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Full text of "A directory of computer software applications : atmospheric sciences, 1970-October, 1978"

A DIRECTORY OF 

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PB-286 256 



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JAN 




Atmospheric Sciences 

1 970-October, 1978 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE-National Technical Information Service 



PB-286 256 



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A DIRECTORY OF 

COmPUTER SOFTWARE 

flppucRrans 



Atmospheric Sciences 

1 970-October, 1 978 






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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
National Technical Information Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 



* Copyright Warning 



Portions of this publication bearing a copyright notice are copyrighted. 

International Copyright, ©National Technical Information Service 1978, 
under the provisions of the Universal Copyright Convention. United 
States copyright is not asserted under the United States Copyright 
Law, Title 17, United States Code. 



50272 -101 








REPORT DOCUMENTATION 1 1._ report no. 

page NTIS/SA -78/15 


2. 


3. Recipient's Accession No. 

PB-286 256 


4. Title and Subtitle 

A Directory of Computer Software Applications -- 
Atmospheric Sciences, 1970-October, 1978 


5. Report Date 

October. 1978 


6. 


7. Author(s) 


8. Performing Organization Rept. No. 


9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

National Technical Information Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 


10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 


11. Contract(C) or Grant(G) No. 

(C) 
(G) 


12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 

Same 


13. Type of Report & Period Covered 

1970 - Oct. , 1978 


14. 


15. Supplementary Notes 


16. Abstract (Limit: 200 words) 

Atmospheric sciences reports that list computer programs and/or their documenta- 
tion are cited. These software applications pertain to topics, such as aeronomy, 
atmospheric motion, meteorological data processing and weather forecasting, me- 
teorological instruments, physical meteorology, and weather modification. The 
directory contains complete bibliographic data for each report, as well as a subject 
and a corporate author index. 

The computer software offered by NTIS was created by a variety of Federal agen- 
cies to meet their diverse but quite specific objectives. It is provided without in- 
stallation, support, or maintenance services and sometimes requires customer 
modifications to run effectively in customer environments. 


17. Document Analysis a. Descriptors 

b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms 

c. COSATI Field/Group 62B, 550 


18. Availability Statement 


19. Security Class (This Report) 


21. No. of Pages 
123 


20. Security Class (This Page) 


22. Price 

$25.00 



(SeeANSI-Z39.18) 



See Instructions on Reverse 



OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-77) 
(Formerly NTIS-35) 
Department of Commerce 



CONTENTS 

Introduction V 

How To Use VII 

Abstracts 1 

Subject Index _ .. _._ 77 

Corporate Author Index 102 

Order Blank___ At End 

PRICING 

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iii 



INTRODUCTION 



The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce is the central source for the public sale and 
announcement of Government-sponsored research, development and 
engineering reports and analyses prepared by Federal agencies, their 
contractors or grantees. NTIS supplies the public with approximately 
four million documents and microforms annually. 

The technical reports announced by NTIS often contain listings of com- 
puter programs and/or documentation covering a wide variety of appli- 
cations. 

The object of this directory is to announce to the scientist, systems ana- 
lyst, and programmer, the availability of these computer programs, and 
to disseminate this software as fully as possible to fulfill NTIS' role in 
information transfer. 

These computer program listings or the documentation can be pur- 
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variety of Federal agencies to meet their diverse but quite 
specific objectives. It is provided without installation, sup- 
port, or maintenance services and sometimes requires 
customer modifications to run effectively in customer en- 
vironments. 



HOW TO USE 



Abstract Entry 



Order/accession number. — 
This number must be used 
order NTIS products 



to 



Corporate author 



PB-239 100/1CP PC A12/MF A01- 

Bechtel, Inc., San Francisco, Calif. 
Path to Self-Sufficiency Directions and Con-, 
stralnts. Appendices 

Final rept. on Phase 1 . 

Aug 74, 267p" Rept no BECHTEL-10900-74-43- 

l-App 

Grant NSF-C867 



Keywords — used for indexi 
and searching 



ngJ " 



Descriptors: "Energy supplies, "Computer pro- 
rams, Crude oil, Natural gas, Coal, Oil shale, 
ranium, Thorium, Bituminous sands, 
Hydroelectric power generation, Geothermal 
prospecting, Solar energy conversion, Wastes, 
Systems analysis, Systems engineering, 
Capitalized costs, Fossil fuel deposits. Trans- 
portation, Planning, Forecasting, Algorithms, 
Flow charting, Mathematical models, FOR- 
TRAN. 



A computer program that calculates resource ■ 
requirements and summarizes results for any 
fuel mix is presented. The program tabulates an 
annual schedule of required facilities to be 
brought on-line and attendant annual 
schedules of capital (2 classes), manpower (4 
types), and materials (9 categories) require- 
ments. The model is exercised for two likely fuel 
mixes and the implications in terms of an- 
ticipated capital, manpower, and materials con- 
straints are discussed. 



-Price codes: PC means paper 
copy; MF, microfiche. Consult 
current code-price table for ac- 
tual prices. 

'—Title of document 



Abstract of document 



Subject Index Entry 



Subject Term. — These are 
arranged in alphabetical se- 
quence in the Index 



'ENERGY SUPPLIES 

Energy System Network Simulator (ESNS) li. A- 

User's Guide 

BNL-20979 9B 

Path to Self-Sufficiency Directions and Con- 
straints 
PB-239 099/5CP 

Path to Self-Sutficiency Directions and Con- 
straints. Appendices 
PB-239 100/1 CP 21 D 

An Economic Analysis ot Declining Petroleum 
Supplies in Texas: Income, Employment. Tax and 
Production Effects as Measured by Input-Output 
and Supply-Demand Simulation Models 
PB-243 320/9CP 08I 



-Title 

■Order number. Documents in 
the abstract section are se- 
quenced alphanumerically by 
this number. 



Corporate Author Index Entry 



Corporate author 



Order/accession number- 



■ BECHTEL. INC., SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

BECHTEL-10900-74-43-1 

Path to Self-Sufficiency Directions and Con- 
straints 
—— PB-239 099/5CP 210 

BECHTEL-10900-74-43-l-App 
Path to Self-Sufficiency Directions and Con- 
straints. Appendices 
PB-239 100/1CP 21D 



-Title 



VII 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/directoryoOOunit 



ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 



AD-A001 271/6CP PC A02/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 

(Navy) Monterey Calif 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 

Southwest Indian Ocean 

Technical paper 

Samson Brand, Jack W. Blelloch, and James M. 

Long. Oct 74, 20p Rept no. ENVPREDRSCHF- 

tech paper-16-74 

Descriptors: 'Tropical cyclones, 'Weather 
forecasting, "Indian Ocean, Statistical analysis. 
Computer programming, Diurnal variations. 
Pacific Ocean Islands 

Identifiers: SWINJAH74 computer program, 
Fleet numerical weather central. 

A tropical cyclone analog program for the 
Southwest Indian Ocean area (SWINJAH74) is 
described. The program is a statistical com- 
puter technique to provide forecasts of 
Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones from 
12-72 hours. The analog program is discussed 
in terms of its proposed operational use at Fleet 
Weather Central, Guam, Mariana Islands. 



AD-A002 117/OCP PC A04/MF A01 

Environmental Technical Applications Center 
(Air Force) Washington D C 
A Precipitating Convective Cloud Model 

Robert D. Smith. May 74, 51p Rept no. 
USAFETAC-TN-74-3 

Descriptors: 'Convection(Atmospheric), 'Cloud 
physics, Atmospheric temperature, Wind, 
Mathematical models, Computer programs, 
Computations 

A model presenting a physical depiction of a 
precipitating convective cloud is explained in 
detail The mathematical computations are 
shown and a computer program for the model 
is given. This program uses the primitive equa- 
tions with initial conditions to compute desired 
atmospheric parameters in two dimensions at 
some later time. The initial conditions are 
defined by a reference temperature, surface 
temperature, temperature change with height, 
surface wind, wind shear, and moisture dis- 
tribution. Model limitations are defined by grid 
interval, grid size, maximum simulated time, 
and maximum number of iterations. 



AD-A002 954/6CP PC A03/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 
WINDVEL2: A Program for Plotting Wind 
Velocity as Determined by OTH Radar 

Final rept. 

Mark H. Etzel, and Dennis B Trizna. Dec 74, 39p 

Rept no NRL-MR-2935 

Descriptors: 'Wind velocity, 'Over the horizon 

detection, 'Computer graphics, Wind direction. 

Radar tracking, Plotting, Computer programs, 

FORTRAN 

Identifiers: WINDVEL2 computer program, Cal- 

comp plotters, Remote sensing 

A FORTRAN program has been developed for 
displaying wind direction and wind speed data 
maps, as determined by the HF Over-the- 
Horizon Radar The output products are a grid 
of wind direction arrows for each 
rango/azimuth radar cell, and continuous con- 
tours ol wind speed, plotted on a stereographic 
projection of the Northern Hemisphere about 
the North Pole by a CALCOMP 565 plotter or 
compatible CRT display. Data inputted are 
generated by other programs described el- 
sewhere, and include radar cell latitude and 
longitude, ambiguous wind direction pairs, and 
three independent values of wind speed, all of 
winch can be plotted in a number of different 
combinations 



AD-A003 394/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass 



Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in 
the Magnetosphere: 1. Design and Fabrica- 
tion of Data Processing System. 2. Mathe- 
matical Analysis of Magnetospheric Models 

M. Patricia Hagan. Aug 74, 53p Scientific-1, 

AFCRL-TR-74-0449 

Contract F19628-73-C-0081 

Descriptors: 'Minicomputers, 'Magnetosphere, 
Memory devices, Computer programs, Mathe- 
matical models, Numerical analysis. 

This report provides a guide to the understand- 
ing of the operation of the mini-computer 
which is currently under development and test- 
ing, in preparation for the operation of the 
micropulsation network. 



AD-A003 755/6CP PC A05/MF A01 

Aerospace Corp El Segundo Calif Lab Opera- 
tions 

Monochromatic Transmittance/Radiance 

Computations 
Interim rept. 

Charles M. Randall. 31 Dec 74. 86p TR- 
0075(5647)-3, SAMSO-TR-74-247 
Contract F04701-74-C-0075. DARPA Order- 
2843 

Descriptors: 'Radiance, High resolution. Spec- 
tra, Plumes, Computerized simulation, At- 
mospheres, Transmissivity, Computer pro- 
gramming, Spectral lines, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric attenuation, 

'Transmittance, Optical paths, INHOM com- 
puter program. 

A computer program and associated 
procedures have been developed to compute 
high resolution spectra for inhomogeneous op- 
tical paths including both atmospheric condi- 
tions and conditions typical of a missile plume. 
These programs and procedures are outlined in 
this report. The procedures have been used 
with the Air Force Cambridge Research Labora- 
tories line atlas to demonstrate that ignoring 
the correlation of atmospheric absorption lines 
with source emission lines can lead to errors as 
high as 79 percent for some spectral bands and 
optical paths. Calculated spectra have been 
compared with experimental laboratory spectra 
typical of both atmospheric and missile plume 
conditions. The AFCRL line atlas requires the 
addition of lines from highly excited states and 
the correction of certain inadvertent errors to 
be applicable to the calculation of high tem- 
perature optical properties of gases. 



AD-A003 855/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 

Ground Md 

Description and Comparison of the K Method 

for Performing Numerical Integration of Stiff 

Ordinary Differential Equations 

M. D. Kregel, and E. L. Lortie. Jul 74, 68p Rept 

no. BRL-1733 

Descriptors: 'Differential equations, 'Numerical 
integration, Matrices(Mathematics), Computer 
programs, Ionosphere, Chemical reactions. 
Identifiers: 'Stiff differential equations, K 
matrix. 

A numerical integration method, termed the K 
method, has been developed within the Con- 
cepts Analysis Laboratory for the integration of 
about fifty stiff ordinary differential equations. 
This method is described and, by the use of 
several benchmark sets of ordinary differential 
equations, comparisons are made with other 
methods that have been described in the open 
literature Instructions are given on the use of 
the K method, and a complete listing of the 
method is included 



AD-A004 026/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

Colorado State Univ Fort Collins Coll of 
Forestry and Natural Resources 



A Stochastic Canopy Model of Diurnal 
Reflectance 

Final rept. Jul 73-Jun 74 

Robert E. Oliver, and James A. Smith Aug 74, 

123p ARO-9928.4-EN 

Grant DAHC04-74-G-0001 

Descriptors: 'Solar radiation, 'Vegetation, 
'Spectrum signatures, Canopies, Reflectance, 
Geometry, Mathematical models, Diurnal varia- 
tions, Stochastic processes, Light transmis- 
sion, Radiometry, Detection, Interactions, Com- 
puter programs. 
Identifiers: 'Remote sensing. 

The spectral signature of most vegetation va- 
ries with both direction of view and time of day. 
This variation is spectrally dependent and is 
due primarily to differences in canopy 
geometry. As a means of investigating the in- 
teraction of shortwave radiation with vegetation 
a stochastic canopy model was developed. The 
model uses random variables based on mea- 
sured distributions for incoming radiation flux, 
intrinsic optical properties, and canopy 
geometry. 



AD-A004 602/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 
AURORA: An NRL Auroral Chemistry Code 

Memorandum rept. 

Ellis Hy man, and Paul Julienne Jan 75, 34p 

Rept no. NRL-MR-2965 

Descriptors: 'Aurorae, 'Aeronomy, Electrons, 
Altitude, Plasma medium. Electric fields, 
Mathematical models, Excitation. Electron ir- 
radiation, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Ions, Reaction 
kinetics. 
Identifiers: AURORAE computer code. 

A computer code is described which models 
the chemistry in the atmosphere during and 
subsequent to the deposition of auroral elec- 
trons. In addition to obtaining altitude profiles 
of 14 atmospheric species as a function of time 
for any given incident-electron spectrum, the 
code predicts volume and column emissions of 
selected UV, visible, and IR spectral lines. Typi- 
cal results from an ICECAP spectrum are 
presented. 



AD-A005 311/6CP PC A02/MF A01 

Compass Systems, Inc., San Diego, Calif. 

Program TRUWIND 

Final rept 

Baldwin van der Bijl. Sep 74, 9p 100-16, EPRF- 

CP-Note-16 

Contract N66314-72-C-1824 

Descriptors. 'Wind velocity, 'Computer pro- 
grams. Computations, FORTRAN 
Identifiers: TRUWIND computer program, CDC 
1604 computers 

The report describes a CDC 1604 FORTRAN 
program designed to compute true wind 
velocity from ship velocity and observed rela- 
tive wind velocity using a basic vector ap- 
proach. It was prepared as an adjunct to a 
requirement to evaluate actual ship data for 
verification of the Hydrodynamic Numerical 
Model 



AD-A006 189/5CP PC A02/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Inc Palo Alto 
Calif Palo Alto Research Lab 
BREMGAT: A Code for the Generation and 
Transport of Brensstrahlung Through the At- 
mosphere 
Technical rept. 

Lester L. Newkirk, William E. Francis, and 
Martin Walt. Oct 74, 20p Rept no. LMSC- 
D407007 
Contract N00014 -70-C-0203 



Descriptors: 'Aurorae, 'Bremsstrahlung, Elec- 
tron energy, Ionization, Computer pro- 
gramming, Computations, Monte Carlo 
method, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: BREMGAT computer code, AU- 
RORA computer program, FOTONQ computer 
program, MCBREM computer program. 

A computer code is described which deter- 
mines the rate at which energy is deposited in 
the lower atmosphere by the bremsstrahlung 
emitted from an incident flux of auroral elec- 
trons interacting with the atmosphere. The 
code is named BREMGAT (bremsstrahlung 
generation and transport through the at- 
mosphere) and consists of three major FOR- 
TRAN programs called AURORA, FONTONQ, 
and MCBREM. The programs are executed 
consecutively in the order given. AURORA 
determines the flux of electrons produced in a 
model atmosphere by the given incident spec- 
trum of auroral electrons. FOTONQ converts 
the resulting fluxes into a suitable bremss- 
trahlung source term. The Born approximation 
bremsstrahlung cross section given by Sauter, 
multiplied by a Coulomb correction in the form 
of the Elwert factor, is used in FOTONQ to cal- 
culate the emission of bremsstrahlung. 



AO-A006 200/OCP PC A09/MF A01 

Utah State Univ Logan Space Science Lab 
Moment Method Solutions for the Impedance 
of Asymmetrically Driven RF Probes in the 
Collisional Ionospheric Magnetoplasma 

Hyun-Shik Hwang. Aug 74, 176p Scientific-4, 

AFCRL-TR-74-0394 

Contract F19628-72-C-0255 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Electron density, 
*Probes( Electro magnetic), Radiofrequency, 
Boltzmann equation. Partial differential equa- 
tions, Computer programs, Monopole anten- 
nas, Dipole antennas. 
Identifiers: Method of moments. 

In order to ascertain the electron density in the 
earth's ionosphere by direct measurement a 
radio frequency (RF) impedance probe 
technique has proved useful. This technique in- 
volves monitoring the changes in impedance of 
an antenna mounted on a rocket or satellite 
vehicle traversing the inospheric regions of in- 
terest. The changes of antenna impedance can 
be related to the electron density of the sur- 
rounding plasma through use of suitable 
theoretical development of the antenna-plasma 
interaction. It is the purpose of this treatise to 
develop a more general expression for the im- 
pedance of an antenna in the ionosphere to be 
useful as an RF probe for measurement of elec- 
tron density. The investigation of ionospheric 
plasma characteristics by means of such RF 
probes has received a great deal of attention 
since the advent of the rocket allowed direct 
measurements within the ionosphere. 



AD-A007 034/2CP PC A16/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate. Volume I. Oro- 
graphic Effects on Global Climate 
Final rept. 1 Nov 73-31 Dec 74 
John Schaibly. 28 Feb 75, 359p SSS-R-75-2556- 
Vol-1, AFOSR-TR-75-0397 

Contract F44620-74-C-0035. ARPA Order-2609 
See also Volume 2, AD/A-007 035. 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric motion, *Heat 
transfer, "Mountains, Climate, Wind, Mathe- 
matical prediction. Solar radiation, Boundary 
value problems. Finite difference theory, Two 
dimensional flow, Vortices, Fourier transforma- 
tion, Computer programming, Advection, Nu- 
merical integration. Mathematical models, Tur- 
bulence, Atmosphere models. 
Identifiers: Mountain lee waves, HAIFA com- 
puter code, Sierra Nevada Mountains. 



The report summarizes the three-year research 
program at Systems, Science and Software to 
investigate the effects of meso-scale and small- 
scale interactions on global climate. The 
research concentrated on two areas, oro- 
graphic effects on the wind patterns and effects 
of radiation transport on the climate. Volume I 
describes the orographic research and includes 
the theory of momentum transport due to 
mountain ranges, the formulation of several 
computer codes to calculate the effects for 
realistic topography and wind profiles, and the 
application of these codes to various problems 
and comparison with other calculations as well 
as experimental results. 



AD-A007 035/9CP PC A10/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on 
Global Climate. Volume II. Radiation Trans- 
port Effects on Global Climate 
Final rept. 1 Nov 73-31 Dec 74 
John Schaibly. 28 Feb 75, 204p SSS-R-75-2556- 
Vol-2, AFOSR-TR-75-0398 
Contract F44620-74-C-0035, ARPA Order-2609 
See also Volume 1 , AD/A-007 034. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, 'Heat 
transfer, 'Mountains, Atmosphere models, Cli- 
mate, Wind, Heating, Atmospheric temperature, 
Mathematical models, Solar radiation, Predic- 
tions, Ozone, Atmospheric density. Computer 
programming, Reflection, Clouds, Heat flux, 
Correlation techniques. 
Identifiers: ATRAD computer code. 

The report summarizes the three-year research 
program at Systems, Science and Software to 
investigate the effects of meso-scale and small- 
scale interactions on global climate. The 
research concentrated on two areas, oro- 
graphic effects on the wind patterns and effects 
of radiation transport on the climate. Volume II 
describes the radiation transport research 
which produced a benchmark code against 
which more simplified models can be com- 
pared. The code, ATRAD, is characterized by 
high angular and frequency resolutions and by 
the ability to calculate radiative atmospheric 
heating rates taking into account molecular ab- 
sorption and scattering from arbitrary distribu- 
tions of aerosols and particulates. 



AD-A007 495/5CP PC A02/MF A01 

Pennsylvania State Univ University Park Iono- 
sphere Research Lab 

Propagation Predictions and Studies Using a 
Ray Tracing Program Combined with a 
Theoretical Ionospheric Model 
Myung Ki Lee, and John S. Nisbet. 21 Mar 74, 6p 
Contract N00014-67-A-0385-0017, Grant NGL- 
39-009-002 

Availability: Pub. in IEEE Transactions on An- 
tennas and Propagation, p132-136 Jan 75. 

Descriptors: 'Radio transmission, 'Ionospheric 
propagation, Ray tracing, Atmosphere models. 
Computer programs, Mathematical prediction, 
Space to surface. Electron density, D region, 
Ionospheric disturbances, Solar radiation, 
Reprints. 

Identifiers: 'Ionospheric models, E region, F re- 
gion. 

Radio wave propagation predictions are 
described in which modern comprehesive 
theoretical ionospheric models are coupled 
with ray-tracing programs. In the computer 
code described, a network of electron density 
and collision frequency parameters along a 
band about the great circle path is calculated 
by specifying the transmitter and receiver geo- 
graphic coordinates, time, the day number, and 
the 2800-MHz solar flux. The ray paths are cal- 
culated on specifying the frequency, mode, 
range of elevation angles, and range of azimuth 
angles from the great circle direction. The cur- 
rent program uses a combination of the Penn 



State MKI E and F region models and the Mitra- 
Rowe D and E region model. Application of the 
technique to the prediction of satellite to 
ground propagation and calculation of oblique 
incidence propagation paths and absorption 
are described. The implications of the study to 
the development of the next generation of iono- 
spheric models are discussed. (Author) 



AD-A008 035/8CP PC A15/MF A01 

Visidyne Inc Burlington Mass 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 

Final rept. 1 Jun 72-30 Apr 74 

Thomas C. Degges. 27 Dec 74, 346p VI-236, 

AFCRL-TR-74-0606 

Contract F19628-72-C-0330, ARPA Order-1366 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, 'Infrared 
radiation, 'Upper atmosphere, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Molecular vibration, Radiance, 
Background radiation. Molecular energy levels, 
Energy transfer, Emission spectra. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric radiation, Atmospher- 
ic composition. 

A knowledge of the natural infrared radiance 
originating in the earth's upper atmosphere is 
of interest for systems design, military surveil- 
lance and the advancement of knowledge 
about physical processes in the upper at- 
mosphere. A physical model that includes ex- 
perimental data on and theoretical estimates of 
excitation processes that lead to emission of in- 
frared radiation has been implemented in a 
computer program that computes infrared radi- 
ances for an earth limb viewing geometry. The 
nominal spectral region of this study lies 
between 2.7 and 25 micrometers and emphasis 
is placed on radiation originating at altitudes 
between 70 and 500 km. The physical model is 
described, with emphasis on the changes 
required in extending its usefulness. Applica- 
tion of the computer program is described and 
estimates are given of uncertainties in results 
due to assumptions made in the model and lack 
of data on actual atmospheric composition. 



AD-A008 193/5CP PC A04/MF A01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass 
Satellite Beacon Studies. 1. Total Electron 
Content. 2. Scintillation Studies. 3. Pro- 
gramming 

Robert L. Vesprini, Eileen Martin, Charles 
Cantor, and M. Patricia Hagan. Nov 74, 60p 
Scientific-1, AFCRL-TR-75-0069 
Contract F19628-72-C-0305 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Electron density, 
Scintillation, Magnetic anomalies, Magnetic 
storms. Diurnal variations, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: F region, ATS-5 satellite, ATS-3 
satellite, DMSP satellite. 

This report provides information on (1) Total 
Electron Content (TEC) studies and their rela- 
tionship to magnetic disturbances; (2) in- 
cidence of, and intensity of scintillations, as 
studied through indices; (3) programming 
techniques for handling scintillation indices. 



AD-A008 515/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

IBM Federal Systems Div Burlington Mass 
Program Structure of Atmospheric Density 
Programs 

Final rept. 1 Jan 72-31 Jan 75 

Arnold S. Bramson. 15 Feb 75, 99p AFCRL-TR- 

75-0063 

Contract F19628-72-C-0178 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric density, 'Computer 
programs, Mathematical models. Partial dif- 
ferential equations, Computations, Numerical 
integration, Atmosphere models, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: CADNIP computer program, BAD- 
MEP computer program. 



Two extensive computer programs have been 
designed and developed by IBM for AFCRL 
under the existing and previous contracts. 
These are the Cambridge Atmospheric Density 
Numerical Integration Program' (CADNIP) and 
the Burlington Atmospheric Density Model 
Evaluation Program' (BADMEP). CADNIP is an 
automatic computer program capable of deter- 
mining atmospheric densities from an analysis 
of satellite observations. CADNIP contains a nu- 
merical integration scheme combined with a 
differential correction procedure where the dis- 
crepancies between computer and observed 
position and velocity are reconciled by adjust- 
ing the assumed atmospheric model, thereby 
yielding corrected or refined density data. BAD- 
MEP is a computer program for testing and 
evaluating atmospheric models An important 
feature of BADMEP is an analytical ephemeris 
generator which may be used in place of nu- 
merical integration resulting in a considerable 
reduction in required computer time. 



AD-A009 069/6CP PC A03/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 
Ground Md 

Computing Methods Used in Support of 
Modeling Electron Concentrations in High-Al- 
titude Chemical Releases 
Final rept. 

R. B. Patton, Jr. Mar 75, 35p Rept no. BRL-MR- 
2453 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric sounding, 

'Ionization, 'Electromagnetic wave propaga- 
tion, Blackout(Propagation), Computations, 
Electron density, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Chemical release studies. 

The modeling of electron concentrations for 
high-altitude chemical releases requires a 
number of supporting computations that have 
not been reported previously These computing 
methods are presented in detail. They include 
six coordinate transformations, a solution for 
the position of a cloud's center based on line- 
of-sight data from a pair of observing sites, and 
a solution to describe cloud appearance (size, 
shape, and orientation) as viewed from a given 
location. 



AD-A009 530/7CP PC A03/MF A01 

Navy Weather Research Facility Norfolk Va 
A Computer Program to Select Typhoon 
Analogs and Print Out Their Descriptions In- 
cluding Subsequent Changes 
Progress rept. no. 1 

William T. Hodge, and Grady F McKay. Jan 70, 
42p 

Descriptors: "Tropical cyclones, 'Weather 
forecasting, "Computer programming, 

Typhoons, Storms, Sea level. Barometric pres- 
sure. Compilers, Control sequences 

Details are given of a computer program that (1) 
accepts a description of an existing typhoon or 
tropical storm, (2) searches descriptions of past 
storms, selects those with similar charac- 
teristics and ranks them according to similarity, 
and (3) prints out subsequent track and storm 
change data needed by typhoon forecasters. 
The size, sources and features of the internal 
typhoon history file are described During the 
course of extracting the data, and designing 
and testing the system, several facets of 
typhoon data were found to need more 
research These include Development of mean 
or typical storm sea level pressure and 700 mb 
height profiles with time; The recomputation or 
rejection of inconsistent aircraft reconnais- 
sance data; Study of the systematic differences 
in Navy and Air Force aircraft eye reports; 
Research on diurnal changes within the 
typhoon eye Preliminary tests of the computer 
system show that it will rank the storms and 
print out the data as instructed, but the predic- 
tors will have to be weighted in order to most 



often select the past storm of most value to the 
forecaster. 



AD-A009 750/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Dugway Proving Ground Utah 
Application of the Calder Finite Difference 
Diffusion Model to Calculations of Instantane- 
ous Elevated Line Source Dosages 
Final rept. 

Albert W. Waldron, Jr. Apr 75, 61 p Rept no. 
DPG-FR-M921A 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, Altitude, 
Profiles, Diffusion theory, Finite difference 
theory, Dosage, Mathematical models, Com- 
puter programs, Eddy currents, Diffusivity. 
Identifiers: "Atmosphere diffusion. Line 
sources 

This paper compares calculations of vertical 
and surface dosage distributions, obtained 
from a finite difference numerical solution of 
the classical line source diffusion equation, to 
calculations obtained from an analytical solu- 
tion and to observed distributions obtained 
from several line source releases The analytical 
solution uses constant values of vertical turbu- 
lence and wind speed averaged with height. 
This solution then approximates the effects on 
surface dosages of increasing stability aloft by 
using reflection from the top of the mixing 
layer. The finite difference numerical solutions 
considers the change of eddy diffusivity and 
wind speed with height in such a way as to 
produce vertical dosage profile closer to the 
observed. Turbulence values for use in the nu- 
merical model are obtained from calculations 
of vertical diffusivity based on statistical theory 
The numerical solution predicts the vertical 
dosage profile more accurately than the analyti- 
cal solution. Both solutions predict surface 
dosages equally well. Verification of the numer- 
ical solution on other data appears desirable. 



AD-A009 921/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Test and Evaluation of a VTPR Retrieval 
System from Clear-Column NOAA 2 Radi- 
ances 

Master's thesis 
Harry Milton Dyck, Jr. Mar 75, 122p 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric temperature, Radi- 
ance, Weather forecasting, Satellites(Artificial), 
Satellite tracking systems. Scanning, Trans- 
mittance. Histograms, Radiometers, Mathe- 
matical models, Theses, Computer programs, 
Water vapor, Carbon dioxide. Ozone. 
Identifiers: NOAA-2 satellite, Remote scanning 

An iterative technique for the retrieval of tem- 
peratures at each of 100 levels ranging from 
1000 mb to 0.01 mb is evaluated. Clear-column 
radiance data in the carbon dioxide channels of 
the Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer 
(VTPR) of NOAA 2 are used in inverting the 
radiative transfer equations to deduce the T(P) 
profile. The retrieval technique includes the 
computation of atmospheric transmittances 
due to three atmospheric absorber masses 
(carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone) and 
non-homogeneous temperature-pressure ef- 
fects along the vertical. The program also cor- 
rects these transmittances for zenith path dif- 
ferences between the satellite and the retrieval 
site when the site is not directly below the sen- 
sor. 



AD-A089 973/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

A Numerical Study of an Idealized Ocean 

Using Non Linear Lateral Eddy Viscosity 

Coefficients 

Master's thesis 

Julian Maynard Wright, Jr. Mar 75, 74p 



Descriptors: "Ocean currents, "Atmospheric 
motion, "Ocean surface, 'Surface temperature. 
Air water interactions, Vortices, Eddy currents, 
Mathematical models, Finite difference theory, 
Computations, Theses, Computer programs. 

Using a one level, barotropic ocean model, 
driven by surface winds, a finite difference form 
of the vorticity equation was integrated over 
210 days of simulated time. The solutions using 
a constant coefficients of lateral eddy viscosity 
were compared with those using a variable 
coefficients derived from enstrophy cascade 
and energy cascade Using a constant eddy 
viscosity coefficient of rather low magnitude 
produces a large amplitude computational 
oscillation which fills the entire basin. An order 
of magnitude larger coefficient produces a 
marginally satisfactory solution, where the 
western boundary current was rather well 
represented, but a moderate computational 
oscillation was still evident. By increasing the 
coefficient yet another order of magnitude, the 
computational oscillation is negligible, but the 
solution in the ocean interior is unrealistically 
damped. An accurate physical and numerical 
depiction of both the ocean interior and 
western boundary with no computational oscil- 
lation was achieved by using either of the two 
forms of non linear eddy viscosity. 



AD-A009 977/OCP PC A08/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

Heat Budget Parameterization for the FNWC 

Primitive Equation Model Using Data for 16 

January 1974 

Master's thesis 

Warren Theodore Spaeth, Jr. Mar 75, 152p 

Descriptors: 'Air water interactions. 

'Atmospheric circulation, 'Radiative transfer, 
'Atmosphere models, Heat balance, Clouds, 
Mathematical models, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific 
Ocean, Computer programs. Theses. 
Identifiers: Primitive equations. 

The radiational model employed here computes 
the planetary albedo and the solar absorption 
by atmospheric layers and by earth's surface for 
the primitive equation model of FNWC. Large- 
scale cloud parameterization in several layers 
enters into these computations. The solar com- 
putations are made on a gridpoint basis em- 
ploying the water-vapor mass over each grid- 
point. Longwave cooling effects over the same 
layers and at the earth's surface are calculated 
using emissivity formulas after Sasamori, and 
are also dependent upon the cloud-parame- 
terizations. Two forms of the cloud-parame- 
terizations were tested using FNWC gridpoint 
oceanic data for 16January 1974 The objective 
was to determine the parameterization which 
better verified the radiational balance as a func- 
tion of latitude at the tropopause, as compared 
with the January satellite climatology Separate 
heat-budget checks of the propospheric 
columns and of the oceanic-water mass were 
tested for consistency with January climatolo- 
gy The smaller cloud-parameterization values 
gave the best verification. 



AD-A010 232/7CP PCA07/MFA01 

Computer Sciences Corp., Silver Spring, Md 
System Sciences Div 

Feasibility Study of a Quadrilateralized 
Spherical Cube Earth Data Base 

Final rept May 74-Mar 75 
F. K.Chan, and E. M. O'Neill 14 Apr 75, 136p 
CSC/TR-75/6007, EPRF-TR-2-75(CSC) 
Contract N66314-74-C-1340 

Descriptors: 'Earth sciences, "Scientific satel- 
lites, 'Data bases, 'Meteorological data. 
Mapping, Partial differential equations. Com- 
puter graphics, Computations, Data storage 
systems, Computer programs. 



This report describes the results of research 
into the feasibility of storing satellite 
meteorological data in a high-resolution, equal- 
area, computer-accessible data base. Equal 
area elements are stored in square arrays 
representing the faces of a cube inscribed 
within the Earth. The required area-preserving 
transformation is presented along with its in- 
verse. A unique array-mapping scheme is 
presented, which preserves near-neighbor rela- 
tions and allows rapid index computation. The 
implementation of this data base on rotational 
storage devices is discussed, and calculated 
execution times are presented. 



AD-A010 412/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom 
AFB Mass 

Computer Program for the Disturbed Steady- 
State Nighttime D-Region 

Environmental research papers 

William Swider, and Carol I. Foley. 13 Mar 75, 

27p Rept nos. AFCRL-TR-75-0150, AFCRL- 

ERP-501 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Atmosphere models, 
'D region, Ion density, Computer programs. 
Electron density. Altitude, Polar cap absorp- 
tion. 

A computer program has been developed for 
the nighttime D-region under disturbed steady- 
state conditions. The program provides for the 
determination of the electron concentration, 
total negative ion concentration, and the in- 
dividual positive ion concentrations as a func- 
tion of altitude. Model results are computed 
and compared with nighttime data obtained by 
various experimentalists during the 2 to 5 
November 1 969 solar proton event. 



AD-A010 424/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom 
AFB Mass 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Pre- 
dicting Low-Altitude Satellite Ephemerides 
Air Force surveys in geophysics 
Henry B. Garrett. 19 Mar 75, 23p Rept nos 
AFCRL-TR-75-0158, AFCRL-AFSIG-305 

Descriptors: "Upper atmosphere, 'Atmospheric 
density, 'Atmosphere models, Artificial satel- 
lites, Ephemerides, Periodic variations, FOR- 
TRAN, Computer programs 

Two empirical density models based on drag 
analyses of 22 low-perigee satellites are 
developed for use in predicting low-altitude 
satellite ephemerides. A stepwise multiple 
regression analysis is performed with density at 
145 km as the dependent variable, and a 
number of independent variables chosen to 
represent variations with solar cycle, geomag- 
netic activity, latitude, season, day of the year, 
and time of day Densities between 120 and 500 
km are determined from the hydrostatic law in a 
simple (but physically realistic) analytic form. 
The two models compare very well with the 
1971 Jacchia model. The main advantage of 
such models is that they represent a major 
savings in both computer storage and run time 
making possible improvements in operational 
systems 



AD-A010 647/6CP PC A12/MF A01 

Dugway Proving Ground Utah 
An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmen- 
tal Prediction Technique 

Final rept. 

Veil L. Runolfson, and Carl A Bower, Jr May 

75, 251p Rept no DPG-FR-M920A 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 

"Atmosphere models, 'Wind, Air pollution, 

Computerized simulation, Computer programs, 

FORTRAN 

Identifiers: Atmospheric diffusion, FORTRAN 4 

programming language. 



An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmental 
Prediction Technique in model form was 
developed and validated. The model was 
developed as a computerized aid to enable 
rapid objective analysis and calculation of at- 
mospheric trajectories and streamlines on the 
mesoscale. Several observational weighting 
techniques were investigated to determine a 
capability to reconstruct an imposed wind field 
pattern from uniform and nonuniform measure- 
ments in the wind field. From this, a new 
technique was developed for application to 
wind interpolation which represented an im- 
provement over the Thiessen polygon method. 
The developed model provides an adequate in- 
terpolated representation of wind fields and at- 
mospheric trajectories in real or near-real time 
for interpretation of atmospheric pollution and 
hazard problems. The model can be pro- 
grammed on small programable calculators 
with storage capability. 



AD-A011 029/6CP Not available NTIS 

Rand Computation Center Santa Monica Calif 
A RAND Computation Center Reference: 
Standard Atmosphere Calculations with JOSS 

Gerhard F. Schilling. Oct 74, 15p Rept no. R- 

1550/8 

Availability: Paper copy available from RAND 

Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, 

Calif. 90406, PC$1.50. 

Descriptors: "Computer programs, 

'Atmospheric density, 'Atmospheric tempera- 
ture, Computations, Standards, Atmosphere 
models. 

Identifiers. 'Atmospheric pressure, JOSS pro- 
gramming language. 

This document describes a simple JOSS pro- 
gram that provides the values of temperature, 
pressure, and density of the U.S. Standard At- 
mosphere at any desired altitude from sea level 
to 700 km It can be coupled with other JOSS 
programs where such values are needed as 
input quantities. For general use, the program 
permits the ready construction of model at- 
mospheres. 



AD-A011 253/2CP PC A08/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 

Ground Md 

Refractive Effects in Remote Sensing of the 

Atmosphere with Infrared Transmission 

Spectroscopy 

Final rept. 

Donald ESnider, and Aaron Goldman. Jun 75, 

151p Rept no. BRL-1790 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric refraction, 'Air mass 
analysis, 'Ray tracing, Tables(Data), At- 
mospheric temperature, Atmospheres, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: Remote sensing. Atmospheric com- 
position, Atmospheric pressure, FORTRAN 4 
programming language. 

A ray tracing technique which includes at- 
mospheric refraction is used to tabulate the air 
mass and the single layer effective temperature 
and pressure for a grazing ray from the sun. 
Summer and winter atmospheric profiles are 
used with observer altitudes ranging from 10 to 
50 km in steps of 1 km Zenith angles ranging 
from 80 degrees up to 97 degrees are con- 
sidered Results indicate that neglecting refrac- 
tion in the computation of air mass and effec- 
tive pressure can lead to overestimates of these 
quantities by up to 25% for aircraft observers, 
60% for high altitude balloons, and 200% for 
satellite observers. 



AD-A011 409/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
(Navy) Monterey Calif 
Basic ZOOM Program 

Computer programming note 



Gerd Wiese. Jan 72, 31p Rept no. EPRF-CP 
Note-3 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Computer 
programs, Interpolation, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, 
FORTRAN 63 programming language, ZOOM 
computer program. 

The numerical hemispheric meteorological and 
oceanographic analyses are usually done on a 
fixed standard grid. FNWC normally maps the 
hemisphere on a 63 x 63 grid. The subroutine 
WINDOW selects a window of any desired size, 
location, and orientation out of this grid and 
zooms it to a wanted size (interpolation in 
space). The subroutine ARPOL calculates the 
forecast values of a window of any desired size, 
location, and orientation, which can be addi- 
tionally zoomed to a wanted size, in shorter 
time steps than those of the given data 
(interpolation in time and space). 



AD-A011 416/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
(Navy) Monterey Calif 
Program Graphic 

Computer programming note 

Carol A. Simpson, and David B. Johnson. Nov 

73. 40p Rept no. EPRF-CP Note-1 1 

Descriptors: 'Wind, "Computer programs, 
Curve fitting. Plotting, Minicomputers, Cumu- 
lus clouds. 

Identifiers: GRAPHIC computer programs, Vari- 
an 3100 computers. 

Program GRAPHIC plots data generated by the 
CUMLIQ cumulus dynamic model. It uses the 
FNWC 6500 Varian Plot routines to generate a 
file on PLOT (a disc file internal to the FNWC 
6500 system) which then drives the Varian 
plotter. 



AD-A011 931/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

Utah State Univ Logan Space Science Lab 
Design and Calibration of a Rocket-Borne 
Electron Spectrometer 

Scientific rept. 

Parris C. Neal. Dec 74, 69p HAES-8, Scientific-1, 

AFCRL-TR-74-0629 

Contract F19628-74-C-0130 

Descriptors: 'Electron energy, 'Aurorae, Ex- 
perimental design. Calibration, Electron spec- 
troscopy, Spectrometers, Rocketborne, Per- 
formance(Engineering), Resolution, Computer 
programs. 
Identifiers: 'Electron spectrometers. 

An electron spectrometer was designed, 
calibrated and applied in an auroral research 
program to measure the electron energy spec- 
tra from 100 to 1 500 ev. The approach included 
the practical application of theoretical mathe- 
matics to design and calibrate the instrument. 
Such design and calibration using a digital 
computer for fast analysis can be used in the 
creation of similar instruments. 



AD-A012 002/2CP PC A05/MF A01 

Air Force Weapons Lab Kirtland AFB N Mex 

Analytic and Numerical Chemistry Algorithms 

for the WORRY Code. WORRY Document No. 

2 

Final rept. 1 Jan 71-15 Jul 74 

David W. Goetz, William A. Whitaker, Charles E. 

Rag an, and Peter W. Lunn.Jun 75, 99p Rept no. 

AFWL-TR-74-204 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric chemistry, 

'Algorithms, Nuclear explosions, Nitrogen ox- 
ides. Nonlinear differential equations, Reaction 
kinetics, Computer programs. Nitrogen, Ox- 
ygen, Atmosphere models, Atoms, Ions, 
Molecules. 

Identifiers: 'Nuclear explosion effects. Reaction 
rates. 



The WORRY Chemistry Package computes the 
nonequilibrium chemical behavior of a parcel 
of air in a quiescent or disturbed environment. 
Such a computation requires the solution of a 
set of nonlinear coupled differential equations 
derived from the set of reactions in which the 
atomic and molecular species of the parcel par- 
ticipate. The Chemistry Package may solve this 
set of differential equations by either of two 
methods: a standard numerical integration or 
an analytic algorithm. The procedures used in 
the analytic algorithm are described in detail 
and comparisons with the numerical solutions 
are shown. 



AD-A012 195/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom 

AFB Mass 

Atmospheric Density Determination from 

Analysis of Doppler Beacon Satellite Data 

Special rept. 

James N. Bass, Krishin H. Bhavnani, and Isabel 

M. Hussey. 1 Apr 75, 60p Rept nos. AFCRL-SR- 

191.AFCRL-TR-75-0176 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric density, 'Navigation 
satellites, Determination, Radio beacons, 
Scientific satellites, Doppler systems, Data 
processing, Computer programs, Orbits, Satel- 
lite tracking systems. 

Identifiers: Doppler beacon satellites, CADNIP 
computer program, CELEST computer pro- 
gram, DB-7 satellites, DB-8 satellites, DB-9 
satellites. 

Atmospheric densities are computed from anal- 
ysis of Doppler beacon satellite data. Modifica- 
tions to Doppler beacon data processing pro- 
gram CELEST necessary for this study are 
described. Results obtained for satellites DB- 
7(6382), DB-8(6727), and DB-9(6928) are found 
to be in good agreement with those obtained by 
analysis of skin track data for the same satel- 
lites using program CADNIP. (Author) 



AD-A012 369/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Ocean Data Systems Inc Monterey Calif 

Further Development of a 3-7 Day Typhoon 

Analog Forecast Model for the Western North 

Pacific 

Final technical rept. 

Warren S. Yogi, James M. Long, and Julius F. 

Steuckert. Apr 75, 37p ODSI-674-1 , 

ENVPREDRSCHF-TECH-PAPER-12-75 

Contract N66314-74-C-1390 

Descriptors: 'Typhoons, 'Hurricane tracking, 
'Weather forecasting, 'North Pacific Ocean, 
Tropical cyclones. Storms, Mathematical 
models. Patterns, Analogs, Regression analy- 
sis, Correlation techniques, Computer applica- 
tions. 

Identifiers: TYFOON 72 computer program, 
TYFOON 73 computer program 

The report presents the results of an investiga- 
tion of typhoon movement forecasting 
techniques by computer. The study was accom- 
plished in three phases: Upgrading the former 
data base of the existing forecast model; ex- 
tending the forecast to seven days, and incor- 
poration of 500-mb long-wave patterns for 
predetermination of forecast track. Recommen- 
dations regarding findings are included as part 
of the text. 



AD-A012 476/8CP PC A07/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
Auroral Simulation Studies. HAES Report No. 
6 

Topical rept. 1 Jan-30 Sep 74 

Douglas H. Archer, and Paul W. Tarr 22 Apr 75, 

147p MRG-R-152, DNA-3567T 

Contract DNA00f-74-C-0143 

See also AD-781 275. 



Descriptors: 'Aurorae, "Computerized simula- 
tion, Atmospheric physics, Emission spectra, 
Atmospheric heave, Electron density, Particle 
flux, Brightness, Chemiluminescence, Radi- 
ance, Chemical reactions. Nitrogen, Oxygen, 
Carbon dioxide, Alaska. 

Identifiers: ARCTIC computer code, ICECAP 
operation. 

This report describes work performed in three 
areas of activity: (1) applications of the ARCTIC 
code, especially to a study of and comparison 
with ICECAP data from an auroral event 
recorded near Poker Flat, Alaska on 27 March 
1973, (2) study of certain applications of au- 
rorally-generated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 
radiation in an auroral environment, and (3) at- 
mospheric heave resulting from auroral bom- 
bardment. 



AD-A012 799/3CP PC A11/MF A01 

Coastal Engineering Research Center Fort 

Belvoir Va 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm 

Surge Model 

Technical memo. 

George Pararas-Carayannis. May 75, 248p Rept 

no.CERC-TM-50 

Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Hurricanes, 'Atmosphere models, 
'Computer programs, 'Hydrodynamics, Tropi- 
cal cyclones. Floods, Flooding, Mexico Gulf, 
North Atlantic Ocean, Coastal regions, Numeri- 
cal analysis, Wind velocity, Tides, Ocean bot- 
tom, Friction, Stresses, Direction finding, 
Mathematical models, Barometric pressure, 
Hydrography, Calibration, Comparison, 

Weather forecasting, Civil engineering, Data 
processing. 

Identifiers: Bathystrophic storms. Storm 
surges, Hurricane of October 1949, Carla hur- 
ricane, Audrey hurricane, Camille hurricane, 
Carol hurricane. 

A bathystrophic storm surge numerical model 
was verified, using data of historical hurricanes 
at selected traverses on the Gulf of Mexico and 
the east coast, by calibrating coupled' values 
of wind and bottom stress coefficients in 
hydrodynamic equations for the numerical 
computation. These coefficients represented 
model calibration constants that included more 
than the physical effects of wind and seabed 
friction. Surge hydrographs were calculated 
and compared with observed or recorded surge 
hydrographs of: (a) Hurricane of 1949 at Gal- 
veston and Freeport, Texas; (b) Hurricane Carla 
at Galveston and Freeport, Texas; (c) Hurricane 
Audrey at Eugene Island, Louisiana; (d) Hur- 
ricane Camille at Biloxi, Mississippi; and (e) 
Hurricane Carol at Narragansett Pier, Rhode 
Island. Comparisons were made with theoreti- 
cal results for several hypothetical storm surge 
problems for which analytical solutions could 
be obtained. Although reasonable empirical 
solutions were obtained by combining values of 
initial rise and of coefficients of bottom friction 
and wind stress, the significance, variation and 
interdependence of these parameters could not 
be determined adequately because of limited 
historical data. Extrapolation of empirically 
derived wind stress and bottom friction rela- 
tionships, as determined from lower wind- 
speeds, to extreme probable maximum condi- 
tions associated with the synthetic hurricanes, 
could not be conclusively verified. Because of 
the complexity of the problem, data limitations, 
and the variability of different factors entering 
the calibration process, correlation for all 
historical hurricanes at all traverses was dif- 
ficult to obtain. 



AD-A013 508/7CP PC E03/MF A01 

Oklahoma Univ Norman 

Wind Shear - Thermal Wind Relationships on 
the Mesoscale 

Final rept. 16 Sep 74-31 May 75 



Amos Eddy, and Philip A McDonald. May 75, 

22pARO-12813.1-R-GS 

Grant DAHC04-75-G-0035 

Descriptors: 'Wind shear, Atmospheric tem- 
perature, Wind, Computer programs. 
Meteorological data, Temperature gradients, 
Multivariate analysis, Analysis of variance, 
Regression analysis, Spatial distribution. Time 
dependence, Tables(Data), Atmospheric 
sounding, Guided missile ranges, Tropopause, 
Jet streams, Atmosphere models, Computer 
programs, Mathematical prediction, Data 
processing, Digital computers. 
Identifiers: Mesometeorology, IBM 370 compu- 
ters, 'Thermal winds, Manova computer pro- 
gram. 

Space-time relationships between the wind and 
temperature fields have been examined using 
rawinsonde observations taken over White 
Sands Missile Range and nearby locations dur- 
ing the period 21 August 1973 - 1 March 74. This 
required the bringing into operation of mul- 
tivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and 
regression computer programs. (Author) 



AD-A013 624/2CP PC A06/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
A Microprocessor-Based Communications In- 
formation System 

Robert Harry Ekstrom, and William Henry III 
Reinhardt. Jun 75, 109p 

Descriptors: 'Weather communications, 

'Microcomputers, 'Information systems, 'Naval 
operations, Weather forecasting, Communica- 
tions networks. Cathode ray tube screens, In- 
terfaces, Computer programs, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'Microprocessors, File structures, 
PL/M programming language. 

A functional design of a microprocessor-based 
system is proposed as a model for the Naval 
Enivronmental Display Station for use by the 
Naval Weather Service Environmental 
Detachments. The design consists of four 
modules: control, communications, storage, 
and display. A software program prototype that 
simulates many of the proposed functions of 
the control module is discussed. The 
processing requirements for the communica- 
tions module are presented along with a 
proposed hardware configuration. The storage 
module, based on a floppy disk system, is ex- 
plained and its required functions defined. A 
display module using an intelligent terminal 
and two CRTs is considered. The 
microprocessing system was designed to show 
not only the power and flexibility of this system, 
but also to demonstrate a potential application 
of low cost microprocessor technology. 



AD-A014 434/5CP PC A07/MF A01 

Aeronomy Corp Champaign III 

Remote Diagnostics and Correlation Analysis 

for Prairie Smoke 

Final technical rept Apr 73-Mar 74 

S. A. Bowhill, E. K. Walton, and D. R. Ward. Jul 

75, 133p RADC-TR-74-182 

Contract F30602-73-C-0178, ARPA Order-1423 

Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, 

NY. 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric modification. Mag- 
netic disturbances, Scintillation, Mathematical 
models, Computerized simulation, Scientific 
satellites, Computer programs 
Identifiers: ISIS- 1 satellite. Remote sensing, F 
region. Spread F, Prairie Smoke project. 

The disturbed ionospheric region produced by 
the Platteville heating transmitter facility was 
studied by the use of orbital and geostationary 
satellite signals It was found that the modifier 
transmitter produces an ellipsoidal disturbed 
region with an e-folding radius of about 50 km. 
This region is centered at the height of max- 



imum of the ionospheric layer and displaced 
about 30 km north of the transmitter. The 
disturbed region is made up of geomagnetic 
field-aligned irregularities, having e-folding 
radius normal to the magnetic field of 75 to 400 
m (the larger values are at night). They drift with 
the neutral wind with velocities of 8 to 25 m/s. 
These disturbances cause scintillations as high 
as 25 percent in a VHF radio signal transmitted 
through it when the line of sight approaches the 
direction of the magnetic field. 



AD-A014 965/8CP PC A11/MF A01 

Kaman Aerospace Corp Bloomfield Conn 
Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System. Volume I. Main Text and Appendix A 

Final rept. 16 Nov 73-19 Nov 74 

Robert C. Bundgaard. Apr 75, 235p FAA-RD-75- 

131-1 

Contract DOT-FA74WA-3363 

Descriptors: "Supersonic aircraft, 'Supersonic 
flight, Sonic boom. Meteorological data, Com- 
munications networks. Weather forecasting, 
Computer graphics. Computer programs. 
Identifiers: "Transcontinental flights, 

'Boomless supersonic flight, DOT/4DZ/DA, 
DOT/4IZ/IA 

In the investigation reported, numerical 
methods simulated supersonic flight carried 
out in real-time and concurrently at present 
time A computer program identifies, acquires, 
analyzes and predicts the information needed 
in order to plan, fly and verify boomless flight. It 
optimizes the cut-off Mach time-gain in trade- 
off along with other pertinent necessary con- 
siderations now being regularly carried out in 
the advanced air operations of today. For com- 
munication information in current real-time for 
boomless transcontinental flights, the in- 
vestigation utilized nationwide networks: 
ARINC, UNINET. The program foresees the fu- 
ture conditions affecting the cut-off Mach flight 
performance in sufficient time for carrying out 
reliable preflight planning and for monitoring 
the in-flight modifications just ahead of the air- 
craft, utilizing the appropriate prediction of at- 
mospheric conditions (boom-ahead computer). 



AD-A015 542/4CP PC A05/MF A01 

Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 

Md 

A Mathematical Model for the Atmospheric 

Dissemination of Evaporating Aerosol Clouds 

(Evaporation Model) 

Technical rept Jan-Dec 74 

Ronald O. Pennsyle. Aug 75, 85p Rept no ED- 

TR-74098 

Descriptors 'Atmospheric motion, "Aerosols, 
'Computerized simulation, Vapors. Particu- 
lates, Transport properties. Mathematical 
models. Computer programs, FORTRAN. 
Evaporation. 

Identifiers: EVAP computer program, FOR- 
TRAN 5 programming language. UNIVAC 1108 
computers. 'Atmospheric diffusion, Settling. 

A mathematical model is presented to describe 
the atmospheric transport and diffusion of a 
cloud of vapor and/or aerosol particles taking 
mlo account the simultaneous evaporation and 
settling of the particles The model has been 
implemented in the computer program EVAP, 
written in FORTRAN V for the Univac 1108. This 
report contains complete documentation of the 
program, including the computer code listing. 



AD-A015 544/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Riverside Research Inst New York 
A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave 
Attenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 

Final technical rept 19 Mar-15 Aug 75 
M Greenebaum, and D. Koppel. 15 Aug 75, 45p 
Rept no RRI-F-1/306-3-14 



Contract DAAH01-74-C-0419, DARPA Order- 
2281 

Descriptors: "Millimeter waves, "Submillimeter 
waves, "Radiation attenuation, "Far infrared 
radiation. Atmospheric motion, Molecular 
spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Carbon 
monoxide, Oxygen, Computer programs, 
Mathematical models, Turbulence, Clouds, 
Isotopes, Absorption(Physical). 
Identifiers: SLAM computer program, 
"Atmospheric attenuation. Oxygen 16, Oxygen 
18, Attitude. 

A summary is presented of new calculations of 
atmospheric absorption line parameters and of 
a slant-path absorption model (SLAM) intended 
for use in the millimeter and submillimeter wave 
spectral regions. Results of a literature survey 
concerning altitude-dependent attenuation and 
dispersion in this spectral region, as well as 
weather-dependent scattering and fading 
strengths, are also summarized. Recommenda- 
tions are given for reducing the uncertainties in 
the model predictions. A list of 318 absorption 
lines of the molecular oxygen isotopes of prin- 
cipal concern in atmospheric transmission 
below 300/cm is included, together with their 
integrated strengths at 296K, line widths, lower- 
state energies, and identifying quantum num- 
bers, in the format of the AFCRL Atmospheric 
Absorption Line Parameters Compilation. 



AD-A015 812/1CP PC A09/MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 

Tex 

Sky Radiance Calculations in the 0.5 

micrometer - 5.0 micrometer Wavelength 

Range 

Final rept. 1 Feb 74-30 Apr 75 

Wolfram G. M. Blattner, and Michael B. Wells. 

31 May 75, 188p RRA-T7501 , AFCRL-TR-75- 

0317 

Contract F19628-74-C-0140 

Descriptors: "Sky brightness, "Aerosols, "Air 
pollution, Atmospheric scattering. Infrared 
spectra, Light transmission, Mathematical 
models, Tables(Data), Atmosphere models. 
Identifiers: Flash computer program, At- 
mospheric attenuation, "Atmospheric emission, 
Radiative transfer. 

The FLASH Monte Carlo code was modified in 
order to allow for the atmospheric emission and 
for the emission by the surface of the earth. The 
modification includes the consideration of the 
newest absorption data available. The FLASH 
program was then used for calculations of the 
radiances obtained for air-borne detectors at 
120, 200, and 35,800 km altitudes. 



AD-A015 861/8CP PC A02/MF A01 

Danish Meteorological Inst Copenhagen 

Geophysical Dept 

Ionospheric Research Using Satellites 

Interim scientific rept no. 4, 1 Jul 74-30 Jun 75 

lb Steen Mikkelsen. 27 Aug 75, 5p AFCRL-TR- 

75-0495 

Grant AF-AFOSR-2161-72 

Descriptors 'Faraday effect, 'Ionosphere, 
Rotation, Photoionization, Computer pro- 
grams. Greenland, Winter, Maps, Summer, 
Contours, Electrons 

Identifiers: TEC(Total Electron Content), Total 
electron content 

ATS-3 Faraday-rotation data gathered at 
Narssarssuaq, Greenland, during the period 
72/04/20 - 74/06/11 has been analyzed. This 
was done by drawing contour-maps of the total 
electron content (TEC) with the aid of a com- 
puter program. These show the general 
changes of TEC with increasing Kp. It is found 
that the day-time values of the winter 73-74 are 
low compared to the winter of 72-73 and are 
possibly a signature of a long time variation of 
the solar activity. (Author) 



AD-A016 673/6CP PC A03/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Inc Palo Alto 
Calif 

Ionospheric Effects Induced by Precipitating 
Auroral Electrons. HAES Report No. 14 
Final rept. 1 Feb 74-1 Feb 75 
J. B. Cladis, G. T. Davidson, W. E. Francis, L. L. 
Newkirk, and M. Walt. 22 Jul 75, 46p DNA-3648F 
Contract DNA01 -74-C-0146 
Report on High Altitude Effects Simulation Pro- 
gram. See also report dated Jan 74, AD-779 892. 

Descriptors: "Ionosphere, "Polar regions, Au- 
rorae, Energy, Deposition, Electrons, Heating, 
Electron flux, Electron density, Nuclear explo- 
sions, High altitude, Ionospheric disturbances. 
Identifiers: Ice cap operation, AURORA com- 
puter code. 

The results of a coordinated experiment con- 
ducted in the auroral zone on 8 December 1971 
were used to determine whether the AURORA 
computer code includes all of the important 
processes associated with the precipitation of 
electrons in the atmosphere. A precipitating 
electron flux was measured with the 1971-089A 
satellite simultaneously with ionospheric elec- 
tron number-density distribution measure- 
ments using the Chatanika incoherent-scatter 
radar. The electron density distribution was 
compared with the distribution computed by 
the AURORA code, using the measured elec- 
tron flux as input. The AURORA code was used 
to compute energy-deposition profiles in the at- 
mosphere due to the precipitation of electrons 
released by high-altitude nuclear detonations. 



AD-A017 026/6CP PC A07/MF A01 

New Mexico State Univ University Park Dept of 
Physics 

Research in the Area of Atmospheric Model- 
ing: High Resolution Atmospheric IR Trans- 
mittance Prediction 
Report for 1 Oct 74-30 Jun 75 
August Miller, Robert L Armstrong , and 
Charles W. Welch. 1 Jul 75, 128p Rept no. 
NMSU-PHYS-537-75-1 
Contract DAAD07-73-C-0134 
See also report dated Aug 75, AD-A016 158. 

Descriptors. "Laser beams, "Light transmission, 
"Aerosols, Atmospheres, Computer programs, 
Absorption spectra, Atmosphere models, FOR- 
TRAN, Infrared signatures. Target detection, At- 
mospheric scattering, Rayleigh scattering, In- 
frared lasers, Surface targets 
Identifiers: Atmospheric transmissivity, FOR- 
TRAN 4 programming language, ATRAN com- 
puter program. 

An atmospheric IR transmittance prediction 
model which includes the effects of high 
resolution molecular absorption, certain 
molecular continuum absorption, Rayleigh 
scattering and single and multiple scattering by 
spherical, polydisperse aerosol materials is 
summarized The multiple-scattering codes are 
discussed in some detail, as are its current 
limitations Representative results obtained for 
three aerosol models are presented, together 
with descriptions of conclusions which may be 
drawn from them In addition, the effects on 
transmittance of using generalized Voight line 
shape profile are discussed Complete Fortran 
IV source code listings, as well as UNIVAC 1 108 
running instructions are appended. 



AD-A017 397/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

Riverside Research Inst New York 
The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillime- 
ter Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the 
Molecular Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, 
(16)0(18)0, and (18)02 
Technical rept 19 Mar-15Aug 75 
M Greenebaum 15 Aug 75, 120p Rept no. RRI- 
T-1/306-3-14 
Contract DAAH01-74-C-0419. ARPA Order-2281 



Descriptors: "Electromagnetic radiation, 
'Oxygen, "Microwave spectroscopy, 

"Radiofrequency spectroscopy, Attenuation, Al- 
titude, Line spectra, Electron transitions, Com- 
puter programs. 

Identifiers: "Oxygen istopes. Oxygen 18, 
"Atmospheric attenuation. 

Calculations are described which yield absorp- 
tion line parameters for the three isotopes of 
molecular oxygen: (16)02, (16)0(18)0, and 
(18)02, in the format of the AFCRL Atmospheric 
Absorption Line Parameters Compilation. The 
line parameters are: transition frequency, in- 
tegrated line strength at 296K, line width, lower- 
state energy, and identifying quantum num- 
bers. These parameters are required as input to 
the SLAM program (described elsewhere) 
which calculates the attenuation vs. altitude at 
any fixed frequency in the millimeter-to-submil- 
limeter wave region. 



AD-A017 459/9CP PC E12/MF E12 

Environmental Research Inst of Michigan Ann 

Arbor Infrared and Optics Div 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 

Methods of Calculation 

IRIA State-of-the-Art rept. 

Anthony J. LaRocca , and Robert E. Turner. Jun 

75, 508p Rept no. ERIM-107600-10-T 

Contract N00014-74-C-0285, N00014-73-A- 

0321-0002 

Descriptors: "Light transmission, "Radiative 
transfer, "Computations, Absorption(Physical), 
Light scattering, Atmospheric chemistry, Water 
vapor, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, 
Methane, Ozone, Aerosols, Particles, Mathe- 
matical analysis, Integral equations, Mathe- 
matical models, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: "Atmospheric transmissivity, At- 
mospheric attenuation. Atmospheric composi- 
tion, Calculations. 

The report is broadly divided into the categories 
of scattering and absorption, with the greater 
stress laid on absorption The first of these is 
the so-called line-by-line direct integration 
method, which requires a detailed compilation 
of the characteristics of individual molecular 
lines. The second of the absorption methods of 
calculation presented is the band-model 
technique. In this method, the line spectrum is 
approximated by some mathematically manipu- 
latable distribution function with undetermined 
band-model parameters. By comparison of cal- 
culated results with laboratory experimental 
data the parameters are defined, and the band- 
model is used for calculating transmittance 
under any required meteorological conditions. 
The third general set of techniques is given the 
heading Multi-Parameter Analytical 

Procedures.' These techniques are derived 
from the band-model concept, incorporating a 
larger number of parameters, with presumably 
greater accuracy in the resultant calculations. 
The rest of the report is either tutorial or sup- 
portive, presenting details of information which 
is required as input to the calculation 
procedures. 



AD-A017 552/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

Winzen Research Inc South St Paul Minn 
Criteria for Controlling Vertical Motion of 
Stratospheric Balloons 

Final rept. 2 Aug 74-31 Aug 75 
Jean R Nelson. 6 Nov 75, 82p 
Contract N00014-75-C-0072 

Descriptors: 'Balloons, 'Ascent trajectories, 
Turbuleni flow, Laminar flow, Aerodynamic 
drag, Diurnal variations, Computer programs, 
Meteorological data 

Identifiers: 'Vertical motion, RISRATE com- 
puter program 

A successful scientific balloon flight mission is 
dependent upon accurate control of vertical 



motion. The scientist wants a rapid ascent to 
his altitude of interest, but this desire must be 
tempered by avoiding aerodynamic stress 
damage to the balloon. Reasonable limits on al- 
titude variation caused by temperature fluctua- 
tion are desired, so effective management of 
ballast is required on zero pressure balloons. 
There are also special situations with multiple 
altitude requirements that require efficient 
management of ballasting and valving for verti- 
cal motion control. Empirical equations were 
developed by the University of Minnesota 
(under contract to ONR and jointly sponsored 
by the U.S. Army, Navy and Air Force) before 
1960. The night ascent technique frequently 
used now also poses a new environment regime 
so it was considered necessary to re-evaluate 
the vertical motion response using current 
computer capabilities. 



AD-A017 664/4CP PC A05/MF A01 

Colorado Univ Boulder Dept of Computer 

Science 

Software Tools for Climate Simulation 

Final rept. 

John M. Gary. 1975, 88p AFOSR-TR-75-1530 

Contract ARPA Order-2792, Grant AF-AFOSR- 

2732-74 

Descriptors: "Climate, "Computerized simula- 
tion, Data processing, Computer programs, 
FORTRAN, Preprocessing, Vector analysis. 
Identifiers: "Climate simulation, Control state- 
ments, Hyperbolic equations, Macro preproces- 
sors, Software. 

The macro preprocessor provides a standard 
type of macro replacement with arguments for 
FORTRAN programs. Conditional macro ex- 
pansion and macrotime arithmetic computation 
is included. Structured control statements 
(IF. ..THEN..., etc.) are added to FORTRAN. A 
preprocessor for FORTRAN containing macro 
capability, vector arithmetic, and finite dif- 
ference operators was designed, but only par- 
tially implemented. A first version of a package 
for the solution of hyperbolic-elliptic equations 
was implemented, but is not yet documented. 
(Author) 



AD-A017 734/5CP PC A06/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom 

AFB Mass 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 

Microns: Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 

Environmental research papers 

J. E. A. Selby, and R. A. McClatchey. 7 May 75, 

1 10p Rept nos. AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AFCRL- 

ERP-513 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, "Laser 
beams, Light transmission, Computer pro- 
grams, Radiative transfer, Infrared radiation, 
Refraction, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: "Atmospheric transmissivity, At- 
mospheric attenuation, LOWTRAN 3 Computer 
program, LightfVisible radiation). 

A FORTRAN computer program, LOWTRAN 3, 
is described for calculating the transmittance of 
the atmosphere in the spectral region from 0.25 
to 28.5 micrometers at a spectral resolution of 
20/cm. The program provides a choice of six at- 
mospheric models covering seasonal and 
latitudinal variations from sea level to 100 km, 
two haze models, and accounts for molecular 
absorption, molecular scattering, and aerosol 
extinction. Refraction and earth curvature ef- 
fects are also included. This program provides 
some modifications to the molecular absorp- 
tion and aerosol extinction data provided in an 
earlier LOWTRAN 2 report. In addition, input 
modifications have been made, making the 
LOWTRAN 3 program considerably more flexi- 
ble in terms of the input of meteorological data. 



AD-A018 300/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 



A Climatology of Marine-Fog Frequencies for 
the North Pacific Ocean Summer Fog Season 

Master's thesis 

Gary Roland Willms. Sep 75. 58p 

Descriptors: "Fog, "Marine climatology, "North 
Pacific Ocean, Summer, Frequency, Computer 
programs, Statistical analysis. Visibility, 
Range(Distance), Classification, Synoptic 
meteorology, Ships, Data acquisition. Record- 
ing systems, Comparison, Weather stations, 
Marine meteorology, Weather, Weather 
forecasting. Military requirements. Com- 
parison. 

This study continues the Naval Postgraduate 
School's development of a computerized pro- 
gram to establish climatological marine-fog 
frequencies. In particular, fog related informa- 
tion contained in the visibility-weather group 
elements of the primary synoptic surface re- 
ports is segregated into 39 fog categories. 
Representative fog durations for each category 
are statistically established from North Pacific 
Ocean Weather Station summer-season data at 
Ships, P, Q, and S. Climatological frequencies 
over the North Pacific Ocean, 30-60N, for the 
months of June, July, August and September 
are derived from 12 years (1963-74) of OWS and 
transient ship observations (about three- 
fourths of a million reports). Comparison to 
previously published climatological frequen- 
cies is made. (Author) 



AD-A018 372/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

Epsilon Labs Inc Bedford Mass 
Balloon Measurements of Stratospheric 
Aerosol Size Distribution Following a Volcanic 
Dust Incursion 

Final rept. 1 Oct 74-31 Aug 75 

Henry A. Miranda, Jr, and John Dulchinos. Aug 

75, 57p AFCRL-TR-75-0518 

Contract F19628-75-C-0004 

See also report dated Jul 74, AD-784 866. 

Descriptors: "Aerosols, "Stratosphere, Particle 
size, Volcanoes, Dust, Cosmic rays. Balloon 
equipment, Spectrum analysis, Computer pro- 
grams, New Mexico, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: DATRUN computer program. 

Stratospheric aerosol size distribution mea- 
surements of the volcanic dust layer over 
Southeastern New Mexico, obtained on a bal- 
loon flight on January 21/22, 1975 several 
months following the Fuego volcanic eruption, 
are presented and discussed in preliminary 
fashion. Altitude profiles of all particles broken 
down into a set of contiguous size ranges in- 
dicate the presence of a pronounced concen- 
tration peak in the 16-21 Km region. Above this 
layer a distinct plateau is seen to exist between 
22 and 26 Km which appears to be absent at 
night This suggests the possibility of sunlight 
nucleation effects occurring in this altitude 
regime A sunrise nucleation experiment con- 
ducted above this plateau region at 28 Km 
shows no evidence of nucleation during the 
first 1/2 hour following local sunrise. A distinct 
altitude-depe. Jent size distribution slope in 
the 23-27 Km region which had been observed 
on a series of previous flight in May of 1973, ap- 
pears to have been shifted to higher altitudes 
(26-28 Km) and is somewhat less pronounced 



AD-A018 562/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

General Dynamics San Diego Calif Electronics 

Div 

Remote Infrared Atmospheric Profiling 

System (RIAPS) 

Final rept. 15 Dec 71-31 Dec 74 

C. R. Claysmith. Feb 75, 1 10p Rept no. R-75-073 

Contract N00014-72-C-01 75 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, 'Infrared 
detectors, 'Radiometers, Far infrared radiation, 
Infrared scanning, Atmospheric temperature. 
Water vapor, Profiles, Remote systems, Com- 
puter programs 



The report describes the development of an in- 
frared sensor operating in the 11 to 20 micron 
region using computerized inversion programs 
to yield temperature and water vapor profiles of 
the earth's atmosphere up to 6 km. The 
development of the sensor system hardware 
and software is summarized for the period 1968 
through 1973, and given in detail for system 
development during 1974. Atmospheric profiles 
acquired and processed under various at- 
mospheric conditions are presented The 
development work is continuing in 1975 under 
ONR contract N00014-75-C-0940. (Author) 



AD-A018 662/7CP PC A08/MF A01 

Digital Programming Services Inc Waltham 

Mass 

Development and Application of Data 

Processing Techniques and Analytic 

Procedures to Cloud Physics Data 

Final rept. 1 Jul 74-30 Jun 75 

Lawrence E. Belsky, Frederic B. Kaplan, and 

Paul M. Rodenhiser. 28 Jul 75, 162p AFCRL-TR- 

75-0427 

Contract F19628-75-C-0043 

Descriptors: "Cloud physics, 'Data processing, 
'Meteorological data, 'Data reduction, Pattern 
recognition. Data acquisition, Airborne, Digital 
computers, Real time, Meteorological radar. 
Computer programs. Radar reflections, At- 
mospheres, Moisture content. Executive rou- 
tines. 

Identifiers: Airborne data collection, PDP 8E 
computer. 

This report outlines the data reduction techin- 
iques used in processing the meteorological 
data collected by the airborne data collection 
system. The real time executive system for the 
on board PDP 8E computer is also fully ex- 
plained. (Author) 



AD-A019 110/6CP PCA06/MFA01 

H SS Inc Bedford Mass 

Auroral Spectrograph Data Reduction System 

Final rept. 1 Jul 73-30 Jun 75 

Lawrence B. Woolaver. 30 Jun 75. 118p HSSB- 

014, AFCRL-TR-75-0360 

Contract F19628-73-C-0299 

Descriptors: 'Aurorae, "Spectrographs, "Data 
reduction, Photographic film, Computer pro- 
gramming. Line spectra, Transfer functions, 
Airglow, Computer programs. Photographic 
processing, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: PATROL computer program, 
EDITPS computer program 

This report presents a data reduction system for 
use with photographic records produced by the 
Model 173 Auroral Spectrograph. The system 
includes the results of a spectral sensitometric 
study designed to overcome the variations in 
field processing of the data film. A computer 
program is presented which searches the data 
base for a selected set of spectral lines and 
computes the line radiance for these lines. 



AD-A019 344/1CP PC A03/MF A01 

Rand Corp Santa Monica Calif 
Programming and the Climate Dynamics Pro- 
ject 

D Cooper, L. Heiser, R. Mobley, A. Nelson, and 
D. Pass. Jul 74, 50p Rept no P-5269 

Descriptors: "Earth models, 'Ocean models, 
'Computerized simulation, "Information 

retrieval, 'Climate, 'Digital computers. 
Minicomputers, Data bases, Networks, Circula- 
tion, Global, Grids(Coordinates), Broadband, 
Communication and radio systems, Computer 
programs, Marine climatology 
Identifiers: 'ARPANET, ILLIAC 4 computers, 
MINTZ - Arakawa model 



Program-ping for the ARPA funded Climate 
Dynamics Project is a mixed bag. The primary 
task is modeling the earth's atmosphere and 
oceans. The ramifications of that task are often 
amazing. They include use of the ILLIAC IV 
computer and the ARPA network, extremely 
large data bases (50 offline 2314 disk packs at 
present, and up to the equivalent of 420 online 
2314's in the future), and graphic display 
systems. The wide variety of computers 
presently used by the project (370/158, 360/91, 
PDP-10, B6700 and ILLIAC IV) present nu- 
merous problems and languages for program- 
mers to contend with. This paper will be an at- 
tempt to summarize all of this activity. (Author) 



AD-A019 494/4CP PC A06/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Application of a Finite Element Method to the 
Barotropic Primitive Equations 

Master's thesis 

Donald Ernest Hinsman. Sep 75, 1 10p 

Descriptors: "Weather forecasting, "Finite ele- 
ment analysis. Partial differential equations, 
Mathematical models, Finite difference theory, 
Analytic functions, Computer programs, 
Matrices(Mathematics), Numerical integration, 
Theses, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: "Numerical weather forecasting, 
Primitive equations, FORTRAN 4 programming 
language. 

A finite element application to the barotropic 
primitive equations is presented including 
theoretical development and the model used. 
Analytic initial data is generated in order to veri- 
fy as well as possible the accuracy of the model. 
A comparison of the model with similar finite 
difference schemes shows that this finite ele- 
ment method exhibits better phase speed 
propagation than comparable second and 
fourth order finite differencing and is competi- 
tive in the size of the allowable time step. 



AD-A019 656/8CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom 
AFB Mass 

The Calculation of Riometer Absorption and 
an Approximation Connection between 
Riometer Absorption and Solar Proton Fluxes 
during Nighttime PCA Events 
Environmental research papers > 

Michael A. Stroscio, and Bach Sellers. 5 Sep 75, 
39p Rept nos. AFCRL-TR-75-0469, AFCRL- 
ERP-531 
Prepared in cooperation with Panametrics, Inc. 

Descriptors: 'Polar cap absorption, "Riometers, 
Absorption coefficients, Protons, Solar cosmic 
rays, Particle flux, Recombination reactions, 
Night, Atmospheric physics, Mathematical 
models, Atmosphere models, Transport proper- 
ties, Diurnal variations, Computer programs. 
Ionosphere, Experimental data, Greenland, 
Day 

In this report, the calculation of riometer ab- 
sorption during several PCA events of particu- 
lar interest is presented. These calculations are 
based on earlier work in which an improved ef- 
fective recombination coefficient was derived 
and an atmospheric model for (1) each month 
of the year, (2) day and night, and (3) 60 deg N 
and 90 deg N latitude was presented. In this re- 
port, the calculated values of riometer absorp- 
tion are presented for 5 PCA events: 2 Nov. 69, 7 
Mar. 70, 25 Jan. 71, 2 Sep. 71, and 3 Aug. 72. 
The calculated values of riometer absorption 
are compared with experimental values mea- 
sured for both day and night conditions at 
Thule, Greenland An approximate connection 
between riometer absorption and the square- 
root of the proton flux for nighttime conditions 
is presented This relationship, which has previ- 
ously been applied only for daytime conditions, 
is discussed both on a fundamental level and 
on the level of verification by comparison with 



experiment. In addition, the basic equation 
widely used to calculate riometer absorption is 
compared with the original Sen-Wyller result. 



AD-A020 045/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 

(Navy) Monterey Calif 

A Cloud Advection Model 

Roland Nagle. May 75, 119p Rept no. EPRF-CP 

Note-20 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, "Clouds, 
"Meteorological satellites, "Numerical analysis, 
"Algorithms, "Computer programs, Mathemati- 
cal models, Meteorological data, Subroutines, 
Flow charting, Data storage systems. 
Identifiers: Satellite weather. Cloud advection 
model. 

A detailed description of a program which 
produces cloud forecasts for periods of 12, 24, 
and 36 hours by Quasi-Lagrangian advection is 
presented. The principles on which the pro- 
gram is based are explained. Detailed presenta- 
tions of the logic of each subroutine in the pro- 
gram are provided, along with descriptions of 
the specific numerical algorithms which are 
utilized. Program listings and flow diagrams are 
shown. Options for both extended core storage 
(ECS) and mass storage versions of the pro- 
gram are provided. Listings of both Varian out- 
put and for high quality, hard copy, grey-scale 
output are presented. Finally, sample output of 
the Varian and Muirhead output of the program 
are shown. (Author) 



AD-A020 301/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass 
Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in 
the Magnetosphere 

Final rept. 1 Apr 73-31 Jul 75 

William F. Bel lew, Charles J. Cantor, and M. 

Patricia Hagan. Nov 75, 121p AFCRL-TR-75- 

0588 

Contract F19628-73-C-0081 

Descriptors: 'Minicomputers, "Computer pro- 
grams, "Atmosphere models, "Magnetosphere, 
Eigenvectors, Wave propagation, Mag- 
netohydrodynamic waves. Magnetic storms, 
Polarization, Geomagnetism, Forecasting, Data 
acquisition, Real time, Signal processing, Input 
output devices. Mass storage, Central 
processing units. 

Identifiers: Varian 72 computers, Magnetic sub- 
storms, Micropulsations. 

This report details the specifications of the min- 
computer located at AFCRL, which has been in- 
stalled for data reception in the MAGAF 
(Micropulsation Analysis for Geomagnetic Ac- 
tivity Forecasting) network. Further, mathe- 
matical analyses of magnetospheric models are 
presented, together with computer programs 
written to produce theoretical results for an- 
ticipated network problems. 



AD-A020 458/6CP PC A03/MF A01 

Arizona Univ Tucson 

Climatic Modeling of the Earth-Atmosphere 

System 

Final rept. 1 Jul 70-31 Dec 75 

William D Sellers. 31 Dec 75, 31p ARO-9077 6- 

EN 

Contract DAHC04-70-C-0038 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, "Climate, 
'Computer programs, Global, Machine coding. 
Atmospheric precipitation, Grids(Coordinates), 
Atmospheric temperature. Distribution, 

Periodic variations, Oceans, Surface tempera- 
ture, Land areas. Hydrology, Cycles, Cloud 
cover, Sea ice, Carbon dioxide. Energy levels. 
Thermodynamics, Solar radiation, Heat 
transfer, Aerosols, Horizontal orientation. Verti- 
cal orientation. Earth orbits. 



During the course of this research three global 
climate models (I, II, and III) have been 
developed. The first two are vertically-in- 
tegrated and use a grid spacing of 10 deg of 
latitude in the north-south direction. Model I 
differentiates zonally only between land and 
water. Model II uses a zonal grid of 10 deg of 
longitude and is the only one of the models to 
include a hydrologic cycle and variable cloud 
cover. Model III is a two-dimensional zonally- 
averaged model with a grid spacing of 7.5 deg 
of latitude horizontally and 3 km vertically (10 
layers). Each model has its own advantages and 
disadvantages. Model I is probably the most 
practical to use in studies of climatic change. 
The model is fast, requiring very little computer 
time, and reproduces the present climate of the 
earth quite well. Models II and III should both be 
improved considerably before being used in 
studies of climatic change. (Author) 



AD-A021 213/4CP PC A08/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
(Navy) Monterey Calif 

Objective Analysis Technique in Sigma Coor- 
dinates 

Technical paper 

Dieter Schiessl. Nov 75, 157p Rept no. 
ENVPREDRSCHF-tech paper-20-75 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, Atmosphere 
models, Wind, Barometric pressure, Mathe- 
matical models. Computer programs. Northern 
hemisphere. 

Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, 
'Objective weather forecasting, Primitive equa- 
tions. 

A three-step objective analysis technique for in- 
itializing Fleet Numerical Weather Central's 
Primitive Equation Forecast Model in the 63x63 
Northern Hemisphere Polar Stereographic Grid 
is described. In the first step, an analysis is per- 
formed at 10 mandatory pressure levels. In the 
second step, the mandatory pressure level 
heights are transformed into sigma coordinates 
by using a mass structure conversion 
procedure which describes the physical pro- 
perties of an air column through static stability 
parameters over defined pressure increments. 
In the third step, raw data are converted to 
sigma coordinates by an identical procedure 
and reanalyzed in sigma coordinates by using 
the transformed pressure level analysis as ini- 
tial guess. The applied numerical analysis 
method is based on the pattern-conserving 
analysis technique FIB (Field by Information 
Blending) which allows wind and height reports 
to be treated as independent information sets 
and to be analyzed simultaneously. 



AD-A021 524/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Missouri Univ Columbia Information Science 
Group 

Disease Information System. Ground Tem- 
perature Derived from Other Geophysical Ob- 
servations 
Interim rept. 

John A. Spratt, Francis R. Watson, and Donald 
A. B. Lindberg. Jan 76, 73p Rept no MOU-IS- 
PR-8 
Contract DAMD17-74-C-4122 

Descriptors: "Diseases, 'Information systems, 
'Climate, Schistosomiasis, Predictions, Tem- 
perature, Regression analysis, Topographic 
maps, Mathematical models, Least squares 
method, Computer programs, Mathematical 
prediction, Saudi Arabia, Middle East. 
Identifiers: Temperature charts, Software. 

This paper describes two mathematical 
methods for predicting temperatures over a 
relatively large area when only a small amount 
of actual data is known. Known temperatures 
from a few locations are compared with the 
physical characteristics of these locations from 
data gathered from standard topographic 



maps. The topographic data for the unknown 
sites is then recorded and a prediction is made 
of these site using the data and temperatures 
from the known sites. The first method is a 
statistical regression analysis which can only 
be done with the aid of a large computer. The 
second method is a simplified version of the 
first which can be implemented on a smaller 
machine or by hand if necessary. (Author) 



AD-A021 638/2CP PC A05/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
(Navy) Monterey Calif 

A Generalized Version of the Fields by Infor- 
mation Blending (FIB) Technique 
Byron R. Maxwell. Feb 76, 90p Rept no. 
ENVPREDRSCHF-tech note-24 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Numerical 
analysis, Wind, Climate, Differential equations. 
Computerized simulation, Computer programs, 
Atmosphere models. 

Identifiers: 'Numerical weather forecasting, 
FIB(Fields by Information Blending), Fields by 
information blending. 

This report describes a generalized version of 
the Fields by Information Blending (FIB) 
technique for generating a scalar analysis. 
Several highly successful versions of the FIB 
were developed for operational use at the Fleet 
Numerical Weather Central. These versions are 
restricted to the analysis of a particular variable 
such as sea level pressure, surface winds, or 
sea surface temperature on a fixed grid projec- 
tion such as the FNWC 63 x 63 polar stereo- 
graphic projection. The generalized version 
described in the report can be used for the 
analysis of any scalar variable on a prescribed 
but variable rectangular domain The report in- 
cludes a detailed discussion of the underlying 
principles of the FIB and a basic evaluation of 
this generalized version for some selected test 
cases. 



AD-A021 772/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst Menlo Park Calif 
Implementation of the SRI Objective Cloud 
Tracking System at NEPRF 

Final rept. Jul 74-Sep 75 on Task A 

David J Hall, and Daniel E. Wolf. Oct 75, 56p 

EPRF-TR-9-75-SRI 

Contract N66314-74-C-2350 

Descriptors: "Clouds, 'Cloud cover, 'Tracking, 
Meteorological satellites, Pictures, Vector anal- 
ysis, Clustering, Pattern recognition, Computer 
programs. Weather forecasting, Navy. 
Identifiers: Satellite pictures, Cloud tracking 
systems, Isodata computer program. 

This report describes project work for the Naval 
Environmental Prediction Research Facility 
(NEPRF) of the U.S. Navy. The unique SRI Ob- 
jective Cloud Tracking System (also known as 
ISODATA) has been converted for use on the 
EPRF's computer hardware — a NOVA com- 
puter. The original programs were written in 
FORTRAN for a CDC 6400 computer. The con- 
version has been carried out partly by means of 
an automatic conversion program and partly by 
mutual conversion. The report not only lists the 
conversion operations in detail, but also docu- 
ments the programs so that future improve- 
ments and adaptations to interactive use with 
displays can begin from a clear base 



AD-A021 786/9CP PC A02/MF A01 

Aerospace Corp El Segundo Calif Chemistry 

and Physics Lab 

Band Model Parameters for the 4.3-rt icrons 

Fundamental Band of C02 in the 100-3000 K 

Temperature Range 

Interim rept. 

Stephen J. Young. 19 Feb 76, 23p TR- 

0076(6754-03)-1, SAMSO-TR-76-35 

Contract F04701-75-C-0076, DARPAOrder- 

2843 



Descriptors: "Carbon dioxide, 'Band spectra. 
Parameters, Spectrum analysis, Infrared spec- 
troscopy, Absorption spectra, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Identifiers: Laboratory tests, Atmospheric at- 
tenuation. 

A set of band model parameters for C02 in the 
4.3-micrometer spectral region and consistent 
for the entire temperature range from near-am- 
bient atmospheric temperatures (about 200K) 
to gas combustion temperatures (about 2500K) 
is constructed. This construction is accom- 
plished by joining together band model 
parameters derived from the AFCRL at- 
mospheric absorption line data compilation 
(LINAVEC02 parameters) and parameters tabu- 
lated in the NASA Handbook of Infrared Radia- 
tion from Combustion Gases (NASAC02 
parameters). The former set adequately 
describes the low-temperature variations of the 
parameters, but is inadequate for high-tem- 
perature applications. The latter set is suitable 
for high-temperature applications, but fails for 
low-temperature cases. Examples of the defi- 
ciencies of these two sets are presented by 
comparison of predicted spectra with experi- 
mental absorption and emission spectra for 
low- and high-temperature gas samples. The 
adequacy of the combined band model 
parameter set (COMBC02 parameters) is 
demonstrated by comparison with the same ex- 
perimental data. Examples of the construction 
of the combined set are given, and a tabulation 
of the parameter set is included as an Appen- 
dix. 



AD-A021 907/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge Dept of 

Meteorology 

Application of Satellite Cloud-Motion Vectors 

to Hurricane Track Prediction 

Alan L. Adams, and Frederick Sanders. Dec 75, 

60p Scientific-1, AFCRL-TR-75-0635 

Contract F19628-75-C-0059 

Descriptors: 'Tropical cyclones, 'Hurricanes, 
'Weather forecasting. Radiosondes, Air mass 
analysis, Clouds, Motion, Vector analysis, 
Meteorological satellites, Pictures, Wind, 
Troposphere, Atmospheric motion, Linear 
regression analyses 
Identifiers: SANBAR computer program. 

The representation of the mean tropospheric 
flow by satellite-derived cloud-motion vectors 
is studied for use in a barotropic hurricane pre- 
diction model. The systematic use of these vec- 
tors is considered over areas not covered by 
rawinsonde data to aid the inital analysis of the 
flow pattern. Linear regression analysis is used 
to develop equations for the pressure-averaged 
tropospheric flow from data at only 1, 2, or 3 
levels. The equations are derived from a large 
sample of rawinsonde observations, used as 
simulated cloud-motion vectors, from the tropi- 
cal and subtropical latitudes of the Northern 
Hemisphere. The performance of the regres- 
sion equations on independent data is con- 
sidered, as is the loss of skill when satellite 
winds are used in the equations instead of 
rawinsonde winds. The satellite data is applied, 
in a pilot study, to two operational SANBAR 
hurricane forecasts, with inconclusive results 
(Author) 



AD-A022 268/7CP PC A03/MF A01 

Rand Corp Santa Monica Calif 
Computations with the Rand Cloud Model for 
the HIPLEX Workshop, June 1975 

F. W. Murray. Jul 75, 39p Rept no P-5473 

Descriptors: 'Artificial precipitation, 'Cloud 
physics, "Atmosphere models, Computations, 
Computer programs, Nucleation, Two dimen- 
sional flow, Vortices, Atmospheric physics. 
Wind velocity. Water vapor, Ice, Particles. Mix- 
tures, Concentration(Chemistry), Atmospheric 



temperature, United States, Feasibility studies, 
Radar reflections, Vertical orientation, Pertur- 
bations. 

The High Plains Cooperative Experiment spon- 
sored by the Division of Atmospheric Water 
Resource Management of the Bureau of Recla- 
mation is a large-scale project to study the 
feasibility of augmenting precipitation in the 
High Plains region by artificial means. In July 
1974 a planning workshop was held in Vail, 
Colorado, at which intensive studies of the 
requirements for cloud modeling, measure- 
ments, and design and evaluation were made. 
One recommendation that came from the 
modeling sessions was that of the models 
developed by the various participants be tested 
with the same set of data, and that another 
workshop be convened to compare the results 
This was done, and the modeling workshop was 
held in Denver on 11-13 June 1975. Approxi- 
mately 14 participants presented results of their 
models. Data for two days, 10 and 17 August 
1973, for the St. Louis region from Project 
METROMEX were provided. The remainder of 
the workshop was devoted to working up 
recommendations for observations to be made 
during the high Plains Experiment both for ini- 
tialization and verification of the model. 



AD-A022 317/2CP PC A02/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command Fort Monmouth N 
J 

A Digital Data Acquisition Interface for the 
SMS Direct Readout Ground Station - Con- 
cept and Preliminary Design 
Technical rept 

George D. Alexander. Oct 75, 19p Rept no. 
ECOM-5577 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological satellites, 

'Ground stations, 'Data acquisition. Images, 
Digital systems, Interfaces, Data processing, 
Data storage systems, Information retrieval, 
Computer program documentation, 

Preprocessing, Synchronous satellites, Read 
out techniques, Minicomputers. 
Identifiers: Computer software, Design, Digital 
processing. 

General specifications are generated for hard- 
ware and software that will permit retrieval, 
preprocessing, and storage of digital 
meteorological satellite imagery data that are 
presently available to researchers only in 
analogue (transparency) format. (Author) 



AD-A022 677/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

Boston Coll Chestnut Hill Mass Space Data 

Analysis Lab 

Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the 

Upper Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket 

Measurments 

Final rept 4 Dec 73-3 Dec 75 

Carol I. Foley, Susan H. Delay, and Jeffrey M 

Forbes 31 Jan 76, 112p BC-SDAL-76-1 , AFGL- 

TR-76-0025 

Contract F19628-73-C-0134 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Ionosphere, 
'Meteorological phenomena, 'Meteorological 
satellites, 'Sounding rockets, D region, 
Ephemerides, Protons, Atmospheric density, 
Atmospheric chemistry, Ionization, Earth 
models, Mathematical prediction, Geopotential, 
Computer prog rams 
Identifiers: E region, Thermosphere model. 

Ionospheric phenomena were studied based on 
analyses of satellite and rocket borne instru- 
mentation measurements Areas of interest in- 
cluded determination of atmospehric number 
densities, ionic compostion, ionization produc- 
tion rates, and scale heights. Various geopoten- 
tial and density models were used to verify 
results A three-dimensional numerical model 
ot the quiet-time thermosphere was developed 
Some of the computer programs written and 



developed for these studies are included in this 
report. (Author) 



AD-A022 678/7CP PC A02/MF A01 

Information Design Inc Bedford Mass 

Analysis of Chemical Smoke Releases to 

Characterize Stratospheric/Thermospheric 

Wind Fields 

Final rept. 10 Apr-1 Dec 75 

Sheldon B. Michaels, Jeffrey S. Morris, and Otis 

Philbrick. Jan 76, 10p AFGL-TR-76-0011 

Contract F19628-75-C-0146 

Descriptors: 'Wind, Smoke, Release, Photo- 
grammetry, Triangulation, Position finding, 
Computer programs, Man computer interface, 
Stratosphere, Thermosphere, Chemicals, Wind 
direction indicators, Tracking, 

Radius(Measure), Densitometers, Photographic 
analysis, Digitizers, Subroutines. 
Identifiers. Chemical releases, Smoke trails. 

Position data needed for triangulation of smoke 
trails was obtained from photographic films 
supplied by AFCRL. Interactive computer pro- 
grams were developed to locate smoke puff 
centers and to estimate Gaussian radii. 



AD-A022 975/7CP PC A07/MF A01 

Analysis and Computer Systems Inc Burlington 
Mass 

Development of Numerical Techniques and 
Computer Systems for Climatological Iono- 
spheric and Microwave Physics Applications 
Final rept. 1 Mar 74-31 Dec 75 
James F. Atkinson, Harold L. Dolan, Peter W. 
Lindstrom, and Kenneth C. Zwirble. Jan 76, 
146p AFGL-TR-76-0006 
Contract F19628-74-C-0122 

Descriptors: 'Climate, 'Meteorology, 

'Microwaves, 'Ionosphere, 'Radio astronomy, 
Physics, Computer programs. Transducers, 
Data processing, Artificial satellites, Solar 
physics, Numerical analysis. 
Identifiers: Surface acoustic waves, Total elec- 
tron content. 

During the period of performance, over 60 pro- 
grams were completed ranging in complexity 
and size from conversion of programs from one 
language or computer system to another, to 
design and development of a large scale system 
operating in a real time environment. The com- 
puter programs and numerical techniques 
developed under this contract supported AFGL 
research projects in such areas as: Climatolo- 
gy, Meteorology, Microwave Physics, Iono- 
spheric Physics and Radio Astronomy. Some of 
these projects are outlined in this report. 



AD-A023 078/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Harry Diamond Labs Adelphi Md 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 

Technical rept. 

DominickAGiglioNov75.41pReptno.HDL- 

TR-1733 

Descriptors: 'Mie scattering, 'Asymptotic se- 
ries, 'Computer programs, "Aerosols, Coeffi- 
cients, Computations, Plane waves, Spheres, 
Refractive index, Rayleigh scattering. 
Identifiers: Mie coefficient. Atmospheric at- 
tenuation, Atmospheric transmissivity. 

Analytic expressions for the asymptotic forms 
of the Mie coefficients are derived. The asymp- 
totic regions are defined as those where one of 
the dimensionless parameters x or n is much 
larger than the other, x being the Mie size 
parameter and n the coefficient index The ac- 
curacy and range of applicability of the results 
is investigated and some important special 
cases are treated in detail. The utility of the 
results in numerical computations is also 
discussed (Author) 



AD-A023 183/7CP PC E03/MF A01 

Naval Oceanographic Office Washington D C 
A Numerical Ice Forecasting System 

Reference publication 

Donald J. Gerson. Oct 75, 146 Rept no. NOO- 

RP-8 

Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Sea ice, 'Ice formation, Forecast- 
ing, Mathematical programming, Marine 
meteorology, Weather forecasting, Numerical 
analysis, Mathematical prediction, Data bases, 
Estimates, Meteorological data. Snow, Depth, 
Thickness, Atmospheric temperature, Sea 
water, Temperature, Ocean surface, Synoptic 
meteorology. Computer programs. Flow chart- 
ing, Arctic regions. Naval operations. 

This forecasting system provides estimates of 
current ice thickness and forecasts of ice for- 
mation and thickness for 62 locations in the 
Arctic. It also provides forecasting aids such as 
selected sea surface temperatures, snow 
depths, mean daily air temperature trends, and 
degree-day accumulations. The observations 
are obtained on magnetic tape from the Na- 
tional Meteorological Center on a near-real- 
time basis. The forecast techniques are statisti- 
cal processes based on local climatology. The 
system presently is producing outputs on a 
daily basis. It is expandable in design so that as 
new forecasting methods are developed they 
can be integrated into the program. Since the 
data base consists of all the world's synoptic 
weather observations, the expansion may be 
into fields other than ice prediction. 



AD-A023 537/4CP PC A08/MF A01 

Science Applications Inc Arlington Va 
Propagation Modeling and Analysis for High 
Energy Lasers 

Final rept. Jul 74 -Mar 75 

L. N Peckham, P. R. Carlson, R. T. Liner, and C. 

W. Wilson. Apr75, 161p Rept no. SAI-74-629- 

WA 

Contract N60921 -75-C-0007 

Descriptors: 'Continuous wave lasers, 'Laser 
beams, Wave propagation, Atmospheric win- 
dows. Light transmission, Turbulence, Mirrors, 
Optical equipment, Apertures, Mathematical 
models. Computer programs, Deuterium com- 
pounds. Fluorides, Far field, Thermal blooming, 
Finite element analysis. 

Identifiers: "Atmospheric transmissivity. At- 
mospheric attenuation. Deuterium fluoride 
lasers, SAICOM computer program. 

This report analyzes simplified propagation 
codes and recommends improved models for 
characterizing the propagation of high energy 
CW laser beams. The following are included: A 
simplified optical train model; Creation of SA- 
ICOM computer program; Molecular absorp- 
tion of DF laser radiation. 



AD-A023 676/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

Naval Environmental Prediction Research 
Facility Monterey Calif 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Pacific Ocean and Australian Re- 
gion 

Samson Brand, and Jack W. B lei loch Mar 76. 
22p Rept no EPRF-Technical paper-1-76 

Descriptors: "Tropical cyclones, 'Computer 
programs, 'Weather forecasting, Australia, 
South Pacific Ocean, Fleets(Ships), Indian 
Ocean, Weather stations, Pacific Ocean Islands 
Identifiers: Southeast Indian Ocean, Southwest 
Pacific Ocean, Guam, Mariana Islands 

A tropical cyclone analog program for the 
Southwest Pacific Ocean and Australian areas 
(SWPAC75) is described. The program is 
statistical computer technique to provide 
forecasts of Southwest Pacific Ocean and Aus- 
tralian region tropical cyclones from 12-72 



10 



hours The analog program is discussed in 
terms of its operational use at Fleet Weather 
Central, Guam, Mariana Islands. (Author) 



AD-A024 146/3CP PC A03/MF A01 

Minnesota Univ Morris Div of Science and 
Mathematics 

Ionospheric Chemistry: Comparison of 
AIRCHEM Predictions with Results of Labora- 
tory Simulations 
Final rept. 

Merle N. Hirsh. 30 Dec 75, 45p ARO-12145.1- 
RTL 

Grant DAHC04-74-G-0045 
See also report dated Jul 74, AD-785 713. 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, "Aeronomy, Labora- 
tory tests, Field tests. Reaction kinetics, Ta- 
bles(Data), Graphs, Ionospheric chemistry, 
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Water, Car- 
bon dioxide, Ions, Ozone. 

Identifiers: 'Atom molecule interactions, 
AIRCHEM computer code, Computer applica- 
tions. 

The AIRCHEM code has been used to calculate 
the time evolution of ionic and neutral species 
during a 10 raised to the third power-second 
bombardment of airlike N2:02 mixtures at p()2 
and 5 Torr and 300K by 1-MeV electrons. To test 
the sensitivity of the predictions to assumptions 
regarding the production rates of specific 
atomic and molecular ionic and metastable 
species in collisions of energetic electrons with 
N2 and 02 molecules, three sets of rates cur- 
rently used by aeronomists were employed, as 
tabulated below; here Q(X) is the number of X 
produced per secondary electron. The im- 
portance of Q(N2D) on the buildup of NO and 
N02, and on the resulting behavior of 03, is 
demonstrated Implications to the ion spectra 
are pointed out. Effects of assumed initial con- 
centrations of N02 in the 10 raised to -7 
through 10 raised to -8 range are noted. Ion 
spectra obtained in the laboratory during elec- 
tron bombardment of airlike N202 mixtures 
containing traces of H20 and C02, at 2 and 5 
Torr, were compared with the predictions 
based on AIRCHEM Many features of the ion 
spectra agree with theory. Thus, the general 
ionic composition of the laboratory plasma is as 
expected. 



AD-A024 311/3CP PC A06/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Lexington Lincoln 
Lab 

Statistics of Global IR Atmospheric Transmis- 
sion 

Project rept. 

Anthony P. Modica, and Herbert Kleiman. 3 Mar 
76, 101p TT-7, ESD-TR-76-67 
Contract F19628-76-C-0002. ARPA Order-2752 

Descriptors: "Light transmission, "Infrared 
radiation. Attenuation, Atmospheres, Transmis- 
sion loss, Visibility, Humidity, Fog, Haze, Rain, 
Ceiling, Atmosphere models, Mathematical pre- 
diction, Sea level, Narrowband, Line of sight, 
Northern hemisphere, Meteorological data, 
Statistical distributions, Seasonal variations, 
Geographical distribution, Data bases, Elec- 
trooptics, Lasers. Weapon system effective- 
ness. 

Identifiers LOWTRAN computer program, 
HOWLS project, Opaque project, Atmospheric 
attenuation, Atmospheric transmissivity 

RAND weather data tapes have been used to 
obtain statistics of visibility, relative humidity 
and cloud ceiling heights for weather stations 
throughout the Northern Hemisphere to 
generate global probabilities for atmospheric 
attenuation in the infrared spectral region. The 
present analysis predicts seasonal probabilities 
for horizontal sea level transmission losses for 
several narrow IR bands (1.0-1 .2), (3.8-4.2), (8.0- 
11.5 micrometers) and four laser lines (1 .06), 
(3 83). (4'73) and (106 micrometers). The 



results also include cloud-free-line-of-sight 
probabilities and attenuation losses through 
rain. (Author) 



AD-A024 393/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

Optical Science Consultants Yorba Linda Calif 
Predetection Compensated Imaging Theory 

Interim rept. 18 Aug 75-15 Feb 76 

David L. Fried. Apr 76, 1 10p DR-059, RADC-TR- 

76-103 

Contract F30602-76-C-0005 

Descriptors: 'Optical images, 'Optical detec- 
tion, "Light transmission, Wavefronts, Finite 
element analysis. Computer programs. Phased 
arrays. Atmospheres, Optical instruments, At- 
mospheric sounding, Scintillation, Integral 
equations. Transfer functions, Apertures. 
Identifiers: Atmospheric transmissivity, 

Isoplanatism, Atmospheric attenuation, BASIC 
programming language. 

This report presents results on several subjects 
related to predetection compensated imaging. 
In Chapter I, it treats the relationship between 
noise in phase difference measurements and 
the resultant noise in the estimated wavefront. 
In Chapter II, results are presented for use in 
reduction and interpretation of the AMOS site 
characterization measurements. Chapter III 
presents results on the subject of intensity 
isoplanatism. Chapter IV is concerned with the 
accuracy with which the achieved OTF of a 
predetection compensated image can be esti- 
mated. 



AD-A024 721/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

Georgia Inst of Tech Atlanta School of 

Mechanical Engineering 

Geometrical Acoustics Techniques in Far 

Field Infrasonic Waveform Syntheses 

Scientific rept. no. 2 

Allan D. Pierce, and Wayne A Kinney. 7 Mar 76, 

69p AFGL-TR-76-0055 

Contract F19628-74-C-0065 

See also AD-A022 978. 

Descriptors: 'Infrasonics, *Ray tracing, 
Waveforms, Far field. Acoustic velocity. At- 
mospheres, Wave propagation. Computations, 
Computer programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Caustics, Airy functions, 

"Geometrical acoustics. 

The present report is concerned with the 
development of a computational model for the 
prediction of long range infrasound propaga- 
tion in the atmosphere. The computational 
model discussed here is one which is partly 
based on ray acoustic concepts; it should be 
applicable to wave periods less than three 
minutes and is intended to complement the 
guided mode model of acoustic gravity wave 
propagation which has been extensively 
discussed in previous reports and papers. 



AD-A024 951/6CP PC A09/MF A01 

Georgia Inst of Tech Atlanta School of 
Mechanical Engineering 

Computational Techniques for the Study of 
Infrasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 

Final rept. 1 5 Oct 73-31 Dec 75 

Allan D Pierce, and Wayne A Kinney 13 Mar 

76, 187p AFGL-TR-76-0056 

Contract F19628-74-C-0065 

Descriptors: 'Acoustic waves, 'Atmospheres, 
'Wave propagation, 'Computer programs, 
'Nuclear explosion damage, Acoustic signa- 
tures, Waveforms, Synthesis, Numerical analy- 
sis, High frequency 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric acoustics. Nuclear ex- 
plosion effects. Infrasonic waveform computer 
program 

A discussion is given of theoretical studies on 
infrasound propagation through the at- 



mosphere which were carried out under the 
contract. Topics discussed include (1) the 
modification and adaptation of a computer pro- 
gram for the prediction of pressure signatures 
at large distances from nuclear explosions to 
include leaking guided modes, (2) the nature of 
guided infrasonic modes at higher infrasonic 
frequencies and the methods of extending 
waveform synthesis procedures to include 
higher frequencies, and (3) the propagation of 
infrasonic pressure pulses past the antipodes 
(over halfway around the globe). Summaries 
are included of all papers, theses, and reports 
written under the contract and conclusions and 
recommendations for future studies are given. 



AD-A025 280/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 

An Examination of the Adequacy of the 

Three-Species Air Chemistry Treatment for 

the Prediction of Surface-Burst EMP 

Topical rept. Apr 74-Dec 75 

William A. Radasky. Dec 75, 43p MRC-R-244. 

DNA-3880T 

Contract DNA001-75-C-0094 

Descriptors: "Electromagnetic pulses, 

"Mathematical models, "Atmospheric chemis- 
try, "Nuclear explosions, Electrons, Ions, 
Chemical reactions, Electron density. Gas 
ionization, Water vapor, Detonations, Dissocia- 
tion, Reaction time, Transport properties. Sur- 
face burst. 

Identifiers: DCHEM computer code, Lower at- 
mosphere. 

In the past the calculation of the air conductivi- 
ty for use in ground-burst EMP codes has been 
accomplished through the solution of a three 
species, lumped parameter set of air chemistry 
equations. This report examines the adequacy 
of this treatment with respect to a more 
complete solution of the air chemistry equa- 
tions using the DCHEM code. The study is per- 
formed for variations in the peak air ionization 
rate and the water vapor fraction; possible elec- 
tron temperature dependences normally as- 
sociated with large electric EMP fields were, 
however, neglected in order to narrow the 
scope of the effort. The conclusions of this 
study indicate that the lumped parametar ap- 
proach may be usable, but the coefficients em- 
ployed in the past were in error. 



AD-A025 675/OCP PC A07/MF A01 

Naval Academy Annapolis Md Div of Engineer- 
ing and Weapons 

The Kinetics of Evolution of Water Vapor 
Clusters in Air 
Final rept 1964-1975 
A. A. Pouring Dec 75, 140p Rept no. EW-3-74 

Descriptors: "Water vapor, "Condensation, 
'Clustering, 'Nucleation, Kinetics, Air, Super- 
sonic nozzles, Metastable state, Supersatura- 
tion, Equilibrium(General). Computer pro- 
grams, Fortran 

The kinetic theory of cluster formation in a con- 
densing gas proposed by Buckle (1) attempts to 
calculate the course of homogeneous conden- 
sation from molecular rather than ther- 
modynamic precepts Here it is applied to the 
rapid nonequilibrium expansion of atmospheric 
water vapor in air A method is established for 
demonstrating the validity of this theory, 
originally proposed for a mono-molecular gas, 
in the case of a complicated species such as 
water vapor. Cluster conditions in the tempera- 
ture range 210-295 K and the vapor pressure 
are calculated throughout the collapse of a su- 
persaturated metastable vapor An effective 
molecular pair interaction energy and nearest 
neighbor coordination number is found based 
on the classical zero-point enthalpy of sublima- 
tion and by iteration to satisfy initial equilibrium 
limiting constraints at 273 K. The internal ener- 
gy redistribution frequency results from close 



11 



matching of the experimental pressure distribu- 
tion. A method of determining the cluster size at 
which macroscopic properties become relevant 
is described; the size is found to be a cluster of 
about 122 molecules at 273 K based on a hard 
sphere model collision cross section. For the 
water vapor dimer an equilibrium constant of 4 
x 10 to the -21st power/cc is found at 273 K 
compared to 3.1 x 10 to the -21st power/cc ob- 
tained from Keyes data. Two models for water 
vapor clusters result (from satisfying all con- 
straints imposed on the theory) which are given 
in terms of number of nearest neighbors, pair 
interaction energy per molecule (2.9kcal/mol at 
273 K) and possible structure on a cluster by 
cluster basis for a classical hard sphere model 
and for a model approximating a Pauling type 
clathrate. (Author) 



AD-A026 456/4CP PC A06/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Transonic Thermal Blooming 

Doctoral thesis 

Edwin Fenton Carey, Jr. Mar 76, 1 20p 

Descriptors: "Laser beams, "Thermal blooming, 
'Transonic flow, Atmospheric motion, Heat, In- 
tegral equations, Mathematical analysis. Equa- 
tions of motion, Graphs, Computer programs, 
Algebraic functions, Theses, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric transmissivity, At- 
mospheric attenuation, BLOOM computer pro- 
gram. 

According to the linearized solutions for ther- 
mal blooming, the density perturbations 
become infinite (i.e. 'catastrophic' defocusing) 
as the Mach number approaches unity. How- 
ever, the nonlinearities in the transonic equa- 
tions cutoff the trend to infinity, and the values 
of the flow perturbation quantities are finite. 
The nonlinear equations with heat addition are 
transformed into simple linear algebraic equa- 
tions through the specification of the stream- 
line geometry in the heat release region. At a 
Mach number of unity, streamtube area varia- 
tion was found to be directly proportional to the 
change in total temperature. A steady, two- 
dimensional mixed flow solution has been 
found for the transonic thermal blooming 
problem. The solution for the density perturba- 
tions within a laser beam at a Mach number of 
precisely unity is given. 



AD-A026 512/4CP PC A05/MF A01 

Utah Univ Salt Lake City Dept of Meteorology 
Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Composi- 
tions from Satellites 

Interim rept. 

Kuo-Nan Liou, and Thomas Stoffel. 9 Feb 76, 
83p Scientific-1 . AFGL-TR-76-0027 
Contract F19628-75-C-0107 

Descriptors: 'Infrared detectors, 'Cirrus clouds. 
Scientific satellites, Radiative transfer, Infrared 
radiation. Thickness, Computer programs, For- 
tran, Computations, Surface temperature, Hu- 
midity, Moisture content. Ice, Reflectivity, Emis- 
sivity, Nonlinear algebraic equations. 
Identifiers: Remote sensing. Atmospheric 
transmissivity, Atmospheric attenuation 

A comprehensive description of the discrete- 
ordinate method for the transfer of infrared 
radiation in an isothermal cloud layer is 
presented Applications of such a method to 
non-isothermal, inhomogeneous atmospheres 
containing cirrus clouds are carried out and a 
listing of the computational code of the infra red 
radiation program is given in the Appendix of 
this report On the basis of this radiation pro- 
gram which allows non-isothermal as well as 
non-homogeneous structures of clouds, radia- 
tive properties of cirrus clouds are investigated 
in the 10 micrometers window region Effects of 
non-isothermal structure of cirrus are shown to 
be important when its thickness is greater than 
about 3 km In addition, we also find that it 



seems inappropriate to define an 'emissivity' of 
a non-isothermal cloud. Utilizing the concept of 
transmissivity derived from radiative transfer 
analyses, a retrieval technique is developed for 
the determination of the surface temperature, 
the cirrus cloud thickness and its transmissivity 
at a reference wavenumber and the fraction of 
cirrus cloudiness. Error analyses employing cli- 
matological data reveal that independent ran- 
dom errors in temperature and humidity 
profiles introduce insignificant errors in the 
four resulting parameters. Based on the 
retrieval procedures we illustrate that the verti- 
cal ice content may be estimated assuming that 
ice particles are randomly oriented in a 
horizontal plane. (Author) 



AO-A026 703/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst Menlo Park Calif 
ICECAP '74--Chatanika Radar Results 

Topical rept. Mar 74-Dec 75 

Paul D. Perreault, and Murray J. Baron. Oct 75, 

117pDNA-3871T 

Contract DNA001-74-C-0167 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, 

'Ionospheric disturbances, Radar, Aurorae, In- 
coherent scattering, Electron density. Ions, 
Velocity, Electric fields, Geomagnetism, In- 
frared radiation, Plasmas(Physics), Computer 
programs. 

Identifiers: E region, Chatanika radar, Joule 
heating, ICECAP operation, 'Ionosphere. 

ICECAP is an auroral measurements program 
to acquire geophysical data required for the 
formulation and testing of models and predic- 
tive computer codes. The models and codes 
describe atmospheric ionization, excitation, 
and optical emissions in the (Aurorally) 
disturbed ionosphere These codes are needed 
to assess and evaluate the operation of critical 
DoD radar and optical systems in nuclear 
disturbed environments. Auroral disturbances 
studied in ICECAP are similar to nuclear 
disturbances in that both are characterized by 
dramatic visual displays, enhanced infrared air- 
glows, and enhanced plasma densities result- 
ing from the interaction of energetic electronics 
with the atmospheric constituents. The general 
objectives of ICECAP are: to provide measure- 
ments of chemical emission processes occur- 
ring in the disturbed atmosphere; to uncover 
unsuspected chemical or interactive processes 
leading to important infrared radiations; to pro- 
vide experimental data against which models 
and computer codes can be compared and 
evaluated; and to provide data that can be used 
to update and improve theoretical models and 
predictive computer codes. 



AD-A027 155/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Avco Everett Research Lab Inc Everett Mass 
Turbulence Characterization and Control 

Final technical rept. 1 Feb-15 Oct 75 

M. G. Miller, P. L.Zieske, and G. Dryden. Jun 76, 

56p RADC-TR-76-189 

Contract F30602-75-C-0012, ARPA Order-2646 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric refraction, 

'Turbulence, 'Meteorological instruments. At- 
mospheric physics, Temperature, Computer 
programs, Data reduction, Optical data, Moni- 
tors, Photometers, Acoustic equipment, 
Micrometeorology, Refractive index, 

Meteorological data, Hawaii. 
Identifiers: Seeing monitor. 

This report covers activities relative to the 
characterization of the turbulent environment 
at the ARPA Maui Observation Station. Three 
areas are discussed. The first deals with the 
deployment of various instrumental systems to 
be used in the experimental program. These in- 
clude micrometeorological sensors, a com- 
puter data processing system, and acoustic 
Sounder, the NOAA Star Sensor and the 
Hughes Seeing Monitor which are all presently 
operational 



AD-A027 297/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Inc Palo Alto 
Calif Palo Alto Research Lab 
Ionospheric Effects Resulting from Precipitat- 
ing Electrons at Mid and High Latitudes 
Final rept. 1 Nov 74-30 Jan 76 
J. B. Cladis, W. E. Francis, G. T. Davidson, and 
M. Walt. 30 Jan 76, 58p LMSC/D500513, DNA- 
3884F 
Contract DNA001-75-C-0139 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric disturbances, 'Van 
Allen radiation belt, 'Electron flux, Electron 
scattering, High latitudes, Low energy, Com- 
puter programs, Machine coding, Computa- 
tions, Nuclear explosions, Explosion effects, 
Energy levels, Intensity, Atmospheric physics. 
Identifiers: Aurora computer program, Mid 
latitudes. 

The distributions of electrons resulting from 
pitch-angle diffusion due to both wave-particle 
interactions at high altitudes and binary colli- 
sions in the atmosphere have been determined. 
The results seem to be in agreement with 
available data, however wave fields which may 
be too high are required to fit the data. Some of 
the computational routines and cross sections 
used in the low-energy (1 eV to 500 eV) portion 
of the AURORA code have been improved. 
Processes occurring in the disturbed iono- 
sphere other than collision and magnetic mir- 
roring are inferred by comparing measure- 
ments of pitch-angle and energy distributions 
of electrons in the auroral zones with distribu- 
tions computed with the AURORA code. 
(Author) 



AD-A027 380/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Calspan Corp Buffalo N Y 

Simulation of Marine Advection Fog with the 
Calspan Advection Fog Model Using Prog- 
nostic Equations for Turbulent Energy 
Annual summary rept. no. 4 (Part 2) 
Eugene J. Mack, and C. William Rogers. Jun 76, 
43p Rept no. CALSPAN-CJ-5756-M-2 
Contract N00019-75-C-0508 
Report on Project Sea Fog. See also Part 1 , AD- 
A027 379. 

Descriptors: 'Marine atmospheres, 'Fog, 
'Atmosphere models, North Atlantic Ocean, 
Coastal regions, Nova Scotia, Radiative 
transfer. Temperature, Visibility, Mathematical 
models, Computerized simulation. Computer 
programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Sea fog project. 

Partial contents: 

The influence of radiative transfer on fog 

development; 
The influence of a warming sea surface on 

the development of advection fog; 
Observations of a marine advection fog; 
Numerical simulations of fog formed by 

turbulent heat exchange with a cold sea 

surface and comparison with 

observations. 



AD-A027 457/1CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Environmental Technical Applica- 
tions Center Scott AFB III 

A Technique to Specify Liquid Water Content 
at a Point in the Atmosphere 

Final rept. 

Robert G. Feddes. 1 Jun 73, 41p Rept no. 

USAFETAC-6988 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, "Cloud 
physics, Clouds, Moisture content. Meteorolo- 
gy, Computerized simulation, Computer pro- 
grams. 

The liquid water content (LWC) in clouds in a 
three dimensional reference system is an im- 
portant input parameter for operational 
forecast models and for design problems of 
systems that operate in the atmosphere. The 



12 



LWC can be calculated from the cloud's drop- 
size distribution. An accurate estimate of 
LWC/DSD depends upon knowing the cloud 
type, air mass type, ambient temperature, cloud 
age, geographical locations, degree of satura- 
tion, and the general meteorological condition. 
Estimates of these parameters can be obtained 
from the global cloud analysis and the 10-level 
synoptic parameter analysis data bases which 
are produced by the Air-Force Global Weather 
Central. A percentage of the maximum LWC 
possible for precipitating and non-precipitating 
clouds in a layer times the percentage of cloud 
coverage yields the LWC for that volume. 



AD-A028 858/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Pulse Height Analyzer Interfacing and Com- 
puter Programming in the Environmental 
Laser Propagation Project 
Master's thesis 
John Robert Plett. Jun 76, 74p 

Descriptors: 'Pulse height analyzers, 'Light 
transmission, 'Laser beams. Atmospheric 
physics, Digital computers, Computer pro- 
grams, Interfaces, Boundary layer, Marine at- 
mospheres. Scintillation, Extinction, Theses. 
Identifiers: HP-9810A computers, Atmospheric 
attenuation. 

An effective data interface between a Victoreen 
PIP-400 pulse-height analyzer and a Hewlett- 
Packard 9810A calculator was designed, built, 
and tested. A calculator program was written 
which enabled a research group studying laser 
propagation in the marine boundary layer to 
conduct rapid, local processing of scintillation 
and extinction data. (Author) 



AD-A029 890/1CP PC E03/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 
Ground Md 

Chemistry of Atmospheric Oeionization Out- 
side Intermediate-Altitude Fireballs. II. 15-, 
20-, and 25-km Altitude 
Final rept. 

F. E. Niles. Aug 76, 122 Rept no. BRL-1909 
See also Rept. no Brl-1730 dated Jul 74, AD- 
923 292L. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear fireball, 'Atmospheric 
chemistry, 'Computer programs. Nuclear ex- 
plosions, Deionization, High altitude. Height of 
burst. Gas ionization, Machine coding, Compu- 
tations, Stratosphere, Atmospheric density, 
Chemical reactions, Yield(Nuclear explosions). 
Rates, High intensity, Time series analysis, 
Range(Distance). 

Identifiers: AIRCHEM computer program, 
WEPH D computer program. 

Number densities for 59 atmospheric species 
during the deionization of the atmosphere out- 
side the fireball from a high-yield nuclear burst 
at an altitude of 30 km have been calculated 
using the AIRCHEM computer code and are re- 
ported for altitudes of 15, 20, and 25 km and 
horizontal ranges of 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 km. 
Equivalent lumped parameters are calculated 
for each decade in time from 1 microsecond to 
1000 seconds and compared with the lumped 
parameters employed in the WEPH D computer 
code. Important reactions at three major inter- 
vals of time during atmospheric deionization 
are identified (Author) 



AD-A030 157/2CP PC A13/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 
Ground Md 

AIRCHEM: A Computational Technique for 
Modeling the Chemistry of the Atmosphere 

Edna L. Lortie, Mark D. Kregel , and Franklin E. 
Niles.. Aug 76, 300p Rept no. BRL-1913 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric chemistry, 

'Atmospnere models, 'Computer programs, 



Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Deionization, Com- 
putations, Differential equations, Concentra- 
tion(Chemistry), FORTRAN, Real time, Subrou- 
tines, Machine coding, Photochemical reac- 
tions, Mathematical models, Photoionization. 
Identifiers: AIRCHEM computer program. 

Deionization processes thought to describe the 
real-time concentrations of ion and neutral 
constituents in the ionized stratosphere and 
mesosphere can be modeled numerically by a 
number of techniques of varying complexity 
and efficiency. One very efficient technique for 
complex cases is the AIRCHEM computer pro- 
gram. The AIRCHEM program utilizes the K- 
method for solving the ordinary differential 
equations which arise from the mathematical 
description of atmospheric deionization 
processes, many of which are characterized by 
exceedingly short time constants. This report 
serves to give the mathematical description of 
atmospheric deionization as modeled by 
AIRCHEM and also serves as a user's manual 
for those interested in using the program. In- 
cluded is a complete FORTRAN listing of the 
AIRCHEM program along with sample input 
and the corresponding output from a sample 
run. (Author) 



AD-A031 212/4CP PC A06/MF A01 

Utah State Univ Logan Electro-Dynamics Lab 

A Specular Chamber for Off-Axis Response 

Evaluations of High-Rejection Optical Baffling 

System 

John C. Kemp, and Clair L. Wyatt. 1 Jun 76, 

116pScientific-4, AFGL-TR-76-0144 

Contract F19628-73-C-0048 

See also report dated 30 Jun 74, AD-A004 153. 

Descriptors: "Infrared spectrometers, 'Remote 
detectors, 'Test equipment, Calibration, Per- 
formance(Engineering), Atmospheric scatter- 
ing, Radiometers, Rocketborne, Radiance, Ex- 
perimental design, Specular reflection, Baffles, 
Optical equipment, Instrumentation, Computer 
programs. 

Identifiers: Remote sensing, Field of view, 
'Atmospheric radiance. 

A special chamber for measuring the off-axis 
response of high-rejection optical baffling 
systems was designed and constructed. The 
ambient background power level caused by at- 
mospheric scattering was reduced by using 
high-efficienty particulate filters to remove the 
atmospheric aerosols and produce a clean- 
room environment. The effects of surface scat- 
tering were reduced by using specular surfaces 
in a modified cylindrical shape to direct the 
scattered radiation away from the baffle en- 
trance. Two computer programs were used to 
predict the magnitudes of the atmospheric and 
surface scattering Measurements which 
separated the atmospheric scattering from the 
surface scattering were performed. Rayleigh 
(molecular) scattering was determined to be the 
limiting mechanism in achieving a low 
background. 



AD-A032 317/OCP PC A06/MF A01 

Saint Louis Univ Mo Dept of Earth and At- 
mospheric Sciences 

Research to Develop Improved Models of Cli- 
matology That Will Assist The Meteorologist 
in the Timely Operation of the Air Force 
Weather Detachments 
Addendum to final rept. 

Donald E. Martin. 31 Aug 76, 107p AFGL-TR-76- 
0248 

Contract F19628-74-C-0004 

Addendum to Rept. no. AFCRL-TR-75-0447 
dated 30 Jun 75, AD-A016 850. 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Computer 
programs, Atmosphere models, Climate, Air 
Force operations, Computer programming. 
Flow charting, Stochastic processes, Weather 
stations, Wind direction, Atmospheric tempera- 
ture, Dew point 



A documentation of the computer programs 
which commence with processing the hourly 
history tapes for any given station and end up 
with climatic forecast aids is presented. The 
procedure is as follows: (1) the hourly history 
tapes for any given station are stratified by wind 
direction; (2) the hourly observations in each of 
these respective wind-stratified subsets are 
further partitioned according to the latest ob- 
served temperature dew-point spread, (3) Type I 
and Type II unconditionals are produced for 
each subset of 2 above, (4) the products of step 
3 are computer smoothed, (5) Type I smoothed 
unconditionals are entered on the ordinate and 
type II on the abscissa of a Stochastic model to 
produce conditional probability estimates, (6) 
these conditional probabilities are assessed to 
determine the height/distance at which the cu- 
mulated conditional probabilities attain a value 
of 50%, and (7) the data of steps 5 and 6 are for- 
matted. 



AD-A032 377/4CP PC A07/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

A Microprogrammable Data Acquisition and 

Control System (MIDAS HA) with Application 

to Mean Meteorological Data 

Master's thesis 

John Russell Plunkett. Sep 76, 143p 

Descriptors: 'Microcomputers, 'Meteorological 

data, Data acquisition. Microprogramming, 

Digital systems. Theses, Command and control 

systems, Analog to digital converters. Teletype 

systems. Computer programs, Input output 

processing. 

Identifiers: Midas 2A system. 

The construction and operation of a fully auto- 
mated microprogrammable data acquisition 
and control system (MIDAS II A) with application 
to the sampling and mean averaging of 
meteorological data is reported. MIDAS HA is 
designed to automatically collect periodic sam- 
ples of various meteorological data in digital 
and analog forms, compute mean averages 
over selectable time intervals, and produce a 
permanent output record of the time averaged 
data. The system consists of a microprocessor 
based on the Intel Corp. 8008 CPU, a 16-chan- 
nel multiplexed analog-to-digital converter, a 
digital clock, an incremental digital cassette 
tape recorder, numerous meteorological data 
sensors, and a teletype for input/output. Details 
of system operation and programming are 
described. (Author) 



AD-A033 465/6CP PC A05/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 
Computer Codes for Use in Display of Pre- 
dicted Scintillation Characteristics and Total 
Electron Content 

John M Goodman, and Chauncey Myers. Oct 
76. 89p Rept no. NRL-MR-3397 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Electron density, 
'Ionospheric scintillations, Mathematical 
models, Computations. 
Identifiers: 'Total electron content. 

The Global personality of radiowave charac- 
teristics such as amplitude scintillation S4 and 
group path delay may be graphically displayed 
through use of a plotting code in conjunction 
with existing scintillation and electron density 
models. The Fremouw-Rino-Pope model is 
used for deducing average scintillation at- 
t rl butes and the Ching-Chiu Model is used for 
deducing average electron density. The former 
model is used directly and the latter model is in- 
tegrated to obtain the total electron content of 
the ionosphere. Since the total electron content 
(TEC) is proportional to the group path delay, 
plots of TEC are provided in the manuscript in- 
stead of the delay characteristic. Examples of 
both S4 and TEC are given for various environ- 
mental, diurnal, and seasonal conditions. 



13 



AD-A033 654/5CP PC A05/MF A01 

Visidyne Inc Burlington Mass 

Analysis of High Altitude Effects Simulation 

(HAES) 

Rept. for 16 Apr 74-1 5 Apr 75 
W. P. Reidy, T. C. Degges, and W. Neal. 1 Feb 
76,76p VI-311, Scientific-1, DNA-HAES-40 
Contract F19628-74-C-0177 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, Electron 
density, Computerized simulation, Aurorae, At- 
mospheric physics. Infrared spectra, Carbon 
dioxide. Ozone, Excitation, Infrared radiation, 
Band spectra, Computer programs. Mathemati- 
cal prediction, Weapons effects, Radiance, 
High altitude, Nuclear explosion simulation. At- 
mospheric chemistry. Spatial distribution. 
Night. 

Identifiers: Electron deposition, ICECAP pro- 
ject, EXCEDE project, Spectral radiance, Ener- 
gy deposition. 

Initial formulation of the analysis of the energy 
deposition and the electron density profiles in 
an EXCEDE-type experiment are presented. Al- 
titude profiles are given for the night time 
zenith spectral radiance for C02 bands at 4.3 
micrometers and 15 micrometers and for the 
ozone band at 9.6 micrometers. Model calcula- 
tions of the vibrational population of the first 
excited level of the C02 nu sub 3 vibrational 
mode are also presented 



AD-A034 066/1CP PC A10/MF A01 

Logicon Inc Bedford Mass 

Analysis and Programming for Research in 
Physics of the Upper Atmosphere 

Final rept 1 Sep 74-31 Aug 76 

James N. Bass, Krishin H. Bhavnani, Ben -Zion 

J. Guz, Robert R. Hayes, and Paul N. Houle. 30 

Sep 76, 212p AFGL-TR-76-0231 

Contract F19628-75-C-0039 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Atmospheric 
physics. Computer programs, Ephemerides, At- 
mospheric density, Aurorae, Geopotential, 
Ionospheric scintillations, Radar signals, 
Rocket trajectories. Orbits. 

This report describes significant analyses and 
computer programming problems performed in 
support of Air Force Geophysics Laboratory 
scientists. Mathematical and logical 
procedures are discussed, and samples of 
results are presented. Astronomical ephemeris 
programs include solar-lunar and stellar view- 
ing information, and special plots. 



AD-A034 651/OCP PC A09/MF A01 

Texas A and M Research Foundation College 
Station 

Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates. Volume II. Program Documentation 

Technical rept. 

John J. Wanstrath. Nov 76, 178p CERC-TR-76- 

3-Vol-2 

Contract DACW72-73-C-0014 

See also Volume 2, AD-A034 763. 

Descriptors: 'Storms, 'Computer programs, 
Surges, Hurricanes, Equations of motion. Wind, 
Barometric pressure. Continental shelves, Mex- 
ico Gulf, Conformal mapping. Coordinates, 
Two dimensional. 

Identifiers: Carla Hurricane, Camille Hurricane, 
Gracie Hurricane, Atlantic Coast(United States), 
Gulf Coast(United States). 

A two-dimensional time-dependent numerical 
storm surge model using orthogonal curvilinear 
coordinates is presented The curvilinear coor- 
dinate system is based on a conformal mapping 
ot the interior region bounded by the actual 
coast, the seaward boundary (taken as the 180- 
meter depth contour) and two parallel lateral 
boundaries into a rectangle in the image plane. 
Three regions of the Continental Shelf of the 
Gulf of Mexico and two regions of the eastern 



seaboard of the United States are mapped 
Since the transformation is conformal, the as- 
sociated modifications of the vertically in- 
tegrated equations of motion and mass con- 
tinuity are minimized. The coast, seaward 
boundary, and the lateral boundaries of the 
computing grid are straight lines in the image 
plane thus facilitating the application of the 
boundary conditions. The final coordinates 
allow for the greatest resolution near the coast 
in a central area of principal storm surge 
development and modification. The model is 
employed in the simulation of the storm surge 
induced by Hurricanes Carla (1961) and Camille 
(1969) which crossed the gulf coast of the 
United States and Hurricane Gracie (1959) 
which crossed the east coast. Analytical in- 
terpretations of the wind and atmospheric pres- 
sure-forcing functions are used in the compu- 
tations. (Author) 



AD-A034 763/3CP PC A08/MF A01 

Texas A and M Research Foundation College 
Station 

Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates. Volume I. Theory and Application 

Technical rept. 

John J. Wanstrath, Robert E. Whitaker, Robert 

O. Reid, and Andrew C. Vastano. Nov 76, 168p 

CERC-TR-76-3-Vol-1 

Contract DACW72-73-C-0014 

See also Volume 2, AD-A034 651 . 

Descriptors: 'Storms, 'Computer programs, 
Simulation, Hurricanes, Continental shelves, 
Mexico gulf. Equations of motion. Wind, 
Barometric pressure, Conformal mapping, 
Coordinates, Two dimensional. 
Identifiers: Carla Hurricane, Camille Hurricane, 
Gracie Hurricane, Storm surges. 

This report is published to provide coastal en- 
gineers with the results of a study to develop an 
operational program for numerical simulation 
of storm surges on a given segment of the Con- 
tinental Shelf, using a curvilinear coordinate 
system. The report consists of two volumes. 
This Volume discusses the theory and applica- 
tion of the transformation procedure for 
generating the curvilinear shelf coordinate 
system for particular regions, and the theory, 
numerical algorithm, and application of the 
storm surge program for simulation of Hur- 
ricanes Carla (1961), Camille (1969), and Gracie 
(1959). Volume II presents the program docu- 
mentation and the coded programs for carrying 
out the coordinate transformation (CONFORM), 
for establishing the spatial lattice (GRID), and 
for carrying out the storm surge calculations on 
the shelf (SSURGE). The work was carried out 
under the wave mechanics program of the U.S. 
Army Coastal Engineering Research Center 
(CERC). 



AD-A034 847/4CP PC A12/MF A01 

Air Force Eastern Test Range Patrick AFB Fla 
Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered 
Aerostats, Volume I 

Final rept. 1 Apr 73-30 Jun 74 

Toxey A. Hall. 1 1 May 76, 254p Rept no. AFETR- 

TR-76-07-Vol-1 

Contract ARPA Order-21 76 

Errata sheet inserted. See also Volume 2, AD- 

A034 848 

Descriptors: 'Balloons, 'Atmospheric electrici- 
ty, 'Lightning, Tethering, Lightning arresters. 
Protection, Warning systems. Safety, Hazards, 
Electrical grounding. Interactions, Predictions, 
Mathematical models. Computer programs. 
FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: 'Lightning protection. 

The program was conducted for the purpose of 
determining interaction of tethered balloon 
systems with atmospheric electricity 
(particularly lightning) and identifying feasible 
protective systems. After a brief introductory 



section math models of effects of tethered bal- 
loons on surrounding electrical field are 
presented. These models are then compared 
with measurements taken during extensive 
flight testing. Effects of both well-conducting 
and poorly-conducting tethers are shown. Sec- 
tion 3 presents a statistical approach to the pre- 
diction of lightning strikes to tethered balloons. 
Section 4 describes results of an extensive se- 
ries of tests wherein balloon tethered samples, 
both wire rope and synthetic fiber, are exposed 
to simulated lightning currents. Section 5 
defines systems and techniques for hardening 
balloon and support equipment and protection 
of operating personnel. Section 6 and 7 present 
conclusions and recommendations oriented 
toward tether materials, grounding and shield- 
ing systems, warning devices, and operational 
concepts. 



AD-A035 170/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

Naval Environmental Prediction Research 
Facility Monterey Calif 

Ocean Climatology Extraction and Adjust- 
ment Program for the Mediterranean Program 
SOVEL 

Taivo Laevastu. Jul 73, 24p Rept no. NEPRF- 
CP-Note-10 

Descriptors: 'Marine climatology, 

'Mediterranean Sea, 'Computer programs, 

FORTRAN, Surface temperature. Temperature, 

Salinity, Gradients, Subroutines, Underwater 

sound, Sound transmission. 

Identifiers: Sovel computer program, Ocean 

temperature. 

SOVEL was written as part of the Ocean Ther- 
mal Structure Analysis package for Fleet 
Weather Central, Rota, Spain. Its primary pur- 
pose is to extract the temperature and salinity 
levels (by one-degree squares) in desired loca- 
tions from an ocean climatology tape. It takes 
the corresponding analyzed sea-surface tem- 
perature and the mixed layer depth at given lo- 
cations which are read from input cards and ad- 
justs the upper standard levels to these 
parameters. An additional feature of the pro- 
gram is the adjustment of the temperature and 
salinity gradients below the mixed layer depth. 
These gradients can be sharp indeed in the 
Mediterranean. Their sharpness varies with 
various parameters and seasons and this varia- 
tion has been taken directly into consideration 
with this program . (Author) 



AD-A035 504/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Geophysics Lab Hanscom AFB Mass 
Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to 
Determine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 

Environmental research papers 

Antonio F. Quesada, and C. A. Trowbridge. 8 

Oct 76, 35p Rept nos. AFGL-TR-76-0243, AFGL- 

ERP-580 

Descriptors: 'Wind, 'Wind shear, 'Stratosphere, 
Smoke, Tracer studies. Atmospheric motion, 
Dispersing, Photogrammetry, Triangulation, 
Photographic equipment, Computer programs, 
Profiles. 

Time-lapse photographs of smoke trails 
deposited in the stratosphere have been mea- 
sured and analyzed to provide data for the 
determination of winds and wind shears. Op- 
timization techniques were required to define 
camera parameters with sufficiently high preci- 
sion. In combination with a triangulation pro- 
gram that exploits the advantages of vector and 
matrix methods, the techniques lead to con- 
sistent three-station results that are used to 
construct wind profiles with an altitude resolu- 
tion of 10 m 



AD-A035 765/7CP PC A03/MF A01 

Institute for Defense Analyses Arlington Va 
Science and Technology Div 



14 



Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: 

Proposed Aerosol Methodology with Applica- 
tion to the Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics 
Data Base 

Final rept. 

Robert E. Roberts. Dec 76, 32p P-1 225, IDA/HQ- 

76-18603 

Contract DAHC15-73-C-0200 

Descriptors: "Light transmission, "Atmosphere 
models, "Aerosols, "Infrared radiation, 'Infrared 
detectors. Infrared images, Extinction, Coeffi- 
cients, Mie scattering, Particle size, Electroop- 
tics, Meteorological data, Visibility, Models, 
Computerized simulation, Data bases. 
Identifiers: LOWTRAN Computer programs, At- 
mospheric windows, Meteorological instru- 
ments. Air pollution detection, Remote sensing. 
Optical measurement. 

Using Mie calculations for a wide variety of 
measured and assumed particle size distribu- 
tions, a strong relationship between the total 
volume content of the particulate along the 
transmission path and the aerosol extinction 
coefficient was established. Field measure- 
ments, such as those taken at Grafenwoehr, 
Federal Republic of Germany, further 
established the validity of this relationship. 
Both theory and experiment suggest that a 
phenomenological scaling of photopic trans- 
mission (related to normal meteorological visi- 
bility) to the infrared (IR) windows is possible 
which furthermore is independent of the struc- 
ture or shape of the particle size distribution. A 
second important implication is that a simple, 
possibly remote measurement of a quantity re- 
lated to the volume or mass of the aerosol could 
provide a direct measure of the IR transmission 
(an IR visibility meter). Such a routine 
meteorological measurement would clearly be 
of use to sensor performance modeling. 
(Author) 



AD-A037 395/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 
SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Mul- 
tipulse (and CW) Steady-State Propagation 
Code with Adaptive Coordinates 
Final rept. 

K. G. Whitney, G. L. Mader, and P. B. Ulrich. 10 
Feb 77, 80p Rept no NRL-8074 
Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Laser beams, 'Computer pro- 
grams Light pulses, 'Thermal blooming, Con- 
tinuous waves, High energy. Computerized 
simulation. 

Identifiers: 'Nonlinear optics, 'Atmospheric 
transmissivity, Atmospheric attenuation. 

This report describes the numerical procedures 
that are used to calculate the steady-state at- 
mospheric propagation and thermal blooming 
of either a train of high-energy laser pulses or a 
CW beam. The calculation is performed 
through the aid of a sequence of coordinate 
and variable transformations that enable one to 
adapt the scale and location of the transverse 
coordinate system to the amount of diffraction 
or thermal blooming taking place during beam 
propagation. A description is also given of the 
input parameters and diagnostics provided in 
the calculation along with a listing of the com- 
puter program. (Author) 



AD-A037 492/6CP PC A06/MF A01 

Mcdonnell Douglas Astronautics Co-West 

Huntington Beach Calif 

Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Modeling 

Annual scientific rept. 

W. P. Olson, and K. A. Pfitzer. Jan 77, 103p 

AFOSR-TR-77-0156 

Contract F44620-75-C-0033 

Descriptors: 'Magnetosphere, Magnetic fields, 
Models, Electric fields, Charged particles, 
Coordinates, Diurnal variations, Machine cod- 



ing, Computer programs, Transforma- 

tions( Mathematics). 

Identifiers: Magnetopause, "Geomagnetism. 

A quantitative model of the magnetospheric 
magnetic field and associated procedures for 
accurately cataloging charge particle data out 
to and beyond geosynchronous orbit is 
developed. The magnetic field model incor- 
porates all major magnetospheric current 
systems and is valid for all tilt angles; i.e., an- 
gles of incidence of the solar wind on the dipole 
axis. The model accurately represents the total 
magnetospheric magnetic field for conditions 
of low magnetic activity and to a geocentric 
distance of 15 earth radii or to the mag- 
netopause. A new (B, I) coordinate system is 
developed to more accurately organize charged 
particle data. The electric field produced by the 
daily varying tilt angle is computed. (Author) 



AD-A038 132/7CP PC A04/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst Menlo Park Calif 
Modeling of Transionospheric Radio 
Propagation 

Final quarterly technical rept. 16 Feb-14 May 75 
E. J. Fremouw, and C. L. Rino. Aug 75, 54p 
Contract F30602-74-C-0279, ARPA Order-2777 

Descriptors: "Ionospheric scintillations, Iono- 
spheric models. Radio waves, Geomagnetism, 
Scattering, Computer programs, Gaussian 
noise. Statistical processes, Global. 
Identifiers: "Radio transmission. 

This is the final quarterly technical report on a 
one-year contract to extend and improve an ex- 
isting empirical model for worldwide behavior 
of ionospherically imposed radio-wave scintil- 
lation. The objectives of the project were (1) to 
improve the accuracy of model-based calcula- 
tions of the intensity-scintillation index and (2) 
to develop a capability for full description (from 
the point of view of engineering applications) of 
the first-order, complex-signal statistics that 
characterize the trans-ionospheric radio com- 
munication channel. A follow-on project has 
been initiated to extend the channel model to 
include second-order signal statistics in the 
temporal, spatial, and spectral domains. The 
first priority in the follow-on work will be to cal- 
culate the fluctuation spectra of relevant signal 
parameters. In addition, it is intended to extend 
validity of the model into the multiple-scatter 
regime. 



AD-A038 155/8CP PC A03/MF A01 

Naval Surface Weapons Center Dahlgren Lab 

Va 

A Gravitational Potential for Atmospheric 

Earth Tides Caused by the Moon 

Final rept. 

R. Manrique, and W. Groeger. Nov 76, 26p Rept 

no.NSWC/DL-TR-3638 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric tides, 'Orbits, 
Earth(Planet), Artificial satellites, Gravitational 
fields, Potential theory, Perturbations, Ac- 
celeration, Moon, Motion, Computer programs, 
Equations of motion, Computations. 
Identifiers: Terra Equations of motion, 
Geopotential 

A potential function is presented for the force 
by which the atmospheric tide bulge acts on or- 
bits of artificial earth satellites. The tidal bulge 
is assumed to result from the fact that the earth 
rotates within the field of lunar mass attraction, 
the latter being inhomogeneous across the ter- 
restrial globe. Only the main term of the 
semidiurnal tide is considered in this report 
The perturbing acceleration associated with the 
tide potential is also specified. The latter is in- 
tended for use with computer programs for 
satellite geodesy. (Author) 



AD-A038 263/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 
Ground Md 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body 
Ion-Ion Recombination Coefficient Upon 
Computed Ion Distributions in the Strato- 
sphere and Mesosphere 
Final rept. 

Joseph M. Heimerl. Mar77, 18p Rept no. BRL- 
1972 

Descriptors: "Ion ion interactions, 

"Recombination reactions, "Upper atmosphere. 
Atmospheric chemistry, Reaction kinetics. 
Coefficients, Machine coding, Communication 
and radio systems, Very low frequency. Radia- 
tion attenuation. 

Identifiers: Airchem computer program, 
"Mesosphere, "Stratosphere. 

A version of the AIRCHEM code (BENCHMARK- 
76) has been used to study the sensitivity of the 
daytime ionic populations to decade changes in 
selected values of the two-body ion-ion recom- 
bination rate coefficient over the altitude range 
30-80 km, inclusive. At one extreme, computed 
ionic populations change by as much as a fac- 
tor of two in isolated cases. At the other ex- 
treme much smaller changes are computed. 
(Author) 



AD-A038 299/4CP PC A13/MF A01 

Illinois Univ At Urbana-Champaign Dept of 

Electrical Engineering 

Techniques of Determining Ionospheric 

Structure from Oblique Radio Propagation 

Measurements 

Final rept. Oct 74-Sep 76 

N. Narayana Rao, K. C. Yeh, M. Y. Youakim, K. 

E. Hoover, and P. Parhami. Dec 76, 282p UILU- 

Eng-76-2559, TR-59. RADC-TR-76-401 

Contract F19628-75-C-0088 

Descriptors: 'Radio transmission, 'Ionosphere, 
Ionospheric propagation, Aiming, Backscatter- 
ing, Ray tracing. Inversion, Computer applica- 
tions, Aspect angle, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric sounding. 

Computer techniques are developed to home 
the ray at a specified location with specified ac- 
curacy. Several methods have been in- 
vestigated whereby oblique radio propagation 
data can be used to obtain ionospheric profiles. 
In one method the optimum quasiparabolic 
layer can be found that is supposed to fit the 
given data within a tolerable error. Another 
method makes use of the Backus-Gilbert inver- 
sion technique. (Author) 



AD-A038 399/2CP MF A01 

Cramer (H E) Co Inc Salt Lake City Utah 
Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 

Final rept. 

R. K. Dumbauld, and J. R. Bjorklund. Mar 77, 

285pTR-76-106-01, ECOM-77-2 

Contract DAAD07-76-C-0023 

Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, 'Boundary 
layer, 'Air pollution, 'Computer aided diagno- 
sis, Mixing, Depth, Layers, Transport proper- 
ties, Diffusion coefficient. Predictions, Sen- 
sitivity, Computer programs, Automation, Nu- 
merical analysis. Wind, Flow fields, 
Grids(Coordinates), Flow charting. 

This report describes the development of two 
subelements of the U.S. Army Experimental 
Prototype Automatic Meteorological System 
(EPAMS). One of the subelements is a diag- 
nostic routine (computer program) for the auto- 
matic calculation of the mixing depth, as well as 
the wind velocity and other meteorological 
parameters in the surface mixing layer, for a 
mesoscale calculation grid in complex terrain 
The output from this routine is used with the 



15 



second subelement--a transport/diffusion ap- 
plication routinet-to calculate concentra- 
tion/dosage fields produced by pollutant emis- 
sions from selected sources located within the 
calculation grid. A two-layer shallow-fluid nu- 
merical model is used in the diagnostic routine 
to calculate the mesoscale wind field. The con- 
centration/dosage fields calculated by the 
transport/diffusion application routine are ob- 
tained by solving generalized dispersion 
models for both continuous and instantaneous 
sources. In addition to descriptions of the 
modeling techniques, calculation procedures 
and computer program operations, example 
solutions for several case studies at White 
Sands Missile Range are also presented. 
(Author) 



AD-A038 869/4CP PC A16/MF A01 

Parke Mathematical Labs Inc Carlisle Mass 
Analysis and Synthesis of Model lonograms 
Using 3D Ray Tracking Techniques 

Final rept. Aug 75-Oct 76 

Barbara Langworthy, Theodore Barrett, Dean 

Bandes, and Lorenzo Calabi. Feb 77, 357p 

RADC-TR-77-60 

Contract F19628-76-C-0029 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric models, 'Ionospheric 
propagation, 'lonograms, 'Ray tracing. Com- 
puter programs, Three dimensional, High 
frequency, Backscattering, Computerized 
simulation, Leading edges, Algorithms, 
Subroutines, Digital computers, Data storage 
systems. Instruction manuals, Electron density. 
Geomagnetism, Sweepfrequency radar, Over 
the horizon detection. Polar regions. 
Identifiers: Jones-Stephenson ray tracing, User 
manuals. 

A system of digital computer programs for use 
with the Jones-Stephenson ray trace program 
is described. Using these programs it is possi- 
ble to: (1) Produce complex ionospheres with 
simple input techniques; (2) Trace rays through 
very large ionospheres by the use of disk 
storage and word packing techniques; (3) Cal- 
culate power loss due to absorption, spreading, 
backscatter, and antenna patterns; (4) Produce 
leading edge ionograms, a dominant feature of 
full backscatter ionograms; (5) Produce proba- 
ble model ionosphere parameters from infor- 
mation obtained from the leading edge iono- 
grams; and (6) Produce many forms of ray trace 
information displays including various synthes- 
ized backscatter ionograms. (Author) 



AD-A039 535/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 
Tex 

Solar Infrared Reflection and Infrared Emis- 
sion from a Dust Loaded Cloud 
Topical rept. 

M. B Wells. 6 May 77, 28p RRA-M7701 , AFTAC- 
TR-77-14 

Presented at the Annual Satellite Diagnostic 
Working Group Meeting, Patrick AFB, Fla., 8-10 
Feb 77. 

Descriptors: 'Infrared detection, 'Dust clouds. 
Dust, Deserts, Airborne, Saharan Africa, Solar 
radiation, Reflection, Reflectivity, Load dis- 
tribution, Cumulus clouds. Scattering, Detec- 
tors, Scientific satellites, Detection. Altitude, 
Monte Carlo method. Computations, Blackbody 
radiation, Computer programs, Atmospheres, 
Emission. 
Identifiers: Meteorological instruments 

This paper presents the results of Monte Carlo 
calculations of reflected sunlight and air emis- 
sion in the 2.653 micrometers to 2.760 
micrometers wavelength band for sa'.ellite- 
based detectors viewing a cumulus cloud 
loaded with various amounts of Sahara dust 
positioned between 14 and 15 km altitude The 
results of the calculations showed that the 
presence of a dust loading of .00005 cu. cm. of 



Sahara dust per m cubic meter of the cloud 
probably cannot be detected at that 
wavelength. Increasing the dust loading to the 
cloud by a factor of 100 or more gave results 
that indicated that the presence of the dust 
could be determined by the use of reflected 
sunlight in the 2.7 micrometers wavelength 
band. Mie calculations for both the cloud and 
Sahara dust indicates that the best wavelength 
for detection of the air emission would be 
wavelengths near 10 micrometers. Additional 
calculations are in progress for other 
wavelengths in the 2 micrometers to 15 
micrometers wavelength range. 



AD-A040 701/5CP PC A05/MF A01 

Air Force Geophysics Lab Hanscom AFB Mass 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 

Micrometers: Supplement LOWTRAN 3B 

(1976) 

Environmental research papers 

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, and R. A. 

McClatchey. 1 Nov 76, 77p Rept nos. AFGL-TR- 

76-0258. AFGL-ERP-587 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, Radiation 
attenuation. Spectral energy distribution, Com- 
puter programs, Machine coding, Water vapor, 
Atmosphere models. Boundary layer, Aerosols, 
Fog, Rural areas, Urban areas, Marine at- 
mospheres. 

Identifiers: LOWTRAN 3 computer program. At- 
mospheric attenuation, 'Atmospheric transmis- 
sivity, Ultraviolet detection, 'infrared detection. 

This supplement provides several additions and 
updates to the LOWTRAN 3 computer code, 
which can be used to calculate the trans- 
mittance of the atmosphere from the ultraviolet 
to the middle infrared portion of the spectrum 
(0.25 to 28.5 micrometers) at a spectral resolu- 
tion of 20 cm. The major additions are the inclu- 
sion of water vapor continuum attenuation in 
the 3.5 to 4.2 micrometers region, and a tem- 
perature dependence to the H20 continuum at- 
tenuation coefficient in both the 4 micrometers 
and 10 micrometers regions. The contribution 
of foreign gas broadening in the 8-14 microme- 
ters region has also been reduced. Four aerosol 
models are included in this supplement. These 
include three boundary layer aerosol models 
for maritime, urban, and rural conditions in the 
lower 2 km of the atmosphere, and a tropo- 
spheric model for use mainly above 1 or 2 km 
altitude. The rural model is a replacement for 
the average continental model presently in 
LOWTRAN 3. A temporary provision is also 
given to accommodate fog conditions when the 
visual range falls below 2 km. (Author) 



AD-A040 915/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Utah State Univ Logan Electro-Dynamics Lab 
Computer-Aided Estimates of the Rotational 
Temperatures of 02 in the Mesosphere 

Shou-Chi Sue, and Doran J. Baker. Jul 76, 73p 
Scientific-5, AFGL-TR-76-0212 
Contract F19628-73-C-0048 

Descriptors: 'Mesosphere, 'Oxygen, 'Molecular 
rotation. Temperature, High latitudes, Hydrox- 
ides, Airglow, Band spectra, Infrared spectra, 
Computer programs, Molecular energy levels, 
Alaska. 
Identifiers: Atmospheric chemistry. 

Measurements have been made of the apparent 
rotational temperature of 02 (b(1 )Sigma(g0)) at- 
mospheric (0,1) band emissions. The data were 
taken at nighttime in the auroral zone at Poker 
Flat, Alaska, on March 1, 1975. The average ap- 
parent temperature was 210 k and the zenith 
radiance of the band was 500 R (uncorrected 
for atmospheric extinction). A comparison 
technique was developed to compare the band 
shape of the measured band with theoretical 
spectra synthesized at different, but specific, 
rotational temperatures. Three methods of 
comparison were used and it was concluded 



that a sum of squares weighting approach is 
near optimal for estimating rotational tempera- 
tures. The effect of noise was tested by adding 
real typical noise to the synthetic model. The 
same comparison technique was then applied 
to assess the benefits of noise. The uncertainty 
of the measurement is estimated to be 5 K. A 
'wavelike' fluctuation of the apparent rotational 
temperature, with a period on the order of 1/2 
to 1 hour, was observed. The fluctuation on this 
occasion appeared to covary with the intensity 
of the OH airglow emission. 



AD-A041 195/9CP PC A08/MF A01 

Raytheon Co Sudbury Mass Equipment Div 
Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar 
Interface Adapter. Volume I 

Equipment Information rept. 

Peter C. Dunham, William Solimeno, Alfred 

Bordogna, and Charles Smith. 30 Jan 75, 157p 

Reptno.ER75-4084-1 

Contract F19628-73-C-0279 

See also Volume 2, AD-A041 196. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological radar, 'Data 
processing equipment, 'Weather forecasting, 
'Minicomputers, 'Display systems, Computer 
programs, Interfaces, Adapters, Meteorological 
data, Data displays, Resolution, Colors. 

This report presents the final configuration of 
hardware and software It provides all data 
necessary to maintain the equipment. It con- 
tains theory of operation, functional descrip- 
tions, schematics, and part specifications 
(Author) 



AD-A041 196/7CP PC A02/MF A01 

Raytheon Co Sudbury Mass Equipment Div 
Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar 
Interface Adapter. Volume II 

Equipment information rept. 

Peter C. Dunham, William Solimeno, Alfred 

Bordogna, and Charles Smith. 30 Jan 75, 24p 

Rept no. ER75-4084-2 

Contract F19628-73-C-0279 

See also Volume 1 , AD-A041 1 95. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological radar, 'Data 
processing equipment, 'Weather forecasting, 
'Minicomputers, "Display systems. Real time. 
On line systems. Computer programs, Inter- 
faces, Adapters, Meteorological data, Data dis- 
plays, Resolution, Colors. 

This report contains the information necessary 
to operate the Weather Radar Processor and 
Display Equipment. (Author) 



AD-A042 059/6CP PC A05/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Statistical Diagnostic Modeling of Marine Fog 
Using Model Output Parameters 

Master's thesis 

Brian L Van Orman, and Robert J. Renard. Jun 

77, 91 p Rept no. NPS-63Rd77061 

Descriptors: 'Fog, 'Atmosphere models, 
'Marine meteorology, North Pacific Ocean, 
Meteorological data, Weather forecasting, Spa- 
tial distribution, Statistical analysis. Computer 
programs. Visibility, Mathematical prediction, 
Climate, Ocean surface, Synoptic meteorology, 
Advection, Linear regression analyses, Diagno- 
sis(General), Barometric pressure. Sea level. 
Heat flux, Evaporation, Summer, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'Marine fog, Sea fog. 

Diagnostic model output parameters, provided 
by the Fleet Numerical Weather Central, Mon- 
terey, Calif (FNWC), and the marine fog 
frequency climatology developed at the Naval 
Postgraduate School, are statistically 
processed in context with marine surface 
synoptic ship reports in order to develop a 
linear regression scheme to model distribution 
of marine fog The study area includes a large 



16 



section of the North Pacific Ocean (from 30- 
60N) at 0000 GMT, 1-30 July 1976. The diag- 
nostic capabilities of the regression equations 
are analyzed through the use of three verifica- 
tion scoring systems. Improvement over cli- 
matology and FNWC's operational fog proba- 
bility program (FTER), is demonstrated. Selec- 
tive mappings of the regression equation out- 
puts and categorized observations are inter- 
compared with the sea-level pressure analysis; 
FTER; and the evaporative heat flux--the most 
significant predictor parameter. 



AD-A042 263/4CP MF A01 

Aerodyne Research Inc Bedford Mass 

MRDA - A Medium Resolution Data Analysis 

Code for the HP 2100 Computer 

Final rept. 26 Mar-31 Dec 76 

D. Kryger, and D. Robertson. Jan 77, 89p ARI- 

RR-97, AFGL-TR-77-0044 

Contract F19628-76-C-0173, ARPA Order-2656 

See also Rept. no. AFCRL-TR-73-0096, AD-762 

904, and Rept. no. AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AD- 

A017 734 

Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, 'Computer 
programs, Transmittance, Data reduction, 
Minicomputers, Light transmission, Radiative 
transfer. Infrared radiation. Radiation attenua- 
tion, Resolution. 

Identifiers: HP 2100 computers, "Atmospheric 
transmissivity. Atmospheric attenuation, MRDA 
computer program 

This report describes the Medium Resolution 
Data Analysis Code (MRDA) which is a com- 
puter software code developed to run on the 
HP2100 mini-computer at the Air Force 
Geophysics Laboratory. The code calculates 
the atmosphere transmittance of radiation in 
the 1800-6000/cm range. The code can be used 
for a variety of paths(horizontal, vertical, 
downward, to space, etc). The user has the op- 
tion of using either the 1962 U.S. Standard 
Model atmosphere or radiosonde data. 
Because of size restriction on the HP2100, 
MRDA is dividied into seven overlays. The spec- 
tral absorption coefficients, which are calcu- 
lated from the AFGL compilation of molecular 
line parameters (HITRAN), are accessed from a 
data tape. The transmittance calculated for 
horizontal paths near sea level agree with those 
calculated with HITRAN, but MRDA tends to 
overestimate the absorption in the neighbor- 
hood of strongly absorbing lines. Some recom- 
mendations for further upgrading of the code 
are given. (Author) 



AD-A042 374/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

General Electric Co Syracuse N Y Heavy Military 

Equipment Dept 

An Analysis of Ionospheric Electron Content 

Measurements Utilizing Satellite-Emitted 

Signals 

George H. Millman. Dec 74, 84p Rept no. 

R74EMH24 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Electron density. 
Scientific satellites, Radio signals, Faraday ef- 
fect. Polarization, Doppler effect. Frequency 
shift, Rotation, Time dependence, Three dimen- 
sional. Geomagnetism, Earth models, Ray trac- 
ing, Phase shift, Least squares method, 
lonosondes, Computerized simulation, Com- 
puter programs. 

Analytical techniques are available which make 
use of the Faraday polarization rotation and the 
Doppler frequency shift phenomena for deter- 
mining the ionospheric electron content by the 
passive monitoring of radio wave transmissions 
emanating from earth satellites. The accuracy 
of the various techniques can be evaluated by 
the simulator-computer program described in 
this report The major components of the simu- 
lator consist of a satellite-orbit generator, a 
time-variant three-dimensional electron density 



model and an earth magnetic field model ex- 
pressed in terms of a series of spherical har- 
monics. Ray tracings are performed utilizing 
Simpson's rule for numerical integration of the 
definite integrals defining the propagation 
phenomena. Preliminary results are presented 
of an analysis performed for one location in the 
midlatitudes. (Author) 



AD-A042 549/6CP PCA04/MFA01 

Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab Wright-Patter- 
son AFB Ohio 

A Description of the Atmospheric Turbulence 
Environment Derived from the Critical At- 
mospheric Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program 
Final rept. Apr 63-Dec 72 

Paul L. Hasty. Apr 77, 66p Rept no. AFFDL-TR- 
77-4 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric motion, 

'Turbulence, "Computer programs, Wind 
velocity, Gusts, Criticality, Parametric analysis, 
Scaling factors. Power spectra, Density, Avia- 
tion safety, Hazards, Flight, Takeoff, Aircraft 
landings, Clear air turbulence. 
Identifiers: ALLCAT computer program. 

This report summarizes the important findings 
of the individual projects of the Critical At- 
mospheric Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program. The 
basic gust parameters are presented for the 
various altitude regions. Power spectral densi- 
ties are presented and the results of the in- 
vestigation are presented in a form useful for 
gust design procedures. Scale lengths, turbu- 
lence intensity, and percentage of flight time in 
turbulence are presented as a function of al- 
titude. (Author) 



AD-A042 624/7CP MFA01 

Westinghouse Defense and Electronic Systems 
Center Baltimore Md 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emis- 
sion and Transmission Model 
Interim technical rept. 
28 Mar74,224p 
Contract DAAJ01-72-C-0447 
Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Light transmission, 'Atmosphere 
models, 'Infrared signatures, 'Exhaust gases, 
Background radiation, Computer programs, 
Contrast, Suppression, Masking, Exhaust 
plumes, Exhaust pipes, High temperature, In- 
frared detection, Range(Distance), Light scat- 
tering, Atmospheric physics, Water vapor, Car- 
bon dioxide, Emission spectra. Infrared spec- 
tra, High resolution. Long path infrared equip- 
ment. 

Identifiers: 'HIDE computer program. Rocket 
exhaust, Infrared detection, Remote sensing, 
Atmospheric transmissivity, Atmospheric at- 
tenuation. 

This report describes the high resolution at- 
mospheric transmission and exhaust gas emis- 
sion models to be incorporated into the 
HIDEfHelicopter infrared detection estimate) 
computer model HIDE is intended to predict 
the infrared signature of suppressed aircraft 
Suppressed', as used here, implies masking of 
all hot metal, diluting exhaust plume gases and 
reducing body contrast with the background 
Attention must be applied to the entire spec- 
trum of interest (1-16 microns) and over long 
paths (such as 40 air masses for a line of sight 
tangent to the horizon). This is because the 
signatures of self emitting sources are in- 
fluenced by the relatively short intervening 
paths and generally dominate some spectral in- 
terval. The body contrast signature, however, is 
comprised from remote sources (i.e. sun, sky, 
albedo, etc.) which traverse long atmospheric 
paths to illuminate the target and this signal is 
contrasted against a remote background 
(horizon, terrain, clouds, etc.) whose radiance 
has also been operated on by long path con- 
stituents 



AD-A042 769/0CP PC A07/MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 
Tex 

Monte Carlo Studies on the Time-Dependent 
Transport of Optical and Infrared Radiation in 
the Atmosphere. Volume II. Thermal Radia- 
tion Transport 
Final rept. 1 Jul 75-30 Sep 76 
Dave G. Collins, and Michael B. Wells. 1 Mar 77, 
143p RRA-T7608-Vol-2, AFTAC-TR-77-6-Vol-2 
Contract F08606-74-C-0011 
See also Volume 1 , AD-C010 801 L. 

Descriptors: 'Thermal radiation, 'Infrared 
radiation, Monte Carlo method, Light, At- 
mosphere models, Transport, Absorption, Mie 
scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Clouds, 
Aerosols, Computer programs. Nuclear explo- 
sions. 

Identifiers: Polo computer program, 

'Atmospheric attenuation. Atmospheric trans- 
missivity, Mathematical models. 

This report describes modifications that were 
made to the POLO procedures to treat infrared 
absorption by the gaseous molecules in the at- 
mosphere. Also described are the results of stu- 
dies performed with the POLO procedure to 
compute time-dependent scattered light fluxes 
at satellite receivers for (1) 0.4278-, 0.75-, and 
1.07-micrometer wavelength anisotropic point 
sources; (2) 0.4278-, 0.5-, 0.6-, 0.75-, and 1.07- 
micrometer wavelength point isotropic sources 
in a 40-km meteorological range atmosphere; 
(3) point isotropic sources emitting in the 2.7- 
micrometer wavelength band; and (4) point 
isotropic 0.4278-, 0.75-, and 1.07-micrometer 
wavelength sources in model atmospheres 
containing a cloud layer. Three computer codes 
are described which were developed for con- 
volving the POLO-calculated wavelength- and 
time-dependent atmospheric scattering data 
with wavelength- and time-dependent source 
data for thermal radiation sources. A calcula- 
tional method is described that can be used to 
compute the Legendre polynomial coefficients 
required in discrete ordinates cooes for defin- 
ing the phase function for light scattering by 
aerosols and cloud particles. 



AD-A043 178/3CP MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 
Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predic- 
tions. Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 
Annual Report to the Defense Nuclear Agen- 
cy 

Memorandum rept. 
Apr77, 135p Rept no. NRL-MR-3488 
Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Mesosphere, "Nuclear weapon 
debris, "Beta particles, 'Gas ionization, Wind, 
Nuclear clouds, Satellite communications, 
Mathematical models, Solar radiation, Upper 
atmosphere, Circulation, Electron density, 
Computerized simulation, Computer programs. 
Ozone, Stratosphere. 
Identifiers: 'Rad iofrequency interference. 

Patches of ionized air produced by the passage 
through the atmosphere of beta radiation 
emitted from nuclear debris clouds pose a 
potential threat to satellite communications. 
The distribution of the debris and the con- 
sequent ionization has been shown to be 
strongly a function of the mesospheric wind 
fields. Observational data for these wind fields 
is shown, upon analysis, to be inadequate for 
systems application and theoretical models 
have been developed to remedy this. The circu- 
lations in the upper atmosphere are driven by 
the time-dependent influx cf solar radiation 
which is represented by a heating function used 
as input to the general circulation models. An 
improved heating function has been obtained 
and included in the NRL linear model, results 
for which are presented Results obtained from 
improvements in the NRL program for the simu- 
lation of solar tidal influences are also 



17 



presented. Finally, a computer program for pre- 
dicting beta induced electron density distribu- 
tions at any time after a nuclear burst is 
described. The program is suitably efficient for 
systems applications. (Author) 



AD-A043 322/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

Raytheon Co Wayland Mass 

Liquid Water Content Analyzer. Instruction 

Manual 

Final rept. 

J. H.Turner, A. J. Jagodnik, and W. C. 
Anderson. Sep 75, 102p ER75-4389, DNA-4129F 
Contract DNA001-75-C-0050 

Descriptors: "Moisture content, Meteorological 
radar. Analyzers, Radiosondes, Computer pro- 
grams, Instruction manuals, High altitude, Tele- 
type systems, Display systems. Colors, Com- 
puter operators, Radar scanning. 
Identifiers: 'Liquid water content analyzers. 

This manual provides a description of the liquid 
water content analyzer software and operator 
interaction with the analyzer system. 



AD-A043 499/3CP PC A07/MF A01 

General Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14b. 
Midlatitude Density Profiles of Selected At- 
mospheric Species 
Final rept. 2 Mar 74-28 Feb 75 
B. F. Myers. 13 Jun 75, 137p DNA-3964F-14b 
Contract DNA001-74-C-0182 
Prepared in cooperation with Science Applica- 
tions, Inc., La Jolla, CA, Rept. no. SAI-75-609- 
LJ-2B. See also Volume 16, AD-A043 546. 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric chemistry, Nuclear 
explosions. Antimissile defense systems, 
Radar, Radiation hazards, Atmospheric heave, 
Subroutines, Hydrodynamic codes, 

Yield(Nuclear explosions), Fallout, Nuclear 
radiation, Blackout(Propagation). 
Identifiers: "ROSCOE computer program, At- 
mospheric density, Oxygen atoms. Nitrogen 
atoms. Oxygen, Ozone, Nitrogen oxides, Car- 
bon dioxide, Water vapor. 

Atmospheric density profiles are presented for 
the following species: atomic oxygen, molecu- 
lar oxygen in the 1 delta g state, ozone, nitric 
oxide, atomic nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, car- 
bon dioxide, and water vapor. The profiles are 
intended to represent mean densities at 
midlatitudes for noon and midnight conditions. 
A review and limited discussion of recent ob- 
servations and calculations are given. 



AD-A043 546/1CP PC A10/MF A01 

General Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 16. High-Al- 
titude Neutral-Particle Motion 

Final rept. 1 Mar 74-31 Jan 75 
Daniel A. Hamlin, Curtis A. Smith, Melvin R. 
Schoonover, and Jon Y. Wang. 8 Aug 75, 203p 
DNA-3964F-16 
Contract DNA001-74-C-0182 
Prepared in cooperation with Science Applica- 
tions, Inc., La Jolla, CA, Rept. no. SAI-75-609- 
LJ-4 See also Volume 17, AD-A043 547. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, Radar, An- 
timissile defense systems, Atmospheric heave, 
Radiation hazards, Computerized simulation, 
Hydrodynamic codes, Yield(Nuclear explo- 
sions), High altitude, Quadrupole moment, 
Lagrangian functions. Differential equations, 
Blackout(Propagation). 
Identifiers: 'Roscoe computer program. 

Two preliminary, alternative models of the high- 
altitude (h () or 90 km) neutral-particle motion 
have been adopted for use in ROSCOE. Both 
models are one-dimensional spherical Lagran- 
gian models and describe the vertical 
hydrodynamic motion in each geocentric 



column in an array of perhaps 100 such con- 
tinuous but independent columns covering the 
disturbed region of interest. The models 
(SAIHYD, NRLHYD) describe the motion of a set 
of either Lagrangian cells or points by using the 
method of either difference equations or dif- 
ferential quadrature, respectively. Both models 
have automatic rezone capability. The geocen- 
tric columns defining the geometry for the cal- 
culations are described in terms of an arbitrarily 
positioned and oriented quadrupole coordinate 
system. Each Lagrangian cell or point is 
characterized by not only the hydrodynamic 
properties but also a set of chemistry quanti- 
ties. The chemistry is loosely coupled to the 
hydrodynamics. Herein are presented details of 
the quadrupole coordinate system, the working 
form of the hydrodynamic equations and their 
initialization and methods for solution, the 
results of a test problem for a large-yield event 
at 200-km altitude producing motion in a linear 
array of six columns. (Author) 



AD-A043 547/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

General Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 17. High-Al- 
titude Debris-Energy Deposition 

Final rept. 1 Mar 74-31 Jan 75 
Daniel A. Hamlin, Jon Y. Wang, Melvin R. 
Schoonover, and John I. Valeric 22 Sep 75, 
125pDNA-3964F-17 
Contract DNA001-74-C-0182 
Prepared in cooperation with Science Applica- 
tions, Inc., La Jolla, CA, Rept. no. SAI-75-609- 
LJ-Vol-5. See also Volume 3, AD-A032 640. 

Descriptors: "Nuclear explosions, "Ultraviolet 
radiation, "Radiation hazards, "Atmospheric 
chemistry, Antimissile defense systems, Radar, 
Optical detection, X rays. Computerized simula- 
tion, Nuclear weapon debris, High altitude, 
Subroutines, Computer printouts, 

Hydrodynamic codes, Yield(Nuclear explo- 
sions), Radiation shielding, Charged particles, 
Blackout(Propagation). 

Identifiers: Ion leak energy, Charge exchange, 
"Roscoe computer program. 

Models of the high-altitude debris-energy parti- 
tion and deposition have been adopted for use 
in ROSCOE. The models for the debris-energy 
partition and heavy-particle source spectra in- 
corporate the work of Crevier and Kilb for the 
loss-cone and ion-leak particles. The deter- 
mination of the total (and spectrum of the) UV 
portion of the kinetic yield remaining after that 
assigned to all the heavy-particle motion is 
based on the work of Fajen and Sappenfield. 
Representative points in the spatial distribution 
function specified for the loss-cone and ion- 
leak particles are used as effective source 
points through which magnetic field lines are 
traced in the downward direction through the 
intercepted grid cells in the geocentric quadru- 
pole coordinate system. Conventional heavy- 
particle range-energy theory is employed along 
these paths, without regard to spiralling effects, 
to deposit the energy of these heavy particles in 
the traversed cells. Charge-exchange particles 
are deposited without regard to the magnetic 
field. The total heavy-particle energies 
deposited by inelastic and by elastic collisions 
in each cell are partitioned into various modes 
and species which are ultimately made com- 
patible with the late-time grid chemistry. The 
UV energy groups, as well as the x-ray energy, 
are deposited by tracing ray paths (and con- 
structing line integrals of relevant species) from 
the event point to each cell in the high-altitude 
grid treated as a target cell. 



AD-A043 786/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

Texas Univ At El Paso Dept of Electrical En- 
gineering 

The Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory 
Photodissociation-Radiation Model of the 
Middle Atmosphere - A Users Manual 
Special rept. no. 11 
Jerry L. Collins. Jul 77, 51 p ECOM-77-4 



Contract DAAD07-74-0263 

Descriptors: "Programming manuals, 

"Computerized simulation, "Atmosphere 
models, "Photodissociation, Variations, Radia- 
tive transfer, Solar radiation, Upper at- 
mosphere, Absorption coefficients, Radiation 
attenuation, Machine coding, Fortran. 
Identifiers: Univac 1 108 computers. 

A computer code to calculate time- and al- 
titude-dependent photodissociation rates and 
transmitted solar flux intensities in the upper 
atmosphere has been developed, and is opera- 
tional on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. 
This document is presented to demonstrate to 
the interested user how to set up and execute 
the program. Included is a brief discussion of 
the files of absorption coefficients stored in 
FASTRAND direct access files and the various 
solar flux tape files which are stored in the 
Univac 1108 System B Library. 



AD-A043 965/3CP PC A06/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Inc Palo Alto 
Calif Palo Alto Research Lab 
Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances 

Final rept. 15 Apr 76-28 Jan 77 

J. B. Cladis, L. L. Newkirk, M. Walt, G. T. 

Davidson, and W. E. Francis. 28 Jan 77, 107p 

LMSC/D555985, DNA-4225F 

Contract DNA001-76-C-0247 

Descriptors: "Ionospheric disturbances, 

"Radiation effects, Trapping(Charged parti- 
cles), Wave propagation, Charged particles, 
High altitude, Nuclear explosions. Radio waves, 
Radio transmission, Radio interference, Scintil- 
lation, Electric fields. 

Identifiers: Aurora computer code, Farley-Bu- 
neman instability. 

Methods are described for solving the diffusion 
equation for trapped particles precipitating in 
the ionosphere. It is shown that the variation of 
the particle distribution with spatial location, 
both latitudinal and longitudinal, must be con- 
sidered, and that the bounce averaged diffusion 
equations are inadequate to treat the loss-cone 
distributions. The coupling of precipitating par- 
ticles to the ionosphere is described, with appli- 
cations of the AURORA doce. Mid-latitude 
WIDEBAND observations are described, with a 
discussion of interpretations based on trapped 
particle precipitation. Recent observations are 
described of loss-cone distributions of ions and 
electrons which do not fit the simple diffusion 
model. It is shown that these observations can 
be accounted for by the presence of kilovolt 
electric fields aligned with the magnetic field. It 
is shown that the ionosphere at large distances 
from a high-altitude nuclear explosion may be 
unstable to the Farley-Buneman mechanism, 
thereby providing a new mechanism for iono- 
spheric irregularities. (Author) 



AD-A045 090/8CP PC A03/MF A01 

Institute for Defense Analyses Arlington Va 
Science and Technology Div 
Effect of Weather at Hannover, Federal 
Republic of Germany, on Performance of 
Electrooptical Imaging Systems. The Calcula- 
tion Methodology for a FLIR Using a FOR- 
TRAN Program 
Final rept. Jul 75-Jul 77 

Lynne N. Seekamp. Aug 77, 39p N-842, SBIE- 
AD-E500-002 
Contract DAHC1 5-73-C-0200 

Descriptors: 'Forward looWeystems, Fortran, 
Weather, Military intelligence. Target detection. 
Target recognition, Electrooptics, West Ger- 
many, Mathematical models, Night vision 
devices. 

Identifiers: Lowtran 3 computer program, 
"Infrared detection, Hannover(West Germany). 



18 



This paper documents the computer program 
(called Program FUR) to calculate the proba- 
bilities of detection and recognition of a target 
by an observer using a FLIR sensor. It was writ- 
ten to summarize the basic concepts behind the 
calculation procedures in Program FLIR and to 
outline those procedures. (Author) 



AD-A045 725/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Utah Univ Salt Lake City 
Negative Molecular Ions 

Final rept 15 Jun 74-14 Jun 77 

John P.Simons. 17 Aug 77, 32p ARO-12031 .10- 

C 

Grant DAAG-29-74-G-0221 

Descriptors: 'Molecular ions, 'Anions, 
"Atmospheric chemistry. Reaction kinetics. 
Hydration, Solvation, Ionization, Ligands, 
Chemical bonds, Dipoles, Molecular orbitals. 
Computations, Computer programs, Perturba- 
tion theory, Dimers. 

This document look at molecular properties of 
some light inorganic anions, and of their 
hydrates and some other solvates. 



AD-A045 997/4CP PC A03/MF A01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass 

Calibration of the SSJ/3 Sensor on the OMSP 

Satellites 

Rept. for 1 Apr-1 Sep 77 

Alan Huber, John Pantazis, A. L. Besje, and P. 

L. Rothwell. Sep 77. 43p Scientific-2, AFGL-TR- 

77-0202 

Contract F19628-76-C-0039 

Descriptors: 'Electron spectroscopy, 

'Electrostatic analyzers, Scientific satellites, 
Computer programs. Electron energy, Monte 
Carlo method, Signal processing. Calibration, 
Tritium, Approximation(Mathematics), Electron 
multipliers, Collimators. 
Identifiers: DMSP satellites. 

The SSJ/3 sensor is designed to measure elec- 
trons from 50 eV to 20 keV. This is accom- 
plished by using two head assemblies with 
common signal processing and voltage 
sources. The low-energy head assembly selects 
50.0 to 1,000 eV electrons over eight channels 
with a normalization factor H 0.000043 sq cm- 
ster. The high-energy assembly similarly selects 
1 00 to 20 keV electrons over eight channels 
with an H-factor equal to 0.000013 sq cm-ster. 
Energy resolution is approximately 10% for an 
isotropic incident flux. An electron beam was 
used to determine angular and energy 
response. These measurements were com- 
pared with results from a Monte-Carlo com- 
puter code and approximate analytic methods 
to determine the final normalizations. (Author) 



AD-A046 484/2CP PC A02/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Lexington Lincoln 
Lab 

Automatic Real-Time Extinction Measure- 
ment 

Project rept. 

John M. Sorvari, and Cindy E. Beane. 12 Sep 77, 
16p Rept no. ETS-17 
Contract F19628-76-C-0002 

Descriptors: 'Photometry, 'Atmospheric densi- 
ty, Computer programs, Attenuation, Real time, 
Artificial satellites. Measurement 
Identifiers: Geodss satellite. 

No abstract available. 



AD-A046 755/5CP PC A02/MF A01 

National Aviation Facilities Experimental 
Center Atlantic City N J 

Executive Summary: New York City Pilots Au- 
tomatic Telephone Weather Answering Ser- 
vice (PATWAS) Test 
Final rept Aug 75-Jul 76 



Frank Staiano, and Ephraim Shochet. Oct 77, 
14p FAA-NA-77-23, FA/RD-77/80 

Descriptors: 'Weather communications, 
'Information centers, 'Telephone systems, Per- 
formance(Engineering), Operational test and 
evaluation, Pilots, Flight testing, Flight paths, 
Automatic, Recording systems, Computer pro- 
grams. Surveys, Questionnaires, New York 
City(New York), Weather. 

Identifiers: Pilots Automatic Telephone 
Weather Answering Service. 

An improved Pilots Automatic Telephone 
Weather Answering Service (PATWAS) was 
subjected to a year-long test in the New York 
City metropolitan area. The improvements con- 
sisted primarily of the following: (1) user access 
to three route-oriented briefings, (2) an in- 
crease in the number of access lines to PAT- 
WAS, (3) more frequent updating of informa- 
tion, (4) the addition of special early morning 
recordings, (5) capability to request 
meteorological and aeronautical information 
from the Weather Message Switching Center 
for incorporation into the PATWAS message, 

(6) reduction in the time required for updating, 

(7) addition of more meteorological and 
aeronautical information to the PATWAS 
message, (8) new and more efficient magnetic 
tape equipment, (9) installation of an acoustic 
enclosure for PATWAS tape recording, and (10) 
more efficient organization of the message for- 
mat. The purpose of the experiment was to test 
and evaluate the new PATWAS products, 
schedules, user acceptance, and the effects on 
the telephone briefing workload at the flight 
service station (FSS). 



AD-A047 252/2CP PC A08/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Inc Huntsville 
Ala Huntsville Research and Engineering 
Center 

Verification of Wind Measurement with Mo- 
bile Laser Doppler System 
Final rept. Jul 75-Nov 76 

M. R. Brashears, and W. R. Eberle. Sep 77, 162p 
LMSC-HREC-TR-D497071 , TSC-FAA-77-14 
Contract DOT-TSC-1098 

Descriptors: 'Wind velocity, 'Laser velocime- 
ters, Doppler effect, Remote detectors, At- 
mospheric circulation, Accuracy, Surface truth. 
Anemometers, Algorithms, Data processing, 
Validation, Computer programs, Wind shear, 
Identification. 

Identifiers: Laser Doppler velocimeters, 
Meteorological instruments. 

The Mobile Atmospheric Unit is a laser Doppler 
velocimeter system designed for the remote 
measurement of the three components of at- 
mospheric wind. The unit was tested to verify 
the capability of the system to measure wind 
remotely and to evaluate alternative data- 
processing algorithms. Remotely measured 
wind data are compared with concurrent data 
measured by anemometers on a 150-meter 
meteorological tower The test program 
showed that the laser Doppler velocimeter 
system is an accurate instrument for the remote 
measurement of winds. 



AD-A047 357/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Jet Propulsion Lab Pasadena Calif 
Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather 
Tapes. Program Summary 

Final rept. 

G Goltz, L. M Kaiser, and H. Weiner. Jun 77, 

52p JPL-5040-39, -CGR/DC-19/76 

See also AD-A047 356 and AD-A047 542 

Descriptors: 'Cloud cover, 'Solar cells, 
'Electric batteries, 'Power supplies, 

'Navigational aids. Statistical analysis, Com- 
puter applications. Meteorological data. Solar 
radiation. Geographical distribution, Weather 
forecasting. Computer programming, Flow 
charting, Feasibility studies. 



Identifiers: DSPA computer program 

A major mission of the U.S. Coast Guard is the 
task of providing and maintaining Maritime 
Aids to Navigation. These aids are located on 
and near the coastline and inland waters of the 
United States and its possessions. A computer 
program. Design Synthesis and Performance 
Analysis (DSPA), has been developed by the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate the 
feasibility of low-cost solar array/battery power 
systems for use on flashing lamp buoys. To pro- 
vide detailed, realistic temperature, wind, and 
solar insolation data for analysis of the flashing 
lamp buoy power systems, the two DSPA sup- 
port computer program sets: MERGE and STAT 
were developed A general description of these 
two packages is presented in this program 
summary report. The MERGE program set will 
enable the Coast Guard to combine tempera- 
ture and wind velocity data (NOAA TDF-14 
tapes) with solar insolation data (NOAA DECK- 
280 tapes) onto a single sequential MERGE file 
containing up to 12 years of hourly observa- 
tions. This MERGE file can then be used as 
direct input to the DSPA program. The STAT 
program set will enable a statistical analysis to 
be performed of the MERGE data and produce 
high or low or mean profiles of the data and/or 
do a worst case analysis The STAT output file 
consists of a one-year set of hourly statistical 
weather data which can be used as input to the 
DSPA program. 



AD-A047 526/9CP PC A10/MF A01 

Visidyne Inc Burlington Mass 
Comparison of ICECAP and EXCEDE Rocket 
Measurements with Computer Code Predic- 
tions 

Final rept. 9 Oct 74-30 Dec 76 
A. G. Hurd, J. W. Carpenter, T. C. Degges, W. F. 
Grieder, and W. P. Reidy 15 Feb 77, 222p VI- 
381.DNA-HAES-61 
Contract F19628-74-C-0177 
See also Rept. no. AFCRL-ERP-466, AD-780 
620. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, 'Aurorae, 
'Computerized simulation, Comparison, Emis- 
sion spectra. Electron energy. Infrared spectra, 
Arctic regions, Radiance, Near infrared radia- 
tion, Infrared spectrometers, Rocketborne, 
Machine coding. 

Identifiers: ICECAP Operation, EXCEDE Pro- 
gram, HAES Program. 

An analysis is made of rocketborne HAES ex- 
periments performed as part of the ICECAP and 
EXCEDE II test programs The results are com- 
pared to atmospheric emissions from code 
modelling. Relationships between auroral elec- 
tron spectra and visible aurora have been deter- 
mined. Sources of auroral IR are explained. 
(Author) 



AD-A048 013/7CP MF A01 

General Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14A. Ambient 
Atmosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Spe- 
cies and Ionosphere) 

Final rept. 1 Mar 74-31 Jan 75 
Daniel A. Hamlin, and Melvin R Schoonover. 13 
Jun 75, 151p DNA-3964F-14A 
Contract DNA001-74-C-0182 
Prepared in cooperation with Science Applica- 
tions, Inc., La Jolla, CA. Rept. no. SAI-75-609- 
LJ-2A. See also Volume 14B, AD-A043 499. 
Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric chemistry, 

'Atmosphere models. 'Nuclear explosion simu- 
lation, Computer programs, Radiation hazards. 
Atmospheric heave, Hydrodynamic codes. 
Computer programming, Computer applica- 
tions, Yield(Nuclear explosions). High altitude, 
Instruction manuals, Nitrogen oxides, Oxygen. 
Identifiers: ROSCOE computer programs, For- 
tran. 



19 



A preliminary model of the ambient atmosphere 
and ionosphere has been adopted for use in 
ROSCOE. The model provides at all altitudes all 
the needed properties of the neutral at- 
mosphere, including a dependence on the solar 
cycle and the local (apparent) time for altitudes 
above 120 km. Analytic fit-functions to Myers 
minor-species data base provide all the minor 
neutral species (O, C02, N, NO, H20, 02(1 delta 
g), 03, and N02) required by the chemistry 
module. Interim electron density profiles and 
effective ion production rates serve as the basis 
for the ionospheric model. Herein are 
presented derivations, flow diagrams, Fortran 
listings, and test problems. (Author) 



AD-A048 014/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

General Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 10. Models of 
Ion Leak and Loss Cone Patches 

Final rept. 

W. F. Crevier, and R. W. Kilb. 16 Dec 74. 36p 

DNA-3964F-10 

Contract DNA001-74-C-0182 

Prepared in cooperation with Mission Research 

Corp., Santa Barbara, CA. Rept. no. MRC-R- 

157. See also Volume 14A, AD-A048 013. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 'Nuclear 
explosion simulation, Computer programming. 
Nuclear energy levels. Losses, Radiation 
hazards, Hydrodynamic codes, Subroutines, 
High altitude, Yield(Nuclear explosions), Input 
output processing. 
Identifiers: ROSCOE computer program. 

This report presents simple models suitable for 
use in systems analysis codes of those two of 
the several possible energy loss mechanisms 
from high altitude nuclear bursts referred to as 
the LOSS CONE and the ION LEAK. The LOSS 
CONE represents the escape of debris into the 
narrow cone of angles parallel to the magnetic 
field in which the Larmor coupling theory is 
either inapplicable or partially fails. The ION 
LEAK represents the loss of energy due to ions 
that at any stage receive a velocity component 
parallel to the field that is sufficient to allow 
them to escape along that direction. (Author) 



AO-A048 067/3CP PC A03/MF A01 

Office of Telecommunications Boulder Colo 

Inst for Telecommunication Sciences 

EHF Transfer and Shielding Properties of Air 

(Summary of 1974-1977 Activities) 

Final rept. 

H.J. Liebe, and G. G. Gimmestad. Oct 77, 33p 

OT/ITS-910, ARO-12233.8-GS 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 'Clear air 
turbulence, Ultrahigh frequency, Shielding, 
Transfer functions, Microwave spectroscopy, 
Oxygen, Resonators, Spectrometers, 

Radiofrequency pulses, Paths, Transmission 
loss. Mathematical models, Computer pro- 
grams, Data bases, Experimental data, 
Bibliographies 

The microwave spectrum of oxygen (02 -MS) 
was investigated with a pressure-scanning 
dual-resonator spectrometer between 53 and 
64 GHz and with a nonresonant cavity spec- 
trometer at 119 GHz under simulated at- 
mospheric conditions This summary is in- 
tended as a wrap-up and guide to the various 
outputs covering three main topics: new spec- 
troscopic measurement technique; extensive 
02 -MS laboratory studies; and engineering 
formulation and modeling of clear air 
(molecular) EHF radio path transfer properties. 
(Author) 



AD-A048 481/6CP PC A07/MF A01 

Regis Coll Weston Mass 

A Generalized Computer Program for Primi- 
tive-Equation Models 

Rept for 1 Oct 76-30 May 77 



Thomas J. Leonard, and Jack C. Mettauer. 30 
May 77, 146p SCIENTIFIC-1 , AFGL-TR-77-0183 
Contract F19628-77-C-0010 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 

'Computer programs, 'Atmosphere models, 
Numerical integration, Mathematical predic- 
tion, Diagnosis(General), Global, Subroutines, 
Data storage systems. Buffer storage, Time, 
Savings, Flow charting. 
Identifiers: Primitive equations. 

This program is an attempt at a large scale, 
multi-level general circulation model of the at- 
mosphere. The original conception was to im- 
plement a very flexible program. The major pro- 
grams are: INITE (Since a typical problem will 
require more storage than can be ac- 
comodated, this program parcels the data and 
codes information as to how it is partitioned.); 
GEX (A solution program to step the fields 
ahead in time); and DISPLY (This program dis- 
plays the various fields which have been saved 
from the GEX run.) (Author) 



AD-A048 564/9CP PC A12/MF A01 

Sperry Research Center Sudbury Mass 
Development of Cloud/Fog Analysis and Ap- 
plication Subroutines for Experimental Proto- 
type Automatic Meteorological System 
(EPAMS) 

Final technical rept. 

B. R. Fow.and W. D. Mount. Nov75,261p Rept 
no. SCRC-CR-75-17 
Contract DAAD07-74-C-0251 

Descriptors: 'Cloud cover, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Fog, Subroutines, Meteorological data, 
Real time, Automatic, Teletype systems, Data 
processing, Systems analysis, Flow charting, 
Weather communications, Weather forecast- 
ing, Field conditions, Data reduction. Clouds, 
Communications networks, Tactical data 
systems, Tactical reconnaissance, Army opera- 
tions, Field army, Fortran. 
Identifiers: CFAS system. 

This report describes a computer software 
system called the Cloud/Fog Analysis system 
(CFAS), which was designed to be a subsystem 
of the U. S. Army's Experimental Prototype Au- 
tomatic Meteorological System (EPAMS). The 
function of the CFAS is to create and maintain 
information on cloud cover, fog and weather in 
near real-time on a mesoscale grid network 
covering a given geographical area. The data 
sources which the CFAS uses include teletype 
network transmissions of surface and upper air 
observations and cloud cover prognostications. 
State of the art techniques in automated 
meteorological data analysis were adapted and 
utilized in the CFAS. An overall system descrip- 
tion as well as detailed descriptions of its com- 
ponent modules, principally via the medium of 
annotated flow diagrams, are presented. 
(Author) 



AO-A048 603/5CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Severe Storms Lab Norman Okla 
Application of Doppler Weather Radar to Tur- 
bulence Measurements Which Affect Aircraft 

Final rept. 

J. T. Lee. Mar 77, 52p NSSL-1 , FAA/RD-77/145 

Contract DOT-FA74WAI-495 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, 

'Turbulence, "Meteorological radar, Thun- 
derstorms, Doppler radar, Meteorological data, 
Display systems, Vortices, Wind shear, Wind 
velocity, Real time, Aviation safety, Tornadoes, 
Flight maneuvers. Flight paths, Signal 
processing, Radar signals, Jet fighters. Flight 
recorders, Computer programs, Spectrum anal- 
ysis. 

Identifiers: F-100 aircraft, F-101 aircraft, F-4 air- 
craft. 



Analysis of thunderstorm turbulence hazardous 
to aircraft operation and coordinated Doppler 
radar observations indicate a high potential for 
Doppler radar utilization particularly the mean 
velocity spectrum breadth observations in 
defining severe turbulence areas. The mean 
Velocity Processor (MVP, the first real-time dis- 
play of Doppler radar data) and the Multi-mo- 
ment Ling Display (MMD), both developed at 
NSSL, are utilized with the radars to study vor- 
tex motion, turbulence, and wind shear areas. 
In addition, the Plan Shear Indicator (PSI) 
developed by the Air Force Cambridge 
Research Laboratory (AFCRL) was also em- 
ployed. A number of severe convective storms 
were penetrated by an instrumented aircraft 
directed into areas which analysis inferred to be 
turbulent. Aircraft recorded turbulence and 
concurrent Doppler data are compared. Utiliza- 
tion of the spectrum breadth calculated from 
the mean velocity data as a turbulence signa- 
ture is discussed. Vortex motion signature is 
also defined. (Author) 



AD-A049 019/3CP PC A03/MF A01 

Naval Oceanographic Office Washington D C 
The Naval Oceanographic Office Numerical 
Ice Forecasting System Operations Manual 

Technical note 

Lester B. Owens, Jr, and Donald J. Gerson. Nov 

74, 27p Rept no. NOO-TN-6150-33-74 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Ice forma- 
tion. Diurnal variations. Computer programs, 
Data processing, Instruction manuals, Oceano- 
graphic data, Meteorological data. 
Identifiers: 'Sea ice. Numerical weather 
forecasting. 

Standard computer deck set-ups and data 
tapes of the Numerical Ice Prediction System 
are specified for each day of the week. Methods 
for temperature forecast inputs, limits changes, 
expanded charts and temperature regime 
reversals are given. (Author) 



AD-A049 066/4CP PC A07/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 

Auroral Simulation Effects 

Final rept. 1 Nov 75-31 Mar 77 

Douglas H. Archer, and Paul W. Tarr. 31 Mar 77, 

130p MRC-R-313, DNA-HAES-62, AD-E300-039 

Contract DNA001-76-C-0138 

Descriptors: 'Aurorae, 'Nuclear explosion 
simulation, Comparison, High altitude. Near in- 
frared radiation, Rocketborne, Sounding 
rockets. Experimental data, Data reduction, 
Mathematical models. Machine coding, Elec- 
tron energy, Energy transfer. Radiance, At- 
mosphere models, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Icecap operation, ARCTIC com- 
puter program, AURORAL computer program, 
HAES program, Energy deposition. 

This report describes the continuing and con- 
cluding work related to analyses of ICECAP 
data with emphasis on short wavelength in- 
frared radiation in the auroral environment. A 
brief description of some satellite-communica- 
tions related work is also included. Data from 
two auroral events, taken by ICECAP rockets IC 
519.07-B and IC 507.11-2A, were analyzed and 
compared with results from computer calcula- 
tions These comparisons, along with those 
from earlier studies, are used to draw conclu- 
sions and recommendations related to IR 
modeling in the nuclear environment. A new 
and more accurate procedure for calculating 
electron temperatures was devised and incor- 
porated into the auroral code ARCTIC. The 
results were used, along with ion mass spec- 
trometer measurements in an aurora, to infer 
enhanced values for the NO concentration. 
(Author) 



AO-A049 448/4CP PC A03/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab Washington D C 



20 



Comparison of the 3-5 Micrometer and 8-12 
Micrometer Regions for Advanced Thermal 
Imaging Systems: LOWTRAN Revisited 

Interim rept. 

A. F. Milton, G. L. Harvey, and A. W. Schmidt. 30 

Dec 77, 34p NRL-8172, EOTPO-41 , AD-E000- 

100 

Descriptors: 'Infrared detection, 'Aerosols, At- 
mospheric windows, Light transmission, 
Marine atmospheres. Computer programs, 
Slant range, Wave propagation, Far infrared 
radiation, Infrared images, Electrooptics, At- 
mospheres, Models. 

Identifiers: Thermal images, 'Atmospheric 
transmissivity, Rural atmospheres, LOWTRAN 
3B computer program. Atmospheric attenua- 
tion. 

Four spectral bands for advanced infrared 
imaging systems are compared on the basis of 
calculations of atmospheric transmission, 
using the LOWTRAN 3B atmospheric transmis- 
sion model. Slant paths, MTF effects, and 
Maritime and Rural aerosol models are in- 
cluded in the analysis. The relative advantage of 
the 3- to 5-micrometer band is shown to be 
strongly influenced by the choice of aerosol 
models. (Author) 



AD-A050 170/OCP PC A05/MF A01 

SRI International Menlo Park Calif 
Modeling for Multispectral Infrared and 
Microwave Remote Sensing of the Tropo- 
sphere 

Final rept. 6 Aug 76-30 Sep 77 
Paul A. Davis, and John S. Ostrem. Sep 77, 88p 
AFGL-TR-77-0201 
Contract F19628-76-C-0275 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding. 

Meteorological satellites, Troposphere, Clouds, 
Remote detectors. Infrared radiation. 
Microwaves, Atmosphere models. Mathemati- 
cal models, Absorption coefficients, Trans- 
mittance, Radiometry, Radiation absorption. 
Frequency response, Weighting functions. 
Computer programs, Numerical analysis. 
Identifiers: Remote sensing, Multiband spectral 
reconnaissance. Microwave equipment, In- 
frared detectors, Remote sensing. 

The major objective of this study was to 
establish background information on the rela- 
tive responsiveness of multispectral infrared 
and microwave sensors typical of satellite 
radiometric sounders that probe tropospheric 
regions containing clouds. Such information 
supports satellite techniques to improve 
sensing of atmospheric structure and cloud 
features, and reduces the dependence on in- 
creased surface and airborne instrumentation. 
Different spectral intervals with the same 
equivalent temperature response from the 
cloud-free atmosphere also facilitate the in- 
terpretation of remote measurements in the 
presence of clouds or other aerosols 



AD-A050 256/7CP PC A09/MF A01 

Naval Ocean Systems Center San Diego Calif 

'INVERT', A Computer Program For Obtaining 

D-Region Electron Density Profiles from VLF 

Reflection Coefficients 

Research rept. 

David G. Morfitt, and Charles H. Shellman 30 

Nov 77, 188p Rept no. NOSC-IR-782 

Contract. DNA-MIPR-77-521 , DNA-MIPR-78-504 

Descriptors: 'Electron density, 'D region, Iono- 
spheric propagation, Computerized simulation, 
Ionospheric models, Reflectometers, Reflectivi- 
ty, Very low frequency, Fortran, Global commu- 
nication systems, lonosondes, Plasma medium. 
Identifiers: INVERT computer program, Density 
profiles, Strategic communications. 

INVERT is a FORTRAN computer program 
designed to study the feasibility of obtaining 



electron density distributions of the D-region of 
the ionosphere. These electron density profiles 
would be derived from measurements of iono- 
spheric reflection coefficients. The radio 
propagation frequencies would be limited to 
the VLF band, particularly 3-20 kHz. Thip report 
contains a discussion of the analytical ap- 
proach taken in INVERT, a FORTRAN listing of 
the program, instructions for using the program 
and some sample calculations using simulated 
data. The program has not been used with real 
data. (Author) 



AD-A050 874/7CP PC A09/MF A01 

Ohio State Univ Columbus Electroscience Lab 
Theoretical Study of the Turbulence Induced 
Scintillation of a Dirty Laser Beam 

Interim rept. Jan-Sep 77 

D. D. Duncan. Jan 78, 178p ESL-4232-5, RADC- 

TR-77-430 

Contract F30602-76-C-0058 

Descriptors: 'Laser beams, Scintillation, At- 
mospheric motion, Turbulence, Light scatter- 
ing. Electromagnetic wave propagation, Spec- 
tral energy distribution, Gaussian quadrature. 
Asymptotic series, Computer programs, 
Theses. 

Identifiers: Huygens-Fresnel principle, 

'Atmospheric transmissivity, Atmospheric at- 
tenuation. 

This work is concerned with predicting the tem- 
poral scintillation spectrum of a laser beam 
which has propagated through the turbulent at- 
mosphere. Use is made of the Extended 
Huygens-Fresnel principle in deriving a very 
general but compact mathematical expression 
for the temporal scintillation spectrum of an un- 
specified source field with an arbitrary shaped 
extended receiver aperture. This formula, 
which is restricted to the weak turbulence 
regime, is then applied to the analysis of several 
situations of contemporary interest. Specifi- 
cally, the analysis is directed toward the 
description of the effects of such a laser beam 
which is blemished in a deterministic sense. 
Spectra obtained under these conditions are 
shown to display increased sensitivity to the 
path distribution of the turbulence strength. 



AD-A051 126/1CP PC A08/MF A01 

Logicon Inc Lexington MA 

Analysis and Research for Integrated 
Systems in Physics of the Atmosphere 

Final rept. 1 Sep 76-30 Sep 77 

James N. Bass, Krishin H. Bhavnani, Ben-Zion 

J. Guz, Robert R. Hayes, and Shu T. Lai. 30 Nov 

77, 171 p AFGL-TR-77-0265 

Contract F19628-76-C-0304 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 

Ephemerides, Computer applications, Com- 
puter programs, Mathematical prediction, Earth 
orbits. Solar eclipses. Accuracy, Mapping, 
Ionospheric scintillations, Plasmas(Physics), 
Electric fields, Data reduction, Curve fitting, 
Steepest descent method. 

This report describes significant analyses and 
computer programming problems performed in 
support of Air Force Geophysics Laboratory 
scientists. Mathematical and logical 
procedures are discussed; reference material 
and samples of results are presented. Various 
AFGL rapid orbit generation programs have 
been modified for satellite observation by air- 
craft, for prediction of longitude drift due to 
resonances, and for improved estimation of 
solar eclipsing. Geopotential model studies 
were conducted to identify significant terms 
and evaluate results in operational orbit deter- 
mination programs. Ionospheric research pro- 
grams include data reduction and analyses for 
plasma motion and electric field mapping, top- 
side plasma monitoring on a Univac 1110, and 
scintillations modeling for equatorial and high 
latitude station coverage A geographic- 



geomagnetic background continental outline 
plot program is also described. Analysis and 
data processing for the Multi-Spectral Mea- 
surement Program includes calibrations and in- 
itial flight data base design. A general data 
compaction routine for use with large data 
bases is described. A revised astronomical 
ephemeris program which uses the new JPL 
planetary system was developed. (Author) 



AD-A051 617/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Army Missile Research and Development Com- 
mand Redstone Arsenal Al Technology Lab 
Methods for Prediction of Atmospheric Ef- 
fects on Laser Guidance Systems 
Technical rept. 

J. Q. Lilly. 15 Nov 77, 42p Rept no. DRDMI-T-78- 
16 

Descriptors: 'Laser beams, 'Laser guidance, 
Atmospheric scattering. Mathematical predic- 
tion, Atmospheric motion, Aerosols, Radiative 
transfer, Radiation absorption, Molecular 
states. Mathematical models. Fast fourier trans- 
forms, Frequency response, Dispersion rela- 
tions, Monte Carlo method. Terminal homing. 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric transmissivity, At- 
mospheric attenuation. 

This report describes mathematical models 
which predict effects of atmospheric turbu- 
lence, molecular absorption and scattering, 
aerosol absorption and scattering, and radia- 
tive transport. Turbulence-induced angle-of-ar- 
rival fluctuations of a laser target designator are 
formulated to permit calculation of the fluctua- 
tion power spectrum. A numerical procedure 
employing the fast Fourier transform is used to 
convert the frequency-dependent power spec- 
trum into the time domain giving angular beam 
wander. A separate computation gives the an- 
gular beamspread due to atmospheric turbu- 
lence. Descriptions of other models to deter- 
mine molecular line absorption and aerosol ab- 
sorption and scattering are also given. Models 
developed during this effort also provide first- 
order radiative transfer predictions and a multi- 
ple scattering model using Monte Carlo predic- 
tions. Utilization instructions are included for 
each of the models. (Author) 



AD-A051 700/3CP PC A05/MF A01 

Dytec Engineering Inc Huntington Beach Ca 
Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment 

Procedure for Aircraft Flyover Noise Mea- 
surements 

Final rept. May-Sep 77 

Alan H. Marsh. Dec 77, 90p DYTEC-R-7705. 
FAA-RD-77-167 
Contract W1 -77-5660-1 

Descriptors: "Aircraft noise, 'Overflight, 
'Atmospheric physics, 'Acoustic absorption. 
Acoustic measurement, Computer programs, 
Sound pressure, Sound transmission, Jet plane 
noise. Atmospheric temperature. Humidity, 
Barometric pressure, FORTRAN, Ambient 
noise. Bandpass filters. 

Identifiers: 'Noise pollution, Fortran 4 pro- 
gramming language. 

An analytical method was developed for adjust- 
ing measured aircraft noise levels for dif- 
ferences in atmospheric absorption between 
test and reference meteorological conditions 
along the sound propagation path The method 
is based on the procedure in the proposed 
American National Standard ANS S1.26 for cal- 
culating pure-tone sound absorption as a func- 
tion of the frequency of the sound and the tem- 
perature, humidity, and pressure of the air. 
Measured aircraft noise levels are assumed to 
be 1/3-octave-band sound pressure levels. A 
computer program was written in FORTRAN IV 
to carry out the calculations. The operation of 
the computer program, the required input data, 
and all symbols and terms used in the program 



21 



are described. A program listing of source 
statements is provided. Recommendations are 
given for applying the method to routine 
processing of aircraft noise measurements. 
(Author) 



AD-A051 754/OCP PC A05/MF A01 

Illinois Univ At Urbana-Champaign Dept of 

Electrical Engineering 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System 

for Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 

Scientific rept. 

K. S. Yang, and A. L. Hearn. Jul 77. 85p UILU- 

ENG-77-2259, TR-61 , ARO-14260.3ELX 

Grant DAAG29-76-G-0286 

Descriptors: "Digital recording systems. "Data 
processing equipment, "Ionospheric scintilla- 
tions. Analog to digital converters, Multichan- 
nel communications, Radio beacons. Radio in- 
terference. Communication satellites. Magnetic 
tape. Data processing, Computer programs. 
Control systems, Schematic diagrams. 
Identifiers: Satellite communications. 

This report describes a multi-channel digital 
data logging system designed specifically to 
digitize and record the analog transmissions 
from radio beacon satellites which are sub- 
sequently used for ionospheric scintillation stu- 
dies. System specifications and design dia- 
grams are given This system has been actually 
built and is currently recording data. The com- 
puter software necessary to produce a digital 
magnetic tape for further data processing is 
described in the Appendix (Author) 



AD-A052 535/2CP PC A05/MF A01 

Environmental Research and Technology Inc 

Concord Mass 

Parameterization of Weather Radar Data for 

Use in the Prediction of Storm Motion and 

Development 

Final rept. 6 Aug-31 Dec 76 

Robert K Crane. Mar 77, 100 ERT-P-2095, 

AFGL-TR-77-0216 

Contract F19628-76-C-0264 

Descriptors: 'Storms. Weather forecasting. 
Radar signals, Radar tracking. Motion, 
Parametric analysis, Doppler radar, Convec- 
tion(Atmospheric), Shear properties. Turbu- 
lence. Radar signatures, Algorithms, Computer 
programs 
Identifiers. "Radar meteorology. 

Algorithms were developed for the rapid and ef- 
ficient representation of digital data from a sin- 
gle Doppler weather radar The data are 
processed to obtain a number of attributes 
which describe small convective cells, larger 
echo areas, and isolated regions of high tan- 
gential shear The data are also processed to 
provide estimates of the environmental wind 
velocity profile and the total reflectivity profile. 
The attributes are obtained to represent the es- 
sential information content of the radar data 
with the fewest possible number of parameters. 
The attributes were selected to describe the 
development and motion of severe storms and, 
in particular, the small convective elements that 
are viewed as the building blocks of the storm. 
Attributes were also selected to describe iso- 
lated tangential shear r, axima to obtain signa- 
tures of storm severity (Author) 



AD-A052 636/8CP PCA06/MFA01 

Oklahoma Univ Norman Dept of Engineering 

Physics 

A Study of the Applicability of Lasers to the 

Measurement of Tornado Wind Speeds 

Master's thesis 

David Arnold Ross. 1976, 109p 

Descriptors 'Tornadoes, 'Pulsed lasers, "Wind 
velocity, Weather forecasting, Cloud physics, 
Doppler effect. Heterodyning, Mie scattering, 



Infrared lasers, Near infrared radiation, At- 
mosphere models, Computerized simulation. 
Computer programs, Theses. 
Identifiers: "Laser velocimeters, Meteorological 
instruments. 

The purpose of this research is to examine the 
theoretical possibility of using pulsed lasers to 
determine the velocity structure of the turbu- 
lence associated with tornadoes, particularly, 
the funnel cloud. Laser technology has 
progressed to the point that velocity dis- 
crimination on the order of 1 m/sec is achieva- 
ble outside the laboratory. Furthermore, detec- 
tors are available (at the cited wavelengths) 
with sensitivities of the order required to 
process the returned signal. However, it is 
recommended that a system containing the 
required components including the ancillary 
equipment be constructed and tested to verify 
the results obtained in this study. 



AD-A052 685/5CP PC A09/MF A01 

Texas Univ At El Paso Dept of Electrical En- 
gineering 

A Computational Method for Spectral Molecu- 
lar Absorption Using an Improved Voigt Al- 
gorithm 
Master's thesis 
Peter Clark Van Derwood. May 77, 1 79p 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, Trans- 
mittance, Molecular spectroscopy, Spectral 
lines. Absorption spectra, Doppler effect. Com- 
puterized simulation. Algorithms, Atmospheric 
temperature. Atmospheric sounding. Infrared 
spectra. High resolution. Remote detectors, 
Meteorological satellites, Atmospheric motion, 
Computer programs, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'Infrared radiation, 'Atmospheric 
transmissivity, Atmospheric attenuation. 

Discussion of the fundamental elements and 
theory related to atmospheric transmittance is 
presented. A line-by-line transmission com- 
puter program is developed that utilizes the 
combined Doppler-Lorentz (Voigt) line 
broadening function. In addition a rapid al- 
gorithm to evaluate the Voigt function with a 
maximum relative error of about one part in 
10,000 is described and a software package that 
processes the absorption line parameters 
necessary to calculate transmittance is given. 
The results of transmittance calculations for 
seven channels in the fifteen micrometer band, 
corresponding to the seven High Resolution In- 
frared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) channels, are 
furnished and the procedure to compute a band 
averaged transmission discussed. It is con- 
cluded that the Voigt algorithm developed here 
is an excellent computational procedure and 
the resulting transmittance program correctly 
calculates atmospheric transmission (Author) 



AD-A052 686/3CP PC A07/MF A01 

Texas Univ At El Paso Dept of Electrical En- 
gineering 

An Efficient Computational Approximation to 
the Lorentz Line Molecular Absorption Coeffi- 
cient 

Master's thesis 
Michael T Potter May 77, 147p 

Descriptors "Atmosphere models, 'Absorption 
coefficients, Molecular spectroscopy, Absorp- 
tion spectra, Lorentz force, Spectral lines. 
Shape, Transmittance, Nitrous oxide, Carbon 
monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Water vapor, Com- 
puter programs, Savings, Time, Approxima- 
tion(Mathematics), Theses 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric transmissivity, At- 
mospheric attenuation, Atmospheric composi- 
tion. 

A rapid and accurate approximation to the 
Lorentz line molecular absorption coefficient 
has been developed which significantly 
reduces the time of line-by-line transmittance 



calculations. By separating computations 
required for each spectral line, atmospheric 
level, and absorbing gas under consideration, 
arithmetical operations are minimized. Time 
tests were conducted while computing the 
monochromatic absorption coefficient for five 
frequency channels in the 4.3 micrometers 
band. The approximation was compared to the 
evaluation of the Lorentz line shape (Standard 
manner) for a 33 level atmosphere and an 
average of 1000 absorption lines per region. 
Absorption coefficient values computed by this 
approximation agreed to those computed in the 
standard fashion to at least three decimal 
places regardless of molecule type, channel, or 
atmospheric level. Average percent-relative er- 
rors were typically: .0001 for H20; .0001 for 
C02: .001 for N20; .00000001 for CO. For trans- 
mittance calculations over a band, time savings 
can be predicted by analyzing the required 
number of arithmetical operations. For 1,000 
spectral lines over a bandwidth of 25/cm and a 
step increment of 0.02/cm, a reduction in com- 
putation time of 450% is anticipated. 



AD-A053 154/1CP PC A08/MF A01 

Sri International Menlo Park Ca 
Chatanika Model of the High-Latitude Iono- 
sphere for Application to HF Propagation Pre- 
diction 

Final rept. 1 Jan-30 Sep 77 
R. R. Vondrak, G. Smith, V. E. Hatfield, R. T. 
Tsunoda, and V. R. Frank. Jan 78, 158p RADC- 
TR-78-7 
Contract F19628-77-C-0102 

Descriptors: 'Radar pulses, 'Ionospheric 
propagation, 'Mathematical models, 

'Computer programs, High altitude, High 
frequency. Radio waves, Aurorae, Electron den- 
sity, Incoherence, Scattering, Ray tracing, Geo- 
graphic areas. Data bases, D region, E band, F 
region. 
Identifiers: Chatanika radar, Chatanika(Alaska). 

Electron density measurements made with the 
incoherent-scatter radar at Chatanika, Alaska 
have been used to obtain a synoptic model of 
the high-latitude ionosphere. This Chatanika 
model is a modification of the RADC-POLAR 
model developed by Elkins and coworkers for 
use in raytracing codes for HF propagation pre- 
diction. Because the existing RADC model was 
derived from a larger and more geographically 
extensive data base than that used in this study, 
many of its features have been retained in the 
new model The major modification that we 
made was an improved specification of the au- 
roral E-layer and the altitude interval between 
the E and F regions This region sometimes acts 
as a duct in which HF signals may travel for 
great distances without traversing the D region, 
where most absorption occurs. 



AD-A053 164/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Geophysics Lab Hanscom AFB Mass 
Modeling of the Geosynchronous Orbit 
Plasma Environment. Part I 

Air Force surveys in geophysics 

Henry B. Garrett. 14 Dec 77, 46p Rept nos 

AFGL-TR-77-0288-PT-1 , AFGL-AFSG-380-PT-1 

Descriptors: 'Space charge, "Space environ- 
ments, Synchronous satellites, 
Plasmas(Physics), Ionization, Computer pro- 
grams, FORTRAN, Mathematical models, Elec- 
tron density. Electron energy. Ion density, Tem- 
perature 
Identifiers: ATS-5 satellite 

Although the role of the environment in 
generating spacecraft potential variations at 
geosynchronous orbit is well documented, 
variations in the ambient environment itself 
have not been well-defined Similarly, no stu- 
dies of the environment have attempted an 
analytic formulation of the various parameters 
needed to model the spacecraft charging 



22 



phenomenon. This paper describes the 
parameters needed to formulate such a model 
and outlines a systematic procedure for con- 
structing a simple analytic model that includes 
the effects of local time and geomagnetic ac- 
tivity. Observational data from the ATS-5 satel- 
lite are analyzed using this procedure to give a 
preliminary analytic description of the 
geosynchronous environment in the form of a 
FORTRAN program. (Author) 



AD-A053 178/OCP PC A12/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

Huntsville Ala George C Marshall Space Flight 

Center 

Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard 

Definition 

Final rept. Apr 76-Feb 78 

Walter Frost, Dennis W. Camp, and S. T. Wang. 

Feb 78, 257p FAA/RD-78/3 

Contract DOT-FA76-WA1-620 

Prepared in cooperation with FWG Assoc, Inc., 

Tullahoma, TN., Contract NAS8-32217. 

Descriptors: "Aviation safety, "Wind shear, 
"Aircraft landings, Hazards, Mathematical 
models, Thunderstorms, Gusts, 

Fronts(Meteorology), Low altitude, Takeoff, 
Glide slope, Terminal flight facilities. Computer 
programs, Computerized simulation. 

Wind shear at low altitudes in the terminal area 
has been identified as hazardous to aircraft 
operations. Mathematical models of wind 
profiles have been developed for use in fast 
time and manned flight simulation studies 
aimed at defining and eliminating these wind 
shear hazards. A set of wind profiles and as- 
sociated wind shear characteristics for stable 
and neutral boundary layers, thunderstorms, 
and frontal winds potentially encounterable by 
aircraft in the terminal area are given. Wind 
shear is defined as significant changes in wind 
speed and/or direction up to 500 m above the 
ground that may adversely affect the approach, 
landing, or takeoff of an aircraft. Engineering 
models of wind shear for direct hazard analysis 
are presented in mathematical formulae, 
graphs, tables, and computer lookup routines. 
The wind profile data utilized to establish the 
models is described as to location, how ob- 
tained, time of observation and number of data 
points up to 500 m. These models provide the 
three components of wind speed in two-dimen- 
sional vertical planes, i.e., as functions of the 
vertical and horizontal coordinates. Statistical 
data is provided, where available, as to the risk 
of exceeding the wind shear environment pre- 
dicted by the models. 



AD-A053 199/6CP PC A04/MF A01 

Air Force Geophysics Lab Hanscom AFB Mass 
Persistence, Runs, and Recurrence of Sky 
Cover 

Environmental research papers 

IverA Lund, and Donald D Grantham. 30 Dec 

77, 53p Rept nos. AFGL-TR-77-0308, AFGL- 

ERP-621 

Descriptors: 'Cloud cover, Mathematical 
models, Computer programs. Sky, Predictions, 
Probability density functions. Continuity, Inter- 
vals, Recursive functions, Weather forecasting, 
Observation, Counting methods, Weather sta- 
tions, Meteorological data. 

A total of 511, 056 hourly observations of total 
sky cover, taken over a thirteen-year period at 
nine stations, was studied to obtain a better un- 
derstanding of the characteristics of per- 
sistence, runs, and recurrence. Each hourly 
total sky cover observation was categorized as 
either zero-tenths (clear), less than or equal to 
three-tenths, greater than or equal to eight- 
tenths, or ten-tenths (overcast). Probabilities of 
each category were estimated from relative 
frequencies -determined from this large data 
sample and were compared with some theoreti- 



cal models. The models can be applied to esti- 
mate probabilities that any of the above sky 
cover categories will be observed for 
sequences of x hours, or more; for exactly x 
hours; or at time t and also at time tOx hours. 
(Author) 



AD-A053 608/6CP PC A07/MF A01 

New Mexico State Univ Las Cruces 
Development of a Real-Time Rocketsonde 
and a Real-Time Radiosonde Computer Pro- 
gram 

Contractor rept. 

M. Don Merrill, and Scott Fry. Jan 78, 141p 
ERADCOM/ASL-CR-78-01 15-1 
Contract DAAD07-76-C-0115 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric sounding, 

"Radiosondes, Sounding rockets. Computer 
programs, Data acquisition, Meteorological 
data, Real time, Layers, Wind, Temperature, 
Subroutines, Assemblers, Fortran, Data 
processing, Input output processing, Flow 
charting. 

This report contains a detailed description of a 
computer program that was developed for use 
with the Interdata 7/32 computer and the inter- 
faced Nike Hercules radar systems located at 
the MTTR site at White Sands, New Mexico and 
the Poker Flat site in Alaska. The program can 
process in real-time a complete data reduction 
for an MRN rodketsonde or a list of 2 minute 
layer winds for a radiosonde. For a rocket- 
sonde. the program utilizes the temperature 
telemetry data, the positional radar data, and 
the operator inputs of rocketsonde temperature 
calibration values and base level tie-in data 
from a radiosonde flight to produce an 
MRN(WDC-A) format listing of the following: 1 
KM corrected and uncorrected winds; Signifi- 
cant level temperature data; 1 KM ther- 
modynamic data; Significant level ther- 
modynamic data; MRN 30 cards (image); Man- 
datory thermodynamic data; MRN 40 cards 
(image); and Printer plot of X and Y component 
winds and temperatures versus 1 KM altitudes. 
For a radiosonde, the program utilizes the posi- 
tional radar data to produce a listing of two- 
minute layer winds at 1 minute intervals. 



AD-A053 620/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

Sri International Menlo Park Ca 
Evaluation of the FIB Methodology for Appli- 
cation to Cloud Motion Wind Data 

Final rept. 23 Jun 76-23 Jun 77 
William Viezee, Daniel E. Wolf, and Roy M. 
Endlich. 23 Jul 77, 92p Rept no. SRI-TR-77-08 
Contract N00228-76-C-3182 

Descriptors: "Meteorological data, Numerical 
analysis, Computer programs, Clouds, At- 
mospheric motion, Wind, Least squares 
method. Weighting functions. Meteorological 
satellites, Finite difference theory, Vortices, 
Hurricanes, Cyclones, Case studies. 
Identifiers: FIB computer program. 

A comprehensive technique for the objective 
analysis of scalar and vector fields was 
developed. The technique is called the Fields by 
Information Blending (FIB) technique. This re- 
port describes the results of a research study to 
evaluate the application of the FIB technique to 
the blending of satellite-derived cloud motion 
wind data and their finite-difference derivatives 
(e.g., vorticity and divergence) with conven- 
tional wind analyses. The FIB program was sup- 
plied to SRI by NEPRF as part of a set of com- 
puter programs that, after adaption to SRI's 
CDC-6400 computer, allowed for the 
processing, analyses, and subsequent blending 
of selected trial data sets. Conclusions are 
based on the results obtained by executing FIB 
on the data of two case studies, one of the 
passage of Hurricane Carmen through the Gulf 
of Mexico (1-7 September 1974) and the other 
of migration of an extratropical cyclone in the 



eastern North Pacific Ocean (5-8 February 
1976). Both areas are over water and are rela- 
tively sparse in conventional data, so 
meteorological analyses could benefit from the 
assimilation of cloud motion data. It is con- 
cluded that the FIB program and its associated 
program segments are operationally suitable 
for blending cloud motion data with conven- 
tional wind analyses. 



AD-A053 840/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Avionics Lab Wright-Patterson AFB 

Ohio 

Meteorological Sensitivity of LOWTRAN 3B 

Final rept. 1 Jul-1 Oct 77 

Ronald R. Gruenzel. Dec 77, 36p Rept no. 

AFAL-TR-77-229 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, Trans- 
mittance, Computerized simulation, Radiative 
transfer, Frequency response. Radiation at- 
tenuation, Water vapor, Ozone, Carbon dioxide, 
Air, Absorption spectra. 

Identifiers: LOWTRAN 3B computer program. 
Atmospheric composition, "Atmospheric trans- 
missivity, Meteorology, Atmospheric attenua- 
tion, Computer programs. 

Mathematical expressions are developed which 
permit calculations of the meteorological sen- 
sitivity of LOWTRAN 3B, a computer code 
which can be used to calculate the trans- 
mittance of the atmosphere from the ultraviolet 
to the middle infrared portion of the spectrum. 
Mathematical relationships are developed 
which relate the water vapor line, uniformly 
mixed gases and ozone transmissions directly 
to the meteorological observables. These rela- 
tionships are then used in conjunction with the 
existing expressions for the other atmospheric 
constituents to determine the meteorological 
sensitivity of this model. (Author) 



AD-A054 013/8CP PC A02/MF A01 

Photometries Inc Lexington Mass 
Recording and Analysis of Optical Data from 
Stratospheric Dynamics Experiments 

Final rept. 15 Jun 76-14 Jan 78 

Christian A. Trowbridge, Irving L. Kofsky, and 

Ronald H.Johnson. 14 Jan 78, 24p PHM-03-78. 

AFGL-TR-78-0015 

Contract F19628-76-C-0239 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric sounding, 

"Atmospheric temperature, 'Wind shear, Opti- 
cal data, Transport properties. Stratosphere, 
Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Triangulation, 
Photometry, Photographic images. Tracer stu- 
dies, Trace elements, Trace gases. Upper at- 
mosphere. Atmospheric scattering, Algorithms, 
Computer programs, Vector analysis, 
Matrices(Mathematics), Smoke, Chemicals, At- 
mospheric motion, Calibration. 

A program whose objective is the study of 
stratospheric winds and temperatures, and 
mass transport processes in the stratosphere 
and upper atmosphere, is described. These 
parameters are determined through reduction 
and analysis of photographs of sunlight-scat- 
tering chemical and smoke (particulate) tracers 
deposited from rockets. Computer programs 
implementing triangulation by vector and 
matrix methods were developed to measure 
three-dimensional smoke trail positions from 
multiple photographic projections of the trails 
Horizontal winds and shears were derived from 
the transport of these trails. (Author) 



AD-A054 325/6CP PC A04/MF A01 

Army Armament Research and Development 
Command Aberdeen Proving Ground Md Bal- 
listics Research Lab 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions. II. Results 
for the Stratosphere and Mesosphere 
Technical repf. 



23 



J.M. Heimerl.and F. E. Niles Mar78,54p 
ARBRL-TRs02050, AD-E430-01 7 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric models, 'Electron 
density. Ion density, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, 
Atmospheric disturbances, Hydrodynamic 
codes, Electrons, Cations, Anions, Ionization, 
Recombination reactions, Reaction kinetics. 
Identifiers: BENCHMARK-76 hydrodynamic 
code.AIRCHEM computer code. 

Electron, positive ion and negative ion densities 
have been computed as a function of time and 
altitude under conditions where the prompt 
ionization parameter is set to ten to the 
eleventh power per cubic centimeter and the 
delayed ionization parameter is taken to be 10 
to the eighth power ion-pairs per cubic cen- 
timeter per second. Model times extend to 
10,000 s for most conditions and the altitude re- 
gions are 10-80 km for daytime conditions and 
30-80 km for nighttime conditions. Selected 
results, limited comparisons and brief sensitivi- 
ty studies are reported together with temporal 
and altitude variations of the computed effec- 
tive rate coefficients. (Author) 



AD-A054 376/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Army Armament Research and Development 
Command Aberdeen Proving Ground Md Bal- 
listics Research Lab 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions. III. 
Results for Selected Excitation Parameters at 
60 km 

Technical rept. 

J M. Heimerl, and F. E. Niles. Mar 78, 52p 
ARBRL-TR-02051, AD-E430-022 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric models, 'Electron 
density, 'Ion density, Mesosphere, Atmospheric 
disturbances. Ionization, Anions, Cations, Ex- 
citation, Parameters, Time, Hydrodynamic 
codes. Reaction kinetics. Diurnal variations. 
Identifiers: BENCHMARK-76 hydrodynamic 
code.AIRCHEM computer code 

Electron, positive and negative ion densities 
have been computed as a function of time at an 
altitude of 60 km under conditions where the 
prompt ionization parameter was assigned the 
values ten to the eighth, tenth or eleventh 
power per cubic centimeter and the delayed 
ionization parameter was assigned the values 
ten to the sixth, eighth or tenth power ion pairs 
per cubic centimeter per second, subject to the 
condition that the magnitude of the former be 
greater than the magnitude of the latter. Model 
times extend the 10,000 seconds in most cases 
and computations were made for daytime and 
nighttime conditions. Selected results and 
limited comparisons are reported together with 
the variations of the computed equivalent rate 
coefficients with time and with ionization con- 
ditions (Author) 



AD-A055 273/7CP PC A04/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst Menlo Park Calif 
Two Fortran Programs for Calculating Global 
Ionospheric Amplitude and Phase Scintilla- 
tion 

Final technical rept. 15May76-15Jul77 
Char lesLRinoEdwardJF re mouw, Anne R 
Hessing, and V. Elaine Hatfield Apr 78, 67p 
RADC-TR-78-87 
Contract F30602-75-C-0236, ARPA Order-2777 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric scintillations, 

'Ionospheric models, 'Ionospheric 

disturbances, Amplitude modulation. Phase 
modulation. Electron density, Scientific satel- 
lites, Inclined orbit trajectories, Fortran, 
Subroutines, Autocorrelation, Sunspots, Drift 
Identifiers: IONSCNT computer program, DIST 
computer program 

This report contains detailed descriptions of 
the FORTRAN computer codes IONSCNT, 



which calculates average ionospheric am- 
plitude and phase scintillation conditions on a 
global basis, and the auxiliary statistics pro- 
gram DIST, which uses the IONSCNT outputs to 
calculate fading statistics. Operating instruc- 
tions for the programs together with examples 
and descriptions of the various outputs are in- 
cluded. The theoretical background and data 
base for the program development is contained 
in a separately published report. 



AD-A055 463/4CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Inst of Tech Wright-Patterson AFB 
Ohio School of Engineering 
A Matrix Approach to a Propagation Code 

Master's thesis 

Peter Leonard Misuinas. Dec 77, 46p Rept no. 

AFIT/GEO/PH/77-1 

Descriptors: 'Laser beams, Carbon dioxide 
lasers. Atmosphere models, Pulsed lasers, 
Light transmission, Thermal blooming, Radia- 
tion absorption, Infrared lasers, High power, 
Wind, Theses. 

Identifiers: COMBO computer program, 
'Atmospheric transmissivity, Atmospheric at- 
tenuation. 

A transfer matrix for C02 laser beams with an 
assumed gaussian intensity distribution is 
developed that includes parameters for absorp- 
tion, turbulence, and thermal blooming. Calcu- 
lated parameters are an effective beam radius 
(1/sq e point) and an on-axis intensity. For 
moderate power levels, results are consistent 
with the computer code COMBO. The blooming 
model predicts results worse than those pre- 
dicted by COMBO for high power levels. 
(Author) 



AD-A055 861/9CP MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
Physically-Based High Resolution Surface 
Wind and Temperature Analysis for EPAMS 

Final rept. 

Joseph A Ball, and Steven A.Johnson. Mar 78, 

278p MRC-R-7731-1-278, ERADCOM/ASL-CR- 

78-0043-1 

Contract DAEA18-77-C-0043 

Availability: Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Wind, Meteorological instru- 
ments, Computer programs, High resolution. 
Wind direction, Atmospheric temperature, 
Prototypes. Automatic, Terrain, Mathematical 
models. Wind velocity. 

Identifiers: Experimental Prototype Automatic 
Meteorological System. 

This report documents the theoretical basis, 
development, and computational structure of a 
numerical computer analysis routine incor- 
porated in the US Army Experimental Prototype 
Automatic Meteorological System (EPAMS) for 
the estimation of surface layer wind fields at 
sub-mesoscale resolution (approx. 100 meters) 
over a limited area in broken topography. The 
geographically re-locatable analysis exploits 
detailed topographic information but requires 
only limited meteorological information. The 
physically-based analysis uses Gauss' Principle 
of Least Constraints for a variational adjust- 
ment of an initial estimated wind field in a sin- 
gle surface layer to conform with terrain struc- 
ture, mass conservation, and buoyancy forces. 
Fields of surface air temperature are also 
produced. Initial meteorological input is ob- 
tained from the EPAMS data base by an auto- 
mated analysis which is described in detail. The 
segmentation structure of the computational 
program levels is presented. Appendices pro- 
vide user instructions, detailed algorithms, and 
example wind field estimates. (Author) 



AD-705 566/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Utah Univ Salt Lake City Dept of Electrical En- 
gineering 



A Data Reduction Computer Program for the 
AFCRL Triaxial Accelerometer Inflated Falling 
Sphere Atmospheric Density Measuring 
System. 

Final rept. 1 Dec 68-31 Aug 69 

Forrest L. Staffanson, and Ray G. Phibbs. Oct 

69, 232p UTEC-MR-69-140, AFCRL-69-0446 

Contract F19628-69-C-0124 

PORTIONS OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE NOT 

FULLY LEGIBLE. 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Density, 

'Meteorological instruments, Falling bodies, 
Accelerometers, Drag, Flight speeds. Altitude, 
Uncertainty, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Falling spheres, 'Atmospheric den- 
sity. 

A digital program is presented for the automatic 
processing of flight data from the triaxial ac- 
celerometer inflated falling sphere system 
developed by Air Force Cambridge Research 
Laboratories for the measurement of upper at- 
mospheric air density. The program also com- 
putes the uncertainty of each final data point 
according to input estimates of component un- 
certainties and computed varying measures of 
data quality. Results using flight data from 
three recent launchings of the experiment are 
presented (16 and 23 May 1968 at Kauai, Hawaii 
and 31 January 1969 at Wallops Island, Vir- 
ginia). (Author) 



AD-706 410/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Dartmouth Coll Hanover N H Thayer School of 

Engineering 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course of 

Polar Cap Absorption. 

Final rept (Part 1 ), 1 Apr 68-31 May 69 
Leif Owren. Dec 69, 127p AFCRL-69-0541(l) 
Contract F19628-68-C-0308 

Descriptors: "Solar radiation, Protons, 
"Ionospheric disturbances. Polar regions, 
"Ionospheric propagation, 

Blackout(Electromagnetic), High frequency, 
Absorption, Solar flares, Riometers, Mathemati- 
cal prediction, Statistical analysis. Computer 
programs. 

Identifiers: PCA(Polar Cap Absorption), Polar 
cap absorption. Nomographs, "Solar cosmic 
rays. 

The physical and empirical facts of polar cap 
absorption (PCA) produced by solar proton 
events are reviewed. A description of PCA, its 
measurement, and the solar-terrestrial environ- 
ment is included. The physical conditions of the 
lower ionosphere during PCA are discussed 
together with the frequency law of PCA, 
nightime recoveries, the polar cap distribution 
of absorption, and arctic HF propagation dur- 
ing PCA. A procedure for short-term prediction 
of the future course of PCA is developed, based 
on single frequency riometer measurements 
and computer processing of the data. The ap- 
plication of the prediction technique is illus- 
trated by a detailed discussion of two PCA 
events. It is concluded that for most PCA events 
satisfactory short-term predictions can be 
made from riometer observations. 



AD-707 122/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge Dept of 
Mechanical Engineering 

Theoretical Prediction of Acoustic-Gravity 
Pressure Waveforms Generated by Large Ex- 
plosions in the Atmosphere. 
Final rept 1 Feb 67-31 Jan 70 
Allan D Pierce, and Joe W Posey 30 Apr 70, 
295p AFCRL-70-0134 
Contract F19628-67-C-0217 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, Upper at- 
mosphere, 'Microbarometric waves, Predic- 
tions, Detonation waves, Numerical analysis, 
Approxim at ion (Mathematics), Mathematical 
models, Computer logic. Subroutines, Com- 
puter programs. Acoustics. 



24 



Identifiers: Computer analysis, Computerized 
simulation, Acoustic gravity waves. 

A computer program is described which ena- 
bles one to compute the pressure waveform at a 
distant point following the detonation of a 
nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. The 
theoretical basis of the program and the numer- 
ical methods used in its formulation are ex- 
plained; a deck listing and instructions for the 
program's operation are included. The primary 
limitation on the program's applicability to 
realistic situations is that the atmosphere is as- 
sumed to be perfectly stratified. However, the 
temperature and wind profiles may be arbitrari- 
ly specified. Numerical studies carried out by 
the program show some discrepancies with 
previous computations by Harkrider for the 
case of an atmosphere without winds. These 
discrepancies are analyzed and shown to be 
due to different formulations of the source 
model for a nuclear explosion. Other numerical 
studies explore the effects of various at- 
mospheric parameters on the waveforms. In the 
remainder of the report, two alternate theoreti- 
cal formulations of the problem are described. 
The first of these is based on the neglect of the 
vertical acceleration term in the equations of 
hydrodynamics and allows a solution by Cag- 
niard's integral transform technique. The 
second is based on the hypothesis of propaga- 
tion in a single guided mode and permits a 
study of the effects of departures from stratifi- 
cation on the waveforms. (Author) 



AD-707 875/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Stanford Univ Calif Dept of Geophysics 
Microbarograph Studies. 

Annual technical rept., 1 Apr69-1 Apr70 

Jon F. Claerbout, and Lee Lu. 13 May 70, 48p 

AFORS-70-1689-TR 

Contract F44620-69-C-0073, ARPA Order-1362- 

69 

Descriptors: 'Microbarometric waves, Propaga- 
tion, Sound signals, Jet streams(Meteorology), 
Barometric pressure, Wind, Simulation, At- 
mospheric temperature, Computer programs. 

Theoretical work included mathematical-com- 
putational simulation of an air wave propagat- 
ing around the earth. The effect of horizontal 
variations of wind and temperature was in- 
cluded. These explain the severe defocussing 
always observed at the antipodes. Observa- 
tional work included installation and operation 
of an LTV-LASA type microbarograph Regular 
inspection of the records revealed a nuclear ex- 
plosion and numerous incompletely un- 
derstood meteorologic phenomena. Computer 
programs have been written and documented 
'or reading LASA data tapes and Stanford data 
tapes. 



AD-709 233/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Cam- 
bridge Mass 

Study of Meteor Wind Measurement 
Techniques. Volume II. 

Final rept. 1 Jun 63-31 May 66 

Norman F. Deegan, Robert J. Fitzpatrick, 

Giuseppe Forti, Mario D. Grossi, and Mario R. 

Schaffner. Feb 70, 241p 002-106, AFCRL-70- 

0168-Vol-2 

Contract AF 19(628)-3248 

See also Volume 1 , AD-709232. 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, Wind, 
'Meteors, Radar echo areas. Computer pro- 
grams, Instruction manuals, Radio astronomy, 
Flow charting, Magnetic tape, Punched cards, 
Pattern recognition, Pulse analyzers, Calibra- 
tion, Radar signals, Doppler radar. 

Wind data in the height range 80 to 100 km can 
be obtained with a multistatic VHF phase- 
coherent pulse-doppler meteor radar capable 
of monitoring a volume in space measuring arr- 



poximately 50 km x 50 km horizontally, and 20 
km vertically. An eight-station phase-coherent 
system has been established for this purpose 
near Havana, Illinois, by reworking an existing 
six-station, incoherent, pulse meteor radar 
operating at 40.92 MHz. A 4-Mw transmitter and 
eight receiving sites dispersed up to 50 km 
away from the transmitter site have been locked 
together in phase within a few parts in 10 to the 
10th power by distributing a 2.5 kHz reference 
tone via commercial telephone lines. The 
system operates satisfactorily and is capable of 
collecting enough range-doppler samples from 
meteor trails for an adequate description of the 
wind pattern at meteor heights. Wind profiles 
have been obtained by processing in Cam- 
bridge with a CDC-6400 computer the mul- 
tichannel digital tapes recorded in Havana. The 
method can, potentially, be used for real-time 
wind measurements. It competes favorably with 
alternative approaches when wind measure- 
ments at meteor height must be performed with 
continuity and without resorting to horizon-to- 
horizon spatial averaging. (Author) 



AD-709 673/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Stanford Univ Calif Stanford Electronics Labs 
The Stanford Meteor-Trails Radar Mark II. 

Final rept. 1 Mar 67-31 Dec 69 

Robert Nowak, Edgar M. North, and Michael S. 

Frankel.Jun70, 165p SU-SEL-70-021, AFCRL- 

70-0365 

Contract AF 19(628)-6152 

Descriptors: 'Meteors, Radar tracking, 
'Meteorological radar, Design, 'Wind, Upper at- 
mosphere, 'Upper atmosphere, Density, Com- 
puter programs, Wake, Atmospheric motion. 
Radar equipment. 

In the study of upper-atmosphere winds and 
densities, radar measurements of the ionized 
trails of meteors in the height region between 
80 and 110 km have proven valuable. In the 
present report, this measurement technique is 
compared to other methods and its advantages 
and problems are outlined. Considerations for 
the design of a meteor-trail radar system are 
presented. The desire for a global network of 
meteor-trail radar stations, which would aid 
significantly in the study of synoptic at- 
mospheric patterns, calls for a reliable, simple, 
and inexpensive design. Such a design, real- 
ized at Stanford University and tested in opera- 
tion, is described in detail. Data are recorded 
automatically on digital magnetic tape and are 
reduced completely by computer; except for 
tape changes, the station operates unattended. 
Circuit diagrams, assembly, and tuning 
procedures for the complete station are 
presented, and the computer program used for 
data reduction is listed. The equipment was 
built on printed circuit cards for which nega- 
tives are available, on request, from Stanford 
University. (Author) 



AD-709 888/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Weather Wing (4th) Ent AFB Colo Detachment 1 
Ionospheric Electron Density Profile Model. 

Technical memo. 

Thomas D. Damon, and Franklin R. Hartranft. 

Jul 70, 39p 4WW-TM-70-3 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Electron density, 
Mathematical models, Motion, Predictions, 
Radar tracking. Refraction, Satellites(Artificial), 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: 'Electron density profiles, E layer, 
F1 layer, F2 layer. 

The paper describes a project undertaken by 
4th Weather Wing to produce a realistic elec- 
tron density profile based upon parameters 
which can be forecast with reasonable accura- 
cy. The ionospheric electron density profile 
model presented in this paper consists of the 
sum of three Chapman layers (E, F1, F2). Elec- 
tron densities in the topside ionosphere are 



controlled by complex motions rather than a 
production-loss balance and cannot be suc- 
cessfully described strictly by a Chapman layer. 
After some experimentation a best fit was ob- 
tained by simply using the Chapman equation 
for the topside ionosphere, but computing the 
electron densities by using a variable scale 
height throughout the region. The program 
described in this report has been used routinely 
for eight months to predict profiles for radar 
refraction. This report should be considered in- 
terim as improvements in accuracy are sure to 
be required as the model is evaluated for dif- 
ferent purposes. (Author) 



AD-713 052/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Calculated and Observed Changes in Sea 
Surface Temperature Associated with Hur- 
ricane Passage. 
Master's thesis 
Jack James Jensen. Sep 70, 56p 

Descriptors: 'Mexico Gulf, Surface tempera- 
tures, 'Tropical cyclones, Heat transfer. Mathe- 
matical models, Atmospheric temperature, 
Computer programs, Simulation, Theses. 
Identifiers: Hurricane Betsy, Hurricane Camille, 
Computerized simulation, 'Air water interac- 
tions. 

Analyses were made of the sea surface tem- 
peratures in the Gulf of Mexico in August for 
the four years 1965 through 1968. No one pat- 
tern was found to predominate. The subsurface 
temperature profiles were then considered, and 
a rate of simulated withdrawal of 4000 calories 
of heat per day was made, until there was no 
heat in excess of 26C. This withdrawal 
represented heat removed during passage of a 
hurricane. Difference analyses were con- 
structed for the initial sea surface temperature 
at each station and that after twenty-four hours 
of simulated withdrawal. The differences 
ranged from less than one degree to over four 
degrees. Again, no consistent pattern was 
found but generally areas of high concentra- 
tions of heat experienced smaller decreases. 
Actual sea surface temperatures collected after 
two hurricanes were then analyzed and com- 
pared to temperature patterns predicted by the 
computer model. Illustrations of the relative 
availability of sensible heat energy for different 
sea surface temperatures are presented and a 
hypothesis made to account for the greater 
than average intensities of Hurricane Betsy 
(1965) and Camille (1969). (Author) 



AD-714 571/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Illinois Univ Urbana Ionosphere Radio Lab 

Investigations of Ionospheric Total Electron 

Content Behavior at Conjugate Points and 

During a Solar Eclipse. 

Final rept. 1 Sep 69-31 Aug 70 

Kung C. Yeh, Bernard J. Flaherty, Han R. Cho, 

and Homayoun Nomani. Sep 70, 87p TR-41, 

AFCRL-70-0539 

Contract F19628-70-C-0001 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Electron density, 
'Solar eclipses. Ionospheric disturbances, 
Alaska, New Zealand, Magnetic storms, Com- 
puter programs, Magneto-optic effect, Naviga- 
tion satellites, Radiofrequency interference. 
Identifiers: Therm osphere, Faraday effect. 

The Faraday rotation data were collected a Cold 
Bay, Alaska in an effort to correlate with similar 
data collected at Invercargill, New Zealand. 
Cold Bay and Invercargill form an approximate 
conjugate pair. Day-to-day variations of content 
at these two stations have been compared and 
studied. It has been found that these changes 
were negatively correlated during periods of 
magnetic quiet, uncorrelated during weak mag- 
netic activities and increasingly positively cor- 
related with increasing magnetic activities. In 
the second experiment two field stations were 



25 



set up along the path of March 7, 1970 solar 
eclipse. These data, when combined with data 
obtained by others, show that the delay 
between the time of maximum obscuration and 
the time of minimum content varies systemati- 
cally with latitude. The theoretical study is con- 
cerned with studying the effect of a dynamo 
electric field on the thermospheric winds. 
(Author) 



AD-715 068/CP PC E01 MF A01 

New York Univ N Y Courant Inst of Mathemati- 
cal Sciences 
Frontal Motion in the Atmosphere. 

Technical rept. 

Eli L. Turkel. Sep 70, 149p Rept no. IMM-385 

Contract N00014-67-A-0467-0016 

Descriptors: *Air mass analysis, Mathematical 
models, Coriolis effect, Atmospheric motion, 
Atmosphere models, Weather forecasting, 
Boundary value problems, Numerical analysis, 
Integration, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: *Fronts(Meteorology), Finite dif- 
ference theory. 

The motion of frontal disturbances in the at- 
mosphere is studied based on several nonlinear 
models proposed by Stoker. In the first model, 
the air is considered to be an incompressible 
fluid moving over a plane tangent to the rotat- 
ing earth. The fluid consists of two layers and 
the density in each layer is assumed to be con- 
stant. The hydrostatic pressure law is then used 
to reduce this to a two space dimensional 
model. The boundary between these layers is a 
contact discontinuity and so instabilities may 
occur at this frontal surface. (Author) 



AD-716 801/CP PCE01MFA01 

Gulf Energy and Environmental Systems Inc 

San Diego Calif 

Atmospheric Transport of X-Rays. 

Final rept. 

R.J. Harris, Jr, M.J. Nowak, J. A. Lonergan, J. P. 

Wondra, and D. F. Willoughby. 16 Jun 70, 156p 

GA-10165.DASA-2571 

Contract DASA01-69-C-0038 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere models, X rays, *X 
rays. Transport properties, Photons, Spectrum 
analyzers, Integrals, Integration, Curve fitting, 
Monte Carlo method, Statistical distributions, 
Prog ramming (Computers), Radioactive 

isotopes. 

Identifiers: PHOTRAN computer code, Ger- 
manium(Li) detectors. 

Due to the lack of measured data for checking 
calculational results, an experimental program 
was initiated at Gulf General Atomic (GGA) for 
studying the atmospheric transport properties 
of X-rays by using liquid nitrogen to simulate 
air. Measurements of the photon spectrum and 
angular distribution were made as a function of 
source-detector separation distance in an 
infinite' medium of liquid nitrogen provided by 
a large cryogenic dewar. Radioactive isotopes 
of 241Am, 141Ce, and 203Hg were used as 
sources of approximately monoenergetic 
photons with energies of 60 keV, 145 keV and 
279 keV, respectively. A 20 cc cm Ge(Li) detec- 
tor was used to measure photon spectra for 
energies from approximately 20 keV to the 
source energy. Measurements were made for 
source detector distances of 1-15 mfp for each 
source energy. Transport calculations were 
made for comparison with the measurements 
using the PHOTRAN Monte Carlo code and the 
1DF discrete ordinates code. (Author) 



AD-716 823/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge Mea- 
surement Systems Lab 

Determination of a Hypsometer Performance 
Function from Airborne Data. 
Master's thesis 



Patrice Marie Latron. Feb 70, 175p Rept no. TE- 

33 

Contract F29600-69-C-0028 

Descriptors: *Hypsometers, Per- 

formance(Engineering), Altitude, Measure- 
ment, Pressure, Sensitivity, Airborne, Elec- 
tronic recording systems, Analog-to-digital 
converters, Integration, Statistical functions, 
Computer programs, Data processing systems, 
Theses. 
Identifiers: Gravimetric geodesy. 

Integrated data from a vertical pendulous in- 
tegrating gyro accelerometer were used to as- 
sess the altitude measuring performance of a 
hypsometer in an airborne gravimetric installa- 
tion. Both gravity and Eotvos correction were 
assumed constant to simplify the integration 
process. The aircraft-autopilot short period 
(about 0.044 Hz) longitudinal mode dominates 
the altitude profile. The hypsomeier recordings 
relative to the integrated accelerometer data 
showed lags between 2 and 3 seconds, and am- 
plitude ratios between 0.4 and 0.9. A backlash 
nonlinearity of 3 feet amplitude would explain 
the varying amplitude ratio but only part of the 
lag (1 to 2 seconds). The auto-correlation and 
crosscorrelation functions were used in an at- 
tempt to examine the linear behavior of the hyp- 
someter; however, the spread of the data sug- 
gested that the nonlinearity was a very signifi- 
cant element in the instrument dynamics. 
(Author) 



AD-718 105/CP PC E01 MF A01 

New Hampshire Univ Durham Antenna Systems 

Lab 

Computer Processing of Data from the 

UNH/AFCRL Meteor Trails Radar 

Filson H. Glanz, and Ronald R. Clark. 20 Aug 70, 
41 p Scientific-4, ASL-70-4, AFCRL-70-071 7 
Contract F19628-67-C-0230 

Descriptors: *Meteors, Radar tracking, *Data 
processing systems, Computer programs, At- 
mospheric sounding, Wind, Density, Direction 
finding. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, Meteor trails, Off line 
systems. 

The report describes the UNH Meteor Trails 
Radar Main Off-Line Computer Program. The 
report consists of a summary of the program 
and a complete listing and flowgraph of the 
program. The main contribution is the method 
of determining azimuth and elevation angles 
from the UNH/AFCRL Meteor Trails Inter- 
ferometric azimuth-elevation system. (Author) 



AD-718 422/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Weather Wing (4th) Ent AFB Colo 
Predicting Heavy Snowfall for Colorado 
Springs Based on Computer Derived Synoptic 
Map Types 

Franklin R. Hartranft, Joe S. Restivo, and 
Robert C. Sabin. Dec 70, 209p Rept no. 4WW- 
Technical Paper-70-5 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, Snow, 
"Snow, 'Colorado, 'Meteorological charts, Pro- 
gramming(Computers), Computer programs, 
Mathematical prediction, Surface properties, 
Classification, Upper atmosphere, Instruction 
manuals. 

Identifiers: Computer mapping techniques, Ob- 
jective weather forecasting, Stratification. 

The paper contains the results of applying the 
weather map typing procedures described in 4 
WWg Technical Paper 70-2, Computerized Map 
Typing Procedures and Their Application in the 
Development of Forecast Aids, to the specific 
problem of heavy snow forecasting in Colorado 
Springs, Colorado. The case study technique 
described in SECTION MIA of 4WWTP 70-2 was 
employed to derive sets of surface and 700 mb 
map types which are necessary conditions for 



the occurrence of heavy snow. The objective 
forecast study technique described in Section 
1MB of 4WWTP 70-2 was used to develop a set of 
forecast aids (scatter diagrams) for each sur- 
face/700 mb map type. The snow study 
described in this paper demonstrates a new ap- 
proach to objective forecast study develop- 
ment. The synoptic situation has been objec- 
tively integrated into the initial stratification of 
climatological data and therefore permits an 
objective consideration of surface and 700 mb 
map patterns as the initial step in the forecast 
procedure. The inclusion of climatologically- 
derived map types in the forecast study also al- 
lows an excellent means of incorporating prog- 
nostic chart information. (Author) 



AD-721 089/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Royal Aircraft Establishment Farnborough 
(England) 

Theoretical Aspects of the Determination of 
Particle-Size Distributions from Measure- 
ments of Scattered Light Intensity 
Technical rept. 

J. B. Abbiss. Aug 70, 46p RAE-TR-70151, TRC- 
BR-21859 

Descriptors: 'Clouds, Particle size, 'Fog, Parti- 
cle size, 'Light transmission, Aerosols, Digital 
computers. Computer programs. Diffraction, 
Distribution functions, Integral equations, 
Great Britain. 

The technique of determining the distribution 
of particle sizes in a cloud by measuring the in- 
tensity of the light scattered from it over a range 
of angles (sometimes known as the small an- 
gles' method) is discussed and the feasibility of 
the method demonstrated with the aid of digital 
computer calculations. The effect of experi- 
mental errors is considered and a detailed ex- 
amination made of the special difficulties as- 
sociated with monodispersions, in which all 
particles are of the same size. It is shown that in 
both cases modification of the experimental 
data by means of suitable weighting functions 
yields enhanced reconstruction of the original 
distribution function. The limitations of the 
small angles method are discussed, together 
with the data requirements which should be 
met if good results are to be achieved. (Author) 



AD-721 112/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experi- 
ment Station Berkeley Calif 
Synoptic-Scale Weather Disturbances that In- 
fluence the Fire Climate in Southeast Asia 
During the Normally Dry Period 
Final rept. 

Morris H McCutchan, and Bernadine A. Taylor 
1971, 78p 
Contract ARPA Order-818 

Descriptors: 'Climatology, "Southeast Asia, 
'Forest fires. Southeast Asia, Atmospheric tem- 
perature, Humidity, Wind, Atmospheric 
precipitation. Cloud cover. Drying, Meteorolog- 
ical charts, Upper atmosphere, Tropical 
cyclones, Computer programs, Reviews. 
Identifiers: Synoptic meteorology. Monsoons, 
Troughs(Meteorology), Westerlies, Easterlies. 

Fire climate in Southeast Asia is affected by two 
major factors, rainfall and cloud cover. By 'fire 
climate' one means the climate that affects the 
inception and behavior of wildfire. In our study 
of the fire climate in Southeast Asia we in- 
vestigated, when, for how long and by what 
mechanism the normally dry period (November 
through April) is interrupted by widespread rain 
and clouds. The author found five types of 
synoptic-scale weather disturbances usually 
responsible for extensive rainfall over 
Southeast Asia during the dry period. Case 
histories are given of general rain that were 
caused by these five types of disturbances: (1) 
30 November 1962--tropical cyclones and east- 
erly waves; (2) 21-23 March 1963-troughs in 



26 



the westerlies; (3) 24 and 25 November 1962-- 
superposition of trough in the westerlies on 
easterly waves; (4) 29 March 1963— surges of 
the northeast monsoon; and (5) 7-9 March 
1963— tropical troughs. (Author) 



AD-721 242/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
A Mesoscale Investigation of Convective Ac- 
tivity 

Master's thesis 

Leo Harvey Craiglow, Jr. Mar 71 , 89p 

Descriptors: *Convection(Atmospheric), Mathe- 
matical models, 'Tornadoes, Oklahoma, 
'Thunderstorms, 'Oklahoma, Upper at- 
mosphere, Atmospheric motion, Heat transfer, 
Energy, Networks, Weather forecasting, Com- 
puter programs, Theses. 

Identifiers; Finite difference theory. Computa- 
tion. 

A mesoscale investigation of a series of tor- 
nadoes and thunderstorms that passed through 
the NSSL mesonetwork in Oklahoma, on 10 
June 1967, between 1700 and 2300 CST, was 
conducted. Utilizing upper air data provided by 
NSSL, the divergence, vertical motion, and 
energy fields were computed. A finite-dif- 
ference technique for computing and 
smoothing divergence was developed. The ver- 
tical motion was then computed by means of 
the kinematic method. Both the total derivative 
and the local rate of change of static energy 
were computed. Using the values of the local 
rate of change, prognostic fields of static ener- 
gy and an energy index were obtained. Finally, 
forecast energy indexes, divergence, and verti- 
cal motion fields were compared to the ob- 
served locations of tornadoes and thun- 
derstorms. (Author) 



AD-722 076/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass Physics Research 

Div 

Analysis of Stratospheric Balloon Programs 

Final rept. 1 Jan 68-31 Dec 70 

M. Patricia Hagan. 31 Mar 71 , 20p AFCRL-71- 

0115 

Contract F19628-68-C-0065 

Descriptors: 'Stratosphere, Wind, 

'Meteorological balloons, Flight paths, 
'Programming(Computers), Flight paths, Com- 
puter programs. Tracking. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, SIMBALL computer pro- 
gram, MAGMED computer program. 

The work under this contract has been compu- 
tational and analytical services in support of 
operations analysis, applications research and 
post flight analysis of stratospheric scientific 
balloon programs conducted by the Air Force 
Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL). 
Geophysical and flight data, furnished by the 
Government, were utilized for transcription, 
analysis, graphing, and mathematical computa- 
tions. The work performed includes hand and 
machine plotting and the writing of several 
computer programs. (Author) 



AD-722 103/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Raytheon Co Bedford Mass Missile Systems Div 
Curve Fitting General Least Squares Program 
with Side Conditions 

Ray Greenfield, and Mark Hale 15 Oct 62, 105p 

Rept no BR-2069 

Contract AF 19(604)-5230 

Prepared in cooperation with IBM-Federal 

Systems Div., Cambridge, Mass Cambridge 

Div 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, Instruction 
manuals, "Ionosphere, Electron density, Least 
squares method, Matrix algebra, Special func- 
tions(Mathematical), Curve fitting. 
Identifiers: FORTRAN, Orthogonal functions. 



Although the prime motivation of this work has 
been a 'constrained' curve fitting of ionospher- 
ic electron density and collosion frequency 
profiles, the method proved to be an effective 
tool of more general applicability. It is for this 
reason that the author present this work apart 
from the particular ionospheric research pro- 
gram for which it was conceived. (Author) 



AD-722 216/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Atmospheric Sciences Lab White Sands Missile 
Range N Mex 

One-Dimensional Quasi-Time-Dependent Nu- 
merical Model of Cumulus Cloud Activity 

Research and development technical rept. 
Walter S. Nordquist, Jr, and Neil L. Johnson. 
Dec 70, 186p ECOM-5350 

Descriptors: 'Cumulus clouds. Mathematical 
models, Atmospheric precipitation, Cloud 
cover, Atmospheric temperature, Weather 
forecasting, Radar reflections, Data processing 
systems, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Meteorological data, Cloud physics, 
FORTRAN 4 programming language, FOR- 
TRAN. 

A numerical model for the description of some 
of the major features of isolated cumulus 
clouds formed as the result of surface heating 
is described. This one-dimensional model is an 
elaboration of the Weinstein and Davis Steady 
State Cumulus Dynamics model and has been 
extended to include a method for forecasting 
the environmental meteorological conditions. 
Detailed discussions concerning the develop- 
ment of the theory, the application of numerical 
techniques to the theory, and the computer cal- 
culation processes are provided. (Author) 



AD-722 713/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 
Tex 

Computer Procedure for Calculating Time De- 
pendent Light Scattering in Spherical-Shell 
Atmospheres 

Final rept. 1 Jul 68-31 Jan 71 
Dave G. Collins, and Michael B. Wells. Apr71, 
140p RRA-T7017, DASA-2640 
Contract DASA01-68-C-0169 
Companion report to AD-722 714. 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere, 'Light transmission, 
Scattering, Monte Carlo method, Absorption, 
Infrared radiation. Refractive index, Reflection, 
Polarization, Intensity, Pro- 

gram ming(Computers). 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, FORTRAN 4 pro- 
gramming language, Light(Visible radiation), 
FLASH computer program, SHINE computer 
program, MIE 2 computer program. 

The report describes three Monte Carlo 
procedures that were developed for the pur- 
pose of providing calculational tools that could 
be used to study the transport of visible and in- 
frared light in spherical-shell atmosphere. 
These procedures, designated as FLASH, treat 
atmospheric scattering problems for plane- 
parallel, point, volume and spherical surface 
sources. The FLASH procedures consider the 
effect of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering and 
ozone, water vapor, C02, and aerosol particle 
absorption on the transport of light. The 
procedures also consider the changes in 
polarization that occurs at each scattering 
event. The input formats of the codes allows 
one to describe the scattering and absorption 
properties of the atmosphere as a function of 
altitude Provisions are incorporated for treat- 
ing the reflection of light from ground and 
cloud surfaces with an albedo method. Also 
described are the MIE-II and SHINE procedures. 
The MIE-II procedure uses Mie theory to 
generate aerosol particle scattering and ab- 
sorption coefficients and the four elements of 
the aerosol phase matrix for use as input data 
to the FLASH procedures. The SHINE 



procedure was developed to integrate the 
results of FLASH CALCULATIONS FOR POINT 
MONOCHROMATIC SOURCES OVER AN AR- 
BITRARY WAVELENGTH AND TIME DEPEN- 
DENT SOURCE SPECTRUM. (Author) 



AD-722 714/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 
Tex 

Computer Procedure for Calculating Time De- 
pendent Light Scattering in Plane Parallel At- 
mospheres 

Final rept. 1 Jul 68-31 Jan 71 
Dave G. Collins, and Michael B. Wells. Apr 71 , 
70p RRA-T7016, DASA-2641 
Contract DASA01-68-C-0169 
Companion rept. to AD-722 713. 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere, 'Light transmission. 
Scattering, Monte Carlo method. Absorption, 
Monochromatic light, Infrared radiation. 
Polarization, Reflection, Intensity, Albedo, Pro- 
gram ming(Computers). 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, FORTRAN 4 pro- 
gramming language, Light(Visible radiation), 
TPART 1 computer program, TPART 2 com- 
puter program. 

The report describes two Monte Carlo 
procedures that were developed for the pur- 
pose of providing calculational tools that could 
be used to study the transport of visible and in- 
frared light in plane-parallel atmospheres. 
These procedures, designated as TPART-I and 
TPART-II, treat atmospheric scattering 
problems for point and plane parallel 
monochromatic sources, respectively. The 
TPART procedures consider the effect of 
Rayleigh and aerosol scattering and ozone, 
water vapor, C02, and aerosol particle absorp- 
tion on the transport of light. The procedures 
also consider the changes in polarization that 
occurs at each scattering event. The input for- 
mat of the codes allows one to describe the 
scattering and absorption properties of the at- 
mosphere as a function of altitude. Provisions 
are incorporated for treating the ground sur- 
face with an albedo method. The output of the 
TPART procedures gives the scattered light in- 
tensity at each receiver position as a function of 
a polar and azimuthal angle and time. The 
procedures were written in FORTRAN-IV lan- 
guage for both the CDC-6600 and IBM Direct 
Couple Systems. The codes have been verified 
through comparisons with results of other cal- 
culations of light transport in the atmosphere. 
(Author) 



AD-723 602/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Williams Coll Williamstown Mass 

Fourier Analysis of Weather and Wave Data 

from Holland, Michigan, July 1970 

Technical rept. 

William T. Fox, and Richard A. Davis, Jr. 1 May 

71 , 84p Rept nos. WC-3, TR-3 

Contract N00014-69-C-0151 

Prepared in cooperation with Western 

Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological parameters, 
Fourier analysis, 'Lake waves, Fourier analysis, 
'Time series analysis, Spectrum analyzers. Har- 
monic analysis, Computer programs, Series, 
Michigan, Great Lakes, Atmospheric tempera- 
ture. Barometric pressure, Cyclones, Wind. 
Identifiers: Holland(Michigan), Wind direction, 
Wind velocity, Lake Michigan, Ground water, 
Smoothing(Mathematics)4 Spectrum analysis, 
Fourier series. 

During July, 1970, weather and wave parame- 
ters were measured at two hour intervals on the 
beach and in the nearshore area two miles 
north of Holland, Michigan. Parameters mea- 
sured include barometric pressure; wind speed 
and direction; air and water temperature; sky 
condition; lake and groundwater level, wave 
period and height; breaker depth, type, 



27 



distance and angle; and longshore current 
velocity. The computer was used to calculate 
the phase and amplitude for the first 15 Fourier 
harmonics and to plot the observed data and 
cumulative curves. The curves were influenced 
by low pressure systems which passed north of 
the area of 4, 9, 15 and 19 July. Wave height and 
direction are related to cyclonic winds moving 
counterclockwise around the low pressure 
system. Longshore current velocity can be pre- 
dicted as a constant times the derivative of the 
barometric pressure. (Author) 



AD-723 864/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Saclant ASW Research Centre La Spezia (Italy) 
Numerical Filtering Techniques for the Time- 
Series Analysis of Oceanographic and 
Meteorological Data 

Technical memo. 

Riccardo Pesaresi. 1 Apr 71 , 43p Rept no. 

SACLANTCEN-TM-166 

Descriptors: "Oceanographic data, 'Time series 
analysis, "Meteorological parameters, Time se- 
ries analysis, Spectrum analyzers, Pro- 
gramming(Computers), Low-pass filters, High- 
pass filters, Band-pass filters. Wind, Italy. 
Identifiers: 'Spectrum analysis, Wind velocity, 
FILTERS 3 computer program, FILTER 4 com- 
puter program, ALGOL. 

The basic concepts of the numerical filtering 
technique, using symmetrical filters is in- 
troduced. Two computer programs are 
described: one, given certain input informa- 
tions, plots the impulse, step and frequency 
response and specifies the weights of one of 
eight different filter types selected by the user; 
the other calculates the minimum number of 
weights necessary to achieve a certain frequen- 
cy response of the Linnette type filter. (Author) 



AD-724 599/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Army Electronics Command Fort Monmouth N 

J 

Data Reduction Program for Rocketsonde 

Temperatures 

Technical rept. 

Bruce W. Kennedy, Elton P. Avara, and Bruce. 

T. Miers. Mar71,35p Rept no. ECOM-5367 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological parameters, 'Data 
processing systems, 'Atmospheric sounding, 
Meteorological instruments, Temperature, 
Wind, Sounding rockets, Computer programs, 
Test methods, Flight testing. 
Identifiers: Data reduction, Rocketsondes. 

The paper describes a computer program that 
simplifies the reduction of temperature data 
from routine Meteorological Rocket Network 
instruments. The program is versatile enough 
to be used with standard and R and D sondes. 
Laboratory and flight tests related to tempera- 
ture correction are described, and complete 
program and coding instructions are 
presented. (Author) 



AD-726 304/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Allied Research Associates Inc Concord Mass 
Development of Techniques for the Opera- 
tional Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 

Final rept. 21 May 70-21 May 71 
James H Willand, and James R. Greaves. May 
71, 131p ARA-8G80-F, FAMOS-TN-2-71 
Contract N62306-70-C-0443 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological satellites, Data 
transmission systems, 'Naval vessels(Support), 
Weather communications, "Weather communi- 
cations, Data processing systems, Meteorologi- 
cal parameters, Display systems, Resolution, 
Mapping, Global communication systems. Con- 
trol sequences, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: *ITOS(lmproved Tiros Operational 
Satellites), 'Improved tiros operational satel- 
lites, Image enhancement, 'Data compression. 



Two broad classes of data processing pro- 
grams were developed. The first type extracts 
and prepares for transmissio full-resolution 
subsets of the original ITOS array. The data 
product is ideal for detailed research studies or 
for transmission to remote locations not 
equipped to directly read out the ITOS sensor 
systems. The second class of program com- 
presses the original full hemisphere data arrays 
by averaging or by selecting maximum or 
minimum values. The new array is then 
prepared for transmission. This data product is 
particularly useful for input to global environ- 
mental prediction models. Additional support 
programs were developed to output the data 
products described above onto either a CRT or 
printer display. These displays were used to 
perform tradeoffs between the data preparation 
and transmission times and the scientific or 
meteorological usefulness of the various data 
products. It was found that a factor of four 
redution in resolution of the original ITOS array 
yields a data product which is transmittable in 
an acceptable period of time and which is as 
useful for most purposes as the original array. 



AD-726 628/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Drexel Univ Philadelphia Pa Dept of Physics 
Diagnostic Studies of Sybsynoptic At- 
mospheric Structure 

Sumner Barr, Paul E. Long, and Irvin A. Miller. 

Sep 70, 72p Scientific-2, AFCRL-70-0617 

Contract F19628-69-C-0092 

Report on tmospheric Sensing and Prediction 

Project. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, Mathemati- 
cal models, 'Weather forecasting, Atmosphere 
models, Cloud cover, Aerial photographs, 
Velocity, Meteorological satellites. Meteorolog- 
ical radar, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Themis project, VELOCI computer 
program, FORTRAN 4 programming language, 
FORTRAN, Spaceborne photography. 

A fine mesh diagnostic vertical velocity model is 
presented and compared with cloudiness ob- 
served from surface satellite observations in 
order to document some properties of 
subsynoptic atmospheric variations. The model 
proves to be useful as a tool for studies on this 
scale as indicated by the validation against ob- 
served data and independent model prepared 
by Krishnamurti. Application of the model to a 
series of case studies reveals some aspects of 
the interactions between subsynoptic and 
larger synoptic scale motion systems and their 
characteristic cloud patterns. (Author) 



AD-728 128/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Army Coastal Engineering Research Center 
Washington D C 

Storm Surge on the Open Coast: Fundamen- 
tals and Simplified Prediction 
Technical memo. 

B. R. Bodine. May 71 , 65p Rept no. CERC-TM- 
35 
Errata sheet inserted. 

Descriptors: 'Storms, Mathematical models, 
'Ocean waves, Seacoast, Construction, Tropi- 
cal cyclones, Differential equations, Tides, 
Ocean waves. Wind, Barometric pressure. 
Hydrodynamics, Simulation, Data processing 
systems. Computer programs, Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Identifiers: 'Storm surges, FORTRAN 4 pro- 
gramming language, FORTRAN. 

A quasi-two-dimensional numerical model for 
open-coast storm-surge computations is 
discussed from the standpoint of underlying as- 
sumptions, range of validity, calibration, and 
application. While it is possible to make compu- 
tations manually, electronic digital calculations 
are generally preferred. Elementary aspects of 
hurricanes and the physical factors of storm- 
generation processes are discussed. The basic 



hydrodynamic equations are given, together 
with the assumptions generally made in their 
development. The equations consistent with 
the model are reduced forms of the basic equa- 
tions in which several terms have been 
neglected. These omissions are indicated, and 
their effects on the resulting numerical scheme 
are discussed. The use of design hurricanes for 
engineering studies is treated. Effects of as- 
tronomical tide, initial water level, and at- 
mospheric-pressure setup are considered. A 
problem is solved for the Chesapeake Bay En- 
trance by computer and manually. The com- 
puter program used is listed. (Author) 



AD-729 909/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 
Tex 

Monte Carlo Codes to Study the Transport of 
X-Rays and Fluorescent Light in the At- 
mosphere 
Final rept. 

F. O. Leopard, D. G. Collins, and M. B. Wells. 1 
Aug 70, 91p Rept no. RRA-T7012 
Contract F33657-70-C-0076 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere, X rays, Pro- 
gramming(Computers), Electrons, Interactions, 
Photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, Ter- 
restrial magnetism, Electrostatic fields, Monte 
Carlo method, Transport properties, 
Fluorescence. 

Identifiers: Pair production, AURORA computer 
code. 

A machine procedure, designated as AURORA, 
was developed for use in studies of the effects 
of non-local energy deposition by X-rays in the 
atmosphere. The AURORA procedure provides 
two optional methods of treating the slowing 
down in the atmosphere of the electrons 
produced by X-ray collisions. The first method 
assumes that the earth's magnetic field and the 
ambient electrostatic field have no effect on the 
path of the electron. The second method as- 
sumes that the electrons are trapped by the 
earth's magnetic field at the altitude of the X- 
ray-electron collision. Modifications were made 
to the ZAP procedure to provide for the use of 
source angle, source energy, and path length 
biasing. The PFLASH procedure was modified 
to allow for calculation of the standard devia- 
tion of the computed results. Biased sampling 
schemes for picking distances between colli- 
sions and the polar and azimuthal angle of scat- 
tering were incorporated in FLASH. An option 
was incorporated in FLASH and DFLASH for 
printing their results as a function of the re- 
tarded time. A study was performed to deter- 
mine the effect of varying the size of the air 
fluorescence source volumes used in FLASH on 
the results generated by FLASH. A method of 
determining the size of the volume increments 
is outlined. (Author) 



AD-730 748/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale 
Interactions on Global Climate 

Semi-annual technical rept. 15 Feb -1 Sep 71. 

30 Sep 71, 213p Rept no. 3SR-795 

Contract DAHC04-71-C-0018, ARPA Order-1752 

Descriptors: 'Climatology, Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Atmospheric motion, Mathematical 
models, Meteorological parameters, Wind, 
Boundary layer, Thermal radiation, Coriolis ef- 
fect. Vortices, Numerical analysis, Computer 
programs. 

Identifiers: HAIFA computer code, Global cli- 
matology. 

The present study was undertaken in an effort 
to improve numerical models for meso-scale 
and small-scale effects which influence global 
weather and its modification. Two major areas 
are being studied: the effects of mountain 
ranges on energy and momentum transfer, and 



28 



the transient interactions of solar radiation with 
the earth's atmosphere. It is hoped that the 
results of these studies will lead to calcula- 
tionally inexpensive prescriptions which can be 
incorporated into meso-scale and global-scale 
atmospheric circulation codes. (Author) 



AD-731 134/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Air Force Global Weather Central Offutt AFB 

Nebr 

Turbulence Forecasting Procedures 

Technical memo. 

Paul T. Burnett. 15 Dec 70, 84p Rept no. 

AFGWC-TM-70-7 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Clear air 
turbulence, Wind, Atmospheric sounding, Tur- 
bulence, Atmospheric temperature, Boundary 
layer, Tropopause. 

Identifiers: Planetary boundary layer, MTWV 
computer program, HITURB computer pro- 
gram, SIXCAT computer program, TELCAT 
computer program, Synoptic meteorology. 

The Air Force Global Weather Central opera- 
tional procedures are described for the 
forecasting of low-level mechanical, mountain 
wave associated, and clear air turbulence sig- 
nificant to aircraft. These procedures involve 
both manual and automated diagnostic 
techniques for analyzing individual rawinsonde 
soundings, data at constant pressure levels, 
and data from the AFGWC planetary boundary 
layer model. Brief outlines of computational 
procedures used in the computer diagnostic 
and prognostic programs are included. The 
basic forecast procedure is to associate re- 
ported turbulent and potentially turbulent areas 
with meteorological and orographic features, 
forecast the future positions of the meteorolog- 
ical features, and re-associate the turbulent 
areas. Forecasts of low-level mechanical turbu- 
lence rely to a considerable extent on prog- 
noses of a numerical turbulence index, index 
parameters are the gradient level wind, vertical 
motion, low-level atmospheric stability, 3- 
hourly sea-level pressure change, and terrain 
roughness. Formation of mountain waves is 
forecast using an automated adaptation of the 
Harrison technique, and considers sea-level 
pressure gradients and wind data above the 
mountain range. (Author) 



AD-731 138/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Air Force Global Weather Central Offutt AFB 

Nebr 

Validation of Meteorological Data 

Technical memo. 

Thomas M. Kaneshige, and Bernard C. Diesen. 

15 Sep 70, 41p Rept no. AFGWC-TM-70-8 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting. Reliability, 
Meteorological parameters, Atmospheric 
sounding, Atmospheric temperature, Wind, 
Program ming(Computers). 
Identifiers: RAOB computer program, PIBAL 
computer program, ROCOB computer pro- 
gram. 

The AFGWC computer programs for the valida- 
tion of surface, aircraft and upper air (RAOB, 
PIBAL, and ROCOB) reports are described. All 
reports received in standard codes from the 
DoD Automated Weather Network are sub- 
jected to a number of validation checks: timeli- 
ness, gross error, internal consistency and 
deviation from a previous analysis or forecast. 
Failure to pass these checks can result in one of 
two actions: one or two parameters may be 
discarded, or the entire report may be 
discarded Validation of data from atmospheric 
soundings is discussed in detail. Examples are 
given to illustrate the methods used to deter- 
mine whether upper air height and/or tempera- 
ture data are in error. Missing or garbled upper 
air temperature and height data for mandatory 
reporting Jevels are recomputed by solving a 
system of two simultaneous equations. 



Procedures to merge newly validated data with 
similar data validated earlier are briefly 
described. (Author) 



AD-731 570/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Goodyear Aerospace Corp Akron Ohio 
Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 

George R. Doyle, Jr, and Jerome J. Vorachek. 

30 Jul 71, 231 p GER-15325. Scientific-2, 

AFCRL-71-0406 

Contract F1 9628-71 -C-0091 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological balloons, Stabili- 
ty, 'Mooring, Meteorological balloons, Ca- 
bles(Mechanical), Equations of motion, Al- 
titude, Wind, Detents, Mathematical models, 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: Computer aided analysis, Compu- 
terized simulation, 'Tethered balloons, Design 
criteria. 

An analytical investigation of the dynamic 
behavior of tethered balloons is in progress. 
The report, the second of three scientific re- 
ports, covers a study of stability characteristics 
of tethered balloon systems. Balloon systems 
which are investigated use the British BJ Bar- 
rage Balloon, the Vee Balloon and a Goodyear 
Aerospace Model No. 1649 Single-Hull Balloon. 
The major tether construction is Columbian 
Rope Company's NOLARO utilizing 

prestretched polyester filaments. Three design 
altitudes, 5,000, 1 0,000 and 20,000 feet, are con- 
sidered. The model for the tethered balloon 
system consists of the streamlined balloon and 
a tether made up of three discrete links. Com- 
puter programs for the IBM 360 digital com- 
puter are presented to determine the charac- 
teristic equations of the systems, and obtain the 
roots which represent the frequency and damp- 
ing qualities. (Author) 



AD-731 574/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Alaska Univ College Geophysical Inst 

Project SECEDE. Tracking Barium releases 

using the TV-TRACK System 

Technical rept. 1 6 Dec 70-30 May 71 

T. Neil Davis, and S. P. Geller. 20 May 71, 42p 

TR-2, RADC-TR-71-195 

Contract F30602-70-C-0179, ARPA Order-1057 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Upper at- 
mosphere, 'Condensation trails, Optical 
tracking. Television equipment. Real time. 
Computer programs. Digital recording systems, 
Position finding. 

Identifiers: SECEDE project, 'Chemical release 
studies, Barium clouds, INTERDATA-4 com- 
puter program. 

Described herein is a TC tracking system capa- 
ble of real-time visual object tracking. The total 
system consists of low-light TV cameras and 
communications allowing for data to be sent 
from remote sites to a small centrally located 
computer. The position of the object that the 
three cameras are observing is calculated by 
the computer and transmitted to other sites for 
the purpose of pointing' other equipment. 
Solutions are available once per second. This 
report describes the actual use of this system 
during the SECEDE 2 test series and some 
problems encountered. It also contains enough 
detailed information to allow duplication of the 
system software or to extract certain portions of 
it that may be useful to other applications. 
(Author) 



AD-731 723/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 

Tex 

Monte Carlo Calculations of the Scattering of 

450, 550, and 650 NM Wavelength Light in 

Model Atmospheres for Point Isotropic 

Sources 

Final rept 1 Oct 70-30 Sep 71 



Michael B. Wells, Wolfram G. Blaettner, and 

Dave G. Collins. 15 Aug 71, 151 p Rept no. RRA- 

T7108 

Contract N60921 -71 -C-0053 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere, Light transmission, 
'Nuclear explosions, Monochromatic light, 
Scattering, Absorption, Monte Carlo method, 
Programming(Computers), Tables. 
Identifiers: Point sources, 'Atmospheric at- 
tenuation, 'Atmospheric scattering, Light scat- 
tering, FLARE computer program. 

The FLARE Monte Carlo procedure, which 
computes the transport of monochromatic light 
emitted by either point or plane-parallel 
sources in a plane atmosphere, was made 
operational. The FLARE procedure treats 
problems involving light transport in at- 
mospheres where the scattering and absorp- 
tion processes vary with altitude. The FLARE 
procedure was used to compute the scattered 
and direct intensities as a function of direction 
and horizontal range at receiver altitudes of 0, 
1, 2, 5, and 10 km. Problems were run for 550 
nm wavelength point isotropic sources at 1, 2, 
5, 20 and 80 km altitude in a model atmosphere 
with a ground level meteorological range of 10 
km. Calculations were made for the 550 nm 
wavelength point isotropic source at 2 km al- 
titude in model atmospheres with ground level 
meteorological ranges of 3, 10, 25, and 50 km. 
Additional calculations were also performed for 
450, 550, and 650 nm wavelength point isotrop- 
ic sources at 2 km altitude in the model at- 
mosphere with a 10 km ground level 
meteorological range. (Author) 



AD-732 205/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Environmental Technical Applications Center 

(Air Force) Washington D C 

Numerical Preprocessing of Rawinsonde 

Position Vectors 

Technical note 

Thomas E. Stanton. Oct 71, 27p Rept no. 

USAFETAC-TN-71-11 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological balloons, 

Tracking, 'Wind, Atmospheric sounding. 

Radiosondes, Position finding, Height finding, 

Vector analysis, Numerical analysis. Computer 

programs. 

Identifiers: AN/GMD-4. 

Martin-Graham filters are used subsequent to 
correction for erroneous data points to smooth 
the rawinsonde set AN/GMD-4 spherical mea- 
surements. This smoothing produces not only a 
corrected wind profile but also allows an or- 
derly pressure integration of the hydrostatic 
equation. The major data problems besides 
high frequency elevation-angle noise include 
range jumps and diffraction phenomena. The 
range jumps are identified and corrected 
through the inspection of first and second dif- 
ferences in the range field. The diffraction 
phenomena are adjusted by assuming a linear 
change in the balloon-ascent-rate field and 
reconstructing the elevation angles. Erroneous 
data due to other causes are adjusted by com- 
paring filtered with raw data and imposing 
limitations on the height, wind, and position 
vector fields. (Author) 



AD-733 227/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
An Investigation into the Effect of an Industri- 
al Heat and Moisture Source on Local At- 
mospheric Conditions 
Master's thesis 
James Clinton Kraft. Sep 71, 81p 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, Heat, 'Atmospheric 
motion, Heat, "Electric power production, Air 
pollution, Power plants(Establishments), 
Moisture, Temperature, Computer programs, 
California, Water vapor, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'Thermal pollution, 'Temperature 
inversions, Monterey County(California). 



29 



Using a steam electric generating plant as the 
source, an investigation was made into the 
local atmospheric effect of a large industrial 
heat and moisture source. Data collection was 
attempted with ground- and helicopter-borne 
equipment with a final resort to the helicopter 
when the ground equipment collection 
techniques proved unsatisfactory. Cross sec- 
tions of temperature and moisture were drawn 
from this data and yielded some very interesting 
profiles. (Author) 



AD-733 284/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Army Electronics Command White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Atmospheric Sciences Lab 
A Study of Cloud Dynamics Utilizing Stereo- 
scopic Photogrammetry 

Research and development technical rept. 
William H. Hatch. Mar 71, 56p ECOM-5368 

Descriptors: 'Clouds, Photogrammetry, 

'Photogrammetry, Stereoscopic photography, 

Computer programs, Cumulus clouds, Cloud 

cover, Height finding. 

Identifiers: HCLOUD computer program, Cloud 

physics. 

A case study in the utilization of stereoscopic 
photogrammetry in the investigation of cloud 
dynamics is presented. Analysis of a 30-minute 
period in the life of an orographic cloud shows 
a continuous series of turrets, each lasting ap- 
proximately eight minutes, with peaks reaching 
24,000 to 26,000 feet MSL. The methods of anal- 
ysis and data reduction used are described, and 
the computer program written to perform the 
analysis computations is presented in the ap- 
pendix. (Author) 



AD-733 295/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Chicago Univ III Lab for Atmospheric Probing 
Digital Processing of FM-CW Radar Data 

Technical note 

Ernst Stratmann, and James I. Metcalf. 16 Aug 

71,36p Rept no.TN-6 

Grant DA-ARO-D-31-124-71-G71 

Prepared in cooperation with Illinois Inst, of 

Tech., Chicago. Dept. of Electrical Engineering. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Radar 
reflections, 'Clear air turbulence. Detection, 
Meteorological parameters, Computer pro- 
grams, Calibration, Meteorological radar. 
Radar echo areas. 
Identifiers: FORTRAN, Signal processing. 

Quantitative data recorded from a FM-CW radar 
provide a unique means of studying the micros- 
tructure of radar echoes from the clear at- 
mosphere. A computer program is developed to 
compute reflectivity from digitized radar signal 
data, using a derived power calibration func- 
tion, and correcting for range dependence of 
the received power. The report discusses the 
handling of the data and the derivation of the 
calibration equation, and present sample out- 
put from the computation including a con- 
toured height-time record of reflectivity. 
(Author) 



AD-733 419/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Institute for Storm Research Inc Houston Tex 
The B-MALMID-4 Program: Ballistic 
Messages at Arbitrary Locations from Mixed 
Input Data 

Final rept. Feb 70-Jun 71 
John C. Freeman, Jr, Joseph C. Calabretta, 
Leon F. Graves, Troxel Ballou, and John Zeis. 
Jul 71 , 68p ISR-0-04, ECOM-01 15-F 
Contract DAEA18-70-C-01 15 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, Impact pre- 
diction, 'Guided missile trajectories, 
Meteorological parameters, Atmosphere 
models, Boundary layer. Weather forecasting, 
Mathematical prediction, Pro- 

gram ming(Computers). 
Identifiers: B-MALMID computer program. 



The B-MALMID computer program for comput- 
ing ballistic messages at arbitrary locations 
from mixed input data is developed along two 
lines: (1) There is an analysis program B-MAL- 
MID 4 for introducing new data in many forms 
and processing to Ballistic Messages, (2) There 
is a dynamic sub-routine, (3) ACTIVE LAYER 
model, for processing data with full use of the 
physics of atmospheric processes to help 
spread and remember data. Examples of the 
analysis are given using large scale and boun- 
dary layer weather estimates as input. (Author) 



AD-734 985/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Further Verifications of and Experiments to 
Improve the Modified Hatrack Scheme for 
Forecasting the Motion of Tropical Cyclones 
Master's thesis 
Stephen Gregory Colgan. Sep 71 , 57p 

Descriptors: 'Tropical cyclones, Motion, 
'Weather forecasting, Tropical cyclones, 
Mathematical prediction. Wind, Atlantic Ocean, 
Statistical data, Numerical analysis, Pro- 
gramming(Computers), Theses. 
Identifiers: Geostrophic wind, Typhoons, Hur- 
ricanes, HATRACK program, MODHATR com- 
puter program, FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, FORTRAN. 

The MODIFIED HATRACK(MODHATR) scheme 
for forecasting tropical cyclone motion consists 
of a numerical steering component using 
geostrophic winds derived from Fleet Numeri- 
cal Weather Central's SR height field to steer 
the storm center, and a statistical modification 
component to correct for bias and improve 
forecast accuracy. MODHATR forecasts from 
the 1969 and 1970 North Atlantic hurricane 
seasons are analyzed, and average errors 
presented and compared to earlier years' 
results. MODHATR forecasts are shown to be 
superior on the average to OFFICIAL forecasts, 
NHC-67, and TYRACK forecast schemes for 
forecast intervals to 48 hours, with relative ac- 
curacy of MODHATR decreasing with time. 
(Author) 



AD-736 443/CP PC E01 MF A01 

IBM Federal Systems Div Burlington Mass Ad- 
vanced Systems Design Dept 
Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
Final rept. Jan 70-Sep 71 
Arnold S. Bramson, and Jack W. Slowey. Nov 
71,61pAFCRL-71-0543 
Contract F19628-70-C-0085 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, "Atmosphere 
models, 'Satellites(Artificial), Position finding, 
'Computer programs, Instruction manuals, Or- 
bital trajectories, Perturbation theory. 
Identifiers: Evaluation. 

The report documents a computer program 
which has been developed for testing and 
evaluating atmospheric models. The present 
version of the program contains ten such 
models which have been evaluated using a 
variety of staellite orbits as test data. An impor- 
tant feature of the program is an ephemeris 
generator which requires considerably less 
computer time than a standard numerical in- 
tegration technique. This procedure is docu- 
mented in Appendix B. Complete instructions 
for running the program are given in Appendix 
A, and a description of the ten atmospheric 
models presently contained in the program may 
be found in Appendix C. (Author) 



AD-736 529/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Calculation of Levels of Relative Contribution 
of the Carbon-Dioxide Channel Radiance 
from TIROS VII in the Case of a Large-Scale 
Stratospheric Warming in January 1964 
.Master's thesis 
Larry Lee Giauque. Sep 71 , 62p 



Descriptors'. 'Atmospheric temperature, Strato- 
sphere, 'Stratosphere, Heating, Thermal radia- 
tion, Meteorological satellites, Computer pro- 
grams, Statistical analysis. Carbon dioxide, 
Spectra(lnfrared), Theses. 

Identifiers: TIROS 7 satellite, TIROS, 'Remote 
sensing, Stratospheric warming. 

A case study of a winter stratospheric warming 
in the western hemisphere in January 1964 
between 60 degrees and 40 degrees north 
latitudes was conducted. Utilizing TIROS VII 
radiance data and analyzed height fields, a 
stepwise regression equation was determined 
to specify lower stratospheric layer tempera- 
tures. These temperatures were used with stan- 
dard atmospheric temperatures to construct a 
sounding for use in a radiance computer pro- 
gram. Finally, this computed radiance was 
compared to regression values to determine if 
prediction and study of stratospheric warmings 
are valid and useful. (Author) 



AD-736 798/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Air Force Global Weather Central Offutt AFB 

Nebr 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis 

Model 

Technical memo. 

Allen R. Coburn. 1 Jun 71, 81p Rept no. 

AFGWC-TM-71-2 

Descriptors: 'Cloud cover, Photointerpretation, 
"Data processing systems, Meteorological 
satellites, 'Weather forecasting, Automation, 
Photographic reconnaissance. Infrared 

photography, Spaceborne, Computer pro- 
grams, Meteorological parameters. 
Identifiers: Remote sensing, Nephanalysis, 
3DNEPH computer program, 'Spaceborne 
photography. 

The AFGWC objective three-dimensional com- 
puter program (3DNEPH) produces high resolu- 
tion, three-dimensional analyses of clouds in 
the atmosphere. A horizontal grid spacing of 
approximately 25 nautical miles is used. 
Analyses are made for 15 layers from the earth's 
surface to 55,000 feet MSL, with highest vertical 
resolution near the surface (150 feet depth for 
layer 1 ) and lowest vertical resolution at the top 
of the model (20,000 feet depth for layer 15). 
The program is a stream of individual proces- 
sors. The improved program has added a 
processor to permit forecaster-prepared data to 
be used, a satellite infrared data processor, a 
forecast processor and a verification processor. 
The improved version also includes improve- 
ments to the other processors. A description of 
each major processor is included. Selected 
samples of displayed data are shown. (Author) 



AD-737 395/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Academy Annapolis Md Div of Engineer- 
ing and Weapons 

Computer Aided Nucleation Nozzle Design 
Technical rept. 

Andrew A. Pouring. Oct 71 , 58p Rept no. EW- 
72-1 
Contract DI-14-06-D-71 19 

Descriptors: 'Spray nozzles, Design, 'Artificial 
precipitation, Spray nozzles, Mathematical 
models, Nozzle throats, Nucleation, Nozzle gas 
flow, Equations of motion, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Computer aided design, Nucleation 
nozzles, Sonic nozzles, Inviscid flow. 

As an aid to designing nozzles for use in the 
homogeneous seeding of clouds, the one- 
dimensional equations of motion for a com- 
pressible, inviscid flow of air and water vapor 
are solved together with the classical nuclea- 
tion rate equations for any arbitrary nozzle 
profile. The occurrence of Shockwaves at high 
initial humidities is sensed and transition calcu- 
lated by the Rankin-Hugoniot shock relations. 
Onset of condensation in the nozzle is observa- 



30 



ble by plots of condensate versus distance; 
other thermodynamic parameters are also ob- 
tained. Results are compared with previous ex- 
perimental findings and limitations of the 
design procedure are discussed. (Author) 



AD-737 802/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Gca Corp Bedford Mass Gca Technology Div 
A Batloon-Borne Aerosol Counter 

Final rept. 17 Apr 70-20 Nov 71 
Henry A. Miranda, Jr, and John Dulchinos. Jan 
72, 71 p GCA-TR-71 -3-A, AFCRL-71 -041 6 
Contract F19628-70-C-0265 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Aerosols, 
'Stratosphere, 'Aerosols, Meteorological in- 
struments, Counting methods. Meteorological 
balloons, Particle size, Gas lasers, Scattering, 
Environmental tests. Power supplies, Record- 
ing systems, Calibration, Computer programs. 
Flight testing. 
Identifiers: Mie scattering, Helium neon lasers. 

A balloon-borne aerosol counter which sam- 
ples and sizes individual particles to an accura- 
cy of plus or minus 10 percent over an order of 
magnitude size range extending down to 0.1 - 
0.2 micron diameter regime, has been success- 
fully flown. The device is completely self-con- 
tained and recoverable. The data are recorded 
on 9-channel magnetic tape in digital format 
compatible with an IBM 360 computer, and are 
processed automatically. Stratospheric aerosol 
size distributions have been obtained in incre- 
ments of one and two kilometers, up to and in- 
cluding balloon float altitudes (above 23 km). 
These represent the first such direct informa- 
tion available, and are presented here in 
preliminary form. A description of the device, 
together with a discussion of calibration and 
automatic data reduction procedures, as well 
as recommendations for improvements in the 
latter, is given. (Author) 



AD-739 166/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 
scom Field Mass 
Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 

Environmental research papers 

Gordon T. Best, and Victor L. Corbin. 30 Nov 71 , 

38p Rept nos. AFCRL-71 -0600, AFCRL-ERP- 

377 

Descriptors: 'Barium, 'Gas ionization, 
"Atmospheric sounding, Barium, Electron 
transitions, Atomic energy levels, Photon bom- 
bardment, Emissivity, Excitation, Chemical 
equilibrium. Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Photoionization, Chemical release 
studies. 

A model for numerical simulation of the solar 
pumping of a simple atomic system is con- 
structed and compared with the exact analyti- 
cal solution. The process is then extended to 
cover the more complex 5-level 5-transition 
barium ion term scheme and the 61-level 86- 
transition barium neutral term scheme. An ad- 
vantage of the step-wise simulation is that in 
addition to yielding the equilibrium relative 
level populations and transition intensities, it 
also permits the dynamic grow-in to equilibri- 
um to be studied. The neutral barium system 
has also been studied with the inclusion of 
photoionization from each of several metasta- 
ble levels. (Author) 



AD-739 541/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale 
Interactions on Global Climate 

Semi-Annual technical rept. 1 Sep 71-1 Mar 72. 
31 Mar 72, 220p 3SR-1034, AROD-9951 :1 
Contract DAHC04-71-C-0018, ARPA Order-1752 
See also report dated 30 Sep 71 , AD-730 748. 



Descriptors: 'Climatology, Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Atmospheric motion, Mathematical 
models, Meteorological parameters, Wind, 
Boundary layer, Mountains, Thermal radiation, 
Heat transfer, Coriolis effect. Numerical analy- 
sis, Computer programs. 

Identifiers: Global climatology, HAIFA com- 
puter code, Finite difference theory, 
Hydrometeorology. 

The results reported are part of a continuing 
study to improve numerical models for meso- 
scale and small-scale effects which influence 
global weather and its modification. The two 
major areas being studied are the effects of 
mountain ranges on energy and momentum 
transfer and the transient interaction of solar 
radiation with the Earth's atmosphere. A new 
theoretical and numerical scheme for solving 
the radiative transfer equation in the Earth's at- 
mosphere has been developed. Some improve- 
ments in the treatment of Mie scattering are 
presented, and the overall status of the radia- 
tion code is reviewed. (Author) 



AD-740 093/CP PC A18/MF A01 

Rand Corp Santa Monica Calif 
A Documentation of the Mintz-Arakawa Two- 
Level Atmospheric General Circulation Model 

W. L. Gates, E. S. Batten, A. B. Kahle, and A. B. 
Nelson. Dec71,417p Rept no. R-877-ARPA 
Contract DAHC15-67-C -01 41, ARPA Order-1 89- 
1 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, Mathemati- 
cal models, Atmosphere models, Computer 
programs, Partial differential equations, Equa- 
tions of motion, Heat transfer, Solar radiation, 
Wind, Atmospheric temperature, Cloud cover, 
Atmospheric precipitation, Barometric pres- 
sure, Terrain, Maps. 

Identifiers: Global climatology, FORTRAN, 
Finite difference theory. 

Summary of the physical bases of the Mintz- 
Arakawa two-level atmospheric model and 
presentation of numerical procedures and 
computer program for its execution. Discussion 
covers the physics of the model, with particular 
attention given to the treatment of the moisture 
and heat sources, including parameterization 
of convective processes, cloudiness, and radia- 
tion. Numerical approximations and finite-dif- 
ference equations used in the numerical simu- 
lations are also given. To facilitate the use of 
this model, a complete listing of the code as 
written in FORTRAN language is given, 
together with a description of all constants and 
parameters used. Also included are a dictionary 
of FORTRAN variables and a dictionary of prin- 
cipal physical features. (Author) 



AD-742 776/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Stanford Univ Calif Stanford Electronics Labs 
Direction Finding on Whistlers and Related 
VLF Signals 

Technical rept. 

Michael D. Cousins. May 72, 201p Rept nos. SU- 

SEL-72-013, TR-3432-2 

Contract N00014-67-A-01 12-0012 

Descriptors: 'Whistlers, Direction finding, Very 
low frequency, Ionospheric propagation, Mag- 
netosphere, Loop antennas, Circuits, Fourier 
analysis, Integral transforms, Computer pro- 
grams. 

The direction of arrival of whistlers and related 
VLF signals has been measured by a new 
technique. This technique consists of applying 
an already existing theory (the 'four-parameter 
method') to data collected by a novel measure- 
ment procedure. Measurements of signals in- 
duced in orthogonal loop antennas and a verti- 
cal monopole located at a single site provide 
the necessary data. The four-parameter theory 
relates the loop and vertical voltages, taking 
into account both amplitudes and phases so 



that polarization error may be eliminated. The 
technique can be shown equal or superior in 
accuracy to any other VLF direction-finding 
scheme in current use, such as the standard 
crossed-loops-and-goniometer technique. 

(Author) 



AD-743 301/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Weather Wing (4th) Ent AFB Colo 
Applying a Window Pane Technique to the 
Colorado Springs Snow Study 

Robert C. Sabin. Jan 72, 25p Rept no. 4WW- 
Technical Paper-72-1 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Snow, 
Computer programs, Meteorological charts, 
Correlation techniques. 

The paper supplements 4 WWg Technical 
Paper 70-5, 'Predicting Heavy Snowfall for 
Colorado Springs Based on Computer Derived 
Synoptic Map Types' (AD 718422). The success 
of the map typing technique described in 
4WWTP 70-5 depends upon the size of the area 
or 'window' selected for typing. In the Colorado 
Springs snow study the map size chosen 
covered an area of 10 degrees latitude and 15 
degrees longitude. Since this is approximately 
the size of a synoptic scale disturbance, the 
map types which were developed gave a good 
indication of the general circulation pattern 
required for heavy snow. However, where heavy 
snowfall is influenced by the local area flow su- 
perimposed upon the broader scale features, it 
is possible that the circulation pattern could 
correlate highly with a snow type and still not 
produce the forecast snowfall. The paper 
describes an attempt to zero-in on the small 
scale circulation by correlating only one corner 
of the large window. (Author) 



AD-743 549/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co Palo Alto Calif 

Palo Alto Research Lab 

Trapped Radiation Studies Involving Plasma 

Instabilities and Radial Diffusion 

Annaul rept. Jan 71-Feb 72 

John B. Cladis, Gerald T. Davidson, William E. 

Francis, Walter I . Futterman, and Lester L. 

Newkirk. Apr 72, 52p LMSC/D246353, DNA- 

2824F 

Contract DASA01-71-C-0047 

Descriptors: 'Magnetosphere, Charged parti- 
cles, 'Plasma medium, Stability, Van Allen 
radiation belt, Electromagnetic waves. Interac- 
tions, Cyclotron resonance phenomena, 
Dispersion relations, Wave functions, Curve 
fitting. Computer programs, Nuclear explo- 
sions, Airburst, Plasma oscillations. 
Identifiers: Vlasov equation, Microinstabilities, 
Computerized simulation. 

The generation of unstable waves in the mag- 
netosphere is reviewed, with emphasis on 
waves occurring near the trapped particles' 
gyrofrequencies. Relativistic modifications to 
the basic theory are described. The evolution of 
trapped particles' distribution (diffusion) is 
discussed, and the non linear theories of wave 
propagation and growth are invoked as the 
means whereby the evolution of the distribution 
functions can be studied. It is pointed out that, 
because of difficulties in the analytic theories, 
computer simulation may be the most certain 
technique for investigating effects of unstable 
waves on particles. Some particular unsolved 
problems are indicated, with special emphasis 
on trapping of artificially injected electrons. 
The development of a computer program which 
simulates actual physical processes in the mag- 
netosphere is described. (Author) 



AD-743 760/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
A Statistical Model of Atmospheric Tempera- 
ture Signals 

Master's thesis 



31 



Edward Marvin Kline. Mar 72, 62p 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric temperature, Mathe- 
matical models, Statistical analysis, Turbu- 
lence, Computer programs, Theses. 

The 'ramp' is an often observed feature in tem- 
perature fluctuations during unstable at- 
mospheric conditions. It is characterized by a 
gradual increase in temperature followed by a 
sudden drop to an ambient level. This ramp 
clearly distinguishes temperature signals from 
other turbulence signals such as velocity. Three 
different ramp-type atmospheric temperature 
fluctuations and their derivatives are con- 
structed and statistically examined for the 
parameters skewness and coefficient of excess. 
These statistical values are compared with 
values obtained from actual signals. (Author) 



AD-743 934/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Northeastern Univ Boston Mass Dept of Mathe- 
matics 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the 
Solution of Large Scale Circulation Problems 
Final rept. 1 Dec 68-20 Nov 71 
Robert D. Klein, Jack C. Mettauer, Vito P. 
Maglione, and Stanley L. Spiegel. 1 Jan 72, 60p 
AFCRL-72-0155 
Contract F19628-69-C-0001 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric motion. Mathemati- 
cal models. Equations of motion, Difference 
equations, Computer programs, Partial dif- 
ferential equations, Integration, Numerical 
analysis. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric circulation, Finite dif- 
ference theory, FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, FORTRAN, GAUJOR computer program. 

Program environments suitable for the in- 
vestigation of a large number of different grid 
systems and algorithms relevant for the solu- 
tion of large scale meteorological circulation 
problems are presented. One of them employs a 
mixed grid system to solve the barotropic 
problem. Inconsistencies arising from linear in- 
terpolation between the grids followed by nu- 
merical differentiation are examined. Also, a 
spherical grid system with flexibility of defini- 
tion on the globe is described and the relation- 
ship necessary for its use in a finite differencing 
scheme are developed. Additionally, a program 
is presented which is useful for calculating the 
parameters needed for the numerical evalua- 
tion of arbitrary differential operators using in- 
formation from arbitrarily selected grid points. 
(Author) 



AD-743 948/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Naval Electronics Lab Center San Diego Calif 
Mode Conversion Program for an In- 
homogeneous Anisotropic Ionosphere 

Interim rept., Jun 71-Apr 72 

Richard A Pappert, and Linda R. Shockey. 1 

May 72, 69p Rept no. NELC-IR-722 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric propagation, Numer- 
ical analysis, Computer programs, Very low 
frequency, Electron density, Terrestrial mag- 
netism, Magnetic fields, Electric fields, 
Waveguides. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, FORTRAN. 

The report presents a program for numerically 
determining mode conversion coefficients and 
mode sums for a waveguide which is in- 
homogeneous along the direction of propaga- 
tion. The program allows for vertical in- 
homogeneity of the ionosphere as well as its 
anisotropy due to the geomagnetic field. The 
model assumes the perturbation has no 
horizontal space dependence perpendicular to 
the transmitter receiver line. Mode conversion 
coefficients are obtained by ignoring reflec- 
tions associated with the inhomogeneity along 
the direction of propagation. The latter as- 



sumption greatly simplifies the calculations and 
appears to be justified for a broad class of 
horizontal inhomogeneities. However, its validi- 
ty under severe artificial ionospheric 
disturbances requires further study. (Author) 



AD-744 094/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Raytheon Co Wayland Mass Equipment 

Development Labs 

Pulse Pair Estimation of Doppler Spectrum 

Parameters 

Final rept. 1 Feb-31 Jan 72 

Herbert L. Groginsky, Aaron S. Soltes, George 

A. Works, and Frederick C. Benham. 30 Mar 72, 

158pAFCRL-72-0222 

Contract F1 9628-71 -C-01 26 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological radar, 'Radar 
reflections, 'Weather forecasting, 'Doppler 
radar, White noise, Signal-to-noise ratio, 
Statistical analysis, Random variables, Doppler 
effect, Curve fitting, Graphics, Computer pro- 
grams. Real time, Backscattering. 
Identifiers: Signal processing, Spectrum analy- 
sis, FORTRAN. 

The results of an expanded study and investiga- 
tion of the Pulse Pair technique for estimating 
the first and second moments (mean and vari- 
ance) of doppler spectra for radar backscatter 
from atmospheric phenomena are presented. 
The theory is extended to include the effects of 
non-ideal conditions, such as noise, and ex- 
perimentally verified by extensive performance 
tests using simulated weather signals with con- 
trollable parameters. A proposed experimental 
model of a real-time digital pulse pair processor 
is defined and compared with alternate 
processing techniques. Based on the en- 
couraging results of the study, recommenda- 
tions are made to carry the theory into practice; 
these include the construction of a real-time 
digital pulse pair processor with flexiable 
characteristics to gather and reduce data for 
evaluation while operating with real radars, and 
the development of additional related theory 
needed to guide the experimental effort. 
(Author) 



AD-744 833/CP PC E01/MF A01 

General Electric Co Philadelphia Pa Space Div 
A Compendium of Optical Interferometer 
Results on Secede II 

Final technical rept. 

Irwin M. Pikus, and Gerald Liebling. 31 Jan 72, 

61pRADC-TR-72-122 

Contract F30602-71-C-0064, ARPA Order-1057 

Report on Project Secede. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Upper at- 
mosphere, Interferometers, Barium, Calibra- 
tion, Computer programs. 

Identifiers: Secede 2 project, 'Chemical release 
studies, Barium clouds. Data reduction. 

Project Secede is an ARPA program aimed at 
solving certain defense related problems 
through the study of chemical releases in the 
ionosphere. The' chemical of primary interest 
has been barium. The aspects of the release 
which are of most interest include the growth of 
the cloud and the evolution of its striated struc- 
ture. Several test series of releases have been 
conducted the latest of which was Secede II. 
The present report concerns data obtained dur- 
ing Secede II by an optical interferometer. The 
report consists of a number of data volumes 
and this one summary textual volume. Inter- 
ferometer data on events Spruce, Olive, 
Redwood and Plum has been reduced and 
photographs of representative IO records on 
Spruce have been made. The interferometer 
data is presented in detail in the Event Data 
Books published separately while the IO 
records on Spruce are reproduced in this 
volume. (Author) 



AD-745 319/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Visidyne Inc Woburn Mass 

A High Altitude Radiance Model 

Final rept. 17 Mar71-14 May 72 

Thomas C. Degges. 14 May 72, 218p VI-91 , 

AFCRL-72-0273 

Contract F1 9628-71 -C-01 56 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Infrared 
radiation, Background, Infrared spectroscopy, 
Computer programs, Chemical reactions, 
Molecular spectroscopy, Chemiluminescence, 
Airglow. 

Identifiers: SNAPS 2 computer program, 
BCKGND computer program, SPCTRA com- 
puter program. 

A physical model that includes experimental 
data on and theoretical estimates of excitation 
processes that lead to emission of infrared 
radiation has been implemented in a computer 
program that computes infrared radiances for 
an earth's limb viewing geometry. The nominal 
spectral region of this study lies between five 
and twenty-five micrometers and emphasis is 
placed on radiation originating at altitudes 
between 70 and 500 km. An earlier model for 
the transport of infrared radiation in molecular 
bands with Doppler line shape, accurate only 
for linear molecules, has been extended to 
bands of polyatomic molecules. A chemistry 
program which includes the effects of vertical 
transport by eddy mixing and molecular diffu- 
sion has been developed to make possible an 
estimate of diurnal variation in the abundances 
of infrared emitting species. (Author) 



AD-745 946/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab Wright-Patter- 
son AFB Ohio 

Atmospheric Turbulence Field Parameters 
Determination 
Final rept. 

Robert L. Neulieb, Jan N. Garrison, and Dennis 
J. Golden. Apr 72, 50p Rept no. AFFDL-TR-72- 
51 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, Curve 
fitting, 'Gust loads, Aircraft, Aerodynamic load- 
ing, Structural properties, Graphics, Computer 
programs, Confidence limits. 
Identifiers: GUSTP computer program, FOR- 
TRAN, LO-LOCAT project. 

A Newton-Raphson least squares percentage 
error method is developed for the determina- 
tion of atmospheric turbulence field parame- 
ters. A correction function is proposed to 
deemphasize the effects of data points with low 
statistical confidence. The method is used on 
various sets of LO-LOCAT data to demonstrate 
the excellence of the curve fits obtained. Com- 
parisons are made with other curve fits found in 
the literature. It is recommended that this 
method be adopted as the standard method for 
the determination of atmospheric turbulence 
field parameters. (Author) 



AD-746 314/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Thayer School of Engineering Hanover N H 
Radiophysics Lab 
Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances 

Final rept. 1 Oct 67-30 Sep 71 

Carlos H. J. Calderon, and Millett G. Morgan. 31 

Oct 71 , 1 76 AFCR L-72-0234 

Contract F19628-68-C-0099 

Doctoral thesis. 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric disturbances. 

Theory, Atmospheric sounding, Ionospheric 
propagation, Radio waves, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Identifiers: 'Traveling ionospheric 

disturbances. Internal gravity waves. 

A general study of travelling ionospheric 
disturbances (T. I. D. s) has been undertaken. 
In the theoretical aspect, the gravity-wave reso- 



32 



nant mode has been studied and the concept of 
an ionospheric predictive function has been in- 
troduced. In the experimental aspect the digital 
data processing portion of the Dartmouth 
ionosonde network has been brought into 
operation and seven T.I.D. events have been 
analyzed with it. The data have been interpreted 
in light of Hooke's theory and substantial 
agreement has been found. (Author) 



AD-746 678/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Stevens Inst of Tech Hoboken N J Dept of 

Mechanical Engineering 

A Compendium of the Mechanical Properties 

of Polyethylene Balloon Films 

Harold Alexander, and Dan Weissmann. Jan 72, 

148p ME-RT-72001, Scientific-2, AFCRL-72- 

0068 

Contract F19628-69-C-0069 

Report on Project SABAR. 

Descriptors: "Polyethylene plastics, Mechanical 
properties, 'Balloons, Polyethylene plastics, 
Films, Test methods. Low-temperature 
research, Loading(Mechanics), Computer pro- 
grams, Failure(Mechanics), Stresses. 
Identifiers: 'Polymeric films. 

During the process of establishing test 
procedures that can be used in determining the 
suitability of various polyethylene films for bal- 
loon use and in subsequent testing of various 
balloon and balloon candidate materials much 
information has been collected on the 
mechanical properties of these films and the 
structural factors affecting them. This informa- 
tion includes the results of an extensive low 
temperature biaxial failure test sequence, a 
detailed discussion of the relationship of struc- 
ture to mechanical properties and mechanical 
behavior, experimentation for the establish- 
ment of a failure criterion for balloon films the 
development of an approximate constitutive 
theory for polyethylene balloon films, and a 
discussion of the effect of orientation balance 
on mechanical properties. It is the purpose of 
the report to place this information at the 
disposal of the ballooning community. (Author) 



AD-748 283/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Gca Corp Bedford Mass Gca Technology Div 
Infrasonic Data Reduction 

Final rept. Mar 68-Dec 70 

George Ohring. Dec 70, 37p GCA-TR-70-9-A, 

AFCRL-72-0429 

Contract F19628-68-C-0305 

Descriptors: 'Microbarometric waves. Data 

processing systems. Power spectra, Spectrum 

analyzers. Signal-to-noise ratio. Mathematical 

models 

Identifiers: 'Signal processing, Digital filters. 

Data reduction, MAXLKH computer program, 

'Infrasonic radiation, Wiener filters. 

A multi-channel prediction-error filter 
technique is developed for suppressing noise 
on infrasonic signals. The technique uses sam- 
ples of noise prior to a signal for deriving a 
Wierner prediction filter that is used to predict 
the noise during the first motion of the in- 
frasonic signal A computer program entitled 
MAXLKH is written to carry out the filtering 
technique. Application of the technique to ac- 
tual infrasonic records indicates that noise has 
some degree of predictability and, hence, an 
enhancement of the infrasonic signal results. 
Further tests are suggested to quantify the 
amount of noise suppression and to optimize 
technique parameters such as filter length and 
prediction span. A discussion of the computer 
program is included. (Author) 



AD-748 796/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force .Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 
scom Field Mass 



Arctic Ionosphere Modelling - Five Related 
Papers 

Air Force surveys in geophysics 
George J. Gassmann, Jurgen Buchau, 
Rosemarie A. Wagner, Charles P. Pike, and 
Martin G. Hurwitz. 16 May 72, 61 p Rept nos. 
AFCRL-72-0305, AFCRL-AFSIG-241 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Arctic regions, 

'Atmosphere models, Ionosphere, Ionospheric 

propagation. Ionospheric disturbances, Au- 

rorae, Ionization, Electron density. Computer 

programs. 

Identifiers: Auroral sporadic E layer, F region, 

lonograms. 

Contents: 

Instantaneous versus averaged ionosphere; 

Modelling the auroral E-layer; 

Model of arctic sporadic E; 

Modelling the arctic F-layer; 

Coordinate conversion and other computer 

programs for arctic ionospheric 

research. 



AD-749 285/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Ohio State Univ Research Foundation Colum- 
bus 

A Study of Charged Particle Motion in a Free 
Vortex Flowfield 
Interim technical rept. 

R.A.Cudnick, and H. R. Velkoff. Jul 72, 135p 
TR-12, AROD-4942:17-E 
Contract DA-31-124-ARO(D)-246 
Master's thesis. 

Descriptors: 'Charged particles. Particle trajec- 
tories, 'Particle trajectories, Electrostatic fields, 
'Atmospheric motion, Charged particles. Flow 
fields. Tornadoes, Dust storms, Vortices, Gas 
ionization, Magnetohydrodynamics, Differential 
equations, Computer programs, Graphics, 
Theses. 
Identifiers: Gas dynamics, Dust devils. 

A study was made of charged particle motion in 
a free-vortex flow field to determine the 
parameters affecting particle motion and to 
determine the extent to which applied electric 
fields can influence the particle motion. Four 
different cases were investigated. These in- 
cluded first, the analysis of the motion of an 
uncharged particle in a free-vortex; second, 
analysis of the motion of a charged particle in a 
viscous medium under the influence of an ap- 
plied electrostatic field; third, analysis of 
charged particle motion in a free-vortex under 
the influence of the applied electrostatic field, 
assuming the particle is first positively and then 
negatively charged; and fourth, analysis of the 
motion of two charged particles in a free-vor- 
tex, accounting for field effects due to particle 
charge. (Author) 



AD-750 082/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Atmospheric Sciences Lab 
A Two-Dimensional Short-Range Fog 
Forecast Model 

Research and development technical rept. 
Charles A. Ill Doswell. May 72, 76p ECOM-5443 

Descriptors: 'Fog, 'Weather forecasting, Wind, 
Vortices, Diurnal variations, Partial differential 
equations, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, 
Finite difference theory, FORTRAN 5 pro- 
gramming language, FORTRAN, Fog dispersal. 

A two-dimensional dynamical model is 
developed for the specific purpose of forecast- 
ing fog for time periods of as much as eight 
hours on a local scale Time-dependent winds 
are generated by calculating a streamfunction 
from a model-produced vorticity field. A diurnal 
variation at the surface is simulated by 
sinusoidally varying boundary conditions on 
temperature. Surface terrain effects can be in- 



corporated through boundary conditions to 
provide a means of adapting the method to a 
particular location. Only grosser features of 
microphysical processes have been incor- 
porated, and the values of the wind forecasts 
are limited by the inability of a two-dimensional 
model in the X-2 plane to include synoptic- 
scale variations. Fine-scale data are required 
for the model, which is thereby well-suited to 
provide forecast support for such activities as 
fog modification experiments. (Author) 



AD-750 083/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Atmospheric Sciences Lab 
An Iterative Method for Saturation Adjust- 
ment 

Research and development technical rept. 
Charles A. Ill Doswell. Jun 72, 28p ECOM-5444 

Descriptors: 'Water, 'Phase studies, 'Fog, 
Mathematical models. Weather forecasting, 
Mathematical prediction. Computer programs. 
Numerical analysis. 

Identifiers: Computerized simulation, Numeri- 
cal weather forecasting, Weather modification, 
Fog dispersal, FORTRAN, FORTRAN 5 pro- 
gramming language. 

A fast and accurate technique for iterative solu- 
tion of the saturation adjustment problem is 
developed. The method is intended for use on 
digital computers, and a sample FORTRAN pro- 
gram is provided. Results (for vapor pressures) 
are accurate to the order of 0.01 mb. (Author) 



AD-750 727/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale 
Interactions on Global Climate 

Semiannual technical rept. 15 Feb-14Aug 72. 
1 5 Sep 72, 202p 3SCR-72-1255, AROD-9951 :4-A 
Contract DAHC04-71-C-0018, ARPA Order-1752 

Descriptors: 'Climatology, Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Atmospheric motion, Mathematical 
models, Meteorological parameters. Wind, Tur- 
bulence, Coriolis effect, Heat transfer. Thermal 
radiation, Mountains, Subroutines. 
Identifiers: Global climatology, HAIFA com- 
puter code, Finite difference theory, FORTRAN. 

The results reported herein are the continua- 
tion of numerical studies of meso-scale 
phenomena related to the effects of orography 
on momentum and energy transfer in the at- 
mosphere and the interaction of solar radiation 
with the Earth's atmosphere. 



AD-751 267/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 
scom Field Mass 

Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Elec- 
tron Density Profile 
Environmental research papers 
Robert E. Cookingham. 5 Jun 72, 69p Rept nos. 
AFCRL-72-0340, AFCRL-ERP-401 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Electron density, 
"Ionospheric propagation, High frequency. 
Diurnal variations, Curve fitting, Graphics, 
Mathematical models, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: F2 region, ARLINE computer pro- 
gram. 

A model describing the mid-latitude bottomside 
electron density profile is presented. The only 
geophysical input parameters required for the 
model are critical frequency, M-factor, planeta- 
ry index (Ap), and 2800 MHz solar radio flux. An 
empirically-determined formula for calculating 
H(m)F2 is derived and used in the model. This 
formula is a function of the M-factor, local time, 
day number and magnetic activity. The results 
obtained by comparing predicted profiles to 
observed electron density profiles are 
presented in the form of mean percentage er- 



33 



rors as a function of height and local time. The 
New Model IS COMPARED TO A MODEL CUR- 
RENTLY IN OPERATIONAL USE AND IS 
SHOWN TO BE A 10 TO 20 PERCENT IM- 
PROVEMENT. (Author) 



AD-751 517/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Ghana Univ Legon Dept of Physics 
Total Electron Measurements of the Iono- 
sphere using Beacon Satellites BEB(S66) and 
BEC 

Final rept. Oct 64-Jul 67 

John R. Koster, and Llewellyn G. Grimes. 1 Jun 
67,114pAFCRL-72-0562 
Contract AF 61 (052)-800 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Electron density, 
Scientific satellites, Ionospheric propagation, 
Radio waves. Polarization, Tables, Computer 
programs, Magneto-optic effect, Ghana. 
Identifiers: Polarized electromagnetic radia- 
tion, FORTRAN, FORTRAN 2 programming lan- 
guage, Faraday effect. Beacon satellites. 

The report describes the physical principles in- 
volved in measuring the Total Electron Content 
(TEC) together with the equipment used. 
Details are also given of the main steps in the 
computer program used to calculate the TEC. 
The report deals with the TEC results measured 
simultaneously at two stations. This provides a 
means of testing the consistency of the results 
obtained using the first and second order 
theory. The report contains the tabulated 
results of the values of the TEC as measured at 
Legon. The results cover the period October 
1964 to July 1967 and are given for both the first 
and second order theory. Various appendices 
give the source programs (in Fortran II) used in 
the calculations. (Author) 



AD-751 590/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Hurricane Heat Potential of the North Atlantic 
and North Pacific Oceans 

Master's thesis 

Richard Francis Heffernan. Sep 72, 107p 

Descriptors: "Atlantic Ocean, Surface tempera- 
tures, 'Pacific Ocean, Surface temperatures, 
'Tropical cyclones, Potential energy, Correla- 
tion techniques, Bathythermograph data, Ther- 
moclines, Computer programs, Theses, Hur- 
ricane tracking. 

Identifiers: North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific 
Ocean, Ocean surface. 

The thesis has two primary objectives, the first 
is to produce a Monthly Mean Hurricane Heat 
Potential Atlas based upon bathythermograph 
data for selected regions in the Tropical Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Oceans (this atlas also includes 
Mean Monthly Sea Surface Temperatures, 
Mean Monthly Depths of the 26C Isotherm, and 
Mean Monthly Layer Depths). The second ob- 
jective is to compute changes in sea surface 
temperature and in the convective layer depth 
which would be associated with heat loss from 
the ocean in a severe tropical storm passage. 
Upwelling effects upon these quantities has 
been considered by other authors. 



AD-751 780/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Atmospheric Sciences Lab 
A General-Purpose Meteorological Rocket 
Data Reduction Program 

Research and development technical rept. 
Mary Ann B. Seagraves. Aug 72, 1 23p ECOM- 
5462 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Data 
processing systems, 'Computer programs, In- 
struction manuals, Wind, Atmospheric tem- 
perature, Barometric pressure, Density, 
Meteorological radar, Sounding rockets. 
Ozone. 



Identifiers: METROC computer program, 
Univac 1108 computers, Data reduction, FOR- 
TRAN. 

METROC is a general-purpose meteorological 
rocket data reduction program designed to be 
run on the Univac 1108 computer system at 
White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 
(WSMR). Wind data may be input on cards or 
may be computed from radar data input on 
digital tape. Temperature data may be input on 
data cards. Layer winds are computed for 
selected altitudes, as are corrected tempera- 
tures. Pressure and densities are derived by 
using the hydrostatic equations and an initial 
data point from a conjunctive rawinsonde mea- 
surement. Some specially formatted data may 
be output to meet project requirements at 
WSMR. (Author) 



AD-752 141/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Virginia Inst of Marine Science Gloucester 

Point 

Forecasting Storm-Induced Beach Changes 

along Virginia's Ocean Coast 

Final rept. 

Wyman Harrison, Paul A. Bullock, and N. A. 

Pore. 31 Dec 71 , 1 1 7p Rept no. Contrib-451 

Contract DACW72-69-C-0031 

Prepared in cooperation with National Weather 

Service, Silver Spring, Md. 

Descriptors: 'Storms, Weather forecasting, 
'Beaches, Erosion, Regression analysis, Cor- 
relation techniques, Mathematical prediction, 
Computer programs, Virginia. 
Identifiers: Storm surges, 'Beach erosion, IBM 
1130 computers, FORTRAN 4 programming 
language, FORTRAN. 

The purpose of this study was to begin work on 
a method for operational prediction of storm- 
induced beach changes. The thought was to 
use wind and storm-surge data that are pre- 
dicted on a routine basis by the National 
Weather Service, NOAA, and it was felt that if 
such a procedure could be developed, it would 
be possible to provide estimates of beach ero- 
sion or deposition as part of routine weather 
forecasts whenever storms threatened. It was 
also hoped that it might be possible to make 
estimates of shoreline erosion during previous 
years by using historical storm data in the pre- 
diction scheme. 



AD-753 268/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Colorado State Univ Fort Collins Fluid Dynam- 
ics and Diffusion Lab 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
Technical rept. 

Surya Narayana Putta, and Jack E. Cermak. Jun 
71, 100p Rept nos. CER71-72SNP-JEC1, 
THEMIS-CER-TR-19 

Contract N00014-68-A-0493-0001, DAAB07-68- 
C-0423 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric motion, Mathemati- 
cal models, 'Air pollution, Atmospheric motion, 
Atmosphere models, Density, Transport proper- 
ties, Equations of motion. Shear stresses, 
Statistical analysis, Turbulence, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Identifiers: Turbulent flow, Shear flow, 
'Turbulent diffusion, Themis project. 

The report discusses the statistical properties 
of the dispersion of air pollutants released from 
an instaneous line source and specifies a 
realistic probability density function for the 
spatial distribution of concentrations within the 
smoke puff. A probable shape of smoke puff is 
presented for a source released at ground level. 



AD-755 390/CP 

Regis Coll Weston Mass 



PC E01/MF A01 



Rocket and Satellite Experiments for the 
Measurement of the Properties of Thermal 
and High Energy Plasma 

Final rept. 30 Jul 71-30 Sep 72 

Mukhtar Ahmed, and Lalitha D. V. Rao. 2 Nov 

72, 68pAFCRL-72-0662 

Contract F19628-72-C-0021 

Descriptors: 'Magnetosphere, Atmospheric 
sounding, Ionosphere, Computer programs. 
Scientific satellites, Ions, Electron density, 
Temperature, Magnetic storms, Data 
processing systems. 

Identifiers: OGO 1 satellite, OGO 3 satellite, 
Injum 5 satellite, ISIS-l-satellite. 

The work carried under this contract covers the 
routine reduction and analysis of data obtained 
from the Spherical Electrostatic experiments 
on board the OGO 1 and 3, INJUN 5 and ISIS-1 
satellites. The data analysed were examined 
and theoretical interpretations were made 
thereby enabling an understanding of the 
physical processes operating in the magneto- 
spheric region of space. (Author) 



AD-755 403/CP MF A01 

Environmental Technical Applications Center 

(Air Force) Washington D C 

An Operational Decision Model Employing 

Operational and Environmental Factors 

Technical note 

Dana P. Hall. Nov 72, 22p Rept no. USAFETAC- 

TN-72-8 

Availability: Available in microfiche only. 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Decision 
theory, 'Air transportation. Armed Forces sup- 
plies. Climatology, Operational readiness, 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, FORTRAN 4 pro- 
gramming language. 

The model discussed in the paper combines 
conditional climatological probabilities, cli- 
matological probabilities, and operational loss 
values for specified actions in a manner to 
make the best operational decision. A sample 
scenario is given and demonstrated using a 
hypothetical problem of airlift supply. (Author) 



AD-757 085/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Washington Univ Seattle 

Stimulated Amplification of VLF and ULF 
Waves in the Magnetosphere by Localized In- 
jections of Plasma Clouds and Particle 
Beams 
Final rept. 

Harold B. Liemohn, and G. K. Parks. Dec 72, 
135p 

Contract N00014-67-0103-0027, ARPAOrder- 
1479 

Prepared in cooperation with Battelle Memorial 
Inst., Richland, Wash., Pacific Northwest Labs. 

Descriptors: 'Magnetosphere, Plasma physics, 
'Radio transmission, Magnetosphere, Very low 
frequency, Ultralow frequency, Cyclotron 
resonance phenomena, Ionospheric 

disturbances, Electron beams, Proton beams, 
Lithium, Barium , Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Chem ical release studies, N. 

The cyclotron resonance interaction between 
ULF-VLF waves and trapped particles may be 
strongly enhanced in the magnetosphere by the 
injection of either cold plasma or energetic par- 
ticle beams. A variety of natural conditions and 
injections are investigated numerically using 
the linear theory. Both satellite and rocket in- 
jection of cold plasma provide significant 
enhancements of amplification. Conventional 
hot electron beams may also amplify narrow 
frequency bands, if the beam geometry can be 
effectively altered at injection. Heavy ion beams 
appear to offer attractive propagation condi- 
tions as well as stimulate amplification. 
(Author) 



34 



AD-757 256/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

An Optical Apparatus to Determine the Effect 

of Turbulence on the Modulation Transfer 

Function of the Atmosphere 

Master's thesis 

Wayne Thompson Hildebrand. Dec 72, 43p 

Descriptors: "Atmosphere, Optical properties, 
Optical instruments, Transfer functions, 
Coherent radiation, Optical images, Degrada- 
tion, Turbulence, Experimental design. Test 
equipment. Computer programs, Theses, Light 
communication systems. 

Identifiers: Modulation transfer functions, 
Laser beams, Atmospheric attenuation, N. 

An apparatus was designed and constructed to 
determine the effect of atmospheric turbulence 
on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of 
the atmosphere. A reflecting telescope and reti- 
cle system provided optical information in the 
visible region to a silicon photodiode detector 
which was responsive from .35 micron to 1.1 
microns. The output of the detector was 
processed to measure irradiance modulation 
from a target of known spatial frequency. The 
modulation transfer function of the atmospher- 
ic transmission medium and the optical system 
was measured under calm conditions and con- 
ditions of turbulence on a 270 meter round trip 
path through a building corridor. The optical 
apparatus described was capable of detecting, 
in the visible range, the degrading effect of tur- 
bulence on MTF. All reflective optics were used 
so that the visual through 10 micrometers range 
can be covered with use of different detectors. 
(Author) 



AD-757 623/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Atmospheric Sciences Lab 
Numerical Approximations of Selected 
Meteorologicl Parameters Related to Cloud 
Physics 

Research and development technical rept. 
Walter S. Nordquist, Jr. Mar 73, 50p ECOM-5475 

Descriptors: "Meteorological parameters, Nu- 
merical analysis, Vapor pressure, Dew point, 
Specific heat. Clouds, Approxima- 

tion(Mathematics), Computer programs. 
Identifiers: FORTRAN, 'Cloud physics, Latent 
heat. Wet bulb temperature, A. 

Methods of computation and error estimates 
are presented for numerical approximation of 
selected meteorological parameters used in the 
solution of cloud physics problems. These 
parameters are latent heat, saturation vapor 
pressure, dew point and wet bulb temperatures, 
specific heat of liquid water, temperature of the 
lifting condensation level, change in mass of 
freely falling water drops, and saturation- 
adiabatic temperatures. The FORTRAN pro- 
gramming language listings of the approxima- 
tions are provided in the appendix. (Author) 



AD-758 007/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 

(Navy) Monterey Calif 

The 1972 Typhoon Analog Program (TYFOON- 

72) 

Jerry D. Jarrell, and Richard A. Wagoner. Jan 

73, 40p Rept no. ENVPREDRSCHFAC-tech- 

paper-1-73 

Descriptors: 'Tropical cyclones, Weather 
forecasting, Prog ramming (Computers), 

Meteorological parameters, Curve fitting, 
Pacific Ocean. 

Identifiers: TYFOON computer program, 
TYFOON 72 computer program, Storm tracks, 
North Pacific Ocean, N. 

TYFOON, an analog program for the prediction 
of tropica"! cyclones in the western North Pacific 
Ocean, has been in operational use at 



FWC/JTWC Guam since August 1970. A brief 
review of TYFOON is presented focussing on its 
concept, operational results and limitations. 
Modifications to remedy shortcomings and 
limitations in the original version are discussed. 
The modified program TYFOON-72 resulted in 
the reduction of both computer run time and 
data storage requirements. Testing and 
development of the modified program using a 
sample of 131 forecast situations are reported. 
TYFOON-72 compared favorably with the offi- 
cial JTWC and TYFOON forecasts at 24 and 48 
hr and was superior to both at 72 hr. (Author) 



AD-758 196/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

Numerical Model of the Equatorial Electrojet 

Environmental research papers 

Arthur D. Richmond. 16 Nov 72, 69p Rept nos. 

AFCRL-72-0668, AFCRL-ERP-421 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric disturbances, Mathe- 
matical models, Computer programs, Electron 
density, Ions, Ionization, Photochemistry, Elec- 
tric currents, Equations of motion. 
Identifiers: 'Equatorial electrojet, ELJET com- 
puter program, CDC 6600 computers, F region. 
Ion density(Concentration), AF. 

A computer program which calculates electron 
and ion densities, ionospheric conductivities, 
electric fields and currents, and magnetic varia- 
tions in regions near the magnetic equator is 
described in detail. It is also explained how this 
numerical model can be used to deduce F-re- 
gion vertical plasma drifts in the equatorial 
ionosphere from observed magnetic variations 
at ground level. (Author) 



AD-759 546/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Texas Univ Austin Electronics Research Center 
Application of Adaptive Estimation to Tem- 
perature Forecasting 

Technical rept. 

Newton B. Penrose, and Demetrios G. Lainiotis. 
5 Dec 72, 153p TR-140, AFOSR-TR-72-2185 
Contract F44620-71-C-0091 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric temperature, 
'Weather forecasting. Stochastic processes. 
Probability density functions, Mathematical 
models, Climatology, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Nonlinear filtering, Estimation 
theory, Autocorrelation, Histograms, Lainiotis 
filters, AF. 

The work is an application of adaptive estima- 
tion to temperature forecasting. It is presented 
as a feasibility study demonstrating the efficacy 
of the adaptive approach. The local station tem- 
perature forecasting problem is chosen to 
focus the discussion on the efficiency of the fil- 
tering algorithm by using only surface level sin- 
gle geographic location data. A diagnostic 
study is made to ascertain the appropriate 
statistical properties of the weather data for al- 
gorithm selection. A phenomenalistic approach 
is taken since no differential equation or 
complete quantitative description exists to 
describe the temperature process. The Lainiotis 
Filter is chosen for model identification and 
classification as well as prediction results. The 
Lainiotis Filter, given in the Partition Theorem, 
provides an efficient, powerful tool in the appli- 
cation of adaptive estimation techniques. The 
feasibility of the adaptive approach is 
established with comparative results with previ- 
ous objective forecast methods while greatly 
reducing the amount and variety of required 
input data. (Author) 



AD-760 117/CP PCE01/MFA01 

Emmanuel Coll Boston Mass 
Mathematical-Model Programs 

Final rept. 15 Oct 70-15 Feb 72 

M. Patricia Hagan. 30 Oct 72, 23p AFCRL-72- 

0674 



Contract F1 9628-71 -C-0064 

Descriptors: 'Magnetic storms, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Numerical analysis, Ionospheric 
disturbances. 

Identifiers: CDC 6600 computers, 

'Geomagnetic micropulsations, AF. 

Programs were compiled to compare experi- 
mental data with mathematical models with 
respect to magnetic activity. Micropulsations 
were investigated and programs were written to 
compute the eigenperiod and modulus of 
decay, so the predicted results could be com- 
pared with experimental observations. This was 
a particularly difficult problem, because the 
dispersion relationship was a complex trans- 
cendental equation, and required a 2-part fit. 
The complex function was mermorphic with 
respect to its complex arguments, and so the 
Cauchy-Riemann conditions were applicable. 
The secular equation was expanded in a Taylor 
Series, and then the equation was cast in a form 
immediately amenable to the numerical analy- 
sis. The programs were written and can now be 
easily reformated, suitable for production basis 
on the CDC 6600. (Author Modified Abstract) 



AD-760 123/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Drexel Univ Philadelphia Pa Dept of Physics 
and Atmospheric Sciences 

A One-Dimensional Numerical Model to Study 
the Effects of Cumulus Clouds on the En- 
vironment 

Donald J. Perkey, and Carl W. Kreitzberg. Dec 
72, 109p Scientif ic-5, AFCRL-TR-73-0014 
Contract F19628-69-C-0092 
Report on Atmospheric Sensing and Prediction 
Project. 

Descriptors: 'Cumulus clouds, Mathematical 
models, 'Convection(Atmospheric), Environ- 
ment, Atmospheric precipitation, Atmospheric 
motion. Partial differential equations, Com- 
puter programs. Atmospheric temperature, 
Barometric pressure. 

Identifiers: Themis project, FORTRAN, CDC 
6600 computers, CDC 7600 computers. Compu- 
terized simulation, MESOCU computer pro- 
gram, AF. 

The report documents and provides a users 
guide for a one-dimensional numerical model 
to study the effects of convection on the en- 
vironment. The model combines a one-dimen- 
sional Lagrangian cumulus cloud model with 
the basic physical processes of cyclonic scale 
lifting, surface eddy mixing, cloud induced en- 
vironmental subsidence, sub-cloud 
hydrometeor water evaporation and horizontal 
diffusion of the dissipating cloud. Included in 
this documentation are a detailed model 
description, derivation of the model equations, 
a basic flow diagram, a list of program 
mnemonics, a description of the input data for- 
mat and a model listing and output from the Na- 
tional Center for Atmospheric Research's Con- 
trol Data 6600 and 7600 computers. (Author) 



AD-760 175/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Kms Technology Center Irvine Calif 
Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Par- 
ticle Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air 
Breakdown 

Technical rept. 22 Jun 71-30 Aug 72 
Frank D. Feiock, and Lester K Goodwin. Apr 73, 
196p AFWL-TR-72-172 
Contract F29601 -71-C-01 18, ARPA Order-1256 

Descriptors: 'Gas discharges, 'Air, 'Aerosols, 
Gas discharges, Electron density. Quartz. Sap- 
phires, Particles, Gas ionization, Impurities, 
Hydrodynamics, Computer programs. Partial 
differential equations, Distribution functions. 
Identifiers: 'Dielectric breakdown, Laser 
beams, Atmospheric attenuation, AF. 



35 



The effect of atmospheric contaminants on the 
laser-induced breakdown of air is investigated. 
Calculations were performed using a one- 
dimensional, Lagrangian, hydrodynamic code 
developed for the study. The results of this 
study indicate that the interaction of a laser 
beam with atmospheric contaminants such as 
Si02 and AI203 can supply a primary electron 
density that will lead to a significant decrease in 
the laser-induced breakdown threshold for air. 
(Author) 



AD-760 767/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Panametrics Inc Waltham Mass 

Design, Fabrication and Use of an Instrument 

for Real-Time Determination of Polar Elec- 

trojet Position and Current Parameters 

Final rept. 1 5 Mar 70-28 Feb 73 

Bach Sellers, Frederick A. Hanser, and Paul Ft. 

Morel. Mar 73, 58p AFCRL-TR-73-0166 

Contract F19628-70-C-0224 

Descriptors: 'Magnetosphere, 'Magnetic 
storms, 'Aurorae, Measurement, 'Ionospheric 
disturbances, Magnetic storms, Instrumenta- 
tion, Magnetometers, Height finding, Position 
finding, Design, Atmospheric sounding. Polar 
regions, Real time, Data processing systems, 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: Auroral electrojets, PDP-8 compu- 
ters, AF. 

An instrument was designed and fabricated for 
real-time determination of the auroral electrojet 
current, velocity, and location in order to assist 
in selection of the optimum launch time for 
rockets used to study auroral phenomena as- 
sociated with substorms. The instrument incor- 
porates a small digital computer to calculate 
these quantities by use of inputs from up to five 
3-axis magnetometers. During two on-site ap- 
plications at Churchill Research Range data 
from 3-axis magnetometers situated at two dif- 
ferent locations on a north-south line from 
Churchill were used. During the two substorms 
studied, the jet was located near 140 km al- 
titude and the intensity of each was as high as 
0.5 megaamps. In one case, both stations gave 
results similar to the two station fit, so the jet 
was well approximated by a line current. In the 
second case, the data suggest that the current 
was either a sheet current or a group of fila- 
ments. Recommendations are made for in- 
creasing the data processing capability of the 
instrument in order to handle such realistic 
electrojet configurations in real-time. (Author) 



AD-762 383/CP PC E07/MF A01 

Range Commanders Council White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex 

Comparisons of Radar Refraction Correction 
Computer Programs at Selected Test Ranges 
1973, 180p Rept no. RCC-113-70 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric refraction. Cor- 
rections, 'Programming(Computers), At- 
mospheric refraction, Refractive index, Curve 
fitting, Graphics, Radar tracking, Inertial 
guidance, Errors, Accuracy. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN, FORTRAN 2 pro- 
gramming language, SD. 

A detailed comparison of atmospheric refrac- 
tion computer programs used at various Na- 
tional and Service Ranges has been made. This 
comparison shows that the data correction pro- 
grams investigated give one order of magnitude 
better agreement when all are given the same 
refractive index profile than they do when they 
are allowed to use that surface value to deter- 
mine the profile by their own internal methods. 
A profile with a strong super-refractive layer 
was also used in comparing the programs. 
Widely differing refractive bending effects, is 
less than 10 feet. The report shows that the nu- 
merical methods of the various refraction cor- 
rection programs produce similar results with 
similar input data. It also shows that care 



should be exercised to assure that data taken at 
one range and processed at another is refrac- 
tion corrected with atmospheric data for the 
range at which the data was taken. Numerical 
methods of refraction correction are similar at 
the various ranges but local atmospheres are 
not. (Author) 



AD-762 584/CP PC E08/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale 
Interactions on Global Climate 

Semiannual technical rept. 16 Oct 72-16 Apr 73 

1 5 Jun 73, 246p SSS-R-73-1727, AROD-9951 :5- 

A 

Contract DAHC04-73-C-0003, DARPA Order- 

1752 

Descriptors: 'Climatology, Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Atmospheric motion, Mathematical 
models. Meteorological parameters, Wind, Tur- 
bulence, Heat flux, Solar radiation, Mountains, 
Atmosphere models, Pro- 

gram ming(Computers). 

Identifiers: Global climatology. Atmospheric 
circulation, Atmospheric radiation, HAIFA com- 
puter code, STUFF computer code, Mie scatter- 
ing, A. 

The results reported are part of a continuing 
study to improve numerical models for meso- 
scale and small-scale effects which influence 
global weather and its modification. The two 
major areas being studied are the effects of 
mountain ranges on momentum transfer, and 
the transient interaction of solar radiation with 
the earth's atmosphere. The results of the 
research on the solar radiation include several 
calculations and comparisons with experimen- 
tal data of heat fluxes in the atmosphere. The 
major tasks of the orographic study have been 
to: (1) develop a three-dimensional transient 
Boussinesq code, (2) continue development 
and check out of the linear steady state codes, 
and (3) continue to test the HAIFA codes and 
make runs using real topography data. 
(Modified author abstract) 



AD-763 082/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 

Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph 

Chemical Releases 

Instrumentation papers 

Norman W. Rosenberg. 9 Mar 73, 37p Rept nos. 

AFCRL-TR-73-0155, AFCRL-IP-182 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, Atmospheric 
sounding, 'Densitometers, Photographic 
techniques, Photographic recording systems. 
Data processing systems, Television display 
systems, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Chemical release studies, 
Minicomputers, Datamate 16 computers, FOR- 
TRAN, SHIFTS computer program, GRAPHS 
computer program, AF. 

The use of a computer-controlled two-dimen- 
sional film densitometer in analysis of photo- 
graphs of chemical releases at high altitudes is 
reported. The unit makes possible rapid in- 
teractive studies of extensive film records for 
measurement of chemical inventory and reac- 
tions, radial growth and diffusion processes, 
and turbulent spatial structure. Application to 
other problems is briefly discussed. (Author) 



AD-763 721/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 

28.5/micrometers Computer Code LOWTRAN 

2 

Environmental research papers 

J. E. A. Selby, and R. M. McClatchey. 29 Dec 72, 

82p Rept nos. AFCRL-ERP-427, AFCRL-72- 

0745 



Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models. Light trans- 
mission, 'Computer programs, Atmosphere 
models, Ultraviolet radiation, Infrared radiation, 
Meteorological parameters. 
Identifiers: LOWTRAN 2 computer program, 
FORTRAN, Light(Visible radiation), Trans- 
mittance, AF. 

A Fortran computer program LOWTRAN 2 is 
described for calculating the transmittance of 
the atmosphere in the spectral region 0.25 to 
28.5 micrometers at a spectral resolution of 
20/cm. The program provides a choice of six at- 
mospheric models covering seasonal and 
latitudinal variations from sea level to 100 km, 
two haze models, and accounts for molecular 
absoprtion, molecular scattering, and aerosol 
extinction. Refraction and earth curvature ef- 
fects are also included. (Author) 



AD-766 240/6CP PC A08/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere 

Air Force surveys in geophysics 

Terence J. Elkins. 23 May 73, 151 p Rept nos. 

AFCRL-TR-73-0331 , AFCRL-AFSIG-267 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, Polar regions, 
'Atmosphere models, Ionosphere, Ionospheric 
propagation, Electron density, Aurorae, Mag- 
netosphere, Mathematical models. Computer 
programs. 

Identifiers: F region. Sporadic E layer, FOR- 
TRAN, AF. 

Four separate articles are collected which deal 
with the construction of empirical models of the 
polar ionosphere. The particular emphasis in 
these articles is towards the radio propagation 
application of the models. Numerical models of 
the vertical electron density profiles on the top- 
side and bottomside of the F-region are 
developed, and a model for sporadic-E is in- 
cluded. Special attention is devoted to features 
which are characteristic of the polar iono- 
sphere-auroral effects, the trough, and mag- 
netospheric cleft regions. The models are con- 
structed specifically for convenience in com- 
puter programming, and in fact, all aspects of 
the models contained in this report are availa- 
ble in the form of Fortran computer programs. 
(Author) 



AD-766 241/4CP PC E01/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 
scom Field Mass 
Geomagnetic Field Models for Ray Tracing 

Environmental research papers 
Ming S. Wong, Krishna-Sastry Vanguri, and 
Manfred P. Friedman. 8 May 73, 49p Rept nos. 
AFCRL-TR-73-0294, AFCRL-ERP-446 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric propagation, Ter- 
restrial magnetism, Magnetic fields. Mathemati- 
cal models, Electron density, High frequency, 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: Ray tracing, ITSA computer pro- 
gram, AF. 

An accurate geomagnetic-field model, consist- 
ing of the dipole plus seven higher-order har- 
monics in dipolar coordinates, is incorporated 
into a computer program for three-dimensional 
ray tracing. Three options of using magnetic- 
field models are provided: (1) using accurate 
field in computing both the ray trajectory and 
the propagation -aspect angle between the 
geomagnetic-field vector and the wave-normal 
vector associated with each point along the ray; 
(2) using the dipole field for computing rays but 
using the accurate field for computing aspect 
angles; (3) using the dipole field for both the 
rays and aspect angles. Comparisons are made 
among the results computed, using the three 
options, in the HF band for a nighttime polar 
ionosphere and for a noontime equatorial iono- 
sphere. Typical differences of few to ten 



36 



degrees occur in the aspect angle, for aspect 
angles near 90 degrees — the value under which 
geomagnetic-field-aligned ionization, if 
present, would give rise to maximum 
backscatter of HF waves and thus cause clutter 
in Over-the-Horizon radars. (Author) 



AD-766 472/5CP PC A07/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge 
Generation and Propagation of Infrasonic 
Waves 

Final rept. 1 Feb 70-31 Jan 73 
Allan D. Pierce, Charles A. Moo, and Joe W. 
Posey. 30 Apr 73, 1 31 p AFCRL-TR-73-01 35 
Contract F19628-70-C-0008 

Descriptors: *Microbarometric waves, At- 
mosphere models, Sources, Nuclear explo- 
sions, Storms, Wave transmission. Mathemati- 
cal models, Programming(Computers). 
Identifiers: Gravity waves, Acoustic gravity 
waves, INFRASONIC WAVEFORMS computer 
program, AF. 

A review is given of theoretical studies on in- 
frasound generation and propagation through 
the atmosphere which were carried out under 
the contract. These studies include (1) further 
development and application of a computer 
program for the prediction of pressure signa- 
tures at large distances from nuclear explo- 
sions, (2) development of an alternative approx- 
imate model for waveform synthesis based on 
Lamb's edge mode, (3) development of a 
geometrical acoustics' theory incorporating 
nonlinear effects, dispersion, and wave distor- 
tion at caustics, and (4) a theoretical model for 
the prediction of acoustic gravity wave genera- 
tion by rising and oscillating fireballs. Numeri- 
cal studies are reviewed which indicate the de- 
pendence of far field waveforms on energy yield 
and burst height. Implications of the Lamb edge 
mode theory include a new method for estimat- 
ing energy yield from waveforms and an ex- 
planation of amplitude anomalies in terms of 
focusing or defocusing of horizontal ray paths. 
(Author) 



AD-766 525/OCP Reprint 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

Formulation of Diurnal D-Region Models 

Using a Photochemical Computer Code and 

Current Reaction Rates 

T. J. Keneshea, and W. Swider. 25 Apr 72, 8p 

Rept no. AFCRL-TR-73-0525 

Availability: Pub. in Jnl. of Atmospheric and 

Terrestrial Physics, v34 p1-7 1972. 

Descriptors: "Ionosphere, 'Photochemistry, 
Ionospheric disturbances, Polar regions, Ions, 
Chemical reactions. 

Identifiers: D region, Polar cap absorption, At- 
mospheric composition, AF. 

Application of the photochemical computer 
code, developed by Keneshea, to the D-region 
is considered. Only the use of high speed com- 
puters can provide the required analysis under 
such transient conditions as twilight. Even for 
equilibrium conditions, the performance of the 
calculation by a computer is necessary for a 
complete description of the D-region since a 
very large number of processes is involved. The 
photochemical code presently includes 195 
reactions for the 40 species considered. Certain 
constituents like NO, also O and 03 at the 
higher altitudes, must be inserted as constants 
since transport processes are required for the 
proper description of their atmospheric 
profiles. The results obtained from application 
of the code to the D-region during a PCA event 
are presented. The problem of the quiet D-re- 
gion is briefly discussed. (Author) 



AD-766 929/4CP PC A09/MF A01 

Weather Squadron (12th) Ent AFB Colo 



Map Typing Computer Programs 

Hal W. Wold. Jun 73, 180p Rept no. Technical- 
Paper-73-6 

Descriptors: "Meteorological charts, Mapping, 
"Weather forecasting, Catalogs, 

"Prog ram ming(Computers), Instruction 

manuals, Computer programs, Barometric 
pressure. 

Identifiers: Synoptic meteorology, Pro- 
gramming manuals, IBM 7090 computers, IBM 
360/40 computers, Honeywell 6050 computers, 
Honeywell 6070 computers, Computer aided 
mapping, FORTRAN, AF. 

The paper describes the computer techniques 
and lists the computer programs used in the 
preparation of map type catalogs. Flow charts 
are also included. (Author) 



AD-767 934/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 

(Navy) Monterey Calif 

Oceanic Fog, a Numerical Study 

Final rept. 

Edward H. Barker. Sep 73, 73p Rept no. 

ENVPREDRSCHFAC-tech paper-6-73 

Descriptors: "Fog, Marine meteorology, 
Weather forecasting, Mathematical models, 
Wind, Water vapor, Infrared radiation, At- 
mospheric temperature. Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Planetary boundary layer, Fog 
dispersal, Cloud physics, N. 

A numerical model was developed for the simu- 
lation of fog and stratus in the marine planetary 
boundary layer. Physical processes described 
by the model are eddy diffusion, horizontal ad- 
vection, fog droplet settling, infrared radiation 
and change of thermodynamic state of moist 
air. Results of the computations show the rela- 
tive importance of the processes considered in 
the development of stratiform clouds in the 
planetary boundary layer. Among the most im- 
portant factors governing the extent of fog are 
the magnitudes of horizontal advection of heat 
and infrared radiation by cloud and water 
vapor. Comparisons of the computational 
results with existing observations show that the 
formation process has been adequately 
described. Additionally, it was shown that oc- 
currence of fog over the ocean could result in 
air temperature colder than that of the sea sur- 
face, caused by radiation heat loss from the 
cloud top. Results indicate that a practical fog 
forecast model is feasible with certain refine- 
ments, such as inclusion of the effects of haze 
on the infrared radiation balance, inversion 
strength on the growth of the mixing layer 
depth, and insolation. (Author) 



AD-769 739/4CP PC E01/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command Fort Monmouth N 

J 

Algorithms for Generating a Skew-T, log p 

Diagram and Computing Selected 

Meteorological Quantities 

G. S. Stipanuk. Oct 73, 40p Rept no. ECOM- 

5515 

Descriptors: "Meteorological data, Computa- 
tions, Atmospheric temperature, Barometric 
pressure, Computer programs, Tables(Data), 
FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: A. 

The paper discusses numerical methods of 
computing meteorological quantities which are 
usually manually derived from analysis on a 
SKEW-T log p DIAGRAM. The numerical 
methods used were selected for their simplicity 
and accuracy. A mathematical characterization 
of the SKEW-T and algorithms for computing 
several meteorological quantities are 
presented. (Author) 



AD-770 053/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

General Electric Co Santa Barbara Calif Tempo 
WEPH V Code Modifications for HF Propaga- 
tion and System Performance Modeling 

Topical rept. 

Royden R. Rutherford. 190ct73, 115p 
GE73TMP-20, DNA-3153T 
Contract DNA001-72-C-0180 

Descriptors: "Ionospheric propagation. High 
frequency, "Ionospheric disturbances, "Nuclear 
explosions, Electron density, Computer pro- 
gramming, Nuclear fireball, Ray tracing, Radio 
waves, Signal processing, Ionizing radiation, 
Communication and radio systems, Computa- 
tions. 

Identifiers: WEPH V computer code, D region, F 
region, SD. 

The report describes modifications to the 
WEPH V code that permit the use of the code 
for evaluation of HF propagation and system 
performance in nuclear-disturbed environ- 
ments. The propagation and system models are 
an extension of those presented in the DNA HF 
Communication Handbook (DASA 1955-1 and- 
2). The principal degradation effect modeled is 
D-region absorption. While changes in sky- 
wave geometry due to the disturbed environ- 
ment are not determined, modifications to F-re- 
gion critical frequencies at selected points are 
evaluated from approximate models. The 
modified WEPH V code is intended for use in 
rapid evaluation of the effects of propagation, 
system, and environment parameters on system 
performance, and to identify situations where 
analysis with detailed ray tracing codes such as 
the NUCOM code (DASA 2035) is required. 
(Author) 



AD-770 207/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

Ocean Data Systems Inc Rockville Md 
Extending the Computerized 

Typhoon/Tropical Storm Prediction Program 
(Tyfoon 72) Toward Seven Days 

Final rept. 

4 Sep 73, 105p ENVPREDRSCHFAC-Tech 

paper-1-73 

Contract N66314-72-C-1750 

Descriptors: "Typhoons, "Tropical cyclones, 
"Weather forecasting, Computer programming, 
Atmospheric circulation, Climate. 
Identifiers: TYFOON computer program, 
TYFOON 72 computer program, CDC 3100 
computers. Storm tracks, N. 

The objective of the research was to develop 
methods for improved prediction of the move- 
ment of tropical cyclones in the 3-7 day time 
scale; the improved system was to be based on 
the existing TYFOON and/or TYFOON 72 auto- 
mated programs for producing predictions out 
to 3 days. The work was divided into 3 tasks: A 
survey of the 2 existing prediction models and 
the updating and extending of the analog 
historical file used by these programs in 
producing their predictions; to determine the 
value of large-scale patterns in the prediction of 
typhoon formation and in subsequent track 
prediction; to refine the typhoon analog predic- 
tive techniques (Modified author abstract) 



AD-771 038/7CP PC A05/MF A01 

Army Electronics Command Fort Monmouth N 

J 

Fog Clearing Using Helicopter Downdrafts: A 

Numerical Model 

Research and development technical rept. 

Walters. Nordquist, Jr. Dec 73, 79p Rept no. 

ECOM-5527 

Descriptors: "Fog, "Weather modification. 
Helicopters, Downwash, Mathematical models, 
Dissipation, Heat, Meteorological parameters. 
Feasibility studies, Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 

Identifiers: "Fog dispersal, Helicopter 
downwash, A. 



37 



A one-dimensional parameterized numerical 
model is presented which depicts the physical 
conditions attendant with the use of helicopter 
downdrafts for the creation of temporary 
clearings in fog. The results generated by the 
numerical model are compared to the data 
available from helicopter downdraft experi- 
ments. An example is given of the application of 
the model for investigation of the utility of the 
helicopter downdraft fog clearing technique for 
a particular set of meteorological conditions. 
(Author) 



AD-772 490/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

Systems Science and Software La Jolla Calif 
The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale 
Interactions on Global Climate 

Semiannual technical rept. 17 Apr-15 Oct 73. 

7 Jan 74, 86p Rept no. SSS-R-74-2023 

Contract DAHC04-73-C-0003, DARPA Order- 

1752 

See also report dated 1 5 Jun 73, AD-762 584. 

Descriptors: "Climate, 'Atmospheric motion, 
Mathematical models. Atmospheric circulation, 
Atmosphere models, Mountains, Wind, Com- 
puter programming, Turbulence. 
Identifiers: Global climatology, Atmospheric 
radiation, STUFF 3 computer code, HAIFA com- 
puter code, SD. 

The report discusses the reorganization and 
reading of a 3-D, linear, steady-state computer 
code based on the Bretherton formulation. A 
discussion of the numerical method is included 
and results of a study of the Sierra Nevada- 
Owen's Valley region in north-central California 
is presented. Modification of the Bousinesq 
hydro-code STUFF used in atmospheric 
research of turbulence is also presented. 



AD-772 640/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates Inc Fort Worth 

Tex 

Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation 

Final rept. 29 Jan-31 Jul 73 

Wolfram G. Blaettner, and Michael B. Wells. 31 

Aug 73, 85p RRA-T731 1 , AFCRL-TR-73-0613 

Contract F19628-73-C-0130 

See also AD-757 494. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheres, 'Light scattering, 
'Sunlight, Monte Carlo method. Computer pro- 
gramming. Atmosphere models, Aerosols, 
Clouds, Dust, Daylight, Twilight, Polarization, 
Turbidity. 

Identifiers: FLASH computer program, BRITE 
computer program, Atmospheric scattering, 
AF. 

The report describes the work involved in mak- 
ing modifications to the FLASH and BRITE 
Monte Carlo procedures and using these pro- 
grams to evaluate (1) the effects of neglecting 
polarization on the scattered light intensities in 
molecular and turbid atmospheres; (2) the error 
involved in using plane-parallel atmospheres to 
represent spherical atmospheres for large 
zenith angles of incidence; and (3) the effect of 
dust layers at different altitudes on the color 
ratios computed for twilight conditions. 
(Modified author abstract) 



AD-772 717/5CP PC A15/MF A01 

Aerospace Corp El Segundo Calif Lab Opera- 
tions 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System 
Orbital Accelerometer Experiment. Volume I. 
Experiment Description and Methodology 
Rept. for Jun 66-Jun 70 
J. A. Pearson, R W. Bruce, Y. T. Chiu, W. A. 
Feess, and E. G. Fotou. 1 Jul 73, 344p TR- 
0074(4260-10)-1-Vol-1,SAMSO-TR-73-355-Vol- 
1 

Contract F04701-73-C-0074 
See also Volume 2, AD-772 718. 



Descriptors: 'Scientific satellites, 

'Accelerometers, 'Atmospheric density, 'Upper 
atmosphere, Calibration, Acceleration, 

Aerodynamic drag, Data acquisition, Computer 
programs.' 

Identifiers: LOGACS(Low G Accelerometer 
Calibration System), Low g accelerometer 
calibration system, MESA(Miniature Electro- 
static Accelerometers), Miniature electrostatic 
accelerometers, AF. 

The LOGACS (Low-G Accelerometer Calibra- 
tion System) experiment, which contained a 
miniature electrostatic accelerometer (Mesa), 
was placed in a low-altitude polar orbit on 22 
May 1967. The experiment provided approxi- 
mately 100 hours of acceleration data from 
which the accelerometer scale factor, ac- 
celerometer null bias, and atmospheric drag on 
the satellite were calculated. The mission 
description, the characteristics of the ac- 
celerometer, the instrumentation used in the 
experiment, and a summary of the results of the 
inflight accelerometer calibration are presented 
in this volume. The accelerometer's sensing en- 
vironment is discussed, as are the data reduc- 
tion methods used to extract the scale factor 
and bias of the accelerometer and the methods 
of determining the acceleration due to 
aerodynamic drag. (Author) 



AD-772 733/2CP PC A10/MF A01 

Atlantic Science Corp Indialantic Fla 
Documentation and Description of the Bent 
Ionospheric Model 

Final rept. 

Sigrid K. Llewellyn, and Rodney B. Bent. Jul 73, 

208p SAMSO-TR-73-252 

Contract F04701-73-C-0207 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Atmosphere models, 
'Computer programs, FORTRAN, Electron den- 
sity, Radio transmission, Atmospheric refrac- 
tion. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, ION computer program, TABGEN com- 
puter program, ION 1 computer program, AF. 

The report documents the computer programs 
of the Bent Ionospheric Model and briefly 
describes the development of the model. The 
FORTRAN Program is designed for general use 
and can generate ionospheric data on a world- 
wide basis for any past or future date. For a 
given condition consisting of station, satellite 
and time information, the electron density ver- 
sus height profile is computed from which 
range, range rate, and angular refraction cor- 
rections as well as vertical and angular total 
electron content are obtained. The model has 
the additional capability of improving its pre- 
dictions by updating with actual ionospheric 
observations. Considerable tests in the past 
have proved this empirical model highly suc- 
cessful. Also included in the documentation is 
an alternate version of the ionospheric program 
to be used when stringent space and time 
requirements are imposed by the operating 
system. However, several options of the stan- 
dard program are not incorporated and the ac- 
curacy of the results is somewhat reduced. 
(Author) 



AD-772 828/OCP PC E03/MF A01 

Stevens Inst of Tech Hoboken N J 
Analytic Solution of Coupled Mode Equations 
by Computer 

Final technical rept. 20 Dec 71-31 Mar 73 
Bernard Rosen. 7 Dec 73, 55p 
Grant DA-ARO-D-31-124-72-G73 

Descriptors: 'Climate, "Weather forecasting, 
'Solar activity. Differential equations. Computer 
programming, Numerical integration, Com- 
puter programs, Modification, Instability. 
Identifiers: A. 



The author uses automated symbolic manipula- 
tion to generate approximate solutions to the 
prognostic equations of meteorology. These 
equations are treated in the form that would 
arise by means of modal analysis and trunca- 
tion. Consequently the equations take the form 
of coupled non-linear first-order ordinary dif- 
ferential equations; the number of such equa- 
tions may be very large if many modes are in- 
cluded in the analysis. The work was performed 
in conjunction with an extensive program to in- 
vestigate climate prediction and modification. 
Also of interest is the long term behavior of the 
atmosphere under the influence of the driving 
'force' of the sun. 



AD-773 046/8CP PC A19/MF A01 

Oklahoma State Univ Stillwater School of Elec- 
trical Engineering 

A Center for the Description of Environmental 
Conditions. Weather Phenomena 
Final rept. 

William L. Hughes, Paul A. McCollum, Edward 
L. Shreve, and Emmett J. Pybus. Sep 73, 428p 
OSU-WP-73-F-14, ECOM-0083-14 
Contract DAAB07-68-C-0083 
See Annual prog ress rept. no. 4, AD-739 544. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospherics, 'Thunderstorms, 
'Data processing. Data acquisition, Data reduc- 
tion. Pattern recognition, Spectrum signatures, 
Weather forecasting. Meteorological instru- 
ments, Very low frequency, Clouds, Magnetic 
detectors, Atmospheric electricity, Computer 
programs, Clear air turbulence, Tornadoes, 
Weather modification. 
Identifiers: Them is project, A. 

A summary of results is made in this Final Re- 
port. Five major categories of information 
about severe storm sferics and severe storm 
characterizations are presented: (1) Statistical 
Descriptions of Lightning as a VLF Source; (2) 
Model Studies of Cloud and Sferic Behavior; (3) 
Hardward Developments; (4) Software Develop- 
ments; and (5) Results of a Cumulus Cloud 
Magnetic Field Survey. It is concluded that VLF 
sferics has no intrinsic predictive content. How- 
ever, sferic behavior is closely correlated with 
cloud development and vigor and thus has very 
high indicative content. A method for examin- 
ing the electric current motions within a cumu- 
lus cloud by sensing the resulting magnetic 
field is shown to be feasible. (Author) 



AD-773 913/9CP PC E01/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
An Analytic Boundary for the MHD Magnetic 
Field Equation 

Topical rept. 

W. W. White. 29 Nov 73, 27 MRC-R-92, DNA- 

3232T 

Contract DNA001-73-C-0138 

Descriptors: 'Magnetohydrodynamics, 

'Nuclear explosions, 'Ionospheric 

disturbances, Partial differential equations. Ion 
density, Geomagnetism, Approximation, Com- 
puter applications. 
Identifiers: MICE computer code, SD. 

A magnetic field boundary condition for use 
with high altitude phenomenology codes has 
been developed. The solution of a boundary 
value problem in the region external to the MHD 
grid provides a current-free analytical approxi- 
mation for the magnetic field outside the grid 
The applicability of ihe current-free field as a 
boundary condition rests on the assumption 
that electrical currents of significance are con- 
tained within the MHD grid. Magnetic field data 
for a high altitude nuclear burst as computed by 
the MICE MHD code are presented. (Author) 



AD-774 043/4CP PC A11/MF A01 

Franklin Pierce Coll Rindge N H Dept of 
Research 



38 



Solar Cycle Variations of Geomagnetically 
Trapped Radiation 

Final rept. 20 Nov 68-30 Jun 73 

Ernest C. Holeman. 31 Jul 73, 248p AFCRL-TR- 

73-0481 

Contract F19628-69-C-0139 

Descriptors: 'Van Allen radiation belt, 'Protons, 
Solar cycle. Solar cosmic rays, Particle flux, 
Periodic variations, Computer programs, 
Scientific satellites. 
Identifiers: S72-1 satellite, AF. 

Observations of energetic geomagnetically 
trapped protons at low altitudes were made 
during the period December 1968 through May 
1973 in order to study the solar cycle variations 
of geomagnetically trapped proton radiation for 
the eleven year solar cycle dating from 
November 1961. These observations consist of 
a series of flux measurements of 55 Mev 
protons made on nuclear emulsion radiation 
detectors flown on recoverable Air Force satel- 
lites, flux measurements of 115 Mev protons 
made on a sample selected from these, and 
preliminary flux measurements of six to 35 Mev 
protons from the AFCRL particle identifier on 
Air Force satellite S72-1. These observations 
form the basis for a series of trapped proton 
radiation models with variable parameters 
which are capable of predicting angular dis- 
tributions, differential fluxes, integral fluxes, 
and omnidirectional fluxes as a function of spa- 
cial geometry and time. (Author) 



AD-774 524/3CP PC A07/MF A01 

Allied Research Associates Inc Baltimore Md 
Development of Digital Enhancement 
Techniques Applicable to Direct Read-Out 
(APT) Meteorological Satellite Images 
Final rept. Mar 72-Jul 73 

Man Tamches, and Nathaniel J. Belknap. Sep 73, 
128pARA-101F, EPRF-TR-3-73(ARA) 
Contract N62306-72-C-0103 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological satellites, 

'Meteorological data, 'Images, 'Data 
processing, Signal processing. Digital filters, 
Fourier transformation, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Fast Fourier transform. Image 
processing, IBM 1130 computers, CDC 3100 
computers, N. 

Digital enhancement techniques applicable to 
Direct Readout (APT) Meteorological satellite 
images were developed, and computer routines 
designed and tested. Areas covered include 
melding of geographic grids with digital 
images; display of image arrays at mercator and 
polar stereographic projections: Fast Fourier 
Transform subroutine; digital filters for low 
frequency reduction, high frequency spatial 
enhancement, single frequency, and edge 
search and sharpen; and gray scale histograms. 
(Author) 



AD-774 751/2CP PC E04/MF A01 

Visidyne Inc Burlington Mass 
Modeling of Optical IR Backgrounds 

Annual rept. no. 1 

Oscar P. Man ley, Henry J. P. Smith, Yvain M. 

Treve, Thomas C. Degges, and Jack W. 

Carpenter. 15 Nov 72, 84p VI-129, AFCRL-72- 

0730 

Contract F19628-71-C-0212 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, 'Upper at- 
mosphere, 'Infrared radiation, 'Nuclear explo- 
sions, Background, Explosion effects, Chemilu- 
minescence, Airglow, Atmospheric chemistry. 
Reaction kinetics, Shock waves, Airburst, Com- 
puter programming. 
Identifiers: OPTIR 3 computer code, AF. 

Status ot studies of numerical methods, analog 
and digital, in support of the OPTIR code are re- 
ported. The possibility of Treanor-type al- 
gorithms with expanded stability regions is 



established. Laumbach and Probstein treat- 
ment of strong shocks in the exponential at- 
mosphere is extended to the more general case 
of an atmospheric density with an arbitrary ver- 
tical profile. (Author) 



AD-774 760/3CP PC A15/MF A01 

California Univ Los Angeles Dept of Meteorolo- 
gy 

Morphology and Dynamics of Ionospheric 
Storms 

Scientific rept. (Final) 1 Jan 71-31 Jan 73 
S. V. Venkateswaran. 7 Sep 73, 346p AFCRL- 
TR-73-0610 
Contract F1 9628-71 -C-0075 

Descriptors: 'Ionosphere, 'Computerized simu- 
lation, Mathematical models, Computer pro- 
grams, Ionospheric disturbances, Magnetic 
storms. Atmospheric motion, Electrostatic 
fields. 
Identifiers: Equatorial electrojet, AF. 

The document consists of five scientific re- 
ports. In the first report, computer programs are 
described which simulate ionospheric currents 
responsible for quiet-day ground magnetic 
variations at middle and equatorial geomag- 
netic latitudes. The program enables us to 
deduce the large-scale electrostatic fields 
generated by dynamo actions in the iono- 
sphere. The second report describes a com- 
puter program for mapping of the ground mag- 
netic potential pattern on any given day, either 
quiet or disturbed. The other reports are 
reprints of articles which have been either fully 
or partially supported by this contract. (Author) 



AD-775 027/6CP PC E05/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

An Experiment to Measure Laser Beam 

Wander and Beam Spread in the Marine 

Boundary Layer Near Shore 

Master's thesis 

David Albert Beall. Dec 73, 94p 

Descriptors: 'Laser beams, 'Marine at- 
mospheres, Turbulent boundary layer, At- 
mospheric disturbances, Light transmission, 
Variations, Analog to digital converters, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Theses. 
Identifiers: Monterey Bay, Helium neon lasers, 
N. 

A system to measure laser beam wander and 
beam spread in the atmosphere over the ocean 
has been designed, constructed, and tested. 
The apparatus employed a high resolution 
scanning telescope with a potential for use in a 
broad range of visual and infra-red 
wavelengths, and with the ability to measure 
beam wander and beam spread variations on 
the order of a few microradians in angle of in- 
cidence. Three successful trials with a propaga- 
tion path over the southern end of Monterey 
Bay were conducted. Data was processed using 
analog and digital computers. RMS values of 
beam wander from 4.6 to 30.2 microradians 
were observed. (Author) 



AD-775 076/3CP PC E08/MF A01 

Northeastern Univ Boston Mass 
Certain Finite Difference Methods for the 
Solution of Large Scale Circulation Problem II 

Final rept. 1 Dec 71-30 Jun 73 

Robert D. Klein, Jack C. Mettauer, Vito P. 

Maglione, and Stanley L. Spiegel. 8 Nov 73, 

238p AFCRL-TR-73-0640 

Contract F19628-72-C-0009 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 

'Equations of motion, 'Finite difference theory, 

Numerical integration, Computer programs, 

FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: CDC 6600 computers, AF. 



A program description for a large scale multi- 
level general circulation model of the at- 
mosphere is presented. Several time integra- 
tion scheme algorithms are discussed, and a 
linear stability analysis of finite difference ap- 
proximation to a meteorological equation of 
motion is given. In addition, experiments in- 
volving the numerical solution of the non-diver- 
gent barotropic general circulation problem, 
using overlapping grid systems, are described 
and evaluated. Problems involving the numeri- 
cal solution, via relaxation, of Poisson's equa- 
tion on the sphere, and the evaluation of finite 
difference derivations of interpolated quantities 
are discussed. (Author) 



AD-775 080/5CP PC E03/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 
scom Field Mass 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady- 
State Composition Models of the Upper At- 
mosphere 

Air Force surveys in geophysics 
J. M. Forbes, and A. S. Bramson. 9 Oct 73, 36p 
Rept nos. AFCRL-73-0635, AFCRL-AFSIG-276 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Atmosphere 
models, 'Computer programs, Composi- 
tion(Property), Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Heli- 
um, Hydrogen, Dissociation, Steady state, FOR- 
TRAN. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric composition, AF. 

The report describes a method for computing 
steady-state composition models of the earth's 
thermosphere, including a FORTRAN program 
and usage guide. It originated in connection 
with work being performed for the Committee 
on the Extension of the U.S. Standard At- 
mosphere (COESA). The program computes 
profiles from 120 to 500 km of N2, 02, O, Ar, He, 
H, and H2, including the effects of vertical flow 
of the minor escaping species (He and H), and 
the production of H by chemical dissociation of 
H2 in the lower thermosphere. (Author) 



AD-775 361/9CP PC E01/MF A01 

Weather Squadron (12th) Ent AFB Colo 
Comparing Correlations between Weather 
Maps with Similar Isobaric Configurations but 
Varying Pressure Intensities 
Peter R. Scholef ield. Jul 73, 20p Rept no. 
Technical Paper-73-8 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological charts, Weather 
forecasting, Correlation techniques, Baromet- 
ric pressure. Flow fields, Computer programs, 
FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, Comparison, AF. 

In all 4th Weather Wing and 12th Weather 
Squadron map typing studies one mathemati- 
cal formula has been used exclusively as the 
basis for determining the similarity between 
weather map patterns. This paper illustrates 
how this linear correlation coefficient formula 
behaves when it is used to correlate surface 
weather map patterns that are similarily con- 
figured but differ in respect to their direction of 
flow patterns, their pressure gradients and their 
pressure magnitude. Ten pictorial surface 
weather maps are used as examples in the com- 
puter correlation procedure and the results 
clarify the relationship between similar map 
types, their pressure gradients and their degree 
of correlation with each other. (Author) 



AD-775 392/4CP PC A07/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge Opera- 
tions Research Center 

Optimal Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 
at Power Stations: Models and a Case Study 
Technical rept. 

Nitin R. Patel. Sep 73. 127p TR-82, AROD- 
9239. 10-M 
Contract DAHC04-73-C-0032 



39 



Descriptors' 'Sulfur oxides, "Meteorological 
phenomena, Linear programming, Mathemati- 
cal models. Combustion products. Dynamic 
response, Stochastic processes, Electric power 
plants, Costs, Computer programs, FORTRAN, 
Theses. 

Identifiers: *Air pollution control, Fossil fuels, 
Boston(Massachusetts), Sulfur dioxide, A. 

The principal concern of this thesis is to 
analyze emission control strategies which de- 
pend upon meteorological conditions. A me- 
terological model is developed to relate source 
emissions with average concentration of a pol- 
lutant in a region under different meteorologi- 
cal conditions. The problem of determining op- 
timal dynamic controls for S02 emissions at 
fossil-fueled power stations is treated by con- 
structing a linear programming model. This 
model is extended to encompass seasonal con- 
trol of sources which are not amenable to more 
frequent controls. Another extension is con- 
structed to analyze the effects of errors in 
meteorological forecasts. The various models 
are applied to the Metropolitan Boston Air Pol- 
lution Control District. The impact of dynamic 
emission controls on new site selection for fos- 
sil-fueled power stations is examined. A 
stochastic linear programming formulation is 
developed and an algorithm is designed to 
solve the stochastic linear programming 
problem. (Modified author abstract) 



AD-775 752/9CP PC E06/MF A01 

Utah State Univ Logan Center for Research in 
Aeronomy 

Developmental Studies of the Hydrogen- 
Nitrogen-Oxygen Systems 
Final rept. 1 May 70-30 sep 73 
William M. Moore, and Thomas K. Eccles. 31 
Jan 74, 135p AFCRL-TR-73-0749 
Contract F19628-70-C-0221 

Descriptors: 'Computerized simulation, 

'Aeronomy, 'Atmospheric chemistry, Meso- 
sphere, Solar radiation, Metastable state, 
Chemical reactions, Photochemical reactions, 
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Thermosphere, Upper at- 
mosphere, Stratosphere, Reaction kinetics, 
Computer programs, Variations, Diurnal varia- 
tions. Hydrogen. 
Identifiers: AF. 

a computer model has been developed which 
can predict the chemistry and photochemistry 
of the atmosphere in the regions of the upper 
stratosphere, mesophere, and lower thermo- 
sphere. The solar flux is calculated as a func- 
tion of the sun's position with respect to any al- 
titude above any coordinate point in the 
northern hemisphere. This means that the time 
dependent chemistry of the twilight periods can 
be treated in detail, the temperature altitude 
profiles are matched for seasonal and latitu- 
dinal changes, the chemical reaction set can be 
quickly changed, and laboratory problems can 
be treated by turning off the solar flux routines, 
the numerical integration method is new, rapid, 
and inherently conserves mass. A stiff equation 
technique is used to increase the time incre- 
ment during steady-state conditions The cur- 
rent model can be used to predict events that 
can be correlated with rocket observations, or 
other atmospheric measurements. (Modified 
author abstract) 



AD-776 306/3CP PC E04/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

Examination of Shipboard Measurements of 

the Vertical Profiles of Mean Temperature, 

Humidity and Wind Speed 

Master's thesis 

Michael Patrick Cavanaugh Mar 74, 69p 

Descriptors: 'Marine atmospheres, 'Turbulent 
boundary layer, Air water interactions, At- 
mospheric temperature, Momentum transfer, 
Heat transfer. Wind velocity, Theses, Computer 
programs. 



Identifiers: N. 

The suitability of shipboard profile measure- 
ments of mean temperature, mean humidity 
and mean wind over the open ocean is ex- 
amined on the basis of six hours and 20 
minutes of simultaneous profile measurements 
made from the R/V Acania on 20-21 September 
1973 near San Nicolas Island, California. Com- 
parisons of the profiles obtained from the ship- 
board measurements, as well as the 
meteorological parameters derived from those 
profiles are made with results obtained from 
more stable platforms. Parameters examined 
include the Richardson number, the friction 
velocity, the drag coefficient and the roughness 
length. The results indicate that a ship can be a 
suitable platform for measuring profiles. 
(Modified author abstract) 



AD-776 321/2CP PC E05/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
Initialization of a 5-Level Global Atmospheric 
General Circulation Model Using a Staggered, 
Spherical, Sigma Coordinate System 
Master's thesis 
James Michael McCollough. Mar 74, 95p 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, Mathe- 
matical models, Wind, Barometric pressure. 
Partial differential equations, Weather forecast- 
ing, Theses, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, 
Primitive equations, N. 

Initialization of a five-level global baroclinic 
primitive equation model was examined using 
real data. Experiments were conducted using a 
Robert (1965) time frequency filter, Euler 
backward time integration, and an iterative ini- 
tialization scheme to determine the effect of 
each on the generation of inertial-gravity waves 
resulting from an improper balance between in- 
itial mass and wind fields. In addition, a global 
sigma-surface linear balance equation solution 
was examined for the purpose of determining 
initial winds. Although all forecast fields were 
meteorological, certain undesirable features 
were generated in the polar and equatorial re- 
gions. (Author) 



AD-776 390/7CP PC A03/MF A01 

Nevada Univ Reno Lab of Atmospheric Physics 
An Experimental Study of the Freezing of 
Drops in Free Fall 

Final rept. 5 Jun 70-4 Sep 73 

Thomas E. Hoffer, and Marc L. Pitchford. Jan 

74, 50p AROD-9095.1-EN 

Grant DA-ARO-D-31-124-70-G81 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 'Water, 
'Drops, Free fall, Nucleation, Ice, Freezing, 
Lead compounds, Iodides, Particle size, Com- 
puter programs. 
Identifiers: Phloroglucinol, A. 

One process to explain natural ice pellets in the 
atmosphere is the heterogeneous freezing of 
large cloud drops. These experiments show 
that this process is of little importance. Drops of 
about 180 micrometer diameter which fell 
through high concentrations of aerosol 
nucleating particles showed consistantly very 
low percentages of freezes. From the informa- 
tion gathered a temperature threshold for lead 
iodide and phloroglucionol of -10C. and -6C 
respectively was determined. Also a depen- 
dence on the relative humidity of the air in the 
vicinity of particle collection was observed. This 
gave rise to relative humidity thresholds of 65% 
for lead iodide and 75% for phloroglucionol. 
The nucleating ability of airborne ice crystals 
was experimentally tested and found to be 
much lower than expected. This difference is 
attributed to a collection efficiency for drops 
collecting non-spherical ice crystals, which is 
much lower than a calculated collection assum- 
ing the ice to be spherical. (Author) 



AD-776 950/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

Ballistic Research Labs Aberdeen Proving 
Ground Md 

Survey of Two-Body and Three-Body Reac- 
tion-Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Strato- 
sphere and Mesosphere 
Franklin E. Niles. Mar 74, 107p Rept no. BRL- 
1702 

Descriptors: 'Stratosphere, 'Mesosphere, 
'Aeronomy, Upper atmosphere. Cations, 
Anions, Gas ionization, Excitation, Reaction 
kinetics, Atmospheric chemistry, Ionosphere, 
Electron capture. Dissociation, Electrons, Com- 
puter programming. 

Identifiers: 'Reaction rates, Ion molecule in- 
teractions, Ion ion interactions, D region, 
AIRCHEM computer code, A. 

Rate coefficients for two-body and three-body 
reactions applicable to the ionized stratosphere 
and mesosphere have been surveyed. The reac- 
tions are divided into five classes, viz., (1) posi- 
tive-ion reactions, (2) electron reactions, (3) 
negative-ion reactions, (4) ion-ion reactions, 
and (5) neutral reactions. Reactions and their 
measured rate coefficients are given in tables 
and the values selected for inclusion in the 
AIRCHEM atmospheric deionization computer 
code are identified. The current status of 
knowledge regarding these reactions is sum- 
marized. (Author) 



AD-776 971/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

Texas Univ El Paso Dept of Electrical Engineer- 
ing 

Atmospheric Modeling for Molecular Absorp- 
tion Research Project 
Final rept. 

Joseph H. Pierluissi. 31 Jan 74, 65p Rept no. 
PR2-74-AM-5 
Contract DAAD07-73-C-0127 

Descriptors: 'Atmosphere models, 

'Transmittance, 'Infrared spectra, Computer 
programs. Absorption spectra, Computerized 
simulation, Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, FOR- 
TRAN, Surface targets. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric attenuation, Remote 
sensing, A. 

The project developed a number of 
phenomenological and physical variations of 
the five-parameter band model for molecular 
transmittance in the infrared using data from 
line-by-line calculations in the 15 micron - C02 
band. Conversion from a standard in- 
homogeneous atmosphere to a homogeneous 
medium is obtained with the use of modified 
Curtis-Godson relations and calculated line in- 
tensities averaged over 5/cm. Comparisons are 
made between the calculated and original data 
indicating that band modeling yields accura- 
cies comparable to the degree of validity of the 
original transmittance provided that the 
number and nature of the band parameters are 
allowed spectral dependence. (Modified author 
abstract) 



AD-777 135/5CP PC A05/MF A01 

Epsilon Labslnc Bedford Mass 
Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle 
Counter Measurements 

Final rept. 2 Feb-30 Nov 73 

Henry A. Miranda, J r, John Dulchinos, and 

Henry P. Miranda. Nov 73, 77p FR-2001-73, 

AFCRL-TR-73-0700 

Contract F19628-73-C-0138 

Descriptors: 'Aerosols, 'Counters, 

'Stratosphere, 'Troposphere, Balloon equip- 
ment, Samplers, Particle size. Distribution, 
Computer programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Particle size distribution, FORTRAN 
4 programming language, IBM 370/155 compu- 
ters, PLOT01 computer program, PULSE 2 
computer program, DATRUN computer pro- 
gram, CORRE 3 computer program, RATIO 1 
computer program, AF. 



40 



A balloon-borne submicron aerosol counter 
developed under previous Air Force contracts 
was successfully flown on three stratospheric 
balloon experiments over Holloman AFB, New 
Mexico in May of 1973. The results indicate that 
particulate matter at higher levels is charac- 
terized by markedly different scattering 
parameters than is the case at lower levels. This 
effect is manifested in the form of exceedingly 
sharp cut-offs in the size distribution at about 
0.4 micrometer diameter, which is only ob- 
served above 23 km. The extent to which this 
sharp cut-off is attributable either to nonspheri- 
cal particles or to index of refraction uncertain- 
ties rather than to the actual size distribution, is 
a matter of conjecture Recommendations for 
equipment modifications tending to eliminate 
these ambiguities, are discussed. Also 
described here are the several hardware and 
software modifications incorporated in the 
system under the present contract in prepara- 
tion for these flights. (Author) 



AD-777 406/OCP PC A06/MF A01 

Environmental Prediction Research Facility 

(Navy) Monterey Calif 

A Three-Parameter Model for Limited Area 

Forecasting 

L. Bengtsson. Mar 74, 113p Rept no. 
ENVPREDRSHCHFAC-tech-paper-5-74 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, "Computer 
programs, FORTRAN, Numerical analysis, At- 
mospheric motion, Vortices, Humidity. 
Identifiers: 'Numerical weather forecasting, 
FORTRAN 4 programming language, PROG 3P 
computer program, STEP 3P computer pro- 
gram, STEPEXT computer program, Primitive 
equations. Sensible heat, Latent heat, N. 

The report describes an operational quasi- 
geostrophic three-parameter model. The 
original model was developed by Dr. L. 
Bengtsson and has been used operationally for 
several years at the Swedish Meteorological 
and Hydrological Institute. The improved model 
described in this report incorporates an Ekman 
function and the effect of the flow over moun- 
tains as well as sensible and latent heat 
sources. Humidity and precipitation are also 
predicted by the model. (Modified author ab- 
stract) 



AD-777 971/3CP PC A06/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 
1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in 
the Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 

Master's thesis 

Paul Dennis Shuman, and Dale F. Leipper. Mar 

74, 1 12p Rept no. NPS-58LR74031 

Descriptors: "Hurricanes, 'Ocean surface, 
'Mexico Gulf, 'Air water interactions, Surface 
temperature, Bathythermograph data, Com- 
puter programs, Wind velocity, Seasonal varia- 
tions, Heating, Pacific Ocean, Advection, 
Theses. 
Identifiers 'Philippine Sea, N 

The 1973 summer growth of hurricane heat 
potential (HHP) and its relation to tropical 
cyclones was studied in the Philippine Sea and 
the Gulf of Mexico on a monthly basis. BT infor- 
mation was processed through the Fleet Nu- 
merical Weather Central CDC 6500 computer to 
output maps of HHP, which were hand con- 
toured Inadequate data coverage and 
questionable BT observations resulted in 
monthly maps of varying validity and areal ex- 
tent. HHP values peaked near 35,000 cal/sq cm- 
column in the Gulf of Mexico and 40,000 cal/sq 
cm-column in the Philippine Sea in the months 
of August and September, the months of 
highest tropical storm activity Some evidence 
was found correlating rises in HHP with in- 
creases irT typhoon maximum wind speed 
(Modified author abstract) 



AD-778 820/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Air Force Cambridge Research Labs L G Han- 

scom Field Mass 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting 

Low-Altitude Satellite Ephemerides. Part 1. 

Data Analysis and Model Formulation 

Environmental Research papers 

J. M. Forbes, and D. F. Gillette. 1 Feb 74, 58p 

Rept nos. AFCRL-TR-0062, AFCRL-ERP-464 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Atmospheric 
density, 'Atmosphere models, Satel- 
lites(Artificial), Ephemerides, Predictions, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Orbits, Regression 
analysis. 

An empirical density model based on drag 
analyses of 25 low-perigee satellites is 
developed for use in predicting low-altitude 
satellite ephemerides. A stepwise multiple 
regression analysis is performed with density at 
145 km as the dependent variable, and a 
number of independent variables chosen to 
represent variations with solar cycle, geomag- 
netic activity, geomagnetic latitude, season, 
day of the year, and time of day. Densities 
between 120 and 500 km are determined from 
the hydrostatic law in a simple (but physically 
realistic) analytic form. Comparison of our 
model with the 1971 Jacchia model shows them 
both to give very similar variations, differing 
mostly with respect to solar activity and 
geomagnetic latitude. The main virtue of our 
model is that it is represented in an extremely 
simple analytic form, and therefore ideally 
suited for implementation in an operational 
system. (Author) 



AD-778 873/OCP PC E06/MF A01 

Air Force Inst of Tech Wright-Patterson AFB 
Ohio School of Engineering 
A Semi-Markov Weather Model 

Master's thesis 

Kenneth O. Merrill. Mar 74, 126p Rept no. 

GSA/SM/74-8 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 

'Atmosphere models, Stochastic processes. 
Mathematical models. Winter, Ceiling, Visibility, 
Long range(Time), Short range(Time), Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'SemiMarkov processes, Maximum 
likelihood estimation, FORTRAN 4 pro- 
gramming language. 

The study traces the development of a weather 
model based on a real transition Semi-Markov 
process. The data consisted of eighteen years 
of taped hourly weather observations from Bit- 
burg Air Base, Germany. Maximum likelihood 
estimators were used to construct the basic 
parameters of the model from the taped data. 
The results consist of weather models for each 
season. The model for the winter season was 
used to develop both short and long-term 
weather statistics. The results confirmed that 
the Semi-Markov process may be used to 
develop a weather model that requires few as- 
sumptions, is small in size, independent of geo- 
graphic location, and is distribution free. 
(Author) 



AD-779 091/8CP PC E04/MF A01 

Electronic Associates Inc West Long Branch N 

J Scientific Computation Dept 

Ray Tracing Study 

Final rept. 10 Aug 67-31 May 70 

Elias H. Hochman. 15 Feb 71, 72p Rept no 30- 

307001 

Contract F19628-67-C-0358 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric propagation, 'Ray 
tracing, 'Hybrid simulation. Electromagnetic 
wave propagation, Electron density, Computer 
programs, FORTRAN. 

The report describes the application of hybrid 
computer techniques to the simulation of the 



propagation of electromagnetic energy in the 
ionosphere. The study incorporates a two 
dimensional electron density profile. (Author) 



AD-779 551/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs Richland Wash 
Atmospheric Sciences Dept 
Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 

Final rept. 

Jeremy M. Hales, and Richard N. Lee. Apr 74, 

105pAROD-10417.1-EN 

Contract DAHC04-72-C-0035 

Descriptors: 'Organic compounds, 'Air pollu- 
tion. Solubility, Vapors, Atmospheric precipita- 
tion, Contaminants, Tracer studies, Compu- 
terized simulation, Mathematical models, At- 
mospheric diffusion, Plumes, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Identifiers: 'Acetoacetic acid/(ethyl-ester), 
'Diethylamine, 'Precipitation washout. 

The EPAEC gas washout model has been ap- 
plied to the organic tracers ethylacetoacetate 
and diethylamine. This model uses source 
strength, vapor solubility and basic 
meteorological parameters to estimate the 
tracer concentration in downwind rain samples. 
A detailed error analysis has identified poorly 
defined tracer solubility as the major source of 
measured discrepancy with predictions. Field 
results have also been used to calculate the 
fractional washout of the vapor per kilometer 
from the source. The results together with ex- 
isting diffusion models may be used to estimate 
the vapor concentrations of these materials 
along a plume trajectory. (Modified author ab- 
stract) 



AD-781 094/8CP PC A04/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
Stimulated Skyglow 

Final technical rept. 1 Aug-31 Dec 73 

D.H.Archer, and P. W. Tarr. Jan 74, 73p MRC- 

R-107, RADC-TR-74-109 

Contract F30602-71-C-0374, DNA001-73-C- 

0239 

Descriptors: 'Aurorae, 'Atmosphere models, 
Atmospheric physics, Electron flux. Radiative 
transfer. Infrared radiation, Chemical reactions, 
Luminescence, Emission spectra, Nitrogen, Ox- 
ygen, Carbon dioxide. 
Identifiers: ARCTIC computer program. 

The report describes the development of a 
code, called ARCTIC, that is suitable for the 
study and analysis of auroral data. The code in- 
puts a flux spectrum of primary electrons, in- 
cident on or in the atmosphere, with a specified 
magnetic dip angle and initial pitch angle, and 
computes the detailed energy deposition and 
partition in the atmosphere. The deposition 
subroutine is coupled to a chemistry and radia- 
tion subroutine with the result that the opti- 
cal/infrared emission, as functions of altitude 
and time, are then determined. The code is es- 
sentially complete, except for certain refine- 
ments, and has been run for the case of a 
hypothetical class II aurora. (Author) 



AD-781 275/3CP PC E02/MF A01 

Mission Research Corp Santa Barbara Calif 
Studies of Auroral Simulation 

Final rept. 1 5 May-31 Dec 73 

P. W. Tarr, D. H. Archer, and N. G. Utterback. 1 1 

Apr 74, 103 MRC-R-122, DNA-3297F 

Contract F30602-71-C-0374, DNA001-73-C- 

0239 

Descriptors: 'Aurorae, 'Computerized simula- 
tion, Atmospheric physics, Emission spectra, 
Nuclear explosions, Radiation effects, Chemi- 
cal reactions, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon diox- 
ide, Electron scattering. 
Identifiers: ARCTIC computer code. 



41 



The final report describes an effort, under the 
Simulation Program, to understand infrared 
backgrounds in an auorally-disturbed environ- 
ment. A large part of this effort has been 
devoted to the development and use of a code, 
called ARCTIC, that is suitable for the study and 
analysis of auroral data. The code inputs a flux 
spectrum of primary electrons, incident on or in 
the atmosphere, with a specified magnetic dip 
angle and a given initial pitch angle distribu- 
tion, and computes the detailed energy deposi- 
tion and partition in the atmosphere. Scattering 
of the primary electrons is provided for in the 
deposition subroutine by two options: one, that 
allows for the full effects of range variance, 
gives excellent agreement with observations in 
nitrogen; the other, that is considerably more 
economical to use, assumes mean scattering 
only. (Modified author abstract) 



AD-782 358/6CP PC E03/MF A01 

North Carolina State Univ Raleigh Dept of 

Geosciences 

Detection and Analysis of Synoptic-Scale 

Periodicities in Rocketsonde Data 

Final rept. 

Gerald F. Watson, and Walter J. Saucier. Nov 

73,47p 

Contract DAAD07-72-C-0260 

Descriptors: "Stratosphere, *Mesosphere, 
'Atmospheric sounding, Periodic variations, At- 
mospheric temperature, Wind, Data 
processing. 

Identifiers: WAVEFIT computer program, 
Synoptic meteorology. 

In order to examine the synoptic-scale time 
variability (oscillation periods of 2 to 6 days) in 
the zonal and meridional wind components and 
in the temperature at altitudes 25 to 60 km, a 
computer program for wave period analysis 
was devised and applied to rocketsonde data of 
the Meteorological Rocket Network. The 
method consisted of fitting sinusoidal 
waveforms of various periods and phases to 
data in biweekly periods and evaluating the 
goodness of fit. Simple mathematical con- 
siderations and results from numerous tests 
with hypothetical data for idealized oscillations 
of known characteristics showed that the axis 
of symmetry and amplitude of the wave to be 
fitted to the data could be represented by the 
monthly mean and the square root of 2 times 
the standard deviation of the daily values, 
respectively. Aliasing effects would be 
minimized as long as ther were at least 12 ob- 
servations during the month. (Modified author 
abstract) 



AD-782 685/2CP MF A01 

Range Commanders Council White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Meteorological Group 
IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological 
Data Reduction. Part I. Rawinsonde 

Oct 71, 128p Rept no. MG-108-72-PM 
See also Part 2, AD-782 686. 
Availability: Available in microfiche only. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological data, 

'Radiosondes, "Computer programs, Wind, Hu- 
midity, Atmospheric temperature. Subroutines, 
FORTRAN, Atmospheric sounding, Data 
processing, Guided missile tracking systems. 
Guided missile ranges. 

Identifiers: RAWINX computer program, FOR- 
TRAN 4 programming language, IBM 7044 com- 
puters 

The document describes the rawinsonde data 
reduction program called RAWINX The pro- 
gram is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the 
IBM 7044 computer. (Author) 



AD-782 686/OCP PC A06/MF A01 

Range Commanders Council White Sands Mis- 
sile Range N Mex Meteorological Group 



IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological 
Data Reduction. Part II. Rocketsonde 

Oct 71, 101 p Reptno.MG-108-72-Pt-2 
See also Part I, AD-782 685. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological data, 

'Radiosondes, 'Computer programs, Wind, At- 
mospheric temperature, Atmospheric sound- 
ing, Subroutines, FORTRAN, Data processing, 
Guided missile tracking systems, Guided mis- 
sile ranges. 

Identifiers: ROKRED computer program, FOR- 
TRAN 4 programming language, IBM 7044 com- 
puters, 'Rocketsondes. 

A committee was formed to pursue a task enti- 
tled 'Standardization of Range Meteorological 
Data Reduction'. The results of the Committee's 
work are currently published in a two part IRIG 
document; Part I encompassiny Rawinsonde 
and Part II encompassing Rocketsonde data 
reduction. This document describes the rocket- 
sonde data reduction program called ROKRED. 
The program is written in FORTRAN IV lan- 
guage for the IBM 7044 computer. 



AD-783 246/2CP PC A03/MF A01 

Air Force Weapons Lab Kirtland AFB N Mex 
Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried 
Bursts 

Final rept. Mar-Dec 73 

James E. Brau, Gregory H. Canavan , Leon A. 
Wittwer, and Arthur E. Greene. Jul 74, 30p Rept 
no. AFWL-TR-74-47 

Descriptors: 'Electromagnetic pulses, 

'Ionospheric propagation, 'Nuclear explosions, 
'Ionospheric modification, Electron density, 
Electron energy, Heating, Fourier transforma- 
tion, Monte Carlo method. 

Identifiers: CHEMP computer code, E region, D 
region. 

Calculations describing the ionospheric 
propagation of high-altitude electromagnetic 
pulses (EMP) to satellite altitudes are reported. 
Both tangent and buried burst scenarios are 
treated. The calculations are based on the 
AFWL CHEMP code for self-consistent calcula- 
tions of radiated EMP, modified by the inclu- 
sion of a swarm treatment of secondary and 
ionospheric electrons. The region of applica- 
bility of this swarm treatment has been deter- 
mined by a separate Monte Carlo calculation. 
By carrying the calculations all the way from the 
burst point through the E region, the authors 
are able to account fully for the D region heat- 
ing, the increased absorption and cascading it 
produces, and the increased cutoff frequency 
which results. The code calculations are evalu- 
ated for sensitivity to the ambient ionospheres 
used. (Author) 



AD-783 807/1CP PC E04/MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School Monterey Calif 

An Experiment to Measure the Modulation 

Transfer Function of the Atmosphere in the 

Marine Boundary Layer 

Master's thesis 

Marion Romaine Alexander, Jr. Jun 74, 66p 

Descriptors. 'Laser beams, Laser communica- 
tions, Carbon dioxide lasers, Fourier transfor- 
mation, Computer programs, Transfer func- 
tions. Attenuation, Theses. 

Identifiers: Modulation transfer functions, At- 
mospheric boundary layer, Monterey Bay, 
'Atmospheric attenuation, Helium neon lasers, 
Fast Fourier transform, MODFUN computer 
program, AVSPEC computer program, AV- 
WAVE computer program. 

A system to measure the modulation transfer 
function (MTF) of the atmosphere over the 
ocean has been designed, constructed, and 
tested. The apparatus employs a high resolu- 
tion scanning telescope with the capability for 
use in a broad range of visual and infrared 



wavelengths. Two successful trials were con- 
ducted with a gyro-stabilized 6328 A laser 
mounted on board the R. V. ACANIA. The 
propagation path was approximately one km 
over open water from the ACANIA to Point 
Pinos. Two more successful trials were con- 
ducted with a 6328 A laser and a 10.6 microme- 
ter laser propagating simultaneously from 
shore to shore across 4 km of the southern end 
of Monterey Bay. Data was processed using fast 
Fourier transform methods. The MTF of the at- 
mosphere for 6328 A light was measured. 
(Author) 



AD-784 866/6CP PC A03/MF A01 

Epsilon Labs Inc Bedford Mass 
Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifica- 
tions, Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 

Final rept. 1 Nov 73-15 Sep 74 

Henry A. Miranda, Jr, John Dulchinos, and 

Henry P. Miranda. Jul 74, 32p FR-2003-74, 

AFCRL-TR-74-0349 

Contract F19628-74-C-0078 

See also report dated Nov 73, AD-777 135. 

Descriptors: 'Aerosols, 'Counters, 

'Stratosphere, 'Troposphere, Balloon equip- 
ment, Electron microscopes, Samplers, Signal 
processing, Logic devices, Particle size. 
Identifiers: DATRUN computer program. 

This report describes refurbishing work per- 
formed on the AFCRL aerosol counter which 
had sustained damage on the last of three suc- 
cessive stratospheric balloon flights in 1973. 
Certain improvements in the signal processing 
circuitry and associated software, which simpli- 
fy the background level determination 
procedure and generate useful in-flight diag- 
nostic information, are also described. In addi- 
tion the results of exploratory tests to examine 
the combined effects of polarized illumination 
and particle shape as well as index of refraction 
on the sizing accuracy of the counter, are 
presented. Particles from several types of 
polishing compounds were nebulized and the 
size distribution as measured by the aerosol 
counter were compared with scanning electron 
microscope data. (Author) 



AD-786 414/3CP PC A05/MF A01 

IBM Federal Systems Div Burlington Mass 
Some Recent Innovations in Atmospheric 
Density Programs 

Scientific rept. no. 1, 1 Jul 73-30 Jun 74 
Arnold S. Bramson, and Jack W. Slowey. 15 Aug 
74, 88p AFCRL-TR-74-0370 
Contract F19628-72-C-0178 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric density, 'Upper at- 
mosphere, Diurnal variations, Computer pro- 
gramming. Data processing, Thrust, Magneto- 
sphere, Atmosphere models, Orbits. 
Identifiers: CADNIP computer program, BAD- 
MEP computer program. 

This report documents the latest modifications 
incorporated into a series of computer pro- 
grams for determining atmospheric densities 
and for evaluating existing atmospheric density 
models. Emphasis is placed on requirements 
for actual program usage, with complete user's 
manuals and related information appearing as 
separate appendices. (Author) 



AD-786 647/8CP PC A03/MF A01 

Oregon Graduate Center Beaverton Dept of Ap- 
plied Physics and Electronic Science 
Experimental Pulsed Laser, Remote Cross- 
wind Measurement System -- Feasibility 
Study and Design 
Final rept. 7 Dec 73-30 Jun 74 
J. Fred Holmes, and J. Richard Kerr. Jul 74, 47p 
ECOM-740094-1 
Contract DAAD07-74-C-0094 



42 



Descriptors: 'Ruby lasers, 'Wind velocity, Light 
pulses, Measurement, Vidicons, Real time, 
Computer programs, Meteorological instru- 
ments. 

Identifiers: Q switched lasers, "Pulsed lasers, 
Remote sensing. 

The feasibility determination and design for an 
experimental, pulsed laser, diffuse target, 
remote crosswind measurement system is 
described. The system consists of a laser trans- 
mitter, a diffuse target and a receiver. A unique 
scheme using a double-pulsed, Q-switched 
ruby laser is used to measure the slope of the 
time delayed autocovariance function at zero 
time delay which under appropriate conditions 
is proportional to the weighted average cross- 
wind along the laser propagation path. The 
receiver consists of two silicon vidicons, a 
spinning disk for directing alternate pulses to 
the vidicons and appropriate scanning circuitry 
for generating a 10 x 10 array of apertures on 
each vidicon. (Modified author abstract) 



AD-815 625/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Pacific Missile Range, Point Mugu, Calif. 
Some Variable-Parameter, Steady-State Dif- 
fusion Results. 

Technical memo. 

C. J. Thorne, and R. W. Claassen. 9 Jun 67, 70p 

Reptno. PMR-TM-67-3 

Distribution Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: "Two-dimensional flow. Mathe- 
matical models, *Air pollution, Diffusion, Sta- 
bility, Computer programs, Partial differential 
equations, Bessel functions, Chemical con- 
tamination. Meteorological parameters. 
Identifiers: Steady state. 

Numerical and analytical methods of solution of 
a two-dimensional problem in diffusion of 
fluids are developed The coefficient of diffu- 
sion and the wind velocity are considered to be 
variables dependent on altitude. The resultant 
computer program and graphical examples of 
results obtainable from meteorological data are 
shown. (Author) 



AD-818 985/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif. 
Numerical Forecasting of Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 

Masters thesis 

Michael Joseph Ettel, and William Allen 

Morgan. Jun 67, 172p 

Distribution Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: "Clear air turbulence, "Weather 
forecasting, Computer programs, Numerical 
analysis, Air mass analysis, High altitude, 
Stratosphere, Atmospheric temperature, 
Micrometeorology, Aviation safety, Probability, 
Theses. 

There is much disagreement as to (1) what 
causes clear air turbulence (turbulence which 
is not in or near convective clouds and is above 
15.000 feet in altitude) and (2) which 
meteorological parameters can be used to de- 
tect and forecast its occurrence The approach 
to this problem has been to relate not one 
parameter to clear air turbulence but various 
parameters By summing these parameters 
areas can be defined where there is a high 
probability of encountering clear air turbu- 
lence. Each parameter has been based on a 
statistical study which found a relationship with 
clear air turbulence The parameters used were 
horizontal and vertical shear, curvature, kinetic 
energy and their derivatives. The numerical 
forecasting program proposed here can be ex- 
tended to the stratosphere when more reliable 
height and temperature fields are available. 
(Author) 



AD-849 1427CP HC E01 MF A01 

Naval Missile Center, Point Mugu, Calif. 



A Method for Determination of Atmospheric 
Refraction Characteristics Through Use of 
Navigational Satellite Data. 

Technical memo. 

R. W. Claassen. 5Mar69,46p Reptno. NMC- 

TM -68-67 

Distribution Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric refraction, Mathe- 
matical models. Navigation satellites, Doppler 
effect, Atmosphere models, Least squares 
method, Snell's law, Computer programs, Ac- 
curacy, Sound, Propagation. 

A theoretical development of a method for 
determining refraction characteristics of the at- 
mosphere is described. The determination is 
based on data obtained from navigational satel- 
lites. Thus, the only instrumentation required by 
the method is a receiver for the signals from the 
satellite, and a computer. A principal purpose 
for determining atmospheric refraction charac- 
teristics would be the location of possible duct- 
ing and trapping layers. An estimate is given for 
the degree of accuracy that the method 
requires of the data received from the satellite 
to accomplish this purpose. (Author) 



AD-864 887/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of 
Oceanography and Meteorology. 
Simulation Research to Develop Objective 
Meteorological Prediction Capability 
Semi-annual rept. no. 3, 15 May-16 Nov 69 
William H. Clayton, and Tom E. Sanford. Dec 69, 
237p A/M-Ref-69-13-T, ECOM-0280-3 
Contract DAAB07-68-C-0280 
Distribution Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: "Weather forecasting, Data 
processing systems, "Atmosphere models, Pro- 
gram ming(Computers), Models(Simulations), 
Low altitude. Towers, Networks, Weather sta- 
tions, Analog computers. Wind, Soils, Tempera- 
ture, Vapor pressure, Evapotranspiration. 
Identifiers: LLMM(Low level meteorological 
models), Low level meteorological models, 
Wind profiles, Computerized simulation. 

In order to assess further the system of equa- 
tions currently employed for simulating the at- 
mospheric friction layer, four sets of data, each 
12 hours in length, were collected on succes- 
sive days in August 1969 at Dugway Proving 
Ground, Utah. Solutions of the equation system 
for these initial conditions as well as com- 
parisons of the solutions with observed data are 
contained in this report. (Author) 



AD-915 570/6CP PC E05/MF A01 

Aerojet Electrosystems Co., Azusa, Calif. 
Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume I 

Final rept. 

R. C. Olson, W Hubbard, L. J. Delaney, C. E. 
Dunning, and J. C. Blinn. Nov 73, 117 AESC- 
1798-FR-1-Vol-1, SAMSO-TR-73-381-Vol-1 
Contract F04701-73-C-0338 
See also AD-911 746 and AD-915 571. Distribu- 
tion Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: 'Radiometers, "Meteorological in- 
struments, "Meteorological satellites. 
Microwave equipment. Atmospheric physics, 
Atmospheric temperature, Passive, Data 
processing, Information retrieval, Infrared 
equipment, Infrared detectors, Remote detec- 
tors, Spaceborne, Weather forecasting, Regres- 
sion analysis, Data reduction, Satellite anten- 
nas, Computers, High rate, Miniaturization, 
Clouds, Oceans, Terrain, Water vapor, Weather 
stations, Barometric pressure, Computer pro- 
grams, Mobile. 
Identifiers: SD. 

This study examined methods of integrating at- 
mospheric parameters profiles obtainable from 
a spaceborne passive microwave radiometer 



into the air force global weather central and a 
remote station typified by the air force trasterm 
van. A statistical regression data retrieval 
technique used for sensor evaluation in a previ- 
ous study was used to size the computer 
requirements. However, other retrieval 
techniques were examined to ensure that any 
eventual data reduction approach could be ac- 
commodated. 



AD-915 571/4CP PC E06/MF A01 

Aerojet Electrosystems Co., Azusa, Calif. 
Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume II. Appendices 

Final rept. 

R.C.Olson, W.A.Hubbard, L.J. Delaney, C. E. 
Dunning, and J. C. Blinn. Nov 73, 143p AESC- 
1798-FR-1-Vol-2,SAMSO-TR-73-381-Vol-2 
Contract F04701 -73-C-0338 

See also AD-911 746, and AD-915 570. Distribu- 
tion Limitation now Removed. 

Descriptors: 'Radiometers, 'Meteorological in- 
struments, 'Meteorological satellites, 
Microwave equipment, Atmospheric physics, 
Atmospheric temperature, Passive, Infrared 
equipment. Infrared detectors, Computers, 
High rate, Miniaturization, Spaceborne, 
Weather forecasting, Weatherstations, Regres- 
sion analysis, Data reduction. Clouds, Oceans, 
Terrain, Water vapor, Information retrieval, Al- 
gorithms, Iterations, Remote systems, Data 
processing. Environments, Barometric pres- 
sure, Computer programs, Mobile. 
Identifiers: AF. 

Contents: Detailed descriptions of several 
retrieval algorithms; the computation of 
weighting functions in an iterative retrieval 
method; requirements for remote-site 
processing of microwave radiometric data; sur- 
vey of satellite sounders; and Environmental 
Research and Technology, Inc., Final report. 



AEEW-R-1002 PC A04/MF A01 

UKAEA Reactor Group, Winfrith. Atomic Energy 

Establishment. 

Tutank: A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code. 

M.G. Watts, M.J. Halsall.and F.J. Fayers. Apr 

75,56p 

U.S. SalesOnly. 

Descriptors: "Thermal reactors, "Reactor 
kinetics, "Pwr type reactors, Reactor kinetics, 
"Bwr type reactors, Reactor kinetics, 
'Computer codes, *T codes, Excursions, 
Neutron diffusion equation. Two-dimensional 
calculations. 

For abstract, see NSA 32 08, number 21705. 



ANL-IIPP-2 MFA01 

Argonne National Lab., III. 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for 
Sulfur Dioxide and Particulates in the 
Chicago Metropolitan Air Quality Control Re- 
gion 

J. E. Norco, M. A. Snider, J. J. Roberts. KG 
Croke, and A. S. Cohen. Dec 70, 227p 
Contract W-31 -1 09-ENG-38 
Portions of docu ment are illegible. 

Descriptors: "Aerosols, 'Chicago, 'Plumes, 
'Sulfur dioxide, 'Urban areas, "Air pollution 
control, A codes, Air quality. Computer calcula- 
tions. Computer codes, Diffusion, Environmen- 
tal transport, Gaussian processes. Mathemati- 
cal models, Particles, Point pollutant sources. 
Regional analysis, Surface air. Time depen- 
dence, Velocity, Wind. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500200, 'Gaussian plume 
models. Atmospheric diffusion, AQDM com- 
puter program, Chicago(lllinois), Metropolitan 
areas. 



43 



This report documents all aspects of the 
analyses of long-range regulations for control 
of SO sub 2 and particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region: 
dispersion model, strategy model, emission in- 
ventory, present regional air quality, a compen- 
dium of possible control regulations for SO sub 
2 and particulates, and extensive calculational 
results. The application of the Air Quality Dis- 
play Model (AQDM), a computer program 
designed to estimate the spacial distribution of 
sulfur dioxide and particulate concentrations, 
is described. The AQDM, which is derived from 
the Martin-Tikvart (1968) diffusion model, is 
based on the Gaussian-diffusion equation 
which describes the spreading, or diffusing, of 
a plume as it is transported downwind from an 
elevated, continuously emitting point source. 
The model is utilized here to compute annual, 
arithmetic-, and geometric-mean ground-level 
pollutant concentrations resulting from 
specified point and area sources. The model 
calculates the effects of each source on each 
receptor for the observed combinations of wind 
direction, wind speed, and stability class. The 
relative frequency of occurrence for each com- 
bination is then included as a factor, and the 
resulting data are summed for each receptor 
over all combinations and all sources. (ERA 
citation 03:02931 7) 



ANL-Trans-1103 PC A03/MF A01 

Karlsruhe Univ. (West Germany). 
ATMOSPHERE. Fluid-Dynamic Simulation 
Model for Predicting Spreading Processes in 
the Atmospheric Boundary Layer 
M. Schatzmann, and W. Flick. Oct 77, 41p 
Contract W-31-109-ENG-38 
Translation of SFB-80/T/90. 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, 'Computer codes, 
'Plumes, 'Smokes, 'Stack disposal, 

'Mathematical models, Earth atmosphere, A 
codes, Boundary layers, Computer calcula- 
tions, Diffusion, Gaseous diffusion, Turbulence. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500100, Translations, West 
Germany, Atmospheric diffusion, Combustion 
products. Industrial wastes, Atmospheric boun- 
dary layer, ATMOSPHERE computer program, 
Computerized simulation. 

The computer program ATMOSPHERE permits 
prediction of the diffusion of exhaust gases ex- 
pelled by high industrial chimneys into the at- 
mospheric boundary layer. In addition, the pro- 
gram can be used to compute the diffusion of 
cooling or sewage fluids in lakes and oceans. 
The assumptions on which the model is based 
limit the application to continuous flows 
characterized by axial symmetry introduced 
into approximately infinitely extended flows 
free of return flows and shear. The simulation 
model can predict the diffusion of bouyant jets 
even when the free stream contains tempera- 
ture and concentration gradients and when the 
density differences between the jet and ambient 
fluid are not negligibly low. The effects of 
background turbulence and possible inversion 
layers on the diffusion process are taken into 
consideration. The predictions of the model are 
compared with experimental data. (ERA cita- 
tion 03:019676) 



BNWL-B-361 PC A04/MF A01 

Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, 

Wash. 

Hetran: A Subprogram Package for Predicting 

the Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a 

Natural Body of Water. 

D. G. Daniels, and C. A. Oster. Jun 74, 62p 

Contract AT(45-1)-1830 

Descriptors: 'Computer codes, 'H codes, 'Heat 
transfer, 'Computer calculations, 'Surface 
waters, Heat transfer, Air, Daily variations. 
Forecasting, Interfaces, Meteorology, Water. 

For abstract, see NSA31 02, number 05432. 



BNWL-SA-5117 PC A02/MF A01 

Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, 

Wash. 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model 

to Calculations for Industrial Plumes. 

J. M. Hales, M. T. Dana, and M. A. Wolf. 1974, 

10p Rept no. CONF-741003-7 

Contract AT(45-1)-1830 

Descriptors: 'Gaseous wastes, 'Stack disposal, 
'Washout, 'Mathematical models, Aerosols, Air 
pollution, Computer codes, E codes, Industrial 
plants, Plumes, Precipitation scavenging, Rain. 

For abstract, see NSA 31 05, number 1 1307. 



CEA-R-4549 PC A06/MF A01 

Cea Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay- 
aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. De Physique du 
Plasma et de la Fusion Controlee. 
Determination of the Particle Size Distribution 
of an Aerosol Using a Diffusion Battery. 
J. P. Maigne. Feb 74, 104p 
In French. U.S. Sales Only. 

Descriptors: 'Aerosols, 'Particle size, Computer 
codes, Data, Diffusion, Distribution, Earth at- 
mosphere, Mathematical models, Measuring 
methods. 
Identifiers: AEC. 

For abstract, see NSA 29 09, number 23862. 



CEA-R-4837 MF A01 

CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay- 
aux-Roses (France). Dept. de Protection. 
Cartographic Forecasts of Short-Term Air 
Pollution Averages 

J. M. Quinault, C. Caput, and Y. Belot. May 77, 

37p 

Available in microfiche only. U.S. Sales Only. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Plumes, 'Urban 
areas, Computer codes, Diffusion, Mathemati- 
cal models, Point pollutant sources, Weather. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500200, France, Point 
source, Gaussian plume models, Weather 
forecasting, Atmospheric diffusion. 

A computer program was developed in order to 
evaluate pollutant distributions in an area af- 
fected by multiple point sources, such as a typi- 
cal industrial area. Classical gaussian relation- 
ships were used with some improvements tak- 
ing account of ground roughness, pollutant 
deposition and sampling duration. The pro- 
gram written in A. PL., and it is easy to use by a 
non-specialized operator on a console linked to 
a computer through the telephone network. 
(Atomindex citation 08:341271) 



COM-71-00012/CP PC E01 MF A01 

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric 
Sciences Research Center. 
Great Lakes Snowstorms. Part 1. Cloud 
Physics Aspects. 

Final rept. 1968-70 

James E. Jiusto, and Edmond W. Ill Holroyd. 

Jun 70, 153p NOAA-E22-49-70(G)-1 

Grant ESSA-E22-49-70(G) 

See also Part 2, COM-71-0001 1. 

Descriptors: 'Cloud seeding, 'Great Lakes, 
'Snowstorms, Reduction, Cloud physics, Silver 
iodide, Aerosols, Freezing, Condensation 
nuclei, Atmospheric physics, Temperature, 
Meteorological radar, Dry ice, Snow fall, Radar 
cross sections, Networks, Mathematical 
models, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, 'Lake effect 
snowstorms. 

Studies of the synoptic, mesoscale, and 
microphysical characteristics of snowstorms 
occurring to the lee of Lakes Erie and Ontario 
were done, with emphasis on defining 
precipitation mechanisms, land structure, 



aerosol characteristics and snowfall patterns. 
Cloud seeding was performed with silver iodide 
and with dry ice. The practical implications of 
each modification concept can not be definitely 
assessed, but seeding with additional freezing 
nuclei to increase ground or lake precipitation 
can be accomplished, and seeding from the 
ground offers experimental and operational ad- 
vantages. Snow crystal concentration at 
ground level is an effective measure of modifi- 
cation efficacy. It is recommended that the 
ground observer network be increased by a fac- 
tor of 3, and that the duration and area of seed- 
ing be increased by at least a factor of 2 to 3. 
(Author) 



COM-71-00020/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Tetra Tech, Inc., Arlington, Va. 
Computer Simulation of Severe Storm Obser- 
vations with Doppler Radars. 

Final rept. 

30 Aug 70, 30p ESSA-E22-77-70(N)-1 

Grant ESSA-E22-77-70(N) 

Descriptors: 'Storms, Radar detection, Com- 
puter programs, Doppler radar, Computerized 
simulation, Precipitation(Meteorology), Intensi- 
ty- 
Identifiers: STORMS computer program. 

A computer program developed for simulating 
the performance of severe storm observations 
with Doppler radars is described. The computer 
program consists of the main calling program, 
STORMS, six subroutines entitled POINT, SAM- 
PLE, MONO, INVERT, GRID and INTGL, and one 
function subprogram, PHI. The liberal use of 
comment cards in the program source deck 
provides detailed documentation of interest to 
the programmer. The purpose of this report is 
to describe briefly, for the potential user, the 
capabilities of the program, the functions of the 
main program, subroutines and subprogram, 
and to document some results which have al- 
ready been obtained by exercising the program. 
(Author) 



COM-71-00136/CP PC E01 MF A01 

National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, Okla. 
Papers on Operational Objective Analysis 
Schemes at the National Severe Storms 
Forecast Center. 
Technical memo. 

Rex L. Inman. Nov 70, 99p NOAA-ERLTM- 
NSSL-51, NOAA-71010701 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting. Numerical 
analysis, 'Meteorological data, Data 
processing, Storms, Wind(Meteorology), 
Meteorological charts, Radiosondes, Weather 
stations. Dew point, Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 

The document contains three papers concern- 
ing the following topics: Objective analysis rou- 
tines: Objective analysis of mean moisture aloft 
utilizing radiosonde and surface data; and, 
Kinematic vertical velocity computed from low 
level mean winds. 



COM-71-00707/CP PC E01 MF A01 

National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, Okla. 
Rawinsonde Observation and Processing 
Techniques at the National Severe Storms 
Laboratory 

Technical memo. 

Stanley L. Barnes, James H. Henderson, and 

Robert J. Ketchum. Apr 71 , 255p Rept no. 

NOAA-ERLTM-NSSL-53 

Descriptors: 'Radiosondes, Networks, 

'Meteorological data, Data processing, Thun- 
derstorms, Atmospheric sounding, Squalls, 
Computer programs, Networks, Data reduction, 
Quality control, Evaluation. 



44 



The report is intended to serve as a user's guide 
to the archived soundings which have been 
reduced to basic meteorological parameters 
recorded on magnetic tapes. Following brief 
descriptions of the arrangement and purposes 
of the various networks and the types of other 
data available from NSSL, the current observa- 
tion and reduction procedures are described in 
detail. Computer programs for quality control 
and final data reduction are listed and ex- 
plained. Archive formats are defined and exam- 
ples given. Appendices include capsule 
descriptions of each day's operations and 
weather, and a list of quality evaluations for 
each archived sounding. (Author) 



COM-71-00875/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Environmental Research Labs., Boulder, Colo. 
Office of the Director. 

Outline of a Bayesian Approach to the EML 
Multiple Cloud Seeding Experiments 

Technical memo. 

Joanne Simpson, and Jacques Pezier. Jun 71, 

68p Rept no. NOAA-TM-ERL-OD-8 

Prepared in cooperation with Thayer School of 

Engineering, Hanover, N.H. 

Descriptors: 'Cloud seeding. Statistical analy- 
sis, Weather forecasting, Decision theory, 
Statistical tests, Bayes theorem. Computer pro- 
grams, Cumulus clouds, Florida. 
Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting. 

Decision analysis techniques, using Bayes 
equation in several forms, are evolved for use in 
analyzing Florida cumulus seeding experi- 
ments. In order to apply decision analysis to 
evaluate the seeding effect upon rainfall, it is 
necessary to know the distribution and its suffi- 
cient statistics for both seeded and natural rain. 
Lacking this knowledge, several assumptions 
are made for use in the evolution of the Baye- 
sian approach. A procedure is outlined showing 
how decision analyses may be used with 
forthcoming experiments. These methods are 
likely to have rather wide application in the 
analysis of meteorological experiments. 
(Author) 



COM-71-00911/CP PC E01 MF A01 

National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, Okla. 
Model of Precipitation and Vertical Air Cur- 
rents 

Technical memo. 

Edwin Kessler, and William C. Bumgarner. Jun 

71, 106p Rept no. NOAA-TM-ERL-NSSL-54 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 

"Atmospheric models, 

'Precipitation(Meteorology), Mathematical 

models, Wind(Meteorology), Buoyancy, Tem- 
perature, Condensing, Convection, Weather 
forecasting, Moisture content, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Time-dependent moist columnar convection is 
numerically modelled as an extension of Priest- 
ley's 1953 study of buoyant dry elements in a 
turbulent environment. The distinctive velocity 
regimes characteristic of the model and akin to 
those discussed by Priestly, may be classified in 
terms of environmental lapse rate, moisture 
content, and the size and amplitude of initiating 
and following disturbance. Several types of 
conditions develop in conditionally unstable 
cases: a strong steady updraft may develop 
without precipitation beneath but with 
precipitation outside an implied area of strong 
updraft, when there is a strong starting pertur- 
bation, small mixing rate, an elevated conden- 
sation level, and a steep lapse rate. The model 
suggests that a critical horizontal size and criti- 
cal perturbation buoyancy must be exceeded in 
nature if sustained moist convection is to result 
in any given conditionally unstable lapse rate 
and moisture condition (Author) 



COM-71-50082/CP PC-SOD/MF A01-NTIS 

Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry Lab., 

Boulder, Colo. 

Computer Subroutine for Presenting Me- 

terological Flight Data on the Printer 

(CURVPT) 

Technical rept. 

Heinz H. Grote. Mar 71, 27p APCL-17, NOAA- 

TR-ERL-199 

Paper copy available from SOD $0.35 as 

C55.13:ERL-199-APCL-17. 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological data, 'Data 
processing, 'Weather reconnaissance aircraft, 
Meteorological data, Subroutines, Printouts, 
Computer programming. 
Identifiers: CURVPT computer program. 

The paper describes a subroutine that provides 
a plot on the peripheral printer of up to six 
parameters with curve separation and auto- 
matic scaling. It was developed for automatic 
presentation of meteorological flight data by 
the computer but can be used universally. 
(Author) 



COM-71-50410/CP PC-GPO/MF A01-NTIS 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Wave Propagation Lab. 
A Program for Calculating Three-Dimensional 
Acoustic-Gravity Ray Paths in the At- 
mosphere 
Technical rept. 

T. M. Georges. Aug 71 , 47p WPL-1 6, NOAA-TR- 
ERL-212 

Paper copy available from GPO $0.50 as 
C55.13:ERL212-WPL-16. 

Descriptors: 'Gravity waves, Ray tracing, 
'Computer programs, Gravity waves, 
Microbarometric waves, FORTRAN, At- 
mosphere models. 
Identifiers: 'Acoustic gravity waves. 

The ITS-Jones-Haselgrove ray-tracing program 
is adapted to calculate acoustic-gravity ray 
paths in a compressible atmosphere with ar- 
bitrary three-dimensional wind and tempera- 
ture variability and spherical earth. The pro- 
gram and its use are described, including deck 
listings and sample runs. Application to ocean 
acoustics should be possible with little modifi- 
cation. (Author) 



COM-72-10297/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Texas Univ., Dallas. 

Analysis of Incoherent Scatter Data Obtained 
at the Jicamarca Radar Observatory 

Final rept. 

J. P. McClure. 30 Sep 71 , 14p NOAA-72020405 

Grant ESSA-E22-92-71(G) 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric scattering, 

'Ionosphere, Atmospheric sounding, Electron 
density(Concentration), Electron energy, F re- 
gion, Data processing. 
Identifiers: JDPLOT computer program. 

The research objective was the analysis of in- 
coherent scatter data from the Jicamarca Radar 
Observatory. The electron concentration (N sub 
e) and the electron and ion temperatures (T sub 
e) and (T sub i) are available from most of the 
data. The vertical plasma drift velocity and the 
ionic composition are also available from part 
of the data. (Author) 



COM-72-10807/CP PC E01/MF A01 

National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Md. 
Techniques Development Lab. 
SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes 
of Surges from Hurricanes) I. Landfall Storms 

Technical memo. 

Chester P. Jelesnianski. Apr 72, 58p NOAA-TM- 

NWS-TDL-46, NOAA-72062701 



Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, Tropical 
cyclones, "Storm surges. Forecasting, Data 
processing, Statistical data, Nomographs, Hur- 
ricanes. 
Identifiers: SPLASH computer program. 

Two separate methods (based on dynamics) to 
estimate or forecast the surge are developed. 
The first method in which precomputed nomo- 
grams are used is designed only to arrive at a 
peak surge value. Arguments for the nomo- 
grams are simple meteorological parameters. In 
the second method, a dynamic model is used to 
compute surges along an entire coastline. 
Computations are done by an electronic com- 
puter; surface meteorological parameters are 
used as input to the operational program. 
Qualitative explanations for the surge 
phenomena are interspersed throughout part I. 
The relative importance of various meteorologi- 
cal parameters, continental shelf topography, 
and coastal geog raphy are discussed. (Author) 



COM-72-11491/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif. 
Computer Model for Investigating the Strate- 
gy of Automatically Estimating Prevailing 
Visibility 
Final rept. 

R. L. Mancuso, and E. E. Uthe. Sep 72, 97p 
SRI1336-FR, NOAA-72100611 
Contract NOAA-1-36081 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting. Visibility, 
'Visibility, Computerized simulation, Optical 
properties, Fog, Haze, Optical radar, 
Meteorological instruments, Backscattering, 
Aerosols, Computer programs, Automation, Ac- 
curacy, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: VISMOD computer program, CDC 
6400 computers. 

Means of automatically measuring prevailing 
visibility are investigated by computer simula- 
tion. The effects of instrument type, numbers, 
locations, and sampling intervals on the accu- 
racy of the measurements are estimated. How- 
ever, due to uncertainties associated with the 
parameters used in the visibility model, the use- 
fulness in studying sampling strategy is limited. 
A field study to evaluate the technique 
developed under this study and the parameters 
used in the visibility model is recommended. It 
is concluded that lidar may be the most ap- 
propriate instrument for automatically measur- 
ing prevailing visibilities. (Author) 



COM-72-50079-04-01/CP 

(Order as COM-72-50079-04) 
National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, Fla. 
Performance Analysis of the HURRAN Tropi- 
cal Cyclone Forecast System 

Charles J. Neumann, and John R. Hope. 21 Dec 

71, 12p NOAA-72060206-1 

Revision of report dated 27 May 71 . 

Pub. in Monthly Weather Review, v100 n4 p245- 

255 Apr 72, COM-72-50079-04. 

Descriptors: 'Hurricane tracking. Weather 
forecasting. Analog simulation, Frequency dis- 
tribution, Error analysis, Storm tracks. 
Identifiers: HURRAN computer program, Hur- 
ricane Camille. 

The HURRAN (hurricane analog) technique, a 
fully computerized objective forecast aid mak- 
ing use of past tracks in forecasting hurricane 
motion, was developed prior to the 1969 hur- 
ricane season. Encouraging operational results 
during the 1969 and 1970 hurricane seasons 
suggested further evaluation of the technique. 
To this end, HURRAN computations were made 
for approximately 1,000 forecast situations. 
Results are stratified according to initial 
direction and speed of movement of the sample 
storms and the number of analogs selected. 
The utility of the technique is discussed, and 
the importance of position accuracy at forecast 



45 



time is demonstrated. Initial indications of the 
value of the technique are substantiated. 
(Author) 



COM-73-10365/CP PC E07/MF A01 

National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Md. 

Office of Hydrology. 

National Weather Service River Forecast 

System Forecast Procedures 

Technical memo. 

Dec 72, 257p' Rept no. NOAA-TM-NWS- 

HYDRO-14 

See also COM-73-10298. 

Descriptors: 'Flood forecasting, 'Computer 
programs, River basins, Rainfall, Weather 
forecasting, Mathematical prediction, Periodic 
variations, Evapotranspiration, Data 

processing. 
Identifiers: NOAA. 

The report serves the following purposes: A 
guide for implementation of conceptual river 
forecasting models by field offices; A tool for 
use in testing and evaluating new concepts and 
procedures by the Hydrologic Research 
Laboratory, and A vehicle for providing the 
results to others in the hydrologic community. 
The report describes the package which in- 
cludes the techniques and programs needed 
for developing operational river forecasts 
based on the use of a continuous conceptual 
model, from the initial processing of basin data 
to the preparation of forecasts. The programs 
are written for a large-capacity digital computer 
and are generalized for use on any river system. 
Thus, they may or may not be the most efficient 
programs for use in a particular situation. 
(Author Modified Abstract) 



COM-73-10781/CP PC E01/MF A01 

National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, Okla. 
Mesoscale Objective Map Analysis Using 
Weighted Time-Series Observations 

Technical memo. 

Stanley L. Barnes. Mar 73, 69p NOAA-TM-ERL- 

NSSL-62, NOAA-73050302 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, Time se- 
ries analysis, Air masses, Thunderstorms, 
Mathematical prediction. Graphic methods, 
Computer programs, Wet bulb temperature, 
FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: NOAA. 

An objective map analysis technique applicable 
to quasi-steady, translating atmospheric circu- 
lations is developed from the mathematical 
premise that distributions of meteorological 
variables can be represented by an infinite sum 
of independent, harmonic waves. In addition to 
the usual space-weighting of simultaneous ob- 
servations to obtain interpolated values at regu- 
larly arrayed grid points, the scheme uses 
asynoptic observations by positioning them 
relative to a moving disturbance and weighing 
them according to both space and time. Analy- 
sis response for several choices of the arbitrary 
parameters is tested on simple analytically 
determined distributions and on selected 
meteorological observations during the 
passage of three thunderstorms over the Na- 
tional Severe Storms Laboratory mesonetwork 
of surface and upper air stations in central 
Oklahoma. (Modified author abstract) 



COM-73-11202/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Office of the Director(ERL). 
On the Use of Gamma Functions and Baye- 
stan Analysis in Evaluating Florida Cumulus 
Seeding Results 
Technical memo. 

Joanne Simpson, Jane C. Eden, Anthony Olsen, 
and Jacques Pezier. Feb 73, 92p NOAA-TM- 
ERL-OD-15, NOAA-73062703 



Descriptors: 'Cloud seeding, 'Florida, 
'Cumulus clouds, Cloud seeding, Weather 
modification, Precipitation(Meteorology), 

Gamma function, Statistical distributions, 
Curve fitting, Graphic methods, Computer pro- 
grams. 

Identifiers: Bayesian analysis, RAIN computer 
program, NOAA. 

Bayesian techniques are used to evaluate the 
seeding factor or rainfall and its probability dis- 
trubution in the Experimental Meteorology 
Laboratory randomized dynamic seeding ex- 
periments on isolated cumuli in Florida. A 
framework is constructed for later use of these 
tools with the randomized multiple cumulus 
seeding experiment in the 4000 nautical square 
miles target area. Used together with the pro- 
perties of gamma functions, Bayesian 
techniques have produced new results for the 
single cloud experiments and opened up 
promising approaches to the multiple cloud 
seeding or area experiments. 



COM-73-11401/9CP PC A06/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Silver Spring, Md. Environmental Data 
Service. 

A Note on a Gamma Distribution Computer 
Program and Graph Paper 
Technical rept. 

Harold L. Crutcher, Gerald L. Barger, and Grady 
F. McKay. Apr 73, 1 18p NOAA-TR-EDS-1 1, 
NOAA-73082106 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological data. Statistical 
analysis, 'Precipitation(Meteorology), Gamma 
function, 'Gamma function. Computer pro- 
grams, Statistical distributions, Curve fitting. 
Graphic methods, FORTRAN, Plotters. 
Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, NOAA. 

The gamma distribution function may be used 
as a model for many sets of data. The electronic 
computer program in the Formula Translator 
(FORTRAN) 4 for this function here provides the 
analytic solution to a set of data, gives the 
probabilities of exceeding or not exceeding ar- 
bitrary amounts, and indicates the amounts ex- 
ceeded or not exceeded for arbitrary probabili- 
ties. The developed gamma probability plotting 
paper serves also for the special cases of the 
chi-squared, the exponential, and the Poisson 
distribution functions. Estimates of the scale 
and shape parameters permit construction of 
the graph. The graph paper may be used to esti- 
mate the scale and shape parameters. The pro- 
gram, in its general form, permits a maximum of 
52 entries, which will suffice for those dealing 
with weekly data through the year. In addition, 
in precipitation studies, the user has the option 
to compute in one pass of the data the two du- 
ration and three duration period distributions. 
These computations are done without program 
change but by appropriate changes in the con- 
trol cards. This feature is not limited to the 
study of precipitation data. An option permits 
the computation of the required probabilities 
and inverses when only the scale and shape 
parameters are given. (Modified author ab- 
stract) 



COM-73-11634/5CP PC E01/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Aeronomy Lab. 
Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with 
an On-Line Computer 
Technical memo. 

K. H. Geissler, and J. H. Darr. Jun 73, 27p Rept 
nos. NOAA-73090404, NOAA-TM-ERL-AL-6 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, Langmuir 
probes, 'Langmuir probes, Data processing, 
"Ionosphere, Electron density, 

Plasmas(Physics), Electron densi- 

ty(Concentration), Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 
Identifiers: NOAA. 



The report is a study of a method for measuring 
Langmuir probe characteristics accurately 
enough to either verify or exclude the hypothe- 
sis of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions. 
Section 2 gives general considerations for the 
use of Langmuir probes. Section 3 reviews the 
equations used for evaluating the measured 
probe characteristics. Sections 4 and 5 outline 
the data accepting and reduction procedures 
used. Program listings are given in the Appen- 
dix. 



COM-74-10525/5CP PC-GPO 

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Dept. of Physics. 
The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on 
High-Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric 
Gases 

Interim rept. 

James K. G. Watson, and Peter K. L. Yin. Oct 73, 

1040pNOAA-740 12807 

Grant NOAA-NG-2872 

Descriptors: 'Upper atmosphere, 'Atmospheric 
composition. Gases, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Solar radiation, Infrared 
radiation. Absorption spectra, Refractive index, 
Water vapor, Jet engines. Exhaust gases, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: ANGDEV computer program, FOR- 
TRAN 4 programming language, Sea Grant pro- 
gram, NOAA. 

A study has been made of the theories of at- 
mospheric refraction and anomalous disper- 
sion for the purpose of assisting the interpreta- 
tion of measurements of atmospheric gases by 
the solar occultation technique, and a com- 
puter program has been written to calculate a 
theoretical occultation spectrum in the vicinity 
of an isolated absorption line. A brief discus- 
sion of the pertinent physical parameters, such 
as refractive index, line intensities and line 
shapes, is included. The numerical calculations 
have been performed with computer programs 
written in the Fortran 4 language, in which the 
refractive and dispersive angular deviations of 
the ray path and the absorption with or without 
instrumental corrections are evaluated. 
(Modified author abstract) 



COM-74-10720/2CP PC E05/MF A01 

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. High Altitude En- 
gineering Lab. 

Feasibility of Satellite Measurement of 
Stratospheric Minor Constituents by Solar 
Occultation 
Technical rept. 

S. R. Drayson, F. L. Bartman, W. R. Kuhn, and R. 
Tallamraju. Oct 73, 1 13p UMICH-01 1023-2-T, 
NOAA-74030404 
Grant NOAA-NG-1072 

Descriptors: 'Stratosphere, 'Spectrosropic 
analysis, 'Atmospheric composition. Absorp- 
tion spectra, Aerosols, Nitrogen oxide(N20), 
Carbon monoxide, Trace elements, Ozone, 
Methane, Water vapor. Optical properties, 
Computer programs. Infrared spectra, 
Spaceborn detectors, Transmissivity, Mathe- 
matical models. Solar radiation, Refractivity, 
Gas detectors, Gas analysis, Data reduction, 
FORTRAN, Transmittance, Chemical composi- 
tion. 

Identifiers: Air pollution detection, FORTRAN 4 
programming language, Occultation, NOAA. 

The determination of stratospheric concentra- 
tion of minor constituents by satellite solar oc- 
culation is examined. The method is shown 
feasible for ozone up to 50 km, water vapor up 
to 50 km, nitrous oxide up to 30 km, methane up 
to 50 km and carbon monoxide up to 20 km. 
Transmittance calculations for these and other 
gasses are presented for optimal spectral re- 
gions. Calculations of extinction by aerosols in 
the lower stratosphere show a dominant effect 
in the window regions near 10 micro meters. 
Several inversion techniques are developed 



46 



and examples of profiles retrieved by different 
methods are compared. Computer programs 
are described to calculate the transmittances 
by the use of a band model and by the line-by- 
line integration technique. (Author) 



COM-74-10824/2CP PC A02/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Space Environment Lab 
SCINTDR-A Program for Controlling the 
Fremouw Scintillation Model 
Technical memo. 

T. A. Burrows Jan 74, 20p NOAA-TM-ERL-SEL- 
30, NOAA-74032007 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric propagation, 

"Scintillation, "Computer programs. FORTRAN, 
Input output routines. 

Identifiers: SCINTOR computer program, CDC 
3800 computers, NOAA. 

A description of a program that computes the 
ionospheric scintillation index as a function of 
a number of input variables, such as transmitter 
frequency, sunspot number, time, and other 
parameters relating to transmitter-receiver 
geometry, is presented. The program, obtained 
from Stanford Research Institute, has been 
modified at NOAA for operation with the NOAA 
computational facility and for ease in inputting 
various parameters. The printed output is not as 
flexible as that obtained from the original driver 
program, but the new program allows more 
control over the manner in which the input 
parameters are incremented and also allows 
the semiautomatic production of punched out- 
put that may be directly submitted to the con- 
tour-plotting program. 



COM-74-10908/3CP PC E04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Air Resources Lab. 
Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change 
No. 1. Summary Report 1972 
John M. Miller. Jan 74, 85p NOAA-74032910 

Descriptors: "Climatic changes, "Atmospheric 
physics. Atmospheric composition. Aerosols, 
Carbon dioxide, Ozone, Volcanic ejecta. Air 
pollution, Wind(Meteorology), Atmospheric 
temperature. Dew point. Atmospheric pressure. 
Precipitation(Meteorology), Solar radiation, 
Strontium 90. 
Identifiers: LIDAR computer program, NOAA. 

This is the first in an annual series reporting on 
the program designed to establish and maintain 
observation and analysis of data representative 
of the global background of selected gases and 
aerosols The focus of the program is on 
establishing a long-term time series from 
ground-based instrumentation Information is 
given on the baseline stations and the measure- 
ment programs relating to gases, aerosols, 
meteorology, solar-terrestrial radiation, and 
cooperative programs The data acquisition 
system is described. Appendices contain the 
computer programs for LIDAR computations 
and MLO selected monthly measurements of 
Aitken Particles by a Gardner Counter 1971- 
1972 



COM-74-10925/7CP PC E03/MF A01 

National Weather Service. Silver Spring, Md. 

Techniques Development Lab. 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes 

of Surges from Hurricanes). Part 2. General 

Track and Variant Storm Conditions 

Technical memo. 

Chester P. Jelesnianski. Mar 74. 62p NOAA-TM- 

NWS-TDL-52, NOAA-74040908 

See also report dated Apr 72. COM-72-10807 

Descriptors: "Storm surges. "Hurricanes. 
"Weather forecasting. Tropical cyclones. Storm 
tracks, Coasts, Forecasting, Computer pro- 
gramming. 
Identifiers: SPLASH computer program, NOAA 



An operational computer program has been ex- 
panded to accommodate storms with general- 
ized motions of not too great complexity. Ex- 
amples are storms that move alongshore, 
recurve, remain stationary, accelerate, and 
landfall (exit). Also, storm strength and size are 
allowed to vary in a continuous monotonic 
manner with time. Surges generated by these 
generalized storms are complicated in space 
and time, and they can occur on an extensive 
coastline (hundreds of miles). Five track posi- 
tions (spaced at 6-hr increments on the storm 
path) and simple meteorological parameters 
are the meteorological input for the program. 
Detailed meteorological phenomena such as 
explosive deepening of storms, violent changes 
in storm track, and sudden accelerations of the 
storm are not considered. In a qualitative and 
heuristic manner; several strange dynamic 
phenomena generated by the storms with 
generalized motions are discussed. Several 
special examples are computed by the program 
and then interpreted for forecasting. (Modified 
author abstract) 



COM-74-11253/3CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Weather Modification Pro- 
gram Office. 

Computer Software for Rainfall Analyses and 
Echo Tracking of Digitized Radar Data 
Technical memo. 

Stellan Sven Ostlund. Mar 74, 88p NOAA-TM- 
ERL-WMPO-15, NOAA-74052009 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, "Radar echoes, 
"Computer programs, Flux rate, Interpolation, 
Fourier analysis, Meteorological radar, Radar 
tracking. 

The paper describes computer software 
designed for digitized radar data. Program 
packages include a scan-conversion from a 
polar to a Cartesian grid system, a rain summa- 
tion analysis over selected areas within the 
whole area, and an echo tracking program 
which calculates total rainrates and rainfalls 
from isolated echoes matched from frame to 
frame. All the results may be drawn on a pen 
plotter for easier interpretation (Modified 
author abstract) 



COM-74-11286/3CP PC A06/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo Weather Modification Pro- 
gram Office. 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the 
Statistical Analysis of Florida Cumulus Seed- 
ing Experiments 
Technical memo. 

Jane C. Eden. Apr74, 122p NOAA-TM-ERL- 
WMPO-14, NOAA-74061201 

Descriptors: 'Cumulus clouds. "Cloud seeding. 
"Florida, "Computer programs, Statistical anal- 
ysis. Programming manuals, FORTRAN, BASIC 
programming language 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 5 programming lan- 
guage 

The decision analyses to evaluate the seeding 
effect of Florida cumulus experiments has 
required the use of several computer programs 
The purpose of this guide is to assist anyone in- 
terested in this type of analysis, and to help 
eliminate the duplication of effort that is often 
present in developing software for similar tasks 
Detailed discussions of the mathematics and 
statistical procedures are explained in various 
references. The instructions included here will 
enable the reader to run the programs and to 
anticipate the output. 



COM-74-11295/4CP PC A05/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst . Menlo Park, Calif. 
Atmospheric Transmittance Models for In- 
frared Radiometric Measurements 

Final rept. 



Paul A. Davis. Mar 74, 82p NOAA-74060302 
Contract NOAA-3-35208 

Descriptors: "Remote sensing, "Radiometers, 
"Atmospheric sounding, Water vapor. Carbon 
dioxide. Ozone, Transmittance, Atmospheric 
attenuation, Infrared radiation, Computer pro- 
grams, FORTRAN. 

The goal of this study was the design of com- 
prehensive but simplified models for comput- 
ing atmospheric transmittances appropriate to 
the specific response characteristics of infrared 
radiometers used in remote sensing Represen- 
tations were derived which describe the trans- 
mittance as a universal function of absorber 
amount, pressure, and temperature; absorber 
amounts appearing in a universal representa- 
tion are scaled to convert nonhomogeneous 
paths into equivalent homogeneous paths. For 
any given spectral interval the total trans- 
mittance was divided into independent factors 
for water vapor and carbon dioxide or a com- 
bination of uniformly mixed gases. (Modified 
author abstract) 



COM-74-11336/6CP PC E01/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Air Resources Lab. 
A Program for Evaluating Atmospheric 
Dispersion from a Nuclear Power Station 
Technical memo. 

Jerrold F. Sagendorf. May 74, 18p NOAA-TM- 
ERL-ARL-42, NOAA-74062710 

Descriptors: "Nuclear power plants, "Air pollu- 
tion, "Wind, Mathematical models, Computer 
programming, FORTRAN, Site surveys. 
Identifiers: SEP computer code, FORTRAN 4 
programming language, IBM 360/75 compu- 
ters. 

A computer code (SEP for Site Evaluation Pro- 
gram) is described. The program uses a joint 
frequency distribution of winds and stability 
classes to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion 
potential near a nuclear power station. The 
code includes models for short-term and long- 
term effluent releases. A description of the 
input parameters is included. 



COM-74-11464/6CP PC E04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Weather Modification Pro- 
gram Office. 

Digitizing, Recording, and Computer 
Processing Weather Radar Data at the Ex- 
perimental Meteorology Laboratory 
Technical memo. 

Victor Wiggert, and George F. Andrews. May 74, 
73p NOAA-TM-ERL-WMPO-17, NOAA- 
74080611 

Prepared in cooperation with Rosenstiel 
School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. 
Miami. Fla. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, "Cloud seeding, 

"Meteorological radar, 'Data processing, 

Storms, Computer programs. Meteorological 

data, FORTRAN 

Identifiers: Florida area cumulus experiment. 

FORTRAN 5 programming language. WSR-57 

radar. 

Weather radar data, in the form of average 
power returned from a sampled volume, con- 
tains information which may permit calculating 
an average rainfall rate in that volume. The 
average power returned within 200 discreet 
range bins and at 2 degrees azimuthal incre- 
ments can be digitally quantified and then tape 
recorded by using equipment designs and con- 
cepts originated by the National Severe Storms 
Laboratory. During the summer 1973. the Ex- 
perimental Meteorology Laboratory conducted 
the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment (FACE); 
one of the purposes of FACE was to gain 
knowledge of rainfall rates and total rain 



47 



volumes from convective showers and storms, 
including those seeded with silver iodide flares. 
One means of ascertaining such rainfall 
characteristics was to have the Miami WSR-57 
radar output digitally quantified and tape 
recorded. The electronic equipment and com- 
puter programs used to obtain and assess the 
radar information are discussed. (Modified 
author abstract) 



COM-74-11470/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Air Resources Labs. 
Program Descriptions. Supplement to 
Mesoscale Wind Fields and Transport Esti- 
mates Determined from a Network of Wind 
Towers 

Technical memo. 

L. L. Wendell. May 74, 55p NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL- 
43, NOAA-74080605 

Sponsored in part by Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, Washington, D.C. 

Descriptors: 'Wind(Meteorology), "Computer 
programs, Data processing, Subroutines. 
Identifiers: Computer graphics. 

A computer program was developed to analyze 
objectively two-dimensional wind data from a 
mesoscale network of stations. The result is a 
graphic display of the network wind field at any 
particular time and a plot of computed air 
trajectories as a function of time and point of 
origin. A brief description, a list of input varia- 
bles, and program listings for the computer 
program are provided. 



COM-74-11627/8CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Air Resources Labs. 
Regional Effluent Dispersion Calculations 
Considering Spatial and Temporal 

Meteorological Variations 
Technical memo. 

G. E. Start, and L. L.Wendell. May 74, 71p 
NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-44.NOAA-74091808 
Sponsored in part by Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, Washington, DC. 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, 'Atmospheric mo- 
tion, Computer programs, Diffusion, Mathe- 
matical models, Wind velocity, Regional 
planning. Meteorological data. 
Identifiers: Wind roses. 

An objective regional trajectory analysis 
scheme has been combined with a Gaussian 
diffusion model to yield a technique called 
MESODIF (mesoscale diffusion). The trajectory 
analysis scheme utilized wind data from a net- 
work of tower-mounted wind sensors to con- 
sider the effects of spatial variabilities of 
horizontal wind flow near the surface, incor- 
porated time changes in rates of diffusion, and 
used an upper level lid to vertical mixing. The 
diagnostic comparisons of regional dispersion 
effects from each technique showed significant 
differences over the range of scales con- 
sidered. For short or accidental type of emis- 
sions, the greatest shortcoming of the single 
wind-station dispersion model was its failure to 
identify, when applied within a region of spa- 
tially variable winds, the subregion which 
would be affected. Current usage of the wind 
rose technique for regional dispersion calcula- 
tions, especially at the longer distances, incor- 
porates some systematic bias in the evalua- 
tions. These shortcomings are points of con- 
cern and should be reconciled with whatever 
impact assessment schemes are to be utilized 
within the mesoscale or regional domain. 



COM-74-11808/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Space Environment Lab. 



A Semi-Automated System for True Height 
Analysis of Film lonograms. Part 3. Documen- 
tation of Software 

Technical memo. 

R. B. Jurgens, G. Goe, and G. M. Lerfald. Oct 74, 

73pNOAA-TM-ERL-SEL-34, NOAA-741 11809 

Descriptors: 'lonograms, 'Computer programs, 
Ionosphere, Electron density(Concentration), 
Data processing, Mathematical models. 

Part 1 of this series described an analysis 
system that automates many of the steps 
required to obtain electron density versus 'true' 
height profiles from film ionogram data. The 
semi-automated system retains the judgment 
and pattern recognition capabilities of trained 
operators to select and identify ionogram 
traces of interest, but relies on automatic data 
processing techniques to perform essentially 
all other functions. The computer subroutines 
documented in this memorandum relate 
primarily to the processing of the data after the 
ionogram traces have been digitized, but before 
the true height is computed. These inter- 
mediate data processing steps are necessary to 
provide accurate digital input data for the true 
height computer program. 



COM-75-10117/0CP PC A03/MF A01 

Notre Dame Univ., Ind. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 
Tornado Photographic Analysis 

Final rept. 

Bruce J. Morgan. Jul 74, 50p NOAA-741231 10 

Contract NOAA-04-3-022-32, Grant NOAA-04-4- 

022-8 

Descriptors: 'Tornadoes, 'Weather observa- 
tions, Storm tracks, Meteorological instru- 
ments, Photography, Data processing. Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Oklahoma. 
Identifiers: Union City(Oklahoma). 

On May 24, 1973 a severe storm system was 
tracked from early afternoon until approximate- 
ly 5:00 P.M. CDT when it produced a large tor- 
nado near Union City, Oklahoma. The field 
tracking crew was in excellent position at the 
time of tornado touchdown and obtained con- 
siderable photographic documentation of the 
event. The report provides data concerning the 
tornado obtained by analysis of the films, 
discusses what was learned about how to study 
films of this type, and finally makes recommen- 
dations concerning what procedures should be 
used in the future to achieve maximum data 
from severe weather photography. 



COM-75-10588/2CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Wave Propagation Lab. 
The Search for Most Unstable Scales of 
Disturbances in Three-Layer Atmospheric 
Models with Shear and Static Stability- 
Procedure and Results 
Technical rept. 

W. R. Moninger. Dec 74, 82p NOAA-TR-ERL- 
314, WPL-36. NOAA-75041104 
Paper copy also available from GPO as 
C55.13:ERL314. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric disturbances. 
Mathematical models, Complex variables, 
Roots of equations, Eigenvectors, Algorithms, 
Computer programs. 

A program for finding the roots of a complex 
function has been adapted to find buoyancy- 
wave eigenfunctions of a three-layer at- 
mospheric model of E.E Gossard. Eigenfunc- 
tions are found in stable and unstable regions; 
the most unstable wavelengths are presented 
for various sets of model parameters. The pro- 
gram and its use are described, including deck 
listings and sample runs. 



COM-75-10595/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

Ohio State Univ., Research Foundation, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on 
High-Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric 
Gases. II. Calculations with the Voigt Line 
Shape 
Final rept. 

James K. G. Watson, and Peter K. L. Yin. Jan 75, 
118pNOAA-75041412 
Grant NOAA-NG-28-72 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, 

'Atmospheric attenuation. Atmospheric scat- 
tering, Refraction, Solar radiation, Computer 
programs, Absorption, Temperature, Water 
vapor, Spectral lines, Spectrum analysis, FOR- 
TRAN. 

Identifiers: 'Voigt profiles, Line shape, 'Solar 
occultation absorption technique. 

A general study of the effects of refraction and 
dispersion in the solar occultation absorption 
technique is described, based on the Voigt 
profile for the shapes of individual spectral 
lines. New numerical techniques are developed 
to evaluate both the absorption and the disper- 
sion of the Voigt profile. These techniques are 
then applied to calculations of the angular 
deviation and atmospheric absorption, taking 
into account the curvature of the path and the 
effect of anomalous dispersion. The feasibility 
of the sounding of the water vapor mixing ratio 
profile by intensity measurements of the line at 
1404.988/cm is investigated with the strong line 
approximation. The possibility of atmospheric 
temperature sounding by means of the occulta- 
tion absorption technique is discussed, and 
sensitivity tests are performed. The computer 
programs for these calculations, written in the 
FORTRAN IV language, are included in the Ap- 
pendix. 



COM-75-10945/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
D.C. Inst, for Applied Technology. 
Statistical Analysis of Extreme Winds 

Final technical note 

Emil Simiu, and James J. Filliben. Jun 75, 55p 

Reptno.NBS-TN-868 

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 75- 

600028. Paper copy also available from GPO as 

C13.46:868. 

Descriptors: 'Wind pressure, 'Hurricanes, 
'Building codes, Probability distribution func- 
tions. Wind velocity, Structural engineering, 
Risk, Statistical analysis, Weather stations. 
Meteorological data, Storms, Predictions, Com- 
puter programs. Errors. 

With a view to assessing the validity of current 
probabilistic approaches to the definition of 
design wind speeds, a study was undertaken of 
extreme wind speeds based on records taken at 
21 U.S. weather stations. For the purpose of 
analyzing extreme value data, a computer pro- 
gram was developed, which is described 
herein. The following results were obtained: (1) 
The assumption that a single probability dis- 
tribution is universally applicable to all extreme 
wind data sets in a given type of climate was not 
confirmed, and (2) predictions of 100-year wind 
speeds based on overlapping 20-year sets of 
data taken at the same station differed between 
themselves by as much as 100%. Similar predic- 
tions for 1000-year winds differed by as much 
as a few hundred %. Since wind pressures are 
proportional to the square of the wind speeds, 
errors of such magnitude are unacceptably 
high for structural design purposes. 



COM-75-11143/5CP PC A04/MF A01 

Office of Telecommunications, Boulder, Colo. 

Inst, for Telecommunication Sciences. 

Global Representation of Annual and Solar 

Cycle Variation of foF2 Monthly Median 1954- 

1958 

Research rept. 



48 



William B. Jones, and David L. Obitts. Oct 70, 
51p Rept no. OT/ITSRR-3 

Descriptors: 'Solar activity, *F 2 region, 
'Ionosphere, Sunspots, Electromagnetic noise, 
Solar radio emission, Solar cycle, Diurnal varia- 
tions, Tables(Data), Graphs(Charts), Statistical 
data, Computer programs, FORTRAN. 

Annual and solar cycle variations of foF2 
monthly median numerical maps are analyzed 
for the 60 months of 1954 through 1958. The re- 
port includes a description of the procedures 
used in the analysis, an analysis of residuals 
between observed data and computed values, 
and FORTRAN program statements. 



COM-75-11332/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Md. 
Office of Hydrology. 

Estimation of Hurricane Storm Surge in 
Apalachicola Bay, Florida 
Technical rept. 

James E. Overland. Jun 75, 73p NOAA-TR- 
NWS-17, NOAA-75082610 

Sponsored in part by Federal Insurance Ad- 
ministration, Washington, D.C. 

Descriptors: 'Storm surges, 'Hurricanes, 
'Apalachicola Bay, Climate, Mathematical 
models, Hydrodynamics, Wind velocity, Flood- 
ing, Models, Atmospheric pressure, 
Islands(Landforms), Barriers, Hydrology, 
BaysfTopographic features), Coasts, Florida, 
Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Hurricane Agnes. 

A vertically integrated two-dimensional numeri- 
cal hydrodynamic model is developed for simu- 
lation of hurricane surge in Apalachicola Bay. 
Standard explicit time differencing is used in 
conjunction with a single Richardson lattice. 
Model features include finite amplitude effects, 
space variable wind velocities, and parame- 
terization of flooding of terrain, overtopping of 
barrier islands and flow through narrow passes. 
The model utilizes the results of C.P. Jelesnian- 
ski's SPLASH model computation for open 
coast surge as input seaward of the Bay and 
continues the same storm tract and wind field 
as used in the SPLASH computation across the 
Bay. The Bay model was calibrated for the as- 
tronomical tides and verified against hurricane 
Agnes. The response of Apalachicola Bay has 
been determined from numerical computations 
for a variety of hypothetical hurricanes as 
specified by various storm parameters. Surge 
heights in the Bay increase with hurricane cen- 
tral pressure depression in a nearly linear 
fashion as does the open coast surge. An im- 
portant parameter is the duration that the open 
coast surge remains high, a function of the for- 
ward speed of the storm and, to a lesser extent, 
the radius of the maximum winds. 



COM-75-11395/1CP PC A17/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Ralph 
M. Parsons Lab. for Water Resources and 
Hydrodynamics. 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic 
Processes: Data Collection and Synthesis 
Rafael L. Bras, and Ignacio Rodriguez-lturbe. 
Jan 75, 384p* 196, R75-5, NOAA-75091809 
Contract C-4-36738, DI-14-31-0001-9021 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Runoff, 'Flood forecast- 
ing. Stochastic processes, Rainfall intensity. 
Optimization, Mathematical models, Sampling, 
Computer programs, Weather forecasting, Cor- 
relation techniques, Storms, Theses. 
Identifiers: 'Storm water runoff. 

This work recognizes rainfall and runoff as mul- 
tidimensional stochastic processes. Using the 
knowledge of such processes, a procedure for 
designing an optimal network to measure the 
total precipitation of an event over a fixed area 
is given. The methodology used in this static 



problem allows consideration of the following 
aspects of network design: (1) Spatial correla- 
tion of process (2) errors of measurement 
techniques and their correlation (3) non- 
homogeneous sampling costs. Optimal net- 
works are given in terms of the number and lo- 
cation of stations together with the resulting 
cost and mean square error of estimation. The 
relation between rainfall and runoff is recog- 
nized as a dynamic problem. A statistically non- 
stationary, multi-dimensional rainfall generator 
is suggested. The suggested rainfall model is 
used together with a runoff model to study the 
accuracy of discharge prediction as a function 
of the rainfall sampling network. 



COM-75-11442/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 

DC. Center for Building Technology. 

The Buffeting of Tall Structures by Strong 

Winds 

Building science series 

Emil Simiu, and Daniel W. Lozier. Oct 75, 93p* 

Rept no. NBS-BSS-74 

Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 75-30727. 

Descriptors: 'Skyscrapers, 'Wind pressure, 
Gust loads, Lateral pressure. Buffeting, Build- 
ing codes. Dynamic response, Structural en- 
gineering, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Tall buildings. 

Certain shortcomings of current procedures for 
computing alongwind structural response have 
been shown to result in unrealistic estimates of 
tall building behavior under the action of strong 
winds. Differences between predictions of fluc- 
tuating response based on various such 
procedures may be as high as 200%. In recent 
years, advances in the state of the art have been 
made which provide a basis for significantly im- 
proved alongwind response predictions. The 
purpose of the present work is to present a 
procedure for calculating alongwind response 
which incorporates and utilizes these ad- 
vances. The basic structural, meteorological 
and aerodynamic models employed are 
described, and expressions for the alongwind 
deflections and accelerations, consistent with 
those models, are derived. A computer program 
is presented for calculating the alongwind 
response of structures with unusual modal 
shapes or for which the contribution of the 
higher modes to the response is significant. 



COM-75-50059/5CP PC-GPO/MF A01-NTIS 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Space Environment Lab. 
Global Scintillation Model 
Technical rept. 

J. H. Pope. Aug 74, 37p NOAA-TR-ERL-308, 
SEL-30, NOAA-74121115 

Paper copy available from GPO as 
C55.13:ERL308-SEL30. 

Descriptors: "Ionosphere, 'Sunspots, Scintilla- 
tion, Electron density(Concentration), Mathe- 
matical models, Computer programs. Magnetic 
storms, Ionospheric disturbances, Seasonal 
variations, Diurnal variations. 
Identifiers: 'Ionospheric scintillations. 

This report describes a recently developed 
global scintillation model and its use for esti- 
mating scintillation effects under various 
operational conditions This model includes 
frequency, solar cycle activity, seasonal effects, 
diurnal effects, and variations with global loca- 
tion. Certain geometrical effects are also con- 
sidered 



CONF-731205-1 PC E01/MF A01 

Argonne National Lab., Ill, (Usa). 

The What System: A New Digitized 

Radiosonde and Double Theodolite Balloon 

Tracking System for Atmospheric Boundary 

Layer Investigations 

P. Frenzen, and L. L. Prucha. 1973, 9p 



Descriptors: 'Meteorology, 'Measuring instru- 
ments, 'Air pollution, Measuring instruments, 
Balloons, Boundary layers, Computer codes, 
Electronic equipment, Optical systems, Spatial 
distribution, Temperature measurement, W 
codes, Wind. 
Identifiers: AEC. 

For abstract, see NSA29 03, number 07423. 



CONF-770210-3 PC A02/MF A01 

Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, Tenn. Nuclear 
Div. 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environ- 
ment 

R.J. Raridon. 1977, 19p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-26 

A. A. advancement of science conference, 
Denver, Colorado, United States of America 
(USA), 20 Feb 1977. 

Descriptors: 'Elements, 'Fossil-fuel power 
plants, 'Gaseous wastes, 'Sulfur dioxide, 
'Mathematical models, 'Trace amounts, A 
codes. Calcium, Computer calculations. Com- 
puter codes. Ecosystems, Environmental ef- 
fects, Environmental transport, H codes, Mag- 
nesium, Nitrogen, Nutrients, Phosphorus, 
Potassium, Sodium, Surface air, Surface 
waters, Toxicity. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500200. ERDA/520200, 
ERDA/010900, 'Path of pollutants, Combustion 
products, Industrial wastes. Air pollution sam- 
pling, Atmosheric motion, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Hydrology, Air water inter- 
faces. 

Applications of computer models for air trans- 
port (ATM) and hydrologic transport (HTM) to 
determine the pathways of trace elements in the 
environment are discussed. Computed data 
and measured data are compared for poten- 
tially toxic contaminants found in gaseous 
wastes from fossil-fuel power plants. It is 
pointed out that meteorological data are 
required for the air transport model and that for 
each source it is necessary to know the emis- 
sion rate, source height, and location relative to 
the receptor point. Results of studies on ground 
level SO sub 2 concentrations in mu g/m exp 3 
as a function of distance from a proposed fos- 
sil-fuel power plant, the environmental impact 
of an existing power plant on its surroundings, 
and in monitoring a 98 hectare watershed for 
nutrient elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, N, and P) are 
discussed. (ERA citation 02:04621 5) 



CONF-771109-58 PC A02/MF A01 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 
Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent At- 
mospheric Transport: Comparison with Ex- 
perimental Data 

R. G. Alsmiller, Jr, F. S. Alsmiller, H. W. Bertini, 
and C. L. Begovich. 1977, 6p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-26 

ANS winter meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, 
27 Nov 1977. 

Descriptors: 'Computer codes, 'Plumes, 
'Smokes, 'Stack disposal, Earth atmosphere, 
Computer calculations. Diffusion, Monte Carlo 
method, S codes, Simulation, Turbulence, 
Wind. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500100, Combustion 

products, Industrial wastes, Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Air pollution, SPOOR computer program. 

The Monte Carlo computer code SPOOR per- 
mits simple trajectories of individual tracer par- 
ticles in the atmosphere to be followed. As 
originally formulated, SPOOR provided the mo- 
tion of the centroid of a puff of airborne tracers 
released instantaneously from a fixed source 
and the time evolution of the puff shape. 
SPOOR has now been modified to allow for 
continuous particle emission from a smoke 
stack. Comparisons were made with experi- 
mental data. (ERA citation 03:029307) 



49 



COO-1199-45 PC A02/MF A01 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 
Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An 
Inadvertent Weather Modification Study. 

R. Cataneo. 1974, 3p Rept no. CONF-741 165-1 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, Weather, 'Weather, 
"Monitoring, 'Atmospheric precipitations, 
Monitoring, Aircraft, Computer codes. Human 
populations, Measuring instruments, 

Meteorology, Radar, Sociology, Urban areas. 
Water. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500200, ERDA/500100, 
'Urban areas, 'Inadvertent weather modifica- 
tion. 

The goals of METROMEX are: to study the ef- 
fects of urban environments upon the frequen- 
cy, amount, intensity and duration of precipita- 
tion and related severe weather; to identify the 
physical processes of the atmosphere which 
are responsible for producing the observed 
urban weather effects: to isolate the factors of 
the city complex which are the causative agents 
of the observed effects; and to assess the im- 
pact of urban induced inadvertent weather 
changes upon society. To achieve these goals, 
the Water Survey has established and operates 
networks of surface meteorological instrumen- 
tation in the St. Louis region, operates a 
meteorological aircraft, and utilizes weather 
radars to observe clouds and precipitation. 



COO-1340-52 Not available NTIS 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of At- 
mospheric Science. 

Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Energy 
Utilization and Conservation 
E. R. Reiter, G. R. Johnson, W. L. Somervell, Jr, 
E. W. Sparling, and E. Dreiseitly. Nov 76, 86p 
Contract EY-76-S-02-1340 

Available from ERDA, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, 
TN 37830, Attn: TIC. 

Descriptors: 'Buildings, 'Energy conservation, 
'Energy consumption, 'Energy models, Com- 
puter codes, USA, Economics, Energy demand, 
Forecasting, H codes, Mathematical models. 
Meteorology, Research programs, Space heat- 
ing, Weather. 
Identifiers: ERDA/320100. 

Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 
31 October 1976 is reported. A "physical-adap- 
tive" model of the space-conditioning demand 
for energy and its response to changes in 
weather regimes was developed. This model in- 
cludes parameters pertaining to engineering 
factors of building construction, to weather-re- 
lated factors, and to socio-economic factors. 
Preliminary testing of several components of 
the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, 
yielded most encouraging results. Other com- 
ponents, especially those pertaining to socio- 
economic factors, are still under development. 
Expansion of model applications to different 
types of structures and larger regions is 
presently underway. A CRT-display model for 
energy demand within the conterminous United 
States also has passed preliminary tests. A 
major effort was expended to obtain disag- 
gregated data on energy use from utility com- 
panies throughout the United States. The study 
of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- 
to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic 
energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is 
related to the behavior of the planetary long- 
waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal 
available potential energy is reflected in the 
development of blocking highs. Attempts to 
classify weather patterns over the eastern and 
central United States have proceeded satisfac- 
torily to the point where testing of our method 
for longer time periods appears desirable. (ERA 
citation 02:022698) 



JPRS-53174 PC E01 MF A01 

Joint Publications Research Service, Washing- 
ton, DC. 



Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by 
Krypton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power 
Plants and the Radiation Danger 

I. L. Karol, V. M. Ivanov, V. M. Kolobashkin. O. I. 
Leipunskii, and V. I. Nekrasov. 20 May 71, 18p* 
Trans, from mono. Globalnoe Zagryaznenie At- 
mosfery Kriptonom-85 ot Mirovoi Yadernoi 
Energetiki i Ego Radiatsionnaya Opasnost, 
Moscow, n.d., 25p. 

Descriptors: 'Krypton 85, "Atmospheric com- 
position, 'Air pollution, 'Radioactive contami- 
nants, 'Nuclear power plants, Air pollution, 
Mathematical models, Computer programs, 
Radiation dosage, Troposphere, Stratosphere, 
Atmospheric motion. Forecasting, Cosmic rays, 
Concentration(Composition), Nuclear explo- 
sion effects. Standards, USSR, Translations. 

In the report the annual mean and zonally 
averaged concentration of krypton-85 in the 
troposphere and lower stratosphere of the 
Northern and Southern hemispheres is calcu- 
lated on the basis of a numerical solution with a 
computer of boundary problems for an equa- 
tion of a numerical derivation of a model of the 
global spread of the admixture in a meridional 
plane of the atmosphere as constructed by 
Karol. The results of the calculations with vari- 
ous combinations of the parameters of the 
transfer of the model are compared with results 
of measurements both in our country and 
abroad. Predicted distribution of the expected 
levels of concentration of krypton-85 have been 
obtained up to the year 2000. The correspond- 
ing radiation dose strengths in the air for the 
whole body and for individual organs of the 
human body have also been calculated. These 
dose strengths and concentrations are com- 
pared with the maximum allowable levels which 
have been established on the basis of the cur- 
rent recommendations of the International 
Commission for Radiological Defense and 
medical rules. (Author) 



LA-6103 PC A03/MF A01 

Los Alamos Scientific Lab., N.Mex. 
Monte Carlo Simulation of the Turbulent 
Transport of Airborne Contaminants. 

C. W. Watson, and S. Barr. Sep 75, 28p 
Contract W-7405-Eng-36 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Diffusion, Com- 
puter codes, Monte Carlo method, S codes, 
Simulation, Time dependence. Transport, Tur- 
bulence, Wind. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric diffusion. Mathemati- 
cal models. Computer programs. 

A generalized, three-dimensional Monte Carlo 
model and computer code (SPOOR) are 
described for simulating atmospheric transport 
and dispersal of small pollutant clouds. A cloud 
is represented by a large number of particles 
that we track by statistically sampling simulated 
wind and turbulence fields. These fields are 
based on generalized wind data for large-scale 
flow and turbulent energy spectra for the 
micro- and mesoscales. The large-scale field 
can be input from a climatological data base, or 
by means of real-time analyses, or from a 
separate, subjectively defined data base. We in- 
troduce the micro- and mesoscale wind fluc- 
tuations through a power spectral density, to 
include effects from a broad spectrum of turbu- 
lent-energy scales. The role of turbulence is 
simulated in both meander and dispersal. Com- 
plex flow fields and time-dependent diffusion 
rates are accounted for naturally, and shear ef- 
fects are simulated automatically in the ensem- 
ble of particle trajectories. An important ad- 
junct has been the development of computer- 
graphics displays. These include two- and 
three-dimensional (perspective) snapshots and 
color motion pictures of particle ensembles, 
plus running displays of differential and in- 
tegral cloud characteristics. The model's ver- 
satility makes it a valuable atmospheric 
research tool that we can adapt easily into 



broader, multicomponent systems-analysis 
codes. Removal, transformation, dry or wet 
deposition, and resuspension of contaminant 
particles can be readily included. 



LA-6763 PC A06/MF A01 

Los Alamos Scientific Lab., N.Mex. 
Rainout Assessment: The ACRA System and 
Summaries of Simulation Results 

C. W. Watson, S. Barr, and R. E. Allenson. Sep 

77, 123p 

Contract W-7405-ENG-36 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear weapons, 'Precipitation 
scavenging, 'Radioactive aerosols, 

'Radioactive clouds, A codes. Climates, Com- 
puter calculations, Computer codes. Diffusion, 
Earth crust, Environmental transport, Europe, 
Forecasting, Meteorology, Monte carlo method, 
Nuclear explosions, Probability, Rain, Random- 
ness, Simulation, Storms, Surface air, Time de- 
pendence, Washout. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500300, ERDA/450202, 
Mathematical models. Atmospheric diffusion, 
ACRA system. 

A generalized, three-dimensional, integrated 
computer code system was developed to esti- 
mate collateral-damage threats from precipita- 
tion-scavenging (rainout) of airborne debris- 
clouds from defensive tactical nuclear engage- 
ments. This code system, called ACRA for At- 
mospheric-Contaminant Rainout Assessment, 
is based on Monte Carlo statistical simulation 
methods that allow realistic, unbiased simula- 
tions of probabilistic storm, wind, and 
precipitation fields that determine actual mag- 
nitudes and probabilities of rainout threats. 
Detailed models (or data bases) are included for 
synoptic-scale storm and wind fields; debris 
transport and dispersal (with the roles of com- 
plex flow fields, time-dependent diffusion, and 
multidimensional shear effects accounted for 
automatically); microscopic debris-precipita- 
tion interactions and scavenging probabilities; 
air-to-ground debris transport; local demo- 
graphic features, for assessing actual threats to 
populations; and nonlinear effects accumula- 
tions from multishot scenarios. The authors 
simulated several hundred representative shots 
for West European scenarios and climates to 
study single-shot and multishot sensitivities of 
rainout effects to variations in pertinent physi- 
cal variables. (ERA citation 03:019731 ) 



N70-22632/CP HC E01 MF A01 

TRW Systems, Redondo Beach, Calif. 
Feasibility Study for Remote Sensing of At- 
mospheric Turbulence Profiles. 

R. S. Margulies, A. Peskoff, and L. K. Wanlas. 
Mar 70, 99p Rept nos. NASA-CR-1 491 , TRW- 
1 0636-6001 -R0-00 
Contract NAS12-2023 
Coll-99PRefs 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 'Clear air 
turbulence, 'Remote sensors, Computer pro- 
grams, Correlation, Data reduction, Environ- 
ment simulation, Mathematical models. 

For abstract, see STAR 081 



N70-22824/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Danish Space Research Inst., Lyngby. 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 

Propagation of VLF Waves Through the 

Lower Ionosphere with Special Reference to 

Auroral Hiss. 

E. Ungstrup. Oct 69, 21 p 

Spon- Sponsored By Tech. Univ. of Den. 

Descriptors: 'Arcs, 'Hiss, "Lower ionosphere, 
'Ray tracing, 'Very low frequencies, Computer 
programs, D region, E region. Electromagnetic 
scattering. Electron density (concentration), 
Ionospheric propagation, Irregularities, Snells 
law, Whistlers. 



50 



For abstract, see STAR 0810 



N70-25092/CP HC E01 MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis 
- Testing the Results for Accuracy. 
E.J.Gregg. Mar 70, 21 p Rept nos. NASA-TM-X- 
63879, X-621 -70-71 
Subm- Submitted for Publication 

Descriptors: "Data reduction, 'Electron probes, 
'Error analysis, 'Explorer 32 satellite, Computer 
programs, Electron density (concentration), 
Electron energy. 

For abstract, see STAR 081 1 



N70-26323/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Ludwig-maximilians-universitat, Munich (West 
Germany). Meteorologisches Inst. 
Statistical Evaluation of Measured Data Ob- 
tained at the Meteorological Station of the 
Munich Research Reactor. 
Statistische Bearbeitung Der An Der 
Meteorologischen Station Beim 
Forschungsreaktor Muenchen Gewonnenen 
Messdaten 

E. Schoellmann. Apr68, 106p Rept no. MITT-14 
Lang- in German 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological parameters, 
'Reactor technology, 'Statistical analysis. An- 
nual variations, Atmospheric moisture, At- 
mospheric temperature, Computer programs. 
Diurnal variations, Fortran, Germany, Nuclear 
research and test reactors. Vapor pressure, 
Wind velocity. 

For abstract, see STAR 0812 



N70-29050/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Departement D Etudes Et de Recherches en 
Technologie Spatiale, Toulouse (France). 
Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle 
Flux in the Stable Region of the Magneto- 
sphere. 

Evaluation Theorique Et Calcul des Flux de 
Particules Dans La Zone Stable De'la 
Magnetosphere 

J. -P. Philippon. 10 Mar 70, 145p 
Lang- in French 

Descriptors: 'Aerospace environments, 'Flux 
(rate), 'Magnetosphere, 'Radiation belts, 
'Satellite orbits. Computer programs, Geomag- 
netism, Trapped particles. 

For abstract, see STAR 0814 



N70-29112/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Meteorologisches Observatorium, Hohenpeis- 
senberg (West Germany). 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of 
Radiosonde Ascents. 

Programm Zur Elektronischen Auswertung Von 

Radiosondenaufstiegen 

Oct69,62p 

Lang- in German Seri- Its Sonderbeobachtun- 

gen des Meteorol. Obs. Hohenpeissenberg No. 

4 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric composition, 
'Atmospheric physics, 'Computer programs, 
"Ozonometry, 'Radiosondes, Cdc 3800 com- 
puter, Data processing equipment, Evaluation, 
Observatories. 

For abstract, see STAR 0814 



N70-31479/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Luftwaffenamt, Porz (West Germany). Inspek- 
tion Geo-physikalischer Beratungsdienst Der 
Bundeswehr. 



Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes 
- Tripoli, Libya, 1951-1957. Part 1 - Work Re- 
port. 

Hochreichende Radiosondenaufstiege - 

Tripolis/Libyen, 1951-1957. Teil 1 - 

Arbeitsbericht 

W. Alfuth. Nov 68, 51 p Rept no. 

GEOPHYSBDBW-FM-l/138 

Lang- in German 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Digital 
computers, 'High altitude, 'Meteorological 
charts, 'Meteorological parameters, 

"Radiosondes, Atmospheric pressure, Data 
acquisition. Frequency distribution, Statistical 
analysis, Tables (data). 

For abstract, see STAR 0816 



N70-35689/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, 
Calif. Space Sciences Lab. 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Re- 
port, 1 Mar. - 31 May 1970. 
31 May 70, 67p Rept nos. NASA-CR-1 10029, 
QR-3 
Contract NAS5-10392 

Descriptors: *Ats 5, 'Auroral spectroscopy, 
'Data reduction, 'Magnetospheric instability, 
Computer programs, Spectrum analysis. 

For abstract, see STAR 081 9 



N70-35774/CP HC E01 MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Electronics Research Center, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for 
the Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propaga- 
tion. 

J. Ramasastry, and E.J.Walsh. 1970, 299p Rept 
no. NASA-SP-3055 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Digital 
computers, 'Electromagnetic radiation, 

'Magnetosphere, 'Ray tracing, Control units 
(computers), Input/output routines. Integrators, 
Manuals, Mathematical models. 

For abstract, see STAR 081 9 



N70-36971/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Weapons Research Establishment, Salisbury 
(Australia). 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray, by Ray Trac- 
ing Through the Atmosphere. 
F. C. Hymus, and K. H. Lloyd. May 69, 46p Rept 
no. WRE-TN-HSA-152 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric radiation, 

'Computer programs, 'Radiation absorption, 
'Ray tracing, 'Solar radiation, Atmospheric 
models, Atmospheric refraction, Fortran, 
Twilight glow. 

For abstract, see STAR 0820 



N70-40978/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Iono- 
sphere Research Lab. 

Tables from the Penn State Mark 1 Iono- 
spheric Model. 

J. S. Nisbet. 20 Aug 70, 1 74p Rept nos. NASA- 

CR-113799.SR-362/E/ 

Contract NGL-39-009-003 

Descriptors: *F 2 region, "Ionospheric electron 
density, 'Sporadic e layer, 'Tables (data), At- 
mospheric models. Computer programs. 

For abstract, see STAR 0823 



N70-42935/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Aeronomy Lab. 



Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision 
Frequencies from Rocket Data. 

N. Golshan, E. A. Mechtly, P. E. Monro, and R. 
S. Sastry. 1 Jul 70, 62p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
110899, UILU-ENG-70-260 
Contract NGR-14-005-013 
Seri- Its Aeronomy Rept. No. 37 

Descriptors: 'Collision rates, 'Computer pro- 
grams, 'Electron density (concentration), 
'Lower ionosphere, 'Nike-apache rocket vehi- 
cle, Fortran, Numerical analysis, Radio trans- 
mission. Standing waves. 

For abstract, see STAR 0824 



N71-10986/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Scientific Translation Service, Santa Barbara, 

Calif. 

Machine Analysis of Infrared Cloud Images 

Obtained by the Cosmos-122 Satellite. 

Mashinnyy Analiz Infrakrasnykh Izobrazheniy 

Oblachnosti Poluchennykh So Sputnika 

Kosmos- 122 

L. G. Maxina. Nov 70, 15p Rept no. NASA-TT-F- 

13369 

Contract NASW-2035 

Coll- 15 P Refs Tran- Transl. Into English From 

Tr. Gidrometeorol. Nauchno-issledovatel' 

SkogoTsentraSsr(USSR), No. 20, 1968 P 59-66 

Descriptors: 'Cloud photography, 'Cosmos 
satellites, 'Infrared imagery, 'Television equip- 
ment. Algorithms, Computer programs, Decod- 
ing. 

For abstract, see STAR 0901 



N71-22619/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Cornell Aeronautical Lab., Inc., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and 
Fog Modification Concepts 

W.J. Eadie, W. C. Kocmond, R. P. Leonard, E.J. 
Mack, and R.J. Pilie. Apr 71, 113p Rept nos. 
NASA-CR-1731, CAL-RM-2864-P-1 
Contract NASW-1933 
Coll- 113 P Refs 

Descriptors: 'Chemical reactions, 'Cloud seed- 
ing, 'Fog, 'Hygroscopicity, Computer pro- 
grams, Dissipation, Meteorological parameters, 
Turbulent diffusion. 
Identifiers: NASA subject code 20. 

For abstract, see STAR 091 1 



N71-25669/CP PC A03 

Office National D Etudes Et de Recherches 
Aerospatiales, Toulouse (France). Dept. 
D'etudes Et de Recherches en Technologie 
Spatiale. 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribu- 
tion of Absorbed Doses in Space Environ- 
ment and Charged Particle Acceleration Thin 
Films (Protons and Electrons) 
Programme Eldose pour le Calcul des 
Repartitions de Doses Absorbees Dans les 
Ecrans Minces en Environnement Spatial Et en 
Simulation A I'Accelerateur de Particules 
Chargees (Protons - Electrons) 
J. Bourrieau, and R. Schuttler Dec 70, 34p Rept 
no. ONERA-NT-/02/20/70 
Lang- in French 

Descriptors: "Computer programs, "Electron 
flux density, "Proton flux density, "Radiation 
dosage, "Satellite orbits, "Spatial distribution. 
Computerized simulation. Pulse amplitude, 
Space environment simulation. Synchronous 
satellites, Thin films. 

For abstract, see STAR 0914 



N71-30149/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Huntsville, 
Ala. Research and Engineering Center. 



51 



Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) 
User's Manual 

J. E.Tyson. May 71, 134p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
119176, HREC-6128-1 
Contract NAS8-26128 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Data reduc- 
tion, 'Data storage, 'Low pass filters, 'Magnetic 
tapes, 'Radar tracking, Balloons, Curve fitting, 
Mathematical models, Univac 1108 computer, 
Wind velocity. 

For abstract, see STAR 091 7 



N71-33870/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Space Science and 

Engineering Center. 

Time Domain Data Extraction, Radio Al- 

timetry, and Application of Ats Data Quarterly 

Report, 1 Apr. - 30 Jun. 1971 

V. E. Suomi. 30 Jun 71 , 8p Rept no. NASA-CR- 

121438 

Contract NAS5-1 1542 

Descriptors: "Applications technology satel- 
lites, 'Data reduction, 'Meteorology, 'Radio al- 
timeters, Cloud photographs. Computer pro- 
grams. 

For abstract, see STAR 0920 



N71-35701/CP PC E01/MF A01 

United Aircraft Corp., East Hartford, Conn. 
Research Labs. 

Additional Research on Instabilities in At- 
mospheric Flow Systems Associated with 
Clear Air Turbulence 

R. C.Stoeffler. Aug 71, 105p Rept nos. NASA- 
CR-122041, K910563-19 
Contract NASW-1582 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 'Clear 
air turbulence, 'Computer programs, 'Shear 
layers, Atmospheric density, Flow stability, Jet 
streams (meteorology), Mountains. 

For abstract, see STAR 0922 



N72-14641/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Physics. 
Use of the Negative Binomial-Truncated Pois- 
son Distribution in Thunderstorm Prediction 

A. C. Cohen. Dec 71, 18p Rept no. NASA-CR- 

61370 

Contract NAS8-11175 

Descriptors: "Poisson density functions, 
'Statistical weather forecasting, 

'Thunderstorms, Approximation, Binomial 
theorem. Computer programs. Mathematical 
models. Probability distribution functions. 

For abstract, see STAR 1005 



N72-16144/CP PCE01/MFA01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex. 
A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use 
with Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 

K. D. Kyle. Oct 71 , 35p Rept no. NASA-TM-X- 
58071 

Descriptors: "Cloud cover, 'Computer pro- 
grams, 'Data processing, "Earth resources pro- 
gram, 'Mission planning, Earth resources sur- 
vey aircraft, Earth resources technology satel- 
lites. Remote sensors, Univac 1 108 computer. 

For abstract, see STAR 1007 



N72-18359/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Northrop Services, Inc., Huntsville, Ala 
Auroral Oval Kinematics Program 

R. H. Comfort. Jan 72, 109p Rept nos. NASA- 

CR-61373.TR-241-1028 

Contract NAS8-21810 



Descriptors: 'Auroral zones, 'Computer pro- 
grams, 'Kinematics, Geography, Magnetic 
storms, Universal time. 

A computer program which determines the 
geographic location of the auroral oval for 
given universal time and level of geomagnetic 
activity was developed for use on the IBM 7094 
computer. The program provides both printed 
output of geographic coordinates of auroral 
oval boundaries and polar plots of the auroral 
oval. In addition, there is available a time-in- 
tegration option which indicates how long a 
given location is under the auroral oval during a 
specified period. A description is given of the 
program and its use. 



N72-20322/CP PC E01/MF A01 

United Aircraft Corp., East Hartford, Conn. 
Additional Research on Instabilities in At- 
mospheric Flow Systems Associated with 
Clear Air Turbulence 

R. C. Stoeffler. Apr 72, 75p Rept no. NASA-CR- 
1985 
Contract NASW-1582 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 'Clear air 
turbulence, 'Flow stability, Computer pro- 
grams, Fluid mechanics, Lee waves. Open 
channel flow, Shear flow. Velocity distribution. 

Analytical and experimental fluid mechanics 
studies were conducted to investigate instabili- 
ties in atmospheric flow systems associated 
with clear air turbulence. The experimental por- 
tion of the pd using an open water channel 
which allows investigation of flows having wide 
ranges of shear air turbulence. The experimen- 
tal portion of the pd using an open water chan- 
nel which allows investigation of flows having 
wide ranges of shear and density stratification. 
The program was primarily directed toward stu- 
dies of the stability of straight, stratified shear 
flows with particular emphasis on the effects of 
velocity profile on stability: on studies of three- 
dimensional effects on the breakdown region in 
shear layers; on the the interaction of shear 
flows with long-wave length internal waves; 
and on the stability of shear flows consisting of 
adjacent stable layers. The results of these stu- 
dies were used to evaluate methods used in 
analyses of CAT encounters in the atmosphere 
involving wave-induced shear layer instabilities 
of the Kelvin-Helmholta type. A computer pro- 
gram was developed for predicting shear-layer 
instability and CAT induced by mountain waves. 
This technique predicts specific altitudes and 
locations where CAT would be expected. 
(Author) 



N72-24972/CP PC A03/MF A01 

Institut Franco-allemand de Recherches, St. 

Louis (france). 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up 

to 1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K . 

Equation Detat de Lair pour Une Pression In- 

ferieure a 1000 Bar et Une Temperature In- 

ferieure a 3000 K 

G. Freiss. 21 Sep 70, 26p Rept no. ISL-19/70 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, "Equations 
of state, "Nuclear explosions, 'Shock waves, 
'Thermodynamics, Air, Gas mixtures. Gas pres- 
sure, Gas temperature, Real gases. 

The equation of state for air behind the shock 
wave of a nuclear explosion where pressure 
might be as high as 1000 bar is developed. 
Thermodynamic parameters such as pressure, 
enthalpy, and entropy of the air, considered as 
a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, are calcu- 
lated. The computer program is included. 
(Author) 



N72-26289/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Inst, for 
Environmental Studies. 



A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting 
Concentration Profiles in a Turbulent Boun- 
dary Layer over a Flat Plate 

M.S. Thesis 

J. W. Dow. Jun 72, 1 16p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 

2050, IES-72-02-001 

Contract NGL-25-001-32 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric diffusion, 'Flat 
plates, 'Mass transfer, 'Numerical analysis, 
'Turbulent boundary layer, Ammonia, At- 
mospheric models, Computer programs, For- 
tran, Turbulent diffusion. 

A numerical solution of the turbulent mass 
transport equation utilizing the concept of eddy 
diffusivity is presented as an efficient method of 
investigating turbulent mass transport in boun- 
dary layer type flows. A FORTRAN computer 
program is used to study the two-dimensional 
diffusion of ammonia, from a line source on the 
surface, into a turbulent boundary layer over a 
flat plate. The results of the numerical solution 
are compared with experimental data to verify 
the results of the solution. Several other solu- 
tions to diffusion problems are presented to il- 
lustrate the versatility of the computer program 
and to provide some insight into the problem of 
mass diffusion as a whole. (Author) 



N72-28639/CP PC A02/MF A01 

Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki. 
Numerical Weather Prediction in Finland Dur- 
ing 1969 

D. Soederman. Dec 71 , 22p Rept no. TR-1 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Finland, 
'Numerical weather forecasting, Climatology, 
Data acquisition, Data processing, Meteorolog- 
ical parameters. 

The numerical weather prediction activities in 
Finland during 1969 are presented. The report 
includes a comparison of weekly 96 hour 
barotropic forecasts with the corresponding 
Swedish routine forecasts for the 500 mb level 
and verification of 52 cases of baroclinic 36 
hour forecasts, computed by using five 
separate versions of a filtered three-parameter 
model for each synoptic situation. (Author) 



N72-32833/CP PC E06/MF A01 

Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort 

Worth, Tex. 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite 

Data 

Final Report 

B.J. Farmer. Jul 72, 145p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 

128535, RRA-T7206 

Contract NAS9-1 1903 

Descriptors: 'Artificial satellites, 

'Extraterrestrial radiation, 'Meteorites, 

'Radiation and meteoroid satellite, 'Remote 
sensors, 'Satellite observation, Computer pro- 
grams, Data acquisition, Data processing 
equipment, Data systems. 

The data obtained in earth orbit by the Radia- 
tion and Meteoroid Satellite (RMS) were in- 
terpreted and reduced to a form which will be 
usable by future space experimenters. The 
required tasks are detailed. Computer pro- 
grams were written which lifted the raw data 
and associated emphemeris data from the GFE 
magnetic tapes. The engineering data was then 
used to evaluate the performance of the 
spacecraft and the experiments. The radiation 
data was used to prepare flux, spectral, and 
dose maps of the South Atlantic magnetic 
anomaly where possible. The meteoroid data 
was used to determine a rough estimate of the 
meteoroid flux and in general evaluate the per- 
formance of the thin-film meteoroid sensors. 
The degree of success of the RMS mission was 
evaluated in light of the separation anomaly 
which occurred between RMS and OFO during 
launch. (Author) 



52 



N73-11656/CP PC A04/MF A01 

Research Inst, of National Defence, Stockholm 
(Sweden). 

Computer Program for Calculation of 
Geostrophic Trajectories . Datorprogram Foer 
Beraekning AV Geostrofiska Trajektorier 
A. Ekroth. Jul 71 , 58p Rept no. FOA-4-C-4469- 
A1 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 

'Geostrophic wind, Fortran, Trajectories. 

A method and program are described for calcu- 
lating geostrophic trajectories. The calculation 
is based on information about topography of an 
isobar contour and can be done either forwards 
or backwards in time for up to 99 simultaneous 
trajectories. Input and output data are specified 
so that calculations can be made to continue on 
from the trajectories end point. The program is 
written in FORTRAN 4 for the IBM 7090 com- 
puter. (Author) 



N73-13376/CP PC A03/MF A01 

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Space Physics 

Research Lab. 

OGO-F-02 Data Analysis 

Final Report 

A. F. Nagy, W. M. Silvis, and E. C. Foust. Nov 72, 

37p Rept no. NASA-CR-130128 

Contract NAS5-9306, ORA PROJ. 078900 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Electron 
energy, *Ogo-d, Electron density 

(concentration), Electrostatic probes, Statisti- 
cal analysis. 

The OGO-VI satellite, which was launched on 
June 5, 1969 carried a complement of twenty- 
six experiments. One of those instruments, the 
F-02 package, was a cylindrical Langmuir 
probe experiment whose primary purpose was 
to measure ionospheric electron temperatures 
and densities. This report briefly describes the 
F-02 experiment itself, outlines the computer 
programs developed to analyze the raw data, 
and gives a summary of the scientific informa- 
tion obtained, with the aid of this experiment. 
(Author) 



N73-14808/CP PC E01/MF A01 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Space Science 
Center. 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind. The In- 
terplanetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects 
on the Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 
and 35 Data 
Final Report 

P.J. Coleman, Jr. 9 Aug 72, 13p Rept no. NASA- 
CR-129924 
Contract NGR-05-007-305 

Descriptors: 'Bow waves, 'Explorer satellites, 
'Magnetic effects, 'Solar wind, Computer pro- 
grams, Magnetic storms. Shock waves. 

The work completed in the study of the effects 
of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic 
field on the bow shock and geomagnetic cavity 
is reported along with work underway but not 
yet completed. The correlative data from Ex- 
plorer 33 and 35, and the computer programs 
for processing the data are described. The 
research discussed includes: polar cusps, sub- 
storms, geomagnetic activity, and North-South 
component of the interplanetary magnetic field. 
Lists of publications, and papers presented at 
meetings are included. 



N73-20309/CP PC E05/MF A01 

Lockheed Electronics Co., Houston, Tex. Ap- 
plied Mechanics Dept. 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows, Volume 1 
C. P. Li. Feb 73, 123p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
128871, TR2007-VOL-1 
Contract NAS9-1 2200 



Descriptors: 'Atmospheric entry, 'Flow dis- 
tribution, 'Flow equations, 'Nose cones, 'Space 
shuttle orbiters, Boundary layer flow, Computer 
programs, Reentry physics, Viscous flow. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

The computer programs developed for compu- 
tation of viscous shock layer flow distribution 
surrounding the nose of a shuttle orbiter during 
reentry are presented. The problem formulation 
and the numerical procedures used to solve the 
basic set of equations are described. The 
results of flow distribution properties at several 
trajectory points, ranging from the high altitude 
rarefied region to the low altitude boundary 
layer region are analyzed. (Author) 



N73-28050/5CP PC E09/MF A01 

Cramer (H.E.) Co., Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and 

Computer Program for Operational Prediction 

of Toxic Fuel Hazards 

R. K. Dumbauld, J. R. Bjorklund, and J. F. 

Bowers. Jun 73, 293p Rept no. NASA-CR- 

1 29006 

Contract NAS8-29033 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric diffusion, 

'Computer programs, 'Operational hazards, 
'Rocket launching, Exhaust gases, Meteorolog- 
ical parameters, Toxicity and safety hazard. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

The NASA/MSFC multilayer diffusion models 
are discribed which are used in applying 
meteorological information to the estimation of 
toxic fuel hazards resulting from the launch of 
rocket vehicle and from accidental cold spills 
and leaks of toxic fuels. Background informa- 
tion, definitions of terms, description of the 
multilayer concept are presented along with 
formulas for determining the buoyant rise of 
hot exhaust clouds or plumes from conflagra- 
tions, and descriptions of the multilayer diffu- 
sion models. A brief description of the com- 
puter program is given, and sample problems 
and their solutions are included. Derivations of 
the cloud rise formulas, users instructions, and 
computer program output lists are also in- 
cluded. (Author) 



N73-30627/6CP PC E06/MF A01 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 
Engineering. 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser 
Doppler System in Atmospheric Measure- 
ments 

Final Report. 

S. Karaki.25Jun 73, 161p Rept no. NASA-CR- 
124355 
Contract NAS8-26234 

Descriptors: 'Anemometers, "Atmospheric tur- 
bulence, 'Doppler effect, 'Lasers, 'Wind mea- 
surement, Computer programs, Flow distribu- 
tion, Meteorological parameters. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

Measurements of atmospheric velocities and 
turbulence with the laser Doppler system were 
obtained, and the results compared with cup 
anemometer and hot-wire measurements in the 
same wind field. The laser Doppler velocimeter 
(LDV) is described along with the test 
procedures. It was found that mean values 
determined from the LDV data are within 5% of 
other anemometer data for long time periods, 
and the LDV measures higher velocities. 



N73-31147/4CP PC E07/MF A01 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Iono- 
spheric Research Lab. 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using 
Hybrid Computer Techniques 
W.J. Burkhard. 28 Jun 73, 177p Rept nos. 
NASA-CR-135646, PSU-IRL-SCI-415 
Contract NGR-39-009-218, DA-ARO(D)-31-124- 
72-G158 



Descriptors: 'Computer techniques, *D region, 
'Data processing, 'Data reduction, 'Hybrid 
computers, Blunt bodies, Computer programs, 
Space probes. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

The feasibility of performing data reduction 
techniques with a hybrid computer was studied. 
The data was obtained from the flight of a 
parachute born probe through the D-region of 
the ionosphere. A presentation of the theory of 
blunt probe operation is included with empha- 
sis on the equations necessary to perform the 
analysis. This is followed by a discussion of 
computer program development. Included in 
this discussion is a comparison of computer 
and hand reduction results for the blunt probe 
launched on 31 January 1972. The comparison 
showed that it was both feasible and desirable 
to use the computer for data reduction. The 
results of computer data reduction performed 
on flight data acquired from five blunt probes 
are also presented. (Author) 



N73-31638/2CP PC E01/MF A01 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, 
Calif. Space Sciences Lab. 
Analysis of Low Energy Electrons 

Final Report. 

R. D. Sharp. 1 Jun 73, 15p Rept nos. LMSC- 

D350709, NASA-CR-133920 

Contract NASW-2253 

Descriptors: 'Auroral zones, 'Electron energy, 
'Plasma sheaths. Computer programs. 
Geophysical observatories, Mapping, Ogo-c, 
Spectrometers. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

Simultaneous observations of low energy elec- 
trons in the plasma sheet and in the auroral 
zone were analyzed. Data from the MIT plasma 
experiment on the OGO-3 satellite and from the 
Lockheed experiment on the OV1-18 satellite 
were processed and compared. The OV1-18 
carried thirteen magnetic electron spectrome- 
ters designed to measure the intensity, angular, 
and energy distributions of the auroral elec- 
trons and protons in the energy range below 50 
keV. Two computer programs were developed 
for reduction of the OV1-18 data. One program 
computed the various plasma properties at one 
second intervals as a function of Universal Time 
and pitch angle; the other program produced 
survey plots showing the outputs of the various 
detectors on the satellite as a function of time 
on a scale of approximately 100 seconds per 
cm. The OV1-18 data exhibit the high degree of 
variability associated with substorm controlled 
phenomena. 



N74-14754/7CP PC A04/MF A01 

General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 
Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-In- 
duced Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 

Final Report. 

J. A. Plumer. Jan 74, 65p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 

2349, SRD-72-066 

Contract NAS3-1 4836 

Descriptors: 'Aircraft equipment, 'Circuits, 
'Electric equipment, *F-89 aircraft, 'Lightning, 
'Transfer functions, Aircraft design, Computer 
programs, Electrical properties. Numerical 
analysis. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

Techniques to calculate the transfer functions 
relating lightning-induced voltages in aircraft 
electrical circuits to aircraft physical charac- 
teristics and lightning current parameters are 
discussed. The analytical work was carried out 
concurrently with an experimental program of 
measurements of lightning-induced voltages in 
the electrical circuits of an F89-J aircraft. A 
computer program, ETCAL, developed earlier 
to calculate resistive and inductive transfer 
functions is refined to account for skin effect, 



53 



providing results more valid over a wider range 
of lightning waveshapes than formerly possible. 
A computer program, WING, is derived to calcu- 
late the resistive and inductive transfer func- 
tions between a basic aircraft wing and a circuit 
conductor inside it. Good agreement is ob- 
tained between transfer inductances calculated 
by WING and those reduced from measured 
data by ETCAL. This computer program shows 
promise of expansion to permit eventual calcu- 
lation of potential lightning-induced voltages in 
electrical circuits of complete aircraft in the 
design stage. (Author) 



N74-18336/9CP PC A02/MF A01 

California Univ., Berkeley. Space Sciences Lab. 
Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and 
G) 

Final Report, 28 Jan. 1965 -30 Jun. 1971. 
K. A. Anderson. Apr73, 13p Rept nos. NASA- 
CR-132869, SSL-SER-14-ISSUE-19 
Contract NAS5-9091 

Descriptors: "Data reduction, 'Explorer 34 
satellite, 'Explorer 41 satellite, 'Flux (Rate), 
Bibliographies, Computer programs, Geiger 
counters, Solar flares. 
Identifiers: NASA. 

The data reduction procedures and programs 
for analysis of the IMP F and G energetic parti- 
cle flux experiments are summarized. The IMP- 
F experiment contained two thin-window 
Geiger-Mueller detectors and an ionization 
chamber. There were two IMP-G experiments: 
one with six Geiger-Mueller detectors and an 
ionization chamber, and the other with two fun- 
nel mouthed channeltrons in a parallel plate 
electrostatic analyzer. These experiments mea- 
sured particles in the energy range above 20 
keV (IMP-F) and above approximately 5 keV 
(IMP-G). A bibliography is presented of papers 
containing the scientific results. These data 
were predominantly used for the study of low 
energy solar particles from flares. (Author) 



N74-19237/8CP PC A03/MF A01 

Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos 
Campos (Brazil). 
Brazilian Participation in the Exametnet. 

Nov 72, 46p Rept no. INPE-254-LAFE 
Subm-Sponsored by Exptl. Inter AM. Meteorol. 
Rocket Network (Exametnet). Conf-Presented 
at 8TH Ann Meeting of the Exptl. Inter AM. 
Meteorol. Rocket Network (Exametnet): Mar 
Del Plata, Argentina, Oct. - Nov. 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Data processing, 'Meteorological 
parameters, 'Sounding rockets. Computer pro- 
grams, International cooperation. Meteorologi- 
cal flight, Tables (Data). 
Identifiers: NASA. 

Data from the EXAMETNET Meteorological 
Rocket Launchings at Barreira do Inferno, are 
presented for the period June 1971 - September 
1972. Eleven successful launchings are re- 
ported, all of them for thermodynamic mea- 
surements Two failures occurred in the period. 
(Author) 



N74-19836/7CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE- 
5 and Associated Computer Programs. 
M.J Teague, and J. I. Vette. Nov 72, 75p Rept 
nos NASA-TM-X-69988. NSSDC-72-11 

Descriptors: 'Electrons, 'Inner radiation belt, 
'User manuals (Computer programs), Com- 
puter graphics, Mathematical logic, Satellite 
observation 

A users guide to the inner radiation zone elec- 
tron model AE-5 is introduced. The guide 



covers a description of the model, the forms in 
which it is available, directions on how to use 
the model, and a discussion of its limitations. 
Computer programs MODEL and ORP are 
described. These are major programs needed 
to use the electron models AE-4 and AE-5 and 
the smoothed proton models. (Author) 



N74-20467/8CP PC A04/MF A01 

California Univ., La Jolla. 

Studies of the Structure of the Plasmasphere 

as Seen by Radiosounder Measurements 

Aboard the Alovetti-Satellite. 

Final Technical Report. 

P. M. Banks, and J. R. Doupnik. 13 Nov 73, 74p 

Rept no. NASA-CR-137371 

Contract NGR-05-009-180 

Descriptors: 'Alouette satellites, 'Plasmapause, 
'Radiosondes, Computer programs, Diurnal 
variations, Electron density (Concentration), 
Ionosphere. 

The structure of the plasmasphere was studied 
as seen by radiosounder measurements aboard 
the Alovetti-2 satellite. Magnetic tape data files 
were obtained from the NASA Ames Research 
Center to give a reasonably complete set of 
high latitude electron density profiles. Con- 
siderable effort was expended to develop 
models of ion flow in the topside ionosphere. 
These models took both H(0) and O(0) into ac- 
count and permitted various parameter studies 
to be made of the various factors which affect 
H(0) escape in polar wind flows. The results of 
these studies are included. Extensive computer 
programs were written to display the measured 
electron density- profiles in ways useful to 
geophysical analysis. The expected mid- 
latitude trough was easily discernable in the 
nightime ionosphere at locations expected 
from similar observations of the plasmapause. 
In the dayside ionosphere, however, it proved 
extremely difficult to find any trough-like 
phenomena. Using the previously developed 
computer models, it was possible to study the 
region where the plasmapause appeared to be 
absent. It was found that over much of the 
dayside, large fluxes were computed well inside 
the plasmapause extending down to L-shells as 
low as 2.5. (Author) 



N74-20502/2CP PC A09/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
M.J. Teague, and J. I. Vette. Nov 72, 200p Rept 
nos. NASA-TM-X-69987, NSSDC-72-10 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Electrons, 
'Flux (Rate), 'Inner radiation belt, 
'Mathematical models, Explorer 26 satellite, 
Graphs (Charts), Ogo-a, Ogo-3, Ov-3 satellites, 
Solar cycles. 

A description is given of the work performed in 
the development of the inner radiation zone 
electron model, AE-5. A complete description 
of the omnidirectional flux model is given for 
energy thresholds E sub T in the range 4.0 E 
sub T/(MeV) 0.04 and for L values in the range 
2.8 L 1.2 for an epoch of October 1967. Con- 
fidence codes for certain regions of B-L space 
and certain energies are given based on data 
coverage and the assumptions made in the 
analysis. The electron model programs that can 
be supplied to a user are referred to. One of 
these, a program for accessing the model flux 
at arbitrary points in B-L space and arbitrary 
energies, includes the latest outer zone elec- 
tron model and proton model. The model AE-5, 
is based on data from five satellites, OGO 1, 
OGO 3, 1963-38C, OV3-3, and Explorer 26, 
spanning the period December 1964 to 
December 1967. (Author) 



N74-22355/3CP PC A04/MF A01 

California Univ., San Diego. 
Behavior of Thermal Plasma in the Iono- 
sphere and Magnetosphere. 

Final Technical Report. 

P. M. Banks, and J. R. Doupnik. 13 Nov 73, 74p 

Rept no. NASA-C R-1 381 1 5 

Contract NGR-05-009-180 

Descriptors: 'Electron density (Concentration), 
'Ionosphere, 'Thermal plasmas, Atmospheric 
models, Computer programs, Display devices, 
Ions, Magnetosphere, Polar regions. Wind 
velocity. 

Models of ion flow in the topside ionosphere 
were developed. These models took both H(0) 
and O(0) into account and permitted various 
parameter studies to be made affecting H(0) 
escape in polar winds. Extensive computer pro- 
grams were written to display the measured 
electron density profiles in ways useful to 
geophysical analysis. The relationship between 
the location of the plasmapause as it is found in 
the equatorial plane and the location of the 
ionospheric trough was also investigated. 



N74-30053/4CP PC A09/MF A01 

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc., 

Lexington, Mass. 

Studies in the Use of Cloud Type Statistics in 

Mission Simulation. 

D.T. Chang, J. H. Willand, D. T. Chang, and J. L. 

Cogan. Jul 74, 182p Rept no. NASA-CR-129030 

Contract NAS8-28721 

Descriptors: 'Clouds (Meteorology), 'Mission 
planning, 'Statistical analysis, Atmospheric 
models, Cloud cover, Computer programs, 
Remote sensors. 

A study to further improve NASA's global cloud 
statistics for mission simulation is reported. Re- 
gional homogeneity in cloud types was ex- 
amined; most of the original region boundaries 
defined for cloud cover amount in previous stu- 
dies were supported by the statistics on cloud 
types and the number of cloud layers. Condi- 
tionality in cloud statistics was also examined 
with special emphasis on temporal and spatial 
dependencies, and cloud type interdepen- 
dence. Temporal conditionality was found up to 
12 hours, and spatial conditionality up to 200 
miles; the diurnal cycle in convective cloudi- 
ness was clearly evident. As expected, the joint 
occurrence of different cloud types reflected 
the dynamic processes which form the clouds. 
Other phases of the study improved the cloud 
type statistics for several region and proposed a 
mission simulation scheme combining the 4- 
dimensional atmospheric model, sponsored by 
MSFC, with the global cloud model. (Author) 



N74-32747/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

An Experimental and Numerical Study of 
Wave Motion and Upstream Influence in a 
Stratified Fluid. 

D. A. Hurdis. Aug 74, 90p Rept nos. NASA-TN-D- 
7744.G-7440 

Descriptors: 'Fluid mechanics, 'Stratified flow, 
'Wave propagation. Computer programs, 
Geophysics, Liquids, Upstream. 

A system consisting of two superimposed 
layers of liquid of different densities, with a thin 
transition layer at the interface, provides a good 
laboratory model of an ocean thermocline or of 
an atmospheric inversion layer. This research 
was to gain knowledge about the propagation 
of disturbances within these two geophysical 
systems. The technique used was to observe 
the propagation of internal waves and of up- 
stream influence within the density-gradient re- 
gion between the two layers of liquid. The 



54 



disturbances created by the motion of a vertical 
flat plate, which was moved longitudinally 
through this region, were examined both ex- 
perimentally and numerically. An upstream in- 
fluence, which resulted from a balance of iner- 
tial and gravitational forces, was observed, and 
it was possible to predict the behavior of this in- 
fluence with the numerical model. The predic- 
tion included a description of the propagation 
of the upstream influence to steadily increasing 
distances from the flat plate and the shapes and 
magnitudes of the velocity profiles. (Author) 



N74-33021/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, 
Ala. 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Techni- 
cal Description, Part 1. 

C. G.Justus, A. W. Woodrum, R. G. Roper, and 
O. E. Smith. Sep 74, 1 14p Rept no. NASA-TM-X- 
64871 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 'Computer 
programs, 'Meteorological parameters, At- 
mospheric pressure, Atmospheric temperature, 
Perturbation theory, Space shuttles, Spacecraft 
trajectories, Wind (Meteorology). 

An empirical atmospheric model was 
developed which generates values for pressure, 
density, temperature, and winds from surface 
levels to orbital altitudes. The output parame- 
ters consist of components for: (1 ) latitude, lon- 
gitude, and altitude dependent monthly and an- 
nual means; (2) quasi-biennial oscillations; and 
(3) random perturbations to simulate partially 
the variability due to synoptic, diurnal, planeta- 
ry wave, and gravity wave variations. Quasi- 
biennial and random variation perturbations 
are computed from parameters determined 
from various empirical studies and are added to 
the monthly mean values. This model has been 
developed as a computer program called 
PROFILE which can be used to generate al- 
titude profiles of atmospheric parameters along 
any simulated trajectory through the at- 
mosphere. The PROFILE program was 
developed for design applications in the space 
shuttle program. Other applications of the 
model are discussed, such as forglobal circula- 
tion and diffusion studies, and for generating 
profiles for comparison with other atmospheric 
measurement techniques, (e.g. satellite mea- 
sured temperature profiles). (Author) 



N74-33022/6CP PC A10/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, 
Ala. 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Users 
Manual and Programmers Manual, Part 2. 
C. G.Justus, A. W. Woodrum, R. G. Roper, and 
O. E. Smith Sep 74, 213p Rept no. NASA-TM-X- 
64872 
Contract NAS8-29753 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, "Computer 
programs, 'Meteorological parameters. At- 
mospheric pressure. Atmospheric temperature, 
Perturbation theory, Space shuttles, Spacecraft 
trajectories. Wind (Meteorology). 

For abstract, see N74-33021 . 



N75-12531/0CP PC A07/MF A01 

Texas A&M Univ., College Station. Center for 

Applied Geosciences. 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 

Pilot Experiment Data. 

H. E. Fuelberg. Oct 74, 142p Rept no. NASA-CR- 

120496 

Contract NAS8-26751 

Descriptors: 'Atmospherics, 'Computer pro- 
grams, 'Data reduction, "Error analysis, 
"Experimental design, 'Meteorological parame- 



ters, 'Rawinsondes, Atmospheric circulation, 
Calibrating, Flow charts, Humidity, Meteorolog- 
ical services, Wind direction. 

The reduction techniques used to process data 
from the pilot experiment of the second NASA 
atmospheric variability experiment (AVE IIP), 
which was conducted during a 24 hour period 
beginning at 1200 GMT on May 11, 1974, and 
ending at 1200 GMT on May 12, 1974 are 
described. Each step of the data handling 
process is described through the presentation 
of computer flow charts, programs, equations, 
and narrative. An error analysis of the final out- 
put is presented, and results of the AVE IIP 
reduction process are compared with results 
from the National Weather Service. The AVE IIP 
sounding data contain more detail than Na- 
tional Weather Service data, but the two data 
sets may be used together without difficulty. 
(Author) 



N75-24526/6CP PC A12/MF A01 

McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Co., Hunting- 
ton Beach, Calif. 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Ex- 
periment Laboratory; Programmatics Report. 
Sep 74, 266p Rept nos. NASA-CR-120725, 
MDC-G5456 
Contract NAS8-30272 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric physics, 'Cloud 
physics, 'Weightlessness, Computer programs, 
Costs, Research and development, Technology 
transfer. 

The programmatics effort included comprehen- 
sive analyses in four major areas: (1) work 
breakdown structure, (2) schedules, (3) costs, 
and (4) supporting research and technology. 
These analyses are discussed in detail in the 
following sections which identify and define the 
laboratory project development schedule, cost 
estimates, funding distributions and supporting 
research and technology requirements. All pro- 
grammatics analyses are correlated among 
themselves and with the technical analyses by 
means of the work breakdown structure which 
serves as a common framework for program 
definition. In addition, the programmatic 
analyses reflect the results of analyses and 
plans for reliability, safety, test, and main- 
tenance and refurbishment. (Author) 



N75-28749/0CP PC A03/MF A01 

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc., 

Concord, Mass. 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer. 

Final Report, 20 May 1974 - 20 May 1975. 

R. M. Paroskie, H. H. Blau, Jr, and J. C. Hi Blinn. 

Jun 75, 29p Rept nos. NASA-CR-143816, ERT- 

P-821 

Contract NAS5-20496 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Data 
processing, 'Lasers, 'Nephelometers, Clouds 
(Meteorology), Particle size distribution. Real 
time operation, Water. 

The laser nephelometer data system was up- 
dated to provide magnetic tape recording of 
data, and real time or near real time processing 
of data to provide particle size distribution and 
liquid water content. Digital circuits were pro- 
vided to interface the laser nephelometer to a 
Data General Nova 1200 minicomputer. Com- 
munications are via a teletypewriter. A dual Line 
Magnetic Tape System is used for program 
storage and data recording. Operational pro- 
grams utilize the Data General Real-Time 
Operating System (RTOS) and the ERT AIRMAP 
Real-Time Operating System (ARTS). The pro- 
grams provide for acquiring data from the laser 
nephelometer, acquiring data from auxiliary 
sources, keeping time, performing real time 
calculations, recording data and communicat- 
ing with the teletypewriter. (Author) 



N75-29531/1CP PC A07/MF A01 

Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, Md. 
Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3). 

29 Mar 74, 142p Rept nos. NASA-CR-14191 1 , 

MSC-05537 

Contract NAS8-24000 

Descriptors: 'Brightness temperature, 'Ground 
truth, "Skylab 3, 'Solar radiation, 'Thermal 
radiation, Calibrating, Computer programs, 
Erep, Radiative transfer, Remote sensors, 
Spectrum analysis. 

Field measurements performed simultaneously 
with Skylab overpasses in order to provide 
comparative calibration and performance 
evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors 
are presented. The solar radiation region from 
400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radia- 
tion region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were 
investigated. The measurements of direct solar 
radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical 
depth; the total and reflected solar radiation 
were analyzed for target reflectifity. These 
analyses were used in conjunction with a radia- 
tive transfer computer program in order to cal- 
culate the amount and spectral distribution of 
solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP 
sensors. The instrumentation and techniques 
employed, calibrations and analyses per- 
formed, and results obtained are discussed. 
(Author) 



N75-29602/0CP PC A09/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 
Houston, Tex. 

Atmospheric Transmission Computer Pro- 
gram Cp. 

D. E. Pitts, T. L. Barnett, C. L. Korb, W. Hanby, 
and A. E. Dillinger. Dec 74, 187p Rept nos. 
NASA-TM-X-581 37, JSC-09063 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric attenuation, 

'Computer programs, Atmospheric models, 
Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxides. 
Ozone, Radiosondes, Remote sensors, Water 
vapor. 

A computer program is described which allows 
for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, 
water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monox- 
ide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources 
remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the 
program and operating instructions are pro- 
vided. Comparisons are made between the at- 
mospheric transmission obtained from labora- 
tory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that 
obtained from a computer prediction using a 
model atmosphere and radiosonde data. 
Limitations of the model atmosphere are 
discussed. The computer program listings, 
input card formats, and sample runs for both 
radiosonde data and laboratory data are in- 
cluded. (Author) 



N76-11736/5CP PC A08/MF A01 

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif. 

Space Sciences Dept. 

Amps Data Management Requirements 

Study. 

Final Report. 

30 Jun 75, 156p Rept nos NASA-CR-143995, 

TRW-26487-6008-RU-00 

Contract NAS8-3 1208 

Descriptors: "Computerized simulation, "Data 
management, "Display devices, 

"Experimentation, 'Ionosphere, 'User manuals 
(Computer programs), Data systems, Elec- 
tromagnetic wave transmission, Ionospheric 
composition, Ionospheric sounding, Plasmas 
(Physics), Remote sensors. 

A data simulation is presented for instruments 
and associated control and display functions 
required to perform controlled active experi- 
ments of the atmosphere. A comprehensive 



55 



user's guide is given for the data requirements 
and software developed for the following ex- 
periments: (1) electromagnetic wave transmis- 
sion; (2) passive observation of ambient 
plasmas; (3) ionospheric measurements with a 
subsatellite; (4) electron accelerator beam mea- 
surements; and (5) measuremnt of acoustic 
gravity waves in the sodium layer using lasers. 
A complete description of each experiment is 
given. (Author) 



N76-12912/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

European Southern Observatory, Hamburg 
(West Germany). 
Eso Bulletin No. 12. 
Jun75,60p 

Descriptors; 'Astronomical spectroscopy, 
'Computer programs, 'Microdensitometers, 
'Zeeman effect. Astronomical observatories, 
Chile, Comparators, Europe, Hewlett-packard 
computers, Photometers, Radial velocity. 
Southern hemisphere, Spectrograms, Stellar 
spectra. 

A Grant comparator microdensitometer used in 
connection with an HP 2100 computer for data 
acquisition and programs for Zeeman spec- 
troscopy data reduction and radial velocity 
measurements data reduction are described. A 
program used for data acquisition in the HP 
2114B computer in connection with the ESO 
photometer is also discussed. Prismatic spec- 
trograms of southern MK stars are presented. 
(Author) 



N76-13663/9CP PC A05/MF A01 

Old Dominion Univ. Research Foundation, Nor- 
folk, Va. School of Engineering. 
Evaluation of Upwelling Infrared Radiance 
from Earth's Atmosphere. 
S. K. Gupta, and S. N. Tiwari. Nov 75, 80p Rept 
nos. NASA-CR-145711.TR-75-T14 
Grant NSG-1 153 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric radiation, 'Infrared 
radiation, Atmospheric composition, At- 
mospheric models, Computer programs, Equa- 
tions, Pollution monitoring, Radiance, Trans- 
mittance. 

Basic equations for calculating the upwelling 
atmospheric radiation are presented which ac- 
count for various sources of radiation coming 
out at the top of the atmosphere. The theoreti- 
cal formulation of the transmittance models 
(line-by-line and quasi-random band model) 
and the computational procedures used for the 
evaluation of the transmittance and radiance 
are discussed in detail. By employing the 
Lorentz line-by-line and quasi-random com- 
puter programs, model calculations were made 
to determine the upwelling radiance and signal 
change in the wave number interval of CO fun- 
damental band. These results are useful in 
determining the effects of different interfering 
molecules, water vapor profiles, ground tem- 
peratures, and ground emittances on the up- 
welling radiance and signal change. This infor- 
mation is of vital importance in establishing the 
feasibility of measuring the concentrations of 
pollutants in the atmosphere from a gas filter 
correlation instrument flown on an aircraft or 
mounted on a satellite. (Author) 



N76-13673/8CP PC A04/MF A01 

Denver Univ., Colo Dept. of Physics and As- 
tronomy. 

Measurements of Trace Constituents from At- 
mospheric Infrared Emission and Absorption 
Spectra, a Feasibility Study. 
Final Report. 

A. Goldman, W.J. Williams, and D. G. Murcray. 
Sep 74, 67p Rept no. NASA-CR-137762 
Contract NAS2-8200 



Descriptors: 'Atmospheric composition, 'Gas 
analysis, 'Infrared spectroscopy, Absorption 
spectra, Atmospheric models, Computer pro- 
grams, Emission spectra, Feasibility analysis. 
Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Methane, 
Nitrogen compounds. Sulfur dioxides. 

The feasibility of detecting eight trace con- 
stituents (CH4, HCI, HF, HN03, NH3, NO, N02 
and S02) against the rest of the atmospheric 
background at various altitudes from infrared 
emission and absorption atmospheric spectra 
was studied. Line-by-line calculations and ob- 
servational data were used to establish features 
that can be observed in the atmospheric spec- 
trum due to each trace constituent. Model cal- 
culations were made for experimental condi- 
tions which approximately represent state of 
the art emission and absorption spectrometers. 
(Author) 



N76-13702/5CP PC A05/MF A01 

Calspan Corp., Buffalo, N.Y. 
Project Fog Drops 5. Task 1: A Numerical 
Model of Advection Fog. Task 2: Recommen- 
dations for Simplified Individual Zero-Gravity 
Cloud Physics Experiments. 
C. W. Rogers, W. J. Eadie, U. Katz, and W. C. 
Kocmond. Dec 75, 80p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
2633, M156 
Contract NAS8-30776 

Descriptors: 'Cloud physics, 'Fog, Advection, 
Atmospheric models. Computer programs, 
Marine meteorology. Weather modification, 
Weightlessness. 

A two-dimensional numerical model was used 
to investigate the formation of marine advec- 
tion fog. The model predicts the evolution of 
potential temperature, horizontal wind, water 
vapor content, and liquid water content in a ver- 
tical cross section of the atmosphere as deter- 
mined by vertical turbulent transfer and 
horizontal advection, as well as radiative cool- 
ing and drop sedimentation. The model is 
designed to simulate the formation, develop- 
ment, or dissipation of advection fog in 
response to transfer of heat and moisture 
between the atmosphere and the surface as 
driven by advection over horizontal discontinui- 
ties in the surface temperature. Results from 
numerical simulations of advection fog forma- 
tion are discussed with reference to observa- 
tions of marine fog. A survey of candidate fog or 
cloud microphysics experiments which might 
be performed in the low gravity environment of 
a shuttle-type spacecraft in presented. Recom- 
mendations are given for relatively simple ex- 
periments which are relevent to fog modifica- 
tion problems. (Author) 



N76-14336/1CP PC A03/MF A01 

Research Inst, of National Defence, Stockholm 

(Sweden). 

Computed Mie Scattering Properties for 

Laser Wavelengths in Various Atmospheric 

Media. 

O. Steinvall. Mar 74, 41p Rept no. FOA-2-C- 

2662-E1-E3 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 'Laser out- 
puts, *Mie scattering, Wave scattering, 
Aerosols, Backscattering, Computer programs. 
Fog, Particle size distribution, Wavelengths. 
Identifiers: Laser beams, 'Atmospheric trans- 
missivity, Atmospheric attenuation clouds, In- 
frared radiation. 

Computer calculations of the Mie scattering 
properties of some haze, fog, cloud and smoke 
models were made for six laser wavelengths 
from 0.337 to 10.6 microns. For each 
wavelength the volume backscattering function 
and the total extinction and scattering coeffi- 
cients are given. The angular volume scattering 
for some wavelengths is also presented. 
(Author) 



N76-15717/1CP PC A07/MF A01 

Bonn Univ. (West Germany). Inst, fuer As- 
trophysik und Extraterrestrische Forschung. 
Determination of Altitude Dependence of the 
Exospheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestim- 
mung der Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Ex- 
osphaerischen Rotation Oberhalb 350 Km. 
K. G. H. Schuchardt. Jun 75, 132p Rept no. 
BMFT-FB-W-75-11 

Contract WRK-253, GFW-RV-I-1-B-8/73-SE-11 
In German; English Summary. 

Descriptors: 'Earth rotation, 'Exosphere, 
'Satellite orientation, 'Satellite perturbation, 
'Wind effects, Computer programs, Explorer 24 
satellite. Least squares method, Radiation pres- 
sure, Satellite orbits. 

The theory of determining mean thermospheric 
zonal winds above 150 km by analysis of the 
inclination change of satellites is discussed. 
The decrease of upper-atmospheric rotation 
rate from 1.4 times the earth's angular velocity 
at a height of 375 km to 0.7 at 500 km, from the 
analysis of only three satellite orbits, was 
derived without eliminating the effects of solar 
radiation pressure. These satellites do not allow 
the exact computation of radiation pressure ef- 
fects due to their irregular shape. Therefore the 
orbit of the balloon satellite Explorer 24 (1964- 
76A) has been thoroughly analyzed at perigee 
heights between 480 and 600 km and during 
various time intervals. A computer program was 
developed forthis purpose, which directly com- 
putes the zonal wind magnitude with regard to 
all significant perturbations usinq the method 
of least squares. The parts of the program 
which compute the radiation pressure effects 
have previously been tested with the aid of the 
orbit of the balloon satellite Dash 2 (1963-30D). 
The results from Explorer 24 could be changed 
by altering the investigated time intervals. Al- 
together they indicate a corotation of the at- 
mosphere and the earth at heights of 550 to 600 
km. A local time dependence of zonal winds in 
this height region could not be detected. 
(Author) 



N76-17658/5CP PC A14/MF A01 

Cramer (HE.) Co., Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and 
Computer Programs, Version 5. 

R. K. Dumbauld, and J. R. Bjorklund. Dec 75, 
322p Rept nos. NASA-CR-2631, M155 
Contract NAS8-29033 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric diffusion, 

'Atmospheric models, 'Computer programs, Al- 
gorithms, Prediction analysis techniques, 
Rocket exhaust, Transport properties. 

The transport and diffusion models and al- 
gorithms developed for use by NASA in predict- 
ing concentrations and dosages downwind 
from normal and abnormal launches of rocket 
vehicles are described along with the as- 
sociated computer programs for use in per- 
forming the calculations. Topics discussed in- 
clude: the mathematical specifications and 
procedures used in the Preprocessor Program 
to calculate rocket exhaust cloud rise, cloud 
dimensions, and other input parameters to the 
transport and diffusion models; the revised 
mathematical specifications for the Multilayer 
Diffusion Models; users' instructions for imple- 
menting the Preprocessor and Multilayer Diffu- 
sion Models Programs; and worked example 
problems illustrating the use of the models and 
computer programs. (Author) 



N76-17683/3CP PC A02/MF A01 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 
Investigation of Aerosol Characteristics and 
Their Measurement. 

Final Report, 15 Aug. 1974- 15 Aug. 1975. 
A. Deepak. Mar 76, 8p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
146398, PGSTR-AP76-23 
Grant NSG-1090 



56 



Descriptors: "Aerosols, 'Computer programs, 
'Measuring instruments, 'Particle size distribu- 
tion, Auroras, Mie scattering, Photographic 
measurement, Video equipment. 

Various techniques for the measurement of 
aerosol properties are described. Methods con- 
sidered include: solar aureole photographic 
technique; densitometric techniques; and 
video electronic isodensity mapper. Other top- 
ics briefly discussed include: multiple scatter- 
ing experiment; multiple scattering computer 
program; the generation of the Mie theory 
results; and the NASA/OAST technology 
workshop. 



N76-19598/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt. 
Manual for the Computer Program of the 
Gaussian Plume Model Handleiding voor Het 
Ccmputerprogramma van Het Gaussische 
Pluimmodel. 

E. H. J. Vermaas, and F. T. M. Nieuwstadt. 1975, 
80p Rept no. KNMI-WR-75-7 
In Dutch; English Summary. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Computer pro- 
grams, 'Meteorological parameters, Normal 
density functions, Algol, Concentration 
(Composition), Dispersing, Input, Netherlands, 
Output. 

Identifiers: 'Gaussian plume models, 
'Atmospheric diffusion. 

The Gaussian plume model, which simulates 
the dispersion of air pollution, for the calcula- 
tion of long term averaged concentrations from 
point and area sources is discussed. The equa- 
tions of the Gaussian plume model are given. 
The structure of the computer program is 
discussed. The input of the program is dealt 
with, several examples given, and the values of 
different input parameters discussed. The out- 
put of the program, together with some exam- 
ples, is also discussed. The complete listing of 
the program, in ALGOL 60, is given. 



N76-20180/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Langley Research Center, Langley Station, 
Va. 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor Af- 
terburning. 

R. B. Stewart, and R. I. Gomberg. Mar 76, 45p 
Rept nos. NASA-TN-D-8137, L-10594 

Descriptors: 'Afterburning, 'Nitric oxide, 'Solid 
propellant rocket engines, 'Troposphere, 
Booster rocket engines, Chemical reactions, 
Computer programs, Exhaust gases, Space 
shuttles, Turbulent mixing. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric chemistry. Air pollu- 
tion. 

As part of an ongoing assessment of the en- 
vironmental effects of solid-rocket-motor 
operations in the troposphere, estimates were 
made of the nitric oxide produced in the tropo- 
sphere by the space shuttle and Titan 3-C 
boosters. Calculations were made with the low- 
altitude plume computer program and included 
the effects of coupled finite-rate chemistry and 
turbulent mixing. A recent measurement of 
nitric oxide taken in the effluent cloud of a Titan 
3-C booster is compared with calculations 
made with this computer code. The various 
chemical reactions of the exhaust gases are 
listed in tabular form. (Author) 



N76-20699/4CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, 
Ala 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction 
Routine for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predic- 



tions for the Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust 
Effluents. 

J. B. Stephens. Mar 76, 75p Rept no. NASA-TN- 
D-8194 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric diffusion, 

'Computer programs, "Delta launch vehicle, 
'Exhaust gases, 'Air pollution, Algorithms, 
Launching sites, Pollution monitoring, Predic- 
tion analysis techniques, Real time operation. 
Identifiers: Mathematical models. 

The National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration/Marshall Space Flight Center multilayer 
diffusion algorithms have been specialized for 
the prediction of the surface impact for the 
dispersive transport of the exhaust effluents 
from the launch of a Delta-Thor vehicle. This 
specialization permits these transport predic- 
tions to be made at the launch range in real 
time so that the effluent monitoring teams can 
optimize their monitoring grids. Basically, the 
data reduction routine requires only the 
meteorology profiles for the thermodynamics 
and kinematics of the atmosphere as an input. 
These profiles are graphed along with the 
resulting exhaust cloud rise history, the center- 
line concentrations and dosages, and the 
hydrogen chloride isopleths. (Author) 



N76-22637/2CP PC A03/MF A01 

Old Dominion Univ. Research Foundation, Nor- 
folk, Va. 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 
Sensing. 

S. K. Gupta, and S. N. Tiwari. Apr 76, 42p Rept 
nos. NASA-CR-147145, TR-76-1T8 
Grant NSG-1 153 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Brightness tem- 
perature, 'Earth surface, 'Remote sensors, 
'Temperature measurement, Atmospheric ef- 
fects, Carbon monoxide. Computer programs, 
Infrared radiation, Printouts, Radiometers, 
Spectral emission, Spectrometers. 

A simple procedure and computer program 
were developed for retrieving the surface tem- 
perature from the measurement of upwelling 
infrared radiance in a single spectral region in 
the atmosphere. The program evaluates the 
total upwelling radiance at any altitude in the 
region of the CO fundamental band (2070-2220 
1/cm) for several values of surface temperature. 
Actual surface temperature is inferred by inter- 
polation of the measured upwelling radiance 
between the computed values of radiance for 
the same altitude. Sensitivity calculations were 
made to determine the effect of uncertainty in 
various surface, atmospheric and experimental 
parameters on the inferred value of surface 
temperature. It is found that the uncertainties in 
water vapor concentration and surface 
emittance are the most important factors affect- 
ing the accuracy of the inferred value of surface 
temperature. (Author) 



N76-22643/0CP PC A07/MF A01 

Kansas Univ Center for Research, Inc., 

Lawrence. Remote Sensing Lab. 

Aafe Rad&cai Data Reduction Programs 

User's Guide. 

J. P. Claassen. 1976, 146p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 

144992, CRES-TR-186-9 

Contract NASI -10048 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Data reduc- 
tion, 'Remote sensors, 'User manuals 
(Computer programs), Earth resources, 
Radiometers, Scatterometers. 

Theory, design and operation of the computer 
programs which automate the reduction of joint 
radiometer and scatterometer observations are 
presented. The programs raduce scatterometer 
measurements to the normalized scattering 
coefficient; whereas the radiometer measure- 
ments are converted into antenna tempera- 



tures. The programs are both investigator and 
user oriented. Supplementary parameters are 
provided to aid in the interpretation of the ob- 
servations. A hierarchy of diagnostics is availa- 
ble to evaluate the operation of the instrument, 
the conduct of the experiments and the quality 
of the records. General descriptions of the pro- 
grams and their data products are also 
presented. This document therefore serves as a 
user's guide to the programs and is therefore 
intended to serve both the experimenter and 
the program operator. (Author) 



N76-24681/8CP PC A02/MF A01 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. Dept. of 
Physics and Geophysical Sciences. 
Use of Lars System for the Quantitative 
Determination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffu- 
sion Coefficients from ERTS Images of Vir- 
ginia. 

R. N. Blais, G. E. Copeland, and T. H. Lerner. 
1975, 13p Rept no. NASA-CR-148137 
Contract NGL-47-003-067 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Landsat 1, 
"Pollution monitoring, "Fremote sensors, 
"Smoke, "Virginia, Chimneys, Computer pro- 
grams. Electric power plants, Industrial wastes, 
Mathematical models, Wind (Meteorology). 
Identifiers: "Gaussian plume models, "Air pollu- 
tion detection, Scientific satellites, Plumes, 
Spaceborne photography, Chester(Virginia). 

A technique for measuring smoke plume of 
large industrial sources observed by satellite 
using LARSYS is proposed. A Gaussian plume 
model is described, integrated in the vertical, 
and inverted to yield a form for the lateral diffu- 
sion coefficient, Ky. Given u, wind speed; y sub 
I, the horizontal distance of a line of constant 
brightness from the plume symmetry axis a 
distance x sub I, downstream from reference 
point at xOx sub 2, yOO, then K sub y u ((y sub 
1) to the 2nd power)/2 x sub 1 1n (x sub 2/x sub 
1). The technique is applied to a plume from a 
power plant at Chester, Virginia, imaged August 
31, 1973 by LANDSAT I. The plume bends 
slightly to the left 4.3 km from the source and 
estimates yield Ky of 28 sq m/sec near the 
source, and 19 sq m/sec beyond the bend. Max- 
imum ground concentrations are estimated 
between 32 and 64 ug/cu m. Existing 
meteorological data would not explain such 
concentrations. (Author) 



N76-24798/0CP PC A04/MF A01 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Iono- 
sphere Research Lab. 

F sub 2 Peak Electron Densities in the Main 
Trough Region of the Ionosphere. 
B. W. Halcrow. May 76, 57p Rept nos. NASA- 
CR-147153, PSU-IRL-IR-55 
Contract NGL-39-009-003 

Descriptors: *F 2 region, 'Ionospheric electron 
density, Alouette 1 satellite, Alouette 2 satellite, 
Atmospheric models, Computer programs, 
Ionospheric propagation, Troughs. 

A study of the main trough in the F2 region was 
made using observations from Alouette I and II. 
Parameters needed to predict the occurrence 
of the trough were determined from the many 
observations. These parameters were used to 
develop a modification factor for use with 
C.E.I.R. model of predicted MmF2. This modifi- 
cation factor reduced the C.E.I.R. model pre- 
dicted NmF2 to more representative values of 
MmF2 in the main trough region. (Author) 



N76-24843/4CP Not available NTIS 

Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (West Ger- 
many). 

Meteorological Data Acquisition System. 
Functional Description and General Charac- 
teristics of the Different Components. 
S. Bouharrour, and P. Thomas. Jul 75, 157p 
Reptno.KFK-2181 



57 



Language in German. 

Descriptors'. 'Meteorological instruments, 
'Weather data recorders, Computer programs, 
Computers, Data acquisition. Data reduction, 
Ground wind, Maintenance, Meteorological 
parameters, On-line programming. 
Identifiers: West Germany. 

The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karl- 
sruhe Nuclear Research Center was equipped 
with 45 instruments measuring the meteorolog- 
ical parameters near the ground level. Frequent 
inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisi- 
tion with on-line data reduction. This task is ful- 
filled by some peripheral units controlled by a 
PDP-8/1. This report presents details of the 
hardware configuration and a short description 
of the software configuration of the 
meteorological data acquisition system. The re- 
port also serves as an instruction for main- 
tenance and repair work to be carried out at the 
system. (Author) 



N76-25712/0CP PC A03/MF A01 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Iono- 
sphere Research Lab. 
Ionosphere Research. 

Semiannual Status Report, 1 Oct. 1975-31 Mar. 
1976. 

31 Mar 76, 38p Rept nos. NASA-CR-148200, 
PSU-IRL-SAR-76/1 
Contract NGL-39-009-003 

Descriptors: 'Ionospheric composition, 

'Ionospheric propagation, Atmospheric 
chemistry, Computer programs, D region, E re- 
gion, F region, Mass spectrometers. Planetary 
atmospheres. 

A report is presented on on-going research pro- 
jects in ionospheric studies. The topics 
discussed are planetary atmospheres, E and F 
region, D region, mass spectrometer measure- 
ments, direct measurements and atmospheric 
reactions. 



N76-27745/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 
Houston, Tex. 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Develop- 
ment Laboratory: Formulation and Data. 
J.C. Kirkpatrick. May 76, 125p Rept nos. NASA- 
TM-X-58183, JSC-08964 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 

"Interpolation, 'Spline functions, Acoustic 
velocity, Atmospheric pressure, Computer pro- 
grams, Density (Mass/volume), Fortran, Tables 
(Data), Viscosity. 
Identifiers: Cubic spline technique. 

A tabulation of selected altitude-correlated 
values of pressure, density, speed of sound, 
and coefficient of viscosity for each of six 
models of the atmosphere is presented in block 
data format. Interpolation for the desired at- 
mospheric parameters is performed by using 
cubic spline functions The recursive relations 
necessary to compute the cubic spline function 
coefficients are derived and implemented in 
subroutine form. Three companion subpro- 
grams, which form the preprocessor and 
processor, are also presented. These subpro- 
grams, together with the data element, com- 
pose the spline fit atmosphere package. 
Detailed FLOWGM flow charts and FORTRAN 
listings of the atmosphere package are 
presented in the appendix. (Author) 



N76-27748/2CP PC A07/MF A01 

Alabama Univ., Huntsville. School of Graduate 
Studies and Research. 
Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes. 

Final Technical Report. 



G. R. Karr. Jun 76, 146p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
149932, UAH-RR-186 
Contract NAS8-28248 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric density, 'Satellite 
drag, 'Upper atmosphere, Aerodynamics, At- 
mospheric models. Computer programs, 
Falling spheres, Gas flow, Satellite orbits, Wind 
(Meteorology). 

The influence of real satellite aerodynamics on 
the determination of upper atmospheric density 
was investigated. A method of analysis of satel- 
lite drag data is presented which includes the 
effect of satellite lift and the variation in 
aerodynamic properties around the orbit. The 
studies indicate that satellite lift may be respon- 
sible for the observed orbit precession rather 
than a super rotation of the upper atmosphere. 
The influence of simplifying assumptions con- 
cerning the aerodynamics of objects in falling 
sphere analysis were evaluated and an im- 
proved method of analysis was developed. 
Wind tunnel data was used to develop more ac- 
curate drag coefficient relationships for study- 
ing altitudes between 80 and 120 Km. The im- 
proved drag coefficient relationships revealed a 
considerable error in previous falling sphere 
drag interpretation. These data were reanalyzed 
using the more accurate relationships. 
Theoretical investigations of the drag coeffi- 
cient in the very low speed ratio region were 
also conducted. (Author) 



PC A05/MF A01 
RVO-TNO, The Hague 



N76-31809/6CP 

Physics Lab. 
(Netherlands). 
Solumat: A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast 
Transfer. 

A. A. Vanmeeteren, and J. Vanschie. Dec 75, 
86p Rept nos. PHL-1975-46, TDCK-67163 
Contract A72/KL/027 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric effects, 'Image con- 
trast, 'Light transmission, 'Luminance, 'Optical 
data processing, Computer programming, 
Daytime, Statistical analysis, Tables (Data). 
Identifiers: SOLUMAT computer program, 
Netherlands, Atmospheric transmissivity. 

The results of the SOLUMAT (Statistical in- 
vestigation of the Luminance of the At- 
mosphere) program for measuring contrast 
decrease in the atmosphere are presented. For 
the past 3.5 years an automated observatory 
has performed measurements (by day only) of 
contrast decrease and related variables. Data 
were handled and interpreted by a computer. 
Distributions of many variables are presented in 
tabular form. In addition a few special treat- 
ments of the data are discussed. (Author) 



N76-33273/3CP PC A13/MF A01 

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif. 
Phase B-Final Definition and Preliminary 
Design Study for the Initial Atmospheric 
Cloud Physics Laboratory (Acpl). A Spacelab 
Mission Payload. 
Interim Report. 

23 Sep 76, 289p Rept no. NASA-CR-150017 
Contract NAS8-31844 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric cloud physics lab 
(Spacelab), 'Cloud physics, 'Spacelab, 
Aerosols, Computer programs, Optical equip- 
ment, Radiography, Systems engineering. Test 
chambers. 

Progress in the development of the Atmospher- 
ic Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The 
fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion 
chamber, optical system, control systems, and 
software are included. 



N77-15056/3CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. 



User Guide to a Command and Control 
System; a Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitor- 
ing Program. 

G. R. Cowgill. Nov 76, 29p Rept nos. NASA-TM- 
X-73558, E-8999 

Descriptors: 'Command and control, 
'Computer systems programs, 'User manuals 
(Computer programs), 'Wind (Meteorology), 
Computer programs, Meteorological balloons, 
Microprocessors, Univac 1100 series compu- 
ters. 

A set of programs called Command and Control 
System (CCS), intended as a user manual, is 
described for the operation of CCS by the per- 
sonnel supporting the wind monitoring portion 
of the launch mission. Wind data obtained by 
tracking balloons is sent by electronic means 
using telephone lines to other locations. Steer- 
ing commands are computed from a system 
called ADDJUST for the on-board computer 
and relays this data. Data are received and au- 
tomatically stored in a microprocessor, then via 
a real time program transferred to the UNIVAC 
1100/40 computer. At this point the data is 
available to be used by the Command and Con- 
trol system. 



N77-18983/5CP PC A09/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar 
Maximum and Solar Minimum. 
D. M.Sawyer, and J.I. Vette. Dec 76, 176 Rept 
nos. NASA-TM-X-72605, NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S- 
76-06 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Proton flux 
density, 'Solar flux, 'Solar protons, 'Trapped 
particles, Periodic variations, Azur satellite. 
Data systems, Magnetic fields, Ov-3 satellites, 
Solar cycles. 

Data sets from Ov-3 and Azur indicate a need 
for improvement in models of the stably 
trapped proton flux with energies between 0.1 
and 400 MeV. Two computer accessible models 
are described: AP8MAX and AP8MIN. The 
models are presented in the form of nomo- 
graphs, B-L plots, R-lambda plots, and equa- 
torial radial profiles. Nomographs of the orbit- 
integrated fluxes are also discussed. The 
models are compared with each other, with the 
data, and with previous AP models. Require- 
ments for future improvements include more 
complete data coverage and periodic com- 
parisons with new data sets as they become 
available. The machine-sensible format in 
which the models are available are described. 



N77-19710/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

Techno-Sciences, Inc., Annapolis, Md. 
Reduction and Analysis of Data Collected 
During the Electromagnetic Tornado Experi- 
ment. 

Final Report, Jul. 1975- Jun. 1976. 
L. D. Davisson. Jul 76, 91 p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
152455, TSI-761 12 
Contract NAS5-22489 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 

'Electromagnetic fields, 'Tornadoes, Data 
reduction, Ocean surface, Digital simulation, 
Meteorological radar, Monte carlo method. 
Pulsed radiation, Radar signatures. 
Identifiers: 'Sea states. 

Techniques for data processing and analysis 
are described to support tornado detection by 
analysis of radio frequency interference in vari- 
ous frequency bands, and sea state determina- 
tion from short pulse radar measurements. Ac- 
tivities include: strip chart recording of tornado 
data; the development and implementation of 
computer programs for digitalization and anal- 
ysis of the data; data reduction techniques for 



58 



short pulse radar data, and the simulation of 
radar returns from the sea surface by computer 
models. 



N77-19715/0CP PC A09/MF A01 

Science Applications, Inc., Huntsville, Ala. 
Determination of Constant-Volume Balloon 
Capabilities for Aeronautical Research. 

F. B.Tatom, and R. L. King. Mar 77, 186p Rept 
nos. NASA-CR-2805, M-208 
Contract NAS8-31 173 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 'Flow mea- 
surement, 'Meteorological balloons, 'Wind 
velocity measurement, Computer programs, 
Equations of motion, Flow distribution, Three 
dimensional flow. 
Identifiers: BALLOON computer program. 

The proper application and interpretation of 
constant-volume balloons (CVB) for measure- 
ment of atmospheric phenomena was deter- 
mined. A literature survey covering 176 
references is included, the governing equations 
describing the three-dimensional motion of a 
CVB immersed in a flow field are developed. 
The flowfield model is periodic, three-dimen- 
sional, and nonhomogeneous, with mean trans- 
lational motion. The balloon motion and flow 
field equations are cast into dimensionless 
form for greater generality, and certain signifi- 
cant dimensionless groups are identified. An al- 
ternate treatment of the balloon motion, based 
on first-order perturbation analysis, is also 
presented. A description of the digital computer 
program, BALLOON, used for numerically in- 
tegrating the governing equations is provided. 



N77-20629/0CP PC A04/MF A01 

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt. 
Manual for the Gaussian Plume Model Com- 
puter Program Handleiding voor Het Compu- 
terprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluim- 
model. 

P. A. T. Nieuwendijk, C. A. Engeldal, and F. T. M. 
Nieuwstadt. 1976, 73p Rept no. KNMI-WR-76-16 
In Dutch; English Summary. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Gauss equation, Normal density func- 
tions, Plumes, Algol, Dispersing, User manuals 
(Computer programs). 

Identifiers: Netherlands, 'Gaussian plume 
model, Computerized simulation. 

The Gaussian plume model, which simulates 
the dispersion of air pollution, and the input 
parameters of the model are discussed. A 
manual to operate the program is presented. 
The equations of the model are given, together 
with the values of the recommended input 
parameters. The structure of the program is 
described; the input is discussed in general 
form. Also, an input model is given together 
with three input examples. The output of the ex- 
amples is discussed, and a listing of the pro- 
gram is given. The manual, which replaces the 
old version by Vermaas, 1 975, facilitates the use 
of the computer program. Useful advice for fu- 
ture users of the long term model is annexed. 



N77-20659/7CP PC A07/MF A01 

Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. Dept. of Physics 

and Atmospheric Science 

Techniques for Computing Regional Radiant 

Emittances of the Earth-Atmosphere System 

from Observations by Wide-Angle Satellite 

Radiometers, Phase 3. 

Final Report, 1 Jan. - 31 Dec. 1974 

J. F. Pina, and F. B. House. Aug 75, 126p Rept 

no. NASA-CR-145011 

Contract NAS1-1 1871 

Descriptors: 'Earth atmosphere, 'Energy 
budgets, 'Radiometers, Radiation measure- 
ment, Satellite observation, Wide angle lenses, 
AbsorptiorT spectra, Angular distribution, Com- 
puter programs, Solar radiation. 



Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites mea- 
sure the exchange of radiant energy between 
the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space 
at observation points in space external to the E- 
A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical 
and flat radiometers are analyzed and in- 
terpreted with regard to the general problem of 
the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the 
problem of determining the energy budget of 
regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of 
these radiometers. 



N77-20660/5CP PC A12/MF A01 

Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. School of 

Aerospace Engineering. 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model, 

MOD 2 (With Two Scale Perturbation Model). 

Interim Technical Report. 

C. G. Justus, and W. R. Hargraves. Jul 76, 262p 

Rept no. NASA-CR-150214 

Contract NAS8-20657 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological parameters, 
'Random processes, 'Reference atmospheres, 
Perturbation, User manuals (Computer pro- 
grams), Geostrophic wind, Gravitational waves, 
Periodic variations, Pressure measurements. 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model was 
improved to produce more realistic simulations 
of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. 
A revised two scale random perturbation model 
using perturbation magnitudes which are ad- 
justed to conform to constraints imposed by the 
perfect gas law and the hydrostatic condition is 
described. The two scale perturbation model 
produces appropriately correlated (horizontally 
and vertically) small scale and large scale per- 
turbations. These stochastically simulated per- 
turbations are representative of the magnitudes 
and wavelengths of perturbations produced by 
tides and planetary scale waves (large scale) 
and turbulence and gravity waves (small scale). 
Other new features of the model are: (1) a 
second order geostrophic wind relation for use 
at low latitudes which does not blow up at low 
latitudes as the ordinary geostrophic relation 
does; and (2) revised quasi-biennial amplitudes 
and phases and revised stationary perturba- 
tions, based on data through 1972. 



N77-21516/8CP PC A02/MF A01 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D. C. 
Measurements of Far-Ultraviolet Photographs 
from Skylab 4 and APOLLO 6. 

Final Report. 

T. Page. 8 Mar77,5p Rept no. NASA-CR-151242 

Contract NASA ORDER T-9602-B 

Descriptors: 'Far ultraviolet radiation, 
'Spaceborne photography, Apollo 16 flight, 
Skylab 4, Airglow, Computer programs, Kohou- 
tek comet, Magellanic clouds, Stellar radiation. 

Over 700 far UV photos were obtained with the 
S201 electrographic camera on Skylab 4 (27 
Nov. 1973 - 28 Jan. 1974) and from the Apollo- 
16 lunar site (21 - 23 Apr. 1972). The Lyman- 
alpha geocorona was found to fit R. R. Meier's 
model, and the tropical airglow belts were mea- 
sured quantitatively. The history of Comet 
Kohoutek's Ly-alpha halo (and lack of an ox- 
ygen halo) was followed from 32 days before to 
13 days after perihelion passage, and fitted to a 
model of hydrogen production from the comet. 
Far UV emissions from the Large Magellanic 
Cloud were also measured quantitatively and 
compared with ground-based measurements of 
stellar associations and nebulae. Computer 
programs were developed to contour the densi- 
ties measured by microphotometer on the 
original film and to locate and sum density- 
volumes in each starlike image. In addition, 
thousands of stars were identified and their far 
UV flux measured in two band-passes (1050 - 
1600 A, 1250- 1600 A). 



N77-21734/7CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Aeronautical Establishment, Ottawa 

(Ontario). 

Some Environmental Measurement of the 

Vertical Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level 

Sources. 

R. S. Crabbe. Apr 75, 45p Rept no. LTR-UA-28 

Descriptors: 'Contaminants, 'Environmental 
surveys, 'Pesticides, Air pollution, Aerosols, At- 
mospheric circulation, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Air pollution sampling, Atmospher- 
ic motion. 

As a contribution to pesticide accountancy, a 
series of environmental experiments on the 
mean vertical spread of gaseous and aerosol 
pollutants from ground-based sources has 
been performed. For the former, reasonable 
agreement between theoretical analysis and 
airborne and surface measurements is demon- 
strated. A dimensional analysis is suggested for 
using similar data to predict the general case. A 
method to predict the required number of 
crosswind passes to obtain the time mean 
values of laterally integrated concentration in a 
plume is also presented and verified by experi- 
ment. 



N77-21788/3CP PC A02/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. 
All-Weather Ice Information System for 
Alaskan Arctic Coastal Shipping. 
R. T. Gedney, R. J. Jirberg, R. J. Schertler, R. A. 
Mueller, and T. L. Chase. 1977, 14p Rept nos. 
NASA-TM-X-73619, E-9108 
Conf-Presented at 9TH Ann. Offshore 
Technology Conf., Houston, Tex., 2-5 May 1977. 

Descriptors: 'Ice formation, 'Ice mapping, 
'Radar imagery, Alaska, Computer programs, 
Forecasting. 

A near real-time ice information system 
designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the 
Alaskan North Slope is described. The system 
utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar 
(SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard 
HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures 
showing the type, areal distribution and con- 
centration of ice cover were developed. In order 
to guide vessel operational movements, near 
real-time SLAR image data were transmitted 
directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, 
Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker 
Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were 
transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via 
the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images 
developed in Cleveland were subsequently fac- 
simile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet 
Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in 
ice forecasting and also as a demonstration 
back to Barrow via the Communications 
Technology Satellite. 



PC A04/MF A01 
RVO-TNO, The Hague 



N77-24935/7CP 

Physics Lab. 

(Netherlands). 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 

J. B. Vandevrie. Nov 76, 53p Rept nos. PHL- 
1976-41, TDCK-68562 

Descriptors: 'Background radiation, 'Infrared 
radiation, 'Ocean surface, "Sky radiation, At- 
mospheric models, Infrared scanners, 
Meteorological parameters. Surface tempera- 
ture, Water temperature. 

Identifiers: Solar radiation, Air water interface, 
Atmospheric attenuation, 'Atmospheric trans- 
missivity, Lowtran 3 computer program, 
Netherlands 

An investigation of sea and sky background 
radiance as a function of elevation in three 
wavelength intervals 3.0-5.0, 3.4-4.1 and 8.0- 
14.0 micrometers is described. A computer 
model, which has the Lowtran 3 atmospheric 



59 



transmission model as a subroutine, was 
developed to study the separate influence of a 
few meteorological parameters on these func- 
tions. The occurrence of a dip in the apparent 
temperature of the sea near the horizon has 
notably been analyzed. Results are summarized 
of the measurements of the background radia- 
tion around the horizon, made during a year by 
a scanning radiometer at an altitude of 30 meter 
above the sea surface. The radiance of the sky 
is measured and computed also for higher 
elevations (0-90 deg). Computations and mea- 
surements are in very good agreement except 
for the small interval 3.4-4.1 micrometers. The 
latter might be caused by an overestimation of 
the transmission by the Lowtran 3 model in this 
wavelength band. 



N77-25714/5CP PC A07/MF A01 

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches 

Aerospatiales, Paris (France). 

Dispersion within the Stratosphere of Minor 

Constituents. 

Ph.D. Thesis - Toulouse Univ., 1976. 
A. M. Bouchardy. Jan 77, 127p Rept nos. 
ONERA-P-1976-7, FR-ISSN-0078-379X 
Misc-Report Will Also Be Announced as Trans- 
lation (Esa-TT-381 ). 
In French; English Summary. 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, "Artificial clouds, 
'Stratosphere, 'Trace contaminants, Cloud 
physics. Computer programs. Diffusion coeffi- 
cient, Exhaust gases, Mathematical models. 
Optical radar. Turbulent diffusion. 
Identifiers: France, 'Atmospheric diffusion, 
Theses. 

The experimental method consists in creating 
artificial clouds within the stratosphere, and in 
observing their evolution from the ground. The 
observation means used are either a lidar and a 
still camera, or two ballistic chambers and two 
still cameras. The measurements carried out 
allow determination of cloud motion and cloud 
sizes, during an average of 600 sec. A numerical 
model was realized which makes it possible to 
simulate the evolution of these clouds and to 
emphasize the influence of turbulent mixing 
and wind shear. With this model and experi- 
mental results the horizontal diffusion coeffi- 
cients and their variations with scale can be 
determined. The values found are between 0.5 
and 11 sq m/s, for a time of 300 sec. Some 
values of the vertical diffusion coefficient were 
also measured. The results obtained are 
discussed. A study of the microstructure of 
clouds permitted the study of the phenomena at 
a smaller scale. 



N77-26177/4CP PC A18/MF A01 

Computer Sciences Corp., Silver Spring, Md. 
Skylab S191, S192 Program Descriptions. 

M. Mack. Feb 76, 424p Rept no. NASA-CR- 

152508 

Contract NAS5-1 1999 

Descriptors: 'Terrestrial radiation, Computer 
programs, Data reduction, Satellite observa- 
tion, Skylab program, Algorithms, Data storage, 
Documentation, Format, Information manage- 
ment, Plotting, Telemetry. 

Software developed to assist in assessing and 
analyzing earth radiation data obtained from 
Skylab S191 and S192 experiments are 
described. A block data generation routine is 
included along with a plot program for the S191 
experiment. Changes in format from that of the 
original JSC tapes are discussed. 



N77-26753/2CP PC A07/MF A01 

Sperry Support Services, Huntsville, Ala. En- 
gineering Operations. 

Atmospheric Cloud Physics Thermal Systems 
Analysis. 

Final Report. 

15Jun 77, 140p Rept no. NASA-CR-150312 



Contract NAS8-32231 

Descriptors: 'Cloud physics, Atmospheric 
chemistry. Mathematical models, Computer 
programs, Computers, Thermal stability. 

Engineering analyses performed on the At- 
mospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science 
Simulator expansion chamber and associated 
thermal control/conditioning system are re- 
ported. Analyses were made to develop a 
verified thermal model and to perform paramet- 
ric thermal investigations to evaluate systems 
performance characteristics. Thermal network 
representations of solid components and the 
complete fluid conditioning system were solved 
simultaneously using the Systems Improved 
Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) com- 
puter program. 



N77-29673/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propaga- 
tion in a Stratospheric Model. 1: Development 
of a Concise Stratospheric Model. 
R. D. Rundel, D. M. Butler, and R. S. Stolarski. 
May 77, 35p Rept nos. NASA-TM-X-71360, X- 
624-77-122 
Subm-Submitted for Publication. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 

'Ozonometry, 'Perturbation, 'Stratosphere, Air 

pollution. Computer programs, Monte carlo 

method. 

Identifiers: Mathematical models, Uncertainty. 

A concise model has been developed to analyze 
uncertainties in stratospheric perturbations, yet 
uses a minimum of computer time and is 
complete enough to represent the results of 
more complex models. The steady state model 
applies iteration to achieve coupling between 
interacting species. The species are determined 
from diffusion equations with appropriate 
sources and sinks. Diurnal effects due to 
chlorine nitrate formation are accounted for by 
analytic approximation. The model has been 
used to evaluate steady state perturbations due 
to injections of chlorine and NO(X). 



N77-31012/6CP PC A06/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight 
Center. 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Descrip- 
tion. 

P. A. Bracken, J. T. Dalton, J. B. Billingsley, and 
J. J.Quann. Mar 77, 118p Rept nos. NASA-TM- 
X-71342.X-933-77-148 

Conf-Presented at Machine Process. Of 
Remotely Sensed Data, West Lafayette, Ind., 21- 
23Jun. 1977. 

Descriptors: "Information management, 
'Meteorological parameters, 'Oceanographic 
parameters, 'Optical data processing, Systems 
engineering, Computer programs. Data 
processing terminals, Imagery, Minicomputers, 
Pdp computers. 

The development of hardware and software for 
an interactive, minicomputer based processing 
and display system for atmospheric and 
oceanographic information extraction and 
image data analysis is described. The major ap- 
plications of the system are discussed as well 
as enhancements planned for the future. 



N77-31678/4CP PC A07/MF A01 

European Space Agency, Paris (France). 
Dispersion of Trace Constituents in the 
Stratosphere. 

A. M. Bouchardy. Jul 77, 143p Rept nos. ESA- 
TT-381, ONERA-P-1976-7 



Tran-Transl. Into English of 'Dispersion dans la 
Stratosphere de Constituants en Traces', 
Onera, Paris Report Onera-p-1976-7, Jan. 1977. 
Misc-Original Report in French Previously An- 
nounced as N77-25714. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Artificial clouds, 
'Stratosphere, 'Trace contaminants, Cloud 
physics, Computer programs, Diffusion coeffi- 
cient, Exhaust gases. Mathematical models, 
Optical radar, Turbulent diffusion. 
Identifiers: Translations, France, 'Atmospheric 
diffusion. 

The experimental method consists in creating 
artificial clouds within the stratosphere, and in 
observing their evolution from the ground. The 
observation means used are either a lidar and a 
still camera, or two ballistic chambers and two 
still cameras. The measurements carried out 
allow determination of cloud motion and cloud 
sizes, during an average of 600 sec. A numerical 
model was realized, which makes it possible to 
simulate the evolution of these clouds, and to 
emphasize the influence of turbulent mixing 
and wind shear. With this model and experi- 
mental results the horizontal diffusion coeffi- 
cients and their variations with scale can be 
determined. The values found are between 0.5 
and 11 sq m/s, for a time of 300 sec. Some 
values of the vertical diffusion coefficient were 
also measured. The results obtained are 
discussed. A study of the microstructure of 
clouds permitted the study of the phenomena at 
a smaller scale. 



N77-31700/6CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Langley Research Center, Langley Station, 
Va. 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres 
as a Function of Latitude, Season, and Time. 
J. W. Campbell. Sep 77, 91 p Rept nos. NASA- 
TN-D-8470, L-11308 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheres, 'Mathematical 
models, 'Monte carlo method, 

'Thermodynamic properties, Computer pro- 
grams, Pressure, Spacecraft trajectories, 
Stochastic processes, Temperature. 

An empirical stochastic computer model was 
developed with the capability of generating ran- 
dom thermodynamic profiles of the atmosphere 
below an altitude of 99 km which are charac- 
teristic of any given season, latitude, and time 
of day. Samples of temperature, density, and 
pressure profiles generated by the model are 
statistically similar to measured profiles in a 
data base of over 6000 rocket and high-altitude 
atmospheric soundings: that is, means and 
standard deviations of modeled profiles and 
their vertical gradients are in close agreement 
with data. Model-generated samples can be 
used for Monte Carlo simulations of aircraft or 
spacecraft trajectories to predict or account for 
the effects on a vehicle's performance of at- 
mospheric variability. Other potential uses for 
the model are in simulating pollutant dispersion 
patterns, variations in sound propagation, and 
other phenomena which are dependent on at- 
mospheric properties, and in developing data- 
reduction software for satellite monitoring 
systems. 



N78-11642/3CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, 
Ala. 

Development of a Procedure to Model High- 
Resolution Wind Profiles from Smoothed or 
Low-Frequency Data. 

D. W. Camp. Nov 77, 92p Rept nos. NASA-TP- 
1071.M-239 

Descriptors: 'Wind profiles, High resolution, 
Models, Rawinsondes, Computer programs. 
Computerized simulation, Jimsphere balloons. 



60 



The derivation of simulated Jimsphere wind 
profiles from low-frequency rawinsonde data 
and a generated set of white noise data are 
presented. A computer program is developed to 
model high-resolution wind profiles based on 
the statistical properties of data from the Ken- 
nedy Space Center, Florida. Comparison of the 
measured Jimsphere data, rawinsonde data, 
and the simulated profiles shows excellent 
agreement. 



N78-14235/3CP PC A02/MF A01 

Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt 
fuer Luft- und Ftaumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen 
(West Germany). 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for 
the Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotat- 
ing Platform in an Aircraft Berechnung der 
Winkel-Sollwerte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines 
Stabilisierten Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in 
Einem Flugzeug. 

E. Hoermann. Feb 77, 24p Rept no. DLR-IB-552- 
76/27 
Language in German. 

Descriptors: "Airborne equipment, 'Alignment, 
"Antennas, "Backscattering, 'Meteorological 
parameters. Azimuth, Computer programs, 
Elevation angle, Scatterometers, Seas, Stabil- 
ized platforms. 
Identifiers: West Germany. 

A procedure to calculate from the navigation 
gyroscope values the desired values for the 
drive control of an antenna rotating platform 
(azimuth and elevation) on board an aircraft is 
described. The study is part of the scatterome- 
ter project in which the possibility of establish- 
ing from backscatter measurements, informa- 
tion on the motion of the sea and hence the 
wind direction and the wind force was in- 
vestigated. To this end, a stabilizing antenna 
pointed slanted towards the sea is mounted on 
board an aircraft flying along a predetermined 
path. The position of the antenna should not be 
influenced by the movements of the aircraft. 
The method gives simplified equations for 
elevation over azimuth and for azimuth over 
elevation values. 



N78-15629/6CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Sup- 
port for Garp Data Sets. 
Technical Report, Oct. 1976 - Sep. 1977. 
J. P. Gary. Oct 77, 86p Rept no. NASA-TM-78042 

Descriptors: 'Data management, 'Global at- 
mospheric research program, 'Information 
systems. Data bases, Computer programs, Data 
retrieval, Data storage. 

Identifiers: 'Data base management systems, 
Data retrieval system. 

A data base management system is identified, 
developed to provide flexible access to data 
sets produced by GARP during its data systems 
tests. The content and coverage of the data 
base are defined and a computer-aided, in- 
teractive information storage and retrieval 
system, implemented to facilitate access to user 
specified data subsets, is described. The com- 
puter programs developed to provide the capa- 
bility were implemented on the highly interac- 
tive, minicomputer-based AOIPS and are 
referred to as the data retrieval system (DRS). 
Implemented as a user interactive but menu 
guided system, the DRS permits users to inven- 
tory the data tape library and create duplicate 
or subset data sets based on a user selected 
window defined by time and latitude/longitude 
boundaries. The DRS permits users to select, 
display, or.produce formatted hard copy of in- 
dividual data items contained within the data 
records. 



N78-18573/3CP PC A11/MF A01 

Cramer (H.E.) Co., Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Users' Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud- 
Rise Preprocessor Program, Version 6, and 
the NASA/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Program, 
Version 6: Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 
System. 

J. R. Bjorklund. Jan 78, 233p Rept nos. NASA- 
CR-2945, M-245 
Contract NAS8-31 841 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric diffusion, Univac 
1108 computer. User manuals (Computer pro- 
grams), Computer programs, Environmental 
tests, Rocket exhaust, Shear layers, Space 
shuttles. 

Identifiers: Concentration(Com position), 

'Exhaust emissions, 'Air pollution sampling. 

The cloud-rise preprocessor and multilayer dif- 
fusion computer programs were used by NASA 
in predicting concentrations and dosages 
downwind from normal and abnormal launches 
of rocket vehicles. These programs incor- 
porated: (1) the latest data for the heat content 
and chemistry of rocket exhaust clouds; (2) 
provision for the automated calculation of sur- 
face water pH due to deposition of HCI from 
precipitation scavenging; (3) provision for auto- 
mated calculation of concentration and dosage 
parameters at any level within the vertical 
grounds for which meteorological inputs have 
been specified; and (4) provision for execution 
of multiple cases of meteorological data. 
Procedures used to automatically calculate 
wind direction shear in a layer were updated. 



N78-18623/6CP PC A04/MF A01 

M&S Computing, Inc., Huntsville, Ala. 

Wisp Information Display System User's 

Manual. 

Final Report. 

P. L. Alley, and G. R. Smith. 30 Jan 78, 68p Rept 
nos. NASA-CR-1 50541, REPT-77-042 
Contract NAS8-32024 

Descriptors: 'Display devices, 'Information 
systems, 'User manuals (Computer programs), 
'Wind shear, Data acquisition, Data storage, 
Laser doppler velocimeters, Magnetic tapes. 
Identifiers: WISP System. 

The wind shears program (WISP) supports the 
collection of data on magnetic tape for per- 
manent storage or analysis. The document 
structure provides: (1) the hardware and soft- 
ware configuration required to execute the 
WISP system and start up procedure from a 
power down condition; (2) data collection task, 
calculations performed on the incoming data, 
and a description of the magnetic tape format; 
(3) the data display task and examples of dis- 
plays obtained from execution of the real time 
simulation program; and (4) the raw data dump 
task and examples of operator actions required 
to obtained the desired format. The procedures 
outlines herein will allow continuous data col- 
lection at the expense of real time visual dis- 
plays. 



N78-21692/6CP PC A02/MF A01 

Systems and Applied Sciences Corp., River- 
dale, Md. 

Software Development: Stratosphere Model- 
ing. 

Final Report. 

H. C. Chen. 9 Dec 77, 14p Rept nos. NASA-CR- 
156722, R-SAD-12/77-34 
Contract NAS5-24255 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric chemistry, 

'Atmospheric models, "Ozone, "Stratosphere, 
Transport theory, Computer programs, Mathe- 
matical models, Photochemical reactions. 
Radiation, Stratosphere. 

A more comprehensive model for stratospheric 
chemistry and transport theory was developed 



for the purpose of aiding predictions of 
changes in the stratospheric ozone content as a 
consequence of natural and anthropogenic 
processes. This new and more advanced strato- 
spheric model is time dependent and the de- 
pendent variables are zonal means of the rele- 
vant meteorological quantities which are func- 
tions of latitude and height. The model was 
constructed by the best mathematical approach 
on a large IBM S360 in American National Stan- 
dard FORTRAN. It will be both a scientific tool 
and an assessment device used to evaluate 
other models. The interactions of dynamics, 
photochemistry and radiation in the strato- 
sphere can be governed by a set of fundamental 
dynamical equations. 



N78-21694/2CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

User's Guide to the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ul- 
traviolet Experiment Data Sets. 
B. E. Lowrey. Jan 78, 96p Rept no. NASA-TM- 
78069 
Contract NAS5-23854 

Descriptors: "Backscattering, "Ozone, 

"Ultraviolet radiation, Nimbus 4 satellite, Com- 
puter programs, Data bases. Manuals, Statisti- 
cal tests. 

The first year's data from the Nimbus 4 
backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) experiment have 
been archived in the National Space Science 
Data Center (NSSDC). Backscattered radiances 
in the ultraviolet measured by the satellite were 
used to compute the global total ozone for the 
period April 1970 - April 1971. The data sets 
now in the NSSDC are the results obtained by 
the Ozone Processing Team, which has 
processed the data with the purpose of deter- 
mining the best quality of the data. There are 
four basic sets of data available in the NSSDC 
representing various stages in processing. The 
primary data base contains organized and 
cleaned data in telemetry units. The radiance 
data has had most of the engineering calibra- 
tions performed. The detailed total ozone data 
is the result of computations to obtain the total 
ozone; the Compressed Total Ozone data is a 
convenient condensation of the detailed total 
ozone. Product data sets are also included. 



N78-23650/2CP PC A06/MF A01 

Geophysical Observatory, Christchurch (New 
Zealand). Physics and Engineering Lab. 
A Program for Reading Ionospheric Data. 

L. A. Tomlinson. Nov 77, 109p Rept no. REPT- 
540 

Descriptors: "Computer programs, 

"lonospherics, Data systems, PDP computers, 
Data acquisition. Data storage, Fortran, 
Minicomputers, Subroutines. 
Identifiers: PDP-1 1 computers, New Zealand. 

A PDP 11 minicomputer with an XY digitising 
table was programmed so that the relevant 
points from a record were directly entered into 
the computer The data were stored in a file on 
disk for subsequent processing and, finally, the 
production of tabulated data sheets for publica- 
tion. 



N78-23668/4CP PC A02/MF A01 

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt. 
Computer Program for Calculation of the In- 
cident Radiation Per Day on a Horizontal Sur- 
face at the Edge of the Atmosphere een Com- 
puterprogramma voor Het Berekenen van de 
Inkomende Straling Aan de Rand van de At- 
mosfeer Per DAG Door een Horizontaal Op- 
pervlak. 

HA. R. Debruin. Apr 77. 21p Rept no. KNMI-V- 
294 
Language in Dutch. 



61 



Descriptors: 'Atmospheric radiation, 

'Computer programs, 'Incident radiation, 
Daytime, Declination, Latitude, Sunlight. 
Identifiers: Solar radiation, Netherlands. 

A program is described for the calculation of 
the incident solar radiation per day on a 
horizontal surface at the edge of the at- 
mosphere as a function of the location on earth 
(latitude) and the day number. By-products of 
this program are declination and sun length, as 
well as day length and the distance earth-sun as 
function of latitude and day number for an 
average year. The program was written for 
meteorological applications. 



N78-23788/0CP PC A03/MF A01 

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt. 
Description of Automatic Plotting Computer 
Programs Beschrijving van Het Program- 
mapakket T.B.V. Het Automatisch Plotten. 
G. D. G. Folkers. 1977, 28p Rept no. KNMI-V-292 
Language in Dutch. 

Descriptors: 'Computer programming, 

'Meteorological charts, 'Plotting, Aerology, 
ALGOL, Digital computers, Plotters, Water 
waves. 

Identifiers: Burroughs 6700 computers, Com- 
puter aided mapping, Netherlands. 

Automatic plotting programs for wave maps, 
detail maps, rain maps, aerology, and aerolo- 
gy/temps are described. The programs are writ- 
ten in Burroughs Extended ALGOL (BEA) for 
use on a Burroughs B6700 computer. The out- 
put consists of plotfiles stored on disks using 
the Xynetics basic software package. The plot- 
files can be used on a Xynetics plotter. The pro- 
gram package being quite large, the listings 
have not been printed in the document. 



N78-24754/1CP PC A03/MF A01 

City Univ. of New York. Dept. of Earth and 
Planetary Sciences. 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere 
for February 1976 with the Giss Model. 
J. Spar, and R. J. Lutz. 1978, 39p Rept nos. 
NASA-CR-157158, CONTRIB-105 
Contract NGR-33-013-086 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 

"Computerized simulation, 'Weather forecast- 
ing, Climatology, Computer programs, Tropo- 
sphere. 

Identifiers: GISS model, Atmospheric tempera- 
ture. 

Monthly mean simulations of the global at- 
mosphere were computed for February 1976 
with the GISS model from observed initial con- 
ditions. In a replication experiment, two of 
these computations generated slightly different 
monthly mean states, apparently due to the 
schedule of interruptions on the computer. The 
root-mean-square errors of replication over the 
Northern Hemisphere were found to be about 2 
mb, 20 m, and 1 K for sea-level pressure, 500 
mb height, and 850 mb temperature, respec- 
tively. The monthly mean 500 mb forecast 
results for February 1976 over the Northern 
Hemisphere were consistent with those from 
earlier GISS model experiments. 



ORNL/CSD/TM-40 PC A02/MF A01 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 
WNDROS: A Program for Displaying Wind 
Rose Data 

E. C. Schlatter. Mar 78, 22p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-26 

Descriptors: 'Computer codes, 'Wind, Com- 
puter graphics, Data processing, Display 
devices, Fortran, Spatial distribution, Velocity, 
W codes. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500100, WNDROS computer 
program. 



The FORTRAN IV program WNDROS uses the 
computer graphics system DISSPLA to produce 
a wind rose plot. The plot indicates wind 
frequency at a site as a function of wind speed 
and direction as read from Star data listings of 
the Environmental Data Service, National Cli- 
matic Center, NOAA. Options are available 
which allow the user to control the final ap- 
pearance of the plot. A program description, 
user's guide, a data sample, a finished plot, and 
FORTRAN and JCL listings are included. (ERA 
citation 03:035933) 



ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 PC A06/MF A01 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 
Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and 
Diffusion Model. 

W. M. Culkowski, and M. R. Patterson. Apr 76, 

117p 

Contract W-7405-eng-26 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Plumes, 'Sulfur 
dioxide, 'Mathematical models. Aerosols, Com- 
puter codes, Diffusion, Earth atmosphere, En- 
vironmental effects, Forecasting, Mass transfer, 
Meteorology, Power plants, Tennessee. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500200, ERDA/200202, 
'Atmospheric diffusion. 

A comprehensive version of the Atmospheric 
Transport Model is described that includes the 
effect of aerodynamic roughness on dispersion 
constants, clarifies the roles of the terminal 
velocity and deposition velocity, incorporates a 
tilting plume for heavy particulates, and in- 
cludes an episodic calculation of exposure 
maxima. This model also limits the maximum 
value of the dispersion constants in order to 
retain the emitted material in the planetary 
boundary later. The structure of the program 
has been modularized in order to clarify the 
flow of calculation and allow more flexibility. 
Values for atmospheric concentration as well 
as both wetfall and dryfall deposition are calcu- 
lated. The model is applied to the vicinity of 
three power plants, and correlations between 
model predictions and observed values are 
presented. (ERA citation 01 :014370) 



ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 PC A05/MF A01 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a 

Plume 

C. F. Baes, Jr, J. T. Holdeman, and W. M. 
Culkowski. Apr 76, 78p 
Contract W-7405-eng-26 

Descriptors: 'Computer codes, 'Fossil-fuel 
power plants, 'Air pollution, 'Plumes, 'Sulfur 
dioxide, Aerosols, Ammonia, Ammonium 
sulfates. Chemical effluents, Chemical reac- 
tions, Droplets, Mathematical models, Oxida- 
tion, Oxygen, Ozone, Ph value, S codes, 
Sulfates, Sulfites, Sulfur trioxide. 
Identifiers: ERDA/010900, ERDA/200202, 
ERDA/500200, 'Atmospheric chemistry. Sul- 
furic acid, SULCAL model. 

A computer program has been written that 
models the following features of the chemical 
behavior of sulfur emitted to the atmosphere 
from fossil-fuel burning power plants: (1) the 
rapid reactions of SO sub 2 with aerosol 
droplets to produce the dissolved sulfite spe- 
cies H sub 2 SO sub 3 ,HSO sub 3- and SO sub 
32- ; (2) the rapid reactions of SO sub 3 to 
produce the dissolved sulfate species HSO sub 
4- and SO sub 42- ; (3) the neutralization of the 
acid thus produced by atmospheric ammonia 
and (4) the eventual formation of particulate 
ammonium sulfate; (5) the slow oxidation of SO 
sub 2 to sulfate species by hydroxyl radical, and 
(6) the slow oxidation of species of SO sub 2 in 
aerosol droplets to sulfate species by dissolved 
ozone and oxygen. The model employs 
averaged concentrations based on the Gaus- 
sian plume and can calculate deposition rates 
for gaseous and particulate material as a func- 



tion of such variables as distance from the 
source, wind speed, meterological stability 
class, temperature, relative humidity, and the 
ambient concentrations of OH radical, ozone, 
and ammonia. (ERA citation 01 :015492) 



ORNL/TM-5201 MF A01 

Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. 

Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Code (ORFAD) 

User's Manual 

M.E. LaVerne.Jan77, 118p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-26 
Microfiche copies only. 

Descriptors: 'Computer codes, 'Cooling 
towers, 'Fog, 'Plumes, Climates, Computer cal- 
culations. Daily variations, Diffusion, Environ- 
mental effects, Gaseous wastes, Gaussian 
processes, Meteorology, O codes, Seasons, 
Thermal effluents, Vapor condensation. Water 
vapor. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500400, ERDA/200200, Gaus- 
sian plume models, Mathematical models, At- 
mospheric diffusion, Programming manuals, 
ORFAD computer program. 

ORFAD is a computer program written for the 
purpose of providing estimates of fog and drift 
resulting from the operation of wet cooling 
towers. The program uses hourly weather data 
from tapes. The physical and calculational 
models are described, and detailed instructions 
are given for input preparation and running the 
program. A program listing and sample output 
are appended. (ERA citation 02:030816) 



HC E01 MF A01 
Satellite Center, 



PB-191 189/CP 

National Environmental 

Washington, D.C. 

Mapping of Geostationary Satellite Pictures: 

An Operational Experiment. 

Technical memo. 

R. C. Doolittle, C. L. Bristor, and L. Lauritson. 

Mar 70, 44p Rept no. NESCTM-20 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological satellites, Cloud 
cover, 'Aerial photographs, Data processing 
systems. Aerial photographs. Computer pro- 
grams, Photographic images, Stereoscopic 
photography. Photographic techniques. 
Identifiers: ATS-I satellite, 'Spaceborne 
photography. 

Spin scan cloud pictures from the ATS-I geos- 
tationary satellite were mapped for daily opera- 
tional experimental use during the period from 
June to December 1969. The details of this con- 
tinuing experiment are discussed herein. Com- 
puter programs are used, first to preprocess the 
digitized image data to produce a geometrically 
normalized picture, then to map the normalized 
image on Mercator or polar stereographic pro- 
jections. In the summary, recommendations are 
made for operational processing of data from 
the projected operational geostationary satel- 
lite, and some speculative suggestions are ad- 
vanced in regard to the possibilities for ex- 
panded computer processing in the future. 
(Author) 



PB-191 870/CP HC E01 MF A01 

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 

Computer Program for Plotting Time Depen- 
dent Data with Instruction and Examples. 
K. W. Brown, and Norman J. Rosenberg. Jul 69, 
34p* MP-23, OWRR-A-001-NEBR(4) 

Descriptors: 'Micrometeorology, Data 

processing systems, 'Plotters, Computer pro- 
grams, Input-output devices. 
Identifiers: TIMEPLOT computer program. 

The use of multichannel automatic data recor- 
ders has necessitated the development of 
techniques for rapid analysis and presentation 
of data. A computer program was developed to 



62 



plot time dependent data from a storage matrix. 
The body of the program, entitled TIMEPLOT, is 
written in FORTRAN IV. To minimize the run 
time required, the input and output subroutines 
are written in F level COBOL. Time, which may 
range from 1 hour to 16 days, is plotted on the 
abscissa. The program computes the intervals 
at which labels are placed and determines the 
required annotation. Data may be plotted as 
frequently as one observation per minute or as 
infrequently as one observation per day. The or- 
dinate may represent any parameter. A single 
parameter may be plotted or several parameters 
may be superimposed upon each other. Com- 
binations may be arranged on a single time 
axis. The program was designed with special 
features to facilitate the plotting of microcli- 
matic, micrometeorological, and other types of 
time-dependant data. Plots drawn in india ink 
may be photographically reduced for use in re- 
ports and journal articles. Associated utility 
programs are also described. (Author) 



PB-192 757/CP HC E01 MF A01 

EG and G, Inc., Boulder, Colo. Environmental 
Services Operation. 

A Parameterized Numerical Model of Oro- 
graphic Precipitation. 
PaulT. Willis. 28 Jan 70, 95 
Contract DI-14-06-D-5640 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric precipitation, 
Mathematical models, Atmospheric motion, 
Condensation, Clouds, Air mass analysis, Water 
vapor, Nucleation, Artificial precipitation. At- 
mospheric temperature, Flow fields, Moun- 
tains, Ice, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: Cloud seeding. 

The model described in the report calculates 
the steady state field of vertical velocity over an 
orographic barrier, the production of cloud 
water by this vertical velocity field, the conver- 
sion of this cloud water to hydrometeor water 
and the subsequent trajectory of this 
hydrometeor waterto the surface. (Author) 



PB-202 199/CP PC E01 MF A01 

Denver Univ., Colo. Dept. of Geography. 
The Development of Computer Programs Ap- 
plicable to Meaningful Precipitation Manage- 
ment Experiments 

Final rept. 

William A. Peterman. 1 Jul 71, 101p REC-14-06- 

D-6646-F 

Contract DI-14-06-D-6646 

Errata sheet inserted. 

Descriptors: 'Weather modification, 'Computer 
programming, "Weather forecasting, Mathe- 
matical prediction, Cloud physics, Cloud seed- 
ing, Precipitation(Meteorology), Decision mak- 
ing, Management engineering, Atmospheric 
sounding, Computer programs, Numerical 
analysis, Meteorological data. 
Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, Sky- 
water project. 

Computer programs have use in precipitation 
management experiments. Operational use of 
computers and computer products has been 
limited, however, because of several limitations 
which restrict their use. Scientists conducting 
precipitation management operations need 
user-oriented computer products specifically 
designed for their needs. Several numerical 
models and programs have been studied and 
tested. A philosophy for the field use of compu- 
ters has been developed. From this has grown a 
system for transmitting data and computer 
products to field users. This system has un- 
dergone a series of field tests and has been 
carefully evaluated. This system has been made 
operational by the Bureau of Reclamation, and 
its data and computer programs are currently 
available to all Project Skywater field programs. 
(Author) 



PB-206 938/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Research Corp. of New England, Hartford, 

Conn. 

A Regional Air Quality Simulation Model (A 

Description of the Connecticut Air Pollution 

Model as Developed by the Travelers 

Research Center) 

Norman E. Bowne, and G. D. Robinson. Sep 71, 

81p*APTD-0930 

Contract CPA-70-155 

Prepared in cooperation with the Center for the 

Environment and Man, Inc., Hartford, Conn. 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, 'Atmospheric 
models, Computer programs, Sources, At- 
mospheric composition, Atmospheric diffusion, 
Mathematical models, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Wind(Meteorology), Con- 
necticut. 

An air quality model which assumes a form of 
solution of the equation for a single source, in- 
serts appropriate empirical parameters, and 
sums the solutions over all sources is 
described. Three categories of source are 
recognized in the model: major, intense, 
discontinuous, i.e., point and line, sources 
(examples are the stacks of electrical generat- 
ing or other major industrial plants and 
highways, etc.); numerous minor sources 
which are treated as continuous area sources; 
and sources beyond the boundary of the model. 
Special devices, effectively a sub-model, which 
were needed to deal with the proximity of very 
large sources, unknown in detail, in the area of 
New York City are described. (Author) 



PB-209 290/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Systems, Science and Software, La Jolla, Calif. 
A Particle-in-Cell Method for Numerical Solu- 
tion of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation, 
and Applications to Air Pollution Problems. 
Volume I 
Final rept. 

R. C. Sklarew, A. J. Fabrick, and J. E. Prager. 
Nov 71 , 1 73p 3SR-844-Vol-1 , APTD-0952 
Contract DI-68-02-0006 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric diffu- 
sion. Smog, Turbulent diffusion. Mathematical 
models, Computer programming, Carbon 
monoxide, Photochemical reactions, Lagrange 
equations of motion, California. 
Identifiers: Los Angeles(California), NEXUS 
computer code, PICFIC computer code. 

The document reports the development and ini- 
tial applications of a new method for the solu- 
tion of the turbulent atmospheric diffusion 
equation. The method, called PICK, is based on 
the use of Langrangian mass points and is one 
of a family of Particle-in-Cell techniques for the 
solution of partial differential equations. The 
purpose of the study was the development of 
the PICK method and the demonstration of the 
method in the solution of evaluation test cases 
and actual air pollution problems. Test cases 
for the evaluation of feasibility and accuracy 
and for comparison to finite difference solu- 
tions were conducted with a two-dimensional 
computer code PICFIC. For actual air pollution 
studies, the PICK method was used in the three 
dimensional code NEXUS. The description of 
NEXUS and its application to the simulation of 
CO in Los Angeles is given. The NEXUS/P code 
was developed to solve equations with 
photochemical terms. NEXUS/P's description 
and its application to photochemical fog in Los 
Angeles is described. (Author) 



PB-210 702/7CP PCA05/MFA01 

EG and G Inc., Boulder, Colo. Environmental 

Services Operation. 

Potential Environmental Modifications 

Produced by Large Evaporative Cooling 

Towers 

Water pollution control research series. 

Jan71,80pEPA-16130-DNH-01/71 

Contract FWPCA-14-12-542 



Paper copy available from GPO $0.75 as 
EP2.10:16130DNH01/71. 

Descriptors: 'Cooling towers, 'Plumes, *Air pol- 
lution, Heat, Water vapor, Fog, Humidity, 
Mathematical models, Computer programs, At- 
mospheric diffusion, Cloud physics, Topog- 
raphy, Cloud seeding, Site surveys. 
Identifiers: 'Thermal pollution. 

A readily usable model was developed for 
evaluating the extent of plumes from large 
evaporative cooling towers. Mathematical 
models were used to describe the dynamics of 
the wet cooling tower plume and its interaction 
with the environment. Primary emphasis was 
placed on predicting the height of the plume. 
Classical atmosphere diffusion theory was used 
to determine the downwind spread. The satura- 
tion deficit of the atmosphere controls the 
downwind spread of and fogging used by the 
plume. A map of the U.S. indicating locations of 
potential adverse atmospheric effects due to 
cooling towers can be used in conjunction with 
local data. Appendix contains a description of 
the computer program, including input specifi- 
cations. 



PC E01/MF A01 
Research Lab., 



PB-211 232/CP 

Transport and Road 

Crowthorne (England). 

A Program for Calculating Thiessen Average 

Rainfall 

A. O.Grigg. 1972, 21p Rept no. TRRL-LR-470 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, Average, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Rainfall, FORTRAN, Rain gages, 
Polygons, Great Britain, Hydrology. 

The report describes a digital computer pro- 
gram for the determination of the mean rainfall 
over an area using the Thiessen method. The 
area can be of any shape and there is no neces- 
sity for the rain-gauge network to be the same 
for all storms. It is suggested that the program 
may have applications outside the field of 
hydrology. (Author) 



PB-211 806/CP PC E01/MF A01 

Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta. Environmental 
Resources Center. 
Digital Simulation of Thunderstorm Rainfall 

Partial completion rept. 

Unal A. Sorman, and James R. Wallace. Aug 72, 

194p ERC-0972, OWRR A-036-GA(1) 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall intensity, Digital simula- 
tion, 'Thunderstorms, Rainfall, Storms, Atomo- 
spheric disturbances, Spatial distritution. 
Hydrology, Coastal topographic features. 
Mathematical models, Stochastic processes, 
Georgia, Computer programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Little River watershed, Tif- 
ton(Georgia). 

The purpose was to obtain a better understand- 
ing of the temporal and spatial variability of 
thunderstorm rainfall and to develop a digital 
model for the stochastic simulation of thun- 
derstorm rainfall for the Southeast Coas'al 
Plain areas. Rainfall patterns were thoroughly 
analyzed from rainfall data made available by 
the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Statistical properties and 
frequency distritutions of rainfall cell charac- 
teristics, such as cell duration, size, spatial and 
temporal distribution of rainfall intensity, cell 
movement, and the number and orientation of 
cells, were analyzed. A digital model of thun- 
derstorm rainfall was formulated from observed 
storm cell characteristics and the parameters of 
the model were evaluated from isolated thun- 
derstorms. (Author) 

PB-213 091/2CP PC E01/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif. 



63 



User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffu- 
sion Model Computer Program 

R. L. Mancuso, and F. L. Ludwig. Sep 72, 122p* 

CRC-CAPA-3-4 

Contract CAPA-3-68(1 -69)-CRC 

Sponsored in part by Environmental Protection 

Agency. 

Descriptors: 'Urban areas, Air pollution, *Air 
pollution, "Atmospheric motion, 'Highway 
transportation. Air pollution, 'Computer pro- 
grams, Programming manuals, Handbooks, At- 
mospheric diffusion. Mathematical models, 
Wind(Meteorology), Exhaust gases, Carbon 
monoxide, Streets, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Automobile exhaust, CDC 6400 
computers, APRAC 1A computer program, IBM 
360/50 computers, 'Computerized simulation. 

The APRAC-1A diffusion model was developed 
as a versatile and practical model for comput- 
ing the concentrations of pollutants at any 
point within a city. The model calculates pollu- 
tant contributions from diffusion on various 
scales, including: extraurban diffusion, mainly 
from sources in upwind cities; intraurban diffu- 
sion from freeway, arterial, and feeder street 
sources; local diffusion of emissions within a 
street canyon. The model treats only carbon 
monoxide (CO), a relatively inert gas in the at- 
mosphere but an important pollutant in terms 
of health. Motor vehicles are the major source 
of this gas. (Author) 



PB-225 123/9CP PC A09/MF A01 

North Carolina Water Resources Research Inst., 

Raleigh. 

Precipitation Variability Over North Carolina 

W. J. Saucier, A. H. Weber, and C. K. Bayne. Aug 

73, 198p UNC-WRRI-73-84, OWRR-A-061-NC(3) 

Contract DI-14-31-0001-3833 

Prepared by North Carolina State Univ., 

Raleigh. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 

'Precipitation(Meteorology), Periodic varia- 
tions, Computer programs, Tables(Data), 
Probability theory. 

Identifiers: Numerical weather forecasting, 
OWRR. 

Variability of precipitation is analyzed in detail 
for records of 40 to 50 years or more. The 
probability of occurrence of wet or dry days is 
calculated for various thresholds of rainfall. 
Using the Freyerherm-Bark model, tables of ini- 
tial and transitional probabilities and con- 
fidence limits are calculated. Tables of 
sequences of wet and dry days are also calcu- 
lated. Computer programs and example 
problems are presented. Monthly total 
precipitation is calculated by station and tables 
and maps are given for the monthly means and 
of variance about the means. Long-term varia- 
tions in precipitation were found in analyzing 
40-year data series. Variations due to tropical 
storms are also analyzed. Conclusive evidence 
is presented that long-term variations do occur 
and affect nearby locations quite differently. 



PB-226 513/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

Transport and Road Research Lab., 

Crowthorne (England). 

Estimated Rainfall for Drainage Calculations 

in the United Kingdom 

C. P. Young. 1973, 25p Rept no. TRRL-LR-595 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Estimating, 'Sewers, 
'Design criteria, Rainfall intensity, Statistical 
data, Tables(Data), Great Britain, Computer 
programs, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, GBRRL. 

The report gives tables of rainfall from the Bil- 
ham rainfall formula taking account of the 
latest work of the Meteorological Office 



together with an algorithm for calculating the 
figures. The rainfall profile used in most of the 
computer programs based on TRRL hydro- 
graph method of sewer design is also given. 
(Author) 



PB-227 346/4CP PC A07/MF A01 

National Environmental Research Center, 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. Control Systems 
Lab. 

User's Guide for the Climatological Disper- 
sion Model 

A. D. Busse, and J. R. Zimmerman. Dec 73, 
1 37p* Rept no. EPA-R4-73-024 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric mo- 
tion, 'Climatology, Mathematical models, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Algorithms, At- 
mospheric composition, Concentra- 
tion(Chemistry). 

Identifiers: Climatological Dispersion Model, 
IBM 360/370 computers, EPAO. 

The Climatological Dispersion Model (CDM) 
determines long-term (seasonal or annual) 
quasi-stable pollutant concentrations at any 
ground-level receptor using average emission 
rates from point and area sources and a joint 
frequency distribution of wind direction, wind 
speed, and stability for the same period. This 
model differs from the Air Quality Display Model 
(AQDM) primarily in the way in which concen- 
trations are determined from area sources, the 
use of Briggs' plume rise formula, and the use 
of an assumed power law increase in wind 
speed with height that depends on the stability. 
The material presented in diredted toward the 
engineer familiar with computer techniques 
and will enable him to perform calculations 
with the CDM. Technical details of the com- 
puter programming are discussed; complete 
descriptions of input, output, and a test case 
are given. Flow diagrams and a source program 
listing are included. Campanion papers on the 
technical details of the model and on validation 
are included as appendices. (Author) 



PB-229 771/1CP CPT03 

National Environmental Research Center, 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. Meteorology Lab. 
Users Network for Applied Modeling of Air 
Pollution (UNAMAP) 

Rept. fori Mar 73-1 Mar 74. 

A. D. Busse, P. E. Ruff, and D. B. Turner. 1 Mar 

74, 1 reel mag tape, Rept no. UNAMAP-001 

See also PB-213 091. 

Specify tape recording mode desired: 7 track, 

556 or 800 BPI, odd and even parity; or 9 track, 

800 BPI, odd parity. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Urban areas, 
'Mathematical models, 'Magnetic tapes, FOR- 
TRAN. 

Identifiers: FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage, IBM 360 computers, NERC. 

The single reel of magnetic tape contains (9) 
files of data relevant to the UNAMAP air quality 
models. The first file contains brief descriptions 
of the models. The second through seventh 
contains source Fortran codes for the six 
UNAMAP models, APRAC, HIWAY, CDM, 
PTMAX, PTDIS, and PTMTP respectively. The 
eighth file is a test set of emission inventory and 
meteorological data for CDM ; the ninth file con- 
tains similar data for APRAC. The remainder of 
the models are interactive where the data is 
supplied by the user upon prompting by the 
master program. Mnauals are being prepared 
for the models and will have spearate NTIS ac- 
cession numbers. The Fortran IV source code is 
self-documenting with frequent comments. The 
source computer and operating system is an 
IBM 360-OS. The tape recording mode is 9 
track, 800 bits per inch, EBCDIC code, odd pari- 
ty. Physical records each contain 10 logical 
records in card image format (i.e 80 byte logi- 
cal records; 800 byte block size). The tape can 



be copied to 7 track form without loss of data. 
(Author) 



PB-232 445/7CP PC A10/MF A01 

Battelle-Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, 
Wash. Atmospheric Sciences Dept. 
Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
Final rept. 

M. Terry Dana, J. M. Hales, W. G. N. Slinn, and 
MA. Wolf. Jun 73, 215p* EPA-R3-73-047 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Sulfur dioxide, 
'Electric power plants. Plumes, Sulfates, Rain, 
Acidity, Models, Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 
Identifiers: 'Precipitation washout. 

This report describes field measurement and 
modeling of the washout of S02 and sulfate 
from plumes. Field measurements of precipita- 
tion washout were conducted in conjunction 
with both controlled test sources and actual 
power plant plumes. A primary achievement of 
this work has been the formulation of an S02 
washout model, which predicts rain-borne S02 
concentrations that agree favorably with those 
observed. An approximate theoretical analysis 
of sulfate washout in conjunction with field ob- 
servations indicates that sulfate formation and 
scavenging exhibit a strong inverse depen- 
dence on acidity levels in the background rain. 
(Modified author abstract) 



PB-233 674/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Water Resources 
Research Center. 

Some Statistical Analyses of Hawaiian Rain- 
fall 

Technical rept. 1 Jul 70-30 Jun 71 
Edmond D. H. Cheng, and L. Stephen Lau. Aug 
73, 64pTR-72, OWRR-A-029-HI(1) 
Contract DI-14-01-0001-3011 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Watersheds, 'Hawaii, 
Rainfall intensity, Regression analysis, 
Precipitation(Meteorology), Seasonal varia- 
tions, Correlation techniques, Stability, Rain 
gages, Oahu Island, Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 

Monthly rainfall data of several stations in Kalihi 
Basin, Manoa Basin, and Kaneohe Area, all on 
Oahu, and the central sloping area of Molokai 
were correlated to watershed parameters of the 
areas. Distance measured from the station to a 
common station located seaward from all sta- 
tions has proven to be the most important of the 
three parameters studied, the other two being 
the exposure and the elevation of the area. Both 
linear and nonlinear regression functions were 
developed. The central tendency of the monthly 
rainfall for the high rainfall part of the 
southeastern part of the Island of Oahu was 
found to require approximately forty years of 
record to stabilize. The intensity-duration rela- 
tion of intense rain for specified recurrence in- 
terval for the high rainfall part of the Manoa 
Basin portrays accurately an inverse straight- 
line relationship on a plot of log-log coor- 
dinates, suggesting extension of effort to other 
climatically widely different regions in Hawaii. 



PB-236 902/3CP PC A03/MF A01 

Geological Survey, Tacoma, Wash. Water 
Resources Div. 

Direct Beam Solar Radiation. A Digital Com- 
puter program 

Lowell A. Rasmussen. Oct 74, 47p Rept no. 
USGS/WRD-74-036 

Descriptors: 'Solar radiation, 'Transmissivity, 
'Computer programs, Atmospheric refraction, 
FORTRAN. 

A digital computer program is described that 
provides bihourly direct beam solar radiation 



64 



values (langleys/minute) and daily totals 
(langleys) for one or more sites anywhere on 
the Earth, for one or more days of the year, for 
eight different atmospheric transmissivity 
values. The site may have arbitrary elevation 
above sea level, and the horizon may be ar- 
bitrarily modified topographically; the plane of 
the site may have arbitrary inclination from the 
horizontal, including vertical. The program 
gives the (true solar) times of sunrise and sun- 
set, as well as of the beginning and conclusion 
of other topographic obstructions of the Sun. 
Care has been taken in the FORTRAN coding to 
enhance the ease of installation of the program 
on the widest possible selection of computers, 
both existing and anticipated, of the prepara- 
tion of input data and the use of the output 
data, and of possible modification of the pro- 
gram to serve specialized purposes. 



PB-238 948/4CP PC A09/MF A01 

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, III. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

A Stochastic Rainfall Model and Statistical 

Analysis of Hydrologic Factors 

Final rept. Apr 73-Sep 74 

Ross B. Corotis. Dec 74, 188p* Rept no. NUCE- 

ST74-15 

Grant NSF-GK-37442 

Descriptors: "Thunderstorms, 'Rainfall, 'Flood 
forecasting, Surface water runoff, Mathemati- 
cal models, Stochastic processes, Probability 
theory, Floods, Statistical decision theory, 
Watersheds, Computerized simulation, Regres- 
sion analysis, Damage, Urban areas, Stream 
flow, Reviews. 
Identifiers: STORM computer program. 

The observed behavior of thunderstorm-type 
activity is used to formulate a multidimensional 
stochastic model for runoff-producing rainfall. 
In Part 1 of this report the physical model of ob- 
served activity is used to describe the thun- 
derstorm process, and probability distributions 
are assigned to all random variables. This 
model follows the hourly development of 
storms in terms of thunderstorm clouds and 
rainfall-producing convective cells. The 
process is programmed, and use of the model 
illustrated. Part 2 approaches several different 
theoretical aspects associated with rainfall and 
runoff. A somewhat simplified thunderstorm 
model is used to derive a probability distribu- 
tion for instantaneous rainfall, and several 
statistical relations are considered briefly. 
There is a state-of-the-art report on the effect of 
urbanization on both rainfall and runoff, and a 
statistical regression analysis relating flood 
damage to characteristics of the watershed 
basin, precipitation data, and streamflow data. 
Finally, the use of statistical decision theory 
analysis is illustrated. 



PB-239 268/6CP PC A06/MF A01 

Kentucky Water Resources Inst., Lexington. 
Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall 

Research rept. Jul 72-Jun 74 

David M. Allen, C. T. Haan, Don Linton, Jim 

Street, and David Jordan. Jan 75, 1 21 p RR-82, 

OWRT-A-045-KY(1) 

Contract DI-14-31-0001-381 7, DI-14-31-0001- 

4017 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Water supply, 
'Kentucky, Stochastic processes, Markov 
chains. Probability theory, Estimates, Mathe- 
matical models, Precipitation(Meteorology), 
Design, Computerized simulation, Computer 
programs. 

The design of many water resources projects 
requires knowledge of possible long-term rain- 
fall patterns. A stochastic model based on a first 
order Markov chain was developed to simulate 
daily rainfall at a point. The model is applicable 
to any point in Kentucky (and other areas with 
similar rainfall patterns). The model in its 



present form is useful in providing rainfall in- 
puts into hydrologic models for designing 
water supply facilities and other water 
resources systems. The model uses historical 
rainfall data to estimate the Markov transitional 
probabilities. A separate matrix is estimated for 
each month of the year. In this report 7x7 
transitional probability matrices were used. The 
model is capable of simulating a daily rainfall 
record of any length based on the estimated 
transitional probabilities and frequency dis- 
tributions of rainfall amounts within each class 
interval. The simulated data have statistical pro- 
perties similar to historical data. 



PB-239 797/4CP PC A10/MF A01 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Ralph 

M. Parsons Lab. for Water Resources and 

Hydrodynamics. 

Bidimensional Spectral Analysis of Rainfall 

Events 

Alonso E. Rhenals-Figueredo, Ignacio 

Rodriguez-lturbe, and John C. Schaake, Jr. Nov 

74,217p 193, R-74-59,OWRT-C-411 8(9021 )(8) 

Contract DI-1 4-31-0001-9021 , Grant NOAA-4- 

36738 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall, 'Storms, Patterns, 
Stochastic processes. Mathematical models. 
Interpolation, Spatial distribution, Fourier anal- 
ysis, Correlation techniques, Computer pro- 
grams, Autocorrelation, Harmonic analysis, 
Theses. 

Total storm depths over a given area are as- 
sumed to be composed of a regional com- 
ponent, explaining the large-scale variations of 
rainfall, and a local component, explaining the 
small-scale variations. In order to study the 
characteristics of the regional component, a 
number of storms over a given area are 
analyzed. For each storm, a double Fourier 
analysis of the total storm depths is performed, 
and the principal harmonics of the storm are 
determined. This analysis is aimed to in- 
vestigate whether or not there exists a per- 
sistent pattern in total storm depths over a 
given area. The local component, or storm 
residuals, is obtained by subtracting the 
periodic component of the storm from the total 
storm depths. It is assumed that the residuals of 
each storm are a sample function of a 
homogeneous random field, which, in princi- 
ple, may be different for each storm. The analy- 
sis of the storm residuals has illustrated a 
methodology for the statistical analysis of areal 
rainfall data and the characterization of 
homogeneous isotropic random fields. 



PB-239 944/2CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Environmental Research Center, 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. Meteorology Lab. 
User's Guide for Hiway. A Highway Air Pollu- 
tion Model 
Final rept. 

John R. Zimmerman, and Roger S. Thompson. 
Feb 75, 68p* Rept no. EPA/650/4-74-008 

Descriptors: 'Highway transportation, 'Air pol- 
lution, 'Atmospheric motion, Highways, Mathe- 
matical models, Computerized simulation, 
Wind(Meteorology), Turbulent diffusion. Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: 'HIWAY Computer program. 

A computer model, called HIWAY, that can be 
used for estimating the concentrations of non- 
reactive pollutants from highway traffic is 
described. This steady-state Gaussian model 
can be applied to determine air pollution con- 
centrations at receptor locations downwind of 
at-grade and cut-section highways located in 
relatively uncomplicated terrain. The air pollu- 
tion concentration representative of hourly 
averaging times at a downwind receptor loca- 
tion is found by a numerical integration along 
the length of each lane and a summing of the 
contributions from each lane. With the excep- 



tion of receptors directly on the highway or 
within the cut, the model is applicable for any 
wind direction, highway orientation, and recep- 
tor location. The model was developed for 
situations in which horizontal wind flow occurs. 
The model cannot consider complex terrain or 
large obstructions to the flow such as buildings 
or large trees. An interactive version of the 
computer model is available on Environmental 
Protection Agency's Users' Network for Applied 
Modeling of Air Pollution (UNAMAP). 



PB-240 273/3CP CP T01 

National Environmental Research Center, 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. Meteorology Lab. 
User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air 
Pollution (UNAMAP) Version 2 

Models-Simulation 

D. B. Turner, and Adrian Busse. 29 Nov 74, 1 

reel mag tape EPA/DF-74/038 

Specify tape recording mode desired: 9 track, 

800 or 1600 bpi, odd parity, EBCDIC; or 7 track, 

556 or800 bpi, odd oreven parity, BCD. 

Descriptors: 'Models-simulation, 'Air pollution, 
'Atmospheric diffusion, 'Highway transporta- 
tion. Mathematical models, Magnetic tapes, 
FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: 'HIWAY computer program. 

This single reel of magnetic tape contains 2 
files relevant to VERSION 2 changes to the 
UNAMAP air quality models. The first file con- 
tains all of the source code affected by the VER- 
SION 2 changes, in a partitioned or element-file 
format. Batch versions of all models were in- 
cluded and the HIWAY Model was entirely 
replaced. File 2 is sample test data for the batch 
versions. Manuals are available for APRAC and 
CDM. Accession Numbers for the publications 
are PB-21 3-091 and PB-227-346-AS, respec- 
tively. Manuals for HIWAY and the three point 
source models are available in draft form and 
should be published early 1975. The FORTRAN 
Source code is largely self-documenting and 
should be machine independent in most cases. 
Tape recording mode is 9-track, 800 frames per 
inch. EBCDIC code, odd parity. Physical 
records each contain 10 logical records (i.e., 
10-card images per block). Tape can be copied 
to 7-track without loss of data. 



PB-243 508/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Water Resources 

Research Center. 

Methodological Approaches in Hawaiian Fog 

Research 

Technical rept. 

James H.McKnight, and James O.Juvik. Mar 

75, 40p TR-85, O WRT-A-041-HI(1 ) 

Contract DI-14-31-0001-401 1 

Descriptors: 'Fog, 'Precipitation(Meteorology), 
'Hawaii, Moisture content, Hygrometers. Moun- 
tains, Particle size, Estimating, Networks, 
Mathematical models, Rainfall, Sampling, 
Meteorological instruments, 

Wind(Meteorology), Computer programs, Spa- 
tial distribution. 

Recent studies have demonstrated the impor- 
tant moisture contribution from fog precipita- 
tion and mountain areas on the island of 
Hawaii. Research methodologies useful in the 
study of Hawaiian upslope fog, were in- 
vestigated, including; (1) Development of an 
improved fog gage; (2) development of indirect 
approximation methods for estimating average 
droplet sizes during precipitation episodes and 
separating fog and rainfall components; (3) 
establishment of an extensive fog sampling net- 
work on the island of Hawaii employing con- 
tinuous recording equipment, for both rain, fog, 
and wind; (4) development of an original com- 
puter program for detailed temporal and spatial 
analysis of rain, fog, and wind parameters. 



65 



PB-244 760/5CP PC A03/MF A01 

Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Au- 
burn. 

Scheduling and Application Rates of Irriga- 
tion in Humid Climate 

C. D. Busch, and E. W. Rochester. Jun 75, 39p 
Bull 470, OWRT-A-025-ALA(3) 

Descriptors: 'Irrigation, 'Humidity, 'Arid land, 
Weather forecasting, Scheduling, Mathematical 
models. Soil water, Probability theory, Cotton 
plants, Production, Rainfall, Field tests. Com- 
puter programs, Alabama. 
Identifiers: Water demand. Water utilization. 

A four-year study of two irrigation scheduling 
methods and application rates was conducted 
to determine more efficient uses of supplemen- 
tal water in a humid climate. One model based 
the decision to irrigate on weather forecast and 
soil moisture conditions; the other, irrigation by 
demand, based on soil moisture conditions 
only. Two application rates of 0.13 in/hr (low) 
and 0.43 or 0.7 in/hr (high) were used. A com- 
puter program was developed to calculate soil 
moisture and predict irrigation needs in the 
forecast scheduling model. A 0.5 probability of 
rainfall greater than 0.5 inch was the lower limit. 
The weather forecast also provided the basis of 
deciding how much rainfall would be included 
in the soil moisture balance. The method of ir- 
rigation by demand improved production 160 
lbs. of seed cotton per acre for each inch of 
water applied. Simulation studies following the 
field experiment supported the results of the 
field study. 



PB-249 913/5CP PC A13/MF A01 

Health Effects Research Lab., Research Trian- 
gle Park, N.C. 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report. 
Appendices. Volume VII 
Annual program status rept. Jan-Sep 74. 
Sep 75, 281 p Rept no. EPA/600/3-75/010h 
See also PB-249 908. 

Descriptors: 'Automobiles, 'Air pollution con- 
trol, 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric chemistry, 
'Toxicology, 'Exhaust emissions. Mathematical 
models, Gas analysis. Sulfuric acid, Sulfates, 
Smog, Catalysts, Aerosols, Highway transporta- 
tion, Fuels, Palladium, Platinum, Computer pro- 
grams, Atmospheric motion. 
Identifiers: 'Air pollution effects(Humans), 
HIWAY computer program, Smog chambers, 
Automobile exhaust, Saint Louis(Missouri), Los 
Angeles(California). 

Contents: 

Inhalation toxicology; 
Meteorological modelling; 
Atmospheric chemistry. 



PB-251 066/7CP PC A07/MF A01 

JRB Associates, Inc., La Jolla, Calif. 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 

Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 

Final rept. 

A. J. Fabrick, P. I. Nakayame, and E.J. 
Fredricksen. Feb 74, 136p EPA/650/4-74/006 
Contract EPA-68-02-1238 

Descriptors: 'Computerized simulation, 'Air 
pollution, 'Atmospheric diffusion, Boundary 
layer, Dispersions, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Plumes, Particles, 

Photochemical reactions, Transport properties, 
Mathematical models, Computer programs, 
Nitrogen oxides, Navier-Stokes equations, Nu- 
merical integration. 

Identifiers: Gaussian plume model, 'VARMINT 
computer program. 

This report presents the results of a study to 
develop a numerical model to accurately calcu- 
late the trajectories and concentrations of reac- 
tive pollutants emitted from localized sources. 
The numerical model employs the solution of 



the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equa- 
tions along with the solution of the species den- 
sity equation by summing over Lagrangian 
mass points. The mass points are transported 
by the mean wind field and moved with a ran- 
dom walk technique that simulates the turbu- 
lent diffusion. The effect of chemical reactions 
are modeled by reweighing the Lagrangian 
mass points. The equations are solved for re- 
gions of space where terrain features or 
buildings may cause strong distortions in the 
flow field. The numerical techniques are 
verified by comparisons with analytic formulas, 
including the boundary layer above a plate and 
the Gaussian plume. The method was used to 
calculate photochemically reacting plumes 
using a simplified inorganic photochemical 
reaction model. Portions of this document are 
not fully legible. 



PB-251 138/4CP PC A08/MF A01 

Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. 
Wind Field and Trajectory Models for Tor- 
nado-Propelled Objects 

Technical rept. 

G. Redmann, J. Radbill, J. Marte, P. 

Dergarabedian, and F. Fendell. Feb 76, 166p 

EPRI-308-1 

Descriptors: 'Tornadoes, Mathematical models, 
Aerodynamic characteristics, Boundary layer 
flow, Tropical cyclones, Dynamics, Trajectories, 
Vortices, Computerized simulation, Degrees of 
freedom, Tumbling, Computer programs, 
Nuclear power plants, Safety engineering. 
Identifiers: Six degrees of freedom. 

As part of a research program to develop a 
mathematical model to bound the impact 
characteristics of tornado-propelled objects 
based on verifiable experimental data, this 
phase consists of the following tasks: (1) Define 
the worst-case tornado and its associated wind 
field; (2) survey the availability of aerodynamic 
coefficients for the postulated missiles; (3) 
develop a model which will evaluate the sen- 
sitivity of the preimpact characteristics to un- 
certainties in the aerodynamic data; (4) identify 
significant areas requiring additional research. 
This report presents in great detail the physical 
characteristics, conditions, and mathematical 
formulations upon which the worst-case tor- 
nado, its associated wind field and the trajecto- 
ry model are based. 



PB-251 703/5CP PC A10/MF A01 

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc., 

Westlake Village, Calif. Western Technical 

Center. 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 

(SURE). Volume III: Appendices 

Final rept. 

Feb 76, 216p EPRI/EC-125-Vol-3 

Paper copy also available in set of 4 reports as 

PB-251 700-SET, PC E99. 

Descriptors: 'Sulfur oxides, 'Sulfates, 
'Nitrogen oxides, Laboratory equipment, Re- 
gions, Particles, Atmospheric chemistry, United 
States, Combustion products, Fossil fuels, 
Electric power plants, Tables(Data), Chemical 
analysis, Computer programs, Air filters, 
Aerometers, Fossil fuel power plants. 
Identifiers: 'Sulfate regional experiment, 'Air 
pollution standards, 'Air quality data. 

This planning study - Design of the Sulfate Re- 
gional Experiment (SURE) - was conducted on 
project RP 485 to determine ways of predicting 
the impact of emissions from fossil fuel com- 
bustion by the electric utilities industry on am- 
bient sulfate, nitrate and related concentrations 
in a large region downwind of groups of major 
sources. The end goal of the analysis and in- 
terpretation of seven specific hypotheses is the 
adoption and verification of an air quality model 
which will be used to investigate the relation 
between sulfur oxide emissions and ambient 



sulfate concentrations, and, to a lesser extent, 
the relation between NOx emissions and am- 
bient nitrate. The results are presented in four 
volumes. This report (volume 3) is a compilation 
of technical appendices. Topics considered in- 
clude the following: Description and evaluation 
of laboratory analytical procedures; Archive of 
aerometric data; Inventory of sulfur dioxide 
emissions; Sulfate measurement technology; 
and, User's manual to the air trajectory box 
model. 



PB-252 385/OCP PC A03/MF A01 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of 
Aerospace Engineering. 
Load Introduction into Pressurized Films 

Final rept. 

James L. Rand. Dec 75, 50p Rept no. TAMRF- 

921-7501 

Contract NCAR-1-73 

Descriptors: 'Meteorological balloons, 'Stress 
analysis, Loads(Forces), Stress concentration, 
Polymeric films. Computer programs, FOR- 
TRAN. 

This report presents a numerical method for 
predicting the distribution of stresses in a su- 
perpressure balloon system manufactured from 
a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic film suffi- 
ciently pressurized to prevent geometric insta- 
bilities. A computational model of the problem 
was established in the area of load attachment 
by considering a rectangular region subjected 
only to an in-plane load at the corner and 
neglecting any effects of curvature. The grid 
size is sufficient to obtain detailed stress dis- 
tributions in and around seams and load 
patches. Results are presented for two particu- 
lar load patches as well as the stresses as- 
sociated with three different seam to film stiff- 
ness ratios. As expected the results indicated 
the most highly stressed region to be in the 
vicinity of load introduction. The magnitude of 
these stresses is acceptable but dependent on 
the payload being supported uniformly by all 
load lines. The results also indicate that some 
load is retained in the seam, the amount depen- 
dent on the ratio of seam to film stiffness. 



PB-252 558/2CP PC A07/MF A01 

Environmental Research and Technology, Inc., 
Concord, Mass. 

Adaptation of Gaussian Plume Model to In- 
corporate Multiple Station Data Input. Volume 
II. Appendices 
Final rept. 

Harvey S. Rosenblum, Bruce A. Egan, Claire S. 
Ingersoll, and Michael J. Keefe. Jun 75, 135p 
ERT-P-1121-VOI-2, EPA/600/3-75/003b 
Contract EPA-68-02-1753 
See also Volume 1 , PB-252 557. 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Air pollu- 
tion, 'Mathematical models, Revisions, Air pol- 
lution control, Improvement, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Atmospheric chemistry, 
Dispersions, Exhaust emissions, Combustion 
products, Wind velocity, Numerical analysis, 
Plumes, FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: 'Gaussian plume models, Air quali- 
ty, Climatological dispersion model, Real time 
air quality simulation model, Sampled 
chronological input model, Nonpoint sources, 
Point sources, FORTRAN 4 programming lan- 
guage. 

EPA urban dispersion models were modified to 
consider multiple station information on wind 
speed and direction. Three models were 
modified: the Real-Time Air-Quality-Simulation 
Model (RAM) and the Sampled-Chronological 
Input Model (SCIM), both short-term averaging 
models, and the Climatological Dispersion 
Model (CDM), a long term averaging model. 
This report contains the appendices and com- 
puter program listings. 



66 



PB-2S3 205/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Air Resources Lab. 
Wind Energy Flux Calculated from Idaho Na- 
tional Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Sensor 
Network Data 
Technical memo. 

John H. Cate, and Robert G. Nisle. Jul 75, 61p 
NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-54, NOAA-76030502 

Descriptors: 'Wind(Meteorology), 'Wind 
velocity, Flux(Rate), Anemometers, Telemeter- 
ing data, Data processing, Computer programs, 
Tables(Data), Computation, Idaho. 
Identifiers: Aquilla project. 

Computer programs to calculate root mean 
cube of windspeed, developed for Project 
Aquilla, are presented with details of their use. 
Data from the Idaho National Engineering 
Laboratory (INEL) wind sensing network for 
1968 through 1970 and 1972 through April 1975 
serve as input. From these data, the programs 
calculate the available energy flux for the upper 
Snake River plain. 



PB-256 651/1CP PC A08/MF A01 

IBM Research Lab., San Jose, Calif. 
Development of an Urban Air Quality Simula- 
tion Model with Compatible RAPS Data. 
Volume I 

Final rept. 1 Jul 74-30 May 75 
C.C. Shir, and L. J. Shieh. May 75, 152pEPA- 
600/4-75/005-a 
Contract EPA-68-02-1833 
See also Volume 2, PB-256 652. 

Descriptors: 'Urban areas, 'Mathematical 
models, 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Atmospheric diffu- 
sion, 'Air pollution, Sulfur oxides, Computer 
programming, Computer simulation, Concen- 
tration(Composition), Numerical analysis, Wind 
velocity, Urban area, FORTRAN, Exhaust emis- 
sions, Combustion products, Missouri. 
Identifiers: 'Saint Louis(Missouri), Point 
sources, Nonpoint sources, Fortran 4 pro- 
gramming language, Regional Air Monitoring 
System, 'IBMAQ-2 computer program. 

An advanced generalized urban air quality 
model (IBMAQ-2) is developed based on the 
theory utilized in an existing model (IBMAQ-1) 
as prescribed in Ref. 1. The model, based on 
numerical integration of the concentration 
equation, computes temporal and three-dimen- 
sional spatial concentration distributions 
resulting from specified urban point and area 
sources by using NEDS (National Emission 
Data System) and simulated RAMS (Regional 
Air Monitoring System) data. The UTM 
(Universal Transverse Metric) coordinates are 
used in all geographical, source emission, and 
monitoring data. A new method to incorporate 
point sources into the grid computtion is 
developed by using a Lagrange trajectory 
method. Many model options are provided 
which enable users to study conveniently the 
significant effects which these options have on 
the final concentration distributions. The pro- 
gram description is included to provide a guide 
for users. The program is constructed in a 
modular form which allows users to change or 
improve each component conveniently. The 
input auxiliary model, which processes geo- 
graphical, source emission, and monitoring 
data, is also included. 



PB-256 652/9CP PC A09/MF A01 

IBM Research Lab., San Jose, Calif. 
Development of an Urban Air Quality Simula- 
tion Model with Compatible RAPS Data. 
Volume II 

Final rept. 1 Jul 74-30 May 75 
C. C. Shir, and L.J. Shieh. May 75, 186p EPA- 
600/4-75/005-b 
Contract EPA-68-02-1833 
See also Volume 1 , PB-256 651 . 



Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Mathematical 
models, 'Sulfur dioxide, 'Urban areas, 
'Atmospheric diffusion, 'Computer programs, 
FORTRAN, Atmospheric diffusion models, 
Urban area, Concentration(Composition). 
Identifiers: 'Saint Louis(Missouri), Regional Air 
Monitoring System, 'IBMAQ-2 computer pro- 
gram. 

Contents: 

Main Program Listing; 
Auxiliary Program Listing; 
Input Data Listing; 
Output Samples; 
Report of IBMAQ-1; 

Finite Difference Scheme for the Horizontal 
Advection Terms of the Concentration 
Equation. 



PB-257 376/4CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Wave Propagation Lab. 
A Stellar Scintillometer for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
Technical memo. 

G. R. Ochs, Ting-i Wang, and F. Merrem. Apr 76, 
26p Rept no. NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-15 
Contract F30602-74-0108 

Descriptors: 'Extraterrestrial atmospheres, 
'Optical measuring instruments, Atmospheric 
attenuation, Light transmission, Optical detec- 
tors. Refractive index. Remote sensing, Com- 
puter programs, BASIC programming lan- 
guage. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric transmissivity. Optical 
spatial filters, 'Stellar scintillometers. 

An optical system for measuring refractive-tur- 
bulence profiles in the atmosphere is 
described. The instrument measures the profile 
along the light path to a star by analyzing the 
scintillation of the star by the atmosphere. The 
circuit diagram, computer program, and 
operating instructions for the instrument are in- 
cluded. 



PB-257 527/2CP PC A14/MF A01 

Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, Calif. 
Continued Research in Mesoscale Air Pollu- 
tion Simulation Modeling: Volume II. Refine- 
ments in the Treatment of Chemistry, 
Meteorology, and Numerical Integration 
Procedures 

Final rept. Jun 74-Jun 75 

S. D. Reynolds, J. Ames, T. A. Hecht, J. P. Meyer, 
and D. C. Whitney. May 76, 303p SAI/EF75-69, 
EPA/600/4-76/01 6b 
Contract EPA-68-02-1237 

Also available in set of 4 reports as PB-257 525- 
SET, PC E99/MFE99. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric 
models, 'Computerized simulation. Computer 
programs, Reaction kinetics, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Mathematical models, Nu- 
merical analysis. Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen 
oxides. Sensitivity, Photochemical reactions, 
Physical properties, Chemical properties, 
Urban areas, Assessments, Modifications, Dif- 
fusion, Wind velocity, Smog, Los Angeles 
Basin, California, FORTRAN. 
Identifiers: Chemical reaction mechanisms, 
'Airshed models, Grid model, MODKIN com- 
puter program. 

This report describes the refinement of a 
mesoscale photochemical air quality simulation 
model through studies of selected chemical 
and meteorological phenomena that contribute 
to air pollution. The chemistry activities 
focused on the design of an automatic com- 
puter program for evaluating kinetic 
mechanisms, the improvement of a 
photochemical mechanism for incorporation in 
mesoscale models, and the development of a 
chemical mechanism for describing S02 oxida- 
tion. The meteorology studies examined the 



sensitivity of the model to the inclusion of wind 
shear, algorithms for deriving mass-consistent 
wind fields, and the treatment of turbulent dif- 
fusivities and elevated inversion layers. Alterna- 
tive numerical techniques for solving the ad- 
vection/diffusion equation in grid models are 
evaluated, including various finite difference, 
particle-in-cell, and finite element methods, in 
an attempt to find a suitable methodology for 
accurately calculating the horizontal transport 
of pollutants. Finally, the report considers the 
problem of multiday model usage and presents 
results from a two-day CO simulation for the 
Los Angeles basin. 



PB-257 528/OCP PC A11/MF A01 

Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, Calif. 
Continued Research in Mesoscala Air Pollu- 
tion Simulation Modeling: Volume III. Model- 
ing of Micsoscale Pheonoena 
Final rept. Jun 74-Jun 75 
R. G. Lamb. May 76. 245p SAI/EF75-25, 
EPA/600/4-76/016C 
Contract EPA/68-02-1237 

Also available in set of 4 reports as PB-257 525- 
SET, PCE99/MF E99. 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric 
models, 'Computerized simulation, Com- 
bustion products. Atmospheric circulation. 
Concentration^ om position), Mathematical 

models, Numerical analysis, Carbon monoxide. 
Nitrogen oxides, Sensitivity, Photochemical 
reactions, Physical properties, Chemical pro- 
perties, Urban areas, Assessments, Modifica- 
tions, Diffusion, Wind velocity, Turbulence, 
Reaction kinetics, Plumes, Forecasting, Com- 
puter programs, FORTRAN, Industrial wastes. 
Identifiers: 'Airshed models, Grid model. 

This report develops mathematical techniques 
that influence the development of urban air pol- 
lution but are not resolvable by grid networks 
used in airshed simulation models. These 
phenomena include turbulence-generated 
fluxes of pollutants, turbulence-induced fluc- 
tuations in the contaminant concentrations, 
and subgrid-scale variations in the mean con- 
centration distribution. In addition, the report 
examines the problem of resolving the spatial 
details that exist in the mean concentration 
fields in the vicinity of point and line sources. 
The analysis concludes with a discussion of the 
problem of accounting for pollutant dispersion 
effects caused by buoyancy forces in hot stack 
exhausts. 



PB-258 821/8CP PC A10/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 

Boulder, Colo. 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the 

Major Synoptic Systems in the Eastern 

Canadian Arctic in the Winter and Summer of 

1973 

Doctoral thesis 

Ellsworth Frank LdDrew. 1976, 220p Rept no. 

NCAR-CT-38 

Contract NSF-C760 

Sponsored in part by Colorado Univ., Boulder. 

Descriptors: 'Synoptic meteorology, 'Cyclones, 
'Arctic regions, 'Canada, Atmospheric models, 
Vorticity, Advection, Mountains, Winter, 
Summer, Mathematical models. Atmospheric 
circulation, Eigenvectors, Theses, Latent heat. 
Enthalpy, Thickness, Heat flux. Surfaces, Fric- 
tion, Computer programs, FORTRAN. 

In this study the physical processes producing 
the major centers of synoptic activity in the 
eastern Canadian Arctic are examined. The 
author chose the total vertical velocity at 85 
centibars as an indicator of the intensity of the 
synoptic activity. A diagnostic 3-D atmospheric 
model from which the total vertical velocity 
from 6 physical processes may be computed is 
designed and validated. These processes are: 
the differential advection of vorticity, the 



67 



thickness advection, the release of latent heat, 
the effects of the surface enthalpy flux, and the 
influence of friction and orography at the sur- 
face. By partitionment of this diagnostic model 
(the omega equation) into the component verti- 
cal velocities the magnitude and relative im- 
portance of each process may be determined. 
The significance of each physical mechanism is 
examined at 48 h intervals throughout the his- 
tory of a mid-latitude depression system which 
enters the region as a developing cyclone on 
July 13, 1973 and leaves on July 22 as a stag- 
nant vortex. 



PB-259 719/3CP PC A08/MF A01 

Alaska Univ., College. Inst, of Water Resources. 
User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monox- 
ide Transport Model 

Final rept. 

Robert F. Carlson, and William R. Norton. Jun 

76, 160p IWR-76, FHWA/AK-76-IWR76 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Carbon monoxide, 
'Transport properties, 'Computerized simula- 
tion, 'Atmospheric motion. Mathematical 
models, Finite element analysis, Programming 
manuals, FORTRAN, Alaska, Temperature in- 
versions. 

Identifiers: 'ACOSP computer program, Fair- 
banks(Alaska). 

In the winter months of Fairbanks, Alaska, a 
highly stable air temperature inversion creates 
high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) concen- 
trations. As an aid to understanding this 
problem, a CO transport computer model has 
been created which provides a useful tool when 
used in conjunction with other measurement 
and analytic studies of traffic, meteorology, 
emissions control, zoning, and parking 
management. The model is completely docu- 
mented and illustrated with several examples. 
Named ACOSP (Atmospheric CO Simulation 
Program), it predicts expected CO concentra- 
tions within a specific geographic area for a 
defined set of CO sources. At the present time, 
the model is programmed to consider automo- 
bile emissions as the major CO source and may 
include estimates of stationary sources. The 
model is coded for computer solution in the 
FORTRAN programming language and uses the 
finite-element method of numerical solution of 
the basic convective-diffusion equations. 
Although it has a potential for real-time analysis 
and control, at the present time the model will 
be most valuable for investigating and un- 
derstanding the physical processes which are 
responsible for high CO levels and for testing 
remedial control measures at high speed and 
low cost. 



PB-259 971/OCP PC A04/MF A01 

Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., Oreg. 
Assessment and Criteria Development Div. 
Cooling Tower Plume Model 
Lawrence D. Winiarski, and Walter E. Frick. Sep 
76, 72p Rept no. EPA/600/3-76/100 

Descriptors: 'Cooling towers, 'Plumes, 
'Computerized simulation, 'Mathematical 
models, Atmospheric diffusion, Wind, Com- 
puter programs, Drag, Air entrain ment. 

A review of recently reported cooling tower 
plume models yields none that is universally ac- 
cepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms 
and the effect of moisture on the plume trajec- 
tory are phenomena which are treated dif- 
ferently by various investigators. In order to 
better understand these phenomena, a simple 
numerical scheme is developed which can 
readily be used to evaluate different entrain- 
ment and drag assumptions. Preliminary results 
indicate that in moderate winds most of the en- 
trainment due to wind can be accounted for by 
the direct impingement of the wind on the 
plume path. Initially, the pressure difference 
across the plume is found to produce a sub- 



stantial drag force. Thus, it is likely that a cer- 
tain portion of the plume bending is due to 
these pressure forces, and artificially increas- 
ing wind entrainment to fit experimental data is 
unnecessary. 



PB-261 144/OCP PC A16/MF A01 

Wiggins (J. H.) Co., Redondo Beach, Calif. 
Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume I: Technical Report 

Final rept. 

John H. Wiggins, Gary C. Hart, T. K. Hasselman, 

and Richard W. White. 14 Dec 73, 353p TR-73- 

35773, NBS-GCR-75-36 

Contract NBS-3-35773 

See also Volume 2, PB-261 145. 

Descriptors: 'Buildings, 'Earthquakes, 

'Hurricanes, 'Tornadoes, Damage assessment, 
Wind pressure, Earthquake resistant structures. 
Dynamic structural analysis, Structural en- 
gineering, Hazards. 

Identifiers: 'Natural disasters, 'Risk analysis, 
'Computer program documentation, 

'Earthquake engineering. 

A methodology is presented for evaluation of 
existing buildings to determine the risk to life 
safety from natural disasters and to estimate 
the amount of expected damage. Damage to 
both structural and non-structural building 
components resulting from the extreme en- 
vironments produced by earthquakes, hur- 
ricanes, and tornados is considered. The 
methodology is capable of treating a large class 
of structural types including braced and un- 
braced steel frames, concrete frames with and 
without shear walls, bearing wall structures, 
and long-span roof structures. The procedure 
for the methodology is based on a computer 
analysis of the entire structure and is based on 
the current state-of-the-art. Numerical exam- 
ples illustrating applications of the procedure 
are included. (Portions of this document are not 
fully legible.) 



PB-261 145/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

Wiggins (J. H.) Co., Redondo Beach, Calif. 
Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume II: Computer Program 
User's Manual 

Final rept. 

T. K. Hasselman, Richard W. White, and Gregg 

Brandow. 1 4 Dec 73, 1 1 2p TR-73-35773, NBS- 

GCR-75-37 

Contract NBS-3-35773 

See also Volume 1, PB-261 144. 

Descriptors: 'Buildings, 'Earthquakes, 

'Hurricanes, 'Tornadoes, Damage assessment. 
Wind pressure, Earthquake resistant structures, 
Dynamic structural analysis, Structural en- 
gineering, User needs. 

Identifiers: • 'Natural disasters, 'Risk analysis, 
'Computer program documentation, 

'Earthquake engineering. 

A methodology is presented for evaluation of 
existing buildings to determine the risk to life 
safety from natural disasters and to estimate 
the amount of expected damage. Damage to 
both structural and non-structural building 
components resulting from the extreme en- 
vironments produced by earthquakes, hur- 
ricanes, and tornados is considered. The 
methodology is capable of treating a large class 
of structural types including braced and un- 
braced steel frames, concrete frames with and 
without shear walls, bearing wall structures, 
and long-span roof structures. The procedures 
for the methodology is based on a computer 
analysis of the entire structure and is based on 
the current state-of-the-art. Numerical exam- 
ples illustrating applications of the procedures 
are included. (Portions of this document are not 
fully legible.) 



PB-261 178/8CP PC A14/MF A01 

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, III. Dept. of Civil 
Engineering. 

Stochastic Modelling of Site Wind Charac- 
teristics 

Final rept. Jan 75-Sep 76 
Ross B. Corotis. Nov 76, 31 1 p ERDA/NSF- 
00357/76/1 
Grant NSF-AER75-00357 

Descriptors: 'Wind velocity, 'Wind power, Data 
acquisition, Periodic variations, Autocorrela- 
tion, Confidence limits, Stochastic processes. 
Mathematical models, Computerized simula- 
tion. Computer programs, United States. 
Identifiers: Midwest Region(United States), 
Rocky Mountain Region(United States). 

The economic feasibility of a wind energy con- 
version system depends on an accurate assess- 
ment of the wind characteristics at each site. 
Statistical methods and probability models are 
used to determine optimal evaluation 
procedures for survey data. Several years of 
hourly records from six Midwest sites and one 
Rocky Mountain site provide a data base to 
develop the models and procedures. (Portions 
of this document are not fully legible.) 



PB-263 498/8CP PC A07/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
Boulder, Colo. 

Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the 
Solution of Elliptic Partial Differential Equa- 
tions 

Technical note 

Paul Swarztrauber, and Roland Sweet. Jul 75, 
147p Rept no. NCAR/TN-1090IA 
Contract NSF-C760 

Descriptors: 'Elliptic differential equations, 
'Numerical integration, 'Computer pro- 
gramming, Partial differential equations. At- 
mospheric circulation, Mathematical models, 
Computation, FORTRAN, Subroutines. 
Identifiers: Helm holtz equation. 

The numerical solution of elliptic partial dif- 
ferential equations in computer models of at- 
mospheric processes can be a formidable pro- 
gramming task. But with recent advances in 
computing methods, a very large class of ellip- 
tic equations can be solved rapidly and with 
minimal storage. This report describes seven 
Fortran subroutines and contains an appendix 
dealing with solutions of linear systems of 
equations. Five subroutines solve a Helmholtz 
equation in various coordinate systems; they 
solve two-dimensional problems, but can be 
adapted for use in three-dimensional problems. 
The other two subroutines can solve a more 
general class of equation. 



PB-263 580/3CP PC A06/MF A01 

Meteorology Research, Inc., Altadena, Calif. 
M-33 Radar Modifications at Snyder, Texas 

Final rept. Mar 75-Jun 76 
R. E. Carbone, R . Schaff, and P. LeVier. 1 Sep 
76, 114p Rept no. MRI76-FR-1445 
Contract DI-14-06-D-7657 

Descriptors: 'Meterological radar, Revisions, 
Data acquisition, Storms, Radar echoes, Data 
recording, Computer programs. 

Extensive modifications were performed on M- 
33 radar system for the purpose of performing 
quantitative measurements of radar reflectivity 
factor emanating from convective storms. 
Digital scan auto control and digital data 
acquisition systems were implemented 
together with video time-lapse recording. A 
central data acquisition/control facility was 
created. Capabilities of the reconfigured 
system include antenna-slaved dual- 
wavelength measurements at 10 cm and 3 cm, 
contoured range-normalized displays, and pro- 
grammable scan sequencing. Recommenda- 



68 



tions for further development of the radar 
system are made to ensure reliability and 
develop tri-wavelength measurement capabili- 
ty. (Portions of this document are not fully legi- 
ble.) 



PB-263 921/9CP PC A03/MF A01 

California State Dept. of Transportation, Sacra- 
mento. Transportation Lab. 
Transportation Systems and Regional Air 
Quality. An Approach and Computer Program 
for Wind Flow Field Analysis 
Interim rept. 

James A. Racin, and Andrew J. Ranzieri. May 
76, 50p CA-DOT-TL-71 69-4-76-38, 657169, 
FHWA/CA-76/38 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 

'Wind(Meteorology), Mathematical models, 
Simulation, Regional planning. Computer pro- 
grams, Environmental surveys, Photochemical 
reactions, Pattern recognition. Monitoring, 
Data acquisition, Fortran. 

Identifiers: 'Air quality maintenance, Flow 
fields, Fortran 4 programming language. 

Regional air quality studies and photochemical 
simulation models require the description of 
wind flow patterns for specific hours of various 
meteorological regimes. An interdisciplinary 
team that includes a meteorologist, and air pol- 
lution modeler, an environmental planner, and 
an air quality engineer can use plots of wind 
vectors to design a network of wind monitoring 
stations. Along with user instructions, input 
forms, and a computer program, an approach 
for conducting a wind flow field analysis is 
presented. 



PB-264 243/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

Delaware Univ., Newark. Water Resources 

Center. 

Estimation of Areal Average Precipitation 

Using Different Network Densities and 

Averaging Techniques 

Technical completion rept. 

John R. Mather. Dec 75, 1 1 5p Contrib-22, 

OWRT-A-029-DEL(1) 

Also pub. as Publications in Climatology, 

Volume XXVIII, No. 2, 1975, Thornthwaite (C. 

W.) Associates, Elmer, N.J. Lab. of Climatology. 

Descriptors: 'Precipitation(Mefeorology), 

Weather stations, Periodic variations. Hydrolo- 
gy, Estimating, Spatial distribution, Area, Ru- 
noff, Tables(Data), Water storage, Mapping, 
Watersheds, Computer programs. New Jersey. 
Identifiers: SYMAP computer program. 

A three-year record of monthly precipitation 
from a 10-station National Weather Service net- 
work, from a 27-station network operated by 
Thornthwaite Associates, and from the com- 
bined 37-station network located in a two- 
county area in southern New Jersey was used 
to: (1) Evaluate alternative network densities for 
estimating precipitation for water resources 
purposes; (2) evaluate several different 
methods of estimating areal average precipita- 
tion over a region; and (3) determine the relia- 
bility of estimated patterns of precipitation as 
network density changes. Only very small dif- 
ferences in monthly areal average precipitation 
were found using three different estimating 
techniques— arithmetic averaging of station 
values, weighting of point observations by con- 
struction of Thiessen polygons, and by evalua- 
tion of isohyetal patterns drawn by a SYMAP 
computer program. 



PB-264 562/OCP CP T04 

Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Wastewater Research Div. 
Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP). Release No. 1 

Software 



Daniel Szumski, Dolloff F. Bishop, and Richard 
G. Eilers. Dec 76, mag tape EPA/600/9-76/014a, 
EPA/DF-77/002 

Source tape is in EBCDIC character set. Tape(s) 
can be prepared in most standard 7 or track 
recording modes for one-half inch tape. Identify 
recording mode desired by specifying 
character set, track, density, and parity. Call 
NTIS Computer Products if you have questions. 
Price includes documentation, PB-264 563. 

Descriptors: "Software, 'Water quality, 
•Rainfall, Storms, Magnetic tapes, Statistical 
analysis, Computation, Fortran. 
Identifiers: *Synop computer program. 

An integral part of the assessment of storm 
loads on water quality is the statistical evalua- 
tion of rainfall records. Hourly rainfall records 
of many years duration are cumbersome and 
difficult to analyze. The purpose of this rainfall 
data analysis program is to provide the user 
with a tool for summarizing and statistically 
characterizing a rainfall record of interest using 
U.S. Weather Bureau magnetic tapes. Statisti- 
cal analysis of variables of interest (volume, du- 
ration, intensity, and time between storms) are 
given to determine seasonal trends which are of 
importance in accessing impacts and selecting 
control alternatives for storm related loads. The 
program is written in the Fortran programming 
language for implementation on an IBM 1130 
computer using the DMS, version 2 operating 
system. 32K bytes of core storage are required 
to operate the model. 



PB-264 563/8CP PC A06/MF A01 

Hydroscience, Inc., Westwood, N.J. 
Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP) 

Final rept. 

Jul 76, 115p EPA/DF-77/002a 

Contract EPA-68-03-2428 

For system on magnetic tape, see PB-264 562. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Rainfall, 
'Computer programs. Storms, Surface water 
runoff, Statistical analysis. Computation, For- 
tran, Tables(Data). 

Identifiers: 'Synop computer program, IBM 
1 130 computers. 

An integral part of the assessment of storm 
loads on water quality is the statistical evalua- 
tion of rainfall records. Hourly rainfall records 
of many years duration are cumbersome and 
difficult to analyze. The purpose of this rainfall 
data analysis program is to provide the user 
with a tool for summarizing and statistically 
characterizing a rainfall record of interest using 
U.S. Weather Bureau magnetic tapes. Statisti- 
cal analysis of variables of interest (volume, du- 
ration, intensity, and time between storms) are 
given to determine seasonal trends which are of 
importance in accessing impacts and selecting 
control alternatives for storm related loads. 



PB-264 813/7CP PC A09/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Washington, D.C. Environmental Data Ser- 
vice. 

Separation of Mixed Data Sets into 
Homogeneous Sets 
Technical rept. 

Harold L. Crutcher, and Raymond L. Joiner. Jan 
77, 185 NOAA-TR-EDS-19, NOAA-77020701 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Data 
processing, 'Statistical analysis, Wind, At- 
mospheric temperature, Dew point, 
Radiosondes, Multivariate analysis, Clustering, 
Factor analysis, Normal density functions. 
Identifiers: Data sets, Normix computer pro- 
gram. 

The use of a clustering technique to separate 
mixed data sets into subsets which exhibit 
group characteristics is illustrated. The relative 



importance of the subsets, and the nature of the 
subsets are assessed, and an assumption is 
made as to whether a particular subset is 
biased, contaminated, or adulterated. That is, 
an assessment of the quality of the data may be 
made. The techniques are applicable to any 
data set which is multivariate normal. Here, they 
are applied to weather data subsets: (1) land- 
sea breeze, (2) tropical stratospheric winds, (3) 
mid-latitude tropospheric winds, (4) mountain 
pass winds and temperatures, (5) surface 
marine weather temperatures, dew points and 
winds, and (6) radiosonde observation of 
heights, winds, temperatures, and dew points. 



PB-265 109/9CP PC A02/MF A01 

Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment 
Station, Fort Collins, Colo. 
Computer Simulation of Snowmelt 
Forest Service research paper 
Rhey M. Solomon, Peter F. Ffolliott, Malchus B. 
Baker, Jr, and J. R. Thompson. Oct 76, 14p 
FSRP-RM-174, OWRT-A-042-ARIZ(13) 
Prepared in cooperation with Arizona Univ., 
Tucson. School of Renewable Natural 
Resources, Contract DI-14-31-0001-3803. 

Descriptors: 'Snowmelt, 'Snowdrifts, Forest 
land, Mathematical models, Atmospheric tem- 
perature, Precipitation(Meteorology), 
Watersheds, Runoff, Solar radiation, Compu- 
terized simulation, Flow charting, Diffusion, 
Heat transfer, Cloud cover, Subroutines, 
Forecasting, Arizona. 

Identifiers: 'Forest watersheds, SNOWMELT 
computer program, CDC 6400 computers. 

A modification of a previously developed com- 
puter model of snowmelt provides for modeling 
intermittent snowpacks, and is believed to be a 
more generalized model than the original pro- 
gram. The modified program SNOWMELT is de- 
pendent on four daily input variables—max- 
imum and minimum temperatures, precipita- 
tion, and shortwave radiation or percent cloud 
cover. Initializing the model requires limited 
knowledge of local watershed and snowpack 
parameters. Model verification on seven experi- 
mental watersheds in Arizona proved satisfac- 
tory. 



PB-265 382/2CP PC A11/MF A01 

Wisconsin Univ. -Milwaukee. Air Pollution Anal- 
ysis Lab. 

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in 
Southeast Wisconsin 
Final rept. 1972-1976 
Walter A. Lyons. Feb 77, 238p EPA/600/4- 
77/010 
Grant EPA-R-800873 

Descriptors: 'Lake Michigan, 'Sulfur dioxide, 
'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric circulation, Disper- 
sion, Coasts, Mathematical models, 
Wind(Meteorology), Plumes, Climate, Com- 
puter programming. Computations, Wisconsin, 
Shores. 

Identifiers: Milwaukee(Wisconsin), Glump com- 
puter program, Mainline computer program. 

This research program comprised a com- 
prehensive study of mesoscale meteorological 
regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan 
and their effect upon air pollution dispersion 
and transport. It is felt that the results are ap- 
plicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude 
coastal zones. Continuous fumigation from 
elevated sources in shoreline zones during sta- 
ble daytime onshore flow was intensively in- 
vestigated by a large scale field program. A 
model was proposed, constructed, validated 
and calibrated. It was shown that the fumiga- 
tion spot, while causing very high surface S02 
concentrations, was so highly mobile as to 
generally reduce dosages below the three-hour 
standard (at least for the plants studied). An in- 
tensive case study of a lake breeze was per- 
formed. Data were used as input to a Kinematic 



69 



Diagnostic Model (KDM) which simulated 
mesoscale trajectories for pollutants released 
within the coastal zone. Both mesoscale and 
synoptic scale transport of photochemical oxi- 
dants were found to be a significant problem in 
the Milwaukee area. 



PB-265 551/2CP PC A18/MF A01 

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 

D.C. Center for Building Technology. 

Hourly Solar Radiation Data for Vertical and 

Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days in the 

United States and Canada 

Final building science series rept. 

T. Kusuda, and K. Ishii Apr 77, 416p* Rept no. 

NBS-BSS-96 

Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 77- 

608023. 

Descriptors: "Solar radiation, United States, 
Canada, Variations, Variability, Walls, Roofs, 
Tables(Data), Computer programs. 

This report outlines the technique that was 
used to compute and tabulate the monthly 
average incident radiation on an hourly basis 
during the day for each month of the year, and 
each of eight different vertical orientations. The 
data was tabulated for 80 different locations in 
the United States and Canada. An additional 
parameter called sol-air temperature for glass 
was also computed and tabulated for each of 
the locations. 



PB-265 727/8CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 

Boulder, Colo. 

Comparison Between Dual-Wavelength 

Radar Estimates and Ground Measurements 

of Precipitation 

Master's thesis 

Sergio Reyes. 1977, 99p Rept no. NCAR-CT-41 

Contract NSF-C760 

Descriptors: "Precipitation (Meteorology), 

"Measurement, Thunderstorms, Hail, At- 
mospheric attenuation, Radar echoes. 
Microwaves, Mathematical models. Estimates, 
Computer programs. 

In the radar method most widely used to locate 
and measure precipitation within thun- 
derstorms, a single radar measures the reflec- 
tivity factor of the hydrometeors. This 
technique is accurate only under certain cir- 
cumstances, such as when the precipitation 
consists of rain. But when hail is present and 
the radar reflectivity factors due to rain and hail 
are approximately equal, the results are inaccu- 
rate. With a dual-wavelength X- and S-band 
radar (XSR), X-band microwave attenuation is 
determined and then particle precipitation rate 
is estimated. Quantities so derived appear inde- 
pendent of large precipitation rates. Eccles 
(1975) has proposed observational and numeri- 
cal techniques to recognize X-band attenuation 
by precipitation particles. To test the numerical 
technique, we correlated the derived precipita- 
tion rate and total precipitation depth with 
ground measurements from northern Colorado. 
Four cases were considered in the presence 
and absence of hail: light and heavy precipita- 
tion rates and small and large total water 
deposition. The XSR gives better estimates for 
heavy precipitation rates and for large total 
water deposition, both with and without hail. 
The single radar method is accurate for light 
precipitation without hail. 



PB-266 255/9CP PC A04/MF A01 

Control Data Corp., Minneapolis, Minn. 
An Objective Analysis Technique for the Re- 
gional Air Pollution Study. Part I 

Final rept. 

D. Hovland, D. Dartt, and K. Gage. Jan 77, 55p 

EPA/600/4-77/002a 

Contract EPA-68-02-1827 



Descriptors: "Atmospheric models, 

"Wind(Meteorology), "Temperature, 

"Meteorological data, "Air pollution, Data analy- 
sis, Mathematical models, Computer programs, 
Computation. 
Identifiers: "Air quality, "Saint Louis(Missouri). 

This report documents the development of an 
objective analysis program for the mesoscale 
gridding of wind and temperature for the Re- 
gional Air Pollution Study being conducted in 
St. Louis by the Environmental Protection 
Agency. The program is designed to produce a 
5-km spaced horizontal grid analysis from a 
distribution of observations which are sparse at 
the boundaries of the grid and dense near the 
center. An iterative scan procedure is used suc- 
cessively to correct an initial guess field until 
the analysis agrees reasonably well with obser- 
vations. A procedure is used where widely 
spaced observations and a large scan radius 
are first used to approximate the field. This is 
successively followed by the addition of more 
observational data and reduction in scan radius 
until the field converges to the desired analysis 
(usually five iterations are required). This 
procedure of simultaneously adding more data 
and shrinking the scan radius insures that the 
small-scale variability in areas of dense obser- 
vations does not propagate into the surround- 
ing areas where there are few data. The special 
problems of producing three-dimensional 
fields of gridded data from the observation net- 
work are discussed. They include the incon- 
sistency of the surface and upper air observa- 
tion networks, the non-uniform density of the 
basic observing network, and the difficulty of 
producing a reliable analysis when data from 
one or more key stations are missing. 



PB-266 739/2CP PC A04/MF A01 

Environmental Sciences Research Lab., 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. Meteorology and 
Assessment Div. 

Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Con- 
stants over a Diurnal Range. A Computer Al- 
gorithm 

Kenneth L. Schere, and Kenneth L. Demerjian. 
Mar 77, 73p Rept no. EPA/600/4-77/015 

Descriptors: "Reaction kinetics, "Air pollution, 
"Atmospheric modeling, Photochemical reac- 
tions, Mathematical models, Computerized 
simulation, Computer programs, Diurnal varia- 
tions, Smog, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Nitrous 
acid, Nitric acid. Formaldehyde, Hydrogen 
peroxide, Acetaldehyde, Fortran, Aerosols, Al- 
gorithms. 
Identifiers: "Rate constants. 

A computer program has been created and is 
described herein which employs the theoretical 
formulation of the photolytic rate constant to 
calculate these rate constants for specific 
chemical species over a diurnal time period in 
clear-sky conditions. A user of the program 
must specify the date, time and location for 
which the rate constants are desired. With this 
information and specific data on zenith angles, 
solar irradiance, and species characteristics of 
absorption cross-sections and primary quan- 
tum yields, which are provided in the program 
package, the computer program generates a 
diurnal range of photolytic rate constants for 
each species. The species included are N02, 
03, HONO, HON02, H2CO, CH3CHO, and H202. 
The appendices to this report contain program 
and data listings as well as a User's Guide to 
program operation. The program-generated 
photolytic rate constants for N02 are compared 
to direct measurements of this quantity as 
taken at Research Triangle Park, N.C. during 
April 1975. The two methods are generally in 
close agreement after the theoretically com- 
puted rate constants are scaled by a simplistic 
method for the compensation of solar radiation 
attention by clouds. 



PB-266 756/6CP PC A04/MF A01 

Control Data Corp., Minneapolis, Minn. 
An Objective Analysis Technique for the Re- 
gional Air Pollution Study. Part II 

Final rept. 

D. Hovland, D. Dartt, and K. Gage. Feb 77, 59p 

EPA/600/4-77/002b 

Contract EPA-68-02-1827 

See also Part 1 , PB-266 255. 

Descriptors: "Atmospheric models, "Air pollu- 
tion, "Wind(Meteorology), Atmospheric motion 
Mathematical models, Trajectories, 

Grids(Coordinates), Computer programs, Mis- 
souri. 
Identifiers: "Saint Louis(Missouri), "Air quality. 

This report discusses the application of objec- 
tive analysis techniques to the computation of 
trajectories from surface wind observations of 
the Regional Air Pollution Study in St. Louis. 
Trajectories were computed over a 100-kilome- 
ter square grid centered on St. Louis for two 5- 
hour periods during July 1975. The variability of 
the surface wind field was investigated by ex- 
amining the temporal and spatial variability of 
computed trajectories. Also, the sensitivity of 
the computed trajectories to the amount of data 
employed in the analysis was examined in some 
detail. The results showed a general lack of 
sensitivity of the computed trajectories to a sin- 
gle missing observation. However, computed 
trajectories were very sensitive to missing ad- 
jacent observations. In addition to the trajectory 
analysis, a set of tapes containing gridded 
winds and temperatures for the St. Louis area 
were generated. 



PB-266 968/7CP PC A02/MF A01 

National Weather Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Western Region. 

Program to Calculate Winds Aloft Using a 
Hewlett-Packard 25 Hand Calculator 

Technical memo. 

Brian W. Finke. Feb 77, 12p NOAA-TM-NWS- 

WR-115, NOAA-77033105 

Prepared by National Weather Service Forecast 

Office, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Descriptors: "Wind(Meteorology), 

"Computation, Radiosondes, Theodolites, 
Computer programs, Forest fires. 
Identifiers: HP 25 computers. 

A method of calculating winds aloft data from 
theodolite observation is offered without 
resorting to the use of plotting boards. This 
program, using the Hewlett-Packard 25 hand 
calculator, was originally intended for fire 
weather mobile unit use at going fires where 
time and space are at a premium. No new 
theory has been developed. The tangent plane 
approximation is the only compromise; but 
within the accuracy of the observations, this ap- 
proximation results in no error. 



PB-267 413/3CP PC A14/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
Boulder, Colo. Atmospheric Technology Div. 
Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 
Wind Error Predictions 

Technical note 

Michael L. Olson. Mar 77, 312p Rept no. 

NCAR/TN-1200EDD 

Contract NSF-C760 

Descriptors: "Wind direction, "Wind velocity, 
"Radiosondes, "Radio tracking, Tropical re- 
gions, Errors, Very low frequencies, Predic- 
tions, Pacific Ocean, Computer programs, 
FORTRAN. 

Identifiers: First GARP Global Experiment, 
Omega navigation system 

The First GARP Global Experiment in 1979 will 
include two tropical wind-finding systems 
which use Omega navigation signals to deter- 
mine the relative positions of a radiosonde as a 



70 



function of time, and hence winds. Complete 
coverage of the deep tropics with Omega 
signals is not possible in 1979, since the Aus- 
tralian Omega station will not yet be completed. 
The wind accuracies are computed for a 13.6 
kHz Omega signal between 30 degrees N and 30 
degrees S latitudes for local noon and midnight 
in January. The effect of Australia is clearly il- 
lustrated. The results are compared with data 
from Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Ob- 
servations near local noon are shown to pro- 
vide the greatest accuracy. The FGGE require- 
ment for 2 m/s accuracy will be met in substan- 
tial areas of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic 
Oceans at local noon. The Indian Ocean region 
will suffer large errors south of the equator 
without Australia. At local midnight, when sta- 
tions with potential modal interference are not 
used in the wind computation, the regions of 
acceptable wind errors are decreased. 
(Portions of this document are not fully legible.) 



PB-268 033/8CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Wave Propagation Lab. 
Microcomputer-Controlled Acoustic Echo 
Sounder 

Technical memo. 

Edward J. Owens. Apr 77, 85p NOAA-TM-ERL- 

WPL-21 , NOAA-77050104 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric sounding, 

'Meteorological instruments, Acoustics, Mea- 
suring instruments, Remote sensing, Doppler 
radar. Signal processing. Atmospheric tem- 
perature, Turbulent boundary layer, 
Wind(Meteorology), Computers, Digital to 
analog converters, Computer programs. 
Identifiers: 'Atmospheric echo sounding, 
Acoustic detection and ranging, Planetary 
boundary layer, Microcomputers. 

This report is the result of research into new 
concepts of remote sensing of the atmosphere 
and includes a literature survey of the theory 
and practical application of atmospheric 
sounding using acoustic methods. The 'state of 
the art' has been advanced in that a new type of 
system was designed, fabricated, and tested 
using modern digital methods. The major ad- 
vances of replacing the typically troublesome 
facsimile recorder with a dot-matrix line printer 
using special characters called 'tonels' and the 
development of a new and novel method of 
digital Doppler signal processing using a real 
covariance technique, is presented in detail. 
The ecosonde is capable of monitoring and dis- 
playing in real time the temperature fluctua- 
tions, turbulent velocity inhomogeneities, and 
vertical wind profile of the planetary boundary 
layer to a height of 680 meters and includes a 
microcomputer, a high-speed line printer, and 
various author-designed and-constructed 
digital and analog circuits. User control of vari- 
ous system parameters and a wide choice of 
display possibilities make this a versatile and 
desirable atmospheric research tool. 



PB-268 329/OCP PC A06/MF A01 

California State Dept. of Transportation, Sacra- 
mento Transportation Lab. 
Transportation Systems and Regional Air 
Quality - A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 

Interim rept. 

P. D. Allen, W. B. Crews, A. J. Ranzieri, and E. C. 

Shirley. Apr 76, 1 15p CA-DOT-TL-7169-2-76-27, 

657169, FHWA/CA-76/27 

See also report dated May 76, PB-263 921 . 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Air pollu- 
tion, Atmospheric motion, Ozone, Compu- 
terized simulation, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Reaction kinetic, 
Photochemistry, Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen 
oxide(NO), Motor vehicles. Industrial wastes, 
Trajectories, Wind velocity, Traffic, Sensitivity, 
Computer programs, Exhaust emissions. Com- 
bustion pro'ducts. 



Identifiers: 'DIFKIN photochemical models, 'Air 
quality maintenance, 'DIFKIN computer pro- 
gram. 

An analysis of the DIFKIN photochemical model 
characteristics and sensitivities to various input 
parameters is presented. DIFKIN is a trajectory 
type photochemical air quality simulation 
model. The most sensitive input parameters to 
Ozone production are initial concentrations, 
reaction rate constants, and inversion base 
height. The ratio of Reactive Hydrocarbons to 
Nitric Oxide emissions are far more important 
in determining Ozone production than the ac- 
tual magnitudes for emissions. The DIFKIN 
model is most applicable to projects that result 
in changes in emissions in a few adjacent grid 
cells rather than widespread changes in emis- 
sions over an air basin. Five or more trajectories 
should be used to determine air quality impacts 
of a particular project. 



PB-268 753/1CP PC A05/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Weather Modification Pro- 
gram Office. 

Computer Software for the Assessment of 
Growth Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
Technical memo. 

Victor Wiggert, Stellan S.Ostlund, Gloria J. 
Lockett, and John V. Stewart. Nov 76, 93p 
NOAA-TM-ERL-WMPO-35.NOAA-77051812 

Descriptors: 'Weather forecasting, 'Radar 
cross sections, 'Computer programs, 
'Statistical analysis, Rainfall, Radar tracking, 
Regression analysis, Normal density functions, 
Fortran, Florida. 

Identifiers: 'Peaks computer prooram, 'Stats 
computer program, Bivariate analysis. 

Two new computer programs are described. 
One is an echo isolation and tracking program 
called PEAKS, which fits a bivariate normal dis- 
tribution to each echo, and also to each relative 
maximum in rain rate within each echo's 
perimeter. This program is based upon different 
principles than its predecessor (TRACK) and 
appears to make fewer errors in judgment. After 
a whole day's data has been processed with the 
tracking program, all tracked echo information 
is transferred to the second computer program 
named STATS. It formulates hourly and whole 
day summaries of South Florida echo areas and 
rain volumes for all combinations of location 
(land/sea/both) and status 

(unmerged/merged/all). Also, a whole day of 
tracked echo data is accumulated and results 
are tabulated for echo areas versus rain 
volumes within quartiles of growth tendency. 
Regression equations for these combinations 
are created and histograms can be displayed. 
Examples depict results from the two programs 
using the enlarged array. Appendices provide 
the complete Fortran code for the entire en- 
semble of Nheml software for processing 
digitally recorded WSR-57 data. (Portions of 
this document are not fully legible.) 



PB-269 659/9CP PC A07/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Weather Modification Pro- 
gram Office. 

Raindrop Size Distributions and Z-R Relation- 
ships Measured on the NOAA DC-6 and the 
Ship RESEARCHER within the GATE B-Scale 
Array 

Technical memo. 

John B. Cunning, and Robert I. Sax. Apr 77, 
144p NOAA-TM-ERL-WMPO-37, NOAA- 
77060202 

Descriptors: 'Raindrops, 'Rainfall, Meteorolog- 
ical radar, Precipitation(Meteorology), Tropical 
atmospheres, Meteorological instruments, 
Convection, Reflectivity, Airborne, Shipborne 
detectors, Cloud physics, Meteorological data. 
Experimental design, Mathematical analysis, 



Computer programs, Least squares method, 

Regression analysis, Fortran, North Atlantic 

Ocean. 

Identifiers: GARP Atlantic tropical experiment. 

This paper discusses drop size distributions ob- 
tained by both an airborne foil impactor and a 
shipborne distrometer and provides an analysis 
of the relationship between radar reflectivity 
and rainfall rate within the GATE B-scale array. 
Discussion of the use of a cumulative distribu- 
tion function to transform drop spectra derived 
from the foil data is provided in an appendix. 
The advantage of this technique lies in the al- 
leviation of sampling volume problems occur- 
ring at the large end of the drop size distribu- 
tion. 



PB-270 265/2CP PC A09/MF A01 

Western Scientific Services, Inc., Fort Collins, 

Colo. 

Development of an Experimental 

Hydrometeorological Data Collection Network 

Final rept. 1 Jul 74-30 Apr 77 

James H. Wagner. 30 Apr 77, 190p Rept no. FR- 

807-55 

Contract DI-14-06-D-7551 

See also PB-248 865. 

Descriptors: 'Rain gages, Collecting methods. 
Data acquisition, Surveys, Automatic control 
equipment, Precipitation( Meteorology), 

Telemetering data, Remote control. 

Meteorological satellites, Weather stations, 
Performance evaluation. Feasibility, Diagrams, 
Computer programs. 

Identifiers: LANDSAT satellites, Remote areas, 
Microprocessors. 

This final report describes the development of 
an automatic microprocessor based data col- 
lection system using VHF telemetry links capa- 
ble of collecting hydrometeorological data from 
remote sites distributed over a wide area or in 
relatively inaccessible terrain. Results of an ex- 
tensive test program are included along with 
recommendations for improving the reliability 
and performance of the system. Detailed sche- 
matics for all equipment developed are pro- 
vided and the operation of each piece of equip- 
ment is described. 



PB-270 534/1CP PC A02/MF A01 

Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experi- 
ment Station, Berkeley, Calif. 
Controlling Solar Light and Heat in a Forest 
by Managing Shadow Sources 

Forest Service research paper (Final) 
Howard G. Halve rson, and James L. Smith. 
1974, 18p Rept no. FSRP-PSW-102 



Descriptors: 'Insolation, 'Micrometeorology, 

'Forest land. Solar radiation, Forest trees, Plant 

growth, Management, Snow cover, Harvesting, 

Computer programs, Fortran. 

Identifiers: Sunrise, Sunset, SHDW computer 

program. 

Control of solar light and heat to develop the 
proper growth environment is a desirable goal 
in forest management. The amount of sunlight 
and heat reaching the surface is affected by 
shadows cast by nearby objects, including 
trees. In timbered areas, the type of forest 
management practiced can help develop 
desired microclimates. The results depend on 
the size and orientation of openings created 
and on the shade cast by surrounding vegeta- 
tion. A computerized method to calculate the 
extent of boundary shading for any combina- 
tion of date, slope, and aspect between 23.45 
degrees N. latitude and 50 degrees N. latitude is 
described. For those who do not wish to 
develop their own, a set of shadow-length ta- 
bles is available upon request. These may be 
secured as an entire set or by individual 
latitudes. They provide coverage for the con- 



71 



tiguous United States in increments of 2 from 
36 degrees N. latitude to 50 degrees N. latitude. 
By extrapolation, the tables can be used from 
the Mexican to the Canadian border. 



PB-270 618/2CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
Boulder, Colo. Atmospheric Analysis and Pre- 
diction Div. 

The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Ver- 
tically Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
Technical note 

W. J. Wiscombe. Jul 77, 73p Rept no. NCAR/TN- 
1210STR 
Grant NSF-ATM72-10157 



Descriptors: 'Albedo, 'Solar radiation, Numeri- 
cal analysis. Atmospheric models. Approxima- 
tion, Computer programs, Computation. 
Identifiers: 'Eddington approximation, 

'Radiative transfer. 

The delta-Eddington approximation of Joseph, 
Wiscombe, and Weinman (1976) is extended to 
an atmosphere divided up by internal levels into 
homogeneous layers. Flux continuity is en- 
forced at each level, leading, as the mathemati- 
cal essence of the problem, to a penta-diagonal 
system of linear equations for certain unknown 
constants. Fluxes (up, direct down, diffuse 
down, and net) are then predicted at each level. 
Unphysical results of the model are examined 
in detail. p otential numerical instabilities in the 
solution are noted and corrected, and an ex- 
tremely fast, well-documented computer code 
resulting from this analysis is described and 
listed. Actual computed fluxes are given for 
several test problems. 



PB-270 778/4CP PC A08/MF A01 

Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, 

Wash. 

STRAM - An Air Pollution Model Incorporating 

Nonlinear Chemistry, Variable Trajectories, 

and Plume Segment Diffusion 

Final rept. 

J. M. Hales, D. C. Powell, and T. D. Fox. Apr 77, 

157p EPA/450/3-77/012 

Contract EPA-68-02-1982 



Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Mathematical 
models, Computer programs, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Plumes, Numerical analysis, 
Dispersion, Reaction kinetics. Manuals, At- 
mospheric diffusion. 

Identifiers: 'STRAM model, Atmospheric 
chemistry. 

This document provides a technical descrip- 
tion, user's guide and program listing for (1) 
STRAM - a variable trajectory, reactive plume- 
segment model for ground level air pollution 
assessments resulting from multi-source emis- 
sions on a multi-state scale, and (2) a support- 
ing program, Random-to-Grid, which generates 
gridded wind data for STRAM from synoptic 
wind data at arbitrarily located observing sta- 
tions. The reactive plume chemistry is calcu- 
lated by a Subroutine STRAC and related 
subroutines, which calculate the diffusion, the 
wet and dry depletion, and the reactive chemis- 
try within each plume segment. The principal 
output of STRAM is concentrations on the sam- 
pling grid and at each particularly specified 
sampling point for each of the analyzed chemi- 
cal components. These are available for three 
averaging periods (1) once for the entire 
running time, (2) serially for the basic sampling 
interval, and (3) serially for an arbitrarily 
specified intermediate time. Matrices of max- 
imum values over all matrices of this last type 
are also printed out. 



PB-271 360/OCP PC A13/MF A01 

Environmental Protection Agency, Research 

Triangle Park, N.C. Office of Air Quality 

Planning and Standards. 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) 

Model 

Final rept. 

Jul 77, 297p Rept no. EPA/450/2-77/013 

Descriptors: 'Manuals, 'Mathematical models, 
*Air pollution, Computerized simulation, 
Plumes, Concentration(Com position), 

Meteorological data, Chimneys, Computer pro- 
grams, Atmospheric motion, Fortran. 
Identifiers: Point sources, 'Air quality, 
'CRSTER model, Gaussian plume models. 

The Single Source (CRSTER) Model is a steady- 
state, Gaussian plume dispersion model 
designed for point-source applications. It cal- 
culates pollutant concentrations for each hour 
of a year, at 180 receptor sites on a radial grid. 
The hourly concentrations are averaged to ob- 
tain concentration estimates for time incre- 
ments of specified length, such as 3-hour, 8- 
hour, 24-hour, and annual. The model contains 
the concentration equations, the Pasquill-Gif- 
ford dispersion coefficients, and the Pasquill 
stability classes, as given by Turner. Plume rise 
is calculated according to Briggs. No depletion 
of the pollutant is considered. Technical details 
of the programming are presented with 
complete descriptions of data acquirements 
and output. Flow diagrams and source program 
listings, including subprograms, are given as 
well as input data forms. Three papers on appli- 
cation, sensitivity and validation of the model 
are included as appendices. 



PB-271 643/9CP PC A15/MF A01 

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

Final rept. 1965-1972 

Kent R. Wilson, and Barbara Elkus. May 76, 

342p ARB-R-4-718-76-61 

Contract ARB-4-718 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution control, 'Oxidizers, 
"Hydrocarbons, 'Nitrogen oxides. Monitoring, 
Photochemistry, Regression analysis, Smog, 
Ozone, Concentration(Composition), Ta- 
bles(Data), Computer programs, Algol. 
Identifiers: Atmospheric chemistry, Burroughs 
6700 computers. 

A possible short term oxidant control strategy 
would involve (1) reduction of overall reactive 
hydrocarbon and NOx emissions, (2) restriction 
of morning commuter traffic and (3) a shift of 
emissions into the evening and nighttime 
photochemically inactive hours. These 
represent the emissions alterations which 
usually mark the change from the weekdays to 
weekends, and can be evaluated in advance 
from statislical studies of past weekday- 
weekend differences in monitored oxidant 
levels. This study uses data from the South 
Coast Air Basin to demonstrate that there exists 
a definable subset of conditions under which 
switching to weekend emissions would signifi- 
cantly decrease average oxidant levels both 
one and two days into the future. This strategy 
works best under conditions of particularly ad- 
verse oxidant levels. 



PB-273 921/7CP PC A02/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Boulder, Colo. Wave Propagation Lab. 
Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measure- 
ment of Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
Technical memo. 

G. R. Ochs, Ting-i Wang, and F. Merrem. Apr 77, 
24p NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-25, NOAA-77092205 
Sponsored in part by Rome Air Development 
Center, GriffissAFB, N.Y. 



Descriptors: "Optical measuring instruments, 
'Scintillation counters. Telescopes, At- 
mospheric attenuation, Computer programs, 
Minicomputers, Light transmission, Optical de- 
tectors, Refractive index, Remote sensing, Spa- 
tial filtering, Instrumentation, BASIC pro- 
gramming language. 

Identifiers: 'Atmospheric transmissivity, 
'Scintillometers. 

An optical system for measuring refractive-tur- 
bulence profiles in the atmosphere is 
described. The instrument measures the profile 
along the light path to a star by analyzing the 
scintillation of the star by the atmosphere, and 
is an improved version of an earlier system. The 
circuit diagram, computer program, and 
operating instructions for the instrument are in- 
cluded. 



PB-274 054/6CP PC A06/MF A01 

Environmental Protection Agency, Research 

Triangle Park, N.C. Office of Air Quality 

Planning and Standards. 

Valley Model User's Guide 

Final rept. 

Edward W. Burt. Sep 77, 1 1 1 p* Rept no. 

EPA/450/2-77/018 

See also report for 1 Mar 73-1 Mar 74, PB-229 

771. 

Descriptors: "Mathematical models, "Air pollu- 
tion, Numerical analysis, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Wind velocity, Wind speed, 
Plumes, Computer programs, Atmospheric dif- 
fusion, Dispersion, Fortran. 
Identifiers: "Gaussian plume models, Valley 
computer program, UNIVAC-1110 computers, 
Point sources. Valley model. 

The Valley Model is a steady-state, univariate 
Gaussian plume dispersion model designed for 
multiple point- and area-source applications. It 
calculates pollutant concentrations for each 
frequency designated in an array defined by six 
stabilities, 16 wind directions, and six wind 
speeds for 112 program-designated receptor 
sites on a radial grid of variable scale. The out- 
put concentrations are appropriate for either a 
24-hour or annual period, as designated by the 
user. The model contains the concentration 
equations, the Pasquill-Gifford vertical disper- 
sion coefficients and the Pasquill stability 
classes, as given by Turner. Plume rise is calcu- 
lated according to Briggs. Plume height is ad- 
justed according to terrain elevation for stable 
cases. Technical details of the program are 
presented, with descriptions of data require- 
ments. Flow diagrams and input data forms are 
presented. Four appendices include a complete 
test-case analysis, a complete program listing 
and a paper in which estimated and observed 
data are compared at several sites for 24-hour 
periods during which the upper limits of con- 
centrations were observed. 



PB-274 529/7CP PC A06/MF A01 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. En- 
gineering and Research Center. 
Atmospheric Simulation Using Stratified 
Liquid Models 

H. T. Falvey, and R. A. Dodge. Jul 77, 101p Rept 
no. REC-ERC-77-8 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric models, 

'Stratification, 'Cloud seeding. Simulation, 
Density(Mass/volume), Equations of state, Air 
flow, Plumes, Topography, Liquids, Velocity 
measurement, Feasibility, Aerial reconnais- 
sance, Effectiveness, Colorado River Basin, 
Computer programs, Fortran. 
Identifiers: Model studies, Skywater Project, 
Meteorological phenomena, Leadville Climax 
Pilot Project, Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project, 
Colorado River Basin Pilot Project. 

Analytical and laboratory studies were made to 
demonstrate the feasibility of using stratified 



72 



liquids and distorted scale maps of an area to 
simulate mesoscale (2 to 20 kilometres) at- 
mospheric phenomena. Techniques and instru- 
mentation were developed for creating velocity 
gradients, creating density gradients, for 
visualization, and for making measurements. 
The effectiveness of both aerial and ground 
seeding station locations was investigated for 
various pilot study areas of Project Skywater. 
(Color illustrations reproduced in black and 
white) 



PB-275 327/5CP PC A18/MF A01 

SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif. 

The Relation of Oxidant Levels to Presursor 

Emissions and Meteorological Features. 

Volume III. Appendices (Analytical Methods 

and Supplementary Data) 

Final rept. 

F. L. Ludwig, P. B. Simmon, R.L. Mancuso, J. H. 

S. Kealoha, and E. Reiter. Sep 77, 415p 

EPA/450/3-77/022C 

Contract EPA-68-02-2084 

See also Volume 2, PB-275 326. 

Descriptors: 'Ozone, "Air pollution, Meteorolo- 
gy, Statistical analysis, Trajectories, Graphs, 
Mathematical models, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Computer programs, 
Stratosphere, Troposphere, Atmospheric com- 
position. 
Identifiers: METINDX computer program. 

Contents: 

Data selection and methodology for 

trajectory analysis; 
Meteorological and emission index 

computer program ; 
Computation of Montgomery stream 

functions; 
Daily weather and peak-hour ozone maps 

for 1974. 



PB-275 380/4CP PC A03/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Air Resources Labs. 
A Feasibility Study for the Application of K- 
Band Radar in the Investigation of Cooling 
Tower Plumes 
Technical memo. 

Norman R. Ricks. Aug 77, 45p NOAA-TM-ERL- 
ARL-66, NOAA-771 10803 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, 'Plume detection, 
"Radar detection, 'Cooling towers. Plumes, 
Feasibility, K band, Computer programs, Elec- 
tric power plants, Remote sensing, Water 
vapor. 
Identifiers: Air pollution detection. 

The feasibility of using commercially available 
K-band (1 cm) radar for indirect sensing of 
cooling tower plumes is investigated. Using the 
radar equation, commercially available systems 
are evaluated by means of a computer model 
which estimates the strength of the expected 
return signal under sampled conditions known 
to exist in actual plumes. Recommendations 
are made for the adaptation of available radar 
systems and for areas of additional study. 
Complete data and program documentation are 
provided. 



PB-275 459/6CP PC A12/MF A01 

Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif. 
Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions 
and Diffusion Model 

Jun77, 257p 

Contract EPA-68-01-3807 

See also PB-213 091. 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 

"Mathematical models, 'Air pollution, 'Exhaust 
emissions. 'Atmospheric diffusion, Concentra- 
tion(Composition), Computerized simulation, 
Programming manuals, Hydrocarbons, Carbon 
monoxide, Nitrogen oxides. 



Identifiers: Emission factors, 'APRAC2 com- 
puter program. 

The computer program for a completely revised 
version of the APRAC-1A diffusion model is 
presented and discussed. The new code uses 
EPA's emissions calculation methodology from 
Supplement No. 5 to AP-42. Gridded, and link 
by link emissions can be output for hydrocar- 
bons, carbon monoxide or oxides of nitrogen. 
Diffusion calculations make use of a receptor- 
oriented Gaussian plume model. Local winds at 
the receptor can be used; they are interpolated 
from multiple wind inputs. Mixing heights may 
be calculated from sounding data, or input 
directly. Two local source models are available, 
one treating pollutant behavior in a street 
canyon, the other treats vehicle and pollutant 
effects at a signalized intersection. A small pro- 
gram is included for decoding Federal Highway 
Administration data tapes. 



PB-275 683/1CP PC A06/MF A01 

California State Dept. of Transportation, Sacra- 
mento. Transportation Lab. 
CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model 
for the Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a 
Line Source 
Interim rept. 

C. E. Ward.Jr, A. J. Ranzieri, and E.C.Shirley. 
Jun77, 111pCA-DOT-TL-7218-1 -76-23, 
FHWA/RD-77-74 
Contract OT-FH-1 1-7730 

See also mag tape, PB-271 105 and User's 
Manual, PB-271 106. 

Descriptors: "Automobile exhaust, 'Air pollu- 
tion, "Carbon dioxide, Mathematical models, 
Exhaust emissions, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Comparison, Wind velocity. 
Highways, Computerized simulation. Numerical 
analysis, Atmospheric diffusion. 
Identifiers: CALINE2 computer program, Gaus- 
sian plume models, "Atmospheric dispersion. 

In order for transportation planners and en- 
gineers to evaluate the air quality impact of a 
proposed project, mathematical means are 
required to describe the dispersion of air pollu- 
tants from a line source. CALINE2, the Califor- 
nia Line Source Dispersion Model, is presented 
and discussed as one such mathematical ap- 
proach. CALINE2 is based on the generalized 
Gaussian dispersion theory, and simulates the 
dispersion of carbon monoxide from a uniform 
line source. A sensitivity analysis of the model 
relates the behavior of its predictions as a func- 
tion of the input parameters. A preliminary 
verification study using carbon monoxide data 
from the Los Angeles region gives the user an 
estimate of CALINE2's predictive capabilities. 
An earlier version of the model, which was dis- 
tributed nationwide in 1972, is compared with 
the present version. 



PB-275 700/3CP CP T03 

Environmental Protection Agency, Research 
Triangle Park, N.C. Monitoring and Data Analy- 
sis Div. 

Valley Model Computer Program 
Model-Simulation 

Ed Burt, and Jerry Mersch. Sep 77, mag tape 
EPA/DF-78/002 

Source tape is in EBCDIC character set. Tape(s) 
can be prepared in most standard 7 or 9 track 
recording modes for one-half inch tape. Identify 
recording mode desired by specifying 
character set, track, density, and parity. Call 
NTIS Computer Products if you have questions. 
Price includes documentation, PB-274 054. 
Also available as punched cards. 

Descriptors: "Model-simulation, "Air pollution, 
Fortran, Concentration(Composition), Plumes, 
Atmospheric diffusion, Magnetic tapes. 
Identifiers: "Gaussian plume models, VALLEY 
computer program, UNIVAC-1110 computers, 
VALLEY model. 



The Valley Model Computer Program is an 
analytical technique whose primary use is for 
estimating the upper limits of 24-hour average 
pollutant concentrations due to isolated 
sources in rural, complex terrain. ..Software 
Description: The simulation model is written in 
the Fortran programming language for imple- 
mentation on a UNIVAC 1110 computer using 
the EXEC 8 operating system. 56K 36-bit words 
of core storage is required to operate the 
model. The User's Manual, Valley Model User's 
Guide, is also available separately from NTIS as 
PB-274 054, at $6.50 per copy. 



PB-275 701/1CP CPT03 

Environmental Protection Agency, Research 
Triangle Park, N.C. Monitoring and Data Analy- 
sis Div. 

Single Source (CRSTER) Model Computer 
Programs 
Model-Simulation 

Russ Lee, and Jerry Mersch. 1977, mag tape 
EPA/DF-78/004 

Source tape is in EBCDIC character set. Tape(s) 
can be prepared in most standard 7 or 9 track 
recording modes for one-half inch tape. Identify 
recording mode desired by specifying 
character set, track, density, and parity. Call 
NTIS Computer Products if you have questions. 
Also available as punched cards. Price includes 
documentation, PB-271 360. 

Descriptors: "Model-simulation, "Air pollution, 
Computerized simulation, Magnetic tapes, For- 
tran, Atmospheric motion, Concentra- 
tion(Com position). 

Identifiers: "Air quality, CRSTER model, 
UNIVAC-1110 computers, Gaussian plume 
models. 

The Single Source (CRSTER) Model contains 
two computer programs designed to simulate 
atmospheric dispersion processes for the pur- 
pose of calculating ambient concentration 
levels of atmospheric contaminants. It is used 
primarily in simulating the behavior of stack ef- 
fluents from combustion sources. ..Software 
Description: The model is written in the Fortran 
programming language for implementation on 
a UNIVAC 1110 computer using the EXEC 8 
operating system. 40K 36-bit words of core 
storage is required to operate the model. The 
User's Manual is available from NTIS separately 
as PB-271 360 at $1 1 .00 per copy. 



PB-276 140/1CP PC A09/MF A01 

North American Weather Consultants, Goleta, 
Calif. 

Methods for Estimating Areal Precipitation in 
Mountainous Areas 
Final rept. 

Robert D. Elliott. 31 Oct 77, 190p 77-13, NOAA- 
771 11 506 
Contract NOAA-6-35358 

Descriptors: "Mountains, 

"Precipitation(Meteorology), "Weather 

forecasting. Physical geography, Watersheds, 
Distribution(Property), Barriers, Storms, Wind 
direction. Mathematical models. Computer pro- 
grams, Fortran, Utah, Synoptic meteorology, 
Stream flow, Cloud physics, Profiles, Ta- 
bles(Data), Weather stations. 
Identifiers: TRAJDRV computer program, 
BETAS computer program. 

The development and testing of a method for 
predicting the distribution of precipitation over 
a mountainous watershed is presented. A valid 
estimate of the mean areal precipitation over 
the entire watershed can be formed given a 
precipitation observation. The accuracy of the 
average hinges upon the ability to extrapolate 
the precipitation away from the observation 
point over the watershed, or even over an entire 
orographic barrier. The orographic component 
of precipitation is identified as the mountain 
precipitation minus the upwind valley precipita- 



73 



tion, the latter representing the storm com- 
ponent. A simple numerical model is developed 
for projecting the precipitation pattern over a 
given barrier, knowing the basic wind direction 
and speed, and various cloud and air mass 
parameters. The method was tested on one well 
instrumented mountain barrier and then ex- 
tended to four other barriers. The tests in- 
dicated the method's precipitation pattern pre- 
diction capability is good over the barrier where 
the sounding data were good but was weak 
over the other barriers. However, the method 
appears to have a general capability in account 
for pattern changes with wind direction. 
(Portions of this document are not fully legible) 



PB-276 516/2CP CP T03 

Environmental Protection Agency, Research 
Triangle Park, N.C. Monitoring and Data Analy- 
sis Div. 

Climatological Dispersion Model QC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
Model-Simulation 

Bruce Turner, and Jerry Mersch. May 77, mag 
tape EPA/DF-78/003 

Source tape is in EBCDIC character set. Tapes 
can be prepared in most standard 7 or 9 track 
recording modes for one-half inch tape. Identify 
recording mode desired by specifying 
character set, track, density, and parity. Call 
NTIS Computer Products if you have questions. 
Also available as punched cards. Price includes 
documentation, PB-274 040. 

Descriptors: 'Models-simulation, "Atmospheric 
motion, *Air pollution, 'Climatology, Fortran, 
Mathematical models. Magnetic tapes. 
Identifiers: "Climatology Dispersion Model, 
CDMQC computer program, Point sources, 
UNIVAC 11 10 computers. 

The Climatological Disperson Model QC 
(CDMQC) is an expanded version of the CDM 
program. The CDM program is part of the 
UNAMAP system, PB-229 771, which is ex- 
pected to be updated during the first quarter of 
1978. The CDMQC includes three new features: 
(1) source contribution table, (2) internal 
calibration, and (3) statistical conversion of 
averaging times. 



PC A04/MF A01 
Research Lab., 



PB-276 582/4CP 

Environmental Sciences 

Research Triangle Park, N.C. 

Non-Divergent Wind Analysis Algorithm for 

the St. Louis RAPS (Regional Air Pollution 

Study) Network 

Terry L. Clark, and Robert E. Eskridge. Nov 77, 

72 Rept no. EPA/600/4-77/049 

Descriptors: 'Wind(Meteorology), 

"Mathematical models, Algorithms, Air pollu- 
tion, Atmospheric motion, Fortran, Computer 
programs, Missouri. 

Identifiers: 'Saint Louis(Missouri), RAPS pro- 
gram. Atmospheric boundary layer. 

An objective wind analysis algorithm capable of 
producing non-divergent wind fields at up to 
ten levels in the atmospheric boundary layer for 
St. Louis, Missouri is described Wind data col- 
lected during the St Louis Regional Air Pollu- 
tion Study (RAPS) and averaged over 15-minute 
intervals were used to construct u and v wind 
component fields on a 46 by 46 grid network 
with a grid spacing of 1 km via a sean-radius 
technique. The divergence across grid squares 
was minimized by a non-divergence algorithm. 
Several analyses produced by the algorithm are 
illustrated A user's guide and computer pro- 
gram listing are included 



PB-276 694/7CP PC A04/MF A01 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 
Boulder, Colo. Atmospheric Analysis and Pre- 
diction Div. 



Description of the General Program Structure 
of the Third-Generation NCAR General Circu- 
lation Model 

Technical note 

Richard K. Sato, and Gerald L. Browning. Dec 

77, 58p Rept no. NCAR/TN-1270IA 

Grant NSF-ATM77-23757 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric circulation, 

"Atmospheric models, "Computerized simula- 
tion, 'Computer programming, Weather 
forecasting. 

Identifiers: "General circulation models. Nu- 
merical weather forecasting, CDC-7600 compu- 
ters. 

This document is a description of the design, 
implementation, and operation of the third- 
generation NCAR General Circulation Model 
(GCM). It contains the information needed by 
the scientist or programmer who intends to 
modify and/or run the model. 



PB-281 028/1CP PC A04/MF A01 

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 
Rapid City. Inst, of Atmospheric Sciences. 
Computer Modeling of Cumulus Clouds Dur- 
ing Project Cloud Catcher 
Technical rept. 

John H. Hirsch. Apr 71, 70p Rept no. 71-7 
Contract DI-14-06-D-6796 

Descriptors: "Cumulus clouds, 'Cloud physics. 
Cloud seeding, Precipitation(Meteorology), 
Mathematical models, Temperature, Ice forma- 
tion, Thermodynamics, Moisture, Correlation 
techniques, Fortran, Field tests. Computer pro- 
grams, South Dakota. 

Identifiers: Skywater project, Cloud Catcher 
project, Sensitivity analysis, CLD computer pro- 
gram, Convection(Atmospheric). 

A steady-state, one-dimensional model of cu- 
mulus convection with parameterized 
microphysics is applied to cumulus clouds of 
the Northern Great Plains Region. The numeri- 
cal model is reviewed and comparisons are 
made between diagnosed cloud characteristics 
of the model and observations obtained during 
an extensive field program in cumulus modifi- 
cation. Correlation coefficients near 0.8 are 
achieved between model predictions of cloud- 
top heights and radar reflectivity maxima 
whereas poorer agreements are reached 
between in-cloud characteristics measured by 
aircraft The model appears to be a useful ob- 
jective tool for diagnosis of potential for con- 
vective cloud development and the effects of 
cold cloud seeding. It is an inexpensive, fast, 
numerical model which may be used opera- 
tionally in real-time on many rawinsondes with 
little expense. 



PB-281 306/1CP PC A08/MF A01 

Environmental Sciences Research Lab., 
Research Triangle Park, N.C. 
User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point, Area, and Line Sources 

William B. Petersen. Feb 78, 163p* Rept no. 
EPA/600/4-78/013 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Atmospheric 
models, Algorithms, Concentra- 

tion(Composition), Atmospheric diffusion, 
Wind(Meteorology), Urban areas, Industrial 
wastes, Stadiums, Parking facilities, Shopping 
centers, Airports, Computer programs, Fortran. 
Identifiers: 'Gaussian plume models, "Air quali- 
ty, Point sources, Nonpoint sources, PAL com- 
puter program. 

PAL is an acronym for this point, area, and line 
source algorithm. PAL is a method of estimat- 
ing short-term dispersion using Gaussian- 
plume steady-state assumptions. The algorithm 
can be used for estimating concentrations of 
non-reactive pollutants at 30 receptors for 
averaging times of from 1 to 24 hours, and for a 



limited number of point, area, and line sources 
(30 of each type). Calculations are performed 
for each hour. The hourly meteorological data 
required are wind direction, wind speed, stabili- 
ty class, and mixing height. Single values of 
each of these four parameters are assumed 
representative for the area modeled. This al- 
gorithm is not intended for application to entire 
urban areas but is intended rather, to assess the 
impact on air quality, on scales of tens to hun- 
dreds of meters, of portions of urban areas 
such as shopping centers, large parking areas, 
and airports. Level terrain is assumed. 



PB-282 834/1CP PC A11/MF A01 

Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, Calif. 

A New Wind Energy Site Selection 

Methodology 

Final rept. 17 Mar 75-16 Apr 76 

B. E. Freeman. May 76, 236p SAI-76-614-LJ, 

NSF/RA-761229 

Contract NSF-C1006, Grant NSF-AER75-00834 

Descriptors: "Wind power, 'Site surveys, Wind 
power generation, Wind(Meteorology), Wind 
velocity, Velocity measurement, Data acquisi- 
tion, Mathematical models. Planning, Com- 
puter programming, Computerized simulation. 
Identifiers: Site selection, SIGMET computer 
program, MICMET computer program. 

The objectives of this study were to develop 
simulation methods to make the siting of wind 
energy devices more accurate, to identify and 
obtain data on meteorological field experi- 
ments, and to begin the process of evaluation 
of computer codes by the comparison of calcu- 
lations with field data. One of the major tasks 
accomplished was the adaptation, develop- 
ment, and initial testing of meteorological 
simulation models. The mesoscale computer 
codes (SIGMET) were extensively modified to 
broaden the physical effects to be taken into 
account, and a microscale computer code 
(MICMET) was selected, modified, and tested. 



PB-283 080/OCP PC A02/MF A01 

National Weather Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Western Region. 

Hand Calculator Program to Compute Parcel 
Thermal Dynamics 

Technical memo. 

Dan Gudgel. Apr 78, 12p NOAA-TM-NWS-WR- 

128, NOAA-78051002 

Prepared by National Weather Service Forecast 

Office, Reno, Nev. 

Descriptors: 'Atmospheric temperature, 
'Computer programs. Thunderstorms, Finite 
difference theory, Computation, Programming 
manuals, Adiabatic conditions, Calculators. 
Identifiers: HP-67 programmable calculators. 

This program computes the temperature of an 
air parcel raised dry adiabatically to the lifted 
condensation level, LCL, and then pseu- 
doadiabatically thereafter. The procedure is ac- 
complished without aid of an energy diagram 
(Skew-T, Pseudo-adiabatic chart, etc.) using 
iterative computations on a Hewlett-Packard 67 
hand computer. The iterative computations in- 
volve using finite difference to solve the energy 
balance equation for the ascending parcel. The 
program can be used in lieu of an energy dia- 
gram for computation of atmospheric stability 
indices (e.g., determination of a thunderstorm 
gust potential). A sample problem and a com- 
puter program are in the Appendix. 



S.E.S.-75/3 PC A02/MF A01 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 
Research Organization, Melbourne (Australia). 
Global Horizontal Solar Radiation for Aus- 
tralian Locations Stored in the CSIRO CYBER 
7600 System: The Data and Method of 
Retrieval 

J. W. Bugler. Jun 75, 10p 
U.S. Sales Only. 



74 



Descriptors: "Australia, 'Insolation, Computer 

codes. Data processing. 

Identifiers: ERDA/140100, 'Solar radiation. 

The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology 
has established and operates a network of sta- 
tions throughout Australia measuring solar 
radiation. The network was established early in 
1968 and, with subsequent additions, consists 
of some 20 stations recording total global 
horizontal solar radiation integrated over half- 
hourly periocis; some of these stations also 
record diffuse horizontal solar radiation over 
the same periods. These data are processed 
and stored on magnetic tape in the Computer 
Section of the Meteorological Bureau in Mel- 
bourne. A complete copy of the tape of global 
horizontal solar radiation has been reproduced 
in a form compatible with the C.S.I.R..O. 
CYBER 7600 computer. This report describes 
the information stored on the C.S.I.R.O. mag- 
netic tape and the method of retrieving that in- 
formation. (ERA citation 01 :018888) 



SAND-75-0321 PC A02/MF A01 

Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, N.Mex. 
Automatic Digital Acquisition System for 
Meteorological Data. 

M. S. Rogers, R. D. Aden, J. P. Watterberg, and 
J. E. Van Meter. Aug 75, 25p 
Contract AT(29-1)-789 

Descriptors: 'Meteorology, 'Data acquisition 
systems, 'Weather, Data acquisition systems. 
Automation, Computer codes, Flowsheets, Hu- 
midity, Pressure dependence, Turbulence, 
Velocity, Wind. 

A system was installed at Tonopah Test Range 
to facilitate the continuous automatic collec- 
tion and display of meteorological data. All 
readings are converted to digital form to simpli- 
fy transmission from remote areas and reduce 
noise interference, to permit easy data manipu- 
lation, and to provide a compatible interface for 
computer reduction of the data. 



SCL-DR-720097 PC E01/MF A01 

Sandia Labs., Livermore, Calif. 
Recursive Relationships for the Ther- 
modynamic Properties of the Earth's At- 
mosphere at a Set of Geopotential Altitudes 
R . Humphrey. Feb 73, 28p 
Contract AT(29-1)-789 

Descriptors. 'Atmosphere, "Computer pro- 
grams. 
Identifiers: AEC. 

Forabstract, see NSA 27 08, number 19405 



TID-26686-P2 PC A03/MF A01 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion, Oak Ridge, Tenn Atmospheric Turbulence 
and Diffusion Lab. 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers 
at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, li. 
Predictions of Fog Occurrence and Drift 
Deposition. 
S R. Hanna Mar74,41p 

Descriptors: 'Orgdp, Cooling towers, 'Cooling 
towers. Plumes, 'Plumes, 'Diffusion, At- 
mospheric precipitations, Chromates, Com- 
puter codes, Deposition, Droplets, Earth at- 
mosphere, Gaseous wastes, Meteorology, 
Moisture, Numerical solution. Thermal ef- 
fluents, Waste heat, Water vapor, Wind 

Forabstract, see NSA 31 04, number 08740 



UCID-16827-2 PC A02/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

Current Status of LLL Four-D Atmospheric 
Propagation Code Effort 
J. A. Fleck, Jr, and J R. Morris 16 Mar 76, 21 p 



Contract W-7405-Eng-48 

Descriptors: 'Laser radiation, Computer codes, 
F codes, Uses, Wave propagation, Wind. 
Identifiers: ERDA/420300, 'Laser beams, At- 
mospheric transmissivity, Atmospheric at- 
tenuation, Optical detection. 

The deployment of high-energy lasers against 
moving targets is almost always noncoplanar. 
This noncoplanarity creates a vertical wind 
component in the transverse plane that causes 
the effective wind vector to rotate continuously. 
All propagation codes that have been 
developed in the past have been based on the 
assumption of a purely horizontal wind. The 
scenario capability of the Four-D code has now 
been generalized from the previous coplanar 
version, which assumed a moving laser plat- 
form, a target on a collision course with the 
platform, and an arbitrarily oriented coplanar 
wind. Currently the laser can be displaced to 
any height above the platform, and the scenario 
plane can be aribitrarily oriented with respect to 
the horizon. The scenario routine returns to the 
hydrodynamics routine of the code a transverse 
wind velocity vector of varying magnitude and 
orientation. The hydrodynamics routine of the 
Four-D code is now capable of treating both 
CW and multipulse steady state sources with 
winds of arbitrary magnitude and direction rela- 
tive to the x-axis. A complete time-dependent 
capability for arbitrary wind directions will be 
completed some time in the near future. (ERA 
citation 01:020419) 



UCID-17203 PC A03/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimen- 
sional Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics 
Codes SPHERNEW and TRACER 
A. Edwards. 23 Jul 76, 31 p 
Contract W-7405-Eng-48 

Descriptors: 'Aerosols, 'Earth atmosphere, 'Air 
pollution, 'Mathematical models. Chemical 
reaction kinetics, Computer calculations, Com- 
puter codes, Diffusion, S codes, T codes, Wind. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500100, SPHERNEW com- 
puter code, TRACER computer program, 
'Atmospheric motion. 

The report describes how transport by the wind 
is modeled in the 2-D atmospheric transport 
and chemical kinetics codes SPHERNEW and 
TRACER. The description includes the equa- 
tions for transport by a specified velocity field, 
the eddy diffusion approximation for short-term 
fluctuations in the velocity, other simplifying 
approximations, the geometric grid, the dif- 
ference equations, and the coefficient matrix of 
the grid. The assumption of a constant vertical 
density distribution was used to derive mass- 
consistent forms of the difference equations. 
These forms eliminate the instabilities and un- 
realistic solutions associated with specified 
wind fields which are not exactly mass-con- 
sistent. An option is allowed for variable 
weighting between central (second-order) and 
upstream (first-order) forms of the spatial dif- 
ferencing of the advection terms, to modulate 
phase and amplitude errors in the advection 
model. (ERA citation 02:005659) 



PC A02/MF A01 
Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 



UCID-17701 

California Univ 
more Lab. 

PATRIC: A Three Dimensional Particle in-Cell 
Sequential Puff Code for Modeling the Trans- 
port and Diffusion of Atmospheric Pollutants 
R Lange Jan 78, 1 1 p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-48 

Descriptors: 'Air pollution, 'Computer codes. 
Diffusion, Distribution, Environmental trans- 
port, Mathematical models. Particles, Wind. 



Identifiers: ERDA/500200, 'Air quality, Assess- 
ments, Normal density factors, PATRIC com- 
puter program. 

PATRIC is a transport and diffusion code 
designed to calculate the three-dimensional 
distribution of atmospheric pollutants in a 
given space and time varying flow field. It is 
based on the particle-in-cell model in which the 
pollutant mass or activity is represented by the 
spacial distribution of a large number marker 
particles. The temporal evolution of this particle 
distribution results from the transport of each 
individual marker particle due to advection by 
the mean wind and diffusion by the Gaussian 
formula. The code is capable of computing in- 
stantaneous or time-integrated air concentra- 
tions and deposition for a variety of instantane- 
ous or continuous sources, including inert and 
radioactive materials. PATRIC was developed 
as a simplified and speeded-up version of the 
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory three-dimen- 
sional transport and diffusion code for complex 
terrain ADPIC. PATRIC computer time is ap- 
proximately one minute for every 24 hours 
modeled which makes the code suitable for an- 
nual air quality assessments. (ERA citation 
03:026884) 



PC A04/MF A01 
Livermore Lawrence Liver- 



UCRL-51826 

California Univ. 

more Lab 

Time-Dependent Propagation of High Energy 

Laser BEAMS Through the Atmosphere. 

J. A. Fleck, Jr, J. R. Morris, and M.J. Feit. 2 Jun 

75,61p 

Contract W-7405-eng-48 

Descriptors: 'Laser radiation, Wave propaga- 
tion. Computer codes, Earth atmosphere. Time 
dependence. 

Identifiers: ERDA/420300, Laser beams, 
'Atmospheric transmissivity. 

A general time-dependent three-space-dimen- 
sional propagation code is described. This 
code is capable of treating the propagation of 
high energy laser beams through the at- 
mosphere in the presence of a horizontal wind 
and turbulence for most situations of interest. 
Possible cases are propagation of cw beams 
through stagnation zones, multipulse propaga- 
tion, including the self-consistent treatment of 
pulse self-blooming, and propagation involving 
transonic slewing. The solution of the Maxwell 
wave equation in Fresnel approximation is ob- 
tained by means of a discrete Fourier transform 
method, which, surprisingly, gives excellent 
results for diffraction problems. The latter pro- 
vide a stringent test for the accuracy of any 
solution method. Considerable use is also 
made of discrete Fourier transform methods in 
solving the hydrodynamic equations. The treat- 
ment of turbulence is based on the generation 
of random phase screens at each calculation 
step along the propagation path. In a time-de- 
pendent calculation the random phase screens 
can be either made to move with the wind at a 
given propagation position or generated anew 
for each successive time. The code is equipped 
with a general scenario routine involving a 
moving laser platform as well as target. This 
routine allows the code to treat an effective 
transverse wind velocity that varies with time as 
well as axial position Thus it is possible to take 
into account the motion of the stagnation point 
in treating the propagation of beams through 
stagnation zones. The code is equipped with 
extensive editing facilities which generate vari- 
ous averages, contour plots, and plots of quan- 
tities of interest as a function of time. The report 
also contains illustrative examples of the code's 
different calculational features. 



UCRL-52049 PC A06/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 



75 



CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer 
Code for Plume Dispersion and Deposition 
Calculations 

K. R. Peterson, T. V. Crawford, and L. A. 
Lawson. 21 May 76, 105p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-48 

Descriptors: *Air pollution, 'Chemical effluents, 
'Plumes, 'Radioactive effluents. Atmospheric 
precipitations, Computer calculations, Com- 
puter codes, Diffusion, Fortran, Gaussian 
processes, Height, Meteorology, Point sources, 
Spatial distribution. Stack disposal, Surface air, 
Topography, Velocity, Wind. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500200, ERDA/500300, 
'Atmospheric diffusion. 

The continuous-point-source computer code 
calculates concentrations and surface deposi- 
tion of radioactive and chemical pollutants at 
distances from 0.1 to 100 km, assuming a Gaus- 
sian plume. The basic input is atmospheric sta- 
bility category and wind speed, but a number of 
refinements are also included. (ERA citation 
02:007973) 



UCRL-52366 PC A02/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

Development of a Three-Dimensional Model 
of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using the 
Finite Element Method 
R. L. Lee, and P. M. Gresho. 22 Nov 77, 24p 
Contract W-7405-ENG-48 

Descriptors: 'Boundary layers, 'Earth at- 
mosphere. Air pollution, Algorithms, Altitude, 
Computer calculations. Computer codes, Equa- 
tions of state, Humidity, Mathematical models. 
Measuring methods, Temperature gradients, 
Three-dimensional calculations, Two-dimen- 
sional calculations, Velocity, Wind. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500100, ERDA/500200, At- 
mospheric boundary layer, Atmospheric 
models. Finite element analysis. 

This report summarizes our current effort and 
ideas toward the development of a model for 
the planetary boundary layer using the finite 
element technique. As an initial step, the finite 
element methodology is applied to simpler ver- 
sion of the boundary layer equations given by 
the two-dimensional, constant-property, in- 
compressible conservation equations (Navier- 
Stokes equations). Solution procedures for 
both the steady-state and transient equations 
are discussed. For the transient problem, a vari- 
able time-step, trapezoid-rule algorithm with 
dynamic time-truncation error control is 
presented. The resulting system of nonlinear al- 
gebraic equations is solved by a Newton itera- 
tion procedure with a frontal solution scheme 
used for the linear set of equations. The need to 
develop a suitable linear equation solver, with 
respect to minimization of computer storage 
and execution costs, particularly for large 
(three-dimensional) finite element problems, is 
also discussed. (ERA citation 03:037946) 



UCRL-75868 PC A03/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Or- 
dinary Differential Equations. 
A. C. Hindmarsh, and G. D. Byrne Jun 75, 30p 
Rept no. CONF-750902-3 

Descriptors: "Computer codes, *E codes, 
'Differential equations, 'Numerical solution, 
'Earth atmosphere, 'Simulation, Cdc compu- 
ters, Chemical reaction kinetics, Fortran. 
Identifiers: ERDA/990200, EPISODE computer 
code. 

A brief description, with examples of usage, is 
given of a new FORTRAN package called 
EPISODE, for the numerical solution of the ini- 



tial-value problem for systems of ordinary dif- 
ferential equations. EPISODE contains both a 
variable-step, variable-order implicit Adams 
method and a variable-step, variable-order 
backward differentiation method. Since the 
user may select either of these methods simply 
by assigning the appropriate value to a method 
flag, EPISODE can be used to solve either stiff 
or nonstiff problems. Similarly, the user also 
selects one of four corrector iteration methods 
to be used. EPISODE was motivated by 
problems in atmospheric modeling at LLL in 
which chemical rate constants vary with time in 
an abrupt diurnal manner. Examples of such 
problems, and others, are given to illustrate the 
use and effectiveness of the program. Outside 
LLL the EPISODE package is being supplied in 
double precision, but contains the single preci- 
sion version imbedded in it. Conversion to sin- 
gle precision can be easily done with a con- 
verter subroutine, supplied with the package. 



UCRL-76170 PC A03/MF A01 

California Univ., Livermore Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab. 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffu- 
sion Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric 
Pollutants and Its Validation Against Regional 
Tracer Studies. 

R. Lange. May 75, 40p Rept no. OCONF-750533- 
40 

Descriptors: 'Argon 41, 'Diffusion, 'Iodine 131, 
Diffusion, 'Aerosols, Diffusion, 'Air pollution, 
'Mathematical models, A codes, Computer 
codes, Distribution, Environmental effects, 
Lagrangian function, Particles, Plumes, Reac- 
tors, Tracer techniques. 
Identifiers: ERDA/500200, ERDA/500101. 

For abstract, see ERA 75 06, number 01263. 



PC A02/MF A01 

Livermore. Lawrence Liver- 



UCRL-78120 

California Univ. 

more Lab. 

Modeling the Planetary Boundary Layer 

Using the Galerkin Finite-Element Method 

P. M. Gresho, R. L. Lee, and R. L. Sani. 28 Apr 
76, 9p Rept no. 0CONF-761003-190 
Contract 0W-7405-Eng-480 
Symposium on atmospheric turbulence, diffu- 
sion, and air quality, Raleigh, North Carolina, 
United States of America (USA), 19 Oct 1976. 

Descriptors: 'Earth atmosphere. Boundary 

layers. Computer calculations, Computer 

codes, Diffusion, F codes. Mathematical 

models. Air pollution. 

Identifiers: ERDA/500100, 'Planetary boundary 

layer, Finite element analysis, 'Atmospheric 

models. 

Finite-element-methods computer programs 
that approximate the solution to the advection- 
diffusion equation are discussed for planetary 
boundary layer modeling. It has application in 
regional modeling studies and in real-time ac- 
cident situations relative to air pollution moni- 
toring. (ERA citation 02:005660) 



76 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS 

An Efficient Computational Approximation to the 
Lorentz Line Molecular Absorption Coefficient 
AD-A052 686/3CP 

ACCELEROMETERS 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System Or- 
bital Accelerometer Experiment. Volume I. Experi- 
ment Description and Methodology 
AD-772 717/5CP 

ACETOACETIC ACID/ (ETHYL-ESTER) 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 
AD-779 551 /1CP 

ACOSP COMPUTER PROGRAM 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
PB-259 719/3CP 

ACOUSTIC ABSORPTION 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
AD-A051 700/3CP 

ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVES 

A Program for Calculating Three-Dimensional 
Acoustic-Gravity Ray Paths in the Atmosphere 
COM-71-50410/CP 

ACOUSTIC WAVES 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951 /6CP 

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS 

Mapping of Geostationary Satellite Pictures: An 
Operational Experiment. 
PB-191 189/CP 

AERONOMY 

AURORA: An NRL Auroral Chemistry Code 
AD-A004 602/9CP 

Ionospheric Chemistry: Comparison of AIRCHEM 
Predictions with Results of Laboratory Simula- 
tions 
AD-A024 146/3CP 

Developmental Studies of the Hydrogen-Nitrogen- 
Oxygen Systems 
AD-775 752/9CP 

Survey of Two-Body and Three-Body Reaction- 
Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Stratosphere and 
Mesosphere 
AD-776 950/8CP 

AEROSOLS 

A Mathematical Model for the Atmospheric Dis- 
semination of Evaporating Aerosol "Clouds 
(Evaporation Model) 
AD-A015 542/4CP 

Sky Radiance Calculations in the 5 micrometer - 
5.0 micrometer Wavelength Range 
AD-A015 812/1CP 

Research in the Area of Atmospheric Modeling: 
High Resolution Atmospheric IR Transmittance 
Prediction 
AD-A017 026/6CP 

Balloon Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol 
Size Distribution Following a Volcanic Dust Incur- 
sion 
AD-A018 372/3CP 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 
AD-A023 078/9CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

Comparison of the 3-5 Micrometer and 8-12 
Micrometer Regions for Advanced Thermal Imag- 
ing Systems LOWTRAN Revisited 
AD-A049 448/4CP 

A Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter 
AD-737 802/CP 

Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Particle 
Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air Breakdown 
AD-760 175/CP 

Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle Counter 

Measurements 

AD-777 135/5CP 

Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifications. 
Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 
AD-784 866/6CP 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Ouality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

Determination of the Particle Size Distribution of 
an Aerosol Using a Diffusion Battery 
CEA-R-4549 



Investigation of Aerosol Characteristics and Their 

Measurement 

N76-17683/3CP 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimensional 

Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 

SPHERNEW and TRACER 

UCID-17203 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 
UCRL-76170 

AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere. 
N70-29050/CP 

AFTERBURNING 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

AIR 

Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Particle 
Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air Breakdown 
AD-760 175/CP 

AIR MASS ANALYSIS 

Refractive Effects in Remote Sensing of the At- 
mosphere with Infrared Transmission Spectrosco- 
py 
AD-A011 253/2CP 

Frontal Motion in the Atmosphere 
AD-715 068/CP 

AIR POLLUTION 

Sky Radiance Calculations in the 0.5 micrometer - 
5.0 micrometer Wavelength Range 
AD-A015 812/1CP 

Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 
AD-A038 399/2CP 

An Investigation into the Effect of an Industrial 
Heat and Moisture Source on Local Atmospheric 
Conditions 
AD-733 227/CP 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
AD-753 268/CP 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 
AD-779 551/1CP 

Some Variable-Parameter, Steady-State Diffusion 

Results. 

AD-815 625/CP 

ATMOSPHERE. Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
for Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1103 

Cartographic Forecasts of Short-Term Air Pollu- 
tion Averages 
CEA-R-4837 

A Program for Evaluating Atmospheric Dispersion 
from a Nuclear Power Station 
COM-74-11336/6CP 

Regional Effluent Dispersion Calculations Con- 
sidering Spatial and Temporal Meteorological 
Variations 
COM-74-11627/8CP 

The What System: A New Digitized Radiosonde 
and Double Theodolite Balloon Tracking System 
for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Investigations 
CONF-731205-1 

Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent Atmospheric 
Transport: Comparison with Experimental Data 
CONF-771 109-58 

Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

Monte Carlo Simulation of the Turbulent Trans- 
port of Airborne Contaminants 
LA-6103 

Manual for the Computer Program of the Gaus- 
sian Plume Model Handleiding voor Het Compu- 
terprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel. 
N76-19598/1CP 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents. 
N76-20699/4CP 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 

Sensing. 

N76-22637/2CP 



Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

Manual for the Gaussian Plume Model Computer 
Program Handleiding voor Het Computerpro- 
gramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel. 
N77-20629/0CP 

Dispersion within the Stratosphere of Minor Con- 
stituents. 
N77-25714/5CP 

Oispersion of Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere. 
N77-31678/4CP 

Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and Dif- 
fusion Model. 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

A Regional Air Ouality Simulation Model (A 
Description of the Connecticut Air Pollution 
Model as Developed by the Travelers Research 
Center) 
PB-206 938/CP 

A Particle-in-Cell Method for Numerical Solution 
of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation, and Appli- 
cations to Air Pollution Problems. Volume I 
PB-209 290/CP 

Potential Environmental Modifications Produced 
by Large Evaporative Cooling Towers 
PB-210 702/7CP 

Users Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

User's Guide for the Climatological Dispersion 

Model 

PB-227 346/4CP 

Users Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) 
PB-229 771/1CP 

Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
PB-232 445/7CP 

User's Guide for Hiway. A Highway Air Pollution 

Model 

PB-239 944/2CP 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
PB-240 273/3CP 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report. Ap- 
pendices. Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 
Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 
PB-251 066/7CP 

Adaptation of Gaussian Plume Model to Incor- 
porate Multiple Station Data Input. Volume II. Ap- 
pendices 
PB-252 558/2CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscale Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume II. Refinements in 
the Treatment of Chemistry, Meteorology, and 
Numerical Integration Procedures 
PB-257 527/2CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscala Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume III. Modeling of 
Micsoscale Pheonoena 
PB-257 528/0CP 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
PB-259 719/3CP 

"Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality 
An Approach and Computer Program for Wind 
Flow Field Analysis 
PB-263 921 /9CP 

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in Southeast 

Wisconsin 

PB-265 382/2CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Constants 
over a Diurnal Range A Computer Algorithm 
PB-266 739/2CP 



77 



SUBJECT INDEX 



An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part II 
PB-266 756/6CP 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Dif kin Sensitivity Analysis 
PB-268 329/OCP 

STRAM - An Air Pollution Model Incorporating 
Nonlinear Chemistry, Variable Trajectories, and 
Plume Segment Diffusion 
PB-270 778/4CP 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/OCP 

Valley Model User's Guide 
PB-274 054/6CP 

The Relation of Oxidant Levels to Presursor Emis- 
sions and Meteorological Features Volume III 
Appendices (Analytical Methods and Supplemen- 
tary Data) 
PB-275 327/5CP 

A Feasibility Study for the Application of K-Band 

Radar in the Investigation of Cooling Tower 

Plumes 

PB-275 380/4CP 

Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model for the 
Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source 
PB-275 683/1CP 

Valley Model Computer Program 
PB-275 700/3CP 

Single Source (CRSTER) Model Computer Pro- 
grams 
PB-275 701/1CP 

Climatological Dispersion Model OC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
PB-276 516/2CP 

User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point, Area, and Line Sources 
PB-281 306/1CP 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimensional 
Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 
SPHERNEW and TRACER 
UCID-17203 

PATRIC: A Three Dimensional Particle-in-Cell 
Sequential Puff Code for Modeling the Transport 
and Diffusion of Atmospheric Pollutants 
UCID-17701 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCRL-52049 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 
UCRL-76170 

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL 

Optimal Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions at 
Power Stations: Models and a Case Study 
AD-775 392/4CP 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report Ap- 
pendices Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

PB-271 643/9CP 

AIR POLLUTION DETECTION 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS (HUMANS) 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report Ap- 
pendices Volume VII 
PB-249 9I3/5CP 

AIR POLLUTION SAMPLING 

Some Environmental Measurement of the Vertical 
Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level Sources 
N77-21734/7CP 

Users' Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud-Rise 
Preprocessor Program, Version 6. and the 
NASA/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Program, Version 
6: Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 System. 
N78-18573/3CP 

AIR POLLUTION STANDARDS 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE) Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 



AIR QUALITY 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part II 
PB-266 756/6CP 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/OCP 

Single Source (CRSTER) Model Computer Pro- 
grams 
PB-275 701/1CP 

User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point, Area, and Line Sources 
PB-281 306/1CP 

PATRIC: A Three Dimensional Particle-in-Cell 
Sequential Puff Code for Modeling the Transport 
and Diffusion of Atmospheric Pollutants 
UCID-17701 

AIR QUALITY DATA 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE). Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 

AIR QUALITY MAINTENANCE 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality. 
An Approach and Computer Program for Wind 
Flow Field Analysis 
PB-263 921/9CP 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 
PB-268 329/OCP 

AIR TRANSPORTATION 

An Operational Decision Model Employing Opera- 
tional and Environmental Factors 
AD-755 403/CP 

AIR WATER INTERACTIONS 

Heat Budget Parameterization for the FNWC 
Primitive Equation Model Using Data for 16 
January 1974 
AD-A009 977/OCP 

Calculated and Observed Changes in Sea Surface 
Temperature Associated with Hurricane Passage. 
AD-713 052/CP 

1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in the 
Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
AD-777 971/3CP 

AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug. 
N78-14235/3CP 

AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

AIRCRAFT LANDINGS 

Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Defini- 
tion 
AD-A053 178/0CP 

AIRCRAFT NOISE 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
AD-A051 700/3CP 

AIRSHED MODELS 

Continued Research in Mesoscale Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume II. Refinements in 
the Treatment of Chemistry, Meteorology, and 
Numerical Integration Procedures 
PB-257 527/2CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscala Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume III. Modeling of 
Micsoscale Pheonoena 
PB-257 528/OCP 

ALBEDO 

The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Verti- 
cally Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
PB-270 618/2CP 

ALGORITHMS 

Analytic and Numerical Chemistry Algorithms for 
the WORRY Code. WORRY Document No. 2 
AD-A012 002/2CP 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1CP 

ALIGNMENT 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug 
N78-14235/3CP 



ALOUETTE SATELLITES 

Studies of the Structure of the Plasmasphere as 
Seen by Radiosounder Measurements Aboard the 
Alovetti-Satellite. 
N74-20467/8CP 

ANEMOMETERS 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 

ANIONS 

Negative Molecular Ions 
AD-A045 725/9CP 

ANTENNAS 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug. 
N78-14235/3CP 
APALACHICOLA BAY 

Estimation of Hurricane Storm Surge in 

Apalachicola Bay, Florida 

COM-75-11332/4CP 

APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITES 

Time Domain Data Extraction, Radio Altimetry, 
and Application of Ats Data Quarterly Report, 1 
Apr. - 30 Jun. 1971 
N71-33870/CP 

APRAC2 COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

ARCS 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

ARCTIC REGIONS 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Major 
Synoptic Systems in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 
in the Winter and Summer of 1973 
PB-258 821/8CP 

ARGON 41 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 
UCRL-76170 

ARID LAND 

Scheduling and Application Rates of Irrigation in 
Humid Climate 
PB-244 760/5CP 

ARPANET 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1 CP 

ARTIFICIAL CLOUDS 

Dispersion within the Stratosphere of Minor Con- 
stituents. 
N77-25714/5CP 

Dispersion of Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere. 
N77-31678/4CP 

ARTIFICIAL PRECIPITATION 

Computations with the Rand Cloud Model for the 
HIPLEX Workshop, June 1975 
AD-A022 268/7CP 

Computer Aided Nucleation Nozzle Design 
AD-737 395/CP 

ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 

ASCENT TRAJECTORIES 

Criteria for Controlling Vertical Motion of Strato- 
spheric Balloons 
AD-A017 552/1 CP 
ASTRONOMICAL SPECTROSCOPY 
Eso Bulletin No. 12. 
N76-12912/1CP 

ASYMPTOTIC SERIES 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 
AD-A023 078/9CP 

ATLANTIC OCEAN 

Hurricane Heat Potential of the North Atlantic and 
North Pacific Oceans 
AD-751 590/CP 

ATMOSPHERE 

Computer Procedure for Calculating Time Depen- 
dent Light Scattering in Spherical-Shell At- 
mospheres 
AD-722 713/CP 



78 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ATMOSPHERIC CLOUD PHYSICS LAB (SPACELAB) 



Computer Procedure tor Calculating Time Depen- 
dent Light Scattering in Plane Parallel At- 
mospheres 
AD-722 714/CP 

Monte Carlo Codes to Study the Transport of X- 
Rays and Fluorescent Light in the Atmosphere 
AD-729 909/CP 

Monte Carlo Calculations ot the Scattering of 450. 
550. and 650 NM Wavelength Light in Model At- 
mospheres for Point Isotropic Sources 
AO-731 723/CP 

An Optical Apparatus to Determine the Effect of 
Turbulence on the Modulation Transfer Function 
of the Atmosphere 
AD-757 256/CP 

Recursive Relationships for the Thermodynamic 
Properties of the Earth's Atmosphere at a Set of 
Geopotential Altitudes 
SCL-DR-720097 

ATMOSPHERE DIFFUSION 

Application of the Calder Finite Difference Diffu- 
sion Model to Calculations of Instantaneous 
Elevated Line Source Dosages 
AD-A009 750/1CP 

ATMOSPHERE MODELS 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 
AD-A008 035/8CP 

Application of the Calder Finite Difference Diffu- 
sion Model to Calculations of Instantaneous 
Elevated Line Source Dosages 
AD-A009 750/1CP 

Heat Budget Parameterization for the FNWC 
Primitive Equation Model Using Data for 16 
January 1974 
AD-A009 977/OCP 

Computer Program for the Disturbed Steady-State 
Nighttime D-Region 
AD-A010 412/5CP 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Predict- 
ing Low-Altitude Satellite Ephemerides 
AD-A010 424/0CP 

An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmental 
Prediction Technique 
AD-A010 647/6CP 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm Surge 

Model 

AD-A012 799/3CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Microns: Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 
AD-A017 734/5CP 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 

Magnetosphere 

AD-A020 301 /8CP 

Climatic Modeling of the Earth-Atmosphere 

System 

AD-A020 458/6CP 

Computations with the Rand Cloud Model for the 
HIPLEX Workshop. June 1975 
AD-A022 268/7CP 

Simulation of Marine Advection Fog with the Cal- 
span Advection Fog Model Using Prognostic 
Equations for Turbulent Energy 
AD-A027 380/5CP 

A Technique to Specify Liquid Water Content at a 
Point in the Atmosphere 
AD-A027 457/1CP 

AIRCHEM: A Computational Technique for Model- 
ing the Chemistry of the Atmosphere 
AD-A030 157/2CP 

Analysis of High Altitude Effects Simulation 

(HAES) 

AD-A033 654/5CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 
AD-A038 399/2CP 

Statistical Diagnostic Modeling of Marine Fog 
Using Model Output Parameters 
AD-A042 059/6CP 

MRDA - A Medium Resolution Data Analysis Code 
for the HP 2100 Computer 
AD-A042 263/4CP 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emission 
and Transmission Model 
AD-A042 624/7CP 

The Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory Photodis- 
sociation-Radiation Model of the Middle At- 
mosphere-- A Users Manual 
AD-A043 786/3CP 



The ROSCOE Manual Volume 14A Ambient At- 
mosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and 
Ionosphere) 
AD-A048 013/7CP 

A Generalized Computer Program for Primitive- 
Equation Models 
AD-A048 481 /6CP 

A Computational Method for Spectral Molecular 
Absorption Using an Improved Voigt Algorithm 
AD-A052 685/5CP 

An Efficient Computational Approximation to the 
Lorentz Line Molecular Absorption Coefficient 
AD-A052 686/3CP 

Meteorological Sensitivity of LOWTRAN 3B 
AD-A053 840/5CP 

Atmospheric Transport of X-Rays. 
AD-716 801/CP 

Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
AD-736 443/CP 

Arctic Ionosphere Modelling - Five Related 

Papers 

AD-748 796/CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 
28.5/micrometers Computer Code LOWTRAN 2 
AD-763 721/CP 

An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere 
AD-766 240/6CP 

Documentation and Description of the Bent Iono- 
spheric Model 
AD-772 733/2CP 

Modeling of Optical IR Backgrounds 
AD-774 751/2CP 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-State 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

Atmospheric Modeling for Molecular Absorption 
Research Project 
AD-776 971/4CP 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting Low- 
Altitude Satellite Ephemerides Part 1. Data Analy- 
sis and Model Formulation 
AD-778 820/1CP 

A Semi-Markov Weather Model 
AD-778 873/OCP 

Stimulated Skyglow 
AD-781 094/8CP 

Simulation Research to Develop Objective 
Meteorological Prediction Capability 
AD-864 887/CP 

ATMOSPHERES 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951 /6CP 

Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation 
AD-772 640/9CP 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude. Season, and Time 
N77-31700/6CP 

ATMOSPHERIC ACOUSTICS 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951/6CP 

ATMOSPHERIC ATTENUATION 

Monochromatic Transmittance/Radiance Compu- 
tations 
AD-A003 755/6CP 

A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave At- 
tenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 
AD-A015 544/0CP 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, (16)0(18)0. and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1CP 

Monte Carlo Studies on the Time-Dependent 
Transport of Optical and Infrared Radiation in the 
Atmosphere Volume II. Thermal Radiation Trans- 
port 
AD-A042 769/OCP 

Monte Carlo Calculations of the Scattering of 450. 
550. and 650 NM Wavelength Light in Model At- 
mospheres for Point Isotropic Sources 
AD-731 723/CP 

Atmospheric Modeling for Molecular Absorption 
Research Project 
AD-776 971 /4CP 

An Experiment to Measure the Modulation 
Transfer Function of the Atmosphere in the 
Marine Boundary Layer 
AD-783 807/1CP 



The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases. II. 
Calculations with the Voigt Line Shape 
COM-75-10595/7CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Computer Program 

Cp. 

N75-29602/0CP 

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY 

Analytic and Numerical Chemistry Algorithms for 
the WORRY Code. WORRY Document No 2 
AD-A012 002/2CP 

An Examination of the Adequacy of the Three- 
Species Air Chemistry Treatment for the Predic- 
tion of Surface-Burst EMP 
AD-A025 280/9CP 

Chemistry of Atmospheric Deionization Outside 
Intermediate-Altitude Fireballs. II. 15-, 20-, and 25- 
km Altitude 
AD-A029 890/1 CP 

AIRCHEM: A Computational Technique for Model- 
ing the Chemistry of the Atmosphere 
AD-A030 157/2CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14b Midlatitude 
Density Profiles of Selected Atmospheric Species 
AD-A043 499/3CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 17. High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

Negative Molecular Ions 
AD-A045 725/9CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14A. Ambient At- 
mosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and 
Ionosphere) 
AD-A048 013/7CP 

Developmental Studies of the Hydrogen-Nitrogen- 
Oxygen Systems 
AD-775 752/9CP 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

Software Development: Stratosphere Modeling. 
N78-21692/6CP 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report. Ap- 
pendices. Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION 

Heat Budget Parameterization for the FNWC 
Primitive Equation Model Using Data for 16 
January 1974 
AD-A009 977/OCP 

An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmental 
Prediction Technique 
AD-A010 647/6CP 

A Generalized Computer Program for Primitive- 
Equation Models 
AD-A048 481 /6CP 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the Solution 
of Large Scale Circulation Problems 
AD-743 934/CP 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the Solution 
of Large Scale Circulation Problem II 
AD-775 076/3CP 

Initialization of a 5-Level Global Atmospheric 
General Circulation Model Using a Staggered, 
Spherical, Sigma Coordinate System 
AD-776 321 /2CP 

Model of Precipitation and Vertical Air Currents 
COM-71-00911/CP 

Mesoscale Objective Map Analysis Using 
Weighted Time-Series Observations 
COM-73-10781/CP 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N71-35701/CP 

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in Southeast 

Wisconsin 

PB-265 382/2CP 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

ATMOSPHERIC CLOUD PHYSICS LAB (SPACELAB) 

Phase B-Final Definition and Preliminary Design 
Study for the Initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics 
Laboratory (Acpl) A Spacelab Mission Payload 
N76-33273/3CP 



79 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-Slate 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases 
COM-74-10525/5CP 

Feasibility of Satellite Measurement of Strato- 
spheric Minor Constituents by Solar Occultation 
COM-74-10720/2CP 

Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents. 

N70-29112/CP 

Measurements of Trace Constituents from At- 
mospheric Infrared Emission and Absorption 
Spectra, a Feasibility Study 
N76-13673/8CP 

ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY 

Program Structure of Atmospheric Density Pro- 
grams 
AD-A008 515/9CP 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Predict- 
ing Low-Altitude Satellite Ephemerides 
AD-A010 424/OCP 

A RAND Computation Center Reference: Standard 
Atmosphere Calculations with JOSS 
AD-A011 029/6CP 

Atmospheric Density Determination from Analysis 
of Doppler Beacon Satellite Data 
AD-A012 195/4CP 

Automatic Real-Time Extinction Measurement 
AD-A046 484/2CP 

A Data Reduction Computer Program for the 
AFCRL Triaxial Accelerometer Inflated Falling 
Sphere Atmospheric Density Measuring System 
AD-705 566/CP 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System Or- 
bital Accelerometer Experiment Volume I Experi- 
ment Description and Methodology 
AD-772 717/5CP 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting Low- 
Altitude Satellite Ephemerides Part 1. Oata Analy- 
sis and Model Formulation 
AD-778 820/1CP 

Some Recent Innovations in Atmospheric Density 

Programs 

AD-786 414/3CP 

Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes. 
N76-27748/2CP 

ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION 

A Mathematical Model lor the Atmospheric Dis- 
semination of Evaporating Aerosol Clouds 
(Evaporation Model) 
AD-A015 542/4CP 

Monte Carlo Simulation of the Turbulent Trans- 
port of Airborne Contaminants. 
LA-6103 

A Direct Numerical Method lor Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Program for Operational Prediction of Toxic 
Fuel Hazards 
N73-28050/5CP 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Programs. Version 5. 
N76-17658/5CP 

Manual for the Computer Program of the Gaus- 
sian Plume Model Handleiding voor Hel Compu- 
lerprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel. 
N76-19598/1CP 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsile Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport ol delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents 
N76-20699/4CP 

Dispersion wilhin the Stratosphere of Minor Con- 
stituents. 
N77-25714/5CP 

Dispersion of Trace Constituents in the Slralo- 

sphere 

N77-31678/4CP 

Users Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud-Rise 
Preprocessor Program, Version 6, and the 
NASA/Mslc Multilayer Diffusion Program. Version 
6 Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 System 
N78-18573/3CP 



Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and Dif- 
fusion Model. 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 

A Particle-in-Cell Method for Numerical Solution 
of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation, and Appli- 
cations to Air Pollution Problems. Volume I 
PB-209 290/CP 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
PB-240 273/3CP 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 
Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 
PB-251 066/7CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

Users Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCRL-52049 

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION 

CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model for the 
Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source 
PB-275 683/1CP 

ATMOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES 

The Search for Most Unstable Scales of 
Disturbances in Three-Layer Atmospheric Models 
with Shear and Static Stability-Procedure and 
Results 
COM-75-10588/2CP 

ATMOSPHERIC ECHO SOUNDING 

Microcomputer-Controlled Acoustic Echo 

Sounder 

PB-268 033/8CP 

ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS 

Solumat: A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast Transfer. 
N76-31809/6CP 

ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY 

Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, 
Volume I 
AD-A034 847/4CP 

ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION 

Sky Radiance Calculations in the 0.5 micrometer - 
5.0 micrometer Wavelength Range 
AD-A015 812/1CP 

ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows, Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

ATMOSPHERIC MODELING 

Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Constants 
over a Diurnal Range A Computer Algorithm 
PB-266 739/2CP 

ATMOSPHERIC MODELS 

Model of Precipitation and Vertical Air Currents 
COM-71-00911/CP 

Feasibility Study for Remote Sensing of At- 
mospheric Turbulence Profiles. 
N70-22632/CP 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N72-20322/CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Technical 

Description, Part 1 . 

N74-33021/8CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Users 
Manual and Programmers Manual, Part 2. 
N74-33022/6CP 

Computed Mie Scattering Properties lor Laser 
Wavelengths in Various Atmospheric Media 
N76-14336/1CP 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Programs, Version 5 
N76-17658/5CP 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Development 
Laboratory: Formulation and Data 
N76-27745/8CP 

Determination of Constant-Volume Balloon Capa- 
bilities for Aeronautical Research 
N77-19715/0CP 



Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 
in a Stratospheric Model. 1: Development of a 
Concise Stratospheric Model. 
N77-29673/9CP 

Software Development: Stratosphere Modeling. 
N78-21692/6CP 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere for 
February 1976 with the Giss Model 
N78-24754/1CP 

A Regional Air Quality Simulation Model (A 
Description of the Connecticut Air Pollution 
Model as Developed by the Travelers Research 
Center) 
PB-206 938/CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscale Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume II. Refinements in 
the Treatment of Chemistry, Meteorology, and 
Numerical Integration Procedures 
PB-257 527/2CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscala Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume III. Modeling of 
Micsoscale Pheonoena 
PB-257 528/0CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part II 
PB-266 756/6CP 

Atmospheric Simulation Using Stratified Liquid 

Models 

PB-274 529/7CP 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point, Area, and Line Sources 
PB-281 306/1CP 

Modeling the Planetary Boundary Layer Using the 

Galerkin Finite-Element Method 

UCRL-78120 

ATMOSPHERIC MOTION 

Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interac- 
tions on Global Climate. Volume I. Orographic Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 034/2CP 

Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on 
Global Climate. Volume II. Radiation Transport Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 035/9CP 

A Numerical Study of an Idealized Ocean Using 
Non Linear Lateral Eddy Viscosity Coefficients 
AD-A009 973/9CP 

A Mathematical Model for the Atmospheric Dis- 
semination of Evaporating Aerosol Clouds 
(Evaporation Model) 
AD-A015 542/4CP 

A Description of the Atmospheric Turbulence En- 
vironment Derived from the Critical Atmospheric 
Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program 
AD-A042 549/6CP 

Application of Doppler Weather Radar to Turbu- 
lence Measurements Which Affect Aircraft 
AD-A048 603/5CP 

Diagnostic Studies of Sybsynoptic Atmospheric 

Structure 

AD-726 628/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-730 748/CP 

An Investigation into the Effect of an Industrial 
Heat and Moisture Source on Local Atmospheric 
Conditions 
AD-733 227/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-739 541/CP 

A Documentation of the Mintz-Arakawa Two-Level 
Atmospheric General Circulation Model 
AD-740 093/CP 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the Solution 
of Large Scale Circulation Problems 
AD-743 934/CP 

Atmospheric Turbulence Field Parameters Deter- 
mination 
AD-745 946/CP 

A Study of Charged Particle Motion in a Free Vor- 
tex Flowfield 
AD-749 285/CP 



80 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE 



The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-750 727/CP 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
AD-753 268/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-762 584/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-772 490/9CP 

Regional Effluent Dispersion Calculations Con- 
sidering Spatial and Temporal Meteorological 
Variations 
COM-74-11627/8CP 

Users Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

User's Guide for the Climatological Dispersion 

Model 

PB-227 346/4CP 

User's Guide for Hiway. A Highway Air Pollution 

Model 

PB-239 944/2CP 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
PB-259 719/3CP 

Climatological Dispersion Model QC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
PB-276 516/2CP 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimensional 
Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 
SPHERNEW and TRACER 
UCID-17203 

ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS 

Analysis and Programming for Research in 
Physics of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-A034 066/1CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Micrometers: Supplement LOWTRAN 3B (1976) 
AD-A040 701 /5CP 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 10. Models of Ion 
Leak and Loss Cone Patches 
AD-A048 014/5CP 

EHF Transfer and Shielding Properties of Air 
(Summary of 1974-1977 Activities) 
AD-A048 067/3CP 

Analysis and Research for Integrated Systems in 
Physics of the Atmosphere 
AD-A051 126/1CP 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
AD-A051 700/3CP 

An Experimental Study of the Freezing of Drops 
in Free Fall 
AD-776 390/7CP 

Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change No 

1 Summary Report 1972 

COM-74-10908/3CP 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents 

N70-29112/CP 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experi- 
ment Laboratory; Programmatics Report 
N75-24526/6CP 

ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION 

A Parameterized Numerical Model of Orographic 

Precipitation 

PB-192 757/CP 

ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study. 
COO-1199-45 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 

A RAND Computation Center Reference Standard 
Atmosphere Calculations with JOSS 
AD-A011 029/6CP 

ATMOSPHERIC RADIANCE 

A Specular Chamber for Off-Axis Response 

Evaluations of High-Rejection Optical Balding 

System 

AD-A031 212/4CP 

ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 
AD-A008 035/8CP 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray. by Ray Tracing 

Through the Atmosphere 

N70-36971/CP 



Evaluation of Upwelling Infrared Radiance from 

Earth's Atmosphere. 

N76-13663/9CP 

Computer Program for Calculation of the Incident 
Radiation Per Day on a Horizontal Surface at the 
Edge of the Atmosphere een Computerprogram- 
ma voor Het Berekenen van de Inkomende Stral- 
ing Aan de Rand van de Atmosfeer Per DAG Door 
een Horizontaal Oppervlak 
N78-23668/4CP 

ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION 

Refractive Effects in Remote Sensing of the At- 
mosphere with Infrared Transmission Spectrosco- 
py 
AD-A011 253/2CP 

Turbulence Characterization and Control 
AD-A027 155/1CP 

Comparisons of Radar Refraction Correction 
Computer Programs at Selected Test Ranges 
AD-762 383/CP 

A Method for Determination of Atmospheric 
Refraction Characteristics Through Use of 
Navigational Satellite Data 
AD-849 142/CP 

ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING 

Monte Carlo Calculations of the Scattering of 450, 
550, and 650 NM Wavelength Light in Model At- 
mospheres for Point Isotropic Sources 
AD-731 723/CP 

Analysis of Incoherent Scatter Data Obtained at 
the Jicamarca Radar Observatory 
COM-72-10297/CP 

ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING 

Computing Methods Used in Support of Modeling 
Electron Concentrations in High-Altitude Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-A009 069/6CP 

Remote Infrared Atmospheric Profiling System 

(RIAPS) 

AD-A018 562/9CP 

ICECAP '74--Chatanika Radar Results 
AD-A026 703/9CP 

Techniques of Determining Ionospheric Structure 
from Oblique Radio Propagation Measurements 
AD-A038 299/4CP 

Comparison of ICECAP and EXCEDE Rocket 
Measurements with Computer Code Predictions 
AD-A047 526/9CP 

Modeling for Multispectral Infrared and 
Microwave Remote Sensing of the Troposphere 
AD-A050 170/0CP 

Development of a Real-Time Rocketsonde and a 
Real-Time Radiosonde Computer Program 
AD-A053 608/6CP 

Recording and Analysis of Optical Data from 
Stratospheric Dynamics Experiments 
AD-A054 013/8CP 

Data Reduction Program for Rocketsonde Tem- 
peratures 
AD-724 599/CP 

Project SECEDE. Tracking Barium releases using 
the TV-TRACK System 
AD-731 574/CP 

Digital Processing of FM-CW Radar Data 
AD-733 295/CP 

A Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter 
AD-737 802/CP 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 
AD-739 166/CP 

A Compendium of Optical Interferometer Results 
on Secede II 
AD-744 833/CP 

A General-Purpose Meteorological Rocket Data 
Reduction Program 
AD-751 780/CP 

Detection and Analysis of Synoptic-Scale 
Periodicities in Rocketsonde Data 
AD-782 358/6CP 

Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with an 

On-Line Computer 

COM-73-11634/5CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance Models for Infrared 
Radiometric Measurements 
COM-74-11295/4CP 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases II 
Calculations with the Voigt Line Shape 
COM-75-10595/7CP 

Microcomputer-Controlled Acoustic Echo 

Sounder 

PB-268 033/8CP 



ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE 

Test and Evaluation of a VTPR Retrieval System 
from Clear-Column NOAA 2 Radiances 
AD-A009 921 /8CP 

A RAND Computation Center Reference: Standard 
Atmosphere Calculations with JOSS 
AD-A011 029/6CP 

Recording and Analysis of Optical Data from 
Stratospheric Dynamics Experiments 
AD-A054 013/8CP 

Calculation of Levels of Relative Contribution of 
the Carbon-Dioxide Channel Radiance from 
TIROS VII in the Case of a Large-Scale Strato- 
spheric Warming in January 1964 
AD-736 529/CP 

A Statistical Model of Atmospheric Temperature 

Signals 

AD-743 760/CP 

Application of Adaptive Estimation to Tempera- 
ture Forecasting 
AD-759 546/CP 

Hand Calculator Program to Compute Parcel 
Thermal Dynamics 
PB-283 080/0CP 

ATMOSPHERIC TIDES 

A Gravitational Potential for Atmospheric Earth 
Tides Caused by the Moon 
AD-A038 155/8CP 

ATMOSPHERIC TR ANSMISSIVITY 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 
Methods of Calculation 
AD-A017 459/9CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Microns: Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 
AD-A017 734/5CP 

Propagation Modeling and Analysis for High 
Energy Lasers 
AD-A023 537/4CP 

Transonic Thermal Blooming 
AD-A026 456/4CP 

SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear. Wave Optics Multipulse 
(and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with 
Adaptive Coordinates 
AD-A037 395/1 CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Micrometers: Supplement LOWTRAN 3B (1976) 
AD-A040 701/5CP 

MRDA - A Medium Resolution Data Analysis Code 
for the HP 2100 Computer 
AD-A042 263/4CP 

Comparison of the 3-5 Micrometer and 8-12 
Micrometer Regions for Advanced Thermal Imag- 
ing Systems: LOWTRAN Revisited 
AD-A049 448/4CP 

Theoretical Study of the Turbulence Induced 
Scintillation of a Dirty Laser Beam 
AD-A050 874/7CP 

Methods for Prediction of Atmospheric Effects on 
Laser Guidance Systems 
AD-A051 617/9CP 

A Computational Method for Spectral Molecular 
Absorption Using an Improved Voigt Algorithm 
AD-A052 685/5CP 

An Efficient Computational Approximation to the 
Lorentz Line Molecular Absorption Coefficient 
AD-A052 686/3CP 

Meteorological Sensitivity of LOWTRAN 3B 
AD-A053 840/5CP 

A Matrix Approach to a Propagation Code 
AD-A055 463/4CP 

Computed Mie Scattering Properties for Laser 
Wavelengths in Various Atmospheric Media. 
N76-14336/1CP 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 
N77-24935/7CP 

A Stellar Scintillometer tor Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-257 376/4CP 

Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measurement ot 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-273 921/7CP 

Time-Dependent Propagation of High Energy 
Laser BEAMS Through the Atmosphere 
UCRL-51826 

ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 



81 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ATMOSPHERICS 

A Center for the Description of Environmental 
Conditions. Weather Phenomena 
AD-773 046/8CP 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

ATOM MOLECULE INTERACTIONS 

Ionospheric Chemistry: Comparison of AIRCHEM 
Predictions with Results of Laboratory Simula- 
tions 
AD-A024 146/3CP 

ATS 5 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report. 

1 Mar. - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

AURORAE 

AURORA: An NRL Auroral Chemistry Code 
AD-A004 602/9CP 

BREMGAT: A Code for the Generation and Trans- 
port of Brensstrahlung Through the Atmosphere 
AD-A006 189/5CP 

Design and Calibration of a Rocket-Borne Elec- 
tron Spectrometer 
AD-A011 931/3CP 

Auroral Simulation Studies HAES Report No 6 
AD-A012 476/8CP 

Auroral Spectrograph Data Reduction System 
AD-A019 110/6CP 

Comparison of ICECAP and EXCEDE Rocket 
Measurements with Computer Code Predictions 
AD-A047 526/9CP 

Auroral Simulation Effects 
AD-A049 066/4CP 

Design. Fabrication and Use of an Instrument for 
Real-Time Determination of Polar Electrojet Posi- 
tion and Current Parameters 
AD-760 767/CP 

Stimulated Skyglow 
AD-781 094/8CP 

Studies of Auroral Simulation 
AD-781 275/3CP 
AURORAL SPECTROSCOPY 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report, 

1 Mar - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

AURORAL ZONES 

Auroral Oval Kinematics Program 
N72-18359/CP 

Analysis of Low Energy Electrons 
N73-31638/2CP 

AUSTRALIA 

Global Horizontal Solar Radiation for Australian 
Locations Stored in the CSIRO CYBER 7600 
System: The Data and Method of Retrieval 

S.E.S.-75/3 

AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST 

CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model for the 
Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source 
PB-275 683/1CP 

AUTOMOBILES 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report. Ap- 
pendices. Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

AVIATION SAFETY 

Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Defini- 
tion 
AD-A053 178/OCP 

BACKGROUND RADIATION 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 
N77-24935/7CP 

BACKSCATTERING 

Calculation ot the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte luer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug. 
N78-14235/3CP 

User's Guide to the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ul- 
traviolet Experiment Data Sets. 
N78-21694/2CP 

BALLOONS 

Criteria for Controlling Vertical Motion of Strato- 
spheric Balloons 
AD-A017 552/1CP 

Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, 
Volume I 
AD-A034 847/4CP 



A Compendium of the Mechanical Properties of 
Polyethylene Balloon Films 
AD-746 678/CP 

BAND SPECTRA 

Band Model Parameters for the 4 3-microns Fun- 
damental Band of C02 in the 100-3000 K Tem- 
perature Range 
AD-A021 786/9CP 

BARIUM 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 

AD-739 166/CP 

8EACH EROSION 

Forecasting Storm-Induced Beach Changes along 
Virginia's Ocean Coast 
AD-752 141/CP 

BEACHES 

Forecasting Storm-Induced Beach Changes along 
Virginia's Ocean Coast 
AD-752 141/CP 

BETA PARTICLES 

Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predictions. 
Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 Annual Re- 
port to the Defense Nuclear Agency 
AD-A043 178/3CP 

BOOMLESS SUPERSONIC FLIGHT 

Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System. Volume I. Main Text and Appendix A 
AD-A014 965/8CP 

BOUNDARY LAYER 

Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 
AD-A038 399/2CP 

BOUNDARY LAYERS 

Development of a Three-Dimensional Model of 
the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using the Finite 
Element Method 
UCRL-52366 

BOW WAVES 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind. The Inter- 
planetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects on the 
Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 and 35 
Data 
N73-14808/CP 

BREMSSTRAHLUNG 

BREMGAT: A Code for the Generation and Trans- 
port of Brensstrahlung Through the Atmosphere 
AD-A006 189/5CP 

BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3). 
N75-29531/1CP 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 

Sensing. 

N76-22637/2CP 

BUILDING CODES 

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Winds 
COM-75-10945/4CP 

BUILDINGS 

Effects ot Atmospheric Variability on Energy 

Utilization and Conservation 

COO-1340-52 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings. Volume II: Computer Program User's 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

BWR TYPE REACTORS 

Tutank: A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code. 

AEEW-R-1002 

CANADA 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Major 
Synoptic Systems in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 
in the Winter and Summer of 1973 
PB-258 821/8CP 

CARBON DIOXIDE 

Band Model Parameters for the 4.3-microns Fun- 
damental Band of C02 in the 100-3000 K Tem- 
perature Range 
AD-A021 786/9CP 

CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model for the 
Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source 
PB-275 683/1CP 

CARBON MONOXIDE 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
PB-259 719/3CP 



CHARGED PARTICLES 

A Study of Charged Particle Motion in a Free Vor- 
tex Flowfield 
AD-749 285/CP 
CHEMICAL EFFLUENTS 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCRL-52049 

CHEMICAL REACTIONS 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 

CHEMICAL RELEASE STUDIES 

Computing Methods Used in Support of Modeling 
Electron Concentrations in High-Altitude Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-A009 069/6 CP 

Project SECEDE. Tracking Barium releases using 

the TV-TRACK System 

AD-731 574/CP 

A Compendium of Optical Interferometer Results 

on Secede II 

AD-744 833/CP 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 
Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-763 082/CP 

CHICAGO 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

CIRCUITS 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

CIRRUS CLOUDS 

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Compositions 
from Satellites 
AD-A026 512/4CP 

CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE 

EHF Transfer and Shielding Properties of Air 
(Summary of 1974-1977 Activities) 
AD-A048 067/3CP 

Turbulence Forecasting Procedures 
AD-731 134/CP 

Digital Processing of FM-CW Radar Data 
AD-733 295/CP 

Numerical Forecasting of Clear Air Turbulence 
AD -81 8 985/CP 

Feasibility Study for Remote Sensing of At- 
mospheric Turbulence Profiles. 
N70-22632/CP 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N71-35701/CP 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N72-20322/CP 

CLIMATE 

Software Tools for Climate Simulation 
AD-A017 664/4CP 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1 CP 

Climatic Modeling of the Earth-Atmosphere 

System 

AD-A020 458/6CP 

Disease Information System. Ground Temperature 
Derived from Other Geophysical Observations 
AD-A021 524/4CP 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological, Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-772 490/9CP 

Analytic Solution of Coupled Mode Equations by 

Computer 

AD-772 828/OCP 

CLIMATE SIMULATION 

Software Tools for Climate Simulation 
AD-A017 664/4CP 

CLIMATIC CHANGES 

Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change No 

1. Summary Report 1972 

COM-74-10908/3CP 



82 



SUBJECT INDEX 



COMPUTER PROGRAMS 



CLIMATOLOGY 

Synoptic-Scale Weather Disturbances that In- 
(luence the Fire Climate in Southeast Asia During 
the Normally Dry Period 
AD-721 112/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-730 748/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-739 541/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-750 727/CP 

The Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale In- 
teractions on Global Climate 
AD-762 584/CP 

User's Guide for the Climatological Dispersion 

Model 

PB-227 346/4CP 

Climatological Dispersion Model QC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
PB-276 516/2CP 

CLIMATOLOGY DISPERSION MODEL 

Climatological Dispersion Model QC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
PB-276 516/2CP 

CLOUD COVER 

Implementation of the SRI Objective Cloud 
Tracking System at NEPRF 
AD-A021 772/9CP 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes. 
Program Summary 
AD-A047 357/9CP 

Development of Cloud/Fog Analysis and Applica- 
tion Subroutines for Experimental Prototype Au- 
tomatic Meteorological System (EPAMS) 
AD-A048 564/9CP 

Persistence, Runs, and Recurrence of Sky Cover 
AD-A053 199/6CP 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis Model 
AD-736 798/CP 

A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

CLOUD PHOTOGRAPHY 

Machine Analysis of Infrared Cloud Images Ob- 
tained by the Cosmos-122 Satellite. 
N71-10986/CP 

CLOUD PHYSICS 

A Precipitating Convective Cloud Model 
AD-A002 117/OCP 

Development and Application of Data Processing 
Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud 
Physics Data 
AD-A018 662/7CP 

Computations with the Rand Cloud Model for the 
HIPLEX Workshop, June 1975 
AD-A022 268/7CP 

A Technique to Specify Liquid Water Content at a 
Point in the Atmosphere 
AD-A027 457/1CP 

Numerical Approximations of Selected 

Meteorologicl Parameters Related to Cloud 
Physics 
AD-757 623/CP 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experi- 
ment Laboratory; Programmatics Report. 
N75-24526/6CP 

Proiect Fog Drops 5 Task 1: A Numerical Model 

of Advection Fog Task 2: Recommendations for 

Simplified Individual Zero-Gravity Cloud Physics 

Experiments 

N76-13702/5CP 

Phase B-Final Definition and Preliminary Design 

Study for the Initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics 

Laboratory (Acpl) A Spacelab Mission Payload 

N76-33273/3CP 

Atmospheric Cloud Physics Thermal Systems 

Analysis. 

N77-26753/2CP 

Computer Modeling of Cumulus Clouds During 
Project Cloud Catcher 
PB-281 028/1CP 

CLOUO SEEDING 

Great Lakes Snowstorms Part 1 Cloud Physics 

Aspects. 

COM-71-00012/CP 

Outline of a Bayesian Approach to the EML Multi- 
ple Cloud-Seeding Experiments 
COM-71-00875/CP 



On the Use of Gamma Functions and Bayesian 
Analysis in Evaluating Florida Cumulus Seeding 
Results 

COM-73-11202/1CP 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the Statisti- 
cal Analysis of Florida Cumulus Seeding Experi- 
ments 

COM-74-11286/3CP 

Digitizing. Recording, and Computer Processing 
Weather Radar Data at the Experimental 
Meteorology Laboratory 
COM-74-11464/6CP 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 

Atmospheric Simulation Using Stratified Liquid 

Models 

PB-274 529/7CP 

CLOUDS 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1CP 

Implementation of the SRI Objective Cloud 
Tracking System at NEPRF 
AD-A021 772/9CP 

Theoretical Aspects of the Determination of Parti- 
cle-Size Distributions from Measurements of 
Scattered Light Intensity 
AD-721 089/CP 

A Study of Cloud Dynamics Utilizing Stereoscopic 

Photogrammetry 

AD-733 284/CP 

CLOUDS (METEOROLOGY) 

Studies in the Use of Cloud Type Statistics in 

Mission Simulation 

N74-30053/4CP 

CLUSTERING 

The Kinetics of Evolution of Water Vapor Clusters 

in Air 

AD-A025 675/OCP 

COLLISION RATES 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data. 
N70-42935/CP 

COLORADO 

Predicting Heavy Snowfall for Colorado Springs 
Based on Computer Derived Synoptic Map Types 
AD-718 422/CP 

COMMAND AND CONTROL 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program. 
N77-15056/3CP 
COMPUTATION 

Program to Calculate Winds Aloft Using a 
Hewlett-Packard 25 Hand Calculator 
PB-266 968/7CP 

COMPUTATIONS 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 
Methods of Calculation 
AD-A017 459/9CP 

COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS 

Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 
AD-A038 399/2CP 

COMPUTER CALCULATIONS 

Hetran A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water 
BNWL-B-361 

COMPUTER CODES 

Tutank; A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code 

AEEW-R-1002 

ATMOSPHERE Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
for Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1103 

Hetran A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water 
BNWL-B-361 

Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent Atmospheric 
Transport Comparison with Experimental Data 
CONF-771 109-58 

WNDROS; A Program for Displaying Wind Rose 

Data 

ORNL/CSD/TM-40 

SULCAL; A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Code (ORFAD) Users 

Manual 

ORNL/TM-5201 



PATRIC: A Three Dimensional Particle-in-Cell 
Sequential Puff Code for Modeling the Transport 
and Diffusion of Atmospheric Pollutants 
UCID-17701 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations 
UCRL-75868 

COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

WINDVEL2: A Program for Plotting Wind Velocity 
as Determined by OTH Radar 
AD-A002 954/6CP 

COMPUTER PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings Volume II. Computer Program Users 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING 

A Computer Program to Select Typhoon Analogs 
and Print Out Their Descriptions Including Sub- 
sequent Changes 
AD-A009 530/7CP 

Description of Automatic Plotting Computer Pro- 
grams Beschrijving van Het Programmapakket 
T.B.V. Het Automatisch Plotten 
N78-23788/0CP 

The Development of Computer Programs Applica- 
ble to Meaningful Precipitation Management Ex- 
periments 
PB-202 199/CP 

Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the Solution 
of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 
PB-263 498/8CP 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

COMPUTER PROGRAMS 

Program TRUWIND 
AD-A005 311/6CP 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 
AD-A008 035/8CP 

Program Structure of Atmospheric Density Pro- 
grams 
AD-A008 515/9CP 

A RAND Computation Center Reference: Standard 
Atmosphere Calculations with JOSS 
AD-A011 029/6CP 

Basic ZOOM Program 
AD-A011 409/OCP 

Program Graphic 
AD-A011 416/5CP 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm Surge 

Model 

AD-A012 799/3CP 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1 CP 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 

Magnetosphere 

AD-A020 301/8CP 

Climatic Modeling of the Earth-Atmosphere 

System 

AD-A020 458/6CP 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 
AO-A023 078/9CP 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Pacific Ocean and Australian Region 
AD-A023 676/OCP 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951/6CP 

Chemistry of Atmospheric Deionization Outside 
Intermediate-Altitude Fireballs II 15-, 20-, and 25- 
km Altitude 
AD-A029 890/1 CP 

AIRCHEM A Computational Technique for Model- 
ing the Chemistry of the Atmosphere 
AD-A030 157/2CP 

Research to Develop Improved Models of Cli- 
matology That Will Assist The Meteorologist in 
the Timely Operation ol the Air Force Weather 
Detachments 
AD-A032 317/OCP 

Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates. Volume II. Program Documentation 
AD-A034 651 /0CP 



83 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates. Volume I. Theory and Application 
AD-A034 763/3CP 

Ocean Climatology Extraction and Adjustment 
Program (or the Mediterranean Program SOVEL 
AD-A035 170/0CP 

MRDA - A Medium Resolution Data Analysis Code 
for the HP 2100 Computer 
AD-A042 263/4CP 

A Description of the Atmospheric Turbulence En- 
vironment Derived from the Critical Atmospheric 
Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program 
AD-A042 549/6CP 

A Generalized Computer Program for Primitive- 
Equation Models 
AD-A048 481 /6CP 

Development of Cloud/Fog Analysis and Applica- 
tion Subroutines for Experimental Prototype Au- 
tomatic Meteorological System (EPAMS) 
AD-A048 564/9CP 

Chatanika Model of the High-Latitude Ionosphere 
for Application to HF Propagation Prediction 
AD-A053 154/1CP 

Curve Fitting General Least Squares Program 
with Side Conditions 
AD-722 103/CP 

The B-MALMID-4 Program: Ballistic Messages at 
Arbitrary Locations from Mixed Input Data 
AD-733 419/CP 

Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
AD-736 443/CP 

A General-Purpose Meteorological Rocket Data 
Reduction Program 
AD-751 780/CP 

Mathematical-Model Programs 
AD-760 117/CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 
28 5/micrometers Computer Code LOWTRAN 2 
AD-763 721/CP 

Documentation and Description of the Bent Iono- 
spheric Model 
AD-772 733/2CP 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-State 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

A Three-Parameter Model for Limited Area 

Forecasting 

AD-777 406/0CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 
Reduction Part I Rawinsonde 
AD-782 685/2CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 
Reduction. Part II. Rocketsonde 
AD-782 686/0CP 

A Program for Calculating Three-Dimensional 
Acoustic-Gravity Ray Paths in the Atmosphere 
COM-71-50410/CP 

National Weather Service River Forecast System 

Forecast Procedures 

COM-73-10365/CP 

SCINTDR-A Program for Controlling the Fremouw 

Scintillation Model 

COM-74-10824/2CP 

Computer Software for Rainfall Analyses and 
Echo Tracking of Digitized Radar Data 
COM-74-11253/3CP 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the Statisti- 
cal Analysis of Florida Cumulus Seeding Experi- 
ments 
COM-74-11286/3CP 

Program Descriptions. Supplement to Mesoscale 
Wind Fields and Transport Estimates Determined 
from a Network of Wind Towers 
COM-74-11470/3CP 

A Semi-Automated System for True Height Analy- 
sis of Film lonograms Part 3 Documentation of 
Software 
COM-74-11808/4CP 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents 

N70-29112/CP 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli. Libya. 1951-1957 Part 1 - Work Report. 
N70-31479/CP 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation 
N70-35774/CP 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray. by Ray Tracing 

Through the Atmosphere. 

N70-36971/CP 



Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data 
N70-42935/CP 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N71-35701/CP 

A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

Auroral Oval Kinematics Program 
N72-18359/CP 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K Equa- 
tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Inferieure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

Numerical Weather Prediction in Finland During 

1969 

N72-28639/CP 

Computer Program for Calculation of Geostrophic 
Trajectories . Datorprogram Foer Beraekning AV 
Geostrofiska Trajektorier 
N73-11656/CP 

OGO-F-02 Data Analysis 
N73-13376/CP 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Program for Operational Prediction of Toxic 
Fuel Hazards 
N73-28050/5CP 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
N74-20502/2CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Technical 

Description, Part 1. 

N74-33021/8CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Users 
Manual and Programmers Manual, Part 2. 
N74-33022/6CP 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer. 

N75-28749/0CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Computer Program 

Cp 

N75-29602/0CP 

Eso Bulletin No. 12. 
N76-12912/1CP 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Programs, Version 5. 
N76-17658/5CP 

Investigation of Aerosol Characteristics and Their 

Measurement 

N76-17683/3CP 

Manual for the Computer Program of the Gaus- 
sian Plume Model Handleiding voor Het Compu- 
terprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel. 
N76-19598/1CP 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents 
N76-20699/4CP 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User'S 

Guide. 

N76-22643/0CP 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum. 
N77-18983/5CP 

Reduction and Analysis of Data Collected During 
the Electromagnetic Tornado Experiment. 
N77-19710/1CP 

Manual for the Gaussian Plume Model Computer 
Program Handleiding voor Het Computerpro- 
gramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel 
N77-20629/OCP 

A Program for Reading Ionospheric Data. 

N78-23650/2CP 

Computer Program for Calculation of the Incident 

Radiation Per Day on a Horizontal Surface at the 

Edge of the Atmosphere een Computerprogram- 

ma voor Het Berekenen van de Inkomende Stral- 



ing Aan de Rand van de Atmosfeer Per DAG Door 

een Horizontaal Oppervlak. 

N78-23668/4CP 

A Program for Calculating Thiessen Average 

Rainfall 

PB-211 232/CP 

Users Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

Direct Beam Solar Radiation. A Digital Computer 

program 

PB-236 902/3CP 

Adaptation of Gaussian Plume Model to Incor- 
porate Multiple Station Data Input. Volume II. Ap- 
pendices 
PB-252 558/2CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program (SYNOP) 
PB-264 563/8CP 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1 CP 

Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

Hand Calculator Program to Compute Parcel 
Thermal Dynamics 
PB-283 080/OCP 

Recursive Relationships for the Thermodynamic 
Properties of the Earth's Atmosphere at a Set of 
Geopotential Altitudes 
SCL-DR-720097 

COMPUTER PROGRAMS LIGHT PULSES 

SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear. Wave Optics Multipulse 
(and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with 
Adaptive Coordinates 
AD-A037 395/1 CP 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program. 
N77-15056/3CP 

COMPUTER TECHNIQUES 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using Hybrid 

Computer Techniques 

N73-31147/4CP 

COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION 

Auroral Simulation Studies HAES Report No. 6 
AD-A012 476/8CP 

A Mathematical Model for the Atmospheric Dis- 
semination of Evaporating Aerosol Clouds 
(Evaporation Model) 
AD-A015 542/4CP 

Software Tools for Climate Simulation 
AD-A017 664/4CP 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1 CP 

The Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory Photodis- 
sociation-Radiation Model of the Middle At- 
mosphere - A Users Manual 
AD-A043 786/3CP 

Comparison of ICECAP and EXCEDE Rocket 
Measurements with Computer Code Predictions 
AD-A047 526/9CP 

Morphology and Dynamics of Ionospheric Storms 
AD-774 760/3CP 

Developmental Studies of the Hydrogen-Nitrogen- 
Oxygen Systems 
AD-775 752/9CP 

Studies of Auroral Simulation 
AD-781 275/3CP 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study. 
N76-11736/5CP 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere for 
February 1976 with the Giss Model 
N78-24754/1CP 

User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 
Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 
PB-251 066/7CP 

Continued Research in Mesoscale Air Pollution 
Simulation Modeling: Volume II. Refinements in 
the Treatment of Chemistry, Meteorology, and 
Numerical Integration Procedures 
PB-257 527/2CP 



84 



SUBJECT INDEX 



DIFKIN PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELS 






Continued Research in Mesoscala Air Pollution 

Simulation Modeling: Volume III. Modeling of 

Micsoscale Pheonoena 

PB-257 528/OCP 

User's Guide (or Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 

Transport Model 

PB-259 719/3CP 

Cooling Tower Plume Model 
PB-259 971/OCP 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

CONDENSATION 

The Kinetics of Evolution of Water Vapor Clusters 

in Air 

AD-A025 675/OCP 

CONDENSATION TRAILS 

Project SECEDE. Tracking Barium releases using 
the TV-TRACK System 
AD-731 574/CP 

CONTAMINANTS 

Some Environmental Measurement of the Vertical 
Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level Sources. 
N77-21734/7CP 

CONTINUOUS WAVE LASERS 

Propagation Modeling and Analysis for High 
Energy Lasers 
AD-A023 537/4CP 

CONVECTION (ATMOSPHERIC) 

A Precipitating Convective Cloud Model 
AD-A002 117/OCP 

A Mesoscale Investigation of Convective Activity 
AD-721 242/CP 

A One-Dimensional Numerical Model to Study the 
Effects of Cumulus Clouds on the Environment 
AD-760 123/CP 

COOLING TOWERS 

Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Code (ORFAD) User's 

Manual 

ORNL/TM-5201 

Potential Environmental Modifications Produced 
by Large Evaporative Cooling Towers 
PB-210 702/7CP 

Cooling Tower Plume Model 
PB-259 971/OCP 

A Feasibility Study for the Application of K-Band 

Radar in the Investigation of Cooling Tower 

Plumes 

PB-275 380/4CP 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers at 
the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, li. Predic- 
tions of Fog Occurrence and Drift Deposition. 
TID-26686-P2 

COSMOS SATELLITES 

Machine Analysis of Infrared Cloud Images Ob- 
tained by the Cosmos-122 Satellite 
N71-10986/CP 

COUNTERS 

Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle Counter 

Measurements 

AD-777 135/5CP 

Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifications. 
Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 
AD-784 866/6CP 

CRSTER MODEL 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/OCP 

CUMULUS CLOUDS 

One-Dimensional Quasi-Time-Dependent Numeri- 
cal Model of Cumulus Cloud Activity 
AD-722 216/CP 

A One-Dimensional Numerical Model to Study the 
Effects of Cumulus Clouds on the Environment 
AD-760 123/CP 

On the Use of Gamma Functions and Bayesian 
Analysis in Evaluating Florida Cumulus Seeding 
Results 
COM-73-11202/1CP 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the Statisti- 
cal Analysis of Florida Cumulus Seeding Experi- 
ments 
COM-74-11286/3CP 

Computer Modeling of Cumulus Clouds During 
Project Cloud Catcher 
PB-281 028/1CP 

CYCLONES 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Major 
Synoptic Systems in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 
in the Winter and Summer of 1973 
PB-258 821/8CP 



D REGION 

Computer Program for the Disturbed Steady-State 
Nighttime D-Region 
AD-A010 412/5CP 

INVERT', A Computer Program For Obtaining D- 
Region Electron Density Profiles from VLF Reflec- 
tion Coefficients 
AD-A050 256/7CP 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using Hybrid 

Computer Techniques 

N73-31147/4CP 

DATA ACQUISITION 

A Digital Data Acquisition Interface for the SMS 
Direct Readout Ground Station - Concept and 
Preliminary Design 
AD-A022 317/2CP 

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS 

Automatic Digital Acquisition System for 

Meteorological Data. 

SAND-75-0321 

DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Support 

for Garp Data Sets. 

N78-15629/6CP 

DATA BASES 

Feasibility Study of a Ouadrilateralized Spherical 
Cube Earth Data Base 
AD-A010 232/7CP 

DATA COMPRESSION 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 

DATA MANAGEMENT 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study. 
N76-11736/5CP 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Support 

for Garp Data Sets. 

N78-15629/6CP 

DATA PROCESSING 

Development and Application of Data Processing 
Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud 
Physics Data 
AD-A018 662/7CP 

A Center for the Description of Environmental 
Conditions. Weather Phenomena 
AD-773 046/8CP 

Development of Digital Enhancement Techniques 
Applicable to Direct Read-Out (APT) Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Images 
AD-774 524/3CP 

Computer Subroutine for Presenting Meterologi- 
cal Flight Data on the Printer (CURVPT) 
COM-71-50082/CP 

Digitizing, Recording, and Computer Processing 
Weather Radar Data at the Experimental 
Meteorology Laboratory 
COM-74-11464/6CP 

A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using Hybrid 

Computer Techniques 

N73-31147/4CP 

Brazilian Participation in the Exametnet. 
N74-19237/8CP 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer 

N75-28749/0CP 

Separation of Mixed Data Sets into Homogeneous 

Sets 

PB-264 813/7CP 

DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume I 
AD-A041 195/9CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume II 
AD-A041 196/7CP 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System for 
Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 
AD-A051 754/OCP 

DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS 

Computer Processing of Data from the 
UNH/AFCRL Meteor Trails Radar 
AD-718 105/CP 

Data Reduction Program for Rocketsonde Tem- 
peratures 
AD-724 599/CP 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis Model 
AD-736 798/CP 



DATA REDUCTION 

Development and Application of Data Processing 
Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud 
Physics Data 
AD-A018 662/7CP 

Auroral Spectrograph Data Reduction System 
AD-A019 110/6CP 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 
Testing the Results for Accuracy. 
N70-25092/CP 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report. 

1 Mar. - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

Time Domain Oata Extraction, Radio Altimetry, 
and Application of Ats Data Quarterly Report, 1 
Apr. - 30 Jun. 1971 
N71-33870/CP 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using Hybrid 

Computer Techniques 

N73-31147/4CP 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User'S 

Guide 

N76-22643/0CP 

DATA STORAGE 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

DECISION THEORY 

An Operational Decision Model Employing Opera- 
tional and Environmental Factors 
AD-755 403/CP 

DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents. 
N76-20699/4CP 

DENSITOMETERS 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 
Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-763 082/CP 

DESIGN CRITERIA 

Estimated Rainfall for Drainage Calculations in 
the United Kingdom 
PB-226 513/0CP 

DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN 

Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Particle 
Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air Breakdown 
AD-760 175/CP 

DIETHYLAMINE 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 
AD-779 551/1CP 

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 

Description and Comparison of the K Method for 
Performing Numerical Integration of Stiff Ordinary 
Differential Equations 
AD-A003 855/4CP 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations. 
UCRL-75868 

DIFFUSION 

Monte Carlo Simulation of the Turbulent Trans- 
port of Airborne Contaminants 
LA-6103 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers at 
the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, li Predic- 
tions of Fog Occurrence and Drift Deposition 
TID-26686-P2 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 
UCRL-76170 

DIFKIN COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 
PB-268 329/0CP 

DIFKIN PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELS 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Dilkin Sensitivity Analysis 
PB-268 329/OCP 



85 



SUBJECT INDEX 



DIGITAL COMPUTERS 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1CP 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli. Libya, 1951-1957. Part 1 - Work Report 
N70-31479/CP 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation. 
N70-35774/CP 

DIGITAL RECORDING SYSTEMS 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System for 
Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 
AD-A051 754/OCP 

DISEASES 

Disease Information System Ground Temperature 
Derived from Other Geophysical Observations 
AD-A021 524/4CP 

DISPLAY DEVICES 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study. 
N76-11736/5CP 

Wisp Information Display System User's Manual 
N78-18623/6CP 

DISPLAY SYSTEMS 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume I 
AD-A041 195/9CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume II 
AD-A041 196/7CP 

DOPPLER EFFECT 

A Comparison of a Co?xial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 

DOPPLER RADAR 

Pulse Pair Estimation of Doppler Spectrum 

Parameters 

AD-744 094/CP 

DROPS 

An Experimental Study of the Freezing of Drops 
in Free Fall 
AD-776 390/7CP 

DUST CLOUDS 

Solar Infrared Reflection and Infrared Emission 
from a Dust Loaded Cloud 
AD-A039 535/OCP 

E CODES 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations. 
UCRL-75868 

EARTH ATMOSPHERE 

Techniques for Computing Regional Radiant 
Emittances of the Earth-Atmosphere System from 
Observations by Wide-Angle Satellite Radiome- 
ters. Phase 3 
N77 20659/7CP 

Modeling ot Transport in the Two-Dimensional 
Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 
SPHERNEW and TRACER 
UCID-17203 

Development of a Three-Dimensional Model of 
the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using the Finite 
Element Method 
UCRL-52366 

Applications of Episode An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations 
UCRL-75868 

Modeling the Planetary Boundary Layer Using the 

Galerkin Finite-Element Method 

UCRL-78120 

EARTH MODELS 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1CP 

EARTH RESOURCES PROGRAM 

A UNIVAC 1 108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

EARTH ROTATION 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
sphenc Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaenschen Rota- 
tion Oborhalb 350 Km 
N76 -15717/1CP 

EARTH SCIENCES 

Feasibility Study of a Quadnlateralized Spherical 
Cube Earth Data Base 
AD A010 232/7CP 



EARTH SURFACE 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 

Sensing. 

N76-22637/2CP 

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings Volume II: Computer Program User's 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

EARTHQUAKES 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings Volume I Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings. Volume II: Computer Program User's 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

EDDINGTON APPROXIMATION 

The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Verti- 
cally Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
PB-270 618/2CP 

ELECTRIC BATTERIES 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes 
Program Summary 
AD-A047 357/9CP 

ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS 

Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
PB-232 445/7CP 

ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION 

An Investigation into the Effect of an Industrial 
Heat and Moisture Source on Local Atmospheric 
Conditions 
AD-733 227/CP 

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 

Reduction and Analysis of Data Collected During 
the Electromagnetic Tornado Experiment. 
N77-19710/1CP 

ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES 

An Examination of the Adequacy of the Three- 
Species Air Chemistry Treatment for the Predic- 
tion of Surface-Burst EMP 
AD-A025 280/9CP 

Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts 
AD-783 246/2CP 

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, (16)0(18)0. and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1CP 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation. 
N70-35774/CP 

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION 

Computing Methods Used in Support of Modeling 
Electron Concentrations in High-Altitude Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-A009 069/6CP 

ELECTRON DENSITY 

Moment Method Solutions for the Impedance of 
Asymmetrically Driven RF Probes in the Colli- 
sional Ionospheric Magnetoplasma 
AD-A006 200/OCP 

Computer Codes for Use in Display of Predicted 
Scintillation Characteristics and Total Electron 
Content 
AD-A033 465/6CP 

An Analysis of Ionospheric Electron Content Mea- 
surements Utilizing Satellite-Emitted Signals 
AD-A042 374/9CP 

INVERT , A Computer Program For Obtaining D- 
Region Electron Density Profiles from VLF Reflec- 
tion Coefficients 
AD-A050 256/7CP 

BENChMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions II Results for 
the Stratosphere and Mesosphere 
AD-A054 325/6CP 

BENCHMARK-76 Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions III Results for 
Selected Excitation Parameters at 60 km 
AD-A054 376/9CP 



Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Electron 
Density Profile 
AD-751 267/CP 

ELECTRON DENSITY (CONCENTRATION) 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data. 
N70-42935/CP 

Behavior of Thermal Plasma in the Ionosphere 

and Magnetosphere 

N74-22355/3CP 

ELECTRON DENSITY PROFILES 

Ionospheric Electron Density Profile Model. 
AD-709 888/CP 

ELECTRON ENERGY 

Design and Calibration of a Rocket-Borne Elec- 
tron Spectrometer 
AD-A011 931/3CP 

OGO-F-02 Data Analysis 
N73-13376/CP 

Analysis of Low Energy Electrons 
N73-31638/2CP 

ELECTRON FLUX 

Ionospheric Effects Resulting from Precipitating 
Electrons at Mid and High Latitudes 
AD-A027 297/1 CP 
ELECTRON FLUX DENSITY 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

ELECTRON PROBES 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 
Testing the Results for Accuracy 
N70-25092/CP 

ELECTRON SPECTROMETERS 

Design and Calibration of a Rocket-Borne Elec- 
tron Spectrometer 
AD-A011 931/3CP 

ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY 

Calibration of the SSJ/3 Sensor on the DMSP 

Satellites 

AD-A045 997/4CP 

ELECTRONS 

The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
and Associated Computer Programs. 
N74-19836/7CP 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
N74-20502/2CP 

ELECTROSTATIC ANALYZERS 

Calibration of the SSJ/3 Sensor on the DMSP 

Satellites 

AD-A045 997/4CP 

ELEMENTS 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 
ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 

Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the Solution 
of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 
PB-263 498/8CP 

ENERGY BUDGETS 

Techniques for Computing Regional Radiant 
Emittances of the Earth-Atmosphere System from 
Observations by Wide-Angle Satellite Radiome- 
ters, Phase 3. 
N77-20659/7CP 

ENERGY CONSERVATION 

Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Energy 

Utilization and Conservation 

COO-1340-52 

ENERGY CONSUMPTION 

Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Energy 

Utilization and Conservation 

COO-1340-52 

ENERGY MODELS 

Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Energy 

Utilization and Conservation 

COO-1340-52 

ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEYS 

Some Environmental Measurement ol the Vertical 
Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level Sources 
N77-21734/7CP 

EQUATIONS OF MOTION 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the Solution 
of Large Scale Circulation Problem II 
AD-775 076/3CP 

EQUATIONS OF STATE 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K Equa- 



86 



SUBJECT INDEX 



GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL 









tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Inferieure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

EQUATORIAL ELECTROJET 

Numerical Model of the Equatorial Electrojet 
AD-758 196/CP 

ERROR ANALYSIS 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 

Testing the Results for Accuracy 

N70-25092/CP 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

ESTIMATING 

Estimated Rainfall for Drainage Calculations in 
the United Kingdom 
PB-226 513/OCP 

EXHAUST EMISSIONS 

Users' Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud-Rise 
Preprocessor Program, Version 6, and the 
NASA/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Program, Version 
6: Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 System. 
N78-18573/3CP 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report. Ap- 
pendices Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

EXHAUST GASES 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emission 
and Transmission Model 
AD-A042 624/7CP 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents 
N76-20699/4CP 

EXOSPHERE 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
spheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaerischen Rota- 
tion Oberhalb 350 Km. 
N76-15717/1CP 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

EXPERIMENTATION 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study. 
N76-11736/5CP 

EXPLORER 32 SATELLITE 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 
Testing the Results for Accuracy. 
N70-25092/CP 

EXPLORER 34 SATELLITE 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

EXPLORER 41 SATELLITE 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

EXPLORER SATELLITES 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind. The Inter- 
planetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects on the 
Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 and 35 
Data 
N73-14808/CP 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL ATMOSPHERES 

A Stellar Scintillometer for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-257 376/4CP 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 

F 2 REGION 

Global Representation of Annual and Solar Cycle 
Variation of foF2 Monthly Median 1954-1958 
COM-75-1 1143/5CP 

Tables from the Penn State Mark 1 Ionospheric 

Model 

N70-40978/CP 

F sub 2 Peak Electron Densities in the Main 
Trough Region of the Ionosphere 
N76-24798/0CP 

F-89 AIRCRAFT 

Analysis 'and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 



FAR INFRARED RADIATION 

A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave At- 
tenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 
AD-A015 544/OCP 

FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION 

Measurements of Far-Ultraviolet Photographs 

from Skylab 4 and APOLLO 6. 

N77-21516/8CP 

FARADAY EFFECT 

Ionospheric Research Using Satellites 
AD-A015 861/8CP 
FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY 

Certain Finite Difference Methods for the Solution 
of Large Scale Circulation Problem II 
AD-775 076/3CP 

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 

Application of a Finite Element Method to the 
Barotropic Primitive Equations 
AD-A019 494/4CP 

FINLAND 

Numerical Weather Prediction in Finland During 

1969 

N72-28639/CP 

FLAT PLATES 

A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

FLOOD FORECASTING 

National Weather Service River Forecast System 

Forecast Procedures 

COM-73-10365/CP 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes: 
Data Collection and Synthesis 
COM-75-1 1395/1CP 

A Stochastic Rainfall Model and Statistical Analy- 
sis of Hydrologic Factors 
PB-238 948/4CP 

FLORIDA 

On the Use of Gamma Functions and Bayesian 
Analysis in Evaluating Florida Cumulus Seeding 
Results 
COM-73-11202/1CP 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the Statisti- 
cal Analysis of Florida Cumulus Seeding Experi- 
ments 
COM-74-11286/3CP 

FLOW DISTRIBUTION 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows, Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

FLOW EQUATIONS 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows, Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

FLOW MEASUREMENT 

Determination of Constant-Volume Balloon Capa- 
bilities for Aeronautical Research. 
N77-19715/0CP 

FLOW STABILITY 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N72-20322/CP 

FLUID MECHANICS 

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Wave 
Motion and Upstream Influence in a Stratified 
Fluid. 
N74-32747/9CP 

FLUX (RATE) 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere. 
N70-29050/CP 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
N74-20502/2CP 



A Climatology of Marine-Fog Frequencies for the 
North Pacific Ocean Summer Fog Season 
AO-A018 300/4CP 

Simulation of Marine Advection Fog with the Cal- 
span Advection Fog Model Using Prognostic 
Equations for Turbulent Energy 
AD-A027 380/5CP 

Statistical Diagnostic Modeling of Marine Fog 
Using Model Output Parameters 
AD-A042 059/6CP 



Theoretical Aspects of the Determination of Parti- 
cle-Size Distributions from Measurements of 
Scattered Light Intensity 
AD-721 089/CP 

A Two-Dimensional Short-Range Fog Forecast 

Model 

AD-750 082/CP 

An Iterative Method for Saturation Adjustment 
AD-750 083/CP 

Oceanic Fog, a Numerical Study 
AD-767 934/3CP 

Fcg Clearing Using Helicopter Downdrafts: A Nu- 
merical Model 
AD-771 038/7CP 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 

Project Fog Drops 5. Task 1: A Numerical Model 
of Advection Fog Task 2: Recommendations for 
Simplified Individual Zero-Gravity Cloud Physics 
Experiments. 
N76-13702/5CP 

Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Code (ORFAD) User's 

Manual 

ORNL/TM-5201 

Methodological Approaches in Hawaiian Fog 

Research 

PB-243 508/9CP 

FOG DISPERSAL 

Fog Clearing Using Helicopter Downdrafts: A Nu- 
merical Model 
AD-771 038/7CP 

FOREST FIRES 

Synoptic-Scale Weather Disturbances that In- 
fluence the Fire Climate in Southeast Asia During 
the Normally Dry Period 
AD-721 112/CP 

FOREST LAND 

Controlling Solar Light and Heat in a Forest by 
Managing Shadow Sources 
PB-270 534/1CP 

FOREST WATERSHEDS 

Computer Simulation of Snowmelt 
PB-265 109/9CP 

FORWARD LOOWEYSTEMS 

Effect of Weather at Hannover, Federal Republic 
of Germany, on Performance of Electrooptical 
Imaging Systems. The Calculation Methodology 
for a FLIR Using a FORTRAN Program 
AD-A045 090/8CP 

FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

FRONTS (METEOROLOGY) 

Frontal Motion in the Atmosphere. 
AD-715 068/CP 
GAMMA FUNCTION 

A Note on a Gamma Distribution Computer Pro- 
gram and Graph Paper 
COM-73-11401 /9CP 

GAS ANALYSIS 

Measurements of Trace Constituents from At- 
mospheric Infrared Emission and Absorption 
Spectra, a Feasibility Study 
N76-13673/8CP 

GAS DISCHARGES 

Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Particle 
Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air Breakdown 
AD-760 175/CP 

GAS IONIZATION 

Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predictions 
Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 Annual Re- 
port to the Defense Nuclear Agency 
AD-A043 178/3CP 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 
AD-739 166/CP 

GASEOUS WASTES 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model to 
Calculations for Industrial Plumes. 
BNWL-SA-5117 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 
GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL 

Manual for the Gaussian Plume Model Computer 
Program Handleiding voor Het Computerpro- 
gramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel 
N77-2C629/0CP 



87 



SUBJECT INDEX 



GAUSSIAN PLUME MODELS 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

Manual for the Computer Program of the Gaus- 
sian Plume Model Handleiding voor Het Compu- 
terprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel. 
N76-19598/1CP 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

Adaptation of Gaussian Plume Model to Incor- 
porate Multiple Station Data Input Volume II. Ap- 
pendices 
PB-252 558/2CP 

Valley Model Users Guide 
PB-274 054/6CP 

Valley Model Computer Program 
PB-275 700/3CP 

User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point, Area, and Line Sources 
PB-281 306/1CP 

GENERAL CIRCULATION MODELS 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

GEOMAGNETIC M ICROPULSATIONS 
Mathematical-Model Programs 
AD-760 117/CP 

GEOMAGNETISM 

Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Modeling 
AD-A037 492/6CP 

GEOMETRICAL ACOUSTICS 

Geometrical Acoustics Techniques in Far Field In- 
frasonic Waveform Syntheses 
AD-A024 721/3CP 

GEOSTROPHIC WIND 

Computer Program for Calculation of Geostrophic 
Trajectories . Datorprogram Foer Beraekning AV 
Geostrofiska Trajektorier 
N73-11656/CP 

GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH PROGRAM 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Support 

for Garp Data Sets. 

N78-15629/6CP 

GRAVITY WAVES 

A Program for Calculating Three-Dimensional 
Acoustic-Gravity Ray Paths in the Atmosphere 
COM-71-50410/CP 

GREAT LAKES 

Great Lakes Snowstorms Part 1 Cloud Physics 

Aspects. 

COM-71-00012/CP 

GROUND STATIONS 

A Digital Data Acquisition Interface for the SMS 
Direct Readout Ground Station - Concept and 
Preliminary Design 
AD-A022 317/2CP 

GROUND TRUTH 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3) 
N75-29531/1CP 

GUIDED MISSILE TRAJECTORIES 

The B-MALMID-4 Program: Ballistic Messages at 
Arbitrary Locations from Mixed Input Data 
AD-733 419/CP 

GUST LOADS 

Atmospheric Turbulence Field Parameters Deter- 
mination 
AD-745 946/CP 

H CODES 

Hetran A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water 
BNWL-B-361 

HAWAII 

Some Statistical Analyses of Hawaiian Rainfall 
PB-233 674/1CP 



Methodological Approaches 

Research 

PB-243 508/9CP 



Hawaiian Fog 



HEAT TRANSFER 

Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interac- 
tions on Global Climate. Volume I Orographic Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 034/2CP 



Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on 
Global Climate. Volume II. Radiation Transport Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 035/9CP 

Hetran: A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water 
BNWL-B-361 

HIDE COMPUTER PROGRAM 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emission 
and Transmission Model 
AD-A042 624/7CP 

HIGH ALTITUDE 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli, Libya, 1951-1957. Part 1 - Work Report. 
N70-31479/CP 

HIGHWAY TRANSPORTATION 

User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

User's Guide for Hiway. A Highway Air Pollution 

Model 

PB-239 944/2CP 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
PB-240 273/3CP 

HISS 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

HIWAY COMPUTER PROGRAM 

User's Guide for Hiway. A Highway Air Pollution 

Model 

PB-239 944/2CP 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
PB-240 273/3CP 

HUMIDITY 

Scheduling and Application Rates of Irrigation in 
Humid Climate 
PB-244 760/5CP 

HURRICANE TRACKING 

Further Development of a 3-7 Day Typhoon 

Analog Forecast Model for the Western North 

Pacific 

AD-A012 369/5CP 

Performance Analysis of the HURRAN Tropical 
Cyclone Forecast System 
COM -72-50079-04-01 /CP 

HURRICANES 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm Surge 

Model 

AD-A012 799/3CP 

Application of Satellite Cloud-Motion Vectors to 
Hurricane Track Prediction 
AD-A021 907/1CP 

1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in the 
Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
AD-777 971/3CP 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes of 
Surges from Hurricanes). Part 2 General Track 
and Variant Storm Conditions 
COM-74-10925/7CP 

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Winds 
COM-75-10945/4CP 

Estimation of Hurricane Storm Surge in 

Apalachicola Bay, Florida 

COM-75-11332/4CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings Volume I Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings Volume II: Computer Program User's 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

HYBRID COMPUTERS 

D-Region Blunt Probe Data Analysis Using Hybrid 

Computer Techniques 

N73-31147/4CP 

HYBRID SIMULATION 

Ray Tracing Study 
AD-779 091 /8CP 

HYDROCARBONS 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

PB-271 643/9CP 



HYDRODYNAMICS 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm Surge 

Model 

AD-A012 799/3CP 

HYGROSCOPICITY 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 

HYPSOMETERS 

Determination of a Hypsometer Performance 
Function from Airborne Data. 
AD-716 823/CP 

IBMAO-2 COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

ICE FORMATION 

A Numerical Ice Forecasting System 
AD-A023 183/7CP 

The Naval Oceanographic Office Numerical Ice 
Forecasting System Operations Manual 
AD-A049 019/3CP 

All-Weather Ice Information System for Alaskan 

Arctic Coastal Shipping. 

N77-21788/3CP 

ICE MAPPING 

All-Weather Ice Information System for Alaskan 

Arctic Coastal Shipping. 

N77-21788/3CP 

ICECAP OPERATION 

Auroral Simulation Effects 
AD-A049 066/4CP 

ILLINOIS 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study. 
COO-1 199-45 

IMAGE CONTRAST 

Solumat: A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast Transfer. 
N76-31809/6CP 

IMAGES 

Development of Digital Enhancement Techniques 
Applicable to Direct Read-Out (APT) Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Images 
AD-774 524/3CP 

IMPROVED TIROS OPERATIONAL SATELLITES 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 

INADVERTENT WEATHER MODIFICATION 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study 
COO-1 199-45 

INCIDENT RADIATION 

Computer Program for Calculation of the Incident 
Radiation Per Day on a Horizontal Surface at the 
Edge of the Atmosphere een Computerprogram- 
ma voor Het Berekenen van de Inkomende Stral- 
ing Aan de Rand van de Atmosfeer Per DAG Door 
een Horizontaal Oppervlak 
N78-23668/4CP 

INDIAN OCEAN 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Indian Ocean 
AD-A001 271/6CP 

INFORMATION CENTERS 

Executive Summary: New York City Pilots Auto- 
matic Telephone Weather Answering Service 
(PATWAS) Test 
AD-A046 755/5CP 

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description. 
N77-31012/6CP 

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1 CP 

INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

A Microprocessor-Based Communications Infor- 
mation System 
AD-A013 624/2CP 

Disease Information System. Ground Temperature 
Derived from Other Geophysical Observations 
AD-A021 524/4CP 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Support 

for Garp Data Sets. 

N78-15629/6CP 



88 



SUBJECT INDEX 



IONOSPHERIC MODELS 



Wisp Information Display System User'S Manual. 
N78-18623/6CP 

INFRARED DETECTION 

Solar Infrared Reflection and Infrared Emission 
from a Dust Loaded Cloud 
AD-A039 535/OCP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28 5 
Micrometers: Supplement LOWTRAN 3B (1976) 
AD-A040 701 /5CP 

Effect of Weather at Hannover, Federal Republic 
of Germany, on Performance of Electrooptical 
Imaging Systems. The Calculation Methodology 
for a FLIR Using a FORTRAN Program 
AD-A045 090/8CP 

Comparison of the 3-5 Micrometer and 8-12 
Micrometer Regions for Advanced Thermal Imag- 
ing Systems: LOWTRAN Revisited 
AD-A049 448/4CP 

INFRARED DETECTORS 

Remote Infrared Atmospheric Profiling System 

(RIAPS) 

AD-A018 562/9CP 

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Compositions 
from Satellites 
AD-A026 512/4CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

INFRARED IMAGERY 

Machine Analysis of Infrared Cloud Images Ob- 
tained by the Cosmos-122 Satellite 
N71-10986/CP 

INFRARED RADIATION 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 
AD-A008 035/8CP 

Statistics of Global IR Atmospheric Transmission 
AD-A024 311/3CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

Monte Carlo Studies on the Time-Dependent 
Transport of Optical and Infrared Radiation in the 
Atmosphere Volume II. Thermal Radiation Trans- 
port 
AD-A042 769/OCP 

A Computational Method for Spectral Molecular 
Absorption Using an Improved Voigt Algorithm 
AD-A052 685/5CP 

A High Altitude Radiance Model 
AD-745 319/CP 

Modeling of Optical IR Backgrounds 
AD-774 751/2CP 

Evaluation of Upwelling Infrared Radiance from 

Earth'S Atmosphere. 

N76-13663/9CP 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 
N77-24935/7CP 

INFRARED SIGNATURES 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emission 
and Transmission Model 
AD-A042 624/7CP 

INFRARED SPECTRA 

Atmospheric Modeling for Molecular Absorption 
Research Project 
AD-776 971/4CP 

INFRARED SPECTROMETERS 

A Specular Chamber for Off-Axis Response 

Evaluations of High-Rejection Optical Baffling 

System 

AD-A031 212/4CP 

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY 

Measurements ot Trace Constituents from At- 
mospheric Infrared Emission and Absorption 
Spectra, a Feasibility Study 
N76-13673/8CP 

INFRASONIC RADIATION 

Infrasonic Data Reduction 
AD-748 283/CP 

INFRASONICS 

Geometrical Acoustics Techniques in Far Field In- 
frasonic Waveform Syntheses 
AD-A024 721/3CP 

INNER RADIATION BELT 

The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
and Associated Computer Programs. 
N74-19836/7CP 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
N74-20502/2CP 



INSOLATION 

Controlling Solar Light and Heat in a Forest by 

Managing Shadow Sources 

PB-270 534/1CP 

Global Horizontal Solar Radiation for Australian 

Locations Stored in the CSIRO CYBER 7600 

System: The Data and Method of Retrieval 

S.E.S.-75/3 

INTERPOLATION 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Development 
Laboratory: Formulation and Data 
N76-27745/8CP 

IODINE 131 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 

UCRL-76170 
ION DENSITY 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions. III. Results for 
Selected Excitation Parameters at 60 km 
AD-A054 376/9CP 

ION ION INTERACTIONS 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body lon- 

lon Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 

Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 

sphere 

AD-A038 263/OCP 

IONIZATION 

Computing Methods Used in Support of Modeling 
Electron Concentrations in High-Altitude Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-A009 069/6CP 
IONOGRAMS 

Analysis and Synthesis of Model lonograms Using 
3D Ray Tracking Techniques 
AD-A038 869/4CP 

A Semi-Automated System for True Height Analy- 
sis of Film lonograms. Part 3. Documentation of 
Software 
COM-74-11808/4CP 

IONOSPHERE 

Moment Method Solutions for the Impedance of 
Asymmetrically Driven RF Probes in the Colli- 
sional Ionospheric Magnetoplasma 
AD-A006 200/OCP 

Satellite Beacon Studies. 1 Total Electron Con- 
tent. 2. Scintillation Studies. 3. Programming 
AD-A008 193/5CP 

Computer Program for the Disturbed Steady-State 
Nighttime D-Region 
AD-A010 412/5CP 

Ionospheric Research Using Satellites 
AD-A015 861/8CP 

Ionospheric Effects Induced by Precipitating Au- 
roral Electrons. HAES Report No 14 
AD-A016 673/6CP 

Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 

Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 

ments 

AD-A022 677/9CP 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological. Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

Ionospheric Chemistry Comparison of AIRCHEM 
Predictions with Results of Laboratory Simula- 
tions 
AD-A024 146/3CP 

ICECAP '74-Chatanika Radar Results 
AD-A026 703/9CP 

Computer Codes for Use in Display of Predicted 
Scintillation Characteristics and Total Electron 
Content 
AD-A033 465/6CP 

Techniques of Determining Ionospheric Structure 
from Oblique Radio Propagation Measurements 
AD-A038 299/4CP 

An Analysis of Ionospheric Electron Content Mea- 
surements Utilizing Satellite-Emitted Signals 
AD-A042 374/9CP 

A Data Reduction Computer Program for the 
AFCRL Triaxial Accelerometer Inflated Falling 
Sphere Atmospheric Density Measuring System. 
AD-705 566/CP 

Ionospheric Electron Density Profile Model. 
AD-709 888/CP 

Investigations of Ionospheric Total Electron Con- 
tent Behavior at Conjugate Points and During a 
Solar Eclipse 
AD-714 571/CP 



Curve Fitting General Least Squares Program 
with Side Conditions 
AD-722 103/CP 

Arctic Ionosphere Modelling - Five Related 

Papers 

AD-748 796/CP 

Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Electron 
Density Profile 
AD-751 267/CP 

Total Electron Measurements of the Ionosphere 
using Beacon Satellites BEB(S66) and BEC 
AD-751 517/CP 

An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere 
AD-766 240/6CP 

Formulation of Diurnal D-Region Models Using a 
Photochemical Computer Code and Current 
Reaction Rates 
AD-766 525/OCP 

Documentation and Description of the Bent Iono- 
spheric Model 
AD-772 733/2CP 

Morphology and Dynamics of Ionospheric Storms 

AD-774 760/3CP 

Analysis of Incoherent Scatter Data Obtained at 

the Jicamarca Radar Observatory 

COM-72-10297/CP 

Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with an 

On-Line Computer 

COM-73-11634/5CP 

Global Representation of Annual and Solar Cycle 
Variation of foF2 Monthly Median 1954-1958 
COM-75-11143/5CP 

Global Scintillation Model 
COM-75-50059/5CP 

Behavior of Thermal Plasma in the Ionosphere 

and Magnetosphere. 

N74-22355/3CP 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study 
N76-11736/5CP 

IONOSPHERIC COMPOSITION 

Ionosphere Research. 
N76-25712/0CP 

IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES 

ICECAP '74-Chatanika Radar Results 
AD-A026 703/9CP 

Ionospheric Effects Resulting from Precipitating 
Electrons at Mid and High Latitudes 
AD-A027 297/1 CP 

Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances 
AD-A043 965/3CP 

Two Fortran Programs for Calculating Global 
Ionospheric Amplitude and Phase Scintillation 
AD-A055 273/7CP 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course of Polar 
Cap Absorption 
AD-706 410/CP 

Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances 
AD-746 314/CP 

Numerical Model of the Equatorial Electrojet 
AD-758 196/CP 

Design, Fabrication and Use of an Instrument for 
Real-Time Determination of Polar Electrojet Posi- 
tion and Current Parameters 
AD-760 767/CP 

WEPH V Code Modifications for HF Propagation 
and System Performance Modeling 
AD-770 053/7CP 

An Analytic Boundary for the MHD Magnetic Field 

Equation 

AD-773 913/9CP 

IONOSPHERIC ELECTRON DENSITY 

Tables from the Penn State Mark 1 Ionospheric 

Model. 

N70-40978/CP 

F sub 2 Peak Electron Densities in the Main 
Trough Region of the Ionosphere. 
N76-24798/0CP 

IONOSPHERIC MODELS 

Propagation Predictions and Studies Using a Ray 
Tracing Program Combined with a Theoretical 
Ionospheric Model 
AD-A007 495/5CP 

Analysis and Synthesis of Model lonograms Using 
3D Ray Tracking Techniques 
AD-A038 869/4CP 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations tor 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions II Results tor 
the Stratosphere and Mesosphere 
AD-A054 325/6CP 



89 



SUBJECT INDEX 



BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions III Results for 
Selected Excitation Parameters at 60 km 
AD-A054 376/9CP 

Two Fortran Programs for Calculating Global 
Ionospheric Amplitude and Phase Scintillation 
AD-A055 273/7CP 

IONOSPHERIC MODIFICATION 

Remote Diagnostics and Correlation Analysis lor 
Prairie Smoke 
AD-A014 434/5CP 

Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts 
AD-783 246/2CP 

IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION 

Propagation Predictions and Studies Using a Ray 
Tracing Program Combined with a Theoretical 
Ionospheric Model 
AD-A007 495/5CP 

Analysis and Synthesis of Model lonograms Using 
3D Ray Tracking Techniques 
AD-A038 869/4CP 

Chatanika Model of the High-Latitude Ionosphere 
for Application to HF Propagation Prediction 
AD-A053 154/1CP 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course of Polar 
Cap Absorption. 
AD-706 410/CP 

Mode Conversion Program for an Inhomogeneous 
Anisotropic Ionosphere 
AD-743 948/CP 

Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Electron 
Density Profile 
AD-751 267/CP 

Geomagnetic Field Models for Ray Tracing 
AD-766 241 /4CP 

WEPH V Code Modifications for HF Propagation 
and System Performance Modeling 
AD-770 053/7CP 

Ray Tracing Study 
AD-779 091/8CP 

Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts 
AD-783 246/2CP 

SCINTDR-A Program for Controlling the Fremouw 

Scintillation Model 

COM-74-10824/2CP 

Ionosphere Research 
N76-25712/0CP 

IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATIONS 

Computer Codes for Use in Display of Predicted 
Scintillation Characteristics and Total Electron 
Content 
AD-A033 465/6CP 

Modeling of Transionosphenc Radio Propagation 
AD-A038 132/7CP 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System for 
Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 
AD-A051 754/OCP 

Two Fortran Programs for Calculating Global 
Ionospheric Amplitude and Phase Scintillation 
AD-A055 273/7CP 

Global Scintillation Model 
COM-75-50059/5CP 

IONOSPHERICS 

A Program (or Reading Ionospheric Data 
N78-23650/2CP 

IRRIGATION 

Scheduling and Application Rates of Irrigation in 
Humid Climate 
PB-244 760/5CP 

ITOS (IMPROVED TIROS OPERATIONAL 
SATELLITES) 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 

KENTUCKY 

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall 
PB-239 268/6CP 
KINEMATICS 

Auroral Oval Kinematics Program 
N72-18359/CP 

KRYPTON 85 

Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

LAKE EFFECT SNOWSTORMS 

Great Lakes Snowstorms Part 1 Cloud Physics 

Aspects 

COM 71 00012/CP 



LAKE MICHIGAN 

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in Southeast 
Wisconsin 
PB-265 382/2CP 
LAKE WAVES 

Fourier Analysis of Weather and Wave Data from 
Holland, Michigan, July 1970 
AD-723 602/CP 

LANDSAT 1 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia 
N76-24681/8CP 

LANGMUIR PROBES 

Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with an 

On-Line Computer 

COM-73-11634/5CP 

LASER BEAMS 

Research in the Area of Atmospheric Modeling: 
High Resolution Atmospheric IR 1 lansmittance 
Prediction 
AD-A017 026/6CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Microns: Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 
AD-A017 734/5CP 

Propagation Modeling and Analysis for High 
Energy Lasers 
AD-A023 537/4CP 

Transonic Thermal Blooming 
AD-A026 456/4CP 

Pulse Height Analyzer Interfacing and Computer 
Programming in the Environmental Laser 
Propagation Project 
AD-A028 858/9CP 

SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Multipulse 
(and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with 
Adaptive Coordinates 
AD-A037 395/1CP 

Theoretical Study of the Turbulence Induced 
Scintillation of a Dirty Laser Beam 
AD-A050 874/7CP 

Methods for Prediction of Atmospheric Effects on 
Laser Guidance Systems 
AD-A051 617/9CP 

A Matrix Approach to a Propagation Code 
AD-A055 463/4CP 

An Experiment to Measure Laser Beam Wander 
and Beam Spread in the Marine Boundary Layer 
Near Shore 
AD-775 027/6CP 

An Experiment to Measure the Modulation 
Transfer Function of the Atmosphere in the 
Marine Boundary Layer 
AD-783 807/1CP 

Current Status of LLL Four-D Atmospheric 

Propagation Code Effort 

UCID-16827-2 

LASER GUIDANCE 

Methods for Prediction of Atmospheric Effects on 
Laser Guidance Systems 
AD-A051 617/9CP 

LASER OUTPUTS 

Computed Mie Scattering Properties for Laser 
Wavelengths in Various Atmospheric Media. 
N76-14336/1CP 

LASER RADIATION 

Current Status of LLL Four-D Atmospheric 

Propagation Code Effort 

UCID-16827-2 

Time-Dependent Propagation ot High Energy 
Laser BEAMS Through the Atmosphere. 
UCRL-51826 

LASER VELOCIMETERS 

Verification of Wind Measurement with Mobile 
Laser Doppler System 
AD-A047 252/2CP 

A Study of the Applicability of Lasers to the Mea- 
surement of Tornado Wind Speeds 
AD-A052 636/8CP 

LASERS 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer 

N75-28749/0CP 

LIGHT SCATTERING 

Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation 
AD-772 640/9CP 



LIGHT TRANSMISSION 

Research in the Area of Atmospheric Modeling: 
High Resolution Atmospheric IR Transmittance 
Prediction 
AD-A017 026/6CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 
Methods of Calculation 
AD-A017 459/9CP 

Statistics of Global IR Atmospheric Transmission 
AD-A024 311/3CP 

Predetection Compensated Imaging Theory 
AD-A024 393/1 CP 

Pulse Height Analyzer Interfacing and Computer 
Programming in the Environmental Laser 
Propagation Project 
AD-A028 858/9CP 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

HIDE Revised Wavelength Resolution Emission 
and Transmission Model 
AD-A042 624/7CP 

Theoretical Aspects of the Determination of Parti- 
cle-Size Distributions from Measurements of 
Scattered Light Intensity 
AD-721 089/CP 

Computer Procedure for Calculating Time Depen- 
dent Light Scattering in Spherical-Shell At- 
mospheres 
AD-722 713/CP 

Computer Procedure for Calculating Time Depen- 
dent Light Scattering in Plane Parallel At- 
mospheres 
AD-722 714/CP 

Solumat: A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast Transfer 
N76-31809/6CP 

LIGHTNING 

Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, 
Volume I 
AD-A034 847/4CP 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

LIGHTNING PROTECTION 

Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, 
Volume I 
AD-A034 847/4CP 

LIQUID WATER CONTENT ANALYZERS 

Liquid Water Content Analyzer Instruction 

Manual 

AD-A043 322/7CP 

LOW PASS FILTERS 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

LOWER IONOSPHERE 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data. 
N70-42935/CP 

LUMINANCE 

Solumat A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast Transfer 
N76-31809/6CP 

MAGNETIC EFFECTS 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind The Inter- 
planetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects on the 
Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 and 35 
Data 
N73-14808/CP 

MAGNETIC STORMS 

Mathematical-Model Programs 
AD-760 117/CP 

Design, Fabrication and Use of an Instrument for 
Real-Time Determination of Polar Electrojet Posi- 
tion and Current Parameters 
AD-760 767/CP 

MAGNETIC TAPES 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

Users Network tor Applied Modeling ot Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) 
PB-229 771/1CP 



90 



SUBJECT INDEX 



METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS 



MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS 

An Analytic Boundary for the MHD Magnetic Field 

Equation 

AD-773 913/9CP 

MAGNETOSPHERE 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 
Magnetosphere: 1 Design and Fabrication of 
Data Processing System 2. Mathematical Analysis 
of Magnetospheric Models 
AD-A003 394/4CP 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 

Magnetosphere 

AD-A020 301 /8CP 

Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Modeling 
AD-A037 492/6CP 

Trapped Radiation Studies Involving Plasma In- 
stabilities and Radial Diffusion 
AD-743 549/CP 

Rocket and Satellite Experiments for the Mea- 
surement of the Properties of Thermal and High 
Energy Plasma 
AD-755 390/CP 

Stimulated Amplification of VLF and ULF Waves 
in the Magnetosphere by Localized Injections of 
Plasma Clouds and Particle Beams 
AD-757 085/CP 

Design, Fabrication and Use of an Instrument for 
Real-Time Determination of Polar Electrojet Posi- 
tion and Current Parameters 
AD-760 767/CP 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere. 
N70-29050/CP 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation. 
N70-35774/CP 

MAGNETOSPHERIC INSTABILITY 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report, 

1 Mar - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

MANUALS 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/OCP 

MARINE ATMOSPHERES 

Simulation of Marine Advection Fog with the Cal- 
span Advection Fog Model Using Prognostic 
Equations for Turbulent Energy 
AD-A027 380/5CP 

An Experiment to Measure Laser Beam Wander 
and Beam Spread in the Marine Boundary Layer 
Near Shore 
AD-775 027/6CP 

Examination of Shipboard Measurements of the 
Vertical Profiles of Mean Temperature, Humidity 
and Wind Speed 
AD-776 306/3CP 

MARINE CLIMATOLOGY 

A Climatology of Marine-Fog Frequencies for the 
North Pacific Ocean Summer Fog Season 
AD-A018 300/4CP 

Ocean Climatology Extraction and Adjustment 
Program tor the Mediterranean Program SOVEL 
AD-A035 170/0CP 

MARINE FOG 

Statistical Diagnostic Modeling of Marine Fog 
Using Model Output Parameters 
AD-A042 059/6CP 

MARINE METEOROLOGY 

Statistical Diagnostic Modeling of Marine Fog 
Using Model Output Parameters 
AD-A042 059/6CP 

MASS TRANSFER 

A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72 26289/CP 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 

An Examination of the Adequacy of the Three- 
Species Air Chemistry Treatment for the Predic- 
tion of Surface-Burst EMP 
AD-A025 280/9CP 

Chatanika Model of the High-Latitude Ionosphere 
for Application to HF Propagation Prediction 
AD A053 154/1CP 

ATMOSPHERE Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
for Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 

ANl Trans-1103 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model to 
Calculalions lor Industrial Plumes 
GNWL-SA-5117 



Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 

The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
N74-20502/2CP 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude. Season, and Time 
N77-31700/6CP 

Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and Dif- 
fusion Model 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 

Users Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) 
PB-229 771/1CP 

Adaptation of Gaussian Plume Model to Incor- 
porate Multiple Station Data Input Volume II. Ap- 
pendices 
PB-252 558/2CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

Cooling Tower Plume Model 
PB-259 971/0CP 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 
PB-268 329/0CP 

STRAM - An Air Pollution Model Incorporating 
Nonlinear Chemistry. Variable Trajectories, and 
Plume Segment Diffusion 
PB-270 778/4CP 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/OCP 

Valley Model User's Guide 
PB-274 054/6CP 

Users' Manual for the APRAC-2 Emissions and 
Diffusion Model 
PB-275 459/6CP 

Non-Divergent Wind Analysis Algorithm for the St 
Louis RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) Net- 
work 
PB-276 582/4CP 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimensional 
Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 
SPHERNEW and TRACER 
UCID-17203 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies 
UCRL-76170 

MEASUREMENT 

Comparison Between Dual-Wavelength Radar 
Estimates and Ground Measurements of 
Precipitation 
PB-265 727/8CP 

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 

The What System A New Digitized Radiosonde 
and Double Theodolite Balloon Tracking System 
for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Investigations 
CONF-731205-1 

Investigation of Aerosol Characteristics and Their 

Measurement 

N76-17683/3CP 

MEDITERRANEAN SEA 

Ocean Climatology Extraction and Adjustment 
Program for the Mediterranean Program SOVEL 
AD-A035 170/OCP 

MESOSPHERE 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body lon- 

lon Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 

Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 

sphere 

AD-A038 263/OCP 

Computer-Aided Estimates of the Rotational Tem- 
peratures of 02 in the Mesosphere 
AD-A040 915/1CP 

Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predictions 
Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 Annual Re- 
port to the Defense Nuclear Agency 
AD-A043 178/3CP 

Survey of Two-Body and Three-Body Reaction- 
Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Stratosphere and 
Mesosphere 
AD-776 950/8CP 

Detection and Analysis of Synoptic-Scale 
Periodicities in Rocketsonde Data 
AD-782 358/6CP 

METEORITES 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 



METEOROLOGICAL BALLOONS 

Analysis of Stratospheric Balloon Programs 
AD-722 076/CP 

Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 
AD-731 570/CP 

Numerical Preprocessing of Rawinsonde Position 

Vectors 

AO-732 205/CP 

Determination of Constant-Volume Balloon Capa- 
bilities for Aeronautical Research. 
N77-19715/0CP 

Load Introduction into Pressurized Films 
PB-252 385/0CP 

METEOROLOGICAL CHARTS 

Predicting Heavy Snowfall for Colorado Springs 

Based on Computer Derived Synoptic Map Types 

AD-718 422/CP 

Map Typing Computer Programs 

AD-766 929/4CP 

Comparing Correlations between Weather Maps 

with Similar Isobaric Configurations but Varying 

Pressure Intensities 

AD-775 361/9CP 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli. Libya, 1951-1957 Part 1 - Work Report 
N70-31479/CP 

Description of Automatic Plotting Computer Pro- 
grams Beschrijving van Het Programmapakket 
T.B.V. Het Automatisch Plotten. 
N78-23788/0CP 

METEOROLOGICAL DATA 

Feasibility Study of a Quadrilateralized Spherical 

Cube Earth Data Base 

AO-A010 232/7CP 

Development and Application of Data Processing 

Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud 

Physics Data 

AD-A018 662/7CP 

A Microprogrammable Data Acquisition and Con- 
trol System (MIDAS HA) with Application to Mean 
Meteorological Data 
AD-A032 377/4CP 

Evaluation ot the FIB Methodology for Application 
to Cloud Motion Wind Data 
AD-A053 620/1 CP 

Algorithms tor Generating a Skew-T, log p Dia- 
gram and Computing Selected Meteorological 
Quantities 
AD-769 739/4CP 

Development of Digital Enhancement Techniques 
Applicable to Direct Read-Out (APT) Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Images 
AD-774 524/3CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 

Reduction Part I. Rawinsonde 

AD-782 685/2CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 

Reduction Part II Rocketsonde 

AD-782 686/0CP 

Papers on Operational Objective Analysis 
Schemes at the National Severe Storms Forecast 
Center 
COM-71-00136/CP 

Rawinsonde Observation and Processing 
Techniques at the National Severe Storms 
Laboratory 
COM-71-00707/CP 

Computer Subroutine for Presenting Meterologi- 
cal Flight Data on the Printer (CURVPT) 
COM-71-50082/CP 

A Note on a Gamma Distribution Computer Pro- 
gram and Graph Paper 
COM-73-11401/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS 

Turbulence Characterization and Control 
AD-A027 155/1CP 

A Data Reduction Computer Program tor the 
AFCRL Triaxial Accelerometer Inflated Falling 
Sphere Atmospheric Density Measuring System 
AD-705 566/CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume I 
AD-915 570/6CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume II Appendices 
AD-915 571/4CP 



91 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Meteorological Data Acquisition System. Func- 
tional Description and General Characteristics of 
the Different Components. 
N76-24843/4CP 



Microcomputer-Controlled 

Sounder 

PB-268 033/8CP 



Acoustic 



Echo 



METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS 

Fourier Analysis of Weather and Wave Data from 
Holland. Michigan. July 1970 
AD-723 602/CP 

Numerical Filtering Techniques for the Time-Se- 
ries Analysis of Oceanographic and Meteorologi- 
cal Data 
AD-723 864/CP 

Data Reduction Program for Rocketsonde Tem- 
peratures 
AD-724 599/CP 

Numerical Approximations of Selected 

Meteorologicl Parameters Related to Cloud 
Physics 
AD-757 623/CP 

Statistical Evaluation of Measured Data Obtained 
at the Meteorological Station of the Munich 
Research Reactor 
N70-26323/CP 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli, Libya. 1951-1957. Part 1 - Work Report 
N70-31479/CP 

Brazilian Participation in the Exarnetnet. 
N74-19237/8CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Technical 

Description. Part 1. 

N74-33021/8CP 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Users 
Manual and Programmers Manual, Part 2. 
N74-33022/6CP 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data. 

N75-12531/0CP 

Manual for the Computer Program of the Gaus- 
sian Plume Model Handleiding voor Het Compu- 
terprogramma van Het Gaussische Pluimmodel 
N76-19598/1CP 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model. MOD 2 
(With Two Scale Perturbation Model). 
N77-20660/5CP 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description. 
N77-31012/6CP 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug. 
N78-14235/3CP 

METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA 

Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 

Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 

ments 

AD-A022 677/9CP 

Optimal Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions at 
Power Stations: Models and a Case Study 
AD-775 392/4CP 

METEOROLOGICAL RADAR 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume I 
AD-A041 195/9CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume II 
AD-A041 196/7CP 

Application of Doppler Weather Radar to Turbu- 
lence Measurements Which Affect Aircraft 
AD-A048 603/5CP 

The Stanford Meteor-Trails Radar Mark II 
AD-709 673/CP 

Pulse Pair Estimation of Doppler Spectrum 

Parameters 

AD-744 094/CP 

Digitizing, Recording, and Computer Processing 
Weather Radar Data at the Experimental 
Meteorology Laboratory 
COM-74-11464/6CP 

METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1CP 

A Digital Data Acquisition Interface for the SMS 
Direct Readout Ground Station - Concept and 
Preliminary Design 
AD-A022 317/2CP 



Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 

Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 

ments 

AD-A022 677/9CP 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 

Development of Digital Enhancement Techniques 
Applicable to Direct Read-Out (APT) Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Images 
AD-774 524/3CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study 
Volume I 
AD-915 570/6CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume II. Appendices 
AD-915 571/4CP 

Mapping of Geostationary Satellite Pictures: An 
Operational Experiment. 
PB-191 189/CP 

METEOROLOGY 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological, Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

The What System: A New Digitized Radiosonde 
and Double Theodolite Balloon Tracking System 
for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Investigations 
CONF-731205-1 

Time Domain Data Extraction. Radio Altimetry, 
and Application of Ats Data Quarterly Report, 1 
Apr. - 30 Jun. 1971 
N71-33870/CP 

Automatic Digital Acquisition System for 

Meteorological Data. 

SAND-75-0321 

METEORS 

Study of Meteor Wind Measurement Techniques. 
Volume II. 
AD-709 233/CP 

The Stanford Meteor-Trails Radar Mark II. 
AD-709 673/CP 

Computer Processing of Data from the 
UNH/AFCRL Meteor Trails Radar 
AD-718 105/CP 

METEROLOGICAL RADAR 

M-33 Radar Modifications at Snyder. Texas 
PB-263 580/3CP 

MEXICO GULF 

Calculated and Observed Changes in Sea Surface 
Temperature Associated with Hurricane Passage. 
AD-713 052/CP 

1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in the 
Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
AD-777 971/3CP 

MICROBAROMETRIC WAVES 

Theoretical Prediction of Acoustic-Gravity Pres- 
sure Waveforms Generated by Large Explosions 
in the Atmosphere. 
AD-707 122/CP 

Microbarograph Studies. 
AD-707 875/CP 

Infrasonic Data Reduction 
AD-748 283/CP 

Generation and Propagation of Infrasonic Waves 
AD-766 472/5CP 

MICROCOMPUTERS 

A Microprocessor-Based Communications Infor- 
mation System 
AD-A013 624/2CP 

A Microprogrammable Data Acquisition and Con- 
trol System (MIDAS IIA) with Application to Mean 
Meteorological Data 
AD-A032 377/4CP 

MICRODENSITOMETERS 

Eso Bulletin No. 12. 
N76-12912/1CP 

MICROMETEOROLOGY 

Computer Program for Plotting Time Dependent 
Data with Instruction and Examples. 
PB-191 870/CP 

Controlling Solar Light and Heat in a Forest by 
Managing Shadow Sources 
PB-270 534/1CP 

MICROPROCESSORS 

A Microprocessor-Based Communications Infor- 
mation System 
AD-A013 624/2CP 



MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, (16)0(18)0, and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1 CP 

MICROWAVES 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological, Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

MIE SCATTERING 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 
AD-A023 078/9CP 

Computed Mie Scattering Properties for Laser 
Wavelengths in Various Atmospheric Media. 
N76-14336/1CP 

MILLIMETER WAVES 

A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave At- 
tenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 
AD-A015 544/OCP 

MINICOMPUTERS 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 
Magnetosphere: 1. Design and Fabrication of 
Data Processing System. 2. Mathematical Analysis 
of Magnetospheric Models 
AD-A003 394/4CP 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 

Magnetosphere 

AD-A020 301 /8CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter Volume I 
AD-A041 195/9CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter. Volume II 
AD-A041 196/7CP 

MISSION PLANNING 

A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

Studies in the Use of Cloud Type Statistics in 

Mission Simulation. 

N74-30053/4CP 

MODEL-SIMULATION 

Valley Model Computer Program 

PB-275 700/3CP 

Single Source (CRSTER) Model Computer Pro- 



MODELS-SIMULATION 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
PB-240 273/3CP 

Climatological Dispersion Model OC (CDMQC) 
Computer Program 
PB-276 516/2CP 

MOISTURE CONTENT 

Liquid Water Content Analyzer Instruction 

Manual 

AD-A043 322/7CP 

MOLECULAR IONS 

Negative Molecular Ions 
AD-A045 725/9CP 
MOLECULAR ROTATION 

Computer-Aided Estimates of the Rotational Tem- 
peratures of 02 in the Mesosphere 
AD-A040 915/1 CP 

MONITORING 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study 
COO-1199-45 

MONTE CARLO METHOD 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude. Season, and Time 
N77-31700/6CP 

MOORING 

Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 
AD-731 570/CP 

MOUNTAINS 

Effects of Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interac- 
tions on Global Climate. Volume I. Orographic Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 034/2CP 

Meso-Scale and Small-Scale Interactions on 
Global Climate Volume II. Radiation Transport Ef- 
fects on Global Climate 
AD-A007 035/9CP 



92 



SUBJECT INDEX 



OVER THE HORIZON DETECTION 



Methods for Estimating Areal Precipitation in 
Mountainous Areas 
PB-276 140/1CP 

NATURAL DISASTERS 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings. Volume II: Computer Program Users 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

NAVAL OPERATIONS 

A Microprocessor-Based Communications Infor- 
mation System 
AD-A013 624/2CP 

NAVAL VESSELS (SUPPORT) 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 

NAVIGATION SATELLITES 

Atmospheric Density Determination from Analysis 
of Doppler Beacon Satellite Data 
AD-A012 195/4CP 

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes 
Program Summary 
AD-A047 357/9CP 

NEPHELOMETERS 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer. 

N75-28749/0CP 

NIKE-APACHE ROCKET VEHICLE 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data. 
N70-42935/CP 

NITRIC OXIDE 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

NITROGEN OXIOES 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE). Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

PB-271 643/9CP 

NOISE POLLUTION 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
AD-A051 700/3CP 

NONLINEAR OPTICS 

SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Multipulse 
(and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with 
Adaptive Coordinates 
AD-A037 395/1CP 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Precipitation Variability Over North Carolina 
PB-225 123/9CP 

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN 

Further Development of a 3-7 Day Typhoon 

Analog Forecast Model for the Western North 

Pacific 

AD-A012 369/5CP 

A Climatology of Marine-Fog Frequencies for the 
North Pacific Ocean Summer Fog Season 
AD-A018 300/4CP 

NOSE CONES 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows. Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

NUCLEAR EXPLOSION DAMAGE 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951 /6CP 

NUCLEAR EXPLOSION EFFECTS 

Analytic and Numerical Chemistry Algorithms for 
the WORRY Code WORRY Document No. 2 
AD-A012 002/2CP 

NUCLEAR EXPLOSION SIMULATION 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 14A. Ambient At- 
mosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and 
Ionosphere) 
AD-A048 013/7CP 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 10 Models of Ion 
Leak and Loss Cone Patches 
AD-A048 014/5CP 

Auroral Simulation Effects 
AD A049 066/4CP 



NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS 

An Examination of the Adequacy of the Three- 
Species Air Chemistry Treatment for the Predic- 
tion of Surface-Burst EMP 
AD-A025 280/9CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 16. High-Altitude 
Neutral-Particle Motion 
AD-A043 546/1 CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 17. High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

Theoretical Prediction of Acoustic-Gravity Pres- 
sure Waveforms Generated by Large Explosions 
in the Atmosphere. 
AD-707 122/CP 

Monte Carlo Calculations of the Scattering of 450. 
550. and 650 NM Wavelength Light in Model At- 
mospheres for Point Isotropic Sources 
AD-731 723/CP 

WEPH V Code Modifications for HF Propagation 
and System Performance Modeling 
AD-770 053/7CP 

An Analytic Boundary for the MHD Magnetic Field 

Equation 

AD-773 913/9CP 

Modeling of Optical IR Backgrounds 
AD-774 751 /2CP 

Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts 
AD-783 246/2CP 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K . Equa- 
tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Inferieure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

NUCLEAR FIREBALL 

Chemistry of Atmospheric Deionization Outside 
Intermediate-Altitude Fireballs. II. 15-. 20-, and 25- 
km Altitude 
AD-A029 890/1 CP 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

A Program for Evaluating Atmospheric Dispersion 
from a Nuclear Power Station 
COM-74-11336/6CP 

Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

NUCLEAR WEAPON DEBRIS 

Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predictions. 
Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 Annual Re- 
port to the Defense Nuclear Agency 
AD-A043 178/3CP 

NUCLEAR WEAPONS 

Rainout Assessment: The ACRA System and Sum- 
maries of Simulation Results 
LA-6763 

NUCLEATION 

The Kinetics of Evolution of Water Vapor Clusters 

in Air 

AD-A025 675/0CP 

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1 CP 

A Generalized Version of the Fields by Informa- 
tion Blending (FIB) Technique 
AD-A021 638/2CP 

A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 

Description and Comparison of the K Method for 
Performing Numerical Integration of Stiff Ordinary 
Differential Equations 
AD-A003 855/4CP 

Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the Solution 
of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 
PB-263 498/8CP 

NUMERICAL SOLUTION 

Applications of Episode An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations 
UCRL-75868 

NUMERICAL WEATHER FORECASTING 

Application of a Finite Element Method to the 
Barotropic Primitive Equations 
AD-A019 494/4CP 

A Generalized Version of the Fields by Informa- 
tion Blending (FIB) Technique 
AD-A021 638/2CP 



A Three-Parameter Model for Limited Area 

Forecasting 

AD-777 406/OCP 

Numerical Weather Prediction in Finland During 

1969 

N72-28639/CP 

OBJECTIVE WEATHER FORECASTING 

Objective Analysis Technique in Sigma Coor- 
dinates 
AD-A021 213/4CP 

OCEAN CURRENTS 

A Numerical Study of an Idealized Ocean Using 
Non Linear Lateral Eddy Viscosity Coefficients 
AD-A009 973/9CP 

OCEAN MODELS 

Programming and the Climate Dynamics Project 
AD-A019 344/1 CP 

OCEAN SURFACE 

A Numerical Study of an Idealized Ocean Using 
Non Linear Lateral Eddy Viscosity Coefficients 
AD-A009 973/9CP 

1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in the 
Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
AD-777 971/3CP 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 
N77-24935/7CP 

OCEAN WAVES 

Storm Surge on the Open Coast Fundamentals 
and Simplified Prediction 
AD-728 128/CP 

OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA 

Numerical Filtering Techniques for the Time-Se- 
ries Analysis of Oceanographic and Meteorologi- 
cal Data 
AD-723 864/CP 

OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description 
N77-31012/6CP 

OGO-D 

OGO-F-02 Data Analysis 
N73-13376/CP 
OKLAHOMA 

A Mesoscale Investigation of Convective Activity 
AD-721 242/CP 

OPERATIONAL HAZARDS 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Program for Operational Prediction of Toxic 
Fuel Hazards 
N73-28050/5CP 

OPTICAL DATA PROCESSING 

Solumat: A Programme for Measuring the In- 
fluence of the Atmosphere on Contrast Transfer. 
N76-31809/6CP 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description 
N77-31012/6CP 

OPTICAL DETECTION 

Predetection Compensated Imaging Theory 
AO-A024 393/1 CP 
OPTICAL IMAGES 

Predetection Compensated Imaging Theory 
AD-A024 393/1 CP 

OPTICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 

A Stellar Scintillometer for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-257 376/4CP 

Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-273 921/7CP 

ORBITS 

A Gravitational Potential for Atmospheric Earth 
Tides Caused by the Moon 
AD-A038 155/8CP 

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 
AD-779 551/1CP 

ORGOP 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers at 
the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant li Predic- 
tions of Fog Occurrence and Drift Deposition. 
TID-26686-P2 

OVER THE HORIZON DETECTION 

WINDVEL2: A Program for Plotting Wind Velocity 
as Determined by OTH Radar 
AD-A002 954/6CP 



93 



SUBJECT INDEX 



OVERFLIGHT 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
AD-A051 700/3CP 
OXIDIZERS 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

PB-271 643/9CP 

OXYGEN 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, (16)0(18)0, and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1CP 

Computer-Aided Estimates of the Rotational Tem- 
peratures of 02 in the Mesosphere 
AD-A040 915/1CP 

OXYGEN ISTOPES 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes: (16)02, (16)0(18)0. and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1CP 

OZONE 

Software Development Stratosphere Modeling 
N78-21692/6CP 

User S Guide to the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ul- 
traviolet Experiment Data Sets. 
N78-21694/2CP 

The Relation of Oxidant Levels to Presursor Emis- 
sions and Meteorological Features Volume III 
Appendices (Analytical Methods and Supplemen- 
tary Data) 
PB-275 327/5CP 

OZONOMETRY 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents 

N70-29112/CP 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 
in a Stratospheric Model 1 : Development of a 
Concise Stratospheric Model. 
N77-29673/9CP 

PACIFIC OCEAN 

Hurricane Heat Potential of the North Atlantic and 
North Pacific Oceans 
AD-751 590/CP 

PARTICLE SIZE 

Determination of the Particle Size Distribution of 
an Aerosol Using a Diffusion Battery. 
CEA-R-4549 

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION 

Investigation of Aerosol Characteristics and Their 

Measurement 

N76-17683/3CP 

PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES 

A Study of Charged Particle Motion in a Free Vor- 
tex Flowfield 
AD-749 285/CP 

PATH OF POLLUTANTS 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 

PEAKS COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1CP 

PERTURBATION 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 
in a Stratospheric Model 1 : Development of a 
Concise Stratospheric Model. 
N77-29673/9CP 

PESTICIDES 

Some Environmental Measurement of the Vertical 
Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level Sources 
N77-21734/7CP 

PHASE STUDIES 

An Iterative Method for Saturation Adjustment 
AD-750 083/CP 

PHILIPPINE SEA 

1973 Variations of Hurricane Heat Potential in the 
Philippine Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 
AD-777 971/3CP 

PHOTOCHEMISTRY 

Formulation of Diurnal D Region Models Using a 
Photochemical Computer Code and Current 
Reaction Rates 
AD-766 525/OCP 

PHOTODISSOCIATION 

The Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory Photodis- 
sociation-Radiation Model of the Middle At- 
mosphere - A Users Manual 
AD-A043 786/3CP 



PHOTOGRAMMETRY 

A Study of Cloud Dynamics Utilizing Stereoscopic 
Photogrammetry 
AD-733 284/CP 
PHOTOIONIZATION 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 
AD-739 166/CP 

PHOTOMETRY 

Automatic Real-Time Extinction Measurement 
AD-A046 484/2CP 

PLANETARY BOUNOARY LAYER 

Modeling the Planetary Boundary Layer Using the 

Galerkin Finite-Element Method 

UCRL-78120 

PLASMA MEDIUM 

Trapped Radiation Studies Involving Plasma In- 
stabilities and Radial Diffusion 
AD-743 549/CP 

PLASMA SHEATHS 

Analysis of Low Energy Electrons 
N73-31638/2CP 

PLASMAPAUSE 

Studies of the Structure of the Plasmasphere as 
Seen by Radiosounder Measurements Aboard the 
Alovetti-Satellite. 
N74-20467/8CP 

PLOTTERS 

Computer Program for Plotting Time Dependent 
Data with Instruction and Examples. 
PB-191 870/CP 

PLOTTING 

Description of Automatic Plotting Computer Pro- 
grams Beschrijving van Het Programmapakket 
T.B.V. Het Automatisch Plotten. 
N78-23788/0CP 

PLUME DETECTION 

A Feasibility Study for the Application of K-Band 

Radar in the Investigation of Cooling Tower 

Plumes 

PB-275 380/4CP 

PLUMES 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

ATMOSPHERE Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
for Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1103 

Cartographic Forecasts of Short-Term Air Pollu- 
tion Averages 
CEA-R-4837 

Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent Atmospheric 
Transport: Comparison with Experimental Data 
CONF-771 109-58 

Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and Dif- 
fusion Model. 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

Oak Ridge Fog and Drift Code (ORFAD) Users 

Manual 

ORNL/TM-5201 

Potential Environmental Modifications Produced 
by Large Evaporative Cooling Towers 
PB-210 702/7CP 

Cooling Tower Plume Model 
PB-259 971/OCP 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers at 
the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, li. Predic- 
tions of Fog Occurrence and Drift Deposition 
TID-26686-P2 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCRL-52049 

POISSON DENSITY FUNCTIONS 

Use of the Negative Binomial-Truncated Poisson 
Distribution in Thunderstorm Prediction 
N72-14641/CP 

POLAR CAP ABSORPTION 

The Calculation of Riometer Absorption and an 
Approximation Connection between Riometer Ab- 
sorption and Solar Proton Fluxes during 
Nighttime PCA Events 
AD-A019 656/8CP 

POLAR REGIONS 

Ionospheric Effects Induced by Precipitating Au- 
roral Electrons. HAES Report No. 14 
AD-A016 673/6CP 



POLLUTION MONITORING 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

POLYETHYLENE PLASTICS 

A Compendium of the Mechanical Properties of 
Polyethylene Balloon Films 
AD-746 678/CP 

POLYMERIC FILMS 

A Compendium of the Mechanical Properties of 
Polyethylene Balloon Films 
AD-746 678/CP 

POWER SUPPLIES 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes. 
Program Summary 
AD-A047 357/9CP 

PRECIPITATION (METEOROLOGY) 

Model of Precipitation and Vertical Air Currents 
COM-71-00911/CP 

A Note on a Gamma Distribution Computer Pro- 
gram and Graph Paper 
COM-73-11401/9CP 

Precipitation Variability Over North Carolina 
PB-225 123/9CP 

Methodological Approaches in Hawaiian Fog 

Research 

PB-243 508/9CP 

Estimation of Areal Average Precipitation Using 
Different Network Densities and Averaging 
Techniques 
PB-264 243/7CP 

Comparison Between Dual-Wavelength Radar 
Estimates and Ground Measurements of 
Precipitation 
PB-265 727/8CP 

Methods for Estimating Areal Precipitation in 
Mountainous Areas 
PB-276 14071CP 

PRECIPITATION SCAVENGING 

Rainout Assessment: The ACRA System and Sum- 
maries of Simulation Results 
LA-6763 

PRECIPITATION WASHOUT 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 
AD-779 551/1CP 

Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
PB-232 445/7CP 

PROBES (ELECTROMAGNETIC) 

Moment Method Solutions for the Impedance of 
Asymmetrically Driven RF Probes in the Colli- 
sional Ionospheric Magnetoplasma 
AD-A006 200/OCP 

PROGRAMMING (COMPUTERS) 

Analysis of Stratospheric Balloon Programs 
AD-722 076/CP 

Comparisons of Radar Refraction Correction 
Computer Programs at Selected Test Ranges 
AD-762 383/CP 

Map Typing Computer Programs 
AD-766 929/4CP 

PROGRAMMING MANUALS 

The Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory Photodis- 
sociation-Radiation Model of the Middle At- 
mosphere - A Users Manual 
AD-A043 786/3CP 

PROTON FLUX DENSITY 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum. 
N77-18983/5CP 

PROTONS 

Solar Cycle Variations of Geomagnetically 
Trapped Radiation 
AD-774 043/4CP 

PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZERS 

Pulse Height Analyzer Interfacing and Computer 
Programming in the Environmental Laser 
Propagation Project 
AD-A028 858/9CP 

PULSED LASERS 

A Study of the Applicability of Lasers to the Mea- 
surement of Tornado Wind Speeds 
AD-A052 636/8CP 



94 



SUBJECT INDEX 



RAY TRACING 



Experimental Pulsed Laser, Remote Crosswind 
Measurement System -- Feasibility Study and 
Design 

AD-786 647/8CP 
PWR TYPE REACTORS 

Tutank; A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code. 

AEEW-R-1002 

RADAR CROSS SECTIONS 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1CP 

RADAR DETECTION 

A Feasibility Study for the Application of K-Band 

Radar in the Investigation of Cooling Tower 

Plumes 

PB-275 380/4CP 

RADAR ECHOES 

Computer Software for Rainfall Analyses and 
Echo Tracking of Digitized Radar Data 
COM-74-11253/3CP 

RADAR IMAGERY 

All-Weather Ice Information System for Alaskan 

Arctic Coastal Shipping. 

N77-21788/3CP 

RADAR METEOROLOGY 

Parameterization of Weather Radar Data for Use 
in the Prediction of Storm Motion and Develop- 
ment 
AD-A052 535/2CP 

RADAR PULSES 

Chatanika Model of the High-Latitude Ionosphere 
for Application to HF Propagation Prediction 
AD-A053 154/1CP 

RADAR REFLECTIONS 

Pulse Pair Estimation of Doppler Spectrum 

Parameters 

AD-744 094/CP 

RADAR TRACKING 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

RADIANCE 

Monochromatic Transmittance/Radiance Compu- 
tations 
AD-A003 755/6CP 

RADIATION ABSORPTION 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray. by Ray Tracing 

Through the Atmosphere 

N70-36971/CP 

RADIATION AND METEOROID SATELLITE 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 

RADIATION ATTENUATION 

A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave At- 
tenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 
AD-A015 544/OCP 

RADIATION BELTS 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere 
N70-29050/CP 

RADIATION DOSAGE 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

RADIATION EFFECTS 

Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances 
AD-A043 965/3CP 

RADIATION HAZARDS 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 17. High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

RADIATIVE TRANSFER 

Heat Budget Parameterization for the FNWC 
Primitive Equation Model Using Data for 16 
January 1974 
AD-A009 977/OCP 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 
Methods of Calculation 
AD-A017 459/9CP 

The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Verti- 
cally Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
PB-270 618/2CP 

RADIO ALTIMETERS 

Time Domain Data Extraction, Radio Altimetry. 
and Application of Ats Data Quarterly Report, 1 
Apr. - 30 Jun. 1971 
N71-33870/CP 



RADIO ASTRONOMY 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological, Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

RADIO TRACKING 

Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 
Wind Error Predictions 
PB-267 413/3CP 

RADIO TRANSMISSION 

Propagation Predictions and Studies Using a Ray 
Tracing Program Combined with a Theoretical 
Ionospheric Model 
AD-A007 495/5CP 

Modeling of Transionospheric Radio Propagation 
AD-A038 132/7CP 

Techniques of Determining Ionospheric Structure 
from Oblique Radio Propagation Measurements 
AD-A038 299/4CP 

Stimulated Amplification of VLF and ULF Waves 
in the Magnetosphere by Localized Injections of 
Plasma Clouds and Particle Beams 
AD-757 085/CP 

RADIOACTIVE AEROSOLS 

Rainout Assessment: The ACRA System and Sum- 
maries of Simulation Results 
LA-6763 

RADIOACTIVE CLOUDS 

Rainout Assessment The ACRA System and Sum- 
maries of Simulation Results 
LA-6763 

RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS 

Global Contamination of the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCRL-52049 

RADIOFREOUENCY INTERFERENCE 

Post Stabilization Ionization Level Predictions. 
Volume III of the Calendar Year 1975 Annual Re- 
port to the Defense Nuclear Agency 
AD-A043 178/3CP 

RADIOFREOUENCY SPECTROSCOPY 

The Calculation of Millimeter and Submillimeter 
Wave Absorption Line Parameters for the Molecu- 
lar Oxygen Isotopes (16)02, (16)0(18)0, and 
(18)02 
AD-A017 397/1CP 

RADIOMETERS 

Remote Infrared Atmospheric Profiling System 

(RIAPS) 

AD-A018 562/9CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume I 
AD-915 570/6CP 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume II. Appendices 
AD-915 571/4CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance Models for Infrared 
Radiometric Measurements 
COM-74-11295/4CP 

Techniques for Computing Regional Radiant 
Emittances of the Earth-Atmosphere System from 
Observations by Wide-Angle Satellite Radiome- 
ters, Phase 3 
N77-20659/7CP 

RADIOSONDES 

Development of a Real-Time Rocketsonde and a 
Real-Time Radiosonde Computer Program 
AD-A053 608/6CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 
Redaction Part I Rawinsonde 
AD-782 685/2CP 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 
Reduction. Part II. Rocketsonde 
AD-782 686/OCP 

Rawinsonde Observation and Processing 
Techniques at the National Severe Storms 
Laboratory 
COM-71-00707/CP 

Program for Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents. 

N70-29112/CP 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli. Libya, 1951-1957. Part 1 - Work Report. 
N70-31479/CP 



Studies of the Structure of the Plasmasphere as 

Seen by Radiosounder Measurements Aboard the 

Alovetti-Satellite. 

N74-20467/8CP 

Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 

Wind Error Predictions 

PB-267 413/3CP 

RAIN GAGES 

Development of an Experimental 

Hydrometeorological Data Collection Network 
PB-270 265/2CP 

RAINDROPS 

Raindrop Size Distributions and Z-R Relation- 
ships Measured on the NOAA DC-6 and the Ship 
RESEARCHER within the GATE B-Scale Array 
PB-269 659/9CP 

RAINFALL 

Computer Software for Rainfall Analyses and 
Echo Tracking of Digitized Radar Data 
COM-74-11253/3CP 

Digitizing, Recording, and Computer Processing 
Weather Radar Data at the Experimental 
Meteorology Laboratory 
COM-74-11464/6CP 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes: 
Data Collection and Synthesis 
COM-75-11395/1CP 

A Program for Calculating Thiessen Average 

Rainfall 

PB-211 232/CP 

Estimated Rainfall for Drainage Calculations in 
the United Kingdom 
PB-226 513/OCP 

Some Statistical Analyses of Hawaiian Rainfall 
PB-233 674/1 CP 

A Stochastic Rainfall Model and Statistical Analy- 
sis of Hydrologic Factors 
PB-238 948/4CP 

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall 

PB-239 268/6CP 

Bidimensional Spectral Analysis of Rainfall Events 

PB-239 797/4CP 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP) Release No 1 
PB-264 562/OCP 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program (SYNOP) 
PB-264 563/8CP 

Raindrop Size Distributions and Z-R Relation- 
ships Measured on the NOAA DC-6 and the Ship 
RESEARCHER within the GATE B-Scale Array 
PB-269 659/9CP 
RAINFALL INTENSITY 

Digital Simulation of Thunderstorm Rainfall 
PB 211 806/CP 

RANDOM PROCESSES 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model. MOD 2 
(With Two Scale Perturbation Model). 
N77-20660/5CP 

RATE CONSTANTS 

Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Constants 
over a Diurnal Range A Computer Algorithm 
PB-266 739/2CP 
RAWINSONDES 

Reduction and Error Analysis of the AVE 2 Pilot 

Experiment Data 

N75-12531/0CP 

RAY TRACING 

Refractive Effects in Remote Sensing of the At- 
mosphere with Infrared Transmission Spectrosco- 
py 
AD-A011 253/2CP 

Geometrical Acoustics Techniques in Far Field In- 
frasonic Waveform Syntheses 
AD-A024 721/3CP 

Analysis and Synthesis of Model lonograms Using 
3D Ray Tracking Techniques 
AD-A038 869/4 CP 

Ray Tracing Study 
AD-779 091/8CP 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation. 
N70-35774/CP 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray. by Ray Tracing 

Through the Atmosphere. 

N70-36971/CP 



95 



SUBJECT INDEX 



REACTION KINETICS 

Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Constants 
over a Diurnal Range A Computer Algorithm 
PB-266 739/2CP 
REACTION RATES 

Survey ol Two-Body and Three-Body Reaction- 
Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Stratosphere and 
Mesosphere 
AD-776 950/8CP 

REACTOR KINETICS 

Tutank: A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code 

AEEW-R-1002 

REACTOR TECHNOLOGY 

Statistical Evaluation of Measured Data Obtained 
at the Meteorological Station of the Munich 
Research Reactor 
N70-26323/CP 

RECOMBINATION REACTIONS 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body Ion- 
Ion Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 
Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 
sphere 
AD-A038 263/OCP 

REFERENCE ATMOSPHERES 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model. MOD 2 
(With Two Scale Perturbation Model). 
N77-20660/5CP 

REMOTE OETECTORS 

A Specular Chamber for Off-Axis Response 

Evaluations of High-Rejection Optical Baffling 

System 

AD-A031 212/4CP 

REMOTE SENSING 

A Stochastic Canopy Model of Diurnal 

Reflectance 

AD-A004 026/1 CP 

Calculation of Levels of Relative Contribution of 
the Carbon-Dioxide Channel Radiance from 
TIROS VII in the Case of a Large-Scale Strato- 
spheric Warming in January 1964 
AD-736 529/CP 

Atmospheric Transmittance Models for Infrared 
Radiometric Measurements 
COM-74-11295/4CP 

REMOTE SENSORS 

Feasibility Study for Remote Sensing of At- 
mospheric Turbulence Profiles. 
N70-22632/CP 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 

Sensing. 

N76-22637/2CP 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User's 

Guide 

N76-22643/0CP 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

RIOMETERS 

The Calculation of Riometer Absorption and an 
Approximation Connection between Riometer Ab- 
sorption and Solar Proton Fluxes during 
Nighttime PCA Events 
AD-A019 656/8CP 

RISK ANALYSIS 

Methodology tor Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/OCP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings Volume II: Computer Program User's 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

ROCKET LAUNCHING 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Program for Operational Prediction of Toxic 
Fuel Hazards 
N73-28050/5CP 

ROCKETSONDES 

IRIG Standards for Range Meteorological Data 
Reduction Part II Rocketsonde 
AD-782 686/OCP 

ROSCOE COMPUTER PROGRAM 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14b Midlatitude 
Density Profiles of Selected Atmospheric Species 
AD-A043 499/3CP 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 16. High-Altitude 
Neutral-Particle Motion 
AD A043 546/1CP 



The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 17. High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

RUBY LASERS 

Experimental Pulsed Laser, Remote Crosswind 

Measurement System - Feasibility Study and 

Design 

AD-786 647/8CP 

RUNOFF 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes: 
Data Collection and Synthesis 
COM-75-11395/1CP 

SAINT LOUIS (MISSOURI) 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study Part II 
PB-266 756/6CP 

Non-Divergent Wind Analysis Algorithm for the St. 
Louis RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) Net- 
work 
PB-276 582/4CP 

SATELLITE DRAG 

Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes. 
N76-27748/2CP 

SATELLITE OBSERVATION 

Analysis of Radiation and Meteoroid Satellite Data 
N72-32833/CP 

SATELLITE ORBITS 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere. 
N70-29050/CP 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

SATELLITE ORIENTATION 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
spheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaerischen Rota- 
tion Oberhalb 350 Km 
N76-15717/1CP 

SATELLITE PERTURBATION 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
spheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaerischen Rota- 
tion Oberhalb 350 Km 
N76-15717/1CP 

SATELLITES (ARTIFICIAL) 

Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
AD-736 443/CP 

SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES 

Feasibility Study of a Quadrilateralized Spherical 
Cube Earth Data Base 
AD-A010 232/7CP 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System Or- 
bital Accelerometer Experiment. Volume I. Experi- 
ment Description and Methodology 
AD-772 717/5CP 

SCINTILLATION 

SCINTDR A Program for Controlling the Fremouw 

Scintillation Model 

COM-74-10824/2CP 

SCINTILLATION COUNTERS 

Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-273 921/7CP 

SCINTILLOMETERS 

Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-273 921/7CP 

SEA ICE 

A Numerical Ice Forecasting System 
AD-A023 183/7CP 

The Naval Oceanographic Office Numerical Ice 
Forecasting System Operations Manual 
AD-A049 019/3CP 

SEA STATES 

Reduction and Analysis of Data Collected During 
the Electromagnetic Tornado Experiment. 
N77-19710/1CP 



SEMIMARKOV PROCESSES 

A Semi-Markov Weather Model 
AD-778 873/0CP 

SEWERS 

Estimated Rainfall for Drainage Calculations in 
the United Kingdom 
PB-226 513/0CP 

SHEAR LAYERS 

Additional Research on Instabilities in Atmospher- 
ic Flow Systems Associated with Clear Air Turbu- 
lence 
N71-35701/CP 

SHOCK WAVES 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K . Equa- 
tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Inferieure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

SIGNAL PROCESSING 

Infrasonic Data Reduction 
AD-748 283/CP 

SIMULATION 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations. 
UCRL-75868 

SITE SURVEYS 

A New Wind Energy Site Selection Methodology 
PB-282 834/1CP 

SKY BRIGHTNESS 

Sky Radiance Calculations in the 0.5 micrometer - 
5.0 micrometer Wavelength Range 
AD-A015 812/1CP 

SKY RADIATION 

Infrared Sea and Sky Background Radiation. 
N77-24935/7CP 

SKYLAB 3 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3). 
N75-29531/1CP 

SKYSCRAPERS 

The Buffeting of Tall Structures by Strong Winds 
COM-75-11442/1CP 
SMOKE 

Use of Lars System for the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia. 
N76-24681/8CP 

SMOKES 

ATMOSPHERE. Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
for Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1103 

Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent Atmospheric 
Transport: Comparison with Experimental Data 
CONF-771 109-58 



Predicting Heavy Snowfall for Colorado Springs 
Based on Computer Derived Synoptic Map Types 
AD-718 422/CP 

Applying a Window Pane Technique to the 
Colorado Springs Snow Study 
AD-743 301/CP 

SNOWDRIFTS 

Computer Simulation of Snowmelt 
PB-265 109/9CP 

SNOWMELT 

Computer Simulation of Snowmelt 
PB-265 109/9CP 
SNOWSTORMS 

Great Lakes Snowstorms Part 1. Cloud Physics 

Aspects. 

COM-71-00012/CP 

SOFTWARE 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP). Release No. 1 
PB-264 562/OCP 

SOLAR ACTIVITY 

Analytic Solution of Coupled Mode Equations by 

Computer 

AD-772 828/OCP 

Global Representation of Annual and Solar Cycle 
Variation of foF2 Monthly Median 1954-1958 
COM-75-11143/5CP 

SOLAR CELLS 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes. 
Program Summary 
AD-A047 357/9CP 



96 



SUBJECT INDEX 



STRATOSPHERE 



SOLAR COSMIC RAYS 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course ot Polar 
Cap Absorption. 
AD-706 410/CP 
SOLAR ECLIPSES 

Investigations of Ionospheric Total Electron Con- 
tent Behavior at Conjugate Points and During a 
Solar Eclipse. 
AD-714 571/CP 

SOLAR FLUX 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment tor Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum 
N77-18983/5CP 

SOLAR OCCULTATION ABSORPTION TECHNIQUE 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases II. 
Calculations with the Voigl Line Shape 
COM-75-10595/7CP 

SOLAR PROTONS 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum 
N77-18983/5CP 

SOLAR RADIATION 

A Stochastic Canopy Model of Diurnal 

Reflectance 

AD-A004 026/1CP 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course of Polar 
Cap Absorption. 
AD-706 410/CP 

Extinction of a Tangential Ray. by Ray Tracing 

Through the Atmosphere. 

N70-36971/CP 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3). 
N75-29531/1CP 

Direct Beam Solar Radiation. A Digital Computer 

program 

PB-236 902/3CP 

Hourly Solar Radiation Data for Vertical and 
Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days in the 
United States and Canada 
PB-265 551/2CP 

The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Verti- 
cally Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
PB-270 618/2CP 

Global Horizontal Solar Radiation for Australian 
Locations Stored in the CSIRO CYBER 7600 
System: The Data and Method of Retrieval 
S.E.S.-75/3 

SOLAR WIND 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind. The Inter- 
planetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects on the 
Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 and 35 
Data 
N73-14808/CP 

SOLID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES 

The Production ot Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning 
N76-20180/5CP 

SOUNDING ROCKETS 

Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 

Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 

ments 

AD-A022 677/9CP 

Brazilian Participation in the Exametnet. 

N74-19237/8CP 

SOUTHEAST ASIA 

Synoptic-Scale Weather Disturbances that In- 
fluence the Fire Climate in Southeast Asia During 
the Normally Dry Period 
AD-721 112/CP 

SPACE CHARGE 

Modeling of the Geosynchronous Orbit Plasma 
Environment Part I 
AD-A053 164/OCP 

SPACE ENVIRONMENTS 

Modeling of the Geosynchronous Orbit Plasma 
Environment Part I 
AD-A053 164/OCP 

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITERS 

Compulations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunl Body Flows. Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

SPACEBORNE PHOTOGRAPHY 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis Model 
AD-736 798/CP 

Measurements of Far-Ullraviolet Photographs 
from Skylab 4 and APOLLO 6 
N77 21516/8CP 

Mapping ol Geostationary Satellite Pictures: An 
Operational Experiment. 
PB-191 189/CP 



SPACELAB 

Phase B-Final Definition and Preliminary Design 
Study tor the Initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics 
Laboratory (Acpl) A Spacelab Mission Payload. 
N76-33273/3CP 

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION 

Program Eldose for Calculating the Distribution 
of Absorbed Doses in Space Environment and 
Charged Particle Acceleration Thin Films (Protons 
and Electrons) 
N71-25669/CP 

SPECTROGRAPHS 

Auroral Spectrograph Data Reduction System 
AD-A019 110/6CP 

SPECTROSROPIC ANALYSIS 

Feasibility of Satellite Measurement of Strato- 
spheric Minor Constituents by Solar Occultation 
COM-74-10720/2CP 

SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 

Numerical Filtering Technigues for the Time-Se- 
ries Analysis of Oceanographic and Meteorologi- 
cal Data 
AD-723 864/CP 

SPECTRUM SIGNATURES 

A Stochastic Canopy Model ol Diurnal 

Reflectance 

AD-A004 026/1 CP 

SPLINE FUNCTIONS 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Development 
Laboratory: Formulation and Data. 
N76-27745/8CP 

SPORADIC E LAYER 

Tables from the Penn State Mark 1 Ionospheric 

Model 

N70-40978/CP 

SPRAY NOZZLES 

Computer Aided Nucleation Nozzle Design 
AD-737 395/CP 

STACK DISPOSAL 

ATMOSPHERE. Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
tor Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1103 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model to 
Calculations for Industrial Plumes. 
BNWL-SA-5*117 

Monte Carlo Simulation of Turbulent Atmospheric 
Transport: Comparison with Experimental Data 
CONF-771109-58 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 

Statistical Evaluation of Measured Data Obtained 
at the Meteorological Station of the Munich 
Research Reactor 
N70-26323/CP 

Studies in the Use of Cloud Type Statistics in 

Mission Simulation 

N74-30053/4CP 

Separation of Mixed Data Sets into Homogeneous 

Sets 

PB-264 813/7CP 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1CP 

STATISTICAL WEATHER FORECASTING 

Use of the Negative Binomial-Truncated Poisson 
Distribution in Thunderstorm Prediction 
N72-14641/CP 

STATS COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1CP 

STELLAR SCINTILLOMETERS 

A Stellar Scintillometer for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-257 376/4CP 

STIFF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 

Description and Comparison of the K Method for 
Performing Numerical Integration of Stiff Ordinary 
Differential Equations 
AD-A003 855/4CP 

STORM SURGES 

Storm Surge on the Open Coast Fundamentals 
and Simplified Prediction 
AD-728 128/CP 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes of 
Surges from Hurricanes) I Landfall Storms 
COM-72-10807/CP 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes of 
Surges from Hurricanes) Part 2 General Track 
and Variant Slorm Conditions 
COM-74-10925/7CP 



Estimation of Hurricane Storm Surge in 

Apalachicola Bay. Florida 

COM-75-11332/4CP 

STORM WATER RUNOFF 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes: 
Data Collection and Synthesis 
COM-75-11395/1CP 

STORMS 

Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates. Volume II. Program Documentation 
AD-A034 651 /OCP 

Storm Surge Simulation in Transformed Coor- 
dinates Volume I Theory and Application 
AD-A034 763/3CP 

Parameterization of Weather Radar Data for Use 
in the Prediction ot Storm Motion and Develop- 
ment 
AD-A052 535/2CP 

Storm Surge on the Open Coast: Fundamentals 

and Simplified Prediction 

AD-728 128/CP 

Forecasting Storm-Induced Beach Changes along 

Virginia's Ocean Coast 

AD-752 141/CP 

Computer Simulation of Severe Storm Observa- 
tions with Doppler Radars 
COM-71-00020/CP 

Bidimensional Spectral Analysis of Rainfall Events 
PB-239 797/4CP 

STRAM MODEL 

STRAM - An Air Pollution Model Incorporating 
Nonlinear Chemistry. Variable Trajectories, and 
Plume Segment Diffusion 
PB-270 778/4CP 

STRATIFICATION 

Atmospheric Simulation Using Stratified Liquid 

Models 

PB-274 529/7CP 

STRATIFIED FLOW 

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Wave 
Motion and Upstream Influence in a Stratified 
Fluid. 
N74-32747/9CP 

STRATOSPHERE 

Balloon Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol 
Size Distribution Following a Volcanic Dust Incur- 
sion 
AD-A018 372/3CP 

Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to Deter- 
mine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 
AD-A035 504/OCP 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body Ion- 
Ion Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 
Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 
sphere 
AD-A038 263/OCP 

Analysis of Stratospheric Balloon Programs 
AD-722 076/CP 

Calculation of Levels of Relative Contribution of 
the Carbon-Dioxide Channel Radiance from 
TIROS VII in the Case of a Large-Scale Strato- 
spheric Warming in January 1964 
AD-73C 529/CP 

A Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter 
AD-737 802/CP 

Survey of Two-Body and Three-Body Reaction- 
Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Stratosphere and 
Mesosphere 
AD-776 950/8CP 

Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle Counter 

Measurements 

AD-777 135/5CP 

Detection and Analysis of Synoptic-Scale 
Periodicities in Rocketsonde Data 
AD-782 358/6CP 

Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifications. 
Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 
AD-784 866/6CP 

Feasibility of Satellite Measurement ol Strato- 
spheric Minor Constituents by Solar Occultation 
COM-74-10720/2CP 

Dispersion within Ihe Stratosphere of Minor Con- 
stituents. 
N77-25714/5CP 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 
in a Stratospheric Model. 1 : Development of a 
Concise Stratospheric Model. 
N77-29673/9CP 

Dispersion of Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere 
N77-31678/4CP 



97 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Software Development: Stratosphere Modeling. 
N78-21692/6CP 

STRESS ANALYSIS 

Load Introduction into Pressurized Films 
PB-252 385/OCP 
SUBMILLIMETER WAVES 

A Study of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave At- 
tenuation and Dispersion in the Earth's At- 
mosphere 
AD-A015 544/OCP 

SULFATE REGIONAL EXPERIMENT 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE) Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 

SULFATES 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE). Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 

SULFUR DIOXIDE 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 

Comprehensive Atomospheric Transport and Dif- 
fusion Model 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-17 

SULCAL: A Model of Sulfur Chemistry in a Plume 
ORNL/NSF/EATC-21 

Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
PB-232 445/7CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in Southeast 

Wisconsin 

PB-265 382/2CP 

SULFUR OXIDES 

Optimal Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions at 
Power Stations: Models and a Case Study 
AD-775 392/4CP 

Design of the Sulfate Regional Experiment 
(SURE). Volume III: Appendices 
PB-251 703/5CP 

SUNLIGHT 

Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation 
AD-772 640/9CP 

SUNSPOTS 

Global Scintillation Model 
COM-75-50059/5CP 

SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT 

Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System Volume I Main Text and Appendix A 
AD-A014 965/8CP 

SUPERSONIC FLIGHT 

Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System Volume I. Main Text and Appendix A 
AD-A014 965/8CP 

SURFACE TEMPERATURE 

A Numerical Study of an Idealized Ocean Using 
Non Linear Lateral Eddy Viscosity Coefficients 
AD-A009 973/9CP 

SURFACE WATERS 

Hetran A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water 
BNWL-B-361 

SYNOP COMPUTER PROGRAM 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP) Release No 1 
PB-264 562/OCP 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program (SYNOP) 
PB-264 563/8CP 

SYNOPTIC METEOROLOGY 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Major 
Synoptic Systems in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 
in the Winter and Summer of 1973 
PB-258 821/8CP 

T CODES 

Tutank: A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code 

AEEW-R-1002 



TABLES (DATA) 

Tables from the Penn State Mark 1 Ionospheric 

Model. 

N70-40978/CP 

TALL BUILDINGS 

The Buffeting of Tall Structures by Strong Winds 
COM-75-11442/1CP 
TELEPHONE SYSTEMS 

Executive Summary: New York City Pilots Auto- 
matic Telephone Weather Answering Service 
(PATWAS) Test 
AD-A046 755/5CP 

TELEVISION EQUIPMENT 

Machine Analysis of Infrared Cloud Images Ob- 
tained by the Cosmos- 122 Satellite. 
N71-10986/CP 

TEMPERATURE 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS 

An Investigation into the Effect of an Industrial 
Heat and Moisture Source on Local Atmospheric 
Conditions 
AD-733 227/CP 

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 

Retrieval of Surface Temperature by Remote 

Sensing. 

N76-22637/2CP 

TERRESTRIAL RADIATION 

Skylab S191. S192 Program Descriptions. 
N77-26177/4CP 

TEST EQUIPMENT 

A Specular Chamber for Off-Axis Response 

Evaluations of High-Rejection Optical Baffling 

System 

AD-A031 212/4CP 

TETHERED BALLOONS 

Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 
AD-731 570/CP 

THERMAL BLOOMING 

Transonic Thermal Blooming 
AD-A026 4S6/4CP 

SSPARAMA: A Nonlinear, Wave Optics Multipulse 
(and CW) Steady-State Propagation Code with 
Adaptive Coordinates 
AD-A037 395/1 CP 

THERMAL PLASMAS 

Behavior of Thermal Plasma in the Ionosphere 

and Magnetosphere. 

N74-22355/3CP 

THERMAL POLLUTION 

An Investigation into the Effect of an Industrial 
Heat and Moisture Source on Local Atmospheric 
Conditions 
AD-733 227/CP 

Potential Environmental Modifications Produced 
by Large Evaporative Cooling Towers 
PB-210 702/7CP 

THERMAL RADIATION 

Monte Carlo Studies on the Time-Dependent 
Transport of Optical and Infrared Radiation in the 
Atmosphere. Volume II. Thermal Radiation Trans- 
port 
AD-A042 769/OCP 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3) 
N75-29531/1CP 

THERMAL REACTORS 

Tutank: A Two-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics 

Code. 

AEEW-R-1002 

THERMAL WINDS 

Wind Shear - Thermal Wind Relationships on the 

Mesoscale 

AD-A013 508/7CP 

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude, Season, and Time. 
N77-31700/6CP 

THERMODYNAMICS 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K . Equa- 
tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Inferieure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

THUNDERSTORMS 

A Mesoscale Investigation of Convective Activity 
AD-721 242/CP 



A Center for the Description of Environmental 
Conditions. Weather Phenomena 
AD-773 046/8CP 

Use of the Negative Binomial-Truncated Poisson 
Distribution in Thunderstorm Prediction 
N72-14641/CP 

Digital Simulation of Thunderstorm Rainfall 
PB-211 806/CP 

A Stochastic Rainfall Model and Statistical Analy- 
sis of Hydrologic Factors 
PB-238 948/4CP 

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS 

Fourier Analysis of Weather and Wave Data from 
Holland, Michigan, July 1970 
AD-723 602/CP 

Numerical Filtering Techniques for the Time-Se- 
ries Analysis of Oceanographic and Meteorologi- 
cal Data 
AD-723 864/CP 

TORNADOES 

A Study of the Applicability of Lasers to the Mea- 
surement of Tornado Wind Speeds 
AD-A052 636/8 CP 

A Mesoscale Investigation of Convective Activity 
AD-721 242/CP 

Tornado Photographic Analysis 
COM-75-10117/0CP 

Reduction and Analysis of Data Collected During 
the Electromagnetic Tornado Experiment. 
N77-19710/1CP 

Wind Field and Trajectory Models for Tornado- 
Propelled Objects 
PB-251 138/4CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 
Buildings. Volume I: Technical Report 
PB-261 144/0CP 

Methodology for Hazard Risk Evaluation of 

Buildings. Volume II: Computer Program Users 

Manual 

PB-261 145/7CP 

TOTAL ELECTRON CONTENT 

Computer Codes for Use in Display of Predicted 
Scintillation Characteristics and Total Electron 
Content 
AD-A033 465/6CP 

TOXICOLOGY 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report Ap- 
pendices. Volume VII 
PB-249 913/5CP 

TRACE AMOUNTS 

Pathways of Trace Elements in the Environment 
CONF-770210-3 
TRACE CONTAMINANTS 

Dispersion within the Stratosphere of Minor Con- 
stituents. 
N77-25714/5CP 

Oispersion of Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere. 
N77-31678/4CP 

TRACKING 

Implementation of the SRI Objective Cloud 
Tracking System at NEPRF 
AD-A021 772/9CP 

TRANSCONTINENTAL FLIGHTS 

Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System. Volume I. Main Text and Appendix A 
AD-A014 965/8CP 

TRANSFER FUNCTIONS 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

TRANSMISSIVITY 

Direct Beam Solar Radiation A Digital Computer 

program 

PB-236 902/3CP 

TRANSMITTANCE 

Monochromatic Transmittance/Radiance Compu- 
tations 
AD-A003 755/6CP 

Atmospheric Modeling for Molecular Absorption 
Research Project 
AD-776 971 /4CP 

TRANSONIC FLOW 

Transonic Thermal Blooming 
AD-A026 456/4 CP 

TRANSPORT PROPERTIES 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
PB-259 719/3CP 



98 



SUBJECT INDEX 



WEATHER COMMUNICATIONS 



TRAPPED PARTICLES 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment tor Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum 
N77-18983/5CP 
TRAVELING IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES 
Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances 
AD-746 314/CP 

TROPICAL CYCLONES 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program tor the 
Southwest Indian Ocean 
AD-A001 271 /6CP 

A Computer Program to Select Typhoon Analogs 
and Print Out Their Descriptions Including Sub- 
sequent Changes 
AD-A009 530/7CP 

Application ot Satellite Cloud-Motion Vectors to 
Hurricane Track Prediction 
AD-A021 907/1CP 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Pacific Ocean and Australian Region 
AD-A023 676/OCP 

Calculated and Observed Changes in Sea Surface 
Temperature Associated with Hurricane-Passage 
AD-713 052/CP 

Further Verifications of and Experiments to Im- 
prove the Modified Hatrack Scheme for Forecast- 
ing the Motion of Tropical Cyclones 
AD-734 985/CP 

Hurricane Heat Potential of the North Atlantic and 
North Pacific Oceans 
AD-751 590/CP 

The 1972 Typhoon Analog Program (TYFOON-72) 
AD-758 007/CP 

Extending the Computerized Typhoon/Tropical 
Storm Prediction Program (Tyfoon 72) Toward 
Seven Days 
AD-770 207/9CP 

TROPOSPHERE 

Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle Counter 

Measurements 

AD-777 135/5CP 

Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifications. 
Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 
AD-784 866/6CP 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

TURBULENCE 

Turbulence Characterization and Control 
AD-A027 155/1CP 

A Description of the Atmospheric Turbulence En- 
vironment Derived from the Critical Atmospheric 
Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program 
AD-A042 549/6CP 

Application of Doppler Weather Radar to Turbu- 
lence Measurements Which Affect Aircraft 
AD-A048 603/5CP 

TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER 

Examination of Shipboard Measurements of the 
Vertical Profiles of Mean Temperature. Humidity 
and Wind Speed 
AD-776 306/3CP 

A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

TURBULENT DIFFUSION 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
AD-753 268/CP 

TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW 

Some Variable-Parameter, Steady-State Diffusion 

Results 

AD-815 625/CP 

TYPHOONS 

Further Development of a 3-7 Day Typhoon 

Analog Forecast Model for the Western North 

Pacific 

AD-A012 369/5CP 

Extending the Computerized Typhoon/Tropical 
Storm Prediction Program (Tyfoon 72) Toward 
Seven Days 
AD-770 207/9CP 
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 17 High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

UserS Guide to the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ul- 
traviolet Experiment Data Sets 
N78-21694/2CP 



UPPER ATMOSPHERE 

A High Altitude Infrared Radiance Model 
AD-A008 035/8CP 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Predict- 
ing Low-Altitude Satellite Ephemerides 
AD-A010 424/OCP 

Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 

Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 

ments 

AD-A022 677/9CP 

Analysis and Programming for Research in 
Physics of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-A034 066/1CP 

The Effects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body Ion- 
Ion Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 
Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 
sphere 
AD-A038 263/OCP 

Study of Meteor Wind Measurement Techniques. 
Volume II. 
AD-709 233/CP 

The Stanford Meteor-Trails Radar Mark II 
AD-709 673/CP 

Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
AD-736 443/CP 

A High Altitude Radiance Model 
AD-745 319/CP 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 
Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-763 082/CP 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System Or- 
bital Accelerometer Experiment Volume I Experi- 
ment Description and Methodology 
AD-772 717/5CP 

Modeling of Optical IR Backgrounds 
AD-774 751 /2CP 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-State 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting Low- 
Altitude Satellite Ephemerides. Part 1 Data Analy- 
sis and Model Formulation 
AD-778 820/1CP 

Some Recent Innovations in Atmospheric Density 

Programs 

AD-786 414/3CP 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases 
COM-74-10525/5CP 

Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes 
N76-27748/2CP 

URBAN AREAS 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

Cartographic Forecasts of Short-Term Air Pollu- 
tion Averages 
CEA-R-4837 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study. 
COO-1 199-45 

User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion 
Model Computer Program 
PB-213 091/2CP 

Users Network for Applied Modeling ot Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) 
PB-229 771/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data. Volume I 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume II 
PB-256 652/9CP 

USER MANUALS (COMPUTER PROGRAMS) 

The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
and Associated Computer Programs 
N74-19836/7CP 

Amps Data Management Requirements Study 
N76-11736/5CP 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User's 

Guide. 

N76-22643/0CP 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program 
N77-15056/3CP 

Wisp Information Display System User's Manual 
N78-18623/6CP 



VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT 

Ionospheric Effects Resulting from Precipitating 
Electrons at Mid and High Latitudes 
AD-A027 297/1 CP 

Solar Cycle Variations of Geomagnetically 
Trapped Radiation 
AD-774 043/4CP 

VARMINT COMPUTER PROGRAM 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 
Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 
PB-251 066/7CP 

VEGETATION 

A Stochastic Canopy Model of Diurnal 

Reflectance 

AD-A004 026/1 CP 

VERTICAL MOTION 

Criteria for Controlling Vertical Motion of Strato- 
spheric Balloons 
AD-A017 552/1 CP 

VERY LOW FREQUENCIES 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

VIRGINIA 

Use of Lars System tor the Quantitative Deter- 
mination of Smoke Plume Lateral Diffusion Coef- 
ficients from ERTS Images of Virginia 
N76-24681/8CP 

VISIBILITY 

Computer Model for Investigating the Strategy of 
Automatically Estimating Prevailing Visibility 
COM-72-11491/CP 

VOIGT PROFILES. 

The Effects of Refraction and Dispersion on High- 
Altitude Measurements of Atmospheric Gases II 
Calculations with the Voigt Line Shape 
COM-75-10595/7CP 

WASHOUT 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model to 
Calculations for Industrial Plumes. 
BNWL-SA-5117 

WATER 

An Iterative Method for Saturation Adjustment 
AD-750 083/CP 

An Experimental Study of the Freezing of Drops 
in Free Fall 
AD-776 390/7CP 

WATER QUALITY 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP). Release No. 1 
PB-264 562/0CP 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program (SYNOP) 
PB-264 563/8CP 
WATER SUPPLY 

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall 
PB-239 268/6CP 

WATER VAPOR 

The Kinetics of Evolution of Water Vapor Clusters 

in Air 

AD-A025 675/OCP 

WATERSHEDS 

Some Statistical Analyses ot Hawaiian Rainfall 
PB-233 674/1CP 

WAVE PROPAGATION 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
AD-A024 951/6CP 

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Wave 
Motion and Upstream Influence in a Stratified 
Fluid. 
N74-32747/9CP 

WEATHER 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study. 
COO-1 199-45 

Automatic Digital Acquisition System for 

Meteorological Data 

SAND-75-0321 

WEATHER COMMUNICATIONS 

A Microprocessor-Based Communications Infor- 
mation System 
AD-A013 624/2CP 

Executive Summary New York City Pilots Auto- 
matic Telephone Weather Answering Service 
(PATWAS) Test 
AD-A046 755/5CP 

Development of Techniques tor the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
AD-726 304/CP 



99 



SUBJECT INDEX 



WEATHER DATA RECORDERS 

Meteorological Data Acquisition System. Func- 
tional Description and General Characteristics of 
the Different Components. 
N76-24843/4CP 

WEATHER FORECASTING 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Indian Ocean 
AD-A001 271 /6CP 

A Computer Program to Select Typhoon Analogs 
and Print Out Their Descriptions Including Sub- 
sequent Changes 
AD-A009 530/7CP 

Basic ZOOM Program 
AD-A011 409/OCP 

Further Development of a 3-7 Day Typhoon 

Analog Forecast Model for the Western North 

Pacific 

AD-A012 369/5CP 

Application of a Finite Element Method to the 
Barotropic Primitive Equations 
AD-A019 494/4CP 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1 CP 

Objective Analysis Technique in Sigma Coor- 
dinates 
AD-A021 213/4CP 

A Generalized Version of the Fields by Informa- 
tion Blending (FIB) Technique 
AD-A021 638/2CP 

Application of Satellite Cloud-Motion Vectors to 
Hurricane Track Prediction 
AD-A021 907/1CP 

A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Pacific Ocean and Australian Region 
AD-A023 676/OCP 

Research to Develop Improved Models of Cli- 
matology That Will Assist The Meteorologist in 
the Timely Operation of the Air Force Weather 
Detachments 
AD-A032 317/OCP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terface Adapter. Volume I 
AD-A041 195/9CP 

Weather Radar Processor and Display Radar In- 
terlace Adapter. Volume II 
AD-A041 196/7CP 

The Naval Oceanographic Office Numerical Ice 
Forecasting System Operations Manual 
AD-A049 019/3CP 

Predicting Heavy Snowfall for Colorado Springs 
Based on Computer Derived Synoptic Map Types 
AD-718 422/CP 

Diagnostic Studies of Sybsynoptic Atmospheric 

Structure 

AD-726 628/CP 

Turbulence Forecasting Procedures 
AD-731 134/CP 

Validation of Meteorological Data 
AD-731 138/CP 

Further Verifications of and Experiments to Im- 
prove the Modified Hatrack Scheme for Forecast- 
ing the Motion of Tropical Cyclones 
AD-734 985/CP 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis Model 
AD-736 798/CP 

Applying a Window Pane Technique to the 
Colorado Springs Snow Study 
AD-743 301/CP 

Pulse Pair Estimation of Doppler Spectrum 

Parameters 

AD-744 094/CP 

A Two-Dimensional Short-Range Fog Forecast 

Model 

AD-750 082/CP 

An Operational Decision Model Employing Opera- 
tional and Environmental Factors 
AD-755 403/CP 

Application of Adaptive Estimation to Tempera- 
ture Forecasting 
AD-759 546/CP 

Map Typing Computer Programs 
AD-766 929/4CP 

Extending the Computerized Typhoon/Tropical 
Storm Prediction Program (Tyfoon 72) Toward 
Seven Days 
AD-770 207/9CP 

Analytic Solution of Coupled Mode Equations by 

Computer 

AD-772 828/0CP 



A Three-Parameter Model for Limited Area 

Forecasting 

AD-777 406/0CP 

A Semi-Markov Weather Model 

AD-778 873/OCP 

Numerical Forecasting of Clear Air Turbulence 

AD-818 985/CP 

Simulation Research to Develop Objective 
Meteorological Prediction Capability 
AD-864 887/CP 

Papers on Operational Objective Analysis 
Schemes at the National Severe Storms Forecast 
Center. 
COM-71-00136/CP 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes of 
Surges from Hurricanes) I. Landfall Storms 
COM-72-10807/CP 

Computer Model for Investigating the Strategy of 
Automatically Estimating Prevailing Visibility 
COM-72-11491/CP 

SPLASH (Special Program to List Amplitudes of 
Surges from Hurricanes). Part 2. General Track 
and Variant Storm Conditions 
COM-74-10925/7CP 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere for 
February 1976 with the Giss Model. 
N78-24754/1CP 

The Development of Computer Programs Applica- 
ble to Meaningful Precipitation Management Ex- 
periments 
PB-202 199/CP 

Separation of Mixed Data Sets into Homogeneous 

Sets 

PB-264 813/7CP 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
PB-268 753/1CP 

Methods for Estimating Areal Precipitation in 
Mountainous Areas 
PB-276 140/1CP 

WEATHER MODIFICATION 

Fog Clearing Using Helicopter Downdrafts: A Nu- 
merical Model 
AD-771 038/7CP 

The Development of Computer Programs Applica- 
ble to Meaningful Precipitation Management Ex- 
periments 
PB-202 199/CP 

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS 

Tornado Photographic Analysis 
COM-75-10117/0CP 
WEATHER RECONNAISSANCE AIRCRAFT 

Computer Subroutine for Presenting Meterologi- 
cal Flight Data on the Printer (CURVPT) 
COM-71-50082/CP 

WEIGHTLESSNESS 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experi- 
ment Laboratory; Programmatics Report. 
N75-24526/6CP 

WHISTLERS 

Direction Finding on Whistlers and Related VLF 

Signals 

AD-742 776/CP 

WIND 

An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmental 
Prediction Technique 
AD-A010 647/6CP 

Program Graphic 
AD-A011 416/5CP 

Analysis of Chemical Smoke Releases to Charac- 
terize Stratospheric/Thermospheric Wind Fields 
AD-A022 678/7CP 

Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to Deter- 
mine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 
AD-A035 504/OCP 

Physically-Based High Resolution Surface Wind 
and Temperature Analysis for EPAMS 
AD-A055 861 /9CP 

The Stanford Meteor-Trails Radar Mark II. 
AD-709 673/CP 

Numerical Preprocessing of Rawinsonde Position 

Vectors 

AD-732 205/CP 

A Program for Evaluating Atmospheric Dispersion 
from a Nuclear Power Station 
COM-74-11336/6CP 

WNDROS: A Program for Displaying Wind Rose 

Data 

ORNL/CSD/TM-40 



WIND DIRECTION 

Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 
Wind Error Predictions 
PB-267 413/3CP 

WIND EFFECTS 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
spheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaerischen Rota- 
tion Oberhalb 350 Km. 
N76-15717/1CP 

WIND MEASUREMENT 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 

WIND (METEOROLOGY) 

Program Descriptions. Supplement to Mesoscale 
Wind Fields and Transport Estimates Determined 
from a Network of Wind Towers 
COM-74-11470/3CP 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program. 
N77-15056/3CP 

Wind Energy Flux Calculated from Idaho National 

Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Sensor Network 

Data 

PB-253 205/9CP 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality. 
An Approach and Computer Program for Wind 
Flow Field Analysis 
PB-263 921/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part I 
PB-266 255/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part II 
PB-266 756/6CP 

Program to Calculate Winds Aloft Using a 
Hewlett-Packard 25 Hand Calculator 
PB-266 968/7CP 

Non-Divergent Wind Analysis Algorithm for the St. 
Louis RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) Net- 
work 
PB-276 582/4CP 

WIND POWER 

Stochastic Modelling of Site Wind Characteristics 
PB-261 178/8CP 

A New Wind Energy Site Selection Methodology 
PB-282 834/1CP 

WIND PRESSURE 

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Winds 
COM-75-10945/4CP 

The Buffeting of Tall Structures by Strong Winds 
COM-75-11442/1CP 

WIND PROFILES 

Development of a Procedure to Model High- 
Resolution Wind Profiles from Smoothed or Low- 
Frequency Data 
N78-11642/3CP 

WIND SHEAR 

Wind Shear - Thermal Wind Relationships on the 

Mesoscale 

AD-A013 508/7CP 

Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to Deter- 
mine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 
AD-A035 504/OCP 

Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Defini- 
tion 
AD-A053 178/OCP 

Recording and Analysis of Optical Data from 
Stratospheric Dynamics Experiments 
AD-A054 013/8CP 

Wisp Information Display System User's Manual. 
N78-18623/6CP 

WIND VELOCITY 

WINDVEL2: A Program for Plotting Wind Velocity 
as Determined by OTH Radar 
AD-A002 954/6CP 

Program TRUWIND 
AD-A005 311/6CP 

Verification of Wind Measurement with Mobile 
Laser Doppler System 
AD-A047 252/2CP 

A Study of the Applicability of Lasers to the Mea- 
surement of Tornado Wind Speeds 
AD-A052 636/8CP 

Experimental Pulsed Laser, Remote Crosswind 

Measurement System — Feasibility Study and 

Design 

AD-786 647/8CP 



100 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ZEEMAN EFFECT 



Wind Energy Flux Calculated from Idaho National 

Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Sensor Network 

Data 

PB-253 205/9CP 

Stochastic Modelling of Site Wind Characteristics 
PB-261 178/8CP 

Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 
Wind Error Predictions 
PB-267 413/3CP 

WIND VELOCITY MEASUREMENT 

Determination of Constant-Volume Balloon Capa- 
bilities for Aeronautical Research. 
N77-19715/0CP 

X RAYS 

Atmospheric Transport of X-Rays. 
AD-716 801 /CP 

ZEEMAN EFFECT 

Eso Bulletin No. 12. 
N76-12912/1CP 



101 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 



AERODYNE RESEARCH INC BEDFORD MASS 

ARI-RR-97 

MRDA - A Medium Resolution Data Analysis Code 
for the HP 2100 Computer 
(AFGL-TR-77-0044) 
AD-A042 263/4CP 

AEROJET ELECTROSYSTEMS CO., AZUSA, CALIF. 

AESC-1798-FR-1-Vol-1 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study 
Volume I 

fSAMSO-TR-73-381 -Vol-1 ) 
AD-915 570/6CP 

AESC-1798-FR-1-Vol-2 

Microwave Radiometry Applications Study. 
Volume II Appendices 
(SAMSO-TR-73-381 -Vol-2) 
AD-915 571/4CP 

AERONOMY CORP CHAMPAIGN ILL 

Remote Diagnostics and Correlation Analysis for 
Prairie Smoke 
(RADC-TR-74-182) 
AD-A014 434/5CP 

AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CALIF 
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS LAB 

TR-0076(6754-03)-1 

Band Model Parameters for the 4 3-microns Fun- 
damental Band of C02 in the 100-3000 K Tem- 
perature Range 
(SAMSO-TR-76-35) 
AD-A021 786/9CP 

AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CALIF LAB 
OPERATIONS 

TR-0074(4260-10)-1 -Vol-1 

The Low-G Accelerometer Calibration System Or- 
bital Accelerometer Experiment. Volume I. Experi- 
ment Description and Methodology 
(SAMSO-TR-73-355-Vol-1 ) 
AD-772 717/5CP 

TR-0075(5647)-3 

Monochromatic Transmittance/Radiance Compu- 
tations 

(SAMSO-TR-74-247) 
AD-A003 755/6CP 

AIR FORCE AVIONICS LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON 
AFB OHIO 

AFAL-TR-77-229 

Meteorological Sensitivity of LOWTRAN 3B 
AD-A053 840/5CP 

AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABS 
HANSCOM AFB MASS 

AFCRL-AFSIG-305 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Predict- 
ing Low-Altitude Satellite Fphemerides 
AD-A010 424/0CP 

AFCRL-ERP-501 

Computer Program tor the Disturbed Steady-State 
Nighttime D-Region 
AD-A010 412/5CP 

AFCRL-ERP 513 

Almosphenc Transmittance from 25 to 28.5 
Microns: Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 
AD A017 734/5CP 

AFCRl -ERP-531 

The Calculation of Riorneter Absorption and an 
Approximation Connection between Riorneter Ab- 
sorption and Solar Proton Fluxes during 
Nighttime PCA Events 
AD-A019 656/8CP 

AFCHL-SR-191 

Atmospheric Density Determination from Analysis 
cf Doppler Beacon Satellite Data 
AD A012 195/4CP 

AFCRl TH 75 0150 

Computer Program for the Disturbed Steady-State 
Nighttime D Region 
AD A010 412/5CP 

AFCRL-TR-75-0158 

An Updated Empirical Density Model for Predict- 
ing Low Altilude Satellite Ephemerides 
AD A010 424/0CP 

AFCRl TR-75-0176 

Atmospheric Density Determination from Analysis 
ol Doppler Beacon Satellite Data 
AD A012 195/4CP 

AFCRl TR 75-0255 

Almosphenc Transmittance from 25 to 28 5 
Microns Computer Code LOWTRAN 3 
AD AUt/ /34/5CP 

AFCRl TR 75 0469 

The Calculation of Riorneter Absorption and an 
Approximation Connection between Riorneter Ab- 
sorption and Solar Proton Fluxes during 
Nighttime PCA Events 
AD A019 G56/8CP 



AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABS L G 
HANSCOM FIELD MASS 

AFCRL-AFSIG-241 

Arctic Ionosphere Modelling - Five Related 

Papers 

AD-748 796/CP 

AFCRL-AFSIG-267 

An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere 
AD-766 240/6CP 

AFCRL-AFSIG-276 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-State 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

AFCRL-ERP-377 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 
AD-739 166/CP 

AFCRL-ERP-401 

Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Electron 
Density Profile 
AD-751 267/CP 

AFCRL-ERP-421 

Numerical Model of the Equatorial Electrojet 
AD-758 196/CP 

AFCRL-ERP-427 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 
28 5/micrometers Computer Code LOWTRAN 2 
AD-763 721/CP 

AFCRL-ERP-446 

Geomagnetic Field Models for Ray Tracing 
AD-766 241 /4CP 

AFCRL-ERP-464 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting Low- 
Altitude Satellite Ephemerides Part 1. Data Analy- 
sis and Model Formulation 
AD-778 820/1CP 

AFCRL-IP-182 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 
Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-763 082/CP 

AFCRL-TR-0062 

An Empirical Density Model for Predicting Low- 
Altitude Satellite Ephemerides Part 1 Data Analy- 
sis and Model Formulation 
AD-778 820/1CP 

AFCRL-TR-73-0155 

Application of a Computer-Controlled Two- 
Dimensional Densitometer to Photograph Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-763 082/CP 

AFCRL-TR-73-0294 

Geomagnetic Field Models for Ray Tracing 
AD-766 241/4CP 

AFCRL-TR-73-0331 

An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere 
AD-766 240/6CP 

AFCRL-TR-73-0525 

Formulation of Diurnal D-Region Models Using a 
Photochemical Computer Code and Current 
Reaction Rates 
AD-766 525/OCP 

AFCRL-71-0600 

Photo-Equilibrium of Barium 
AD-739 166/CP 

AFCRL-72-0305 

Arctic Ionosphere Modelling - Five Related 

Papers 

AD-748 796/CP 

AFCRL-72-0340 

Modeling the Bottomside Ionospheric Electron 
Density Profile 
AD-751 267/CP 

AFCRL-72-0668 

Numerical Model of the Equatorial Electrojet 
AD-758 196/CP 

AFCRL-72-0745 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 
28 5/micrometers Computer Code LOWTRAN 2 
AD-763 721/CP 

AFCRL-73-0635 

A FORTRAN Program for Computing Steady-State 
Composition Models of the Upper Atmosphere 
AD-775 080/5CP 

AIR FORCE EASTERN TEST RANGE PATRICK AFB 
FLA 

AFETR-TR-7607-Vol-l 

Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, 
Volume I 
AD-A034 847/4CP 



AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICAL 
APPLICATIONS CENTER SCOTT AFB ILL 

USAFETAC-6988 

A Technique to Specify Liquid Water Content at a 
Point in the Atmosphere 
AD-A027 457/1 CP 

AIR FORCE FLIGHT DYNAMICS LAB WRIGHT- 
PATTERSON AFB OHIO 

AFFDL-TR-72-51 

Atmospheric Turbulence Field Parameters Deter- 
mination 
AD-745 946/CP 

AFFDL-TR-77-4 

A Description of the Atmospheric Turbulence En- 
vironment Derived from the Critical Atmospheric 
Turbulence (ALLCAT) Program 
AD-A042 549/6CP 

AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCOM AFB 
MASS 

AFGL-AFSG-380-PT-1 

Modeling of the Geosynchronous Orbit Plasma 
Environment. Part I 
AD-A053 164/OCP 

AFGL-ERP-580 

Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to Deter- 
mine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 
AD-A035 504/OCP 

AFGL-ERP-587 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 25 to 28.5 
Micrometers: Supplement LOWTRAN 3B (1976) 
AD-A040 701/5CP 

AFGL-ERP-621 

Persistence. Runs, and Recurrence of Sky Cover 
AD-A053 199/6CP 

AFGL-TR-76-0243 

Analysis of Smoke Trail Photographs to Deter- 
mine Stratospheric Winds and Shears 
AD-A035 504/OCP 

AFGL-TR-76-0258 

Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 
Micrometers Supplement LOWTRAN 3B (1976) 
AD-A040 701/5CP 

AFGL-TR-77-0288-PT-1 

Modeling of the Geosynchronous Orbit Plasma 
Environment Part I 
AD-A053 164/OCP 

AFGL-TR-77-0308 

Persistence, Runs, and Recurrence of Sky Cover 
AD-A053 199/6CP 

AIR FORCE GLOBAL WEATHER CENTRAL OFFUTT 
AFB NEBR 

AFGWC-TM-70-7 

Turbulence Forecasting Procedures 
AD-731 134/CP 

AFGWC-TM-70-8 

Validation of Meteorological Data 
AD-731 138/CP 

AFGWC-TM-71-2 

Improved Three Dimensional Nephanalysis Model 
AD-736 798/CP 

AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON 
AFB OHIO SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING 

AFIT/GEO/PH/77-1 

A Matrix Approach to a Propagation Code 
AD-A055 463/4CP 

GSA/SM/74-8 

A Semi-Markov Weather Model 
AD-778 873/OCP 
AIR FORCE WEAPONS LAB KIRTLAND AFB N MEX 

AFWL-TR-74-47 

Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts 
AD-783 246/2CP 

AFWL-TR-74-204 

Analytic and Numerical Chemistry Algorithms for 
the WORRY Code WORRY Document No 2 
AD-A012 002/2CP 

ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 
AUBURN. 

Bull 470 

Scheduling and Application Rates ol Irrigation in 
Humid Climate 
(OWRT-A-025-ALA(3)) 
PB-244 760/5CP 

ALABAMA UNIV., HUNTSVILLE. SCHOOL OF 
GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH. 

NASA-CR-149932 

Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes 
N76-27748/2CP 

UAH-RR-186 

Environmental Dynamics at Orbital Altitudes 
N76-27748/2CP 



102 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 



CALIFORNIA UNIV., LA JOLLA. 



ALASKA UNIV COLLEGE GEOPHYSICAL INST 

TR-2 

Project SECEDE. Tracking Barium releases using 
the TV-TRACK System 
(RADC-TR-71-195) 
AD-731 574/CP 

ALASKA UNIV., COLLEGE. INST. OF WATER 
RESOURCES. 

IWR-76 

User's Guide for Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide 
Transport Model 
(FHWA/AK-76-IWR76) 
PB-259 719/3CP 

ALLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC BALTIMORE 
MD 

ARA-101F 

Development of Digital Enhancement Techniques 
Applicable to Direct Read-Out (APT) Meteorologi- 
cal Satellite Images 
(EPRF-TR-3-73(ARA)) 
AD-774 524/3CP 

ALLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC CONCORD 
MASS 

ARA-8G80-F 

Development of Techniques for the Operational 
Use of ITOS Satellite Data by the Fleet 
(FAMOS-TN-2-71) 
AD-726 304/CP 

ANALYSIS AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS INC 
BURLINGTON MASS 

Development of Numerical Techniques and Com- 
puter Systems for Climatological, Ionospheric and 
Microwave Physics Applications 
(AFGL-TR-76-0006) 
AD-A022 975/7CP 

ARGONNE NATIONAL LAB., ILL. 

Evaluation of Emission Control Strategies for Sul- 
fur Dioxide and Particulates in the Chicago 
Metropolitan Air Quality Control Region 
ANL-IIPP-2 

ARGONNE NATIONAL LAB., ILL. (USA). 

The What System: A New Digitized Radiosonde 
and Double Theodolite Balloon Tracking System 
for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Investigations 
CONF-731205-1 

ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON 

Climatic Modeling of the Earth-Atmosphere 

System 

(ARO-9077.6-EN) 

AD-A020 458/6CP 

ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD 
BALLISTICS RESEARCH LAB 

ARBRL-TR-02050 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions. II. Results for 
the Stratosphere and Mesosphere 
(AD-E430-017) 
AD-A054 325/6CP 

ARBRL-TR-02051 

BENCHMARK-76: Model Computations for 
Disturbed Atmospheric Conditions III. Results for 
Selected Excitation Parameters at 60 km 
(AD-E430-022) 
AD-A054 376/9CP 

ARMY COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH 
CENTER WASHINGTON D C 

CERC-TM-35 

Storm Surge on the Open Coast Fundamentals 
and Simplified Prediction 
AD-728 128/CP 

ARMY ELECTRONICS COMMAND FORT MONMOUTH 
N J 

ECOM-5367 
Data Reduction Program for Rocketsonde Tem- 
peratures 
AD 724 599/CP 

ECOM-5515 

Algorithms for Generating a Skew-T, log p Dia- 
gram and Computing Selected Meteorological 
Quantities 
AD-769 739/4CP 

ECOM-5527 

Fog Clearing Using Helicopter Downdrafts: A Nu- 
merical Model 
AD-771 038/7CP 

ECOM-5577 
A Digital Data Acquisition Interface for the SMS 
Direct Readout Ground Station - Concept and 
Preliminary Design 
AD-A022 317/2CP 



ARMY ELECTRONICS COMMAND WHITE SANDS 
MISSILE RANGE N MEX ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 
LAB 

A Study of Cloud Dynamics Utilizing Stereoscopic 

Photogrammetry 

(ECOM-5368) 

AD-733 284/CP 

A Two-Dimensional Short-Range Fog Forecast 

Model 

(ECOM-5443; 

AD-750 082/CP 

An Iterative Method for Saturation Adjustment 

(ECOM-5444; 

AD-750 083/CP 

A General-Purpose Meteorological Rocket Data 
Reduction Program 
(ECOM-S462) 
AD-751 780/CP 

Numerical Approximations of Selected 

Meteorologicl Parameters Related to Cloud 

Physics 

(ECOM-5475; 

AD-757 623/CP 

ARMY MISSILE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
COMMAND REDSTONE ARSENAL AL TECHNOLOGY 
LAB 

DRDMI-T-78-16 

Methods for Prediction of Atmospheric Effects on 
Laser Guidance Systems 
AD-A051 617/9CP 

ATLANTIC SCIENCE CORP INDIALANTIC FLA 

Documentation and Description of the Bent Iono- 
spheric Model 
(SAMSO-TR-73-252) 
AD-772 733/2CP 

ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY LAB., 
BOULDER, COLO. 

APCL-17 

Computer Subroutine for Presenting Meterologi- 
cal Flight Data on the Printer (CURVPT) 
(NOAA-TR-ERL-199) 
COM-71-50082/CP 

ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES LAB WHITE SANDS 
MISSILE RANGE N MEX 

One-Dimensional Quasi-Time-Dependent Numeri- 
cal Model of Cumulus Cloud Activity 
(ECOM-S3S0) 
AD-722 216/CP 

AVCO EVERETT RESEARCH LAB INC EVERETT 
MASS 

Turbulence Characterization and Control 

(RADC-TR-76-189) 

AD-A027 155/1CP 

BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABS ABERDEEN PROVING 
GROUND MD 

BRL-MR-2453 

Computing Methods Used in Support of Modeling 
Electron Concentrations in High-Altitude Chemi- 
cal Releases 
AD-A009 069/6CP 

BRL-1702 

Survey of Two-Body and Three-Body Reaction- 
Rate Coefficients for the Ionized Stratosphere and 
Mesosphere 
AD-776 95078CP 

BRL-1733 

Description and Comparison of the K Method for 
Performing Numerical Integration of Stiff Ordinary 
Differential Equations 
AD-A003 855/4CP 

BRL-1790 

Refractive Effects in Remote Sensing of the At- 
mosphere with Infrared Transmission Spectrosco- 
py 
AD-A011 253/2CP 

BRL-1909 
Chemistry of Atmospheric Oeionization Outside 
Intermediate-Altitude Fireballs. II. 15-. 20-. and 25- 
km Altitude 
AD-A029 890/1CP 

BRL-1913 

AIRCHEM: A Computational Technique for Model- 
ing the Chemistry of the Atmosphere 
AD-A030 157/2CP 

BRL-1972 
The Elfects of Uncertainties in the Two-Body Ion- 
Ion Recombination Coefficient Upon Computed 
Ion Distributions in the Stratosphere and Meso- 
sphere 
AO-A038 263/OCP 



BATTELLE PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABS., 
RICHLAND, WASH. 

CONF-741 003-7 

Application of the Epaec Scavenging Model to 
Calculations for Industrial Plumes 
BNWL-SA-5117 

Hetran: A Subprogram Package for Predicting the 
Heat Transfer Across the Surface of a Natural 
Body of Water. 
BNWL-B-361 

STRAM - An Air Pollution Model Incorporating 
Nonlinear Chemistry, Variable Trajectories, and 
Plume Segment Diffusion 
(EPA/450/3-77/012) 
PB-270 778/4CP 

BATTELLE PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABS RICHLAND 
WASH ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DEPT 

Precipitation Scavenging of Organic Contami- 
nants 

(AROD-10417 1-EN) 
AD-779 551 /1CP 

Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Com- 
pounds from Plumes 
(EPA-R3-73-047) 
PB-232 445/7CP 

BONN UNIV. (WEST GERMANY). INST. FUER 
ASTROPHYSIK UND EXTRATERRESTRISCHE 
FORSCHUNG. 

BMFT-FB-W-75-11 

Determination of Altitude Dependence of the Exo- 
spheric Rotation Above 350 Km Bestimmung der 
Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Exosphaerischen Rota- 
tion Oberhalb 350 Km 
N76-15717/1CP 

BOSTON COLL CHESTNUT HILL MASS SPACE DATA 
ANALYSIS LAB 

BC-SDAL-76-1 
Theoretical and Numerical Studies of the Upper 
Atmosphere using Satellite and Rocket Measur- 
ments 

(AFGL-TR-76-0025) 
AD-A022 677/9CP 

BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DENVER, COLO. 
ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH CENTER. 

REC-ERC-77-8 

Atmospheric Simulation Using Stratified Liquid 

Models 

PB-274 529/7CP 

CALIFORNIA STATE DEPT. OF TRANSPORTATION, 
SACRAMENTO. TRANSPORTATION LAB. 

657169 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality. 
An Approach and Computer Program for Wind 
Flow Field Analysis 
(FHWA/CA-76/38) 
PB-263 921 /9CP 

657169 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 
(FHWA/CA-76/27) 
PB-268 329/OCP 

CA-DOT-TL-71 69 -2-76-27 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality - 
A Difkin Sensitivity Analysis 
(FHWA/CA-76/27) 
PB-268 329/OCP 

CA-DOT-TL-71 69-4-76-38 

Transportation Systems and Regional Air Quality. 
An Approach and Computer Program for Wind 
Flow Field Analysis 
(FHWA/CA-76/38) 
PB-263 921/9CP 

CA-DOT-TL-721 8 -1-76-23 

CALINE 2 - An Improved Microscale Model for the 
Dispersion of Air Pollutants from a Line Source 
(FHWA/RD-77-74) 
PB-275 683/1CP 

CALIFORNIA UNIV., BERKELEY. SPACE SCIENCES 
LAB. 

NASA-CR-132869 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

SSL-SER-14-ISSUE-19 

Energetic Particle Flux Experiment (Imp F and G) 
N74-18336/9CP 

CALIFORNIA UNIV., LA JOLLA. 

NASA-CR-137371 

Studies of the Structure of the Plasmasphere as 
Seen by Radiosounder Measurements Aboard the 
Alovetti-Satellite. 
N74-20467/8CP 



103 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 



CALIFORNIA UNIV., LIVERMORE LAWRENCE 
LIVERMORE LAB. 

CONF-750533-4 

Adpic: A Three-Dimensional Transport-Diffusion 
Model for the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants 
and Its Validation Against Regional Tracer Stu- 
dies. 
UCRL-76170 

CONF-750902-3 

Applications of Episode: An Experimental 
Package for the Integration of Systems of Ordina- 
ry Differential Equations. 
UCRL-75868 

CONF-761003-19 

Modeling the Planetary Boundary Layer Using the 

Galerkin Finite-Element Method 

UCRL-78120 

Current Status of LLL Four-D Atmospheric 

Propagation Code Effort 

UCID-16827-2 

Modeling of Transport in the Two-Dimensional 
Atmospheric Transport and Kinetics Codes 
SPHERNEW and TRACER 
UCID-17203 

PATRIC: A Three Dimensional Particle-in-Cell 
Sequential Puff Code for Modeling the Transport 
and Diffusion of Atmospheric Pollutants 
UCID-17701 

Time-Dependent Propagation of High Energy 
Laser BEAMS Through the Atmosphere 
UCRL-51826 

CPS: A Continuous-Point-Source Computer Code 
for Plume Dispersion and Deposition Calculations 
UCPL-52049 

Development of a Three-Dimensional Model of 
the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using the Finite 
Element Method 
UCRL-52366 

CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF 
METEOROLOGY 

Morphology and Dynamics of Ionospheric Storms 

(AFCRL-TR-73-0610) 

AD-774 760/3CP 

CALIFORNIA UNIV., LOS ANGELES. SPACE 
SCIENCE CENTER. 

NASA-CR-1 29924 

Correlative Studies of the Solar Wind The Inter- 
planetary Magnetic Field, and Their Effects on the 
Geomagnetic Cavity Using Explorer 33 and 35 
Data 
N73-14808/CP 

CALIFORNIA UNIV., SAN DIEGO. 

NASA-CR-138115 

Behavior of Thermal Plasma in the Ionosphere 

and Magnetosphere 

N74-22355/3CP 

CALIFORNIA UNIV., SAN DIEGO, LA JOLLA. DEPT. 
OF CHEMISTRY. 

Evaluation of a Short Term Oxidant Control 

Strategy 

(ARB-R-4-718-76-61) 

PB-271 643/9CP 

CALSPAN CORP BUFFALO N Y 

CALSPAN-CJ-5756-M-2 

Simulation of Marine Advection Fog with the Cal- 
span Advection Fog Model Using Prognostic 
Equations for Turbulent Energy 
AD-A027 380/5CP 

M156 

Proiect Fog Drops 5. Task 1: A Numerical Model 
of Advection Fog. Task 2: Recommendations for 
Simplified Individual Zero-Gravity Cloud Physics 
Experiments 
N76-13702/5CP 

NASA-CR-2633 

Project Fog Drops 5 Task 1: A Numerical Model 
of Advection Fog. Task 2: Recommendations for 
Simplified Individual Zero-Gravity Cloud Physics 
Experiments. 
N76-13702/5CP 

CEA CENTRE D ETUDES NUCLEAIRES DE 
FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES, 92 (FRANCE). DEPT. DE 
PHYSIQUE DU PLASMA ET DE LA FUSION 
CONTROLEE. 

Determination of the Particle Size Distribution of 
an Aerosol Using a Diffusion Battery. 
CEA-R-4549 

CEA CENTRE D ETUDES NUCLEAIRES DE 
FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES (FRANCE). DEPT. DE 
PROTECTION. 

Cartographic Forecasts of Short-Term Air Pollu- 
tion Averages 
CEA-R-4837 



CHICAGO UNIV ILL LAB FOR ATMOSPHERIC 
PROBING 

TN-6 

Digital Processing of FM-CW Radar Data 
AD-733 295/CP 

CITY UNIV. OF NEW YORK. DEPT. OF EARTH AND 
PLANETARY SCIENCES. 

CONTRIB-105 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere for 
February 1976 with the Giss Model. 
N78-24754/1CP 

NASA-CR-157158 

Simulations of the Monthly Mean Atmosphere for 
February 1976 with the Giss Model 
N78-24754/1CP 

COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER FORT 
BELVOIR VA 

CERC-TM-50 

Verification Study of a Bathystrophic Storm Surge 

Model 

AD-A012 799/3CP 

COLORADO STATE UNIV FORT COLLINS COLL OF 
FORESTRY AND NATURAL RESOURCES 

A Stochastic Canopy Model of Diurnal 

Reflectance 

(ARO-9928.4-EN) 

AD-A004 026/1 CP 

COLORADO STATE UNIV., FORT COLLINS. DEPT. OF 
ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. 

Effects of Atmospheric Variability on Energy 

Utilization and Conservation 

COO-1340-52 

COLORADO STATE UNIV., FORT COLLINS. DEPT. OF 
CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

NASA-CR-1 24355 

A Comparison of a Coaxial Focused Laser Dop- 
pler System in Atmospheric Measurements 
N73-30627/6CP 

COLORADO STATE UNIV FORT COLLINS FLUID 
DYNAMICS AND DIFFUSION LAB 

CER71-72SNP-JEC1 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
AD-753 268/CP 

THEMIS-CER-TR-19 

Mass Dispersion from an Instantaneous Line 
Source in a Turbulent Shear Flow 
AD-753 268/CP 

COLORADO UNIV BOULDER DEPT OF COMPUTER 
SCIENCE 

Software Tools for Climate Simulation 

(AFOSR-TR-75-1530) 

AD-A017 664/4CP 

COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL 
RESEARCH ORGANIZATION, MELBOURNE 
(AUSTRALIA). 

Global Horizontal Solar Radiation for Australian 
Locations Stored in the CSIRO CYBER 7600 
System: The Data and Method of Retrieval 
S.E.S -75/3 

COMPASS SYSTEMS, INC., SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 

100-16 

Program TRUWIND 
(EPRF-CP-Note-16) 
AD-A005 311/6CP 

COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP., SILVER SPRING, MD. 

NASA-CR-152508 

Skylab S191. S192 Program Descriptions. 
N77-26177/4CP 

COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP., SILVER SPRING, MD. 
SYSTEM SCIENCES DIV 

CSC/TR-75/6007 

Feasibility Study of a Ouadrilateralized Spherical 
Cube Earth Data Base 
(EPRF-TR-2-75(CSC» 
AD-A010 232/7CP 

CONTROL DATA CORP., MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study. Part I 
(EPA/600/4-77/002a) 
PB-266 255/9CP 

An Objective Analysis Technique for the Regional 
Air Pollution Study Part II 
(E PA /600/4 - 7 7 /002b) 
PB-266 756/6CP 

CORNELL AERONAUTICAL LAB., INC., BUFFALO, N. 



CAL-RM-2864-P-1 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 



NASA-CR-1731 

Investigation of Warm Fog Properties and Fog 

Modification Concepts 

N71-22619/CP 

CORVALLIS ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LAB., 
OREG. ASSESSMENT AND CRITERIA 
DEVELOPMENT DIV. 

EPA/600/3-76/100 

Cooling Tower Plume Model 
PB-259 971/OCP 

CRAMER (H.E.) CO., INC., SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 

M155 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Programs, Version 5. 
N76-17658/5CP 

M-245 

Users' Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud-Rise 
Preprocessor Program, Version 6, and the 
NASA/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Program, Version 
6: Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 System 
N78-18573/3CP 

NASA-CR-2631 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Programs, Version 5. 
N76-17658/5CP 

NASA-CR-2945 

Users' Instructions for the NASA/Msfc Cloud-Rise 
Preprocessor Program, Version 6, and the 
NASA/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Program. Version 
6: Research Version for UNIVAC 1108 System. 
N78-18573/3CP 

NASA-CR-1 29006 

Nasa/Msfc Multilayer Diffusion Models and Com- 
puter Program for Operational Prediction of Toxic 
Fuel Hazards 
N73-28050/5CP 

TR-76-106-01 

Mixing-Layer Analysis Routine and Trans- 
port/Diffusion Application Routine for EPAMS 
(ECOM-77-2) 
AD-A038 399/2CP 

DANISH METEOROLOGICAL INST COPENHAGEN 
GEOPHYSICAL DEPT 

Ionospheric Research Using Satellites 

(AFCRL-TR-75-049S) 

AD-A015 861 /8CP 

DANISH SPACE RESEARCH INST., LYNGBY. 

The Effect of Large Scale Irregularities on the 
Propagation of VLF Waves Through the Lower 
Ionosphere with Special Reference to Auroral 
Hiss. 
N70-22824/CP 

DARTMOUTH COLL HANOVER N H THAYER 
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING 

Short-Term Predictions on the Course of Polar 
Cap Absorption. 
(AFCRL-69-054 1(l)) 
AD-706 410/CP 

DELAWARE UNIV., NEWARK. WATER RESOURCES 
CENTER. 

Contrib-22 

Estimation of Areal Average Precipitation Using 

Different Network Densities and Averaging 

Techniques 

(OWRT-A-029-DEL(1» 

PB-264 243/7CP 

DENVER UNIV., COLO. DEPT. OF GEOGRAPHY. 

The Development of Computer Programs Applica- 
ble to Meaningful Precipitation Management Ex- 
periments 

(REC-14-06-D-6646-F) 
PB-202 199/CP 

DENVER UNIV., COLO. DEPT. OF PHYSICS AND 
ASTRONOMY. 

NASA-CR-137762 

Measurements of Trace Constituents from At- 
mospheric Infrared Emission and Absorption 
Spectra, a Feasibility Study 
N76-13673/8CP 

DEPARTEMENT ETUDES ET DE RECHERCHES EN 
TECHNOLOGIE SPATIALE, TOULOUSE (FRANCE). 

Theoretical Study and Calculation of Particle Flux 
in the Stable Region of the Magnetosphere. 
N70-29050/CP 

DEUTSCHE FORSCHUNGS- UND 
VERSUCHSANSTALT FUER LUFT- UND 
RAUMFAHRT, OBERPFAFFENHOFEN (WEST 
GERMANY). 

DLR-IB-552-76/27 

Calculation of the Desired Angle Values for the 
Alignment of a Stabilized Two Axis Rotating Plat- 
form in an Aircraft Berechnung der Winkel-Soll- 
werte fuer die Ausrichtung Eines Stabilisierten 
Zwei-Achsen-Drehstandes in Einem Flugzeug 
N78-14235/3CP 



104 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 

FRANKLIN PIERCE COLL RINDGE N H DEPT OF RESEARCH 



DIGITAL PROGRAMMING SERVICES INC WALTHAM 
MASS 

Development and Application ot Data Processing 
Techniques and Analytic Procedures to Cloud 
Physics Data 
(AFCRL-TR-75-0427) 
AD-A018 662/7CP 

DREXEL UNIV PHILADELPHIA PA DEPT OF PHYSICS 

Scientilic-2 

Diagnostic Studies of Sybsynoptic Atmospheric 

Structure 

(AFCRL-70-0617) 

AD-726 628/CP 

DREXEL UNIV., PHILADELPHIA, PA. DEPT. OF 
PHYSICS AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE.. 

NASA-CR-145011 
Techniques tor Computing Regional Radiant 
Emittances of the Earth-Atmosphere System from 
Observations by Wide-Angle Satellite Radiome- 
ters. Phase 3 
N77-20659/7CP 

DREXEL UNIV PHILADELPHIA PA DEPT OF PHYSICS 
AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Scientific-5 

A One-Dimensional Numerical Model to Study the 
Effects of Cumulus Clouds on the Environment 
(AFCRL-TR-73-0014) 
AD-760 123/CP 

DUGWAY PROVING GROUND UTAH 

DPG-FR-M920A 
An Atmospheric Dispersion and Environmental 
Prediction Technique 
AD-A010 647/6CP 

DPG-FR-M921A 
Application of the Calder Finite Difference Diffu- 
sion Model to Calculations ot Instantaneous 
Elevated Line Source Dosages 
AD-A009 750/1CP 

DYTEC ENGINEERING INC HUNTINGTON BEACH 
CA 

DYTEC-R-7705 

Atmospheric-Absorption Adjustment Procedure 
for Aircraft Flyover Noise Measurements 
(FAA-RD-77-167) 
AD-A051 700/3CP 

EDGEWOOD ARSENAL, ABERDEEN PROVING 
GROUND, MD 

ED-TR-74098 
A Mathematical Model for the Atmospheric Dis- 
semination of Evaporating Aerosol Clouds 
(Evaporation Model) 
AD-A015 542/4CP 

EG AND G, INC., BOULDER, COLO. 
ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES OPERATION. 

A Parameterized Numerical Model of Orographic 

Precipitation 

PB-192 757/CP 

Potential Environmental Modifications Produced 
by Large Evaporative Cooling Towers 
(EPA-16130-DNH-01/71) 
PB-210 702/7CP 

ELECTRONIC ASSOCIATES INC WEST LONG 
BRANCH N J SCIENTIFIC COMPUTATION DEPT 

30-307001 

Ray Tracing Study 

AD-779 091/8CP 
EMMANUEL COLL BOSTON MASS 
Scientific- 1 

Study of Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 

Magnetosphere: 1. Design and Fabrication of 

Data Processing System 2 Mathematical Analysis 

of Magnetospheric Models 

(AFCRL-TR-74-0449! 

AD-A003 394/4CP 

Scienlific-1 

Satellite Beacon Studies 1 Total Electron Con- 
lent. 2 Scintillation Studies 3 Programming 
(AFCRL-TR-75-0069) 
AD-A008 193/5CP 

Scientific-2 
Calibration ol the SSJ/3 Sensor on the DMSP 
Satellites 

(AFGL-TR-77-0202) 
AD-A045 997/4CP 

Study ol Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation in the 
Magnetosphere 
(AFCRI -TR-75-0588) 
AD-A020 301 /8CP 

Mathematical-Model Programs 

(AFCRL-72-0674) 

AD-760 117/CP 



EMMANUEL COLL BOSTON MASS PHYSICS 
RESEARCH OIV 

Analysis of Stratospheric Balloon Programs 

(AFCRL-71-0115) 

AD-722 076/CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL PREDICTION RESEARCH 
FACILITY (NAVY) MONTEREY CALIF 

ENVPREDRSCHF-tech nole-24 
A Generalized Version ol the Fields by Informa- 
tion Blending (FIB) Technique 
AD-A021 638/2CP 

ENVPREDRSCHF-tech paper-16-74 
A Tropical Cyclone Analog Program for the 
Southwest Indian Ocean 
AD-A001 271/6CP 

ENVPREDRSCHF-tech paper-20-75 

Objective Analysis Technique in Sigma Coor- 
dinates 
AD-A021 213/4CP 

ENVPREDRSCHFAC-tech-paper-1-73 
The 1972 Typhoon Analog Program (TYFOON-72) 
AD-758 007/CP 

ENVPREDRSCHFAC-tech paper-6-73 
Oceanic Fog. a Numerical Study 
AD-767 934/3CP 

ENVPREDRSHCHFAC-tech-paper-5-74 
A Three-Parameter Model for Limited Area 
Forecasting 
AD-777 406/OCP 

EPRF-CP Note-3 

Basic ZOOM Program 
AD-A011 409/OCP 

EPRF-CP Note-11 
Program Graphic 
AD-A011 416/5CP 

EPRF-CP Note-20 

A Cloud Advection Model 
AD-A020 045/1CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. MONITORING 
AND DATA ANALYSIS DIV. 

Valley Model Computer Program 

(EPA/DF-78/002) 

PB-275 700/3CP 

Single Source (CRSTER) Model Computer Pro- 
grams 

(EPA/DF-78/004) 
PB-275 701/1CP 

Climatological Dispersion Model OC (CDMOC) 
Computer Program 
(EPA/DF-78/003) 
PB-276 516/2CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. OFFICE OF AIR 
QUALITY PLANNING AND STANDARDS. 

EPA/450/2-77/013 

User's Manual for Single-Source (CRSTER) Model 
PB-271 360/0CP 

EPA/450/2-77/018 

Valley Model User's Guide 
PB-274 054/6CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 
INC., CONCORD, MASS. 

ERT-P-821 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer 

N75-28749/0CP 

ERT-P-1121-Vol 2 
Adaptation ol Gaussian Plume Model to Incor- 
porate Multiple Station Data Input Volume II Ap- 
pendices 

(EPA/600/3-75/003b) 
PB-252 558/2CP 

ERT-P-2095 

Parameterization of Weather Radar Data for Use 
in the Prediction of Storm Motion and Develop- 
ment 

(AFGL-TR-77-0216) 
AD-A052 535/2CP 

NASA-CR-143816 

Computer Program Compatible with a Laser 

Nephelometer. 

N75-28749/0CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 
INC., LEXINGTON, MASS. 

NASA-CR-129030 

Studies in the Use of Cloud Type Statistics in 

Mission Simulation 

N74-30053/4CP 



ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH ANO TECHNOLOGY, 
INC., WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CALIF. WESTERN 
TECHNICAL CENTER. 

Design ol the Sullate Regional Experiment 
(SURE) Volume III Appendices 
(EPRI/EC-125-Vol-3) 
PB-251 703/5CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INST OF MICHIGAN 
ANN ARBOR INFRARED ANO OPTICS DIV 

ERIM-107600-10-T 

Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: 
Methods of Calculation 
AD-A017 459/9CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABS., BOULDER, 
COLO. OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-OD-8 

Outline ol a Bayesian Approach to the EML Multi- 
ple Cloud Seeding Experiments 
COM-71-00875/CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES RESEARCH LAB.. 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. 

EPA/600/4-77/049 

Non-Divergent Wind Analysis Algorithm for the St. 
Louis RAPS (Regional Air Pollution Study) Net- 
work 
PB-276 582/4CP 

EPA/600/4-78/013 

User's Guide for PAL A Guassian-Plume Al- 
gorithm for Point. Area, and Line Sources 
PB-281 306/1CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES RESEARCH LAB., 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. METEOROLOGY 
AND ASSESSMENT DIV. 

EPA/600/4-77/015 
Calculation of Selected Photolytic Rate Constants 
over a Diurnal Range. A Computer Algorithm 
PB-266 739/2CP 

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS 
CENTER (AIR FORCE) WASHINGTON D C 

USAFETAC-TN-71-11 

Numerical Preprocessing of Rawinsonde Position 

Vectors 

AD-732 205/CP 

USAFETAC-TN-72-8 

An Operational Decision Model Employing Opera- 
tional and Environmental Factors 
AD-755 403/CP 

USAFETAC-TN-74-3 

A Precipitating Convective Cloud Model 
AD-A002 117/OCP 

EPSILON LABS INC BEDFORD MASS 

FR-2001-73 

Stratospheric Balloon Aerosol Particle Counter 

Measurements 

(AFCRL-TR-73-0700) 

AD-777 135/5CP 

FR-2003-74 

Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter Modifications. 
Particle Sizing Accuracy Tests 
(AFCRL-TR-74-0349) 
AD-784 866/6CP 

Balloon Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol 
Size Distribution Following a Volcanic Dust Incur- 
sion 

(AFCRL-TR-75-0518) 
AD-A018 372/3CP 

EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY, HAMBURG 
(WEST GERMANY). 

Eso Bulletin No 12 
N76-12912/1CP 

EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, PARIS (FRANCE). 

ESA-TT-381 

Dispersion of Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere. 
N77-31678/4CP 

ONERA-P-1976-7 

Dispersion ol Trace Constituents in the Strato- 
sphere. 
N77-31678/4CP 

FINNISH METEOROLOGICAL INST., HELSINKI. 

TR-1 

Numerical Weather Prediction in Finland During 

1969 

N72-28639/CP 

FRANKLIN PIERCE COLL RINDGE N H DEPT OF 
RESEARCH 

Solar Cycle Variations of Geomagnetically 
Trapped Radiation 
(AFCRL-TR-73-0481) 
AD-774 043/4CP 



105 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 



GCA CORP BEDFORD MASS GCA TECHNOLOGY 
DIV 

GCA-TR-70-9-A 

Infrasonic Data Reduction 
(AFCRL-72-0429) 
AD-748 283/CP 

GCA-TR-71-3-A 

A Balloon-Borne Aerosol Counter 

(AFCRL-71-0416) 

AD-737 802/CP 

GENERAL DYNAMICS SAN DIEGO CALIF 
ELECTRONICS DIV 

R-75-073 

Remote Infrared Atmospheric Profiling System 

(RIAPS) 

AD-A018 562/9CP 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO PHILADELPHIA PA SPACE 
DIV 

A Compendium of Optical Interferometer Results 
on Secede II 
(RADC-TR-72-122) 
AD-744 833/CP 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO., PITTSFIELD, MASS. 

NASA-CR-2349 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

SRD-72-066 

Analysis and Calculation of Lightning-Induced 
Voltages in Aircraft Electrical Circuits 
N74-14754/7CP 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO SANTA BARBARA CALIF 
TEMPO 

GE73TMP-20 

WEPH V Code Modifications for HF Propagation 
and System Performance Modeling 
(DNA-3153T) 
AD-770 053/7CP 

GENERAL ELECTRIC CO SYRACUSE N Y HEAVY 
MILITARY EQUIPMENT DEPT 

R74EMH24 
An Analysis of Ionospheric Electron Content Mea- 
surements Utilizing Satellite-Emitted Signals 
AD-A042 374/9CP 

GENERAL RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA 
CALIF 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 14b Midlatitude 
Density Profiles of Selected Atmospheric Species 
(ONA-3964F-14b) 
AD-A043 499/3CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 16 High-Altitude 
Neutral-Particle Motion 
(DNA-3964F-16) 
AD-A043 546/1 CP 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 17 High-Altitude 
Debris-Energy Deposition 
(DNA-3964F-17) 
AD-A043 547/9CP 

The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 14A. Ambient At- 
mosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and 
Ionosphere) 
(DNA-3964F-14A) 
AD-A048 013/7CP 

The ROSCOE Manual Volume 10 Models of Ion 
Leak and Loss Cone Patches 
(DNA-3964F-W) 
AD-A048 014/5CP 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, TACOMA, WASH. WATER 
RESOURCES DIV. 

USGS/WRD-74-036 

Direct Beam Solar Radiation A Digital Computer 

program 

PB-236 902/3CP 

GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, CHRISTCHURCH 
(NEW ZEALAND). PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING 
LAB. 

REPT-540 

A Program for Reading Ionospheric Data 
N78-23650/2CP 

GEORGIA INST. OF TECH., ATLANTA. 
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES CENTER. 

ERC-0972 

Digital Simulation of Thunderstorm Rainfall 

(OWRR-A-036GA(1)) 

PB 211 806/CP 

GEORGIA INST. OF TECH., ATLANTA. SCHOOL OF 
AEROSPACE ENGINEERING. 

NASA-CR-150214 

The Global Reference Atmospheric Model. MOD 2 
(Wilh Two Scale Perturbation Model) 
N77-20660/5CP 



GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA SCHOOL OF 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

Geometrical Acoustics Techniques in Far Field In- 
frasonic Waveform Syntheses 
("AFGL-TR-76-0055J 
AD-A024 721 /3CP 

Computational Techniques for the Study of In- 
frasound Propagation in the Atmosphere 
(-AFGL-TR-76-0056J 
AD-A024 951/6CP 

GEORGIA UNIV., ATHENS. DEPT. OF PHYSICS. 

NASA-CR-61370 

Use of the Negative Binomial-Truncated Poisson 
Distribution in Thunderstorm Prediction 
N72-14641/CP 

GHANA UNIV LEGON DEPT OF PHYSICS 

Total Electron Measurements of the Ionosphere 
using Beacon Satellites BEB(S66) and BEC 
(•AFCRL-72-0562; 
AD-751 517/CP 

GOODYEAR AEROSPACE CORP AKRON OHIO 

GER-15325 

Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 
fAFCRL-7J-0406; 
AD-731 570/CP 

Scientific-2 

Investigation of Stability Characteristics of 
Tethered Balloon Systems 
(AFCRL-71-0406) 
AD-731 570/CP 

GULF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 
INC SAN DIEGO CALIF 

GA-10165 

Atmospheric Transport of X-Rays. 

(DASA-2S71) 

AD-716 801/CP 

H S S INC BEDFORD MASS 

HSSB-014 

Auroral Spectrograph Data Reduction System 

( , AFCRi.-TR-75-0360; 

AD-A019 110/6CP 
HARRY DIAMOND LABS ADELPHI MD 
HDL-TR-1733 

Asymptotic Properties of the Mie Coefficients 

AD-A023 078/9CP 

HAWAII UNIV., HONOLULU. WATER RESOURCES 
RESEARCH CENTER. 

TR-72 

Some Statistical Analyses of Hawaiian Rainfall 

(OWRR-A-029-HI(1)) 

PB-233 674/1CP 

TR-85 

Methodological Approaches in Hawaiian Fog 

Research 

(OWRT-A-041-HI(1)) 

PB-243 508/9CP 
HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB., RESEARCH 
TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. 
EPA/600/3-75/010h 

Annual Catalyst Research Program Report Ap- 
pendices Volume VII 

PB-249 913/5CP 

HYDROSCIENCE, INC., WESTWOOD, N.J. 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program (SYNOP) 

(EPA/DF-77/002a) 

PB-264 563/8CP 

IBM FEDERAL SYSTEMS DIV BURLINGTON MASS 

Program Structure of Atmospheric Density Pro- 
grams 

(AFCRL-TR-75-0063) 
AD-A008 515/9CP 

Some Recent Innovations in Atmospheric Density 

Programs 

(AFCRL-TR-74-0370) 

AD-786 414/3CP 

IBM FEDERAL SYSTEMS DIV BURLINGTON MASS 
ADVANCED SYSTEMS DESIGN DEPT 

Atmospheric Model Evaluation 
(AFCRL-71-0543) 
AD-736 443/CP 
IBM RESEARCH LAB., SAN JOSE, CALIF. 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume I 
(•£PA-600/4-75/005-a; 
PB-256 651/1CP 

Development of an Urban Air Quality Simulation 
Model with Compatible RAPS Data Volume II 
(EPA-600/4-75/005-b) 
PB-256 652/9CP 



ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY, URBANA. 

CONF-741 165-1 

Operational Aspects of Project Metromex: An In- 
advertent Weather Modification Study 
COO-1 199-45 

ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN DEPT OF 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

TR-59 

Techniques of Determining Ionospheric Structure 
from Oblique Radio Propagation Measurements 
(RADC-TR-76-401) 
AD-A038 299/4CP 

TR-61 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System for 
Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 
(ARO-14260 3ELX) 
AD-A051 754/0CP 

UILU-Eng-76-2559 
Techniques of Determining Ionospheric Structure 
from Oblique Radio Propagation Measurements 
(RADC-TR-76-401) 
AD-A038 299/4CP 

UILU-ENG-77-2259 

A Multi-Channel Digital Data Logging System for 
Ionospheric Scintillation Studies 
(ARO-14260.3ELX) 
AD-A051 754/OCP 

ILLINOIS UNIV., URBANA. AERONOMY LAB. 

NASA-CR-110899 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data 
N70-42935/CP 

UILU-ENG-70-260 

Fortran Programs for Calculating Lower Iono- 
sphere Electron Densities and Collision Frequen- 
cies from Rocket Data. 
N70-42935/CP 

ILLINOIS UNIV URBANA IONOSPHERE RADIO LAB 

TR-41 

Investigations of Ionospheric Total Electron Con- 
tent Behavior at Conjugate Points and During a 
Solar Eclipse 
(AFCRL-70-0539) 
AD-714 571/CP 

INFORMATION DESIGN INC BEDFORD MASS 

Analysis of Chemical Smoke Releases to Charac- 
terize Stratospheric/Thermospheric Wind Fields 
(AFGL-TR-76-0011) 
AD-A022 678/7CP 

INSTITUT FRANCO-ALLEMANO DE RECHERCHES, 
ST. LOUIS (FRANCE). 

ISL-19/70 

Equation of State of the Air for Pressures Up to 
1000 Bar and Temperatures Up to 3000 K . Equa- 
tion Detat de Lair pour Une Pression Infeneure a 
1000 Bar et Une Temperature Inferieure a 3000 K 
N72-24972/CP 

INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ARLINGTON 

VA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIV 
N-842 

Effect of Weather at Hannover. Federal Republic 
of Germany, on Performance of Electrooptical 
Imaging Systems The Calculation Methodology 
for a FLIR Using a FORTRAN Program 
(SBIE-AD-E500-002) 
AD-A045 090/8CP 

P-1225 

Atmospheric Transmission Modeling: Proposed 
Aerosol Methodology with Application to the 
Grafenwoehr Atmospheric Optics Data Base 
(IDA/HO-76-18603) 
AD-A035 765/7CP 

INSTITUTE FOR STORM RESEARCH INC HOUSTON 
TEX 

ISR-0-04 

The B-MALMID-4 Program Ballistic Messages at 
Arbitrary Locations from Mixed Input Data 
(ECOM-0M5-F; 
AD-733 419/CP 

INSTITUTO OE PESQUISAS ESPACIAIS, SAO JOSE 
DOS CAMPOS (BRAZIL). 

INPE-254-LAFE 

Brazilian Participation in the Exametnet 
N74-19237/8CP 
JET PROPULSION LAB PASADENA CALIF 
JPL-5040-39 

Statistical Analysis of NOAA Solar/Weather Tapes 
Program Summary 
(-CGR/DC-19/76) 
AD-A047 357/9CP 

Wind Field and Trajectory Models for Tornado- 
Propelled Objects 
(EPRI-308-1) 
PB-251 138/4CP 



106 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 

MINNESOTA UNIV MORRIS DIV OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS 



JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Global Contamination ot the Atmosphere by Kryp- 
ton-85 from Worldwide Nuclear Power Plants and 
the Radiation Danger 
JPRS-53174 

JRB ASSOCIATES, INC., LA JOLLA, CALIF. 

A Methodology for Treating Large Localized 
Emissions of Reactive Pollutants 
(EPA/650/4-74/006) 
PB-251 066/7CP 

KAMAN AEROSPACE CORP BLOOMFIELO CONN 

Test and Evaluation of a Real-Time Simulated 
Transcontinental Supersonic Boomless Flight 
System Volume I Main Text and Appendix A 
(FAA-RD-75-131-1) 
AD-A014 965/8CP 

KANSAS UNIV. CENTER FOR RESEARCH, INC., 
LAWRENCE REMOTE SENSING LAB. 

CRES-TR-186-9 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User'S 

Guide. 

N76-22643/0CP 

NASA-CR-144992 

Aafe Radscat Data Reduction Programs User's 

Guide 

N76-22643/0CP 

KARLSRUHE UNIV. (WEST GERMANY). 

ATMOSPHERE Fluid-Dynamic Simulation Model 
lor Predicting Spreading Processes in the At- 
mospheric Boundary Layer 
ANL-Trans-1 103 

KENTUCKY WATER RESOURCES INST., 
LEXINGTON. 

RR-82 

Stochastic Simulation of Daily Rainfall 

(OWRT-A-045-KY(1)) 

PB-239 268/6CP 

KERNFORSCHUNGSZENTRUM, KARLSRUHE (WEST 
GERMANY). 

KFK-2181 

Meteorological Data Acquisition System. Func- 
tional Description and General Characteristics of 
the Different Components. 
N76-24843/4CP 

KMS TECHNOLOGY CENTER IRVINE CALIF 

Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Particle 
Contaminants on Laser-Induced Air Breakdown 
(AFWL-TR-72-172) 
AD-760 175/CP 

LOCKHEED ELECTRONICS CO., HOUSTON, TEX. 
APPLIED MECHANICS DEPT. 

NASA-CR-128871 

Computations of Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows. Volume 1 
N73-20309/CP 

TR2007-VOL-1 

Computations ot Non-Reacting and Reacting 
Viscous Blunt Body Flows, Volume 1 
N73 20309/CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO., 
HUNTSVILLE, ALA. RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING 
CENTER. 

HREC-6128-1 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

Manual 

N71-30149/CP 

NASA-CR-1 19176 

Taer Wind Conversion Program (Tarwon) User's 

M.mual 

N71-30149/CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO INC 
HUNTSVILLE ALA HUNTSVILLE RESEARCH AND 
ENGINEERING CENTER 

I MSC-HREC-TR D49/071 
Verification of Wind Measurement with Mobile 
I aser Doppler System 
(TSC FAA 77 14) 
AD A047 252/2CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO INC PALO 
ALTO CALIF 

Ionospheric Effects Induced by Precipitating Au- 
roral riectrons HAES Report No 14 
(DNA-3648F) 
AD AOHi R73/6CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO INC PALO 
ALTO CALIF PALO ALTO RESEARCH LAB 
I MSC-D407007 

RREMGAT-A Code for the Generation and Trans- 
port of Drensstrahlurig Through the Atmosphere 
AD AOOfi 189/5CP 



LMSC/D5005t3 

Ionospheric Effects Resulting from Precipitating 
Electrons at Mid and High Latitudes 
(DNA-3884F) 
AD-A027 297/1CP 

LMSC/D555985 

Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances 

(DNA-4225F) 

AD-A043 965/3CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO PALO ALTO 
CALIF PALO ALTO RESEARCH LAB 

LMSC/D246353 

Trapped Radiation Studies Involving Plasma In- 
stabilities and Radial Diffusion 
(DNA-2824F) 
AD-743 549/CP 

LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO., PALO ALTO, 
CALIF. SPACE SCIENCES LAB. 

LMSC-D350709 

Analysts of Low Energy Electrons 
N73-31638/2CP 

NASA-CR-1 10029 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report, 

1 Mar. - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

NASA-CR-133920 

Analysis of Low Energy Electrons 
N73-31638/2CP 

QR-3 

Lockheed Experiment on Ats-5 Quarterly Report. 

1 Mar - 31 May 1970 

N70-35689/CP 

LOGICON INC BEDFORD MASS 

Analysis and Programming for Research in 
Physics of the Upper Atmosphere 
(AFGL-TR-76-0231) 
AD-A034 066/1 CP 

LOGICON INC LEXINGTON MA 

Analysis and Research for Integrated Systems in 
Physics of the Atmosphere 
(AFGL-TR-77-0265) 
AD-A051 126/1CP 

LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LAB., N.MEX. 

Monte Carlo Simulation of the Turbulent Trans- 
port of Airborne Contaminants. 
LA-6103 

Rainout Assessment: The ACRA System and Sum- 
maries of Simulation Results 
LA-6763 

LUDWIG-MAXIMILIANS-UNIVERSITAT, MUNICH 
(WEST GERMANY). METEOROLOGISCHES INST. 

MITT-14 

Statistical Evaluation of Measured Data Obtained 
at the Meteorological Station ot the Munich 
Research Reactor 
N70-26323/CP 

LUFTWAFFENAMT, PORZ (WEST GERMANY). 
INSPEKTION GEOPHYSIKALISCHER 
BERATUNGSDIENST DER BUNDESWEHR. 

GEOPHYSBDBW-FM-l/138 

Radiosonde Ascents Reaching High Altitudes - 
Tripoli, Libya. 1951-1957 Part 1 - Work Report. 
N70-31479/CP 

MSS COMPUTING, INC., HUNTSVILLE, ALA. 

NASA-CR-150541 

Wisp Information Display System User'S Manual. 
N78-18623/6CP 

REPT-77-042 

Wisp Information Display System User'S Manual. 
N78-18623/6CP 

MARTIN MARIETTA CORP., BALTIMORE, MD. 

MSC-05537 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3) 

N75-29531/1CP 
NASA-CR-141911 

Ground Truth Data for Test Sites (SI-3), 

N75-29531/1CP 

MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 

Generation and Propagation ot Infrasonic Waves 

(AFCnf.-TR-73-0T35) 

AD-766 472/5CP 

MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 
OEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

Theoretical Prediction ol Acoustic-Gravity Pres- 
sure Waveforms Generated by Large Explosions 
in the Atmosphere 
(AFCRL-70-0134) 
AD-707 122/CP 



MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 
DEPT OF METEOROLOGY 

Scientific-1 

Application of Satellite Cloud-Motion Vectors to 
Hurricane Track Prediction 
fAFCRL-TR-75-0635) 
AD-A021 907/1 CP 

MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 
MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS LAB 

TE-33 

Determination of a Hypsometer Performance 
Function from Airborne Data. 
AD-716 823/CP 

MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 
OPERATIONS RESEARCH CENTER 

TR-82 

Optimal Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions at 
Power Stations: Models and a Case Study 
(AROD-9239 10-M) 
AD-775 392/4CP 

MASSACHUSETTS INST. OF TECH., CAMBRIDGE. 
RALPH M. PARSONS LAB. FOR WATER 
RESOURCES AND HYDRODYNAMICS. 

193 

Bidimensional Spectral Analysis of Rainfall Events 
(OWRT-C-41 18(9021 )(8» 
PB-239 797/4CP 

196 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes: 
Data Collection and Synthesis 
(NOAA-75091809) 
COM-75-11395/1CP 

R-74-59 

Bidimensional Spectral Analysis of Rainfall Events 
(OWRT-C-41 18(9021 )(8)) 
PB-239 797/4CP 

R75-5 

Rainfall-Runoff as Spatial Stochastic Processes 

Data Collection and Synthesis 

(NOAA-75091809) 

COM-75-11395/1CP 
MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON 
LINCOLN LAB 
ETS-17 

Automatic Real-Time Extinction Measurement 

AD-A046 484/2CP 

TT-7 

Statistics of Global IR Atmospheric Transmission 

(ESD-TR-76-67) 

AD-A024 311/3CP 

MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS ASTRONAUTICS CO., 
HUNTINGTON BEACH, CALIF. 

MDC-G5456 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experi- 
ment Laboratory: Programmatics Report 
N75-24526/6CP 

NASA-CR-120725 

Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experi- 
ment Laboratory: Programmatics Report. 
N75-24526/6CP 

MCDONNELL DOUGLAS ASTRONAUTICS CO-WEST 
HUNTINGTON BEACH CALIF 

Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Modeling 

(AFOSR-TR-77-0156) 

AD-A037 492/6CP 

METEOROLOGISCHES OBSERVATORIUM. 
HOHENPEISSENBERG (WEST GERMANY). 

Program lor Electronic Evaluation of Radiosonde 

Ascents. 

N70-29112/CP 

METEOROLOGY RESEARCH, INC., ALTADENA, 
CALIF. 

MRI76-FR-1445 

M-33 Radar Modifications at Snyder, Texas 
PB-263 580/3CP 

MICHIGAN UNIV., ANN ARBOR. HIGH ALTITUDE 
ENGINEERING LAB. 

UMICH-011023-2-T 

Feasibility of Satellite Measurement of Strato- 
spheric Minor Constituents by Solar Occultation 
(NOAA-74030404) 
COM-74-10720/2CP 

MICHIGAN UNIV., ANN ARBOR. SPACE PHYSICS 
RESEARCH LAB. 

NASA-CR-130128 

OGO-F-02 Data Analysis 
N73-13376/CP 

MINNESOTA UNIV MORRIS DIV OF SCIENCE AND 
MATHEMATICS 

Ionospheric Chemistry: Comparison ol AIRCHEM 
Predictions with Results of Laboratory Simula- 
tions 
(ARO-12145 1-RTL) 



107 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 



AD-A024 146/3CP 

MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA 
CALIF 

DNA-HAES-62 
Auroral Simulation Effects 
(AD-E300-039) 
AD-A049 066/4CP 

MRC-R-92 
An Analytic Boundary for the MHD Magnetic Field 
Equation 
(DNA-3232T) 
AD-773 913/9CP 

MRC-R-107 

Stimulated Skyglow 
(RADC-TR-74-109) 
AD-781 094/8CP 

MRC-R-122 
Studies of Auroral Simulation 
(DNA-3297F) 
AD-781 275/3CP 

MRC-R-152 

Auroral Simulation Studies HAES Report No 6 

(DNA-3567T) 

AD-A012 476/8CP 

MRC-R-244 
An Examination ol the Adequacy of the Three- 
Species Air Chemistry Treatment for the Predic- 
tion of Surface-Burst EMP 
(DNA-3880T) 
AD-A025 280/9CP 

MRC-R-313 

Auroral Simulation Effects 
(AD-E300-039) 
AD-A049 066/4CP 

MRC-R-7731-1-278 

Physically-Based High Resolution Surface Wind 
and Temperature Analysis for EPAMS 
(ERADCOM/ASL-CR-78-0043-1) 
AD-A055 861 /9CP 

MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV., STATE COLLEGE. INST. 
FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES. 

IES-72-02-001 
A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

NASA-CR-2050 
A Direct Numerical Method for Predicting Con- 
centration Profiles in a Turbulent Boundary Layer 
over a Flat Plate 
N72-26289/CP 

MISSOURI UNIV COLUMBIA INFORMATION 
SCIENCE GROUP 

MOU-IS-PR-8 

Disease Information System Ground Temperature 
Derived from Other Geophysical Observations 
AD-A021 524/4CP 

MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LAB., 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. WASTEWATER RESEARCH DIV. 

EPA/60079-76/014a 

Synoptic Rainfall Data Analysis Program 
(SYNOP) Release No 1 
(EPA/DF-77/002) 
PB-264 562/OCP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL ESTABLISHMENT, 
OTTAWA (ONTARIO). 

LTR-UA-28 
Some Environmental Measurement of the Vertical 
Spread of Pollutants from Low-Level Sources 
N77-21734/7CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. ELECTRONICS RESEARCH 
CENTER, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NASA-SP-3055 

A Ray Tracing Digital Computer Program for the 
Study of Magnetospheric Duct Propagation. 
N70-35774/CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. GOODARD SPACE FLIGHT 
CENTER, GREENBELT, MD. 

G-7440 

An Experimental and Numerical Study ol Wave 
Motion and Upstream Influence in a Stratified 
Fluid. 
N74-32747/9CP 

NASA-TM-X-63879 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 

Testing the Results for Accuracy 

N70-25092/CP 

NASA-TM-X-69987 
The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
N74-20502/2CP 



NASA-TM-X-69988 

The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 

and Associated Computer Programs. 

N74-19836/7CP 
NASA-TM-X-71360 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 

in a Stratospheric Model. 1 Development of a 

Concise Stratospheric Model. 

N77-29673/9CP 

NASA-TM-X-72605 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum 
N77-18983/5CP 

NASA-TM-78042 

Aoips Data Base Management Systems Support 

for Garp Data Sets 

N78-15629/6CP 

NASA-TM-78069 

User's Guide to the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ul- 
traviolet Experiment Data Sets 
N78-21694/2CP 

NASA-TN-D-7744 

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Wave 
Motion and Upstream Influence in a Stratified 
Fluid 
N74-32747/9CP 

NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-76-06 

Ap-8 Trapped Proton Environment for Solar Max- 
imum and Solar Minimum. 
N77-18983/5CP 

NSSDC-72-10 
The Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5. 
N74-20502/2CP 

NSSDC-72-11 
The Use of the Inner Zone Electron Model AE-5 
and Associated Computer Programs. 
N74-19836/7CP 

X-621-70-71 

Explorer 22 Electrostatic Probe Data Analysis - 
Testing the Results for Accuracy 
N70-25092/CP 

X-624-77-122 

Monte Carlo Analysis of Uncertainty Propagation 
in a Stratospheric Model. 1 : Development of a 
Concise Stratospheric Model. 
N77-29673/9CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION, GREENBELT, MD. GODDARD 
SPACE FLIGHT CENTER. 

NASA-TM-X-71342 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description 
N77-31012/6CP 

X-933-77-148 

Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information 
Processing System (Aoips) System Description. 
N77-31012/6CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION HUNTSVILLE ALA GEORGE C 
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

Wind Shear Modeling for Aircraft Hazard Defini- 
tion 

(FAA/RD-78/3) 
AD-A053 178/OCP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER, 
LANGLEY STATION, VA. 

L-10594 
The Production ol Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

L-11308 
A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude. Season, and Time 
N77-31700/6CP 

NASA-TN-D-8137 

The Production of Nitric Oxide in the Tropo- 
sphere as a Result of Solid-Rocket-Motor After- 
burning. 
N76-20180/5CP 

NASA-TN-D-8470 

A Model for Simulating Random Atmospheres as 
a Function of Latitude. Season, and Time. 
N77-31700/6CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER, 
CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

E-8999 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program. 
N77-15056/3CP 



E-9108 

All-Weather Ice Information System for Alaskan 

Arctic Coastal Shipping. 

N77-21788/3CP 

NASA-TM-X-73558 

User Guide to a Command and Control System; a 
Part of a Prelaunch Wind Monitoring Program. 
N77-15056/3CP 

NASA-TM-X-73619 

All-Weather Ice Information System for Alaskan 

Arctic Coastal Shipping 

N77-21788/3CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE 
CENTER, HOUSTON, TEX. 

JSC-08964 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Development 
Laboratory; Formulation and Data. 
N76-27745/8CP 

JSC-09063 

Atmospheric Transmission Computer Program 

Cp. 

N75-29602/0CP 

NASA-TM-X-58137 

Atmospheric Transmission Computer Program 

Cp. 

N75-29602/0CP 

NASA-TM-X-58183 

Cubic Spline Function Interpolation in At- 
mosphere Models for the Software Development 
Laboratory: Formulation and Data. 
N76-27745/8CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. MANNED SPACECRAFT 
CENTER, HOUSTON, TEX. 

NASA-TM-X-58071 

A UNIVAC 1108 Computer Program for Use with 
Worldwide Cloud Cover Distribution Data 
N72-16144/CP 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE 
ADMINISTRATION. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT 
CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, ALA. 

M-239 

Development of a Procedure to Model High- 
Resolution Wind Profiles from Smoothed or Low- 
Frequency Data. 
N78-11642/3CP 

NASA-TM-X-64871 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Technical 

Description. Part 1. 

N74-33021/8CP 

NASA-TM-X-64872 

Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere Users 
Manual and Programmers Manual. Part 2 
N74-33022/6CP 

NASA-TN-D-8194 

Diffusion Algorithms and Data Reduction Routine 
for Onsite Real-Time Launch Predictions for the 
Transport of delta-Thor Exhaust Effluents 
N76-20699/4CP 

NASA-TP-1071 

Development of a Procedure to Model High- 
Resolution Wind Profiles from Smoothed or Low- 
Frequency Data. 
N78-11642/3CP 

NATIONAL AVIATION FACILITIES EXPERIMENTAL 
CENTER ATLANTIC CITY N J 

FAA-NA-77-23 

Executive Summary: New York City Pilots Auto- 
matic Telephone Weather Answering Service 
(PATWAS) Test 
(FA/RD-77/80) 
AD-A046 755/5CP 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. CENTER FOR BUILDING 
TECHNOLOGY. 

NBS-BSS-74 
The Buffeting of Tall Structures by Strong Winds 
COM-75-11442/1CP 

NBS-BSS-96 

Hourly Solar Radiation Data for Vertical and 
Horizontal Surfaces on Average Days in the 
United States and Canada 
PB-265 551 /2CP 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. INST. FOR APPLIED 
TECHNOLOGY. 

NBS-TN-868 

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Winds 
COM-75-10945/4CP 



108 



CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX 

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 



NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC 
RESEARCH, BOULDER, COLO. 

NCAR-CT-38 

Physical Mechanisms Responsible lor the Major 
Synoptic Systems in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 
in the Winter and Summer ot 1973 
PB-258 821 /8CP 

NCAR-CT-41 
Comparison Between Dual-Wavelength Radar 
Estimates and Ground Measurements of 
Precipitation 
PB-265 727/8CP 

NCAR/TN-109* IA 

Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the Solution 
of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 
PB-263 498/8CP 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC 
RESEARCH, BOULDER, COLO. ATMOSPHERIC 
ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION DIV. 

NCAR/TN-121 • STR 
The Delta-Eddington Approximation for a Verti- 
cally Inhomogeneous Atmosphere 
PB-270 618/2CP 

NCAR/TN-127. IA 

Description of the General Program Structure of 

the Third-Generation NCAR General Circulation 

Model 

PB-276 694/7CP 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC 
RESEARCH, BOULDER, COLO. ATMOSPHERIC 
TECHNOLOGY DIV. 

NCAR/TN-120' EDD 

Central Pacific VLF Signal Survey and Omega 
Wind Error Predictions 
PB-267 413/3CP 

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER, 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. CONTROL 
SYSTEMS LAB. 

EPA-R4-73-024 
User's Guide for the Climatological Dispersion 
Model 
PB-227 346/4CP 

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER, 
RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. METEOROLOGY 
LAB. 

EPA/650/4-74-008 

User's Guide for Hiway A Highway Air Pollution 

Model 

PB-239 944/2CP 

UNAMAP-001 

Users Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) 
PB-229 771/1CP 

User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollu- 
tion (UNAMAP) Version 2 
(EPA/DF-74/038) 
PB-240 273/3CP 

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE CENTER, 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

NESCTM-20 

Mapping of Geostationary Satellite Pictures: An 
Operational Experiment 
PB-191 189/CP 

NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER, CORAL GABLES, 
FLA. 

Performance Analysis ol the HURRAN Tropical 
Cyclone Forecast System 
(NOAA-72060206-1) 
COM -72-50079-04-01 /CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. AERONOMY 
LAB. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-AL-6 

Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with an 
On-Line Computer 
COM-73-1 1634/5CP 

NOAA-73090404 

Accurate Langmuir Probe Measurements with an 
On-Line Computer 
COM 73-11634/5CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. AIR 
RESOURCES LAB. 

NOAA TM ERL-ARL-54 

Wind Energy Flux Calculated from Idaho National 

Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Sensor Network 

Data 

(NOAA -76030502) 

PB-253 205/9CP 

Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change No 
1 Summary Report 1972 
(NOAA 74032910) 
COM 74-10908/3CP 



NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. OFFICE OF 
THE DIRECTOR(ERL). 

NOAA-TM-ERL-OD-15 

On the Use of Gamma Functions and Bayesian 

Analysis in Evaluating Florida Cumulus Seeding 

Results 

(NOAA-73062703) 

COM-73-11202/1CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. SPACE 
ENVIRONMENT LAB. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-SEL-30 

SCINTDR-A Program for Controlling the Fremouw 
Scintillation Model 
(NO A A-7 4032007) 
COM-74-10824/2CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-SEL-34 

A Semi-Automated System for True Height Analy- 
sis of Film lonograms Part 3 Documentation of 
Software 

(NOAA-741 11809) 
COM-74-11808/4CP 

NOAA-TR-ERL-308 

Global Scintillation Model 

(NOAA-74121115) 

COM-75-50059/5CP 

SEL-30 

Global Scintillation Model 

(NOAA-74121115) 

COM-75-50059/5CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. WAVE 
PROPAGATION LAB. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-15 

A Stellar Scintillometer for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
PB-257 376/4CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-21 

Microcomputer-Controlled Acoustic Echo 

Sounder 

(NOAA-77050104) 

PB-268 033/8CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-25 

Stellar Scintillometer Model II for Measurement of 
Refractive-Turbulence Profiles 
(NOAA-77092205) 
PB-273 921/7CP 

NOAA-TR-ERL-314 
The Search for Most Unstable Scales of 
Disturbances in Three-Layer Atmospheric Models 
with Shear and Static Stability—Procedure and 
Results 

(NOAA-75041104) 
COM-75-10588/2CP 

WPL-16 

A Program for Calculating Three-Dimensional 
Acoustic-Gravity Ray Paths in the Atmosphere 
(NOAA-TR-ERL-212) 
COM-71-50410/CP 

WPL-36 

The Search for Most Unstable Scales of 

Disturbances in Three-Layer Atmospheric Models 

with Shear and Static Stability-Procedure and 

Results 

(NOAA -7504 1 104) 

COM-75-10588/2CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, COLO. WEATHER 
MODIFICATION PROGRAM OFFICE. 

NOAA-TM -ERL-WMPO-1 4 

Guide to Computer Programs Used in the Statisti- 
cal Analysis ol Florida Cumulus Seeding Experi- 
ments 

(NOAA-74061201) 
COM-74-11286/3CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-WMPO-15 

Computer Software for Rainfall Analyses and 
Echo Tracking of Digitized Radar Data 
(NOAA-74052009) 
COM-74-11253/3CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-WMPO-17 

Digitizing. Recording, and Computer Processing 

Weather Radar Data at the Experimental 

Meteorology Laboratory 

(NOAA-74080611) 

COM-74-11464/6CP 

NOAA-TM ERL-WMPO-35 

Computer Software for the Assessment of Growth 
Histories of Weather Radar Echoes 
(NOAA-77051812) 
PB-268 753/1CP 

NOAA-TM -ERL-WMPO-37 

Raindrop Size Distributions and Z-R Relation- 
ships Measured on the NOAA DC-6 and the Ship 
RESEARCHER within the GATE B-Scale Array 
(NOAA-77060202) 



PB-269 659/9CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO. AIR 
RESOURCES LAB. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-42 

A Program for Evaluating Atmospheric Dispersion 
from a Nuclear Power Station 
(NOAA- 740627 10) 
COM-74-11336/6CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO. AIR 
RESOURCES LABS. 

NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-43 

Program Descriptions. Supplement to Mesoscale 
Wind Fields and Transport Estimates Determined 
from a Network of Wind Towers 
(NOAA-74080605) 
COM-74-11470/3CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-44 

Regional Effluent Dispersion Calculations Con- 
sidering Spatial and Temporal Meteorological 
Variations 
(NOAA-74091808) 
COM-74-11627/8CP 

NOAA-TM-ERL-ARL-66 

A Feasibility Study for the Application of K-Band 

Radar in the Investigation of Cooling Tower 

Plumes 

(NO AA-77 110803) 

PB-275 380/4CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, OAK RIDGE, TENN. 
ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE AND DIFFUSION LAB. 

Meteorological Effects of the Cooling Towers at 
the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, li. Predic- 
tions of Fog Occurrence and Drift Deposition. 
TID-26686-P2 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, SILVER SPRING, MD. 
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE. 

NOAA-TR-EDS-11 

A Note on a Gamma Distribution Computer Pro- 
gram and Graph Paper 
(NOAA-73082106) 
COM-73-1 1401 /9CP 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC 
ADMINISTRATION, WASHINGTON, 
D.C. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE. 

NOAA-TR-EDS-19 

Separation of Mixed Data Sets into Homogeneous 

Sets 

(NOAA-77020701) 

PB-264 813/7CP 

NATIONAL SEVERE STORMS LAB., NORMAN, 
OKLA. 

NOAA-ERLTM-NSSL-51 

Papers on Operational Objective Analysis 

Schemes at the National Seve