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THE — .^..-rni. <i ; . 



m 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



VOLUME XXXIX. 
NEW SERIES. 



MDCCCLIII. 
JANUARY TO JUNE inclusive. 




LONDON: 

JOHN BOWYElt NICHOLS AND SONS. 

1853. 



LONDON : 

J. B. NICHOLS AND SONS, PRINTERS, 

25, PARLIAMENT STREET. 



.6i 



IV PREFACE. 

they, satisfied if what was produced may purchase satisfaction, and 
doubly rewarded if we find — our great object, we confess — increased 
demand attend upon our labour. 

It is true that there is a labour which physics pain, and such a 
labour of love should be found in literature. It is said of Jacob that 
he served seven years for Rachel, and that they seemed to him but 
as a few days, for the love that he bare her. Time, depend upon it, 
did not fly with him because he experienced delight m watering his 
uncle Laban's sheep, but because there was a fair partner in his toil, 
sweet meetings at well-sides, communings in the fields at even-tide, and 
the sure and certain recompense for all at the end. Like Jacob, too, 
we are willing to labour, meet with much attendant on our toil that 
sweetens life, and hope, as he hoped, with Leah in possession, for 
Rachel in prospect Like him, if we have achieved much, we shall 
endeavour to deserve more, and if the Rachel of our hopes be tJie 
consequent award of our endeavours — a consummation which we 
aim to achieve by renewed exertions — ^gratitude will lend increased 
vitality to the yet juvenile and vigorous heart of 

Sylvanus Urban. 




THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

JANUARY, 1853. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.— BapUsm of the first Earl of Carnarvon— Speeches of the Duke 

of Wellington— Apsley Houiie— Parentage and EducaUon of the late Dr. Mantell 2 

King Charles the First in the Isle of Wight 3 

Original Letters of Benjamin Franklin * 8 

Farinelli and Pompadour 9 

Henry Newcome, the Puritan of Manchester 16 

A Journey from London to Paris in the year 1736 : by Sir Alexander Dick, Bart. 

of Prestonfield, near Edinburgh 22 

The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles the Fifth 26 

Wanderings of an Antiquary ; by Thomas Wright, Esq. F.S.A. — No. IX. A 

Visit to the Hill lotrenchments on the Borders of Wales {with Engravings) 37 

Report of the Commissioners on the University of Cambridge ^^ 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN.— The doctrine of the ImmacuUte Conception 
of the Virgin, and its relation to Art— St. Mary Axe— St. Ursula and the Eleven Tliousand 
Virgins— The old and new Churches at Harley, Shropshire— Etymology of the word Many . 47 

NOTES OF THE MONTH.— Proposed National Palace of the Arts and Sciences— Royal and 
Astronomical Societies— Admission of Engravers to be Royal Academicians— Anniversary of 
the Botanical Society— University of Cambridge— Personal Literary Distinctions— Bequest 
of Miss Hardwick to the Schools and Hospitals of London— Shakspere's House at Strat- 
ford-upon-Avon— Autograph Letters of Bums— Continental Forgeries of Autographs- 
Antiquarian Works in preparation ^^ 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.— The Lady of the Lake, illustrated by 
Foster and Glll)ert, 68 ; Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Nat. Hlstorj- 
Society, ib. ; Cox's Historical Facts, and Account of Lyrapshara, 69 ; Godwin's History in 
Ruins. 60 ; Memoir of John Fred. Oberlin, ib. ; Pashley's Pauperism and Poor Laws, 61 ; 
Papers for Uie Schoolmaster, 63 ; Bagster's Greek Apocrypha, 64 ; Now Biblical Atlas and 
Scripture Gazetteer, 66 ; Adams's Parliamentary Handbook, ib. ; Poems, by B. R. Parkes, 
ib. ; Ryland's Life and Correspondence of John Foster, ib. ; Moultrie's Poetical Remains of 
Wm. Sidney Walker, 66; Good Health, 68 ; Dowden's WalM after Wild Rowers, 69; 
Crusius' Homeric Lexion, and Minor Reviews ^^ 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES— Society of Antiquaries, 70 ; Archaeological Institute, 72 ; 
^British Archaeological Association, 73 ; Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ib,; 
Yorkshire Architectural Society 74 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.— Foreign News, Funeral of the Duke of Wellington, and Do- 
mestic Occurrences 75 

Promotions and Preferments, 83 ; Births and Marriages ^ 

OBITUARY ; with Memoirs of Tlie Earl of Shrewsbury ; The Countess of Lovelace ; Dowager 
Lady Hoghton ; Sir John L. Ix)raine, Bart. ; Sir Wm. Earlc Welby, Bart. ; Sir Josiah 
John Guest, Bart. ; Lieut.-Gen. Sir 11. F. Bouveric ; Ueut.-General Wemyss ; Sir Edward 
Stanley; Colonel Bruen, M.P. ; Capt. T. L. Lewis, R. Eng. ; Capt. T. W. BuUer, R.N. ; 
Mr. Seijeant Halcomb ; Miss Berry ; Rev. Edward Mangin ; Rev. Henry Ha.<tted ; Profes- 
sor Empson; John Hamilton Reynolds, Esq.; William BallanUne, Esq.; Rev. Fattier 
Palmer ; Mr. H. J. S. Bradfleld ; Mr. Thomas Fairiand ; John Vandcrlyn 88-104 

DiATBf , arranged in Chronological Order 104 

Registrar-General's Returns of Mortality in the Metropolis— Markets, 111; Meteorological 

Diary— Daily Price of Stocks 112 



By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



T. E. T. wishes to obtain information 
as to the father of the family described in 
an entry in the Parish Register of Isling- 
ton, Middlesex, whereof the following is 
an exact copy : 

** Memorandum, whereas in this Re- 
gister the 12 June, 1740, page 63, Cathe- 
rine Bronne; and 24 August, 1741, page 
64, Henry Broune ; and also 28 May, 
1743, Charles Broune, are registered to 
have been christened as the children of 
William Broune and Catherine Broune of 
this parish. Now it appeareth onto me 
by the fullest proof, as well as my own 
knowledge, that the three children above- 
mentioned are the children of the honour- 
able Colonel William Herbert, brother to 
Henry Earl of Pembroke, and Catherine 
his wife, who thought fit to go by the name 
of Broune at those times, in this parish. 
Given under my hand, this third day of 
August, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and forty-six. 
" G. Williams, Vif of Islington." 

Our correspondent will be satisfied by 
referring to Sir Egerton Brydges's edi- 
tion of Collins's Peerage, vol. v. p. 390 ; 
where Im will find that the family above- 
mentioned were admitted as legitimate, 
and that Henry, the eldest son, became a 
peer by the title of Lord Porchester, in 
1780, and was advanced to that of Earl 
of Carnarvon, in 1793. He was grand- 
father of the present Earl. 

The Speeches in Parliament of the late 
Buke of Wellington are, we are informed, 
about to be collected and published uni- 
formly with the far-famed Wellington 
Despatches. The collection was com- 
menced by the late Colonel Gurwood* 
continued by the Colonel's widow, and 
actually corrected in many places bv the 
Duke himself. They will appear with the 
imprint of Albemarle Street, and the im- 
primatur of the present Duke. 

The present Duke will, it is said, throw 
Apsley House open to the public on 
certain days, and under certain regulations 
necessary for the security of the property 
and the comfort of visitors. Apsley House 
containa. some fine works of art — a first- 
rate Correggio, good examples of Velasquez, 
and throughout seems to represent the 
peculiar likings of the hero. Napoleon is 
very prominent, and always honourably 
so. Here we shall see the Duke's orders — 
so charmingly arranged by Mr. Garrard at 
his house in Panton Street : — where we 



had the pleasure of examining them, — 
lingering with eyes historically pleased at 
the diamond George originally given by 
Queen Anne to the great Duke of Marl- 
borough on the victory at Blenheim— ob- 
tained, no one knows how, by George the 
Fourth when Prince Regent— and given by 
the Prince to the Duke of Wellington on 
the victory at Waterloo 1 — Atheneum. 

In the memoir of Dr. Mantell (Dec. p. 
644) two errors escaped correction. For 
'* St. John's sub Easter," read '* sub 
Castro ;" and in the note, p. 645, for 
** Horsfield's " read Baxter's Agricultural 
Library. It may also be here noticed that 
a letter has appeared in the Sussex Agri- 
cultural Express from Mr. Thomas A. 
Mantell of Lewes, brother to the deceasedi 
contradicting a statement made in the 
Lewes Journal that their father was a 
humble and small tradesman. ** He was 
neither the one or the other, for a more 
independent man never existed ; a man of 
strong natural abilities, and a popular 
speaker on public occasions. I don t know 
what the editor's idea of a small trades- 
man is, but I recollect my father having 
twenty- three men in his employ at one 
time, and he left to his family considerable 
property in land and bouses. The state- 
ment as regards the old lady. Dr. Man- 
tell's schoolmistress, is a palpable false- 
hood. My father articled my brother to 
Mr. Moore in 1795, with a premium of 
200 guineas. The old lady, whose name 
was Cornwell, was of a highly respectable 
family, and one of the nearest relatives of 
the late Richard Andrew Turner, esq., an 
eminent attorney of this town. She was 
possessed of sufficient property of her own 
to live on, and she carried on her little 
school more for amusement than profit. 
At her death, which occurred on the 94th 
December, 1807 (nearly three years after 
my brother was articled to Mr. Moore), 
she gave the whole of her property to an 
only brother, a farmer at May field, who 
cultivated and lived on his own land, with 
the exception of a few trifling legacies to 
my family. My brother, after leaving Mr. 
Button's academy, was three years at a 
school inWiltshire, conducted by a clergy- 
man." 

Dec. p. 638.— The present Mr. Ruggles- 
Brise married in 1847, Marianne-Wayland, 
fourth daughter of the late Sir Bowyer 
Edward Smijth, Bart, and sister to Sir 
William Smijth the present Baronet. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



Aiay 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



KING CHARLES IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

A Narrative of the attempted Escapes of Charles the First from Carisbrook Castle, 
and of his Detention in the Isle of Wight from November 1647, to the seizure of 
his person by the army at Newport, in November 1648 : including the Letters of 
the King to Colonel Titus, now first deciphered and printed from the originals. 
By George Hillier. Lond. 8vo. 1852. 



THIS is not a book the editor's por- 
tion of which we think it desirable to 
reyiew. We suppose it is a first at- 
tempt, and are tnerefore inclined to 
treat it leniently ; we suppose, also, 
that it has been published in haste, 
and are willing to attribute to that 
circumstance its incompleteness, its 
omission of proper acknowledgments 
to authors whose works hare been used, 
and the many mistakes which we have 
regretted to find in it. The compiler 
is eridently doubtful of his own com- 
petency. We regret that he did not 
consider that circumstance a reason 
for leaying such work alone. But we 
will pass by his part of the volume, 
and consider only the original papers 
which he has published. 

Charles 1. being at Hampton Court 
Palace in November 1647, m the cus- 
tody of the army, became apprehensiye 
that some attempt was about to be 
made upon his life. The circumstances 
justified the suspicion, and the King 
determined to seek safety in flight. As 
in all previous periods of his history, 
when trustwortny advice was most 
needed, it was either not at hand, or 
the King disregarded it. He now took 
counsel of the same person who had 
accompanied him from Oxford to the 
Scotisn army—" Jack Ashbumham,** 
as his majesty seemed to delight in 
terming him, who had the charge of 



the privy purse. The result brought 
upon Ashburnham an accusation of 
unfaithfulness to the King, which was 
probably entirely unmerited. He was 
a weak man ; vain, self-conceited, and 
altogether incompetent to deal with 
business of such importance as was 
then in agitation, or with such persons 
as Cromwell and Ireton. In spite of 
the experience of the last few years, 
and the still more emphatic warnings 
of the last few months, Ashburnham 
retained all the old high notions of the 
power and sacredness of the royal per- 
son and authority, and he seems, more- 
over, to have been of a trusting nature, 
disposed to believe men honest, if they, 
or anybody else for them, but said they 
were so. Charles was likely to think 
highly of such an adviser; one ready 
to execute without scruple whatever 
his majesty thought proper to com- 
mand. Everything Ashburnham said, 
and everything he did, tended to con- 
firm the King in all his own delusions, 
and therefore, in his majesty's opinion, 
there was nobody so trustworthy, or 
so much to be relied upon, as ** Jack 
Ashburnham." 

November 1647 was a dark and 
stormj month, and Thursday the 11th 
peculiarlyroughandwet. Afler dinner 
the King retired to his chamber, ac- 
cording to his usual custom, and con- 
tinued there, occupied, as was sup- 



King Charles in the Isle of Wight. 



[Jan. 



posed, in letter- writing. Night closed 
in ; supper- time arrived; the ordinary 
attendants assembled to await the com- 
ing of his majesty to partake of the 
customary meal ; after some little de- 
lay, the parliamentary commissioners 
and other persons in authority, who 
were in the habit of waiting upon his 
majesty at that time, began to suspect 
that something was wrong. Cromwell 
had already warned Colonel Whalley, 
who was the chief military person 
there, of the rumours of some attempt 
against the King, and had urged him 
to"haveacare" ofhisguards. Whalley 
and the commissioners went straight to 
theEing*s apartment, where they found 
no King, but letters directed to them- 
selves. By these explanatory missives 
the parliament and nation were ap- 
prised that his majesty, apprehensive 
that some desperate persons had a de- 
sijgn to assassinate him, had withdrawn 
himself, with intention to remain con- 
cealed until the parliament and army 
had come to an agreement as to. the 
terms of peace in which they deemed 
it fit for nim to concur. Tidings of 
this great event were instantly j^dis- 
patched to the chief persons in autho- 
rity. Amongst the rest, Whalley posted 
ofi*^ one of his dragoons to Cromwell, 
who was then stationed at Putney, and 
at twelve o'clock of this same night — 
the very crisis of Cromwell's fate as 
well as the King's — he announced the 
event to the Speaker in plain soldier- 
like terms in a letter from Hampton 
Court. 

In the meantime, where was the 
King ? Searching round the palace, 
tracks of horses were found at the back 
door of the garden. There was a way 
of communication from the Kings 
apartment into the garden. That way, 
it was rightly concluded, the King had 
gone. He left the palace a little before 
nine, accompanied only by Will. Legg. 
At Ditton, Ashburnham and Berkeley 
were waiting 'for him. After a con- 
ference between the King and Ash- 
burnham they all four started off 
through Oatlands Park, the King lead- 
ing the way. The night was so in- 
tensely dark, that, familiar as the King 
was with all that country, they lost 
their road, went ten miles out of the 
way, and, instead of reaching Sutton 

'^ ?] whi- 

been sent 



nay, auvi, iiioi(\;ui4 wi i<j<iviiiug » 

in Hampshire, [Long Sutton?] 
ther a relay of horses had beei 



forward the previous day, three hours, 
as they expected, before daybreak, 
they were not there until dawn. There 
they had, also, a proof of the strange 
carelessness and want of foresight 
which characterised the whole proceed- 
ing. Their servant, who had the 
charge of the horses, came out to 
meet them with tidings that a county 
committee of parliament - men was 
lodging in the inn where they intended 
to take refreshment. 

Wet and weary as they were, the 
horses were ordered out, and their 
journey immediately resumed. Now 
they began to confer whither they 
were going. As they had lost the op- 
portunity of conversation in the inn, 
they walked down the next hill, with 
their horses in their hands, and as they 
walked "consulted what" they "were 
to do." After some mere chit-chat, as 
it would seem, the King announced his 
determination to " go for the Isle of 
Wight," but, before he did so, directed 
Ashburnham and Berkeley to cross 
over thither and confer with the new 
governor of that island for the parlia- 
ment, Colonel Hammond, and under- 
stand from him what kind of reception 
he was willing to give the King. In 
the meantime, the King and Will. 
Legg were to make their way to Tich- 
field, where they were secure of proper 
treatment at a residence of Lord 
Southampton's, inhabited by his mo- 
ther. 

To carry out this plan the party sepa- 
rated. The King reached Tichneld in 
the evening of the 12th November, and 
Ashburnham and Berkeley arrived at 
Lymington the same night. Tht wea- 
ther was so bad that they were unable 
to cross to Yarmouth until the next 
morning. By ten o'clock they reached 
Carisbrook. The governor — a young 
man, nephew to Dr. Hammond, King 
Charles's chaplain, but son-in-law to 
Hampden, and extremely intimate 
with Cromwell — was not at home. He 
had just rode out towards Newport. 
Ashburnham and Berkeley went after 
him. They overtook him on the high 
road. Berkeley, by Ashburnham's de- 
sire, broke the subject of their com- 
mission to him. He was at first almost 
overwhelmed with astonishment; he 
grew pale and trembled " that I did 
really believe," says Sir John Berkeley, 
" he would have fallen ofi* his horse," 



1853.] 



King Charles in the Isle of Wight. 



but afler a little reflection he became 
reassured. He set before them his 
double duty, and would undertake no 
further, than that, if his majesty put 
himself in his power, he would do 
whatever could be expected from a 
person of honour and honesty. Of 
course, this should not have satisfied 
the King's messengers. But it did 
satisfy them. When, afterwards, the 
world exclaimed against their folly, 
they threw the blame on one another, 
and on the best judgment we can 
form Ashburnham was the more faulty 
of the two. This seems confirmed 
by what ensued on their return to 
Charles with Hammond and Basket, 
the governor of Cowes castle, in their 
company. "Oh Jack, you have un- 
done me 1" exclaimed the King. Ash- 
burnham instantly took the blame upon 
himself by offenng to set the King 
free again by the assassination of Ham- 
mond and Basket — a proposal which 
proves the wildness and indiscretion of 
nis character. " His majesty judged it 
was now too late to boggle," says Sir 
John Berkeley, and yielded himself to 
the new custody which his followers 
bad thus arranged for him. . It is of 
little use speculating upon possibilities, 
but it seems as if the King s life might 
have been saved and the whole current 
of English history altered, if, instead of 
sending Ashburnham and Berkeley to 
Hammond, Charles could have awaited 
the arrival of some small craft from 
France, or have arranged with some of 
the fishermen of Southampton water 
for a passage to the continent. 

At Carisbrook the King soon began 
to quarrel, in a very undignified way, 
with Hammond, and to plot for an 
escape. His old servants were re- 
moved, and new ones placed about 
him, some of whom were spies ; others, 
as Titus and Firebrace, proved true 
under all circumstances. The first 
endeavour to effect an escape took 
place in March 1648. Most of the 
letters now published relate to the 
second attempt. 

Letter I. is written by the King in 
his ordinary hand, and is signed in his 
accustomed way. It is directed " For 
Cap: Titus," but does not seem to have 
been closed or folded like an ordinary 
letter, but merely to have been dou- 
bled up in a small compass. It might 
have been put into the finger of a 
glove or beea held with ease in the 



palm of the hand, so as to be passed 
from hand to hand without observa- 
tion. The King declares his necessity 
to be greater than ever, and pledges 
himself that services done to him at 
this time shall have the first place in 
his thoughts, whenever he shall be in a 
condition to requite his friends and 
pity his enemies. " Lastly," he adds, 
" asseure everjr one that with me pre- 
sent services wipes out former falts." 
This was probably a letter written as 
a kind of authority to be shown by 
Titus to other persons who were to be 
employed in aiding the King's escape. 
It IS undated. There is a fac-simile 
of this letter in Clutterbuck's Hert- 
fordshire, i.^345. 

Letter H. like all the remainder is 
in a feigned legal hand. It addresses 
Titus as W. and is signed J. This 
letter, which like the former is without 
a date, was written after the King's 
ineflectual attempt at an escape, when 
he was unable to pass his body, be- 
tween the bars. He refers Titus to 
the bearer, probably Firebrace, for 
particulars of his failure, and requests 
"advice concerning removing of ob- 
structions." It had been suggested 
that by the action of aqua fortis and a 
file he might remove the bar, and then 
be able to let himself down. 

Letter III. dated 26th April, 1648, 
from J. to W. denying that the King 
had written something about his medi- 
tated escape, which it was alleged had 
come to light from an intercepted letter. 

Letter TV. undated. The King di- 
rects Titus to give full instructions to 
Osbom and Dowcett, two of the King's 
attendants who were in the plot, and 
one of whom at the least was a spy. 

Letter V. undated. The King sends 
his file to Titus, and wishes him " to 
make good trials and give him good 
instructions ; for I know not," he says, 
" how filing can be without much noise 
and time." Firebrace had suggested 
that the King might pass the guards 
at night, and go out at once that way. 
Titus is directed to try that way by 
making " this fellow of the backstairs 
try how he can conduct his friends in 
and out at that time of night without 
strict examination of the guards. The 
providing of a ship is left to Titus's 
care." 

Letter VL without date. Answer 
to suspicions entertained of some one 
in communication with the King. Titus 



6 



King Charles in the Isle of Wight. 



[Jan. 



was puzzled to know through whom 
information of what passed between 
himself and the King got abroad. The 
King says — " I am confident that no 
Sunday since I came here (except the 
last) I read on any such booke as Ar- 
genis." He begs Titus to " adjust par- 
ticulars " as soon as he can. 

Letter Vn. undated. Answer to 
the repljr to the last: "I pray you 
think which way I shall remove the 
bar out of my window without noise 
and unperceived, and what time it will 
take me to do it." 

Letter VIII. undated. "I have 
been considering the bar of my win- 
dow, and find that I must cut it in two 
places ; for that place where I must 
cut it above I can hide it with the lead 
that ties the glass, but there is nothing 
that can hide the lower part ,* where- 
fore I conceive it cannot but be dis- 
covered if I leave it off when I have 
once begun it ; and how to make but 
one labour of it I cannot yet conceive : 
but if I had a forcer I could make my 
way well enough, or if you could teach 
me how to make the fire-shovel or 
tongs supply that place, which I be- 
lieve not impossible. I pray you to 
be sure of a ship." 

Letter IX. undated. The difficulty 
of removing the bar leads the King to 
prefer the plan of going out through 
the guards, " if any one officer can be 
engaged in it." Titus is to state his 
opmion whether pro or con. 

Letter X. undated. The King has 
but one query, " whether," he writes, 
" I shall have time enough after I have 
supped and before I go to bed to re- 
move the bar : for if I had a forcer I 
would make no question of it ; I much 
doubt that my time be too scant." 
He also adds, " there must be terminus 
ad quenu, as well as terminus a quo, 
therefore I desire to know whither 
you intend that I should go after I am 
over the water." This letter is printed 
by Clutterbuck (Hist. Hertfordshire, 
i. 345). 

Letter XI. Sunday 14th May. An- 
swer to four letters received from 
Titus the day before, with many others 
from other people. " As for our great 
buincss, I desire you to begin to wait 
for me on Monday next, and so after 
every night for a week together, be- 
cause one night may fail and [another ?] 
accomplish it ; and it being both trou- 
blesome and dangeroiu to send off 



word to you. . . It is my chamber 
window on which I must descend, 
the other being so watched that it 
cannot be cut, wherefore I must first 
to bed, so that my time of coming 
from my chamber may be about eleven 
at night. You must give me a pass- 
word that I may know my friends in 
the dark." 

Letter XII. Monday, 22nd May. 
Answer to three letters. " I will offer 
my life, if I had a chance, that the 
discourse concerning Con [the papal 
agent] and my wife is a damned lie. . . 
I desire you to assure all my friends 
in my name that all this is punctuaUy 
true, and in particular to 457 (Lady 
Carlisle); and that if, as you have said, 
there shall be any treaty made me by 
the Parliament party, I would only 
have use of it in order to my /escape. 
. . As you have advised, Wednesday 
next may be the night I shall en- 
deavour to escape, but I desire you, if 
it be possible before then, to assure 
me that you will be ready oil that 
night, and send me a password, which 
yet you have not done. I have now 
no more to say, but that I hope yon 
will remember to order things so thai 
I shall need no stop until I go to the 
ship." 

Letter XIH. Wednesday, 24th May. 
" Yours of yesterday's date I have re- 
ceived this afternoon; which, though 
short, gave me much satisfaction, and 
to which my answer is< — ^By the help 
of fate I shall try to escape upon Sun- 
day night next. The cause why we 
could not do it this night is, because 
the course of the guards are altered, 
for our men have it settled so that 
their turn comes but on Sunday night 
next." 

On the night appointed Charles again 
made the attempt. He cut asunder 
and removed the bar. He opened the 
window and prepared to descend, when, 
looking downwards, he beheld a con- 
siderable number of persons assembled 
round the spot at which he was to 
alight. He looked again, observing 
more attentively, and found that Dow- 
cett, who was to be his guide, was not 
there. He rightly concluded that his 
plan had been discovered. He drew 
back, closed the casement, and went 
to bed in an agony of disappcnntment 
which no eye beheld and no heart or 
pen can tell. Hanmiond wrote the 
nest day to the House of Lords, thai 



1853.] 



ISmg Charlet m the IsU of Wight. 



lie had been informed of the King's 
intention to escape, on the Sunday 
morning, bj two of the soldiers who 
had been suborned ; but, in truth, he 
had been warned that there was "aqua 
fortis gone down from London to re- 
move that obstacle which hindered, 
and that the same design is to be put 
in execution in the next dark nights," 
bj a letter from Cromwell, dated as 
long before as the 6th April. The fact 
seems to be, that the King was sur- 
rounded bj people who played him 
&lse. Everything he did was made 
known to the leaders of the army and 
the parliament ; and probably all, or 
nearly all, his letters were intercepted 
and read. 

Letter XIV. Saturday, 1 July, 1648. 
A month after the failure of the King's 
attempt, Titus was again able to get 
into correspondence with him. " I 
have newly received," the King writes, 
" yours of the 22nd June, for which I 
know not whether my astonishment or 
my joy were the greater ; for indeed 
I did despair of hearing any more from 
you, or any other of my friends, during 
these damnable times, without blaming 
anything but my own misfortune, 
which makes me the more obliged to 
your kindness and industry for having 
found means to convey a letter to me. 
He adds, that he will send him or his 
other friends* letters, if he be assured 
that they will come safe to him. A 
facsimile of this letter is given in Clut- 
terbuck's Hertfordshire, i. 345. 

Letter XV. Monday, 10 July, 1648. 
The filing reports that Hammond the 
governor had been endeavouring to 
extract from him some information 
which might be used in the criminal 
proceedings instituted against persons 
implicated in his abortive attempt to 
escape. The King states, that "all 
the answer the King would give him 
was, — K he knew nothing he could tell 
him nothing, or, though he knew any- 
thing, yet he would tell him nothing ; 
because his maxim is, — Never to clear 
one man to the prejudice of another, 
or of his own serjrice." 

This is the last of these letters. In 
our abstract of them we have availed 
ourselves of Mr. Hillier's rendering of 
the cipher in which some parts are 
written, and have in one or two places 
supplied omissions in his transcripts. 
They undoubtedly constitute a very 



curious collection — one which we are 
delighted to find at last settled in its 
proper depository, the national collec- 
tion of MBS. They establish, by un- 
questionable evidence, the facts re- 
specting the meditated escapes from 
Carisbrook \ they prove with whom the 
King was at that time in communi- 
cation; they present a touching pic- 
ture of the troubles attendant upon 
sovereignty " fallen from its high es- 
tate." The narrative of the succes- 
sive steps by which the last fatal and 
wicked result was brought about can 
never again be written without re- 
ceivinff some additional certainty, and 
some lew new facts, from these letters. 
They are a supplement to the letters 
of Firebrace and the narratives of 
Berkeley, Ashburnham, Herbert, and 
Cooke, and, considered apart from the 
narrative in which we nnd them, we 
can only rejoice that they have been 
placed beyond the reach oi accidental 
destruction. 

Melancholy as were the errors of 
King Charles, and the folly of his con- 
duct down to and even beyond the 
time to which these letters relate, all 
feeling is forgotten from the moment 
he rejected the proposals of the army, 
save pity for his obviously approaching 
fate. Without the aid of such fraudu- 
lent endeavours to excite commisera- 
tion as the lines entitled Majesty in 
Misery, which are here reprinted with 
the stamp of the editor's approval, the 
facts of the last fiileen months of the 
King's life constitute one of the saddest 
passages in our annals, — a proof alike 
of the certain results of obstinate ad- 
herence to misgovemment, and of the 
fearfiil wickedness to the commission 
of which even well-meaning men may, 
under particular circumstances, be in- 
cited. 

The Appendix to the present volume 
contains several papers relating to the 
mission upon which Titus was sent by 
Charles II. from Scotland into France, 
to consult Henrietta Maria upon a 
marriage between Charles H. and a 
daughter of the Marquis of Argyle, 
suffgested, according to Clarendon, in 
order to amuse the Marquis. The 
King's instructions are here by a mis- 
print dated in 1657 instead of 1651. 
The Queen's answer was — 

1 am not uninformed of my Lord of 
Argyle's ability, credit, or affections, nor 



8 



how usefully be hath employed them all 
for the good and benefit of the King my 
son ; there is nothing new or extraordinary 
that a person so well born as the Marquis 
of Argyle's daughter should be married to 
the crown; towards this daughter there 
can be no exception in regard of herself, 
she being a person of whom I never heard 
anything but very good. But it is to be 
considered, that the misfortunes under 
which we are fallen are of a large exten- 
gion — that the settlement of the affairs of 
Scotland, though it be a great and diflScult 
work, yet not to be rested in without the 
recovery of England ; that the kingdom of 
England, upon very great claims, is like 
to require a part in a council in which it 
is so much concerned, and would take 
themselves to be too justly offended if by 
a present conclusion of the thing in ques- 
tion they should find themselves totally 
excluded from it. That even Scotland 



Letters of Benjamin Franklin. 



[Jan. 



itself may not be without parties, very con- 
siderable to the present affairs, that would 
be so far perhaps from concurring now to 
this matter that a finishing of it might 
induce a most unseasonable irritation to 
them, 

On these grounds the Queen advised 
that the thing remain for a while in the 
same state it doth, by which he [Charles 
II.] will have the opportunity, if the diffi- 
culties that now occur should be removed, 
to go then seasonably through with it. 

Titus delayed his return, Argyle 
opposed Charles's march into England, 
and the battle of Worcester put an end 
to all thoughts of matrimony for seve- 
ral years, during which Argyle re- 
turned to that close alliance with 
Cromwell which ultimately led to his 
very iniquitous execution. 



LETTERS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. 

In a collection of autographs of eminent Americans, now in the possession of Mrs. 
John Gough Nichols, are two from the hand of Benjamin Franklin, which we believe 
are hitherto unpublished. 

The first was written in the year 1769, when he was in London, and "about to make 
a little tour in France." It is addressed to his bankers on private business, and con- 
cludes with ordering a lottery ticket to be purchased for a friend at Boston. 

The second is a paper written on a much more important occasion. It is a dispatch 
announcing the arrival in Europe of the ratification of the Definitive Treaty of Peace 
between England and America, after it had been delayed by the severity of the winter 
in America. It is dated from Passy, near Paris, and addressed in the joint names of 
Benjamin Franklin and John Jay, the Commissioners for negociating the peace, to 
David Hartley, esquire, who then held some other diplomatic appointment from the 
United States. 

Benjamin Franklin to Messrs. Smith ami Co, Batikers in London. 
Gentlemen, Craven Street, July 11, 1769. 

I have desired Messrs. Freeth of Birmingham to send one of their 
Corn Mills pack'd up and directed to your Care for my Son. As I shall pro- 
bably be abroad when it comes up, being about to make a little Tour in 
France, I beg you would be so good as to receive it, and ship it with Capt. 
Falconer, pay Messrs. Freeth for it, and charge it to my ace*. 

I shall be farther obliged, not having time to come into the City, if you can 
send me to morrow Forty Guineas. 

May I farther give you the Trouble of buying for me two Lottery Tickets, 
to be sent me with the Money — Or rather, on second Thou^ts, keep them, 
writing a Line to Mr. Jonathan Williams, Mercli*, Boston, acquainting him 
with their Numbers, for they are for him. 

To I am, with much Esteem, 

Mess" Smith, Wright & Grey, Yours, &c. 

Bankers, B. Franklin. 

Lombard Street. 

I 



18o30 



Letters of Benjamin Frctnklin* 



Benjamin FraMin and Jtyhn Jay to David Hartiey* 

Sir, Fftss^* March 31, 1784. 

We have now the Pleasure of acquainHng'yoii^ that the Ratification of the 
definitive Treaty is arrive<i here by an Express from Congress. You hnve 
Jreadv been informed that the Severity of the winter in Aiuericn, which hin- 
Ired TraTelling, had occiision*d a Delay in the ass^einbling of the States. As 
ffi' sufficient number were got to^^ether, the Treaty was taken into Con- 

Mnd the Uatilication passVJ unanimou.sly* Ini^los'd yon have copies 
E>i tiiL' 1 xuclamation iisdued on Ine occasion, and of the recomiiiendatory Reso- 
_[ition. The Mejsseneer wafl detained at New York near a Months by the Ice 
f%»hich prevented the racket-Bout's mailing, otherwise be would probably have 
been h^re in Ftibruary. We are now ready to exchange the HatiQcations with 
you, whenever it shall be convenient to you. With great and sincere Esteem, 
*re have the Honour to be, 

Str,^ 

Your Excellency *s most obedient 

& most humble Servant?, 

Jons Jay, 
lis Excellency David Hartley, B»q, 
&c* &c. &c. 



FARINELLI AND POMPADOUR. 



•* I HAVE stooped to flatter Fari- 
itelli, why should 1 hesitate to praise 
Pompadotir ?'* In this speech, uttered 
by Maria Theresa when political ne- 
oeBsity was bendin^ her Imperial neck 
beneath the heel of a French King's 
mistreat!-, there was a mixture of insult 
and injury* Farinelli was as honest a 
man »» any in the court of Charles VI. 

I '— Alaria Theresa's father. Perhaps 
Pompadour was as honest a woman aa 

"any in tfie court of Louis XV* ; but 
htinf.?ty was not to be found in the 
rufmirage of that able yet idle, accom* 
phifihed yet worlhle^s, monarch. Honour 
and honesty maintained a dull but 
lespci'tuble state in the saloons of his 
cnii-ort »nd of his royal daughters. 

The King's own circle was made up 
of incarnate iniquity, galloping paily 

^lo meet the deluge which Fompa<lour 
Tiad prophesied, and in the eddies of 
which so many French governments 
have encountered destruction. To 
place FnrineUi'on the same level as 
Pompadour was therefore to inflict on 

^tiie former no inconsiderable wrong. 
To admire the artistic skill of either was 
Ho condescension, even in an Empress, 
To speak of Pompadour as an artist 
It tfi notice her in a character which 
looks ^tranjre to the general public ; 
Grnt. M\<3, Vol* XX XIX. 



but in truth her line of art, in which 
to excel she needed but the poor quali- 
fications of necessity and virtue, wa.^ 
superior to that by which Farinelli 
acliieved renown and fortune. Let 
us gkuce at both in their respective 
jmrauits. 

At the court of Vienim, at the be- 
ginning of lite last i-eniury^ the chief 
favourite of the iraperiul amateur 
Charles VI. was Porpora, the great 
oiasiter of recitative iiiul measured art, 
a iiiao whose tuition enabled many to 
become rich, but who^e profuse gcne- 
ro,Hity ren<kred his extreme old age 
one of miserable penury. Porpora 
owed liis poyitioD at X'ienna to what 
would have ruined a composer any 
where else. The Emperor, who cared 
only for solemn music, and was never 
known to pmilc, bur'^t into a fit of 
uncontrollable laughter at hearing a 
shower of trills in one of Porpora** 
capering t'ugues. The man whocouhl 
excite risibility in a sardonic Kai§er, 
wfts accounted as Bomcthing above 
the common, and Porpora waa more 
esteemed than if he had been a phi- 
losopher. 

About this time there was a mai'- 
vellously tuneful boy at Naples, who 
was distinguished by the title of H 
C 



10 



Fa7*inellt and Pompadour. 



[Jan. 



JRugazzo, or " the boy," but whose name 
was Carlo Broscbi Farinelli. This lad 
became the pupil of Porpora, who pro- 
duced him at the age of seventeen to 
the critical public of Home. The suc- 
cess of Farmelli excited the jealousy 
of the longest-winded trumpeter ever 
known, and the two (instrumentalist 
and vocalist) nightly endeavoured to 
excel each other m uttering the greatest 
amount of notes without taking breath, 
while the intellectual audience sat 
mutely listening with enraptured ears. 
On one occasion the trumpeter scat- 
tered whole avalanches of sound, while 
Farinelli competed with him in never- 
ending "runs." The instrumentalist 
was lost in his own continuance of 
harmonious noise, till his trembling 
lips strove in vain to puff, however 
faintly, a crowning note. He fondly 
thought he had gained the prize, but 
his astonishment was great at hearing 
Farinelli dashing on, in the same breath 
with which he had started, now swell- 
ing, now shaking upon the note, anon 
running the most rapid and difficult 
divisions, and at length ceasing, not 
from exhaustion, but because, through 
the tumultuous approbation of the au- 
dience, he could be heard no more. 
It was ascertained that he could sing 
three hundred notes without drawing 
breath. When it is remembered that 
few other vocalists have been able to 
accomplish more than fifty under the 
same conditions, some idea may be 
entertained of the powers in this re- 
spect of young Farinelli. 

Charles VI. not only criticised poor 
Porpora, but he condescended to give 
counsel to his pupil ; and, while the 
Emperor was engaged in averting the 
ruin which threatened his great in- 
heritance, he found time to show Fari- 
nelli how he might add pathos to spirit, 
unite simplicity with sublimity, and 
excite as much admiration as astonish- 
ment. Charles VI. could not conquer 
at Belgrade, but he could make a 
finished singer of Farinelli. The flat- 
tery paid to the latter by Maria- 
Theresa was therefore but filial eulogy 
addressed to a father who was an in- 
different Emperor, but who would 
have made an invaluable leader of an 
operatic orchestra. 

England was anxious to hear a man 
who united in his own person the ex- 
cellences of all other vocalists; and 



in 1734 he appeared in Hasse's opera 
of " Artaserse," for which the words 
had been expressly furnished by Me- 
tastasio. The locality was the house 
in Lincoln's-inn-fields, a rival to that 
in the Haymarket, where Handel 
reigned supreme, yet found it difficult 
to counteract the attraction of Fari- 
nelli, supported by the exquisite and 
wayward Cuzoni, — a lady who mi^ht 
have revelled in gold like " Miss Kiel- 
mansegg," but who lived to feel star- 
vation, and who then spent a guinea, 
given her in charity, in purchasing a 
bottle of claret. The donor wonder- 
ingly beheld her pour the costly wine 
into a basin, dip a "pennyworth of 
bread" therein, and so show how a 
famished actress loved to breakfast 

The effect produced by Farinelli 
in England had never before been 
equalled, and certainly has never since 
been paralleled. It is said that on one 
occasion, as he was playing the part of 
a captive prince, the tyrant to whom 
he was pleading for liberty was ^ so 
touched by his sweet and plaintive 
strains that he spontaneously tore the 
light fetters from the limbs of the pri- 
soner, and gave a new reading to the 
catastrophe, to the intense delight 
of an enraptured audience. In tWe 
famous air ofSon qual Nave he perfectly 
electrified his hearers. Sounds so 
musical, so melancholy, and so sweet, 
were novel to the untutored but 
greedily attentive ears of our great- 
grandfathers, and when these listened 
to the lightning rapidity of roulades 
which lagging violins strove in vain to 
keep up with, such ovations ensued in 
honour of the performer as had never 
been conferred upon the brightest of 
the sons of philosophy and science. 

But the name of Farinelli will ever 
remain most connected with Spain. 
He proceeded to Madrid in 1737, 
taking Paris in his way, and even 
charming a French court where, then 
as now, Italian music and Italian throats 
were accounted as things very inferior 
to what France could produce in the 
same line. On the arrival of the great 
artist in Madrid he was at once sum- 
moned to the palace, where lay a king 
enslaved bjr a melancholy which it was 
thought might be made to yield to the 
magic of the foreign minstrel. The 
particular madness of Philip assumed 
the form of an unclean insanity which 



J 8530 



FuHnelli and Pompadour* 



11 



is general euougli in those continental 

uitles wherein men seem determined 

bnt beards are natural and inviatmble 

filppenda;^es to chins. In other words, 

Iphilip of Spain refused to shave or be 

^shaven. His rdatioQa and friendi)^ his 
medical men (barber-surgeons)^ and 
even his confesi^ors, in vain assailed 
the royal ear with recommendations to 
lay down the hirsute taberoiiele which 
veiled the royal face from the re- 
spectful g^aze of the lieges. Philip 
answered never a word, but continued 
to caress bis beard, than which his ear 
was not deafer to remonstrance. The 
whole court was at its small wit's ead 
when Farinelli arrived to work a cure 
which had defied the faculty, and 

p which waa to be wrought by song. He 
rns placed in a room adjoining that 
rherein reclined the moody aiid lont«f- 
Jed majesty of Spain. As the 

"first notes of the gifted niinatrel fell 
*m the sick ear of the Km^, a frown 
darkened his brow as though he were 
determined to resist the voice of the 
charmer, charm be never so wisely. 
The fniwu, however, soon gave way to 
a smilet and as the notes fell in liquid 
sweetness from the lips of the son of 

i«on^, clear and full and solemn as 
though an archangel were delivering a 
message of consolation from the skicH, 

I the hand of the monarch dropped from 
the bciird which it gasped and guarded, 

' and tenrs be*an to liow freely from 
eyes that for weeks had been dry, 
rigid, and sleepless. The cure was 
accomplished, an ecstatic circle knelt 
around the King, and the latter sub- 
luitted himself with graceful alacrity 
to the ready skill and lon^^ razors of 
lie Figaros of the court. The merit 
' Fariaeiii could not be allowed to 
unrewarded. The royal faouly 
Donopolised his person and talents, 
attached him exclusively to the service 
of the court, and, holding that the 
human instrument which had been 

Mivinely sent as a remedy to lead a 
Spanish monarch to reason and a soup- 
iish, was too good to be permitted to 

'enchant the mean ears of the people, 
Farinelli was lodged in the palace, 
created a knight, and a pension as- 
~_ned him whereby to maintain his 
ew dignity with the air of a cavalier, 
"The dew of grace bless our new 
knight, to-day/ is tlie wish which 
Beaumont and Fletcher place on the 



lips of Yaletta in behalf of Miranda. 
Few such salutations greeted Fari- 
nelli. The heUica virtus was jealous of 
one who had achieved more than a 
warriors fSirtune, arte canendt^ by trills 
ratbtfr than thrustt^, by the tongue ami 
not by the sword. An old battered 
officer who had long waited in the 
royal antechamber in expectation of a 
pension, one day, seeing Farinelli pass 
into the monarches apartment without 
ceremony, exclaimed that it was a 
shame that such squeaking dolls should 
be clothed in gold white old soldiert 
were left to rttgd and starvation, Fa- 
rinelli gently glanced at the bold 
speaker, learned his name, examined 
his claims, liberally aided him from 
his own purse, and finally obtained for 
him from the King the honourable 
ffratuity which the old soldier's service* 
h^id nobly earned. Such traits as 
thei^e were common in Farinelli^s daily 
career, and she who praised the actor 
had hardly have needed to apologise 
for it, or to cidl the eulogy a stooping 
to liattery. At all events one thing ia 
clear, namely, that the family of Fari- 
nelli waif accustt>med to honours from 
crowned heads. Thus the uncle of the 
great artist, who began life us com- 

S>ser, violinist, and concert -master at 
anover, lived not only to be ennobled 
by the Kinjj of Denmark, but iiclually 
residetl at Venice as the representative 
of our George I. 

Farinelli continued in the vocal 
service of the crown of Spain fur 
nearly a quarter of a century, and, by 
wearing his honours modestly and ap- 
plying hia fortune liberally, he acquired 
a popularity which exleruied to all 
elasijcs. It is said that during the 
whole of that lime he rarely sung in 
public, except when commanded by 
royalty and honoured by its presence. 
Innumerable are the ntories totd on the 
other hand of the stratagems adopted 
by individuals to get within henringof 
his woiidtirful voice. The tradespeople 
whom he patronised, dc8|nsing ducats, 
cared only to be paid in song ; and 
melancholy tailors ottered to receipt 
his bilk in full if he would but treat 
them to as many roulades as his ac- 
count contained pistoles. 

Afler his long triumph, as soon as 
time, that ttlnx of voices as well as of 
other things, began to m.ake gentle 
iiupressicHi upcm the organ for which 



12 



Farinelli and Pompadour, 



£Jan» 



all bearers would have desired an im- 
mortal endurance, Farinelli withdrew 
to his native Italy, and in his splendid 
palazzo welcomed all comers, and par- 
ticularly his English visitors, with the 
grace of a prince and the heartiness of 
an honest and sincere man.' He was 
At this time unwise enough to make a 
short professional sojourn in England; 
but our grandfathers could only dis- 
cover in him the excellent method but 
no longer the incomparable voice of 
the Farinelli of well-nigh half a century 
before. He accepted the lesson of his 
comparative failure with cheerful meek- 
ness, and, once more turning his face 
homeward, he died " a blameless man," 
in the year 1782, in the 84th year of 
his age. , There are yet persons living 
who were contemporary with the man 
who was singing in his youth when 
" Great Anna " was our Queen ! 

Such was Farinelli ; as for Madame 
de Pompadour, if she was less worthy 
as an individual, she was even greater 
as an artist, and, but for the temptation 
to which she yielded, she might have 
held the most digni6ed place in the 
Dictionary of Engravers. 

When Louis AV. married Maria 
Leczinska, daughter of Stanislas ex- 
King of Poland, the modest bride- 
groom was but fifteen years of age, 
the bride some seven years older. For 
several years a more exemplary couple 
could not have been found ; but at last 
it might have been said of the King, 
as Massillon said of his royal grand- 
father, he forgot every duty owing to 
the Queen, save that of politeness. He 
fancied that his infidelity was well 
paid for by excessively candying his 
courtesy. If his wife ever ventured 
to tax him with wickedness, she at 
least could never say he was uncivil. 

It was Cardinal Fleury who led the 
young monarch into iniquity. The 
King had capacity for business and 
wished to exercise it, but the Cardinal 
put in his way the young and simple 
Madame de Mailly. This young lady's 
guilty greatness was envied by her 
sister, a little novice, who used to visit 
her at Versailles, and who contrived 
to have her ejected and to succeed to 
her dishonour. When the sister (De 
Ventimille) died, the first concubine 
was restored to her old disgraceful 
dignity, from which she was finally 
•deposed by another sister, Mmc. de 



Tournelle, who drove her sister inta 
a convent, forced the King into active 
life at the head of his armies, and dis- 
played her own brilliant beauty in the 
camp as Duchess de Chateauroux. 
The Duchess was the lady of the hour 
when the King was attacked by dan- 
gerous illness at Metz. Like another 
celebrated potentate, he was never sick 
without longing to be a saint, and his 
confessor induced him to dismiss the 
mistress. The Duchess re-appeared 
when the King became well and 
wicked. Death, however, soon closed 
her brief reign. Her sister, Madame 
de Lauraguais, was unable to keep 
long the post which had been held by 
three so near akin. A fierce struggle 
ensued among ladies of the highest 
blood to succeed to the vacant infamy, 
and, while intrigue was at its very 
hottest and highest, in stepped a tame- 
less but pert and pretty girl, who con- 
trived to subdue the monarch as com- 
pletely as she enslaved the man. 

Her name was Jeanne Poisson. She 
was the daughter of a rather gay 
mother and of a clerk in a government 
office, who once very narrowly escaped 
hanging for fraudulent practices. She 
received a brilliant education at the 
expense of a certain M. le Norman t 
de Tournehara, whose paternal regard 
for her was not exercised without 
reason, and whcftook an honest fatherly 
pride in seeing her in her earliest youth 
proficient in music and drawing, and 
especially in copper-plate engraving, 
and in engraving on gems. M. Le 
Norma^t gave this accomplished lady 
in marriage to his nephew Le Normant 
d'Etiolles. The young husband was 

Elain, childishly simple, but warm- 
earted. The young wife was enchant- 
ing, cunning, and calculating. She 
detested her consort, and was even 
then looking to titular consortship with 
a King. In the meantime she main- 
tained a little court around her, the 
chief officers of which were Voltaire 
and Cahusac, Fontenelle, Montesquieu, 
Maupertuis, and the gallant Abbe de 
Bernis, of whom she subsequently 
made a Cardinal and a Minister of 
Foreign Affiiirs. It will be seen that 
she had taste in selecting her followers. 
There was not a fool among them. She 
so worshipped intellect that I question 
if she would have even cared for the 
King himself, but that, among other 



1853] 



F'ayinetli and Pompadour. 



|uttlUies, he possesseil uDder&tamling — 
in uoderBtandingwliiuh itB owner mia- 
ipjilJtiOi aud whicli Jeanne Poissoii 
abused. 

In the King'* service there was b 
ivourite attendant, a male cousin of 
iadame d'Etiolles, One idle morning, 
rhen the monarch seemed to beulready 
rearj of the day, this attendant ven- 
ttired to remark that he had beard of 
a strange mad-cap of a young wife 
who lind hiugliingly told her husband 
]|hat she wouhl he constant to bim 
rraiiifct all the world, excepting only the 
ting of France and Navarre. Louis 
alle<), ordered his hunting equipage, 
shot a stag in the Forest of fc^enaart, 
and entering the chateau d*EtJollea, on 
the skirts of the forest, presented the 
antlers to the master of the house! 
1'he young hu^band^ overwhelmed with 
the honour^ suspended the horns above 
ijhe door of his drawing-room* At all 
be King*s subse<|uent hunting parties, 
'^^adame d'EtioUes was preac-nt, dressed 
in greater variety of costume than ever 
was worn by Diana, and looking in- 
litcly more bewitching. She waa an 
Admirable rider, and at length she 
f;iirly rode away with the Kitig, M. 
d'Etiolles received a little biUei that 
night from his wite, politely informing 
him that she was on a visit to Ver- 
iiilles, and did not very well know 
rhen she should be back. M. d'EtioUes 
looked up musingly at the royal pre- 
sent over his drawing-room door, and 
shook his head as if oppressed by the 
weight of his very thoughts. A day 
l_4»r two later he began to give to these 
houghts tncanttous utterance, and his 
ndi sere t ion was I'ewarded by an ap- 
ointraentwhichexiled him to Avignon. 
le bore the banishment for a year 
»ith feverish impatience, and then ca- 
jitulated. He purchased a perm isa ion 
In return to Paris by promising never 
t*i trouble his errant spouse, and never 
jUi enter a theatre after iutimalion 
jiven to him that she was likely to be 
resent. When he returned to the 
capita J be heard no more of his wife 
■hy name, but much o[ a Marchioness 
<le Pompadour, whose wit, vivacity, 
k And grace had eataldiBhed a permanent 
cstasy at Versailles, whof^e accom- 
jilif^hnients had excited an interest even 
In the uiied-up King, and whose pro- 
digious extravagance was the wonder 
and indigmttitm of the Parisian^}, As 



m 



for her old father he was placed In 
ignoble ease. Of her brother she had 
mTade a Marquis de Vandiere, — a title 
which the wits of the capital had con- 
verted into Manjuis d'Avant'hier^ or 
of *' the day before yesterday." The 
wounded gentleman toiled the punsters 
by changing his marrtuisate to that of 
" de Marigny," and by procuring his 
appointment to the lucrative ofBces of 
diivclor and ct»ntroller-generid of the 
buildings, woods, forests, arts, and 
manufactures of the kingdom) One 
of the finest line engravings I have 
ever seen, and partly the work of his 
sister, represents him, with his titles 
annexed, as a portly young man, look- 
ing perfectly unconscious that his 
honours were the price of his sister's 
dijihonour. 

The treasures of the kingdom were 
made to flow at the Marchioness's 
good pleasure, and, if she sometimes 
directed them in a praiseworthy way, 
she too often lavishly misappropriated 
tbt:m. Royal residences were assigned 
her, and revenues to support them* 
The magnificent chateau of Belle- 
Vue, well known to all who have 
visited the environs of Pari;*, sprung 
up from the ground like a tairy palace 
at her bidding. The neighbouring 
landholders were compelled to sur- 
render their land at prices fixed by 
the cQurti that she might have space 
enough of garden-ground to entertain 
her royal lover and his numerous 
suite. When she purchased the arts* 
toeratio mansion of the D'Evreux in 
Paris, and, razing it to the ground, built 
another, above whose portico she 
placed the shield of the ancient house of 
Pompadour, as though she lia^l been a 
daughter ol' that noble race, the walla 
of her residence were covered with 
placards which bore the w«ll-ex pressed 
and sarcastic opinions of the cajatal ; 
and, when the shameless mistress was 
im])udent erumgh to encroach on the 
public walks in order to enlarge her 
own private grounds, the people at- 
tacked the workmen, pulling down the 
wall as fast as it was raised. Upon 
which the monarch, as imprudent as 
his niistress was impudent, despatched 
a detachment of his royal guard, who 
repulsed the king's subjects, while his 
concubine tranquilly built a wall to 
ronceal and protect her Viower ! 

There WHS little mercy in those day* 



14 



Paringlli and Pompadour* 



[J&n. 



tor those who offi^nded the imperioua 
favourite. On one occasion, when the 
infant Duke of Biirgimdy was ex- 
hibited to the |>eoplet — ittto the little 
golden cradle in wliieh he laj behind 
a gilded gratin*j^ some one contrived 
to slip a, written denunciation against 
the monarch iind his niistrcHS^ — an of- 
fence which ruined manj suspected 
persona, without striking the one that 
was guiUj, So when the peculiar 
condition of the health of the Mar- 
chioness reduced the liaison between 
herself and the King to one of a pla- 
tonic aspect, the wits of the capital 
ilung their sarcastic verses into her 
apartments, and nieeklj resigned them- 
eelves to the captivity iind losa of 
place which rewartied the bold exer- 
cise of their burnoun Her assailants 
were among the noblest of the land, 
but ehe tfiuote them as mercilei^sly u^ 
though she bad been a Richelieu in 
petticoats. 

It is a strange circumstance that her 
arrogance increased at the preciBe 
moment that one might have expected 
her influence to be on the wane» When 
she was an emerita, if I may an call 
her c^jndition of ex*concubineship, 
those who attended her levees in her 
dressing- room found her seated in the 
solitary cbair that was in the apart- 
ment. >fo one could mi in her pre- 
sence ; but the Marquis cle Souvre 
was once buld enough, while paying 
hiB compliments, to seat himself on the 
arm of the chair in which she hy re- 
clining and indignant The audacity 
had well nigh rumed the Martinis, but 
the King mterceded for bun, and 
hia pardon was reluctantly accorded, 
When Louis attended ber levees she 
would condescend to order a stool to 
be brought in for his use ; but w!ien 
princes of the blood and cardinals 
adilressed their homage to ber» she 
received them standing before her 
solitary chair. A seat for them would 
have been to lower her own dignity 
to the ground. A young nobleman 
iierved her as groom of tbe chambers, 
and she compelled the King to confer 
on her butler, a common meiiiah the 
then glorious military conhm of the 
Order of Saint Louis. " Alas !*' said 
an old chevalier, with a sigh, ** the 
King, by placing the cross of tbe royal 
naiot on a livery coat, has <lone for it 
exactly what he did f(»r English ^ Nan- 



keens." When be wished to destroy 
the popularity of that foreign mate* 
rial m France^ he ordered it to be 
worn by every executioner who ap- 
peared on the scnffold/* 

The two objects nearest to the heart 
of " the Pompadour " were to be re^ 
ceived by the Daupbin, and to become 
!ady in waiting to the Queen. Tbe 
first was easily accomplished ; but 
when tbe heir to the throne bent 
forward to bestow the ceremonial 
kis3i^ he simply thrust bis totigiie into 
his cheek, and so left ber. The King 
instantly sent btni under arrest to bis 
chateau de Meudon, from which he 
was freed ordy by the action of a 
double lie. In open court he assured 
the ^Lirebioness that be bad not been 
guilty of the insult^ and she smilingly 
replied that she believed bim incapable 
of committing such an outrage. Had 
there been an honest man among 
the courtiers who witnessed the scene, 
he would have uttered, trumpet- 
tonguedt the royal saying, that if truth 
were banished from among all other 
people, it should still find refuge ia 
the breast of princes. 

Tbe attempt to wring from the 
scandalised Queen the nomination of 
the Marchioness to an honourable dig- 
nity in her royal and virtuous circle 
was a more difficult achievement. Her 
majesty protested against being com- 
pelled to receive a married woman 
who was living aeparated of her own 
will from her husband, and who waa 
of a notoriously irreligious life. A J 
rare comedy ensued* Tbe mistresa 
wrote a penitential letter to her dis- 
carded consort, who, under the diree- 
tion of the Prince do Soubiae, specially 
charged for the purpose, returned for 
answer that be was delighted at her 
restoration to heavenly sentiments^and 
was fully convinced that the salvation 
of both depended on their living sepa- 
rate. The next step was to be re* 
ceived at public communion by tho 
eelebratcil Jesuit Father de Sacy j but 
the priest was inexorable. He would 
not believe in the repentance of a con- 
cubine who continued to reside in the 
King's apariments. Her wrath waa 
severely felt by tbe order, but the ^ 
Church generally expressed satisfac- 
tion at the coui*se she bad taken ; a 
score of easy bishops honoured the 
ceremony of ber presence at the aaora- 



iBsa.] 



Fartnelli and Pompadour, 



Dent, and Jeanne Poisiion became 
firtit lady in waiting to the insulted 
Queen of France* 

The knife of Damiens, which had 
nearlj cut short tbe career of Louia, 
placed in temporary peril the dimity 
and poesessiona ot the Marchioness. 
The Jei<uit3, whom she bad hum dialed, 
accu»ed her and the parliament of hav- 
iog conspired with tbe English govern- 
ment to assassinate the Iving. The 
accudatton was too gross in itself, and 
too vindictivelj framed, to admit of 
belief, and the mtstreB^ trmmphed over 
her enemies. A settled melancholy, 
however, descended on tbe King, tbe 
infamous remedy for which was the 
invenlioii of the Marchioness, and was 
applied in order to secure her own po- 
sition by keeping from the monarch all 
inclination to establish another concu- 
bine under the roof of Versailles; Into 
this iniquity I cannot enter further 
than by stating that she presented her 
oM lover with the ** Hermitage*' in the 
famous Pare au Cerf^ and this fihe 
peopled with pretty female cbildrenj 
who wore iriimolaied therein to a Mo- 
loch, compurtid with whom the fiend 
»<:>- called of old was a very an«T(^l of 
light. An awfully cburacteriBtic trait 
of Louis IB connected with tbe chro- 
nicle of this place of sacrifice. He was, 
after his fashion, eminently religious, 
and his confessor declared, with a mix- 
ture of bluiiihes and pride, that after 
he took by the hand the destined youth- 
ful victim of the night, he might be 
heard teaching her the catcchiiiiii, re- 
peating with her the evening prayers, 
and adjuring her never to lose her re- 
verence for the blessed Virgin, the 
Mother of our Lord ! Tbe wretched 
old savage appears himself to have 
been struck by a faint idea that this 
sort of sanctity fell short of what was 
required to secure his salvation. The 
balance in Heaven^s account was de- 
cidedly against him, but he turned the 
amount in his favour by building that 
fAmouB church of St. Genevieve, which 
fo gratified the ecclesiastics of the day 
that they thought it would even in- 
clude Madame de Fompadour in its 
saving efifects, and which has been 
spoken of by the exemplary " Napo- 
leon IIL" as A touching monument of 
the exalted piety of Louis XV. Tbe 
comment was worthy of the act I 

Within the circuit of the Pare au 



15 



Cerf, Madame de Pompadour had once 
herself amused the Kmg by her dra- 
matic performances, her concerts, and 
by entertainments in which she ap- 
peared in a (score of characters, and 
was perfect in all. Now, while the 
King there dwelt with favourites pro- 
vided by herself, she governed and 
mined France, answering every coun- 
sel, remonstrance, and prophecy by the 
DOW proverbial saying, "After us, the 
deluge I" AbrosLl as at home, France 
knew nothing of glory under her sway ; 
and when with one dash of her pen 
she overthrew the entire system of 
Henri IV., of Richelieu, and (d* Louis 
XIV., and entered into a treaty of 
alliance with Austria, it was for no 
better reason than that Frederick of 
Prussia had spoken of her as *' Sultana 
Smock,** and that Maria - Theresa, 
standing in need of her assistance, had 
condescended to nddress her in an 
epistle which commenced with ** My 
dearest love 1 " She was forty-two 
years of age when she expired at Ver- 
sailles, on the I5th of April, 1764. Tbe 
** deluge," which she said would come 
after her, seemed descending from tbe 
clouds as the hearse which contained 
her remains left the court-yard of the 
ebuteau for Paris. The apathetic King 
sauntered to one of the windows to 
witness the departure \ and all the fu- 
neral oration uttered by him on the 
occasion was to the effeet, that *^ the 
Marchioness had satanically bad wea- 
ther to travel in, and would not arrive 
in Paris before ten o'clock." 

The **chronique scandaleuse" of the 
courtezan has !eft me but limited space 
to speak of the artist. In line-engraving 
she was expert, but in engraving on 
stones she was an almost faultless 
"executante." Her portraits of the 
Dauphin and Dauphine, of the King, 
and of her " cavalier servente'* the 
Abb^ de Bern is, her pigeon, as she 
used to call him, were only privately 
circulated, and any one of them would 
be accounted a treasure by collectora. 
Tbe *' Triumph of Fontenoy*^ was one of 
a projected aeries of illustrations of the 
great events of the reign of Louis XV. 
This subject she engraved alike on 
copper and on a gero. It represented 
Victory crowning the King, who holds 
by the hand the young Dauphin, both 
standing in a chariot that would be 
drawn by four horses, only that the 



16 



Hem^y Newcome, the Puritan of Manchester, [Jan. 



traces have been omitted. The " Vic- 
tory" of Laufeldt represents that god- 
dess, winged and erect, standing upon 
the prostrate trophies of the enemy. 
The Victory is a portrait of tlie fair 
artist, who, it must be said, had in 
most of her works the benefit of the 
suggestive counsel of the accomplished 
engraver, Guay. The Preliminaries 
of the Peace of 1748 she illustrated 
by representing the King as Hercules, 
standing between Victory, to whom his 
face is turned, and Peace, who is on 
the other side endeavouring to attract 
his attention. To my thinking, it is 
the best of the series. It is far su- 
perior to the engraving of the " Birth 
of the Duke of Burgundy," wherein a 
very stout-limbed France painfully 
stoops to pick up a child, over whom 
Pallas (that is, Madame de Ponipa- 
dour) holds her protecting shield. The 
figure of France, who, in another en- 

S'aving, is kneeling at the altar of 
ygeia, praying^ for the restoration to 
health of the Dauphin, is a far more 
graceful figure than the lady of the 
same name in the preceding piece. 
The Minervas and Apollos have the 
true classical spirit both in feature and 
bearing, but her impersonations of 
nations are generally defective, never 



worse than in the last illustration of 
the work, for the accomplishment of 
which Maria Theresa stooped to flatter 
her, on the ground that she had con- 
descended to do the same to Farinelli. 
I allude to the Alliance of Austria 
and France. The two old foes and 
new friends are seen in the figures of 
a couple of stalwart hussies, who are 
shaking hands, as if they were about 
to commence a pugilistic encounter : 
the torch of Discord and the mask of 
Hypocrisy lie at their feet, but un- 
trodden upon, and evidently readj for 
instant use when required ; whde a 
lively serpent, wreathing himself round 
an altar, looks full of mischief, and may, 
I think, be accepted as a caricature 
of the mock religious rites by which 
the fatal alliance was consecrated. 

Brief and imperfect as want of space 
necessarily compels these notices to 
be, they perhaps will induce some who 
have only known Jeanne Poisson as a 
perverse King's arrogant mistress, to 
examine the engraved series of her 
works in France, — works which only, 
alas ! tend to show how evil prosperity 
marred that perfection which a little 
healthy adversity might have rendered 
not only existing but immortal. 

John Doran. 



HENRY NEWCOME, THE PURITAN OF MANCHESTER. 

The Diary of the Rev. Henry Newcome, from Sept. 30, 1661, to Sept. 29, 1663. 
Edited by Thomas Hey wood, esq. F.S.A. Printed for the Chetham Society, 1849. 

The Autobiography of Henry Newcome, MA. Edited by Richard Parkinson, D.D. 
F.S.A. Principal of St. Bees College, and Canon of Manchester. Printed for the 
Chetham Society, 1852. 



WE believe every reader of English 
history and biography is, or may be, 
at this time better acquainted with the 
generic character of Puritan ministers 
(under the Commonwealth and after) 
than those were who lived among them. 
We now know, not their outer life 
merely, but their inner — the sourness, 
and the sneaking, and the cruelty, no 
less than the heroic self-abnegation 
and the earnest devotion. We do not, 
at least we need not, now confound 
the Presbyterian and the Independent 
branches of Puritanism. The preten- 
sions of the former, almost as high as 



those of the Church of Rome itself, to 
have a church of divine appointment 
— thereby rendering the propositions 
made to its ministers on the Restora- 
tion, of submitting to episcopal ordi- 
nation, about the most insulting that 
could be offered — the stern and fiery 
Independent, then first asserting the 
principles of Christian liberty, and 
charging his people to remember that 
they were not come to a full stop or 
period in religious knowledge, for that 
" the Lord has more truth still to 
break forth out of liis holy word."* 
With all these family resemblances, 



Robinson's Farewell Address to the Pilgrim Fathers of New England. 



1853.] Henry Newcome^ the Puriiam of Manchesier, 



17 



the character before us has also an in- 
diyiduality. A Puritan, and yet a 
Kojalist, Henry Newcome steered his 
course according as conscience dic- 
tated. Therein, indeed, lay both his 
strength and weakness ; for, while he 
seems to have been proof against party 
and friends and interest, in every case 
when his mind had attained to an 
honest conviction of the path of duty, 
he tortured himself and others by re- 
finements of scrupulosity in the inci- 
dents of every-day life, which, described 
in language originally extravagant, and 
now quaint and obsolete, must provoke 
a frequent smile from the most serious 
reader. 

Henry Newcome was left an orphan, 
together with seven other children, on 
the death of the father and mother in 
1641-2. He was the fourth son, and 
could not have been more than fourteen, 
his eldest brother being but twenty- 
one, and the youngest child just three 
months. Their father had been rector 
of Caldecot, in Huntingdonshire, and, 
designing his eldest son for the clerical 
office, had the pleasure of hearing him 
preach nearly nis first sermon on the 
Christmas of 1641.* But this great 
event was succeeded by sore tribula- 
tion. Stephen, the second son, fell ill 
almost immediately aft^erwards, but re- 
covered ; one of the best horses broke 
his leg ; and finally the father himself, 
whether from having caught the disease 
of his son or no is not said, took to his 
bed, and sent for a lawyer to make his 
will. Thereupon his wife fell into Ex- 
tremity of grief, and went to her bed 
also. He died on Monday, she the 
Wednesday after, having entreated 
the bystanders not to bury him till 
she was'ready also. " And so they were 
buried in one coffin, Feb. 2nd, 1641." 

Henry Newcome's education was 
continued at Congleton school, of which 
his eldest brother became master. He 
was fond of "making English discourses 
sermon wise at all vacant times," and " it 
was his ordinary play and office to act 
the minister amongst his playfellows ;" 
besides which he had a love of reading, 
and pursued with interest, as far as he 
could, the study of natural history. 
At the age of seventeen, namely, in 
1644, he was admitted a student of 



St John*s college, Cambridge. It was 
in " the very heat of the wars," and, in 
consequence of the outward troubles, 
the young student was compelled to 
discontinue his coU^e courses till the 
May of 1645. Even then, Cambridge 
was anything but a scene for quiet 
study. This was the year when the 
commission under the Earl of Man- 
chester was sitting, the consequences 
of which were soon seen in the removal 
of many of the ancient fellows, and the 
nomination of new ones. Henry New- 
come,^ a modest, thoughtful noter of 
things as they passed, simply tells us 
that ** most of the religious were for 
the parliament and for the new fellows* 
party," but judges the other side with 
mmleration. A year had scarcely 
passed before he had an oflTer of a 
school, — salary 30/. per annum, — and, 
not being very proud, it seems, of his 
university privileges, would willingly 
have resigned them, had not the above 
lucrative place been unexpectedly 
wrested from him. The following 
year he went in good earnest to be 
master of Congleton school, which his 
brother had now left, taking his degree 
of B.A. and performing the same duty 
to his younger brother Richard which 
Robert, the elder, had fulfilled towards 
him. 

A bachelor in the ordinary sense 
Henry Newcome was not long to re- 
main ; for. in 1648, he took the rash 
step of marrying, owning afterwards 
his wrong-hcadcdness in not asking 
counsel of his friends, being only then 
twenty-one, and, though he had "fallen 
to preaching," not ordained till the 
month after his marriage. Certainly 
ordination ideas were at a low pass 
just then; for, says he, "I did not 
think of it, but, casually asking Mr. 
Ley whether there would be an ordi- 
nation or no, he told me there would, 
and asked would I be ordained? I 
thought of it, and so entered on exa- 
mination." It was doubtless performed 
after the Presbyterian model ; and the 
new minister went to live at Goosetrce 
for a year and a half, serving a chapel, 
and having " a fair respect " from both 
the King's party and tne Parliament's. 
He lived among his wife's relations, 
the Mainwaringrf, people of some con- 

* Yet it is afterwards said that " he was unordained and under age to take the 
living." It roust therefore, we suppose, have been mere exhortation. 
Geht. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. D 



18 



Henry Newcomcy the Puritan of Manchester, 



[Jan. 



sequence in the neighbourhood ; and 
here his first child, a daughter, was 
born, about three months after the be- 
heading of Charles the First — an event 
which put a general sadness on Henry 
Newcome and his friends, and dis- 
composed him greatly in his Sabbath 
services. 

From this time he appears to have 
been increasingly under the power of 
religious impressions. Before, " being 
very young, and gotten among the 
gentry, and fancying fine clothes and 
loolisnness," he hacf not been anxious 
for the society of the more devoted 
ministers of his acquaintance, but now 
he sought them. His prayers and self- 
examinations were more frequent; and 
from this time dates the commence- 
ment of the Diary, kept till within a 
few days of his death. 

In 1650 he settled as Rector of Gaws- 
worth in Cheshire. It is certainly a 
remarkable trait, and augured well for 
the young minister's future influence, 
that he had suffered no one " to despise 
his youth" hitherto. At Goosetree, 
while yet scarcely of full age, he had 
refused the sacrament to two of his 
principal parishioners for drunkenness, 
and now he had a battle to fight at 
Gawsworth. Yet it was taken in no 
long while in good part. He carried 
his point, and held that living for seven 
years, for some time himself performing 
family worship morning and evening 
at the house of the lady of the manor, 
finding it not otherwise easy to establish 
the custom. He signed the Covenant, 
but afterwards expressed some pain at 
the recollection, for, says he, "I always 
abhorred the practices of that party, 
. . . and it was long on my heart as one 
of my great transgressions." In fact, 
had he Deen called upon to act up to 
the letter of his engagements, it is 
scarce possible but that his conscience 
must have revolted still more, being 
far from a republican, and no way 
hostile to deans and chapters, nor, in 
moderation, to episcopal government, 
which, by the Covenant, he was bound 
to endeavour to extirpate. To the 
Independent party he was always par- 
ticularly disinclined. 

The tenour of the good pastor's life 
was not a very cheerful one. He 
was poor; his family increasing; sol- 
diers were (juartered on him ; he was 
not strong in health; and had the 



usual causes of vexation and disap- 
pointment in his parish, and some in 
his family. 

Those who are well acquainted with 
the subject-matter of most of the diaries 
kept at this period by religious ministers, 
will not be surprised at the frequent 
notice of interpositions of Providence, 
sometimes of an almost ludicrously 
trivial nature. The good man ear- 
nestly longs for books, and has actually 
bought them, but numerous cross cir- 
cumstances intervene to prevent their 
arrival. A reckless sister purchases 
the books indeed, but puts " a deal of 
sugar in the other end of the bag with 
them," and forthwith forwards all by 
a carter from London, " who lets wet 
come to them, and the sugar melted 
and spoilt the books sadly." On another 
occasion the desired volumes quietly 
take their place with a friend ; after a 
time, however, "the Lord sent them 
in, and they were not marred at all." 
It is difficult to avoid smiling at these 
conceits ; but more serious by far are 
the considerations which arise when 
we note the habit, so strongly marked 
in almost every page, and which seems 
to be engrafted in the idea of daily 
duty for a minister, — that of trying the 
inward consciences of his people, and 
deciding on their spiritual state with 
the confidence of a physician of the 
body feeling the pulse and examining 
into symptoms of bodily health. These 
inquiries were not always tenderly 
conducted. There was 

an erroneous fellow, one Harrison, that 
had been amongst my people this summer 
before, and began to infuse very dangerous 
tenets amongst them, subverting the faith 
of some. Strange things he insinuated to 
draw them off ordinances, &c. In process 
of time one of the neighbours brought him 
to me, and abundance of discourse I had 
with him, and he asserted desperate blas- 
phemous things — as that the soul within a 
man was God, and that there was neither 
heaven nor hell but in a man's own self, 
and some other things very gross. Several 
neighbours were by, that took notice of 
the expressions. He still continuing to 
hinder the work of the people's souls. Mid 
prevailing with some to turn off with him 
— I, having had (upon the coming of it 
out in the beginning of that year) an Act 
sent me, against Blasphemous Tenets, by 
my friend Mr. Thomas Parnell, then living 
at London, only for the novelty qf it, 
without which I might haply never have 



1853.] Henry Newcome, the Puritan of Manchester. 



thought to have inqaired about any such 
thing; but haying this Act by me, and see- 
ing that several of his assertions fell under 
it directly, I did seriously, out of design to 
remove him from my people, make com- 
plaint of him to the justices at their 
month's meeting, and Mr. Stanley and 
Col. Hen. Bradshaw, upon our depositions 
in the case, granted out a warrant for his 
apprehension ; and after a time it was exe- 
cuted, and Harrison was committed to the 
prison at Chester, where he was to suffer 
six months* imprisonment. Some of my 
people moved me to have unthdraum pro- 
aeeution; but I did it out of conscience 
for their soul's safety, and so did resolve 
to proceed. It was at such a time, when 
such men had so many abettors, and minis- 
ters were so slighted, that some more wise 
men pitied my undertaking, and thought 
I made a great adventure in such an offer. 
I foresaw not the danger, and never felt 
any ; but I looked on duty, and God stood 
by me. 

Harrison was not destitute of firiends 
and abettors, of whom Newcome names 
" one MinshuU a pragmatical fellow," 
— "the deputy governor of Chester one 
Smith, and Mr. Sclater a gallant spark, 
a fanatic preacher, and several of the 
high-flown blades;" besides whom, 
among the magistrates, Mr. Gerard of 
Crewe was " downright " in his favour, 
and Colonel Croxton wavering. At 
the assizes Mr. Minshull attempted to 
procure Harrison's release by habeas 
corpus, but the judges remitted him to 
the sessions ; and in the end the justices 
sent him back to prison, where he en- 
dured his confinement of six months, 
and it "proved a means of our utter 
riddance of him out of our parts." 

An amusing difficulty is recorded 
in connection with a request made 
that Mr. Newcome would preach at 
Manchester. "That great people" 
deserved, he felt, his best efforts, and 
he carried with him two of his choicest 
sermons. One was more likely to pro- 
mote edification, he thought, than the 
other, but unfortunately two ladies 
were to be among his auditors, who 
came from Chester, and might have 
heard him deliver that rousing sermon 
there. He chose it however, and, as 
the ladjes took no notice, we are led to 
infer that it was not so exciting as he 
thought. On another occasion when 
a fast was observed in the churches, 
and he and a brother minister were to 
preach, Mr. Newcome prepared his 



19 



discourse, as he thought, from a text 
unlikely to be selected by the other ; 
when behold, on their arrival at church, 
and on the brother minister giving out 
his text, it proved to be the very one 
chosen for nis own discourse : — 

My distraction was great. There was a 
kind of competition between him and me, 
and I had rather have been cut out by any 
man than he. A vast congregation there 
was ; and I believe several, upon repeating 
the words, were in as great fear and trou- 
ble for me as I had been before. How- 
ever, the hand of the Lord was mightily 
upon me, and then I could discern out 
matter and method to differ, and I had 
room enough besides him. 

The result of Mr. Newcomers seven 
years' service at Grawswortb, being a 
great reputation as a consistent, sen- 
sible, and moderate divine, it became 
an object with the people of Manches- 
ter to obtain the benefit of such a 
minister on occasion of the sudden 
death of their own pastor. Other 
churches also sought him, but Man- 
chester prevailed : — 

Presbyterianism had been established in 
Lancashire by a special ordinance, Octo- 
ber 1646, and although persecuted under 
Cromwell, still, in Manchester, the con- 
victions of the great majority of respect- 
able inhabitants insured to the sect pro- 
tection, if not power. It is evident, from 
the names of Mosley and Byrom to the 
invitation to Newcome, and perhaps from 
those of Syddall and Coppock, that the 
Episcopalians joined in claiming the ser- 
vices of one of such known moderation. 
The promoters of the classical mode of 
government had frequent hints from pass- 
ing events that theirs was not destined to 
be the National Church, and hence they 
either invited, or listened willingly to, 
overtures of accommodation from Inde- 
pendents, or Episcopalians. (Mr. Hey- 
wood's Introduction, p. xix.) 

Here he was minister of the col- 
legiate church, with the promise of 
60/. per annum from the tithes, and 
34/. per annum from the rents and 
profits of the rectory of Rochdale. 
From various circumstances this sti- 
pend never came in with any regula- 
rity — voluntary contributions making 
up his income. Five years afterwarcS 
it was reduced to 24/., and then jt 
ceased altogether for a time. 

Under the date of the 1st. Jan. 
1657-8, we find the following evidence 
of the shilling principles of the times. 



20 



Henry Newcome, the Puritan of Manchester. 



[Jan. 



Mr. Newcome's predecessor Mr. Hol- 
linworth had been accustomed to preach 
on New Year's Day : — 

I was wilUng to have done it; but Mr. 
Heyricke [the Warden] took me off. But 
it was not well taken [by the congrega- 
tion] , and I resolved it should not be so 
done again ; and so I did preach every 
New Year's day after as long as I had my 
liberty to preach in Manchester. The first 
year when I would have preached, this 
was said to obstruct it, Since all holy -days 
were put down, why should that be kept ? 
The last I preached, this was objected, 
That it was one of the principal festivals, 
and unless I would preach about the cir- 
cumcision of our Saviour, it was not con- 
venient I should preach. So much altera- 
tion there was in the strain of the times in 
a few years. 

The following passage at the close 
of the same month is not less charac- 
teristic of an unsettled state of senti- 
ment in the matter of personal de- 
meanour : — 

I was about this time much used to go 
to Zachary Taylor's at an evening, to play 
at shuffle board. I was oft checked for 
this, lest I was too much concerned in it ; 
as after, about going to Mr. Minshull's in 
an evening. And I thought this a rational 
resolution in the case, — Not to go forth 
for this recreation unless I had been close 
at serious business all day ; not to go forth 
to this too, if I had been diverted from 
business other ways. And for mirth, 
which I was afraid of taking too great a 
latitude in, — I thought it was my duty to 
let some savoury thing fall, where I had 
spoken merrily ; or to count myself truly 
in debt, for as much serious discourse, for 
every jest I had told. 

On the Restoration Newcome was 
no longer permitted to occupy his pul- 
pit at the collegiate church, but there 
he quietly attended, and, he hoped, 
" met with something that did nim 
good." In 1665, when the Five Miles 
Act was passed, he slipped beyond the 
boundary, yet being not entirely si- 
lenced. He preached at several places ; 
he ' made excursions on horseback ; 
visited London with his daughter ; 
and patiently bided his time. He did 
not wait in vain. The King's decla- 
ration of indulgence (March 16th, 
1671) enabled him to get a licence and 
preach freely in a barn. Yet in the 
wantonness ofpower fresh restrictions 
came, and Newcome delivered his 
message alternately in house and field 
and barn for several years to come. 



The landing of King William, or at 
least the Toleration Act of 1689, re- 
moved all fear of legal persecution ; 
but there was still room for much 
church dissension ; and it was, he says, 
amid some curses and reproaches that 
the foundation of his new chapel in 
Cross Street was laid. He opened it 
with prayer and a sermon, June 24th, 
1694 ; but, by the time this earthly 
House of God was finished, the aged 
minister was well nigh worn out, and 
ready for his mansion above. He 
preached occasionally, his last dis- 
course being delivered, June 13th, 
1695, and he died the following Sep- 
tember, aged 68. 

Newcome composed three journals. 
The first, which recorded his private 
actions, and inmost thoughts, being 
designed solely for his own use, was 
commenced at Cambridge in 1646, and 
carried on to his death m 1695. The 
second was termed "The Abstract," 
a selection from the former, intended 
for the use of his children. Besides 
these, the painstaking divine kept a 
third journal, as a record of passing 
events of a more public nature, but 
which has not been preserved. Of the 
actual diary the only portion now 
known to be extant extends over two 
years, from 1661 to 1663, and forms 
the volume which was printed for the 
Chetham Society in tne year 1849. 
The Abstract was continued by its 
author to the year 1693, and com- 
pleted to the period of his death, during 
his last illness, by the hand of his son. 
This manuscript, as well as the former, 
was in the possession of his descendant 
the late Rev. Thomas Newcome, Rector 
of Shenley, co. Hertford, and was 
placed by that gentleman at the dis- 
posal of the Chetham Society. The 
welcome which greeted the former 
volume induced the Society to con- 
template the publication of the second 
manuscript, and the difficulty which 
attended its voluminous proportions 
has been surmounted bv " abridging 
the moral reflections, which, however 
excellent, are somewhat monotonous, 
and presuming upon the reader's know- 
ledge of the history of most of the 
names that occur m the narrative." 
The first part of this scheme (the 
abridgment) we think was judicious : 
the latter is, perhaps, an a|>oloffy for 
the application of less editorial labour 



22 A Journey from London to Paiia in 1786. [Jan. 

try apothecary ; and one became a soldier, Our account of the Newcome Diaries* 

and Marlborough left him in the trenches though extended beyond our intention* 

of Lisle, 1707. One or two went to sea, giygs but a faint idea of the simple, sin- 

and were heard of no more .... Three ^ere whole. It is rich in genuine traits 

schoolmasters made fortunes : one clerk ^^ character, where weakness alter- 

became Archbishop of Armagh ♦one ^^ ^j^j^ strength, grave thoughts 

Bishop of St. Asaph, one Dean of Glou- .,, . .«•_ » ij" * «^j -.*-™ r 

cester! and one Dekn of Rochester, in the ^^^h trifling incidents, and questions of 
eighteenth century : and one is Archdeacon conscience, such as might well demand 
of Merioneth in the nineteenth century, the best leisure of instructed spirits, 
Thirty or more have been rectors, vicars, with petty matters of scruple such as 
&c. I have, or had, two sons, three should have been dismissed by one 
nephews, three sons-in-law — all, as yet, thought of Him, who long before re- 
curates only, but good pastors on stinted buked all small sanctimonious views of 
pastures.'' duty in his dealing with the Pharisee. 



A JOURNEY FROM LONDON TO PARIS IN THE YEAR 1736. 

SIR ALEXANDER DICK, Bart, of Prestonfield, near Edinburgh, the writer of 
the Journal of which we propose to lay the substance before our readers in this and 
tome subsequent portions, was a man of much weight and estimation in the scientific 
world of Edinburgh during the last century. In early life he bore bis paternal name 
of Cunningham, being the third son of Sir William Cunnhigham, of Caprington, Bart. 
His mother was Janet, only child and heiress of Sir James Dick, of Prestonfield. He 
was bom at Prestonfield on the 23rd Oct. 1703. Having studied for some time at the 
University of Edinburgh, he repaired to Leyden, where he became a pupil of the 
illustrious Boerhaave, and took the degree of M.D. on the 31st Aug. 1735, when 
his inaugural dissertation was De Bpilepsia, On the 23rd Jan. 1737 he received a 
diploma of the same degree from the University of St. Andrew's. He then settled as 
a physician in the Scotish metropolis ; and on the 7th Nov. following he was 
admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edhiburgh. 

In 1736-7 he made an extensive continental tour, of which the first portion is now 
laid before the reader. His companion was Allan Ramsay the painter, son of the cele- 
brated Scotish poet. During his travels Dr. Cunningham assiduously prosecuted his 
medical inquiries, and at the same time greatly increased his previous acquaintance 
with classical literature and antiquities. 

After his return home he was induced to settle as a physician in Pembrokeshire, at 
the suggestion of his friend Mr. Hooke, of that county. He there practised medicine 
with great reputation and much success during several years, maintaining, however, a 
constant correspondence with his friends in Scotland, and particularly with Allan 
Ramsay the poet, whose letters, with some unpublished poems, also addressed to Sir 
Alexander Dick, are in our possession (by favour of the late esteemed Sir Robert K. 
Dick Cunnmgham, Bart, of Prestonfield), and form part of medited materials which 
are intended to be employed in a new Biography of the Author of The Gentle 
Shepherd, in immediate preparation. 

Upon his brother's death, Dr. Cunningham succeeded to the baronetage, and 
assumed the name of Dick. He then took up his residence in the family mansion 
of Prestonfield, which lies at the base of Arthur's Seat, at that time a little more than 
a mile distant from Edinburgh, but now nearly included in the suburban district of 
Newington : and, whilst he relinquished for his own part the active pursuit of his pro- 
fession, he was so great a favourite with its members, that they placed him for seven 



* This Archbishop was the author of the version of the New TesUment, taken as 
the ostensible basis of "the Improved Version, "ipublished by the Unitarian Society. 



1853.] A Journey from London to Paris in 1736. 23 

successive years at the head of their body. He was first elected President of the 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh in the year 1756, and after six re-elections, he at 
length relinquished the chair entirely upon his own resolution, <' that it was due to the 
merits of other gentlemen that there should be some rotation.'' He did not, however, 
relax his exertions in the service of the College ; and he was one of the most liberal 
contributors to the building of their Hall. As a mark of gratitude for his services the 
physicians placed his portrait in their library. 

Sir Alexander Dick was not less useful to other public institutions in Edinburgh. 
He was a zealous member of the Royal Society, and took an active part in procuring 
its charter ; and, as a manager of the Royal Infirmary, he endeavoured to promote its 
utility as a medical school, as well as a refuge for the unfortunate. When the seeds 
of the true rhubarb were brought to Britain by Dr. Mounsey, he bestowed great 
attention on the culture of the plant, and in its preparation for the market, and he 
received for his success in this matter the gold medal of the Society of Arts in London. 

His death occurred at the age of eighty-two, on the 10th Nov. 1785. He had 
married twice ; first, in 1736, Sarah, daughter of Alexander Dick, merchant in Edin- 
burgh, a relative of his mother's family, by whom he left two daughters ; and secondly^ 
in 1762, Mary, daughter of David Butler, esq. of Pembrokeshire, by whom he had 
three sons and three daughters. 

A memoir of Sir Alexander Dick, which was published soon after his death in the 
Edinburgh Medical Commentaries, was reprinted (for private distribution) in 1849 by 
his descendant, the late Sir Robert K. Dick Cunninghame, Bart. ; and from that source 
we conclude these introductory remarks with the following estimate of his character : 
fv^ ** Whatever object engaged his attention he was steady in the pursuit; and his con- 
duct was always marked by the strictest fairness and integrity. This disposition led 
him to be constant and warm in his friendship : and this conduct procured to him 
universal love and esteem. But he was not more amiable in public than in private 
life; for, with all his disposition for activity and exertion, the striking features of his 
character were mildness and sweetness of temper. He possessed the happy disposi- 
tion of viewing the fair side of every object, which was not only the source of much 
happiness to himself and his family, but of universal benevolence to mankind. The 
serenity and cheerfulness which accompanied his conduct through life, were the at- 
tendants even of his last moments, for he died in the easiest way, and with a smile 
upon his countenance." 

The MS. containing the journal of his tour has this memorandum on its fly-leaf t 

" Alexander Dick 

from papers were dictated to Wm. Crauford, hie amanueneie, 

for the use of his fomily and friends only, but not published.'' 

(The words in Italic being apparently secunda manu.) 

Edinburgh. A. B. 6. 

1736, July 24. — Mr. Ramsay and I market-places filled with abundance of 

left London and came to Dover in the every good eatable thing ; the roads 

coach, with a jolly English parson, a pleasant and good ; the inns numerous 

crabbed lawyer, a Frenchman who was and well-served ; the coachmen rather 

LordVane'ssuperintendant,andavery rough and absolute, and more atten- 

odd-looking, bearish, hypochondriacal tive to their horses than the company, 

man, going to Aix-la-Chapelle for his Our conversation brightened up as the 

health. We admired the verdure and day advanced, afler we had eat and 

the fine cultivated fields in Kent ; the drank together. 

numerous hop-gardens ready to bios- July 25. — We took the packet-boat 

som, and cherry-orchards ; the people at Dover in the evening of the 25th, 

and cattle in good plight ; the towns and lay all night above deck on our 

and villages neat and clean; and the passage to Calais, which was very agree* 



24 



A Journey from London to Paris in 1736. 



[Jan. 



able, with a fair wind. Our company 
were Dunkirk merchants, and several 
French gentlemen, with whom we en- 
tered into conversation in French, as 
Mr. Ramsay and I had been early ac- 
customed to speak that language at 
home, both from my father's early 
initiating me in it, which he himself 
spoke well, but likewise from my 
having been three years abroad as a 
Student of Medicine in Holland, and 
three months at Paris about ten years 
before this period. Mr. Ramsay and 
I, therefore, made a resolution to speak 
no other language but French while 
we remained m Prance, and, upon our 
arrival in Italy, no other language but 
Italian ; as we had been well founded 
in it before we left Edinburgh. 

Jidy 26. — On the morning of the 
26th we arrived at Calais, and were 
less troubled with custom-house offi- 
cers than at Dover, everything of that 
kind being better regulated in France 
than in England. One of our Flemish 
merchants was in person very like my 
brother. Sir William Dick, and gave 
us a favourable account of his travels 
in England, and of the flourishing con- 
dition of the city of Dunkirk. At 
Calais there was a very lean gentle- 
man who dined with us at the inn, 
and, from circumstances that we had 
not leisure to inquire into, expressed 
a great reluctance for parting with us 
as we were immediately to set out for 
Paris. It being warm weather, our 
posting equipage happened not to be 
suitable to the modes of France ; but 
we followed our own way, for coolness, 
being in our white stockings without 
boots, to the great surprise of all the 
Frenchmen we met. 

Jnly 27. — Arrived at Boulogne, and 
remarked, as we came along, the open 
country, and, indeed, the Scotish ap- 
pearance of Picardy. A Dr. Hay, who 
nad been in the rebellion of 1715, and 
a great partisan of that cause, found 
us out immediately when we arrived, 
and gave us a very kind reception ; 
and by him we were invited to dine 
with IVIr. Smith, the great Scotch wine 
merchant there, who had been for- 
merly in that same cause, and enter- 
tained us with many various scenes in 
which they both had been concerned 
in that disastrous business, of whicli, 



he said, he made the most of it by fol- 
lowing a trade very beneficial, which, 
he hoped, soon afterwards would lead 
him to Scotland, to purchase a landed 
estate in his own country. 

July 28. — Set out in the morning 
for Amiens, where we arrived in the 
afternoon ; saw the cathedral ; liked 
the place much. Both Abbeville and 
Amiens are thriving towns for manu- 
factures. 

Jidy 29. — Our road was through a 
fine corn country, and, at that time, 
the people were all employed about 
their harvest. We dined at Clermont, 
and saw the Duke of Berwick's house 
opposite to it. From eating much 
fruit, and grapes, not quite ripe, the 
weather also being very warm, I fell 
sick upon the road, and, in a common 
bye inn, within a post of Chantilly, I 
was obliged to put up, where we were 
but indiiferentiy used by the surly 
landlord ; however, after passing a not 
very comfortable night, I found my- 
self very well next morning. 

Jidy 30.— AVent to Chantilly, where 
the Duke of Bourbon's fine palace is : 
there we saw the most magnificent 
stables in Europe, which contain many 
hundreds of the finest horses, with 
every accommodation for them. On 
every hand there were fine gardens 
and waterworks without, and rich fur- 
niture, paintings, tapestry, and statues 
within ; particularly those of Condc, 
and Turenne, with all their battles 
painted near them. Came to Paris 
that night, about four o'clock; went 
to lodge at Mr. Roberts' bagnio, where 
we were well bathed and served, but 

Eaid very dear for what we had in that 
ouse. We met there with Mr. Horn, 
Lord Drumore's son, and Mr. Oswald 
of Duniekean. Went with them to 
see the Palais Royal, and, in the even- 
ing, went to the Italian comedy ; both 
which places gave us very great enter- 
tainment. The first has the noblest 
collection of pictures in Europe, and 
belongs to the Duke of Orleans, the 
son of the Regent, the first Prince of 
the Blood in trance. 

Ang^ist 2. — Went to Mr. Alexander, 
our banker; saw there Dr. Hickman, 
who travelled with the Duke of King- 
ston,* and one Mr. Diggs. That day 
we dined with Captain Urquhart, a 



♦ Evelyn Pierrepoiat, the second Duke of Kingston, succeeded 1726, died 1773. 
3 



1853.] A Journey from England to Paris in 1786. 



25 



Scots gentleman in the Spanish ser- 
vice, who was to go with Air. Horn to 
meet the Earl Marshal,* then at Va- 
lencia, in Spain. Saw that day the 
Luxembourg gallery, with all the fine 
paintings of Rubens there. Walked 
aflerwu^ in the gardens, which are 
well kept, but not in the best taste ; 
little of nature ; all is regularity ; the 
walks are very broad, where there is 
often a vast resort of good company, 
extremely well dressed. The ladies 
are all painted, and the red of their 
cheeks has a very flaming appearance ; 
the married ladies chiefly, being laid 
on without mercy, which makes a sad 
havock on natural beauty, but is of 
particular solace to ladies coming into 
years ; for, by covering their wrinkles. 
It puts them upon a level with the 
young beauties who would soon eclipse 
them in every respect. 

Atmut 3.— Took lodgings in the Rue 
Dau^mine; met at the British Coffie 
House there with Mr. M*Querger, a 
gentleman famous afterwards in the 
defence of the young gentleman who 
claimed the estate and titles of the 
Earl of Anglesey ; also met Dr. Hick- 
man, Mr. Diggs, and Mr. Bridges. 
Went with them to the Academy of 
Painting, dined with them at the 
Croidfer, and, after dinner, went with 
them to the Cardinal de Polignac's; 
there wo saw the finest collection of 
Greek statues in Europe, lately brought 
from Rome, viz. : the story of Achilles 
beguiled by Ulysses, with the armour 
he presented, &c. From thence we 
went to the Invalides, a royal hospital 
for wounded and old soldiers. It is 
of great extent, great elegance and 
magnificence in the architecture, and 
has the best contrivance in the arranffe- 
ment of the wards, and good regular 
orders, that I have seen ; the best that 
are observed in any hospital in Europe : 
it contains some thousands of men who 
have bravely and long served their 
country, or have bled in its cause. We 
went from thence to the Ojjera, but 
did not much admire the music, which 
was entirely in the French taste, loud 
and noisy, great in the execution, but 
very mean and little in the harmonious 
part which belongs to good music. 



August 4. — Went to the cathedral 
of Notre Dame on St. Grenevieve's day, 
the patroness of Paris, where there 
were great processions and solemnities. 
In the afternoon went with Mr. Diggs 
to the church of St. Geneviiive ; there 
saw the pious Duke of Orleans, and 
his sister the Queen of Spain, who 
came to assist at the solemnity. The 
music we heard there was very good. 
Went from thence in the evening to 
the Concert Spirituelle, in the King's 
palace in the Louvre, where we heard 
the best performers in France, and 
the composition of the Italian taste. 

From the last date to the end of 
August we employed every day in 
visiting all the places rouncl Paris, as 
far as the King's palace at Versailles, 
twelve miles from Paris. We went 
with Mr. Oswald to see King Stanis- 
laus, the Queen's father, at his country 
palace at Meudon, where he lived in 
retirement and elegance, after the 
bustling disagreeable life he had while 
King of Poland, from which he was 
driven to his good. The King,*!* and 
his daughter the Queen, made him 
frequent visits, and often c(msulted 
him in matters of state. The weather 
being very fine, we staid at Versailles 
and visited the palace and gardens 
with accuracy, but with astonishment 
at everything in the gardens, which 
were of great extent, but no ways in 
the style of nature. Art only pre- 
vailed, and that at an immense expense : 
the statues were numerous, and but 
very few of them exquisite, and those 
only by Girardon,J' of whom, indeed, 
there were some noble groups, besides 
single pieces. The walks were very 
broad, and, in some places, could admit 
of the King's coaches-and-six, and his 
guards and attendants, to go through 
them. The waterworks and cascades 
were extremely showy ; they were 
erected and kept at an immense charge ; 
they play but seldom, and that on great 
occasions. It was our good fortune 
that some Polish ladies having arrived, 
who were relations to the Queen (one 
of which was indeed exceeding hand- 
some), the waterworks were ordered to 
play for their entertainment ; and the 
ladies were conducted in little hand- 



* One of the leading adherents of the Pretender, and who had been attainted for his 
concern in the Rebellion of 1715. 
t Lonia XV. f Francois Girardon, died 1715, aged 83. 

Gbht. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. E 



The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. [Jan. 



26 



cbairs, pushed forwards by some of the 
guards, to all the waterworks in the 
gardens, which gave us the best of op- 
portunities of seeing the whole. We 
afterwards walked through the palace, 
and the long gallery, which is very 
noble and louy, and ornamented with 
the several paintings done of Alexan- 
der's battles by Le Brun. In the 
apartments we saw several capital pic- 
tures of the best masters, particularly 
of Raphael. The King's stables are 
very magnificent, and all filled with 
the finest horses to serve them for the 
diversion of hunting, in which he is 
every day occupied, with a circle of 
his courtiers and favourites. We saw 
him one day in the chapel attending 
the morning's mass; he has a good 
countenance and manly, but is under- 
limbed in his walking, yet he makes a 
fine figure on horseback. Everything 
in Versailles has the look of too great 
an expense and too much show ; con- 
sequently the taste is not universally 



good, though, it must be owned, there 
are great many fine things there. I 
bought up there the works of Porelle, 
where the description of several and 
very elegant prints are bound up, in 
my library. In these the best streets 
and buildings in Paris, and also the 
finest parts, buildings, and gardens of 
Versailles, are most elegantly and ac- 
curately described, which collection 
had belonged to Mons. Claude Bernard 
Audevurdes Comptes, a gentleman in 
high offices, who had died some time 
before our arrival, by which means. I 
purchased this and some other of his 
things when they were brought to sale. 
To all which I refer for inspection and 
consideration. 

In pursuance of our jaunts round 
the city of Paris, we observed what 
was remarkable at Trianon near Ver- 
sailles, and the Duke of Orleans' country 
palace of St. Cloud, but found them 
all copies in small of the King's greater 
works at Versailles. 



THE CLOISTER LIFE OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES THE FIFTH. 

The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles the Fifth. By William Stirling, Author of 
Annals of the Artists of Spain. 1852. 8vo. 



NO event in history has been more 
misunderstood than the resignation of 
the imperial throne by the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth, and his subsequent 
cloister life at Yuste. The want of 
documents rendered the narratives of 
this period imperfect ; or, at least, these 
do not appear to have been extensively 
consulted.* Thus the cause and the 
motive for the resignation and the re- 
tirement being but partially known. 



the act was described speculatively — 
rather than historicallv — as it appeared 
through the mists of tradition, or as 
it was pictured by the imagination. 
Hence the conflict of opinions in the 
moral estimation of tliat resolution 
which was equal to exchange the gran- 
deur and the power of empire for the 
narrow cell and the religious seclusion 
of the cloister. The historian described 
the act as that of a mind worn out by 



* As regards documents relative to the reign of Charles V. a great deal has of late 
been done. Dr. Karl Lanz has printed at Leipzig, in 3 vols. Svo. 1844. G, the " Cor- 
respondenz dea Kaisers Karl V.'' from the Royal Archives and the Burgundian library 
at Brussels, containing documents, with but few exceptions, now for the first time 
printed, and of great importance, as determining the cause of Charles's resignation. 

M. Gachard, of Brussels, has printed also much documentary matter relative to the 
affairs of the Netherlands, and promises further contributions towards the hbtory 
of Charles's reign. The French government has in course of publication, in the series of 
** Documents In^dits," *' Negociationa Diplomatiques entre la France et TAutriche 
durant les Trente premieres Annies du 16* Sidcle, publiees par Le Glay. 2 vols. 4 to. 
1845 ;'* ** Papiers d'Etat du Cardinal de Granville d'apres les MSS. de Besan9on, 
publics par Ch. Weiss, 8 vols. 4to. 1841-1850;" and from various public libraries, 
and the collections in France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, M. Champollion Figeac has 
compiled a volume of great interest,— " Captivity du Roi Fran9ois I." 4to. 1847. Much 
also has been added to our information by the researches of printing societies and publi- 
cations in Germany. There is now no dearth of materials for a new Life of Charles V. 



1853.] TKe Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. 



27 



tiie cares of goyemment, crushed by 
adverse fortune, struck down by the 
recoil of unsuccessful ambition. The 
moralist descanted upon the insuffi- 
ciency of worldly state to satisfy the 
longings of the immortal soul. The 
politician deplored the superstition 
which induced a mighty monarch to 
for^o the goyemment of nations, the 
association with great warriors and 
statesmen, for the society of ignorant 
monks, and the observance of a de- 
basing ritual. Another idea conceived 
of the act may not, perhaps, be unfairly 
illustrated by the following note in the 
masterly translation of Ariosto's Or- 
lando Furioso hj William Stewart 
Hose. It occurs m vol. vii. p 157, to 
canto 40, stanza 76, line 5, of the ori- 
ginal. " Dudon finished his career as 
ekhermity — a very common practice with 
the supposed knights-errant, and, like 
all the usages of romance, paralleled 
by many instances in real life during 
the middle ages. Ariosto's own age 
furnished the most notable example, 
tn the self-seclusion of the Emperor 
Charles theFiflhr We submit this to 
be the poet's view. How far justified 
by historical evidence Mr.. Stirling's 
volume will now show. AVe only re- 
gret the name of William Stewart Rose 
IS no longer associated with the plea- 
sures of literature at the present day ; 
no man treated history and historical 
character in a more fair and candid 
spirit ; no writer more tempered judg- 
ment with the grace of an accomplished 
mind. 

Nor, indeed, to a late period, if his- 
torians were the guides^ could general 
readers be censured for wandering 
from the right path. The little that 
was accurate was narrated by Spanish 
authors ; but Spanish literature has 
never prevailed with any ^eat force 
in England. Its noble ballad history 
is still known to the majority through 
the translations of Southey, J. H. 
Frere, and J. G^ Lockhart — the criti- 
cism of the Schlegels — or the pleasing 
History of Southern Literature by 
Sismondi. Cervantes* Don Quixote 
is a household book ; and if we add 
the best Picaresque novels, we have 
we think described the general extent 
of our information as regards Spanish 
authors. For Charles the Fifth we 
are referred to Robertson. To esti- 
mate the value of this historian, we 



shall briefly enumerate the Spaniards 
who have narrated the Cloister Life of 
Charles, derived from the preface to 
Mr. Stirling's work. The first, and 
perhaps the best, account is to be found 
in Joseph de Siguen9a's History of the 
Order of St. Jerome. This was pub- 
lished in 1595-1605. To great learn- 
ing Siguenga united a style remark- 
able for its simple eloouence. In 
relating the life of the Emperor at 
Yuste ne had the advantage of con- 
versing with many eye-witnesses of 
the fact^. Fray Antonio de Villa- 
castin and several other monks of 
Yuste, the Emperor's confessor Regla, 
and his favourite preacher Yillalva; 
and he may also have had intercourse 
with Quixada the Chamberlain, and 
Gaztelu the secretary ; and at Toledo 
or Madrid he had opportunities of 
knowing Torriano the Emperor's me- 
chanician. The next anthor is Fray 
Prudencio de Sandoval, whose History 
of Charles the Fifth appeared in 1604- 
1606, 2 vols, folio. In the latter 
volume a supplementary book is de- 
voted to the Cloister Life at Yuste. 
It was founded from a MS. narration 
written by Fray Martin de Angulo, 
prior of the convent. Juan Antonio 
dc Vera y Fi^ueroa, Count of La 
Roca, printed his epitome of the Life 
of Charles the Fifth, in quarto, at 
Madrid, in 1613. He added but little 
to the preceding, but mav have coil- 
versed with persons of Charles' suite. 
The Jesuit Pedro Ribadeneira, in his 
Life of Father Francisco Borgia, pub- 
lished in 1592, gave a circumstantial 
account of the interviews which took 
place in Estramadura between that re- 
markable man and the Emperor, which 
he had ample opportunities of hearing 
from the lips of !Borgia himself. 

We are now to consider the history 
by Robertson. If we compare Ro- 
bertson with Macaulay, he is inferior 
to him in brilliancy of thought, energy 
of narrative, and copious felicity of 
illustration. His imagination is warm 
and glowing, but does not present 
such striking pictures to the mind. 
His skill in generalisation is less, he 
cannot portray character so power- 
fully, nor docs ho recal the past with 
that deep dramatic effect which botft 
actor and event awaken when revived 
by the research, the imagination, and 
the careftil study of the later writer. 



.28 



The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. [Jan. 



If we compai'e Robertson with Hume, 
his style is less enriched with philoso- 
phical reflection, is unequal in breadth 
of description, does not present to us 
those deej) thoughts which arise from 
the narrative, and break away like bold 
headlands from the plain, nor are the 
great actors on his scene arrayed with 
80 much dignity, nor his events so 
boldly massed. But in those cardinal 
virtues of an historian, care and in- 
dustry, in research, impartiality, the 
love of truth, and unimpassioned judg- 
ment, he is eminently superior. To 
both Hume and Macaulay he is equal 
in intellectual lucidity, and by many 
will be preferred, through the absence 
of all exaggeration, the uniform sub- 
jection of his imagination, the selection 
of his topics, the elevated simplicity 
and the consequent dignity of his style. 
His great denciency arises from his 
imperfect authorities ; he could impart 
dignity and grace to superficial know- 
ledge upon some points, and this he 
did, yet even on these he must be 
judged in relation to his opportunities 
and his time. In the case of the 
Cloister Life of Charles the Fifth his 
inaccuracy has been long admitted. 
Citing, says Mr. Stirling, the respect- 
able names of Sandoval, Vera, and De 
Thou, he seems to have relied chiefly 
upon Leti, one of the most lively and 
least trustworthy of the historians of 
his time. He does not appear to have 
been aware of the existence of Si- 
guen9a. We will now describe the 
authorities for the present work, in 
addition to the authors already no- 
ticed. A visit Mr. Stirling paid to 
Yuste in 1849 first led him to look 
into the original narratives of the event. 
An article by M. Gachard, in the 
Bulletins of the Royal Academy of 
Brussels, vol. xii. part i. 1845, to which 
the attention of our readers is directed, 
informed him that the archives of the 
Foreign Office of France contained a 
long account of the retirement of 
Charles the Fifth, illustrated with ori- 
ginal letters, of which he gives the fol- 
lowing account. At the restoration 
of Ferdinand the Seventh the royal 
archives of Spain, preserved in the 
castle of Simancas, near Valladolid, 
were entrusted to the care of Don Tomas 
Gonzalez, canon of Plasencia. From 
the documents there existing Gonzalez, 
whose name 19 held in deserved repute 



as a contributor to the Memoirs of the 
Royal Academy of History of .Spain, 
prepared this account of the Emperor's 
life at Yuste, and had fairly copied it 
for the press, when death brought his 
labours to a premature close. His 
books and papers devolved to his bro- 
ther Manuel, who succeeded him in 
his post at Simancas. In 1836 Manuel 
was displaced, and being reduced to 
poverty, ofiered his MS. for sale, and 
finally disposed of it in 1844, for the 
sum of 4,000 francs, to M. Mignet, 
then director of the archives of the 
French Foreign Office. It is entitled, 
" The Retirement, Residence, and 
Death of the Emperor Charles the 
Fifth, in the Monastery of Yuste, a 
historical narrative founded on docu- 
ments." The bulk of the memoir con- 
sists almost wholly of original letters 
selected from the correspondence car- 
ried on between the courts at Valla- 
dolid and Brussels and the retired 
Emperor and his household, in the 
years 1556, 1557, and 1558. The 
principal writers are Philip the Second, 
the Infanta Juana, Juan Vazquez de 
Molina, secretary of state, Francisco 
de Eraso, secretary to the King, Don 
Garcia de Toledo, tutor to Don Carlos, 
the Emperor, Luis Quixada, his cham- 
berlain, Martin de Gaztelu, his secre- 
tary, William Van Male, his gentleman 
of the chamber, and Mathisio and Cor- 
nelio, his physicians. Tha- thread of 
the narrative is supplied by Gonzalez, 
who has done his part with great judg- 
ment, permitting the story to be told, 
as far as possible, by the original actors 
in their own wbrds. Such are the au- 
thorities consulted by Mr. Stirling, 
from whose pages we shall now ex- 
tract such passages as may serve to 
present the Cloister Life of Charles 
the Fifth to our readers, and of which 
M. Gachard promises also a narrative. 
Charles the Fifth had long nourished 
the desire to exchange the pomp and 
care which hedge a throne for the se- 
clusion and repose of the cloister. He 
had agreed witli the Empress Isabella, 
who died in 1538, that as soon as state 
affairs would permit they were to re- 
tire for the remainder of their days, — 
he into a convent, she into a nunnery. 
This design had become rumoured 
among the courtiers. In 1548 Philip 
the Second was sent for to receive the 
oath of allegiance from the Nether* 



1853.] The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. 



29 



lands. In 1551 he was invested with 
the duchy of Milan. In 1555 Charles 
assemljled the states at Brussels, and 
having commenced his career of re- 
ligious devotion by inducing Philip to 
break faith with his favourite sister's 
only child, he abdicated soon after the 
domains of the house of Burgundy and 
the Spanish kingdoms in his favour, 
and placed in the hands of William the 
Silent a deed of renunciation of the 
imperial crown. Early in September, 
1556, a fleet assembled at Flushing 
under the command of Don Luis de 
Carvajal to convey him to Spain. 
The voyage is thus described : 

The vessel prepared for the Emperor 
was a Biscayan ship of five hundred and 
sixty-five tons, the Espiritu Santo, bat 
generally called the Bertendona. The 
cabin of Charles was fitted up with green 
hangings, a swing bed, with curtains of the 
same colour, and eight glass windows. 
His personal suite consisted of one hundred 
and fifty persons. The Queens were ac- 
commodated on board a Flemish vessel, 
and the entire fleet numbered fifty-six 
sail. The royal party embarked on the 
13th September, but the state of the 
weather did not allow them to put to sea 
until the 17th. The next day, as they 
passed between the white cliffs of Kent 
and Artois, they fell in with an English 
squadron of five sail, of which the admiral 
came on board the Emperor's ship and 
kissed his hand. On the ^Oth contrary 
winds drove them to take shelter under 
the isle of Portland for a night and a day. 
The weather continuing unfavourable, on 
the 22nd the Emperor ordered the admi- 
ral to steer for the Isle of Wight, but a 
fair breeze springing up as they came in 
sight of that island the fleet once more 
took a westerly course, and gained the 
coast of Biscay, without further adventure. 
Casting anchor in the road of Laredo, on 
the afternoon of Monday the 28th of 
September, the Emperor went ashore that 
evening, and was joined next day by the 
two Queens. 

Laredo is a place of note : it had 
been a Roman commercial station, and 
became an important arsenal of St. 
Ferdinand of Castillo. From Laredo 
Ramon Bonifaz sailed to the Guadal- 
quivir and the conquest of Seville. In 
1639 the town was cruelly sacked by 
the Archbishop of Bourdcaux, in the 
days of the French church militant of 
Richelieu and Louis the Thirteenth. 
Santander rose upon its ruins ; but, 
true to its martial fame, it sent a gal- 



lant band of seamen to perish at Tra- 
falgar. Charles landed here on the 
evening of September 28, 1556, and 
was received by Pedro Manrique 
Bishop of Salamanca, and Durango, an 
alcalde of the court, in waiting there by 
order of the Infanta Juana Queen of 
Spain. His arrival was unexpected, 
and all was in confusion. Half of 
Charles's suite were ill, eight of the 
attendants were dead, there were no 
doctors, and a difficulty in finding a 
priest to say mass. There was even a 
scarcity of provisions, but the well- 
stored larder of the Bishop relieved 
them from starvation. The Flemings 
of the suite were discontented, the 
alcalde half-crazed, Charles unwell and 
out of humour; but the arrival of 
Colonel Luis Quixada, the Emperor's 
chamberlain, changed the face of 
affairs, and the march to Yuste com- 
menced the day afler his arrival. 
Charles's health was delicate, and the 
following was the mode of travel : 

He performed the journey [to Medina de 
Pomar] with tolerable ease in a horse 
litter, which he exchanged when the road 
was rugged, or very steep, for a chair 
carried by three men. Two of these chairs 
and three litters, in case of accident in the 
wild highland march, formed his travelling 
equipment. By his side rode Luis Quixada, 
or Lachaulx, if the presence of the cham- 
berlain, who acted as marshal and quarter- 
master, was required elsewhere. The rest 
of the attendants followed on horseback, 
and the cavalcade was preceded by the 
alcalde Durango and five alguazils, with 
their wands of office, a vanguard which 
Quixada said made the party look like a 
convoy of prisoners. These alguazils, and 
the general shabbiness of the regiment 
under his command, were matters of 
great concern to the colonel, but his re- 
monstrances met with no sympathy from 
the Emperor, who said the tipstaves did 
very well for him, and that he did not 
mean for the future to have any guards 
attached to his household. 

It would be impossible to narrate 
with minuteness the progress of the 
Emperor to Yuste. We must, how- 
ever endeavour to point out the 
manner in which he was received in 
the principal cities through which he 
pa.ssed, to refute the idle stories of that 
neglect which even Spanish historians 
have long been in the habit of depict- 
ing, as if to deter princes from the 
dangerous experiment of abdication. 



30 



Hie Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. [Jan. 



During the day of rest at Medina the 
imperial quarters were thronged with noble 
and civic visitors , who rode into the town 
from all points of the compass. Addresses 
came from the corporations of Burgos, 
Salamanca, Palencia, Pamplona, and other 
cities, from the Archbishop of Toledo and 
other prelates.** 

On the 13th of October they jour- 
neyed over vast undulating heaths, 
rough with thickets of dwarf oak, 
which led to the domains of the Cid, 
beyond which rose the ancient gate 
and beautiful twin spires of Burgos. 
Two leagues from the city the Lm- 
peror was met by the Constable of 
Castille, Don Pedro Fernandez de Ve- 
lasco, and a gallant company of loyal 
gentlemen, lie was conducted in all 
honour to the noble palace of the 
Velascos ; as he made his entry the 
bells of the city rang a peal of wel- 
come, and Burgos, the mourner of all 
Castille, threw aside her sombre weeds, 
in a grand illumination of its steeples. 
His stay here was a perpetual levee, 
and he proceeded to Vatladolid, then 
at the height of its prosperity, as the 
rich and flourishing capital of the 
Spanish monarchy. The Emperor and 
his suite were lodged in the house of 
Don Gomez Perez de las Marinas. 
He was here received by the grandees, 
the dignitaries of the church and the 
law, the council of state, and the college 
doctors, who conducted him and his 
suite into the city in triumph. A 
banquet was given ; it was followed by 
a ball, at which the Emperor was 
present. 

It was probably at this ball that Charles 
caused the wives of all his personal at- 
tendants to be assembled around him, and 
bade each in particular farewell. Perico 
de Saint Erbas, a famous jester of the 
court, passing by at the moment, the 
Emperor good-humouredly saluted him 
by lifting his hat. This buffoon had for- 
merly been wont to make the Emperor 
laugh by calling his son Philip Senor de 
Todo — Lord of All ; and now that he was 
so, this opportunity of reviving the old 
joke was too good to be lost by the bitter 
fool. ** What I do you uncover to me ?** 
said the jester, " does it mean that you are 
no longer an Emperor ?" ** No, Pedro," 
replied the object of the jest, " but it means 
that I have nothing to give you beyond 
this courtesy.** 

His conduct here again refutes the 
idle story of his exclusion from public 



affairs after his abdication, by the will 
of his son Philip. He held everj day 
long conferences with the Princess 
Regent and the Secretary Velazquez. 
He gave the guides of the state there 
his parting advice — advice transmitted 
subsequently from Yuste, and which 
ended only with his powers of hearing 
and dictating despatches. If he ab- 
stained from interference it was the 
resolution of his own mind. 

The discomforts of Laredo were re- 
newed at Xarandilla. The weather 
was bad, the rooms at Yuste not ready 
for his occupation. 

Meanwhile the household, especially the 
Flemish and more numerous portion of it, 
was in a state of discontent bordering on 
mutiny. The chosen paradise of the master 
was regarded as a sort of hell upon earth 
by the servants. The mayor domo and the 
secretary poured by every post their griefs 
into the ear of the secretary of state. The 
count of Oropesa, wrote Luis Quixada, has 
been driven from Xarandilla by the damp, 
— and Yuste was well known to be far 
damper than Xarandilla. His majesty 
had been pleased to approve of the abode 
prepared for him, but he himself had been 
there, and knew that it was full of defects 
and discomforts. 

But it would be impossible to tran- 
scribe at length the catalogue of griefs 
of the unhappy Quixada. Gaztelu was 
equally desponding, and they chanted 
together a melancholy litany, of win- 
dows too large, rooms too small, reek- 
ing with moisture, and condemned to 
utter darkness. Moreover " the gar- 
den was paltry, the orange trees few ; 
and the boasted prospect, what was it 
but a hill and some oak trees !" Never- 
theless, in spite of their distresses, 
their physical condition triumphed 
over their moral. The Flemings, to 
the amusement of the Castillians, 
looked sleek and fat, and fed vora- 
ciously '^ on the hams and other bucolic 
meats of Estremadura." Now as this 
matter of eating enters largely into 
the consideration of the Emperor's 
mode of life, we must extract Mr. Stir- 
ling's details upon this matter : — 

In this matter of eating, as in many 
other habits, the Emperor was himself a 
true Fleming. His early tendency to gout 
was increased by his indulgence at table, 
which generally far exceeded his feeble 
powers of digestion. Roger Ascham, 
standing hard by the imperial table at the 
feast of the Golden Fleece, watched with 



1853.] The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. 

wonder the Emperor's progress through 
so4 beef, roast mutton, baked bare, after 
which he fed well of a capon, drinking 
also, says the fellow of St. John's, the 
best that ever I saw ; he had his head in 
the glass five times as long as any of them, 
and never drank less than a good quart of 

Rhenish wine The supply of his 

table was a main subject of the corre- 
spondence between the mayor domo and 
the secretary of state. The weekly courier 
from Valladolid to Lisbon was ordered to 
change his route that he might bring every 
Thursday a provision of eels and other 
rich fish for Friday's fast. There was a 
constant demand for anchovies, tunny, and 
other potted fish; sometimes a complaint 
that the trouts were too small, the olives 
were too large, and the Emperor wished 

instead for olives of Perejon 

Another day sausages were wanted, of the 
kind which the Queen Jnana, now in 
glory, used to pride herself in making, in 
the Flemish fashion, at Tordesillas, and 
for the receipt for which the secretary is 
referred to the Marquess of Denia. 

The Emperor's weakness became 
known, and was propitiated through 
his stomach — a greater moral agent m 
the affairs of human life than our in- 
tellect may be prepared to admit. Luis 
Quixada struggled bravely against it, 
" but his office of purveyor was more 
commonly exercised under protest, 
and he interposed between his master 
and an eel-pie, as in other days he 
would have thrown himself between 
the imperial person and the point of a 
Moorish lance." 

On the 3rd of February, 1557, at 
three o'clock, the Emperor was placed 
in his litter, and the Count of Oropesa, 
and the attendants, mounted their 
horses, and crossing the leafless forest 
in two hours, the cavalcade halted at 
the gates of Yuste. He was here re- 
ceived by the prior, who, in his happy 
Ignorance, addressed him as " Your 
ratemity ." At the door of the church 
he was met by the whole brotherhood 
in procession, chanting the Te Deum. 
The altar was brilliantly lighted up 
and richly decorated, and Charles knelt 
and returned thanks to God for the 
happy termination of this journey, and 
then joined in the vesper service of the 
feast of St. Bias. 

The following is Mr. Stirling's ac- 
count of the Emperor's house : 

The flmperor's house, or palace, as the 



31 



friars loved to call it, althourrh many a 
country notary was more splendidly lodged, 
was more deserving of the approbation ac- 
corded to it by the monarch Ihan of the 
abuse lavished upon it by his cl.amberlain. 
Backed by the massive soutl: v. all of the 
church, the building presented a simple 
front of two stories to the garden and the 
noontide sun. Each story contained four 
chambers, two on either side of a corridor, 
which traversed the structure from east 
and west, and led at either end into a 
broad porch or covered gallery, supported 
by pillars and open to the air. Each room 
was furnished with an ample fire-place in 
accordance with the Flemish wants of the 
chilly invalid. The chambers which looked 
upon the garden were bright and pleasant, 
but those on the north side were gloomy 
and even dark, the light being admitted to 
them only by windows opening on the 
corridor or on the external and deeply 
shadowed porches. Charles inhabited tho 
upper rooms and slept in that of the north- 
west corner, from which a door or window 
had been cut in a slanting direction into 
the church, through the chancel wall and 
close to the high altar The em- 
peror's cabinet in which he transacted 
business was on the opposite side of the 
corridor, and looked upon the garden. 
From its window his eye raneed over a 
cluster of rounded knolls clad in walnut 
and chestnut, in which the mountain dies 
gently away into the broad bosom of the 
Vera. Not a building was in sight but a 
summer-house peering above the mulberry- 
tops at the lower end of the garden, and a 
hermitage of Our Lady of Solitude, about 
a mile distant, hung upon a rocky heights 
which rose like an isle out of a sea of 
forest. Immediately below the windows 
the garden sloped gently to the Vera, 
shaded here and there with the massive 
foliage of the fig, or the feathery boughs 
of the almond, and breathing perfume 
from tall orange trees, cuttings of which 
some of the friars themselves transplanted, 
and in after days vainly strove to keep 
alive at the bleak Escurial. The garden 
was easily reached from the western porch 
or gallery by an inclined path, which had 
been constructed to save the gouty 
monarch the pain and fatigue of going up 
and going down stairs. This porch, which 
was much more spacious than the eastern, 
was his favourite seat when filled with the 
warmth of the declining day. Command- 
ing the same view as the cabinet, it looked 
also upon a small parterre with a fountain 
in the centre, and a short cypress alley 
leading to the principal gate of the garden. 
Beyond this gate and wall was a luxuriant 
forest, a wide space in front of the con- 



The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. [Jan. 



32 



vent being covered by the shade of a mag- 
nificent walnut tree, even then known as 
the great walnut tree of Yuste, a Nestor 
of the woods, which has seen the hermit's 
cell rise into a royal convent and sink into 
a ruin, and has survived the order of Jerome 
and the Austrian dynasty of Spain. 

Such was the abode. Our extracts 
shall now be made with the pur[)ose to 
refute popular errors on the subject of 
Charles's retirement, and to illustrate 
the cloistered soldier's life. 

It has been frequently asserted that the 
Emperor's life at Yuste was a long re- 
pentance for his resignation of power, and 
that Philip was constantly tormented in 
England or in Flanders by the fear that his 
father might one day return to the throne. 
This idle tale can be accounted for only 
by the melancholy fact, that historians 
have found it easier to invent than to in- 
vestigate. So far from regretting his re- 
tirement, Charles refused to entertain 
Several proposals that he should quit it. . 
. . . In truth, Philip's filial affection 
and reverence shines like a grain of fine 
gold in the base metal of his character ; 
his father was the one wise and strong 
man who crossed his path whom he never 
suspected, undervalued, or used ill. The 
jealousy of which he was popularly ac- 
cused, however, seems at first sight pro- 
bable, considering the many blacker crimes 
of which he stands convicted. But the 
repose of Charles cannot have been trou- 
bled with regrets for his resigned power, 
seeing that in truth he never resigned it at 
all, but wielded it at Yuste as firmly as he 
had at Augsburg or Toledo. He had 
given up but little beyond the trappings 
of royalty, and his was not a mind to re- 
gret the pageant, the guards, and the gold 
sticks. 

Every document yet preserved shows, 
in fact, in what constant communica- 
tion Charles remained with Philip upon 
affairs of state, and with what warmth 
he entered into their discussion. In 
1557 the foreign affairs of Spain had 
assumed so grave an aspect that th^ 
King selected Ruy Gomez de Silva, 
afterwards known as Prince of Eboli, 
to lay them before his father. The 
circumstances deserved the attention 
of the man. War war raging on the 
frontier of the Netherlands, and threat- 
ened on the frontier of Navarre. Italy 
presented grave causes for anxiety. 
Piracy devastated the shores of the 
4 



kingdom from Cadiz to Fatras ; there 
was hardly a spot which had not suf- 
fered, and 'none which felt itself safe 
from the wild marauders from the 
shores of Numidia. It is needless to 
state the finances of the State were 
exhausted. With the wealth of Ame- 
rican mines, and a greater range for 
selection of fresh chancellors of the 
exchequer than has ever been enjoyed 
by the " most favoured nation," the 
history of finance in Spain is that of 
waste, ignorance, and beggary. To all 
these evils the Emperor devised reme- 
dies. His chief difficulty was with the 
clergy, with regard to their advance 
of tribute money unto Caesar. They 
held that faith was limited but to one 
half of the injunction, and sought to 
render all unto themselves, as due 
unto God. He received the news of 
the battle of St. Quentin with the 
greatest interest, and ordered the mes- 
senger to be rewarded with a gold chain 
and a handsome sum of money. Not 
so, however, did he receive the news 
of the terms agreed to by Philip, in 
his dispute with the Roman see, when 
Alba had crossed the Tronto, marched 
into the Campa^na, and took up a po- 
sition within sight of Rome. He had 
ever regarded Paul's policy with in- 
dignation, which had latterly become 
mmglcd with foul scorn. Had the 
matter, says Mr. Stirling, been left in 
the hands of the Emperor, Paul would 
have been dealt with in the stem 
fashion which brought Clement to his 
senses. Alba would have been directed 
to advance. Rome would have been 
stormed, the pontiff made prisoner, 
and the primate of Spain, and the 
prior of x uste, would nave been di- 
rected to put their altars into mourn- 
ing and say masses for his speedy de- 
liverance. This treaty was the only 
affair of importance transacted during 
the Emperor's sojourn at Yuste with- 
out his opinion being first asked and 
his approval obtained. When the ac- 
count of the negociations and a copy 
of the treaty reached him, at each 
paragraph the Emperor's anger grew 
fiercer, and before the paper nad been 

fone through, he would hear no more, 
[e was laid up next day with an 
attack of the gout, and so deep was 
the impression of the affair upon his 
mind that for weeks after he was fre- 



18da] 7^ ChUt€r Lifi aftht Bmp^rar Chattu K 



as 




qaentlf orertieard mnUenng broken 
wentences of dkpUasiire.* 

Xot even our limited spoc^^ penults 
U) pus unnotice^i tlie mformation 
iCained bj Mr. Stirling relatiTC to 
tbemeof bad poetry —Don Carlos. 
Te iiii|>eci the interest felt in tbis 
wee mriaes from our conviction of 
le cruel perftdiousness of lu« fatlier, 
Ltber than from nnjr merits of his own. 
education was a great subject of 
3tietj to the Emperor* He had seen 
m at Valladolld, and the impression 
le upon him hy the b<iy was iio- 
ikTourable. Hia go vernor^D (in Garcia 
de Toledo, descnbefl him in his letters 
to Charles as sickly, sulky, and back- 
ward. It cannot be asserted that his- 
tory is deficient in details^ at least tis 
to this part of his career, since nothing 
ia too miDutc to escape the attention 
of the Emperor, or the scrupuloui* 
fidelity uf his correapondent. Thus, 
one subject of complaint on tlie part 
of the governor in, that bis pupil *^was 
lazy at his books, and constipated in 
his bowels/* A month later, August 
27th, 1557, he wrote that his pupil was 
better in health, but so choleric in 
temper, that they were thinking of 
puttmg hira under a course of phifsic 
fitr thai di^order^ but that they would 
wait until the Emperor*s pleasure were 
known. The general result is, that 
Don Carlos was deficient in intellec- 
tual and physical power; unwilling to 
learn, incapublc of application, averse 
to all manly exercises ; of a temf)er 
capricious, violent, and moody ; and his 
manners careless and un;:jainly. But 
neither politics or Don Carlos occu- 
pied exclusively the attention of Charles. 
When in tolerable health he hobbled 
out with his gun, passed much of his 
time in the open air, and gave great 
attention to hjs garden. lie laid out 
the ground beneath his windows, 
planted it with flowers and orange 
trees, and dug a couple of fish-ponds 
for treat and tench. He made draw- 



iji|^ for ftdditioiis to his roomst, in* 
eluding %3x oratory for the use of Philip, 
who was to risit bim as soon as public 
ailairs permitted bim to return to 
Spain. Nor were his religious duties 
neiglected. 

The Emperor htmtelf utaally beard 
mafc from the witidofr of hist bed-chamber, 
which looked into the church ; but at com* 
pltnes he Kent up into the choir with the 
fathers, and prnyed in a devout and audible 
voice in bts tribune. During the soaioa 
of Lent, which cune round twice duriiif 
hi« residence at Yuste, he regularly ap> 
peared oa Fridiiy!! in his place in the choir, 
aad| afc the end of the appointed prayerSf 
exdnguiahin^ the taper which he like the 
rest held in hia hand, he floj^ged himaolf 
with Buch sincerity of purpose that the 
ixrourge wa§ itained with bloody and the 
pioua sing^ularly edified* Some of theae 
scourges were found afler his death in hia 
obnmber, atained with blood, and became 
prectouR heirlooms in the house of AuatriRf 
and honoured relica at the E^cuHul. 

It does not appear, however, that^ 
The brisk example never fjtiU to move, 
was true in this particiiliir ; ut least, 
there h no rccortl of iis Imvingexcitmi 
the niinda of' the monks, or of thrt stout 
Flemings, his attendants^ to similar 
acts of physical piety. 

On the 3rd of Alay, 1558, Charlea 
was acquainted " that all the form» q\' 
hia renunciation of the imperial crown 
had been gone througfj, and that the 
act uf^aiust which Philip and the court 
had so frer^tiently remonfltrated, waa 
now complete/' He cxprej«sed tho 
greatQiit delight, nrdere<i a couplo of 
seals without crown, flt^eee, or other 
device^ to be luadoi and that in future 
he was to be athlreased not m Km- 

[)eror but as a private ptTHon,— (bin 
at1>cr injunction was not cuimplied with. 
No chapter in Mn Stirling*! liia- 
torjr is* more deserving of attention 
than that on the Injjuitiition, its alHoM^ 
and its victims. We must omit, nnd 
with great reluctance, notice of ita 



* M. Gachard rather qoallfies Cbarlea'f oocupAtlon with ifalri. ^* La verity eit 

pore f|tte la prince«sc Dona Juana faiiait envoyer r/'j^nli^rement I wm pAro durtnt 
. retraite Ik Yuate, un balletin cootenaat le r^amn^ dcf noyvcllea tea piai importantea 
qa'elle recevait, ioit dea Paja Baa, ob Philippe IL ae trouvait* aoit d*Eipa((nr, d'ltnJie, 
oQ d'siiletars, que Cbarlea a^oeeit|}a ef« ^utlqu^» <*hj€t» qui i'iniere»»oient jjarticuiihrw' 
m^ni, maia qa'il dt^meora <^tniDger aux grandea affaires rju'avalt en ce u tur^tt ■<' rnl 
acm fikt Et la pre uvp cotre beaucotip d'autrea^ c'e^t qo*il blama trfi tjvt r, it 

qa'il lea eooniit lea tr>)it6a coodoa par le Duo d'AHie avrc Paid IV /* Un r^. 

Qie Eorale de Bnixelles, tome 12, 182S, p. 249. 

Gbit. Mao, Vol XXXIX. F 



jiSiMm^ 




34 



Tlie Cloister Lifo of the Emperor Charles V, [Jan. 



general details, to direct tlie attention 
of our readers to the spirit in which 
Charles viewed to the last th(? Re- 
foruvers, und upheld the Iiiquisition. 

K ever Charles affected toleration, 
it was the perfidious hypoerby he em- 
ployed to mask and to mature tlie po- 
liticiau\H end. On the throne, or sur- 
rounded by his court at Augsburg^ he 
might dissemble \ but in Spain, in com- 
munication with Philip, in association 
with VaUics, and at Yuste, surrounded 
by monk**, hia mind was emancipated 
from the thraldom of his earlier life. 
Church abuses, from the beginning of 
the sixteenth eentury, had been de- 
nounced in Spain ; about the middle 
of this period Spanish translations* 
were made of the Scriptures. Commen- 
tariest glosses, and explanations suc- 
ceeded. Persecution rapidly followed 
their distribution. Printers were im- 
prisoned ; nevertheless their works in- 
creased^ and, the sale being forbidden, 
they were smuggled in balcis over the 
mountains by muleteers, or run in 
casks by English and Dutch traders 
on the shores of Andnlusia. Strange 
rumours were now henrd of novel 

Questions raised hi the schools, of 
oubts on doctrinal p< pints, hitherto 
ruled by the Church, There was that 
sensible uneasiness in the public mind 
which denotes the gathering and pre- 
cedes the storm of public opinion. 
The Inity were roused, matters of faith 
were debated, and the elergy stfiod 
unmoved ; but when the Reformers 
began to pry into the nature of Church 
institutions, "the blaik garrison at 
once saw the full extent of the danger." 
Thoy united and rushed agaiDst the 
foe, *^with all the power of the stute 
and all the terror of the keys," 

So engcoftsed was the Emperor with the 
subject that he poitponed to it for nwbile 
nil the oth«r nffdra of it ate. H« urged 
the princes to remember that the welfare 
of the kingdom, and of the chari-h of God, 
WM bound up ill the suppression of heresy, 
und that therefore it demauded greater 
diligence and zenl than any temporal mat- 
tcr. He had been informed that the false 
teachers had been spreuding poi^oo over 
the land for nearly a year— a length of 
time for which they could have eluded dis- 
covery only through the aid or the coo- 
oivance of a great masg of the people. If 
it were poaaible, therefore, he would have 
their crime treated in a «hort ond i qcd- 
marymaoner, like sedition or robeHion, 



He wrote to Philip : 

Son,-^The black hosiDeas which hat 
rtfien here, has ahocked me as m^uch aa 
you can think or guppoEe. You will see 
what I have written a boat it to your sister. 
It is essential that you write to her yoar- 
selff and that you take all the means in 
your power to cut out the root of the evil 
with rigour and rude handling. . . . - 
At the end of May, Ihhlt Quixada, by the 
En]peror*s order, saw Valdes, the In(|uisi- 
tor GeneraU and urged on him the eJtpe* 
diency of diupaich in Mm deaiinfft with he- 
relics^ and qfeven diapensiny in their catu 
with ike ordinary famit of his tnbunal. 

Such zeal alarmed even the catho- 
licity of his household. Charles's phy- 
sician. Dr. Mathlijio, bad a small Bible 
in Freneh, iind without notes, which 
he feared might introduce him to the 
tribunal of the Inquisition, lie op* 
plied to the secretary of stnte for per- 
mission to read the volume. Vazquez 
replied that the Inquisitors demurred i 
to its retention and hid re<iuest. The 
prudent doL^t^r burned the liook in the 
presence of the Emperor's confessor I 
With Regla, thuH aummoned to this 
act of faith, Charles frequently ron- 
versed on the suliject which so much 
engrossed his thoughts. Ileiidmitted, — 
** that it ims ever his reg^ret tittit he had 
not put Lather to death when he hail him , 
in his power, lie had s[>ared him on 
account of hh pledged word ; but h© 
now saw that he had greatly erred in 
preferrin": the obligatuui of his pro* 
miae to the higher duties of aven«jing 
that heretic's oflences against God. 
He rejoiced that he had refused to 
hear the points at issue between the 
Church and the schismatics argued in 
his presence. For this cause ne had 
foregone the support of some of the 1 
Protestant princes ; be batl refused to j 
buy aid at this j>rice when tlying be* 
fore the army of Duke Maunce. He 
knew the danger of parleying with 
heretics. ** Suppose one of their spe- 
cious orgumenla had been planted in 
his soul, how did he know that he 
could have ever got it rooted out." 
But Charles was soon to be summoned j 
before that tribunal to which, Amid 
torture, hatred, and all uneharituble^l 
nessi, by cruel deaths, he was hurryinM 
the souls of others. In the spring uf 
1558 his health recovered from its 
winter's decline. He still ate vora- 
ciously, and enjoyed his draughts of 



185a] The ChUUr Life of the Emperor Charhe K 

RheQish, syrup of quinces, and beer* 
. Be could still sopenntend his garden, 
1 0ccap7 some portion of the dnj with 
I Tomano, or in intercourse and afikirs 
Lof state. On the 9th uf August^ bow* 
f«ver. Dr. IVlathisio became seriouslj 
\ alarmed about the stuto of his patient ; 
Vms disorders increased, and the renie^ 
I dies did not answer. 

And now was to be performed that 

ceremony which has so often excited 

the attention of moralists and histo- 
rians. The reader will remember Ro- 
bertson's account of the performance 
I by Charles of his own funeral obse- 
Iquies* " Masterly as a sketclj, it has 

unhappily been copied from the can* 

ras of the unscrupulous Leti. In 

eyery thing but in style it is indeed 

^ery absurd."* Some doubt, how- 
ever, still pests on the question. Gon- 
\ jtalez treats the story as an idle tide ; 
I &i«;uen9a does not confirm it to the 
^ " 1 extent^ nor b his DArr&ttve of what 
"took place improbable, especially since 

it was published with the authority 

of his name, while men were still 
l^ive who could contradict his mis- 
^•fctttement. M. Gachard supports the 

view of Gonzalez ; but rt is strange 

that, while denying the credibility of 

the story, Gonzalez should have fur-^ 

uished a piece of evidence of some 

weight in Its favour. In an inventory 
[ of state papers of Castile, drawn up by 
* bim in 1818, and existing at Simancas, 

there is the following entry : — ** No. 

119, ajin. 1557. Original Letters of 
iCharles the Ftilh to the Infanta Juana 

l«nd Juan Vazquez de Molina 

[They treat of the public affairs of the 

'^me, — item^ of the maurnitig stuffs or* 
i/ur the purpoee of performit^hU 
rm hofumrt mtring his life.''* This 
bows intention, but does not prove its 
I fulfilment. We shall content ourselves 

by placing Mr. Stirling's narmtive be- 
fore our readers.^ 

About this time, aooordiog to the his- 
I loriAQ of St. JeromCf his tbooghts seeined 
I to turn more tbaa usual upon religion and 
|its ritea. , . The daily masaet said for 

bts lOtil were always accompanied by 

otberi tot the sooli of his father, nootber, 

and wife. But oow be ordered further 



«5 



solemoities of the funereal kind to be per- 
formed in behalf of the«e relations* ovib 
on a different day, and attended them hiai^ 
self, preceded by a page bearing a taper, 
aad joining in the chaunt in a very devout 
and audible maaaer out of a tattered 
prayer-book. Tbe»e rites ended, he aaked 
his confessor whether he might not now 
perform h^s own funeral, and so do for 
himself what would soon have to be done 
for him by others ? Regla replied, that his 
Majesty, please God, might live many 
years, and that, when his time came, tbe«e 
services would be gratefully rendered, 
without bis taking any thought about the 
matter. But, persiat&d Charles, Would it 
not be good for my soul ? The monk 
said that certainly it would ; pious works 
done during life being far more efficacious 
than when postponed until after death. 
Preparations therefore were at once set on 
foot ;; a catafalque, which had served be- 
fore on similar occasions, was erected, and 
on the following day, the 30tb August, as 
the mankish hieitorian narrates, this cele-^ 
brated service was actually performed. 1 
The high altar, the catafalque, and the 
whole church ihooe with a blaze of wax- 
lights, the friars were all in their places at 
the altars and in the chotr, and the house- 
hold of the Emperor attended in deep 
mourning. The pious monarch himself 
was there, attired in sable weeds, and 
bearing a taper to sec himself interrad, 
and to celebrate his owe obsequies* While 
the solemn mass for the dead was sang, 
he came forward and gave his taper into 
the hjiuds of the officiating priest^ in token 
of his desire to yield his soul into the 
hands of his Maker. . . The funeral 
rites endedi the Emperor dined iu his 
western alcove, tie ate little, but re* 
mained for a great part of the afternoon 
fitting in the open air and basking in 
the sun, which, as it descended to the 
horizon, beat strongly upon the while 
walls. Feeling a violent pain in his head, 
he returned to his chamber and Uy down* 
. . . Next morning he was somewhat 
better, and was able to get up and go to 
mass, but still felt oppressed, and com- 
plained much of ibirst. He tol j his coo- 
fessor, however, the funeral service of the 
dny before had done him good. The sun- 
sbioe again tempted him into his open 
gallery. 

As he sat he oocupiud hiiUiWilf with 
the portrait of his Empress, over which 



* See the entire argument in Stirling's Preface, uoge xv, 

t Cloister Life, pp. 194, 195. Bulletin d« 1* Academie Royale de Braiellcs, tome tS^ 
1^2S, p. 255. 
t OOBSilez denies this : Mr. SUrlinf tays, on tnsiimcicot grounds. 



The Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles V. [Jan. 



86 

he hung for a long time lost in thought, 
and next called for a picture of our 
Lord praying in the Garden, and then 
for a sketch of the Last Judgment by 
Titian. 

Thus occupied, he remained so long ab- 
stracted and motionless, that Matbisio, 
who was on the watch, thought it right to 
awaken him from his reyerie. On being 
spoken to, he turned round and complained 
that he was ill. The doctor felt his pulse, 
and pronounced him in a feyer. Again 
the afternoon sun was shining over the 
great walnut tree fnll into the gallery. 
From this pleasant spot, filled wiCh the 
fragrance of the garden, and the murmur 
of the fountain, bright with the glimpses 
of the golden Vera, they carried him to 
the gloomy chamber of his sleepless nights, 
and laid him on the bed from which he 
was to rise no more. 

Mr. Stirling gives the most minute 
particulars ofhis illness. Charles died 
Sept. 20, 1558. He was conscious to 
the last. Villalva addressed him amid 
the struggles of death. 

At last the Emperor interposed, saying, 
'* The time is come ; bring me the candlea 
and the crucifix.'' These were cherished 
relics which he had long kept in reserve 
for this supreme hour. The one was a 
taper from our Lady's shrine at Mont- 
serrat ; the other, a crucifix of beautiful 
workmanship which had been taken from 
the dead hand of his wife at Toledo, and 
which afterwards comforted the last mo- 
ments of bis son at the Escurial. He re- 
ceived them eagerly from the Archbishop, 
and, taking one in each hand, for some 
moments he silently contemplated the 

Note, — There are two errors in an article contributed by M. Gachard to the Bul- 
letins de 1' Academic Royale de Bruxelles, upon the oft disputed question as to the 
existence of the Commentaries of Charles the Fifth, which it may be as well to rectify. 
Commenting upon an article in the Edinburgh Review, 1842, ** The Founders of 
Jesuitism," in which it is stated ** that [Borgia] still touched his lute with unriyalled 
skill in the halls of the Escurial," he adds, *' or le monast^re de TEscurial n'existait 
pas k cette epoque, et la premiere pierre n'en fnt pos^e que plus de trente ans apres 
en 1563 !" and attributes the article to Mr. Macaulay. Now the article in question, 
" The Founders of Jesuitism," was not written by Mr. Macaulay, but by Sir James 
Stephen, and it is evident the Escurial and the lute are here introduced simply as il- 
lustrative of Borgia's life at its courtly period ; the mention of any other palace would 
have answered the same end. When however M. Gachard adds that the reviewer writes, 
" que Don Francisco fut charg6 par I'Empereur d'examiner dans son cercueil Tlmp^. 
ratrice Isabelle, avant qu*on la descendit sout lea caveaux de VEseuriait** he himself 
commits the error he condemns. No such passage is to be found in the originaL M. 
Gachard has been misled apparently by the translator of the paper in the '* R^vue 
Britannique" de Bruxelles, 1842, to whom his correction applies. Dr. Aug. Scheler 
has adopted the error and translated the criticism in the Serapeum, No. 13, 15 July, 
1845. 



figure of the Saviour, and then clasped it 
to his bosom. Those who stood nearest to 
the bed, now heard him say, quickly, as if 
replying to a call, " Ya yoy, Senor," " Now, 
Lord, I go." As his strength failed, his 
fingers relaxed their hold of the crucifix, 
which the primate took, and held it before 
him. A few moments of death- wrestle 
between soul and body followed ; after 
which, with his eyes fixed on the cross, 
and with a voice loud enough to be heard 
' outside the room, he cried " Ay, Jesus,'* 
and expired. 

So closed the career of Charles ; a 
great man, certainly, whether he be con- 
sidered in relation to his contempora- 
ries or his age. His mind was equal 
to measures of great import, to acts of 
great daring, and of ^reat military 
skill. Its incessant activity governed 
his own vast realms, forwarded his 
ambition, checked and mastered that 
of his most formidable rivals. Nor is 
it only with war and politics that his 
name is associated, but, to his greater 
honour, with the peaceful arts of his 
era, " the chisel of Leoni, the pencil 
of Titian, and the lyre of Ariosto.** 

It is needless to recommend Mr. 
Stirling*s History. It is valuable both 
as regards matter and style. A master 
of the language and literature of Spain, 
well acquainted with her history, in- 
defatisaole in research, he has for the 
first time narrated with impartiality, 
with judgment, and with truth, the 
" Stobt of the Cloistered Life of 

THE EmPEBOB ChABLES THE FlFTH.** 



37 



WANDERINGS OF AN ANTIQUARY. 

By Thomas Wright, F.S.A, 

IX. — A Visit to the Li ill iNTaENcauBNTs on the Bosckas of Wales, 



^ FEW towns present more attrac- 
ttioiis to II summer visitor than that of 
ju«11ow, on the burdera of SUropaliire 
and Herefordshire- The town itself 
Is heautiftillj situated on an elevated 
knoll, which is cut olT from the hilb 
etching to the south and west bj a 
ep gorge, through which the pic- 
aresque river Teme flows. The town 
Tilopefl by a gradual descent to the bunks 
of the river, but on the opposite side 
the hill of WhitcUlTe rises m perpen- 
dicular masses of rock, from toe sum- 
uiit of which, a favourite promenade, 
we looic down upon the town, and ob- 
tain to the northward an L-xIcnsive 
view over the rich pasturea of Corve- 
dale. Whatever (iirection we take, 
the walks and rides around Ludlow 
|are extremely beautiful, and the scenery 
is iniinitely varied^ The grand features 
of the town are, the noble ruin of Its 
eaBtte, long the queen of the border 
fortregaes, and ita fine old collegiate 
church. These alone^ since the ap- 
proach has been facilitated by railways, 
cannot fail to attract multitudes of 
visitors. In a recent visit my attention 
was more especially directed to the 
ountry around, which abounds in in- 
rresting monuments of former days, 
nd I could not help remarking the 
iamerous intrenchments on hill-tops 
Iwbichare scattered through the neigh- 
ilKfurhood, paj'tieuliirly over the hilly 
uuntry towards Wales. 
Among the most reumrkable ob- 
jects of this kind near to Ludlow are 
the intrenchments on the dilTerent 
summits of the Clee Hills, to the 
north* east. We leave the town on 
the ea^t., by that quarter which, from 
It? being the site of the prison, is called 
CSoalford. The road presents us with 
the same constant succession of pic* 
tureaijue rural views which we here 
oeet with in all the lower grounds, 
turning off from the direct road, at 
About two miles from Ludlow^ we may 
visit the viQtige of Middleton, the little 
old church of which contains a rare 
example of the ancient rood-lofi, in 
carved wood, f)f an elegance which we 



should hardly expect to find iu thb 
secludL'd spot* In the turn of the road, 
nlinost opposite the church, is an ancient 
tumulus of considerable magnitude, 
with a tree growing upon it; but these 
monuments are so thickly scattered 
over this country that we cannot stop 
to notice them all. About a mile fur- 
ther we begin to ascend the slope of 
the Cleu Hill, and a little way up we 
reach the church of Bitterley, remark- 
able for the beautifully sculptured 
cross, which still remains, thougli sadly 
mutilated, in the churchyard. From 
the gardens of Bitterley Court, the 
seat of the Walcots, the view of Tit- 
terstoae, rising in lofty grandeur be- 
hiodi is truly majestic. From hence 
is the most diretit, thtjugb not the 
easiest, lusceut, repaying us at every 
8te|» with some new fuuture in the W(m- 
derful view, until, on arriving at the 
stimmitj we find ourselves in the centre 
of such a panorama as none who have 
not seen it can conceive. It is said 
that thirteen or fourteen dilierent 
counties are seen from this spot, which 
is at an elevation of about eighteen 
hundred feet above the level of the 
sea. The sides of the mountain are 
very rugged, on account of the innu- 
merable masrics of basaltic rock which 
project through the sod. The almost 
circular platform at the top of the hill, 
an area of considerable extent, is sur- 
rounded by a wide band of loose stones* 
which present a very remarkable ap- 
pearance, but recent examinations have 
E roved that they are the remains of a 
road wall built of stones without 
mortar, the lower part of which, very 
regularly and smoothly faced, is found 
in the middle of the band. This wall 
seems to be of very remote antiquity, 
but it is not easy even to guess the 
cause of its overthrow in so singukr a 
manner. I understand that a large 
amber bead and some other early relics 
have been found within the inclosed 
area. On the western edge, where the 
hill is almost perpentlicular, are some 
extraordinary groups of immense stones, 
wbi(*h Iwik like iallen cromlechs, but 



38 



Wanderings of an Antiquary, 



[Jan, 



which may be pieces of tlie rock in the 
position given them by natural causea. 
They seem to bftiig over the vaat pre- 
cipice as though a little matter would 
roll them down, and hence they say 
this mountain received hs name of 
Titterstone. Some antiquaries have 
supposed that these masses of rock 
once formed a roeking- stone. The 
peasantry call them the Giant's Chair.* 
If, instead of pursuing the route 
de&cribed above, we had turned olT. 
before leaving the town along a rofid 
through what is called Lower Goalford, 
we shoahl have reached, at somewhat 
more tb;in two miles from Ludlow, the 
pictures(|ue village of Citynhiim^ A 
hill behind the village, which forms 
part of a low broken ridge extend- 
ing from the Glee Hill in a aoutb- 
westerly direction to the river Teuie, 
somewhat more than a mile lo the 
south of LudloWf ts crowned with a 
deep intreochment, nearly circular, and 
inclosing an area of five or mx acres* 
The rntrenchments are now covered 
with a btilt of trees and umlerwood, 
through which u walk has been cut, 
with &cftts here and there at s[K>ts wbieh 
coinmand, through openings in the 
treei*, rich prospects, extending in one 
direction to the distant Malvcrnsj and 
in iimitber to the Black Mountains of 
Wiiles This is known as Caynham 
camp, and as a small brook tlows at the 
foot of the hill to the north, called the 
Kay, it is probable that the name sig- 
nifies the home or dwelling on the 
river Kay. It happens by accident 
that we have, in tne curious Anglo- 
Norman history of the Fitz-Wnrines, 
an early notice of this spot, which, as 
we learn from Domesday Book, had 
belonged to the celebrated Saxon earl 
Morcar, and passed after the conquest 
into the possession of the Mortimers* 
We learn from the history just alluded 
to, which muj$t have been composed in 
the thirteenth century, that» early in 
the rergo of Henry 11. when Joce de 
Dinan laid siege to Ludlow castle, he 
posted his troops within the castle of 
Caynham, situated on a hill about a 
league from Ludlow, and then ** very 
<ild and the gates rotten/' The holders 
of Ludlow castle called the Welsh 
to their anistancef and Joce hinudf 



was besieged in the ruined fortress 
which he had chosten aa his head 
(itiarters. There were, therefore, at 
this time (?. e. the middle of the twelfth 
century) buildings within the intrench- 
ments, tor an Anglo-Norman writer 
would not apply the name of castle ta 
the in trench meuta themselves, and 
these buildings mtist then have been 
of considerable antiuuity* 

The other Clee Hills, known as the 
Brown Clee Hills, lie a short distanca 
to the north of the Titters tones, and 
consist of two very lofty cones, the 
one to the south called Clee Bury, and 
that to the north Abdon Bury, the 
summit of each being strongly in- 
trenched. Within the northern in- 
trenchment, which is of a round oblong 
form and much larger than the other, 
are some sepulchral mounds, Beloir 
thcise two hdls, ou a knoll advancing 
into the p>lain, is another oblong in- 
trenchment called Nordy Bank. There 
are other so-called camps both to the 
north and to the south of Ludlow, but 
we will confine ourselves at present to 
two routes, both remarkable for the 
extreme beauty of their scenery, and 
each accompanied by a very interest- 
ing series ot hilUintrenchumnta* 

The first of these excursions lies in 
the direction of the pleasant village of | 
Leintwardine, a favourite resort for 
fishing. We leave Ludlow by Corve 
Street, and turn off' by the corner of 
the Old Field, or race-course, to Brom* 
field. On this race-course are several 
tumuli. From Brorofield, a winding 
road, presenting a continual succession 
of varying views, conducts us to Leint- 
wardine» a large village, about eight 
miles from Ludlow, eituated at the 
conlluence of the rivers Clun and 
Temc, Within a short distance of 
Leintwardine are two remarkable in- 
trench ni en ts, Brandon camp and C'OX- 
well knoll, the one to the south and the 
other to the west. Brandon camp may I 
be visited by another and iu some re* I 
spei'tij a preferable route. At about 1 
two miles from Brom field, we may I 
turn off from the road to Leintwardine^ 
and pass through the beautiful scenery 
of Downtou cusile. Thi^re is a camp^ 
or intrenchment, ou a hill at the end 
of the rocky gorge through whioh tiie 



* Our authority of thii nnm« b tli« mnp of the Orduttioe survey. 



1853-] The Hill InirenchnmiU on the Borders of WaU§. 



Terae here pa^se*, at Down ton on the 
Rock. From this point we descend 
ftgain to lower groumi, until we come 
to the side of Wigunore abbev, the 
ancient gmnge of which, close by the 
road-side, is well worth n passing vii«It. 
As we proceed along rising ground 
from Wigmore grange to the village of 
Adfertoii, wcobtuin an extremely beau- 
tiful view ti)wards the !»uuth over the 
village and castle of Wigmore. Bran- 
don catnn is about three quarters of a 
mile to tne north of Adferton. 

Brandon camp has a particular in- 
terest as the supposed site of the Bra- 
rinium of the Homons, the intermediate 
town or station on the WatJtng Street 
between Magna (Kenchesier) and Uri* 



conium ( Wnta:eter). It is sitiiatc^l on 

a hill of no great elevation* rising from 
the middle of the plain, almost pre- 
cipitous on the west aide, but descend- 
ing very gradually to the east. It la 
not intrenched in the same manner aa 
the hill-tops of which we have been 
speaking, but a square area of perhaps 
SIX or eight acres, ruu tided at the 
corners, is mcloseil by a lofty vallum, 
and the natural form of the hilt has 
been taken advantage of, so that on 
the western wide the steep character of 
the hill serves the purpose of defence, 
anil the vallum h there very low. The 
southern vallum, the present appear- 
ance of which is shown in the accom- 
panying sketch, is the most perfect. It 







Brandoo Camp— southern vdllnri 



nses to the height of perhaps eighteen 
or twenty feet, and, as far as I could 
discover by slightly digpin^ into it at 
dilTcrent spots, the interior is oomposed 
of the stone of the spot thrown loosely 
together. The eastern vallum, whien 
is also very perfect^ seems to be com- 
posed of earth. In the middle of this 
eastern side is a regularly formed] en- 
trance, the only passage into the area. 
It is to be remarked that this entrance 
gateway hioks direct u|K)n the great 
Roman road which runs at a short 
distance to the east of the hill. I con- 
fess that I see no absolute reason why 
tliii may not be the Roman station of 
Bravinium, although it certainly pre- 
sents some difBculiies. The other 
Roman sUtions of the Itinerary on 



this line were regular walled towM, 
and why this place should be sur- 
rounded by a mere eoibankrnent is not 
ea«v to explain. Nevertheless, this 
embankment is raised from the ground 
without any trench, and bears far 
more una logy to a town- wall than any 
other earth-work I have seen. Another 
remarkable circumstance connected 
with it 18 the absence, as far as I could 
learn, of any Roman antiquities. I 
could hear of no coins found either at 
or near the place, and 1 carefully ex- 
amined the ground within the area, 
which was planted with turnijis, but I 
could find not the slightest 1 ragmen! 
of brick or pottery. This is very un- 
usual on a Roman site ; but it has been 
suggested to me that the peculiarity 



m 



[Jan, 



.Mj£v*i>^,- 



CkixwuH KiioU, n» ncen fttim. Uranclon Curnp. 



*»f tbevanum may perhaps he explained 
on the supposition thsit thin waa a very 
early Koinan establish men t, — perhaps 
niieofthe earliest on the Welsh oorder. 
Indeed if, aa 9uppojie<l| it be the Hame 
t0Wti as that jiientioni.Hl by Ptolemy, 
who wrote about the yesir 1*20, by the 
name of BraonogCTiium (Epayvoyhfwv)^ 
it must have dated from the first eiita- 
blishmentoftheEomans in the«e purts. 

The p<:)a:tion of Brandon canip is re- 
markably fine, comraandiiig, from its 
slight elevation, an extraordinary view 
in all direct ionst and looking down im- 
meiliatcly upon the river Teme. The 
acc^mpanytn^ e»ketcb is taken from the 
outside of the Bouthern vallum, the 
western extremity of whit'h Ibrms the 
foreground. The hill to the left forms 
pwi of Bnimplon Brian park, be- 
tween whieh, lind the hills of the dis- 
tance, the volley of the Teme rung up 
into Wale8, Ihe dark wooded hill io 
front is Coxwall Knoll, on which the 
line of the ancient intrencbinents may 
be traced from thig distance, Coxwall 
Knoll is aljout two niiles westward 
from Brandon camp, ami the valley 
between is rather thickly scattered 
with ancient tumuli. Tlie intrench- 
ment on this hill irs a mere rudely- 
formed foss, surrounding the upper 
part of the bill in a very irregular line, 
And its principal celebrity arises from 
it« having been taken, on very slight 
grounds indeed, for the scene of the 
last battle of Caractacus. 

CToxwall Knoll lien a little to the 
6 



the north of the river Teme, and of a 
bye-road which leads to the village of 
Bucknali, which h situated on a .'^mall 
stream that falls into the Clun about 
a mile al)ove Leintwardine, This 
stream runs down from the hills of 
Kadnorshire, and purnues its course 
along a narrow valley which opens out 
at BucknalL A pleasant country lane 
runs along tlie banks of this stream up 
into the hills, with picturesque hill 
scenery on each side. As we advance, 
the country becomes gradually very 
wild, and at a distance of between 
three and four miles from the village 
of Bucknali, we reach a lolty bill — we 
may almost call it a mountain — with a 
gradual slope towards the west, but on 
the other sides, and especially trjwiirda 
the ea.Ht, very steep. 'I his antl the hills 
around are barren of everything bat 
heath and lii I berry -bushes, which in 
the summer and autumn give tbcm a' 
rich purple tint. The eastern brow of 
this hill, commanding the extensive 
prospect down the valley through 
which we have approaches! it, h 
crowned with a very extensive in- 
trenched area, of an irreffuUr oval 
forn>, surrounded by two deep fosses 
and higb euibaDknients. The latter 
arc built, not of earth, but of the small 
flat stones of the locality, thrown 
loosely together. These intrenchments 
are known as the Gacr Ditches* and 
the spot itself is called Coer Cara- 
doc, but we must not confound it with 
the more celebrated Shropshire Caer 



1853.] The Hill Intrenchmsnti on the Borders of Wales, 



^Caradoc, near Cburch Stretton. Ilhas 
Eitterly been assumed that this is tlie 
ni aite of the* last buttle of CaraeLicus 
gainst tbe victorious unns of tbe 

^ Jiomand, and in^enioua attempts have 
been mode, I m'mk quite unaucce^s- 
fuUj, U> reconcile the appen ranee of 
tbe country around with the descrip- 
tion given by the falatorian Tacitus. I 
will not throw away time in examin- 
ing what appears to me so futile a 
question* The description of Tacitus U 
given merely from hearsay; it is so 
extremely indefinite that we might 
find twenty portions that would answer 
to it in any hilly country, and it does 
not appear to nie to apply at all, at 
least without very great stretches of 
the imagination. It is, at the best, one 
of those fruitless discussions which 
antiquaries would do better to avoid. 

Our ejtcursion baa taken us to a 
considerable distance from Ludlow, 
and though no country could be more 
interesting and beautiful than that 
upon which we have entered, we will 
pursue it no longer. Having left Lud- 
low by the same route as that do- 
scribed above, let us proceed to Brom- 
field, and thence, instead of takhag the 
road to Downton or Leintwardine, 
we will proceed to the village of Oni- 
bury, which is about five miles from 
Ludlow » The road proceeds thence 
tbrough the beautiful valley watered 
by the river Oney, at the further end 
of which stand the intorestiun; ruin^ of 
Stokesay Castle, a castellated mansion 
of the thirteenth century. We are now 
pursuing a northern course, and are 
nearly- upon the line of tbe Roman 
W'utbng Street ; but rather less than a 
mile beyond Stoke Castle, at u cele- 
brated old posting inn called the 
Craven Arras, where there is now a 
railway station, we turn od" towards 
the west* The road hence to Clun 
forms one of the most beautiful rides 
that can easily be imagined, a succes- 
sion of lofty and oflen thickly wooded 
hills rising on each side, and bounding 
a narrow and rich valley, through the 
middle of which tlows the picturesque 
river Clun. The first bold eminence 
that presents itself to our view is a 
wooded bill some three miles to the 
west of the Craven Arms, which rises 
into two knolls, the more northerly ele- 
vation being called Burrow Hill, and 
tJiat to the south Oker Hill. On the 
KNT. Mag. Vol. XXXIX, 



41 

top of Burrow Hill there is a very fine 
oval intrenchment, surrounded by a 
double vallum, and 1 believe there is 
another intrenchment cm Oker HilL 
The country northward abounds with 
small In trench m en ts and barrows. 
After passing Burrow Hill, the lofty 
swell of CluoDury Hill presents a bold 
object on tbe left, while at a greater 
distance to the right we have a mass 
of picturesque hills, the loftiest of which 
has on its summit tbe finest of the so- 
called camps that are found in this 
neighbourhood. It is known by the 
name of Bury Ditches, and is in form 
nearly circular, and inclosed by three 
very lofty tmlla^ composed, like many 
of the other i^imilar works in this part 
of the country, of loose stones. The 
extensive area in the interior is covered 
with heath intermixed with bilberries, 
which are here very luxuriant, but the 
bi trench nients and a part of the elope 
of the bill arc covered with large fir- 
trees. The bill itself is a large and 
lofty knoll, very steep on all sides but 
the nortb-east, where tbe approach is 
more gradual. The entrance to the 
in closure is on the western aide, and it 
ii*, I believe* tbe only original entrance, 
for that on the opjiosite side seems to 
me, from the rather hasty exjimiiiation 
I gave itj to be a mere road broken 
tbrougb the intrenchments at a later 
period. The prospect from these in- 
trencbments, looking towards the 
south, is magnidcont in the extreme. 
There are several tumuli m the country 
behind. 

The access to this interesting spot 
is by a rural lane '.Thich leaves the 
high road at tbe viUage of Clunton, 
and ^vhieh ascends the greater part of 
tbe way a distance of a full mile and a 
hull' Ihe pedestrian who would prefer 
a delightful country walk may pro- 
ceed over the hills to the aoutli-weat 
to Clun ; but, Lf on horseback, the vi- 
sitor must return to Clunton, whence, 
if so inclined, be may turn off to visit 
Hopton Castle, a small fortress cele- 
brated in the civil wars of the seven- 
teenth century. Tbe road to Clun 
continues to present the same pictu- 
reatjue character. Immediately below 
it is the river, winding its way through 
pastures and copses, and overhung on 
tbe other aide by a near range of .^teep 
hills ; while high grounds, though more 
broken and rnthcT more diat;>nt, also 



42 



limit the view to the north. Clun itself 
occupies a spot where the country is 
rather more open towards the north, 
but toward the south it is surrounded 
by a semicircle of high irregular hills. 
It is a large village, remarkable for a 
church which possesses some archi- 
tectural interest, and for the remains 
of a fine Norman castle, built soon 
after the Conquest by the Fitz Alans. 
The castle, the remains of which con- 
sist chiefly of the ruined keep, in itself 
a fine object, is situated on irregularly 
elevated ground on the west of the 
village, and commands the river, of 
whicn it affords us several picturesque 
views, especially that which looks over 
the ancient bridge. 

The country round Clun offers in- 
numerable attractions to the antiqua- 
rian wanderer in the shape of intrench- 
ments, barrows, old houses, and other 
such objects, which are too many to 
allow me to include them in a cursory 
notice ; but there is one remain which 
no antiquary who comes thus far ought 
to return without visiting. This is 
the celebrated earthwork called Offa's 
Dyke — the ancient boundary between 
Mercia and Wales — extending over 
hill and valley from the mouth of the 
Severn to that of the Dee. It is seen 
in a state of excellent preservation on 
the hills to the west of Clun. Passing 
over Clun bridge we turn to the right 
and soon enter a rather wild country 
lane. At a distance of somewhat more 
than a mile from Clun, in a field to the 
riffht, near the hamlet of Whitcott 
Keysett, stands one of those extraor- 
dinary stones which are usually classed 
under the title of Druidical monu- 
ments. It is a flat broad stone, of very 
irregular shape, placed upright in the 
ground, in which it is evidently in- 
serted to a considerable depth. Above 
ground it measures eight feet three 
mches in height by seven feet broad. 
It is impossible to conjecture the object 
for which single stones like this were 
raised, or the exact age to which they 
belong ; in fact, they are, perhaps, not 
all of the same antiquity, but a general 
resemblance in character has caused 
them to be classed with the cromlechs. 
Rather more than a mile beyond this 
spot, and about two miles and a half 
from Clun. we reach the village of 
Lower Spend, whore Offa*H Dyke, or, 
as it is here called, Off 's Ditch, crosses 



Wanderings of an Antiquary, 



[Jan. 



the deep narrow valley through which 
the river Clun flows. To see this won- 
derful earthwork to advantage, the 
visitor should follow its course up to 
the top of Spoad hill, where its ap- 
pearance is most imposing. It consists 
of a regular vallum, about twelve feet 
high, and of a considerable breadth, 
with a broad foss on the Welsh side. 
We may hence see this immense earth- 
work pursuing its course southward 
over the elevated ground on which we 
are standing ; and northward it is seen 
rising up the hill on the opposite side 
of the valley. It is composed of loose 
stones and earth. The whole extent 
of Offals Dyke cannot be short of a 
hundred miles. Within a very small 
circuit round the point at which we 
are now standing, there are several 
interesting hill-camps. Two of these 
are situated on steep eminences on op- 
posite sides of the valley, a little be- 
yond Offa*s Dyke, and are remarkable 
for the beautiful views which are ob- 
tained from the two summits. There 
is at least one tumulus in the valley 
below. I have before intimated that 
very interesting mediaeval remains are 
scattered over this part of the border. 
In the village of Lower Spoad there is 
a very ancient and primitive looking 
farm house, which has a remarkably 
fine old fireplace. A large carved oak 
beam, covermg the opening of the fire- 
place, and representing a stag-hunt, 
appears to be of the fifteenth century, 
and is well worth a visit. The house 
is said formerly to have possessed other 
carvings, which have disappeared. 

As we wander over this beautiful 
country, and find ourselves arrested 
continually by the intrenchments on 
the hill-tops, we naturally ask what 
can have been the purpose or pur- 
poses for which they were made? People 
have been in the habit of calling them 
all camps, and, imagining .that they 
must have been connected with the 
movements of armies, they have dis- 
covered wars and campaigns where 
they probably never existed. Such is 
the case with all the theories on the 
marches and battles of Caractacus, 
which have been ingeniously put to- 
gether by persons who imagined that 
they had only to say this is a Roman 
camp, and that is a British camp, and 
that the matter was settled. i3ut it 
is evident that we ought to have 9ome 



1853.] The Hill Intrenchments on the Borders of Wales. 



43 



better means of discrimination than this, 
and it is indeed very necessary that 
some more careful examination of this 
class of monuments should be made to 
enable us to form a more accurate notion 
of their different dates and objects, for 
it is not probable either that they all 
belong to the same period, or that they 
were all made for the same purpose. 
Let us begin with the simple and self- 
evident prmciple that a certain number 
of men, with spades or other imple- 
ments, could, m a certain space of 
time, make an intrencbment of any 
form which might occur to them, or 
that might be required by circum- 
stances J when they nad left their work, 
and carried away their tools, what is 
there left to show who were the work- 
men ? A mound of earth, or a ditch, 
whatever be its shape, will not tell 
this. We must therefore look for some 
other evidence, and that must be sought 
in excavations. The archaeology of 
this) early period must indeed depend 
chiefly on the pick and the spade. It 
was so natural to form an inclosure for 
any purpose by surrounding it with a 
bank, that we are not justifaed in con- 
sidering every inclosure as being ne- 
cessarily a camp. Thus, among what 
are considered as British remams, we 
find a barrow or sepulchral mound 
frequently surrounded by an intrencb- 
ment, which sometimes inclosed two 
or three barrows, and at others a whole 
cemetery. Carrows are sometimes 
found within the intrenchments on 
hill-tops ; and, as we know that such 
elevated spots were favourite places of 

i>enden )>8er wunatS 
On heah-stede 
h(isa sdlest. 

The buildings within these residences 
were probably mostly built of timber, 
and even if of masonry they soon dis- 
appeared, and the intrencbment alone 
remained, with nothing in outward ap- 
pearance to identify it as Saxon rather 
than as British or Koman. I feel con- 
vinced that many of the supposed Bri- 
tish or Roman camps in this country 
are nothing more than the intrench- 
ments of the mansions of Saxon chiefs. 
In our attempt to ascertain the true 
date of such intrenchments, we must 
not altogether overlook their dbtinctive 
names. We know that the Anglo- 



burial, we arc justified in supposing 
that some of the so-called camps are 
nothing more than cemeteries. Again, 
what right have we to suppose that 
the Romans did not make mtrenched 
inclosures for other purposes than 
camps ? The notion tnat Roman in- 
trehchments must be square is but a 
vulgar error, and we can have no reason 
to judge that any intrencbment is 
Roman, or that it is not Roman, but 
circumstances extraneous to its mere 
form. Moreover, there is another 
people whom we must not overlook 
m a question like this, and whose capa- 
bility of erecting earthworks will be 
understood by every one who has seen 
Offa*s Dyke — the Anglo-Saxons. The 
residence of the earner Anglo-Saxon 
chiefs, as we know it from their poetry 
and romance, as well as from history, 
consisted of a hall, surrounded by 
chambers and other buildings, thfe 
whole inclosed by an earthen wall, or 
intrencbment of defence. It was called 
a beorgy or hurg, from the Anglo-Saxon 
verb beorgan, to defend. Its site was 
usually selected on an elevated spot, 
whence the chief could see as much as 
possible of his broad lands. In the 
Ramsey Chronicle we read of one of 
the Saxon benefactors of the abbey, 
who was standing at the entrance of 
his residence, and, casting his eyes over 
his lands around, fixed on one piece 
which he determined to give to the 
abbey. Beowulf, alluding to the re- 
sidence of Hosthgar, says that chief 
will endure care and trouble — 



as long as remaineth there 
OD the lofty place 
the best of houses. 

Beowulf, 1. 666. 

Saxons applied the name caster or 
Chester^ a word derived from the Latin 
castrunij to Roman fortifications ; and 
I believe that not a single instance is 
known in which a name having that 
word in its composition has not been 
discovered to belong to a Roman site. 
The reason is a plam one : the Saxons 
knew these buildings not as their own 
erections, but as the works of their 
prcilecessors, and therefore they did not 
give them tlie name which they gave 
to their own fortified residences, wnich 
were different sorts of things, but a 
name which they learned Som. the 



44 



The Cambridge University Commission. 



[Jan. 



people who made them. This is a mode 
of proceeding which prevails among 
all people and at all times. When we 
bring a new fashion over from France, 
we generally give it a French name, 
not the name which we ourselves have 
been used to apply to a similar thing, 
but of a different fashion. The Welsh 
used the word caer^ corrupted into 
gaer (derived similarly from the Latin 
castrum) in the same way; thus we 
have Caerleon C castrum LegionisJ, 
Caerwent (castrum VeTitceJj &c.; but I 
am not aware how far inquiries have 
been made to show whether the Welsh 
caer refers as uniformly to Roman sites 
as the Saxon castrum. It is curious, 
however, that of three Caer Caradocs 
we know, Roman remains are stated 
to have been found about one of them 
(Caer Caradoc, near Bridgend, in Gla- 
morganshire), and that the celebrated 
Caer Caradoc, near Church Stretton, 
overlooks the great Roman road, the 
Watling Street. Are we not therefore 
justified in presuming that the Caer 
Caradoc of the Gaer Ditches, which 
we have been visiting, may possibly 
have been a Roman work. Again, 
when we find the word borough, or 
bvrroxoy or bury, in the names of such 
intrenchments, it seems to me that we 
have a primary presumption that it 
may have been a Saxon mansion. 
Places cdXled Kingsbury, were mansions 
belonging to the king — we have an 
instance in Kingsbury near Verulam, 
the intrenchments of which arc still 
visible. In Caynham, wc have the 
more ordinary Saxon term of a man*s 



mansion, ham, or home, in the name ; 
but I think from what has been before 
said that the ham from which it took 
its name was the mansion within the 
intrenchments, and that these are 
Saxon. I confess that when I stood 
within the Bury Ditches in the neigh- 
bourhood of Clun, and beheld the vast 
prospect of hill and valley and wood 
and field below, the descriptions I had 
read in Anglo-Saxon poetry flashed 
upon my mind, and I thought I stood 
within the weaUas (or intrenchments) 
of some powerful Saxon border chief- 
tain who here held the wide estates he 
had conquered indefianceof the Welsh- 
men. Singularly enough, as I walked 
across the midcUe of the vast area, I 
observed to a friend who was at my 
side that I suspected if a trench were 
dug there traces of buildings might be 
found; and within a week after I 
learned accidentally that Lord Powis's 
keeper, digging into a rabbit burrow 
on that very spot, had come to a wall 
of rude masonry, to his own no small 
surprise. In conclusion, I would re- 
mark that there are reasons why the 
Saxon word bury or burrow may have 
been much more generally applied than 
caster or Chester, The Anglo-Saxons, 
in giving the name, knew no doubt in 

feneral to what they were giving it ; 
ut they might, at a later period of 
their history, meet here and tnere with 
old intrenchments for which they had 
no special name, and supposing them 
to be the remains of an old beorg or 
mansion, they would name them ac- 
cordingly. 



THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY COMMISSION. 



THE long-expected Report of this Com- 
mission has been published, and forms with 
its appendix a bulky volume. The reforms 
recommended are less sweeping than those 
proposed by the Oxford Commission, the 
Cambridge sjrstem having been for some 
years in course of gradual changes, and the 
Commissioners remark that the report of 
the Syndicate appointed in 1849, which 
awaits the approval of the Senate and con- 
firmation of the Crown, is a gratifying 
proof of the desire of the University for 
its own improvement. The Commisaioners 
have not to complain of any general un- 
willingness to furnish information either 
on the part of individuals or public bodies, 



most of the heads of colleges, &c. having 
replied to their inquiries. 

The first observable recommendation is 
for the rearrangement and consolidation 
of the orders of the Senate which form the 
Bye-laws. As to the exclusive jurisdiction 
of the University, by statute of Elizabeth, 
to hear and decide all controversies of its 
members and officers in a summary man- 
ner, to punish transgressors of the statutes 
or of good order and discipline, &c.; and 
its further powers, by charter of Elizabeth, 
to take exclusive cognizance of all personal 
pleas, debts, accounts, contracts, wrongs, 
and breaches of the peace in the university 
precincts, where one of the parties is « 



idsa.] 



Tke Cambridge C^miternUf Comumitsiom^ 



45 



r of tbe «uT«rsit7 ; 
^btej observe that tbe ftSMrdoB of dm pri- 
▼il^ is attended vith oowadenble diffi> 
calty in ooofleq[nenoe of tbe formalities 
reqfoiied when a pnrtj bas appbed to tbe 
municipal magistiYte or superior oooHs ; 
and tbej submit for consideration whether 
some greater fodlity might not be afforded 
to the Universitj. As to cases of disd* 
pfine, when persons in simtu pmfiUari are 
diarged with offences against the laws and 
order of the UniTersity, they obsenrc that 
the form of proceeding in the Vice-Cban- 
eellor's Coort appears to be well-adapted; 
and in cases of internal discipline publicity 
may not be essential. Bat in all strictly 
judicial cases, where the accused party is 
not a member of the UniTersity, they think 
that the Court should be open and tbe pro- 
ceedings public. As to tbe oaths taken in 
tbe Great Assembly by the Mayor, two 
Aldermen, four Burgesses, and two in- 
habitants of each pariah, to keep tbe peace 
and search for evil-doers, they think these 
proceedings are practically superseded by 
the borough pohoe, and recommend their 
discontinuance, with the view of removing 
occasions of jealousy between tbe town and 
university. They also recommend the re- 
linquishment of the privilege of granting 
wine and ale licences, and of licensing 
theatres, except in Cambridge itself. The 
right possessed by the University autho- 
rities of " discommuning" an offending 
tradesman is warmly defended. 

With respect to certain academical offi- 
cers, the Commissioners recommend that 
the High Steward should always be elected 
more burgentium — that is, by a poll. They 
approve of the disciplinary power of the 
Proctors, but advise that, in cases of dis- 
pute between the Proctors and the town 
Magistrates, the charges should be cog- 
nisable only in the superior courts of law, 
and not before the local authorities. They 
advise that tbe Tazors be wholly abolished, 
and the number of Esquire Bedells reduced 
to two, and recommend that these gentle- 
men may no longer be obliged to carry 
their maces in public, except before tbe 
Chancellor himself, or the Vice-Chancellor, 
on very solemn occasions. 

The constitution of the Caput they pro- 
nounce too limited in number, and disap- 
prove of the right of absolute veto now 
vested in each member. They commend 
most highly the changes proposed by the 
Statutes Revision Syndicate under this 
head. 

With respect to discipline among those 
inetaiu pupillarij the Commissioners seem 
to think that there is little need of amend- 
ment, and they much commend the general 
moderation of expenditure among the un- 
der-gradoates. They advise, however, for 



the further check of unhie expenditnre, 
that the law relating to minors should be 
extended to all undeigrsdaate students. 

The CommissioDers express their a)>. 
probation of the predominance of mathe- 
matical and classical studies at Cam- 
bridge; bat they warmly commend the 
new triposes of moral and natural sciences, 
and adrise the creation of a board of clas- 
sical studies, answering to the board of 
mathematical studies lately appointed. 
They recommend, abo, the adiUtion of 
examinations in civil oigineering, modem 
languages, and diplomatism. 

The Commissioners suggest that the 
previous examination — commonly called 
the Little-6o — should be made to include 
most of the subjects now indispensable 
for the ordinary degree, and that, after 
that examination, every student, for his 
remaining four terms, should select any 
line of recognised academical study, which, 
with the sanction of his college tutor, be 
may feel to be most suited to bis aptitudes 
and tastes, and professional destination. 
This plan they also think would afford 
great fscilities for the special study of 
theology, for which they are of opinion 
that much more provision ought to be 
made by tbe university. They protest 
against so raising the standard ror tbe 
ordinary degree as to exclude men of rank 
and fortune from the advantages of a uni- 
versity course. They dissent, however, 
from the recommendation of the Statutes 
Rerision Syndicate as to the abolition of 
the ten-year-men privilege ; and they even 
advise a sort of cheap degree, to be called 
** Licentiate in Theology,'* for the in- 
crease in the number of poor clergy which 
they anticipate.' 

In considering the whole field of the 
academical curriculum ^ the report urges 
the expediency of constituting boards of 
studies in theology, in law, and in medi- 
cine, as well as in classics and mathe- 
matics. In the case of mediciney the 
term of compulsory residence is proposed 
to be shortened, in order to put Cam- 
bridge on a level with the Scotch and the 
London medical schools. In all degrees 
the practice of enforcing money cautions, 
in lieu of the performance of certain anti- 
quated acts and exercises, is recommended 
to be disused. Tbe Commissioners urge 
tbe abandonment of theological tests for 
any but theological degrees, and, while 
they decline to offer any opinion on tbe 
question of the admission of Dissenters, 
they shew something of a leaning in that 
direction. 

As to the practical wants of the uni- 
versity, the report dwells especially on the 
necessity of more Theological Professors. 
Tbe Commisiioners perceive the want of « 



46 



7%6 Cambridge University Commission. 



[Jan. 



better manner of appointing the publio 
examiners, and protest against ex officio 
examiners generally. They propose that 
for the future the Regius Professors should 
examine, each in his own department, and 
they suggest schemes of election for 
boards of duly qualified persons to con- 
duct the public examinations. 

There is a suggestion for the endow- 
ment of a professorship of Medieeyal Art 
in general, and of Arcliitecture in parti- 
cular. 

Having advised that after the fifth term 
every undergraduate should elect some 
speciality for his further study, the Com- 
missioners proceed to suggest that, from 
this period of the academical course, the 
instruction of all students should be un- 
dertaken exclusively by the university, 
and no longer, as at present, by the par- 
ticular colleges. But, as the present body 
would be insufficient for the thorough in- 
struction of the undergraduates during 
their concluding terms of residence, it is 
proposed to appoint a large number of 
public teachers, to be called ** Lecturers," 
who are to work under the professors. 
This, in point of fact, is the principal 
change advocated by the Commissioners. 
They hope, by the appointment of Lec- 
turers, to give a death-blow to the present 
system of private tuition. The lecturers 
are to be allowed to marry, and are to 
have moderate fixed salaries, with the addi- 
tion of payments from such students as 
shall resort to their lectures. They advise 
the endowment of one new Divinity pro- 
fessorship with 500/. of the present in- 
come of the Lady Margaret Professor; 
and they propose to maintain a Hulsean 
Divinity Professor out of the funds of the 
Hulse foundation, now spent in the 
offices of Christian Advocate and Hulsean 
Preacher. They propose, in addition, 
that two more theological professorships 
should be endowed with stalls in Ely Ca- 
thedral. 

Upon the whole they recommend, under 
one general council of studies, seven 
boards of studies, viz. theology, law, medi- 
cine, mathematics, classics, natural sci- 
ence, and moral science ; with subsidiary 
branches of engineering and modem lan- 
guage studies. Considering the Worts 
foundation of the travelling Bachelors to 
be quite unsuited to modern habits and 
wants, the report advises that these funds 
should be made available for giving an 
opportunity of education in the principles 
of diplomacy and the law of nations. 

The new professorships, and some of the 
existing ones which have but slender en- 
dowments, are, it is suggested, to be paid 
sums varying from 400/. to 800/. per an- 
num ; which it is thought the Umveraity 



could itself afford to pay, if relieved by the 
Legislature of the burden of the present 
taxes upon degrees, which average about 
3,000/. a-year, and which are not exacted 
from the Scotch universities, or that of 
London. In return for this relief the re- 
port proposes that the University should 
relinquish its claim for sundry small pay- 
ments now made to various professorships 
by the Crown, excepting the Professorships 
of Modem History and Botany, which 
were founded by letters patent. The Pro- 
fessors are to be bound to a six months* 
residence, and are to forfeit their salaries 
if they omit to lecture. 

The want of more and more convenient 
lecture-rooms, with laboratories and appa- 
ratus, is much urged by the Commis- 
sioners, who advise the erection of such 
necessary buildings on the site of the old 
Botanic Garden. 

With respect to the Public Library, 
they strongly advise the addition of a 
reading-room, to which, under conditions, 
undergraduates may be admitted. They 
recommend also the substitution of a 
money-payment for the privilege now en- 
joyed by the University of a copy of every 
book published under the Copyright Act. 
They wish that power should be given to 
the Senate to tax all members of the 
University for necessary academic pur- 
poses. They determine not to recommend 
the matriculation of any students not be- 
longing to a college or hall ; but they ad- 
vise, instead of the present system of 
lodgings in the town, the addition of such 
colleges as may want more accommodation, 
of affiliated halls or pensionaries, in which 
to lodge their students. 

With regard to fellowships the Commis- 
sion does not advise compulsory residence, 
and wishes to abolish the oath of obedience 
to statutes. It is suggested that all re- 
strictions of fellowships should be for- 
mally abandoned, all bye-fellowihips re- 
vised, and made like those on the founda- 
tions, all peculiar methods of election 
abrogated, and no conditions, such aa 
proceeding to the degree of B.D. retained ; 
but celibacy is still to be imposed. 

The election of Heads of Houses is to 
remain as it is, for the most part ; but the 
office is not to be held together with ec- 
clesiastical preferment. 

The Commissioners recommend a gene- 
ral revision of the statutes of the colleges, 
and advise the throwing open of King's 
College, and the development of Trinity 
Hall as a pkce of legal education. The 
statutes of the two last-mentioned colleges 
the Commissioners desire to see abrogated 
altogether. 

All the claims of schools are recom- 
mended to be commuted for eihibitionf. 



18dd.] Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 47 

so as to provide for the remoyal of all re- The gross income of the seventeen colleges 
strictions on Fellowships and Scholar- is estimated at not less than 185,000/. per 
ships. annum. The Commissioners observe that 
OolUge Revenues. — The Commissioners ** great progress has been made during late 
received statements of income and ex- . years in the improvement of the college 
peoditure from twelve out of the seventeen estates, and especially in increasing the 
colleges, five, namely Clare Hall, Caius, regular incomes of the colleges by running 
Corpus Christ! , St. Catharine's Hall, and out leases on fines, and letting the pro- 
Jesus, having declined to furnish informa- perties on terms of rack-rent." They think 
tion ; and the gross incomes at the present it of importance that this spirit should be 
time of the said twelve colleges are as encouraged, and recommend an enactment 
follows : — £ 8. d, by the legislature that, when a beneficial 

St. Peter's 7,317 3 lease has been allowed to expire, no lease 

Pembroke* 12,013 8 of college property shall be valid *" for 

Trinity Hall ...;.... 3,917 2 10 which any fine or premium is accepted.'' 

King's 26,857 7 11 Finally, the Commissioners recommend 

Queen's 5,347 1 periodical visitations ; and suggest, as the 

Christ's 9,178 15 5 best practical means of carrying their re- 

8t John's 26,166 14 11 commendations into effect, the laying 

Magdalene 4,130 down, by an Act of Legislature, of the 

Trinity 34,521 19 10 principles upon which reform should be 

Emmanuel 6,516 16 3 conducted, and the entrusting a Board 

Sidney Sussex 5,392 16 10 with temporary powers to apply them. 

Downing 7,239 17 



CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN. 



The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, and its relation to Art— St. Hary Axe— St. 
Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins— The old and new Ghorches at Harley, Shropshire- 
Etymology of the word Many. 

The Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, and its 

RELATION to ART. 



Mr. Urban, — The employment of the 
idea of the Immaculate Conception of the 
Virgin Mary as a subject for painting, 
alluded to in the Minor Correspondence 
of your December Magazine, forms an 
interesting episode both in the history of 
doctrines and in the histofy of art. 

That some individuals of the human fa- 
mily haye remained free from the general 
corruption of man's nature was an idea 
entertained, not only by the heretic Pela- 
gius, but also by the orthodox Athanasius.f 
This opinion might well be admitted by 
theologians before the speculations of po- 
lemical writers and the judgment of the 
Church had attached a physical and here- 
ditary character to the notion of Sin ; but 
long before the period of the Schoolmen 
the doctrine of Original Sin, as now held 
by orthodox Christians, had become firmly 
established. A new difficulty then arose 
in the mind of those acute theologians. 
As long as the Mother of Jesus was sup- 



posed to be stained with original sin, it 
was impossible to explain the mystery of 
the sinlessness of the Sayiour upon phy- 
sical grounds. It was not sufficient to 
assert that man had no part in his genera- 
tion, since it was impossible to deny the 
share his mother had had in that event. 
Hence the doctrine of the sinlessness of 
the Virgin began in the twelfth century to 
gain great authority, and the Canons of 
Lyons in the year 1140 instituted a festival 
in its honour. In the controversy which 
ensued the schoolmen were divided. Al- 
bert the Great, Bonaventura, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Bernard of Clairval disap- 
proved of the step taken, while Duns 
Scotus lent his subtle intellect to the sup- 
port of the new doctrine. The Virgin, it was 
asserted, was not only free from actual guilt, 
but also from hereditary corruption; not 
only cum tanciiiate naia, sanctified in the 
womb, as Bernard taught, ^ but also ab omni 
originali culpa immaculata.^ The dogma 



* Including 1,878/. U. \0d. the Balance for Building Fund, 
t IloXXot yap ovv ayioi yfyouatri KaBapoi Trdarjg dfiaprias. 
cited by Hagenbach, History of Doctrines, § 108. 
I Bernard. Epist. fad Can. Lugd.) 174. 

§ Deem of Council of BmIc, Ld, 1439. 



Athan. Opp. T. i. 



48 



Correspondence of Sylvanua Urban. 



[Jan. 



was not,howeyer,iDtended to imply a miracle 
in the physical circumstances of her birth. 

The festival of the Immaculate Con- 
ception was not confirmed by authority 
until the end of the fifteenth century, 
when Pope Sixtus IV., in sanctioning its 
observance y declared that the doctrine was 
not to be called heretical, without, how- 
ever, prohibiting those who differed from 
retaining their own views.* In this state 
of suspense was the controversy left at a 
time when more pressing questions of re- 
ligious politics and polemics were agitating 
the Catholic world. 

More important in relation to art was 
the revival of this controversy in Spain in 
the beginning of the 17th century. The 
Dominicans had inherited from their order 
in early times the tradition of contending 
against this innovation, while the Fran- 
ciscans, following their illustrious Doctor 
Duns Scotus, were its constant cham- 
pions. The old dispute having been re- 
vived in Seville between these two orders 
in 1613, the populace took an enthusi- 
astic and somewhat violent part in the 
controversy, and erecting the figure of 
" Mary conceived without Sin,'' upon a 
standard, called a '* Sin pecado,'* paraded 
the city, singing hymns in honour of this 
glorious mystery.f The custom which 
then originated is still maintained, and 
processions in honour of the Conception 
are still frequent in that town, which has 
devoted itself to the service of *' Maria sin 
pecado concebida " with as much en- 
thusiasm as the Ephesians to that of 
^ApTffUf Koi t6 diojrtT€s. Anciently the 
most ordinary watchword on entering a 
bouse in Andalusia was ** Ave Maria pn- 
risima," to which the inmate replied ** Sin 
pecado concebida :" a mode of salutation 
still not uncommon among the lower 
orders, whose devotion has not been cor- 
rupted by foreign manners. The main- 
tenance of this doctrine became a pun- 
donir with the Most Catholic kings, and 
the importunity of the Church and Crown 
of Spain drew from Pope Paul V. in 1617 
a Bull forbidding the teaching or preach- 
ing of the contrary opinion.^ 

T believe there is no instance of this 
dogma being made the subject of painting 
in early Italian or other art. The reason 
is obvious: the early Masters naturally 
chose their subjects from facts and legends, 
and not from mere abstractions of theology. 
The whole of the real or legendary history 
of Mary, from her Birth to her Assumption 



and Coronation, supplied subjects for 
pictures in her honour. It remained for 
the polemic enthusiasm of the Spaniards 
to demand of their artists a representation 
of ideal sinless ness in the person of their 
adored Lady. Hence the matchless em- 
bodiments of this mystery by Alonso Cano, 
and Murillo, the latter of whom is pre- 
eminently ** The Painter of Conceptions." 

Pacheco, the great Spanish authority 
upon art, in his rare work, " Arte de la 
Pintura," lays down the rules sanctioned 
by the authority of Holy Church for the 
representation of this subject. § The Virgin 
was to be painted '* in the flower of her 
age, from twelve to thirteen years old." 
Her robe was to be white, her mantle 
blue, this being the dress in which she 
appeared to Dona Beatriz de Silva, the 
foundress of the Order of the Immaculate 
Conception. She was to trample the dragon 
or serpent under her feet, and the attri- 
butes of the crescent, sun, and stars, were 
borrowed from Revelations, xii. 1. 

These attributes were not always intro- 
duced into the same picture ; Pacheco 
excuses most readily the omission of the 
dragon, of which he says no one ever wiU 
lingly made use. Murillo adopted the 
crescent and the halo or sun around the 
entire figure, and in some of his pictures 
the crown of stars. There is an early 
Conception of his in the Museo at Madrid, 
which represents Our Lady as a scarcely 
full-grown girl, but she is figured as a 
woman in his most famous pictures. The 
essential part of the subject of the '* Con- 
ception " is the ideal purity and innocence 
of the Mother of God. Conceived without 
sin, unconscious of an unholy thought, 
she rises in the strength of her innocence 
above the world, surrounded by objects 
which belong to Heaven. The moon is 
beneath her feet, but it is not that which 
sustains her. Angels surround her, but 
she needs not their support. The hand- 
maid of the Lord, she is transfigured in 
beatific ecstasy by the Divine power of 
love and holiness. Such are Murillo*s 
*' Conceptions ;'* such pre-eminently is the 
great ** Conception " still at Seville, which 
I do not hesitate to prefer to that which 
has just been transferred from the Gallery 
of the Spoiler of Andalusia to the Nationid 
Museum of the Louvre, and which for- 
merly adorned the retablo of the High 
Altar in Seville Cathedral. 

It is a curious question whether paint- 
ings anterior to the great Sevillian Masters 



* For references to authorities see Hagenbacli, Hist, of Doctrines (Dogmengesch- 
ichte), § 178. 
t Ford's Spain, p. 52. 

X See Stirling's Art and Artists in Spain, vol. ii. 
§ Pacheco, 482, quoted by Stirling, Art and Artists in Spain, ii. 906. 
6 



1853.] 



Correspondence of Siflvanus Urban. 



49 



oaght properly to be termed ** Concep- 
tions/* I incline to think that if Marillo 
had not painted, we should never have 
heard of this name. 

There is a beautiful picture in Valencia 
by Vicente Juanes, a* contemporary of 
Raphael, which has long been known by . 
the name of " La Purisima/' of the paint- 
ing of which the following history is told. 
On the eye of the Festival of the Atsump- 
iion, the Virgin appeared to the Jesuit 
^ray Martin Alberto, and commanded that 
a picture should be painted of herself in 
manner as he then beheld her. Juanes 
was the painter chosen for this honour. 
The artist, after preparing himself by con- 
fession, penance, and a course of religious 
exercises, produced the picture which long 
adorned the altar of the Immaculate Con- 
ception in the Jesuits' Church at Valencia.* 
Mr. Stirling, from whom I have taken this 
narrative, adds, that since the Dissolution 
of the Jesuit College, ** its subsequent fate 
has not been recorded.'' It is now in the 
Church of San Juan close to the Mercado 
in Valencia, where I had recently the 
pleasure of seeing it. It is still treated 
with the respect due to its miraculous 



origin, and six candles were lighteJ l)efore 
it, before the curtain was removed, and 
the picture disclosed for my inspection, — a 
proceeding which shewed a devotion to art 
more religious than lesthetic. The figure 
is colossal, full of beauty, expression, and 
reverence. The Virgin stands on the 
crescent, the dove descending upon her. 
The Father awaits her ascent into Heaven, 
while her Divine Son meets lier with a 
crown. A concert of angels fills the lower 
part of the picture. It should rather be 
called an Assumption or Coronation than 
a Conception : the subject is the Glory 
rather than the Sinlessness of the Virgin. 
There is another well-known picture in 
which not only the attribute of the cres- 
cent but also the crown of stars is borrowetl 
from the passage in the Revelations. I 
mean the great Guido of Bridgwater House. 
Here also angels surround the Virgin in 
attitude of worship ; and, in spite of the use 
of the attributes usual in Spanish " Con- 
ceptions," the subject is, I think, the 
Beatification or Assumption, and not the 
Immaculate Conception. 

Yours, &c. F. M. N. 



St. Mary Axk — St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins. 



Mr. Urban, — I send you for the per- 
usal of your readers a document illus- 
trative of that passage in Stowe where, in 
his Survay, under Lime Street Ward, he 
thus speaks of the non-existent church of 
St. Mary Axe:— "In St. Marie Street 
had ye of old a parish church of St. Marie 
the Virgin, St. Ursula, and the Eleven 
Thousand Virgins, which church was com- 
monly called St. Marie at the Axe, of the 
sign of an axe over against the east end 
thereof. This parish [in 1561t] was united 
to the parish church of Saint Andrew 
Undershaft [that church in Leadenhall 
Street which faces Lime Street end], and 
to was St. Marie at the Axe suppressed, 
and letten to be a warehouse for a 
merchant." 

Old Stowe, like Homer, sometimes nods; 
and in the present instance his **80 " ap- 
pears somewhat inconsequent to the cri- 
tical reader, for he does not inform us 



how St. Mary at the Axe was suppressed, 
but leaves us to conclude that, because the 
parish was united to St. Andrew Under- 
shaft, the church was suppressed and the 
building used for secular purposes as the 
inevitable consequence of the union, — 
whereas the converse was the fact. This 
church had been in early times appro- 
priated to a religious house,^ which, having 
received the personal tithes and offerings 
of the citizen parishioners, neglected to 
provide for the cure and sustain the fabric. 
At the time of the Dissolution it passed 
to the Crown, when no provision was made 
for the performance of divine service in 
this ruinous edifice, an oversight common 
in a vast number of similar instances, 
several of which at this very day afford a 
subject of scandal to the objectors against 
the Reformation ; and thus the ruinous 
building became abandoned to secular pur- 
poses, and the parish was necessarily united 



* Stirling's Art and Artists in Spain, ii. p. 758. 

t The words of Stowe are " about the year 16(55," but New court gives the Act of 
Union, 3 March, 1561. Also see in the Appendix to Newcourt*s Repertorium, an 
instrument (6 Oct. 1634) for the confirming of part of the ground where the Church of 
St. Mary at Axe, now demolished, stood, for a burial-place for and to the use of the 
parishioners of St. Andrew Undershaft, London, and for erecting a Free Grammar 
School upon the said ground. — Newcourt, Rep. i. 266, 769. 

t The Priory and Convent of St. Helen, adjoining — I say in early times, for before 
the Stat. 15 Ric. II. c. 6, which provided for the sustenance of the poor and the endow- 
ment of the Vicar, it was lawfiil to appropriate the entire income of a benefice to a 
religious house, they finding one of their own body, or some one else, to serve the cure. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXXIX. H 



50 



Correspondence of SylvaniLS Urban, 



[Jan. 



to St Andrew Undershaft, ia order that 
the spiritual wants of the parishioners 
should be duly attended to. 

The document to which I now draw 
your readers^ attention demonstrates the 
state of this church and parish a few years 
previous to the Reformation, and also 
shows that the true origin of the distinctive 
appellation ** at the Axe '' was not known 
to Stowe. 

The possession of one of the three axes 
that were said to have been used at the 
legendary martyrdom of the Eleven thou- 
sand Virgins in every probability added 
materially to the revenues of the religious 
house to which this neglected church had 
been appropriated ; but the legendary fame 
of the Virgins must have declined, or the 
taste for viewing such objects of super- 
stitious reverence have been on the wane, 
before the parishioners of St. Mary Axe 
could have been compelled to present the 
following petition for a brief or licence to 
make a collection for the benefit of the 
dilapidated church possessing such a relic, 
putting the conduct of the religious house 
out of the question, who it may easily be 
credited did not trouble themselves much 
about the service of a cure when it pro- 
duced them no great gain. 

The following is a literatim transcript 
of this petition, which by the signature 
'* Henry R.'' appears to have been granted. 
The reference thereto is Bills signed 5 
Hen, 8, No, 79. 

Henry R. 

To the King o' Souv''ain Lord. 

Lamentably Shewyth unto yo' Highnes 
yo*" poore Orato's and Subgiets of youre 
Parisshe Churche of Saint Mary Ax wMn 
yo' Citie of London That Where as it bathe 
pleased div'se popes, patryarkys, Archie- 
bisshopys and bysfhopis, holly Faders, 
and members of the Apostoligete of Rome, 
ther of havyng power, in the honore of our 
blyssed lady, and in the remembrance also 
of Saint Ursula somtyme a King's Dought' 
of this Realme of Ingland and also of the 
xj. m^ virgyns unto her associate that 
tendrely sched their blode for oure Cristen 
fayth and beleve In whose name and 
rev'ence the said poore Churche ys edefyed 
and honored by kepyng of an holly relyke 
an axe, oon of the iij. that the xj. m^ 



Virgyns were be hedyd w* all, the whiche 
holly relyke as yett remaynyth in the said 
Churche The said holly Faders have geven 
and graunted and confermed grete In- 
dulgens and pardone to all true Cryston 
peopyll vysetyng the said poore Churche 
.at certain Festes by the yere lymytyd, the 
whiche great Indulgens and pardone 
graunted to the same Churche by thair 
bollys [i. e. bulls] and seallis remaynyng 
in the same Churche redy to be showed 
more at large This greate Indulgence and 
pardon thereto graunted not w^standing 
moost gracious Souv''ain Lord (Soe it ys 
that the said Churche ys in soo great 
decaye that yt ys lyke ev'y day to fall 
downe) And besides that the parisshyns ys 
soe nede and poore that they amot abuUe 
to performe the Edyfycacion and Mayn- 
ten*nce of the same nor the exebucion nor 
fyndyng of the parson and curate As yt ys 
well knowne in soo muche that the parson 
ys departyd frome the same Churche where 
it pleasethe hym and left the parisshyns 
w'oute any maner of devyne s'vice pre- 
chyng or techy ng ony daye thurugh the 
yere Where as ther ys in the said parisshe 
an C. howssellyng peopylle and a hove to 
ther greate hurt and p*judice oonles (In 
reformacion wherof) that yt maye please 
yo*" highnes of yo' moost habundaunte 
grace the p'misses p'velage and great par- 
done to the same place and Churche 
graunted tenderly to be considered the 
whiche ys to the hole nombre and some 
by the holle yere of CCC and iiij". M'. 
yeres and C dayes of pardone That yt 
myght please youre Highnes to graunte 
yo' gracious L*res Myssyves to be directed 
to youre Chanceler of Inglond to make 
oute certain proteccyons under yo' greate 
seale to all and singuler schyrys and bys- 
shopryks in Ingland to gader the allmys 
and benefelensens of all good true Cryston 
peopyll the whiche woll of thayr carytie 
helpe to releve the same poore Parisshe 
Churche, and that the protections may be 
made in the name of oon John Snethe oon 
of the parisshyns of the same parisshe and 
John Scry ven another of the same parisshe 
And thaye shall ev''more praye to God for 
the blessed preservac'on of yo' moost 
noble and Royall Estate long to endure. 
Yours, &c. T. E. T. 



The Old and New Churches at Harley, Shropshire. 



Shrewshury, Dec, 1th, 1853. 
Mr. Urban, — The old church of Har- 
ley, Shropshire, so long associated with 
the name of the Rev. Benjamin Jenks 
(whose neglected biograpliy I endeavoured 
to recover in your last number*), was an 
object strikingly picturesque to the travel- 



ler, as he jonmied from the town of Wen- 
lock to Shrewsbury. It consisted of a 
tower, nave, north aisle, and chancel. 
The walls were of red stone, partly covered 
with clusters of ivy, and further over- 
shadowed by a venerable yew* tree of large 
girth. 



See December 1852, p. 605. 



1853.] 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



51 



The masonry of the nave had evidently 
been raised four feet above its original 
height, and was flanked by two buttressesi 
to which, as indication of weakness be- 
came apparent in the building, an addition 
of stonework was placed, until each pre- 
sented an unique illshapen mass. A porch 
of timber framework stood before the 
south doorway — a low arch of the earliest 
pointed style. Above this, in the roof, 
was a high-pitched dormer-window of the 
time of Charles II. The eastern end of 
the chancel was pierced by three well- 
proportioned lancet-windows, and, on the 
north side, were two round-headed loop- 
holes, Ave inches in width, but splayed 
internally to the extent of three feet. The 
tower appears to have been erected upon 
an old foundation, and probably, from its 
debased style, early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It is of freestone, and finished with 
a plain embattled parapet and pyramidical 
roof. Each face of the belfry-story shows 
a window of two lights, with beads nearly 
semicircular. In the basement is a late 
Perpendicular window of three lights ; and 
within, a pointed arch, sfi ringing from 
square piers, opens into the nave. 

The interior of the building had alto- 
gether a primitive simplicity. A small 
pointed arch of the thirteenth century di- 
vided the nave from the chancel ; and four 
octangular columns of timber, roughly 
worked, and resting on square stone pe- 
destals, supported the roof of the former 
on the north side, forming an opening to 



a narrow aisle, built probably in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and, as tradition re- 
lates, by the family of Harnage of Bela- 
wardiine (an adjoining township in the 
parish of Leighton), for their convenience 
in attending divine worship, and where, 
in a vault beneath, several members of 
the same family have been interred.* In 
the east wall was a square-headed window, 
divided by a muUion into two trefoiled 
lights. The pulpit and desk were of the 
time of Charles I.; the former octangular 
and panelled in upper and lower compart- 
ments, with a lozenge and sunk flower in 
each. The roof was open, and from the 
principals were suspended carved pendents 
of fir-cones. The font, large and cylin- 
drical without ornament, stood on a round 
base, and, with the ancient oaken parish 
chest, has been removed. 

Within the basement of the tower is 
preserved a finely-executed monumental 
brass, which formerly rested on the floor 
of the church. It displays a male figure 
in armour, bareheaded, with his lady at- 
tired in a horizontally-framed head-dress, 
each having the hands joined on the breast, 
as in prayer. The former is clothed in a 
suit of plate-armour, of elegant design, 
the head reposing on a tilting-helmet. 
Around his neck is the livery-collar of SS. 
The sword is suspended on the left side 
by a belt crossing the loins diagonally. 
On his right side is the anelace or dagger. 
Below his feet is the following inscription 
in black letter : — 



Putrida lapsa caro cosumiS vt fun^ agro 
Came cu flato de^ erigat ethere claro 
Et cui p dextra ponaf corde repulsa 
Gia anexa sit lacryma semp avulsa. 

Quisquis eris qui trasieris sta plege plora 
SQ quod eris fueraq^ quod es p me pcor ora 
Mors vita mactat aiam xpsq^e revivat 
Terrain ?ra tegat spiritus alta petat. 



Small figures of eight sons and five 
daughters with their hands clasped stand 
beneath the effigies of their parents, and 
between these are the following armorial 
bearings. I. Lacon, Quarterly, per fess 
indented, ermine and azure, in the first 



quarter a bird ; impaling. Sable, three 
bends argent. . . . and, Argent, on a chief 
or a raven proper (Hoord). 

This memorial probably denotes Sir 
Richard Lacon, sheriff of Shropshire I7th 
Edw. IV. (1477), and 2nd Henry VII., 



"^ The church of Leighton being situated at a distance on the opposite side of the 
river Severn, access thereto was at some periods of the year, in consequence of floods, 
difficult and dangerous, and by road very circuitous. The Shropshire family of Har- 
nage derived its name from a neighbouring hamlet in the parish of Cound, and became 
resident at Belswardine 33 Henry VIII. when Thomas Harnage purchased it from Sir 
John Dudley, afterwards Viscount Lisle, Earl of Warwick, and Duke of Northumber- 
land. The present representative of the family is Sir George Harnage^ of Belswardine, 
Baronet. 



52 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban, 



[Jan. 



who married AlicCi daughter of Thomas 
Hoord. There was a shield of stained 
glass with the arms of Lacon in the south 
window in 1736. The name previously to 
1534 was written Laken, or Lakyn. 

The fabric above noticed being deemed 
ruinous, it was resolved in the spring of 
1845 to rebuild the same, with the excep- 
tion of the tower. For this purpose a 
subscription was commenced, towards 
which his Grace the Duke of Cleveland, 
patron of the living, Sir George Harnage, 
Bart., and other individuals liberally con- 
tributed; and the Rev. John Gibbons, 
rector of the parish, undertook to rebuild 
the chancel. The new edifice is from a 
design by Mr. S. P. Smith, of Shrews- 
bury, and composed of stone found in the 
vicinity. It comprises a nave and chancel ; 
the former, forty-three feet in length, has 
three windows on the north and two on 
the south side, of double lights, in the Per- 
pendicular style ; the chancel is twenty- 
two feet long and terminated by triple 
lancet windows, the head of the centre di- 
vision rising higher than the side lights, 
and resting internally on slender columns. 
This contains tastefully-painted subjects 
in stained glass of the " Salutation" and 
the *• Nativity," copied from designs by 
Guido, and the " Flight into Egypt," from 
Rubens ; the others being filled with rich 
mosaic designs. These, with five more 
windows of foliated patterns, were the 
gift of the late Rev. Richard Scott, of 
Shrewsbury, and executed by Mr. D. 
Evans of that town. A good pointed arch 
separates the nave from the chancel, and 
the pews of the old church have been re- 
fitted and placed along the side walls, the 
middle space being occupied with free 
sittings. Divine service commenced in the 
new church July 5th, 1846. 

There are no registers at Harley earlier 



than the year 1745 ; therefore I have no 
means of noticing the rectors of the parish 
before those that follow, viz. — 

1668. Benjamin Jenks. 

1724. J. Painter. 

1747. James Dewhurst. 

1781. Edmund Dana. 

1803. John Gibbons. 
The situation of the village is on the 
slope of high flat land (hence probably its 
name), near the base of the precipitous 
barrier of Wenlock Edge. Helgot was 
possessed of Harlege at the time of the 
compilation of Domesday. Richard de 
Harley, 30th Edward I. had a grant of 
free warren in Harley, Kenley, Wylely, 
and other manors. He married Burga, 
granddaughter and heiress of Warner 
de Wilileg, and was ancestor of the Har- 
leys Earls of Oxford. Sir Richard Lacon, 
sheriff of Shropshire in 1415, having 
married Elizabeth daughter and heir of 
Hammond Peshall, who had married Alice 
the daughter and heir of Sir Robert de 
Harley, of Wyleley, Knt., the old Shrop- 
shire estates of the Harley s were sepa- 
rated from the name. The manor now 
belongs to the Duke of Cleveland. 

Tradition states that there was formerly 
a castle at Harley ; a residence in the vil- 
lage is still called '* Castle Hill,'* and 
which is connected with a small estate 
(tithe free) the property of Samuel Meire, 
esq. who derived it from his maternal 
ancestors. 

Silas Domville, alias Taylor, a great 
lover of antiquities, was born at Harley. 
He wrote a History of Gavelkind, Lon- 
don, 1663, and several pamphlets in the 
time of the Rebellion. He also published 
a description of Harwich, at which place 
he was keeper of the stores, and where he 
died in the year 1678. 

Yours, &c. Henry Pidgeon. 



The Etymology of the word Many. 



Mr. Urban, — By way of supplement 
to the observations contained in your Cor- 
respondence of the last number upon the 
etymology of the word menial^ allow me 
to contribute a few remarks upon the 
origin of its radical, many or meiny. 

It is of frequent occurrence in English 
etymology that, owing to the double source 
of the language, two or more distinct 
origins of a word can be traced, the dif- 
ferent senses of which have become in 
modem use so blended, that the original 
distinction of meaning is only discovered 
by those who recur to the fountains of the 
language. Instances of this are found in 
the word mean^ in the expression " mean 
stature," &c. (from the French moj^en and 
the Saxon fmene), and perhaps bachelor , 



the etymology of which was recently dis- 
cussed in your correspondence. 

The noun substantive many or meiny is 
another example of this double origin. 
The word many^ to express multitude, is 
both an adjective and a substantive. As 
an adjective it is the Saxon mani^ or meni^i 
the German mancher ; as a substantive, it 
is the German menget the Saxon mene^BO^ 
men^e, and meniu. Though it is usually 
now used in the former relation, the latter 
still lingers in the form of the expressions 
a great many and many of them. It is 
remarkable that in Chaucer and the other 
early English poets the adjective many is 
used most commonly in the singular num- 
ber, followed by the article a or an, a 
form of expression still in use, especially 



1853.] 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



53 



in poetical or imaginatiye diction. Home 
Tooke (Diversions of Purlej, pt. ii.) seems 
to hold that many is in every iostaoce a 
substantive. He interprets the expression 
many A menage as being a corruption of 
the phrase a many of messagei, and cites 
in illustration of this theory Bp. Gardiner's 
Declaration against loye, fol. 24, •• I have 
spoken a meany of wordes." 

I think this can hardly be considered a 
satisfactory account of this phrase. The 
German mancher is similarly employed in 
the singular — mancher menschj manche 
stadif many a man, many a town. And 
many of the forms in which this use of the 
word occurs in early authors cannot be 
explained by the corruption of of into a. 
It woald not be easy so to account for — 

Many an other noble worthy dede, 
and still less for the expression in the line, — 

And herbes coude I tell eke many one. 

Chaucer y Chanones I'eniannes Tale. 

Tooke recognises only the sense of mul- 
titude, and, according to his universal rule 
of etymology, refers many in every case to 
the past participle of the Anglo-Saxon 
meo^an, miscere. But the substantive 
many or meiny (two different spellings of 
the same sound), has also in old English 
another origin and another meaning. A 
medieval French word for family or house- 
hold is mesnee or mehnte. Ducange gives 
the following account of this word: '* Mes- 
neya, maisnada, mainada, familia, quasi 
mansionata; Italis mainadaf mesnee apud 
scriptores Galileos mediae oetatis. Will. 
Guiart, anno 1296: 

LI grant Seigneurs, et leur mesnies." 

Another form of this word is found in 
an account of the foundation of Wigmore 
Priory, given in Dugdale's Monasticon, 
vol. ii. p. 218 : " Syre Roger de Morte- 
mer fut cheminant ovesk sa megne,'' and 
further on, '* et dist a tote sa meygne.'' 
From the sense of household to that of a 
company of armed retainers would be in 
feudal times no distant transition. I find 
an early instance of the use of this word in 
English in the romance of •* Syr Gawayn 
and the Grene Knigt," edited by Sir F. 
Madden for the Bannatyne Club in 1839 : 

Make myry in my ho', my meny the lovies, 
(t. tf. my household loves thee). 

So in Chaucer's Shipman's Tale : 

After hir degree 
Ue yavo the lord and sitlien hia meinee. 
Whan that lie came, s<^)me manor honest thing. 



So in the Manciple's Tale, — 

But for the tyrant Is of greter might. 
By force of meinie for to sle dovn right, 
And for the outlawc hath but small meinie. 

From this word meny is derived menial, 
an excellent example of the original use of 
which is cited by Mr. Richardson in his 
Dictionary, from Wiclif 's translation of the 
Scriptures : *' Grete ye well her meyniai 
chirche," (rqu Kar oucov avrcji/ (/cicXi;(r(W, 
Rom. xvi. 5). It is remarkable that even 
up to the last century the most common 
(Uiough incorrect) present use of this word, 
with the sense of "base " or '* servile," was 
not recognised. Dr. Johnson says, " Swift 
does not seem to have known the meaning 
of this word,'' and, as an instance of this 
ignorance, he cites the following : " the 
women attendants perform only the most 
menial [meaning base or servile] offices." 

To return to the substantive meny. 
This word, as it is used by Shakspere and 
his contemporaries, may be referred some- 
times to the sense of one of its roots, 
sometimes to that of the other, and in 
some passages it is difficult to say to which 
origin it ought to be attributed. Modem 
editors of Shakspere have tried to dis- 
tinguish the sense of household from that of 
multitude by the different spellings meiny 
and many ; but when Henry IV. says, — 
I had a purpose now 
To lead our many to the Holy Land,* 

it seems as if the idea of the meiny or 
martial following of a feudal king was 
mixed up with the sense of multitude. Co- 
riolanus's " mutable rank-scented meynie " 
is no doubt merely the multitude, and 
therefore, upon the principle of making a 
distinction, has been rightly spelt tnany in 
the recent editions. On the other hand, 
in the line in Lear, — 

They summoned up their meiny, straight took 
horse, 

the word may with the same certainty be 
referred to the other origin. So in the 
passage in the Faery Queen (b. v. canto 

And forth he fared with all his niany bad. 

Shakspere and his contemporaries were 
not careful to distinguish the different 
etymological senses of words which struck 
the ear with the same sound. Witness 
Tybalt's fracas with Mercutio : — 

Mcrcutio, thou consortest with Romeo. 

Consort I what, dost thou make us minstrela ? 

But in this connection of the word con- 



* In this passage almost all the editions read, '* To lead out many," &c. War- 
burton suggested our as a conjectural emendation. In the copy of the first folio to 
which I have had access, the type is imperfect, but more like r than /. There can be 
little doubt that our is the true reading. 



54 



Notes of the Month, 



[Jan. 



sort with musical harmonj Sbakspere was 
not singular. Spenser uses the word in 
the same association of ideas, — 

For all that pleasing is to living car, 
Was there consorted in one harmony ; 



and the translators of the Bible, with more 
manifest inaccuracy, " A consort of mu- 
sicke in a banquet of wine is as a signet of 
carbuncle set in golde," (Ecclus. xxxiii. 
5,) where the modern editions have substi- 
tuted the word concert, F. M. N. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

Proposed National Palace of the Arts and Sciences— The Royal and Astronomical Societies— Admission 
of Engravers to be Royal Academicians— Anniversary of the Botanical Society— Inauguration of 
the Essex Archaeological Society— University of Cambridge— Personal Literary Distinctions- 
Bequest of Miss Hardwick to the Schools and Hospitals of London— Shakspcrc's House at Strat ■ 
ford-upon-A von— Autograph Letters of Bums— Continental Forgeries of Autographs— Antiquarian 
Works in preparation. 



^ The Commissioners of The Exhibition 
q/*1851 have published their Second Re- 
port, announcing the manner in which they 
propose to deal with the large surplus re- 
maining in their hands. In their former 
report it was stated that this surplus 
would not be less than 150,000/. It now 
appears probable that its net amount will 
reach 170,000/. They also possess a col- 
lection of articles presented as the nucleus 
of a Trades Museum, and temporarily de- 
posited in Kensington Palace, the value of 
which is estimated at 9,000/. The Com- 
missioners had previously announced the 
general principle upon which the funds at 
their disposal were to be applied, in some 
plan which would increase the means of 
industrial education, and extend the in- 
fluences of science and art upon productive 
industry ; and, though numberless sugges- 
tions have been urged upon their considera- 
tion, the greater part of them have been 
dismissed by the rule they had laid down 
for their guidance, that they should not 
entertain any proposals of a ** limited, 
partial, or local character." In their re- 
port the Commissioners first pass under 
review the existing institutions for indus- 
trial instruction at home and abroad. Our 
own deficiencies in this respect are known 
and notorious ; while the systematic exer- 
tions of other nations may be illustrated 
by reference to Germany alone, where 
13,000 men annually receive the high 
technical and scientific training of the 
Trade Schools and Polytechnic Institu- 
tions, more than 30,000 workmen are 
being systematically taught the elements 
of Science and Art, and, in addition to the 
Trade Schools, there are important insti- 
tutions equivalent to industrial universities 
in the capitals of nearly all the States. 

The Commissioners then refer to what 
has been done in this country to promote 
the interests, and extend, enlarge, and 
diffuse a knowledge of Science and Art. 



So little aid has been given by the Govern- 
ment until this last quarter or half century, 
that the report is of course in a great 
degree limited to what the people have 
done for themselves in furtherance of these 
objects ; and, incredible as it may at first 
appear, it is shown by the balance sheets 
of the different Societies — which exceed 
one hundred in number — that in Lon- 
don alone the amount is not less than 
160,000/. a-year, a considerable portion 
of which is absorbed in rent and taxes. 
Adding to this list the great Government 
establishments — such as the British Mu- 
seum, the National Gallery, the Museum 
of Practical Geology, and the Department 
of Practical Art, the total revenue of the 
metropolitan institutions and societies for 
the promotion of science and art is placed 
at 250,000/., the Parliamentary sum voted 
for the national institutions being 95,000/. 
a-year. The Commissioners find two causes 
in operation to prevent the country reap- 
ing the full benefit which was to have been 
expected from its exertions to promote the 
interests of science and the arts : first, the 
want of united action among societies and 
national establishments ; secondly, the 
want of room. The first want is not ex- 
plained in the report, nor do the Com- 
missioners appear to have taken many 
steps to ascertain whether union is prac- 
ticable. Associated bodies are proverbially 
chary of their independence, and they will, 
no doubt, weigh the subject well before 
they consent to the proposed centraliza- 
tion. On the want of room, the present 
state of the Royal Society, the School of 
Mines, the School of Design, the College 
of Chymistry, the Nationed Gallery, the 
Society of Arts, the Royal Academy, and 
the British Museum are appealed to; and 
to these cases, with which the public arc 
more or less familiar, are added the de- 
mands for space on behalf of a collection 
of mediKval art, formed with reference tg 



18530 



Notes of the Month* 



55 



the New Palace at Westininster, imd for 
I ft map office, where maps and charts might 
■ be suitabiy dis^ilajed. 

Having thna made out the neceesity for 
ncreued acoommodationT the Commit' 
Inonert reprtisent thnt the two things to be 
lacccnnplishedare, the adoption of a system, 
*' snd the secoring of a locality where that 
system may be developed. The system or 
plan which they announce folio vra the ge- 
neral cUiaiiicBtion of objects nt the Ex- 
hibilioD, into Raw Matenala, Machinery, 
Manufactares, and Fine Arts* Tnking 
Raw Materitila first, they are divided into 
the mineral, the vegetable, and the animal 
kingdom. In the mineral kingdom the 
action of the Muaeam of Practical Geology 
and iU associated School of Mines id 
pointed out ; in the vegetable kingdom that 
of the Kew Muienm ; and in the animal 
I kingdom that of the College of Chymistry, 
[ which, if pnt in connexion with those 
ibrancbes of the organic kingdom which 
[■re do«ely allied with the nature of its in- 
\ TCflttgations, might have its resources more 
\ usefidly applied than is the case at present. 
On the second division of the new scheme, 
under the head of Machinery, the report 
refers in terms of great admiration to the 
Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris, 
' and alludes to a desire expressed in recent 
discussions on the patent laws for a place 
where models of new tDventious might be 
deposited. Tlie third division of the seheme, 
under the head of Maufactures, leads the 
Commissioners to anticipate much benefit 
from the co-operation of the Society of 
Arts in the formation, arrangement, and 
tttperinteodeoce of a great Trade Museum, 
ioggested and ably advocated by Professor 
SoUy, now the secrebiry of that society. 
In the department of the Fine Arts the 
report contemplates bringing together the 
National Gallery and the School of De- 
sign» and the formotion of a Great Mu- 
seum, for which the materials exist at 
Marlborough House, at the Museum in 
Jcrmyu -street, at the British Museum, 
and in the large number of costs, 6,771 in 
nnmher. collected in connexion with the 
building of the new Palace of WeBtminster. 
Such is the scheme which the Commis- 
sioners bave drawn up for consideratioo. 
To aflTord facilities for its practical execu- 
f lioci» they annonnce that tliey have pur- 
led two estates adjoining each other at 
' Kenaington. For the Gore House estate, 
%\\ aerei in extent, aud having a frontage 
of (mm 500 to GOO feet towards Hyde 
Park, they have paid GO.OOO/. ; and for 
that of Baron de Villars, 18 acres in ex- 
tent, they have agreed to pay 153,500/, — 
tins purchase being accuiiipinied with an 
engagement on the part of the Government 
Uiai,if the Commission hud out 150,000/. 



in land, they would recommend to Parlia- 
ment the contrihution of a like amounts 
The report states that this Im the last op* 
portunity of fioding an unoccupied apace 
in a desirable sltuatioQ within the limits 
of the metropolis, and it urges Parliaanent 
to obtain possession of the whole unoc* 
cupied ground adjoining, whereby a total 
extent of 150 acres would be secured for 
the development of great national objects. 
It is proposed by the Commissioners that 
the new National Gallery should occopy 
the elevated site fronting Hyde Park; that 
the Museum of Mantifncturea should stand 
on the Hite fronting the Brompton-road ; 
that the difftrent learned tiocieties should 
enjoy juxta-poaition in the centre-, and 
that the two remidaiug aides should he de- 
voted to the departments of Practical Art 
and Practical Science. 

Tlie Commissioners have anticipated the 
objections that would probably arise to a 
Bttuntion so far west of the centre of the 
metropolis, and they venture to affirm that 
such distance ^' has not appeared to us to 
be In any way an objection to the site we 
have obtained. The succesa of the Exhi- 
bition, on a spot almost exactly opposite 
it, to which upward,^ of six million visits 
were paid, has clearly i^hown that that part 
of London ia not too remote for visitors ; 
while it has been ascertained, by an analysis 
of their addresses, that the great propor- 
tion of the members of the principal sci- 
entific bodies live considerably to the west 
of Charing CroBs/' 

And they conclude by remarkiog that 
*' We propose to trust, for the carrying 
out of our plan, to the same principles 
which alone have rendered the execution 
of so large an undertaking as the Exhi- 
bition of IBal passible within so limited a 
time, viz. the finding room and system, 
and leaving it to the voluntary efforts of 
individualsi corporations, and authorities, 
to carry out the promotion of the different 
interests with which they are themselves 
connected, on which they are dependent, 
and of which they are therefore the beat 
guardians ond judges.** 

The Boy at Society have already ex- 
pressed an opinion on that part of Ibis 
scheme which afFecta the learned Societiea. 
Whilst approving of their being assam- 
bled in one locality, they deprecate the 
choice of Kensington Gore. At the An- 
niversary Meeting of the Society on the 
30th of November, the President, to his 
annual address, stated thnt he had com- 
muntcated to the Eorl of Derby the fol- 
lowing representation : 

" Tilt" CouiK'il of the Roy at Society having lusanl 
reports to tUe effect thut jfrrniinl luia been inir- 
' at Kf»uington Qorv tor the puriJf>*e of 
; tb^ l^ietioa culttvatlag natural 



56 



Notes of the Month. 



[Jan. 



knowlodffc, which are now provided with apart- 
ments in Somerset House and elsewhere in the 
metropolis, and for other public objects connected 
with practical science and the industrial arts,— 
while they deem it right to acknowledge the in- 
terest which Government has thus manifested in 
the promotion of science, desire to state their con- 
viction that the locality referred to would be 
exceedingly inconvenient and unsuitable for the 
purposes of the Royal Society, and of the other 
Societies allied to the Royal Society in the culti- 
vation of natural knowledge, Tliey wish at the 
same time to express an opinion which is strongly 
felt, that It would tend greatly to the advancement 
of science, and would be more suitable to the po- 
sition which science should occupy in the metro- 
polis, if the several Societies referred to were 
brought together in one central locality, and if 
possible under a single roof. And they request 
the Earl of Rosse, President of the Royal Society, 
respectfully to lay this theU- opinion before tlie 
hei^ of Her M^eaty's Qovemment." 

The Astronomical Society, which also 
has apartments in Somerset House, has 
followed the example of the Royal Society, 
by issuing a statement that two -thirds of 
its members are resident to the eastward 
of that locality. It is remarkable, however, 
that all the learned Societies who occupy 
houses or apartments of their own, are 
located more or less to the westward of 
Somerset House, and it is well known that 
all the older bodies, as the Royal Society, 
the Society of Antiquaries, the Royal 
Academy, and the College of Physicians, 
have all heretofore removed, and some of 
them repeatedly, in that direction. 

It must be admitted that Kensington 
Gore seems at present not " the ceHiral 
locality '* that could be desired, especially 
for evening meetings ; but it is highly 
probable that the march of the town west- 
ward, and increased facilities of transit, 
will alter circumstances in this respect in 
the course of the next twenty years. When 
Mr. Charles Pearson's scheme for '*a 
frequent, rapid, punctual, and cheap in- 
tercommunication between the city and 
suburbs '' shall have been accomplished, 
such a difficulty as this will have vanished* 
However, the Chancellor of Exchequer 
on the 6th of December, obtained from the 
House of Commons a vote of 150,000/. 
for the proposed University of Industry. 

Her Miyesty, as the head of the Royal 
Academy t has backed a petition made to 
that body by the Engravers, with the 
gracious recommendation of their prayer 
to be eligible for admission to the grade of 
Academician ; and the Forty, in obedience 
to Royal wishes, and in compliance, doubt- 
less, with their own sense of the justice of 
the demand, have consented to admit a 
certain number of engravers (to be here- 
after determined on) to the full honours of 
the Academy. Thus, after nearly 90 
years of heartburning, this grievance is 
removed. 

The sixteenth annivergary meeting of 
7 



the Botanical Society was held on Monday 
Nov. 29, Dr. J. E. Grey, F.R.S., Pre- 
sident, in the chair. From the report of 
the council it appeared that fourteen new 
members had been elected during the year, 
and that the society consisted of 302 
members. The distribution of British and 
foreign specimens had been carried on with 
great success, and many thousands were 
preparing for distribution in January next. 
J. Ball, esq. M.P., F. P. Pascoe, esq. 
F.L.S., and J. T. Syme,esq., were elected 
new members of the council ; and the presi- 
dent nominated J. Miers, esq. F.R.S., and 
A. Henfrey, esq. F.R.S. as vice-presidents. 

The Essejc Archaological Society^ the 
formation of which we announced in our 
November number, has been duly inaugu- 
rated, by a meeting held at the Town Hall 
in Colchester, on the 14th of December. 
A Report which was read from the pro- 
visional committee defined the objects of 
the association as being, 1 . the establish- 
ment of an archaeological museum and 
library ; 2. the completion of the county 
history ; and 3. the promotion of a general 
taste for and knowledge of archaeology. 
There already exists a considerable col- 
lection of antiauities which will be placed 
in the Society's possession as soon as a 
suitable room has been provided for its 
reception ; and it is hoped that it will be 
united with the valuable collection of an- 
tiquities bequeathed to the town by the 
late Mr. Vint. An inaugural lecture on 
the science of archseology was delivered 
by the Rev. J. H. Marsden, B.D. Rector 
of Great Oakley, Essex, and Disney Pro- 
fessor of Archaeology in the university of 
Cambridge. The Rev. Guy Bryan then 
read a paper suggested by the discovery 
of a leaden bulla of Pope Innocent VI. in 
the parish of Mucking, where an estate 
belonged to Barking abbey. 

Some valuable MSS. of Morant the 
county historian were exhibited by C. G. 
Round, esq. together with two cabinets of 
Roman coins, collected by Mr. Gray. 
There were also displayed upon the table 
a selection from a cabinet of 497 coins 
collected by Mr. Isaac Rebow, son of Sir 
Isaac Rebow, who died 1734, and pre- 
sented to the Colchester Museum (pro- 
posed to be formed some few years ago) 
by J. Gurdon-Rebow, esq. ; and a large 
number of cinerary urns, dug up in 1848 
from some land adjoining West Lodge, 
Lexden«road, the property of Mr. J. 
Taylor, jun. The proceedings of the day 
were closed with a dinner at the Cups 
hotel, where John Disney, esq. the Pre- 
sident of the Society, took the chair, and 
about thirty-five gentlemen were present. 
The Rev. Edward Lewes Cutts, B.A. act<( 
at Honorary Secretary. 



1853.] 



Notes of the Mont ft. 



57 



At Cambridge » Ibe Le Ba& Prize Ims 
■iieen adjudged to Mr. B. A. Jnrlng, of 
"Stnmaauel college, the subject of the essaj 
eing^ "A View of the Rbutes aucces- 
dvcly taken by the Commerce between 
'Snropc and the Hlast, and of the Politick 
Effect produced by these ChuDges/' On 
be 24 tb of November graces passed the 
ante for Affixing the University seal to 
letter of thanks to the King of Frosaitt 
br B copy of Lepsiua's MoButnents of 
Sgypt, 8tc* ; and gr&nting 150/. for the 
' expenses of arranging Dr. LemaiiD'i} col- 
lection of dried plants presented by bis 
executors. A retiring pension of 1 00/* \)er 
annual was assigned to Mr, John Boutell, 
Ubrary keeper. 

A peoBion of ^00/. per annum, through 
the influence of the Earl of Hossc, baa 
been conferred on Mr. Html, one of the 
most indefatigable astronomers of our age. 
and the discoverer of several new planets^ 
A pension has also been conferred of 75/. 
on Dr, Ckarlea RicAardaon, author of the 
new Engtish Dictionary ; and the like sum 
on Mr» Franc iji Ronatda^ "in consideration 
of his eminent discoveries in electricity 
ajid meteorology.' ' 

A vacancy having occurred ki tlie Prus- 
sian Order of Merit, by the death of the 
poet Moore, the cross has been given by 
King Frederick William to OoU Rawlin* 
soHj the eminent Orientalist, at the re* 
commendation f as the custom is in this 
literary and adentific order of knighthood, 
of the Berlin Royal Acudemy* 

T)ie schools and lio^pitals of the city of 
London have obtained from the munili-. 
ceuce of Mita Hardwick a testamentary 
bequest of a large sum of monej, — said to 
|bc upwards of 20,000/. A single ex- 
ntorf with the Lord Mayor ond City 
ainberlftin, are the administrators of 
this 8om4*what onerous trust, these partief 
having full powers conferred on them by 
the lady's will to apportion tbe funds 
among the several institutions according 
to their own judgment and discretion. 
Miss Hardwick^s motive for disposing of 
her property in this way, to the exclusion 
of hcT relatives, is described by herself as 
being a regard for her father's memory, 
who was a merchant in the city, and there 
made the fortune which baa now relumed 
to enrich its several charities. 

The conservation of Skakapere'a Houae 

i Stratford -on -Avon is taken op by the 

overnment authorities. The Solicitor 

ftbe Board of Works has given notice in 

the London Gazette, ** that application is 

intended to be mudf^ to Parliament in the 

<|ieit Session for au Act to vest in the 

ommissioners of Her Majesty's Works 

'«»d Public Buildings, and their successoM, 

certain messuages, tenements, and here-> 

Gent. Mag. Vol.XXXLX. 



ditaments, situate in Uentey- street, in the 
borough of Stratford-upon-Avon, in the 
county of Warwick, a certain portion 
wbereof is commonly called or known by 
the name of ' Shakspeare's House,' upon 
trust to provide for the care and preserva- 
tion of the said portion known as * Shak- 
spcare's House,' and to permit the public 
to have access thereto at such timejt» sub* 
ject to such conditions, and under such 
rules and regulations as the said Commis- 
sioners m^y from time to time prescribe." 
It H further intended to empower the 
Commissioners ^'^to pull down certain 
other portions of the said premises," 
which has for its object the isolation of 
the ** EIouBe/' and its protection ngajnst 
fire. 

At the recent sale of Mr. Tait's library 
in Edinburgh, much intercut was excited 
in a Volume of Autograph Letter a frttm 
the Poai Bums to the late George Thom- 
son, This collection, enriched as it waa 
by somQ of Burns'si finest criticisms on our 
Scotlsh melodies, ntid by many of his 
noblest lyrics, attracted the attention of 
all connoisseurs and literary men. After 
a brisk competition, the volume was 
knocked down to an Eoglii^h nobleman, 
at the sum of 273/.; but it is understood 
thnt, in aU prohabilityf it will remain in 
Scotland* 

We had occasion to draw attention 
some time back to the extensive and very 
able forgeries of autographs and letters of 
distinguisibcd personages of olden and 
modern times, made of late years in France 
and Geruiony. More forgeries have just 
been detected in the sale at Paris of a vast 
collection of nutognipbs, which belonged 
to a Baron de Tremtmt, recently deceased. 
One of them la a kttet purporting to have 
been written by Rabelais from Nice, giving 
an account uf the negociations in that city 
between Pope Paul 111., Francis L of 
France, and the Emperor Charles V. But 
It turns out that at the very time Rabelais 
was at Montpellier, and that the letter, 
which is in bad Latin, is a literal copy of 
a passage m a work left some time after 
by the Cardinal du Bellay, in whose ser- 
vice he was. Yet the paper, ink, and 
haodwriting of this epistle are so admira- 
bly imitated that they would deceive the 
sharpest oonnoissear. 

Whilst tbe funeral of the late Duke of 
WeltingtoD was in preparation the columna 
of the Times newspaper daily contained 
a string of advertisements offering for sale 
specimens of his G racers autographs, at 
pncea ridiciloualy eitorbitant in propor- 
tion to the interest belonging to most of 
the document}*. It is now stated that the 
Duke bad Uthogrnpldc blank notes in 
great variety to suit various cases. Many 



58 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Jan. 



of these have been sold as his own hand- 
writing. They all begin " F. M. the 
Duke of Wellington," and are, of course, 
without signature. 

We are happy to announce that Mr. 
Martin, the Librarian to the Duke of Bed- 
ford, is preparing a Second Edition of his 
very curious and interesting Catalogue of 
Privately Printed Books. 

Mr. Charles Bridger, F.S.A. has also 
issued proposals for a Catalogue of Pri- 
vately Printed Books on Genealogy and 
kindred Subjects, to be printed uniformly 
with Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica. 

Mr. Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A. is 
preparing a continuation of his Collectanea 



Antiqua. It is to be restricted to the sub- 
scribers of 24*. a-year (to be paid in ad- 
vance) and to be issued in about four quar- 
terly deliveries. Mr. Smith has under 
consideration for this work the Anglo- 
Saxon remains discovered at Osengal in 
Thanet, to be illustrated by eight plates by 
Fairholt, and woodcuts; Roman archi- 
tectural remains found at Wroxcter near 
Shrewsbury ; the Roman bridge near Tad- 
caster ; Roman sepulchral remains in Dor- 
setshire ; the Roman amphitheatre, &c. at 
Lillebonne on the Seine ; the site of the 
Portus Adumi ; recent discoveries at Lin- 
coln, Colchester, Chester, Pevensey, and 
other places. 



HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



The Lady of the Lake, by Sir Walter 
Scott, Bart, with all his introductiom, 
various readings, and the Editor'^s Notes. 
Illustrated by numerous Engravings on 
Wood, from drawings by Birket Foster 
and John Gilbert. (Adam and Charles 
Black.) — The tribe of Annuals, with their 
monotonous farrago of insipid novelettes 
and indifferent poetry, illustrated by equally 
monotonous and ineffective prints, the 
designs of which were generally utterly 
unworthy the labour and expense bestowed 
in engraving them, — has been well ex- 
changed for such successors as that now 
before us. The demand for gift-books is 
now gratified by adopting the best works 
of our best writers, and making them the 
vehicles of those costly embellishments, 
which at once gratify the eye and improve 
the taste. In the instance before us the 
jewel is worthy of the setting. The annuals 
were books ephemeral in Uieir character, 
on which much cost was thrown away, and 
the actual result a few scrap-book prints. 
This illustrated edition of The Lady of 
the Lake is a book which will be an orna- 
ment to a library at any future time. 
Messieurs Foster and Gilbert, the artists 
employed, are equally admirable in their 
respective departments. The former has 
contributed twenty-eight landscapes, and 
the latter thirty figure designs. The en- 
gravers are Messrs. J. W. Whymper and 
Edward Evans ; and we cannot pay a 
higher compliment to their work than by 
Baying that the effect is perfectly equal to 
that of line-engraving. To the successful 
accomplishment of this result skilful work- 
manship at the press is essential ; and 
Messrs. R. and R. Clark of Edinburgh, 
the printers, are consequently deserving of 
their share of praise. This edition has, 
besides, all the Uterary advantages in the 



way of annotation that have accrued since 
the composition of the poem from the care 
and attention of the author and his com- 
mentators, together with the opinions, 
whether in praise or censure, passed on 
the leading passages by Jeffrey and other 
leading critics. It is, as we have already 
said, a delightful acquisition for any library. 

Somersetshire ARCHi£OLOoicAL AND 
Natural History Society.— Procwrf- 
tit^* at the General, Quarterly, and Annual 
Meetings, held during the years 1849 and 
1850. Svo. pp. 192. Proceedings during 
the year 1851. Svo. pp. 128.— These two 
volumes comprise the Transactions du- 
ring the three past years of its existence 
of the very active and efficient Society 
whose recent meeting in the city of Bath 
was reported in our November Magazine. 
The Somersetshire Society has its central 
point and head quarters at Taunton, and 
it was formed by the exertions of gentle- 
men living in that neighbourhood in the 
spring of 1849. Its first annual meeting 
was held at Taunton in Sept. 1849, the 
second at Wells in Sept. 1850, and the 
third at Weston-super-Mare in Sept. 1851. 
Besides these, quarterly meetings were 
held in the first year at Bridgewater and 
Frome ; but such have latterly been ex- 
changed for Conversazione meetings at 
Taunton. Besides the minutes of pro- 
ceedings, the two volumes before us con- 
tain several of the more important papers 
at length. Among these are some valuable 
descriptions of the primaeval antiquities of 
the county, especially one on the extensive 
British encampment, or town, at Worle 
Hill, explored by the Rev. F. Warre. 
There are also several good architectural 
papers, one of the most important of 
wiuch is that by Mr. Freeman on the Per- 



1853.] 



Miscellaneous Reviews, 



59 



pendicular Style, as exhibited in the 
Churches of Somerset; of which a con- 
tinoation was read at the recent meeting 
at Bath, as reported in our Nov. number, 
at p. 508. The Rev. F. Warre is the 
author of a useful paper on the distinction 
between Anglo-Saxon and Norman Archi- 
tecture, but he disclaims in his intro- 
ductory remarks any large amount of 
original observation upon the subject. He 
is, altogether, one of the most efficient 
contributors, as he furnishes other papers 
— on Glastonbury abbey,Uphill old church, 
and an ancient earthwork at Norton. The 
Rev. D. M. Clerk contributes a paper on 
Wells cathedral, which was read there at 
the meeting of 1850, — the year before Pro- 
fessor Willis undertook the same subject 
for the Archeeological Institute. Mr. B. 
Ferrey, the architect, gives a slight account 
of the carved altar-pieces, and sculptured 
statuettes, discovered in St. Cuthbert's 
church at Wells, with a lithographic plate 
of the reredos of the Lady Chapel ; but 
we had hoped to have seen those interest- 
ing discoveries more fully illustrated. An 
announcement made by Mr. C. E. Giles 
at Wells in 1850 also excites our curiosity. 
** He there stated that he had met with, a 
few days ago, in the church at Netherbury, 
Dorset, a remarkable series of figures in 
fresco. They seemed to be of the reign 
of Henry IV. and represented the various 
Vices and Virtues. Over several illus- 
trations of charity were written the words, 
AfOT Jfe0tt8 eaite. Unfortunately they 
could not be preserved, but he had made 
tracings of them." This announcement 
seems to denote works of an unusual cha- 
racter ; and if of the period conjectured, 
they are surelju worthy of further notice. 
We hope that in the Society's next volume 
we shall find additional illustrations of the 
sculptures at St. Cuthbert's, Wells, and 
some of those at Wellington, and also of 
the paintings at Netherbury — unless 
indeed the last are out of the Society's 
province from being in Dorsetshire. Be- 
fore we conclude we will read, for the 
benefit of the Society, a riddle which we 
find proposed in the volume for 1851, at 
page 31 : — 

" The Rev. F. B. Portman exhibited a rub- 
bing of an inscription on one of the bells 
in the church of Staple Fitzpaine . He had 
forwarded it to the British Museum, but 
no one there had been able to decipher 
the second word in the line, a fac-sinvile of 
which is here given. [In the fac-simile the 
letters look most like — 
upun.] 

'* The inscription runs thus, — 

^ IBfit * * rollatum tfic tfitul) 
nomen amatunt." 



Now, the Rev. Mr. Portman and all 
the other members of the Somersetshire 
Society, will at once read this puzzling 
word if they turn the fac-siraile the right 
way upwards, for as printed in their book 
it is reversed. It will then be seen that it 
reads mtcl^t, in which manner it was usual 
to write mihif and the whole verse ^11 be — 

Est mihi collatnm Jesus istiid nomen amatuni. 

We should not omit to remark that the 
papers on the Geology and Natural His- 
tory of the county are as numerous in 
these volumes as those on its Archseology 
and Architecture. Mr. W. Baker, of 
Bridgewater, is the largest contributor 
on these subjects. There is also a valua- 
ble essay on the Turbaries between Glas- 
tonbury and the sea, by Mr. Stradling, 
and one on the very remarkable lime- 
stone cavern at Holwell, by Mr. Andrew 
Crosse. From the Turbaries Mr. Stradling 
has collected a large number of curious 
primaeval relics, which the peat has pre- 
served in a state of great perfection. 
Among them is " a bow of yew, formed 
evidently before the Britons knew the use 
of brass." He also discovered the site of 
a Roman pottery, and many moulds for 
casting Roman coins. The Address of 
the Dean of Westminster, Dr. Buckland, 
at the annual meeting in 1849, was one of 
his last public efforts before his lamentable 
illness, and is given at length in pp. 9 — 20 
of the first volume. 



A Compilation of various interesting His- 
torical Facts, both ancient and modem f 
principally relating to the County of So- 
merset and the South-TVestem part of 
Britain. Also a descriptive Account of 
the parish of Lympsham, Somerset : with 
notices of the Manners and Customs of 
the Heduiy Belga, and other of th^ancient 
Inhabitants of the above places. Illustra- 
tive of the Past and the Present. From 
authentic sources : with some original 
Pieces. By Benjamin Cox, Lympsham f 
Somerset. \2mo. pp. 104.— We have copied 
the whole of this large title to a small 
volume, because it saves us in a great 
measure from describing in other words 
the contents and character of the compo- 
sition. The little book is wonderful at 
once for its load of abstruse learning, and 
for its amount of inaccurate scholarship. 
Its early pages are interspersed with Phoe- 
nician and Welsh, and various dialects of 
Saxon, all abounding in misprints ; and 
when the Latin epitaphs in Lympsham 
church are introduced it is no better. 
Indeed, even in the plain English there 
is the same deficiency. Very ambitious 
sentiments fall short of their intention from 
a failure in the commonest rules of gram- 



60 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Jan. 



mar. For instance, in one page occur 
these two sentences : '* Thus perish affec- 
tions tribute, the frail link which connect 
the sympathies of the living, with the 
memory of the dead.'* *• The rights of 
the church is under the superintendance 
of the minister and two churchwardens.'' 
Other statements are no less strange, as 
(p. 81), •• Lim-pes-ham, otherwise Lim- 
pils-ham, or Lympsham, is a parish of no 
very considerable extent^ its form being 
similar to the Isle of Wight, and its cir- 
cumference about eight miles, while it 
ranges over 1966 and three-quarter acres 
of rich and fertile soil." This we pre- 
sume is not a small parish for the west of 
England. A local name terminating in well 
is " probably derived from its ancient British 
designation Bannawelli, compound of Bonn 
meaning deep, and welyi sea, ' a deep sea,' 
although [it is added] the parish is now 
nearly eight miles from the sea-coast." 
We have not the slightest idea who Benja- 
min Cox may be ; but we could not allow 
his production to pass with that disregard 
which it may probably be said to deserve, 
as it is just from such ungainly and abortive 
attempts at archseological authorship that 
the study of antiquities has heretofore fallen 
into disrepute, and they are calculated 
rather to offend and disgust than to attract 
the sympathies of ** the younger branches 
of society," for whose special use the in- 
troduction states that the book is intended. 
Such a performance will surely make the 
'* antiquary " a laughing-stock among the 
visitors at Weston super Mare, the place 
where it is printed and published. 

History in Ruins : a Series of Letters 
to a Lady, embodying a Popular Sketch 
qfthe History of Architecture, By George 
Godwin, F.R.S. Crown Svo. — The series 
of papers of which this volume consists 
has been written with the view of afford- 
ing to the unlearned in architecture- a 
familiar exposition of its history from the 
earliest times, and of the various styles 
which have prevailed in all parts of the 
world. The letters have appeared from 
time to time in The Builder, of which ex- 
cellent periodical Mr. Godwin is the 
editor, and they are now collected in order 
to form a popular Handbook of Archi- 
tecture. The task is executed in a very 
pleasant and agreeable manner, and is well 
calculated, in our opinion, to accomplish 
its object, of attracting some readers to 
the study of architecture who have hitherto 
regarded the subject with indifference or 
aversion. Mr. Godwin's style is easy and 
familiar : he endeavours to enliven the 
technicalities of his subject by the flowers 
of fancy and poetry. These are well in- 
tended, but occasionally we think grow 



somewhat too luxuriously, and would bear 
cropping. They arc all, however, con- 
ceived in good spirit, and his critical re- 
marks, whether on architectural or other 
matters, are generally pertinent and judi- 
cious. In proof of this we may quote the 
following passage, expressing sentiments 
which it is true are now generally acknow- 
leged, but which it is well to present dis- 
tinctly to the tyro in architecture : " You 
must not imagine, as many did at one 
time, that the architects of the Middle 
Ages worked without rules or guiding 
principles. The more fully our ancient 
edifices are studied, the more clearly does 
it become apparent that nothing was in- 
troduced unnecessarily or deceptively, for 
mere appearance^ sake; that the excellence 
of effect, which is apparent, resulted from 
the use of sound principles, laid down not 
with a view of producing that effect, but 
with reference to stability, convenience, 
and fitness ; good taste and great skill 
being afterwards employed in adorning 
that which was necessary, and making the 
Useful a producer of the Beautiful. Plans 
were not made to accord with a fanciful 
elevation, entailing thereby loss of con- 
venience and unnecessary outlay; but 
were arranged first, to suit the require- 
ments of the time, and upon these natu- 
rally the elevation followed. All decora- 
tion grew out of the construction, and 
reason governed instead of caprice. This 
is now better understood than it was a 
few years ago, and will doubtless produce 
its fruit in due season." 



Memoir of John Prederic Oberlin, 
Pastor at Ban de la Roche, Tenth edi- 
tion. (Bagster.) 12mo. pp. x, 372. — 
Thk Talent of Doino Good is said to 
have been the motto of Prince Henry of 
Portugal, the celebrated navigator. There 
is a work entitled " Essays to do Good," 
by Cotton Mather, to which Franklin 
thus avows his obligations, in a letter to 
the author's son: — "If I have been a 
useful citizen, as you seem to think, the 
public owes the advantage to that book." 
The whole career of Oberlin was an ex- 
emplification of the motto, and a series of 
such essays. We do not remember that 
any list of works, proposed by authority 
for divinity students, contains a selection 
of historical biography ; but such a list 
would be incomplete if the Life of Oberlin 
were -omitted. It is, as Mr. Bickersteth 
observes in his Christian Student, "An 
interesting memoir of one who was a de- 
voted minister,'' adding, " with some ex- 
ceptional views ; " and these the present 
biographer by no means dissembles, but 
draws his hero's portrait, as Cromwell de- 
sired Lely to draw hiif with all the wrinkles. 



1853.] 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



61 



Peculiarities, which often attach them- 
selves to persons of eialted benevolence, 
offer a sort of compensation to ordinary 
minds for the excellences which eclipse 
them. But, indeed, they do more, by 
reducing the personage from romance to 
history, and from the colossal to the 
human ; so that the virtues which else 
would seem to defy emulation attract 
with hope instead of repelling in despair. 
In France, independent of his purely pas- 
toral labours, Oberlin is regarded as one 
of the benefactors to mankind, for the 
transformation which he effected in a por- 
tion of the Vosges, from a wilderness to a 
flourishing district. The interesting de- 
tails were laid before the " Soci^t^ Royale 
et Centrale d' Agriculture " of France, in 
a report presented in 1818 by M. Fran9oi8 
de Neufchftteau, who had formerly tra- 
versed the ground as a functionary of go- 
vernment. We quote a single sentence, 
the importance of which will be fully ap- 
preciated at a time when the miseries of 
Highland and Irish destitution are fresh 
in our readers' memories. " By his ex- 
traordinary efforts and unabated exertions 
he averted from his parishioners in the 
years 1812, 1816, and 1817, the horrors of 
approaching famine.*" (See p. 196). Had 
he lived in mythological times, he would 
have been transmitted to posterity as 
another Triptolemus by Greeks, or Hu 
Gadarn by Celts. His heart's desire, 
however, was not celebrity, but that he 
might be brought only to wish, say, or 
undertake, •* what He who only is wise 
and good sees to be best." (p. 318.) But 
we must remember that our province is 
to recommend this work, and not to 
analyse it, for a tenth edition may surely 
spare us the trouble. We need, therefore, 
merely state that it is an enlarged one. 
All sources, French and German, have 
been consulted ; some additional facts and 
observations have been introduced ; and 
some letters hitherto unpublished have 
been inserted. A chapter, on the more 
prominent parts of Oberlin's mental and 
moral character, has also been added. It 
contains several portraits and plans, with 
a pretty vignette of his church and parson- 
age at Waldbach. 

We wish it had contained a more ex- 
tended notice of his erudite brother ; but 
for that defect the original French me- 
moir, by M. Lutteroth, is answerable, as 
it has been copied here. J. J. Obeflin 
is well known in the classical world as 
the editor of Caesar and Tacitus. His 
praises, as such, will be found in the 
** Introduction'' of Dr. Dibdin, and in 
Klugling's Supplement to Harles.* His 

* This writer's name is sometimes spelt 
with one final 9, and sometimes with two. 



other works have procured him a con- 
spicuous place in Peignot's " Repertoire 
Bibliographique," with this concise but 
copious eulogy : — ** La profonde Erudition 
de I'auteur repond de son exactitude et 
de I'^tendue de ses recherches." (p. 20.) 
As his " Essai sur le Patois Lorrain," is 
briefly alluded to at p. 24 of the memoir, 
we may add, that Peignot has given an 
analysis of this work, which he considers 
worthy of comparison with that of M. 
Champollion Figeac " Sur les patois ou 
idiomes vulgaires de la France." (p. 440.) 
The personal history of J. J. Oberlin is 
also interesting, from the sufferings he 
endured in the Reign of Terror. A me- 
moir of him will be found in the " Biogra- 
phic Universelle," which might advan- 
tageously be copied or condensed, in the 
appendix to the next edition of the volume 
which forms the subject of this notice. 

Pauperism and Poor Laws. By Ro- 
bert Pashley, oneo/HerMqje8ty*8 Council, 
late Fellow qf Trinity College ^ Cambridge, 
Author of Travels in Crete. — Honour be 
to those who still ply their thankless labour 
in exploring the causes of failure in our long 
attempts to deal wisely with pauperism! 
In our narrow limits, it is impossible for 
us to follow Mr. Pashley as we could wish 
through his painstaking inquiries ; but we 
will endeavour to state a few of his data 
and his conclusions. 

It is, indeed, a sad and harassing thing 
to find the sum total of our pauperism 
still so high ; to know that at the close 
of 1851 the amount expended in that year 
in poor-law relief was no less than five 
millions. Still worse it is, perhaps, be- 
cause militating against any fond ideas of 
country simplicity of manners and economy 
of habits, to find how much lower on 
the downward scale are the agricultural 
districts than our towns, so that the pro- 
portion of relief required in ten of our 
agricultural counties is at the rate of about 
98, Id, per head per annum, while, in the 
metropolitan districts, the yearly sum of 
6*. 3^d. would nearly represent the amount 
per head — the amount of population in 
the ten aforesaid counties being 2,514,637, 
while in the metropolitan districts it is 
taken at 2,362,236. 

From numerous statements like these, of 
melancholy and disheartening significance, 
Mr. Pashley turns to the question of what 
are the principal occasions of mismanage- 
ment of our actual pauperism, and he 
makes a vigorous attack on one of the 
worst among them — the law of settle- 
ment. We have never seen the absurdi- 
ties of legislation more amply exposed. 
It is true that at different times endea- 
vours have been made to modify this law 
and to check removals. Practically, no 



69 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Jan. 



doubt, much buBineBs is transacted between 
Unions and Parishes in exchanging pay 
ments to the non-resident paupers : still 
the fundamental evil remains — the common 
. life of the labourer is grievously embittered 
by the difficulty of obtaining a cottage 
near his work; he is lowered in the scale 
long before he requires parochial aid, by 
being pushed about and made the subject 
of oppressive measures, lest he should in 
some future time become chargeable. The 
instances adduced by Mr. Pashley are no 
exaggerations or exceptional cases. While 
the settlement of the future supposed 
pauper is an object ever before the minds 
of guardians and ratepayers, it is vain to 
hope for neighbourly union — for a kindly 
interchange of feeling between the poor 
and the rich. Sullen or violent resist* 
ance on one side, and grinding oppression 
on the other, will be the prevailing spectacle 
we shall have to witness. All that benevo- 
lence desires to do by means of education, 
or by loans or allotments, or any species 
of kindly aid, is nearly useless now. The 
daily feeling that an interested eye is 
watching his movements, settling his place 
of abode, and keeping him out of the 
comforts of a decent dwelling house, is 
gall and wormwood to the poor labourer. 
This is a case on which we cannot speak too 
strongly. Surely the united voice of in- 
spectors, guardians, and economists, will 
prevail at last to procure the abolition of 
so degrading a law. 

Mr. Pashley by no means makes light, 
however, of the difficulty of bringing it 
about. The whole mode of raising the 
poor rate must be altered simultaneously 
with such a change. His own proposal is 
developed in a few pages at the end of the 
volume; but, concise as the statement is, 
it is too long for us, and we must refer 
to the volume itself. 

There is less in Mr. Pashley 's book 
about outdoor allowances to the able- 
bodied than we should have expected ; he 
cannot be ignorant that this is now the 
mbject of great contest between Unions 
and the P6or-law Board. Every one must 
agree with him to a large extent in what he 
laya of workhouses. In so far as the treat- 
ment, or even admission, of lunatics and 
idiots is concerned, it is scarce possible 
to overrate the miseries and mismanage- 
ment they infallibly entail upon the com- 
mon Union House. We are rather more 
doubtful about the School question. Some 
experience and much inquiry have led 
us to apprehend that if the district houses, 
for children only, were much more nu- 
merous than they are, the workhouse 
would lose the benefit of a resident 
schoolmaster; and the consideration of 
the Urge iprinkling of children which must 



always be retained there, as far as we can 
see, is a serious one. There is good done 
by securing in a common Union House the 
presence of a schoolmaster who will keep 
before the eyes of the guardians of the 
parishes the spectacle of better teaching 
than can often be found in national schools. 
Sir J. K. Shuttle worth's unceasing atten- 
tion to this point, during the time of his 
Poor Law Inspectorship, was, we have 
reason to know, followed by these good 
effects. By his recommendation, school- 
masters were brought from Scotland, and 
apparatus and books were freely purchased 
for many of the Union Houses. But an 
error was committed in requiring a resi- 
dence at the workhouse for these men. 
We cannot see why they should be com- 
pelled to a mode of life and to influences 
and associates which must to many have 
been disgusting and painful. It is not 
fair to expect from every schoolmaster, 
otherwise good, that he should be entirely 
possessed by the missionary spirit ; and 
nothing less could make the workhouse 
life endurable to a man of education. As 
was to be expected, these masters quickly 
became discontented and resigned their 
office: and, in many places, the school 
was discontinued or shuffled off to the 
master's daughter or some official who 
happened to be on the spot. District schools 
at wide intervals, for orphans and unpro- 
vided children, who can there be properly 
trained in industrial habits, are certainly, 
however, desirable; but let the workhouse 
school, if possible, go on and be improved 
upon. There is not much force in Mr. 
Pashley's objection about the difficulty of 
classification. It is a similar inconvenience 
with that which meets us in many of our 
national village schools, which are mostly 
for all ages and both sexes. 

Seeing no present remedy for this, we 
think the grand point is that our trained 
teachers should be a little less stiff and 
unbending.* They must, it is true, strive 

* We are glad to find that one of our 
best training schools — The Home and 
Colonial Model Infant School at King's 
Cross — so recognises the actual want of 
the agricultural districts as to have lately 
instituted in addition to its other schools 
what is rather amusingly called ** An 
Agricultural School," — the object being 
to admit just that mixture of ages, sex, 
and, as far as can be done, social position, 
which is generally seen in the schoolroom 
of a village. There is a governess, and 
there are three pupil teachers. No other 
monitors are employed. One of the pupil 
teachers is employed with the infants in 
a class room during great part of the time. 
The others give the letions. Teachers now 



1853.] 



Miicellaneoui jReriews. 



63 



for order in thdr schools; bat the idea 
should be encouraged of an end that is 
higher than the means — of aco^nunodji- 
tion to unaToidable circomstances for the 
sake of doing good. Any master or mis- 
tress competent to instmct pupil teachers, 
who is allowed the nse of a class room in 
addition to the schoolroom, may, by 
separation of the mert infants from the 
other scholars, keep either a workhouse 
school or a common village school with 
great credit ; and we beHcTe that, with 
respect to the former, it would be a serious 
eyil if it were discoDtioued or ineffectively 
taught. 



Papers for the Schoolmaster. Vol. I. 
— Though but one Tolume of this excel- 
lent publication is yet made up, we hare 
carefully examined the successive mouthly 
numbers, and are happy to bear our testi- 
mony to the admirable spirit and execu- 
tion of the whole. We know no work 
adapted like this to the uses of pupil 
teachers more especially. It is not sa3ring 
too much to assert, that every pupil 
teacher in the land would do well regu- 
larly to expend the trifling sum required 
for ensuring constant access to so sug- 
gestive and so benevolent a book. 

We have read, and recur to it, again and 
again, with exceeding great respect— not 
for its cleverness merely, though very 
clever it certainly is, but for the uniform 
predominance given to religious and moral 
agency. Not without apprehension have 
we watched the workings of Government 
Inspection. It cannot be denied that there 
is a danger from the continued stimulus, — 
the artificial position, in short, in which 
these young teachers find themselves. And 
then it is unquestionable that our inspec- 
tors have a task of the greatest difficulty 
before them. We think too seriously of 
the character of the true Educator (a man 
appearing hardly more than once or twice 
in an age) not to have many misgivings as 
to the mode iu which some worthy, well- 
informed, but rather common-place, minds 
may perform their task. Of necessity 
they must be guided in a great measure 
by what is set down for them in the 
Minutes of Council. A system has to be 
pursued from year to year, and the suc- 
cessful performances of the pupil teachers, 
and the masters and mistresses also, when 
they come up for examination, must be 
measured by the standard there laid down. 
Of course character is inquired into and 
reported on, but proficiency in head know- 
ledge, — such a proficiency as tells in an ex- 

under training will here see what kind of 
management will be required in schools of 
this most osoal kind. 



amination, — is the chief that an inspector 
can know about them. We have certainly 
seen some very bad teadiers, ruling over, 
or rather mis-ruling, m(^ undisciplined 
schools, who had 3pet passed extremdiy < 
well themselves. There is also another 
danger in inspected schools : from one visit 
to another, what will enable the pupil 
teachers to carry their point, and get their 
sti{>ends, is apt to be too constantly before 
them; and we think it requires great watch- 
fulness to prevent the school, the forward- 
ness of which is one of the tests of pro- 
gress, being tampered with in any respect. 
There are always temptations enough to 
teachers to make too much of clever, for* 
ward children — the difficulty is to bring 
forward the slow ones. It is scarcely pos- 
sible that an inspector can see the whole 
in a quiet natural state, and there is rea- 
son to fear that the poor -spirited ones will 
be depressed, while the confident and easy 
will he roused to special but partial exer- 
tion. All this is said not in the least with 
a view to disparaging the great boon of 
government inspection, but merely to 
point out the necessity it entails on the 
conscientious teacher and the patrons, of 
maintaining inviolate their own ideas of 
what is of primary importance in cduca* 
tion, while yet tiiey endeavour to make 
the best use of the intellectual stimulus 
afforded. We thank Government for all 
it does now and may do for national edu- 
cation, but we place our strongest hopes in 
the power which Government cannot create, 
but only assist. How true it is that every 
where there are minds to work if they did 
but know their vocation 1 " Every one 
who honestly looks for it will find some- 
thing peculiarly his own — sometliing which 
no one else is either placed in circum- 
stances, or endowed with qualities, to do 
equally well. Therein lies his proper 
work, noble and beautiful because it is 
his own; ♦ ♦ ♦ but we miss the duty that 
belongs to us for want of simplicity of 
mind, from ignorance of ourselves, and a 
restless ambition to be what we are not.'' 
It is in the vigilant superintendence of 
what is done and doing in education that 
the duty of many persons seems to lie* 
Some want the talent of teaching, and 
some are bad servants to a system, who 
yet intuitively see what is needed, and 
point the way to that which underlies 
all systems. If surh are wise, they wiU 
be scrupulously careful of pronouncing 
discouraging words, even when they see 
much mistake. The bare fact that kindly 
intercourse is taking place between the 
rich and poor, should be hailed as a good, 
for every thing that savours of brother- 
hood is to be prized for its own sake, and 
to be fostered as the germ of what wiU 



64 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Jan. 



hereafter expand and cover the land, we 
trust, with its precious fruits. 

Recurring again to the ** Papers for the 
Schoolmaster,** let us instance such re- 
' marks as those headed ** My Children,*' 
p. 101, which seem to us to he leavened 
with exactly the leave u we want. Here 
the end is held up as it ought to be ; the 
" Examination,'* the " Studies," the 
** Training College," the " Certificate," 
have had their day, but these are the 
things left behind ; and now, for what 
have the teacher's garnered stores been 
collected, for what has his mind been 
opened and disciplined, but for ** The 
Children?" The Christian teacher has 
not merely to give lessons, he has to mould 
characters. Prosperity be with him ! 

Libri Veieria Testamenii Apocryphi 
Greece, %vo. pp. 155. — This edition of the 
Greek Apocrypha belonged originally to 
Valpy's Septuagint, and, not being inter- 
mixed with the Books of the Old Testa- 
ment (as had been done by Grabe and 
Breitinger) its convenience has enabled 
Mr. Bagster to re-issue it in a separate 
form. Such a volume has long been want- 
ing in this country, though in Germany 
there was the edition of Hencke (1711) 
with an introduction, and another printed 
at Halle in 1749, from the text of Breit- 
inger's LXX. besides the several publica- 
tions of Fabricius. It does not, of course, 
contain the Second Book of Esdras, which 
is not extant in Greek ; but it is more 
valuable than the English editions, as it 
includes the Third Book of the Macca- 
bees, which, in point of history, is the 
first f as it relates to the persecution of the 
Jews by Ptolemy Philopator.* Of the 
Apocrypha, Mr. Cecil justly remarks in 
his Remains, as an illustration of man's 
being fond of extremes, that •' The Papist 
puts the Apocrypha into his Canon — the 
Protestant will scarcely regard it as an 
ancient record." A fair summary of its 
uses is given by Dr. Pye Smith in his 
** Scripture Testimony," (vol. i. p. 351) : 
"As a collection of the most ancient 
Jewish records next to the inspired books, 
as documents of history, as lessons of pru- 
dence and often of piety, and as elucidating 
the phraseology of the New Testament, 
the Greek Apocrypha well deserves the 
frequent perusal of scholars, and especially 
theological students. ' ' Lightfoot, indeed, 
in his •* Rules for a Student," (Works, 
vol. ii. p. 9, 8vo.) prefers the Talmud, but 
he is naturally partial to the field of his pe- 
culiar labours. For particulars respecting 

* The^rc Books of the Maccabees have 
been edited in English by Dr. Cotton, 
whose services to literature are numerous. 
8 



editors of separate books, we must refer 
the reader to Harless, " Brevior Notitia 
Literature Grsecse," Leipzig, 1812, p. 
647-652 ; to Dr. Adam Clarke's " Suc- 
cession of Sacred Literature," vol. i. ; and 
to the *' Biblioth^que Sacr^^e" of M. 
Nodier, Paris, 1826. Copious analyses 
of the several books, and lists of commen- 
tators down to that time, will be found in 
"the Enchiridion Biblicum " of J. H. 
Heidegger, Zurich, 1703.t Since then a 
revival has taken place of the use of the 
Apocrypha, *• quum superori sseculo dog- 
matuth historia eximio tractari inciperet 
studio," as M. Bertheau observes, in a 
Thesis on the Second Book of the Macca- 
bees, delivered at Gottingen in 1829 (p. 5). 
It is on the Maccabees that the value of 
the Apocrypha chiefly rests, as, notwith- 
standing their blemishes, they furnish ma- 
terials for Syro-Judfsan history which no 
profane authors exist to supply. Dr. 
Gillies, who has made considerable use of 
them in his " History of the World," con- 
trasts their ** sublime brevity " in 1 Mace. 
c. i. 62, 63, with the " Greek eloquence 
of Josephus " (i. 464 , note 19). Again, 
at p. 468, note 28, he says, '* In the Apo- 
crypha the wars of the Jews are described 
with primitive simplicity. Josephus uses 
the terms of Greek tactics, but is not 
more informing." But the Doctor's bold 
assumption that the narrative in 2 Mace. 
c. i. relates to the death of Anliochus 
Sidetea has not been adopted by subse- 
quent writers. The expression a-vyyturjs 
in 2 Mace. xi. 1, which is translated *'the 
king's cousin," has been happily explained 
by Letronne to be a mere title, •* just as in 
Portugal and France every peer is called 
mon cousin.'* (See Niebuhr's Lectures 
on Ancient History, vol. iii. p. 456.) The 
historical value of the ** Maccabees " 
formed the subject of a controversy in the 
last century, in which the two Werns- 
doHTs were engaged with Froelich and 
Michaelis. The title of one of the volumes 
produced by it is quite a curiosity, " prop- 
ter singularem humanitatem," as Boyle, 
the antagonist of Bentley, would have said : 
•• Auctoritas utriusque libri Maccabseo- 
num canonico-historica asserta, et Froeli- 
chiani annates defensi adversus commenta- 
tionem Gottlieb Wernsdorfii, cujus inania 
et offuciee passim deteguntur, a quodam 
societatis Jesus sacerdote." Viennee Aus- 
trisB, 1749. A writer who adopted this 
style was right to appear anonymously. 
To this writer M. Bertheau probably 
alludes, and as civilly as he deserved. 
" Studuit quidem monachus iste, qui 
Wernsdorfii refutandi suscepit proviu- 

t The copy of this work now before us 
belonged to the Duke of Sussex. 



18530 



fiscellaneous J^eviewt, 



65 



^iam, ftAdqQajn rationetn (chronology) 

defendere, ted* quod Tideo* oe tantillum 

^qiudem protulit, quod Weraitd, dcmon- 

atrationem rejiccret/* (p» 45), We Imve 

\ not entered into the reasoDs whicb have 

icanaed the Apocrjrphal Books to he re- 

I jected from the Canon, as they are familiar 

I even to jumor etiidents in Bibliology, If, 

However, a particular reference on Chit 

aubject it desirable, the reader will find 

it treated in the vrorka of Lightlbot und 

Dr. Pye Smith already quoted. 



Tht New Biblical Atlas and Scripture 
Gaztitcer. Imp. 8«o. pp, 96. — We cer- 
tainly live in an age of literary aiixiliaries* 
Burmannt a century agu^ enumerated aids 
for the student, in no less than eight lines, 
beginning " Lexica cum glosais " (Pms- 
mata, 174G, p, 39), but what would be 
\ Maid to those with which we are now sur- 
rounded ? Formerly, when such helps 
were fewer, eminent scholars were formed, 
because they had to toil after the prize, on 
^tlie principle inculcated in the fable of 
I •* The Farmer and his Sons,*' the moral 
[of wbiob is, that " Industry is itself a 
Now helps are become so 
I numeroui a^ to make ignorance the ex* 
ception, and we will hope the beat for the 
result^ as the intellectual tendency of the 
age has extinguished the Sullen»f the 
Westerns, the Brutes, and the Tnilli- 
bers, of whom our grandfathers could tell 
kna. The Introduction to the " New Bibli- 
ical Atlas *' informs u$, that it is designed 
k as an improvement on a former work, pub- 
[lished by the Religious Tract Society in 
1 1640, now that a considerable advance 
l«liai been made In Bibltcal Geography. 
Tlie prlDcipal guide for this work is the 
Bibet Atian of Heinrich Keipert, of Ber- 
. lin, who executed the maps, and wrote the 
bflccompanying memoir, for Dr. Robinson^t 
l'*« Biblical Researches in Palestine."* 
T Other authorities hufe also been con- 
^«ultcd, andtbe *' Physical Map '' (No. ljc.) 
is constructed expressly, by Petermann, 
for tliia work. Descriptive notices of the 
Jewish Tabernacle and Temple are added 
|.ti> those of the maps. The literary por* 
Ition of the work is compiled from Eurck* 
Hiardt, Wilson, Bartb, Kitto, Sec, It cou- 
I tuns twelve maps, with the aforesaid de- 
licriptioos, and an Index or '^ Gazetteer ^* 
(as be term now in vogue h), rtiferring 
'" Dth to passages in Scripture and to the 
Dapt. It is altogether a comprehensive, 
lenil^ and elegant volume. 



Adams's Parliamentary Handbook, — 
The ^st Part consiists of a concise List of 

* For a review of this work, see Geot. 
lag. Oct. le4l,p. 402. 
Gmmt. Mag. Vol. XXXIX 



Peers, in alphabetical order, with their 
connexion a, seats, and town residences* 
The Second Part contains the Constituency, 
Population, and number of Electors of , 
each Place, with the Polls at the kst Elec- 
tions i and the names of the Membera, 
their families, oonnexlons, seats, and town 
residences, all very conveniently arranged. 
For mnny of the. longer notices the Editor 
is iiidt^bted to the members themselves; 
and ibis forms the most interesting por- 
tion of the work, particularly at the com> 
meneement of this Parliament, which con- 
tains 80 many new members. 



Paems. By B. R, Park es.— We arc en- 
couraged to say a few words of thb volume, 
less from what it accomplishes than for 
what it promises. Whether the author 
pursues the path on which she here enters, 
or carries the same earnest spirit Into 
Miction, or into some work of more cod- 
tinuoua thought, we believe she will do 
something well hereafter. But in order to 
this, she must not allow herself to be mis- 
led by admiration for modern models. 
Mrs. Browning in this way is an unsafe 
guide. We do not mean to say that any 
one poem in thb collection is distinctly 
imitative, except in so far as a gcnt>ral 
turn of thought and a fonduess for irregu- 
larity of metre may be reckoned so. Bat 
the peculiarity in Mrs. Browning, which 
renders her able to deal with every sort of 
measure, is her exquisite ear. In this it 
is plain that very few can vie with her. 
We have another and more important 
reason for liking carefully constructed 
ver*e, — that wc believe the thought gene- 
rally comes out more clearly in the pro- 
cess. The most harmonious verse is in- 
variably the most iuteUif^ible j while faulty 
lines most frequently accompany a lesa 
understandable thought. We are told that 
Miss Parkes is a young authoress. We 
therefore hope she will go on and prosper, 
uniting simplicity of cipreaaion with ge- 
nerous and expansive thought and feeling. 



The Life and Correspondence of John 
Foster. By J. E. Ryland, M,A, Vol, L 
Pott 8t»d. (BoA»'« Standard Library.) — 
A copious review of this work appeared 
in our Magazine for August, 1846. Our 
reviewer then observed that as a writer 
Mr. Foster '* must be allowed to stand in 
the first rank of those who, in the present 
age. have been distinguished for originality 
of conception and elegance of language.*' 
We need now only add that Mr, Ryhmd 
(whose name is associated with tlie ac- 
quaintance of Hall as well as Foster) has 
undertaken this work under ilie most ad- 
sjintageous circumstances for a biographer. 
its republication in a more popular form 



66 



MiiOillaneotu JReviewi- 



[Jan. 



is Dot only a proof of iti value, but oon- 
feri a boon on many readers, within whose 
reach it ii permanently brought. Such a 
biography ought not to pass off in the 
rapid circulation of book societies ; for an 
occasional recurrence to it will tend to 
fertilise the mind of attentive and reflect- 
ing readers. 

The Poetical Remains of William Sid- 
ney Walker, formerly Fellow qf TVinily 
College, Cambridge, Edited, with a Me- 
moir of the Author, by the Rev. G. Moul- 
trie, A.M. — This volume, though small in 
size and little attractive to common readers, 
cannot be passed over by us without the 
notice, due to the genius and learning of 
the unhappy subject of it. Those who 
knew the deceased will be gratified and 
pleased with so judicious and kind a record 
of their lost friend ; and those who did 
not, will be struck by a singular and re- 
markable portrait, the attraction of which 
will not be soon or easily removed from 
their mind. 

William SidneyWalker was bom at Pem- 
broke, in South Wales, 4 Dec. 1795, and 
named after his godfather Sir W. Sidney 
Smith. He was descended by his grand- 
mother from the old Milncrs of the North, 
and therefore from the historian of the 
Church. He was born almost blind, but was 
BO far restored to sight by Mr. Ware, that 
a dim speck in each eye alone remained. 
His father died in 1811. Sidney was 
placed first at Doncaster School, then at 
Forest Hill, and lastly at Eton. To defray 
the expenses of the education of her son 
his mother received a few young ladies to 
educate. Sidney distinguished himself at 
Eton by exemplary conduct and high clas- 
sical attainments, obtained many prizes, 
and two scholarships, before he went to 
Cambridge, where he soon became emi- 
nent, being a Trinity Scholar, then gaining 
the Person Prize, then a Craven Scholar, 
and, lastly, a Fellow of Trinity College. 
His application and memory were extraor- 
dinary ; he could repeat every line of Ho- 
mer by rote ; and, induced by a jocular 
remark of Sir James Macintosh, he turned 
a page of the Court Guide into Greek verse. 
This is the light side of the picture; but 
the shadows lie very darkly over the other. 
The many peculiarities of his person, 
manners, and dress, excited the ridicule 
of the boys at Eton, and there was nothing 
oon dilatory in his conduct towards them. 
This ended in a regular and permanent 
eyetem qf unrelenting persecution, and the 
conclusion to which his attached and 
friendly editor arrives is, that ** from his 
peculiarities he was entirely un/U to aaeo- 
triate with echoolbuye in general. Hence 
he amused himself (for some suushine 



was left amid the storms) by writing satires, 
epigrams, and other light effusions, and, 
lastly, by an epic poem called Gustavus 
Vasa, the four first books of which were 
published by subscription in 1813, when 
he was seventeen years old. 

While at Trinity Collejge he attached him- 
self to Mr. Simeon's section of the Church of 
England ; but this was only for a time, and 
was succeeded by a kind of scepticiem, 
which accompanied him through the re- 
mainder of his life. The account which his 
biographer gives of his state of mind, his 
views, hopes, and his desires, after he had 
honourably obtained his fellowship, and of 
their inconopatibility with the desirable 
situation afforded by that (to him) safe 
refuge and harbour from all the disquiets 
of life, is full of painful interest; indeed, he 
seemed under the influence of an evil fate, 
and from the time this most desirable fellow- 
ship was obtained, he had no distinct ob^ 
ject or occupation in life, he chose no pro- 
fession, he engaged in no regular course 
of study, and he was only engaged in 
petty and trivial employments. ** He will 
live all his life (said one who knew him 
well) a bookseller's drudge, and at last be 
run over and killed by a hackney coach, 
while passing from one shop to another." 
After a few years, to the astonishment 
of his friends, he was found to be hope- 
lessly and deeply in debt ; and what makes 
the matter more extraordinary, this is sup- 
posed to be incurred, to a considerable 
extent, for female swindlers, who obtained 
an extraordinary influence over him. 

In 1814 he stood unsuccessfully for the 
Greek Professorship. In 1829, from some 
scruples concerning the doctrine of eter- 
nal punishment, which his friends could 
not remove, he resigned his fellowship, as 
it could not, according to the rules of the 
college, be held for any longer time by a 
layman. With this resignation, as is re- 
marked, ** he unhesitatingly resigned hope 
of future independence, and almost all 

? revision even for present subsistence." 
n 1830 his pecuniary embarrassments 
were fearfully great and pressing; he owed 
i^300 to Cambridge tradesmen, without 
any means of paying them ; and he informs 
his friend Mr. Praed that he has experi- 
enced a slight disorder of the faculties. 
By this generous and kind friend he was 
instantly relieved, his debts were paid, 
52/. a year was secured to him for life, to 
which Trinity College added 30/. more. 
On this income he subsisted till his death. 
During the last sixteen years of his life 
he occupied garrets, or some such miser- 
able rooms, in some court in the neigh- 
bourhood of St. James's, with occasional 
visits to his friends. 
We must, however, draw to a close this 



1858.] 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



67 



singularly painful history, yet not without 
once more quoting a passage from the 
Life, without which we should leave an im- 
perfect impression on the reader of the 
whole of Sidney Walker's character. * * He 
now began to be sensitively conscious of 
the singularity of his appearance, and, 
imagining that all eyes were fixed upon 
him whenever he went abroad, he would 
confine himself to his solitary room for 
weeks together. His sense of hearing 
became so morbidly acute that even in the 
country, and much more in London, he 
vraa fain to stop his ears with cotton, 
and, finding that insufficient, even with 
kneaded crumbt of bread. On a particular 
occasion he called upon a medical friend 
at ten in the morning with a complaint 
that his head had been crushed flat with 
the wheel of a waggon. Vet amidst these 
hallueinatioM hie intellect still retained 
all its original vigour and aculeness, and he 
was pursuing studies and producing works 
from which he anticipated, and his friends 
may be allowed to anticipate on his behaff, 
the eventual reputation qf a Herman or a 
Parson in English literature.'* In 1846 
he was found suffering under an attack of 
the stone, which became incurable, and he 
died at his lodgings in St. James's Place, 
in the autumn of that year, his last days 
being solaced by the kindness and sym- 
pathy of Mr. Derwent Coleridge, his 
friend of five- and- twenty years, whose 
interesting record of those few last days of 
life close the narrative. All we now have 
room for is a specimen or two from the 
poetry of the volume, which fully supports 
the character given by the Editor of the 
talents of his friend, whatever may be its 
efiect upon the general mind of the public* 

STANZAS. 

This poem was written simultaneously 
with another by the late Mr. William M. 
Praed, the two poets sitting side by side 
and rhyming in friendly rivalry. Mr. 
Fraed's poem is subjoined by the Editor. 
A chain is on my spirit's wings 

When through the crowded town I fare, 
Spell-like the present round me clings, 

A blinding film, a stifling air. 

But when amid the relics lone 

Of other days, I wander free. 
My spirit feels its fetters flown, 

And soars in joy and liberty. 

Fresh airs blow on me from the past, 
Stretch'd out above me like a sky. 



* We must add that voluminous notes 
on Shakspere by Sidney Walker, are in the 
hands of Mr. W. N. Lettsom, and a large 
mass of miscellaneous criticism is waiting 
for an editor. 



Its starry dome, mysterious, vast, 
Satiates my soul's capacio^is eye. 

I hear the deep, the sea-like roar 

Of human ages billowing on, 
No living voice, no breeze, no oar, 

One awful sound is heard alone. 
I feel the secret, wondrous tie 

Of fellowship with ages fled ; 
Warm as with man, but pure and high, 

As with the sacred, changeless dead. 

Whate'er they felt, whatever they wrought 
Appear, sublim'd from earthly stains ; 

What transient was is lost to thought. 
What cannot die alone remains. 

What are our woes ? the pain, the fear 
That gloom the world, of time and 
change ? 

No low-bom thought can enter here. 
No hope that has a bounded range. 

Thou good unseen 1 thou endless end 1 
Last goal of hope, last bourn of love I 

To thee these sleepless yearnings tend, 
These views beyond, these flights above* 

Past time, past space, the spirit flings 
Its giant arms in search of thee ; 

It will not rest in bounded things. 
Its freedom is infinity. 

HOW CAN I SING ? 

How can I sing ? all power, all good, 

The high designs and hopes of yore, 
Knowledge, and faith, and love — the food 

That fed the fire of song — are o'er. 
And I, in darkness and alone. 

Sit cowering o'er the embers drear. 
Remembering how of old it shone, 

A light to guide — a warmth to cheer. 
Oh ! when shall care and strife be o'er, 

And torn affection cease to smart ? 
And peace and love return once more 

To cheer a sad and restless heart ? 
The lamp of hope is quench'd in night, 

And dull is friendship's soul-bright eye. 
And quenched the hearth of home delight. 

And mute the voice of phantasy. 
I seek for comfort all in vain, 

I fly to shadows for relief. 
And call old fancies back again. 

And breathe on pleasure's wither'd leaf. 
In vain for days gone by I mourn. 

And feebly murmur o'er and o'er 
My fretful lay — Return, return ; 

Alas 1 the dead return no more. 

It may not be, — my lot of thrall 
Was dealt me by a mightier hand ; 

The grief that came not at my call 
Will not depart at my command. 

Then ask me not, sweet friend, to wake 
The harp so dear to thee of yore ; 

Wait till the clouds of sorrow break. 
And I can hope and love once more* 



68 



Miscellaneous Reviews, 



[Jan. 



When pain has done its part assigned, 

And set the chastened spirit free, 
My heart once more a voice shall find, 
And its first notes be pour'd for thee. 
We thought of giving a specimen from 
the few Latin poems, which are classical 
and elegant; though in the Alcaic Ode 
which closes the volume — ** Qualem in pro- 
fundi gurgitibus Maris" — a severe critic 
might find some laws of metre not strictly 
complied with. Yet perhaps our readers 
generally will be more pleased with the 
beginning of the thirteenth Iliad, translated 
in Walter Scott's ballad and romance style 
of execution. 

I. 
From Ida's peak high Jove beheld 
The tumults of the battle field, 

The fortune of the fight ; 
He marked where by the ocean flood 
Stout Hector with his Trojans stood, 
And mingled in the strife of blood 

Achaia's stalwart might. 
He saw, and turned his sun-bright eyes 
Where Thrace's snow-capped mountains 
rise 

Above her pastures fair ; 
Where Mysians, fear'd in battle fray, 
With far-famed Hippemolgians stray, — 

A race remote from care. 
Unstain'd by fraud, unstain'd by blood. 
The milk of mares their simple food, — 
Thither his sight the god inclines, 
Nor turns to view the shifting lines 

Commix'd in fight afar ; 
He deem'd not, he, that heavenly right 
Would swell the bands of either fight 

When he forbade the war. 

II. 
Not so the monarch of the deep ; 
On Samothrace*s topmost steep 

The great Earth-shaker stood. 
Whose cloudy summit view'd afar 
The crowded tents, the mingling war, 
The navy dancing on the tide, 
The leaguer'd town, the hills of Ide, 

And all the scene of blood. 
There stood he, and with grief surveyed 
The Greeks by adverse Jove outweigh'd. 
He bann'd the Thunderer's partial will. 
And hastened down the craggy hill. 

III. 
Down the steep mountain slope he sped. 
The mountain rock'd beneath his tread. 
And trembling wood and echoing cave 
Sign of immortal presence gave. 
Three strides athwart the pUin he took. 
Three times the plain beneath him shook ; 

The fourth rcach'd Agoe's watery strand, 
Where, far beneath the green sea foam. 
Was built the monarch's palace home, 
Distinct with golden spire and dome, 

And doomed for aye to stand. 



He enters ; to the car he reins 
His brass-hoofed steeds, whose golden 
manes 

A stream of glory cast ; 
His golden lash he forward bends. 
Arrayed in gold the car ascends. 

And, swifter than the blast. 
Across the expanse of ocean wide, 

Untouched by waves, it pass'd. 
The waters of the glassy tide 
Joyful before its course divide. 

Nor round the axle press ; 
Around its wheels the dolphins play. 
Attend the chariot on its way. 

And their great lord confess. 

Such are some of the few relics, now 
collected by the hand of friendship, of 
a most accomplished mind, which, under 
milder fate, might have given to the world 
the richest fruits of its knowledge, learning, 
and genius. Yet even this little volume 
is sufficient to give measure of better and 
greater things, that might have been, and, 
alas I which are not. To the Editor, who 
has so faithfully gathered up the scattered 
relics of his departed friend, and pre- 
sented us with a memoir showing at once 
the judgment of a scholar and the feelings 
of a friend, our thanks are justly due. 



The Monthly Volume, I^o. 56. Good 
Health, ISmo. pp. 192.— The contents of 
this volume exceed its pretensions. The 
entire title will best indicate them. " Good 
Health : the possibility, duty, and means, 
of obtaining and keeping it.'' Pythagoras, 
or whoever was the author of the " Golden 
"Verses'* which go by his name, inculcates 
the same lesson : Corporis inter ea nun- 
quam contemne salutem, (Grotius' trans- 
lation, I. 32.) And Heeren admits it as a 
fact, that he prescribed " a certain manner 
of life, which was distinguished by a most 
cleanly but not luxurious clothing, a re- 
gular diet," Ac. (Political History of 
Greece, p. 245.) We have no doubt that 
this attention to health was one of the 
causes of the eminence to which his fol- 
lowers attained. And if we now meet 
sometimes with exceptions, they ought to 
be regarded as such, and not as models, 
which is one of the worst delusions in 
bodily ethics. The author of this little 
volume, who evidently understands the 
subject well, says, ** These pages are in- 
tended to furnish individuals with practical 
suggestions." (p. 5B.) Thu medicina men- 
tiu has not been omitted, but treated as 
an important part of the subject. When 
so much information on a topic which is 
necessary to all is comprised in so small 
a space, neglect becomes doubly blame- 
able. This volume is neither intended to 



18530 



Miscelianeous Reviews* 



69 



supersede the pbTsiciaoT Qor to make per* 
Botift alarmists, but to promote such a care 
of ooe's health as it b io the power of 
eT?ery body to observe. It would be an 
appropriate present for persons emigrating, 
or entering on any course of life in which 
the preservation of health becomes pecu- 
liarly Dece&sary. 



Walks aftwr Wlid Fhwert ; or, the 
BoioMy of the Bohereena, By Richard 
Dowden (Richard). 12mo. — The paren- 
th^s after the author's name implies, as 
we presume, the sijpiatore under which 
portions of this volume have already ap- 
ared in The Cork Magazine and in The 
dvocate, a Dublin joiirnah The Bohc- 
cns are the green lanes in the neighbour- 
~bood of *' the beautiful city of Cork," — 
**roadlcts" as the word may be trans- 
listed, which gire shelter to plants, and 
*ndly iorite the botanical visitor who 
eka their intimacy. The little hand- 
ok they have suggested is filled with 
Dtich pleasant gossip about the beauties 
and virtues of wild plants, forming a tissue 
of itrange (and often apocryphal) etymo- 
logies, quaint moralisms, poetical tjuota- 
tioDf, and all sorts of hcterogenetius allu- 
sions, amusing withal, but compounded, 
perhaps, with too much recondite learning 
for *' promiscuoui " leaders. We give by 
Lway of specimen what the author terms 
Ilia ** spicy " derivation of Mustard: — 
^^Muitum ardent is ' bnniing hot vinegar.' 
here was always in the world's surgical 
ffiractioe some method of eoutitcr-irrita- 
tioQ ; St. John Long's proceedings were 
not an original idolatry, but an aggravated 
revival of ancient practices, for we find 
that there was an old cure made with 
boiling vinegar, or wine — for both were 
died muti — and adding to these the 
owderof«inapi«made the mu9tum ardcns. 
It was applied as a cataplasm when boiling 
ot, and it was often a cure, no doubt ; 
Flmt at times its only effect was to ' scaud 
poor wretches/ Thi^ eachariotic wss, in 
i milder form, diverted from the outside 
ho the inside of the body, and was taken 
Dy flapdragon- drinkers, and other lire- 
eaters, as u dram ; of course the vinegar 
decreased and the wine and ardent spirits 
Lincreased, in this mustum ardens* At 
lien gt hi however, it settled down into our 
able mustard, and was eaten , as Tusser 
[tells us, with everything : 

^' Brawn, pudding, and BOUBCf 
And good mustard with alt*" 

To thiii day some housekeepers make their 
mustard with vinegar ; atid the common 
dressing for cold and watery salads — the 

|l»/fO-oeirf of old cookery— is mustard^ 

'filt^ond vinegar/' 



Crufftitf* Bomerie Lirieon. l2mo, — 
This is a republication of an American 
translation of the original German work. 
As an account of the Homeric vocabulary, 
it does not odd much to what English 
scholars and schoolboys were already pot- 
seBsed of in the Dictionary of Fassflow, at 
edited and enlarged by Messrs, Liddell 
and Scott. In some respects it is, how- 
ever, more complete, especially in the ex- 
planations of mythological and geogra- 
phical names, Students of the present 
day have a great advantage in having at 
hand such assistances to the comprehen- 
tton of ancient authors in the shape of 
dictionaries of antiquities, critical manuals, 
and lexicons, as enable an ordinary scholar 
of moderate power of imagination to re- 
animate for himself the heroic time in a 
way of which even men of genius of a 
previous generation had do idea. We have 
here, in a form scarcely larger than that 
of the pocket dictionarios so essential to 
the students of modern languages, a lexicon 
which purportii to give a complete critical 
account of every word used in the Iliadi 
Odyiisey, and Homeric Hymns. As far as 
a cursory observation will enable us to 
determine, the lexicographer seems to have 
futtiUed hh purpose of combining iu a 
small compass, by the aid of a neat print 
and a concise style, everything necessary 
for understanding the language of bis 
author. 



Thorpe-- a guiei Enffiiah (ownt and 
EnylUh life therein. By William Mount* 
ford, — No ordinary book, — but one of con- 
siderable power of thought couched in 
very expressive language. The characters 
are not nniforrnly well drawn, and the nar- 
rative, slight as it is, wauUs ihe charm of 
perfect tiiraplieity iu the telling, but it is 
on tbe whole Mr. Mountford^s best written 
and most euggestive book — and this is 
saying much. 

SicJtnest — Ha Trial* and Ble9iing§* 
Rhmgton^ 3rd «ffi7 ion .^- Among what are 
called " practical '* hooks how few arc 
there so pathetically practtcul as this \ 
It is true that not merely the healthy but 
even they who have had experience of 
much bodily weakness sod infirmity, will 
not infallibly appreciate or understand it, 
for it requires^ the dificipliuc of a long 
loneliness, the quieturie of a spirit which 
has passed through matiy forms of sufl'er- 
ing, totake io its varied toucisels, and feel 
its sympathetic power, and adopt its 
humbling yet comforting views. It is, iu 
short, the touching eoufesbion of a scholar 
who has only learned slowly — as all must 
learn whose knowledge ia worth the hav- 
jug — ^lesBOQB of love and gratitude due 



70 



Antiquarian R^Beatches. 



[Jan. 



to an Almighty Teacher. We haye heard 
from trembling lips high testimonies to 
its yalue, and feel that no where can a 
recommendation of such a work be out of 
pUce. 



The Pilgrima of New England, By 
Mrs. J. B. Webb, author of Naomif 8fc, 
— ^A tale compiled from good authorities, 
and pleasingly told, though not very vi- 
gorous or exciting. 

The Barth and tie Inhabiianti, By 
Margaret £. Darton. — This is a valuable 
volume, containing a very clear, correct 
account of the leading facts connected 
with the surface of the earth and its inha- 
bitants ; but avoiding the subject of its in- 
terior structure, its remains of primeval 



times, and many of those phenomena 
which add so greatly to the picturesque- 
ness of physical geography. The title is 
somewhat too large. The human inhabi- 
tants of the earth are all it treats of; yet, 
as far as it goes, it is comprehensive, well 
written, and interesting, worthy of the 
daughter of Maria Hack, whose books will 
always be dear to the young and the old. 

The Earth, Plante, and Man, TYans- 
latedfrom the Danieh qf Schouw and the 
Oerman qf Kobell. By Arthur Henfrey, 
F.R,8, F,L,S.— Out of Mr. Bohn's use- 
ful volumes, which may well accompany 
Mrs. Darton's Earth and its Inhabitants, 
supplying in the completest manner that 
physical information which her work does 
not convey. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Nov, 25. In consequence of the fune- 
ral of the Duke of Wellington being 
solemnized on the 18th November, the 
day fixed for the commencement of the 
session of this Society, the first meeting 
did not take place until the 25th, when 
Lord Viscount Mahon, the President, 
occupied the chair. 

William Henry Cooke, esq. barrister- 
at-law, of the Inner Temple, was elected 
a Fellow. 

The evening was devoted to the discus- 
sion of a proposal to reverse the decision 
of the 27th May last, whereby the annual 
subscription to the Society was reduced 
to two guineas and the entrance fee to five, 
and to return to the former payment of 
four guineas annually with an aamission fee 
of eight. The motion to this effect was 
proposed by Mr. Deputy Lott, and se- 
conded by Mr. Gould; whereupon an 
amendment was moved by Mr. Drake, 
and seconded by Mr. Tite, declaring 
that, in the opinion of this meeting, the 
reversal of alterations which had been re- 
cently agreed to, before then* effect had 
been practically tested, was inexpedient, 
and would tend to lessen that influence 
which the Society, as the only chartered 
'* body of Antiquaries in the kingdom, has 
the power of exerting, and which it ought 
to exercise, in the prosecution of the 
study of Antiquities.'' The discussion 
which followed, and the result of the bal- 
lot (whereby the amendment was carried 
by a majority of 51 to 39) have already 
.been noticed in our December number, 
p. 607. 



Dee. 2. Su- R. H. Inglis, Bart. V.P. 

J. H. Parker, esq. F.S.A. exhibited a 
brass coffer, supposed to be of the 15th 
century, which had been found by the 
Rev. F. Bagot, on the mantel-piece of a 
farm-house in Somersetshire. It is en- 
graved with inscriptions, bu,t they are ap- 
parently merely a portion of the ornament, 
and without meanmg. 

Mr. Cole exhibited a steel box of the 
cinque*cento period, said to have belonged 
to Francis I. A portrait of Napoleon in 
enamel has been inserted in the Ud. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, exhibited a 
fine manuscript, in vellum, of the sixth 
century, containing the Minor Councils 
of France. 

Mr. Ouvry exhibited a miniature, at- 
tributed to Cooper, and said to represent 
the Duke of Richmond, natural son of 
Charles II. 

J. Payne Collier, esq. V.P. made a com- 
munication relative to the family of Lucy, 
of Cbarlecote, near Stratford-upon-Avon. 
It referred to three points.— 1. That Sir 
Thomas Lucy had deer in his park at 
Cbarlecote (denied by Malone) which 
Shakspeare might have been concerned in 
stealing. This fact was proved by an 
original letter from the steward of the 
estate. 2. That the Shakspeares of Row- 
ington, near Stratford-upon-Avon, were 
very unruly, and had had violent disputes 
with the vicar and parishioners, for which 
they were prosecuted on two occasions. 
3. That shortly before 1600 William Shak- 
speare sold a small part of his patrimonial 
property in Henley street,— a fact not 
hitherto known, and of importance in re* 



IB5S.] 



%Hfuariim Reaarches, 



71 



I 



I 



lAiion to the bill now In purUajnent for 
ireitinf that eitate in the Crown. Accord- 
inf to tliG document firovirij^ it,^ the ori- 
gin^l frontage towards Ht:n]i?y street miiat 
have been cooiiderabiy grtatcr than it ap- 
pears to have been at the time of the poet'a 
bequest 

Edward Hawkiua, esq. F.R.A. thm 
brought forward the motion of which be 
had given notice, that a ooiunaittoc of the 
Society ahould be appointed to reTiao itc 
at^ttites and bye-laws. It had previously 
been intiaiated by the Council that no re- 
fi stance would be offered on their port to 
tbii proposition, on the nndcrgtanding 
that the proposed revision should not 
effect the recent alterations in the terms 
of admisaioa and annual subscription, and 
that the ioterral of a fortnight should take 
place before the members of the dommittt'e 
were appointed. The list proposed by Mr. 
Hawkioj was then delivered in o« follows : 
Edward Hawkinsi esq., Sir Fortuoatus 
D warns I Jaraea Hey wood, esq. M,P. Octa- 
fioi Morgan, c«q» M.P. Frederic Ouvry, 
eao, CspL W. H. Smyth, R.N., V.P., and 
William Tite, esq. [These gentlemen were 
appointed, nearly uaanimouslyT at the 
meeting of the 1 6th Dec] 

JOw* 9. Lord Viscount Mahon, Pres, 

Sir John BoUcau, Bart* of Ketteringham 
Hillt Norfolk ; Henry Reeve, esq. of H.M» 
Privy Council Office ; Robert Richnrdson, 
esq* of the Middle Temple and Swansea, 
and David Jardine, e^q. barrister* at- law, 
author of '* Criminal Trials," and other 
works, were elected Fellows of the Society. 

The Rev, E. Bradley eihibited, by the 
hands of Mr. Thorns , a drawing of the 
monument to bir Harry Coninggby, in 
thi burial ground of Arley King's, Wor- 
cesterdhire, conaiiiting of a qnadrangular 
pile of hewn square stones^ on which are 
inscribed, umoLQQ'KUA ik clvarb re- 

POVTTUn Sia UARRT. 

The Rev. J- Pemberton Bartlett ex- 
hibited two denarii found with many others 
ill the New Forest ; they were of Julian 
the Apostate and Valens, and both of 
common types. 

The Earl of Verulam exhibited a large 
quadrangiilar glajis vase containing human 
boaes, recently found in Essex, and which 
has been presented by liis brdahip to the 
British Museum. 

Joieph Beldam, esq. of the Inner 
Teonble, communicated an account of the 
crypt at Royston, called the Lady Roesia'a 
Cave, which he haa lately examined with 
great attention. This pUce was diicovered 
about a century ago by some workmen 
engaged in fixing a post in the market- 
place. Br. Stukeley at once proceaded 
to fttrnish a r'*ri>'" '«' ""«!, lU. -vive and 
Ita contents- , wludi 



be decUrvd c 



m tie aecu 



, and a 



series of paintings on the walls. Tiiis ac- 
count was ridiculed by the Rc<v. Mr* 
Parkin, and the controversy produced 
much angry feeling, — everything, in fact, 
but the truth. Mr. Beldam cxpregaed 
his conviction tbat the opinion that this 
cave was in reality a Roman columbarium 
(as suggested by Mr. Akerman: see our 
July number, p. 79) was well grounded, 
although it was probably really used as a 
cell or oratoiy in the middle ages. That 
a recluse was living in Roys ton in the 
early part of the sixteenth century is 
proved by the churchwardens' books of the 
pariah of Bassi eg bourn. 

Bfic, IG, Lord Viscount Mabon, V.P* 
St A teen new FuUows were added to the 
list of the Society, \h, ; The Rt. Hon. 
Lord Honniker; Mark Anthony Lower, 
of Lewes, schoolmaster, author of The 
Curiosities of Heraldry, Essays on English 
SurnameB, &c. ; Lieut. -Colonel Charles 
Stepney Cowell, of Hertford^street, May 
Fair ; Charles Mackay, esq. LL.D. author 
of Songs of the People, the History of 
Modem Popular Delusions, &c. ; Richard 
Frankum, esq. of Burlington -gardens, 
surgeon ; John Thumhano, M.D. of De> 
vizes; Francis Henry Dickenson, esq. of 
King's Weston Park, Som. late M.P. for 
CO. Somerset; William Hook ham Car- 
penter, esq. Keeper of the Department of 
Prints and Drawings in the British Mu* 
seum, author of ** Sir Anthony Van Dyck 
and bis Contemporaries ;" Williani Kell, 
c*q. Town Clerk of Gateshead ; William 
Hyiton Longstaffe, esq. of Gateshead, 
autlior of a History of Darlington ; Joseph 
Clarke, of Stratford Place, Oxford-atreet, 
architect ; the Rev. John CoUingwood 
Bmce, M.A. of Newcaatle-upoD-Tyoo^ 
author of ''The Roman Well;'* James 
Crofisley, tsq. of Manchester, Frestdeut of 
the Chetham Society; John Feowick,esq. 
solicitor, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne j John 
Evans, of Nash Mills, llemelhempfted, 
pafier- manufacturer ; and William Smith, 
esq. of Upper Soutbwick-street, Treasurer 
of the Arundel Society, 

The Bishop of Oxford, V.P. exhibited 
two globular vessels of coloured gUss, or- 
namented with wavy patterns, not long 
siuc^ dug up near Cuddesdon. They will 
he figured in Mr. Akerman' a Remains of 
Boxon Pagandom. 

Mr. Lemon announced tbat the invita- 
tiou recently read from the chair with 
respect to the Society's collection of Fro- 
clatnation^ had been very handsomely re- 
sponded to by William Salt, esq, F.S.A., 
who has presented a valuable series, wbioti 
commences exactly where that already in 
the Sooiety^s possession leaves oif. Forty 
earlier Proclamations have also been bc- 
rjuired by an exchange of duplicates nego- 
ciatpd with U.M« State Fsp«r Omcv. 



72 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[Jan. 



The reading was then commenced of a 
paper by J. H. Parker, esq. F.S.A., in 
continuation of his remarks on the Eccle- 
siastical Architecture of France, already 
published in the Archseologia. It com- 
mences with some very remarkable de- 
tails respecting the Byzantine edifices of 
Aogoul^me, and is accompanied by beauti- 
ful drawings. The remainder will be read 
after the Christmas recess. 



ARCHiBOLOOICAL INSTITUTE. 

Dec, 3. The Hon. Richard Neville, V.P. 

The attention of the Society having 
been specially directed, during the meeting 
at Newcastle, to the inconveniences arising 
from the existing laws of Treasure-trove, a 
resolution had been passed at the previous 
monthly meeting, proposed by Mr. Neville, 
and seconded by Viscount Strangford, in 
pursuance of which the President of the 
Institute, Lord Talbot de Malahide, had 
requested an interview with the Earl of 
Derby. Mr. Neville now informed the 
meeting, that in company with their noble 
President, and a deputation, including 
Lord Strangford, Mr. Octavius Morgan, 
Mr. Wynne, Professor Donaldson, and 
other members of the Institute, he had 
attended the interview with the Prime 
Minister, who had given most courteous 
attention to the arguments advanced by 
Lord Talbot in favour of a special inquiry 
into the laws of Treasure -trove, and the 
frequent prejudice occasioned thereby. 
He might further state that Lord Derby 
had assured the deputation that, although 
Her Majesty's Ministers would not be 
disposed to originate any measure on this 
subject, he did not apprehend that, if any 
Member of the House of Commons should 
move for such inquiry, the proposition 
would be met with adverse feeling on the 
part of the Government. 

Mr. Neville then read a memoir on re- 
searches carried out during the previous 
month under his direction in Essex. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of the re- 
markable Bartlow tumuli, which had pro- 
duced such interesting antiquities of Ro- 
man times, during the excavations carried 
out by the late Mr. Gage Rokewode, Mr. 
Neville had brought to light extensive 
remains of a villa, and many other traces 
of the Roman occ^ipants of that district. 
He laid before the meeting plans of the 
buildings discovered, with various orna- 
ments and objects of Roman workman- 
ship, obtained a few days since. The 
locality appeared so promising that the 
works were still continued, and a further 
report was promised for the next meeting. 

M. Gerard Moultrie gave an account of 
primeval monumeotB existing in the Isle 
9 



of Arran; he produced a fac-simile of an 
inscription in Runes, which he had found 
in a cavern in that island, with various 
figures and designs traced upon the rock. 
He was desirous to invite attention to the 
existence of numerous stone circles, stones 
of memorial, and other vestiges in that 
Island, hitherto undescribed. 

The chief warder of the Portland Prison, 
Mr. Neale, sent a notice of recent dis- 
coveries in the Isle of Portland, which 
appeared to afford undeniable evidence of 
its having been occupied in Roman times; 
and he related several interesting facts in 
relation to the interments of that period 
lately examined under his direction. 

The Rev. E. Trollope produced draw- 
ings of singular sepulchred memorials, of 
a very early date, found built in materials 
in the walls of Ranceby Church, Lincoln- 
shire. 

The Rev. C. R. Manning reported a 
recent discovery of certain architectural 
remains, believed to be of the Anglo- 
Saxon age, in Norfolk, Roman materials 
being also employed in the construction. 

Mr. Westwood produced a series of 
admirable fac-similes from Anglo-Saxon 
MSS. at Lambeth, Lichfield Cathedral, 
and in the British Museum, and gave an 
interesting disquisition on the peculiar 
character of these works of the scribes in 
the eighth and ninth centuries. 

The Rev. F. Warre described the latest 
results of his explorations at the great hill 
fortress called Worlebury, on the coast of 
Somerset, where a large number of primi- 
tive habitations have been brought to light 
(see the review of the Somersetshire So- 
ciety's Transactions in our present Maga- 
zine); recent excavations have produced a 
large deposit of Roman coins, with other 
ancient remains. 

Amongst antiquities exhibited were rings 
and ornaments, and drawings of fresco 
paintings, from the Roman villa opened by 
Mr. Neville ; and other objects of the same 
age collected in Wiltshire by Rev. E. Wil- 
ton . Mr. Duncan brought a large collection 
of fragments of pottery, coins, decorative 
pavement tiles, and other ancient relics of 
various periods, lately found on the site of 
Kilbum Priory, near London. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan contributed a 
very early example of the table-clock, date 
about 1525, with other specimens of mid- 
dle-age workmanship. Several antiquities 
from Wales were shown by Mr. Wynne; 
and some ring.fibul» of pewter, resembling 
the signs worn by pilgrims to noted shrines, 
from the remarkable deposit at Hoylake, 
on the Cheshire coast, by Mr. Robinson. 
A musket and a caliver, of the time of Sir 
Philip Sidney, were brought by Mr. 
Hewitt, who made some interesting re- 



1853.] 



Antiquarian Researches. 



73 



marks on the earliest forms of fire-arms. 
These curious examples had been preserved 
at Penshurst Castle. 



BRITISH ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Nov, 24. T. J. Pettigrew, esq. V.P. 
Mr. Baigent exhibited a pilgrim's token 
of lead, found at Winchester, representing 
the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, and 
supposed to be of the time of Edward III. 
Mr. Warren exhibited the drawing of an 
enamelled fibula, which he refers to the 
Saxon period ; Mr. Burkitt a rubbing 
of a brass of Ethelred King of Wessex, 
in the chancel of Wimbourne Minster, 
Dorset. Mr. Lynch exhibited a book of 
offices of the fourteenth century, having 
the initial letters illuminated, and the arms 
of the Earl of Arundel, the Earl of Lan- 
caster, EUizabeth and William de Bohun, the 
Earl of Salisbury, the Duke of Gloucester, 
and others, painted within them. Mr. Lott 
exhibited four tradesmen's weights, re- 
cently dug up near Gerard's Hall, of the 
time of Charles I. bearing a crown sur- 
momiting the letter C. Mr. Brewer read 
a paper on the antiquity of the custom of 
marking and stamping weights and mea- 
sures, particularly those of the city of 
London, and submitted a collection of sta- 
tutes and other documents on the subject. 
Mr. Lott illustrated these by several speci- 
mens from the city, and Mr. Von Irving 
made some observations on the weights 
and measures of Scotland. Mr. Pettigrew 
exhibited a number of tiles belonging to 
R. Milward, esq. of Thurgarton Priory ; 
the Rev. Mr. Hugo four spoons and a coin 
of the time of Elizabeth, found on the site 
of an ancient house at a place called the 
Ranglet, near Cooper Fold, in the township 
of Walton-le-Dale, Lancashire ; Mr. Rolfe 
an ivory drinking-horn, obtained at Mr. 
Curling's sale at Deal, apparently of the 
time of Edward IV. ; Mr. Gunston exhi- 
bited some rubbings from military brasses, 
to illustrate specimens of chain-mail and 
basinets. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCAS- 
TLE-UPON-TYNE. 

Dec. 1. At the monthly meeting, Wil- 
liam Kell, esq. town clerk of Gateshead, 
in the chair, Mark Antony Lower, esq. was 
unanimously elected an honorary member. 

The Newcastle volume of the Archseolo- 
gical Institute, now in progress, formed the 
subject of a brief conversation, and the 
members present expressed their determi- 
nation to promote its success in every pos- 
sible way. With this view, it was resolved 
that the Society's woodcuts and copper- 
plates should be placed at the command of 
the Institute. Mr. T. J. Taylor has ac- 
quired, since the reading of his paper on 

Gent. Mac. Vol. XXXIX. 



the Archaeology of the Coal Trade, much 
additional and valuable information — and, 
in particular, the accounts of the Crown 
lessees, to a considerable extent, under the 
Stuarts. These accounts show that a tax 
of 8*. 4rf. was borne by every Newcastle 
chaldron of coals exported beyond the 
seas, exclusive of the " Richmond Shil- 
ling." The papers have come into the 
hands of Mr. Taylor through the kindness 
of Lord Dacre. 

Mr. H. G. Potter read a paper on his 
recent excavations at Burdoswald, which 
have brought to light a fourth gateway, 
far surpassing the others in style of archi- 
tecture and finish. The first trace of it 
was discovered during the last winter, by 
Mr. Boustead, the farmer on the spot, 
who came upon one of the piers while 
digging the foundation of a bull-shed. 
Mr. Potter, with his brother, subsequently 
assumed the work of excavation ; and the 
result of their labours may now be seen 
by visitors. A noble double gateway has 
been laid bare. One of the gates has been 
walled- up, not by the Romans themselves, 
as is proved by the difference of level be- 
tween the floor of the Roman gate and 
that on which the barrier now stands. 
Many circumstances, which presented 
themselves during the researches at Burd- 
oswald, have led Mr. Potter to believe that 
this camp was occupied as a town long 
after the departure of the Romans. The 
floors, for example, of some of the houses 
are about four feet above the flagged 
Roman footpath inside tiie walls ; and the 
ruins of (apparently) Roman structures 
form the foundations of later edifices— 
which, in their turn, have been destroyed, 
or suffered to go to ruin, and earth and 
herbage cover their remains. Gildas and 
Bede tell us in what manner the Picts and 
Scots conquered the Britons after the last 
Roman legion had left the island, and how 
they ravaged the country, drove the inha- 
bitants before them, and made their habi- 
tations like the abodes of wild beasts; 
and tradition adds, that near Burdoswald 
{Amboglanna)f at a place called "The 
Gap," the Picts broke through the WaU. 
The station, it is probable, was reduced to 
ruins, and so remained until the country 
became more settled ; when, tempted by 
its commanding position, and the fact of 
its being traversed by the Maiden Way, 
some Saxon chief of the name of Oswald 
may have repaired its walls and gates, and 
built a town within — the Burgh of Oswald 
— easily corruptible into Burdoswald, 
Birdoswald, or (as it is now often called) 
Bridussel. Here, also, there is reason to 
suppose, the Dunes more recently dwelt 
The wreck of Harrows (or Harold's) Cas- 
tle still survives. Its stones were removed 
L 



Antiquarian Researches. 



74 



some years ago to build the Hill Head 
Hov^, now occupied by Mr. Ramshay. 

In Mr. Potter's quarto tract on Ambog- 
lanna, printed in 1851, is a restoration of 
the " Decuman Gate/' in which he has 
thrown arches oyer the gateway ; and the 
truth of the vision which, with learned 
and sagacious eye, he then imagined has 
been vindicated by his late discoveries. 
To one of the piers of the gateway, 8{ feet 
high, the projecting impost is still at- 
tached, and the first stone of the arch 
rests thereon. The voussoir is two feet 
long, and 15 inches thick at the broad, and 
Hi at the narrow end. At the outside of 
the southern tower of the gate, on the 
ground, was found a broken slab. It ap- 
pears to have fallen from its place, and to 
have been fractured by a stone which had 
aftewards fallen upon it— and which, in- 
deed, was found lymg upon it still. This 
slab bears an inscription which may be 
thus given (two or three of the letters 
being conjectural) : — 

BVBMO DIG IV 
LIO LEO A V6 PR 
PK CO H I AEL DC 
OYI PRABEST M 
CL MENANDER 
T R I B 

Mr. Potter extends the inscription as fol- 
lows : — ** Sublimo Dio Julio Legato Au- 
Sisti Proprtttori Cohors Prima ^Elia 
acorum cui prsest Marcus Claudius 
Menander Tribunus." Julius Severus, 
the noble Romai^whom he supposes to be 
here named, was proprstor of Britain in 
the time of Hadrian, and was recalled, as 
** the most courageous of his generals," to 

fo against the Jews. This was in 133 or 
34 A.D.; and it may safely be concluded 
that about that time was the gate erected 
by Julius Severus, and the slab inserted 
in the wall by the first iElian cohort of 
the Dacians, over whom Menander was 
tribune. Mr. Potter, however, does not 
ascribe the formation of the camp to 
Hadrian. The gate now laid bare is of a 
later and superior style of architecture to 
the camp generally — more highly finished, 
the work of a more refined age. The camp 
is of the time, Mr. Potter inclines to think, 
of Agricola. The tuburbium lay without 
the present gate, and its ruins may still be 
traced with ease, although covered with 
yegetation. Mr. Potter expects to find 
the foundation of a similar gate on the op- 
posite side of the camp; and if so, the 
number of the gates would be six. Four 
have been already described ; one remains 
to be excavated ; the sixth or Prntorian 
gate was destroyed some time ago, to form 



[Jan. 



a barn. Of the four gates that have been 
exposed, only one gateway has not been 
walled-up. Stones, it is conjectured, were 
substituted for soldiers. Mr. Potter's in- 
teresting paper concludes with a few re- 
marks on the rude representations of a palm 
branch and sword, emblems of Peace and 
War, which are engraven on the inscribed 
stone. 



YORKSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

Oct. 21. The annual meeting of this 
society took place in the society's room at 
York, the Ven. Archdeacon Churton in 
the chair. 

Mr. W. H. Dykes, one of the secre- 
taries, read the report of the committee, 
which congratulated the members on the 
increased interest now generally taken in 
the objects of the society ; and suggested 
the propriety of altering the tenth rule, 
which confines its meetings to the city of 
York, whereas it seemed desirable that the 
annual meeting should be held in York, 
and that two other public meetings should 
take place in other towns of the county. 
Two interesting meetings of this character 
have been held during the past year, one 
at Leeds, and the other at Thornton 
Abbey, Lincolnshire, the latter being in 
connection with the Architectural Society 
of that county. The committee suggested 
that meetings during the ensuing year 
should be held at Richmond and Selby, 
which towns possessed several attractions 
and claims upon their attention. They 
had only one grant to record during the 
year, viz. 10/. towards the rebuilding of 
the chancel-arch of Ack worth church. 
Other grants they had been reluctantly 
compelled to refuse in consequence of the 
narrowness of their means. Seven papers 
on various subjects have been read during 
the past year. Certain mural paintings 
having been discovered in Pickering 
church, Mr. Bevan, the society's artist, 
has been sent to Pickering, and the results 
of his labours were exhibited in that room. 
It was expected that the original paintings 
would be obliterated, but the question re- 
mained for the decision of the Archbishop. 

The Rev. R. E. Batty read an interest- 
ing paper on Pontefract Castle; after which 
R. M. Milnes, esq. M.P. for that town, 
exhibited some original letters connected 
with its history, viz. several ft-om Sir 
Thomas Fairfax, Oliver Cromwell, and 
others, and an order relative to the ex- 
ecution of King Charles I. 

Mr. W. H. Dykes then read a paper on 
the paintings discovered in Pickering 
church, which are illustrative of the life 
of our Saviour and the lives of the saints. 



75 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



On the 1st of December the result of 
the appeal to the French people respecting 
the re-establishment of the Empire, was 
declared by the Corps Legislatif, which 
announced that the sum of votes was, — 
Ayes . . . 7,864,189 
Noes . . . 253,145 
Null . . . 63,326 
By a decree dated on the 2d Dec. " Na- 
poleon, by the grace of God and the 
national will, Emperor of the French'* 
assumes the name of Napoleon III. thereby 
recognising the abdication made by the 
first Napoleon in favour of his son. He 
has intimated, however, to foreign powers 
that in assuming this title he has no in- 
tention to assert an hereditary claim to 
the crown ; but that, on the contrary, he 
rests his authority upon the choice of the 
people, and recognises all that has taken 
place since 1814. 

By a second decree of the same date 
three generals of division attain the dignity 
of Marshals of France, viz. Le Roy de 
Saint Arnaud, Minister of War ; Magnan, 
Commander* in- chief of the army of Paris ; 
and De Castellane, Commander-in-chief of 
the army of Lyons. The Emperor's civil 
list is proposed to be fixed at 25 millions 
of francs, to which will be added the 
Crown jewels and moveables, with the 
imperial palaces and the forests, the mu- 
seums and factories of Sevres, Gobelins, 
and Beauvais. The revenues from the 
forests bring three millions. But the 



Crown is charged with the sum of 
7,225,000f., the estimated expense of 
keeping the palaces in repair. To the im- 
perial princes a further sum of l,500,000f. 
is destined. It is understood that the new 
Empire will be generally acknowledged by 
the other Continental powers. Mean- 
while, for the first time in the history of 
the two nations, a visit has been paid to 
Berlin by the Emperor of Austria, and it 
is suggested that this visit is meant as a 
salutary hint to the French that the Ger- 
man great powers remain cordially united 
for the maintenance of the treaties of 
1815, and that any attempt to disturb the 
arrangements on which the peace of Europe 
has so long rested would meet with an 
equally prompt and formidable repulse. 

An important move has been made in 
prosecution of the Burmese war. Prome 
was captured on the 9th of October by the 
force under the command of Commodore 
Lambert and General Godwin. Very little 
resistance was made by the Burmese, the 
British loss only amounting to one man 
killed and eight wounded. Five thousand 
Burmese were posted about six miles from 
Prome, but General Godwin did not wish 
to attack them until be was reinforced. 
The Admiral (C. J. Austen, C.B.) had died 
of cholera, but the troops were particularly 
healthy. The Burmese General and the 
ex-Governor of Rangoon have surrendered 
themselves at the British camp. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 

Since the publication of our last Magazine the Supplement to the London Gazette 
of Friday the 3d Dec. (No. 21,388) enables us to abstract, from the official record 
published by the Heralds* Office under the authority of the Earl Marshal, the following 
correct account of the Ceremonial observed in the Duke of Wellington's Funeral : — 

On the morning of the 1 8th of November, the troops assembled in St. James's Park, 
under the command of Major-General H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, K.G., to 
whom the following Staff was attached : Colonel the Earl of Cardigan, and Colonel 
Lord De Ros, who performed the duties of the Adjutant and Quartermaster-generars 
departments, under his Royal Highness ; and Lieut.-Col. Lord William Paulet, unat- 
tached ; Lieut.-Col. Lord George Paget, 4th light drag. ; Lieut.-Col. Tyrwhitt, Scots 
fusilier guards ; and Capt. H.S.H. Prince Edward of Saxe- Weimar, gren. guards, 
acting as Aides-de-Camp. The force consisted of 
17 pieces of Artillery, 

8 squadrons of Cavalry, and 

6 battalions of Infantry, 



Major- Gen. Jackson 



76 Domestic Occurrences, [Jan. 

which moved off at 8 o'clock precisely, proceeding up Constitution Hill, in the following 

order: — 

Infantry, six Battalions. 

Band of the 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. 

2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. 

Band of 1st Batt. Royal Marines, Chatham Div. 
Major>Gen. Fane ^ Ist Battalion Royal Marines. 

Band of 33rd Regiment. 

Her Majesty's 33rd Regiment. 
Bands of the Scots Fusilier and Coldstream Guards. 
L Battalion Fusilier Guards. 
Major-Gen. Shaw < Battalion Coldstream Guards. 

( Battalion Grenadier Guards. 

Band of the Royal Artillery. 

Artillery — Nine Guns of Field Batteries. 

Band of 17th Lancers. 

Cavalry — Five Squadrons, viz. — 

17th Lancers. 

Band of 13th Light Dragoons. 

13th Light Dragoons. 

Band of 8th Hussars. 

8th Hussars. 

Band of Scots Greys. 

Scots Greys. 

6th Dragoon Guards. 

8 Guns of the Horse Artillery. 
The 17 pieces, commanded by Col. E. C. Whinyates, C.B. 

Band of the 1st Life Guards. 

M.jor.Gen. th. Hon. j t^^tZL'!' """" ^""" ^^'°"^- 

After the troops had moved off, the Procession was formed, in the following order : — 
Messenger of the College of Arms, on foot, in a mourning cloak, with the escutcheon 
of the College of Arms on his shoulder, carrying a staff. 
Nine Conductors, in mourning cloaks, with staves. 
Chelsea Pensioners, in number 83, on foot, who fell into the procession at Charing Cross. 
Twelve enrolled Pensioners, on foot. 
One Soldier from every Regiment in Her Majesty's Service. 
Three Soldiers of Artillery, and three Soldiers of Infantry, of the East India Com- 
pany's Army, representing the Artillery and Infantry of the three Presidencies. 
Thirteen Trumpets, and Kettle Drums. 
Serjeant Trumpeter. 
Pursuivants of Arms, Henry Murray Lane, gent. Bluemantle, and Edward Stephen 
Dendy, gent Rouge Dragon, in a mourning coach, in their tabards over mourning cloaks. 

The Standard or Pennon, borne by Lieut.- Col. John Garvock, supported by 

Capt. Mortimer Adye, R.A. and Lieut. Thomas Sargent Little, on horseback. 

Servants of the Deceased, in a mourning coach, Mr. Collins, Mr. Kendall. 

Lieutenant of the Tower, Major-Gen. Sir George Bowles, K.C.B. in a carriage. 

Deputations from Public Bodies, in carriages : — 
Merchant Taylors' Company : Charles Rickards, esq. Master, John Norman, esq. 
Warden, John Ewart, esq. Warden, and Bonamy Dobree, esq. Member of the Court. 

East India Company : Sir James Weir Hogg, Bart. M.P. Chairman, Russell Ellice, 
esq. Deputy Chairman, William Wigram, esq. Senior Director, and James Cosmo 
Melvill, esq. Secretary. 

Corporation of the Trinity House : Capt. John Shepherd, Deputy Master, Capt. 
George Probyn, Warden, Capt. Gabriel J. Redman, Elder Brother, and Capt. William 
Pigott, Elder Brother. 



1853.] Funeral of the Duke of Wellington. 77 

Barons and Officers of the Cinque Ports : Thomas Hickes, esq. Mayor of Hasting^, 
James Wood, esq. Mayor of Sandwich, Chas. Lamb, esq. Mayor of Dover, and Henry 
Bachiler Walker, esq. Mayor of New Romney. 

Deputy-Lieutenant of Dover Castle, Henry Smart, esq. 

Captains of Deal Castle, Walmer Castle, and Sandown Castle : Earl of Clanwilliam, 
G.C.H., John J. Watts, esq., and Rear-Adm. Sir John Hill. 

Board of Ordnance, and Ordnance Department : Lieut.-Col. F. P. Dunne, M.P., 
Clerk of the Board, Capt. Sir T. Hastings, R.N., C.B., Store-Keeper Greneral, Lieut.- 
Gen. Sir J. F. Burgoyne, G.C.B., Inspector -Gen. of Fortifications, Lieut.-Gen. Sir 
H. D. Ross, K.C.B., Deputy Adjutant-Gen. of Artillery. 

Delegation from the University of Oxford, in two carriages, viz. : Rev. Dr. Cotton, 
Provost of Worcester college, Vice-Chancellor; Rev. Dr. Wynter, President of St. Johu''8 
college ; Rev. Dr. Symons, Warden of Wadham college ; Rev. Dr. Plumptre, Master of 
University college ; Rev. Dr. Tait, Dean of Carlisle, Balliol college ; Rev. Wm. C. 
Lake, Fellow of Balliol college, Senior Proctor; and Rev. H. Pritchard, Fellow of 
Corpus Christi college. Junior Proctor. 

Pursuivant of Arms : George William CoUen, gent.. Portcullis, in a mourning coach, 

with his tabard over bis mourning cloak. 

Band of Her Majesty's 6th Dragoon Guards. 

The Guidon, borne by Lieut.-Col. A. A. T. Cunynghame, supported by Capt. C. 

P. Ibbetson and Lieut, the Hon. A. M. Cathcart, on horseback. 

Comptroller of the late Duke's Household, George Easton, esq. in a mourning coach. 

Physicians to the deceased. Dr. Charles Williams, Dr. Robert Ferguson, and 

W. Hulke, esq. in a mourning coach. 

Chaplains : Rev. Henry Melvill, B.D. Chaplain of the Tower, Rev. R. W. Browne, 

Chaplain of the Forces in the London District, and the Rev. G. Robert Gleig, Chaplain 

General of the Forces, in a mourning coach. 

High Sheriff of the county of Southampton, Francis Jervoise Ellis-Jervoise, esq. 

in a carriage. 
Military Secretary, Col. Richard Airey, on horseback. 
Companions of the Order of the Bath, represented by four,* viz. : General Sir 
Loftus Otway, Vice-Adm. the Hon. Josceline Percy, Lieut.-Gen. William Sandwith, 
and Sir Joshua Rowe. 

Knights Commanders of the Order of the Bath, represented by four,* viz. : Lieut.- 
Gen. Earl Cathcart, Adm. Sir John West, Lieut.-Gen. Sir H. S. Scott (nominated, 
but unavoidably absent), and Sir S. G. Bonham. 

Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, represented by four,* viz. : Lieut.- 
Gen. the Right Hon. Sir Edward Blakeney, Adm. of the Fleet the Right Hon. Sir 
George Cockburn, Bart., Lieut.-Gen. Sir George Pollock, and Viscount Palmerston. 
Two Heralds, G. H. R. Harrison, esq. Windsor, and M. C. H. Gibbon, esq. 
Richmond, in a mourning coach. 
Band of Her Majesty's 2nd Life Guards. 

Banner of Wellesley, borne by Lieut-Col. R. B. Wood, C.B., supported by 
Capt. H. C. C. Somerset and Major John Blakiston, on horseback. 

The Lords Justices of Appeal, Lord Cranworth and Sir J. Knight-Bruce, in carriages. 

Lord Chief Baron Sir F. Pollock, in a carriage. 

Chief Justice Sir John Jervis, in a carriage. 

Chief Justice Lord Campbell, in a carriage. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Rt. Hon. R. A. Christopher, in a carriage. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rt. Hon. B. Disraeli, in a carriage. 

Secretary-at-War, Rt. Hon. William Beresford, in a carriage. 

Judge Advocate- General, Rt. Hon. G. Bankes, in a carriage. 

First Lord of the Admiralty, Duke of Northumberland, in a carriage. 



* Being one of each Class from the Army, one from the Navy, one from the East 
India Company's Service, and one from the Civil Service. 



78 Domestic Occurrences. [Jan. 

Secretaries of State for the Colonial and Home Departments, the Rt. Hon. Sir J. S. 

Pakington, Bart., and the Rt Hon. S. H. Walpole, in one carriage. 

Speaker of the House of Commons, the Rt. Hon. C. S. Lefeyre (representing the 

House of Commons), in his state carriage. 

Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs, Earl of Malmesbury, in a carriage. 

First Lord of the Treasury, Earl of Derby, in a carriage. 

Earl Marshal of England, the Duke of Norfolk, K.6. in a carriage. 

Lord President of the Council, Earl of Lonsdale, in a carriage. 

Lord High Chancellor, 

Lord Saint Leonard's (representing the House of Lords), in his state carriage. 

Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, in a carriage. 

Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General, Capt. Arthur John Pack. 

M Assistant Quartermaster-General, Assistant Adjutant-General, O 

J Lieut. -Colonel John Enoch. Lieut.-Colonel Wm. Sullivan. 

g Aide-de-Camp to the Deceased, Aide-de-Camp to the Deceased, o 

o Capt. the Marques of Worcester. Capt. the Earl of March. ^ 

a 



Quartermaster-General, Adjutant-General, 



O Major-Gen. James Freeth. Lieut-Gen. Sir G. Brown, K.C.B. jr 

A carriage of H.R.H. Prince Albert, drawn by six horses, containing Dr. Lyon 
Playfair, C.B. Gent. Usher; Lieut.-Colonel Hon. Alex. Gordon, Equerry; and Lieut- 
Colonel Francis Seymour, Groom of the Bedchamber to Hii Royal Higlmess. 

A carriage, drawn by six horses, containing Col. the Hon. Charles Grey, Private 
Secretary ; Col. the Hon. C. B. Phipps, Treasurer ; and Lord George Lennox, Lord 
of the Bedchamber to His Royal Highness. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert, in a &rriage drawn by six horses ; at- 
tended by the Marquess of Exeter, K.G. Lord Chamberlain of H.M. Household, and 
by the Marquess of Abercorn, K.G. Groom of the Stole to His Royal Highness. 
Field Officer in Brigade Waiting, Col. W. T. Knollys. 

Heralds, A. W. Woods, esq. Lancaster, W. A. Blount, esq. Chester, and Norroy 
King-of-Arms, Robert Laurie, esq. in a mourning coach. 

The Great Banner, borne by Col. J. C. Chatterton, supported by Lieut.*Col. 
Henry Daniell and Lieut.-Col. John Lawrenson, on horseback. 

Msgor-Gen. de Ebrichsen and Col. Bause, Aide-de-Camp to H.S.H. the Duke of 
Brunswick, representing the Army of Brunswick, in a carriage. 

The Baton of a Captain-General of the Spanish Army, borne by Major-Gen. the 
Duke of Osuna, supported by Col. Don Gabriel de Torres and Colonel Don de 
Augustin Calvet y Lara, in a mourning coach. 

The Baton of a Field Marshal of the Russian Army, borne by Gen. Prince Gortch- 
akoff, supported by Mtgor-Gen. Count fienkendorff and Lieut.-Col. Tchemitzky, in a 
mourning coach. 

The Baton of a Field Marshal of the Pmssian Army, borne by Gen« the Count von 
Nostitz, supported by Gen. von Scharnhorst and Lieut.-Greneral Ton Massow, in a 
mourning coach. 

The Baton of Marshal General of the Portuguese Army, borne by Marshal the Duke 
of Terceira, supported by Lieut-Gen. the Count de Villa Real and Major Don Manuel 
de Souza Coutinho, in a mourning coach. 

The Baton of a Field Marshal of the Army of the Netherlands, borne by Lieut.- 
Gen. the Baron D'Omphal, supported by Capt Gerers and Lieut. W. F. Tindal, in a 
mourning coach. 

The Baton of a Field Marshal of the Hanoverian Army, borne by Gen. Sir Hugh 
Halket, C.B. supported by Colonels Poten and Marenholtz, in a mourning coach. 

The Baton of a Field Marshal of the British Army, borne on a black velvet cushion, 
by Field Marshal the Marquess of Anglesey, K.G., G.C.B., supported by Colonel the 
Duke of Richmond, K.G., and Major-Gen. the Duke of Cleveland, K.G. in a 
mourning coach. 

The Coronet of the deceased, on a black velvet cushion, borne by Clarenceux King 
of Arms, James Pulman, esq. in a mourning coach, : between two Gentlemen Ushers, 
George Shaw Lefevre, esq., and James Heud Pulman, esq. 



1863.] Funeral of the Duke of Wellington. 79 

The Pall-bearers, in two mourning coaches : Grenerals Viscount Combermere, G.C.B., 
Marquess of Londonderry, 6.C.B., Sir Peregrine Maitland, G.C.B., Viscount Hard- 
inge, G.C.Bm Lord 8eaton, G.C.B., Sir Alex. Woodford, G.C.B., Viscount Gough, 
G.C.B., and Sir C. J. Napier, G.C.B. 

Band of the Grenadier Guards. 
THE BODY, 

Placed upon a Funeral Car drawn by twelve horses, and decorated with trophies and 
heraldic atchievements, the hat and sword of the deceased being placed on the coffin. 
On either side were five bannerols of the lineage of the deceased, which were borne by 
the following Officers in the Army, on horseback : Lieut.-Col. Wm. C. £. Napier, 
Lieut.-Col. H. R. Jones, Major J. H. Purves, Lieut.-Col. H. D. Jones, R.E., Lieut- 
Col. Neil Campbell, Lieut.-Col. Randal Rumley, Major Walter Unett, Col. Thomas 
Marten, Lieut-Col. G. F. Paschal, and Col. T. G. Higgins, R.A. 

Garter Principal Kiog-of-Arms, Sir Charles George Young, Knt. in his tabard over 
hii mourning cloak, and carrying his Sceptre, in a mourning coach, attended by two 
Gentlemen Ushers, James Forbes Young, esq. and Charles Waring Young, esq. 

The Chief Mourner, the Duke of Wellington, in a long mourning cloak, accom- 
paniedl by his brother, Lieut.-Colonel Lord Charles Wellesley, and by the Hon. and 
Rey. Gerald Wellesley, and also by his Train-bearer, the Hon. William Wellesley, in 
a mourning coach. 

The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G. and the Marquess of Tweeddale, K.T., Supporters 
to the Chief Mourner, in mourning cloaks, embroidered respectively with the stars of 
the orders of the Garter and Thistle, and the Earl of Momington, in a mourning coach. 

Earl Cadogan, Earl of Gifford, Lord Arthur Hay, and the Hon. George Darner, 
ABsistants to the Chief Mourner, in a mourning coach. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir R. J. Harvey, Samuel Bignold, esq. Assistants to the Chief 
Mourner, Viscount Wellesley and Lieut-CoL Charles Bagot, in a mourning coach. 

Lord Raglan, G.C.B., Hon. Richard Somerset, Earl of Westmoreland, C.C.B.,and 
Lord Burgbersh, in a mourning coach. 

Hon. Julian Fane, Hon. and Rev. Robert Liddell, Rev. G. D. St. Quentin, and 
Viscount Chelsea, in a mourning coach. 

Col. the Hon. G. A. F. Liddell, Lord Cowley, K.C.B., Lord Robert Grosvenor, and 
Culling Smith, esq. in a mourning coach. 

Marquess of Worcester,* Rev. Dr. Henry Wellesley, Richard Wellesley, esq. and 
Lord Hatherton, in a mourning coach. 

Hon. and Rev. the Dean of Saint Patrick, Earl of Longford, Major the Hon. W. L. 
Pakenham, and Capt. the Hon. T. A. Pakeiiham, in a mourning coach. 

Capt. the Hon. F. J. Evans-Freke, Lord Burghley, Capt Edward Pakenham, and 
the Rev. Arthur Pakenham, in a mourning coach. 

Capt. T. Pakenham, Sir Edmund Hayes, Bart. Thomas Thistlethwayte, esq. and 
Thomas Stewart, esq. in a mourning coach. 

John Hamilton, esq. Thomas Conolly, esq. Rev. William Foster, and the Earl of 
EUenborough, G.C.B. in a mourning coach. 

A. F. Greville, esq. Lord Colchester, Viscount Mahon, and the' Hon. R. H. Clive, 
in a mourning coach. 

Lord Downes, K.C.B., Major-Gen. C. G. J. Arbuthnot, Major-Gen. the Hon. 
George Anson, and John Parkinson, esq. in a mourning coach. 

Henry Arbuthnot, esq. Philip Hardwick, esq. and William Booth, esq. in a mourning 
coach. 

The late Duke's Horse, led by John Mears, Groom to the Deceased. 

Private Carriages of the Deceased and of the Chief Mourner. 

Band of the Royal Marines, Woolwich Division. 

Officers and Men from every Regiment in the Service ; consisting of one Captain, a 
Subaltern, a Sergeant, a Corporal, and five Men from every Regiment, headed by 
Major- Gen. George Augustus Wetherall, C.B. Deputy- Adjutant-General. 
Band of Her Majesty's 93rd Highlanders. 

* On miUtfUT duty ia the proceasion. 



80 Domestic Occurrences. [Jan. 

Carriage of Her Majesty the Queen, drawn by six horses. 

Two Carriages representing Her Majesty's Suite, each drawn by six horses. 

Carriage of H.R.H. the Duchess of Gloucester, drawn by six horses. 

Carriage of H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent, drawn by six horses. 

Carriage of H.R.H. the Duchess of Cambridge, drawn by six horses. 

Troops closing the Procession. 



Within Temple Bar the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London in his State Car- 
riage, and attended by the Recorder and a Deputation frpm the Aldermen (eighteen in 
number), by the Sheriffs, and by a Deputation from the Common Council (twelve in 
number), received the Procession. The three carriages containing the Deputation 
from the Common Council fell into the Procession immediately after the Delegation 
from the University of Oxford. The two carriages containing the Sheriffs, and the 
four containing the Recorder and Aldermen, fell into the Procession between tlie 
carriage of the High Sheriff of Hampshire and that containing the Companions of the 
Order of the Bath. 

The carriage of the Lord Mayor, who bore the City Sword, was placed between the 
carriages of H. R. H. Prince Albert and that of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

On approaching St. Paul's the troops moved to the respective posts which had been 
assigned to them ; and upon the Funeral Car reaching the flank of each Battalion, the 
Battalion presented, reversed, and rested upon its arms till the carriage of the Chief 
Mourner had passed its flank. Upon arrival at the Cathedral the Marshalmen and 
Conductors divided and ranged themselves on each side of the foot of the steps without 
the great west door ; the Chelsea and Enrolled Pensioners, together with one Soldier 
from every regiment in Her Majesty's service, the Royal Marines, and six Soldiers of 
the East India Company's armies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, (two Officers from 
every regiment having been previously provided with seats in the nave behind the place 
assigned to the soldiers,) proceeded into the nave and filed off right and left. 

Upon their arrival at the western entrance of the Cathedral, the Field Officers 
carrying the Standard, Guidon, Banners, and Bannerols were relieved : the General 
Officers appointed to carry them in the Church, and who had been provided with seats 
in the centre area, were conducted down the nave to receive them by Mr. Courthope, 
Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms, in attendance at the Cathedral for that purpose. 

The STANDARD by Major-Gen. Sir H. G. W. Smith, Bart. G.C.B. 

The GUIDON by Colonel Richard Airey, in the unavoidable absence of Gen. Sir 
Howard Douglas, Bart G.C.B. , G.C.M.G., who had been nominated to that duty. 

The Banner of WELLESLEV, by Lieut-Gen. Lord Saltoun, K.T., K.C.B. 

The GREAT BANNER, by Lieut.. Gen. Sir James Macdonell, K.C.B. 

The Bannerols of the Lineage of the Deceased were borne by the following 
General Officers, who remained at the western entrance until the Body was deposited 
on the bier : — 

Cowley and Cusac, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Wilson, K.C.B. 
Trevor and Mostyn, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir Thomas M'Mahon, Bart K.C.B. 
CowLVY and Loptus, by Lieut.-Gen. Lord Charles S. Manners, K.C.B. 
Hill and Parsons, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir A. B. Clifton, K.C.B. 
Cowley and Peyton, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir Willoughby Cotton, G.C.B. 
Hill and Boyle, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir G. H. F. Berkeley, K.C.B. 
Wellesley and Hill, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir George Scovell, K.C.B. 
Hill and Trevor, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir Frederick Stovin, K.C.B. 
Wellesley and Pakenham, by Lieut.-Gen. Sir W. F. P. Napier, K.C.B. 
Hill and Morres, by Major-Gen. Lord Sandys. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert, carrying his Baton as Field Marshal, preceded 
by the Lord Mayor bearing the City Sword, passed to the centre area and took his 
seat on the right hand of the Chief Mourner ; the Lord Mayor stood near H.R. High- 
ness ; the Suite of His Royal Highness took their places near His Royal Highness. 
H. R. H. the Duke of Cambridge occupied a chair near H, R. H. Prince Albert ; his 
Staff remaining near His Royal HighneM. 
10 



1 858.] Funeral of the Duke of Wellington, 8 1 

The Body, when taken from the Car, was received at the great western entrance by 
the Bishop of London, the Dean, Canons, and Prebendaries of the Cathedral, together 
with the Minor Canons and Choir. Upon moving up the nave the Minor Canons, 
Vicars Choral, &c. commenced singing the sentences in the Office for Burial, *• I am 
the Resurrection and the Life.'* 

The Body was borne into the Church, attended and supported as follows : — 
The Spurs, borne by G. H. R. Harrison, Esq. Windsor Herald. 
Helmet and Crest, borne by M. C. H. Gibbon, Esq. Richmond Herald. 
Sword and Target, borne by A. W. Woods, Esq. Lancaster Herald. 
Surcoat, borne by W. A. Blount, Esq. Chester Herald. 
The Officers representing the Array of Brunswick, and the Foreign Batons of the 
Deceased, carried by the distinguished Foreigners, supported as before. 

The Baton of the Deceased, as Field Marshal of the British Army, borne by Field 
Marshal the Marquess of Anglesey, K.G., G.C.B., and supported as before. 

The Coronet and Cushion, borne by Clarenceux King-of-Arms. 
The Body, between the eight Pall -bearers, and ten Supporters of the Bannerols. 

THE BODY. 
Garter Principal King-of-Arms. 

THE CHIEF MOURNER, 

His Grace the Duke of Wellington, ' 
Supporter, in a long mourning cloak. Supporter, 

The Marquess of his train borne by the The Marquess of 

Tweeddale, K.T. Hon. William Wellesley. Salisbury, K.G. 

Hon. and Rev. Gerald Wellesley. Lord Charles Wellesley. 

Assistants to the Chief Mourner (already named). 
Relations and Friends of the Deceased (already named). 

The Body being placed on a Bier and the Pall removed, the Hat and Sword were 
taken from the Coffin, and the Coronet and Cushion placed thereon, as also the 
deceased's Baton as Field Marshal of the British Army. The Choir then chanted the 
39th Psalm, " JJixi Custodiam," and the 90th Psalm, " Domine, Rrfuginm^*' (the 
music of the two Psalms composed by the Earl of Mornington,) immediately after 
which an Anthem was sung (the music by Mr. John Goss, Organist of Saint PauPs). 
The Dean, Dr. Milman, then read the lesson; after which •' Nunc Dimittis " (the music 
by Beethoven) was chanted, followed by a Dirge, accompanied by Trumpets (the music 
also by Mr. Goss). The Dirge being concluded, the Body was lowered into the Vault, 
amid the solemn strains of the Dead March ; after which the Choir sang " Man that t* 
bom of a woman,*' and other sentences (music by Croft and Purcell). After the com- 
mittal, the whole Choir sang the sentence ^^ I heard a voice from Heaven,*^ (music by 
Croft) ; the remainder of the Service followed ; and at the conclusion of the Collect was 
sung the Anthem ''His Body i* buried in peace** (from Handel's Funeral Anthem), 
and the Burial Service being ended. Garter advanced from his place at the foot of the 
coffin, and proclaimed the Style of the deceased, as follows : — 

" Thus it hath pleased Almighty God to take out of this transitory life unto His Divine 
Mercy, the late Most High, Mighty, and Most Noble Prince, Arthur, Duke and Mar- 
quess of Wellington, Marquess Douro, Earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellmgton and 
Baron Douro ; Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of 
the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, one of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy 
Council, and Field Marshal and Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Forces ; Field 
Marshal of the Austrian Array, Field Marshal of the Hanoverian Army, Field Marshal 
of the Army of the Netherlands, Marshal- General of the Portuguese Army, Field- 
Marshal of the Prussian Army, Field Marshal of the Russian Army, and Captain-Gene- 
ral of the Spanish Army ; Prince of Waterloo, of the Kingdom of the Netherlands ; 
Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo and Grandee of Spain of the First Class ; Duke of Vittoria, 
Marque?s of Torres Vedras, and Count of Vimiera in Portugal ; Knight of the Most 
Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, and of the Military Orders of St. Ferdinand 
and of St. Hqrmenigilde of Spain ; Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of the Black 
Eagle and of the Red Eagle of Prussia ; Knight Grand Cross of the Imperial Military 
Order of Maria Teresa of Austria; Knight of the Imperial Orders of St. Andrew, 
St. Alexander Newski, and St. George of Russia ; Knight Grand Cross of the Royal 
Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword; Knight Grand Cross of the Roya( 

Gbnt. Mao. Vol. XXXIX. M 



82 



Domestic Occurrences* 



[Jan. 



and Military Order of the Sword of Sweden; Knight of the Order of St. Esprit of 
France ; Knight of the Order of the Elephant of Denmark ; Knight Grand Cross of 
the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order ; Knight of the Order of St. Januarius and of 
the Military Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit of the Two Sicilies ; Knight Grand 
Cross of the Supreme Order of the Annunciation of Sardinia ; Knight Grand Cross of 
the Royal Military Order of Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria ; Knight of the Royal 
Order of the Rue Crown of Saxony ; Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Military 
Merit of Wurtemberg ; Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of William of the 
Netherlands ; Knight of the Order of the Golden Lion of Hesse Cassell ; and Knight 
Grand Cross of the Orders of Fidelity and of the Lion of Baden." 

The Comptroller of the Household of the Deceased then advanced, and breaking his 
Staff, delivered the pieces to Garter, by whom they were deposited in the Grave. 

The hymn, " Sleepers awake," (the music by Mendelssohn,) was then sung, and 
■ upon its conclusion, the Lord Bishop of London pronounced the Blessing ; after which, 
upon a signal given, the guns at the Tower fired, and the Trumpets sounded a wail at 
the Western Entrance of the Cathedral, which concluded the Ceremony. 

Mr. Goss presided at the Organ, and Mr. Turle, Organist of Westminster Abbey, 
led the Choir. 

main features of which were as follow : — 
The Malt-tax and the Hop-duty to be re- 
duced each one-half; by which a loss of re- 
venue.would be caused of nearly 2,000,000/. 
a year. To make up this deficiency, the 
House-tax to be doubled ; shops to be 
charged a shilling in the pound instead of 
sixpence ; dwellings to pay eighteenpence 
in the pound instead of ninepence ; and 
the limit of exemption to extend so as to 
include all houses, whether shops or 
dwellings, rated at 10/. a year. The In- 
come-tax to be extended to all whose 
yearly gains by trade or labour amount to 
100/. a year ; and to all whose incomes 
are derived from property,, in lands or 
houses, amounting to 50/. a year. Indus- 
trial incomes to be only charged, however, 
two per cent, while those derived from 
property remain as now, chargeable with 
three. The duty on Tea to be gradually 
reduced in the course of seven years from 
two shillings and fourpence halfpenny per 
pound to a shilling: in 1853 fourpence 
farthing to be taken off, and every suc- 
cessive year twopence until 1860. Pilot- 
age to be referred to a committee or com- 
mission ; and certain passing-tolls and light- 
dues, together with salvage-charges, to be 
transferred to the Consolidated Fund. 

A decided opposition to the whole of 
the Chancellor's scheme was taken on 
Friday the 10th of Dec. when an amend- 
ment to the order of the day for a Com- 
mittee of Ways and Meane was moved by 
Mr. T. Duncombe and seconded by Mr. 
John Walter. The debate was continued 
during four evenings to Tharsday the 15th, 
when the Committee divided, Ayes S86, 
Noes 305, being a majority against Minis- 
ters of Nineteen. The next day, after a 
Cabinet Council, the Earl of Derby re- 
paired to Osborne to tender the resigna- 
tion of Ministers to the Qnetfn ; which 
was graciously accepted, and the Earl of 
Aberdeen was summoned to her Majesty 'u 

COUDCils. 



The Gazette contains a catalogue of the 
distinguished persons who were present at 
the solemnity, in addition to those who have 
been already described as taking a more 
active part. After naming H.R.H. the 
Duchess of Cambridge and H.R.H. the 
Princess Mary, the names of sixteen foreign 
ambassadors are recited, with whom were 
placed the Dyke of Brabant and Count of 
Flanders, sons of the King of the Belgians, 
H.S.H. the Prince of liciuingen, K.G., 
H.S.H. the Prince of Hohenlohe Langen- 
burg, G.C.B., and Prince Hermann of 
Hohenlohe Langenburg. The Peers to 
whom tickets were issued were in number 
136 ; the Members of the House of Com- 
mons, 132; the Peeresses (including 27 
dowagers), 186 ; eldest sons of Peers, II ; 
Members of the Privy Council, 37 ; Vice- 
Chancellors, Justices of both Benches, and 
Barons of the Exchequer, 13; Law Officers 
of the Crown, 6 ; Knights Grand Cross of 
the Bath (besides those more i)rominently 
engaged), 3 ; Knights Commanders, 25 ; 
Companions, 109 ; Aide-de-camps to the 
Queen, 16 ; members of the Town Council 
of Edinburgh, 24; of the Municipal Council 
of Dublin, 15 ; of the delegation from the 
University of Oxford (not taking part in 
the procession), 26 ; members of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, 1 7 ; deputation from 
the Cinque Ports, 12 ; Corporation of the 
Trinity House, 8 ; deputation from the 
East India Company, <). 

Not only was the day of the Duke's 
funeral observed by a general cessation 
from business, by churdh services, and 
other tokens of public observance in most 
of the towns of the united kingdom, but 
at the capital of Prussia a funeral service 
was performed in the garrison church, 
which was attended by detachments of all 
the troops in garrison in Berlin, the gene- 
rals, officers, and princes of the royal family. 

On the 3rd Dec. the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer (Mr. Disraeli) disclosed his 
Budget in the House of CommoiUy the 



83 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



Gazette Preferments. 

-iVof, 11. Royal Artillery, brevet Major T. A* 
Shone to be Lieut.-Colonel. 

Nov. 19. Sir Robert Horsford, Knt., Chief 
Justice of Antigua and Montserrat, to be C.B. 
of the Civil Division ; William a'Beckett, esq. 
Chief Justice of Victoria, knighted by patent. 

Nov. 22. Sir Samuel George Bonhara, K.C.B. 
Governor and Commander in Chief of Hong 
Kong, and Plenipotentiary and Chief Superint. 
of British Trade in China, created a Baronet. 

Nov. 23. The Master of the Rolls, Vice- 
Chancellors Turner and Kindersley, the Dean 
of the Arches* Court, the Judge of the High 
Court of Admiralty, Mr. Justice Crompton, 
Sir Jatnes Graham, Bart., the Right Hon. 
J. W. Henley, Sir John Dorney Harding, Knt., 
Advocate-General. Sir William Pag-e Wood, 
Knt., Richard Bethell, esq., John Rolt, esq. 
Q.C., and Wm. M. James, esq. barrister-at- 
law, to be Commissioners for continuing the 
Chancery Inquiry^ and for inquiring into the 
law and jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical and 
other Courts in relation to matters testamen- 
tary.— Royal Marines, brevet Majors Hugh 
Evans, S. R. Wesley, Assist.-Adjutant-Geu., 
and Thomas Fynmore, to be Lieut. -Colonels.— 
The Hon. R. Bingham, late Secretary of Lega- 
tion at Naples, to be Charg(^ d'Auaires and 
Consul-General in the Republic of Venezuela ; 
W. R. Holmes, esq., now Vice-Consul at 
Batoom. to be Consul at Diarbektr; Robert 
Campbell, esq., now Vice-Consul at Venice, 
to be Consul at Dunkirk ; Daniel Brooke 
Robertson, esq., now Vicc-Consui at Shang- 
hai, to be Consul at Amoy ; John George Cope 
L. Newnham, esq., to be Consul in Liberia. 

Nov. 26. 41st Foot, Cant. James Eman to 
be Major.— Hospital Staff, Surgeon Thomas 
David Hume, M.D., from 82d Foot, to be Staff* 
Surgeon of the First Class ; Assist. -Surgeon 
Cosmo Gordon Logie, M.D., from Cth Dra- 
goons, and Surgeon Henry Cooper Reade, from 
Sd Foot, to be Staff Surgeons of the Second 
Class.— Brevet, Capt. T. C. Hammill, Ceylon 
Rifle Regt. to be Major and Lieut. -Col. in the 
Army: Capt. Henry Phillipps, of 6th Foot, to 
be Major and Lieut.-Colonel in the Army. 

Nov. 30. >\illiam M. Edye, esq. to be Res. 
Magistrate of Fort Peddie, Cape of Good Hope. 

Dorsetshire Yeomanry Cavalry, Capt. Henry 
Frampton to be Major.— South Hants Militia, 
Robert Miller Muiidy, brevet Major h. p. 
R. Art., to be Major.— 1st West York Militia, 
the Hon. Egremont William Lascelles to be 
Major.- Tower Hamlets Militia, Capt. W. L. 
Grant to be Major. 

Decl. Colonel Everard Wm. Bouverie, of 
the Royal Horse Guards, to be Equerry in 
Ordinary to Her Majesty. 

Dec. 2. Knighted by patent, Charles Robert 
Mitchell Jackson, esq. Puisne Judge of the 
Supreme Court at Bombay. • 

Dec. 3. 17th Foot, brevet Lieut-Col. Philip 
M'Pherson, C.B. to be Lieut.-Col. ; Capt. O. P. 
Bourke to be Major.— 97th Foot, Major-Gen. 
H. A. Proctor, C.B. to bo Colonel —Staff", 
Lieut.-Col. John Stoyte, from I7th Foot, to be 
Insp. Field Officer of a Recruiting District. 

Dec. 13. Royal Marines, brevet Majors J. T. 
Brown and E. A. Parker to be Lieut. Colonels. 

Dec. 14. Francis Hartwell Henslowt, esq. 
to be Clerk of the Legislative Council of Van 
Diemen's Land ; Capel Hanbury Williams, • 
esq. and Sir Theophilus St. George, Bart, to 
be Assistant Magistrates for Natal, in South 



Africa.— 93d Foot, Major-Gen. Edward Parkin- 
son, C.B. to be Colonel. 

Dec. 15. Royal Artillery, brevet Major A. A. 
Shuttleworth to be Lieut.-Colonel. 

Dec. 17- F. D. Orme, esq., now paid attachd 
at Frankfort, to be Secretary of Legation at 
Copenhagen; Capt. the Hon. E. A. Harris, 
R.N., now Consul for Denmark, to be Charge 
d'Affaires and Consul-Gen. in Peru; James 
Baker, esq., now Consul at Vigo, to be Consul 
at Barcelona ; and Were Giffard Nicolas, esq., 
now Consul at Mobile, to be Consul at Vigo. — 
85th Foot, Capt. J. W. Grey to be Maior.— 
Brevet, Capt.OCavenagh, 32d Bengal N. Inf. to 
be Major in the East Inaies — W. C. Howatson, 
M.D. to be Assistant Surgeon to the Forces, 

Dec. 20. Wyndham Aloreton Dyer, esq. to 
be Consul at Mobile; Bridges Taylor, esq. to 
be Consul for Denmark and the Oresound; 
George Harris, esq. to be Consul-General in 
the Lombardo- Venetian States and the Aus- 
trian territories on the Adriatic ; George Can- 
ning Backhouse, esq. to be Judge in the Mixed 
Court established at the Havannah, under the 
Treaty of J835, between Great Britain and 
Spain, for the Abolition of thfe Slave Trade. 

Dec. 21. Adam Murray Alexander, esq. to 
be Second Puisne Judge of British Guiana. 

Dec. 22. Dr. Henry Holland, of Brook-st. 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and 
a Physician in Ordinary to H.ll.H. Prince 
Albert, to be one of Her Majesty's Physicians 
in Ordinary, vice Dr. W. F. Chambers, res. 

Dec. 23. Belford Hinton Wilson, esq., some 
time Charge^ d'Affaires and Consul-General to 
Venezuela, to be K.C.B. of the Civil Division ; 
and William Fenwick Williams, esq. Capt. 
R. Art. and brevet Lieut. Colonel in the Army, 
some time employed on a special service in 
Turkey, to be CB. of the Civil Division.— 
Capt. George Edw. Wade to be Civil Commis- 
sioner and Collector of Taxes for the Seychelles 
Islands.— Thomas Kelly, esq. M.D. to be an 
Assistant Magistrate for the district of Natal. 

Dec. 24. 11th Light Dragoons, brevet M^jor 
John Douglas to be Major.— 79th Foot, Major 
E. J. Elliot to be Lieut.-Colonel ; brevet Major 
John Douglas to be Major.— 95tli Foot, Major 
James Webber Smith to be Lieut.-Colonel: 
Capt. Henry Hume to be Major.— 1st West 
India Regt. Assist.-Surgeon Robert John Cole, 
M.D., from 20th Foot, to be Surgeon.— 3d West 
India Regt. Major Inigo William Jones, from 
nth Light Dragoons, to be Lieut.-Colonel — 
Brevet, Capt. John Digby Murray, of 5th Dra- 
goon Guards, to be Alajor and Lieut.-Colonel 
in the Army : Capt. Tobias Purcell, of the 90th 
Foot, to be Major and Lieut.-Col. in the Army. 



Civil Preferments. 

J. Pitt Taylor, esq. barrister-at-law, to be 
Judge of the Lambeth County Court of Surrey, 
and of the County Court of Kent, to be holden 
at Greenwich, vice Chilton, Q.C. deceased. 

Joseph Long, esq. to be President of the 
Money Order Department in the General Post 
Office, Dublin. 

F. Winn Knight, esq. M.P. for Worcester- 
shire (W.), to be Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Poor I^w Board, rice Sir J. R. Tennent. 

Wm. Edward Huller, esq. late of 14th Light 
Dragoons, to be Deputy-Governor of the De- 
fence convict hulk at Woolwich. 

Mr. James Martin, of Ross, to be Auditor 



84 



JScclesiasiical Preferments: 



[Jan. 



of Union Accounts in the Poor Law Board, 
Ireland. 

Major-General the Hon. George Anson. M.P. 
to be Giairman of the London and North 
Western Railway Company, vice Glyn. 



Naval Preferments. 

Nov. 25. Captains T. Fisher to Magicienne 
and J. H. H. Glasse to Vulture. 

Nov. 27. Comm. Cumberland, to London. 

Dec. S Capt. Sir T. Herbert, KC.B. to be 
Rear^Adrairal of the Blue. 

Rear-Adrairal the Hon. Sir Fleetwood B. R. 
Pellew, C.B., K.C.H. to be Comraander-in- 
Chie/of the East India Station.— Capt. George 
Goldsmith to Sidon.— Commanders Thomas 
Miller to Penelope; O. Cumberland to Ocean. 

Dec. 11. Comm. Hyde Parker to Cruiser. 

Dec.25. Vice-Adm. Sir T.Cochrane, K.C.B. 
to be Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth.— 
Comm. G. T. P. Hornby to be Captain.— 
Lieut. \V. Burden to be Commander.— Capt. 
W. W. Chambers to Desperate steam-sloop ; 
Capt. Francis Scott to Odin steam-frigate; 
Capt. C. G. E. Patey to Ampbion steam- 
ftigate ; Capt. Hyde Parker to Firebrand 
steam-frigate; Comm. Hon. George H. Doug- 
las to Cruiser steam-sloop ; Comm. J. C. Bailey 
to Aledea steam-sloop; Comm. George Parker 
to Barracoota st^m-sloop ; Comm. Richard 
Purvis to command Argus steam-sloop. 



Members returned to serve in Parliament. 

Abingdon.— Lord Norreys. 
Bury St. Bdmund't.—i. H. P. Oakes, esq. 
Durham City.— Lord Adolphus F. C.W. Vane. 
Liebtirn. — Rosrer Johnson Smyth, esq. 
Merthyr TVr/t'i/.— Henry Austin Bruce, esq. 
Oldham.— "Wm. Johnson Fox, esq. 
P^/^ftoroM^A.— Geo. Hammond whalley, esq. 



Ecclesiastical Prefermknts. 

Rev. C. Dodgson (R. of Croft), Canonry-Resi- 
dentiary in Ripon Cathedral. 

Rev. D. Foley, Kilbragh Prebend, dio. Cashel. 

Rev. C. Wolsley, St. Werburgh*8 R. and to the 
Chancellorship of the Cathedral Church of 
St. Patrick, Dublin. 

Rev. E. Allen, Castle Church P.C. Staffordsh. 

Rev. C. H. Archer, Throwley R. Devon. 

Rev. W. D. Astley, East Langdon R. Kent. 

Rev. T. Bacon, King's Worthy R. Hants. 

Rev. J. Baillie, Nunburnholme R. Yorkshire, 
and the Canonry of Wistow.in the Cathedral 
Church of York. 

Rev. F. H. Barker, Sedgeberrow R. Wore. 

Rev. W. Bateson, Woodhead P.C. Cheshire. 

Rev. A. Baynham, Charlton V. Wilts. 

Rev. R. E. Brooke, St. Luke P.C. Cheetham, 
Manchester. 

Rev. H. N. T. Busfield, St. James P.C. Brad- 
ford, Yorkshire. 

Rev. G. Craig. Aghanloo R. dio. Derry. 

Rev. A. K. Crowder, Episcopal Chapel, Dunse, 
Scotland. 

Rev. J. B. Dalison, Manton R. Lincolnshire. 

Rev. H. J- A. F. de Salis. Fringford R. Oxf. 

Rev. R. D. Duffield, Calcethorpe C. Line. 

Rev. H. P. Edwards, LUnspythid V. Breck- 
nockshire. 

Rev. T. R. Ellis, GyfRn P.C. Carnarvonshire. 

Rev. J. Farlam, Tosside P.C. Yorkshire. 

Rev. J. T. R. Fussell, Chantry P.C Somerset. 

Rev.C Galway, Lower Badoney R. dio. Derry. 

Rev. P. I*. Gilbert, High Halden R. Kent. 

Rev. T. Gurney, Ail Saints* and St. Julian R. 
Norwich. 

Rev. W. Hayes, Stockton-Heath P.C. Cheshire. 



Rev. H. E. Heaton, Llangedwin P.C. Denb. 

Rev. M. Hetherington, Mungrisdnle PC.Cumb. 

Rev. W. Hughes, Killymard R. dio. Raphoe. 

Rev. R. S. Hunt,. Holy Trinity P.C. Mark- 
beach, Kent. 

Rev. E. H. James, Letcomb-Regis V. w. East 
and West Challow C. Berks. 

Rev. G. Jenkins, Manaton R. Devon. 

Rev. W. Knight, OuRhtibridge P.C. Yorkshire. 

Rev. — LyalT, St. Dionis Backchurch R. Lond. 

Rev. T. B. Macnamara, St. George P.C. Water- 
loo, Lancashire. 

Rev. W. Marshall. Ilton V. Somerset. 

Rev. W. S. Maturm, Thurgarton R. Norfolk. 

Rev. C. Maxwell, Lower Cumber R. dio. Derry. 

Rev. J. Milner, Elton R. Durham. 

Rev. W. D. Morrice, Longbridge-Deverill V. 
Monckton-DeverillC.andCrockertonC. Wilts. 

Rev. J. Orr, St. Andrew Episcopal Chapel, 
Rodney Street, Glasgow. 

Rev. T. C. Owen, Llanbedrog R. w. Llanvi- 
hangel-B&chelleth C. and Llangian C. Carn. 

Rev. R. Parker, Well R. w. Claxby V. Line. 

Rev. H. V. Pickering, Ashfield P.C Suffolk. 

Rev. IL S. Pigot, Horwich P.C. Lancashire. 

Rev. H. A. Plow, Bradley R. Hants. 

Rev. S. B. Pluramer,Tintinhull P.C. Somerset. 

Rev. R. A. Prichard, Ashley R. Wilts. 

Rev. W. St. G. Sargent, Kimberley PC. Notts. 

Rev. P. H. Schoales, Arva P.C. dio. Kilmore. 

Rev. C. Seymour, Lower Movllle R. dio. Derry. 

Rev. C C Sharpe, Ince P.C. Cheshire. 

Rev. A. C. Smith, Yatesbury R. Wilts. 

Rev. T. P. Sproule, Scaldwell R. Northampt. 

Rev. T. Stanton. Burbaue V. Wilts. 

Rev. A. H. Stogdon, Ovington R. Hants. 

Rev. R. H. Taylor, Halwell R. Devon. 

Rev. E.Tliompson, Middleton-Scriven R. Salop. 

Rev. J. T. Walker, Ashdon R. Essex. 

Rev. J. W. S. Watkin, Stixwold V. Lincolnsh. 

Rev. E. B. Webster, Bassenthwaite P.C Cumb. 

Rev. S. K. Webster, Ingham V. Lincolnshire. 

Rev. — Wilkinson, Attercliflfe P.C. Yorkshire. 

Ih Chaplaincies. 

Rev. G. L. Allen, Deesa, H.E.I.C.S. 

Rev. S. T. Bartlett, D.C.L. to Lord Downes. 

Rev. S. Real, H.M.S. Queen.' 

Rev. T. W Bennett, H.M S. St. George. 

Rev. J. V. Bull, Madras Division of the Army 

of Ava. 
Rev. H. B. Burney, Bengal Division of the 

Army of Ava. 
Rev. H. F. Edgell, HM.S. Agamemnon. 
Rev. F. Fisher, Mooradabad and Nainee Tal, 

Rev. j'. Gollock, St. Luke's, Cork. 

Rev. C D. Hamilton, Cawnpore, H.E.I.C.S. 

Rev. E. Horton, City and County Lunatic 

Asylum, Worcester. 
Rev. W. J. Jay, Futtehgurh, H.E.I.C.S. 
Rev. H. Kirwan, Lucknow, H.E.I.C.S. 
Rev. F.Lipscomb, Union. Hampstead, Middx. 
Rev. G. Morison, Nusseerabad and Neemuch, 

H.E.I.C.S. 
Rev. C S. P. Parish, Moulmein, H.E.I.C.S. 
Rev.W. H.Schwabe, Malcolm Peth, H.E.I.C.S. 
Rev. E. C Wilshere, British C. Gottenburg. 
Rev. J. Wise, the Island of Ceylon. 

Collegiate and Scholastic Appointments. 

Rev. J. L. Balfour, Head Master Kepier Gram- 
mar School, Houghton-le-Spring. Durham. 

Rev. T. Chevallier, Sub-Waraen of University 
College, Durham. 

G. Clarke, M.A. Third Mastership, Reptun 
School. Derbyshire. 

Rev. F.J. Fairhead, Head Mastership, Guild- 
ford Grammar School, Surrey. 

J. Roberta, M.A. Classical Lecturer, Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge. 

Rev. T. Williams, Vice-Principal of St. Mark's 
College, Chelsea. 



1853.] 



Births — Marriages . 



85 



BIRTHS. 



yotK 5, In Park place, St. jAmea^a» Lady 

Geor;riana Codrinffton, a ilau. 13. In the 

East Indies, Mn. Arthur St. Jdlin Mtldmay, a 

f'On. H. In Upper Uarli^y at. Laiiy LaurA 

Palmeft » iliu.— 19. Ar Taw^rock court, 

evoii, the wife of Edward Wetd, esq, adAii. 

—At Oare honw?, near Marlbomii^(li, the wife 
Major Peura, C.U. Madras Kn^. a son.— 

. In Chester terr. Reffcnt^s park, the Hon. 

Ady Pearson, a da ti, At Stanford rectory, 

_ fore, the wi/e of th? Itev. Edw. W. Ini^mm, 

a dau. 23. At Hsle house, near Salislmry, 

Lady Adeta Goff, a dau. At Washinirton 

r« (t.>ry. the wife of the Hon. and Rev. L. W. 
* I 11 nil, .1 diD. — -At Anfordby. Leir. the wife 

|.t. Cheslyn, a dau, -At KJrskill hajl, 

^hJrc, the wife of Frnncis Darwin, estj. a 

«.u(j. 27. At Woburn pi, the wife of W. P. 

Jonifff. esq. barrisler'al-law* a son. At 

A,^fnin»ter, the wife of John HaK'g:eraton^ ejsq. 

&f Reed^ifDouth. Northurab. aaonand heir. 

It Toulon, the wife of Gen. the Rt, Hon. Sir 

Pred, Adiiin, GLMi, a son. 2*J, At Lonp- 

Ijrd caatle^ the Viscountesa Folkestoue, a son. 

Lately. At Worthing-* thy wife of Lieut.- 
rOeii. Sir John Foraler ritzjfnrahl, M.P. n son. 

Dfc, I. At Hintle?*hajji hall, Suffolk, the 

Hon. Mrs. Llovd Aniitruthrr, twin soni^. 

At sledmere, ti)e Hon. Mrs. Cholnionijeley, a 

on. At J^ithhury bouses Ihe wife of Col. 

Bt. Quintin^ a dnu x\t HawAted hDuse, near 

'Bury St. EdmundX the wife of H.C Metcalfe, 

■■q. a daa. a. At 8pft. Uel^'^iuni. Lady FJiia- 

_ioth Oaborn, a dau- In Lowndes sq. Lady 

_Wttd, Kerr, a dati. — —a. At Torquav*, the wife 

of Sir I'aul Hunter, Bart, a dau.' 4. At 

YonlMton park, the wife of Sir Arlhnr Chiches- 
ter, Bart, a dan.— At Eaton |>L the wife of 
Ralph Ludlow Loi>es, esq. barrister-at-law, a 

son. At Halbirnie. N.IL Lady Geor^ana 

Balfour, a *on. At the Goldrood, near Ii«* 

wich. the wife of Cant. lJ»con. R.N. a son. 

s, .\t Snmmerhi II, Kidderminster, tbe How. 

Alr*,Uaughton, ft dan II. At Blackadder, 

Lady Houston lioswell, a sou. At Pcntloe 

liati, fiaaex, the wife of Henry Ctildham Mat- 

their. e»j, a 60n and heir. At Barton Fields, 

near Derby, the wife of Henry Chaudon Polu, 

esq. a dan. 12. At Dowti Ampiiey, Lady 

Marii P^ijsnnby, a dau. 13. At Wykehain, 

t ' isDowne, a son. 14. At llra- 

'' rnts, tliHC Hon. Mrs. (Jraut, wife 

' i * J rant, C.B. Aide-de-Canip to the 

tju) Lu, a i>.i>ii. 15. At Grafton st. the wife 

of Thomifl ThistlelhwAyte^ esq. of South wick 

pnrk, Hanta, a dau. In Gloucester sq. the 

wife ttfA, Mackinnon, esq. M.P. a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

April 70. At !^t. John*!* CotIe«;e, near Auck- 
land, NfW Zealand, Willinrn AVAV/^ jnn. Fellow 
of SI . John's college, and eldest son of the Re\*. 
DntiM I Ntl.ill. Rrrinc nf F(«^, ,^:iU,i^, tu Anna, 
' I Sydney. 

d Hope, 

I il,youu>r- 

st =0D uf ttic latt Chjik':, Hal hay, .M.H, of 

E>Aventry, ta Harrictte, fourtli dmi. of Cant. 

I are, Ule 31st Dratroons, wnd niece of W. W. 

lird, caq. late Ofputy-Governar of Ben^nl. 

J8fei»f- ^0. At Niisseerahnd, Lieut, jnmes 

_ lenny Urnderton, Bombay Art, to I'^mity- 

Nltia, youngest dau. of Col. Dunsterville, UX 

Bombay Grenadiers, 

i'j At Hull. Joseph Clarke, esq. of Wad- 

'•-, near LiiicoWi, to f'albarine, only 

Charles Ard^n. esu, of Douji^laa, 

I , and jfranddau^hli^r of late Dr. 

Aidcii, uf Jiitiverley. 



Oet. 7. At Ilathp Charles Johu Cka§kvr^^ 
esq. eldest son of the tter. J. P. Cbt'sshyrc, 
Rector of Little llaatnn, F>>«4ex, to Mary* 
Susan, second tlau- of the late Lan^ley Gnce, 
caq. of Loath, Line— At Portsi'a, the Rev. 
A. N. Brcttin, Rector of Taney, Dublin, eldest 
son of the late .Major-Gen. Brcdin, Royal 
Art. to Harriett, ddest dau. of Peter Peme II, 

esq. of St. .Stephen's, Canterhury. At St. 

John's, Paddinjfton, Frederick C. (iatHMen, 
esc]. of the Inni;r Tetnpk', to Letitia- Marin, 
dau. of Capt. Alfred Ctmpmun, of Up|>er Hyde 

Park street. At ReaifinKi^ Harvey- Winson, 

third son of Tliomahi FellotcM, esq. u( Mouoy 
hill, Kert.H* to Harriet-Coup land, elde^at dau. 
of Rear- Ad lu- James Arthur Murray, only son 
of the late Lord William Murmy. At Sand- 
hurst, Berks, Harry C. D. (PVaUaghan, esq. 
of 324 Regt. to Laura, youngest <fau, of the 
Rev. H. Pantons, Iiirutnbent of Sandhurst. 

At Shrewsbury, the Rev. John I'ardievt 

Vicar of the pariah of St. Chad, to Catherine- 
Anna, dau. of W. IL Stokcsi emi. of Shrewa- 
bury. 

9. At Cheltenham* the Rev. F. W. Harrii, 
M.A. of Ton. coll. Camb. to Marifaret-Elixa- 
beth, widow of Lawrence liawstornts esq. of 
Petjworthani priory. Lane. 

11. At Holbcton, Devon, Comm. Charles 
Spry Xormdtt, RN. to Fanny- Kli/.B-Jane, eldeat 

dsu. of Lieut. Charles W. Poynter, R.X. 

At Cro^icotnhe, tlur Rev. J, Gfldurt, Curate of 
Shepton Mallet^ to Miss Nalder, sister to F.J. 
Nalder, esq. Aulicitor. 

12. At Great Chart, Kent* Louis C. H. 
Tonge^ esq. Lieut. H.N. to Cliailotte-Auipustai 
dau. of the Hon- Geor!?;e Pellew, D.D. Bean of 

Xorwieh, and Rector of Churl. At T{ttten- 

ham, Ihe Hev. Henry Arthur Giraitd, to Anna, 
second dau. of Johu Ijiwfofd, eatj. of Down* 

hills, Tottenham, At Lang^ley, Buck:^, Cha?«. 

John Laxt, esq. of Windsor,, to Al arin, youn^e^t 
dau, of the late William Nash, esq, uf LnnKley. 

At Pin hoe, the Rev, R. Hope lioopt-rt M.A. 

of Farnn<:don,. Berks, to Anite, eldest dau. of 
William Petheram, esq. of Piuhoe. At Chel- 
tenham, the Rev. J nines iVie*^, M.A. Curate 
of High Harroffnte. to Isabella- 1 louf^la.^^, d<i.u. 
of Ihe late John JiJ;unuel Baruesi, esq. of St. 

Petersburg-h and CUieltcnbam. At lixeter, 

the Rev. 'Kobert-G reason, eldest son of the 
Rev. R. Gorton, Rector of Bad inirhani, Suffolk, 
to Eniily-Geor;^Uia, only dnu. of Robert Pinhey, 

esq|. late of the Aledicsl Board, Bombay.- 

At Bistre, Mold, the Rev. W. H. MalUeuit, 
M.A. Senior Fellow of Clare hall^ Cambridife, 
and Rector of KIniseir. Suffolk, to Elliabeth, 
Kccond dau. of Kfiward Pemberton, esq. of 

PlftS'la^fl, near Mold. At Croscomhe, sum. 

Rev. James Giidftrt, M.A. second son «f Rev. 
Richard John Geld art, D.D. Rector of Little 
Billing, Northampton, to M^ry-Etlxabeth, dau, 
of the late Francis Isaac Wilder, estj.— At 
Manftfidd* the Rev\ G. W. Unimetd, M.A. 
Vicar of East Mnrkhaio, to Violette, only dau. 
of Samuel Hurt, e»q. of Mansfield. 

13. At St. George's Hanover aq. John Baw- 
deu P<trki$f, esq. u. Art. eldetit son of the late 
Henry Parkin, eaq. Inspector of Naval llos* 

fitals and Fleets, to Ehzabeth, only dau. of 
saac Brooke, eso, of Ipawich.— At Berrinjc- 
ton, Shropshire, Martin FitzWilliam Maiden, 
esq. son of J. Maiden, esq. MD. of W^orcester, 
to Emily-Harriet, -secotid dau. of John Quicke, 

esq. Newton St, Cyrei, Devon. At Bidston, 

CheMhire. and previoualy uciunJiiiL!' to the rites 
of the Church of Uom**.! ^irJ, esq. 

(»ttotnan Consul ttt Li- —t g^n of 

Joseph Mussabini, esq. on ; , id nephew 

of the Archbishop nf Smyriiiii, to Ak^ne^, youngf- 
est dau. of the Inte Rev. Jrxiepb fiuwer, of 

Wjiverton, near Chester At PU mouth, 

Lieat. Johi) Cta^wriffAtt (LN. to llelenaoAu* 



86 



Marriages, 



[Jan. 



Sista, dau. of Capt. Beveroudt, late of 58th 
eg^iment. 

14. At Paddington, Richard Owen Arm- 
strottfft esq. yoaneest son of the late Owen 
Armstrong:, esq. of Dublin, to Hannah, eldest 
dau. of the late J. H. Davidson, esq. M.D. of 

Edinburgh. At St. Pancras New Church, 

John Gut/, esq. of The Cedars, Hampton Wick, 
to Sarah, only dau. of William Henry Vernon, 
esq. andfranddau. of the late Thomas Edward 

Sherwooa, esq. of Mecklenburgh sq. At 

Michelmersh, the Rev. Chas. Beresford Titmer, 
Curate of March wood, to Marv-Matllda, vounif- 
est dau. of the Rev. James Davies, of Hraish- 
field house, Romsey. At St. Mary's Lam- 
beth, Alfred AusUn. esq. of Her Majesty's 
Ordnance, Pall Mall, to Helen -Elizabeth- 
Willsher, eldest dau. of George Harrison 
Rogers-Harrison, esq. F.S.A. Windsor Herald. 

At Wokingham, Berks, Frederick M. »%/- 

«jyn, esq. of tne Inner Temple, to Elizabeth, 
youngest dau. of the late James Hayward, esq. 

At Lough Crew, co. Meatli, Capt. Richard 

Blackwood Pricft R.A. son of James Price, 
esq. of Saintfield house, co. Down, to Anne- 
Maria, younger dau. of the late Col. T. F. Wade, 

C.B. of Ravenscroft, Cheshire. At Youl- 

greave, J. G. Crompton, esq. of Chesterfield, 
to Millicent-Ursula-Mary, dau. of the late 
Henry Smedley, esq. 

17. At York, the Rev. H. M. Scott, Vicar of 
Ockbrook, Derb. to Mary, only surviving dau. 
of the Rev. S. Hey, late Vicar of the same 
place. 

18. At Paris, Tlionias Norton, esq. some- 
time Chief Justice of Newfoundland, to Au- 
gusta-Sophia, widow of James Hill Albony, of 

St. George's place, Hyde nark corner. At 

Charlton, near Dover, C. W. Maudes esq. late 
H.E.IC.S. to Emily, dau. of the late Samuel 

Brooke, esq. of Finchley. At Benenden, 

Kent, the Rev. William Thornton, M.A. to 
Susanna-Catherine, youngest dau. of the Rev. 
Daniel Boys, Vicar of Benenden. 

19. At Trinity Church, Marylebone, (). W. 
Hawtrey £famf//on, esq. of James street, St. 
James's pk. to Dorothea-Laura, fourth dau. of 
the late Henry St. George Tucker, esq. of Port- 
land pi. At Clannaborough. Maj. Geo. Mal- 

colm, Bombay Army, to Wilhelmina-Charlotte, 

youngest dau. of the Rev. H. A. Hughes. 

At Long Ditton, the Rev. J. P. TomliMonf 
second surviving son of the late Vice-Adm. 
Tomlinson, to Emily-Agnes, youngest dau. of 
the late Thomas Taylor, esq. and the Lady 
Lucy Taylor. At Horstead. the Rev. Ran- 
dall Burroughety son of II. N. Burroughes,csq. 
M.P. to the Hon. Emily Ilarbord, dau. of the 

late lx)rd Suffield. At St. Stephen's, near 

St. Alban's, Edward Hugessen Knatchbull 
JJuffessen, esq. eldest son of the late Eight < 
Hon. Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart, to Anna- 
MariaEIizabeth, younger dau. of the Rev. 
Marcus Southwell. At St. George's Hano- 
ver square, Edward Ritherdon, esq. to Isabella- 
Mary, dau. of George Gates, esq. of Charleston, 

Soutti Carolina. At Downe, Kent, Thomas 

Denne, esq. to Mary-Anne, dau. of the late 
John Laidlaw, esq. of Dominica. 

90. At Weston-under-Liziard, Staff. Robert 
Clive, esq. M.P. eldest son of the Hon. R. H. 
Clive, M.P. to Ladv Mary Bridgeman, youngest 

dau. of the Earl of Bradford. At Bayswater, 

Peregrine Taylor Bingley, esq. second son of 
the late T. B. Bingley, esq. Bengal Horse Art. 
to Caroline-Haughton, dau. of the late John 
Haughton James, esq. of Jamaica, and widow 
of the late Lieut.-Col. Clarke, Gren. Guards. 

At Beeston, Notts, the Rev. Octavius 

Claydon, Curate of Bredwardine, Herefordsh. 
son of Charles Claydon, esq. of Cambridge, to 
Eleanor-Markham, eldest dau. of the late Rev. 
J. B. Williams, Vicar of Llantrissaot, Glam. 



21. At St. George's Hanover sq. the Rev- 
William Gilson Humphry, Vicar of Northolt, 
Middlesex, to Caroline- Maria, only dau. of the 

late Geo. D'Oyly. D.D. At Fyfield, Hants, 

Edward John AldertnAn, esq. of Kintbury, to 
Catharine, dau. of the Rev. Wm. Elliot, late 

Rector of Simonburn, Northumb. At Tros- 

ton, Francis-Charles- Freeman, second son of 
Jonas Maiden, M.D. Worcester, to Harriet- 
Lucas, youngest dau. of Lieut.-Gen. Morse, 

Troston hall, Suffolk. At Carisbrooke, l.W. 

Henry Derraot Dnly, esq. Bombay Fusiliers, 
son of Lieut.-Col. Daly, of Daly's Grove, Ire- 
land, to Susan-Elizabeth-Ellen, only child of 
the late Edw. Kirkpatrick, esq. of Southamp- 
ton. At Peel, Lane. James-Allen, eldest son 

of Richd. Howton, esq. of Grappenhall, Chesh. 
to Sopliia-Aston, youngest dau. of the Rev. 
George Whitlock, Incumbent of Walkden. 

23. In Bath, the Rev. C. C. Wilson, MA. 
second son of the Rev. W. Carus Wilson, 
of Caaterton hall, Westmoreland, to Mary- 
Jervis, youngest dau. of the late Rev. J. P. 

Maud, Of Swamswick, Som. At Hampstead, 

William Ashton Shepherd, H.E.I.CS. son of 
Rev. W. Shepherd, B.D. Rector of xMargaret 
Roding, Essex, to Sarah, eldest dau. of An- 
thony Highmore, esq. of Hampstead. At 

Castlerea, Roscommon, the Rev. Arthur //^</<', 
jun. Vicar of Kilmactranny, to Elizabeth, se- 
cond dau. of the Rev. John (). Oldfield, Rector 
of Castlerea. 

25. At Trinity Church, Marylebone, T. W. 
Waldy, esq. of Egglescliffe, co. Durham, to 
Fanny-Louisa, eldest dau. of Felix Bean, esq. 
of Pnnstead, Sussex. 

26. At St. Martin's-in-the-fields, Frederick 
Ulrick, eldest son of the Right Hon. Sir James 
Graham, Bart, of Netherby, to the Lady llor- 
mione St. Maur, eldest dau. of Lord Seymour. 

At St. Peter's Pimlico, Edward Dumerqur, 

esq. late Capt. Madras Army, son of the *late 
Charles Dumergue, esq. of York pi. to Eliza- 
beth-Anne, dau. of John Perry, esri. of Enton 

square. At Lanerrost abbey, the Rev. Thus. 

Colbeck, of Nether Denton rectory, to Sarah, 
youngest dau. of George Shadforth, esq. of 

Gilsland. At Surbiton, the Rev. Michael 

Seymour Rdgell, third son of the Rev. E. 
Edgell, of Frome, to Jane, eldest dau. of the 

late John Eastwood, esq. At Bolton- Ic- 

Moors, the Rev. Richard Sedgtcick, B.A. In- 
cumbent of St. Martin's-at-Oak, Non^ich, to 
Mary-Jane, second dau. of John Woodhouse, 
esq. At Walton West, Pemb. the Rev. Ed- 
ward Burnard Acquire, Vicar of Swansea, to 
Letitia-Surman, dau. of the late Thos. Bowen, 

esq. of Johnston hall, Pembrokeshire. At 

Bassalcg, Monm. Robert-Gully, eldest son of 
Robert Cullum, esq. Comptroller of H.M. Cus- 
toms, Dover, to Catherine-Margaret, seventh 

dau. of Lieut. William Phillips, R.N. At 

Brighton, the Rev. Wm. Chetwynd Stapt/lton, 
Rector of Maiden, and Chessington, Surrey, 
to Elizabeth- Biscoe, youngest dau. of the Rev. 
Robert Tritton, Rector of Morden. At Kil- 
kenny, the Rev. Thomas William Garde, Resi- 
dentiary Preacher of the Cathedral of Cloyne, 
to Sophia, eldest dau. of the late Richd. Colles, 
River View. 

27. At Chilham, William Augustus Munn, 
esq. of Throley house, Kent, to Marianne, 
eldest dau. of James Beckford Wildman, es«|. 
of Chilham castle ; and at the same time, the 
Rev. Walter Hamilton, Curate of Brenchley, 
Kent, and third son of Andrew Hamilton, es(|. 
of Streatham common, Surrey, to Ellen, third 

dau. of Mr. W'ildman. At Bredlleld, Suffolk. 

George Spackman, esq. of Bradford, Wilts, t(» 

Sophia, dau. of the Rev. G. Crabbe. At 

Childwall, the Rev. William G. WiUon, M.A. 
Rector of Forncett, Norfolk, to Maria, dau. of 
Samuel Holme, esq. of HoUnestead, Liverpool. 



1853.] 



Marriages. 



87 



28. At Marham, Capt. the Hon. P. Oliphant 
Murray, brother to Lord Elibank, to Harriett- 
Phillips, youngest dau. of James CoUom, esu. 
of Hele liridg^e villa, near Stratton, Cornwall. 

At Tunbridge Wells, William Henry Ben- 

nettf esq. of 30th Regt. son of George Bennett, 
esq. Q.C. of Sodylt hall^ Shropshire, to Fanny, 
youngest dau. of William Keating, esq. bar- 
rister-at-law. At Clifton, the Rev. Andrew 

B. Pain, Incumbent of Bury, co. Huntingdon, 
to Frances-Mary, second dau. of R. C. Court, 
esq. of Cotbam, and granddau. of the late Rev. 

T. D. Fosbroke, F.S.A. At Egham, Surrey, 

George, third son of the late Randolph Home, 
esq. to Ellen, only dau. of Major Timbrell, 

C.B. late of Bengal Art. At Brorapton, 

James Hill Alboui/, Capt. R. North British 
Fusiliers, to Eliza-Jessie, youngest dau. of the 
late Rev. Joseph Cowell, Incumbent of Tod- 

morden, Yorksli. At St. Marylebone, C. C. 

Rolletton, esq. Lieut. 84th Regt. son of the 
Rev. John Rolleston. Vicar of Burton Joyce, 
Notts, to Anna-Elizabeth, relict of F. L. Dick, 
esq. and dau. of the late C. E. Layard, esq. 
Ceylon Civil Service. At Everton, the Rev. 

C. A. Swainson, M.A. Fellow of Christ's coll. 
Cambridge, son of A. Swainson,esq. Liverpool, 
to Elizabeth, dau. of Charles Inman, esq. Ever- 
ton. At Framfield, Sussex, the Right Rev. 

Owen Emeric Vidal, Bishop of Sierra Leone, 
to Anne- Adelaide, fourth dau. of the Rev. H. 

Uoare, Vicar of Framfield. At Aldenham, 

Herts, the Rev. John//M^/*t'*, Vicar of Penally, 
Pemb. to Frances-Jane, third surviving dau. 

of the late Samuel Fox, esq. At St. Pancras, 

Dr. J. Russell Reynolds, of Leeds, to Marga- 
retta-Susannah, only dau. of the Rev. Robert 
Ainslie, of Mornington road, Regent's park. 
AtChildwall, Lane. Lieut.-Col.Jowf*, com- 
manding the Carbineers, to Harriett-Elizabeth, 
second dau. of Joseph N. Walker, es(i. of Cal- 
derstones, near Liverpool. 

30. At Jersey, William Lovelace Dumareiq, 
esq. R. Art. to Selina-Maria, eldest dau. of 
Capt. Childers, and widow of Major Oakes 

Moore, of the 44th Regt. At Wclton, John 

Ranuhay, esq. of Naworth, Cumberland, to 
Cecilia-Clementina, second dau. of Richard 
Lacy, esq. formerly of Clayton hall, near Ripon, 
and niece to Thos. Thomi)son, esq. Town Clerk 

of Hull. At St. Marylebone, Thomas Dunn, 

esq. of York gate, Regent's nark, to Louisa, 
younger dau. of the Rev. J. L. Turner, Chap- 
lain of Aske's hospital, and Lecturer at St. 
Giles's Cripplegate. 

Nov. a. At St. Mary's Bryanston sii. the 
Rev. Charles Brian Leigh, Rector of Gold- 
hanger and Little Totham, Essex, to Olympia, 
eldest dau. of the late Richard H anbury, esq. 

3. At Hertford, George Schuyler Cardew, 
esq. M.D. Bengal Army, to Mary-Anne-Sophia, 
eldest dau. of Philip Longmore, esq. of Hert- 
ford castle. At Weston, near Bath, Capt. 

A. M. Hatckint, R.N. to Mary-Hickes, second 

dau. of the late Col. Spiccr, R.A. At St. 

James's Piccadilly, James Harrington Tre- 
veiyan, esq. Major 60th Rifles, to Helena, 
youngest dau. of Raleigh Trevelyan, eai^. of 
Nether Witton, Northumberland. At Wool- 
wich, Capt. G. Anderson, 15th Bengal N. Inf. 
to Annette-Charlotte, youngest dau. of the 
late Robert Uniacke, esq. and Lady Mildred 

Uniacke, of Woodhouse, co. Waterford. 

At Lea, Queen's Co. the Rev. Abraham Go^ 
Rector of Uuncormack, Wexford, to Elizabeth, 
second dau. of the late John Ridgeway, esq. 
of Ballydermolt house, King's County. 

4. At Malvern, N. E. B. Kindenley, esq. 
5th Madras N. Inf. to Annie, eldest dau. of 
Geo. Robinson, esq. of Mansfield Woodhouse, 
and granddau. of D'Ewes Coke, esq. of Brook- 
hill, Derb. At the Whim house, Peeble- 

shire, James Augustas Erskine, esq. AttisUnt 
Commissary-GeD. second surviving son of the 



late Hon. Henry David Erskine, of Mar, to 
Elizabeth- Bogue, dau. of George Brodie, esq. 
Advocate, Historiographer Royal for Scotland. 

At St. John's Paddington, Alfred Daniel 

Chapman, esq. eldest son of Capt. Alfred Chap- 
man, of Upper Hyde Park street, to Madeline- 
Emily, only dau. of Robert Hanbury, esq. of 

Poles, Hefts. At Milverton, Warw. the Rev. 

Robert Martyn Athe, eldest and only surviving 
son of the Rev. Robert Ashe, of Langley house, 
W^ilts, to Letitia, youngest dau. of the late 

Capt. Daly, formerly of 53d Regt. At St. 

James's Piccadilly, John Sambrook Crawley, 
esq. eldest son of Sam. Crawley, esq. of Stock- 
wood, Beds, to Sarah- Bridget, second dau. of 
the late F. O. Wells, esq. of the Bengal Civil 

Serv. At Boughton-Monchelsea, Mr. John 

Russell Freeman, third son of William Free- 
man, esq. Millbank st. to Lucretia, younger 
dau. of John Selby, esq. At Churchill, Edin- 
burgh, William Wood, esq. Accountant, to 
Margaret -Parker, fourth dau. of the late Rev. 

Thomas Chalmers, D.D. LLD. At Kirby- 

moorside, John Tinsley, esij. of Warrington, 
to Ellen, eldest dau. of Richard Chapman, esq. 
M.D. of Kirbymoorside. 

6. At St. Peter's upon Cornhill, Robert 
William Newman, esq. barrister-at-law, to Pau- 
lina-Sophia, only^dau. of the late Rev. Robert 

Watts, Rector of St. Benet's,Gracechurch. 

At Dublin, the Rev. Thomas Atkinson, Rector 
of Doon, Limerick, to Elizabeth, dau. of the 
Ven. Henry Irwin, Archd. of Emly. 

9. At Finedon, Northamptonshire, the Rev. 
Henry Ellison, Rector of Melsonby, Yorkshire, 
to Julia-Esther, third surviving dau. of the 

late Rev. S. W. Paul, Vicar of Finedon. At 

St. Mark's, St. John's Wood, Nicholas, third 
son of the late Dr. Nugent, of Antigua, to Jane- 
Ellen, fifth surviving dau. of the late Rev. 
Henry Taylor, Rector of Stoke, near Grantham. 

At Aston-on-Trent, Derb. Lionel Skipwith, 

esq. sixth son of the late Sir Gray Skipwith, 
Bart, to Nanette, fourth dau. of the late Thos. 

Walker, esq. of Ravenfield park, Yorkshire. 

At Felton, Northumberland, Henry Ames, esq, 
to Elizabeth, only dau. of Major Hodgson 

Cadogan, of Brenkburne priory. At Cheri- 

ton Bishop, John R. R. Godfrey, esq. eldest 
son of Major Godfrey, H.E.I.CS. of Exeter, to 
Jane-Mary-Margaret, eldest dau. of the late 

Lieut.-Col. Hill, C.B. of the 28d Fusiliers. 

At Southampton, Alfred Norman, esq. of Lon- 
don, to Fanny, third dau. of the late Comm. 

William Boxer, R.N. of Dover, Kent. At 

Bilton, near Rugby, the Rev. Hugh Edward 
Ileaton, M.A. Incumbent of Llaugedwin, to 
Catherine-Maria, eldest dau. of the fate J. Cra- 
ven, esq. — 10. At St. George's Hanover sq. 
the Hon. Robert Neville X.air%. Capt. 2nd Life 
Guards, second son of the late Lora Wenlock, 
to Georgiana-Emily, youngest dau. of the late 
GeneralLord R. Edward 11. Somerset, G.C.B. 

At St. George's Hanover sq. Marsh Nelson, 

esq. of Charles street, St. James's sq. to Julia- 
Satara, youngest dau. of Lieut.-Gen. Briggs, 

FR.S. of Lindfield, Sussex. Alexander, son 

of Alexander Dennistoun, esq. of Golf hill, near 
Glasgow, to Georgiana-Helena, youngest dau. 
of the late Sir Charles Oakeley. Bart. 

10. At Liverpool, Capt. Charles Trigance 
Franklin, R. Art. youngest son of the late Sir 
William Franklin, K.C.H. to Lucy, only dau. 
of Francis Haywood, esq. of Liverpool. 

11. At St. Mary's Marylebone, Joseph Sid- 
ney Tharp, esq. of Chipoenham park, Camb. 
to Laura, sister to the Right Hon. Sir John 
Trollope, Bart. At Christ Church, St. Pan- 
cras, the Rev. Thomas P. Sffroule, Rector of 
Scaldwell. Northampt. to Elizabeth, youngest 
dau. of the late Rev. Nath. Cotton, Rector of 

Thornby. At Folkestone, William Henry 

Farley, esq. to Sarah, youngest dau. of Stephen 
Plummer, esq. of Canterbury. 



88 



OBITUARY. 



The Earl op Shrewsbury. 

Nov. 9. At Naples, after a short illness, 
aged 61 , the Right Hon. John Talbot, six- 
teenth Earl of Shrewsbury (1442), Earl of 
Wexford and Waterford, and hereditary 
High Steward of that kingdom, F.S A. 

This representative of a long ennobled 
race was the only son of the first marriage 
of John Joseph Talbot, esq. brother to the 
fifteenth Earl, with Catharine, daughter of 
Thomas Clifton, esq. of Lytham hall, 
Lancashire. He succeeded to the peerage 
on the death of his uncle April C, 1827. 

The Dublin Freeman's Journal thus 
speaks of his death: — "This sad news 
will, we are sure, be received with unaf- 
fected sorrow by the Catholics of the 
entire empire. The deceased earl had 
many excellent qualities, among the bright- 
est of which was the generous and muni- 
ficent benevolence which he manifested on 
every occasion where the cause of religion 
or of humanity could be served. The 
poor and the Church have lost in him one 
of their best of earthly friends ; and to the 
Catholic Church in England his loss may 
indeed be said to be irreparable. His few 
political faults are now effaced from me- 
mory, while the recollection of the many 
kind and amiable traits of his character 
will long and fondly be cherished. His 
literary ability and attainments, so often 
exerted in the cause of Catholicity, also 
merit for him a high rank among the lay- 
men who have deserved well of religion.'* 

He was the author of a pamphlet on 
" The Pacification of Ireland." 

His lordship married June 27, 1814, 
Maria, eldest daughter of the late William 
Talbot, esq. of Castle Talbot, co. Wex- 
ford, and niece to the first Earl of Mount- 
norris; and by that lady, who survives 
him, he had issue one son, who died an 
infant in 1817, and two daughters : 1. Lady 
Mary Alethea Beatrix, who married in 
1839 Filippo-Andrea Prince Doria-Pamfili- 
Landi, and was raised to the rank of Prin- 
cess by the King of Bavaria ; she has a 
son and a daughter ; and 2. Lady Gwen- 
daline - Catharine, married in 1835 to 
Marcantonio Aldobrandini, Prince Bor- 
ghese, and died at Rome on the 27th 
Oct. 1840, leaving three sons, who all died 
in a few weeks after her. 

The Earl's last surviving brother died in 
1841, and his nephew and heir-presump- 
tive in 1816, at the age of sixteen. 

The next heir male is a young man, who 

will come of age in 1854, Bertram- Arthur 

(now Earl of Shrewsbury), only sou of 

the late Lieut.- Colonel Charles Thomas 

11 



Talbot, great-grandson of Gilbert, fourth 
son of the tenth Earl. His mother (who 
is remarried to Captain Washington Hib- 
bert, of Bilton Grange, Warwickshire,) is 
a daughter of the late Sir Henry Joseph 
Tichborne, Bart. We arc not aware that 
there is now any male heir to the Earldom 
nearer than the Earl Talbot, who is de- 
scended from a younger son of the second 
Earl of Shrewsbury. 

The late Earl had been sojourning on 
the continent during the last two years, 
and was recently at Palermo. At the be- 
ginning of November he was suddenly 
seized with an affection of the brain, caused 
by exposure to the intense heat of the 
place, and his removal to Rome was ad- 
vised by his medical attendants. After 
resting for a day, his lordship and suite 
set out for that city, and reached Naples, 
where he was taken suddenly ill of fever, 
and soon after expired. 

On Monday the 29th of November, the 
funeral rites for the late Earl were com- 
menced in the new Cathedral of St. George, 
Southwark, whither his remains were con- 
veyed the previous evening from the con- 
tinent. The building was festooned with 
black cloth, and in the centre was a splen- 
did catafalque, on which rested the coffin, 
surmounted by a canopy, over which rose 
a massive cross surrounded by heavy wax 
candles. Near the catafalque, round which 
were grouped the clergy in their robes, sat 
the Earl of Arundel, his countess, and 
their children ; the members of the late 
Earl's family, several others of the Roman 
Catholic nobility, and the deceased's do- 
mestics. At 11 o'clock the Rev. Dr. 
Doyle commenced high mass, assisted by 
a deacon, archdeacon, and master of the 
ceremonies. A full and powerful choir 
performed Mozart's Requiem. After the 
mass and the blessing of the coffin. Bishop 
Grant delivered a funeral oration, highly 
laudatory of the deceased and his attach- 
ment to the Roman Catholic creed. 

On the 30th Nov. the body was re- 
moved to Alton Towers, and placed in 
the Talbot Gallery, where an altar had 
been erected, and here were completed the 
requiem masses of thirty days, which had 
been commenced by his Lordship's chap- 
lains, the Re^. Dr. Winter and the Rev. 
W. Gubbins, when the intelligence of the 
Earl's death was received. When the ar- 
rangements for the funeral had been com - 
pleted in the chapel of St. Peter, the body 
was then placed on a bier beneath a mag- 
nificent catafalque (a view of this solem- 
nity was published in the Illustrated Lon- 



1833.J 



Obituary. — The Countess of Lovelace. 



I 



don News of the 25th Dec.) Oa the 
morning of the 14th Dec. two altars were 
erected in the ebnpel : laassea were com- 
menced at ftix, and were carried on with-^ 
ont iotermption till eleven o'clock^ when 
the grand high mass commenced. The 
Bishop of Birmingham was tLe oelebr&ntp 
with the Vicar^General as deacon, and 
theVice-PrcstdentofOacottaasub-deacon. 
There were alao present tlie BishopB of 
Northampton^ Shrewsbury, and Clifton, 
and many other dij^tinguisbed clergymen 
of the Roman C^itholich Churc. The Cis- 
tercianf Benedictine, DoniinicBM, a»d Pas- 
^oniit orders were represented by mem- 
bcra of each, dic«Eed in their peculiar 
habita, and there were at least l;»0 secubr 
priest prefiCDt, Dr, Weedai preached ao 
eloquent iiermori in eulogy oi the de- 
ceased, AftiT the rites were concluded the 
body was conveyed to the little chnpcl of 
St. John, overhartging the River Churoet, 
and there deposited in s vault beneath 
the sauctnary. 

The Earl of Shrewsbury's will baa been 
prored, and the personal property sworn 
nnder 100,000/. i\i^ lordshtp ha£ directed 
that out of this amount there shall be paid 
hmi to the Rev. Thomas DoyJe, 500/. to 
the Rev. Daniel Rock, 1 50/. to the ReT. 
Dr. Winter, and there are eome other 
legacies to bis tister and to servants. He 
then directs his estates at Alton, Farley, 

■ mud elsewhere to be convened intu money, 
he whole of the proceeds, together with 

E'^e residue of his personal property, lobe 
given to Mr. Ambrose Li«le PhlUipps, of 
Gracedieu Manor, lAMeestershirC) and Mr, 
C Scott Murray, of Donesfield, Bucking- 
hamshire} both of whom, it will be re- 
membered, seceded from the Church cf 
England some time since, and joined the 
communion of the Church of Rome. By 
the Mortmain Act no sum exceeding 500/. 
can be left for religious purposes, and it is, 
therefore, generally believed that although 
tbia large amount of priiperty has been left 
unconditionally to Mr. PbilUpps and Mr* 
Murray, there Is a tacit understanding 
that it hi hereafter to be applied to the 
benefit of the Roman Catholic Church. 
This supposition ia atrengthened by the 
fact that in a will made some time ago, 
the whole of his lordship's property was 
left to Dr. Walsh, and, in the event of his 
decease, to Cardinal Wiseman ; but this 
was revoked by a codicil in favour of 
Mefirs. Phillipps and Murray, who are to 
divide the property equally between them. 



The CouMTn^a of Lovbi^ace. 

Nor. 27. In Great Cumberland Place, 
in her 57th year, the Right Hon. Auguita 
Ada Conn(eft« of LovcUce. 

The Countess of Lovelace was the '*fiole 

GtMT. Mao. Vol. XXXIX. 



daughter of the house and heart *' of the 
poet Byron, Her mother ADua> Isabella, 
only daughter of Sir Ralph Milbanke 
Noel, Bart, and coheir to the barony of 
Wentworth, is still living. The married 
life of Lord Byron — or rather the period 
during which Lord and J^dy Byron lived 
together — was a year and some few dajt. 
They were married on the 2d Jan. 1615 ; 
on the lOtb of December to the aame year 
their only child was born ; and in January 
IB 15 the husband and wife separated for 
ever. Lady Byron removed into Letcea- 
terahire, and when Ada was lust seen by 
her father she was only a mouth old. The 
name of Ada was picked out from the 
early ancestry of her faihcr. "If you 
turn over the pages nf the Huntingdon 
Peerage Case you will learn how common 
wa^ ihe nume of Ada under the Plaotage- 
nets. 1 found it in my own pedigree in 
the reit;n« of John and Henry.*' — Letter 
of Byron from Ravenna, 8th Oct. 1820, 

The tliird book of Childe Harold, written 
in IBlG, is dedicated ns it were to a father*B 
love : it begins and concludes with linea 
addressed to hia daughter. Of the pro* 
phecy those lines conttiin nearly all was 
fulfilled. Ada Byron never looked con- 
sciously into the face of her father. What- 
ever wholesome and ennobling joyi» bis 
wayward *' nature " might have found in 
watching the growth of his young daugh- 
ter's mind, it was nQt reserved for the 
poet ever to know. 

There are frequent allmsions to his 
daughter in Byron'a correspondence. At 
one time he asks for her miniature, at an- 
other acknowledges a lock of her hair, 
" which is softnnd pretty, and nearly as dark 
as mine was at twelve,*" This was in 1S21. 
At her father^s death in 1824 Ada was 
little more than eight years old. She had 
small resemblance to her father. No one, 
we are told, would have recogniied the 
Byron feutureB—the finely chiiselit'd chiu 
or the expressive lips or eyes of the poet — 
itj the daughter. Yet at tiroes the Byron 
blood was visible in her look ; and thoie 
who saw her on her marriage with the 
Earl of Lovelace (then Lord King) in 
IB.35, fancied they saw more tracet of the 
poet's countenance in the bride than they 
remembered there at any other time. But 
dissimilarity of looks wa» not the only 
dissimilarity between Byron and his daugh- 
ter. Lady LoTclacc cared little about 
poetry. Like her father'a Donna Inex in 
Don Juan, 

Wax ^vourlto icleuco wa« tins ntAilieniatieAl. 

Mr, Babbage it said to have conducted 
her studies it one time { and Lady Love- 
lace ia known to have translated from 
It&liati into English a very elaborate De^ 

N 



JMl 



90 Dowager Lady Soghton. — Sir John Z. Loraine^ Bart. [Jan. 

Baakervyle Glegg, of Withington and Gay- 
ton Hall, in the co. of Chester, sheriff of 
the county in 1814. Her ladyship mar- 
ried, secondly, in August 1797, Sir Henry 
Philip Hoghton, Bart. M.P. of Hoghton 
Tower and Walton Hall, and became his 
widow in 1835. By her second marriage 
she had two children — the present Sir 
Henry Bold Hoghton, Bart, and a daughter, 
Fanny-Elizabeth, unmarried. 

During the lifetime of Sir Henry, Astley 
Hall was the occasional residence of the 
Baronet and his lady, but since his death 
his relict has resided altogether upon her 
patrimonial estate. Not only by her im- 
mediate relatives and friends, by her nu- 
merous tenants and dependants, but in 
the town of Chorley generally, her death 
will be long lamented, and the poor of that 
place will feel that they have lost their 
ever liberal and unwearied benefactor. Her 
charities were many and widely diffused, 
and one of her last acts was a gift of one 
thousand pounds, in addition to former 
liberal donations, to the Manchester Dio- 
cesan Church Building Society. Of her 
it may be truly said that " the hoary head 
is a crown of glory, being found in the 
way of righteousness/' By her ladyship's 
decease Astley Hall and the extensive 
estates appurtenant become, under her 
marriage settlement, the property of her 
son Mr. Parker, M.P. ; whilst a large 
personal estate devolves upon her son Sir 
H. B. Hoghton. 



fence of the celebratedCalculating Machine 
of her mathematical friend. 

" With an understanding thoroughly 
masculine in solidity, grasp, and firmness. 
Lady Lovelace had all the delicacies of 
the most refined female character. Her 
manners, her tastes, her accomplishments, 
in many of which, music especially, she 
was a proficient, were feminine in the 
nicest sense df the word, and the super- 
ficial observer would never have divined 
the strength and the knowledge that lay 
hidden under the womanly graces. Pro- 
portionate to her distaste for the frivolous 
and commonplace was her enjoyment of 
true intellectual society, and eagerly she 
sought the acquaintance of all who were 
distinguished in science, art, and litera- 
ture." {Examiner,) 

Her body has been laid by the side of 
her father's coffin in the vault of Hucknall 
Torcard church near Newstead Abbey. 
The funeral was attended by the Earl, by 
Lord Byron, Dr. Lushington, Sir George 
Crawford, Mr. R. Noel, the Hon. Locke 
King, and Colonel Wildman. 

Lady Lovelace has left issue two sons 
and one daughter. It is remarkable that 
she has died at the same age as her father, 
and it is said she had some presentiment 
that such would be the case. She suffered 
from a lingering illness of more than 
twelve months' duration. 

A juvenile portrait of Ada is included 
in Murray's Illustrations of Byron ; and 
her appearance in later years has been 
happily caught by Mr. Henry Phillips. 



Dowager Lady Hoghton. 

Dec, 2. At Astley Hall, near Chorley, 
in Lancashire, Susanna, relict of Sir Henry 
Philip Hoghton, of Hoghton Tower, Bart. 

She was the only daughter of Richard 
Brooke, of Astley, esq. and was bom on 
the 4th of May, 1762, and had conse- 
quently attained the patriarchal age of 90 
years. She succeeded to the Astley and 
Charnock estates on the death of her only 
brother, Peter Brooke, esq. whose great- 
grandfather, Richard Brooke, second son 
of Sir Peter Brooke of Mere, co. Chester, 
Knt. married Margaret, sole heiress of 
Robert Charnock, of Charnock and Astley, 
in the county of Lancaster. She married, 
October 16, 1787, Thomas Townley Parker, 
of Cuerden Hall and of Royie, both in the 
county of Lancaster; and by this gentle- 
man, who died in November, 1793, whilst 
he was high sheriff of the county, she had 
issue one son, Robert Townley Parker, 
esq. M.P. for the borough of Preston, and 
two daughters — Susan, who married 1 July, 
1811 ,'Francis Richard, Price, of Bryn-y-pys, 
CO. Flint, esq. and died in 1813 ; and 
Anne, who married 4 May, 1811, John 



Sir John L. Loraine, Bart. 
July 11. At St. Helier's, Jersey, aged 67, 
Sir John Lambton Loraine, the tenth Bart, 
of Kirkbarle, Northumberland (1G64.) 

This is the fifth Baronet of his family 
who has died within the last four years. 
On former occasions we have given notices 
of his predecessors, and particularly of 
his brother and immediate predecessor, in 
our Magazine for April, 1851. 

Sir John was the third son of Sir Wil- 
liam, the fourth Baronet, by Hannah, 
eldest surviving daughter of Sir Lancelot 
Algood, of Nun wick, co. Northumber- 
land, Knt. He was formerly Postmaster 
of Newcastle ; and he succeeded to the 
baronetcy on the death of his brother, Sir 
William, on the 15th March, 1851. 

He married Caroline, daughter of the 
Rev. Frederick Ekins, Rector of Mor- 
peth ; and by that lady, who is deceased, 
he had issue three sons and three daugh- 
ters : 1. Janetta-Hannah ; 2. Isabella- 
Jane ; 3. Sir Lambton Loraine, who has 
succeeded to the title, and is now in his 
14th year, and a midahlpman in the Royal 
Navy; 4. Clara-Frederika ; 5. William 
Charles ; 6. Frederidc-Blackeney ; and 7. 
Arthur, who died in 1847| in hit third year. 



1853.] Sir Wm. Earle Welby, Bt.—Sir J. J. Guest, Bt. M.P. 91 

Sir Wm. Earle Welby, Bart. The present Baronet was born in 1806, 
Nov. 3, At Denton Hall, Lincolnshire, and married in 1828 Frances, second daugh- 
•ged 83, Sir William Earle Welby, the ter of the late Sir Montague Cholmeley, 
second Baronet, of that place (1801), a Bart, by whom he has issue. 
Deputy Lieutenant of the counties of Lin- 
coln and Nottingham. 

He was born at Eperstone, in Notting- 
hamshire, on the 14th Nov. 1769 ; and 
was the eldest son of Sir William Earle, 
the first Baronet, M.P. for Grantham, by 
his first wife, Penelope, third daughter of 
Sir John Glynne, Bart. 

At the general election of 1812, his 
father retired from the representation of 
Grantham, and Mr. Welby was elected in 
his place, without opposition. He suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy on his father's 
death, Nov. 6, 1815. In 1818 there was 
a contest for Grantham, but Sir William 
was placed at the head of the poll, which 
terminated as follows : — 

Sir Wm. Earle Welby, Bart. 545 
Hon. Edward Cust . .516 
Hugh Manners, esq. . 301 

James Hughes, esq. . .14 

Sir William Welby declined the election 
of 1820; but in 1830 his son (the present 
Baronet) defeated the Hon. F. J. ToUe- 
mache, and has ever since retained the 
seat. 

Sir William Welby served the office of 
High Sheriff of the county of Lincoln in 
1823. He was generally esteemed as a 
good landlord, an indulgent master, a kind 
friend, and a generous benefactor. His 
funeral at Denton, on the 11th Nov. was 
attended by the male branches of his fa- 
mily, by Sir M. J. Cholmeley, Bart, and 
Mr. H. Cholmeley, the Hon. and Rev. R. 
Cust, the Rev. W. Potchett, Vicar of 
Grantham, the Mayor and Town Council 
of that town, and 140 tenants, &c. The 
service was performed by the Rev. G, 
Potchett, Rector of Denton, who preached 
a funeral sermon on the following Sunday. 

He married, on the 30th of August, 
1792, Wilhelmina, daughter and heir of 
William Spry, esq. Governor of Barba- 
dos; and by that lady, who died on the 
4th Feb.' 1847, he had issue one son and 
seven daughters : 1. Wilhelmina, married 
in 1825 to the Rev. Frederick Browning, 
Prebendary of Salisbury; 2. Penelope, 
married in 1825 to Clinton Fynes James 
Clinton, esq. barrister-at-law, and died his 
widow in 1834 ; 3. Catharine, married to 
the Rev. Thomas Welby Northmore, Vicar 
of Winterton, co. Lincoln, who died in 
1829 ; 4. Jane, who died unmarried in 
1832; 5. Caroline, who died Nov. 20, 
1847 ; 6. Elizabeth, married in 1829 to 
Northmore Thomas James Ireland, esq. ; 
7. Sir Glynne Earle Welby, who has suc- 
ceeded to the title ; and 8. Augusta. 



Sir Josiah John Guest, Bart. M.P. 

Nov. 26. At Dowlais House, Glamor- 
ganshire, aged 67, Sir Josiah John Guest, 
Bart. M.P. for Merthyr Tydvil, and a 
Deputy Lieutenant of the county. 

Sir John Guest was born at Dowlais on 
the 2d Feb. 1785. Like the Arkwrights 
and the Peels, by his own skill and indus- 
try, he raised to the greatest prosperity a 
most important branch of British trade, 
and accumulated a colossal fortune. His 
grandfather, Mr. John Guest, the son of a 
small freeholder at Broseley, inShropshire, 
accompanied in the middle of last century 
to South Wales a well-known cannon- 
founder named Wilkinson, and the first 
furnace was raised, under their joint su- 
perintendence, at Dowlais. The works 
were sold at his death to a firm, of which 
his son, Mr. Thomas Guest, the father of 
the late baronet, was the manager. In 
1806 they only produced yearly about 
5,000 tons of iron, and were, on the death 
of the proprietors, in considerable pecu- 
niary embarassment. Mr. Thomas Guest 
died in 1807. The entire management 
then devolved upon Sir J. J. Guest, who, 
by his extraordinary capacity for business, 
his mechanical ingenuity (to which many 
of the most important improvements in the 
working of iron are to be attributed), and 
by a judgment in mercantile transactions 
rarely equalled, not only cleared the firm 
from debt, but raised the produce of the 
mines in a few years to no less than 
68,000 tons. In 1849 the entire property 
in the Dowlais works became vested in 
him. 

Mr. Guest was first returned to Parlia- 
ment at the general election of 1826 for 
the borough of Honiton, after a contest 
which terminated as follows : J. J. Guest, 
esq. 331 ; H. B. Lott, esq. 218 ; R. Sneyd, 
esq. 195. He was rechosen in 1830 with 
Mr. Lott ; but in 1831 he lost his 
seat in consequence of the liberality of his 
opinions, and the agitation respecting the 
Reform Bill ; the poll being, for Sir George 
Warrender 319, H. B. Lott, esq. 283, J. 
J. Guest, esq. 259. The most tremendous 
excitement ever known in Merthyr is said 
to have taken place at the time of the sym- 
pathetic reception given to the defeated 
candidate. 

To the first reformed Parliament he 
went as the member for the newly created 
boroughs of Merthyr, Aberdare, and Vay- 
nor ; and from that time he has kept his 



92 



Obituary. — Lt-Gen. Sir H. F. Bouve^^ie, K.C.B. [Jan. 



Beat, though the representation has been 
twice contested, first by Mr. Meyrick in 
1835, and again by Mr. Bruce Pryce in 
1837. Before the Merthyr borough elec- 
tion of 1837 Mr. Guest, on the retirement 
of Mr. Dillwyn, contested the representa- 
tion of the county, in alliance with Mr. 
Talbot, and in opposition to Lord Adare, 
the present respected Earl of Duoraven. 
The attempt was unsuccessful, the numbers 
polled being— for Lord Adare, 2,009; 
Talbot, 1,794; Guest, 1,590. A few days 
after Mr. Guest was re-elected for Merthyr. 

He was created a Baronet by patent 
dated 1838. 

Of late years Sir John Guest has been 
chiefly residing at Canford Manor, in 
Dorsetshire, which estate he purchased 
some years ago, and which has recently 
been adorned with many very fine Ninevite 
sculptures — Mr. Layard being nearly re- 
lated to Lady Charlotte Guest. 

On the occasion of renewing the Dow- 
lais lease. Sir John Guest stated that for 
his own part he would willingly haye re- 
linquished the management of so large a 
concern in his declining years ; but his re- 
gard for the large population which he had 
drawn around him did not permit him to 
divest himself of his responsibilities. The 
f uccessful termination of that negotiation 
was productive of the liveliest satisfaction; 
and when Sir John and Lady Charlotte 
Guest next visited this district, in July 
1848, the people of Merthyr joined those 
of Dowlais in giving them a welcome re- 
ception. 

At the last election, being unable from 
ill health to visit his constituents, he re- 
ceived from them a most touching address, 
no less honourable to the good feelings 
of the Welsh than to his own character, 
requesting him to accept the trust again 
without a personal canvass. 

Sir John Guest was a man of great 
mental capacities, a good mathematician, 
and a thorough roan of business, not with- 
out a taste for the refinements of litera- 
ture. The creation of Dowlais, and its 
material prosperity, was not his only merit; 
for he differed from his compeers in being 
a man of generous instincts and of enlarged 
sympathies. His care for his workmen 
did not end with the payment of their 
daily earnings. He took a comprehensive 
yiew of his social duties ; he recognised in 
precept as well as in practice the principle 
that property has its duties as well as its 
rights ; and he extended his care beyond 
the present generation into the next — be- 
yond the race of men that now is to their 
descendants destined to replace them in 
the lapse of time. It is a great thing to 
je the supporter of twelve thousand men ; 
but it is a greater, nobler, and holier thing 



to be their guide, philosopher, and friend. 
He ever showed the warm interest he felt 
in the cause of education. The Dowlais 
Schools are very highly spoken of for their 
efficiency, and the building of new and 
spacious schoolrooms has been for some 
time, and is now, in contemplation. As 
a politician he began his career as an ultra- 
Liberal, but concluded his career as a 
Whig and a general supporter of Lord 
John Russell. While health permitted, he 
was not inattentive to his political duties. 
He was not much given to oratory, but 
served frequently upon important com- 
mittees, and generally voted upon the great 
questions of the day. 

He married first, in 1817, Maria-Eliza- 
beth, daughter of William Ranken, esq. 
She died without issue in Jan. 1818 ; and 
Mr. Guest remained a widower until 1833, 
when he married Lady Charlotte Elizabeth 
Bertie, only sister to the present Earl of 
Lindsey. Her ladyship, who is w^ell known 
as a patroness of Welsh literature, and 
editor of the Mabinogion, is the mother 
of ten children, five sons and five daugh- 
ters, of whom the eldest, Ivor Bertie (so 
named from the chivalric Ivor Bach), suc- 
ceeds to the title, being now in the 18th 
year of his age. 



Lieut.-Gen.SirH.F.Bouverie,K.C.B. 

Nov. 14. At Woolbeding House, near 
Midhurst, Sussex, aged 69, Lieut.-General 
Sir Henry Frederick Bouverie, K.C.B. 
and G.C.M.G. Colonel of the 97th Foot. 

He was born on the 11th July, 1783, 
and was younger brother to the present 
Edward Bouverie, esq. of Deiapr^ Abbey, 
near Northampton, being the third son of 
the Hon. Edward Bouverie (brother to 
the first Earl of Radnor), by Henrietta, 
only daughter of Sir Edw. Fawkener, K.B. 

He was appointed Ensign in the L'd 
Foot guards, Oct. 23, 1799, Lieutenant 
and Captain, Nov. 19, 1800, Captain and 
Lieut.-Colonel, June 28, 1810. He served 
in Egypt during the campaign oi 1801, 
for which he received a medal. In 1807 
he was Aide-de-camp to Earl Rosslyn at 
the siege of Copenhagen, and in 1809 on 
the staff of North Britain. He subse- 
quently served in the Peninsular war. At 
the passage of the Douro and at Talavera 
he acted as an Aide-de-camp to the Duke 
of Wellington, and likewise as Military 
Secretary. 

In 1836 he was appointed Governor of 
Malta, by patent dated October 1 ; and he 
retained that appointment until the sum- 
mer of 1843. 

He was advanced to the rank of Colonel 
in 1814, to that of Major-Geueral 1825, to 
Lieut.-Geueral in 1838; aopointed to the 
command of the Jtt West Indian regiment 



1853.] Obituahy. — LL-Gen. Wemys^. — Sir Edward Stanley, 



in 1 84 2 « and transferred to the 9 7th Foot in 
Nov, 184 3. He received a cro&sancloQeclnAp 
for his services a^ Afiiistaat Adjutant>ge- 
nera! at Salamanca, Vittoria, St. Sebastian, 
Kive, and Ortlics. He waa oominftted a 
Knight Commander of the Bath at the en< 

llargemeot of the order in Jan. 1815, and 
I Grand Croasof the order of St. Michael 
and St. George in 1836. 

He married, July 8, IB'26. Julia-Fanny, 

L daughter of the lale Lewis Montolient esq. 

r«nd widow of Capt. Wiltiam WiLbmhjim, 

' R.N.J an J by tbnt lady* who died in imG, 
he had issue one son, Henry MontoHeti, 
Lieut, in the ColdBtreain Guards, and one 
daughter, Henrietta. 

Sir Henry had been in his usual health 
until within much less than an hour of his 
death. Every preparation was made for 
his departure to London on the fallowing 
morning, to attend and lake a |iromii*eot 
part ill tbe Duke of Wellington's funeral, 

\ and this, doubtle&s, acting on latent 
disease, was the caui»e of his sudden death. 
He had long resided at Woolbediog HoUj^e, 
lud bis kindnens of disposition bad eu- 
demred him to the town of Midhurst and 

f.itB neigbbouThood . 



Libut.-General Wcmyss. 

Nov, 30. At Coinberland Lodge> Wind- 
sor Park, aged 6'?, Lieut. 'General Willium 
Wemyas, Colonel of the 93d Highhmtlera, 
Equerry and Aide-de-camp to Her Ma- 
jesty, and Clerk Marshal to H KJL 
Prince Albert. 

He waa born on the 5th Sept. 170O, and 
was the second son of Lteut-General Wil- 
ItatD Wemjaa, (a grandson of the 5th Earl 
of Wemysa and March^) by Frauets, eldest 
daughter of Sir William Krskiiie, Bart. 
Hii elder brother, Rear-Adrairal Jamea 
Erakine Wemyss, of Wemybs Castle and 
Torrie House, Fifcshire, is the Lord Lieu- 
teaant of that county. 

He waa appointed Lieutenant in the 
9>3d F6ot, Sept. 12, 1805, Captain in the 
6th Garrison battalion, Auguat 18, 1808; 
He served as Aide-de-camp to his uncle, 
Sir William Erakine, in the Walchcrco ex- 
pedition in 1809, ajid subsequently in the 
campaigns of IS 10, 1811, and UV2 in tbo 
Peninsula, where he was present in several 
minor artionjs, and in the battle of Fueutes 
d^Ooor, for which he received the silver 
war medal. He was promoted to a ma- 
jority in the 93d Foot, May i*7 , 1803; be- 
came a Lieut. -Colonel, March 16, l(jll5; 
Colooel, July 22, 1830 ; Major-General, 
Nov. 23, 1811; and Lieut.- Genera! at the 
laat brevet. He was appointed lu the 
command of the 93rd Higblauders, April 
10, 1850. 

Soon after the marriage of her Majesty 
G«Deral Wemyia was appointed Clerk- 



Marshal to Prince Albert, and in that 
capacity be bad the entire control and ma- 
nagement of his lloyaJ Highness'* eques- 
trian and agricultural establishments, with 
a permanent residence at Cumberbnd 
Lodge, in Wiodsor Great Park. He thus 
became acquainted with all the leading 
agriculturists of tbe locality, with whom 
it was his great delight to associate. As 
a member, and occasional president, of 
the Royul East Berks and Windsor Royal 
ajssocintioiis, he was universally popular ; 
while, as the master of Prince Albert's 
pack of liariers, his fine flow of spirits in 
the 6,eld, and sterliDg hunting qualifica- 
tions, won for him the affect ionote respect 
of tbe gentry and farmers. By his death 
the Crown has lost a vnluable servant, and 
the poor a true and sympathising friend. 

He married, April 14, 1820, Lady Isa- 
bella liny, Bedchamber W^omcin to Queen 
Adelaide, second daughter of William 16th 
Eur! of ErroU, and aunt to the present 
Earl ; and by that lady, who survives him,, 
he had issue four sons and two daughters: 
1 . Frances, who died young ; 2. William- 
George-James, also deceased; 3. James> 
Henry, Lieutenant 32d Foot, and Aide- 
de-camp to the Commander4n-chief in 
Canada; 4. John, deceaBcd; Q. Charles- 
Tbomae, Captain 17th Foot, Aide-de- 
camp to Sir Robert Gardiner, Governor 
of Gibraltar j and 6. Isabella-Harriet- 
Jane. 

The funeral of General W^emyss took 
place on the 4th Dec. at Wimbledon, where 
his body wns interred in n family vault. 
It was attended by \m two eons, his brother 
Mr. A. Wemyss, the Earl of Rosslyn, and 
Daniel Guruey, esq. his ejnecutors, Sir Job u 
Cathcart, Lieut. -Col. Seymour, Cape, H. 
Seymour, &c. &c. The service was per- 
formed by the Rev. G. Wellesley, chaplain 
to her Majesty. 



SiH EowAao Stanley. 

Oci. 27. In Great Brunswick-street, 
Dublin, aged 78, Sir Edward Stanley^ 
Knt. Inspector of City Prisons. 

tie was tlie eldest son of Edward Stan^ 
ley, esq, of York-street, Dublin ; (lud, 
having been elected Sheriff of that city in 
the year IHOD, he was knighted ou the 
occasion of the Jubilee, when King George 
the Third attained the 50th year of his 
reign. He took au active part in the pro- 
(teedings of the old corporation, by wfaieh 
he was selected for the lucrative office of 
Inspector of City PrisouiF. 

He was aho, tor many years, a leading 
member of the Royal Dublin Society, and 
was, it is said, the originator of those 
periodical exhibitions ot arU and manufac^ 
tures which have led to such importiiuc 
reDultihoth in Ireland and other countries. 



94 



Col Bruen, M.P.-^Capt. T. L. Lewis, R. Eng. [Jan. 



Sir Edward acted as the friend of Mr. 
D'Esterre, in his fatal duel with the late 
Mr. O'Connell. 

He married in 1796 the only daughter 
of the late William Norris, esq. of Cold- 
blow, CO. Dublin. 



Colonel Brusn, M.P. 

Nov, 5. At Old Park, co. Carlow, after 
ft few days' illness, in his 62d year, Henry 
Bruen, esq. M.P. for the co. Carlow, and 
Colonel commandant of its Militia. 

Colonel Bruen was educated with Sir 
Robert Peel, Lord Byron, and some of 
the greatest statesmen and scholars of the 
age, at Harrow ; and he subsequently was 
a member of the university of Oxford, 
where he was distinguished for his clas- 
fical acquirements, his taste for literature, 
and love of antiquarian research, for which 
he was in after life pre-eminently remark- 
able. He did not, however, proceed to a 
degree. 

He entered public life at an early period, 
having been returned to parliament as the 
representative of bis native county in the 
year 1812, which position he occupied, 
with the exception of a brief interval, until 
the hour of his death. At five general 
elections he was returned without a con- 
test, until, on the eve of Reform, at the 
election of 1830, the county, through the 
influence of Mr. O'Connell's party, re- 
turned two Whigs (Walter Blakeney, esq. 
and Sir John Milley Doyle), in the place 
of Colonel Bruen and his father-in-law Mr. 
Kavanagh. There was no poll on this oc- 
casion s but in 183S, the first election after 
the enactment of Reform, the former mem- 
bers were proposed, and defeated by the 
Liberal candidates, Mr. Blakeney and Mr. 
Wallace, who both polled 657 votes. Colo- 
nel Bruen 483, and Mr. Kavanagh 470. 
In Jan. 1835 Colonel Bruen and Mr. 
Kavanagh were returned, polling respect- 
ively 588 and 587 votes, Mr. Maurice 
O'Connell 554, and Mr. CahiU 553 ; but 
this election was declared void on a peti- 
tion ; when in June Mr. Vigors and Mr. 
Raphael were returned by 627 and 626 
votes, Mr. Kavanagh and Colonel Bruen 
recording 572 and 571. This was the 
election rendered memorable by the large 
expense incurred for Mr. Raphael by Mr. 
O Connell, which was subsequently the 
subject of public exposure and animad- 
version. On petition, a committee of the 
House struck off 105 votes, and thereby re- 
seated Mr. Kavanagh and Colonel Bruen. 

At the general election in 1837 the 
Liberal candidates, Mr. Vigors and Mr. 
Ashton Yates, were successful, polling 730 
votes, Colonel Bruen and Mr. Bunbury 
having only 643. Mr. Kavanagh had died 
in February preceding; but on the death of 



Mr. Vigors, in December, 1840, Colonel 
Bruen recovered his seat, defeating the 
Hon. Frederick Ponsonby with 722 votes 
to 555. 

At the election of 1841 the result of the 
poll was as follows : — 

Colonel Bruen .... 705 
Thomas Bunbury, esq. . 704 
John Ashton Yates, esq. . 697 
Daniel O'Connell, jun. esq. 696 
In 1847 Colonel Bruen and Mr. W. B. 
M. Bunbury were elected without oppo- 
sition; but in 1852 there was again a 
severe struggle, which terminated thus — 
John Ball, esq. ... 895 
Colonel Bruen .... 893 
W. B. M. Bunbury, esq. . 880 
John Keogh, esq. . . . 877 
As a public man Colonel Brueu pos- 
sessed indomitable energy and fearless 
bearing, coupled with a highly cultivated 
mind, which commanded the respect of 
his opponents, and won the esteem and 
sincere attachment of his friends. He 
was a consistent Conservative, and voted 
for agricultural protection in 1846. 

Colonel Bruen married Anne, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Kavanagh, esq. of 
Borris, (long his colleague as county mem- 
ber,) by his first wife Lady Elizabeth But- 
ler, sister to the Marquess of Ormonde, 
Mrs. Bruen died in Sept. 1830. He is 
succeeded in his extensive estates by his 
son, Henry Bruen, esq. 

Capt. T. L. Lewis, R. Eno. 

Not}. 17. At Ibsley, Hampshire, Tho- 
mas Locke Lewis, esq. Captain Royal 
Engineers, a Deputy Lieutenant of the 
county of Radnor. 

Capt. Lewis was only surviving son of 
Percival Lewis, esq. of Downton, Radnor- 
shire, and Ibsley, Hants., and had filled 
the office of High Sheriff of the former 
county. He entered the army in 1808, 
but, though abroad for some years, we 
are not aware that he had ever seen active 
service. During a residence in Southern 
Africa he had an opportunity of observing 
the native tribes of that district, and very 
recently a paper from his pen appeared in 
the United Service Journal, giving an ac- 
count of these tribes, as well as some of 
the places which the present war in that 
country has brought more particularly into 
notice. He also was enabled, while re- 
siding there, to collect some valuable me- 
teorological facts, and which are recorded 
by Col. Read in his work on the Law of 
Storms. He took an active interest in the 
public charities of Exeter, as well as in 
all matters having for their object the 
alleviation of distress. There is scarcely 
a charity in that city which has not had 



1833.] Capt T. W. BuUer, R.N.—Mr. Serjeant JETalcomb. 95 



the liberal assistance of his purse as well 
as his active personal attendance in all 
matters where that attendance could be 
useful ; and, indeed, for years past much 
of his income and most of his time haye 
been devoted to the purposes of benefi- 
cence and charity. In his manner and 
bearing towards those with whom he came 
in contact he was ever kind and concili- 
atory, endeavouring, on all occasions, to 
smooth differences in opinion, and view 
charitably those acts of which he could 
not approve. 

Capta-in T. W. Buller. 

Oct. 30. At Street Raleigh, Whimple, 
Devonshire, aged 60, Thomas Wentworth 
Buller, esq. Commander R.N. one of Her 
Majesty's Tithe and Inclosure Commis- 
sioners for England and Wales. 

He was the second son of James Buller, 
esq. of Downes and Shillingham, Devon- 
shire, M.P. for Exeter, by his cousin 
Anne, daughter of the Right Rev. William 
BuUer, Lord Bishop of Exeter. 

He entered the navy in 1806, on board 
La Resolve, lying at Plymouth, and shortly 
after became midshipman of the Malta 84, 
Capt. Edw. Buller, employed off Cadiz. 
In June 1807 he removed to the Euryalus 
36, which was employed in escorting the 
troops commanded by Sir John Moore 
from Gibraltar to England, in conveying 
the Due d'Angoul^me and other members 
of the French royal family from Gotten- 
burg, and in attending on the expedition 
to Walcheren. In Nov. 1809 she cap- 
tured L'Etoile privateer of 16 guns. Mr. 
Buller afterwards served in the Mediter- 
ranean from Jan. 1810 to Oct. 1812, in 
the Tiger 74, Capt. Benj. Hallo well, and 
in the Malta, then bearing the flag of that 
officer. He was next transferred to the 
Antelope 50, the flag-ship at Portsmouth 
of Sir J. T. Duckworth ; and on the 8th 
Dec. 1812 was advanced to the rank of 
Lieutenant. In Feb. 1813, he was ap- 
pointed to the Indus 74, employed in the 
North Sea ; in April 1814 to the Diomede 
troop-ship, in which he sailed to America, 
where in Jan. 1815 he joined the Euryalus 
36. On the 17th Jan. following he was 
appointed to the Impregnable 104, as Flag- 
Lieutenant to his uncle Sir J. T. Duck- 
worth at Plymouth. On the 19th April, 
1817, he was advanced to the rank of 
Commander, since which time he has been 
on half- pay. 

On the formation of the Tithe Com- 
mission he was appointed one of the joint 
commissioners, and he retained the same 
capacity under the recent amalgamation of 
the Tithe, Enclosure, and Copyhold Com- 
missions. 

Captain Boiler married, Oct. 24, 18S7, 



Anne, only daughter of Edward Divett, 
esq. of By stock, co. Devon, by whom he 
has left issue. 



Mr. Serjeant Halcomb. 

Nov. 3. At New Radnor, in his 63d 
year, John Halcomb, esq. serjeant-at-law. 

This gentleman was the son of a successful 
coach-proprietor. He was called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple, June 13, 1823; 
and practised as a special pleader and in 
the Common Law Courts. He also went 
the Western circuit, and attended the 
Wiltshire sessions. 

On the western circuit during the early 
part of his career he was considered one 
of the most rising juniors, the late Sir 
William Follett, with whom he retained a 
strict friendship through life, being one of 
his principal competitors. Indeed, that 
distinguished advocate, and also Mr. Jus- 
tice Patteson and Mr. Justice Coleridge, 
were ail associated together with Mr. Ser- 
jeant Halcomb as pupils during the period 
of their studentship, and confident expecta- 
tions were at that time entertained of the 
future eminence of each. To Mr. Hal- 
comb's ambition to enter Parliament too 
early his failure at the bar has been mainly 
ascribed. 

He was repeatedly a candidate to repre- 
sent the port of Dover in parliament ; but 
obtained the object of his ambition only 
for the short period between March 183S 
and the dissolution of 1835. It was in 
1826 that he first appeared on the hustings 
as a strong opponent of the Roman Ca- 
tholic claims ; he polled 628 votes, the 
successful candidates Mr. Wilbraham and 
Mr. Poulett Thomson respectively polling 
1175 and 746, and Mr. Butterwortti (one 
of the former members) 198. In Feb. 
1828, when Mr. Wilbraham was created 
Lord Skelmersdale, Mr. Halcomb made his 
second attempt, but was defeated by Wil- 
liam Henry Trant, esq. who had 738 votes 
to Mr. Halcomb's 633. In 1831 he waived 
the contest; but in 1832, after the enact- 
ment of Reform, he again came forward, 
with the following unsuccessful result — 

Charles Poulett Thomson, esq. . 713 
Sir John Rae Reid, Bart. . . 644 

John Halcomb, esq 523 

Capt. R. H. Stanhope . . .498 

At last, in March 1833, when Mr. 
Poulett Thomson was elected for Man- 
chester, Mr. Halcomb was successful at 
Dover, defeating Capt. R. H. Stanhope 
by 734 votes to 665. 

He did not, however, venture another 
contest in 1835 ; but at that election he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for Warwick, 
where he polled 416 votes, being a mi- 



96 



Obituary. — Miss Beny. 



[Jan. 



nority of fifty-two below Mr. King, who 
was returned. 

In 1841 Mr. Halcomb again assailed 
the portmen of Dover, but the former 
members were returned, by the following 
poll- 
Sir John Rae Reid, Bart. . . 1000 
Edward R. Rice, esq. ... 960 

John Halcomb, esq 536 

Alex. Galloway, esq. . . . 281 
Mr. Serjeant Halcomb's name will be 
found frequently in the debates which oc- 
curred during the period that he sat in 
Parliament, as he took part in several of 
the leading discussions, and was a warm 
supporter of the Conservative party. As 
chairman of the committee he drew up a 
valuable report on the Fisheries Bills. In 
1839 he received the honour of the coif, 
but since that period his name has not oc- 
cupied any prominent position in the law 
reports. 

Mr. Halcomb was the author of the 
following professional works — 

Analysis of the Report of the Case of 
Rowe V. Young, on a Bill of Exchange, 
decided in the House of Lords (July 1820) ; 
with Remarks thereon. 1821. 8vo. 

Report of the Trials and subsequent 
Proceedings in the Causes of Rowe v. 
Grenfell, Rowe v. Brenton and another, 
and Doe (dem. Carthew) v. Brenton, re- 
lative to the Claims made by the Lessees 
of the Duke of Cornwall to the Copper 
Mines within the Duchy Lands ; and in- 
volving also the question of Title to the 
hmds and estates of the Tenants. 1826. 
8vo. 

Practical Treatise on passing Private 
Bills through both Houses of Parliament; 
containing full Directions for Members 
who have charge of Private Bills, and for 
Solicitors, &c. Second edition, with a 
Supplement. 1838. 

In private life Mr. Halcomb was re- 
markable for kindliness of disposition 
and urbanity of manners ; and his con- 
versational powers rendered him a most 
agreeable companion, possessed, as he 
was, of a store of information, and a 
highly cuitivated taste. He died after a 
painful illness of some years' duration. 
He has left a widow and four sons. His 
only daughter died on the 10th Dec. 1847. 



Miss Berry. 

Nov. 21. At her residence in Curzon- 
street, aged 90, Miss Berry — memorable 
as the lady to whom Horace Walpole 
addressed so much of his epistolary and 
personal attentions. 

Mary Berry was the elder of the two 
daughters of Robert Berry, esq. of South 
Aadley Street, a Yorkshire gentleman of 
12 



fortune, if we are not misinformed, and 
certainly the disappointed heir-at-law of 
an uncle who unexpectedly left his wealth 
away from him. The names of the girls 
were Mary and Agnes. Mary was well 
read, and mistress of Latin ; and Agnes 
drew and painted in water colours with 
great success. 

We have seen at the British Museum 
one of the occasional productions of the 
Strawberry Hill Press, of which we here 
introduce an entire copy. 

The Press at Strawberry-llill to Miss Mary and 
Miss Agues Berry. 

To Mary's Lips ha.s ancient Home 

Her purest Language taught ; 
And from the modern Cit>' home 

Agnes its pencil brought. 
Home's ancient Horace sweetly chants 

Such Maids with lyric Mre ; 
Albion's old Horace .sings nor paints — 

He only can admire : 
Still wou'd his Press their Fame record , 

So amiable the Pair is ! 
But ah ! how vain to think /i« Word 

Can odd a Straw to Bebrts. 

Walpole became acquainted with Miss 
Berry and her sister before the year 178f). 
He first met them, it is believed, at Lord » 
Strafford's, at Wen tworth Castle, in York^ 
shire. During the correspondence the 
ladies visited Italy, and finally returned to 
Twickenham to be within call of the Prince 
of Letter Writers.* Walpole was fond of 
his " two wives," as he called them, would 
write and number his letters to them, 
and tell them stories of his early life, and 
of what he had seen and heard, with ten 
times the vivacity and minuteness that he 
employed in telling similar stories to Pin- 
kerton or Dalrymple. The ladies listened ; 
and it was Walpole's joy — 

Still with his favourite Berrys to remain. 
Delighted with what they heard, they be- 
gan with notes of what he told them, and 
soon induced him, by the sweet power of 
two female pleaders at his ear and in his 
favourite "Tribune," to put in writing 
those charming " Reminiscences" of the 
Courts of George the First and his son, 
which will continue to be read with inte- 
rest as long as English history is read. 

When Walpole died he left to the Misses 
Berry, in conjunction with their father, 
the greater part of his papers, and the 
charge of collecting and publishing his 
works. The so-called edition of his Works, 
which appeared in five volumes quarto, 

• Both Mason and Lord Harcourt ob- 
served this growing attachment of Walpole 
to the Miss Berrys with jealousy and dis- 
pleasure, as appears by some letters still 
in MS. from them in the possession of a 
friend. 



1853.] 



Obituary. — The Rev. Edward Mangin, 



97 



was edited by the father, who lived with 
his daughters, at Twickenham and at South 
Audley Street, for some years after Wal- 
pole's death. He died, a very old man, at 
Genoa, in the spring of 1817; but the 
daughters lived in London, and for up- 
wards of half a century saw, either in 
South Audley Street, or in Curzon Street, 
or at Richmond * (within sight of Straw- 
berry), two generations of literary men. 
They loved the society of authors and of 
people of fashion, and thought at times 
(not untruly) that they were the means of 
bringing about them more authors of note 
mixing in good society than Mrs. Mon- 
tagu, or the Countess of Cork, or Lydia 
White herself, had succeeded in drawing 
together. 

It would have been strange if Miss 
Berry, with all her love and admiration 
for Horace Walpole, had escaped the fate of 
being an authoress. Her scattered writings 
were collected by herself in 1844, into two 
octavo volumes, entitled, " England and 
France ; a Comparative View of the Social 
Condition of both Countries, from the 
Restoration of Charles the Second to the 
present Time: to which are now first 
added. Remarks on Lord Orford's Letters 
— the Life of the Marquise du Deffand — 
the Life of Rachael Lady Russell ; and. 
Fashionable Friends, a Comedy." In these 
Miscellanies (for by that name should they 
have been called) are to be found many 
keen and correct remarks on society, and 
on men and manners, with here and there 
a dash of old reading, and every now and 
then a valuable observation or two on the 
fashion and minute details of the age in 
which Walpole lived. 

Miss Berry*s last literary undertaking 
was a vindication of Walpole from the 
sarcastic and not always correct character 
of him drawn by Mr. Macaulay in an 
article in the Edinburgh Review. In 1840 
•he edited, for the first time, the sixty Let- 
ters which Walpole had addressed to her- 
self and her sister. In his late years Wal- 
pole makes no better appearance than he 
does in his letters to Mary and Agnes. 
He seems to have forgotten the gout and 
Chatterton, Dr. Kippis and the Society 
of Antiquaries, and to have written like 
an old man no longer soured by the world, 
but altogether in lOve with what was good. 

Miss Berry survived her younger sister 
about eighteen months. She is said to 
have felt her loss severely. For a time 
she was observed 

To mu5e and take her solitary tea ; 



but she rallied, and continued to cultivate 
the living society of our times, as well as 
to dwell on the reminbcences of that 
vanished society which she was as it were 
the last to enjoy. 



* The Miss Berrys lived in Mr. Lambe's 
house at Richmond. In the summer of 
lRr>i in the house on the Hill of Lord 
Lansdowne, which he lent to them. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXXIX. 



The Rev. Edward Mangin. 

Oct. 1 7. At his residence in Johnstone 
street, Bath, aged 80, the Rev. Edward 
Mangin, Prebendary of Rath, in the dio- 
cese of Kill aloe. 

Mr. Mangin was descended from a 
Huguenot family, which took refuge in 
Ireland from the persecutions in the time 
of Louis XIV., and rose to opulent and 
important stations in their adopted country. 
He had much of the manners of both 
France and Ireland — foreign acuteness of 
conversation, with a remarkable share of 
the pleasantry and good humour of the 
Irish gentleman. 

He was educated at Oxford, for the 
church, and obtained preferment in Ire- 
land at an early age. Marrying early, but 
soon left a widower, with an only daugh- 
ter, — worthy of him, and to whom he was 
affectionately attached through life, — after 
a long interval he married again, and has 
left two sons, like himself educated at 
Oxford, and now in the church. 

He had resided for many years in Bath, 
associated with all the intelligent in that 
intelligent city ; easy in fortune, and 
scarcely visited by the common casualties 
of life, he rather glided through years 
than felt thera. To the last, though expe- 
riencing some pains of the frame, he exhi- 
bited no failure of his intellectual powers. 
His death was like his life — tranquil. 
He walked out the day before, sat with 
his family during the evening, retired to 
rest with no appearance of an increase of 
illness, and slept undisturbed during the 
night. In that sleep, between seven and 
eight next morning, he expired. 

Mr. Mangin was the editor of the im- 
pression of Richardson the novelist's 
works published in nineteen volumes, in 
1811, and of" Piozziana, or Recollections 
of Mrs. Piozzi,'* in 1833. Upon neither 
of these works did he bestow a very large 
amount of labour or research. We believe 
he was the author of some occasional ori- 
ginal essays on manners, travels, and 
character. 

At the recent meeting of the Somerset- 
shire Archieological and Natural History 
Society at Bath its temporary museum 
contained, amongj numerous other curi- 
osities, the Silver Drinking Cup of Etienne 
Mangin, who was burnt at the stake in 
1546. The following inscription is en- 
graved upon it : " Oct. 7, 1546, Stephen 
Mangin for professing the Reformed Re- 
O 



98 



Obituary. — Rev. Henry Hasted^ F.R.S. 



[Jan. 



ligioD, resolutely suffered death in front 
of his house, at Meaux, ten leagues from 
Paris. At the stake he desired his wife 
to give him water in his usual drinking 
cup, which he emptied to the welfare of 
his friends and the success of his cause. 
This is that cup, handed down from father 
to son, to Edward Mangin, who had this 
inscription engraved on it, 1820.*' 



Rev. Henry Hasted, F.R.S. 

Nov, 26. At Bury St Edmund's, in his 
82d year, the Rev. Henry Hasted, M.A. 
Rector of Horringer and Braiseworth, Suf- 
folk, and late Lecturer of St. Mary^s church 
in Bury. 

Mr. Hasted was bom Sept. 17, 1771 at 
Bury St. Edmund's, where his father was 
an apothecary. He was educated at King 
Edward's Grammar School in that town 
under the Head Masterships of the Rev. 
Philip Laurents and the Rev. M. T. 
Becher. He went up to Cambridge, to 
Christ's college, and took his Bachelor's 
degree in 1793, being placed as Sixth 
Wrangler ; and his degree as M.A. in 
1796. He afterwards became a Fellow of 
Christ's college, and was believed to be 
on the eve of being elected Master, when 
he was appointed by the corporation of 
Bury to the preachership of St. Mary's, 
in the year 1802. In 1812 he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Braiseworth by 
Sir Edw. Kerrison, and in 1814 to that 
of Horringer, or Horningsheath, by the 
Marquess of Bristol. In 1842 he resigned 
the preachership of St. Mary's, in con- 
sequence of the continued debility caused 
by a paralytic attack ; but he held the 
rectory of Horringer (in which, as well as 
in the preachership of St. Mary's, he was 
a worthy successor of Bishop Bedell) and 
that of Braiseworth, until his death. On 
his resignation, a service of plate was pur- 
chased by a subscription of 250/. and pre- 
sented to him by the inhabitants of the 
town generally. 

Few men have filled a larger place in 
the circle of their own neighbourhood than 
the Rev. Henry Hasted, or have more un- 
remittingly devoted their whole time and 
talents through a long life to the service of 
others than he did. Gifted by his Creator 
with considerable intellectual faculties, 
which he had diligently cultivated at school 
and college, and endowed also with great 
activity of mind and a capacity for con- 
tinued mental exertion, he lived to work 
for the good of others, and threw the 
whole weight of his energies into the 
furtherance of works of piety and benevo- 
lence. To his indefatigable zeal and great 
influence it is in a great measure due. that 
the Suffolk County Hospital e^Usts, and is 



what it is ; and numerous societies for the 
promotion of religious and educational ob- 
jects had in him one of their most active 
promoters and most warm patrons. He 
was a governor of King Edward's Grammar 
School, a trustee of the Guildhall Feoff- 
ment, and of almost all the charitable and 
other trusts in the town. 

In the pulpit he was always an attractive 
and impressive preacher ; and at a time 
when the sermons in many churches were 
little more than moral essays, his dis- 
courses were always directed to the great 
doctrines of Christianity. There was a 
gentleness in his address, and an earnest- 
ness mixed with suavity of tone and ex- 
pression, which, added to the real matter 
they contained, made his discourses win- 
ning and persuasive. It was characteristic 
of his energetic spirit and his love of his 
ministerial work, that he continued to 
preach at Horringer church as long as he 
had physical power to ascend the pulpit; 
and when increasing infirmity made this 
impossible, he published a volume of 
sermons, which he dedicated to his pa- 
rishioners. He was at all times most 
diligent in visiting his flock from house to 
house ; and long after the time when most 
men would have yielded to the cry of na- 
ture for rest and repose, he might be seen 
with labour and difficulty making his way 
through the parish, going to the schools, 
visiting the sick, or taking suitable re- 
ligious tracts to the cottages, or minister- 
ing, which he did most largely, to the 
temporal wants of the poor. 

Constant cheerfulness, unclouded good 
humour, and universal benevolence and 
kindliness, both in word and deed, went 
hand in hand with this. It was always 
sunshine with him. And a striking sight 
it was to see how this cheerfulness of 
spirit, which seemed to spring from the 
most simple-minded and child-like sub- 
mission to the will of God, carried him 
through the heaviest trials, and lightened 
the heaviest burdens. Thus, when a 
paralytic stroke deprived him of the use 
of his right hand, fifteen years ago, he 
set himself without a murmur to learn to 
write with his left hand, and, though the 
labour which this entailed upon him, both 
in writing sermons and in keeping up an 
extensive correspondence, was very great, 
his predominant feeling always seemed to 
be, not so much regret for what he had 
lost, as thankfulness for the use of what 
was still preserved to him. He possessed 
uncommon delicacy of feeling. He could 
never say or do anything to hurt the 
feelings of others in the smallest degree, 
nor did an illnatured or uncharitable re- 
mark ever escape his lips. Those who 
asked his advice and assistance in diffi- 



1853.] 



Obituary, — Professor Empson, 



99 



culties might depend upon his never be- 
traying their confidence, or taming any 
matter which they might impart to him 
into a subject of idle conversation. He 
was liberal to the fall extent of his means, 
and his courteous hospitality was quite a 
feature in the town of Bury. " Be not 
forgetful to entertain strangers" and 
" Use hospitality without grudging " were 
precepts of Holy Writ which he seemed 
to take a peculiar delight in obeying. Nor 
was it only at his table that he exercised 
hospitality. Till within the last few years, 
when he was disabled by infirmity, he was 
always ready to do the honours of the 
town to strangers. Closely as his time 
was filled, he would find the means of de- 
voting an hour or two to shew his visitors 
the schools and churches and antiquities 
of the place, and to make their sojourn as 
agreeable as he could by his cheerful 
society and hospitable attentions. We 
have often heard him called by strangers 
the Gains of Bury St. Edmund's. His 
conversation was as agreeable as his man- 
ners were engaging ; he had information 
at command on most subjects, which he 
was always ready to impart in the most 
modest, unassuming, and entertaining 
manner, while at the same time he had 
that active curiosity of mind which made 
him keen in seeking for knowledge from 
those who had it to impart. In truth, his 
varied attainments in different branches 
of philosophy, especially in mathematics, 
botany, and natural history, as well as in 
classical and general literature, raised his 
character as a scholar to a level with that 
which he bore as a Christian and as a man.'*' 

Besides the volume of Sermons already 
mentioned, Mr. Hasted published two 
volumes of Lent Sermons, a tract of Four 
Sermons on Confirmation printed for the 
benefit of the Hospital in 1833, and some 
interesting " Reminiscences of Dr. Wol- 
laston" in the 4th part of the Bury 
Archaeological Proceedings. 

He married, in 1807, Miss Ord, the 
only daughter of Dr. Ord, of Fornham, 
who lived barely three years after their 
union, and by whom he had two children, 
who survive him, the Rev. Henry John 
Hasted, Rector of Sproughton, and Mrs. 
George Heighami 

It has been resolved to perpetuate the 
memory of Mr. Hasted by a public sub- 
scription for the endowment of a new ward 
in the Bury Hospital, and by erecting 
tablets in each church of the town to 
record that endowment. 

* We have condensed this character of 
Mr. Hasted from an article attributed to the 
Rev. Lord Arthur Hervey in thtBuryPoMt, 



There is a portrait of Mr. Hasted en- 
graved by C. Turner after a painting by 
Strutt in a folio size ; it is a fair likeness, 
but conveys the impression that he was a 
tall instead pf a short man. 



Professor Empson. 

Dec. 10. At Haileybury, near Hert- 
ford, aged 62, William Empson, esq. Pro- 
fessor of Law in Haileybury College, and 
Editor of the Edinburgh Review. 

Mr. Empson was educated at Winches- 
ter school and at Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1812, 
M.A. 1815. 

He began to contribute to the Edinburgh 
Review in 1823, when Francis Jeffrey, 
afterwards his father-in-law, was yet editor. 
Jeffrey resigned the post where he had 
gained his high literary distinction in 1829, 
on being appointed Dean of the Faculty 
of Advocates at Edinburgh, an office which 
he considered incompatible with the lea- 
dership of a party journal. The 98th 
number was the last of Jeffrey's editing, 
the Review then passing into the hands 
of Mr. Macvey Napier, one of the law 
professors of the University of Edinburgh. 
Empson, the third editor, commenced his 
reign in 1830. In one of Lord Jeffrey's 
letters to him at this time there is a pas- 
sage of much interest, both as recording 
the views of the great critic as to editorial 
duties and privileges, and testifying to the 
qualifications of Empson for the office. 
" I think you have (he says) a better 
knack, even than me, in touching lights 
and bringing out effects, as I have less 
patience to watch the capacities of im- 
provement, and was more given to dash 
out and substitute, by wholesale, than to 
interweave graces or lace seams," 8cc. 

Mr. Empson contributed to the Review, 
during the years 1823 to 1849, more thaa 
sixty articles, on subjects of law, the con- 
dition of the poorer classes, negro slavery, 
domestic politics, poetry, and general lite- 
rature and biography. Of his later arti- 
cles, that on Stanley's Life of Dr. Arnold, 
in the January bumber of 1845, gave him 
opportunity of paying a just tribute to the 
memory of his old schoolfellow and illus- 
trious friend. He was a contemporary of 
Arnold at Winchester School, and through 
life his sympathy with the literary and 
political views of his friend was ardent. 
On educational and ecclesiastical questions 
Mr. Empson wrote various papers, which 
had much influence on public opinion. 

At Haileybury Mr. Empson succeeded 
to the chair which had been occupied by 
Sir James Mackintosh. In that office his 
business was to educate men to conduct 
the civil administration of that great em- 



100 



Obituary. — John Hamilton Reynolds ^ Esq. 



[Jan, 



pire, the variety of wbose local institu- 
tions, as well as the complexity of inte- 
rests arising from differeoces of law, of 
religion, and of dependence, render pre- 
paration for practical government the more 
difficult. It was Professor Empson's aim 
to inculcate broad fundamental doctrines 
of moral science and of the laws of na- 
tions, and to impress great historical and 
ethical principles, knowing that fhe appli- 
cation of these would be easily regulated 
by the knowledge of particular or local 
institutions. He was learned and accu- 
rate in the details of actual practice in the 
various departments of law in India ; but 
his excellence as a Professor consisted still 
more in moral and philosophical training, 
without which mere legal knowledge has 
little that is attractive or noble. He pos- 
sessed the art of acquiring and exercising 
an influence over the hearts of his pupils ; 
showing a genial interest in the students 
of his class, which won their confidence 
and affection. At the recent examination , 
when the students were apprised of the 
precarious state of their friend and in- 
structor, then suffering from the rupture 
of a blood-vessel, they spontaneously re- 
linquished their accustomed festival, as 
being inconsistent with their anxiety and 
grateful regard for him. Notwithstanding 
his enfeebled state of health, he carefully 
went through the Examination papers, and 
assigned to each student his rank and 
position. No man ever fell more truly in 
the field of duty. 

Mr. Empson married the only child of 
Lord Jeffrey. Of his personal character 
and mental accomplishments a most pleas- 
ing impression is conveyed from Jeffrey's 
correspondence. Many of the best letters 
in that delightful series arc either written 
to Mr. Empson, or are dated from his 
house at Haileybury, whither Jeffrey loved 
to retire when in England on his parlia- 
mentary duties. Some of these letters have 
a mingled literary and historical interest, 
as that in which Jeffrey comments on a 
letter from Mr. Macaulay to Empson, 
stating his reasons for wishing to devote 
himself to a literary instead of a political 
life. The letter to Mr. Empson, on re- 
ceiving through him a proof of the first 
sheets of Macaulay 's History, will always 
be read with interest. 



John Hamilton RKYNOLns, Esq. 

Nov. 15. At Node hill, Newport, I. W. 
aged 58, John Hamilton Reynolds, esq. 
Clerk of the County Court for the Isle of 
Wight. 

Some poems published by Mr. Reynolds 
when he was a mere youth won for him 



words of kindness and encouragement from 
men of establbhed reputation. Byron, in 
a letter to Hodgson, spoke of him as " a 
youngster, and a clever one : " and he 
records in his journal of Feb. 20, 1814, 
that he "answered, or rather acknow- 
ledged, the receipt of young Reynolds's 
poem, ' Safi^.' The lad is clever, but 
much of his thoughts are borrowed, — 
whence, the reviewers may find out. I 
hate discouraging a young one ; and I 
think— though wild and more oriental than 
he would be had he seen the scenes where 
he has placed his tale — that he has much 
talent, and certainly fire enough." Mr. 
Leigh Hunt, who at that time sat with 
authority in the critical chair of the Ex- 
aminer, devoted a paper to the younger 
poets—" Shelley, Keats, and Reynolds; *' 
and it is no small honour now, though it 
was somewhat mischievous at the time, to 
have been thus associated by one so able 
to form a discriminating judgment. 

" Safi^ " was soon followed by ''The 
Naiad," and other poems, all published 
before the writer was twenty-one — or per- 
haps twenty — years of age. 

In 1819f when Wordsworth, encouraged 
by the growing recognition of the public, 
and the enthusiastic admiration of his 
then small circle of admirers, announced 
his " Peter Bell," the very name seemed 
to foreshadow that the work was to be 
the touchstone of his theory, and a test of 
the sincerity and devotion of his worship- 
pers. Reynolds, though an admirer of 
Wordsworth, had even a stronger relish 
for a joke ; and as he never then, and 
rarely afterwards, stopped to weigh con- 
sequences, he anticipated the genuine pub- 
lication by a Peter Bell of his own, which 
puzzled and perplexed many, and was con- 
demned or laughed at, according to the 
humour of the reader. Right or wrong, 
it is fair to assume that the skit had merit; 
for Coleridge pronounced positively that 
it was written by Charles Lrfimb, — and on 
the ground that no other person could 
have written it. Mr. Reynolds had al- 
ready become a frequent contributor to 
the London Magazine ; and he also wrote 
in the Edinburgh Review, the Retrospec- 
tive, and subsequently in the Westminster. 
In every number of the London the traces 
of his light and pleasant pen were visible ; 
and at every social meeting of the con- 
tributors — which included Charles Lamb, 
and Allan Cunningham, and Carey the 
translator of Dante, and George Darley, 
and Hazlitt,and Thomas Hood, all gone ! — 
his familiar voice w«s heard, followed by a 
laugh as by an echo. 

Hood married Mr. Reynolds^s eldest 
sister ; and the Odes and Addresses, one 



1853.] Obitvary.— W. Ballantine, Esq.— Rev. Father Palmer. Wl 



of the earliest works which made Hood 
knowQ to the general public, was pub- 
lished in conjunction with Reynolds, who 
was also for years a contributor to Hood's 
Comic Annual. Life and its duties, how- 
ever, now drew him aside from literature, 
and he resolved to devote himself to his 
profession as a solicitor. But he was never 
clearly quit of his old love, nor cordially 
on with the new : he still contributed 
occasionally to our periodical literature, 
and some of the earlier volumes of the 
Athenaeum were enlivened by his pen. 
This divided duty, however, is rarely suc- 
cessful : the law spoiled his literature, and 
his love of literature and society interfered 
with the drudging duties of the lawyer. 
The contest ended only with his life. — 
AthetKBum, 



William Ballantine, Esq. 

Dec. 14. In Cadogan Place, Chelsea, 
after several months' severe illness, in his 
74th year, William Ballantine, esq. bar- 
rister- at-law, and a magistrate for Mid- 
dlesex. 

This gentleman was called to the bar 
by the Hon. Society of the Inner Temple, 
Feb. 5, 1813. He was for 27 years one 
of the magistrates of the Thames police- 
court, and had the chief control and ma- 
nagement of the river police, a force which 
he left in a state of great efficiency, when 
it was placed under the Metropolitan Com- 
missioners in Scotland Yard on the passing 
of the late Police Act. His urbanity, in- 
telligence, and quick discernment, and his 
extensive legal knowledge, with which he 
combined the most perfect self-possession 
and general knowledge of the world, ob- 
tained him the respect and esteem of all 
classes of the people ; and when he retired 
from the active duties of a police magis- 
trate, four years ago, the loss of so able a 
magistrate and so kind a man was severely 
felt by the public. His memory will be 
long held in respectful remembrance by 
the inhabitants of the Tower Hamlets and 
the people connected with the river and 
the trade and navigation of the port of 
London. 

After his retirement from the Thames 
police-court, Mr. Ballantine took a very 
active part in the financial and judicial 
affairs of Middlesex as a county magis- 
trate. He has left a large family to mourn 
his loss, the eldest of whom is Mr. William 
Ballantine, an eminent barrister of the 
Home Circuit and the Central Criminal 
Court 



Rev. Father Palmer. 
Nov. 10. At the Abbey of Mount St. 
Bernard, Charnwood Forest, aged 70, the 



Rev. J. Bernard Palmer, the superior of 
that monastic institution. 

He was born of Protestant parents in 
October, 1782, and left an orphan in early 
life. In his twenty-sixth year he embraced 
the Roman Catholic faith, and shortly af- 
terwards became a religieux in the monas- 
tery of Lullworth, in Dorsetshire, then 
founded about ten years. Here, and at La 
Melleray in Britany, be passed more than 
twenty- two years, but eventually returned 
to his native country. In 1835 (three 
hundred years after the suppression of 
monasteries in England), Ambrose Lisle 
Phillips, esq. of Grace Dieu Manor, and 
Laura Mary, his wife (a descendant of the 
noble family of Clifford), purchased 250 
acres of wild, desert land, upon the Charn- 
wood Forest hills, about one mile north- 
east of the small market town of Whit- 
wick ; 36 acres were at first brought into 
a state of cultivation, and here in a mise- 
rable cottage, five monks (one of whom 
was the subject of this short sketch, 
formed themselves into a branch of the 
Cistercian Order of La Trappe in France) 
In 1839, by a munificent gift from the 
Earl of Shrewsbury, the monks, who had 
increased to the number of forty, were 
enabled to build the present beautiful spe- 
cimen of Early English architecture, known 
by the name of ** the Abbey of Mount St. 
Bernard," in which, however, they were 
largely and liberally assisted by the wealthy 
and pious Roman Catholics of the United 
Kingdom. In 1844 it was consecrated as 
a monastery, and constituted an abbey. 
About four years ago, the Rev. Father 
Palmer was ordained by the sovereign pon- 
tiff' as the authorised head of the insti- 
tution. 

His rigorous self denial, his unceasing 
benevolence, his unostentatious charity, 
his gentleness of speech and manner, his 
Christian forgiveness of injuries, his meek 
and apostolic aspect, and, above all, his 
humble resignation to the will of God, 
while under severe affliction, will not soon 
be forgotten. 

He had for more than a year suffered se- 
verely from dropsy, which, although incur- 
able, admitted at intervalsofshort seasons of 
apparent convalescence, during that period. 
So imminent was the danger of several 
attacks, that he five times received the 
last offices of his religion within the year, 
the last of these being on the morning of 
his decease. 

From the time of his death to the fore- 
noon of Saturday, the 13th Nov. the body, 
clothed in full canonicals, was deposited 
in the church belonging to the abbey, the 
monks, without intermission, reciting in 
solemn cadences the appointed services for 



102 Obituary.— iMV. H, J. S. Bradfield. — Mr. T. Fairland. [Jan. 

Southern, or Cedros district, on the 1 3th 
April, 1839 ; but returned to England, we 
believe, in the following year, having been 
superseded in consequence of a collision 
with some other colonial officer. 

In 1841 he again went to the West 
Indies in the capacity of Private Secre- 
tary to Colonel Macdonald, Lieut.-Gover- 
nor of Dominica ; and in 1 842 he acted 
for some time as Colonial Secretary in 
Barbados. The charges which had oc- 
casioned his previous return were how- 
ever renewed, and the Government with- 
drew his employment. 

From that period this unhappy man has 
been living on very precarious resources. 
He continued for some years to solicit a 
reversal of his sentence at the Colonial 
Office ; but the matter was not permitted 
to be re-opened. He endeavoured to earn 
a scanty subsistence from his moderate 
literary talents, and among some commu- 
nications he made to this Magazine we 
may mention a curious article on the last 
of tne Paleologi in Jan. 1843, and a memoir 
of Major-Gen. Thomas Dundas, and the 
Expedition to Guadaloupe in 1794, in 
August, Sept. and Oct. following. Lat- 
terly, we fear, he was reduced to all the 
arts of the professional mendicant, and in 
a remarkable letter to Mr. George Godwin, 
F.R.S. which was read before the Coro- 
ner's inquest on his body, he enume- 
rated a large number of benevolent per- 
sons, in various classes of society, who had 
contributed to his support. He acknow- 
ledges that he was most nobly assisted by 
Mr. Washington Irving and other eminent 
literary characters in New York (this was 
in 1849), and that he had been entertained 
for four months last year in Brussels by 
King Leopold, attended by his Majesty's 
physician. He had been four times relieved 
by the Literary Fund, — "but the cruel 
Colonial Office has killed me." 

His mind had for many months evinced 
tokens of insanity, and he committed 
suicide by drinking a bottle of prussic acid 
in the coflfee-room of the St. Albau's hotel. 



the repose of the departed. At ten o'clock 
on Saturday, the funeral ceremonies com- 
menced. After mass had been sung by 
the Father Prior, a funeral sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Mr. Furlong, from 
Numbers, 23rd chapter, 10th verse, " Let 
me die the death of the righteous, and let 
my last end be like his.*' Four of the 
brethren, in their long flowing white 
robes, being priests, bore the body of the 
deceased on their shoulders round the 
cloisters, without a coffin, the rest of the 
brotherhood chaunting " in the exitu 
Israel," as the procession moved slowly 
towards a vault which had been prepared 
in the chapter-house. Here, amidst the 
tears, the prayers, and pious ejaculations 
of the surrounding throng, the body of 
the reverend abbot, with all the imposing 
ceremonials peculiar to the church of 
which he was so consistent and distin- 
guished an ornament, was deposited in 
its last resting-place. 

Mr. H. J. S. Bradfielu. 

Oct. 11. At the St. Alban's hotel, 
Charles- street, St. James's-square, in his 
48th year, Mr. Henry Joseph Steele 
Bradfield. 

This gentleman was bom on the 18th of 
May, 1805, in Derby-street, Westminster, 
where his father was a coal merchant. In 
his early years he was much attached to 
poetical composition, and whilst still under 
age he published in 1825 ** Waterloo, or 
the British Minstrel, a Poem." 

He was bred to the art of surgery, and 
on the 26th April, 1826, he left England 
in the schooner Unicorn, in the capacity 
of surgeon in the service of Lord Cochrane 
(now Earl of Dundonald), on his lord- 
ship* s expedition to Greece, during which 
he was present in several engagements by 
land and sea. His name is mentioned with 
approval in Cochrane's " Wanderings in 
Greece." 

After his return he pursued his career 
of poetical authorship, and published The 
Athenaid, or Modern Grecians, a Poem, 
1830; Tales of the Cyclades, Poems, 
1830 ; and a volume of Poems in 1832. 

On the 1st Sept. 1832, he received from 
the King of the Belgians a commission as 
Sous- Lieutenant in the Bataillon Etranger 
of Belgium, and was appointed to the First 
Regiment of Lancers ; and either before 
or after that date he had a commission in 
the Royal West Middlesex Militia. 

On the Slst Dec. 1835, he received ap- 
pointment to be one of the Stipendiary 
Magistnites in Tobago ; from which island 
he was removed, at his own solicitation, on 
account of illness, to Trinidad, on the I3th 
May, 1836. He was re-appointed to the 



Mr. Thomas Fairland. 

Oct. ... Aged 48, Mr. Thomas Fair- 
land, engraver, lithographer, and portrait 
painter. 

The bent of his talent for drawing re- 
vealed itself at an early age, and an in- 
teresting and characteristic example of his 
juvenile ardour is furnished by the follow- 
ing anecdote related by himself. 

Having an accurate perception of form, 
he was deeply impressed with the feeling 
that every species of tree as well as e?ery 
kind of animal had an individuality of 



1853.] 



Obituary* — Johm Vanderlyn, 



form which could be traced from the 
trunk throughout the Urger limbs and ul- 
timate branches and twigs. To possess 
himself of these characters he would, when 
a boy, proceed to Kensington Gardens in 
winter, and sketch the branchings of the 
naked trees : he would afterwards renew 
his visits as the seasons advanced, until 
nature and the artist had alike clothed 
the originals and the representations in 
all the luxuriance of leafy honours. 

Mr. Fairland was one of the first pupils 
of the Royal Academy under Fuseli, and 
gained the highest medal for a drawing 
from the Hercules in the entrance-hall. 
He also studied under the direction of Sir 
M. A. Shee. He at first turned bis at- 
tention to line-engraving, and became a 
pupil of the well-known Warren. He 
afterwards devoted himself to lithographic 
drawing ; and in that department he has 
been instrumental in multiplying nume- 
rous works of the best English artists. 
"The Recruit; or, Who'll serve the 
King ?" and " Left Leg Foremost," after 
Farrier, obtained great repute. ** The 
Deserter" followed. "The Poacher's 
Confederate," after Hancock, was equally 
successful. "The Ratcatcher," after A. 
Cooper, was a great favourite. Many of 
the works of Sir Edwin Landseer, Hunt, 
and others were entrusted to him, and 
owed not a little of their popularity to 
the new form they assumed under his 
hands. But the inroads of the French 
lithographic press compelled him to aban- 
don an occupation in which he took high 
delight, but which was no longer remune- 
rative. He then gave himself up to por- 
traiture, and in the course of this pursuit 
he has been instrumental in perpetuating 
the likenesses of many of the most eminent 
and illustrious persons in the kingdom. He 
enjoyed the constant patronage and per- 
sonal regard of Her Majesty. His fre- 
2uent engagements at the palace had in- 
eed of late withdrawn him very much 
from public observation. The last work 
he produced was a most effective and 
pleasing portrait of Mrs. Chisholm, after 
the painting by Mr. Hayter in the last 
exhibition. 

So much labour and talent as Mr. 
Fairland exerted certainly merited more 
worldly success than, we regret to learn, 
he ever attained. Although he laboured 
incessantly, he never was able to raise his 
family above the pressure of the passing 
hour. He was universally beloved for his 
amiable disposition and his gentle man- 
ners ; and he was equally respected for a 
singularly sensitive and modest independ- 
dence of character. He had suffered during 
the last year of his life from advancing 



103 



phthisis, which, although it oOentimes 
exhausted his strength, never overcame 
his resolute application to his professional 
duties. — Art Journal. 



John Vanderlyn. 

Sept. 23. At Kingston, on the Hudson 
River, in his 76th year. John Vanderlyn, 
an eminent American painter. 

He was born at the same place in the 
first year of American independence, and 
received a liberal education at the academy 
in his native town. In the fall of 1792 
he accompanied his brother on a visit to 
New York, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Mr. Thomas Barrow, a large im- 
porter of * engravings, in whose store he 
obtained employment, and remained there 
for two years. Here he first acquired a 
taste for the fine arts, and in leisure hours 
he took lessons in drawing. At the same 
time he became acquainted with Stuart 
the portrait-painter, and obtained permis- 
sion to copy some of his portraits. On a 
second visit to New York, he fell in with 
Colonel Burr, who proffered him aid to 
enable him to prosecute his studies in 
Europe, after he had been for a short time 
with Mr. Stuart. He accordingly passed 
eight or nine months in Mr. Stuart's 
studio, and in 1796 embarked for France. 
He returned home in 1801, bringing some 
few copies from the first masters, and 
some studies which he had executed while 
at Paris. In 1802 he painted two views 
of the Falls of Niagara, which were after- 
wards engraved, and in the spring of the 
following year he paid a second visit to 
Europe. He did not return to America 
until 1815. During this interval he re- 
sided principally in London, Paris, and 
Rome, and he also spent considerable time 
in travelling. It was at Paris, about 1804, 
that he made his first essay at historical 
painting, a picture representing the death 
of Miss M'Crea, a commission from Joel 
Barlow. About 1807» during his resi- 
dence at Rome, Vanderlyn painted his ce- 
lebrated picture of Marius amid the Ruins 
of Carthage, which received the Napoleon 
gold medal the following year, at Paris, 
lie also produced during this period some 
admirable copies, among which were Cor- 
reggio's Antiope, his celebrated picture of 
Ariadne, in the possession of Mr. Durand, 
Titian's Danae, and the female figure from 
Raphael's Transfiguration, lately sold in 
the collection of the late Philip Hone, esq. 
On his return to the United States, he 
was principally occupied with portrait- 
painting; and Madison, Monroe, Calhoun, 
Jackson, and other eminent individuals, 
were among his sitters. Being desirous 
to introduce panoramic exhibitions into 



104 



Obituary. 



[Jan. 



the city of New York, he obtained from 
the corporation privilege to erect a build- 
ing for that object in the north-east corner 
of the Park. Here he presented a suc- 
cession of panoramas, Paris, Athens, Ver- 
sailles, &c. mostly painted by himself, and 
some of his own pictures. In 1829, at 
the expiration of his lease, he was de- 
prived of the building by the Common 
Council; and he afterwards visited the 
South and Havanna, exhibiting his pano- 
ramas and pictures. In the spring of 
1832 he received a commission from Con- 
gress to paint a full-length portrait of 
Washington, for the hall of the House of 
Representatives. On its exhibition in the 
capitol, the House of Representatives una- 
nimously voted the artist an additional 
recompense of 1,500 dollars. Such an 
instance of legislative generosity is worthy 
of record. In 1839 he left for Paris, 
whence he returned in 1847, bringing with 
him his picture of the I«anding of Colum- 
bus, which he exhibited in New York, 
previous to its being placed in the capitol. 
Since that time he resided in New York 
and at Kingston, being mostly engaged on 
portraits. A full-length of General Tay- 
lor, from his pencil, was exhibited in the 
National Academy of Design last year. 
His picture of Marius has been engraved 
by the American Art Union, and his Ari- 
adne by its possessor, Mr. Durand. — 
(From an American work of contempo- 
rary biography, entitled " Men of (he 
Time:') 



[It is not our intention to discontinue our cus- 
tomary Obituary notices of deceased Clergymen ; 
but the pressure of other matters lias compelled 
U8 to postpone them from our last and present 
numbcrN. In the Magazine for February tliis de- 
ficiency will be carefully supplied.] 



DEATHS, 

ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOUICAL ORDER. 

Oct. 6, 1849. At Webb's County-terrace, New 
Kent Koad, of cholera, Edward Italcigh Moran, 
esq. for 18 years sub- Editor of the Globe news- 
paper. He Mas born at Limerick, July, 1800; 
and wa.s the author of " Early Thoughts," a poem, 
printed at Limerick about 1818. " Countess of 
Salisbury," a translation from Dumas, 3 vols. 8vo. 
1840. He married, 27 Mar. 1826, Mary Ann Cooke, 
of Dunleckney, who waa left hi.s widow, without 
children. His library ha.s been dispersed by 
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, in Piccadilly, on the 
19th and 20th Nov. 1849, and his collection of en- 
gravings on the 27th. Among his autograph 
MSS. wa.s a drama, cntitU'«l " Constantine and 
Emily," and several l>ooks of occasional jxHitry. 

ApHl I."), 1852. At Boyd Town, Australia, An- 
drew Watson, es<j. eldest surviving son of the late 
Capt. Watson, R.N. 

June 10. At Christrhurch, New Zealand, Eu.s- 
tace, third son of Conway L. Kose, eoq. 

/m/»/ ... At the re.sidencc of her son-in-law 
13 



F. Boshe, esq. Woodlands, Montserat, W.I.,Mary • 
Ann, relict of Dr. West, Antigua. 

July 1 . At Sydney, New South Wales, aged 30, 
David Barttelot Barttelot, esq. second son of 
George Barttelot, esq. of .Stopham, Sussex, for- 
merly of Corpus Christi college, Oxford. 

July 12. In Jermyn-street, aged 60, Lieut.-Col. 
Thomas Pipon, K.H. 

JtUy 21. At Cheverells, near Sydney, New 
South Wales, aged 53, John William Gosling, esq. 

July 28. At Melbourne, Port PhUip, Augu.sta, 
wife of Augustus Loinsworth, esq. younge-st dan. 
of the late Thomas Tilt, esq. of Brighton. 

Aug. 8. Drowned accidentally, off the coast of 
Roderiguez, on his return to England, Maldon- 
Argles, eldest surviving son of the Rev. Salisbury 
Dunn, M.A. of Maldon. 

Aug. 29. At Rotliesay, Comra. James Cooper 
Bennett, R.N. He entered the na\'y hi 1813, on 
board the Adamant 50, the flag-ship of Rear.-Adra. 
Otway at Leith ; was in the Endj-mion 48 during 
the ensuing American war, and in its victorious 
contest with the President 56. He afterwards 
served in the Iphigenia 36, Conway 26, and Sy- 
bille 42 ; was made Lieutenant 1821, and in Jan. 
1824 was awarded a i^ension for the lo-ss of an arm. 
He was subsequently in various ships, was pro- 
rooted to Commander 1826, and twice held the 
post of Inspecting Commander of the Coast Guard, 
from 1832 to 1835, and again in 1842. He mar- 
ried, July 28, 1831, Jane, third dau. of the late 
James Law, esq. of Ehington, county Hadding- 
ton, N.B. and by that lady, who died in 1836, had 
tlu*ee surviving children. 

Sept. 3. At Serampore, Eleanor-Georgiana, 
wife of George Bright, esq. Bengal C.S. 

Sept. 4. At Hawthorn Park, Rothesay, in his 
82d year, Comm. Archil)ald Black, R.N. He en- 
tered the service on board the Canada 74, in 1794, 
and, (^er very arduous duty as midshipman in va- 
rious ships, was made Lieutenant in 1807. In 1810 
he conunanded the boats of the Pelican 19, in 
capturing the enemy's vessels in Campeachy Bay. 
He was placed on half-pay in 1812, and accepted 
the rank of retired Commander in 1843. He mar- 
ried in 1813 Miss Jane Currie, and had issue a 
son and three daughters. 

Sept. 10. Accidentally drowned at Rangoon, 
Mr. M'Murdo, midshipman of H.M.S. the Fox, 
eldest son of Robert M'Murdo, esq. of Whittern. 

Sept. 15. On his passage to England, aged 30, 
Harris Peckover Thompson, Lieut. I5th Madras 
N. Inf. younger son of Mr. Charles T. of Dalston. 

Sept. 23. On board the Lady Macnaughten, on 
his pas.sage f^om the Cape of Good Hope, aged 30, 
Capt. Edward F. Crowder, 0th Regiment, second 
son of the late Col. Crowder, K.H. of Brotlierton. 

On board H.M.S. Fox, at Rangoon, of cholera, 
Frederick, fourth son of the Rev. Evan Morgan , 
Vicar of Llantrisant, Glam. 

At St. Lucia, W. I., aged 23, Lieut. Henry San- 
deman, Royal Eng. 

Oct. 14. At Hagara, Punjaub, Caroline-Sarah, 
wife of Capt. Francis Elliott Voyle, 39th Regt. 
N.I. and Assistant Commissioner. 

Oct. 16. At Southborough, aged 45, Lady 
Louisa-Grace Boyle, of Cambridgc-teiT. Hyde 
Park -gardens; sister to the Earl of Shannon. 

Oct. 19. In Heathcote-st. Mecklcnburgh-sq. 
aged 56, Jane A'Court, widow of Robert Willis, 
esq. of CaroUne-pl. 

Oct. 26. At Bone, Africa, aged 34, Madalena- 
Augusta, Vicomtesse de Belle-Isle, third dau. of 
the late Richard Orlebar, esq. of Himnnck-house, 
Beds. She was married at Paris in 1839 to the 
Vicomte de Belle-Isle, a captain of dragoons in the 
French army. 

Oct. 26. *At Nice. Louisa-Selena, second dau- 
of the late Sir Culling Smith, Bart, of Bed well 
Park, Herts. 

At Mount Uniacke, Halifax, Nova Scotia, aged 
68, Crofton Uniacke, esq. second son of the late 
Hon. Richard John Uniacke. 



1853.] 



Obituary. 



105 



f/«. 31. A;red 2S. Adelaide-Gertrude, dau. of 
the late Frederick Gan»hain Canniduel, esq. of 
Twickenham. 

At Petersfield, Hants, aged o9, Susan-Marv, 
relict of Robert Cross, Lient. R.N. 

-Vor. 2. At Encombe House, near Sandgate, in 
his 88th year, Henry Dawkin:», esq. formerly for 
many years one of the Commissioners of Woods 
and Forests. Ue enjoyed a pension of 800/. 

yov. 4. At Ellingham Vicarage, Northumber- 
land, aged 79, Susannah, and (on the same day), 
aged 74, Sarah, sisters of the Rev. CliarlesPerigal, 
Vicar of that place, and nieces of the late Arch- 
deacon Bouyer. 

At Horfield, near Bristol, aged 06, Major Wilkie, 
barrack -master, late of the 9*2d Highlanders. He 
served with that regiment in Egypt, where he was 
wounded in the action of the I3th March 1801, 
and received the gold medal from the Grand 
Seignior. He also served in the Peninsula, France, 
and Flanders, was severely wounded at Waterloo, 
and received the War medal with seven clasps. 

At the residence of her son-in-law Mr. C. Whit- 
ting, Uphill, near Weston-super-Mare, Anne, wife 
of E. M. Williams, esq. of Garth Hall, Llantri- 
scnt,co. Glamorgan. 

Xor. 5. Aged 5, Frederick Carus, youngest son 
of the late H. J. Adeane, esq. Babraham, Cimib. 

A'uv. 7. At Kenilworth, aged 73, ilargaret, relict 
of the Rev. Richard LiUington, Vicar of Uampton- 
in-Arden. 

^ov. 8. At Heathfield Hall. Handsworth, Staff. 
Agnes, widow of James Gibson, esq .M.D. of 13th 
Light Dragoons. 

At Hythe, near Southampton, Eliza, wife of 
Major-Gen. T. A. Parke, C.B. 

In Jersey, aged 16, Isabella, younger dau. of 
the late Rev. Alexander Stewart, Rector of Bur- 
ford (third pqrtion), Shropshire. 

A^ov. 9. At Cambridge, at an advanced age, 
3Ir. Thomas Chisholm, father of Mr. H. E. Chis- 
holm, one of the councillors of that borough. 

At Ooydon, aged 71, Thomas Young, esq. so- 
licitor, Mark-lane, and one of the Common (3oun- 
cil of the City of London, brother-in-law of Mr. 
Thomas Chisholm, and uucle to Mr. H. E. Chis- 
holm, of Cambridge. 

At Mile End, Portsea.aged 56, Elizabeth, widow 
of Lieut. James Crutchlcy, R.N. 

At Bicester, John George, esq. 

Nov. 10. At the parsonage, Little Bridy, Dorset, 
aged 79, Sophia-Susanna, widow of the Rev. Sa- 
muel Abraham, of North Curry, Som. 

At Mcdsted, Hants, aged 77, Margaret-Christina, 
widow of the Rev. Sanmcl Auchmuty, of Bally- 
mulvey, co. of Longford. 

In St. Gfcorge's-pl. Hyde Ptu-k, aged 52, James, 
eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Bold, A.M. of Li- 
verpool. 

In Dublin, Ellen, wife of John Stratford Col- 
hns, esq. jun. barrister-at-law, only surviving dau. 
of John Lloyd, esq. of Lloydsborough, co. Tipper. 

A'oc. 1 1. At sea, on board the R.M.S.P. La Plata, 
Opt. Wm. Allan, Commander of that ship. 

At Dartmouth, aged 51, John H. F. Bennett, esq. 

At New-cross, Hatcham, Charles Clifford Con- 
sltt, esq. late Commander of the Devonshire East 
Indiaman. 

Aged 86, Thomas Forrest, es^i. of South Shields, 
and of Marsdcn Cottage, co. Durham. 

At the Crewe Railway Station, on his way to 
Ventnor, aged 22, Edward- William, eldest son of 
the Rev. Edward M. Hamilton, of Browne Hall, 
CO. Donegal. 

At Letherhcad, Surrey, aged 57, D. F. Haynes, 
esq. late of Lonesome and Ashstcad. 

At Tamworth,aged 66, Shirley Palmer, eaq. M.D. 

Xov. 12. At Wellingborough, aged 80, Pene- 
lope-Cliaster, relict of Adam Corrie, esq. of Wel- 
lingborough. 

At Tour^, France, Harriot-Mary, wife of Edward 
Fuller, esq. of Carleton Hall, Suffolk. 

At Reading, aged 68, Thomas Uoggard, esq. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXXIX. 



At Lee, Kent, aged 62, Mary- Ann, wife of W 
H. Knowlden, es^q. of Greenwich Hospital. 

At Oystermouth, John William L«ach, esq. of 
Swansea, third son of the late Hugh Leach, esq. of 
Bristol. 

At Brighton, aged 77, Nancy-Llojrl, relict of 
Osbom Tjiden, esq. of Torre-hill, Kent, who died 
in 1827. 

.Vor. 13. Age*l 20, Miss Eliza Beiolcy, niece of 
Joseph Beioley, esq. of Stanhop«sst. Park-pl. 

At Rockingham, near Boyle, co. Roscommon, 
the seat of Viscount Lorton, Elizabeth, dau. of the 
late Richard QrifHth, esq. of Millicent. co. Kil- 
dare, and sister of Richard Griffith, esq. Chairman 
of the Board of Public Works, Dublin. 

Aged 70, Elizabeth, wife of James Knight, e^. 
of Much Hiulham. 

In Albert-road, Regent's Park, Miss Elizabeth 
Noton, of Chichester, youngest dau. of the late 
Benj. Noton, esq. of Hadley, Middlesex. 

At Knowle Green, Staines, aged 78. James Wil- 
liam Pearce, esq. formerly of Piccadilly. 

At his brother's housed Sussex-sq. Hytle Park, 
aged 46, David Sandeman, es<i. of Kirkwood, 
Dumfriesshire. 

Aged 26, Elizabeth -Mortlock, wife of Henry 
Smith, surgeon, of Upper Seymour-st. and second 
dau. of John Sturges, of Connaught-sq. 

At Busli House, near Edinburgh, John Trotter, 
esq. of the Bush, and Castle-law, formerly of the 
Bengal Civil Service. 

Aged 66, Elizabeth, ^ife of the Rev. J. 0. Zill- 
wood, Rector of Corapton, Hants. 

Ifov. 14. At Sherborne, aged 57, Frances, wife 
of Wm. Naish Allford, esq. 

At his brother-in-law's, Dcptford, John Day, 
esq. late of New York and Liverpool, son of the 
late William Day, Post Capt. R.N. and Governor 
of Sierra Leone. 

In Crescent-place, Burton-cresc. aged 40, John 
Bond Dixon, esq. 

At Strood, aged 55, Rebecca, wife of Edward 
Edwards, esq. 

Suddenly, aged 39, JYederick-Wyndham, eldest 
son of RichanT Parrott Hulmc, esq. of Maisonette 
House, Devon. 

At Sevenoaks, aged 83, Mary, second dau. of the 
late Thomas Morland, esq. Court Lodge, Lamber- 
hurst. 

At Salisbury, aged 70, William Moody Moyle, 
e.sq. late of Woodcote House, Dorset. 

Aged 61, Elizabeth, wife of Seth Smith, esq. of 
Eaton-sq. 

At Portsmouth, Sarah- Ann, wife of George 
Victor, esq. 

At Brighton, Eliza, wife of John Pollard Wil- 
loughby, esq. late of Bombay, and dau. of the late 
Gen. M. Kennedy, C.B. of the Bombay army. 

JVov. 15. Aged 19, Caroline-Sarah, fourth dan. 
of the Rev. Dr. Barber, of Vauxhall. 

Aged 81, Mrs. Sarah Broad, an old and re- 
spected inhabitant of Cheltenham, and relict of 
Mr. John Broad, surveyor. 

At Cheltenham, aged 18, Mary Teresa Fitz- 
Herbert, only dau. of Francis, youngest brother of 
Thomas Fitz-Herbert, esq. of Swynnerton Park. 

At Downend, aged 54, Elizabeth-Sarah, eldest 
dau. of the late Richard Haynes, esq. of Wick 
Court, Gloucestershire. 

At Great Malvern, aged 68, EUcn, relict of the 
Rev. Robert Lowe, Rector of Bingham, Notts, and 
second dau. of the late Rev. Reginald Pyndar. 

Nov. 16. At Poplar, agc<l 57, George Baillie, 
esq. surgeon. 

In £uston-sq. Sarali-Maria Crosswell. 

At (joudhurst, aged 79, Mr. Joseph Doust. The 
deceased was the father of 21 sons and daughters, 
and had 62 grand-children, and 35 great grand- 
children, nearly the whole of whom are members 
of, or belong to the Wesleyan connection, and 
several are preachers. 

At nui Cottage, Bamet, Mary, wife of John T, 
Forater, esq. 

P 



106 



Obituary. 



[Jan. 



At Leamington, agod 79, Maria, relict of Court 
Granville, e»q. of Calwich Abbey, co. Stafford. 
Slic was the 4th dau. of Edw. Ferrers, esq. of 
Baddesley Clinton, by Hester, dau. of Christ. 
Bird, esq. ; was married in 1803 to Court D'Ewes, 
esq. who afterwards took the name of Granville, 
and was left his Midow in 1848, having had i8sa§ 
a numerous family. 

At New Ground, Guernsey, aged til. Major 
James Johnston (late 44th Foot). 

At Jersey, aged 68, Mary- Ann, relict of P. L. 
O'Reilly, esq. Purser R.N. 

A;;c(l 60, Elizabeth, vdfe of Richard Wain, esq. 
of Manchester-st, Manchester-sq. 

A'op. 17. In the UampstCad-road, aged 74, Wm. 
Billinics, esq. surgeon, late of the Royal Navy and 
Royal Marines. 

At Brighton, aged 48, Elizabeth Casterton, of 
Chelsea, eldest dau. of the late James Casterton, 
esq. member of the Stock Exchange. 

Aged 28, William Vavasour Carter, esq. of 
Weeton Hall, near Otlcy. 

In Uanover-terr. Kensington Park, Jano, relict 
of Michael Cass, esq, late of Gerrard-st. Soho, 

At Leamington, uged ."iO, Christopher Paxton 
Cay, esq. late of Harrogate. 

At Teignmoutli, Devon, aged 84, Richard Uera- 
ming, esq. of Hillingdon, Middlesex. 

Elizabeth, wife of Abel Jearrad, esq. of Withy- 
combe Raleigh, Devon, and dau. of the late Henry 
Hume Spence, esq. Capt. R.N. 

At Cheltcnlum, Elizabeth-Mary, second dau. of 
Robert Lawson, esq. late of Tiverton. 

At (Jeneva, aged 22, Edward, second son of the 
late Henry Patry, esq. 

At Woodlands, near Ryde, I. W. aged 76, John 
Percival, es(j[. lute of Northampton. 

At Greenstreet, near Sittingboume, aged 36, 
Henry Snowden, cs(i. surgeon, late of Hull. 

^ov. 18. At Good worth Clatford, ne^ir Andover, 
aged 60, Geo. Clarke, cskj. formerly paymaster R.N. 
At Farnham, aged 7h, William Crump, esq. 
At Shirley Park, Surrey, after a short illnoiis. 
the Right Hon. Louisa Countess of Kldon. Slie 
was the thurd dau. of Charles 1st Lord Feversham, 
by Lady Charlotte Leggc, only dau. of William 
uecond Earl of Dartmouth. She was married in 
1831, and has left issue one sou and six daughters. 
At Dover, Thomas Farrell, e.s(i, of Dublin. 
At the residence of her son, Portland-sq. aged 60, 
Joyse, relict of Amos Greenslado, esq. 

At Teignmouth, Martha, relict of John Hatherly, 
esq. of J^shwick, Devon. 

At Barnard Castle, Durham, Lady Hullock, 
widow of Sir John Hullock, Baron of the Exche- 
quer, who died in 1829. (See a Memoir of him in 
our Magazine for that year, Part ii. p. 275.) 

At Everdon, aged 60, Mary, wife of Mr. Thomas 
Mountfort, and dau. of the late Rev. Isaac Knott, 
Vicar of Timberscombe, Somersetshire. 

Aged 64, Isaac Smith, esq. of Albion Villas, Hol- 
loway, and Louth, Lincolnshire. 

At Plymouth, at an advanced age, Joseph Soper, 
esq. an extensive merchant and shipowner. 

At Wrexham, Emma, third dan. of the bite Jas. 
Topping, esq. M.P. of WhatcroftHall,Chesh. K.C. 
Jfov. 19. At St. Lconard's-on-Sea, by an acci- 
dent, aged 38, Mr. Tliomas Farncombe Edgington, 
of Bi.shopsgate-st. 

At Brighton, aged 79, James Fermor, esq. son of 
William Fermor, esq. late of Tusmore, Oxfordsh. 
At Poulshot, Wilts, Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. 
William Fisher, Canon of Salisbury, and Rector of 
Poulshot. 

At Brighton, aged 4 1 , Henry, youngest son of the 
late Jame^i Higgs, es<i. 

Charles Hook, late of Conduit-st. and Highgate. 
solicitor. 

At Camden Town, aged 52, Mr. John Miller, for 
many years ekrk in the Record and Writ Office. 

At Cheltenham, Helen, widow of Henry Bacho 
Thomhill, esq. of Stanton, Derbyshire. 

At Stepney, agctl 59, Mr. William Vorc. CJE. 
formerly of Stratford. 



At Clifton, a£^ed 22, Percy Spottiawoode Evans 
Walmisley, esq. youngest son of the late Edward 
George Walmisley, esq. Clerk of the Journals of 
the House of Lords. 

At Clifton, aged 72, Cann de Winton, esq. a 
maglatrate and deputy-lieut. for the counties of 
Glfimiorgan and Somerset. He was the son and heir 
of the Rev. George Wilkins, Rector of St. Michael, 
Bristol, by liis third wife Anne, dau. of John 
Thompson, esq. of Waterford. Together with the 
rest of his family he altered his name to De Win- 
ton by royal sign-manual in 1839. He married 
Mary, dau. of Thomas Evans, esq. of Berthlyd, co. 
Glamorgan, widow of Wm. Williams, esq. of Pwll- 
y-pant, and had issue three sons and one daughter. 

A'w. 20. At Montrose, Mrs. Balfour, relict of 
Capt. Balfour, sister of Joseph Hume, esq. M.P. 

At Semington, Haniet, wife of G. F. Bruges, esq. 

In the Isle of Wight, aged 40, Charles WiUiam 
Henry Cathcart. 

At Kerswall, Broadclyst, near Exeter, Frances, 
wife of Capt. Chichester. 

At Brighton, Mary, relict of Peter Cloves, esq. 
of the Rookery, Woodford, Essex. Mrs. Cloves 
was a passenger on the Brighton Railway, Nov. 1, 
when a collision took place at Redhill, by which 
she had her leg broken, and from which she never 
recovered. 

The wife of Edwin Corbett, esq. of TUstonc 
Lodge, Cheshire. 

At Wharncliffe-terr. St. John's Wood-road, aged 
67, Mrs. Ann Elizabeth Oubbins, late of South- 
ampton. 

At Exeter, aged 71, Hannah, relict of Thomas 
Hayne, e.sq. 

At Lickhill House, Calne, Abraham Henly,esq. 
father of the Mayor of Calne, and alderman of 
that borough, having survived his wife only eleven 
days. 

At Bath, Elizabeth-Jemima, widow of Col. G. 
Holmes, C.B. 3rd Dragoon Guards, eldest dau. of 
the late Sir Egcrton Brydges, Bart. She was 
married in 1817. 

Aged 29, James, fourth son of the Rev. Richard 
In man, Rector of Tod wick. 

At St. Margaret's, Rochester, aged h3, John 
Jenner, esq. 

In Blackfriars-road, aged IG months, Zillah ; and 
on the 23rd, age«l 3, tlorencc-Gorvyll, only daus. 
of F. C. Jones, cmj. M.D. 

At Edinburgh, Mrs. Charlotte Maule, relict of 
Capt. A. R. Kerr, R.N., C.B. 

At Camberwell, aged 77, Thomas Key, esq. 

At Brighton, aged 22, Monsieur Henri de Paris. 

At Brunswick House, Southampton, aged 81, 
Mrs. Frances Keble Perreau. 

At Tenby, Mary- Anne, eldest dau. of tlio late 
M^jor John Gordon Rorlson, H.E.I.C.S. and grand- 
dau. of the late Rev.Edw.Hughes, Rector of Tenby. 

At Cheltenham, aged 5, Letitia-Isabella ; and on 
the 23rd, aged 9, Mjirgaret, daus. of Lieut.-Colonel 
Rutherford, Bengal army. 

At Gatton Tower, near Reigato, Margaret, wife 
of tlie Rev. James Cecil Wynter, Rector of Gatton, 
and eldest dau. of George, Lyall, esri. 

N&p.2\. In Hans-pl. Chelsea, aged 83, Jane- 
Ann, widow of Capt. James Anderson, R.N. 

At Nice, aged 38, Amelia, fourth dau. of the late 
Capt. Pliilip Barlow, 22nd Regt. 

Aged 68, At Portaea, at the house of Mr. PhUUps , 
chemist. Captain George Beazley, sen. for many 
years commander in the Portsmouth and Ryde 
Steam Packet Company, and proprietor and occu- 
pier of the Eagle Hotel, opposite the pier. 

At Barnstaple, aged 79, Elizabeth, widow of the 
Rev. A. Bcevor, Rector of Bcrgh-Apton, Norfolk, 
eldest dau. of the late James Blatch, esq. of Col- 
chester. 

At Burton Constable, aged 31, Lewis-Arthur 
Clifford, son of the late Arthur Clifford, esq. and 
couahi of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart. 

At Morton-upon-Swale, aged 74, Mrs.MaryEden. 

At Camberwell, aged 79, £]izabeth-Mary, relict 
of James l-Yaaer, esq. 



1853.] 



Obituary. 



107 



In Queen Anne-Rt. aged 50, Ricliard Groom, 
esfj. 

In Gowcr-st. aged 61, Eden Ilanvood, esq. late 
of the Sun Fire Office. 

At the residence of D. Knight, esq. St. Ilelier's, 
Jersey, aged 30, Peter Knight, esq. formerly stu- 
dent of St. Tliomas's IFospital, ehlest son of the late 
R. D. Knight, es«i. Hurgeon, Bengal Estab. 

Thomas Moore, esq. of Ruddington, Notts. 

At Gosport, aged 28, Lieut. Francis Rooke, R.N. 
He was the fourth son of Capt. F. W. Rooke, R.N. 
of Lackham Hall, Wilta. He entered the Royal 
Naval CJoUege in July 1836, and in May 1837 em- 
barked as a volunteer on board the Talavera 74, 
as a midshipman of the Pylades 78, Wellcsley 72, 
and Blenheim 72, he took an active part in the 
Chinese campaign, and for his gallantry obtained 
two special certificates. He was made Lieut. 1846, 
and was afterwards appointed to the Devastation , 
Oorgon, and Avenger steam-ships, in the last of 
which he was wrecked on the Sorella rocks, Dec. 
20, 1847, and was the only officer saved. In 1848 
he was appointed to the Blenheim steam guardship 
at Portsmouth. 

In Dublin, Louisa, relict of the Rev. Joseph 
Story, of Bingflcld, co. Cavan. 

Nov. 22. At Reading, aged 36, Louisa, willow of 
James Boor, esq. solicitor, Warminster. 

At Winchmore Hill, aged 83, Joseph Booth, esq. 

Aged 65, Herman Braden, esq. of Denmark-st. 
St. George's East, and Leyton, Essex. 

At Arundel, aged 79, Mr. Robert Emery, the 
well-known angler. 

At Woodlands, Rhayader, Thomas Evans, esq. 

In Acacia-road, St. John's-wood, Mary-Anna, 
wife of the Rev. William Easing, of Rushmere. 
Suffolk, only surv. sister of Mrs. Edward Futvoyc. 

Mrs. B. Hensman, of Lower Caltliori>c-st. 

At Ea.st Barnet, Herts, aged 21, Mathilda, 
youngest dau. of Adolphus Lindgren, esq. 

At Edinburgh, Jessie-Eaton, relict of Willam 
Shedden, esq. Madras Medical Service. 

In Portland-ter. St. John's Wood, aged 61, Wil- 
liam Webster, esq. late Paymaster of the 76th, and 
for many years of the 1st West India Regiment. 

Nov. 23. At Brighton, aged 74, John Bonhote, 
esq. of Upper Southwick-st. Hyde Park. 

At his uncle's, Charles Malpas.esq. Ilarrow-on- 
the-hill, aged 16, Clarence, eldest son of C. H. 
Cary, esq. of Castletown, Isle of Man. 

At Perry Vale, Sydenham, aged 52, Augustus 
F. B. Creuze, esq. F.R.S. principal siu-veyor to 
" Lloyd's Register. " He was a native of Ports- 
mouth, a student of the School of Naval Archi- 
tecture, and formerly one of the foremen of Ports- 
mouth dockyard. He wrote the article on naval 
architecture in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

At Jevington, aged 69, Mary, wife of J. T. Fil- 
der, esq. 

At Bath, aged 83, Susanna, widow of Major 
Ricliard Gomonde, H.E.I.C.S. 

At Brighton, aged 65, George Howell, esq. 

AtCheltenham, Miss Edith Pearce Morris, eldest 
dau. of the late Robert Morris, e^. M.P. of Barn- 
wood Court, Glouc. 

At Newton Tony Rectory, aged 24, Hugh, only 
son of the Rev. Hugh Price. 

At Westport House, co. Mayo, in her 28th year, 
the Most Hon. Louisa Ellen Frances Augusta 
Marchioness of Sllgo. She was the younger dau. 
of Lord Viscount Strangford, by Ellen, youngest 
daughter of Sir Thomas Burke. Bart, and was 
born at Constantinople, during her father's em- 
bassy there. She was married in 1847 to George- 
John third Marquess of Sligo, bywhom she has left 
an only daughter. 

At the residence of her son, at Bentley, Hants, 
aged 79, Ann, relict of Charles Webb, ewi. late of 
Park-hill-housc, Claphani. 

Nor. 24. Hannah, wife of the Rev. R. Kemp 
Bailey, M.A. incumbent of St. Paul's, Hull. 

At Easingwold, aged 100, Mr. John Banks. He 
was l)om Sept. 1, 1752, at 11.30 p.m. a period 
marked by the change of style, which conducted 



hbn, as ho used to tell his neighbours, eleven days 
onward in his journey, half an hour after his birth. 

At Danasbury, near Welwyn, Herts, aged 78, 
William Blake, esq. of Portland-]dace. 

At Stoke Newington Green, aged 72, Mr. Thomas 
Chubb. 

At Clifton, aged 8h, Elizal>cth-Rand, relict of 
Thomas Tlieophilus Cock, esq of Mes.sJng, Essex. 

At Dalston, aged H:i, Ezekiel Delight, esq. 

Aged 67, Maria, relict of L. II. Doyle, formerly 
Lieut, of the city of Dublin Militia, and only sur- 
viving dau. of the late Mr. Solomon BcviU, of 
Hastings. 

In Hyde Park-st. Mrs. E. S. Ellis, widow, fourth 
dau. of the late John Locke, esq. of Walthamstow. 

At Plymouth, aged 73, Mr. Fade Heatly, late 
Major in H.M. 6Ist Regt. 

At the residence of her brother, Mr. John Lam- 
bert, at Milford, near Salislniry, aged 54, Dorothy- 
Winefrid, 2nd dau. of the late Daniel Lambert, esq. 

At Bristol, James Pearce, esq. surgeon, formerly 
of Bradford, Wilts. 

At Birmingham, aged 52, John Purafrey, esq. 
late of Droitwich. 

At Eastbourne, Sussex, at an advanced age, 
Henrietta- Frances, relict of Col. Rawdon, and dau. 
of the late Richard Dawson, esfj. of Ardee, Louth, 

At Wokingham, Berks, aged 81, Catherine-Burd, 
widow of Mr. James Wheeler. 

Nov. 25. In Sloane- street, aged 67, William 
Anderson, esq. of the War Office. 

At Handsworth, Sarah-Elizabeth- Ann, eldest 
dau. of Mrs. Bownas, and grand-dau. of the late 
Rev. C. Roberts, Vicar of Edstone and Bugthorpe. 

Miss Clara Brown, dau. of J. C. Brown, esq. ol 
Holsworthy. 

At Southsea, aged 33, Mary- Anne, wife of Capt. 
Henry Byng, R.N. She was the only child of the 
late Wm. Webb, esq. of the Views, Essex, was 
married in 1839, and had a numerous family. 

At Barnstaple, aged 37, Capt. Colvin Corsar, lato 
of the Bengal Est. 

At Gonvillc House, Cambridge, aged 73, Wil- 
liam Crowe, esq. 

At Portsea, agetl 60, William Jones, esq. a ma- 
gistrate and alderman of Portsmouth. 

At Clifton, Margaret-Frances, dau. of the Rev. 
W. Knight, Rector of St. Michael's, Bristol. 

At Wimborne, Dorset, aged 69, Sarah, relict of 
Richard Oakley, esq. 

Aged 56, Anne, wife of John Sparkes, esq. of 
Wood Hill, Wonersh, Surrey. 

At Brompton-crcsoent, George Stow, esq. Su- 
perintendent of Mail Department, Gen. Post Office. 

Ann, \\ife of Edward Tilbury, esq. of Brighton, 
and High-street, Marylebone. 

At Tockington, co. Glouc. aged 57, Wra. Danvera 
Ward, e^. 

Aged 71, Mr. Wm. Wreford, of Clannaborough, 
near Credlton, a gentleman of large property. He 
was found drowned in the canal at Exeter, imder 
suspicious circumstances. 

Nov. 26. At Manningtrce, aged 69, Elizabeth, 
widow of D. C. Alston, esq. 

In London, aged 62, B. D. Coe, esq. late of Buf- 
falo, New York. 

At Bromley, Middx. aged 72, .^Eneas Coffey, esq. 

At Brighton, 'aged 76, Miss Mary Field, eldest 
dau. of the hite John Field, es(i. of Hitchin, Herts. 

At Deptford, Mr. E. C. Harrison, surveyor, of 
East India Chambers, Leadenhall-st. 

At Cheltenham, aged 70, Louisa, relict of Tho- 
mas Henney,esq. 

In Sydney-pl. Clapham-road, aged 73, Mary, 
relict of William Henry Huffam, esq. late of Rat- 
cliffe, Middlesex. 

At Newcastle, Ann, wife of Sanderson Ilderton, 
esq. of Ilderton, Northumb. 

At St. John's Priory, Banbury, aged 52, Emily, 
wife of Mr. (Jeorge Walter Jame.s, surgeon. 

Aged 27,. Jessie, wife of S. Moseley, esq. of Hull, 
and (hiu. of the late Dr. Walkinshaw, of Trinidad. 
Her botly was interred in the St. Alban's burial- 
ground, Brompton, Middlesex. 



108 



Obituary. 



[Jan. 



At Fordingbridge, Humphrey Pinhorn, esq. 
surgeon. 

Aged 56, George Ricli, esq. of Bankside, and of 
Lower Tooting, Surrey. 

At Cheltenham, aged 23, Ellen, dau. of Tliomas 
UnderhlU, esq. surgeon. • 

Nov. 27. At her daughter's residence, Cleve- 
land-pl. Bath, aged 82, Sarah, reUct of W. Betty, 
esq. Medical Staff, H.E.I.C.S. 

At Clapton, aged 75, Elizabeth, widow of John 
Dibble Bowman, esq. 

At Russell's-town Park, co. of Carlow, Harriet- 
Isabella- Ann, wife of Wm. Duckett, esq. and dau. 
of Col. Charles E. Gordon, R. Art. 

In Westboume-pl. Eaton-sq. aged 40, Char- 
lotte-Frances, wife of John Downie, esq. foi-merly 
First Puisne 'Judge of Britisli Guiana. 

At Kentish Town, aged 66, Rosalia, wife of 
Giacomo Minasi. 

At Dursley, Glouc. aged 77, Mrs. Mary Moore. 

At Croydon, aged 82, Samuel Selmes, esq. for- 
merly of Beckley, Sussex. 

Nov. 28. In Cadogan-pl. Mrs. Sarah Ball. 

Aged 30, at Bridstow, Herefordshire, Walter 
Ballinger, esq. 

At Brighton, aged 22, Mary, dau. of George 
Boyd, esq. 

Aged 22, William-Henry, eldest son of Henry 
Kebbel, esq. of Allhallows Wharf, Upper Thames- 
8t. and Lee-terrace, Blackheath. ' 

At the Parsonage, Meeth,co. Devon, Lucy-Maria, 
wife of the Rev. Everard Lempriere, and dau. of 
the late J. D. Foulkes, esq. 

At St. Catherine's-cottage, near Guildford, aged 
37, George Paine, esq. 

In Dorset-pl. North, Kennington, Surrey, aged 
»9, Miss Parker, only dau. of the late John Parker, 
esq. many years a resident of Clapham, Surrey. 

At Surbiton, Surrey, Rebecca-Maria, wife of the 
Rev. Richard PenncU, M.A. and duu. of tlie late 
Charles Bowles, e«q. of Ea.st Sheen. 

At the Vicarage House, Ottcry, near Bridgwater, 
the residence of her son-in-law the Rev. Dr. Ship- 
ton, aged 82, Mary, relict of Samuel Simmons, esq. 

At Hastings, Mary, wife of Edward Thompson, 
eaq. of Barnsbury-terr. Islington. 

At Cambridge, aged 19, Mary-Augusta, only dau. 
of the Rev. Matthew Vicars, Rector of Godman- 
Btone, Dorset. 

Nov. 29. At Ross, Herefordshire, Lydia, eldest 
dau. of the late Riolmrd Evans, esq. M.D. and wife 
of Mr. Seijeant Allen, of the Elms, Crawley, and 
of Bessborough-gardens, Belgrave-road. 

At Brompton, Harriet, widow of Francis Edis- 
bury Davies, esq. of the War Office. 

At the residence of her son, Leicester, aged 68, 
Mrs. Siirah Fascutt, only sister to Isaac Lovell, 
esq. of Paulerspury, Northamptonshire. 

At Hastings, aged 31, the Rev. Thomas Alfred 
Hall, late minister of the Independent Chapel, 
Godalming. 

Aged 67. WUliam Shaw Hill, esq. of Bath. 

At Edinburgh, aged 7, Frances-Margaret, third 
dan. of the late Cupt. John Inglis, 2d Bengal Cav. 

At the house of his father-in-Uiw Sir Fitzroy 
Kelly, in Piccadilly, Capt. John Green Paley, 
youngest son of J. G. Paley, esq. of Oakland^, 
Yorkshire. 

At Teignmouth, Anne, \*ife of John Chappell 
Tozer, esq. solicitor. 

At Wormley, Herts, aged 73, Ann, sister of the 
late Charles Welstead, esq. of Valentines, Essex. 

At High Heworth, in his 84th year, John Wy- 
lara, esq. 

Nov. 30. At Brighton, Ann, the wife of John 
Thomas Ansell, esq. of H.M. Customs, Shore- 
ham. 

Mary, daughter of the late Richard Birkett, esq. 
of L'piH'.r Clapton. 

At Torquay, aged 41, Feame Bolland, esq. 

In Halfmoon-st Emma-Sophia-Jane-Matilda, 
widow of Andrew Browne, esq. F.R.C.S.E. Deputy 
Inspector of Army Hospitals. 

At Parsonstown, Jane, wife of the Bey. J. Car- 



lUe, D.D. a zealous friend to the Missionary cause 
in Ireland. 

At Bury St. Edmund's, aged 82, Mrs. Jane 
Cripps, daugliter of the Rev. Thomas Cripps, of 
Cheadle, Cheshire, and niece of the late William 
Buck, esq. of the former to^Ti. 

At Chatham, Kent, aged 77, Sarah, relict of S. 
H. Dickerson, esq. 

At Nether Wallop, Hants, Harriet, wife of tlie 
Rev. A. W. Dorset Fellowes, Vicar, late of York. 

A. P. Gibson, esq. of Holles-st. Cavendish -sq. 
late Consul General at St. Petersburgh for the 
United States of America. 

At Clifton, aged 87, Elizabeth, relict of Samuel 
Lloyd Harford, esq. 

At Helston, aged 60, Elizabeth, widow of George 
D. John, esq. and only survinng dau. of the late 
Jonathan Passingham, esq. of Hendur, in Meri- 
oneth, and of Bonython, Cornwall. 

At Sutton Courtenay, Berks, aged 79, Ednunul 
Norris, esq. 

At Brighton, aged 29, Matilda-Catherine Pook, 
after long suffering borne with Christian patience, 
loved and respected by all who knew her. 

Aged 91, Mrs. Elizabeth Sliaw, of Calthorpe-st. 
Guildford-st. 

Lately. Lady Winston Barron, wife of Sir 
Henry Winston Barron, Bart, of Barron Court, 
Waterford, and dau. of Sh- Gregor>' Page Turner, 
Bart, of Battlesden Park, Bedfordshire, &c. 

Aged 84, M. Huve, the architect wlio completed 
the Madeleine at Paris, one of the senior members 
of the Institute, and member of tlic Academy of 
Beaux Arts. 

At Blackheath Park, aged 64, Frances, relict of 
Lieut.-Col. Josiah Stewart, C.B. Madra.s Array. 

Dec. 1. At Clifton, near York, Mary, only dau. 
ofthelatc J. W. Carroll, M.D. of Calcutta, and 
niece of the late Rev. W. Richardson, M.A. 

At Brighton, Amelia-Snell, wife of Lieut.-Col. 
Carpenter, of Potter's-bar, Middlesex. 

In Halkln-st. West, aged 20, Charlotte, wife of 
Charles F. T. Daniell, esq. 38th Regt. 

At Cheltenham, aged 59, Sophia, wife of the 
Rev. Richard Greaves, and younge.'»t dau. of the 
late William Wilson, esq. of Nether Worton, Oxf. 

At Hastings, aped 79, Ellen, widow of James 
Honiby, esq. 

At the Mall, Kensington Gravel-pits, aged 25, 
Elvira, wife of John Callcott Horsley, cmi. 

At Lyndhurst, Mr. Willitim Sliort, druggist, ami 
seerctary to tlie Lyndhurst district of the Haniii- 
sliire Friendly Society. 

At Brixton, aged 60, William Thomas, esq. late 
of Sydenham and Clo^-lane. 

At Ealing, aged 76, Cliarles Andrew Thomwm, 
esq. fonnerly a wine merchant. After rather a 
reverse in his fortunes, he had for some years re- 
tired to a more humble residence, with his iiged 
partner, with whom he had live<l happily for more 
than half a century. From his peculiar and old- 
fashioned dress (top-boots, &c.) he was generally 
known in the neighbourhood, and re.^pected by 
his neighbours. He died ft*om a fit quite suddenly, 
whilst at his barber's at Acton, whither he had 
walked flrom Ealing, as was liis custom, to Lk; 
shaved. 

At Portsmouth, aged 69. J. P. Wallin, esq. re- 
cently of the Dockyard, 

Dec. 2. At Brighton, agetl 73, Cluirles Fasselt 
Buniett, esq. of Park-crescent, Regent's-park . 

At Brompton, Capt. Charles John Gibson Car- 
mlchael, 69th Kegt. fourth son of the late Sir 
Thomas Gibson Carmichael, Bart. 

At CUfton, aged 74, Mrs. Clark, widow of T. 
Clark, esq. of Bristol. 

At Connauglit-terrace, Edgware-road, aged 74, 
Isabella, relict of Jacob Cowles, emi. H.E.I.C.S. 

At North Sunderland, aged 82, Mr. Robert 
Curry, formerly of Brandon, Northumberland. 
During his tenure of sixty years there, his place 
was amongst the flrst of his order, as an agriiul- 
tnrist, and he gave to the hl.storian of the Herd 
Book a page upon the excellcnco of the shortliorus. 



1853.] 



Obituary. 



109 



In Oreat ?reKOtt-fit. Qoodman'^-fldldii, Bge^l d1>^ 
Esther, relict of Jacob Dbw Femanaai* 
At E\e<er, jiv-ed Ofi, Mary- Ann , mrtftj of Harry 
^ke «iil.b.s M.D., FJl.as. 

\s^(l r)?, Witllam Griiaes, oao. battker.of Lkb- 
flel.l. 

At the Qreen, Ambl6i{d«, aged T9» John ilarri- 
5011, e*t|. 
At Croydon, Aged 75, MtAa SonUi Inno*. ■ 
At Roysran-hnU aged T8, ElUftbeth. rt'lict of 
I JoahUA Lllloy, e«^ of Wallinjftoii, Hertj*. 
B Al Lum beth , lijtfed Hi, Ro/gtlhid , widow of Samuel 
|!lLuidi<r, c,^|. rtf the Twnijlo. 

At B»rasbury-pi«rk« Lthngton, Aged 77» Ann, 

rldow of Junes PeJr»on, e»<i. 

At W«t Moiling, nged ej , f!«orge Perfect, o*q. 

ifcrr miLOy y«m a uumUcaI {iractltiDner hi that 

town. 

At AhivlcJc, Mcd 87, Grace, lAidOvr of Bobert 

At S' ^'►rfaUc, a*?eil 46, Jane, young- 

t su i : the Utc CborleA Siui derts, esq. 

At Do....... ,.«.,,.., li 10, wife of Comm. TurUrew, 

LN. She was the third djuii^hter of G. Arnold, 

H. and Qutrritid in I ft5W;. 

In Upper WLmriDlti-flt. Anna, diiu, of tiio late 
kimticl Turner, e«q. 

/Vf . 3. At Pa]{$Tavc. SnfiRolk, aged 53, Ann, 
rwitlnw of John Hewt *"tv. *— i. 

At EtUnburifh. AIj ?aiL of the late 

Juna^ AjkUt.wii, c^ : itherlandAhire, 

At Burj-road, un^. - -i '"*a^ Comm. 
" ODAS Bftll, R.N. lie t! r In 1707, 

I mdde Lieutenant lu innmndpr 

Hfiied. He served for 2ii yc.u j..*y. 

At rUelnnond, a^cd tiS, AiiU-i'iiHcinei Wife Of 
It. TJionios Fi^iwTunn. clerk lo Ih^ CuminlssdlODon 
fTcxcs, and to the ina)qi-«strolo.-« ofiiilMng West. 

At Kenti»li town, aji'tNi iti, Klij£4t-!S'iphia, wMow 
f Lieut. 'Col, Sir Edward Alexaiuliir CuniidurU, 
J.B. of the Bengal Military Service, and eldest d»u. 
if TlioouM Pwmtt, eaQ. of RuDJgate. 

At Kieter, aged Td, Lucy, wife of Hugh Cum- 
Milliig,esq. 

At Wfttl^, Herb, ag«d 53, Chris. Dttlton, e«q. 

At B<lttl, ti«ed n, Mn. Oijuibeth GoddisD, 

A I Glieltenbais, aged 59, Sojihia, wil% of the Rev. 
tichard GreaveA. 

At Cnnnoitlieii. aoed 77. EJhcabetli, widow of 



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r 


-nt«r>. 




: i>on, e«{. of the firm of 


ji.. „,.. 


'Mils, of London. Ho 


Wto « tmtMr^'i Ctu' 


izwold. 


Mr. Uvidbitlir, L 


iT. Hewa*r€- 


turning hom^ in u ... , 


uilJenly thot liisi 


hi-awi i>ut Of tJ!<- viiUuItm 


to Uiti driver, who wjus 



tAkme ii tairuine, when, ymimt, a Lirj^ti &tout nmn, 
the weiulit of Ijiis t»f>ly overturned the V4jbk'lc, 
whlcli leU, t-ni^hmK liiu\ I«iKiith it. By was a 
nnlivt> uf Iffjcliuin, in<i Im^ been tong known ms a 
n^Hrt elMcient omctt in ttie B(nA--Ht. divijlon. 

Ai Downturn, t^ie of illy, itebeccii, wtfeof Hunt* 
in^ttin Martin, vmi. dAU. of the late Jdm ModOD, 
e*^, of Peck hum, SnJTty. 

At Redlatid.a^vd ti:i,\Viiiijim Mnnrite, c«q.«ir- 
g«4in, fonnerly o^^AtiUit "ur^jceon ot 7tti UtuKan. 

At Lb«»i*ti-^oveS<:mtrk. ayt-^l fto, Willitun Henry 
'^Aynv, estt' of the Ei^t indiu Uouim}, 

At the t'pl^r Hou«e, Stieliley Bcaiudmmp, Wor- 

kiter^u flg«l 5h, KUxm, widow of C, K. MoOre,e»i. 

At KinK'dun, Susaiuw, widow of the Hcv. W. 
lewnluiin. 

At Plytiiomij, C«tiu'nm-EUj!al«lh, uldeil «ur- 
^Ytn^i: d»u. of the l»te ILtrry Noye», cmj. of 'nirux ■ 

h, iLinr^. 

•v-ji^fi. ijuplon, oitcd 30, James AlexAnder 
Infest <^m o1 Camm. Jaine* Wood, 

-. ..'. Horley Lodge, Surrvy, atred 63, 



At Lo^l-wiihiel, nged 'iG, Emfly, yonogeit daii. 
of John '" ■ I, Ibnnerlyof Boconnoc, 

At *- an-',^reeTi, agt'd (i'i, WUham 

Hardvt ,caq. 

At BiiisH-iuu -<-u!iTton, ttgcd HO, Edward Couelie, 
mq . IX'pM tj' Commififiiiry 'Gen eral . 

At Stoke, aged til, Mr*. Crown, rclkt of John 
Crown, CJ9C1. 

AtStMmry'Bi HUl, Uidgway, aged 67, George 
EastUkke, esq, tonnerly of Plyrnoutii. 

At Hanhjun, near Bri^itol, aged 74, MLis Hariiet 
EmerBoiL, 

Miiry, eldest dau. of tlie lato Rev, Jamea Ford, 
Rwtor of St. George the Martyr and St, Mary 
Magdaktne, Caoturbtiry. 

At the Werga, StalT. aged BO, Mary, widow of 
Richard Iryer, esq. baiikcr, and late M,P* for Wol- 
veriminpton. She was the only thiti, of WUlinm 
Fleoniing, esq, and niece ami kjIb heirie** of John 
Flccmlng, etMj. of the Wfirgit, co. Stafford. Slie was 
iDttCTled In 1794, and left a widow In Ift. . , having 
lud iMtie two too«i and Ibiir danghtem. 

At GhJcbestttr, aged 73, Hn. FuUogor, wife of 
the llflT. John Fnllagar. 

At Weybrldgo, aged 7A, Ann, wllii of Thomas 
HerrlTig, estq. lale of Belilse, HamjMiiead, 

At BayBwatar, aged 63, John Wi^taoa Hodge, 
esq. of the Stock Exchange. 

At Oiiildford, ji|re*l »3. William Ingle, esq. 

At Primiey Hill, the rtslrk'nce of her >4on-in-lAW 
tl]& lU^v. F, Uoliield, ajjrcd 7i^, Chrl*tittn, reUct of 
Thonias Khig, c-nq, of MiJlbouk, co, Renfrew. 

At £uloskDrr}% near Latmceaton, Cornwall, the 
wife of the Rev. W, A. Morgan. 

At Wootton House, near Bedford. Ml»s Payne, 
dan. of tlie late Sir John Paj-ne, of Tempftford 
Hall, rtart. and granddau. of the hite Sir Philip 
Monox. of Sandy, Bart. 

At £a«t Teignmonth, aged 84, Mrs. Ann Prid- 
ham. 

At AlvediAton, aged 6a, J. W. G. Bogerii, esq. 

At Steyning, Miss Sandiland. 

Aged 80, MLss Mary-Ann Smith, many yean 
lilimrLi'i t{i ti,,. r'.,^tlo Library, Colchester. De- 
' I Colchester OuAtlo, and con- 

' I lin it'll wall* daring the whole 

i-i -... ,......„..-. „ic. 

Lit i'urtkud-pl, aged *ra, Jani«» RuddeO Todd^ 
ttiq. 

At the residence of her son, MontpcUJcr-crose* 
Bri^hl,in, Hmtet, fflitl of Wilttam WTIIiaiiM.Ciit. 

At Wroxtiall Abt)ey. WarwickAhire, aged 72, 
Ann, rtltL't of Chrifctoiihcr Rul>ertii Wren, e«q. She 
wan iho dtuj, of Thoma* Dl^ii:*, esq. of PiMtmore, 
00. Wore, wtts married in IB If*, Btml Ipfl a widow 
in I!!<i28, having liad i«^<(UO an only ilan, and heir, 
tlie wife of CluuidoA Wnm HoftkyuA, esfi. of Wrox- 
hall Abbey » 

Ikr. 5. At Montrose, N.B., the wife of John 
Aburdein, esq. 

At Ouildford, aged 67, Mifi& Catherine Bonner. 

Clement, youngest mu of Robert Clarke, eaq. of 
Sonlh Town Houmi, Gr^'at Yarmonth. 

Jemima-Lncy-Boughton, wife of ChwleH Llrlua 
Grtm«>iidWQ, esq. of FenUke, Bed.«. dau. of J. W. 
Boughton Ldgh, esq. of BrowtiMiver HoU, War- 
wickshire. 

Aged 14, Anna, fourth dan. of the Rev. R, Xa. 
gram. Vicar of Ciicgi<»wick, Yorluhiro, and giraod- 
dan. of the hite Sunae) AlRton, e«q, 9t. Martin's, 
Leicester. 

At Stoko, Klixabcth E. King, eldett dan. of tba 
late Capt, W. King, R.N. 

At hi* sistorV, at Slimnd-on-tlbe-Greeii, aged 70, 
Uichard Peaeock, esq. of Fsrk-rood, Daiston, late 
one of tlie Arm of Pcaeocit and Soni, pockot-booic 
makcn, of SaliMbury-iquaro* 

Aged ttS, John Fowls, e*). late of Riebmood- 
terr. Walworth. 

Aged ^, Jane, wife of Wni. Tarn Pritebard, 
fwi. of Noctlng HUl, and IioetnrH' CN]riaiiioft». 

At Die residence of hia <ktlier, aged S», Edinaitd- 
W7att,t»rond survlvinir ma of FVinl Stititii. esq. of 
Bank Hooaep StQac, Siafforddhire 



110 



Obituary. 



[Jan. 



In Parliament-st. Westminster, aged 81, Eliza- 
beth, relict of Mr. Samuel Young, solicitor. 

Dtc. 6. Aged 19, Peter-Hard wicke, third son of 
W. B. Brodie, esq. and one of the Junior Clerks at 
the War Office. 

At Floors Castle, aged 77, Benjamin Charle- 
wood, esq. late Lt.-Col. in the Orenadier Guards. 

At Charmouth, aged 86, retired Capt. Charle.s 
Clyde, R.N. He entered the service m 1784 on 
board the Trimmer sloop; was in the Princess 
Royal 98 at the occupation of Toulon and the cap- 
ture of St. Fiorenza ; was made Lieutenant in the 
same year, and partook in Hotham's partial 
actions of March and July 1795. In 1798 in the 
Captain 74 he assisted at the capture of Rear-Adm. 
Perries squadron ; and. after serving in various 
other ships, he was made Commander in 1810, 
Having served on full pay for 25 years, he accepted 
the rank of retired Captain in 1840. He married 
April 20, 1818, a daughter of the Rev. Wm. Milton, 
Vicar of Heckfield, Hants. 

Suddenly, at Brighton, aged GO, the Hon. Sophia- 
Mary, wife of Capt. the Hon. Peregrine F. Cust. 
She was the 2d dau. of John-Thomas second Vis- 
count Sydney by his first wife the Hon. Sophia 
Southwell, 3d dau. of Edward 20th Lord De Clif- 
ford. She became the second wife of Capt. Cust 
in 1833. 

Aged 20, John Richard, eldest son of Edmund 
Fnncis Dayrell, esq. of Lillingstone Dayrell 
House, Buckinghamshire. 

At Terling, aged 76, Catharlna-Regina, wife of 
the Rev. John Dorrington. 

Aged 72, Sarah, wife of William Hardisty, esq. 
of Shepton Mallet. 

At her sister's, in Upper Bedford-pl. aged 80, 
Mrs. Susanna Kennedy. 

Aged 29, Rosa-Arabella, wife of John Charles 
Langmore, esq. Oxford-terr. Hyde-park, and niece 
of Mr. Thomas Mason, High-street, Colchester. 

Aged 36, Edward Lovegrove, esq. of the Stock 
Exchange. 

At Bath, Sarah, eldest dau. of the late Rev. 
Thomas Esbury Partridge, of Hillsley, co. Glouc, 
and Rector of Lley. 

At the residence of his son-in-law T. M. Hunter, 
esq. Eastwood, Portishead, near Bristol, aged 76, 
Saul Solomon, esq. of St. Helena. 

At the Grange, Woodham Mortimer, aged 44, 
Thomas-Lay, second son of John Ward, esq. of 
Hatfield Peverel. 

At Hoddesden, aged 77, John Warner, esq. 

In South Parade, Weston-super-Mare, aged 70, 
William White, esq. barrister-at-hiw. 

At Hookfleld Grove, Epsom, aged 46, George St. 
Vincent Wilson, esq. of Redgrave Hall, Suffolk. 
He was the oldest son of Admiral George Wilson, 
of the same place, by Catharine dau. of John Pol- 
lard, esq. of Ewell. He succeeded his father in 
1826, and afterwards served the office of Sheriff of 
Suffolk. He married, in 1834, Louisa-Matilda, 
dau. of tlie Rev, John Surtees, Prebendary of 
Bristol, and has left issue one son and twodaus. 

At Bath, aged 87, Catharine-Elizabeth, relict of 
the Rev. John Wood, Vicar of Heme, and eldest 
dau. of the late Rev. Dr. Benson, Prebendary of 
Canterbury. 

Dtc, 7. At Beaulieu, Hants, aged 75, Mrs. Mary 
Adams, mother of G. A. Adams, esq. of Hanworthy. 

At Putney, aged 70, of influenxa, Mrs. Frances 
H. M. Blood, widow of Neptune Blood, esq. of 
Sloane-street. 

Aged 42, Thomas Theodore Campbell, esq. Jun. 
of Queen's-road, Regent's-park. 

At Godstone, aged 81, Mrs. Everest. 

At Wye, aged 55, Elizabeth, widow of tlie Rev. 
William Morris. M.A. Perpetual Curate of Wye, 
aud third dau. of the Rev. Congreve Selwyn, B.A. 
Rector of Eastnor, and Vicar of Yarkhlll, lleref. 

At Sniperly House, near Durham, Frances-Har- 
riet, relict of John W. C. Robinson, esq. of Tunstal 
Lodge, youngest dau. and last surviving child of 
Sir James Pennyman, Bart, of Onuesby Hall, 
Cleveland. 



Ike. 8. At Tring-park, Hertfordshire, aged 76, 
Joseph Grout, esq. 

At York, aged 36, Mr. Thomas Holmes, trage- 
dian. He had been associatetl with the York 
theatrical chpcuit for many years. 

At Hackney, aged 36, Anne, \vidow of Cornwall 
Reynolds, esq. and oldeMt dau. of the late Francis 
Hayward, esq. of Bath, M.D. 

At Tunbridgo Wells, aged 44, Cha. ^Rhodes, csij. 

Katharine, wife of James Woolley Simpson, esq. 
Hospital Staff, Malta. 

At Shalden Lodge, Hants, aged 86, Martha, 
widow of Thomas Smith, esq. of Shalden Lodge. 

At the house of James Brown Simpson, esq. of 
Richmond, solicitor, Ann-Esther, second dau. of 
the late Rev. John Wilkinson, of Alne, near Eas- 
ingwold. 

At Swanage, aged 44, the wfe of Charles Will- 
cox, esq, surgeon, only child of the late Lieutenant 
Lewis Lamb, R.N. 

Dee. 9. In Argyll-pl. aged 50, Robert James 
Culverwell, esq. M.D. 

Aged 83, Judith, widow of Mr. Henry Emery, 
many years Master of Su* Robert Hitcham's Gram- 
mar School, Coggleshall, Essex. 

At Torquay, aged 21, William R. Jones, esq. 

AtColcshill, Herts, aged 19, Isabella-Emma, only 
child of Capt. Lascelles, R.N. 

At Pentonville, aged 81, Peter Rouw, sculptor. 

In Welbeck-st. Sarah-Maria, relict of John Sul- 
livan, esq. R.N. 

At Newmarket, at the residence of his son, aged 
61, George Tattersall, esq. 

At Liverpool, aged 92, Mrs. Yates, widow of Wil - 
Ham Yates, esq. of Springside, Lancashire. 

Dtc. 10. At Dabjton, aged 79, J. J. E. de Ferrc, 
esq. 

At Friarfleld House, Derb., Alex. Radford, esq. 

At Hill Lodge, Enfield. aged 60, George Antoino 
Ramsay, esq. late Major 77th Regt 

At the parsonage, Fordingbridge, aged 53, Goo. 
Curtis Rawlence, esq. for many years clerk to tlie 
Board of Guardians of the Fordingbridge Union. 

At Caerynwch, Merionethsh. Eilzabeth-Emma, 
wife of R. Meredyth Richards, esq. of Harewood-sq. 

Dtc. 11 . In Rockingham-row East, aged 72, John 
Zachary Dyer, esq. 

Aged 80, Thomas Fen wick, esq. of South Hill, 
Chester-le-Street, co. Durham, a magistrate and 
deputy-lientenant. 

At Bushmead Priory, Beds, aged 54, Anne- 
Beckingham, wife of W. H. Wade Gery , esq . She 
was the eldest dau. of John Milnes, esq. of Becking- 
ham, CO. Lhicoln, and was married in 1829. 

At Bath, aged 69, Thomas only son of the late 
Thos. Knott, esq. of Boardhayes House, Stockland. 

At Forest-gate, Stratford, aged 87, George Mar- 
tin, esq. 

Aged 73, Benjamin Reed, of Stoke Newington 
and Old Broad-st. 

At Rodney-terrace East, Bow-road, aged 57, 
Thomas David Taylor, esq. solicitor, formerly of 
North-buildings, Finsbury-circus. 

At Bath, aged 85, Thomas Thackeray, esq. 

Aged 76, Ann, reliict of Richard Troo<l, esq. of 
Wellington, Somerset. 

At Doncaster, aged 64, Richard Tyas, esq. 

At Cheltenham, aged 65, Sarah, widow of Lieut. - 
Colonel W. L. Watson, C.B. 

Dec. 12. At Christ college, Cambridge, aged 22, 
Charles Lukin Berry, scholar of that college, and 
only son of the Rev. W. Berry, Rector of Birtliam 
Newton, Norfolk. 

At Keynsham, aged 24, Amelia-EUiabcth, wife 
of Walter Brown, M.D. 

Aged 76, Licut.-Col. John Castle Gant, for many 
years a magistrate for the county of Middlesex, 
and a deputy-lieut. for the Tower Hamlets. 

At Upper Clapton, aged 66, John Dalrymple 
Jacomb, esq. 

In Curzon-st. aged 20, Louisa-Katherine, fourth 
dau. of Lieut.-Col. and Lady Laura Mevrick. 

Aged a, George-Edward, fourth son of the Rev. 
G. H. and Lady Cecilia Bepton. 



. 1853.] 



Obituary. 



Ill 



In Cavendish -road, St. John's Wood, aged 41, 
Charlotte, wife of James Sntton, esq. 

Aged 37, Mr. Matthew Woodhouse, of the Esk 
brewery, Whitby, brewer and sphrit merchant. 
He was for nearly twenty years a very useful as- 
sistant to Mr. Brcckon, solicitor in Whitby, and 
clerk to the Whitby union. He was secretary to 
the Whitby Floral and Horticultural Society ; was 
a frequent correspondent of The Florist, and other 
periodicals of that class ; and for many years the 
correspondent of the Yorkshire Gazette for the 
Whitby district. 

Dec. 13. At Ipswich, aged 65, Harriet, dau. of 
the late Rev. George Betts, of Wortham, Suffolk. 

Aged 57, Mr. Leschallas, wholesale stationer in 
Budge-row. From being a small retail stationer 
at the north-east end of the metropolis, he had 
become one of the largest exporters of stationery 
in the city of London. His prices were very low, 
to the no small injury of his neighbours in the 
same trade, and his business had become so ex- 
tensive and complicated as to have disturbed his 
mind. He committed self-destruction by shooting 
himself through the head, in his warehouse in 
'Size-lane, having for nine months laboured under 
a delusion that his business was going to ruin and 
himself to poverty, whereas, it Is believed, matters 
were the reverse. 



At Stratton Strawless, Norfolk, aged 38, Charles 
Wm. Marsham, esq. eldest surviving son of Bobt. 
Marsham, esq. 

At Skirlangh, aged 15, Sarah-Jane, eldest dau. 
of John Richardson, esq. of Dowthorp Hall. 

Harriette, wife of Ashton Sladen, esq. of Hear- 
clough House, near Halifax. 

At Dartford, Kent, Mr. Robert Thompson Stone- 
ham, fourth son of the late Thompson Stoneham, 
esq. of Whitwells, Little Baddow. 

Dtc. U. At Barton Hall, Kingskerwell, Mary, 
wife of Henry Langford Brown, esq. 

At Weston-super-Mare, aged 48, Charles Gibson, 
esq. second son of the late Itev. Robert Gibson, 
Rector of Fyfield. 

Dec. 15. At Wirksworth, aged 75, the widow of 
the Rev. Nathan Hubbersty. 

At Wirksworth, aged 70, Charles Hurt, esq. He 
was the elde^ son of Charles Hurt, esq. of Wirks- 
worth, sheriff of Derbyshire in 1797, by Susanna, 
dau. of Sir Richard Arkwright, knt. and succeeded 
his father in 1834. He was a faithful magistrate 
of the county, and had the esteem of both rich and 
poor. Having died unmarried, he is succeeded by 
his next brother, Richard. 

Dec. 17. Aged 39, Sarah, wife of Henry Wolton, 
esq. of Colchester. 



TABLE OF MORTALITY IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON. 
{From the Returns issued by the Registrar- General,) 





Under j 
15. , 


15 to 
60. 


Deaths Registered 






H 

PQ'S) 


Week ending 
Saturday, 


60 and 
upwards. 


i Age not i Total, 
specified.; 


Males. 


Females. 


Nov. 27 . 
Dec. 4 . 

„ 11 . 

„ 18 . 


438 1 

462 ; 

455 1 
480 > 


322 
359 
340 
344 


187 
218 
213 
199 


1 — 947 

3 1 1042 

' 4 1 1012 

[ 18 . 1041 

1 1 


472 
537 
522 
555 


476 
505 
490 
486 


1671 
1639 
1579 
1662 



AVERAGE PRICE OF CORN, Dec. 24. 



Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


*. d. 


a. d. 


42 1 


29 9 


18 7 


26 11 



Beans. I Peas. 
s, d. s. d. 

35 4 31 10 



PRICE OF HOPS, Dec. 23. 
Sussex Pockets, 4/. 10«. to 5/. 5«.— Kent Pockets, 4/. 10«. to 8/. 0«. 



PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, Dec. 23. 
Hay, 2/. 15*. to 4/. 0«.— Straw, 1/. 5*. to 1/. 12*.— Clover, 3/. 15*. to 5/. 0*. 



SMITHFIELD, Dec. 24. 

Beef 2*. 6rf. to 4*. 

Mutton 3*. 4d. to 5*. 

Veal 2s, lOd. to 4*. 

Pork 3*. Orf. to 3*. 



To sink the Offal— per stone of 81b8. 
6^. I Head of Cattle at Market, Dec. 20. 

OJ. Beasts 2,776 Calves 192 

^d. Sheep and Lambs 15,150 Pigs 259 

8</. 



COAL MARKET, Dec. 20. 

Walls Ends, &c. 16*. 3d. to 17*. 6d. per ton. Other sorts, 15*. OJ. to 16*. M, 
TALLOW, per cwt.— Town Tallow, 49#. Zd, Yellow Russia, 49«. 6if. 



112 



METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by W. GARY, Strand. 
From November 26, to December 25, 1852, both inclusive. 



Fahrenheit's Therm. 





It 

bo 


s 


U i 


No. 


" 


o 


° in.ptii. 


26 


52 


56 


48 l£9, 74 


27 


44 47 


43 ig9, 7(; 


23 


47 48 


41 , 57 


29 


36 , 3B 


37 , u^ 


30 


m ;' 42 


39 , 8i 


D.l 


^ 45 


, 46 1 ,90 


2 


44 1 47 


1 '15 . ,84 


*d 


45 46 


48 :w, (Wi 


4 


oB 


55 


. 53 gy, fMi 


5 


50 


55 


' 53 , , tS^ 


6 


40 


5.} 


47 1 ,77 


7 


47 


5J 


48 1 , 67 


B 


48 


50 


40 1 , GJ 


9 


43 


40 


5[ 1 , an 


10 


52 


55 


5M ,62 ! 



Weather. 



fair 

do. 

cloudy, raia 

do. 

do. 

fair 

do. 

icloudy 

do. rain 

|do. do. 

cloudy, ram 

fair 

do. cloudy 

do. showerfi 



Fahrenheit's Therm. 




1^ 


6 


mi 




9 


Dec. 


o 


o 


in^ptH. 


11 


52 54 


50 


29, 6 i 


12 


50 53 


5] 


« ^5 


13 


50 54 


51 


,56 


14 


53 55 


48 


,53 


15 


49 


51 


44 , 01 


]6 


45 


51 


50 ,4:i 


17 


47 


51 


48 , 13 


1 IB 


40 


44 


43 


.m 17 


19 


40 


52 


49 


29, 99 


20 


52 


55 


53 


, 78 


2J 


45 


4U 


44 


30,00 


2^ • 46 


50 


44 


29, IH 


23 1 iO 


44 


U 


,75 


24 ' 46 44 


43 


,76 


25 


44 


46 


42 


,78 



VVtfiithcr. 



Tnir, showers 
do. do. 
rmn 

Fair, showers 
do. do. 
do. do. rfdn 
do, do. 
do. do- 
do. 

do. do. 
do. do. 
rain 

cloudy, rain 
do. 
f«ir 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



Q 
o ' 



^4 

o 

•J4 



CO 



I 4J 
c . 
a; (A 

(A 

0) o 

CO 









O 

oq 



Ex. Bills, 
i^lOOO. 



27 223i 

29 

30223i 
1 222i 

2' , 

3223^ 
4 222 

B :' 

7 222 , 
B 222 
9,223 I 
102231' 
1122J£ 
13 223^ 
U2234 
1^223 J 
10 224 
17 224 , 

18 , 

20 223^ 
212241 

22 224 , 

23 223A 

24 

27 224 i 



lOOf 
lOOf 

ioo| 
im^ 
iml 
ioo| 

lOOf 

100} 

1901 
lOOf 

100} 

1901 

1091 

100^ 

1M1 

101 

101 

lou 

lOlf 
lOlf 
lOlf 
1014 
101} 
lOli 
101* 



lOU 
1011 



lOlf 104^ 61 

10l| 104 

lOU Jf^-^^ Gi 

104 ^*^^H 6f 

lOU ^^H 6i 

101 103^ 61 

lOlf 103^ 

lOH 104 

lOH 104 6i 
lOli 103J 6i 1 
''^'^ 104 6i ' 
104 61 
1U4 
104i 
104i 6i 
104 61 
104 61 
1041 61 
104^ 6 J 

104| 

104f 61 

104 61 
1044 6i 
104} 

105 61 



83 pm. 

277 80 83 pm. 

112} 275 80 82 pm. 

83 pm. 

11H277 83 pm. 

, 80 83 pm. 

, 83 pm. I 

1 83 80 pm. 

99*1 1 80 pm. 

1 80 82 pm. 



71 pm. 

70 72 pm. 
69 73 pm. 
69 73 pm. 
72 69 pm. 
69 72 pm. 

69 pm. 

71 69 pm. 

68 65 pm. 
65 68 pm. 



80 pm 
83 pm 

_!-' 82 pm. ' 60 66 pm 

75 81pm 

77 pm. 

78 pm. 

7579pm 

79 pm. 

80 pm. 

76 80 pm. 63 60 pm. 

81 pm. 60 63 pm. 

81 pm. 63 64 pm. 

lOH 78 82 pm. 64 67 pm. 

82 pm. 69 66 pm. 

69 pm. 



59 62 pm. 
62 pm. 

62 63 pm. 

63 60 pm. 



J. J. ARNULL, Stock and Share Broker, 

3, Copthall Chambers, Angel Court, 

Throgmorton Street, LondoD. 

J. ■• NICHOLS AND gON, PJUNTSM, 25, PARLIAMENT ITJIKII 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



IHSTOUICAL REVIEW. 

FEBRUARY, 1853. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOI 

miiOn CORRESPONDENCE.— will ttlngtnn't Stono— Shr Thonuw Lucy** Pwk »t FoHw^ke, 

and Slmltiip«r« House— Matlik- Sculpturu futmO 4t Eanrlch—DOttoent oft Barony by Writ (14 

' Memorittlii of John Home^ the author of Douglua , 115 

The Romao Wall : by the Rev. J, C. Bruce (with Engravinga) 123 

Soimet on a Visit to Wordsworth : by the Rev, C. V. Lo Grice 1 ?9 

Giordano Brano ,,.<.. 130 

Notices of the American Indiana, by Dr. Ma^ie, in 1810..* »,,..•*..... 137 

The Baronet d*Oberkirch and the Citizen Mercier . , * • , . . 139 

The Vale of York : by Thontiaa Gill {mik Bn<jraving») 146 

The Life of Thomas Moore : by Lord John Ruseell 158 

Letter of Mrs. Montngu respecting Dr, Young— Agreement of Akenside with 

Dodsley — Lurgan Clanbrassil, a Song by James Boswell . , , - • 15? 

A Journey from Paris to Italy in the year 173G : by Alexander Canningham^ 

M,D. ttftcrwardi Sir Alexander DieJc of Prestonfield, Bait 159 

CORRESPONDENCE OF SVLVANUS URBAN.— Tlie Rise and Progrew of Uio Dowl&l* Iroii- 
vork*— BoUn Hood and Shorwood Forest— En. Kritsh Etyniolo]rio*: Maie iind Anuuo, 
Aniate and Hate. Mato, M&kC) Matctu and 9»Ic«t--Mununieiit(it iTiacdptionit rect^ntly 
rccoverM at Cholderton, Wilts— The Prince of Orange's Manli h\ lfA8— Tlie Posterity of 
Ralph Thoreiby the Antiqimry— FanaUy Register of the WMdrhijftons ,, ., 165 

NOTES OF TEE MONTH.— Jho City of London Ubrary—Oty of London Infiitutidn— Literary 
Instltations of Birtnnijjhojn— Hulacan Prke— St. David's coQeKef Lampeter- Scientific 
hOQOtuiB njccoiiy conferred- Tlie Camden, Snrtooa, untl I^ker Soclctleii — Aiitj^juJtlest 
collected by the Cr>'^ta1 PiUace Compiiny — Proposed ikatue of Fttter tlie Uennil— Stntue 
of Geofdre Stephenson— MS, of J. J. tloQHBeau— Sa)e» of Autographs mid Work* of Art- 
Forged Seal* in Jet iind Braip*— City Beneflcea 174 

HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS.— Saxon OUsequie«, by the Hon. R, C, 
NuvlUe, 177: Uadriun the Builder of the Baman Wall, 179 ; Colchester GiMdle.hy the Rev. 
IL Jeakiiu, 1^0; M^, an Esryptlan PUgriinAgOt by J, A. St- John, it».\ BibUoitr^iphla 
Hintufica Pgrtuj^ezu, I8i ; Dod's Pecrafte, Baronetage, and Kiiighta^, ib. ; Life and 
Correiipondence of -Jofm Foster, Life and Letters of Niebokr, and Hinor ReriewM * 18a 

■^AMTIQUAJtlAN RESEARCHES— Society of Antiquaries. ISfi ; ArcJUDolcJglcal rnjUtute, I8M i 

BritUb Arcbi^loglcsl Auociatjon ,, 199 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. -Foreign Nowb, 190 ; Domestic Occarrence* I ^O 

Proinotk>n» and Preferments, 191 i Births^ 193 ; Marringea 194 

OBITUAHY ; with Hemcdra of Lord WUlongbbyde Broke ; Rear-Adm. Sir Tlionuu Troubridge, 
Bart. ; Sir Joseph WalliA Hoare, fiari. ; Sir T. J. do TrufTord, Bart. ; Admiral Sir Tlioniai 
BriggB ; Lleut.-Gen. Cllther<w ; Lieut, -Gfln. Shuldhaon ; Mujor-Gon. T, F. Addiiou ; 
M»»Jor^3t*n, C*ulfelld. M.P. ; Ucdr-A^lratral Black ; Edward Kiii4?ht, Eaq. ; CJeiiwnt Sireten- 
hftin, Esq. ; John Marten Cripps, E*q. ; Count Pompoo Litta ; Rot. Samuel Leo, DJJ- ? 
Samuel Merriman, £»}. M.D. ; Samuel B. Bruce, £iq. M.D. ( Eartia Cbiirles Burney. Eaq. ; 
Jimei Frandi Btephcna, Eimj. ; Richard PAlmer. Eiq. ; Ber. Joseph GQbert 197—314 

Cluot DBCIAaH> , *.►* •... ...,*.... iU 

DiA-ma, arranged in Cluroaologjcal Order ....*..«..«*.« *■ *< SIS 

fieetatrar-Gflneral*! Retuma of Hnrtalltj bi ttis UetropoUa— Harkela, »>; Meteorologfcal 

Dfijy— Daily Price of Stoclca * * n\ 



By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



114 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. Urban, — In the Gentleman's 
Magazine of December, 1852, p. 598, there 
is an account of Whittington's Stone at 
the foot of Higbgate Hill having been re- 
placed in the year 1795, and it is stated 
that it was never known by whom. My 
father, Charles Wilkinson, of 17, High- 
bury Place, and Mr. Horace Mock ton, 
of Highbury Terrace, having missed the 
origin^ stone, replaced it at their own 
cuEpense. Your old friend the late Mr. 
Nichols, Dr. Strahan, and my father were 
the oldest inhabitants of Islington. 

Yours, &c. Ann Wilkinson. 
Kempteyy near Worcester, Jan. 22. 

The following letter (communicated to 
the Birmingham Journal) in reference to 
a recent communication of Mr. J. Payne 
Collier to the Society of Antiquaries (see 
our last Magazine, p. 70) is evidently 
from the pen of R. B. Wheler, esq. the 
veteran historian of Stratford-upon-Avon : 
— ^** I observe in your paper of the 18th 
inst. a pslragraph wherein it is stated, re- 
ferring to Sir Thomas Lucy's deer park, 
' that he had deer in a park at Charlecote, 
(denied by Malone,) which Shakspeare 
might have been concerned in stealing.' 
I have no doubt Sir Thomas had a park at 
Charlecote ; but the park Shakspeare is 
said to have stolen the deer from was at 
Fulbroke, close adjoining the parish of 
Charlecote, in which park stood an old 
mansion house, many years ago pulled 
down, and used principally in building a 
mansion at Compton Wyniates, belonging 
to Lord Northampton — now an old house. 
The park at Fulbroke then belonged to 
Sir Thomas, and that was the park Shak- 
speare is said to have stolen the deer from. 
This I have always understood, and have 
often (fifty years ago) heard an old man 
very conversant in matters relating to 
Shakspeare say was the fact. What 
is stated relating to Rowington is very 
probable, from a circumstance I know as 
to Shakspeare's property. As to the pro- 
perty of Shakspeare in Henley Street, 
stated to be a fact not hitherto known, 
proving the original frontage towards 
Henley Street to have been considerably 
greater than at the time of the poet's be- 
quest, I have no doubt such was the case ; 
and that you may better understand the 
matter, I inclose a plan wherein it is 
stated that John Shakspeare, in 1597, 
sold a piece of ground to Gleorge Badger. 
This piece of ground is that on which 
a building now called the Wine Vaults 
stands. This I know to be fact, as I have 
repeatedly (fifty years ago) seen the deeds, 
in which it appears John Shakspeare con- 



veyed that property to Badger. I am now 
more than seventy-seven years old, and 
have known the Shakspeare property ever 
since the beginning of the year 1798, and 
therefore have had an opportunity of 
being acquainted with that property ; and 
beg to say, for the information of the 
public, that there was a public passage 
between Shakspeare's house and what in 
the plan inclosed is stated to belong to 
Dr. Conolly to the width of several feet, 
extending from Henley Street to the Guild 
Pits." 

A Correspondent makes inquiry of us 
respecting the Roman marble sculpture 
exhibited and commented on by the Rev. 
J. H. Marsden at a recent meeting held at 
Colchester. Mr. Marsden observed, says 
the Bssejp Standard^ that ** it was taken 
out of the wall of the old church at Har- 
wich, where it lay imbedded in mortar," 
and that it represents a male and a female 
figure having between them a tragic mask. 
Mr. Marsden supposes these figures are 
the sepulchral effigies of some persons 
connected with a theatre, and he instances 
the fact as mentioned by Tacitus of the 
existence of a theatre at Camalodunum ! 
Our Correspondent, however, is not satis- 
fied, in the first place, that the sculpture 
was taken from Harwich Church, and he 
asks if any of our friends can give him 
some information on the subject. 

Mr. Urban, — Will you favour me with 
an opinion on the following question in 
genealogy } A nobleman A. B. , a Baron 
by Writ, marries and has a son and daugh - 
ter. His wife dies ; he marries a second 
time and has a second son. A. B.'s son 
succeeds him in the barony on his decease. 
A. B.*8 son is succeeded by Am eldest son, 
and the latter has several brothers and 
sisters. The great-grandsons of A. B. 
die while infants, but some of the great- 
granddaughters survive (among whom the 
barony is temporarily in abeyance), and to 
the son of one of them the barony finally 
descends. Now the question is this : — In 
case of the failure of issue to this latter 
person, to whom would the barony revert ? 
To the sons and daughters of his mother's 
sisters (if there were any) ? To the de- 
scendants of his grandfather's brothers 
and sisters (if there were any) ? To the 
descendants of his great-grandfather's 
brothers and sisters (if there were any) ? 
Or to whom ? 

Yours, «cc. M. N. O. 

[We apprehend there is no doubt the in- 
heritance would devolve to the parties enu- 
merated by M. N. O. in the order in which 
he has described them.^Bdii. O, M.] 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



MEMORIALS OF JOHN HOME, THE AUTHOR OF « DOUGLAS.' 



THERE was a period when that 
Scotchman would have been deemed 
no true patriot who should have ven- 
tured to have doubted whether the 
tragedy of Douglas was really " su- 
perior * (to use the least over-strained 
epithet) to all that ever had been, or 
by any possibility ever could be, written 
for the stage ; and the fervid inter- 
rogatory of the exultant Scot from the 
gallery of Covent Garden at the close 
of each round of applause, '* Ay, ay, 
whare's yeVe Willie Shakspere noo r " 
was only an out-spoken exaggeration 
of the national sentiment, as is evi- 
denced in the extravagant "Dedica- 
tion " of the " Four Dissertations."* 

The name of John Home was a 
lustrous one even in that "charmed 
circle " (as it has been called) within 
which moved a Ferguson and Robert- 
son, a Blair and Webster and Carlyle, 
a Hume and Kaimes. Nor is it to be 



wondered at that the moss only slowly 
obliterated the epitaph of one who 
reckoned these worthies as his familiar 
friends and associates, and who was 
(from his connection with Bute) vir- 
tually the " second man in the king- 
dom," and the cynosure of nobles^* 
who had, moreover, for his private 
" suggesting " literary critics and cor- 
respondents Bute and the thunder- 
mouthed Chatham himself, whose pro- 
ductions were illustrated and " bodied 
forth " by the genius of a Siddons and a 
Garrick, and who died (having nearly 
three-quart-ers of a century before re- 
ceived the "homage" of Collins f), the 
white-haired patriarch of the Augustan 
age of Scotish literature. The "glory 
and the consecration " have departed 
— righteously departed ; nevertheless, 
"Douglas" itself (while "Agis," and 
" Alonz'o," and " Alfred," and the 
" Siege of Aquileia," and "The Fatal 



* *' Four Dissertations/' — of Hume, namely; who complimented Home on pog« 
sealing " the true theatric genius of Shakespeare and Otway, refined from the unhappy 
barbarism of the one, and licentiouiness of the other : *' a judgment only paralleled in 
Newton's sightlessuess to the sublimity of *' Paradise Lost/' or in Locke's laudation 
of the Epics of Black more. 

t Collins, in his *' Ode on the Superstitions of Scotland/' thus prefigured hii 
future eminence : — 

Home, thou retum'st from Thames, whose Naiads long 
Have seen thee ling'ring, with a fond delay, 
'Midst those soft friends, whose hearts, some future day. 

Shall melt perhaps to hear thy tragic song. 

Collins has received the credit of vaticination in these verses ; but it ought to have 
been remembered that they were composed on Home's return from London in " 1749/* 
on his return, namely, with the rejected ** Agis,'' to submit which to Garrick had 
been the purport of his journey southward. The first Ode-ist then had (with Hume 
and Robertson and the whole Scotish literati) admired "Agis," or possibly had been 
favoured with the outline of ** Douglas/' which may have been forming in Home'i 
mind, though this latter is improbable. See p. 119. 



116 Memorials of John Homey the Author of ^^ Douglas.'' [Feb. 

Discovery " are in limbo), remains, in 
theatric phrase, a " stock piece," and 
the national heart still retains some- 
what of its Aowe-feeling towards it. 
It is presumed therefore that the fol- 
lowing hitherto unpublished memorials 
of John Home will not be unaccept- 
able to the great body of our readers,* 
the more so as we are fortunately 
enabled to unfold more fully than 
has yet been done the occasion of 
"Douglas," and also to present various 
readings of some of the more interest- 
ing passages. 

L«et it be stated in one sentence that 
John Home was born in Leith on the 
2d (not 22d as given by Mackenzie) 
of September, O.S. 1722. Some ac- 
counts, as in that of the " Lives of 
Scottish Poets," by the quasi " Society 
of Ancient Scots, 3 vols. 12mo. Lon- 
don (Boys), 1821-22, place it in 1724, 
and mention " Ancrum, Roxburgh • 
shire," as his birth-place, but for neither 
is there authority. That his father 
(who died while our poet was very 
young) was a son of James Home, of 
Flars, in Berwickshire, a lineal de- 
scendant of Sir James Home, of Cow- 
denknows (not the classic " knowes " 
of Scottish song), ancestor of the past 
as of the present Earl Home : and 
now we have reached a peculiarly in- 
teresting notice of his mother. It is 
from a holograph sketch of the life of 
Home by the late excellent Dr. Grieve 
of Edinburgh : — 

He owed much (says our MS.) to his 
mother — that enlightened, high-spirited, 
and accomplished woman, was remarkable 
for the extent of her knowledge, the ele- 
gance of her manners, and a generous in- 
dependence of mind that gained the heart 
of all who approached her. She was inti- 
mately acquainted with the history of her 
country, knew the character of the most 
distinguished persons of the times, and 
was fully aware of the state of parties. 
Devoted to the interest and success of her 
children, she contrived to become their 
friend, and guided them unperceived to 
their benefits She was superior to parade, 
ostentation, and vanity: judicious in her 
economy, simple in her manners, with a 
native soundness of judgment and purity 



of taste that rendered her a model and an 
arbiter to the circle in which she moved. 
She bad much of the gift of genius, and 
many of her sayings were noted ; for she 
had an easy, airy, lively manner of ex- 
pressing thoughts which rendered her say- 
ings memorable. Her son (continues Dr. 
Grieve) was indebted to her for his social 
and friendly disposition, the open, undis- 
guised temper which apprehended no evil, 
and for that confidence in his good sense 
and good affections which rendered his 
manners and conversation natural, engag- 
ing, and irresistible. 

Having received the rudiments of 
his education in the Grammar School 
of his native town, where accurate at- 
tention was bestowed on the principles 
of grammar and the rules of syntax 
and prosody. Home had little to supply 
and nothing to unlearn at college. 
Another MS. (from the Carlylc MSS.) 
informs us that his progress at the 
university was "rapid and uniform." 
He bestowed, says that authority, " a 
close and long-continued study upon 
the Greek language, and was (jualified 
to discern and relish the ample and 
delicate beauties of the rhetoricians 
and poets." He appears, however, 
mainly to have bent his studies towards 
logic and ethics, whilst his professional 
views were directed to " the Church." 

The lectures (says Dr. Grieve) which 
were read at this period from the theolo- 
gical chair were more remarkable for sound 
thought, liberal principles, and the pro- 
found views which they gave of the Chris- 
tian system, than for the attractions of 
composition. Being still composed in 
Latin, they continued and enlarged the 
knowledge which the student had acquired 
of that language ; they were frequented 
from a sense of duty, as the necessary 
preparation for being received to trials in 
the presbyteries of the Church ; but they 
made no heavy demand on the time of the 
student. 

Agreeably to these circumstances, 
the students found other modes of en- 
gaging themselves. The same MS. 
mforms us that — 

One of the great benefits which the young 
men of that period derived was justly as- 
cribed to the societies which they formed 



* Our Paper is derived from the MSS. of Drs. Carlyle and Grieve, and other 
documents formerly in the possession of John Home, esq. W.S. nephew of the poet. 
AVe are also indebted to a contemporary onpablished MS. for various details. Having 
the published *' Sketch ^* of Mackenxie before us, we shall pass over slightly such points 
as he may have folly elucidated. 



IS53.] Mmno7'iah of John Home^ the Author of'' Douglas." 117 

for exerci^iiiij^ themaelvea in cQUiiposition 
and public t^peiikin^. In these Mr. Home's 
talents and diMpoaitions qi^alit^ed him to 
appeur with eminence, tie iras tbe aoul 
of the friendly circle. His presence was 
tbe signal of gaiety and good-bumour. 
Few poBsesaed so much power of di^unin^ 
the spirit of Idndneas and hilarity. 

A society which nuruberetl among 
its (atlerwartli!) clerical members such 
names as Drs. Robertsori^ Blair, Drys- 
dale, Carlyle, Webster, Curnniing, Bal- 
lAiityne, Lof^ftu, and sucb like, and 
among its oo less di^tinguiwlied laj 
jncnabers ijiucli names as Lonl Eb- 
bank, Sir Gilbert Elliot, Wedderburn 
Hflerwnrds Earl Roisalyn, Lord Lough- 
borough, Baroii Mure, Johnston after- 
wards Sir Williiira Pultenej, and oc- 
ciisionally David Huaie and Adam 
Ferguson, could not but exbibit many 
brilliant displays, nay keen Intellec- 
tual gladiatory. It is of John Home, 
with reference to such tiocietiesi that 
the following was written by Dr. 
Grieve. 

From the gcaeral coucurrence of Mr. 
Home*9 intimate friends in the account 
wldch they give of his character, it may 
justly be represented that he was the most 
iateresting and attractive of the circle. 
He bad much gprightlitiess and vivacity, a 
good ghare of wit» and a gentJe and heue- 
volent spirit, that won the heart He in- 
fused joy and social cicitatiou wherever he 
appeared. Hia addre^^s wu» cordial and 
inspired the same openness which he dts- 
p1ayed« Hits entrance into a company waa 
like letting the sun into a dark room* ♦ * 
His persion concurred with bia mental 
qualities, in ftecuring the favour of hii 
afiSQciat^: tall, handsome, open in hiH 
countenaDce, onconstraincd in bis man- 
ners, with a soul of fire, be preposaessed 



strangers In his favuur, and secured tbe 
affection which be engaged. 

We make these selections from our 
MSS. regarding Home's earlier life 
the more full, because of the very 
luengre notices given by Mackenzie.* 

During Home's attendance at the 
Uaiveraity a somewhat startling and 
romantic incident intervened, which 
must be noticed : — 

Home's family, following the ex&mple 
of the cadets, rather than of Lord Home, 
their chief, were Revolution Whigs. Home 
of KiaueUtauebeads, ooe of the last snf- 
ferers under the cruel policy of the Stuarts, 
was a near relation of the poet's father ; 
and the memory of the martyr was ho- 
noured among the relatives. Mr. Home 
(we ([^ote from an in edited MS, from the 
MSS. of the nephew of Home) had im- 
bibed the terror of hb friends for inde- 
feasible right and absolute power. This 
sentiment, hi^ admiration of Greek and 
Roman history, and in particular of the 
Gracchi, bad confirmed. He was accord- 
iogly A most devoted champion to the 
family of Hanover at the time of the Rc- 
bellion, and his flaming spirit conid ill 
submit to what he counted the insidious 
and feeble councils of Edinburgh on the 
occasion/' 

These sentiments out-shot them- 
t^elvea in llome*.s ** marching with the 
royal army " to Falkirk, in which dis- 
graceful rout (!br it cannot be called 
battle) which befel the king's troops 
he shared, and was carried prisoner, 
together with his fuUow- student Bar- 
row (the " cordiid youth " of Collins'H 
Ode) to the Castle of Doune, near 
Stirling. From this place, however, 
he niarfe his escape (Barrow lucklessly 
breaking his leg in doing so), and 



' It may not be improper to insert here a note which is written outside of the 
bundle of Home MSS. in our posseasion, apporentlj in tbe handwriting of one of the 
family. 

" Edinburgh, 25 April, 1810. 

*' Materials for an account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq* of KilduflT, 
author of tbe Tragedy of Douglas, &c. 

** I am not unwilling that tbe following memorials, relative to the character and 
Ubours of a very ingenious poet, should be preserved for the benefit of future times. 

" The celebrated autbor of the Man of Feeling has volunteered his services as tbe 
biographer of the Scotish tragic poet : and has promised the work as a contribution to 
the Transactions of the Royal .Society of Edinburgh. Hut though much may be 
expected from the perstonal knowledge and the correct tobtu of Mr. Mackeniie, I am 
not certain that in the conAdeocc of his fame (aic)^ and the mnltiplicity of professionul 
avocations, at bis advanced time of life, he will submit to the drudgery necessary to 
collect the facts ; or that he may be so fortunate as to catch tlie spirit uf a character, 
which certainly differs in some of its features from his own." 



1 1 8 Memorials of John Home, the Author of " Douglm" [Feb. 

While Home was thus laudably en- 
gaged in the *' duties of his office" 
there cannot be a question that it was 
with a divided mind. Secretly he was 
giving his " midnight oil " to Flutarch 
and " elegant literature." 

He cultivated (says Dr. Grieve) his 
poetic vein, to which he had early shewn 
a decided propensity. He composed many 
pieces in verse on the incidents of his life 
or the topics virhich attracted his notice. 
At the same time he continued his inqui- 
ries into the history and poetical produc- 
tions of the ancients. The writings of 
Plutarch seem to have occupied a large 
share of his favour soon after his settle- 
ment in Athelstaneford. The parish had 
been accustomed to clergymen eminent 
for poetry. The author of The Grave was 
Mr. Home's immediate predecessor, and 
the people were proud of the distinction 
which this poem gave them. They saw in 
their youthful pastor a scholar possessing 
the same genius, equally eiemplary in his 
professional duties, remarkable for the 
sweetness of his disposition, for the ardour 
of his humanity, and an unbounded spirit 
of beneficence. The talents and accom- 
plishments which he possessed were equally 
arneptable to his patron, and his numerous 
qualifications rendered him an inmate and 
friend of the family. 

In confirmation of Dr. Grieve's re- 
marks as to Homers private ^^ studies," 
we have now before us many scattered 
leaves of translations from Plutarch ; 
and amonff our MSS. is a fragmentary 
essay on the characters of the Gracchi, 
of Agis, and Cleomenes : while his 
sermon -books are scribbled all over 
with thoughts and outlines which were 
the seed-sketches of his tragedy of 
Agis; for full details concerning which, 
his journey to London in 1749, his 
offer of the manuscript to Garrick, 
audits rejection by the English Kosci us, 
we must refer our readers to Mackenzie, 
not wishing to reproduce in a biogra- 
phy of such comparatively narrowed 
interest what is already accessible. 

Had Agis secured to itself the name 
and fame of Douglas we might have 
pieced together the innumerable first- 
nints and scenes preserved among our 



quietly resumed his ** studies " at the 
University. 

But passing these events, an account 
of which has already been given 
by Mackenzie, and Home himself, 
in his "History," we arrive at his 
" license :" — 

After passing (^his nephew's MSS. in- 
form us) through, with much approba- 
tion, the trials that candidates for acquir- 
ing the condition of probationers for the 
ministry are required to undergo, he was 
licensed to preach the Gospel by the pres- 
bytery of Edinburgh on the 4th day of 

April, O.S. 1745 From his 

commanding abilities and fascinating man- 
ners, it was not likely that my uncle would 
long remain in the state of a probationer. 
Accordingly, when the parish of Athel- 
staneford became vacant in 1746 by the 
death of Mr. Blair, author of *• The 
Grave,*'* in consequence of an applica- 
tion in his favour to Sir Francis Kinloch 
of Gilmerton, the patron, by his much 
attached friend, the late Alexander Home, 
esq. one of the clerks of session, he was 
presented to supply that vacancy, and was 
ordained minister of the above-mentioned 
parish in February, 1747.t 

We return to the MS. of Dr. 
Grieve : — 

Having attained this situation (of minis- 
ter), he shewed a becoming attention to 
the duties of his profession : and was much 
esteemed as a preacher, both by his pa- 
rishioners and many others who had op- 
portunities of hearing him. That esteem 
was, at the same time, not a little in< 
creased by that benevolence and cheerful- 
ness of manner which he displayed during 

every period of his life He 

was (Dr. Grieve observes in another MS.) 
diligent in discharging his clerical func- 
tions, composed many sermons on subjects 
of the first importance, the few fragments 
of which shew the soundness of his gene- 
ral views, his just conception of the doc- 
trines and object of the Christian religion, 
and a remarkable talent for moral portrai- 
ture and popular eloquence. 

The "Fragments" alluded to are 
in our possession : but the present is 
hardly a suitable medium (even sup- 
posing them worthy) for their com- 
munication to the public. 



* The writer of the present paper mav be allowed to refer bis readers to a short 
series of unpublished MSS; from the Doddridge MSS. which is at present being pub- 
lished in The Evangelical Magazine. The Nos. for October and November contain 
Letters of Blair. See note appended relative to a proposed monument over his grave. 

t We have in the preceding paragraph, as throughout, silently corrected, on the 
authority of these family MSS. in our possession, the many errors of fact and date, 
and even inference, in Mackenzie's and the other Sketches of the lak of Home. 



1853.] Memorials of John Home, the Author of " Douflae.** lid 



MSS., and thus have developed the 
progress and process and gradual 
shaping of the tragedy, but, as it 
is, we refrain. Notwithstanding the 
" hi^h hopes" of Home himself, the en- 
thusiasm of Hume and the clubs of 
Edinburgh, and even of the " praises " 
and painstaking suggestions of Bute 
and Chatham (through Oswald of 
Dunnikier), on its subsequent produc- 
tion, we must confirm Garrick's un- 
favourable verdict. 

Dr. Grieve's account of the visit to 
London describes it as a total failure : — 

He submitted his play to the examina- 
tion of Garrick, and was obliged to submit 
to the mortification of a complete repulse. 
Even the patrons of the Muses and elegant 
literature (armed though be was with high 
recommendatory letters) treated his per- 
formance with the most chilling coldness. 
He had an introdnction to Mr. Lyttelton, 
go well known afterwards by the name of 
Lord Lyttelton, with whom he could not 
prevail even to read his tragedy ; and his 
brother, afterwards a bishop, would not 
look at it, as he said he had turned his 
thoughts to natural history. 

All however was not thus dark and 
discouraging. Another MS. in our 
collection informs us that, "full of 
spirit and hope, with a sanguine ima- 
gination, which blunted the edge of 
E resent evil, the author was enraged, 
ut not cast down." An introduction 
to Smollet obtained for him the warm 
approbation of that devoted friend of 
the scholars of his country. Dr. John 
Blair, the Prebendary of Westminster 
(author of a tolerable volume on the 
Canon), consoled him for his ill suc- 
cess. His friend Barrow, an English 
physician, who had escaped with him 
from the castle of Doune, made him 
acquainted with Collins the poet, who 
gained much on his affection : and in 
their society he forgot the disgrace he 
had sustained. 

But not to dwell upon Agis and its 
correlates. Home returned to Scotland 
with all his devotion to the Tragic 
Muse unimpaired, and little disturbed 
by his unfortunate reception. Dr. 
Grieve's narrative is here of peculiar 
interest : — 

Mr. Home (says he) boarded in a house 
in Athelstaneford. In 1750 he gave hit 
manse to Mr. Hepburn of Keith, a gentle- 
man of pristine faith and romantic valour, 
who had been in both Rebellions^ io 17 1§ 



and 1745. Mr. Hepburn was an accom- 
plished gentleman, and of a simple and 
winning elocution, which said nothing in 
vain. His wife, and his daarhtcrs by a 
former marriage, resembled him in his 
simplicity of mind, but propagated his 
doctrines with more openness and ardour. 

Dr. Carlyle, continues Dr. Grieve, 
says that, " it was the seductive con- 
versation of this family that gradually 
softened Mr. Home's prejudices to the 
Pretender and the Jacobites." 

And now we are brought to the pe- 
riod of the composition of Douglas; 
and as introductory to a few speci- 
mens, with various readings, from the 
holograph of Home, we shall be as 
minute as possible, drawina; upon all 
our MS. stores. We continue from 
Drs. Grieve and Carlyle :— 

Agis being disposed of for the time, and 
Mr. Home at liberty to project some new 
work, he is understood to have been in- 
debted to the family of the Hepbnrns for 
the first idea of Douglas. 

Another family MS. observes: — 
It was from his having heard Mrs. Janet 
Denoon sing the ballad of Gil Morricd 
that be first took the idea of the tragedy 
of Douglas, which five years afterwards he 
carried to London — for he was but an idle 
composer — to offer to the stage. The 
length of time he took tended to bring it 
to perfection ; for want of (former) suc- 
cess, added to his natural openness, made 
him communicate his compositions to his 
friends, whereof there were some of the 
soundest judgment and of the most exqui- 
site taste. Of the first sort were Drs. Blair 
and Robertson and Mr. Kerr Bannatine, 
and of the second Patrick Lord Elibank, 
the Hepburn family, and many young 
ladies of the first delicacy, high sensibilty, 
and refinement. 

Dr. Carlyle records that as 
Home himself wrote a hand that was 
hardly legible, and could ill afford to hire 
an amanuensis, he (Dr. C.) copied out 
Douglas several times over for him, which, 
by means of the corrections of all his 
friends, and the fine and decisive criticisms 
of the late Sir Gilbert Elliot, had attained 
to the perfection in which it was acted. 
For at this time Home was tractable, and 
listened to our remarks. 

Dr. Grieve remarks upon the pre- 
ceding : 

Much time and labour were bestowed 
on the composition of this drama. The 
author put forth his strength with spirit 
and confidence, and ihrtmk from no toil 



120 Memorials of John Home, the Author ^f '* Douglas'' [Feb. 

that was likely to contribute to the perfec- many soggestions and many hints of im- 

tion of his production. Dr. Carlyle seems, provements from his friends, but the spirit 

however, to have employed on this occa- and success with which the work was exe- 

sion an improper word, and his account, cuted belong to himself. The work was 

unexplained, may give currency to an opi- Mr. Home's, and Mr. Home's exclusively, 

nion long ago circulated and received As already stated, a few scenes of one 

""^lu^Sr T ''^1 rt'^ ""^^ acquamted ^ ^ jj^ draughts of "Douglas," 
vnth Mr. Home, that his principal drama . J^^^***"^* \. ?xj iT n. 
was the work of a knot of friends, rather *° ^^^ holograph oF Home, have been 
than of the author. The persons whom recovered : and they are too interest- 
he consulted appear to have suggested pg not to be communicated, at least, 
many alterations and improvements. It in part. 

may also be granted that they furnished The first sketch which we present 

some verbal criticisms, and such changes shews the probable extent of tne cor- 

of phrase as appeared to contribute to the rections and suggestions of others, 
flow and harmony of the versification. To Let it be noted that in these MSS. 

these suggestions the author listened, and jngtead of Lord and Lady Randolph, 

executed the parts according to the advice ^g j„ ^he printed copy, they are Lord 

tt'dLXoVvicUon the^ro? H^e and Lad/Barnard,^^hile W 

to the eVecution of Douglas. The plan of i! ^ir Simon and young Nerval is 

the drama, the details of the action, the -torman. 

conception of the characters, the business In giving our various readings we 

of the scenes, and the unravelling of the take Mackenzie's edition of Douglas, 

plot, were wholly his own. He received as authoritative. 

Act in. Early scene, pp. 334-38. 

The various readings of the MS. are given in smaller type, immediately above 
Mackenzie's text : — 

Old Shepherd. 8. — If I, amidst astonishment and fear, 

Have of your words and gestures rightly judged, 

aged 
Thou art the daughter of my ancient master ; 
The child I rescued from the flood is thine. 
L.B. — 'Tis so. [Added in printed copy.'] 

With thee dissimulation now were vain. 
I am indeed the daughter of Sir Malcolm ; 
The child thou rescued'st from the flood is mine. 

S. — Bless'd be the hour that made me a poor man ! 
misery 
My poverty hath saved my master's house ! 

L.B. — Thy words surprise me : sure thou dost not feign ! 
thy 
The tear stands in thine eye ; such love from thee 
Sir Malcolm's house deserved not ; if aright 
Thou told'st the story of thy own distress, 
was the flower of all good men 
5. — Sir Malcolm of our barons was the flower ; 
and 
The fastest friend, the best, the kindest master; 

how it stood with me 
But, ah ! he knew not of my sad estate. 

the awfal when 

After that battle, where his gallant son, 

once brave, dearest died kniglit 

Your own brave brother, fell, the good old lord 

his fortime 
Grew desperate and reckless of the world : 

you surely know 
And never, as he erst was wont, went forth 
[And on his servants all his state devolved] (deleted) 
To overlook the conduct of his servants. 
By them I was thrust out, and them I blame : 
So Judffe me Heaven lord 

May Heaven so judge me as I judged my master, 
And God lo love me as I love hia race. 



1853.] Memorials ^John Homey the Author of " Douglas"' 121 

L.B. — [In MS. but not given in printed copy,] 
In that unhappy battle, as you say, 
My father^s soul was slain with his brave son : 
The spirit of the ancient warrior died. 
But you must leave this place ; upon thy truth 
And prudent silence much, old man, depends. 
Remember well my words, if you should meet 
Him whom thou call'st thy son, still call him so, 
And utter nothing of his nobler sire. 

L.B. — [Goes towards the servants — ] 

whom you suspected I have sounded 
Tliis man is not the assassin you suspected, 
And to the bottom of his -soul he's honest. 
Though chance combined some likelihoods against him. 

a 
He Is the faithful bearer of the jewels 

Just let him go in peace, 

To their right owner, whom in haste he seeks, 
Your zeal and diligence I will remember : 
*Tis meet that you should put him on his way, 

Conduct the stranger to the publique way, ^ 

Since your mistaken zeal hath dragg'd him hither. 

By turning to the tragedy, as pub- Let our readers refer to Act IV. 
lished, it will be found that the whole p. 359 of the printed copy. There 
imagery and incident of" The Hermit" * Glenalvon (like lago) works success- 
was an afler-thought. No trace of it fully on the jealousy of Lord Barnard 
appears in the MSS. in our possession, or Barnet, t . e. Lord Randolph. The 
which are all early copies. scene commences abruptly thus : 

Lord R. — 'Tis so, by heaven! her mien, her voice, her eye. 
And her impatience to be gone, confirm it. 

In our MSS. the following "dialogue," plunging in medias res at once, adds to 

shewing the process of the " villainy" theeSect of the scene; at the same lime 

of Glenalvon, precedes these words perhaps this omitted " dialogue " gives 

Possibly the " *Tis so " ... the more unity and verisimilitude to it. 

G. — This day with Forman [i.e. young Norval] gave it to my hand. 
L B.— Why did he so ? 

G. — Mistaken, I suppose ; 

nor 
But how I know not : nought does it avail 
To scan that matter, if you are resolved 
To see this secret meeting in the wood : 
As for your own, for your good lady's sake, 
And for young Forman's, I do think you should. 
Lest in some future time, if Forman stay 
Here in the Castle, lovely as he is. 
And by your gracious lady highly favoured. 
You should repent that you did not eiplore 
This midnight interview. 
L.B, — Kinsman, I now 

Perceive that thou suppressest in thy breast 
Somewhat which works upon thy honest mind. 
Thee, for his master, Forman's rustic slave 
Could not mistake : so scruple not to own 
How thou didst get the letter, and declare 
The cause unknown which moved thy zealous miod 
To trace this train. Be not afraid of me. 
For I am perfect master of myself, and can 
With a judicial temper try this cause 
As if it were a stranger's. 
O, — Dear, my lord. 

There are, indeed, some articles and parts 
Of facts that puzzle me, but these summed up 
Gent. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. R 



122 Memorials of John Home, the Author of ^* Douglas'' [Feb. 

Amount to nothing certain. I am not 

By nature formed of elements like yours — 

Stars of bad aspect shone when I was born : 

Hence I, malevolent, trust not mankind 

So much as you do ; seek not, then, to stain 

The untroubled current of your clearer spirit 

By mixing with my dark and muddy thoughts. 

This day I promised to your noble dame, 

In your opinion ne'er to injure Forman. 

Perhaps of him to utter my conjecture 

Might hurt him, Barnet, and not profit thee. 
L.D. — Did she intreat thee in behalf of Forman? 

G, — ^With vehemence she did. 
L.B. — 'Tis strange, by heaven 1 

G — Things stranger still 1 could declare to Barnet — 

So strange, indeed, that I cannot conceive 

What they can mean ; no rational conclusion 

Can I draw from them ; they amaze my soul, 

As if the earth we tread should yawn asunder, 

And the grim ghosts stalk thro* this spacious court. 
L.B. — Glenalvon, speak ! for thou hast shocked my soul, 

Tho* firmly I believe Maria's virtue. 
G. — And I, so help me God! Yet many a man 

Hath been by specious women sore betrayed : 

Thy calmness, Barnet, and thy confidence, 

Superior to jealousy, make me 

Freely unfold to you all that I know, 

And e'en express what subtle men might say 

Was to be feared. 
L.D. — I cannot brook delay ; 

Tell me this instant what thou knowest, Glenalvon ! 

And of thy fears we shall discourse hereafter. 
G. — After the curst attempt upon your life, 

I planted sentinels at each outlet 

Of the green wood : their diligence surprised 

An uncouth man, who, like a beast of prey. 

Stood not their challenge ; this assassin they 

« » * • • 

Towards the close of the preceding touching dialogue with Anna. In it 
fragment there is not an unskilful in- occurs the "prayer" which gave so 
tcrtexture of thought with reference much scandal to the ecclesiastical 
to previous scenes ; and altogether its courts, but which, under the spell of a 
introduction might have been accom- Siddons, subdued all hearts. This 
plished without interfering with those scene the author elaborated with sin- 
scenes which follow. gular care. We have no less than 

Our other MS. first-sketches of three different and varying copies. One 

Douglas are numerous, but, as they are couplet we cannot suppress : and can 

merely ordinary passages, may be over- well imagine how much more " notour" 

passed. There is one short scene, how- (to use tbe church-court's phrase) its 

ever, which merits a passing remark, introduction would have made the 

Immediately on the departure of the play. The "prayer" itself was ob- 

Old Shepherd, after the discovery jected to, perhaps justly; but what 

that "young Nerval" is her son, would the reverend courts have said 

Lady Knndolph has a passionate and to this ? 

Anna. — Hear her, O gracious Mother of our Lord! 

Thou know'st the fondness of a mother's love. 

We do not give the various read- and are (on the whole^ heavy and con- 
ings throughout this scene, inasmuch fused. Home must have profited in 
as they would occupy too much space, this scene by some tasteful critic, for 



1853.] 



n^e Ruman WalL 



123 



there is pagt; upon page of inflated not priniedi which can be well de- 
rliodoiuontade. taclied. 

Tliy following Hues are the oiilj ones, 

L.B. — Word* cftQnot teach thee, Anna, what I frel ; 
The common love that commoit mothers bear 
To their own offapriog, \% hut n^ n e^iark 
To the atrOD^ tire that burns nithin my breaat. 
The woman that adores her linn^lord, 
When she embracea his Loved imagei, may 
Know a small part of wbat n\y bosom feels. 
But she that neeps and clasps the aingle pledge 
Of the dead husband of ber virgin hearty 
That fond aiid wretched womtinf she alone 
Can know \t all. 



Such are some of the particulars of 
the conception and elaboration of 
"Douglas.* The result must be de- 

Edinburgh, 



ferred to another paper, together with 
some intereatiag anecdotes of the 
authors subaeqtient life* 

A. B, G. 



THE ROMAN WALL, 

The Roman Wall ; an Historical and Topographical Degcription of the Barrier of the 
Lower Isthmus, extending from tbe Tyrie to the Solway, Deduced from numerous 
personal surveys. By the Rev, John ColUngwood 13ruce» M.A. one of the Council 
of the Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle- opoQ^Tyne* Second and enlarged edition* 
London, J. R. Smith. 1852. 8vo. 



IT IS rare to find a work of an ex- 
clusively antiquarian character reach- 
ing a second edition after the lapse of 
6o brief a Sfpace of time as two years. 
Our volume for 1651 coutaitjs a review 
of Mr. Bruce's first edition of bis Ro- 
man Wall, and our Magazine of tbe 
same year also contains some notes 
on the same subject by BIr. Roach 
Smith, who, in company with Mr, 
Bruce and tbe late Mr. rrice, passed 
a week in examining the remains of 
this remarkable structure, and the 
castTa conne^jted with it, from Wiills- 
End to Carlisle. 

On the present occasion we shall 
restrict our notices to some of the re- 
cent discoveries, and to the more re- 
markable portions of the novel matter 
introduced into this new and revised 
edition, premisin^*^ that, although it ap- 
liears a champion on the side of Sever us 
has entered the lists against our author, 
who supports the clami of Hadrian as 
builder of the wall,* we see no reason, 
from any new fact or from any new 
riew of historical evidence, to change 
our opinion on this question, which is 
in favour of Mr, Bruce's theory. Thei*e 
are certain discreptmcies in the state- 
ments made by ancient writers; but, 
when they are carefully weighed with 



conclusions drawn from the remains 
themselves, coupled with the powerful 
arguments drawn from inscriptions, 
wtj cannot resist believing that Hadrian 
constructed the wall and ita attendant 
lines of earthworks, and that Severus 
made many reparations, and added, 
probably, some of the walled castra 
along the line of the great fortification, 
To inscriptions we cannot attach too 
much importance, and tbe careful 
maimer in which Mr. Bruce has col- 
lected them, and authenticated their 
discovery, adds much to their value. 
Tbe ibllowing, for instance, m\ unpub- 
lished one copied by Stukeley, seems 
to fix the heretofore undecided situ- 
ation of Morbium at Moresby. Its 
preservation is fortunate, and its his- 
tory is tbe more curious as Stukeley 
does not seem to have been aware of 
its peculiar value. Mr* Bruce, speak- 
ing of Moresby, reumrks : — 

Considerable uncertainty eKistsas to the 
ancient name of t Lib place. Camden says* 
"^ There bas been no inscription yet found 
to encourage us to believe that this wag 
the Morbium where the Bquitet Cata' 
phraetarii quartered ; though the present 
name seems to imply it.** This difficulty 
no longer exists. Horsleysaw an inicrip- 
tion (lxxv Cumb.) in a field, a little east 



124 



The Roman Wall 



[Feb, 



of Moresby Hall, " but pretty much effaced 
and brokeo.*' He Rays, ** *Tia sepulchrflU 
and has contaiued thti name of tbe person 
deceased, with bis iqje, aud the years he 
has served in the army." His copy of it^ 
however, differs from one which Stukeley 
raedfi upon the spot, and whose origioal 
note la in the possession of Mr. C> Roach 
Smitfe, The two readiogs are these : — 



thut place to h Jive been the Bremenium 
of the Itinerary of Ariloninua. It is 
represented in the cut below. 



GDNET> 



^<?rjffoy>. 


Stukeiey^M. 


D M 


U M 


SMKUT 


S.MHAT 


OHAC 


O.MAOft 


MC^til 


M.C4TAP. 


HttAO 


tlEACTAB. 


a BTU 


Q HTl 


XVICSIT 


X.VICBIT 


XTLJL ar 


XXX I>.V, 



SIGNOJlV\; 
COHiVARDVJ 

JORBRE/Vtoi 
EGNATLX/GLll 

SABINJANOKfe 



I cannot but think, with Mr. Roitch 
Smith, to whom I am indebted for the 
ropy, that Stuki4ey'f reading i« the cor- 
rect one, and that ^prim& facie case is 
made out for supposing Moresby to be 
the MoKBiUM of the Notiria. Horsley, 
for reasonii which have not beeo g:eneritllf 
acquiesced in by ftatliiuarles, places Ar- 
iiKiA, which follows MoKBiUH in the 
Kotitia, at Mnresby, 

An in script ion very recently dis* 
covered ut High Rocbeater eonftrniH 

It may be read^ — 

o[fiNtoJ nioMiNi] n[ostri] et To the genius of our Emperor andj 

siGNonvM of the Stimdnrds 

coh[ortis] PR 111^ vardvl[orvm] of the first cohort of the Varduli 

KT n[vmkri] explora aod of a Numcros of Fxjdora- 

tor[vm] brem[enii] coii[NBUva3 torea of Bremenium, Comeliua ' 

KONATivs LTCiLi £gnatiiis Ludli- 
ANTS le6[atvs] AyQ[vsTAi.i9] pa[o] pR[iSToa] Auus, theiinpertalLefate,propr«tor, 

CVRANTB CASS to under the superintendence of Ca^stus 

SABINIAKO trih[vko] Sttbiniiiouji, the Tiibuiie, 

arrnn pomit, ttvctcd thi* altar. 



Two inscriptions had beeti found at 
tbifl station lunny years since. In one 
the 6r«t cohort of the Yardali is men- 
tioned ; in the other the (hqtlares of a 
detaclitueut of the ExpkyratoreSt and 
the fact of their being stationed at 
Breraenium. The former is of the 
time of Ela^abrtlui* (not of CaracnUa 
as inferred by Ilorsiley). From that 
recently found we learn that these two 
bodies of soldiers were rjnartered to- 
gether at this station in the time of 
Cordian, for it h elsewhere shewn that 
K|rnatius Luetlianus was legate of this 
emperor. The Varduli, as appears by 
the Sydenham rescript, were ui Britain 
in the time of Trajan ; the second co- 
hort of them 13 mentioned in it as sur- 
named Fkla^ a title which is also 



shared by the first cohort, as is proved 
by another inscription also very re- 
cently excavated at Bremeniuuit and 
a copy of which we bere introduce 
from Mr. Briice's second edition of his 
volume. f-Sctf the rwxt }mge*J 

We think with Mr. Bruce that tho 
erased name is most jirobably that of 
Klugabalus, The word }MUix we may 
read haliwitSy signifying that the public 
baths were restored from their found »•■ 
tions by the fir^t cohort of the Varduli. 
Another inscription has been lately 
aflbrded by excavations. It is a votive 
tablet to. Antoninus Pius, erected by 
the first cohort of the Lingones, under 
Loll i us Urbicus, on the occasion appa* 
rcntly of the completion of some build- 
ing. This is the Lollius Urbicus who ' 



1833.] 



125 



IBAL! 






I NFC 



IMp[euATOR|] CJ£[8ARI] 

p[jo r[ELlCl] 

c[o]ii[oiis] I f[ida] vahd[vlorvm] 

BALLta A SOLO REST[lTViTj 

svfl c[aio] cl[avdio] apellini[o] lkg[atoJ AVa[vSTALl] 

IN8TANTE AVr[eLIo] QVINTO Ta[|fiV>lo]. 

lu fiofiour of tha Emperor Cmwr, 

The first Cohort of tlie VtLrdnh, iityted the FaUbfal, 

■ from the ground restored, 

under Coins Clatidius AiJeUiuiias, imperiul legate j 
Aureliiis Quiutus, the Tribune, super in tendiog che work. 



CflpitolinuB says.buiJt the upper barrier 
vr A D too in e Wall. 

The statioD Brenieninm, now llhfh 
Roches tcr» whert: the precited inscrip- 
tioiiM Uiive been found, Vies alxiut 
twerifj-two niilea north of the wall, 
upon the Wntlintr Street. As it 15 
now being excuvated u fuller account 
of the discoveries cannot be unaei'ept- 
able to our readers, especiallj as many 
of them, on a late occasion, visited th^ 
site. Mr. Bruce thus deserlbua it :— 
It (the station) hus evidently been idaced 
here for the protection of the road* When 
viewed in relation to the ground in its im- 
mediate vicinity, the station teems to stand 
high, and to be very much exposed to the 
L»e«thf r ; but, if it he looked upoD from 
mhc hiiii to the east of it, it will be seen to 
occupy a defile in the mountain chain, 
through which the Military Way is very 
skilfully tAkeo in ita progress to the north. 
Watliog Street passes the station on its 
emstcm side, and shootj boldly forward 
towards Chew Green. The pavement of 
the road may be traced in a very complete 
state for miles together, though there are 
portions of it which teem never to have 
been paved at all South of the station 
the road may in most places be distin- 
guiihed, until, on the aoutheru rim of the 
basin of the liede Water, the modern turn- 
pike coalesces with it. Seteral pieces of 
black oak, perfectly aoaad, have been got 
out of the river near to the pkoo where 
the road crossed tt, and gome portions are 



imbedded in the bauk in such a way as ta 
eneourage the belief that the road was her« 
supported upon timbers. 

In a military point of fiew the Hite of 
the station ia very strong:. On all Bides, 
excepting near the so nth -east corner, the 
ground slopes from it ; and on the north 
side, it sinks so rapidly m to give the 
camp the protectioQ of a bold breast-work. 
The walls of the station are stronger than 
those of the forts on the line of the Wall ; 
they are not only thicker, but are com- 
posed of larger stones* In one piaca the 
station wall measures seventeen feet in 
thiuknesB ; the iuterior of it seems to have 
been filled with clay. The wall, at the 
north-west comer, baa been laid barej 
seven courses of atones are standing in po- 
sition. Here some repairs have evidently 
been effected after the original erection of 
the station, the newer part being composed 
of stones of a hirger size than the rest of 
the walL Between the walls of the sta* 
tion and the moat a space of ground, of 
twelve or fifteen feet in width, has been 
levelled and bedded oirer with clay and 
gravel, as if to form a platform for mill- 
tury operations. The position of the gate- 
ways in the north and south ramparts may 
easily hi! discerned ; some portions of their 
masonry remain. There have probably 
been two gateways on« the eastern and 
western sides of the station* One gate, 
on the western side, has recently beca 
cleared. It stands upwards of six feet 
high. The eo trance is a single one ; it is 
wider 00 the outer than the inner margin, 



126 



The Roman Wall. 



[Feb. 



but exhibits an average width of about 
eleven feet. The north jamb of this gate- 
way is crowDed with a rudely-moulded 
capital, above which is the springer of an 
arch. Underneath the threshold is a re- 
gularly-built drain, which has brought the 
waste water from the station ; several other 
sewers have been observed between the 
south-west and north-east angles of the 
station, the inclination of the ground be- 
ing towards the north. A succession of 
grooved stones, covered with flags, lie in 
the threshold of the south gateway ; by 
this channel clean water has probably been 
brought into the station from the mossy 
ground, on the south-east of it. This 
ground is above the level of the station, 
and, before being drained, yielded water 
in abundance. In those parts where the 
station is naturally strongest a single 
fosse has environed the walls ; in those 
which are less strong the moat has been 
double ; but at the south-east angle, which 
is the weakest point, it has been quadru- 
ple. A portion of this four-fold en- 
trenchment has been levelled, for the pur- 
poses of cultivation. Last year (1851) 
the field was in wheat ; after the crop had 
'been cut it was pleasing to observe, in the 
comparative rankness and strength of the 
stubble on the " made ground," the pre- 
cise lines of the ditches. 

The stations on the line of the Wall 
were for the most part abandoned after 
the Romans quitted Britain. Some of 
them, especially those to the north, 
were probably given up anterior to that 
event. In the course of time they fell 
into ruins, over which earth and herb- 
age gradually accumulated, and up to 
the present day many of them have 
remained unmolested, with the excep- 
tion of parts of the outer walls and the 
more exposed portions of the building 
within, which have served for building 
materials through many centuries. 
Still the foundations were untouched. 
In the south of England, on the con- 
trary, where the population was denser, 
and the land of greater value for agri- 
cultural purposes, the interior of the 
Roman stations and castles have been 
almost denuded of the remains of build- 
ings. It is therefore in those of the 
north that we majr expect the more in- 
teresting results from well-directed ex- 
cavations, such as those now being made 
at Bremenium and one or two other 
places. It is to be hoped that what has 
been brought to light wilf induce the 
Duke of Northumberland to proceed 
with the researches which form so in- 



teresting a part of the new edition of 
Mr. Bruce 8 volume, as an abstract 
will demonstrate. 

On entering the station the Spectator 
is struck with the mass of buildings it 
contains. They are not,, Mr. Bruce 
decides, of the same character or age. 
Some, from their superior masonry, in- 
dicate that they belong to the original 
plan ; others are referable to later 
periods. Two distinct layers of flag- 
stones, both much worn, with a mass 
of rubbish between them, are to be 
noticed in some of the houses and 
streets. The chief street, twenty feet 
wide, runs through the station from 
east to west. Another street, to the 
south, runs in the direction of those 
points of the rampart where the second 
lateral gateways are supposed to be ; 
this is eight feet wide. 

Precisely in the centre of the camp is a 
square plot of building (a, in the follow- 
ing plan), which subsequent investigation 
may prove to be the pralorium. The 
portal (e) leading into it from the via 
principalis has been crowned by an arch ; 
many of the wedge-shaped stones which 
composed it were found upon the ground. 
Advancing a few feet inwards, we meet 
with what appears to be a second portal, 
the basement course of two strong square 
pillars of masonry (p. p.) remaining in po- 
sition ; these too may have been spanned 
by an arch, or they may have been sur- 
mounted by statues of Victory. The lat- 
ter supposition is suggested by the disco- 
very, already referred to, of a nearly com- 
plete figure of the favourite goddess of the 
Romans, and a small fragment of a second, 
within the eastern gateway of Borcovi- 
cus. In the chamber which is entered 
after passing these pediments the most 
striking object is an underground tank (f) 
about eight feet square, and six feet deep. 
The masonry of its walls bears the cha- 
racter of the second, rather than of the 
first period. Two narrow apertures on its 
south side near the top seem intended for 
the admission of water, and a shallow 
trough and gutter on the edge of one of 
the opposite corners, have apparently been 
intended to carry o£F the superfluous liquid. 
There is now lying at the bottom of it the 
stone lintel of a doorway, upwards of six 
feet long ; before being precipitated into 
the tank, it would seem to have long lain 
npon the ground of the station, for it is 
much worn, as if by the sharpening of 
knives upon it. Proceeding in a straight 
line onwards, and at the southern ex- 
tremity of this range of buildings, another 
underground receptacle (o) is seen. It 



128 



The Roman Wall, 



[Fel). 



There is an opening at the bottom, in one 
corner of the building, jjaving roucU the 
ajipeamnce of a conduit : it is arched !iy a 
single fitone, roughly tnrtrk«^d with diamond 
tooling. The course of this chftiincl has 
not been examined. The whole vault bus 
evidently been provided with a covering. 
In ita west era wall is a projecting ledge^ 
which \a shewn in the woodeiit ; on this 
one or two courses of stones bfite pruha> 
bty resteil, stretching inwards. The tt*|i 
would by this means be so contracted thnt 
it might be covered over by long flat 
fltonois ; one suitable fur the purpose, 
though broken in twOj lie^s on the «put. 
* « * • 

On the western side of the centnil block 
of buildings is a double range of barrncks 
(n, c) J each compartment is sixty feet long 
and iifteeii broad. The masonry is ex- 
ceedingly good^ and evidently belongs to 
the first period. Id the centre of the 
range between the apartments a deep paii- 
tBge runs (k), flagged at the bottom ,» and 
apparently communicating with flues (^') 
beneath the rooms. Thi« passage libowB 
five course* of masonry inniu. The outer 
wb11« of tbefle buildings have erections re. 
senibling buttreflses placed agaitiflt them 



(ip i), and the same number, eight, is ap- 
pended to each. It is probable, however, 
that they were not intended to strengthen 
the walbf but were connected with the 
heating of the apartments, for a flue goee 
under the floor from the centre of each 
buy. The floors of tbe rooms consist of 
a double ^t of flagstones with an inter- 
vening layer of clay between them. The 
floors are not supported upon pillars as is 
usually the case in hy^)ocauflts, but upon 
dwarf waUs ; by this means the heated air 
would he carried along the passages with 
some of the precision which we see mani- 
f edited in the galleries of a coal mine. In 
one of the bays formed by the projecting 
huttresj^s of thia building the cranium 
and several of the other bones of a man 
were found. The remains of an archway 
(m) leading into one of the dwellings (c) 
were discovered; it is probable thai the 
other was similarly provided. 

There are iadicatiooi that a range of 
houses (d), of the same character as that 
which has now heert described ^ stood upon 
the eastern side of the central fic|uure. 

In the via prindpttUs^ is another 
vault (u in the pliin)« incroachmg oq 



Hi 



the line of the street. It b thirty feet 
long, eight broad, and six deep. At 
the bottom of it was diseovered a 
piece of sculpture rej)resenting three 
tijmphs bathing. Mr. Bruce asks what 
Cfiri have been ihc object of sui muajr 
pi I -like chauibera, iind pnuse^ in de- 
ciding them to huve been bntbs. But 
it is difficult to conceive them cnn* 
structed for m\y otijer purpose^ und 
this piece of sculpture, as well na the 



inscription containing tbe word baUif 
(p. 125), seetu to support this opinion. 
Considerable discoveries have iilao 
been mnde at Hoiiseteads (Borcovicus) 
by Mr. Clayton, and nt Burdoswatd 
(Auiboelanna), by Mr. Potter,* both 
of whicn are described by Mr* Bruce 
with new illustrations* One of the 
nio^t interesting features of the exca- 
vations at the hitter place ib the door- 
way leading from the northern gate- 



* See p. 73 of our January Dmsiher. We take thii opportunity to ftiggest that the 
lir*t two wordi of the inscription found by Mr* Potter (p* 74) would be better read m 
Snh Modio, 
2 



1853] 



% 



^':2i 



Itouuui (jiiteway at BurUcMwald. 



way to the guard chamber shewrn in 
the annexed cut. The drcular door- 
licad is Ibrmed of ft single block of 
fitoxie^ whicli liad been broken and 
thrown from its oritrinal situation. 
SiraUflr stonea have often been found 
near the gateways of stations, and their 
use is now fully deternnoed. In (he 
department allotted lo minor nnti- 
qujtiea will be found many objects of 



interest. With respect to the battle 
tobacco-pipe bowls, we nmy observe 
that their comparative diminutive size 
may be well explained by the fact that 
in the time of Queen Eli;5iibeth tobacco 
was sold at five guineas the ounce, and 
that in after-times those who indulged In 
the expensive luxury of smoking were 
accustomed in buying it to throw five- 
shdbng pieces into the opposite scale* 



SONKET 

On my first and only visit to the Poet Wonisworth^ shortly previous to his death, 
when he refardfallj preseoted me with a walking-stick, which bad been aa old and 
mnch^nsed favourite. 

WoBDswoniH, bard of the heart I my pnJse beat high 

To meet the tearful welcome of thine eye. 

We ne*er before, and ne'er again could meet ; 

The meeting tender, and the greeting sweet. 

£ach had the other known, but as n dream : 

Our sympathy soon kindled with our theme™ 

CoLEBLDGK ; — the wonders of whose bygone day« 

Each had in amjile share the power to praise* 

Thine were his later years : mine, when as boys 

We tnsted first of life, it's cares, and joys. 

We parted : and at parting paused to bless- 

Ere the deep farewell of our last caress 

A staff thy gift, as with a friend to roam. — 

Ah I No. It bideS| for Aye, the glory of niy home, 

Trereife^ CttrnwaU. C. V. Le Gbice 

ChmT. Mao. Vol. XXXXX. H 



130 



GIORDANO BRUNO. 



THE great martyrs of thought do 
not linger in the memory of nations 
like the great martyrs of religion : but, 
in general, the unswerving path which 
they pursue for truth's sake and God's, 
demands a more concentrated energjr 
and a more devoted heroism. It is 
seldom that the martyr for religion 
suffers alone : the generous breath of 
his fellow-believers is in his ears; 
angels hover round him, if unseen 
by all other eyes yet not unseen by 
his; he is not fed by the cold con- 
clusions of the intellect, but feasts on 
phantasies which have a living root 
and ramification in all nature; and, 
above the smoke of his funeral pile, 
and the frown of the persecutor's fury, 
heaven, with its countless army of wel- 
coming saints, becomes one wide door 
to his soul. In such circumstances it 
is not a tragic trial — it is a mighty 
triumph — to die. To enthusiasm in its 
fever the lavish blood which it pours 
from its exulting heart is as the wed- 
ding-garment with which in purple 
splendour it enters the banquet-hall of 
the redeemed. But the martyr of 
thought, in his struggles and in his 
death, has nothing to cheer his utter 
loneliness, except the grandeur of the 
idea to which he has consecrated his 
sacrificial being. He is a solitary star 
in the firmament of humanity, and 
precisely because he is a star are all 
other stars far, far away. It were 
well therefore if we had a martyro- 
logy of thinkers, as there have been 
80 many martyrologies of believers. 
In such a martyrology, as in all mar- 
tyrologies, it is not what the martyr 
bore his testimony to, but the spirit 
which he brought to his doom — the 
manner in which he submitted to 
it — that should claim our reverence 
and praise. The remorseless guillotine 
spared as little the grey hairs of Jacques 
Cazotte, as the sunnier and more 
abounding locks of Madame Roland. 
But, royalist or republican, who could 
say which was the sublimer martyr of 
the two ? Who can indicate what po- 
litical party, what religious sect, what 
church, what age of the world, has 
produced the most martyrs ? 

It is as a martyr of thought, not 



as the setter forth of any peculiar 
opinions in philosophy, or as a man of 
vast, various, and fertile genius, that 
we would present Giordano Bruno to 
the veneration of true English minds. 
It has been made the reproach of Eng- 
land that, satisfied with the systems 
of Locke and of Paley, she never casts 
a glance, far less ventures a step up- 
ward, to the loftier and more luminous 
heights of moral and metaphysical 
inquiry. This may be a grave fault, 
as it certainly is a most deplorable 
misfortune. But blacker is the fault, 
sadder the misfortune, that she has no 
home on her free soil for such as have 
climbed through perils numberless to 
those glad and mighty peaks, tliose 
exulting observatories of creation. No- 
where is biography marked by a more 
sectarian character than in England. 
The English community displays a 
more imbecile promptitude for the 
apotheosis of some common -place per- 
son, whose only merit was that of echo- 
ing and serving three or four prevalent 
prejudices, than the Roman senate in 
its most degenerate and crawling 
baseness ever showed to deify an Em- 
peror who was an idiot, a tiger, or an 
ape. But for veriest demigods, whose 
tread shook the rooted mountains, and 
whose voice was a shout of emancipa- 
tion for all times, England has no in- 
cense and no pedestal. Let England 
cling to her orthodoxy and nationality 
as tenaciously as she chooses. England s 
faith, political and religious, to the ex- 
tent that it is a reality, must be Eng- 
land's life. But whilst she receives with 
open arms to her shores the fugitive 
slave, the hunted patriot, the mourning 
exile, she spurns the glorious dead of fo- 
reign climes unless the^ happen to please 
one of her many whims. How much 
does she thus lose of celestial nourish- 
ment, of heroic impulse ! What poverty 
is thus brought on some most import- 
ant departments of her literature ! It 
may be that she has no natural taste 
for abstractions: it may be that her 
mission is mainly practical. But the 

freat men of Gfermany, of Italy, of 
Vance, whom she despises or is con- 
tent to be ignorant of, were not ab- 
stractions, wnatever their utterances 



18530 



Giordano IlrutHh 



lai 



may have bt3en. There is a catliolicity 
which it? oiilj the mask of indiirerence. 
There 13 another cutholicity which 
buihb up more spaciDiia and jrnrgeous 
mansions of mental hoi^pitaliLy the 
more there is of earnest iiud iiiviiieihle 
cyuvietiori. It is such a cutliollcity as 
this, which liononrs the brjire face and 
the beautiful where ver, whenever be- 
hehl, which we wiah foroiireounlrymen. 
The nmkrials for a lile of Giordano 
Bruno are scanty. The sixteenth cen- 
tury waa an imnienjje a^itiUiun, a 
boundless a^pirin^. Its boIdeBt^ most 
Jifted Hpiritstlitted to and fru in uneasy 
'ftmbition^ greedy of adventure. They 
knew not ejxuctly what ihey wanted: 
they were not itatisfied with Prolestant- 
Jsni: they were not satisfied with 
Romanism : they were not satisfied 
with themselves. It was Ie?is that they 
bad enormous errors to attnck or pri- 
mordial truths to teach, than that they 
were tormented by tlie exuberance oJ' 
their own being, and by the colossjd 
s[>eetaele of new and fertile worhid 
looming in the remote* Hence what* 
ever they did or said had a tinge of 
chnrlatanisnij not because they were in 
the slightest de^iree dishonest, but be- 
cause their whole developmenta were 
in s^uch etiikin^ dishnrmany with the 
industnal enterprise by whieli the six- 
teenth century was no les.s characterised 
than by ha specul^itive hsirdihootL 
They gleam upon tia fitfully vts the 
motit culminjiting Q^urea^ — then thick 
darkness swallows them for yeai?, — 
then suddenly they are once more be- 
fore 113, ilcHoinaiing and asfoniwliing 
eartli lay their height, and bneiiment, 
and I u At re. It is thus that we see 
Giordano Bruno like a strong ifwimmer 
sail ling the brow of a giant wave; when 
be is hidden iVom us as if lor ever by 
tlie roaring sur^e and the galliering 
haze» behold the daring eye and the 
sweep of the tinvuni|uished hanrl again 
omej*ging. Sonietimes we le:irn as 
much about him as if he had lived in 
our own day, and Hometimes he fades 
awny alnmst to the obscnrity of a 
inylh« We shall not attetii[)t to play 
the erudite in regard to his history. 
Modern research and criticism, when 
applied theretr»» have done little more 
tUiLn rectify a few dntes: we are not 
awar« that they have discovered any 
fresb fact. Bruno*s doctrines ai-e now 
faiinliar to cviivy one acipjuinted, how- 



ever slightly, with the revolutions of 
philosophy. But though the position 
which the philosopher occupied, att 
well as a leader of the revolt against 
scholasticism as the propo under of 
ideas {jeeuliarly his own, is continually 
growing more diatincti yet this does not 
seem to have brought the man any 
nearer or clearer to us. As the mere 
knight-errant of metaphysical audaci- 
ties no one will hencefortli regard him. 
This, however, ratlier destroys a ro- 
mance than furnishes the means for o 
substantial record. Leaving t herd ore 
all folios to the glory of their tranquil 
ant I veiiei\ible dust, we shall tnke the 
incidents of Bruno's career mainly, 
such as we find them in a recent 
French essay, adoptincj its language 
occasionally as well as its statements, 
imbuing ourselves as far as possible 
with its generous spirit, and avoidhig 
only its pretentious air and its some- 
what braggart grand iloi|uence. 

At Nola near Nuples was Giordano 
Bruno born in lo50. It was well that 
a soul so fiery and impetuous should 
have as iirst teachers in the wonders 
and grandeurs of the universe the 
llatiie^ and thunders ol' Vesuvius. The 
force lie [iossessed» the ireedom and 
the betiuly which were Ins thirst and 
his dream, he found emblemed in the 
V'licano, the Mediterranean wiive, and 
the It^dian sky. Of the childhood and 
the youth which he sjiunt in a region 
so much in unison with his nature we 
catch few traces. The first glimpse 
we obtain of him is in the garb of a. 
monk. Men in whom combine a pro- 
digal fancy and a metaphysical subtlety 
are more prone than all otliers to mis- 
take u momentary disgust, a fiingle 
outburst of pious emotion, for the voca- 
tion to a lite of solitutle and jmiyer. 
It was probably some such tran-titory 
feeling which induced Giordano Bruno 
to seek a prison for bis rich imagina- 
tion and his tumult of ardent energies* 
in the eloister. At what time he put 
on the gown of the Dominican, at 
whiit time he threw it aside, we know 
not, Dominican for a season he un- 
<|uestiimably was, though an historian 
of the order of the gloomy Spaniard 
heis attempted to deny this, alleging 
that if he iiad ever been a Dominican 
he would have remained so, as if it 
wei*e a law as unerring and invariable 
as grnvitaiion that [K'ople always <'on- 



Giordano Bruno, 



[Feb. 



tinucd in the same faith or professioD, 
Giordano no doubt first found tbe 
caDveniual ride and diadpliue irksome; 
but by and by some of the ebief Ro- 
mfinist doctrines and practices began 
to wear to bim tbe aspect of false- 
hoods, lie ventures to bint his doubt, 
which is already a great crime in 
the eye of biu Bup^riora. But when 
his scepticism took the form of mockery, 
quick and fierce was their rage. Ty- 
rants never pardon ridicule ; because 
a thing whtdly ridiculous meets with 
as little mercy from mankind as a thing 
wholly roUen. Even un Adrian* not 
tbe most cruel of despots, can kill the 
arch i tec t Ap o 1 lodor u 3 for a j es t . Tb e 
Domitiicana would have been glad to 
stop tbe jokes of their sarcastic brother 
in a very summary mode; but he 
escaped from their hands, and became 
a wanderer all over Europe. 

More an airilatorthan an iconoclast, 
it was not his ideas but himself that 
impressed hia fellow-men. Besides its 
extraordinary political movements, so- 
ciety was at that moment stirred by 
five grand intluences : the increase of 
mechanical in ventionEi; the progress of 
material science; the expansion, tbe 
daringofcommercial enterprise through 
the discovery of vaat transatlantic 
realms round whose coasts still hung 
enchantment and table to feed visions 
and t<j stimulate adventures; the 
growth, the victories of the Reforma* 
tion ; and tbe down till of scholastictsm. 
Never before had bo many and Kuch 
stalwart vitalities been abroad in tbe 
world as at that hour, both as positive 
and as negative forces. It was an 
epoch of manifold fertilities and earnest 
strivings, but wanting unity from its 
very excess of faculty and hope. It 
wantoned with its strength like a young 
giant out on his first holiday, like Her- 
cules ere he be^an his twelve labours. 
Few could typdV it more completely 
than Giordano Bruno with his large 
heart, bis prodigal phantasy, his dis- 
cursive, penetrative intellect, his gal- 
limi bearingj his boundless courage, — 
his plans, his ideas, his activities, his 
aggressive ardours as boundless. Such 
a man is a reformer certainly; but 
reformer is not the most proper word 
to apply to him, A paladin far more 
than a prophet was Giordano Bruno; 
and the monsters he attacked and slew 
were the foul monkeries, the ghosts of 



a buried world which still lingered 
among men- As a paladin — the 
brilliant champion of that future 
whose roseate dawn tbe Obscurantists { 
were trying to picture to tbe supersti- 
tious as a devouring fire — Giordano 
entered Genoa. His im[)rovisfttorijd 
ease and ekKjuence, that rapid glance 
of political sngatnty which belongs so ' 
peculiarly to the sons of Italy, which 
consoles theai for the uttermost, of 
political disgrace and decay, and which 
mingles such strange laconisins with 
tbe most flowing amplitude of speech^ ' 
his geniality, bis grace, the plenitude of "^ 
his meaning, and tlie |>olish of hia | 
weapons, the novelty of hia paradoxes, ^ 
and the boldness of bis denunciationsi ^ 
astouished the nmUitudc, alarmed the j 
timid, enchanteil the enthusiast, en- 
raged the bigot. Genoa shouted its 
applause, and then Genoa shouted its 
fury — and Giordano tletL At Nice, i 
at Milan, at Venice, the same gaze oil 
wonder and the same storm of hatei 
awaited him. The priests dreaded lestl 
the gladiator should grow into tlio ' 
geneml. All over It^dy, at thut time, i 
the greatest unbeliever and Bcoifer waaj 
the priest. 

It was not therefore a question with | 
the priestly party about the ri;^ht or»j 
tbe wrong m philosophy or in religion ; | 
but any tiling that threatened to ac* 
tjuire the dimensions and the consist* 
ency t^f an organised attack upon po* 
pnlar beliefs was a foe to the systeni* 
which, both as theory and institution, 
made them the spiritual rulers of man- 
kind. As incompetent to refute as 
they were unable to silence Bruno, 
they gnashed the insatiate teeth of 
their insolent ferotuty with such bjondy 
distinctness, that he felt that it would 
be as sage to trust to their mercy as 
to the tenderness of wild beasts. Jn 
loHO he i|uilted Italy. He fixed bis 
abtnle for a season at Geneva. He 
discovered there that Protestant fa- 
naticism ditrere<l from Kumauist only 
in being a few ilegrees more intense 
and furious. Calvtn once wrote to 
Bucer, ** I have no harder battles to 
fight against my faults, numerous and 

freat as they are^ than those in which 
seek to conquer my intolerance. Of 
this ravenous animal I am not yet 
master." Calvin was dead, and could 
no longer burn heretics for the glory 
of (jod and to illustrate the Protestant 



1853.] 



Giordano Bruno* 



133 



right of private jiidgmcnt io matters 
of fiiith ^ but tliii ravenous aDimiil atill 
lived, iind Theodore Bezu, thougli a 
more genial man than Calvin, did not 
administer the dictatorship to which 
he had succeeded on Calvin's death in 
a milder spirit than that i^reat, but 
sombre and despotic, reformer. Dic- 
tator liezii and his coadjutors hud 
formerly reco^ised two infallibilities 
— that of the Pope aod that of Aris- 
totle, They still recognii?ed two — - 
Aristotle's and their own. In a letter 
to Peter Kjininsj the acutei dexterous*, 
and uncomprmniaing opponent of the 
peripat^'tic philosophy, Beisa said, *^The 
Genevese have decreed once for all 
and for ever that neither io logic nor 
in any other branch of knowledge 
should the slightest departure bo per- 
mitted from theopinionaof Aristotle"— 
a decree which tiaic and progress have 
resjwcted as little sis most decrees of the 
kind, Giordano Bruno had, undaunted, 
infallibility when clothed with 
he most imposing ceremonial magni- 
ficence, and marching with a purple 
sweep of hierarchical impcriousness 
which recalled its Roinau descent— 
what htvnour or obedience was it pro- 
bable that he would give it when it 
cjune before him us the starved pe- 
dantiiim of stunted sectaries ? lint he 
smelt the blood of Servetus, and he 
freed Bcza and Geneva from the sight 
of one whom they regarded as a pesti* 
lent fellow — a turbulent innovator — 
a most unsavory specimen of Anti- 
Christ. 

Passing rapitJly through Lyons, 
Giordano attempted lo sojourn aod to 
breathe the truth that was in him at 
Toulouse. If he had come as a can- 
didate to her llornl games, Toulouse 
would have received him with the 
warmest smile of the sunny south; 
but when he twined his poetic images, 
not round some frivolous sentiments, 
but round the deepest and most earn- 
est thoughts, Toulouse gathered grim 
before him in mutinous scowl and 
clamour. About forty years after, in 
1619, Toulouse burned another Nea- 
politan heretic, Lucilio Vanini. Bruno 
escaped by flight from a similar doom. 
He sought safety and a field for action 
in that city in which adventurers of 
every kind, good and bad, Cagliostros, 
Laws, Napoleon Bouapartes, have 
always mt*t with admiii^rs and adhe- 



rents. There was at that time an 
unusual confluence of Italians to Paris, 
Catherine de' Medici had Italianised 
the French court, and introduced into 
the affairs of France a subtle Italian 
policy, which required for its effectual 
working Italian instruments. When 
therefore Giordano Bruno entered 
Paris, in 1582, he was mixed with 
crowds of his countrymen, attracted 
thither by far other objects than 
his own. He came not to seek for- 
tune, but to unveil to thrilled hearts, 
yearning for such brave apostleahip, 
the most transcendental verities of the 
universe; and perhaps he wMis in- 
spired and strengthened by thinking 
tmit one as noble and gifted as him- 
self" — one nurtured by the same Nea- 
politan sun, and stirred to wild, un- 
speakable emotions by the same vol- 
cano's glare— had, in a far difTerent 
hour of the world's history, given the 
radiant presence of a pious heart and 
of a learned and comprehensive mind 
to Paris. Thomas Aipiiniis, however, 
was the upholder and the apologist of 
systems which Giordano Bruno was 
born to assaiL Hence can we wonder 
that the lir^t was canonlze<l, and that 
the second was murderetl by cruel 
flame, after he had been bowed and 
wasted by the dungeon's damp? Yet 
the reception of Giordano at Paris 
threw forth the foreboding shadow of 
no such direful fate. He readily ac- 
quired protectors, able ami willing to 
serve him, including the Grand Prior, 
Henri d'Angouleine, and J. i^Ioro, the 
Venetian ambassador. The latter pre- 
sented him to King Henry the Third. 
Graced and supported by such patrons, 
he easily obtained from Jean Filesac, 
Rector of the University of Paris, the 
permission to teach philosophy : and 
he would have been enrolled, it is 
said, among the titular professors if 
he had consented, to go to mass. He 
made quick and ample use of the pri- 
vilege conferred on him. The more 
daring, distinct, direct, the indivi- 
duality of a man, the leus he has to care 
about the originality of his ideas; audit 
is moral plagiarism, more than intellect 
tual plagiarism — borrowing our neigh- 
bour s character, more than borrowing 
his thoughts — which is condemnable. 
It was the man in Bruno which made 
the philosopher, the orator, the pro- 
phet interesting. An iron pertmacity 



134 



Oiordano Bruno. 



[Feb. 



of will whose onset was irresistible — 
an intrepidity which nothing could 
daunt— tnese were what seized the ear 
and the eye before his manifold mental 
faculties and resources came into full 
play. In all things we conquer first 
by courage, though something else may 
be necessary to maintain the conquest. 
Before astonishing the Parisians by his 
electric rapidities, his unrivalled fer- 
tilities of brain, Giordano had already 
dominated them by the pith and gleam 
of his valour. Was what he spake 
new ? was it true ? They could not 
say ; but how bold was the speaker ! 
He addressed audiences, as delighted 
as excited, on the logic of Raymond 
Lulli, on the astronomical system of 
Copernicus, and on a kind of theo- 
sophy, partly the creature of his own 
mystical visions, and partly the reju- 
venescence of neo-Platonic specula- 
tions. Two great mythologists of mo- 
dern times, Zoega and Creuzer, have 
vindicated the neo-Platonists of Alex- 
andria as pregnant and trustworthy 
sources of mythological observation. 
Their vindication seems not less neces- 
sary as the exponents of religious and 
philosophical principles which, if not 
so organically complete, ideally beau- 
tiful, and artistically perfect as Plato^s, 
had a more varied meaning, a richer 
suggestiveness,from living contact with 
the East, with Christianity, and with 
that freshness and force which the bar- 
barians squandered amid the decrepi- 
tudes of Roman civilization from the 
depths of their forests. To vindicate 
the neo-Platonists of Alexandria would 
be to vindicate Giordano Bruno, for 
he was but a neo-Platonist of another 
clime and another age, at once as out- 
rageously rationalistic and as pro- 
foundly mystical. It was probably 
less his mystical beliefs than his ration- 
alistic attitude which impressed the 
Parisians. When arraying the sub- 
limest theories in the most gorgeous 
poetical symbols, he would seem to 
them little else than a visionary ; but 
at the clangor of his onslaught on the 
scholastics and their Grand Lama Aris- 
totle, their hearts beat high and strong, 
as at a charge of pikemcn. Giordano 
had a black and kindling eye, as elo- 
auent as his speech. His features, 
aelicate and fine, were distinguished 
by extraordinary beauty ; his massive 
brow, of antique mould, concealed half 



its strength and all its sternness by the 
melancholy that hun^ round it; his 
countenance was pensive as that of a 
woman, till some sudden impulse, some 
mighty revealing of the gospel within, 
made it flash with the determination 
of a Titan's, who scorns to yield though 
transfixed by arrows and crushed by 
rocks; his accent was passionate, as 
befitted the warmth of his enthusiasm, 
and the rushing crowd of his inspira- 
tions. He showed his consummate art 
by the manner in which he could cast 
aside all art, and trample hot into the 
innermost soul through its most for- 
midable entrenchment of prejudices. 
Quitting ever and anon the vehe- 
mence, the fury of the prophet's tone, 
he would pour forth Keenest irony, 
playful wit, and still more playful 
fancies, nor disdain, if some absurdity 
could thereby be rendered more ab- 
surd, the gesticulation and the lan- 
guage of the buffoon, tossing into 
strange commixture sacred associa- 
tions and allusions and examples drawn 
from the most ordinary occurrences 
and the most vulgar customs. Then 
would he ascend with one enormous 
bound from this low region to the 
empyrean, glittering with its count- 
less starry glories, which he had for a 
moment left. But, just in the measure 
that his audiences were enchanted, 
were priests, traditionalists, and pha- 
risees of every description offended. 
He had again to seek a place of refuge, 
and he found it in England. 

Here he remained from 1583 till 
1585. The French ambassador, Michel 
de Castelnau, aspired to the twofold 
honour of shield of the persecuted and 
patron of all the liberal arts. He 
gave Giordano the most friendly greet- 
mg, and introduced him to some of 
England's most notable men. Gior- 
dano was presented at court, and was 
not the less welcome there for com- 
paring Elizabeth to Diana, and for 
discovering united in her the beauty 
of Cleopatra and the genius of Semi- 
ramis. Liberty was granted him to 
teach at Oxford. Immediately his 
voice is raised there with all its pro- 
digious fluency and most adventurous 
rashness against Aristotle, to whom 
Oxford still clung with characteristic 
conservatism. Oxford, however, con- 
cealed her anger at the agitator when 
she saw him made an object of special 



1853-1 



Giardniio Bruno, 



135 



distinction by her Chancel lor, Leicester, 
when OH a visit. In several of the eul- 
leges learned fetes were celebrated on 
the occasion, m which Giordano Bruno 
held a con8|jicuons ligure. A grand 
duel of word:* was Ibufjht between 
him and a learned doctor^ Giordano 
defended the Coper nican astronomy 

1^ gainst tlie older sjsteins, by which 
Oxford valiantly stood. The doctor 
waa signallj defeated, Oxford had 
smull appetite for any of Bruno's para- 
doxes; biit» when he bej^an to pro- 
pound Home Pythagorean tbeoriea on 
the soul and ila i»*niortality, Oxford 
turned agiunst him with a very potent 
snarly which, threiitening to deepen 
into a growl — always something serious 
in Englitsb mouths — Giordano seized, 
as he had iilready so oHen seized, the 
staff of the pil^iin. 

Whither wjiij he now to turn his 
weary feet ? Paris had not lost its 

" liscination for him, nor had he for- 
gotten his first success and popularity 
"here. Paris therefore became his re- 
dden ce in J 585. But, either because 
be was Jess a wonder or more a terror 

Fihan he had been before, he bade tickle 
Paris for ever farewell in 15S6. lie 
had now taught in his native Italy, in 
Switzerland, in France, and in Eng- 
ftnd. The birth-place and home of 
the Reformation still remained, to visit 
and jaerchance to vanquish* His stay 

^•t iiarburji was brief, the rector of 

he university forbidding him to teach. 

Wittenberg proved more tolerant and 

hospitable. There he unfolded his 

^|>hilosophical doctrines from 1586 till 
15H8. Grateful for the freedom which 
Wittenberg allowed him, he praised 
that city ivsi the Athens of Germany ; 
but, though he seized every opportunity 
to abuse the Pope and to swell the fame 
of Luther, he made no profession of 
otestantisni. The comprehensive- 
ness of his mind, equally with the in- 
lependenee of his character, hindered 
'yiordano Bruno from being a partisan. 
TTct without becoming the hottest of 
partisans he could not long be accepta- 
ble to Protestants- Whether from this 
cause or Bimply from his feverish rest- 
lessness, he exchanged in 1588 Wit- 
tenberg for Prague. In 1589 we find 
bira in llelmstadt, where the Duke of 
Brunswick entrusted him with the edu- 
cation of the heir to the crown, and in 
1591 at Frankfort on the Maine. He 



spent altogether six years in Germany, 
a Cain and a coni|ueror by turns, the 
vilci*t of vagabonds to those who had 
not the eye to see the nobleness of his 
nature and the wealth and majesty of 
his intellect. 

The rashest of rash deeds in a life 
abounding with most perilous temeri- 
ties was Giordano Bruno's return to 
Italy in ltji>2. The main motive for 
this reckless action is conjuetured to 
have been a fit of home sickness, 
an irresiatible longing for Italy the 
beautiful* Terrible was the price he 
had to pay ibr thus daring to claim his 
heritage of Italy's aunshine. As if 
more thoroughly to exasperate his foes 
and to facilitate their schemes of ven- 
geance, he selected Padua to reside in, 
which was famous for its championship 
of that peripatetic philosophy which he 
had always so furiously attacked. The 
loquisition at Venice did not allow him 
time to be guilty of any fresh offence 
agiiinst Aristotle or the Church, la 
September 1592 the father inquisitor 
of that city caused Bruno to be ap- 
prehended and placed in one of tne 
prisons which the Venetian govcm- 
nient put at the disposal of the holy 
office. The arrest was immediately 
communicated to San Scverina, the 
grand inquisitor at Rome, who com- 
manded that he should be sent thither 
by a safe escort as early as possible. 
On the 28th of the same month the 
father inquisitor, along with one or 
two other ecclesiastical dignitaries, 
presented himself before the Council 
of Venice to solicit his extradition, 
alleging that the man was not only a 
heretic but a heresiarch ; that be had 
composed numerous works in which 
he had warmly praised the Queen of 
England, and other heretical princes ; 
that he had written divers things con- 
trarj to faith ; that he was an apostate, 
having first been a Dominican ; that 
he had lived a number of years at 
Geneva and in England ; that prose- 
cutions had been instituted against 
him on these grounds at Naples and 
other places. The council refused, 
stating that, the matter being mo- 
mentous and deserving consideration, 
and the affairs of tlie Republic being 
numerous and weighty, no resolution 
couM at that time be adont^d. The 
result of this reply was tfa^A Giordano 
was left to pine for six years in the 



1S6 



Giordano Bruno 



gloom of a Venetian dungeon» less 
tortured by the dread of hia fate than 
by the silence and inaction u-bieb must 
ha¥*3 been bo terrible to a tongue so 
eloquent, to limbs so active and ener- 
getic, tf> a soul 80 fiery. Probably, 
however it was a merciful motive that 
induced the Venetian government to 
keep iiini in prison, lie nngbt thus 
escape the deadly vengeance of the In- 
uui;sition* But when does an imiuisittir 
forget ? Some of ilie bloodiest, some 
of the basest deeda, which have stjiiued 
and wounded Italy have been done 
by fcjDiiniards. San Severina was a 
Spaniard, and he had not for a moment 
lost sight of hh prey. On bis rept^ated 
and urgent application to the Council 
of Venice, Giordano whs surrendered 
to his ravenous grasp, and conveyed to 
Rome in 1598. After two more years 
of lingering wretchedness in a Roman 
prison, the martyr was dragged from 
Uis cell to be insulted by the farce of 
a trial. He was aakud to declare bis 
opinions erroneous, bis works impious 
aad absurd, false in religion and in 
philosophy — in short, to make recantii* 
tion on every point. The foremost 
theologians of llome were brought 
forward to convince him» He did not 
refuse freely to dii<ciiss, but he would 
not stir a liair s breadth from his in* 
flexible position. On the 9th of 
February, IGOt), be was conducted to 
the palace of San Severina. There, in 
the presence of cardinals, inquisitors, 
and the governor of Home, he was made 
by force to kneel while his sentence 
waa road. After being degraded from 
his order, and excommunicated, be was 
condemned to be punished as clemently 
as poaitible, and without the eifusion 
of blood, which was the customary and 
diabolical euphemism of the Inquisi- 
tion for the mo5t atrocious of acts. 
When he heard the sentence, he said, 
wit!i grandest serenity, " Perbape this 
sentence gives you more alarm than it 
gives to me." Eight days were granted 



[Feb. 



him for the confession of his crimes: 
but he Imd no crime to confess, except 
that of having served his God and 
truth as a brave man should. On the 
17th February, with osteotatiuus pomp, 
he was led iuith to glut the greedy 
flames, which were less cruel than the 
countless priestly eyes that were gazing 
with fiendish exultation on a spectacle 
at once so infamous and so glorious. 
Neither priestly hate nor torturing 
fire couhl wring from bim a groan, 
convulse his heroic face, shatter his 
adamantine will. His sjiirit passed to 
the mighty Father^g bosom with a 
saintly calm that left iu stamp on a 
forehead radiant with intrepidity and 
with genius. 

Giordano Bruno wrote numerous 
works in Italian and in Latin. The 
I tab an works appenred in a collected 
form at Leipsic in 1H30. This edition, 
consisting of two volumes, contains 
the only portrait of the author which 
we have seen, and we have seldom 
been so deeply interested and im- 
pressed by a human countenance* 
Gfroerer began at Stuttgart in 1 834, 
but we know not whether he com- 
pleted, an edition of Bruno's Lat^n 
works in his Corpus Philosophorum. 
A life of the philosopher was published 
in 1846 at Paris, W Bartholmcas, in 
two volumes. Giordfano was f>oet, sa- 
tirisl, dramatist, as well as an original 
thinker, and explorer, and retbrmer in 
metaphysics, logic, and science. What- 
ever place the historian of literature, 
or the historian of philosophy, may 
allot him, concerns our present pur- 
pose little. For the mystical neo- 
Platouie faith of Bruno, for the stern 
Catvinistic faith of the Scottish Cove- 
nanter, we may have equal distaste : 
in each case, however, we look through 
the faith to the faithful who swell that 
cloud of witnesses which imparts hope 
and strength to humanity.* 

Frahcis Hah well. 



* Readers desirooi of nscertAinitig the particular ojilnions of Gimrdano Bruno may 
convult Bftyle lad Hal Lam's I a trod. ii. 146, ed. 1839. 



137 



NOTICES OF THE AMERICAN INDIANS. 

[After ScbooIcrHft, Hall, and M^Kenoey, it is $c»mewb&t difficult to add anytbiog 
positively new to tbe history of the Red Tribes of America. But the following brief 
•* Notices" may be acct'}»tnble ax the result of an cfirlier inquirer into the subject, and 
BA addiug some partiruUra to what k already known. They are derived from a letter 
(hitherto, so far aa we are aware, fioul'med to MS.) written by Dr, Massie, of America, 
to Dr. Thomas Brown, Professor of Moral Philoiophy in the University of Edioburgh^ 
dated Ricbmoad, Virgi0ia, March 7tb, 1810.] 



WTIEN we parted in tbe spring of 
18CHj m Eilinbur^^b, I expected to have 
written to you ire(piently before tliiH 
tinie^ auU to have ^iven you some in- 
terest in;:^ information on the suliject of 
our Indian tribes, as I knew they had 
excited your eunoaity; and, indeed, 
when I lefl Europe I entertaine<l the 
wish and tbe hope of devoting a part 
of mv future life to literary and philo- 
sophical pursuits. Could I hjive done 
»o» an impiiry into tbe manners, cus- 
toms, and character of the Indian na- 
tions on the western border of the 
United States would huve occupied a 
portion of my time ; hut a variety of 
causes^ which 1 need not mention, im- 
k periuiislj impelleKl me to change my 
' riews. I have nevertheless^ avsiiled 
l\nyself of every opportunity to collect 
I Information eoncerning tbe Indiiini?, 
I^hich a residence of about twt^lve 
[lontba in the frontier Htate of Ohio in 
"Bome measure facilitated. 

With tbe tribes who inhabit the 
western parts of Teneasee and (reorgia, 
and who are most civilised, consider- 
able tntcrcoui-se is held by the wliite 
opie. Traders who return from 
)rleans to Kentucky by land pass 
through their country, and often stop 
to refresh tbemselvcs among them. 
An accjuainianee told me that on his 
pwturn fi-om Orleans he stayed some 
days at the house of a CVeet chief on 
the banks of the Mississippi, who was 
comfortably fixed. He had a black- 
ailh's ^hop where tnivellers' horses 
rere shod. He cultivated a consider- 
able tract of land in Indian corn bv 
tht» hands of negroes whom he owned, 
and kept a ferry. For every bushel 
of corn he sold, for every horee he 
shod, and for every passage across the 
river, he received one dollar* He lived 
in a good house two storiea high» 
built of wood, and furuished afler the 
iiDanner of the white people. His only 
* GisKT. Mao. Vol.- XXXIX. 



child was a girl about eighteen years 
old, who had been educated in one of 
the American towns. She spoke and 
read the English language. Mr. Trigg, 
my informer, was supplied with books 
by her during his stay there to amuse 
himself with — -I think they were novels. 
Her fitther is anxious that she should 
marry a reftpec table white man, and in 
the event of such an alliance prom i sea 
a portion of twenty thousand doilars 
with her. 

The Creeks, Cherokees* and Chicka- 
saws are anxious to become citizens of 
the United States, and to be governeii 
by the same laws. These three na- 
tions are njaking considerable jirogreas 
in civilisation. The tribes who inhabit 
our western frontier from Louisiana to 
the lake^^, are still hunters, and perhaps 
more barbarous than they were filly 
years ago, as ardent spirits have be- 
come more abundant among them, and, 
except in debauchery, their manners 
have undergone little change. I have 
been informed by a very intelligent 
man, a great part of whose early life was 
spent on the frontiers, who often fought 
agaiuiit tbe Indians, and who baa for the 
last thirty years been more or less con- 
versant with them, that the number of 
assassinations which have been per- 
petrated among the tribes between 
Lake ^lichigan and Louisiana, during 
the la^t ten or twelve yeara, has lieen 
estimated by their own chiefs at aVjout 
1000 n-year- These murders always 
occur when tbe parties are intoxi- 
cated, and, unless the women use the 
precaution to hide their arms, they 
never fail to fight with them when they 
get drunk. 

Two years ago I spent a «horl timd 
In the company of a party of Dehiwarsi 
they were on their way to a hunling- 
grounil, attended by their wives and 
children, and were all mounted on 
small and lean horses. The men rode 
T 



138 



Notices of the American Indians. 



[Feb. 



alone with their rifles on their shoulders, 
the women carried their children before 
and behind them, besides pots and 
skillets for the purpose of dressing the 
meat. Their dress appeared to be more 
comfortable than what I had been ac- 
customed to see when I was a boy, but 
in every other respect their manners 
appeared to have undergone no change. 
Ihe legs and thighs of the men were 
covered with an article of dress re- 
sembling the pantaloon; the upper 
part of the body was covered with a 
shirt, and wrapped in a blanket. The 
women rode after the manner of the 
whites, and were wrapped in blankets. 
All that I saw were ugly — an ugliness 
more the result of hardships I thought 
than of natural structure, because 
many of the men were handsome and 
all well formed — a contrast that could 
arise only from the superior firmness 
of the male constitution, and its greater 
ability to bear the hardships of the 
savage life. 

Last winter I spent a night in com- 
pany with two Potowatamac chiefs on 
the Alleghany Mountains. They were 
dressed in new blue cloth, and were 
very handsome men. One slept 
whilst the other watched, and they re- 
lieved each other frequently in the 
course of the night. As we did not 
understand the language of each other, 
very little conversation took place 
between us, and that by signs. 

The Little Turtle, whose sagacity is 
well known in this country, avowing 
his conviction that a nation of hunters 
could never equal in power or in num- 
bers a people who cultivated the earth, 
endeavoured to introduce agriculture 
among his tribe, which is in the neigh- 
bourhood of the lakes. For this pur- 
pose he set the example in having a 
house built for himself, procuring 
cattle and some of the implements of 
husbandry : but the jealousy of the 
Indians was roused ; they said he 
wanted to make them work like the 
white men. They shot his cattle, and 
threatened to kill him if he did not 
desist from his attempt to introduce 
the manners of the whites among them. 
He was compelled to relinquish his 



design, and has lost his authority in a 
great measure by the attempt. 

A prophet has within a few years 
appeared, among the north-western 
Indians, whose influence is said to be 
very great. At a future period I can 
inform you of some interesting facts 
relative to this man. But whilst on 
the subject of superstition I must give 
you an account of the death of an 
Indian named Thunder, as the account 
is on very good authority, and is in 
itself quite singular. 

Dr. Nicholas, a man of respectable 
character in Kentucky, in the pre- 
sence of a gentleman of high character 
in that state who vouched for the 
truth of the statement, informed me 
that he set out from Louisville in 
Kentucky with a party of Indians who 
were on their way to the city of Wash- 
ington. Thunder, who was among 
them, had a terrapin shell carved by 
himself, in which he carried his tobacco. 
When they reached Lexington, a 
gentleman who resided there, seeing 
the box in Thunder's hand, requested 
permission to look at it, which was 
granted ; being pleased with the cu- 
riosity, he offered to purchase it, which 
Thunder refused. The man persisted 
in his application and offered two 
dollars for the box. At length Thunder, 
wearied with his importunity, told him 
in a very angry manner that he might 
have the box, but that he would not 
take anything for it. As soon as the 
box was accepted Thunder told one 
of his companions that he should die 
on the fifth day following, for he had , 
given away his life. The interpreter 
observed to Dr. Nicholas who was pre- 
sent that the Indians were very su- 
perstitious, for that Thunder supposed 
that in giving away that box he had 
given away his life. The next day the 
party continued their iourney and pro- 
ceeded until the fifth evening, when 
they encamped within five miles of 
Chilicothe. During this time all the 
party had remained well. About ten 
o'clock at night Dr. Nicholas was in- 
formed that Thunder was in convul- 
sions, and the next morning he found 
him dead. 



Edinburgh, 



A. B. G. 



139 



THE BARONESS D'OBERKIRCH AND CITIZEN MERCIER. 



JF it were possible tliat the vexed 
|iirit of the abovc-DameU illustrious 
lailj could be conscious that ber very 
Boble mime could have been inin<Tled 
with tbiit of a common tfoitrgeois her 
indignation would be most intense* 
Had she ever relleeted that her keep* 
, ing a diary would have nmile of her a 
member of the republic of letters, she 
would have died rather than have be- 
longed to such a commonwealth. The 
Baronesif was one of a class whose 
numbera were great and whose in- 
Haence was unbounded. Their sym- 
pathies were given only to aristocratic 
sufferers; royalty they adored; the 
democracy they despised ; and the 
very fine ladies of the class in question 
would* generally speaking, have pre- 
ferred ^/aitx pa It with a prince to con- 
tracting honest marriage with an in- 
lerlor. 

The Baroness D'Oberkirch is a type 
ratbi-r of the follies than of the vices 
of the class, for having made her a 
member of which she prettily offered 

j her beist coiiipliuicnts to Heaven. She 
was the daughter of a poor Alsatian 
Varon, whose shield had more quarter- 
ings than it is worth while to remem- 
ber. Early in life she married a noble 
gentleman, old enough to be her father, 
and her best years were consumed in 
performing the functions of lady-in- 
waiting at the court of the Duke of 
W urtemberg at Montbeliard, in visiting 
the more attractive court at Versailles, 
and in chronicling what she saw, and 

I registering what she thought. 

The diary which she kept^ and sub- 

Ifequently enlarged, has been recently 

bubmitted to the public. It introduces 
us to the court and capital of France 
during the closing years of the reign of 
Louis XVL It is interesting, as 
shewing us both how the court acted 
and how the capital thereon «om- 
mentetl ; how the lady profoundly ad- 
mired all the former dnl, tind as pro- 
foundly despised all the thought 
devoted thereto by the r/tnaille^ who 

rjiad no claim to stand upon red-heeled 

Hhoes, or to sit down on a tabvurei in 

'the face of royalty. 

Now while this illustriouB kdy was 



taking noies^ which her grandson has 
printed, a citizen was fiimilarly occu* 
pied; aiid,hitd the Countess been aware 
of the circumstance, the impertinence 
of the commoner would have been 
soundly rated by the lady -in- waiting* 
The notes of the SouTgeois were com- 
mitted to the press three quarters of a 
century ago; those of the *^Barone8a- 
CountcBa " have only just seen the 
light,* The evidence of two such op- 
posite witnesses i:* worth comparing ; 
but the book of the lady will be ten- 
fatham deep in Lethe when men will 
be still addressing themselves with 
pleasure to the pages of Citizen Mer- 
cier. 

Louis Sebastian MercieT was a Pa- 
risian, born in the year 1740, He had 
not yet attained his majority when he 
opened his literary career by poetical 
compositions in the style of Pope's 
" Heloise to Abelard." Upon pcet^, 
however, he soon looked as lie subse- 
quently did upon kings, and speedily 
addressed himself exctiisively to works 
m prose. Macine and Boileau, ac- 
cording to him, had ruined the hai'- 
mony of French verse, and he hence- 
forward considered that if such har- 
mony were to be found at all, it was 
in hia own prose. He became Pro- 
fessor of Rlietoric in the college at 
Bordeaux, and was rather a prolific 
than a successful dramatic author. 
He threw the blame alike on the 
vitiated taBte of actors and public^ and, 
shaking the dust off his sandals against 
theatres and capital, he hastened to 
\{ he tins, wi th the intention of practising 
the law, in order to be better enabled 
to apply its rigours against the stage 
managers who had deprived him of 
hie " free -ad missions." In 1771 he 
printed hia *^ L*An 2440, ou Rcve s'il 
en fut jamais,'* a ratlier clever piece 
of extravagance, which was imitated in 
England, half a century luter, by the 
author of*' The Mummy." In 1781 he 
published anonymou.^ly the first two 
volumes of his famous Tableau dePariit, 
He was disappointed that hia labour 
was not deemed worthy of notice by 
the police authorities, and be retireu, 
somewhat in disgust, to Switzerland, 



* The Baronesfi d'Obcrkirch's Memoirs. Londooi 1652. 3 toIs. 8 to. 



140 



The Baroness D*Oberkirch and Citizen Mercier, [Feb. 



where he completed a work which has 
b^n far more highly esteemed abroad 
than in France, and which even there 
enjoyed a greater reputation in the 
provinces than in Paris. In it he 
shewed himself a better sketcher of 
what lay before him than a discerner 
of what was beneath the surface ; and 
he spoke of the impossibility of a revo- 
lution in France only a year before 
that revolution broke out. When the 
storm burst in fury he claimed the 
honours due to a magician who had 
provoked the tempest. He wrote vi- 
gorously on the popular side, but — and 
to his lasting honour be it spoken — he 
broke with the Jacobins, when he 
found that they hoped to walk to 
liberty through a pathway of blood. 
He voted in the Convention for saving 
the life of Louis XVI., and this and 
other offences against the sons of 
freedom, whose abiding-place was the 
Mountain, caused him to be arrested, 
and would have led to his execution 
but that his enemies were carried 
thither before him. At a later period 
he was a member of the Council of 
Five Hundred, and made himself re- 
markable by opposing the claims set 
up for Descartes for admission into 
the French Pantheon ; and he also 
gained the approbation of all rightly- 
thinking men for taking the ^arae ad- 
verse course against Voltaire, of whom 
he truly said that he (Voltaire) only 
attempted to overthrow superstition 
by undermining morality. His in- 
vectives were so bitter against philo- 
sophy and education that he acquired 
the surname of "the Ape of Jean 
Jaccjues I" He was a denouncer of 
the immoral system of lotteries until 
he was offered the lucrative place of 
"controller-general" of that gambling 
department. " All men," said he, by 
way of apology for his inconsistency, 
" ail men are authorised to live at the 
expense of the enemy ;" a maxim un- 
sound in itself, and here altogether 
misapplied. Towards the end of the 
century he was appointed to the pro- 
fessorship of history in the central 
school of Paris, from the labours of 
which post he found relaxation in 
various literary works, among others 
in ridiculing Condillac and Locke, in 
laughing at Newton as a plagiarist, in 
denouncing science generally, and in 
maintaining that there was nothing new 
under the sun, and that all novel inven- 



tions were in truth but ancient disco- 
veries. As a member of the Institute 
he put the assembly into a condition 
of profound somnolency by reading his 

Eonderous paper on Cato of Utica, and 
e had a violent quarrel with the few 
who had remained awake, and who 
wished the angry author to put an end 
to his wearisome discourse. He liked 
the empire as little as he had loved 
royalty, and used to say in his pleasant 
way in the cafe wherein he reigned 
supreme, and where he was highly 
popular and ever welcome, that he 
should like to see how it would all 
end, and that he only desired to live 
from a motive of simple curiosity. He 
did live just long enough to witness 
the first Restoration of 1814, having 
then reached the age of 74 years. 

Of all the works of this voluminous 
author we have now only to do with 
his famous " Tableau de Paris." In 
this, as in the Memoirs of the Baroness 
d*Oberkirch, we have a picture of what 
France was in the lifetime of many 
who are yet living — a picture so dif- 
ferent from any that could represent 
present deeds, their actors, or the very 
stage on which they play out their 
little drama of intrigue and life, that, 
though to many it represents contem- 
porary history, it reads like romance, 
the scene of which is in a far-off land, 
and the incidents too improbable to 
even require belief. 

Wide apart as were the conditions, 
opposite as were the sympathies, and 
also the antipathies, of the Baroness 
and the Bourgeois, their respective 
testimony conducts to but one con- 
clusion — that, when they wrote, the 
entire social state of France was rotten 
to the very core. The nobles were 
loyal only because they found their in- 
terests concerned in so being ; the 
commons were rebellious of spirit, 
and careless of judgment to direct it. 
Both were equally debased. All were 
partizans, none were patriots. The 
very priesthood was as corrupt in the 
mass as the multitude of the people 
generally, and God was dethroned in 
France long before the Goddess of 
Reason had been raised on the dese- 
crated altars, by men not perhaps so 
much more wicked than their prede- 
cessors as more bold in their wicked- 
ness. 

In the childhood of some yet living 
Paris paid to the King's purse one 



1850.] The Bareness D*Oh^Tkirch and Citusen Mervkr. 



141 



sec 

■ th« 

■ tlic 



I 



hundred mtUioti francs yearly in duties. 
Tbe citizens grumbled, and when the 
murmur reached Versailles llie fx)w- 
dered beaux were wont to say that 
" the froga were croakiog." It was 
alleged in return agalnsit tbo&e very 
beaux that tke^ eonsiuiued more ilour 
\t\ hair-powder than would feed iiiaiiy 
scores of tlie fstmlshed fjimilies of the 
Cftpitab InU> tliLit capilLil the Kiii^ 
Oever entered but a rise occurred in 
tbe price of provii^ion^, and the ^\\y 
thouBand barber.'* of the city fanned 
into Ibioie the indiguatinn of their cus- 
4Qnierii while they ijhaved their beards 

id combed their perukes. Let what 
would occur, however, the court was 
^er i^ay. Madame d*Oberkirch speaks 
of the cxpectuttons of triumph held 
out by the Count d'Artois when he 
proceeded to the ttlege of Gibndtar. 
Uis fiiJure was vitiited with a shower 
of witty epigi'ama. " Comment va le 
si^^e ife Gibrjdtar ? Asa 02 bien it se 
l0V€^ is one recorded hy Mercier, 
Madame <!' Oberkirch telb us of 
AQoiher made by the defeated Count 
Uiiniielf. A euurtier wsiij Uattering him 
00 the way he mana^^ed hiii batteries 
at the fatal rock — '* My kitchen buttery, 
particularly !" was the comment of the 
gastronomic prince, who at home had 
four servants to present him with one 
cup of chocolate, and to save whose 
ears, in common with thot>e of the King 
and royal family, the church bell» at 
Versailles never ranjr a peal during tlie 
residence of those great ones of t he earth 
within the walla of the palace* But 
Eliza Bonaparte shewed even greater 
sensitiveness than this. When in Italy 
she pulled down a church ndjoiiiin^ 
ber palace, on the plea that the Pinell 
df the incense made her sick, and that 
the Qoise of the organ made her head 
iicbe. 

The bourgeois of Versailles were 
probably less democratic than those of 
tbe capital, for tradesmen of repute 
vied with each other in purchasing the 
dishes that came untasted from the 
royal table. C^jmmoner people bought 
as eagerly, but for superstitious! pur- 
poses, the fat of the dead from the 
executioner, who was paid eighteen 
thousand francs yearly for jmrfonning 
fats terrible duties. The executioner, 
ia consetj^uence, was himself something 
of an aristoerat. lies was a potentate 
and was well paid* He kept less 




llaniing firea on his hearth perhaps, 
and wore less fine lineo, than t\m 
grave-digfjers, — a class whf>foaud their 
fuel in coffins and who wore no shirts 
but such as they could steal out of 
aristtK'ratio graves. It was a time 
when lionesty consisted solely in being 
well-dressed. Clerks at forty pounds 
a year, says Mercier, walk abroad in 
velvet coats and lace frills,— hence the 
proverb, *' Gold- laced coat uud belly of 
bran," As long as aj^pearance was 
maintained, little else was cared for; 
but even the twenty thousand in the 
capital who professionally existed as 
*'di nets- out," might have taken excep- 
tion to the custom of placing carved 
fruits and wooden joints upon other- 
wise scantily furuishe<l tables. The 
wooden pears of Australia were not 
then known, — they would have been 
the fashionable fruit at a Parisian ihs^ 
gert in the year 1780. There waa 
another fashion of the day that was 
wittily inveifjhed against by the priests; 
that of ladfes wearing, on what was 
called their *' necks," a cross hcM by 
the dove, typical of faith by the Holy 
Ghost. " Why suspend such syniboU 
on your Vjosoms?" asked the ungallaiit 
churchmen, *^ do you not know that 
the cross is the sj^n of mortification, 
anti the holy spirit that of virtuous 
thoughts?" The ladies smiled, and 
retained the insignia till all-powerful 
fashion motioned to a change. And 
then female coteries were absorbed in 
the merits of the resiiective shades of 
colour implied by '* dos de puce," op 
" ventre" of the same. Our ladies have 
more nicehj retained the ntime of the 
animal in the catalogue of colours, 
without venturing to translate it ; but 
their less susceptible sisters aeroaa the 
Channel could, under the old mo- 
n»rchyi and even under the empire, 
unblushingly talk of their sjitins, using 
names for their colours wdiich would 
have e4illcd up a blush even on the 
brow of the imperturbable Dean Swifl, 
If small delicacy prevailed, the luxury 
was astounding. A fermier gmtfral 
was served by twenty -four valets in 
livery, and never less than six " women " 
assisted at the toilet of " my lady," 
Two dozen cooks daily excited the 
palate of that self-denying priest the 
Cardinal de Rohan, while his emineucc'a 
very ftK)tmen looked doubly giiind by 
appearing like ^^Tiddy Bob, with ft 



AdH 



142 



TTie Baroness D'Oberkirch and Citizen Mercier. [Feb. 



watch in each fob." Gentlemen then 
dined in their swords, eat rapidly, and 
hastened from table when it suited 
them, without any formal leave-taking. 
This was felt more acutely by the 
cooks than by the ladies, — in compli- 
ment to whom the cavaliers finally 
dropped their swords and assumed 
canes. The latter came in when the 
ladies wore such high-heeled shoes that 
without the support of a cane it was 
almost impossible to walk. The gentle- 
men, with "clouded heads" to their 
canes, tottered, or sauntered, along in 
company, while fans were furled and 
snuff-boxes carried, according to the 
instructions of masters, who thundered 
through Paris in gilded chariots, be- 
spattering the philosophers, mathemati- 
cians, and linguists that plodded basely 
by them on foot. "La Robe dine. 
Finance soupe," is a saying that also 
illustrates a fashion of the day. Of 
fashion at court^ Madame d'Oberkirch 
tells us that at presentations the King 
was obliged to kiss duchesses and the 
cousins of Kings, but not less noble 
persons. Louis XVI. was timid in the 
presence of ladies. Marie- Antoinette 
was ever self-possessed, whatever might 
be the occasion. It was etiquette to 
' kiss the edge of her robe. The follow- 
ing is highly characteristic of the stilted 
fashion of the times. 

I had an adventure this evening that at 
first emharrassed me a little, but from 
which I had the good fortune to come off 
with honour. I wore on my arm a very 
handsome bracelet that had been given me 
by the Countess du Nord (wife of the 
Grand Duke Paul of Russia, then travel- 
ing under the title of Count du Nord), and 
the value of which was greatly enhanced 
to me by having her portrait in its centre. 
The Queen noticed it, and asked me to 
show it her. I immediately opened my 
fan, to present the bracelet on it to her 
Majesty, according to etiquette. This is 
the only occasion on which a lady can open 
her fan before the Queen. My fan, which 
was of ivory, and wrought like the most 
delicate lace, was not able to bear the 
weight of the bracelet, which sank through 
it to the ground. I was in a very awkward 
position. The Queen's hand was held 
out, and I felt that every- eye was on me; 
but I think that I got out of the dilemma 
very well,— I stooped, which was very 
painful with my stiff petticoat, and, pick- 
ing up the bracelet, immediately presented 
it to her Majesty, saying, •* Will the Queen 
have the goodness to forget me, and think 



only of the Grand Duchess ?" The Queen 
smiled and bowed ; and everybody ad- 
mired my presence of mind. 

When we read of such delicate 
homage as this paid to the divinity that 
hedged the Queen, we can more fully 
sympathize with her in her fall when 
she, who had been so daintilv wor- 
shipped, was unceasingly watched in 
her dungeon by the coarsest of men, 
and who was dragged to execution 
with no other sign that human love 
yet inclined to her than that afforded 
by the infant child of a poissarde, who, 
raised on her mother's shoulders to 
view the spectacle of a Queen passing 
on her way to death, put her little 
fingers to her lips, and wafted a kiss 
to the meek pilgrim as she passed. 

Madame d'Oberkirch, speaking of 
the Chevalier de Morney, notices his 
strong method of expression as one 
" which, except in the society of her 
husband, would be too broad for the 
ears of a modest woman," — a singular 
exception ! But our fair diarist does 
not appear to be herself over par- 
ticular. She is the warm apologist of 
the Duchess de Bourbon, the unworthy 
mother of the heroic Due d'Enghien. 
She, however, tells the following, " with 
great hesitation," as a sign of the de- 
pravity of the times — it is certainly 
rather piquant. 

The Duchess of had one day re- 
ceived a visit from her lover, M. Archam- 
bault de Talleyrand Perigord, when the 
husband unexpectedly returning, the gal- 
lant was obliged to moke his escape by 
the window. Some persons seeing him 
descend, made him prisoner, thinking he 
was a robber ; but, having explained who 
he was, he was allowed to go, without 
being brought before the injured husband. 
The story soon became generally known, 
and the King reproved the lovely Duchess 
for her coquetry : ** You intend to imitate 
your mother, I perceive, madame," said he, 
in a very severe tone. — The tale at last 
reached the ears of the Duke, who com- 
plained to the mother-in-law of the 
conduct of his wife ; but she coolly said 
to him, ** Yon make a great noise about a 
trifle ; your father was much more polite !** 

This lady was of the quality of Ma- 
dame de Matignon, who gave twenty- 
four thousand livres to Ballard, on 
condition that he would send her every 
morning a new head-dress. The people 
were at this period suffering from 
famine and high prices. Selfishness 



I 



I 



1853.] Tlie Baroness D'Oherkirch and Citizen 3fercier* 

a»d other vices survived the periotl, 
however ;^witness JLidume Trondiio, 
who, in the KuvolutioD, waadailj loBiug 
*fir relatives by the guillotine, but who 
jrro pa Ih [singly remarked to a friend, 
that, if it were not for her durNng little 
cup of cafe d la ert^me^ she really dicj, 
not know bow she should survive such 
misfortunes I Such was the line bdy 
who wore a **Ca«logan" and lookjjd 
like a man, while the rcEiIlunta took to 
English great-coats, with buttons on 
them larger than crown-pieces^ and on 
every button the portrait of a mistress. 
A curious and revolting custom pre- 
vailed at this same period. Dunng 
Faasion Week all theatres were closed; 
but more infamoua places remained 
op«n ; the royal family cut vegetables 
curiously arranged to represent fish 
and other food, and court ehuplnins 
enjoyed on Holy Thursday the pri- 
vilege of unlimited liberty of speech 
in presence of the King, It was on a 
Holy Thursday that a court chaplain 



143 



ventured to say from the pulpit, in the 
royal hearing of Louis XlV» ihat *'we 
are all mortal," and when the monarch, 
who couM not bear the sight of the 
towera of the cathedral of St. Denis, 
sternly looked up at the preacher, the 
latter, trembling for his chance of a 
bishopric, amended his phrase and its 
doctrine by adding, " Yes^ Sire ; almost 
all of usT The custom to which I 
have alluded at the beginning of this 
paragraph is narrated by Mercicr, and 
IS substantially to this elFect* On the 
night between Holy Thursday and 
Good Friday, a relic of the true cross 
was exposed for public adoration in the 
**^ Sainte Chapelle*" Epileptic beggars, 
under the name of possessed maniacs, 
flocke<l thither lo crowds. They tlung 
themselves before the relic in wild con - 
tftrtions ; they grimaced, howled, swoi'c, 
blastihemed, and struggled 6ercely with 
the half-dozen men who seemetl unable 
to restrain them. The better all this was 
acted the more money was showered 
on the actors. Mercier declares that 
all the imprecations that had ever been 
uttered against Christ and the Virgin 
could not amount to the mass of m- 
expressible infamy which he heard 
uttered by one particular blasphemer. 
It waa for tae (he says) and for alt the 
aisembly, a novel aud strange thing to hear 
a human being in a voice of thunder pub- 
licly cast defiance at the God of the very 



m 




temple, insult His worship, provoke His 
wrath, and bekh forth the most atrntjioug 
invectives, — all of which were luid to the 
account, not of tbe energetic blas|>hemerg 
but of the Devil. The people present 
tremblioely made the sign of Che cross, 
and prostrated them selves with their face 
to the ground, muttering the while^ *' It U 
the Demon who gpeaka /'* After eight 
men hod with difficulty dragged him three 
times to the shrine which held the relic of 
the crosSf his blasphemies became %9 
outra^eoui^lj filthy that be was cast out at 
the door of the church ns one surreodcred 
for ever to the dominion of Satan, and 
unworthy of being cured by the miraculous 
crosa. Imagine that a detachment of 
soldiers publicly mounted guard that nigbt 
ovt;r this inconceivable farce, — and ihat 
in an age like the present I: 

Such acts were not so much In ad- 
vance of the age. Four years later thi5 
inquisitors of Seville publicly burned at 
the stake a girl charged with holding 
criminal intercourse with Satan. She 
was a very beautiful young creature, 
and, that her beauty might not excite 
too much sympathy for her fate, her 
nose was cut on previous to her bein"[ 
led to execution I Mercier relates this 
on the authority of an eye-witness. 
It occurred barely more than seventy 
years ago, and Dr. Cahill, of gloiimy 
memory, may rejoice therefore to think 
that the executive hand of bis Church 
can hardly yet be out of practice. 

"An a^e like the present !" wrote 
Merciert m the days only of our 
fathers. In that age it was deemed 
impossible to carry the shrines of St. 
filarcel and St. Genevieve at the same 
time through one street. When- 
ever the respective bearers ven- 
tured on such a feat they invariably 
beheld a miracle, exempliiying the at- 
traction of cohesion. The two shrines 
were drawn to each other, in spite of 
ail opposing human eflbrt, and re* 
maine<i inseparable for the whole space 
of three days 1 

At this period Protestant marriages 
were accounted as concubinage by tbe 
law, while Jewidh marriages were held 
legal. A Jew who purchased the 
estate of Pequigny bought with it the 
undisputed right to nominate the cure^j 
and canons of the church. It is wortb 
recording also, as midnight masses 
have iust been re-establi.-ihed in Parid, 
that they were suppressed in tliatcapital 
three r^uarters of a century ago^ m 



144 



The Bareness D'Oherkirch and Citizen Mercier. [Feb. 



consequence of the irreligious scenes 
which occurred in the churches. Mer- 
cier pertinently remarks on the sin- 
gularity of the fact that Roman Catho- 
lics who believed in the ever real 
Eresence of Christ in their temples, 
ehaved before that presence like un* 
clean heathens, while Protestants, who 
denied the presence, behaved with de- 
corum. The great attraction for many 
years at many of these masses was the 
organ-playing of the great Daquin. 
His imitation of the song of the night- 
ingale used to elicit a whirlwind of 
applause from the so-called worship- 
pers. 

This mixture of delight and devo- 
tion was after all but natural in the 
people. The cleverest abbes of the 
day composed not only musical masses 
but operas. 

Yet the Church and the Stage were 
ever in antagonism in France. Mer- 
cier tells a pleasant story, which re- 
counts how the famous actress Clairon 
wrote a plea in claim of funereal rites 
being allowed to the bodies of deceased 
stage-players. With some difficulty 
she found an avocat bold enough to 
present and read this plea to the 
" parliament." The latter august body 
struck the lawyer off the rolls. Mile. 
Clairon, out of gratitude, instructed him 
in elocution, and he adopted the stage 
as his future profession. On his first 
appearance, however, he proved him- 
aelf so indifferent an actor that he was 
summarily condemned, amid an ava- 
lanche of hisses. He so took the 
failure to heart that he died — and, 
being an actor in the eye of the church, 
was pronounced excommunicate, and 
was buried like Ophelia, with " maimed 
rites." 

Mercier tells us that there were not 
less than five thousand special masses 
daily celebrated in Paris at the charge 
of sevenpence-halfpenny each ! The 
Irish priests in the capital, he say?, 
were not too scrupulous to celebrate 
two in one day, thus obtaining a second 
sevenpence-halfpenny by what their 
French confreres considered rank im- 
piety. Among the poorer brotherhood 
was chosen the " Porte-Dieu." Such was 
the rather startling popular name for 
the penniless priest hired to sit up 
©'nights, and carry the "holy sacra- 
ment " to the sick or dying. In rainy 
weather " le bon Dieu ' was conveyed 
4 



by the reverend porter in a hackney 
coach, on which occasions the coach- 
man always drove with his hat reve- 
rently under his arm. When the 
" Porte-Dieu " entered an apartment 
the inmates hurriedly covered the 
looking-glasses, in order that the " holy 
sacrament" might not be multiplied 
therein. There was a superstitious 
idea that it was impious. 

I have stated above that Protestant 
marriages were not valid when Madame 
d'Oberkirch and M. Mercier were en- 
gaged on their respective works — 
placed before the world at such wide 
intervals. That much-wished-for con- 
summation was however supposed to 
be then '* looming in the future !" 

This day (says the lady) I heard a 
piece of news which gave me great 
pleasure. It was that the King had re- 
gistered in the parliament an ordonnance 
by which all cur^s were enjoined to record 
the declarations of all persons who pre- 
sented their children, without questioning 
them in any way. This was to prevent 
certain cur6s from trying to cast a doubt 
on the legitimacy of Protestant children. 
It did not recognise the validity of Pro- 
testant marriages, but it gave us hope for 
a better future. 

But it is time to draw these rapid 
notices to a close. Those who will 
take the trouble to peruse the works 
which have suggested them will find 
their reward therein. The three vo- 
lumes of Madame d*Oberkirch might 
indeed have been judiciously condensed 
into one. There is a superabundance 
in them of " what squires call potter 
and what men call prose," but there is 
much besides that is of interest. The 
writer is by far a more correct prophet 
of the future than Mercier. She saw 
that the society in which she gloried 
was falling into ruins. Mercier de- 
picted its vices, but so little could he 
foresee the consequences of them, that 
he patriotically exulted that Paris was 
so secured by its police from such 
enormities as the Gordon riots, which 
had disgraced London, as to render 
revolution impossible. The opinions 
of the writers* apart, their respective 
records are well worth reading. That 
of Mercier has been well-nigh for- 
gotten, but its graphic power, its wit, 
and variety ill-deserve such oblivion. 
That of the Baroness, prolix and ill- 
translated as it isi has also its certain 



1853,] The Baroness D'Ohevkirvk and Citizen Mercier. 

i viiiue. Both are real niirrors of the 
^uieSf and all that passed belure tbeir 
"pc^liislied s^nrfjice h representetl thereon 

with a fidelity that Bounetimus terriiitis 

jiti muci) as it auiusesj. 

The following, from Mercter, may 

come under the first head — but it is 

far from being the worst caee that 

might be cited. As an instance of the 

results of common hospital practice, it 

contnista alarClingly with what now 

occurs in the same loeality. 

The corpses daily vomited foTtb hy the 

hospital of the HAtel Dieti tire carried to 

Clamart, a v&st cemetery wbose gulf is 

ever open. Tbe&e bodies are oDcofliued ; 

tbey are simply sewed up in a windiog- 

sheet. They are hurriedly dragged from 

the betJBf and more tbun one patient pro- 
nounced dead has awoke to lite under the 

eager hand that was sewing bim up in his 

shroud. Otbera have shrieked out that 

they were living, in the very cart that waa 

couTeyiog thcni to bunaL Tbis cart is 

drawn by twelve men; a dirty nnd hemired 

prieit, a bell, and a crucifix — such is the 

sum of the honours paid to the poor. 

This gloomy car starts every morning 

from the H6tel I>ieu at four o'clock, and 

jonmeys amid a silence as of olght. The 

bell which precc^des it awakes some who 

slept ; but yon must meet this cart on the 

highway to correctly appreciate the eSt^vt 

produced on the mind both by its sight 

mod sound. In sick seaaODs it hae been 

seern performing the same journey four 

times in the twenty- four hours. It can 

contain fifty bodies. The corpses of 

children are squeezed in between the legs 

of adults* The whole freight is toased 

into a deep and open pit, qnick^Uoie is 

hberaHy poured in, anil the horror-stricken 

eye of the observer pluugea into iin abyss 

yet spiiL'ioQs enough to hold all the living 

inhabitjuits of the c4pitaL There is holiday 

here on All Souts* day. The popukce 

contemplate the apot wherein so many of 

them are dettioed to He ; and kneeling 

and praying only precede the universal 

drinking and debauchery. 

Let us turn, by way of conclusion, 
from burials to bridals. In the ac- 
count given by Mudame d*Oberkirch 
of the marriage uf the Prince de Niisaaii 
Soarbruck with Mile, de Montbarrey 
we reeogniae not only what the fair 
authoress calk ** a very grand affair," 
but an infinitely amusing one to boot. 
We ^parc our readers the execrable 



145 



poetry, by **a drawing-room poet," 
which was read with nrreat avidity 
during the bridal festivities. It is 
necessary, however, to allude to the 
etlusLon, afl will be seen from what 
follows : — 

Theae verses are very stupid, bat I 
quote them because they amused us ex- 
ceedingly when we considered that thia 
husband, " possesaor of your charms," and 
m'ho '*to love's enchanting bliss shall 
wake," was a child of twelve years of age, 
who wept from morning to night, frantic 
at being made an objVct of universal cu- 
riosity, flying from h"s wife, and even re- 
puUing her with the rudeness of an ill- 
bred child, and having no desire to clium 
a tide whose eignitication he did not uu- 
derstaod. .... During the ball, the 
bridegroom would on no account consent 
to dance with the bride. He was at length 
threatened with a whipping in case of 
further refusal, and promised a deluge of 
sngar-pluixis and all $orts of amusements 
if he complied. Whereupon be consented 
to lead her through a miuuL't. Though be 
shewed so great an aversion to her who 
had a legal claim upon his attentions, he 
manifested a great sympathy for little 
Louisa de Dietrich, a cbild of bis own age, 
and rettirned to sit bes^ide her as soon at 
he could free himself from the ennujfeuMc 
CEremony of attending on his bride. Thia 
was the husband who,He "rapt embrace" 
awaited the young princess. My brother 
undertook to console htm, and was shewing 
him some prints in a large book. Amongst 
them there happened to be one which re* 
presented a marritige procession, which, as 
soon as the child saw, he shut the book, 
exclaiming, " Take it away, sir, take it 
away 1 \^'bat have 1 to do with that ? 
It is shocking — and hold," continued he, 
pointing out a tall figure in the groop, 
" there is one that is Uke Mademoisello 
de Montbarrey." 

These last extracts will serve to shew 
the different staple of which are com- 
posed the respective works of the Ba- 
roness and the Bourgeois. That of 
the former will be reud merely to 
amuse the parsing hour^ but in the 
sketches of Mcreier there will always 
be found something worthy of the at- 
tention, not only of the general reader, 
but of the statesman, the moralist, and 
the philosopher. 

J. DOKAH. 



fjBNT. Mag, Vol. XXXTX. 



U 



146 



THE VALE OF YORK. 

Vallis Eboracensis : comprising the History and Antiquities of Easingwold and its 
Neighbourhood. By Thomas Gill. 8vo. 



THE Chevalier Bunsen, whose ge- 
neral knowledge of the geographical 
features of most parts of the world is 
unquestionable, at the same time that 
his peculiar regard for this country is 
sucn as to be very flattering to Eng- 
lish pride, has expressed his admira- 
tion of the district which forms the 
subject of the book before us in the 
following terms : " The Vale of York 
is the most beautiful and romantic vale 
in the world, the vale of Normandy 
excepted : " and this dictum is adopted 
by Mr. Gill as the motto of his title- 
poffe. 

We believe it is now very generally 
admitted that Englishmen have been 
apt to wander to foreign climes in 
i^ected search of romantic scenery, 
whilst they neglected the natural beau- 
ties of their own country ; and that 
this pretence for distant travel is now 
exchanged for other pretexts, such as 
the antiquities of the East, the arts of 
Italy, the medicinal waters of Ger- 
many, the cheapness of France, or, in 
/jtill more ordinary terms, " a thorough 
change," — the excitement of extended 
journeys, the amusing embarrassments 
of foreign languages and ever varying 
currency, and the delightful bothera- 
tion of douanes, dampf-schifls, and 
chemins-de-fer. 

It must, we think, be admitted that 
the beauties of the Vale of York have 
rather a local than a general reputa- 
tion. They are not frequented or 
visited like those of the Scotish High- 
lands, or the Northern Lakes, or even 
the coast of Devonshire, or the hills of 
Derbyshire. They are not accessory 
to the attractions of any place of great 
public resort, and consequently their 
fame is but partially diffused. There 
is, however, at Hovingham, a small 
market-town on the Thirsk and Mal- 
ton railway, at the distance of seven- 
teen miles from York, and eight from 
Easingwold, — a medicinal spa, the vir- 
tues of which were appreciated in ages 
long gone by, when a Koman villa and 
its baths were planted on the spot : 
and this quasi public-place suggests, 
in the work before us, the following 



general description of the neighbour- 
hood: — 

The immediate scenery of HoTiogham, 
as well as that by which it is surrounded, 
is highly varied and pictureSt)ue, beyond 
what is often to be met with in England. 
Encompassed by well-wooded and lofty 
hills, interspersed with rich dales and rip- 
pling streams, it appears equally secluded 
from the idle, and shut out from the noise 
and turmoil of the busy, — to the poetic eye 
it might seem a sort of Happy Valley, 
such as Johnson in his RasseUs delighted 
to portray. Here the woods, hills, and 
vales undulate in picturesque variety, af- 
fording numerous and umbrageous walks 
to the visitor. The yale is watered by 
several stneams which traverse it in differ- 
ent directions. Standing on the top of the 
Temple Hill, a noble and varied prospect 
strikes the eye. To the west, the wild 
heath and moors of Colton, Gilling, and 
Yearsiey exhibit a picture of bleakness 
and desolation, on which are found scat- 
tered cairns and tumuli, recalling to mind 
the visions of former ages, and the vener- 
able forms of grey heroes rising out of the 
misty magnificence, where Ossian would 
have revelled with delight. On the north, 
Hambleton and the black moors of Helms- 
ley stretch away to the utmost boundary of 
vision, and seem like Pelion piled upon 
Ossa. Then, turning the eye to the vale 
below, you behold, if in August or Sep- 
tember, rich and fertile crops waving in 
the sun, green and flowery pastures abound- 
ing with cattle, orchards gay with ruddy 
and mellow fruit, and pleajant flower-clad 
gardens, groves, and plantations. 

In the immediate vicinity of Hoving- 
ham are congregated a collection of in- 
teresting scenes, rarely to be met with in 
an equilly circumscribed district. Among 
the rest may be noticed the mansions of 
Castle Howard, the seat of the Earl of 
Carlisle; Duncombe Park, the seat of Lord 
Feversham ; Wiganthorp Hall, the seat of 
William Garforth, esq. ; Newburgh Hall, 
the seat of Sir George Wombwell, Bart 
vrith its sylvan park and its region of fairy- 
land, which, when viewed from the ad- 
joining hill, appears like the image of 
Beauty reposing in the bp of Sublimity. 

The antiquary, geologist, and naturalist 
may here find abundant gratification for 
their peculiar tastes, either in a visit to 
Helmsley Castle, built by the De Ros ; 
Gilling Castle, built by the De Mowbray, 



1853.] 



The VahafVork, 



and now the seat of the Pairfaxet \ Crayke 
Cattle, the retreat of SL Cucbbert ; Sliii^by 
Coatle, built hf De Hastiugs; SheriflF 
HuttoQ Caitle, built by Bertram Buliner 
and Ralph Neville, in which Elisabeth of 
York and the Init Earl of Warwick lin- 
gered in captivity, till Bo«w<irth*s fatal field 
exalted one to a throne and the other to a 
block ; all which placet are within a few 
milei of Hovingbara ; or, on a visit to the 
splendid rnins of Rievanx Abbey, or to 
B^land Abbey, Newburgb Priory, and 
Kirkham Abbey ; or to explore the now 
well-known antediluvian cave of Kirkdale, 
or to the lofty rock» and sublime scenery 
of Hambletoor with ita deep caverns, 
frowning cliffs, and glaaiy lake. 

Hovingfaam itg^^lfis the property of 
Sir Willimn Worsley, Bart, who hiis 
there a handsome man^jon, built in 
the style of the Italian villa. 

Of the places enumcrateil in the 
foregoing extract, the ciastlcsi of Helms- 
ley, Gilliog, Crayke, and Sheriff- Hiit- 
Um full within the 6eld of Mr. (iilFs 
description ; together with the abbeya 
of KievaiLx, Byland, and Newburgb, 
and BCveral monaj<tic houses of minor 
note : and among the miinsioiifl of the 
nobility, besides New burgh Furk. the 
seat of Sir Georj^e Womb we 1 1, who 
has been the foremost patron of the 
author, descriptions are given nf Ses- 
say tbe residence of Lord A'^iscouot 
Downe, of Duncombe Park the seat 
of Lonl Fevershain, of Thirkleby 
that of Lady Frankland Kussetl, and 
several others : and the work con- 
cludes with flonie notice of i\ Id burghs 
the seat of Ancirew Lawi?nn, esq. which, 
though bevond the natural boundary 
of the " \ allts Eborucensijs" was con- 
sidered so interesting a spot, from the 
remains of the Rontan town of Jsuriuni, 
which are there disclosetl and pre- 
served, as to lend a tuateriul interest to 
the contents of the book, 

A considerable portion of the Vale 
was occupied in early times by the 
Forest of GaUrei*i, which, coming up 
to the gates of York, originally com- 
prised about sixty tuwn«bips, and con- 
tained 100,000 acres of land, or nearly 
the whole of the WapentHke of Bul- 
oier. (p. 49,) It was divided and 
ineloftcd by an act of parliauicnt 
piiftsed in the year 1670. It was 
within the bounds tjX' this district that 
Fairfnx and Cn>niweU fought their 
great battle of Mars ton Moor in the 



year 1644. 




147 

To the tiorlhera side of the Vale 

are the llambleton hills, one of tJie 
most prominent points of which is the 
WhitestonecblT. From hence — 

The prospect is bonnclle««. extending 
over the wild, romantic Vale of Mowhray, 
the beantifnl and interestinit Valeof York, 
the plains of Clevelnnd^ VVensteydnle, the 
western hills, »he eastern wold«, the 
southern plains, and the northtrrn moun- 
tains, A little i» atlvaacc stood the her* 
mitage of Uode Grange* Beyond is a fina 
view of the venerable ruins of Byland 
Abbey and the village of Coiwold. On 
the other side is the splendid remains of 
the Abbey of Rievanx, with the Ionian 
temple and beautiful terraces ; the rich 
and magnificent demesne of Duncombe 
Park, and the Catholic colle^^ of Ample, 
forth. Further to the north is Upml Caatle 
and the Motirit St. John, where stood a 
preceptory of the Knights of St. John of 
Jeruiiialenir founded by William Percy, 
Gliding down a little further ia Newby 
Park* and Topclilf, the seat of the Earla 
of NortlmmbeTlaDd ; the sylvan park of 
Thirkleby, the seat of Lady Frankland 
Rut^sell 1 an extensive »icw of the western 
hills^ among which may be lecn the city 
of Ripon, with its noble cathedral^ the 
towns uf Tbir^k and Northallerton, and a 
little further on the celebrated Abbey of 
Fountains. Yeoring to the soatb, and 
pasting above the Vale of York, which ia 
studded with villages, fiirm- houses, hand- 
some villas, woGcb, inc. t% tbe splendid 
minster of York, the ancient casttes of 
Sheriff Huttoo, Crayke, Gilling, Helms- 
ley, and Castle Howard, and tbc rich ro- 
mantic icenery of Newhurgh Park* 

The parishca and townships which 
Mr. Gill has illustrated, tuore or lea^, 
with bis historical colleetionif are more 
than thirty in number; and we should 
add that two of these liave their bin* 
tory written in a more complete and 
masterly manner* — that of Crayke by 
the Veil, Archdeacon Cburton, and that 
of Sesaay by the Kev, John Overton. 

Crayke is connected with the history 
of Saint Cutlibert, to whose name the 
church is dedicated ; with Etha, ano- 
ther anchor ite» who lived in the eighth 
century ; and with the devastations of 
the Scandinavian Ella, who is e»pe* 
daily mentioned to have laid his sacri- 
legious hands upon the huid of the 
church of Durham at thit< nlucc. There 
13 therefore an unusual n mount of 
history belonging to this place before 
the Norman conquest,iind which Arch- 
deacon Ghurton has displayed to the 



148 



The Vale of YorJc. 



[Feb. 



best advantage. At the Domesday 
survejr William bishop of Durham held 
" Creic " in demesne, as bishop Alwin 
had done in the reign of the Confessor. 
It was at this castle that Hu^h Pudsej, 
one of the most famous bishops of 
Durham, and who received the earldom 
of Northumberland from the hands of 
King Richard the First, fell sick of 
his mortal illness in the year 1194. 
The bishops of Durham continued to 
occupy their manor of Crayke, and 
to mam tain the appurtenant " forest *' 
or park, for many subsequent centu- 
ries — apparently until the time of the 
Reformation. King Edward III. dated 
a charter from the castle in the year 
1 345. It was not finall v alienated from 
the see until the days of the late Bishop 
Van Mildert. 

At Coxwold, in the same neigh- 
bourhood, the parsonage of Laurence 
Sterne, to which he was presented by 
Lord Fauconberg, then lord of New- 
burgh, was written the immortal 
" Sentimental Journey." In a letter 
written in 1767, he thus describes how 
well he fared in the Vale of York : 

I am aa happy as a prince at Cozwolcl, 
and I wish you could see in how princely 
a manner 1 live- 'tis a land of plenty. I 
sit down alone to venison, fish, and wild 



fowl, or a couple of fowls or ducks, with 
cards, strawberries, and cream, and all the 
simple plenty which a rich valley (under 
Hambleton hills) can produce ; with a 
clean cloth on my table, and a bottle of 
wine on my right hand to drink your health. 
I have a hundred hens and chickens about 
my yard ; and not a parishioner catches a 
hare, or a rabbit, or a trout, but he brings 
it as an offering to me. 

The history of Byland Abbey is 
treated at length, and introduced by 
the interesting narrative of its foun- 
dation, preserved in the register of 
the house, and of which the English 
version was written for our Magazine 
by a gentleman whose premature de- 
cease we had shortly after to lament.* 
An incident of that narrative is the 
erection of a chapel at Scalton or 
Scorton, a vill within the parish of 
Byland. It is stated that this humble 
little oratory still attests by all the 
features of its architecture that it is 
the original building erected by abbot 
Roger in 1146. When the chapel was 
finished, and suitably furnished with 
books, vestments, a font, and other 
necessary ornaments, the abbot gave 
directions to his cellarer "that with 
all haste and reverence he should cause 
to be conveyed in a wain the lesser 





•i-a^flipjiMfl + BSiiTa tmjiRiGt 



/IVeRt 



♦ Sec Gent. Mag. for March, 1843, p. 261. 



1853.] 



The Vah of ¥or^. 



149 



bf 11 of the said mother church of By- 
land to her said daughter of Scalton/* 
Our author concludes that this bell 
was the same as one still preserved 
at Scorton, of the inscriptions upon 
which he has given the fac-smiile 
printed in the preceding page* 

No one has hitherto attended suffi- 
cientlj to the antiquities of eajupario- 
logy to supply us with chronological 
duta as to the forms of ancient bells 
or the devices impressed upon them. 
Their inscriptions have been given m 
some topographical works, — more par* 
ticularly, as we recollect, throughout 
the History of Northamptonshire by 

, Bridfjes ; but we are not aware of any 
tisting guide to determine their re- 

fspective antiquity. We suspect the 
bell at ScortoD hot to be of the early 



date suggested by the history of the 
erection of the chapel. It is named, 
as wc see, Saint Mary's bell, Campaiui 
heate Marie. The lower lettei*H we 
presume are the com men cement of the 
salutation of the Virgin, Ar^e i?egina 
Celorutii, The mark of the founder 
is particuliirly curious. It seemii to 
show that he also made crosiers, can- 
dle.sticks, and — weights? Hia name 
is not perfectly copied ; but we read 
it, Jah* R — e in Copgi-nf me fecit 
Copgrave, as we take it, is the name 
of the place where his foundry stood. 
It 18 a vdluge four miles from Borough- 
bridge, And about fifteen from By hind 
abbey. 

Another remarkable bell is existing, 
and still ill use, in this district, at Ses- 
say. It bears this inscription : — > 



-Hha : aDCDV RD : DAReCL : 

ais:r:Vxai:©:D;sas: 

aV:BaR"©VS: 



I. p. ^ leens. Ednauod Darell et I. 
uxor eJQS, gratiam det aaDctua CudbertuH, 

Edmund Dareli* who married Isa- 
bella Elton, died in 1 438. The churoh 
is dedicated to Saint Cuthbert, and 
was rebuilt by Lord Downe in 1H48. 
In turning over the pages of the 
volume we next arrive at the castles 
of Gilling and Hulmsley, two of its 
roost interesting features. The former 
has been for four centuries the seat of 
the elder branch of the family of Fair- 
fax, who have adhered to the ancient 
faith, and are the f>atrons of the neigh- 
bouring college of Amnleforth, a school 
for the education ot the Romanist 
gentry. 

in the church of Ampleforth is a 
epulchral v^^^y of singular and we 
lelieve unique design. It is, perhaps, 
commemorative of some peculiar cir- 
cumstances now forgotten, and, in its 
deviation from the ordinary Ibrm of 
Bch memorials, reminds us of the two 
nights thrown upon the sea- beach, 
irliich are represented by Stothard; 
|>ut the dying warrior before us has a 



very dilFerent couch, — no other than 
the bosom of \m faithful wii'e, Thia 
aiSx^y is now built into the tower of 
the church ; and the surname (though 
stated by Mr. Gill to be ** urdbrtu- 
nately lost") may possibly gttll remain 
concealed round the corner of the 
stone, beneath the lady*s head. (See 
the next jmge ) 

It needs no great stretch of imagination 
to Buppoie that a dying kaight of King 
E J ward the Second's time, left on the field 
after his Bovereign's flight from the battle 
of Byland, is here repreaentcd receiving 
the same kind offices which Scott i^o ex- 
quiaitety describes hs rendered by Clare to 
Marmion on the field of Floddeo. Whoever 
be the parties represented,, the chArtteters 
Rnd eo«tume nasign them to the period not 
later than that of the second Gdwiird. 

The battle of By I and here referred 
to occurred in the year 1322, when 
the Scots invaded England under King 
Robert Bruce. 

Helmsley was a castle built by Ro- 
bert cic Ros, dunn*» the reign of our 
early Nonniin Kings, and which gave 
the ordinary addition to their baromiil 



150 



The Vaie of York. 



[Feb. 



,iy\ 



V\ 



f^^ 






Efllgy «t Ainp1*ft>rth. 

title of " Ros of Harakke/' Having 
descended with that dignity to the 
Duchess of Buckingham, the beirciis 
of Francis Earl of Rutland, and wjilow 
of the favourite of Charles the First, 
it was maintained for that monarch 
during the Civil War, and dismantled 
after its surrender to Fairfax in 1«]44. 

Thii cutle was afterwards parually re- 
stored, and b«c:«ine tbe favourite ret rent of 
George VLUiers, Duke of Buckinghftm^ 
after he had retired from the court and 
cabiaet of Charles IL On the western 
side tbe remains of a raa^e of apartments^ 
constitatiag his mansion house and oflSces, 



still exist, probably bnilt aboat tbe time 
vrben the Villiers family sncoeeded to the 
property^ and distia^isbed by a noble 
toner almost ri vailing in the depth of iti 
detoent to the moat the height of tbe ao- 
cient keep. Here was the scene of bis 
revelries ; and Kirk by Mooraide, a neigh- 
bouring town, wilnefised hia humiliation 
and death, which transpired after three 
days* iilnesa, brought on by inflammation, 
in consequence of sitting on the ground 
when fatigued witb huntiug. 

It ia added that Pope^ in hia well- 
known lines descriptive of the Dukes 
death, 

has either tiiken a poetic hcenee, or been 
misinformed, for there is no tradition 
of tbe house in which the Duke died 
having ever been an inn, and from its pre- 
sent apprarauce it has evidently been, at 
thi3it time, otie of tbo be^t bouses in the 
town. 

Tbe following is a literal copy from an 
old tattered regie tcr book,, belong^ug to 
the parii^b of Kirk by : — 

" Burials*— 1687, April I7th. Gorges 
vilaus, Lord dooke of bookingbam/' 

We pass quickly over Kirkdale, fa- 
mous for its Saxon Hun-dial^ and its 
bone-cave examined by Proleasor 
Buekland ; an<i Duneonibe Park, tbe 
successor of Helm a ley Caatle, with its 
pictures and ancient marbles^ among | 
which are the Discobolus and the l)ng ' 
of Alcibiatles ; and then we reach tlio 
abbey of Rievaux, a feature of ^* tbe 
Vale of York" perhupa better known/ 
than any other* and which is described | 
at considerable length. 

On the top of the hill, east of the mo* 
nsstery, is the beautiful terrace, said to be 
one of the 6 nest in England. This was 
formed by Thomas Duncombe, esq. in the 
year 1758, and is half a mile in length, and* ] 
of ample breadth. On the back of it are j 
plantations of trees, mingfed witb variout. 
shnibs. Tbe ruins of tbe gray-tinted abbey I 
look out from among the tufted trees as 
it sweetly reposes in tbe lap of tbe vale 
beneath ; woods tower aloft, dales stretch 
away into the distance ;; and the Rye, as 
it rolls along the bottom of tbe valley, oc- 
casionally peeps out of its leafy bed, and 
adds beauty to the scene. 

Next coraes« Ses3oy, to which wft ^ 
have already alluded ; and then Top-' 
clifTe, one of the manor*) of the Enrlrj 
of Northumberland, and very fre»'« 
nuently their place of residence. The^ j 
Barons' letter to the Pope in 1291 was j 
signed by Henry Percy, as " dominua 



1853.] 



The Vale of York, 



I 



fie Topclive;" aiid it was here that 
Henry the fourth Eiirl, then Lord 
Lieutenant of Yorkshire, was shiin 
during an insurrection in 1489. No 
iTHced of the manor-house— Mr, Gill 
is probably wrong in this eai*e t© tiilk 
of a baronial fortress, and frowning 
keep« anil dungeons, — are now re- 
niainiug, except the njound on which 
It stood, now called Maiden Bivwert 
and slill encoiiipfi*<sed with n mout. 

New by Park» kte tlie seat of Earl 
de Grey, and nuvf of George Hudson, 
eso. M.P* is drsmissml in a if^w linea. 

brallerton 'as, the raemorahle sf»ot 
where Fa u linns, at Christmas <>iG, bap- 
tised in the Swale manj thousand con- 
verts to Christianity, as related in a 
letter of Pope Gretrory to Eulogius 
patriarch of Alexandria. 

My ton- ufK>n- Swale was the scene of 
another victory of the Scotch, in an 
Lucursion which they made three years 
earlier than that already mentioned. 
It ha5 latterly been the seat of the 
family of Stapylton. 

The Normau church at AIne is re- 
markable for a sculpt uretl door w ay « 
having InscnptioUH to notify tbe in- 
tention of many of it^ devices. Only 
a few of the former now remain ; and 
some of tbe sculptures thejnselves have 
been succeeded by clumsy restorations : 

These are easily djstmgiiiBbable from 
the origin ak, which happily still consd- 
tute the tnafls of the work. Tbe moat re- 
markable ortiametits are a series of nine* 
teen semicircles furming the outer, snd 
of fifteen circles forming tbe inner, mein- 
hers of the srcbmoultliugM. The former 
inclose angelic and human figures, birds, 
and animftla, mostJy with a word abore, by 
no means nnnuededt to indicate tbe prin- 
ci|>al object represented. Thus the first 
tbree semicircles from tbe west are msrked 
i;Vl.PfS, PANTREA, AULA. Tbe fox in 
the former is laid on hit back and preyed 
oa by eagles, and a human figure stretched 
in bed is suflfering tbe like puntsbment in 
the fifth eoraparlmecit, probably in al!u- 
sion to Prov. ixi. 17. Tbe siiteentb con- 
tains two figures, which, bat for the word 
CKROBKiM above, might have been mis- 
taken for sufferers hi dames of torment ; 
and the word Araico on the eighteenth 
appears to indicate the breeze which wsfts 
« bark exhibiting two human heoids at its 
sides, but which ctin by no power of imagi- 
nation be supposed capable of containing 
the bodies to which they should f>ertain. 
The circular Gompiirtmeats bear no such 




helps to research into their contents ; but 
among various fantsstie anndescripta may 
be discovered tbe holy Iamb, a large ani- 
mal devonrtQg a human figure, a camel, a 
pelican feeding a prostrate traveller from 
its breast, and a man in the act of slaugh. 
tering a huge hoar with an axe. On the 
cnpitalfi may also be traced representations 
of a mermaid pursued by a sea monster, 
and a land monster with two bodies united 
io one head, intermixed with luxurious 
foliage and wreathed or cable mouldings. 
Many of the ornaments, both of tlie arch 
and iTupitals, as is u^ual in Norman work, 
exhibit marked imitations of clattical 
models, and somewhat resemble the cha- 
racter of portions of Malmesburj Abbey 
Church. 

llie kst subject of superior m teres t 
in tbe volume, excepting the Roman 
remains f»f Aldborougli^ is tbe castle of 
Sheriff Button, one of the residences 
of Kichard Duke of Gloucester whei^ 
President of tbe North, and the prison 
of Earl Klv^rs nml tbe later Planta- 

fenetts, Edward Earl of Warwick and 
lli^abeth of York at^orwards Queen 
of Henry VIL LeUnd »oys, '*This 
casicll id well maintained, by reason 
that the late Duke of Norfolk lay ther« 
ten yeares, and «iuce tbun tbe Duke 
of Kichniondj" — namely, Henry Fitz- 
roy, the natural son of Henry VI II, 
who also was President of the North. 
But alter that date it was allowed to 
fall into ruin. 

We have thus hastily skimmed over 
the contents of Mr. Gilfs book, in 
order to vindicate the clain^s of The 
Vale of York to that high estimate 
which was stated at the commence- 
ment of our remarks. In so doing we 
have recalled many names which must 
have been familiar to every reader, even 
if unaware that they belonged to the 
particular area of*' tbe Vale of York/* 
There won material here,, it will bo 
allowed, for a volume of bitttorical to- 
pography of no eli/^bt or ordinary in* 
terest; and we gladly add that the 
object 16 to a considerable extent ac- 
complished. The book may, to soma 
tastes, be not the less agreeable (rom 
the brevity with which jKirtJonK of the 
subject are discussed. To other minds 
it will appear too summary and jtuper- 
ficial. It is no condemnation of such 
a work to say that it is capable of gjeat 
improvement ; for auch is the very 
nature of histarical topography. Mr, 



152 



Gill will employ his leisure well by 
continuing his collections for another 
and improved edition. 

But, before we conclude, we cannot 
refrain from the remark that there is 
one particular which requires almost 
continual correction. The author shows 
a strong partiality for conjectural ety- 
mology as regards local nomenclature, 
but his conjectures are, for the most 
part, so wild as to be worse than use- 
less. Such derivations as Deira from 
the deer of the Forest, and Raskelfe 
from the rascal " beasts of venery," 
Tollerton from taking toll or tolling a 
bell, Stillington from stealing'tovfUf 
and Helper by from help-hard-by (when 
Faulinus was told his baptismal waters 
were failing !) are merely childish and 
absurd. Many others are equally im- 
probable if not so ridiculous. The 
f>resent orthography of local names is 
frequently deceptive, and the only 
safe process towards determining their 
real etymology is to ascertain their 
original orthography. Tholthorpe (p. 
401) is an instance in point. Mr. Gill 
derives it " from thol a resting-place 
and thorp a village ;" but its Domesday 
name given in the next preceding line 
at once contradicts him. It there oc- 
curs as Turolfestorp, which proves it 
to be one of the numerous class of local 
names which are derived from their 
original settlers or early owners. It 



The Life of Thomas Moore. 



[Feb. 



was the thorp of one Turol f. So again 
Thirkleby (p. 334) is in the Domesday 
Survey Turgilesbi— the by (a Danish 
settlement) of one Torchil : which again 
contradicts the conjecture hazarded in 
p. 321, that ** Thor the chief god of 
the Saxons seems to have been the 
favourite deity of this neighbourhood," 
because the names of 7%or-manby, 
rAir-kleby, Thirl-hy, Thirsk, may all 
be derivea from him. An allusion to 
the worship of Thor in any of these 
cases is surely imaginary, for even 
Thormanby is in Domesday book Tor- 
mozbi, the by of some Dane named 
Tormot. One Aschil of Danish birth 
held the manor at the survey. This 
feature of Mr. Gill's book we have 
considered it the more requisite to 
notice, because these and the like et^r- 
molomcal vagaries are neither inci- 
dental nor brief, but altogether, with 
their comments, occupy a considerable 
proportion of its pages. Those who 
are inclined to pursue the interesting 
but delusive mazes of etymology, as 
respects our local nomenclature, will 
do well to arm themselves with the 
comprehensive but lucid and judicious 
treatise on that subject by Professor 
L(io of Halle, of which an English 
translation has been recently pub- 
lished by an accomplished English 
antiquary.* 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS MOORE. 

)ondence of Thomas ^/ 
lussell. 2 vols. 1853. 



Memoirs, Journal, and Correspondence of Thomas Moore. Edited by Lord John 
Ru • - • -- 



IT is impossible that they who 
have in their memories the advent of 
works now thrust aside by the mul- 
tiplicity of fresh claimants on public 
favour, should see them and their 
authors brought afresh on the stage 
without a revival of old associations, 
both " pleasant and mournful." To 
many of our present readers, criticisms 
on Thomas Moore may not be much 
more stirring than remarks on Cowper 
or Johnson ; not so with the numbers 
who sang the Irish Melodies and laughed 



at the Fudge Family, who are of age to 
have partaken in the interests of the 
latter years of Greorge the Third, and 
who shared in the mingled hopes and 
fears of the Regency. The time, indeed, 
is not, in itself, long since Byron and 
Moore carried all before them ; and 
Wordsworth, in spite of the somewhat 
oppressive efforts of zealous admirers, 
was parodied, and, by many, jested at. 
It is not the months, nor the years, but 
the mighty increase of readers and 
writers — the ceaseless flow of ideas — 



Treatise on the Local Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxons. 1852. 12mo. (Lumlcy.) 
5 



1853.] 



The Life of Thomas Moore* 



253 



tlie rapid move men ts* mechanical and 
mental, that sweep away, before their 
time, stores of bcuutilul thiags de- 
serving of long life in a natioo's heart 
and mind. 

We do not Bay that these are like 
[Iruits of a season — decayed and ^one 
Ifor ever. We believe many of tliem 
ffrill be co-existcnt with the language in 
which they were penned; we mean only 
to advert to the small allowance of time 
left us by the numerous productions of 
the day. This especially tells in the case 
of works not old enough to be venera- 
ble. For antiquity itself, thi^ present 
age surely has a tiiate. It loves to rake 
up legends and hunt an old pedigree 
to death, and a rain and an ancient 
ballad arc precious in its sight, Happy 
then is it for an author who wishes to 
be popular thut he haa two strings to 
his bow — that his poetry lives lyong 
with his music, and one can never be 
thought of henceforth without the 
other. This ia an advantage eminently 
given to Thomas Moore, but it is one 
which he shares with many othei's of 
our English poets- He who ventures 
to search amid much rubbish and much 
that is foul and unwholesome, will find 
exrjuisite songs interspersed with our 
old plays and masques, and amid out 
madiHgals. No need to name Shak- 
spere and Ben Jonson ; there are Mar- 
lowe, and Wotton, and Ciirew, and 
Lovelace, and Ilerrick, and lleywood, 
and in ScotlanJ we have Montrose, and 
Allan Ramsay, and Lady Ann Lind- 
say, and Susannali Blainire, and Burns, 
and Nicols, and Seott^ and Hoggj and 
Bethune, and Motherwell, What more 
mantul than Montrose? — 
Bat, if no faitUlcss action stain 

Tby truth and coustaot wordi 
ril make thee fatnoos by my penj 

And glorious by tny Aword, 
rtl love thee in such noble ways 

As ne^'er were known before \ 
V\\ deck and crown tby head with bays^ 

And love thee more and more. 

And what more touching than the 
words of Ford's old madrigal (date 
1{j20) beginning — 
When firat I sjliv your face, I vowM 

To honor and renown yon : 
If now I be disdain*d, I wiih 

My heart had ncTcr known you. 



What! I that lov'dt and you that lik'd. 

Shall we begin to wrangle ? 
Noj no, no* no — my heart is fast, 

And cannot disentangle. 

And, again, bow light and graceful 
is Hoywood'g Morning Carol : — 

Pack clouds away and welcome day ! 

With night we baoisli sorrow ; 
Sweet air blow soft, mouot larks aloft, 

To bid my love good morrow. 
Wings from the wind to please her mind, 

Notes from the Urk, \\\ borraw \ 
Bird* prune thy wing^ nightingale aing, 

To give my love good morrow. 

Wake from thy nest, Robio redbreast » 

Sing, birds, in every furrow, 
Aod from each hill Ji^t music eh rill 

Give my fair love good morrow. 
Blackbird and thrush, in every bush, 

Stare, linnet, and cock*sparrow. 
You pretty elves, among yourselves, 

Sing my fair love good morrow. 

It is truly one great blessing of living 
at this present time that so much of 
what ia beautiful in the past is again 
made oui' own. In looking over Dr. 
Aikln's Collection of Songs, second 
edition, 1774 (nearly 80 years ago), 
we were lately much struck with its 
poverty. Few of our most beautiful 
old English songs are included. The 
doctor sets out with announcing that 
the ^* chief sources of good songs are 
the miscellany poems and plays from 
the time of Charles the Second to the 
conclusion of Queen Anne^s reign." 
Thus his list of authors does not < 
actually bring in one of those we have 
named abovc^ — men for whom Lawes, 
and W 11 bye, and Locke, and^ we be- 
lieve, Purccll and Blowc composed 
their line music. * 

It woukl be wrong to overlook the 
merit^^ of later writers, — of iMrs. Opie, 
and of Dilxlin, some of whose songs, 
as national popular lyrics, arc scarcely 
less beautiful than many of Barns' 
songs for landsmen, though they are 
curiously placed as the objects of a re- 
flected rather than an imme<liat€ admi- 
ration ; for, while they have long been 
the darlings of this nmritime nation, we 
believe it is a fact that to the common 
sailor himself they nover were very at- 
tractivOi the practical " poor Jack*' 
deeming them pedmitic refinementa 
upon the genuine article. 



* Br. AlkiDf we believei afterwards published a later end much Improved edition of 
this work, which we have not Been. 
Geht. Mao, Vol. XXXIX. X 



154 



The Life of Thomas Moore. 



[Feb. 



Oiir high regard for Thomas Moore 
as a lyric poet has led us thus far to 
remark on him chiefly as carrying on, 
though in a more courtly manner than 
man^ of his predecessors, the line of 
British song. It has indeed been said, 
we think unfairly, that his lyrics are 
710^ national, but the product of arti- 
ficial life, and it has been of late the 
fashion to take a somewhat depre- 
ciating tone respecting them, ifow, 
that they are not songs for the people, 
in the sense in which many of the songs 
of Burns arc so, we allow : but, unless 
the large class of cultivated men and 
women throughout England, Ireland, 
and Scotland, are to be de-nationalized, 
simply because they grow up in easy 
circumstances, are tolerably well fed 
and well clothed, and live in decent 
houses, we are at a loss to conceive why 
the songs of Moore should be less the 
echo of their nationality than songs of 
a tnore homely style are supposed to be. 

It is time, however, to say a few 
words respecting our poet in his more 
lengthened performances. There is no 
denyinff, we think, the faults of that 
excitable and exciting school to which 
Moore belonged, and which Byron 
headed. The world has found them 
out : the time of recoil has come lon^ 
ago ; and perhaps we do not now suf- 
ficiently estimate the good these writers 
did. llieir clearness, their correctness, 
the marvellous mastery of language 
* they exhibited, their general accuracy 
and harmony of versification, scarcely 
ever departed from, however distur- 
bing the subjects of which they treated, 
are allowed by all ; but we do not, 

rrhaps, adequately value the return 
realities of a deep and inward kind, 
for which their poetry at all events 
paved the way. it brought back more 
than a touch of Shakspere to a time 
which was learning to regard poetry 
only as one of the elegant amusements 
of refined life. The poetry of Byron 
And his friends was, indeed, written in 
characters of fire, and consumed, in- 
stead of vivifying, many an inflammable 
soul ; but much of truth, which they 
themselves never uttered, was never- 
theless brought out by their example. 
It threw a new life and vigour mto 
the literature of our day, not merely 
into our poetry ; and, with all its ap- 
parent opposition, we regard it as cer- 
tain that it paved the way for the 



ample acknowledgment of Words - 
worthian excellence. 

Of Moore, whom we compare to By- 
ron chiefly in his LallaRookh, we yet do 
not speak as at all equal to the mighty 
master. Sentiment, fancy, wit, a flow 
of animal spirits, an unexampled quick- 
ness of combination, a kindly heart, 
strong amatory and convivial tenden- 
cies, a vivid perception at once of the 
pathetic ana the ludicrous, a ready 
flow of words, and a perfe(;t ear for 
both music and poetry, were his great 
characteristics. He took life very 
easily. It rarely seems, at least so far 
as we have yet become acquainted with 
his view of it, to have been seen for 
the serious thing it ever is. Though 
never, we think, profoundly national, 
and calling oflT from all association with 
those whom he deemed the vulo^ar in 
the Irish parties, Moore had all the 
lightsomeness and the pathos of his 
race. His position in the world of Enrr- 
lish society was exceedingly agreeable, 
and he had tact enough always to keep 
well with it, and to get himself par- 
doned for songs and sentiments which 
would have been signals for the ba- 
nishment of most other men from re- 
spectable and moral circles. And then, 
even his vanity kept him up to the 
mark. It did not, like that of too many 
authors, take the form of envy, and 
become condensed in the dark under- 
ground stream of malignity; it sparkled 
and effervesced, it flew in your face, 
and yet left behind a residue draught 
of refreshing flavour and spirit. No- 
body, we really think, should doubt 
that the Irish melodies are genuine 
outpourings of a feeling heart. No- 
thing sureyr can surpass the tenderness 
breathing m such verses as " Farewell, 
but whenever you welcome the hour ;'* 
the patriotic indignation disguised in 
the song, ♦* When nrst I met thee, warm 
and young;" and the exquisite appre- 
ciation of the character of true love 
shown in that song of contrast, which 
it would be an injury to curtail of a 
single word — 

To sigh, yet feel no pain, — 

To weep, yet scarce know why, — 
To sport an hour with beauty's chain. 

Then throw it lightly by : 
To kneel at many a shrine, 

Yet lay the heart on none, 
To think all other charms divine 

But those we jiitt have won : — 



1853.] 



The Life of Thmnuf VoQre, 



155 



This is love — earwleit lof e— 
ifivLch as kindleth ht&ns that rove. 

Po keep out sacred flame 

Thro' life unchiU'd^ uum(>v'tl, — 
Mo love iu wintry agu the same 

As first in yooth we lov'tl : 
To feel til at we adore 

With such refined excest, [mare, 

That thout^h the heart would hrcuk with 

It CDold not live with Ic^s i — 
Ills is love— /aiM/<i/ love— 
Sach as saints might feel above. 

Ati4 now as to the volumyj* bulbrt? 
us. Whilst the imj>resskui derived 
^pcom their contents is tavtiuiuble in u 
lOFiil point of view — far, we believe^ 
beyond general expectation — it ii«t with 
the exception of the autobiography, 
'disappointing in all else. The letters 
lare genuine, isimple, ulleelionsite efFn* 
Ijpions, vaJuable lor the liglit they throw 
ron Moore's domestic character, eheery 
n& they show him iiidiardened Ijy fauie 
|tnd worMly eonneetion, but singularly 
ae.'^titnte rd' anything benrin<^ the im- 
press ol' thoui.^ht. He ifi complacent, 
feappy, deligtited with his own popu- 
liirity. Of honest niiich less rigid, 
iiscmline of mind I here is no trace. 
■We niivc not ik doubt (hut bis heart 
Pollen sprung np Iroin the ground in 
Hdoration and gratitude to the Giver 
|ef Good, and that he found relief from 
ayer in distress. Traces of these 
rames are not unfreciuent* " Lefin on 
iGod, Bessy, lean on God,'* was hiii /'re- 
l^uent cbarge to hin wife. lie never, 
Fe should judge, experienced the 
Jieary sorrows of doubt as respected 
^ abstract truthi* of Rcvehition ; and, 
riaay be said that this was because 
vi was too vei^satile, too little of a 
linker on any subject, we reply tJjat, 
tiougb this 13 partly true, yet his 
irning, his considerable actjuisitions 
ecclesiastical bi.story» laid him open 
^ historic difficulties, when those of a 
netaphysical kind did not approach 
iSm. ^yith all this, there is little depth 
pf application of the highest truths : 
tfie cjirelesa, ready way in which he 
neld himself free to undertake sa- 
''^redfloii|B and versions of the Tsalms, 
M^li 110 ft painful imprecision of »hal- 
lowne^ from which we would fain 
escape if we knew but how. It may 
be doubted whether in the whole 
reach of Enf^lish published thought 
there is anything in greater contrai^t 
than the tender, awe^strickea nspira- 



tions of a 8pif*it like that of Hartley 
Coleridge, and the umiuestioning wil- 
linguesa of Moore to stretch out a 
helping hand towards God's holy ark. 
From thid sense of untitne^ss it is tb^t 
we can hardly relish Moore as a sacred 
lyrist, any more than Count d*Orsay as 
a jwrtrayer of the Saviour's divine 
cuantcimnce. 

We huve advertwi to the autoblo- 
gi'aphy. Perhaps there is, not a similar 
record in our language more clever 
and interesting in its way than this. 
It would be impossible to do it justice 
in extracts- One of its chief beauties 
Is in the ln«:idental touches by which 
the charjuing (!haracter of Moore's 
mother comes out — that delightful 
L'iahwonian who, with intense nation- 
ality, cond»ined in such a rare degree 
sense, prudence, high principle, and 
self-sacrilice. Amid nil her pecuniary 
diliiculties, a aniillng home was never 
wnnting to her son. Such wa.4 her 
lively sympathy in every taste and 
pursuit of her children, that they seem 
to have regarded her rather as an elder 
sister thii n a parent. For them, for their 
pleasure and improvement, she prac- 
tised her rigid domestic economies^ de- 
termined that in their education at lea^t 
no stint should be observed. She drew 
into the little rooms social and joyous 
supper*parties, where she herself set the 
example of i?ong,— her clear, musical 
voice giving forth her favourite air, 
'* How sweet in the woodlands," Out 
of every casual instructor she managed 
to make a zealous, attachod friend. 
No doubt the seeds of knowledge in 
Moore's case fell into a rich soil, and he 
wits soon enabled to surpiiss bid teach- 
ers, but we iiucstion whether the highest 
intellectual instructor would have done 
for him what was achieved under 
the zealous and attached supervision 
of his mother* Certainly there must 
have been something uncoiumon in the 
ascendancy of one who could [lerse- 
veringly wake the boy out of his sleep 
at night to repeat his lessons, if not 
previously heard, without the idea of 
tmrd-ihip or distaste arising in his mind 
from suc!i inflexibility. 

To this mother Moure af^rwards 
maile it a jn uctice to write twice every 
week when separated from her. She 
waa a Catholic, of course, and so was 
he, always attending the chapel in 
Moorfields when in London. Coafes* 



156 



The Life of ThomcLs Moore. 



[Feb. 



sion he found, however, very revolt- 
ing ; and, thouch his mother had se- 
lected one of the worthiest priests in 
Dublin to make the duty more pala- 
table, in no long time she yielded to 
his earnest representations and gave 
up this point. 

Up to 1793 (when he was fourteen) 
Moore, in common with all the Ca- 
tholic youth, was excluded from Tri- 
nity College, Dublin, and from all 
prospect of rising at the bar ; but at 
that time the disqualification being 
removed he entered the University, 
and here, of course, his more dis- 
tinguished Irish friends were made. 
Jebb, late Bishop of Limerick, on one 
side, and poor Robert Emmett on the 
other, kept him pretty well balanced 
as to the different political views of 
the time, and, though he could not but 
Incline to the hopes and fears of the 
liberty party, yet out of regard to his 
mother he managed to keep pretty 
clear of any personal odium; and it 
seems that during the worst part of 
the rebellion he was visited by severe 
illness. In 1798-9 he went to London, 
entering the Temple. His legal studies, 
however, did not prosper like his 
poetical ones : Anacreon was in pro- 
cess of translation : he became an 
expectant of patronage, and was kept 
in a state of suspense and of hang- 
ing on great men which must have 
materially obstructed his improve- 
ment. These were years of irreparable 
loss, and they who have heard of his 
dissipation, and know anything of his 
early writings, should certainly take 
into account the peculiarly tempting 
and hazardous position in which these 
eight best years of his life were passed, 
l^t he made some valuable friends, and 
was never wholly idle, often indeed the 
very reverse. 

So far as adventure goes, his life 
has little interest. Its charm is in the 
insight it gives into the literary un- 
dertakings, the social meetings, and 
the political talk of his time : between 
Holland House and Bowood, between 
bargains with the great booksellers, 
and passing notices of Lord Byron, 



Jeffrey, Rogers, Lord Holland, and 
many more, come in very refreshing 
fireside pictures. His wife, his young 
family, his growing obligations to work 
for them and for his aged parents, and 
his honest endeavours to keep clear of 
debt, contributed to form that prac- 
tical side of his character which was 
so creditable to him, and which the 
early part of his career would hardly 
have led us to anticipate. 

And now a few words may be al- 
lowed as to the editorial part of these 
volumes. While we coraially admire 
Lord John Russell's preface, — a model 
of calm, tasteful, and sensible writing, 
— we own it considerably adds to our 
feeling of regret that so good and so 
candid an editor should not have in- 
terspersed, with the materials, more 
records of Moore's life as it appeared 
to those who saw him often and knew 
what his relations were with the po- 
litical and literary men of his day. 
The work at present seems to us far 
too exclusively self-biography. It is 
scarcely possible but that Lord John 
Russell must be in possession of stores 
of interesting additions : even if unable 
himself to devote much time to shaping 
these into the connected form of a 
biography, like Moore's of Byron, or 
Lockhart's of Sir Walter Scott, surely 
he might have applied to some one or 
two common friends whose communi- 
cations would at once have embellished 
and contributed to the substantial 
value of the work. Seldom, indeed, 
does it fall to an editor's lot to be so 
materially aided as in this case by 
Moore's interesting journal; but we 
tire both of that and of the letters, 
taken alone, and want the break of 
reply or of comment. 

Perhaps in future volumes we shall 
be more favoured in this respect. 
Meanwhile public thanks are largely 
due to the noble editor, whose recent 
resumption of the duties of office will 
not, we trust, interfere with the fulfil- 
ment of a task so interesting, a task 
which, in so far as it has been already 
performed, fails rather by defect than 
by excess. 



157 



DR. YOUNG— DR, AK ENS IDE— JAMES BOSWELL, 
Br, youNQ. 



I 
I 
I 



JOHNSON got lazy towards the 
conclusion of his Lives of the Poets, 
and was glad to accept the offer of a 
life of Young from Mr. Herbert Croft, 
then a barrister of Liucola^s Inn, afler- 
wardB a clergyman, and stiil remem- 
bered as Sir J&erbert Crofi, and as the 
author of ** Love and Madness," a kind 
of novel founded on the story of 
Mr. Hack man and Miss Ray. Croft 
was the friend of Dr. Young's son, 
but, judging from the Life^ he would 
not appeiir to have known much of 
Young ; while he has fallen into some 
curious blunders that deserve to be 
corrected in any future edition of John - 
ion's Livea,* Urott, however, was dili- 
gent in his inquiries about Y^oungj and 
made applications forinformntionabout 
him to several of his friends, among 
others to ^Irs. Montagu, whose letter 
in reply I was allowetl to ct»py from 
the original, then in the possession of 
thekte *^ Tom Hill/' As this letter 
juci'its publication, and has never been 
in print, I send it for i>rc!?ervation and 
public use to the pages of Sylvanus, 

To Herbert Croft, Esq. Southampton Row, 
Loadan. 

Saodleford, Sept 17,1782. 
Mre* Montagu presents her compliments 
to Mr. Croft, and would have returned an 
answer to hifl letter soonerp but being in 
the country it was delayed on its way to 
her, Iq reg:ard to ** Resignation," the 
mutter which gave occasion to that poem 
WM flimply thia : Mrs. Montagu having 
ohienred that Mrs. Boscaweni in her great 
and just grief for the loss of the Admiral, 
icemed to lind some cnnsolatioin in read* 
ing Dr. Young's Night Thoughts, ahe 
wished to give her an opportunity of con- 
versing with him, baring herself always 
thought his unbounded genius appeared 
to greater advantage iu the companion than 
the author. The Chri»<tian was in liim a. 



De. Akleksipb, 

Akenside's share in " Dodsley's Mu- 
seum," and the remuneration he re- 



I 



character more inspired, more enraptured, 
more subltme, than the Poet ; and ia his 
ordinary conversation, — 

letting down the goldcu chain iVoni aigb, 

He drtw hla aadionoe upward lo t\w sky, 

Mrs. M. therefore proposed to Mrs. Bos- 
cawen and Mrs. Carter to go with her to 
Welwyn : it is unnecessary to add that the 
visit answered every expectation. 

Mrs. Montagu is very sorry it is not in 
her power to furnish Mr. Croft with any 
important circumstances in Dr* Young "^s 
life ; but he was sank into the vale of years 
and qylet retreat, before she had the hon- 
our and happiness of his acquaintancesp and 
his contemplation being then chiefly inteut 
on things above the vistitie diurnal sphere^ 
be rarely talked of the earlier and more 
active part of his life. From others she 
lias beard mnny things greatly to his credit ; 
particularly an act of uncommon hberality 
to his lady's daughter by her first hus- 
band ; but as they were delivered to her 
In the vague relations of common discofirs>e| 
she cannot speak of them with such cer- 
tainty and precision as Mr. Croft *s pur- 
pose requirei;. Thia deficiency she greatly 
lamentSp noi only on account of the hon- 
our they would have done to the memory 
of her departed friend, but likewise for the 
sake of the world, to whom they would 
have held forth patterns of right and noble 
conduct. Though right and wrong are de- 
clared and mode known to us by higher 
wisdom thon .human wisdom, yet such is 
the perverseness of inankiad they are more 
aji^t to be inducuced by the example of 
persons celebrated for their parts than by 
pure precept ; for die same reason, io an 
unbetieving age, the interests of religion 
are connected with the character of a man 
so distinguished for piety as Dr. Young. 
Though unable to assist Mr. Croft, she 
must ever ret^peet him for endeavouring to 
get information from Dr. Y^oiuig's Mends 
concerning himj instead of collecting from 
the whispers of calumny idle tales by which 
to blast the memory of a good mau, and 
prevent the edification of a good example. 



ceived from Dodslcy for his services in 
that work, have eacai>ed hia biographer. 



* Let mc observe hens that I commenced my now largely aod ctiriouBly anaoLaUMl 
copy of Johnson's Lives in the year 1839, and that I have nearly ready for pnblicatioa 
a new edition of the Lives, with such corrections and new inatter inserted as my own 
unceasing love for the work has enabled me to supply *i^P. C. 



158 



Dr. Akenside — James BoawelL 



[Feb. 



All that Mr. Dyce says on the subject, 
in his able and otherwise ample life of 
the poet, is as follows : " He also con- 
tributed to Dodsley's excellent periodi- 
cal publication, The Museum, or Lite- 
rary and Historical Register, several 
prose papers which deserve to be re- 
printed.* The following document, 
from the original in my possession, is 
new to the biography of tne poet : — 

Jany. 20, 1745-6. 

Dr. Akinside ingages to Mr. Dodsley 
for six months, commeDciog the 25th of 
March next, — 

To prepare and have ready for the press 
once a fortnight, one Essay, whenever ne- 
cessary, for carrying on a work to be called 
The Museum. And also. 

To prepare and have ready for the press, 
once a fortnight, an account of the most 
considerable books in English, Latin, 
French, or Italian, which have been lately 
published, and which Mr. Dodsley shall 

James 

It is not known that Sir Alexander 
Boswell inherited his love of poetry 
from his father, and that the biographer 
of Johnson, like his son, was occasion- 
ally a ijoet. The following song, now 
first printed, and from the origmal in 
Boswell's own handwriting, was written 
by the charming biographer of John- 



famish : and the said Account of Books 
shall be so much in quantity as, along with 
the ^ssay above mentioned, may fill a sheet 
and a half in small pica, whenever so much 
is necessary for carrying on the said design. 

Dr. Akinside also engages to supervise 
the whole, and to correct the press of his 
own part. On condition — 

That Mr. Dodsley shall pay to Dr. Akin- 
side fifty pounds on or before the 27th of 
September next. 

^is also agreed that so long as Mr. 
Dodsley thinks proper to continue the 
Paper, and so long as Dr. Akinside con- 
sents to manage it, the terms above men- 
tioned shall remain in force, and not less 
than an hundred pounds per annum be 
offered by Mr. Dodlsley, nor more insisted 
op by Dr. Akinside, as witness our hands, 
Mark Akinside. 
RoBT. Dodsley. 

This document is in Akenside^s 
handwriting. 



Boswell. 

son, in comuiemoration of a tour he 
made with the famous Mrs. Rudd 
whilst she was under his protection, 
and for living with whom he was nearly 
disinherited by his father. Boswell 
occasionally sung the song on ihe Home 
Circuit. 



LUR6AN CLANBRASSIL. 

A SUPPOSED IRISH SONG. 

7\m«~" Drunk at night and dry in tht morning.*' 

O Lurgan Clanbrassil 1 how sweet is thy sound 
To my tender remembrance as Love's sacred ground ; 
For there gentle Fainelagh first charm'd my sight, 
And fiird my young heart with a fluttering deUght. 

When I thought her my own, O ! too phort seemed the day 
In a jaunt to Down Patrick, or a trip on the sea ; 
To describe what I felt then all language were vain, 
Twas in truth what the poets have studied to feign. 

But I found, oh ! alas ! that e'en she could deceive, 
Then nothing was left but to sigh, weep, and rave ; 
Distracted I fled from my dear native shore, 
Resolv'd to see Lurgan Clanbrassil no more. 

Yet still in some moments enchanted I find 

A warm ray of her fondness beam soft on my mind : 

While thus in bright fancy my Angel I see. 

All the world is a Lurgan Clanbrassil to me. 



Of Margaret Caroline Rudd, so in- 
timately connected with the forgeries 
of the rerreaus, there is this mention 
in Boswell's biography : — 

I talked a good deal to him [Johnson] 



of the celebrated Margaret Carc^e Rudd, 
whom I had visited, induced by the fame of 
her talents, address, and irresistible power 
of liascination. To a lady who disapproved 
of my visiting her, he said, on a former 
occasion, <*Nay, Madam, Boiweli is in 



1853,] 



A Journey from Paris tn ftuhf in 1736, 



I 
I 



tte right ; I should have visited ber my- 
self, were it not that they have now a trick 
of putting everything into the newspapers.** 
This evening he exclnimed, '* I envy him 
his acqutdntttnce with Mrs. Rudd/' 

b 

■ IT was now time for ua to turn our 

H faces south towards Italy. 

H To the reconi ni e n d a tiona we got fro m 

H London," from Dr* Mead and others 
to their friends in Italjj I must add 
we had from Mons. IMano, the greate.^t 

I book and print seller in FariSj recom- 
mendations to the academies in Florence 
and Rome. 
1736, A\igiat 28,— Mr. Rflmsay and 
I wrote letters to Edinburgh from this 
place, and next dnj set out Ibr Italy, 
by the way of Lynns, in the wat^ir- 
coach upon the river Beine drawn by 
horsses agaiui^t the ^trtmm. We had a 
grenl variety of company, good and 

■ bad, — monkK, juries ts, soldiers, sailors, 
merchants, and others. In general they 
were very noij^y, cat, drank, and sung 
perpetually ; and at night those that 
did not go aahore lay in the boat all 



159 

Would Johnson have envied him hiss 
song? 




A JOUnNEY FROM PARIS TO ITALY IN THE YEAR 1736, 

By AtisXA^NOffB GuNtiri^GHAif, M,D., afterwards Sir Axsxandim. Dick, of 

PrestonEeld, Bart 

{Thi Journal continued from pa jfe 36.) 

called, this day being Sunday, for 
Chiilon in Burgundy, where we had 
for company a merchant of Lyons and 
his wife, Mons. Marbleu, Darly, and 
the Gardccorps. We passed through 
the best wine country in Burgundy, 
and consequently in France. We saw 
vineyards of no less extent than fifty 
Scots acres, and the people al! hoeing 
betwixt the rows in great nutnbers ; 
the poles that supported the grajvcs 
were no more than lour feet high ; the 
soil of the vineyards inclined mtich to 
j^ravel, and was full of flintish stones. 
We were welcomed on the road near 
Chalon by a gentleman of that country, 
who had formerly been our fellow- 
traveller, who received and entertained 
us with the m*eatest civilities, and pre- 
sented us with the best wine5 of the 
place, which were out of his own 
vineyard? he appeared that morning 
blooming and cbeerfulj like the god of 
the vine, and gave us a very obliging 
invitation to his house, if we passed 
that way on our return. The Garde- 
corps diverted ns much; his name was 
Mons. Blanche tte, a true lively French- 
man : while he was with us m the 
water-coach, we sung, eat, drajik, and 
slept well. 8ome days before we got 
to Clmlon we passed throu"h a very 
rough coarse country, inclming to a 
tough clay, in which sort of ground no 
vines are ever planted, nor any com 
scarcely sown. Afterwards we cafne 
into very fine woods of great extent. 
In general, through all France, they 
have a third of their ground in summer 
fallow, and all their ridges straight. 

Septemb&r H, — Came to Chalon, and 
after breakfast we set out in the cache* 
fFeau^ where we were very well ac- 
commodated, and were very cheerful 
antl merry- Here we had fine pro- 
8l>ect8, delightful villages, beaittiftil 



higgledy-piggledy, which is their usual 
custom . There wa« a K n igli t o f Malta, 
and a Flan dri can with a big belly, a 
braggadacio Burgundian, several old 
gentlewomen, and a Gardecorps who 
sung merry songs in French; Mons. 
Marbleu a Gascon, and a Swiss gen tie - 
m&n who was always asleep, and Blons. 
Darly an Italian, and an English abbot. 
We contracted more intimacy with the 
Knight of Malta^ and Mons, Darly the 
Italian, in order to improve ourselves 
In their language. 

Aiigmt 31, — Lay at Sens, on the side 
of the nver : the wine improving daily 
till we calne into Burgundy, This is 
a pleaMnt village, situated iipon the 
side of the rising ground. Here we 
left the water-coach. 

Sf^ptrmbrr 1. — Went with the abbot 
and his nephew to Auxerre in Bur- 
gundy, in a cumqitiUff which is a better 
sort of cart. 

Stpii'mhrr 2, — ^Frora Auxerre we aet 
out in the coach, or dUigmce as it is 



160 



A Jouvjieif Jrom Paris to liul^ in 1736. 



[Feb. 



coUines planted with vines, gardens and 
country seats, for forty miles ; the 
cattle were small, but mostly white. 
We went down the river quickly, and 
were surprised how well the stulora 
that work these water -coaches catcbed 
the turns of the river, and how cleverly 
they bring the vessel off when it runs 
aground, imd how they change the 
horses. Here wc had nothing spoken 
of by the military men in our company, 
or those we happened to meet with, but 
the fate of the French on the Rhine, 
but especially in Italy, where thejt pre- 
tend all to have been. They spoke 
much of the wounds they received in 
the different actions ; the bad eating 
in Italy ; and the raasi^acre of Parraii, 
at the battle which happened there 
lately. The rougli old soldier and a 
young one in our company dilTcred 
much about facts. We observed the 
French soldiers were in general iM- 
clothed, but they said it was univer* 
sally expected there would be a reform. 

September 8. — We entered Lyons 
thiB nay : the view of it on our approach 
la extremely picturesque ; it h a very 
fine city, and fuO of trade, particularly 
in the silk manufacture. As wc ex- 
pected to stay longer in that city on 
our return from Italy we stayed but 
one night, at the Noans Ark. 

September 9. — The Italian gentleman, 
Mons. Darly, set out with us early in 
the morning for Marseilles, by the 
coche-d'ffaii^ which cornea down the river 
vary fast to Avignon, In our com- 
pany we had a strange mixture of ri(!- 
raffsort of people, particularly a very 
witty comical girl of Lyon», a Pro- 
vencal priest who was very entcrtaia- 
ing, a alattern from Marseilles without 
virtue or inode-*ity, aud a Uoinan with 
his wife and daughter who gave good 
diversion. As we went along we got 
every now and then a fresh cargo of 
Cordeliers and Capuchin monks. 

September 10.— We had set out tbat 
day at four in the morning, being Sun- 
day, and they all heard mass at Poussin. 

Sepleniber IK— Dined next day at 
Pont St. Esprit, where wo took in a 
very diverting Councillor of Aix ; who 
said to some of the priests tbat they 
had taken the vows of fainmiiiise 
(which means being idle), and told a 



good story, thougli a little indelicate, 
of the Capuchin, the landlord, and the 
sucking calf. Lay at Cad rouse ; got 
in a cargo of young Jesuits, who had 
the address to steal a book from us, 
wrote against that order of priests with 
much wit and acrimony. 

September 12. — Came to Avignon, 
where we saw a synagogue, and the 
Popes palace. A young Hebrew in 
our company attacked with argument 
one of our priests, which gave us no 
small diversion. The Jews here, and 
over all the Pone's dominions, are 
obliged to wear yellow hats. The Duke 
of Ormond,* whose residence is in this 
place, was gone to Mont pel ier, pro- 
bably for his health or change of air- 

September 12. — Set out for Aix, hav- 
ing lain at Orgon. All the road is ftdl 
of vineyards, and plantations of fig^, 
almond trees, and olives ; and where 
there happened to be any common, 
such as our nmors, they were every- 
where covered with lavender and rose- 
mary plants, instead of our heather; 
and, by the bruising of the wheels of 
carriages, as we passed along iu the 
heat of the day, the air was perfumed 
with the O'lJqi'ifcrous smell which arose 
from these plants, which was extremely 
agreeable and refreshiaof. While we 
passed idong the river llhone we ob- 
served the borders of it very rocky for 
many miles, and the stream very rapid. 
Wc passed the place where the Her- 
mitage vine grows, as also that of the 
Cott^rutc, W^e Ibund the wine ohout 
Avignon rather t^o strong. We ar- 
ri%'cd at Aix, a very fiac agreeable 
town, very well built, and weU iratered, 
and pleasantly situated ; the streets, 
like those of Leyden in Hollaml, 
planted with tall lime-trees in the 
1 lower ; the parliament house lofty and 
magnificent, and ricldy ornamented 
with gilding, Wc stayed two days 
here, at the Croix de Slalta, where I 
bought a tie-wig, to put me in proper 
dre^s when I should [be] arrived in 
Italy, to present my letters of reooin- 
mendation. 

September 15. — Set out for Maji- 
fistiiLES, a noble and very ancient city, 
formerly a Greek colonv, now a place 
of great trade with the Levant. Hero 
we arrived for four livres. The chaise 



* Jomea 13th Earl and 2d Duke of OrmonO, K.G. who had been attainted in 1715, 
nd died in »Ue iu 1746. 
G 



J 853.] 



A Jour 



luUy in 1736. 



161 



came through a pretty rough road into 
a most large and gpucious amphitheatre 
of a country shelving grailutilly on all 
L sides for manj miles towards the south 
kftnd south' west down to the sea, and 
the harbour where that line city ia 
placed. Everywhere, us far as your 
, eye can carry you along this auiphi- 
"weatre which surrounds the city, the 
fields and gardens arc atlornetl with 
Jegant neat country -seata or villas, 
which are called bantideSi to which 
the rich inbabitanta and merchants 
report durijig the fine 5ea,^on of the 
year^ especially in the time gf vintage, 
over all which places the finest flowers 
and fruits grow in the gfroatest pro- 
fusion. The firiit view of Marseilles suid 
the Mediterranean, as we de^aeended 
from the high grounds, pleasetl ub very 
much. When we arrived at the city, 
the magnificent broad street and the 
great appearance of trade were very 
striking. When wc entered into the 
great Exchange, where the merehants 
assembled, we observed them all ex- 
tremely well dressed, looking like 
noblemen and gentlemen of the first 
distinction, and a politeness seemed 
to reign there unknown in all the 
commercial places we had ever seen. 
What added to the magnificence of the 
assembly, was the great number of Ter- 
sian, Armenian, Turkish, and Egyptian 
merchantif, dressed in their turbann and 
long i"obe5 alter the manner of their 
several countries, the air of all those 

1 people having a great gravity and so- 
emnity in it. But it wn^ melaoeholy 
to meet with now and then the galley- 
ahives, mostly Turkri, two and two, 
^chained togelher, some of them gentle- 
Ben formerly of great condition ; they 
ore allowed, however, to keep cotTee- 
houBcs irhen they l>ehave well, and to 
, compliment stningerri with the sound 
of a trumpet, when they arrive in 
town, which brings them some little 
perquisites. The port of Marseilles 
for the shipping is a very fine one, 
well guarded : the King of France has 
sixteen gjdleys here, wrought by the 
•laves. The market-places for fruit 
^lilid flowers arc extremely well filled, 
as likewise for all sorts of vegetables. 
Great cni'e is taken here wilh respect 
to the bilU of health, ufion account 
of the pLigue, which ot\en rages in the 



Levant, and gives occasion for the 
strictest quarantine on suspicious occa- 
sions; there was the greatest reason 
for this caution, because in the year 
1720 the plague was imported into 
that fine city, which had very near 
depopulated it totally, had not the 
good Bidhop of Marseilles exerted an 
unconunon police durinj^ the rage of 
the pestilence^ ami the precautions 
which the Fremh King took at the 
lines of circumviillnlion to [irevent it 
spreading further into the kingilon*, 
as may be seen by the history of those 
timeii. 

Seiftember 16. — Having procured a 
bill of he;Uth, we set out from Mar- 
seilles in a iartane for Antibcs, with a 
Benedictine friar, a French corpoi-Jil 
whf> pretended to be an olhcer, and a 
genlleman from the town <tf Nice* We 
lay mostly on deck, among pEicks of 
wool, but in an iucunvenieiit manner. 
The accommodation below deck wjis 
still worse. AVe were at length very 
much beealmetl, and very warm. The 
sailors, the captain, nnd the coast of 
France alforded us some diversion sm 
we sailed along. 

September IH.— Wearied at length of 
the tartane and the calm, we desired to 
be set on shore at Cannes, from whence 
next morning we walked to Antihes, 
through a moKldulightful spotof plun- 
tations of vines, figs, almonds, pome- 
granates, and fragrant fiekls. We went 
from Antibea that morning to Nict:, 
where we had the first view of Italy. 
The women were dressed iliileienLly 
from the French in their hair and in 
their clothes* From not taking due 
precautions in the night-time, by pla- 
cing the nets round the beds, we were 
bit prodigiously by mosquitoes during 
the night, and by not a few buggs into 
the bargain. 

Septembpf '20, — It was here we saw 
the great fishing of anchovies, which 
is done by a great tract of long nets 
pulled into tlic shore, where the fish 
are pickled and barreled »oon after 
they are taken. This fishing obtaina 
many miles along this coast about this 
season of the year, 

September 1 1 . — We set out for Genoa 
in fk/eUrnvhe* with two Egyptian mer- 
chants, and our old friend Mons.Darly, 
in our company. We came late to 



Gent. Mag. Voi.. XXXIX. 



* A felucca. 



A Journeif fi'om Paru to Itahf in 1736. 



162 

MojtACo that eveaiiigi belonging to the 
Prince of that name, who, though \m 
territories are siimll, yet suojiorta \i\s 
dignity with all the loniuuity whicli 
attend-i the grentet^t prinees. We were 
curried before his superintendent, and 
examined in all the forms H^i to the 
destination of our voyage, &c. Here 
nU the houseji are painted on the out- 
aide, and make w very tine show. 
Upon every occasion we took care to 
lay in btores of the beat wine and fruits 
113 we went aluiig the eouutt^ betjides 
cold fowls, bread, oil, vinegar, ham, 
and anehovles ; we made tlie :*ailors 
welcome to part of oar fure» which in- 
gratiated us much with these hardy 
Eeraons, who Bpoke » coarse Genoese 

September 22. — Rn i led along the coast 
of Genoa^ and, it lieinn; fine weather, 
lay in the boat; and there we could 
observe tlie Alps towering up to an 
immense height, covere<l with clouds, 
towards the north and towards the 
east. In that buy we could observe, 
betwixt the sea ami the hills, a fine 
\^tit country bdonging to the (lenoeae, 
full of excellent rich trading townB. 

September 2li, — Arriveii at Uknoa, 
where we obfterveil a very noble ap- 
earance in the entry of the port, with 
palaces, gardenn, and natural 
I strength aiid beauty of the grounds, 
I Genoa h fult of tine churches, built tri 
livery good taste. The palace Durazzi 
III very noble, and there are many line 
lAtiLtues to be g^een in the colleetions 
llitire ; the pillar^; and stnirrases of that 
I palace within are all white innrble 
llroni the ffreat ^pnirries upon the sea- 
I tide, not far from Genoa« We lodged 
lut the Crcjce di Malt^i, and had oeca* 
l^on thut evening to t^up with ^oine con- 
Ividerable French and Spanish otiicers, 
[mud sut with ihem till it was pretty 
llAte. Mr. Ramsay and I were then 
nducted to a very iitible a[Mirtment 
1^ two beils. I chose the one next the 
[door. The servant who lighted un 
Flip to our ehamberf 1 remember, woa 
[dressed in grecn^ and a very g^enteel 
Ifettow, of whom sonic notice wilt after- 
I Ward5 be tidtcn ; <br, during tht^ night, 
|H»ere was stolen out of luf breeches, 
hliiit were hung upon a chair, funrteen 
lauis-d'ors by some rogue who had gol 
into the bedchamber, mid had the arch- 
ness to put in place ol the gold conrse 
briM money, called /Mry^u^^, about 



[Feb, 



the value of our halfpennies ; he did 
not touch my gold wut<:h, nor some 
rings I had* I did not come to dis- 
cover this till Mr. Ramsay and 1 were 
going to pay the bill to Sigimr Mar- 
telli, the landlord, who seemed to be a 
very gtwid honest man, and master of 
this inn, of n very hig!j character, and 
much frerpiented by the English. I 
made a great noise to the landlord, 
who secmcti very much concerned for 
the crc<lit of his bou^e. Finding the 
matter s<», 1 gave him the coarse brass 
nmney, atK'r payin;^ his bill, and de- 
sired liim at his leij^ure to make in- 
quiry after the rogue, not thinking it 
worth my while to spciifl money or 
time in prosecuting? (he thet\. 1 told 
him I BUflpected some of his own ser- 
vants, rmd, if he found out the truth, 
to write to me at Home, vvliji h he ac- 
cordingly did many montli^d afterwards, 
having taken the utmost pains for the 
sake of \m hniis*i to diucover the cri- 
minal, wlio liji|i|M;ncd to be that very 
servant in the green ehithes who lighted 
IIS ufi, nncl h:ui seen me pay for s*ome 
velvet, and I tike son»c gold out of my 
purser the dny l>efore. The landlortl 
hiid mside the discovery by the Il-IIuw^bj 
losing louia-dWH at playi of which he 
could give no account ; but afterwards, 
having confessed it, lie wa» sent to the 
galleya for life. Let no one who travels 
be too ready to show their purses, that 
have gold in them, which all i^harpers, 
when they have onee observed, will 
think of tiily way** to come at. In re- 
turn lor much entertainment from these 
foreign travels, please tnke a copy of 
my ail vice to a friend travelling in 
England: 

no Kure, ilcnr Douipiikn'p nrhmi ymx goto IknU 
1 Isiy y'*«i' ljrt*c'lK'» hintif XmncAlU ymtr heutl ,• 
Tkrt>w llicni ntit oft wHU m iit^rlt^lfnl en*e, 

If ynti n.>rart1 '---i- -• ^ - '"■■' '■-■■- ; 

tor itiiiiiy (1 1 I' , 

Who todbliii . ,,.; 

Tlititk Y»a tit liitiA t.Uat p^u imvt^ ttuUKht iu (wir / 
Itiive OnUcm Uicu AiUlpttthiL-* ni iteer/ 
lliia il>o I'rbk Wnltcr ^o( uo iiAraiat^ur f 
U^A noul-iAlch toVu the vuw of tx&b^ poat t 

h wm an ohl Latin mying of the 
{leople of Genoa, who bore the name 
of tim Ligurijuij ihnt the ^ >tfU 

umncB /uteti. In [luit wi ed 

the truth of this: but umwi^auy it 
wius not true, (ur a better man than 
our Ittiidlord, Mons. MarteUt, cuuhl 
not be in any country. There seemed, 



1853.] 



A Jour 



Park to Italy in 173(3. 



im 



iudeoil^ to prevail among the low 

people an uncommon abarpnui^s and 

keeiuiesj^ of bflMwIour, being very 

urgent — such as tlie porters ami boat- 

nen — to serve you ujion your arrival, 

and carry your baggage to tlie inn ; 

ind, after you had paid lar^fely those 

rhat they soujiht for serving you, 

l©thei*s appearttl uiakiao; 'jlahnti upon 

■you for their being ready to serve you, 

if you had had oceasion. 

At the time we were at Genoa they 
were sending daily troop^^ and many 
in their galleys, to prosecute the war 
they then had against Kin«j Theodore 
in Coi*9ica. 

It was our fortune to meet here at 

Genoa with an En^li.sh clergyman, one 

Mr. Smith of Postwilham,* a ne[jhew 

of the great Sir Isnatj Newton, who Fiad 

been some time at Genoa before we 

came* A^ he was desirous^ to be of our 

ompany, to proceed through Italy by 

be way of Leghorn, to this we agreed, 

' and hu*eil betwixt ua afehim'ht'. 

September 2.5.— Monday morning siet 

j^^ul coastwise for Leghorn, and came to 

"' dtri, where, as the wind was not fair, 

fc stayed two nights with a Spanidb 

'unily. Here, for want of attention, I 

llost my wig I lately purchased. 

StptetnhtT 28. — 8et out at three in 

Jibe morning i dined at Porto Fiuo^ 

fhich was so full of Spaniards and 

LGenoese that there was not the knLst 

boom for ua to be aecommodatL^d ; so 

Ethat we were obliged to set sail in tin.' 

livening, which had then a very phrasing 

la^peet. We resolved to continue tmt 

[ night, and, crossing that long bay, 

•xpecting to make Leghorn in the 

finorning. As it happened^ there were 

everal Spanish men-of-war and traus* 

ports that night iu the bay, who bad 

|yeturned from the eonqueat of Naples, 

under the conduct of the Conde de 

Monlemar, the comnmnder-iu-t^hicf, 

. who At tliat time wiis residing iu Fita, 

At our betting out we passed six Spa- 

niwh nien*of-wiir, the sea I hen quite 

calm and agi'eeable ; but, alinut ton 

o*ck»ek at night, opj>oaite to Massa, we 

were overtaken by a dreadful storm ; 



the sea in a moment had a most furious 
aspect, eontinuady increasing, with im- 
meuitc billovvi?, the wind varying often 
froni different tpiarters. In this dread- 
ful manner we were tossed till about 
three next morning, having our rudder 
broken, our compass useless, our men 
dif*pirited, the sea and the winds ntung, 
the inmnx not up, and nt length there 
uppeareiJ no hope, nor ihe least chance 
to remain for our safety. Our Genoese 
sailurn at the Oiiry invoked all their 
i^aints : an English sailor, who hap- 
pened to be in the erew, aud an old 
man, the master of the fehuche^ wtio 
was at the rudder, were the only two 
who ahoweil npirll, though the moving 
complaint H of tlie old iHan*s little son, 
in the most [jbdntive Italian, would 
have melted a heart of stone, particu- 
hirly of Ills remciubrance of his rara 
nmdtc^ his dear mother, and his vare 
mreiUt Ins two dear sisters. Our fe- 
vereu^i clergyman Mr. Smith, and his 
man Tom, who were both stripped in 
order to swiuir had many grievous 
moanings lietwixt them, fearing a 
sudden separation for ever, having 
been long acquuioled. Mr* Smitri, 
though Sir Isaac Newton's nephew* 
hftp[)ened to be a very IjjuI iistronoiner, 
insisting that he saw the li^jht of Leg* 
horn, and ct^ntended we shonld steer 
towai'ds that^ but we were soon un- 
deceived by observing that the litflii 
came from one of the low stars. Sir. 
llamsay, wjio wtis a good swimmer, 
stripped likewise ; but for myself, who 
couhl not swim, I reektmed on certain 
deat!i ; but before 1 gave all up, I 
thought it best to examine what wine 
we had yet remaining, and having got 
several tbisks full, 1 instantly tlTstri- 
biited them amongst our sailors, making 
them a short speech in I ta I ian, repeat- 
ing the word nnitno! ammo! which is 
courage, courage, ttwi fratdU! my 
brethren \ and particularly addressing 
myself to the jiadroue at the helm, and 
the English sailor, who 1 eonjared not 
to lose his heart, wbieh he promtse4 
not to do as long as he could keep hold 
of it. I last addressed myself to Mr. 



• The Rbt. Beojaroin Smith, B.D. Hon of ihe Rev, Bamnbas Smith, Rector df 

North Withain, »nd himself fubsecpiently Rector of Linton in Yorkihire, where h« 

filled in 177(). lie was aa improT-ident and ^ingulnr rharactei% and scverftl anecdotto 

|iOf htm^ coin municA ted bj the Rev. William SticepHhnnke, Prebendary of Cnrlt^h^ are 

printed iu Whitakcr's History of Craven, and in Nichols** Literary Jlluatnitiaiis, 

vol. iv> p. 3S. 



164 



A Journey fi^om Parisi to Itahf in 1736, 



[Feb. 



Smith aud his man Tom, desiring them 
not to lose liope,-^ of meeting one an- 
other in u hciter nhiee; mul lastly, 1 
said what occurred to me in the most 
moving manner to my friend and dear 
travelling companion, M\\ Albn Ram- 
say ; and I took out my gold watch 
and rings, to see if lie could fasten 
them any way to his army, and if he 
shoulel escape anyhow by sv\imming, 
and reach Britain again, tliat he wouhl 
deliver tbo watch and ringy to my 
much beloved young wife I had just 
married before I set out, with my 

Erayera and imprecations for his safety, 
oping, if he survived, he would always 
remember me, and tliat I had the 
strimgest imprcaaionia upon my mind 
that, if the worst should happen^ we 
should certainly meet in a 1>etter place : 
tliaii as I could not swim, I could 
make no effort for my safety, and in- 
stantly covered myself up with an old 
sail as a winding-sheet, and bidcJing 
them all farewell, and calling out 
aninm! ammo! to the sailors, most de- 
voutly resigned myself over to my fate. 
Ail tliis while the sea rtiii niountoins 
high, all over white with froth, easily 
discernible by the fiery vapour which 
rises always in a storm. At length, by 
the perseverance of our men. and mercy 
ofDivine Providence, the wind chopped 
about to blow from the sea towards 
land with Ihe greatest imjietuosity ; 
and, on the 2Dth, in the morning, our 
/elonche was violentl y cast upon a shore 
at the bottom of a large wood, where 
there woA neither rocks nor high banks, 
not far distant from the city of Vka. 
Here every one scrambled afihore, m 
spite of the great surf and crazy con- 
dition ofour /WowtAe. A sailor carried 
me out on bis back, almost up to his 
neck in the sea ; onr trunks and bag- 
gage, though very wet, we saved aud 
got a^ihorc, and, by good fortune, got 
into a fisher*s hut, where were assem* 
bled some of t!ie Spanish troops who 
had that night been shipwrecked on 
the coast. They presented ub with 
wine and refreshments, which were 
very comfortable ; and our mutual 
misfortunes so cemented us by the re- 
flection of our mutual delivery by an 
unconuiion interposition of Divine Pro- 
Tidenee, that we seemed all as one na- 
tion ; and ouj* reverend clergyman, 
Mr. Smithy who felt uncommon joy in 
recovering hh man Tom, gave us all 



his benediction in the warmest man- 
ner. We lighted a large fire cf sticks 
at a little di(>tanL'e from the hut, aud 
made tinother agreeuble libation of the 
Spaniards* wine, which they very joy- 
fully and plentifully supplied us with. 
As day approached we began to think 
of sending for chaises from Pisa, and 
accor*Jingly, one of the sailors was de- 
spatched upon that errand, and brought 
us a couple of good chaises for Mr- 
Smith and his man Tom, and Mr, 
Kamsay and me. We took leave of 
our friends the Spaniards witli great 
cordiality, and hoped to meet them 
again at Pisa: and having paid amply 
ibr our Jelou(*ht\ and rewarded v?ell the 
sailors who had helped to save us, we 
got into our chaises, and, as we were 
going up the heighti?, it was even ter- 
rible then to look upon the sea, being 
one volume of froth even after the 
storm was now subsided. The woods 
through which we pa?iied were very 
pleasing, ancl all the fields of the 
country about Pisa, in our road to it, 
are most verdant meadows and gardens, 
with canals of fresh water. It is in- 
conceivable the joy of the refreshing 
sleep we had lor many hours after our 
arrivah We visited this fine city in 
the forenoon and afternoon, and in the 
evening went to the opera, where we 
saw the Duke de Montcmar, who was 
an old venerable Spanish soldier, with 
black whiskers, sitting dangling in his 
box among six pretty women. The 
city of Pisa was full then of Spanish 
soldiers, and scarce allowed any room 
ftir strangers. It was famous oi old for 
the first revival of painting by Cimabue 
and Giotto, long belbre Kaphael. 

September 30. — Sunday, set out in 
chaises for Leghorn, and came there 
before dinner, through a fine wood. 
Here, for w^ant of my fMjculinr atten- 
tion, while Mr, Kamsay and 1 fre* 
fpiently chose to leave tlic chaises to 
rome after us, to walk on some miles, 
I then had my boots stolen from me on 
the road, which make* me give this 
cuution to everybody who travels to 
have all their eyes about them. 

October L — We found the city of 
IhiEijiiokn a very thriving place for 
tracle. Many English reside here. Five 
thousand Spanish troops* were thci*c at 
that time, who had come after the con- 
quest of Naples to reside there ; and 
they were in the utmost good order, 



d 



t] 



Corrtfapondence of Sf/lvanus Urban > 



165 



I 



well clothed in blue, njicl- well paid. 
We frequently dined and supped with 
Spanish otlicer.s, and euuld obai^rve 
they bad no great opinion of Don Car- 
lo?!, the Spanish King of Naples they 
had been fighting for, for they told ua 
a story of the King : one morning, when 
he waa feeding bLs cocks and hen;?, a 
diversion be was very fond of, the 
Duke de Jfontemar observing him 
always losingj and holding down his 
head at this amusement , the day before 
the battle of Bittonto, he says to him, 
" Haussez la tt-te^ man Prince^ Je vous 
ferai lioi taniot'' And indeed this 
battle secured the crown of Naples to 
him ; and the English had a hand in 
this victory, by transporting most of 
the troops, Mr. Howard wna our 
banker at Leghorn to supply lu with 
money, and was extremely civil to ns, 
and gaie us letters of recommenda- 
tion to the places where wc went in 
our way to Rome, and, wbuii we 
c^nie there, to Signer Bellont, the great 
ban ken The news of our shij wreck 
had reached Leghorn before we ar- 
riTed^ insomuch that Mr. Howard was 



very glad to see lis, as were Mr. Aik- 
man and many other gentlemen. Mr, 
Ramsay had written from Leghorn 
a long letter to his father, the poet, at 
Edinburgh, which I did not see till I 
canie home, wherein he said that 1 had 
saved our livcii by my keeping up the 
spirits of the sailors of tlie feltmche, 
and by the animation I had given tliem 
by the presence of mind I was pos- 
sessed of at that time ; and said that, 
when things came to the worst, I 
seemed to die like Socrates in his last 
nmments. My friend, old Allan the 
poet, wa5 very fond to show me this 
letter, and told me, at the same time, 
a vei7 singular circumstance, that he 
dreamed that very night, the 21)tb of 
September, the night of our storm, 
that we were cast away upon the coast 
of Italy, but were providentially saved. 
The letter I wrote to my dear young 
wife, then at Clermiii^ton (my Jarm 
near Edinburgh), was written in the 
mildest manner 1 could conceive it, 
anil she and old Allan Ktunsay com- 
pared notes, to the joy of all our 
friends. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF SVLVANUS URBAN. 

Ttj* RiH anil Prograaa of the Dowlalii Iroaworka— Robin Hood and Slierwcwkl Forest— EnglWi Etymo- 
logtoe : Hue and Anuxo. Aumtcanil Kate. Mate, Make, MutcJu n^^^ Itect— Mouamctital loKirlp- 
tiunireGentl/reeovGrodjitClioldcrton, Wilt«— The Prince of Orange's March in Kti*«— Tlio Pos- 
l«rfty of llAlpli Ttioreaby tho Autiqiiiir7— FAntUy Begister of the WJUUrlnffton*. 

Rise and Pkoorbss of the Dowlais Iron Works. 



Ma. Urban,— The Obituary of your 
Jaiiuftry MR^axine contained a brief but 
just and Accamte trihute to the memory of 
the Ittte Sir Josiah John Guestf Bart, of 
DowlaU ; and your renders, after penuing 
that roemoirf will probably toke some in- 
terest in the following particulars of the 
tteps by which his vast conoems were 
raised to the magnitude in which he left 
them. 

The mineral lease of Dowlaiswas granted 
about 1748 by Lord Windsor, and under 
it was erected the first furnace in South 
Wales for the reduction of iron ore by 
raenns of pitcoaU By degrees the Guest 
family became possessed of a part of the 
interest in Ibis lease, and, finally^ on the 
death of his fadier Mr, Thomas (iuest, 
and of bis ancle, by marriage, Mr. Taitt, 
to 181 5, Mr. John Guest i^ucceedcd to nine 
siiteenths, and his brother Mr. Thomas 



Revell Guest, to one sixteenth of the 
whole* Mr. Thomaa Guest^ who was his 
only brother, died, childless, on the 30th 
Jan, 1837. 

After having spent a few years at school 
at BridgcnortliT and afterwards at Mon- 
mouth, Mr. John Guest pafsed through 
the difiTereRt departments of the works, 
mastered the details of each, and the 
language of the people^ and finally acted, 
URder his uncle, as general manager. 

The concern was thou in its infancy* Its 
produce, which in 1 BOG had been about 
7,000 tons of pig iron, was even then only 
20,000 tons, from four blast fRrnaces. 
The finances also were so embarrassed, 
that it is said to have been a serioua con- 
sideration with Sir John whether he should 
engage in the works, or push his fortune 
in some other direction. 

Having decided upon the former course, 




166 



Correspondence of Syhanus Urban. 



[Feb. 



he speedily raised the number of furnaces 
to eight, and the annual production to 
30 or 40,000 tons; and about 1834 there 
were eleven furnaces, and, by the introduc- 
tion of new blowing machinery and im- 
proved arrangements for the raising and 
transport of the raw material, the annual 
production was raised to about from 45 to 
50,000 tons. 

About 1826 Dowlais boasted twelve 
furnaces, and the largest blowing engine 
tiien known. In 1831 Sir John patented 
a plan for running the melted metal at 
once from the blast furnace into the re- 
fifaery, by which means he effected a con- 
siderable saving in fuel and in the waste 
of metal, and rendered his works equal to 
the annual production of 60,000 tons, thus 
taking in the trade the lead which he ever 
afterwards maintained. 

In 1835 there were fourteen furnaces, 
arid to meet the rising demand for rail- 
ivay bars; and, notwithstanding the ap- 
proaching termination of his lease, he had 
the spirit, in August, 1840, to augment 
the furnaces to eighteen, and by the intro- 
duction of various improvements (patetlted) 
in the manufacture, he raised the power of 
production to 100,000 tons annually, and 
actually produced that quantity of raw 
iron in 1849, when he sent into the market 
75,000 tons in the form of bars and rails. 

Among the principal improvements in 
the manufacture should be mentioned the 
substitution of coal for coke, first in the 
blast furnaces and finally in the refineries, 
80 that coke is not liow employed in the 
Dowlais Works. 

This enormous increase in production 
was attended by a corresponding increase 
in the branches of mining operations and 
finance, and in the number of the work- 
people, involving a multitude of subordi- 
nate arrangements. 

Thus, the steam power, which in 1815 
was inconsiderable, at this time amounts 
to 4,989 horse power, of which the blow, 
ing engines employ 2,063, the forges 
and rolling mills 1,380, the coal and ore 
works 967, brickmaking 17, stabling 9, 
and locomotion 554.* In 1849 there were 
500 horses employed. The Dowlais Works 
freight, on an average, a ship a day in the 
port of Cardiff. 

Of ore, q>al, and limestone, about 
740,000 tons are annually raised, besides 
about 1,171,000 tons of shale and useless 
matter, Raised to be thrown aside. 

In 1815 Dowlais contained from about 
1,000 to 1,200 workpeople, residing in 
100 cottages. At this time there are pro- 
bably 3,000 cottages and 15,000 inhabit- 



ants, of whidh about 7,000 draw pay direct 
from the works. 

The money payments in labour rose in 
1845-6-7 to 30^000/. per month, or 
360j060/. per annum — a sum, the mere 
providing of which in coin to meet the 
weekly demand, was a somewhat weighty 
financial operation. 

At one time Sir John Guest possessed a 
bank at Cardiff. He was also an original 
promoter of, and a very large shareholder 
in, the Taff Vale Railway, of wjiich he was 
for many years the chairman, and always 
its principal freighter. 

Sir John died, as he had ever wished to 
die, at Dowlais, amidst his own people, 
and is there buried. His funeral was at- 
tended by an immense concourse of about 
20,000 persons, most of whom were more 
or less connected with his works. By 
common consent all business and work 
were suspended, and the shops closed in 
the district. 

Notwithstanding his great wealth and 
his position at the bead of a principal 
branch of British industry. Sir John Guest 
preserved habits of great simplicity, was 
humble in his estimate of himself, and sin- 
gularly unobtrusive in his deportment, so 
that few were aware of the real extent of 
his information. 

Few great manufacturers have been bet- 
ter acquainted with the details of their 
business, or with the persons, circum- 
stances, and peculiarities of their work- 
people ; with them he at all times pre- 
served a friendly personal intercourse, and 
to their complaints he was always accessi- 
ble, and numberless are the instances of 
ability, skill, and good conduct which he 
detected and brought forward among 
them. 

His foresight and sagacity in business 
were remarkable, and his first impression 
was usually correct. Most of the exten- 
sions in the Dowlais Works were projected 
and executed during the depressions of the 
trade, so that he found himself in a con- 
dition to profit largely by the improve- 
ments, usually sudden, in the markets. 
Though not himself a man of deep science, 
he was very well informed in chemistry, 
mineralogy, and such subjects that bore 
upon his business, and his custom was 
always to consult the highest authorities on 
those subjects, and to obtain sound opi- 
nions he spared no expense. 

He was a man of remarkably calm tem- 
perament, seldom acting, even in trifies, 
without deliberation, and not easily in- 
duced to relinquish an opinion once 
formed. He possessed a remarkably fine 



* As recently as 1814 the ore was carried to the furnaces in sacks and panniers on 
the backs of miiles. 



1853,] 



Carrespondencff ofS^hamu§ Urban* 



m 



I 



I 



temper, eind Although the accidents of an 
active life had, of course, often brouj^bt 
him into collision with otHeni, be was him- 
*elf the enewy of no one* and when he 
could »peak no guod of a miui he was 
silent. 

During liie Merthyr duta of 1831 he 
shewed, under very trying cireamstancei, 
^IT«C personal couro^^e. After all nego- 
dations had failed, he interposed between 
the soldterSt just about to tire, and the 
people, whom he addressed in their own 
language, and solely bj his personal in- 
tfuenca f>re?eQted a very serious cHui^ioii 
of blood. 

The iron- masters of Merthyr, as a body, 
have not been remarkable for attention to 
the interests of their workpeople ; but as 
early as IH'iA Sir John Guest and his 
partners built and enckiwed a churcli at 
Dowlais, and founded schools, which now 
number about 1,01)0 children daily, A 
medji-al fund, and also a sick fund, sup- 
ported and managed by the workpeople, 
have long been establifthed. As early as 
1631 tbe bUet-furuaceH at Dowlaia were 
stopped during Sunday, and the works are 
now so completely dosed that probably 
not above a dozen men are to be found 
upon them on that day, Thtse ezctmpleit 
have been hut little followed in the neigh- 
bourhood. To ,the truck system in tt» 
various forms Sir John Guest was steadily 
opposed. 

The long uocertainty aa to the Dowlais 
Itwe matertally checked Sir John's pro- 
jects for the improvement of Ids people; 
but, upon its renewal in 1848, he set to 
work in earnest, and, notwithstanding the 
depressed state of the trade and the larg*3 
demands upon his purse in buying out his 
two partners, sod iti the heavy outlay re- 
quired upon the works, he itpproved of 



plana for schools, for the site of which he 
proposed to give up the gardens attached 
to hi* residence. The very last act of his 
life was the establij^liment upon his own 
responsibility of a savings bank, for the 
encouragement of provident habits among 
his workpeople imd the inhabitants of 
Dowlais. 

Those who knew him best, and were 
consulted by him during the uegociatiou 
respecting t^e renewal of the lease, were 
well aware that his principal reasoti for 
reentering, under very lanfavouruble dr- 
eam « tun ces and with dei lining health, 
upon HO stupendous an undertaking^ was 
his strong apprehension of the mtser) which 
the stoppage of the works would occasion 
in the dii»trict he loved so well. 

Sir John Gueij>t contributed more than 
any other individuol to raise the iron ma- 
nufacture of Great Britain to its present 
tlon ribbing condition. From small be- 
ginnings, by the exercise of industry, me- 
ctmuiciil skill, and u rare combination of 
prudence and boldness, he created the 
largest mauufatturing establishment ever 
known, built up for himself a colossal for- 
tune, and has left behind him a name ever 
to be mentioned us un authority in the 
annuls of the trade, with affection in the 
principal tteat of the man ufactu refund with 
respect by the world. 

lie died full of yearis, In the midiit of 
his children and people, successful in all 
his undertakings, having had ample time 
and inclination to prepare for his latter 
end , and leaving behind bini a wife of tried 
affection atid experience, tn whom, living, 
he had unbounded confidence, and to 
whom, on his death, he trusted the uncou- 
troHkd management; of the whole of hi^ 
enormous and complicated concerns. 

Yours, !kc. — 



Robin Hood and Shbrwooi> Pohkst. 



Mr, Uaoan, — 1 send for the perusal 
of those of your readers who do not be- 
lieve that •* Merry Sherwood" was the 
HartE forest or a Teutonic myth (for those 
who assume Robin Hood to be the crea- 
ture of A Teutonic myth or fable must 
dispose of the Forest of Sherwood by the 
same procesi of imagination) — a document 
of the highest authenticity and truth, nh, 
the appointment of additional Commis' 
sioners to a Commission of Inquiry into 
the offences committed against the vert 
and venison of Sherwood Forest in the 
year 1315. 

In my opinion this record is not only 
corroboratitre of the view Mr. Hunter^ has 



taken respecting the exploits uscribed to 
Robin Hood and his companions, Lu 
No. IV. of his " Critical and Historical 
Tracts," hut iiUo illustrates what be therein 
observes, that many of the popular songs 
transmitted to us f^m ancient times are 
worthy of aceeptstion — a faith wnrninted 
by the example of Selden and of Hearnei 
who both believed that there was some 
historic truth in many of these compo* 
sitionsj. 1 hope your readers will absolve 
me from the imnutation that herein I pro- 
fess to assist Mr. Hunter, who has done 
quite enough already to ditperse the no* 
tiun of the outlaws of Sherwood Forest 
being mere creatures of the imagination 



* The Great Hera of the Ancient Miusirelsy of Englaml, ■' Robin Hood." Uii 
Period, Real Cbaracterp &c* investigated, and perhaps ascertained. By Joseph Hunter, 




im 



Con-esponder^ce of Sylvanus Urban, 



[Feb. 



referrible to tLe remotest ages of Anti- 
quity, — I merely give the record as I Hud 
it. It is one of tho*'c plain matter-of-fact 

E feces that afford their own commentary j 
tit pcrhapc In the facts related in this 
rc€ord your readers may discover some 
approach to the incidents suog ia two of 
the ballada in Robio Hood^i Garland** 
However^ the words of the record cannot 
be miBjaterpreted. 

(Translation,) 
Fbr the King, eencemintj mquirjf qf the 
ire«pa»s commit ltd in vert and veumn tn 
^ the foreti of Shirewoffe,— The King, to 
'his beloTed and ftiitliful John of Done* 
caster and Walter nf Gousle, Greetiog i 
Know ye, That wUereajs it lately having 
been given us to understand that Robert 
Joice, Richard of Dogcnerifetd, and Robert 
of Kirtelington, and other eril-doer^i, had 
been very recently convicted of divers 
tretpaEfies as well of vert as of venison in 
oar Forest of Shirewood, and afterwards 
had not been deterred from committing 
the like trespassea, [and tliat] Williaiti of 
Dogmcrsfelo, the Steward of the Forest 
aforesaid, was comforting the aforenamed 
Robert, Richard, and Robert, and other 
ovll-doora, in their wickedness, and re- 
tained the said Richard, after he waa ao 
convicted, in the service of the forest 
against the oasiae of the same, adhering 
to the aforesaid evil-doers in their wicked- 
ncsa, not without our gricvoos damage 
and the spoil of the forest aforesaid, and 
committing the like wrongs : We, being 
deairouB to be more fully certified, had 
assigned our beloved and faithful WtlUsm 
fitz William, Thomas of Nc^vmarket, and 
Hugh de Cres«y, and two of them, to 
ii^uire by the oath of f^ood men, &c, 
oa Well of Ihojc who abide within the 
ineiea of the forest aforesaid, as of others 
of the county of Nottingham, by whom, 
Ike. in the presence of the aforesaid 
William Dogmersfcld, to be forewarned, 



if h« wished to he present, by the afore- 
said William htz William, Thomas, and 
Hugh, or two of them, whether tJie same 
William was comforting the aforenamed 
Robert, Richard, and Robert, and other 
evil-doers making trespasB of vert and 
of veniaoo io such manner in our afore- 
said foreat before the same Robert, 
Richard, Rnbert, and other evil-doers 
were convicted of such like trespasses and 
afterwards, and did retain him the same 
Richard in the service of the forest against 
the assise of the same, and had adhered to 
them the samit Robert, Richard, and 
Robert, and other the evil-doers aforesaid 
in the same trespasses as is aforesaid, or 
no, and concerning all other things touch- 
ing that business [tn inquire] more fully 
the truth aa in our writs patent to the 
same William, Thomas, and Hugh, or two 
of them, thcrcofi directed, more fully is 
contained : We have associated you or the 
other of you to the aforesaid William, 
Thomas, and Hui;h, and two of tliem, to 
perform and fulfil all and singular the 
premises together with the same WHliam, 
Thomas, and Hugh, or two of them. So, 
nevertheless, That if at certain days and 
places which the same William, Thomas, 
and Hugh, or two of tbeiUf shall for this 
purpose appoint, it shall happen that jrou 
or one of you be present, that then they do 
admit yoii or one of you for this purpose aa 
fellows or a feOow, else, !kc* And therefore i 
we command you that you do take heed I 
to all and dngukr the premises, together f 
with the same William , Thomas, and Hugl!, J 
or two of them, to be performed in form] 
aforesaid. For we have commanded thai 
same William, Thomas, and Hugh, and' 
two of them, that they do admit you or 
one of you for thb purpose as fellows 
or a fellow as is aforesaid. In [witnes^ j 
whereof, A:c, Witness the King at Witl£| 
sor, the 7tJi day of April [1315J. 

Tliere ia also upon the hack of the same j 



• Robin Hood*« Delight j or, a New Combat fought between Robin Hood, Little 
John, and W^ill. Scarlett, with three atowt keepers in Sherwood Forest. 
The conclusion of this combat was— 

*' So away they went to Nottingham, 
W^ith sack to make amends ; 
For three days they the wine did chace, 
And drank themselves good friends. 

No. 17 of the copy of " Rnhin Hood*8 Garland,*' 
London : R. Marshall, in Aldermary Churchyard, Row Lane. 

Robin Hood and the Ranger ; or. True Friendship after a Fierce Fight* 
The conclusion is much the same aa in the preceding, 

*♦ The forester ne'er was to merry before, 
As be then was with those brave sonb, 
Who never would fail, io wine, beer, or ale. 
To take of those cboriahiug buwU.*' 

No. ^I\ of the aame copy of the Garland. 



1853.] 



Correspondence ofSi^ivanus llrtmn. 



160 



Roll a fiimikr Commbsion for disorders 
committt:d in Cranbonru Chiue. 

Uopiog that your readers will concur 



with me in believing that the above iB any- 
thing but mythical, 

I aui, yonra, Jkc. T. E»T. 



English Ettmology. — Maze and Amaze. Amatb and Mats. 
MakEj MatcH) and Meet, 



Matk, 



I 
I 

I 
■ 



Mr. Urban, — Tlie nn certain ties of 
EDglish Etymology are among the con- 
gequences of the multifarious origin of 
our language* The ordinary use of a 
word has usually no trame'liate r^pect to 
its etymological origin. A word once re- 
ceived and adopted into a language un- 
dergoes all the modifications of form and 
meaning imposed upon it by vulgar usage , 
Quctn penes arbttriutn est ct jus et normn 
lofjncnili. 

In a pure and unmixed tongue the 
changes produced by usage cause few 
difficulties to the philologist. An analogy 
reignfl throughout them, and their laws 
ore constant and eaf!ily recognised. But 
where a people derivea its ideas and their 
erpresstons from a variety of sources^ aa 
k the cade with all moderu European 
national and more especially, in respect to 
language, with ouraelvcs, there a variety 
of influeuces are introduced which reader 
the process by which the forma and mean- 
ings of words arc varied more complioited 
and perplcjcing. Words of one origin are , 
often modified and derivatives constructed 
by changes which follow the analogy of 
those of a different origin. Their meaa- 
logs Rre iafiaenced by fancied connections 

rwith roots altogether foreign to them ; 

'md folae ftud fantastic etymologies affect 
even the popular, which is generally the 
most correct^ employment of words. 
Hence one is scarcely wrong in attributing 
to some words a double etymology. And 
in oUiers one origin has given rise to the 
forna, while a different fancied derivatioo 
has determined the sense. 

The word many is an example of this 
double origin, qs I iiave shewn in u pre- 
vious letter. Another instance is to be 
found Id the words amaze, maze* The 
etymology of the verb atnaze given la the 
dictionaries refers it to the substiintive 
mdje, which is said to be derived from the 
Dutch mhaen, or the Anglo Saxon mmiany 
to miss or err. Chaucer in the Nounes 
Frees tcs Tale seems to use maai of a per- 
plexing fancy ; 

Men tlrtiAiuc nl da/ uf oute» *iid of »][*«» 
Aiid eke of many a maae UienrtUuil. 

And in the Marchfttitea Talc the verb 
fiM^e seems to mean to dream or wander 
in fancy . 
Ye ttmn ye must^t gouilo Atro, rpicxt ^c, 
Thl* thmik Uttvc K for I tmvo ni»de yoa tec. 

And this origin Ims no doubt contributed 
Gent. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. 



to the sense in which the words maze and 
amaze have been used tn EiigUsh. But 
the more prevalent idea expressed by the 
word amaze, as commonly u^ed in the 
older writers, is that of prodtrution, or 
Bubduiag. For example, in the foUowing 
line from the Chanones Yemannet Tale 
of Chaucer, 

De lu t»e may, be yo ntn tblng airtasfd, 

the word does not mean perplexed, hut 
catt down. 

So Milton : 

Out to the ainaziHient of what 1 expected, 
roiuler*, J t'oiunl it all quite couiriui'y. 

And in the sonnet to Fairfax : 
Ami mu licr Jealouij monsrclis witli atnaiv. 
And runiDars loud which iLiuut renioteB>t kiiig». 

In this sense the word amaze is obvi- 
ously closely connected with amate and 
mate. This word again in its old senses 
cannot with certainty be referred to a 
single origin. To mete (Aug. Sax, metan) 
in the language of Chaucer is ta dream ; 
and to male, or a mute, seems sometimes 
the causative or active verb corresponding 
to this neuter. 

Sole by hinuielf awhaped and amcdt. 

(Cbanoer, Blacke Kaight) 

I tMnk you an all nwttd or fttark moA. 

(Shukftperc, Com. of Err. Act V. sc. L) 

If the word exists at all in this ecuEse, it 
is connected with the ItaEan tnatio, the 
English mad, and perhi^ps with the Greek 
fmratosj and fiarni*. 

But the prevailing Bigniftcation of the 
word amaie is that of subduing or over^ 
throwing. 

So in Macbeth (Act V. so. 1). 

My mind mho Iiaa uu'dfd nad niuojusd my rA^hl. 

The same two words are used together 
in Fairfax's Tosso, p. 248 ; 

Stood hushed and still, uttuHcl qx\^\^ awn-wi, 

This sense of subditmg is common to 
many Lmgoages. The Italians have ma/> 
tare to subdue, and ammazzare to kill ; 
the ordinary Spanbh word for killing is 
maiar. Matt in German is weary, faint i 
and in the old French maUr is to subdue. 
Ducange Dite» an ancient poem on Richard 
of Normandy s 

r*iuii cuiiki avoir Nomious m<u<* et conibiidaii. 

**Mate'* in chess is the same word; 
check-mate, in Italian, tcacco mallo^ in 
French^ iehtc tt mat, in German achach* 
Z 



170 



Correspondence of Syhanus Urban. 



[Feb. 



matt, Ducange interprets rexmortuua est,* 
The French masadcre, in medieval Latin 
mazaeriunty is evidently of the same family. 



• Chess, in old French, eschas or 
caches, in medieval Latin xcffccortfm Indus, 
is probably derived from the Persian word 
scach, or *' shah,*' which is equivalent to 
" king. ' ' The principal piece in the game, 
according to the Greek historian Michael 
Ducas, was called by the Persians of the 
time of Tamerlane Siach-ruch, and by the 
Italians scacco zocco. (Ducse Hist. By- 
zant. p. 37, cited in Madox, Hist. Exch. 
p. 109.) Sir W. Jones gives his autho- 
rity to another etymology, and derives it 
from the Persian word for the game, cha- 
trang. Ail the numerous meanings of the 
word check, and its derivatives, are de- 
scended from this single origin. Scacca- 
rium was originally a chess-table, in Italian 
scacchiere, in French ^chiquier, and in 
the language of Chaucer a " checkere." 
Hence scacchi, with its equivalents (An- 
glicc check, cheeky, chequer, &c.), was 
used for the pattern of a chess board, and 
the squares of which such a pattern is 
formed. 

Ed eran tante che '1 numero loro 
PiU clie '1 dopplar degli scacchi a' immilla. 

(Dante, Paradise, xxvili. 92.) 

•* So many were the sparks, that their 
number mounted by thousands higher than * 
the reduplication of the squares of a chess- 
board." 

The sense of the word scaccarium, or 
exchequer, as a branch of the royal exe- 
cutive (originally a fiscal and subsequently a 
juridical court), seems peculiar to England 
and Normandy. Its use in this sense is 
as old as the twelfth century at least ; and 
the received derivation of the name from 
the pattern upon the table or the cloth 
which covered it, like that of the Court of 
Starchamber from the ornament of the 
walls or ceiling of the room, is, I suppose, 
correct. It is probable that this division 
of the table into squares or checks may 
have been useful in rude times to assist 
the clerks, or ••checquermen," in "check- 
ing" the accounts and making their cal- 
culations, like the calculi, or pebble 
** counters,** which this word suggests, or 
the *• ready reckoners " of modem days. 
Some such assistance must have been par- 
ticularly necessary when reckonings had 
to be made with no other signs fbr num- 
bers but the letters of the alphabet, be- 
fore the introduction of the Arabic nu- 
merals. It is remarkable that, in the 
obscure passage from Dante to which I 
have referred, the scacchi are introduced 
merely to suggest the idea of repeated 
multiplication. 

The English verb to cheek haa eTidmitly 



The substantive mate in the sense of 
companion or equal seems to be another 
instance of a word derived from two 
sources, the senses of which are nearly 
allied, and have consequently not been 
distinguished. The origin of match is the 
Anglo-Saxon maca, equal. Another form 
of this word is make : 

In time when hire lust to have a nuite. 

(Chaucer, Manciples Tale.) 

The word mate is used in the same 
sense: 

Yon knew me once no mate 
For you, then sitting where you durst not soar. 
(Milton, Paradise Lost.) 

So Dryden uses it as a verb : 

Parnassus is its name, whose forky rise 
Mounts through the clouds and mates the lofty 
skies. 

In these instances mate is used as equi- 
valent to match. But the more proper 
sense of the word mate is that of com- 
panion ; and the letters which form it are 
the same as those in the adjective and 
verb meet and to meet, (the Saxon melon) 
the German adverb mil, and the Greek 
fiera. 

To meet is used by Chaucer in the 
sense of to accompany. The Canon's 
yeoman speaking of his master says : 
For never herafter wol I with him mete 
For peny ne for pound I yon behete. 

And mate is formed from this verb in 
the same way as its equivalent fellow is 
probably derived from follow. The true 
sense of mate is therefore companion, not 
equal. The distinction of match and mate 
is shewn in the following line of Spenser : 
Unworthy match for such immortal mate. 

So Milton in his sonnet to the Night- 
ingale : 

Whether the Muse or Love call thee his mate. 
Both them I serve, and of thehr train am L 

This proper sense of mate is retained in 



a twofold immediate origin — one from the 
cheek or attack in the game of chess, the 
other from the checking, or correcting by 
means of checks, of accounts in the ex- 
chequer. This is another instance of the 
peculiarity observed above. The word 
unites the two ideas of attacking, and 
hence of suddenly stopping, and of cor- 
recting or finding fault ; and it is not easy 
in most cases to determine which idea pre- 
vails. Take the following instances out of 
Shakspere. 

Checked like a bondman, all his faults observed, 
Set in a note-book, learned and conned by rote. 

(Julius Cffisar, Act IV. sc. 3.) 
Next time 111 keep my dreams unto myself, 
And not be checked. 

(Henry VL Ft U. Act I. ae. 2.) 



1858.] 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



171 



all the words derired from it in ordinary 
nse, metsmaiey sMpmatei helpmate; which 
may be compared with the German Mii- 
bflrger, Miichriat, Jelhw-huTgerf fetlow- 
Christian. 

It is observable that in the passage 
in Genesis, ii. 18 and 20, ** I will make 
him an help meet for him/* it would 
appear as if the translator had adopted 
the ordinary English word helpmatey and 



altered its form, in accordance perhaps 
with his idea of its etymology, to suit 
better the purpose of the translation. 
Luther's translation has simply, eine 
Geh&lfinn. In the original Hebrew it is 
" a helper as before him," and it is so 
given in the margin of our translation. 
In the Vulgate the words used are a^uto^ 
rium simile ei. 

Yours, &c. F. M. N. 



Monumental Inscription at Choldkrton, go. Wilts. — The Prince of 
Orange's March in 1688. 

Mr. Urban,— Frequent, but ineffec- Hoc agro oriun[dus} Qui 

tual, hare been the remonstrances address- GuUelmum tertium [Re]gem 

ed, through your pages, to incumbents, Angliaj roceplt mor« R[egio} 

architects, and churchwardens on their S!!^?^^^"^^^ 

reckless destruction of sepulchral monu- Mmt[ar}i hono[re] 

ments. Eren in the very county to which 

I am about to allude a most glaring in- A reference to the Parish Register shows 

stance of recent wanton outrage was de- that Mr. Hill was buried on the 28th of 

teoted and detailed by you in your " Notes July, 1727. We also find an entry of the 

for the Month'' of April in the last year, marriage of his eldest danghter and coheir, 

as respected a mural slab to one of the Elizabeth, then of New Sarum, to Thomas 

ancient family of Zouche at Pitton, near Lee of Lincoln's Inn, Esquire, on January 

Salisbury. Lambeth was also at the same the 12th, 1690-1 ; and their representa- 

time alluded to in evidence of the fantastic tive is, I am informed, the Rev. John W. T. 

exploits of these architects and their auxi- Lee, of Withycombe Raleigh, in the county 

liaries. In the present instance 1 have of Devon. There is no notice of the event 

the more pleasing task of narrating the of the Prince's visit in the Parish Register, 

discovery and renovation of a tomb in the neither does any tradition remain amongst 

diurchyard at Choldcrton, remarkable as ' the inhabitants. 

recording the reception by the deceased. It may here be permitted, with great 

then the squire of the parish, of the deference to the distinguished historian 

'* Great Deliverer" on his mission of civil whose coming volumes we are all so anx- 

and religions liberty in 1688. iously looking for, to offer a few remarks 

The slab in question was in a most dila- on the march of the Prince, its connection 

pidated state, but the inscription was with Stonehenge, and the record on the 

decyphered, though with much trouble, by above-mentioned tombstone. Mr. Mac- 

the incumbent, the Rev. James Fraser, who aulay, apparently referring to '^ Whittle's 

took a praiseworthy interest in the matter. Exact Diary " of the Expedition, intro- 

Tbere were, in fact, inscriptions to three duces the episode of the regiments halting 

different members of the family as follows, in succession to gaze on the ** mysterious 

the last being the one more directly al- ruin " as having taken place on the ad- 

luded to. The letters in brackets have vance upon Salisbury from the westward, 

been restored by conjecture : Now it is clear from Whittie's account (he 

„ , ,. . , ^ i. r 1 -I was a chaplain to the army) that the Prince 

Here lyeth •»«»«'«*?» »' » "oy^ and hi. force, mored from Sherborne in 

ful resurrection the body of Jonathan *• * ♦ wi „» *u-«^- 

Hill, Gent, who departed thU life *!»' Jf columns, hrst to Wincanton , thence 

September the 27th, 1670, *<> Merc, and so on straight to Salisbury 

JEi&Ufi siuE 65. by Hindon, Dinton, and Wilton, and con- 
sequently at the nearest point full eight 

miles due south of Stonehenge. But Mr. 

Whittie subsequently tells us that *• after 

some stay here," viz. at Salisbury, "the 

Hie jacet corpus EUzabeth, uxor .... Prince went to Amesbury ; " and then 

Jonathan HUl ar. In ipe beats follows the story of the halt to view the 

Itesurrectionhi, Qus obUt die ... . ^^^j^^,, p^j^j ^^^^^^^ accompanied by some 

Decembrls Anno D'ni 1702, ^^^^j^^j ^j^^^^j^^ ^ ^ j^g ^^j^j^ ^^j ^j,. 

Vita cadula v^eT«Svato vita perennU, Je?t. Cholderton is about four or jWe 
Corpus terra tegit ; splritus alto petit. "»»«» ^jie west of Amesbury. Prom AmM- 
Hoc tumulo Jacet bury the army and its great chief advanced 
Jonathan Hill Ar[mi]ger to Hungerford : and here WhitUe re- 
Ex antiqna sti[rpe] to cords an incident bearing a close resem* 



172 



Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 



[Feb. 



blance to the tale on Mr. Hill*s tombstoDe. 
" To proceed," he says, " the army moved 
daily according to the motion of his High- 
ness, who rode from Amesbary unto a 
certain gentleman's house near CoUing- 
bonme/' This was some eight miles due 
north of Cholderton, and on his direct 
road to Hungerford, where Mr. Macaulay 
states that he arrived on the 6th of De- 



cember, and whence, according to Whittie, 
he must have removed to Littlecote, the 
ancient and curious seat of the Darrells 
and Pophams, on the 8th, staying there 
until the 10th, the intervening day being 
Sunday. From thence the army continued 
its march on London by the old Bath road 
through Newbury and Reading. 

Yours, &c. L. 



The Posterity of Ra.lph Thorbsby the Antiquary. 



Mr. Urban, — In your Magazine for 
November was an inquiry by T. M. for 
the sons or descendants of Ralph Thoresby 
the antiquary. I incline, however, to 
think that no such descendants are now to 
be found ; at all events the search I have 
had the curiosity to make has been hitherto 
quite fruitless. It is to be regretted that 
Dr. Whitaker, in his 2nd edition of the 
'' Ducatus,*' 1816, did not continue the 
Thoresby pedigree, there inserted, down 
to his own time, and which would have 
cleared away all present difficulty. In his 
memoir of Thoresby, prefixed to that 
work, he says : ** Of ten children born to 
our author three only survived their father. 
Ralph and Richard, the two sons, were 
clergymen, the first educated at Queen's 
College, the second at Catherine Hall, 
Cambridge, and both promoted by the 
kindness of Bishop Gibson, for their 
father's memory, to respectable benefices, 
the elder being Rector of Stoke Newing- 
ton, and the younger of St. Catherine's, 
Coleman Street." 

From the pedigree it appears the elder, 
Ralph, died at Stoke Newington 24 April, 
1763, without it8U€: the younger, Richard, 
died 1774, but where is not stated. He, 
it seems, had, besides a daughter, two 
sons, one of whom died in the " Black 
Hole " of Calcutta, 1756. Now it is ex- 
tremely doubtful if any descendants of 
these two sons last mentioned be living, 
and even if so the presumption is they 
have sunk into obscurity. While I am 
gathering together these fragments, im- 
perfect and inconclusive as they may be, 
allow me to mention that there is a saddler 
in Leeds of the name of Settle, maternally 
descended from a niece of the antiquary. 
But, to show the ignorance as to matters 
of personal genealogy when other and 
more pressing cares engross the mind, he 
cannot tell the maiden name of this niece, 
though his great-grandmother; therefore 
we are left in the dark as to whether she 
was the daughter of the antiquary's brother 
Jeremiah, who (by Mary, daughter of 
Charles Savage, esq. 7th son of Thomas 
Earl of Rivers) had two daughters, £liza. 
beth and Mary, or of his sister Abigail, 
who, by Richard Idle, M.A. Vicar of 
South Dalton, had three daughters. All 



that can be told with certainty is, that she 
married a Jeremiah Nicholson, cloth - 
dresser in Leeds, and Thoresby, in his 
Diary, edited by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, 
frequently speaks of his niece Nicholson. 
They had Richard Nicholson, a saddler, 
whose daughter Elizabeth married James 
Settle, father of the present F.' N. Settle, 
saddler. He has an original painting of 
the antiquary, which was long neglected 
in the workshop of Jeremiah Nicholson. 
It is taken in the aldermanic dress of that 
time. 

Besides our author's branch of the 
family there was that which Whitaker, with 
good reason, supposed to be allied to it. 1 
allude to that styled by him, from the 
place of its residence, the Call Lane 
branch, the members of which frequently 
wrote their name after its ancient ortho- 
graphy Thursby. Dr. Whitaker, after 
giving a particular view of the heads of 
the family, says : " The name (excepting 
that it has been engrafted * into another 
family by baptism) is now reduced to a 
single individual, without issue, and un- 
married." The person here spoken of was 
the late Mr. John Thursby, a merchant in 
Leeds, and the last of the Call Lane 
branch, who, dying without issue, left by 
will, dated 11 Api^, 1840, and proved at 
York, 12 June, 1840, the whole of his 
estate to his nephew, the Rev. Robert 
Nowell Whitaker, Vicar of Whalley, son 
of the historian of Whalley, Craven, Aire- 
dale, and Richmondshire, who had mar- 
ried Lucy, the sister of this John Thursby. 
John and Lucy were the children of 
Thomas Thursby, son of Thomas, bapt. 
1684, son of Thomas of Call Lane, bapt. 
about 1650, and supposed to be the sixth 
child of Paul Thoresby, Alderman of 
Leeds, son of George of West Cotting- 
with, CO. York, by h\s. second marriage, 
the antiquary being descended from the 
/irst marriage. 

The name appears now quite extinct in 
this neighbourhood ; though in a Directory 
of the town of I^eeds, of the year 1801, is 
a Francis Thoresby, styled " minister," 

* Dr. Whitaker's eldest son, whom he 
named Thomas Thoresby, killed by a fall 
from his horse in 1817. 



1853.] 



Correspondence of S^hanus Urban* 



I 



doabtless of some dissenting hodft though 
of what dcEtominadoQ it is diflicult to say. 

Reverting to our antiquary, Dr. Whi- 
tnkcr in hia memoir gays, '* He was in- 
terred with his ancestors, in the choir of 
the parish churchy close to the columti 
which separates the chancel from the north 
tronaept, and has now lain a century with- 
out any memorial from the piety of hia 
friends, or the gratitude of his townsmen." 

Under the aaspiceei of the present excel- 
lent Vicar of Leeds, the Rev. Dr. Hook, 
to whose eoergien the cause of the Church 
of England iu Leeds is so much indebted, 
the parish church has heen entirely rebuilt^ 



173 



the arohitecttire and general arrangements 
being very different to what they were in 
the old fabric ; and I am happy to gay 
that the dij^grace spokcQ of by Whi taker 
now tio longer eiiBts; a neat mural monu* 
ment, with an appropriate injcription, 
having been placed in the south-eaat of 
the choir. 

Should this communication he the 
means of obtainiug more informatfon, it 
will afford much pleasure toi 

Yours, ike C. J. Armhtsai}. 

Spnn0dd Mount j Leedt, 
2U Jan. 1853. 



Family Rbgibter of thb WiDQEtNOTONs* 



Edinburgh t Jan. 8, 1853, 

M». Urban, — In the Gentleman** Ma- 
gazine for July 1802, there is o letter from 
a correspoodent contniaing the folloviMng 
observations. ** Amusing myself in col- 
lecting the shattered remainH of the Wid- 
driogtODS, wrecked iu the unfortunate 
cause of the Stuarts, allow me to ask what 
distant branches yet exist of that once 
splendid and noble family?'* • * • » • 
*' I sbouhl deem myself highly obliged 
with any account of the coUflt4:ra] branches 
(Signed) N. N." At page 704 of the 
some volume some explanations are given 
by another correspondent " M. M." in 
tuiswer to the queries of N. N. regarding 
the last Lord Widdrington^ his widow^ &c. 

I have now lying before me a Church 
of England Prayer Book, dated IG84, or 
thereabouts (part of the date is defective), 
containing a number of entrieg of mar- 
riages and births of a family of Widdring- 
ton in the county of Nortbiimberland. 
The volume belongs to a liueal descendant 
of the famUy, and baa never been out of 
their pOBsessiou. They went to Ireland 
early in the last century, where they iq- 
termarried with Lee^* Mallets, and other 
reipectable families. 

'' Ralph Wjtberington was marled to 
Mary Smith the 13th day of Nouember, iu 
the year of our Jjord 1T03, at seaveo a 
clock in the morning, Sunday. 

Eliz. Witherington was borne the 14th 
day of leneruarey, of a SundaVf between 
5 and 6 a clock at night, in the year of 
our Lord 1704-5. 

Heaery Witherington was borne the 1 1th 
day of March, on a Thursday, between 
3 and 4 a clock in the aftcrnoonet in the 
year of our Lord 1708, 

Robert Withe riJigton was bom the 2l8t 
day of April, in the year of our Lord 
God 17 12. 

Mary Witherington was borne the 23d 
day of July, at 11 a clock of a Fryday 
night, in the year of our Lord 170 14, 



Dubry (Deborah?) Widdrington was 
borne 

Ann Witherington was borne the 17 th 
day of Jcneuarey, Qt 11 a clock in the 
morning, in the year of our Lord 1717. 

Joseph Witherington was borne the 13th 
day of March, of a Thursday morning, at 
7 a clock, in the year of our Lord 1719. 

Ralph Widdrington born ye 2ii day of 
Feb. on ye Fryday, at 4 a clock in ye 
morning, in year 17 2f), 

Francis Widdrington was home the 2 
day of April, at 4 a clock in the Sunday 
mornings in the year of our Lord 1721. 

Debra Widdrington was bora the second 
day of Nouember, a a t ♦ , [leaf torn] in 
the year 17*^"5, afteraoooc, at 2 a dock, 

Abigail Widdrington was borne the 
19 day of Nonembr, 17 . . [leaf torn] on 
a Saterilay, io tbe aflemoon, at 2. 

John Widdrington, bom the 22 d day of 
leiiuary, 17 ■ . [leaf torn] at ten a clock 
at night, on a Mujiday."^ 

On another blank Iciif of the book the 
two following births occur, probably chil- 
dren of the same numeroos fomily* 

" William Witherington was home the Gth 
day of March, between nine and ten a clock 
in the morning, in the year of our Lord 
God 1710. 

Fenwiuk Widdrington was borne the 
1 3th day of February, at five a clock of a 
Thirsday morning, in the year of our Lord 
1730.-' 

The following entry evidently applies to 
a new generation : 

" Ralph Widdrington was born ye 15th 
day of lanuary, between eight and nine 
a clock in the morning, graa^ion to Ralph 
(1738-9) Widdrington, and ion to Henry 
Widdrington.'* 

In other parts of the Prayer Book the 
Ralph Widdrington firsit above mentioned 
is styled ** Ralph Widdrington of Hanxley, 
in tbe pariah of Warquoth, county of 
Norihumberlond/* And the following 
entry also appears uader tbe date of 1709 : 



174 



NoteM of the Month. 



[Feb. 



'* Henry Widdrington, in Harbofctle in 
England, in y* county of Northumbrland, 
in the parish of Whittingham/* After this 
follow some words, which from the pecu- 
liarity of the handwriting it is extremely 
difficult to decipher. The following is 
rather a guess at what the writing may be 
than a copy of what it is — " Dea vigilet 
labores beata/' 

On inquiry none of the above entries 
are to be found in the parochial registers 
of either the parish of Wark worth or of 
Whittingham. 

It would be very obliging if any of your 
correspondents could gire information re- 
garding the above persons, or any of them. 
The very early hour in the morning of the 
marriage in 1703 is remarkable. Could 
the family have been Roman Catholics, 
and so obliged to have the ceremony per- 
formed at so unusual a time ? This sup- 



position might also account for none of 
the names appearing in the parish regis- 
ters ; but, on the other hand, we find the 
whole writing in a Church of England 
Prayer Book. 

By the way, what was the motto or 
mottoes used by the Widdringtons ? Their 
arms are well known : Ardent and gules, 
a bend sable ; Crest, a bull's head : but I 
have never seen the motto. Could the 
above words, supposed to be Latin, and 
guessed at as J have alreadv written them, 
have any connection with the motto ? 
These words, as J have set them down, 
would support the theory of the family 
being Roman Catholics. Indeed that sup- 
position mainly suggested the reading of 
the words, which, as I have already stated, 
from the nature of the handwriting, it is 
very difficult to make out. 

Yours, &c. L. L. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

The City of London Library— City of London Institution— Literary Institutions of Birmingham— 
Hulsean Prize— St. David'scollege,Lainpeter—Sclefntlflc honours recently conferred— The Camden, 
Sortees, and Parker Societies— Antiquities collected by the Crystal Palace Company— Proposed 
Statue of Peter the Hermit— Statue of George Stephenson — MS. of J. J. Rousseau — Sales of Auto- 
graphs and Works of Art— Forged Seals In Jet and Brass— City Benefices. 



" It is with real pleasure " (we quote 
from the Atheneum) *' that we announce 
a considerate and proper act now on the 
eve of accomplishment by the citizens of 
London, through the good sense of one of 
their committees. Many of our readers 
are doubtless aware that this great city 
possesses a most curious Library relating 
to London matters, — that it is annually 
adding to its stores, — and that it is in pos- 
session of 9 ftind fully adequate to the ac- 
quisition of fresh curiosities. But how few 
have ever consulted its shelves, or, indeed, 
been within its walls ! This Library, so 
little used for the purposes of research by 
literary men, has lately attracted the at- 
tention of the present chairman of the 
committee (Mr. William Williams); and 
the result has been, that cards of admission 
have been sent — or rather are now on the 
eve of being sent — to every author of dis- 
tinction whose habits of research are at all 
likely to render the collection of use to 
him. A new printed Catalogue of the Li- 
brary will, as soon as completed (and it is 
nearly ready), accompany every ticket, — 
80 that an author may consult the cata- 
logue in his own room, and, on finding 
what he wants, wait on the Librarian with 
his ticket, and see at once what he wishes 
to see. This good example should be copied 
by the authorities at Oxford and at Cam- 



bridge, at liambeth Palace and at Sion 
College." 

One of the literary institutions of the 
metropolis, that called TUtf Cily of London 
Literary and Scientific InBtitution^ which 
was located in Aldersgate Street, was 
finally closed on the 31st of December, 
after an existence of twenty-seven years. 
The members have subscribed for a testi- 
monial to Mr. Oeorge Stacy, who acted as 
Secretary during the whole period. 

A meeting has been held in Birming' 
ham^ under good auspices, with a view to 
the establishment in that town of a new 
literary and scientific society. The at- 
tempt, however, is to revive rather than to 
create. In the city of Priestley and Watt, 
Boulton and Bask erville, literary and scien- 
tific institutions seem to have but a short 
lease of life. Its Philosophical Institution 
has just died a natural death. The Me- 
chanics' Institute is extinct. The Poly- 
technic languishes for want of support. 
Of the Social Union and of the Artisans' 
Library, organisations of which the world 
heard much a few years ago, we now hear 
nothing. Even the Public News-room 
appears to be in the last throes of exist- 
ence. But this general decay of rival so- 
cieties, while it dears the ground for a 
new experiment, is apt by the very fact of 
that clearance to disoovnge those who look 



1853.] 



Notes of the Month, 



175 



on from a distance as to the ultimate suc- 
cess of even the most magnificently an- 
nounced efforts — unless something more 
than voluntary good- will be secured to the 
undertaking in the first instance. It is 
proposed to erect spacious buildings, at a 
cost of 19,000/. The structure is to con- 
tain three museums : the first devoted to a 
collection of such raw materials as supply 
the staple industries of the town and 
neighbourhood, including geological and 
mineralogical specimens ; the second to 
articles in every stage and variety of manu- 
facture, not only of this time and country, 
but, so far as they may be procurable, of 
all ages and all lands ; and the third to a 
large collection of machinery and models. 
The other features of the scheme comprise 
a chemical laboratory for lectures and 
classes ; a central hall for lectures on 
general subjects ; class-rooms ; a reading- 
room with a scientific and general library 
of reference ; and, as an entrance to all 
the departments, a large hall, adapted for 
the reception of sculpture or other works 
of art, to become hereafter a nucleus for 
a public gallery. Another department 
wiU be devoted to mining records, showing 
the dimensions and position of strata in 
the different mineral workings of the dis- 
trict. The whole of the expenses are ex- 
pected not to exceed 20,000/. Should the 
money not be raised by appeal to voluntary 
aid, it is proposed to make application to 
the municipal body, under the Public Li- 
braries Act, for assistance to complete 
the work. — Atheruum, 

On the 6th Jan. a banquet in connec- 
tion with the literary and artistic institu- 
tions of Birmingham took place in the 
assembly rooms of Dee's Hotel. It origi- 
nated in a combined movement on the 
part of the Society of Artists, the Fine 
Arts Prise Fund Association, and the 
Society of Arts and School of Design. 
Invitations were sent to a number of the 
roost eminent literary men of the day, and 
a previous meeting was held in the rooms 
of the Society of Artists for the purpose 
of presenting Mr. C. Dickens, on the part 
of a number of his admirers in Birming- 
ham, with a diamond ring and salver, both 
articles of Birmingham manufacture, in 
testimony, according to the inscription on 
the salver, "of their appreciation of his 
varied literary acquirements, and of the 
genial philosophy and high moral teaching 
which characterise his writings." The 
salver formed one of the specimens of 
Birmingham manufacture sent to the Great 
Exhibition by Messrs. Elkington and Co. 
and embraces a series of beautiful repre- 
sentations taken from the Iliad. Two 
hundred gentlemen sat down to dinner ; 
the chair wai occupied by Mr. H. Hawkef, 



the Mayor of Birmingham, and the duties 
of vice-president were discharged by Mr. 
P. HoUins. Among the company present 
were Sir C. L. Eastlake, the President, 
and several other members of the Royal 
Academy. 

The HuUean Prize at Cambridge has 
been adjudged to Mr. W. Jay Bolton, of 
Cains College, subject *• The Evidences 
of Christianity, as exhibited in the Writings 
of its Apologists down to Augustine ex- 
clusively." — The subject for the prize for 
the next year is, ** The Position and His- 
tory of the Christian Bishops, and espe- 
cially of the Bishop of Rome, during the 
first three Centuries." The Rev. M. B. 
Cowie, of St. John's College, has been 
elected Hulsean Lecturer for 1853. 

Ttie late Mr. Thomas Phillips, of Bruns- 
wick-square, has left by bequest a sum of 
about 6000/. for the purpose of fbundhig a 
professorship of the physical sciences in 
St. DavieTs Collegt^ Lampeter. From a 
considerable number of candidates, the 
principal and professors have elected to 
the office the Rev. Joseph Matthews, M.A. 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. With 
this handsome bequest Mr. Phillips closed 
a series of munificent donations, which 
for several years have testified his interest 
in the colleges of the principality. To 
his generosity it has been indebted for the 
enlargement of the library, by the addition 
of more than 22,000 volumes, including 
among them many works of costly price 
and high literary value. A few years be- 
fore his death he also conveyed to St. 
David's College, by deed of gift, the sum 
of 4,800/. to found six scholarships, for 
the benefit of natives of Wales and Mon- 
mouthshire. 

The Academy of Sciences of Paris has 
divided the Lalande Astronomical prise 
between Mr. Hind of London, M. deOaf- 
paris of Naples, M. Luther of Blick near 
Dusseldorff, M. Chacomae of MarselUee, 
and M. Goldschmidt of Paris, all of whom, 
by the discovery of new planets, were en- 
titled to it. The Statistical prise was 
granted to M. Horace Say, for Us volume 
of industrial statistics on Paris, and that 
of Experimental Philosophy was divided 
between Mr. Bridge, an English physician, 
and Professor Waller of Bonn, for treatises 
on the nervous system. 

The Imperial Academy of Sciences of 
St. Peterburgh has elected the Earl ftf 
Rosfty President of the Royal Society of 
London, an honorary member — in consi- 
deration, as it is stated, of his high scien- 
tific acquirements, and of the important 
services which he has rendered to astro- 
nomy. 

The University of G&ttingen, through 
the medium of the Chevalier Hansen, lu» 



176 



Notes of the Month, 



[Feb. 



conferred upon Mr, Samuel Phillipt the 
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in consi- 
deration of his high literary services. Mr. 
Phillips, who was formerly a student of 
the Gdttingen University, has distinguished 
himself by some powerful literary contri- 
butions to The Times, which have been 
largely circulated in this country and 
America in a collected form. 

We are happy to find that The Camden 
Societyy whose works in the press have 
recently hung fire, are about immediately 
to issue the Second Volume of The Cam- 
den Miscellany, the contents of which are 
both varied and curious. They consist of 
1. The Household Expenses of John of 
Brabant, the son-in-law of Edward I. and 
the princes Henry and Thomas of Lan- 
caster, in 1292-3, from the Chapter House 
Westminster; 2. The Household Expenses 
of the Princess Elizabeth at Hatfield in 
1551-2, from a MS. in the possession of 
Lord Viscount Strangford ; 3 . The Request 
and Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, 
a curious essay on commercial affairs in 
the reign of Edward VI. from a MS. at 
Edinburgh; 4. The Discovery of the 
Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell, in 1628, 
from MSS. in the State Paper Office ; 5. 
Trelawny Papers, chiefly relating to the 
celebrated Bishop of Exeter ; and 6. The 
Autobiography of Dr. Taswell, an Oxford 
Scholar in the reign of Charles II. 

The Surteet Society held a meeting on 
the 15th December, at which sixteen re- 
cruits (chiefly enlisted at the Ai^hseologi- 
cal meeting at Newcastle) were duly en- 
rolled ; and it was announced that the 
books in progress for 1853 are the Pon- 
tifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York (731 
— 767), to be edited by Mr. Greenwell ; 
and a volume of Wills and Inventories 
from the Registry at Richmond, to be 
edited by James Raine, jun. B.A. Fellow 
of the University of Durham. The books 
ordered for 1854 are the Gospel of St. 
Matthew, from the Lindisfarne Northum- 
bro-Saxon translation in the earlier part 
of the 8th century, to be edited by the 
Rev. Joseph Stevenson; and the Inven- 
tories and Account Rolls of the Monaste- 
ries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, from 
their commencement until the dissolution, 
to be edited by the Rev. James Raine. 

The Parker Society announces the com- 
pletion of its series of publications. A 
volume of Archbishop Whitgift's Works, 
together with Archbishop Parker's Cor- 
respondence, the two remaining books for 
1852, will be ready for circulation early in 
the spring. The remaining portions of 
Archbishop Whitgift and Bradford, with 
Rogers on the Articles, and, it is hoped, 
Nowel's Catechisms, will be issued for the 
year 1853. A large number of names 
8 



have been sent in of subscribers desirous 
of having a complete Index to the whole 
of the volumes published by the Society. 
The Council have consequently determined 
to issue such an Index, and the subscrip- 
tion for this (10«. 6(/.) should be paid by 
all members who wish for it at the same 
time with the subscription for the year. 

The Crystal Palace Company have ob- 
tained from Government permission to 
bring from Egypt the obelisk called Cleo- 
patra's Pillar, and to erect it in their 
grounds at Sydenham, on condition of its 
being reclaimable by the public at any 
future time by repayment of the costs of 
transit. It is also stated, for the like pur- 
pose, the crypt recently removed at Ge- 
rard's Hall in London has been carefully 
taken to pieces, and each stone marked ; 
and it has even been suggested that Tem- 
ple Bar should be removed to the same 
site I 

The Society of Antiquaries of Picardy 
have announced, that, by a decree of the 
Prince President of the Republic, dated 
the 23rd Feb. 1852, they have been autho- 
rised to erect a statue in bronze of Peter 
the Hermit ^ in one of the public places of 
Amiens. Their circular states, that, al- 
though that great event of the middle 
ages, the '* holy war," has obtained a place 
among the recorded ** glories " — what an- 
nouncement in the French language is 
without this vain word } — the apostle of 
the crusades has not yet a monument in 
his native city. The style and tone of this 
announcement are in perfect keeping with 
the spirit which has ever reigned in France. 
It states, however, that Peter the Hermit 
belongs not to France alone, but to the 
whole Christian world, and that all the 
"friends of religion" are bound to sub- 
scribe something towards the accomplish- 
ment of this object, most worthy to be 
recorded, as the French chroniclers word 
it, among the Oetta Dei per Franco* ! 

Mr. Baily, the eminent sculptor, has 
just completed the model of a colossal statue 
of Mr, Oeorge Stepheneon^ the father of 
railway locomotion, and which, when 
executed in marble, is to be placed on the 
grand staircase at the Euston-square Sta- 
tion. The figure is ten feet high, and re- 
presents the renowned engineer standing : 
with one hand he holds a plan of a railway- 
bridge, while the other touches the front 
of his coat, in natural and characteristic 
action. We are glad to find that our best 
sculptors have at length taken courage to 
grapple with the difficulties of modern 
costume, essential as they are to charac- 
teristic portraiture and historical truth. 

In a valuable collection of manuscripts, 
imported from the Continent, which was 
sold by Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson 



1853.] 



MuceUameams Rtriews. 



i77 



on the 23d Dec. wis (lot ^l> an unpob^ 
lished philosophical work bj Jean Jacqim 
Roasseao, written by him on the marsins 
of the third and foarth rolanies of his own 
copy of the nrst edition of his Gmile. It 
is said that Rousseau cowiH>5etl a work 
similar to this tlnrin^ hi* residemv in 
England, and thnt he afterwards destrored 
it ; 42/. Lot 7. a MS. of Artur de Bre- 
tayne (saec. xm) was sold for 54/. 

The collection of pointings, bronxes, 
porcelain, &c. of the late M. Champion, 
the philanthropist, who was s^eneraUy 
known by the name of h Petit Mmnte^m 
bleUf has just been sold by auction at the 
HMel des Joitneurs, at Brussels. The 
paintings did not bfing high prices, al- 
though there were several of Touiers and 
other celebrated artists. The cabinet of 
curiosities and objects of art, 235 in num- 
ber, and m.iny of them very raro, excited 
great competition. A marble bust of a 
female, said to be by Houdon, was sold 
for 4,000f. ; another marble bust, for 
l,010f.; a marble group, l,2l0f.; and two 
smaller busts, l,955f. Two busts, in 
bronze, of Turennc and Condt', were sold 
for 710f.; aG«?nie in bronze, 700f.; a bust 
of Voltaire, 214f.; and two bronze sta- 
tuettes, l,065f. Two porcelain vases 
brought 2,580f.; a third, n25f.; and two 
of the time of Louis XV. 1 ,G00f. Several 
other articles were sold at equally good 
prices ; a pair of vases in red porphyry 
brought 3,00 If. Among the objects of 
curiosity, an ebony console of the time of 
Louis XVL was sold for 2,025f.; and a 



snuff-box in Egyptian jasprr was toM for 
l.t^SOf. 

On several occasions w« haw notietd 
the fabrioati\^ns of spurious article of 
antiquity, and |wirtitnilarly of matrices of 
seals. The forgers have latterly appliod 
their ingenuity to jet, a material which ia 
easily fashioned into shaiH^ and engraved : 
and in a recent instance it was attempt«d 
to counterfeit the head and titles of the 
emperor Sererus I These jet seals aw sup- 
po»d to be made in Yorkshire. Ther* 
are still in the curii^ity .«hops of lamduii 
many fictitious brass matriii^ of metliwal 
seals. They may generally be detet*tetl by 
their liandles, thoui^h they are now better 
made than they useti to be ; but always by 
the imiHTfections of the impression, which 
of t>)urse cannot be more |ierfei*t than tho 
wax seals from which they have been cast 

ITie decease of Mr. Ant*r\>bus the Rector 
of St. Andrew lTndersh.-»ft, in the city of 
London, a living estimatetl at betweon 
1300/. and 1400/. a-ycar. has raised a de- 
mand for some better provision for the 
adjoining vicarage of St. Helen, which onW 
enjoys a stipend of '-'0/., with some UA 
from Queen Anne's l\ounty, and the vo- 
luntary Easter offerings. The nonulation 
of each parish is said to be equal ^between 
6*00 and 700 inhabitants each). We take 
notice of the circumstance as conneotod 
with the history of St. Mary Axe, which 
was related in our last Magaiine. The 
parishes of St. Helen and St. Mary Axe 
still suffer from their churches havins been 
appropriated to the priory of St. Helen, 



HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



Saxon Obsequies, illustrated by Orna* 
meits and Weapons discovered by the 
Nan. R. C. Neville in a Cemetery near 
Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire, With 
coloured lithographic plates, ito, — In no 
department of archaeology has a greater or 
more satisfactory advancement been made 
during the last few years than in that 
which comprises our early Saxon antiqui- 
ties. Wc need not take a far retrospec- 
tive glance over antiquarian publications 
to be convinced not only of the want of 
appreciation of this peculiar and interest- 
ing class of our ancient national remains, 
but also of its non-existence as a class. 
Saxon antiquities were confounded capri- 
ciously cither with British, or Roman, or 
Norman ; or, if here and there they were 
perceived to be what they really are, they 
were hardly valued; certainly they were 
not estimated for the remarkable light 
they throw on the history of our country 

Gent. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. 



and its population in the fifth and sabie- 
quent centuries. An examination of tho 
Archieologia will serve to shew the period 
at which the rectiAoation commenced. 
Douglas may be called the father of 
Anglo - Saxon archnology. Apparentlv 
without the experience of early researoh 
in this peculiar field, he laid open a largo 
number of graves in Kent, be noticed tho 
position of their contents, he classified and 
arranged them, he saw not only what they 
were not, but what they were, and he be- 
stowed an unusually copious amount of 
well-directed learning in explaining tho 
objects he had rescued from obsourity. 
Douglas, however, restricted his NnUa to 
the county of Kent Opportunity was not 
afforded him for making similar researcbot 
in other parts of the kingdom, and that 
he wanted those means of comparifOD 
which would have rendered his work of 
more comprehensive ntility. Of late yeari 
* A 



178 



Miscellaneous JRevietes. 



[Feb. 



the few who have devoted their time more 
especially to this branch of archeology 
have goDe further afield ; they have col- 
lected evidence from other countries, they 
have explained much that was previously 
not understood, or but very imperfectly. 
By close comparison, that test of sound 
antiquarianism, it has been noticed that 
the Saxon sepulchral remains found in 
different parts of the kingdom differ in 
many respects from each other. There 
are certain leading characteristics com- 
mon to all, but in details there are remark- 
able peculiarities, which seem to be suffi- 
ciently marked to indicate at once their 
origin. This fact corroborates the histo- 
rical statements which inform us that 
Britain was populated by several immigra^ 
tions of the Saxon tribes, made at con- 
siderable intervals of time. 

It is only by an accumulation of well 
authenticated facts that conclusions such 
as tUis can be deduced, and it must be 
admitted that the scientific antiquary has 
many difficulties to contend against in col- 
lecting such facts. The materials he has 
to work with are comparatively few, and 
they are not unfrequently presented under 
questionable circumstances, or associated 
with remains which belong to other periods 
and peoples. He has to travel far to 
gather information which, after all, may be 
inadequate to his purpose, from the want 
of an authenticated record of circum- 
stances not heeded by the mere collector, 
but indispensable to the scientific inquirer. 
Thus, the opinions he may form as to 
the Anglo-Saxon remains found in graves 
indicating from certain peculiarities the 
various tribes or races which settled in 
particular parts of Britain, can only be 
confirmed by multiplied examples. Such 
specimens may be abundant enough in 
museums and in private collections ; but 
it is well known to all who have sought to 
use them for the true purposes of archieo- 
logy, that the chances are the owners 
know little or nothing of their history, 
and that they procured them, perhaps at 
a high price, as things ancient and rare, 
which they felt a certain pleasure in pos- 
sessing; beyond this they probably did not 
seek to inquire. 

The Anglo Saxon cemeteries have usually 
been discovered by accident, and generally 
in sechided districts ; and thus their con- 
tents have frequently been dispersed or 
neglected from sheer ignorance. We could 
also cite instances where barrows have 
induced the curious to open and ransack 
them ; even antiquaries have excavated 
them, and left the result of their researches 
not onlj unpublished, but also unrecorded. 
It is therefore with much pleasure we hail 
the production of Mr. Neville's catalogue 



of the objects he obtained from the ceme- 
tery at Little Wilbraham. From time to 
time, it appears, discoveries had been made 
at the spot, and there is no saying what 
may in consequence have been lost. It 
was therefore fortunate that the chance 
of making a full exploration of the site 
fell into such good hands, and we cannot 
be too gratefiU to Mr. Neville for pub- 
lishing the collection he has made in a 
manner so elaborate as to fill no less than 
forty large quarto plates. The work is 
modestly called a Catalogue RaUontU, and 
this must be borne in mind by those who 
may be disposed to cavil at the letter- 
press being little more than an enumeration 
of the contents of each grave, and their 
relative position. The antiquary will value 
the work as an important contribution to 
our materials for studying the Anglo-Saxon 
antiquities, and he wUl know how to 
extract advantage from it, contrasting the 
superior worth of abundant illustrations 
with few words, over lengthy dissertations 
on objects which no description alone can 
make intelligible without cuts or diagrams. 
The Little Wilbraham cemetery afforded 
-to Mr. Neville's excavations 188 skeletons, 
laid in various directions, without regard 
to uniformity. With some of them were 
weapons of war, amounting altogether to 
nineteen bosses of shields, thirty-five 
spears, four swords and knives, the last of 
which probably only for domestic uses, 
and one battle-axe. The ornaments con- 
sist of 125 fibulae (chiefly of the kind 
called cruciform), buckles, nearly 1200 
beads, Roman coins worn as beads, and 
some curious objects which, when exhibited 
to the Society of Antiquaries, were sup- 
posed to be keys, and are described as such 
in their Proceedings. They seem, elsewhere, 
to have been satisfactorily determined to be 
ornaments or appendages to the girdle.* 
There were numerous other objects, such as 
some small wooden pails, combs, tweezers, 
&c. But among the most interesting may 
be reckoned the urns, remarkable for their 
characteristic types and patterns. They 
resemble some found a few years since 
near Derby, which we recollect one of our 
antiquaries pronounced to be Saxon, con- 
trary to the then general opinion. The 
plates of these urns are perhaps the least 
satisfactory, as the deep colouring con- 
siderably obscures the ornamental details, 
and this remark may in some respects be 
applied to one or two of the other plates, 

. * See ''Collectanea Antiqua,'* vol. ii. 
plates LV. and LVI.; and the woodcut in 
our Magazine for Sept last, p. 238, extract- 
ed from " The Celt, the Roman, and the 
Saxon," p. 420. In Mr. NeviUe's plates 
they are engraved upiide down. 



1853.] 



Miscellaneous Reviews, 



179 



and the groapinga of the spears and knives 
are more artistic thflu archaeoloi^cally 
tueful. Altogether, however, the plates 

' are wril executedt and somct particubrly 

' those of the beadsi, are heautifiilly coloured. 
We suspect that the cthnologiata (for 
Instance Dr.Thunmm and Mr. Davis) ivill 
regret the total ah^ence of cratiiological in- 
formation, e«pedftlly when an opportunity 
lo unusually favourable was afforded for 
obtaining it. But, onder all circum- 

I gtaocesi we must be i>blij;ed to Mr, Neville 
for pablishing so handsome a volume, 
which the antiquary will not fait to find 

' valuable for reference. 



Hadrian (he BuU4§r qf the Roman 
Wati : a Paper read (U the Monthly Meet- 
ing ft/ th>' Society of Antiquarieitj New- 
I emtte-upon'Tynet 4 Auy. \db"2, in reply 
to ** The Roman Wail: an attempt to 
! Muhfttantiate the ctahntt of Sevenis to the 
) Anthorthip of the Raman Walt, By Robert 
Belt.*' By the Rev, Juhn Calling wood 
I Bruce, M.A.t F.S.A, London and New- 
I cattle. Pp. :M. 1852.— The pamphlet 
I published by Mr. R. Bell, to which this 
r Ji a reply, has not reached un i but we 
■ gather from Mr. Bruce's tract what may 
f l&e considered as the substance of his ar^- 
) mentis. The hrst, and on which he ap. 
k jpeara to lay the greatest stress, is funnded 
I on the wcll-knowu iaMrription on the ypper 
I mrt of an ancient quarry on tbe hanks of 
[ the river Gelt, which mentions a vexillation 
J Of the Second leg^ion, with the date of the 
jeonsnlRhip of Aper and Maximus. a.d. 
' ^07 , about four years iirevioua to the death 
of Sevems, and shortly before hii coming 
to Britain. From tliis inscription he 
maintaina that the buildiog of the wall was 
I eontemporaneou«!, and adds that "the Ha- 
jirianitet etide^vonr to evade this powerful 
I proof thiit tbe wall was built by Sevems 
[bythesiippoaition thbt the inscription was 
I made when the wall was only repaired by 
iSeverus^ in the year 207' But it ttiuit be 
lobacrved that the inscription is nearly at 
I the top of a rock, and the quarry has been 
Ivrorked to an enomsous extent down to 
I the bed of the Hver, a depth of at le^st 
(Bfty feel." 

Mr. Bruce meets this objection to hit 

lown concIosionB in favour of Hadrian by 

|j»bBerving that, " because a vexilUtion of 

he Second legion carved some lines npon 

be f«ce of a quarry on the Gelt» we arc 

Ot necessarily to iftfcr that they were en- 

iffed in ejteniive operotionfl there, — that 

IB admittetl on all liauds that the Second 

Region was extensively employed upon the 

JWftU, im«l so was the Sixtli, and so was the 

[^Twentieth, Tlie inscriptions on the Wall 

do, indeed, prove that the Second 

I was engaged in the erection of that 



structure, and in three Instances the name 
of Hadrian is coupled with that of the 
Second legion on those inscriptions, whilst 
the inscription at the Gelt merely esta- 
blishes the fact that a part of that legion 
was in Cumberland in the reign of 
Severn^." 

Mr. Bell ridicules Mr. Brace's notion 
that most of the inscriptions recording the 
Second legion (as well aj* others) may, 
from their peculiar character, be supposed 
to have been executed prior to the reign 
of Severus. In this he will hardly be snp- 
ported by any one who lias closely studied 
the general shape of the letters and their 
ligatures, and has compared the earlier 
inscriptions with those of a later date. 
The msttcr also is essential to be observed, 
and the form varies as much us the letters. 
Had Mr. Betl attended to this important 
key, he would probably liave paused before 
he hud cited on ]m side of the qneHtion 
tbe supposititious Inscription in Gordon*s 
Uinerjrium Septeittrtonale, srpt. severo. 
laii*. aviMvtivu hvnc conoidit. 

The evidence of ancient writers in refer- 
ence to the bnilding of the Wall is rather 
obscure and conflicting ; but we are in- 
clined, upon a careful review of it, to strike 
a balance in favour of Mr. Bruce. Neither 
Xiphilioe nor Hcrodian, the latter of whom 
gives a pretty minute account of the cam- 
paign of Severus in Britain, make any 
mention of Severus as bulkier of the Wall, 
which probably they would have done had 
he really been its constructor. Xiphiline 
speaks of the MflGatoe as dwelling near the 
barrier wall, a mode of expression which 
implies its existence at the time of the 
coming of Severus. Spartian, a writer of 
inferior merit, who is quoted by Mr. Bell 
in favour of tbe claims of Severn!*, say* 
that this emperor fortified Britain with a 
wall drawn across the island, ending on 
each fride at the sen, which was the chief 
glory of his reign, and for which he re* 
ceived the name of Britannicus. But the 
same author, in a passage overlooked by 
Mr. Bell, states that Hadrian went to Bri- 
tain, where he corrt-cted many things, and 
first drew a wall eighty oDUee long to sepa- 
rate the Romans from the barbarians* 
Anrelius Victor uses precisely the same 
words as ^paftian in attributing the wall 
to Severus. Kutropius is on the same 
side, but he makes the wall one hundred 
and thirty -two miles in length. Cassio- 
doruB and Faulos Dinconat arc l»te writers, 
and equally unsatisfactory on this point. 
PauluA lived five hundred years after So- 
verns, and borrowed the very words of 
Eutropins, substituting xxxv for cxxxii, 
M.P. as the length of the wall. 

Bat whatever credit may be attached to 
the etidence of uicient writers, their testi- 



180 



Miscellaneous Reviews, 



[Feb. 



mony cannot be allowed to weigh against 
the remains as they now exist, and the con- 
clusions deduced from a careful examina- 
tion of them. Hodgson, the illustrious 
historian of Northumberland, gave more 
time and attention to the suhject than any 
one since the days of Horsley, and he 
came slowly, and in spite of prejudices, to 
the belief that Hadrian constructed at one 
and the same time the stone wall, with its 
ditch on the north and the earthen vallum 
to the south. In any other point of view 
they were to him unsatisfactory make- 
shifts, and misapplied and incomplete forti- 
fications. Considered as one grand work 
they could be understood and admired as 
a consummate effort of engineering skill. 
The circumstances under which Hadrian 
visited Britain, and the inscriptions disco- 
vered along the line of the works, support 
this view. On the contrary, the insurrec- 
tion of the Caledonians cost Severus 
50,000 men, and it is probable he was 
hardly in a condition to have projected 
and completed a work requiring so much 
time and labour. But he evidently did 
what many of his inscriptions prove ; he 
repaired the fortifications, and probably 
strengthened them with additional castra. 
Mr. Bruce has surveyed and re-surveyed 
the Wall from end to end, conjoining with 
it a study of the inscriptions, andhe arrives, 
in consequence, at the same conclusion as 
Hodgson. Mr. Bell does not, it appears 
to us, attempt to follow him in so extended 
a view of the question ; and, with regard to 
inscriptions, confines himself to those of 
his own neighbourhood. In no respect 
are his objections to Mr. Bruce's tlieory 
conclusive, while most of his arguments 
are forcibly refuted in the reply. But 
truth is served by discussion, and, as Mr. 
Bell is evidently an ardent antiquary, we 
trust he will continue and extend his re- 
searches in co-operation with Mr. Bruce, 
who candidly acknowledges services ren- 
dered, and who evidently does not allow 
difference of opinion to lessen friendship. 

Colchester Castle built by a Colony of 
Romans as a Temple to their deified Em- 
peror, Claudius Caesar. By the Rev. H. 
Jenkins, B.D. Svo. pp. 38. 1853.— It 
would occupy too much space to discuss 
the ingenious arguments put forth by Mr. 
Jenkins in favour not merely of the Roman 
origin of the well known castle at Colches- 
ter, but in support of a notion which the 
author has been induced to conceive that 
the castle is actually the temple of Claudius 
mentioned by Tacitus, but considerably 
altered at different periods. This con- 
clusion, which will be found, we suspect, 
altogether original and singular, the author 
states has been forced upon him from a 



careful personal survey, and from dis- 
coveries made in the immediate vicinity of 
the castle, which we understand will be 
followed up by further researches and ex- 
cavations. It is therefore worthy of respect 
and of fair consideration, especially when 
it is obvious that, although the general 
form of the structure resembles that of 
the Norman castles, there are some pe- 
culiarities in the architectural details which 
induce a few of our best antiquaries to 
consider it of Saxon origin, and historical 
evidence is rather in favour of this opinion. 
Though portions of the building are con- 
structed more jRomano, the general features 
do not accord with those of any well- 
authenticated Roman building with which 
we are acquainted. Still we look forward 
with much interest to the resumption of 
Mr. Jenkins's investigations, being well 
convinced that as truth is the grand object 
of his inquiry it must be advanced by the 
practical researches he proposes to make. 
— Since writing these rewarks we perceive 
that Mr. Jenkins's essay has received a 
very full and elaborate reply from the 
hands of Mr. Cutts, of Coggeshall, which 
has been published in the Essex and West 
Suffolk Gazette. Mr. Cutts arrives at the 
conclusion that, " Allowing for the pe- 
culiarities of construction made necessary 
by the use of Roman materials, which 
peculiarities are not without parallel in 
buildings of the same date built of similar 
materials, the building called Colchester 
castle corresponds in magnitude, construc- 
tive features, internal arrangements, in 
short, in every particular, with the usual 
plan of a Norman keep.'"' 

Isis : an Egyptian Pilgrimage. By 
James Augustus St. John. 2 vols. 9vo. — 
These volumes commence with a dream, 
and terminate with a mystery. Between 
those extremes, however, there are many 
evidences of power of observation made by 
a vigilant man, and many pleasant stories 
lucidly and rapidly told. How much of 
the book is true, and how much merely 
" ben trovato," it would be difficult to say. 
For ourselves, we prefer those portions 
that arc true, or seemingly true ; the im- 
possible is less well told, and is not re- 
markable for imagination. When we say 
that we prefer the true, or seemingly true, 
we make exception of one incident, so well 
told and so possible that we know not 
strictly how to class it. We allude to the 
pic-nic amid the Tombs of the Kings, 
when the revellers were not only of rather 
too exuberant mirth, but found additional 
excitement in the performances of dancing 
girls, and for cooking their banquet found 
fuel in the coffins of the dead monarchs 
in whose unconicioas company they sang, 



18530 



Miscellaneous Heviews* 



181 



danced^ and were noiijlly glad. We would 
fain trust that for this scene Mr. St, John 
has drawn upon bis imagination, and that 
BO barbarous a feast vvas not in truth a 
aitj. 

The work ia as much one of tales a§ of 
avel — the incidents, supposed or real, of 
avel serring only as a string whereon to 
onDect the scattered peai^l^ of story, 
I^There is, too, do lack of pliiiosopUy, after 
tta sort. Of disqaUitions upon politics 
|Bnd reUgion there are many, the former 
IliaviDg an ultra'democratic Bmack with 
libem, and the latter an ultra -liberulity 
' eyoad the ut^ual limits even of the reli- 
pouB speculators in these liberal days. 
Te might have a word or two to say on 
heae matters, wherein we discern much 
miachief, though nothing but good be 
meant ; hut Mr. St. John fioraethhig pe- 
remptorily iutimutds in one uf hla chapters 
that he is rather impatient of contradic- 
tion—and no doubt were we to question 
the soundness of his opinions on either 
religion, politics, or social dittinctions, he 
ould set US down as among ** pestilent " 
ritics. 

This by way of protest ; hut, apart from 

what that protest refers to, we rejoice in 

' having the opportunity of saying that the 

author has written not only two exceed- 

'ogly pleasant volumes^ but that he has 

Evidently written with a purpose in view. 

tvcry one of his stories is obviously in- 

nded to carry a moral with it. We may 

omettmeti dispute the application, but we 

' are constmined to do Justice to the merits 

of the narrator. Ae a specimen of the 

work, we make one extract. It. rather 

suits our space than does juattce to the 

author's work, but it is gract^fuUy and 

graph tcally told i and it shows that Mr. 

St. John might, if he thought it worth 

while, compete with Mans Andersen, and 

give ua another *' Picture-hook wiihoot 

Pictures/* 

*^ As I tat neoit morning in my boat, 
describing my impregsiou^ of the previous 
day, a little dancing girl from Essonaa 
came on board, with two or three young 
companions, and asked permission to en* 
tertain me with their performances. There 
is really something in race which exerts a 
powerful influence over our miads. ♦ . » 
This girl iuimcdiatcly excited in me an in* 
terest which none of the rest had ever 
done. I could not at all, nt first, explain 
the matter to myself, but, as I continued 
to look at her, the conviction flashed upon 
me that n\\ft must be an European. To the 
Arabs I have always been ptirliul, uiore 
than to most of the nations of Clirigten- 
dam ; but the sight of an European girl, not 
more ctrrtainly than sixteen years of age, 
amoiif the wild Gbawazi of the tropics, 



awakened home aascHsiationSi and irre^ 
sistibly prejudiced me in her favour. On 
inquiring into her history, I fount! she was 
the daughter of a French gentleman, who, 
for some reason which I could nefcr bear, 
had settled many years ago at Essonan* 
He bad long been gathered to his fatberi, 
and having left behind him no property — 
friends he conld not be expected to hate 
in that remote place — had bequeathed his 
sweet little daughter to the public. The 
countenance united the dignity of the Arab 
with the vivacity of the French j her eyes 
were large and black, her hair was of the 
same colour, and yet her complexion waa 
that of a Parisiau wonmn entitled to the 
epithet fair* She had a small, delicately 
formed mouth, and the prettiest smile 
imaginable. When I asked her who tooV 
care of her, she replied, in a tone of some 
melaochuly, there was no one to take care 
of her, that she was quite alone, without 
friends or relatives, but that the Arabs 
were kind. She asked me if I would carry 
her with me into Nubia, in my boat, and 
afterwards to Europe, for that she should 
like to see France, her ftttber'a country. 
I inquired if ihe could spettk the language^ 
and she replied * No T WTietbcr she re- 
membered her father's name ? She still 
answered in the negative. Yet such was 
her simplicity, she still thought it per- 
fectly practicable to find nut his relatives, 
merely by saying that he waa the person 
who had come so many years before to 
Essouan. 1 excused myself as well as I 
could for not showing her the hospitality 
she desired, and assured her, moreover, 
what was very true, that it would be much 
better for her to remain where she was, 
than to travel to Europe, even if she had 
the power. A shade passed over her face 
at this remark, but it was soon gone ; and, 
binding the broad girdle about her waist, 
she astonished me by the energy and grace 
of her daociug> She afterwards sang two 
or three gongs in a plaintive and almost 
wailing music-, and having with her com- 
panions been treated with pipes and coffee, 
and received somewhat more than the 
usual present, she sprang lightly and gaily 
ashore, witthed me a pleasant voyage, and 
disappeared among the houses. 1 after- 
wards, however, saw her several times, and 
10 variably observed that the Arab girla 
among whom she lived treated her with 
peculiar deference. If this was oiirnug to 
the circumstance of her being friendless it 
urgued in them a peculiar delicacy of sea- 
timent ; aod if they attributed to her some 
auperiarity, on account of her European 
origin ♦ we cannot help admiring their 
humility. At all events she appeared 
happy, poor girl, in that land of strangerf , 
though it was in some sort her home, the 



182 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Feb. 



only home she knew or could hope for in 
this world, and I trust it proved as plea- 
sant to her as I wished it." 

It will he allowed, we think, that the 
sketch of this coiumba inter eorvos is 
gracefully executed. In this sort of deli- 
neation, and in narrative generally, the 
author evinces powers of no mean order. 
In his reflections he is seldom so attrac- 
tive ; they are for the most part tinged, to 
use the lightest possible expression, by in- 
veterate prejudice. We shall be glad again 
to meet the author as a narrator — even of 
revolutions and their incidents, which he 
can graphically describe ; but we confess 
that we look with little eagerness, but 
much alarm, for the appearance of his half- 
promised work on the theory of revolutions. 

Bihliographia Historica Poriuffueza, 
ou Catalogo methodico dos Auctoret Por- 
tuguezes, &cc. (Portuguese Historical 
Bibliography, or a methodical Catalogue 
of the Portuguese Authors, 8(c.) Por 
Jorge Cezar de Figanie^re. Lisboa. — The 
author of this work, which we notice on 
account of its universal usefulness, as well 
as an example of a book of a very de- 
sirable character in reference to our own 
country, makes known, in the form of a 
methodical catalogue, all works published 
in the Portuguese language concerning the 
civil, political, and ecclesiastical history of 
Portugal and its dependencies, up to the 
year 1844. The value of such a book is 
not merely of a local nature. It possesses 
a certain claim to the notice of the literary 
world at large, as being of essential service 
to those engaged upon matters connected 
with Portuguese history, or who take an 
interest in literature in general. 

The catalogue is divided into three parts, 
each subdivided into various chapters, or, 
as they are termed, titles. The first part, 
after noticing the works treating of the 
general history of the kingdom, mentions 
the chronicles, histories, and other publi- 
cations relative to the particular reigns of 
its sovereigns ; the second part gives the 
works written upon the antiquities, geogra- 
phy, and topography of Portugal and its 
adjacent islands, those concerning America, 
Asia, and Africa, tragical events, such as 
earthquakes, shipwrecks, famines, &c, and 
the biographies of illustrious Portuguese ; 
and the third and last treats of all the 
writings upon the church, clergy, and 
military orders of Portugal. The author of 
each work is first alphabetically indicated, 
with his station in life and birthplace; 
then its title and the particulars of all the 
editions it may have gone through ; and, 
in those cases where copies have become 
scarce, one or more places are mentioned 
where they may be met with. Anonymous 



works are separately given after each of 
the chapters under which their subjects 
may be classed. Besides an index of 
chapters, there is also an alphabetical IndejR 
of authors at the end of the volume. 

The only previous work of this kind 
already extant in Portugal is Diogo Bar- 
bosa Machado's Bibliotbeca Lusitana; a 
compilation of the highest merit, but which 
is already of nearly a century^s age, the 
last of its four folio volumes having been 
published so far back as 1759. Mr. 
Figani^re has not only filled up this void, 
but also pointed out and corrected several 
omissions and errors inseparable from a 
work so extensive as that of Barbosa 
Machado's, which comprised all the Por- 
tuguese authors whatever that had ap- 
peared before his time. Mr. Figani^re's 
catalogue includes all books that had ap- 
peared up the year 1844, and a supplement 
is shortly to be issued containing an ac- 
count of those published since that period. 

The object aimed at in the Bihliogra- 
phia Historica would, however, be more 
thoroughly attained were it followed by a 
catalogue similar in plan relating to the 
authors who have written upon Portu- 
guese history in the Latin and Spanish 
idioms, whose writings are both numerous 
and highly prized. 

We hope that the labours of Mr. Fi- 
ganiere, a young man already well known 
and appreciated in his own country for his 
literary taste and antiquarian researches, 
may tend to diffuse a truer light than at 
present exists as regards the literary worth 
of the land of Camoens and Vasco da 
Gama. 



The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knight- 
age of Great Britain and Ireland, for 
1853. By Charles R. Dod, Bsq. 12mo.— 
The editor of this most useful and com- 
prehensive of all our books of reference 
for biographical purposes has now esta- 
blished a character so universally acknow- 
leged for unwearied attention to every 
passing change, and indefatigable industry 
in acquiring fresh items of information, 
that we should have a difficulty in vary- 
ing our annual language of commendation, 
did not Mr. Dod also usually introduce 
some new feature to supply us with a 
point of further congratulation. He has 
this year not only carried forward the 
object commenced in his last edition of 
recording the birth-places of the subjects 
of his book, by obtaining more than 500 
additional birth-places ; but he has intro- 
duced into the First Part of his work 
cross-references to the children and titled 
relatives of every Peer, who are enumerated 
and described in Part II. By this im- 
provement Mr. Dod*g Peerage is made as 



1853.] 



Miscellaneons Reviews, 



183 



ready a means of referring to the junior 
branches of every noble family as those 
books which are compiled after the old 
model of taking every family by itself in 
connection with its head. The new articles 
in this yearly volume, occasioned by the 
accessions of new personages to hereditary 
or official titles, during the past year, are 
eighty-nine in number : whilst a new par- 
liament and a multitude of other changes 
have occasioned many thousand emenda- 
tions. 



The Life and Correspondence of John 
Fotter, Vol. IL Pott 8ro. {Bohn's 
Standard Library). — This volume com- 
pletes the work ; the first was noticed in 
our January, number, p. 65. We cannot, 
however, help remarking, that second 
volumes are sometimes enemies to the 
first, when they present the subject in a 
less advantageous light. This is the case 
with Foster. The materials of which the 
first is composed are richer, as they in- 
clude his copious and instructive journal, 
for a sequel to which we look in vain. The 
more unfavourable parts of his character, 
such as his virulent hatred of the Church 
of England, though they appear in the 
first, are offensively prominent in the 
second. Perhaps a modified edition in one 
volume (like the condensed lives of Han- 
nah More and Wilberforce) may one day 
be found desirable. In such a case, it wiU 
be sufficient to intimate Mr. Foster's ex- 
treme opinions on some points, without 
presenting him so prominently in a hostile 
attitude as has now been done. His repu- 
tation will not suffer in consequence. 



James Watt and the Steam Engine. 
(The Monthly Volume.) Wimo.pp. 192. 
— There is a great deal of information, 
historical and mechanical, condensed in 
this little volume. Modern accounts of 
this engine are common enough ; but 
chap. 1, entitled *' What the Ancients 
knew about Steam and the Steam Engine,*' 
will be read with peculiar interest. The 
contrivance by which Anthemius, the 
Byzantine architect of St. Sophia, an- 
noyed his neighbour Zeno (p. 17), shows 
that knowledge enough of steam existed 
at that period for mischievous purposes. 



The Ancient British Church. By W. L. 
Alexander, D.D. (7%e Monthly Volume.) 
— This is an inquiry ** into the history of 
Christianity in Britain previous to the 
establishment of the Heptarchy." The 
third chapter is devoted to the question, 
** Did St. Paul bring the Gospel to Bri- 
tain V* which the author resolves in the 
negative. The investigation of the " Story 
of King Lucios," another alleged intro- 



ducer of Christianity into Britain, in chap. 
5, is avowedly based on the researches of 
Mr. Hallam, in the Archaeologia, vol. 33. 
The author justly observes, that '* the ob- 
scurity which hangs over the origin ofHhe 
ancient British Church is not greatly dis- 
sipated, as we advance to consider its sub- 
sequent fortunes." (P. ll(j.) This volume 
is altogether one of the most learned of 
the series. But why should Herodotus be 
termed " the garrulous and inquisitive ?" 
(P. 23, note.) The latter epithet is an 
honourable one, from which the former 
appears intended to detract. 

Life and Times of John de Wycliffe. 
{The Monthly V6/ttme.)— The author ob- 
serves that *' the life of Wycliffe was de- 
voted to one thing, and therefore was lack- 
ing in that variety of fact and incident 
wluch gives to biography its chief attrac- 
tion and interest. The record, however, 
is valuable, as throwing light upon his 
times, and as revealing the necessity of 
that great Reformation for which he so in- 
tensely sighed and laboured/' (P* 4.) We 
do not perceive that be notices the hypo- 
thesis, first brought forward in our pages 
(Aug. 1841), that the deprived Warden of 
Canterbury was not the Reformer. That 
paper elicited, in the controversy to which 
it gave rise, the fact of there being several 
contemporaries of the same name. Nor is 
it unimportant in Wycliffe^s history, as it 
presents his motives in a most disinterested 
light. At p. 27, Hentham should be Hen- 
thorn. The volume, however, will be read 
with interest, and the reader of English 
history will do well to include it in his 
course. 



Religion and Education in relation to 
the People. By Alfred Langford. — An 
able and intelligent book, plunging its 
readers into the heart of many serioiu 
difficulties, from which our way of escape 
would certainly not be that which Mr. 
Langford points out. We really cannot 
allow that the first of considerations, when 
we are endeavouring to raise the character 
of the people by education, is to teach 
nothing that may by possibility be the ob- 
ject of dislike or disbelief to here and there 
a parent. We are sure that in requiring 
from an houest>minded Christian school- 
master that he should check the overflow- 
ings of his heart, and not even speak of 
the Great Creator, lest an Atheist may 
thereby be led to keep his child from 
school, we should be doing what would 
make the educator and the education 
utterly worthless. They who are so very 
sensitive respecting the cases of scepticid 
or unbelieving parents, are not sensitive 
at all where the poor religious school- 



184 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Feb. 



master is concerned. Mr. Langford is 
himself anxious that the religious principle 
in youDg people should be cultivated, but 
he would concede the point rather than 
that education should not be universal. 
There must be, somewhere or other, a 
stop to these demands Jbr individual 
conscience, and against general religious 
teaching. We would give a large latitude 
to honest doubt and difficulty; but, where 
the peace and happiness of vast numbers 
are concerned, we cannot concede the grand 
outlines of Dispensation made by Him 
who best knows his creatures, for their 
crowning blessing. 

The Laws of Life, with special reference 
to the Physical Education of Girls. By 
Elizabeth Blackwell, 3f.D. — This sensible 
and valuable book, of small size but con< 
sidcrable importance, comes to us from 
New York, where its author, we under- 
stand, having passed through all the stages 
of an European medical education, and 
taken out her diploma, is practising as a 
physician to women. We wish that its 
very sensible counsels were disentangled 
from a few medical details, which render 
it unfit, or at least less fit, to be placed in 
a young lady's library. Apart from these, 
which remove it from the very class it 
seems to have been intended for, and make 
over to the mother what should be the 
daughter's manual, we feel the volume to 
be really one which we should thankfully 
recommend to schools and colleges. No- 
thing can be more wise and true than Mrs. 
Blackweirs remarks on our ** double na- 
ture** — on our injustice in frequently im- 
puting to the body evils which really 
originate in our mental and moral neglects. 
The body^ as she justly says, is not the 
cause of gluttony, intemperance, &c. ; the 
evil is, that the moral nature which should 
allow every bodily power no more than 
proper sway, is not permitted by us to 
do its true work. If such a book as this 
could find its way into good hands it might 
be the means of saving much waste of medi- 
cine, and of raising many a puny being into 
vigorous health. 



The Revealed Economy of Heaven and 
Earth. — In style and general tone this 
work so much resembles those which have 
been welcomed by thoughtful readers as 
the productions of Isaac Taylor's pen, that 
we cannot help suspecting the author of 
"The Physical Theory of another Life** 
and the author of " The Divine Economy 
of Heaven and Earth *' to be dwellers in 
one habitation, and recipients of the same 
inspirations. The preface to the " Divine 
Economy," if there were nothing else in 
the volume worth reading, would well re- 
9 



ward attentive perusal. Of the rest we 
can only here say (fully allowing the almost 
injustice of our brevity), that it is too con- 
jectural for our taste or our conscience ; 
that much is assumed which cannot be 
proved, either from Scripture or reason ; 
and that such confident readings of the all 
unknown and awful future seem to us 
neither salutary nor always safe. 

Ruth, A Novel. By the Author of 
Mary Barton. 3 vols. — We were not pre- 
pared by anything in Mary Barton, success- 
ful and popular as that fiction deservedly 
was, for so original a work as this. Speak- 
ing of it simply as a novel, it is very re- 
markable. The style, scenes, characters, 
the deep pathos and the genial wit : the 
construction of the whole narrative, un- 
flagging in its interest to the last, combine 
to render it one of the nearest approxima- 
tions to perfection of constructive skill we 
ever met with. But other considerations 
belong to it. The work of a woman, 
written on a subject materially aflfecting 
woman's character and position, it wiU 
have to submit to a severe ordeal ; and, as 
there is no trace throughout of that brag- 
gart and daring spirit which has too often 
been put forth in the discussion of woman's 
rights and wrongs, we hope the judgment 
formed respecting it will be ever respect- 
ful, and delivered only after the exercise 
of conscientious thought. To us *' Ruth" 
appears to be the fruit of very profound 
consideration of a painful subject in all its 
bearings, thrown out in story, as the form 
most natural to the writer ; whose ideas 
cannot remain abstractions, but must find 
a body and an atmosphere of circumstance 
for themselves. In conducting the persons 
of her narrative through their several parts, 
we think her eminently guarded on the 
side of truth and virtue. Perverted, in- 
deed, mttst that mind be which could find 
in Ruth anything favouring evil in woman, 
any more than in man. We are bound to 
say yet more than this. It seems to us 
that there is consummate skill in the man- 
ner in which our sympathies, generally in 
accordance with the kindly Minister, and 
out of harmony with the harsh and vulgar- 
minded hearer, are led, in due honour for 
plain truth and rectitude, to enlist them- 
selves in no small degree with the latter, 
spite of his odious violence. The balance 
is preserved with an equity truly remark- 
able. The guilt of falsehood is never pal- 
liated, though the hurry and the urgency 
of the case are fairly stated ; and surely, 
it is among the serious ill consequences 
resulting to morals from merciless severity 
towards a single and early offence, that dis- 
simulation in every form is sure to follow, 
not as the fruit of a wholesome shame, 



1853.] 



MUceliuneoui Reviews, 



185 



but as preHeotiDg the xady path which 
runs parallel to tbat of the Ttrtuons m 
actual life. Our space allows of no more 
extended remarkj but we must paint to 
the range of the author as evidence of 
her high talent. Topsy ^ in Uocle Tom's 
Cabin r L& not cktrerer nnd more witty than 
Sally, in " Rutb/' 



Lift and Leiiert of George Barihaid 
Niebuhr. Edited and Translated by Su- 
sauiia Wink worth. Val. HI, {Sttpple- 
menlarjf). — A third and supplementary 
volume of the Life and Lettera of Niehubr 
will meet with a welcome from oil who 
have read the former two. Its contents 
win not, however, be found of such gene- 
ral interest as the preceding^* although a 
series of letteri from Hollaod, written 
jdoriDg the eventful years of 180H and 
|BOfl, will well reward perusal. As de- 
criptiona they are lively, as criticisms on 
national cbaracter sensible j though too 
much tinctured by the writer*a faatidious- 
ness about auy Iiabiti!^ di^simiJar to his own. 
Besides these lettenj, and indeed occupyiog 
a Vf ry prumineDt place, we have no ex- 
planatory epistle froui Niebuhr'a attached 
and competent friend tho Chevalier Bun- 
seo, who auxlously de&ires to have the 
l^at Doue more worthily Judged a& to 
leveral political pomts, but doesi we think, 
little more thin tell na tbtt we muit wait 
for documents not yet prescntahlo. So, 
with regard lo the fragments in the latter 
part of the volume, they d{> not purely 
add much to our previous means of esti- 
inating him. In the reviewr of hid Life 
and Letters in this Magazine,* very little 
wa.« said of his modern pobtical creed. 
We felt theUf as hou\ that it ia the great 
misfortune of those countriea in which 
the principal part of Niebuhr'a Life was 
paased, that after an education of consi- 
derable scope has been aftbrded to the 
youDg, after all the pains possible has 
been taken to make the people capable of 
doing aomethiag, nothing is ^ren them 
to do. There can be no doubt that Nic- 
buhr felt and lamented this — that he 
wished for that apeciea of political lelf- 
govemment which should educate the citi- 
zeoi and yeomanry of Germany, and make 
them fit to choose their own representa- 
ttres. But he was himself susceptible, to 
a degree which detracts from ht^ dignity 
as a politiciao* of the outward influences 
whose effects he could yet at a distance 
deplore. He could not help being one of 
the aristocracy of learning, aitd he did not 
WTGitle with its fastidiousness ; he saw that 
thoae who rose a^iust the govern men t^^- — 
the eager youth of the uiuTersities, — were 



^ Gentleman's Magazine, March 185$. 
GsNT. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. 



not going to work tn the manner he be^ 
lieved likely to issue in substantial good, 
and he allowed his sympathies to be con- 
queredj and indulged in irritable and un- 
just remariifl upon them. Still we pro* 
test, in the oatne of fact and justice, 
against aa SAaertton recently made by one 
of hig severest reviewers, thot " he died 
in a state of horror at the popular rising 
against the Ordinances of Charles X." f 

There can be no occaeion to do more 
than quote Dr. Arnold's report of his 
conversation in August, 1830, to prove 
how great an exaggeration this is : " He 
(Niehubr) said he was now much more 
inclined to change old institutions than 
he had been formerly j but 'possibly,^ 
said he, * I may see reai*on in two or three 
years to go back more to my old views.' 
Yet he anticipated no evil consequences 
to the peoce of Europe even from a Re- 
public in France, for he thought that all 
claaaes of people had derived benefit from 

experience He often protested 

tbat he was no revolutionist ; but he said, 
thottgh he would have given a portion of 
his fortune that Charles the Tenth should 
have governed constitutionally, and so re- 
mained on the throne, ' yet/ he added, 
* after what took place, / wouid m^seff 
Aa if e joined the people in Paris ^ that is. to 
say, I would have gifen them my advice 
and direction, for I do not know that J 
should have done much good with a mus- 
ket,' . . . . While we were at tea there 
came in a young man with the intelligence 
that the Duke of Orleans bad been pro. 
claimed ICiag, and Nii^buhr's joy at the 
intelligence was rjuite enthusiastic.'' — 
Appendix to Memoir, voL ii* p. 389» 
4tb edition. Journal, dated August, 1330. 

Whatever treasures couneeted with Nie- 
hubr may remain as yet hidden from us 
by the necessities of diplomatic prudence, 
we can scarcely beUeve that they will ma- 
teriaUy affect our own estimate of bim. 
It will and must remain a fact that bis 
initid was very changeable, hisopiuiona 
afected by the gloom of his spirits ; that 
his whole character was one which suffered 
more than it gained by being placed in 
office, not because it ever lost the stamp 
of a conscientious desire after right, but 
because of its sensitiveness ; because also 
the vastues^ of his premises made it diffi- 
cult for Niebuhr to draw concluiiions. 

We are told by the Duke de Ragiise, in 
his iuberesting Memorials, that Buona- 
parte complained bitterly of those among 
his allies who were men of conscieoce 
ratlier than men of honour, ** W^ith the 
man of honour,^' said he, ** with him who 

t WeitaaiQBter Review. New Serieii 
No, HL 

2B 



186 



Antiquarian JResearches^ 



[Feb. 



purely and simply adheres to the letter of 
his promises, one knows what to reckon 
on ; whilst, with regard to the other, the 
man of conscience, who will only do what 
he thinks best, we have nothing to rely 
on but his judgment and inteUigence." 
Now, though adherence to his promises 
was at all times one of Niebuhr^s marked 
personal characteristics, we cannot think 
he laid sufficient stress on thie like virtue 
in others. 

He was so much delighted to see sove- 
reigns and ministers busied, apparently, 
in thinking out what would be best for 
the people, that he seems to have over- 
looked, or far too lightly touched on, 
actual breaches of faith. 

In conclusion, we will only say, that 
additional reading and new materials for 
forming a judgment, if they somewhat de- 
tract from our 'admiration of Niebuhr as 
a statesman, leave our love and respect for 
his personal virtues and his high abilities 
quite unimpaired. 

Light and Shade, By A. H. Drury. — 
A tale of considerable interest, cleverly 
written, and with some well-drawn cha- 
racters ; it is, however, unequal, and wants 
more of incident, and what there is is im- 
perfectly managed. The thoughtless Lady 
Angel is too foolish and too heartless to 
excite pity. One of the best drawn among 
the characters is that of a young French 
artist, who plunges himself and his friend 
into the most ridiculous dilemmas, all the 
time firmly believing that he is in a way 
to make both their fortunes. Miss Drury 
is very skilful in the comic portions of her 
works. Her " Friends and Fortune,'' 
though far from faultless, is one of the 
most spirited modem tales we know. 

The Experience of Life, jBy Miss Sewell. 
— Here we have some beautiful domestic 
pictures, and some charming characters. 
Had Miss Sewell never written anything else 
worthy of record, the *'Aunt Sarah " of 
this tale would make her memorable, — it is 
altogether one of the most picturesque of 



characters. The dryness of manner, yet 
the real tenderness of heart — the benevo- 
lence, the shrewdness, and yet the aim- 
plicity, are very charming. We may differ 
widely from the old lady's notions about 
the best mode of dealing with the ig- 
norance and misery that surround us ; but 
we feel that such a person would inform 
with life any plan, however meagre and 
restricted. 



Jeeuii Executorship. An Autobiogra' 
phy^ 8fc. T\vo vole, Svo, — We think this 
book better written than named. The 
public are tolerably weary of polemical 
and controversial works, and of those re- 
lating to Jesuitry especially. It is fitting, 
however, that the subject should be kept 
before all readers and thinkers, but it 
were more judicious to lead them skil- 
fully into details of Jesuit doings than 
repel them at the outset by a title which 
does not seem to promise much novelty to 
follow. Saving this exception to the title 
these volumes will be found worth read- 
ing. They are, indeed, very unequally 
written, so much so that we could well 
believe that two very different minds have 
been concerned in their putting together. 
In some pages the language is graceful, 
dignified, and impressive ; in others just 
the reverse. The exciting interest of the 
story, however, is not allowed to flag, and 
they who are fond of indulging in strong 
and terrible emotion will find as much of 
that as is good even for larger appetites in 
Jesuit Elxecutorship. 



Preeiosa : a Tale, — A book respecting 
which we find it impossible to say more 
than that it displays both thought and 
feeling, and extensive command of poetical 
imagery ; but that the resources of its 
author, which are undoubtedly rich, are 
expended on a feeble, uninteresting narra- 
tive — on a hero whose manliness is laid 
prostrate by a hopeless attachment, and a 
heroine who is at once virtuous*, cold, and 
unattractive. 



ANTiaUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Jan, 13. John Payne Collier, esq. V.P. 
Among various presents of books was a 
folio copy of the " Historiae Romanic 
Scriptores," fol. Paris, 1620, the donation 
of Mr. William Hardy, a fellow of the 
Society, with the autograph of Ben Jon- 
ton, in an extremely bold, plain hand, 
S^ Ben. Jonsonijf on the title-page. Mr. 
Henry Porter Smith and the Rtv. Junes 



Henthorn Todd, D.D. of Trinity college, 
DubUn, were elected Fellows. 

Benjamin Williams, esq. exhibited a very 
curious series of impressions, taken from 
the candelabrum presented to the Cathe- 
dral of Aix-la-Chapelle by the Emperor 
Barbarossa in 1166. They represent the 
Birth, Passion, &c. of Christ, and the 
Beatitudes. 

James S. Knowlet, jiui« eeq. preienCed 



1833.] 



AnHqu<nrian Researches. 



la? 



to the Society's museum a oast of a sculp- 
tured stone discovered last year doriog 
some excaTations in Saint Paul's Church- 
yard, at the depth of twenty feet. Its di- 
mensions are 2 ft. lOf inc. by 1 ft. \^\ inc. 
On its face is carved in low relief a homed 
animal involved in interlacing wreaths of 
the usual Scandinavian patterns, and on one 
edge is a Runic inscription in two lines. 
W. D. SauU, esq. F.S.A. has communi- 
cated from some friends in Lancashire a 
translation of part of this : " Kina caused 
to be laid this stone and Toke . . . .*' 
The stone is supposed to have marked a 
grave, and a human skeleton was found, 
in a long rude hollow, near it. 

The conclusion of Mr. Parker's memoir 
ou the Churches of France, accompanied 
by a very beautiful series of original draw- 
ings, was read. 

The resident Secretary tlien communi- 
cated an account of some Roman potteries 
discovered by the Rev. J. Pemberton Bartle tt 
in the western district of the New Forest. 
The site of the kilns was marked by mounds 
resembling depressed tumuli, and on dig- 
ging iDto them an immense number of 
fragments, and many vessels in a perfect 
or almost perfect state, were discovered. 
No traces, however, of masonry were met 
with, aud no tools or implements, but 
three or four coins were turned up in a 
very corroded state. Two of the coins found 
were of Hadrian and one of Victorinus. 
The former, scarcely legible from oxidiza- 
tion, had evidently been long in circulation, 
and afforded no precise information as to 
the age of these potteries. The coin of 
Victorinus is of the third century, but, 
as that also bore marks of wear, the in- 
ference was that it had been lost at a still 
later period, a<ld that the kilns were, per- 
haps, in operation down to the period 
of the abandonment of Britain by the 
Romans. The spot in which these pot- 
teries was situated was about midway be- 
tween the town of Fordingbridge and the 
place where tradition tells us Rufus was 
slain by Sir Walter Tyrrel. The account 
which the chroniclers give of the depopu- 
lation of this district by the Conqueror 
was probably exaggerated, perhaps from 
the practice of translating the word tun by 
town. Many Saxon churls doubtless dwelt 
in this district, whose tuns or homesteads, 
guarded by large and fierce dogs, would 
be prejudicial to the deer it was the 
tyrant's object to preserve, and the removal 
of such dwellings would be the consequence. 
The specimens of pottery had been evi- 
dently rejected on account of their being 
over-baked, or cracked by the action of a 
strong fire, and some of them had thereby 
acquired a vitrified surface not hitherto 
obtervttd on Roman fictile wire. 



Jan, 20. Lord Viscount M%1iod» Pras. 

Charles Scott Murray, esq. of Duiet- 
field Park, Buckinghamshire, and Thomas 
Tobin, esq. of Ballincollig, were elected 
Fellows of the Society. 

John Adey Repton, esq. F.S.A. pre- 
sented a sketch representing an elegant 
Piscina, discovered a few years ago in 
Springfield church, near Chelmsford. He 
attributes it to the time of Edward I. 
which is the date of the beautiful windows 
in the chancel of the church ; and Mr. 
Repton remarked that the age of piscinse 
may usually be determined by the tracery 
of adjoining windows. The occurrence of 
some of the old bricks with which the 
tower was repaired in 1596, shewed that 
the piscina at Springfield had been built 
up from the time of Elizabeth. 

Edward Phillips, esq. of Whitmore 
Purk, Coventry, communicated an account 
of the discovery at Newnbam Regis, in 
Warwickshire, of a leaden coffin, contain- 
ing the embalmed body of a man who was 
found to have been beheaded. The head 
was separately wrapped up in linen, and 
the shirt which covered the body was 
drawn over the wounded neck. The hands 
were crossed upon the breast, and the 
countenance had a peaked beard. The 
only indication of the party was the mark 
on the linen shirt of the letters T. B., 
worked in black silk. Mr. Phillips sug- 
gested from the peaked beard that the 
corpse must have been that of a cavalier 
of the time of Charles the First, and pro- 
bably of Major-General Brown, Sheriff of 
London, who is mentioned by Clarendon 
as having fought in the royal cause. Four 
other coffins found at the same time were 
inscribed with the names of Francis Earl 
of Chichester, 1653 ; Audrey Countess of 
Chichester, 1652 ; Lady Audrey Leigh, 
their daughter, 1640; and John Anderson, 
the son of Lady Chichester, by her first 
husband. Another leaden coffin, fonnd 
near the altar, bore an mscription for 
Dame Marie Browne, daughter of one of 
the Leighs, by Lady Maria, daughter of 
Lord Chancellor Ellesmere. 

Richard Brooke,esq.of Liverpool, F.S.A. 
communicated some observations on the 
field of the battle of Wakefield, made on 
a visit to that spot on the 3 1st July, 1853. 
No traditions among the country people, 
now fix the precise scene of the contest ; 
but from the discovery of broken swordi 
and other relics, together with bnman 
bones, on digging the foundations of tbo 
mansion called Portobello, it is evident 
that it was on a flat plain, now meadow- 
ground, extending firom Sandal oastle to 
the river Calder. 

Some remmrka " On the Angon or 
barbed javelin of the Pranks, dMoribtd 



188 



Antiquarian Researches. 



[Feb, 



by Agatbias/' were communicated by Wm. 
Michael Wylie, esq. who has detected, in 
the Mus^e d'Artillerie at Paris, a unique 
specimen which was found at Mount St. 
Jean, near Marsal, in the neighbourhood 
of Metz. It is not ascertained whether 
the Angon was originally a Prankish 
weapon, or borrowed by them from the 
Celts on their arrival in Gaul. A similar 
weapon is ascribed to the Lusitanians by 
Diodorus Siculus. Towards the close of 
his memoir Mr. Wylie made some ob- 
servations on the origin of the Fleur-de- 
lis of the French monarchs, which many 
writers have derived fr9m the Angon. 
This idea was combated by Montfaucon, 
who suggested that it was imitated from 
the ornamentation of the crowns of the 
Byzantine empresses : and Mr. Wylie, 
inclining to that view, considers that it 
may have borne some mystic meaning de- 
rived from a remote and oriental source ; 
in support of which suggestion he pointed 
out the same emblem in several objects 
recently found at Nineveh, Babylon, and 
Arban. 



ARCHJKOLOOICAL INSTITUTE. 

Jan, 7. James Yates, esq. F.R.S. in 
the chair. 

The Rev. W. Gunner read a short me- 
moir, the result of his recent researches 
amongst the archives of the Bishops of Win- 
chester, and those of the College, which 
had supplied some curious information in 
relation to the discharge of episcopal 
functions in the fourteenth and ^fteenth 
centuries. Many Irish prelates at that 
period seem to have been scarcely more 
than titular bishops, bearing the titles of 
sees in the sister kingdom, whilst their 
duties were chiefly, if not exclusively, con- 
fined in rendering assistance to English 
bishops in the discharge of their functions. 
A bishop of Achonry, as it appeared, was, 
for example, frequently deputed by Wil- 
liam of Wykeham to consecrate churches 
or perform other episcopal duties in his 
diocese ; and several remarkable instances 
were cited by Mr. Gunner, showing how 
frequently Irish prelates were engaged as 
suffragans to the bishops of Winchester, 
as also in other dioceses in England. The 
subject appeared to claim consideration as 
connected with ecclesiastical history, and 
the position of church affairs in the two 
countries respectively, prior to the Re- 
formation, independently of its interest in 
regard to the functions of suffragans at 
that period, which have not been distinctly 
ascertained. Mr. Gunner stated that Mr. 
T. Duffns Hardj, Keeper of Records in 
the Tower, had in preparation a carefully 
revised edition of the Episcopal Faiti, 



which would supply a useful auxiliary in 
historical inquiries. 

Mr. Burtt, of the Chapter House, read 
a memoir relating to some new facts illus- 
trative of the life and times of Eleanor of 
Castille, Queen of Edward I. from original 
documents preserved at Westminster. They 
consist of the Rolls of the Auditors of 
Complaints, concerning various matters 
connected with the estates which had ap- 
pertained to the deceased Queen, procla- 
mation having been made, as it would 
appear, speedUy after her demise, calling 
upon all who had any claim to make against 
any of Eleanor's servants, to appear and 
support it. The pleadings, which relate 
chiefly to Norfolk and Suffolk, and to the 
counties of Chester and Flint, comprise 
many particulars of interest; and whilst 
hitherto no precise evidence has been ad- 
duced to show who were the executors of 
Eleanor, it appears by these recently dis- 
covered Rolls that Edward was himself the 
chief executor, and to him, doubtless, 
must be attributed the actual direction of 
the design and execution of those beautiful 
crosses, raised in various places to the 
memory of his beloved consort. It may be 
hoped that further investigation of docu- 
ments lately brought into notice may throw 
valuable light upon this interesting period. 

Mr. Wardell communicated an account 
of the examination of a tumulus at Winter- 
ingham. East Riding, in which were found, 
with human remains, and the flint weapon 
of the natives of Britain, in the rudest 
period, the bones likewise of a dog, show- 
ing apparently the practice, similar to that 
of Eastern nations in recent times, of de- 
positing with the deceased the favourite 
animal, his companion in the chase. Ex- 
amples have occurred in Yorkshire, and 
other parts of England, of the remains of 
horses, and even of the wheels of some 
kind of car, interred with the early inha- 
bitants of these islands, and such facts are 
not undeserving of note in connexion with 
ethnological inquiries. 

Mr. Fowler sent a considerable deposit 
of bronze celts and broken weapons found 
by a ploughman in Lincolnshire. A large 
assemblage of ornaments of a later age, 
some of them of the most skilful workman- 
ship, found in the same county, were pro- 
duced by Mr. Trollope ; claiming special 
attention as compared with the numerous 
objects of the same date, displayed by the 
Hon. Richard Neville, in his beautiful 
volume relating to ** Saxon Obsequies,'' 
(which is reviewed in our present Maga- 
zine.) 

Mr. Tucker gave an account of some 
mural paintingi lately uncovered in Exeter 
Cathedral, wUch appear to be of a higher 
class of artiatic dengn than the decora- 



1853.] 



Antiq ua } ia n Research es. 



189 



tioiis of thk nature usually found in 

England. The date of these paintiogs has 

liecn af signed to the close of the four- 

teenth century; and the mode of execu- 

tion deserves close attention, as they 

mppcar to have been painted not infrtvcOy 

»lmt in temfiera^ to use tlie Italian term, 

^on the plaster^ the colours being partly, 

M it would appear, applied with tLc aid 

of some preparation of wax» TIjp eompo- 

' aition of the designs is good and effective, 

I the colour! og forcible, and in many parts 

▼ery fresh. The subject of this early epe- 

cimen of art, which deserve* to be carefully 

copied, is the Resuirectiou, and tlie de- 

. tailsi espedally in costume, partuke of an 

iXtalian character. It ni»y, however, more 

probably be regarded as an early work of 

the Flemish schooh The Dean of Exeter 

hais wilh praiseworthy care taken measure.*^ 

to presen'e at least an accurate delineatiouj 

as the colours of sucb niuml paintings 

frequently fade after a abort exposure. 

Numerous antiquUies, and objects illu^i- 
trative of ancient usage?, or arts and 
manafftctureSf were brought for esamina- 
lion, especially a collection of Haxon relics, 
I personal omameatSf niid beads of glaas, 
lilmost equal in brilliancy and variety of 
F colour to the celebrated ]iroduct)on!! of 
I Mumno. These were found at Uuar* 
I fington, in Lincolnshire. Several produc* 
> tions of the enamellere of Limoges, in the 
Ithif tcenth century, object* of the greatest 
I rftrity in Engbind tintil the reeeot dis- 
ipersiou of continental colkctions, were 
ahown, with various specimens of gold* 
Emiths'' work of Italian and German origin, 
Mr. Le Kenx brought a fine bead-piece, 
and some portions of armour, once sus- 
pended as a funeral achievement in a 
kfshnrch in Buckinghamshire, but thrown 
aside during recent "restorations." Mr. 
Burtt brought a series of foreign and English 
seals, a portion of the collections formed 
by the late Mr. Caley . A singular folding 
hat was produced^ supposed to be formed 
of white whalebone, and long preserTed 
amongst the heirlooms of uxi old Surrey 
family, as having been worn by Queen 
Elizabeth. It is a curious specimen of 
lugeauity in manufacture, and, as a proto- 
type of the modern poi-asol, seem a not iU- 
( adapted to the taste of Queen Beas, who 
lored to be seen in "an opeo garden light/' 
in which this singular piece of cojitume 
would, from the transparency of ita tex- 
ture, throw the slightest shadow over her 
atrongly marked features. 

The Annual Assembly of the Institute 
was announced is fijied for Jnly 12, at 
Cbicbeiter ; hie Grace the Duke of Rich- 
i,And the Bishop of the diocese, being 
Ds of the meeting. 



BaiTJSH ARCQJiOLOGtCAL ASSOCIATION. 

Dec. 8, S. R. Solly, esq. F.R.S. Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

A communication was received from 
Miss Agne^ Strickland, in reference to 
the discovery of a jewel in the form of a 
cross, supposed to have belonged to Queen 
Mary, and represented in her portrait at 
liolyrood. Inquiries were directed to be 
made on this subject. 

A paper was read by the Rev. E. KcU, 
F.S.A. on some coins found in excavating 
a part of the marsh contiguous to New- 
port, and 5omc other relics obtaiued at 
different times from the same locality. 
The Rev. Mr* Hugo read a paper on the 
liekl of Cuertlali', and detailing the par- 
ticulars relating to the discoveries made 
on tliat spot in 1840. 

Mr. G. Vere Irving read some remarks 
on an interlude colled The Kiiiing qf a 
Calf, in illustration of an entry in the 
book of expenses of the Princess Mary, 
in 1522, — ** Item, pjiid to a man at Wyndc- 
sore for killing a calfFe before my lady's 
grace bebynde a clothe, Sn?/' 

Sir F. D warns exhibited a stone celt rc^ 
ccntly found in Ireland ; Mr. Rolfe an 
embossed brick found in Sandwich, repre- 
senting two persona stoned to death by 
soldiers in Roman costume ■ the mouth- 
piece of an ivor)' drinking-horn, and a 
caning of a stag's bead in wood, of curiotu 
workmanship; a pound weight of the time 
of Elizabeth, the crown of which is en- 
graved, and the date 1588 inscribed on it; 
and also two decade rings in silver, a large 
and a small one. Mr. Baigent forwarded 
the drawing of a drinking bowl of the time 
of Henry VIL lately sold at Winchester ; 
on the Bdver rim is inscribed Poium tt nos 
benedicut A^ym* Mr. Newton exhibited 
the impression of a Gnostic ring, repre- 
sentiog a figure with four heads. Mr. 
Meeke of Royston forwarded a Roman 
buckle, portions of glass, &c. found in a 
tiimuluB on the high road from Roygtou 
to Baldock. Tlie tumulus, of the bowl 
shape, wa» thirty feet in diameter, mud 
between five and six feet in vertical height* 
It has now been entirely removed ; chalk, 
flint, bones of an entire skeleton, hx, were 
discovered. Mr. Gunston exhibited several 
specimens of lamps obtained from variouB 
places : one of black earth, fovwd among 
cinerary urns, horns and bones of oxen, 
tusks of boars, &c. in Walbrook, in the 
present year ; a circular one, vrith the 
letters I. H.; and a fragment of another, 
with the Christian monogram adopted by 
Constantine the Great. This monogram 
was also nhown upon several coins ethi- 
bited at the meeting. 



190 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



The Emperor of the French has an- 
nounoBd his intention of contracting mar- 
riage. The negociations for this object 
with the Princess Wasa having failed, he 
has fixed his affections on a lady resident 
at his own court. The Countess Th^ba is 
a Spaniard by birth, and twenty^six years 
of age. She is sister to the Duchess of 
Alba, and her mother, the widow of the 
Count de Montijos, is of Irish extraction. 

By a decree published in tbe Moniteur 
of the 18th December, in case of the Em- 
peror's leaving no direct heir, legitimate 
or adopted, his uncle Jerome, and his de- 
scendants, direct and legitimate, the issue 
of his marriage with the Princess Catharine 
of Wurtemberg, from male to male, by 
order of primogeniture, to the perpetual 
exclusion of the females, are appointed to 
succeed. 

The reigning Duke of Anhalt-Bernberg 
has ceded to the Duke of Dessau, chief of 
the ducal house of Anhalt, all his rights 
to the duchy of Anhalt Koethen, which 
ceased to be a separate soverignty in Nov. 
1847. 

The India Mail has brought news that 
Pegu was taken on the 21st November, 
and will be annexed to tbe British do- 
minions. The campaign may be con- 
sidered at an end, unless the Burmese 
forces should attack the new territory. 
In such a case a march would be made on 
Ava. The British Empire by the annex- 
ation of Pegu is extended into Eastern 



India. This will indemnify us for th« 
expenses of the war, and will give great 
facilities for overland commercial inter- 
course with China. In this sore of trad- 
ing Russia has hitherto beaten us; but 
we shall now break down the Muscovite 
monopoly, and lessen Russian influence 
generally in that part of Asia. 

In California nearly the entire city of 
Sacramento has been destroyed in a fear- 
ful conflagration. The largest buildings — 
churches, hotels, and stores — have all 
fallen a prey ; many lives were lost, either 
in a vain endeavour to arrest the progress 
of the flames, or in equally vain endea- 
vours to escape, so rapid was the progress 
of the fire. The city of Louisville has 
also been burned ; and there have been de- 
structive fires in San Francisco. In all, 
property to the amount of ten millions 
has been lost. 

An expedition has been formed by tbe 
Porte against tbe mountaineers of Monte-* 
negro, whose country, not exceeding 50 
mUes in length by 30 in breadth, occ^pie8 
a portion of the Albanian range between 
the Pashalik of Scutari, Heriegowine, and 
the Austrian frontier at the Booca di Cat- 
taro. They are a warlike people, pro- 
fessing the faith of the Greek Church ; 
have been frequently attacked in former 
times by the Turkish pashas of Scutari, 
but in vain ; and their independence has 
been admitted and undisturbed by the 
Porte from the year 1797. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 

The arrangements of the Earl of Aber- The new elections to the House of 

deen for a new Administration having Commons have all taken place without 

been completed, the transfer of power was loss to the ministry, except in the case of 

carried into effect at a Gonncil held in Mr. Sadleir, the member for Carlow, who 

Windsor Castle on the 28th December, has been defeated by Mr. Alexander. In 

The present Cabinet is thus constituted : the University of Oxford a zealous and 

FIrrt Lord of the Treasury Earl of Aberdeen. determined opposition was raised against 

si«*tari«. nf ( Foreign . . Lord John Russell. ^^^ re-election of Mr. Gladstone, on the 

^sStfi M^®™* • • Viscount Palmerston. ground of his having formed a coahtion 

(Colonial.. Duke of Newcastle. with the enemies of the Church. On this 

Lord ChanceUor Lord Cranworth. account the High Church party took part 

Chancellor of the Exche- Rt. Hon. W. E. Glad- against him, whilst the evangelical party 

, «^®I^ ^ ^^^- still mainUined the objections they had 

Lord Pi?«dent Earl Granrille entertained at the former election. Not- 

nt^T^frZf^i A;'n;;«.',;; S^ ^l: withstanding, however, this treatment from 

First Lord of the Admhralty Sir James Graham. u* # i**— \ * ^i. a 

Chief Commissioner of In- Sir C.Wood. ^« '^^f SJ^l^*"*"*!' ""[ ^^ 'T^ "' 

dian Affairs tremes, Mr. Gladstone has been re-elected, 

Secretary at War Mr. Sidney Herbert. **"* ^J **»• *"*^* majority of 124, and 

First Commissioner of 8lr W. Molesworth. after the contest had been prolonged to Iti 
Works utmost limit of fifteen days, Mr. Glad- 
Without office ifarquess of Lans- stone polling 1022, and Mr. Dudley M. 

downe. Perceval 898. 



18630 



Promotions and PrefhrmenU* 



191 



I 



The winter 6f 18fi2 3 has been remark' 
able beyond all mcniory for its high tem- 
pcnttare and incest ant fall of raio. Tbe 
raiti cointuenced on tbe 'ilst of October, 
and for Bcveral weeks after the greater 
part of England was under water. Oti 
the I5tli Not. the Feltwell New Fen Dis- 
trict in Norfolk wa* in undated by the 
bursting of Brandon Bank, when the 
extent of about 8,000 acre« was i»ubtaerged 
to the defith of from four to mx feet. 
More thjia 100 poor families have been 
compelled to leave thetr habitations, and 
the eetimated lois of the diittrtct it> from 
fA,0OO/. to 30,000/. A public fiubscriiJ- 
tioa for the relief of the sufferers was set 
an foot at a meetin}^ held at Dowuhani 
Market on the 22d December, to which 
Her Majesty ha^ given 50 guineas, the 
Duke of Bedford and Earl of Hardwicke 
each 50;. the Earl of f^iee^ter 25/. iVc. &c. 

A fearful inundation occurrpd in the 
neighbourhood of Bury, Lancaihire, by 
the burtiting, on the 0th Dec*, of two re- 
terroirt three miles off, in the vilhige of 
Elton, forming a " lodge," some forty feet 
deep, fur the accumulation from three 
narrow ttreams rising at Cockty Moor. 
Property wag here destroyed to the amoynt 
of 20,000/, and 300 fieople thrown out of 
work. Destroying, in its coiirge, small 
bndge« and gardeut for a mile further, it 
reached the cotfoft-mill of Mr. C. Wolsten- 
holme, destroying property to the value of 
1,000/. employing forty bimd^s. Reaching 
the chemical works of Mr. Mucklow, in a 
body of water twelve to fifteen feet high, 
in an instant it swept away forty out of 



fifty yardfl of building; the warehoojai 
flooded, and drugs destroyed to the value 
of between h.miL and G,D00/. Reaching 
Bury, it flooded houses and milk, but for- 
tufttttcly no lives were loat, though tbe 
total amount of property U wd to reach 
from 30,000/. to ;J5,000/. 

fn a storm on the 26th Dec. tbe de- 
struction was still more general ; which 
was particularly felt at Carlisle, at Car- 
narvon, at Gloucester, at Oiford, at 
Exeter, and at Dublin, as well ot on the 
Thames and throughout the country. The 
steeple of Trinity church at Stockton-ou- 
Tee« WHS blown down, and the ste«ple of 
Middlesbrough was also damaged. 

In the ye^ir IB 17 a column was erected 
on tbe Black Down hili^ near IVeiiingfton^ 
in honour of the groat commander who 
had takcji his title from that town. This 
naocuameiit having renmined in anuntiuished 
and somewhat ruinous condition, an in- 
flucDtial meetiug was held at Taunton ott 
the 13th of January, at w^ich the chair 
wa^ taken by Moutugu Gore, eaq. the 
High Sheriff of the county, and the Lord 
Lieutenant, Lord Portman, moved the 
following resolution : — ** That this meet- 
ing, deeply lamenting tbe death of tbe late 
Duke of Wellington, is desirous of re- 
storing the column erected in 1B17 on the 
Black Down hills, in commemoration of 
his victories.'' *llie resolution having been 
seconded by Biekhum EscotC, esq. was 
carried unaninoiougly, and Buhacriptions to 
the amount of nearly 400/. were rweived 
at the meetiug. 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



HaCRTTK PRCrBRMKNTfl. 

iVtfe, 15- Henry Charles Mtilea, eaq. to he 
one of the three Chief Commiasioners of the 
Tithe and ttie Land Enclosure O^mmission for 
Kni^laiMl a fid \Va(p*. 

Dec. 28, Jiflrl GranTtlle (leclared Prejudenl 
of the Councii.— Sir,William Moles worth, Uart. 
Sir John Young, Bart, and Edward Card well, 
esq. awom of tne Privy Couneil— Lord Cran- 
wortb sworn Lord Chancellor- — Tlie Duke 
of Newcastle (Colonist), Lord John Kussell 
(FareiffD)^ and Viscount Paltueratoo (liome>, 
tobettiree of Her Majesty's rnnci[i>al Secre- 
taries of State.— The Riiht Hod. Edward Card- 
well to t>e Prf'sideut of the Committee of Trade 
and ForeiffO Plantations.— Tbe Bifht Hon. Sir 
John Young, Bart, appointed Chief .Secretary 
for Ireland. 

Dec. 30. The Ri^ht Hon. William Ewart 
Gbidsione to be Chancjellor and liider Trea- 
surer of ihp KtdiciitM r - The Right Hon. Sir 
Charle- .- Her Majesty's Com- 

missior. 'if India,— The Hon. 

CharleN u he Advocate-Gene- 

ral.— Tbf Rtgiu Mmti Mr. Balnea to be a Poor 
Law Commistioner for Eagland.— The JUght 




Hon. Sidney Herbert to be Secretary at War. 
—James Bfoncreiffj esq. to he Advocate for 
geotland.— The Right lion. Sir James R, G, 
Graham, Vice-Adm. Hyde Parker, C.B., Hear- 
Admiral Maurice P. F. Berkeley. C.B., Capt. 
the Hon. Richard Saunders liundas, C.B*, 
Capt. Alexander Milne, and tbe Hon. W, f. 
Cowper, to be Lurds CommiMsioners of tbe 
Admiralty.— The t^rl of Bessborough to be 
Master of the Buck Hounds.- Lord Alfred 
Pa^et to be Chief fkiaorry and Clerk Mar- 
sha] to Her Majesty. — Lord Ernest Bract 
to be Vice-Chsmberlaiu of Her Majesty's 
Household.— Lord Foley to he Captain of Her 
Ma1eaty^<l Hon. Corys of Geutknien-at-Arma. 
— V iscount SydBejr to be Captain of the Veomen 
of the Guard.— ftichard Davies Hanson, esq. 
to be Advocate-General for South Austrslia. 

JfiH, 1. The Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., Right 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Lord Alfred Hervey, 
the Hon. F. W. Cbarteris, and John Sadletr, 
cisq, tO'tM! CommissioDers of the Treasury,^ 
Capt. the Hoo« Dudley Charles Fitzgerald dt 
Ros,ofl<itLifeGusrds,tobeF.<luerrytoH.R.H, 
Prince Albert. 

Jifn. 3. The Risbt Hon. Edward Strutt t« 
be Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 



192 



Promotion.^ and PrefermenU* 



[Feb, 



Ja«.4. Tlie Doke of Amll and Viscouut 
Sydney iworn of tbc Privy Council.— The End 
St. Genjians 4ei:Jflr*d Lord U*?utenant of Ire^ 
Jan d.— The Duke of Anryll sworn l>ord Privy 
SeBil.— Lord SUnley of Aklerley apijointed Vice- 
President of th(^ U^ard of Trade,— T!ie Uukeof 
Norfolk, KG. to be Lord Steward of Her Mb- 
jesly's IX on se hold— The Karl of Mulgrave to 
be rrcBaurer of Her MaJMty's Household.— 
Viscount Drumlajirifif to be Comptroller of Her 
Majesty's Hoiiaeh&kL 

Jan, I). Viscount CaunLujr to be Po Hildas ter- 
GeneraL— The Rifrhl Hon* Sir Williom Moles- 
worth, Bart, to be First Commlssiioner of Works 
atid Pablic Buildings,— Tlie Right Hon- Lord 
Stanley of Alderley to he PByra aster-General, 
—The Right Hon. John Wynne to b« a Priry 
Couneillor of Ereland. 

Jan. 6. Viscount Torriuffton to he a Lord 
In Waiting to H.RU. Prince Albert.- Samuel 
HobsoB, t&q. late Capt. lOtU Foot, to Ue one of 
the Hon. Corps of G^ntlemcn-Bt-Armii. 

Jan, 7. Htti Foot, Siirjreon E. D. Batt.from 
3d Ft>ot» to be Sun^eon.— <8th root.Caot. G. M. 
Lya to be Major.— «0[h Foot.C^pt. L. L. Mont- 
gomery to bfi Major,— Brevet, Capt.T. roM-)'s» 
of the ecih Foot, to be Major and Lieut,- 
Colonel im the Army, 

Jan. II. The Marquess of Ormonde to be one 
of the Lords in Wikitiag in Ordinary to Her 
Majesty. 

Jatt. la. Frederic Wiiliftm Hamilton, eaq. 
late Cant. t2th Royal Lane!er», to lie one of 
H. M. Hon, Corps of Gent lcmen'Bt-x\rms, 

JnH. 13. Eari Sonier^„ Lord Camoys, Lord 
Elphinatonet Lord Rivera, Lord Waterpark, 
and Lord de Tabley, to be Lords in Waiting 
in Ordinarv to Her Majeaty.— The Marquess 
of Dalhousle, K T^ to be Constable of Dover 
Castle* and Warden of the Ciuqtie Ports.— 
Will lam Monsell, esq, to be Clerk of the Ord- 
nance. 

Jan* 15. Tbc Duchems of Sutherland to he 
MiistrFBH of the Robes.— John Mnrquess of 
Breadalhane, K.T. to be Lord Chamberlain of 
Her Majesty's Household.— Lieot, -Colonel the 
Hon. Lfttiderdttle Maule to be Master of the 
Ordnance. 

Jan. 17. Robert Handyside, es*]. Advocate, 
to be Solicitor- General for «^cotlancL 

Jan. at. The Duke of Wellington to be 
Master of the Horse,— aSJth Foot3'"jt>r-Gen. 
R. LIudlvn, C.B. to be Colonel. 



T. G. Boring, e«i|. to the Preaident of the Board 
of Control; the Hod, F. A. Chichester to Mr. 
Lowe, and A. Hobhouse, esq. to Sir T, HedtDg- 
too, at the same Board ; G. F, llnlton* esq. to 
the Chief Secretary for Ireliiul ; W. M. Jimei 
esq. to the Chancellor of the Dnchy of Ljincu 
ter; and R. Wilbraham, esq. to JaiiieBW^ilsOQi 
e%q. Financial Secretary of the Treasary.- 
W. C. S. Rice, esq, to be Chief Secretary to til 
Lord Chancellor. 

Iaelano. 

Rif ht Hon. Maiiere Brady to be the Lord ' 
Chancellor.— Abraham Brewster, esq. to b« 
Attorney-General, and Willijmi Keogfa, €fl4|. 
Solicitor-General. 

The Lord Chancellor hR* made the following 
appointmentJirSecretary,MaiiereJ,Brndy,esq,j 
Secretary of Bankrupts, Cheyne Brady, esu. ; 
Purse-bearer, Mark l^rrin, e*i«j. ; Clerk of the 
Custodies in Lunacy, Rich. B, M*Cau8lAnd,e»q, 

Mr. C. Kelly, barrister-at-law, 1839, has been 
appointed Castle Adviser. 

The followinsf constitute the hoiiaehuld of 
the new Lord Lieutenant: Major I'unsonhy, 
Private &?ecretary ; Lord Umikellin, State 
Steward; Major Bag^ot, CoroptroUer j Mr. G. 
L^Efltranre, ChamberJain ; Capt. Willis, Gen* 
tieinan Uisher; Captain Harvey, Master of the 
Horse; Mr. L. Balfour, Gentleman at Lar^e; 
Capt. H, Wllliainfl, Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber i Dr. Ilatchell, Surjfeoo to the Hoas^ 
bold I Dean Tighe, First Chaplain.— Aides- 
deCamp ; Capt, H. Cust,8th Hossara; Capt. 
the Hon. J.J. Bonrke, «8th Rejft, ; Capt. A. L. 
Peei, 52d Re^t.— Extra Aides-de-Camp : Brevet 
Major G. Bagot, ilst llegt.; brevet.Ma|or H. 
Ponsonbv, Gren. Guardn; Capt, Lord Kilteen, 
8th Hussars ; C»pt. A. WombwelU 46tb Regt. ; 
Capt. S. T. Williams, 2nd Drag; C«pt. C. B. 
Molyneux, 4th Light Uragotfbs; Capt. J. P. 
Winter, 17 th Lancers; Lieut, the Hon. J. W. H. 
Hntchinson, 1 3th Light Dragoon*. 



Sir y. J. Turner to he one of the Lords Jus* 
ticea of the Court of Appeal, 

Sir W. P. Wood to be a Vice-ChanccUor, 

Mr. Kenyun Parker, Q.C and C. Otter, esq. 
to be Examiners in the Court of Chancery. 

To be Under Secretariea of ^lalCt Hon. H. 
FRxroy (Home), F. Pteel, esq. (Colonial), and 
Lord Wodehouse (Foreign). 

Joint Secretaries of IheTreasury, Right Hon. 
W. G. Hayter, and Jamea Wilson, esq. 

Joint Secretaries to the l^ard of Control, 
R. Lowe, esq. and Sir T. Redington. 

Secretary to the Admiralty * Bcmal Os- 
borne, e«q. 

Secretary to the Poor LawBoaitl, Hon. Gran- 
Tillt fkrkclejr. 

Private Secretaries,— CUnton Dawkitii, esq. 
and James Henry Cote, caq^ to the Prime 
Minister; R. W. Grey, e«q. to tlie Home 
Secretary; Henry Roberts, esq. to the Colonial 
Secretary; Mr. Arthur Rus#el1 to the Foreign 
Secretary, and Mr. F. W, H. Cavendish, Precis 
Writer; Capt. Henry O'Brien to the First Lcird 
of the Admiralty, and H. R- C. Stopylton, esq. 
to the Secretar); J. F. CamnbeU, etq. to the 
Lord Privv Seal ; C. Cardwell, esq. to the Pre* 
aideot of the Board of Trade, and Edgar Bow- 
rlagf* esq. ccon tinned) to the Vlce^ president * 

10 



Exeter and S. Devon Volunteer Rifle Brigade, 
Sir K. S. Prideatix, Bart, to be Major Cotn- 
mandant.— Inverness, Banff, Elj^a^ and Nairu 
Militia, A, P, G. CiimniiDg, esq., late Cant. 71at 
Light Inf and 4lli LiK'ht Drag, to be Major,— 
Tower Hauileta Militia, Major W, L- Grant to 
be Lieut.-ColoutI i Capt. J. S. Walker, late of 
seth Foot, to be Major. —2d Staffordahire 
Militia. The Hon. K. R, Littleton to be Colonel; 
Lord Paget to be Lieut.- Colonel; R. Dyott, e»q„ 
late Capt. 53d Foot, and K. Bhike, eao., fate 
Captain 7th Dragoon Guards, to be Majors.— 
1st Yorkshire West Riding Militia, the Hon. 
E.G. Monckton lobe Lieut,-Colonel — Clwahire 
Militia, W. D, Davcniwrt, gent, and W, H. 
Harper^ i^enL to be Majors, 



Naval Pelkfcrmbnts, 

Dtc, \1. Vice-Adm. John Wrieht, and Vice- 
Adrn. W. H. B. TreinJett, lobe Admirals on the 
half-pay list ; Vice-Adm, SirS. Pywi, K.C B. to 
be Admiral of the Blue; Rear-Adm. J. W. D. 
Dundas, C.B. to be Vice-Admiral of the Blue ; 
Cjipt. Sir G. R. B. Pechell, Bart, and Captain 
H. B- Powell, to be Rear-Admiral.s on reserved 
half.pay ; Captain the Hon. H.J Rous, to be 
Rear'AdDural of the Blue —To be retired Bear* 
Admirals on the terina proposed 1st 8ept. J§46, 
Capt H. T- B. Coflier, Capt. J. Brenton, CapL 
W. Ramsden, Capt. II. Stanhope, Capt- J. T. 
CofTin, Cspt. E. Curion, CB. Capt. S. Arabio. 

Capt. G. B. Martin, C B. late of the Victory, 
to be Superintendent of the Dockyard,Deptford, 

Capt. John Shepherd (1840) to the Victory, it 
Portamouth, as Flag< Cap tain to Vice-Adm, Sir 
T, Cochrane.- Com m. Henry 'lYollope, to Rat- 
tlesnake storeabip. 



]853.] 



Ecclesiastical PrcJhrmenis^Bivth. 



193 



Mem^ei'j returmd to serve in Parliament. 

Cflr/o*p.— Edward Alexaiailpr, esq. 

IforpffA,— Riffht Hon* Sir tieorffe Grey. 

Ward.^m^Ui Hon. Eijirard CardwelL 

[All tbe new miniatGrs have been rt-eicctEtf. 
witli the cjcoepttonof Mr. Sadleir, (ute Mtsmlicr 
for C^rJowO 



Ecclesiastical PAi^rRRMBNTB. 

Uev. J. P. LJghtfoot (R, of Wootton/Kofthamp- 
tonili) Hcinorary Canonry of Pplerboroueh, 

Rev. W. Potter, {R, of WUiieahatti, Sutrolk,) 
Honorarjr Cftwonry of Norwicb, 

Ri*v. E. €, Adiims, Hawkcriurcli R. Dorspl. 

Re?. G* D. Adatns, l^sl ElmJIeijjti V. Devon. 

Be?* D. L. Alexaritkr, Oantoti V. Yorkshire, 

R*r. S. Aadrew. Hal we SI R. Hevon. 

Hev. J. A. Astnii, Riillfnjctoi^ l*.a Clicshire, 

Rev. VV. Ayersjt, lifrertoei PC; KeoL 

Rev. P* S. Ba^rire, Wftlpole SE. Peter R. Norf. 

Rev. T, R. Rnlilwin, LevlanJ V. Lnncit shire. 

Rev. 11. Rekher, St, Gabriel P,C. Pirulico. 

Rev. \S. H, bei^iJt Chqrt:hovfH^ R. Warwieksh. 

Rev. T. IliUby, Norlcrj PC, CJioiice?tershire. 

Rev. T, R. B. W. Boasliton^Leigh, Newbold- 

wpon-Avon V. IVarwIektliiru. 
Rf?v. J, Brooks, WaUoH-le-llate PC. Lane. 
Rev. W. Colder, Fairlleld ['.C. Lfincflabirt* 
Hon. and Rev, A.G.Cjiitipbelif Kniptaxi jL L*ic. 
Rev. R. J. Clarke. Dcker Hill P.C S^l^attbrdslt, 
R^v. — Davjes, fit. Mark P.C. WhitecIispeL 
Rev, E. A. Daviea, i3t. MathJas P.C. Mjilvern* 

Link, Worcestershire. 
Re T.O.J.Girt^n, ensile Mneadam P.C, WlcklOff'. 
Rev. N, M. Germoii, Gussag? V. IMrsel. 
Ee V. Lord A .C. H ervey, H o m i nz slieat h Rh Suffolk . 
Rev, A, B, Hill, tiisU Rodhiif R, E^sex. 
Rev* C* E. H oaken, Luxutiiin V. Corn^ralL 
EfV, W. J Ames, Binon R. Warvrickahire. 
Rev, IL Jellett, Af^hinnirh R^and V. dio. Clovae. 
Rev, W, II . J lies, y\ (it t raai -I iw LoiigpdeBdatu V . 

Laneashire. 
Rev. G. Knowliii^, St PauI P.C. Stonelioasc. 
Rev.AXy*ll, SLDJonig-Rackcliurdi R. London, 
Rev. J- Lyoii9j Tilliuijliain V. ^Hi^%. 
Rev. R, ManiJ, Long VVbatton R, Lemeseersh. 
Rev. ^ Meadp. Dadj spillane V. dio, Cloyoe, 
Rev. W» Meniies. Wiiuiftll R. Hnntf. 
Rev. W, C, Moson, rJsbam V. Lincolnshire, 
Rev. W. Petersen, Holy Trinity P,C. Crtn* 

brouk, Kent. 
Rev. H. 9. Polkrd, Edlington V. Lincolnshire, 
Rev. ^. T. Prestun, Little Rrandon R. N'orfolk* 
Rev. H. H. Price, Ai*li PXT. Salop. 
Rev. E, hi. Pridmore, Breaj^e And! Germoe V^» 

Comwftll. 
Rev. IL T. Pulteney, Ashley R, Northamp. 
Rev. W, L. Roaentfiftl!, Hofy Trinity P.C Wil- 

leahall, BtaJfbrdMliii'e. 
Rev. Vir. shepp*Td, KilgevinV. dio. Elphlji, 
Rev. C.\V. H. H. Sidney, Gooders tone V. Norf. 
Yen. C. J. Smith, Erith V, Kent, 
Rev. B. ^rke^ Taddenhum St. Slary R. Sufl", 
Itev. r.Thorapton, Bontli Mtitims V. Midds. 
Rev. A. W. Opcber, Atliwellthorrpe It. NorfoiJi. 
Rev. i:, Uttermarck, Withyeornbe.Rawlcigh 

PC. Devoa. 
Rev. J. Wilcox. St. Peter P.C. Hiton, Stam 
Rev. C. T. Wilklosoo. AtterclUTe P.C Yorkah. 
Rev. T. Willis, Killecdy R, dio. Limerick. 

l^i Chaplaincies^ 
Rev. R. B. Piiker* Examininjr Chaplain to the 

Bishop of Moat h. 
Rev. W. M, flrfiiJford (R. of Weat-Meon), to 

Lord Chancellor. 
Rev. J. ]> t.kiuii*-. Unioiu Elhatn, Kent, 
Rev. R. Illi^], II M,H. RiKJney, 
Rev. J. A, :^l,nliiji!s. Colonial, Ceyton. 
Rev. B. JInu :n*n, 0»ol> SwalTliam, Norfolk, 
Rev. A. YL l'uiiL>Lk, A?ylnrnj Leeaon direct, 

Dublin. 

Gent. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. 



AVn. E. A. Slopford (Archdeacon of Meath), 
Exam inine Chaplain to the Biiliop of Meatb. 

Rev. J. C. Thompson, Eajst Riilinif House of 
Coi-ri^ctioaf Beverley, Yarkshiri;. 

OoU^giaie and Sshoi^siic Appointments. 
Rev. B. M. Cowic, Hul^ean Lecturer, Qimb. 
Rev, W, De Btif>fh, Dorniellan Lecturer, Uni- 
versity of rioblin, IHSa. 
Rev P. V. M. inucnh Fellow and Sab-Wjirden 

of Chrijst'fi Collejfp, TaEsaianiii. 
Rev, C. O. Goodforti, Heed Master of Eton. 
Rev. E C, Hawlrey, U>1>. Provost of Eton. 
Rev. J. MatiheWK, Professorship of Physical 

Sciencpfl* ^t. Ba^'id'^ Coltej^e, Lanipeter. 
ReVn J. l^^rtert Matlsemflttcal MBster,Cijl legate 

Institution » TarvJni, ChoJiihlfe. 
Rev* C. P. Sheplii'rd, Head Maaterflhip of the 

Grammar School, Sudbury, ^uOblk. 
Rev. J. B. Traversj Governor of Alford Oratti- 

mar Bcliool. 
Rev. W, VV«t.^on, Secoad Mastership of the 

Ou u rl:le G ra ni maf ^^choo I , N ort ham pto nsh i re. 
W. H. iamea, B A Vic*j- Principal of the N'or- 

msl Trainli]^ Cnjlepre, CbeUenhiim, 
M. Muller, M A. l^ctiireship of Modern Litfv 

rat u re, U n i V era i ty f ( )\f c>rd , 
J, 0*Lcarv, esq. Vicc-l'reLSident of Queen ^s 

Collcire, Gal way. 
A. SiTiilli, ILA. Vici 

College. 



V^ice- Principal of Huddei-alield 



Erratum.— V. 84, Ist col. for Rev. F. H. 
Barker, read Barber. 



BIRTHS. 

DeCr 7. At Mellon Mowbray, the Hon. Mrs. 
Coventry, a son.— 16. AtCartoii* Maynoothj 
the Mareldoness of KiMare, a swjn.— At Kin- 
nuird eastle, N.B., Lady Catheriue Camesie,* 
daUn- — -At lliadlip house, Wore* the Cbunteta 
Henri dl San Daniiano, a Eton.- — At Deben- 
ham vicarage* the Hon. Mrs, Jh Bedini^feld, a 
fiou. — -20, At Cane End houee^ OxL the wife 
Qf W. H, Vandcr^te^en, esq. if son and heir, 
— — 11. The Lady Hautinj^ower* a dau. 

36. %M SCO no teas Alaid^lone, a soa and heir. 
At Syaton park, Lady TborolU, a .*on.— — 

37, At Eaton !!^Q, the wife of Major Orrniby 

Gore, a son. 29. At the Rectory, Herting* 

frtrdbnry, the mfe Of the Hon. and Rev, Go- 
dolphin Hastiii^ii, a dim, in Berkeley sq, 

the wife of ^jdney Sinirke, esq. a dau. — - 
30. At Urampford :^p«key the wife of Tre- 
hawkc Kekewich.esq. ailau.— 31. At R^lJeld 
houj^e, Rarnc!, ."ijurrey, the Hon. Mrs. Edward 

Wrottealey, a dan. At Berue, the wife of 

Andrew Buchanan, esq, H.M, Minister Plentp, 
to the Svrlas Confederation, a dan. 

Jtf**. I. At EdKehilL Liverpool, the wife of 
(he Rev. J,S. Huwson, Principal of the Col* 
legiate Institution, a dau.— At Dublin, the 

Hon. Mrs. Hewitt, a dau, ^At Forest hi 11, 

the wife of Henry Vansiitiirt,e3q, Bcnj^nl Civil 

Se rv ice, a sou . 3. A t the Pri ory, W herw el l, 

Mrs, W. lremon(fer> fidau. — -At Glen StuaHp 
the ViscOEinlC53 Urumlanrtg^, pretuaturely^ a 
Bon, who survived only a few hours.— ?. At 
the Lodpe, Goldington, Beda, the wife of A. 
Mel lor, estj, a a on,— At Richmond, the wife 
of Bransby H. Cooper, esq. Bcuj^al Civit Serv. 
a dau.- — a. At the Rectorj", Barnes, Surrey, 
the wife of the Rtv. R, E, Copleston, a dau.— 
10. In Upper Wobtirn pi. Mrs. Charles Rivinit* 
ton. Upper Tootiup;, a hou. —— At Fallapit, 
l>e?On, the wife of W. IJ. tintej^cue, esq. a 

dAB. ^11. At Chesham st. Hie Countess of 

De^rt, a son.— 14. At East RtrKholt lodr^, 
SnlTblk» the wife of Lieut.-lM. Poole, R,LC,S- 
a sou,— 17. At Strsttou StrawlesB, N'^rfallip 

2C 



194 



Marriages. 



[Feb. 



Mrs. Cbarles Marshatn, a son and heir. 

At Garboldisham, Suflblk, the Hon. Mrs. Fitz- 

Gerald Foley, a son. The wife of James 

Ojfilvie Fairlie, esq. of Coodham, Ayrshire, a 

dau. 19. At the vicaragre, Mapledarham, 

I^dy Augusta FitzClarence, a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

Peh. .. 1852. At Adelaide, South Australia, 
Stephenson Harry Scatfe^ esq. of Glenbannah, 
eldest son of the late Stephenson Scaife,esq. 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to Catherine-Dig^by, 
third dau. of the late Henry Shuttleworth, esq. 
of Market ilorborough. 

Mau 19. At OUki, New Zealand, the Ven. 
Archdeacon Octavius Had/leld, to Kate, third 
dau. of the Ven. Archdeacon Henry Williams. 

At Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, Charles 

John Percival, e.^q. of Little Bookham, Surrey, 
to Eleanor, youngest dau. of the late John 
Matthews, esq. of Longnor, Salop. 

27 At Jericho, Van Diemen*s Land, Robt. 
Nalder Clarke, esq. U.A., J. P. of Lerderderg, 
Port Philip, of Downing coll. Cambridge, to 
Catharine- Jane, youngest dau. of the late Dr. 
Hudspeth, Bowsden. 

June 30. At East Maitland, New South 
Wales, Arthur-Edward, fourth son of the Rev. 
Townsend Seltcyn, C^inon of Gloucester, to 
Rose Elizabeth, youngest dau. of the Rev. G. K. 
Rusden. M.A. 

Aug. 5. At Sydney, H. Denne, esq. of Liver- 
pool Plains, son of the late David Denne, esq. 
Chislett, to Catherine, third dau. of R. Stubbs, 
esq. Sydney. 

28. At Sydney, William, second son of the 
late Captain Micajah Malbon, R.N. Governor of 
the Staplcton depOt for the Freiich prisoners 
of war, to Martha-Trelawney-Grace, eldest dau. 
of Edward Elmsall Day, surgeon. 

Sept. 23. At Secunderabad, Capt. Anthonv 
Robert Thornhill, 5th Madras Cav. second son 
of Thomas Thornhill. esq. of Woodleys. Oxf. 
to Margaret, only dau. of Major Cuthbert 
Davidson, B.N.L 

30. At Heidflberg, Australia, Sidney /licardo, 
esq. to Lucretia-Seymour, second dau. of the 
late Lieut. Wm. Flinn, R.N. late of Exmouth. 

Oct. 8. At Singapore, William W. Shtnp, esq. 
to Emily-Carohne, third dau. of Thomas O. 
Crane, esq. of Singapore. 

18. At Kurrachee, Scinde, Lieut. Charles 
Mardon Wallace Jamet, Bombay Establish, to 
Fanny -Margaret, dau. of the Rev. Richard 
Studdert W elsh, of Newtown house, and Rector 
of Six-mile Bridge, co. Clare. 

19. At Cape Town, James-Arnold, second son 
of Thomas Wood, esq. late of Arthingworth, 
Northamptonsh. to Eleonora- Louisa, youngest 
dau. of the late Rev. William Elliot, Rector of 

Simonburn, Northumberland. At Macao, 

James Mridges Endicott, esq. to Sarah-Ann, 
eldest dau. of Robert Kusseil, esq. of Brixton, 
Surrey. 

28. At Bermuda, Captain Edif»ard F. Uare, 
5Cth Regt. Fort-Adiutant, son of Major W. H. 
Hare, of Plymouth, to Fanny-Louisa, eldest 
dau. of Col. W. 11. Eden, acting Governor of 
the Bermudian Islands. 

Nov. 1. At St. John's, Hanopstead, Arthur 
Rithworth, esq. only son of J. Kishworth, esq. 
formerly of York, banker, to Ellen, eldest dau. 
of T. Potter, esq. of Poplar house, Hampstead. 

2. At Cambridge, the Rev. Sparks fiellett 
Sealy, M.A. Curate of St. Andrew-the-Less, 
Cambridge, second son of the late Lieut.-Gen. 
B. W. D. Sealy, HE.l.C.S. to Eliza-Holt, only 
dau. of the late Jon. Holt Titcomb, esq. 

8. At Coburg, the Rev. Henry D\xA\eyJeMtopp, 
M.A. eldest son of the late Capt. Henry Jessopp, 
formerly of Farmhill house, Essex, to Maria- 
Wilhelmina, eldest dau. of Jamea Oalcutt, esq. 



of Coburg.— ^ At Mossoorieon the Himalayas, 
Ludovick Charles Stewart, esq. surgeon, 94th 
Regt. to Emma. dau. of George Ray, esq. of 
Milton-next-Sittingbourne, Kent. 

8. At Chester, Neville Parry, esq. only son 
of J. B. Parry, esq. QC. to Caroline, eldest 
dau. of the late Rear-Adm. Si r Thomas Ussher. 

10. At St. Pancras New Church, Frederick 
William Ilutton, esq. eldest son of the late 
Henry William Hutton, esq. of Beverley, to 
Sarah-Isabella, younger dau. of Charles Cra- 

dock, esq. of Burton cresc. At St George's 

Hanover so. the Hon. Robert Neville Lavley, 
Capt. Sd Life Guards, second son of the late 
Lord Wenlock, to Georgiana-Eraily. youngest 
dau. of the late Gen. Lord Edward Somerset. 

11. At Bath. Otto Courtin, esq. of Maoheim, 
to Maria-Ann, eldest dau. of the late Lieut.- 
Gen. Sir Edward Barnes, G.C.B. 

13. At St. Marylebone, Kenneth Macleay, 
esq. of Keiss castle, co. Caithness, to Jane, 
widow of G. R. Butcher, esq. of Welbeck st. 

15. At Exmouth, Capt. Browne, 9th Inf. 
eldest son of Major-Gen. Sir Henry Browne, 
of Bronwylfa, Flintshire, to Frances-Mary- 
Anne, only dau. of Capt. Parsons, R.N. At 

Llanrian, Francis Green, esq. of Park Henry, 
Carmarth. to Elizabeth, second dau. of John 
Harding Harries, esq. of Trevaccoon, Pemb. 

16. At Chesharo Bois, Bucks, the Rev. Mat- 
thew Anderion, BA. Curate of St. Peter's. 
Derby, to Sophia-Jane, only dau. of the late 

John Turner, esq. of Arundel. At Adwell, 

Oxf. the Rev. Frederick f^fler, second son of 
James C Fyler, esq. of Henleton, Dorset, and 
Woodlands, Surrey, to Charlotte, youngest 
dau. of the late John Fane, esq. of Wormsley. 

At Edinburgh, the Rev. J. Wordsworth, 

Vicar of Brig^am, Cumberland, to Helen, 

second dau. of Donald Ross, esq. At Bough- 

ton-Monchelsea. Kent, the Rev. P. B. CoHingt, 
M.A. of PentricU. Derb. to Elizabeth-Jane, only 

dau. of John Jackson Bird, esq. At Walton- 

on-the-Hill, Lane, the Rev. J. H.Jonet, Fellow 
of Jesus college, Cambridge, and Incumbent of 
St. Augustine's, Liverpool, to Ann-Mary, dau. 
of the late Rev. E. Royds, Rector of Brereton. 

At St. Michael's. Chester, the Rev. Henry 

Cunlifre, M.A. Vicar of Shiflhall. Salop, third 
son of Lieut.-Gen. Sir Robert Cuoliffe, Hart, to 
Mary-Aiigusta, only dau. of Sir James Riddell, 
Bart, of Strontian and Ardnamurchan, N.B. 

At Dover, Capt. F.J. PkiUott, Royal Welsh 

Fusiliers, to ."^lary-Anne, eldest dau. of the 
late Robert Gamble, esq. of Wortham, Suffolk. 

At Seal, Kent, William Talbot Agar, esq. 

of Camden Town, to Jessy-Harriet, second 

dau. of Sir Alex. Crichton, F.R.S. At St. 

James's, Gloucester, the Rev. John Emerit, 
M.A. Perp. Curate of that Church, to Ann- 
Elizabeth, secontldau.of the late James Helps, 

esq. At Aberford, Yorkshire, theRev.Chas. 

Page Eden, Vicar of Alierford, to Isabella, 
youngest dau. of the late Rev. J. Landon, Vicar 

of Aberford. At St. Pancras, John Julius 

Stutzer, M.A. of Glendalouph, &c. to Frances- 
Albertine, youngest dau. of the late James 
Fielding, of Catterall, Lane. At Hammer- 
smith, Mr. J. W. Whelan, of Southampton, to 
Laura-Catherine, youngest dau. of the late 
Joseph CoUingwood, esu. of Northampton, and 

niece of Adm. Sir Hugli Pigot, KC.B. At 

Bradford, Sam. T. Warren, esq. of East Dere- 
ham. Norfolk, to Elizabeth, second dau. of the 
late William Spence, esq. of Malton, Yorkshire. 

At Christ Church, Marylebone, Randolph 

Henry Home, esq. of SUines, to Catherine- 
Louisa, eldest dan. of the late William Wyon, 

esq. R.A. of Her Majesty's Mint. At Don- 

nington, Heref. Tliomas Evant, esq. of Sufton 
Court, to Harriet, dau. ot Richard Webb, esq. 
of Donnington hall. 

17. At Kelso, N.B. Charles-Bdward-BeUaiiSi 



1853.] 



Marriages. 



195 



only son of the Ute Henry Smedley, esq. bar- 
rister-at-law, of Westminster, to Mar^aret- 
Slorraonth, only dau. of Patrick Wilson, esq. 

banker, of Kelso. At St. George's Hanover 

square, William Henry Brodhurst, esq. Bengal 
Civil Service, eldest son of W. Brodhurst, esq. 
of Newark, to Lucy-Anne. dau. of E. G. Halle- 
well, esq. of Cheltenham. Richard Z>e*/)arrf, 

esq. of Rathmolyon house, co. Meath. eldest 
son of W. W. Despard. esq. of Donore, Queen's 
county, to Charlottc-Mabelle, only dau. of Rev. 

H. Burdett Worthington. of Bedford. At 

Ilford, William Cote*u}orth, esq. sou of Robert 
Cotesworth, esq.of Walthamstow, to Adelaide, 
second dau. of John Davis, esq. of Cranbrooke 

park, Ilford. At Forres, John Henry JewAin- 

»on, esq. youngest son of the Kite Bishop of St. 
David's, to Alice-Henrietta, third dau. of Sir 

William Gordon Cumming, Bart. At Scul- 

coates, Hull. John Vessey Machin^ esq. of 
Gateford hill, Notts, to Delia, dau. of J. K. 

Watson, esq. of Hull. At St. John's, Notting 

hill, John ClerevauLx Pentcick, esq. of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, to Ellen, youngest dau. of 
William Benning, esq. of Fleet street, London, 
and niece of the late T. C. Granger, esq. Q.C. 

18. At Teignmouth, the Rev. G. Thonuottt 
of Dawlish, to Wilhelmina, youngest dau. of 
the late General Dilkes. 

19. At Plymouth, William Oakes, esq. of 
Hatch court, Som. and Shirland house, Derb. 
to Sarah, second dau. of Capt. Monday, R.N. 
Plymouth. 

23. At All Souls' Langham pi. Capt. Colin 
Campbell^ 1st Madras Cav. son of the late John 
Campbell, esq. of Kinlock, to Amelia, youngest 
dau. of the late Major-Gen. Sir Archibald Gal- 
loway, KCB. At Spondon. Derb. Adam 

Washington, esq. barrister-at-law. of Parley 
dale, near Matlock, to Frances- Richardson, 
only dau. of the late Roger Cox. esq. of Spondon 

hall. At Hornsey, James, eldest son of Wra. 

Bird, esq. of Crouch hall, Hornsey, to Eliza- 
zabeth-Jane, eldest dau. of Richard Clay, esq. 

of Muswell hill. At Hull, the Rev. G. Batho 

Best, Curate of Brandcsburton, to Eliza-Gill, 
second dau. of John Taylor, esq. of Belle-vue- 

terrace. At All Saints', Knightsbridge, Jas. 

Baber, esq. of Knightsbridge, to Mary- Kate, 
dau. of the late G. femith, esq. R.E. Gibraltar. 

24. At Wollaton, Notts, Capt. Geo. Thomp- 
son Wade, 13th Light Infantry, youngest son 
of the late Col. Hamlet Wade, C.B. to Caroline- 
Louisa- Henrietta, eldest dau. of Duncan Da- 
vidson, esq. of Tulloch castle, and granddau. 

of the late Lord MacdonaUl. At Combrokc, 

Warwickshire, the Rev. Francis Litchfield, 
Rector of Farthinghoe, Northamptonshire, and 
of Great Linford, Bucks, to Frances-Anne, 
second dau. of Sylvester Richmond, esq. late 
of the 19th Regiment. 

25. At St. James's, Piccadilly, the Right 
Hon. Ijord de Btaquiere, to Eleanor-Amelia, 
eldest dau. of Sir W. G. Hylton Jolliffe, Bart. 

MP. At St. Mary's in the Castle, Hastings, 

Coventry Payne, esq. to Harriet, eldest dau. 
of the late John Wright, esq. of Wickham pi. 

Essex. At St. James's, Paddington, Edward 

Morgan Puddicombe, esq. of Silverton, Devon, 
to LsabelLi-Zefinca. younorest dau. of the late 
Rev. H. T. Cresswell, Vicar of Creech St. 

Michael, Som, At Eastbourne, Henry Alfred 

Pitman, esq. M.D. Montague pi. Russell sq. to 
Frances, only dau. of Thomas Wildman, esq. 

of Eastbourne. At Edmonton, Sampson 

Hanbury, esq. of Rosemerryn, near Falmouth, 
second son of Daniel Bell Hanbury, esq. of 
Clapham, Surrey, to Emily, eldest dau. of 
Richard Booth Smith, esq. of Huxley, Ed- 
monton. 

26. At Clifton, Thomas, eldest son of Thos. 
Jacomb, esq. of Kensington park, to Jane, 
second dau. of the late James Gibbon, esq. 
M.D. of Windsor lodge, Swansea. 



27. At St. George's Hanover sq. Charles 
Lang, M.D. of Bryanston pi. to Sarah-Tatham, 
widow of Fred. W. Coe, esq. At Southamp- 
ton, Thomas, youngest son of the late Capt. 
Simpson, R.N. K.T.S. to Emily, only dau. of 
the late Robert Wightman, esq. M.D. 

30. At Brighton, the Rev. Wm. Brudenell 
Barter, to Barbara, third dau. of the late J. S. 

Broadwood, esq. of Lyne. Major H. W. 

Bunbury, third son of Sir Henry Bunbury, 
Bart, to Miss Cecilia Napier, dau. of Lieut.- 

Gen. Sir George Napier, K.C.H. At Epsom, 

the Rev. G. B. Lewis, Curate of Chessington, 
to Frances-Mary, fifth dau. of the late Rev. 
R. C. Hesketh, Rector of St. Dunstan's-in-the- 

East. At Cropthorne, Wore, the Rev. C. H. 

Steward, Curate of More, Salop, to Jane-Cor- 
bett, only dau. of Francis Holland, esq. of 

Cropthorne Court. At Penboyr, Carm. W. O. 

Bngstocke, esq. to Emroeline, youngest dau. 

of the late Oliver Lloyd, es(|. Cardigan- 

At Sellinge. Kent, the Rev. Wm. Tyldcn, of 
Lympne, to Ellen-Coates, second dau. of the 

Rev. J. W. Bellamy, of Sellinge. At Trinity, 

Westbourne terr. George Frederick Blumberg^ 
esq. of St. Petersburg, to Rosalie-Susanna- 
Jane, eldest dau. of Ludwig Blumberg, esq. of 

Palace gardens, Kensington At Prettlewell, 

Essex, John Paton, esq. CE. to Eliza-Adling- 
ton, eldest dau. of the late William Henry 
Porter, esq. late of Wanstead, and niece of the 
late G. R. Porter, esq. F.R.S. 

Lately. At Great Bircham, Norfolk, Wm. 
Ryder Durant, esq. of Broomhill, Teddington, 
to Rosa Le Clerc, youngest dau. of the Rev. 
George Steers Faught. of Great Bircham.—— 
At St. Michael's. Chester sq. F. S. Tremlett, 
Lieut. R.N. only son of Vice Adm. Tremlett, 
to Ellen, only dau. ofthe late Lieut.-Col. George, 
H.E.I.C.S. 

Dec. 1. At Paddington, Robert Cooke, esq. 
of Scarborough, eldest son of Capt. R. Cooke, 
late 9th Lancers, to Emily, youngest dau. of 
the late John Bury, esq. of Scarborough. 

2. At Leominster, the Rev. Vernon George 
Guise, Rector of Longhope, Glouc. fourth son 
of Gen. Sir John Guise, Bart, to Mary- Harriet, 
youngest dau. of Robert Lane, esq. ofthe Rye- 
lands, Heref. At Sidbury, Devon, Thomas 

Charles Darnell, esq. 51st Bengal N.I. youngest 
son ofthe Rev. N. W. Darnell, Rector of Stan- 
hope, to Emily-Jane, voungest dau. of Major 
Charles Fitzgerald, H.E.I.C.S. of Mount Edgar, 

near Sidmouth. At Niton, Isle of Wight, 

Alexander Mitchell Innes, esq. eldest son of 
William Mitchell Innes, esq. of Ayton castle, 
Berwickshire, to Fanny-Augusta, youngest dau. 
ofthe late James Vine, esq. of Puckaster, Isle 

of Wight. At St. Mark's, Surbiton, the Rev. 

W. Brown, Rector of Little Hormead, Herts, 
and Fellow of St. John's coll. Camb. to Frances, 
youngest dau. of the late John Wheeler, esq. 

of Prestwicli, Manchester. At St. Martin's- 

in-thc-fields, Edwin Cobbett, esa. of Maryle- 
bone, fourth son of William Cobbett, esq. of 
Siinbury, to Emily-xMary-Ann, youngest uau. 
of the late Richard Cobbett, esq. of Northum- 
berland street and Esher. At Whitchurch, 

Shropshire, the Rev. Henry H. Price, M.A. 
Perp. Curate of Ash, to Frances-Selina, only 

child of George Corser, esq. of Whitchurch. 

At Brighton, Alfred Mather, esq. of Brighton, 
to Mary, youngest dau. of the late Thomas 

Fuller, esq. Capt. R.A. of Heathfield. At 

Edinburgh, Sir Henry James Seton Steuart, 
Bart, of Allanton, to Elizabeth, eldest dau. of 
Robert Montgomery, esq. 

4. At Oxford, J. C. Stevens, esq. of Willes- 
borough, Kent, to Clara, second dau. of the 

late Capt. Emerton.R.N, At Putney.R.R.W. 

Lingen,esq, Assistant Secretary to the Commit- 
tee of Privy Council on Education, to Emma, 
second dau. of Robert Hutton, esq. of Putoer 
|>ark. At Paddington, Robert Peel FUyd^ 



196 



Marriages. 



[Feb. 



esq. third son of Major-Gen. Sir Henry Floyd, 
Bart, to Mary- Jane, only dau. of Henry Carew, 

esq. of Ayshford, Sidmouth. At St. George's 

Hanover sq. David, youngest son of the late 
William White, esq. of H.M. 50th Regt. to 
Emma, only dau. of Alfred Lavaletti, esq. of 

Tachbrook street. At Ribbesford, Thomas 

Lambert £fa/«, esq. of Cleobury Mortimer, to 
Anne, eldest dau. of William Bancks, esq. of 
the Fir Tree house, Bewdley. 

7. At Hitcham, T. W. Wing, esq. of West- 
horpe lodge, to Eliza, second dau. of J. Harper, 

esq. of Hitcham hall. At Harleston, North- 

ampton, Cecil William Foretter, Lieut.-Col. 
52d Regt. second son of the late Rev. P. Towns- 
hend Forester, D.D. to Henrietta-Maria, third 
dau. of the late Adm. the Hun. Sir Robert 
Stopford, and widow of Lord Henry Russell. 

At St. Marylebone, James Buchanan, esq. 

eldest son of the late Archibald Buchanan, esq. 
of Catrine bank, Avrshire, to Mary-Jane, dau. 

of the late David Carruthers, esq. M.P. At 

Colchester, Daniel Meadow*, esq. of Lowestoft, 
sixth son of Daniel Rust Meadows, esq. of 
Burghersh house, Suffolk , to Mary-Hamilton, 
only dau. of John Thomas Hedge, esq. of Reed 

hall, Colchester. At Stoke Newington, the 

Rev. Henry Bennett, B.A. Curate of Cranbrook, 
Kent, to Mary Chiles, younger dau of Mr. 

Etherington, of Chatham. At Charlton, 

Lieut, and Adjutant Adolph Hermann Berger, 
28th Prussian Infantry, eldest son of Chevalier 
Berger, to Frances-Ehzabeth, only child of the 
late Thomas Clarke, esq. M.D. 

8. At Coolburst, Sussex, Henry George 
Uddell, esq. M.P. eldest son of the Hon. Henry 
Liddell, to Mary-Diana, only child of the late 

Orlando Gunning Sutton, esq. At St. Peter's 

Eaton sq. John Henry Wyndham King, only 
son of John King, esq. of Grosvenor pi. and 
Coates house, Sussex, to Emily-Mary, youngest 
dan. of Lady Elizabeth Dawson and the late 

Hon. Lionel Dawson. At Ardwick, near 

Manchester, Benjamin, youngest son of Thos. 
Weall, esq. of Rickmanswortb, Herts, to Eliza- 
beth, third dau. of the Rev. Charles Alford, 
Rector of West Quantoxhead, Sum. 

9. At St. Austell, F. Hicks, esq. to Mary- 
Frances-Elizabeth-Graves, only dau. of Sir 
Joseph Graves Sawle. At St. James's, West- 
minster, Lieut.-Col. the Hon. Alex. Gordon, 
second son of the Earl of Aberdeen, to Caro- 
line-Emilia-Mary, eldest dau. of Sir J. F. W. 

Herschel, Bart. At Marston, the Rev. T. 

Norris, of Bradford, to Ann, dau. of John R. 
Beauchamp, esq. of Coal lane house, near 
Frome. At Bathwick, Bath, John White- 
head, esq. barrister-at-law, to Jane-Phillippa- 
Baskerville, youngest dau. of the late H. H. 

Farmer, esq. of Dunsinane, co. Wexford. 

At Hooton Pagnell, the residence of Arthur 
Saltmarshe, esq. G. H. Lang, esq. of Overtoun, 
Dumbartonshire, and Great George st. West- 
minster, to Catherine-Elizabeth, youngest dau. 
of the late Christopher Saltmarshe, eso. of 

Bath. At Aston, Herts, William Jcfteries 

Beckingsaie, esq. of Newport, Isle of Weight, to 
Margaret-Elizabeth, third dau. of the late Rev. 
Woolley Leigh Bennett, Rector of Water Strat- 
ford, and Foxcott, co. Bucks. At Westcoat*s 

house, Edinburgh, James Loftus Martden, esq. 
M.D. of Great Malvern, to Mary-Lyon, fourtli 
dau. of the late C. Campbell, esq. of Jura, N.B. 
At Horton, Northamptonsh. the Rev. Gran- 
ville Sykes Howard Vt/te, Rector of Bourhton 
and Pitsford, firth son of Gen. Howard Vyse, 
of Stoke place, Sloueh, Bucks, to Lilly-Anne, 
second dau. of the late Major Gunning, 17th 

Nat. Inf. At Carmarthen, the Rev. Thomas 

7%oma*, Curate of St. David's, to Elizabeth- 
Frances, youngest dau. of the late Rev. D* H. 

Saunders, M.A. Rector of Steynton. Pemb. 

At St. George's, Thomas S. Blacker, esq. of 
Armagh, to Frances-Mary-Anne, dau..Of th€ 



late Thomas Arthur Forde, esq. of Mountjoy 
sq. Dublin. 

10. At St. George's Hanover square, Marsh 
NeUon esq. of Charles st. St. James's sq. to 
Julia-Satara, youngest dau. of Lieut.-Gen. 
Briggs, F.R.S.of Holly lodge, Lindfield, Sussex. 

11. At Twerton, Thomas Leonard, esq. of 
London, to Ann, widow of John Collins, esq. 

13. At Rawcliffe, the Rev. M. W. Barttov, 
Incumbent of Rawcliffe, to Louisa, eldest dau. 

of W. P. Ingram, esq. of Rawcliffe. At Drus- 

bnrg-on-the-Rhine, the Rev. William Itaae, of 
Petcrsfield, Hants, to Sarah-Margaret, second 
dau. of Mr. John Porter, of Leighs Priory, 

Essex. At Edinburgh, James Warburton 

Beghie, esq. M.D. to Anna-Maria Churchill, 
eldest dau. of the late Nevile Reid, esq. of Run- 
nymede, Berks. 

14. At Southampton, George Henry Erring- 
ton, esq. late of the King's Dragoon Guards, 
eldest son of George Henry Errington, esa. of 
Colchester, to Isabel-Lannette, youngest dau. 
of John Hopton Forbes, esq. of Merry Oak, 

Hants. At Worcester, the Rev. Octavius 

Fox, M.A. Rector of Knightwick, Wore, 
to Maria-Elizabeth, eldest dau. of J. P. Shep- 

pard, esq. of Worcester. At Scarborough, 

the Rev. John Oates, M.A. Lincoln college, 
Oxford, Curate of Scarborough, to Harriette, 
dau. of Samuel Wharton, esq. of Scarborough. 

Robert Reid Kaliev, esq. M.D. formerly of 

Madeira, to Sarah-Poulton, eldest dau. of Wm. 

Wilson, esq. of Highstead, Torquay. At St. 

Marylebone, Edward Bradford, esq. staff- 
surgeon of the first-class, to Catherine, fourth 
dau. of the late Rev. Wm. Penny, of Foxhall, 

Essex. At Great Malvern, Walter Birch, 

esq. Capt. H.E.I.C.S. to Jane, eldest dau. of 
Lieut.-Gen. Birch, CB. Royal Eng. At Dub- 
lin, James J. Donovan, esq. son of the late Jas. 
Donovan, esq. of Buckham hill, Sussex, to 
Anne, dau. of the late Geo. Braddell, esq. of 

Prospect, CO. Wexford. At Lamarsh, Wm. 

Simons i9Mpfon, esq. of Ilford, to Jane- Annette, 
youngest dau. of the late Thomas Piper Par- 

menter, of Lamarsh lodge. At Kmgswin- 

ford, Wordsley, Staffordshire, Henry Smith, 
esq. of Harts hill, near Dudley, to Marianne, 
only dau. of Joseph Webb, esq. of Springfield, 
Wordsley. 

15. At St. James's Piccadilly, W. G. Young, 
esq. of Hyde park, to Sarah, youngest dau. of 
C. E. Chandler, esq. late of Tewkesbury, now 

of Gravesend. At Halifax, Nova Scotia, 

James Somerville Litte, esq. Surg. R. Art. to 
Ellen, dau. of the Rev. Dr. Porter, of Alphing- 

ton, Exeter, Devon. At Fleetwood, Robert 

Landale, esq. of Pitmedden, Perthsh. S.S.C., 
Edinburgh, to Mary, dau. of John Laidlay. esq. 

Fleet wood-on -Wy re. Lane. At Shrewsbury, 

Salop, Roderick W. Moore, esq. of Clerkenwell, 
youngest son of the late John Moore, esq. of 
Calcutta, to Rebecca, youngest dau. of John 
Hall, esq. of Shrewsbury. 

16. At Warwick, the Rev. Arthur Charles 
Copeman, M.B. Curate of St. James's, Bury 
St. Edmund's, to Mary-Stephens, eldest dau. 

of the town clerk, James Tibbits, esq. 

At Wirkswortb, the Rev. John Francis Hurt, 
second son of Major Hurt, to Cecilia-Isabella, 
eldest dau. of F. Hurt,jun. esq. of Hopton hall. 

At Manchester, Captain John Bickerson 

Flanagan, 81st Regt. to Mary-Anne, youngest 
dau. of the late Thomas Taylor, esq. At Ply- 
mouth, the Rev. George Peake,\ichr of Ashtoii- 
jnxta-Birminghnm, to Maria-Sophia, dau. of 
the late H. B. Strangways, esq. of Shapwick 
house, near Bridgwater. 

Jan. 11. At Ashby-de-la-Zouch, the Rev. 
Montague Webtter, second son of J. Webster, 
esq. of^Penns, Warwickshire, to Frances- Bar- 
bara, dau. of the Rev. Marmaduke Vavasour, 
Vicar of Ashby-de-la-Zoach. 



197 



OBITUARY. 



Lord Wjlloughby de Broke. 
Dec. 16. At Compton Verney, War- 
wickshire, in his 80th year, the Right 
Hon. Henry Peyto Verney, eighth Baron 
Willoughby de Broke (1492). 

He was the second son of John sixth 
Lord Willoughby de Broke, one of the 
Lords of the Bedchamber to King George 
the Third, by Lady Jjonisa North, daughter 
of Francis first Earl of Guilford, K.G. 

He was a member of Oriel college, Ox- 
ford, and created M.A. May 8, 1792. 

He succeeded to the peerage, Sept. 1, 
1820, on the death of his brother John 
the seventh Lord, who was unmarried. 

In politics lie was strictly conservative ; 
but he had taken little or no part in public 
affairs for several years past. He was 
very fond of mechanical pursuits, and his 
time was principally devoted to the im- 
provement of his estat^, and he was re- 
puted as one of the richest fundholders of 
the aristocracy. Although from his ad- 
vanced age his death could not be altogether 
unexpected, he had been as well as usual 
on the day before his death. At midnight 
a change was perceived, and his attendant 
found him speechless. He continued in 
an almost unconscious state until about 
two o'clock the next afternoon, when he 
breathed his last. 

He married on the 3rd of March, 1829* 
Margaret, third daughter of Sir John Wil- 
liams, Bart, of Bodelvvyddan, Flintshire, 
who survives him, without issue. His 
lordship's sister, the lion. Louisa Verney, 
married in 1793 the Rev. Robert Barnard, 
Rector of Lightliorne, Warw. and Prebend- 
ary of Winchester, and had issue Louisa, 
bom on the 24th July, 1802, married to 
Joseph Townsend, esq. of Alveston ; and 
Robert John Barnard, born on the 17th 
Oct. 1809, in whom the title and estates 
are now vested. The present Lord mar- 
ried in 1843 the third daughter of Major- 
Gen. Thomas William Taylor, C.B. of 
Ogwell, CO. Devon, late Lieut. -Governor 
of the Royal Military College at Sand- 
hurst, and has issue two sons. 

The body of the late Lord was deposited 
in a vault, recently constructed, near the 
chapel at Compton Verney, on the 22nd 
December. The mourners were the pre- 
sent Lord and his eldest son, Sir J. H. 
Williams, Bart. Joseph Townsend, esq. 
Hugh Williams, esq. with his two sons, 
William Williams, esq. the Hon. W. O. 
Stanley, Spencer Lucy, esq. Aymer Lucy, 
esq. &c. The pall was borne by Sir W. 
W. Wynne, Bart. Colonel North, the Rev. 
John Lacy^ and the Rey. H. Townsend. 



A numerous body of tenantry headed the 
procession, and it was closed by about two 
Ikundred labourers and cottagers, each of 
whom received a complete suit of mourning. 

Rear-Adm. Sir Thos. Troubridge, 
Bart. C.B. 

Oct, 7. In Eaton-place, Rear- Admiral 
Sir Thomas Troubridge, Bart. C.B. Rear- 
Admiral of the Red, a Deputy Lieutenant 
of the county of Haddington. 

He was the only son of Admiral Thomas 
Troubridge, who wad created a Baronet on 
the 30th Nov. 1799, for his important naval 
services, by Miss Frances Richardson. 

He entered the Navy, Jan. 21, 1797, as 
a volunteer on board the Cambridge 74, 
guard-ship at Plymouth, from which he 
was discharged in April, 1799. In Jan. 

1801, he joined as a midshipman the 
Achille 74, Capt. George Murray, with 
whom he continued, employed in the 
Channel and Baltic, in the Edgar 74, and 
London 98, until transferred in May, 

1802, to the Leander 50, Captain James 
Oughton. In the Edgar he was engaged 
in the battle of Copenhagen, fought on 
the *20th April, 1801. In July, 1803, he 
was received on board the Victory 100, 
flag- ship of Lord Nelson, in the Mediter- 
ranean ; whence, in Aug. 1804, he removed 
to the Narcissus 32, Capt. Ross Donnelly, 
which he left in Feb. following. 

In Feb. 1805, he was made a Lieutenant 
of the Blenheim 74, bearing his father's 
flag in the East Indies ; and in the follow- 
ing month he became acting Commander 
of the Harrier 18. In July of that year 
he assisted in the destruction of the Dutch 
brig Christian-Elizabeth of 8 guns, under 
the fort of Manado, at the capture of the 
Belgica of 12 guns, and in an action with 
a Dutch squadron, consisting of the Pallas 
frigate, Vittoria and Batavia Indiamen, 
and William corvette, of which the last 
only escaped capture. In the following 
month he was made acting Captain of the 
Macassar frigate, and in November of the 
Greyhound, his commission as Commander 
bearing the intermediate date of Sept. 5, 
1806. 

On the 12th Jan. 1807, his father left 
Madras in the Blenheim, accompanied by 
the Java frigate and Harrier brig, for the 
purpose of assuming the chief command at 
the Cape of Good Hope. The Blenheim 
and Java parted company from the Har- 
rier on the night of the Ist Feb. daring a 
violent gale, and were not afterwardi heard 
of. Capt. Troubridge, in the Greyhound, 
vainly cruized in quest of his father daring 



198 Sir J. Wallis Hoare, Bt.—Sir T. J. de Trqffbrd, Bt. [Feb. 



the greater part of the year, and in Jan. 
1808, invalided home, having been ad- 
Tanced to the rank of Post Captain on the 
28th Nov. 

From Feb. 1813, to May, 1815, Sir 
Thomas Troubridge commanded the Ar- 
mide 38, which, assisted by the Endy- 
mion 40, on the 15th August, 1814, cap- 
tured the Herald American privateer of 17 
guns, and the following day the Invincible 
of 16 guns. During the operations against 
New Orleans he commanded as senior 
officer of the naval brigade, and his ser- 
vices were acknowledged in the Gazette. 

On the 15th April, 1831, he was ap- 
pointed to the Stag 46, which he com- 
manded, on particular service, until Oct. 
1832. On the 30th June, 1831, he was 
appointed a Naval Aide-de-camp to King 
William the Fourth, and he retained the 
same appointment to her present Majesty 
until promoted to the rank of Rear- Ad- 
miral in 1841. 

At the general election of 1831 he was 
returned to Parliament for the port of 
Sandwich, for which he sat until the disso- 
lution in 1847, having been rechosen on 
five occasions; on three of which there was 
an opposition, but the influence of govern- 
ment (the "Whigs being in power) always 
carried the poll in his favour. 

In April, 1835, he obtained a seat at the 
board of Admiralty, but he resigned that 
appointment in Aug. 1841, for the com- 
mand of the Formidable 84, fitting for the 
Mediterranean. He was advanced to his 
flag on the 23d Nov. following, since which 
date he had been on half-pay. He had 
been nominated a Companion of the Bath, 
July 20, 1838. 

He married Oct. 18, 1810, Anna-Maria, 
daughter of Admiral the Hon. Sir Alex- 
ander Forrester- Inglis- Cochrane, G.C.B. 
and has left issue. His son and heir, now 
Sir Inglis-Cochrane Troubridge, was born 
in 1816. 



Hoare, esq. who married in 1834 Helen, 
eldest daughter of Henry A. Hardman, 
esq. of Mount Hardman, Grenada, and 
has issue; and 4. John-Willoughby, of 
the 13th Bombay Native Infantry, who 
married in 1840 Jane-Ellis, eldest daughter 
of Lieut-Colonel Charles Payne. The 
daughters: 1. Sarah-Maria- Clotilda, mar- 
ried in 1824 to Robert Carrick Carrick- 
Buchanan, esq. of Drnmpellier, co. Lanark, 
and has issue ; 2. Harriet, married in 1826 
to the late Hurt Sitwell, esq. of Furney 
Hall, CO. Salop, and left a son, Willoughby 
Hurt Sitwell; 3. Mary, married in 1832 
to Charles Foster, esq. R.N. and died in 
1836; 4. Katherine-Diana ; 5. Sophia; 
and 6. Fanny- Rosalie. 

The present Baronet, Sir Edward Hoare, 
was born in 1801, and married in 1824 
the second daughter and coheir of Thomas 
Hercey Barritt, esq. of Garbrand Hall, 
Ewell, Surrey, by whom he has issue. 



Sir Joseph Wallis Hoare, Bart. 

Nov, 26. At Brussels, aged 79, Sir 
Joseph Wallis Hoare, the third Bart. 
(1784) of Anuabell, co. Cork. 

He was the son and heir of Sir Edward 
the second Baronet, M.P. for Carlow, by 
Clotilda, second daughter of William Wallis, 
eso. of Ballycrenan Castle, co. Cork. 

He married, April 11, 1800, Lady Har- 
riet O'Bryen, third and youngest sister of 
the present Marquess of Thomond ; and 
by her ladyship, who died in 1851, he bad 
issue four sons and six daughters. The 
former were — 1 Sir Edward, his successor; 
2. William O'Bryen Hoare, esq. who 
married in 1834 Caroline, daughter of John 
Hornby, esq. of the Hook, Hampshire, 
•nd has issue; 3. Joseph Jamei Pariah 



Sir T. J. db»Trafford, Bart. 

Nov. 10. At TraflFord Park, Lanca- 
shire, aged 74, Sir Thomas Joseph de 
Trafford, Bart, a Deputy Lieutenant of 
that county. 

He was the eldest surviving son of the 
late John Trafford, esq. of Croston and 
Trafford, by Elizabeth, daughter of Ste- 
phen Walter Tempest, esq. of Broughton, 
Yorkshire. 

He succeeded to the family estates on 
the death of his father in 1815 ; and served 
the office of Sheriff of Lancashire in 1834. 
He was created a Baronet by patent dated 
in August 1841, and in October of the 
same year received a royal licence to alter 
the orthography of his name to De Trafford. 

He married, on the 17th August 1803, 
Laura-Anne, third daughter and coheir 
of Francis Colman, esq. of Hillersdon, co. 
Devon, and by that lady, who died on the 
33nd of October last, aged 1^^ he had issue 
five sons and nine daughters. The former 
were, — 1. Humphrey de Trafford, his suc- 
cessor, born in 1808, and unmarried ; 2. 
Thomas- William, who died in 1844, in his 
21st year; 3. John Randolphus de Traf- 
ford, esq. bom in 1820, who married in 
1850 Lady Adelaide Cathcart, daughter of 
Earl Cathcart; 4. Charles- Cecil; 5. Au- 
gustus-Henry, late of the Ist Dragoons. 
The daughters: — 1. Elizabeth -Jane, who 
died Sept. 1813, aged 9 ; 2. Laura- Anne, 
married in 1845 to Thomas William Riddell, 
esq. of Felton, Northumberland ; 3. Je- 
mima, married in 1829 to her cousin Henry 
Tempest, esq. second son of the late 
Stephen Tempest, esq. of Broughton ; 4. 
Maria, died May 9th, 1826, aged 15 ; 5. 
Jane-Seymour, married in 1842 to George 
Arthur Shee, esq. eldest son of Sir Martin 



1853.] Obituary. — Admiral Sir Thomcu Briggs. 



199 



Archer Shee, late President of the Royal 
Academy; 6. Caroline, married in 1838 
to Wm. Gerard Walmesley, esq. of West- 
wood, CO. Lane. ; 7. Sybilla- Catherine, 
married in 1843 to the Rev. John Spar- 
ling, third son of William Sparling, esq. of 
Petton Park, Shropshire; 8. Belinda ; and 
9. Harriet. 



Adm. Sir Thomas Briggs. 

Dec. 16. At the Admiralty House, 
Portsmouth, aged 73, Admiral Sir Thomas 
Briggs, 6.C.M.G., Commander. in- Chief 
of that port. 

Sir Thomas Briggs was the only son of 
Stephen Briggs, esq. Chief Surgeon at 
Madras, by Magdalene, youngest daughter 
of James Pasley, esq. of Craig, county of 
Dumfries, brother to Adm. Sir T. Pasley, 
who died in 1808, and uncle to the present 
Rear- Adm. Sir T. S. Pasley. He entered 
the navy Sept. 10, 1791, as first-class 
volunteer, on board the Bellerophon 74, 
commanded by his uncle Capt. Pasley, 
whom he soon afterwards accompanied, 
as midshipman, into the Vengeance 74, 
lying in the river Medway. From April 
1793 until the year 1798 he was attached, 
under Capt. C. Tyler, to the Meleager 32, 
Diadem 64, and L'Aigle frigate, and par- 
ticipfited during that period in the opera- 
tions against Toulon and Corsica in 1 793-4, 
and in Uotham's partial actions of the 
14th March and 13th July, 1795. Having 
been confirmed in the rank of Lieutenant 
on the 28th Sept. 1797, he was removed 
to the Ville de Paris 110, the flag-ship off 
Lisbon of Earl St. Vincent, and he shortly 
afterwards joined the Princess Royal 98, 
bearing the flag of Rear-Adm. T. L. 
Frederick off Cadiz. On the 10th July, 
1799, he assumed the acting command ojf 
the Salamine 16, to which sloop he was 
officially appointed June 30, 1800, and 
assisted in the reduction of Genoa. On 
the 21st Jan. 1801, in company with the 
Caroline 36, he captured a xebec laden 
with arms, and mounting 4 guns, with a 
crew of 24 men. He next engaged in 
the expedition under Lord Keith and Sir 
Ralph Abercromby, for his services during 
which he obtained the Turkish gold medid 
and the Order of the Crescent, and was 
promoted to post rank by commission 
dated the 24th of July in the same year. 

His succeeding appointments afloat 
were, in August following, to the Madras 
54, flag-ship of Sir Richard Bickerton off 
Alexandria ; in 1802 to the Agincourt 64, 
on the Mediterranean and Home stations ; 
and on the 14th Dec. 1805, to the Or- 
pheus 32, in which he captured on the 
25th Sept. and 12th Nov. 1806, the priva- 
teers Goadaloupe, of 3 guns and 54 men, 
aod Susannah I of 4 gunt and 20 men, and 



was subsequently wrecked on the coral 
reef of Jamaica, on the 23d Jan. 1807, 
when he was personally rescued off the 
bowsprit of his ship by the present Lieut. 
Henry Belsey, in a boat belonging to the 
Elephant 74. 

On the 27th April, 1808, Capt. Briggs 
was appointed to the temporary command 
of the Theseus 74, off T Orient ; on the 
7th of Nov. in the same year to the Clo- 
rinde 38, on the East India station, where 
he took, on the 28th Jan. 1810, THenri 
privateer, of 8 guns and 57 men, and 
proved of material service in disembarking 
the troops at the reduction of the Isle of 
France in Dec. 1810, and was next em- 
ployed in the China Sea; in Oct. 1814, to 
the Leviathan 74, which ship, after serving 
on the Lisbon, Cork, and Mediterranean 
stations, was paid off on the 19th July, 
1816 ; and on the loth May, 1818, to the 
Queen Charlotte 100, as Flag Captain at 
Portsmouth to Sir George Campbell, with 
whom he continued until Feb. 1821. 

In 1823 Captain Briggs was nominated 
Resident Commissioner of the Navy at 
Bermuda. He removed to Malta in 1829; 
attained the rank of Rear- Admiral on the 
27 th June, 1832 ; and was appointed 
about the same period Superintendent of 
Malta Dockyard, where he remained until 
1838, having received in 1833 the grand 
cross of the order of St. Michael and St. 
George for his services in the temporary 
command of the Mediterranean squadron. 
He was made a Vice- Admiral on the 23d 
Nov. 1841 ; Admiral, Sept. 2, 1850 ; wai 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of Ports- 
mouth on the 18th Sept. 1851, and hoisted 
his flag on board the Victory as successor 
to Admiral Sir Thomas Bladen Capel on 
the 1st of October following. In this 
capacity he was most active in the discharge 
of his duties, and might be seen every day 
in the dockyard. His hospitality and 
benevolence were widely extended, and he 
was as much beloved in the social circlo 
as he was universally respected in the navy. 

His remains were conveyed to the Ken- 
sal-green Cemetery for private interment 
in the same vault that contained those of 
his late wife. Captain Martin, his son- 
in-law, and Flng Captain, and Mr. Trip- 
hook, his secretary and executor, accom- 
panied the body to London. 

Sir Thomas Briggs married, in 1814, 
Isabella-Harriet, daughter of General Tre- 
paud, and had issue three sons, of whom 
the eldest, George-Campbell, died a Lieut. 
R.N. in 1845. His daughter, Isabella- 
Harriet, is married to Capt. George Bohun 
Martui, R.N., C.B. nephew to the late Sir 
George Martin, G.C.B. Admiral of the 
Fleet. 



200 Lt.'Gen. Clitherow, KC—Lt-Gen. Shuldham, [Feb. 

Sir William Anderson,* Bart, of Kilnwick 
Percy, Yorkshire, and Lea Hall, Lincoln- 
shire. 

He was nominated a cadet in the Bombay 
establishment in April 1797 ; became 
Colonel of the 25th Native Infantry Sept. 
8, 1826; and a Lieut.-General in 18 . . 
He was for some years Quartermaster- 
general at Bombay. 

After returning to Ireland, he became a 
constant resident on his estate, and spent in 
his neighbourhood the income that he de- 
rived from it, benefiting the population not 
only by the employment which he gave, but 
by those attentions to their wants in suffer- 
ing and sickness which are so often needed 
by the poor. Famine and pestilence found 
him at his post, feeding the hungry and 
succouring the ailing, and entitling him- 
self to a place in the grateful recollection 
of the survivors of those terrible visita- 
tions. A poor-law guardian and a ma- 
gistrate, he was blameless in the discharge 
of the duties of each office ; and indeed in 
the several relations of an active though 
unobtrusive life he set an example which, 
if followed by all of similar position, could 
not fail to have a beneficial effect on our 
social condition. 

General Sbuldham married Nov. 3, 
1816, Harriett-Bonar, daughter of Thomas 
Rundell, esq. and had issue: 1. Harriet 
Katherine, bom Oct. 28, 1823, recently 
married to Lord Carbery ; 2. Edmund 
Anderson, born at Bombay, May 12, 1826 ; 
3. Leopold-Arthur- Francis, born at Flo- 
rence, July 25th. 1828; and 4. William- 
Monckton, born 1829, who is deceased. 



Lieut.-Gen. Clitherow, K.C. 

Oct. li. At Boston House, Middlesex, 
in his 70th year, Lieut. -General John 
Clitherow, K.C., Colonel of the 67th Foot. 

General Clitherow was the eldest son of 
Christopher Clitherow, esq. of Bird's Place, 
in Essenden, co. Hertford, by Anne, only 
surviving daughter of Gilbert Jodrell, esq. 

He was appointed Ensign in the 3d 
foot guards Dec. 19, 1799; Lieutenant 
and Captain Feb. 24, 1803; Captain and 
Lieut. -Colonel Oct. 8, 1812. He served 
the Egyptian campaign of 1801, and re- 
ceived its medal ; the expedition to Hano- 
ver in 1805, and that to Walcheren in 
1809. In Dec. 1809 he proceeded to the 
Peninsula, where he was present in the 
battle of Busaco, and severely wounded in 
that of Fuentes d*Onor, and in consequence 
he came home. He rejoined before the 
battle of Salamanca, in which he was en- 
gaged ; and was again wounded at the 
siege of Burgos, and obliged to return. 
In 1815 he served in France. 

He attained the rank of Colonel in 1821, 
that of Major- General in 1830, and that 
of Lieut.-General in 1841. He was ap- 
pointed to the command of the 67th regi- 
ment on the loth Jan. 1844. 

On the death of his cousin-german 
James Clitherow, esq. Colonel of the West 
Middlesex Militia, on the 12th Oct. 1841, 
he succeeded to the representation of that 
ancient family, — the only family, we be- 
lieve, of any antiquity in Middlesex, having 
first fettled at Boston House in the parish 
of Brentford in the reign of Charles I. in 
the person of James Clitherow, esq. who 
was the son and heir of Sir Christopher 
Clitherow, Lord Mayor in 1636, and one 
of the citizens in Parliament for the City. 

The General married first, in Jan. 1809, 
Sarah, daughter of Lieut.. General Burton, 
of North Cave, co. York, by whom he 
had issue John Christie Clitherow, bom 
in Dec. 1809, Capt. and Lieut.- Colonel in 
the Coldstream Guards ; and secondly, in 
1825, Millicent, eldest daughter of Charles 
Pole, esq. of Wyck Hill House, co. Glou- 
cester, and sister to Lieut.-Col. Arthur 
Cunliffe Pole, Lieut. -Colonel of the 63d 
Foot. 



Lieut.-General Shuldham. 

Nov. 17. At Dunmanway, co. Cork, 
aged 73, Edmund William Shuldham, esq. 
a Lieut.-General in the East India Com- 
pany's service. 

He was the eldest son of Arthur Lemuel 
Shuldham, esq. of Dunmanway, who for 
many years re.-idcd at Deer Park, co. 
Devon, was a Deputy Lieutenant of that 
county, and Lieut. Colonel of the East 
Devon Yeomanry Cavalry. His mother 
was Katharine Maria, daughter of the late 
11 



Major-General T. F. Addison. 

Nov. 11. Suddenly, at the Green Dragon 
hotel, Bishopsgate-street -Within, in his 
80th year, Thomas Fenn Addison, esq. of 
Chilton Lodge, Suffolk, a Major-General 
in the army, and a magistrate for the 
counties of Suffolk and Essex. 

He was the eldest son of John Addison, 
esq. of Sudbury, banker, (who died in 
1821, aged eighty-three,) by Mary eldest 
daughter of Thomas Fenn, esq. also of 
Sudbury, banker, Receiver-general of the 
land-tax for Suffolk. 

He was appointed Comet in the Ist 
dragoon guards. May 4, 1800 ; Lieutenant 
in 1802, and Captain Dec. 24, 1803. In 
1805 he was Aide-de-camp to Lieut.-Gen. 
Sir. J. Pulteney, who commanded in the 
Eastern district ; and after that officer's 
retirement from the staff he was appointed 
Major of Brigade to the troops in the same 
district, and performed the duty of Assist- 
ant Adjutant-general in the absence of a 
senior officer. In 1811 he became Military 
Secretary to Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. C. Sher- 
brooke, and accompanied him to Nova 



1853.] M.-Gen, Addison. ~M.- Gen, Cauifeild.—Adm. Black. 201 

He first oon tested the borough of Ahiog* 
don in Jiily^ l«-t5* {^pposiog the re-election 
of Sir Frederic Thesiger, then flppoiated 
Attorney - General. Sir Frederic wh& 
elected by 15G vi>te$ to 12G, Again^ at the 
general electioa of 1B47, the Bivme parties 
were competitors, and Sir Frederic re- 
tained his seat only by a majority of two, 
polling 153 votes to lal. At the recent 
general election Major -General Caulfeild 
WR8 returned for Abingdon without oppo- 
sition, hut he did not take his seat« dying 
on the day of the fir&t aisembling of Par- 
Hainent. 



Scotiai exchanging at that time to the 
100th Foot, which was then serving in 
North America. He obtained the brevet 
rank of Major, Juno I, 1814; and in 
September of that year went with Sir J. C. 
Sherbrooke in the expedition to the Pe- 
nobscot, which took possession of the forta 
and tower of Cftstiue, Macchia, &c. and 
also destroyed the American frigate Adam», 
tie was sent home with the despatches on 
that occasion, and in coojaequence received 
the brevet of Lt.XoloQei, Oct. l,i» 1814, 

In 1816 he accompanied Sir J. C. Sher- 
brooke^ as Military Secretary, to Quebec, 
when that officer wag appointed Goveroor- 
Ln- chief, and Commander of the Forces^ in 
British Nortli America* He retired on 
the half-pay of a Captain of the 94th Foot. 
He attained the rank of Colonel in 1837 > 
and that of Major-General in 1846. 

He married June I, IBOI^ Jane, daugh- 
ter of Charles Gibbon, esq. of Kettering, 
CO. Northampton, and had issue one son 
and four daughters. His son, John Charles 
Addison, esq. died in 164(1, having mar- 
ried Anna, youngest daughter of Francis 
Ere win, esq. Tlie daughters were: 1, 
Marjr married in 1835 to John HeDneH, 
esq. of Chapel en le Frith, co. Derby ; 3. 
Caroline; L Emma, married in 1832 to 
John AddisoU;, esq. of Boroughb ridge, co< 
Somerset ; and 4. Susan, married in 1832 
to Jofieph, second son of the Rev. John 
Savtll, of Colchester. 

An inquest was held upon General Ad- 
dlson^s body, and the verdict was " Natu- 
ral death from an affection of the cheat or 
heart, and decay of nature." 



Major-Genkral Caulfeild, M.P. 

Nop. 4. At Cops wood, co. Limerick, 
aged 67 1 James Caulfeild, esq. Major- 
General in the East Indian army, a Di" 
rector of the East India Company, and 
M.P. for Abingdon. 

He waa the seventh and youngest son of 
the Ven, John Caulfeild, Archdeacon of 
Kilmore, by Euphemia Gordon of Ken- 
mure, co. Dumfries. He was appointed a 
cadet ontlie BcQgal establishment in 17J»R, 
and was attached to the 9th Regiment of 
Light Cavalry, of which he became Lieut.- 
Colonel in 1829. He served for seventeen 
years on military duties, during which he 
was frequently actively employed in the 
field ; and subsequently, in the political 
department, he was engaged for twenty 
years in situations of great trust and re- 
sponsibility, in the exercise of judicial and 
fiscal functions. He was for some time 
resident with the Mysore princes as super- 
intendent. General Caulfeild was elected 
a Director of the East India Company in 
1848, after having been a candidate from 
July, 184K 

G«NT, Mao. Vol, XXXIX. 



REAa-AoMiEAL Black. 

Nov* 6. At Ormesby, near Yarmouth, 
in his BSnd year, WiLlliam Blacky eaq. re- 
tired Rear-Admiral in her Majeaty'a Navy. 

This veteran officer had aeen consider* 
able service. He was midahipmaa on 
board the Leviathan, at Toulon, in Lord 
Howe's action ; and of the Sans Pareil in 
Lord Brid port's. He was acting Liente' 
nant of the Unite at the taking of Surinam 
in l79Ri and from that year to 1801 com- 
manded the tender to Saus Pareil, in the 
West Indies,, where be captured several 
privateers, fn the action oil' Ferrol, in 
I805p he was senior Lieutenant of the 
^olua. In the year 1806 he was senior 
Lieutenant of the Egyptienne, and captured 
with her boats a letter of marque of supe- 
rior force, on the coast of Spain. At Co- 
penhagen, in the year 1807, be was senior 
of the Cambrian; in 1808 he was Hag- 
Lieutenant of the Polyphemus 84 on the 
Jamaica station ; and from 1809 to 1814 
he commanded the Racoon. He was also 
employed on the north-west coa»t of Ame- 
rica. He was advanced to post rank 
June 7, 1814 ; and on the !Hh Oct. 184G, 
was placed on the List of retired Rear- 
Admirals. 




Edward Knight, Esct* 
JVoi'. 19* At Godmershum Park, Kent, 
aged 85, Edward Knight, esq. of that 
place, and of Cbawton House, Hampshire. 
He was the second son of the Rev. 
George Austen, Rector of Steventon, 
Hampshire, by Cas^andrn, youngest daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Thomas Leigh, Rector of 
Harpsden, Oxfordshire. His youngest 
brother^ Admiral Charles John Austen, 
who Ims recently died in India^ will form 
the subject of an article in our next 
Obituary. One of his sisters, Miss Jane 
Austen, was the author of ** Pride and 
Pr^udice^** and other popular novels. 

In 1794 he became jMissessed of the 

estates of Chawton and Godmeriham by 

bet|iiest of his cousin Thomas Knight, esq. 

whose mother was Jane, eldest daughter 

ID 



202 E. Knight, Esq. — C. Swetenham, Esq. — J.M.CrippSyEsq. [Feb. 



and coheir of William Monk, esq. of 
Buckenham, Sussex, by Hannah, daughter 
and coheir of Stephen Stringer, esq. of 
Goudhurst, and Jane Austen his wife. 

The family of Knight became extinct in 
the original male line in 1679; and the 
name has since been assumed on four dif- 
ferent occasions, — by Richard Martin, esq. 
by Christopher Martin his brother, by 
Tliomas May, esq. (originally Broadnax,) 
and by the subject of this memoir. 

By all classes in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Godmersham Park Mr. Knight 
was highly respected for his charity to those 
who stood in need, for his conduct to his 
numerous tenantry, and the affability shown 
to all with whom he was brought in con- 
tact, either in matters connected with 
business or friendship. 

He married, in 1791, Elizabeth, third 
daughter of Sir Brook Bridges, Bart, and 
by that lady, who died in 1808, he had 
issue six sons and five daughters. The 
former were, 1. Edward Knight, esq. of 
Chawton House, who married first in 
18^6 Mary.Dorothy, daughter of Sir Ed- 
ward Knatchbull, Bart., and secondly, in 
1840, Adela, daughter of John Portal, esq. 
of Freefolk Prior's, Hants ; 2. George 
Thomas Knight, esq. who is the third 
husband of Hilare dowager Countess Nel- 
son, widow of the Rev. William first Earl 
Nelson ; 3. Henry, a Major in the army, 
who married in 1836, Charlotte, eldest 
daughter of the late Rev. Edward Northey, 
Canon of Windsor, and was left a widower 
in 1839; 4. the Rev. Edward Knight, 
Rector of Steventon, Hants, who married 
Caroline, eldest daughter of the late John 
Portal, esq. of Freefolk Prior^s, and has 
issue ; 5. Charles-Bridges ; and 6. Brook- 
John. 

The daughters were, 1. Fanny-Catha- 
rine, married in 1820 to the Right Hon. 
Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart. M.P. ; 
2. Elizabeth, married to Edward Rice, 
esq. of Dane Court, Kent ; 3. Marianne ; 

4. Louisa, who became in 1847 the second 
wife of Lord George Augusta Hill, of 
Ballyare Castle, co. Donegal, uncle to the 
present Marquess of Downshire ; and 

5. Cassandra- Jane, who married in 1834 
the same Lord George Augusta Hill, and 
died in 1842, leaving issue. 

The funeral of Mr. Knight took place 
at Godmersham on Friday Nov. 26, the 
service being performed by the Rev. Mr. 
Gale, Rector of the parish. Besides his 
immediate family, the Ear] of Winchilsea, 
Sir Brook Bridges, Wm. Deedes, esq., 
E. Rice, esq., Edw. Hugessen, esq., Rev. 
Mr. Rice, and Rev. Mr. Leigh, attended, 
besides a long list of tenantry desirous of 
ptymg their last tribute of respect to to 
good a landlord. 



CLEMENt SWETBNHAM, ESQ. 

Nov. 17. At Somerford Booths, Che- 
shire, in his 60*th year, Clement Sweten- 
ham, esq. a magistrate and Deputy Lieu- 
tenant of that county. 

He was the eldest son of Roger Com- 
berbach, esq. who assumed the name of 
Swetenham on succeeding to the estate of 
his maternal uncle (and the reprieaentative 
of the family of Swetenham seated at So- 
merford from the reign of Edward I.), by 
Anne, daughter of William Archer, esq. of 
the county of Warwick. His father died 
in 1814. 

In early life he held a commission in 
the 16th Dragoons, and served in the 
Peninsula from the year 1809 to the ter- 
mination of the war after the battle of 
Toulouse, and subsequently with the same 
regiment at Waterloo. In the riots of 1820 
he did duty as Major of the 2d Cheshire 
Yeomanry, embodied at that time at the 
expense of the county. 

He married, May 1, 1817, Eleanor, 
daughter of John Buchanan, esq. of 
Donally, co. Donegal ; and had issue three 
sons, Clement, Edmund, and James ; and 
two daughters, Eliza and Fanny. 



John Marten Cripps, Esq. 

Jan. 3. At Novington, near Lewes, 
aged 73, John Marten Cripps, esq. F.S.A. 

This gentleman inherited the property 
of his uncle, John Marten, of Stan tons, 
one of the old Sussex families, which in- 
cluded possessions in the parish of Chil- 
tington, with the manor of Stantons, on 
which is the old mansion of the Chal- 
loners. He was a member of Jesus col- 
lege, Cambridge, and graduated M.A. per 
lit, Regias 1803. Before he settled as a 
country gentleman he travelled in the East 
with his tutor, the celebrated Dr. Clarke, 
and the late Bishop of Chichester, Dr. Otter, 
and at a great expense collected the lead- 
ing botanical plants indigenous to the 
lands through which he travelled, and a 
large collection of statues and antiquities. 
On his return with these he temporarily 
fixed his residence at Lewes, at which 
time he and Dr. Clarke married two sis- 
ters, the Misses Rush. Here be invited 
most of the leading families of Sussex to 
inspect his extensive museum, and subse- 
quently made munificent presentations 
from his collection to the University of 
Cambridge and other public institutions. 
Although it was not publicly acknow- 
ledged, it was to Mr. Cripps, and his 
personal expense, that we are indebted 
for the elaborate account of Dr. Clarke's 
Travels, which, in fact, were the results 
of Mr. Cripps's personal investigation, 
aided by the refined experience of his 



1853.] Count Pompeo Litta, — Rev. Samuel Lee, D.D. 



208 



tutor. Having built Novington Lodge on 
the Stantons estate, Mr. Cripps fixed bis 
residence there, where he devoted himself 
to rural pursuits, especially to practical 
horticulture. His investigations were va- 
luable, and the county generally are in- 
debted to hira for several important addi- 
tions to the varieties of apples and other 
fruits. He introduced from Russia the 
khol rabbi, which has subsequently been 
extensively grown for the use of our dairy 
farms. During a long life he was a useful 
member of society, aiding by his energy 
the philanthropic institutions of Sussex, 
and contributing by his example to the 
general progress of agriculture, and other 
interests of the county. In his own neigh- 
bourhood he was beloved for his un> 
bounded liberality and kindness. Easy 
of approach, his advice and assistance 
were rendered whenever his service was 
solicited. As a magbtrate he was atten- 
tive to his duties so long as he had health 
to perform them, and at the Brighton bench 
for many years he was unceasing in his at- 
tendance. For some years past he has been 
an invalid, and confined within doors. 

He married in 1806 Charlotte, third 
daughter of Sir William Beaumaris Rush, 
of Wimbledon, and has left issue. 



Count Pompeu Litta. 

Aug, 17. At an advanced age. Count 
Pompeo Litta, author of the Famiglie Ita- 
lia ni Celeb ri. 

He was descended maternally from the 
illustrious house of Visconti. The Conti 
di Brebbia, a branch of that family, be- 
came extinct in the male line in 1750, by 
the death of Giulio Visconti, whose daugh- 
ters and coheirs married into the ancient 
Tuscan family of Litta, the elder daughter 
wedding the Marchese Antonio Litta, and 
the younger, Elizabetha, the Marchese 
Pompeo Litta. The former was mother 
of Antonio Due di Litta, Chamberlain of 
Napoleon's Italian kingdom, and of the 
Cardinal Lorenzo di Litta ; and the latteir 
of the subject of the present notice. 

In his early days he saw some consider- 
able service in the Italian campaigns of 
Napoleon ; but his name will descend to 
posterity by more substantial services. 

His magnificent work on the genealogies 
of the most distinguished Italian families, 
both existing and extinct, was commenced 
in 1819. It was published in parts, to 
the extent of about five large folios.^ It is 

* Qu ?— We have looked at the copy 
in the British Museum, and it consists of 
twelve fasciculi, which are all bound in one 
folio volume.— JB<ir7. G, M. 



copiously illustrated with figurei of the 
tombs and monumental effigies of luch 
families as Sforza, Castiglioni, Visconti, 
Medici, Guicciardini, and Piccolomini ; 
with medals, and portraits carefully co- 
loured by the hand!, from pictures in the 
principal galleries. The author thus ren- 
dered an inestimable boon to art, even for 
purposes of identification, against the 
processes of spoliation and removal going 
on in Italian galleries — the result of the 
gradual decay and increasing poverty of a 
nobility that refuses to recruit itself from 
the resources of commercial enterprise 
and alliance. 



Rev. Samuel Lee, D.D. 

Dec. 16. At Barley Rectory, Herts, 
aged 69, the Rev. Samuel Lee, D.D. 
Rector of Barley, Canon of Bristol, and 
late Regius Professor of Hebrew in the 
University of Cambridge. 

This gentleman was remarkable for his 
success in the acquisition of languages, 
entirely by hii own laborious and perse- 
vering application, mostly without the 
assistance of a living instructor. Of hii 
natural powers of acquiring languages the 
simple history of his life affords ample 
proof. Of the wonderful extent and va- 
riety of his attainments as a scholar the 
evidence is before us in numerous and va- 
luable publications. On the accuracy and 
solidity of those attainments those only 
are qualified to decide who have them- 
selves mastered the subjects to which Dr. 
Lee so energetically and successfully de- 
voted himself. 

The following narration of his progreae 
in languages is from a letter now before 
the writer of this notice, and addressed 
by Mr. Lee, in 1813, to the late Jonathan 
Scott, esq. of Shrewsbury.* It is so plea- 
santly and feelingly written, and conveys 
so complete and truthful a picture of hif 
early career in life, that the document 
shall speak for itself. 

** The first rudiments of learning I re- 
ceived at a charity school at Longnor, in 
the county of Salop, where I was bom 
(May 14, 1783), which is a village situ- 
ated about eight miles from Shrewsbury. 
Here I remained till I attained the age of 
twelve years, and went through the usnal 
gradations of such institutions without 
distinguishmg myself in any respect ; for, 
as punishment is the only alternative ge- 
nerally held out, I, like others, thought 

* This gentleman was for several yean 
Persian iScretary to Warren Hastinga, 
esq. A memoir of him, by the writer of 
the present notice, will be found in vol. 
xcix. (May 18^9) of the Gentleman'f 
Magazine. 



204 



Obituary. — Rev. Samuel Lee^ D.D. 



[Feb. 



it sufficient to avoid it. At the age above- 
mentioned I was put out apprentice to a 
carpenter and joiner by Robert Corbett, 
esq. in which, I must confess, I under- 
went hardships seldom acquiesced in by 
boys of my age ; but, as my father died 
when I was very young, and I knew it 
was not in the power of my mother to 
provide better for me, as she had two 
more to support by her own labour, I 
judged it best to submit. About the age 
of seventeen I formed a determination to 
learn the Latin language, to which I was 
instigated by the following circumstances : 
— I had been in the habit of reading such 
books as happened to be in the house 
where I lodged ; but, meeting with Latin 
quotations, I found myself unable to com- 
prehend liiem. Being employed about 
this time in the building of a Roman 
Catholic chapel for Sir Edward Smythe 
of Acton Bumell, where I saw many Latin 
books and frequently heard that language 
read, my resolution was confirmed. I 
immediately bought ' Ruddiman's Latin 
Grammar ^ at a book-stall, and learnt it 
by heart throughout. I next purchased 

* Corderius' Colloquies, by Loggon,' 
which I found a very great assistance to 
me, and afterwards obtained ' Entick's 
Latin Dictionary ; ' also, soon after, 

* Beza's Testament * and ' Clarke's Ex- 
ercises.' There was one circumstance, 
however, which, as it had some effect on 
my progress, I shall mention in this place. 
I one day asked one of the priests, who 
came frequently to us, to give me some 
information of which I was then in want, 
who replied that ' Charity began at home.' 
This was very mortifying, but it only 
served as a stimulus to my endeavours ; 
for from this time I resolved, if possible, 
to excel even him. There was one circum- 
stance, however, more powerful in op- 
posing me, and that was poverty. I had 
at that time but six shillings a-week to 
subsist on, and to pay the expenses of 
washing and lodging. Out of this, how- 
ever, I spared something to gratify my 
desire for learning, which I did, though 
not without curtailing myself of proper 
support My wages were, however, soon 
after raised one shilling a-week, and the 
next year a shilling more, during which 
time I read the Latin Bible, Florus, some 
of Cicero's Orations, Csesar's Commen- 
taries, Justin, Sallust, Virgil, Horace's 
Odes, and Ovid's Epistles. It may be 
asked how 1 obtained these books ? I 
never had all at once, but generally read 
one and sold it, the price of which, with 
a little added to it, enabled me to buy 
another, and this being read was sold to 
procure the next. I was now out of my 
apprenticeship, and determined to learn 



the Greek. I bought, therefore, a ' West- 
minster Greek Grammar,' and soon after- 
wards procured a Testament, which I found 
not very difficult with the assistance of 
* Schrevelius's Lexicon.' I bought next 
' Huntingford's Greek Exercises,' which I 
wrote throughout, and then, in pursuance 
to the advice laid down in the Exercises, 
read Xenophon's Cyropsedia, and soon 
after Plato's Dialogues, some part of the 
Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, Pythagoras's . 
Golden Verses, with the Commentary of 
Hierocles, Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead, 
and some of the Poetse Minores, with the 
Antigone of Sophocles. I now thought I 
might attempt the Hebrew, and accord- 
ingly procured Bythner's Grammar, with 
his Lyra Prophetica, and soon after ob- 
tained a Psalter, which I read by the help 
of the Lyra. I next purchased Buxtorrs 
Grammar and Lexicon, with a Hebrew 
Bible, and I now seemed drawing fast to- 
wards the summit of my wishes, but was 
far from being uninterrupted in these pur- 
suits. A frequent inflammation in my 
eyes, with every possible discouragement 
from those about me, were certainly pow- 
erful opponents ; but habit, and fixed de- 
termination to proceed, had now made 
study my greatest happiness, and I every 
day returned to it rather as a source of 
rest from manual labour, and though I 
felt many privations in consequence, it 
amply repaid me in that solitary satisfac- 
tion which none but a mind actuated as 
mine was could feel. But to return ; 
chance had thrown in my way the Targum 
of Onkelos, and I had a Cbaldaic ^am- 
mar in Bythner*s Lyra, with the assistance 
of which and of Schindler's Lexicon I soon 
read it. I next proceeded to the Syriac, 
and read some of Gutbir's Testament by 
the help of Otho's Synopsis and Schind- 
ler's Lexicon. I had also occasionally 
looked over the Samaritan Pentateuch, 
which differs little from the Hebrew ex- 
cept in a change in letters. I found 
no difficulty in reading it in quotations 
wherever I found it, and with quotations 
I was obliged to content myself, as books 
in that language were entirely out of my 
reach. 

By this time I had attained my twenty- 
fifth year, and had got a good chest of 
tools, worth I suppose about 25/. I was 
now sent into Worcestershire to superin- 
tend, on the part of my master, Mr. John 
Lee, the repairing of a large house belong- 
ing to the Rev. Mr. Cookes. I began now 
to think it necessary to relinquish the 
study of languages, as I perceived that, 
however excellent the acquisition might 
have appeared to me, it was in my situa- 
tion entirely useless. I sold my books, 
and made new resolutions ; in fact, I mar- 



185a] 



Obituary, — Eetu Samuel Lee, D,D, 



205 



I 



lied, cx)nsidere(l my caUing as my only 
support, and some promises and insinna- 
tions had been made to me, wbfcli sc«med 
of a favonrable nature io my occupation. 
I wa* awakened, however, from these views 
and suggestions by a circumstance which 
gave a new and distressing appearance to 
my affairs ; a lire broke out in the house 
we were repairing, in which my tools, and 
with them all my views and hopes, were 
consumed. I was now cast on the world 
without A friend, a shilUng, or even the 
means cif subsistence* Tbis, however, 
would have been hut slightly felt by me, 
afi I had always been the child of misfor- 
tuncj had not the partner of my life been 
immerged in the game afflicting circum- 
stanoes* There was, however, no alterna- 
tive, and now I began to think of some 
new course of life, in which my former 
studies might prove advantageous. I 
thought that of a country tschool master 
would be the most likely to answer my 
purpose ; 1 therefore ap|>lied myself to 
the study of Murray's Englkh Ej[erciaes, 
and improved myself in arithmetic. There 
was, however, one grand objection to this; 
I hod no money to begin, and did not 
know any friend who would be inclined to 
lend. In the meantime the Rev, Arch- 
deacon Corbett had heard of my attach- 
ment to stndy. and having been informed 
of my hdng in Longnor, ^ent for me, in 
order to inform himself of partieulais. To 
him I communicated my circumstances, 
and it is to liis goodness 1 am indebted 
for the situation I at present fill, and seve- 
ral other very valuable benefits, which he 
thought proper generously to confer. My 
circumstances since that time are too well 
known to you to need any further elucida- 
tion. It is through your kind assistance 
I made myself thus far acquainted with 
the Arabic, Persian, and Hindoostanee lan- 
guages, of my progress in which you are 
undoubtedly the best judge." 

It thujb appears that Mr. Lee had ren- 
dered himself familiar with the Latin, 
Greeks Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Sa- 
maritan previously to his inlroductiou to 
Archdeacon Corbett and Jonathan Scott, 
esq. ander whose fostering fricmbhip he 
was brought into public notice. 

To the foregoing narrative Mr. after- 
wards Dr. Scott, has remarked, that the 
assistance Mr. Lee so gratefully speaks of 
from liimself ^* consisted chiefly in a loan of 
books, and directing him in pronuncia^ 
tion. He wanted no other. In the course 
of a few months he was able not only to 
read and translate from any Arabic or 
Persian manuscript, but to compose in 
those languages. He has sent me transla- 
tiotis into Arabic and Persian of several of 
Pt. Johnson's Oriental apologues in the 




Rambler, and of Addison's Vision of Mirxa 
in the Spectator. They were wonderfully 
well done ; and in this opinion I am not 
singular, as they have met also the appro- 
batian of Mr. James Atiderson, whose 
abilities as an Orientalist are sufficiently 
established to render his applause highly 
satisfactory. Mr. Lee, in addition io his 
knowledge of the dead and Eastern lan- 
guages, has made also considerable pro- 
ficiency in French, German, and Italian. 
With his amazing^ facility of acquiring lan- 
guages he possesses taj>te for elegant com. 
position, and has no slight poetical talents, 
of which I have seen some specimens in 
English and Latin ; also a Parody of 
Gray's Ode to Adversity, in Greek and 
Sapphic verse, which competent judges 
pronounce o surprising effort of self-in- 
structed genius.'* 

For two or three ye?irs previously to 
1813 (the date of the above ktter)^ Mr. 
Lee held the Mastership of Bowdler's 
Foundation School in Shrewsbury (which 
he obtained through the interest of Arch- 
deacon Corbett), in addition to which he 
also attended two schools as a teacher of 
arithmetic, and at a few private houses as 
instructor in Persian and Uindoostanee to 
the sons of gentlemen who expected ap- 
pointments in the civil or military services 
of the Hon. East India Company \ and 
the progress made by bis pupils shewed, 
as Mr. Scott states, " that he had the art 
of conveying knowledge to others— an art 
not always possessed by the learned," 

In 1813 Mr. Lee left Shrewsbury and 
obtained an engagement with the Church 
Missionary Society. In the same year he 
entered at Queen's College, Cambridge. 
In 1817 took his degree of 6. A. and on 
his examination by Dr. Buchanan he 
shewed such skill and pruficiency as drew 
forth the approbation of those patrons and 
friends who had interested themselves in 
his welfare ; nor should it be omitted that, 
when he entered college, he was unac- 
quniuted with mathematics, hut in the 
course of a fortnight he had qualified him- 
st'lf. to attend a class which had gone 
through several books of Euclid. 

Mr. Lee, in the following year, preached 
m learned and well directed sermon at St. 
Chad^s Church, Shrewsburyr in aid of the 
funds of the Shropshire Auiciliary Gible 
Society ; and at the anniversary meeting 
of the same society, in the next year, his 
early friend and patron, the Ven. Arch- 
deacon Corbett, president of the institu- 
tion, in an ingenious address, brought for- 
ward the extrtiordinary abilties of Mr, Lee, 
and drew an atialogy between him and the 
Admirable Crichton, which, although per* 
haps rather forced in regard to some ac« 
compUshments, gave to Mr. Lee, as re- 



206 



Obituary. — Rev. Samuel Lee^ D.D. 



[Feb. 



spected lan^ages, a preponderance of 
one-third. 

On the nth of March, 1819, he was 
elected, by a majority of 9 to 4, Arabic 
Professor of the University of Cambridge, 
having been put into nomination by the 
Hon. and Rev. the Vice-Chancellor. Not 
having, however, been at college the time 
usual for taking his degree of M.A. re- 
quisite to his standing for the chair, a 
Grace passed the Senate to supplicate for 
a mandamus from the Prince Regent, 
which was graciously granted by his royal 
highness. He received in 1822, unso- 
licited and in the most flattering manner, 
a diploma conferring the degree of D.D. 
from the University of Halle. This did 
not, however, impose silence on him in 
stating, some time afterwards, the reason- 
ableness of the orthodox views of Chris- 
tianity as opposed to the rationalism of 
Germany. In 1823 he obtained the ap- 
pointment of chaplain of the gaol at Cam- 
bridge, and in 1825 he was presented to 
the rectory of Bilton with Harrogate. To 
the degree of B.D. he proceeded in 1827. 
In 1831 he was elected Regius Professor 
of Hebrew in the University of Cam- 
bridge, with its accompanying stall in the 
cathedral of Bristol. His Hebrew lec- 
tures embraced an extensive field of Bib- 
lical criticism, illustrated by immense 
stores of ancient and modem literature. 
In 1833 the degree of D.D. was conferred 
upon him at Cambridge, on which occa- 
sion Dr. Turton, the Professor of Di- 
vinity, in an elegant Latin oration, ex- 
pressed the admiration with which, in 
common with the whole University, he 
had beheld the achievements of Professor 
Lee's amazing talent and industry ; diffi- 
culty only seemed to furnish stimulus ; 
and whilst so many other Oriental lan- 
guages had received considerable light 
from his labours, Hebrew especially had 
been rescued from the neglect occasioned 
by the darkness and intricacy in which the 
BLabbinical system had so long involved it. 
Nor less did his classical erudition de- 
mand admiration, since the Latin sermon 
which Dr. Lee had delivered on the occa- 
sion displayed the accuracy and taste of 
Latin composition. In the same year, on 
Commencement Sunday, June 30th, Dr. 
Lee also preached an English sermon 
before the University and a large congre- 
gation, being the time of the meeting of 
the British Association for the Promotion 
of Science. 

As a scholar Dr. Lee was at all times 
ready to receive a suggestion without being 
offended, and as willing to impart informa- 
tion to those who earnestly sought it from 
him. His knowledge of Biblical and Ori- 
ental literature was profound and exten- 



sive, his reading deep and Yaried, and to 
this was united every qualification which 
could adorn and distinguish the accom- 
plished critic and scholar, and will no 
doubt cause his name to be long revered 
and renowned in this and distant nations. 
It must, however, be mentioned that Dr. 
Lee differed from other learned men on 
several points, and although it is possible 
that he may be right, his peculiarities have 
been considered a stumbling block to the 
grammar student, because such student 
must make use of books up to a certain 
point and in certain cases in which the 
opposite doctrine to Dr. Lee's is taught, 
and then has to consider whether he shall 
adopt Dr. Lee's opinion and unlearn what 
be has previously learned ? 

Dr. Lee appears to have been on all 
occasions much interested in the circala- 
tion of the Scriptures, believing as he did 
that a deep acquaintance with the Bible 
has a tendency both to humble and exalt 
the mind, and to soften and warm the 
heart, and to '* make the man not more 
commendable for his sincerity than ad- 
mirable for his usefulness and reliance on 
the Divine power." He was a warm sup- 
porter of the constitution of the national 
church, and always evinced a due anxiety 
to promote the spiritual welfare of those 
entrusted to his charge, not basing hii en- 
deavours upon the doctrines of human pro- 
babilities, but by a firm faith in the co-ope- 
ration of Divine assistance. His piety was 
sincere and practical, not of a theoretical or 
speculative nature. He avoided the '/ me- 
taphysical systems of Calvin and Arminius," 
which divide the Established Cbnrch no 
less than the meeting-houses of the Dis- 
senters ; considering it as one main duty 
of the Christian minister, by a careful and 
patient use of all the accessible means of 
instruction, to inform himself what are or 
what are not the declarations of Holy 
Scripture, " and then, but not till then, to 
proceed to lay open to others the whole 
counsel Of God." 

Among the many valuable publications 
which will form a histing record of the un- 
tiring researches and perseverance of Dr. 
Lee the following may be enumerated. In 

1816, the Syriac New Testament, and sub- 
sequently the Old Testament. He edited 
the Malay Scriptures, the Arabic and 
Coptic Psalter and Gospels, and trans- 
lated the Book of Genesis into Persian, 
and was likewise editor of Martyn's Per- 
sian and Hindoostanee Testament In 

1817, and the subsequent year, he superin- 
tended the Hindoostanee Prayer Book, and 
Morning and Evening Prayers in Persic, 
and wrote the history of the Abyssinian 
and Syrian Churches for the Annual Re- 
port of the Church MiMionary Sooiety. 



1853,] Obituary. — Samuel Me7*nmany Esq. M,D, 



207 



I 



i 



In 1820, the Grammar and Vocabuliory of 
the New Zealand Lnng:nage. Two Sermons 
preached at St. Cbtid's Church, Shrews- 
bury, for the benefit of the Porochial 
Sc hooh. In 1 8 91 , Sylloge Libroru ni O r i - 
entalium, and Letter to BeUumy against 
his translation of the Bible. In IB^l and 
18?6 occurred hie Controversy with Dr, 
Henderson; and about tlvi^ time he edited 
Sir W. Jones's Persian Grammar, of whioh 
a new edition appeared in 1828, and like- 
wise printed some Co ntroveraial Tracts on 
Christianityand Mahometaniam by Martin. 
HU Hebrew Grammar appeared in 1830, 
and in the tame year a valuable volume of 
Six Sermons on the study of the Holy 
ScriplureB, to which are anuexed *' Di&- 
tertationa '^ on the reasonable neas of Chris" 
tianity^ &c* as opposed to the Ratio naU 
iam of Germany^ and an Exposition of the 
Book of ReTelations. Also the Latin Pro- 
logomena to Bagster's Polyglott Bible, f ii 
1833, the Travels of John Bututa^ trans- 
lated from the Arabic ; and a Controversy 
on the Tithe Question with Mr. J, S. Fry, of 
Bristol. In 1834, a Sermon on the Primi- 
tive Sabbath, and "A Letter to Dr. Pye 
Smith on Diaaeot." In 1837, " The Book 
of Job, translatefi from the original He- 
brew ; to which is appended a Critical 
Commentary elucidating other passages of 
Holy Writ/' la 1840, a Visitation Sermon, 
with an Answer to Dr, Wiseman on the 
Kuchmnst, at held by the Syrian Church, 
In this year also, a H<;brew,Chaldaic, and 
English Lexicon. Beside* the^e^ several 
mlicellaneous pamphleti, sermons, &g. 
with a variety of contributions to periodi- 
cal literatnre, issued from his fertile and 
untiring t>en, wluch it would exceed the 
prcaent limited apace further to particu- 
la rise. 

An excellent portrait of Dr. Lee* painted 
and presented by Richard Evaos, esq. a 
native of Shrewsbury, is placed in the 
Suhacription Newa Room of that town, 
from which an engniviug by W, T. Pry 
was published in 183:^ by Fisher and Son, 
London. Dr, Lee was twice mnrried. 

H. P. 



SAMUfcL MrRRIMAN, Efttt. M,D. 

Nov, 22, Ag^d 81, Si»muel Merriman, 
M*D. of Brook street, Grosvenor-aipiare, 
niiA Rodbourne Cheney^ Wilts. 

The subject of this memoir was bom on 
the 25th day of October, 1771, at Marl- 
bewough, in Wiltshire* Ilia father, Bt-n- 
junin, was the eldest son of Mr. Nathaniel 
Meniman ot the i^ame place, who wna the 
lOQ of Another Nathaniel, tlio youngest 
soil of John Merriman, a captain in the 
trmy of Oliver Cromwell. Hia mother 
waaMary, eldest daughter of Mr, William 
Hawkea of Marlborongh, and niece to Sir 



Michael Foster, one of the Justices of His 
Majesty's Court of King's Bench. Tuj was 
Mr. Benjamin Merrlman's secon I wife, 
the first having been a Miss >Tarten of 
Marlborough, aunt to the Brigadter-Gcne» 
ral Richard Smith, M.P, who was im- 
prisoned with Thomas Brand HoUis, esq» 
for bribery at Cricklade; an offence for 
which the franchise of that borough was 
extended to the freeholders of the adjoin- 
ing hundreds. Mr. Benjamin Merrimao 
had a large business in Marlborough as a 
brewer. He was also a man of scientific 
pursuits, and the author of several politi- 
cal and other pamphlets, and et^snys, some 
of which were inserted in the Gentleman's 
Magaiine. He also received from the 
Society of Arts io the Adelphi, and from 
the Bath Agricultural Society, medala for 
various machineK that he invented. 

Dr. Merriman was early sent to the Free 
Grammar School at Marlborough, founded 
by King Edward VI, and presided over at 
that time by the Rev. Joseph Edwards, 
On becoming the head boy of the school 
he delivered the annual Latin speech before 
the Rev. Charles Francis, on that gentle- 
man^s being sworn in mayor of the borough 
in September 1783. 

In October 17B4 Mr. Benjamin Merri- 
man and his family removed to London, and 
very shortly afterwards the »0d took up 
his residence with his »iide. Dr. Samuel 
Merriman, of Queen-street, May Fair, of 
whom a memoir is published in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for l^le. Of this 
journey, prosecuted as far us Newbury the 
preceding day, it is recorded, *' the next 
morning at six o'clock we set off in the 
Newbury Diligence, called in short the 
Dilly, which managed to bring w& to Lon- 
don by a little past five in the evening,'* 

Dr. Merriman's education in oIaasic«, 
&c. was continued partly umfer the tuition 
of Mr, Robert Roy, of Old Burlington- 
street, and partly by the careful instruction 
of his uncle, under whose able discipline 
at a later period, aad that of his cousin, 
William Merriman, then in good practice, 
he pursued his medical studies, and ftoon 
became established in practice as an 
apothecary. 

\i\ 1799 he married his uncle's only 
surviving daughter Ann« continuing, how- 
ever, still to reside in his uncle's house in 
Qaeen-atreet ; but in 1BD7 he entered into 
partnership with Mr. Peregrine, to whom 
he soon resigned the general practice, 
limiting himself to that of midwifery alone. 

A vacancy occurring about this time in 
the office of physician-accoucheur to the 
WestminsterGeneraf Dispensary, he sought 
for and obtained the appointment, the ho- 
norary diploma of M.D. from MaHschal 
college, Aberdeen, having been previously 




208 



Obituary. — Samuel Merriman, Esq. M,D. 



[Feb. 



granted to bim. For this a preliminary 
examination was required, which was very 
kindly undertaken in London by Dr. 
Vaughan, afterwards Sir Henry Halford, 
Bart. He held this appointment till 1815. 
In 1809 he was elected to the like office at 
the Middlesex Hospital, where the next 
year he commenced his annual course of 
lectures on midwifery, and continued them 
regularly till the year 1825. He also in 
1820-1 gave three courses of lectures at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital during the 
temporary illness of Dr. Gooch. Thus 
he frequently lectured twice on the same 
day. 

For several other very interesting par- 
ticulars connected with Dr. Merriman's 
early professional life, and his connection 
with the Middlesex Hospital, we refer our 
readers to a memoir of him published in 
the Lancet for November 30, 1850. 

Dr. Merriman's legal right to practise 
medicine arose from his connection with 
the Society of Apothecaries, the admission 
to the membership of which he had pur- 
chased in early life. This society having 
been appointed in 1815, by Act of Par- 
liament, to examine and licence all future 
apothecaries in England and Wales, and 
having gradually raised the standard of 
medical erudition to a considerable height, 
it was thought that Dr. Merriman's repu- 
tation and skill as an accoucheur would 
materially assist the endeavours of the 
Court of Examiners to raise to a still higher 
degree the qualifications of candidates for 
the licence to practise. His permission, 
therefore, having been previously ob- 
tained, he was in 1831 elected on the 
Court of Examiners, and held the office 
for six successive years. He was after- 
wards elected on the Court of Assistants, 
but he never filled the offices of "Warden 
or Master on account of the increasing 
infirmities of age. 

It was during his tenure of office as 
Examiner that Dr. Merriman published, 
in 1833, under the title of *' The Validity 
of ' Thoughts on Medical Reform,' " an 
answer to a pamphlet of that title written, 
as was understood, by Dr. Allen, Do- 
mestic Physician to the late Lord Holland. 
Dr. Merriman's object in writing this reply 
was to correct several inaccuracies and 
misconceptions in the *' Thoughts," about 
the manner in which the " Apothecaries' 
Act " was being carried out by the Court 
of Examiners, and it obtained a consider- 
able circulation. 

Referring our readers once more to the 
Lancet for an account of Dr. Merriman's 
connection with medical societies, we shall 
merely mention here his connection for 
fifty-two years with the ** Society for Re- 
lief of Widows and Orphans of Medical 
12 



Men in London and its Vicinity/' To 
this most useful charity he had long been 
one of the treasurers, and he warmly pro- 
moted its efficiency by every means in his 
power, knowing but too well how few of 
the members of the medical profession are 
able to derive from it alone sufficient pro- 
perty to support themselves and their fami- 
lies in comfort when they can no longer 
attend actively to their practice. Dr. 
Merriman's untiring energy to promote 
the welfare of this society was gracefully 
acknowledged a few years ago by the elec- 
tion of his son. Dr. William Merrimao, 
to the vacant post of Acting Treasurer. 

Dr. Merriman appeared for the first 
time as an author in 1805, when he pub- 
lished a pamphlet in vindication of Vacci- 
nation, having curiously enough taken up 
his pen to prove the superior excellence of 
the small-pox Inoculation, but, as he wrote, 
he found his arguments untenable. Essays 
and other papers of his were published in 
the London Medical Repository, the Lon- 
don Medical and Physical Journal, and 
the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions ; but 
the medical works for which he is best 
known are his •• Synopsis of Difficult Par- 
turition," which passed through several 
editions, and was translated into Italian, 
German, and French ; and his edition of 
'* Underwood on Diseases of Children," 
the history- of which work is interesting, 
for Drs. Merriman, Marshall Hall, and 
Henry Davies, have successively enlai^^d 
and improved Dr. Underwood s original 
treatise, with this inconvenient result, how- 
ever, that four different styles of writing 
may be often found in as many successive 
paragraphs. 

Dr. Merriman was very fond of noting 
down memoranda of medical and other 
scientific men whom he had known per- 
sonally or by repute; and, possessing an 
excellent memory, he was very often able 
to mention incidents which are highly in- 
teresting to lovers of literature. Two 
works, published some years ago, the 
" Picture of the College of Physicians," 
and Wadd's " Nugse Chirurgicse, &c." he 
has largely illustrated with anecdotes of 
the persons mentioned ; and he had a large 
collection of portraits of medical men. 
Philological subjects also much interested 
him, so that he was able to send articles 
to this and other magazines and journals 
on a variety of different subjects. 

The following is a list of his more im- 
portant contributions to the Gentleman's 
Magazine : 

1828. Part i. p. 290. Announcement that Miss 
DayroUes was the prototype of the^' Miss LaroUes" 
in Miss Bnmey's ** Cecilia." 

Ibid. p. 218. On Mr. Mace being Editor of the 
" New Testament in Greek and English," ftc. 

1829. Part I. p. 408. On the word " Pearght." 



1653.] Obituary. — Samuei B, Bruce, Exq. M.D. 



209 



I 



I 

I 



I 



i laao, Ftai L p. 29, On itie Etvmolog}' of " Mkl- 

I»3J, Fift 1, p. iSI. On the Tmiulation of 
ica^i^Xoff tn the Qospdj. (This tulije^t l& furUier 
elDcidJitfld lay S. W. J. IL in Vol. xxiv. Neir Scries, 

1832. Flart i. p. 10. Memoir of Dr, Thoiuiu Mor- 
gim, Atitlior 4>f ** Hie Moral Philosopher," 

rbid. p. 3t)0. R«ferenG6 gireo to Uie f)ub1)C4tioii 
in the G«uUeiiuii% Mafflutipe for 1749 of the 
** Fmrer of fnnocencio,** a poem. 

Ibid. Put it p, tas.— 1833. Pwrtl. p. S09, Ou 
XbA ward " Aroint," used by SliAlt»pere. 

New Series. - 1^3^. Vol. iti. p. 61 J. Refiirooc« to, 
aud commenu on, a Poem odilrtiated by'Dr, Bannes 
to Syileuliam . 

1836, Vol. V- p* 32. On onr Saviour** healing 
the '* Maimed." 

Ttdd. p. 244. Copy of a Letter from Sanrrey Gil- 
pin to the apft Dr, Mcrrlroan In 1792. 

tH37. Vol, vii. p. 434. Memoir of Dr. Hugh Ley. 

183B. Vol. X. p. ti72. Additioiu to ohftunry uo- 
tioe of Jamei NorrU, e«i. 

183d. VbKxi, p. 4&0. Explanation of ** Painted 
Coaches." 

IH39. VoLxU. p. 904, Memoir o< Jotm Merri- 
mAn, eMq. 

Ibid. p. M7. Strictorci on tlio new Lite of Mil* 
ton in Lardner^s Cabinet Cyclopedia, as reflecting 
on Dr. Johnson, 

1840. Vol. xiv. p. 612. On Dr> JohJiJiou'» early 
kno vledge of Saragv. 

1841. Vol. xri. p. 213. Honolr of Thonua Mfir- 
riman, fiisq. 

1842. Vol. xvil, p. 3ti6. Identiflcation of iJ€r(«>ui 
repreMntfld In Hogarth.'ii plate of th^ " Cunicu- 
laril/* ftc. being a satiro on the notorlouei Impos- 
tor, Mu7 1'o<^ the Godliiuan rahhltt-brecder. 

Ibid. Vol. jtidii. p. 251. Letter from Franci* 
Oonit, e«q. rcajiecting hU own ftunily and that of 
tho Fotttary'». 

1843. Vol. xis, p. 4<*». Ohi«rration.i on the raalt 
of Medloil Men, and on Mldvifiery, In reply to 
" J. IL" (A iifS. addition add« tho name of Dr. 
Rftdcllffe t43 Uie Hit of M.P.h) 

Ibid. Vol. IX. p. 469. Letter of Mutthew Guthrie, 
MJEK to Maxwell GartUMhorc, M.D. 1797^ 
«<Jiiib:Vo1. xsil. p. 22, 247.— Vol KxilL p. lOI 
OMMiMKieiit c«4tom of "Cblld-bod Privilege," 
fiir"W|glit».*' (Dr. Merriraan luis addtd in his ov* u 
copy a MS. rsftareoce tu M. de la Ciirnc de St. 
pjuaye*^ " Memoires sur TAnclonue Chevalerie," 
ftc. (chapter oo "lee Honneur* do la Cour,") aiid 
alio ta Cborlea Levor'6 " St. FatrickV Eve," whero 
Fatlier John is rcpreeenled m giving the " rtte^i" 
to a dying man.) 

I84A. VoL xxiil. p. 29. Memoir of John Callow, 
the first Medical BookucUer. 

Ibid. Vol. xxlv.p. 19, Memoir? of Julian Cle- 
ment, the I'rench SurK^on-ActuuclieLir,jind of his 
Jottrm-y into .Siwiin to utto.ful \\w t^uetin in 1707. 

Ibid. p. 145. Ajiecdutea at Datiivl Turner, M.D. 
whodi^Nl 1741. 

Ibtd. p. 485. Memoirs of Dr. Richard Jlathur-^t, 
the friend of Dr. John*on, and of Dr. W. Baylies. 

1846. Vol. XXV. p, 4M1. On tjje ftuthorahip of 
" Tho Lounger** Commonplace Book/' 

Ibid. Vol. xxii. p. 15.1. Account of J. W. New- 
nun, e^. the author. 

1847. Vol. xxvili, p, 477. Account of Gideon do 
Lawne, Ajiotliecary to JazueA 1. 

SiibBeqtiently to Ibb dat« increasing age 
■nd iafirmities rendered Dr. Merriman'fi 
bourt of employmeot fewer and fewer; 
but, wheQever he was able to pnrsnc bis 
favourite UTOcations, be delighted himself, 
bis family, and friends b]r relating and re- 
cordiug many interesting anecdotes. Ooc 
of these latter cxercifieu deserves a separate 
notice, viz. an hiBtorical retrospect of the 
ici«Dce and practice of medicine, published 

GtKT. Mag. Vol. XXXIX. 




in the London Journal of Medicine under 
the title of '' The Fjr»t of October, 1851, 
by an Octogenariani,** 

The few societies which Or. Merriman 
was able to attend at tbi^ advanced period 
of hi.s life occupied also his energetic mind^ 
aod Che "Notes and Queries,'' brought 
before bis notice only a year ago, received 
several interesting articles from his richly 
ttored memory. Thus employed, he 
•waited, with true Christian patience, the 
hour tbut woa to remove him from thia 
world of tronbte to one of rest ; aod he 
will long live in the memory of his na- 
merotia friends as one of the most affec- 
tionate and estimable of men. 

Several portraits of Dr. Merriman were 
taken at different periods, two of which 
only Imve been engraved ; one, a private 
plate ; the other, publhshed in the Lancet 
with the memoir to which we have referred* 

Mrs. Merriman died 10 Mareh, ia31, 
after sufferings of the moat acute descrip- 
tion, endured for maoy years. Their issua 
were : a daughter, who died 1 7 June, 1844, 
having been married to the Rev. John 
Ward, Vicar of Great Bedwyn, WiUs, now 
R<5ctor of Wath, in Yorkshire, by whom 
she had several children \ Another daugh- 
ter, now living ; and a aim, the present 
Dr. Merriman, Consulting Physkiao to 
the Westmiiister General Diapensary, and 
Physician to the Royal Inlirmary for 
Chtldren. 

Samubl B. Bruce, Esq. M,D. 

U^c. 24. In Victoria square, Pimlico, 
Samuel Barwfck Bruce, esq. M.D. of 
Ripon, Medical Inspector of Mills and 
PrisoDs in that district. 

He was the second son of Barwick 
Bruce, M.D, of Barbados, by Amabel, 
dauj^hter and coheir of Anthony VValrond, 
efli|. of the itame island ; aod grandson of 
the Hon, Joseph Osborne Bruce, of 
Gartlet, co. Clackmannan, some time 
Judge of the Common Pleas in Barbados, 
by Jane, daughter and sole heir of Gcoeral 
Samuel Barwick, Governor and Com-- 
mander-tn-chief of Barbados. The Brucei 
of Gartlet, (which eataie was sold in 1768,) 
were cadets of the Bruces of Ken net, co. 
Clackmannan. 

Dr. Brace was born on the 8tb Jan. 
1786, and received bia education at Cod- 
ringtOQ College, Barbados, being originally 
intended for the law \ bnt in 1804 he ac* 
cepted a commission in the medical de- 
partment of the army, obtained through 
the influence of Major Hew Dalrymple 
of the 49th, who had married his first 
cousin. He saw some of his earliest service 
afloat, under Lord Nelson, in 1905; was 
present at the capture of the Danish 
Ulands of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. 
2E 



210 



Obituary.— ilfar^tn Charles Burneyy Esq. 



[Feb. 



Croix in 1807 ; served at the siege of Fort 
Desaix in Martinique, for which he re- 
ceived a medal and clasp ; at the capture 
of Les Saintes near Guadaloupe ; at the 
bombardment and driving from their 
anchorage of the French fleet in 1809; and 
in 1810 at the capture of Guadaloupe, for 
which he received a medal and clasp. 

Dr. Bruce served in the Peninsula in 
1813 ; in America in 1814 and 1815, and 
was present at the severe actions before 
New Orleans in Jan. 1815; also at the 
capture of Fort Boyer, &c. In May, 
1815, he joined the Duke of Wellington's 
army in the I^etherlands, and finally he 
was present at Waterloo, and the sub- 
sequent entry into Paris. 

Having been placed on half- pay at the 
peace, he was appointed in 1817, on the 
recommendation of Sir Lowry Cole, to be 
medical attendant in the family of Earl de 
Grey (then Lord Grantham) ; and he 
thereupon settled at Ripon, where he con- 
tinued to reside until within three weeks 
of his death, affording his professional 
adfice and assistance to Lords de Grey, 
Ripon, Cowper, and Grantley, to the 
Bishop of the diocese, the Dean, and all 
the chief families of the neighbourhood. 
In 1824 he was appointed Surgeon and 
Lieutenant in the Yorkshire Hussar corps 
of Yeomanr