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Full text of "The forest trees of Mysore and Coorg"

i 




THE 

JOHN • CRAIG 

LIBRARY 

• 

COLLEGE 

OF 

AGRICULTURE 








^ 



NEW YG"": ""*"ATE 
COLLEGE OF Ar,^-r'U!-T''FiE, 

ITH;\C^», I'J. Y. 



QK 490J4cT8T89r"''''''"^ 




3 1924 001 712 169 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001712169 



THE 



FORESX TR 





E AND COORG. 



THIRD EDITION". 



EDITED BY 

JOHN CAMEEON, F.L.S., 
supebintendjent. 

MYSOKB GOVERNMENT BOTANICAL GARDENS, 
AND 

GOVERNMENT MUSEUM, BANGALORE. 




Bangalore : 

PRINTED AT THE MYSORE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS. 
1S9-4. 

Price Rs 3 for full bound ^ gilt copy. Bs. Z, plain leather binding. 



BANGALORE : 
Mysore Government Central Press. 



PREFACE TO THE EIEST EDITION. 



This list of some of the trees of Mysore and 
Ooorg is published, with the sanction of the Chief 
Commissioner, for the use of Forfest Officers and Dis- 
trict Oificers. It is interleaved to admit of additions 
or corrections. With the exception of a few well 
known trees, the vernacular names of trees in 
Mysore and Coorg vary in almost every single 
district, and this gives rise to both inconvenience and 
confusion. Before a list of Mysore and Coorg 
trees can be considered to be complete in its nomen- 
clature, a large collection of verified synonyms is 
wanted. The present list will, it is hoped, be the 
small beginning of a valuable compilation. It can 
be extended without altering its shape. Natural 
Orders, as may be necessary, can be inserted in their 
proper places. 

2. The probationers lately appointed to the 
Department, have all received a very good grounding 
in Botany ; and the Forest Divisional Officers under 
whom they are placed have been requested to 
furnish them with the means of forming good her- 
bariums, and to see that they do so. "When they 
have succeeded in collecting and in properly identi- 
fying a number of the yet unknown trees of Mysore, 
and when much additional knowledge has been 
collected and recorded by District ^ and Forest 
Officers regarding the economic uses of trees and 



IV PEEPACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

shrubs, and on other interesting points connected 
with such trees and shrubs, this list might be care- 
fiiUy revised and greatly enlarged. If this be enjoin- 
ed on the Forest Officers as a part of their duty, and 
if the District Officers would interest themselves in 
the matter, material enough might be collected 
within the next three years for compiling a very 
useful handbook of Mysore Trees ; and this might 
eventually grow into a valuable woa-k. 

3. In an appendix will be found a list of the 
commoner cereals, oils, pulses, condiments, &c., grown 
in Mysore. It is taken from the Gazetteer. 

4. Indexes of technical, vernacular, and English 
names are given. 

G. J. VAN SOMBKBN, 

Conservator of Forests, 

Mysore and'Coorg. 



PEEPACE TO THE THIED EDITION. 



The Third Edition of "The Forest Trees of 
Mysore and Coorg" has been published at the 
request of Mr. Lancelot Ricketts, the Inspector- 
Greneral of Forests and Plantations in Mysore, on 
whose action, also, a valuable file of purely local and 
provincial information had been accumulated for 
the purpose, by the officials of the Forest Depart- 
ment. 

With this substantial help, and with the fullest 
reference to such recently published works as, The 
Flora of British India, Hooker ; Dictionary of the 
Economic Products of India, Watt ; Flora Sylvatica 
for Southern India, Beddome ; The Forest Flora of 
North -West and Central India, Brandts; Pharma- 
cographia Indica, Dymoch, Warden, and Hooper ; and 
Mr. Graham Anderson's "Forest Trees in the Coffee 
Lands of South Mysore," the Editor has been able 
to greatly enlarge the work, extend its scope gener- 
ally, and, it may be hoped, carry it nearer to the 
ultimate condition foreseen by Captain (now Colonel) 
Gr. J. van Someren, in his preface to the first edition. 

But although our knowledge of arboriculture has 
improved, a reference to the text will reveal that 
there is still much to be learned concerning the 
identity, nomenclature, utility, and treatment of 
local trees ; and until these sources of information 
have been fully explored and exhausted, we cannot 
hope to possess a complete handbook on the Forest 



n PEEPACE TO THE THIBD EDITION. 

Flora of Mysore and Coorg. It is also desirable, for 
the present at least, to keep the book within the 
limits of a pocket companion, which, although not 
proAdding full information, will undoubtedly lead to 
further enquiry being made in one or other of ,the 
standard works named throughout the text. 

It is necessary to explain that the work has not 
been strictly limited to a description of " Forest 
Trees" as the title would indicate. Introduced 
exotic trees have been admitted, as also fruit trees 
and a few conspicuous plants that are usually asso- 
ciated with forest conservancy. 

The appendices contain lists which, it is believed, 
will be of use for occasional reference. 

J. CAMERON. 



Full titles of the scientific and oth^r works quoted, or 

recommended for reference, in 

" The Forest Trees of Mysore and Coorg." 



II. of Brit. Ind. 

Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

Brand. For. Fl. 

Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 

Bedd. Icon. PI. Ind. Or. 

Bot. Mag. 
Pharm, Ind. 

Useful PI. of Ind, 
Gamb. Man. Timb. 
Wight 111. 
Wight Ic. 

Bedd. For. Eep. 

Off. Guide R, G. Kew, 



Flora of British India, 



Hooker, 



Dictionary of the Economic Products 
of India. Watt. 

Forest 'Flora of the North- West and 
Central India. Brandis. 

Flora Sylvatica for Southern India. 

Beddome, 

Icones Plantarum Indise Orientalis. 

Beddome. 



Botanical Magazine. 



SooJcer. 



Pharmacographia Indiea. Bymock, 
Warden, Sf Hooper. 

The Useful Plants of India. Hrury. 

Manual of Indian Timbers. Gamble. 

Illustrations of Indian Botany, Wight. 

Icones Plantarum Indise Orientalis. 

Wight 

Administration Report* of the 
Madras ForestDepartment. Beddome. 

Guide to the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew. Oliver. 



Karz For. Fl, Bnrm. Forest Flora of British Burma. Kurz. 

Or. &, Lem. of Ind. & Cey. The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons 

of India and Ceylon. Bonmia, 



VIII 



Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb, Fl. 
Hook, Bot. Miscell. 
Benil. & Trim. Med. PI. 
Benth. Fl. Augtr. 
Thw. Euum. 

Eoxb. Oor. PI. 

King Fie. 

Ander. For. Trees, 
Econ. Fl. Jamaica. 



Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh 
Colleotion. 



Bombay Flora. Dalzell 8f Gibson, 

Botanical Miscellany. Hooker. 

Medicinal Plants. Bentley S/- Trimen. 

Flora Australiensis. Bentham. 

Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylanias. 

Thwaites, 

Plants of the Coromandel Coast. 

Soxhurgh, 

The Species of Ficus of the Indo- 

Himalayan nnd Chinese countries. 

« King. 

Forest Trees in the Coilee' Lands of 
Mysore. Anderson. 

Index to Economic Plants in Jamai- 
ca. Fawcett, 

A collection of several hundred co- 
loured botanical plates, the proper- 
ty of the Mysore Botanical Gardens 
at Bangalore. 



I. DILLENIAOE^. 

1 Dillenia indica, Linn. Kan. Kanagala, Bet, betta, 

and bettada Kanagal, or Ganagalu. 

Pig-— 50/. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection; Wight Ic. 
82B ; Bedd. F. S. 103. 

References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Brandisp. 3. 
An ornamental tree of the Malnad. Leaves alter- 
nate, ci'owded towards tlie apex, petiolate, broadly- 
lanceolate, serrate ; nerves parallel and strongly- 
marked underneath ; average blade 9x3 in. 
Flo-w-ers large, solitaiy; sepals fleshy or thickly- 
coriaceous ; petals pure white, , fragrant. Fruit 
globose, the size of a large apple, closely invested 
by the accrescent sepals. 

This round-headed tree affords dense shade 
and is well adapted for scenic planting. But in the 
maidan tracts, the species is slow of growth and 
rarely attains its full size and beauty. Wood light 
brown w^th a smooth grain, said to be used for 
gunstocks. The leaves are used to serve food upon, 
in lieu of plates. 

Otiltivation-— Propagate from seed, or plant the 
whole fruit in beds of half decomposed humus. 
When the seedlings are a year old, plant them in 
large pits at about 30 feet apart. This treatment 
applies generally to all the species of Dillenia. 

2 Dillenia bracteata, Wight. 

The same vernacular names are possibly applied 
to this species. 

A large evergreen tree, differing from the above 
in possessing smaller parts and racemed flowers. 
Perhaps less abimdant in the Malnad. "-Economic 
prbperties unknown. 



MTSOfeE ADJi) i300EG. 



3 Dillenia pentagyna, iioxj^. Kan. Koltega, Kalfcega, 

Kad .kanagala, Cuojrj, Male geru. 

Fig.— Jjedcl Fl. Sijk. 104. 

References- -Brandts p. 3.; Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; 
Did. of Ecoa. Prod, of Ind. 
A fine spreading tree of the subtropical hill 
region. ' Bare of leaf for a brief period in February, 
or la,ter according to season. Leaves oblong-lan- 
ceolate, serrate, decurrent ; petiole winged, average 
blade 15x6 in. Elowers in umbels of 6—8, corolla 
yellow. Fruit pendulous, the size of a gooseberry, 
said to possess a pleasant acid flavour, and is 
probably eaten by the local hill tribes. Although 
nicely marked, the wood is heavy, somewhat coarse- 
grained and difficult to season. Weight 50 lb. 
per cubic foot. But further trial appears necessary 
to fully test the qualities of this wood. The leaves 
afi^ord good and ample material for making humus, 
and in the villages about Poona they are used to 
thatch houses. When tender, they are in requisi- 
tion to serve food upon. 



II. MAGNOLIACEiE. 

4 Michelia Champaca, Linn. Kan. Sampige, Sampaghy, 

Sampage. 
Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Barjh Collection,; WiuJit 
III i. 13. 

References.— I>2ci. of Earn. Prod, of Ind; 
Brandts p. 3. 

This handsome evergreen tree attains a great 
size, and is sm object of much admiration in the open 
glades of the Malnad country. Rare specimens 
attain to BO or even 100 feet, having a circumfer- 
ence of "20 feet at the base of, the trunk. Leaves 
alternate, petiolate, pale green, ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, entire, aA^erage blade 10^4 in. Flowers 
axillarv, large, pale-yellow and strongly scented. 



MTSaEB AJST'D COOEG. 



Fruit sessile and capsular, containing 4 — 6 seeds-. 
Tlie Sampige is frequent in Coorg, and in the western 
parts of Mysore as far as Nsigar. Cultivated in the 
maidan districts, especially about Hindu shrines, 
for its popular flowers. On gala days the latter 
are entwined in the hair and worn about the 
person. As a source of perfume they should com- 
mand attention. Timber good, heartwood glossy, 
dark brown, close-grained and somewhat brittle. 
"Weight 40 lb. per cubic foot. Much prized for 
-making furniture, carriages, and fine articles of 
cabinet-work, as the seasoned wood takes a fine 
polish. Much good timber is wasted in the erection 
of village buildings. 

Cultivation, — The Sampige is easily raised from 
seed. When a foot or more in height the seedlings 
should be planted at 40 feet apart in deep alluvial 
soil. A garden variety of the species, having 
cream-coloured flowers, is held in high esteem, and 
is often grafted on to the typical stock, when the 
latter is about three feet in height. In the strictly 
maidan region the tree is usually stunted in growth, 
but it attains full development in the uplands of 
Hassan and Shimoga. 

5 Michelia nilagirica, Zbnk. 

An evergreen tree of the Western Ghats. 

6 Magnolia grandiflora, Linn. 

A small evergreen tree, or stout woody climber 
when placed near suitable support. Introduced 
from Carolina and cultivated for its superb flowers. 
Confined at present to the Botanical Gardens. 

III. ANONACE^. 

7 Polyalthia longifolia, Benth. Kan. Putrajfvi? 

Fig-— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection ; Bedd. i 38. 
References -i?eic/. M. Syh., Brandts p. 4. 
A lofty evergreen tree. Cultivated in gardens 



FOREST TEEES. 



occasionally, but not usually found in the Mysore 
country. It should not be confounded with the 
indigenous tree Putranjiva Moxburghii, which is 
known in the Malnad by the same vernacular name. 
The species under notice is said to be indigenous to 
Tanjore and the drier parts of Ceylon, where the 
English denizens have called it the " mast tree." 
It grows slowly at Bangalore, and produces a large 
quantity of fruit resembling coffee berries, in 
February and March. Leaves alternate, shortly 
petiolate, lanceolate, tapering uniformly into a fine 
acumen, margin undulated, glabrous and shining ; 
average blade 7xlf in. Flowers creamy-green. 
Beddome asserts that the seasoned wood weighs 
37 lb. per cubic foot, and that it is used for drum 
cyHnders. 

Cultivation.— Easily raised from seed, and grows 
best in a deep SMidy soil under the influence of sea 
breezes. On iiilland plains growth is unsatisfactory. 
Plant at 20 feet apart. 

8 Polyalthia coffeoides, Benth. 

'Pig.-Bedd. Ic. Pi. Ind. Or. t. S3. 

'References.— Brandts p. 5., Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
An ornamental tree of Western Mysore. Beddome 
writes that " the young leaves come out a most 
brilliant red coloiu-," also that the fresh bark, which 
is made into ropes by the Kurambars, smells strongly 
of ammonia. Specimens of this species should be 
submitted from the western boundary. 

9 Polyalthia fragrans, Benth. 

Fig— Bedd. Icon. Pi. Ind. Or. t. 64. 

Eeference.-J'Z. of Brit. Ind. 
A large evergreen tree having fragrant flowers - 
confined to the moist forests of the Western Ghats. 
Uses undetermined. 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 



10 Polyalthia cerasoides, Benth. Kan. San kesare, 

Vnbbina ? 

Eeferences.— .FZ. of Brit. Ind.; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

This elegant tree is mostly confined to the drj 
forest tracts skirting the foot of the Ghats and- 
projecting eastward into the plains. It is readily- 
detected among other trees by its greenish flowers, 
which are very fragrant and appear in great profu- 
sion towards the end of March. Timber close- 
grained, durable, and used extensively in the Bombaj 
Presidency. District forest officers have not in- 
cluded the species in their lists, unless it is under 
some vernacular name which has not, as yet, been 
referred to P. cerasoides. In all such cases good 
botanical specimens should be submitted for identi- 
fication. There are. probably one or two additional 
species of Polyalthia represented in the western 
forests of the State, but their names are withheld 
for the present. Taken as a group the Polyalthias 
are perhaps more ornamental than strictly useful 
trees. Their culture has also to be confined to the 
evergreen forest ranges or, in a few instances, to the 
seaside. They all produce fertile seeds. 

11 Anona squamosa, Linn. Kan. Duranji, ffiw. Sita- 

phal. 

Fig.— Bat. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection ; Bot. Mag. 
3095. 

References.— P^arm. Ind. ; Econ. PI. Jamaica ; 
Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
The custard apple tree of this country, and the 
sweet-sop of the West Indies, from whence it was 
originally introduced to the east. Extensively cul- 
tivated in gardens and running wild in hedgerows 
and woods, where it forms a nurse to sandal and 
other valuable trees. Leaves alternate, petiolate, 
oblong-obtuse, or rarely acute, glaucous underneath. 



FOREST TREKS. 



average blade 3^x1^ in. Flowers solitary or in 
pairs, greenisli-yellow. Fruit the size of an apple, 
tubercled, many seeded. 

Timber soft and close-grained. "Weight 46 lb. 
per cubic foot. Custard apples are reputed to be 
good for the digestion. " Leaves, immature fruits 
and seeds, contain a principle fatal to insects. The 
leaves are often rubbed on floors, &c., in houses 
to get rid of insects." Fawcett. 

In this country, the seed-powder is applied to the 
head for a similar purpose. Local importance is 
attached to the medicinal properties of the seed, 
leaf, and bark of this well-known species. 

Cultivation.— Existing measures are, as a rule, 
very hap-hazard, but with proper irrigation and the 
selection of good manures the different custard 
apples might be cultivated with much profit. Ex- 
periment in grafting would no doubt produce good 
results, as it has done in the case of mango, guava, 
and othet" tropical fruits. Seedlings are easily 
raised. 

12 Anona reticulata, Linx. Kan. Ramphal, Eamphala. 
iig-Bot. Platen Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References— Ucon. Ft. Jamaica; Did. Econ. 
JProd. of Ind. 

A small tree. The "bullocks heart," or proper 
custard apple of the West Indies. Leaves alternate, 
shortly petiolate, slightly pubescent when yojing', 
subsequently glabrous, oblong-acute, average blade' 
5 X 2i in. Flowers axillary, in twos or threes, 
greenish-yellow. Fruit larger and not so prolific as' 
in the sweet-sop. Wood indifferent in quality and 
small in growth. Weight about 40 lb. per cubic 
foot. Cultivated in gardens, but not so popular as 
the foregoing species although the fruit is admitted 
to be good. 



MTSOE-B AND CODEG. 



The young leaves and fruit afford substances for 
dyeing and tanning. 

13 Anona muricata, Linn. Kan. Mnllu Ramphala, 

Mg—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
Reference.— Drury Ihef.. PI. Ind. 

The soursop. A small evergreen tree ciiltivated 
in Botanical Gardens, and rarely elsewhei^e in this 
coiintry. This species is easily determined from its 
congeners by the fruit. The, latter is larger than 
other custard af)ples, (occasionally weighing 2 lbs.) 
somewhat unshapely and covered with long soft 
prickles. Its properties are diuretic. Root . said 
to be an antidote against fish-poison. "Wood un- 
known. Specimens may be seen in the Lal-Bagh. 

14 Saccopetalum tomentosum, H. F. & T. Eaii. 

Hessare, Hessari. 

m^.-Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 49. 

" A tall handsome tree of the "Western Crhats. 
Bark J of an inch thick, of various shades, some- 
times black and deeply cracked. "Wood moder- 
ately hard, olive brown, smooth, close-grained 
and having no heartwood. Weight 45 lb. per 
culbic foot. Only used for fuel." K. Shama Iyen- 
gar. This fi,ne tree, of which little is really known, 
should be utilised for scenic and avenue planting at 
Hassan, Shimoga and other municipal towns on the 
confines of the Malnad. 

15 Alphonsea madraspatana, Bedd. 

Fig -Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 92. 
Reference.— JPZ. of Brit. Ind. 

A large umbrageous tree with leathery shining 
leaves and bright yellow flowers. Usually found 
on the banks of rivers at an elevation of 2000 to 
3000 feet. Except that it is highly ornamental, 



8 ]?OEEST TREES. 

the local \ises of this tree are undescribed. More 
local mformation is needed, with good herbarium 
specimens. 

16 Bocagea Dalzellii, H. F. and T. 

Fig.-Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t 42. 

References.— F/. of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 
This is a moderate-sized tree of the Malnad; 
perhaps not very abundant. It affords good timber 
of a reddish colour said to be used in house-bmldmg. 
The leaves, which are not unlike those of the 
Portugal laurel, are applied as a fomentation ■ in 
rheumatism. The crowded white flowers, succeeded 
by smooth fruit the size and form of a large marble, 
each containing two seeds, are prominent characters 
of this species. 

IV. CAPPARIDE^. 

17 Crataeva religiosa, Forst. Kan. Nervala, Goorg, 

Nerujani, Vitasi ? 

References.— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A small tree frequenting the banks of streams 
and rivers, unarmed and glabrous. Leaves de- 
ciduous, 3 — ^foliolate, long petioled, average leaflet 
41 X 1 in. 

Flowers 3 in. diam., in corymbs at the ends of 
the branches; yellow changing to purple. Fruit 
globose or ovoid according to variety, t7he size of 
a small bael-ffuit. 

Wood soft aiid even-grained. Said to be used for 
drums, combs, and m turnery. Leaves and bark 
medicinal. This small tree, which is very showy 
while m flower is often planted in native burial 
grounds. It does not succeed in very di-y situa- 

ulOXlSa 



MTSOEE AND OOORG. 



18 Cadaba indica, Lamk. Kan. Maragade. 

This shriLib is found in tlie Kankanhalli jungle, 
and at intervals tlirous'liout tke maidan tracts. The 
leaves are reputed to have anthelmintic properties, 
and a decoction of them is a common village remedy 
for. children- and others who are possessed of worms. 
To sores and festers they are applied in the form, of a 
poultice. G. tnfoliata, W. and A. is also indigenous 
to the maidan. It is a rigid shrub with green 
flowers and berried fruit. 



V. BIXINEJE. 

19 Cochlospermum Gossypiuiji, D.O. Kan. Arisina 

buruga. 

^ig.~Bot. Plates Lal-Bagli Collection. 

References— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of 
Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A small deciduous tree of dry hills and forests. 
It is the golden-yellow-flowered silk cotton tree, 
and should nqt be confounded with Eriodendron 
avfra.ctuosum, the white-flowered silk cotton nor 
Bombax malabarica, the red-flowered species. Ee- 
maining bare through the early- part of the dry 
season, -the tree bursts into flower in March and is 
then a conspicuous object all over the districts 
where it is plentiful. Leaves' large, palmate, softly 
tomentose underneath, glabrous on the surface, 
average blade 7 x 5 in. Capsules softly tomentose, 
larger than a goose's egg. The latter, when ripe, 
yield a quantity of fine floss (silk cotton so-called) 
which is in demand in' continental hospitals for 
stuffing pillows. Its local use for the same purpose 
is perhaps limited, as it is said to impart great heat. 
A gum, which is occasionally used in the Upper 
Provinces in lieu of Tragacanth, is exuded from the 
trunk. The wood weighs about 1 7 lb. per cubic 



10 FOREST TREES. 

foot, and is practically^ of no value. Specimens of 
the tree will be seen near tlie entrance gate to tHe 
Botanical Gardens. The fine golden-yellow flowers 
appear in February and March in advance ot the 
young leares. 

Cultivation —Raise from seed, and plant when a 
foot high in any loamy soil. 

20 Bixa Orellana, Linjt. Kan. Kangamali, Rangumale, 

sauna japali. 

Fig—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
'References.— Useful PI. of Ind. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

This handsome shnib is naturalised in Mysore, as 
in other parts of India. It rarely attains to the 
size of a small tree. Known in the Main ad by the 
name of " sanna japali." The red pxilpy covering 
of the seed (the testa) is used as a dye under the 
name of Arnatto. 

" It is prepared by macerating the capsules in boil- 
ing water, extracting the seeds, and leaving the 
pulp to subside : the fluid being subsequently thrown 
off. The residium, with which oil is sometimes 
mixed, is placed in shallow vessels and dried in the 
shade. When jproperly made it should be of a 
bright yellow colour." Drury. Arnatto has gone 
out of use practically ; but formerly it was a popular 
dye for silk and Dutch cheese. 

The shrub is easily propagated from seed. 

21 Scolopia crenata, Clos. Kan. Dodda japalu, Japala. 

Japle or Adicay japle. > r i 

References.-i?Z. of Brit. Ind. -, Ander.For. Trees. 

A good-sized tree of the Malnad. Wood white 
hard, dense, liable to twist in plank. When fellinff 
this timber the edges of tools are quickly blunted 
It is reputed to be a good fuel timber ; and the tree" 



MYSORE AND COORG. 11 

affords fairly good shade to coffee. The acid 
fruit, which is the size and form of a potato-plum, is 
eaten by the hill tribes. Seeds germinate readily. 
Specimens are wanted for herbarium. 

22 Flacourtia sepiaria, Roxb. Kan. Miridi. 

Fig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.— jPZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A rigid, spinescent bush, well known for its sub- 
acid fruit, the size of a pea. The subsessile, obov- 
ate, leaves ^re relished by cattle, but are protected 
to some extent by the formidable spines of the 
species. The tree called " Abblu" in the Shimoga 
list is probably Flacourtia inermis, Eoxb. but this 
requires further investigation. Anderson calls the 
same, tree "Ubblu." " Shade fair and no actual bad 
effect known (for coffee). Fruit edible. Wood used 
for making ploughs, rough beams, posts and char- 
coal ; also as fuel." 

23 Gynocardia odorata, 'R.Br^Hind. Chaulmugra. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References.— FZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Gamble, Man. 
Timb. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind.. 

A glabrous evergreen tree of Northern India and 
China. Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. Leaves alter- 
nate, shortly petiolate, oblong-elliptic, apex acute 
and slightly twisted ; average blade 8x3 in. Flowers 
axillary or upon th-e old wood in small clusters, 
yellow and sweet scented. Fruit subglobose, the 
size of a large citron, attached, like the flowers, 
to the old wood. Chaulmugra seed affords a 
Taluable mediciual oil which is prized for leprosy 
and like skin diseases. Delivered at Calcutta the 
SBeds are worth Rs. 12 per Bengal maund of 80 lbs. 
"Wood close-grained and durable. Weight 47 lb. 



12 FOREST TREES. 



per cubic foot. The Bangalore climate is a lit ■ ■ 
dry for the best growth of this useful ^®^'f ^f V' 
efforts should be made to establish it in the ^^^^xi, 
where it would thrive well and- eventvially am to 
forest revenue. It thrives best in a deep virgm 
soil near the banks of streams. 
24 Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blume. Tel. Niradi- 

vittulu, 

Fig—WigJit. III. i. t. 16. 

References.— FZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind.; Fhaim. Ind. 
This fine tree is occasionally met with on the 
extreme western boundary. Leaves alternate, 
shortly petiolate ; elliptic to oblong -lanceolate, apex 
acuminate ; average blade 8 x 3 in. Flowers soli- 
tary or racemed, corolla white, one inch in diam. 
Fruit globose, the size of an apple, woolly or rough. 
The medicinal oil expressed from the seed is locally 
applied to vdcers and skin eruptions, but it is 
scarcely a marketable article- The quality of the 
timber is unknown, except that it attains a large 
size. Specimens are wanted for the herbarium, 

25 Hydnocarpus alplna, Wight, Kan. Sanna solti^ 

Torathi. 

Tig— Wight. Ic. t. 942. 

References.-Dicf. of Econ.. Prod, of Ind.;Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. 

This handsome tree attains to a maximum height^ 
of 100 feet. It is a grand object for avenues and 
scenic planting, but would not succeed well on the- 
plains. Beddome remarks that the wood " answers 
as deal for general purposes, packing cases and 
firewood." Herbarium specimens, with matured' 
seed, should be collected and forwarded to head-- 
quarters by the Malnad forest officers. ; 



MYSORE AND COOEG. IS 



26 Asteriastigma macrocarpa, Bedd. Ka7i. Dodda 

solti', 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Syh. PI. 366. 
Described as a very handsome tree with, large red 
fruit. Not auttenticated. Specimens are wanted for 
the herbarium. 



VI. TAMARISOINEiS. 

27 Tamarix galiica, Linn. 

This interesting bush (rarely a small tree) is 
found on the banks and in the silted beds of rivers. 
In general appearance it reminds one of a very 
stunted Gasv,arina. It is a plant of great antiquity, 
frequently mentioned by Pliny and other early 
"writers. Gi-alls and manna are medicinal products 
of the species. It thrives near the sea and in 
inland situations where there are saline deposits. 



VII. GUTTIFERiS. 

28 Garcinia Cambogia, Desrouss. Kan. MaHthulH, 

Aradalada— Manjarabad. 

Fig— Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 85. 

References.— M. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Eeon. 
Prod, of Ind. 

An evergreen tree of the Western Malnad ; 
habit erect, branches or leaves drooping. The 
opposite, exstipulate, coriaceous, dark-green leaves 
are characteristic of the genus. Average blade, in 
this .species, 4^ x If in. Flowers conspicuons and 
unisexual. Fruit the size of a small apple, when 
ripe yellow or reddish, grooved from the base to 
1 the middle. The rind is eaten when ripe and pre- 
served at an earlier stage as a condiment. The 
libei* (inner bark) exudes a yellow juice, or semi- 
transparent gamboge, which is unsuitable for paint- 
ing. 



14 



FOREST TREKS. 



Beddome considers the wood of value and 
recommends it for articles of furniture. Weight 
64 lb. per cubic foot. 

29 Garcinia Morella, Desrouss. A'aw. Kankutake, 

Kankootgal. 

Fig— Bedd. Fl &yh. t. 86 ; Wight Ic. t. 102. 

References.— i^L of Brit. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
This is the true gamboge tree. Evergreen, con- 
fined to the Malnad and never of very large size. 
In foliage and flower it rather closely resembles the 
foregoing species, from which it is best determined 
"by its subglobose fruit, the size of a cherry and 
slightly 4-angled. The yellow pigment which 
•exudes from the wounded trunk is the proper 
gamboge of commerce. Although the tree is some- 
what abimdant on the Grh^ts, it is not largely utilised 
for its gum-resin. Lovery remarks that it is " use- 
ful for building and firewood." This is surely mis- 
placed utility ! Each fruit contains 3 — 4 seeds 
which germinate freely. It is useless attempting to 
grow the species profitably outside the Malnad. 

30 Garcinia Xantlxichymus, Hook. Kan. Divarige, 

Devagarige. 
Fig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

Heferences.— Dicf. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. 
of Brit. Ind. 

When laden with its golden-yellow fruit, the size 
of an English apple, this evergreen tree is strikingly 
effective and beautiful. In young trees the dark- 
green, coriaceous, leaTesare occasionally 20 x 3 in 
An inferior gamboge is afforded by the liber and 
the rind of the green fruit; and in some mrts 
of India this product is converted into a useful 
dye. The fruit possesses mediciaal properties and 



MYSORE AND 000 EG. 15 

is perhaps eaten occasionally by the jungle people, 
although it is said to spoil the teeth. Wood used 
for building, but not fully reported on. Two fine 
specimens of this species, which have assumed 
a pyramidal form, will be seen in Mr. Virasami 
Mudaliyar's garden behind the Bangalore Fort. 

In addition to the above, the Malnad forests, should 
possess Garcinia indica, Chois. and Garcinia Wi'gMii, 
T. Ander. 

Cultivation. — Raise from seed and grow in 

virgin forest soil at an elevation of 3000 to 5000 feet. 

Shade is necessary in the early stages of cultivation. 

31 Ochrocarpus longifolius, Benth. Kan. Surgi. 

Pig.— Bo<. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight Ic. 

t. 1999. Bedd. Fl. 'Sylv. t. 89. ■ 
References.— i^/. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A dense evergreen tree of the Western Grhats. 
Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, glabrous, coria- 
ceous, oblong, shortly acute. Average blade 8x3 in. 
Flowers in axillary clusters on the upper trunk and 
limbs, polygamous, rose-coloured and sweetly 
fragrant. When in blossom, during the hot 
season, the trees are infested by thousands of 
bees searching for honey. Berry the size of a 
gooseberry. Lovery says the tree is plentiful in 
the Malnad where it is also cultivated for its 
delicious flowers. 

Although occasionally used for local building the 
properties of the wood are little known. At present 
the commercial value of the species is chiefly con- 
fined to its flower buds and open flowers which are 
used in temples, for personal adornment and to yield 
a dye for silken fabrics. The flower buds have also 
medicinal properties. When dried they are valued 
at Es. 2—12—0 to Rs. 3 per mauud of 28 lbs. and 



16 FOKEST TREES. 

are known to dyers as " Red Nagkesar/' Good 
specimens of tlie" tree may be seen in the Botanical 
Gardens where they blossom in April and produce 
fruit three months later. 

Cultivation- Sow seeds among leaf litter under 
the shade of mango or other umbrageous trees. 

When the seedlings are a few inches high, trans- 
plant into tiles or flower pots, and treat m the 
latter until the following season, when the young 
trees ^ill be Jarge enough for final planting at BO 
feet apart. Virgin forest, alluvial, and loamy soils 
appear to be equally suitable for this hardy tree. 

32 Calophyllum inophyllum, Lmx. Knn. Surahonne, 

Pinnay kai, Suragonue ? Vuma, Wuma. 

Fig.- i>of. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wiglit 
Ic. t. 77. 

'Reterences.—Drurij, Us. PI; Did. of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 

The Alexandrian laurel is usually found as a 
small evergreen tree, but in some parts of the 
Malnad it attains to considerable size. The leaf, 
flower, and fruit all contribute to make it a hand- 
some object worthy of, and usually occupying, a 
place in Indian gardens. It is also held in much 
esteem by the Hindus. 

Wood reddish-brown, close-grained and moder- 
ately durable. Occasionally used for building and 
for agricultural implements. It also burns well. 
Pinnay oil, which burns well and possesses medi- 
cinal properties is expressed from the fresh seed. 
It is prepared to a considerable ex;tent at Bombay, 
Travancore, and Tinnevelly. But if the latest 
European principles for extracting oils were adopt- 
ed, this product would be greatly enhanced in value 
and would be worth producing on an extensive 
scale. The oil. is locally used both for burn- 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 17 

ing and as an external application in cases of 
rheumatism. The delioiously fragrant flowers are 
offered in the temples, while the whole tree is often 
planted within the precincts of the latter. 

Cultivation.— Being a sub-maritime species, the 
SiiraTionne attains its best deyelopment near the sea, 
or where sea breezes will exercise their influence 
upon it. Seeds germinate freely, especially when 
the drupe is fractured, and there is no difficulty in 
raising stock. In inland situations a little coarse 
salt added to the soil does good. Plant at 20 feet 
apart. 

33 Calophyllum Wightianum, Wall. Kan. Bobbe, 

Babbe, Kalpun, Kull-ponne. 

'Fig-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 90. Wight Ig. 1. 106. 
References.— PAarm. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 

It is doubtful if this species extends so far east 
as Mysore, but it should be searched for on the 
boundary line. It is a pretty, evergreen tree with a 
red edible fruit the size of a gooseberry. A trans- 
lucent yellow gum exudes copiously from the trunk. 
The wood is said to be specially good for engineer- 
ing work, being hard and solid. It is of a dark red 
colour when freshly cut. 

34 Calophyllum tomentosum, Wight. Kan. Kuve, 

Siri pune kure, Surponne bobbi. 
'Fig— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Gen. xxii. 
References.— Gfam&. Man. Timh. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
A lofty evergreen tree of the Western Grhats, 
where it attains a maximum height of 150 feet. In 
Mysore it is mostly confined to the moist regions of 
the western Malnad, where it grows to a large size 
and is self -productive. It is the " Sirpoon," or 
" Poon spar" tree of the timber trade ; and a re- 
served timber of the State forests. 



18 ■ FOREST TREES, 

Lovery states tliat the wood does not endure 
moisture or wet exposure long ; and that its weignt 
k 48 lb. per cubic foot. But Poon spars always. 
command a good price in the market. Ihey are m 
great demand on the western coast as masts tor 
ships and native craft. In addition to a valuable 
timber, this tree affords a black opaque guna ot 
doubtful utiKty, and a lamp oil. The latt^, which 
is expressed from the seed, is used by the bingalese 
on a somewhat extensive scale. 

Cultivation- In the indigenous tracts the tree 
propagates itself extensively from scattered seed. 
Cultivation should not be attempted on the plains, 

35 Mesua ferrea, Linn. Kan. Naga Sampage, Naga. 

dLampa, Kasara. 

Vis -Wight III. t. 127.; Wight Ic. 1. 118.; Bedd. 
Fl. 8yh. t 64. 

"References.— Fl. Brit. Ind. ; Diet. Econ. Prod, of 
Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

An exceptionally handsome tree of the hill 
country. English residents occasionally refer to it 
as the " iron wood tree," an appellation which is 
due to the great weight and extreme hardness of 
its timber. Leaves opposite, stiffly coriaceous, 
drooping, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate ; average 
blade 5 ^H in. Flower 2 — 3 in. diam., pure white 
and deliciously fragrant. Fruit somewhat like a 
chesnut in size, form, and taste ; said to be eaten 
by the people. The flowers have medicinal pro- | | 
perties and smelling them much is supposed to 
cause ulceration of the nostrils. M. Venkatnar- 
.nappa remarks in his notes, that owing to the 
difficulty of manipulation the wood of Nagasampage 
is rarely used in this province for building. But the 
local superstition that it possesses a pecuhar attrac- 
tion for serpents has perhaps more to do with its 



MYSOEE AND OOORG: 19 

■unpopularity than any other cause. The wood, 
when easily procurable, is highly prized for bridges 
and other works of engineering. It is of a reddish 
■colour and weighs about 70 lb. per cubic foot. The 
oil afforded by the seed heals sores quickly and is 
a, popular embrocation in rheumatism and stiff joints. 
-An attar is prepared from the flower, and the tree 
is cultivated for the latter and for scenic effect. It 
is easily propagated from seed and grows well in the 
■open glades of the Malnad, 
33 Poeciloneuron indicum, Bedd. Kan. Ballagi, 

Ballangi. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 3. 

KQiarencea.— Flora of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
This ^ornamental tree is practically confined to 
the evergreen sholas in the Western Ghats. Being 
exceptionally hard and heavy, the timber is occa- 
sionally referred to as ' iron wood,' as in the case 
«f Nagasampage. But there is some doubt whether 
the appellation applies correctly to this species or to 
the one immediately following. Both possess tim- 
ber of about the same specific gravity, and both are 
<5ommon to the upper hill forests. It should be ob- 
■served, therefore, that the whole tree,, leaves, 
rflowers, and fruit are proportionately larger in the 
species under notice. Flowers in numerous terminal 
panicles, fragrant and yellowish-white, sepals 5, 
petals 5, regular. Fruit the size and form of a 
damson plum. Except for rice pounders, agricul- 
tural implements, and perhaps walking-sticks, (see 
following species) the wood is little known and not 
generally utilised. But this is due, no_ doubt, to its 
hardness, weight, and inaccessible position. With 
the advent of railways, steam-saws, and foreign 
capital, the real value of these hard woods will be 
•demonstrated. 



20 I'OEEST TREES. 



37 Poeciloneuron pauciflorum, Bedd. ^an. Ballagl? 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 93. ' 

'References— Gamb. Man. Timb. ; Fl. of Brit. 
Inch 

A smaller tree tlian the foregoing and nsually 
smaller in its prominent parts. The flowers are 
not plentiful, and there is a want of symmetry in 
the divisions of the calyx and corolla, which will 
enable forest officials to distinguish between this 
and the foregoing species. Sepals 4, of which 2 are 
enlarged, petals 6 in number. Fruit obpyriform 
when young, eventually the size and form of the 
large Jamoon, " jum nerah kai." This tree is 
plentiful in the South Tinnevelly and Travancore 
districts, where Beddome found it on the banks of 
streams, but it is unknown to what extent it is pro- 
duced in Mysore. The wood is described as being 
exceedingly hard, heavy, and red in colour. Walk- 
ing-sticks are said to be made from it, but this re- 
quires verification. The celebrated ' Ballagi' stick 
is the product of one or other of these two species^ 
and not improbably of both. 

The Poeciloneurons are reproductive from seed. 
Their cultivation on the plains would prove un- 
satisfactory. 



VIII. DIPTEROCARPEiE. 

38 Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn. Kan. Wali 

valra, Cballani ? Guga ? 

'^^S—Sedcl Forest Bej). 1864-5 p. 17. 

References.— Dirt, of Econ. Prod of Ind ■ 
Pharm. Indica. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
The wood-oil tree. 



MYSORE AND GOOUa. 21 

This is D. indicus of the old edition, but as speci- 
mens have not been seen, and district officers make 
no reference to the species, it is entered with some 
hesitation. It is a lofty evergreen tree of Eastern 
Bengal and the Eastern Peninsula, affording, from 
its oleo-resin, the product called " Grarjan Balsam" 
or " Kanyin Oil." The wood-oil of the Malnad 
forests may be the product of this tree, which is 
ea^ly recognised by its beautiful pinkish-white 
flower, three inches across, and pubescent nut with 
two upright wings. Heartwood reddish or dark- 
brown, hard, durable and adapted to receive a fine 
polish. A useful timber for engineering and me- 
chanics. Gamble states that the best Burmese 
charcoal is made from this species and D. Isevig ; but 
in the Eldra of British India, the latter species has 
merged, into the one under notice. G-amble is there- 
fore of opinion that the tree of the Western Ghats 
(that is the Mysore tree) may prove distinct from 
either of the above. This is a matter which Malnad 
forest officials could easily decide by making an 
analysis of all the trees affording wood-oil. The 
oil is of commercial value, being classed as a minor 
product of the forest revenue. It is used medicinal- 
ly, especially in the treatment of leprosy and other 
skin diseases, as a varnish and for paying the seams 
of country-made boats. The principal exports are 
fromBurmah and. the Andaman Islands. Delivered 
at Calcutta from the latter place, the price varies 
from three to five rupees per maund of 80 lbs. 
Fuller information Is needed as to the number, con- 
dition and value of local trees. 

39 Vatica Roxburghiana, Blume, 

A moderate sized tree of the Western Ghats. Uses 
not recorded. Herbarium specimens would be 
acceptable. 

40 ShoreaTalura, Roxb. Kan, Jalari, Jalada. 



22 FOREST TEEES. 

Fig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
Ic. 164. 

References.-L>ici- of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of 
Brit. Ind. ; Driiry U. Pl- 
The lac tree of Mysore. Confined to the 
deciduous tracts of the maidan. Abundant m the 
Anekal, Closepet, and Nundydroog Taluks, where 
the propagation of lac has been actively taken up 
by the Forest Department. In the first named 
Taluk, Mr. Bapu Hao, the Assistant Conservator of 
Forests, Bangalore District, is extending the propa- 
gation of both the tree and the insect very rapidly. 
Lac being in great demand this action cannot fail, 
in the course of a few years, to largely increase forest 
revenue. The method of propagation is to fasten 
small bundles of twigs, with young insects upon 
them, on to the upper limbs and branches of the 
unaffected trees. Jalari remains bare of leaf during 
the end of the cold season, after which it bursts 
into blossom and fills the air with its fragrance for 
some days. The pure white flowers are produced 
in abundant lax panicles, a little in advance of the 
young leaves. A plantation in full blossom is a 
glorious sight, and swarms with millions of bees 
and other honey-finders. In addition to lac, the 
species affords a kind of dammar. "Wood yellowish, 
lieavy and durable, capable of taking a good polish 
and not infrequently used for local building. "Weight 
54 lb, per cubic foot. It is a reserved tree of the 
first class. 

Cultivation.— BasHy raised from seed, but not 
very self -productive m all localities. Nursery stock 
should be transplanted into the field when the 
seedhngs are a foot to eighteen inches in height. 
Pits 3 X 3 ft. Seedlings answer well in loam ; thev 
should be 25 to 30 feet apart. 



MTSOEE AND C00E6, 23 

41 Shorea robusta, Gsertn. 

Fig-Becld. Fl. Sylv. t. 4. 

The Sdl or Saul tree of the tropical Himalaya. 
Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, but not found in the 
State forests. Being, next to teak, the most valu- 
able timber tree of India, its cultivation is desirable. 
Beddome remarks that seedlings are abundant in 
the Grumsoor forests. 

42 Shorea Tumbuggaia, Roxb. 

Tig— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t 5. Wight Ic. t. 27. 

An immense timber tree of the Cuddapah district, 
and possibly indigenoiis to the north-east boundary 
of Mysore. It should be searched for along the 
course of the North Pennar river. A kind of 
dammar is obtained from the trunk, and Beddome 
speaks well of the timber. Forest officials of the 
Kolar and Chitaldoorg districts should be on the 
look out for this tree. 

43 Hopea parviflora, Bedd. Kan. Kiral bogU, Bogi, 

Tirpul, Tirpu. 

'Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 6. 

References. — Did. of Econ. Prod, of Fad.; 

Gamb. Man. Timb. 

A lofty tree of the evergreen sholas. On the 
plains of South Canara it is preferably used to 
build Hindu temples. Lovery writes, that in 
Shimoga the wood is prized for building carts and 
boats. Weight 62 — 63 lb. per cubic foot. Being so 
heavy and durable, Beddome thinks it is well suited 
for sleepers and gun-carriage work. For orna- 
mental purposes this is a grand subject, but it is not 
likely to succeed on- the plains under 2500 feet. It 
possesses the characteristic winged fruit of Diptero' 
carpese, by which trees of that Order are easily dis- 
tinguished. 



24 FOEEST TREES. 

44 Hopea Wightiana, Wall. Kan. Kalbon ? Haiga ? 

Yig.- Wight 111. t. 37. Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 96. 

JLeferences.—Dlct. of Ecou. Prod, of Ind.; Driinj 
U. PL 
A large evergreen tree of the upper sholas. _ In 
appearance and quality of timber it differs but little 
from the preceding species. Beddome remarks 
tlia,t it is a firstrate coppice firewood, but from all 
accounts the timber is much too valuable to be used 
as fuel. The inflorescence of this tree is often re- 
placed by an echinate abortion resembling a young 
Spanish chesnut. 

In addition to the above, the species H. glabra, 
and H. racophloea, are possibly indigenous to the hill 
Flora of the province. 

45 Vateria indica, Linn. Kan. Dupa, Dhnpa, Maddi 

dupa, Google ? 

Ti^.-WigU III. i. 88, f. 36. Bedd. Fl. Si/h. t. 84. 
References.— Drun/ U. PI. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind.; 
Grah. Ander. F. Trees. 

This is one of the grandest and best kno^mi trees 
of Southern India. Abundant in nearly all the 
forests of the Western Ghats, where it affords the 
guni-resin known as " white-dammar" or " Piney- 
varnish." A fatty oil is copiously yielded by the 
seed, and utilised locally to make " Dhxipa candles," 
in lieu of tallow. These candles burn slowly and 
brightly, and their preparation, in primitive moulds, 
is simple and inexpensive. Their preparation on 
a more extensive scale than at present is a matter 
for consideration, and will no doubt be regulated by 
the cost of production. On fuU exposure the oil 
solidifies rapidly. It is commonly used as a lamp- 
oil and in medicine. The resin, which is obtained 
by wounding the Hber of the trunk, is also medi- 



BTSOEB AOT) COOUG, 25 

cinal, but is best known to the hill peasants as an 
incense a^d varnish. It is popularly known bj the 
'Tamil name Vellai-kwngiliycbm. 

" When young, affords good shade, but coffee 
generally suffers in the vicinity of large trees. It 
grows to an immense size and yields a strong- 
scented resin, used as incense in temples. 

The drupe (capsule) consists of a leathery covering 
of a dark-blue color, inclosing a very hard brown 
nut, with openings for three kernels, but generally 
■containing only one or two, which are eaten by 
children and contain an oil which can be pressed 
■out da. the blade of a knife. 

Timber very tough and cross-grained, not durable 
and readily decays if exposed to damp. Glood for 
door planks but difficult to adze." Graham Anderson. 

The Dhupa tree has white, fragrant flowers, 
nearly an inch across. 

Cultivation.— Abundantly produced from seed, 
and only succeeding well in a moist alpine situation 
where the virgin soil is deep and rich. Useless for 
the dry plains- 



IX. MALVACE^. 

46 Malachra capitata, Linn. 

47 Urena lobata, Linn. 

48 Urena sinuata, Linn. 

These are abundant undershrubs yielding fine, soft 
fibres. Malachra is not indigenous to Mysore, but 
is now spreading from the Botanical Gardens, where 
it has run wild. 

49 Decaschistia trilobata, WiGHf, and D. crotoni- 
folia, Wight, are common shrubs of the scrub tracts. 
Economic properties unknown. Garden brooms are 
popularly made from the twigs of 8ida carinnifolia 



26 FOREST TEEES. 

row- acuta, an underslirub of the maidan. See the 
Kanarese name Bhimana iaddi. 

50 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn. Ka». Dasala. 
The shoe-flower. So called as the flowers stain 

leather black and are occasionally used in lieu of 
blacking. It is not generally known that this in- 
troduced shrub forms an excellent fence and stands 
a great deal of pruning. 

51 Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Lixx. Kan. Kasturi bende. 

52 H. esculerilus, Linn. Kan. Bende. 

53 H. Sabdariffa, Linn. Kan. Kempu pundi-ike. 

54 H. cannabinus, Linn. ^a?i. Holada pundnke. 
The above are introduced shrubs of annual dura- 
tion. They are cultivated for their fibre, and medi- 
cinal properties, and are commonly found all over 
the country. 

55 Hibiscus tiiiaceus, Linn. H. tricnsjnis, Banks, 
and H. elatus, Sw. are introduced trees cultivated 
in the Lal-Bagh. The last named was presented 
to the Gardens some years ago by Mr. Marshall 
Woodrow of Poona., and the following extract from 
Fawcett's " Economic Plants in Jamaica" will reveal 
that it is a tree of promise. 

" Hibiscus elatus, Sw. Blue or mountain Mahoe, 
Cuba Bark. Native of West Indies. A tree, 50 or 
60 feet, with roundish leaves, large flowers of a 
purplish-saffron colour. 

• -^'^'J-— fibres make good ropes. The lace-hke 
inner bark was at one time known as Cuba bark 
.from Its being used as the material for tying round 
bundles of Havanna cigars. 

lFoo^.-Valuable to cabinet-makers; best variety 
has the appearance of dark-green variegated marble 
Leaves and young shoots mucilaginous; infiision 
used m dysentery." 



MYSORE AND COOEG, 27 

Judp^ing from the above, and other accounts, it is 
clear that this pretty wood is highly valued in the 
West Indies for articles of furniturej flooring, 
panelling and fancy work. The species has grown 
well at Bangalore and appears to be quite hardy. 

Cultivation. — Local trees have not seeded, al- 
though they have flowered. Cuttings take root 
freely. Plant in fairly good soil at a distance of 20 
feet apart. 

56Thespesia populnea, Goub. Kan. Asha, HurvasM, 

Huvarasi, Kandasolal 

Fig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh CoUedion. Wight 
Ic. t. 8 ; Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 63. 

References.— Dtotz/ TJ. PI. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The Portia tree. Although naturally clinging to 
the sea-shores of India and Ceylon, this attractive 
evergreen tree is abundantly planted in Mysore. It 
does not,- however, attain its normal size and beauty 
so far inland. But the large, cordate, shining 
leaves, intermixed at short intervals by solitary 
yellow flowers of a splendid size, make the species 
always very attractive. On the latter account it is 
much planted as an avenue tree. "When raised from 
seed the timber is free of knots, straight, even- 
grained and tough, properties which adapt it for 
carriage -building and similar works requiring light- 
ness and pliability. But raised from cuttings the 
tree becomes a gnarled deformity. The bark, fruit, 
and heartwood all possess medicinal properties. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seeds only, although 
cuttings of all sizes are easily rooted. The seedling 
nearly always becomes a fine tree, especially in the 
low country near the sea. For road avenues, plant 
•in large pits at 36 to 40 feet apart, the seedlings 
being at least a foot high when so planted. 



28 FORirsr tbee&. 

57 Gossypium arboreum, Linn. ^an. Kari Atti,. 

Kari arale, Anji.. 

mg.-^Bot. Flates. Lal-Sagh Collection. Wight 

Ic. t, 10. 
References— DicL of Eeon. Prod, oflnd. ; II of 
Brit. Ind. 
A small tree of dark foliage and flowers ; cultivated 
in gardens and in tlie vicinity ©f temples. Never cul- 
tivated in tlie field like ordinary cotton. The' sacred 
thread worn by the Brahmias is chiefly made from 
the cotton of this species. Mowers dark crimson. 

Cultivation. — Easily propagated from seed, and 
requiring no special treatment during growth. 
Around temples it is often self -productive. 

58 Kydia Calycina, Roxb. Kmu Bende nam mara^ 

Bende, Bellaka. 

Fig.—Bot. Flates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Ft 
Sylv. t. 3. ' 

This small tree is abundant in the mixed zone of 
dry forests. Never attaining a very large size, and 
often cut down for fuel. Wood white, consisting 
exclusively of alburnum. Weight 40 to 45 lb. per 
cubic foot. Seldom used except for ploughs, 
wooden ladles and spoons. 

But the species affords a good fibre, and the muci- 
laginous bark is commonly used to clarify sugar. 
The pounded leaves are applied as poulticea for cer- 
tain skin diseases. 

59 Adansonia digitata, Likn. 

The Baobab or Lalo tree. This curious species,, 
a native of tropical Africa, is cultivated in the Lal- 
Bagh. 

60 Bombax malabaricum, D.C. Kan. Burga, Boorga. 

Buraga, Kempu talirga. 



MYSORE AND C'OORG. 29 



Fig.— Wight Ml. t. 39. Bedl; Fl. Sylv. L 82. 
References. — Fl. of BHL Ind. -,^{01. ofEcon. 
Prod, of Ind. 

An umbragetms tree of the deciduotts and mixed 
zones. Ascending the Ghats, it attains a magnificient 
size, the immense buttressed trunk often eliciting, 
from the tourist, expressions of admiration and 
surprise. 

The 'timber, however, is soft, white, spongy, and, 
except under water, very perishable. It is utilised to a 
limited extent for planking, packing cases, toys and 
floats, &c. A medicinal gum; exudes from the trunk, 
the latter being thickly covered with sharp spiues, 
which eventually become blunted and scattered as 
the tree ages. 

Gr. Anderson states that the thorns are some- 
times chewed by the hill people. The fine hairs, 
(floss) which cover the seed constitute " silk cotton," 
and it should be observed here that Bomhax malabari- 
cum is the red-flowered silk-cotton tree. This dis- 
tinction is necessary as there are two other trees, 
having white and yellow flowers respectively, which 
produce floss of nearly the same quahty also known 
as " silk cotton." 

Of the latter, the white-flowered species, Erioden- 
dron anfraetuosum, produces the article (floss) 
known on the continent of Europe as Kapoh. The 
other silk cottons, including the one under notice, 
are inferior to. Kapoh. 

The large red flowers of this tree appear in great 
profusion on the naked branches in February and 
March, the species is then a conspicuous object in 
many parts of the dry forest zone. 

A few weeks later the ground underneath will bes 
whitened with snowy floss. 

1 



30 rOEE>;T TEKEn'. 



Cultivation. — Seeds germinate to. tlie extent of 
20 %, but as they are greedily eaten by squirrels 
and other field vermin, precautions are necessary to 
preserve and collect them. In nature the tree 
throws up a great many root suckers, some of 
which replace the original stem. Plant seedlings in 
large pits at 50 feet apart. The soil should be deep 
and porous. 
61 Eriodendron anfractuosum, D.O. Kan. Bill 

burga, Biu-ga, Bili barhi. 

Pig. — Bot. Flates Lal-Buqh GoUection. Wight 

Ic. t. 400. 
References. — Diet, of Econ. ProrJ. oflnd. ; Off. 
guide B. G. Keir. ; Dnmj U. PL " 
The Kapok tree of Java. Also the white- 
flowered silk cotton tree of the West Indies, tropical 
America, Africa, and other countries. It is plenti- 
ful in Java, from whence Kapok is exported to 
Europe and Australia. In this country it is sparse- 
ly found in cultivation about temples, or in woods 
near towns and habitations. It is rarely found in 
the primeval forests of India. A much smaller 
tree than Pomhax mulalaricuin, although the trunk 
bears some resemblance to the latter in being tall, 
muricated, and, in large specimens, buttressed. But 
it is not such a wide-spreading tree, and the creamy- 
white flowers, less than half the size of the flowers of 
Bomhax malabaricum, at once determine the species. 
The floss, or silky hairs borne on the seed, is the 
true Kapok of commerce, which is extensively used 
for stuffing mattresses and pillows, and estimated to 
be as good for the purpose as feathers. Similar but 
inferior products (silk cotton) are afforded in Mysore 
by the following species : — 

Bomhax Malabaricum. 

Cochlospernum gossypiiim. 

Calotropis gigantea. 

Cryptosteda grandiflora, 

Hoya viriaiflora. 



MYSORE ANT) OOOKG. f!! 



Wood of little value, being porous, soft, and very 
subject to the attacks of insects. It may be greatly 
improved however, like other soft woods, if steeped 
for a few days in strong lime water. Weight 30 
lb. per cubic foot. Used for the construction of 
toys and canoes. Medicinal properties are possess- 
ed by the roots, as also the gum which exudes from 
the liber. 

Cultivation-— Exactly the same as for Bomhax, 
only that the seedlings may be planted closer, say 
30 feet apart. 

62 Lagunaria Patersoni, Don. 

All Australian tree cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens. Having a whitish, evergreen foliage, and 
being of conical growth, the species is eifective for 
grouping with other trees. 

" Diameter 18 to 30 inches ; height, 40 to 60 feet. 
Found on the alluvial river banks of the Don 
Eiver, Port Denison ; timber white, close-grained, 
easily worked -and used for building purposes." 

Walter Hill 
63 Durio Zibethinus, DO. 

The Durian tree. The several attempts made to 
establish this species in the Lal-Bagh have resulted 
in failure. It requires moist tropical heat. 



X. STEROULIACE^. 
64 Sterculia foetida, Linn. Kan. Penari, Bhatala, 

Jaynkatala. 

Fig.—Bot. Plates Lai- Bagh CWlection. IVir/ld Tc. 
t. 181 ami 3(!:f. 

References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ 

Prod, of In J. ; Pharm. Ivil. 

_ A deciduous tree having its branches in horizontal 

tiers. Leaves digitate and borne mostly at the 

e)ids of the branchlets. Flowers appear in the 



n^ 



PO'RrST TTtflES. 



liot weather in advance of the young leaves, and are 
onspicuous by their disagreeable odonr. Trunk long 
and straight, furnishing spars foi" native craft in 
some parts. The wood is lasting and takes on a 
good polish. The large almond-like seeds are 
eaten, on which account the species may occasion- 
ally be determined through the "Vernacular names 
for the " country almond." It should not, however, 
be confoiindedwith Terminalia catafiM,- which affords 
the proper country almond, so called. An oil is 
expressed from the seed; and the bark and leaves 
possess medicinal properties. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seeds, and plant 
out the following year when the seedhngs are a foot 
to eighteen inches in heiglit. Growth is slow and 
stunted except in deep fertile soils, where there is 
perennial moisture. 

65 Stercuiia urenS, RoxB. &'««. Kempu dale, Penari? 

'Pig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh CoUrdion. 
References,-^/, of Brit Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A medium sized tree having soft wood covered 
by a whitish outer bark of a thin papery nature. 
Leaves palmately 5-Iobed, mostly at the ends of the 
branches. Flowers small, yellowish. Follicles (fruit) 
armed with stinging bristles, The gum which 
exudes from the trunk and limbs has a local market 
value of about 12 rupees per cwt. It is said to be 
used for native swcrtmeat.s and as a substilute for 
tvao^acanth. An oil is expressed from the seed, and 
the latter is eaten m lieu of almonds. 

66 Stercuiia viliosa, R )x;;. Kan. u.is.i, Bili dalemara 
" A lar^-e tree found in the ^lalnad, but very 

scarce. Wood firmly elnsr-grniTied and fit to be 
worked Lip and polished. Gnod for building and furni- 
ture. Lovery. 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 33 



This is also a whitisli-barked tree with palmate 
aves and pendulous flowers of a pinkish colour, 
ender shoots, under side of the leaves and young 
uit downy, with a rusty-villous tomfentum. The 
•aoping panicles, and the absence of bristles on the 
uit, are characters that will help to determine this 
ecies from the one immediately preceding. Herba- 
Lim specimens would be appreciated at head-quart- 
s. 

Sterculia guttata, Roxi?. 7t'a?i. jayakatalu ? 
Fig.— ^of. Plates Lal-Bayh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 105 ; Wight Ic. t. 487. 

References —Fl. of Brit. Ind.; Diet.' of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
A fine tree of the Malhad. Described by Beddome 

a beaiitifuL^bject when covered by its bright red 
psules (follicles). Bare of leaf during the cold 
ason. Bark ash coloured and very fibrous, utilised 

the Western Coast for making cordage, as also 
ngh articles of clothing. The tree flowers in 
ibruary in advance of the young leaves. Flowers 
ddish-purple, hairy, and slightjy foetid. Fruit the 
!e of a small egg, follicular and bright red. This 

probably the species called Jay7iJcatalii in the 
3ond edition. Nothing is known of the wood, 
;hough the tree is not uncommon in the deciduous; 
d mixed zones skirting the Malnad. 
Ctdtivation.— The tree grows well in the Lal-Bagh, 
lere the soU consists mostly of a deep loam in- 
pporated with oxide of iron. It would not su:- 
3d in a very dry situation. Seeds germinate 
sely. Plant at 35 feet apart. Highly ornamental. 

Sterculia Balanghas, Linn. 
Specimens have not been received of this species, 
t there is little doubt of its presence in the north- 
st frontier, where it should be searched Ur. It is 
ured in Wight's 111, t. 30. 

5 



•34 FOEEST TREES. 



69 Sterculia alata, Roxb. 

Fig— Bot, Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd, FL 
Sylv, t, 330, 
, B.eiexen.ces.—Bedd. FL Sylv. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind, 

This fine tree is deciduous for a few days at 
Bangalore, but in the sholas of the Western Ghats 
it is probably evergreen. 

Leaves stout, alternate, long petiolate, cordate, 
ovate, entire ; petiole 31 in., slightly thickened at the 
point of junction wilih the blade, the latter 9x6 in. 
on the average. 

The pedicels, flower buds and outer calyx, are 
colored a beautiful golden-green, while the inner 
face of the calyx is burnt carmine. The follicle 
(fruit) is 4— -5. inches in diameter anji nearly round. 

The economic properties of this tree are unknown. 
A solitary specimep in the Botanical Gardens has 
attained, a height of 60;feet in 26 years. It flowered 
for the fir,st time in April of the current year (1893) 
and one ha]f-formed friiit is now visible near the 
summit. 

70 Sterculia populifolia, Roxb. 

A small evergreen tree with smooth grgyish bark 
and poplar leaves. Flowers like little cups, piarbled 
cream and rose. Unless they appear un^er purely 
vernacular names, the forest lists are strangely 
deficient in Sterculias. 

71 sterculia acerifolia, Cunn. 

An Australian trpe cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 
Maple-leaved and evergreen. Flowers brigl^t 
crimson, in drooping panicles- 

72 Heritiera littoralis, Dexakd. 

The looking-glass tree. So called on account of the 
beautiful frosted appearance of the under side of the 
leaf, on which, shadows are clearly reflected. A 



1 



MYSOKE AND COOKG. 35 

small gregarions tree of the Indian littoral, extend- 
ing inland as far as Cacliar and the Khasia Hills ; 
a doubtful native of Mysore, but cultivated in the 
Botanical Gardens, where it fruits abundantly". 
Although small, the wood is highly spoken of and 
commands a high price in the forests of the Sundar- 
bans. It weighs 65 lb. per cubic foot, and is verj 
durable. 

Cultivation. — Each woody capsule contains one 
lar^e seed, but unless the latter is set free by cutting 
off the top of the capsule, germination will take two 
or three years, so tenacious is the fruit. Sown with 
opened capsules, the seeds germinate in the course 
of a few weeks. Plant in sandy soil, if a little 
saline all the better, at 15 to 20 feet apart. 
When nicely grown the species is distinctly orna- 
mental. 

73 Kleinhpvia Hospita, Linn. 

A small but very ornamental tree, cultivated in 
the Lal-Bagh. Used for avenues in Calbutta and 
Poona. In Java, where the species seems to attain 
a larger size than in India, the old wood is held 
in value. 

Cultivation. — Seeds taken from local trees have 
not germinated. Layers can be removed, but it is 
a slow process which doeS ' not succeed in every 
attempt. Being a very bushy tree with branches 
down to the ground, it makes , a fine central 
object in a latge shrubbery. • 

74 Helicteres'lsora, Linn. Kan. Yedamuri, Kavargi. 

Pig — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
Ic. t. 180. 

References-— ^^'c^. ofEcon. Prod, of Ind.; Gamble 
Man. Timb. 
The country screw-tree. So called from the 
fact of the fine slender carpels being twisted to- 
gether spirally, so as to resemble a ccrk-scfew. 



36 FOREST TEEES. 



A large bush or small tree, which, in foliage.and 
bark, reminds one forcibly of the English hazel. 

Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh and found wild in 
the dry forests. An excellent bast-fibre is obtained 
from the inner bark. Medicinal properties are 
attributed to the root and fruit. The latter is also 
used as. a charm in connexion with marriages, 
and to preserve infants from bowel complaints. 

In the Himalayan District, where the shrub 
abounds, the fruit comtnands a trade price of 
Rs. 3^ per Surat maund of 37|- lbs. 

The flower, which opjus red, changes in the 
course of 24 hours to orange ■ and lead colours. 
Wood white, soft", weighing 35 lb. per cubic foot. 

As a likely source of bast-fibre, this species 
deserves attention. It is easily increased from 
seed and requires no pampered cultivation. 

It commends itself too as a durable fence to 
landed properties. 

75 Pterospermum suberifolium, Lam. 

A small tree of the western Malnad. Specimens 
and local information required. 

76 Rerospermum Heyneanum, Wall. 

77 P. glabrescens, W. & A. 

78 P. obtusifolium, Wight. 

These are trees of which specimens are not forth-, 
coming, although the species are, perhaps, not un- 
common in the western frontier of Mysore. It may 
be remarked here, that vernacular names given 
without herbarium specimens of the trees referred to, 
are of no value for identification. 

79 EriolaenaCandollei. Wall. 

Vig.—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Colkction. 
This deciduous tree, which is cultivated in the 
Botanical G-ardens and presumably wild in the 
Western Ghats, appears to deserve more attention 



MTSOEE AND COORG. 37 

thaii it now receives. With cordate shining leaves, 
and numerous large, yellow, flowers, it js also a dis- 
tinct and handsome species. 

" Heartwood brick-red, with orange and brown 
streaks, old pieces, however, losing their bright 
colour ; hard, close-grained, shining, takes a beauti- 
ful polish, seasons well. Weight about 50 lb. per 
cubic foot. It is used for gunstocks, carpentry, 
paddles, and rice-pounders ; is very handsomely 
marked, and is well worthy of greater attention."' 
Lid. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

This tree can be propagated from seeds and cut- 
tings. 

80 Melochia velutina, Bbdd. 

'Eig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 5; Wight Ic. t. 509. 
References. — Kurz. For. Fl. Burm. ; Gamble 
Man. Timb. 

A small evergreen tree occasionally seen in culti- 
vation and said to be widely distributed through the 
warmer parts of India, Andaman Islands, and the 
Malay Archipelago. 

Wood soft and useless except for floats and toys. 
The liber affords a strong fibr3 which is valued for 
cordage. The turtle-net of the Andamans, called 
yoto-tepinga-da, is composed of this cordage. 

This species is rendered conspicuous among other 
trees by its whitish leaves. It is short-lived,, and 
very subject to the attack of white ants. Seeds 
germinate badly as a rule. 

81 Abroma augusta, Linn. 

Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv, Anal Gen. t. 6. 
A hairy shrub of the warmer parts of India, Java, 
and the Moluccas. Cultivated in gardens. An ex- 
cellent fibre is obtained from the inner bark, (liber) 



',-^ 



38 FOREST TREES. 



and as the plant thrives well in Mysore, it is sug- 
gested that more attention might be given to its 
Special cultivation. Seed can be supplied from the 
Botanical Gardens, as also instructions for proper 
treatment. 
82 Guazuma tomentosa, Kunth. Kan. Rudrakslii. 

Fig.— Bot. Flutes Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 
Fl. Syk. t. 107 ; Wight HI t. 31. 

References.— Z)i(?i. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; Econ. 
Fl. Jamaica. 
This forage tree of the West Indies and tropical 
America, is spreading rapidly in this country Natura- 
lised in Mysore, but mostly found in gardens and 
near habitations. The leaves and fruit are much 
relished by cattle and the possession of village topes 
of the tree would be of great utility in times of 
drought or famine, when the surface herbage is con- 
sumed. 

The ' Rain Tree' Pithecohbium saman, should be 
included in such topes, as also the ' Atti,' Ficns 
glomerata, and other species affording nutritious 
food in times of scarcity. The tubercled capsule, the 
size of a gooseberry, becomes purplish-black when 
ripe, and falls from the! tree in great numbers. 
The writer has seen his own cows running for half a 
mile to secure this fallen fruit. Medicinal proper- 
ties are attributed to the bark. 

In the West Indies the tree is called the ' Bastard 
Cedar.' The timber of old trees is said to be dur- 
able, although it is light and apt to split." "Weight 
32 lb. per cubic foot. Not commended for avenue 
planting as the clean trunk is usually very short, 
while the average height of the tree is not more 
than 35 feet. 

Cultivation.— When liberated from the woody 
capsule the seed germinates quickly, but buried -with 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 39 



tte capsule intact they will require years, or may 
never be heard of again. Plant established seed- 
lings at 30 feet apart. The larger the pits can be 
made, the better. 

83 Theobroma cacao, Linn. 

The cocoa or chocolate tree. Indigenous to tropi- 
cal America. Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, and 
sparsely grown in some of the coffee districts. A 
small evergreen tree with small clusters of pinkish 
flowers given forth from the trunk and limbs. The 
flowers are succeeded by ovate-angular fruits 9x4 
in., yellow to chocolate in colour. When in fruit, 
the tree is a striking object. The seeds, of 
which each capsule (fruit) contains 26 — 35, each 
the size of a small marble, afford the material for 
cocoa and chocolate. This important species suc- 
ceeds best when under the influence of sea breezes. 
It has been largely propagated in and widely dis- 
seminated from the Bangalore Botanical G-ardens. 

84 Cola acuminata. 

The Kola-Nut tree of "West Africa. This econo- 
mic species has recently been introduced. 

XI. TILIACE^. 

85 Berrya Ammonilla, IIoxb. 

m^.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 58; Wight III. t. 34. 

References.— JPZ. of Brit. Ind.; Diet, of JEcon. 

Frqd. of Ind. 

A, deciduous tree ,of medium size. Cultivated 

in the Lal-Bagh, where it grows very; slowly. The 

' flowers appear with the you^g leayes in May or June, 

in ample terminal paAioles, pinkish,-white. The 

six- winged capsule is characteristic, and the pilose 

seeds cause intolerable itching when much handled. 

Heartwood dark red, hard, sweaty, and durable. 

"Weight 50 to 62 lb. per cubic foot. Commands a 



40 



■POEEST TEEES. 



steadjr market value under the name of " Trinco- 
malee wood." Tt is abundant on the south-east 
coast of the ]\Iadras Presidency, Ceylon and parts 
of Burmah. The species seeds freely anft attains 
its best growth withhi the active influence of the 
sea air. 

86 Grewia tiliaefolia, Vahl. Kan. Thadsal, Tadasaln, 

Thadasal. 

Fig.-B,id<l FI. Si/h. t. 108. 

References.— I! rand. For. FL; Diet, of Earn. 

Frod. of Ind. 

A deciduous tree of medium size. Plentiful in 
the mixed zones of Mysore and North Coorg, also 
in the drier parts of the Malnad. 

Of the 36 species of Grewia described in the 
Flora of British India, nearly the half are indigenous 
to this province and to the Western Ghats. A few 
are trees, but the greater part are enormous woody 
climbers or shrubs. They are all characterised by 
alternate, simple leaves of moderate size;, fibrous 
inner bark (liber) containing mucilage; shortly 
paniculate or cymose inflorescence and drupal fruit 
of a fleshy or woody nature. The flowers are mostly 
yellow, but occasionally white or pale yellow The 
fruit is round, turbinate, or lobed. In a few species 
it is edible. 

The tree under notice is well known for its wood, 
fibre and fruit. Lovery describes it from the Shi- 
moga forests as follows : — 

"Wood light reddish brown, compact, close- 
grained, durable, elastic and easily worked. Valu- 
able where strength and elasticity are required 
Used in cart and carriage building, also for masts" 
oars and shafts. Weight 35 lb. per cubic foot! 
Fruit eaten." 



MYSORE AND COORG. 41 

Anderson adds tliat " the wood is fibrous, tough 
and hard to work, used for beams, posts and bed- 
plates. The bark yields a fibre which makes good 
lining-ropes after the' sticky mucilage has been pro- 
perly removed." 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seed and cuttings, 
either of which will raise nursery stock. When 
15 — 18 inches high, plant the seedlings or rooted 
cuttings at a distance of 25 feet apart. The species 
grows fairly Well in any part of Mysore, but with 
most vigour near the hills. 
87 Grewia oppositifolia, Eoxb. Kan. Butale. 

"Pig.— Wight Ic. t 82 i 

A mpderate-sized. tree pf the drier zones. Pretty 
common in Shimoga aiid other parts of the Malnad 
where tte forest is open. Wood white, with a 
small percentage of irregular heartwood which ex- 
hales an unpleasant odour when freshly cut or 
burned. Weight 45 to 50 lb. per cubic foot. In 
Shikarpur the low caste p80j)le are superstitious 
about using the wood as the- idol Mari (goddess of 
small-pox) is commonly made from it. The inner 
bark affords a coarse fibre of some utility. It is 
doubtful if the fruit is eaten, but the seeds are 
used by children and the lower classes for 
garlands. Croats and sheep like to browse on the 
tender foliage of the tree. In this connection it 
may be remarked that all the Grewias are good for- 
age plants. 

Cultivation-— The same as for the preceding 
specjes. 
S8 Grewia asiatica, Linn. 

A small tree, cultivated in some parts of India for 
its acid fruits. Wood tough and elastic, weighing 
43 to 51 lb. per cubic foot. In the north of India 
it is used for a variety of minor purposes. 
39 Grewia laevigata, Vahl. Km. Kaori, Karkiseiii ^ 



42 FOREST . TREB3. 



A small tree of the Western GMts, wliieh is said 
to afford a superior fibre. 

90 Grewia columnaris, Sm. G. pilosa, Lam. and G. 
emarginata, W. & A. are large woody climbers of the 
reserved jungle. Other species are badly authenti- 
cated, and require fuller investigation in the field. 
The growth of these plants should be encouraged 
where natural herbage is deficient as their leaves, are 
relished by most cattle, and, no doubt,, aiford 
nutrient food. 

91 Erinocarpus Nimmoanus, Geah. Kan. Kadw- 

bende, Haladi, Adavi; 

mg—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 1 110. 

References— Gam&. Man. Timb. ; Fl_ of Brit. Ind. 
A medium-sized tree with rather large, yellow, 
flowers, in terminal panicles. Not uncommon in 
Hassan in the mixed zone. The barjc yields a good 
rope-fibre. Wood , of little value. Herbarium 
specimens are wanted. 

The fibre-yielding genera Triumfetta and Cov- 
chorus, are well represented in the forest reserves ; 
but the jute plant, Gorchorus capsularis, is. not in- 
digenous to Mysore. 

92 Elaeocarpus serratus, Linn. Kan. Perinkara. 
This tree is somewhat rarely found on the west- 
ern boundary ; and may be recognised by its edible 
fruit, which is of the size and form of a small olive. 
The fruit imparts an agreeable acid flavour to vege- 
tables, is eaten with curries, and pickled in oil for 
general use. The genus Elaeocarpus is pretty clearly 
marked by the laciniated petals of the flower, which 
is an unusual condition in the family. 

93 Elaeocarpus oblongus. G^etn. Kan. Hanaltadi 
Fig— Wight Ic. t. 46. 



MYSORE' AND OOOEG. 43 

A lofty tree of the Maliiad. The local economy 
of this species is unknown, but Graham Anderson gives 
the following remarks under the vernacular appel- 
lation " Hanal Taree," which may be applicable to 
the tree under notice.. . , 

'* A very lofty, deciduous tree, with extremely 
large buttresses at the base of Ae stem. Glenerally 
growing in moist ravines. When young, the plants 
somewhat resemble those of, the JacA, or Eulsen. 
The wood is very soft and perishable." In drawing 
attention to the saccate glands seen on the under 
surface of the leaves in this and other species of 
Elxocarpibs, Masters suggests that they may be the 
result of insect agency. 
94 Elaeocarpus tuberculatus, Eoxb. Kan. Rudrat, 

Eudraksti, Dandla. 

■Eig.—MeM. Fl. Syh.t. 113. Wight Ic. 62. 
References— -Boa;?*. Fl. Ind.; Fl. of Brit, Ind. 
A magnificient , , tree , of .. SQuth-west Mysore, . and 
Coorg. ^he obovate-serrate leaves are often a 
foot in length by 4— 5 inches in width, .crowded 
towards the ends of the branches. The, species 
should not be '. confounded with Giiazvma tomen- 
tosa, an introduced tree, which has recently 
acquired the same ' vernacular name, ' Rudrakshi,' 
owing to a resemblance in the tubercled fruit. But 
on close inspection it will be seen that the fruits 
are quite different, arid the one under nqtice is usu- 
ally worn as a charm or rosary by the faJdrs of 
the country. It is believed that the finest nuts of 
the kind, however, are obtained from Elseocarpus 
Ganitrus,- a tree of Nepal, Ohittagong and the Malay 
Archipelago. They are the " Utrasum beads" of 
the Shivas. There are few trees more ornamental 
than this one, but the species clings to the moist 
region of the lower Grhats and would be of no value 
on the plains of India. The quality of the timber is 



44 FOREST TEEES. 

not reported ; neither do we know anything of the 
cultivation of this fine tree. 
95 Elaeocarpus rugosus, Roxb. 
Fig.— Wight Ic. t. 61. 

A tree of Coorg and the Western Gtats. Uses 
unknown. 
96. Elaeocarpus ferrugifteus, Wight. 

This tree is likely to be found at the highest 
elevations on the western boundary. E. Munroii, 
should also be looked for. Although known to be 
ornamental trees, the local industrial value of the 
genus is still a matter for investigation. 

XII. LINE^. 

97 Erythroxylon monogynum, Rqxb. Kan. Deva- 

darn, Devadanim, Adavigoranti. 

Pig —Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh CoUedion. Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 81. 

Keferences— J5«c^. ofEcon. Prod, oflnd. ; Pharm. 
lnd\ 

A small tree or bush, according to situation. 
Known to many people as the ' red cedar' and ' bas- 
tard sandal,' plentiful in dry forests and ascending 
the minor Ghats. Thfe heartwood, which is hard 
and fragrant, is said to afford an oil of some value. 

Beddome calls it « an empyreumatic oil." The 
leaves and bark are medicinal. Excellent charcoal is 
made from the wood. The red berries, the siae of 
currants, are not unpleasant to the palate. 

Ciativation.— Self-productive, and easily propa- 
gated from seed for artificial treatment. , Among 
rocks and m poor soils the growth is rarely arbore- 

98 Erythroxylon coca. Lam. 

This South American shrub fs being ranidlv 
estabhshed m Mysore, and other parts of India. 



MYSORE AND OOORG. 45 

f'ocaine is the active principal of its leaf. Plants 
may be seen in the Botanical Gardens. 

XIII. MALPIGHIACE^. 

99 Hiptage Madablota, G^ktn. Kan. Adaraganclii 

hambu. 

An immense woody climber of the reserved tracts. 
Affords good shelter for large game. When obtain- 
able, the large creamy-white flowers are used for 
•puja, owing to their delicious fragrance. The wood 
is said to be tolerably hard, and sections of the woody 
stem make good handles for tools. Medicinal pro- 
perties are attributed to the leaves. 

XIV. ZYGOPHYLLEiE. 

100 Guaiacum officinale, Linn. 

The Lignum Vitge tree. This small tree is culti- 
vated in the Lal-Bagh, where, however, it does not 
attain its full size. It will succeed in this country, 
as it does in 1;he West Indies, near the sea. The 
wood is remarkably dense, hard, and durable ; com- 
mands a high price in the west, and is much used 
for pulleys, blocks, pestles, rulers, skittle balls and 
such small articles as require to combine great 
strength and durability with finish and elegancej 

XV. GERANIACE^. 

101 Averrhoa Carambola, Linn. ^a?i.K^arak. 
¥ig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection, 

A small evergreen tree of 15 to 20 feet. Natu- 
ralised in Indian gardens, and supposed to have 
been originally introduced from America by the 
Portuguese. The angular fruit has a pleasant acid 
flavour, and is extremely juicy and refreshing. It is 
occasionally stewed, curried, and pickled, but more 
commonly used in the raw condition when persons 
are out for enjoyment. 



46 F0B15S -5 TREES. 



There are two distinct varieties ia local cultiva- 
tion, one being small and sweetish, while the other is 
larger, coarser, and very sour. 

Two crops are borne during the year, the first in 
the hot season and the second in September and 
October. The pinnate leaves are sensitive to the 
touch. > 

Cultivation.— Unless the seeds are well matured 
onareser^d tree, they either do not germinate at 
all, or the seedlings soon damp off. This is espe- 
cially the case with the small, sweet-fruited variety. 
Plant at 20 feet apart, irrigate during periods of 
drought, and manure heavily once a year rluring the 
south-west monsoon. The land between the trees 
should be kept open and free of weeds. 
102 Averrhoa Bilimbi, Linn. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh CoUediori. 
A small evergreen tree bearing somewhat similar 
fruit to the above, but not angular, and too acid to 
be eaten raw. The fruit is cylindrical, has a pecu- 
liar soapy feeling, and is much esteemed for pickling. 
Nevertheless, the two species are much confounded 
and many persons mistake the one for the other. 
The pinnate leaves oi A. Bilimbi are longer than in 
the preceding species, and have usually 15 to 17 pairs 
of leaflets. The crimson flowers are said to make 
a good preserve. 

Cultivation.— The same as for A. Carambola. 



XVI. RUTACEiE. 

103 Zanthoxylon Rhetsa, Do. Kan. jimmi mara. 

A small corky-barked tree of the "Western Ghats, 
usually very prickly. The carpels and root-bark 
possess pungent and aromatic properties. Good 
herbarium specimens would be an acquisition athead- 
quarters. 



MYSOEE AND COOEG. 47 



104 Toddalia aculeata, Pers. Kan. Kadu Menasu. 
Fig.~Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight III. 

t. 66. 

Reference.— -P^ra^wi. Indica. 
A scandent prickly shrub of the maidan. Abun- 
dant in waste land and partial to the vicinity of 
rocks and loose boulders, which it often grows 
around and partly conceals. The whole plant is 
very pungent but especially the small golden ber- 
ries, the size of a red currant. Useful medicinal 
properties are attributed to the root and fruit. On 
being distilled the green leaves afford a limpid oil 
having the odour of citron peel. The plant is easily 
propagated from seed, and, properly handled from 
the beginning, it forms a pretty hedge. 

105 Glycosmis pentaphylla, Coeeba. Kan. Guroda. 

An evergreen bush of the hill tracts. The white 
berries, the size of a pea, are eaten. It is believed in 
parts of Bengal, that the leafy twigs serve to ward 
off lightning. 

106 IVJurraya exotica, Linn. Kan. Angarakana gida, 
China box. This evergreen shrub is cultivated 

in gardens for its pretty white flowers, which are 
also very fragrant. 

The wood is said to be suitable for wood-engrav- 
ing, although somewhat liable to crack. If is very 
hard, and weighs 62 lb. per cubic foot ; always 
small, but beautifully marked. • Used by the Malays 
to make handles to their knives. 

107 IWurraya Kcenigii, Speng. Kan. Kari bevu. 
'Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight Ic. 

1. 13. 
'References-— Diet. ofEcon. Prod, oflnd. ; Phdrm. 
Jnd. 



^° POEEST TREES. 



The curry-leaf tree. So called as the aroma- 
tic leaves are commonly used in Indian curries* 
and as a condiment in other food preparations. 
Cultivated and wild in most parts of the' Province. 
Leaves deciduous in the cold season. "Wood close, 
even-grained, hard and durable ; used for agricul- 
tural implements. Weight 43 lb. per cubic foot. 
Aromatic trees of this class should be planted ex- 
tensively in crowded localities as they are known to 
possess antiseptic properties. 

Cultivation.— Seeds germinate freely under par- 
tial shade. Plant seedlings at 15 — 20 feet apart in 
any soil of fair depth and quality. The young trees 
should be watered occasionally during the two suc- 
ceeding dry seasons. 

108 Clausena Wampi, Blanco. 

f\g—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
This small fruit tree is cultivated in the Botani- 
cal Gardens, and in the Gardens of His Highness 
the Maharaja. Being a recent introduction, the 
fruit is scarcely known, it is, however, pleasantly 
acid and very refreshing. Two or three crops are 
produced annually. 

Ciiltivation-— Healthy seedlings in pots, should be 
planted in irrigable land during the S. W. monsoon, 
at 15 to 20 feet apart. Although not a very gross 
feeder, the fact of several crops of fruit being borne 
annually, demands that fairly rich soil, and consider- 
able quantities of manure should be available for 
this cultivation. The experiment of grafting upon 
allied species has not been tried. 

109 Clausena indica, Oliv. 

A smaU fruit tree of the Western Ghats, Should 
be looked for within the Mysore territories. 
no Clausena Willdenovii, W. & A. Kan. Kadn 

Tf , Tti Karate, 

Fig-— -Doi. Flates Lal-Bagh Collection. 



MTSOUE AND COOEG. 49 

A common bush in the scrub tracts. The fruit is 
generally eaten by the people. ^ 

111 Triphasia trifoliata, DC An ornamental 
shrub cultivated in the Botanical Gardens. The 
fruit preserves fairly well. 

112 Limonia acidissima, Linn. Xan. Nai-bel? Nai- 

bela? 
Pig-— RoxB. Cor. Fl: t. 86. Bedd. For. Fl. Anal. 
Gen. xlv. 

References-— ■^/^a'?"™. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 

This is a spiny, glabrous bush, or rarely a small 
tree. Spines numerous. Leaves tripinnate, petiole 
winged and jointed. Berry the size of a marble, ex- 
ceedingly acid ; possesses medicinal properties, and 
is used in some parts in lieu of soap. The species is 
most abundant in the dry forests of eastern Mysore 
and at Nundydroog. Wood yellow, hard and worthy 
of attention for the lathe. " Considered protective 
against contagion, and an antidote to venomous poi- 
sons." Weight 59 lb. per cubic foot. Lovery states 
that it affords good fuel. 

Cultivation.— Easily raised from seed. Natural 
growth is mostly confined to dry hills among rocks 
and scrub. Soil gravelly, and rather poor in vege- 
table matter. 

113 Atalantia monophylla, Coreba. Kan. Kadu 

riimbe, Adavi nimbe, Nai byalada, Katu nimbe ? 

li'ig— Wight Ic. t. 1611, Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh 
Collection. 

The wild lime. A small tree, or when favorably 
situated in relation to larger trees, a woody climber. 
Indigenous to the hills, but occasionally cultivated in 
gardens for . ornament. Flowers white, fragrant, 

7 



50 FOREST TREES. 



scattered all over the tree. Fruit globular, tlie size 
of a plum, golden-yellow and very attractive wlien 
ripe. A sweet smelling oil is prepared from the 
fruit. Wood yellow, hard, close-grained ; weighing 
65 lb. per cubic foot. 

114 Atalantia racemosa, W. & A. 

A small tree nearly allied to the above and some- 
what similar in appearance. 

115 Citrus medica, Linn. Kan. Nimbe, Limbn, 

Madalada, Madayala. 

Tig— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Colhction. Or. and 
Lem. of Ind. and Cey. Bonavia. 

References— Diet. ofEcon. Prod, of India.; Fl. 
of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The citron tree. A small evergreen tree or shrub, 
according to variety. Flowers numerous, large, 
white or often tinted reddish. Fruit large, nearly 
globular, oblong or obovoid; rind thick, often 
coarsely mamillate or furrowed, turning yellow when 
ripe. The rind affords an essential oil which is used 
in medicine and perfumery ; it is also candied and 
enters largely into confectionery. The leaves and 
flowers are also oil-producing, while the fruit is used 
medicinally. There are many varieties of the citron, 
for an account of which see Dr. Bonavia'a work on 
the genus Citrus. 

Cultivation.— Operate in rich land, with a suffi- 
ciency of water and plenty of rotted dung. Under 
proper treatment the yield of fruit is heavy, but it 
falls off m proportion to the inferiority of the latter. 
Grafting IS easily accomplished with sizable seedlings 
of the different varieties, or upon orange and pumelol 
stocks. ^ 't 

The citron, lemon, sour, lime and sweet lime, are 
now looked upon as varieties of a common species 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 51 

and they all require proper cultivation to attain 
good crops of fruit. 

116 Citrus medica var. Limohum, Hook. fil. Kan. 

Herile, 

Pig— Bof. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References- -F?. of Brit. Ind. ; FTiarm. Ind. ; 

Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; Or. and Lem. 

of Ind. and Cey. Bonavia. 
The lemon tree. More usually a shrub cultivated 
in gardens. Flowers pinkish-white to pure white ; 
solitary or clustered. Fruit roundish or oval, 
smaller than the citron and with a smoother rind. 
The latter becomes yellow when ripe, and is much 
pickled throughout the country, it also affords 
essence of lemon and enters largely into medicine, 
confectionery and perfumery. Citrip acid is pre- 
pared from the juice of the fruit and forms a dis- 
tinct product. Lemon juice is universally used in 
sherbets and other cooling drinks. The Malta 
lemon, which has recently been introduced, is culti- 
vated about Bangalore and fruits freely. There are 
many varieties. 

117 Citrus medica var. acida, "Roxb. Kan. 'Simbe. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

"References.— Bona/via's Or. and Lem. of Ind. and 
Cey.; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; Pharm. Ind. 

Sour lime of India. The presentation of this fruit 
to a superior is universally looked upon as a mark 
of profound respect and sincere friendship. Fruit 
globular, the size of a crab apple and turning pale 
yellow when ripe. Produced in great abundance 
on a rather dense thorny bush or small tree. 

Lime juice is largely used in medicine, cookery, 
perfumery and sherbets. Bonavia draws special at- 
tention to the utility of this fruit when preserved and 
pickled. Dried fruit is exported to Egypt and 



52 PuBEST TEEES. 

Arabia, where it is much relished as a condiment 
with fish, meats and such like. The tree is cultivated 
in nearly every Indian garden, and is easily raised 
from seed like all the species and varieties of the 
genus Citrus. 

118 Citrus medica var. Limetta. Kan. Gaja nimbe- 
Fig.— ^oi. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.— .^onflwa's Or. and Lem. of Ind. and 

Cey. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind^ 

The sweet lime of India. A shrub or small tree 

confined to garden cultivation. Fruit round, larger 

than the country orange ; thin skinned ; much 

used for pickling. 

119 Citrus Aurantium, Linn. Kan: Kituie. 
Fig-Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection . 

'References— F^ora of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Bonavia's Or. 
and Lem. of Ind. and Cey. 

The orange tree. This beautiful fruit tree is not 
extensively grown in Mysore, although it succeeds 
well in the adjoining province of Coorg. 

It is an important fruit which is capable of much 
expansion and improvement in the warm, temperate 
a,nd sub-tropical regions of India, and it is surprising, 
with so many European planters in, such localities, 
that more is not made of the orange. In this pro- 
vince the districts of Hassan, Shimoga and Kadur, 
must afford favorable sites for cultivation, also the 
sheltered valleys of the Baba Budan hiUs. The 
several uses of this long-keeping fruit, of which 
there are many varieties, are fully explained in the 
works referred to at the head of these remarks. 

Cultivation- — Seedlings are easily raised from pips, 
but to obtain a shapely tree, capable of bearing good 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 53 



crops of fruit, the species should be budded, grafted, 
or inarched on to the sweet-lime or citron stocks. 

Plant healthy grafts, at 25 feet apart, in alluvial 
or loamy soil in a .sheltered situation. The young 
trees require to be watered at intervals during the 
first dry season. 
120 Citrus decumana, Linn. Kan. Sakote, Sakotti, 

Chakotre, Sakotra. 

Fig'- — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References.— -Soriaiia's Or. and Lem. of Ind. and 
Cey. ; Diet, of Econ. Trod, of Ind. 

The pumelo tree of Indian gardens and the shad- 
dock (after Captain Shaddock) of the "West Indies. 
Introduced to the above named countries from the 
Malay Archipelago, or Java. Dr. Watt explains 
that " the word pumelo is a contraction of pomum, 
muelo, the melon apple." The fruit is also known by 
the names pompelmos, paradise apple, and forbid- 
den fruit. 

A small evergreen, globular, tree, commonly 
cultivated in fruit gardens and occasionally for 
scenic effect. It is a pleasing object at all times 
but especially when laden with its splendid fruit the 
size of a cannon ball, or larger, according to 
variety. Like the orange, this species yields three 
crops of fruit yearly and may be said, practically, 
to be in flower or fruit all the year round ; and like 
orange-blossom the flowers produce a pleasing frag- 
rance in the vicinity of their grOAvth. Bonavia 
has clearly brought to notice that the thin skinned 
pumelos of the Bombay market, haviug a juicy pulp 
the colour of raw beef, are preferable to any other 
variety in Indian cultivation. Being so attractive 
and useful, this tree should take a prominent place 
in our garden and pleasure grounds. 

Cultivation — Coming from a warm habitat, it 
succeeds on the plains, where the orange tree fails. 



54 FOREST TREES. 



Seedlings grow into fine shapely trees but the oper- 
ations of budding and grafting will no doubt im- 
prove the quality of fruit. Irrigable land should be 
chosen for a plantation, as the trees are apt to 
suffer from long periods of drought. They 51so 
require lots of manure during the rainy season. 
Plant seedlings or grafts in large pits, at 25 to 30 
feet apart. 
121 l^eronia Elephantum, Coeeea. Kan. Bel, Belada, 

Belal. 

Fig— Wight Ic. t, 15. BoL Plates Lal-Bagh Col- 
lection, 
References, — Brandis For. Fl. ; Diet, of Ecqw 
Prod, oflnd. 
The elephant or wood-apple tree. Wild and 
cultivated in all the drier parts of the province. 

A deciduous tree of medium size, armed with 
strong spines. 

"Well known for its fruit which is an article of 
universal consumption, the acid pulp being eaten 
raw and, more rarely, in the form of jelly. 

Wood yellowish, close-grained, hard and durable ; 
weighs 50 lb. per cubic foot. Used for house- 
building and for agricultural implements. Th4 
bark yields a white transparent gum which forms 
part of the East Indian gum Arabic of commerce. 
Cultivation. — Raise from seed and plant in 
any ordinary soil at 20 feet apart. If planted during 
the early rains the seedlings will require little more 
attention. 

122>flEgle Marmelos, CoEBBA. ^aw. Bilpatre,Bilvapatre, 
Bilpatri. 

■pig.— Wight Ic. 1. 16. Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 161. 

References —PAarm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ, Prod, 
of Ind. 
The bael-fruit tree. Commonly met with 
throughout the province, and held in the highest 



MYSORE AND OOORG. 



55 



esteem for its medicinal properties, in which the 
root, bark, leaves and fruit, all contribute a part. 
The pulp of the fruit is of special value in the 
treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, while the 
hardened shell (rind) is locally made into snuff- 
boxes. The tender fruit is pickled with Nimhe. 

Wood strongly scented when felled, yellowish- 
white, hard, and durable. Weight about 50 lb. per 
cubic foot. Being a sacred tree, it is seldom 
felled, although Lovery states that the wood is 
used in Shimoga for carts and agricultural 
implements. Its propagation is considered meri- 
torious, and the leaves of the tree are generally 
presented at the shrine of Siva. 

Cultivation.— As recommended for the wood- 
apple tree, but requiring richer soil. 



XVII. SIMARUBE^. 

123 Ailantus excelsa, Roxb. Kan. Dodda mara. 
Fig.—WigU III. t. 67. 

References,— Brand. For. Fl. p. 58; Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
There are several specimens of this fine tree at 
Olosepet, where it flowers and fruits annually. 
Deciduous in ' January or February. Leaves ab- 
ruptly pinnate, 2 — 3 feet in length ; the glandular- 
hairy leaflets are coarsely toothed. 

Flowers in axillary panicles on longish pedicels, 
pale yellow. 

Samara (fruit) 2^ in., one-seeded,, often twisted at 
the base and blunt or pointed at the apex. Copper- 
coloured when attainiiig maturity. A fine tree for 
OrMmental effect, 



53 



FOREST TREES. 



A moderately large tree of the dry zone. Often 
confined to the smaller rocky hills. Bark papyrace- 
oud, whitish, curling off in thin scales. Leaflets 
sessile, pubescent, serrate or crenate. Flowers 
small, white, in axillary racemes, shorter than the 
pinnate leaves. Wood of little value; but the 
bastard olibanum or gum-resin which exudes from 
the trunk possesses a local utility in medi cinB and 
worship. It is not, however, so useful in either 
respect as the true " Sambrani," which is obtained 
from the following variety of the species. 
129 Boswellia serratavar. glabra. ^a7i, Sambram 

Chilkada, Chilku, Chittumbe. 

mg.-Sidd, Fl. Sylv. t. 124. 

References.— D«cfc of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Pharm. Ind. 
Common on stony land near Closepet and at 
Nundydroog. Cultivated in gardens at Nanjangud 
and elsewhere in the vicinity of temples, A small deci- 
duous ti-ee, with smooth leaves and white scaly bark. 
Wood inferior, and only used for fuel or charcoal 
The gum-resin is a bastard olibanum which is exten- 
sively used in medicine and as a sweet incense 
during temple ritual. " Royle describes picking 
tears off the trees, and states that these burn rapid- 
ly with a bright light, diffusing a pleasant odour.'* 
Watt. The resinous limbs of the tree make capital 
torches. Although good in itself, this gum-resin, 
should not be confounded with the true olibanum of 
commerce. 

Cultivation.— When the fruit has attained matu- 
rity it should contain three seeds. But the latter 
are usually abortive and very rarely germinate. On 
this account the cultivated trees in Mysore are 
mostly raised from offsets and cuttings The 
species thrives best among rocky boulders where 
there is shelter, warmth, and moisture. 



MYSORE AND COOBU. 59 



130 Garuga pinnata, Roxb. Kan. Hala. Balage, Godda- 

na. 

■Pig.—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 118. 

References.— -Srawd. For. Fl. p. 63. FL of Brit. 

Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A large tree of the dry and mixed zones. Leaves 
large pinnate, deciduous in the cold season. 
Flowers appearing with the young leaves in March, 
or a few days in advance of the leaves. Fruit 
ripening in July, the size of a large gooseberry said 
to be pickled in some parts for eventual use as a 
stomachic and cooling remedy. This does not 
appear to be done in Mysore! The tender leaves are 
browsed upon by cattle. "Wood of no special merit, 
but frequently cut for fuel. Weight about 40 lb. 
per cubic foot. The bark affords tannic acid. 
Easily raised from seed and requiring no pampered 
treatment in cultivation. 

131 Balsamodendron Mukul, Hook. 

132 B. Berry i, Ait. 

These small spinous trees, or shrubs, form good 
live-fences and are frequently employed as such in 
various parts of India. The gum resin of B. Mukul, 
is sold in bazaars as " Indian Bdellium." 

133 Protium caudatum, W. & A. Kan. Betta mavn. 

Tel. Konda mamadi, also hj the vernacular names 
Jv/m/minu and Jummana. 

^ig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 125. 

Reference.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
A small tree with green bark. Common through- 
out the maidan and ascending the lower hills. 
Obcasionally seen at the roadsides. Leaves alter- 
nate, deciduous, 3 — 7 foliolate. Fruit the size of a 
large pea. Wood inferior, but occasionally employ- 
ed for farm implements. It is stated that native 
actors utilise the heartwood for making crowns &c. 



60 FOREST TEEES. 



In the last edition of « Forest Trees" Kondo mama- 
di is said to be an unarmed tree, while Jmnvnnu, 
is armed. It is possible, therefore, that these ver- 
nacular names apply to different species. 

Protium caudatun var. BoxburgUma, differs from 
the specific form in the leaflets being abruptly 
pointed but not acuminate. 

134 Protium pubescens, W. & A. 

A tree of the Western Ghats. Ail the species of 
this genus grow readily from cuttings. 

135 Bursera serrata, Colebe. 

Fig.— J5o^. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

Reference.— Brand. For. Fl. p. 61. 
An evergreen tree cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 
Perhaps not indigenous to the forests of Mysore. 
The wood weighs 46 lb. per cubic foot and is said to 
be good for furniture. Growth very slow at Ban- 
galore, 

136 Canarium strictum, Roxb. Kan. Manda-dhup, 

Mund-doopa, Harlmuddy, Raldhiipada, Halmaddi. 

'Pig.—Bedd. Fl. Sytv. t. 128. 
References.— Dici. ofEcon. Prod.oflnd.; Phdrm: 
Ind.; Gamb. Man. Timb. 

The black dammar, tree. So called on account of 
the brilliant resin which exudes from the charred 
trunk. A lofty tree of the Malnad and "Western 
Ghats. Beddome remarks that " its brilliant crim- 
son foliage makes it a most beautiful sight when 
in young leaf." For coffee, " it affol-ds a nice light 
and very lofty sh*ade, is a rapid grower (in newly 
opened land) and is generally left." Graham 
Anderson. 

" A tall tree with straight cylindrical stem. 
Wood shining white when fresh cut, turning grey 
on exposure, soft, even-grained, does not warp, 
but decays rapidly. The wood is much esteemed 



MYSORE AND COORG. 61 

in Bengal for tea boxes and it is also used for 
shingles. The tree yields a resin which is used as 
incense ; it is clear, amber-colored and brittle." 
Gamble. 

Cultivation- — Seedlings grow rapidly in newly 
opened forest soil but are slow of growth in the ■ 
interior where the land has become hard and root- 
bound. The species attains its largest dimensions 
on the western slopes of the Malabar range. 
Healthy saplings have much larger leaves than tha 
full grown tree. Oaltivatiori on the eastern plains 
is hopeless. 

137 Filicium decipiens, Thwaitbs. 

■Fig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

A pretty evergreen tree, cultivated in the Bota- 
nical Gardens, and locally employed for avenue and 
scenic planting. It is indigenous to Ceylon and the 
Western Ghats. When pohshed, the red heartwood 
is very beautiful. G-amble asserts that the wood is 
strong and valuable for building. 

Cultivation. — Can be raised plentifully from 
seed. Plant seedlings at 30 feet apart in deep 
loam or .virgin forest soil. In the open, the tree 
always assumes a pleasing globular form. Height 
35—40 feet. 



XX. MELIACEiE. 

138 Melia Azadiraehta, Limi. Kan. Bevu, OUe bevuj 

Visa bevu. 

Pig Bot. Plates Lal-BagTi Collection. Bedd. 

■ Fl. Sm t. 14. 



Eeferences.— BrowcT. For. Fl.p. 68. Gamb. Man. 
timh.; B/iot. of Econ. Prod, oflnd. 
The neem or margosp, tree. This beautiful ever- 
green tree is mostly confined to the maidan tracts- 
where it forms avenues along the public roads and 



62 



rOBEST TREES. 



presents refreshing topes about the villages. But 
it attains its maximum utility and beauty at lower 
elevations than Mysore and in localities nearer to 
the sea. It is held sacred by the Hindus, and is 
specially dedicated to Mari,_ the goddess of des- 
truction. Medicinal properties are attributed to 
every part of the plant ; and the heartwood is ex- 
tensively used in the manufacture of idols. 

Owing to its bitter properties the wood is not 
attacked by insects, and being hard, durable, and 
beautifully mottled it answers well for cabinet work 
and carpentry. 

Neem oil, a product of the seed, is a well- 
known antidote for destroying borers and other in- 
sects which usually attack living plants. Brandis 
enumerates the economic properties of the species as 
follows : — 

" From incisions in the trunk, near the base, made 
in spring, issues a quantity of sap, often flowing for 
weeks ; used as a stomachic and cooling drink. 
A gum used as a stimulant, exudes from the bark. 
From the fruit is extracted, by boiling or pressure, 
a fixed acrid bitter oil, (Margosa) deep yellow, with 
a strong disagreeable flavour. It is used medicinal- 
ly ; in dyeing ; as an antiseptic and anthelmintic, 
and is burnt in. lamps. It is said to be expressed 
from the pulp and not from the seed. 

It is exported from Madras, chiefly to Ceylon. The 
seeds are employed to kill insects, and for washing 
the hair. 

The leaves are bitter and are used medicinally ; 
bark is very bitter and is used as a substitute for 
Peruvian bark." 

Possessing so many useful properties, the neem 
is deservedly one of the best Imown and most popu- 
lar trees of the country'. In the native treatment 
of smaU-pox, the green leaves are invariably used to 
place under and around the patient at certain stages 



MYSORE AND COORG. 63 

of the disease. As the tree is supposed to possess 
powerful antiseptic properties it is much planted in 
towns, especially throughout the plains of the Madras 
Presidency. It flowers in February or March, and 
ripens its fruit in June or July. 

Cultivation. — Of seeds sown, not more than 40 
per cent, may be expected to germinate. Healthy 
trees are often found in the back-yards of native 
houses associated with the Ficus religiosa, another 
sacred species. These are planted in the same pit 
together so that their limbs and branches may 
entwine and form what is called a natural marriage. 
For avenue or tope planting the trees should be 
45 feet apart. In inland situations, an occasional 
top dressing of sheep or goats manure, with a few 
handf uls of saltwill make the saplings grow rapidly. 
The neem coppices well. 
139 Melia Azedarach, Linn. Kan. Hutctti bevu, CLik 

bevn, Issapuri, Arebevn ? 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. BecM. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 13. Wight Ic. t. 160. 

'References.— Brand. For. Fl. 68. Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
The Persian lilac or bead tree. Much cultivated 
in towns and villages on the plains, but not truly 
indigenous to any part of Southern India. When 
conserved in private or public grounds it is a 
pleasing evergreen tree with sweet-scented lilac 
flowers, but seen in the villages it is always an 
unsightly and much abused object, owing to its 
being ruthlessly stripped of its leaves to provide 
forage for sheep and goats. The wood is worthless, 
although it is nicely mottled and takes a good polish. 
Weight about 35 lb. per cubic foot. Although not 
so popular as the true neem, for which it is occasion- 
ally mistaken by Europeans,' it really possesses, in a 
minor degree, many of the same useful properties 
as that tree. The kernels of the fruit (seeds) are 



64 POMST TREES. 



universally worn as rosaries, hence the appellation 
" bead tree." -Asa forage tree its cultivation should 
be encouraged, but not on the lines which are now 
followed, whereby every villager takes upon him to 
disfigure and even kill trees through excessive mani- 
pulation. 

Cultivation- — -^^ ^or the neem, but may be 
planted at 25^30 feet apart. 

140 Melia dubia, CaV. Kan. Heb bevu, Turka bevu, 

Bettada bevu, Kada bevu. 
Fig— Bedd. FL Sylv. 1. 12. 

References— Bra%i. For. FL t. 69. Did. of 
Eeon. Prod, of Ind. 

This is the giant neem of the Malnad forests. It 
attains a very large size and can easily be dis- 
tinguished from the neem of the plains by- its 
darker foliage and doubly pinnate leaves. It is said 
to be deciduous also. 

Although light and not very durable, weighing 
about 25 lb. per cubic foot, the wood is generally 
•employed on estates for buildings and agricultural 
implements. It is rarely attacked by insects and has 
been recommended for tea cases. The dried fruit 
resembles the date and has a commercial value of 
Es. 1-4-0 per lb. It is used medicinally, and is con- 
sidered a good remedy for colic, half a fruit being 
the usual dose for an adult. Being a very handsome 
tree with greenish- white, fragrant, flowers, its culti- 
vation in gardeiis situated among, and near to the 
hillsj is a' thing to be desired. Beddome writes that 
the seedlings grow rapidly. It is the M. composUa 
of Willd. 

141 Cipadessafruticosa, Blume. ^an. CMtttmdi. 

A common shrub of the scrub tracts. Used as 
small fuel. Berries red, the size of a pea. 

142 Aglaia Roxburghiana, Miq. Kan. Tottiia. Fruit— 

Tittila kayi. 



MYSORE AND COOEa. 65 

Fig—Wight Ic. 1. 166 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. L 130. 
"Reference.— Pharm. Ind. 
This fine tree should be searched for on the Baba 
Budan hills. 

Leaves pinnate. Flowers yellow. Fruit the 
size of a gooseberry, buff-colored to brown, eaten 
medicinally. 

143 Amoora Rohituka, "W. & A, Kan, Mulla, muttala. 

Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 1. 182. 

Beferences.— -Dici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Brand. For. Fl. 69. 

An evergreen tree of the Western Ghats. 
Leaves large, pinnate, 2 — 3 feet. Flowers small, 
in spicate or branched panicles according to sex. 
Fruit dull red, the size of a crab apple. " G-raham 
likens the fruit to a ball of Windsor soap." The 
bark. is astringent, and the seeds furnish an econo- 
mic oil. 

144 Amoora Lawii, Bbnth. A species with smaller 

leaves and fruit. Should be looked for in 
the Malnad. 

145 Walsura piscidia, Roxb. Tel. Walurasi. 
Eig.—Wi9U III. i. t. 55. 

References.— Dalz. 8f Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 37 \ Fl. of 
Brit. Ind. 

A tree of the Western Ghats. Leaves 3-foliolate. 
Flowers in terminal panicles, small, numerous, 
sordid-yellowish. Fruit egg-shaped, the size of a 
small olive. The bark is used to poison fish. Other 
properties unknown. 

146 Heynea trijuga, Roxb. Bom. Limbara. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 134, 

References. — Brand. For. Flora ; Balz. Sf 
Gibs. Biwib. Fl. 38. 



C6 



FOEBST TREES. 



An ornamental tree of Ooorg and the Western 
Ghats. Leaves imparipinnate, with usually 9 large 
leaflets. Panicles axillary and terminal, corym- 
bose, long-peduncled, nearly equalling the leaf. 
jPlowers small, white. Fruit the size and colour of 
a small cherry. Herbarium specimens are required, 
as also fuller information as to the character and 
utility of this species. 
147 Soymida febrifuga, Adb. Juss. Kan. Swami 



mara, Kal l;- uige ? 

Fig—BecM. FL Sylv. t. 8. 

"References.— Brand. For. 

Ind. 



Flora 71 ; Fharm.. 



The bastard red-cedar of Europeans. A lofty 
tree of the Malnad and isolated hills ; found in the 
reserved jungles at Closepet. As this species is 
often confounded with Cedrela Toona, the so-called 
white cedar, the annexed characteristics may assist 
enquirers to determine between the two trees. 



Soymida fehrifuga. 
Eed Cedar. 

Leaves paripinnate, nearly 
evergreen, 12 to 20 inches. 

Stamens united into a cup- 
sliaped tube. 

Ovary S-celled, with numer- 
ous ovules in each cell. Seeds 
slightly winged at hoth ends. 

Capsule large. 



Cedrela Toona. 
White Cedar. 

Leaves pinnate, deciduous, 1 
to 3 feet. 

Stamens distinct, 4^6, or 
with alternating staminodes. 

Ovary S-oelled with 10 — 12 
ovules in each cell. Seeds 
winged at one or hoth ends. 

Capsule small. 



Although unreserved, this tree affords one of the 
very best timbers. It is the principal red- wood of 
English denizens and is known to be hard, dull-red 
and very strong. Weight when seasoned, 70 to 75 
lb. per cubic foot. Indeed Swami mara is reckoned 
by the Hindus to be the most durable of woods and 
is preferably used on that account in the building of 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 67 

temples. It is also durable under ground and is said 
to resist the attacks of wliite ants. The liber, or 
inner bark, is exceedingly bitter and its astringent 
and febrifuge properties induced Roxburgh, to re- 
commend it as a substitute for the Peruvian bark. 
Although locally used for building and in native 
medicine, the species has, as yet, no commercial 
value. Whether this-is due to its scarcity or to 
ignorance of its useful qualities, is imknown. Being 
rich in tannic acid, the bark should soon take a fore- 
most place among commercial tans. 

Easily raised from seed but otherwise the culti- 
vation is unknown. The species is said to be ex- 
tremely prejudicial to coffee cultivation. 
148 Chickrassia tabularis, Ade. Juss. Kan. Dal mara, 

Gavuda ? 

Fig.-Bedd, Fl. Sylv. t. 9. Wight III I t. 56. 

'References.— Brand. For. Fl 66, Qamb. Man, 
Timb. 76. Diet. ofEcon. Prod, of Ind. 
A tall evergreen tree of the Malnad and Coorg. 
Yields a superior timber which is extensively used in 
Madras, Bengal and parts of Burmah, as " Chitta- 
gong wood." This product possesses nearly all the 
qualities necessary for first-class cabinet-work, being 
beautifully marked, durable, fragrant, easily worked 
and susceptible of a fine glossy pohsh. Weight 
40 to 52 lb. per cubic foot. Bark highly astrin- 
gent but not bitter. The fl'owers afford dyes of red 
and yellow colours. A specimen tree may be seen 
in the Botanical Gardens, where it grows rather 
slowly but with a straight trunk. 

Ctdtivation. — Seedlings are easily raised, but 
subsequent growth is not very rapid unless the soil 
is loose and rich. In a situation where these condi- 
tions are afforded, the Chittagong-wood tree would 
form splendid avenues. 



68 POEEST TREES. 



149 Cedrela Toona, EoXB, Kan. Gandagarige, Nandu- 
rike ? Kandagarige. Ooorg. Noge, Nogga, Belandi- 

'Pig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 10, Wight Ic, t, 161. 
'References.— Brand. For. FL 72. Did. of Econ. • 
Prod, oflnd.. 

A moderately large tree of the Malnad and Coorg. 
Leaves pinnate, large, deciduous in the cold "weather. i 
Cultivated in the Botanical Gardens and in the exo- 
tic plantation at Hebbal. Generally known as the 
white cedar, although the seasoned wood resembles 
pale mahogany in colour. Tljere is an export trade 
in white cedar from Burmah, where the timber is 
commercially known as " Moulmein cedar." In Ben- ; 
gal and parts of Assam, it is in great demand for 
buildings and furniture, for which it is considered 
durable. It is also said to be exempted from the 
attacks of white ants. "Weight 30 to 36 lb. per 
cubic foot. Chickrassia talnda/ris is occasionally | 
known to the timber trade as ' white cedar', and as 
regards the colour of its wood more correctly so. 
But the latter is a lofty evergreen tree with a 
beautiful straight trunk. Technically separated a 
from Cedrela by its staminal tube, and three celled ; 
ovary. 

" The Nogga gets its local name from being 
the favourite tree for making bullock yokes from. 

The shade (for coffee) is light and sufficient, 
while propagation is extremely easy from seed. 

Millions of young plants have been grown within 
the last few years by nearly every planter in Mysore 
and Coorg. The timber is easily worked and fairly 
durable for roofing purposes, but will not stand 
exposure or being buried in the soil as posts, bed- 
plates &c. It is agreeably fragrant and of a dark 
red colour." Graham Anderson. 

Cattle browse on the green leaves and fruit when 



MYSOEE AND COO EG. 69 

they have a chance. Red and yellow dyes, called 
Oiihian, are afforded by the honey-scented flowers. 
The bark is medicinal. 

Cultivation- — It will be seen from Mr. Graham 
Anderson's remarks that there is no difficulty in pro- 
pagating this useful tree. It grows fairly well on 
the maidan also, although a little stunted in size. 
Plant in deep soil/ at 30 feet apart. 

Gedrela serrata] Royle. is looked upon by Indian 
authors as a distinct species, but Hiern, in the 
Flora of British India, includes it as a form of C. 
Toona. 

It is well described by Brandis in his excellent 
Forest Flora. The West Indian cedar, Gedrela odor- 
ata, has recently been introduced and is being esta- 
blished in the Lal-Bagh. This species is said to 
furnish timber of exceptional quality. 
150 Chloroxylon swietenia, DC, Kan. Huragalu, 

Masi, Masnudla. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 1. 11, 

References.— u-'flW9i6. Man, Timb. ; Brand. For. 
Fl. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

The Indian satin-wood tree. A moderate-sized 
deciduous tree ; usually Tery> small in the maidan 
but attaining a larger size towards the hills. Leaf- 
lets small, in 10 — 15 pairs, pale green. Wood 
hard, yellow-mottled and prettily veined, dark to- 
wards the centre ; possesses a fine satiny lustre and 
is admirably adapted for the most delicate pieces of 
cabinetwork, carpentry and turnery. Weight 56 
lb. per cubic foot. 

" Heartwood somewhat black, heavy, and not 
^easily burnt, so that when a log catches fire the 
outer layer only will be burned. It is used for 
beams, posts, sugar-cane crushes, boats, planks and 
charcoal." M. Venhatnarnappa. 

But in addition to these local ugeg satin wood is 



70 FOREST TREES. 



widely utilised for agricultural and engineering 
work in various parts of India, one of its chief 
merits being durability under water. It thus pos- 
sesses the remarkable dual property t)f resisting both 
fire and water ! It turns well and is employed in 
Europe for making the backs of brushes, stetho- 
scopes and fancy articles. 

Cultivation.— In the maidan, growth is exceedingly 
slow, and as seeds collected at Kankanhalli and else- 
where never germinate, the species is not propagated. 
Seeds from the Malnad should be sown. 

151 Swietenla Mahagoni, Linn. 
Fig.— Hook. Bot. MiscclL i. 1. 16, 17. 
Reference-— Brand. For. Fl. 

This important timber tree, indigenous to Central 
America and the West Indies, is cultivated in the 
Lal-Bagh, and during the past four years about 
2,000 seedlings have been estabhshed in the Govern- 
ment exotic plantation at Hebbal. 

The largest of these are now twelve feet high and 
promise to yield good timber. The large leaved 
mahogany, Swieterda macrophylla, is also success- 
fully cultivated in the-Botanical Gardens. 

XXI. OLACINEiE, 

152 Ximenia americana, Willd, Kan. Nagare. 

A woody shrub of the maidan tracts. Flowers 
small, white, and fragrant. " The fruit is edible 
and the wood is used as a substitute for sandal- 
wood." Flora of Brit. Ind. 

153 Olax SCandenS, Roxb. Tel. Turka-Tepa, Bapana- 

musliti, 

References.-FZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Ecmi.. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A vigorous evergreen climber with a trunk the 



MYSORE AND COORG, 71 

thickness of a man's thigh. Destructive to young 
trees, which it rapidly invests and subsequently 
smothers by its far reaching shoots. 



XXII. CELASTRINE^. 

154 Gymnosporia montana, Roxb, Kan. Tandrasi. 

mg.-Wi^U Ic. 383. Bedd. Fl. Syh. Anal. Gen. 

References— ^rancZ. For. Fl. 81. Bict.of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
This prickly bush is exceedingly common in the 
scrub tracts of the Bangalore District, whereit some- 
times spreads to the exclusion of every other shrub. 
On the Bombay side the branches are employed 
as dunnage for the roofs of houses. When soften- 
ed by beating, the leaves become useful as a green 
food for cattle. 
155Celastrus paniculata.WiLLD. Kan.'S.a,-D.gondi,Ka,v'i. 

ganne. 

Fig.-Wight III. 179 ; Wight Ic. t. 158. 

References-— iSrancZ. Fm, Fl. 82. Diet, of 

Econ, Prod, of Ind. 

A scandent shrub of the low hills and scrub tracts. 

Useful medicinal properties are attributed to the 

seed and oil, both of which are marketable articles 

in the ba,zaars. 

156 Elaeodendron giaucum, Pees. Kan. Mukd,rive. 
^ig-— Wight m. 17S, t. 71. Bedd.Fl.Sylv, Anal 
Gen. 67. 

A small evergreen tree of the plains. The leaves, 
bark and roots, possess medicinal properties and are 
said to be astringent. The root is considered an 
^htidote for snake-bite. Wood moderately hard 
and durable, used for cabinet work, combs and 



72 



FOREST TEEES. 



picture frames. Weight 40 to 50 lb. per cubic foot, 
but always small. 



XXIII. RHAMNEiE. 

157 Ventilago madraspatana, GiERTN. Kan. Popli. 

mg.^Wight Ic. 163. 

References— Brand. For. Fl. 96. Pharm. Ind. 

A large scandent slirub of East Mysore, where it 
reaches to the top of the highest trees. The root- 
bark (Vembadam bark) affords a well known dye of 
an orange-red colour ; and constitutes an important 
minor product of the State forests. It also yields 
a fibre of some repute. The local market value of 
Popli bark is Es. 1-12-0 to Es. 2 per maund of 
25 lbs. The cultivation of this product should be 
encouraged in the maidan districts of Mysore, 
where it thrives well and requires hardly any 
care-taking. The plant is propagated from seed. 

158 Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk. Kan. Telachi, YelcW. 

Yig.—WigU Ic. t. 99. Bedd. FL Sylv. 149. 

References. — Diet. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; Brand. 
For. m. 86. 

The Bhere-fruit tree. Armed, spreading, 30 — 50 
feet. Leaves deciduous in the cold weather ; young 
parts covered with a dense fuscous tomentum. 
" There are many cultivated varieties, differing 
greatly in the size and shape of the leaves, as also 
in the size and nature of the fruit, of which the 
most remarkable is Bdgeworth's var. Eysudricus, 
with erect or spreading not drooping branches, ■ 
obtuse, ovate, oblong or orbicular leaves, glabrous I 
or slightly tomentose beneath, and long petioles. 
This, according to Aitchison, is always raised by 
grafts." M. A. Lawsonin Fl. of Brit. Lid. 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 73 

This tree is often cultivated for its fruit, of which 
the best varieties are found in Northern India. 

Wood hard, even-grained, tough and durable, 
-weighing 57 — 58 lb. per cubic foot. 

Used in the Ordnance Department at Madras and 
said to be good for saddle-trees, camp furniture, 
agricultural and engineering implepa^nts ; also for 
fuel and charcoal. 

The bark is - very astringent, and a medicinal 
gum exudes from it. 

Gultivation- — Easily raised from seed, and a good 
coppice tree. A few of the varieties yielding fruit 
of superior size and quality are habitually grafted 
in the north. This should' be done in the south also, 
when better fruit than now exists may be looked for. 

Plant grafts or seedlings in tolerably rich land at 
30 feet apart, Ripe fruit is attacked at an early 
stage by maggots. The tree is unsuited for roadside 
planting. 

159 Zizyphus nummularia, W. & A. Zan. Puvpalli, 

Parpuli. 

Fig'— Bedel. FL Sfylv. Anal. Gen. lxix. 
A S'candent, prickly, shrub, usually found in scrub 
tracts and , in tke fences around villages. When 
properly trimmed, it forms an excellent live-fence 
for the protection of property. The fruit has a 
pleasant acid or subacid taste and is eaten by 
children. Sheep and goats browse upon the tender 
shoots. 

160 Zizyphus xylopyrus, Willd. Kan. Challe: 
'Eig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. Anal, Oen. lxviii. 

Earely a small tree, but most commonly seen as 
a climbing shrub. All the sahent parts are laro-er 
than in the foregoing species, and we have no record 
that the fruit is serviceable except as a dye for, 

10 



74 rOEEST TBEES. 



blackenin,^ leatHer. "Wood hard, tough ; weighing 
about 60 ib. per cubic foot". Used for walking sticks 
and torches. Growing at Nundydroog. 

161 Zizyphus rugosa, Lajik. A Malnad species 
haying white pear-shaped fruit which is said to be 
eaten. This is also an extensive woody climber or 
small tree. Evergreen. 

162 Scutia indica, Beongn. Kan. Kurndi. 
Fig.-Wight Ic. t. 1071. Wight III. i. t,-73. 

A chmbing shrub of the plains. Branches strag- 
gling, armed or not with recurved prickles. Leaves 
opposite or subopposite, roundish or obovate; 
average blade 1^ x 1 in. Fruit the size of a pea, 
red to black in colour. The whole bush has a smooth 
or polished appearance. 

The fruit is eaten by all classes and is usually sold 
m the bazaars during harvest time. Easily raised 
from seed. 



XXIV. AMPELIDEiE. 

163 Vitis vinifera, Linn. 2<:an. Drakshi. 
Fig.-Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
The grape vine. Cultivated in gardens for its 
luscious frmt. Remarkable for its longevity and 
hardihood m 'warm temperate and subtropical 
chmates. Under skilful treatment, the grape vine 
would be productive of superior fruit in the maidan J 
portion of Mysore, and might afEord, if introduced in " 
greater variety, the conditions suitable for the pre- 
paration of wme ; the various wines of commerce 
bemg the prepared juices of the grape. Indian 
grapes are sold at 2-4 annas per lb but specially 
^own for dessert they would often command doubi; | 
the prevailing rates. As a remunerative garden' « 
maustry the cultivation of vines is confidently 
recommeiided. i 



iiYsoEE AND cooeg: 75 

A few other species of Vitis are indigenous to the 
State forests, where they occasionally form exten- 
sive lianes and become objects of interest dangling 
from one tree to another. 



XXV. BAPINDACE^. 

164 Hemigyrosa deficiens, Bbdd. 

A small tree of the Malnad, flowering throughout 
the year. Uses unknown. Herbarium specimens 
would be acceptable at head-quarters. 

165 Ailophylus Cobbe, Bltjmh. 

A small tree of the western hill tracts. , Leaves 
trifoliolate. Flowers irregular. Fruit a red berry 
the size of a red-currant, said to be eaten. Root 
astrmgent. Wood grey and soft. 

166 Schleichera trijuga, Willd. Kan. Sagade, 

Ohakota, Cliendala, the latter name mostly in North 
Coorg. Shargadee ? 

^ig'-Bedd. Fl, Syh. t 119. 

Bef6rences.-5rawi. For. Fl; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Lid. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The Ceylon oak. A handsome tree of the dry 
forests; flowering and foliating early in the hot 
season. Leaves deciduous, paripinnate. Flowers 
small, greenish-yellow. Fruit the size of a damson 
plum. Should be pknted as an avenue tree as the 
young leaves impart humidity and shelter during 
the hottest season of the year. Of unreserved 
timbers, this appears to be one of the very best, 
being close-grained, durable, and weighing 66 to 
70 lb. per cubic foot. In the Central Provinces the 
lac insect is nourished on the tree, just as it is on 
Shorea Talwra, within the territories of Mysore. 

" Yal'ued where strength, hardness and durability 
are required. Oil, rice aad sugar crushers, pestles 



n 



FOREST TEEES. 



and mortars, rollers, screws and the teeth of harrows 
are made of it ; it is also used in building, and for 
various parts of carts and ploughs." Brandis. 

The bark and oil are medicinal products, the 
latter being expressed from the seed and not un- 
commonly used, in some parts of the country, as a 
lamp-oil. The authors of Pharmacographia Indica 
are of opinion that it is the original Macassar oil of 
commerce, and that it is now retailed in Germany 
under the above name, on which account it is 
recommended as a desirable application to the scalp, 
which promotes the growth of hair. Rubbed up with 
the oil, the astringent bark is used to cure itch, acue, 
and similar skin affections. 

Cultivation- — Seeds germinate fairly well in a 
moist position. But later in growth, a comparatively 
dry situation is appreciated between the altitudes 
of 1,000 and 3,000 feet. It is an effective avenue 
tree planted at 40 feet apart. 

167 Sapindus trifoliatus, Linn. Za». Kugati, Anta- 

wala, Artala. 

Fig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 

Sylv. t. 154. 
References —Pharm. Ind. ; Vict, ofEcon. Prod. 

of Ind. ; Drury U. PI. 

The soapnut tree of South India. Of this'species 
there are two distinct forms in Mysore. One with 
large, acuminate, glabrous leaves, often trifoliolate, 
and the other having comparatively, small pinnate 
leaves ; leaflets stout, emarginate, pubescent under- 
neath. Fruit usually S-lobed, each lobe being the 
size of a small cherry. Abundant throughout the 
maidan, especially in the vicinity of villages, where 
it attains a medium height. Bare of leaf in March 
and April; flowering in October and affording ripe 
fruit m February, Of indigenous trees, this is one of 
the best known on account of its saponaceous fruit, 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 



11 



which is commonly used by the poorer classes for 
washing their clothes. Soapnuts have therefore a 
local market value of Rs. 1 — 12 — to Rs. 2 per 
maund of 25 lbs. 

Medicinal properties are attributed to the root, 
bark, fruit, and oil, the latter being a saponaceous 
product of the seed. 

Wood hard, yellow, cross-grained and not very 
durable. Occasionally used for building carts, but 
more commonly as handles to axes and similar 
tools, it is also used for making combs. 

Cultivation- — ^^^^ Eugati is propagated from seed 
and suckers, the latter being plentiftiUy self-pro- 
ductive in favorable localities. Loam, clay, and 
black-cotton soils are favorable to growth. Plant 
sturdy seedlings, or transplant offsets, at 35 to 40 
feet apart. 

168 Nephelium Litchi, Oamb. 

An evergreen fruit-tree cultivated in the Lal- 
Bagh, and in various parts of India. Introduced 
from South China. Quantities of seedlings are raised 
from local trees every year. 

169 Nephelium Longana, Oamb. somewhat similar 
to the last named but having a smaller and less 
palatable fruit. The Logan tree is said to be 
indigenous to the Western Peninsula. It is cul- 
tivated in the Botanical Gardens. 

170 Dodonasa viSCOSa, Linn; Kan. Bandrike, Bandare, 

Bandri. 

'Pig.—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
III. i. t. 52. 

'RQferenoes-~Brand. For. Fl. 113; Diet, of E con. 
Prod, of Ind. 

This evergreen s^fub abounds on the plains of 
Mysore, and as a fuel plant it is widely consumed 
by the poorer classes^ Being of a resinous nature, it 



78 



POEEST TREES. 



ignites readily and burns with a bright forcible 
flame. The large wood is often utilised for making 
charcoal of superior quality. Buchanan mentions 
that the presence of " Bandury" indicates a good 
soil for the cultivation of horse gram. It may be 
added that it also indicates a suitable soil for all 
pulse crops requiring a given percentage of lime. 
In the north of India, the shrub is often employed 
for hedging. The seasoned wood makes good handles 
for gardening tools, as also walking sticks. The 
leaves are used medicinally. Easily propagated 
from seed. 



XXVI. SABIACEiE. 

171 Meliosma Wightii, Planch. 

A small tree of the western boundary. Flowefa'; 
white and showy. Herbarium specimens are required,', 

172 Meiiosma Arnottiana, Wight. Kan. MassivaraP 

Massiwalla. 

'. Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 160. 

A handsome flowering tree in the forests of Hassan, 
Shimoga, and possibly Kadur. It flowers in June, 
and ripens it fruit, the size of a pea, four months 
later. M. Venkatnarnappa says the heartwood' is 
useful for house building, although it is pronounced* 
useless in the last edition of this work. 

Lovery describes the tree as of moderate size, 
yielding poles and agricultural implements. Speci- 
mens are required for the herbarium. 



XXVII. ANACARDIACEiE. 

173 Mangifera indica, Linn. Z'aji. Mavu, Maveua, 

Shi-mavia, Amba. 

■Svg.-Bot. Plates LaUBagh<lQlledion: Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. 162. 



MTSOEB AND OOOBG. 79 

References-— i?ra?i(i. For. ¥1 125. Drury U. PI. ; 
Bid. of Econ. Prod, of Incl. 

The mango tree. "VYithout exception this is the 
best known and most highly esteemed fruit tree in 
Hindustan. Its praises have been sung for more 
than a thousand years, while kings and princes have 
vied to do it honour. The mango tree is evergreen, 
and flowers progressively during the months of 
January, February and March. The fruiting season 
(when ripe fruit can be procured) is likewise pro- 
gressive through the months of May, June and July. 
The species is easily influenced by various conditions 
of season, soil, and position ; hence the long term 
usually covered by its reproductive growth in the 
varying climates of India. There are also numerous 
varieties of the fruit, but these are often peculiar to 
certain districts, and are apt to. lose their esteemed 
properties when cultivated in other loca,lities. 
Grafted mango trees have been profitably cultivated 
at Bangalore for upwards of 30 years. As compared 
to the seedling tree they are greatly stunted 
in growth, assuming the form of huge globular 
bushes rather than trees, they also come into bear- 
ing much sooner and are probably shorter-lived 
than the seedling tree. Brandis affirms that in 
Burmah the mango is not' generally grafted. Seeds 
of a distinct variety occasionally produce seedlings 
of their kind, and, it may be exclusively, in districts 
where the species is limited to one or two varieties, 
but where the latter are numerous no reliance can 
be put in the identity of mango seedlings. The 
grafted varieties cannot be reproduced from seed, 
so that grafting or inarching should be resorted to 
as the quickest and surest method of securing the 
finest fruit. 

In addition to its great value in dessert, the mango 
ie very extensively chatnied, pickled and preserved, 



80 FOREST TBEES. 



Medicinal properties a,re attributed to nearly every 
part of tlie tree, whicli is universally cherislied by 
the people of India. 

The wood of the seedling mango attains ample 
dimensions, and being plentiful and easily worked 
finds its way into minor works of carpentry and 
engineering ; it does not, however, stand exposure, 
nor is it exempt from the attacks of white ants, 
wood-lice and other timber pests. Weight about 
40 lb. per .cubic foot. 

Cultivation- — During the fruiting season the ripe 
mango stones are laid down thickly under partial 
shade, where they are subsequently covered by a 
thin layer of sand and left to nature. In the course 
of a month or six weeks, unless the weather has 
been abnormally dry, every healthy stone will have 
sprouted, and in September or October the seedHngs 
should be ready either for potting or transplanting 
into a nursery plot in the open field. In the latter 
case, plant in drills at eighteen inches apart . each 
way and cultivate until the young trees are 2^ — 3 
feet in height. With good treatment this growth 
wUl be attained in eighteen to twenty months, so 
that the whole period required to prepare a good 
mango stock, from seed-sowing to the time of graft- 
ing, is under two years. When stocks have attained 
the proper size in the nursery they are transplanted 
a second time into position for grafting, which is on 
to small mounds of earth conveniently placed under 
the branches of the old grafted tree. In this posi- 
tion they should be leit for nearly two months 
before the actual operation of inarching is put in 
hand. The latter is now so widely imderstood, that 
it calls for no description here, but it should be 
stated that young trees, specimens showiiig signs of 
disease, and very old trees are not in a condition to 
a,fford the best scions for inarching. The operation 



MYSORE AND COOUG. 81 

should be carried out during the months of August 
and September for preference, but can be under- 
taken with varying results all the year round. It 
occupies 3^ to 4 months to effect a proper union 
between the stock and scion. The local practice of 
taking grafts from young trees of 8 — 12 years of age 
should not be encouraged. Plant at 45 feet apart. 

174 Anacardium occidentale, Linn. Kan. jidi, 

Turuka geru, Kempu geru, Gem poppu. 

"Eig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection ; Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. 1. 163. 

References.— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of hid. ; 
Pharm. Ind. 

The cashew-iiut. A Brazilian tree naturalised in 
this country by the Portuguese. Extensively cul- 
tivated in gardens, and much esteemed for its 
medicinal properties. By special treatment the 
kidney-shaped fruit, with its large fleshy torus, 
affords anacardic acid, oil of almonds, tar, and a 
weak spirit; roasted without the torus, it is a great 
delicacy at the dessert table, and is often used in 
native sweetmeats. 

The cashew-apple oil extracted from the shell of 
the nut, or f riiit proper, is a good preventive against 
the attacks of the white ant. Gum obtained from 
the bark is also obnoxious to insect pests. 

"Wood red and moderately durable, but mostly 
crooked and never very large. "Weight 38 lb. per 
cubic foot. 

Cultivation- — This small evergreen tree succeeds 
well . in dry localities, although it is most prolific 
of fruit when under garden cultivation. Seeds 
obtained from the jungle trees germinate readily. 
Experiments in budding and grafting are suggested. 

175 Buchanania latifolia, Roxb. Kan, Murkali, 

Murkalu, Nuskul, Murkali morave. 

Yig-Bm. Fl. Sylv. 1. 165. 

n 



82 



FOREST TREES. 



References— ^TOTi^. For. Fl. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A sub-deciduous tree of the dry forests. Height 
80 — 50 feet. "Well known for its edible seeds. The 
heartwood seasons "well and is sufl&ciently durable 
for protected work. "Weight 36 lb. per cubic foot. 
Used in parts of India for making boxes, bedsteads, 
tables, doors and such like. The tender leaves are 
eaten by sheep and cattle. Oil, gum and tan are 
useful products of the species, and the kernel of the 
fruit is a good substitute for the almond, MurJcali 
seeds abound in a limpid sweet oil and are more 
agreeable to the taste than either country almond, 
cashew-nut or ground-nut. 

They are sold in the bazaars at certain seasons, at 
rates vaiying from 3 to 6 annas per lb. Used in 
sweetmeats. It should be observed that the bark 
affords an excellent tan, which is an article of trade 
in Travancore. Seeds have failed to germinate 
under artificial treatment, but it has been noticed 
that the trees in the Bidadi Taluk are reproduced 
by means of root-suckers. 

Buclianania angustifoUa, Roxh. should bp found 
in the hill region. It is an evergreen tree of larger 
dimensions than B. latifolia. 

176 Odina wodier, Roxb. Kan. Udi, Shimti, Punal, 
Gogal. 

mg.-WigU Ic. t. 60; Bedd. Fl. 8ylv. 1. 123, 
References.— i?^Ci5. of Econ. Prod, of Ind,; 
Fl. of Brit. Indr, Pharm. Ind. 

A deciduous tree of the plains. Local specimens 
line the public road passing between Cubbon 
Pettah and the Division Cutcherry. It is a 
gnarled ugly tree remaining bare of leaf until 
near the close of the hot season. Wood very subiect 
to the attacks of insects and generally of little value ; 
heartwood dull red. Weight 50-60 lb. per cubic 



MTSOBB ANDCOOEG- 8S 



foot. Medicinal properties are attributed to the 
bark and gum. Cattle feed voraciously on the green 
leaves, but the latter appear at a time when green 
forage is usually abundant. Every part of the tree 
abounds in starch, and hence the facility for pro- 
pagation by cuttings. But raised by the latter 
method, the tree soon assumes a contorted habit of 
growth which renders it very ugly, especially in the 
deciduous stage. 

Local trees have not fruited, although they 
flower annually and are- in many cases past maturity. 
It is not known, therefore, if seedlings would pro- 
duce shapely trees as they do in the case of " Huva- 
rasi mara," Thespesia jpopulnea. 
177 Semecarpus Anacardium, Linn. Kan. Gem, 

Kari gem. 

Fig.-Wight Ic. t 558 ; Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 166. 

References.— ■Oic^, of Econ. Frod. of Ind.; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Flora of Brit, Ind. 

, The marking-nut tree. Common in the dry for- 
ests of Mysore, where it attains a height of 40— 50 
feet. Leaves deciduous in the beginning of the hot 
season, simple, coriacious, average blade 20 x 8 in., 
largest in healthy saplings. Drupe the size of a 
prune. Wood of little value as it cracks in season- 
ing. Weight 42 lb. per cubic foot. When growing, 
it is fuU of an acrid juice which causes irritation and 
sweUing. Woodmen do not care, on that account, 
to fell the trees unless they have been previously 
ringed. ' 

The fleshy receptacle on which the fruit is seated 
(hypocarpl is generally eaten by the people. The 
pericarp, or fruit proper, contains an intensely acrid 
juice which is much employed in native medicine ; 
it also affords a black varnish, and mixed with lime 
water, the juice is popularly used for marking linen. 

Although of comparatively little value as a timber 



84 



FOREST TREES. 



tree, tlie geru mara is widely known and appreciated 
for its medicinal fruit. M. Venkatnarnappa states 
that the oil ' from the seed is utilised in the taming 
of "wild elephants and that a birdlime is prepared 
from the crushed, green fruit. "When ripe, the latter 
is very pretty, the shining black drupe being in dis- 
tinct contrast to the orange-red receptacle. 

Cultivation-— Although the seeds of this tree ger- 
minate freely, the seedlings (accor-ding to local ex- 
perience) invariably damp off at a tender age. This 
retards propagation so much that the species is not 
found in garden cultivation. Experiments should 
be made in grafting, inarching and putting down 
cuttings. ' 

178 Semecarpus Anacardium var. cuneifolia, DC. 

Kan. Goddu gem. 

This is a larger form, which is said, as the verna- 
cular implies, to be barren of tlowers and fruit. 
The species, iS. travancorica, and S. auricvlata, 
should be searched for in the western Malnad. One 
is figured and both are described in " Beddome's 
Flora Sylvatica." 

179 Holigarna Arnottiana, Hook. 
Fig~Bedd. Fl Syh. 1. 167. 

A lofty tree of Coorg and the Western Ghats. All 
the species of this genus possess a peculiar acrid 
juice of a dark color. Herbarium specimens are 
much wanted. 

180 Holigarna ferruginea, Maechand. 
Resembling the last named, excepting that the 

short, robust, racemes have larger flowers The 
tree is also less branched, while the herbacious parts 
are rather thickly covered by a reddish tomentum. 

181 Holigarna longifolia, Roxb. Kan. Kutu^eri 

-Hooteegheree. ° ' ; 

References— ^am&. Man. Timh.; Fi. of Brit. Ind. 



HTfiOBB AND COOEG. 85 

A tall tree with whitish bark and long narrow 
leaves which are not drooping. Not uncommon on 
the borders of the Ghats, and occasionally on coffee 
estates and in the interior of the evergreen belt. 
The small clustered flo wers are produced in ample 
panicles, which are finely pubescent. Drupe round, 
hard, and said by Mr. Graham Anderson to be eaten 
by the Toddy-cat. 

" A large tree of the Western Ghats. Wood 
grey, with yellowish streaks, soft. It, like all the 
other species, gives a black acrid exudation which 
raises blisters and is much dreaded by the hill 
people." Gamble. 

182 Spondias mangifera, Willd. Kan Amate. (Hind. 

Amra,) Fundi. 

Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. \ 169. 

References- — 'Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Pkarm. Ind. 

The hog-plum of Europeans, and the Adhvaga- 
bhogya of Sanskrit writers. A small, or, under the most 
favourable conditions, medium sized tree. Wild, and 
cultivated at intervals throughout the maidan. Leaves 
deciduous during the cold season, perfectly glabrous, 
odd-pinnate. Flowers small, creamy-white, in large 
panicles preceding the young leaves in March. Fruit 
like a miniature mango, ripens in May and June, 
makes a fine pickle in the half grown stage. Wood 
soft, light-grey and of Httle value except as fuel. 
A gum exudes from the trunk, which, with the fruit 
and bark, is used medicinally. 

Cultivation. — The Amate possesses more than one 
-property which makes it worthy of cultivation. It is 
easily produced from seed, and treated with special 
care, in good garden soil it is very productive of fruit. 
Plant seedlings at 20 feet apart. If near a water 
channel or perennial stream of water, the result will 
be satisfactory. 



86 POBEST TREES. 



183 Spondias acuminata, Roxb. 

Nothing is definitely known of this species, which 
is described in the Flora of British India as " an 
elegant middling sized tree apparently differing from 
S. mangifera chie&j in the smaller leaves with longer . 
points, the very short panicle and smooth stone." 
The tree should be searched for in the hill forests. 4| 

184 Schinus Molle, Linn. ^ 
Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

The bastard pepper tree. Introduced from Brazil 
and cultivated for ornament in the cities of Banga- 
lore and Mysore. A small evergreen tree of weep- ; 
ing habit. Often mistaken for a weeping-willcw J; 
tree to which it bears some resemblance, except in 
colour. But exclusive of distant effect, there is really 
tio resemblance between the two species, which be- , 
long to widely separated families. Leaves glaucous.:;| 
For planting on lawns, behind tombstones and on 
the banks of garden ponds or streams, we have' 
nothing to surpass the graceful habit of this tree. 
It grows rapidly in any loose soil of rich or moder- 1 
ately rich quality, but does not retain its beauty so 
long as the willow. It is a resinous tree. 

XXVIII, MORINGEiE. 

185 Moringa pterygosperma, GriERTN. Kan. Nugge. 
Tf'ig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Gollection ; Bedd. 

Fl. Sylv. t. 80. 

References.— Oici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Brand. For. il. 129; Pharm. Ind. 
A small soft-wooded tree, plentifully found in back- 
yards, village enclosures and cultivated garden land 
all over the country. To Bnghsh denizens it is fami- 
liar under the appellations " drumstick" and " horse- 
radish tree. " Medicinal properties are attributed to 
nearly every part of the plant, while the flowers, 



MYSORE AND COOUG. 67 

fruit and roots are extensively eaten. In February 
and March, the tree is profusely covered by its creamy- 
white blossom, and is a refreshing object at that sea- 
son. The fleshy roots are an excellent substitute for 
horse radish. Oil of Ben is expressed from the seed, 
but in India the latter is seldom allowed to mature, 
hence there is no local trade in this valued product. 
It is a neglected industry which Dr. Watt brings 
forcibly to notice in the following words : — 

" The oil from this species and that from M. a])tera, 
Juss. are commercially termed Ben oil and are high- 
ly valued as lubricants by watch-makers. 

It is, however, seldom made in India and does not 
form an article of export, a fact which is the more 
remarkable when one remembers the great extent to 
which the tree is cultivated. India might easily, and 
apparently profitably, supply the whole world with 
Ben or Moringa oil, and it is to be hoped that atten- 
tion may be directed to the subject. " Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

The reason why the seeds are not allowed to attain 
maturity is simply because the tender fruit is univer- 
sally used as a popular vegetable, the crop of a single 
tree occasionally realising five rupees. In other 
words, the fruit is of more value to the cultivator than 
the seed would be, unless high prices are offered for 
the latter. 
186 Moringa concanensis, Nimmo. 

There is a tree at Bannerghatta in the Anekal Ta- 
luk, which may be referred to this species. It is larger 
in aU its parts than M. aspera and the flowers are 
streaked with. red. The species has not been observ- 
ed in local gardens. 

Cultivation.— Although it may be difficult to pro- 
cure seed in quantity, for the reasons explained 
above, it is abundantly produced in reserved trees 
and germinates very readily. Being a small tree of 



^8 FOREST TKEES. 



rather short duration, it is usually planted in various 
nooks and corners, where species of a more perma- 
nent nature would not be put. It coppices well, and is 
usually renovated by that practice when the crops • 
of fruit are falling olf or when a tree becomes un- 
shapely. 

Easily propagated from cuttings of the matured 
wood. For exclusive planting the trees should be put 
out at 15 — 20 feet apart. Ordinary garden land suits 
admirably, but occasional top-dressings of lime at one 
time and rotted farm-yard manure at another will 
sustain the trees and make them more productive of 
fruit and seed. These remarks apply to both the 
Moringas. 



XXIX. LEGUMINOSiE, 

187 Sesbania cegyptiaca, Pees. Kan. Jinangi, 

Fig.— Bo^. Plates Lal-Bagli Collection; Wiaht 
Ic. t. 32. ^ 

'Reference,— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A soft- wooded shrub or small tree usually found 

in swamps and nullahs, Attains maturity rapidlyl 

and lives for only 3 — 5 years. I 

It is occasionally planted as a support to the betel 
vine, but is most prized for its medicinal leaves and 
seed. The pith of the stem is employed by fisher- 
men as floats, while the woody parts afford good 
material for making gunpowder-charcoal. The 
species IS self-productive in moist situations. 

188 Sesbania aculeata, Pebs. is a smaller prickly 
species of annual duration. Found in similar 
situations. 

189 Sesbania grandiflora, Pees. Kan. Agase. 
Fig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
Refexerice.-Bict. of Econ. Prod, of Ind 

A slender short-lived tree of domestic cultivation 



MYSOEE AND COOEG. 89 

There are two varieties, having white and red flowers 
respectively. The latter are dedicated to Shiva, and 
of all pea-flowers they are perhaps the largest and 
prettiest. The tree shoots up very qnickly and af- 
fords an excellent prop for the betel vine. The tender 
leaves, pods and flowers, are popular native vege- 
tables, while the root, gum, bark and flowers have 
medicinal properties, of which the people avail them- 
selves to some extent. 

Cultivation- — Propagated from seed and self- 
productive where the surface soil is loose and un- 
even. Li bete] gardens the tree is planted in rows 
at intervals of 3 — 4 feet. The species requires a 
somewhat moist situation. 

190 Erythriria indica, Lam. Kan. Warjipe, Halivana, 

Palivana. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Ldl-Bagh Collection; Wight 

Ic. t. 68. 
References. — Pharm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod' 

of Ind. 

The Indian coral tree, 30 to 45 feet. Scattered 
throughout the maidan forests and clinging to the 
foot of the hills, occasionally cultivated for ornament. 
Bark thin, grey, sparsely protected by small black- 
ish prickles. Leaves deciduous during the cold sea- 
son, large, 3-foliolate; preceded at the commence- 
ment of the hot season by a gorgeous display of coral- 
red flowers, which are visible from long distances in 
certain lights. Often employed to form fences around 
betel gardens and to train the vines over. The spe- 
cies is admirably adapted for this work on account 
of its rapidity of growth and the facility possessed 
for its easy propagation by cuttings of all sizes. Al- 
though very light — ^weighing only 20 lb. per cubic 
foot — and open-grained, the wood is rather durable 
and takes a good varnish. On the latter account it is 
much used at Channapatna, as elsewhere, in the 

12 



90 K)EEST TREES. 



manufacture of lacquered-ware articles. Being white 
and soft, it is also used for making ornamental boxes, 
scabbards, trays, drums, masks and panels. It is the 
onucM wood of Madras. Cattle are supposed to be 
fond of the tender foliage, but the young shoots are 
rather densely covered with prickles. Erythrina 
indica var. diha has pure white flowers, but in all 
other respects it is identical with the specific 
form. 

Cultivation. — An exceedingly hardy tree which 
seems to do equally well in moist or dry land. It is 
also of easy propagation by seeds and cuttings. Not 
of very long duration. As a fine flowering tree, it is 
"WeU adapted for pleasure grounds, where it become^ 
a conspicuous object in the month of March. 

191 Erytlirina stricta, RoxB. £aM. KicHge, Keechaga 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl Syh. i. 175. 

References.—^/, of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. • 

This is a larger tree found on the outskirts of the 
evergreen belt, and at intervals across the plains of 
Mysore. Trunk and branches rather profusely cover- 
ed with whitish prickles. Leaves as in the last 
named. Flowers crimson. To determine between 
"E. indica and M. stricta, it is necessary to study the 
morphology, in each species, of the calyx, keel-petals 
and fruit. The latter contains only 2 — 3 seeds in the 
species under notice. Wood very soft and light, 
occasionally used as deal. In Manjarabad it is also 
used " for making bowls, pig trougl^ and rough doors 
for native houses " Graham Anderson. 

Although abundant in Coorg, this tree is less known 
and less utilised than Erythrina indica. It requires 
about the same treatment in cultivation and is easily 
multiplied by seeds and cuttings. 

192 Erythrina ovalifolia, Eoxb 

A medium sized ;tree of the open hill tracts. 



MTSOEE AND OOOEG. 91 

Branches pale*grey. Prickles black. Leaflets twice 
as long as broad, tbe end one very long and ovate 
to oboTate-oblong. Uses of the species unrecorded. 

193 Erythrina suberosa, Roxb. A deciduous tree of 
tlie lower ranges of the Western Ghats, attaining a 
height of 40 — 50 feet. Distinguished from the other 
species by its ruptured, corky bark, yellowish prick- 
les, and pilose tomentum on the underside of the leaf. 

Wood similar to that of E. indica, and may be ap- 
plied to the same uses. 

194 Erythrina glauca, Willd, An American tree 
cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, where it attains a height 
of 60 — 60 feet. Leaves glaucous. The new species 
E. caffra and E. laUssima,haYe recently been intro- 
duced from Africa. 

195 Butea frond osa, Roxb. Kan. Muttaga. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. El. 

Sylv. t. 176. 

The Pulas kino tree. Commonly known in the 
north as the " dhak tree." Medium sized. Leaves 
deciduous in the cold season, and preceded in 
February or March, by a gorgeolis display of orange- 
crimson flowers. Very common in some of the maidan 
tracts of Mysore and Coorg, also in the large tim- 
ber forests of South Mysore. When in fiJI blos- 
som the tree is a conspicuous object throughout the 
above districts. The poHshed leaflets are popu- 
larly used by the Brahmins in lieu of plates ; and 
the small twigs and branchlets are collected for- 
sacrificial functions. Wood of little value except 
under submersion, when it is said to be dur- 
able. ' Weight 35 lb. per cubic foot. These uses, 
added to the medicinal properties of several parts of 
the species, render it one of the best known trees in 
India. When wounded, the bark yields a ruby 
coloured gum of an astringent and brittle nature 
commonly called "bastard kino." The flowers, treat- 
ed with d.um, yield the dye commonly used during 



92 FOREST TEEES. 



the HoU festival. Anthelmintic properties are at- 
tributed to the seeds, especially in yeterinary prac- 
tice, being a well kno-wn remedy for horses. The 
lac insect is propagated on the tree in Oudh, the 
Central Provinces and Gnjerat. 

Cultivation.— Seeds germinate very freely (80 
per cent) within 15 to 20 days. Swampy land is 
.nnsuited for the cultivation of the species, which 
affects dry situations among rocks and where the 
subsoil is more or less gravelly. Plant at 25 to 30 
feet apart. 
196 Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb. Kan. Biridi, Bindi, Cish- 

mabage. 

'Fig—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fh 

Sylv. t. 25. 
References — Brand. For. Fl. 149; Diet, of 

Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
This elegant tree is now common about Bangalore^ 
but elsewhere it is sparsely cultivated, and is not 
generally found in the provincial forests. Of all local 
trees, it has proved the fittest for planting in rocky 
land, and where the soil is naturally poor and stony. 
Seasoned timber weighs 45 — 50 lb. per cubic foot. It 
is strong, elastic, and well adapted for works of en- 
gineering, carpentry, and cabinet furniture. In the 
latter utility the heartwood alone is suitable, being 
easily seasoned, distinctly coloured and susceptible 
of a fine polish. The Sissoo is also known to be a 
first class wood where great elasticity is required, as 
in the construction of boats and carriages. But in 
this part of India the economic properties of the 
species are practically unknown. In the north it is 
well known and much appreciated as a timber tree. 
Possessing pretty fohage and a distinct hal)it of 
growth, it is an effective tree for grouping, in 
pleasure grounds, where it is very rarely quite bare 
of leaf. 

Cultivation.— Seeds germinate readily in the nur- 
sery-bed, and the species is very self -productive by 



1\[TS0EE Ami COORG. 93 



means ef offsets from the root. In this way, a little 
family of young trees will often be fpund around 
the parent. Stony, gravelly and sandy soils are 
the most suitable, but depth is required as the 
tree forms ' a long tap-root. Growth is usually 
rapid and the species coppices well. It is too valu- 
able for fuel, otherwise it is admirably suited to 
raise plantations on waste land for that purpose. 
197 Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb. Ean. Bite, Beetee, Biti, 

Tliodagatti. 

Fig-- Wight Ic. 1. 1156. Bedel. Fl Syh. t. 24. 
References.— Brand. For. Fl. 14S. Did. of E con. 
Prod, of Ind. 

The blackwood or rosewood of Southern India. A 
deciduous tree of the Mysore and Coorg forests, 
where it attains a large size and affords timber of 
the best quality. It is a reserved tree of the State 
forests and therefore well Icnown to the oJ9ficials of 
the forest department. Sapwood yellow, com- 
paratively small ; heartwood p\irplish-black, heavy — 
weighing 55 — 601b. per cubic foot — durable, close- 
grained, but somewhat brittle. It is a vahiable wood 
for all classes of furniture and cabinet work, and is 
used in preference, when procurable, for railway 
sleepers, 'gun-carriages, cart-wheels and knees of 
vessels. But these demg,nds make it expensive, and 
a single tree has been known to sell for lis 70, while 
in the Coorg forests the Government rate is 5 to 6 
annas a cubic foot. The timber is exported to 
Europe from the Malabar forests vid western ports. 
Coffee flourishes under the Bite, and some planters 
maintain that the latter affords the best shade for 
that important cultivation. Anderson mentions that 
" chips are burnt in cressets by the natives at festi- 
vals and give a splendid light." Eosewood inlaid- 
work has become a local industry in the city of 
Mysore under the auspices of His Highness the 
Maharaja. 



S4 -POEEST TEBES. 



Cultivation— The Site possesses great vitality and 
is reproductive from seed and coppice. Seeds germi- 
nate freely in the nursery also. With regard to posi- 
tion the tree does equally well in mixed or evergreen 
zones, providing that the soil is deep and the eleva- 
tion 2,600 to 4,000 feet. A good rainfall is also favor- 
able, as it is noticed that the trees are smaller in : 
size as they approach the dry districts. 

In forming an exclusive plantation of this species, 
the seedlings could be planted at 15 feet apart with 
the view of subsequently removing every alternate 
' sapling. 

198 Dalbergia rubiginosa, Roxb. An extensive 
woody climber of the Western Ghats. 

199 Dalbergia sympathetica, Nimmo. 

A powerful climber having strong recurved thorns. 
Flowering in February and March. The roots and 
leaves afford native drugs, and the bark is used to 
remove pimples. 

200 Dalbergia lanceolaria, Linn. Kan. Hassurganni, 

Hasar ganni. 

Fig.-Wight Ic. 1.366; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 88. 

References—Brand, For. Fl, ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

' -^Jarge tree of the deciduous forests. Flowering 
an March and ripening its fruit in June. A^ erv at- 
tractive while in leaf, and worthy of a central 
place in ornamental grounds. 

frJ°^\ ^^i^'^^' teavy weighing 62 lb. per cubic 
f(X)t but not very durable, although it is said to be 
used for buildmg m some parts of India. Medicinal 
properties are attributed to the root and bark, as 
also to an oil which is expressed from the seed The 
species can be propagated from seed, and grows weU 
m garden, forest, or loamy soils. A highlv oma- 
mental tree, although bare of leaf for rather a bug 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 95 

201 Dalbergia paniculata, B-oxb. Kan. Fa.ch&ri, Pa- 

chali, Pachale, Pacheri. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 88. 

'References— Brand. For. Fl. 150; Fl. of Brit. 
Ind. ; Did. of F con. Prod, oflnd. 

A tall deciduous tree. Tolerably common, but of 
small growth at JSTundydroog. In Shimoga, and ' 
the open Malnad generally, the species attains its 
full size. "Wood greyish-white, of little value, being 
soft and very subject to the attacks of insects. Weight, 
when seasoned, 38 — 48 lb. per cubic foot. Not 
considered good for fuel, although it is occasionally 
recommended for that use. M. Yenkatnamappa 
reports that in Shikarpur the tamburi, vina, and other 
musical instruments are manufactured from the sea- 
soned wood. Lovery says it is used for fuel in Shi- 
moga. The tree comes into flower and young leaf in 
the hot season, and ripens fruit in July or August. 
Seeds germinate at about the rate of 50 per cent, 
Cultivation is easy. 

202 Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn. Kan. Kempu- 

gandha cliekke, Bakta-cliandana. 

Fig.-Bedd.Fl Syh. t. S3 ; Bentl. ^ Trim. t. 83. 
References.— Pharm. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

The red Sanders or Sanders red tree. Also, but 
erroneously, called the red sandalwood. A small 
deciduous tree of the Cuddapah and Arcot districts, 
and extending sparsely to the eastern hills of Mysore, 
Cultivated in the forest plantations of the Nundy- 
droog division, but not generally found in the maidan 
forests. In flower and fruit the species bears a close 
resemblance to Honne, but it is a much smaller tree 
while the leaflets are rarely more than three in 
number. 

When freshly cut, the heartwood is of a rich 
orange-red colour, but on exposure it becomes pur- 



96 FOREST TREES. 



plish-black. Reduced to a paste on a wet slab, the 
coloured wood is used to smear the body during 
ablutional and religious ceremonies ; and it is chiefly 
on this account that it has become associated with 
real sandalwood, Santalum album. "The wood is of a 
fine red colour and beautifully streaked, very hard 
and heavy, — Weight about 76 lb. per cubic foot, and 
sufficiently heavy to sink in water — and takes a 
fine polish ; it is much used and highly prized by 
the natives for building purposes and for turnery in 
Madras and the districts in which it grows ; it is also 
largely exported from Madras as a dye wood, and 
used as ballast ; it is a very small tree, not often 
found over 3-| or 4 feet in girth and about 20 to 25 
feet in height, the largest trees reach 4^ feet in girth 
but are then much heart shaken or hollow. The lar- 
gest tree in our plantations is five years old, and is 
18 feet 5 inches high and 9 inches in girth. A bandy- 
load of selected logs will sell for as much as 200 
rupees, i. e., 20 logs at 10 rupees each ; the roots and 
stumps used for dyeing purposes, sell at 6 to 9 rupees 
the 1,000 lbs. The cattle during the dry season are 
much fed upon the leaves of this 'tree, and young 
saplings are often bodily cut down by thousands by 
the cowherds. " Beddome. 

Red Sanders wood is not attacked by white ants, 
and it is well known in Europe as an ingredient in 
French polish. 

Cultivation-— Propagate from seed gathered in 
June. The usual practice is to sow the entire pod, 
containing one or two seeds, after steeping it for 24 
hours in water ; it is then pressed firmly into the 
soil edge-Avise, so that the wings are at right angles 
to the surface. Treated in this way, all the fertile 
seeds will germinate within 20 to 25 days. But seed- 
lings are delicate during the first six months of their 
existence, and over-watering during that period 
would have the same disastrous result as giving no 



MTSOEfi AND OOOMi 9/^' 

water at all. At six montlLS of age the seedlings^ 
stould be carefully transplanted into tile-pots or 
wicker baskets, wHcb. are removed at once to a pro- 
tection ground. The species affects warm rocky 
situations where the soil is neither very rich nor 
very poor. Permanent saplings should stand 20 feet 
apart. Grovernment plantations would be likely to 
succeed well in the direction of Maklidrug, Thonde-r 
bhavi and Groribidnur. 
203 Pterocarpus IVIarsupium, Roxb. Kan. Hone, 

Honne, Bibla. 

Fig.-^Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection ; Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 21 \ Bentl. ^ Trim. t. 81. 

References-— -F?- of . Brit. Ind. ; Did. of Ecpn. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The Indian kino tree. Common in all the deciduous 
forests of Mysore and Coorg, but small and rare in 
the drier zones. Leaves 5 — 7 pinnate, deciduous, or 
often only subdeciduous, in the months of June or 
July, Flowering in October, and maturing fruit in 
February; flowers golden-yellow. Pod roundish, wing- 
ed, containing one or two seeds. Wood close-grained, 
reddish-brown, tough, strong, durable, seasons well 
and takes a good polish. Weighs 53 lb. per cubic 
foot. Stains yellow when wetted and discolors moist 
plaster. Except that it is somewhat difi&cult to work, 
this timber possesses great merit and frequently 
sells almost as well as teak; it makes beautiful 
furniture and is widely utilised for carts, felloes, 
posts, window frames, doors and agricultural imple- 
ments. The bark when wounded, or naturally, yields 
a beautiful crimson gum — the true kino of commerce— 
which forms one of the minor produ.cts of the State 
forests. Kino is an article of export and is locally 
offered for sale in the form of blackish-red angular 
fragments full of cracks; and owing to its high 
export value, TulasKiuo' (Buteafrondosa) and other 
inferior substitutes are replacing the true kiao in 



98 tOTMST VR'am 



Native medicine. This valuable tree is reserved by 
Crovernmeilt. 

Cultivation—. Tbe seeds are occasionally unfertile, 
but collected from Healthy trees and treated as direct- 
fed for the preceding species, they will germinate. 
Th3 outfer zone of the Malnad, where the rainfall in- 
creases trbm 60 to 100 inches per annum appears 
to be the most favourable situation for this tree. 
Permanent saplings should stand at 30 feet apart. 
204 Portgamia glabra, Vent. Kan. Honge. 

Fj^.-Bot. Plates LahBagh Golledkn. Bedd. 
FI. &ylv. t. 177. 

References.-ri>r«»-«/ Z7. Pl.;Bkt. of£!wn..Prod. 

of Ind. 

The Indian beech. A deciduous or subdeciduous 
tree of moist situations, especially near the sea- 
coast. Ooimnon in Mysore and Coorg, where it is well 
known and much planted as an avenue tree. With 
shimng green eaves, and pendent racemes of 
lilac-rose to nearly pure white flowers, half con- 
ceal^ mtheleBfy,-foiiag:e,it is admirably adapS 1 

W i' ? "^^ ^rPx°'^- '^^^ ^^^' «^meJ into ^M ' 
leaf early m March when other trees are mostiy 

fhXTtn^f '''^'^ ^^ object of admiration 3 
shelter to the weary traveller. 

Wood tough and.light, weighing about 40 lb per 
cubic foot, white when cut, but turning ye Won 
exposure, coarse-grained, fibrous and ^t durabl^ I 
said to improve when seasoned in water LarS '^ 
trunks are pmed for waddar cart-wheels HonS 
oil, expressed from the '=!PPrl i= o \^'^'T, -?-0«ge 

mediciL and ligh?4£riv ever? ^^^^^^ 
is used in nativl pWimov rvf ^ P^""* °^ ^^^ *^^ 
cure of rheumSsm and S ? "^Pr^% ^ ^^ 
of the tree arelS So tW^^dv 'fi S'"^ ^^"^^^ 
xna^ure, with good resultsloSop'tU^ JS 



MYSOBE km COOIWS, 99 

-I ' 

ed into a small pit and allowed to ferment for a few 
weeks, the flowers become a useful fertiliser for 
plants in pots. Honge cake is a valued manure for 
certain crops and especially for coffee, in Mysore 
and Coorg. 

Cultivation— Removed from the pod, thq seeds 
germinate freely under the usual treatment ; and 
seedlings are large enough, to^ put out perma:pently 
in the second year of cultivation in the nursery. 
They should be planted in naturally moist situations, 
as by the sides of tanks and streams and in the dips 
of vaileys. Forty feet should be allowed between the 
trees. 

205 Caesalpinia Bonducella, Fleming. Kan. Sa^na 

Gajjiga. 
Pig-— ^ot Plaies Lal-Bagh Collection. 
An extensive climber armed with numerous, pricki 
les. It forms impenetrable thickets around villages 
and wherever it is allowed scope. This is the species 
with small seeds. 

206 Caesalpinia Bond uc, ^oxb. Kan. Gajg%a. 

■pig,—Bot. FlatesLal'-Bagh GQllection. 

The fever nut or nicker tree. Ani immense climber 
possessing the same characteristics as the preceding 
species but larger in. nearly all its prominent partss 
The leqiden coloured seeds are used by- the villajge 
children in lieu of marbles; their principali use, 
however, is in. native medicine, for which they possessf 
a marketable value of about B.s. 12 per cwt. They 
contain, a fixed oil-resin, with a bitter substanoei 
which is used as an antiperiodic in fever. 

207 Caesaipinias Sappan, hiWi Kcm. 'Ba,img&, Sap- 

panga. 

]fig.— SoL Places LaUBxagh Oolhctim- 
'References.— Dict.of Econ. Prod. ofJnd.; Phmml 
Jnd. 



100 FOREST TREES. 



The s&ppan-wood tree. A small thorny tree or. 
woody climber of the deciduous tracts. The red heart-^l 
wood affords a dye which is largely consumed in the,. .: 
preparation of Gulal. Wood whitish when cut, but 
quickly turning red from exposure ; solid, close- 
grained and susceptible of a good polish. Weight 52 
to 60 lb. per cubic foot ; it imparts a reddish colour to 
Tfater and is said to possess medicinal properties.^! 
Sapp*an dye commands a fair price in the Indian mar-.; 
ket; but the tree is not very iabundant in Mysore; 
or Odorg. It is easily raised from seeds, in fact re- 
productive, and is rather showy with its finely pin- 
nate leaves and large yellow flowers. 

208 Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Swaetz. Kan. Kenjige, 

Ratnagandi. 

Fig. — Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

A small deciduous tree or large shrub, according 
to position. Confined to gardens, where it is mostly j 
cultivated for ornament. The species is best known, ,, 
to BngHsh residents by the names " Flower Fence " 
and " Barbadoes Pride. " Flowers large and showy, 
red, tinged with yellow, and in the variety lutea, ' 
wholly orange-yellow. Ink is made from the charred 
wood, while nearly every part of the tree is sup- 
posed to possess some medicinal virtue. The flowers ■ > 
are placed in the Hindu temples. 

Cultivation.— liaise from seed and plant at inter- 
vals of 20 feet in the centre of a large shrubbery.'; 
Special soil is not needed, but the situation should be '' 
naturally or artificially drained. ' 

209 Caesalpinia sepiaria, Eoxb. Kan. Kumdu 

Gajjige, HotiSige. 

Pig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wiaht 

Ic. t. 37. ^ 

Reference.— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
-The Mysore thorn. A prickly chmber of ample 
dmiensions, usually found on the outskirts of villages;* 



MYSORE AND COOEG, 101' 

to "wMcli it was a source of protection in former 
days. It forms an impenetrable thicket, and is said 
to have • been employed by . Hyder Ali to cover his 
fortifications. It is a good nurse-plant for sandal 
seedlings, and would form an excellent fence for 
plantations. The flowers are in bright yelldw racemes 
and very pretty. 

210 C^salpinia coriaria, Willd. 

The American sumach or divi-divi. An um- 
brella-shaped tree with beautiful dark-green foliage 
and small yellow flowers. Cultivated at Banga- 
lore and in a few provincial stations, but nowhere 
on a; large scale. There are some good trees in 
the compound of Stewart's CofEee Works at Hunsur, 
as also on Mr. Petrie Hay's property in the same town. 
The divi-divi is rather slow of growth at first, but 
once started is very tenacious of life, and apparently 
lives to an old age. As a tanning material, the sinuous 
pods are of great value. The few trees in local cul- 
tivation fruit abundantly every year, and there is 
reason to suppose that the species would become 
remunerative in the forests. Full-sized pods contain 
50 per cent of pure tannin and are worth 100 — 150 
rupees a ton. One or two fine trees may be seen 
in the Residency grounds at Bangalore. Seeds have 
been distributed far and wide for many years. In 
forming a plantation final trees should stand at 40 
feet apart. "Wood of little value. 

211 Caasalpinia tinctoria. 

A small tree of South America. Cultivated in 
the Botanical Gardens. 

212 Peltophorum ferrugineum, Benth. 

Reference.—- Bewfe. M. Austr. 
A tall unarmed tree of the subdeciduous tracts. 
Grood for scenic planting. Flowers yellow and showy. 
Economic properties unknown. 

213 Pterolobium indicum, A Rich. Kan, ]Bada 

bakka. 



102 FOREST TEEES. 



Fig, — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
Ic. t. 196. 
A prickly climber of tlie scrub tracts. Suitable for 
fencing, except that sheep and goats are very fond 
of the tender herbage. A showy plant with a 
peculiar wiiiged fruit, which assumes several pretty 
colours during growth. Flowers pale yellow. 
214 Poinciana elata, Linn. Kan. Sunkatti. 

Fig.— Bot. Flates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 

Fl. Sylv. 1. 178. 
References.— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Pharm. Ind. 
A small tree of the maidan, but not very abundant 
anywhere. There are a few specimens in the com- 
pound of the Travellers Bungalow at Mysore. The 
native herbalist attaches much importance, to the 
medicinal virtues of the leaf, the juice of which is 
recommended for rheumatism, flatulence, and general! 
debility ; it is also given to women after confinement. 
Although small in size, this tree is ornamental while 
in leaf and flower ; the latter is large, pale yellow, 
with reddish filaments of ample dimensions. The 
wood is said to be fairly good for cabinet work and 
weighs, when seasoned, 45 lb. per cubic foot. The 
tree is bare of leaf in December or January. 

Cultivation. — Easily propagated from cuttings, 
and well suited for cultivation on the plains of My- 
sore in porous soils. Plant at 25 to 30 feet apart. 
215 Poinciana Regia, Bojer. 

'Pig,— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
The goldmohur tree. Introduced from Madagas- 
car and cultivated in local gardens for scenic effect. 
Deciduous during the cold season and bursting into 
splendid blossom during the months of March, April 
and May. 

Flowers large and clustered, crimson-yellow to 
gold and nearly pure white, streaked with scarlet 
and crimson of many hues. 



Wgofin km mma. i'03 



As a flowering tree, the ' Goldmoliur ' or ' Masca- 
rene' is certainly one of tlie most igbrgeons we pos- 
sess. It is spreading to the villages ^nd will eventu- 
ally become naturalised. Easily raised from seed, 
but soft wooded, and not very long-lived. For 
avenues, plant at 40 feet apart. 

216 Parkinsonia aculeata, Linn. 

The Jews thorn. A shrub or small tree cultivated 
in the Lal-Bagh. Flowers bright yellow. Indigenous 
to tropical America. 

217 Cassia Fistula, Linn. Kan. Kakke, Eakee. 
Fig.—Bot Plates Lizl-Bagh Golledion. Bedd. Fl. 

Sylv. 91. Wight Ic. t. M9. 

Rgferences.— i^icf. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Pharm. Ind. 

The Indian laburnum. On the plains this is little 
-better -than a shrub, or at best a small tree ; but 
-fcowards Goorg and "West Mysore it attains a height 
of 30 — 40 feet, and is described as an exceedingly 
handsome tree while in blossom. The species suc- 
ceeds well near the sea coast also, and good specimens 
may be seen in Madras, especially in the compound 
of St. Creorge's Cathedral, where it flowers profusely 
in the month of June. But' on the Mysore plateau 
and on the lower ranges of the Mlgiri hills, it will 
be seen in blossom during the months of April and 
May; its pendent racemes of rich golden-yellow 
flowers often shrouding the tree from top to bottom. 

Wood small but' durable, Weighing 50 lb. per cubic 

foot ; heaarfcfwood reddish-brown to brick-red, hard, 

-but brittle and apt to fracture. Used for paddy 

,griiiders, posts and agricultural implements. The 

•fetk afi-ords fibre, tannin and gum. The fresh ptilp 

of the fruit — a blacki&h terete pod nearly 2 feet in 

length — ^is a well known purgative, and the parched 

leaves: are eaten with ordinary food as a mild laxative, 

Cultivation.—In nature this tree affects dfy situa- 



i04 FOEEST tUtlS. 



tions on tlie lower ranges of the hills where, however, 
the rainfall is pretty constant and heavy. It also 
thrives better at the sea coast than in the interior 
plains. Under careful management the seed ger- 
minates sparsely in three months from time of sow- 
ing. There does not appear to be any reproduction 
from seed in the jungle, although the plant is self- 
multiplied by suckers and offsets. It should find a 
place in garden shrubberies. Bare of leaf in the 
month of January. 

218 Cassia marginata, Roxb. 

■pig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 180 ; Bot. Plates Lal- 

Bagh Collection. 

'References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind, ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

This beautiEul evergreen tree is cultivated for orna- 
ment in local gardens, at Mysore, and in a few pro- 
vincial towns. It is said to be indigenous to the 
"Western Peninsula, but there is no record of its being 
other than cultivated to a small extent within the 
territories of Mysore. It forms an attractive picture I 
in the months of June and July when covered with 
its rosy -red flowers on pendent branches, the latter 
often sweeping the groimd. A few good specimens 
are prominently situated in the Cubbon Park, where 
they are much admired. Wood said to be hard and 
durable. The flowers are very fragrant. , 

Cultivation.— Seeds are imcertain and very slow of 
germination, unless they are forced in half -fermented 
Utter such as rapidly decaying leaves. Sown in ordi- 
nary soil they rarely sprout at all. In the early 
stages of development the seedlings grow slowly, 
and a little forcing is necessary to them also. For 
avenues, this tree should be planted at 35 to 40 
feet apart. 

219 Cassia occidental is, Linn. Za%. Koltagaci, Dodda 

tagaci. 



MTSOEB AND COOEG, 105 

An annual or biennial shrub of waste tracts ; readi- 
ly det^ermined by its foetid odour. The legume re- 
sembles a -walking stick, and hence the vernacular 
name applied to the species. Medicinal properties 
are attributed to the leaves and seeds. 

220 Cassia soph era. Linn. Very like the preceding 
species and also medicinal, 

221 Cassia auriculata, Limi. Kan. Olie tangadi, Tan- 

• gadi, Avarike, Avara. 

"Fig—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.— Dici. of Econ, Prod, oflnd. ; Drury 
U, PL 

This useful shrub is commonly known to Europe- 
ans as the "tanner's bark" and to the Kanarese 
people as olle tangadi. It is abundant in most 
of the scrub tracts, where it commands attention 
both for ornament and utility. 

The bright yellow flowers, produced in ample clust- 
ers at the ends of the branches, lend interest to tho 
landscape, and are often admired from the passing 
train. Tangadi bark is indispensable to the local 
tanner, as also to workers in iron who use the root- 
bark for tempering iron with steel. There is there- 
fore a brisk local trade in the product, although when 
grown on Grovernment land it is subject to a seignior- 
age of Es. 20 a cartload. But delivered in the baza'ar, 
a cartload usually weighs 80 — 100 maunds of 100 lb, 
each, valued at 14 ans. to one rupee per maund. As 
analysed by Professor J, J. Hummel, Director of 
the Dyeing Department of the Yorkshire College, 
Leeds, the bark of Oassia auriculata contained 20" 5 
per cent of tannic acid. It is therefore one of the 
richest substances for tanning. The bark and seeds 
are much esteemed in Indian pharmacy. Being so 
abundant in the wild state the bush is rarely cultivat- 
ed, but the natural supply can easily be supplement- 
ed by this means should the demand for bark. 

14 



106 FOBBST TEBES. 



increase. The species should be included in garden 
shrubberies. 

222 Cassia siamea, Lam. Kan. Sime Tangadi. 

'Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 

Ft. Sylv. t 179. 
References.— DicL of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Kurz. 
For. Fl. Burin. 

An evergreen tree of moderate to large size and 
quick growth. Best known by its former name,. Cas- 
sia, j//or'if?a, Vahl. Eather extensively planted as an 
avenue tree and for fuel, for which it is well adapt- 
ed. Beddome describes the wood in the following 
words : — 

" The wood is of a yellowish brown^fcolour some- 
times beautifully marked with irr.egulaf black streaks, 
close-grained, hard and durable, but not stiff, works 
kindly with a smooth surface and stands a good 
polish, a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 68 — 70 lb. and 
when seasoned 58 lb." This tree, which is otherwise 
desirable for planting in the forests, has the pecu- 
liarity of suddenly dying out in certain localities. 
The cause of this is not fully investigated, but it is 
• possibly due to the presence of sulphate of iron or 
soine equally injurious mineral in tha subsoil. 

Cultivation.-— When they fall upon a moist uneven 
surface, the seeds of this ha,rdy tree are self-produe- 
tive. The species also coppices well. 

Nursery seedlings can be raised in great numbers 
without any trouble. In plantations the latter should 
be put out at 12 feet apart, the ultimate distance 
between permanent sapKngs being 24 feet. It affords 
excellent fuel. 

223 Cassia glauca, Lam. 

An ornamental tree cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 
Indigenous to Burmah, Ceylon and Malacca. Bal- 
four states that, the bark, mixed with sugar and 
water, is given in diabetes. 



MTSOHB AUD OOOEG. tW 



224 Hardwickia binata, lloxB. ^a». Karacti, Kammar, 

Asanagurgi, Kamr^. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Syk. t. 26. 
References.— Dtc^. ofEcoii. Prod, of Ind. ; Oamb. 
Man. Tiinb. 

A deciduous tree of the maidan forests, but mostly 
confined to the Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts, 
where it attains fair growth. Very abundant in the 
Bukkapatna forest of the Sira Tahik. The maximum 
height of 100 feet is rarely attained in Mysore, al- 
though trees of that size are not uncommon in the 
Salem and Ooimbatore districts. It is a reserved tree 
affording one-of the most durable timbers in India. 
Heartwood abundant, close-grained, dark-red tinged 
Avith purple; soft and easy to work when newly cut but 
subsequently becoming extremely hard and difficult 
to manipulate. Weight, unseasoned, 80 — 82 lb, per 
cubic foot ; seasoned wood is considerably lighter, 
takes a fine polish, and is well adapted for cabinet 
and artistic work. In the localities where it grows, it 
is much used in the construction of bridges, houses, 
and agricultural implements ; and being durable un- 
derground, it is an invaluable timber for works of 
mining and engineering. Other useful products are 
afforded by the species in the shape of gum, tan, 
fibre, and fodder. With regard to the last named 
product, which consists of the young shoots and 
leaves, some restrictions are necessary to protect 
such a valuable tree from the rapacity of cowherds 
and cattle. 

" Cattle being very fond of the leaves, the tree is 
pollarded to a frightful extent wherever it grows. 
It is heart rending to see the damage done in the 
Cauvery forests. " Beddome. 

Cultivation.— This species is confined to the deci- 
duous forests of South and Central India, where it is 
found at intervals on sandstone, trap, and even gra- 
nite. In the matter of soil and rainfall, it is some- 
wlaat peculiar. Seeds germinate pretty well. 



l6S ■'"FblESi' l*REEg.' 



225 Hardwickia plnnata, Eoxb. Kan. Yenne mara. 
Fig.-Bedd. FL Sylv. L 255. 

References.— (?aTO&. Man. Timb.; Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A large tree of the Malnad and Western Ghats. It 
yields, from the heartwood, a balsamic oleo-resin 
of some importance. The following is an abbre- \ 
viated note of Mr. Broughton's report on the oil ; — 

" It appears to consist of chemically different 
resins in an essential oil, is in fact an oleo-resin. 
Like the wood oils from the different species of 
Dipterocarpus, it greatly resembles, both in composi- 
tion and properties, the Copaiva balsam, though it 
lacks the transparency and hght yellow colour of 
the latter. It is nearly entirely soluble in ammonia, 
but does not produce a clear solution. The essential 
oil has the same composition as that from Copaiva 
balsam. 

The balsam is well worthy of being tried in 
medicine, smce from the composition it appears to 
be well suited for employment, at least in the 
neighbourhood of the country in which it is collect- 
ed." 

The timber is used for building in the inhabited 
locaHties where it grows. Weight about 47 lb. per 
cubic foot. Heartwood brown, and much reduced in 
proportion to the sap wood. 

226 Saraca indica, Linn. Kan, Asoka, Ashoka, 

Achenge- 

Tig.-Wight Ic. t. 206. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 57. 

References.— FZ. of Brit. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

An evergreen tree of great beauty, especially 
while m young leaf and flower- Ascending to 3,000 
feet in the Malnad and Coorg, but often planted on 
the plains, in gardens, and in the vicinity of temples. 



MYSORE AND COOHG. 109 

Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. The flow6rs, which are 
rich orange changing to dull red, are produced in 
ample corymbs between the leaves during . the hot 
season. They are in demand for the temples, and 
the whole tree is prized by the Hindus for its 
medicinal properties and great beauty. In the open 
Malnad it would form beautiful avenues, in private 
grounds. The quality of the timber is unknown, 
beyond the fact that the heartwood is dark-coloured. 
Propagation from seed is easy. 
227 Tamarindus indica, Linn. Kan. Huulse, Hunase. 

Fig.-^Bot. Plates Lal-Bdgh Collection. Bedd. 
m. Sylv. t. 184. Bentl. Sf Trim, t, 92. 

References.— 5 ron(?. For. Flora ; Fl. of Brit. 
Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The tamarmd tree. Being self-sown and popularly 
planted evciry where, this handsome species is well 
known to the people. It is of sldw growth, but 
possesses so ma.ny useful properties, added to a 
symmetrical and pleasant exterior, that it is widely 
cultivated in avenues and topes.. A large evergreen 
tree, attaining in favorable localities to 80 feet! It 
flowers very profusely in April and May and yields a 
crop of fruit in the cold season. Heartwood very 
hard and . durable but difl&cult to work. Weight 
about 60 lb. per cubic foot. Highly prized for the 
naves of wheels, rice pounders, mallets, tent pegs, 
paddy crushers, oil and sugar mills, and the turning 
lathe ; also for various articles of furniture ; handles 
to tools and such like. Cultivated almost entirely 
for its fruit, the pulp of which contains citric, malic 
and tartaric acid. This pulp is extensively used in 
food, and diffused in water, to which is added a little 
sugar and cardamom powder, it makes a popular 
cooling drink. Tamarind* seeds are roasted and 
eaten by many classes, while the lower orders 
occasionally use them as a masticatory (in the- raw 
state) in heu of betel-nut. Important medicinal pro- 



110 FORKST TREES. 



perties are attributed to the fniit, leaves, ancj seed. 
A cement is also made from the latter which is 
generally used by the Kurbars as a dressing to 
kamblies or country-made blankets. The acid 
exhalation from the foliage of the tamarind tree is 
said to be injurious to health, on which account the 
peasants will rarely sleep under.it. Grasses and 
other plants languish under its shade, and eventually 
die off as the shade becomes denser ; but this in all 
probability is due to the absence of sufficient light, 
and the presence of numerous surface roots which 
monopolise the space under the branches of the tree. 
The tamarind tree assumes the form of agig^antic 
bouquet, and is ah admirable subject for avenue 
and scenic planting. 

Cultivation.— Tamarind seeds germinate very 
freely and there is no trouble in transplanting seed^ 
lings while they are under a foot in height. But for 
roadside planting it is advisable to rear the seedlings 
in baskets or tile-pots until they are about two feet 
high. , Growth is usually very slow in hard or stiff 
adhesive soils, but when the soil is made up, or 
naturally of a loose nature, the glrowth will be com- 
paratively rapid, although never very rapid in the 
case of this species. A good crop of tamarind fruit, 
the produce of a single tree, will realise Es. 4 — 5, 
while the bazaar value of fruit-pulp is Es. 2 — 3 per 
maund of 25^ lbs. 

228 Bauhinia tomentosa. Linn. Kan. Vana sampage. 

^ig.—BoL Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. 92. 

Reference.— Diet of Econ. Prod.oflnd. 

• A shrubofthe scrub.tracts. Occasionally enl- 
tivated m gardens for its fragrant leaves and pretty 
yellow flowers. The former are said to cure headache 
aad are externally applied for that purpose, es- 



MYSORE ANDCOOEG. Ill 

pecially hj ■women after their confinement. Medicin- 
al properties are attributed to nearly every part of 
the shrub. 

229 Bauhinia acuminata, Linn. 

A shrub or small tree with handsome white flow- 
ers, which are very fragrant. Properties unknown. 

230 Bauhinia Vahlii, W. & A. 
Fig.—BoL Plates. Lal-Bagh Collection. 

■ "Reference.— Diet ofEcon. Prod, of Ind. 
This enormous camels-foot climber is •indigenous to- 
the Malnad, where it probably gives the "forester a 
good deal of trouble by its widespreading invest- 
'ment of forest trees. But although troublesome as 
a neighbour, this splendid climber possesses useful 
properties and is of much value to the tribes of the 
lower Himalaya, to whom it affords cordage, food, 
and medicine. The bark yields a strong fibre, and 
the seeds are eaten by the hill people, both raw and 
fried, A fine specimen may be seen in the Botanical 
Gardens, where it has been cultivated for 30 years. 

231 Bauhinia purpurea, Linn, Kan. Kanchivak, SamL 
mg.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 

•Sylv. 93.' 

Eeferences.— M. .of Brit. Ind. ; Vict, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. . 

A moderate -sized tree of the dry zone. Leaves 
subdeciduous in the hot season. Not uncommon in 
the maidan forests, and about villages. Wood 
pinkish white, changing to dark brown on exposure ; 
used for agricultural implements and as a fuel tree. 
Weight 50 — 54 lb. per cubic foot. Medicinal pro- 
perties are attributed to the bark, root, and flowers. 
Lovery states that the tender leaves and flowers are 
eaten in Shimoga. . 

Cultivation.— Although of slow growth the tree 
is easily propagated by seedj and flourishes in waste 



112 POEEST TREES. 



land. The reddish-purple flowers are attractive. 
The' vernacular name Kanchivala, applies more or 
less to all the species of Baukinia. 

232 Bauhinia variegata, Linn. Kan. Bill Kanchivala. 
^ig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
This, like the foregoing species, is commonly known 
as the camel's-f oot tree. It is small oi: medium- 
sized according to the nature of the soil in which it 
grows. The flowers, which are very attractive and " 
fragrant, appear in great profusion, first during the 
hot season, while tfie tree is bare of leaf, and again 
in September or October. The flower is 3 inches 
across and varies in tint of colour from pure white . 
to violet and rosy purple. 

The economic properties of the species are about 
the same as in B. purpurea, but are scarcely utilised 
in this part, of India. The bark affords a very fair 
tan. Cultivation as in the foregoing species.' 

233 Bauhinia monandra, Kurz. 

Similar in character to the last named but more 
spreading in habit and having the flowers mottled 
and striped in white, crimson, yellow and gold. 
Very effective in Park scenery. -A few nice speci- 
mens may be seen in the private grounds of Beaulieu, 
where they flower profusely ■ every . hot season. 
Mr. Eicketts has distributed seeds of this beautiful 
tree far and wide. 

234 Bauhinia malabarica, Roxb. Kan. Basavanapada. 
A deciduous tree of moderate size. Erect in 

habit, and very bushy while in leaf. "Wood dark' 
brown. Used occasionally for agricultural imple- 
ments, and somewhat extensively for fuel. Weight 
42—48 lb. per cubic foot. The tender" foliage is ' 
cooked as greens m some parts of the hill country. 
235 Bauhinia Hookerii, F. Mtjell 

An elegant tree from Forth Australia. Cultivat- 
ed m the Lal-Bagh and deserving of \vider utility. 



MTSOEB AND OOORG. 113 



236 Xylia dolabriformis, Benth. Kan. Jamte, SMlve. 
1^\%-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. L 186. 
References— ,Brare(£. For. Fl. 171 ; Fl. of Brit. 

Ind. 

The Erool tree. A tall unarmed tree of Coorg 
and the Malnad. Leaves deciduous at the close of 
the cold season. Lovery describes the wood as 
follows : — " A large tree growing extensively in 
many places and much in demand for buildiag,; 
agricultural implements, and fuel from which the 
best charcoal is obtained. Wood dark red or brown, 
very strong, hard, tough, and durable above or below 
the ground, without being attacked by the white 
ants. It takes paint or varnish well. Weight 65 lb. 
per cubic foot." 

The charcoal furnished by this tree is highly 
prized by the iron smelters. It is one of the 
so-called iron woods of Mysore, and of unreserved 
timber trees Jambe appears to be one of the most 
useful. The fruit ripens in January and is eaten by 
some classes. Specimens are needed for herbaria, 
with fuller information. 

237 Adenanthera pavonina, Linn. Kan. Manjadi, 

Manjatti. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 46. 

Heferenoes.— Brand. For. Fl.; Did. of Eqon. 
Trod, of Ind. 
The redwood tree. Sometimes, but erroneously, 
called the red sandalwood, Pteroearpus santa- 
linus being the correct source of the latter product, 
so-called. A large, deciduous tree of the dry and- 
mixed zones. Readily identified by its bright scarlet 
seeds, commonly used as weights by goldsmiths 
and others. Bach seed is supposed to weigh exactly 
4 grains. They are also worn as bead-necklaces 
and form a good cement when powdered and treated 
with borax. Heartwood reddish, hard and very 
durable. Rubbed upon a wet stone it affords the 

15 



114 KOREST •mBfig. 



red paste (see also Pferocarjms santalinus) wliiek- 
Brahmins apply to the forehead after bathing".' 
Weight 56—58 lb. .per cubic foot. The seeds and • 
leaves have medicinal properties. 

Ci^tivation.— In loose soil this tree is of fairly 
rapid growth, but when the roots meet with obstruc- 
tion, as in a hard subsoil resting under a shallow 
surface soil, the tree becomes stunted. Seeds 
germinate with great facility and the seedlings are 
not delicate to handle. Large pits should be made 
at 24 feet apart. 

238 Prosopis spicigera, Linn. Tarn. Perumbe; Yunne ? 

^ig--Bedd.' Fl. Sylv. t. 56. 

RefereiiQes.-Brand. For, Fl. ; Diet, of Ecm. 
Frod. of Ind. 

This is a small but characteris.tic tree of the 
mixed zone. Slightly thorny, with slender grey 
bra,nches. Leaves deciduous in the cold season, 
bipinn^te; leaflets 16—24, sessile, ligulate to lan- 
ceolate, very narrow and slender. Bod grey, 6 in., 
straight, slender aud torulose, containing a mealy 
substance which is eaten. Sapwood large and 
perishable; heartwood extremely hard but not 
durable. Weight 58 lb. per cubic foat. Much 
prized as a fuel tree and always employed, where 
procurable, for locomatives. It also coppices well 
and IS easdy raised from seed, in short, one of the 
best tree,s for fuel plantations. Prosopis. glanduhsa, 
the 'mesquit bean' tree, ajid P.julifiora, are American 
species cultivated in the Botanical Gardens. 

239 Dichrpstachys cinerea, W. & A. Ean. Wadu 

warada. 
^ig.-Bedd. Fl. 8ylv. 1. 185. 

Reference-Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A thorny shriib or stunted tree qf the maidan. 
sspecially around low §tony hills. WoQ(i smaUi but 



MYSOEE AND 000B6. US 



heavy and exceedingly hard. Much valued for tent 
pegs and walking sticks. Wei^t 70—80 lb, per 
cubic foot. 

240 Parkia biglandulosa, W. & A. 

An evergreen tree introduced from Africa and th© 
Malay Peninsula. Cultivated in gardens, and occa- 
sionally at the roadsides in Bangalore, Mysore, 
and a few provincial towns. Leaves finely pinng-te. 
The inflorescence is remarkable, consisting as it does 
of numerous globular heads suspended by a long 
peduncle. At first the heads are of a brown velvetty 
colour changing to a darker hue, but when the flowers 
open they become white, and trees laden alternate- 
ly with these white and dark balls command a 
' close inspection. A large quantity of pollen is dis- 
charged from the flower-head, which, if Collected, 
and stirred in water, affords a refreshing drink. 
The quality of the wood is unknown, but the trunk 
is tall, well-formled and encased in a thin whitish 
bark. Foliage not unlike that of the . gold-mohur 
tree, Poinciana Eegia. The species is easily pro- 
pagated froihseed, is of moderately quick growth 
and requires lio specia,! treatment. The pbd^sare 
produced in clusters and contain a mealy substance,: 
which has not been utilised locally. 

241 Leucaena glauca, Benth. 

Fig.— Bot, Plates Lal-JBagJb Collection. 

A small, deciduous, tree of gardens and 'W'aste 
places, but originally introduced from tropical 
America. Flower heads raliher large, pure white, 
and appearing: profusely in the rainy seasbn. tJse- 
ful for small fuel. Dr. Bidie remarks that at Madras 
the seeds are used for making fancy articles. The 
species is self -productive. 

242 '^rdcai^piis fraxinifolius, Wight. Kan. mimgi, 

Havulige, Howlige, Hautige, 



1161- FOBEST TREES. 



Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 44. Wight Ic. t. 254. 

'References.— Diet of JEcon. Prod, of Ind.;Fl. of 
Brit. Ind. 

A very lofty tree of the Coorg and Malnad forests, 
where it occasionally attains a height of 50 feet be- 
fore it forks. Leaves decidiious in the hot season, 
bipinnate, very large, reddish when young. Pod 
long-stalkesd, flat or strap-shaped,with a narrow wing 
on one side. The planters of Darjiling call this tree 
the red or pink cedar, and make their tea-boxes 
from it. In Coorg it is used for shingles ; but its 
greatest utility is, perhaps, as a shade to coffee, for 
which it is well adapted and much prized. Planters" 
in the Wynaad and elsewhere gladly pay Rs. 3 per 
lb. for the seed. 

Mr. Graham Anderson writes of the species in 
the following terms : — 

" One of the most lofty and elegant trees ia the 
forest, which affords excellent shade, and is readily 
propagated by seed. In imcleared jungle seedhngs 
are frequently found in profusion. Millions of 
young plants have been planted throughout Mysore 
within the last few years. The timber, usually, is 
said to be light — weight 39 lb. per cubic foot — and 
straight-grained. Some trees spHt splendidly into 
shingles, but others are found totally unfit for that 
purpose." This fine treehas recently been introduced 
for cultivation at Bangalore, and fairly good speci- ;• 
mens may be seen at the Lal-Bagh and in the Cubbon 
Park, although poor in comparison to the mae-ni- 
ficient growth of the Malnad. It will be observed 
from the foregoing remarks that the species is self- 
productive. 

243 Acacia farnesiana, Willd. Kan. Kastari iali 

Kasturi gobli, ' 

n$—Bedd. Fl. Sylv, t. 62. Wight Ic. t. 300. 



mmm AND coo!«j. 117 



References —F^. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

Common on tte plains of Mysore. Usually seen 
as a thorny shrub', but in favorable situations attain- 
ing the size of a small tree. The bright yellow, 
pufi-ball, flower heads diffuse a pleasant odour, and 
provide the chief ingredients of the manufactured 
perfume known as Cassie. Sown in drills, and pe- 
riodically pruned when the seedlings attain size, the 
Jali makes a pretty fence, and being obnoxious to 
snakes, and vermin generally, it might be utilised 
with advantage as a garden hedge. 

Wood white, hard and tough but too small for 
general utility. Weight 49 lb. per cubic foot. The 
stem affords a useful gum, and the bark and pods 
are included among native drugs. 

Easily produced from seed. There is a specimen 
in the Lal^Bagh, presented by a clergyman, which 
was brought from the city of Jerusalem, 
244 Acacia arabica, Willd. Kcm. Kari Jali, Gobli. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 47. 

References.— Dicf. of 'Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Drury U. PI. 

A small or medium sized tree of the plains and 
inland dry tracts. Thorny and evergreen. Flower 
heads yellow. Pod torulose. The babool of India. 
Common throughout the maidan districts of Mysore, 
where every part of the tree affords some useful 
property. Of arborescent species this is the hardiest 
and perhaps the best known in Hindustan. It 
grows on the poorest soils and in the least water- 
ed tracts where other trees usually succumb. 

Wood pale red, turning darker on exposure, close- 
grained, tough, and, when seasoned in water. Very 
durable. Weight about 54 lb. per cubic foot. Used 
extensively for naves, spokes and felloes of wheels ; 



ll'B 50EEST TEEES. 



also for rice pounders, oil and sugar mills, agri- 
cultural implements and even buildings when large 
timber is procurable. But in addition to its great 
hardihood, and general utility as a small timber and 
■fuel tree, the species affords Indian gum arabic, 
tan, dye, fibre, food and medicine. Extensively 
planted in fuel plantations where it coppices well 
and is reproductive from seed. The tender pods 
and leaves are much relished by all sorts of cattle. 
The tree flowers early in the hot season and produces 
ripe seed in August. 

Cultivation.— Although hardy enough to exist 
and make some growth in the poorest soils, it is as- 
sumed that Jali succeeds best in a black cotton soil. 
For the growth of fuel the seedlings should be plant- 
ed at about 8 feet apart, permanent saphngs being 
eventually left at 16 feet apart. Beddome found 
that rats are very partial to the tender roots of 
seedlings. 

245 Acacia leucophlaea, Willd. Kan. Biii jali, Topai, 

Beala, Tumbe, 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 48. 
References.— i?/. of Bnt. Ind.; Did. of Ecm. 
Prod, oflnd. ; Drury U. PI. 
A large, deciduous tree, with numerous white prick- 
les, and light grey to whitish bark. Common in 
fields and waste places, especially in central and 
east Mysore, T^-here it sometimes covers many acres 
of land alihost to the exclusion of other trees. Of 
globose-flowered Acacias, this species is easilv deter- 
mined by its paniculate inflorescence. Sap wood 
predommatmg, heartwood dark, toxigh, easily season- 
ed and susceptible of a fine pohsh. Weight about 
5d lb. per cubic foot. A capital fuel tree and verv 
productive from coppice. Bark used in distiUing 
arrack, the tannin in it precipitating the albuminous 
matter m the juice. Brandis says « the young pods 



MTSOM km COORG. 119 



are iised as vegetables," but tbey do not appear to be 
so used in Mysore althougli cattle are eiiceedingly 
fond of theni and their consumption by sheep is 
supposed to improve the quality of mutton. G-um, 
dye, fibre and medicine, are additional products of 
this well-known tree. 

Cultivation.— i5(i«/aii grows much faster thanZan 
jali and is therefore more productive of fuel. Coppiced 
trees repeat growth very rapidly and are therefore 
invaluable for fuel plantations. Seeds also germinate 
freely, but steeping in water, or fermenting for a 
time in dung or litter, will facilitate the process. 
Plant seedlings at 10 feet apart and thin out every 
alternate sapling eventually. The softening of the 
cuticle in hard seeds is a very important operation, 
as otherwise such seeds are exposed to the attacks 
of insects, and the vicissitudes of treatment or the 
weather for a long period. 

246 Acacia Suma, Kue^;. Kan. Mugaji, MugH. 

'Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Golledion. Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 49. 

References.— J5to%c^. For. Fl. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A deciduous tree affecting moist land in the vicini- 
ty of tanks, nullahs and- streams. Conspicuous by its 
white bark and the whitish down covering the young 
;shoots and petioles. The above characters are most 
projiounced at the olose of the hot season when the 
tree bursts into leaf, and flower. Flowers spicate, 
dull "vyliite. Common in central and east Mysore. 
The Mugali is a good fuel tree, but is of minor 
utility otherwise. The gum is not collected here in 
lieu, of catechu. It is an excellent subject for scenic 
planting abovit ponds and in ^et land as it Srtands 
out in bright relief from the usu^l spmbre green of 
other trees. 



120 POUEST TRiSfiS. 



Cultivation.— Easily propagated from seed, and 
attaining the largest growth in moist situations 
near tanks and rivers. Coppices well. 
247 Acacia catechu, Willd. Kan. Kagli, Kacliu, Tara, 

Tere. 

Yig—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.^Z)^ci. ofJEcon. Prod, oflnd.; Brand. 
For. Fl. 

A deciduous tree growing throughout the maidan, 
and on the outskirts of the Mahiad proper. In the 
stony -hill tracts it is often reduced to the size of a 
large bu.sh ; but otherwise it is a tree of compact 
growth and medium size rarely exceeding 50 feet in 
the best situations. 

Sapwood yellowish-white ; heartwood dark red, 
hard, durable, seasons well and takes a fine polish ; 
not subject to the attacks of white ants. Weight 
60 — 70 lb. per cubic foot. Extensively used for fuel 
and charcoal, which is regrettable considering the > 
superior quality of the timber. Also used for agri- 
cultural implements, oil mills, sugar-cane crushers, 
bows, and handles to native arms. 

Catechu, or cutch, the most important product 
of the tree, is obtained by boiling down a decoction 
afforded by the chips of the heartwood. " Acacia 
catechu for use with pan-supari is largely prepared 
about Surat. Value Rs. 20 per inaund of 37^ lbs.'' 
Cutch fetches from Es. 4 to 5 per maund, and is 
prepared in many parts of India by wild forest 
tribes." Pharmacographia Indica. 

Catechu is not extensively made in this province, 
although it is in general use for masticatory, medicin- 
al and industrial purposes. There are two kinds, 
the dark and pale, of which the latter only is used 
for chewing. • The tree is easily propagated from 
seed, and coppices well. It is much too valuable to 
be cut down lor fuel. 



MYSORE AND OOOKG. 121 



248 Acacia sundra, DC. Kan. Kempu khairada ? 

Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 50. 

References— F^. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Lid. 

This is probably a variety of A. Catechu, as it 
possesses nearly the same properties and only differs 
in colour and a few minor technicalities of structure. 
The branohlets are of a very dark-brown or reddish 
colour. The wood is also said to be heavier and 
more durable than in the preceding species. 

249 Acacia ferruginea, DC. Kan, Banni. 
'Fig.—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 51. 

References.— 6ram&. Man. Timb. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Brand. For. Fl.p. 185. 

A large tree with a brownish bark. Leaves 
deciduous at the close of the cold season. Common 
in dry jungles in Bast Mysore, while in Shimoga 
and other parts of the Malnad it is confined to open 
spaces skirting the evergreen zone. Being a sacred 
tree the timber is seldom used. " It is said in Ma~ 
habJiarata that Arjuna had placed his gandiva or 
bow on this tree before he went away in disguise to 
serve under Virata. On the tenth day of Dasara 
this tree is worshipped by the Hindu Rajas. It has 
■medicinal properties and yields a gum." M. Ven- 
katnarnappa. 

Heartwood small in proportion, reddish brown, 
and said to be fairly durable. Weight 70 lb. per 
cubic foot. Bark very astringent and used, like 
.the bark of A. leucoplilsea, in distilling .arrack. 
The tree flowers in April and ripens seed in June or 
July, A well-known specieg.. 

Cultivation.— Self-productive where the surface 
.soil is favorable as regards looseness and moisture. 
When seedlings are 4 inches high they should be 
coUeeted f pr nursery treatment in baskets or tile- 

IQ 



122 frnmi *R'sss; 



pots. In this way they are usually ready for final 
planting within 12 — 15 months. Growth is very slow 
except in rich soils of a porous nature. The tree 
coppices fairly well. 

250 Acacia Latronum, Willd. Kan. Donn-muUina-jali, 

Hote jali ? 

mg,~Bedd, Fl. Sylv. t. 95. Wight Ic. t. 1157. 

This species should be found on the confines of the 
Malnad. It is a low tree assuming the form of an 
umbrella. Wood prized for tent pegs. 

251 Acacia concinna, DC. Kan. Cige, Sige. 
'^ig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References— Diet, of Ecm. Prod, of Ind. ; 

Pharm. Ind. 

An intensely thorny climber found abundantly all 
over the Mysore country. Often forming a part of 
the village protective fence. The pods are used in 
lieu of soap, especially for washing the head; but 
they should not be confounded with the true soap- 
mit—Kugati kayi — which is the fruit of Sapindm 
trifeliatus. The pods have a marketable value and 
their uses are described as under : — 

"A popular household remedy for promoting the 
growth of hair and removing dandriff from the scalp, 
a decoction of pods (i an ounce to the pint of water) 
being used as a hair- wash. In small doses the pods 
act as a tonic, but in large and repeated doses they 
have purgative and emetic properties assigned to 
them. " Surgn. Major F. M. Houston, Travmcore ; 
and John Oomes, Medical Store-keeper, Trivandrum. 

A. Intsia, Willd, and A. pennata, Willd. are hill 
climbers somewhat similar to the above, but appa- 
rently less useful. 

The introduced Australian trees Acacia melanos^- 
Ion, R. Br. and A. dealbata. Link., are sparsely 
cultivated in the coffee districts and at Nundydroo^. 



mysobs am> ooofi&. 123 



These, as also tlie Australian "black wattle, " Acacia 
decurrens, Willd, could, if necessary, be cultivated on 
the Baba Budan liills. 
252 Albizzia Lebbek, Benth. Kan. Bage, Bagi, Hom- 

bage, Tirchul. 

Fig.-Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 53. 

References-— JP/. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Ficon, 
Prod, of Ind. ; Drury, U. PI, 
The Siris tree. A large species found in all parts 
of the province, but attaining its greatest size in the 
west of Mysore. Often planted as an avenue tree, 
but not well adapted for the purpose as it remains 
bare of leaf for a long season. It flowers profusely 
in March and April and is then a striking object, the 
prevailing colours being straw, pale yellow and 
purplish green. Sapwood rather abundant ; heart- 
wood reddish to dark reddish brown with darker 
streaks. Takes a good polish and is generally con- 
sidered a fairly durable timber ; it is not utilised to 
any great extent, however, as in most parts of 
Mysore it is considered unlucky to employ the wood 
for house building and domestic purposes. But 
Lovery says it is used in Shimoga for buildings, 
furniture, carts and oil mills. Weight 50 — 60 lb. per 
cubic foot. Cattle eat the green leaves of the tree 
greedily, and it is said to be cultivated in some parts 
to provide forage. Medicinal properties are attribut- 
ed to the bark, leaves, and flowers ; the latter being 
considered very cooling, are popularly applied to 
ulcers, boils and swelhngs. 

Cultivation.— The Bage is a self -productive tree, 
but squirrels, rats and other vermin, are so fond of 
the seeds that few are left for natural production. 
Under protection the seeds germinate very readily, 
but it is doubtful if such seedlings ever attain the 
vigorous growth of the ,self-sown ones. 

The species affects a warm moist situation as in 
the maidan valleys lying nearest to the Malnad. 



124 POBEST TSEE9. 



For permanent growth, plant at 30 to 35 feet 
apart. 
253 Albizzia odoratissima, Benth. Kan. Bilivara, 

Bilwara, Silvarada. 

'Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 54. 

Heferences.— Gram&. Man. Timb. ; Brand. Fm: 
Fl.; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

TMs is commonly known as the raiyat's tree. A 
tall erect tree, attaining in good situations to 80 feet, 
with an unforked trnnk of 80 — 40 feet. Leaves 
deciduous in March and April. Flowers succeed- 
ing the young leaves in June, in ample terminal 
panicles, greenish-white, apricot-scented. 

Plentiful in the forests of "Western Mysore and 
Coorg. Cultivated m the east and more or less self' 
sown nearly aU over the country. Heartwood rich 
brown, tough and strong ; seasons well, takes a good" 
polish andisdurable whenkeptdry. Weight 50 — 551b. 
per cubic foot. Of indigenous trees, this is one of 
the best to coppice for fuel, while the seasoned timber 
is of a kind that lends itself to nearly every domestic 
purpose. It is largely used for buildings, agricuU, 
tural implements, oil and cane mills, naves of wheels 
and such like. The bark has medicinal properties 
and the green leaves are nibbled by cattle. This isj.' 
altogether, a most useful tree, and one that should 
be encouraged. 

Cultivatioia-— In the neighbourhood of Bangalore 
it is diflBcult to obtain good seed, from the fact that 
the latter is largely consumed in the pod by small 
maggota, and perhaps other insects too. On this 
account local sowings are not very productive, while,, 
as with the Bage, self-sown seedlings are always the 
strongest. Topes of Bilivara should be raised in the 
vicinity of every important village, the trees being' 
planted and cared for by the village authorities in 



MfSOBE AND OOOIG.' 125 

consideration of some trifling concession from Grov- 
ernment. Plant in large pits at 25 — 30 feet apart. 
Ploughing the land at the time of seed-shedding will 
be productive of seedlings. 

254 Albiziza procera, Benth. Kan, ChikulF Tarn. 

Konda Vagte. 

References.— JSedci. Fl. Syh. 95. Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind: 

The Tamil people call this immense tree the hill 
Vaghe (Kan. Bage), but it is a distinct species 
occupying comparatively high altitudes. Leaves 
deciduous in the cold season. Common on both the 
Eastern and "Western Ghats of the Madras Presiden- 
cy, where Beddome describes it as a magnificient 
tree. Wood noted for the preparation of charcoal 
but said to be inferior otherwise. Should be search- 
ed for on the south-west boundary of the province. 
Seedlings spring up freely in the forests and the tree 
coppices. 

255 Albizzia Julibrissin, Durazz. 

A deciduous unarmed tree of the Western Ghats. 
Cultivated in the Botanical Gardens. Flowers rosy- 
red and sweetly fragrant. The heartwood, which is 
very dark when seasoned, is said to be sufficiently 
durable for articles of furniture. 

256 Albizzia stipulata, Boiv. Kan. Hotte bage, Kal 

baghi. In Coorg, Kote pale. 

Vig.—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. SB. Bot. Plates Lai- 
Bagh Collection. 

Reference.— Diot. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A large tree of the Malnad and Coorg. Leaves 
deciduous for nearly a month during the hot season. 
The exceptionally large stipules found on the young 
shoots characterise the species, which is also remark- 
able for its rapid growth. Wood used for various 
purposes, although it is not very durable ; excellent 
charcoal is made from it. Weight 35 — 45 lb. per cubic 



126 rOREST TREES. 



foot. The green leaves are browsed upon by cattle. 
This tree might be tried as a shade for coSee cultiva- 
tion, as tea is said to flourish well under it in Assam, 
It is highly ornamental, especially in the month of 
June, when the straw coloured flowers are very 
attractive. 

Cultivation. — Raise from seed and plant in loose 
soil at not less than 35 feet apart. Excepting that 
it drops its leaves during the warmest season of the 
year, it is a good avenue tree. 
257 Albizzia amara, Boiv. Kan, Clmgalu, Sujjah, 

Bilkambi. In Coorg, Kadsige. 

Fig— Sedd. Fl. Si/lv. t. 61. 

References.— PZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A medium-sized deciduous tree. Branchlets and 
leaf rachis densely pubescent ; leaflets very narrow, 
with a central midrib. Not uncommon in the resel-v- 
ed forests where it is often felled with other trees 
for locomotive fuel. Abundant in Kadur and 
Shimoga. " A deciduous tree with purplish brown 
heartvs'ood, the transverse strength of which is unsur- 
passed by any wood. It is hard and durable and 
can be used for carts and agricultural implements. " 

M. Venhatnarnappa. 

Although rather small in Mysore, this wood is 
exceptionally durable. Weight 62 — 70 lb. per cubic 
foot. Seasoned limbs of the proper size are not un- 
commonly used by the raiyats as ploughs. 

Cultivation- — Easily raised from seed. Growth 
moderately quick where the soil is deep and porous. 
Plant in August. 

258 Pithecolobium dulce, Benth. ^m,, Sime hunase, 

lam. Korkapille. 

Fig.-Bedd. FL Syh. t. 188. Wight Ic. t. 198. 

Ueferences.-Dmry U. Pl.j Diet, of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 



mmm and coorg. 127 

The Manilla tamarind tree. This well known 
species is a native of South America ; naturalised 
in India and other eastern countries. Extensively- 
cultivated as a fuel tree and as a fence around 
fields and gardens. In the latter capacity it is a 
familiar object, and when properly trimmed, from 
the beginning, the Korkapille makes a very pretty 
hedge. Groats, however, are so fond of the tender 
foliage that they often commit considerable damage 
to the roadside fences. Tinder favorable circum- 
stances it grows into a pretty large tree, which 
coppices well and affords good fuel. " Sapwood 
small ; heartwood reddish brown, not heavy, 40 lb. 
per cubic foot, smells unpleasantly when fresh sawn, 
used for various purposes." Brandts. 

The sweet pulpy aril which encloses the seed is 
eaten by children, and the seed itself contains a 
valuable oil. 

Cultivation. — Growth is most luxuriant near the 
sea and by the sides of canals and rivers. To form 
a hedge, the best plan is to sow the seed in a pre- 
pared trench or furrow, during the rains. The seed- 
lings will then only require to be watered occa- 
sionally during dry weather, and preserved from 
goats and cattle. The sime hunase is very self- 
productive in plantations and by the sides of fences, 
but the seedlings quickly form a long tap-root, 
and unless they are removed at a very early 
stage of growth the operation becomes difficult and 
even impracticable. The tree coppices well, and 
affords locomotive fuel of a fair quality. Grown for 
the latter, it may be planted at 6 feet apart and 
eventually thinned to 12 feet. A soil of some depth 
is necessary for thd best growth, but it should 
neither be water-logged nor too hard. 

259 Pithecolobium bigeminum, Benth. 

References.— .Be^ZcZ, Fl. Sylv. 96. Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 



128 FORisT Tntt^. 



Beddome says this is a common tree of the west- 
ern forests of the Madras Presidency up to 4,000 
feet. It no doubt extends into Mysore also, although 
it has not found a place in the lists prepared by local 
forest officers. A large soft-wooded tree. De- 
ciduous or subdeciduous for a short season. P. sub- 
coriaeeum, Thwaites, may also be found oa the 
western hills of the province. 
260 Pithecolobium Saman, Mart. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

The rain tree. Introduced from South America and 
grown experimentally at various centres. Of large 
trees it is one of the quickest growth, the dimensioas| 
attained in the course of 6 — 8 years being truly 
marvellous. The species was first introduced to 
Bangalore in 18J'8, and during the past two or three 
years many thousands of seedHngs have been raised 
and distributed from the original trees. But the 
wood is soft and fibrous as nearly always happens in 
cases of rapid development. The real value of the 
species will depend on the ready shelter it affords to 
more delicate plants at an early stage of growth, on 
its capacity to act as a nurse and on the nutritioiffi 
value of its leaves and fruit as a food for cattle ; of 
the latter utility there is no question, as both the 
leaves and fruit are greedily consumed by horses 
and other live- stock. The following analysis by Mf. 
Hooper of Ootacamund, shews clearly how rich the 
pods are in food material : — 



Water ... .... 

Albuminoids 

Sugar & Carbohydrates 

Fat 

Fibre 

Ash 



Dried pods of 
Pithecolobiuiu Saman, 



11-7 

66-9 

3-7 

13-3 

4-4 



100-0 



MYSOBlfi AND COOUG. !§§' 

Anotlier important function of the rain tree is 
its capability to raise, and thereby improve marshy 
land. This it does by a rapid development of large 
surface roots which uniformly rise to a higher level 
as the tree advances in growth. The sensitive 
leaflets close together on the approach of darkness 
and re-open with the rising sun, the rather sudden 
displacement of accumulated dew caused by the 
latter movement, occasionally amounting to a slight 
drizzle, may have given rise to the appellation 
'rain tree. ' Or it maybe that, occupying extensive 
tracts of country, this tree, by its vigorous growth 
and peculiar leaf -formation, exercises an exceptional 
influence on the rain clouds. 

Cultivation. — Seed will germinate very freely 
when sown in pans or in prepared nursery beds. 
A good avenue tree, except that the upper roots 
have a tendency to throw up the soil and raise a 
mound. The wide-spreading limbs are also subject 
to dama,ge from high winds. Should be planted in 
village topes to provide fodder for cattle. 

261 Castanospermum australe, A. Cimn. 
Fig.— ^of. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

The Moreton Bay chesnut. This handsome ever- 
green tree is cultivated in the cities of Bangalore 
and ^Mysore ; it is also found at intervals in thq 
cdfEee jfistricts, and in the town of Mercara. It is 
generally known by its large orange-Drimson flow- 
ers, produced in clusters upon the matured wood 
behind the leaves. The road leading in to the 
Cubbon Park from the Sampangi tank is shaded by 
an avenue of Moreton Bay chesnuts. But the latter 
have not grown to a large size, although they are 
down for nearly 20 years. The boat-sha,ped fniit — 
containing 2^^4 seeds the size of a marble — is an 
object of a<ttraotion to children. Many seedlings are 
aBmi^Ily ^raised for iJistributidn. 

n ' 



180 s-onEsT TOfiis?; 



262 Hsematoxylon campechianum, Liira. 

The American logwood tree. This has been 
cultivated in the Botanical Gardens for many years, 
where, however, it only attains to the size of a 
scandent bush or small tree. The red-coloured . 
heartwood affords a well known dye, or rather a 
series of dyes of the darker tints such as grey, 
violet, blue, and even black. Logwood does not 
coppice, but it bears a lot of pruning, makes a 
durable fence and grows fairly well from seed. The 
species will become naturaHsed in this country 
eventually. It should be included in garden shrub- 
beries, as the racemed, yellow flowers are both 
showy and sweetly scented, 

263 Colvillea racemosa, Boj. This grand tree was 
introduced by the writer in 1880 and there are now 
several good specimens in local cultivation. The 
best one is on the lower terrace in front of the exhibi- 
tion building in the Botanical Grardens, where it 
flowers profusely in the month of September. The 
foliage resembles that of the 'gold mohur' tree, for 
which the species might readily be mistaken when 
undersized and not in blossom. But the Colvillea 
racemosa is a lofty evergreen tree which flowers at 
the close of the south-west monsoon. The inflore- 
scence consists of a terminal, drooping panicle, or 
compound raceme of rich golden flowers supported 
on reddish calyces. As an ornamental tree of moder- 
ately rapid growth, this species has few equals ; and 
when seedfings become plentiful it wiU spread 
quickly and become a prominent feature in local 
vegetation. Avenues of the tree would have a 
splendid effect. Propagate from seed, and plant 
in loose soil at 35 feet apart. 

264 Ceratonia siiiqua, Linn. 

The carob-bean tree. Also known by the popular, 
names of " St. John's bread, " "Locust tree" and 
J'Algaroba," A small evergreen tree of Spain^ 



MYSORE AND OOOM. 131 

Portugal and other parts of south-east Europe. 
The Duke of Wellington foraged his horses on the 
fruit and leaves of the tree during the great 
Peninsula war. It has been cultivated in the Lal- 
Bagh for 30 years, and is fairly productive of 
fruit. A great many seedlings have been issued 
from the Botanical G-ardens during the past decade, 
and from these and other sources the species is now 
well established in various parts of India. One 
male tree is sufficient to fertilise 50 trees of the 
opposite sex, the operation being mostly conducted 
by a host of small insects. At Bangalore the 
carob-tree succeeds best in an open loam with 
good sub-soil drainage. Plant at 15 feet apart. 
Professor Church gives the following analysis of the 
carob bean : — 

Carob beana. 
Ceratonia siliqua. 
Water... ... ... 14-6 

Albuminoids^ ... ... 7'1 

Sugar & Oarbobydraires ... 67"9 

Tat ... ... ... 11 



Fibre .. 
Asb ... 


• «* 


■ •■ 


6-4 
2-9 




lOO'O Church. 







XXX. ROSAOEiE 

265 Eriobotrya japonica, Lindl. Kan. Lakote. 

Fig.-WigU Ic. t. 226. 

Reference.— D«ci. ofEcon. Prod, of Ind. 

The loquat tree. A small evergreen tree confin- 
ed to garden cultivation, and not very popular in 
Mysore. The fruit, of which there are several 
varieties, makes an excellent preserve, and two 
local kinds, the large oval and small round, are also 
fit for dessert. It is commonly known as the 
" loquat " and " Japanese medlar. " Inarching may 
possibly improve the size and flavour of this fruit. 



132 FOEEST TUETIS. 



Cultivation. — The tree is easily propagated from 
seeds, grafts and layers, Inarchiag or grafting 
induces early fertility and improves the quality of 
the fruit. If two seedlings are planted together in 
one pit, during the rainy season, they can be conveni- 
- ently inarched in the subsequent warm season. 
The loquat tree is rather a gross feeder, and to 
secure the finest crops of fruit it needs a rich gar- 
den soil with occasional top-dressing of good farm- 
yard manure. The fruit ripens in August and 
September. Put out seedlings or grafts in August 
at 20 — 25 feet apart. The pits should not be less 
than 3 feet cubes. 

Several fruit trees of the Bosacese are profitably 
cultivated at Bangalore and large quantities of 
fruit are exported to Madras, Poona and elsewhere. 
These consist mostly of — 

266 Pyrus Malus, Linn. Kan. Sevu. The Apple. 

267 Pyrus communis, Linn. The Pear. 

268 Prunus Persica, Benth. The Peach. 

269 Prunus communis, Huds. The Plum. 

And the "Indian Kaspberry" Bubus lasio- 
GWpus, Smith. 



XXXI. COMBRETAOE^. 

270 Terminalia Catappa^ Linn. Kan. Badami. 

Vig.-Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection ; Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 18 ; Bot. Mog. 3,004. 

References-— J^. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

The Indian almond tree. A handsome species 
which' throws out its branches in horizontal tiers, 
(whorls ) so that the whole tree resembles a huge 
chandelier. Much cultivated in gardens and as a 
roadside tree, but not considered to be truly wild in 
any part of Soiithem India. In losing its leaves, it 



MYSORE AND OOOM. 183 

assumes some of the autumnal tints which are so 
nauch admired in northern countries. The large, 
simple, obovate leaves are borne in clusters at the 
tips of the branchlets. Bare of leaf in December 
and January. 

" It makes a good avenue tree, and is well worthy 
of extended cultivation. The wood is light but 
tolerably durable and is used for various purposes, 
and the leaves of pakottahs are often made of 
it ; the kernels of the nuts are eaten and are 
very palatable ; the oil expressed from the 
seed is very like almond oil, and the oilcake is used 
to feed pigs ; the bark and leaves yield a black 
pigment with which the natives colour their teeth, 
and make into Indian ink." Beddome. 

Cultivation. — Scattered seeds only germinate 
well in a hot-bed ; but placed in little heaps they 
sprout satisfactorily without artificial heat. Com- 
paratively loose soil, or an old well recently filled 
up, provides the best situation for this tre6, 
although when large pits are made it succeeds 
in any soil of good or even average quality. 

271 Terminalia belerica, Roxb. Kan. Tare, Tari. 

IPig.-BeM. FL Sylv. 1. 19 ; WigU Ic. t. 91. 

References.— JBraw(^«.s For. Fl; FL of Brit Ind. ; 
Pharm. Ind. 

The Beleric myrobalan. A large deciduous tree of 
which the "Flora of British India" gives three distinct 
varieties, determined mostly by the morphology of 
the leaf, absence or presence of glands, and the size 
and form of the fruit. Attaining to 80 feet in good 
, situations and always umbrageous. Plentiful in the 
mixed zone, as also in the hilly region of the dry 
zone of Mysore and Ooorg. While in flower in the 
beginning of the hot season, the tree emits a very 
stea?coraceous odour. It is the abode of Sram — Saturn — 
Grod of misfortune. Hindus are forbidden to use the 



134 l>OREST TUEES. 



<i 



wood for building, nor sHonld they sit under the 
shade of this tree. In IS'orthern India the species | 
is avoided by Hindus on the plea that it is infested I 
by demons, an opinion which is not confined to the 
north, as M. Venkatnarnappa writes from Shimoga- 
that " the wood of the tree is not much used on 
account of the superstitious idea that it is one of 
the favourites of Saniswara" Young foliage 
reddish-bronze in coloiir, subsequently changing-^i 
to green and then very dense. "Wood yellow- 1 % 
ish, soft but tolerably close-grained, made more 
durable by steeping for a time in water. Weight 
40 — 43 lb. per cubic foot. The trunk attains a large 
size and is well adapted for making single-log canoes. 

The fruit is a favourite of monkeys, deer, sheep, ; 
goats and cattle. It is one of the myrobalans of 
commerce, and is used in dyeing cloth and leather, 
and in tanning, and is exported to Europe. Native 
ink is made of it and it is used in medicine. The 
kernels are eaten, but are said to be intoxicating. Oil 
is expressed from them. " Brandis. Graham An- 
derson has also recorded that the kernels cause 
giddiness when eaten. Myrobalans are a minor 
product of the State forests. The gum which exudes 
from the bark of the tree is occasionally utilised as 
' country gum. ' 

Cultivation,— Raise nursery stock from seed, lay- 
ers, and Chinese grafts. Sturdy plants thus prepar- 
ed in one season should be ready for planting out in 
August of the following year, but it is immaterial if 
the seedlings are one or two years old providing that 
they are strong and movable. Plant in alluvial 
soils or in sandy loam at 45 to 50 feet apart. 
272 Terminal ia Chebula, Retz. Kan. Alale, Alalee, 

Arale. 

Fig-—Bedd. Fl Syh. t. 37. 

B.eferences.-Brmd. Fm; Fl. ; Plarm. Tnd.; Fl 
of Bnt. Ind, 



MTgORE AM) eOOM. 135 

The Chebulio or black myrobalan tree. A decidu- 
ous species of moderate size, of wbich. there are 
several varieties. Abundant in and around the 
large deciduous forests of the table land, and on the 
outskirts of the Malnad. The gall nuts for which 
this tree is noted are found on the young leaves 
and tender shoots and have no connection with 
the fruit. " Roxburgh states that the tender 
leaves, while scarce unfolded, are said to be punctur- 
ed by an insect and its eggs deposited therein, 
which by the extravasation of the sap, become 
enlarged into hollow galls of various shapes and 
sizes, but rarely exceeding an inch in diameter. 
They are powerfully astringent and make as good 
ink as oak galls. They also yield the chintz painters 
on the coast of Coromandal their best and most 
durable yellow. " Pharmacographia Indica. 

The fruit, when dried, is the black myrobalan of 
commerce. This product is farmed out annually or 
for longer periods in Mysore. Anderson states 
that, in Manjarabad, the juice of the fruit is applied 
to the feet to prevent chilblains during the monsoon. 
Heartwood dark brown when seasoned, finely mot- 
tled, hard and fairly durable. Weight 53—66 lb. per 
cubic foot. In Shimoga the wood is used by the 
raiyats for building furniture, carts and agricultural 
implements. " The Flora of British India " enume- 
rates six varieties of this tree. 

Cultivation.— The same as for the preceding 
species. 

273 Terminalia citrina, Roxb. 

A deciduous tree cultivated in the Botanical Grar- 
dens. Probably not indigenous to this State. The 
species attains to a large size in Assam, Burma and 
Teriasserim. 

274 Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd. Kan. Bilimatti, Tora- 

, matti, Kamatti. 

Fig,-Bedd.Fl.Sylv. t. 28. 



igS' t^dft'EST '♦TTiBteS. 



ReiBrences.— Brand. For.Fl; Pharm.'Ind.;Fl. 
of Bnt. Ind. 

A large tree of the Malnad. Characterised by wide 
spreading buttresses at the base of the trunk. 
Leayes deciduous during the hot season. Grraham 
Anderson offers the following remarks under the 
name Terminalia tomentosa, which would seem 
to correctly apply to this species ; — " It is a tree 
often left in coffee estates but is a wretched shader 
being completely bare for a considerable portion of 
the hot weather. It is a great lime feeder and the 
natives burn it to obtain eating chunam, which is 
said to be very puiigent. The larva and perfect 
fly of the coffee borer have been iound under -the 
bark of this tree. " 

'Wood dark -brown, hard, difficult to work but 
susceptible of a fine polish. Seldom used in this 
province. Weight 48 — 54 lb, per cubic foot. 

" Hindu physicians think that the "bark has 
some special virtue in promoting the union of 
fractures, and the dispersion of ecchymosis when 
given internally. It is considered to be Asmari-Jiara, 
or lithontriptic and^a reference to the chemical 
composition will show that the ash of the bark con- 
tains an extraordinarily large proportion of calcium 
carbonate. Externally it is used in the form of an 
astringent wash to ulcers." TharmacQgrapMa Indica. 

M. Venkatnarnappa also mentions that the bark 
is used medicinally. Possibly it is of more local 
value than has been realised. 
275 TerminaHa tomentosa, Bedd. Kan. Matti, Karl 

matti, Heb huluve. 
:Fig -Wight Jc. t. 195. ■ 

"References-Brand. For. Fl. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Fl. oJBnt. Ind. 

A deciduous tree of the Malnad rand elsewhere. 
Often attaining a greait;Siz6 aaad forming a &ie clean 



MYSbSl Aim COOBQ. IS'? 

trunk, but small and crooked in tlie drier Taluks. 
Magnificient specimens are found in the reserved 
forests of the Malnad, although the majority of them 
are said to be more or less hollow in the trunk. Flow- 
ers in terminal panicles, whitish or pale yellow, 
" often attacked by a cynips producing numerous 
galls which simulate fruit. " Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

Wood dark brown, with darker streaks, hard, but 
not very durable. Weight 50 — 70 lb. per cubic foot* 
Although the wobd does not season well, and is apt 
to split, still it is extensively employed, and fetches 
a good price in the timber market. It is an excellent 
fuel tree, and when the hill forests have been tapped 
by one or two loop lines of railway it will afford 
large quantities of the finest locomotive fuel. 

The leaves are prized as manure for the areca-nut 
gardens, and in north-west Mysore the trees are 
heavily pollarded on that account. When the hill 
people bathe in oil they afterwards employ Matii 
leaves to clean their bodies, first soaking the leaves 
for a time in warm Water, A mucilaginous s'ub- 
stance obtained from the soaked leaves, by pressure^ 
is taken internally, after a hot bath, to cool the sys- 
tem. It is mixed, in some proportion, with jaggery 
and cardamom powder, and swallowed soon aftqr th^ 
bath. The bark is locally used for tanning, and 
Anderson, Lovery and others, assert that a pungent 
lime is obtained from it, a statement which requires 
vei-ification, as in Pharmacographia Indica the 
iim'e properties- are attributed to Terminalia ArjuTia^ 
whil§ the species under notice is not mentioned in 
the above work. There are also three distinct 
varieties of the species which may or may not pos- 
sess properties of a uniform nature. 

CTiltivation— The Matti affects a moist deep soil,, 
consisting of clay ot virgin forest land, where the 
rainfall ranges from 75 to 100 inches per ^nnum. 
It attains its largest diiiieiisions in the valleys of iltie 

18 



188 WMSf T«E8S. 



Malnad. Propagate from seed. The fruit has five 

regular mngs. 

276 Terminalia paniculata, Eoth. Zan. Hulve, Hulnve, 

Hunal, Hoonal. 

Fig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. SO. 

References.— Brand. For. Fl. ; Fl. of Bnt. Ind. 

A , large deciduous tree. Common in Shimoga 
and throughout Western Mysore, below the Grh^its; 
Timber of middling quality, especially when sea- 
soned in water. Heartwood dark, hard, and fairly 
durable. "Weight 47 lb. per cubic foot. Commonly 
applied to the same local uses as Matti, and afford- 
ing useful fuel ; makes good planking and is popular 
for building country carts. Lovery remarks that it 
is subject to the attacks of white ants, when buried 
in the ground. 

Cultivation.— This species requires deep loam con- 
taining plenty of moisture. As it projects into the 
dry zone it becomes stunted in growth and ir- 
regular in form. Propagate from seed and plant out 
in the following season. Observe the fruit having 
one fully developed wing and two abortive ones. 

The genus Terminalia is rich in timber and minor 
products ; but the variation in species is somewhat 
conflicting, and gives rise, no doubt, to such verna- 
cular names as Permatti and Ohittu huluve, which 
are not accounted for under the specific headings;. 
The best trees are in somewhat inaccessible situa- 
tions, but as the railway advances into the hill region 
they will afford a small mine of wealth. ' 

277 Anogeissus latifolia, Wall.. Kan. Dindiga, Dindln, 

Dindal, Bejalu. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 1. 15. Wight Ic. t. 994. 

"References,— Diet, of Econ.Prod. ofMd.; Brand. 
For. Fl. ; Drwy U. PI. 

A deciduous tree. Common throughout Mysore 
east of the, Ghats. In the extensive forests skirting 



MTSOiSE ANDOOOEG. 139 

the hills it attains a large size, but gradually becomes 
smaller as it extends into the drier eastern region. 
Bindiga is generally looked upon as a useful timber, 
although in exposed and heavy works it is not dura- 
ble. As a fuel and charcoal tree, it is one of the best in 
the province. Sapwood predominating, yellow; heart- 
wood small, purplish-brown, tough, elastic, and very 
hard : but it warps and splits in seasoning, and 
requires to be kept quite dry to last. Weight 
62 — 65 lb. per cubic foot. The gum, which exudes 
from the bark copiously, is used by calico-printers 
to mix with certain dye stuffs and is commercially 
the most important product of the tree. The green 
leaves are rich in tannic acid and are employed by 
the local chucklers to tan raw hides. 

This utiHty of the leaf deserves every encourage- 
ment, as by a proper system of thinning the supply 
of leaves from the State forests would practically 
become inexhaustible. The three varieties of the 
species enumerated by the " Flora of British India," 
are mostly determinable from each other by the size, 
iorm, and texture of the leaf. { 

Cultivation.— As regards size, it has been said 
that the moist valleys skirting the "Western Grhats, 
and mostly composed of a rich alluvial soil, afford 
the best situation. But on the other hand the 
smaller tree of the eastern maidan region, growing 
in a poorer soil and sparingly watered, is superior 
in quality, the wood being harder, the gum more 
abundant, and the leaf richer in tannic acid. Although 
not very productive from seed, the Dindiga ttrows 
up numerous offsets and suckers which replace the 
parent trunk. 
278 Anogeissus acuminata, Wale. 

This species should be found on the northern 
frontier. It is a large or small tree according to posi- 
tion and variety, of which latter there are several. 



140 Forest trees. 



279 Calycopteris floribunda, Lamk. Kan. Marsada- 

boli — The Hassan name. 

A large climbing shrub, the leaves, root, and fruit 
of which are used medicinally. 



XXXII. MYRTACiE. 

280 Tristania conferta, E. Bb. 

Queensland box. Introduced from Eastern Aus- 
tralia and cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. " Diameter 
35 to 50 inches; height 80 to 100 feet. A large 
spreading tree, with a smooth brown deciduous bark 
and dense foliage ; very generally distributed in 
open forest ground. The timber is much prized for 
its strength and durable qualities. Market value 
from 8 s. to 9 s. per hundred feet. Used in ship- 
building ; ribs of vessels from this tree have lasted 
unimpaired for thirty years and more. " Walter HiU. 

281 Eucalyptus marginata, Sm. The Jarrah. 

282 E. rostrata, F. Muislg, The red gum. 

283 E. citriodora, Hook. The lemon- scented gum. 
'I'hese exotic trees are cultivated in the cities of 

Mysore and Bangalore, where they succeed tolerably 
well. But most of the Austrahan Eucalypti, includ- 
ing the " blue gum, " Eucalyptus globulus, require 
higher and moister altitudes than Bangalore. Should 
it be necessary to cultivate the latter on an exten- 
sive scale, as at Ootacamund, the Baba Budan hills 
would probably afPord the best site for the purpose, 
A number of species are under trial in the BotaniQali 
Gardens. 

The Eucalypti are easily raised from seed, and 
seedlings transplant well during rainy days, when 
they are a foot to lo inches in height. 
284 Psidium guyava, Linn. Kan. Sibe. Shibe, Chepe, 

Fig.— ^oi;. Lal-Bagh Collection. 



MTSOEB AND COORG. ■ 141 



'References-— Brand. For. Fl ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ-Prod. of Ind. 

The guava tree. Strange thougli it may appear, 
this well known fruit tree is indigenous to tropical 
America and has only been naturalised in this country 
since the early conquest of the Portuguese. 

"Wfood compact, close-grained, and takes a beauti- 
ful polish. Used for engraving, and for the handles 
of knives and instruments. The guava. tree is uni- 
versally ^cultivated for its fruit, of which there are 
three or four varieties. Of the latter the grafted 
forms are superior and command a good sale in the 
Indian fruit markets, The bark and leaves are 
medicinal. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seed, and when the 
seedlings are 2 — 3 feet high, with a moderately 
woody stem, place them in position under a good 
variety to be inarched. The latter operation done, 
remove to a cool shady spot for about a month, after 
which the grafts should be gradually removed to 
full exposure. Preparatory to inarching, the seed- 
lings have to be conveniently and securely fixed 
among or around the branches of the old graft. 
This is done very ofteii by raising little mounds of 
good soil in which the seedlings are planted, but it 
is more expeditious to have them deposited in bas- 
kets or tile-pots, as in the latter case the seedling 
receives no check and may be inarched on the same 
day that it is placed in position. 

Inarching is best done in August and September, 
and the operation, from the time it is effected until 
the day of removal, usually extends over three to 
four months. 

Grafted guava trees are planted at 15 feet apart, 
and to bear abundant crops of fruit they require 
good soil, good manure and plenty of water. ^ .^j. 



142 FOREST TUEES. 



285 Eugenia malaecen'SJs, Linn. 

mg.— Wight III a. 14. 

A small evergreen tree cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, 
Yery ornamental, having shining leaves, large crimson 
flowers, and beautiful fruit, the size and form of a 
goose's egg. The fruit is insipid. 

286 Eugenia Jamtaos, LiNxV. Kan. Pannerale, Gomg 

Malle necale. 

Tig — Wight III a. 14. Wight le, t. 435. 

References.— Dici. ofEcon.Prod. oflnd.; Brani, 
For. Flora. 

The rose-apple tree. Evergreen, spreading (branch- 
ing) from the base and of medium sizei Culti- 
vated for its fruit, which is of the size and form of 
a crab apple. Afieets moist situations and is a good 
tree for scenic plantings, being very effective in flower. 
The fruit has a delicate rose-water flavour, but on 
the other hand it is too dry and cottony to be in 
great demand. The tree produces two crops yearly. 
"Wood of little value. 

287 Eugenia hemispFierica, Wight. Kan. Matta 

nerale, Coorg Makke nerale, 

T\g.-Wight Ic. t, 526. Bedd. Fl Syh. t, 203. 
Keferences.— 1?^. of Brit. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A handsome evergreen tree confined to the Mal- 
nad and Coorg. Flowers large white ; fruit one inch 
in diameter. The timber is said to be utihsed for 
various purposes. Upper branchlets subtetragonous ; 
leaves variable in form and texture. 

288 Eugenia laeta, Ham. A middling-sized tree of 
the hill forests. Flowers large when fully opened, 
petals whitish, stamens crimson. Fruit ovoid. Possibly 
confined to the wettest portion of the Grhats, TJses 
unknown. 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 143 



289 Eugenia myrtifolia, Hoxb. 

A shrub or small tree affording a strong dark- 
coloured wood. Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 

290 Eugenia zeylanica, Wight. -Kan. Kunnerale, Kim- 

nerlu. 

Fig -Wight III a 15; Wight Ic. I 73. 

References,~F^. of Brit. Ind. ; Kurz. For. Fl. 

Burm. 

A small evergreen tree of Shimoga, Hassan, and 
the Western Ghats. Locally used for fuel and 
manure, and, like Nerale, it possesses medicinal pro- 
perties. Flowers and fruit white. 

291 Eugenia operculata, Roxb. 
Fig.—Wight Ic. t. 552 ^ 615. 
References.— i^/. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. 

Prod of Ind. ; Brand. For, Fl. 

A large tree of the Western G-hats. Leaves turning 
bright red in decay. Flowers greenish. Fruit edible. 
Lovery reports that the wood is brown, close- 
grained, tough, and durable, and that the fruit i§ 
eaten. It is possible, however, that this remark applies 
to a variety of the next species, which is popularly 
known by the vernacular appellation Nai nerale. 

We therefore require fuller information as to the 
identity of this tree. 

292 Eugenia Jambolana, Lam. Kan. Nerale, Neflu, 

Jumnerale, Nai nerale. 

Fig.-Wight Ic. t. 535; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. i. t. 197, 
References.— .BraizcZ. For. Fl.; Pharm. Ind.; FL 
of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of India. 
The black-plum tree of India. There are two dis- 
tinct varieties of the species, viz. caryophyllifolia, 
(Nai nerale) the small roundish-fruited, ando&^«st/b?ia, 
(Jum nerale) the large oval-fruited. The latter 
is most abundant in the hill country, while thQ former 



144 POBEST TEEBS. 



is more frequently found in the plains ; both, varieties 
are popularly known as the ' Jamoon, ' and are exten- 
sively planted as avenue trees at the sides of the 
provincial roads. Being large, evergreen, or rarely 
subdeciduous trees, they are well adapted for the lat- 
ter purpose. "Wood whitish, changing^ to reddish 
brown in the heartwood, hard, tough, durable in 
water, and fairly lasting otherwise. "Weight 45 lb. 
per cubic foot. 

The wood of var. obtnsifolia , is supposed to be 
somewhat superior to that of the other variety ; but 
both are liable to warp in seasoning. Locally used 
for buildings, agricultural implements, and grinding 
mills, &o. Medicinal properties are attributed to the 
fruit, leaves, seeds, and bark ; and the last named 
product affords material for dyeing and tanning. 
The fruit, which is very abundant in the rainy sea- 
son, is sold in the bazaars and commonly eaten by all 
classes. Eaten in quantity, it is said to cause fever. 

One variety of the Jum nerale, which is only found 
in certain localities, attains the size of a damson plum, 
and being produced in large clusters, is a very at- 
tractive fruit. When the berries are falling from 
the tree, the ground underneath is stained blue- 
black. M. Venkatnarnappa reports that " thfe tend- 
er portions (sic) dried and powdered constitute a very 
good substitute for coffee, though it does not possess 
the same properties," 

Another substitute for this important beverage is 
prepared from the roasted seeds of Cassia occiden- 
talis. Kan. Kol tagaci. 

Cultivation-— The Jamoon is self-productive from 
seed, the latter being often favourably deposited by 
flying foxes, squirrels, and birds. In good soil, the 
tree attains a large size and is said to bft a suitable 
shade for coffee cultivation. In such a position, full 
grown trees would occupy a diameter of 100 feet. 



MYSORE AND GOOEG. 14& 

293 Eugenia floCCOSa, BbdD. Kan. Sime nerale. 

A beautiful tree of the Western Grliats. Should be 
utilised within its range for scenic purposes. It is 
figured and described in Beddome's Flora Sylvatioa, 
page 200. 

294 Eugenia Heyneana, Wall. 

Fig— Wight III. a. 16 ; Wight Ic. t. 539. 

A small tree, or occasionally not more than a 
shrub. Usually found in the beds of streams in Coorg 
and the Malnad. A variable species, of which speci- 
mens should be transmitted with fuller information. 

This large geniis, of which 131 species are enume- 
rated by iVIr. J. F. Duthie, in the Flora of British 
India, is fairly represented in the hill forests of My- 
sore. But few of the local trees have any commercial 
value, neither do they adapt themselves readily to 
the dry atmosphere of the plains. For general 
utility all over the country, the species Jambos and 
Jambolana are as well suited as they are widely 
known. But within the moist evergreen zone, many 
species of Eugenia are admirably adapted for orna- 
mental effect. 

295 Barringtonia speciosa, Forst. 
Yig.— Wight Ic. t. 547. 

An evergreen tree cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens, and known to be of great scenic value. Intro- 
duced from Ceylon. It is doubtful if B. acutangula, 
Gaertn. is found in Mysore. 

296 Careya arborea, Eoxb. Kan. Gouju, Gavuldu, 

Kavalu, Kaval. 

Vig.— Bedel. Fl. Sylv. L 205. 

References.— F/. of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of JEcon. Prod, of Ind. 

A common deciduous tree. Small on the plains 
but attaining a large size as it approaches the 
moist region qf the hills. In age, the large obovate 



146 FOREST TRIES. 



leaves assume a reddish autumnal tint, and subse- 
quently fall when the rains subside. 

Sapwood abundaiit, white ; heartwood reddish 
brown to dull red, dark in old trees, even-grained* 
and beautifully mottled. Weight 43—60 lb. per cubic 
foot. It is a durable and pretty wood, but except for 
wooden vessels and agricultural implements, it is 
seldom used in Mysore. It was formerly used for 
the drums of sepoy corps. In addition to its well 
known astringent properties, the bark affords a very 
strong fibre, which, with other uses, is employed as 
a slow match to ignite gunpowder, and in the pre- 
paration of fusees for native matchlocks. 

Medicinal properties are attributed to the fruit 
and the calyces of the flowers. In size and form, the 
fruit is not unlike an English apple. 

Cultivation.— Each fruit contains 10 — 18 seeds 
which, if removed from their fleshy covering, and 
sown in pans, will germinate readily. 
297 Couroupita guianensis, Aubl. 

The cannon-ball tree. So called from the spherical 
shape of the fruit. This interesting tree grows well 
in the Lal-Bagh, where it sheds its leaves during 
the cold season. The large flowers are borne on the 
matured wood and are mostly red and orange in 
colour. The species has been introduced from St 
Vincent. 

XXXIII. MELASTOMACE^ 

298 Memecylon edule Roxb. K„n. udatalii, Limbtoli. 
a ig--hot. Plates LaUBagli Collection. Wight III 

References.-Flora of Brit. Ind.; Diet. ofEcon. 
Prod, of Ind. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree of very variable 
character, there bemg no less than twelve varieties 



MYSORE ANDOOORO. l47 

of the species enumerated in tlie "Flora of British. 
India." 

It possesses a hard wood, which has, in the Hassan 
t)istrict especially, a good reputation for durability. 

The species is not uncommon in the dry jungle 
about Closepet, where, however, it never seems to 
grow beyond a stunted shrub and is not distinguish- 
ed by a vernacular name. Although small, the wood 
is exceedingly hard and difficult to work, in fact 
inasmuch so that it has been called iron wood amd 
is mentioned as a possible substitute for box. 

When trained, it forms an attractive garden bush 
with glossy foliage and thick clusters of small blue 
flowers growing on the woody hmbs behind the 
leaves. But growth is slow even under the best treat- 
ment. Memecyhn Heftieomiim, Benth. is also indi- 
genous to the mixed jungle skirting the hills. 



XXXIV. LYTHRAOM^ 

299 Lawsonia alba, Lamk. Kctm,-. Groranti, Got^tiu. 
Ti^'—Bot. Plates Lal-B(ii^% Collection. Wight 111 
t.87. 

References— Diet, of Bern. Prod, of Ind'.; Drury 
v. PL 

The Henna shrub. This important dye plant is 
not very abundant in Mysore, but the Muhamma- 
dans are fond of it and often cultiv'ate it, carefully 
within their garden or house enclosures. Ladies of 
the harem manufacture henna for domestic use, while 
the leaves and flowers are much esteemed in medi- 
cine ; the flowers are also sweetly fragrant. When 
correctly pruned, the Lawsonia dlhd forms a useful 
privet-like hedge. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seed, and^ plant in 
any ordinary soil where there is means of occasional 
irrigaition while the plahts are youh'g; The shrub 



148 ' FOEEST TREES. 



succeeds best near tte sea, but also tbrives fairly well 
inland, especially wlien manured -with &&h, salt, and 
other maritinae ingredients or composts. 

300 LagerstrcEmia indica, Linn. 

'Fig—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 

III. t. 86. 
Reference.— F/. of Brit. Ind. 

A deciduous flowering shrub cultivated in gardens, 
but not observed in the wild state. The pinkish-lilac 
flowers make a great show during the warm season, 
when the bush is, bare of leaf. Propagate from offsets 
and suckers. 

301 Lagerstroemia parviflora, Roxb. Kan. Chemuge, 

Chanitaiigi, Ventaku ? 

Fig.-WigM Ic. t. 69. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 31. 

References-— PZ. of Brit. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A small deciduous tree of the open plateau. Never 
large in Mysore, although it is reported to attain to 
a height of 60 feet at the base of the "Western Hima- 
laya. In this province it is mostly found skirting the 
larger deciduous forests and among the hill ranges 
of the Eastern Ghat. Wood very light grey tinged ^ 
with red and turning darker towards the centre ;' 
straiight-fibred, tough, elastic. Weight 40 — 60 lb. per 
cubic foot. Used for agricultural implements and 
considered fairly durable. The bark affords fibre, 
gum, tan and dye, the gum being edible. It is one 
of the trees on which the tasar silkworm feeds. 

Cultivation.— Easily propagated from seed, but 
slow of growth for some years and requiring porous 
soils where there is little stagnation of water. It is 
perhaps on this account that healthy trees are seldom 
found in hollows or marshy ground. 

302 Lagerstroemia ianceolata, Wall. Kan. Nandi, 

Nundi, Bolnndur ? 

Fig-^Bedd. m. Bylv, t 30. Wight Jc. 1. 109. 



MTSOBB AND OOOEG. 149 

'References— Brand. For. il. ; Diet, of Boon. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A large or middling-sized tree of the Malnad and 
Coorg. Bark wliite, smooth, given off in thin flakes. 
Leaves deciduous in the dry season, smooth, white 
beneath ; average blade 3 x 1 in. Flowers preceding 
the young leaves, small but very numerous, pinkish 
lilac. One of the reserved trees of the State forest. 
Wood yellowish-brown changing to red in the centre, 
smooth, even-grained, elastic, tough and of. great 
transverse strength. Weight 41-48 lb. per cubic foot. 
Seasons well and is durable if preserved from mois- 
ture. But felled trees soon decay if left exposed to 
the weather in the forest. The large beams in the 
roof of the Palace at Mercara are of this wood, 
and it is highly prized in Coorg for building 
purposes. It is also used for making furniture, 
carts, and grinding mills. But the tree- is held 
sacred by some of the hill people, who will not 
utilise it economically on that account. 

Cultivation.— Raise from seed and plant in the hill 
sholas where the rainfall is 75—100 inches per annum. 

303 Lagerstrcemia Flos-Reginae, Rbtz. Kan. 

Ckalla, Chella, Holedasal ? 
'Pig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 

Ic. t 413. Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 29. 
References— Brand. For. Fl. ; Diet, of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A large tree of the Grhat forests. Sometimes 
called the "Pride of India" on account of its 
gorgeous blossom. The latter breaks forth in May 
or June, supported by the young leaves, and ia 
truly a , splendid sight. The panicles, which are 
mostly terminal, are two feet in length, while the 
individual flower is not less than three inches in 
diameter and mauve-purple in color. While in 
blossom the tree can be seen for a long distance off. 



150 l"OBBST TREES. 



The leaves are deciduous for some weeks at the 
beginning of the year; average blade 7^2^ in. 
Capsule the size of a gooseberry, but made to appear 
larger by the accrescent calyx forming an ornament- 
al cup at the base, with six horizontal points. 
Wood light coloured, strong, and very durable under 
water. Weight 40 — 45 lb. per cubic foot. 

Beddome says it is used in the Gun-carriage 
factory at Madras. A coarse fibre is obtained from 
the inner bark ; and Lovery reports that the fruit is 
eaten in the Malnad. The trees cultivated in the 
Botanical G-ardens are somewhat stunted in growth, 
although they- are perhaps more prolific of flowers 
tlian the hill tree. 

Cultivation.— Owing to the difficulty of procuring 
fertile seed from cultivated trees, the species has 
not spread so much in cultivation as it otherwise ■ 
would have done. Seed should therefore be obtain- 
ed from the hill forests, when they will be more 
likely to germinate freely. Plant out in deep garden 
soil when the seedlings are a foot or more in height. 
The drier climate of the maidan causes the tree to be 
very productive of flowers and fruit, but the latter 
aVe undersized, while the seed is more or less 
imperfect. 
304 Punica granatum, Linn. Kan. Dalimbe, Dalim. 

bare, Huli dalimbe. 

'Fig.—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
III. t. 97. 

'References.— Diet. ofEcon. Prod: oflnd.; Brand. 
For. Fl. 

The pomegranate tree. This is rather exten- 
sively cultivated for its fine fruit, but seldom attains 
to more than a dense bush of erect habit. It is 
very ornamental while in flower and fruit, these 
products being prominent and brightly coloured, 
But the- fruit imported from Afghanistan and the 



mrsoEB Ato oooiio. 15l 

Persian Grulf Ports, is muoli superipr in quality to 
wliat is commonly grown in local gardens. In size, 
the pomegranate varies from that of an apple to a 
small pumelo. Technically, it is a large berry, 
with numerous seeds unbedded separately in coloured 
cellular tissue, the abundance and quality of which 
regulate the nature of the fruit as a dessert product. 
Wood small, but hard, fine-grained, and capable of 
receiving a good polish. Gamble refers to it as a 
possible substitute for box. Walking sticks are 
populary made from it, and it forms excellent handles 
for tools and instruments. The fruit, rind, seed, and 
root-bark, are all medicinal products, while dyes and 
tans are contained in the bark, and, perhaps more 
intensely, in the green rind of the fruit. 

Cultivation. — To obtain good crops of fruit, this 
tree must be highly cultivated in the best land under 
irrigation. Seedlings are easily raised, and the dif- 
ferent local varieties have been inarched to a small 
extent. Plant at 8 feet ajiart, leaving the upper soil 
as loose and porous as possible. The full crop of a 
single tree is worth, on the average, Es. 2, so that 
under proper management 50, trees should be worth 
Ks. 100 per annum to the cultivator. It is the 
favourite fruit of the Musalman, , 

XXXV. ONAGRACE^. 

305 Jussiaea suffruticosa, Linn. Kan. Kavakuia. 
"Eig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
An undershrub of nallahs and marshes. The 
whole plant is astringent. Reduced to powder, it is 
popularly used by the villagers in cases of dysentery. 
Very common. 

XXXVI. PASSIFLOREiE. 

306 Carica Papaya, Linn. Kan. Parangi mara. 



1.52 POEESt TREESr 



A subherbaceous fruit tree with a succulent or 
pithy trunk and no branches. Naturalised in India, 
but originally introduced from the West Indies and 
Central America. 

This -well-known tree is cultivated throughout the 
province for its fruit, which is consumed as a vegeta- 
ble when young and tender, and as a fruit when ripe. 
Brandis says " meat becomes tender by washing it 
with water impregnated with the milky juice, or by 
suspending the joint under a tree. " 

This fact is well known too in South India, the 
property being due to the presence of an active 
principal called papain e. The latter is extracted 
from the fruit in the "West Indies in the form of a 
white powder, and largely exported to France and 
Germany. The male flowers of the species are 
deKciously fragrant, and might be worth-producing 
in quantity for use in perfumery. Fruit the size of 
a small melon and not unlike it generally. 

Cultivation. — The ' papaw ' grows spontaneously 
from seed and thrives to perfection in rich garden 
soil. One male tree is perhaps suflficient to fertihse 
50 pistilliferous, trees, and should be planted in at 
least that proportion throughout the garden. Self- 
sown trees come up in backyards and rubbish heaps. 

XXXVII. CACTE^. 

307 Opuntia Dillenii, Haw. Kan. Papas kattali. 

The prickly pear. This succulent bush is natura- 
lised on the plains of India, and in some parts of the 
Madras Presidency — as in Salem and Coimbatore — 
where it covers extensive tracts of dry land. Various 
attempts have been made- to utilise the species com- 
mercially, but as yet these have been attended with 
little success, and the shrub is generally looked 
upon as an obnoxious and persistent pest. 



MTSOUE AND COOM. 159 

' ■ ' '< 

But so long as barren land is occupied such is not 
the case, the chief function of the prickly pear 
being to assist nature in making unproductive soils, 
productive. This it does, rather quickly, in a number 
of ways, the chief of which are increased hygro- 
metrio action on the surface, interception of n^ovabla 
matter on the occupied area, and the rapid, ad,dition! 
of a surface layer of vegq.(iable soiL When these 
forces have been in action for a few decades, it will, 
be possible to replace the prickly pear with a more 
directly useful clas^iof plajits,, 

It is. not the fault of the prickly pear that it ha^- 
been, allowed to, occupy areas, for which it is, not 
intended, and where its functions as a coloniser, are 
rendered useless. The. utility of the plant as a 
fence for villages^, railways, and reserved forest, is 
therefore fraught with great danger, as in good soils 
it spreads very rapidly and becomes, what it already 
is in many parts of the country, a dreaded pest to 
the cultivator. The Malta prickly pear, which is 
considered, a good. fruiting variety, hasorecently^been 
introducd into local cultivation, 

Cialiliiwation-— Confine the priokly pear, to the 
poorest soils where domestic plants will not grow. 
Propagate by division of the lobes or joints of the 
stem, every one of which will grow, indepen4ently, 

XXXVIII. ARALIAQB.^. 

308 Heptapleurum venulosiim, Sbbm. KUn. Bili 

bKutKala. 

Fi^—Bot. Plates Lal-Bdgh Collectfon., 

A small soft-wooded tree, or, whpn in coijt^ 
with other trees, a larg§,glabr,oug|,clin}b^r witl;i glossy- 
djgitate leayes, and oval, yellow, fruit. Occasionally 
met with all, through the forests. UsQSiUjilfpown. 

QllltiyatiQn..— Propagate f ropa seed a^jcattiiigs. 
Growth is satisfactory in ordinary field andagaBdfln 

20 



154 T"OIli:ST T.EEES. 



soil. Wlien properly trained, the species makes 
rather an attractive little tree. 

309 Brassaia actinophylla, Endl. 

The umbrella tree. A handsome evergreen^ 
species cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, and introduced ' 
from Bast Australia. The large digitate' leaves 
have stout petioles 15 — 20 in. in length. The leaflets 
are also stalked, and vary from 8 to 16 in number. 
Flowers in large terminal panicles which are rigid, 
and coral-red in colour. This is an ornamental and 
distinct species, worthy of a place in gardens and 
pleasure grounds. Easily propagated from seed and 
cuttings ; but a deep soil is necessary to insure 
shdpely growth. 

XXXIX. CORNACE^. 

310 Alangium Lamarckii, Thwaites. Kan. Ankole 

Ankalige, Ansaroli ? ' 

^\%-WigU Ic. t 194. Wight III. t. 96. 

RQferences.-pict. of Ecm. Prod, of M.; 

Brand. For. Fl.; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A small deciduous tree, often reduced to a mere 

shrub.^ Inthe latter form it makes a good fence 

tor which It is occasionally utilised in Mysore 

The species coppices well and affords exceUent fuel 

Wood light yellow outside, brown to dark brown in 

ae centre hard, even-grained, tough and durable. 

Weight .49-56 lb. per cubic foot. When.weU 

seasoned, it is a highly ornamental wood with a 

fine glossy surface. It is used for pestles, wooden 

bells, and other minor purposes. There is a super- 

station m Mysore that, when this wood is felled and 

toought m to the house at midnight, on new moon 

day, the latter falling on a Sunday, it possesses the 

power to drive away devils. The acid fmit is eaten : 

and nearly every part of the tree is considered 

medicmal. 



MYSORE AND flOOECf, 155 



Cultivation.— The species is propagated from seed 
and offsets, but in either method the growth is exceed- 
ingly slow at first ; and the most careful treatment 
will often result in a stunted shrub. In tracts where 
the tree is established, reproduction is best attained 
by coppicing, which induces the lateral growth of 
numerous offsets. 

311 Cornus macrophylla, Wall. Kan. Hadaga. 
B.eferences.-Brand. For. Fl. 253. Fl. of Brit. 
Ind. 

Lovery describes this as « a large tree found in 
the Malnad, but very scarce. Wood finely close- 
gramed and fit to be worked up and pohshed. Good 
for building and furniture." In the deciduous forests 
of the maidan, it does not attain a very great size, 
but the wood appears to be used for paddy grinders 
and agricultural implements. More information is • 
needed as to the condition, merit, and uses of the 
species. The fruit is edible, and goats are said to 
browse on the leaves, 

Cornus capitata, Wall, should be feund on the hills. 
It IS a small hairy tree having dense heads of .con- 
nate flowers subtended by four large white bracts, 

XL. RUBIACE-ffi. 

312 Sarcocephalus cordatus, Miq. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 318. 

Refereiices.-.ff«r0. For. Fl Burm. ; Gamble 
Man. Timh. 218. 

A small tree cultivated in the Botanical Gardens. 
Indigenous to parts of Ceylon and Burmah. An 
ornamental species with globular heads of yellowish 
flowers which are very fragrant. T^ood rather light 
and coarse gramed. Beddome hag recorded that it 
is used for making sandals. Fruits combined in a 
round fleshy mass, the size of a potato-plum. 

313 Anthocephalus CadamJja. m<i,Kan, Kadaral, 



l56 ^dHEST TREES. 



Fig.—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 

Fl. Sylv. 127, t 35. 
References-— Pharm. Ind. ; Diet, of EcOn. Pioi, 

of Ind. 

In tlie Malnad, tliis fine tree attains a great height 
and affords dense shade from its spreading brianches. 
But in the early stages of growth it assumes a com- 
pact conical form- It is sacred to the consort of 
Siva, and the fragrant flowers produced in globular 
heads are offered at some of the native shrines. 
These flowers are most odoriferous at night and are 
supposed by the Hindus to possess some magnetic 
influence in the interests of love. "The tree is 
planted near villages and temples, and is held to be 
sacred. It is the Arbor Generationis of the Mairatha 
Kunbis, arid a branch of it is brought into the house 
at the time of their marriage ceremonies." 

PharmacograpMa Indica. 

Wood white with a yellowish tinge, soft and 
open grained, cracks^ when exposed. Weight about 
40 lb. per cubic foot. Graham Anderson says' it is 
useless, except for making bath-brick bo^ds. 
Dombers use it for their play-posts and, occasionally, 
when better timber is not at hand, it may be used 
for various domestic purposes. The fruit and bark 
are medicinal ; and the tree is occasionally referred 
to by English settlers as the ' wild cinchona.' Fruits 
confluent into a spherical mass, the size of a small 
" brarige. 

Cultivation. — It is only in the moist region of the 
hills, where this tree attains its full size and beauty 
and where it is'reproduced by seeds and offsets. The 
globular flower heads are orange-coloured, with 
white club-fdrmed stigmas projecting well beyond 
the corollas. Very ornamental. 
314 Adina cbrdifolia, Hook. Kan. Bachanige, Hettega, 

Tetfega, 'Hedde, Arsinatega. 

Fig.-Brand:ForJ Fl. 263, t. 33. 



itYSORE ANb'GOOEG. 157 

References.— FL of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A lofty tree of tlie Kill forests and maidan ad- 
jacent to the hills. It occasionally attains an enor- 
mous size and is well known by the vernacular name 
Arpinatega, meaning " yellow teak." Commonly met 
with all through the Malnad and parts of Coorg. 
Leaves deciduous, roundish cordate, leathery; stipules 
large and caducous. Fruit capsular — a character 
which at once distinguishes the species from 312 and 
313 — seeds numerous. Wood uniformly yeUow, or 
changiug by exposure to reddish brown, with no 
heartwood nor annular rings. "Weight 42 — 50 lb. 
per cubic foot. Although somewhat liable to warp 
and crack, this wood seasons well, takes a good 
polish and is considered by some fairly durable in 
cabinet work ; it is also prized in Bombay for its 
•durability in water, on which account it is much 
used for fishing^Btakes. But the seasoned wood is 
said to be very subject to the attacks of the car- 
penter bee, Apis xylocarpa. 

It turns well, and is specially useful for making 
small articles such as combs, gunstocks and orna> 
mental boxes. But the species is best known for 
its bitter bark, which is a popular febrifuge and 
antiseptic among the agricultural classes. 

Cultivatibni^The species is propagated from 
seed and offsets, but never attains its full develop- 
ment far away from the hills. A deep virgin soil, 
watered annually by 75 — 100 inches of rain, is 
perhaps the best medium for good growth. 

315 SteiJhegyne parvifblia, Koeth. Kan. Kadagada, 
Eadani, Cuddaru ? 

"Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 34. Wight HI. t. 123. 
References— BmMcZ. For. Fl, 262. Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind, 



188 FOREST TREES. 



In Mysore, this is a deciduous tree of medium or 
large size, according to position, but always attaiaiflg 
its largest dimensions in the moist valleys of the 
Malnad, or hill country. 

"Wood grey to light-reddisli brown, compact, 
close and fine grained, hard. Weight 35 — 47 lb. 
per cubic foot, seasoned ; 54 lb. green. Durable if 
not exposed to wet. No distinct heartwood. Medul- 
lary rays very numerous and fine. Easily worked, 
and polishes well. Used for building, furniture, 
agricultural implements, combs, and to a large ex- 
tent for turned and carved articles, such as platters, 
cups, and spoons. The leaves are used for fodder." 

Bra7idis. 

Kadagada mara possesses social habits, and, like 
the Mugali, it multipHes rapidly in moist situations, 
It does not appear to be much used in the south, 
although, judging from the above quotation, it is of 
considerable value in the north of India. Capsule 
of 2 dehiscent cocci, very small and numerously 
seeded. 

Cultivation. — Eaise from seed and plant in sholas, 
where the rainfall is 75 — 120 inches. The . seed 
should be taken from old trees in the best situations, 
otherwise it may not germinate. 

316 Hymenodictyon excelsum, Wall. Te^,|Bandaru. 
Tig.-WigU Ic. t. 19. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t 219, A. 
only. 

'Reference.— Fl. of Brit. India. 
Usually a small deciduous tree, but occasionally 
middle-sized and rarely large. Inner bark reddish, 
astrmgent, and very bitter. Said to be in common 
use among the coimtry people as a tonic and febri- 
fuge. But fuller information is needed as also good 
specimens of the tree. It frequents dry hills, 
deciduous tracts, and the outer fringe of the eyer- 
green belt. 



MYSOEE AND COOEG. 159 

317 Hymenodictyon obovatum, Wall. 

Fig— Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 219. Wight Ic. t. 1159. 

Reference.— F/. of Brit. Ind. 

A deciduous tree of the Baba Budan hills. Mostly- 
larger in all its parts than H. excelsum. The living 
bark is bitter and astringent, but is said to lose these 
properties when dried. It is not red in colour. 

318 Wendlandia Notoniana, Wall. Kan. Bettada 

kammagaggare. 

, mg.—Bedd. FL Syh. t. 224. 

A small tree growing plentifully at Nundydroog. 
Flowers reddish-white fragrant. It is not known if 
the species is abundant, or if it possesses economic 
value. Enquiry should be made by the forest 
officer of the Kolar District. 

319 Wendlandia Lawii, Hook. Closely allied to 
the foregoing and said to be plentiful on the Baba 
Budan hills. Specimens should be submitted with 
the vernacular name and such local data as can be 
relied upon. 

320 Mussaenda frondosa, Linn. Tarn. Vellaellaj. 

Fig.— JSoi. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 
III. t. 124. 

References-— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

This attractive shrub is not plentiful in the 
interior- of Mysore, although it is no doubt common 
in the scrub jungle of the south-eastern frontier. 
In the Presidency of Madras, it is much esteemed 
for its medicinal properties, in which the leaves, 
.flowers, fruit, and root, all contribute a part. It is 
well marked by its white calycine leaves which form 
an interesting contrast with the sombre green of 
the proper leaves. Hence the vernacular appel- 
lation ' white leaf.' But it is an exceedingly vari- 
able plant in different situations, and in the " Flora 
of British India, " Sir Joseph Hooker has diagnosed 



160 FOREST T-EEDS. 



no less than six varieties. Of these, the variety- 
grandifolia, which is cultivated in the Lal-Bg^gh, is 
perhaps the most ornamental. The bush is sup- 
posed to be "a favourite of the goddess of fortune 
from the fact of, its bearing the white mark' of 
Vishnu or Krishna. 

Cultivation,— The garden specimen has never 
borne seed, although it flowers freely. Propagation 
is therefore effected by layering. Cuttings of soffr 
shoots will also take root in bottom heat. The 
shrub is very hardy and stands long periods of 
drought unimpaired. 

321 Webera corymbosa, Willd. Kan. Papati. 
^ig.-Wighf Ic. t. 309, 584 and 1064. 
Reference.— J7. of Brit. Ind, 

This very conijiion shrub occasionally assumes the 
form of a miniature, tree, but the maidan speci-, 
mens rarely exceed 8 feet in height. Thp small,' 
wood burns brj^tly, ^ and , is much prized by the 
country dhoby.T^L ^rried into the bazaars in 
bundles, and sold as fuel. 

322 Randia dumetorum, Lamk. Kan. Mangare, 

Mangare-bongare. 

mg.- Wight Ic. t. 580, 581, 683 and 583. 

B,eferences.-Dict. of Econ. Prod, of M. ; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
^A rigid shrub or small tree armed' with spines 
I" to 1^" long. Common in Shimoga, and skirting 
the G-hats, but somewhat rare in the drier tractsi 
Flowers large, white- changing, to yellow, fragrant. 
Fruit the size of a small apple, much esteemed, as 
an Indian emetic. When members of the Ycmya 
caste are being married, fruits of the MangamedXi^ 
Yedamim. are fastened on to the wrists of the 
happy pair. 

This is an indispensable ceremony. The forest 
officer at'Shimoga gives the following particuki's^:- 



MYSOM AND OOOBO. 161 



A small tree, cogamon everywhere. Wood h&air^f 
and strong but liable to warp ; used for agricultural 
implements, fences and fuel. Bark and fruit used 
in medicine. 

Cultivation.— Growth is very slow in almost any 
position. A nallab or old well recently filled up 
with soil and rubbish, is perhaps the best site. Pro- 
pagate from seed. 

323 Randia uliginosa, DO. Kan. Kare, Pendri, Pandri? 

■Fig— Wight Ic. t. 397^ 

Reference.— DicL of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A glabrous tree of very rigid habit, with or with- 
out spines. Flowers large, white and solitary. Fruit 
pear-shaped, and edible when roasted or boUed ; sold 
in the bazaars in localities where the tree is 'plentiful. 
The whole tree is considerably larger than B. dvmeto- 
rwm, and should be found on the eastern and southern 
borders of the province. The species i2. rugulqsa, 
Thw. and B. CandoMeana, W. and A. are also refer- 
red to Mysore and the Western GhatS. 

324 Gardenia lucida, Roxb. 

Fig.-Wight Ic. t. 675. 

A small tree of West Mysore and Coorg. Leaves 
deciduous, glabrous, short-petioled, effi^ie, obtuse, 
many nerved ; average blade 7x3 in. Flowers axil- 
lary, solitary, large, fragrant, white changing to 
yellow. Fruit oval or subglobose. 

325 (Sardenia gummifera, Linn. Kan. Bikke, 

BiMEemalli,'. Kambi. 

Vig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh boUection. 

References. — Pharm. Ind. ', Did. of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 

A decidupus shrub qr gmall , tree according to 
situation. Buds and young foliage resinous and 
shining, as if they had been plunged into water. 

21 



162 FOREST rutm. 



Flowers large, white changing to yellow, fragrant, 
appearing in May with the young leaves. Fruit the 
size of a guava, woody and containing 30 — 50 seeds. 
Wood white, very hard, might be used for engraying. 
Fruit said to be eaten in the Malnad. But-the 
species is best known by its medicinal gum-resin 
known to the trade as Dikamali. The latter product 
has an offensive smell resembling cats urine, is hand- 
collected, and has a marketable value of B-s. 3-12 per 
maund of 37^ lbs. Cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens. 

Cultivation.— Thrives well in a deep reddish loam, 
but only attains size where there is perennial mois- 
ture. Eemoved from the fruit, the seeds germinate 
quickly. 

326 Gardenia latifolia, Ait. 

Fig~WigU Ic. t. 759. 

Reference .-jp';. of Brit. Ind. 

A smaU deciduous tree of the dry-hill districts: 
It is a highly ornamental species when in blossom, 
and should find a place in gardens and pleasure 
grounds. The fruit is said to be eaten. Wood 
whitish, hard and durable. Weight 52—55 lb. per 
cubic foot. 

Cultivation.-As for the preceding species^ bnt 
requiring less moisture, and better adapted for natur- 
ally dry situations. 

327 Canthium didynum. ^ox-b. Km. Teddaranike. 
A common shrub of waste land. Bark medicinal. 

The leaves smell of coriander. Wood said to be 
good for tool handles. 

^^ ^^aIhu.'" "'"''^"at""!' Wight. Kan. Abak, 

Fig- Wight Ic. t. 1034. 
References.-5^««rf. p,,^ jjj f^^^ ^ 
Timb. 



ilYSOBB AND OOOEO. 163 

Although this handsome evergreen tree is now 
confined to the Malnad and Coorg, it is worthy of 
culture for ornament in gardens. It may also be 
found on the Baba Budan hills. But the descrip- 
tions of Brandis and Gramble are at variance,- and 
may apply to different species. The vernacular 
names are also doubtful- as they are in some cases 
applied to Flacowrtia inermis, a small tree of the 
Bixineas. The wood of the species under notice is 
reported to be hard and close-grained. "Weight 57 lb. 
per cubic foot. 

329 Canthium parviflorum, Lamk. Kan. Kare, 
'Fig.— Bot. Flates Lal-BagTi Collection. 
References.— jPZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. ; Fharm. Ind. 

A rigid spiny bush or rarely a small tree. Very 
common in the maidan and usually affecting dry 
rocky positions. Truit commonly eaten. The 
leaves are also edible, but are most prized for their 
supposed medicinal properties, a decoction of them 
being prescribed in different stages of flux. The 
small wood is suitable for turning. ■ The- shrub is 
gregarious in some parts, always difficult to exter- 
minate, and, properly trimpaed, forms a good 
fence. 

Cultivation.— Under artificial treatment, the 
species makes very slow growth, but seeds dibbled 
in between the crevices of rocks will soon germinate 
and form strong plants. Once started in this way, 
the Kare soon multiplies itself by seed and offsets. 

330 Vangueria edulis, Yahl. 

A small tree of Madagascar. Recently received 
at the Lal-Bagh, and said to be cultivated in some 
parts of India for its fruit. 

331 Ixora parviflora, Vahl. Ka/n. Gorivi, Hennn gorvi, 

Gorabikattige. 



164 FOBBST fnwss. 



Fig -Bedd. Fl. Syh. f. 333. Wight Ic. t. 711. 

References. — iJict. of Econ. Prod, of Ind,; 
Brand. For. Fl. ; Fl of Brit. Ind. 
This is the well known torch tree of the Malnad 
and Coorg. There are two varieties, differing some- 
what in form and size, but they are both evergreen, 
resinous trees of rather stunted dimensions. The 
green wood burns so well that torches of it are 
commonly carried by travellers and tappal runners 
to light the way in dark nights. The white honey- 
scented flowers are produced in great abundance 
during the months of March and April, when they 
exhale a strong perfume in the forests. They are 
supposed to be very efficacious in the treatment of 
whooping cough, when pounded in milk and taken 
internally. Although rather small, the wood is said 
to be hard and even-grained. "Weight 57 — 66 lb. 
per cubic foot. The tree is ornamental and should 
find a place in private grounds. It is reported that 
the small black berries are eaten in some parts. 

Cultivation.— Easily raised from seed and can be 
successfully grown in any soil of ordinary fertility. 
In dry tracts it should be confined to the sides of 
channels or tanks. 

332 Ixora cocci nea, Linn. 

A woody shrub cultivated in gardens for its 
handsome crimson flowers. It is known to a few 
Europeans as the " flame of the forest" and "jungle 
geranium." The species is sacred to Shiva and is 
said to possess medicinal virtues of some import- 
ance. Several alhed species exist in the scrub tracts 
and skirting the evergreen belts, especially I. Ban- 
dhuca, I. alba, and I. acuminata. These are all good 
border shrubs with pretty flowers. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seed, layers and 
cuttings. All the species require a deep retentive 
soil with an open aspect and moderate rainfall. 



litSOBTS Aim OOOBG. 165 

333 Pavetta indica, Linn, Kan. Pavate, Pappadi. 

Fig-Wight Ic. t. 148. 

References.— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind, ; Fl. 
of Brit. Ind. ; Brand. For. Fl. 275. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree of variable 
character. Plentiful in the scrub tracts and on the 
isolated hills of the interior. It is commonly used 
for fuel ; and the root and leaves are medicinal. 
The Flora of British India enumerates five varieties 
of the species. 

334 CofFea arabica, Linn. 

The vernacular is a corruption of the English 
name of the product, and nothing more. 

The Arabian coffee bush is largely cultivated on 
the hills of Mysore and Coorg. In the first named 
province, the principal seats of cultivation are Ohik- 
magalur, Manjarabad, Koppa and the Baba Budan 
hills. Its cultivation was established atthe first named 
place by Mr. Cannon about the year 1830 ; since 
which date many thousands of acres have been 
cleared of virgin forest to make room for coffee. 
An interesting experiment of growing this, product 
imder irrigation, at Bangalore, has proved very 
successful for several consecutive years, and 
Mr. Meenachshaiya, the owner of the estate, is 
sanguine of its becoming a profitable industry in 
carefully selected sites. 

The crop now on view, at Rochdale Park, is cer- 
tainly much heavier than what is usually seen on the 
hill estates. But whether the coffee plant will sustain 
forcing for any length of time, is yet a matter of 
experiment. 

For best results on the hiUs, the bush requires a 
certain amount of shade, but in supplying this, a 
very judicious selection of trees becomes imperative, 
in case that the latter should do more Harm than 



166 FOREST TBES8. 



good. Planters are no-w fairly agreed that the 
species named in the following list afford the best 
shade for coffee, but for obvious reasons it is im- 
possible to single out one tree and say it excels in 
every locality and under all conditions of treatment. 
Such a tree is not to be found iu nature. But in 
giving the names of popular shade-trees, some at- 
tempt has been made to classify them according to 
their supposed order of merit or precedence : — 

1 Ficus glomerata. Atti. Not bo good when aged. 

2 Dalhergia latifolia. Biti. 

3 Terminalia helerica. Tare. 

4 Pterocarpus marsupium- Honne. 

5 Acrocarpus fraxinifolius. Howiige. 

6 Albizzia odoratissima. Biivara. 

7 Artocarpus integrifolia. Halasu, Not good when aged. 

8 Lagerstroemia microcarpa. 

9 Cedrela toona. Noge. 

10 FicUS bengalensis, Alada mara. Not very suitable in poor 

land. 

11 f' tuberculata- 

12 P. mysorensis- Goni. 

Liberian coffee, Goffea Liberica, has also been esta- 
blished on some of the estates. Left to itself, it 
becomes a small tree. 

335 Morinda citrifolia var. bracteata. 

A shrub or small evergreen tree with large glossy 
leaves and white fragrant flovrers, the latter pro- 
duced in a peculiar cone-like inflorescence. Culti- 
vated in the Lal-Bagh, but not known to be indi- 
genous to any part of the province. The specific 
form IS known to afford the greater part of the Al 
dye of Indian commerce, a product which is obtain- 
ed from the root of the plant. Morinda umbellata, 
Lmn. is also cultivated in the Botanical Gardens, 
and may be indigenous to the Malnad. The roots 



MTSOBE AND OOOEO: 167 

yield a yellow dye whicli is locally known as Maddi 
bcmna. The fruit is said to be curried and eaten. 

Psychotria. Several species of this large sub- 
tropical genus are found in the hill tracts of Mysore. 
They are shrubs or small trees with smooth ever- 
green leaves and clusters of reddish berries somewhat 
resembling small coffee berries. Those most likely 
to be found in the hill forests are P. Thwaitesii, 
P. truncata and P. Dalzellii. Coffee can be inarched 
with more than one of the above named, but with 
what result has not been proved. 

336 Rubia cordifolia, Linn, Kan.- Manjnshta. 
Munjeet or Indian madder. A deciduous climber 

of vUlage fences, intermediate hills, and waste 
tracts. The roots possess a colouring matter which 
is of very ancient utility as a dye. It is not, how- 
ever, equal to the imported European madder, which 
is the produce of Rubia tinctoria. 

337 Hamelia patens, Jacq. 

A small evergreen tree of South America. Cul- 
tivated in the Lal-Bagh as a hedging plant and as an 
ornamentally- pruned bush or small tree. A row of 
the latter may be seen on the terrace bank at the 
Cubbon Park. 

Cultivation.— The species is unproductive of seed 
in Mysore, so that propagation has to be entirely 
effected by division. Cuttings soon take root durrag 
the rains. The plant stands a wonderful amount of 
pruning, and may on that account be trained into 
various artistic or grotesque forms. 

338 Cinchona succirubra, Wbdd. 

Fig.— Howard's III. Neuva Quinologia p, 7. 

References.— P^arm, Ind. ; Diet. ofEcon. Prod, 
of Ind. 

The red bark. This important tree, with the 
allied species G. officinalis^ Hook,-— Loxa,; crown. 



168 90SBI3T TSXES. 



Condiainmea, or pale bark, — C. calisaya, Wedd. — ^yel. 
low bark, — and C, calisaya var. Ledgericma, are 
cultivated to some extent in tlie coffee-planting dis- 
tricts of Mysore and Coorg. But Cinchona bark is 
scarcely an export article at present, although, very 
good samples are said to have been forwarded to 
the English market. The total area under privaite 
cultivation in Mysore and Coorg possibly does not 
exceed 2,000 acres. When a sufllcient number of 
factories have been established in the country for 
the preparation of quinine, and especially for the 
extraction of the alkaloids, cultivation will become 
more remunerative than it has been in the past. 
Cinchona trees are of no value in the maidan portion 
of Mysore, but a good field for production might 
possibly be found in the Baba Budan range. 



XLI. OOMPOSITJE. 

339 Vernonia arborea, Ham. 

A small evergreen tree cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens. It is indigenous to the Nilgiri range and 
may be found on the higher altitudes of Western 
Mysore. Of Compositas, it is the only arbofesceat 
species found in Southern India. 

XLII. MYRSINE^. 

340 Maesa indica. Wail. 

A small evergreen tree of the extreme western 
forests. Berries edible. 

341 Embelia robusta, Roxb. 

In hilly tracts towards the west of Mysol-e. A 
rambhng shrub or small tree. Fruit edible and 
medibirial. H. Bihes, Butro. is an allied species, the 
berries of which are much prized in native medicine, 
It is a strong wobdy climber known by the Kanarese 
jwmes Ya-^iMUga, and Vayivalangd. Th© fruit of 



MTSORE AND COOM. l69 



both species is supposed to be collected under a 

common vernacular name. 

342 Ardisia humilis, Yahl. Kan. Bodina. • 

mg— Wight Ic. 1 1212. 
References.— i^Z. of Brit. Ind. : Bedd. For. 
Man. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A large evergreen shrub of Hassan, SMmoga and 
Kadur ; or, in the variety arhorescens, a small tree of 
25 feet. Both forms are cultivated in the Botani- 
cal Gardens, "where they thrive without care and 
always look attractive. Leaves very shortly-petio- 
late, oblong to elliptic, stout and leathery, cuneate 
at the base and crowded towards the ends of the 
branchlets. Flowers pink, fleshy. The berries, 
which are very numerous, afford a yellow dye which 
is scarcely known at present. Other species of 
Ardisia should be searched for in the hill region. 



XLIII. SAPOTAOEiE. 

343 Achras ^apota, Linn. 

Fig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

This is the Naseberry or Sapodilla of the West 
Indies. A small evergreen tree that fruits freely 
in the Lal-Bagh, during the months of March and 
April. It is easily propagated from seed and will, 
no doubt, become naturalised as a garden tree. 
Long periods of drought are unfavorable to it, and 
to be highly productive of fruit, it requires proper 
attention in the matter of irrigating and manuring. 
Well-grown Sapodillas are the size of a large apple, 
round or oblong according to variety. 

Taken at the proper stage of ripeness it is a de- 
licious fruit. But it is not attractive to the eye, 
owing to the external covering being of the same 
colour as the bark of the trunk. The cultivation of 
this useful species should be encouraged in fruit 
gardens. 

22 



170 tOWiSH TBEES. 



344 ChrysophylluiYi Cainito, LiNN, 

A small evergreen tree, tlie leaves being of a 
golden hue underneatli, and therefore very orna- 
mental. It is tlie ' star apple ' of the West Indies. 
Kecently introduced into the Botanical Gardens. 
The fruit, which is the size of an English apple, is 
said to be edible. 

345 Sideroxylon inerme, Linn. 

Iron wood. A small evergreen tree introduced 
from the Cape of Good Hope. It grows slowly and 
builds up wood of an exceptionally durable quality. 
S. tcmientosum, Roxb. an indigenous species, should 
be looked for in the moist sholas of the western 
Malnad. 'It is a small densely woolly tree with 
yellow berries the size of a gooseberry. 

346 Dichopsis elliptica, Bbnth. Kan. Pauolionta? 
Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 43. 

References— Dicf. of Econ. Prod, oflnd.; Gamh. 
Man. Timb. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
The Pauchotee or Indian Gutta tree. This fine 
species attains a height of 100 feet and is said to 
be abundant in the moist sholas of the "Western 
Ghats. It is also found in Coorg and on the Baha 
Budan hills. The milk-sap is used in some parts 
as an adulterant for the true Gutta-percha of 
Singapore, but it is doubtful if the indigenous pro- 
duct is ever collected, either for export or home use. 
Local information is wanted on this point, as it 
would seem that Indian Gutta has a commercial 
status in the "Western Ghat forests of Madras and 
Bombay. 

" A gigantic tree, 100 feet and up to 12 feet in 
girth, common in all the moist sholas of the Western 
Ghats of the Madras Presidency, up to 3,500 or 
4,000 feet, and in similar localities on the Bombay 
Ghats ; the timber is hard and not unlike sal in its 
grain and takes a good polish. It is much employed 



MTSOM AND COOM. ■ 171 

by planters for building purposes, and might be used 
for furniture. A sort of G-utta exudes from tlie 
trunk, which is known as Pala gum or Indian Gutta- 
percha. It is not of any value compared with the 
true Gutta-percha, but might be used as a birdlinio 
or a cement, and perhaps for encasing telegraph 
wires. The tree is known by the native names of 
Pdld and Pauchotee." Beddome. 

In leaf, flower, fruit and general character, thia 
tree resembles an Ippe of colossal size, and it is in 
fact nearly allied to the latter. Cultivation not 
known. Botanical specimens are required for the 
herbarium. 

347 Bass i a longifolia, Linn, Kan. ippe, Hippe. 

Fig—Bot. Plates Lal-BagJi Collection. Bedd. Fl. 
Sylv. t. 42. Wight III. 1. 147. 

HeferenceB.—Thwaites Enum. 175. Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

The Mowa or Mahwa tree of South India. Abund- 
ant throughout the maidan, but especially in village 
topes and in the road avenues where the tree is sub- 
deciduous and forms a compact roundish head of 40 
to 50 feet in height. Leaves crowded at the ends 
of the branchlets, petiolate, glabrous, lanceolate, 
average blade 5x1^ in. The Ijppe is distinguished 
from the Mahwd tree of Central India, Bassia 
latifolia, Eoxb. by its narrow leaves and smoother 
bark ; it is also nearly evergreen. The time 
of flowering is quite different as also the §ize 
of the flower, fruit and seed. Wood yellowish 
brown, to red in the centre, close-grained and 
moderately durable. Beddome recommends it for 
use under the water line as direct exposure to the 
air is injurious. Weight 61 lb. per cubic foot. 
Important medicinal properties are attributed to 
the flowers of the Ippe, as also to the concrete oil 
expressed from its seed. The oil is suitable for the 



172 FOREST TREES. 



manufacture of soap and candles, but in Mysore it is 
mostly used for biu-ning and very rarely as an article 
of food. Grhee is occasionally adulterated "witli it, 
although the bitter taste it imparts to that commo- 
dity should easily detect its presence. 

A spiritous liquor is distilled from the flo-wers 
of B. latifolia in Central India ; but there is no 
corresponding industry in the south, although the 
flowers of B. longifolia, contain the necessary ia- 
gredients in about the same proportion. A kind of 
sugar is prepared from the flowers on a small scale^ 
but it is considered to be heating and bilious in its 
action. The flowers are much relished by cattle 
and vermin, and some of the jungle tribes partly 
subsist upon them. They appear with the young 
leaves at the close of the hot season, and are made 
apparent by their peculiar heavy odour. The fmit 
ripens in July and August. The bark affords an 
inferior gum generally known ia the south as, Ellopa. 
Having so many useful properties, this tree is well 
known to and much cultivated by the people. 

Cultivation,— The Ippe appears to thrive best in 
stony soil or among rocky boulders, where there is a 
good depth of loam. It is easily raised from seed 
and should be planted out iu the year foUowutg 
production. Seeds deposited by birds and squirrels 
often come up promisciously. For avenue work 
plant at 45 feet apart. Large pits filled with loose 
soil of good quality will facihtate growth to a 
marked extent. 

348 Bassia latifolia, Roxb. Kan. Kadu ippe? 
Kad hippe ? 

■pig'—Bedd. M. Sylv. t. 41. 

References- Brand. For. Fl.289. Diet ofEcon. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

This is the proper Mowa or Mahwa tree of Central 
India. It is not very common in Mysore and never 



MTSOBE AND COORG. 11^ 

forms gregarious woods as it does in the north. 
Leaves deciduous for nearly two months during 
the close of the cold and beginning of the warm 
seasons. Crowded at the ends of the branchlets, 
pubescent and coppery-red when young, eventually 
quite glabrous. Petiolate, oblong-elliptic shortly 
acute. Average blade 8x4 in. Flowers cream- 
coloured and honey-scented, not so heavy as in the 
last species. Berry the size of a Belgaum" walnut 
with 1 — 4 seeds. The cultivation of this tree seems 
desirable, as its economic properties, although 
almost identical with those of B. longifolia, have been 
fully tested, and are therefore more appreciated 
than the properties of the latter. In Central and 
Northern India the species is a well known supplier 
of food, medicine, liquor and timber, although the 
last named product is usually exempted in favour of 
the more valued flowers and seeds. The Ead Ippe 
is mostly confined, as the name implies, to the jungle 
forests, but it rarely ascends beyond the mixed zone, 
nor does it appear to be much used in the domestic 
economy of the people. The wood, which is reddish- 
brown in colour, is protected by a thickish, corky 
bark which often cracks in horizontal rings or 
sections of rings. The quality of the wood is favor- 
ably reported on both by Brandis and Beddome, 
The dried flowers are eaten. 

Cultivation.— Practically as for B. longifolia. The 
re-production noticed in sdme localities is probably 
due to the intervention of birds and vermin. 

349 Bassia malabarica, Bebd. 

Although this tree has not been reported from 
the Malnad, there is little doubt it exists on the 
western frontier. 

350 Mimusops Elengi, Linn. Kan. Pagade, BoHu? 

Kanja, PogaSa, Halmadliu. 

Fig— Bat. Flates Lal-Boigli Collection. Bedd. Fl, 
Sylv. t. 4D. Wight Ic. t. 1586, 



174 FOREST TREES. 



References.— M of Brit. Ind,; Diet, of Ecm. 
Prod.oflnd.; Pharm. Ind. 
A very handsome evergreen tree of "Western 
Mysore and Coorg. Cultivated at the Lal-Bagh 
and Nundydroog, but rarely seen elsewhere in 
the maidan. Much valued for its medicinal pro- 
perties in -which the bark, flowers, fruit and seed, 
all take a part. A culinary and medicinal oil is ex- 
pressed from the seed, while the fresh flowers 
afford a volatile oU which is used in perfumery. 
The white star-like flowers are deliciously fragrant 
and fall from the trees abundantly during the warm 
season. When properly seasoned, the wood is said 
to be very durable ; it splits well and is locally 
prized for rice pounders. Weight about 60 lb. per 
cubic foot. 

" It is close and even-grained, pinkish to red- 
dish brown in colour and takes a good poHsh." 
Beddome. The fruit is eaten by the jungle people, 
and the tree is occasionally cultivated in gardens 
for its sweet scented flowers which are both worn 
as garlands and presented at the temples. 

Cultivation. — Easily propagated from seed and 
only requiring deep soil and a uniform supply of 
water to produce a very handsome tree. It suffers 
from long periods of drought but recovers rapidly 
when timely rains fall. A position, where the sub- 
soil never becomes hard and cracked, would produce 
the finest growth, or where the annual rainfall is 
60 to 100 inches. It is a good shade tree for coffee. 
351 Mimusops hexandra, Roxb. 

Yig.-WigU Ic. t. 1587. 

'Reference.— Brand. For. Fl. 291. 
This large, evergreen tree is confined to the ever- 
green zone of the Western Ghats. Economic pro- 
perties supposed to be nearly identical with those 
of M. Elengi. The heartwood is very hard, heavy 
and Qlose-grained. Weight 60—72 lb. per cubic 



MTSOUf km COOBG. i^S 

foot. Brandis recommends it for turning. Forest 
officers make no mention of the species, but its exist- 
ence in the western Malnad can scarcely be doubted. 
Corolla lobes only six in number, whereas in 
M. Elengi they are 16 — 20. M. Boxburghiana, Wight. 
has not been reported also, although there is little 
^question of its existence in some of the hill forests. 
The cultivation of these trees is unknown, but judg- 
ing from their position, it should be confined to the 
hill ranges, where there is plenty of shade and mois- 
ture. 



XLIV. EBENACE^. 

352 Maba nigrescens, Dalz. 

A small tree of the "Western G-hats. Very hairy, 
"young branches almost shaggy." Fl. of Brit. 
Ind. Although small, the wood of this tree is said 
to be prized for rafters for native houses. It is 
also supposed that the berries are eaten by the hill 
people. More information is required with speci- 
mens and the local name. 

353 Diospyros montana, Roxb. Kan. Jagalaganti, 

Bilkunika, Balkunika, Kalnandi. 

Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. WigU 
Ic. t. 1225. WigU III. t. 148. 

References.— D«ci. ofJEcon. Prod, of Ind.; Brand. 
For. Fl. ; Kurz. For. Fl. Burm. 
A small tree on the plains but attaining a larger 
size towards the hills and not uncommon all over 
the province. Pandits use the bark and heartwood 
in native medicine, and the fruit is used by the 
Travancore hill-men to poison fish. Wood yellowish- 
grey, finely grained, and easily worked ; but very 
unpopular with the lower classes owing to the super- 
stition that its presence in a house causes dissension 
and strife among the occupants. It is well adapted 
for making rafters, couples, and small articlesof fumi- 



176 po:ftEgT TOEES. 



ture ; and the enlightened Hindu should extend its 
usefulness iu that capacity. It is agood fuel tree, 
and there seems to be no feasible objection to use it 
widely for that purpose, except that it is difficult 
to fell and is severe on forest tools. The fruit is 
not eaten by the people in this part of India, But 
birds masticate the seeds, and thereby sow them, 
promiscuously. 

Cultivation. — Ee-^productive in some situations. 
Propagate from seed and plant in any moderately 
good soil when the seedliags are a foot or more in 
height. Rocky land having a deep subsoil seems to 
answer well. The species coppices well, and may be 
planted in fuel plantations at 10 — 15 feet apart. 
354 Diospyros Embryopteris, Pees. Zizw. Kusharta? 

Coorg. HoUe tupra. 

Pig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd- 
Ft. Sylv. t. 69. Wight Ic. t t. 843 and 84i. 

References.— Dici. of Economic Prod, of Lid. ; 
Fl.of Brit. Ind.; Brand. Fw. Fl. 298. 

A handsome evergreen tree found rather abund- 
antly in moist sholas and on the banks of rivers. 
Fruit the size of a large apple, coloured green and 
abounding iu tannic acid ; on exposure to the light, 
the inner white flesh quickly changes to a blackish 
colour. But the astringent and tannic properties 
disappear to a great extent as the fruit attains the 
full stage of ripeness, when it may be eaten in small 
quantities with perfect safety. The tree is perhaps 
best known by its Sanskrit name, Tinduica, an appel- 
lation which suggests the medicinal properties of 
the bark and fruit. An oil expressed from the seed 
is also medicinal. Local investigation seems to 
prove that the uses of this tree are comparatively 
unknown in Mysore and Coorg. It is cultivated in 
the Botanical Gardens, and fruits very freely every 
year. The wood, which is light brown, is not of 
much Yalue. 



M&Ott AND ddOftO, II?? 

Cultivation,— This is regulated by the presence 
of deep soil, a cool atmosphere, and plenty of 
moisture. The tree in the Lal^Bagh has never 
borrie fertile seed, nor will it grow from cuttings. 
Seed should bp procured direct from the Malnad, 
as the species is desirable, for gai;den cultivation in 
moist shady positions. 

355 Diospyro$ Ebenum, Kcbnig. Kan. Bale, Kare, 

Mallali. 

mg— Wight Ic. 1. 188. Badd. Fl. Syh, t. 65. 

References.— Z^ici. qf Econ. Prad. of Ind.; ^l. of 
Brit. Ind.; Qarrib. MQ,n. Timh. 251. 

The ebony tree. This important species is con- 
fined to certain tracts in the "Western Ghat forests. 
In the Shimogah district, Lovery states that it is 
"only found in parts of the Tirthahalli and Magar 
Taluk Ghats." The greenishi white sap wood is 
abundant in all but the oldest, trees, a-nd is not very 
durable ; heartwood black, very hard, durable and 
takes a fine polish ; but if hot carefully seasoned, it 
is liable to split. Weight 78--80 lb. per cubic foot. , 
Ebony is in great demand for cg,binet work, turnery, 
inlaying, and musical instruraents. In Mysor^^,, it is 
highly prized by musicians ' li^oth for stringed andt 
wind instrument^ ; but disappointment is often 
caused, by the use of a spurious ebony, which is, more, 
accessible than the true kind. Z>. melmoxylon, which 
is also indigenous to the Malnad, may be the sojirce 
of this inferior product. Although so yalui^ble in 
the fancy-wood market, the ebony tree is s^ill un- 
reserved in the State forests. Is this due to its 
scarcity or to its being practically inaccessible to 
the local trade ? m. ^' 

356 DiQspyrQS tuicrophylla, Bbdd. 

A, large eyprgrep,];! tree with box-like leaves. Met 
with on the hiUs and on the pl,ai]p.s : imnaieJiately 
under the hills, tises unknown, but it is said to 

23 



178 rOUEST TBTIES. 



flower in tlie cold season. The species is figured in 
Beddome's Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 218. 

357 Diospyros Tupru, Btjch— Ham. Kan. Tupra. 
Pig.— -Boi. Flates Lal-Bagh Collection, 
'References— Did. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 

Pharm. Ind.; Fl. of Brit. Ind.- 

A small tree wifcli foliage similar to that of tte 
Jamoon or Nai-nerale. Fniit. the size of a crab apple, 
turning bright yellow in maturity, and generally 
eaten by cowherds and others. 

In the rocky inaidan, the species is often reduced 
to the size of a large shrub, but rises to a height of 
30 — 35 feet in favorable localities. The leaves are 
used for folding native cigarettes ; and a colouring 
paste obtained from the root is employed by the 
Mahrattas to distinguish caste. 

358 Diospyros melanoxylon, KoxB.Za?i. Maiiaii ? 
Fig-Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 67. Wight Ic. ■ t. 1223. 
References-Brand. For. Fl ; Diet, of Emu 

Prod, of Ind. 

In favorable localities in the hill sholas, this 
attains ^ to a large tree of 60—80 feet, but outside 
the moist evergreen zone it becomes dwarfed, while 
in the maidan_ scrub jungle it is httle more than a 
shrub. More information is required concerning it, 
especially with reference to its local utiKty in lieu of 
proper ebony. Herbarium specimens are also 
wanted. D. paniculata, Dalz. should be searched 
for in the western forests. 

359 Diospyros Kaki, Linn. 

A small tree of China and Japan. Cultivated in 
Indian gardens for its fruit, which is commonly 
called the "Chinese Persimmon". The latter is 
green m colour, the size of an apple, and pleasant to 
eat when fully ripe. Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 



lirsoBE MB mom. 1?9 

XLV. STYRAOEiE. 

The large genus Synvphcos is represented in Coorg 
and the Malnad by several species ranging in size 
from shrubs to small trees. But little or nothjing is 
known as to the local economic value of these. 



XLVI. OLEACE^. 

360 Jasminum sambac, Ait. Kan. Mallige, Dundu 

mallige, Gundu mallige. 
This, with several other species and varieties, is 
extensively cultivated in gardens. _ They are scand- 
ent shrubs or woody cHmbers of free growth. The 
jasmine flower is more esteemed than any other 
for providing garlands on the occasion of festivities 
and cermony. It also possesses medicinal proper- 
ties, and the fragrant oil* of jasmine enters largely 
into perfumery and medicine. Applied direct to the 
mammary gland, the fresh flowers are an excellent 
lactifuge. 

361 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Linn. Kan. Parijata, 

Harsing. 

-pig—BoL Mag. t 4900. Beta. Fl. Sylv. t. 

340. 
References. —FL of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 

Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

The night-flowering jasmine. A small tree in the 
north of India, but seldom exceeding a large shrub 
in the south, where it is only found in gardens. 
Medicinal properties are attributed to the leaves, 
fruit, and bark ; and the sweetly fragrant flowers 
aJSord an essential, oil. These flowers are rarely 
open during sunhght. See Indian tradition as to 
the cause of this in the PharmacograpMa Indica. 
At Bangalore, the shrub is very subject to the attack 
of mildew, which, in a measure, spoils its effect. To 
succeed weU, it requires a sheltered position, good 
drainage, and a deep alluvial soil. 



186 FOltHST TUSfES. 



362 Schrebera swietenioides, Roxb. Coorgr. Kaigaute. 
Fig.-Bedd. FL Sylv. t. 248. Wight see. t. 162. - 

References— SrancZ. For. Fl. ; FL of Brit. Ind. 

A medium sized timber tree. Flowers in cymes 
of 100 or less, small, white with brown spots, open- 
ing during the night, when they are dehciously 
fragrant. Capsules large, woody and pear-shaped. 
Not uncommon in Coorg and probably extending 
to parts of the Malnad. Beddome says the wood is 
hard, close-grained, heavy and durable ; also that it 
is used for looms and other articles by the people, 
and that it is well suited for the lathe. Forest 
officials would do well to collect fuller information 
as to the distribution and growth of this species. 
Herbarium specimens would also be acceptable at 
head quarters. Cultivation unknown, but most 
likely confined to the hills. 

363 Linociera malabarica, Wall. 

A small tree of the Western Ghats. L. intermedia, 
Wight, is possibly found on the same range. The 
local merits of these -trees are practically unknowa. 

364 bleaglandulifera, Wall and O. dioica, Roxb. 
Nothing special can be said about these trees at 

present, further than that they exist in the ever- 
green forests of the western frontier. The Europe 
olive, Olea Europea, Linn, has been cultivated in the 
Lal-Bagh for 30 years, but has not fruited during 
that time. 

365 Ligustrum robustum, Blume. 

One of the Indian privets. Cultivated in the Lai- 
Bagh, but never attaining to the size of a tree. The 
cre|my-white flowers are sweet scented and very 



useful for table decoration. 
366 Lfgustrum Roxburghii, Claeke 
T\s-WigUL124^. 



ttl?SOl!E Ai?b OOOtlG. 181 

A small tree or shrub of tlie Western Ghats. 
" Wood liglit-brown, rather close grained and dura- 
ble ; generally used at Mabableshwar in the con- 
struction of huts and'for fuel." Lisboa. 

Cultivation. — With plenty of moisture a,nd deep 
gairden soil, the aboTe two species form attractive 
bushes. They are, however, inimical to long periods 
of dry weather. 

367 Noronhia emarginata, Poie. 

A small evergreen tree f o Madagascar. Cultivated 
in the Botanical Grardens, but not attaining to any 
size. 



XL VII SALVADORACEiE. 

368 Azima tetr^cantha, Lamk. Kan. Bili wuppi. 

Fig—Bot. Plates Lal-Baqh CoUeetion ; Lamh. 
III. t. 807. 

References— P^a/"m. Ind. ; Did. of Eton. Prod, 
of Ind. 

A common evergreen bush of the plaiins. 4 long, 
sharp spines are pi-oduced at every node, which 
give the bush a very formidable appearance. 

Leaves elliptic, rigid, glabrous, and acute. Usual- 
ly very small towards the ends of the shoots. 
Flowers small, white, in axillary clusters. Fruit 
sessile, globular, the size of a black eurrant, 
crystal- white when ripe ; usually eaten by the village 
cMdern. Rare medicinal properties are attributed 
to nearly every part of this plant, but more es- 
pecially to the leaves, roots, and juitoe. The leaves 
are considered an unfailing stimulant for puerperal 
subjects when taken immediately after confinement, 
and are highly pHzed by the villagers on that 
account. For fuller information as to the naedicinal 
value of the species, readers' should see the works 
quoted above. ' 



1§2 POUEST TEEilg. 



XLVIII APOOYNAOE^. 

369 Carissa Carandas, Linn. Kan. Korinda, Karinda, 

Karekai, In Hassan. Heggarjige. 

Fig.— Wight. Ic. t. 426. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 19. 
f. 6. 

References-— P/tavTO. Ind. ; Bid. of Ecen. Prod. 
of Ind. 
A thorny evergreen shrub of scrub tracts_and the 
drier parts of the Malnad. Growing near support, 
it becomes a large -woody climber. "Well known for 
its delicious fruit, which is said, by Firminger, to be 
the best Indian fruit both for preserving and pick- 
ling. There are two or more varieties, in addition to 
the allied species, G. spinarum, and C. macrophylla, 
scattered about the country. The fruits vary in size 
from a small gooseberry to a plum. It is strange 
that a food-providing plant of this class is not more 
extensively cultivated in private gardens, where it 
could be formed into an excellent protective fence 
also. The wood is good for the turning lathe, 
being hard, smooth and fine-grained. The large 
white flowers are attractive and sweet scented. 
Medicinal properties are attributed to the bark, 
leaves, and fruit. 

Cultivation. — "With good soil and a little irriga- 
tion during the dry months, the different species 
thrive luxuriantly, and produce good crops of fruit. 
Propagate from seeds and layers. Inarching and 
grafting has not been tried, but it is well deserving 
of trial. 

For making protective fences around gardens 
and fields, there could be nothing more suitable 
than Korinda. 

370 Cerbera Odollam, Gaertn. Tarn. Katarali, Kan. 

Honde. 

Fig— Bot. Plates. Lal-Bagh. Collection. Wight. 
Ic. t.441. 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 183 

References— i^Z. of Brit. Ind.; Pharm, Ind'> 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A small evergreen tree of swamps and back- 
Waters near the sea. Cultivated in the Botanical 
G-ardens, where it flowers and fruits freely. Flower 
large, white, rotate. 

Fruit of one or two ovoid, ellipsoid, or testiculate 
carpels, the size of a mango. Good specimens are 
plentiful around the ornamental pond in the People's 
Park at Madras, The fruit and seeds are poisonous. 
Wood soft and of no value, only weighing 21 lb. per 
cubic foot. 

371 Kopsia fruticosa, A. DC- 

A large evergreen - shrub of the low hill tracts. 
Ornamental, but otherwise unknown. 

372 Plumeria acutifolia, Poieet. Kan. Deva gana- 

galu. 

Vig.—JBot. Plates. Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight Ic. 
t. 471. Bot. Mag. 3952. 

'References.— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Pharm. Ind.; Fl. of Brit'. Ind. 

The Pagoda tree. This bush-like tree, with its 
numerous gouty-looking branches and handsome 
creamy flowers, is a familiar object in most Indian 
towns. It flowers profusely in the hot weather and 
is often planted in Christian burial grounds. 

The bark and flowers possess medicinal proper- 
ties which, however, should be applied with 
caution. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from cuttings and plant 
out in any dry rocky position. Although but 
naturalised in this country, the species is remark- 
able for its long endurance of drought. 

373 Alstonia scholaris, Buowiir. Kan. Jantala, Jan- 

thalla. 

Fig.- Wight. Ic. t, 423. Bedd, Fl, Syh. t. 242, 



184 FOREST TREES. 



References— Did. of Econ. Prod, oflnd.; Phai-m. Ind. 
An evergreen tree of variable size. Mostly confined 
to the dry and snbalpine forests of Mysore and 
Coorg. Leaves in whorls of 4— 7, petiolate, elliptic- 
oblong, coriaceous, white underneath ; average blade 
7x2 in. Follicles 1 — 2 feet, in pendulous clusters, 
very slender. The wood of this tree is of little 
value, being soft and light — weight 28 lb. per cubic 
foot. — but the bark and leaves are prized for their 
medicinal properties. The bark, which is astringent, 
antiperiodic,axid anthelmintic, is known commercially 
as dita harJc. It is not, however, an article of Indian 
commerce. The specific name scholaris has originated 
from the frequent use of the wood in Indian 
schools both as blackboards and sandplanks, on 
which native children trace their letters. 

CvQtivation. — Easily raised from seed and per- 
fectly hardy in the drier forests of Mysore, where it 
is also self -productive. 

374 Alstonia venenatus, Beown. Kan. Addasarpa. 
Fi^.- Wight. Ic- t. 436. 

Reference— Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A glabrous shrub at JSTundydroog and to^^-rds the 
Eastern Ghats. Leaves in whorls of 4 — 6, ]p,arrowly 
lanceolate and finely acuminate. ' Follicles stipitate 
and long beaked, slender, sword-shaped, nearly half 
a foot and usually in pairs. Uses unknown. 

375 Holarrhenaantidysenterica, Wall. Kan. 

Kodamuraka, Kodasiga, In Shimoga.^Kadgal 
marga ? 

Fig.-WigU Ic. ts. 439. 1297. and 1298. 
References— Bid. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Fl of Brit. Ind. 
A small deciduous tree of the mixed and dry 
zones. Probably not very plentiful in Mysore. 
Growing behind the ramparts at Nundydroog. 

It has b§en frequently .confounded with species 
of Wrlghtia in difierent parts of India, and iu this 



MYSORE AND OOOBG. 



186, 



province witli Wrightia tinctoria, 'Beppale.' Dr. G-eo. 
Watt has therefore done good service by publishing 
the diagnostic characters of the two genera, which 
the writer ventures to reproduce for the information 
of forest officials in this State. 



Wrightia. 

(1) Oorolla not more tlian 
twice the lengtli of the calyx, 
mouth surrounded by a corona 
or teeth. 

(2) Stamens inserted within 
the mouth of the oorolla, an- 
thers protruding, twisted and 
surrounded by the corona. 

(3) Seeds straight, oblong, 
compressed, with a coma of 
hairs at the base, the apex being 
pointed and naked. 



Holarrhena. 

(1) Gorolla three or four 
times the length of the calyx ; 
mouth naked. 



(2) Stamens inserted at the 
bottom of the tube and there- 
fore not protruding. 

(3) Seeds linear, oblong, com. 
pressed, concave, with a coma 
of hairS'On the apex. 



If the last vernacular name applies to this species, 
which is open to question, the tree is used for 
fuel and manure in Shimoga, while the seeds 
yield an oil. In Bombay, the bark and seeds 
'have a local market value, the former selling at 
Rs. 1 — 8 per maund of S7^ lbs. and the latter at 
-Rs. 25 for the same quantity. More information is 
still wanted as to the local value of this tree, es- 
pecially in regard to the utility of its medicinal bark, 
the merits of -which are so much prized in other 
parts of India. 

It is the true ' Conessi Bark' of commerce. 
376 Tabernaemontana coronaria, Br. Kan. Nandi. 

battal or batlu. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight Ic 

t. 477. 
References— Diet, of Econ. Prod, oflnd. ■ Fl. 

of Brit. hid. 

An evefgree^, shrub cultivated in the Lal-Bagh 
and other gardens forits beautiful flowers. The latter 

24 



lS6 FOEEST TUBES. 



are large, sweet-scented and pure white ; double and 
single according to variety. It is commonly called the 
' eye flower ' owing to its being a good remedy for 
sore eyes. But the medicinal properties of the 
plant are mostly contained in the root, and in the 
milky juice which abounds in all the tissues. T. dicho- 
toma, Roxb. and T. Eeyneana, Wall, should be 
looked for in the Western Malnad. They are small 
milky trees having stout branches and attractive 
white flowers. 

Cultivation. — T. coronaria is readily propagated 
from cuttings, but it does not produce seed at 
Bangalore. It makes a fine shrubbery bush, and 
thrives well dtiring the rainy months of the year. 
Plant in ordinary garden soil, and irrigate occasion- 
ally when the rains cease. 

377 Vallaris Heynei, Spbeng. Kan. Bugadi. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight. 
Ic. t. 438. 

Reference— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A woody climber of scrub and rocky tracts. The 
milk-sap is a popular local remedy for toothache 
and inflamed gums. The clustered cup-like flowers 
are attractive, deliciously fragrant, and pure white 
in colour. Often cultivated in gardens. Of indige- 
nous climbers, this is one of the best. 

378 Wrightia tinctoria, E. Be. Kan. Beppale, Hale. 
Fig.— Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 

Fl. Syh. t. Ml. Wight Ic. t. 444. 

References.-Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
A small deciduous tree which flowers very pro- 
fusely at the close of the dry season. Tolerably 
common and well known in most parts of Mysore 
and Coorg. Often cultivated for its white fragrant 
flowsj wliich are offered at the Hindu shrines. 



MYSORE AND OOORe. 187 



The wood is highly valued by native turners on 
account of its ivory-white colour and suitability for 
the lathe. It enters largely into the manufacture 
of the celebrated Channapatna toys, and to the 
wooden images found in temples. 

" The leaves of this plant, which turn black when 
dry, afford a kind of indigo called in Mysore Pala 
, Indigo. An account of the preparation of this dye 
appears in Buchanan's " Journey through Mysore 
&c., " 473. The coagulated milky juice forms a kind 
of caoutchouc ; the wood is valued by turners who 
call it Dudhi ; ' milk wood.," Pharmacographia Indica. 
The preparation of dye from the leaves of 
Beppale is an old but limited industry in Mysore. 
The bark and seeds are used medicinally, and are 
sold in the local bazaars. 

Cultivation. — Easily propagated from seed, and 
quite hardy in all but absolutely barren soils. It 
is a suitable subject for poor soils and dry localities, 
although under the extremes of these conditions, it 
will rarely attain to more than a shrub. 

379 Wrightiatomentosa, Roem. Kan. Kadn ganagalu. 
Fig.- Wight Ic. t. 443 and 1296. 
Reference-— JF/. of Brit. Ind. 

A shrub or very small treeof the dry hills and plains. 
Herbaceous portions densely tomentose. Flowers 
larger than in the last species, 1 in. diam., pale 
yellowish with orange coronal scales. Full of a milky 
juice ; and the sweet-scented flowers are used in puja. 

380 Nerium odorum, Soland. Kan. Ganagalu., Kani- 

gilTl. 

Fig.— Bat. Plates Lal-Bagh Golleetion. 
References.— P^arm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 
The sweet-scented oleander. This stout ever- 
green shrub, of which there are several varieties,, 
is both wild and cultivated in Mysore. It is 



188 'POTEST TMES. 



much prized for its large handsome flowers, which 
are offered at the shrine of Siva by Hindus, on 
account of their beauty and fragrance. Highly 
poisonous properties are found in the root, bark, 
and leaves, but a paste prepared from the root 
is a popular external remedy for several skin diseases. 
Being a powerful heart poison, the roots of the 
oleander are not infrequently used to commit suicide . 
Reduced to a fine powder, the bark and leaves are 
fatal to small vermin. The wood is practically of 
no value. 

Cultivation. — The oleander affects depressions 
and ravines, where the water-level is near th@ surface, 
and where there is an accumulation of alluvial silt. 
In such positions, the species grows rapidly, and 
yields a profusion of fine flowers, in double and 
single varieties of several distinct colours. When 
the seeds are imperfect, which is often the case in 
Mysore, propagate by cuttings, layers, and offsets. 
The shrub is much cultivated in some parts. 

381 Beaumontia grandiflora, Wall. 

An extensive woody climber. Cultivated in gardens 
for its handsome white flowers. The latter are large, 
bell-shaped, and very useful for decoration. B. Jer- 
doniana, Wight, is somewhat rarer in cultivation, 
but equally effective while in flower. Both plants 
contain a thickish milk-sap, and the young shoots 
afford a fibre. A fine silky floss is also attached to 
the seed. 

Cultivation^— Being mostly from the Eastern 
Himalaya, the genus requires a cool position and 
some protection from the sun. Beaumontia does 
well when planted in deep soil near a stream, and 
under the partial shade of large trees, over which it 
will subsequently cast its giant arms for support 
and protection. Propagate from seed and layers . 



MYSOtrai AND COOM. 189 

382 Thevetia neriifolia, Jtjss. 

'Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

The exile tree. Introduced from the West Indies 
and cultivated in this country. It is sometimes 
spoken of as the " yellow oleander " as the flowers are 
bright yellow, while the long linear-lanceolate leaves 
are not unlike those of the genus JSferium. It is, 
however, a much larger species, with a distinct, 
berried fruit, the size of a plum. Specimens may 
be seen in the Botanical Gardens, where they blossom 
freely during the rainy season. It is a poisonous 
plant, but preparations of the bark and seed are 
valued in medicine. It is said to be a good anti- 
periodic. 

Cultivation.— The same as for oleander, to which 
the species is somewhat closely allied. 

383 Allamanda cathartica, Linn. 

An ornamental climber cultivated in gardens for 
its showy yeUow flowers. Originally introduced 
from America by the Portuguese, which possibly 
accounts for its having run wild at Goa and other 
parts of the Western Coast. It is a poisonous plant 
having the reputation of being a good cathartic. 
Specimens may be seen in the Lal-Bagh, where it is 
grown as a bush. 

Cultivation.— Treat as a shrub or climber in any 
good soil. The species is very hardy, but suffers 
from long exposure to drought. Propagate from 
seed and cuttings. 

384 Ichnocar-pus frutescens, Br. Kan. Kari hambu. 
¥ig.— Wight Jc. t. 430. 

References.— Pharm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, 

of Ind. 

A wide spreading cliniber with dark-brown to 

iron-grey bark. Leaves dark green, varifible in size, 

but never very large. Flowers, ntimerous, sttiall, of a 

dirty whitish colour. The plant contains a milk-sa-p, 



190 fOUEST TREES. 



and its roots are medicinal. In some parts of India, 
the latter are considered to possess all the properties 
of the Indian Sarsaparilla, Hemldesmus indica, and 
are known by the same name, Sariva. The roots of 
the two plants are supposed to be used together in 
Indian pharmacy, but it is unknown to what extent 
this root is utilised by local herbalists, or, if it is sold 
in bundles like the Sugandhi heru. Exact state- 
ments on this point would be of value for a future 
issue of this work. 

The Eari hambu is an extensive woody climber 
spreading over bamboos and large trees, while 
Sugandhi balli is a slender twiner clinging to rocks 
and small bushes. The roots of the last named are 
also very fragrant. Being of a tenacious and pliable 
nature, the young shoots of Kari hambu are popularly 
used to fasten thatch on to native houses. 

385 Landolphia Kirkii. 

A climbing plant introduced from Zanzibar. 
Also L. Watsonii and an unnamed species. These 
climbers, which may be seen in the Lal-Bagh, con- 
stitute the chief known source of African rubber. 
They grow well in the Bangalore climate. 



XLIX. ASCLEPIADEiE. 

386 Hemidesmus indicus, Br. Kan. Sugandhi balli, 

Sogade, Karibajita. 

Fig— Wight Ic, t 594. Benth. & Trim. Med. 
PI. t. 174. 

References— Pharm. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

Indian Sarsaparilla, A slender twiner of the 
maidan country. Mostly affecting low rocky hills 
and scrub tracts. The surface growth seldom attains 
more than 2 — 3 yards in diameter, but the roots 
sprea^d far among the rocks, and are then difficult to 



mysoeM and cooEdt. i9i 

secure. The Hindus and Muhammadans have much 
confidence in the heahng powers of this root, and 
apparently not -without reason. It is sold in small 
bundles at the local rate of 2 — 4 annas each, but in 
many instances the article has been kept in the 
herbalist shop until its medicinal virtues are quite 
exhausted, so it is always safer to procure fresh roots 
from the field. The roots of Sugandhi are cylindrical, 
tortuous, dark brown in colour, with a fine odour of 
tonka bean when freshly gathered. In use, they are 
supposed to be associated with the roots of Kari 
hambu, Ichnocarpus frutescens, and together, these 
are considered demulcent, alterative and tonic. 
These roots are among the most important of native 
drugs, and seem to be worthy of fuller investigation 
as to their comparative merits. 

Cultivation-— In nature, the plant chngs to dry 
stony situations, where the roots penetrate far bet- 
ween the rocks, but under garden treatment it is 
never very robust. Propagate from offsets, plant- 
ing the latter in rockeries, between stone boulders, 
and in the crevices of old walls, 

387 Cryptostegia grandiflora, Br. 

An ornamental climber running wild in a few 
places, but mostly cultivated in gardens for its 
pretty flowers. Supposed to be indigenous to Africa 
or Madagascar. The whole plant yields a milk-sap 
which coagulates rapidly on exposure to the air. 
The beautiful pinkish-purple flowers usually appear 
with the south-west monsoon. 

Cultivation.— Seeds locally gathered rarely ger- 
minate, but the plant is not difficult to raise from 
offsets and cuttings, the latter being placed in a 
glass frame with a little bottom heat. A deep sandy 
loam, possessing sufficient moisture all the yea^r 
round, is a good medium for the cultivation of this 
climber. 



192 I*OBEST TREES. 



388 Secahione emetioa, Be. Kan. Siramge hambu. 
A slender twiner found at Kankanhalli and else- 
where. Dr. Bidie thinks it is of little value as an 
emetic. The root development of this plant exceeds 
that of the stem and leaves. 

389 Oxystelma esculentum, Be. Saws. Tikladngdha, 

Diighdika, 
This is also a slender twiner of the plains having 
smooth deciduous leaves. The fruit is edible, and 
a few medicinal properties are attributed to the 
species. Flowers white and rose-coloured with 
purple veins. 

390 Calotropis gigantea, Be. Kan. Tekkada, Yekka. 
Fig.—JBot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.— J'Z. of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 

Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
The Mudar or giant swallow-wort. A conspicu- 
ous, woolly, evergreen shrub of the plains. Abund- 
ant in waste land, by the sides of nullahs and along 
the margins of cultivated fields, where it attains a 
height of 4 — 7 feet. The whole plant abounds in a 
thick milk-sap which coagulates quickly into a solid 
body on exposure to light. This substance possesses 
some of the properties of gutta percha, but being a 
conductor of electricity, is unsuited for the manu- 
facture of cables, and its chief use is in native 
medicine. The root, milky juice, bark, and flowers, 
are all prescribed as Indian drugs, i and the people 
seem to attach considerable importance to the 
medicinal properties of the whole plant. It also 
affords two kinds of fibre, one consisting of the 
inner bai"k, and the other of the fine hairs which 
invest the seed. The latter is commercially knowm 
as " Madar floss " and is worth hd a pound in the 
London market. An attempt was made some years 
ago to collect a quantity of this floss for consignment 



MYSOEE AND COOBO: 19& 

to the London brokers, but the quantity received at 
head quarters was insufficient to encourage export, 
although the shrub is very plentiful in most of the 
maidan districts. The floss finds its way to Europe 
and America, where it is appreciated for fancy work. 
A white bast fibre is obtained from the liber 
or inner bark. It seems strange that a plant possess- 
ing so many useful properties cannot be utilised 
commercially for the benefit of the State. There are 
two varieties, one having large purple, and the other 
large creamy-white flowers, the latter being com- 
monly used as temple offerings. The species is self- 
productive from seed and offsets. 

391 Asclepias curassavica, Linn. 

An imdershrub cultivated in gardens for its pretty 
orange and crimson flowers. In botanical works, it 
is usually described as a herb or weed, but at 
Bangalore, it forms a woody base, and is distinctly 
suffruticose. The species is indigenous to the "West 
Indies, Central and Tropical America, where it is 
known as " Red Head " and " Wild Ipecacuanha. " 
The root possesses emetic, purgative, and other pro- 
perties, and is considered a remedy in piles and 
gonorrhoea. The juice of the leaves is useful in 
arresting haemorrhage, and the juice of the flower 
is a good styptic. Specimens may be seen in the 
Botanical gardens, where the plant thrives without 
much attention. The seed germinates pretty 
freely. 

392 Daemia extensa, Bb. Kan. juUuve, Kuntiga, 

Talavarana balli, Hala koritige. 
Tig-Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight Ic. 

t. 696. 
'References.— Diet, of Eicon. Prod, ofind,; Pharm. 
Ind. 
This is a foetid cUmber found somewhat sparsely 
in most parts of the. province, but especially m 

25 



i9'4 r'OEESr TB^ES, 



jungle tracts skirting the intermediate and drier hill 
ranges. The leaves of the plant are highly esteem- 
ed in native medicine, and are generally used for the 
ailments of children, their properties being mostly 
emetic and expectorant. In good situations, the 
species attains a large size, jand affords from its 
inner bark, a delicate fibre which has been recom- 
mended a^ a substitute for flax. Under cultivation, 
the plant would attain greater development than it 
does in the wild state, where it is much pollarded by 
goats and men. Strange to say,' sheep do not browse 
upon it. 

393 Sarcostemma brevistigma, Wight. Kan, 

Hambu kalli. 

'Pi^— Wight Ic. t. 595. 

References.— Dtci. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Phariri. Ind. 
A leafless trailer having cylindrical stems with 
many joints. Flowers in small clusters, white. 
Plentiful at Nundydroog, where it hangs ovet the 
rocks. The whole pliant a,ffords a bland nlilky 
juice which is used in medicine. It is said to be a 
substitute for the Soma of the Vedias. Commonly 
found in dry rocky situations, and cultivated in the 
Botanical gardens. 

'394 Gymnema sylvestre, Bk. Kan. Sanna gerse hambu. 
mg.— Wight. Ic. t. 349. 

A wood climber of the dry zone. Abundant at 
Kankanhalli, where it will be found growing over the 
highest clumps of bamboo. The powdered root of 
this plant is considered' an antidote for snake bite, 
being applied eit^rnally at the same time that a 
decoction is given internally. The leaf possesses 
th'e i-emarkable property of destroying the sense of 
taste for saccharine substances, such as Sugar. This 
was first noticed by Mr. Bdgeworth, and afterwards 
ggnfinnedbyMy, D. Hooper, Quinoto^gi'st with th^ 



MYSOM AND 0«;)0U0. 1^^ 

. Goy.ernm.ent .of Ma^ro^?: . A^tlipugli very conyjion in 
some parts of Mysore,, the speo\es ^has ri,ot attracted 
local notice as a medicine plant. 

395 Tylpphor.a ^.sthm^tica, W^&A. Kan. Adiimuttada 
gida. . 

Fig— Wight. Ic. t. 1271 ; Boidl. ^ Trim. t. 
177. . . -- 

iReferences— Z>«ci. of JEcon.Ff^od. of Iifd.; Pharm, 
Ind. 
4.n .abundant twiper .found :in.,wast,e land and 
among rocks, and scrub. It i^s valuQd fo,r.its emetic 
and cathartic properties, ip .wHicb it nearly eqiials 
Ipecacuanlia. The root aiifi.^eaves ^ai^e the xiseful 
parts, the ,f prmer, reduCi^^d to, powder, , b^ing a popu- 
lar medicine. for cattle. 



j396 Fagraea obovata, Wall. ETan. Giniiumi? 
' f}^-WigUIc.\t 1316 f 1317."^'" '' . 
_^^texeTXQ!&.—Bict. of Ecm. ]Prod. of Irj^. • 

iThisisan evergreen tree, shrub, qr climber, accord- 
ing , to siti^atipn. .Spee^ynens .^jQ^ .be see^Q in.the 
Lal-Bagh, where they are cultivated for t,heir. at- 
tractive How^.rs aijijdiruit. Th,e,flQwer is lQng,;^£ub,u- 
lar, bell-shapedat tne' moutli, and cream-coloured. 
Fruit the size and form ()i^amegg. ^Wood h^r^ and 
dura.ble, but always small , on 1^)p plains. .Weighs 
■56 IB. per cubic robt, • l^lje species' is, indigenous to 
the Malnad, where it is very showy. ^^ ' ' 

CultiyjitJOIi.— Hiheyequirements of -this evergreen 
are a, aubtropical situation, virgin forest soil, and 
plenty of .water. It is easily propagated from cut- 
tings. . .. - 

397 Strychnqs Nux-vomica* Linn. Kan. Nanjina 

Koradu,^3Ivistti, Hemmushti, Kasarka. 

Fig.— BeU. PI. Sijlv. t. 243; Bot. -Plates Zal- 
■^ PagTb .Golleetion. 



l96 fOUlST TRIES. 



References,— FZ. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The poison nut. A middle-sized evergreen tree, 
■with fruit the size and form of a small apple. 
Coinmon in Coorg and South Western Mysore, but 
"not very abundant elsewhere. The poisonous 
nature of the seed, which affords strychnia, is well 
'known. It is also said that the leaves are fatal to 
horses, although the pulp of the fruit is generally 
eaten by_ birds and vermin. The "root, stem, bark, 
a,nd seeds are used in medicine. It is reported by 
the Sub Assistant Conservator of forests, Shikarpur 
Sub Division, that the root-paste, formed on a wet 
"stone, — gandha — is considered to be a good stimul- 
ant in cases of prostration. Wood hard, brownish- 
grey, splits and warps when seasoned. Not un- 
commonly used for fuel when procurable. 

Cultivation. — In poor soils, the growth of Mushti 
is usually slow, but when the trees are manured 
and watered they develope more rapidly, and bear 
fruit in from 10 to 12 years. Seedlings should be 
planted in large pits of loose soil at the commence- 
ment. 75 per cent of the seed is unfertile at 
Bangalore. 

398 Strychnos potatorum, Linn. Kan. CMl, Chiiiu, 

CHUa. 

Fig.-WigU lU. t 156. 

References.-^, of Brit. Ind, ; Diet, of Econ. 
Frod. of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 
The clearing-nut tree. Smooth, evergreen, of 
small or medium size, often felled for fuel. From a 
very remote period, the ripened seeds of this tree 
have been used in India for clearing muddy water. 
The species is perhaps best known by its Sanskrit 
name hataka, the merits of which are handed down 
in the oldest Hindu writings. It is mostly confined 
to the subalpine regions of Mysore, where, however 



MYSOSE AtiTD COOH^. 197 



it is never abundant in any one place. The pain 
arising from the sting of a centipede is quickly 
allayed by rubbing a seed to powder, and applying 
the latter to the affected part in the form of a paste. 
The scandent species, S. colubrina, Linn, and 
S. Dakellii, Clarke, should also be found on the 
-western boundary of Mysore. Excepting that it 
requires a slightly cooler situation, the treatment of 
S. potatorum, in cultivation, is the same as for 
number 397. 
399 Buddleia asiatica, Lom. 

■Pig.—Bot. Mag. t. 6323; Wight. III. t. 165; 
Wight Ic. t. 894. 

An attractive shrub or small tree of the higher 
evergreen range. Useful in gardens, where it keeps 
in blossom for 2 — 3 months. The small tubular 
flowers — white in colour — are rather densely packed 
in simple or branched racemes. The latter appear 
mostly at the ends of the branches, and are sweetly 
scented. 



LI. BORAGINE^. 

400 Cordia Myxa, Linn. Kan. Soiie, Chotte, Kendal, 

Kendala, Chella ? Challe ? 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 245, fig. A.; Wight Ill.t. 169. 
References-— Dic^. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A deciduous tree of ugly form and middle size. 
There are three local varieties known respectively 
as hadu solle, hempu solle, and solle Jcendal. These 
are determined by the size, form, and colour of the 
fruit, the latter being well known to old settlers as 
the Sebesten of commerce. The mucilaginous berry 
is globular or oval, and varies in size from a cherry 
to a large bean. Cowherds and village children eat 
the fruit, but it is not very palatable, and is jiitich too 



19S FOREST tHEES. 



plentiful to he relished as a food product. Dried fruits 
have mucilaginous and demulcent properties, and 
are recommended for coughs and chest affections. 
In the raw fruit, the mucilage is so abundant and 
sticky that,juveniles use it for gumming their kites 
a,nd such like. Lovery gives the following account 
of the tree : — "A, middle-sized tree of quick growth. 
Wood greyish or Hght, brown, soft, porous, seasons 
well and is fairly strong ; but does not stand ex- 
posure and is attacked by insects. Used for agri- 
cultural implements, sugar-cane mills, boat-building, 
and fuel. Bark made into ropes." The bark has 
also medicioal properties. 

Cultivation.— geeds do not appear to be self -pro- 
ductive under the trees, although they germinate 
readily in a nursery -bed. Planted in ordinary loose 
soil, the seedlings usually grow rapidly. The species 
is unsuited for avenue or ornamental work. 

401 Cordia obliqua, Willd. Kan. Chadle, Dodda 

Challu. 

Fig.- Wight Ic. t. 13T8, 
A deciduous tree closely .resembl^ijg the above 
species, and having nearly the same properties. The 
flowers are larger, and the- herh^ceoiis parjs'of the 
whole plant are densely hairy. 

402 , Cordia Rothii, Rqem. ,Kan. Narvalli, Narvilli, 

Narivuli. ' ' 

" Fig.— Wight Ic. t. 1379. 
Reference.— Sranc^. Fw. Flora. 
A small deciduous tree of 30 feet. Not uncpni- 
moninthedry forests of the Mysore District and 
at Savandroog. The bark affords a coarse fibre 
which IS utilised for domestic purposes. Cordia 
mQ-iioica, RoxB. C. fulvosa, Wight, and C. subcordata 
Lamk. are ajsp, found in various parts of the .province' 
T^e , l^-st nSjiftpd .l^as been introduced rfrQm , the" 



MYSOltE iJsT) COOEG. , W^ 

Andaman Islands, and is occasionally cultivated in 

gardens for its attractive orange flowers. 

403 Ehretia laevis, Roxb. Kan. Kappura, Halippe, 

Avak? 

Fig.— Wight. Ic. t. 1382. Bedel Fl. Syh. t. 



References.— j?'^. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of E cow. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A middle-sized tree of the plains, Wliere it is mostly 
found on low hills and in the scrub jungle. The 
fruit and inner bark are eaten during times of 
scarcity, and cattle are reported to be fond of the 
leaves at all times. The wood is tough and durable, 
and is frequently utilised for rural structures, farm 
implenients, and. such like. 

The " Flora of British India " enumerates no less 
than five varieties of the species, so variable is its 
character under different conditions of soil and 
aspect. One of these varieties is probably the Jmduli 
onurha, or Icodffol marga, which a-ffords on oil frotn its 
seed. It is desirable that fuller enquiry should be 
niade on this point, and that good herbariun speci- 
m.ens of all the kinds are collected for identification. 
The variety, E. laevis pubeseens, is common on the 
plains, while E. laevis aspera affects somewhat higher 
altitudes. 

404 Ehretia Wightiana, Wall. 

A tree of the maidan of which little is known. 
Supposed to be commonly used for fuel. 

405 Ehretia buxifolia, Koxb. K-am Yemebudige. 

Tom. Kumvingi. 

I^ii—iloxi. Cor. Fl. l 43, t. 67, 

Retev&aces.—Flored of Brit. Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A medicinal shrub of dry forest and scrub tracts. 

Among Muhammadan's, the root has the reputation 

of F6iMg an anttdbte to vegetable poison. It is also 

used-fbr the cure of venereal dieeaBes. 



200 FOEEST TBEES. 



LII. CONVOLVULAOE^. 

There are no trees of this Order in Mysore. But 
the reserved forests abound in numerous species of 
Ijoomaea, Argyreia and Lettsomia, many of which, by 
reason of their quick development and investing 
nature," are exceedingly injurious to the growth of 
young trees. These twiners not only grow with 
extraordinary rapidity, but also lay hold of, and coil 
themselves around and over, every other plant 
within their wide range of growth. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that small trees suffer to a large 
extent when such aggressive twiners are allowed to 
spread. The large campanulate flowers are always 
attractive, and seen trailing over a succession of 
bushes, or, festooned from one tree to another, they 
afford a striking picture. These, with a few species 
possessing medicinal properties, are here briefly 
mentioned. For a full account, the reader should con- 
sult that excellent work " Pharmacographia Indica." 

406 Argyreia speciosa, Sweet. Kan. Samudrapala. 
The elephant creeper. This climber often ascends 

to the tops of the highest trees. The leaves and 
root are the parts used. 

407 Lettsomia sp, Kan. Oogani liambii. 

This is the commonest ground creeper of waste 
land. The juice of the plant is popularly applied 
to bruises, and the tou^h pliant stems are used by 
the raiyats in Heu of ropes for tying up bundles of 
field or forest produce. 

408 Ipomaea Turpethum, Be. Kan. Bilitigadu, Tiga- 

dikeputigadi. 
Furnishes Turpettiroot, or Indian jalap. 

409 Ipomaea hederacea, Jaoq. 

Known to Europeans as " morning glqry," and 
often cultivated in gardens for its sky-blue flowers. 
The seeds arp looked upon as a sure cathartic. 



iilSOBE AND OOOEd. 2<>h 



410 Ipomaea muricata, Jacq. 

A' prickly twiner of annual duration like the last 
nam;ed, and possessing, the same medicinal property. 
Flowers purple and white. 

411 Ipomaea digltata, Linn. Kan. Bhumichekri 

gadde, Buja-gilmbala. 
The prepared root of this creeper is utilised with 
milk and honey as an aphrodisiac ; and combined 
with coriander and fenugreek, it becomes a lacta- 
gogue. 

412 IpomaBa bilob^a, Foesk. Kan. Adambuballi. 
This is the goats'fbot creeper of the Madras 

shores. The root and leaves are medicinal, and the 
flowers are sacred to the goddess Durgi, Being a 
maritime plant, it does not succeed very well in an 
insular country like Mysore ; but with this excep- 
tion, the various species- of Ipomsea are easily pro- 
duced, and form an interesting collection fc>r trellis 
work. 

413 Evolyulus alsinoides, Linn. Kan. Vishmjkrantj, 

Vislmukrandi,' 

Wig— Bet. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

A low procumbent herb of the woods and fields. 
The pretty, little, blue flowers remind one of forget- 
me-not, to which'they bear some resemblance, ^.b 
is a popular herb, to which several valuable pro- 
perties are attributed by the people of India. Indeed 
so great' is the belief in its curing power that, in- 
some parts, it is taken for nearly every ' complaii^t. 
" At the present time it is thought to strengthen 
the brain and memory, and is used ■ extensively as a 
febrifuge and tonic Burmann says that it is reputed 
to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery." 

PharmaeograpMa Iniua. 

The tender leaves make a fine chatney which is 
much relished by the Hindus, It is mostly consumed 
with ghee and rice. 

26 



2(32 FOREST TEEBS. 



414 Cuscuta reflexa, Bo^, 

The dodder or horse-tail parasite. This injurious 
plant is fortunately not very common in the State 
forests. But in some parts of India it does much 
damage to trees, growing in dense fleshy masses all 
over the trunk and limbs of its host. 

The small whitish flowers are very fragrant. 



LIII. SOLANAOEiE. 

415 Solanum arboreum, H, & B. 

Pig — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

The potato tree. A small soft-wooded species of 
quick growth. Introduced originally from South 
America, and cultivated in gardens for its showy 
blue and white flowers. A very effective flowering 
tree, but usually short-lived. 

The herbs and shrubs named in the following list 
are commonly found in the woods and fields. They 
possess medicinal properties, of which details are 
given in Pharmacographia Indica. 

416 Solanum indicum, Linn. Kan. Gulia, Kempu 

Gulla. 
The fruit and root. 

417 Solanum nigrum, Linn. Kan. Kari Kachi, 

Kempu Kachi. 
The whole herb in fruit. 

418 Solanum xanthocarpum, Schkad. Kan. Nela 

gulla. 

The whole plant. 

419 Solanum trilobatum, Linn. 

A creeper with blue flowers. The whole plant. 

420 Solanum verbascifolium, Linn. Kan. Savdangi. 

421 Solanum torvum, Swaetz, 

A shrub with white flowers and yeUow fruit. 

422 Solanum ferox. Linn. Also with white flowers 
and yellow fruit. 



MYSORE AND COOM. 203 

423 Withania somnifera, Dunal. Kan. Hifemaddina. 
The root and leaves. 

424 Datura stramonium, Linn. E<m. Bill ummatti, 

(white flowered) Kari ummatti, (purple flowered.) 

'E\g,—Bentl. and Trim, t. 192. 
The thorn apple. 

425 Datura fastuosa, Linn. 
. Tig,— Wight Ic. t. 1396. 

Common throughout India, and known by the same 
vernacular names. 

426 Datura Metel, Linn. 
Fig-Bot. Mag. 1 1440. 

Known by the same vernacular names as the 
other species. 

Datura poisoning is not uncommon in India, where 
the dacoits are known to use the ^eed-powder to 
stupify their victims with a view, to committing 
robbery. The usual practice in such cases is to 
insinuate a small quantity of Datura powder into the 
food ingredients, sweetmeats, or tobacco of fellow 
travellers, who, for sometime previously, have been 
•marked as victims. Administered -in this way, 25 
grains of fine powder is consid&red sufficient to 
render a f iiU grown man quite insensible for several 
hours. Unfortunately this poisonous genus seeds 
but too freely all over the country. The thorn apple, 
D, stramonium, is a weedy rank-smelling annual, 
3 — 4 feet with large indented, leaves, and white or 
purple flowers. It is much at home on heaps of 
refuse and by the sides of manured fields. Being 
very self -productive, it would be difficult to eradi- 
cate even if Grovernment offered a reward for its 
destruction, as it does in the case of animal pests. 

427 Nicotiana Tabacum, Linn. Kan. Hogesoppu. 
Tobacco. A large herb cultivated in dry fields, 

but supposed to be indigenous to some part of central 
or South America. The cured leaves afford tobacco. 



204 fOUEST TUBES. 



LIV. SCROPHULARINEiE. 

428 VerbascumThapsus, Linn. £a». Kadu hogesoppu. 
This is the ' Mullein ' of Europe. It is found 

abundantly at Nundydroog, but is probably not wild 
in many parts of the province. The vernacular name 
given above signifies ' jungle tobacco.' The root, 
leaves, and flowers are medicinal. 

429 Herpestis Monniera, H. B. et. K. Kan. Nira 

bramhi. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

Reference. — Pharm. Ind. 
A medicinal herb found in marshy ground. Com- 
mon in most parts of the country and conside'red to 
be an excellent diuretic. Anslie says " it is usefiil 
in that sort of stoppage of the urine which is 
accompanied by obstinate costiveness." The herb 
is found in the vicmity of Bangalore. 



LV. BIGNONIACEJE. 

430 Millingtonia hortensis, Linn. Kom, Biratu,BeratTi. 
Fig.-^Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 

Sylv. t. 249. 

References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Feon. 

Prod, of Ind. 

The Indian cork-tree. Indigenous to Burmah, 

the Malay Archipelago, and possibly Central India. 

Cultivated in Mysore. In good situations, this fine 

species attains a maximum height of 80 feet ; erect 

ingrowth, columnar to conical inform, and very 

- ornamental while in flower and leaf. The tall trunk 

is encased in a corky bark from which inferior cork 

is. said to be manufactured in Burmah. Branches 

dropping. Leaves compound, 2—3 feet, deciduous 

in the dry season. Inflorescence in ample drooping 

, panicles of large, white, tubular, fragrant flowers 

September and October being the flowering months' 



MTSORE AOT) COOfiO. 205 

These cliaraetei*s render the species desirable for 
ayemie and scenio! planting. Wood soft, whitish, but 
taking a good polish; durable when fully seasoned 
and kept dry. Weight 40 — ^45 lb. per cubic foot. 

Gultivation.— In local growth, the seeds are rarely 
. matured and do not, therefore, :germinate. But the 
root stems throw out numerous suckers from which 
the tree is readily multiplied. When nicely rooted 
in pots, and a foot or more in height, these offsets 
can. be planted out permanently at distances of' 25 to 
30 feet apart. Glrowth is somewhat slow in the begin- 
ning unless the soil is made quite loose and friable, 
when the result will be more satisfactory. The tree 
coppices fairly well, and the underground portion re- 
tains vitality for years after the visible tree has been 
removed. This somewhat remarkable property is not 
unusual among trees of the Bignoniacese, and appears 
to be associated with the fact that several of these 
trees are readily propagated from root-cuttiugs. 
431 Oroxylumindicum, Vent. Kan. Tigdu, Sonepatta, 

Teta. 

'Pis— Wight Ic. t. 1337. 
References.— Dicf. of Ucon.Pro'd. of Ind; Pharm. 
Ind. * 

A small or middling-sized tree. Remarkable for 
the large size and striking form of its leaves, flowers, 
and fruit. Leaves deciduous in the dry seasons 
opposite, 2—3 pinnate, 3 — 4 feet. Flowers appear- 
ing in erect terminal panicles during the S. W. 
monsoon ; when unfolding, they are alniost quite 
black, but quickly cha^^e in the open flower to a 
dark lurid purple. The pod is sword-shaped, 
blackish-brown, flat and 12 — 15 inches. Wood 
soft, weighing only 30 lb. per cubic foot. The root- 
bark possesses important medicinal properties, which 
give it a high place in the Materia medica of this 
country. A bath prepared with this bairk in it, is 
said to be a good remedy for rheumiafeism. 



206 FOREST TUEJIS. 



Eeduced to a paste, and mixed witli an equal 
quantity of turmeric, it forms an excellent plaster 
for sores and abrasions, and is much used by the 
raiyats in this capacity for their draught cattle. 

Cultivation.— Plant seedlings of one year's growth 
in any loose soil of ordinary quality. The tree is 
perfectly hardy, and sheds fertile seeds annually 
after the tenth year of growth, 

432 Bignonia venusta, Keb. 

This woody climber has been introduced from 
South America, and is locally known as the ' orange- 
flowered creeper. Trained over porch trellises, it is 
a common feature of the Bangalore gardens. 

433 Tecoma stans, Juss. 

A small tree which is cultivated in Indian gardens 
for its bright orange-yellow flowers. Usually with 
a short crooked trunk, or reduced by pruning or 
position to a mere bush. In the latter form, it will 
be seen on the ramparts of the Bangalore. Port, 
where it is abundantly estabhshed, possibly through 
the agency of birds or vermin that devour the seed. 
Although small, the wood is durable, and takes a 
nice pohsh. Introduced "originally from South 
America. T. vehtina, Hort. from Australia, and 
2. grandiflora from China are cultivated in the 
Botanical gardens. The last named possesses a very 
striking inflorescence. 

434 Dolichandronefalcata, Seem. Kan. TJddi?UdiP 

Uba? 

Tig-Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 71. 

^eferences.-Dict, of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Pkarm. Ind. 
A small deciduous tree of the maidan and sub- 
alpine dMncts. A coarse fibre of a darkish colour 
IS obtained from the inner bark, and the heartwood 
IS hard enough to be employed for implements and 
village bmldmgs. Some part of the tree is suppS 



kYSOfeE AND COOEG. 207 

to procure abortion, and the authors of Pha/rma- 
cographia Indica assume that it may be the ■woody- 
capsule. It is doubtful if the bark is ever used in 
this province to poison fish. D. Bheedii is found 
east of the "Western Ghats. 

Cultivation.— This tree grows somewhat slowly 
even in the best soils. But it is very hardy in times 
of drought, and may be safely planted in the driest 
locahties. It flowers in February or March, and 
ripens seed in July. 

435 Spathodea cam pan u lata, 

Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

For ornamental planting, this tree is one of the 
most effective. Deciduous for a few weeks in the 
dry season, after which it breaks into leaf and is 
subsequently covered for a long period, (September 
and October) or two long periods, if thie season is- 
favourable, by a gorgeous display of large orange- 
crimson flowers. Fine specimens of the tree may 
be seen at the Lai Bagh, Cubbon Park, and Daria 
Dowlet Bagh. The bag-like flower bud contains a 
quantity of watery hquid, and when pinched at the 
apex, so as to form a small aperture, it becomes a 
water squirt, the utility of which is much appreciated 
by local juveniles. The nature of the wood is unknown. 
Don mentions that S. campanulata is indigenous to 
the "West Coast of Africa, in the Kingdom of Waree. 

Cultivation.— 'Made-up soils, and deep sandy loam 
are the most favourable for this species. Planted 
in some recently filled well, hollow, or ravine, it 
grows rapidly, attaining a height of 30—40 feet 
within a decade. But when the subsoil is hard and 
intact, growth is less satisfactory. With the excep- 
tion of one old specimen in the Botanical gardens, 
which has borne a few solitary capsules, local trees 
do not produce seed ; but cut into short sections, the 
root-branches give off numerous suckers from which 
nursery stock is raised. When laid under a thin 



20S' POEEST TREiS. 



covering-of sand anid:;keplt moisti ith&se root-outtingg • 
soon begin to sprout. 

As an ornamental flowering tree, thie Spathedea 
campanulata is second to none, but as it sheds large 
quantities of flowers for several, weeks during the, 
two periods of flowering, it is advisable to keep it 
apartlficom wells and ponds. For permanent growth, 
whether in avenues or clumps, th& species should 
be planted at 50 feet apart. 
436 Heterophragma adenophyllum, Sebm. 

mg.-WigU III t. 160. 

"Reference— Diet, of Bern. Prod, of Ifid. 

A small deciduous tree of subalpine regions. 
"Wood moderately hard, and weighing about 40 lb. 
per cubic foot. Bconoraic uses unknown. 

Inflorescence deiiseiy hairy or almost woolly while 
in bud; flowers large brownish-yellow. Not un- 
common in the Closepet Taluk. H. Boaibnrghii, DC. 
a larger tree of the same genus having rose-coloured; 
flowers. Should be looked for in the mixed zone 
skirting the hills. These trees are recognised by 
their showy flowers, long pod-like capsules and' 
winged seeds. A specinaenof the first named will 
be seen in the Lal-Bagh. 

Cultivation— The same as for Spathodea, only 
that stock can be raised from seed. It is iiot known 
if root cuttings will develope buds and shoots ais 
they do in the cases of Spathodea and MilUngtonia. 
437 Stereospermum suaveolens, DO. -E'aji. Padari? 

Hind. Padari. , 

Fig.—Bot. Plates Lal-JBagh Gdlhotidn. WiqU. 

Ic. 1. 1342. 
References-^/, of Brit. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A large deciduous tree frequenting the moist parts 
of the country, but rarely ascending much over 
3^00 feet. The species begms to lose its leaves in 



Mtsoue and oooro. 60^ 

January, and is usually quite bare during tlie months 
of February and Maroli, after which it sends forth, 
some days in adyance of the young leaves, a very 
profuse crop of sweetly fragrant flowers of a lightish 
or rosy -purple colour, having a pale or yellowish 
throat. A peculiarity of the flower is, that it retains 
its fragrance for some days after it is faded, and is 
consequently much valued ^for making 'garlands, 
especially by the Muhammadan people. Capsule 
12 — 15 in. stout, rough, copiously marked by 
whitish tubercles and slightly 4-ribbed ; seed em- 
bedded in notches of the septum, deeply notched 
at the middle. In Malabar and the Concan, 
the tender flowers and fruit are esteemed as vege- 
tables. Bees are passionately fond of the honey 
contained in the nectary of this flower, and are 
supposed to prefer it to any other. Medicinal 
properties are attributed to the root, leaves, and 
flowers ; and as the vernacular name — priest tree — 
implies, <the species is held in some veneration 
by the people of the country. Wood orange- 
yellow, to reddish brown in the centre, said to 
be elastic and diu-able, used in Assam for making 
tea-boxes, Large trunks are also hollowed out as 
canoes in the north of India. The species is often 
confounded with S. chelonoides, on which account it 
is very desirable that the description, quality, and 
local utility of both timbers, should be thoroughly 
worked out in the field. To enable forest oflScials 
to do this effectively, they should first identify their 
trees either by submitting botanical specimens to a 
competent botanist, to be named and returned, or, 
by studying the descriptions of Hooker and Brandis 
on the spot. This is all the more necessary as it is 
believed that the State forests contain one or two 
distinct forms of the two species here referred to. 

Cultivation.— Virgin forest soil is undoubtedly the 
most suitable for this tree, but it also grows well in 

27 



210 ^q^^^'i^ *fipES. 



the deep loam of the Lal-Bagh, where two fine speci- 
mens may be seen in the tope skirting the north end 
of tlie band promenade. Seeds collected from these 
trees have not germinated, but propagation is ef- 
fected by the careful removal of offsets and suckers. 
Root-cuttings will also grow in moist ' sand. In 
favourable situations, the Padri mara attains a height 
of 80 feet, with 30—40 feet of clean trunk, 
438Stereospermum chelonoides, D.O. Kan. Padri, 

Kul Wudi? 

Fig -Wight Ic. 1341. Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 73. 
'References-— Brand. For. Fl. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A lofty tree of the Malnad and adjacent moist 
region. Leaves deciduous or subdeciduous in 
March and April. Flowers in loose panicles at the 
ends of the young shoots, and partly concealed by 
the leaves which appear with them, yellow inside, 
browTiish outside, fragrant, but not to the same 
extent as the flowers of S. suaveolens, than which 
they are smaller, less prolific, and as a whole, less 
attractive. A specimen in the Botanical Gardens 
flowers in June. Capsule 15 — 20 in. quadrangular, 
glabrous, flexible, slender, and not so woody as in 
the foregoing species ; slightly tortuous or sinuate. 
It is supposed that the species is not very abundant 
in the State forests, but this is open to question, 
and may be due to the fact that two different trees 
are often referred to by the same vernacular name. 

Mr. Graham Anderson gives the following inter- 
esting account of the tree under notice : — 

"An immense, deciduous tree ; rough, dark brown 
bark with irregular cracks and deep horizontal seams. 
Flower, like a small snap-dragon, brown outside 
and yellow inside, three tiny leaflets (lobes of the 
cprolla) of a light yellow colour forming the tongue. 

Seeds are contained in a long, slender pod, and 
look like a piece of pith which has been pinched at 
eY§ry lialf ^ }^9}^ oi its length. 



MYSOSi: AND OOOM. 211 



This tree sends out largfe roots to a distaiiQe of 
over fifty yards. When left in virgin soil,_ cqffeo 
will grow right up to its stem, but sometimes a 
complete circle of coffee dies out around it, and iti is 
almost impossible to grow vacanqies. 

The wood is tremendously hard, and almost m- 
destructible under water. Sawyers refuse to saw it. 
It is used for beams and posts, has a fibrous texture, 
and generally several axes are ruined in felling a 
single large tree. It riiakes splendid helves for 
axes, adzes, &c." 

Gamble confirms the statement that tTie wood is 
very hard, a condition which, with its q'uality of 
great endurance under water, should be of interest 
to Engineers. 

Brandis speaks well of the wood, adding that the 
bark, leavies, flowei's^, and fruit are used in native 
' medicine. The fragrSint flowers are possibly gathered 
for domestic and teinple offerings, althbugli they 
are not so popular in this respect as the rosy- 
purple flowers of &'. suaveoleiis. 

GiiItivEitioii.— In local cultivation, the species ^rows 
somewhat sloi^ft'ly^ and tlfeonly advantage possessed 
over S. .sztjzvei^fefts/is,' that it is scarcely ever quite 
bare of leaf, rropagation' is the same for both trees, 
as also the treatment i^ti general. 

i^^ Stereb'spermuiTj xylocarpum, Wight. Kan. 

Konana tombu mara, Ghansirig. 

'Fi^—Bot. Plates Ldl-Bagh Cdlle'StiSn. J^ed!d. 
m. 'Bylv. t. 70. 

References^— P/i arm. Ind. ; Did. of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind:; Fl. of Brit Ind. 
A deciduous tree of small or medium size accord- 
ing to position. Indigenous to the hills and culti- 
vated in the Botanical Gardens. Leaves bipinnate, 
very large, 2 — '^ feet, light gi-een in colour. Flowers 
in terminal, erect panicles, whicli precede the 



.212 POSEST TEEES. 



young leaves in Maf ci. ; corolla large, wtite, fra- 
grant and fugacious, usually strewing the ground 
immediately under the tree. Capsule 20— -30 in., 
tubercular, rugged and more or less crooked, especi- 
ally towards the apex. Altogether a remarkable 
looking fruit which arrests attention. The vernacu- 
lar name, honana komhi, has reference to the fruit, 
which, in occasional specimens, is not unlike a buf- 
falo's horn. The tree is bare of leaf in February 
or March for about a month. 

" The natives, by a rough process of the same 
nature as that, by which tar is obtained from pine 
wood, extract from the wood a thick fluid of the 
colour and consistence of Stockholm tar, which they 
use as a remedy for scaly eruptions on the skin. 
Two globular earthen pots are used, the upper 
contains the wood in small pieces ; it has a per- 
forated bottom, and is fitted with a cover, and is 
luted to the mouth of the lower pot. Cow-dung 
cakes are then piled up roimd the two pots and set 
fire to. Dr. Gribson appears to have been the first 
to draw attention to the use of this substance by the 
natives. From some trials which we have made 
with it, we conclude that its properties are similar 
to those of pine tar. The tar has exactly the odour, 
colour, and consistence of Stockholm tar." 

Pharmacographia Indica. 
The product described in the above extract does 
not appear to be known in Mysore. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from oldish seeds which 
have matured for nearly a year. When well pre- 
served in a dry room, such seeds will germinate 
within five weeks from time of sowing, whereas 
newly gathered seed rarely germinates at all. Plant 
seedlings ia ordinary garden soil at 20 feet apart. 
Some irrigation will be required during the first 
dry season at least. 



MTSOBE AND COOEG. 213 



440 Stereospermum sp' Kan. Kadu hongc 

A Small tree of the Malnad. Not fully deter- 
mined. Herbarium specimens would be acceptable 
at head-quarters. 

441 Catalpa speciosa, Juss. 

This Californian tree has been cultivated in the 
Lal-Bagh for some years without success. It pos- 
sibly requires a moister climate. 

442 Crescentia cujete, Linn. andc. alata, H., B.&K. 
West Indian calabash trees. These are confined to 
Botanical Gardens in South India, where they grow 
indifferently. 

443 Kigelia pinnata, DO. 

This magnificent tree may be said to have passed 
the introductory stage, as it is now freely employed 
in large towns to form groves and avenues. The 
large cylindrical fruit, suspended by a long rope-like 
peduncle, is a characteristic feature of the species. It 
is abundantly produced on local trees, and is not un- 
like a gigantic sausage, both in outline and coloxir. 
Introduced from the West Indies and tropical 
America. Economic properties unknown. 

Cultivation. — ^Easily raised from seed. Growth 
rapid m deep open soils, but slow and stunted 
when the subsoil is hard, stiff, or unfertile. Defoli- 
ating twice during the year, but never- quite bare of 
leaf. Plant at 45 — 50 feet apart, in large pits. 



LVI. AOANTHAOEiE. 

The following shrubs may be included as possess- 
ing medicinal piioperties of more or less value. 
They grow abundantly in waste land, and are gener- 
ally well known to the peasants. 

444 Barleria Prionitis, Linn. Kan. Gorati, Goiatige- 

445 Justicia Gendarussa, Linn. Kan. Natchu kaddi. 

446 Ecbolium Linneanum, KuRZ. Adhatoda vasica. 

NbES. Kan. Adusoge. 

447 Rhinacanthus communis, Nees. Kan, Dodda 

patike gida. 



214 



FOEEST TREES. 



LVII. VERBENACE^. 

448 Lantana indica, Eoxb. Kan. Kadn jola gida. 

An indigenous shrub sparsely found in waste 
tracts., The purple berries are densely packed on 
short spikes, and hence the resemblance, on a small 
scale to jola, maH-a cholvm, or what is more gener- 
ally termed Indian corn. Village children are said 
to eat this fruit. Flowers white, pink or pale pur- 
ple, with a yellowish throat. 

449 Lantana camara, Linn. Kan. Nata liu gida. 
Fig— Bot. Plates Lal-Barjh Collection. 
neferences.— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

This introduced shrub has run wild in Coorg, 
South Wynaad, Hunsur, and various parts of the 
country. When properly looked after, it quickly 
forms an excellent hedge, and is extensively employed 
for the purpose at Bangalore and elsewhere. 
In waste tracts, it resuscitates the land and performs 
the dual function of joioneer and nurse to a more 
directly profitable class of vegetation. In the latter 
"^ capacity, it has been found to promote the growth 
of sandalwood and other useful trees. The species 
should therefore be looked upon as a reclaimant of 
waste land, and its growth, except as a well-kept 
fence, should be ' strictly confined to such tracts as 
are now devoid of vegetation. This becomes 
practicable when we know that it grows in the 
poorest soils, is exceptionally hardy during periods 
of drought, and always difficult to cradicatk Func- 
tionally, it may be associated with the prickly pear, 
and such hardy species as are intended by nature to 
occupy the outposts of vegetation. There are many 
varieties of the American Lantana, the flowers of 
which vary in colour from pure white to various 
shades pf orange, red, and purple. The latter are very 
attractive during the rainy months. It has been 
asserted that snakes are harboured by the species 



MYSORE AiiD OOOBG. ^1^ 

but this is open to question, as the stems and 
branches are thickly armed with recurved prickles. 
Cultivation.— Planted in good land, Lantana 
spreads from offsets and seedlings with astonishing 
rapidity, and becomes a pest in the course of a few 
years. The shrub should, therefore, be carefully 
eliminated from all situations where it would mono- 
polise useful land, or retard the progress of other 
plants of greater utility. Hedges are usually laid 
down from cuttings of the matured wood, but the 
seeds germinate, and are no doubt widely scattered 
by birds and vermin. 
450 Tectona grandis, Linn. Kan. Tega, Tegu, Tegada 

riara, Tyagada mara. 

Fig.— Bo^. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. i. 250. 
The t^ak tree. In this province, the most extensive 
plantations of teak are found in the Heggaddevan- 
kotie TalTik of the Mysore District. But' there are 
also considerable plantations in the Districts of 
Shimoga, Hassan, and Kadur, the whole forming a 
total area of nearly 4,000 acres. The adjoining 
proyipce of Coorg is also rich in teak. But the 
South Indian tree appears to attain its greatest per- 
fection on the Ananiallay mountains, where, at an 
elevation of 2,600 feet, Beddome found specimens 
22 feet in girth, 90 in length to the first bough, and 
calctuated to be 200 years old. These dimensions 
are not attained in any part of Mysore or Coorg, 
but a tree recently felled at Kaken'kote, to provide 
sectional exhibits for the Chicago Exposition, mea- 
sured 4 feet in diameter, the specimens l3'eing per- 
fectly sound. The teak tree clings to the "W"6stern 
Ghats, and it is only upon or near to certain ranges, 
at elevations rising from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, where 
growth is not stunted. The finest specimens attain 
a height of 150 feet, and present a stately appear- 
ance while in leaf and flower. The following 
statement gives the position and approximate area 



216 


FORES 


T THilES. 






of the principal teak plantations within the territo- 


ries of Mysore. 












Approxi- 


District, 


Taluk. 


Name of Plantation. 


mate area 










ill acres. 


Bangalore. 


Malvalli 


Basvanbetta 


249 




Kankanhalli ... 


Cbilandadi 




214 


Kolar 


Chikballapiir ... 


Nandi 




163 


Shimoga... 


Shimoga 


Anapinghatta 




V 131 




Do 


Sakrebail... 




283 




Sorab 


Sidiballi ... 




281 


Mysore ... 


Heggaddevfl.Tikote 


Kakankote 




121 




Do 


Mastigndi(old & i 


new) 


179 




Do 


Mandbagowdanlialli . 


380 




Do 


Mssen 


... 


6 




Do 


Metiknppe 




50 




Do 


Ainur Marigudi 


... 


50 




Do 


Begur 


. .. 


154 




Gundlupet 


Berambadi 


... 


60 




Do 


Bandipur ... 


... 


5 




HunsTir 


Viranbosalli 


• a* 


91 


Hassan ... 


Hassan 


Bakturvalli 




300 




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... 


150 




Manjarabad 


Kemphole 


• a. 


20 




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a*. 


10 




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Saklespur 


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12 


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356 , 




Tadehalli 


Hebbe ... 


..-b 


4 




Chikmagalnr ... 


Karadihalli 




262 



The important uses, to which teak is applied in 
ship-building, engineering, carpentry, and cabinet 
making, are well known, and, added' to the high 
market value of seasoned wood, go far to confirm 
the popular belief that teak is second to no indi- 
genous timber in works, where strength and dura- 
bility are the chief factors. It also possesses the 
great adyantage of being comparatively light when 
seasoned. Weight 42—46 lb. per cubic foot, or in 
the case of green and unseasoned wood 55 — 70 lb. 

The teak tree loves plenty of light, and although 
it often hugs a part of the evergreen zone, it rarely 
mingles with it. The open sides of the hills, or a 



218 



POREST TREES. 



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62Q i'OBlST IMBS. 



451 Tectona Hamiltoniana, Wall. 

The Botanical Gardens possess a single specimen 
of this Burmese tree, which is probably the only one 
in Mysore. When full grown, it is a small tree of 
30— 4Q feet. Properties unknown at present. 

452 Callicarpa lanata, Linn. 

Fig-~Wight Ic. t. 1480. 

Reference— Pharm. Ind. 

A woody shrub or rarely a small tree. Indige- 
nous to the hills, and cultivated in the Lal-Bagh 
for its attractive purple flowers, which are borne in 
ample cymes at the ends of the branches. The 
young leaves are densely tomentose, and copper to 
cmnamon-coloured underneath. As a shrub the 
species attains to 15 or 20 feet. It possesses medi- 
^mal properties, and affords much mucilage when 
boiled. 

453 Premna tomentosa, Willd. Kan. Narave, iji mara. 
m.§-r-Wi^U Ic. t, 1468, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 251. 

References.-J5rajic?. For. FL 367; Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind.; Pharm. Ind. 

Usually a small tree of the deciduous forests in 
Mysore and Coorg, but under exceptional conditions 
^ttammg a height of 40— 50 feet. Plentiful at Nundy- 
droog. The fragrant leaves are so much appreciated 
by the peasants tliat they use them in lieu of plates 
to hold their food, the Tji leaf being supposed to 
mpart some of its spicy fragrance to the latter. 
Wood hard yellow, close-grained, and takes a fine 
pobsh; used for making combs. The leaves are given 
internally and applied externally in cases of dropsy 

Cultiyatioia.-Seeds do not germinate freely, but 
propagation can be effected from cuttings of 
ripened wood. Plant at 15—20 feet apart 



MYSORE im COftBd. 221 

454 Gmelina arborea, Linn. jKaw. Kuii, Cooiee, Kasmiri- 

mara, Baciaiiige ? 

Fig.~Bot. Plates Lal-Baqh Collection. Wight 
Ic. t. 1470; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 253. 

References— jBra^w^. For. Fl. 364. Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A deciduous tree with a roundish or sprqading 

head, attaining in favorable locahties to 60 feet. 

Plentiful in the deciduous belt skirting the hills, 

and scattered throughout the adjacent dry forests. 

Several good specimens may be seen in the Lal-Bagh. 

Leaves opposite, long-petiolate, tomentose when 

young, but eventually glabrate and shining on 

the upper surface, glaucous on the under side with 

prominent nerves ; heart-shaped, with 2 glands on 

the upper base, average blade 7x7^ in. The 8J)ecies 

flowers in June and November, the paniples being 

terminal and a foot or more in length ; flower yellow 

inside and brownish yellow outside, fra,grant and 

attractive. Fruit, an ovoid yellow drupe, the size of 

a loquat, and containing 1 — 2 seeds. The wood, 

which is cream to pale yellow, is described as light, 

close-grained, strong, and workable. It is specially 

reaommended for all sorts of light ornamental work. 

" The wood of this tree on account of its Hghtness 

and toughness is much valued for carriage-building 

and all ornamental work : it is light yellow with a 

reddish heartwood, close and even-grained, eagily 

worked, and readily takes paint or varnish. At the 

Gcovernment Medical Store Dep6t Workshops, it has 

been found, to be the best wood for making artificial 

limbs, stethoscopes,' &c. It turns well. "Weight 

30' — 40 lb. per cubic foot." — Pharmacographia Indica. 

Grraham Anderson has stated that the tree is 
found in groups in the Manjarabad district, that 
deer are very fond of the flowers and fruit, and 
that ttie body of the l&rge n^rtive drum is parade of 



2S2 FOREST TR^ES. 



the seasoned wood. At Kankanhalli and elsewhere, 
combs are popularly made from it. Although dis- 
tinctly deciduous in the drier tracts, trees that are 
well placed in regard to moisture are rarely quite 
bare of leaf, a circumstance which is easily over- 
looked from the fact that the flowers and young 
leaves burst forth together on the approach of the 
first rains. 

Cultivation.— Seeds produced on local trees have 
not germinated, but as Brandis remarks that the 
species is easily raised from seed, there must be 
some error in local treatment. When planted in a 
deep alluvial soil, at 40 feet apart, the Gmelina 
arborea becomes an excellent roadside tree. , It is 
not however recommended where the soil is poor 
and stony. 

455 Vitex Negundo, Linn. Kan. NekMiu, LakMi, 

Leckee. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Wight 

Ic. t. 519. 
"References.— Did. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 

Pharm. Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

The chaste tree. Seldom attaining to more than 
a shrub in the drier parts of country, and very 
abundant in lanes and hedgerows. Leaves and 
young branchlets hoary underneath, which gives the 
foliage a pretty effect when moved by the wind. 
Often used as small fuel, but not for wattle-work, in 
at least the maidan portion of Mysore. The leaves 
are commonly used in the peasants' houses as an in- 
secticide, a,nd in fomentation to swellings, headache, 
and such like. The species is very abundant in 
Mysore and Ooorg, where it mostly affects the dry 
subalpine region, increasing ia stature as it approach- 
es the Ghats. There are two varieties designated 
the black— Zan—and white — Bili — as indicated 
by the prevailing colour of the foliage. Medicinal 
virtues are attributed to the leaves, root, and fruit. 



MYSORE AND COOM. 223 

" A tree regarded witli superstitious fancies by 
the natives, who use the leaves at certain ceremonies 
connected with the Dewarlee feast, and at funerals ; 
a bough being generally placed on the mound of a 
recently-made grave. The leaves are also used as 
a packing over stored grain to prevent insect 
attacks." — Graham Anderson. 

Vitex trifolia, Linn, is known by the same ver- 
nacular names, possesses the same properties, and is, 
in all probability, a mere variety of Vitex Negundo. 

Cultivation. — As seedlings are difficult to raise, it 
is usual in this locality — Bangalore — to increase 
stock from ofEsets, suckers, and cuttings. If this is 
done during the rainy season, large numbers of 
plants may be raised. The species is so hardy that 
it is found growing in the poorest soils and driest 
localities. It has a pretty effect on lawns when 
grown in clumps. 

456 Vitex altissima, <Linn. Ean. Navladi, Nauladi, 

Nowladi. 

Fig.-WigU Ic. 1. 1466; Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 253. 

'References.— Brand. For. Fl. 370; Diet, of 
Ecoa. Prod, of Ind. 

A deciduous tree attaining a large size in favora- 
ble locahties on the lower hills, but generally stunt- 
ed in the maidan districts. Leaves 3 — 5 foliolate. 
Plowers in terminal woolly panicles, purple. Fruit 
the size and colour of a black currant. Beddome, An- 
derson, and Lovery, all speak well of this wood, 
although the best supplies are apparently situated 
in somewhat inaccessible positions. Seasoned wood 
is brownish-grey in colour, weighs 63 lb. per cubic 
foot, and is generally used, when procurable, for 
building and agricultural work. In Manjarabad, it 
is called ' iron wood.' 



224 I^OBEST TREES. 



457 Vitex alata, Hetnb, 

F. pubescens, Yahl. and V. leucoxylon, Linn. 
are Malnad trees of which We require more data. 
Forest oflBcers should be on the look out for them. 

Cultivation.— Propagate from seed, and plant in a 
situation where there is plenty of moisture, with 
the necessary drainage. It is not known if 
these trees coppice, but in all probabiHty they do. 

458 Clerodendron inerme, Ctjietn. Kan. Vishma- 

dhari gida, Naitafekile. 

■Fig. — Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
RefereneeS'—Pharm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, 
of hid. 

This common shrub is well known to the people 
on account of its valuable medicinal properties. 
The leaves, with their juices, are popularly employed 
to mitigate fever, for which they possess properties 
nearly equal to Ghiretta. When isolated froin other 
large plants, it forms a pretty bush, and is easily 
trained into an admirable hedge with privet-like 
foliage and scented flowers. Being compact in 
growth, easy of propagation, very hardy, and not 
browsed upon by sheep or cattle, it is, indeed, dne of 
the very best plants for garden feflcing. It is said 
also that cobras have a great antipathy to it. The 
indigenous shrubs Clerodendron infortunatum, Gaert. 
C. Siphonanthus, R. Br. and G. serratum, Spreng. 
are all possessed of medicinal properties. 

459 Duranta Ellisia, Linn. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

An ornamental shrub cultivated in Indian gardssils, 
but originally introduced from America. There are. 
two varieties, one having pale purple and the other 
pure white flowers. The species forms an effective 
hedge, and is easily raised for that purpose from cut- 
tings. Hedges may be seen in the Palace Gardens 
and at the Lal-Bagh. 



MYSORE AND COOBG.' 225 

460 Citharexylum surrectum, Gr. 
Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 

Fiddle wood. Introduced from Jamaica and 
Antigua. A small deciduous tree of rapid growth 
and conical habit. Young stems quadrangular. 
Leaves opposite, petiolate, — petiole, coloured orange, 
1 in. — ovate elliptic, average blade 6 — 3 in. Flowers 
in drooping racemes, white, fragrant, and usually 
admired. Fruit a small berry. ' On account of its 
easy cultivation and deliciously scented flowers, this 
exotic tree is quite established in Indian gardens. 
The wood is described by" Harrison as follows : — 
"A most useful timber in building, . close grained, 
and very tough, psed for mill rollers and frames, 
carriage wheels, &c." * . 

Cultivation.— Easily raised from cuttings during 
the rains. Plant in loose soil at 7 feet apart, subse- 
quently removing every alternate sapling. Second- 
ary leaders are apt to form on the root-stock, and if 
allowed to grow will eventually supersede the main 
trunk, and spoil the symmetry of the tree. Seed- 
lings have not been raised at Bangalore. 

LVIII. NYCTAGINE^. 

461 Bougainvilleaspectabilis, OoMM. B.spectabilis 

var glabra, Lind. and B. lateritia. 

"Woody climbers introduced from South America, 
and cultivated in gardens for their showy bracts. 
The first named flowers during the early part 
of the hot season, and is a conspicuous object 
of beauty when other plants are mostly at rest. 
The other two species flower at intervals all the 
year round, on which account alone, the so-called 
variety glabra, is surely entitled to rank as a distinct 
species. It is also evergreen, while B. spedabilis is 
usually deciduous for a short time. Although small, 

29 



226 POBBST TREES. 



it has been observed that the wood of these climbers 
is tough, durable, and well adapted for providing 
handles to tools. 
462 Pisonia alba, Spax. 

The lettuce tree. So called, as in coloiir, size, and 
texture, the leaves somewhat resemble those of the 
lettuce plant. Cultivation does not succeed at 
Bangalore, but the tree is a familiar object in Madras 
and other sea-coast towns. The species is indige- 
nous to the Andaman Islands. Hooker thinks it 
may be identical with P. inermis, Forst. of the 
Pacific Islands. • 

LIX. MYRISTICE^. 

463' Myristica f ragrans, Houtt. Kan. (Fruit) Jajikayl, 

Japatri. 

Fig.-Sentl. & Trim- Med. PI. Hi t. 218. 

References.-P^arm. Ind,; Fl. of Bnt. Ind.; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
The nutmeg tree. The maidan portion of the 
Mysore plateau is too dry for this species, which 
luxuriates m the moist heat of the Eastern Moluc- 
cas. Its cultivation has been attempted more than 
once in the Botanical Grardens, but not with much 
encouragement, as the plants are undersized and 
give no fruit. An a,ttempt is being made by the 
Inspector General of Forests, to establish the nut- 
meg tree in the warm sholas of the Malnad, and, 
knomng that cultivation has been productive at 
Buriiar, on the Nilgiri Ghat, the experiment is not 
without promise. 

^4 "VSy^ristica laurifolia, Hook. Kan. (Nut) Pindi 

Fig.-JBedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 267. 
Reference.-F/, ^f g,^-^_ j^^ 

A large evergreen tree of the Malnad, and said to 
be the commonest of the bastard nutjnegs. Leaves 



MYSOEE AND 000E6. 227 



glabrous, sliining, very coriaceous, 6 — 9 in. lipear- 
oblong or variable. Flowers dioecious, small, regu- ' 
lar, crowded on tbe twigs and branches. Fruit the 
size of an apple. The nutmeg and the mace are said 
to be of no value, and the quality of the wood is 
unknown. Herbarium specimens are required, with 
fuller information as to the local merits of this 
apparently common tree. 

465 Myristica malabarica, Lamk. Ka7i. Kanagi, (Nut) 

Pinde kayi- 

Fig.~Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 269. 

"References-— P harm. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. Prod- 
of Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A large evergreen tree of the "Western Ghats. 
In general appearance, it differs but little from the 
last named species, except in the fruit, which is 
quite different, and the greater size usually attain- 
ed. Fruit oblong, 2 — 3 in., hairy or tanny, " with 
a lucumose arillus, the lobes of which are twisted 
and folded into a cone at the top." The mace is 
deficient in odour and flavour, and is much softer 
tjian in the proper nutmeg. It is perhaps best 
known under the Guzerati name, Bampatri, of which 
a good deal is heard in the Bombay market, where 
the product commands a value of Rs. 10 per maupd 
of 37-| lbs. A medicinal concrete oil is obtained 
from the bruised seed by boiling. " Wood reddish- 
grey, moderately hard. Weight 32 lb. per cubic 
foot. Used for building." Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

466 Myristica magnifica, Bedd. Kan. Eamanadike. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 268. 

Beddome describes this as " one of the most 
magnificent trees in the Presidency." It sustains 
this character in the Malnad of Mysore also, but 
the Kew authorities, or at least Sir Joseph Hooker, 
cannot discover that it differs in more than size and 
pubescence from M, Icmrifolia, Forest ■ officials 



228 FOREST TREES. 



■would therefore be doing a service to science, if they 
could settle this question, or at least submit such, 
material as would enable the Kew authorities to, 
settle it. 

The vernacular name, Ramanadihe, or Bama's 
areca-nut, is obviously a misnomer, as, if B-ama had 
any claim to the designation, the latter should clearly 
be Rama's nutmeg and not his areca-nut. The 
areca-nut belongs to the natural order Palmacese, 
which comprises an entirely different class of trees. 
The species under notice attains 100 feet with an 
immense buttressed trunk. Fruit oblong, nearly 4 in. 

467 Myristica Farquhariana, Wall. 
Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 270. 

This treeis said to be plentiful on the South Canara i 
and Coorg Ghats. M. attenuata, Wall.— Kg. Bedd. 
Fl. Sylv. t. 271. — should be searched for in the same 
locality. Nothing is known of the timber afforded 
by these trees. The genus Myristica is confined to 
steamy woods where the rainfall is heavy and the 
atmosphere moist. Such being the conditions for 
healthy development, it cannot be hoped that culti- 
vation would succeed on the arid plains. 

LX. LAURINE^. 

468 Cinnamomumzeylanicum,BRBGN. Kan. Lavanga- 

patte mara, Daloliini, Nisane. 

Fig.- Wight Ic. t. 123, 129, 134; Bedd. Fl- 
Sylv. t. 242 ; Bentl. of Trim. Med. PI. t. 224. 
Heferences.-Dict. ofEcon. Prod, of Ind.;Pha.rm. 
Ind. 

A small evergreen tree, young leaves and shoots 
having beautiful reddish and carmine tints. Indigo- , 
nous to Ceylon, Burmah, and the Decca^ Peninsula ■ 
Cultivated m the Lal-Bagh. The liber or inner 
bark affords the Cingalese cinnamon of oommero^, 
and the aromatic leaves are extensively used in 



MYSOEB AND POORG. 229 

condiments and medicine. The essential oil of 
cinnamon is obtained from the liber, but other oils 
are afforded by the leaves and root. 

The cinnamon trees found in the Malnad are of a 
larger size and coarser texture than the typical 
form of C. zeylanmtm, and it is doubtful if they are 
mere varieties of the latter, or if they should be 
referred to one or other of the following species. 
Aromatic trees of this class, especially the Ceylon 
cinnamon, possess antiseptic properties in a rare 
degree, and should be thickly planted about pesti- 
lential towns and villages to improve the health of 
the public. It has been stated on good aiithority 
that the essence of cinnamon kills the microbe of 
typhoid fever in 12 minutes, while corrosive sublim- 
ate, the most powerful antiseptic known, requires 10 
minutes to perform the same work. 

Cultivation.— All the species of Cinnamomum re- 
ferred to in this list require about the same treat- 
ment. They luxuriate in moist valleys, where the 
temperature ranges from 70° to 85° or even 90.° 
Seedlings planted in virgin forest soil or deep loam, 
at 15 feet apart, soon become strong bushes. 

469 Cinnamomum iners, Eeinw. Vern. Adavi-lavanga 

-patta, DalcMni, Yellaga mara, Cuddu-lavanga. 

Fig.— Wight Ic. t. 122, 135. 
References— i^^. of Brit Ind.; Drury U. PI. ; 
Oamb. Man. Timb. 
A small tree of the western Makad. Slightly 
larger in leaf, and not so compact in growth as the 
last named _ species. Bark aromatic and used as 
Taj or Indian cinnamon. Not very common in 
Shimoga, although Lovery -remarks that it is locally 
used for building and fuel. 

470 Cinnamomum macrocarpum, Hook. 
mg.— Wight Ic. 130. 

Probably known by the same vernacular names. 
A small tree with somewhat slender leaves and 



230 FOBEST TREES. 



brandies. Fruit larger than in any of the other 
species. We are much in want of herbarium 
specimens representing all the indigenous Laimneie. 

471 Cinnamomum nitidum, Blume. 

This species resembles number 469, except that 
the flowers are about twice the size. It is entered as 
an indigenous plant with some hesitation. Fig. Wight. 
Ic. t. 137. 

472 Machilus macrantha, Nees. Kan. CHttu tandri 

mara. 

■Fig— Wight Ic. t. 1824; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 264. 
A large evergreen tree of the Malnad. Properties 
unknown. Watt observes that " it is known as 
Gwmara in the Konkan forests." 

473 Alseodaphne semecarpifolia, Nees. 
Wig.-Wight Ic. t. 1826, 1827. Bedd ; Fl. Sylv. 

t. 297. 

This is a large or small tree of variable character. 
The "Flora of Britisji India " enumerates no less 
than 5 varieties of the species. It is reported to be 
a good timber tree, and is in demand for boat- 
building in Ceylon, where it is said to resist the 
attacks of the dreaded teredo. 

474 Litsaea Wightiana, Wall. Kan. Hammaddi? 

Halmaddi ? 

Fig.— Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 293. 
A tolerably large tree in the Hassan, Kadur, and 
Shimoga Districts, where it grows rather exten- 
sively. The wood is reported to be soft and light,; 
being used to solne extent for making wooden; 
vessels and for fuel. It, however, yields a resin, ' 
which is locally used in lieu of frankincense. The 
tree is evergreen. Although several species of 
Litssea are known to be indigenous to the Western 
Ghats, their names and properties are not reported 
by the local officials. 



MTSOE.B AND OOOEG. ' 231 

475 Persea gratissima, G^rtn. 

The Alligator or Avocado pear. A small ever- 
green tree introduced from the West Indies and 
tropical America, where it is highly prized for its 
fruit. Rarely seen except in Botanical Gardens. 
The fruit does not appear to be appreciated in this 
country, nor is its preparation for the table under- 
stood. 

476 Hernandia bivalvis, Benth. 

Specimen in the Lal-Bagh. An evergreen tree 
of B. Australia. 

477 Hernandia sonora, Liisnsr. 

An American species cultivated in the Lal- 
Bagh. 

LXI. PROTEACE^. 

478 Helicia robusta, Wall. Kan. Tegala mugu. 
Tig— Wight Ic. t. 191. 
'Refetence.-Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

A handsome tree said to be found in Hassan; It 
may be mistaken for fl". travancorica, Bedd., which 
the latter authority has figured in " Flora Sylvatica" 
under the above name. Found growing on the 
banks of streams. Uses unknown. 

479 Macadamia ternifolia, F. Mubll, 

The Queensland nut tree. Cultivated in the 
Botanical Gardens where, however, it has not yet 
attained maturity. 

" A small-sized tree, with a very dense foliage. 
Found iu dense, moist scrubs on the banks of rivers ; 
wood firm, fine-grained, and takes a good polish. 
This tree bears an edible nut of excellent flavour, 
which is relished by the white colonists as well as 
by the aborigines. It forms a nutritious article of 
food to the latter, and, in consequence, the restric- 
tion with regard to this tree as in the case of 



232 FOREST TREES. 



Araucaria Bidwillii (Bunya Bunya), is made in the 
licenses issued for cutting timber. " Walter Bill. 

480 Grevillea robusta, Ounn. 

The silky or silver oak of Australia. This grace- 
ful tree has spread very rapidly in the coffee 
plantations of Southern India withiu the past decade. 
In Mahjarabad, Coorg, Shevaroy Hills, and the 
Wynaad, it is somewhat extensively planted as a 
break-wind, and to shade coffee. The Lal-Bagh has 
issued large quantities of seed to the above districts, 
but the demand is usually greater than the local 
supply can meet, although high prices are now 
charged for the seed. In the moister and cooler 
region of the hUls, the so-called silver oak, for it 
must be remembered that it is not a member of the 
oak family, attains a large size, is very ornamental, 
and yields a fine timber. But at Bangalore, Mysore, 
and generally throughout the maidan, growth is less 
satisfactory, the tree being stunted in size, resini- 
ferous, and in very dry localities short-lived. When 
young especially, the tree is very graceful ' in its^ 
upright or conical form, silvery foliage, and orange- 
red flowers in dense, bottle-brush racemes. It 
flowers iu the cold weather, and seeds freely during 
the months of June and July. The silver oak is 
admirably adapted for scenic grouping, affording as 
it does, a distiact contrast in form and colour to the 
indigenous trees of this country. The branches 
and young wood are very brittle, but as the trunk 
matures it becomes tough, durable, and beautifully 
marked. 

"Diameter 30 to 40 inches; height 80 to 100 
feet. A lofty tree of frequent occurrence in the 
scrubs along _ the coast, and for a considerable dis- 
tance in the interior. The wood is extensively used 
for staves for tallow casks, and is in much repute for 
cabinet work. At present the sawyers are receiving 
at the rate of 8 s. to 9 s. per hundred feet." Walter RiU. 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 233 

Cultivation, — Seeds collected at Bangalore ger- 
minate at the rate of 20— '80 per cent. Once rooted, 
the seedlings are very hardy and transplant with 
few casualties. It will be seen from Mr. Hill's remarks 
that the tree clings to the seaside, a fact which 
will account for its fine growth on those estates 
lying nearest to the sea on the hills of Southern 
India. For the growth of timber, the Grevillea rohusta 
should be planted at 7 feet apart, the final trees 
being left at 14 feet. It is a good lawn tree, as 
grass grows well under it. 



LXII. ELiEAGNACE^. 

481 Elaeagnus latifolia, Linn. Kan. Hejjala. 

Tig.-WigU Ic. t.l856; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t 180. 
Reference— Did. of Econ.- Prod, of Ind. 

The bastard oleaster. A large scandent bush, 
chmber or small tree according to_. position and 
surroundings. Leaves silvery on the underside. 
The fruit, which is acid and astringent, is said to be 
eaten by the tenders of cattle on the Nilgiri range 
of the Western Ghats, It is also eaten by the pea- 
sants of Mysore, where the bush is found in quantity. 
The species can be propagated from seed, and it 
forms an effective bush to screen off unsightly walls 
or buildings. 



■S"- 



LXIII. LORANTHACEiE. 

482 Loranthus longiflorus, Deseouss, ^osto. Badanike, 
Fig.- Wight Ic. t. 302. 

References.— ^ranc?. For. Fl. 397; Gamb,Man. 
Timb.320; Did. of Econ, Frod. of Ind. ; Fl. 
of Brit. Ind. 

An evergreen jparasite found on mango and other 
trees, from which it is suspended at intervals in 

30 



234 FOEEST TEEES. 



ample twiggy bimclies of a pale green colour. The 
long tubular flowers, composed of yellow green and 
reddish colours blended together, are attractive. 
But the species is aggressive, very hurtful to trees, 
and should be diligently removed from all useful 
species, whether grown for timber, fruit, or other 
products. The local trees that are mostly, infested 
are the mango, banyan, Strychnos nux-vomica, Albizz- 
ia amara, and Anogeissus latifolia. Of the 58 
species of Lorantlms described in the " Flora of Brit- 
ish India," about 18 — 20 are indigenous to Mysore, - 
the greater part being confined to the hills. The 
vigorous growing kinds are usually destructive to 
trees, and shouldbe treated as a pest by the forester. 
In the maidan country at least, all the species are 
known by the vernacular name Badanilce. Some of 
them are not unlike the ' miseltoe,' to which the 
genus is closely alhed. There are also one or two 
species of Viscum in the provinces of Mysore and 
Ooorg, although not the one that affords the real 
' miseltoe bough ' of ancient and modern renown. 

LXIV. SANTALACEiE. 

483 Santalum album, Lm^. Kan. Gandha, Srigandha. 
Pig-— jBo^. Plates Lal-Baqh Collection. Bedd. 
Ft. Sylv. t. So6 ; Bentl. and Trim. Med. PI. 
t. 292. 
References.— PZ. of Brit. hid. ; Pharm. Ind, ; 
Bict. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
The sandalwood tree. This important species 
attains its maximum utihty, and is most abimdant in 
the Mysore country, where also it is a Government 
monopoly, and commercially the most valuable tim- 
ber tree in the State forests. Its range of growth 
lies mostly to the west and south of the province, 
following an almost unbroken line through the' 
deciduous and mixed zone of the Shimoga, Kadur, 



MYSORE AND COOUG. 235 • 

Hassan, Mysore, and Bangalore Districts. On the 
other hand, the extreme maidan Districts of Kolar, 
Tumkur and Chitaldroog, produce comparatively 
little sandal. In point of growth, outturn, and 
revenue, the best results have been attained at 
Shimoga in the north-west, and Mysore in the 
south. The altitudinal range of the species is 
roughly 2,000 — 4,000 feet, although on the Nundy- 
droog hill, in the Kolar District, it is flourishing at 
an elevation of 4,500 feet. 

A small, evergreen tree of 25 — 35 feet, occasion- 
ally larger in rich soil, but usually smaller as the 
latter deteriorates and becomes deficient of mois- 
ture ; insignificant in general appearance. Diame- 
ter at base 1' to 1|-'. Bark } in., brownish-grey 
on the surface, reddish within ; often ruptured ver- 
tically. Leaves opposite, petiolate, exstipulate, 
entire, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-ovate, gla- 
brous and shining on the upper surface, young leaves 
dark green and more or less glaucous underneath, 
older ones pale or yellowish green and variable in 
size ; average blade 2|- x 1^ in. Flowers in terminal 
and axillary, trichotomoxis cymes, shorter than the 
leaf. Flower inconspicuous, in parts of 4 or very 
rarely 5 ; perianth changing from pale-green and 
brown to crimson ; stamens 4, attached to the tube 
of the perianth and associated with interposed hairy 
processes ; pistil bottle-shaped with a 3-lobed 
gtigma. Drupe globose or subglobose, glabrous and 
shining, annulate near the apex, one-seeded; the 
colour and size of a large black currant or small 
gean. 

Although strictly preserved by Government, the 
sandalwood tree suffers from the attacks of men 
and animals to a very large extent. It is only after 
the seedling, or offset, attains a certain height that 
its removal becomes punishable, and to prevent 
itpouble of this sort, the raiyat is careful to romove 



236 FOEEST TREES. 

seedlings while they are very small. This is natural, 
as the raiyat derives no benefit from the growth of 
sandalwood, while by its removal he protects his 
fields from the encroachment of improductive 
growth, and evades the responsibility which would 
fall upon him should trees exist in his holding. This 
is the most serious form of destruction the autho- 
rities have to deal with, and the best remedy would 
be to ofEer the raiyat a share in the profits arising 
from sandal cultivation. If the remuneration was 
sufficient, he would then nourish the tree in every 
nook and corner not required for the pro- 
duction of food and raiment. But it is equally 
if not more important that the cultivation of sandal 
should be pushed in semi-barren tracts, where the 
raiyat has but little control, and where the cultivation 
of field crops would be out of the question. This is 
all the more desirable when it is known that the 
finest quality of sandalwood is produced on poor 
rocky soils. Associated in such places with Lantana — 
the latter as a nurse — there is a wide field in Mysore 
for the artificial propagation and extension of this 
valuable tree. Seeing the advantage of such pro- 
duction, the local Forest Department has already 
adopted measures both for the improvement of 
natural growth, and the planting of entirely new 
areas. 

The bark and alburnum — sapwood — of the sandal 
tree are comparatively useless products, and the 
value of the duramen or heartwood depends almost 
wholly on the presence of a fragrant essential oil of 
high specific gravity. Protracted growth appears 
to favour the development of oil in the cells, bo that 
very aged trees, whether of medium or small 
growth, are usually the most fragrant and oleiferous. 
Itf is for this reason that some persons deprecate 
the felling of sandal until it has altogether ceased to 
vegetate. But with this species, the span of life is 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 



237 



very uncertain, and while exceptional specimens 
may attain to nearly a hundred years, a large per- 
centage die young, and are of little value for the 
market. It would seem, therefore, that matured 
trees of 30 years of age and upwards might be felled 
with advantage even if they are not dead. "With 
regard to the colour and marldng of sandalwood, 
there are at' least four varieties, viz., the Kempu, 
red ; Bili, white ; Navilu, peacock ; and Naga, cobra. 
The two first named are distinguished by colour 
alone, while the two latter possess peculiar marks 
indicating, in their arrangement, some resemblance 
to the peacock and the cobra, on which account 
they are held in the highest esteem, and always 
command fancy prices. 

" Sanskrit writers make two kinds of chandana : 
the darker, heartwood, they call Pita-chandana, or 
yellow sandal ; and the lighter wood Srigandha, or 
white sandal — It is more likely that these names 
refer to the two distinct varieties referred to above, 
and not to any definition of the wood in a single 
tree — Chandana is mentioned in the Nirukta, or 
writings of Yaska, the oldest Yedic commentary 
extant, said to be written not later than the 5th 
century B. 0. It is also referred to in the ancient 
epic poems of the Hindus, the Bamayana and 
Mahabharata. According to the KatJiasaritsagara, it 
is one of the trees of the Buddhic paradise, and the 
chariot of the sun is made of its wood bound with 
gold." Pharmacographia Indica. But red sandal- 
wood is by far the most abundant and may be 
described as a pale reddish wood interspersed with 
concentric zones of yellow and darkish-brown ; it is 
exceedingly dense, moderately hard; and easily 
worked with delicate tools ; it is not attacked by 
white ants, and the contained oil preserves it 
wonderfully, whether above or below the ground. 
Weight 56 — 60 lb, per cubig foot, As an aromatic 



238 FOREST TEEES. 



and fancy wood it is unrivalled, and no other 
wood commands sucli a high price in the open 
market. G^he annexed table gives the outturn 
of sandal in Mysore with the revenue derived there- 
from during the past five years. When matured 
or dead, the sandal trees are collected depart- 
mently, and conveyed to a number of conveni- 
ently placed Depots or Kotis, where they are finally 
dressed, sized, classified, weighed and stored, in 
readiness for the annual auction sales which usually 
take place during the two last months of the ealendtir 
year, and are so arranged that buyers can travel 
comfortably, and without much loss. of time, from 
one Depot to the other, beginning at Sagar in the 
north-west of the province and ending at Hunsur in 
the south. There are at present eight Kotis, of 
which Shimoga possesses three, Mysore two, and 
the other districts one each. Further details will 
be found in the annexed map showing the approxi- 
mate distribution of Santalum alburn within the 
territories of Mysore. 

The sandal thus disposed of, amounting to about 
2,000 tons annually, finds its way mostly to Bombay, 
and thence in varying quantities to China, France, 
Germany, and a few other countries. A large 
quantity is retained in India for pu.rposes of crema- 
tion, for consumption in the fire temples of the 
Parsis, for the extraction of oil, and for domestic and 
temple functions. A much smaller quantity enters 
into the local industries of carving and distilling. The 
dead or fully matured root of the tree contains the 
largest percentage of oil, and is preferably used for 
the extraction of that valuable product. 

" By the Indian process only 2*5 per cent of 
oil is obtained from the wood, " while the article is 
badly coloured and always very impure ; " but the 
powerful apparatus of Messrs, Schimmel' & Co. of 
Jjeipzig affords as pmch as 5 per ceTit, " Pure sandal 



Jllap »R(Jwi»() tfie app!:<)a:unat6 SiittiSHiiw o| Sandalwood in Jllusore. 











^:e.ale. SoMiXe^ to en Ineit/ . 



MYSOEE AivD COOEG. 



239 



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FOREST TREES. 



oil, such as has recently been distilled by Mr. Petrie 
Hay of Hunsur, is worth two rupees an ounce. It 
is a product for which there is a growing demand 
in arts, medicine, and perfumery. Sandalwood 
carving is pre-eminently a local hand industry of 
great antiquity, handed down from father to son 
for many generations ; but it is practically confined 
to one or two small towns, and perhaps a few hamlets 
in Shimoga, the north-west corner of the province, 
Sagar and Sorab being the principal seats of manu- 
facture. These carvings vary in price from one to 
a thousand rupees, and consist of a great variety of 
articles, the more prominent being small cabinets, 
temples, swami figures, boxes, albums, fans, switches, 
walking sticks, card cases, paper cutters, chess- 
boards, and toys. Keduced to a fine paste, the wood 
is popularly used by the JBrahmins for marking the 
forehead and body. 

Cultivation.— The Gandha mara is generally looked 
upon as a somewhat delicate tree, although, judging 
from its tenacity of growth in poor soils while ex- 
posed to occasional long periods of drought, it often 
behes this character. But these are the only condi- 
tions under which the species is really hardy, and 
in situations, where the drainage of the soil is defect- 
ive, it is usually very delicate. Planting should 
therefore be avoided in wet land. A rather heavy 
rainfall will not hurt the tree, providing that the soil 
is porous enough to carry off surplus water before 
stagnation sets in. The roots and bark are sensi- 
tive of injury, and the tree is easily killed by fire. 
It is reproductive from seed, but rarely grows thickly, 
single specimens attaining maturity at intervals of 
ten to a hundred yards. If seedlings are crowded, 
they seldom attain a good size, so that judicious 
thinning in the early stages of growth becomes an 
important factor in the cultivation of sandal. 
Suckers are occasionally given off from old trees, but 



MTSOBE AND OOOKQ. 241 

they do not appear to come to anything. Crows 
are very fond of the ripe fruit, and are supposed 
to deposit the seeds favourably in hedgerows and 
bushes, where the seedhngs procure the neces- 
sary shade and protection required by them during 
the first two or three years of development. 
In artificial treatment, the introduced shrub, 
Lantana ca/mara, Linn, has proved to be a good 
nurse for sandal seedlings. This is a great discovery 
which should not be lost sight of wl'.enever the 
question of reclaiming karnb, or waste h nd, presents 
itself. A peculiarity of sandalwood is that it will 
not grow within walled enclosures, noi- is it found 
on the sites of deserted villages. Mr. I). E. Hutch- 
ins, a former officer of the Mysore Forest Depart- 
ment, has written as follows : — " When young, 
sandal, has to cojitend with many enemies. The 
smooth succulent character of the leaves of sandal 
doubtless contributes to render them the favourite 
food of hares and deer. (Cattle and goats are also 
very partial to the leaves). When planting sandal, 
it is usually necessary to place thorns over each 
plant tp keep off hares. If spotted deer are abund- 
ant in the locality, it becomes necessary to fence 
plots of sandal planting. Self-sown seedlings of 
sandal are rarely seen except among clumps of 
thorns, and tDther bushes where they are naturally 
protected from browsing. The sandal tree attains 
its, commercial maturity, i.e., the age at which^ it 
pays best to cut it down, at 27 to 30 years. At this 
period, the heartwood is well developed (i.e., at a 
g.enera.1 depth of aboi^t 2 inches below the surface) 
and jthe growth of ithis is so slow that it cannot in a 
year attaj.n an increased value eqaal to the interest 
on its, present selling, price, plus the value of the 
spg.ce it- would occupy. 

it 'is therefore found most profitable to cut it. 
down Isetween the age of 2V to 30 years." 

31 



242 FOREST TEEES. 



With regard to the above remarks, it may be 
observed that the heartwood increases with the age 
of the tree until there is practically no sapwood 
left, and the correct time to fell would appear to be 
at this juncture. In propagation, the best results 
are obtained by sowing the ripe berries newly taken 
from the tree, with the seed in them. If the fruit 
is dried in the sun or kept for a few weeks, it does 
not answer so well. The red soil about Bangalore — 
loam incorporated with oxide of iron — appears to 
suit the requirements of sandal, especially when it 
forms ridges, or is situated between low rocks on the 
higher grounds. 

484 Scleropyrum Wallichianum, Ass. Kan. Benduga. 
'Pig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 304. 

A small tree in Hassan, Coorg, and the Wynaad. 
Often spiny. Flowers in short catkins near the ends 
of the shoots. Uses unknown. 



LXV. EUPHORBIACE^. 

485 EuphorbiaTirucalli, Linn. Kan. Kalli, Bonta, 

kalli; Kadu-nevali, 

Fig.—Bot. FJates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
Reference,— Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A small tree of hedgerows. Erect, 12 — 20 feet, 
leafless or with inconspicuous leaves. Whole plant 
green, glabrous, much branched, branches resembling 
stout rushes, but easily broken and very milky. 
Commonly known as the 'milk hedge' or *milk 
bush.' Indigenous to Africa, but extensively natura- 
lised in this country. The acrid juice is a well 
known purgative and counter-irritant. The old 
wood affords material for making gunpowder char- 
coal ; and the very acrid nature of the milky juice 
prevents cattle from breaking the plant, on 
which account it affords an excellent fence fof 



MTSOSE AND COOEG. 243 



pasturage. Kalli is well known throughout the 
province. 

486 Euphorbia neriifolia, Linn. Kan. Talekaiu. 
E. antiquorum, Linn. Kan. Bontakaili. 

Succulent shrubs often used for fencing, and well 
known in the maidan for their medicinal properties. 
The last named species and E. trigona., Haworth, 
make good railway fences. All the species grow 
from cuttings readily. 

487 Buxus sempervjrens, Linn. 

The box tree is cultivated in the Botanical 
G-ardens, where, however, it never attains anything 
like its normal size. 

488 Bridelia retusa, Spbeng. Kan. Gurige, Gworgie, 

Goje, Asana ? 

'Eig.—Bedd Fl. Sylv. t 240. 

References.— iJ'Z. of Brit. Ind.; Qamh. Man. 
Timb. 356. 

A middle sized or large, deciduous tree. Her- 
baceous parts usually thorny ; young leaves tomen- 
tose on the underside, matured leaves coriaceous, 
rigid and prominently nerved. Flowers small, 
yellow, in short lateral spikelets. Fruit blaek» 
purple the size of a pea. Sir Joseph Hooker nameg 
four varieties of the species. Grenerally found in 
the deciduous and mixed zones and on the outskirts 
of the evergreen belt. Although comparatively 
small, the heartwood is close grained, nicely mottled, 
and said to take a good polish ; it is also ha,rd and 
durable, but not very easily worked. "Weight 
56 — 64 lb. per cubic foot. 

" The astringent properties of the bark of this. 
tree appear to be well known throughout India^;^ 
and it is in general use for tanning leather. The. 
wood is also much used on account of its durability 
under water, for making well-curbs. In W^gt^m 



244 FOREST TEEES. 



India, the bark has a reputation as a lithontriptic, 
and is in general use as an astringent. When 
wounded, the bark exudes a blood-red juice, which . 
stains the hands, and is very astringent." Phanna- 
cograpMa Indica. 

It is also stated in the above work that the bark 
contains 39*9 parts of tannic acid. Such being 
the case, it must be an exceptionally powerful 
astringent. The leaves are valued as food for cattle ; 
while the berries are much eaten by birds, and 
occasionally by children, to whose mouths they 
impart a deep claret colour. 

' "A tree generally found in the outskirts but' 
sometimes in the forest. It has small oval leaves, 
(they should be retuse) The bark is about -J inch 
thick, rough and very dark-grey, nearly black in 
colour. The inner bark is of a deep blood colour 
and fibrous in texture ; affords, splendid wood for 
bed-plates, posts or beams, being very hard, heavy 
and durable." — Oraham AMerson. 

The species B. montana, Willd. a low tree, and 
B. stipulaiis, Blume, a scandent shrub, are also found, 
in the Malnad. Botanical specimens of the whole 
genus would be acceptable at head quarters. 
489 Phyllanthus Emblica, Linn. Kan.'Neilu Frait— ' 

Nelli kayi. 

¥ig—BoL Plates. Lal-Bagh Collection. Bedd. Fl. 

Sylv. t. 258. Wight Ic. t. 1896. 

Keferences,— P^arm, Jnd. ; Did. of Eqoii. Prod. 

ot Ind. ; Oamb. Man. Timb. 351. 

The emblic myrobalan tree. Bare of leaf during 

the greater part of January and February, or longer 

in arid situations. In garden land, it is rather a 

striking tree of 35 — 40 feet. Leaves very small, 

distichously and closely set like the leaflets of a 

finely pinnate leaf. In general effect, the foliage is 

not unlike the tamarind tree, but much pal6r in. 

colour. Although wild aU over the couEtryi it is 



MYSORE AND C00E6. 245 

• only in cultivation, and in the most favourable posi- 
tions wliere fine specimens are seen. Flowers small 
but very numerous and densely fascicled on the 
matured wood, whitish, changing to pale yellow, 
appeiaring in May, Fruit depressed-globose, clear, 
fleshy, faintly 6-lobed and 6-seeded, varying in size 
from a large gooseberry to a crab-apple, ripening in 
November. Being highly esteemed for its acid fruit, 
the tree is commonly found in gardens, where it is 
often spoken of by English people as the ' Indian 
gooseberry tree.' "Wood mottled brown, red and 
yellow, centre darker but showing little definition 
of heartwood. Weight 43 — 50 lb. per cubic foot. 

Remarkable for its durability under water, which 
it also clears of all impurities. To effect the latter 
object, it is a common practice to throw chips of 
wood into a well or drinking pond . The bark is a 
good tanning material, and medicinal properties are 
attributed to it, as also to the flowers and fruit. 
The latter is held in great esteem by all classes, who 
consider it to be refrigerant, diuretic, [and laxative. 
It is also pickled largely, and commands a market 
value of about Es. 32 per candy of 7 cwts. It is an 
excellent thing to quench thirst and is said to im- 
prove the taste of water. The peasants like to suck 
the fruit while on fatigue duty, as when ascending 
a steep hill. 

Cultivation. — Although very hardy in dry situ-, 
ations among rocks, the Nelli requires a good deal 
of moisture and proper cultivation to enable it to 
yield superior fruit. The seeds are very hard and 
take nearly a year to germinate in the ordinary 
course, but by steeping for 24 hours in camphorated 
water germination will be effected within a few 
weeks. It is doubtful, however, if the sowing 
would be very productive of seedlings, as a large 
percentage of the seed is usually bairren. When 
the seedlings are nearly two feet high, plant in large 



246 IIOREST TREES. 



pits at 30 feet apart. In artificial treatment, irri- 
gation will be required during the first dry season. 
In rock-lands, the Nelli is often reduced to a large 
bush. 

490 Phyllanthus distichus, Muell. Kan. Kimnelii 

mara. 

'Fig.—Bot. Plates. Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References.— Ft. of Brit. hid. ; Bid. of Econ. 
Prbd. of Ind. 
The star gooseberry tree. Indigenous to Mada- 
gascar and the Malay Islands, naturalised in Indian 
gardens, where the species is popularly cultivated 
both for ornament and fruit. A small round-headed 
tree of 20 — 30 feet. Leafy branchlets nearly two 
feet in length and resembling long pinnate leayes. 
Deciduous at the close of the hot season. The small 
flowers appear in advance of the leaves in June, 
and are densely crowded on the naked limbs and 
branches, where the fruit subsequently appears in 
ample clusters. The latter is much relished both in 
dessert and pickle. 

Cultivation. — Seeds germinate somewhat reluc- 
tantly, but steeping for a few hours in tepid or 
camphorated water helps the process. Square pits 
4' X 4' wide ajid 3' deep should be opened six months 
in advance of the planting season, on the arrival of 
which healthy seedlings should be planted at 15 — 20 
feet apart. A proportion of decomposed cattle 
manure, equal to ^ of the soil around the pit, should 
be applied and thoroughly mixed in the latter when 
refilled. Grrowth is rather slow at first, but under 
careful treatment the tree will begin to fruit in the 
fifth, year. 
491 Phyllanthus indicus, Mueil. 

A. deciduous tree of 30 — 40 feet. Entered with 
hesitation as the species is not verified in Mysore. 
Branches terete, white spotted. Leaves 5^2 in. 
distichous, membranous and variable in shape. 



MYSOEE AND GOOEG. 247 

Fruit somewliat like that of Nelli, but much smaller, 
Should be searched for on the outskirts of the 
Malnad proper. 

492 Cleistanthus collinus, Benth. Kan. Kodasigina, 

Bodadaraga. 

Fig.-Bedd. For. Man. 203, t. 23, f. 3. 
Reference. — Pharm. Ind. 

A small, deciduous tree of low hills. "Wood very- 
hard.' The leaf, root, and fruit, of the plant are 
poisonous. Rare in Mysore, but should be reported 
on when found in any quantity. The nut is a deadly 
poison. 

493 Glochidion neilgherrense, Wight. Kan. Banavara, 

494 Glochidion zeylanicum, A. Juss. 

Small evergreen trees of the Malnad. When 
dried, the leaves become quite black. Other species 
which may possibly be growing in the evergreen 
forests are O. Hohenacheri, Bedd. 0. BalpMi, Hook. 
G. Johnstonei, Hook. G. arhwevm, Wight and 
G. malabariCum, Bedd, The economic properties 
of these trees and shrubs are practically unknown, 
neither is it certain that they all exist in the State 
Forests, Glochidion is a large Indian genus. 

495 Flueggia microcarpa, Blume, jS'aw. Bill sulL 

Tig.—Bot. Plates Lal-BagJi Collection. Wight Ic. 
t.l994, 

Reference.— Diet of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

A spinescent shrub having long flexuous branch- 
es, deciduous leaves, minute flowers, and small 
white berries. Planted against a tree, it becomes 
scandent. Found in hedgerows and in the scrub 
tracts, but not very abundant. The supple branch- 
es are plaited around the eaves of thatched roofs to 
supply a basis, and form a good support to the thatch. 



248 POEEST TREES. 



The leaves are possessed of medicinal properties, 
and the bark is said to be a fish poison. 

496 Flueggia Leucopyrus, Willd. 

'Pig -Wight. Ic- t. 1875. 

Similar to the above, except that most of the 
salient organs are smaller. The authors of Phar- 
macogfiafhia Indica assert that the sweet, white ber- 
ries are eaten by children, who call them Madh 
-honey-and that the juice of the leaves is used to 
destroy worms in ' sores. Like the foregoing, the 
bark is said to be a fish poison. "When planted and 
trimmed for the purpose, these plants make fairly 
good hedges. 

497 Breynia rhamnoides, Muell. Kan. Kari suli. 
Fig.—Bot. Plates, Lal-Bagh Goltection^' , Wight. 

Ic. t 1898. 
'Reference.— Did. of Econ. Prod, oflnd. 
Usually found in the scrub tracts, where it is very 
common as a Iq-^ bush, and occasionally , attaining 
the size of a smajl tree, 12—715 ft. Berry globose, 
but :da|;tened 9,t both ends, the size of a small" pea, 
red changing, to black. Branches used in thatching 
like number 495. " The dried leaves are smoked 
lite tobaqco in cases in which the uvula and tonsils 
are swelled. The bark is astringent*" Pha/rmacd- 
graphia' Indica,. ■ This bush can also be utilised for 
hedging. Ama suji^a small shrub of rocky ground, is 
prbbsibly a species of Phyllanihus. Although usually 
very small, it is reputed for the hardness and tena- 
city of,its.\wood. vFruit black, when ripe. 

498 Putraniiva Roxburgh!!, WAll. Sanskrit or Kan. 

Patra-jiva, Putrem-jivaj ' 

'Eig.-Bedd. Fl. Syh, t. 275. . Wight., Ic. L 1876, 
References.— .Broiid. For. Fl. 451. QamhMm. 
Timb. 35$. 
A small evergrpen tree Tvith gmall dioecioug iflowerS' 
and Jlrupal. friji|iihe 'sjze pf a iamoon. .Struftg; ;i^o 



MTSOEE AND COOM. 249 

n'e'oklaces, the la,tter are worn as a charm by the 
village children, where the tree is found plentifully, 
The translation of the vernacular name being, 
"that which makes the child live." Trees culti- 
vated in the Lal-Bagh for a quarter of a century 
are only 20 feet in height. The wood appears to be 
hard and durable, although meagre ik size consider- 
ing the long period of growth. Polyalthia longifoUa, 
a lofty tree of the Anonacese, is occasionally spoken 
of by the name of Putrajiva, care is necessary, 
therefore, not to confound the one species for the 
other. In some Indian works, the fruit is referred 
to as a nut, but it is a proper drupe. 

499 Hemicyclia venusta, Thwaitbs. 
Fig.-WtgU let. 1933. 

500 Hemicyciia elata, Bedd. 
Fig.-Bedd. Fl Sylv. t. 379. 

Evergreen trees of the "Western Malnad. Bota- 
nical specimens should be collected, as nothing defi- 
nite is locally known about these trees. Beddome de- 
scribes the last named as a tree of 90—100 feet. 

501 Bischofia Javanica, Blume. Kan. Gobra nairul, 

Govarnellu ? , 

Fig.-Bedcl. FL Sylv. t. 359. Wight Ic. 1. 1880. 
References.— Z)^c!! . of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Brand. For. FI. 

\ A glabrous round-headed tree of 30 — 40 feet. 
Deciduous for a few , days or subdeciduous, according 
to season. Not uncommon in the forests of Kadur, 
Hassan, and Shimoga. Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate. 
Flowers minute, green, in slender panicles. Fruit 
the size of a large pea, blue-black. The Sub-Hima- 
],ayan form is described as follows : — 

" The leaves are renewed in February and March. 
Fl. March, April. The fruit ripens in April of the 
ensuing year. An exceedingly handsome tree attain- 
ing 70 feet, and 7 ft. girth, with a shady oval crown. 

32 



250 FOREST TREES. 



In dry places a stunted tree 15 — 20 feet high. The 
foliage is deep green, and turns red before falling." 

Srandis. 

The same authority writes that the fine close- 
grained wood seasons well, is durable, and used for 
furniture. Planters sometimes call it red cedar. 
" In rich land, this tree is generally left and agrees 
well with coffee. The foliage is somewhat dense 
however and in moist situations the coffee grows 
very slowly under it. "Wood is red, easily cut with 
the axe, and is very apt to split after being squared. 
It is used for rough purposes and for making 
pounding-poles." Graham Anderson. 

The vernacular name indicates that some product 
of the tree affords manure, this is possibly the leaf, 
which is said to be abundant and changeable in 
colour. Botanical specimens and seeds would be 
acceptable at head quarters. 
502 Antidesma Ghsesembilla, GiEETN. Kan. Pullam- 

purasi gida. 

Fig -Wight Ic. t. 820, 821. 

References.— 2^^. of Brit. hid. ; Diet, of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. 

Confined to the deciduous tracts of Mysore, where 
it rarely attains to more than a large shrub. Found 
atKankanhalh and elsewhereatintervals,butnotvery 
common. Leaves alternate, entire, stipulate, round- 
ish to obovate or variable; average blade 3 x 2 in., 
young herbaceous parts rusty-tomentose. Flowers 
dioecious, minute, in terminal branched spikes. 
Fruit subglobose, the size of a black currant ; eaten 
by children and possesses an agreeable subacid 
flavour, produced in ample reddish clusters near the 
ends of the shoots. Wood small, but hard, reddish, 
close-grained and durable; weight 49 lb. per cubic 
foot. The scarcity of this species is probably due 
to the want of fertility in the seed. 



MYSORE ANI> COOEG, 251 

503 Antidesma Bunius, Speeng. 

Fig-Wight Ic. t. 819. 

References.— i^Z. of Brit. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A small evergreen tree of the Western GMts, 
where it is partial to the moist looalities. Culti- 
vated in the Botanical Gardens, and in the nursery 
of Messrs. Munisami & Co. at Bangalore. Leaves 
alternate, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, glabrous and 
shining. Pistillate flowers in simple spikes ; male 
flowers not seen in local trees, although fruit is 
plentifully produced upon thejn. Fruit the size of a 
large currant, greenish-yellow, changing to red in the 
ripening stage, and when changing colour very like a 
miniature apple, produced in clusters or small 
bunches. Not unpleasant when ripe, but improved 
in a tarfc, and possibly as a preserve. The unde- 
termined species of Antidesma likely to be found 
in the forests of the Malnad are A. Alemteria, Linn. 
A. diandrum, Eoth. and A. Menasu, Miquel. Speci- 
mens should be collected for herbaria with the object 
of identifying the above, and perhaps one or two 
additional species, the names of which are withheld 
for the present. 

Cultivatioii-— As seeds are not produced by the 
local trees, the latter are wholly increased from 
layers. No doubt seeds are plentiful in the forests 
when both sexes are represented. It is also proba- 
ble that several varieties exist in addition to the 
species suggested in this paragraph. 

Plant in a position where the land is deep and 
comparatively moist all the year round, as under the 
bund of a tank or the bank of a channel. Distance 
from tree to tree 1 5 — 20 feet. 

504 Jatropha glandulifera, Koxb. Kan. Kari turuka 

harala gida. 

"Wig,— Bat. Plates LaUBagh Collection, 



252 FOREST trees; 

\ ■ 



References— Pharm. Ii}d. ; Diet. ofBcon. Prod.' 
of Ind. 

A shrub 4 — 6 ft. Foliage greenisli-purple to 
bronze or copper ; leaves large, subpeltate, not 
unlike tlie leaf of the castor-oil plant. Young stem, 
node, petiole, and margins of leaf, thickly furnished 
with sticky glandular hairs, riower reddish-purple. 
Capsule and seed about the same as in the castor- 
oil plant. 

Abundant in nullahs and waste places, but proba- 
bly naturalised. The authors of PharinacograpMa 
Indica publish an Indian legend as to the manner in 
which the plant was first introduced. It is virtually 
looked upon by the masses as a useless plant,, 
although medicinal properties are occasionally attri- 
buted to its root, juice, and the oil expressed from 
its seed. The latter product is valued as an appli- 
cation to chronic ulcerations, and is straw-coloured. 
The plant is readily propagated from cuttings. 

505 Jatropha curcas, Linn. Kan. Turuka haralu, 

Kadu haralu, Betta haralu, Mara h^aralu. 

Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
References.— Dict.ofEcon. Prod, of Ind.; Pharm. 
Ind. 
The poison, physic, or purging-nut tree. An 
evergreen species of 16— 20ft., but most commonly 
seen as a bush or fencing plant, in the vicinity of 
villages and gardens. The Portuguese are allowed 
the credit of having introduced the species from 
Brazil, but it was probably established in India long 
prior to their conquest. The whole plant is very 
milky, and the freshly cut ends' of the young twigs 
are popularly used by the peasantry as tooth brush- 
es, the milky juice being considered beneficial to the 
teeth and gums. The milk-sap is also a popular 
and efficacious styptic ; dried in the sun, it forms a 
reddish-brown substance resembling shell-lac. A 
decoction of the leaves applied externally will excite 



MTSOEK AND COOEG. 253 



the secretion of milk. The yellow oil expressed 
from the seed is a powerful but unsafe purgative. 
As cattle do not eat the plant, it is generally 
employed to form a fence around gardens. 

Cultivation.— Readily propagated from layers 
and cuttings. Growth vigorous in any loose soil of 
ordinary quality. To obtain arborescent growth 
large pits are needed, with occasional irrigation 
during the dry season. Offsets from the rootstock 
and lower trunk should be r.emoved as they appear, 
otherwise the leader becomes exhausted and subsides 
into the shrubby form. 

506 Jatropha multifida, Linn. 

An introduced garden bush commonly known as 
the "coral shrub," from the resemblance of its 
flowers and pedicels to pieces of red coral. The 
showy yellow fruit contains a poisonous seed. 
Cultivated in a few gardens for ornament. 

507 IVIanihot Glaziovii, Muell. 

Fig-— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 
A deciduous tree recently introduced from South 
America, where it is commercially known as the 
" Ceara rubber tree." The species has readily 
adapted itself to the climate of Southern India, and 
being of a very hardy and productive nature, it may 
be looked upon as one of the best vegetable coloni- 
sers" of recent introduction. Having come to the 
country with a great reputation for usefulness as a 
producer of caoutchouc, it quickly obtained the 
advantage of being domesticated in numerous centres 
ranging from sea level to an altitude of 5,000 ft. In 
some of the coffee districts it is already looked upon 
as a nuisance, the reproductive growth being so 
rapid. At Bangalore, where there are 4,000 trees, a 
loose stony soil forms the best medium for quick 
development. It is not improbable, therefore, but 
this species will eventually outstrip the Babool in 



254 



FOREST TEEES. 



clothing Jcarab soils and rocky eminences such as 
abound on every side. If it does tins, it needs no 
other recommendation to become one of the most 
useful gifts the land could possess. Like the Lantana, 
it annually litters the ground with decayed leaves, 
thus adding fertility to what might otherwise remain 
barren soil. Being a deciduous tree, it' remains bare 
of leaf during the driest part of the dry season, 
thereby escaping the risks of drought and exposure 
at a critical period. "While in leaf it is a handsome 
object, and being milky, cattle do not attack the 
foliage. 

Local trees have not been productive of caoutchouc, 
although in its native place the species is said to 
yield commercially after the sixth year. But the 
great development of the rubber industry within 
the last decade has improved our knowledge 
of the true sources of this article, and it is very 
doubtful if Ceara rubber ever took the leading posi- 
tion in the market that was once assigned to it. At 
the present time the principal supplies of rubber 
are obtained from the following species ; — 

Central American ruhher — Castilloa elastica. 



Para 


••• Hevea hraziliensis. 


African 


••• Landolphia, several sp, 


India 


— Jicus elastica. 


Guttapercha 


••• Dichopsis gutta. 



Local plants of Manihot Glaziovii were first intro- 
duced in 1879. Instances are recorded of the tuber- 
ous roots being locally prepared and eaten like the 
roots of cassava, this, however, requires fuller in- 
vestigation. The leaves make good manure and the 
wood burns well. 

Cultivation-— Seedlings spring up freely around 
the parent tree and can be transplanted into pots or 
nursery beds when they are 4 — 6 inches high. For 
field growth, plant in loose well-drained soil at 20 ft. 
apart. 



Mysori! And cooeg. 255 

508 Manihot Utilissima, PoHL. Kan. Kada genasu, Mara 

gen as a. 

A tuberous rooted pereimial attaining to the size of 
a shrub. Stem and leaves deciduous for a season. 
The fleshy roots afford bitter cassava, manioc, 
mandioc, and tapioca. Introduced from South 
America and cultivated in Indian gardens. 

509 Aleurites moluccana, Willd. /tare. Fat-akrodu. 

'£\g-—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 276. 
References.— Dwi. of Econ. Prod, of hid.; 
Pharm, Ind.; FL of Brit. Ind. 

Generally known as the Belgaum walnut, Indian 
walnut, and candleberry tree. Introduced from the 
Pacific Islands and cultivated in this country. A 
large, or medium sized, evergreen tree, 40—60 feet. 
Often stunted in cultivation owing to the soil being 
unfavourable. Leaves angular to broadly rhomboid, 
with 3 — 5 lobes, whitish tomentose when young. 
Flowers inconspicuous, dull-white. Pruit a large 
drupe containing two seeds with a furrowed testa. 
The latter are eaten in lieu of walnuts, for which 
they are a very fair substitute. Of the many useful 
properties possessed by this tree, the production of 
a superior fixed oil from the seed is one of the chief, 
it is extracted by boiling and simple pressure, and 
as adryingoilfor paint, it is said to be superior to 
linseed oil, which is commonly used for the purpose. 
Being applicable to the arts generally, it is occasion- 
ally retailed as " artists oil." 

The Sandwich Islanders pass a bamboo pin 
through a number of seeds and use them in lieu of 
candles. When fixed together in this way the seeds 
burn brightly for hours. The wood is of no value, 
but the bark affords a gum, and the root a browadye. 

Cultivation.— Seeds germinate in about five weeks 
from time of sowing, or a week earlier if placed in 
fermenting litter such as leaves and bed-straw. 
When upwards of a foot in height, the seedlings 



256 



FOREST TREES. 



should be planted out into large square pits at 
25 — 30 feet apart. Being a gross feeder, the tree 
requires the exclusive use of a deep fertile soil, as 
when the roots of other trees encroach, the Belgaum 
walnut usually suffers and becomes stunted and 
unproductive in consequence. 

510 Croton Tiglium, Linn. Kan. japala, Nepala. 
Fig.— Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. Bentl. & 
Trim. Med. PI. t. 239. 

References.— PAarm. hid. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, 
of Ind. 

This valuable plant is cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, 
where it grows and seeds freely and assumes the 
form of a small tree of 6—8 ft. The oil obtainable 
from the matured seed is a well known drastic pur- 
gative usually administered in capsules or small 
doses. It is applied externally as a rubefacient, but 
incautious use, or even careless handling, will cause 
severe blistering. As the climate of Mysore is well 
adapted for this cultivation it should be encouraged, 
with a view to including croton-oil seed as a minor 
product of the State forests. 

The seed is very expensive, and supplies for 
Europe and the Colonies are mostly obtained direct 
from China, the country in which the plant grows 
wild. 

Cultivation — Seeds germinate at the rate of 30 
per cent after 20 days shallow insertion, in moist 
soil. Seedliags of 9 inches to a foot may be planted 
in rows, during the rains, at 6 feet apart. "Watering 
is necessary during the first dry season, and may be 
required at longer intervals during the second also. 
511 Croton oblongifolius, Eoxb. 

A small deciduous tree of the western hiU region. 
The root-bark, leaves and fruit, possess medicinal 
prpperfcies, and the seeds are said to be purgative. 



MYSORE AND COORG. 257 



C. reticulatus, Heyne. G. malabariciis, Bedd. and 
O. Lawianus, Nimmo. are also found in the hill 
country. 

512 Givotla rottleriformis, Griff. Tel Telia puni, 

Telia poraku. 

Fig.~-Bedd, Tl. Sylv. t. 285. Wight Ic. t. 18S9. 

References.- Oamh. Man. Timh. ; Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

A small tree of the Malnad. Branches usually 
very stout. " The seeds yield an oil which is valu- 
able as a lubricant for fine machinery. "Wood white, 
exceedingly light, very soft, but even-grained. 
Weight, 14 lb. per cubic foot. It is employed for 
making carved figures, toys, imitation fruit, boxes 
and other fancy articles ; also for catamarans. The 
Kanara Gazetteer contains the further information 
that its surface takes paint readily." Watt. 

513 Ostodes zeylanica, Mubll. Kan. Sotege. 
Fig—Bedd. Fl. Sylv, t. 274. 

A large tree of the Hassan forests, where it is 
confined to the moist evergreen belt. "Wood un- 
known. Fruit not unlike the fruit of Manihot Gla- 
ziovii. Botanical specimens are required for the local 
herbarium. Compare Anderson's Hotaga marglee 
with this. 

514 Trewia nudiflora, Linn. Ka,n. Kat-kumbala. 

Fig.-WigU. Ic. t. 1870, 1871. 

References. — Brand. For. Fl. 448. Gamb. Man. 
Timb. 359. 

A lofty tree of rapid growth, 60 — 80 ft. At 
Bangalore, the leaves are deciduous for about 20 
days in February or March, in a moister region they 
would possibly be almost ,evergreen, opposite, stout, 
long-petiolate, cordate or rounded at the base, 
acuminate, considerably larger than the leaf of the 

33 



258 FOREST TREES. 



Portia tree, — Hwcarasi — to wliich there is some 
resemblance in outline and texture. "Wood soft, 
wliite, used in Northern India to make the cylinders 
of native drums. The bark of the root has cura- 
tive properties, and is said to be efficacious in the 
treatment of gout. It is perhaps locally used in 
the form of a poultice. The dioecious flowers appear 
a few days in advance of the young leaves, and are 
the first outward indication of returning growth. 
The pedicels of the male flower are so short that the 
drooping inflorescence reminds one of the catkins of 
a willow tree. Fruit fleshy or nearly woody, the 
size of a gooseberry, exceedingly abundant and fall- 
ing thickly to the ground for upwards of a month. 

Cultivation. — Deposited in small heaps of sweep- 
ings and rubbish, the seeds soon germinate, nor are 
they unfertile when sown in nursery beds according 
to approved methods. This would make a good 
shade tree for country roads were it not for the fall- 
ing fruit, which litters the ground and causes a 
nuisance. To rjbtain full growth, this large tree 
should be planted at -50 feet apart. 

515 Mallotus philippinensis, Muell. Kan. Kun. 
kiimada mara, Chandra hittu, Huli chellu, Vasare. 

Fig —Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 289. Bentl. & Trim.' t. 
336. 

References— Pharm. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

The Kamala dye tree. Small, or at best medium 
sized, evergreen, except in abnormally dry seasons 
when the leaves are all shed for a short time. The 
species is very abundant in some parts of the mixed 
zone lying nearest to the evergreen belt, and is de- 
tected by its peculiar musty odour when the fruit is 
forming. The latter begins to be covered from an 
early stage by a glandular powder of a bright crim- - 
son colour. Shaken from the ripe fruit, on cloths. 



MYSOEE AND COOEG. 259 

this powdter affords tlie product called Kamala 
dye, an esteemed article of ancient times, but now 
superseded to a great extent by clieap and unsatis- 
factory dyes. Kamala is still in demand however, 
not only for dyeing silk, but as an anthelmintic of 
exceptional merit ; it is a minor product of the State 
forests, and is generally known in the South by the 
Tamil name KaiM. The wood warps and shrinks so 
badly that it is only fit for fuel. Weight 48 lb. per 
cubic foot. Mallotiis alius, Muell. M. muricatibf, 
Bedd, M. Lavii, Muell. and M. repandus, Muell, 
are represented iu the Malnad forests, but we poss- 
ess no local information as to the quantity or utility 
of these trees. 

Cultivation.— As the Kamala tree requires a good 
deal of moisture it succeeds best near the hills, on 
the banks of rivers and channels, and under the tank- 
bunds. But it is also found at intervals throughout 
the province, and is reproduced from root offsets. 
Seeds collected from local trees are very imperfect 
and rarely germinate. In such cases it is often 
advantageous to procure seed from localities where 
the tree is known to flourish well. 

516 Macaranga indica, Wight. 

mg -Wight Ic. t. 1883. 1949,' f, S. Bedd. Fl 
Sijlv. L 287. 
An evergreen tree of 50 to 60 feet. Found in 
Coorg, and not uncommon in the Western Malnad. 
Braiichlets very stout. Leaves Mrge, deltoid-ovate, 
peltate, and entire. Fruit very small, globose or 
rarely didymous. Local uses imknown. 

517 Macaranga Roxburghii, Wight. Kan. Kanchu 

prantlii, Chenthakanni. 

Fig -Wight Ic. t. 1949, f. 4. & 817. Bedd. Fl. 
8ylv. t. 281. 

■' .- ■ Reference— Fl. of Brit. Ind. 



260 FOREST TBEES. 



A small evergreen tree of quick growth and 
resinous nature. ,Often found in forest clearings and 
as a shade to coffee. ^ Easily distinguished from 
allied genera by its handsome peltate leaves. 
Abundant in Coorg and Western Mysore. A medi- 
cinal gum or reddish clammy secretion having the 
odour of turpentine, exudes from the young shoots 
and fruit. This product is said to be used for taking 
impressions and sizing paper. The wood is soft 
and useless. Flowers small, green, in dense panicles. 
Fruit globose, the size of a pea. 

518 Ricinus communis, Limsr. Kan. Haralu gida. 
The castor- oil plant. There are three distinct 

varieties cultivated in the fields as a dry crop, viz., 
the doclda — large — chittu — small — and Jcempu, red. 
The stalks are utilised as fuel by the poorer classes. 

519 Gelonium lanceoiatum, Willd. 
Fig.— Wight. Ic. t. 1867. 

'References— Gamb. Man. Timh; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, oflnd. 
An evergreen tree of conical growth, 30—35 ft. 
Leaves numerous, small, alternate, coriaceous, 
oblong-lanceolate to ovate but never lanceolate; 
Stammate flowers small, crowded at the nodes, 
creamy-white. The male tree is usually very 
symmetrical, and tapers gradually from a wide base 
to a sharp pointed apex. A dark green foliage 
heightens the effect of this regular outline, and 
makes the tree an attractive object for scenic effect. 
—In Coorg, there is a tree called Garcinia xantho- 
cliymus, which grows in exactly the same form and 
IS even finer in foliage and outlme.— The female tree 
formerly m the collection of the Botanical Gardens 
was less conical in form, and looked more like a 
huge shrub branching thickly from the base. That 
however may have been exceptional in the solitary 
specnnen referred to. The male tree, of which there 
are several specimens about Bangalore, alwayi^ 



MYSORE AND OOOEO. 261 



assumes the conical form. Wood yellow, smooth, 
even-grained, and exceptionally strong, said to be 
suitable for h.ou.se-biiilding. 

Cultivation.— It is difl&cult to procure good seed 
of this tree, and the hard nature of the wood 
is inimical to the customary modes of propagation 
by division. The best course is to obtain seed or 
seedlings direct from the Malnad where the species 
grows rather abundantly. When the seedhngs are 
a foot or more in height, plant in rows at 25 feet 
apart. A somewhat moist situation having a rainfall 
of 70 to 100 inches produces the best growth. In 
drier localities, irrigation would be needed occasion- 
ally during rainless months. Propagate from 
layers if seed cannot be had. 
520 Sapium sebiferum, Roxb. 

The Chinese tallow tree. Cultivated in the Bota- 
nical Grardens and in the Hebbal plantation. For 
the introduction of this important species we are 
indebted to the Agri Horticultural Society of Lahore, 
from whom seeds were received in the year 1877. 
It is a small deciduous tree of quick growth and 
simple requirements. Each.fruit — capsule' — contains 
3 — 4 seeds each the size of a small haricot bean, and 
invested by a whitish sebaceous substance which is 
said to be a pure vegetable tallow. The Chinese 
manufacture candles out of this substance and hence 
the vulgar designation ' talloW tree.' 

" The tallow is separated by steaming the seeds 
in tubs with convex open — wicker bottoms, placed 
over cauldrons of boilmg water* With trifling ex* 
ception, the candles used by the Chinese in their 
religious ceremonies are made by dipping of the 
tallow of the Stillingia." Official Guide to the Moyal 
Gardens Kew. 

Cultivation.— Local trees ' produce seed which 
germinates readily. When the seedlings are large 



262 fOEEST TREES. 



enough, plant them in any loose soil of moderate 
quality at 15 feet apart. If the soil is not loose, it is 
desirable to make large pits so as to induce vigorous 
growth from the commencement. 

521 Sapium discolor,;MuBLL. 

An ornamental shrub introduced from the Straits 
Settlements. Cultivated in the Lai Bagh. 

522 Excoecaria robusta, Hook. 

A small evergreen tree of the Malnad and Ooorg. 
There is a specimen cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens, Uses unknown. 

523 Excoecaria crenulata, Wight. 
Yig.-WigM. le. t. 1865. 

Found in the same region as the last named, but 
less vigorous in habit and having serrate or crenulat- 
ed leaves. The genus is more or less poisonous. 

524 Baloghia lucida, Endl. 

Introduced from the east coast of Australia, 
where it is called the " scrub bloodwood. " A small 
evergreen tree 30 to 40 feet. Quality of timber 
unknown. Seedlings are occasionally raised in the 
Lal-Bagh, but they have not been established in 
local growth. 

525 Hura crepitans, Linn. 

The sandbox tree of tropical South America. This 
exotic species has been established in the Botanical 
Gardens for 30 years, where it flowers and fruits 
freely every year. The ornamental capstdes dehioe 
with considerable noise, scatteririg the seeds contain- 
ed in their several compartments far and wide. 

It is a small evergreen tree with dark green 
leaves and a thickly muricated trunk. A purgative 
oil is contained in the seed. 

526 Hevea braziliensis, Muell. Aeg. 

The Para rubber tree. Indigenous to Para and 
other parts of tropical Brazil, Introdiiced to 



MTSOEE AND COOUG. 263 



Bungaloiv in 1891. The maidan climate is luiich 
too dry for tliis species, but it would, uo doul^t, 
become a valual)le forest product in tlie warm stea- 
my valleys of the Malnad, in moist sholas at the 
foot of the Baba Budan hills, and in 'se\"eral hill 
tracts where the atmosphere is compara/.ively moist 
and steamy all the year round. The conditions 
most favourable to growth in Brazil are uniformity 
of temperature, the mean being SI'' F. and the 
greatest heat 95° F., with a slimy soil consisting 
mostly of soft alluvial deposits. Plantations arc not 
recommended where the mean temperature falls 
below 60° P., but in the valleys referred to above, tlie 
temperature is uniformly higher. For cidtivation 
in this country, Sir D. Brandis thinks that the dis- 
tricts of Kanara, Malabar, Travancore, and the 
Burma coast from Moulmein southwards, offer the 
most suitable conditions, and he draws s]iecial atten- 
tion in this respect to the moist evergresn forests at 
the foot of the Coorg Grhats and in Kanara. Para 
rubber is worth 4 shillings a pound, and under the 
most favourable conditions, a tree will yield ■! — (i 
imperial pints of milk-sap per annum. Proficidy 
placed with regard to soil and climate, the species 
grows very rapidly, often attaining a height of 20 — oO 
feet in three years. But the trees should not be 
tapped for caoutchouc until they are neai'ly 3 foet in 
circumference at the base. For details as to the 
mode of tapping, &c., the reader should see Dr. Watt's 
Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. The 
tree is strongly recommended for trial in the ever- 
green sholas of Western Mysore. 

Cultivation,— The Para rubber tree is propagated 
bothfromseedandcuttings, butMr. Jamieson of Oota- 
camund remarks that the latter are apt to damp off 
during the first few days of insertion if constant 
personal attention is not devoted to the operation. 
When seedlings or rooted cuttings are a foot high, 



264 FOREST TREES. 



plant them out permanently at 20 feet apart. 
Virs^in forest soil, alluvial mud, and moist clay, are 
all suitable ingredients for the healthy sustenance of 
the species, but the surrounding atmosphere should 
also be comparatively moist all the year round. 

527 Hevea Spruceana, Muell. 

A species, somewhat similar to the above and said 
to vield crood rubber. Introduced to the Botanical 
G-ardens m 1887. Indigenous to the valley of the 
Mazaruni River. Treatment the same as for 
n. hradlieiisis. 

528 Anda Gomesii, A. Jires. 

This handsome Brazilian tree is fairly established 
in Bangalore, where the large ash-coloured fruit is 
an object of curiosity. The latter is something like 
a cocoa-nut in form, but smaller and slightly 4 angled. 
In Brazil, a pale yellow oil, having cathartic proper- 
ties, is expressed from the seed. Being bare of leaf 
for only about a fortnight, it forms a good avenue 
tree, and in moister climates than Bangalore it 
would possibly become evergreen. The quality of 
the wood has not been tested in Mysore. 

Cultivation.- -Carefully removed from the cap- 
sules and placed in loose soil, the seeds germinate 
within 20 days at the rate of 60 per cent. Buried 
with the capsule, the seeds take a long time to 
break through and are very uncertain. Bach cap- 
sule contains 2 — 3 large seeds. For avenue planting, 
the final trees should stand at 45 feet apart. A 
moist, but at the same time well drained soil is the 
best. 



LXVI. URTICAOEiE. 

529 Holoptelia integrifolia, Planch. Kan. Rasbija 

Thapsi, Kaladri. ' 

lE'ig.- Wight Ic. f. 1968. Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 310 
References,- .B/vnuL For, Fl. 431. Gamb. Man 
Timb. 342. 



MTSOBB Airo 0O0E6. 265 

The entire-leaved elm. A large deciduous tree of 
tlie drier Malnad. Abundant in Hassan, Kadur, and 
Shimoga, throughout the mixed and deciduous 
belts. "Wood yellow or light brown with no defini- 
tion of heartwood, soft, open-grained, but strong. > 
"Weight 37 lb. per cubic foot. Mostly utilised for 
making charcoal,but also for house-building, country 
carts, and occasionally for carving. The green 
leaves and young shoots are greedily eaten by 
cattle, although the smell is offensive. The whitish- 
grey bark falls ofE in large scales. 

Cultivation.— This tree requires good drainage 
as the roots are very impatient of stagnant water. 
Sandy soil or loam on a gravelly subsoil is suita- 
ble. Propagate from Seeds and cuttings. 

530 Celtis Wightii, Planch. Tel. Telia— kaka—musliti. 
:Fig.— Wight. Ic. t. 1969. 

Reference.— Gam/!). Man. Timb, 343. 

A large or medium sized tree of the "Western 
Ghats, where it is abundant on the lower slopes 
and in sholas. Branches stiff, glabrous or tomentose. 
Leaves leathery, turning yellow in age, bifarious, 
straight, oblong or elliptic-oblong, with three con- 
spicuous nerves from base to apex. Stipules peltate, 
caducous. Flower pale bluish. Drupe racemed, 
ellipsoid, half an inch long, often 2-cuspidate, scarlet 
to black. Wood said to be close-grained and 
durable. "Weight 53 lb, per cubic foot. This spe- 
cies is much confounded with the " charcoal tree," 
Trema orientalis. But the latter is smaller in all 
its parts, of shorter duration and having the under- 
side of the leaf covered by a silvery pubescence. 

531 Trema orientalis, Blume. Kan. Bendu mara, 

Grorklu, Goorcnl. 

-Fig.— Wight Ic. t. 1971. 

References.— if i(r2. For.FI. 469. Bid. ofEcon. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Fl of Brit. Ind. 

34 



266 POEEST TUBES. 



The cliarcoal tree. A small or medium sized 
evergreen species. Said to be short-lived, 
although there are trees at Bangalore of 26 years 
of age. "When openings are made in the virgin 
forest this tree appears somewhat mysteriously, 
with the succeeding growth. A similar coincidence 
happens in the case of the castor oil plant, and is, 
no doubt, due to some property of the seed which, 
retards germination in the absence of sufficient ex- 
posure or light. The spontaneous growth in coffee 
clearings was formerly allowed to remain as shade 
to the cultivation, but it is now looked upon as 
being prejudicial to coffee, and is generally re- 
moved. Leaves silvery on the underside. Flowers 
small, dioecious, crowded on the young woody shoots. 
Drupe the size of a pigeon pea, and bearing a strong 
resemblance to the fruit of Lantana, greyish-black 
when ripe. "Wood soft and pithy, makes excellent 
charcoal, as also yokes and rafters, when properly 
smoked and seasoned. 

Cultivation.— This tree is most difficult to pro- 
pagate by artificial methods, as neither the seed 
nor cuttings vegetate readily. The best plan is to 
transplant offsets during the rains. But under the 
conditions already explained, the species is very 
reproductive. 

532 Gironniera reticulata, Thwaites. Kan. Gabbn 

cTiekke, Narakabhutali, Tam. Koditani. Indian 
Bazaars. Narakiyaood. 

'Si^—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 313. 

'References.— Pkao-m. Lid. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

BedJome describes this as a valuable timber tree 
ascending the Travancore and Tinnevelly Ghats to 
3,000 ft. It is entered as a Mysore species with 
some hesitation, although there is little doubt of its 
esisteLC3 on the south-west frontier. The wood 



MYSORE AND OOOBG.' 267 

possesses medicinal properties, and is well known in 
Ceylon and the South of India for its unpleasant 
odour, the bazaar name signifying " helHsh incense." 

" The tree is called by the Dutch Strunthoid, and 
by the Cingalese Urenne, on account of its disgust- 
ing odour, which resides especially in the thick stem 
and the larger branches. The smell of it so per- 
fectly resembles that of human ordure, that one 
cannot perceive the smallest difEerence- between 
them. When the tree is rasped, and the raspings 
are sprinkled with water, the stench is quite intoler- 
able. 

It is nevertheless taken internally by the Cinga- 
lese as an efl&cacious remedy. When scraped fine 
and mixed with lemon juice, it is taken internally 
as a purifier of the blood in itch and other cutaneous 
eruptions, the body being at the same time anointed 
•mth. it externally." Thunherg's Travels IV., 234. 

Botanical specimens of this curious tree should be 
secured by the Malnad officials for preservation in 
the herbarium. 

533 Cannabis sativa, hm^-Kan. Bangi gida. 
'Eig.—Bot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. BentL 

^ Trim. Med. Fl. t. 231. 

'References-— Pharm. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. Prod, 
oflnd. 

The hemp plant. This intensely narcotic annual 
is often seen in backyards and rubbish heaps, 
although its open cultivation is strictly prohibited 
by Government. 

The works quoted above give very exhaustive 
articles on the history, distribution, and economy of 
the species. 

534 Streblus asper, Loue. Kan. Mitli mara. 
mg.— Wight Ic. t. 1961; Bedd. For. Man, 221, 

26, f. I. 



268 FOREST TREES. 



References— iTew Bulletin 1888, pp. 81—84. 
Kv/rz. For. Fl. 464. 

This shrub or small tree is mostly confined to the 
drier parts of the maidan, where it is not uncom- 
monly found in scrub jungle and by the sides of 
nullahs. It is plentiful in some parts of the 
Bangalore Taluk, but seldom attains to more than 
12 feet in height. Suitable for hedging, but very 
slow of growth. Medicinal properties are attributed 
to the root and milk-sap, the latter being considered 
a good local remedy for sole heels and chapped 
hands. The young twigs are used as tooth brushes, 
while larger branches are stuck over the roofs of 
houses to ward off lightning. But the chief com- 
mercial value of the species is found in the bark, 
from which considerable quantities of useful paper 
is made in 8iam. It is the TonJchoi of that re- 
gion, the industrial importance of which is fully 
reported in the " Kew Bulletin " quoted at the head 
of this paragraph. When paper-mills are established 
in Mysore, it will be interesting to test the local 
value of Mitli chekke, with a view to its possible 
utihty -as a suitable material for the manufacture of 
paper. 

Cultivation.— Local attempts to propagate the 
species from seed have not been successful, but the 
tree throws up numerous suckers, and with care 
these can be transplanted during the rains. Growth 
is somewhat slow. 

535 Broussonetia papyrifera, Vent. 

The paper-mulberry tree. This species is indi- 
genous to China, Japan, and some of the Islands in 
the Pacific, in which places it formerly ranked high 
as a fibre plant, and afforded from its inner bark 
the article known as Tapa cloth. But even in the 
South Sea Islands the latter is now abandoned in 
favor of cheap European fabrics of mostly gaudy 



MTSOBB AND OOOEG. 269 

colours. The tree was established in the Lal-Bagh 
in 1881, since which it haS flourished in growth and 
increased rapidly. But as paper mills depend chiefly 
on rags, straw, and grasses for their raw material, 
it is doubtful whether trees of this class could be 
profitably cultivated for the manufacture of 
paper. 

Cultivation.— Cuttings of all sizes take root 
without much effort, only requiring to be kept in a 
moist situation for a few weeks. G-rown in moist 
but porous land, the paper mulberry quickly attains a 
height of 20 — 30 feet and is rather ornamental. 
For exclusive culture, plant at 10 feet apart. 

536 Morus indica, Linn. Kan. Reshme or Kambali 

gida- 

Fig— Wight Ic. t. 674. 

'Reference^.— Brandts For. FL 408; Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

The Indian or silk-worm mulberry. Usually seen 
as a shrub in cultivation, but under exceptional 
conditions attaining to a small tree. Leaves ovate, 
acuminate, sharply serrate, shining ; in matured 
specimens,lobedand scaberulous. Fruit red. Largely 
cultivated in the Closepet and Channapatna Taluks 
to feed the silkworm. The species M. alba, Linn. 
M. atropurpurea, Eoxb. and M. nigra, Linn, are cul- 
tivated occasionally in gardens for their fruit. The 
first named is also cultivated in the silk industry, 
although not to the same extent as M. indica, in 
Mysore. Mulberry leaves afford the best food for 
the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx Mori. The 
fruit borne by most of the species is much prized in 
the south of Europe and in the extreme north of 
India, Cashmere, and Afghanistan, but it is not 
so much esteemed in tropical India where the cU- 
mate is less favourable and the mode of cultivation 
inferior. The arborescent species have fine strong 



270 



FOEEBT TREES. 



timber -wMcli is said to be durable under ground. 
Fibre, gum, and medicine, are well known products 
of the genus. > 

Cultivation.— Mulberry plants are easily raised 
from cuttings, and these, as also tbe sapling and 
matured trea, require a moist situation for healthy 
growth. Strongly rooted plants are also somewhat 
gross feeders requiring rich plant food in the form 
of sheep and farm-yard manures. With these ad- 
vantages, and a systematic mode of treatment during 
the extreme seasons, the mulberry could be made 
more productive of fruit than we usually see it on 
the plateau of Mysore. 

537 Ficus gibbosa var parasitica, Koen. Kan. 

Goddu mitli mara. 

'Fig— King Fie. PI 2. h. ; Wight Ic. t. 653. 

B.eference.—Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
A small evergreen tree found in the clefts of rocks 
and on stony hills. The rough leaves vary a good 
deal in size and form, and are occasionally used to 
pohsh household utensils. Fruit produced singly or 
in pairs at the base of the leaves, and on slender 
stalks nearly equal to the length of the receptacle 
slightly hairy, and not larger than a small pea! 
1 he root-bark possesses medicinal properties. 
538 Ficus DalhousiaB, Miq. 
Fig.— King Fie. PI. 11. 

A tree, 30-40 feet. Young shoots softly pubes- 
cent Leaves subcoriaceous, rather long petiolate, 
broadly ovate, with acute apex, base cordate, nerves 
promment on the under side. Fruit in axiUarv 
pairs, shortly pedunculate, obovoid, densely hairv ■ 
the size of a dove's egg. This species is mostft 
confined to the Malnad, where it is probablv ever- 
green. Uses unknown. ^ '^^ 



MTSOEB AND OOOBG. 271 

539 Ficus Bengalensis, Linn. Kan. Ala, Alada mara. 

Fig.-King Fie. PI. 13. Wight Ic. t 1989. 

References-— Brand. Foi\ JBL 412; Diet, of 
Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
The proper banyan tree of India, A large umbra- 
geous species attaining to 80 andj in exceptional 
cases, 100 feet. Leaves deciduous, petiolate, alter- 
nate, coriacfeous, ovate-rotund to elliptic, apex blunt ; 
average blade 5x8 in. Aerial roots abundant or 
otherwise according to age and situation. Fruit in 
sessile pairs, orange-red to reddish, the size of a 
gooseberry. The banyan is so universally known 
that it calls for no special description here, and 
being venerated by the Hindus, it is extensively 
planted in most parts of India. Dr. King remarks, 
however, that it is " wild only in the Sub-Himalayan 
forests and on the lower slopes of the hill ranges of 
Southern India. " It is asserted by the same author- 
ity that the tendency to send down aerial roots 
from the branches reaches its highest development 
in the banyan. At Bangalore, the tree remains bare 
of leaf for 20 days in March or beginning of April. 
The banyan, like many species of the genus Ficus, 
often commences Hf e as an epiphyte on the body of 
some other tree, and the curious condition of seeing 
two different trees growing, as it were, from a common 
root is mostly due to this investment. The Hindus 
call it natural marriage and will rarely separate' 
such a union, although the fig prevails eventually 
and strangles the tree from which it derived its 
early support. Seeds masticated by crows and 
other birds are plentifully dropped into the clefts of 
various trees ; in the course of time some of these 
germinate and hence the result here depicted. 

Gigantic and altogether very remarkable speci- 
mens of the banyan tree exist at Mhasve, Satara 
Zillah, in the Bombay Presidency, and in the Eoyal 
Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. Correct measurements 



272 FOREST TEBBS. 



of these famous trees will be found in Dr. Greo. 
King's splendid work on " the species of Ficus of 
the Indo-Malayan and Chinese countries. " 

Wood of little value except under submersion, 
when it is sufficiently durable to be used for the 
curbs and planking of wells. Weight about 37 lb. 
per cubic foot. The aerial root-drops afford an 
elastic timber which is occasionally used for tent- 
poles, cart yokes, and such like. In deep soil, the 
tree is considered a good shade for coffee, and the 
immense number of leaves which are annually shed 
from large trees provide ample material for enrich- 
ing the land. 

The milk-sap is extensively used in the prepara- 
tion of birdhme. It is also applied, in the crude 
state, to ulcers, sores, and bruises. Medicinal proper- 
ties are attributed to the root also. The young 
leaves are stitched together to serve food upon, in 
lieu of plates. 

Cultivation. — Stake cuttings soon take root even 
in poor soils, but the finest specimens, whether from 
seed or cuttings, are found in good land. The rapid 
development of aerial roots is undesirable in an 
avenue or roadside tree, otherwise the banyan is 
admirably adapted for the latter purpose and wiU 
often succeed where other trees fail. Seedlings 
are preferable for roadside planting as they grow 
more rapidly and become finer trees than such as 
are raised from cuttings- The species is popularly 
planted near shrines and in village topes. Seeds 
rarely germinate under artificial treatment, but seed- 
lings are always plentiful in the clefts of trees, in old 
waUs, and by the sides of nullahs. 
540 Ficus mysorensis, Heyne. Kan. Goni mara 
Khig iic. PI. 14, 15. 
References.— J^Z. of Brit. Ind. ; Bkt of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 
Of indigenous fig trees, this is the largest grow- 
ing sp,eoies in the Mysore country. In good situations 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 273 

it is not unusual to find specimens with a trunk 
measurement of 30 feet in circumference and head 
diameter (through the branches) of 150 feet. There 
are two such trees in the Botanical Grardens at 
Bangalore. 

A wide-spreading tree affordiug dense shade and 
attaining a height of 70 — 100 feet. Bare of leaf in 
March or beginning of April for 15 days, or longer 
if the ground is dry and rain holds oif. Leaves 
deciduous, alternate, petiolate, covered underneath — 
as also the young shoots and receptacles — by a 
thick rufous tomentuni, eventually coriaceous, ovate 
to ovate-elliptic; average blade 5 x 8 in. Fruit 
in sessile pairs, oblong to ' obovate, the size of a 
damson plum, or in the variety subrepanda consider- 
ably larger, orange to orange-red, short-lived, and 
enormously prolific. Flying foxes devour the ripe 
fruit in great quantity. 

"Wood soft, and useless for building, but when 
thoroughly dried it burns fairly well. Weight about 
35 lb. per. cubic foot. A coarse fibre is obtained from 
the liber or inner bark, and the coagulated milk-sap 
is used in native medicine. The Goni is considered a 
good shade-tree for coffee, while the decayed foliage 
and fruit afford ample material for manuring the land. 
Ficus mysorensis var. puhescens, Roth, is indigenous 
to the strictly Malnad regions of Mysore. It only 
differs from the specific form in being smaller, and 
more hairy in all its parts. Nothing has been record- 
ed of its uses. It maybe the Huh goni of planters. 

Cultivation,— The same as for the banyan. It 
will be observed that the finest trees are found in 
depressions where the soil is comparatively deep 
and moist, as in valleys, at the foot of tank-bunds, 
and in deep nallahs. As a roadside tree, this species 
is preferable to the banyan because it grows faster, 
affords denser shade, and gives off no aerial roots to 

35 



274 FOEBST TREES. 



speak of. Stake-cuttings soon take root and become 
large trees. Seeds germmate under careful treat- 
ment, biit often fail from sligHt mismanagement. 
541 Ficus tomentosa, Roxb. Kan. Kallalada^ mara^ 
Kalarali ? 

mg.-King Fie PI. 18; Wight Ic. t. 647. 
References— JP'/. of Brit. Ind.; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind, 

m 

A large umbrageous tree, "with small aerial roots 
suspended from tlie lower branches. Young partsj. 
including tlie receptacle and tte leaves underneath, 
densely covered by a rusty-grey tomentum. Leaves 
crowded towards the ends of the branches, decidu- 
ous, petiolate, ovate-elliptic, slightly cordate, eventu- 
ally coriaceous ; average blade 3 J x 5 in. Fruit in 
sessile pairs, pisiform, rusty grey, the size of a large 
pea. Nothing has been recorded as to the economic 
merits of this tree, although in some sparsely wood- 
ed Taluks it is, no doubt, useful as a convenient 
source of fuel. It is peculiar to the drier parts "of 
the coimtry, and is reproductive from seed deposite'd 
by birds, flying foxes, and other small animals." 
542 Ficus indica, Linn. Kan. Gilke mara? 

mg.- King Fie. PI 45, 83b. 

References.— JP/. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Ficon: 
Prod, of Ind. 

A spreading tree of 35 — 45 feet. Foliage gla-' 
brous, shining, and copper-tinted when young. 
Aerial roots usiially abundant from the lower limbs. 
Often called the banyan, but easily distinguished 
from the latter by its smaller parts, especially the. 
leaves and fruit. Leaves shortly petiolate, copper 
to Mars-orange coloured when young, broadly to 
narrowly oblong, with an acute or blunt apex, very 
variable in size and form ; average blade 2-^x5 in. 
Fruit in crowded sessile pairs, globular, yellowish- 



Mysore and ooosg. ^175 

red, the size of a pea. Commonly planted at the 
roadsides, although not one of the best for affording 
a high canopy of shade to the traveller. In this 
respect, it is inferior to the last three species. 

Cultivation,— The same as for the Banyan and 
Goni. ' 

543 Ficus Benjamina, Linn. 

Fig— King Fir. PL 52, 83b.; Bot Plates Lai- 
Bagh Collection. Wight. Ic t. 668. 

References.— 5ecM. For. Man. 323 ; Kurz. For. 
Fl. 446.; Diet, of Econ. Prod. ofIn£ 

Commonly known in India as the " Java fig. " 
A large evergreen tree with drooping branchlets. 
Aerial roots stem-clasping, or practically suppressed. 
For rapid growth, shade, and scenic effect, this 
splendid tree surpasses all the figs. Originally 
introduced from the Malayan Peninsula and now 
rather extensively cultivated in Indian pleasure 
grounds. It forms the central avenue in the Cubbon 
Park at Bangalore, and unique specimens, some of 
which are not more than 12 — 1-5 years old, may be 
seen at the Lal-Bagh and elsewhere. Leaves alter- 
nate, shortly petiolate, glabrous, shining, broadly 
ovate-elliptic, shortly acuminate ; average blade 
li-x 2-| in. Fruit in scattered, or occasionally crowd- 
ed sessile pairs, rusty-red, the size of a pea. Wood 
nicely mottled and moderately hard when well 
seasoned. Weight 34 lb. per cubic foot. Gamble 
states that lac is produced on the tree in Assam. 
The Botanical Gardens contain a single large 
specijnen of Ficus Benjamina var. cmnosa, which, in 
f ojiage and bark, is almost identical with the specific 
form ; but growth is not so vigorous, while the 
receptacle is the size of a small gooseberry 
and rich orange to golden yellow in colour. Noth- 
ing is recorded of the properties of this wood, but 



276 -POSEST TREES. 



being of slow growth, it is possibly close-grained and 
more durable than the timber of most fig trees. 

Cultivation —The Java fig and its variety describ- 
ed above are easily propagated from layers, which 
should be taken off during the rainy season. A 
deep loose soil suits the species admirably, and 
swampy ground is soon dried by it. This is due to 
the root-limbs rising progressively above the surface, 
so that in the course of a few years the ground level 
is raised sufficiently to facilitate natural drainage. 
Plant in large pits at 50 feet apart. On poor gravelly 
soils, the tree makes Httle progress. Local 
efforts to raise seedlings have not met with success, 
but the directions given for sowing seed under the 
next species should apply more or less successfuUy 
to all the figs, 
544 Ficus elastica, Eosb. 

Fig.-King Fie PL 45, 64 ; Wight. Ic. t. 663. 

"ReteTcence^— Brand. Fm: Fl. 417; Kurz. For. 

Fl. 444; Bid. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

The India rubber tree. Cultivated in the Lal- 
Bagh and sparsely in some of the coffee districts. 
Indigenous to the base of the Eastern Himalaya, 
the Khasi Hills, Assam, Burmah, and the Malayan 
region. A handsome evergreen tree of 40 — 60 feet. 
With or without aerial roots according to locality. 
Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, rigid, 
shining, oblong to elliptic, with an acute apex ; 
venation exceptionally fine and regular, average 
blade, in a full grown tree, 2f x 7 in. In vigorous 
saplings, the leaf is much larger. Stipules' very 
large at the tips of the shoots, caducous. Fruit in 
sessile pairs over the leaf scars, oblong, pale yellow, 
the size of a large pea. 

Timber of no value. Weight 43 lb. per cubic foot. 
The India rubber of commerce is prepared from the 
milk-sap of this speciee. 



MYSORE AND OOOEG. 277 

" A tree of F. elastieais tapped in Assam -when 
25 years old. After 50 years the yield is about 
40 lbs. of caoutchouc every third year. " Marlcham 
and Collins. Moist sholas (vfilleys) leading up to the 
Malnad are well adapted for the profitable cultiva- 
tion of this industrial tree, and it is the work of the 
Forest Department to establish the species in such 
localities. 

Cultivation.— In the first stages of development, 
the India rubber seedling is very epiphytic in its 
nature, and naturally clings to moist but at the 
sametime well-drained crevices in rocks and trees. 
Stagnation of water appears to kill as effectually 
as the complete drying up of the material in which 
the seed is deposited, so that it is only with great 
care that seedlings are raised artificially. 

Cuttings root freely in bottom heat, and layers can 
be rooted and detached in the course of 3—4 
months. In Assam, the prevailing practice is to 
plant in clearances within the virgin forest, eg-ch 
clearance being a line or strip 40 feet in width, with 
an intervening belt of natural forest 60 feet in width, 
the object being to retain moisture around the seed- 
lings. "When a foot and upwards in height, the 
latter are planted on small mounds at 25 feet apart. 
Colonel Campbell Walker, Conservator of Forests, 
Madras, gives the following Memorandum on the 
methods employed in cultivating the India Rubber 
tree in the Malabar District : — 

" The method of sowing is as follows :-- 

" A seed bed, 10 feet long x 2^ feet broad, should 
be prepared. The soil should first be well forked 
over to a depth of at least 18 inches, well pulverised 
and mixed with sifted stable manure (old), ashes, 
and sand. The proportion of moiild, sand, ashes, 
and manure shoidd be as follows : one of mould, 
two of sand, one of ashes, one of manure. AH these 



2178 FOBEST TEEES. 



materials should be sifted througli a wire-gauze 
sieve. The bed should be raised 4 inches above, 
the ground, and the surface made perfectly level and 
smooth. ' 

" On the top of this layer 1 inch in thickness of 
stable manure and river sand, in equal proportions, 
should be sifted, and over that a layer ^ inch in 
thickness of brick or tile dust also sifted. The dried' 
fruit should now be rubbed to powder between the 
hands, and then sifted and sown thickly over the 
brick dust. After sowing the seed, a flat, smooth 
piece of board should be gently pressed all over the 
bed, the surface of which should be in this manner 
made as level and smooth as the surface of a 
billiard table. 

" The bed having been prepared and seed sown, 
it should be watered. A small garden engine should 
be stationed close to the bed, and a very fine spray 
must: be allowed to fall gently over the bed till it is 
well moistened. This <6L3f- be done by placing, the 
thumb of the left hand over the muzzle of the deli- 
very pipe of the engiue. It is essential that none of 
the seed, whiph all lies on the surface, should be 
washed away. A sheet of galvanised iron, or any 
efiicient substitute, should, now be placed about 
6 inches above the bed, so that no raia "w^ater may 
fall upon or iujure the surface of the bed, which 
must be kept always damp, and in dry weathei^ three 
or even four waterings a day may be necessary. . 

" In about 10 days the young seed should geraii- 
nate freely, and it will be necessary to admit sun- 
light from three to six hours daily. In cloudy 
weather the young plants may be exposed freely all 
day, and a very light drizzle will not hurt thenx ; 
but, if the upper surface of the bed is once allowed 
to dry, or is broken up by the heavy rain, the young 
plants will perish. The gardener in charge, wHo. 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 



2?9 



should be a trustworthy man, should be directed to 
remove the covering of the bed morning and even- 
ing, and give the young plants a free allowance of 
sunshine daily. 

" Several nursery beds should now be prepared. , 
They should be heavily manured, and 4 inches of 
the surface made of sifted soil. As in the case of 
seed bed, a |- inch sifted brick or tile dust will be 
found necessary. Into these nursery beds, delicate 
young seedlings should be carefully pricked out 
1 foot apart, with a porcupine quill or a strip 
of bamboo, when ^ inch in height. In these 
nursery beds, the young plants should remain 
till- 3 feet high, and then be planted out permanent- 
ly from 40 to 60 feet apart, in -pits 3x3 feet." 

545 Ficus Trimeni, King. 

Fig. — King Fie. PI- 55. 

This fine species will probably be found in the 
Malnad. It is one of the largest with a few aerial 
roots. Fohage glabrous and shining. Leaves petio- 
late, — petiole 1 in. or less, — coriaceous, ovate-ellip- 
tic, acute or bluntish ; average blade, in matured 
trees, 2 x 3-|- in. Fruit in sessile pairs, globular, the 
size of an Bnghsh pea. This is possibly Mr. Graham 
Anderson's Hub Busree, of which the writer would 
like to examine specimens. 

546 Ficus retusa, Linn. Kan. Pilala, Jivi, Pinval, 

Pilaka ? Tel. Terra juvi. 

mg.-King Fie. PI. 61, 62; Wight Ic. t. 642. 

References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Fcon. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

A large evergreen tree of variable character, the 
extreme forms being occasionally mistaken for dis- 
tinct species. Planted throughout the maidan and 
plentiful around the margins of the Malnad forests, 
and in Coorg. Aerial roots not ^very numerous. 



280 POEEST TREES. 



Leaves — in tlie typical form — alternate, shortly 
petiolate, glabrous, ovate-rotund to obovate- 
rotund, apex blunt ; average blade 3 x 41 in. Fruit 
in sessile pairs, bairy, tbe size of a pea, dull yellow 
to reddish when ripe. 

This is a good avenue tree, but rather slow of 
growth. Wood close-grained, moderately hard, and 
nicely mottled ; used as fuel, but Watt suggests that 
it might be utilised for doors, panels and such like. 
Weight 40 lb. per cubic foot. Pounded into a poul- 
tice, which is applied to the affected part, the leaves 
and tender bark afford a good native remedy for 
rheumatism. The milk-sap of the liber has a repu- 
tation in the treatment of liver complaint. The tree 
affords good shade to coffee, but is seldom met with 
in the interior of the evergreen jungles. Ficus 
retusa var. nitida, Thunb., only differs from the 
above in form of leaf and quantity of aerial roots. 
The latter are numerous, while the leaves are mostly 
small, ovate to rhomboid-elliptic; average blade 
1 J X 2^ in. Fruit slightly smaller than in retusa, 
but the same otherwise. 

Cultivation-— F. retxisa, and the variety nitida, 
are easily raised from both large and' small cuttings, 
but in the treatment of the latter, a hot-bed is neces- 
sary with plenty of bottom heat. It may be stated 
here that small cuttings of nearly all the species 
of Ficus can be quickly rooted in this way. 

547 Ficus Talboti, King. 
Vis.— King Fie. PI. 63. 

This species has not been reported nor seen, but 
the _" Forests of Canara" are said, by Dr. King, to 
be its habitat. It is a large evergreen tree with 
shining leaves. Very near retusa, but differing in 
the form and venation of the leaf. Uses unknown. ' 

548 Ficus nervosa, Roth Nov. sp. 338. 
mg,-King Fie, PI. 65; Wight, Ic. t. 660. 



MTSOBB AN® C001»G. 2S1 



Being indigenous to the hill ranges of Southern 
India, this species should be found in the local ever- 
green zone. A tree ; leaves petiolate, oblong-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, prominently nerved ; average 
blade 2^j< 6|- in. Fruit on longish slender stalks — 
pedunculate — globose, puberulous, the size of a 
black currant. Uses unknown. Ficus nervosa var. 
minor, is smaller in all its parts and more puberu- 
lous. Both forms are probably indigenous to the 
-western hills of Mysore at an elevation of 4,000 to 
5,000 feet. 

549 Ficus Rumphii, Blumb. Kan. Betta arali, Kad 

arali, Betta ragi. 

Fig— King. Fie. PI. 67 ; Wight Ic. t. 640. 

References.—Pharm. Ind.; Diet. ofEcon. Prod, 
of Ind; 

A deciduous tree of the mixed zone and subalpine 
range. The vernacu.lar names simply indicate the 
hill form of F. religiosa to which the species bears a 
strong resemblance, although never such a grand 
tree. The leaves are slightly smaller, shortly acu- 
minate, narrower at the base and with a shorter 
petiole than in F. religiosa. The milk-sap is much 
prized by the villagers in the treatment of rheuma- 
tism. " The juice is used in the Concan to kill worms, 
and is given internally with turmeric, pepper and 
ghi, in pills, the size of a pea, for the rehef of asth- 
ma ; it causes vomiting. The juice is also burned in 
a closed vessel with the flowers of Mudar, and four 
gunja's weight of the ashes, mixed with honey ' is 
given for the same ' purpose." Pha/rmacographia 
Indicd. 

550 Ficus religiosa, Linn. Kan. Arali mara, Eagi 

mara, Aswatha' mara. 

mg^-King. Fie. PI. 67; Wight le. t. 1967. 
Bedd..Fl.8ylv. t. 314. 

36 



282 fOEEST TEBKS. 



References,— F/. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Ecan. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Lid. ; Brand. For. Fl. 
415. 

The sacred peepul o£ India. A lofty tree, 70 to 
100 feet, with whitish bark and glabrous, shining 
leaves, attached to long flexible petioles. Being 
suspended somewhat in the manner of a flag, the 
leaf is easily moved by the slightest current of air, 
and the rustling sound proceeding from an isolated 
tree, often when there is no apparent wind, is not 
unlike the patter of falling rain. Indeed it is 
supposed that, the sound ' distinctly heard for a day 
or two, indicates the near approach of rain at a 
season when it is usually much needed. The leaves 
are deciduous in the beginning of April, but trees 
are seldom quite bare for more than ten days, and 
when timely rain falls, for less than a week. When 
it first appears, the young foliage is copper- 
coloured. 

Leaves alternate, long petiolate, coriaceous, shin- 
ing on the upper side, minutely tuberculate when 
dry, underneath, ovate-rotund, apex narrowed 
into a long slender acumen, base broad, rounded to 
truncate ; average blade 41 x 6^ in. Fruit in sessile 
pairs, axillary, smooth, depressed-spheroidal or 
slightly 3-angled, the size of a black currant, pur- 
plish when ripe. ' 

The species is held in great veneration by the 
Hindu people, who cherish it beyond all other trees 
believing, as they do, that it embodies the sacred 
triad Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Parts of the tree 
are used on the occasion of ceremonials, investitures, 
and domestic occurrences ; vows are made to it and 
it IS mvoked for male issue and other supposed 
blessings. In the latter practice, it is not unusual to 
see pious women walking around the tree many 
times, muttering incantations the while. Pilgrims 
on the march take off their' shoes on approaching a 



MYSORE AND COOBG. 283 

tree and walk humbly around it, from right to left 
praising the deities by which it is possessed. A s 
the planting of a peepul tree is considered an act of 
grace, it follows that t^e species is abundant in all 
parts of the country, but especially in the vicinity of 
shrines, tanks, and villages, where devotees d^o 
congregate. The neem, another sacred tree, and the 
peepul are usually planted together, the operation 
being occasionally attended by all the peremonies of 
an ordinary marriage. "When a man is married 
more than once it becomes necessary that he should 
perform the ceremony in connection with the plant- 
ing of the peepul and neem. 

Wood of no value. "Weight 30 — 45 lb. per 
cubic foot. A coarse fibre is obtained from the inner 
bark. Birdlime is prepared from the milk-sap, as 
also an inferior kind of caoutchouc. The medicinal 
value of the root-bark is highly spoken of, especially 
in its application to cases of gonorrhoea, asthma, and 
sterility. Sheep, goats, and cattle, browse fondly on 
the tender leaves, which are said to improve and 
increase the flow of milk. The peepul is much 
prized as a shade -tree for coffee but unfortunately 
it is not very abundant in the evergreen forest. 

Cultivation.— "When masticated and dropped by 
crows and other birds, the seeds germinate readily 
in the fissures of trees, clefts of rocks, on house 
tops, old walls, and in various out-of-the-way places, 
but sown by the gardener they rarely or never 
germinate. It is usual, therefore, to collect seed- 
lings from the places noted above. Large limbs of 
the tree take root in moist ground, but unless a 
hot-bed is prepared it is diflB,cult to raise plants 
from tender cuttings. Being of epiphytal origin, 
the peepul tree can sustain itself in the early stages 
of growth without much assistance from the soil. 

Except that the surface roots are apt to become 
troublesome, it affords one of our finest avenue trees, 



284 FOREST TREES. 



551 FicuS Tjakela, BjJ'BM.Kan. Seluvarada mara, Kap 

basTiri ? 

Fig— King. Fic. PI 70. 

A tall glabrous tree witiiotit aerial roots. Not 
very common on the Mysore plateau, and mostly 
confined to tlie Hills. Frequently seen in the 
Kankanhalli jungle. 

Leaves long petiolate, coriaceous, glossy and 
sMning on the upper surface, dark green, oval to 
ovate, acute, average blade 3 x 6 in. Fruit in clusters 
of 2 — 6 on very short tubercles, depressed globular, 
the size of a red currant, whitish yellow, dotted 
when ripe. Although closely allied to F. infedoria. 
Dr. King remarks that " this is a very distinct and 
beautiful species distinguishable from infedm'ia, by 
its minute receptacles m clusters of 4' — 6. " Food 
is served upon the leaves, and the root-bark is 
medicinal, but with these exceptions the local uses 
of the species are unknown. Judging from its 
habitat in the hill forests the tree is evergreen, and 
the vernacular word leap has possibly reference to 
the dark-green tint of the foliage. 

552 Ficus Tslela, Roxb. Kan. Bili basuri. 

Tig.-King. Fie. PI. 74; Wight Ic. t 668. 

References.— Fl. of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

Common throughout the maidan, and at the sides 
of all the principal roads in Mysore ; also ascending 
the hiUs to 4,000 feet. A large evergreen or sub- 
deciduous tree without aerial roots. Limbs often 
crooked or contorted; branchlets frequently 
fascicled so as to produce dense tufts of abnormally 
small leaves. These tufts are occasionally mistaken 
for the parasite ^ac^aml-e. — Loranthus longiflorus — 
and are yqtj character] - tic of the species. Leaves 
long petiolate,*coriaceous, glabrous, very variable in 
size and form,. but mostly „ ovate lanceolate, with a 



MYSORE AND OOOBG. 285 

sharply acuminate apex; average blade 2x4 in. 
Fruit in sessile pairs, crowded at the ends of the 
branches, globose, smooth, purplish when ripe and 
the size of a black currant. The greenish-grey 
bark, glbssy-greeh leaves and tufts of smaller leaves, 
render this a somewhat striking tree ; and being a 
quick grower, having no aerial roots, and rarely 
quite "bare of leaf, it is one of t^e best for roadside 
planting. "Wood light, but comparatively tough, 
used for leaves and cart-axles &c. ; when well dried, 
it affords fairly good fuel, and the inner bark gives a 
strong fibre. It appears to be a likely tree for the 
sustenance of the lac-insect. The fruit is much re- 
lished by birds and Small ' vermin. 

Cultivation.— The same as for the peepul tree. 
Seedlings grow into finer specimens than are ever 
obtained from cuttings, and the frequent use of the 
latter, because they are conveniently at hand, will 
account in some degree for the contorted limbs so 
often seen in roadside trees. Plant seedlings at 40 
feet apart. 

553 Ficus infectoria, Roxb. -£"«». Kari basuri. 
Fig.— King. Fie. PI 75 to 79 ; Wight Ic. t. 663. 

References.— Dici{. of Boon. Prod, of Ind.; 
Brand. For. Fl. 414. 
A deciduous tree of medium height, but wide 
spreading and well provided with aerial roots. 
Leaves — in typical, form^ — glabrous, membranous, on 
rather long slender petioles, oblong-ovate or qrate, 
apex shortly acuminate, edges subundulate ; avCTage 
blade 2x5 in. Fruit in sessile pairs, gbbular, 
whitish flushed with red, eventually black, dotted, 
the size of a black currant. In his admirable work 
on Ficus, Dr. King has reduced this most variable 
species to five typical forms, three of which are 
strictly Indian, But varying conditions of climate, 
elevation, and, more than all, the hygrometric 



286. FOREST TEEES. 



State of tte air, are factors wliicli render the species 
almost polymorpliic in character. 

Wood soft and useless. Weight about 35— 4U ib. 
per cubic foot. The liber affords a fairly strong 
war— fibre— and the outer bark is medicinal. Ele- 
phants are supposed to be fond of the leaves, and 
cattle eat them also when grass is not available. 
Mr. Graham Anderson speaks highly of the. tree as 
a shade for coffee. The following are his words :— 
" This tree, with its long, dark green, glossy leaves, 
may be said to be one of the finest for shade pur- 
poses, in the forests of Mysore." 

Cultivation. — Propagate from seed and cuttings, 
seedlings being preferred to obtain strong, shapely 
growth. In general detail, the treatment required 
is the same as for all the hardy figs. 

554 Ficus pumila, Ltott. 
Fig-King. Fie. PI. 158. 

A climbing shrub with shortly petiolate, ovate, 
to ovate-elHp tic leaves of different sizes, and large 
pear-shaped fruit the size of a table fig. There is 
a good specimen in the show-nursery of Messrs. 
Munisami and Sons, the Bangalore florists, 

555 Ficus asperrima, Roxb. Kan. Gargatti, Gerguttee, 

Khargas- 

Fig.— Wight Ic. t. 633, 
The sand paper tree. Not uncommon in the 
upper parts of the Malnad, but not indigenous to the 
maidan. A small or medium sized evergreen tree, 
with all the young parts, especially the leaves, very 
scabrous. Leaves crowded at the ends of the 
branches, ovate to obovate or elliptic, average blade 
2 J X 5 in., exceedingly rough, used for polishing 
wood and steel. Fruit pedimculate, scabrous-hisped, 
globular, the size of a small gooseberry, yellow or 
purple when ripe, with yellow spots. Wood soft 
and useless. Leaves commonly used., in Shimogai 



MTSOEE AND OOOEG. SS? 

to polisH sandalwood carvings. When incautiously 
handled, the milk-sap of this tree causes an uncom- 
fortable irritation of the skin. The juice and bark 
are well known remedies in the treatment of enlarged 
liver and spleen. 

" Large trees generally make a clearance of the 
coffee around them. The leaves are subject to the 
attacks of a black fungus which frequently spreads 
to the coffee below." Graham Anderson. 

Cultivation as in the case of fig trees generally, 
but requiring a cool, damp situation. 
556 Ficus hispida, Linn. Kan. Kadatti mara 

Fig.-King. Fie. PI 154 ^ 155 ; Wight Ic, L 

638, ^ 641. 
'References.— Did. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 

Pharm. Ind. 

This is the KdJcodumbarika or " crows' fig " of Sans- 
krit writers, A small evergreen tree, common on 
low hills and ascending to nearly 4,000 feet ; often 
stunted or bushy in habit. Leaves opposite or 
alternate, shortly petiolate, ovate to oblong or elKp- 
tic, cuneate at the base, dentate when young, but 
entire or nearly so when fully grown, very variable 
in size and characteristically rough in all the young- 
er parts; — hispid-pubescent, — average blade, under . 
shade 4^11 in., under full exposure 21 x 5 in. Truit 
usually hypogoeal at first, then ascending the trunk 
and limbs progressively as the tree attains stature, 
borne in clusters or fascicles, shortly stalked, very 
hispid, globular to obovoid or slightly turbunate, 
the size of a gooseberry, yellowish. Species remark- 
ably prolific of fruit,, from which a clear liquid 
exudes copiously during growth. Given to milch- 
cows, this fruit possesses the protperty of arresting 
the flow of milk. Rheede says that the fruit boiled 
in goat's milk is usefully employed in the> treatment 
of hepatic obstruction. It is also an emetic. 



2S8 JOB.EST .TREI!$^ 



Dr. King figures two varieties of tlie species, one 
having opposite and the other alternate leaves. 
Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. The wood appears to 
be soft and useless like the most of the fig tree$. 
Cuttings are easily rooted, but seedlings are prefer-- 
able for good growth. 

557 Ficus Roxburghii, Wall. 

Fig.— King. Fie. PI. 211 ; Wight Ic, t. 673. 

ReSerences.— Brand. For. Fl. 43S. Diet, ofEeon. 
Prod, of India. 

A spreading evergreen tree of 20 — 30 feet in 
height, although the primary branches usually sweep 
the ground and give the species the appeeirance of a 
huge bush. Indigenous to Northern India, Chitta- 
gong.and Burmah; . but introduced from the Hoyal 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, and cultivated in. the Lal- 
Bagh. This remarkable tree will soon spread, in 
local cultivation, both for ornament and the popular 
use of its beautiful leaves in lieu of crockery. Leaves 
deeply cordate, ovate-rotund or nearly orbicular, 
copper-coloured when young, strongly ribbed under- 
neath; average blade 10-12 in. The, large, turbi- 
nate or truncate-pyrif orm fruit is borne in enormous 
clustery around the base of the trunk, and upwards 
as. the tree advances in age and stature; twice the. 
size of an ordinary table fig but insipid to the taste 
and quickly becoming hard and woody. 

As a subject for scenic planting and dompstic uti- 
lity, this species will soon find favour in Mysore. It 
was first introduced in 1882. 

Cultivation.— Cuttings take root in moist situ- 
ations but seedlings have not been raised from th6 
loca,l trees. Perennial moisture is of more iniportance 
to healthy growth than even the quality of the soil, 
although the richer the latter is the better. Plant 
at 40 feet apart. 



MYSQEB AND COOBG. 289- 

558 Ficus glomerata, Roxb. ,Kan. Atti. 

Tig—King. Fie. PI. 173 & 114; Wight Ic. t. 667- 

References.— F/. of Brit.Ind.; Diet, of Ikon. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. 

The country fig. A large buttressed tree of 50 — 70 
feet. Never quite bare, altliougli the leaves mostly 
fall at the close of the cold season. Bark whitish- 
grey ; young parts pubescent, or slightly scabrous, 
subsequently glabrous and usually more or less 
tuhercled. Leaves petiolate, membranous, alternate, 
ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate,tapering to a blunt- 
ish point; average blade 2|- x .51 in. Fruit pedunculate, 
clustered On the trunk and limbs, very prolific, 
subglobular to oval or subpyriform, the size of a 
plum, reddish when ripe and littering the ground 
under the trees. 

Except for occasional use under water, the wood 
has no industrial value. Weight 25 — 30 lb. per 
cubic foot. Medicinal properties are attributed to 
the leaves, bark', fruit, and milk-sap, the latter being 
very commonly appHed to bruises, ulcers, and other 
external sores. Although eaten by the poor in 
times of scarcity, , and fairly palatable when half 
ripe, the i-aw fruit is not good for human consump- 
tion. At an early stage of maturity it becomes 
possessed of maggots, but donkeys, swine, goats and 
cattle, are fond of it, and if specially prepared at a 
certain stage, of growth it would doubtless .afford a 
good portable food for cattle in times of scarcity. 
In upper India the unripe fruit is pounded, mixed 
with flour, and made into cakes, while in this pro- 
vince there is a popular notion that the curried 
green-fruit is a good remedy for rheumatism. Being 
plentiful all over the maidan districts, the collection 
and 'preparation of half or partially ripened fruit 
into a portable food for cattle, is worthy of trial. 
" " ' ■-" ^" 37" 



290 FOREST TREES. 



Of its meritti as a shade tree for c"offee, Mr. Graham 
Anderson gives the following account: — "It is 
generally allowed to be the very best shade tree for 
coffee estates and is consequently invariably pre- 
served. It is easily propagated from seed and small 
cuttings. It is almost destitute of leaves in the 
monsoon, but, in the hot weather it is clothed in a 
rich, glistening foliage. It is admirably suited for 
coffee which flourishes under its cool and most de- 
sirable protection." 

To the above remarks may be added the fact that 
it is a characteristic of Atti, and several other fig 
trees, to impart moisture to the soil in which their 
roots are placed, an important function which, no 
doubt, aids the growth of ojther plants when they 
are situated under the protection of such trees. 

Cultivation.— Seedhngs of this tree are usually 
abundant in the haunts of birds and in the clefts of 
other trees. Cuttings of aU sizes root freely, and 
for permanent growth plant in a somewhat moist 
situation at 40 feet apart. Being a very dirty tree 
while in fruit, it should not be planted near the 
source of drinking water, nor in pleasure grounds 
where the main object is tidiness. 

559 Ficus macrophylla, Desp. 

The Moreton Bay fig. Introduced from Australia 
and cultivated in the Lal-Bagh from whence it is 
spreading to gardens and plantations in various 
parts of the province. A handsome evergreen 
tree mth a few aerial roots. In the form, texture, 
and venation of leaf, this species might almost be 
mistaken for F. elastica, hut the receptacle (fruit) is 
wholly different to the receptacle of the latter, being 
produced in axillary pedunculate pairs, ovoid, pur- 
phsh with orange spots, the size of a gooseberry. 
"Diameter of trunk 36 to 76 inches ; height 50—100 



MTSOEB AND OOOEG. 291 

feet. A large and magnificent wide-spreading tree ; 
yielding its milk-sap copiously for caoutchouc." Hill. 

"Perhaps the grandest of Australian avenue trees, 
and among the very best to be planted, although in 
poor dry soils its growth is slow. Easily raised from 
seed." Baron von Mueller. Planted in a moist 
situation, this quickly becomes a grand tree. 

Cultivation-— Local efforts to raise seedlings have 
so far been unsuccessful, but the species is easily 
multiplied from layers and cuttings. Recommend- 
ed for avenues in moist situations, and for scenic 
planting generally. Plant at 45 feet apart. 

560 Ficus Cunningham!, Miq. 

This is another Australian species cultivated in 
the Botanical Gardens. A splendid evergeen tree, 
rivalling the Java fig in spread and stature, although 
a little slower in growth. It bursts into young leaf 
and fruit early in April, or at the same time the 
Honge breaks into leaf. Leaves alternate, long- 
petiolate, thinly coriaceous, dark green, midrib 
and lateral veins ivory-white, ovate to oyate-elliptic, 
base full, apex rather abruptly pointed ; average 
blade 2-|-x5-J in., petiole 2-1- in. Receptacle in 
pairs, shortly pedunculate, crowded on the outer 
branches, globular, ivory-white with a tinge of 
green, the size of a gooseberry, attractive against 
the dark foliage. Except that the fruit might be a 
little troublesome when falling — not more so than 
in the case of Ooni — this is a splended avenue tree. 

Cultivation.— It attains its fullest development in 
deep moist soil. Seedlings come up spontaneously in 
various places, and cuttings are easily rooted on a 
hot bed. Plant in large square pits, but not very 
deep, at 50 feet apart. 

561 Ficus Carica, Linn. Kan. Sime a,tti. Mind. Anjxa. 

Fig.— Sot. Plates Lal-Bagh Collection. 



292 FOEEST TREES. 



References— Dici. of Econ. Prod. of Indv, Pharm. 

Ind. 

The edible fig. . Cultivated in Indian gardens 
and said to have been introdviced during the Muham- 
madan conquests of Central and Southern India. 
Indigenous to Persia, Arabia, Turkey, and countries 
forming the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. 
It is a tree of great antiquity, being frequently men- 
tioned in the ancient literature of Palestine, Greece, 
and Rome. There are several varieties in local 
cultivation, and the nutritive properties of the 
fruit are generally acknowledged by the people. 

Cultivation. — In this country, the fig tree is most 
productive when grown within walled enclosures 
and in the backyards of dwellings where there is 
practically no wind. But to this should be added 
proper irrigation, good drainage, and a rather 
copious supply of mixed manures. The root growth 
should also be limited to a given area,, otherwise 
the tree is apt to run to leaf and wood almost 
exclusively. 

Seedlings are often diflBcult to raise, although the 
species is readily propagated by the various methods 
of division, such as grafting, inarching, layering, and 
the insertion of cuttings. Plant at 10 feet apart. 

Several undetermined species of Ficus will have 
to be included in a future edition of this work. Of 
these, the vernacular names KaJatti, and Seluvara, 
are suggestive of rather common trees, which are 
fotmd at intervals throughout the deciduous and 
mixed zones. The first named is a large umbrell-p,- 
shaped tree usually found among, rocks.. Leavj^s 
oblong, rather small and densely covered on the 
under side by a tawny tomentum. Fruit small, 
round and sessile. The Flora of British India 
enumerates 112 species of this grand genus. 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 293 

562 Antiaris toxicarra, Leschen. Kan. Jajhugri, 

Jaguri, Ajjanapatte. ; 

mg—Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. 307. Wight Ic. L1958. 

References.— FL of Brit. Ind. ; Diet, of Boon. 
Prod, of Ind.; Brand. For. Fl. 427 ; Pharm. 
Ind.' 

The upas and sack tree. Common in the "Western 
Ghats from Bombay to Cape Comorin. Of arbore- 
scent species this is stated by Beddome to be the 
lairgest in the above region. It is a magnificent 
evergreen tree attaining a maximum height of 
260 feet. Leaves alternate, bifarious, very shortly 
petiolate, oblong or elliptic-oblong, acuminate, to- 
mentose or pubescent when young, eventually 
scabrid or glabrous ; average blade 2 >^ 5^ in. 
Flowers unisexual — monoecious — unattractive. Fruit 
like a small fig, pear-shaped, velvetty, purplish, and 
very bitter; seed poisonous. The poisonous princi- 
ple antiarin, of which so much nonsense has been 
written by the Dutch Surgeon, Foersch, is obtained 
in Java and the Malay Islands, from the green bark 
and leaves of the tree. The hill-men of Coorg, 
Wynaad and Travancore, remove cylinders of bark 
from sized logs of the tree and utilise them as grain 
sacks. The simple process of manufacturing the 
latter is well described in the following paragraph 
by Grraham : — "A branch is cut corresponding to 
the length and diameter of the sack wanted, soaked 
a little, and then beaten with clubs till the fibre 
/separates from the wood. This done, the sack 
formed of the bark is turned inside out, and pulled 
down until the wood is sawn off, with the exception 
'of a small piece left to form the bottom of the sack, 
which is carefully left untouched." 

These sacks are commonly displayed in Museums 
as remarkable products of the vegetable kingdom, 
but in Travancore j Canara, and other hill distiiicjts, 



294 FOBEST TREES. 



they are in common use to carry rice and similar 
articles of export. The liber, or inner bark, affords 
this dense fibrous layer wliicli nature has "woven 
into a coarse fabric for the instruction of man. 
But although coarse in the natural fabric, the fibre 
is really soft and durable and could .be utilised for 
ropes, matting; and similar articles. The wood is said 
to be coarse-grained and- unserviceable. Being a 
tree of the racist evergreen forests, any attempt to 
grow it on the plains would, in all probability, meet 
with failure. 
563 Artocarpus hirsuta, Lamk. Kan. Hebhalasn, 

Heb balsu, Kad halasu, Hesswa, HeBsan. 

Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Syh. t. 308. Wight Ic. 1 1957. 

References.— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 
Gamh. Man. Timh.; Brand. For. Fl. 436. 

The wild jack-tree. Abundant in Western My- 
sore, Ooorg, and the Baba Budaii range where it 
ascends to 4,000 feet, and attains an individual 
height of nearly 200 ft. This lofty evergreen tree 
is well known to the planters, who prize it as a shade 
for coffee. Leaves alternate, petiolate, broadly 
ovate-elliptic or obovate, subacute, young parts 
strigose ; average blade 6 >< 9 in. Fruit erect, cover- 
ed with spines, the size of a large lemon. A reserv- 
ed timber tree of the local evergreen forest. 
Wood hard and durable when well seasoned, yel- 
lowish brown, close-grained and highly prized for 
boat-building, in which it stands next to teak in 
value. But it is also used for house-building, 
furniture, and agricultural implements. Weight 
35—40 lb. per cubic foot. 

"A stately evergreen tree, which affords good 
shade and produces a large quantity of leaf mould 
annually. The shoots from stumps — coppice — should 
never be encouraged or depended upon as they are 
easily blown down and generally get cankered or 



MTSOBE AND OOORG. 295 

die off about the tenth or fifteenth year. A Hessan 
in poor or shallow soil generally causes the cofEee to 
suffer all around its stem, but in a deep soil this does 
not appear to occur. The timber of mature trees 
is excellent and durable, and is much prized for 
building purposes. No reliance should be placed on 
poles or beams made from immature trees or from 
the shoots arising from stumps, as these will be 
readily attacked by dry-rot and by a large species 
of borer — carpenter bee ? — or will quickly decay if 
exposed to damp. A young Hessan resents heavy 
lopping by showing early signs of canker." Graham 
Anderson. 

The fruit is not eaten in Mysore, although Watt 
states that the pulp is much relished by the natives. 
This grand tree is easily propagated from seed, but 
it is unsuited for cultivation on the plains. 

564 Artocarpus incisa, Linn. 

'Ei^-—Bot. Mag. t. 2869—2811. 
References.— X^icf. of Econ. Prod, oflnd. 

Proceedings of the Agri-Hort, Ic. of Madras. 

The bread fruit tree. Two varieties of this hand- 
some evergreen species are cultivated in the Botani- 
cal Gardens. One called the seedless bread fruit, 
having no seed, is much esteemed by the Pacific 
Islanders, and has recently been established here on 
trial. It has also borne fruit and is likely to succeed 
under careful management. But in an inland situ- 
ation like Bangalore, we cannot expect great results 
from these maritime trees. With careful treatment, 
especially in the matters of irrigation, and top-dress- 
ing with sahne manures, fairly good specimens are 
produced; but it is doubtful if the fruit will ever 
become popular, while it is quite certain never to 
replace any of the indigenous food products which 
are commonly consumed by the Mysore people. 



296, FOfiEST TREES. 



Being very ornamental, the species should find a 
place in irrigated pleasure grounds. The seeding 
variety, which is equally effective for scenic pur- 
poses, is easily propagated from seed. 

565 Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn. Kan. Halasu, 

Halsu, Hulsen, Halasina mara. - 

■Eig—Bot Mag. t. 3833. Wight Ic. t. 678. 

References— jBec^ci For. Man. Diet. of. Econ. 
Prod, of Ind.; Gamb. Man. Timb. 329, 

The jack-fruit tree. Wild in parts of the 
Malnad. Elsewhere extensively cultivated for its 
fine fruit of which there are many varieties differ- 
ing in form, colour, size, and taste. A handsome 
evergreen tree with dark-green foliage; usually 
45 — 60 feet in height but much loftier in the wild 
state. Leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate-oblong to 
elliptic-oblong, glabrous, acuminate, entire; average 
blade 3^x7 in. 

Stipules spathaceous and very large. Fruit 
enormous, suspended from the trunk and main limbs 
by short, stout peduncles, hypogeous in very old 
trees, oblong to clavate, with a thick and densely 
muricated rind. Maximum size 30 inches long by 
12 in. in diameter, more usually half the above size. 
Maximum weight of a single fruit 60 lbs. The 
edible part of the jack-fruit consists of the yellow, 
fleshy pericarp of the achenium, of which there are 
30 to 90 in each receptacle — ^fruit — according to 
size, position, and kind. When less than half grown 
and quite tender, the whole fruit is sliced up and 
curried. The roasted seeds are also much consumed 
by the hiU tribes; but they are indigestible to 
Europeans and are rarely used in lieu of chesnuts. 
In his useful compilation of "Forest Trees in the 
Coffee Lands of South Mysore," Mr. Graham 
Anderson describes two varieties under the, verna- 



MTSOEE AND COORa. 297 

cular names of Billaru and Buchay. The first- 
named, -wliicli possibly corresponds to the wild 
form, is dense and rapid of growth, but bearing 
a worthless fruit and easily injured by the 
wind, the branches often breaking by their own 
weight. It is also stated that although even-grained 
and easily worked, the wood of this variety is apt 
to spht. The Buokay, on the other hand, although 
slower of growth, is superior in the production of 
fruit, timber, and as a shade for coffee. The jack 
tree dislikes and resents much lopping. Laden from 
the trunk and main limbs with full sized fruit, it 
is a grand object worthy of the highest admiration. 
It has also a growing repvitation as a timber tree, 
although not yet included in the forest reserve of 
that class. Sapwood white, heartwood yellow 
when newly exposed, but eventually changing to 
reddish-brown or light mahogany ; close-grained, 
easily worked and taking a good polish, but requir- 
ing matured growth and careful seasoning to pre- 
vent warping or sphtting. Used in Mysore for boat- 
building, planking, furniture, and dyeing. Said to 
be imported into England for cabinet and fancy 
work. "Weight 43 — 45 lb. per cubic foot. A sticky 
milk-sap copiously produced from all the herbaceous 
parts of the tree, is utilised to some extent in the 
preparation of birdlime ; heated over the fire, it 
becpmes a good cement for domestic use. In the 
maidan districts, the jack tree is exclusively culti- 
vated for its popular fruit. The fruits growing on 
the root-stock are highly prized as a rulie. 

Cultivation.— This tree is easily propagated from 
seed, the latter being placed in a pit containing pre- 
pared soil where the seedling is intended to grow per- 
manently. Transplanting should be avoided, as 
seedlings having broken or twisted tap-roots never 
succeed well, and the main root attains length so 
rapidly after germination that the operatidn of re- 

38 



298 FOREST TEEES. 



moval either from seed-beds or pots is fraught with 
considerable risk. All this is avoided, therefore, 
by carefully planting one or more seeds in the 
position "where the tree is required. In some p&rtS 
of the country, it is not unusual to plant in a 
single pit a whole fruit containing 50 or more 
seeds, the best seedling of the lot being siibsequently 
left to form the tree. The species requires a deep 
moist soil, and seldom acquires any size, or mueh 
utility, when the soil is dry and shallow. Wheii. tiles, 
baskets, or flower pots are employed to raise seed- 
lings in, the bottoms should be removed at an early 
stage of growth so that the tap-root may not be 
twisted. 

566 Artocarpus Lakoocha, Eoxb. Kan. Vonte mara. 
mgr-Wiglit Ic. t. 681. 

'References.— Brand. For. Fl. 426 ; Bid. of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. 

In the Malnad,. this attains to a large tree. Dahu 
and Lakoocha are its Sanskrit names. 

Leaves deciduous, shortly -petiolate, oyal; to 
oblong-elliptic, full and round at the base, slightly 
pubescent underneath, especially when young, upper 
side dark green, glabrous and shining; average 
blade 5 x 9 in. Fruit roundish or irregular iu form, 
velvet^y, the size of a tomato, yellow when ripe, not 
known to be eaten in the south of India. Wppd'used 
in the north for furniture and canoes. In B engal, ti^e 
juice of the tree— milk-sap— or a seed, is a comnioji 
purge. Two specimens may be seen in the Daria 
Dowlet Bagh, at Seringapatam, where they fruit 
freely every year. "Mr. Mann says the bark' ia 
chewed in Assam as a substitute for betelnut." 

Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 

Cultivation.— Although doing fairly well in the 
garden at Seringapatam, the species is stunted cpm- 



MYSORE AND OOORG. 299 



pared to the fine growth of the Malnad. Seeds 
germinate freely, and propagation can also be effect- 
ed by layering the branches. 

567 Artbcarpus Cannoni- It is not known where 
this species comes from. But one or two small 
plants purchased from Mr. Bull's nursery, in 1887, 
have developed into nice saplings. Of these, the one 
growing in the enclosure where the animals are 
niostly kept, is well advanced. Leaves copper- 
coloured, much smaller than the leaves of the bread 
fruit tree, and not so deeply incised. In point of 
colour, this is an acquisition to the local collection of 
ornamental trees. The purple to yellowish fruit, 
rdsemblos a miniature fig. Propagation is effected 
by layering the side branches, inserting cuttings in 
a hot-bed, and possibly by sowing seed. Plant at 
30 feet apart. 

568 BcEhmeria nivea, Hook. 

The Rhea fibre shrub. This industrial plant is 
propagated in the Lal-Bagh and has been establish- 
ed on 'the hills by the European planters. It grows 
vigorously in Mysore and Ooorg, and is reproductive 
from offsets. If occasion should ever require it, 
many thousands of offsets could be produced at 
«hort notice. The indigenous species B. malabarica, 
Wedd. and B. platyphyila, Don. are commonly found 
on the hills, where they provide nar — fibre — of ex- 
cellent quality. 

569 Villebrunea integrifolia, Gaud. 

A small evergreen tree of the "Western Ghats. 
Specimens are required for herbaria, with vernacular 
rianies and information bearing on the local uses of 
the tree. 

570 Debregeasia velutina, Qand. Kan. Kapsi. 

^ig^-WigU Ic. t, 1969:, JBedd. For, Man, 226^ 
t,26.f. 3. 



300 FOEEST TEEES. 



References.— Dzcf. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.; 

Fl of Brit hid. 

This large slarub is frequently found in the up- 
lands of Mysore, and in the sholas leading into the 
mixed and evergreen tracts. With ashy-white 
leaves (underneath) and ' dense clusters of orange- 
yellovf J)erries on the young stems, the Kapsi is a 
familiar object to the siDortsman and planter. The 
inner bark affords a strong, clean fibre, which is 
used by the hill-men to make strings for their bows. 
But the quality of the fibre is such that it merits a 
much wider utility than the above mentioned, and 
will, no doubt, take a more prominent position, with 
other latent products of the country, when the 
natural supply is brought within reach of the 
market. With a more penetrating railway system, 
the merits of these alpine products will receive closer 
attention than is possible at present. 

571 Castilloa elastica, Ceev. 

The Ule, or Central American rubber tree. This 
important species is under trial in the Botanical 
Gardens, but it will probably succeed better on the 
hills of the province, as Burma, Assam, Ceylon, and 
the lower slopes of the Nilgiris, are supposed to be 
suitable regions for its cultivation, A few Euro* 
pean planters are cultivating on a small scale, both 
in Mysore and Coorg. 

LXVII. OASUARINE^. 

572 Casuarina equisetifolia, Foest. Kan, Kesarike, 

Fig.—Bot Plates Lal-Bagh Collection, Bedd. 
For. Man. t. 336. 

neferences.-Dict. of Econ. Prod. ofInd.i Gomh. 
Man. Timh. 346; Pharm. Ind. 
The "swamp oak" of Queensland, but better 
known m this country and elsewhere as the « Tini- 



MTSORB AND OOOBG. 801 

an pine " or "beef -wood tree." It is a pretty ever- 
green tree of rapid growth, witti thin, feathery foliage 
and conical habit. Diameter at base of trunk 12 — 24 
inches ; height 50 — 70 feet. To those who fre- 
quent the groves of the Tinian pine, the mournful 
soughing of its fluted branchlets is a familiar sound. 
The proper leaves are reduced to mere scales at the 
tips of the branchlets. Flowers monoecious, incon- 
spicuous and dull red. Fruit stalked, cone-like, 
muricated, oval, and about an inch long. As a 
fuel tree, this exotic species bids fair to surpass all 
others, and is already extensively cultivated in 
Southern India, where numerous plantations are 
formed and millions of seedlings put down annually. 
In the> vicinity of Bangalore, and especially along 
the Madras sea-coast, these plantations have visibly 
altered the landscape within the past decade. The 
tree has the reputation of drying land exhaustively, 
and this is in some measure confirmed by the fact 
that it succeeds best in sandy or porous soils where 
the subsoil is always moist. It is, on this account, ' 
an excellent subject for planting on the sea-shore 
and on lands that are being reclaimed from the sea. 
Full directions as to planting, care-taking, and 
departmental procedure in the treatment of Casuari- 
na, will be found in the annexed memorandum, which 
has recently been published by Mr. L. Eicketts, 
Inspector General of Forests in Mysore. 

MEMOEANDUM ON CASUARIM PLANTING IN MYSORE. 



" Bistnhution and Use. — Casuarina equisetifoUa, Forst, is 
Scattered thiroTigli Queensland, North Anstralia, the Malay- 
Archipelago, Fiji, the sea-shores of phittagong, Burma, and 
Siam ; but it is probably naturalized in many of these places, 
as it soon will be in several parts of India. 

It is the beef wood of Australia, and, in this country, it 
has already (within tte present century) inherited some 
vernacular names. But the local or Kanarese name ' Kesarike' 
it a mare corruptloa of the j^enerio name, Oaswi/rina. Tli» 



3(32 FOREST TEEES. 



species is abundiant in many of the Islands of Malay and Fijian 
ArcMpelagos, ^where it appears to be truly indigenous. 

In India, the tree is extensively cultivated, but altbough 
many square miles are covered with matured trees bearing 
fertile seeds, the species has not been observed to be self- 
productive in the m.atter of throwing up seedlings, nor does it 
coppice well, Notwithstanding these drawbacks, Casuarina 
planting has largely developed in Mysore owing to its regular 
and rapid growth, and ready sale for firewood. For domestic 
consumption, the fuel is highly prized, and that it develops 
more heat in a given quantity than any other kinds of local 
fuel, has been practically demonstrated by the officials of the 
Mysore State Railway. In these experiments conducted by 
Mr. MoUoy, it was reckoned that Casuarina logs ran a train 
over a distance 13 per cent in excess of that attained by the 
next best kind of fuel available in the Mysore forests. When 
using Casuarina for domestic purposes, the people endeavour 
to subdue its intense heat by adding fuel of inferior power. 

If this is not done, they find that their utensils wear out 
very rapidly. The same result has happened where CasuEirina 
is exclusively used in locomotives, and it is a question how far 
its calorific properties should be moderated by the intermixture 
of other fuel substances. 

Beefwood (so called from a fancied resemblance in color) 
is- coarse grained, and seasons somewhat badly. It weighs from 
55 to 62 lb, per cubic foot, but cracks and splits under weidit 
or exposure to the weather. The bark is astringent, and the 
burnt ashes ailord material for making soap. As a timbfer, it 
is not of much value being subject to the attacks of white 
ants. 

2. Soil. — The soil need not be rich, but such, as would 
retain moisture for a lengthened dry period, is most conducive 
to the rapid and robust growth of the Casuarina. This mean^, 
necessarily, a* deep soil having a retentive clay bottom. The 
surface soil should be light and sandy, and in situations where 
the water-level is always within a few feet (8 to 10) of the 
surface, the latter answers best. This is confirmed by the 
rapid growth of plantations on the sand dunes of the Madras 
cbast. The deep loamy soils of Mysore, incorporated in many 
places with varying quantities of oxide of iron, are not un- 
f avorabl& to the growth of CaBuaiina. 

3. Pitting, — Many of the facts recorded in this Memo 
occur in iMr. Hutchin's paper on 'Sandal' published in Indian 
Forrester of 1884, where the writer incidentally^ touches upon 
Casuarina planting, upon the details and advarltages of 
^d 6u^9^ {Nits and, qi tilei-pot nurserieis, and upon tiransplaiitiiig ; 



MtSOM AND COOEG. 303 



vide pages 254 to 261, Further details may, with advantage' 
be taken from the same article. The pits for Casuarina must 
be truly a cubic yard of 27 cubic feet, i. e., a square yard at the 
top, bottom, aud on each side. The advantage of the yard- 
cube size of pit is, that the cooly can get into it and dig it out 
large and square at the bottom, vfhere it is most important for 
root development. The pits should be lined and spaced with a 
rope so that the lines intersect in simple squares ; they should 
be dug at 12 feet apart each way, if Casuarina alone is planted, 
and at 9 feet where its rows alternate with sandal. 
Another plan is to plant at 6 feet apart with the intention of 
subsequently removing every alternate sapling when it has 
attained 4 — 5 years' growth. By this arrangement, the young 
trees are better sheltered froin the wind, being so much closer, 
while a considerable return on the initial outlay may be ex- 
pected from the sale of such saplings. 

4. Bat as pits are dug as labor ofEers, and when the ground 
is favorable for pitting, it is often, and properly, the case to 
have a large balance of pits on hand. The pits so dug should 
be left fully exposed to the action of the weather. The cold 
damp soil in the bottom of the pit will be enriched by exposure 
to the sun's rays and other atmospheric influences, which will 
also be at work on the heaps of loose earth lying around the 
pits. Before pitting, the land should be thoroughly cleared 
of scrub growth. 

5. Formation of Oround Nursery. — The Hebbe system of 
raising seedlings differs from that of the pot-tile in that seed- 
lings are raised and reared in the nursery -bed until such time 
as they are fit for direct removal to the field or plantation. 
When large enough, these seedlings are carefully lifted with 
balls of soil adhering to their roots and are replanted into pits 
for permanent cultivation. This mode of treatment, however 
carefully performed, is liable to injure the young roots, and 
growth is checked at a time, viz., in the rainy season, when the 
seedlings should make a good start. As a rule, therefore, 
except when the cost of pot-tiles is prohibitive, the Hebbe 
system of narsery should never be adopted- 

In cold and temperate countries, where the root develop- 
ment of seedling trees is not so active, the operation of trans- 
planting direct from nursery-bed to plantation is not so diffi- 
cult. But in the tropics, seedlings of six inches in surface 
height will often have a descending axis of one foot. The site 
selected for a nursery, of whatever class, should be near to a 
permanent supply of water. The ground should be trenched 
in December, thoroughly cleared of all roots, and finely di-essdd 
for sowing operations in January, Febrtiary, and March. By 
extending the sowings over a period of three months, the vegeta- 
tive powers of various species can be rfegulalted so that the 



304 



FOREST TREES. 



quick grovring kinds may not be too large for potting when the 
monsoon sets in. The nursery plots should he laid out on the 
native method for irrigation, as nothing can beat the latter 
■whether for efiBciency or economy. But greater care is neces- 
sary than the native gardener usually exercises in watering 
seed-beds, as many valuable seeds are easily rotted when the 
soil about them is always wet and cold. But the latter condi- 
tion Tvill rarely occar if the soil is porous, and otherwise well 
placed in reg-ard to position and drainage. Very little manure 
is required, and it should never be fresh or crude. Burnt soil 
is useful, and the burning of combustible rubbish over the 
trenched site has the additional effect of killing weeds and 
insect life with their seeds and ova. The contact with fire 
cures also the raw, soapy condition of the subsoil, and renders 
the inert plant-food soluble and assimilable. 

6. A few words about the collection of Casuarina seeds 
may be added. The trees do not all of them, come into bearing 
at the same time. Some bear fruit as early as May or June, 
and others progressively until October and November, while 
matured trees yield two crops of fruit yearly at the above dates. 

The best time for sowing is in the month succeeding each 
harvest, or say, in August and January. The fruit is ripe for 
gathering when it attains an orange yellow tinge, and begins to 
drop from the base of the cluster. 

When whole clusters are gathered, the unripe fruits near 
the apex should be discarded. The remainder is then daily 
exposed to the sun on date or other mats. After three days' 
exposure, the ripened fruit will have shed the whole of its 
seed, which latter should be sifted and bottled, or placed in 
covered chatties, if not required for immediate sowing. The 
fruit receptacles may be burnt over the nursery plots, as they 
contain potash and other manurial ingredients. 

In the harvesting season, the daily collection of fruit 
should be exposed and treated independently, and the date of 
storage in any vessel should be marked upon the latter. To 
carry out this routine, three to four separate mats must be in 
use, the fourth one is to provide against rainy weather. Casua- 
rina seeds are greedily devoured by ants, sparrows, rats, and 
other vermin, care should therefore be taken to preserve them 
from these pests. 

The seed should be rather thickly sown in small square 
beds, (pategalu) the surface of which has been levelled 
and slightly pressed down. They are then covered by a thin 
layer of sifted soil, and the bed is thoroughly watered by means 
of a water pot and fine rose. If any seeds appear on the surface 
after this watering, they should be slightly pressed down, and 
an additional coveiing of sifted soil may be dusted over the 
exposed and uneven parts, After sowing and watering, cover 



MTSOftW'AJKfD' CfdMG. 305' 

tkeiiedsover 'with;k'iay«r of leaVefi or twigs to retard the direct 
SffectsTof safer Jieat and j^revent rapid eTaporation. The best 
plani/fcartlus pturpose isrtha'Baiidare', Dodonaea viscosa, as its 
leaves doffaot-rdbTior'BBparEk.te readily from the stem. 

A ppoteotiiveacS^eriiig-'of this kind also protects the seeds to 
some KsteAt irom' theraTages' of insects and^ vermin. To pre-! 
veiit the'seedHbeing'^iwashed? into the corner of the bed, as would 
be th« ^ase - with • ordiiii&'y: irrigation, the surface should be 
gentlyoand- evenly iwiitered through the roae of a watering pot. 
The-germS s^api^ditron' the surface within 8^10 days, and the 
seedltnga' wilf-hfe- an ■ inch high within the month. In three 
nionths they ehould- be'4 inched highi whidhisanice size for 
potting into tile-pots. The latter operation can be safely per- 
l^r^edi 'hsKwieverJ' until • the seedlings are 4 to 5 months old. 
The pnedSfcYationrbf the itapjroot is always an important matter. 
We^dm^ jShtooft'efEectid. in' Casuarina seed-beds, as the seedlings 
groW^^eyyclfflS^ly together and any attempt at weeding would 
nproffifethfe laittet: - i - 

8i :^ormatio>ii of Tih: Nursery. -^Meaiawlaile tile-pot beds 
ai?e iojrMA land'kept ready ■ to receive the seedlings as recom- 
mended in~th'e:f6p^6ing{paragraph. " The tile-pot is formed by 
plaflBQ® tWOiSejniiCyliiidric&ii country tiles together edge to edge, 
so as to f ofcetra iiyKmdeS*,' abotit 5 inches in diameter and 10 inch- 
es long. lEh^-c^linaets are ■|)laced together side by side in pre- 
viously "'excayatedttds, rtiil they.f orm a h6ney comb filling the 
vehQld ,up fltish -with the stirface of the ground. To facilitate 
ppulltiii^ ftacll-.bed usually cbntains 100 tile-pots, 10 rows 
of the latter haTii^g 1® ^^ t^e row; The beds of tile-pots 
are jgepasSied.' only by narrow paths, just wide enough to 
perniit'the-rIoi3BatioilPof.the' channels by means of which the 
beds fu?o irrigated" (Mr. Sutchins in the Indian Forester for June 
iSSkh" Whegcfiloiigbt'notto be hard below the pot-tiles, for it 
will preyenftp^Beulatibn of "water, which, in consequence, would 
sta'^ate andrfcendbrHiheplaiitasiekry. Boots'maybe prevented 
f rom peneti;ating= the-:Soil below the tile-pots by a layer of 
pot-fehetds ieipg -plabed under the ' latter. This allows the 
water to rfeiin- off while- ifc- effectually confines the roots of 
the young Casuarina to the cylinders in which they are 
prtaeryed^ ,.;:., ., 

r9i';^*»w«p?d6»/ii7igr into Pot-iihs'. — In March; when the 
seedlinga-jji-tbe^groand'inlirsery will have grown some 4 — 6 
ijiches high,' iSBeS-.of -th^m as are healthy and vigorous will be 
pricked outiato ttheipot-tjlles pfetiously prfepa:?ed for their re- 
eeption:b5J a,filightf watering. The evening is the best time for 
tfan^plaKlimg.raAa^ton the following ;mojening some light shad-^ 
ia©.GBnjcH5«a-tTOf aiof the *' Bandarej'' Shoiild be laid over the 
trap^fetnWi^rtbi^cis-meJt done, a number of the seedlings are 
aUce -to Bacoiunbuader the fieree rays of a March sun. These 

39 



306 f OMST TBEES. 



tile-plants should be watered daily, and when their roots have 
laid hold of the soil, shading should be entirely removed. 
Details of weeding, stirring up the surface soil, and replacing 
casualties, will require constant attention, ajid. as the plants 
attain size, they will absorb more water. The number of heal- 
thy plants which the Department expects to secure in tiles, for 
field planting, is 90 per cent of the number pricked off, and 
subsequently cultivated in pot-tiles, 10 per cent being foregone 
in favor of Mestris, in consideration of the amount of care 
necessary for free germinatioD in sand beds arid healthy growth 
in pot-tilflfe. If at the final counting, or planting, it be found 
that failures exceed 10 per cent, the value of sucfe excess should 
be recovered by short payment. 

lb. About the month of April, the seedlings are subject 
to the attacks of crickets and grass hoppers, but seedlings that 
have tender or herbaceous stems are alone affected by these 
pests. It is therefore necessary to plant out hardy seedlings 
with slightly woody stems, or to prick off early in rebruary, 
' and push growth so that the young plants may be sturdy 
enouo-h so resist the ravages of voracious insects. Although the 
latter exist at an earlier season, it is only when herbaceous vege- 
tation is universally withered up that they commit havoc in 
nurseries, &c., and' from April till the advent of good rain, it is 
necessary to employ coolies (small boys) to drive off the insects, 
otherwise the percentage of failures would be high. In some 
localities, and in certain seasons, these pests are absent, but as 
a rule, they should be expected and coped with at the lime, 
and under the conditions indicated in this paper. 

11. Manuring the nursery is an essential point, and a 
word about it will not be out of place. Thoroughly pulverised 
farm-yard manure is good for general application, but in special 
cases, oil cakes, sheep dang, and ashes, are highly beneficial. 
The last named affords material for the early formation of 
woody fibre, and is therefore of exceptional- value in giving 
stability to the young plants. , In all cases, the manure should 
be applied sparingly as the object is. not to induce a lanky her- 
baceous growth. Liberal manuring makes the' seedlings too 
tender for their future life in the field-. 

12. Transplanting into Pits. — This will be done during the 
S. W. monsoon, commencing as soon as 'the ground has been 
nicely cooled by copious rain. August is perhaps the best month 
for general planting, providing that the monsoon is normal. A 
few days, not later than a fortnight, previous to transplanting, 
the pits should be refilled to the ground level with ' the earth 
formerly removed from them. In filling.' pits, it is 
essential that all the loose earth should be returned so as to 
form a small mound above the ground level, as earth' dug out 
and weathered.occupies about 25 per ceat^more space thaa it 



MTSORB AND OOOEG. 307 

does in its undistiirlaed condition underground. This prbdess 
should hot be itadertaken when the soil is wfet. Working a wet 
soil, with plough or spade, renders it hard in drying and des- 
troys its porosity. The filling is best done after a good show- 
er of rain, and when the soil is sufficiently dry to be pow- 
dery, but moist. In other words when it is nicely workable 
with the spade or mamoti. But in certain experimental 
cases, the Oasuarina will thrive when the pits had been filled 
up in anticipation of rain. By the planting season the seed- 
lings in the pot nursery will have attained a height of I5 to 2 
feet, and the pot-tiles will then be lifted and carried in baskets 
to the field. Here the cylinders will be carefully sepnrated into 
their two halves, so that the soil about the roots of the young 
tree may remain intact. The plants themselves will then be 
cai'efuUy put into the prepared pits, the earth around them be- 
ing slightly pressed by the feet of the planter while he holds the 
seedlings ill an erect and natural position. A. thorough watering 
should be given directly the plants are put down and, unless 
the weather is showery, a few succeeding waterings at intei'- 
vals of two to three days will be of much benefit to the plants. 
Ponds and hollows about the plantation are furnished with 
water at this time, and, should the rains hold off, the trans- 
plants could be watered occasionally at reasonable cost ' and 
much m.ore than proportionate benefit. In certain private 
plantations, where fdur waterings were given, the percentage 
of failures was very materially reduced and the plantations 
made good progress. When the planting is completed, the 
halved tile-pots may be returned to the nursery for storage, 
or to be refilled as in the first iustance. By using pots, the 
root growth of the seedling, is restrained, while little or no 
shock is received in transplanting into the field, and the 
established seedlings are in a position to lay vigorous hold of 
the soil 'at a favorable season. 

IS. Beplacing failures- — It has here to be noted that the 
first thing, to be done, under this head, is to replace the pre- 
vious year's failures as ascertained by final counting at the 
close of the dry season. The rate for the above will be 
minus the cost of filling in the pits. 

14. How payment is made. — Tho number of healthy and 
vigorous plants, which the Department expects to secure at 
the final enumeration, is 90 per cent of the total number put 
into the ground. In order to secure this, 25 to 30 per cent of 
the cost that becomes payable to Mestris should be withheld 
till the results of final countings are known, and if the failures 
exceed 10 percent, the value of such excess should be de- 
ducted from the amount held in arrears, or if necessary 
from any other amounts due to the Mestris for work done. 
jBub tie filling in of pits is not paid for independently of 



308 J^OEEST '^m^' 

transplanting; fpr whicli ;tlfe r£^tef,fised inqliifleSj tjie c^s^.pf 
(a) taking out plants ifrqm the , nursery, ":(?!), ^^jBjp^ 
tile-pots to tlie nursery, (c) filling _in of pits, (^), ip^p^^^ilipg 
and (e) watering t^e plants, put out, if ,nepessaFy. , - 

15. Weeding, — Weeds should /l?e',remo,y,ed', jm5jedia4iely 
around the young ijrees once pr , twice a , year, ,so iiat ibe 
growth of the latter may , not be chpjfeed, TEe.,^vir^e soil 
might he advantageously ptirred up , at , the ..sjipae, tigie., 
This weeding should he, continued for %4 or,,^fe?^ vj^ft''?*, 
when the young trees will have, grown to a size. .jgumciB.p.'t 
to create a shade which .will,,eitjier..snppjress or ^ill f^^e 
weeds. In addition to keeping w^eeds ^ijdT ,^ass down ipi- 
mediately around the trees^ it is necessary to ^ keep t|je 
whole field clear of. extraneous growth, e?:cqpt grass,.. fpi; a few 
years, or until the Casuarina suppresses underj_, scrub, by , the 
density of its own growth. 

16. Pruning. — In the 3rd or 4th year, iijie , IpTj^er 
branches of the trees phould be carefully sayn^pff, tO; adfl^t 
light and facilitate a free passage of air. i 

This operation should be ajttended to , with the. greatest, 
care, and is on no account to be entrusted,. ;to. ignprantjfpr 
unskillful subordinfites. In fact itj^^'di}etterl,bej,le£t;ancl^ft,e,- 
than be done badly or roughly. -■'"■- ^ ^ ... ^. 

17. Trenching and /hedging. — A tjrench 3' X 3'j,w,ill be 
dug all aroi;nd ' the plantation, aij.d,.jpii ,^hp;,earyi ridged, 
on the outer , tank, '_ aloes, (^jra^e amenpaw^)\',wili ^jail^.p^^'g^ 
to form a prptectyve fence against .fixe,,,. cattie, ang^ig-^ec^, 
lopers. Where the . cpmpion , aj^e, is,j.npt ^piMcuraJjJe,' ' 3Pfi(pas 
Kattali' and 'Bonte Ealli' a^Eprd^gpoi jnaJeiMi[||or ipw^V 
18. Working plfin and, plan of Oj3eraiiVws.-r-!^0) pJiint^tipu^ 
unless it is a very small one which can be ^Siwed- ia a, 
year, should be opened witkout a .woddng. plan.. -fThe, ad- 
vantage of having such is, thai; regular ..wor^iig is .en^siirjed, 
and a complete check exercised. . ^aless. a planiajnade ,ajicl 
adhered to from the beginning, .irregulajri|tie3,-\vri.lt^.e. .s^rf 
to creep in sooner or later. , Confiised .work, on ^e,.^ld,-,is 
certain to be follow;ed by confusion in, tie . accounts ; ..^gd, 
work cannot be detected from ' tJie,b»^,V^B.A i a,f|er . a j|te^ 
years it becomes imppssible to say , what Jp^penditvire nas 
been profitable, or the reverse. An aniijaal pl^n^ of „ ^P^r- 
atipns for each plantation will be prepared by J tlie,J^pr^st 
'Officer and issued to tte Ranger for gi;i^d|ance -and ejjeeiMJpii.5 

About 20 acres is a convenient size for a,p|aa]L£afioifr|Cp:^'. 
partment, while a line 11 yards in width/and. q^e^d. of j^l^ 
vegetable growth, should separate the,, comj'ar^mtiB,^ pro, 
tect the plantation from fire. V 

19. How work is done and ^cdd for^-rAll work in.pia,fat.i 
atione ia to jae done on; the P^^tcao^ ii^Btei^ tla;<)Bgh Jl4pBtii» 



MTSOEB AND qpPJBG. SQ9 

who, in lieu of fixed pay, will, be allowed 6 to 7 per cent 
commission on tlie value of work turned out with. Grovern- 
ment money and tools, and 10 per cent when they work with 
their own capital and tools. 

Each Mestri is to be. furnished with an estimate show- 
ing the different works to be done and the sanctioned rates 
for the same. Once a month, or when there is not sufficient 
progress, once in two months, the Raiiger should check, mea- 
sure up the work turned out by each Mestri, and enter the 
same on the right side of his pass sheet, the work or works 
to be done in the following month, in pursuance of the plan 
of operations, being entered on the left side of the same 
sheet. This pass sheet will be submitted, in duplicate, to 
the Forest Officer, who shall check both sides of the pass 
sheet with the aid of his note book, and issue a cheque for 
such amount as may be passed by him in settlement of the 
Meetri's account. 

The cheque should be drawn in favor of the Mestri con- 
cerned and no other, and his acknowledgment obtained. One 
of the pass sheets will be returned to the Ranger for revising 
his original copy, if necessary, and handing back to the 
Mestri concerned. 

2Ch Inspection hy Forest Officer,— 'Hhe chief work being 
inspection and timely correetion of all mistakes in the Vari-. 
ous stages o£: plantation work, it is necessary for the Offecer 
in charge of 'Plantations to be constantly moving about and 
checking thee Work on the field, 

21. iWhen a completion ..report of any kind of Workj 
especially pittiiig, planting or clearing, is received from the 
Ranger, the ^Forest Officer should make a personal inspection 
and satisfy himself that the work is efficiently done and that 
no gap has been left in the details. It will hot be consi'der* 
ed an excuse for bad or fraudulent work that the Mestri ia 

.at fault, or that the Ranger has been careless in snpervi^io'n. 
The Forest Officer alone will be held responsible for eyety 
operation in the ilursery and in the field, • an(l notably in, the 
seedlings under his. charge being healthy and vigorous; 

22. Any prolonged stpy at Head-quarters will Ibe taken 
as prgof tha^t the Forest Officer is iijdifEerent to the work and 
uni^iiiidful ot the iiiterests of Government, and in fact of hia 
owi repiitatrpn alsOj as noj^one can know better than he 
does hoW w^tkiis apt. to degenerate; and ,})e| scamped j if | not 

.fr^juently> ajad closely ecrutinisedi 

'^iSateSi — iThe prevailing rates a^i, the (royernment plants 
..atlpaa^foL-diferetot itiBm8..oi,..Wflr]S-are .set forth, iii t£ei an* 
.jie^d statemeat. 



310 



FOREST TBEBS. 



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MYSOEE AND COOEG. 313 

LXVIII. SALIOINE^. 

572 Salix tetrasperma, 'Roxb, Kan. Niravanji, Mranjij 
Fig.-Bedd. Fl. Sylv ■ t. 302. Wight. Ic. 1. 1954. 
References.— Bratid. For. Fl. 462 ; Diet, of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

The South Indian willow tree. Much planted on 
the banks of rivers, streams, and nallahs, where it 
attains to a height of 20 — 40 feet, and acts as a good 
barrier to the wear and tear of running water. 
Leaves deciduous, alternate, petiolate, stipulate, 
narrowly, or somewhat broadly, ovate-lanceolate; 
average blade b^l in. Flowers appearing in ad- 
vance of, or simultaneously with, the young leaves, 
in slender yellow catkins. For planting in moist 
land, this is one of the most suitable trees. Often 
planted at the roadsides where there are tanks and 
wet cultivation. Sapwood abundant, whitish ; heart 
wood small, dark-brown, weighing 35 — 40 lb. per 
cubic foot. When procurable in size, which is the 
chief difficulty, the heartwood is admirably adapt- 
ed for cabinet and fancy work. The whole tree is 
much prized as an efficient source of fuel, and is 
rather largely used in some parts for the manufac- 
ture of gunpowder charcoal. Baskets and wicker 
work are made from the supple shoots and branch- 
es.- The green foliage is browsed upon by cattle, 
and trees are often badly pollarded on that account. 

573 Salix babylonica, Linn. 

The weeping-willow tree. This introduced 
species is occasionally found in gardens, and there 
are three old trees on the bund of the Shoolay Tank, 
at Bangalore. Well suited for ornamental planting 
near water, and on lawns that are favourably 
situated in regard to irrigation in the dry season. 

Cultivation— The presence of m,oisture is a sine 
qua non in the successful cultivation of willow trees, 
and in this country, the last named species will only 

40 



314 rOEEST TEEE8. 



do well in comparatively cool altitudes. The best 
situation of all is in sandy or soft alluvial soil on the 
banks of a running stream. Cuttings of all sizes 
root freely in moist sand. It is a mistake to plant 
the indigenous species as a roadside tree in dry loca- 
lities, and the practice is only justified -where the 
land is too wet for other trees of denser foliage and 
larger growth. 

LXIX. CONIFERiE. 

574 Cupressus torulosa, Don. 

An evergreen tree cultivated in the Lal-Bagh, 
and occasionally in private gardens also, for orna- 
ment. Indigenous to the "Wes'tern Himalaya where 
it attains a height of 150 feet, with a trunk girth of 
17 feet. The maximum height attained at Bangalore 
is under 60 feet. Local growth is thus stunted, 
while the production of timber is very limited. 

575 Cupressus Funebris, Bndl. 

The Chinese weeping cypress. Cultivated in the 
Botanical Gardens, where the species thrives indiffer- 
ently. Branches horizontal, branchlets weeping. 
Planted near temples and monasteries in Nepal, 
Bikkim, Bhutan, and Northern China. Maximum 
height 60 feet. C. lusitanica, Mill, the Groa cypress, 
and C. macrocarpa, Hartweg, are introduced ever- 
green trees, cultivated in Indian gardens. 

576 Cupressus sempervirens, Linn. 

The columnar or upright cypress of Indian gar- 
dens and cemetej-ies. Originally introduced from 
Europe or the Korth-west of India. Although cul- 
tivated solely for scenic effect, in local gardens, the 
wood of this tree is known to be exceedingly durable, 
and is much prized in Eastern Europe for making 
trunks and other domestic articles. Local trees 
have not seeded, but they are readily propagated by 
the process called ' Chinese grafting.' 



MYSORE AND COOEG. 315 



577 Podocarpus latifolia, Wall. 

A small evergreen tree of the South- Western 
Peninsula. Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 

578 Dammara robusta, C. Moore. 

The Queensland Kauri pine. Introduced from 
Australia and cultivated in the Botanical Gardens. 
Of this splendid evergreen tree, Mr. Walter Hill 
writes as follows ; — "Diameter of trunk 36 to 72 in; 
height 80 to 130 feet. This huge tree inhabits the 
alluvial banks on the rivers near the coast in the 
Wide Bay district ; also in the moist and sheltered 
valleys on Frazer's Island. It has a smooth-barked 
trunk, of a red colour ; the branches are produced 
in whorls of 5 to 10, distant, spreading, and of a 
large size. The wood is fine grained, free of knots 
and easily Avorked. It is, however, not a plentiful 
tree. At the present time — 1880 — the sawyers are 
receiving 7s-. 6d, for 100 superficial feet. Some 
trees yield as much as 25,000 feet. " 

579 Dammara Australis, Lambert. 

, The Kauri pine of New Zealand. Cultivated in 
the Botanical gardens and growing well. " This 
magnificent tree measures, under favorable circum- 
stances, 180 feet in height and 17 feet in diameter 
of stem ; the estimated age of such a tree being 700 
or 800 years. " Baron von Mueller. The timber 
afforded by these two species of Dammara is re- 
markable for its uniformity of grain, exemption 
from knots, and size of plank. The kauri 
resin of New Zealand is a curious product 
which the Maoris gather mostly from the sites of 
extinct kauri forests. Cones are produced on the 
Bangalore trees, and a few self-sown seedlings have 
recently been discovered in flower pots standing 
adjacent to one tree ; this is very encouraging as all 
hand sowings of the seed produced from this tree 
bad failed entirely, and it was thought that the seed 
was sterile. A deep soil coutaining plenty of 



316 FOEEST TREES. 



moisture has proved favourable to vigorous growth 
The finest tree in the collection has attained the 
height of 67 feet. 

580 Frenela Gunnii, Endl. 

The Tasmanian pine, and F. cohimcJlaris^'F. 
Mnell, are effective evergreen trees! Cultivated in 
the Lal-Bagh, but too delicate for forest planting. 

581 Araucaria Cookii, R. Be. 

The Caledonian pine. In local cultivation, this 
handsome conifer has a peculiar habit of enclining 
towards the east or south east. But in places where 
the trees are sheltered from the full force of the 
South West monsoon, the growth is erect or nearly so. 
Cones are produced on two aged trees in the Bota- 
nical Gardens, and the seeds contained in these are 
beginning to germinate. The species forms exten- 
sive forests in New Caledonia, where single speci- 
mens attain the height of 200 feet. Much prized 
for ornamental effect in gardens and pleasure 
grounds, and for Christmas trees, where the species 
is produced in quantity. 

Cultivation,— Planted in deep loam, with a liberal 
top-dressing of leaf mould, seedlings soon lay hold 
of the moist subsoil and become independent of 
irrigation. Plants raised from layers never form a 
leader, and are therefore useless for the production 
of trees. To form a grove or avenue, sturdy seed- 
lings of a foot and upwards in height should be 
selected, planting at 30 feet apart during showery 
weather, 

582 Araucaria Bidwillii, Hook. 

Introduced from Queensland and cultivated in the 
Lai Bagh. Known in Australia as the Bunya Bunya. 
This grand conifer has thriven well in local cultiva- 
tion, growth being erect and symmetrical in almost 
every specimen. The two finest trees in Banga- 
lore will be found one on either side of the band» 



MYSOEE ANT)COOT!G. 317 



stand-in the Lai Bagh. These trees have attained 
a height of 80 feet, and are about 32 years of age. 
A few cones are occasionally produced on one of 
the trees, but the seeds contained in them appear to 
be imperfect. For fuller information relating to 
this important species, the reader is referred to the 
folloAving paragraph by Mr. "Walter Hill of 
Brisbane: — 

" A noble tree, inhabiting the scrubs in the dis- 
trict between Brisbane and the Burnett Rivers. 
In the 20th parallel, it grows thickly over a portion 
of country, in extent about 30 miles long and by 12 
broad. The tree has a very singular appearance, 
the trunk is quite straight ; its bark is thick and 
smooth ; the branches are produced in whorls of 
six, seven or eight ; they are horizontal, inflexed, 
and ascending at the extremities. From the style 
of growth, singular foliage, and peculiar fresh 
colour, when surrounded with other trees of a differ- 
ent habit and greyish, tint, it produces a fine effect, 
from the striking contrast presented by its rigid 
growth, and fresh green lance-shaped leaves. The 
wood is not only very strong and good, but it is 
full of beautiful veins, and capable of being polished 
and worked with the greatest facility. The cones 
produced on the extreme upper branches, with 
their apex downwards, are large, measuring 9 to 12 
inches in length, and 10 inches in diameter ; on 
coming to maturity they rapidly shed their seeds, 
which are 2 to 2i inches- long by 1 inch broad, 
sweet before being perfectly ripe, and after that 
resemble roasted chestnuts in taste. In accordance 
with regulations issued by the Grovernment, the tree 
is not allowed to be cut down by those who are 
licensed to fall timber on the Crown lands, the fruit 
being used as food by the aboriginals. The trees 
produce some cones every year, but the principal 
b^.rvest happens only everj three yes^rs, when the 



318 FOREST TBBES. 



blacks assemble from all quarters to feast on it. 
The food seems to have a fattening effect upon tliem, 
and they eat large quantities of it, after roasting it 
at a fireJKi Contrary to tlieir usual habits, they some- 
times store vip the Bunya nuts,hiding themin a Avater- 
hole for a month or two. Here they germinate, and 
become offensive in taste to a white man's palate, 
but are considered by the blacks to have then ac- 
quired an improved flavour. The taste of the Bunya 
when fresh has been described as something between 
a chestnut and a raw potato." 

Cultivation.— The same as for J. Cooldi. But as 
the tree attains a greater diameter than the latter it 
should be planted at 45 feet apart Only strong 
seedlings of 18 inches and upwards sliould be used 
for planting out in the field. 

583 Araucaria excelsa, B. Br. 

The Norfolk Island pine. This magnificent 
tree, which has recently been introduced for trial 
attains, a maximun height of 220 feet, with trunk 
10 feet in diameter. Like the other species of the 
genus, it is conical in form, rigidly symmetrical, and 
evergreen. The timber has been used in Australia 
for ship-building. Propagate from seed, and plant 
out finally at 40 feet apart. 

584 Araucaria Cunninghamii, Ait. 

The Moreton Bay pine. Although, as will be 
seen further on, tliis is the most ornamental and 
useful tree in Queensland, it is by no means the 
best species for this part of India. ' In local culti- 
vation it shoots up too rapidly and becomes, in 
most specimens, a mere chandelabral spindle, the 
mtcrnodes between the upper whorls of branches 
being sometimes 16 feet in length. This over- 
draAvn growth is unsatisfactory, and causes the local 
tree to possess a weird or fantastic appearance 
which IS quite unnatural to the species. T}ip tree 



MTSOEB AND COOEG. 319 



is also mucli infested by scale — Coccus adonuhim. — • 
If planted on the uplands of Kadnr and Shimoga 
(not in the interior of the forest) the Moreton Bay 
pine Avonld attain better growth. In cultivation, it 
requires the same general treatment as the other 
species of the genus. " Diameter, 36 — 60 inches ; 
height 150 to 200 feet. This majestic tree is, 
without exception, the most ornamental and useful 
tree in Qiieensland. Its beautiful regular pyramidal 
form, and the sombre green of its awl-shaped foliage 
command general admiration. It covers immense 
tracts of land along the coast, and in the interior. 
It overtops all other trees ; wjiether growing on the 
alluvial banks near rivers, or upon the steep and 
rugged mountains in the interior. Its branches are 
produced in whorls from six to eight in number, 
horizontally and spreading. The bark is thick and 
brownish. The timber is an article of great com- 
mercial importance, and is used extensively in this 
colony. The Avood is strong and durable when 
kept dry, but soon decays when exposed to alter- 
nate damp and dryness. , When produced from the 
mountains in the interior, it is fine-grained and is 
susceptible of a high polish, which excels that of 
satin wood or birds-eye maple. The resin which 
exudes from the trunk is very remarkable ; it has all 
the transparency and whiteness of crystal ; and that 
portion of it which adheres to the trees, hangs from 
them in tte shape of icicles, which are sometimes 
3 feet long and 6 to 12 inches broad. The saAvyers 
receive at the present time Qs. Qd. to 7s. per hundred 
superficial feet, some trees yielding as much. as 
10,000 feet of saleable timber." Walter Hill. 

Araucaria Cunninglmmii var glauca is a variety 
with silvery foliage recently introduced for trial. 

585 Thuja orientalis, Linn. 



320 FOBEST TREES. 



The Arbor Vit^ . A small evergreen tree of local 
gardens. Introduced from China, but seldom attain- 
ing to more than a shrub in Mysore. The evergreen 
branches are popularly used for Christmas decorations. 
Succeeds well in the cooler climate of Ootacamund. 



LXX. CYOADAOE^. 

586 Cycas circinalis, Linn. Kan. Godda ichalu. 

This small tree, with its naked trunk and terminal 
crown of long, pinnate, shining, coriaceous leaves, is 
often mistaken for a palm or tree fern. But being 
a well marked Gijmnospcrm, it bears no relationship 
to these trees. The species is plentiful in the Mala- 
bar district, where it mostly affects the low or inter- 
mediate hills situated between the Ghats and the sea, 
and where a useful flour is prepared from the nuts 
of the tree. It is less abundant in this province, 
and does not appear to enter into the domestic 
economy of the people. The local vernacular name 
is somewhat misleading, as Iclialu is the proper 
name for the Mysore toddy palm, a species which 
bears no affinity to the genus Ct/cgs. 



LXXI. SCITAMINE^. 

587 Musa superba, Eoxb. Kan. Kadu bali, Betta bali. 

Fig.-Wight Ic. t. 2017. Bot. Maij. t 3849— 
3850. 

References.— FZ. of Brit. Inch; Did. of Econ. 
Prod, of India. 

The hill plantain. An herbaceous or soft- wooded 
tree of 12 to 15 feet. Indigenous to parts of the 
Malnad, and occasionally cultivated for ornament; 
symmetry of form and great beauty of leaf being 
marked characteristics of the species. Leaves 



MTSOSi! AKt> COORG. 3^1 



stoutly sheathed at the base and giving the short 
trunk almost a bulbous appearance, 8 — 10 feet in, 
length by 2 in breadth, seldom splitting except in 
age, cuneate and often reddish at the base. The 
plant dies after seeding, and it does not throw out 
offsets. A somewhat coarse fibre is afforded by 
the stem and petiole. " Dr. Dymock has recently 
found a sweet, translucent, jelly-like manna exuding 
from the plant, which, when dried at a low tem- 
perature, yielded 82" 3 per. cent, of fermentable 
sugar. " {Hooper, Chem. Notes on Mannas, 1891.) 

The fruit of the wild plantain is not edible, but it 
matures seed from which the specie-s is readily 
multiplied. 
588 Musa sapientum, Ltnn. Kan. Bale. 

References. — Fl. of Brit. Ind.; Diet, of Econ. 
Prod, of Ind. ; Drury U. PI. 

The banana tree. There are many varieties of 
this useful species, which have been cultivated in 
Indian gardens from pre-historic time. But like 
the plantain tree, the banana is essentially domesti- 
cated, and soon becomes extinct if wholly left to its 
own resources. It follows the haunts of men, and 
occupies a place in nearly every locality where 
there is irrigable land and density of population. 
Patches of cultivation adjoin every important 
village in the low country, adding a verdant beauty 
to the scene which is distinctly tropical in its effect. 
The several varieties of banana furnish the table 
fruit, which is consumed in the raw state ; but under 
special preparation they also afford banana meal 
and are made into cakes and puddings. Enormous 
quantities of fruit are consumed in Indian cities, 
where the market value is higher than in the 
country, but the supply is always equal to the de- 
mand and even the poorest classes are able to secur© 
a share of this nutritious fruit. In addition to 

41 



g22 FOBEST *EEBS. 



being clieap, the banana possesses the great advan- 
tage over most other fruits of being available all the 
year round. One or two varieties of the species are 
exclusively cultivated for their soft flexible leaves, 
which are popularly used by the better classes to 
serve food upon, in lieu of dishes. Musa sapientum 
var. Paradisiacti affords the plantain, which differs 
from the banana in being larger, coarser, and un- 
suited for eating in the raw state. The stem of the 
plantain tree is green, while the bracts are purple 
on the inner face. The banana, on the other hand, 
has a purple-spotted stem and its bracts are green- 
coloured on the inner face. The plantain, or cook- 
ino- variety, is not so abundant in this province as it 
is on the plains of India, where the preparation of 
the fruit is better understood. 

The following varieties of banana and plantain 
are commonly met with in local cultivation. 

Kan- 



-Telakki bale. 


... Large fraited banana. 


)5 " 


... Small do. of same. 


Tele bale. 


... Cultivated for the leaves only. 


Gulur bale. 


... Large butter banana. 


)) J5 


... Small. „ 


Katte bale. 


... Cooking plantain. 


Madranga bale. 


... 


Rasa bale. 


... Dessert banana. 


Havu bale. 


... Snake banana. 


Giiija bale. 


... Short banana. 


Putta bale. 


... Small, elegant banana. 


Cbandrabale. 


... Red banana. 


Jain bale. 


... Honey banana. 


Raja bale. 


... Royal banana. 


Pacha bale. 


... Green banana. 



Cultivation. — Seed is rarely produced by the 
domesticated forms of this variable species ; but pro- 
pagation is readily effected by the division of offsets, 
which are freely produced around the parent stem. 
To obtain the finest crops of fruit, the banana 
requires frequent irrigation and liberal treatment in 
the application of plant food. Alluvial silt, reddish 



MYSORE AND COORG, S23 

loam, and black cotton soil are equally suitable as a 
ground-work for this cultivation, but in each case 
should be added a good proportion of farmyard 
manure, with occasional top-dressings of oil-cake, 
bone-dust, night soil, and liquid manure. Plant at 
intervals of two months so as to keep up a succes- 
sion of fruit. 
589 Musa textilis, Nee. In Cav. 

The Manilla hemp tree. Cultivated in Botanical 
G-ardens. Mr. J. Gr. Baker includes it in the Flora 
of .British India as a variety or subspecies of 
M. sapientum. In general appearance, it closely 
resembles the latter, although the fruit is worthless. 
It is the Abaca of the Phillippines. 

." The Abaca is cut when about one year and a 
half old, just before its flowering or frutification is 
likely to appear, as afterwards the fibres are said to 
be weaker. If cut earlier, the fibres are said to be 
shorter and finer. It is cut near its roots,. and the 
leaves cut. off just below their expansion. It is then 
slit open longitudinally, and the central peduncle 
separated from the sheathing layers of fibres, which 
are in fact the petioles of the leaves. Of these lay- 
ers the outer are harder and stronger, and form the 
kind of fibre called bandala, which is employed in the 
fabrication of cordage. The inner layers consist of 
finer fibres and yield what is called lupis, and are used 
for weaving the nipis and other more delicate fibres ; 
while the intermediate layers are converted into 
what is called tupoz, of which are made web-cloths 
and gauzes, four yards long, -of different degrfees of 
fineness. These are universally used as clothing : 
some being so fine that a garment may be enclosed 
in the hollow of a hand." Boyle. 

The ornamental species M. ensete, from Abyssinia, 
and M. sumatrana, are usually cultiyate^ in the 
Botanical Grardens. 



324 FOREST TREES. 



590 Ravenala madagascariensis, Sonneb. 

The traveller's tree. Introduced from Madagas- 
car and cultivated in a few local gardens for orna- 
ment, or as a curiosity. 



a 



LXXII. PALMACE^. 

591 Areca Catechu, Linn. Kan. Adike. 

References —PAar??;,. Lid; Diet, of Econ. Prod 
of Lid. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

The Areca- nut or betel-nut palm. An evergreen tree 
having atall, slender, annulate trunkof uniform thipk- 
ness, surmoiinted by a small crown of pinnate leaves 
4 — eft.inleugth. In favourable situations, the simple 
trunk attains to a height of nearly 100 feet without 
a bend, but in less suitable localities the average 
height is 50 — 70 feet. Areca-nut gardens are a profit- 
able source of income both to the cultivator and the 
State, the latter deriving a large revenue from a 
halut or custom duty levied upon the nut. The 
finest betel-nut gardens are situated on the confines 
of the Malnad, where there is rich soil and plenty of 
water. Places that are specially noted for the ex- 
cellence of their nuts are Birur, Nagar, Periyapatna 
Chiknayakanhalli, Madgiri, and Channapatna. In 
cultivation, the tree is often associated with the 
cocoa-nut palm, although exclusive plantations are 
numerous and admittedly the most profitable in the 
Malnad. As a masticatory, with lime and the betel- 
leaf, the demand for Areca-nut is practically unli- 
mited in the east. The consumption is enormous, 
and India is said to require 30,500,000 pounds of 
the nut annually in addition to her own produce, 
•v^hich is very great. In Mysore, there are two dis- 
tinct varieties of the species, one producing large 
and the other small fruits. There are also numer- 
ous preparations of the nuts for ceremonial, and 
marketable purposes. 



MYSORE AND OOOEG. 325 



Cultivation,— The betel-nut palm is propagated 
readily from seed, which is planted in rows in half- 
filled trenches of sand under shade. When firmly- 
placed in position, the ripe nuts are covered over to 
the depth of 4 — 5 inches with a compost of sand 
and black soil in equal parts ; the trench is then 
well saturated with water every third or fourth day 
during the dry season, and until the seedlings are 
well sprouted, but the latter should not be removed 
to the plantation until they are properly rooted and at 
least a foot in height. The partial shade which is 
necessary in the early stages of cultivation, is 
usually provided by an associated crop of bananas 
planted a month or two in advance of the Areca-nuts 
and intermediately with the pits prepared for the 
latter. It is also customary to continue the cultiva- 
tion of bananas or plantains with the object of 
intercepting radiation and maintaining a cool, moist 
surface for the benefit of the main crop. A fertile 
black soil containing calcareous nodules near the 
surface, is prized for this cultivation, but it is a sine 
qua non that the water level should not be many 
i'eet below the surface, and where such is the case, 
alluvial silt, and ordinary loam are equally produc- 
tive soils. It is necessary during the rainy season 
to drain off superfluous water by means of open 
ditches placed at intervals between the rows of 
trees, for although the Areca requires a perennial 
supply of moisture at no great depth in the subsoil, 
it is keenly susceptible of being water-logged. In 
the Malnad, it is usual to plant two seedlings in one 
pit, the weaker of the pair being subsequently re- 
moved when there is little risk of failure on the 
part of the reserved specimen. In topes exclusively 
apportioned to the Areca-nut, the planting is mostly 
too close ; 1,200 to 1,600 trees being allotted to the 
acre, exclusive of the banana trees. The results 
woijld in all probabiHty prove more advantageousi 



326 FOREST TREES. 



in the end if the trees were allowed greater space, 
or say 6— 7 feet between the pits. A full grown 
tree is calculated to produce 250 to 800 nuts annu- 
ally. The Mysore product is highly valued at 
Bombay, where it realises Rs. 80 — 100 per candy of 
5|- cwt. 

592 Areca alba, Rum ph. A rubra, Bobt., and a few 
other exotic species are cultivated in the Botanical 
Gardens. 

593 Arenga saccharifera, Labill. 

The sago palm of Malacca, and the Malaya also 
known as the siigar palm. Cultivated in the 
Botanical Gardens, where it only succeeds under 
the shade of other trees. 

594 Caryota urens, Linn. Kan. Bagani, Byree. 
'Fig.—Bot PI. Lal-Bagh Collection. 

'References -Did. of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; Ft. 
uf Brit. Lid. 

The bastard sago or hill toddy-palm, j^bundant 
in the warmer parts of the Malnad, but seldom 
found in the maidan, except in gardens. A hand- 
some species attaining in good situations to nearly 
50 feet. Trunk solitary, stout, annulate, clothed 
by a few bipinnate leaves of enormous size and 
great beaixty. The immense spadix bearing a huge 
cluster of long drooping branchlets of flowers or 
fruit, as the case may be, is a marked feature of the 
species. While the flowers are still in bud, these 
pendulous clusters are conspicuous objects for 
several weeks, and are greatly prized for decoration 
on the occasion of native weddings. A very strong 
but somewhat coarse fibre is afforded by the large 
sheathing petiole of the leaf, while the cord-like 
fibro-vascular bundles at the base of the leaf sheath 
furnishes the material known as Kittul fibre, which 
in Ceylon and elsewhere, enters largely into the 



MYSOBB AND OOORG. S27 

manufacture of ropes, brushes, brooms, and baskets, 
&c. In bringing this product to notice, Dr. Watt 
very naturally wishes to know if some effort could 
not be made to develope the latent fibre industries 
of India. That the country possesses enormous 
material of this class goes without saying. When 
young and middle-aged, the Bagani abounds in palm 
wine or a sweetish sap which is palatable to the 
taste when newly drawn, but it soon ferments, 
when it is converted into arrack or jaggery. The 
finest toddy is obtained from the buds of the inflore- 
scence during the hot weather. But as the tree 
ages, the flow of sap diminishes, and a pithy or 
farinaceous substance is formed in the old trunk 
which, on preparation, affords a kind of sago. In 
regions where the tree is abundant, the natives are 
said to utilise this food-product to a very large 
extent, butit does not appear to be so used in Mysore. 
" Outer wood fibrous, very dense, reddish-brown or 
black. Used for plough-shafts, rafters, reepers, 
wall-slabs, water-conduits, tank-pipes and rice- 
pounders. Being conical, the base of the tree is 
ingeniously fashioned into rice-measures, also into a 
species of drum called Toodama, which when operat- 
ed upon with two leather thongs, creates a most 
deafening noise. " Graham Anderson. 

" A large tree prized chiefly on account of the 
sweet sap or toddy which it yields in abundance. 
The fibre obtained from the peduncle (petiole ?) is 
made into rope and fishing lines. The tree (trunk) 
is also used for conveying water. " Lovery. 

CtQtivation.— The seeds of this tree germinate 
very freely after an occupation of nearly three 
months. Steeping for a few hours in tepid or 
camphorated water would no doubt accelerate ger- 
mination as the outer coating of the seed is naturally 
yerv har4' Ih virgin fof est, alluvial, and inade-up^ 



'^.''A li 



§2^ 



FOREST TUEES. 



garden soils, the Bagani succeeds well and becomes 
a fine decorative tree in 4 — 5 years. But it affects 
the moist regions of the hills where the annual raiur 
fall ranges from 100 to 200 inches, and in the maidan 
part of the province systematic irrigation is needed 
to produce the best results. In its natural haunts, 
the tree is self-productive. 

595 Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb. Kan. Ichal, Ichalu mara. 

'Fig.— Bot. PL Lal-Bagh Collection. 

References.— D^■cL of Econ. Prod, of Ind. ; 
Brand. For. Fl. 554. Ft. of Brit. Ind. 

This indigenous tree is locally known as the 
" Mysore toddy-palm, " but universally as the " wild 
date, " and " date-sugar palm. " In full grown 
specimens, the solitary trunk is 30 — 40 feet, sur- 
mounted by a dense crown — in one or two tiers — of 
arched, pinnate, glabrous leaves, 10 — 15 feet in 
length. The stout bases of the petioles (leafstalks) 
being persistent and occasionally spinous, the trunk 
presents rather a formidable appearance. The 
toddy palm is not stoloniferous, but self-sown 
seedlings are so near to each other at times that 
they appear to proceed from a common root-stock. 
Flowers dioecious. Spadices erect and interfoliar, 
curved outwards and downwards in fruit. Male 
spadix 2 — 3 ft., female spadix longer, stouter, and 
usually changing to a reddish tint. In both sexes, 
the straw-coloured flowers are at first enveloped in 
a stout basilar spathe. The male flowers are the 
most conspicuous, during the short time they last. 
Fruit orange-yellow, or ultimately with a slightly 
reddish tinge, 1|- in. terete, in ample clusters ; eaten 
occasionally by children and beggars. Groves of 
this useful palm are distributed at intervals through- 
out the maidan, or flat portion of the province, 
where they occupy extensive areas of the best dry 




Jllijt fl^owiHA tHe apotoximcLte blitttSvi,tio» of tfie 
•M.'Mdjie Toddy Palm. TRostita: iijPi'eAlria. 





Saet^ SuMiZae *"<;'•'' /»'/-!^; 



^^?* 



-^# 



MTSORE AND OOOEO. 829 

jand in.valleya, ravines and level plains ; the total 
area thus occupied being roughly computed at 
30,000 acres. (See Revenue and Agricultural Depart- 
ment's Statistics of sugar plants and sugar in 1888.) 
The finest groves are found in the Districts of 
Chitaldroog and Mysore, where the trees often 
attain a large size. But the pernicious practice of 
tapping very young trees and allowing the sap to 
run too long from older ones, is highly inimical to 
healthy development, and may account to some 
extent for the stunted growth which is observable 
in some of the plantations. The tapping season 
should be strictly confined to the months of Decem- 
ber, January, and February, when_the fall in temper- 
ature facilitates the flow of sap. The tendency to 
commence operations earlier and to pursue them 
later than the above period will, it should be re- 
membered, have a corresponding tendency to exhaust 
the trees. In travelling through the toddy groves 
at this season, a great number of chatties or earthen 
vessels will be seen suspended to the trees at 
varying heights from the ground, but always imme- 
diately under the crown of leaves or between the 
two crowns, as the case may be, and where a trian- 
gular incision is made (mostly in a space cleared 
among the lower leaves) for the flow of sap. The 
revenue authorities are responsible for the farming 
out of the groves to competent contractors, but the 
process of tapping is systematically pursued by an 
experienced class of workmen called Idigas or 
toddy drawers, who operate upon the trees in 
cycles of seven or more at a time. Toddy, that is 
the crude , sap in a sweet or shghtly fermented 
condition, is largely consumed in the villages ; while 
a much smaller proportion is boiled down with the 
object of manufacturing jaggery and date sugar. 
Under the existing rules, arrack is not distilled from 
the fermented 'juice, although this industry' is 

42 



330 FOBEST TBSXS. 



pursued in the adjoinihg districts of B. Gariarai 
Krishna, and Cochin. The leaves of the tree ari 
plaited into useful mats, and the spadix of' the feiuale 
flower, cut at a certain stage of growth, forms d 
good chunam brush. 

Cultivation.— It is an axiom in this province that 
the presence of Ichalu in a healthy condition is a 
sure indication of good land, and as a matter* of fact 
the species has never been known to succeed on bad 
land. ' A good depth of alluvial silt on a porous 
subsoil, is generally looked upon as the best medium 
for the successful cultivation of this industrial palm. 
The species is reproductive from seed, and the 
latter germinate freely under artificial treatment 
also. In forming groves, plant at 12 — 15 feet 
apart. 
596 PhcEnix dactylifera, Linn. Kan. Kurjopra, Khar- 

jura. 

References.— 5raw(^. Jor. Fl. 552. Diet: of Econ, 

Prod, oflnd. 

The Arabian date palm. A number of superior 

varieties and several bags of seeds were imported 

from the Persian Gulf districts in 1 885. Subsequent 

cultivation at the Lal-Bagh and a few provincial 

centres proved fairly satisfactory ; but the experience 

thus gained points to the probability that Mysore is 

too far removed from the date, zone to offer special 

facilities for more than an ornamental growth of 

this useful palm. The trees in the Botanical i&ardens 

have grown fairly well, and have been productive of 

offsets, but none of them have flowered. The 

species is established in North-West India, Sind, 

and is under cultivation at Saharanpur, Lucknow, 

Hyderabad, and other important centres. IJhder 

the most favourable conditions of growth, the date 

palm is a magnificent tree of 100 feet and upwards. 

It differs from the wild date tree in throwing put 

numerous offsets. 



MTSOEE AND OOOEG. 331 



597 Phoenix rupicola, T. Andees. 

A small but very elegant palm of Northern India. 
Cultivated in the Lal-Bagh. 

598 PhcBnix farinifera, Eoxb. Kan. Sanna ichalu. 
References .—^Z. of Brit. Ind. ; Bid. of Econ. 

Prod, of Ind. 

This almost stemless species is gregarious in many 
. parts of the province, especially towards the hills 
where it occupies large areas of Karab land and 
replaces the toddy palm. Leaves prickly. Eruit 
shining-black when ripe. The short stem or root- 
stock contains a farinacious pith which was fully 
described by Roxburgh, and is utilised in some 
; parts of India for food. The product seems to be 
unknown in Mysore. The leaves are occasionally 
used to thatch huts, and they afford excellent fuel 
for potteries. 

599 Corypha australis, R. Be. Australian fan-palm. 

600 Licuala spinosa, "Wtjemb. 

601 Livistona Mauritiana, Wall. Mauritius fan-palm. 

602 Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. African oil-palm. 

603 OreodOXa Regia, WiLLD. Royal palm of Cuba. 

604 Rhapis flabelliformis, Linn. Ground rattan. 
The above named are exotic palms of which fine 

. specimens will be seen in the Botanical Gardens at 
.iBangalore. 

605 Borassus flabellifer, Linn. ^ara. Tale. 
References.— Dicf. of Econ. Prod, of Ind.', 

Brand. For. Fl. 544. 

The palmyra ;tree of the plains of India, Burma, 
and Ceylon. It is a very characteristic feature of 
the eastern Tamil country, where groves and lines 
of trees are seen at intervals nearly all over the 
plains; and so important is it to the people that.a 
' Tamil poem is said to enumerate 800 uses to which 



332 FOREST TEEBS. 

tlie various parts of tlie tree are put. But except 
in a few localities in the warmer districts the tree is 
seldom met with in Mysore nor does it attain its 
normal size and utility above the Eastern Ghats. 

Trunk 60 — 70 feet, often swollen in the middle 
and carrying a rather small crown of rigidly-coria- 
ceous, fan -shaped leaves of variable size. In fine 
specimens the leaves are 8 — 10 feet in diameter, 
but usually much smaller when the tree is yielding 
economic products in quantity. The more promi- 
nent of the latter consist of gum, fibre, saccharine 
juice — convertible into vinegar, toddy, spirituous 
liquor, sugar, and medicinal products — fruit, seed, 
and timber. The palmyra palm requires tropical 
heat, and is reproductive from seed. 
606 COCOS nucifera, Linn, Kan. Tengu, Tengina mara. 

References-— Dici. of Econ. Prod, of hid.; 
Pharm. Ind. ; Fl. of Brit. Ind. 

The cocoa-nut palm. This valuable tree attains 
greatest perfection near the sea-shores of tropical 
countries, while in an insular position like that of 
Mysore, the cultivation is neither so extensive nor 
so productive as it usually is in maritime situations. 
There are, however, certain localities in the province 
where the extensive cultivation of the tree is a long 
established and highly profitable industry, the best 
known being Gubbi, Chiknayakanhalli, Honnali, 
and Turuvekere in.the Tumkur District; Barmasagar, 
Davangere, Budihal and Mattod in Chitaldroog, 
Harnhalli Taluk in Hassan, and Chaimapatna in the 
Bangalore District. Under the best cultivation, the 
tree begins to fruit in the sixth or seventh year, 
and on its attaining mature growth will yield '80— 
100 nuts annually. In Mysore, the tree is almost 
exclusively grown for its fruit, of which there are 
four established varieties described by Mr. Rice aa 
follows ; — 



MTSOBB AND COOEQ. 



333 



"1st red ; 2nd red mixd with green ; 3rd 
light green ; and 4th dark green. These varieties 
are permanent, but although the red is reckoned 
somewhat better than the others, they' are commonly 
sold promiscuously. Their produce is nearly the 
same." Some additional varieties have recently 
been introduced from Ceylon and constitute part of a 
new plantation which is being formed in the Palace 
Gardens at Bangalore. Good local topes are also 
found in the private gardens of Sir K. Sheshadri 
Iyer, and Mr. C. Meenachshaiya. Young trees are 
much infested by the rhinoceros beetle — Oryctes rhino- 
ceros — a flying insect that settles on the palm during 
the night, and bores large holes through the unopen- 
ed crown, or what is usually called the cabbage 
formation of the young palm, Careful hand- 
picking is the surest remedy for this pest, which is 
most destructive in young plantations, during the 
dry season. 

Cultivation.— Although the cocoa-nut palm is 
known to succeed best in a sandy soil near the sea, 
yet it is widely cultivated in many insular parts of 
Indiai up to an altitude of at least 3,000 feet. Deep 
garden land of a sandy nature, having perennial 
moisture at a few feet below the surface, answers 
fairly well, but much depends on the temperature 
and the amount of moisture contained in the air. 
When entirely removed from the influence of the 
sea-air, the tree requires additional care and is 
usually much improved by an occasional top-dressing 
of salt and other saline manures. Seedlings are 
easily raised in nurseries, where the ripe nuts are 
treated on the same principle as the betel-nut and 
palmyra. When 15 inches high, they should be 
transpla,nted into the field at 20 feet apart, although 
in rich blac]£ soil, the tree attains large proportions 
and is said to be most productive when planted at 



;^34 fOBxra Tfxia. 



25 or even 30 feet apart. On the Madras coast the trees 
usually stand at 10 — 15 feet from eact other. 

LXXIII. GRAMINEiE. 

607 Bambusaarundinacea, Eetz. Kan. Bidirn, Anio 

bidarus, Bidvmgulu? 

F'lg.—BoaA. cor. PI. i., t. 79. 
References.— i^Z. of Brit Ind. ; Pharm. Ind. ; 
Diet, of Econ. Prod, of Ind. 
The prickly bamboo of India. Although but a 
giant grass, this is one of the most valuable products 
of the forest. The bamboos of Mysore, in common 
with those of other parts of the empire, die off after 
seeding ; but, as a rule, the seed is self -productive 
and soon replaces the original clumps, it is also 
■widely distributed by birds and animals, It is not 
unusual during periods of abnormal drought, for 
whole plantations to die out; and in such cases the 
seed may be prematurely formed and therefore 
incapable of reproducing growth. " The Malnad 
-]3amboos are, noted for their size, but do not equal 
those that are kuQ'pva as ande hidarus in the Mysore 
, forests. " Atlas ofihe Mysore State. Several species 
,pf Ba/ifnbusa ore culti:s?ated in the Botanical Gardens, 
I tiut it is not known, how many are indigenous to the 
proivince. The so-called 'male bamboo ' isnotimcom- 
,mpnin some .pq,rts, but -as Dr. "Wq^tt has w^tte^. 
•* The tei-m 'male bamboo' may be eiaidto be applied 
to any ; solid bamboo used for spear or lance staves, 
. walldng-sticks, &c ; it is, however,, says the sapie 
authori<<y, " mpj^e particularly a^p^locable ,to .Den^rp- 
^cqiamu^-^^trictus. " The golden bamboo, (Bamb%a 
, mlgax^s) .pt^ltivated in . local gaxdens, is, an exotic 
species of .great bea^nty. , The, .cQjiimercJial (value,of 
several species pf Bamiusa is vrell known, , and it is 
-unnecessary to ; enuimerate th^ir various : , uses in , a 
-„ pocket w^uai, like " Tha Jlorgst Tjceeapf tMpare 



INDEX OP OEDEES, GENEEA, AND SPECIES. 



PAGE. 



A. 



Abroma augusta ... 37 

Acacia farnesiana ... 116 

arabica •- 117 

leucopblasa -•. 118 

suma •■■ 119 

catecliu ... 120 

sundra ... 121 

ferruginea .. 121 

Latronum .. 122 

concinna ... 122 

Acanthacese — 213 

Achras sapota ... 169 

Acrocarpus f raxinif olius ... 115 

Adansonia digitata ... 28 

Adenantbera pavonina . . 113 

Adina cordifolia ... 156 

^gle Marmelos 54 

„ Aglaia Roxburgbiana ... 64 

Ailantus excelsa ... 55 

malabarica ... 56 

Alangium Lamarckii ... 154 

Albizzia Lebbek ... 123 

odoratissima .. 124 

procera ... 125 

Jiilibrissin ... 126 

stipulata ... 125 

amara ... 126 

Aleurites inolucc.aTia ... 255 

Allamanda catbartica ... 189 

Allopbylus Cobbe .. 75 

Alpbonsea madraspatana.. 7 

Alseodapbue semecarpi- 

folia ... ... 230 

Alstonia scbolaris ... 183 

■venenatus .. 184 

Amoora Robituka ... 65 

Lawii ... 65 

Ampelidese ... 74 

Anacardiaceae ... 78 

Anaeardium occidentale.,, 81 



PAGK. 



Anda Gomesii 


... 264 


AnogeissTis latifolia 


.. 138 


aotiminata 


... 139 


Anonacese 


... 3 


AnoEa squamosa 


... 5 


reticulata 


... 6 


murif.ata 


... 7 



Antbocepbalus Cadamba., 155 

Antiaris toxioaria ... 293 

AutidesmaG-baesembilla.., 250 

Bunius ... 251 

ApocynaceBB ... 182 

Araliacese ... 153 

Araucaria Cookii ... 3l6 

Bidwillii ... 3l6 

excelsa ... 3l8 

Cunningbamii ... 3l8 

Ardisia humilis ... 169 

Areca Catecbu ... 324 

alba ... ... 326 

Arenga saccharifera .. 326 

Argyreia speciosa ... 200 

Artocarpus birsuta ... 294 

incisa ... 295 

integrifolia ... 296 

Lakoocba ... 298 

Oannoni ... 299 

Asclepiadese ... 190 

Asclepias curassavica ... 193 
Asteriastigma macrooarpa 13 

Atalautia monophylla ... 49 

racemosa ... 50 

Averrboa Carambola ... 45 

Bilimbi ,.. 46 

Azima tetracantba ,.. 181 

B 

Balanites Roxburgbii ,., 56 

Balogbia lucida ... 262 

Balsamodendron Mukiil... 59 

Berryi .„ 59 



TI INDEX OP OBtlSES, GENEBA, AND SPBOIBS. 



Bambusa arundinaoea .. 
Barleria Prionitis 
Barringtoaia speciosa •• 
Bassia lougifolia 

latifolia 

malabai'ica 
Bauhinia tomentosa 

acuminata 

Vahlii 

purpurea 

variegata 

monandra 

malabarica •• 

Hookerii 
Beaumontia grandiflora •• 
Berrya Ammonilla 

BignoniaeeEB 

Bignonia venusta 
Biscbofia Javanica 
Bixa Orellana 

Bixinese ... 

Bocagea DalzelJii 
Ecehmeria nivea 
Bombax malabarioum .. 

Boragineae 

Boi-assus flabellifer 
Boswellia serrata 

do var. glabra 
Boaigainvillea spectabilis, 
Brassaia actinophy]la 
Breynia rliamiioides 
Bridelia retusa 
Broussonetia papyriiera... 
Bucbanania latifolia 
Baddleia asiatica ... 

Burseracese 

Bursera serrata 
Butea froudosa 
Buxus sempervirens ... 



Cacteae ... 

Cadaba indica 
CBB.salpin.ia Bonducella 
Bouduc 



PiOE. 

'. 334 
. 213 
. 145 
. 171 
. 172 
. 173 
, 110 

111 
. Ill 
. Ill 

112 
. 112 
. 112 
. 112 
. 188 
. 39 
. 204 
. 206 
. 249 
. 10 
. 9 
. 8 
, 299 
. 28 
. 197 
, 331 
. 67 
. 58 
. 225 
. 154 
. 248 
, 243 
, 268 
, 81 
, 197 
, 57 
, 60 

91 
, 243 



152 

9 

99 

99 



PAGE. 

OiJBsalpinia Sappan ... 99 

pulcherrima ... 100 

sepiaria ... 100 

coriaria ... 101 

tinctoria ... 101 

Callicarpa lanata ... 220 

Calophyllum inopbyllnm.. 16 

Wigbtianum ... 17 

tomentosum ... 17 

Calotropis gigantea ... 192 

Calycopteris floribunda ... 140 

Canarium strictum ... 60 

Cannabis sativa ... 267 

Oanthium didynum ... 162 

umbellatum ... • 162 

parviflorum ... 163 

Capparideae ... 8 

Careya arboroa ... 145 

Carica Papaya ... 151 

Carissa Carandas ... 182 

Caryota urens ... 326 

Cassia Fistula ... 103 

marginata ... 104 

oocidentalis .. l04 

sopbera ... 105 

auriculata ... 105 

siamea . . . 106 

glauca ... 106 

Castanospermum australe 129 

Castilloa elastica ... 300 

Casuarinese ... -300 

Casuarina equisetifolia .. 300 

Catalpa speciosa ... 213 

Cedrela Toona ... 68 

Celastrineae .. 71 

Celastrus paniculata ... 71 

Celtis Wightii ... 265 

Ceratonia siliqua ... 130 

Cerbera Odollam ... 182 

Chickrassia tabularis .. 67 

dhloroxylon swietenia ... 69 

Obrysopbyllum Cainito .. 170 

Cinchona succirubra ... 167 
Cinnamomum zeylanicum. 228 

ineis ... 229 



INDEX OP OEDERS, GENERA, AND SPECIES. 



lU 



PAGE. 

Cinnamomum macrocar- 

pum ... 229 

nitidutn ... 230 

Cipadessa fruticosa .. 64 

Citharexylum surrectum, 225 

Citrnsmedica ... 60 

do var. Limonum ... 61 

do var. aoida ... 51 

do var. Limetta ... 62 

Aurantium ... ,52 

decumana ... 53 

Clausena Wampi ... 48 

indica ... 48 

Willdenovii ... 48 

Cleistanthus colliims ... 247 

Clerodendron inerme .. 224 

Coclilospermiim Gossypium 9 

Gocos nucifera ... 332 

Ooffea arabica ... 165 

Cola, acuminata ... 39 

Colvillea racemosa ... 130 

Combretacese ... 132 

Compositas ... 168 

ConiferaB .. ... 314 

ConvolvulaceaB ... 200 

CordiaMyxa ... 197 

obliqua ... 198 

Rotbii ... 198 

Cornaceae ... 154 

ComuB macrophylla ... 155 

Corypha australis ... 331 

Couroupita guianensis ... 146 

CratsBva religiosa ... 8 

Crescentia cujete ... 213 

Croton Tiglium ... 256 

oblongifolius ... 256 

Cryptostegiagrandiflora... 191 

CupresSTis torulosa ... 314 

Fanebris .. 314 

sempervirens ... 314 

Cnscuta reflexa ... 202 

Cycadaceae ... 32o 

Cycas ciccjnalis ... 320 



PAGE 

D. 

Dsemia extensa ... 193 

Dalbergia Sissoo ... 92 

latifolia ... 93 

rubiginpsa ... 94 

sympathetica ... 94 

lanceolaria ...' 94 

paniculata ... "95 

Dammara robusta ... 316 

Australis ... 315 

Datura stramonium ... 203 

fastuosa ... '203 

Metel ... 203 

Debregeasia velutina ... 299 

Deoascbistia trilobata ... 25 

Dicbopsis elliptica ... 170 

Dicbrostacbys cinerea ... 114 

Dilleniaceae ... l 

Dillenia indica „ 1 

bracteata ... 1 

pentagyna ... 2 

Diospyros montana ... 176 

Embryopteris ... 176 

Ebenum ... 177 

microphylla ... 177 

Tupru ... 178 

melanoxylon .. 178 

Kaki ... 178 

Dipterocarpeae ... 20 

Dipterocarpus turbinatus. 20 

Dodonaea viscosa ... 77 

Dolicbaudrone falcata ,. 206 

Duranta Ellisia ... 224 

Dario Zibetbiniis ... 31 

E. 

Ebenaceae ... 175 

Babolium Linneanum ... 213 

Ebretia Isevis .,, 199 

Wigbtiana ... 199 

buxifolia ,. 199 

Elaeagnaceae ." 233 

Elseagnus latifolia ... 233 

Elaais guiaeensia .„ 331 



IV INDTIX 0]? OBBEBS, GENERA, AND SPECIES. 



PAGE. 



Elseocarpus serratus 


42 


oblongus 


42 


tnterculatus 


43 


rugosus 


44 


ferrugineas 


44 


ElsBodendron giaucum ... 


71 


Bmbelia robusta 


168 


Erinocarpus Nimmoanus... 


42 


Eriobotrya japonica 


131 


Eriodendron anfractuosum 


30 


Eriolaena CandoUei 


36 


Erytbrina indica 


89 


stricta 


90 


ovalifolia 


90 


snberosa 


91 


glauca 


91 


Erytbroxylon monogynum 


44 


coca 


44 


Eucalyptus marginata ... 


140 


rostrata 


140 


citriodora 


140 


Eugenia malaocensis 


142 


jambos 


142 


hemispherica 


142 


Iseta 


142 


myrtifolia 


143 


zeylanica 


143 


operculata 


143 


jambolana 


143 


floccosa 


145 


Heyneana 


145 


EuphorbiacesB 


242 


Euphorbia Tirucalli 


242 


neriifolia 


243 


antiquorum 


243 


Ev(jlvTilus alsinoides 


201 


Excsecaria robusta 


262 


crenulata 


262 



PAGE. 



Pagrsea obovata ... 195 
Feronia Elephantum ... 54 
Ficus gibbosa, var. para- 
sitica ... 270 



Ficus DalbousisB 


270 


, Bengalensis 


271 


mysoreusis 


272 


tomentosa 


274 


indica 


274 


Benjamina 


275 


elastica 


276 


Trimeni 


279 


rettisa - 


279 


Talboti 


280 


nervosa 


280 


Rumphii 


281 


religiosa 


281 


Tjakela 


284 


Tsiela... 


284 


inf ectoria 


285 


asperrima 


286 


pumila 


286 


hispida. 


287 


RoxburgMi^ 


288 


glomerata 


289 


macropbylla 


290 


Cuuninghami 


291 


Carica 


291 


Filicium decipiens 


. 61 


Flacourtia sepiaria 


. 11 


Flueggia microcarpa 


247 


Leucopyrus 


. 248 


Prenela Gunnii 


. 316 


G 




Garcinia Cambogia 


13 


Morella 


14 


Xantbochymus 


14 


Gardenia lucida 


161 


gnmmifera 


161 


latifolia „ 


162 


Garuga pinnata 


59 


Gelonium lanceolatum .. 


260 


Geraniaceae 


45 


Gironniera reticulata 


2()6 


Givotia rottleriformis 


257 


Glochidion neilgberrense , 


247 


zeylanicum 


2i7 



INDEX OF ORDERS, G{!NERA, AND SPECIES. 



PAGE. 

Glycosmis pentaphylla ... 47 
Gmelina arborea ••• 221 

Gossypium arboreum ... 28 

Graminese — 334 

Grevillea robusta .- 232 

Grewia tiliaefolia ..■ 40 

oppositifolia .-■' 41 

asiatica ••• 41 

Isevigata •■• 41 

columnaris ••■ 42 

Guaiacum officinale ... 45 

Guazuma tomentosa ... 38 

Guttiferse •■• 13 

Gymnema sylvestre ... 194 
Gvmnosporia montana ... 71 
Gynocardia odorata ,.. 11 

H. 

Hsematoxylon campechi- 

amim ••• 

Hamelia patens 
Hardwiokia binata 

pinnata 
Helicia robusta 
Helicteres Isora 
Hemicyclia venusta 

elata- 
Hemidesmns indicus 
Hemigyrosa deficiens 
Heptapleurum vemilosum 
Heritiera littoralis 
Hernandia bivalvis 

sonora 
Herpestis Monniera 
Heteropbragma adeno- 

pbyllum 
Hevea braziliensis 

Spruoeana 
Heynea trijuga 
Hibiscus rosa-3inensis . . 

Abelmoschus 

eacnlentus 

Sabdarifia 

tiliaceus 



PAGE. 

Hibiscus cannabinus .. 26 

Hiptage Madablota' ... 45 
Holarrliena antidysen- 

terica ... 184 

Holigarna Arnottiana ... 84 

ferruginea ... 84 

longifolia — 84 

Holoptelia integrifolia ... 264 

Hopea parviflora ... 23 

Wigiitiana ... 24 

Hura crepitans ... 262 

Hydnocarpiis Wightiana... 12 

alpina ... 12 

Hymenodictyon excelsum. 158 

obovatum ... 159 



130 
167 
107 
108 
231 

35 
249 
249 
190 

75 
153 

34 
231 
231 
204 

208 

262 

264 

65 

26 

26 

26 

26 

, 26 



Ichnocarpus frutescens ... 189 

Ipomsea Turpethum ... 200 

hederacea ... 200 

muricata ... 201 

digitata ... 201 

biloba ... 201 

Ixora parviflora ... 163 

ooocinea ... 164 



Jasminum sambac ... 179 

Jatropba glandulifera ... 251 

curcas ... 252 

multifida ... 253 

Jnssisea suffruticosa ... 151 

•Justicia gendarussa ... 213 

K. 

Kigali a pinnata ... 213 

Kleinhovia Hospita ... 35 

Kopsia fruticosa ... 183 

Kydia calycina ... 28 



Lagerstroemia indica ... 148 
parviflora ... 148 



VI 



INDEX OP ORDERS, GENERA, AND SPECIES. 



Lagerstroemia lanceolata,, 

Plos-Reginse 
Lagunaria Patersoni 
Landolphia Kirkii 
Lantana indica 

camai'a 

LauriiiesB 

Lawsonia alba 

Leguminosse 

Lettsomia sp- 
LeucEena glauca 
Licuala spinosa 
Ligustrum robustum 

Eoxburgbii 
Limonia acidissima 

LinesB 

Linociera malabarica 
Litsaea Wightiana 
Livistona Mauritiana 

Loganiacese 
Loranthacese 

LoraDtbus longifloms 

LythracesB 

M. 

Maba nigrescens 
Macadamia temifolia ... 
Macaranga indica 

Roxbarghii 
Macbilns macrantba 
Msesa indica 

Magnoliacese 

Magnolia gran4.iflora 
Malacbra oapitata 
Mallotus pbilippinensis ... 

Malpighiaceaa 
MalvacesB 

Mangifera indica 
Manihot Glaziovii 
utilissima 

MelastomacesB 
Meliacese 

Melia Azadiracbta 
Azedaracb .„ 



PACK, 

.. 148 
.. 149 
,. 31 
. 190 
,. 214 
,. 214 
. 228 
. 147 
. 88 
. 200 
. 115 
. 331 
. 180 
. 180 
. 49 
, 44 
. 180 
. 230 
. 331 
, 195 
, 233 
, 233 
. 147 



175 

231 

259 

259 

230 

168 

2 

3 

25 

268 

45 

25 

'78 

253 

255 

146 

61 

61 

63 i 



Melia dubia 
Mcliosma Wigbtii 

Arnottiana 
Melocbia velutina 
Memecylon ednle 
Mesua ferrea 
Miclielia Ohampaca 

nilagirica 
Millingtonia hortensis 
Mimusops Elengi 

bexandra 
Morinda citrifolia var. 

bracteata 

MoringesB 

Moringa pterygosperma , 

concanensis 
Morus indica 
Murraya exotica 

Kcenigii 
Mnsa superba 

sapientum , 

textilis 
Musssenda frondosa 

Myristiceae 

Myristica fragrans 
laurifolia 
malabarica 
magnifica 
Parqnbariana 

Myrsineae... 
Myrtacess .. 



N. 

Nephelium Litcbi 

Longana ... 

Nerinm odorum 
Nicotiana Tabacnm ... 
Noronhia emarginati ... 

NyctagineaB 

Nyctantlies arbor-bristis.^ 



Ochnacese 

Ocbna sqoarrosa 



PAGE. 

64 

.. 78 

: 78 

• 37 

• 146 

■ 18 

• 2 

• 3 
- 204 
. 173 
. 174 

, 166 
. 86 
. 86 
. 87 
. 269 
, 47 

■ 47 
320 
321 
323 
159 
226 
226 
226 
227 
227 
228 
168 
140 



77 
77 
187 
203 
181 
225 
179 



57 
67 



INDEX OF OEDEES, GENERA, AND SPBdiBS. Vli 





PAGE. 


PASE. 


Ochrocarpiis longifolius 


5... 15 


Prosopis spicigera 


114 


Odina wodier 


... 82 


Proteaceae.. 


231 


Olacineae •• 


... 70 


Protium caudatum 


59 


Olax scandens 


... 70 


pubescens 


60 


Olea glandulifera 


... 180 


Pi-unus Persica 


132 


Oleaceae ... 


... 179 


communis 


132 


Onagraceae 


... m 


Psidium guyava 


140 


Opuntia Dillenii 


... 162 


Pterocarpus santalinus ... 


95 


Oreodosa Eegia 


... 331 


Marsnpium 


97 


Oroxylum indicum 


.. 205 


Pterolobiura indicum 


101 


Ostodes zeylanica 


... 257 


Pterospermum suberif- 




Oxystelma esculentum 


... 192 


olium ... 


36 






Heyneannm 


36 


P. 




glabrescens 


36 






obtusifolium 


36 


Palmacese 


... 324 


Punica granatum 


150 


Parkia biglandulosa 


... 115 


Putranjiva Roxburgiii ... 


248 


Parkinsonia aouleata 


... 103 


Pyrus Mains „. 


132 


Passifloreae 


... 151 


communis 


132 


Pavetta indica 


... 165 






Peltophorum ferruginenin 101 


R. 




Persea gratissima 


... 231 






PhcEnix sylvesitris 


... 328 


Randia dumetorum 


160 


dactylifera 


... 330 


nliginosa 


161 


riipicola 


... 331 


Ravenala madagascari- 




farinifera 


... 331 


ensis 


324. 


Phyllanthus Emblica 


,.. 244 


Rhamneae 


72 


distichus 


... 246 


Rbapis flabelliformis 


331 


indie us 


... 246 


RMnacanthus communis . 


213 


Pisonia alba 


... 226 


Ricinns conimunis. 


260 


Pitbecolobium dulce 


... 126 


Rosaceae ... 


131 


bigeminum 


... 127 


RubiaceaB 


165 


saman 


. 128 


Rubia cordifolia 


167 


Plnmeria aoutifolia 


... 183 


Rutaceae ... 


46 


Podocarpus latifolia 


... 315 






Poeciloneuron indicum 


... 19 


s. 




pauciiloriim ' 


20 






Poinciana elata 


... 102 


Sabiaceae... 


78 


Regia 


... 102 


Saccopefcalum tomentosum 


I 7 


Polyalthia longifolia 


... 3 


Salicineae ... 

Salix tetrasperma 


313 


cofEeoides 


. 4 


313 


fragrans 


... 4 


babylonica 


313 


cerasoides 


... 5 


Salvadoracese 


181 


Pongamia glabra , 


... 98 


Samadera indica 


66 


Premna tomentosa 


.. 220 


Santalacese ' 


234 



VIII INDEX OF OEDEES, GENERA, AND SPECIES. 





PAGE. 


~ A :: 


PAGE 


Santalum album 


234 


Sterculia fcetida 


.. 31 


Sapindacese 


75 


iirens 


... 32 


Sapindus trifoliatus 


76 


villosa 


... 32 


Sapium sebiferum 


261 


guttata 


... 33 


discolor 


262 


Balangbas 


... 33 


SapotaceBB 


■169 


alata 


... 34 


Saraca iiidica 


108 


populifoHa 


... 34 


Saroooephalus cordatas ... 


155 


aoerifolia ' 


... 34 


Sarcostemtna brevistigma. 


194 


Stereospermnm suaveolena 208 


Scbinus Molle 


86 


cbelonoides 


210 


Schleicliera trijuga 


75 


xylocarpum 


211 


Scbrebera swietenioides... 


180 


species 


... 213 


Scitaminese 


320 


Sti'eblus asper 


. 267 


Scleropyrum Wallioliia- 




Strycbnos Nui- vomica 


._ 195 


num 


242 


potatorum 


... 196 


Soolopia crenata 


10 


Styraceae... 


... 179 


Scrophularineae — 


204 


Swietenia Mabagoni 


... 70 


ScTitia indica 


74 


T, 




Secamone emetica 


192 




Semecarpns Anacardium . 


83 


TabernsBmontana corona- 


var. cuneifolia 


84 


ria 


... 185 


Sesbania segyptiaca 


88 


Tamarindus indica 


... 109 


aculeata 


88 


TamariscinesB 


... 13 


grandiflora 


88 


Tamarix gallica 


... 13 


Sborea Talura 


21 


Tecoma stans 


... 206 


robusta 


23 


Teotona grandis 


... 215 


Tumbuggaia 


23 


Hamiltoniana 


.. 220 


Sideroxylon inerme 


170 


Terminalia Catappa 


... 132 


Simarubese 


55 


belerica 


... 133 






cbebula 


. . 134 


Solanacese 


202 


citrina 


..'. 135 


Solanum arborenm 


202 


Arjuna 


... 135 


indicum 


202 


tomentosa 


... 136 


nigriiTn 


202 


paniculata 


... 138 


xanthocarpum 


202 


Theobroma cacao 


... 39 


trilobatum 


202 


ThespeSia populnea 


... 27 


Terbascifoliirm 


. 202 


Tbevetia neriifolia 


... 189 


torvTini 


202 


Thuja orientalis 


... 319 


ferox 


202 


Tiliacese 


... 39 


Soymida febrifuga • .. 


66 


Toddalia aculeata 


... 47 


Spatbodea campanulata.. 


207 


Trema orientalis 


... 265 


Spondias mangifera 


85 


Trewia nudiflora 


... 257 


acuminata 


86 


Tripbasia trifoliata 


... 49 


Stephegyne parvifolia .. 


157 


Tristana couferta 


... 140 


Sterculiacese 


31 


Tylophora astbmatica 


.. 195 



INDEX Oi? OEDBBS, GfiNEBA, AND SPECIES. IX 



u. 



Urena lobata 
sinuata 

Urticaceae 



Vallaris Heynei 
Vangueria ediilis 
Vateria indica 
Vatica Roxburghiana . 
Ventilago madraspataaa. 
Verbascum Tbapsus 

Verbenaceae 

Vemonia arborea 
Villebrunea integrifolia., 
Vitex Negundo 

altissima 

alata . 

Vitis vinifera 



PAGE. 



25 

25 
264 



186 
163 

24 

21 

72 

204 

214 

168 

299 

222 

223 

224 

74 



PAGE. 

w. 

Walsura pisoidia ... 65 

Webera corymbosa ... 160 
"Wendlandia Notoniana ... 159 

Lawii ,„ 159 

Withania somnifera ... 203 

Wrightia tiaet'oria ... 186 

tomentosa .„ 187 

X 

Ximenia americana ... 70 
Xylia dolabriformis ... 113 



Zantboxylon Ehetsa ... 46 

Zizyphus Jujuba ... 72 

nummularia ... 73 

xylopyrus ... 73 

rugosa ... 74, 

Zygophylleae .'.'.* 45 



INDEX OF POPULAR AND COMMERCIAL NAMES. 



A. 

African rubber 
Alexandrian laurel 
Algaroba 
Alligator pear 
American sumach 
Apple tree 
Arabian coffee plant 

date palm 
Arbor vit» 
Areca-nut palm 
Arnatto 
Avocado pear 

B. 

Babool 

Bael-fruit tree 
Bamboo 
Banana tree 
Banyan tree 
Baobab tree 
Barbadoes pride 
Bastard cedar 

sandal tree 

nutmeg tree 

oleaster 
Bead tree 
Bedellium, Indian 
Beech, tree, Indian 
Beef-wood tre^ 
Beleric myrobalan 
Belganm walnut tree 
Betel-nut palm 
Bhere-fruit tree ' 
Blackwood tree 
Black wattle 

Til vvobalan tree 

plum tree of India 
Boj; tree 



Page. 



190 
16 
130 
231 
101 
132 
165 
330 
320 
324 
10 
231 



117 

54 

334 

321 

271 

28 

100 

38 

44 

226 

233 

63 

59 

98 

301 

133 

255 

324 

72 

93 

123 

. 135 

. 143 

, 2il3 



Bread-fruit tree 
Bullock's heart 
Bunya Bunya tree 

C. 

Caledonian pine 
Camel's foot tree 
Candleberry tree 
Cannon ball tree 
Carob-bean tree 
Cashew-nut tree 

apple tree 
Cassava 
Castor-oil plant 
Ceara rubber tree 
Ceylon oak 
Charcoal tree 
Chaste tree 
Chaulmugra 
Chebulic 
China box 
Chinese Persimmon 

tallow tree 
Chittagong wood tree 
Chocolate tree 
Cinnamon tree 
Citron tree 
Clearing-nut tree 
Cocaine 
Cocoa tree 
Cocoa-nut palm 
Columnar cypress 
Conessi bark 
Coral tree, Indian 

shrub 
Cork tree, Indian 
Country fig tree 
Cuba bark 
CuiTy-leaf tree 
Cnstard-apple tree 



Page. 

... 295 
... 6 
... 316 



316 
112 
255 
146 
130 
81 
81 
255 
260 
253 
75 
266 
222 
11 
135 
47 
178 
261 
, 67 
, 39 
229 
. 50 
196 
. 4S 
32 
. 332 
. 314 
. 185 
. 89 
. 253 
. 204 
. 289 
. 26 
. 48 
,. 6 



INDEX OP POPTILAE AND COMMERCIAL NAMES. 



XI 



Page. 
D. 

Dammar tree ... 24 

the black ... 60 

Date-sugar palm ... 328 

Dhak tree ..91 

Dhupa candle tree ... 24 

Divi-Divi ..= 101 

Dodder ... 202 

Drumstick-tree ... 86 

Durian tree ... 31 

E. 



Ebony tree 


... 177 


Edible fig 


... 292 


Elephant-apple tree 


... 64 


creeper 


.. 200 


Emblic myrobalan tree 


.. 244 


Erool tree 


... 113 


Exile tree 


... 189 



F. 

Fan-palm 
Fever-nut tree 
Fiddle wood 
Flame of the Forest 
Flower fence 
Forbidden-fruit 

G. 

Gamboge tree 
Giant swallow-wort 
Goats-foot creeper 
Goldmohur tree 
Gooseberry tree, Indian. 
Grape vine 
Ground-rattan palm 
Guava tree 
Gum tree 



H. 



331 
99 
225 
164 
100 
53 



14 
192 
201 
102- 
245 

74 
331 
141 
140 



Hemp plant 
Henna shrub 



... 267 
... 147 



Page. 



Hill plantain tree 


■ at 


320 


toddy palm 


... 


326 


Hog-plum tree 


• •> 


85 


Horse-radish tree 


.*• 


86 


Horse-tail parasite 

I. 
India rubber tree 


• •V 


202 




^76 


Indian raspberry 


• >• 


132 


almond tree 


• •• 


132 


madder 


... 


167 


gutta tree 


■ ■• 


170 


privet 


.■• 


180 


sarsaparilla 


... 


190 


jalap 


('•« 


200 


walnut tree 


... 


255 


Iron wood tree 


• .• 


18 


Iron wood 19, 
J. 

Jack-fruit tree 


170, 


223 


• •■ 


296 


Jamoon tree 


■ •« 


144 


Japanese medlar 


• ■• 


131 


Jarrah 


99 1 


140 


Jasmine 


• •• 


179 


Java-fig tree 


«>■ 


275 


Jews thorn 




103 


Jungle geranium 


• • 


164 


K. 






Kamala dye tree 


• ■• 


258 


Kapok tree of Java 


• •• 


30 


Kauri pine 


• •• 


315 


Kino tree, Pulas 


• •• 


91 


Indian 


• •• 


97 


Kola-nut tree 




39 


L. 






Laburnum, Indi- 






Lac tree 






insect 






Lalo tree 







XII 



INDEX OF POPTJLJl* AND COMMETtCTAl >'A¥ES. 



Page, 

Lemon tree ••• 51 

Lettuce tree — 226 

Liberian coffee ••• 166 

Lignum Vitse tree ... 45 

Lime tree, the wild ..• 49 

the sour ... 61 

the sweet ... 52 

Litchi tree ... 77 

Locust tree ... 130 

Logan tree ... 77 
Log-wood tree, American 130 

Loquat tree ... 131 

M. 



Macassar oil tree 

Madar floss 

Mahogany tree 

Mahwa tree 171, 

Man dice 

Mango tree 

Manioc 

Manilla-tamarind tree ... 

hemp tree 
Margosa tree 
Marking-nut tree 
Mascarene tree 
Mast tree 
Mesquit bean tree 
Milk-wood tree 

hedge 

bush 



76 
192 

70 
172 
255 

79 
255 
127 
.323 

61 

83 
103 
4 
114 
187 
242 
242 



Moreton Bay chesnut tree 129 

fig tree ... 290 

pine ,. 318 

Moiringaoi] tree ... 87 

Morning glory ... 200 

Moulmein cedar ... 68 

Mowa tree 171, 172 

Mudar ... 192 

Mulberry tree, Indian ... 269 

Mullein ... 204 

Monjeet . ... 167 

Mysore thorn ,.. 100 

toddy palm ... 328 



Page. 



N. 



Naseben-y tree 


169 


ISTeem tree 


61 


Nicker tree 


99 


Night-flowering Jasmine.. 


179 


Norfolk Island pine 


318 


Nutmeg tree 


226 


0. 




Oil of Ben 


87 


Oil palm, African 


3S1 


Oleander 


187 


yellow 


189 


Olibanum 


58 


Olive tree 


180 


Orange tree 


52 


P. 




Pagoda tree 


183 


Pala indigo 


187 


Palmyra tree 


331 


Papaw tree 


152 


Paper-mulberry tree 


268 


Pai'a rubber tree 


262 


Paradise apple 


53 


Pauchotee 


170 


Peach tree 


132 


Pear tree 


132 


Peepul tree 


282 


Pepper tree, bastard 


86 


Persian lilac 


63 


Physic-nut tree 


252 


Piney varnish 


24 


Pink cedar 


116 


Plantain tree 


322 


Plum tree 


132 


Poison-nut tree 196, 


252 


Pomegranate tree 


150 


Pompelmos 


53 


Poon-spar tree 


17 


Portia tree 


27 


Potato tree 


202 


Prickly pear 


152 


Pride of India 


149 


Priest tree 


209 



INDEX OF POPULAR AND COMMERCTAL NAMES 



xm 



Page. 



Pumelo tree 


... 63 


Parging-nut tree 


... 252 


Q- 




Queensland box 


... 140 


nut tree 


... 231 


R. 




Rain tree 


38, 128 


Raiyat's tree 


... 124 


Red cedar 


44, 116 


bastard 


... 66 


Sanders tree 


... 95 


sandalwood tree 


... 95 


bark 


... 167 


hiead 


... 193 


Redwood tree 


... 113 


Rhea fibre shrub 


... 299 


Rosewood tree 


- 93 


Rose-apple tree 


- 142 


Rubber tree, Cen, Ameri- 


can 


... 300 


S. 




Sack tree 


... 293 


Sago palm 


... 326 


bastard 


326 


Sal tree 


... 23 


Sandalwood tree 


... 234 


Sandbox tree 


... 262 


Sandpaper tree 


... 286 


Sapodilla tree 


... 169 


Sappan-wood tree 


... 100 


Satin-wood tree, Indian... 69 


Saul tree 


... 23 


Screw tree 


... 35 


Sebesten 


... 197 


Shaddock 


... 53 


Shingle tree 


... 116 


Shoe-flower 


... 26 


Silk-cotton tree, yellow 


- 


flowered 


... 9 


red-flowered 


... 29 


white-flowered 


... 30 



Silky oak tree 
Silver oak 
Siris tree 
Soap-nut tree 
Sour-sop 

Star-apple tree , 
gooseberry tree 
St. John's bread 
Sugar palm 
Swamp oak tree 
Sweet-sop 

T. 
Tamarind tree 
Tanner's bark 
Tapioca 

Tasmanian pine 
Teak tree 
Thorn apple 
Tinian pine 
Tobacco plant 
Torch tree 
Traveller's tree 
Trincomalee wood 
Turpentiue, Venice 
Turpetti root 

U. 

Upas tree 
Upright cypress 
Utrasum beads 

W. 
Weeping willow tree 

cypress, Chinese 
West Indian cedar 
White cedar, bastard 
Wild Oinchona 

Ipecacuanha 

jack tree 

date palm 
Willow tree, Indian 
Wood-oil tree 

apple 

Y. 

Yellow tea-k... 



Pagb.' 

... 232 
.. 232 
... 123 
... 76 
.o. 7 
>.. 170 
... 246 
... 130 
... 326 
... 300 
... 5 

... 109 

... 105 

... 265 

... 316 

... 215 

... 203 

... 300 

... 203 

.. 164 

... 324 

..• 40 

... 56 

... 200 

... 293 
... 314 

... 43 

... .313 
... 314 
... 69 
66, 68 
... 156 
... 193 
... 294 
... 328 
... 313 
... 20 
... 54 

... 157 



INDEX OF VERNACULAR NAMES IN ENGLISH 
CHARACTERS. 



A. 

Abalu 

Abtlu 

Achenge 

Adambu balli 

Adaraganchi hambu 

Adavi 

Adavi nimbe 

goranti 

lavangapatta 
Addasarpa 
Adicay japle 
Adike mara 
Adumuttada gida 
Adusoge 
Agase 

Ajjanapatte 
Ala 

Alada mara 
Alale 
Alalee 
Amate 
Amba 
Amra 

Ande bidarus 
Angarakana gida 
Anji 
Anjur 
Ankalige 
Ankole 
Ansaroli 
Antawala 
Aradala 
Arale 

Arali mara 
Arebevu 
Arisina buruga 



PAGE. 


- 


PAGE. 




Artala 


\. 76 


... 162 


Asana 


... 243 


... 162 


Asanagurgi 


... 107 


... 108 


Asha 


... 27 


... 201 


Ashoka 


... 108 


... 45 


Asoka 


... 108 


... 42 


Aswatha mara 


... 281 


... 49 


Atti 


... 289 


... 44 


Avak 


... 199 


... 229 


Avara 


... 105 


... 184 


Avarike 


... 105 


... 10 






... 324 


B. 




, 195 






213 


Babbe 


... 17 


88 


Bachanige 


156,221 


293 


Bada bakka 


... 101 


■■ 271 


Badami 


... 132 


271 


Badanike 


... 233 


Z 134 


Baga dhup 


... 56 


... 134 


Bagani 


... 326 


... 85 


Bage 


... 123 


.. 78 


Bagi 


123 


85 


Bale 


... 177 


■" 334 


Balage 


... 59 


■■■ 47 


Bale 


... 321 


28 


Balkanika 


... 175 


"■ 291 


Ballagi 


19,20 


"■ 154 


Ballangi 


... 19 


154 


Banavara 


... 247 


::: 154 


Bandare 


... 77 


76 

• • 


Baodaru 


... 158 


13 


Bandri 


.. 77 


!!.' 134 


Bandrike 


.. 77 


... 281 


Bangi gida 


267 


... 63 


Baimi 


... 121 


... 9 


Bapana musbti 


... 70 


... 156 


Beala 


... 118 



INDEX 0^ V^RHrACULAE NAMBS. 



XV 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Beetee 


... 93 


Bilkunika 


... 175 


Be-jalii 


... 138 


Bilpatre 


... 54 


Bel 


... 64' 


Bilpatri 


... 54 


Belada 


... 54 


Bilvara 


... 124 


Belal 


... 54 


Bilvapatre 


... 54 


Belandi 


... 68 


Bilwara 


... 124 


Belangi 


... 115 


Bindi 


... 92 


Bellaka 


... 28 


Biratu 


... 204 


Betide 


,26, 28 


Biridi 


... 92 


nam mara 


.'.. 28 


Bite 


... 93 


Bendu mara 


... 265 


Biti 


... 93 


Benduga 


... 242 


Bobbe 


... 17 


Beppale 


... 186 


Bodadaraga 


... 247 


Beratu 


... 204 


Bodina 


•■• 169 


Bet kauagal 


... 1 


Bogi 


— 23 


Betta kanagal 


... 1 


Boklii 


— 173 


mavu 


... 59 


Bolnndur 


... 148 


haralu 


... 252 


Bonta kalli 


242, 243 


arali 


... 281 
... 281 
... 320 


Boorga 


... 28 


ragi 


Bugadi 


... 186 


bale 


Buja^gumbala 


... 201 


Bettada kanagal 


... 1 


Buraga 


... 28 


bevu 


... 64 


Burga 


28, 30 


kamagaggare 


„ 159 


Butale 


... 41 


Bevu 


... 61 


Byree 


... 326 


jBhatala 


... 31 






Uhumicliekri gadde 


... 201 


C 




Bibla 


... 97 


Ohadle 


... 198 


Bidiru 


... 334 


Chakota 


... 75 


Bidungulu 


... 334 


Ohakotre 


... 53 


Bikk-e 


... 161 


Challa 


... 149 


Bill burga 


... 30 


Challani 


... 20 


barln 


... 30 


Challe 


73, 197 


dale mara 


... 32 


Obandra hittu 


... 258 


kanohivala 


... 112 


Ohannangi 


... 148 


Jali 


... 118 


Ohaulmugra 


... 11 


matti 


... 13$ 


Obella 


149, 197 


bbnthala 


... 153 


Ohendala 


... 75 


wnppi 


... 181 


Obeninge 


... 148 


ummatti 


... 203 


Chenthakanni 


... 269 


suli 


... 247 


Cbepe 


... 140 


basuri 


... 284 


Cbiknl 


... 125 


Bill tigadu 


... 200 


Ghiok bevu 


.. 63 


Bilirara 


... 124 


Cbilkada 


... 58 


Bilkambi 


... 126 


CMIku 


•.. £8 



XVI 



INDEX OF VBENACULAK NAMBS. 



PAGE. 



Chill 


... 196 


CMlla 


... 196 


Chillu 


... 196 


Chittumbe 


.. 68 


Chittundi 


... 64 


Chittutandri 


... 230 


Chotte 


... 197 


Cliiigalu 


... 126 


Cige 


... 122 


Cishmabage 


... 92 


Coolee 


... 221 


Cowdeyal 


' ... 155 


Cuddaru 


... 157 


Cuddu-lavanga 


... 229 


D. 




Dal mara 


... 67 


DalchiBi 


228, 229 


Dalimbe 


... 150 


Dalimbare 


... 150 


Dandla 


... 43 


Dasala 


... 26 


Devadaru 


... 44 


Devadarnm 


... 44 


Devalgarige 


... 14 


Deva ganagalu 


... 183 


Dhupa 


... 24 


Dikkemalli 


... 161 


Dindal 


... 138 


Dindiga 


... 138 


Dindln 


... 138 


Divarige 


... 14 


Dodda japalu 


... 10 


solti 


... 13 


mara 


... 55 


tagaci 


... 104 


challu 


... 198 


patike gida 


... 213 


Doxm-muUina-j ali 


. 122 


Drakslii 


... 74 


Dugidika 


... 192 

... 179 


Dundu mallige 


Dnpa 


... 24 
... 6 


Doranji 



G. 



Gabbucbekke 

Gaja nimbe 

Gajjiga 

Ganagalu 

Gandagarige 

Gandha 

Gargatti 

GaTTida 

GavTildii 

Gergnttee 

Geru 

Geru poppu 

Ghansing 

Gilke mara 

Ginntmu 

GobU 

Gobra nairul 

Goddana 

Goddu geru 

m.itli mara 

icbalu 
Gogal 

Gogul dhup 
Goje 

Goni mata 
Google 
Goorcul 
Goranti 
Gorautlu 
Gorati 
Goratige 
Gorivi 
Gorklu 
Gonju 
Govamellu 
Gfnga 
Gulla 

Gundn mallige 
Gurige 
Guroda 
GiYorgio 



PAGB. 



266 

52 

99 

187 

68 

234 

286 

67 

145 

286 

83 

81 

211 

274 

195 

117 

249 

59 

84 

270 

320 

82 

56 

243 

272 

24 

265 

147 

147 

213 

213 

163 

265 

145 

249 

20 

202 

179 

243 

47 

243 



IMDEX OF VEENAOULAE BfllTES. 



XVII 



H. 

Hadaga 


PAGB. 




PAGE. 


.. 155 


Hombage 


... 128 


Haiga 


... 24 


Houde 


... 182 


Hala 


... 59 


Hone 


... 97 


Haladi 


... 42 


Honge 


... 98 


Halasina mara 


... 296 


Honne 


... 97 


Halasu 


... 296 


Hoonal 


... 138 


Hale 


... 186 


Hotsige 


... 100 


Halippe 


.. 199 


Hotte bage 


... 125 


Halivana 


. 89 


Howlige 


... 115 


Halmiaddi 


60- 230 


Hull dalimbe 


... 150 


Halmadliu 


173 


chella 


... 258 


Halsu 


. 296 


Hulsen 


... 296 


Hambu kalli 


194 


Huluve 


... 138 


Ham.maddi 


.. 230 


Hulve 


... 138 


Hanaltadi 


... 242 


Hunal 


... 138 


Harlmuddy 


.. 60 


Hunase 


... 109 


Earalu gida 


... 260 


Hunise 


... 109 


Harsing 


... 179 


Huragalu 


... 69 


Hasar ganni 


... 94 


Hurvashi 


... 27 


Hassur ganni 


... 94 


Hutchu beva 


... 63 


Hautige 


... 115 


Huvarasi 


... 27 


Havnlige 


... 115 






Heb beva 


... 64 


I. 




huluve 
halasu 
halsu 


... 136 
... 294 
... 294 


Ichal 

Ichalu mara 
Iji mara 


... 328 
... 328 
...^220 


Hedde 


... 156 


Ippe 


... 171 


Heggarjige 


... 182 


Isgapuri 


... 63 


Hejjala 


... 233 






Hemmushti 


... 195 


J. 




Hennu gorvi 


... 163 


V ' 




Herile 
Hessan 


... 51 
... 294 
... 7 
... 7 


Jagalaganti 
Jagura 


... 175 
... 293 


Hessare . 


Jajhugri 


... 293 


Hessari 


Jajikayi mara 


... 226 


Hesswa 


... 294 


Jalada 


... 21 


Hettega 


... 156 


Jalari 


... 21 


Hippe 


... 171 


Jambe 


... 113 


Hiremaddina 


... 203 


Jantala 


... 183 


Hogesoppu gida 


... 203 


Janthalla 


... 183 


Hola kortige 


... 193 


Japala 


10, 256 


Holada pundrike 


... 26 


Japatri 


... 226 


Holedasal 


... 149 


Japle 


... IQ 


HoUe tupra 


... 176 


Jajukatala 


... 31 



XVIII 



INDEX OF VEBNACTTLAE NAMES. 



Jaynkatalu 

Jidi 

Jimmi mara 

Jinangi 

Jivi 

Jummana 

Jumminu 

Jum nerale 

Juttuve 



KaoliTi 

Kadagada 

Kadagal marga 

Kadani 

Kadayal, 

Kadvala 

Kad kanagala 

sige 

arali 

attimara 

halasu 
Kadu menasu 

kaj-abevu 

nimbe 

bevu 

ippe 

ganagalu 

hogesoppu 

honge 

jola gida 

nevali 

haralu. 

genasu 

bale 
Kagli 
Kakee 
Kakke 
^ladri 



:^-a&glii 
Kalgarigs 



PAGE. 

.. 33 

.. 81 
.. 46 
.. 88 
.. 279 
.. 59 
.. 59 
.. 143 
.. 193 



,. 120 
,.. 157 
... 184 
... 167 
... 155 
... 155 
... 2 
... 126 
... 281 
... 287 
... 294 
... 47 
... 48 
. 49 
... 64 
... 172 
... 187 
... 204 
... 213 
... 214 
... 242 
... 252 
... 255 
... 320 
... 120 
... 103 
... 103 
... 264 
.i.-.'274 
...' 24 
... 125 



PAGE 



66 



Kalgaute 


... 180 


Kallaladamara 


... 274 


Kalli 


... 242 


Kalnandi 


... 175 


Kalpun 


... 17 


Kaltega 


... 2 


Kamra 


.. 107 


Kamarak 


... 45 


Kamatti 


... 135 


Kambi 


... 161 


Kambali gida 


... 269 


Kammar 


... 107 


Kanagala 


... 1 


Kanagi 


... 227 


Kancbivala 


... Ill 


Kancbu pranthi 


... 259 


Kandasola 


... 27 


Kandagarige 


... 68 


Kangondi 


... 71 


Kanigilu 


... 187 


Kanja 


... 173 


Kankootgal 


... 14 


Kankutake 


... 14 


Kaori 


... 41 


Kap basuri 


... 284 


Kappura 


... 199 


Kapsi 


... 299 


Karachi 


... 107 


Kare 161, 


163, 177 


Karekai 


.. 182 


Karibanta 


... 190 


Kariganni 


... 71 


Karinda 


... 182 


Kari Atti 


... 28 


arale 


... 28 


bevu 


... 47 


geru 


... 83 


jali 


... 117 


matti 


... 136 


hambu 


... 189 


kachi 


... 202 


ummatti 


... 203 


suli 


... 248 


turka baralu gida 


... 251 



INDEX OF VERNACULAR NAMES. 



XIX 



Kari basuri 
Karkiselli 
Kasara 
Kasarka 
Kasmiri mara 
Kasturi bende 

jali 

gobli 
Katarali 
Kat-kumbala 
Katu nimbe 
KaTakula 
Kaval 
Kavalii 
Kavargi 
Keecbaga 
Kempn pundrike 

bnrga 

dale 

geru 

gandha chekke 

kbairada 

guUa 

kaohi 
Kendal 
Kendala 
Kenjige 
Kesarike 
Kbargas 
Kbarjura 
Kicbiga 
Kiral boghi 
Kirnnelliinara 
Kittala 
Kodamuraka 
Kodasiga 
Kodasigina 
Koditani 
Koltagaci 
Koltega 

Konana kombu mara 
Konda mamadi 

vaghe 



Korindi 



PAGE. 

,. 285 
,. 41 
. 18 
. 19S 
. 221 
,. 26 
,. 116 
.. 116 
,. 182 
.. 257 
.. 49 
.. 151 
.. 145 
.. 145 
.. 35 
.. 90 
.. 26 
,. 28 
,. 32 
,. 81 
,. 95 
.. 121 
.. 202 
.. 202 
,. 197 
.. 197 
.. 100 
.. 300 
.. 286 
.. 330 
.. 90 
., 23 
.. 246 
.. 62 
.. 184 
.. 184 
.. 247 
.. 266 
.. 104 
.. 2 
.. 211 
.. 59 
.. 125 
- 84 
„ 182 



PAGE 



Korka pille 


... 126 


Kote pale 


... 125 


Kugati 


... 76 


Kuli 


... 221 


KuU-ponne 


... 17 


Kunkumada mara 


.. 258 


Kunnerale 


... 143 


Kunneraln 


. 143 


Kuntiga 


... 193 


Kurjoora 


... 330 


Kurudi 


... 74 


Kurudu gajjige 


... 100 


Kuruvingi 


... 199 


Knsbarta 


,. 176 


Kutugeri 


... 84 


Kuve 


... 17 


L. 




Lakkli 


... 222 


Lakote 


... 131 


Lavangapatte mara 


... 228 


Leckee 


... 222 


Limbioli 


... 146 


Limbu 


... 50 


M. 




Madalada 


... 50 


Madavala 


... 60 


Maddi dupa 


... 24 


Madi 


.. 57 


Makke nerala 


... 142 


Male geru 


... 2 


Mallali 


177, 178 


Malle nerale 


... 142 


MalHge 


.. 179 


Manda-dbup 


... 60 


dupa 


... .56 


Mangare 


... 160 


Mangare-bongare 


... 160 


Manjadi 


.., 113 


Manjatti 


... 113 


Manj asbta 


... 167 


Manthulli 


... 13 


Maragade 


.;. 9 


Marasada boli 


... 140 



XX 



INDEX 01P VERNA.CTOAB NA.ME9. 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Mara haralu 


... 252 


Narivuli 


... 198 


genasTi 


... 255 


Naiole 


... 57 


MasliTidla 


... 69 


Narvalli 


... 198 


Masi 


... 69 


NarTilli 


... 198 


Massi 


...-32 


Nata hu gida 


... 214 


Massivara 


...^ 78' 


Natchn kaddi 


... 218 


Massiwalla 


...■" 78 


Nat-akrodu 


... 255 


Matta nerale 


... 142 


Nauladi 


... 223 


Matti 


... 136 


Navladi 


- 223 


Mavena 


... 78 


Nekkilu 


- 222 


Mavu 


... 78 


Nela guUa 


- 202 


Miridi 


... 11 


Nelli 


." 244 


Mitli mara 


... 267 


Nepala 


... 256 


Mudah 


.. 57 


Nerale 


... 143 


Mudali 


... 57 


Nerlu 


... 143 


Mugali 


... 119 


Nernjani 


.. ' 8 


Mugli 


... 119 


Nervala 


... 8 


Mukarive 


... 71 


Nimbe 


50.51 


Mnllu muttala 


... 65 


Niradivittulu 


... 12 


Mullu Ramphala 


... 6 


Niranji 


... 313 


Mnnd-doopa 


... 60 


Niravanji 


... 313 


Murkali 


.. 81 


Niru bramhi 


... 204 


morave 


... 81 


Nisane 


... 228 


Murkalu 


... 81 


Noge 


... 68 


Mushti 


... 195 


Nogga 


... 68 


Muttaga 


... 91 


NoTvladi 


... 223 






Nugge 


... 86 


N. 




Nundi 


... 148 






Nuskul 


...■ 81 


Naga champa 


... 18 






sampage 


... 18 


o. 




Nagare 


... 70 






Nai-bel 


... 49 


Olle bevTi 


... 61 


Nai-bela 


... 49 


tangadi 


... 105 


byalada 


... 49 


Oogani hambu 


... 200 


nerale 


... 143 






NaitakMle 


... 224 


P. 




Naadi 


... 148 






buttal 


... 185 


Paohale 


... 95 


batlu 


... 185 


Pacta] i 


... 95 


Nandurike 


.. 68 


Pacbari 


... 95 


Nanjina koradu 


... 195 


Pacberi 


... 95 


Ifarakabhntali 


... 266 


Padari 


... 208 


NaraMyaood 


... 266 


Padri 


... 210 


Narave ' il^-' 


... 220 


Pagade 


... 173 



INDKX OF TERNACULAE NAMES. 



XXI 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Palivana 


... 89 


Rudrak 


... 43 


Pandri 


... 161 


Rudrakshi 


38, 43 


Pannerale 


... 142 






Papati 


... 160 


s. 




Pappadi 


... 166 






Papas kattali 


... 152 


Sagade 


... 75 


Parangi 


.. 151 


Sakote 


... 53 


Parijata 


... 179 


Sakotra 


... 63 


Parpuli 


... 73 


Sakotti 


.. 53 


Patanga 


... 99 


Sambrani 


... 68 


Pauchonta 


... 170 


Sampage 


... 2 


Pavate 


... 165 


Sampagby 


... 2 


Pearlu 


... 140 


Sampige 


... 2 


Penari 


31, 32 


Sanmdrapala 


... 200 


Pendri 


... 161 


San liesare 


... 5 


Perinkara 


... 42 


Sanna japali 


... 10 


Perumbe 


... 114 


solti 


... 12 


Pilaka 


... 279 


gajjiga 


... 99 


Pilala 


... 279 


gerse bambu 


... 194 


Pinde kayi 


... 227 


ichalu 


.. 331 


Pindi kayi 


... 226 


Sappanga 


... 99 


Pinnay kai 
Pinval 


.. 16 
... 279 


Sarul 
Savdangi 


... Ill 

... 202 


Pogada 


... 173 


Selnvarada mara 


... 284 


Popli 


... 72 


Sevn 


... 132 


Pullampnrasi gida 
Punal 


... 250 
... 82 


Sbargadee 
Shibe 


... 76 

... 140 


Pundi 


... 85 


Shi-ma vn 


... 78 


Pnrpalli 
Putrajivi 


... 73 
... 3 


Shilve 
Sbimti 


... 113 

... 82 


Patra-jiva 


... 248 


Sibe 


... 140 


Putrem-jiva 


... 248 


Sige 

Sime Tangadi 


.. 122 
... 106 


R. 




bnnase 


... 126 


Ragi mara 


... 281 


nerale 


... 145 


Rakta-ohand an a 


... 95 


atti 


... 291 


Raldhupada 


.. 60 


Siranige hambu 


... 192 


Ramanadike 


... 227 


Siri punekuve 


... 17 


Ramphal 


... 6 


Sitaphal 


... 5 


Ramphala 


... 6 


Sogade 


... 190 


Rangamali 


.. 10 


Solle 


... 197 


Rangumale 


... 10 


Sonepatta 


... 205 


Rasbija 


... 264 


Sotege 


... 257 


Ratnagandi 


... 100 


Srigandha 


.. 234 


Resbme gida 


... 269 


Sugandhi balli 


... 190 



XXII 



INDEX OF VEENACTJLAE NAMES. 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Snjjalu 


... 126 


Turka bevu 


... 64 


Snnkatti 


... 102 


Tepa 


... 70 


Suragonne 


... 16 


gem 


... 81 


Surahonne 


... 16 


haralu 


... 252 


Surgi 


... 15 


Tyagada mara 


... 215 


Surponne bobbi 


... iv 






Swami mara 


... 6Q 


u. 








Uba 


... 206 


T. 




Udatalli 


... 146 






Uddi 


... 206 


Tadasalu 


... -40 


Udi 


82, 206 


Talavarana balli 


... 193 


V. 




Tale 


... 331 


Vana sampage 


... 110 


Tandrasi 


... 71 


Vasare 


... 258 


Tangadi 


... 105 


Yellaellay 


... 159 


Tara 


... 120 


Ventaku 


.. 148 


Tare 


... 133 


Visha bevu 


... 61 


Tari, 


... 133 


Vishmadliari gida 


... 224 


l^^^. 


... 215 


Vishniikrandi 


... 201 


Tegada mara 


... 215 


Vishnnkranti 


... 201 


Tegala mugu 


... 231 


Vitusi 


... 8 


Tega 


... 215 


Vonte mara 


... 298 


Telia, puni 


... 257 


Vubbina 


5 


poraku 


... 267 


Vuma 


... 16 


kaka-musliti 


... 265 


Vunne 


... 114 


Tengina mara 


... 332 


w. 




Tengii 


... 332 


Wadu warada 


... 114 


Tere 


... 120 


Walivara 


... 20 


Teta 


... 205 


Walurasi 


... 65 


Thadasal 
Xtadsal 


... 40 
... 40 


Warjipe 
Wudi 


... 89 
... 210 


Th^'psi 


... 264 


Wuma 


... 16 


Thodagatti 


... 93 


Y 




Tigadikep atigadi 


... 200 


Tale kalli 


... 243 


Tigdu 


... 205 


Tedamnri 


... 35 


Tikladugdba 


... 192 


Teddaranike 


... 162 


Tirehul 


... 123 


Tekka 


... 192 


Tirpu 


... 23 


Tekkada 


... 192 


Tirpul 


... 23 


Telachi 


... 72 


Toramatti 


... 135 


Telcbi 


... 72 


Torathi 


... 12 


Tellaga mara 


... 229 


Topal 


... 118 


Yenne mara 


... 108 


Tottila 


... 64 


Tennebudige 


... 199 


Tumbe 


... 118 


Terra juvi 


... 279 


Tnpra 


... 178 


Tettega 


... 166 



APPENDICES. 



LIST 1, 



The vernacular names given in tlie annexed list were mostly 
found on specimens of timber presented to tlie Government 
Museum by the late Mr. E. P. Lovery, while he was Assistant 
Conservator of Forests in the Shimoga District. Unfortuna- 
tely the scientific names of these specimens are not given, and 
hence the reason for publishing the vernacular names only. 
While some of the latter may apply to undescribed species, . 
it is believed that the bulk of them are referable to one or 
other of the Malnad trees already enumerated in this edition. 
But that can only be verified on the receipt of botanical 
specimens gathered from the trees which bear these local 



Aclia.1. 

Ackerakalu. 

Aoheralu. 

Adohari. 

Ali. 

Ambatti. 

Andabnrga. 

Andamurka. 

Anengi. 

Augadhari. 

AppemavTi. 

Aremadlu, 

Aremensu. 

Arnelli. 

Arsingarige. 

Asangi. 



Avali. 



Balari. 
Balu. 



Banagi. 

Banchige. 

BaimadamaiTa. 

Barangi. 

Battbcgi. 

BelalbnJcki. 

Bellgothe. 

Belwatte. 

Bendebelal. 

Bhoci. 

Bidi salle. 

Bilal. 

Bilolii._ 

Biligari. 

Biligola. 



Bili hygal. 
Bill mara. 
Bilisalle. 
Birkinbalige. 
Bili tyaga. 
Bore. , 
Bud belal. 
Burada mara. 



Cballauga. 

Cbendaka. 

Chenduglu. 

Cbendraguppe, 

Obitta bage. 

Cbungani. 

Ohungoli. 

Churohi. 

Oburi. 

D. 

Dinda channangi. 
Dind paobale. 
Dodda topu mara. 
Dodda yale mara. 
Dod tboppe. 
Dudda. 

G. 

Galada mara. 
Gandaoharii 
Grandakuga. 
Grarike mara. 
Genasn. 
Ginchi. 
Gobalagere. 
Gobra uellu mara. 
Goeia mara.. 



Gonigal. 
Gorabale. 
Gudde tumari, 
Gujiga. 
Gurgi. 

H. 

Hadsa. 

Hael godcha. 

Hagari. 

Haggada mara. 

Halboji. 

Haliga. 

Halmakki mara, 

Halmuttuga. 

Hauamakshi. 

Hangara. 

Hanigere. 

Hannu sampe. 

Haraln bandaga. 

Harmashi. 

Hassurmakki. 

Hedagaln. 



Hebi^e. 
Hinari. 

Hippali mara. 
Holageri. 
Hole bagi. 

haralni 

bonne. 

salle. 
Homialu. 
Hounerln. 
Hothi. 
Hotte nola. 
Hubbaln. 
Hujali. 
Hnlaga. 
Huli chippu. 



Hull nellu. 

nerlu. 

nanja. 

todagina 
mara. 
Hidln karte. 
Hunagalu. 
Hnnasalu. 
Hurakamma mara, 
Hurangeru. 
HuttambUi. 

I. 

legola. 
Isaparihara. 

J. 



Javanige. 

Jinagi. 

JiraSa, 

Jiruta. 

Juma. 

K. 

Eabale. 

Kabbanni. 

Kadamatet 

Kadn kallu tliarA. 

Kadu kanchi marat 

Kaggundi. 

Kallaragi. 

KaUugatti. 

KaJmitli. 

Kan sampe, ' 

Ean tumari. 

Kari Uggalu, 

Karike. 



ixiv 


APPENDiCBS. 




Kari. 


M. 


0. 


Sbaru. 


Karivra. 






Shikanchi. 


Kariwala. 


Maddale. 


Oodde. 


Shilanga. 


Kattugodana mara. 


Maddarasa. 


Ooimi. 


SidharaJa. 


Kembosi. 


Madhalasu, 


Ovate. 


Simarthadi. 


Kempunola. 


Madli. 




Sivane. 


Kenchala. 


Malaga. 


P. 


Sbtta mugali. 


Kenda sampige. 


-Male nerlu. 




Sugati. 


Kikgorige. 


Manigonda. 


Padapacbale. 


Sujagara. 


Einachinkana 


Maragowri. 


Parengeru. 


Surati. 


mara. 


Marabale. 


Patiga, 




Kirga. 


Marga. 


Penaln, 


T. 


Eodi sampige. 


Massibelalu. 


Pillangi. 


Tannesi 


Kodsa. 

Kolsampige. 

Kondamate. 


Mukarti. 

Mullugothi. 

Murki. 


Povsi. 

Puttaganni. 

Puttasamige. 


-I OiilltrSl. 

Tegatuppada mara. 
Thoppalada mara. 
Thuraln 


Kondachelln. 






Togal. 
Tomar. 


Konda sampige. 




R. 


Koraduvadakana 


N. 




Tumri.' 

Tupa devadaru. 

Tuparu. 


mara. 
Korle. 


Naga mara. 


Rac'hada mara. 
Ragtabbutale. 


Kottiga. 


Nai garige. 


Eiunia, 


KoTflu. 


Nai halasu. 




U. 


Eubare. 


Nanja. 


S. 


Ennale. 


Nevala. 




Uyi karike. 


Kiminigal. 


Nigori. 


Sabbige. 




Kural. 


Niralada mara. 


Sakalati. 


V. 




Nirubanni. 


Samia katti kayi 


Vate. 


L. 


Nira vatte. 


mara. 


Tate huK. 




Nurkalu. 


Sannelli. 


"Vate vanadam ara. 


Lingadhari. 


Nyamatti. 


Shadln. 


Vedarasi, 



APPENDICES. 



XXV 



LIST 2. 

The annesed short lists of trees, with other plants select- 
ed for special purposes, may be of use to readers of this book. 
Fuller details of the trees Earned, will, of course, be found in 
the body of the work. 

Evergreen Trees. 

A. — Exotic trees suitable for shade or effect in Gardens, Parks, and 
ornamental grounds. 



Scientific name. 



Habit of growth. 



Araucaria Cookii 

Bidwillii 

Cunningliamii 

,, var. glauca 

excelsa 
Dammara robusta 

australis 
Cupressus sempervirens 

toruloaa 
Anda Gomesii 

CastanOspermum australe 
Eucalyptus rostrata 

citriodora 
Ficus Benjamina 

var. comosa 

KoxburgMi 

macropEylla 

Cunninghamii 

elastica 
Artocatpns Cannoni 
Grrevillea robusta 
KigeEa pinnata 
Nepbelium litcbi 

loganmn 
Pitbecolobium saman 
Schinua molle 
Swietenia Mahagoni 

maorophyUa 
Caeaalpinia coriaria 
Cassia siamea 

marginata 
Parkia biglandxilosa 

Colvillea racemosa 
Brassaia actinopbylla 
Lagunaria Fatersoni 



Symmetrioal and conical. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 
Erect, compact, columnar and f nnereal. 
Conical. 

Round-headed and moderately spread- 
ing. 

Do 

f Australian gum trees. 

Robust and wide-spreading. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 
Conical, with eUvery-foliage. 
Round -headed and very dense. 

Do 

Do 
Robust and wide-spreading. 
Weeping. 
Round-headed. 

Do 
Umbrella-shaped. 
Moderately round or ovoid. 
Round-headed. 
Round-headed at the summit of a tall 

trunk. 
Moderately round and spreading. 
Umbrella-shaped. 
Conical. 



XXVI APPENDICES. 



B — .Indigenous trees suitable for avenues and roadside planting 
throughout the maidan- 



Michelja champaoa ... — Best in the Malnad. 

Polyalthia longifolia ... ■■• Slow of growth. 

Pterospermum Heyneanum ... •-•• 

Ochroearpus longifoKus ... ... Best towards the hilla. 

Calophyllum inophyllum ... .-. Do 

Thespesia populnea 

Citrus decumana 

Bvirsera serrata ... ••■ Slow of growth. 

Pilioiiim deoipiens 

Melia Azadirachta 

Azedarach 
Geloniran lanoeolatum ... ... Best towards the hills. 

Amoora Kohituka 
Chiokrassia tabularis 
Ficns retusa 

Tsiela 
Mangifera indica 
Dalbergia sissoo 

Mimusops elengi ... — Best in the Miilnad, 

Diospyros embryopteris ... ... Do 

Tamarindns in(Uca ... 

Saraoa indica 
Eugenia Jambolana 
ArtocarpuB integrifolia ... 



C — .Indigenous trees suitable for avenues in the Malnad districts, 

Antiaris toxioaiia ... ■-. Upas, or sack tree. 

Dillenia bracteata 

Garoinia lanthochymns ... ... Conical in habit. 

Hopea parviflora 

Wightiana 
Anthocephalus cordatus 
Myri'stioa laurifolia 

magnifica 
Mesua ferrea 
Hydnocarpus alpina 
Vateria indica 
Melia dubia 
Michelia, champaca 
Mimusops elengi 
Calophyllum tomentosum ... 
Ficus Trimeni ... 

Artocarpus hiisuta ... ... Wild jack. 



APPENDICES. 



XXVII 



LIST 3. 



Trees that are deciduous or subdeciduous for a short periody hut still 
good avenue trees, 

Protium caudatmn. 
Pongamia glabra, 
MUlingtonia hortensia. 
Gmelina arborea. 



Ficus religiosa. 

mysorensis. 

Bengalensia. 

tomentosa. 

infectoria. 
Acacia leucophli3ea. 

siima. 

ferruginca. 

catecliu. 



Acacia arabica. 
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius. 
Albizzia stipiilafca. 

odoratieslma. 
SterciUia foetida. 

guttata. 
Spatliodea campanala-ta. 
Pterocarpiis martjupium. 



aam auaveo- 
lens. 
Salix tetraspcrma. 
Terminalia Cata-ppa. 



Lisr 4 

Trees with handsome flowers. 



Scientific name. 



Colour of flower. 



Bombax malabaricum 
Eriodenclrou anfraotuosum .. 
CochloBpermum gossypium .. 
Erythrina indica 

v&r alba 

stricta 

caSra 

ovalifolia 
fiutei frondosa 
Cassia fistula ■• 

tnarginata 

siamea 
Millingtonia hortensis 
Bauhinia monandra 

variegata 

purpurea 

Hookerii 

Candida 
Saraca indica 

Castanospermtun australe • 
Poinciana Begia 
Spathodea campanulata 
Lagerstroemia B'los-Eegiuas . 
Oolvillea raoemosa 
MicheUa ohampaca 
Eugenia tJa,mbo3 



Bed. 

White. 
YeUow. 
Crimson. 
White. 
Scarlet. 
Red. 
Beddish. 
Orange and red. 
Yellow. 
Dvill red. 
Yellow. 
White. 
Variegated. 
Do 

Puiple. 

Whitish-rose, stamens red. 

White. 

Orange-red. 

Orauge-red. 

Variegated. 

Orange-red. 

Purple. 

Orai: go-red. 

Yellow. 

Cream. 



XXVIII 



APPENDICES. 



Scientific name. 


I 
Colour of flower. 


Sterculia colorafa 


Eed. 


Oaesalpinia sippan 


Yellow. 


Stereospermnm snaveolens -•■ 


Eosy-purple. 


Mangnolia grandiflora 


WMte. 


Brownea rosea 


Eose. 


Cffisalpinia pulcherrima 


Eed-yeUow. 


Teooma atana 


Yellow. 


Poinciana elata 


Pale yellow. 


GreviUea robusta 


Eed-yeUow. 


Ixora parviflora 


White. 


Pterocaipne marsupram 


Golden yellow. 


Stereospermnrf xyloearpa ... 


White. 


Partia biglandulosa 


White. 


Cifcras decumana 


White. 


Plumeria acuminata 


Creamy -white. 


Thespesia popnlnea 


Yellow. 


Moringa pterygosperma 


Creamy-white. 



LIST 5. 

Reserved trees. 



No. Conunercial or vernacular names. 



Scientific name. 



1 


Sandal 


Santakmi album. 




'2 


Teak 


Tectona grandis. 




3 


Biti 


Dalbergia latifolia. 




4 


Houue 


Pterocarpus Marsupium. 




5 


Naudi 


Lagerstroemia lanceolata. 




6 


Hcb halasu 


Artocaipus hirsuta. 




7 


Jalari 


Shorea talura. 




8 


Kiive (Bobbi) 


OalophyUum tomentOBum. 




9 


Karachi (Kammar) ... 


Hardwiolria binata. 




lu 


Kari matti 


Terminalia tomentosa. 




11 


Bill matti 


Terminalia arjuna. 





APPENDICES. 



XXIX 



LIST 6. 



Trees fit for sleepers and other Railway purposes. 



No. 


Commercial or vernacular name. 


Scientific name. 


1 


Teak 


Tectona grandis. 


2 


Houne 


Pterocarpus Marsupium. 


3 


Biti 


Dalbergia latifolia. 


4 


Nandi 


Lagerstroemia lauceolata. 


5 


Heb halasu 


Artocarpus hirsuta. 


6 


Kari matti 


Terminalia tomentosa. 


7 


Hoonal (Hulve) 


Terminalia panicnlata. 


8 


Jambe 


Xylia dolabriformis. 


9 


Bilwara 


Albizzia odoratissima. 


10 


Tadasalu 


Grewia tilirfolia. 


11 


Bage 


Albizzia Lebbek. 


12 


Bogi 


Hopea parviflora. 


13 


Ippe 


Bassia latifolia. 


14 


Hassi 


Sterculia villosa. 


15 


Hadaga ... 


Comus macropbyUa. 


16 


Dindiga 


Anogeissus latifolia. 



LIST 7. 



Plants affording OUs. 



Scientific Name. 


Englisb Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Acliyrantliea aspera 




Uttarani gida. 


Alenrites moluccana 


Belgaum Walnut tree..- 




Aracliis hypogea 


Ground nut 


Kadale kai gida. 


Argemone mexioana 


Yellow tbistle or mesi- 






can poppy 


Datturi gida. 


Bassia longifolia 


Mabwa or sapota 


Ippe mara. 


Brassioa nigra 


Common mustard 


Sari sasive gida 


„ alba 


Wbite „ 


Bill 


Ganaiinm commune 


Jara almond tree ... 


Java badami mara. 


Cartbamus tinctoriua 


Safflower 


Kusamba gida. 


Cassia auriculata 


Tanner's Cassia 


OUe tangadi gida. 


Celastrus paniculata 




Kangondi baUi. 


Giunamoiitun zeylanicum ... 


Cinnamon tree -.• 


Dalchinni mara. 


Cooog nucifera 


Cocoanut tree 


Tengina mara. 


Croton Tiglium 


Croton oil plant 


Japala gida. 


Cymbopogon paebnodes ... 


Kacbi grass ... 


Kacbi bnllu. 


Brytbioxylon monogynum... 


Bastard sandal 


Devadari gida. 


Garciuia Morella 


The Indian gamboge- 


Aradala mara, Kanktt- 
take mara. 


Gruizotia abyssynica 


Foolish oil plant 


Hutcbeilu gida. 



:sxx 



APPENDICES. 



LIST 1 .—Centiniied. 



Scientific Name. 


Englisb Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Hibisons sabdarifia 


The Eozelle 


Kempu pundrike gida. 


Hytnenodictyon excelsnm — 




Bandare gida. 


Heliantlms annus 


Sunflower 


Suryakauti gida. 


Jatropha cnreas 


Physic or purging nut.. 


Turuka haralu gida ; 
Kadu haralu gida. 


Lirniin usitatissimuin 


Flax ; Linseed plant ... 


Agase gida. 


Melia Azadiraclita 


Neem tree 


Bevina mara. 


Michelia ohampaoa 




Sampage mara. 


Nicotiana Tabacum ••• 


Tobacco 


Hoge soppu gida. 


Papaver somniferum 


Opium poppy 


Gasagasi gida. 


Pongamia glabra 


Indian beech 


Honge mara. 


Pterocai-pus marsflpinm ... 


Kino tree ... 


Honne mara. 


Eaphanus sativus 


White Radish 


Bile mallaugi. 


Eicinus communis 


Castor oil plant 


Haralu gida. 


„ „ var. ... 


„ (small seeds) ... 


Chitta :&ralu gida. 


Santalum album 


Sandalwood tree 


Gandhada mara. 


Sesamum indicum 


Gingelie oil plant 


Olle yellu gida. Atohellu 
gida. 


Tenninalia Catappa 


Country almond tree.*. 


Badami mara. 



LIST 8. 



Hittnts affording Mse/wZ FiSre. 



Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Agave amerioana 


American aloe 


Kattali. 


„ „ variegata ... 


Variegated „ 


Bannada kattali. 


Fourcroya gigantea 


Giant 


Masnru „ 


Sanseveira zeylanica 


Bow-string hemp 




Yucca gloriosa 


Adam's Needle 




glaucescena .«. 






Doryanthes Pahnerii 






Musa paradisiaca 


Plantain or Banana ... 


Bale gida. 


textilis 


Manilla hemp 




Grewia oppostifolia 




Butale mara. 


columnaris 






Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ... 


Shoe flower 


Dasaladagida. 


cannabinus 


Hibiscus Hemp 


Holada pundrike gida ; 

pundi gida. 
Eende gida. 


esoulentus 


Okra 


elatus 


Cuba bast .» 




trionspis 






Pandanus furcatus ... 


Screw pine ... 


Tal gida ? 


Do variegata 


Variegated pine 


Do 


Cyperus Pangorei 


Indigenous sedge 


- •... 


Ananasa sativa 


The pine apple 


Aiianas gida. 


Cooos nucifera 


Cocoa-nut... 


Tengina mara. 


Crotalaria juncea 


Simn fibre... 


Sanabu gida. 





APPENDICES. 


XXXI 


LIST 8.—(_GonUnv,ed.) 


Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Catmibis sativa 


Hemp 


Bangi gida. 


Fious Benjamina 


.Java fig tree 




Bengalensis 


Banyan 


Alada mara. 


Triumfetta angulata 






B rehineria nivea 


Bhea Fibre or grass- 






cloth plant 


Kittanaru gida. 


Typha elephantina 


Elephant grass 


Jambu hullu. 


Abntilon striatum var. 






Thomsonii 


Thomson's Abutilon ■•• 




Gauzuma tomentosa 


Bastard cedar 


Rudrakhi mara. 


Cordia Myxa 


Sebesten plum 


SoUe mara ; kendal mara; 


Urena sinuata 


Silty fibre 




lobata 


Do 




Corohorns olitorius, var. ■-- 






Malaebra capitata 


^ 




Careya arborea 




Gouju mara. 


Helicteres Jsora 


Indian screw tree 


Yedai^uri gida. 


Butea frondosa 


Pulas kino tree 


Muttuga mara. 


Bauhinia Vahlii 


Gigantic Camel's foot.. 




racemosa 




Achalu mara. 


Caryota urens 


Malabar sago palm ... 


Bagani mara. 


Arenga sacoharifera 






Haidwickia binata 




Karachi mara.. 


Melia Azadiraohta 


The Neem tree 


Bevina mara. 


Calotropis gigautea 


Mudar 


Yekkada gida. 


Andropogon muricatus 


Kus-kus grass 


Gandu ganjala garite 
huUn. 


Antiaria toxioaria 


Sack tree ... 



LIST 9. 
Plants affording Gums and Eesins. 



Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Acacia arabica 


Indian gum-arabic. Ba- 






bool. 


Kari jali mara. 


catechu 


The Cutch tree, brown- 






barked-Acacia 


Kaggali mara. 


Famesiana 


" Cassie" Fragrant 


, 




Acacia 


Kasturi jali gida. 


leucophlaea 


Panicled Acacia 


Bili jali mara. 


suma 


White-barked Acacia ... 


Mugali mara. 


Achras sapota 


The SapodiHa-Plum tree 




jEgle marmelos 


The Bael tree 


Bilvapatre mara. 


Agati grandiflora. syn-Ses- 




Agase mara. 


bauia grandiflora 






Albizzia amara 




Sujjalu mara. 


Lebbek 


The Siris or Sirissa 






tree 


Bage mara. 


stipulata 


' 


Hotte bage mara. 


Aloe vera 


Indian aloe 


Kattah. 


Anaoardium occidentale ••. 


Cashew-nut tree 


Jidi mara. 



IXXII 



APPENDICES. 



LIST 9.— (ComcJuiei) 



Scientific Name. 



English Name. 



Kanarese Name. 



Anogeissos latifolia 
Aranoaiia CooHi 
Areoa Catecliu 
Aitocarpns incisa 

integrifolia 
Asbragalns verus 
Balsamodendrqn Myrrlia .. 
Bassia longifoKa 
Bavihinia purpurea 

variogata 
Bombax malabaricnm 
Borassus flabeUiformis 
Boswellia floribunda 
Buchanania latifolia 

Bntea frondosa 

Casuarina eqnisetifolia 

Calotropis gigautea 
Canarium strictam 
Cassia aurictilata 

fistula 

florida 
Cedrela Toona 
Csesalpinia coriaria 

Ciimamomum camphora ... 
Citrus deonmana 

medica ^ ■•■ 

CocUospermnm gossypium, 
Chloroxylon swietenia 
Cryptostegia grandiflora ... 
Dammara robnsta 
Eriodendron anfractuosum. . 
Euphorbia antiquorum 

TirucaUi 
Euoaiyptus marginata 

rostrata 
Feronia Elephantum 
Ficus elastica 

Bengalensis 

rehgiosa 

(jarcinia Morella 

Garuga pinnata 
Grevillea robusta 
Gruaiacum officinale 
IsonandraGutta sjn. Dichop- 
• sis Gutta 



The Caledonian pine ... 
Betel-nut palm 
B*ead-fruit tree 
Jack-fruit tree 

The Myrrh tree 
The Mahwa tree 



The silk cotton tree .. 
The palmyra tree 
The Frankincense tree 
ITie cheroonjie tree •■ 

Pulas kino tree, or 
Dhak tree 

The Tinian pine. Beef- 
wood Tree 

Mudar 

Black dammar tree ... 

Tanners Cassia 

The Indian laburnum... 

White Cedar 
American Sumach. 

Diri Divi 
Camphor 
The Pumelo 
The Citron 

Golden silk cotton tree. 
Satin-wood tree 
New Zealand Pine 

Wliite silk cotton tree... 

Mflk hedge 
The Jarrah 

Elephant or wood apple 
The Indian rubber tree. 
The Banyan tree 
The sacred peepul tree, 

Gamboge 



The SUver Oak tree 
Guaiac tree 

Gutta-percha 



Dindiga mara. 

Adike mara. 
Divi alasu mara. 
Halasina mara. 



Ippe mara. 

Kanchivalada mara ; 
Kempu mandare mara. 
Do 
Kempu burugada mara. 
Tale mai-a. 

Parangi sambmni mara. 
Murkali mara: moraTe 



Muttuga mara. 

Kesarike mara. 
Tekkada gida. 

OUe tangandi gidS. 
Kakke mara. 

Gaudhagarige mara. 



Karpura. 
Chakotri gida. 
Madavala gida. 
Arisina buruga mara. 
Huragalu mara. 



BUi buruga mara. 
Bonte kaUi. 
Mondu kalli. 



Belada mara. 

Alada mara. 

Aran mara, Eagi mara ; 

Aswatha mara. 
Aradalada mara ; Kan- 

kutygal mara. 



APPENDICES. 



XXXIII 



LIST 9.-i,Concluded) 



Scienlifio Name. 


English. Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Jatroplia curcas 


Physic or Purging nut 




^ 


plant 


Turuka haralu gida; K»- 
da haTaln gida ; Dodda 
haralu gida. 


Mangifera indica 


Mango tree 


Mavina mara. 


Maaihot Glaziovii 


The Ceara rubber 




Melia Azadirachta 


The Neem or Margosa 






tree 


GUe bevina mara 


A2adj,raoli 


The Persian Lilac. The 






Bead tree 


Hutchu Do 


Moringa pterygosperma ... 


The drum-stick, or horse 






radish tree 


Nugge mara. 


Moms nigra 


Black mulberi-y 


Uppanerale mara. 


Pitlieoolobium saman 


The rain tree 




Poinciaua elata 




Sunkatti mara. 


Poinsettia pulcherrima 






Primus communis 


The plum tree 




Persica 


The peach tree 


Piohis mara 


Pterooarpus Marsupium ... 


The Indian kino tree ..- 


Honne mara. 


Shorea talura 


The lac tree 


Jalari mara. 


Spondias mangif era 


The hog plum 


Amate mara. 


Stryax Benzoin 

Liqnida 
Btryclmos potatorum 


The Benzoin tree 






ChiHu mara 


Swietenia Mahagoui 


Mahogany tree 




Terminalia Catappa 


Country almond tree ..■ 


Valagra Badami mara. 


Vateria indica 


Indian copal tree 


Dhupada mara 


Wnglifcia tmctona 


Ivory wood 


Beppale mara. 



LIST 10. 
Flants affording Byes and Colours. 



Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


Soymida febrifuga 


Bastard red cedar 


Swami mara. 


Erythroxylon monogynnm .. 


Bastard sandal 


Devadari mara: 


Toddalia aculeata 


Prickly Toddalia 


Kadu menasu gida. 


Bixa OreUana 


Aunatto 


Kangumale gida. 


Curcuma longa i 


Turmeric 


Arisina gida. 


Gsesalpinia sappan ... 


Sappan wood tree 


Patangamara. 


Butea frondosa 


Pulas kino tree 


Muttuga mara. 


Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 


Shoe-flower 


Dasalada gida. 


Bemecarpus Anacardium ... 


Marking-nut tree 


Geru mara. 


Terminalia chebula 


Myrobalan 


Aralekayi mara. 


Morinda citrifolia 


Indian mulberry 


Maddi mara. 


Shoreatalura 


The Lao tree 


Jalari mara. 


Esematoxylon ' campeohia- 






num 


Logwood 




CoBcinium fenestratum ... 


Tree Tiirmeric 


Marada arisina. 



XXXIV 



APPENDICES. 



LIST 10.—{0oncludtd) 



Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese Name. 


VeiifcUago madraspj^tana •-■ 




Popli gida. 


Liclieii rotuiKj^tus' 


Rock Moss 


Kalln paebi. 


liallotus pbilippinensis .-- 


Kamala Dye 


Kapilarangumara. Kun- 
kumada mara. 


Wrightia tinctoria 


Ivory Wood 


Ecppale mara. 


Garcinia Morella 


Gamboge 


Aradalada mara, Kanku« 
tuge mara. 


Tephrosia tinotioria 


Ceylon Indigo 


Ceylaw gida, Batte hari- 
liina gida. 


Pterocarpus sautalinus •.. 


Red SandalwoocJ 


Rakta chaudanada mara.. 


Buchanania latifolia 




Murkali mara. 


Cassia Fistula 


The Indian Laburnum. 


Kakke mara. 


„ Tora 


Foetid Cassia 


Uundu tagaci gida. 


,, auricula ta 


Tanner's Cassia 


OUe tangadi gida. 


Carthomus tiiictorius 


Safflower 


Knsumba ^ida. 


Casuarina luuricata 


The Tinian Pine. Beef- 


1 




wood Tree 


Kesarike mara. 


Eubia. cordifolia 


Indian Madder, or 
Munjeet 




Acacia arabica 


Babaol 


Kari jali mara, gobli.. 
mara. 


,, leucoplvlcea 


Panicled Acacia 


Bill jali mara. 


Arcca c-atechu 


Betel-nut palm 


Adike mara. 



LIST 11. 
Plants affording materials for Bleacldng. Tanning and Currying, 



Scientific Name. 


English Name, 


Kanarese Name. 


Acacia leucophliea 


Panicled Acacia 


Bill jail mara. 


,, arabica 


Babool 


Kari jali mara; gobli 


,, catechu 


Brown-barked Acacia— 


Mugali mara. 


Butea frondosa 


Pulas Kino tree 


Muttuga mfira. 


Bauhinia variegata 


Mountain Ebony 


BiU kanchivalada mara. 


Oalotropis gigantea ..■ 


The Mudar 


Yekkada gida. 


Pterocarpus Marsupium •- 


Kino tree 


Honne mara. 


Terminalia chebula 


Myrobalan 


Aralekayi mara. 


,, belerica 


Beleric Myi-obalan ... 


Tare mara. 


Casuarina equisetifolia 


The Tinian Pine. Beef- 






wood tree 


Kesarike mara. 


Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 


Shoe-flpwer 


Dasalada gida. 


Zizvphus Jujuba 


The Bhere fruit tree. 


Yelachi mara. 


Nyothanthes arbor-tristia ... 


Night fiowering jesa- 






mme 


Parijata gida. 


Buchanania latifolia 




Murkali mara 


Co.'salpinia coriaria 


American Sumach. 
Divi Divi 




Cassia auriculata 


Tanner's Cassia 


OUe tangadi gida. 


Punica granatum 


The Pomegranate 


Dalimb:iie gida. 


Careya arborea 


Carey's tree 


Gonju mara. 



APPENDICES. 



XXXV 



LIST 12.. 

Agricultwal Products. 



Scientific Name. 


English Name. 


Kanarese name. 


Eleusine coracaua 




Majjige ragi. 


5 1 


' 


Kari 

Kempu ,, 
Chennamudda ragi. 
Ginimuti ragi. 
HuUubili „ 






Sove „ 
Kuruba ,, 
BUi 


Dactyloctenium segyp- 






tiaoum 


Buffalo-head grass ... 


Kadu ragi ; Kouana tale 
hullu. ■ 


Panicum italicum 


Indian millet 


Bili navana. 
Jade , , 


,, 


... 


Kempu ,, 




J' 


Navaue. 
Kari ,, 
Mabbu ,, 
Korle 
Kari , , 


Patiicum fnimentaceum-.- 

jj ... 




Bili same. 
Kari „ 
Mabbu,, 


,, miliacGum 


Little millet 


Bili baragu. 


do 


' 


Kan „ 


,, semiverticellatum... 




Haraka. 


Penioillaria spicata 


Spiked millet 


SajjC; 


Sorghum vulgare 


Great do _ 


Bili jola. 


Zea Mays 


Maize, or Indian corn.. 


Jola. 


Triticum vulgare 


Wheat 


Godhi. 


J3 

)) *" 


>) 


Jave godhi. 
Hotte „ 


Bambusa arundinaoea ... 


Common prickly bamboo 


Bidaru. 


Arachis hypogea 


Ground nut 


Kadalekayi. 


Cajanus indious 


Pigeon pea, or dholl ■.- 


Togari. 


Cicer arietinum 


Bengal gram 


Kempu kadale. 
Kari ,, 


Dolicbos catiang 


Small fruited Dolichos. 


Tatada gani. 


„ biflorus 


Horse gi-am 


Hurali. 


lablab 


Cow gram 


Avare. 


Ervum lens 


The lentil 


Massur. 


Phaseolus mungo 


Green gram 


Hesaru. 


,,_ do var-glaber. 


Black gram 


Vuddu. 


Coriandrum sativum 


Coriander 


Kottumbari. 


Brassica nigra 


Common mustard 


Kari sasive. 


„ alba 


White do 


Bih „ 


Trigonella foenum-grfficum 


Fenugreek 


Mentya. 


Piper nigrum 


Black pepper 


Menasu. 


„ alba 


White do 


Bili menasu. 


Cuminum Cyminiim 


The cummm-sced 


Jirige. 


Pimpinella anisum 


Anise seed 


Dodda jirige. 


Carum copticum 


Bishop's weed 


Omu. 


Papaver somniferum 


Opium poppy 


Gasagase. 


Sesamum indicum 


Gingelie oil plant 


Hntchellu. 


Carthamus tinctoriua ... 


Safflower 


Kusumba gida. 


Linum usitatissimum 


Linseed; flax 


Agase bija. 


Hibiscus sabdariffa 


The rozelle 


Kempu pundriko gida. 


Oryza sativa 


Paddy 


Nellu; hatha. 



yxxTi 



APPENDICES. 



Statement showing the area of reserved and unreserved forest 
in each District of Mysore, 



District. 



Shimoga. 
Bangalore. 

Mysore. 
Kolar. 



T nTnTr nv 

Kadur. 

CHtaldroog. 



Forest area, 

in square 

miles. 



<': 



Chief sources of forest revenue. 



Wi 



317 
312 

279 

219 

172 
140 
88 
84 



549 
131 

207 
110 

250 
61 

193 
49 



Sandalwood, timber and. bamboos. 

Sandalwood, bamboos, forest produce-bearing 
trees, and fuel ; the latter covering an area of 
about 2,000 acres. 

Timber, sandalwood, bamboos and minor foreit 
produce. , 

Bamboos, fuel, forest produce-bearing trees, and 
sandalwood. 

Sandalwood, firewood, and minor products. 

Minor forest products. 

Sandalwood, timber, and bamboos. 

Minor forest products, particularly tangadi bark. 



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