and distribution of Haitien coffee crop 


Review of commerce and industries for November, 1927 

Telephone and telegraph offices in Honduras 


Report on coffee, western Nicaragua 

Review of commerce and industries for November, 1927 


November, 1927 review of commerce and industries of Panama. 


Assets and liabilities of State and private banks in Paraguay, 
June 30, 1927 

Nov. 30 

Dec. 21 

Jan. 2 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 16 
Dec. 14 

Nov. 23 
Nov. 30 


Report on commerce and industries of October, 1927 

Review of commerce and industries for November, 1927 


Review of commerce and industries for November, 1927 

Concession for the establishment of factory for the production 
of industrial alcohol 


Extension of water system in Montevideo 

Statistics of coal imports into Uruguay for 1924, 1925, and 1926. 

Modification of duty on fresh fruits , 

Uruguayan field crops for the season 1926-27 


Translation of article 20 of trade-mark law, establishing scale of 

Unofficial translation of the patent law enacted in 1927, pub- 
lished in Official Gazette of July 22, 1927. 

Tariff changes 

Dec. 1 
Dec. 4 

Dec. 1 
Dec. 3 

Dec. 12 

Nov. 23 

Nov. 10 
Dec. 8 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 3 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 3 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 15 

Dec. 3 
Dec. 5 
Dec. 13 

James J. Murphy, jr., consul 
at Santo Domingo. 


W.Allen Rhode, consul general 

at Guayaquil. 
Harold D. Clum, consul at 


H. Eric Trammell, vice consul 
at Guatemala City. 

Samuel W. Honaker, consul at 

Port au Prince. 
Winthrop R. Scott, consul at 

Cape Haitien. 
Samuel W. Honaker, consul at 

Port au Prince. 

George P. Shaw, consul at 

Christian T. Steger, consul at 

H. D. Myers, vice consul at 
Panama City. 

Harvey S. Gerry, vice consul in 
charge, Asuncion. 

George A. Makinson, consul in 
charge, Callao-Lima. 

Le Roy F. Beers, vice consul in 
charge, San Salvador. 


C. Carrigan, consul general at 

Legation, Caracas. 


H. M. Wolcott, consul at Cara- 










Costa Rica 


Dominican Republic . 








Paraguay 2 



United States. . . . 





Peso . . 



Peso . 

Peso . 


Peso . 

Peso . 

Sucre . 




Peso . 



Peso . 




Peso . 


Value Pan- 
americanos ^ 


U. S. Gold 

$0. 965 
0. 121 

'Money of account recommended by the Inter- American High Commission at a 
meeting held in Buenos Aires, April 12, 1916. Equivalent to 0.33437 gram of gold 
0.900 fine. 

2 The theoretical standard of Paraguay is the silver peso, but actually the standard 
is the Argentine gold peso as above given. 


Metric measures most commonly appearing in market and statistical reports of 
Latin-American countries with equivalents in units of United States customary 


Surface Measure 

Centimeter 0.39 inch 

Square meter 10. 26 sq. feet 

Meter 3. 28 feet 

Hectare 2. 47 acres 

Kilometer 0. 62 mile 

Square kilometer. . . . 0. 38 sq. mile 

Liquid Measure 

Dry Measure 

Liter 1. 06 quarts 

Liter 0. 91 quart 

Hectoliter 26. 42 gallons 

Hectoliter 2. 84 bushels 

Weight— Avoirdupois 

Weight— Troy 

Gram 15.42 grains 

Gram 15.42 grains 

Kilogram 2. 2 pounds 

Kilogram 32. 15 ounces 

Quintal 220. 46 pounds 

Kilogram 2. 68 pounds 

Ton 2, 204. 6 pounds 











APRIL, 1928 




Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, Chairman 
Senor Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Vice Chairman 

Argentina Senor Don Conrado Traverso, 

1806 Corcoran Street, Washington, D. C. 

Bohvia Seiior Dr. Eduardo Diez de Medina, 

Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Brazil Snhr. Dr. Sylvino Gurgel do Amaral, 

1704 Eighteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Chile Senor Dr. Carlos Davila, 

2154 Florida Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Colombia Seiior Dr. Enrique Olaya, 

Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 

Costa Rica Seiior Don J. Rafael Oreamuno, 

1830 Nineteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Seiior Dr. Orestes Ferrara, 

2630 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Dominican Republic. Seiior Don Angel Morales, 
Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. 

Ecuador Seiior Don Juan Barberis, 

Investment Building, Washington, D. C. 

Guatemala Seiior Dr. Adrian Recinos, 

Southern Building Washington, D. C. 

Haiti M. Hannibal Price, 

2200 Q Street, Washington, D. C. 

Honduras Senor Don Luis Bogran, 

1414 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Mexico Senor Don Manuel C. Tellez, 

2829 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Seiior Dr. Alejandro Cesar, 

1100 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Seiior Don Juan B. Chevalier, 

1535 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Paraguay Seiior Dr. Juan Vicente Ramirez, 

Brighton Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

Peru Senor Dr. Hernan Velarde, 

2633 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Salvador Seiior Dr. Carlos Leiva, 

2601 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

United States Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Uruguay Seiior Dr. Jacobo Varela, 

1317 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

Venezuela Seiior Dr. Carlos F. Grisanti, 

1102 Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C. 














English edition, in all countries of the Pan American Union, $2.50 per year 
Spanish edition, " " " " " " 2.00 " 

Portuguese edition," " " " " " 1.50 " 

An ADDITIONAL CHARGE of 75 cents per year, on each edition, for 
subscriptions in countries outside the Pan American Union. 



The Sixth International Conference of American States 333 

The School of Social Service in Santiago, Chile 351 

By Mile. Leo Cardemans, Director of the School of Social Service of the Santiago Board of 

Autochthonic Music 356 

By Jesus Castillo, Active Member of the Society of Geography and History of Guatemala. 

The Andean Lakes of Argentina 365 

By Leon L. Koy. 

Transformation by Translation 375 

Exposition of Barcelona 376 

Lost Literature of the Aztecs 382 

By John Hubert Cornyn. 

Sao Paulo, Brazil (Photographs) 388 

United States Trade with Latin America — Calendar Year 1927 396 

By Matilda Phillips, Chief Statistician, Pan American Union. 

Agriculture, Industry and Commerce 398 

Argentina— Bolivia— Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Re- 
public — Ecuador— Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Panama — 
Paraguay — Peru— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 414 

Argentina— Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Paraguay- 
Salvador— Uruguay. 

Legislation 418 

Chile— Colombia— Guatemala— Mexico— Peru— Salvador— Venezuela. 

International Treaties 1 421 

Dominican Republic— Mexico— Brazil- Venezuela. 

Public Instruction and Education 422 

Argentina— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Costa Rica— Cuba — Ecuador — Guatemala— Hon- 
duras— Mexico— Paraguay-Peru — Salvador— Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Labor 431 

Argentina — Brazil— Chile — Costa Rica — Cuba— Honduras— Salvador. 

Social Progress 432 

Argentina — Chile — Cuba — Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Nicaragua — Paraguay— Peru- 
Salvador— Uruguay. 

General Notes 436 

Cuba— Dominican Republic— Mexico— Panama— Uruguay. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 437 




o 3 

Vol. LXII 

APRIL, 1928 

No. 4 








In the spirit of Christopher Columbus all of the Americas have an eternal bond of 
unity, a common heritage bequeathed to us alone. Unless we together redeem the 
promise which his voyage held for humanity, it must remain forever void. This is 
the destiny which Pan America has been chosen to fulfill. — ^Calvin Coolidge, 
President of the United States, Habana, January 16, 1928. 

THE Sixth Pan American Conference has met, labored, and 
adjourned. Another milestone in the road of Panamerican- 
ism has been set up in the lengthening line of those which, 
beginning with 1889, mark the successive steps of the 
American family of nations in the march toward continental solidarity. 
The seat of this conference was well chosen, Habana being situated 
well toward the center of the Pan American region, at a vantage point 
in what President Coolidge, in his inaugural address, calls "the out- 
posts of the new civilization in the Western Hemisphere," the gateway 
to the New World. And no city, anywhere, could have surpassed 
Habana in the open-handed, warm-hearted hospitality extended to 
the distinguished personages who took part in the work of the con- 
ference, and in particular to President and Mrs. Coolidge. From the 
Chief Executive, General Machado, through all ranks, everything 
possible was done for the convenience, comfort, and entertainment 
of Cuba's honored guests. That it would be difficult to find a more 
beautiful setting for such international beaux gestes than Habana, all 
will agree, especially the enriched and beautified Habana that awaited 
the delegates, with its new double drive to Marianao Beach, the New 



Maine Monument and Maceo Park, the new sea wall at the foot of 
the Prado and the extended Malecon, the newly renovated university 
grounds with their majestic marble steps, and the stately Avenue of 
Presidents in Vedado, each of which in turn was the background to 
some picturesque detail of the conference program, a program long 
to be remembered by the delegates and those others fortunate 
enough to be included therein. 

An unusual set of circumstances and events, some of the first rank 
in importance, combined to make the Sixth Pan American Conference 
of exceptional interest. Its deliberations were marked by several 
unique features, not the least of which was the presence in the 
inaugural session, as an invited guest, of the Chief Executive of one 
of the Republics represented, and the fact that both the working and 
the plenary sessions of the conference were made public. In this 
connection it may be added that no President of the United States 
ever received, anywhere, a more colorful or more warmly cordial 
greeting than President Coolidge in Habana, and that no other 
president has so directly addressed himself to such a large, represent- 
ative, and understandingly significant gathering of Latin Americans 
as, in the inaugural session, did the President of the country which 30 
years ago brought about the realization of that century-old dream of 
a free Cuba. 

That Cuba's President, Gen. Gerardo Machado, realized the full 
significance of these exceptional facts may be gathered from his 
address of welcome delivered in the Great Hall of the University of 
Cuba, the complete text of which is as follows: ^ 

Your Excellency the President of the United States of America and Delegates: 

Intense is our joy and complete our faith in the future destinies of our hemi- 
sphere when, gazing over this hall, adding briUiancy to this transcendental 
occasion, we behold the illustrious person of His Excellency Calvin Coolidge, 
Chief Executive of the greatest of all democracies; head of the great people whom 
Cuba had the honor of seeing at her side in her bloody struggle for independence, 
which she enjoys without limitation, as stated in the joint resolution of April 20, 
1898, honorably applied and inspired by the same ideals set forth in the ever 
famous Declaration of Independence of North America, liberty's greatest monu- 
ment and gospel of the rights of man and countries; and the select group of 
distinguished persons who constitute the delegations of the nations of America, 
which, throughout a century, have contributed with intense activity to the welfare 
of the world and to the great progress of its latest historical period. I offer to all 
of you the effusive greetings of the people of Cuba whom I have the honor of 
representing on this solemn occasion; to your peoples I express fervent wishes 
for their prosperity and greatness and, to your chiefs of state, the prophecy that, 
as a product of this new gathering of all Americans, we may complete, during their 
incumbencies, that which constitutes our common aspiration, the rule of peace and 

The representatives of the American RepubUcs gather once more with the 
practical purpose of the consoHdation of a mutual, beneficial, and positive brother- 
hood, both in spirit and in interests. The International American Conference 

1 OflQcial Cuban translation of original Spanish. 


The scene of the inaugural session of the Sixth International Conference of American States 

initiated at Washington 39 years ago, and continued at Mexico, Rio de Janeiro, 
Buenos Aires, and Santiago de Chile, again meets to toil for the welfare and glory 
of this hemisphere, root of a new humanity and crucible of a new civilization. 

Cuba is proud of your presence in her capital for the celebration of such an 
extraordinary event. Regarding myself, I have never felt as much pleasure as I 
do in these solemn moments in which I behold my country as the seat of an 
assembly that, animated by the most serene conciliatory spirit, directs its efforts 
toward the approximation, development, and strengthening of the spiritual and 
material bonds between states that have been destined for fraternal love by 
geography and history. 

Pan-Americanism is a constructive work that does not imply antagonisms but, 
on the contrary, cooperates for universal peace, for a better understanding 
amongst all peoples; toward the spiritual and moral unity of the nations of the 
world; that if in any manner it wishes to signify itself, it is in the desire of being 
placed at the front, bearing in mind that in international life, greatness should 
not be judged by standards inspired by admiration for brute force, but by the 
efforts of each nation within the scope of civilization. 

Pan- Americanism is not merely the result of covenants, treaties, or noble insti- 
tutions; it is also, and primarily, public spirit, the will of the people and the 
collective ideal. 

This public spirit, this will, and this ideal, must be molded on the progress 
made in individual fields, considering that the victim deserves respect and the 
aggressor condemnation; regard and affection, the country that in constant labor 
carries its valuable contributions toward collective well-being; admiration, the 
state that places at the service of the common cause of progress, its daily efforts, 
civic activity, hopes, and aspirations. The great principle of cooperation must 
replace the idea of separation of interests. Pan-Americanism is the synthesis 



of all principles of good that rises from the life of the individuals to that of the 

It is not my purpose to suggest rules of conduct to such an illustrious assembly, 
but, if I am permitted to express the sentiments of my people, I will say to you 
that Cuba, one of the last republics to join this family of nations, aspires, with 
the faith of a novice, to see this hemisphere as the exponent of the most sincere 
cordiality; of the firmest union; to see the nations here represented, though 
politically separated, united in the common name of America; some, not allowing 
their control by unjustified prejudices that may reveal impotence, and others, 
any demonstration that might result in an involuntary threat; that we can feel 
the magnificent effects of our common traditions and see, with clear vision, the 
great enterprise that the future expects from our countries and our men, while 
maintaining our love for the countries of our respective births and paying them 
due homage, for which no sacrifice is excessive, no matter how great it may be. 

The constitution of the Pan American Union upon a juridical foundation; the 
codification of the generally accepted principles of international law; the con- 
sideration of the results of the technical conferences held with specific aims; of 
communications, customs, sanitation, etc., and the promotion of more profitable 
economic relations, constitute a beautiful program that may meet the aspirations 
of our peoples. 

The work outlined will not be difficult if we direct our thoughts toward good with 
the determination of being useful to humanity and not merely to one continent. 

Nothing, no one, can now oppose the tide that impels the destinies of the 
Western Hemisphere toward its definite brotherhood under the shelter of the 
juridical standards that are indispensable for the maintenance of peace. If we 
reach that end in the Sixth International American Conference, and a similar aim 
prevails in the minds and souls of all here present, this alone will be sufficient to 
mark the meeting of your assembly at Habana as a brilliant milestone in the 
annals of modern international life. 

All of you feel the desire to find basic formulas that will harmonize the common 
interests of all Americans. Peace through the absolute preponderance of justice, 
without which happiness is not possible, either among individuals or amongst 
nations; justice secured upon adequate resolutions freely accepted by all nations, 
without discrimination. 

But I have not come here to state axioms already accepted by all. It is suffi- 
cient for me to express that this nation has directed and directs all her energies 
toward the fruitful labors of peace, order, liberty, and progress upon which 
her glory rests, and if success has crowned her efforts, it is due to that spirit of 
admiration that she had at birth for all lands of America and for those nations 
that preceded her in the conquest of independence which constitutes the supreme 
good of all countries. A free nation, she, to-day, offers you her hospitality and, 
in her name, I say to you that in her bosom you will find the warmth of the 
hearth, the shelter of the ally, and the love of the fellow-citizen. 

Delegates, receive my welcome, my prophecy of success, and my encourage- 
ment for victory. 

The work indicated by the Agenda ^ was distributed among eight 
commissions as follows: 


President: Enrique Olaya Herrera, Colombia. 

Vice 'president: Lisandro Diaz Le6n, Paraguay. 

Members: Dr. Jesus Salazar, Peru; Dr. Jacobo Varela, Uruguay; Dr. Eduardo 
Chiari, Panama; Dr. Gonzalo Zaldumbide, Ecuador; Salvador Urbina, Mexico; 
J. Gustavo Guerrero and Hector David Castro, El Salvador; Luis Beltranena, 

2 See Bulletin of the Pan American Union, January, 1928. 


Courtesy of Louis Jay Heath 


The sessions of the Sixth International Conference of American States, with the exception of the inaugural, 

were held in this building 

Guatemala; Carlos Cuadra Pazos, Nicaragua; Jose Antezana, Bolivia; F. G. 
Yanes and S. Key Ayala, Venezuela; Fausto Ddvila, Honduras; Rafael Orea- 
muno, Costa Rica; Alejandro Lira, Chile; Alarico da Silveira, Brazil; Honorio 
Pueyrredon and Felipe A. Espil, Argentina; Fernando Dennis, Haiti; Angel 
Morales and Federico C. Alvarez, Dominican Republic; Charles E. Hughes, 
Henry P. Fletcher, and Leo S. Rowe, the United States; and Enrique Hernandez 
Cartaya and J. Manuel Carbonell, Cuba. 


President: Dr. Gustavo Guerrero, El Salvador. 

Vice president: Raul Fernandez, Brazil. 

Members: Dr. Victor Maurtua, Peru; Jacobo Varela and Juan Jose Amezaga, 
Uruguay; Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Panama; Dr. Gonzalo Zaldumbide, Ecuador; 
Fernando Gonzalez Roa and Salvador Urbina, Mexico; Dr. Carlos Salazar, 
Guatemala; Dr. Carlos Cuadra Pazos, Nicaragua; Dr. Costa du Rels, Bolivia; 
Dr. S. Key Ayala and Dr. F. G. Yanes, Venezuela; Jesus M. Yepes and Roberto 
Urdaneta Arbelaez, Colombia; Dr. Mariano Vd,zquez, Honduras; Dr. Ricardo 
Castro Beeche, Costa Rica; Sr. Alejandro Lira, Chile; Dr. Honorio Pueyrred6n 
and Laurentino Olascoaga, Argentina; Dr. Lisandro Diaz Leon, Paraguay; Dr. 
Fernando Dennis, Haiti; Dr. Gustavo A. Diaz and Dr. J. R. de Castro, Domini- 
can Repubhc; Charles E. Hughes, Henry P. Fletcher, Oscar W. Underwood, 
and James Brown Scott, United States; and Dr. Orestes Ferrara and Gustavo 
Gutierrez, Cuba. 

III. Private International Law 

President: Dr. Victor Maurtua, Peru. 

Vice president: J. Brown Scott, The United States. 

Members: Leonel Aguirre, Uruguay; Eduardo Chiari, Panama; Gonzalo 
Zaldumbide, Ecuador; Julio Garcia, Mexico; Hector David Castro and Eduardo 
Alvarez, El Salvador; Carlos Salazar, Guatemala; Mdximo H. Zepeda, Nicara- 


gua; Jose Antezana, Bolivia; F. G. Yanes and S. Key Ayala, Venezuela; Roberto 
Urdaneta Arbelaez and Jesus M. Yepes, Colombia; Mariano Vazquez, Honduras; 
Ricardo Castro Beeche, Costa Rica; Alejandro Alvarez, Chile; Eduardo Espi- 
nola, Brazil; Honorio Pueyrredon and Felipe A. Espil, Argentina; Lisandro 
Diaz Leon, Paraguay; Fernando Dennis, Haiti; Jacinto R. de Castro and 
Gustavo A. Diaz, the Dominican Republic; Morgan J. O'Brien, the United 
States; and Antonio S. de Bustamante and Cesar Salaya, Cuba. 

IV. Communications 

President: Dr. Sampaio Correia, Brazil. 

Vice president: Tulio M. Cesteros, Dominican Republic. 

Members: Dr. Carlos Salazar and Dr. Luis Denegri, Peru; Doctor Callorda, 
Uruguay; Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Panama; Victor Zevallos and Col6n Eloy 
Alfaro, Ecuador; Aquiles Elorduy, Mexico; Dr. Eduardo Alvarez and Dr. 
Hector David Castro, El Salvador; Dr. Bernardo Alvarado Tello, Guatemala; 
Dr. Joaquin Gomez, Nicaragua; Dr. Jose Antezana, Bolivia; S. Key Ayala and 
F. G. Yanes, Venezuela; Dr. Enrique Olaya Herrera and Dr. Gutierrez Lee, 
Colombia; Dr. Fausto Davila, Honduras; Arturo Tinoco, Costa Rica; Dr. 
Carlos Silva Vildosola, Chile; Dr. Felipe A. Espil, Argentina; Dr. Juan Vicente 
Ramirez, Paraguay; Dr. Fernando Dennis, Haiti; Elias Brache, Dominican Re- 
public; Oscar W. Underwood and Henry P. Fletcher, the United States; and Dr. 
Jose B. Aleman, Cuba. 

V. Intellectual Cooperation 

President: Gonzalo Zaldumbide, Ecuador. 

Vice -president: Ricardo J. Alfaro, Panama. 

Members: Sr. Enrique Castro Oyanguren and Dr. Luis Denegri, Peru; Dr. 
Pedro Erasmo Callorda, Uruguay; Dr. Victor Zevallos and Colon Eloy Alfaro, 
Ecuador; Julio Garcia, Salvador Urbina, Fernando Gonzalez Roa and Aquiles 
Elorduy, Mexico; Hector David Castro, El Salvador; Bernardo Alvarado Tello, 
Guatemala; Carlos Cuadra Pazos, Nicaragua; Adolfo Costa du Rels, Bolivia; 
Dr. Rafael Angel Arraiz and Dr. S. Key Ayala, Venezuela; Dr. J. M. Yepes, R. 
Gutierrez Lee and R. Urdaneta Arbelaez, Colombia; Sr. Mariano Vazquez, 
Honduras; Rafael Oreamuno, Costa Rica; Carlos Silva Vildosola, Chile; Alarico 
da Silveira and Lindolfo CoUor, Brazil; Laurentino Olascoaga and Felipe A. Espil, 
Argentina; Juan Vicente Ramirez, Paraguay; Charles Riboul, Haiti; Elias 
Brache and R. Perez Alfonseca, the Dominican Republic; Hon. Ray Lyman 
Wilbur and Leo S. Rowe, the United States; and Fernando Ortiz and Manuel 
Marquez Sterling, Cuba. 

VI. Economic Problems 

President: Salvador Urbina, Mexico. 

Vice president: Felipe A. Espil, Argentina. 

Members: Carlos Salazar and Luis Denegri, Peru; Juan Jose Amezaga, 
Uruguay; Ricardo J. Alfaro, Panama; Victor Zevallos and Colon Eloy Alfaro, 
Ecuador; Eduardo Alvarez and Hector David Castro, El Salvador; Luis Bel- 
tranena, Guatemala; Maximo H. Zepeda, Nicaragua; Dr. Costa du Rels, Bolivia; 
F. G. Yanes and S. Key Ayala, Venezuela; Roberto U. Arbelaez and Enrique 
Olaya Herrera, Colombia; Fausto Davila, Honduras; Rafael Oreamuno, Costa 
Rica; Manuel Bianchi, Chile; Lindolfo CoUor, Brazil; Laurentino Olascoaga, 
Argentina; Juan Vicente Ramirez, Paraguay; Fernando Dennis, Haiti; Federico 
C. Alvarez and Angel Morales, the Dominican Republic; Dwight W. Morrow, 
Noble Brandon Judah and Morgan J. O'Brien, the United States; and Jose 
Manuel Cortina, Cuba. 


VII. Social Problems 

President: Aristides Agiiero, Cuba. 

Vice president: Rafael Angel Arraiz, Venezuela. 

Members: Doctor Salazar, Peru; Leonel Aguirre, Uruguay; Dr. Eduardo 
Chiari, Panama; Dr. Victor Zevallos and Dr. Col6n Eloy Alfaro, Ecuador; 
Fernando Gonzalez Roa, Mexico; Hector David Castro and Dr. Eduardo Alvarez, 
El Salvador; Dr. Jose Azurdia, Guatemala; Joaquin Gomez, Nicaragua; Jose 
Antezana, Bolivia; F. G. Yanes, Venezuela; R. Gutierrez Lee, Colombia; Fausto 
Davila, Honduras; Arturo Tinoco, Costa Rica; Manuel Bianchi, Chile; Dr. 
Afranio do Amaral, Brazil; Felipe A. Espil and Laurentino Olascoaga, Argentina; 
Juan Vicente Ramirez, Paraguay; Fernando Dennis, Haiti; R. Perez Alfonseca 
and E. Beeche, the Dominican Republic; James Brown Scott and Ray Lyman 
Wilbur, the United States. 

VIII. Treaties, Conventions, and Resolutions 

President: Dr. R. Perez Alfonseca, the Dominican Republic. 

Vice president: Sr. S. Key Ayala, Venezuela. 

Members: Sr. Castro Oyanguren, Peru; Dr. Jacobo Varela, Uruguay; Doctor 
Chiari, Panama; Dr. Victor Zevallos and Colon Eloy Alfaro, Ecuador; Julio 
Garcia, Mexico; Eduardo Alvarez and Hector David Castro, El Salvador; Dr. 
Jose Azurdia, Guatemala; Dr. Maximo Zepeda, Nicaragua; Dr. Costa du Rels, 
Bolivia; Dr. J. M. Yepes, Colombia; Dr. Mariano Vazquez, Honduras; Ricardo 
Castro Beeche, Costa Rica; Dr. Manuel Bianchi, Chile; Dr. Hildebrando Accioly, 
Brazil; Honorio Pueyrredon and Felipe A. Espil, Argentina; Dr. Lisandro Diaz 
Leon, Paraguay; Dr. Fernando Dennis and Charles Riboul, Haiti; Noble Brandon 
Judah and Dwight W. Morrow, the United States; and M. Marquez Sterling, 

As in the case of previous Pan American conferences — and a ma- 
jority of all international conferences to date — complete unanimity 
of agreement was not always found possible. But since one of the 
principal uses of an international conference is that of a public forum 
for free discussion, lack of complete unanimity is often one of its 
greatest achievements. One of the results of the open debate prac- 
ticed in the Sixth Conference is that both the United States and Latin 
America, individually and as a whole, are more clearly on record 
with respect to some moot points than ever before. To quote Mr. 
Hughes, "We can always be candid and still be friends. It is those 
who are not friendly who can not afford to be candid." 

The outstanding achievements of the conference as a whole are to 
be found in the provisions adopted for the reorganization of the Pan 
American Union, in the codification of international law, and in the 
first step taken toward compulsory arbitration, a subject which will 
be still further considered in the conference in Washington before the 
end of 1928. All three subjects constitute the most hopeful and fruit- 
ful fields for vastly increased usefulness. Incidentally, the Sixth Pan 
American Conference will long be remembered by the women of 
the continent as that which first gave the freedom of its floor, in an 
informal session, to a group of representative women, headed by 
Miss Doris Stevens, Chairman of the Committee on International 



nn rill 1 1 

■ I I 

Courtesy of Louis Jay Heath 


In this building were located the working oflBces of the delegations to the Sixth International Conference 

of American States 

Action, Mrs. Jane Norman Smith, President of the National Comicil, 
both of the National Woman's Party of the United States, and Mrs. 
Muna Lee de Munoz Marin of the Porto Rican branch of this Party, 
who in no imcertain tones voiced the demand that the women of the 
Western Continent, as a whole, be enfranchised. And it is not the 
least of the conference's successes that thanks to the cooperation of 
the Salvadorean and Uruguayan delegations, a resolution was adopted 
which reads as follows : 

That an Inter-American Commission of Women be organized to prepare the 
juridical information necessary for a proper consideration at the Seventh Con- 
ference of the civil and political equality of women; this commission to be 
composed of seven women designated by the Pan American Union from different 
countries of America, and eventually to consist of representatives from all the 

The attitude of the women speakers in the session mentioned may 

be gauged from the following brief excerpts from three of the five 

addresses delivered: 


We are met together on a great historic occasion. This is the first time in the 
history of the world that women are come before an international body to plead 
for treaty action on their rights. 

We are met in this beautiful hall already consecrated to new ideals of Pan- 
Americanism. I ask you to look well at the moving tapestries which hang on these 
walls. Twenty-one medallions represent the 21 republics assembled here to-day. 
What is the artist's conception of each republic? It is a very simple concept. 
The splendid figures of two human beings — man and woman. The artist is 
right. That, in the last analysis, is all there is to a state — man and woman. 


Behind us is another moving concept of the artist. Where a crown once 
symbolized autocratic authority, you now have substituted a golden Western 
Hemisphere ablaze with light. The torch of freedom lights the golden replica 
of this hemisphere. 

We could not, if we had searched far and wide, have found more beautiful 
and appropriate symbols to the subject matter on which we address you to-day. 
These are the symbols of a new world, of a new hemisphere, with new ideals as 
to that most important of all human relationships — the relationship between 
man and woman. Humanly stated our thesis to-day is man and woman, the 
ultimate power in the world. 

You have it in your power to make these symbols come alive. You can, here 
and now, if you will, take decisive action toward making men and women equal 
before the law in this hemisphere. We are in the hands of a friendly body. 
You have already declared unanimously your belief that men and women should 
be equal before the law * * *_ 

We have told you what we want. The rest is up to you. Which wUl be the 
first country to dare to trust its women with that degree of equality which wUl 
come through the negotiation of the treaty? Which country among you will 
claim this honor? Pan- Americanism will move a swifter, lovelier, more rythmic 
pace when men and women run together. — Doris Stevens, Chairman, Com- 
mittee on International Action, National Woman's Party, United States of America. 
Habana, February 7, 1928. 

We are here to-day to propose a method of action on the resolution on behalf 
of the rights of women, which was unanimously adopted at the last conference 
of this body. 

In 1923, at Santiago de Chile, you agreed to a resolution proposed by Senor 
Soto Hall, of Guatemala, and seconded by Senor Alvarado Quiros, of Costa 
Rica. This resolution called for the study by future conferences of the means 
of abolishing the constitutional and legal incapacities of women, for the purpose 
of securing the same civil and political rights that are to-day enjoyed by men. 

In the intervening five years, the International Commission of Jurists, appointed 
at Rio de Janeiro in 1906 to prepare a draft of a code of public and private inter- 
national law, has drafted a plan for a " General convention of private international 
law" for submission to the Sixth Conference, which includes 53 articles relating 
to the civil status of women. It contains none in relation to political rights. 

In speaking before the commission of private international law for a new code 
on another subject, the distinguished President of the Conference pointed out 
that the countries of Pan America must progress swiftly and not by slow methods. 
With this position we entirely agree * * *. 

There are delegates here who question whether all women in the Americas 
desire equal rights with men. When did all of the people of any country desire 
their freedom? Men of England, who were content to serve their masters and 
had no desire to be free, appeared before the authorities and protested against 
having the responsibility of political rights put upon them. The same thing 
happened after our own Civil War in the United States; and, it has been said, 
in Cuba, where many African slaves who had been well-fed and clothed and 
kindly treated by their masters refused to take advantage of their freedom. 
We believe that if articulate, you would find an overwhelming proportion of the 
women of Pan America desirous of having the stigma of inequality removed. 

We are asking this conference to recommend an equal-rights convention, 
which like the proposed Pan American aviation convention, would open the way 
for the adherence of any nation desiring to participate in the agreement. — Jane 
Norman Smith, President of the National Council, National Woman's Party, United 
States of America. Habana, February 7, 1928. 





At a plenary session of the Conference, February 7, Miss Doris Stevens of the Committee on International 
Action of the National Woman's Party of the United States delivered an address in the cause of equal 

It is understood that I raise my voice before this distinguished assemblage, 
deeply moved by the solemnity of the moment, unique in the history of America 
Only the justice of the cause which we defend gives me courage. 

This opportunity, so generously granted, has no precedent. You have inter- 
rupted your tasks to allow women to come before you to express their aspirations. 
You have realized that the cause of women is as important as any which you 
have before you to discuss and decide; that it is the vital problem of the present 
century. We fear lest our words should not adequately express the loftiness of 
our hopes, should not be sufficiently impressive to make our reasons clear to you 
and be able to carry to your minds the conviction of the justice of our cause. We 
would be happy if you would listen to us not as indulgent and gallant gentlemen, 
but as enthusiastic and devoted defenders of our rights effacing a shameful past 
and bringing to pass one of the most glorious victories of humanity. 

With pride and love you have raised those glorious banners at the entrance of 
the university and you may be justly proud of them. Each one represents in 
the history of this continent sublime pages of heriosm, sacrifices, abnegations, and 
triumphs. They represent the noble and lofty rebellion and the final victory of 
right and justice, against injustice and subjection. Do you believe, gentlemen 
that you alone hold in your hearts these praiseworthy sentiments, that the women 
who live side by side with you do not have the same hunger and thirst for justice? 
We also were born on this beautiful continent of heroic struggles, with longings 
for liberty, equality, and fraternity. We follow in your footsteps and desire to 
reach the highest summits of culture and progress. Therefore we can not remain 
passive and indifferent. We feel the injustice and are not resigned. 

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We come, then, honorable delegates, to ask you for equal civil and political 
rights for all the women of America. — Julia Martinez, Head of the Department 
of Mathematics in the Habana Normal School for Women, Habana, February 7, 1928. 

As the work of the conference proceeded it became increasingly 
evident that a majority of the delegates were principally concerned 
in the revision and enlargement of existing economic, commercial, 
and cultural programs. This was particularly true in the Commu- 
nications Commission in which the subject of aviation, under the 
leadership of the Colombian delegation, was greatly advanced, and 
it was here, also, that the prompt construction of an Inter- American 
automobile highway was unanimously recommended. In the section 
devoted to things juridic much progress was also made, seven proj- 
ects — on right of asylum, on treaties, on neutrality, on diplomatic 

Courtesy of the United States Ambassador to Cuba 

A portion of the great crowd which greeted Lindbergh on his arrival at Habana 

officers, on consular agents, on neutrality in civil strife, and on the 
status of foreigners — being adopted. In all, 11 conventions, 8 mo- 
tions, 3 agreements, and 60 resolutions were adopted by the Sixth 

No account of this congress, from whatever standpoint, could 
be given without some reference to the unusual distinction of the 
Ibero American delegates as a whole, both in respect to attainments 
and professional experience. The field of international law, in par- 
ticular, was represented by a brilliant galaxy of internationally known 
juristic experts of the highest rank, a group rarely equaled in inter- 
national gatherings of this character. Nor did the United States 
delegation lag behind, headed as it was by Charles Evans Hughes, 
who, by general consent, was regarded as the outstanding of the many 
distinguished figures of the conference. In his grave and forceful 
fashion he repeatedly proved his ability in our less warm and ornate 


English speech to stir the minds and hearts of his Latin -American 
colleagues as deeply as the most eloquent and fervid speakers in 
Spanish. He displayed, moreover, a rare understanding of the 
Latin-American habit of mind and feeling and, what is even more 
rare, an almost intuitive comprehension of and a generous allowance 
for an opponent's point of view — an intellectual hidalguia, as it were, 
which is a singularly happy and useful gift in an international 

The closing session of the conference, which was held in the Great 
Hall of the University, was marked by two notable speeches, one 
reviewing the work of the conference by its presiding officer. Dr. 

Courtesy of the United States Ambassador to Cuba 


The highest award of the Cuban Government was conferred upon Lindbergh when President Machado 
decorated him with the " Orden del Merito de Carlos Manuel de Cespedes." Dr. Martinez Ortiz, 
Secretary of State of Cuba, stands between the President and Lindbergh 

Antonio S. de Bustamante, whose unfailing equanimity, courtesy, and 
wisdom throughout the long series of sessions greatly endeared him 
to the members, the text of which, in English version,^ is as follows: 

Mr. Secretary of State* Delegates of all America, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

At the inauguration of our sessions a month ago, it was my pious duty to recall 
to grateful memory seven delegates to previous conferences, representatives of 
Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, and the 
Republic of Cuba, who unfortunately had passed away before the assembling of 
this conference. 

I was then unaware that Sr. Alberto Gutierrez, a delegate of Bolivia to the Fifth 
Conference, had also departed this life, and I desire to include his illustrious name 
in our posthumous tribute of sorrowful homage. Seiior Gutierrez was a scientist 
and a statesman of whom America may well be proud, one who was happy to 

' Translated in the Bulletin Section of the Pan American Union. 
* Dr. Rafael Martinez Ortiz, Secretary of State of Cuba. 

89045— 28— Bull. 4 2 


figure as a charter member of the American Institute of International Law, to 
whose action and to that of its distinguished president, Mr. James Brown Scott, 
our work is so greatly indebted. 

But before renewing our labors I must fulfill still another duty. And so I 
again offer sincere and heartfelt thanks for the undeserved honor conferred in 
selecting me president of this great assembly, for your cooperation and moral 
support of my efforts to perform the duties of my office with the best of purposes 
and good will, and for repeated and unforgettable evidences of affectionate 
appreciation not only of my efforts but of me personally. You have demon- 
strated afresh that Pan Americanism must be a social force, since for all of us it 
rests upon brotherly affection. 

Extending the sphere of action of the conference and its probabilities of success, 
you at the very beginning of our labors made a momentous decision and one 
which I must not pass over in silence, namely, that the plenary sessions of the 
conference and those of the eight commissions into which it was divided should 
be open to all, including the daily press, the immortal voice of the world. We 
have thus enjoyed as guide and guaranty the constant fervor and cooperation 
of our entire continent, in a sort of voteless suffrage, not less effective or expressive 
than that which can and does mark official orientations in any wisely organized 
national society. 

And as women since the dawn of history have had voice and vote in public 
opinion, that army which in the last analysis wins every battle, we heard in an 
extra-official session the demands of that privileged and beautiful part of the 
human race which we could not justly call our better half, if in the hour of 
exercising life's most important rights we alone exercise them. 

In America women can invoke an historic and venerable precedent. When 
the immortal discoverer journeyed in search of official aid for his semifantastic 
enterprise, it was not a king, but a great queen, Isabella of Spain, who, without 
considering the sacrifice, put at his disposal the means which he needed. A 
beautiful precedent this, under which Uke a mantle of glory those who are, will 
be, and always have been queens and mistresses of our hearts and homes may 
find shelter for their demands. 

In addition to these two outstanding acts, how assiduous and how brilUant 
have been your labors! I am in a measure acquainted, both from personal 
interest and professional duty, with the history of international congresses and 
conferences, and I can assure you that none surpasses this in the quantity and 
quality of the results obtained. In somewhat more than a month it has been 
possible and easy to make considerable progress in the codification of public 
and private international law; to improve the organization of the Pan American 
Union, giving it a genuinely contractual form; to considerably advance among 
our respective nations plans for air, land, maritime, and fluvial communication; 
to make most fruitful efforts toward intellectual cooperation, from books and 
university chairs to the press, scientific institutes and the copyright; to promote 
the solution of many economic, social, and sanitary problems; and to add to all 
these points on the program new and important projects which complement and 
develop the former. We have labored, not with the fireworks of spectacular 
and often insoluble problems, but with the unfaltering purpose of laying the 
firmest possible foundation for individual and collective happiness in the 
American world. 

In the dedication of an edition of Suetonius, pubhshed in 1518, Desiderius 
Erasmus of Rotterdam, that highly renowned philosopher and humanist, included 
this profound sentence: "Well-being is better assured when princes do not make 
plans of conquest by war but rather form projects to avoid war." Carrying over 
this most notable and then extraordinary idea to the environment and the needs 


of our day, we might say that the more agreements an international conference 
prepares and adopts for the physical, intellectual, and moral welfare of the 
human beings residing in the States represented, the more beneficial the con- 
ference will be to those States. To build and not to destroy should and must be 
our watchword. Contemporary civilization offers a wide field of action, because 
modern States and the international collectivity, with its unending social task, 
have converted charity into a juridical obligation, and works of mercy into a 
legal duty. This state of opinion which, like everything else, follows the beautiful 
law of progress, distinguishes the twentieth century and sets it apart throughout 
the world, but more especially in America. It is curious to observe how dominant 
ideas are reflected and sanctioned in international agreements. On June 3, 1494, 
just after the discovery of America, the treaty of Tordecillas divided between 
Spaniards and Portuguese the unknown lands of America, by drawing a straight 
line from pole to pole, 370 leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. In the preamble 
the contracting States explained that they did this for their own benefit, "for the 
good of peace and concord." Over a century and a half later, in the treaty of Jan- 
uary 30, 1648, one of the treaties of the Congress of Westphalia which put an end 
to three decades of war, the parties thereto, discarding any kind of juridical obliga- 
tion, literally declare themselves "moved by Christian compassion." 

Humanity continued its way, and when, after another great catastrophe, there 
assembled in Versailles plenipotentiaries from all parts of the globe to make 
peace, they did not mention in the preamble of Part I reciprocal concord, nor 
compassion nor charity, but they spoke of "the prescription of open, just, and 
honorable relations between nations." And we, going one step farther, without 
expressly saying so, convert international law, which for long years was the law 
of war, into an instrument of good works, of solidarity and happiness, dealing 
alike with individuals and nations and laboring diligently for the well-being of 
both in order to make the latter prosperous and great and the former educated, 
healthy and happy. 

We are still at the beginning of this task, however large the share which has 
fallen to our lot. Realizing this, we have cooperated in securing the permanence 
of this great organization by unanimously selecting as the seat of the next con- 
ference the beautiful, seigniorial and thriving city of Montevideo. There all 
America will win new triumphs; but for us Cubans the pleasing prospect of that 
meeting has still another and inestimable advantage. And, thanks to it, when 
we take leave of you, instead of saying "Adios," always a mournful word, we 
can utter an encouraging and cheerful phrase — a hearty and affectionate "Hasta 

The second of these speeches was delivered by Dr. Jacobo Varela, 
the Minister of Uruguay to the United States, on behalf of the 
delegates in general, and in particular of the delegation of Uruguay 
of which he was the head, in view of the fact that Montevideo was 
chosen by the conference as the seat of the Seventh International 
Conference of American States. The text of this address ^ follows 
herewith : 

Your Excellency the Secretary of State, Mr. President, Messrs. Delegates, Ladies 
and Gentlemen: 
As our deliberations are about to terminate, I should like, as I mount this 
tribune, to be inspired by one of my favorite books, that in which the rare genius 
of Pascal counsels the speaker not to be prolix when he has had time to prepare 
himself to be brief, and, with respect to brevity, I should like to take as my 

« Translated from the original Spanish in the Bulletin section of the Pan American Union. 


model Lincoln's perfect and inimitable speech at Gettysburg, which may be 
recited, entire, in five minutes. 

Dicey opens the magnificent introduction to his constitutional law with a 
reference to the fact that many distinguished Latin American minds are inclined 
to think that because the English Constitution is not in book form it does not 
exist. Although through the years and centuries it has assured liberty, justice, 
and progress, it nevertheless appears somewhat dubious to certain Latin American 
mentalities, since its principles are not written on parchment, as we love to see 
them, to the end that they may forever be an unmistakable guide, solace, and 
promise when — in reality — these principles are betrayed by the aberration or 
crime of the ambitious or the evildoer. 

Now, Pan Americanism has struck root and grown very much as have Anglo- 
Saxon liberties, and he who seeks to find the secret of its dynamic force in lifeless 
texts and not in life itself has but a poor concept thereof. Pan Americanism had 
its being and is now being developed in the attempt to reconcile the magnificent 
civilization of the 110,000,000 under the Stars and Stripes with that other, very 
unique, of the 20 Republics which are the prolongation and renewal, in America, 
of the immortal genius of the Hispanic races. 

To say that everything unites and that nothing separates the United States 
and Latin America, would be to emit a formula bound to give rise to lamentable 
misunderstandings and perilous inertia. Latin America and the United States 
have in common great principles and achievements, an historical tradition, a 
similar democratic creed, the reciprocal advantages of commercial interchange 
and financial vinculation, an equal yearning for justice and equity, the same 
devotion to an original and traditional world policy, enunciated by one and eulo- 
gized by many; but important interests and characteristics retard their perfect 
harmony and collaboration. More than the difference of race, do the difference 
in temperament, in intellectual habit, of economic interests — often entirely 
apart — and above all differences of speech, constitute divergent elements, which 
wiU only become negligible when the abysmal lack of comprehension stiU sub- 
sisting in large and important sections of public opinion, both in the North and 
the South, is overcome. To promote better understanding by a more complete 
knowledge of the cultural and moral values of both civilizations, by the com- 
parison and dispassionate examination of their respective interests and aspira- 
tions, and the reconciliation of these in a spirit of harmony very far removed 
from intransigence — here is the most exalted objective of these Pan American 
Congresses which have replaced the Latin reunions of past time. Misunderstand- 
ing and lack of knowledge — these are the arch enemies which we must destroy. 

The United States is not only a miracle of industrial organization and the El 
Dorado which her citizens, more fortunate than the conquistador es, were able to 
discover, but the country which gave to the world the model of free institutions 
and which now speaks with the genius of an Edison, and, on wings created by the 
brothers Wright, sends Lindbergh — the symbol of her youth — -to win the heart of 
France and Europe. 

Latin America does not always think in terms of "manana," nor does she 
always yearn for "the repose which life has disturbed"; she is evolving one of 
the most complete civilizations known to history, and nobody would be surprised 
if in a generation or two some of her Republics should figure, as indeed it is already 
predicted by Lloyd George they will, among world powers of the first rank. 

The work of unification and consolidation to which we are pledged is one of 
constant creation, and it would therefore be rash to hope that the deliberations 
of any congress, however illustrious it may be, will be perfect. This Habana 
assembly will have well fulfilled its objective if it has taken, as I firmly believe 
it has, a significant step forward in the codification of law, in arbitration, in the 
reorganization of our Union, and if it has permitted all countries therein repre- 


sented, both great and small, to see things as they are, and not as they should be, 
or as we imagine them to be in vain hallucinations of power or in childish dreams. 

Cuba appears to have been created by fate and so situated by nature as to 
become a concentrative force in that difficult but magnificent work of approxi- 
mation and interdependence. Cuba was born and lives as if in some way 
she were "Patria" of every American. When in the immense panorama of 
history we contemplate the passage of those great figures: Washington and 
Miranda, Bolfvar and San Martfn, Hidalgo, Bonifacio, Artigas, Sucre, O'Higgins, 
Morazd,n, we admire in them the eternal symbols of all races and peoples, the 
ideal archtypes of courage and honor, but because of the long perspective of years 
we fail at times to perceive the human element in the resplendent picture of the 
supermen. On the contrary, the champions in the epic of Cuban emancipation 
struggled and were immolated on the altar of freedom when many of us were 
stiU in the golden days of youth, when from afar we followed with deep fervor 
Marti and Maceo in their immortal struggle, loving both with the generous 
ardor of early enthusiasm. This is why their memory is doubly moving and 
sacred to us who, as their work was forged, beheld the birth of a great legend. 
This is why we rejoice to behold the free and sovereign Repub)lic of Cuba, the 
most enduring monument raised to their memory. When we see her installed 
in the culminating heights of international honor, in the presidency of the Sixth 
Pan American Conference, in the Permanent Court of International Justice at 
The Hague, in the Council of the League of Nations, we can but see in this 
unequalled and simultaneous weight of honor, not only reparation for unmerited 
doubt and prejudice, but the reaffirmation by the world of the independence of 
Cuba. [Great applause.] Your Government, Mr. Secretary of Foreign Relations, 
may well be proud of having consolidated during its term in office this high 
international achievement. And you, also, my dear Doctor Bustamante, have 
earned the gratitude of your fellow citizens who, in you, found the man capable 
and worthy of the most exalted entrustments. I venture to offer you, here, our 
united, deeply felt, and friendly gratitude. 

Permit me to include in this tribute of admiration of your country our appre- 
ciation of the exquisite hospitality extended us by your Government, a tribute 
with which must be associated not only your press and your enlightened and 
venerable university but also Cuba's beautiful and gracious daughters, of whom 
also the poet of Vir genes de las Rocas might have said that "Each of their move- 
ments destroys a harmony only to create another." 

You have designated Montevideo as the seat of the next conference — a man- 
date and privilege which will be appreciated by the Government and people of 
my country, the more especially because of the effusive generosity and the 
irresistible eloquence of those of my colleagues who lauded and enhanced her 
prestige, as also for the impressive unanimity and spontaneity of your approval. 
No Uruguayan delegate in Habana requested this award; indeed we stood ready 
to approve the selection of other capital cities: Lima, the favorite city in so many 
American hearts, the undefeated in intellectual contests; or Bogota, of far-famed 
tradition and exalted destiny; or any of the other illustrious cities not yet desig- 
nated for this consecrating honor, an honor with which in time all will be crowned, 
since Pan American Conferences are not the vague caprice of a fleeting fashion, 
but a definitive continental institution. No one can say when or where we 
shall as a unit organize law and justice, but as certain as the light of day, that day 
will come. The American peoples are not destined to think, as did Faust when 
hope was gone, that the ideal is a dream, and reality only pain and suffering, but 
rather that they have full confidence in themselves and in their destiny. 

Gentlemen, let me salute the future, which belongs to the coming generations 
of America, [Prolonged applause.] 



The Sixth International Conference of American States is ended; 
its deeds are recorded; its delegates are homeward bound. There 
remain its pledges and commitments, many and solemn, to the fulfil- 
ment of which the American nations will with renewed faith resolutely 
address themselves. For, in the words of President Coolidge at 

The light which Columbus followed has not failed. The courage that carried him 
on still lives. They are the heritage of the people of Bolivar and of Washington. 
We must lay our voyage of exploration toward complete understanding and friend- 
ship. Having taken that course, we must not be turned aside by the fears of the 
timid, the counsels of the ignorant, or the designs of the malevolent. With law and 
charity as our guides, with that ancient faith which is only strengthened when it 
requires sacrifices, we shall anchor at last in the harbor of justice and truth. The 
same Pilot which stood by the side of the Great Discoverer, and the same Wisdom 
which instructed the founding fathers of our republics, will continue to abide with 
us. — Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, Habana, January 16, 

Courtesy of the United States Ambassador to Cuba 


By Mile. Leo Cordemans 

Director of the School of Social Service of the Santiago Board of Charity 

PRESENT-DAY activities on the part of philanthropists and 
of social-welfare organizations in general lay the emphasis 
on prevention, in order to bring about a progressive reduc- 
tion in the amount of curative aid rendered and to suppress 
entirely the palliative measures which were, for a long time, the only 
remedies for every misfortune and every ill. 

The human being in need of aid from his fellows is always in an 
abnormal situation; charity, or temporary assistance, leaves the situa- 
tion unchanged — hence, charity is ineffective. The role of social 
service is, on the contrary, to search out the causes of this abnormal 
situation and, whether they be intrinsic or extrinsic, to put an end 
to them. A new science has thus been born, a practical sociology 
which applies to the child, to the family and to the helpless in general 
the new facts gained in the various realms of human knowledge. 
The purpose of social service is to guide and sustain those who are 
not naturally self-reliant, and to encourage them to make the neces- 
sary effort, to take the proper steps to adapt themselves to their 
environment, to supply their own needs, and not to be a charge on 

Social service, therefore, is at once a science and an art; it requires 
both natural aptitude and training. Schools of social service offer 
to those who have the necessary characteristics — that is, those who 
are desirous of being useful to humanity, of aiding its progress, who 
have initiative, energy, and a self-sacrificing spirit — the opportunity 
to acquire the technique and the human culture which will be, aside 
from any professional preoccupation, the best preparation for a 
nobly planned individual and family life. . . . 

Chile has the honor of possessing the first school of social service 
in South America or, indeed, in any country of Spanish speech. 

1 Translated from Servicio Social, Santiago, Chile, March-June, 1927. 



Dr. Rene Sand, in a recent publication on education for social 
service, notes the existence of the following schools: 


Germany 31 

Great Britain 10 

Belgium 8 

France 4 

Netherlands 4 

Austria 3 

Sweden 3 

Switzerland 3 

Finland 2 

Poland 1 

Italy 1 

Czechoslovakia 1 



United States 23 

Canada 1 

Chile 1 



The history of the Chilean school, created and supported by the 
Santiago Board of Charity and by a Government subvention, may 
be sketched in a few lines. 

During a short trip to Europe early in 1924, Dr. Alejandro del 
Rio had occasion to visit the Central Social Service School in Brussels 
and to discuss in detail its organization and purposes with Dr. Ren6 
Sand, member of the administrative council of that institution, and 
a thoroughly informed and active propagandist of the new tendencies 
in social medicine. 

On his return to Chile a few months later, Dr. del Rio proposed to 
the Charity Board the idea of establishing in Santiago a school similar 
to that in Brussels, primarily in order to train the necessary personnel 
for starting hospital social service, an innovation which had been 
decided upon but not commenced for lack of properly trained workers. 

After due consideration of the report of the special committee on 
this proposal — a committee composed of Dr. Gregorio Amunategui, 
Seiior Carlos Balmaceda, and Dr. del Rio — the board unanimously 
accepted the proposal, voting to open the school early in 1925. The 
same gentlemen were appointed to form the council for the school, 
Dr. Eugenio Diaz Lira later replacing Seiior Balmaceda on the resig- 
nation of the latter. . , . 

Many were the difficulties to be overcome before the council 
could proceed to the installation of the school in its own home. The 
house at Agustinas No. 632, a central location, was finally chosen 
and acquired by the Charity Board, and the necessary alterations 
having been made, the courses began in May, 1925. 


The accompanying plan shows the arrangement of the school 
building, a classical Chilean dwelling with three patios, the third 
containing a wonderful old grapevine. . . . 


The results of the first course, which covered the years 1925 and 
1926, were most encouraging. In fact, it may be said that its success 
surpassed the most optimistic expectations. A group of 42 students 
successfully completed the courses in theory, visited the social welfare 
institutions in Santiago, and carried out practical work in the most 
important of these for periods of varying length. It will be seen 
therefore that the school afforded the students the opportunity of 
studying the conditions which they must meet, the proper methods 
to be used in assisting those in want, and the duties of those blessed 
with intelligence and means toward the less fortunate. . . . 

On the occasion of the first commencement Dr. del Rio addressed 
the graduates in part as follows : 

We congratulate you on your triumph in winning this diploma and the insignia 
of social worker. 

This reward your work as students has well merited. The council is confident, 
considering your background, character, and ability, that you will uphold the 
ideals of your chosen career and the honor and dignity of the title conferred upon 

Perhaps you are under the illusion of many graduating classes that study is 
over and work is beginning. This is a false idea. You must supplement the 
knowledge you have already gained, follow step by step the progress in social 
service as recorded in books and reviews, acquire at least one foreign language, 
strengthen your own personality, and define your inchnations toward some special 
branch of your profession and, moreover, keep alive an unfaltering purpose to 
make a trip abroad to study in the centers which have given the greatest impor- 
tance to the consideration of social questions — which to-day include England, the 
United States, Belgium, etc. — ^in order to glean for our country, in return for the 
training you have received, a sheaf of new knowledge and fresh observations. 

You must not forget that your tact and good judgment will gradually dispel 
that active or passive resistance, whether open or concealed, which attempts to 
block the path of all progressive movements promoted by optimistic persons who, 
to put it mildly, doubt whether the past was better than the present. Such 
resistance obeys a natural law, easily explainable and even necessary, I may say, 
to strengthen the character and invigorate the action of those who have set their 
feet on the path of progress. Let us therefore have a kindly and forgiving spirit, 
ready to demonstrate the truth and point out the good road. . . . 

The return to Belgium of Mme. Jenny Bernier, the first principal 
of the school, was greatly regretted, since in the two years for which 
she was engaged she had contributed very greatly to its success. 
She was succeeded by Mile. L^o Cordemans,^ a graduate of the 
Brussels School of Social Service, under whom the work already 
started is going forward and the project for opening a settlement 
taking shape. . . . 

' Actually in the United States for research and observation work in social settlement centers. 



The most eloquent proof that this school was inaugurated at the 
right moment and that it fills a real need is offered by the hst of 
institutions which have engaged students, even before the end of 

their course, for places of importance. 
In August, 1927, graduates of the first 
course and second-year students were 
employed as follows : In hospitals, 6 ; in 
child health centers, 11 ; in the mothers' 
home, 1; by the State compulsory in- 
surance fund, 4; at the reform school, 
1 ; in the school medical service, 6 ; as 
secretary of the School of Social Service, 
1; as public health official, 1; by the 
public assistance, 4 ; by orphan asylums, 
2 ; and by a mining company, 1 . 



It is of interest to add the outline 
school instruction as follows: 

1. The course of study is two years 
in length. 

2. Classes will be held from April 1 
to August 31. The months of October, 
November, and December, in both the 
first and second years, will be devoted 
to visits, demonstrations, and practice 
work under the supervision of the prin- 
cipal and professors of the school. 

3. Tentative admission will be granted 
to applicants between 20 and 40 years 
of age (in special cases, the council may 
make exceptions to this general rule), 
who have good health, have had school- 
ing equal to at least 3 years of the course 
leading to the degree of bachelor in lib- 
eral arts, and can present adequate 
references as to character. 

Applicants will be definitely accepted 
on presentation of a bond for 2,000 
pesos,^ after they have satisfactorily 
completed two months' work. 
4. Students who properly complete their practical work and pass 
the periodical examinations will be admitted to the final examina- 
tion. If this is passed they will be given the title of social worker 
(visitadora social). 



1. — Class room 

2.— Information office 

3.— Doorman's room 

4 & 5.— Students' toilets 

6. — Cloak room 

7. — Lecture hall 

8. — Office of principal and the school 

IL— Secretary's office and study hall 

12. — Living room 

18 & 19.— Kitchen and class room for 
course in dietetics 

9.— Office 

10, 13, 14, 15, 16 & 17.— Living quarters 
of the Director 

« This bond is nominal and requires only the signature of a responsible person. 


5. When students give the aforementioned bond they obhgate 
themselves to work for at least two years in the social-welfare insti- 
tutions dependent on the Charity Board, provided they are requested 
to do so within a year after graduation and provided the salary 
offered is not less than 6,000 pesos.* 

6. Graduates of the schools of nursing recognized by the Medical 
School and especially recommended by the principals of their re- 
spective schools may be accepted in the Social Service School for 
training as visiting nurses. They shall take the same courses as 
social workers, except those in first aid and nursing care. 


FIRST year: winter semester 

Each of the following courses is given 2 hours a week, except ethics, which is 
given 1 hour: 

1. Civics. 

2. Psychology and economics. 

3. Hygiene. 

4. Nursing care. 

5. General nutrition and dietetics. 

6. OflSce practice; statistics. 

7. Ethics. 

FIRST year: summer semester 

In charge of the principal: 

Social service practice work in public and private institutions, in the informa- 
tion office, settlement, etc. 

In charge of the professors: 

Visits to and demonstrations in public and private institutions, bureaus, and 

SECOND year: winter semester 

Continuation of courses 1 to 6, in the following form: 

1. Legislation on health, charity, labor, child welfare, etc. 

2. Economics, second part. 

3. Child care. 

4. First aid. 

5. Special nutrition and dietetics. 

6. Accounting. 

7. Organization of public charity. 

8. Social service in its various branches (communications from former 


< The salary scale for social workers fixed by the board in 1926 was as follows: 


Heads of divisions or those working alone 6,000 

Assistant workers - 5, 000 

Second -year student assistants 4, 000 

Later, the 1927 budget reduced these salaries 5 per cent until further notice. It should be observed 
that the salaries of the medical personnel were at the same time and for the same reason— economy— reduced 
10 per cent. 


SECOND year: summer semester 

Work similar to that of first year. 

Notes. — Examinations shall be held from time to time in each subject. These 
shall take place when and as decided by the council, acting on the report of the 

In giving examination marks a professor shall take into account the effort put 
forth bj^ the student, the opinion of her ability held by her superiors, her practice 
work, the value of the thesis which she presents a month before the final examina- 
tion, and the regularity of her attendance at the school. . . . 

When the council deems it necessary the curriculum shall be ampUfied by 
complementary courses, compulsory for part or all of the students. 

During the second year the students shall specialize in social work connected 
with the following: Infant welfare, the school child, industry, public assistance 
(compulsory insurance), or hospitals. 


This office is an integral part of the School of Social Service. Its duties are to 
serve as a clearing house of information on social service institutions and organi- 
zations, and to offer to such entities, if desired in specific cases, the services of a 
trained social worker. . . . 


By Jesus Castillo 

Active Member of the Society of Geography and History of Guatemala 

1. Autochthonic instrunieiits. These instrmnents are the xul or 
zu, the caracol, the tarribor, and the tun. 

The xul is a wmd mstrument of ancient origin made of stone or 
baked clay, which in size and the sounds it produces may be com- 
pared with the flute or the primitive piccolo. 

The writer has seen all of these instruments in a collection made 
by Doctor Jaramillo, a distinguished Colombian physician. In 
addition, he has seen two other xules belonging, respectively, to two 
members of his family, Licenciado Jose Barrientos and don Manuel 
Napoleon Castillo, and has played one belonging to Dr. Ernesto 
Molina V. It should be noted that: 

(a) None of the instrmnents mentioned has the shape of those of 
similar sound originating in other parts of the world. 

(6) The material of which they are fashioned is absolutely different. 

(c) Made by a priestly race, these objects take the form of idols, 
strange animals and other beings, their appearance contrasting 
strangely with the customary cylindrical form of European flutes. 

{d) Then technique is absolutely original, since the air holes con- 
trolling the various tones, instead of being distributed in consecutive 

'Translated into English from Anales de la Sodedad de Oeografia e Historia de Guatemala, September, 1927. 


order, are in complete disorder when compared with such distribution 
in similar foreign instruments. Indeed a European flutist would 
find it very difficult to extract melody from a xul. 

Cane and bone flutes, mentioned by Doctor Spinden among the 
indigenous musical instruments of Guatemala, should be enumerated 
here as autochthonic instruments. The Popol Buj^ (Villacorta y 
Rodas edition) also mentions three indigenous flutes: The tatil 
Tcanabaj, the zubak and the chau-chau as being among the things 
which the Tulanians brought "when they came from the other side 
of the sea." 

The following etymology of tatil Tcanabaj, as given by the learned 
translators of the Popol Buj, will serve both as an illustration and 
proof: Ta, to hear or listen; til, to blow; lean, prayer; and ahaj, hard 
stone (the material from which the fife is made). 

The maxes of Chichicastenango also have a small flute made of 
cane called the tzijolaj, some of the melodies of which I have put 
into musical notation. 

It should be noted that at the present time, the xul made from clay 
and stone has been almost completely abandoned, only the cane xul 
or tzijoloj being used. 

Another autochthonic instrument is the tot or conch, which has 
also fallen into almost complete disuse. A very interesting example 
of this instrument is to be found in Guatemala City, the property of 
don Hector Montano. Don Carlos Merida, who has played it, tells 
the writer that it is decorated after the Indian fashion and produces 
strong resonant tones. According to this noted artist, however, the 
horn has but a limited range, although it may be true with this 
instrument as with the xul that only the Indians who know it well 
are able to produce from it a satisfactory tonal range. That this is 
the case has been aflfirmed by the talented artist Ricardo de la Riva, 
of Guatemala City, who during his long stay in Coban frequently 
heard complete scale melodies played on the instrument in question. 
Moreover, the musician who played the conch told Don Ricardo that 
the original use of this horn was to call the Indians to war. In 
speaking later of the archaeological remains which bear witness to the 
existence of autochthonic music, this conch will be described more fully. 

Up to this point discussion has dealt solely with the native melodic 
instruments; the instruments of percussion and accompaniment must 
now be considered. One of these, the tambor, or drum, is of very 
ancient origin, although it is stiQ in use, the writer having noted three 
sizes: Large, medium, and small. The largest, which is about 2.78 
feet in diameter, and commonly called tamhoron, is usually played 
alone, although it often serves to accompany the cane xul. The 

2 Or Popol Vuh, the book containing the Quiche national legend, the only original text of which now in 
existence was written in the Quiche dialect by a Guatemalan neophyte in the XVII century. 


medium-sized one is used to mark the rhythm of airs played upon the 
chirimia, while the small drum is used to accompany the tzijolaj. 

Dr. Herbert J. Spinden, the archaeological curator of Harvard 
University, says that besides the deer-skin drum, analagous without 
doubt to those just mentioned, the Central American Indians had 
still another with vibrating cords which somewhat resembles the 
European double drum. In the national museum of Mexico will be 
found examples of an archaic drum called the huehuetl,^ similar to that 
used to accompany the Guatemalan tzijolaj. Still other drums are 
mentioned in Guatemalan indigenous literature: The atabal in the 
Popol Buj, and the tambor de guerra, or war drum in the indigenous 
drama Babinal AcM. The tun, another very original indigenous 
drum, is still in use in Guatemala, principally in the central and 
southern sections of the country. It is also to be seen in some parts 
of Mexico, where it is called tejponaxtle,^ and there are said to be some 
few examples of them in the Republic of El Salvador, where they are 
known by the same name as in Mexico. 

For the purposes of this article a tun may be described as a hollow 
wooden cylinder in whose curved walls rectangular incisions have 
been cut in each of which languets have been placed in order to 
obtain increased sonority of percussion. With this instrument and 
two trumpets the indigenes were wont to accompany the ballet 
in Rabinal Achi, the music of which has been put in written form 
by that renowned student of American antiquities, Brasseur de 

The writer, as a child, remembers having seen a tun of extraordinary 
dimensions in the parochial church of San Juan Ostuncalco where for 
a long time it occupied an important place in the collection of musical 
instruments of that parish. This enormous tun was played alone or 
as accompaniment to two very sweet-toned trumpets, doubtless 
analogous to those mentioned by Brasseur, although the latter un- 
fortunately omitted a complete description of the Rabinal trumpets. 
With regard to the trumpets seen at Ostuncalco, it may be said that 
they did not actually deserve the name of trumpets, since the mouth- 
piece resembled more closely that of the chirimia or flageolet. There 
are many persons in the city of Quezaltenango who still remember 
the three instruments in question. 

It is fitting that another musical instrument of Guatemala, the 
marimba, said by some to be an exotic instrument since it is also 
found in Central Africa, should be considered here. If the marimba 
is to be considered an exotic instrument, then everything, absolutely 
everything, that we possess in Guatemala has been brought from the 
exterior. But as a matter of fact this is not true. The Spaniards, 
for instance, brought pottery, lances, bracelets, cotton cloth, banners, 

3 See Bulletin of the Pan American Union, April, 1926. * Idem. 


the art of lighting a fire, and a hundred other things. But the aborig- 
inal inhabitants of the country also had their own pottery, lances, 
bracelets, cotton cloth, pennants, knew the art of kindling a fire, 
and possessed religious beliefs somewhat resembling the religious 
beliefs of the old world. Hence, if some marimbas may have been 
brought into the country during colonial days, it does not necessarily 
follow that this instrument was unknown in America before that time. 

Another reason sufficiently well-founded to prove the assertion that 
the marimba is of American origin is the pre-Columbian name of a 
mountain in Huehuetenango, called Chinal Jul, a word which in the 
native tongue means the marimha of the ravines. 

2. Natural melodies heard by the Indian from the time of his birth. 

In writing these notes, the author will not attempt to make a study 
of all the musical elements which each one of the races originating in 
Mexico and Central America may have contributed to the creation 
of the vernacular art. If the famous Mayas or Ulmecas were actually 
of North Africa, as has been stated, North Africa has undoubtedly 
contributed to the development of Guatemalan music and, similarly, 
if the famous Nahoas or Toltecs were of Asiatic origin it is possible 
that this indigenous art is due in part to Asiatic influence. 

But, in the case of the truly primitive races inhabiting the country, 
there is not a single logical reason for believing them incapable of 
creating a vernacular music, above all if we believe with many 
eminent authorities that "Music is a gift inherent to man." And 
even supposing that the Mayas and Toltecs were immigrant races, 
or that all the peoples of Mexico and Central America were strictly 
indigenous, the fact remains that none of these races ever lacked 
motive or occasion for subjective or objective inspiration. 

This article does not lend itself to an elaboration of the innumerable 
instances in which a bountiful tropical Nature gave the indigenes 
opportunity for spiritual expansion, nor of the ordinary musical 
sounds heard from birth. But it should be noted that not only do 
some of these sounds possess a perfectly perceptible melody but 
that they also have many arpeggios, tonal turns, the rudiments of 
modulatory turns and, what is still more marvelous, are composed 
within a perfect natural scale. An amazing enough fact in itself is 
the major scale, produced by nature, through her organic creatures, 
the birds. 

The birds referred to are two cenzontles ^ — the water cenzontle and 
the reed cenzontle, both being native to Guatemala. Through these 
two cenzontles, nature has placed the Indian in constant and per- 
manent contact with constructive musical elements, identical to 
those which to-day serve as a basis for harmonic theory. In effect, 
the song of these birds is within a perfect major scale, from one fifth 

» Bird of the Turdidde, or thrush family. 



to another, and it contains intervals of a second, third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth. Now, strange as it may seem, in our most purely indige- 
nous music no other intervals are used. In these same bird songs one 
finds syncopation, rests, holds, perfect chords of a fourth and sixth 
in arpeggio form, rudimentary transitions from the dominant to 
the tonic and even modulations in an imperfect form. The follow- 
ing ^ is the song score of these two birds, a score in which the musical 
technician will find, upon careful analysis, the elements enumerated. 
The writer regrets not being able to include, also, the guarda barranca "^ 
song which consists of a succession of intervals, the notes of which 
are emitted so rapidly that they seem to be simultaneous. This 

.J^f/^ur^ ^'^^^^?^^i97^/>^/2yt€^l^^■^'€:^^^t'£nf\)l((^^ AjL -ixtcdtcd^r 

nitijitUtJff c-^^;2^*^ cA^ a^na^fc</Z<z^ rt^e d^tMi^ru:l^7iG^^<i^7?z-e^-ti'n^ya^,/z^iI^^ 

Bird music which the Central American Indian hears from birth 

song appears as the ending of a waltz called "Fiesta de Pajaros" 
composed by the writer in 1909 and published in 1917 by the Senores 
Vasques Hnos. As a matter of fact the descending intervals made 
by this bird are in fourths and other irregular tonal fractions. . , . 

3. Examples of autochthonic melodies. 

Before dealing with this much-mooted point it was necessary for 
the author to reach definite conclusions as to the existence of Maya- 
Quiche autochthonic music, as to which the writer's convictions, 
before being published by the Society of Geography and History, 
were reached after more than 40 years' study of the subject matter 

' "Song of the Cenzontles" from "La Conquista" by Maestro J. Castillo. 
' A native song bird of Guatemala. 


and constant spoken and written contact with the best musicians 
of Guatemala and well-known foreign composers. 

With respect to this belief in autochthonic music, the author 
corresponded, in the year 1924, with the well-known virtuoso Manuel 
Font d'Aute, of Madrid, who has been named by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment to head the musical committee of the Seville exposition 
which will be inaugurated next year [1929]. Convinced of the 
erudition of this composer on autochthonic music, particularly 
Spanish, several examples of Guatemalan indigenous music were 
submitted to him. His reply in which he declared that the melodies 
"are beyond question original" could not have been more satisfactory. 

Another now well-known composer, who was Ricardo Castillo's 
teacher of harmony, decisively affirmed the originality of this music. 
This composer, M. Paul Vidal, was the former director of the Grand 
Opera orchestra in Paris and professor of composition in the Con- 
servatory. . . . 

The writer for his part may state that he distinguishes the Spanish 
forms perfectly from the indigenous, since as a young man he studied 
both styles separately. Reference might also be made, did space 
permit, to the excellent reception accorded certain compositions of 
Spanish music submitted by the writer in 1923 to the Liceo de 
America in Madrid. . . . 

The fragments of Guatemalan indigenous music which the writer 
has succeeded in reconstructing during his 40 years of investigation 
are in reality very few. They are as follows: 1, a composition to be 
executed on the cane zubak with drum accompaniment, transcribed 
in San Juan Ostuncalco in 1886 and played by the writer last year 
before the noted archaeologist, Doctor Gamio, and the artist, Rafael 
Yela G., both of whom agreed that its very primitive savor could only 
have been inspired by bird songs; 2, a melody of primitive construc- 
tion found in the same village during the same year, which is extremely 
interesting. The indigenes played it in their own religious ceremonies 
and continued using it, later, in Catholic ceremonies, such as proces- 
sions, the stations of the cross, etc.; 3, a composition discovered in 
the mountains of northern Huehuetenango, which does not seem to 
have been inspired by bird songs but which breathes that combination 
of sweetness and melancholy so characteristic of the indigenes; 4, a 
melody of rare character found in Chichicastenango in 1926, which 
was for execution on the tzijolaij accompanied by the JiueJiuetl; 5, a 
fragment of extremely primitive character executed on the xul and 
drum in 1927 in the village of Almolonga, Quezaltenango. It has 
also been sung by Santos Kolop. 

The author likewise possesses many incomplete compositions which 
he intends to reconstruct, and, furthermore, his autochthonic musical 
89045— 28— Bull. 4 3 



collection will soon be considerably enriched by several new compo- 
sitions collected with the aid of the many friends who have helped him. 

4. Influence of autochthonic music on imported music. 

History mentions various dances common to the indigenes. Among 
them are the Rabinal Achi, the celebrated dance Quiche Vinak and 
others referred to in the Popol Buj, and the Baile del Venado, or deer 
dance, which still survives. These dances were necessarily accom- 
panied by autochthonic music. In this respect, Father Landa, 
referring to the Mayas, says: "They diverted themselves in glad- 
some fashion, presenting many amusing farces. They used kettle 

■ kMar > \A>l47iiuia.,K)tt>^^tKAAXU'ntjFU.nrif;ntfL^ a foi qd f vtttcui ^ i df ^t >- r - f, - \tg pH-7 

^'l^ ftf ff^^'J 

r^^g jvf«rr 

3 - 




—^ r- -/ ^^ ,/^- 

1 J 1 1 1 1 1 u 



ft ? 

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'^A |7,n^|n^.tuvrt,. 

Indigenous music by Maestro J. Castillo 


One of the historic airs still played by the Mayan Quiche Indian in religious worship 

drums, cane and deer bone pipes to accompany dances in games like 
the colonche or cane game, and that other of warlike character in 
which 800 persons dance with banners in their hands. In addition 
to these dances there are others which still persist and whose steps are 
sometimes accented by indigenous and sometimes by Spanish airs." 
And even as the latter have suffered indigenous influence, so have 
the autochthonic themes suffered from the Spanish influence, there 
being many examples in which the musician, expert in this subject, 
finds it extremely difficult to distinguish between them, so powerful 
has been that influence. 


The "Baile de los toritos" (Dance of the Young Bulls) and "La 
Conquista" (the Conquest) show varymg grades in the evolution 
which results when the two styles are thrown together. There are 
times in which one becomes conscious of the indigenous melody 
through the enveloping Spanish rhythm. Brasseur de Bourbourg 
v/as right when in publishing certain fragments found in Nacaragua 
he printed them under the title "Indigenous Airs with Spanish 
Accompaniment." The writer has a number of Indian-Spanish 
pieces which he would like to publish in order to show the admixture 
which, in varying degree, both styles suffered with the intermingling 
of the races. . . . 

The Guatemalan repertoire also includes pieces which show national 
characteristics to a superlative degree. Among them may be men- 
tioned the Xelajuh waltz, a composition of Santos Rosal, the premier 
presentation of which was made by the Toribio Hurtado & Sons 
marimba company of Guatemala City. A waltz called "La Flor del 
Cafe" (The Coffee Flower), attributed to Alcantara, also belongs to 
this genre as well as certain compositions by Julian Paniagua, of 
whom it is said: "He has the true national touch." 

The country in which creole music has really been developed is 
Mexico, where there are any number of teachers versed in indigenous 
music. At times the Spanish Zapateado; at others, the vito; and at 
still others, the Aragonese or Navarrese jotas have given rise to 
typical Guatemalan airs. Of these the writer distinguishes two 
kinds: That of sad and expressive character, essentially the inher- 
itance and creation of the indigenes, and that of happy or jovial 
character, the festive music of our ladinos, that is, Indians who speak 
Spanish. In conclusion it may be stated that if the indigenous peo- 
ples had not possessed musical ability they would not have been able 
to effect this combination of types as they have done, contenting 
themselves, instead, with the mere servile repetition of what they 
heard from the Spaniards. 

5. Archaeological remains showing indigenes playing instruments 
peculiar to the country. 

Two conclusive proofs may be given on this point : 1 . The autoch- 
thonic drawing made in colors on skin, a photograph of which was 
published by "El Imparcial,"^ November 15, 1924, representing two 
Indians carrying their king in a litter. Preceding the Indians is a 
musician playing an enormous conch. The arabesque-like signs 
which appear above the conch are of the same technique as those 
appearing in another interesting archaeological jewel, the beautiful 
thousand-year-old relief at Palenque, a picture of which was pub- 
lished in Stephens' historic-archseological work. This relief repre- 
sents an Indian playing an instrument which can be no other than a 
flageolet. Moreover from the free end of the instrument arabesques 

' Well-known daily, of Guatemala City. 


appear in a manner precisely similar to those in the picture published 
in "El Imparcial." The author has come to believe that the Indians 
painted these arabesques in their instruments to represent the sounds 
they were emitting. 

2. The small picture in relief found in San Juan Teotihuac^n, 
Mexico, representing several Indians dancing, surrounded by musi- 
cians playing various instruments. It was discovered by Senor 
Rafael Yela G., who, with extreme care, traced its outlines on Chi- 
nese paper, the copy thus obtained being sent to the Museum at 

In addition to these two truly irrefutable proofs, there remain the 
statements in the works of early writers. Father Landa has already 
been quoted on this particular, but there are others which space 
does not permit the writer to quote. . . . 

6. The opinion of noted Guatemalan artists. 

Don Fabian Rodriguez, the eminent educator of Guatemala City, 

"It has been proved that Maya-Quiche music exists and has 
existed. Like all primitive music it lacks scientific harmonization, 
but it is original apart from the fact that the rhythms of the tun 
suggest to the composer new ideas as to structure." 

The futurist composer, Jose Castefiada, has expressed himself as 
follows: "In reahty these indigenous melodies can be subjected to 
classical forms only with the greatest difficulty. The harmonic 
structure of indigenous music is small and exceedingly laconic; it is 
an oscillation of the pendulum between the tonic and the dominant. 
When any other coloring is utilized it is only by the way or as if by 

The Guatemalan sculptor, Rafael Yela G., already mentioned, pub- 
lished his opinion on this subject in the "Diario Nuevo," March, 1921 . 
Don Fernando Galvez Medina, a musician long engaged in opera 
and musical comedy, has also expressed himself in no uncertain 
terms as to the existence of autochthonic music. 

Similar expressions have, been made by the principal members of 
the Guatemalan symphony orchestra, including Bernardo de J. 
Coronado, don Julio Perez and others who for lack of space are not 
enumerated here, all of whom are firm behevers in the existence of 
vernacular music in Guatemala. 

Finally, it should be noted that there are Guatemalan composers 
who, like Julian Paniagua and Rafael Vasquez, have demonstrated 
their belief in and love for this national art in a very practical way, 
the first-named being the composer of a notable indigenous suite, 
which should by all means be promptly published. And among 
Guatemalan masters now deceased, must be mentioned the inspired 
Ignacio Cruz, composer of a similar s-uiie, and Angel L6pez, a composer 
of great feeling and still greater modesty. 



By Leon L. Koy 


EO TRAFUL can be reached by auto from Bariloche over a 
road some 100 kilometers long. Half of this distance the 
road skirts the Rio Limay. It was built a little more than 
a year ago and in great part was blasted with dynamite out 
of the very rock. There are places just wide enough for two autos to 
pass each other. At times the road takes the form of a shelf along a 
perpendicular wall dominating the roaring waters of the Rio Limay 
as it tumbles over the rapids more than 50 meters below. 

The bed of the river is a ravine cut through red and yellow volcanic 
formations. There is a place called Los Monigotes where the rocks 
assume grotesque forms of animals and other objects of a greatly 
varied character. 

One of the extremities of Lago Traful can be reached by a road of 
the Estancia Primavera. The lake itself is of imposing and somber 
aspect produced by the special kind of pine tree of that region known 
as "pinos de Traful." Above its somberness rise the tinted snows of 
the mountains, forming a spectacle of singular beauty. Lago Traful 
is almost unknown to tourists. 

Many are the excursions which can be made in a direction east of 
Bariloche. Among these figure undoubtedly some of the most 
interesting trips in the national park. To make the eastward trips 
one must first motor to a place called Nahuel Huapi (after the lake) 
and there cross the Rio Limay into the Territory of Neuquen. Every- 
thing so far described has been in the Territory of Rio Negro. There 
are many forks in the road. Those interested in discovering how 
stock is raised in these regions can visit the Estancias Newbery, Jones, 
and Anchorena. 

With this we leave the trips that can be made by automobile from 
Bariloche at this date and turn to tell of spots to be reached by less 
modern but more picturesque means. 

• From The American Weekly of Buenos Aires, Dec. 31, 1927. 





One of the trips suggested is that to Rio Correntoso, situated at the 
extreme northern end of Lago Nahuel Huapi, and furnishing drainage 
for the connecting Lago Correntoso. 

Small steamers maintain a service over Lago Nahuel Huapi and 
make stops at various points of its shores, including Puerto Anchorena 
on the Isla Victoria. El Tronador is visible from many of these places. 
In Correntoso there is a hotel where one may stop for lunch or stay 
over a few days between boats. 


From Bariloche, situated at the southeastern extremity of Lake Nahuel Huapi, numerous trips can be 
made to the picturesque lake region of Argentina and Chile 


Another excursion by boat is to Puerto Blest, not far from the 
Chilean frontier. One goes along the southern shores of Nahuel 
Huapi, where the water is so clear the bottom can be seen at a depth 
of 10 meters. Before arriving at Puerto Blest, and while going 
around an arm of the lake that bears this name, we pass before Cas- 
cada Blanca, one of the most beautiful waterfalls of the region. There 
is an abundance of water here as the mountains become higher and 
higher. At Puerto Blest there is a good hotel, and from this point 
can be made an interesting excursion on foot to the Lagos de los Can- 



taros, a distance of several kilometers after the bay has been crossed 
by boat. 

Hiking along the Rio de los Cantaros, we arrive at the first little 
lake, where a boat can be obtained to go the length of it to a 
connecting river. Under a vault of arching trees this river is followed 
on foot until the second lake is reached. And so, partly on foot 
and partly by boat, we ascend seven successive lakes, each time 
entering deeper into the mountains. Before reaching the ultimate 
lake we pass many very striking cascades. Near the second lake 
the water falling among verdure from a sharp granite cliff several 
hundred meters high brings back certain memories of Yosemite in 

Small steamers maintain regular service between various points along the shore 


From Puerto Blest we can also go on foot, on horseback, or by 
"catango," i. e., a cart drawn by oxen, to Lagunas Frias, a matter 
of 3 kilometers. Here a launch can be taken to a hotel. We can 
now become more intimate with the mountains and hear the ava- 
lanches rumbling on the flanks of El Tronador. The lagoon is 
surrounded by mountains whose sides drop almost perpendicularly to 
the water which, a few feet from the land's edge, is hundreds of 
meters in depth. It has never been thoroughly sounded, but a depth 
of 1,000 meters was reached in one spot, which would mean that 
the bottom there was below sea level. 



One of the numerous cascades on the Rio de los Cantaros not far from Puerto Blest 

With the hotel at Laguna Frias as base of operations, an "alpine" 
ascent can be made of Mount Mirador, which is more than 2,000 
meters high and about 1,000 meters above the surface of the lagoon. 
From that point of vantage we can get our first real look at El 
Tronador and its glaciers. If the day be clear our view dominates 
various hundreds of Andean snow-capped peaks and far away the 
very waters of the Pacific Ocean. Our guide will point out the 
Chilean peaks of Puntiagudo and Osorno, the latter a splendid 
volcanic cone. 



Frias, one of the smaller and most picturesque of the lakes, is surrounded by steep tree-clad mountains 

From Laguna Frias branches the international road that crosses 
by the Perez Rosales Pass at 1,600 meters altitude. Here are passed 
gigantic specimens of "colihues" that measure several meters in 


Presently we descend toward the Chilean side as far as Casa 
Pangue. Here the Rio Peulla must be forded. On this hike it is 



possible to approach still nearer to El Tronador and reach the very 
foot of one of its glaciers, the one known as Casa Pangue Glacier. 
Presently Peulla is reached on the shores of Lago de Todos los Santos, 
also called Lago Esmeralda from the color of its water. There is a 
good hotel here which can be used as a base for further hikes. 

But Peulla is generally the terminus of excursions from Bari- 
loche, because one can go thus far without passports or visas. 
The customhouse at Casa Pangue does not bother tourists. 


Peulla, on Lake Todos los Santos, is a convenient base for additional hikes into the lake country of either 

Argentina or Chile 


The foregoing paragraphs by no means exhaust the possibilities of 
the Nahuel Huapi region. Other excursions still remain, but lack of 
comfortable means of traveling do not make them equally attractive 
to all tourists. 

In a previous paragraph we have said that an automobile road 
from Bariloche runs as far as Lago Gutierrez. At this point we can 
mount horse and go on a trip of investigation about the lake and 
also another one, the Lago Mascardi. Between these two lakes is 
the very backbone of the continental divide. Lago Gutierrez dis- 
charges its waters by the Rio Gutierrez into Lago Nahuel Huapi, 
whose waters flow via the rivers Limay and Negro to the Atlantic 



Ocean. On the other hand, the Lago Mascardi, only a few hundred 
meters distant from Lago Gutierrez, discharges its waters into the 
Rio Manso, the Rio Puelo, and finally into the Pacific Ocean. 

This curious circumstance once caused a slight boundary dispute 
between Chile and Argentina. Chile maintained that Lago Mascardi 
(and also its auxiliary, Lago Menendez) should belong to Chile 
because it formed part of the Pacific watershed. But the arbitrator 
maintained that Lago Mascardi was properly on the east side of the 
Andes and therefore belonged to Argentina. 

Following Rio Manso we arrive at a mountain cabin where we can 
pass the night. Resuming the trip we can arrive at El Tronador's 
glacier and pass over its ice to see a cavern where a river is born. 

The snow-clad peak of Puntiagudo dominates the background 

One can continue on to Laguna Frias or return to Bariloche by the 
way one came. Either way it is a matter of an easy two days on 


The directions now are to take an automobile from Bariloche 
toward Lago Traful, as before. But in passing the Estancia Neill 
one must take to horses and travel until the banks of the river are 
reached at a spot called El Correntoso. At this point of its course 
the Rio Lamay makes a turn of 180 degrees, the water coursing around 
with incredible violence. Years of this action have eroded the cliff 




into the form of a great amphitheater. The illusion is aided by a 
quantity of black rocks against a light background which simulate 
perfectly a crowd of spectators. 

The trip can be continued from El Correntoso on to Traful by 
horse and back by boat and auto to Bariloche. 

There is also a Lago Correntoso with a hotel on its shores. On 
horseback one can keep traveling to Lago Espejo which communi- 
cates with it. At the northern extremity of this lake we cross a pass 
to get to Lago Traful. This zone is famous for its "huemules," a 
specie of great deer formerly very abundant in the southern cordillera 
and now reduced almost to the region east of Lago Traful. At times 
it is possible to approach quite close to these deer as they are no 
longer persecuted as relentlessly as in other days. 



That portion of this trail that skirts Lago Traful, as far as the 
extreme eastern section of the Estancia La Primavera, provides plenty 
thrills as at times it is barely wide enough for two horses to pass and 
there are abrupt turns to be made at a height of about 100 meters 
above water. 

These excursions on horseback are only the principal ones to be 
made in this zone. There are many more, long and short, trips to 
be made as the region of the lakes is one of infinite variety and suited 
to all tastes. It has been said already that the lakes region is not 
confined to Nahuel Huapi and its environs but it extends from San 


Martin de los Andes to the southern extremity of the country, 
Nahuel Huapi is the part most accessible by ordinary means. 



The field of the traveler's operations can be extended to include 
this northern part of the National Park. San Martin de los Andes 
is on the shores of Lago Lacar in the Territory of Neuquen. It is 
a small town that was founded to serve as a military garrison in the 
days of boundary discussion with Chile. It likewise is a center of 
numerous lakes and high mountains dressed in pines. 

One can easily go to San Martin de los Andes in an automobile 
from Neuquen or from the terminus of the Southern Railway in 


Zapala. By following this last route one has an opportunity to view 
the valley of Junin de los Andes. 

San Martin can also be reached from Bariloche, going via Pilcaniyen 
and the Flores Pass, crossing the Rio Limay on a raft; or else going 
by auto from Bariloche as far as Traful and then over the hills to 
San Martin on horseback. This trip, of course, does not offer the 
accommodations to be had on some of the other trips described, but 
is perfectly feasible to the lover of equitation. 


We now turn southward, having finished with the north. Esquel 
is situated in the famous valley of Diez y Seis de Octubre, but this 
name should not frighten the tourist as it was probably bestowed at 
long distance. Esquel can be reached in one day either from Bari- 
loche or Ing. Jacobacci. From the latter point there is a "Mensajeria" 
service to Esquel. Both routes unite at Norquinco. 

Beyond Norquinco one enters the valley of Maiten, one of the 
prettiest and richest of the country. It is crossed by the Rio Chubut, 
which must be forded at Maiten as the bridge is still uncompleted. 

Then we can go to Bolson de Epuyen, in the very heart of the Cor- 
dillera and rivaling the natural beauty of Nahuel Huapi, Puerto Blest, 
and Laguna Frias. If possible to visit, it should not be missed. One 
can also reach it by horseback from Lago Mascardi, but this is a trip 
for those who do not mind spending a night in the open air. 

Resuming at Maiten, we go on to Esquel via Leleque. Esquel is 
a very important town and the center of all the region of Andine 
Chubut. It is situated in the pretty valley already mentioned and 
has various hotels with adequate accommodations. Many auto trips 
can be made out from it, such as that to the colony 20 kilometers 
away populated many years ago by the Welsh. Another trip is as 
far as Lago Futralauquen in a region of great beauty. Esquel, were 
it not for the fact that it is 400 kilometers from the railroad, could 
quickly be converted into a tourist center. 

This has been a very desultory sketch with but slight lingering 
at detailed description. Every excursion to be done justice would 
need an article to itself. But probably an adequate idea has been 
here conveyed of what is rightly referred to by initiates as the "Switz- 
erland of South America." 


THE vicissitudes from which any writer's work suffers in 
translation — save only in the Living Age [and the Bulletin 
of the P. A. U.] — were clearly revealed by an experiment 
conducted in Politiken, a leading Danish daily paper. A 
gathering of Copenhagen litterateurs had been discussing how diffi- 
cult it was to reproduce exactly the thought and style of any given 
author in a foreign tongue. PolitiJcen, therefore, prevailed upon 
Johannes V. Jensen, who writes the strongest and most individual 
Danish of any of his countrymen, to submit a short original manu- 
script to the test it had devised. He sent in a sketch of about 700 
words, entitled "The Load of Timber," which described a wagon 
rumbling down a woodland road. The rhythmical sentences, simple 
phrases, and well-chosen words gave a vivid impression of forest 
smells and colors, of abundant animal life, and of the dignity of 
nature and of labor. 

Professor Karlgren, a Swedish philologist at the University of 
Copenhagen and a complete master of Danish, translated the sketch 
into Swedish and forwarded this version to Doctor Marcus, professor 
of Swedish at the University of Berlin. This man, incidentally, 
knows Danish perfectly, and could not have failed to recognize 
Jensen's strongly marked style in the original. Nevertheless, after 
putting the sketch into German he wrote, "It was a bit difficult to 
translate, but I have no idea who the writer may be." The German 
text then went to Miss Constance Vesey in London, who acts as 
adviser on French and German translations to two large British 
publishing houses. Her English translation then crossed the channel 
and was put into French by Horace de Carbuccia, editor of the Revue 
de France and an expert on both English and Danish literature. 

The sketch had now passed through five different languages and 
the French version was given to a Danish doctor of philosophy 
named Rimestad, who has translated many French classics into 
Danish. He has written extensively on Jensen, whose work, he 
says, can never retain its full flavor in a foreign language. On 
receiving the French article he called up Politiken and asked in sur- 
prise why they wanted a translation of material that seemed to have 

1 Tlie Living Age, Dec. 15, 1927. 



been written by a schoolchild, adding that none of the contemporary- 
French writers whom he admired could have turned out anything so 

When his translation was finally put beside the original article 
he was amazed at Jensen's consistently felicitous language ; although 
in a foreign tongue the same piece seemed commonplace and worth- 
less. In the original, for instance, the driver was described as a 
bearded country workman "in a state of complete balance." In the 
foreign languages this was rendered as "indifferent," whereas in 
Danish it implies a state of inner equilibrium. Politiken closed the 
subject with a drawing of a wagonload of timber setting forth from 
Copenhagen to Stockholm, continuing its progress through Berlin, 
London, and Paris, and finally returning to Copenhagen a mere load 
of firewood, ready to burn. 


BARCELONA has been called "The Executive Arm and Brain 
of Spain" — a city which has achieved splendid industrial 
development and yet curiously retained and preserved, in so 
far as its urban demands permit, much of the loveliness and 
antiquity of the ancient Catalonian city. Cervantes, three centuries 
ago, recognized it for the "great, famous, rich, and well-established 
city " which it is. In Barcelona one meets not only with an industrial 
vigor, but with splendid manifestations of the profound sense of 
external beauty which exists in its inhabitants. Everywhere in this 
model city one is confronted with magnificent examples of architec- 
ture and beautiful parks which perpetuate the talents and abounding 
energies of the Catalans. 

The tremendous industrial energy of Barcelona is largely the result 
of the essential characteristics of the Catalans. They are a vigorous, 
indomitable race; a people of great executive resource, warm sym- 
pathy, and, above all, of infinite recuperative powers — a quality 
which has enabled them, in the face of great pressure, to main- 
tain the brilliant level of industrial achievement which is theirs. 

Barcelona is not only the principal commercial center of Spain and 
the most important city on the Mediterranean coast, but one of the 
finest ports in the world. Its annual trade, according to the newest 



statistical data, comprises 2,300,000 tons importation and 500,000 
exportation. The textile industry — the chief industry of Catalonia 
as a whole — finds its greatest development in Barcelona itself, and has 
created an active market for the importation of the products of all 
allied fields. The shoe, leather, metal, cork, and oil-extracting indus- 
tries are of no small import in the industrial life of Catalonia. The 
principal agricultural products of this vicinity are nuts and grapes. 

The fact that one-third of the total importation to Spain passes 
through the port of Barcelona has necessitated a highly developed 
transportation system. This city is served by several large steamship 
lines with regular sailings from the principal ports of Europe and 
America, as well as by the leading railways of Spain. 

All available statistics point to an economic reawakening in Spain. 
The new Government, which has proven its ability to stabilize 

iri4«f ^-*%^ 

I r,~ 


economic conditions in Spain during the last four years, is taking 
active steps to improve transportation facilities, to encourage more 
efficient exploitation of mineral and agricultural resources, to utilize 
Spain's vast potential hydroelectric resources, and to encourage manu- 
facturing in all its branches. These various developmental processes 
will require material of all kinds in their execution, and the demand 
thus created should amply repay American exporters for their expense 
in placing exhibits in the various sections of the exposition. 

At the present time the United States is the chief exporter to 
Spain, the total value of the exports from the United States to Spain 
in 1926 being $68,244,294, which is over 18 per cent of the total 
imports into Spain from all countries. These figures indicate the 
market which exists in Spain for American goods, and in order to 
hold this market against European competition America should be 
well represented in an exposition of such great importance to Spain 
as the Barcelona Exposition. 
89045— 28— Bull. 4 4 




The Exposition of Barcelona, scheduled to open April, 1929, under 
the protection of the Spanish Government, will have for its site the 
verdant slopes of Montjuich, bordering the outskirts of the city. 
This park combines all the elegance and luxuriance of modern urban 
development with reminiscences of ancient Moorish loveliness, and 
serves as a fitting background for the magnificent permanent exhi- 
bition buildings which are being erected — the National Palace, the 
Palace of Building Arts, the Palace of Temporary Exhibitions, the 
Press Building, and the Stadium. Approximately 5,000 laborers are 
at present engaged in the construction of numerous temporary 
pavilions and palaces, among them the Palace of the Theater, 
Palace of Industries, Palace of Light, Palace of Industrial and Applied 
Arts, etc. 





The Barcelona Exposition will be international in scope. Although 
under the auspices of the National Government, its management will 
be in the hands of a local directorate in Barcelona. 

Japan and a number of the countries of Latin America, with a 
majority of those in Europe, are erecting pavilions in the exposi- 
tion grounds and have promised their cooperation in encouraging 
participation on the part of their manufacturers and producers. 
The market created by the exposition will therefore be not only a 
Spanish market but a general European market, as buyers and manu- 
facturers will visit the Barcelona Exposition from every country of 
the Continent as also from the Orient. 

A large sum of money has been appropriated for propaganda work 
in the participating countries, and this campaign to develop interest 



'- f f^Bii?n pa sniff ppi'.'L- _^, 

III I'i ' S^fPlKW'WH? ^i I ?i iP' > ■«„ 



is already under way, insuring the proper emphasis on the importance 
of the exposition. 

One of the great advantages of the Barcelona Exposition is the 
facilities of the free port of Barcelona. The existence of this free port 
will be of great assistance to exhibitors in disposing of their products 
and eliminating the expense of return shipments. Exhibits and stock 
which have been sent to Barcelona for the exposition can be stored 
in the free port after the exposition, sold at the convenience of the 
exhibitor, and reshipped to other coimtries in Europe and the Near 
East, without the necessity of entering these goods through Spanish 
customs or paying Spanish customs duties. Added to the fact that 
freight shipments to the exposition for the account of exhibitors will 


receive especially reduced rates, the free port will greatly facilitate 
covering the expense of participation in the exposition. 


The scope of the Exposition of Barcelona is wide and, briefly, 
includes the following sections: 

1. The Industrial Zone, perhaps the greatest aspect of the exposi- 
tion, will cover the products of manufacture of all countries, including 
machinery and the related manufacturing processes; transportation; 
sciences; systems of research; and all social organizations having 
a direct connection with industry and industrial art; regional agri- 
culture, mining, and industries devoted to the transformation of 
the products of the soil. Particular emphasis will be placed on all 
things pertaining to light, its influence on industry and the arts, and 
its importance in all aspects of human activity. This department is 
intended to constitute the First International Light Fair. 

2. The zone relegated to ''Art in Spain" will be a classified demon- 
stration of genuine historic treasures — artistic and archaeological — 
intended to give an eloquent and faithful presentation of the artistic 
development and the complete evolution of Spain. Important 
aspects of Spanish history will be demonstrated scenically. 

3. The Athletic Zone will include celebrations of the great national 
and international sporting events, and will generally reflect the 
importance of physical exercise in the habits of the people of all 
nations. Exhibitions of all athletic equipment and accessories will 
be held in the halls. 

4. Provisions will be made for expositions of a transitory nature 
which can not easily be included in the general scope of the exposition. 

5. Special competitions and the celebration of "special weeks" 
will be encouraged, as well as conventions and such group gatherings 
as will add to the splendor of the exposition. 



_i,- ^—~ -- 

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By John Hubert Cornyn 

THE vast number of indigenous documents so widely spread 
over the cultured parts of Mexico would naturally indicate 
that these races had a literature. All the early historians 
and writers on A/Texico, following the conquest, in 1521, 
bear witness to the existence of this literature, to its excellence, and 
to the wide extent of territory covered by it. Numerous historians 
give translations of ancient poems of high literary merit, excellence 
of form, and notable conception of morality and right. These 
historians were accused, later on, of making fanciful translations 
and even of manufacturing these supposed poems in an effort to 
glorify the ancient empire of the Aztecs. Ixtlixochitl, the notable 
historian of the Texcocans, came in for special abuse on this score, 
and it is still the custom to point at him the finger of mistrust. 

Yet a vast quantity of this preconquest Aztec literature, which was 
miraculously saved from the holocaust of literary destruction, con- 
tains the originals of practically all these old disputed documents, 
written down in Spanish characters shortly after the conquest by 
students of the mission schools who had learned that language. 
They are all composed in perfect trochaic meter, in accordance with 
the peculiarly trochaic nature of the long, agglutinate, compound 
words of the Aztec tongue; and they are of a kind that could not 
possibly have been composed by others than the races to which 
they were attributed by the collectors of the documents. 

When all the Aztec and other hieroglyphic documents were swept 
by the board this ancient Mexican literature was saved from the 
universal destruction because it was never written, and never could have 
been written, since the Nahuatl system of picture writing was alto- 
gether too undeveloped to permit of its recording formal literature. 
It was, nevertheless, extensively employed in an abbreviated form 
in the writing of deeds, historical chronicles, legends, tradition and 
ritual; in communications between different parts of the Aztec 
empire, from person to person and official to official; and in keeping 
track of the movements of the Aztec armies and the great trading 
expeditions, the latter of which formed virtual armies in themselves. 
But since the Nahuatl picture writing could not record accurately 

1 Somewhat condensed from Mexican Commerce and Industry, January, 1928, Mexico City. 


all the parts of a sentence, it was useless for the writmg of formal 
metric literature. This explains why all Aztec preconquest literature 
that the writer has examined, covering many hundreds of pages, is 
composed in meter which permitted of its being memorized in the 
Aztec schools, the literary schools, the literary societies (called 
Academies of Music), and by the people, generally, by whom all 
the vast ritual of the Aztec temple was sung and danced to, with the 
exception of the poems which the priests and teachers recited for the 
enlightenment of the people and those which were used in the homes 
for the moral instruction of the family. 

For fully three-quarters of a century after the fall of the empire of 
the Moctezumas, Indian students trained in the Catholic mission 
schools continued to collect and record in the Spanish alphabet the 
very extensive metrical literature of the Aztecs, obtained from priests 
of the vanished religious system, teachers in the former Indian 
schools, poets, courtiers, and officers of the empire, who had learned 
it as part of the very extensive Aztec system of oral instruction which 
covered about as many years as the public school and college courses 
in the United States to-day. Most of these collections ultimately 
reached Spain where, as they were all in manuscript, they were 
buried in the archives and there lost sight of so completely that for 
three centuries their very existence was doubted. 

Some years ago I became interested in one of these postconquest 
collections of Aztec literature bearing the title "Cantares Mexicanos" 
(Mexican Songs). It apparently contains many of the songs com- 
posed and sung by the royal poets of the court of Texcoco, when it 
was at the height of its literary fame, a fame which extended far 
beyond the boundaries of the vast Aztec empire. Many of the poems, 
especially the "drum songs", have indicated, at the beginning of each, 
the notes of the music to which the drums were beaten and the songs 
sung. These are similar to our sol-fa notation, but much more exten- 
sive, as apparently they were capable of recording perfectly all the 
variations of Aztec music. Some of these are: 

1. toco, tico, tocoto, tititico, tititico; 

2. tico, tico, toco, toto, tiquiti, titito, titi; 

3. quititi, quititi, quiti, quiti, tocoto, tocoto-tocoti; 

4. totocoti, tocoti, tocoti, titocoti, titocoti, etc. 

Although the value of these Aztec notes has been lost, I felt sure 
the music they represented must be subject to some kind of poetic 
meter and that these notes represented the meter. After many failures 
I finally worked out, not only the various meters represented in the 
court poems, but also the rules governing the composition of Aztec 
verse. This done, I set out in search of more poems, which I found 
in plenty, and all were subject to the rules for metric composition 
which I had worked out. 


Then I made a discovery which changed the whole course of my 
Aztec studies and investigations. The Aztecs and other Indian races 
of Mexico never divided their poems into lines as is done in modern 
'poetry, for as they were made to be sung and danced to as well as 
occasionally recited, the music ran uninterruptedly without a break 
to the end of the paragraph. What looTced liJce pages and pages of 
prose was in reality perfect verse. Thus the horizon of my investiga- 
tions into preconquest Aztec literature was indefinitely extended. 
Thirteen hundred folio pages of documents, collected and written in 
Aztec during the first half century following the conquest of Mexico 
by Indian students and other workers for Sahagun's History of the 
Things of New Spain, proved to be written almost altogether in 
meter. The nature of these documents and the fact they are in 
meter prove they are transcriptions into Spanish characters of Aztec 
preconquest literature, for it is unthinkable that scores of collectors, 
gathering for over half a century documents for a history still un- 
written, should ta,ke the trouble to invariably put these documents 
in perfect meter. Subsequent investigation and research have shown 
that all Aztec documents, including catechisms and devotional works 
recorded within three-quarters of a century after the fall of the Aztec 
empire, are in meter and that this meter is almost invariably trochaic 
(like that of Hiawatha), except in a part of the "Court Songs" and 
some very ancient hymns to the gods. The conclusion was startling 
but inevitable: All Aztec literature composed before the conquest was 
in meter because it had to he memorized, the Aztec having no system 
of writing capable of recording it. 

It would require a book to present the successive steps of these 
investigations covering some 10 years, but the results may be summed 
up in a few words: Documents recording literature of the days of the 
Aztec empire, all in meter and covering over 5,000 ordinary book 
pages, or the equivalent of 20 volumes of 250 pages each, have been 
identified, the meter verified in each case, and the content of the 
documents ascertained. These investigations show that this ancient 
preconquest Mexican literature is more varied and extensive than 
the Bible; that it contains long heroic poems like "The Song of Quet- 
zalcoatl," which covers 100 ordinary book pages (so far recovered), 
though probably more than half the poems are still to be unearthed 
from the libraries in Spain or Mexico; and that it embraces hymns, 
songs, temple literature, court ritual, court poems, ceremonial litera- 
ture of every activity of social and family life, including several 
extensive volumes containing the scientific laiowledge of the Aztecs. 
The latter include legends, astronomy and astrology, botany, medi- 
cine, zoology, arts and trades, history, tradition, and superstitious 
beliefs. One volume contains a wonderful collection of ceremonies, 


incantations and rituals of the ancient gods of the masses of the 
people which, apparently, were all used outside the pale of the 
official religion of the court of the Moctezumas, since none of it is 
found in the known documents pertaining thereto. 

But the treasure of Aztec literature and documents does not end 
here. And it may be stated that I record here only what I have in 
my own library and have carefully examined. The postconquest 
texts, copies of which I have secured, amount to about 1,500 book 
pages, which is assuredly a very small part of this literature still in 
existence. The catechisms and devotional works in my library which 
would make about 2,000 ordinary book pages are probably- less than 
one-tenth of the works known to exist, without taking into account 
the still larger number probably lost forever. 

The Aztec language is rich in dictionaries and vocabularies of 
which I have been able to secure more than a score, making a total 
of over 10,000 book pages, and there are probably an equal number 
known to me of which I have not been able to secure copies. One of 
these, Palma's Aztec-Spanish, Spanish-Aztec Dictionary, is still in 
manuscript in the Mexican National Museum. 

Of grammars and methods for learning the Aztec language and 
works of a similar nature there are many. In my library alone are 
18, but again these, embracing only about 1,500 book pages, are but 
a small fraction of those in existence. 

There are naturally a great many translations from Aztec, most 
of them very freely and imperfectly done because of the many diffi- 
culties of the language and the obscurities of the ancient texts. This 
is a field of research that has been little worked, and I have only a 
partial list of documents of this class in my library, amounting to 
about 5,000 book pages. 

In about eight years of search for books in Aztec, I have secured 
enough to make 25,000 book pages, or the equivalent of 100 volumes 
of 250 pages each. Yet I am convinced this is but a small part of 
what is yet to be recovered. There are in the Mexican National 
Library here in Mexico City close upon 800,000 volumes, of which 
not more than 100,000 have even been catalogued in any way. The 
vast archives of the Council of the Indies and the libraries of Madrid 
contain untold treasures of ancient books and manuscripts in Aztec 
still awaiting the coming of the research student into this field, 
when the great universities of the United States wake up to the 
importance of the ancient literatures of Mexico as a field of research. 




I. Insomnia Incantations 

I, in my own person, 
Ruler of the Darkness, 
Here appear before you. 
From the earth' s four-regions 
I shall bring the death-flower; 
For m,y elder-brother, 
Ruler of the kingdoms, 
Regions sub-terrestrial, 
I have summoned to me, 
From his Nine-dominions. 

I, the priest-enchanter , 
I whose elder-sister, 
Xochi-quetzal, is the 
Goddess of the Waters, 
Even though the great ones. 
Even though the powerful 
Warriors of the Eagle, 
Warriors of the Tiger, 
Should attempt to hold her. 
Would prevent her coming, 
I shall cry out loudly: 
"Come, oh Sleep, unto me!" 
And to those who hold her 
My command Fll thunder: 
"Get thee gone, enchanters, 
To the Nine-dominions, 
Kingdoms sub-terrestrial; 
For I am Xolotli, 
He who cracks his fingers. 

He whose voice, in shouting, 
Reaches to the earth's end." 

Come, priest-enchanter! 
Come, Ce-tecpatli! 
Tell me, is she sleeping, 
She, my elder-sister? 
I shall go arid wake her; 
Go at once and wake her; 
Snatch her from her slumber. 
That her elder-brothers 
May not be invidious 
Of my powerful magic. 
Wonder-working magic, 
I shall take them downward 
To the Nine-do7ninions, 
To the very centre 
Of the Sub-terrestrial, 
Give them to the goddess 
Send them, back returning, 
To the Four-directions, 
That they may remember 
I'm the soul-of -warfare; 
I'm the Necromancer. 
Working my sweet pleasure, 
I at once convey them; 
Take them downward to the 
Regions sub-terrestrial. 
I, the Necromancer, 
I , the Soul-of -warfare, 
I shall hand them over 
To Intoxication. 
— Translated bv John Hubert Cornvn. 

//. Counter-Incantations 

Now I go to bring them 
From the very centre 
Of the Sub-terrestrial, 
From the Four-directions, 
That it may not truly 
Thus be charged against me 
That I still enchant them; 
That they are sleeping; 
That they journeyed dowmvard 
To the Nine-dominions, 
Regions Sub-terrestrial. 

That it may not truly 
Still be charged against me 
I conveyed them to the 
Guardian of the Darkness, 
Of the nightly regions. 
Now, behold, I call them 
From their deep enchantment. 
I myself, in person. 
Summon back the death-flower; 
I, the Nightly-spirit 
Of intoxication. 
— Translated by John Hubert Corn}^. 

2 Mexican Magazine, July, 1927. 




He the Wind that's ever blowing; 
He the guide that's ever marching; 
He who goes before the Tlalocs 
Sweeping clean the floor of heaven; 
He of deities the master, 
On his sea shell trumpet calling. 
He the wind that's madly blowing; 
He the tempest fiercely rushing, 
Makes the dust dance in his pathway; 
Thunders all across the heavens. 
He who blusters clamorously; 
Loudly blusters madly rushing; 
Turns the daytime into nighttime; 
Blows he fierce from all directions; 
Shouts with loud reverberations; 
Works himself into a passion; 
Fiercely rages in his fury. 
Maddened to intoxication. 

See, upon his head he's wearing 

Coronet of spotted tiger; 

And behold his face is blackened 

As though stained with smoke of charcoal. 

Master he of wondrous action 

Ever-reaching, far-extending. 

Exercised from all directions. 

Yet full many times he slumbers, 
Weakened and exhausted slumbers. 
On his neck a golden collar. 
Gleaming golden necklace wears he. 
On his back are wondrous feathers 
Fashioned like to glowing fire flames; 
Leggings has of spotted tiger; 
Shield adorned with precious jewels 
In his left hand, see, he carries; 
Bears the traveler's curved baton 
Bended like the hoe the peasant 
Wields to cidtivate his garden. 
—Translated by John Hubert Cornyn. 


(-- I™ 

Cou^tcs^' of "Bniy-ilian American" 


View looking toward the factory section of the city where a wide range of products are manufactured and 
marketed. Sao Paulo has experienced in recent years a remarkable and steady growth as an industrial 

Courtesy of "Brazilian American" 

Upper: The Avenida Sao Joao, Lower: A glimpse of the Rua Direita 

Upper: The Government Palace and monument to the founders of the city. Lower: The Post Office 

MM ^^M<mn 

'g, i. ^ 'i.'n 

1 1 i i[ I. Ml 2£i IP PI I \m E i i i i 

^Courtesy of "Bra/.ilian American" 


Upper: The Santa Helena Theater and Office Building. Lower: New office buildings on the P[aca do 
Patriarcha and the Rua Libero Badaro. The United States consulate is housed on the seventh floor 
of the corner building 

Upper: The Municipal Theater and the Esplanada Hotel. Lower: The Sao Jose Theater 


Courtesy of "Brazilian A 


Upper: Office buildings facing the Largo da Se. .The one at the left houses t^he Sao Paulo offices of one 
of Brazil's most important insurance companies. Lower: The Automobile Club, which fronts tne 
AnhangabahU Park, with two new office buildings m the baclJground 

89045— 28— Bull. 4 5 


This museum occupies a commanding site in the suburbs of Sao Paulo, marking the spot where Dom 
Pedro I proclaimed the independence of Brazil September 7, 1822 

This imposing monument faces the Ypiranga Museum 

View from the belvedere of Paulista Avenue 

A few of the attractive homes bordering the Praga Buenos Aires 


By Matilda Phillips 

Chief Statistician, Pan American Union 

THE total trade of the United States with the 20 Latin American 
Republics for the 12 months ended December 1927, accord- 
ing to reports of the United States Department of Commerce 
reached a value of $1,762,737,965. The imports were 
$958,912,365, and the exports, $803,825,600. Compared with 1926 
there was a decline in both imports and exports. The figures for 
1926 were: Imports, $1,041,677,670, and exports, $834,223,955, 
making a total of $1,875,901,625. 

The following tables show the import and export trade of the 
United States with the various countries for 1927 and for the pre- 
ceding year, together with the percentage change in each case. 

United States imports from Latin America 






decrease(— ) 

per cent 

Mexico. ______ - _ - 

$169, 368, 775 
14, 512, 318 

4, 237, 149 
8, 719, 834 
5, 975, 837 
7, 052, 187 

5, 548, 522 
250, 569, 693 

8, 072, 213 
1, 379, 303 

$137, 815, 044 

10, 179, 303 

1, 545, 353 

9, 310, 642 

4, 226, 835 
6, 035, 398 

5, 383, 941 
256, 552, 033 

11, 058, 787 
1, 247, 428 



—29. 85 

Salvador.. _ _ . . . . ._ 

-63. 52 

Honduras _ _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ _ __ 



Costa Rica 


-29. 26 



Dominican Republic . _. _ . 

+36. 99 



North American Republics 

475, 435, 831 

443, 354, 764 


Argentina _ 

88, 137, 205 

279, 986 

235, 307, 073 

81, 442, 281 

90, 241, 676 

6, 757, 104 

540, 954 

21, 796, 710 

18, 423, 243 

23, 315, 607 

96, 961, 236 

227, 518 

203, 017, 937 


87, 803, 351 

5, 193, 466 

913, 421 

20, 091, 158 

10, 894, 565 

28, 597, 511 


Bolivia 1 

-re. 73 

Brazil _ . . 



-24. 04 



Ecuador . _ _ . ._. 

-23. 14 

Paraguay ' 

Peru ... 

+68. 85 

Uruguay ._. _. 

-40. 86 

Venezuela __. _ _ _. . . .._ . ... ._. . 

+22. 65 

South American Republics 

566, 241, 839 

515, 557, 601 


Total Latin America . ... . _ . .. 

1, 041, 677, 670 

958, 912, 365 


1 United States statistics credit commodities in considerable quantities imported from and exported to 
Bolivia and Paraguay via ports situated in neighboring countries, not to the Republics of Bolivia and 
Paraguay, but to the countries in which the ports of departure or entry are located. 



United States exports to Latin America 




decrease (—) 
per cent 






Costa Rica i 



Dominican Republic 


North American Republics 


Bolivia ' 





Paraguay ' 




South American Republics. 

Total Latin America 


994, 164 
088, 204 
556, 521 
540, 286 
264, 272 
412, 669 
487, 680 
572, 376 
857, 427 

5109, 151, 831 
10, 632, 215 
6, 875, 798 
8, 486, 848 
6, 949, 830 
7, 296, 616 
34, 051, 031 
155, 382, 755 
18, 871, 339 
11, 071, 336 

394, 086, 015 

368, 769, 599 








574, 682 
162, 927 
449, 419 
043, 564 
282, 028 
662, 159 
905, 407 
352, 521 
015, 149 

163, 349, 593 

4, 934, 865 

88, 746, 757 

37, 888, 715 

48, 716, 316 

5, 531, 467 

1, 316, 642 

24, 855, 478 

24, 973, 241 

34, 742, 927 

440, 137, 940 

435, 056, 001 

834, 223, 955 

803, 825, 600 

-19. 14 
+12. 55 
+10. 94 
+5. 05 
+29. 50 





-22. 74 


+18. 64 

+45. 41 






1 United States statistics credit commodities in considerable quantities imported from and exported to 
Bolivia and Paraguay via ports situated in neighboring countries, not to the Republics of Bolivia and 
Paraguay, but to the countries in which the ports of departure or entry are located. 

1^ ; AND COMMERCE ; &r 


Municipal exposition of industries and arts. — The third 
Buenos Aires Exposition of Industries and Apphed Arts was opened 
on December 3, 1927. Among the exhibits from the Province of 
Buenos Aires, the furniture, which was outstanding for fine work- 
manship, received much praise. Another notable exhibit was that 
of the city newspapers, while the section devoted to drawings, 
paintings, sculptures, engravings, photographs, carvings, and other 
works of Argentine artists drew much enthusiastic comment. There 
were also exhibits from the various industrial schools, the municipal 
trade shops, the hand weaving school, the Charity Society, and other 

Avellaneda livestock market. — On December 22, 1927, the 
new general livestock market was opened in the city of Avellaneda 
in the Province of Kio Negro. The market, with its extensive stock- 
yards provided with facilities for handling 30,000 sheep, 3,000 hogs, 
1,500 horses, and within the near future 15,000 cattle, was built with 
funds from the public treasury and private investment in equal 
shares. It is believed that this new and well-equipped livestock 
market will contribute to the progress of the meat industry, and 
facilitate shipments for the capital and the coast in general. The 
Southern, Western, Provincial, and Midland Railroads all have 
stations at Avellaneda. 


Department of Santa Cruz. — The Department of Santa Cruz, 
lying on the eastern slope of the Andes, is one of the richest and most 
privileged of Bolivia. Its soil is astonishingly fertile, while the subsoil 
contains great deposits of petroleum and other minerals. The 
leading agricultural products are sugar, rice, coffee, cacao, corn, 
yucca flour, tobacco, potatoes, wheat, cereals, cheese and butter, 
alcoholic beverages, rubber, and hides. The Department is rich in 
fine woods, textile fibers, resins, and oils. Among the minerals found 
within its territory are copper, coal, tin, iron, manganese, alum, gold, 
silver, lead, salt and gypsum. Lack of labor, capital, and communica- 


tions have hitherto prevented the extensive development of the 

Use of motor cars in mining industry. — Until a year ago — to 
quote an article from Bolivia, New York — carriers from Bolivian 
mines to the railway were essentially the same as those used by the 
Incas — the slow-moving llama, a species of ruminant which is nearly 
as old as the country itself, and the placid burro. Upon these ani- 
mals the mines have been completely dependent for transportation to 
and from the railways. A burro carries a maximum load of 100 
pounds and can travel at the most only 20 miles a day. Kealizing 
the great weight of small quantities of tin and silver ore and the long 
distances between mines and railways, it is easy to understand the 
difficulties under which the mines operated. Improvements in 
mining methods and practices were useless until some means could 
be found of solving the problem of transportation. 

The obvious answer was motor trucks, but a great many complica- 
tions entered. Bolivia is the highest point in the world at which 
motor-truck operation is possible and its mines are situated 12,000 
to 16,000 feet above sea level. At this height a petrol engine ordi- 
narily loses 30 to 35 per cent of its power. Finally a truck expert 
who had been engaged in the mining industry and therefore was 
familiar with its problems proved that a light truck carrying 2,000 
pounds and traveling 120 miles daily does the work of 120 burros or 
llamas, and cuts transportation costs exactly in half. Now, barely a 
yeai after the first experiment, most of the mines of importance in 
the wind-swept and desolate reaches of the Andes are equipped with 
motor trucks. 

The motor truck has solved many a mining company's transporta- 
tion problems and it is doing more than that, for it is carrying to 
the railroads thousands of tons of slag left far inland by Spanish 
smelters in colonial mines and cargoes that before its advent were 
lying idle in far away mines. It is converting waste into value 
and is increasing the total of Bolivian exports. In brief, it is bridg- 
ing the gap between the centers of production and consumption 
and, therefore, fills a long felt economic need. The record which the 
motor truck is making in the face of almost unbelievable difficulties 
is bringing about a complete change in the transportation methods of 
Bolivia. As proof of this the Bolivian Government has discarded 
its plan for linking up the Republic with additional railway lines 
and is building motor highways instead. 

Tin production during September and October, 1927. — Ac- 
cording to information from the Permanent Fiscal Commission of 
Bolivia, the production of tin in Bolivia during the month of Sep- 
tember was 3,061,000 kilos, valued at 8,237,000 bolivianos, while in 


October the production was 3,377,000 kilos, valued at 8,401,000 

Plan to build new railway. — Recent reports state that the 
Bolivia Concessions (Ltd.), have signed a contract with a British 
concern for the construction of a railway from Santo Corazon to 
La Gaiba in the Department of Santa Cruz, a distance of about 120 
kilometers. When this project is carried out, direct communication 
will be established between Santo Corazon and the Paraguay River 
thus opening up an important section. 


Coastwise shipping and river navigation. — The President 
approved the legal contract made by the Government with the Lloyd 
Brasileiro in January, 1928, to carry on Brazilian trans-Atlantic, 
coastwise and river shipping trade, the Government to pay an annual 
subsidy of 18,000 contos. By this means the smaller ports as well 
as the large ones are served. The same law also provides for a 
contract for steamer service on the Parahyba River, for which the 
Government will pay an annual subsidy of 400 contos. This river 
is the chief means of transportation in the State of Piauhy. 

Ports. — The Government Inspection Bureau of Ports, Rivers, and 
Channels furnished the following information on ports in southern 
Brazil : 

The State of Parana, which has been planning for some years to make improve- 
ments in the port of Paranagua, began in the latter part of 1927 to dredge the 
channel and the harbor, to construct dry docks and warehouses, and to provide 
other equipment, at a total cost of about 25,000 contos of reis. The chief products 
of the State of Parand are pine, mate (Paraguayan tea) and coffee, exports of 
which are expected to increase to the extent of repaying the State for its port 

The port of Itajahy is the principal outlet of the German colony situated in 
the valley of the Itajahy River, in the State of Santa Catharina. In this port 
3,000 contos will be spent on the dredging of the bar and the banks of the Itajahy 
River, the construction of a breakwater, and other improvements. The port of 
Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catharina is to have dredged a channel 10 
miles long, the work to be completed in a year and to cost about 2,000 contos. 

Laguna, the principal southern port of the State of Santa Catharina is resuming 
improvements to its port works, which are similar to those of Rio Grande do Sul. 
They will include the lengthening of the dock to 780 meters, the construction of 
breakwaters to control the current in the channel, and the dredging of the channel 
and the harbor. 

Brazilian oranges for England. — ^^The press reports that 
inquiries are being made by London firms of the International Cham- 
ber of Commerce of Brazil regarding an agency for the importation 
of Brazilian oranges. It is hoped that this business can be developed, 
as a case of a certain variety of orange sells in London for 21 shillings 


whereas in Rio de Janeiro, 5 milreis (about .10.60) is the price for a 
case of the same oranges. 

Brazilian Highway Education Commission. — Drs. A. F. de Lima 
Campos and Timotheo Penteado, delegates to the prehminary good 
roads conference in Washington in 1924, called a meeting in Rio de 
Janeiro on January 3, 1928, to organize the Brazilian national section 
of the Pan American Federation of Highway Education, which has its 
headquarters in Washington. Among those invited to attend the 
meeting were the president of the Brazilian Automobile Club, officials 
of the Federal and State Governments, and many others. Dr. Mello 
Vianna proposed that a committee of five be appointed to draw up 
the statutes of the federation to be voted on at a later meeting. 

Coffee propaganda. — The report brought back by Conde Pereira 
Carneiro from the United States and Europe in regard to the propa- 
ganda and sale of Brazilian coffee showed that, while Brazilian coffee 
has a good market in the United States, it is not sold as such, and, 
therefore, the market can not be extended on the ground of its origin. 
In Europe it has a smaller market and is sold mixed with other 
ingredients. The secretary of the treasury of the State of Sao Paulo, 
also president of the Coffee Institute of that State, wishes to install 
in the trans-Atlantic lines which touch at Santos and Rio de Janeiro 
a free coffee distribution service consisting of machines which will 
furnish it by the cup. It is part of the same plan to furnish a small 
quantity of roasted or ground coffee to the third class passengers, 
with booklets on the proper preparation of this beverage. The 
Coffee Institute would pay for the installation and maintenance of 
these coffee machines in the ocean liners to which they would belong, 
at the end of three months' use. 

Cotton production. — The information section of the Ministry of 
Agriculture, Industry and Commerce furnished the following figures 
on cotton production in Brazil: 

According to estimates the Brazilian production of cotton from 
1922 to 1927 varied from 111,097 to 171,981 metric tons, as shown 
below : 

Period Tons 

1922-23 119, 899 

1923-24 124,875 

1924-25 171,981 

1925-26 130,421 

1926-27 111,097 

All the Brazilian States, with the exception of Santa Catharina 
and Rio Grande do Sul, raise more or less cotton, the largest areas 
being in the States of Pernambuco, Parahyba, Sao Paulo, Ceara, 
Maranhao, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Sergipe, Piauhy, Bahia, 
and Minas. The amount of cotton raised in Amazonas, Par4, 



Parana, and Goyaz is small, however. The largest areas do not 
always produce the largest crops, as shown in the table below: 




Sao Paulo 



Rio Grande do Norte 





Minas Geraes 


Rio de Janeiro 




Espirito Santo 

Other States 



cotton cultiva- 


tion, 1926-27 




000, 000 




000, 000 




100, 000 




595, 000 




680, 000 




765, 000 




320, 000 




140, 375 




550, 000 




900, 000 




154, 000 




102, 319 



682, 500 



312, 000 



241, 500 



84, 000 


245, 000 





Lumbermen's cooperative. — A Lumbermen's Cooperative Society 
has been organized in Temuco to protect the interest of its members. 
As there are immense tracts of woodland in southern Chile, the lumber 
industry is susceptible of large development. At present, however, 
transportation facilities are limited, while the hitherto unorganized 
condition of the industry has left it at the mercy of the middlemen. 
The Cooperative will endeavor to secure Government action tending 
to promote the growth of this branch of national wealth. 

Irrigation works. — Forty thousand hectares (hectare equals 2.47 
acres) of land in the Province of Bio-Bio can be watered by means of 
the recently completed Laja irrigation works. The main canal and 
branch ditches are more than 400 kilometers (kilometer equals 0.62 
mile) in length. 

Fruit exports. — As Bulletin readers will remember, the Bureau 
of Agriculture in Chile has been fostering the fruit industry in central 
Chile, which has a climate somewhat similar to that of California. 
The last season witnessed an increasing exportation of fresh fruit to 
the neighboring Republics of Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, the 
first named especially consuming large quantities of apples and dried 
peaches. Test shipments to Argentina of prunes dried at the Bureau 
of Agriculture plant have amounted to more than 100,000 kilograms 
(kilogram equals 2.2 pounds). 

National Industrial Show. — Sixty booths were occupied by 
as many exhibitors at the National Industrial Show held in Santiago 


last December. Among the most important exhibitors were the 
Army Shops which, besides manufacturing necessary articles for the 
army, make many necessary products for the general public. Among 
these are: Sheet metal, lead pipe, saddles, harness, and other leather 
goods, farm machinery, kitchen utensils and other metal articles, 
theater seats, etc. The Army Shops, the only plant in the country 
making the first two products, employ 500 workers. 

Among other articles exhibited were the following: Cigarettes, per- 
fumes, soaps, wines, soft drinks, textiles, hats, paper and cardboard, 
refined sugar, nitrate, crockery, tiles, hardware, shoes, paper boxes, 
and 40 derivatives from Chilean coal, including disinfectants, paint, 
naphtha, etc. 


Associated Mechanical Industries. — ^This important firm, 
located in the city of Call, consists of foundries, forges, and machine 
and carpenter shops. In its shops iron, steel, tin, aluminum, copper, 
and other metals are turned into coffee-cleaning machines, sugar and 
flour mills, tools, hydraulic machinery, ornamental fences and grat- 
ings, posts for lighting, etc. The plant serves chiefly the Departments 
of Cauca, Caldas, Tolima, Nariho, Huila, and the Intendancy of the 
Choco. The company, which has a capital of $90,000, is in charge of 
competent engineers. 

Development of Territories of Caqueta and Putumayo. — 
Law No. 10 of September 9, 1927, provides for the development of the 
Territories of Caqueta and Putumayo by means of a railroad, high- 
ways, and other means for the attraction of settlers. The Huila- 
Caqueta railroad is to be constructed south from Neiva through 
Garzon to such a point that it will best serve the development and 
settlement of the aforesaid territories. Three of the main roads to be 
constructed for horse-drawn vehicles are from Altamira to the junc- 
tion of the Hacha and Orteguasa Rivers; from Pasto through the 
Guames River valley to Puerto Asis or some other port on the 
Putumayo River; and from Popayan to Mocoa. The Government 
wfll also buy six steam launches for use on the Orteguasa, Caqueta, 
and Putumayo Rivers. 


Radio broadcasting station. — According to press reports, plans 
for the erection in San Jose of another radio broadcasting station 
fully equipped with the latest sending devices are being rapidly 
completed. The broadcasting will include official, commercial, 
scientific, meteorological, and cultural announcements or programs. 

New steamship service. — Several steamship companies have 
recently established a regular fortnightly service between Puntarenas 


and European commercial and industrial centers via the Panama 
Canal. This is expected to prove a great benefit to Costa Rican 


Immigration Congress. — Sixty-four countries have been invited 
to send delegates to the Second International Immigration Conference, 
which will open in Habana on March 31 for the discussion of 39 topics, 
divided among five commissions, as follows: 

First commission: Transportation and protection of immigrants, hygiene and 
sanitary services. Second commission: Charitable aid for immigrants, cooper- 
ation, welfare work, and mutual aid. Third commission: Means for adjusting 
immigration to the labor demands in countries to which immigration tends; 
cooperation between the immigration and emigration authorities of different 
countries. Fourth commission: General provisions of immigration treaties, 
various related questions. Fifth commission: Study of the resolutions passed 
at the first International Immigration Conference held in Rome, and the matter 
of putting them into effect. (Courtesy of the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 

Highways. — The Secretary of Public Works gave an account of 
highway work to the press of Habana, published on January 21, 
1928. It was in part as follows: 

The Central Highway, which stretches 1,129 kilometers (700 miles) through 
six Provinces from the city of Pinar del Rio to Santiago de Cuba, is being con- 
structed at an approximate cost of $76,000,000. Since November, 1927, work 
on this highway has been pushed very rapidly with a force of 8,000 workmen, 
of whom 6,500 are laborers and the rest mechanics, carpenters, electricians, etc., 
80 per cent being native Cubans. Highway construction machines in use, 
including steam rollers, tractors, trucks, and other implements, total 600, while 
the Department of Public Works maintains well-equipped laboratories for the 
testing of materials. One notable feature of this highway is the elimination of 
railway grade crossings, there now being 74 overhead or underground crossings. 

Pan American Airways. — On January 16, 1928, at the Columbia 
Landing Field near Habana, the Pan American Airways, another 
mail and passenger service between Habana and Key West, Fla., 
was formally opened when Sehora de Iturralde, wife of the Cuban 
Secretary of War, christened one of the planes, which has comfort- 
able accommodations for eight passengers. In the address made on 
this occasion it was noted that the opening of the air service occurred 
at the time of the Sixth Pan American Congress when all the nations 
of the Americas were represented. 


Colonization and irrigation. — The following account of coloni- 
zation and irrigation projects was found among the interesting 
material in the 64 pages of the first anniversary edition of La Opinion, 
a daily published in Santo Domingo: 


Colonization. — Two locations were chosen for the first Government coloniza- 
tion projects — one at Santa Ana, in Monte Cristy, and the second at Bonao 
Arriba. At the former, the lands are under irrigation. Each colonist is given 
a small house, 50 tareas of land (63^ tareas equal 1 acre), water for irrigation, 
tools, seeds, and a maintenance allowance. A physician makes periodical visits, 
and a school will be provided. In the case of future settlers, a small tract of 
land will be prepared in advance, so that they may raise quickly-maturing crops 
and thus not have to be maintained for more than a short time. Nineteen 
Spanish and 10 Dominican families are already settled here, and 20 houses have 
been erected for another Spanish contingent. At Bonao dry farming is carried 
on by 40 Spanish and 10 Dominican farmers. 

Other tracts of Government land are being surveyed in preparation for estab- 
lishing .additional colonies. One of the prime objects of these settlements is to 
educate the rising generation in modern methods of agriculture. 

Irrigation. — The Guayubin-Monte Cristy irrigation canal [as readers of the 
Bulletin are aware] has been in use for some months. Others which will 
probabl}^ be completed during 1928 are: Santiago- Amina; San Juan-Ginova (now 
finished except for the work in concrete); Estebania-Las Charcas; and the Bani 

Five engineers and a corps of surveyors are engaged on irrigation work. A 
general irrigation plan for the Republic has been outlined and will be executed 
as rapidly as possible. More than 1,000,000 tareas of land can be irrigated 
between Monte Cristy and Santiago alone. 

Highway appropriation.— The Government has appropriated 
$100,000 a month for the year 1928 to be used in the construction of 
national highways and permanent bridges. 

First Agricultural Congress. — The first Dominican Agricul- 
tural Congress met from January 8 to 14 of this year at the agricul- 
tural school at Moca. Among the subjects discussed were the fol- 
lowing: Extension service, demonstration grounds, agricultural 
statistics, campaigns for deeper plowing, coffee and cacao planting, 
checking of cacao diseases, and preparation of products for export. 


Highways and other public works. — The public works at present 
under construction by the Government under the supervision of the 
Public Works Bureau are the following : Cuenca-Tambo and Cuenca- 
Pasaje sections of the highways in the Province of Azuay; highways 
from Quito to Guamote, from Zaruma to Loja, from Riobamba to 
Banos, and from Ibarra to the northern frontier; roads from San Juan 
to Babahoyo via Guaranda, from Quito to Chone, and from Santo 
Domingo to Esmeraldas; construction by contract with a foreign 
company of the wharf and customhouse at Guayaquil, construction 
of water and sewer systems for that port, the paving of the city, and 
the filling in of a swampy section near by. (See Guayaquil water 


Banana disease. — The Bureau of Agriculture has issued instruc- 
tions to its section in Guayaquil to start immediately to fight the 


banana disease. According to the press, Senor Colon Eloy Alfaro, 
Minister of Ecuador in Panama, has sent to Ecuador a number of 
banana plants resistant to the so-called "Panama disease," which have 
been distributed among various planters. 

Special delivery mail. — The United States Post Office Depart- 
ment announced that beginning January 1, 1928, a special-delivery 
service would be in effect between the United States and Ecuador. 
On payment of 20 cents besides the regular postal rate letters, postal 
cards, printed matter, commercial documents, and samples will 
be accepted for special delivery to persons living on carriers' routes 
in the cities of Ambato, Azoguez, Babahoyo, Cuenca, Esmeraldas, 
Guaranda, Guayaquil, Ibarra, Latacunga, Loja, Machala, Quito, 
Riobamba, and Tulcan. Similarly, such postal matter may be 
mailed in Ecuador for special delivery in the United States upon 
payment of a like fee. 


Commercial air line. — According to the press, the Minister of Pro- 
motion has concluded a contract for the establishment of a mail and 
commercial air line in Guatemala. Under the terms of the concession, 
made for five years, the concessioner promises to establish landing 
fields at places the Government may specify, to be ready to place the 
planes at the disposal of the Government in case of war, to maintain 
six mail lines, carrying mail at 1 quetzal 60 centavos per pound, and 
parcel-post packages at 1 quetzal per pound, and to send each year 
six Guatemalan students to aviation schools in the United States. 
Mail service is to be established within six months. The Govern- 
ment on its part promises to guarantee the concessioner transportation 
charges equal to 150 quetzales monthly for each station established. 

Improvements in water system of Guatemala City. — A con- 
tract for the improvement of the drinking-water supply in Guatemala 
City, recently concluded with a company of Guatemala City and New 
York, was signed by the president on December 23, 1927. It pro- 
vides for the diversion of water equal to 25,000 cubic meters per 24 
hours from the Teocinte River and the construction of a dam 30 
meters (meter equals 3.28 feet) in height, adequate conduits, a filtra- 
tion plant, and a reservoir of 60,000 cubic meters capacity. 


Cotton and pink bollworm. — Observations made during the past 
three years indicate that native Haitian cotton is so slightly infested 
by the pink bollworm that it suffers no appreciable loss from this 
pest, while other varieties are heavily infested and badly injured. 
To determine why this is so should be of great importance. {Monthly 
Bulletin of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, December, 



Sisal factory. — The sisal factory located at Hatte Lathan, which 
was finished on October 1 of last year, began operations on the 16th 
of the same month. The factory, whose total cost was 106,680 
gourdes, is the first of its kind in Haiti. It has a complete modern 
equipment and can handle the production from several hundred 
hectares. (Monthly Bulletin of the Financial Adviser-General 
Receiver, December, 1927.) 

Foreign commerce. — The following statistics, given out by the 
general customs bureau, show the increase in foreign commerce 
during the months from October to December, 1927, in comparison 
with that of the same period of the preceding year: 

October, November, 
December, 1927 

October, November, 
December, 1926 




27, 695, 196 
31, 970, 372 


23, 866, 927 

25, 725, 249 


59, 665, 568 

49, 592, 176 


10, 073, 392 

Balance in favor of 

4, 275, 176 

1, 858, 322 

The United States furnished 77.33 per cent of the imports. The 
three chief countries of destination of exports were: France, 44.57 
per cent; United States, 12.97 per cent; and Denmark, 8.52 per cent. 
{Bulletin of the Financial Adviser-General Receiver, December, 

New city hall. — In the presence of the President and Mme. 
Borno, as well as many Government officials and members of the 
diplomatic and consular service, the fine new city hall in Port au 
Prince was opened on January 2 of this year. This beautiful edifice, 
constructed by M. George Baussan, is a source of just pride to the 
Haitian capital. 


Electric light plants. — The city of Ocotopeque will soon have 
one of' the best hydroelectric plants in the Republic, which will 
furnish both potable water and light for the city. Other towns in 
which electric lighting is about to be installed are Colinas and La 

Agricultural school. — See page 427. 


Figures on petroleum, 1927. — The Petroleum Bureau of the 
Ministry of Industries published a report on the petroleum industry 



in Mexico from January 1 to December 10, 1927, in which it gave the 

following figures: 


Camargo (Northern Department of 


Southern Tamauhpas 


El Linion 

Cacahlao (Panuco) 

Panuco (various) 


San Jeronimo 

Dos Bocas 



Cerro Viejo 

Tierra Blanca 

Jardin-Paso Real 

San Isidro 

Teapa (Isthmus) 

Ixhuatlan (Isthmus) 

Filisola (Isthmus) 

Belem (Tabasco) 


ber of 



















2 1 


Daily initial production 


17, 020 

5, 163 
19, 674 






1, 817 

6, 191 





60, 869 



107, 056 


32, 475 

123, 749 

1, 566 






38, 941 

35, 104 




16, 379 

382, 865 

Daily average pro- 
duction per well 































5, 718 


8, 775 






1 Unknown. 2 Gas. 

Production in the first 10 montlis of the vears was as follows: 



March. _" . _ _ 






September. . 


Cubic meters 

965, 931 
862, 624 
907, 214 
878, 371 
926, 816 
845, 895 
872, 563 
875, 374 
759, 051 
784, 117 


6, 075, 706 

5, 425, 905 

5, 706, 376 

5, 524, 954 

5, 829, 673 

320, 680 

488, 421 

392, 883 

774, 431 

932, 096 

8, 659, 956 54, 471, 125 

Value (pesos) 



916, 073 
315, 663 
931, 335 
447, 155 
170, 950 
998, 043 
451, 210 
243, 500 
772, 840 
255, 335 

133, 502, 104 

The total production of petroleum in the Republic of Mexico from January, 
1901, to November 1, 1927, amounted to 231,372,405 cubic meters (1,455,398,422 
barrels), with a commercial value of 2,603,426,684 pesos. 

During 1927 production was extremely limited, which accounts for tlie decrease 
of 4,200,000 cubic meters (26,400,000 barrels) from the production of 1926. It is 
beUeved that production during the present year will be greatly increased, 
perhaps even surpassing the figures for 1926, 


Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Railway. — Work has been 
resumed on the extension of the main line of this railway from Chi- 
huahua to Ojinaga, which it is hoped will be complete in April, 1928. 
From Ojinaga the line will cross the Rio Grande to Texas to join at 
Alpine an important railway running through the southwestern part 
of the State. The new international railway will bring a great 
stimulus to trade in the vicinity through which it runs and will 
increase the import and export movement in northeastern Chihuahua. 

Highway construction. — On January 11, 1928, Governor Mar- 
tinez Rojas, of the State of Chiapas, issued a decree providing that 
all male inhabitants of the State should contribute six days' labor 
annually to the repair and construction of highways. Persons who 
do not wish to perform this labor personally must pay the highway 
commission the equivalent in money of six days ' labor. 


Banana cultivation. — A contract has been signed with 43 farmers 
in Chinandega and Leon for the establishment of a company on 
the Pacific coast, to be called the Western Fruit Association, which 
will devote itself to cultivating and exporting bananas. Each 
farmer agreed to plant 10 manzanas (manzana equals 1.72 acres) 
with bananas this year, the planting to be done on land near the rail- 
road or the shore, in order to facilitate transportation to Corinto. 
A boat will call at that port whenever 2,500 bunches are ready for 
export. It is proposed to ask the Government to pass laws pro- 
tecting the banana industry. 

Radiotelegraphic service. — Last November the President 
approved a contract between the Government and the Tropical 
Radio Telegraph Co. by which the latter engages to maintain tele- 
graphic communication by means of its wireless stations between 
the interior of the Republic and the Department of Bluefields. This 
contract is of a temporary nature. 

Economic projects. — ^The Minister of Promotion recently stated 
that the Government considers the following three projects of vital 
importance for national progress: The erection of healthful homes 
for workers, these houses to be purchased by monthly payments; 
the construction of a good highway system; and loans for Pacific 
coast farmers who desire to raise bananas. 


Banana exports from Cristobal. — The last three months of 1927 
successively established new records in banana shipments from the 
port of Cristobal, December breaking all records with 336,172 bunches, 
89045— 28— Bull. 4 6 


or 9,355 bunches more than in the previous high record month of 
November. The total banana shipments out of the port of Cristo- 
bal during the year 1927 amounted to 2,699,472 bunches, valued 
at $2,117,665.54, an increase of several thousand bunches over 1926. 
The export tax on bananas in 1927 brought the Government 
$26,994.72. As this business, according to the press, was developed 
from nothing five years ago, and as it is only within the last three 
years that any great amount has been exported, it is a remarkable 

Lindbergh stamps. — An issue of special stamps was made to 
commemorate the air visit of Colonel Lindbergh to Panama. Three 
hundred thousand 2-cent stamps were issued for domestic service 
and for mail destined to countries of the Pan American Postal Union, 
and 150,000 5-cent stamps for the Universal Postal Union Service. 

Highway conference. — On December 18, 1927, the President 
opened the Second Highway Conference of Governors and Mayors 
of the Central Provinces of Code, Veraguas, Herrera, and Los Santos, 
convened in Aguadulce, to discuss plans for a better highway system 
in the interior. In his address the President referred to the first con- 
ference held a year ago and the results obtained since that time in 
roads which bring all the important towns of the Central Provinces 
into communication with the national highways. He urged further 
cooperation between municipalities for road construction. Mayor 
Vargas of Las Palmas was awarded a gold medal by the President 
for the construction of an automobile road without Government aid. 
The award of a gold medal for local road-building will be made each 


Expenditures op immigration service. — A total of 1,200 pesos 
gold and 560,617.45 pesos Paraguayan currency is reported to have 
been expended by the immigration service from January 1, 1924, to 
November, 1927, the yearly totals being as follows: 1924, 1,200 pesos 
gold and 65,713.84 pesos paper; 1925, 130,702.20 pesos paper; 1926, 
128,643.25 pesos paper; and 1927 through October, 151,540.16 pesos 
paper. These sums include amounts spent in the maintenance of 
immigrants during their stay in Asuncion, disembarkation charges, 
and the cost of transporting their effects. 

Motor truck service. — Information has been received that 
truck service was recently begun in the cordillera region and between 
Asuncion, Caraguatay, and San Jose, thus making possible the rapid 
transportation of farm products such as cotton, tobacco, and oranges. 

Agricultural scholarships. — See page 429. 




Highways. — The Prensa of Lima for January 1, 1928, published 
the following figures on the highways of Peru from data furnished by 
the Ministry of Promotion under which the construction of highways 
is carried on: 

There are at present nearly 9,000 kilometers of automobile highways in Peru 
which, with those under construction or being extended, total about 15,000 kilo- 
meters. The following table shows the length of highway under construction and 
open to public traffic in each Department: 


of highway, 
under con- 

in use 


of highway, 
under con- 

in use 











1, 166 





1, 190 














La Libertad 





Piura y Tumbes 

San Martin 

1, 174 













National agricultural conference. — At a meeting held the 
middle of December the organization committee for the First National 
Agricultural and Livestock Congress of Peru discussed plans for the 
above-mentioned conference. The program prepared was submitted 
to the President of Peru for approval. The time for the conference 
was tentatively set as the first part of November, 1928. 

Automobile road signs. — In a meeting held in December, 1927, 
the Peruvian Federation of Highway Education resolved to favor the 
adoption of the system of automobile road signs approved in the last 
International Highway Congress held in 1926. The Peruvian Federa- 
tion has requested the Bureau of Pubhc Works to use these signs on 
the public roads. 

Amazon air mail and passenger service. — On January 3, 1928, 
Commander Grow, chief of the Peruvian Naval Air Service, brought 
the first bag of air mail in a Keystone hydroairplane in six and a half 
hours from the Amazon River port of Iquitos to Masisea, from where 
it was taken by Lieut. Leonardo Alvarino in a Keystone land plane 
to San Ramon in a little over two hours. From that city it was 
shipped by the postal authorities by motor car and rail to Lima. 
The entire trip of 12,000 kilometers (kilometer equals 0.62 mile) was 
of only 48 hours' duration, whereas Iquitos mail is usually 30 to 40 



days in transit to the capital, as mentioned in a previous note on 
this subject. 

The West Coast Leader, in reporting the opening of the service, says : 

The successful establishment of aerial fast mail communication between the 
Peruvian seaboard and the far eastern Provinces marks an epoch in the history 
of the Republic. It nets within a span of hours the vast territory that has 
defied exploration and colonization for 400 years — since Pizarro conquered the 
Pacific coast and the Jesuit explorers first launched their flimsy canoes on the 
headwaters of the Amazonian rivers. The achievement reflects the highest credit 
on the modern Peruvian Navy, the Peruvian Naval Air Service, the United States 
Naval Mission, and the officers and men who have been instrumental in carrying 
through successfully and efficiently the task assigned to them. 

In addition to two land planes based at San Ramon, there are four hydro- 
airplanes, with main bases at Iquitos and Masisea. All of them are Keystone 
planes, with Wright "Whirlwind" engines, and may befitted with landing wheels 
or water pontoons. 


Importation of automobiles. — According to data pubHshed by 
the Bureau of Commercial Statistics, 35,063 automobiles, representing 
a total value of 19,298,405 pesos, have been imported into Uruguay 
since 1910, the number and value of those imported each year being 
as follows : 


















216, 728 
658, 244 
934, 125 
685, 864 : 
205, 479 
127, 280 ' 
864, 741 
751, 475 
832, 847 









2, 147, 616 
777, 599 


464, 896 



1, 394, 695 

2, 086, 076 



3, 201, 837 
2, 957, 183 






4, 100, 000 

35, 063 

19, 298, 405 

Reduction of embarkation charges. — The port administration 
of Montevideo has reduced the charges for the unloading, entrance, 
and reembarkation of automobiles used by persons touring the coun- 
try. With the approval of the National Council, it has been ruled 
that the charges for disembarkation of automobiles in transit destined 
for the use of persons touring the country shall be not more than 2 
pesos per 1,000 kilograms of weight provided that they are pleasure 
cars, are wholly assembled and uncrated, will be taken charge of by 
their owners within 24 hours after the disembarkation, and be 
reembarked within three months from the date of entrance. By 
this ruling the average charge for these services has been reduced 
from 29 to 3 pesos per car. 


Opening of Montevideo-Rocha Railroad. — The official opening 
of the Garzon-Rocha branch of the Montevideo-Rocha Raih-oad took 
place on January 14, 1928, being the culmination of a plan approved 
by the Government on January 30, 1919. In accordance with that 
act, the line of the Ferrocarril Uruguayo del Este has been purchased 
by the Government, the line from San Carlos to Garzon opened 
and the Garzon-Rocha line completed, thereby providing through 
communication between Rocha and the port of Paloma. 


Construction of roads and water system. — In accordance 
with executive decrees of December 19, 1927, work will soon be 
begun on the construction of two new highways and surveys made 
for the introduction of potable water into Queniquea, this latter 
being of especial importance since the scarcity of water in that city 
has been the cause of epidemics on repeated occasions. One of the 
highways will extend from the port of Carenero to Guatire in the 
State of Miranda, a distance of about 150 kilometers (kilometer 
equals 0.62 mile), thus linking Caracas with Carenero, and the other 
will connect the town of El Sombrero in the State of Guarico with 
Soledad on the Orinoco River near Ciudad Bolivar. 

Public works opened. — The nineteenth anniversary of the day 
upon which General Gomez first assumed the presidency was cele- 
brated in December throughout the Republic by the opening of many 
new highways, streets, bridges, public buildings, and other public 
works. Among them are to be mentioned the Quibor-Barquisimeto 
highway, the aviation field and agricultural experimental farm in 
Barquisimeto, and 12 new schools in Trujillo. President Gomez 
was present at the opening of the Ricaurte Bridge at San Mateo on 
the Caracas-Maracay highway. 

Modern machinery in collieries. — Following studies made at 
the Naricual, Capericual, and Tocoropo mines, modern machinery 
for carrying coal to the wharves and loading it on vessels has been 
installed, being formally set in motion on December 19, 1927. The 
acquisition of this machinery and the six new winches, a cutter, an 
electric coal drill, electric ventilating motor, portable loading cars, 
and complete train also recently purchased will prove a significant 
factor in the development of the mines, which may furnish an 
important coaling point for ships plying between Europe and the 
Antilles, various ports of Venezuela, and Colombia and Panama. 

Transportation of mail by automobile. — The transportation 
of mail by automobile between Acarigua, Barinas, and other towns 
in that district was begun on December 14, 1927. 

1^;^ AFFAIRS "'^M^M 


Argentine-Uruguayan bankers' agreement. — A delegation of 
Argentine bankers under the presidency of the general manager of 
the Bank of the Argentine Nation, recently visited Montevideo, the 
capital of the neighboring Republic of Uruguay. While in that city 
they signed an agreement between Argentine and Uruguayan bankers 
establishing a basis for the prevention of frauds, forgeries, counter- 
feiting, and robberies by armed bandits or by the personnel. For 
the present offices will be established by the Bank of the Argentine 
Nation in Buenos Aires and by the Bank of Uruguay in Montevideo 
to inform member banks in both countries of persons known as 
criminals or swindlers. Notice of the signing of this agreement by 
the agents of the national banks of Argentina and Uruguay was sent 
to the national banks of all the other South American countries. 


Government loan. — Railway refunding sinking fund 6 per cent 
gold external bonds to the par value of $45,912,000 were placed 
last January in the United States and Europe at 93 3>^ and interest. 
The proceeds of the loan will be applied to the redemption of the two 
issues of 8 per cent dollar bonds of the Republic of Chile, to the 
repayment of short term dollar indebtedness of the Chilean State 
Railways, to the purchase of railway equipment and supplies, and 
to the repayment of borrowings made by the Chilean Treasury from 
funds originally destined for harbor improvements and public works. 

Government bonds as payment of Government obligations. — 
A decree of the Minister of Finance, issued last December, made 
coupons of bonds issued or guaranteed by the Government legal 
tender in payment of any Government obligations, while the bonds 
themselves, according to a stated scale, will be accepted for any 
guaranty required by the Government, such as that asked of con- 
tractors of public works. 

School and other savings. — At the annual thrift festival held in 
Santiago by the National Savings Bank it was announced that 
pupils in the Santiago schools had saved approximately 360,000 
pesos in 1927. Total savings deposits in Chile increased from 
435,388,032 pesos in November, 1926, to 467,945,857 pesos in October, 



Income tax. — Decree No. 1923 of November 28, 1927, gives the 
regulations for law No. 64 of the same year on the income tax to be 
paid by nationals and foreigners, as well as corporations, collective 
societies, etc. The complete text of the aforesaid decree is published 
in the Diario Ojicial of December 2, 1927. 

Taxes on tickets and gasoline. — Law No. 106 of November 26, 
1927, places a tax on all tickets sold for transportation by rail, boat, 
automobile, airplane or any other regularly established public carrier, 
and likewise on tickets sold for traveling by sea to foreign countries. 
Street cars and vehicles used within a city are not included in the 
terms of the law. 

The same law imposes a tax of 1 centavo on each bottle of 750 
grams of gasoline placed on sale, collectible through the customhouses 
on imported gasoline. 

Article 9 authorizes the Government to contract a loan of not 
more than 20,000,000 pesos to be expended in developing the national 
automobile highway system. 


Amount of insurance written. — The total amount of insurance 
written as held by the National Insurance Bank of Costa Rica on 
December 31, 1927, was reported to be 60,531,103.20 colones, divided 
among the various classes as follows: Life insurance, 6,329,911 
colones; fire risks, 51,155,905 colones; and accident insurance, 
3,018,257 colones. The National Insurance Bank, a Government 
monopoly, has now almost completed the assumption of all risks 
in Costa Rica. 


Currency. — According to figures from the Secretary of the 
Treasury the following amounts of currency were on hand June 30, 

National gold $23,786,750.00 

National silver 8, 413, 140. 80 

National nickel 1, 449, 560. 00 

Total coin 33,649,450.80 

American silver 3, 672, 260. 60 

American gold 13, 318, 015. 00 

American nickel 1, 138, 270. 91 

Bills 228, 572, 002. 00 

Total 246, 700, 548. 51 

National Cuban money 33, 649, 450. 80 

American money 246, 700, 548. 51 

, Total money 280, 349, 999. 31 _ 

{Courtesy oj the Cuban Embassy in Washington.) 



Budget for 1928. — The 1928 budget was passed as follows: 


Internal revenue $4, 393, 000. 00 

Customs receipts 4, 800, 000. 00 

Charity lottery 2, 822, 400. 00 

Central Dominican Railway 300, 000. 00 

Santiago-Puerto Plata water and light service 120, 000. 00 

10 per cent surcharge on patents for chambers of commerce 50, 000. 00 

Tax on imports by tonnage, waterworks fund, law No. 419 80, 000. 00 

12, 565, 400. 00 


Legislative power 293, 220. 00 

Executive power 277, 220. 00 

Department of the Interior, Police, War and Navy.. 1, 572, 694. 40 

Department of Foreign Affairs 399, 645. 85 

Department of Finance and Commerce 1, 027, 790. 00 

Department of Justice and Public Instruction: 

Judicial section 783, 557. 88 

Education section 1, 210, 235. 04 

Department of Agriculture and Immigration 236, 210. 00 

Department of Promotion and Communications 1, 732, 676. 00 

Department of Health and Charity 122, 180. 00 

Special expenditures : 

Charity lottery $2, 822, 400 

Public debt service 825, 000 

10 per cent surcharge on patents for chambers 

of commerce 50, 000 

Customs service 320, 000 

Santo Domingo waterworks, from duty on 

import tonnage 80, 000 

Santiago and Puerto Plata water and light 

service 120, 000 

Dominican Central Railway 300, 000 

4, 517, 400. 00 

12, 172, 829. 17 

As may be seen from the foregoing, there is an estimated surphis 

of $392,670.83 for 1928. The actual surplus for 1927 was $962,080.46. 


Telegraph and postal revenue. — The following figures show- 
ing the amount of revenue collected by the postal and telegraph 
bureau of Paraguay during the year 1927 in comparison with that 
of the previous year are a favorable comment on the economic and 
commercial progress of the country: 

Pesos (paper) Pesos (gold) 

1927 8, 143, 245. 18 3, 120. 35 

1926 7, 126, 471. 12 412. 70 

Increase in 1927 1,016,774.06 2,707.65 

Revenue calculated in budget for 1927 6, 629, 500. 00 200. 00 

Amount collected above that calculated 1, 513, 745. 18 2, 920. 35 




Inter-American High Commission. — In view of the resignation 
of some members of the Salvadorean section of the Inter-American 
High Commission, the President reorganized the section by resolution 
of December 21, 1927, as follows: Dr. Juan Francisco Paredes, 
Dr. Manuel Castro Ramirez, Dr. Cesar Virgilio Miranda, Dr. Enrique 
Borja, Dr Reyes Arrieta Rossi, Dr. Pedro S. Fonseca, Dr. Jose Aviles, 
Dr. Eniique Cordova, Dr. Alfredo Ruiz Quiros, General Max H. 
Martinez, Sefior Roberto Aguilar Trigueros, and Mr. A. J. Summer. 


Stock exchange report. — The total amount of business effected 
through the stock exchange of Montevideo during the year 1927 
reached the sum of nearly 70,000,000 pesos, the number of sales, 
nominal value, and ?ale price being as follows: 










September. _ 


December. _ 



1, 487 
1, 177 
1, 201 
1, 337 
1, 173 

Nominal value (pesos) 

15, 033 

6, 497, 

6, 793, 

7, 168, 

4, 976, 

5, 170, 

8, 394, 

5, 546, 

6, 188, 
5, 835, 
5, 030, 
5, 222, 
5, 171, 

596. 25 
420. 00 
906. 50 
648. 00 
672. 50 
518. 25 
890. 25 
780. 50 
242. 75 
291. 25 
829. 00 
149. 75 

71, 996, 944. 75 

Sale price (pesos) 

6, 229, 
6, 485, 
6, 883, 
4, 782, 

4, 964, 
8, 169, 

5, 430, 

6, 103, 
5, 695, 

4, 904, 

5, 072, 
4, 939, 

133. 33 
447. 47 
347. 04 
251. 94 
980. 53 
154. 64 
459. 40 
654. 49 
843. 19 
431. 13 
316. 34 
897. 08 

69, 660, 916. 58 

Mortgage loans. — Mortgage loans to the sum of 37,314,893 pesos 
were made in Uruguay during the year 1927, and others representing 
32,102,756 pesos were canceled during the same period. Compared 
with previous years they are as follows : 










37, 467, 895 

31, 841, 534 

32, 384, 593 

20, 719, 203 
25, 697, 843 
23, 901, 603 



38, 131, 258 
37, 314, 893 

28, 425, 259 
32, 102, 756 


Reorganization of the ministries. — By an executive decree 
of November 30, 1927, the work of the various national ministries 
was reorganized. The ministries are listed in the following order: 
Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Public Education, Justice, War, 
Navy, Promotion, and Social Welfare. (It will be noted that the 
former Ministry of Assistance, Health, Social Welfare, and Labor 
has been renamed simply Social Welfare.) The order of precedence of 
the ministries is as given above. In case of the absence, illness, or 
resignation of any minister, his place will be taken, until the president 
definitely designates another person, by the minister immediately 
following him in order of precedence. 

Petroleum concessions. — According to regulations of Law 
4,109, issued by a decree of December 21, 1927, all claims for petro- 
leum exploration or exploitation were to become void on March 28, 
1928, unless a certain minimum production is obtained or a certain 
amount of money has been expended in exploration or the digging of 


Insurance companies. — By virtue of law No. 105 of November 25, 
1927, every company engaged or desiring to engage in the insurance 
business in Colombia will be subject to Government inspection, to 
be carried out by the superintendent of banks. Requirements to 
be complied with by the companies are laid down in the law, which is 
published in the Diario Oficial for November 29, 1927. 


Constitutional amendments. — On the completion of the busi- 
ness in hand, sessions of the constitutional assembly recently held in 
Guatemala City were brought to a close on December 20, 1927, the 
amendments being promulgated by executive decree of December 21, 
1927. Great interest has been aroused in the amendments, some of 
the more important of which are summarized as follows: 

Persons of other Central American republics shall also be considered as native 
citizens of Guatemala provided they fulfill all legal requirements and their native 
country has reciprocal laws. 

In no instance shall property be temporarily seized or confiscated for pohtical 



A representative to the legislature shall be elected for each 30,000 inhabitants 
or each fraction thereof above 15,000, each Department having the right to elect 
at least one. (Formerly there was a representative for each 20,000 or fraction 
above 10,000.) 

Relatives of the President to the fourth degree of consanguinity and second of 
affinity may not be elected deputies. 

The approval of a two-thirds majority of the Deputies shall be required for the 
submission of questions of boundary disputes to arbitration, a statement of the 
bases for the arbitration also being required. 

The legislature has the power to authorize the Executive to celebrate contracts 
calling for the expenditure of sums not budgeted and not coming within his powers, 
and to approve them or not as the case may be; however, in the case of concessions 
or contracts relative to the coining of money, emission of paper money, public 
utilities, colonization, immigration, irrigation, and working of hydrocarbon 
deposits a two-thirds vote of the legislature is necessary. 

To be elected to office, the President shall be over 30 years of age (amended from 
21 years). No relatives to the fourth degree of consanguinity or second degree of 
affinity of the leader of a coup d'etat, revolution, or any armed movement may be 
elected President within the term in which the interruption occurred nor during 
the succeeding term. No cabinet officers who may have been in office during the 
six months preceding the elections shall be elected President. The presidential 
term of office, formerly four years, shall be six years, with reelection possible only 
after 12 years. 

Requirements for cabinet officers are the same as those for President. Rela- 
tives of the President within the prescribed degrees, those who may have adniin- 
istered public funds while in a state of insolvency, or contractors of public works 
having claims pending against the State may not be members of the cabinet. 

As previously, the approval of at least two-thirds of the Deputies shall be re-- 
quired for calling a constitutional assembly, but in all cases the articles to be 
amended must be designated, and in the case of total change or changes in articles 
relating to presidential terms or election of designates, the approval of at least 
two-thirds of two consecutive but distinct ordinary sessions and a lapse of six 
years shall be required. 

Representation in the constitutional assembly has been raised from one for 
each 15,000 inhabitants to one for each 25,000 or fraction over 15,000, with at 
least one Representative for each department. 


Amendments to petroleum regulations. — The Diario OJicial 
of January 10, 1928, publishes a decree of Congress amending the 
law dated December 26, 1925, regulating article 27 of the Constitution 
which governs petroleum. The amendment is as follows: 

Article 14. — The following rights shall be confirmed without cost and by 
the issuance of confirmatory concessions: 

I. Those arising from lands on which works of petroleum exploitation were 
begun prior to May 1, 1917. 

II. Those arising from contracts executed prior to May 1, 1917, by the surface 
owner or by his successors in interest, for the express purpose of petroleum exploita- 

The confirmation of these rights shall be granted without limitation of time 
whenever they should run in favor of the surface owner; and for the terms stipu- 


lated in the contracts in the case of rights originating from contracts executed by 
the surface owners or their successors in interest. 

III. [Those corresponding to] pipe line and refinery operators who may be 
working at the present time under concessions or authorizations issued by the 
Department of Industry, Commerce and Labor, and in so far as refers to the said 
concessions or authorizations. 

Article 15. — A period of one year, reckoned from the day following publica- 
tion of these amendments to the same day, inclusive, of the following year, is 
hereby granted, within which the interested parties may apply for the confirma- 
tion of the rights to which the foregoing article refers, and which have not been 
the object of confirmatory applications within the period allowed by this law in 
its original terms. 

This period having elapsed said rights shall be considered as renounced, and 
the rights whose confirmation has not been applied for shall have no effect what- 
ever against the Federal Government. 


Confirmations applied for within the year 1926, and as to which the corre- 
sponding title shall not have been issued, shall be made, if proper, in accordance 
with these amendments. The confirmatory titles already issued shall be cor- 
rected, where necessary, according to the terms of these amendments. 

Legation raised to embassy. — The Diario Oficial of January 21, 
1928, publishes an executive decree of December 30, 1927, by which 
the Mexican Legation in Chile is raised to the rank of embassy. 
Similar action taken by the Chilean Government raised that 
Government's representation in Mexico to the rank of embassy also. 


Collection of national revenues. — On December 18, 1927, 
President Leguia signed the law passed by Congress providing that 
from January 1, 1928, the Deposit and Consignment Bank should 
collect all the revenues of the Republic excepting only those now 
serving as specific guaranties for foreign loans, and whose collection 
during the term of the loan is surrendered by the provisions of the 
loan contract to special entities. The mails and telegraphs and 
customs revenues not serving as foreign loan guaranties are also 
excepted until the President decides otherwise. All future revenues 
will be collected by the Deposit Bank, subject to the provisions of 
the contracts of foreign loans then existing. From January 1, as 
long as there are any bonds of the national Peruvian loan in circula- 
tion, the Deposit Bank is authorized and required to make a monthly 
payment of the proper amount to the fiscal agents of the national 
Peruvian loan. The full text of this law is published in the Peruana 
(official gazette) for December 28, 1927. 

Extension of the rent law. — On January 5, 1928, the Senate 
passed the bill already approved by the Chamber of Deputies to 



extend the rent law, which limits the amounts of rental charged for 
dwellings of different values. It is hoped next year to find a better 
solution of the housing problem. , 


Changes in Government departments. — By Executive resolu- 
tion of December 1, 1927, the functions of the Department of Agri- 
culture are transferred to the Department of Promotion, the General 
Bureau of Agriculture being reestablished. 


Creation of new diplomatic post. — The diplomatic post of 
Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to Panama was 
recently created by act of the Government of Venezuela. Dr. 
Alcala Sucre, formerly Consul General of Venezuela in San Francisco, 
has been appointed to the charge. 





Ibero-American Aerial Navigation Convention. — After having 
been approved by the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, the 
Ibero-American Aerial Navigation Convention, signed in Madrid in 
October, 1926, was promulgated by the President of the Dominican 
Republic on October 10, 1926. (Gaceta Ojicial, November 24, 1927.) 


Ibero-American Convention on Aerial Navigation. — On 
December 30, 1927, President Calles signed a decree ratifying, after 
approval by the Senate, the Ibero-American Convention on Aerial 
Navigation which was signed in Madrid on November 1, 1926, by 
representatives of Mexico and other nations. (Diario Ojicial, January 
30, 1928.) 

Inter-American Union of Electrical Communications. — An 
executive decree of December 30, 1927, ratified the Mexican Senate's 
sanction of the convention establishing the Inter-American Union 
of Electrical Communications, signed in Mexico City on July 21, 
1924, by representatives of Mexico and other Pan-American nations. 
{Diario Ojicial, January 30, 1928.) 



Treaty approved. — A treaty establishing bases for international 
relations in cases of alteration of the internal order of either of the 
contracting States, signed by the Minister of Venezuela to Brazil and 
the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs on April 13, 1926, was rati- 
fied by the Congress of Venezuela on June 1, 1926, and signed by the 
President on January 13, 1927. The following are some of its more 
important provisions: 

Notification of the alteration of internal order shall be given the other con- 
tracting State. The Government of the State notified shall: (1) Adopt adequate 
measures to prevent its inhabitants, nationals, or foreign residents, from partici- 
pating in warlike preparation or from obtaining articles which might be used to 
aid in the alteration of the internal order of the other State; (2) intern all those 
within a frontier zone 60 kilometers in width (kilometer equals 0.62 of a mile) who 
may be known to be leaders of the subversive movement, and members of any 
force or rebel contingent who may have crossed the border; (3) give aid to wounded 
and sick of any force or contingent crossing the border regardless of their political 
affiliations, afterwards deciding what shall be done with them. All costs arising 
from such internment shall be borne by the State whose internal order has suffered 
alteration; (4) as far as possible prohibit isolated individuals from crossing the 
frontier to join the subversive movement; (5) prevent traffic in arms, transporta- 
tion and communication materials, and the arming or fitting out of any craft 
destined to be used against the government in question; and (6) prevent its own 
lines of communication from being used in the subversive movement. This con- 
vention will remain in force for a year after its denunciation by either of the 
contracting parties. 

" ;andEDUCATION^'^ 


Park library opened. — A new public library, similar to others 
already open in various city parks, was installed in Avellaneda 
Park by the Deliberative Council of Buenos Aires on December 20, 
1927. The Labor Library sent a generous donation of books. 

Vacation camps. — The Buenos Aires vacation day camps for 
children below normal in health, first started eight years ago, were 
reopened in December for the summer vacation period. They are 
held in several city parks, where the children have breakfast, take 
part in supervised play, eat luncheon, take a nap under the trees, 
and after more play are sent home at the end of the afternoon. 
Each child discovered to be below normal in health by the school 


medical examinations has in this way a chance to spend a portion 
of the summer in one of the vacation camps, an opportunity given 
to several thousand children. 

American Ambassador visits school. — The Colegio Americano 
of Buenos Aires was honored at the commencement exercises on 
November 25, 1927, by the presence of the United States Ambassador, 
Mr. Robert Woods Bliss, and the Minister of Public Instruction, 
Seiior Antonio Sagarna. The latter gave the address to the graduates, 
while Ambassador Bliss presented the diplomas. 

The Colegio, which was accredited as on a par with Argentine 
secondary schools some years ago, has always been held in high 
esteem by officials of the Government. 

Bernardo de Irigoyen evening school. — This evening school, 
one of many in Buenos Aires, was founded in 1917 under the auspices 
of the National Council of Education in Buenos Aires to furnish 
education and cultural training to the working class. It holds ses- 
sions four days a week from 7 to 9 p. m. for its 1,200 pupils, of whom 
the majority are girls. Thirteen subjects are offered, including 
piano and voice training, sewing and dressmaking, millinery, machine 
and hand embroidery, artificial flower making, drawing and decora- 
tive arts, English, French, stenography and typewriting, accounting, 
and a preparatory course for entrance into the secondary schools. 
The school is maintained by a Government subsidy of 10,000 pesos 
and a municipal subsidy of 4,000 pesos, monthly tuition fees, and 

School statistics. — According to recently published statistics 
for primary education in 1926, there were 10,608 public schools in 
charge of 45,271 teachers, with an enrollment of 1,302,534 pupils and 
an average attendance of 1,031,890. There were 44 national second- 
ary schools, with an enrollment of 15,111 pupils, and 84 normal 
schools with an enrollment of 13,997. The 5 national universities 
had an enrollment of 15,843 students. 


First National Educational Congress. — The President of the 
State, the high civil and military officials and about 400 delegates 
were present at the opening session of the First National Educa- 
tional Congress held December 18 at Curityba in the State of Parana. 
During the nine days of the sessions papers were read and discussed 
dealing with the educational problems of vital interest to the coun- 
try. Because of the success of this first congress, the members agreed 
to hold a second congress at Natal, capital of the State of Rio Grande 
del Norte. 

A TRIP FOR STUDY.^ — Mr. Anisio Spinola Teixeira, supervisor of 
instruction in the State of Bahia, has returned home after spending 


several weeks visiting educational institutions of the United States. 
He collected much information deahng with parent-teachers' associa- 
tions, for he believes that such associations would aid the progress 
of schools in Bahia. 

Private elementary schools. — In the 184 private elementary 
schools in Rio de Janeiro 22,194 pupils are enrolled, according to a 
report recently made to the Minister of Justice and Public Instruc- 


School construction program. — Several months ago the Minis 
ter of Education gave instructions to have a list made of all the 
school buildings in the Republic, specifying which are owned by the 
Government and which are rented. Following the completion of 
this list, a program for school construction will be laid out. It is 
expected that this will call for the eventual expenditure of 300,000,000 
pesos, which it is proposed to secure from a loan. It is stated that 
service on such a loan can be met almost entirely by the amount of 
rentals saved. 

Foreign lecturers. — Among foreign lecturers recently in Chile 
were Dr. Bernardo Houssay, distinguished professor of physiology 
at the University of Buenos Aires, and Signorinas Sorge and Mar- 
gonari of Italy, whom the President of the University of Chile 
invited to lecture on the Montessori system. 

Parent-teachers' association. — According to a newspaper ac- 
count the new parent-teachers' association of Potrerillos has aroused 
great interest and the meetings have been well attended. 


Regulations of secondary education. — By the terms of decree 
No. 1951 of December 2, 1927, effective January 1, 1928, all secondary 
schools desiring to prepare students for admission to the National 
University must offer a course seven years in length. Only the first 
four years, however, will be required for the ordinary bachelor's 
degree, conferred on those who are not intending to enter the Univer- 
sity for the study of law, medicine, or engineering. Completion of 
the first four years will also entitle a student to enter a commercial 
or agricultural school. 

National University. — The Government has been authorized by 
law to purchase land in Bogota on which to erect the necessary new 
buildings for the National University. A school of pharmacy is cre- 
ated subordinate to the school of medicine, while a school of dentistry 
is to be established as an integral part of the university. The last- 
named school will receive an appropriation of 25,000 pesos annually. 

New president of the University of Cartagena. — Dr. Karl 
Glockener, a member of the German pedagogical mission engaged 


by the Colombian Government some time ago to revise the school 
and university curriculum and organization, has been appointed 
rector (president) of the University of Cartagena. 


New ACTIVITIES of Agricultural Education Bureau. — Accord- 
ing to the Gaceta Ojicidl of January 12, 1928, the following new activi- 
ties will soon be undertaken by the Agricultural Education Bureau of 
Costa Rica: 

Employment of three specialists to deliver lectures and hold consultations on 
various agricultural subjects, including the use of fertilizers, selection of seed, 
rotation of crops, improvement of plant varieties, and care of various farm 
animals. It is planned to reach both farmers and school children throughout the 
several Provinces. 

Expenditure of 5,000 colones in the purchase of seed, implements and publica- 
tion of agricultural information. 

Creation of 12 prizes of 400 colones each to be awarded annually to those 
schools having the best coffee, maize, and rice fields, the best potato and bean crops, 
and the best nurseries respectively, and 60 prizes of 100 and 50 colones for indi- 
vidual students having the best crops, farm stock, gardens, poultry, or apiaries. 

Delegate to Congress of Primary and Secondary Educa- 
tion. — Costa Rica was officially represented in the Congress of Pri- 
mary and Secondary Education which met in Montevideo on January 
27, 1928, by Seiior Luis Dobles Segreda, who has proved himself an 
efficient and progressive leader as Minister of Public Education. 
Through Senor Dobles' efforts vacation courses and other courses 
for teachers preparing for higher grades have been established, a 
periodical, La Revista de Educacion, issued, and the preparation of 
new educational programs and a textbook law begun. 

New educational office. — In order to see that the sanitary 
and educational regulations required by law are carried out in 
private schools, the office of General Supervisor of Private Schools 
has been created. 

Commercial school established. — A commercial school with a 
four years' course has recently been established in the city of Limon. 
It will be under the supervision of the Secretary of Public Education, 
who will also have charge of appointing the faculty. 


New schools. — The Public Works Department recently reported 
that work has been begun on a modern school building containing 
18 classrooms in Villa de Colon. The Luz y Caballero School, as 
it is named, is to contain a room for the board of education, a teach- 
ers' room, kindergarten, library, and other sections. Though part 
of the old building is being utilized, the work, which is to be com- 
pleted in a year, will cost $62,778. 
89045— 2&— Bull. 4 7 


Habana University ExcHANas professors. — In January Doctor 
Averhoff, president of the University of Habana, received a visit 
from Dr. Samuel Inman, one of the professors of Columbia Uni- 
versity, when the question of exchange professors was taken up. 
Communications have also been received from several other universi- 
ties in the United States regarding the possibility of an exchange of 

Abnormal children. — A commission has been appointed to 
study the organization of public schools for abnormal children and 
the theoretical and practical training necessary for teachers of such 

School statistics. — According to statistics for the school year 
1926-27 published in the Journal of Public Instruction of Habana, 
the enrollment in the lower primary grades of the public schools 
was 449,478 while the average daily attendance was 240,317. There 
were 6,952 schools in charge of 7,350 teachers. There were 70 
itinerant teachers working at 152 school centers in which the average 
daily enrollment was 3,324 and the attendance 2,734. There were 
84 night schools with an enrollment of 8,377 and an average attend- 
ance of 3,101. In the 8 primary schools connected with the penal 
institutions, there was an enrollment of 930 and an average attend- 
ance of 354. There were 662 teachers and assistants in the special 
schools. There were 525 private schools with 1,309 classrooms in 
charge of 1,668 teachers, with an enrollment of 31,949 and an average 
daily attendance of 26,902. 


Teachers' Club. — On December 26 of last year the Teachers' 
Club was opened in Quito, among those present on that occasion 
being the Provisional President of the Republic, other Government 
officials and many teachers, both men and women. The club was 
started with the idea of providing members with a pleasant place for 
recreation, study, and reading. 

Vocational school. — The Quito vocational school, an educational 
center of which Ecuador is justly proud, was founded in 1869 as 
the Catholic Protectorate by President Garcia Moreno. In 1923 it 
was rebuilt by President Jose Luis Tamayo, further improvements 
being made last year by Dr. Isidro Ayora, present Provisional 
President of the Republic. On December 3, 1927, the section for 
boarding students and other newly-built departments of the school 
were opened in the presence of the most important Government and 
school officials. The school teaches machine-shop work, carpentry^ 
printing, bookbinding, photography, ironworking, drawing, rug weav- 
ing, and willow-furniture making. Besides shops for these subjects, 
the school also has other classrooms, laboratories, a library, athletic 


fields, and beautiful gardens in its extensive grounds. The able prin- 
cipal of the school is Senor Ernesto Alban Mestaza. 


Election of university president. — On January 5, 1928, Sr. 
don Bernardo Alvarado Tello was elected president of the National 
University created in accord with an executive decree of September 
28, 1927. Senor Tello, who was formerly dean of the School of Law 
and Political and Social Sciences, is a distinguished member of the 
Guatemalan Bar Association and has held many other important 

Addition to National Library. — Through the interest and 
influence of Dr. don Luis Toledo Herrarte, Minister of Foreign 
Relations, 200 new medical books, costing 11,000 francs, have been 
acquired by the National Library. 


Agricultural school. — In December last an agreement was made 
between the Tela Railroad Co. and the Government of Honduras 
by virtue of which the former offers to open an agricultural school 
at the experiment station located at Lancetilla. In this school young 
men selected by competitive examination will be taught the best 
methods for propagating plants adapted to Honduran conditions. 
Instruction will also be given in elementary and advanced agricul- 
ture, methods of dealing with plant diseases and insect pests, stock 
raising, agricultural engineering, and soil chemistry. 

The company will fix the number of students, which will not be 
less than five, in case there are sufficient well-qualified applicants. 
The instructors will be graduates of professional agricultural schools. 

The company will pay all necessary expenses, provide tools and 
apparatus for instruction, and also supply board, lodging, and medical 

The Government agrees to recognize the certificates ^ven to stu- 
dents who satisfactorily complete the course of instruction and to 
grant them special consideration. 

Educational Congress. — Last January a National Education Con- 
gress was held in the Women's Normal School in Tegucigalpa. The 
numerous delegates from all sections of the country were united in 
their determination to extend education and stamp out illiteracy. 
The Minister of Public Education informed the Congress that a press 
was at their disposal for the printing of the Boletin Pedagogico. 

Among the papers presented before the Congress mention should be 
made of that of Mr. J. Vicente Caceres entitled, "Ideals for the 
Primary Schools of Honduras to Follow." After maldng a careful 


study of the subject, he comes to the conclusion that, in order to aid 
the progress of society, the primary schools of Honduras should con- 
sider the economic factor as their prime interest and ideal: "Public- 
school education should be industrialized." He adds that the schools 
should stress economic science in its three phases: Production, dis- 
tribution, and consumption, and that when the school becomes alive 
and practical it will train men who are used to work and who will be 
good, patriotic citizens. 

Popular university. — A popular university, or evening school, was 
started in Tegucigalpa early this year by the labor unions, in order 
to help in the campaign against illiteracy, which is now one of the 
chief patriotic objectives of the nation. 


Boarding school for Tarahumara Indians. — In the early part 
of 1928 the Federal Government opened a boarding school named 
after Fray Bartolome de las Casas for the boys of the Tarahumara 
Tribe, so famous for its runners. The school, which is situated 
at Yoquivo, will give elementary instruction and also training in 
agriculture and|trades, being equipped with workshops, classrooms, 
dormitories, and recreation and athletic grounds. Ten hectares are 
to be devoted to the practice of agriculture with modern implements. 

New schools. — By a decree issued in the latter part of 1927, 
effective January 1, 1928, the governor of the State of Michoacan 
has amended the State education law, the most important part of 
the amendment being as follows: 

♦ * * All owners of ranches, estates, mines, sawmills, factories, or other 
agricultural or industrial business are obliged to open and maintain an elementary 
school with one teacher, or two, if there are more than 50 children of school 
age present. 

♦ * * Persons having less than 10 children of school age upon their prop- 
erty are exempt from this obligation. 

♦ ♦ * All proprietors who under the provisions of this law are obliged 
to establish elementary schools are to furnish the place for holding school as 
weU as the furniture and necessary school equipment, and also a room for the 

State authorities have received instructions to make this decree 
effective, which will do a great deal toward reducing illiteracy and 
stimulating the intellectual progress of the populous State of 

International Drawing Exposition. — The head of the division 
of drawing in the office of the Secretary of Public Education is pre- 
paring for an international exposition to be held in Mexico City 
about the middle of this year. Many foreign countries have promised 
to send samples of the work done in their schools. 


Visit of educators to California. — One hundred teachers and 
school administrators of Mexico are to be the guests of California 
educators for one month this coming spring. The Mexican Govern- 
ment has agreed to bring them to the border, where they will be 
received by the Californians. The itinerary includes a two weeks' 
tour into northern California with Berkeley as the center and a two 
weeks' stay in southern California with the Southern University 
Branch as the center. While in northern California they will have 
the opportunity of hearing leading educators explain the State's aims 
and progress along educational lines. They will be guests in private 
homes as well as in various colleges and schools, and will be taken 
on an extensive sight-seeing trip. The Californians also expect to 
gain a better understanding of the Mexican educational program 
by giving their guests opportunities to appear before clubs and 
college audiences. 


National Teachers' Congress. — Sessions of the National Teach- 
ers' Congress held in Asuncion under the auspices of the Association 
of Normal School Teachers were closed on December 14, 1927. All 
of the normal schools as well as many of the secondary and primary 
schools of Asuncion and other sections of the country participated, 
the delegates numbering 52 in all. 

Agricultural scholarships. — It was announced in the press 
that 45 scholarships in the agricultural school of the Botanical 
Garden, Asimcion, would be available to boys between the ages of 
16 and 22 years whose parents are engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
The courses offered by this school include practice farming as well 
as theoretical studies, thereby insuring the student helpful preparation 
for his chosen Une of work. 


Work of normal graduate teachers. — In an article published 
by La Prensa of Lima on January 1, 1928, the following information 
on normal graduate teachers is given: 

The normal graduate teachers in Peru since 1906 have been the first founders 
of school libraries; the first to establish temperance leagues and troops of Boy 
Scouts; the first to establish school gardens and the teaching of agriculture in 
elementary schools; the first to undertake a campaign to increase the education 
of the public through magazines and pedagogical reviews; the first to organize 
teachers* institutes for professional and popular enlightenment; the first to meet 
in regional assemblies and congresses to discuss problems relating to education; 
and the first to utilize in general every means to arouse an interest in education. 

Of graduates of the Lima Normal School, 510 are placed as follows: Inspectors 
of instruction, 39; officials in the General Bureau of Instruction, 5; delegate to 
the National Council of Education, 1; dead or whereabouts unknown, 39; out 


of active service, 32; teaching in Government service, 394, as follows: professors 
in Government universities, 4; principals of normal schools or national secondary 
schools, 6; teachers in normal schools and national secondary schools, 10; teachers 
of elementary schools, 374. 

Peruvian professors lecture in Paris. — Three professors from 
the University of San Marcos in Lima, Doctors Belaiinde, Hercelle-^ 
and Miro Quesada, have won fame abroad from the lectures they 
have been giving during the past year in some of the most impor- 
tant institutions in France. 

Sports fostered at the University of San Marcos. — A con- 
tract has been awarded by the University for the construction of a 
track and a football field. 


Improvements in the National Library. — The director of this 
library has written the national libraries of the other Hispanic 
American nations asking their cooperation in forming sections of 
their respective countries in the Salvadorean library. He proposes 
to send the works of Salvadorean authors in exchange. A children's 
section, a women's reading room, and lectures in branch libraries 
are other features by which it is planned to extend the work of the 


First Congress of National History.— Preliminary plans for 
the celebration of the first centenary of the preliminary convention 
of peace signed in 1828 by the First National Historical Congress, 
to be held in August, 1928, are being rapidly formulated. President 
Camplstegui has accepted the honorary presidency of the congress 
and invitations have been extended to the Governments of Argentina 
and Brazil, the signers of the treaty, and Great Britain, its guarantor, 
as well as to various Uruguayan societies and prominent persons 
from all over the continent. 

Percentage of illiterates. — The National Electoral Bureau 
recently announced that out of the 362,916 voters who had registered 
up to that time, the average percentage of illiterates was 19 per cent, 
ranging from 4.7 per cent illiteracy in Montevideo to 35.5 per cent in 
the department of Minas. 


Bar ASSOCIATION. — A bar association having as members lawyers 
resident in the State of Aragua was recently organized in Maracay. 
According to a press report of December 26, 1927, Dr. Santiago Siso 
Ruiz was chosen its first president. 


Working Woman's House. — On December 26, 1927, the corner- 
stone was laid for the Working Woman's House in Buenos Aires. 
The building, which is to cost 100,000 pesos to be raised by popular 
subscription, will provide dormitories, luncheon, medical assistance, 
training in domestic economy, other instruction, and a market for 
articles made by the workers. 


Sunday rest for certain laborers. — The employees of the 
charcoal and wood industry recently requested the Association of 
Commercial Employees to secure the right of Sunday rest for them. 
As a result the association addressed the city government of Rio de 
Janeiro petitioning an amendment to the municipal law granting 
Sunday rest to these workers also. 


Emigration of laborers. — On December 16 of last year the 
Minister of the Interior sent instructions to the provincial governors, 
asking them to prevent the emigration of laborers without passports 
and to grant passports only to those who were certain of work in a 
foreign country and who had means of return to Chile assured. 


Work of arbitration board. — Evidence of the great amount 
of work being dispatched by the Labor Accident Arbitration Board 
is given in a report for the first nine months of 1927. During that 
time 506 labor accidents were reported, and 451 cases successfully 


Cyclone relief. — On January 6, 1928, thecommission which had 
been dispensing relief in" the section which suffered from the cyclone 
of 1926 was dissolved. The mayors of the towns of Bauta and San 
Jose each received from the chairman of the retiring commission the 
sum of $5,000 for the construction in their respective municipalities 
of a building for tobacco sorting to provide working places for the 




thousands of tobacco workers employed in warehouses destroyed by 
the cyclone. The buildings are deeded to the tobacco labor organi- 
zations of those localities so that they may not be taxed, mortgaged, 
or transferred. 

The sum of $23,000 lent to the fishermen's organizations, which is 
being repaid in installments according to the loan agreement, will be 
used to pay in part for the construction of the sea wall in the Bay of 
Batabano. The total amount of money managed by the rehef com- 
mission was $1,174,412.84, of which $180,000 was spent in the erection 
of dwellings, $95,000 in the construction of tobacco warehouses, 
$61,000 in building 18 asylums, and $63,000 in furnishing food and 
clothing at Belen College when that functioned as a kitchen and shelter 
for the poor. 


HoNDURAN Labor Federation. — An Executive order of September 
22, 1927, approved the statutes of the Honduran Labor Federation 
and recognized its incorporation. 


Register of labor organizations. — On October 28, 1927, the 
registration of labor unions and other labor organizations legally 
organized was established by law. Unless duly registered no such 
organization may exercise the rights to which other laws and regu- 
lations entitle it. 


South American football champions. — On December 9, 1927, 
the Argentine football team which won the South American football 
championship in the series of international games played in Lima, 
Peru, returned from a visit to Chile where they were much praised 
and entertained. 

Project for workmen's housing. — Plans were presented to the 
municipality of Buenos Aires in December for the building of a 
workmen's housing development to contain 2,160 apartments, of 
which 1,008 would have 2 rooms, 144 three rooms and 1,008 four 
rooms, all provided with kitchen and bath, to be located in 18 build- 
ings of 120 apartments each, with a main central building where 


stores might be located as well as a first-aid station, a lecture hall or 
theater, a library, and the administration offices. Space would also 
be left for schools. The ground plan of the group of buildings con- 
structed around a central park would cover about 100,000 square 
meters. The Nueva Pompeya section of Buenos Aires is suggested 
as a good locality for the new housing project. It is suggested that 
the municipality might give the ground, and that the financing could 
be done by a municipal loan covered by a bond issue to be taken by 
the cooperative association in which home purchasers would be 
members, and guaranteed by their monthly payments on the property. 
Vacation Camps. — See page 422. 


First woman mayor. — Senora dona Emilia Werner de Wordeman 
has become mayor of Ranquil, the first Chilean woman to hold such 
a position. 

Sale of skim milk prohibited. — The city council prohibited the 
sale of skim milk in Santiago beginning January 1 of this year. 


Child welfare lectures. — The Central Bureau of Infant Hy- 
giene of the National Department of Health and Charity in Habana 
is now giving a series of free weekly lectures on child care and welfare. 
These lectures are for poor mothers, who are coming in increasing 
numbers to learn scientific principles of caring for their babies. 

Workmen's housing. — In January, 1928, 22 workmen's houses 
located in a suburb of Habana and costing about $2,500 each were 
awarded by lot among persons whose requests had been approved 
by the housing commission. The houses, which have a front garden, 
hallway, living room, dining room, two bedrooms, kitchen and sani- 
tary arrangements, were constructed of brick and cement by the 
Department of Public Works. 

Cyclone relief. — See page 431. 


Guayaquil water and sewer system and paving. — On December 
9, 1927, a contract was signed between the Government of Ecuador 
and an English firm by which the latter engages to provide water and 
sewer systems for Guayaquil and to pave its streets. This contract 
replaces that of January 5, 1914, and also that made with the present 
company on January 3, 1927. The Government will expend a 
total of 20,000,000 sucres on this work at the rate of 3,000,000 sucres 
annually. Work was to begin on January 1 of this year. 



, Auxiliary clinic. — An extension of the beneficial work being 
carried on by the Children's Home of Guatemala City was recently 
made possible by the action of the Government when a suburban 
property was turned over to the institute for use as its first branch 

Bacteriological institute. — The creation of a bacteriological 
institute in Guatemala City was authorized by an executive decree 
of December 23, 1927. 


Waterworks.— The Plaisance Aqueduct at Port au Prince was 
placed in commission last Decembe" and resulted in the delivery to 
the city of about 3,000,000 gallons of water per day, which is two 
and one-half times the previous flow. {Bulletin of the Financial 
Adviser-General Receiver, December, 1927.) 


Lecture on tuberculosis. — -On December 30, 1927, Dr. Fran- 
cisco Berrios delivered an interesting lecture to the students in the 
school of medicine at Leon on pulmonary tuberculosis. The lecturer 
discussed the biological concept of the pathogenic agent, contagion, 
inheritance, the defense reactions of the organism, and other topics. 
Useful instructions on how to prevent and to cure this disease were 
also given. 


Child welfare. — A new child welfare program was approved by 
the National Board of Hygiene and Public Assistance in its session 
on December 22, 1917. With its adoption the hours of the child 
health cPnic were lengthened to a full day, from 6 a m. to 6 p. m., 
home visitation for children by the physicians of the clinic begun, 
and maternity assistance improved. 

Work of prisoners.— An interesting exhibit of a number of chairs 
made and upholstered by the prisoners of the penitentiary in Asuncion 
was recently displayed by a firm of that city. Their excellent work- 
manship bore eloquent testimony to skill which may be developed 
by prisoners when taught useful trades. 


National Association of Hygienists. — A group of profesional 
hygienists and sanitarians recently formed a National Association of 
Hygienists in Lima to educate the masses in the principles of hygiene 
and sanitation for the benefit of public health, including especially 


the protection of mothers and children and the prevention of tubercu- 
losis, venereal diseases, and other infectious diseases. They will also 
work for the development of city improvements and sanitary engi- 
neering and the awakening of a public conscience on sanitation and 
hygiene through lectures, newspaper and magazine articles, and leaf- 
lets. Dr. Sebastian Lorente, the director of the Bureau of Public 
Health, was elected president. 

Extension of the rent law. — See page 420. 


On behalf of the blind. — An executive decree of December 15, 
1927, created a special school for the blind in San Salvador, in which 
it is proposed to give them both such general education and special 
training in the manual arts as will enable them to live a useful life. 
All the teaching staff will be composed of blind persons, who will be 
given board and lodging in the institution in addition to their salaries. 

Water supply. — Arrangements are being completed to increase 
the water supply of San Salvador, in order to provide a sufficient 
amount for both the city and suburbs, to which latter improvements 
are rapidly being extended. The work, which will cost about $600,- 
000, will be finished in eight months after it is begun. 

The construction of waterworks for Cojutepeque is almost com- 
pleted, the city now being assured of an adequate water supply. 

Boy Scouts. — The Rotary Club of San Salvador is seeking the 
cooperation of leading persons and associations in the organization 
of the Boy Scouts. 

Tuberculosis sanatorium. — On January 6 last the tuberculosis 
sanatorium at San Salvador was opened. Mention was made of this 
institution in last month's Bulletin. 

Children's Day. — Children's Day, or December 31, was cele- 
brated last year in San Salvador with a better-babies contest in 
which there were 78 entries. The healthiest babies were awarded 
medals or money prizes, while every child received some gift. 


Maternity and children's ward. — The corner stone of the 
maternity and children's ward of the Rocha hospital was laid on 
January 14, 1928, as part of the general celebration for the opening 
of the Garzon-Rocha branch of the Montevideo-Rocha Railroad. 

Honor to Doctor de Pena. — On December 26, 1927, the Pediatric 
Society of Uruguay celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary£of the 
professional career of Dr. Prudencio de Pena, the well-known child 
specialist, with special sessions and a luncheon held in his honor. 
He was unanimously elected president of the society for the year 



Cuban artists. — On January 6, 1928, the Diario de la Marina 
published a cable from Paris stating that the Cuban artists there 
would open an exhibition of their work in the Paris Latin American 
Club. Among the works to be shown were paintings by Domingo 
Ravenet, sculptures by Alberto Sabas, and paintings and etchings 
by Andres Nogueira. 


Columbus Light. — The following permanent executive committee 
on the Columbus Light has been appointed by the President of the 
Republic: Monsignor Adolfo A, Nouel, Archbishop of Santo Domingo, 
Sefior Francisco J. Peynado, Senor Manuel de J. Troncoso de la 
Concha, Dr. Jose D. Alfonseca, Sefior Gustavo A. Diaz, Senor 
Ernesto Bonetti Burgos, Sefior Abelardo R. Nanita, Mr. William 
E. Pulliam, and Sefior Joaquin Garcia Do Pico. 


Diego Rivera Exposition in New York. — Early in the year an 
exhibition of the paintings of the distinguished Mexican artist Diego 
Rivera was opened in New York City, where the pictures met with 
very favorable criticism. 


Roosevelt memoral. — Mrs. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the 
noted sculptress, arrived in Panama early in January to plan for the 
erection of the memorial to President Roosevelt for which she has 
been awarded the commission. One of her best-known works is the 
Aztec fountain in the Pan American Building in Washington. 


Gaucho monument unveiled.^ — Erected in accordance with a 
resolution adopted by the Third Rural Congress, the gaucho monu- 
ment, a memorial in bronze to the Uruguayan gaucho (cowboy) 
upon the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of national 
independence, was formally unveiled in Montevideo on December 31, 
1927, and presented to the National Goverment by Dr. Juan Andres 
Cachon of the Rural Federation. The interest remaining from the 
fund raised by popular subscription for this monument will be used as 
the initial contribution for a similar fund created for the erection