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A GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

SOMALI LANGUAGE 



CAMBKIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

C. F. CLAY, Manager. 

fLonUon: AVE MARIA LANE, E.C. 

©laBuoto: 50, WELLINGTON STREET. 




TLtijjjifl: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

fleto gorfe: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

Bombas ant) Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 



[All Rights reserved.] 



A GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

SOMALI LANGUAGE 

WITH EXAMPLES 

IN 

PROSE AND VERSE 

AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE 

YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 



BY 



J. W. C. KIRK, B.A., 

KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 

LIEUTENANT, DUKE OF CORNWALL'S LIGHT INFANTRY, 

AND 6TH (SOMALILAND) BATTALION, KING'S AFRICAN RIFLES 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1905 




PT 

'JOS' 



Qtantbrftge : 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



S.B.N. — GB: 576.11490.1 

Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited 
Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England 

Printed in Holland 



PREFACE. 



ri^HERE are but few people who have made any serious study 
J- of the many and interesting tongues of that part of the African 
Continent in which the Somali race has grown up. Our knowledge 
of the Somali language is due to the labours of Rigby, Hunter, and 
Larajasse and Sampont. As this is not a written language, great 
praise is due to those who first grappled with the difficulty of 
reducing the speech to writing This has now been done so satis- 
factorily that I myself have lately carried on a successful corre- 
spondence with an educated Somali in his native tongue, using the 
spelling and orthography of the present book. Schleicher's work is 
rather a philological treatise on the language, gathered largely from 
isolated individuals of the people, and not from practical acquaintance 
with the race in their own country ; but he is to be congratulated 
on having collected a number of stories which are a useful and 
important foundation to a Somali literature. Paulitschke's work is 
a purely comparative treatise on the three dialects, Somali, Gala, 
and Danakil, written from an ethnological point of view. 

While serving with Somali troops during the campaigns of 1902 
-1904 against the Mullah, Mohammed Abdallah, I had the most 
favourable opportunities for a practical and wholesale study of the 
colloquial dialect of this people ; and it seemed only right that 
results obtained from so intimate an acquaintance should not be 
left unrecorded, in spite of the many imperfections which must still 
exist in the record. The work done by others hitherto has been 
largely confined to the coast and to the mixed population which 
assembles at the sea-port towns; and it is but recently that any 
strangers except a few sportsmen have been able to dwell in the 
interior, and so to know and converse with the natives in their own 
homes and natural surroundings. The result is that it has now 



VI PREFACE 

been possible to correct and add to our knowledge, hitherto incom- 
plete, on certain grammatical points, and to give their proper 
value to certain variations of speech. I refer especially to such 
peculiarities of the language as the Syntax of the Suffixes, Particles, 
Verbs, Concord of Nouns, and Compound Sentences. It is generally 
found to follow very clear and defined, though unwritten, rules, 
which are disturbed by very few exceptions. 

In regard to Orthography, where I have differed from Schleicher 
and from Larajasse and Sampont, I have given the latters' corre- 
sponding signs in the Alphabet. In the spelling of words I have in 
most cases (subject to the orthographical variations) followed that 
used by Larajasse in his Dictionary, which leaves little room for 
improvement or addition. This book is indispensable to the student 
of Somali, or to anyone who wishes to examine the stories and songs 
given by Schleicher or myself. I have therefore not included a 
vocabulary, as such are necessarily deficient and frequently mis- 
leading. 

In 1903 I published a small practical hand-book, Notes on the 
Somali Language, but this was written on lines totally different 
from those of the present Grammar. It was a compilation of notes 
which I had found useful to myself, and was intended to serve as 
an elementary guide to beginners, who had not the time to digest a 
more lengthy work. The orthography, the spelling, and the few 
grammatical rules, have since been entirely revised and corrected. 

I desire to express my grateful appreciation of the assistance 
rendered me by Mr H. J. Edwards, Fellow and Assistant Tutor of 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, and by Mr R. R. Marett, Fellow and Tutor 
of Exeter College, Oxford, in revising the whole of the present work, 
in manuscript and proof : Professor E. G. Browne kindly suggested 
some improvements in the Introduction. I acknowledge with 
gratitude and admiration the promptness shown by the officials and 
staff of the Cambridge University Press, in completing against time 
a work involving unusual difficulties of composition and proof- 
reading. 

J. W. C. K. 

Sevenoaks, 

December, 1904. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. 



The Alphabet 
Vowels 

Diphthongs ... 
Vowel changes 
Consonants ... 



PAGE 

1 
2 
4 
5 
6 



PART II. ACCIDENCE. 



THE PARTS OF SPEECH 
A. Substantives ... 



1. Classes of Nouns 

2. Gender of Nouns 

3. The Suffixes 

(a) Linking Consonants 

(6) Definite Article 

(c) Demonstrative Adjective ... 

(d) Possessive Pronominal Adjectives 

(e) Interrogative Adjective 

4. Plural of Nouns 

5. Cases of Nouns 

6. Numerals 

7. Pronouns 

(a) Simple Personal Pronouns ... 
(6) Possessive „ 

(c) Demonstrative „ 

(d) Relative „ 

(e) -Interrogative „ 
(/) Indefinite „ 



10 

12 
12 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
25 
27 
29 
29 
32 
33 
33 
33 
34 



vm 



CONTENTS 



B. Adjectives 



C. 



I). 



E. 

F. 



1. Classes of Adjectives 

(«) Radical 

(b) Derivative 

(c) Compound 

2. Inflexions of Adjectives 

(a) Radical 

(b) Derivative 

(c) Compound 

Comparison of Adjectives 



3 
Verbs 



1. Conjugation 

(a) Moods and Tenses ... 

(b) Affirmative Conjugation 

(c) Negative „ 

(d) Interrogative „ 

(e) Negative-Interrogative Conjugation 

2. Peculiarities and Irregular Verbs 

(a) 1st Conjugation 

Irreg. Verb, oil 
(6) 2nd Conjugation .... 

Irreg. Verbs, imo, ogho, oclo 
(c) 3rd Conjugation 
(rf) Irreg. Verbs, aho, laho, wah 
(e) The Passive Voice ... 

3. Derivative Verbs 

(a) Intensive 

(6) Reflexive 

(c) Attributive 

(d) Causative 

Particles 

1. Verbal 

(a) Adverbial 

(b) Prepositional 

2. Conjunctive 

(a) Introductory 

(b) Conjunctive 

Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 
Interjections, and Salutations 



CONTENTS 



IX 



PART III. SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES. 



A Structure of a Simple Sentence 

1. Order of Words 

2. The Particles wa, ba, ya 

3. Simple Interrogative and Negative Sentences 

4. Verbs of Existence 

B. The Parts of Speech 

1. The Article 

2. The Noun 

(a) Cases 

(b) Number 

(c) Concord 

3. The Adjective 

(a) Order 

(b) Comparison 

(c) Similarity . 

4. The Numerals 

5. The Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives 

(a) Persons 

(b) Simple Personal Pronouns 

(c) Suffixes 

(d) Impersonal Pronouns 

(e) Possessive Adjective 

(/) Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives 

(g) Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives 

6. The Verb 

(a) Moods and Tenses 

(b) Persons 

(c) Negative Tenses 

7. The Particles 

(a) Order 

(6) Uses 

(c) Adverbial Particles 

(d) Prepositional „ 



PAGE 
81 

81 

82 
86 
88 

90 

90 

92 

92 

94 

95 

98 

98 

99 

101 

102 

103 

103 

103 

106 

107 

107 

108 

109 

111 

111 

114 

115 

117 
117 
117 
118 
119 



PART IV. SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES. 



A. Co-ordinate Sentences 

Conjunctive Particles 

B. Subordinate Sentences 

1. General rules ... 



123 
123 
124 
125 



X 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 


2. 


Adjectival Sentences 


125 


3. 


Adverbial „ 


127 




(a) Temporal and Locative 


127 




(b) Final 


128 




(c) Conditional 


129 




(d) Causal 


130 




(e) Concessive 


131 


4. 


Substantival Sentences 


131 




(a) Subjective 


131 




(6) Objective 


132 


5. 


Oratio Obliqua 


133 


Appendix 


I. Seasons, months, days 


134 


» 


II. Money, weights, measures 


136 


» 


III. Tribes and Sub-tribes 


138 



EXAMPLES OF PROSE AND VERSE. 

Part I. Somali Stories, and Narrative 141 

„ II. Translations of the Stories 160 

„ III. Somali Songs (with translations) 170 



THE DIALECTS OF THE OUTCAST TRIBES, 
MIDGAN AND YIBIR. 

Account of the two tribes 

Observations on the Dialects 



3. Examples of the Dialects : 

Midgan sentences ... 

Yibir sentences 

Yibir story of Mohammed Hanif 

4. Vocabularies : 

Yibir-Bnglish and Midgan-English 

Comparative vocabulary, English — Somali — Yibir — Midgan 

Index 



184 
185 

191 
192 
197 

200 
207 
215 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Rigbt, Lieut. C. P., "On the Somauli Language"; Transactions of the 
Bombay Geographical Society, VoL ix, 1849. 

Hunter, Capt. F. M., A Grammar of the Somali Language ; Bombay, 1880. 

Cust, R., The Modern Languages of Africa ; London, Triibner & Co., 1883. 

Schleicher, A. W., Die Somali-Sprache ; Berlin, 1892. 

Paulitschke, Dr Philipp, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas ; Berlin, 1896. 

Larajasse and Sampont, Practical Grammar of the Somali Language ; 
London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 1897. 

Larajasse, Somali-English and English-Somali Dictionary ; London, Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 1897. 

Schleicher, Dr A. W., Somali-Texte (edited by Leo Reinisch); Vienna 
and Leipzig, 1900. 

These are the most important works upon the language, though other 
writers are also quoted by Paulitschke. 



ERRATUM. 

§ 15 (b). for warm, warming read warn, warning. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Somali is the language spoken by the inhabitants of the square 
tract of country, known as the Horn of Africa (Regio Aromatifera 
of the ancients), which lies between the French port of Djibouti, 
Cape Guardafui and the river Juba. This country was formerly 
inhabited by a people, now known as Gala 1 , who have been steadily 
driven inland by Mohammedan propagandists, who call themselves 
Somali. The neighbours of the Somali are the Danakil on the 
north, the Abyssinians, speaking Amharic, on the north-west, and 
the retreating Gala on the west and south-west. The languages of 
the Somali and the Gala are quite distinct, and mutually unintelli- 
gible, but possess so many fundamental characteristics in common, 
that there is ample evidence of their close relationship, even if it can 
not be proved that modern Somali is actually derived from Gala. 
There has always been considerable trade between the inhabitants 
of Aden and Southern Arabia and those of the Somali coast, and 
the Semitic element in Somali is sufficient proof of the local tradi- 
tion that the present Somali race had its origin in a Mohammedan 
colonisation from Southern Arabia. 

If we compare the vocabularies of the three languages, Arabic, 
Gala and Somali, we find many words having a root common to all 
three, such as the Somali words, aba father, wil boy, faras horse. 

The majority of words common to Arabic and Somali are found 
to be technical or legal terms, or names of utensils or articles of 
commerce not native to the country. These are obviously borrowed 

1 Gal (of which the plural is Galo) is the name used generally to denote 
infidels, i.e. those who are not Mohammedans, and may be used by Somalia, 
without any disrespect, to include English, Abyssinians or others as well as 
those former inhabitants who would not embrace the faith preached by the 
Mohammedan missionaries, and to whom the name is now specially applied. 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

direct from the Arabic and have no bearing on the relationship of 
the languages. But in a few Somali verbs the Arabic root can be 
recognised, such as, ghad take, carry ; akhri read ; Ibi sell, buy ; 
gajo be hungry. 

On the other hand a large number of words in ordinary use are 
common to Gala and Somali, but are not of Arabic origin. These 
have simple and elementary meanings, and include many verbs. 

Such are, 

arag see nin man 



eg 


look 


dig 


blood 


jir 


be 


if 


light 


gal 


enter 


af 


month 


dul 


attack 


arrab 


tongue 




der 


long 





The Somali numerals are common to Gala, except one, six, ten 
and a hundred, and are all quite different from the Arabic. 

In regard to the structure of the language, the most striking 
features are the Suffixes, with their generic linking consonants, the 
use of the Definite Article and its concord with noun aud adjective 
(the latter is comparable with the declension of the German adjective), 
the Negative Conjugation of verbs, and .the Particles. In all these 
points Somali resembles Gala, but apparently has little or no 
resemblance to Arabic, except in the particles. 

All three languages employ similar inflexions in the persons of 
the verb conjugation, but in the two former, as in Arabic, prefixes 
are not used, except in the five irregular Somali verbs. 

Example, 

wan imi I came 

wad timi thou earnest 

wu yimi he came 

wei timi she came 

weinu nimi we came 

The regular forms being as follows : 

wan shega I tell 

wad shegta thou tellest 

wu shega he tells 

wei shegta she tells 

weinu shegna we tell 



INTRODUCTION XV 

The Semitic element is also exemplified in the guttural and 
aspirate sounds, which correspond to the Arabic letters Ghain, 'Ain, 
and Ha ; and in the form and concord of plural nouns, which largely 
resemble the Arabic broken plurals. 

The Bantu languages, which are prefix languages, seem to 
have nothing in common with Somali, either in construction or 
vocabulary. 

There are certain slight variations in the speech of different 
tribes, which almost constitute different dialects. The most 
notable are the Ishhak, Dolbohanta, Mijjertein and the Esa and 
Gadabursi. 



For instance : 








Ishhak 


Dolbohanta 


camel 


aur 


rati 


road 


dau 


jid 


go 


tag 


ad 



the saddles koryashi koryalki 

A Dolbohanta will say wa ddnahaya (I want), pronounced by 
the Ishhak as wa ddneya or wa ddnaya. " I want " is translated 
by wa ddneya in Bari, wa ddnaya in Galbed 

Practically all the men I have served with have belonged to the 
Ishhak section, and in this book it is the everyday speech of these 
people which is presented, while words and forms which are not 
familiar to them, but are used by Dolbohanta and others, have been 
avoided. The Ishhak almost entirely inhabit the British Protectorate, 
and their speech may therefore be taken by Englishmen as the 
standard form of the language. 

Within the Ishhak there are slight variations again in accent, 
phrases and idioms, of no great importance. These depend chiefly 
on geographical distribution. 

In the East {Bari) the common forms for the personal pronoun 
are ban, bad, bu, etc., while in the West {Galbed) they are 
represented by yan, yad, yu, etc. 

The Midgan and Yibir dialects are quite apart. These are 
dialects spoken by two outcast and homeless tribes living among the 
Somalis, and are now published for the first time, having hitherto 
been kept a secret even from the Somalis themselves. They are 
discussed in full at the end of this book. 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

Finally, with regard to speaking the language, the mode of speech 
is that of all Eastern people, like the language of the Bible. Sentences 
are split up into strings of short simple remarks, with numerous 
copulative particles, and expressions meaning, "and so," "and then," 
" he said," etc. In a narrative, after each remark the speaker pauses, 
when the listener is expected to answer with some suitable expression 
of assent, such as Kodi, or Haiye. 

Correct pronunciation is most important, and as there are no 
definite rules for the accentuation of syllables I have had to use 
accents freely all through the book. The Somali is not a polite 
person, and though extremely good-natured he is quite outspoken, 
and has no hesitation in ridiculing one's false quantities or concords, 
that is to say, if one's efforts are at all recognisable to him. He 
expects a high standard of accuracy, chiefly because he is unaccus- 
tomed to hearing a European endeavour to grapple with his language, 
but this has the advantage of not allowing the stranger to form too 
favourable an idea of his own skill. 



PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY. 



1. In reducing the Somali language to writing, we are faced 
by the fact that there is no written language. Many educated 
Somalis write Arabic, but, so far as the writer is aware, they have 
never attempted to write their own language either in Arabic or 
any other characters. Nor would it be possible to employ the 
Arabic characters to represent Somali sounds. The list of Arabic 
consonants is too elaborate, whilst the three vowel-signs are in- 
sufficient, a great variety of vowel sounds being an important 
peculiarity of the Somali language. 

According to Hunter the alphabetical signs for Urdu contain all 
the necessary elements, but he and all others have agreed to adopt 
the Roman characters, for obvious reasons. 

The alphabet that is used here, so far as it is applicable, is 
that recommended by the Royal Geographical Society in "Hints 
to Travellers," with the addition of two extra signs for the Arabic 
Aine (c) and the cerebral d (Sanskrit ^), which are represented 

respectively by the inverted comma ', and d, as in the grammar 
published by Larajasse and Sampont. The double hh is employed 
to represent the Arabic Ha (*-). Accents are also employed freely 

to express the different values of the vowels. 



a, a, d, - Arabic "fatha," or t 
b » V 

d „ >, J 

d Sanskrit ^5" 

(half d, half r) 
e, £ as in Latin languages 
/ = Arabic \J 



The Alphabet 




ir 1 9 = ■ 


Arabic J> 


gh 


„ £ (L. & S. h) 


h 


» x 


hh 


(L. & S. h) 


i, i 


>> 


3 


" 7r 



k = 


Arabic J) 






u, 


u = Arabic J 


kh 
I 


» t 

.. J 






w 

y 


5 


m 


>» J» 








» t 


n 
o, o, 6 


j 








Diphthongs. 


r 


» J 








ai 


s 
sh 


* 


(Schl. 


§) 




ei 
au 


t 


„ & 








oi 



There is no doubt a double / (according to Hunter, the 
Sanskrit "&), but it is so seldom used (as in lehh = six) that it is not 
necessary to have a separate sign. The same remark applies to the 
Arabic i, which occurs in some Somali words, and is commonly used 
in Yibir. 



Vowels. 

3. The following accents are used to represent the different 
values of vowels : — 

w and A are only used with special forms of a and o respectively. 

The grave accent, v , is used to express the long drawn sounds 
of each vowel. 

The acute accent, ', is only used to denote the syllable upon 
which the accentuation should fall, and may therefore vary in the 
same word in different contexts or forms ; it is to be understood that 
this accent does not alter the length or value of the vowel in any 
way. 

4. a corresponds to the Arabic "fatha" and has a nondescript 
sound, as the u in " bun," " sun," or the a in " balloon " : 

badan many 
ban plain 
dab fire 

& is pronounced like a in "rat," "ham," but is not a common 
sound : 

wan&ksan good 
r&g men 

k&leh other 

shalei yesterday 



VOWELS o 

& is long as in " father," " mast " : 
san skin 
dar stone building 

e is pronounced like e in "pen," "fell" : 

hebel a certain man 
sheg tell 

Before cerebral d this has almost the value of u, as in English 
"fur." Example, hed tie. 

& is like the vowels of "fate," "weight," "fare" : 

adSr uncle 

habSn night 

gdnyo mare 

g&d tree 

i is short as in "pin" : 

mid one 
illin entrance 

Care must be taken to pronounce i with exactly this value before r, 
as y in " tyranny," and not as in English "fir" : 

bir iron 
jir be 

1 is like ee in " feel," " seem " : 

'Id sand 
dlr trees 
lln orange 

O is short as in "on," "cot" : 

kol time 
'oil army 
ghor write 

6 is quite long as in " foal," " sole " : 
ddn wish 
gdb a kind of fruit 
g61 lioness 

6 This is represented by Larajasse and Sampont by ow, which, 
however, seems liable to confusion with the English diphthong 

1—2 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY 

ou. It has a very long drawn out hollow sound like a gasping 
« Ohh ! " 

dd near 

ild forget 

mado black 

u is pronounced as in "full," "put" : 

Before r it must retain the same value and not be pronounced like 
the English "fur." 

gur pick up 
kun thousand 
kulul warm 

ti is long and full as oo in " fool," " rule " : 

gilr start to march 
fiid soup 
fid ride 

5. Diphthongs. 

ai is pronounced as in "aisle," or "fire" : 
ain sort, 'kind 

ei is pronounced like " feign," but in this case the i is sometimes 
almost heard : 

weidi ask 
samei make 

Note. In many words it is hard to distinguish whether the diphthong 
is the one or the other of these, the common a, or " fatha," and e being so 
much alike when preceding another vowel. Thus this work differs from 
that of other writers in that the past terminations of verbs, and the 
Continuative tense inflexions are spelt with an e, instead of a, the former 
being to the writer's ear distinctly the sound produced by the tribes he 
has been in contact with. 

au is like the English diphthong in " how," "hour," but with a 
round full sound almost like " ao " : 
aur camel 

oi very seldom occurs, but where it does it is exactly the same 
as in English : 

hoi ! an exclamation 



VOWEL CHANGES 5 

Note. The above diphthongs may occur before another vowel, in which 
case i becomes y, and u becomes w : 



laya 


slay ye (lai-a) 




wa tegey a 


I am going (tegei-i 


a) 


wa samey a 


I make (samei-a) 




bilawa 


dagger (bilau-a) 




goya 


cut ye (goi-a) 




6. Vowel changes. 





When two vowels occur in succession they may both be pro- 
nounced separately and distinctly, in which case the second vowel 
is marked with the diaeresis, " : 

ai curse 
baan badtempered 
ei dog 

More commonly the hiatus is avoided (a) by elision, (b) by the 
use of the semi-vowels y, w, (c) by the insertion of some consonant. 

(a) Elision is the suppression of one of the vowels, and takes 
place especially before the pronouns which are attached as suffixes 
to the preceding word. 

Examples, gorti-u becomes gortu when he 

hadi-an „ hadan if I 

(b) y is used instead of i, or after 1, when preceding a vowel. 
Examples, wa samei-a becomes wa sameya I make 

wa sl-a „ wa slya I give 

(c) Consonants are inserted in the case of certain inflexions. 
Examples, abi-hi for abi-i the father 

madd-ba „ madd-a the black 
wa ild-ba „ ild-a I forget 

When a is followed by i, it is very frequently changed into e, 
whether a consonant is between or not. 
Examples, ka' wake, awaken ke'i 

la i becomes lei. 
sa' cow, si'i, or su'u (for sa'i, sa'u) the cow 

wan taga I go, wan tegeya I am going 
aba father, abihi, or abuhu (for abahi, abahu) 

the father 



orthography 

7. Consonants. 
The consonants are sounded as follows : 



Faucals (', h, hh). 


' (aine) is an Arabic sound caused by a sudden contraction of 


the glottis in place of a hiatus 


i. It is treated like a consonant in all 


rules as to inflexions, etc. : 




'ab 


drink 


maga' 


name 


la'ag 


money 


b'e'id 


oryx 


'Id 


sand 


lo' 


cows 


'oil 


army 


'ur'ur 


forearm 


In order to learn the correct pronunciation compare the above 


with 




aba ' 


father 


nag 


woman 


baan 


badtempered 


beid 


egg 


idlad 


end, completion 


lohh 


plank 


urur 


assembly 


ulul 


growl 



Note. The Aine is a hard letter, and must be followed by the hard form 
of any other class of consonant in inflexion : 

wa ka'da she gets up 
for ka'ta 

h is like the English h in "hit," but is scarcely sounded when at 
the end of a word : 

harag sheep-skin 
gesiah brave 

hh is the long drawn Arabic consonant ; in the middle, or end, 
of a word it is sounded almost as a whole syllable, but is hardly 
different from h at the beginning of a word : 



CONSONANTS 7 

dehh middle (dehh(e)) 

libahh lion (libahh(a)) 

lehhda the six (lehh(e)da) 

hhun bad 

Gutturals (g, gh, k, kh). 

g is always hard as in "go." 

It most nearly resembles the Arabic J> : 
ga'an hand 
gel camels 

gh is the Arabic " ghain," 6, and must be learned by ear : 

ghad carry 
ghor write 
ghanso bow 

k is like the English k : 

kali come here 

hakama bridle 

kh is a softer guttural-aspirate than the ghain or gh, and more 
nearly corresponds to the Scotch ch, as in "loch," but is harder 
than this : 

sandukh box 

akhal house 

Note. It is often difficult to distinguish between gh and kh, the former 
oeing softer, and the latter harder than in the true Arabic forms. 

Palatals 1 (j, sh, y). 

j is a hard,/, as in English "journey," " John 2 " 

ja'al like 
j6g stand 

sh is like the English, as in " shoot " : 

shimbir bird 
sheg tell 

1 These are not found at the end of a word in Somali. 

2 There is no sound ch, as in "church," iu Somali; the English sound is 
reproduced by the native as j. 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY 

y is like the English, as in " you " : 

yer small 
blyo water 

Dentals (t, d, d, r, s, 1, n). 

t as in English : 

tuka crow 

tehh shower of rain 

d as in English : 

wadan skin pail 
durug move 

Note. At the end of a word d ia sounded nearly like t : 
mid one. 

d is a cerebral letter, and, as mentioned above, is of Sanskrit 
origin. 

In the middle of a word it has almost the sound of r, but at the 
beginning, or end, of a word it more nearly approaches d. 

It is formed by curling the tongue back and bringing it forward 
along the roof of the mouth : 

adi sheep 

fadi sit 

hed tie 

dan all, complete 

r is always pronounced distinctly, like the r of Latin languages, 
as in " arrow " : 

ra' accompany 

bir iron 

shimbirtu the bird 



s as in English : 



1 as in English : 



san skin 
so'o go on 
hes song 

libahh lion 
lln orange 

filfil pepper 



CONSONANTS 9 

n as in English : 

nag woman 
mindi knife 

Note. 1 and t, where they occur in inflexions or suffixes, 
become sh. 

hashi the camel, for hal-ti 

wa yesha thou doest, for yel-ta 

Labials (b, m, f, w). 

b as in English : 

barbar youth 

bilawa dagger 

albab door 

m as in English : 

m6d think 
dambe behind 

f as in English : 

af mouth 

iftin light 

afar four 

w as in English : 

wiyil rhinoceros 
walal brother 



PART II. ACCIDENCE. 



THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

8. All languages cannot be arranged on exactly the same 
system, and, in the Somali Language, the arrangement and definitions 
which are applicable to the grammar of well-known tongues, such as 
English or Arabic, will not altogether hold good. 

Somali is undoubtedly a simple and elementary language, in 
which the only true and fundamental parts of speech are 

Substantive, Verb, Adjective, Particle, 

and it is by various combinations or forms of these that the other 
generally recognised parts of speech are formed. 

9. A Substantive is a word describing, or referring to, something 
which exists, or some object of thought, either material or im- 
material. 

A Verb is a word expressing thought, being, action, or the 
suffering of action, and affirms or predicates something of some 
person or thing. 

These two parts of speech are complementary and essential one 
to the other, and in any form of speech both these elements must 
necessarily occur, unless it is tacitly agreed, to save unnecessary 
verbiage, that one or the other may be obviously understood from 
the context, and may be omitted from actual expression. 

An Adjective is a word which describes or qualifies the object or 
thought represented by a substantive, according to any known idea 
of quality, such as colour, size, nature, etc. 

A Particle is a word which has no meaning in itself and can only 
occur in conjunction with other parts of speech. It may qualify the 



Suffixes, known as - 



PARTS OF SPEECH 11 

meaning of a verb, or it may be " Conjunctive," that is, it may 
connect, or act as a link between, two expressions or parts of 
speech. 

10. Other parts of speech that occur in more advanced 
languages are, in Somali, all derived from substantives, or are 
represented by suffixes. 

Substantives may be qualified 

(i) according to place, context, possessor, etc., by 
'Definite Article, 
Demonstrative Adjective, 
Possessive Pronominal Adjective, 
^Interrogative Adjective ; 

(ii) according to number, by 
Inflexions. 
They include, 

(i) Nouns (actually descriptive of an object or idea), 
(ii) Numerals 1 (expressing the abstract idea of a number), 
(iii) Pronouns (words used to refer to a noun or numeral 
already expressed, or understood, to avoid lengthy and unnecessary 
repetition). 

Note a. All substantives are recognisable by the fact that they are able 
to have attached to them the suffixes mentioned above, and may stand alone 
as Subject or Object to a Verb. 

Note b. Nouns and numerals have no declension, nouns alone being 
inflected in the plural. Personal pronouns have an Objective (or Accusative) 
form as well as the Subjective (or Nominative). 

In addition to the above, there are formed, by the use of a noun 
alone, or a noun combined with any of the other substantives, with 
or without suffixes or inflexions, and with or without an adjective, 

(iv) Adverbs (words expressing time, place or manner, relative 
to the action of a verb). 

(v) Relative Conjunctions (words introducing expressions of 
the same value as the above). 

(vi) Prepositions (words expressing the relationship of one 
substantive to another). 

1 These are undoubtedly treated as Substantives in Somali. 



12 ACCIDENCE 



A. Substantives. 

11. These will be dealt with in the order given in the classi- 
fication above, but it is necessary first to describe the Noun itself, 
its Forms, and Gender, after which will follow the Suffixes, to be 
followed again by the Plural Inflexions. 

The reason of this order will be seen on a perusal of the 
following pages, as the questions of gender and number are 
inextricably mixed with those concerning the form of the Suffixes. 



1. Classes of Nouns. 

12. Nouns are classified into Proper and Common. 
' Proper ' nouns are names of people or places. 

The commoner and typical Somali men's names are, Jama, 
Farah, Hassan, Hussein, Mohammed, Mahhmud, Ahhmed, 
Ali, Omar, Nur, Liban, Egal, Dualeh, Abdallah, Abdi, 
Robleh. 

Nicknames are very common ; in fact nearly everyone, whether 
Somali or English, is always known by his friends by some nickname, 
such as, Gurreh left-handed, Farurah hare-lipped, Dunjog 
active or " cute," Bulali fair, Timo-wein long hair, Awarah 
one-eyed, Galds, Delowein, etc., always referring to some feature 
or eccentricity, but without any idea of disrespect. 

13. Common nouns are classed in various ways : according to 
their Nature they are Concrete, or Abstract, 

according to their Derivation they are Radical, Derivative, 
or Borrowed, 

according to their Gender they are Masculine, Feminine, 
or Common. 

14. Concrete Nouns include the names of all animate or 
inanimate objects, or parts of them. 

Nearly all of these are Radical words, or else are borrowed 
entirely from another language. 

(i) Animate : nin man, nag woman, wil boy, 

gabad girl, libahh lion, faras horse, aur camel, 
shimbir bird. 



ABSTRACT NOUNS 13 

They include collective words, as : 

dad people, rag men, dumar women, artir children, 
gel camels, bdlo flocks, ghalab, alabo baggage, kit. 

Names of relations : 

aba father, hoyo mother, walal brother or sister, 
fnan son, or daughter, adSr uncle. 

(ii) Inanimate objects are : 

wahh thing, bir iron, ghori wood, dagahh stone, 
bur hill, mlyi jungle, akhal house. 

15. Abstract Nouns. 

(a) Many abstract nouns of action and sense are radical, in 
which case they are also used as intransitive verbs. 

hadal talk, yab wonder, dagal fight, 'ur smell, 
harad thirst, bandn pain, ai curse, gabei chant, 
ado rage. 

(b) Verb-nouns, describing the action of a verb, are formed 
from the verb-root by the addition of certain terminations : 

1st Class (ending in a consonant) add -nin, or -in. 

2nd Class ( „ „ -o ) „ -d. 

3rd Class ( „ „ -i ) „ -s, or -n. 









1st 


Class. 


dig 


warm 






dignin warming 


tol 


sew 






tdlin sewing, seam 


ghor 


write 






ghorin writing 


bdd 


jump 






bo din jumping 


sug 


wait 






sugnin waiting 




(Note : 


fed 


ride 


fCdan riding.) 








2nd Class. 



so'o walk so'od walking 

nokho return nokbod return 

garo understand garad sense 

babso escape babsad escape 

idlo come to an end idlad end, completion 







ACCIDENCE 






3rd Class. 


weidi 


ask 


weidis 


goi 


cut 


gois 


si 


give 


sin 


samei 


make 


samein 


safei 


clean 


safein 



14 



question 
cutting, cleft 
present 
construction 
cleaning 

(c) Abstract Nouns of Quality are derived from adjectives, or 
nouns, and have the following forms : 

'ulusnimo heaviness from 'ulus heavy 

'ajisnfmo laziness „ 'ajis lazy 

fulanfmo cowardice „ fulei coward 

nagnfmo womanliness „ nag woman 

hoyonfmo motherliness „ hoyo mother 



'adan 


whiteness 


>> 


'ad 


white 


'asan 


redness 


» 


'as 


red 


weinan 


largeness 


>> 


wein 


large 


adkan 


hardness 


» 


adag 


hard 



derer 
fudeid 
'uleis 
adeig 



length 
lightness 
weight 
strength 



der long 

fudud light 

'ulus heavy 

adag hard, strong 



(d) Other radical abstract nouns are those of Quantity, Time, 
and Place, some of which are used as Indefinite Pronouns. 

in some (quantity) ghar some (number) 

gidi, kulli, daman all, whole gor, kol time 
malin, 'asho day mel, hag place 

16. Borrowed words are chiefly Arabic, many being common to 
all East African languages. 

mes table, sa'ad hour, kursi chair, sandukh box, 
bandukh gun, hukum order, askari soldier 

In albab (door), the Somali has taken the Arabic definite 
article as well, but adds his own article to it : 
albabki the door. 

Verbs are very seldom borrowed, such as safei (clean). 
English words are now becoming familiar and naturalised over 
the whole of our Protectorate, as, 



GENDER OF NOUNS 15 

kdd (coat), tfcbel (table), sord (sword), drabel (trouble), 
ketli (kettle), kob (cup). 

2. Gender of Nouns. 

17. There are no rules determining the gender of a Radical 
Noun, either according to its meaning or form. It must therefore 
be learned by practice in the case of each word. This however is 
not so difficult as it would appear, as the definite article is so much 
a part of the noun, and the gender is so clearly marked by it, that 
it is best to learn the definite article with the noun in each case. 
I shall, therefore, when quoting a noun, give the definite article, 
separated by a hyphen, as in 

nin-ki man 
nag-ti woman. 

This will imply that 

nin =a man nag = a woman 

ninki = the man nagti = the woman. 

It will suffice here to say that all Feminine nouns are those 
which take the dental article, i.e. -ti or -di ; 

While all Masculine nouns are those which take a guttural 
article, i.e. -ki, -gi, -hi, or in some cases the vowel -i, alone. 

In both cases the Suffix consists of two parts. The" final vowel 
is the Article Suffix, the consonant is the Linking Consonant. 

18. The Derivative and Borrowed Nouns do follow certain 
determinate rules in respect of gender. 

Borrowed words are masculine : 

mes-ki, kursi-gi, hukum-ki, sandukh-i, albab-ki, t^bel-ki, 
kod-ki, etc. 

Exceptions, sa'ad-di hour ) ,. . . 

.. , . . . , , > are feminine. 
warkhad-di letter j 

19. Of Derivative Nouns, 

Verbal Nouns in -in (1st and 3rd Classes) are Feminine : 
dignin-ti, sugnin-ti, samein-ti, etc. 

Verbal Nouns in -d, -s (2nd and 3rd Classes) are Masculine : 
so'od-ki, idlad-ki, gois-ki, etc. 



16 



ACCIDENCE 



Adjectival Nouns in -nimo -an are Feminine. 
'ajisnfmo-di, weinan-ti. 

Adjectival Nouns of other forms are Masculine, 
derer-ki, 'uleis-ki, etc. 

20. Names of men and animals may have special forms for 



each gender : 








Examples, 








nin-ki 


man, husband 


nag-ti 


woman, wife 


aba-hi 


father 


hoyo-di 


mother 


aur-ki 


male camel 


hal-shi ' 


female camel 


sanga-hi 


stallion 


g6nyo-di 


mare 


wan-ki 


ram 


sabein-ti 


ewe 


orgi-gi 


he-goat 


ri-di 


she-goat 


ar-ki 


lion 


gol-shi 1 


lioness 



21. Some nouns are of common gender, and vary only in the 
form of the definite article. 

inan-ki son Inan-ti daughter 



son 
walal-ki brother 



walal-shi 1 sister 



3. The Suffixes. 

22. The Suffixes consist of two parts, namely (1) a vowel 
termination, or syllable beginning with a vowel, and (2) a linking 
consonant, connecting the termination to the substantive, and 
denoting the gender of the word. 

23. The following parts of speech are represented by Suffixes 
in Somali : 



viz. 



i Definite Article (the) -i 

Demonstrative Adjective (this; that) -an; 
Possessive Pronominal Adjective. 

(my, thy, his, her) -ai 

(our (1 and 3), our (1, 2 and 3) 

your, tlieir) -aya 

Interrogative Adjective (what ?) ... -e P 



-a 

-as 



or 
or 



-u. 

-a. 



-Is -ed. 



-fcn -In -6d. 



1 In Feminine nouns ending in -I, the final I and the t of the Article are 
transformed into sh ; thus nashl the she-camel, for halti, walashi for walilti. 



LINKING CONSONANTS 



17 



ninki, ninka, or ninku the man 

ninkan this man 

ninkas or ninka that man 

ninkai, ninka, ninkis, &c. my, thy, his, etc. man 

ninke ? what man ? 

The above forms are constant, whether the noun qualified is in 
the Singular or Plural. 



(a) Linking Consonants. 

24. The Linking Consonants are peculiar to each noun, and 
conform to its gender and the final letter of the word. 

25. Masculine words take the gutturals, k, g, h. 

Nouns ending in any consonant, except g, or a gutt. aspirate, take k 

„ g 

h 



-i or g 
-a 



Note i. Nouns ending in -h, hh, or a guttural aspirate, would logically 
be followed by h, but this additional aspirate is hardly to be detected by 
the ear, and need not therefore be written. 

Note ii. With nouns ending in ' no linking consonant is required, unless 
it be another ', but this again the ear cannot detect. 

Note iii. Where the noun ends in a, -ah, the -a is assimilated to the 
form of suffix vowel which follows, i.e. if the suffix is -i, the a becomes i, if 
u, it becomes u. 

Examples, 

(The suffix is here separated by a hyphen, but it must be remembered 
that it is not spoken as a separate word, and will not be so written in 
examples later.) 



albab-ki 

shabel-ki 

sul-ki 

san-ki 

af-ki 

mlyi-gi 

askari-gi 



the door 
the leopard 
the thumb 
the nose 
the mouth 
the jungle 
the soldier 



harag-gi 

ilig-gi 

libahh-i 

sandukh-i 

maga'-i 

muda'-i 



the sheep-skin, 
the tooth 
the lion (i) 
the box (i) 
the name (ii) 
the fork (ii) 



kbra a saddle 

dayah a moon 

K. 



the saddle kdri-hi, kdra-ha, or 

kdru-hu (iii) 

the moon dayi-hi, daya-ha, or 

dayu-hu (iii) 

2 



18 



; 


ACCIDENCE 


and 




(waranleh 


a spearman the s. 


farddleh 


a horseman the h. 



waranlihi, waranlaha, 
waranluhii 
the h. fardblihi, fardalaha, 

farddluhu) 

26. Feminine words take the dentals -t or -d. 
Nouns ending in any consonant except d, or ', take -t. 

„ „ -d, -i, -o, ', or an aspirate, „ -d. 

Examples, 

nag-ti the woman laf-ti the bone 

lan-ti the branch miyid-di the corpse 

far-ti the finger salo-di the dung 

ga'an-ti the hand ghorahh-di the sua 

hal-shi the she-camel warakh-di the letter 

ri-di ' the goat Nogal-shi the Nogal 

27. In many cases the linking consonant may be omitted, as 
has been noticed after aspirates, and ' . 

It is also omitted in certain words, 

rag-i the men 

g£l-i the camels - 
with the simple Personal Pronouns, 

an-i, an-a I 

ad-i, ad-a thou, etc. 
after some of the Possessive Pronominal suffixes, 

akhal-kls-i his house 

has-k£d-a her family 

dad-kdn-i our people 
or after the Demonstrative suffix, 

nin-kan-a this man 

aur-kas-i that camel 

(b) The Definite Article. 

28. It is seen in § 23 that the Definite Article has three 
alternative forms, the use of which depends entirely on the context 
of the noun defined. 

A short general rule is given here, but the question will be more 
fully dealt with under Syntax (§ 150, etc.). 



DEFINITE ARTICLE 19 

" The horse " may be, faraski, faraska, or farasku. 
" The place " „ meshi, mesha, or meshu. 

29. (i) -i is the most general form, and is used when -a, or 
-u, are not required. 

(ii) -a is used in the following cases : 

(1) when referring to a person or thing actually present in front 
of the speaker, and is very nearly equivalent to the demonstrative 
adjective (this), but must not be confounded with the demonstrative 
suffix -a (that) ; 

(2) when the noun is used possessively, adjectivally or ad- 
verbially. 

Examples, 

(1) sandukha ghad take the box (which you see) 

ninka ba 6g the man (i.e. he that is present) knows 

ninka ad arkesa the man thou seest 

(but, ninki ad araktei the man thou sawest) 

(2) akhalki sirkalka the house of the officer 
nin magaloda a man of the town 
galabta this evening 

(iii) -u is used when referring to a well-known, or already 
mentioned, object or person. 

Any definition is supposed to be unnecessary, and therefore -u is 
not employed if the noun is qualified by an adjective, nor is it used 
with the object of a sentence. 

It may be represented in English by the use of "The" or 
capital letters. 
Examples, Sirkalku The Officer (as a soldier would refer to 

his company officer or Commandant) 
Wadadku The Mullah (i.e. Mohammed Abdallah 

Hassan) 
ghorahhdu the sun 
dayuhu the moon 

rbbku the rain 

(c) The Demonstrative Adjective. 

30. The suffixes are, 

-an this 

-as, or -a that 

2—2 



20 ACCIDENCE 

Examples, faras-kan this horse 

faras-kas that horse 

nag-tan this woman 

gSd-kas that tree 

sandukh-an this box 

busta-has that blanket 

ha-shan this camel 

magalo-dan this town 

31. The Demonstrative may be intensified by the addition of 
the definite article in two ways (cf. § 198) : 

(i) The definite article -a and demonstrative adjective both 
require linking consonants. 

In this case the linking consonant used with the Demonstrative 
Suffix is always k for masculine words, and t for feminine words. 

Examples, 
nfnkakan this man nagtata that woman 

gh6rigakan this wood mSshatas that place 

dagahhakan this stone sanadukhdatan these boxes 

(ii) The definite article is suffixed to the demonstrative without 
any linking consonant. 

Examples, 

ninkasa that man gabaddasu that girl 

nimankani these mei gddkasa that tree 

rdbkanu this rain inantasi that daughter 

(d) Possessive Pronominal Adjectives. 

32. my -ai- (-gi, or -di) 
thy -a- (-gi, or -di) 
his -is- (-i) 

her -Sd- (-i) 

our -fcn- (-i) (including " you ") 

our -aya- (-gi, or -di) (excluding " you ") 

your -in- (-i) 

their -6d- (-i) 
Except when qualifying terms of relationship, as "father," 
"mother," "husband," etc., the above suffixes require the definite 
article as well, as given in brackets after each person. Only -ai, -a, 
-aya, however, require the linking consonant, the remainder taking 
the article without any link. 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE 



21 



The linking consonant to the article, when used, is always 
for masculine words, -d- for feminine words. 



Example, aur-ki 


camel 




aurkaigi 


aurkaiga 


aurkaigu 


my camel 


aurkagi 


aurkaga 


aurkagu 


thy camel 


aurkisi 


aurklsa 


aurklsu 


his camel 


aurkedi 


aurkeda 


aurkedu 


her camel 


aurkSni 


aurkena 


aurkdnu 


our camel 


aurkayagi 


aurkayaga 


aurkayagu 


our camel 


aurklni 


aurklna 


aurklnu 


your camel 


aurkbdi 


aurkdda 


aurkddu 


their camel 




aur-ti 


camels 




aurtaidi 


aurtaida 


aurtaidu 


my camels 


aurtadi 


aurtada 


aurtadu 


thy camels 


aurtlsi 


aurtlsa 


aurtlsu 


his camels 


aurtfcdi 


aurtdda 


aurtadu 


her camels 


aurteni 


aurtena 


aurtenu 


our camels 


aurtayadi 


aurtayada 


aurtayadu 


our camels 


aurtlni 


aurtlna 


aurtlnu 


your camels 


aurtddi 


aurtdda 


aurtddu 


their camels 



With terms of relationship, the definite article is not used after 
the possessive. 

Examples, 



abahai 


my father 


hoyoda 


thy mother 


nagtls 


his wife 


ninked 


her husband 


aderken 


our uncle 


tolkaya 


our tribe 


awdwigln 


your grandfather 


walalkdd 


their brother 



(e) The Interrogative Adjective. 

33. " Which ? " "What ? " are expressed often by the suffix -e ? 
This suffix is sounded distinctly at the end of the noun, like English 
" eh ? ", but must not be pronounced as ei or S. 

ninke ? what man ? 

sandukhe ? what box ? 
gabadde P what girl ? 



22 



ACCIDENCE 



This form is most commonly used alone, or with the word wa (is), 
and usually repeats some noun already mentioned. 

Examples, ninki yimi the man has come 

ninke P or wa ninke P what man ? 

4. The Plural of Nouns. 

34. The only inflexion which nouns undergo occurs in the 
formation of the Plural. 

There are six methods of forming the Plural, and in all except 
the first (Masculine Monosyllables) the gender is reversed in the 
process, and the linking consonant, required with the suffixes, 
is altered from guttural to dental, or vice versa. 

35. (i) Masculine Monosyllables repeat the last two letters. 
The masculine, or guttural, linking consonant is retained. In words 
ending in -n, the -n becomes -m, while the inflexion is always -an. 

Examples, 



dab-ki 


fire 


plural 


dabab-ki 


fas-ki 


axe 


>> 


fasas-ki 


rad-ki 


track 


>> 


radad-ki 


kob-ki 


cup 


>> 


kobob-ki 


'oll-ki 


army 


>> 


'oll'oll-ki 


nin-ki 


man 


>> 


niman-ki 


tin-ki 


tin 


>> 


timan-ki 


'ain-ki 


belly-band 
strap ' 


j> 


'aiman-ki 


sun-ki 


>> 


suman-ki 


Exceptions 








rer-ki 


family, household 


plural 


rdro-hi 


na's-ki 


fool 


j> 


na'syo-di 


ges-ki 


horn 


>> 


gesas-ki, or geso-hi 


'el-ki 


well 


>> 


'elal-shi 


bal-ki 


feather 


>> 


balal-shi 


aur-ki 


camel 


>> 


aur-ti 


sais-ki 


groom 


>> 


saisis-ki, or saisin-ti 



36. (ii) Nouns ending in -a, or -ei (all Masculine) change -a, 
or -ei into -yal, and take the feminine, or dental, linking consonant. 

Examples, 

kdra-hi saddle plural kbryal, kdryashi 

busta-hi blanket „ bustyal-shi 

aba-hi father „ abyal-shi 



PLURAL OF NOUNS 



23 



tuka-hi crow plural tukyal-shi 

bilawa-hi dagger „ bilawyal-shi 

hakama-hi bridle „ hakamyal-shi 

odei-gi old man ,, odyal-shi 

fCilei-gi coward ,, fulyal-shi 

Exceptions : 

These plurals are used with the masculine, or guttural, linking 
consonant, by Dolbohanta, and other eastern tribes : 

bustyalki, kdryalki, hakamyalki, etc. 

37. (iii) Nouns ending in -o (all Feminine) add -in, and take 
the masculine, or guttural, linking consonant. 

Examples, 

'asho-di day plural 'ashoin-ki 

hoyo-di mother ,, hoyom-ki 

^udimo-di native axe „ gudimoin-ki 

dero-di gazelle „ d£roin-ki 

ghanso-di bow „ ghansoin-ki 

38. (iv) Masculine Polysyllables (except those under ii) add -o. 
If the final letter is an aspirate or ', -yo is added. 

These plurals take the feminine, or dental linking consonant, the 
-o being then usually changed to -a. 
Examples, 



fandal-ki 


spoon 


plural 


fandalo, fandaladi 


libahh-i 


lion 


i> 


libahhyo-di 


kursi-gi 


chair 


J> 


kursyo-di 


muda'-i 


fork 


)> 


muda'yo-di 


muftah-i 


key 


J> 


muftahyo-di 


maga'-i 


name 


J) 


maga'yo-di 


Exceptions, 








dagahh-i 


stone 


>> 


dagahhan-ti 


ugahh-i 


egg 


)) 


ugahhan-ti 


sibaihh-i 


sepoy 


>> 


sibaihhin-ti 


aghil-ki 


chief 


>) 


aghilin-ti, or oghal-shi 


faras-ki 


horse 


)> 


fardo-hi 


ilig-gi 


tooth 


>> 


ilko-di 


askari-gi 


soldier 


11 


askarr-ti 



1 The common word now used, 
word gudin, which is also used. 



But it is originally the plural of an older 



24 



ACCIDENCE 



guri-gi enclosure plural gurio-hi 

Yibir-ki Yibir „ Yibro-hi 

Midgan-ki Midgan „ Midgo-hi 

Foreign words often add -yo in other cases than those given in 
the rule above : 

rakab-ki stirrup plural rakabyo-di 
kitab-ki book „ kitabyo-di 

39. (v) Words borrowed from the Arabic usually form their 
plurals after the fashion of the broken plurals of that language, and 
take the feminine linking consonant. 

Examples, 



sandukh-i 


box 


plural 


sanadukh-di 




bandukh-i 


gun 


■>■> 


banadukh-di, 


or banadikh-di 


sirkal-ki 


officer 


)y 


sirakll-shi 




kursi-gi 


chair 


j> 


kurasi-di 




warkhad-di 


paper 


>> 


warakh-di 




moskhln-ki 


beggar 


3) 


mosakhln-ti 




musmar-ki 


nail 


») 


musamar-ti 





40. (vi) All Feminine Nouns, except those in (iii), add o, and 
take the masculine linking consonant, h. 

When the noun is denned the o is assimilated to the form of the 
article vowel, as in the case of masculine nouns in a. 

Examples, 



nag-ti 


woman 


plural 


nago, nagihi, 
nagaha, naguhu 


hal-shi 


she-camel 


)> 


halo, halihi, 
halaha, haluhu 


mel-shi 


place 


>> 


melo-hi 


lug-ti 


leg 


>> 


lugo-hi 


deg-ti 


ear 


m 


dego-hi 


lan-ti 


branch 


>> 


lamo-hi 


'alen-ti 


leaf 


)> 


'alemo-hi 


jdniad-di 


bag 


it 


j6niado-hi 


ga'an-ti 


hand 


)> 


ga'amo-hi 


ri-di 


goat 


}> 


riyo-hi 


kab-ti 


shoe 


>> 


kabo-hi 


Exception, 








il-shi 


eye 


i) 


indo-hi 



CASES OF NOUNS 25 

There exist the following plural nouns, all of which end in o and 
take the masculine article hi, and therefore belong to this class. 

blyo-hi water 

'ano-hi milk 

g£do-hi grass 

timo-hi hair 

h61o-hi flocks, property 

41. An Intensive Plural, ending in -al, -yal, is used in poetic 
phraseology. 

Example, Idinku baneyal...dftlan ma bulaten P 
Have ye over plains and plains gone to war ? 
Gerar wa bogholal. Songs are in hundreds. 

42. After Numerals the plural form of a noun is not used 
except in the case of Feminine Nouns of class (vi). In this case d 
is added to the inflexion. 

Examples, 2 men laba nin 

4 boxes afar sandukh 

3 blankets sadehh busta 
7 days todbba 'asho 

but, 5 she-camels shan halod 

2 places laba melod 

4 bags afar joniadod 
9 months sagal bilod 



5. Cases of Nouns. 

43. There are no inflexions of the noun to represent the 
Declension ; the cases must therefore be distinguished by position 
and context. This is not an easy matter, and requires a knowledge 
of other parts of speech not yet described : it will therefore be left 
to be discussed under Syntax (cf. § 155). 

44. The usual order of a simple sentence is, 

(i) Subject, (ii) Object, (iii) Verb. 
An Adverb may be placed first of all, or before the Verb. 



26 



ACCIDENCE 



Examples, 



Adv. 

galabta 

this evening- 



Subject 



sirkalku 
the officer 

an 

I 

harudki 

the jowaree 



Object 

sandukh 

a box 

faraska 
the horse 

Burao 

Burao 

faraska 

(to) the horse 



Verb 

la kali 

bring 

fuleya \ 

is riding J 

ghobon dona | 
am going to reach J 

} 

give J 



45. The Possessive Case may be expressed in two ways. 

(i) The common method is by the use of the Possessive 



suffix. 

Examples, 

nin akhalklsu 
sirkalku farasklsa 
nagti bokhorkeda 



a man his house 
the Officer his horse 
the woman her sash 



(ii) The Noun in the possessive case is placed after the noun 
possessed. 

This can only be done where the Possessor is defined by the 
definite article. The Possessor always takes the suffix a. 

Example, 

akhalki ninka the house of the man 
not akhalki ninki 

(nor is it possible to say, akhalki nin 
for " the house of a man "). 

The following are the typical forms : 

The horse of the officer faraski sirkalka 
or sirkalka farasklsu 

nin sirkal farasklsu 
far as sirkalka 
fardaha sirkalka mid 
ba dintei 
(literally, of the horses of the officer one has died). 
A horse of an officer sirkal farasklsi 



The horse of an officer 

A horse of the officer 

A horse of the officer 

has died 





NUMERALS 






6. 


Numerals. 




16. 


Cardinals, 






1. 


(ko-di), mid-ki 


16. 


lehhyo-tdban-ki 


2. 


laba-di 


17. 


toddbyo-tdban-ki 


3. 


sadehh-di 


18. 


sid6dyo-tdban-ki 


4. 


afar-ti 


19. 


sagalyo-t6ban-ki 


5. 


shan-ti 


20. 


labaton-ki 


6. 


lehh-di 


21. 


kobyo-labaton-ki 


7. 


tod6ba-di 


22. 


labyo-labaton-ki 


8. 


sid&d-di 




etc. etc. 


9. 


sagal-ki 


30. 


s6ddon-ki 


10. 


t6ban-ki 


40. 


afarton-ki 


11. 


kobyo-tdban-ki 


50. 


konton-ki 


12. 


labyo-tdban-ki 


60. 


16hhdon-ki 


13. 


sadehhyo-t6ban-ki 


70. 


todobaton-ki 


14. 


afaryo-tdban-ki 


80. 


sid6ton-ki 


15. 


shanyo-tdban-ki 


90. 


sagashon-ki 




100. 


b6ghol-ki 





27 



1,000. kun-ki 

47. Rules for the use of the Numerals. 

(i) The Numerals are placed before the noun they qualify. 

(ii) Masculine nouns, and Feminine nouns ending in o are 
used in the singular. 

Feminine Nouns (except those ending in o) add od. 

(iii) If the Noun qualified by a numeral is defined by the 
Definite Article, Demonstrative, or Possessive, the suffix is attached 
to the numeral and not to the noun, numerals 1 — 8 taking the 
dental linking consonant, the remainder the guttural linking con- 
sonant, irrespectively of the gender of the noun. 



Examples, 

laba nin 2 men 
afar faras 4 horses 
lehh halod 6 camels 
tobanki askari 
afarti nin 
labada halod 



sadehh 'asho 3 days 

shan k6ra 5 saddles 

todoba jdniadod 7 bags 
the ten soldiers 
the four men 
those two camels 



b6gholkaigi adi my hundred sheep. 



28 



ACCIDENCE 



48. (i) K6 is only used in counting, and is never used with a 
noun : 

mid is not used to qualify a noun, but is used as an Indefinite 
Impersonal Pronoun. 

one man nin 

one (thing) is bad mid ba hhun 

one (man) is bad nin ba hhun 

(ii) The numerals 19, 29, 39, etc., are usually translated by, 

labaton midla 20 minus one = 19 
sdddon midla 30 minus one = 29 
b6ghol midla 100 minus one = 99 

(iii) The numerals over 100 are translated as follows : 

(iyo = and) 

101 bogh61-iyo mid 

102 bogh<51-iyo laba 
130 bogh61-iyo s6ddon 

146 bogh61-iyo 16hhyo-afarton 

(iv) Time in hours is translated by the Cardinal numerals 
with the Definite Article, (sa'adod = hours, may be used.) 

3 o'clock sadehhda (sa'adod) 

1 o'clock kddi 

half-past 2 labada iyo badki 

49. Fractions, 



50. 





a portion mel-shi 






| bad-ki 


i 


fallad-di 




£ daldl-ki T \ 


rima-di 




I wahh-di 




L Ordinals, 






first 


kdwad, h6re 


eighth 


sidedad 


second 


labad 


ninth 


sagalad 


third 


sadehhad 


tenth 


t6bnad 


fourth 


afrad 


eleventh 


i k6byo-t6bnad 


fifth 


shanad 




etc. 


sixth 


lehhad 


twentieth labatonad 


seventh 


todbbad 







PERSONAL PRONOUNS 29 

These are used like adjectives and follow the nouns they qualify, 
but are not inflected. 

nin labad a second man 
nagti afrad the fourth woman 
ki 16hhad the sixth 

51. Distributive Numbers. No special forms are used for 
these, 

each = kasta every = walba (see § 68) ; 

but distributive numbers are usually expressed by the particle ba 
(S 143 («)). 

give 10 each nin ba tdban si 

one by one mid mid 

in tens tdban tdban 



52. 


Periodical Numbers, 








(time 




mar, kol, gor) 




once 




kol, mar 




three times 




sadehh gor 




7. 


Pronouns. 



} 



she 



(a) Simple Personal Pronouns. 
(1) Subjective. 
53. The simple, or Enclitic, forms are : 

-an I 

-ad thou 

-u he 

-ai 

-ei 

-ainu ] 

} we (inclusive) 
-emu J x ' 

-annu we (exclusive) 

-aiding 

-eidin j y 

t } - 

These cannot stand alone in a sentence, but must follow, and be 
attached to, some preceding word, which may be any part of speech. 



30 ACCIDENCE 

Examples, 

gortas-u yidi then-he said 

'had'-an imado if-I come 

Burao-einu nil ' at Burao-we lived 
1 lmis'-ad dbnesa ? how-many-do-you want ? 

ninki-an ddneya the man-(whom)-I want 

54. Very often, however, these simple forms are combined with 
the letters w-, b-, or y- (which represent certain particles, wa, ba, 
ya) and are then used as separate words. 

wan, wad, wu, etc. are forms which may be used at the 

beginning of a sentence, but are never used in any other position. 

ban, bad, bu, etc.] r , . , , , , 

, \ are synonymous forms, and are interchangeable. 

yan, yad, yu, etc. J J J 

b- is preferred by Eastern and Southern Somalis. 

y- is preferred by the Coast, Western and Central tribes. 

These forms usually occur immediately before the verb or its 

particles, but never at the beginning of a sentence (cf. § 236). 

55. There are two ways of emphasising the Personal Pronouns, 
which may be u^ed disjunctively, like the French " moi," " toi," etc. 
This is done by the addition of the Definite Article. 

In both cases the simple form for the third person singular 
masculine is is. 

(i) The article suffix is added to the simple form without any 
linking consonant, thus : 

ani I adi Thou (isi) He 

ana ada (isa) 

arm adu isu 

These are the only persons which are found in this form. 

(ii) The article suffix and linking consonant is added to the last 
or to the Enclitic forms of the plural. 

The -a and -u suffixes only are used in this case, thus : 

anigu, aniga I 

adigu, adiga Thou 

isagu, fsaga He 

iyadu, iyada She 

1 A final vowel iB usually dropped before the personal pronoun, as is shown 
here by an apostrophe '. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



31 



fnnagu, 


innaga 


We 


annagu, 


annaga 


We (exclusive) 


idinku, 


idinka 


Ye 


iyagu, 


fyaga 


They 



To translate " I myself" cf. § 190. 

56. Another form is produced by the suffix -na (and). 

and I 
and you 



anna 

adna 

isna 

iyana 

innuna 

annuna 

idinna 

iyana 

57. A compound, 
of wahh (thing). 

wahhan has the meaning of "this is what I..." 

These forms are especially used with the verbs " want," 
"think." "do," but may be used with any verb. 



and he 
and she 
and we 
and we 
and ye 
and they 

Indicative," form is made by the addition 



say, 



wahhan 
wahh ad 
wuhhu 
wahhai 
wahhainu 
wahhannu 
wahhai din 
wahhai 



this is what I... 
thou, 
he... 



she... 

we... 

we... 

ye... 

they... 

58. An interrogative form of the same is made with mahha ? 
(what ?) 



mahhan... ? 

mahhad...? 

muhhu...P 

mahhai...? 

mahhainu...? 

mahhannu...? 

mahhaidin...? 

mahhai...? 



what... 
what... 
what... 
what... 
what... 
what.., 



I...? 

thou...? 

he...? 

she...? 

we...? 

we...? 



what... ye...? 
what... they...? 



32 ACCIDENCE 

59. These two forms are used very frequently in introducing 
questions and answers. 
Examples, 

mahhad ddnesa P ) wahhan dbneya, etc. 



| wahhan doneya, etc. \ 
f I want, etc. J 



what do you want ? 

hagg'eidin takten ?\ wahhannu tagnei, etc.) 

where did you go ? J we went to, etc. J 

muhhuyidi? | wuhhuyidi... y 

what did he say ? J he said... J 

(2) Objective. 

60. The objective, or oblique, case of the Personal Pronouns 
has special forms, which are used independently as separate words. 





Simple 


Emphatic 


me 


i 


aniga 


thee 


ku 


adiga 


him 


u 


isaga 


her 


ku 


iyada 


us 


na 


rinnaga 
lannaga 


you 


idin 


idinka 


them 


u, or ku 


iyaga 



The accentuation of these emphatic forms must be noticed, to 
distinguish them from the Subjective case. 

Examples, isaga (Obj.) and isaga (Subj.) 
iyaga „ and iyaga 

61. (iii) The Reflexive Pronoun is iss. 

iss dil kill yourself 
This is also used reciprocally : 

iss laya slay each other 

(b) Possessive Pronouns. 

62. These have the same forms as the suffixes (§ 32) with a 
consonant (k masc. t fern.) prefixed, and the definite article suffixed, 
to them (cf. § 199). 

Masc. Fern, 

mine kai-gi, -ga, -gu. tai-di, -da, -du. 

thine ka-gi, -ga, -gu. ta-di, -da, -du. 

his kis-i, -a, -u. tis-i, -a, -u. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 33 

hers k£d-i -a -u tfcd-i -a -u 

ours k£n-i -a -u t&n-i -a -u 

ours kaya-gi -ga -gu taya-di -da -du 
yours kln-i -a -u tln-i -a -u 

theirs k6d-i -a -u t6d-i -a -u 

In the Plural, the above prefix ku, tu, instead of k, t, to the 

suffix, as, 

kuaigi, tuaidi, kuagi, tuadi, etc. 

(c) Demonstrative Pronouns. 

63. These also have the same forms as the adjectival suffixes 
(§ 30), and are used with consonants as above. 

Sing. Plur. 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

this kan, tan these kuan, tuan 

, i kas, tas those kuas, tuas 
that 1 ka ta 

They may be intensified by the definite article, as follows : 
sing, kani, kana, kanu, kasa, tasu, etc. 
plur. ktiakan, tiiatan, kiiakas, etc. 
or kuani, tuani, kuasi, etc. 
Another form is, 

ko, to that yonder 
kuo, tu6 those yonder 
The definite article is used independently as a pronoun in the 

same way. 

ki, ka, ku ; ti, ta, tu. 

ki kaleh the other one 

ta wein the big one. 

The plur. form is 

kuer, tuer 
Example, kuer 'ad'ada the white ones 

64. (e?) Relative Pronouns. 

None. 

65. (e) Interrogative Pronouns. 

(i) Subjective : 

who ? what ? ya P (sing.) 
kue ? (plur.) 

K. 3 



34 ACCIDENCE 

ke P te ? are also used disjunctively in this sense, as the other 
suffixes. 

(ii) Objective : 

whom ? ya P 

what? mahha ? (§ 58) 

66. The suffix -ma is used as an interrogative pronominal 
adjective, but is not included among the other suffixes, as it has not 
the typical form, but is really the interrogative particle (cf. § 94). 

ninma P what man ? 

gonna P when ? 

wa sa'adma ? what hour is it ? 

-ma is also used suffixed to the simple personal pronouns, and 
definite article, meaning "which of?" 

kuma P tuma P which one ? (indefinite) 

irmama P which of us ? 
annama ? „ 

idinma P which of you two ? 

iyama P which of them ? 

These are used both subjectively and objectively. 

The possessive case is, 

yaleh ? kumaleh P whose ? 

(/) Indefinite Pronouns. 

67. la one, they, people 

(similar to the French pronoun "on," in meaning and construction). 

This pronoun is used in construction like any simple personal 
pronoun. 

The following euphonic alterations take place when any simple 
pronoun or particle follows : 

la i becomes lei 
la u „ lo 

la ku „ lagu 

la idin „ leidin 

la ka „ laga 



ADJECTIVES 



35 



68. The following are substantival and are used with the 
definite article suffix when necessary. 



wahh-i something, anything gidi-gi 


) 


mid-ki one, an, a 


kulli-gi 


\ all, whole 


'id-di someone, anyone 


i daman-ti ) 


ghof-ki person 


hebel-ki 


a certain man 


ghar-ki some, several 


keli-gi 


alone 


daur-ki some, a few 


gdni-gi 


solitary, apart 


in-ti some, a quantity 






The following are treated as adjectives i 


md follow the noun 


qualified, but are not inflected for number or gender. 


badan many 


walba, waliba 


every 


yer few 


kasta 


each 


hoga little 


o dan 


all 


un any, soever 


keliah 


only 


k&leh other 


gdniah 


separate, special 


B. 


Adjectives. 





69. Adjectives follow the noun they qualify, and agree in 
Number and Definition. 

1. Classes of Adjectives. 

70. They are divided into : 

a. Radical. 

b. Derivative. 

c. Compound. 

(a) Radical Adjectives. 

71. These are not numerous, and express some simple, natural, 
or inherent, quality, such as size, shape, colour, or nature. They 
are radical words and are not derived from other roots. 

A complete list is given, with their inflexions, in the Table, § 76. 

(b) Derivative Adjectives. 
(i) Verbal Adjectives. 

72. Verbal Adjectives are the Passive Past Participles of verbs, 
ending in -an, or -san. 

They express the result of the action of the verb. 

3-2 



36 





ACCIDENCE 




Examples, 










'adeisan 


clean 


from 


'adei 


clean 


hagaksan 


straight 




hagaji 


straighten 


furan 


open 




fur 


open 


hedan 


closed 




hed 


close 


wanaksan 


good 




wanaji 


make good 


dameyan 


finished 




damei 


finish 



(ii) Noun Adjectives. 
73. These are formed in four ways. 

(1) by the suffix -leh (possessing, containing). 

Examples, 

garadleh sensible from garad 

uskagleh dirty „ uskag 

arleh speckled „ ar 

blyoleh containing water ,, blyo 

(2) by the suffix -la (deprived of). 
garadla foolish from garad 
indala blind „ indo 
degala deaf „ dego 

(3) by the suffix -ah (being, made of), 
ghoriah wooden from ghori 
birah of iron „ bir 
farldah clever „ farld 

Adjectives may be formed at will like the above from any noun 
as required. 

(4) by the suffix -ed (expressing origin). 
Somalied Somali 

Arabed Arab 

Admed of Aden 

baded of the sea from bad sea 

'ano wlyiled rhinoceros milk, „ wlyil rhinoceros 



sense 
dirt 
spot 
water 

sense 

eyes 

ears 

wood 

iron 

cleverness 



(c) Compound Adjectives. 
74. Formed from two separate words : 
(i) Noun and Adjective. 
h6g-wein strong (hdg strength, wein 

hunguri-wein greedy (hunguri throat) 



great) 



RADICAL ADJECTIVES 37 

didid-badan sweaty (didid sweat, badan plenty) 

af-badan sharp (af edge) 

adeig-run hardy (adeig hardness, run right) 

(ii) The 3rd person singular Present Perfect Indicative of 
a verb, being really an adjectival Relative Clause. 

nin ghora clerk, lit. a man who writes 
fuli yaghan knowing how to ride 
af yaghan interpreter, eloquent 
la arka visible 

an la arkin invisible 

2. Inflexions of Adjectives. 

75. Adjectives are inflected to agree with the nouns they 
qualify in the following cases : 

(i) in the plural number, 

(ii) when the noun is defined by the article suffix -i (and in 
certain cases -a), 

(iii) in case (ii) the inflexion is different for masc. {guttural), 
and fern, (dental) linking consonants (cf. § 34). 

(a) Radical Adjectives. 

76. The following general rules are followed : 
(i) Plural. Reduplicate the first syllable, 
(ii) | ("Article -ki, -gi, -hi. Add -a. 

(iii)J [Article -ti, -di. Add -eid. 

(iv) If the noun is defined with article, -a, the adjective 
only agrees with it in number. 

Note. The rule for the inflexions -a, -eid, (ii and iii) is 
invariable. 

But when qualifying plural nouns with the definite article (other 
than the Reduplicated Plurals, as niman), adjectives may or may 
not take the plural inflexion (cf. § 164). Thus, 
nagihi waweina, or nagihi weina the big women, 
askarrti hhunhhumeid, or askarrti hhumeid the bad soldiers. 

When qualifying the Reduplicated Plurals, and all indefinite 
plurals, the plural inflexion of the adjective is always required. 
Examples, nimanki waweina 
nago wawein 
askarr hhunhhun 



38 



ACCIDENCE 



I 



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di "!^ «3 



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s3§ fe2« &?"SSI 



S "3 F P * h 

eS -3 <° <° 5 S 

1 1 p * t g 



12 02 




«2s 



5 5 ■ i 5 P £ I If - s 5 § 5 -3 « i* •? * h 

?3\*lls3F&iiafcSsa3:3?g& 






+3 2 

C'2 



bp a to 




E 




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d 

bog 3P 

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• « « fi S3 




"2 CO 



5§ 



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£.5 



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.2p-3^o«-Ss*Sa 



DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES 



39 



(b) Derivative Adjectives. 

77. These are not usually inflected (except some Verbal adjec- 
tives) when qualifying a plural noun, the inflexion entirely depending 
on the definite article, suffix, and linking consonant. 

(i) Verbal Adjectives. 

78. The Inflexions are the same as for Radical Adjectives, 
except that only some are reduplicated in the plural : 



good 

broad 

stout 

empty 

absent 

tied 

clean 



sing, 
plur. 

sing, 
plur. 

sing, 
plur. 

sing. 

plur. 

sing. 

plur. 

sing. 

plur. 

sing. \ 

plur.) 



Indefinite, orDef. 
Art. -ka, -ta 

wanaksan 

baladan 

balbaladan 

buran 

burburan 

madan 

madmadan 

maghan 

hedan 
hedhedan 

safeisan 



Def. Art. -ki 

wanaksana 

baladna 

balbaladna 

burra 

burburra 

madana 



Def. Art. -ti 

wanaksaneid 

baladneid 

balbaladneid 

burreid 

burburreid 

madaneid 



madmadana madmadaneid 



maghana maghaneid 



hedna 
hedhedna 

safeisana 



hedneid 
hedhedneid 

safeisaneid 



(ii) Noun Adjectives. 
79. These are not altered in the Plural. 

Classes (i), (ii), and (iii) (adjectives in -leh, -la, -ah), obey 
the following rules : 

1. If the qualified noun is defined by -a, or -i, the noun portion 
of the adjective takes its proper article suffix -a. 

2. After Article -a (guttural or dental) there is no further 
inflexion. 

3. After Article -i the terminal portion of the adjective is also 
inflected : 

(a) After Masc. (Gutt.) Link. Cons. 

-ki, -gi, -hi -a is added 

(b) After Fern. (Dent.) Link. Cons. 

-ti, -di -aid is added 



40 



ACCIDENCE 



garadkaleh 

akhligaleh 



Indefinite 

(i) garadleh 
sensible 

akhlileh 
sensible 

oghonleh 

knowing 

uskagleh 
dirty 

baraleh 

spotted 

blyoleh 

containing water 

(ii) garadla garadkala 

senseless 

indala 

blind 

lugla 

legless 

haulla 

unemployed 

farldah 

clever 



Inflexions of Noun Adjectives 
Art. -ka, -ta Art. -ki 



Art. -ti 

garadkalaha garadkalahaid 



(iii) 



birah 
of iron 

ghoriah 
wooden 



akhligalaha akhligalahaid 

oghdntaleh oghdntalaha oghontalahaid 

uskaggaleh uskaggalaha uskaggalahaid 

barahaleh barahalaha barahalahaid 

blyahaleh blyahalaha blyahalahaid 

garadkalaa garadkalaaid 

indahala indahalaa indahalaaid 

lugtala lugtalaa lugtalaaid 

haushala haushalaa haushalaaid 

farldkaah farldkaaha farldkaahaid 

birtaah birtaaha birtaahaid 

ghorigaah ghorigaaha ghorigaahaid 



The following have special plural forms : 
'ajisah (sing, 'ajiskaah 'ajiskaaha 'ajiskaahaid 
lazy \plur. 'ajisintaah 'ajisintaaha 'ajisintaahaid 

gesiah (sing, gesigaah gesigaaha gesigaahaid 
brave \plur. gesiyintaah gesiyintaaha gesiyintaahaid 

80. The last class of Noun Adjectives, in -ed, have only one 
inflexion. 

When qualifying a noun with article suffix -i of any gender or 
number they take -a. 

The e is usually dropped. 



COMPOUND ADJECTIVES 41 

Examples, Somalied Somalida 
Arabed Arabta 

biladki Somalida the Somali country 
afki Arabta the Arab language 

(c) Compound Adjectives. 

81. It is impossible to give rules for the inflexions of these, 
since as far as possible the necessity is avoided, by a separation into 
the component parts, and the natives themselves are by no means 
unanimous on the question. 

The following examples, however, are given, being the few types 
that I have satisfied myself about : 
af badan sharp : 

mindi af badan a sharp knife ; mindida af ka badan the 

sharp knife ; or, mindidi af ka badneid 
mindiyo afaf badbadan sharp knives 
mindiyaha afafka badbadan, or, mindiyihi afafka 
badbadna the sharp knives 
hog wein strong : 

nin, ninka, nag, nagta, hog wein a, or the, strong man, 

or woman 
ninki or nimanki, hog weina the strong man, or men ; 
nagti hog weineid the strong women ; nagihi hog 
weina the strong women. 
af yaghan eloquent : 

In adjectives like this the verb is conjugated and therefore 
agrees in number and gender. 

nin af yaghan an eloquent man 
nag af taghan „ woman 

ninki ) 

ninka I a ^ a Y a g nan the eloquent man 

nagti 



nagta I a fka taghan ,, woman 

niman af yaghanin eloquent men 
nago af yaghanin ,, women 

nimanki i 
nimankal a ^^ a yagbanin the eloquent men 

nagihi ) 

nagahaf afka y a £ han » women 



42 ACCIDENCE 

This adjective may be treated as one word, and take the 
termination -ah, in which case it is inflected regularly like such 
derivative adjectives : 

afyaghanah, afyaghankaah, afyaghankaaha, 

af y aghank aah aid. 

(3) Comparison of Adjectives. 

82. There is no inflexion for the comparison of Adjectives. 
This want is supplied by the use of the particles ka more, more 
than ; u, ugu most, 

Examples, akhalkan akhalkas ka wein 

This house is bigger than that house 
mid ka wein la kali bring a bigger one 
ki u wanaksana The best 

ya ugu horeya ? Which is first of all ? 

"is most," is usually translated by ba, sa. 

kas sa wanaksan that is best 

sadehhdas kan ba wein of those three this is the biggest 



C. Verbs. 

1. Conjugation. 

(a) Moods and Tenses. 

83. The Verb has four moods : 

Imperative, Indicative, 

Infinitive, Subjunctive. 

Also, Verbal Adjective, or Past Participle, and Verbal Noun. 

84. There are three Regular Conjugations, distinguished by the 
form of the Verb root, and the formation of the Infinitive. 

The Verb root is the 2nd person singular of the Imperative. 
1st Conjugation. Root ends in a consonant. 
2nd „ „ „ -o. 

3rd „ „ „ -i. 

The Infinitive is formed 
in 1, by adding -i to the root. 

2 and 3, by adding -n to the root. 



VERBS 



43 



85. The following is a paradigm of the verb sheg (tell), a 
regular verb of the 1st Conjugation. 

There are four terminations for the Tense inflexions, 
-a is used in the Present Indicative tenses. 



-e „ 
-o „ 

Imperative 
Verb Adjective 
Verb Noun 
Infinitive 

Indicative : 

Aorist 
Preterite 

Continuative Present 
Continuative Past 
Future Definite 
Habitual Present 
Habitual Past 
Conditional 



Potential 

Subjunctive : 
Aorist 
Continuative 

Future 

Habitual 



,, rast ,, 

,, Potential tense. 
„ Subjunctive mood. 

sheg tell thou, 

shegan told. 

shegnin telling, 

shegi to tell 



l wa shega 
wa shSgei 
wa shSgeya 
wa shSgeyei 
wa shegi d6na 
wa shegi jira 
wa shegi jirei 
wa sh&gi laha 



an shege 



I (usually) tell, I am to tell. 

I told, have told, had told. 

I am telling, intend to tell. 

I was telling. 

I am going to tell. 

I am in the habit of telling. 

I used to tell. 

I would, or should tell, 

I would have, or should 

have told. 
I may, might tell. 



(hadi)an sh£go 
(hadi)an shSgeyo 



(If) I tell, told, had told. 
(If) I were to tell, were 
telling. 
(hadi)an shegi ddno (If) I were, had been, 

about to tell. 
(hadi)an shegi jiro (If) I were, had been, 

accustomed to tell. 



86. The tenses fall into three classes, 
(i) The Aorist, Preterite, and Potential Indicative, and the 
Aorist Subjunctive, are simple or radical, and the terminations 
are added directly to the root. 

1 wa is a particle used frequently with the verb, and may take the plaoe of 
a personal pronoun. 



44 ACCIDENCE 

(ii) In the Continuative tenses the terminations are, 
-eya (or -aya, or -ahaya), 
-eyei (or -ayei, or -ahayei), 
-eyo (or -ayo, or -ahayo). 
These are suffixed, in the 1st Conjugation apparently to the root, 
but in the 2nd and 3rd Conjugations to the Infinitive. 
The syllable ey is short and is not accented. 

(iii) The third class consists of Auxiliary tenses, formed by 
the Infinitive with an auxiliary verb. 

87. In the 2nd Conjugation (verbs ending in -o), the -o is 
often changed to -a in the Infinitive and other moods. 

In the Simple tenses of this Conjugation, d is inserted between 
the root and tense termination. 

Examples, baro learn Infinitive baran 

jdgso stop wan jbgsoda I stop 

88. There are three persons in the Singular and Plural, and 
two genders in the 3rd person singular. 

The following are the variations in the four tense terminations 
for the different persons. 



Sing. 1. 
2. 


Present 
Indicative 

-a 

f-ta 
l-sa 


Past 
Indicative 

-ei 

r-tei 
l-sei 


Potential 
Indicative 

-e 

r-te, -tide 
1-se, -side 


Subjunctive 
-O 

r-to, -tid 
1-so, -sid 


3 m. 


-a 


-ei 


-e 


-o 


3f. 


r-ta 
l-sa 


r-tei 
l-sei 


r-te 
1-se 


r-to 
1-so 


Plur. 1. 


-na 


-nei 


-ne 


-no 


2. 


r-tan 
1-san 


r-ten 
1-sen 


r-tene 
1-sene 


r-tan 
1-san 


3. 


-an 


-en 


-ene 


-an 



In the 2nd person singular and plural, and 3rd person fem. 
singular, t is used after a consonant, 

s is used after i, e.g. in the 3rd Conjugation, 
and in Continuative tenses of all Conjugations. 

89. (b) Affirmative Conjugation. 

I. sheg tell. II. gurso marry. III. samei make. 

Infinitive. 
shegi gursan samein. 



AFFIRMATIVE CONJUGATION 



45 









Imperative. 








Let me tell 


Let me many 


Let me make 


Sing. 


1. 


an shego 


an gursado 


an sameyo 




2. 


sheg 


gurso 


samei 




3 m. 


ha shego 


ha gursado 


ha sameyo 




3f. 


ha shegto 


ha gursato 


ha sameiso 


Plur. 


1. 


an shegno 


an gursano 


an sameino 




2. 


shega 


gursada 


sameya 




3. 


ha shegan 


ha gursadan 

Indicative. 
Aorist. 


ha sameyan 






I tell 


I marry 


I make 


Sing. 


1. 


shega 


gursada 


sameya 




2. 


shegta 


gursata 


sameisa 




3 m. 


shega 


gursada 


sameya 




3f. 


shegta 


gursata 


samdisa 


Plur. 


1. 


shegna 


gursana 


sameina 




2. 


shegtan 


gursatan 


sameisan 




3. 


shegan 


gursadan 
Preterite. 


samdyan 






I told 


I married 


I made 


Sing. 


1. 


shegei 


gursadei 


sameyei 




2. 


shegtei 


gursatei 


sameisei 




3 m. 


shegei 


gursadei 


sameyei 




3f. 


shegtei 


gursatei 


sameisei 


Plur. 


1. 


shegnei 


gursanei 


sameinei 




2. 


shegten 


gursaten 


sameisen 




3. 


shSgen 


gursaden 


sameyen 






Confirmative Present. 








I am telling 


I am marrying 


I am making 


Sing. 


1. 


shSgeya 


gursaneya 


samdineya 




2. 


shegesa 


gursanesa 


sameinesa 




3 m. 


shdgeya 


gursaneya 


sameineya 




3f. 


shegesa 


gursanesa 


sameinesa 


Plur. 


1. 


shegena 


gursanena 


sameinena 




2. 


shegesan 


gursanesan 


sameinesan 




3. 


shegeyan 


gursaneyan 


samdineyan 



46 



ACCIDENCE 



Sing. 1. 

2. 

3 m. 

3f. 
Plur. 1. 

2. 

3. 



Sing. 1. 
2. 



Plur. 



3 m. 

3f. 

1. 

2. 

3. 



Confirmative Past 



I 



was telling I was marrying I was making 
hegeyei gursaneyei sameineyei 



shegeyei 

shegesei 

shdgeyei 

shegesei 

shegenei 

shegesen 

shSgeyen 



I am going 
to tell 

shegi d6na 

donta 

d6na 

dbnta 

donna 

ddntan 

ddnan 



gursaneyei 

gursanesei 

gursaneyei 

gtirsanesei 

gilrsanenei 

gursanesen 

gtirsaneyen 

Future Definite. 

I am going 
to marry 

gursan dona 
,, ddnta 
etc. 



sameinesei 

sameineyei 

sameinesei 

samdinenei 

sameinesen 

sameineyen 



I am going 
to make 

samein dona 
„ donta 
etc. 



Habitual Present. 

I am accustomed I am accustomed 

to tell to marry 

shegi jira gursan jira 

declined like " ddna " above. 



I am accustomed 

to make 

samein jira 



Sing. 1. 
2. 



Plur. 



3 m. 

3f. 

1. 

2. 

3. 



Habitual Past. 
I used to tell I used to marry 



shegi jirei 
shegi jirtei 
shegi jirei 
shegi jirtei 
shegi jirnei 
shegi jirten 
shegi jiren 



gursan jirei 

etc. 



I used to make 
samein jirei 
etc. 



AFFIRMATIVE CONJUGATION 



47 







Conditional. 






I should tell 


I should marry 


I should make 


Sing. 1. 


shegi laha 


gursan laha 


samein laha 


2. 


shegi lahaid 


etc. 


etc. 


3 m. 


shegi laha 






3f. 


shegi lahaid 






Plur. 1. 


shegi lahain 






2. 


shegi lahaiden 




3. 


sh£gi lahaiyen 








Potential. 






I may tell 


I may marry 


I may make 


Sing. 1. 


an shege 


an gursade 


an sameye 


2. 


ad shegtide 


ad gursatide 


ad sameiside 


3 m. 


ha shege 


ha gursade 


ha sameye 


3f. 


ha shegte 


ha gursate 


ha sameise 


Plur. 1. 


an shegne 


an gursane 


an sameine 


2. 


ad shegtene 


ad gursatene 


ad sameisene 


3. 


ha shegene 


ha gursadene 

Subjunctive. 


ha sameyene 




(Only found 


in Subordinate Clauses.) 






Aorist. 




Sing. 1. 


shego 


gursado 


samdyo 


2. 


shegto, shegtid gursato, 


sameiso, 






gursatid 


sameisid 


3 m. 


shego 


gursado 


sameyo 


3f. 


shegto 


gdrsato 


sameiso 


Plur. 1. 


shegno 


gursano 


sameino 


2. 


shegtan 


gursatan 


sameisan 


3. 


shegan 


gursadan 
Continuative. 


samdyan 


Sing. 1. 


shegeyo 


gursaneyo 


samdineyo 


2. 


shSgeso, shegesid gursaneso, -id 


sameineso, -id 


3 m. 


shegeyo 


gursaneyo 


sameineyo 


3f. 


shegeso 


gursaneso 


samdineso 


Plur. 1. 


shegeno 


gursaneno 


sameineno 


2. 


shegesan 


gursanesan 


sameinesan 


3. 


shegeyan 


gursaneyan 


sameineyan 



48 



ACCIDENCE 



Sing. 1. shdgi ddno 
2. shSgi ddnto 
etc. as " shSgo." 



shegl jiro 

etc. 



Future. 

gursan dbno 

etc. 



Habitual. 

gursan jiro 

etc. 



samein d6no 

etc. 



samSin jiro 

etc. 



90. The following table gives all the types necessary for the 
formation of the tenses of a regular verb : 



Conjugation 


Eoot 


Engl. 


Inf. 


Aorist 


Continuative Pres. 


I 


hel 


get 


heli 


hela 


heleya 


II 


so'o 


walk 


so'on 


so'oda 


so'6neya 


III 


si 


give 


sin 


slya 


sineya 



The other Indicative, and the Subjunctive, tenses are formed by 
changing final -a into -ei, -e, or -o. 

91. (c) Negative Conjugation. 

The Negative Particles are : 

Imperative Mood, ha, or yan. 
Indicative Mood, ma. 
Subjunctive Mood, an. 

Imperative* ha shdgin ha gursan ha samSin 



Indicative : 








Aorist* 


ma shego 


ma gursado 


ma samSyo 


Preterite 


maan shegin 


maan gursan 


maan samSin 


Contin. Pres.* 


shSgi mayo 


gursan mayo 


samein mayo 


Contin. Past 


ma shdginin 


ma gursaninin 


ma samdininin 


Fut. Def.* 


ma shdgi 


ma gursan 


ma samSin 




ddno 


ddno 


dono 


Habit. Pres.* 


ma shegi 


ma gursan 


ma samein 




jiro 


jiro 


jiro 


Habit. Past 


ma shegi 


ma gursan 


ma samdin 




jirin 


jirin 


jirin 


Conditional*! 
Potential J 


maan shdgen 


maan gur- 


maan samd- 




saden 


yen 



NEGATIVE CONJUGATION 



49 



Subjunctive 








Aorist 


-anan shegin 


-anan gursan 


-anan samein 


Continuative 


-anan shdg- 


-anan gursan- 


-anan samein- 




inin 


inin 


inin 


Future 


-anan shegi 


-anan gursan 


-anan samein 




d6nin 


ddnin 


ddnin 


Habitual 


-anan shegi 


-anan gursan 


-anan samein 




jirin 


jirin 


jirin 



Notes, 

(i) Only the tenses marked * are conjugated, the remainder 
having one form of the verb for all persons. 

(ii) The Personal Pronouns are only used with the following 
negative tenses : 

Imperative, Preterite and Conditional tenses of the Indicative 
Mood, and the Subjunctive tenses. 

In other tenses of the Negative Conjugation no pronouns are 
used. 

(iii) In the Present Continuative tense, mayo (am not) is con- 
jugated like an auxiliary verb. 

(iv) In the Subjunctive tenses, the negative particle, -an, and 
the pronouns are added as suffixes to the conjunction, or conjunctive 
particle. 

Imperative. 







Let me not tell 


Let me not marry 


Let me not make 


Sing. 


1. 


yanan shegin 


yanan gursan 


yanan samein 




2. 


ha shegin 


ha gursan 


ha samein 




3 m. 


yanu (or yu) 


yanu (or yu) 


yanu (or yu) 






shdgin 


gursan 


samein 




3f. 


yanei (or yai) 


yanei (or yai) 


yanei (or yai) 






shegin 


gursan 


samein 


Plur. 


1. 


yanan shegin 


yanan gursan 


yanan samein 




2. 


ha shdgina 


ha gursanina 


ha sameinina 




3. 


yanei (or yai) 


yanei (or yai) 


yanei (of yai) 






shegin 


gursan 


samein 



z. 



50 



ACCIDENCE 



Indicative. 

Aorist. 

{Conjugated like Aorist Subj. Affirmative.) 







I do not tell 


I do not marry 


I do not make 


Sing. 


1. 


ma shego 


ma gursado 


ma sameyo 




2. 


ma shegto 


ma gursato 


ma sameiso 




3 m. 


ma shego 


ma gursado 


ma sameyo 




3f. 


ma shegto 


ma gursato 


ma sameiso 


Plur. 


1. 


ma shegno 


ma gursano 


ma sameino 




2. 


ma shegtan 


ma gursatan 


ma sameisan 




3. 


ma shegan 


ma gursadan 


ma sameyan 






Continuative Present. 








I am not telling 


lam not marrying 


I am not making 


Sing. 


1. 
2. 


shegi mayo 
shegi mayso (or 


gursan mayo 


samein mayo 






maysid) 


etc. 


etc. 




3 m. 


shegi mayo 








3f. 


shegi mayso 






Plur. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


shegi mayno 
shegi maysan 
shegi mayan 


• 





Future Definite. 

(The Auxiliary verb is declined as the Negative Aorist 
tense of 1st Conjugation.) 

I am not going to I am not going to 
marry 
ma gursan ddno 





tell 


Sing. 1. 


ma shegi ddno 


2. 


ma shegi dbnto 




(ddntid) 


3 m. 


ma shegi ddno 


3f. 


ma shegi d6nto 


Plur. 1. 


ma shegi dbnno 


2. 


ma shegi ddn- 




tan 


3. 


ma shegi ddnan 



I am not going to 
make 



etc. 



ma samein 
ddno 

etc. 



THE CONTINUATIVE TENSES 



51 



Habitual Present. 







I am not accus- 


I am not accus- 


I am not accus- 






tomed to tell 


tomed to marry 


tomed to make 


Sing. 


1. 


ma shegi jiro 


ma gursan jiro 


ma samein jiro 




2. 


ma shegi jirto 


ma gursan jirto 


ma samein jirto 






(jirtid) 


(jirtid) 


(jirtid) 






etc. 


etc. 


etc. 






Conditional. 








I should not tell 


I should not marry 


I should not make 


Sing. 


1. 


maan shegen 


maan gursaden 


maan sameyen 




2. 


maad shegten 


maad gursaten 


maad sameisen 




3 m. 


mau shegen 


mau gursaden 


mau sameyen 




3f. 


maai shegten 


maai gursaten 


maai sameisen 


Plur. 


1. 


maainu sheg- 


maainu gursa- 


maainu samei- 






nen 


nen 


nen 




2. 


maaidin sheg- 


maaidin gursa- 


maaidin samei- 






ten 


ten 


sen 




3. 


maai shegen 


maai gursaden 


maai sameyen 



92. The Derivation of the Continuative tenses. 
In § 86, three alternative types were given for the Continuative 
tense terminations, 

-eya, -aya, -ahaya. 

These are added to the Infinitive of the verb, but in the 1st Con- 
jugation the final -i of the Infinitive is lost. 

-ahaya is the form used among Dolbohanta : 
wa tegahaya I am going 
wa so'onahaya I am walking 
wa slnahaya I am giving 

-aya is the form used by the tribes of the North Coast and 
Western Somaliland: 

wa tegaya, wa so'onaya, wa sinaya. 

-eya, which is pronounced quite short, and nearly like -ya, is 
used by the Central tribes, such as Habr Yunis and Western Habr 
Toljala : 

wa tegeya, wa so'dneya, wa sineya. 

The last two are contracted forms of the first, which is really a 
compound tense, in which the auxiliary verb, ahai be (modern aho, 

4—2 



52 ACCIDENCE 

q.v.) is used, with the Infinitive of the principal verb, as in the case 
of compound tenses. 

In the Negative tenses this is more clearly seen, and here the 
1st Conjugation retains the -i of the Infinitive. 

The negative tenses of ahai are used as a separate word with 
the particles ma, or an : 

shSgi mahayo, or shdgi mayo I am not telling 
(for ma-ahayo) 

In the past tenses the ma may be separated : 

yeli mahain (for ma-ahain)] I was not doing, 
or, ma yeli aham J or, I would not do 

These are contracted by Ishhak tribes into 
yeli main, or ma yelinin 

The Subjunctive Mood is similarly formed : 
hadanu yeli ahain) 
or, hadanu yelinin J ^ he will not do. 

93. (d) Interrogative Conjugation. 

The Interrogative particle is ma, which, when combined with 
Personal Pronouns, becomes mi. 

The Conjugation is otherwise the same as the Affirmative. 

Indicative : 

Aorist mian shSga P mian gursada P mian sameya P 

Preterite mian shSgei P etc. etc. 

Contin. Pres. mian shSgeya P 

„ Past mian shdgeyei P 

Future Def. mian sh§gi ddna P 

Habit. Pres. mian shegi jira P 

„ Past mian shegi jirei P 

Conditional mian shSgi laha P 

(e) Negative- Interrogative Conjugation. 

94. Here the negative particle used is an. 

No tense is declined except the Conditional, which is the same 
as in the simple Negative form. 



FIRST CONJUGATION 



53 



Indicative 

Aorist 
Preterite 
Contin. Pres. 
Contin. Past 
Fut. Def. 



Habit. Pres. 
„ Past 



mianan shSgin ?\ 
mianan shegin ?J 
mianan shdginin ?\ 
mianan sheginin ?J 
mianan shegi dbnin P 



mianan shegi jirin P I 
mianan shegi jirin ? I 



mianan mianan 
gursan ? sameln ? 
mianan mianan 

gursaninin ? samdininin P 



Conditional mianan shegen ? 



mianan 
gursan 
ddnin ? 

mianan 
gursan 
jirin ? 

mianan 



mianan 
samSin 
ddnin ? 

mianan 
sam£in 
jirin P 

mianan 



gursaden? sameyen? 



2. Peculiarities and Irregular Verbs of the Three Conjugations. 

(a) 1st Conjugation. 

95. These verbs have the root ending in any consonant, 
aspirate, guttural aspirate (gh or kh), or "aim" or 6. 

The following changes take place in certain letters when they 
occur together : 

1 followed by t become sh. 

n, after 1 or r, is often assimilated to either of the latter. 

t, after ', gh, kh, hh, 6, and i, becomes d. 



Examples, 

dil kill. 



hel get, yel do, dagal fight 
Aorist. 



Sing. 1. 

„ 2. 
Plur. 1. 

„ 2. 

dir 

dirir 

jir 



dila 
disha 
dilla 
dishan 



hela 
hesha 
hella 
heshan 



yela 
yesha 
yella 
yeshan 



dagala 
dagasha 
dagalla 
dagashan 



send... 1st Plur. Aorist 

fight... 

be ... 



dirra, or dirna 
dirirra, or dirirna 
jirra, or jirna. 



54 







ACCIDENCE 




ra' 


accompany. 


..2nd 


sing. Aorist 


wad ra'da 


da' 


fall 




j» >> 


„ da' da 


dagh 


graze 




>j >> 


„ dagh da 


bagh 


fear 


.. 


j> »> 


„ bagh da 


bahh 


go 




>> >> 


„ bahhda 


jehh 


tear 




>> >> 


„ jehhda 


ild 


forget 




j» >> 


„ iloda 


fadl 


sit (cf. § 10 


5) 


>> >> 


„ fadida 



Verbs ending in n, change n to m when it is preceded by two 
short syllables and the inflexions begin with a vowel. 

warran give the news dagalan fight 

Infin. warrami dagalami 

Aorist. Aorist. 

Sing. 1. wan warrama wan dagalama 

,, 2. wad warranta wad dagalanta 

96. In the case of Polysyllabic verbs, of which the last syllable 
is short and contains the vowels a, o, u, these vowels are dropped 
in the Continuative Tenses, and in those persons of all Simple 
Tenses in which the inflexion does not begin with a consonant, i.e. 
in 1st and 3rd masc. sing, and 3rd plur. 

g becomes k before a vowel or t. 



Examples, 








Boot 




Infin. 


Aorist 


Contin. Pros. 


arag 


see 


arki 


arka 


arkeya 


dulun 


cheat 


dulmi 


dulma 


dulmeya 


durug 


move 


durki 


durka 


durkeya 


gdgol 


make the bed 


gfcgli 


g6gla 


gbgleya 


hadal 


talk 


hadli 


hadla 


hadleya 


hurud 


sleep 


hurdi 


hurda 


hurdeya 


khatalan 


err 


khatalmi 


khatalma 


khatalmeya 


ghosol 


laugh 


ghosli 


ghosla 


ghosleya 


jSdal 


whip 


j&dli 


jddla 


jedleya 


makhal 


hear 


makhli 


makhla 


makhleya 


orod 


run 


ordi 


orda 


ordeya 


rehan 


pledge (pawn) 


rehmi 


rehma 


rehmeya 



Examples of Conjugations of the above, 
arag see hadal talk dulun cheat makhal hear 



FIRST CONJUGATION 



55 



Aorist Indicative. 
Sing. 1. arka hadla dulma makhla 

„ 2. arakta hadasha dulunta makhasha 

Plur. 1. aragna hadalla dulunna makhalla 
2. araktan hadashan duluntan makhashan 

Present Continuative Indicative. 
Sing. 1. arkeya hadleya dulmeya makhleya 

„ 2. arkesa hadlesa diilmesa 'makhalesa 

Plur. 1. arkena hadlena diilmena makhalena 
,, 2. arkesan hadlesan dulmesan makhalesan 

97. The following verbs (all containing the vowel a) change a 
into e or i in the Infinitive and the Continuative Tenses : 

Root. Infin. 

tag go tegi 

gal enter geli 

ka' get up ke'i 

da' fall, or rob di'i 

na' hate ni'i 

2 gama' sleep gam'i 

bahh go bihhi 

dahh travel dihhi 

nahh be astounded nihhi 

tahh put in line tihhi 

Exc. nahh be fat nahhi 

dagh save dighi 

daba' imprint dabi'i 
The following make Infinitives like the 3rd Conjugation : 

da leave dein daya deineya 

la slay lein laya leineya 

98. Verbs ending in 6, require b after the root in all inflexions, 
except those beginning with a consonant. 

d is used for t in the inflexions. 
Infin. 
'ato be tired 'atobi 

gabo be old gabobi 

ghabo be cold ghabobi 

hallo be lost hallabi 

1 makhal retains the a in these persons. 

2 Participle gama'san asleep. 

8 The forms of the Contin. tenses of these verbs must be noticed. Cf . § 92. 



Aorist Indie. 


Contin. PreB. Indie 


taga 


t6geya 


gala 


g61eya 


ka'a 


k6'eya 


da'a 


dl'eya 


na'a 


ni'eya 


gama'a 


gam'eya 


bahha 


3 bahhaya 


dahha 


3 dahhaya 


nahha 


nihheya 


tahha 


tihheya 


nahha 


nahheya 


dagha 


digheya 


daba'a 


dabi'eya 



Aorist. 


Continuative. 


'atoba 


'atobeya 


gaboba 


gabobeya 


ghaboba 


ghabobeya 


hallaba 


hallabeya 



56 




ACCIDENCE 








Infin. Aorist 


Continuative 


haso 


converse 


J hasobi hasoba 
1, hasawi hasawa 


hasobeya 






hasaweya 


ilo 


forget 


ilobi iloba 


ilobeya 


karo 


defend 


karebi kareba 


kar^beya 


'olio 


be hostile 


'ollobi 'olloba 


'ollobeya 


hambarc 


> fall heavily 


hamba- hamba- 


hambaro- 






robi roba 


beya 


mado 


be black 


madobi madoba 


madobeya 


weido 


be lean 


weidobi weidoba 


weidobeya 


malo 


get possession malobi maloba 


malobeya 




of 


Aorist Indie. 






Sing. 1. 


wan ildba I forgel 






2. 


wad ildda 






Plur. 1. 


weinu ilona 






2. 


weidin ilodan 




99. 


tag (go), is irregular in the Preterite Indicative. 




Sing. 1. 


wan tegei I went 






2. 


wad taktei 


# 




3 m. wu tegei 






3f 


wei taktei 






Plur. 1. 


weinu tagnei 






2. 


weidin takten 






3. 


wei tegen 






da' (fall, rob) forms either 








de'ei, or da'ei, in the Preterite. 


Its Aorist Subjunctive is 








inan d'o. 




Verbs 


in -ahh conjugate the Preterite as follows. 




Example, 










bahh go 






Sing. 1. 


wan bahhai I went 






2. 


wad bahhdei 






3 m. 


wu bahhai 






3f. 


wei bahhdei 






Plur. 1. 


weinu bahhnei 






2. 


weidin bahhden 






3. 


wei behh6n 





OLL 



57 



100. The verb oil (lie, be in, dwell), is irregular in the Present 
and Past Perfect Indicative. 

Imperative oil dwell 

Infinitive olli 



Indicative : 
Aorist 
Preterite 
Contin. Pres. 
„ Past 
Fut. Def. 
Habit. Pres. 
„ Past 
Conditional 

Subjunctive : 
Aorist 
Continuative 



al I dwell (Neg. ma al) 

il I dwelt (Neg. ma ollin) 

611eya I am dwelling, I intend to dwell 

dlleyei I was dwelling 

olli ddna I am going to dwell 

olli jira I am accustomed to dwell 

olli jirei I used to dwell 

611i lalaa I would dwell, or would have dwelt 

inan olio that I may dwell 

inan 611eyo that I may dwell 



Aorist Indie. Preterite Indie. 

Sing. 1. al il 

2. tal til 

3 m. yal yil 

3 f. tal til 

Plur. 1. nal nil 

2. talin tillen 

3. yalin yillen 

Note that the consonants denoting the persons are prefixed to 
the verb, and that there are no personal endings in these tenses 
(except in 2nd and 3rd plur.). 

The Negative form of the Present is the same as the Affirmative. 
ma al I do not dwell 
ma tal 

etc. etc. 

(b) 2nd Conjugation. 

101. In this Conjugation the root ends in o, and the Infinitive 
is formed by adding n, but in a great many cases the o is changed 
to a. 

This change may also take place in both Simple and Con- 
tinuative tenses. 



58 



ACCIDENCE 



In the Simple tenses d is added to the root, before adding the 
tense terminations, but in the 2nd pers. and 3rd pers. fern. sing, the 
d is lost, being assimilated into the t of the termination, and in 
the 1st pers. plur. the d is dropped before the n. 



Table I. 

102. The o in the Simple tenses is long, or at least as 
accentuated as the preceding syllable. 

The consonant before the o is, h, sh, k, g, j, or ', or y. 







Infin. 


Aorist 


Continuative 


amahho 


borrow 


amahhdn 


amahhdda 


amahh6neya 


ashtako 


complain 


asktakdn 


ashtakdda 


ashtakdneya 


gajo 


be hungry 


gajdn 


gajoda 


gaj6neya 


gasho 


put on 


gashdn 


gashoda 


gashdneya 


harrago 


swagger 


harragbn 


harragdda 


harrog6neya 


riyo 


dream 


riybn 


riyo da 


riydneya 


so'o 


walk 


so'on 


so'oda 


so'6neya 


tasho 


consider 


tashdn 


tashoda 


tash6neya 


tuko 


pray 


tukdn 


tukoda 


tuk6neya 



Table II 

103. These are Attributive Verbs formed by adding o to an 
adjective. 

In conjugation o is changed to a, which is long in the Simple 
tenses. 







Infin. 


Aori8t 


Continuative 


ado 


grow angry 


adan 


adada 


adaneya 


bislo 


become ripe 


bislan 


bislada 


bislarieya 


damo 


be completed 


daman 


damada 


damaneya 


dowo 


approach 


dowan 


dowada 


dowaneya 


fogo 


go far 


fogan 


fogada 


foganeya 


hhumo 


become bad 


hhuman 


hhumada 


hhumaneya 


idlo 


come to an end idlan 


idlada 


idlaneya 


mergo 


be entangled 


mergan 


mergada 


merganeya 


shishlo 


grow fat 


shishlan 


shishlada 


shishlaneya 


weino 


grow big 


weinan 


weinada 


weinaneya 



SECOND CONJUGATION 



59 



Table III. 

104. Verbs ending in so, which is preceded by a consonant, or 
in hho, have the vowel of the Simple tenses short, but it may or 
may not be changed to a. 





Infin. 


Aorist 


Continuative 


badso 


badson 


badsoda 


bads6neya 


be plentiful 








bahhso 


bahhson 


bahhsoda 


bahhsdneya 


escape 








buhso 


buhsan 


biihsada 


buhsameya 


be full 








bukso 


buksan 


biiksada 


buksaneya 


be cured 








dafso 


dafson 


dafsoda 


dafsoneya 


exchange 








'ehho 


'ehhon 


'6hhoda 


'ehh6neya 


be partial 








g&rso 


giirsan 


gursada 


gtirsaneya 


marry 








hubso 


hubson 


hiibsoda 


hubs6neya 


ascertain 








ghaibso 


ghaibson 


ghaibsoda 


ghaibs6neya 


take your share 






ghallohho 


ghallohhon 


ghallohhoda 


ghallohh6neya 


be bent 








ghobso 


ghobson 


ghobsoda 


ghobs6neya 


seize 








Ibso 


Ibson 


Ibsoda 


lbs6neya 


buy for yourself 






j6gso 


jbgson 


jogsoda 


j6gs6neya 


shop 








sehho 


sehhan 


sehhada 


sehhaneya 


sleep 








tirso 


tirson 


tirsoda 


tirs6neya 


count for yourself 







In the verbs of this class the Aorist and Preterite tenses are 
found very frequently in a contracted form, in the 1st and 3rd 
masc. sing, and 3rd plural, the terminations being -sha, -shan, or 
-sa, -san, etc. 



60 



ACCIDENCE 



Example, 

Sing. 1. 
2. 

3 m. 
3f. 



Ibso buy 

A wist Indicative. 



wa Ibsha 
,, Ibsota 
„ Ibsha 
., Ibsota 



I buy 



Plur. 1. 
2. 
3. 



wa Ibsona 
,, Ibsotan 
., Ibshan 



Aorist. Preterite. 

Similarly, badso makes badsha, badshei 

,, ghaibso „ ghaibsha, ghaibshei 

„ bahhso „ bahhsa, bahhsei 

„ gtirso „ gursa, gCirsei 

„ bukso „ buksa, buksei 

Table IV. 

105. In the following verbs o is preceded by, b, d, d, f, gh, 
kh, 1, n, r, s. These drop the o in the Simple tenses, except in 
2nd pers. and 3rd fem. sing, and 1st plur., in which the vowel 
usually appears as short a in 2nd and 3rd fern., and as o in 1st plur. 

In all persons the d of the Simple tenses becomes t, except after 
gh, kh. 

It, as usual, becomes sh. 

Example, haiso have got 

Aorist Indicative. 
wa ha'ista I have got wa haisona 





,, haisata 


jj 


haisatan 




„ ha'ista 


»» 


haistan 




„ haisata 








Infin. 


Aorist 


Continuative 


bagho 


baghan 


baghda 


baghaneya 


be afraid 








baro 


baran 


barta 


baran6ya 


learn 








dalo 


dalan 


dasha 


(dal6neya) 


be born 








damlno 


daminon 


daminta 


(damln6neya) 


be surety 








degeiso 


degeison 


degeista 


degeisdneya 


listen 








difo 


difon 


difta 


difdneya 


strike 









SECOND CONJUGATION 



61 





In fin. 


Aorist 


Continuative 


dimo 
die 


diman 


dinta 


dimaneya 


diso dison 

build for yourself 


dista 


disdneya 


d6no 

look for 


ddnon 


d6nta 


ddndneya 


doro 

choose 


doron 


dorta 


dordneya 


dumo 

hide yourself 


duman 


dunta 


dumaneya 


dabbalo 


dabbalan 


dabbasha 


dabbalaneya 


swim 








fadiso 
sit down 


fadlson 


fadlsta 


fadis6neya 


farahhalo farahhalan 

wash your hands 


farahhasha 


farahhalaneya 


garo 

understand 


gar an 


garta 


garan6ya 


haiso 
have got 


haison 


haista 


hais6neya 


hedo 

tie on yourself 


hedon 


hedta 


hed6neya 


hiro 

shave yourself 


hiron 


hirta 


hir6neya 


ghado ghadon 
take for yourself 


ghata 


ghad6neya 


ghobo 

catch 


ghobon 


ghobta 


ghob6neya 


j&so 

turn yourself 


j&son 


jesta 


j6s6neya 


jldo 

hurry on 


jldan 


jlta 


jldaneya 


maido 

be washed 


maidon 


maidta 


maid6neya 


naso 

take a rest 


nason 


nasta 


nas6neya 


nokho 


nokhon 


nokhda 


nokhoneya 


return 








sameiso sameison 
make for yourself 


sameista 


sameisoneya 



12 




ACCIDENCE 






Infin 


Aorist 


Continuative 


sido 


sidon 


sita 


sid6neya 


carry, wear 








slso 


slson 


slsta 


sls6neya 


pay for 








weidlso 


weidlson 


weidlsta 


weidls6neya 


ask for 








lukho 


lukhon 


lukhda 


lukh6neya 


gulp 









The Irregular Verbs, imo, odo, ogho. 

106. These verbs are declined irregularly in the Simple tenses, 
with the same peculiarity as the verb oil. 

Note. The root from which the Simple tenses of olio are formed is 
related to the regular verb yefl call, and also a verb yafl, found in songs : 

Examples, dabyera tehhdo yada ba. 

"The little song I sing is like a shower of rain." 

Yan sidi danabka yedei. 
"I spoke like the lightning." 



Imperative 


imo come 


(odo) 1 say 




ogho know 


Infinitive 


iman 


odan 




oghdn 


Adject. 


— 


— 




— 


Noun 


imad-ki 


— 




oghdn-ti 


Indie. Aorist 


imada 


idahhda or 


idahha 


aghan 


Preterite 


imi 


idi, or idahhei 


ighin 


Contin. Pres. 


imaneya 


odaneya 




oghaneya 


„ Past 


imaneyei 


odaneyei 




oghaneyei 


Fut. Def. 


iman dbna 


odan ddna 




oghdn dbna 


Habit. Pres. 


iman jira 


odan jira 




oghdn jira 


„ Past 


iman jirei 


odan jirei 




ogh6n jirei 


Conditional 


iman laha 


odan laha 




oghdn laha 


Potential 


imade 


idahhde or 


idahhe 


oghade 



Subjunctive : 
Aorist imado idahhdo oghado 

Continuative imaneyo odaneyo oghaneyo 

1 Instead of the Imperative oflo, the word den is used. 



THIRD CONJUGATION 



63 





Aorist Indicative. 




Sing. 1. 


imada 


idahhda, or idahha 


aghan 


2. 


timada 


tidahhda, or tidahha 


taghan 


3 m. 


yimada 


yidahhda, or yidahha 


yaghan 


3f. 


timada 


tidahhda, or tidahha 


taghan 


Plur. 1. 


nimadna 


nidahhna, or nidahha 


naghan 


2. 


timadan 


tidahhdan, or tidahhan 


taganin 


3. 


yimadan 


yidahhdan, or yidahhan 


yaghanin 




Preterite Indicative. 




Sing. 1. 


imi, or imid 


idi, or idahhei 


ighin 


2. 


timi, or timid 


tidi, or tidahhdei 


tighin 


3 m. 


yimi, or ylmid 


yidi, or yidahhei 


yighin 


3f. 


timi, or timid 


tidi, or tidahhdei 


tighin 


Plur. 1. 


nimi, or nimid 


nidi, or nidahhnei 


nighin 


2. 


timaden 


tidahhden 


tighinen 


3. 


yimaden 


yidahhden, or yidahhen 


yighinen 



The Aorist Subjunctive of imo, and odo, is declined like the 
Indicative, with the Subjunctive terminations, o and an. 
inan imado hadan idahhdo 

inad timado, etc. hadad tidahhdo, etc. 
The Aorist Subj. of ogho is regular : oghado, oghato, etc. 
The Negatives of the Aorist Indie, and Conditional are regularly 
formed, in the former by using the Aorist Subj., and in the latter by 
replacing the Aorist terminations by en ; but in the verb ogho the 
Pres. Indicative is unaltered. 

I do not come ma imado I would not maan imaden 
I do not know ma aghan have come 
All other Negative forms are regular. 

(c) 3rd Conjugation. 

107. These verbs all end in -i or -ei, and form the Infinitive 
by adding -n. In the Simple tenses i becomes y for euphony 
before the tense terminations which do not begin with a consonant. 

108. Certain Participles are irregular : 
ingeji dry Part. ingegan 



wan&ji make good 
hagaji make straight 
ghoi make wet 



dried, 
wanaksan good 
hagaksan straight. 
ghoiyan wetted 



64 



ACCIDENCE 



109. Certain verbs in i are conjugated like the first Conjuga- 
tion, adding -yi in the Infinitive. These take -d instead of -t in 
the 2nd and 3rd fern, persons. 



Root 




Infiri. 1st 


pers. sing. 


2nd pers. sing. Indie. 


<affi 


pardon 


'afflyi 


'afflya 


'affida 


'aflfiyeya 


ahdi 


swear 


ahdlyi 


ahdiya 


ahdida 


ahdlyeya 


akhri 


read 


akhrlyi 


akhriya 


akhrida 


akhriyeya 


<ai 


curse 


'aiyi 


'a'iya 


'a'ida 


'aiyeya 


'ari 


ebb 


'arlyi 


'ariya 


'arida 


'ariyeya 


awawi 


. dream 


awawlyi 


awawiya 


awawida 


awawlyeya 


bakhti die 


bakhtlyi 


bakhtiya 


bakhtida bakhtlyeya 


bari 


beseech 


barlyi 


bariya 


barida 


barlyeya 


bari 


be safe, well 


barlyi 


bariya 


barida 


barlyeya 


dai 


look 


dalyi 


daiya 


daida 


dalyeya 


'ei 


cry 


'elyi 


'eiya 


'eida 


'elyeya 


'eri 


drive away 


'erlyi 


'eriya 


'erida 


'erlyeya 


fadl 


sit, dwell 


fadlyi 


fadlya 


fadfda 


fadlyeya 


fori 


whistle 


fdrlyi 


foriya 


fdrida 


fdrlyeya 


gabei 


sing 


gabeyi 


gabeya 


gabeda 


gabeyeya 


haji 


make a pil- 
grimage 


hajlyi 


hajiya 


hajida 


hajlyeya 


oi 


cry 


oiyi 


oiya. 


oida 


oiyeya 


silei' 


be tortured 


silSi'yi 


silSi'a 


sil&'da 


sildi'yeya 



(d) The Irregular Verbs alio, laho, wah. 

110. aho (be), is an Irregular Defective Verb of doubtful 
conjugation. It has the same peculiarity in the Present Indicative 
as the other Irregular Verbs, inasmuch as it places the Personal con- 
sonants t, n, at the beginning of the word. 



Imperative 
Infin. 

Indicative : 
Present 
Past 
Future 



Affirmative Tenses. 

aho be 

ahain 

wan ahai I am 

wan aha I was 

wan ahain ddna I am going to be 



AHO 



65 



Habit. Pres. 
,, Past 
Conditional 
Potential 
Subjunctive 



wan ahain jira 
wan ahain jirei 
wan ahain laha 
an ahade 
inan ahado 



I usually am 
I used to be 
I should be 
I may be 
that I may be 



111. It is only irregular in the Infinitive and Indicative. 
There are no Continuative tenses. 

Past. 

I am wan aha I was 

wad ahaid 
wu aha 
wei ahaid 
weinu ahain 
weidin ahaiden 
wei ahayen 

112. When aho is conjugated negatively, it is only irregular in 
the Present Indicative. 







Present 


Sing. 


1. 


wan ahai 




2. 


wad tahai 




3 m. 


wu yahai 




3f. 


wei tahai 


Plur. 


1. 


weinu nahai 




2. 


weidin tihin 




3. 


wei yihin 







Neg. Pres. 


Indie. 


Neg. Past. Indie. 


Sing. 


1. 


miihi I 


am not 


maan ahain I was not 




2. 


miihid 




etc. 




3 m. 


maaha 




Neg. Conditional 




3f. 


maaha 




maan ahaden I should not be 


Plur. 


1. 


miihin 




maad ahaten 




2. 


maihidin 




etc. 




3. 


maaha 




Neg. Subjunctive 

inanan ahain that I may not be 
etc. 



113. This verb is used independently as in : 

na's bad tahai you are a fool 

nin 'ajis bu aha he was a lazy man 

askari ban ahain jirei I used to be a soldier 

But it most frequently occurs combined with adjectives, especially 
participles. 

Such adjectives are pluralised in the Plural persons. 

hedan tied wein large 

k. 5 



66 ACCIDENCE 

Present Indicative Affirmative. 

Sing. 1. wa hSdnahai I am tied wa weinahai I am large 

2. „ hedantahai „ weintahai 

3 m. ,, hedanyahai ,, weinyahai 

3 f. ,, hedantahai „ weintahai 

Plur. 1. „ hedhedannahai „ waweinnahai 

2. „ hedhedantihin „ waweintihin 

3. „ hedhedanyihin „ waweinyihin 

Present Indicative Negative. 

Sing. 1. ma hedni I am not tied ma weini I am not large 

2. ma hednid ma weinid 

3 m. ma hedna ma weina 

3 f. ma hedna ma weina 

Plur. 1. ma hednin ma weinin 

2. ma hednidin ma weinidin 

3. ma hedna ma weina 

Past Indicative Affirmative. 

Sing. 1. wa hedna I was tied wa weina I was big 

2. „ hednahaid „ weinahaid 

3 m. „ hedna . „ weina 

3 f . ,, hednahaid „ weinahaid 

Plur. 1. „ hedhednahain „ waweinahain 

2. ,, hedhednahaiden „ waweinahaiden 

3. „ hedhednahayen „ waweinahayen 

Past Indicative Negative. 

Sing. 1. maan hednahain maan weinahain 

I was not tied I was not big 

etc. etc. 

114. The adjectival roots, 6g (knowing), ja'al (liking), ogdl 
(agreeing), are similarly conjugated with aho, in the Present and 
Past tenses. 

Pres. Affirm. Past Affirm. 

wa dgahai I know wa dgaha I knew 

„ ja'alahai I like „ ja'alaha I liked 

„ ogblahai I agree „ ogdlaha I agreed 



LAHO 67 

Pres. Negative Past Negative 

ma dgi ' I do not know maan bgahain I did not know 

ma ja'alihi I do not like maan ja'alahain I did not like 

ma ogdlihi I do not agree maan ogblahain I did not agTee 

Other tenses are formed according to the 2nd conjugation from 
the verbs, 

ogho know (q.v.) 
ja'alo like 
ogdlo agree 

After adjectives ending in a, h, 6, the t of the Personal in- 
flexions is changed to d. 

wa lugoladahai she is legless 
wa garadl§hdahai she is sensible 
wa dddahai it is near 

115. The verb laho (possess), is conjugated like aho. 





Affirm. 


Negative 


Imperative 


laho 




Infinitive 


lahafn 




Indicative : 






Present 


wa lehahai 


ma lihi 


Past 


„ laha 


ma lahain 


Habit. Pres. 


„ lahafn jira 


ma lahafn jiro 


,, Past 


„ lahafn jirei 


ma lahafn jirin 


Future 


„ lahafn ddna 


ma lahafn ddno 


Conditional 
Potential 


„ lahafn laha ] 
an laha.de J 


maan lahaden 


Subjunctive 


inan lahado 

Affirmative. 


inanan lahain 




Present 


Past 


Sing. 1. wa 


, lehahai I possess 


wa laha I 


2. 


lehdahai 


„ lahaid 


3 m. „ 


lehyahai 


,, laha 


3f. „ 


lehdahai 


„ lahaid 


Plur. 1. 


lehnahai 


„ lahain 


2. 


lehdihin 


„ lahaiden 


3. 


lehyihin 


„ lahayen 



I possessed 



1 The 1st Sing. Present Negative is contracted into mOJi, or mflyl. 

5—2 



68 




ACCIDENCE 












Negative. 










Present 






Past 




Sing. 1. 


malihi I do not possess 


ma(an) lahafn 


I did not 












possess 


2. 


malihid 






etc. 




3 m. 


malaha 










3f. 


malaha 










Plur. 1. 


malihin 










2. 


malihidin 










3. 


malaha 











116. Uses of laho. 

This verb is made up of the root leh (possessing), and aho (be). 

In the Indicative the tenses of aho are conjugated in full, 
preceded by leh; but other tenses are contracted, as if from the root 
laho. 

laho literally means "have possession of," "own." 

gel badan ma lehdahai P have you many camels ? 
nag ma lehdahai ? have you a wife ? 

[hai (have, hold), could not be used in these examples.] 

The root alone is used in the following expressions : 
aniga leh, adiga leh it is mine, it is yours 

etc. etc. 

daktarka leh, 1 • , , * , 

or daktarki bu lehyahai ) ll hehn & to the doctor 
nin ba leh it belongs to someone 

Other idiomatic meanings : 

mahhad lehdahai P what have you to say ? what do you 
mean ? what is the matter with you ? 

wuhhu lehyahai, ddni mayo, he means, he does not 
want to. 

laba rubod ban ugu lehahai, I am owed two rupees 
by you. 

The Past Indicative is used as an auxiliary with an Infinitive, to 
form the Conditional tense of verbs. 

wa t6gi laha I should go 



WAH 



69 



It may also govern substantival sentences, introduced by in : 
malihi inan ku ra'o, it is not my business to go with you. 
inad berrl takto bad lehdahai, you ought (have) to go 
to-morrow. 



117. 



wan. 



The verb root wan is conjugated as an irregular defective verb, 
and is used as an auxiliary verb, meaning, "fail," "be unable," 
"cannot find." 

It is only conjugated in the Present and Past Indicative, and 
in one tense of the Subjunctive. 





Indicative. 






Sing. 1. 
2. 


Present 

wahya, waiya, wai 
weida 


I fail 


wahyei, 
weidei, 


Past 

waiyei, wai 
wei 


3 m. 
3f. 


wahya, waiya, wai 
weida 




wahyei, 
weidei 


waiyei, wai 


Plur. 1. 
2. 


weina 
weidan 




weinei 
weiden 




3. 


wahyan, waiyan, wai 

Subjunctive. 
Sing. 1. waiyo 
2. weido 


wahyen 


, waiyen, wai 




3 m. 
3f. 


waiyo 
weido 








Plur. 1. 
2. 


weino 
weidan 








3. 


waiyan 






Exampl 


^(cf. §§146, 195, 274 


note), 







iman waiya 
so'on wai 
shakhein waiyen 
hadad tegi weido 
hadeinu gadi weino 
biyo mesha ka weina 
ghori ka wein wa wai 
mahhad u iman weida 
wa wai 
la wan 



I, or he, cannot (or will not) come 

I, he, or they cannot (fail to) walk 

they would not (failed to) work 

if you fail to go 

if we fail to reach it 

we cannot find water there 

I cannot find larger wood 

why don't you come ? 

I, he, or they cannot find it 

one cannot find it, it cannot be found 



70 ACCIDENCE 

118. (e) The Passive Voice. 

There is no Passive Voice in the conjugation of the Somali 
verb. 

It is translated in two ways : 

(i) by the Past Participle and the verb aho, cf. § 113 ; 

(ii) by the Indefinite pronoun la, with the 3rd pers. masc. sing, 
of the Active voice of the verb. 

Here la is identical in meaning and construction with the French 
pronoun on, and means "they," "people," "one." 

Examples, 

wahha la yidi it is said 

wahhba lagu ma falo nothing is done with it 

lei shegei I was told 

la na ghobs6neya we shall be caught 

In neither case can the Instrument be expressed. If required, 
the Instrument must be expressed as the Subject : 
ninkan igu diftei I was struck by this man (this man struck me). 

3. Derivative Verbs. 

119. These are, Intensive, Reflexive, Attributive, Causative, 
and may be formed from either nouns, adjectives, or verbs. 

120. (a) Intensive verbs express an emphatic, intensified or 
repeated action, and are formed by reduplication of the simple 
radical verb. These all belong to the 1st Conjugation. 



Examples, 



lab 


fold 


fur 


open 


goi 


cut 


ddn 


want 


gur 


pick up 


hed 


tie 


jehh 


tear 


sheg 


tell 



lablab fold up] i.e. 

furfur unfold J many folds 

gogoi cut up in pieces 

d6nddn look around for 

gurgur pick up all 

hedhed tie up, pack up 

jehhjehh tear up 

shegsheg repeat word by word 



DERIVATIVE VERBS 



71 



121. (b) Reflexive verbs imply doing something to or for oneself, 
or may be passive in meaning. They are formed by adding -o or 
-so to a noun or verb (words ending in i always take -so). 

These are all of the 2nd Conjugation. 

Examples, 



fadl 


sit 


fadlso 


seat yourself, sit down 


j&g 


wait, be 


jbgso 


halt, stop 


jed 


turn 


jSso 


turn yourself 


hub 


be sure 


hubso 


ascertain, assure yourself 


bar 


teach 


baro 


learn 


gar-ti 


justice 


garo 


understand 


amahh-di 


loan 


amahho 


borrow 


d6n 


want 


ddno 


find for yourself 


bagh 


fear 


baghho 


be afraid 


dor-ki 


choice 


doro 


choose 


jld 


pull 


jldo 


hurry on 


maid 


wash 


maido 


be washed, wash yourself 


sid 


carry 


sido 


carry for yourself, wear 


ghad 


take away 


g'hado 


take for yourself 


hir 


shave 


hiro 


shave yourself 


hed 


tie 


hedo 


tie on to yourself 


ghob 


take 


ghobo 


catch, take hold of 






ghobso 


j> >> 


hai 


have, keep 


haiso 


have got, keep for your- 
self 


ghaib-ki 


share 


ghaibso 


take your share 


Ib-ki 


price 


Ibso 


buy, sell 


samei 


make 


samdiso 


make for yourself 


gur-ki 


marriage 


gurso 


marry 


kahhai 


take, lead 


kahhaiso 


take to yourself 


si 


give 


slso 


pay for 


weidl 


ask 


weidlso 


ask for yourself 



122. (c) Attributive verbs are formed by adding -o to an 
adjective or participle, and are conjugated according to the 2nd 
Conjugation, the o being changed to a in all tenses and moods. 
This o gives the meaning of "become," and not "be," the latter 
being translated by aho. 

Examples, 
'ad white 'ado become white 



72 




ACCIDENCE 




bisil 


ripe, cooked 


bislo 


become ripe, cooked 


dd 


near 


dowo 


approach 


gab 


short 


gabo 


become short 


hhun 


bad 


humo 


become bad 


fbg 


far 


fbgo 


go to a distance 


shilis 


fat 


shishlo 


become fat 



Distinguish between the following tenses : 
wa hhtinyahai it is bad 
wa hhumada it becomes bad 
wa hhumaneya it will become bad 

fardahaiga ma shishla, my ponies are not fat. 
farduhu meshatan ma shishlado, ponies do not get fat here. 
hadi mlyi lo kahhayo wa shishlaneya, if they are taken to the 

jungle, they will get fat. 

123. (d) Causative verbs imply the causing of an action or 
production of a state or attribute in some object. They are formed 
(i) by adding -i, or -si (-si always to a word ending in -i) to any 
noun or verb, (ii) by adding -ei to an adjective. They are all 
transitive verbs of the 3rd ^Conjugation. 

Examples, 
shakhei work shakheisi make to work 

dambeisi put behind 
'absi cause to drink 

ghaibsi divide in shares 
gabi 
amtisi 
daldli 
hababi 
radi 
badi 
durki 

Where the last letter of the radical is a guttural it is usually 
altered to j. 

Examples, 

dagh graze daji 

bagh fear baji 

j6g wait jdji 

ingeg be dry ingeji 



dambei 


be behind 


'ab 


drink 


ghaib 


share 


gab 


be short 


anr&s 


be silent 


dal61-shi 


hole 


habab 


loss 


rad-ki 


track 


bad 


be plentiful 


durug 


move 



shorten 

make silent 

perforate 

cause to lose 

follow the track 

increase 

remove, cause to move 



cause to graze 
frighten 

stop (transitive) 
cause to be dry 







PARTICLES 




hagag 


be straight 


hagaji 


make straight 


wanag 


goodness 


wanaji 


make good 


wereg 


go round 


wereji 


cause to go round 


also 








ghabo 


be cold 


ghabdji 


make cold 


Verbs formed from adjectives : 




'ad 


white 


'adei 


whiten 


bisil 


cooked 


bislei 


cook 


kulul 


hot 


kululei 


make hot 


adag 


hard 


adkei 


harden 


fbg 


far 


fbgei 


put afar off 


dan 


all, complete 


damei 


finish 


The Verbs mentioned in 


§ 97 alter a to e : 


gal 


enter 


geli 


insert 


ka' 


awake 


ke'i 


awaken, arouse 



73 



D. The Particles. 

124. Particles are used in Somali to correspond to various 
English parts of speech, but cannot be actually translated, except 
by reference to the context of the sentence in which they occur. 
They cannot stand by themselves, but only in conjunction with 
other parts of speech, nor are they subject to any inflexions of any 
kind. 

They may either have reference to a verb (Verbal Particles), or 
they may correspond to conjunctions (Conjunctive Particles). 

The Verbal Particles may correspond to certain adverbs or 
prepositions. 

The Conjunctive Particles may serve to introduce a principal or 
subordinate sentence, or they may act as links between two co- 
ordinate sentences or parts of speech. 

1. Verbal Particles. 

125. (a) Adverbial Particles. 

wada altogether, completely 

kala apart, separately 

si that way 

so this way 

These may be used with any verb. 



74 



ACCIDENCE 



Examples, 

fardihi wada kena 

la wada ghadei 

kala durka 

kala dufo 

kala goi 

si so'o go on 

si j&so turn that way 

si gal go in 

so wada kahhai 



bring all the ponies 
they are all removed 
move apart, separate 
stretch out 
cut apart 

so so'o 

so jSso 

so gal 



come on 
turn this way 
come in 



bring all 



Other Adverbial Particles are : 

ha, yan, ma, an. Negative Particles. Cf. §§91, 145. 

ma. Interrogative Particle. Cf. §§ 94, 145. 

wa, ba, ya. Affirmative Particles. Cf. §§ 138 — 144. 

Further idiomatic meanings of si and so should be noticed 

si means "continue" an action 

si shakhei continue to work 

si baro continue to learn 

so means " begin " to do something, or " go and " do... . 

so ardri hdlaha go and water the flocks 

so Ibso go and 'buy for yourself 

so safei go and clean 



126. (6) Prepositional Particles (ku, u, ka, la). 



ku at, in, by means of, for 
blyo galaska ku snub 
ged bu ku hedna 
'el bu ku da'ei 
ga'anta ku ghobo 
hadig ku hed 
gel bannu ku dlrirra 

u on account of: 
mahhad u taktei P 
to (a person) : 
sirkalki u tag 
Farah u gei 



pour some water into the glass 

he was tied to a tree 

he fell into a well 

hold with your hand 

tie with a rope 

we fight for camels 

what did you go for? 

go to the officer 
take to Farah 



PARTICLES 75 

ka from, across, concerning : 

mdsha ka kali come from that place 

mSsba ka taga go away from there 

ka ghob pour away 

ka goi cut off 

debbda ka talab go across the nullah 

muska ka bdd jump over the fence 

wanbas wabhba ka garan I understand nothing about 

mayo that 

la together with : 
na la ra' come with us 

wa ku la badleya I am talking with you 

2. Conjunctive Particles. 

127. (a) Introductory Particles. 

s6, or sbo perhaps : 
so magaladu jdga perhaps he is in the town 

so garan maysid P don't you understand ? 

mala, malaba (lit. thought) probably : 
mala wa ararei he has probably run away 

bal. The meaning of this is impossible to express. It is used 
in the following constructions, 

(i) With Imperative : bal kali well, come 

bal an 6go let me look, then 
(ii) With the particle in, introducing an indirect question : 
weidi bal inei fdgtabai ask if it is far 

(b) Conjunctive Particles. 
iyo and (coupling two substantives) 
o and (coupling two clauses). 

-na and, also, (a suffix, usually introducing a fresh sentence) 
-se but (a suffix). 
ama, mise, either, or 

.„ a I these usually require the Subjunctive mood, 
badi if J 

Examples, 

Farab iyo aniga, Farah and I. 

6rod o s6 ghad, run and fetch it. 

wa adagyahai o lagu goin kari mayo, it is hard and cannot be cut. 



76 ACCIDENCE 

adiguna mahhad ddnesa P and what do you want ? 

isna wa t6gei, he too has gone. 

dabed6dna, and afterwards. 

wa jdgei, ninkuse ararei, 1 was there, but the man ran away. 

am a tag am a j6g, either go or stay. 

ma shegtei mise ilddei P did you tell or forget? 

inad takto ban ddneya, I want you to go. 

hadu yimado, i kali, if he comes, come to me. 



E. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions. 

128. With the exception of the radical particles given in the 
last section, these parts of speech are represented in Somali by 
substantival expressions. 

129. Adverbs of Quality and Manner : 
ain-ki kind, sort 
ainkan, ainkas like this, like that 
si-di manner 

sida, sidas, or sas so, thus 

si is also used with an adjective, forming an abstract substantive : 

si wanaksan good manner 

si hhun bad „ 

si 'ajis lazy „ 

Such expressions with the particle u become adverbial. 
Examples, 

si wanaksan u samei make properly 

wa si 'ajis u shakheineya he is working lazily 

The following nouns are commonly used in this way with u: 



ad 


force, effort 


hds downwards 


miyir 


prudence 


dib backwards 


khumati 


straightness 


hor forwards 


kor 


upwards 


ghunyar slowness 


CT J„„ 


also the verb root dakhso hurry 


Examples, 


ad u heji 


hold tight 




miyir u fill 


ride carefully 




dib u j6gso 


stand back 




dakhso u tag 


go quickly 



ADVERBS 77 

130. Adverbs of Time and Place : 

Time : gor-ti, kol-ki, mar-ki, had-di, wa-tfi. b6ri-gi, gelin-ki. 

Place : mel-shi, hal-ki, hag-gi. 

Time. 



this time 


gortan, kolkan, 


another time mar dambe 




markan 






now 


iminka, aminka 


often 


gor badan, 
mar badan 


now at once 


haddan 


sometimes 


mar mar 


now therefore 


haddaba 


again 


mar kaleh 


then 


gortas, kolkas, 
markas 


at no time 


kolla 


soon 


gor do 


first 


horta 


later on 


haddd, haddoto 


once 


kol, gor 


before 


kolki hbre, marki 
hdre 


twice 


laba gor 


afterwards 


kolki dambe, marki 
dambe, dabad6d 


yet, still 


wfcli 


formerly 


kol hbre, wagi hdre, 


never 


wdligi 




b6rigi hdre 


always 


gor walba 




Place. 






here 


halkan, meshan 


above 


dusha 


this way 


haggan 


beneath 


hbsta 


there 


halk as, halka, meshas 


in front 


h6re, horti, 
ka hdre 


that way 


haggas 


behind 


dambe, ka 
dambe, ka 
daba 


yonder 


halkd, haggd 


inside 


gudaha 


near 


mel d6 


outside 


dibadda 


far 


mel f 6g 


aside 


ges 


somewhere 


mel, melun 


on that side 


gesta 


everywhere 


mel walba 


around 


harero 


nowhere 


mella 


in the middle 


dehhda 



(For hours, days, months, etc., see Appendix.) 



78 



ACCIDENCE 



131. 



Interrogative Adverbs. 



of what sort ? ainma P 

how ? side P 

how much ? inte P 

why ? mahha u P (cf. § 195) 

when ? gonna P 

at what time ? hadma P 

how often ? Imisa gor P 

how long halkyo gonna P 

where ? halke? hagge P melma P me P meyei P medei P 



where 
how far ? 



inte? 



132. 



Prepositions. 



The simple prepositions (to, for, from, with, etc.) are represented 
by the Particles (cf. § 126). 

Other prepositions are represented by Adverbial Nouns, the word 
governed being placed in the possessive (cf. § 201). This may be 
done by using the adverb alone, with the governed word following it 
in the possessive position, as 

sidi na's like a fool 

gorti dagalki at the time of battle 

Or the adverb is used with the possessive adjective, as 



as, like 

at the time 

before 

after 

until 

since 

near to 

far from 

over, on 

under 

in front of 

and, 
except 



akhalka hortlsi in front of the house 
jbniad gudaheda inside a bag 

sidi outside dibaddlsi 

of gorti, kolki, marki beside gestisi 



hortlsi 

dabadlsi 

hadyo inti 

halkyo gorti 

agtlsi 

fdgtlsi 

dushlsi 

hdstlsi 

hortlsi 

mahai 



around harerodlsi 

between, among dehhdlsi 



opposite 

beyond 

on this side of 

instead of 

for the sake of 

behind 

within 

without laan 



hortlsi 

ka shish6i 

ka sdkei 

meshlsi 

awadlsi 

damblsi 

gudahlsi 



133. 







interjections 




Relative Conjunctions. 


when 




gorti, kolki, marki 


until 




hadyo inti, inti 


while 




inti 


since 




halkyo gorti 


before 




intan (= inti-an, negative) 


where 




meshi, halki, haggi 


as much as 


inti 


as 




sidi 


F. 


Interjections and Salutations. 






Interjections. 


war 


man. 


, sir 


na 


woman, miss, madam 



79 



134. 



Examples, 

war, 'ss ka tag ! go away, man ! 

na, aya tahai P who art thou, woman ? 

warya ! is used to draw attention. 

-6 is added as a suffix to Proper Names in calling out to persons. 
warya, Libano ! Hi ! Liban ! 
ha yes 
maya no 

hoi hoi ! a shout to attract attention 
jog ! an exclamation of astonishment 
Wallahh ! by God ! 

Sga, Wallahh ! lit. means " look, by God ! " 
dega ! lit. means " listen !" 

Wallahhi, iyo Billahhi, iyo Tallahhi. An Arabic oath 
haurarsan all right 

ha ahato so be it 

watahai very well (lit. it is) 

yelkis that's his business, never mind 

'ss ka da let be 

'ss ka eg look out 

Illahhi mahaddi thank God 
Illahhi ba 6g God knows 

ko, kodi, haiye yes, well ? 



80 ACCIDENCE 

135. Salutations. 

Nabad Peace 

Greeting Beply 

1 ma nabad ba ? \ i wa nabad 

or \ is it peace ? \ or it is peace 

sd nabad mlya P ] I nabad weiye 

ma nabad gh6botaP have you wa nabad ghobta I have 

peace ? peace 

a mahhad sh6gta P what do you nabad ban shega I tell peace 

tell? 

3 ma bariden P are you safe ? ba, barinei yes, we are 



safe 



sid6 tahai P how are you ? 

'ss ka warran give news of yourself 

mesha ka warran give news of the place 

ma bukta P are you sick ? 

ma buksanesa P are you getting better ? 

ma ladantahai P are you well ? 

wa ka si dara I am worse 



1 The formal salutation. 

2 The colloquial, informal greeting, " How do you do ? " 
8 Corresponds to "Good morning." 



PART III. SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES. 

A. The Structure of a Simple Sentence. 
1. Order of Words. 

136. The usual order of a simple sentence, such as a command 
or statement, is 

1. Subject. 2. Object. 3. Verb. 
Examples, 

O. V. 

sor na si, give us fond. 

0. V. 

faraska korei, saddle the horse. 

S. 0. l\ 

nin ba libahh dilei, a man has killed a lion. 

137. Adverbs may be placed anywhere except last, Adverbs 
of Time are usually placed first. 

«. 0. V. 

haddatan aurta rera, load the camels at once. 

o. a. v. 

faraska dakhso u so kahhai, fetch the horse quickly. 

a. s. v. 

markasa ninki yidi, then the man said. 

s. a. o. v. 

habarti ba habenki dambe akhalki Suldanka so ag martei, 
the old woman on the following night passed near the Sultan's house. 

a. s. o. v. 

'ashodi dambe ya habarti barlyo donatei, 

on the following day the old woman begged alms. 

s. o. a. v. 

ninka holihlsi Burao bu gSineya, 
the man is taking his flocks to Burao. 



82 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

138. 2. The Particles wa, ba, ya. 

These particles are of such universal occurrence, and so essential 
to idiomatic speech, that a correct understanding of their use is 
necessary at the outset. No one meaning can be assigned to 
them, as each may represent at one time a pronoun, at another a 
definite or indefinite article, at another the verb "is," "are," and at 
yet another time an adverb. 

Their meanings may be divided into two classes : 

(i) All three, wa, ba, ya, are Particles of Affirmation, just as 
ma is a Particle of Negation or Interrogation. 

wa draws attention to, and precedes, the verb, 
ba, and ya (especially ba), draw attention to, and follow, 
the subject. 

(ii) ba, and ya (especially ya), may be conjunctive or ad- 
verbial particles, often to be translated by "and so," "and then." 
This usage is found in narratives. 

139. (i) As Particles of Affirmation. 

If used without either a personal pronoun or a particle, a verb is 
considered abrupt. 

Compare ba and wa in the following examples : 

(Note. In these cases ba and ya are synonymous, and either 
form may be used equally, but ba is preferred by Eastern and 
Central tribes.) 

1. nin ba yimi a man has come 

2. nin wa yimi a man has arrived 

3. Farah ba yimi Farah has come 

4. Farah wa yimi Farah has arrived 

1, 3 mean respectively that "it is a man that has come," and 
that " it is Farah that has come." 

2, 4 mean respectively that " a man (as expected, or ordered) 
has arrived," and that "Farah (as expected, or ordered) has 
arrived." 

In the first case the information relates to the individual who 
has come ; in the second case it relates to the arrival of some known 
person. 

In short, ba emphasizes the identity of the subject, while wa 
emphasizes the meaning of the verb. 



WA, BA, YA 



83 



140. This explains the fact that wa may be used with a verb 
when no subject is expressed, and ba may be used when no verb is 
expressed. 



Examples, 
wa imaneya 
wa wanaksanyahai 
sadehhdas ba wanaksan 
ma Arab ba ? 
nin ba la dilei 
hdlihi wa la da'ei 



he is coming 

it is good 

those three are the best 

is he an Arab ? 

a man has been killed 

the flocks have been looted 



hdlihi rag Musa Ismail ba ka da'ei 

Musa Ismail's men looted the flocks 



141. ba thus distinguishes the subject from the object where 
otherwise it would be doubtful. 



Examples, 
nin libahh ba ghobtei 
nin ba libahh ghobtei 



a lion caught a man 
a man caught a lion 



142. Special uses of wa. 

(a) wa assists or emphasizes the meaning of the verb, but 
especially emphasizes an affirmation in reply to a question, ex- 
pressed or understood. 

ma imaneya ? ha, wa imaneya. 

Is he coming ? Yes, he is coming. 

ma garanSsa ? ha, wa garanSya. 

Do you understand ? Yes, I understand. 

(b) wa means "is," "are," where the complement is a noun or 
numeral, and not an adjective. 



wa nin hhun 
wa shabel 
wa afar 
wa kan 
wa ke? 
wa kuma ? 
wa inte P 
wa mahai P 



he is a bad man 
it is a leopard 
they are four 
here he is 
which is it ? 
who are you ? 
how much is it ? 
what is it ? 



6—2 



84 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

(c) Where the complement of "is," "are," is an adjective, wa 
is used, but the verb aho (be) is also used, suffixed to the adjective. 

hadalkas wa hhiinyahai that arrangement is bad 

la'agti wa 'ultistahai the money is heavy 

sirkalka wa ogyahai the officer knows 

wayahai, watahai all right, so be it 

(d) When the Preterite tense is used with wa it becomes a 
Perfect or Completed tense. 

wa yimi he has come 

wa arkei I have seen 

143. Special uses of ba and ya. 

(a) ba, or ya, emphasizes the identity of the subject, especially 
in reply to a question expressed or understood. 

ya ku la ra'eya ? Farah ba i la ra'eya. 

who is going with you ? Farah is. 

'id ma timi ? ha, Jama ba yimi. 

has anyone come ? Yes, Jama has. 

Suldan ba inan laha. 

(there was) a Sultan (who) had a son. 

(b) When the subject of a sentence is a numeral it nearly 
always requires ba, or ya. 

soddon ba joga thirty are present 

laba ba maghan two are absent 

imisa ba jbga ? how many are present ? 

(Note. Tn the following cases only ba is used, and not ya.) 

(c) ba is used in questions where the complement of "is," 
"are," is a substantive. 

ma aur ba P is it a camel ? 

ma Arab ba ? is he an Arab ? 

ma kaigi ba P is it mine ? 

ma isaga ba ? is it he ? 

ma laba ba ? is it two ? 

\a) in affirmative sentences, where the complement is an 
adjective, ba may be used, but the verb aho, be, is not then 
employed. 



WA, BA, YA 85 

In this case ba may give a superlative sense to the adjective. 
Illahhi ba 6g God knows 

nin ba maghan one man is absent 

bahalaha ghar ba hhun some animals are bad 

sadehhdas kan ba wanaksan this is the best of those three 

(e) ba, used after the object of a sentence, has a distributive 
meaning. 

nin ba mid si give each man one 

ain ba mel goniah diga put each kind in a separate place 

kol ba nin keliah ha yimado let one man come at a time 

(/) ba may give an indefinite meaning to a word of time or 
place; or is used with a verb, meaning "at all." 

mel ba ku jira it is somewhere or other 

wahhba doni mayo I don't want anything at all 

ha tegin ba don't go at all 

walba every 

labadaba both 

sadehhdaba all three 

wahhad doneso ba whatever you want 

meshi ad takto ba wherever you go 

kolba ad doneso whenever you want 

144. (ii) As Adverbial or Conjunctive Particles. 

ba and ya, in this sense, correspond to the English particles 
"now," "and then," "and so." Their position in the sentence 
has no relation to the subject, object, or verb, but follows the first 
phrase in the sentence. 

("Phrase" here includes both unqualified nouns, or nouns with their 
attributes, whether adjective or relative clause, or adverbial expressions.) 

ba is apparently not used except when the phrase is an un- 
qualified noun, usually one which has already been referred to in 
the preceding sentence. 

ya is always used after an adverb, or adverbial expression. 

The examples illustrating these are taken from the stories, q.v. 
Suldanka nag bu gursadei, suldanki ba hajki ghobtei. 

(p. 145, 1. 2.) 



86 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

Kolkasei tidi, "Berka genyoda fnankaga." fnanki'ba 
suldanki u yedei. (p. 146, 1. 7.) 

" Galabtaan ku so mermero." Galabti ba inanki genyodi 
fulei. (p. 146, 1. 9.) 

Mas ba lei hedei, maskas ba igu imaneya, o i 'uneya. 

(p. 150, 1. 21.) 
Dararti dambe, ya suldanku yimi. (p. 146, 1. 3.) 

Duhurki kolkei ahaid, ya wlyishi timi. (p. 148, 1. 11.) 
t sago gedka hurda, ya shanti Inan u yimaden. 

(p. 148, 1. 16.) 

3. Simple Interrogative and Negative Sentences. 

145. The same particle ma is used in both kinds of sentences. 
There are certain differences in its several uses. 
The Negative ma is placed as near to the verb as possible, 
while the Interrogative ma comes before any pronoun or particle 
qualifying the verb (cf. § 236). 
Examples, 

jblyo ma ku jiran ? is there any water in ? 

\blyo ku ma jiran there is no water in 

fwahh ma lagu slyei ? has anything been given you ? 

\wahhba lei ma sin nothing has been given me 

When joined to the personal pronoun the interrogative particle 
becomes mi-, while the negative particle is unaltered. 
Jmiad araktei P did you see ? 

\maad arkin you did not see 

("mill ku shegei P did he tell you ? 

\i mau shegin he did not tell me 

In both cases the pronoun is often omitted when the person 
referred to is obvious from the context. 

i ma shegin (he) did not tell me 

maarkin, or maarag (I) did not see 
burta ma arkesa P do you see the hill ? 

wahh ma ddnesa P do you want anything 1 

Interrogative ma may be separated from the pronoun by another 
word. In this case ban, bad, etc. are used (see also § 229). 
ma halka bu t6geya P Is it there he is going ? 

ma ninkan bu ku diftei P is it this man that struck you ? 



QUESTIONS 



87 



Where the subject of an interrogative or negative sentence is a 
noun, it is placed first in the sentence. Generally, in interrogative 
sentences the personal pronoun is required as well, but need not 
be used. 

'ollku ma ka bahhai ? has the army left ? 

ninku miu arkei libahha ? did the man see the lion ? 

manta sirkalku Burao ma ghob6neya P 

is the officer going to Burao to-day ? 



146. 

sho. 



Questions expressing surprise are introduced by sd or 



Examples, 

la'agta badan so ddni maysid ? 

so garan maysid P 

so ma garanesa P 



don't you want all this money ? 
don't you understand ? 
surely you understand ? 



Questions introduced by Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs 
Examples, 



ya ku sh§gei hadalkas ? 

wa kiima ? aya tahai ? 

ayad araktei P 

ninmad u dlbtei ? 

mahha ka da'ei ? 

'id ma la dilei P 

aderka muhhu aurkas ka 

sis6neya P 
abbaha mahha la yidahha P 
idinma warakhdan Burao 

gSya? 
farasma buka P ma ainabka P 
mahhan la'ag ugu siya? 

mahhad ugu hedantahai 

mesha ? 
'ollku gormu Kirrit ka bah- 

haya ? 
hagge hdlahaiga ka takten P 



who told you that story ? 

who are you ? 

whom did you see ? 

to whom did you give it ? 

what has happened? 

is anyone killed ? 

what will your uncle give for 

that camel ? 
what do you call your father ? 
which of you will take this 

chit to Burao ? 
which horse is sick? the black? 
why should I give you any 

money ? 
what are you tied there for ? 

when does the force leave 

Kirrit? 
where did you leave my 

animals ? 



ninkakan hagge bu ku diftei P where did this man hit you ? 



88 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



where is the mare? where is 

the bay? 
where is the officers' camp ? 

how far is Bohotle from here? 

how long was he absent? 

how many rupees did he pay 

you? 
how does the country lie 

beyond that hill? 
how is it on this side ? 
how heavy is that bag ? 
how deep is the well ? 



gSnyadi mSdei? hamarku 

mdyei ? 
herodi siraklshu fadfda wa 

hagge ? 
halkiyo Bdhotleh intdi jirta? 
intu maghana wa inte ? 
Imisa rubod bu ku bihhlyei P 

hagga burta ka shishei sidu 

dulyahai P 
burta ka sokei sidei tahai P 
joniada 'uleiskeda wa inte? 
'elka dererklsu wa inte ? (or 

intu derada?) 
bahalkan wa ainma P what sort of an animal is this ? 

In Negative questions introduced by "why?" (mahha u P) a 
special idiom is used with the verb wan (§§ 117, 195). 
mahhad u ddni weida inad why don't you want to go ? 
takto P 

4. The Verbs of existence, and attributive verbs. 

147. These Verbs (be, live, stay, dwell, grow, exist, lie, be found, 
become) have an equal variety of corresponding Somali expressions, 
as aho, oil, j6g, jir, fadi, laho, nokho. 

(i) The Auxiliary verb "be" requires a complement in the 
form of noun, adjective or pronoun. 

(a) This may be translated simply by wa, or ba, as shewn 
in the examples of those particles. 

(b) Or it is translated by aho, which is used independently 
when the complement is a noun, or is combined with an adjective 
when the complement is the latter, and forms an Attributive verb. 
In the latter case wa is required as well, but pronouns are never 
used. 



Examples, 
nin wein ban ahai 
na's bad tahai (contracted 

into bat'hai) 
nin fi'an miu aha ? 
Somali mlihid 



I am a big man. 
thou art a fool 

was he a clever man ? 
thou art not a Somali 



VERBS OF EXISTENCE 89 

askari maaha he is not a soldier 

tollma tahai ? of what tribe are you ? 

wa wanaksanyahai he is good 

ma wanaksana he is not good 

la'agti ma 'ulustahai ? is the money heavy ? 

148. (ii) It may refer to the presence or existence of an 
object in a certain place. 

(a) jdg is used when referring to animate objects. 

Examples, 
ninki ma jdga P is the man here ? 

aurti haggasei jdgta the camels are there 

ragu Imisa ba jdga ? how many of the men are 

present ? 

(6) jir is used of inanimate objects. 

Examples, 

wahh kaleh ma jira ? is there anything else ? 

halkan mahha kii jira P what is there here ? 

wahhba ku ma jir an there is nothing 

biyo wa ku jiran there is water in 

oil (literally lie) is often used in this sense : 

sanadukhdi halkan tal the boxes are here 

akhalkaiga bu yal *it is in my house 

kitabki meska dushlsi yal the book is on the table 

biyo badan ba yalin there is plenty of water 

(c) oil (dwell, live), also refers to people : 

Examples, 
tollma halkan yal ? what tribe lives here ? 

Burao-einu nil we lived at Burao 

hagge olli jirten P where used you to live? 

fadi is used with same meaning (lit. sit, abide) : 

Examples, 

magalodaan fadlya I stay in the town 

Berberu fadlya he stays in Berbera 

hagge sirakishu fadida ? where do the officers dwell ? 

(d) When referring to the existence of animals or plants, 
laho (possess) is used. 



90 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

Examples, 

meshasa ugad ma lehdahai P 

is there any game in that place ? (lit. does that place possess game?). 

gerenuk iyo ddro bei lehdahai, 

it possesses gerenuk and dero (or g. and d. are found there). 

b'e'id malaha, there is no oryx there. 

mel walba aus bei lehdahai, there is grass everywhere. 

dareiga Nogashu bei lehdahai, the fig grows in the Nogal. 



(vi) nokho become 






'ss ka dig pretend 






Examples, 






suldan bu nbkhdei 


he became Sultan 




nag bu 'ss ka dfgeya 


he is pretending to be 


a woman 



B. The Parts of Speech. 

I. The Article. 

149. A noun, which in English is qualified by the indefinite 
pronoun, a, an, or some, any, is used in Somali in its simplest 
form in an indefinite sense. 

Suldan ba inan laha a Sultan had a son 

ei ba 'efyeya a dog is barking 

kursi wein ban ddneya I want a big chair 

fardo ba imaneya some horses are coming 

gddo ban hai'sta I have got some grass 

hdlo ma lehdahai ? have you any flocks ? 

la'ag malihi I have not any money 

150. The Definite article suffix (§ 28) is used to define nouns in 
a particular or general sense. 

151. -i is always used for the definite article where -u or -a are 
not required by the following rules. 

152. -a (i) is used primarily in defining nouns, referring to 
objects or persons actually present, or in front of the speaker. 

sandukha ghad remove the box (which is in front of us) 

bein bu shSgeya ninka the man is telling lies 

Note. Where the noun in this sense is the subject of the sentence, it is 
more usual to use the demonstrative adjective -an this. 



DEFINITE ARTICLE 91 

(ii) It is also used with a noun in a general sense when in the 
objective case (§ 153, (vi)). 

(iii) With Definite nouns which are possessive, or adjectival : 

akhalki ninka the house of the man 

inanki Suldanka the Sultan's son 
nin magaloda a man of the town 

even where the Possessive adjective is used ; 

sirkalka ghalabklsi the officer's luggage 

(iv) With nouns used adverbially : 

galabta this evening Isninta on Monday 

153. u is used in the following cases : 
(i) With well-known persons or objects of nature. 
Wadadku the Mullah (i.e. Mohammed Ab- 

dallah) 
Sirkalku the Officer (i.e. as a soldier would 

say, referring to his own officer) 
oghashu shirka fadida the headmen sit in council 

ghorahhdu wa kuliishahai the sun is hot 
rbbku wa gadeya the rain is stopping 

(ii) With persons or things already referred to, and about which 
one is talking, as in the following example : 

A man brings a complaint that another man has stolen his 
camel ; the judge may ask : 

hashu ma jdgta ? is the camel here ? 
or the man may say : 

ninku wa ararei, the man has run away. 

In this way it is used when referring to a character in a story 
who has already been mentioned, as : 

Suldanku, Inanku, habartu, etc. 

(iii) It is also used with the Personal pronouns in the Emphatic 
forms, 

anigu, adigu, adu, etc. (§ 55). 

(iv) When a noun is used in a general sense, referring to all 



92 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

members of a class, it is used in English with no article, but in 

Somali usually takes the article -u. 

siraklshu 'ano halad ma ja'ashahai? do officers like camel's 

milk? 
naguhu wa hadal badanyahai women are great talkers. 

(v) -u cannot be used with a noun which is qualified by an 
epithet. In such cases -i, or -a, only are found. 

oghashi Habr Yunis the H. Y. headmen 
sirkalki hakinkaaha the judge-officer 

(vi) -u is not used with a noun in the objective case. If a noun 
in one of the above senses is objective, -a is used (cf. supra). 
gorma la ghoboneya Wadadka ? when will the Mullah be 

caught ? 

154. The Definite Article may be used with any noun, numeral 
or pronoun, and is often used together with the Demonstrative 
Adjective and Possessive Adjective suffixes, q.v. 

Where a definite- noun is qualified by a numeral, it is the latter 
which takes the article, and not the noun : 

labadi nin the two men 

2. The Noun, 

(a) Case's. 

155. There are no case inflexions in Somali, and the relation 
of a noun to the rest of the sentence must be recognised from its 
position or the context. 

156. A general rule for subject and object was given in the first 
section on syntax, but this is subject to colloquial variation, where 
the meaning is obvious from the context. 

Generally, the subject may be distinguished from the object by 

the gender and number of the verb, and pronoun, if the latter occurs, 

but only in cases where both are different. 

ninki nagti bu dilei the man killed the woman 

nagti ninki bei dishei) . . ... , . 

■ t • »-i- i. ■ j- u -f the woman killed the man 

or ninki nagti bei disneij 

Suldanki ba gartei nagtlsi and the Sultan recognised his wife. 

berigi dambe ya inan, Suldan dalei, ya inanti arkei Afterwards 

a son of a Sultan saw the girl. 



CASES 93 

ba, ya (§ 141) help to distinguish the subject. 

dabku ya maska iyo hhaska bakhtlyei the fire destroyed the 
snake and the fence. 

Here the subject is also denoted by the article -u. 

The special forms of the pronouns, wuhhu, etc., following the 
subject, are used to make it clear. 

'ollki Habr Toljala wuhhu dulei Ali Naldyah, the force of 
H. T., they attacked the Ali Naleyah. 

Dative. 

157. Some verbs may have two objects, one being in the dative 
case, or indirect object. 

The usual order is to place the direct object before the indirect. 

Parah warakhdi sirkalki bu slyei Farah gave the letter to the 

officer 
gddo faraska si give the horse grass 

ninba toban-an dlbei I gave each man ten 

Motion to a person is expressed by the particle u, but motion 
to a place requires no particle, the place being translated as an 
indirect object. 

Ali u tag go to Ali 

aghilki igu yimi the headman came to me 

aurti Sirkalki u g£ya take the camels to the 

Officer 
Burao ban tegeya I am going to Burao 

Ali hblihlsi rerklsi bu gSineya Ali is taking his flocks to his 

family 

158. Nouns may be used adverbially, as in the last two 
examples, with verbs of motion or rest, or expressing duration of 
time. But if they are abstract nouns expressing manner or quality, 
u is required before the verb (see § 129). 

Burao ban fadlya I stay at Burao 

laba 'asho beinu so'onei we marched for two days 

159. The Ablative is expressed by the prepositional particle 
ka. 

magalodan ka imi I have come from the town 



94 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

'ollku shaleito meshan ka bahhai, the army left this place 

yesterday. 

The Possessive Case (cf. § 45). 

160. Nouns are used adjectivally, following another noun which 
they qualify, expressing origin, quality, value, use, space of time. 

nin magaloda a man of the town 

nin dagal badan a great man for fighting 
dagalki shalei yesterday's battle 

If the noun expresses material, profession, or nationality, it may 

be made into an adjective by the suffix -ah (being). 

sandukh birah a box of iron 

nin Tomalah a Tomal 

laba nin o sirkalah, ) „ 

,,, • i -i f two officers 

or laba nm o sirakil J 

ninki askarigaaha the soldier man 

If it expresses the contents, or features, the suffix -leh is used. 
balli blyoleh a " pan " of water 

nin gadleh a bearded man 

Features or clothes may be used alone descriptively. 
nin san wein a big nosed man 

gholidi gambo 'as the party in red puggarees 
nagta maro 'as that woman in a red tobe 

burta figh der that high peaked hill 

161. The Partitive Case. " Some of," " any of," " one of." 

The noun expressing the whole is either placed first in the 
sentence, parenthetically, or follows the noun expressing the portion, 
separated by the particle o. 

ragu in yer ba jdgta a few of the men are here 

sadehhdas ki u wanaksana wa ka of those three that is the 

best one 
aurtaida mid ba dintei one of my camels has died 

wahh badan o hdlahaiga plenty of my animals 

(b) Number. 

162. The plural of nouns is used as in English, wherever it is 
desired to express plural number, except after numerals. 



CONCORD 95 

naguhu wa hadal badanyahai women are great talkers 

wa askarr hhunhhun they are bad soldiers 

oghal bei nbkhdan they become headmen 

aurti timi the camels have come 

163. After numerals the plural number is only used in the case 
of feminine nouns, except those ending in -o (cf. § 42). 

laba nin two men afar 'asho four days 

lehh nagod six women sadehh halod three camels 

(c) Concord of Plural Nouns. 

164. In the Accidence (§§ 34, 76) it was noticed that the 
Guttural, and Dental, definite articles of the singular nouns are 
changed in the plural to Dental, and Guttural, respectively, except 
in the case of masculine monosyllables. 



fas-ki 


axe 


plur. 


fasas-ki 


busta-hi 


blanket 


>> 


bustyal-shi 


'asho-di 


day 


>j 


'ashoin-ki 


muda'-i 


fork 


>> 


nmda'yo-di 


sirkal-ki 


officer 


!> 


sirakll-shi 


lan-ti 


branch 


>> 


lamo-hi 



This is more noticeable in irregular plurals, as : 

aur-ki he camel plur. aur-ti 

aghil-ki headman „ oghal-shi or aghilin-ti 

Arab-ki Arab-man „ Arab-ti 

11-shi eye „ indo-hi 

This is comparable with, and is no doubt related to, the Arabic 
broken plurals, which are always feminine. 

165. The plurals of the 1st class are true plurals, and adjectives 
and verbs always agree with them in number. 

fasaska wa hhunhhunyihin those axes are bad 
sumanki dadera wa hallaban the long straps are lost 

In all other plurals, the adjective and verb should agree with the 
noun according to the form of the linking consonant alone, and not 
in number. 



96 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

Compare the following examples : 

nagti wa imanesa (3rd fem. sing.) the woman is coming 

aurki wa imaneya (3rd masc. sing.) the camel is coming 

nimanki wa imaneyan (3rd plur.) the men are coming 

nagihi wa imaneya (3rd masc. sing.) the women are coming 

aurti wa imanesa (3rd fem. sing.) the camels are coming 

Sirkalki ghalabklsi (3rd masc. sing.) the officer's baggage 

gabaddi bokhorkeda (3rd fem. sing.) the girl's sash 

Siraklshi ghalabkeda (3rd fem. sing.) the officers' baggage 

genyadi wa tan (fem.) there is the mare 

aurki wa kan (masc.) here is the camel 

aurti wa tan (fem.) here are the camels 

sanadiikhdi weineid halkan tal the big boxes lie here 

(3rd fem. sing.) 

jdniadihi madana wa ku jira the empty bags are in 

(3rd masc. sing.) 

oghal ba fadida (3rd fem. sing.) some headmen are sitting 

Note. The following case of false analogy is interesting, as shewing how 
in the Somali mind the article is the important factor to be considered in 
the concord of nouns with adjectives and verbs. 

fardihi (the horses) is often contracted to fardi. In the latter case the 
feminine concord is most usual, as to the ear it appears that the article 
suffix is -di, the original masculine suffix -hi having been lost. 

Example, 

fardihi wa ka'dleineya (3rd masc. sing.)! 

- ,. i (ji • /o j e \ f the horses are trotting 

fardi wa ka dleinesa (3rd fem. sing.) J ° 

166. The plural nouns, biyo, 'ano, gedo, nolo, timo, are 

treated as true plurals. 

biyo ma yalin there is no water 

'anihi wa kuan here is the milk 

wahhba (nothing) is usually considered plural : 
wahhba ku ma jiran there is nothing there 

167. Adjectives qualifying plural nouns, when used indefinitely, 
usually agree in number (see note to Table in § 76). 

nago wawein some big women 

Yibruhu wa niman hhunhhun the Yibirs are bad men 



CONCORD 97 

168. When the noun is qualified by a numeral special rules for 
concord apply. 

If the subject is indefinite (the numeral having no article suffix) 
the verb is used in the singular. 

The masculine may always be used, but if the plural is feminine, 
and would take a dental linking consonant if definite, the feminine 
form of the verb may be used. 

shan aur mlyigi ku bakhtlyei, or bakhtidei, 
five camels died in the jungle. 

laba nin ba yimi, two men came. 

afar nago ba yimi, four women came. 

If an adjective qualifies the noun as well, it is used in the 
plural. 

shan aur o hhunhhun ya bakhtlyei, five bad camels died. 

If however the noun is definite, the verb may be either singular 
or plural ; if it is singular it may agree in gender as with indefinite 
nouns. 

shanti aur mlyigi ku bakhtidei, or bakhtiyen, 

the five camels died in the jungle. 

Where the noun refers to persons, the verb is usually used in the 
plural. 

When the subject of the verb is a plural pronoun alone, or 
when the pronoun wahhai is used, the verb is always plural. 

The following examples are taken from passages in the stories 
given in this book, and in Schleicher's Somali Texte. 

shanti gabdod e kaleh wahhai ku diftan shan inan o hodanah, 

the five other girls struck five rich young men. 

shanti inan u yimaden, the five boys came to him. 

labadas u sarr^yen, those two were in command. 

wahha ugu yimi abahed iyo walalked, 
there came to her her father and brother. 

lehh aur ka hadei, six camels were left. 

lehhdi aur, o lehh libahh 'unesa, 

the six camels which six lions were eating. 

shan iyo labaton nin, o habsiga kii jirei, wahhai ghaten... 

twenty-five men, who were in gaol, took... (Schl. p. 13, 1. 12.) 

sirkalka wuhhu direi askaro aur ku jogta, 

the officer sent soldiers on camels. (Schl. p. 13, 1. 18.) 

k. 7 



98 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

markasa sagalki walalahed tashaden, 

Then her nine brothers considered. (Schl. p. 22, 1. 18.) 

afarti walalaaha ya tashadei, 

the four brothers considered. (Schl. p. 29, 1. 21.) 

labadi odei ya yidi, the two old men said. (Schl. p. 30, 1. 13.) 

3. The Adjective, 
(a) Grder and Syntax. 

169. It has been seen in the Accidence (§ 69) that adjectives 
follow the substantives they qualify, and are inflected to agree with 
them in gender and number (§ 75). 

170. When a noun is qualified by more than one adjective, 
the second is coupled by the particle o (and). 

kitab yer o mado a small black book 

rag kaleh o wan&ksan other good men 

dagahhanta wawein o 'ul'ulus the big heavy stones 

The adjective is coupled by o, if the noun is also qualified by a 
numeral. . 

lehh halod o hhunhhun six bad camels 

afar bakhalod o wawein four big mules 

laba nin o Habr Yunis two 'men of the Habr Yunis 

Note. When the word kaleh (other) is one of two epithets qualifying 
a noun, it is coupled by e instead of o. 

o kaleh has a special meaning. Cf. § 177. 

Example, 

lehh gabdod e kaleh six other girls, 
but, lehh gabdod o kaleh would mean, six similar girls 

Where nouns are used adjectivally they follow the same rule. 

sadehh nin o askari three soldiers 
todbba nin o sirakil seven officers 

boghol, and kun, are treated adjectively also, and require o 
following them when more than one hundred or thousand is 
referred to. 

laba boghol o askari 200 soldiers 
sadehh kun o adi 3,000 sheep 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 99 

171. Attributive verbs are formed from adjectives, by the 
particle wa, and the verb aho, which is suffixed to the adjective 
(see Conjugations, §114, and 142 (c)). 

faraskan wa wanaksanyahai this horse is good 
sandukha wa fududyahai the box is light 

radadkan wa gabgaboyihin these tracks are old 

ba may be used with the adjective, without aho, but gives a 
superlative sense (§ 143 (d)). 

kan ba wanaksan this is the good one 

ushatan ba fudud this stick is the lightest 

Adjectives in -leh, -la may be split up into their component 
parts, the suffix being represented by the verb laho. 

garad bu lehyahai he is sensible 

oghbn bu lehyahai j ... 

or wa oghbn lehyahai J he 1S W18e 

garad malaha, ] 

or wa garad an lahain } he 1S foollsl1 

(6) Comparison of Adjectives. 

172. The particle ka is used before the adjective, and means 
"more than." 

The object of comparison is treated adverbially, and is dis- 
tinguished from the subject by its position, relative to the latter, in 
the sentence. 

The adjective, describing the quality in which the comparison is 
made, is treated as part of the verb. 

If the Subject of comparison is the subject of the principal verb, 
it precedes the Object of comparison. 

If the Subject of comparison is the object of the principal verb, 
it follows the Object of comparison. 

Types of simple Comparative Sentences. 

S. Adv. 0. V. 

rninkan halkan akhal bu diseya 

(this man here a house he is building 

rninkas halka akhal bu diseya 

(.that man there a house he is building 

7—2 



100 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



s. 


Adv. 


0. 


V. 


jakhalkan 
Ithis house 


akhalkas 




ka wein 


than that house 




(is) bigger 


jninkan 
(this man 


akhalkas 


akhal 


ka wein bu diseya 


than that house 


a house 


bigger he is building 


{ 


akhalkas 


akhal 


ka wein so dis 


than that house 


a house 


bigger build 


jakhalkan 
(this house 


akhalkas 




ma ka wein ? 


than that house 




(is it) bigger ? 


jma 


akhalkas 


akhal 


ka wein disesa P 


than that house 


a house 


bigger are you building? 



173. In simple statements of comparison, the verb aho may be 
used with the adjective, or omitted. 

kas ma kan gabanyahai ? is this shorter than that ? 

ragakan ragas ma ka badanyahai P are these men more 
numerous than those ? 

ragas innagu ka badan, we are more than those men. 

sanaddi h6re ragi j6gei, kana ka badan, there are more 
people here now than last year. 

In three of these examples the usual order is inverted, owing to 
the subject being a pronoun, which is placed near the verb. 

174. Certain words have a comparative meaning without the 
particle ka. 

dama better. 

shiikhulka shukhul dama sameya, do better work than 
that. 

yerei make less kordi l make more( increase . 
badi J 

u yerei, make it less. 

mushaharodaida ma i kordinesa ? will you increase my 
pay? 

175. ka may be used with certain attributive verbs, such as 
fogo be far. 

inad A. ka fogado ddni mayo, I do not wish you to go 
further than A. 

faraskagu faraskaiga ka ma der6yo, your horse is not faster 
than mine. 



SIMILARITY 101 

176. The superlative may be expressed by sa ( = sida) or the 
particle ba, or most commonly by u, or ugu. 

wa sa wanaksan, it is best. 

sa sa wanaksan, that is best. 

sadehhdas kan sa der, | ^ ig j of thoge thrQQ 

or kan ba der, J 

waranka ba fudud, that spear is lightest. 

fsagu wa ugu wanaksanyahai, he is the best of all. 

ragakan ki u yera, the smallest of these men. 

inanti ugu yereid, the youngest girl. 

biladki Somalida hdlihi laga dofiya mahha u badan P of 
the things which are exported from Somaliland, what is the chief? 

177. (c) Similarity. 

sida so, in the manner, as : 
aurtayada sida aurti waweineid blyo badan dbni mayso, 

our camels do not want so much water as the big ones. 
wa wanaksanyahai sidadu o kaleh, he is just as good as 

you. 
Jama sida Abdi u wanaksanyahai, Jama is as good as Abdi. 
sida u ma weina, sida kagi wahh badan ghadi mayo, 

it is not so big, and will not carry so much as yours. 

6 kaleh the same as : 

bahalka wein aur 6 kaleh weyei, that big animal is just 

like a camel, 
dagahhas mid 6 kaleh, another stone like that. 

leheg resembling : 
gedkasa lehh aur bu lehegyahai, that tree is as high as 

six camels. 
bakhashi faraska bei lehegtahai, the mule is equal to 

the horse, 
kabahan ma iss-lehega, those shoes are not a pair. 

iss ku or 'ss ku the same (equal to one another) (cf. § 250) : 

kala different (cf. § 239). 

These qualify adjectives or abstract nouns : 

wa 'ss ku ib, they are the same price. 

labadatan wa 'ss ku der, these two are the same length. 



102 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

'ss ku mid, the same. 

rakabyada wa kala hds, the stirrups are of different length. 

sanadukhda wa kala 'uleis, the boxes are of different 

weight. 
wa kala wanaksan, they are not as good as one another 

(are separately good). 

Special idioms. 

doliskas 'elka ma gadeya ? will that rope reach (be long 
enough for) the well ? 

aurkasa aurkaigi la h6g maaha, that camel is not so strong 
as mine (literally, that camel is not of strength with my camel). 

4. The Numerals. 

178. The number of nouns qualified by a numeral and the 
position of the latter has already been dealt with in the Accidence 
(§§ 42, 47), and in the Syntax (§ 163). 

The concord of adjectives and verbs with numerals is dealt with 
in Syntax (§ 168). 

179. The numeral in Somali is considered as a substantive, 
and may take any of the suffixes. Nouns which in English are 
qualified by a numeral are considered in Somali as qualifying that 
numeral adjectivally (§ 170). 

sadehhdas aur o hhunhhun those three bad camels 

afartan nef these four animals 

afartanka nef the forty animals 

sagalkaigi aur my nine camels 

180. When a numeral qualifies a pronoun, the possessive 
adjective is used in Somali suffixed to the numeral. 

labadlni you two 

afartayada we four 

lehhdddi they six 

181. " One " when qualifying a noun is not translated. 

one man nin 

one animal nef 

101 men bogh61 iyo nin 

101 animals bogh61 iyo nef 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 103 

k6 is only used in counting consecutively. 
mid is an indefinite pronoun, = "one." 

182. Fractions. In describing a fraction of anything the 
Possessive Adjective is used. 

half a bag jdniad badked 

give me a quarter of the camel hashi wahhdeda i si 

a third of that belongs to me inta dalolked ban lehahai 

5. The Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives. 
(a) Persons. 

183. The 2nd persons, singular and plural, are each strictly 
used according to the number of persons addressed. If only one 
person is spoken to, the 2nd sing, must be used. 

There are two forms of the 1st person plural, 

-einu, innagu (possess, -en) (inclusive form) include the 1st 
and 2nd, or 1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons ; 

-annu, annagu (possess, -aya) (exclusive form) refer only to 
1st and 3rd persons, and are not used when the 2nd person is 
included. 

Iliahhlna, annagunalllahhayaga, innagu Illahhenabu nokhda, 
your God and our God is the God of both of us. 

184. The pronoun of the 3rd person singular has masculine and 
feminine forms. As the 3rd pers. fern. sing, and 3rd pers. plur. are 
the same, there is no question as to which pronoun is to be used in 
reference to a feminine plural. Where reference is made to a plural 
noun with the masculine article, when the pronoun is used in the 
presence of the noun, either singular or plural form may be used 
(see § 164 sqq.). 

(b) Simple Personal Pronouns. 

185. The Subjective Personal Pronouns (§ 53) are usually 
expressed with the verb, in addition to a nominal subject. They 
may be in their simplest form -an, -ad, etc., suffixed to any word in 
the sentence, or may be combined with the particles, wa, ba, ya, 
in the forms wan, ban, yan, etc. 

yan, yad, etc., and ya ? are often lengthened into ay an, ayad, 
etc., and aya P or ayo P, but these seem to have no special meaning 
or use. 



104 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

186. When the simple form is attached to a word ending in a 
vowel, this final vowel is usually dropped in speaking, especially 
in the conjunctions gorti, halki, hadi, etc. 

gortasu yidi then he said 

inankuse gSnyu (genyo-u) lehyahai but the boy has a mare 

gorm'u (gorma-u) yimada P when does he come ? 

kolk'annu (kolki-annu) 'ollki aragnei when we saw the army 

nagti Suldank'u (Suldanka-u) la he made friends with 
sahhebei the Sultan's wife 

187. As stated in Accidence (§ 54), wan, etc., is only used at 
the beginning of a sentence, while ban, yan, etc., are never used 
at the beginning but only in the middle, and usually as close to the 
verb as possible. 

wan, ban, yan, are not used in Dependent or Relative clauses, 
the simple suffixed form only being found, attached to the con- 
junction, or, in Relative Adjectival clauses, where there is no 
relative pronoun, to the antecedent. 

ninkad u yedei yimi the man you called has come 

188. The objective pronouns (§ 60) are placed between the 
subjective and the verb. 

la'ag ban ku slneya I will give you money 

gormu idin no (na-u) direi ? when did he send you to us ? 

"it," "him," are usually omitted in Somali. 

i si give it to me u gei faraska take % him the horse 

(here u is the particle and not the pronoun, cf. § 125). 

189. When there is more than one verb in a sentence whose 
subjects are the same person, the pronoun is omitted with the 
second verb as in English. But if the subjects of the two verbs are 
different, the forms anna, adna, isna, etc., or aniguna, etc., are 
used (§ 56). 

gortasan ka daba so'odei o so ghobtei, 
then I followed after him and caught him. 

kolkasan so marei, isna halkasu si so'odei, 
then I came this way, and he went on there. 

190. The Emphatic forms (§ 55) may be used followed by the 
simple pronouns or not. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 105 

anigu wa shakheineya I am working 

anigu ddlada ban ka sha- as for me, I am working for 
khelneya the Government 

/ myself, etc., are translated by certain words meaning "self," 
with the Possessive adjective. 
naf-ti life (ghud-di sole, single mhb-hi spirit) 

anigu naftaida ku arkei I saw you myself 

naftaidan ka shakheista I work for myself 

annagu ruhhayaga magaloda we have seen the town our- 
yannu so aragnei selves 

191. To do a thing for oneself is expressed by the derivative 
verbs in so (cf. § 121). 

samei make sameiso make for yourself 

Ibi buy Ibso buy for yourself 

192. The compound forms wahhan, wahhad, etc., and 
mahhan, mahhad, etc., are important (§§ 57, 58). 

The Somali likes to be very careful that he has the listener's 
attention, before he says what he has to say, and the forms 
wahhan, etc., serve to introduce a quotation or statement of an 
event, preparing the listener for the nature of the statement to 
follow. Thus in quoting a remark, after several interjections, 
as warya ! i degeiso ! kddi, he will proceed with, ninkasu yidi, 
wuhhu yidi, . . . that man said, this is what he said, . . . and then will 
follow what he really did say. 

These forms may be used with any kind of verb. 

gortasannu tagnei, wahhannu tagnei, Olesan, 
then we went, this is where we went to, Olesan. 

They are nearly always used with verbs such as ddn, malei. 
wahhan ddneya, inan manta tago I want to go to-day 
wahhan u maleineya, inu arari I think he is going to 
ddno run away 

193. The 2nd person of this compound form is used to 
introduce instructions as to what a mau is to do, followed by the 
Aorist indicative of the verb, as in the common expression to an 
interpreter (cf. § 217). 

wahhad tidahhda this is what you are to say 

wahhad yesha this is what you are to do 



106 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

194. mahhan, etc., are interrogative forms. 

mahhad ddnesa P what do you want ? 

mahhan y£la P what am I to do ? 

195. Followed by u, ku, these pronouns mean, 'Why V 'This 
is why.' 

wahhas mahhad u tidi ? why did you say that ? 

wahhan ku idi this is why I said it 

mahhad u ddnesa hadig P what do you want rope for ? I 

wahhan ku doneya, inan want it to tie up the things 

ghalabka ku hedhedo with 

If the verb after wahhan u, or mahhan u, etc., is negative, 
the verb wah is used (see Conjugation, § 117). 

mahhad igu sheg weida ? why do you not tell me ? 

not, mahhad igu shegi maysid ? 

wahhan kugu shSgi wai this is why I do not tell you 

196. The pronoun iss is both Reflexive and Reciprocal, 
wu iss dilei he killed himself 

wa iss leineyan they are fighting together 

iss is used with ku and ka in special idioms (§ 248). 

(c) The Suffixes. 

197. The Definite Article suffix has already been dealt with in 
the Accidence and Syntax (§§ 29, 151 — 154). 

The Linking Consonant, which is necessary to all, has also been 
described in the Accidence (§§ 24 — 27). 

198. The three suffixes, Definite Article, Demonstrative and 
Possessive Adjectives, may each be used alone, or any two or all 
three may be attached to one noun. 

The following are the possible combinations. 
(a) Demonstrative and Definite Article (§31 (ii)). 
The latter is attached without a linking consonant, 
ninkanu, gSdkasa, kolkasi. 

(6) Definite Article and Demonstrative (§31 (i)). 

The Demonstrative when following the article takes a linking 



IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS 107 

consonant, which however is always k for masculine words, and t for 
feminine words. Only the a form of article is used, 
ninkakan, ghorigakan, gabaddatan. 

(c) Possessive and Definite Article (§ 32). 

The Possessive adjective always requires a definite article suffix, 
except with names of relationship. The 1st and 2nd sing, and 1st 
(exclusive) plur. are the only persons which take the linking 
consonant. 

ghalabkaiga, holahagu, ninkai, inantlsi, etc. 

(d) Possessive and Definite Article and Demonstrative. 
The Demonstrative may be added to the above. 

aurkaigakan this camel of mine 

shukhulklsakan this work of his 

(d) Impersonal Pronouns. 

199. All the suffixes may be used independently as pronouns 
with the linking consonant k or t (§§ 62, 63). The Definite Article 
may be attached to the Demonstrative or Possessive Pronoun. 

ki weina the big one 

kan ma aurkaigi ba P is this my camel ? 

tan kaleh this other one 

tasu wa mid that is one 

kayaga ba wawein ours are the biggest 

tlsi wa ta his is there 
" There it is " is translated by wa ta, or wa ka. 

200. All the suffixes have the same form whether attafthed to 
a singular or a plural noun, but the Demonstrative and Possessive 
Pronouns have special forms in the plural : 

kuan, tuan ; kuer, tuer ; kuas, tuas ; kuaigi, kuagi, etc. 

The plural form of the Def. Article pronoun is kuer, or kua, kui. 

The latter may take the Demonstrative suffix, as kuakan, 
kuakas. 

(e) The Possessive Adjective. 

201. The Possessive Adjective has certain special functions, 
(i) It translates the Possessive case (§ 45). 

ninki akhalklsi the man's house 

habarta ninked the old woman's husband 



108 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



(ii) It is used with adverbial nouns to form Prepositions (§ 132). 

sandukhi dushlsi on the top of the box 

meska hostlsi underneath the table 

joniada gudaheda inside the bag 

Such possessives, used with adverbs alone, translate a personal 
pronoun governed by a preposition. 

hortlna in front of you 

dehhddda between them 

sidada like you 

(iii) Where in English a personal pronoun is qualified by a 
numeral, in Somali the numeral takes the possessive adjective, 
labadayada we two 

afartini you four 

In the same way the possessive adjective is used with indefinite 
pronouns (§§ 67 and 206). 

intina k&leh the rest of you 

The difference must be noticed between the examples, 
labadaidi aur, or labadi aurtaidi my two camels 
aurtaidi laba two of my camels 

(iv) It is used with the following words : 

run right bein lie 

wa run it is right wa bein it is a lie 

wa runtai I am right wa beintai I am lying 

wa runta thou art right wa beinta thou art lying 

wa runtls he is right wa beintis he is lying 

wa runted she is right wa beintdd she is lying 

wa runtSn we are right wa beint&n we are lying 

wa runtaya we are right wa beintaya we are lying 

wa runtin ye are right wa beintin ye are lying 

wa runtbd they are right wa beintdd they are lying 



(/) The Interrogative Pronoun and Adjective. 

202. -e may be used either as a suffix (Interrog. Adj.) or as an 
Interrogative Pronoun, with the consonants k and t. 

akhalke P what house ? 

ke ? which one ? 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 109 

•ma is only used as a suffix (cf. § 65). 
ninma ? what man ? 

ninma ku shdgei ? what man told you ? 

ya ? ay a ? ayo ? what ? who ? whom ? (cf. § 185). 
ya ku slyei ? who gave it to you ? 

ayad araktei P whom did you see ? 

mahha ? what ? (objective). 

mahhad donesa ? what do you want ? 

mahhad ku falesa P what are you doing it for ? 

-ma suffixed to a pronoun, means " which of ? " 
idinma ? which of you ? 

annama ? which of us ? 

kuma ? who ? (impersonally) 

203. The Possessive Pronoun and Possessive Interrogative 
Pronoun may be formed with the verb root leh having (cf. § 116). 

aniga leh it is mine (or ana leh) 

isaga leh it is his 

etc. 

These are more idiomatic than wa kaigi, wa klsa. 
yaleh ? kumaleh ? whose ? 
faraskan yaleh P whose is this horse ? 

(g) Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives. 

204. (i) la is a pure pronoun, and is used to translate the 
passive voice of the verb (see § 118). 

205. (ii) Substantival words, "some," "any," "all," "alone" 
(§§ 67, 68). 

nin ba yimi someone has come 

'id ma ku taghan P does anyone know you ? 

wahh ma donesa P do you want anything ? 

sadehh ghof ba dintei three persons have died 

'idla unaccompanied, alone 

halkan ghar ba yal some lie here 

daur ba hadei some are left 

daur iyo labaton twenty odd 



110 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



in rSg ba jdgta 
inti saka timi 
nin hebel 
war, hebel O P 



some men are here 

those that came this morning 

a certain man 

you, what's your name ? 



206. When used with a Personal Pronoun in a descriptive 
sense, the Possessive adjective is suffixed (cf. § 201 (iii)). 



intlna kaleh 

gharkdda 

ninki keligi tegei 

annagu keligayaga sameinei 

gidigdd, damantod 

kulligeni 

isagu goniglsi si so'odei 



the rest of you 

those few 

the man went alone 

we did it by ourselves 

all of them 

all of us 

he went on separately 



207. weli-gi never, is used in the same way with possessives. 
weligai maan arag I have never seen it 
weligln arki maysan you will never see it 
weliga hau nokhon never do it again 

208. "Some," "a few," etc., in a partitive sense are trans- 
lated as follows. 

intlna ghar ba hhun some of you are bad 

inta barlska ba hadei, or thus much of rice is left 
inta barlskaah 



(iii) Indefinite Adjectives. 

209. " Many," " little," " few," " other," " every," " all." 
These are usually used qualifying an indefinite pronoun (only 

badan and yer agree with the Definite Article). 

wahh badan o barls la kali bring us plenty of rice 

wahh ka yer i si give me less 



rag badan 
raga badan 

ragi badna 

fardo yer 

nin un, mid un 

inta kaleh aur gdniah u sara 

fardu o dan 



many men 

all those men (i.e. those many 

men) 
the many men 
a few horses 

any man, anything at all 
put the rest on a separate camel 
all the horses 



MOODS AND TENSES 111 

wahh hoga o ragas a few of those men 

in yer o sanadukhda a few of those boxes 

nefka gonigaah that animal apart 

210. The Indefinite Pronouns are made negative by the suffix 
-na, but the verb is also used in the negative form. 

ninna ma iman no one has come 

'idna i ma arkin no one saw me 

midna maan tabin I did not touch one 

wahh is used with ba : 

wahhba doni mayo I do not want anything 

wahhba heli mayso you will get nothing 



6. The Verb. 

(a) The Moods and Tenses. 

211. The Imperative Mood has only one tense, and expresses a 
command, wish, or permission. 

The 2nd pers. sing, is the Verb Root, from which are formed all 
other parts of the verb. 

The 2nd pers. plur. is formed by adding -a (2nd conjugation -da) 
tag, taga; jogso, jogsoda; shakhei, shakheya. 

For the other persons the Aorist Subjunctive tense is used, with 
particles an (1st pers.) and ha (3rd pers.) in the Affirmative. 
an tagno let us go 

ha yimado let him come 

212. The particle bal is very commonly used with the Im- 
perative, but is hardly translatable. 

bal en ego let me look then 

bal kali come then 

It is not used with the 3rd person. 

213. The Negative Imperative may be emphasized by the 
particle ba : 

ha t6gin ba see that you don't go at all 

or by weliga never 

w£liga wahhas ha tabin never you touch that 



112 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

214. The Infinitive is only used with auxiliary verbs, 

ddn will jir be accustomed to laha would kar be able 

wa ku shegi ddna I am going to tell you 

halkas an fadlyl jirei that is where I used to live 

{Note that the accent is placed on the last syllable of the Infinitive 
before jir, and, in the 2nd and 3rd Conjugations, before laha.) 

ainkas ma ghob6n lahaid P would you have done like that ? 
ma so'on karta P can you walk ? 

The auxiliary and principal verbs are treated as one, and are not 
separated by any particles at any time. 

ku ma arki karo I cannot see you 

Somalidu ainkas ma ghobon Somalis cannot do like that 
karto 

In the Future Definite, the auxiliary is often dropped, 
wa yeli I am going to do it 

u shSgi I will tell him 

The Infinitive is the basis from which all Imperfect tenses and 
most Negative tenses are formed. 

215. The Verb-Adjective and Verb-Noun have been described 
in Accidence (§§ 15 (b), 72). 

216. Aorist Indicative. 

This tense ordinarily expresses a habitual or customary act, 
without the emphasis on the habit implied in the Present Habitual. 

Siraklshu timir ma 'unta P do officers eat dates ? 

Tomalidu iyo Midgu wa iss Tomals and Midgans intermarry 

gursada 

rSrkayaga gu walba 'elasha- my family is accustomed to draw 

tan ka so damin jira from these wells every summer 

217. It also indicates what is to be done, or can be done : 

hagge 16 mara Burao P how (by what way) does one go 

to Burao ? 
hilibmagalodamalagalbsoda? is meat to be bought in the town? 
haggeinu tagna ? wahhaidin where are we to go ? you are to 
taktan, Bohotleh. go to Bohotleh (cf. §§ 192, 193). 



MOODS AND TENSES 113 

wahhad tidahhda you are to say this, or, do you say 

this? 
ma tura P am I to throw it away ? or, shall 

I throw it away? 
ma ku kena ? shall I bring it to you ? 

218. The 3rd person of this tense is used to translate the 
Present Participle, or relative clause. 

nin af yaghan a man knowing the language 

shimbir forida a singing bird 

isago gddka hurda while he was asleep by the tree 

219. The Preterite expresses a completed act in past time, 
shalei bu yimi he came yesterday 

Farah i shdgei intanad iman Farah had told me before you 

came 

220. Or an act just completed at the present time (usually 
found with wa) (§ 142 <I). 

sirkalku wa tegei manta the officer has gone to-day 

shalei sirkalku tegei the officer went yesterday 

221. The Present Continuative expresses either a continuous 
action in present time, or an intention or willingness, as in English. 

hagge t6gesa P where are you going ? 

akhal ban dfseya I am building a house 

nag ban gursaneya I am going to marry a wife 

la'ag ban ku slneya I will give you money 

mahhad iga slsonesa ? what will you give me for it ? 

ma garanesa ? do you understand (what I am 

saying) ? 

but, af Somali ma garata ? do you understand Somali ? 
(Aorist) 

222. The Past Continuative expresses a continuous, or 
incompleted action, in past time. 

faras ban fuleyei I was riding a horse 

223. The Future Definite is a deliberate statement of what is 
about to happen. 

wa tegi ddna I am going to go 

mahhad y&li dbnta ? what are you going to do ? 

k. 8 



114 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

224. The Present and Past Habitual express a usual occur- 
rence or habit. 

subahh walba Farah ba auski Farah usually fetches the grass 

so ghadi jira every morning 

bSrigi hdre Somalidu fardo formerly the Somalis used to 

badan lahain jirtei possess many ponies 

225. The Conditional is used whenever a condition exists, 
whether expressed or understood. It refers to all times, and cannot 
be used except in the Principal sentence. 

wa ku sin laha I should, or should have given you 

hadan arko wa garan laha if I saw him I should recognise 

him 

226. The Potential expresses suggestion, possibility, or proba- 
bility, and is often used euphemistically for the Future Definite. 
It is very common in songs. 

mala iman ddne he may probably come 

insha Allahh wa la hele please God, we may find it 

an walalka dilne we might kill your brother 

iman ddne iyo iman mayo, he may come or not, I don't know 

war ma hayo 

wahha kasta ad araktide, ha whatever you may see, do not stop 

jogson 

in kasta ha jirte, wa gadeya however far it may be, I will 

reach it 

227. The Subjunctive tenses are only used in Subordinate or 
Relative clauses, and will be dealt with in the sections referring to 
them. 



(b) The Persons. 

228. The 2nd pers. and 3rd fern. sing, are denoted by t, or s, 
in the tense termination. 

The 1st pers. plur. is denoted by n. 

The 1st pers. plur. of the verb has only one form for both the 
inclusive and exclusive pronouns. 

The 2nd pers. plur. must always be used in addressing more 
than one person. 



NEGATIVE TENSES 115 

Concord of verbs with nouns has been described already under 
Syntax of Nouns (§ 165). 

229. The Emphatic pronouns anigu, aniga, etc. (§ 55) have 
different constructions. 

After the -u form ; 

the verb is regularly inflected to agree with the various 

persons, 
the particle wa is usually employed in Affirmative Sentences, 
the particle ma, in Interrogative sentences, follows the 
pronoun. 
anigu wa tegeya I am going 

adigu wa t6gesa thou art going 

Idinku ma t6gesan ? are you going ? 

iyagu t6gi mayan they are not going 

After the -a form ; 

the 3rd pers. sing, is used for all persons except the 1st pers. 

plur. 
the particle ba is used in Affirmations, 
the Interrogative particle ma precedes the pronoun, 
aniga ba shakhdineya it is I who am working 

adiga ba shakhSineya it is thou who art working 

annaga keligaya ba hadnei we alone were left 
ma adiga arkei P was it thou who sawest ? 

ma iyaga t§geya ? is it they who are going ? 

(c) Formation of Negative Tenses. 

230. The Negative particles are, 

ha used in 2nd pers. Imperative, 
yan „ 1st and 3rd pers. Imperative, 
ma „ Indicative mood, in Statements, 
an ,, Subjunctive mood, Dependent or Relative clauses, and 

Questions. 

Forms of the Verb. 

231. (i) The Aorist Indicative (statements) is conjugated like 
the Definite Subjunctive Affirmative, with the particle ma, and 
no Personal Pronouns. 

ma j6go he is not here 

8—2 



116 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

232. (ii) Conditional 1 n is added to the Affirmative Poten- 
and Potential. J tial. This is conjugated with ma 

and the Personal Pronouns. 

maan garten I should not understand 

233. (iii) Imperative, Preterite and Aorist Subjunctive (state- 
ments), n is added to the Infinitive (in the 2nd and 3rd Conjuga- 
tions the Infinitive already ends in n, and is therefore unaltered). 

This is not conjugated in the persons, except in the Imperative, 
in which the 2nd pers. plur. takes -a in the 1st conjugation, -ina in 
the 2nd and 3rd conjugations. 

ha shSgin (2nd sing.) do not tell 

ha dilina (2nd plur.) do not kill 

ha jdgsonina (2nd plur.) do not stop 

yanu (contracted to yu) dilin let him not kill 

yanai ( „ yai) gursan let them not marry 

maan tegin I did not go 

inanad t6gin ban ddneya I want you not to go 

maainu so'on karin we were unable to walk 

234. (iv) The Continuative tenses of the Indicative and 
Subjunctive have already been described in § 92. 

235. (v) In all Negative Interfogative tenses (except the 
Conditional), the particle an is used. 

Simple tenses (Aorist, Preterite, Aorist Subj.) have the simple, 
Infinitive, form as in (iii). 

Continuative tenses have the form used in Past Continuative 
(statements) and Continuative Subjunctive. 

mianan ku sh£gin ? do, or, did I not tell you ? 

mianad Sirkal la jogin P are, or, were you not with an 

officer ? 
mianu imaninin P is, or, was he not coming ? 

Imisa nin an teginin P how many men are not coming ? 

Imisa nin busta an lahain P how many men have no blanket ? 



PARTICLES 



117 



7. The Particles. 

(a) Order. 

236. The Verbal Particles and the Personal Pronouns are all 
placed in front of the verb. Where more than one are found to the 
same verb, they follow a strict rule as to their relative positions, 
having, so to speak, separate values, or affinities with the verb, so 
that the particle or pronoun having the greatest affinity with the 
verb is placed immediately before the verb, the others preceding it in 
the order of their affinities, as in the following table. 

(A has the greatest affinity, H the least.) 



H 


G 


F 


E 


D 


C 


B 


A 




ma? 

(§ 145) 
wa 


an 

(Neg.) 


Pers. 
Pron. 
(subj.) 


Pers. 
Pron. 
(obj.) 


U 

ku 


ma 

(Neg.) 
(§ 145) 


SO 

si 


kala 
wada 


VERB 


ba 








ka 










ya 








la 











Examples, 
H G F E D B A 

mi-an-ad na la so wada kahain ? 

B A 
so kala diga 

F E C B 

lei (la i) ma so dlbin 

H D 

ma kii jira P 
D c 
ku ma jiro 

FED 

mahhad igu sheg-weidei P 



did you not bring all 
with us ? 

put down here separately 

it has not been handed me 

is it there ? 

it is not there 

why did you not tell me ? 



(6) Uses. 

237. Particles have been divided (§§ 124—127) into Verbal 
and Conjunctive. 

The Syntax of Conjunctive Particles will be found in the 
section on Coordinate and Subordinate sentences (Part iv). 



118 SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

The Verbal Particles may be Adverbial or Prepositional. Ad- 
verbial particles, as the name implies, qualify the verb. (i) They 
indicate Affirmation, Interrogation or Negation (ha, ma, an, yan, 
wa, ba, ya). These have all their special uses and constructions, 
(ii) They may correspond to certain simple adverbs or prepositions. 

The latter are used in close relation with a verb, and are an 
essential feature of the language. By suitable combinations a 
number of changes may be rung, a variety of meanings given to one 
verb, and expressions which would otherwise require paraphrasing 
put more concisely. 

(c) Adverbial Particles (wada, kala, si, so). 

238. wada (all, whole) may be used with the verb alone, or in 
addition to the indefinite parts of speech, kulli, gidi, 6 dan, etc. 

sanadiikhdi 6 dan wada k6na bring all the .boxes to- 

gether 
Somalidu 6 dan wa ku wada taghan all the Somalis know you 

239. kala apart, in different ways 

siraklshi iyo aurti wa kala the officers are travelling apart 

dahhaisa from the camels 

side la kala garta P how does one distinguish them ? 

ninki hhuma iyo ninki wanak- do you know the difference be- 

sana ma kala taghan P tween a good and a bad man ? 

wa kala jerebeya fardaha I am trying the ponies (for 

comparison) 

It may be used with verbs, adjectives, or nouns (cf. § 177). 
kala bihhi unfold, expand 

kala ddro take your choice 

wa kala dereyan they are not as fast as each 

other 
wa kala der they are different lengths 

240. si, so (§ 125) are used with the Verb Nouns as well as 
with other parts of the verb. 

si so'odki the march out 

so nokhodki the return 



PARTICLES 119 

(d) Prepositional particles (ku, u, ka, la). 

241. These cannot be treated as true prepositions, as they do 
not govern a noun, but only qualify the meaning of a verb in such 
a way as to render a preposition unnecessary. 

tag go Farah u tag go to (approach) Farah 

mesha ka taga go from (leave) that place 
u tag go to (him), and ka tag depart, may be used alone, without 
any object being expressed. 

These particles are not attached to the noun governed by the 
English preposition to which they correspond, while on the other 
hand they cannot be separated from the verb by any part of speech 
except other particles or a personal pronoun. 

Examples, 

ka taga mesha leave that place 

sandukha (the box) ghalabka take out the things from the 

ka bihhi box 

mahhad ku falesa hadiga what are you doing with that 

(rope) P rope ? 

wahhba lagu ma falo nothing is done with (it) 

These particles are so much a part of the verb with which they are 
used that in many cases new meanings may be derived. 

Example, 

ka tag (leave, depart from) is used in the sense of leaving an 
object at a place. 

lehh nin ba mesha laga tegei, literally, one went from 
six men there, i.e. six men were left there. 

haggu ka tegei gela ? where did he go from the camels ? 
i.e. where did he leave the camels ? 

Other similar cases will be quoted under each particle. 

242. ku (i) at, upon, in, into. 

magaloda agt&da bu ku arkei near the town he saw six girls 

lehh gabdod o 'el ku maid6neya washing at a well 
gdd bu ku hedna he was tied to a tree 

nin faras ku jdga a man on a horse 



120 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



'anihi yu sibrar ku lissei 
(ii) with, by means of. 
ha mindi ku tabin 
wahhba laugu ma falo 
banadukhdi bei ugu dishei 



the milk he milked into a skin 

do not touch it with a knife 
nothing is done with it 
they shot them with the rifles 



243. ku, or u for, on account of, for the sake of. 



244. 



he is gone for water 

then they died of thirst 

I am going to kill the mare for 

your stepmother 
I am owed two rupees by you 
why did you go ? 

u is used with certain nouns in an adverbial sense. 



blyo bu ku maghanyahai 
kolkasei harad u bakhtlyen 
genyoda yan u ghaleya ayoda 

laba rubod ban ugu lehahai 
mahhad u taktei P 



speak up 
sit back 
go quickly 

go to the officer 
teach 

where have you come from ? 
take the thing out of the box 
my flocks have been looted 
from me 

wherever I looked, I could not 
find it 
kolkei mesha ka dgen, wa ka when they looked there, they 

waiyen could not find her 

mahhad ka baghatei P what are you afraid of? 

ka tag go from, i.e. leave, is also used in the sense of leaving a 

thing at a place. 
lehh nin ba m£sha laga t6gei six men were left there 
fnanki ba Inanti uga t6gei wan the boy left the girl a ram 

across, over, through. 
ka talab step across 

ka bdd jump over 



ad u hadal 
dib u fadlso 
dakhso u tag 

u to (a person). 
sirkalka u tag 
udig 

245. ka from, out of, off 
hagge ka timi P 

ghalabki sandukha ka so ghad 
hdlahaigi leiga hadei 

Idiomatic uses of ka. 
mel walba an ka ddneyo, ka 
wai 



PARTICLES 121 

hdggi darta bei ka so dustei she came through the hole in 

the wall 
about, concerning, as to. 

war ma ka haisa ninka P have you news of the man ? 

war ka ma hayo I have no news (of him), 

dolada ban ka shakhdineya I am working for the Govern- 
ment 

lug ban ka jabei I have broken my leg 

mahhad uga hadlesa ? what are you grumbling at ? 

manhad iga sls6nesa P what will you give me for it ? 

246. kaga upon, against 

kolkasu madaha kaga diftei then he struck it upon the head 

wahhai rlyotei lyadu laba shim- she dreamed that two birds sat 

birod labada lugod kaga jbgta upon her two legs 

kaga rid shoot 

nin sirkal rasas ba ku da'dei, a bullet struck an officer, and 

b6dodi kaga da'dei hit him on the thigh 

247. la together with 

In addition to having the simple meaning of the preposition, 
la is used in certain euphemistic and other phrases, 
la tag } 

la so'o I steal, loot (literally, go off with) 
la bdb J 

la kali bring (a thing) 

la sorod (so 6rod) bring (a person) 

la jbg halt, cause to halt 

la bahso escape with, save 

la jbg, la fadiso live with (as a servant) 

248. The reflexive pronoun iss is used with the particles ka, 
ku, u. It is usually contracted to 'ss ka, 'ss ku (pronounced ska, 
sku). 

249. iss ka, 'ss ka, 

used in abrupt commands. 

'ss ka tag go away ! 

'ss ka bahha get away with you ! 

'ss ka eg look out ! 

'ss ka da never mind ! 



122 



SYNTAX OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 



With other tenses it may be translated by "just," " simply." 
wa 'ss ka fadlya I am just sitting down 

wa 'ss ka dintei he simply died (i.e. a natural 

death) 



250. iss ku, 'ss ku, iss u 

iss ku dowada ! 

'ss ku lablab 

'ss ku tbl 

iss u gei 

iss u dar, or 'ss ku dar 

tollollki wa iss u jiran 

It is the opposite of kala (cf. 
sidei iss ku yihin P 
'ss ku mid 
'ss ku toll 
'ss ku aba 
'ss ku lb 



with one another, together. 

close together ! 
fold up together 
sew together 
bring together 
mix together 

the tribes are all together 
(mixed up) 
§§177 and 239). 

how do they compare ? 

the same 

of the same tribe 

(children) of the same father 

of the same price 



PART IV. SYNTAX OF COMPOUND 
SENTENCES. 



251. Compound Sentences consist of more than one simple 
sentence, and may be Coordinate or Subordinate. 

A. Coordinate Sentences. 

252. Coordinate sentences are principal sentences, not de- 
pendent on one another, but connected by simple copulative or 
conjunctive particles, as "and," "or," "but," and having their 
verbs in the same mood. 

Conjunctive Particles. 

253. iyo and (used only between two substantives). 
Farah iyo aniga Farah and I 

or, in the following cases : 
laba iyo sadehh two or three, i.e. a few 

hadad takto iyo hadi kaleh if you go or otherwise 

inei fdgtahai iyo in k&leh so find out if it is far or other- 
hubso wise 

254. o and (not used to connect substantives). 

kolkas askarrti dibadda u bahh- then the soldiers turned out 
dei o '6ridei and drove them away 

It is also used, 
(i) between two epithets governing one noun. 
niman badan o wawein many big men 

laba faras o wan&ksan two good horses 

laba askari o faras ku jdgta two soldiers on horseback 



124 SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 

(ii) with the Indicative tenses of the verb to translate the 
English participles. 

wahhai arken inanti o dlrti they saw the girl sitting in the 

fadida trees 

rerkbdi o la da'ei bu arkei he found his family looted 

hblihlsi an ka ghadno, isago let us loot his flocks while he 

(isaga o) shirka ku maghan- is away at the council 

yahai 

(iii) as meaning because, 
wa lo takhslrei o iyagu shiik- they were punished because 
hulki ghobon waiyen they would not do the work 

(iv) in the idiom o mahai without (Conditional). 
ha s6 nokhon o bandukhi heli do not come back without 

mahai finding the rifle 

aniga o fasahhi mahai ha ka do not leave the enclosure 

t6gina heroda without my leave 

255. -na and, usually introduces a new subject. 
adiguna mahhad donesa P and you, what do you want ? 
dabadedna and afterwards 

midna wa wanaksanyahai, one is good and one is bad 
midna wa hhunyahai 

-na followed by a negative verb means " no." 

ninna ma jbgo no one is here 

midna ma tegin not one went 

256. For other particles, see § 127, and Syntax of Compound 
Sentences, Final and Conditional. 



B. Subordinate Sentences. 

257. A Subordinate sentence is one which depends on, or 
represents some part of speech in, the principal sentence, and is 
connected with it by a conjunction or relative pronoun. It may 
represent 

Substantive, Adjective, or Adverb. 



ADJECTIVAL SENTENCES 



125 



1. General Rules. 

258. In all Subordinate sentences, if the verb is in Past time, 
the Indicative mood is used, except in Conditional sentences. In 
Present or Future time the Indicative or Subjunctive may be used. 

The Subjunctive is used to express uncertainty, or what is in 
the mind of the speaker, while the Indicative is confined to definite 
facts. 

The negative particle in all Subordinate clauses is an (cf. § 274, 
note). 

2. Adjectival Sentences. 

259. In English these sentences are usually introduced by a 
relative pronoun, "who," "whom," "which," etc., but the Somali 
has no such pronoun. 

The clause therefore follows directly after the Antecedent, as in 
many cases in English. 

Where the English relative pronoun would be the subject of the 
relative clause, no personal pronoun is used in Somali as subject to 
the verb in the clause. 



nimanka, halkb fadlyan, u yed 

askarrti, hujuddas samelsei, 
takhslr 'ulus bei lehdahai 

ninki, aminkan 1 arkeyei, haggu 2 
ka'ei ? 

fardihi, shalei ni^jorku Ibshei 3 , 
wa la'ag badna 4 

hdlihi, saka la kenei, ma la so 
wada arbriyei ? 

dadka, gellsi la da'ei, wa yimi 

ninki, ai 5 akhalklsa fadidei, 
yu ku yidi 



call those men, who are sitting 

over there 
the soldiers, who committed 

that crime, deserve a heavy 

punishment 

where has the man gone, whom 

I saw just now ? 
the ponies the major bought 

yesterday cost a lot of money 

have the animals, which were 

brought this morning, been 

all watered? 
the people, whose camels were 

looted, have come 
he said to the man, whose 

house she was in 



1 foajafa an. 2 hagge u. 

3 Cf. note to Table III. § 105. * Cf. § 114. 

6 Pronounced as one word ninkyai. ai=she. 



126 



SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 



wilki, an waranki ka ghadei, 

wa adaneya 
ninki, an hbla lahain, wahhba 

ma taro 
faraski, an blyo badan ddnin, 

biladkan ku wanaksanyahai 1 



the boy I took the spear from 

is angry 
the man, who has no property, 

is of no use 
the horse, which does not want 

much water, is good for this 

country 



260. The particle e, followed by the Indicative mood, is used 
apparently as a relative pronoun, where the latter is the subject of 
the verb in the clause, usually when the antecedent is also qualified 
by another epithet, such as an adjective or numeral. 

shanti fnan, e gabdihi gursadei, the five boys, who married the 

u yimaden 
Inanka H. B., e gabaddaidi ye- 

reid gursadei, yan u dlbei 

hukumka 



girls, came 
I have given authority to the 
boy H. B., who married my 
young daughter 



261. The Conjunction o is used with the Indicative mood to 
translate the English participles, or an adjectival clause, when it is 
literally only a coordinate sentence. 

wahhan arkei lehh gabdod o 'el 

ku maid6neya 
wahhai arakta labadi shim- 

birod, o labadi lugod kaga 

joga 
rerkddi o la da'ei bu arkei, o 

'oil da'ei 
wahha ugu yimi afar nin, intas 

o midna an u garanin 



I saw six girls washing at a 

well 
s"he sees the two birds sitting 

upon her two legs 

he found his family looted, 

looted by an enemy 
there came to her four men, 

none of whom recognised her 



262. The Subjunctive mood is used in Present or Future tenses, 
where the relative clause refers to a group, clasSj sort, or purpose. 

ninki shukhul dbneyo ha yi- the man that wants work let 

mado him come 

geli la ibfneyo mid ka kahhaiso take for yourself one of the 

camels that are for sale 



1 Pronounced wan&ks6nyahal. 



ADVERBIAL SENTENCES 127 

mindi la kali an kibisti ku bring a knife for me to cut 

gogoiyo the bread with 

blyo an 'abo i ken bring me water to drink 

263. "He who," "they who," etc., are translated by the 
definite pronouns, ki, kuer, etc. 

ki shalei la Ibsotei wa h6g the one that was bought yester- 
weinyahai day is strong 

kuer saka yfmaden wa jdgan those who came this morning 

are here 

kuer an busta lahain, iyo kuer those who have no blanket, 
lehyihin and those who have 

264. "That which," "something which," "what," are translated 
by wahh, wihhi. 

wahhan ku idi yel do what I told you 

wahhad kento i tus shew me what you bring 

wahh lagu fadlsto i ken bring me something to sit on 

wihhi ad heshei i si give me what you found 

3. Adverbial Sentences. 

265. (a) Temporal and Locative sentences. 

These are essentially adjectival clauses qualifying an adverb 
of Time or Place, 

meshi akhalki la diseya bu he is sitting where the house 

fadlya is being built 

mahhad iss tidi markad wahhas what were you thinking of when 

sameinesei P you did that ? 

kolkan imaneyei libahh ban while I was coming I saw a 

arkei lion 

meshian 'ashodi doweida jdgei unload the kit where I stopped 

ghalabka diga the other day 

266. The Subjunctive is required when referring to any future 
time, or when the sense is general or indefinite. 

kolki hukumka leidin 1 shego when you are given an order, 
wahhba weidina* don't ask questions 

i la ldin. 

2 Negative particle ha may be omitted after negative words, as wahhba, 
wellga, etc. 



128 



SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 



kolku yimado i so sheg when he comes, tell me 

mel wanaksan-einu degno so go and find a good place for 
ddn us to camp 

267. " while " is translated by inti or o. 



intei habasha ghodeyen, yei ka 

gurgiiratei 
fsago hajki ku maghana, ya 

nagtlsi dadabtei 



while they were digging the 
grave, she crawled away 

while he was away on the 
pilgrimage, his wife had a 
dream 



268. until, as far as, inti. 

intan so nokhdo mesha jdgsoda wait there until I come back 
fadi inti shekada damaneso wait until the story is finished 

intad so'on karto so'o go as far as you can 

269. before that, intan (inti-an). 

(Here an is the neg. part., and the Verb is used in the negative.) 

intanan so nokhon ha ka t6gina don't go away before I come 

back 
inteidinan deginin, ana wa idin I will catch you up before you 
gadeya halt 



270. after, kolki...dabaded. 
kolkan Badwein ka tegei, da- 
baded mahha ka da'ei P 

kolkad BSrberah timid, daba- 

d£dto wa la helei 
kolkad sida yesho, dabad6d 

akhalka gal 



after I left Badwein, what 
happened ? (When I left B., 
afterwards what happened ?) 

it was found after you came to 
Berberah 

after you have done that, 
enter the house 



271. (b) Final sentences : " in order that," in. 

Always used with the Subjunctive. 
magalodan' ghobdneya inan I am going to Berberah to 
barls iyo timir so dbnto fetch rice and dates 



magiloda an. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 129 

nimanka igu yeda, inan la call those men that I may 

hadlo talk to them 

mesha 'ss ka dumo, inan lagu hide there that you may not 

arkin be seen 

272. (c) Conditional Sentences. 
If, hadi. 

A Conditional sentence consists of two parts, 

the Protasis, or Condition or Assumption, and the Apodosis, 
or Conclusion. 

273. (i) Assumptions. Indicative mood in both. 

hadad moskhln tahai, mahhad if you are a pauper (as you 

u shakheison weida ? say), why do you not work ? 

hadanad moskhln ahain, mahh- if you are not a pauper, why 

ad u shakhefsata ? do you work ? 

hadad magaloda tegesa, Sul- if you are (really) going to the 

danka u tag town, go to the Sultan 

hadanu imaninin, sugi mayo if he is not coming, I will not 

wait 
hadad jdgtei, mahhad ark- if you were there, what did 

esei P you see ? 

hadanad jdgin, sidad dgtahai ? if you were not there, how do 

you know ? 

274. (ii) Future Definite Condition, or Promise. 
Protasis — Aorist Subjunctive. 

Apodosis — Future Indicative or Imperative, 
hadu yimado, u shegi ddna if he comes, I am going to tell 

him 
hadad tegi weido 1 (or hadanad if you do not go, you will be 
tegin), wa lagu ghoboneya caught 

275. (iii) Present or Past Unfulfilled condition {Imaginary). 
Protasis — Aorist Subjunctive. 

Apodosis — Conditional. 
hadeinu Berberah jdgno, la'agti- if we were in Berberah, I should 
an ku sin laha give you the money 

1 The verb wan (§ 117) is often used in Conditional sentences to translate the 
negative verb, in place of the particle an with a negative tense. 



130 SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 

hadaneinu BSrberah jbgin, if we were not in Berberah, 

wahha badan maan ku I should not give you so 

slyen much 

hadad shalei takto, wa u if you had gone yesterday, 

ghobon lahaid you would have caught him 

hadanad Adan olli jirin, wah- if you had not been living in 

has maad garaten Aden, you would not have 

understood that 

276. (iv) Future Indefinite Condition, or Suggestion. 

Protasis — Continuative Subjunctive. 
Apodosis — Conditional, or Neg. Pres. Continuative. 
hadannu berrl t§geno, ninki- if we were to go to-morrow, 

annu ghob6n lahain we should catch the man 

hadanannu teginin, ghobon if we were not to go, we 
mayno should not catch him 

Note. In a long sentence the Conjunction, Neg. Part., and 
Pronoun, may be split up. 

hadiad shukhulka an ddneya if you do not do the work I 
anad gh6bonin, shukhul- wish, you are no good to 
kaiga ku ma wanaksanid me 

277. Whether... or... is translated by hadi...iyo hadi.... 
hadad doneso iyo hadanad whether you want to or not, go 

ddninin, iss ka tag 

or by ama...ama, followed by the Imperative. 
ama ha samado ama ha hhu- whether it is good or bad, do it 
mado, yel 

278. "unless," "without," may be translated by o...mahai. 
ha s6 nokhon, bandukhi o heli do not return, without finding 

mahai the rifle 

279. (d) Causal sentences. 

There is no conjunction meaning "because," but o is used in the 
following way. 
wa lagu takhslrei o adigu shuk- you were punished because you 

hulki ghobon wai would not do the work 

wahhan ku adadei, o lyagu laba I was angry, because they were 

aa'adod ka ragen two hours late 



SUBSTANTIVAL SENTENCES 131 

280. (e) Concessive sentences (although). 

There is no conjunction, but they may be translated as the last, 
or paraphrased. 

halkanad tillen, haddana daugi you do not know the road, 
ma taghanin although you have lived here 

281. The conjunctions ending in -soever are Concessive. 
They may be used with Subjunctive or Potential or Imperative, 
wihhi kasta ad sameineso, whatever you may be doing, 

mesha ka kali come away from there 

o is usually added to the Imperative, 

wahh kasta makhla-o, ha so whatever you hear, do not 

nokhonina come back 

dal kasta ghobo-o, si so'o however tired you are, go on 

wahh kasta ha ku shego, ha whatever he tells you, do not 

makhlin listen 

'id kasta ha gursado, wahhba whomsoever he marries, I will 

u sin mayo give him nothing 

In the following the Potential Tense is used, 
wahh kasta an arke, jdgson whatever I may see, I will not 

mayo stop 

in kasta ha ahaden, wa 'eriyena however many they may be, 

we will defeat them 
in kasta ha jirte, wa gadeya however far it may be, I am 

going to reach it 
wahh kasta ad araktide, ha whatever you may see, do not 
jdgson stop 

4. Substantival Sentences. 

282. These sentences stand in relation to a Principal sentence, 
as Substantives, and may be either the subject or object of the 
principal verb (or an Indefinite Pronoun or Adverbial Noun). They 
are introduced by in (that), followed by the Subjunctive in Present 
or Future time, by the Indicative in Past time. 

283. (a) As Subject. 

in la jedlo ma wanaksana it is not good to be whipped 

inad hilibkas 'unto wa haran it is unlawful for you to eat 

that meat 

9—2 



132 



SYNTAX OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 



284. (b) As Object. 

(i) Indirect statement, thought, wish, etc. 
wahhannu ddnena inad sor we want you to give us food 

na slso 
wahhan ddneya inan Adan 

tago, or inan Adan tago ban 

ddneya 
wa u maleineya in rdbku di'i 

ddno 
kolkasu oghadei in rag u yimi 

inanti 
kolkasa wadadki dama'ei inu 

araro 



I want to go to Aden 



I think the rain is going to fall 



then he learned that men came 

to the girl 
then the priest tried to run 

away 



285. (ii) Simple indirect questions. 



inu yimi so hubso 

bal inei fdgtahai so weidi 

inu tSgeyo iyo in kaleh war ' 

ma hayo 
moyi inanu fulan oghbn iyo 

inarm ddnin 



find out if he came 

go and ask if it is far 

I do not know if he is coming 

or not 
I do not know if he does not 

know how to ride or if he 

does not want to 



286. (iii) Indirect questions, introduced by interrogative 
pronouns. 



'id u yahai so ddn 

hadanad oghbn 'iddi goi'sei, 

mahhan ku sameyaP 
wuhhu ddneyo weidi 
weidi bal wahhai ka bagha- 

neyan 
i sheg wahhai u shakhein 

wayen 

287. (iv) Indirect questions, introduced by interrogative 
adverbs. 

hdluhu intei yihin ma ku did he tell you how many 
shegei ? animals there are ? 

1 =1 have no news. 



find out who he is 

if you do not know who cut 

them, what am I to do? 
ask what he wants 
ask what they are frightened of 

tell me why they would not 
work 



ORATIO OBLIQUA 133 

so eg inti tambukhi leheg- go and look how big the tent is 
yahai 

meshas int6i jirto war ma how far that place is I do not 

hayo know 

mel u jiro garan wai I do not know where it is. 

gor u si so'6neyo war ma do you know when he is going 

haisa P on ? 

5. Oratio Obliqua. 

288. In narrative there is no oratio obliqua in Somali, but 
after the verbs, ' say ' ' tell ' (odo, sheg), the oratio recta is re- 
peated. 

The pronouns, wahhan, etc., are generally used. 

wuhhu yidi, " libahh ban he said he had seen a lion 

arkei " 

wuhhu yidi, "wa idin ka he said he would follow on 

daba so so'oneya " after you 

wahhad na tidi, " gel badan you told us we should get many 

beidin h§lesan " camels 

wahhad tidahhda, " sor ban tell him I want food 

ddneya " 
wahhad tidahhda, " 'ss ka tell them to go away 

taga" 

289. In place of wahha, wa ti is often used with the 
pronouns. 

watan ku idi, " s6 nokho " I told you to come back 

watad tidi, " 'ss ka j6g " you told me to stay 

warakhdi me ? wa ti la gubei where is the letter ? that was 

burned 



APPENDIX I. 



Seasons in Somaliland. 

Jilal January — March 

(Kalil) April 

Gil May— June (S.W. Monsoon) 

Hagar July — October (Karif on the coast) 

Dair November — December (N.E. Monsoon) 

Names of months (corresponding to the Arabic). 

Arabic. Somali. 

Moharram Dago 

Safar Durahh hore 

Rabia al Awal Durahh dambe 

Rabia al Akhir Rajal hore 

Jumad al Awal Rajal dehhe 

Jumad al Akhir Rajal dambe 

Rajab Sa buha 

Shaaban Wa barls 

Ramadhan S6n (or Soukad) 

Shawal S6n fur 

Dhul Kada Sidatal 

Dhul Hijjah Arafo 

Days of the week are the same as Arabic. 

Monday Isnin-ti Friday Jima'-i 

Tuesday Salasa-di Saturday Sabti-di 

Wednesday Rabuhh-i Sunday Ahad-di 

Thursday Khamis-ki 



APPENDIX I 



135 



Times of the day and night. 
The Arabic times of prayer are freely used. 



a.m. 6 


wa beri ) 
arorti ' 




sunrise 


> 




6—8 


subahh-di 
barghaddi hore 
barisaddi hore 




early grazing 
early rice 


| 




8—9 


barghad-di 
barisad-di 




grazing time 
rice time 


^gelinkahore 




9—10 


barghaddi kululeid 


hot grazing 






10—12 


marki hadki so 


koreisa 






p.m. 12—2 


had-ki / 
gadid-ki ) 




noon 


■ 'asho- 


2—3.30 


duhur-ki 




\ galab-ti, 




3.30—6 


asar-ki 




- gdlinka 




6 


makhrib-ki 




sunset j dambe 




6—7 


fldki 








7—10 


aweisin-ki 




1 






10—12 


sakhdi hore 










a.m. 12—2 

2—4 


sakhdi (dehh) 
sakhdi dambe 






► haben-ki 




4—6 


arorti hore ) 
saladdi > 














J 








The 


time of day, etc. 




arorta 




in the early morning 




sa ka 




this morning 




galabta 




this evening 




manta 




to-day 




awa 




to-night 




shalei-to 




yesterday 




halei-to 




last night 




haben hore 




the night before last 




shalei galab 




yesterday evening 




dorrad-to 




the day before yesterday 




'ashodi hore | 
'ashodi doweidj 


the other day 




berrl-to 




to-morrow 




berri arorta 




to-morrow morning 




sa dambe 




the day after to-morrow 




sa kub 




the day after the day after to-morro 1 




haben dambe 




to-morrow ni 


ght 





APPENDIX II. 



la'ag-ti 

mushaharo-di 

hisab-ti 

sarrif-ki 

dahab-ki 

rubiad-di 

rubi-gi 

b61ad-di 

antln-ti 

gambo-di 

beisad-di 

ardi-di 



Money. 

money, silver 

wages 

account 

small change 

gold 

rupee (pi. rubod) 

\ rupee, 8 annas 

4 annas 

2 annas 

anna 

2 pies 

1 pie 



Weight. 



misan-ki 


weight, scales 


rodol-ki 


pound 


nus rodol 


\ pound 


waghed-dj 


4 oz. 



Measure. 

ba'-i "fathom" (roughly 5 ft. 10 in.) used in 

measuring rope 
gedi-gi a camel's march (about 9 miles) 

laba gedi a day's march 

nus gedi a half march (4 or b miles) 



138 




APPENDIX III. 



A knowledge of the chief tribes of Somalis is important, in 
order to identify individuals, as, in any official description of a man, 
the native custom of describing him by name and sub-tribe is 
adhered to. The relationships of the tribes are also most important 
in any dealings with the people. These are very confusing at first, 
as, for instance, three brothers may correctly describe themselves 
respectively as Abdallah Ismail, Hersi Bareh, and Rer Sugulli, at 
first sight three different tribes. 

The following are only the better known tribes ; for further 
details, Cox's Genealogies may be consulted. 

The inhabitants of the country are divided into 

ASHA, or GOB ISHHAK 

(Noble birth) 

DARUD 
DIR ESA 

GADABURSI 
SAB (outcast) HAWIYA 

TOMAL 

MIDGAN 

YIBIR 

None of these eight tribes have any known relationship with one 
another, within the history of Somalis as a race, except perhaps the 
TOMAL, who are said by some to be a branch of the DARUD ; 
and the DIR, who may be a branch of the ISHHAK. 

The ISHHAK are divided into four, or usually five, great 
divisions, called 

HABR AWAL 

HABR GERHAJIS (EIDEGALLA 

lHABR YUNIS 
ARAB 
HABR TOLJALA 



140 



APPENDIX III 



The ARAB are a small tribe, and, though genealogically 
distinct, are more or less adopted into the HABR GERHAJIS. 

HABR means "old woman," or "wife of." 

ARAB, and EIDEGALLA are nicknames, the other are 
proper names, of the sons and grandsons of Sheikh ISHHAK. 



The HABR AWAL are divided into 
/ Makahil 

( Saad Musa - 



Hussein Abokr 
Jibril Abokr 
Abdarahhman 
V Abdallah Saad 



Mohammed Esa 



, Esa Musa { Abokr Esa 



\ Adan Esa 



f Musa Jibril 
I Abokr Jibril 



Damwadaga 
Abdurabbman 
Rer Idleb 
Rer Farab 
Rer Odowa 



Ba Abdarahhman 
Rer Wais 



The EIDEGALLA are divided into 

( Abokr Musa 
Rer Yunis Abdurabbman 
Ba Delo 
Gasbanbur 
Damal Yera 
Rer Esa 



The HABR YUNIS are divided into 
Isbhak 



( Arreh Said J Musa Arreb 



k Ali Said 



L Ismail Arreh 



Abdillab Ishbak 
Kassim Ishhak 
Jibril Adan 
Musa Adan 
Mohammed Adan 
Ali Adan 
V Hassan Musa 
Saad Yunis 
Musa Ismail 

j Idris 
Abdallah Ismail - Musa Abdallah 

[ Omar Abdallah 



APPENDIX III 



141 



The Omar Abdallah are important as the Sultan's tribe, or 
Royal House, and are divided into a number of important sub- 
tribes. 



Omar Abdallah 



Ugad Omar— Rer Hussein 
Gambur 



Adan Omar 



Ba Dolbohanta 

Said Hersi 



Hersi 

Barreh ] Abdi Hersi 

Ainanshe 



Rer Warsama 
(RerWaraba) 
Rer Weid 
Rer Abdi 

Rer Ainanshe 
Rer Sugulli 



The ARAB are divided into 



■ Rer Othman 
Abdallah 

k Rer Ali 



I Ahmed Abdallah 

- Rer Ali 

i Adan Waraba 



The HABR TOLJALA are divided into 

( Omar Abokr 

I Musa Abokr 
{ Jibril Abokr Mohammed [ A * a * Madoba 

I Abokr J Yessel 

Nuh 



| Ahmed Farah 
Dahir Farah 

etc. 



The chief divisions of the D ARUD are 

OGADEN 

BARTIRI 

ABSGUL 

HARTI MIJJERTEIN 

WARSANGELI 
DOLBOHANTA 



142 



APPENDIX III 



The DOLBOHANTA are divided into 



(Jama Siad 
Ogarien Siad 



( Rer Jibril 
r Naleyah Ahmed -J Ali Naleyah 

[ (incl. Ba Idris) 
( Nur Ahmed 
r Aligheri 
Ahmed Garad I Ararsama (incl. Rer Wais Adan 
[ and Rer Hagar) 

Garad Farah i Mohammed Garad — Rer Naleyah 
or Ba Ararsama 
Barkad Garad 
v Abdi Garad — Rer Khair 

Note. Ba Idris, Rer Wais Adan, Rer Hagar, are three small sub-tribes 
which have intermarried with HABR TUNIS, and live with them in the 
district of Burao. They are included among the tribes friendly to the 
British Government, the other Dolbohanta having largely sided with the 
Mullah. 



EXAMPLES OF PROSE AND VERSE. 



The following stories and songs were dictated to ine by Somalis 
of the Habr Toljala and Habr Yunis tribes 1 , living at Burao. 

The language used in the Prose Stories is exactly in the style of 
modern colloquial speech. 

The sentences are very short and simple, and in ordinary 
conversation, especially in narrative, the speaker would hesitate 
after each one, in order that the listener might reply with some 
ejaculation expressing his attention or surprise. Such ejaculations 
are Kod, Kodi or Haiye, Weiye, meaning "Yes," "I see," "Go on" ; 
or Dega, Wallahh, meaning "Really," "By God." Wallahh is 
usually replied to again by Ega wallahh. 

Example, 

A. B. 

A complainant I am. Well ? 

Mashtaki ban ahai. Weiye. 

A camel someone from me has stolen. Yes. 

Hal ba leiga hadei. Kod. 

Yesterday it was lost. Yes. 

Shalei bei ka halladei. Kod. 

There beyond, the flocks were grazing. Yes. 

Hagga ka shishei, hdlaha wa dajeyei. K6d. 

When we were returning it was stolen. Yes. 

Gorteinu ka so nokh6nenei leiga hadei. Kod. 

1 I — IV were told by an educated Somali, Mohammed Jibril, of the Habr 
Toljala, Mnsa Abokr, then serving as an office clerk. 

V — IX were told me by a professional poet and story-teller of Burao, Ismail 
of the Habr Toljala, Her Ahmed Farah. 

X was told me by an interpreter called AH, of the Habr Yunis, Musa Arreh. 



144 EXAMPLES OF PROSE AND VERSE 



A. 

There with it went two men, on 
Wahha la tegei laba nin, c 
j6ga. 


horseback- 
> faras ku 


B. 

-By God ! 

Wallahh ! 


and rifle carrying. 
o bandukh sita. 




By God ! 
Wallahh ! 


See by God ! 
Ega Wallahh ! 




Well? 
Haiye. 


There it is. (That is all.) 
Wa inta. 




What do you want ? 
Mahhad donesa P 


I want, 

Wahhan ddneya, 




Yes. 
K6d. 


that one may catch those men. 
in la ghobsoto nimanka. 




Where they went ? 
Haggei u ka'en ? 


They are here, in the town they 
Wajdgan, magalodai 


stay. 
fadiyan. 


Really ! 
Dega! 


By God etc this morning I saw (them) 

Wallahhi iyo Billahhi iyo Tallahhi ! saka-an arkei. 


B. 

Very well. A man soldier accompany, and shew him. 
Wayahai. Nin sibaihh la ra', o u tus. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


All right. Go away 
Haurarsan. 'ss ka ta 


now. 
g, haddaba 


Very well. 
Watahai. 



In the fables and narrative which follow, these exclamations are 
omitted, but no Somali could tell a story, nor could another listen, 
without introducing them. 

In a native court, or banjad, it is not uncommon for the counsel 
on one side to repeat the speech of his opponent sentence for 
sentence, or bit by bit, in order apparently to gain sufficient time to 
digest the full meaning properly. Repetitions are frequent and 
tedious, owing to this necessity for short, clipped sentences, and the 
absence of relative pronouns. 

A speech or story is usually concluded by the expression Wa sida, 
or Wa inta There it is, That is all. 

An excellent collection of some forty-five Somali tales, with 
German translations, is to be found in Schleicher's Somali-Texte. 



PROSE 145 



I. HABIYO BUTIYA 1 . 
LAME HABIYO. 

Suldan hi jirei, fnan bu laha 2 . Inanka hoyodlsi ya dimatei. 
A Sultan there was, a son he had. The son his mother died. 

KolkasaSuldanku 3 nag bu gursadei. Suldanki ba hajki 4 ghobtei 
Then the Sultan a wife he married. The Sultan the pilgrimage made. 

Nagti Suldanka 5 ya Yuh6di la sahhebei, fnanki Suldanka ya 
The wife of the Sultan a Jew with was friendly, the son of the Sultan 

Yuh6digi la 'oll6bei 6 . Nagti ya Yuh6digi kuyidi 7 , "fnanka 
the Jew with was at enmity. The woman the Jew to said, "The boy 

an dilno." Kolkasei sorti sun ugu dartei. Inankuse 
let us kill." Then she the food poison with it mixed. But the boy 

genyu 8 lehyahai, wahh walba taghan 9 , kolkasa genyodi fnanki 
a mare he possesses, which everything knows, then the mare the boy 

ku tidi, "Ha 'unin sorta." Kolki sorti lo 10 s6 digei, ya fnanki 
to said, " Do not eat the food." When the food was placed, the boy 

sorti dldei. Malinti dambe ya Yuh6digi u yimi 11 nagti 
the food refused. The day following the Jew came to the wife 

Suldanka, wuhhu yidi, "Kolka Suldanki yimado, wahhad 

of the Sultan, he said, "When the Sultan comes, do you 

1 This is a good example of ordinary narrative style with its broken short 
sentences. It is also an excellent exercise in the uses of ba, ya, the adjectival 
clause, and the concord of plural nouns, upon which special notes are not given 
in many cases. 

2 laho means "have in possession," or "own," and is different from hai, 
have in the hand, hold. 

3 Note article u, for " the above-mentioned Sultan." 

4 i.e. the Mecca pilgrimage. 

5 Article a for possessive case. 

6 §99. 

7 address, ku is the particle. Cf. wahhad ku tldahhda below, ylttl is 
masc, and therefore the subject is Yuhddigl, and not nagti. 

8 genyo u. 

9 From ogho. The Aorist is here used for Present Participle. 

10 la u. 

11 u to (a person). 

K. 10 



146 PROSE 

tidahhda, ' Wa buka.' Kolku ku yidahhdo, ' Mahha ku dawaa 1 ? ' 
say, 'I am sick.' When he to you says, 'What you will cure?' 

wahhad tidahhda, 'Genyoda berkeda.' " Dararti dambe ya 
do you say, ' The mare her liver.' " The day following 

Suldanku yimi, kolkasei san gogoshei, o wahhai hosta ka 
the Sultan came, then she a skin laid on the bed, and she underneath 

gelisei 2 'alen beirda. Kolkei ku sehhotei, ya 'alenti 

inserted a leaf of a fig-tree. When she on it slept the leaf 

jababa' tidi, kolkasa Suldanki yidi, " Mahha ku haya 3 ? " Kolkasei 
crackled, then the Sultan said, "What you has?" Then she 

tidi, "Fedaha han6neya." "Mahha ku dawaa?" Kolkasei tidi, 
said, " My ribs are hurting." " What you will cure ? " Then she said, 

"Berka genyoda fnankaga." Inanki ba Suldanki u yedei, 
"The liver of the mare of your son." The boy the Sultan called, 

wuhhuyidi, "Genyodadayan ughaleya ayoda." Kolkasu 

he said, " Your mare I will slay for your stepmother." Then he 

yidi, "Haurarsan. E galabta-an ku so mermero 4 ." Galabti 

said, " All right. This evening let me on it take a walk." In the evening 

ba inanki genyodi fulei, .kolkasu abihi ku yidi, "Abo, 
the boy the mare mounted, then he to his father said, " Father, 

nabad," o genyodi la tegei. Wuhhu tegei, magalo-u tegei. 

goodbye," and with the mare went. He went, to a town he went. 

Magaloda agtedi bu ku 5 arkei lehh gabdod o 6 'el ku maidtfneya 7 . 
The town near he saw six girls a well at washing. 

Inanti ugu yereid ya araktei, kolkei ninki araktei, bei 'elki 
The girl youngest saw, when she the man saw she the well 

ka so bahhdei, ninki bei ka hish<5tei. Kolkasu genyoda 

from came, the man she concerning was ashamed. Then he the mare 

saintdda gubei, kolkasa genyodi 'erka taktei. Inanki ba wuhhu 
her tail burned, then the mare to the sky went. The boy he 

'ss ka diga nin adinla, magaloda bu galei. Wuhhu la 
pretended to be a man crippled, the town he entered. He lived 

1 dawa, 1st conjugation. The Aorist here means, "is to,'' or "can." 

2 geli. Causative verb derived from gal enter, § 123. 
8 i.e. what is the matter with you? 

* go and take a walk. B at. 

6 gabdod is qualified by a numeral and therefore the relative clause is 
coupled by o. 

7 3rd singular after Indef. plur., § 168. 



PROSE 147 

fadistei 1 nin. Berigi dambe ya gabdihi Suldanka ya 

as servant to a man. The time after the daughters of the Sultan 

yidi, "Wa gursonena." Suldanki ba durban ku diftei 2 , wuhhu yidi, 
said, " We will marry." The Sultan drum beat, he said, 

"Gabdahaiga ya gurs6neya." Kolkasa inamodi h6dna ya 
" My daughters will marry." Then the young men rich 

iss u yimi, kolkas gabdihi ba la kenei, meidanki ragu 
together came, then the girls were brought, in the plain the men 

j6gei. Kolkasa gabdihi la yidi, "Raga dbnesan 3 ma wada 
stood. Then the girls were told, "The men you wish are they all 

j6gan ? " Kolkas inanti yereid ba tidi, " Ninkan doneyei ma 
here?" Then the girl young said, "The man I wanted is not 

jogo." Ad6nihi raga u yedeyei ya la yidi, " Raga 

here." The slaves (who) the men were calling were told, "The men 

magaloda wada j6ga u yeda." Kolkasa fnanki adinkalaa 4 , 
(that) in the town all are call." Then the boy cripple, 

e Habiyo Butiya, yu 5 u yedei. Kolkasa Suldanki gabdihi weidiyei, 
Habiyo Butiya, they called. Then the Sultan the girls asked, 

"Ragi ma wada j6ga?" Kolkasei yidahhden, "Ha." Gabdihi 
" The men are they all here ? " Then they said, "Yes." The girls 

ya lo dibei lehh habadod 6 o linah. "Wahha la yidi, "Inan 
were handed six oranges. It was said, "Girl 

walba ninkei doneso ha ku dffato." Shanti gabdod e kaleh 7 
every the man she wants let her strike." The five girls other 

wahhai ku diftan, shan inan o hodanah, inanti yereid ya ku difatei 
they struck, five young men rich, the girl young struck 

Habiyo Butiya. Kolkasa nahhdinti-ai ka nahhen ya abahed 
Habiyo Butiya. Then with horror they were astonished her father 

iyo hoyoded indo belen. Inanki ba inanti yereid giirsadei. 
and her mother eyes lost. The boy the girl young married. 

1 lit. sit with. An idiom meaning u be servant to.' - la jog has the same 
meaning. 

2 difo is used with ku, meaning "strike." 

3 The pronoun is omitted. 

4 adinla is inflected to agree with article -W. 

5 ref. to addnihl. 

6 " articles," often used in this way with numerals. 

7 kaleh is the second epithet, but o is not used as o kaleh has a special 
meaning, § 177. 

10—2 



148 PROSE 

Dararti dambe ya la yidi, " Suldanka iyo nagtlsa wahha u 
The day following it was said, " The Sultan and his wife there 

dawaa 'ano wlyiled." Inamodi shanti gabdod gtirsadei, 

cures milk of rhinoceros." The young men the five girls married, 

shan faras o wanaksan ba la slyei, fnankina Habiyo Butiya dabeir 
five ponies good were given, and the boy Habiyo Butiya a donkey 

ba la slyei. Kolkasa inagaloda-ai ka behhen 1 . 
was given. Then the town they from departed. 

fnanki Habiyo Butiya, ya genyodlsi sainti u gubei, genyodi 
The boy Habiyo Butiya, his mare the tail he burnt, the mare 

ba u timi,. kolkasu darklsi dahabkaaha iyo sefti intas u 
to came, then he his clothes of gold and the sword that he 

gashodei 2 . 
put on. 

Kolkasu genyodi fulei. Kolkasa genyodi dtishei, 'erkas yei 
Then he the mare mounted Then the mare flew, that sky she 

gh<5botei. Kolkas wuhhu taga mel wiyili ku dashei, 

reached. Then he goes to where rhinoceros was born, 

wlyishi yereid bu dohhei, santi bu kala bahhai, 'o'ob bu 

the rhinoceros young he skinned, the skin he stretched out, a figure he 

ka sameyei. Duhurki kolkei ahaid ya wlyishi timi, 
from it made. The afternoon when it . was the rhinoceros came, 

fnanki Habiyo Butiya ya 'ss ka digei dalkeda, 'anihi yu 
the boy Habiyo Butiya pretended to be her young, the milk he 

hohhdi 3 sibrar ku lissei, gudulkina sibrar ku lissei. 

the first part a skin in milked, and the second a skin in (he) milked. 

Wiyishi ya gedo donatei, kolkasa fnanki 'o'obki 'ss ka 

The rhinoceros grass sought, then the boy the figure threw 

turei, 'anihi bu ghadei, ged bu tegei, genyodi bu ku hedtei. 
away, the milk he took, a tree he went to, the mare he to it tied. 

Isago 4 gedka hurda, ya shanti fnan e gabdaha 
While he at the tree was sleeping, the five young men who the girls 

1 from hahh. 

3 reflexive verb from gal. Verbs in 1 usually change 1 to sh in forming these 
derivatives. 

3 the first part that is milked, and not so rich as the second, or gudul. 

4 Iuaga o, § 218. 



PROSE 149 

gursadei u ylmaden, kolkasei yidahhden, " Salam aleikum." Habiyo 
married to him came, then they said, "Salam aleikum." Habiyo 

Butiya ku yidi, "Aleikum salam." Kolkasu yidi, "Haggad ku 
Butiya said, "Aleikum salam." Then he said, "Where do 

so'otan?" Wahhai yidahhden, " 'Ano wiyiled bannu donena." 
you go to ? " They said, " Milk of rhinoceros we want' 

Kolkasu yidi, " 'Ano wiyiled ana haya, mahha iga sis6- 

Then he said, " Milk of rhinoceros I have, what to me for it will you 

nesan?" Kolkasei yidahhden, "Wahhad donesid." Kolkasu yidi, 
give?" Then they said, "What you wish." Then he said, 

"H6lo d6ni mayo, ninkinba 1 maga'aiga yan futada kaga 
"Goods I do not want, each of you my name I the buttock upon 

dijmeya." Kolkasei yidahhden, "Haurarsan." Maga'isi yu futadi 
will print" Then they said, "All right" His name he the buttock 

kaga wada 2 dijiyei shanti nin ba. Kolkasa 'anihi hohhdaaha 3 
upon all printed the five men. Then the milk the first 

u siyei, gudulkina Habiyo Butiya ghatei". 
he gave, and the second Habiyo Butiya took for himself. 

Magalodi Suldanki jogei yei tegen o 'anihi geyen. 
The town the Sultan dwelt in they went to, and the milk took. 

'Anihi, shanta nin sfdatei, ya Suldanki indihisi logu shubei, 
The milk, the five men carried, the Sultan his eyes was upon poured, 

wahhba tari waiyen 5 . Darar dambe ya Habiyo Butiya 

nothing to be of use it failed. A day following Habiyo Butiya 

'anihisi nagtisi u si dibei, wuhhu yidi, " Abaha iyo hoyoda 
his milk to his wife he gave, he said, " Your father and your mother 

yanei ku arkin, kolkad ku shubesid.'' Kolkasei 'anihi 

let them not you see, when you in pour." Then she the milk 

geisei, kolkasei ku shubtei. Indihi Suldanka iyo indihi hoyoded 
took, then she in poured. The eyes of the Sultan and the eyes of her mother 

ya u 8 dila'ei. Kolkasei fnanti so arartei, akhalkedi bei timi. 
opened. Then she the girl ran away, to her house she came. 

1 you men, cf. §§ 200 (iii) and 206. 

2 Note order of particles, § 236. 

a ah may be added to any noun used adjectivally or descriptively. 

4 from ghado take to yourself. 

5 plural agreeing with 'ano, which is a plural noun. 

6 i.e. by reason of it. 



150 PROSE 

Kolkasa Suldanki oghadei in Habiyo Butiya indihi u dila'ei. 
Then the Sultan learned that Habiyo Butiya the eyes opened. 

Suldanki ba u yedei inamodi kaleh e gabdihlsi gursadei, 
The Sultan called the young men other who his daughters married, 

wuhhu yidi, " fnanki Habiyo Butiya e gabaddaidi yereid gursadei 
he said, "The boy Habiyo Butiya who my girl young married 

yan u dlbei magalodaida hukumkeda. fdinkuna eidan u 
I have given my town its government. And ye servants to 

n6khda." Habiyo Butiya dabad^d Suldan nbkhdei. 
him be." Habiyo Butiya afterwards Sultan became. 



II. INANKI MASKA DILEI. 

fnan iyo fnan wa walalaaha. Lo' bai jiren, mel 'idlaah bai her 
ku ahayen. Inankuna lo'du ra'l jirei, Inantuna akhalka yei fadiyf 
jirtei, habenki bei heroda iss ugu iman jiren. lnanti ba ghorohh 
badatei, rag ba weidistei, fnanki ba u dldei in la gursado Inanta. 
Malin dambe ya niman akhalki lnanti ugu ylmaden. Kolkasei la 
hassawen, fnanki e walalaahayen Inanta, ya galabti so hoidei. Kol- 
kasu oghkdei in rag u yimi lnanti, o iss ka am us. Mklinti dambe ya 
nimanki lnanti u so n6khden, wahhai yidahhden, " An walalka dilne, 
gormu daganyahai ? " Kolkasei lnanti tidi, " Kolku lo'di lisseyo." 
Habenki bei ylmaden, kolku lo'da lisseyei, muski bei ka so b6den. 
Kolku arkei 'ollki, yu sefti .labahhai, kolkasa walashi timaha 
gh6botei, kolkasu timihi u goiyei, muski bu ka bddei. Odi bai 
ghorihisi ka goisei. Kolkasu bahhsodei, wuhhu taga magalo agted, 
wahha 1 ku hednaged Inan. Wuhhu yidi, "Nayktahai?" Kolkasei 
tidi, " Suldknki magkloda ya i dalei." Wuhhu yidi, "Mahhkd ugu 2 
hedantahai mesha ? " Wahhai tidi, " Mas ba lei hedei, maskas ba i 
imaneya o i 'uneya." Kolkasu yidi, "Gormu yimada?" Kolkasei 
tidi, " Asarka." " Kolku yimkdo muhhu sameineya masku ? " 
Wahhai tidi, "Biyuhu 8 'abeya marka hore, dabad^dto-na anigu 4 i 
'uneya." Kolkasu yidi, "Watahai." Kolki maski yimi yu blyihi 
ku da'ei, kolkas Inanki sefti labahhai o madaha kaga diftei, kolkasa 
maski dintei. lnanti bu kahaistei, magalodi bu geyei. Dadki 

1 Note this use of wahha — There was tied to a tree, a girl. 

2 mahhad u mesha ku hedantahai ? 

8 blyaha u. * anlga u. 



PROSE 151 

magklodi j6gei ya ku so ararei, isago inanti wada. Wahha la yidi, 
"War, wk side?" Kolkasu yidi, "Maski ban dilei." Kolkasa 
Suldanka lo geyei, o lei yidi, " Ninkasa maski dilei." Kolkasa 
Suldanka yidi, "Inantaida giirso." Halkasa inanki inanti ku 
gursadei. 



III. fNANTI LUGAHA1AEID. 

Suldkn ba inan laha, fnanta ghorknka lo digi ' jirei. B^rigi dambe 
ya Suldknki hajki ghobtei, inanti bu amkneyei nin wadkdah, o yidi, 
" fnantas ghorknka u si dig 3 ." Wadkdki ba inanti iss ka dama'ei 
inu ka simeisto, inanti ba didei. Darkrti dambe yei tidi, " Berri i 
kkli." Darkrti-ai mudeisten yei sallknki kkhalki ka ghadei, halki 
wadkdki ka so full jirei. Abahed yu warkhad u direi, wuhhu ku 
ghorei, " Inantkdi dilo' ei nokhotei." Suldknki ba hajki ka yimi. 
Inanti bu u adkdei, wuhhu u dibei niman adomaah, wuhhu yidi, 
"fnantas ghorta ka so goiya." Adbmihi ya inanti kahhayei, wahhai 
geyen mel dirleh. Inanti bei lugaha ka goiyen, kolkasei habashedi 
ghoden. Intei habkshi ghodeyen, yei ka gurguratei, mel dirleh yei 
gashei, o kaga dumatei. Adomihi kolkei habkshi ghoden yei 
meshiei fadidei ka egen 3 , wa ka waiyen, Kolkasei dero dilen, digi 
deroda ghar6rad ku shuben. Suldknki bei u geyen digi, o yidahhden 
" Inanti dilnei." Mklin dambe ya skfar meshi so marei, meshi 
inanti fadidei yu degei. Duhurki kolki safarku aurti rertei, yei 
inanti o dirti fadida arken. Inanti ya nin so ghadei, aur bu so 
skrei. Magklodi-ai yimaden yu kenei. Inanti ya ninki so ghadei 
akhal fadisiyei. Beri dambe ya inan Suldan dalei ya inanti weijigedi 
arkei, weijigedi o wankksan 4 ya inanki arkei. Ninki-ai akhalkisa 
fadidei yu ku yidi, ''An inanta ka giirsado." Ninki ba yidi, 
" Inanta wa lugolkdahai." Kolkasa inanki Suldknkaii yidi, " Ana 
gurskneya, i si." Kolkasu yidi, " Haurkrsan." Inanti ba inanki 
Suldknka gursadei. Laba inan yei u dashei. Iyadu urleh ya 
inanki yidi, " Hajki ban ghobdneya." Inanki ba inanti uga tegei 

1 teach. 

2 continue to teach. 

3 ka fcgen. Note the use of ka in these expressions, meaning, to look for in 
a place, or being unable to find in a place. 

* The Possessive adjective suffix -gedi is treated as an epithet, and therefore 
the particle o is required for the second adjective wanaksan. 



152 PROSE 

wan 1 , o hajki ghobtei. Isago hajki ku maghan, ya nagtlsi dadabtei, 
wahhai riyotei lyadu labada lugod laba shimbirod kaga j6gta, o 
lugihi u behhen, o hajki ghtfbotei. Arorti kolki wagu berlyei, ya 
wahhai arakta labadi shimbirod o labadi lugod kaga j6ga, o lugihi u 
behhen. Arorti kolkei ahaid, yei labadedi fnan iyo wanki iyo labadi 
shimbirod kahhaisatei, hajki bei gh<5botei. Dar dauga dehhdeda yei 
taktai, wahha ugu yimi abahed iyo walalked iyo wadadki iyo 
ninkedi intas o midna an u garanin. Inamodedi yei u shekeisei, 
dawodi iyada heshei yei ugu shekeisei, abahed ba makhlei iyo 
wadadki, kolkasa wadadki dama'ei inu araro, kolkasa Suldanki 
yidi, "Fadi inta sheltado damaneso." Suldanki, fnanta abahed, ya 
wadadki ghorti ka goiyei, fnanti iyo abahed iyo ninkedi inti wa leiss 
wada ra'ei. Hajki ba la tegei. fnanti iyo abahed halki yei iss ku 
girten. 



IV. HdGGI DlRTA. 

Suldan ba fnan laha, fnanki ba yidi, "Wa gursaneya." Suldanki 
ba h6la badan slyei, markabna wa siyei. Inanki Suldanka ya d6fei 
magaloii tegei. Magalodi kolku tegei, yu nin Suldan la sahhebei 
Suldanki ba dar siyei, darti u ku jirei fnanku iyo darti Suldanka ya 
iss u daldliyei. Nagti Suldanki 2 la sahhebei. Malinti dambe yu 
nagti Suldanka Inanki ku yidi, " Sorti ninkaga adu sam^in jirta o 
kaleh i samei." Suldanki ba fnanki u tegei, wuhhu yidi, "Awa 
anad wahh i la 'unese." Suldanki wuhhu yidi, " Haurkrsan." 
Inanki ba nagti Suldanka ku yidi, " Awa kolka anigu iyo Suldanku 
annu sorta 'uneno, wahhan d6neya inad sorta na sisid." Nagti ba 
tidi, " Suldanki ya i garaneya." Kolkasu yidi, " Ku garan mayo, 
ana ku odan wa nagtaidi." Nagti ba tidi, " Hadu i garan waiyo, 
adiga yan ku ra'i d6na, o nag ku nokhon." Habenki ba Suldknki 
akhalki yimi, darkisi bu ghatei, fnanka akhalkisi bu yimi. Nkgti 
ba h6ggi akhalka ka so dustei 3 , Inanka akhalkisi bei timi. Kolkasei 
Suldanki iyo fuanki sorti sisei. Suldanki ba gartef nagtisi, kursigi 
bu ka ka'ei, akhalkisi bu u ka'ei. Intanu akhalki gadin yei nkgti 
h6ggi ka dustei, gogoshedi yei ku fadisatei, Suldanki ba arkei. 
Kolku arkei yu haddana akhalki fnanka ku so nokhdei, h6ggi bei ka 

1 lit. went from a ram for her, i.e. left a ram for her. 
« Suldanka u. 3 come through. 



PROSE 153 

so dustei nkgti, nkgti bu haddana arkei. Inanki, u 'untoda la 
'uneyei, ya Suldanki ku yidi, " Ma nagtatan sorta inna slnesa miad 
nagtadi modei ? " Inanki ba yidi, " Nkgtu wa nagtaidi." Suldanki 
ba '8S ka fadlstei. Ar6ryodi dambe ya fnanki Suldanka ku yidi, 
" Wa d6feya." " Haurkrsan," bu yidi. Nkgti Suldanka ya fnanki 
la ballamei, o yidi, " Arorta halkas ka so dus, wa d6feya." Nkgti 
ba halki ka so dustei, fnanki yei u timi, markabki bu geyei, wa la 
d6fei, fnanki ba nkgti Suldanka gursadei, kolku la bahsodei. 



V. MAGALODI HOLAHA DADKA KU 'UNA. 

Wahh lei yidi, nin ba faras fulei, wuhhu 1 yimi habkr, wabhai 
tidi, " Haggad ku so'ota?" Wuhu yidi, " Magklodas an ku so'- 
oda." Wabhai tidi, "Magkloda dadka lagu 3 ghasha, yan lagu 
ghalonine, ha gelin." Wuhhu yidi, " Kulli wa geleya." Wahhai 
tidi, " Magkloda nin Suldknah bei lehdahai, ninka Suldknka fnan 
bu lehyahai, fnanta bokhorkeda wa mas, masku dadka 'una. Aurna 
isagu dadka 'una, kkhalka hortisa yu fadista, halko golgol ku fadista." 
Wahhai tidi, " War, nino, hadad magkloda tegesa 3 , fnanta Suldanka 
dalei akhalkeda <5rod o gal." Wuhhu yidi, " Ninki bei yidi 4 , Eiga 
dadka 'una, iyo aurka dadka 'una, iyo maska dadka 'una, haggan ka 
dan d6na? " Iyadi bk tidi, " Gedaha ghado o 5 , aurki yu ku 'unine, 
kolkad dafiso kkhalkiad ku so'oto, gedaha afka u geli, yu ku 'unine. 
Ei'gana 'adka ghado o, eiga agtisi dig o, ha 'uno, yu adiga 'unine. 
Maskana wa kan fnanta dehhdeda ku duban, ghoriga ghado o, maska 
madahisi sar, dabad^d maska u diman d6na. Kolkad sida yesho 
dabaddd kkhalka gal o fnanta u tag, dabad^d fnanta ghrso." Kol- 
kasu isagu fnanta gursadei. 

1 wuhhu here represents wahha u, in which u is the particle = to. It means 
literally therefore, There came to (him) an old woman. 

2 la ku. ku in, and refers to the town, ghalonine. The usual form is 
ghalon for the negative Imperative. This must be some Continuative form, 
but I have not met it elsewhere. 

3 Indicative mood, i.e. If you are (as you say) going. 

4 bei = ba i. Who is the man referred to is not clear. There must be some 
omission in the rendering of the story. 

5 The conjunction o is frequently used like this with the first coordinate 
sentence, instead of introducing the second. 



154 PROSE 



VI. NASIB. 



Wahh lei yidi, nin ba dan rerei, danki bu kahhayei, 'elki bu 
geyei, wa ka so danshei 1 . Kolku so danshei yu aurti 'ss ku so 
hedishei. Kolkiu dehhdi j6gei ya lehh aur ka hadei, lehhdi kaleh 
so kahhayei. Kolku mel f6g jogei yu lehhdi ka hadei wai. Kolkasu 
dib u so 6rdei. Lehhdi aur o 2 lehh libahh 'unesa ayu gu yimi, 
kolkasu iss kaga yimi. Lehhdi aur 6 kaleh o 8 lehh libahh 6 kaleh 
'unesa ugu yimi. Kolkasu sibrar bu ka ghatei aurti, gurig6di yu 
yimi, rerk6di o 2 la da'ei bu arkei, o 'oil da'ei. 

VII. NAGTI WANAKSANEID. 

Nin ba fnau laha. fnanki ba yidi, abihi ku yidi, "Abo, wahhan 
dbneya, nag an gursada." Kolkasu yidi, " Wahhad so kahhaisata 
nag armali." Kolkasa armalidi so kahhaistei, kolkasu yidi, "Gurso." 
Kolkasu gursadei. Kolkasu yidi, ;< Hadig ku hed, kolkei ku la 
hadasho hadiga ka fur." Kolkasu hadiga ku hedei. Nagti ba tidi, 
"Wahhan 3 maan arkf jirin, mahhad nogu 4 sameinesa ? " Kolkasu 
hadigi ka furei. Arorti yu abihi bu yimi, kolkasu yidi, " Mahhai ku 
tidi ? " Kolkasu yidi, " Wahhai i tidi, ' Wahhan maan arkf jirin, 
wahhas mahhad nogu sameinesa ? ' " Kolkasu yidi, " 'ss ka 'eri." 
Tasu wa mid. 

Inanki ya abihi bu yidi, "Nag kaleh so kahhaiso, fnan wein so 
kahhaiso." Kolkasu yidi, "Awa hadig ku hed. Kolkei ku la 
hadasho ka fur." Kolkasu hedei, kolkasei tidi, " Wahhan maan u 
makhli jirin, mahhad wahha nogu hddesa?" Kolkasu ka furei. 
Arorti abihi u yimi, kolkasu yidi, " W T ahhai tidi, ' Wahhan maan 
makhli jirin, mahhad hadiga nogu sameinesa ? ' ' Kolkasu yidi, 
" Tanna 'ss ka 'eri." Tasna wa mid. 

Kolkasu yidi, " Wahhad so kahhaisata fnan yer o wanaksan." 
Kolkasu so kahhaistei. Kolkasu yidi, " Awa hadig ku hed, kolkei 
ku la hddasho hadiga ka fur." Kolkasa fnanki 'ss ka sehhodei, 
habenki 6 dan yu 'ss ka hurdei. Kolki arorti ahaid manti yei 
inanki ke'isei, kolkasei tidi, " Hadigi-ad igu hedtei wa iga da'ei, o 
igu ma hedna, hadiga igu hed." Arortina abihi yu u shegei, " Abo, 
wahhai tidi, ' Hadiga iga da'ei, o igu ma hedna, hadiga igu hed.' " 
Kolkasu yidi abihi ba yidi, " Tas haiso, tasa ba wanaksan." Ti 
dabad^d yu 'ss ka gursadei. 

1 from Uinao, of. § 104. 2 Adjectival sentences with o, cf. § 261. 

8 This thing. 4 na u ku. 



PROSE 155 

VIII. DADKU IYO WARABUHU. 

Wahha lei yidi, Warabuhu h6lah£ laha, Dadku wahhba ma 
lahain. Bengi dambe ya Dadku h61aha Warabaha u ilaliyei, 
Warabahana wa shirei. Be>igi dambe aya Dadku tashadei, wuhhu 
yidi, "An Warabaha h61aha ka ghadno, fyaga o shirki Warabihi ku 
maghanyahai." Ya Dadki holihi 6dei. Habenki u yimi, kolki-u 
yimi ya laga 'eriyei. Warabihi ya ghailo tegei, bahalihi kaleh ugu 
tegei, wuhhu yidi, " War, lei da'ei." Kolkasei yidahhen, " An 
dulno." Mel bei so maren, balli biyo ku jiran yei yimaden. Sakaro 
lab aya yidi "Balli hadeidinan i dein, ka 'abi maysan." "War, wa 
ka 'abena, naga tag," yei yidahhen. Biyihi yu 'idi ku shubei, 
kolkas biyihi idladen, kolkas harad u bakhtiyen, kolkei biyo waiyen. 

IX. HASHU IYO H6LAHEDA. 

Wahha lei yidi, Hal wahh wada laha, mas iyo hhas, iyo dab, 
iyo dad, iyo libahh, iyo ghaiyano, iyo amin, wa toddbodas ya hashi 
ka dahhaisei. 'Ashodi dambe ya ghaiyanodi tidi, " Libahha hasho 
wein inna ka ghadne, an libahha dillo." Kui kaleh ya yidi, " Side 
u dilla ? " Kolkasei tidi, "Maska libahha ha ghanino. Kolkad 
ghaninto, hhaska gal." Kolkasa yo 1 ghaninei, kolkasu hhaski galei. 
Kolkasei tidi, " Dabka 0, hhaski iyo maska gublabadaba." Kolkas 
hhaski iyo maski dabki ya gubei. Kolkasei tidi, " Dabku iya maska 
iyo hhaska bakhtiyei, dadkuna dabka ha bakhtiyo." Kolkasei kminta 
tidi, " Dadku biirta ma maro, dehhda un bu mara, an innagu hasha 
burta la marro." Kolkasei burti la maren. Kolkasei tidi ghaiyanodi, 
"An hasha ghalono." Kolkasei ghashen, kolkasei 'adka bisleisaten, 
'adki bei lukhoten. 'Adki mahai wahh kaleh ka ma 'unin, 'adki ya 
ku mergadei, 'ad wein bu aha, afkina u mari wai. Kolkasei 
bakhtiyen. 

X. NINKI INDAHALAA. 

Mesha rag badan ya wada hadleyei. Laba nin, midna wa 
indalayahai midna ma indalaa. Ninki indahalaha 2 aya yidi, 
"Mahhad nin indala kala hadlesan ? Wahhba arki mayo." Ki 
indahalaa 3 ba yidi, " Ya nin indala u 4 taghanin ? " Inti kalehto ya 

1 ya u. 

2 Note inflexion of adjective, nin indaleh a man with eyes, but ninki 
indahalaha the man with eyes. 

3 nin indala, ninki indahalaa. 

* By what do you know a blind man ? 



156 PROSE 

tidi, " Wahhannu ninki indahalaa u naghan, ninki an wahhba 
arkenin." Markasu ki indahalaa yidi, " Wahha indala, ninki an 
ogh6n lahain, ya indala." 

XL 

The following is an example of the pure narrative style, being an 
account of Col. Swayne's expeditions against the Mullah, from the 
raising of the levy in November 1900 to the battle of Erigo in 
October 1902. It was taken down by me from the mouth of a 
Somali native officer with the force, Nur Jama, Habr Awal. 

Note the use of iyanna, iyu, etc. for the pronouns yannu, 
yu, etc. The Present tense is freely used for the Past. 

The raising of the Levies. 

Kolkas " Swayne " ba im^neya, askarr badan bu ghorfneya 
(enlist). Kolkas " Swayne " so bahhai, Harrar bu nogu yimid. 
Kolkasu yidi, "Askarr ban d6neya." Markas Oskar Garad, 
"Imisad d6nesa?" bu yidi. Markasu yidi, "Boghol fardoleh ban 
d6neya." Markasu yidi, " Bogholki lagu sineya." Bogholki aya 
la siyei. Kolki la siyei, iyannu so so'ona. Adadleh iyannu nimid. 
Sided kumbaui (company) iyannu nokhonei. Kolkas iyannu 
ayarsina (drill), bil keliah iyannu fadinei. Kolkasu 'ollki "Swayne" 
no yimi, Burao-na ka so so'onei, Ber bannu tagnei. 

"Col. Swayne" iyo "Col. Phillips" labadas u sarreyen (were 
in command). Wadadku wuhhu yal Olesan. Kolkas iyannu nimid 
Uduwein. Halo la direi, wadadki, so ego 1 la yidi. Dabaded wahha 
lei yidi, wadadki bahhsei 2 . Uduwein iyannu ka gurrei (started). 
Dabaded wahhannu tagnei Olesan. Wadadki wuhhu jirei Nogal. 
Olesan bannu ka gurrei, dabadddto Wad&mag6 ilalo iyannu ka 
dirrei. Ilalodi iyei rero so araktei, hal iyo aur iyei so heshei. 
Faraski iyo Rakubki iyannu ka dulinei (sent to attack), dabaded 
'ollki kolku dulei iyannu ka daba gurrei. Kolkas laba dararod 
iyannu so'onei, kolkas Haridig (Sanala) bannu degnei. Rakubki 
iyo Faraski sided kun o gelah 3 iyei kenei. Kolkas " Swayne " iyu 
yidi ; " Laba kumbani iyei halkan fadiyesa, gelina halkas iyei laga 
ka tegi" (will be left). Kolkas kurabanaydga u so hadei, iyo geli. 
Kolkasa 'ollki "Swayne" u tegei. 

1 in la so ego. 2 cf. § 104, note. 

3 After sided kun o, gel is made adjectival by the termination ah. 



PROSE 157 

MacNeUVs zariba (Sanala). 

"Capt. MacNeill" iyo "Murray" iyei heroda laga ka tegei. 
Kolkas ilalodi wadadka iyannu aragnei. Malinti labada sa'adod 
(2 o'clock) 'ollkisu no yimid. Kolkannu 'ollki aragnei, iya sirkalku, 
" Zaribada so gala," bu yidi, dabadddna iyannu wererrei (fought), 
kolkas iyannu iss lei'nei (slew each other), dabad^dna afar sa'adod 
(for 4 hours) iyannu dagalla (fought). Lehhdi sa'adod (6 o'clock) 
iyannu ka 'ennei (chased) kolka dabaddd zaribada gudahi iyannu iss 
ku fadisona. Kolkasu dabad^dto todobadi sa'adod habenki iyannu 
wererrei, laba sa'adod bannu dagalla, kolkasa sagalki sa'adod iyannu 
'ennei. Haddana k6di bei so nokhden, haddana sa'ad keliah iyannu 
dagalla. Kolkas iyaga iyannu leina, dabad^dna wa araren (they 
ran away). Kolkas waga iyo beri (in the early morning) tod6badi 
sa'adod iyei so nokhden, kolkasannu iss leina, kolkasannu derewishti 
iyannu wada leina. 

Intanei so dowanin (Before they came close) gidliganki (the 
Maxim gun) iyu lei. Kolkei so dowaden askarrti banadtikhdi iyei 
ku dishei. (Gidliganki wa wanaksanyahai, wa bahal, wa shaitan). 
Kolki nimanki fogeyen iya gidliganki lagu si dayei, kolkas rag badan 
ka lai (died), kolkas dabaddd haggi zaribada iyei ku so ya'ei (fled). 
Afar nin o askari wadad 1 w&ranki iyu ku dilei. Kolkas iyannu 
'ennei, afa'rton nin iyannu gh6bonei. 

"Capt. MacNeill" iyu aniga u yedei, wuhhu yidi, " Inti wadadka 
laga dilei so tiri." Wahhan kahhaistei t6ban askari, wahhannu ka 
dignei afar bdghol iyo lehhdon inti diinatei. Annaga labadi 
kumbani sagal nin iyei ka dilen. Kolkas "MacNeill" ba yidi, 
wuhhu yidi, " Ragi derewishki dintei mel iss u gei." Kolkas iyannu 
mel keliah so kennei. Kolkasa 'ollki " Swayne " iyu no yimid, 
wad^dki wahhba isagu ka ma helin. 

Ferdiddin. 
'Ollki o dan iyu Bohotle iss ugu yimid. Dabad^dna ilalo iyannu 
ka dinei. Kurmis iyei gel badan ku so araktei. Ilalodi ba so 
nokhotei, gel badan iyannu aragnei, 'ollki o dan iya gurei, dabadedna 
Kurmis iyannu tagnei. Allegheri gel badan laga so ghadei. Shan 
iyo t6ban 'asho iyannu fadinei. Dadki hdlahalaha ba no yimid. 
Dadki iyu " Colonel "-ki u yimaden. Wuhhu yidahhei, " Edinkannu 
idin ra'ena, adigi iya lo 'elin " (will be recovered). Kolkasu yidi, 
" Hadeidin ra'esdn adigi iyan idin ku 'elfneya. Reraha o dan so 
rera o agteda kena." Kolkasi Allegheri na ra'ei. Kolkasu yidi, 
1 waddd here used for a Mullah's man. 



158 PROSE 

" Wadadki bannu idin la d6nena." Dabad^d iyannu gurrei. B6hotle 
iyannu nimid. Ragi buka o askarrtaaha iya B6hotle lagu rebei 
(were left behind), dabadddna Bohotle iyannu ka gurrei. Wahhannu 
degnei Wudwud, dabaddd ilalo Wudwud iyannu ka dirrei. Wahhai 
yidahhen, "Wadadku wa f6gyahai." Kolkasannu ka gurrei, shan 
haben iyo shan dararod so so'onei. Dararti dambe iyannu 'ollki 
wadadka iss hellei (met). DabadM iyannu dirirrei. Wahhai kaga 
dilen shan iyo t6ban askari iyo sirkdlki af-Arabed (i.e. Capt. 
Friedrichs). " Dickinson " sahib rasas ba ku da'dei, b6dodi kaga 
da'dei. Shan iyo labaton askari iyei rasasti ku da'dei, an dimanin 
(without being killed). Kolkas iyannu biyo wehna (could not find) 
o so nokhonei. Wahhannu ka so baghanei, askarrti hadanei biyo 
haison, wa bakhtiyesa. Shan iyo t6ban 'asho iyannu Berberah u so 
dahhnei. Kolkannu halkan nimid, askarrti gel badan la siyei, 
hawildarki sadehh halod iya la siyei, ninki jemadarkaaha afar ba la 
siyei. Askarrti fasahh, nin ba bil fasahh iyu helei. 
" Force "-kan halkas iyu ku damadei. 

Las Idleh raids. 

'Ollki labad iyu Burao wa so yimi. Burao-na dabaded afar bflod 
fadfna, kolkas ilalo laga direi. Ilalodi Ali Naleyah iyei u taktei, 
wahhai tidi, " H6lo badan iyannu so aragnei." Afar kumbani iyo 
"Col. Cobbe " iyo "Col. Swayne " iyannu ku so'onei, wahhannu 
tagnei Las Idleh. Las Idlehna faras badan nogu yimid. Kolkas 
iyannu ilalo dirrei. Ilalodi iyei tidi, " Holo badan iyannu so 
aragnei." Kolkasannu Las Idleh ka gurrei, kobyo-thban haben u si 
so'onei. Jid Ali iyannu Ali Naleyah u tagnei, kolkasu kumbani 
waliba mel marei. "Col. Swayne" iyo kumbani badki iyannu mel 
kaga tagnei. Kolkas iyannu Ali Naleyah we>errei, habenki iyo 
dararti wa h6lihi ka da'nei. Kolkas holihi iyannu zaribadi i so 
kennei, wihhi-annu rag aragnei iyannu leinei. Kolkasannu ka so 
gurrei. Wahhannu tagnei, Las Idleh shan iyo toban haben iyannu 
u so dahhnei. Kolkas askarrti ba adi la siyei, ninki askari aha 
labyo-toban adi la siyei, ninki hawildarka iyo naikka labaton la 
siyei, jemadarki iyo " color-havildar "-ki soddon ba la siyei. "Col. 
Cobbe " iyo " Col. Swayne " Berberah ku nokhden. " Maj. Petrie " 
iyo afar kumbani Burao-annu so nokhonei, kolka bil fadmei Burao. 
Kolkasa "Col. Swayne" iya no yimid. Wuhhu yidi, " Force "-ku wa 
bahhaya, wadadka iyannu d6nena. Reidka Somalida gel maawinah 
i kena," bu yidi. Kolkasi Habr Awal iyo Habr Yunis gholi walba 



PROSE 159 

sided boghol o halod iya lo kena, Habr Toljala lehh boghol o halod 
lo kena. 

The Nogal Campaign. 

Kolkas 'ollki iyu dakhkghei. Kumbanaykga sided dararod naga 
dambeyei. Kolkasu Rakhbki iyo Faraski Berberah ka yfmaden, o 
Burao nogu yimaden. Wahha u sarreyei " Capt. Osborne." Kolkas 
annu 'ollki ka daba tagnei. Shan dararod dabad^d Bohotle iyannu 
ghobonei. Kolkannu Bohotle ghobonei, "Col. Swayne" iyo 'ollki 
iyannu u tagnei. Kolkasa ilalo laga direi, ilklodi iya toban haben 
iyei naga maghana. Ilklodi wa so nokhotei, wahhai yidahhen, 
"Wadadki maannu arag." Kolkasa " Colonel "-ku ba yidi, "Wa 
dulena." Nogal iyannu ku dullei. Kolkas iyannu tagnei Gerowei. 
H6lo badan iyannu Mohammed Garad ka ghadnei. Gerowei labaton 
haben bannu fadinei. Ilklo iya la direi. Ilklodi wadadki iyei Mudug 
ugu taktei (went to Mudug for the Mullah). Ilklodi ba no timid, 
ilklodi ba tidi, " Wa omaniaha, o biyo heli mayno." Kolkas iyannu 
Bari gh6bonei. Halin bannu gh6bonei. Naleyah Ahhmed holo badan 
iyannu ka so ghadnei. Kolkasa sirkklku yidi, "Wa nokhonena." 
Labyo-t6ban 'asho bannu so so'onei, kolkasannu Gaulo nimid, kolkas 
" Colonel "-ku yidi, " Laba nin o sirakil, iyo waranlaha iyo h6laha 
ha nokhdan." Kolkasa h61ihi iyo waranlihi iyo laba sirkal iyei 
nokhden. Skdehh kun o geli iyu " Colonel "-ku so rebei. 

Erigo (Oct. 6, 1902). 

Kolkas ilklo la direi, wahhai taktei, wadkdki iyei u taktei. 
Kolkasei tidi, " Wadkdku Mudug bu fadiya." Kolkasannu ku 
gurrei, kolkasu shan haben bannu dahhnei, 'ashodi lehhad arorti 
Erigo derewishti iyannu iss ku hellei. Kolkasu mel bannu fadisona, 
kolkasa dabade"dto derewishti iyei nagu so dakhaghdei. " Mile " 
kolki no &6 jirei, sirkklku yidi, " Inna la dfriri mayan, aurta rera, 
inna dakhkghna." Kolkasannu ku dakhkghnei. Mesha wa mel 
ainah. Kolkas kumbani walba " extend " ba lo dakhkjiyei, sida- 
annu so'onei o kol keliah l'yagu " fire " nogu ridei. Kolkasa berka 
iyannu dulka digna, kolkas iyannu dirirrei. Afar kumbani wa teg, 
iyei haggk ka bkghatei, o krarei. Sadehh kumbani iyannu dagkllei, 
inti kkleh wa bkghatei. Kumbanaykga iyo lkba kkleh skdehhda 
kumbani ba dagklen. 

Zaribadi iyannu so gallei, kolkas derewishti iyei timid. Sadehh 
kumbani iyei dibadda u bahhdei o '^ridei. Dabade"d Bohotle iyannu 
nimid. 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES. 
I-XI. 

I. HABIYO BUTIYA (LAME HABIYO). 

There once was a Sultan who had a son, whose mother was dead. But 
the Sultan married another wife, and went on a pilgrimage. Now a certain 
Jew was a friend of the Sultan's wife, but the Sultan's son and the Jew 
were enemies. The Jew said to the woman, " Let us kill the boy." So she 
mixed some poison in his food. But the boy had a mare, who knew every- 
thing, and the mare said to the boy, "Don't eat the food" ; and when the 
food was put before him, the boy refused it. The next day the Jew came 
to the Sultan's wife and said, " When the Sultan comes back, say you are 
sick, and when he asks what will cure you, tell him the liver of the mare." 
The next day the Sultan came. Then she laid a skin on the bed and 
placed under it some fig leaves, and when she lay down the leaves crackled. 
Then the Sultan said, " What is the matter with you ? " and she said, "I have 
a pain in my ribs." " What will cure you ? " he said ; and she answered, 
" The liver of your son's mare." The Sultan called the boy and said, " I 
intend to kill your mare for your stepmother." And the boy said, " Very 
well but let me take a ride on her this evening." In the evening the boy 
rode the mare, and said to his father, "Good-bye, Father," and departed 
with the mare. He went to a town, and near the town he saw six girls 
washing at a welL The youngest of the girls saw him ; and when she saw 
the man, she ran away from the well, being ashamed before the man. Then 
he singed the tail of the mare, who went up into the sky. The young man 
then pretended to be a cripple, and went into the town, and there became a 
servant. 

Later the daughters of the Sultan said, "We wish to marry." The 
Sultan beat his drum, and announced, "My daughters wish to marry." 
Then the rich young men came together, and the girls were brought, and 
the people stood in the plain. Then the girls were asked, " Are the men 
you want all here ? " And the young girl said, " The man I wanted is not 
here." The slave girls who were summoning the men were told to call all 
the men in the town, so they called the young cripple, Lame Habiyo. Then 
the Sultan asked the girls, " Are the men all here ? " and they said, " Yes." 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 161 

The girls were given six oranges, and they were told, " Let each girl hit the 
man she wants." The five other girls hit five rich young men, the young 
girl hit Lame Habiyo. Then her father and mother were so struck with 
hoiTor, that they lost their sight ; and the young man married the girl. On 
the next day they were told, " That which will cure the Sultan and his wife 
is rhinoceros' milk." And the young men who married the five girls were 
given five good horses, and Lame Habiyo was given a donkey, and they left 
the town. There came to Lame Habiyo the mare, whose tail he had burned, 
and he put on his gold dress and sword and mounted the mare. The mare 
flew up and reached the sky. Then he went to a place where rhinoceroses 
are born. A young rhinoceros he cut open, and opened out the skin and 
made a figure from it. In the afternoon the mother rhinoceros came, and 
Lame Habiyo pretended to be the young one. The first portion of milk he 
milked into one skin and the second portion he milked into another skin. 
Then the rhinoceros went to graze. Then the young man threw away the 
figure, and took the milk. He went to a tree and tied his mare to it. While 
he slept under the tree the five young men who married the other girls 
came to him, and said, " Salam Aleikum " ; and Lame Habiyo said, " Aleikum 
Salam." Then he said, " "Where are you going ? " And they said, " We are 
looking for rhinoceros' milk." Then he said, " I have some rhinoceros' milk. 
What will you give for it ? " And they said, " Whatever you wish." Then he 
said, "Wealth do I not want, but I will brand my name on the buttocks 
of each of you." Then they said, "Agreed." So he branded his name on the 
buttocks of all five. Then he gave them the first milk, and the second milk 
Lame Habiyo took for himself. They went to the town where the Sultan 
lived, and took the milk. The five young men carried the milk, and it was 
poured on the eyes of the Sultan, but was of no use. Another day Lame 
Habiyo gave his milk to his wife and said, " Let not your father and mother 
see you, when you pour it in." Then she took the milk and she poured it 
in. And the eyes of the Sultan and her mother were opened. Then the 
girl came running away and came to her house. Then the Sultan learned 
that Lame Habiyo had opened his eyes, and the Sultan called the other 
young men that married his daughters, and he said, " To the young man 
Lame Habiyo, who married my young daughter, have I given authority 
over my town, and you, be his servants." Afterwards Lame Habiyo became 
Sultan. 

II. "THE DRAGON-KILLER." 

(A variant of the story of Perseus and Andromeda.) 

There were a brother and sister who kept a cow. They dwelt in a 
deserted place, and the brother used to go with the cow, while the sister 
used to sit in the house, and at night they met in the zariba. The sister 
was of great beauty, and men asked for her, but her brother refused to let 
the girl be married. One day some men came into the house for the girl, 

K. 11 



162 TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 

and they conversed ; and the brother came in in the evening and found 
that men had come for his sister, but he said nothing. The next day the 
men returned to the girl and said, " We think of killing your brother ; when 
is he engaged ? " And the girl said, " When he is milking the cow." In 
the evening they came as he was milking the cow and leaped in over the 
fence. When he saw the enemy, he drew his sword. His sister seized 
his hair, but he cut it off, and jumped over the fence, which cut off his 
genitals ; and he escaped. He went near a town where there was a girl tied 
to a tree, and he said, " Who are you, girl ? " And she said, " My father is the 
Sultan of the town." And he said, " Why are you tied up here ? " And she 
said, " I am tied up for a dragon, which will come and eat me." Then he 
said, " When does it come ? " And she said, " In the evening." And he said, 
" When the dragon comes, what will it do ? " And she said, " First it will 
drink the water, and afterwards eat me." And he replied, "Very well." 
When the dragon came, it went down to the water, but the young man 
drew his sword and struck it on the head, and it died. Then he led away 
the girl, and brought her to the town, and the people of the town came 
running to him, as he led the girl, and they said, " What is this ? " And he 
said, " I have killed the dragon." Then he was brought to the Sultan, and 
they said, " This man has killed the dragon." And the Sultan bade him 
marry his daughter. So thereupon the man married her. 



III. THE GIRL WITHOUT LEGS. 

A Sultan had a daughter, and the daughter used to be taught the Koran. 
One day the Sultan went on a pilgrimage, and entrusted his daughter to a 
priest, and said, "Continue to teach that girl the Koran." The priest 
coveted the girl, wishing to lie with her, but the girl refused. One day she 
said, " Come to me to-morrow." On the day arranged she removed from the 
house the ladder by which the priest used to ascend. He then sent a letter 
to her father, and he wrote, " Your daughter has become a harlot." The 
Sultan returned from the pilgrimage, and he was angry with the girl, and 
he handed her over to some slaves, and he said, " Cut that girl's throat." 
Then the slaves took the girl, and they brought her to a wooded place, and 
they cut off her legs, while they dug her grave. While they were digging 
the grave she crawled away, and went into some trees and hid. When the 
slaves had dug the grave they looked in the place where she had lain and 
could not find her. Then they slew a gazelle, and the gazelle's blood they 
poured into a bottle, and brought the blood to the Sultan, and said, " We 
have slain the girl." One day later a caravan passed by the place, and 
camped where the girl lay. In the afternoon as the party were loading up 
the camels, they saw the girl sitting under a tree. A man took the girl, 
and put her on a camel, and brought her to the town they came to. The 
man who took the girl put her to live in a house. Later on the son of the 
Sultan saw the girl's face, and the young man saw that her face was 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 163 

beautiful, and he said to the man whose house she dwelt in, " Let me 
marry that girl from you." And the man said, "The girl has no legs." 
Then the Sultan's son said, " I will marry her, give her to me." And so 
the man said, " Well and good." And the Sultan's son married her. She 
bore two children, and while she was with child the young man said, " I am 
going on a pilgrimage," and he left her a ram, and went on the pilgrimage. 
While he was away on the pilgrimage his wife had a dream, and she 
dreamed that two birds sat upon her two legs, and her legs had grown out, 
and that she made the pilgrimage. In the morning at break of day she 
saw the two birds sitting upon her two legs, and the legs had grown out. 
After daylight she took her two children and the ram and the two birds, 
and went on the pilgrimage. She came to a building at the half-way, and 
there came to her her father and her brother and the priest and her 
husband, none of whom knew her. She told stories to her children, and 
she related all that had happened to her, and her father heard, and the 
priest. Then the priest tried to run away, but the Sultan said, " Sit down 
until the story is finished." Then the Sultan, the girl's father, cut the 
priest's throat, and the girl with her father and husband went on and 
made the pilgrimage. And so the girl and her father were reconciled. 



IV. THE HOLE IN THE WALL. 

There was a Sultan who had a son, and his son said, " I want to marry." 
So the Sultan gave him many presents, and also a ship. The Sultan's son 
set sail and came to a town, and when he arrived at the town he became 
friendly with a Sultan, and the Sultan gave him a house. The young man 
made a hole between the house he was in and the Sultan's house, and he 
became friendly with the Sultan's wife. One day the young man said to the 
Sultan's wife, " Make some food for me just as you are accustomed to make 
it for your husband" And he went to the Sultan, and said, " To-night will 
you take food with me 1 " And the Sultan said, " Well and good." And 
the young man said to the Sultan's wife, " To-night when I and the Sultan 
are having our food, I want you to serve us with the food." And the woman 
said, " The Sultan will know me." Then he said, " He will not know you, 
I will say you are my wife." And she said, " If he does not know me, I will 
go with you and be your wife." At night the Sultan came home and 
dressed himself, and came to the young man's house. And his wife passed 
through the hole in the wall, and came to the young man's house. Then 
she served the food to the Sultan and the young man. The Sultan recognised 
his wife, and got off his chair, and went to his house. Before he reached 
his house, the woman passed through the hole and sat upon her bed, and 
the Sultan saw her. When he saw her he straightway came back to the 
house of the young man, while the woman came through the hole, and still 

11—2 



164 TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 

he saw her. The young man, who was dining with him, said to the Sultan, 
" Did you think this woman who is serving our food was your wife ? The 
woman is my wife," he said, and the Sultan sat down. The next morning 
the young man said, " I am sailing." " Very good," he answered. And the 
young man arranged with the Sultan's wife and said, " In the morning come 
through that place, I am sailing." So the woman passed through and came 
to the young man, and he took her to the ship, and sailed. And the young 
man having run away with the Sultan's wife married her. 



V. THE TOWN OF MAN-EATERS. 

There is a story that a man was riding a horse, and there came to him an 
old woman, who said, " Where are you going ? " And he said, " I am going 
to that town." And she said, " In that town people are slain and eaten ; do 
not go in, lest they slay you." And he answered, " Still I am going in." 
Then she said, " The town has a Sultan, and the Sultan has a daughter, and 
the daughter's sash is a snake, and the snake eats the people. And there is 
a camel who eats the people, he sits in front of the house, over there upon a 
bed." And she said, " See, my man, if you are going to the house, run and 
enter the house of the Sultan's daughter." And he said, " The man told me, 
The dog eats the people, and the camel eats the people, and the snake eats 
the people. How am I going to pass them ? " And the woman said, " Take 
this grass, and let not the camel eat you, but when you pass the house you 
are going to, put the grass in at the door, lest it eat you. And for the dog, 
take this piece of meat, and put it near the dog, and let him eat it and not 
you. And for the snake, which is tied round the girl's waist, take this stick, 
and place it on the snake's head, and then the snake will die. After you 
have done this enter the house and go to the girl, and then marry her." So 
he married the girl. 



VI. MISFORTUNES. 

There is a story that a man once loaded his water-camels and took them 
to the well, and went to draw water. When he went to draw water he tied 
his camels together. When he was in the nullah he left six camels behind 
while he led the other six. When he was some distance off, the six camels 
that were left behind were not to be seen. So he ran back, and came up 
to find six lions eating the six camels. Then he left them, and returned to 
the other six camels, and found six other lions eating these. Then he took 
a waterskin from the camels, and came to his home, to find his family looted 
by an enemy. 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 165 



VII. HOW TO CHOOSE A WIFE. 

A man had a son, and the son said to his father, " Father, I want to 
marry a wife." Then his father said, " Do you take a widow." So he took a 
widow, and his father said, " Marry her." So he married her. Then his 
father said, " Tie her with a rope, and when she speaks to you, untie the 
rope." So he tied her with a rope, and the woman said, " This is not what 
I have been accustomed to see. What are you doing with me ? " Thereupon 
he untied the rope. In the morning his father came and said, " What did 
she say?" And he answered, "She said to me, This is not what I have been 
accustomed to see. Why are you doing that to me ? " Then his father 
said, "Send her away." That was one. 

The father said to his son, " Take another wife, take a grown girl." 
Then he said, " To-night tie her with a rope, and when she speaks to you, 
untie it" So he tied her, and she said, "This is not what I have been 
accustomed to hear, why are you tying me with that ? " So he untied her. 
In the morning he came to his father, and he said, " She said, This is not 
what I have been accustomed to hear, what are you doing to me with 
the rope ? " Then his father said, " Send her away too." And that was 
another. 

Then his father said, " Do you go and take a nice, young girL" So he 
took one, and he said, " To-night tie her with a rope, and when she speaks 
to you untie it." So the young man did so, and went to sleep, and was 
asleep all night. In the early morning the girl woke him up, and said, 
" The rope with which you tied me is fallen off and is not tied to me, tie it 
upon me." And in the morning he told his father, " Father, she said, The 
rope has fallen off, and is not tied to me, tie it upon me." Then his father 
said, " Keep that one, she is the right one." So she was the one he after- 
wards married. 



VIII. MAN AND HYAENA. 

It is said that the Hyaena owned flocks and Man had none. One day 
Man was looking after the Hyaena's flocks, and the Hyaena went to the 
Council After this Man thought, and he said, " Let us steal the Hyaena's 
flocks, while he is away at the council." So Man put the flocks in a zariba, 
and night came, and when it was night, they were driven off. The Hyaena 
howled, and went to the other animals, and he said, "See, I have been 
looted." Then they said, " Let us attack." They came along, and arrived 
at a pool of water, and the male Dikdik said, " If you do not let me come to 
the pool you shall not drink." " Sir, we will drink, leave us," they said. 
Then he scratched sand into it, until the water was gone, and they died of 
thirst, when they found no water. 



166 TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 



IX. CAMEL AND HER FOLLOWERS. 

It is said that a Camel possessed altogether a Snake, a Zariba, a Fire, a 
Flood, and a Lion, and Deceit, and Honesty. Those seven the Camel 
owned. One day Deceit said, "We might steal the Lion from that big 
Camel, let us kill the Lion." The others said, " How are we to kill him ?" 
Then she said, " Let the Snake bite the Lion, and when you have bitten him, 
go into the Zariba." So he bit him and went into the Zariba. Then she 
said, " Fire, burn up both the Zariba and Snake." So the Fire burned 
both Zariba and Snake. Then she said, " The Fire has killed the Snake 
and the Fence, let the Flood too put out the Fire." After this Honesty said, 
" The Flood does not travel on the mountain, but only in the nullah, let us 
travel on the mountain with the Camel." So they travelled on the mountain, 
and then Deceit said, " Let us slay the Camel." So they slew her, and cooked 
the steak, and gulped down the steak, and except the steak nothing else 
of the Camel did they eat. And the meat stuck in their throats, for it was 
a big piece, and could not pass through their mouths. So they died. 



X. THE BLIND MAN. 

In a certain place many men were talking, and there were two men, one 
of whom was blind and the other was not blind. The man with sight said, 
" Why do you talk with a blind man ? He can see nothing." And the 
blind man said, " How do you know a blind man ? " The other one said, 
" We know a blind man, he is a man who sees nothing." Then the blind 
man said, " He that is blind is the man who knows nothing, he is blind." 



XL 

Then Swayne came and began to enlist many askaris. Then Swayne 
left and came to us at Harrar. Then he said, " I want askaris." Then 
Oscar Gerard said, " How many do you want ? " Then he said, " I want a 
hundred horsemen." Then he said, "The hundred shall be given you." 
The hundred were given. When they were given we marched and came to 
Adadleh. We made eight companies. Then we drilled, and we stayed for 
one month only. Then Swayne's force came to us, and we left Burao and 
went to Ber. 

Col. Swayne and Col. Phillips were in command. The Mullah lived at 
Olesan. Then we came to Uduwein. An illalo was sent and told to look 
for the Mullah. Afterwards it was said to me, the Mullah had fled. We 
left Uduwein. Afterwards we went to Olesan. The Mullah was in the 
Nogal. We left Olesan, and afterwards at Wadamago we sent out illalos. 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 167 

The illalos found some karias, and captured camels, female and male. We 
sent the horsemen and camel corps to attack. Afterwards when the force 
attacked we loaded up and followed. Then we marched for two days, and 
then halted at Haridig. The Camel Corps and horsemen brought in 8000 
camels. Then Swayne said, "Two companies will stay here, and the camels 
will be left there." Then my company was left with the camels. Then 
Swayne's force went. 

Capt. MacNeill and Murray were left at the zariba. Then we saw the 
Mullah's illalos. At 2 o'clock in the day his force came to us. When we 
saw the enemy the Sirkal said, " Come inside the zariba," and afterwards we 
attacked and then we slew each other and fought for four hours afterwards. 
At 6 o'clock we chased them away. After that we sat down together inside 
the zariba Then later on, at 7 o'clock at night, we attacked and fought for 
two hours, and at 9 o'clock drove them away. Now at 1 o'clock they returned 
and this time we fought for one hour only. Then we slew those men, 
and afterwards they ran away. Then the next day at 7 o'clock they came 
back, and then we fired at each other, and then during the day we shot all 
the dervishes. 

Until they came close the maxim shot them, when they came close the 
askaris shot them with their rifles. (The maxim is a fine thing, a wild 
beast or devil.) 

When the people went further off and the maxim was let off at them, 
then many people perished. After that they fled up to the zariba A 
Mullah man killed four askaris with his spear. Then we chased them and 
caught 40 men. 

Capt. MacNeill sent for me and said, " Count for me all the Mullah men 
that are hit." I collected 10 askaris, and we counted 460 dead. Of our two 
companies they killed 9 men. Then MacNeill said, " Put the dervish dead 
men together somewhere." Then we brought them to one place. Then 
Swayne's force came to us, it had got nothing from the Mullah. 

The whole force came together to Bohotle. And afterwards we sent out 
illalos, and they found many camels at Kurmis. The illalos came back 
and we saw many camels ; the whole force loaded up, and we went to 
Kurmis. The Allegheri were looted of many camels. We stayed fifteen 
days. The owners of the animals came to us. The people went to the 
Colonel and said, " We will follow you, and the sheep will be brought back." 
Then he said, "If you follow I will get you back your sheep, load up all 
your karias and bring them close in." Then the Allegheri followed us. Then 
they said, " We will look for the Mullah with you. Afterwards we loaded 
up and came to Bohotle. The askaris who were sick were left behind at 
Bohotle, and then we left Bohotle. We halted at Wudwud and afterwards 
sent out illalos from Wudwud They said, " The Mullah is far off." Then 
we started and marched for five nights and five days. On the next day we 
met the Mullah's force. Then we fought, 15 askaris were killed, and the 
Sirkal who talks Arabic. Dickinson sahib was struck with a bullet, he was 
struck in the thigh. Twenty-five askaris were struck with bullets, but not 



168 TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 

killed. Then we found no water and came back. We were afraid, if the 
askaris have no water they will die. We spent fifteen days marching to 
Berbera. When we came here the askaris were given many camels. Every 
havildar was given 3, every jemadar 4, milk camels. The askaris received 
a month's leave. 

There was the end of this force. 

The second force came to Burao, and we stayed at Burao for four months 
afterwards. Then illalos were sent out and they went to the Ali Naleyah. 
They said, " We have found many animals." We marched there, four com- 
panies under Col. Cobbe and Col. Swayne. We went to Las Idleh, and at 
Las Idleh many horses came to us. Then we sent illalos, and the illalos 
said, " We have seen many animals." Then we left Las Idleh and marched 
on for eleven nights. We went to Jid Ali, to the Ali Naleyah. Then each 
company went its own way. We left Col. Swayne and half a company. 
Then we attacked the Ali Naleyah, and during the night and day looted the 
flocks. Then we brought the animals into the zariba Any men we saw 
we slew. Then we left. We reached Las Idleh in fifteen nights. Then the 
askaris were given sheep, each askari was given 12, a havildar or naik 20, 
jemadar or colour-havildar 30. Col. Cobbe and Col. Swayne went back to 
Berbera. Maj. Petrie and our four companies came back to Burao. Then 
we halted for a month at Burao. Then Col. Swayne joined us. He said, 
"The Force will go out; we will look for the Mullah. Let the Somali 
people bring camels to help," he said. Then the Habr Awal and Habr 
Yunis each brought with them 800 head of cattle, the Habr Toljala 600. 
Then the force moved My company remained behind for eight days. 
Then the Camel Corps and horsemen came from Berbera to Burao under 
the command of Capt. Osborne. Then we followed after the force. In 
five days we reached Bohotle. Then we joined Col. Swayne and the force 
at Bohotle. Then illalos were sent out. The illalos were away for ten 
nights. The illalos came back, and they said, "We have not seen the 
Mullah." Then the Colonel said, "We will advance." We advanced into 
the Nogal. Then we went to Gerowei. We looted many animals from the 
Mohd. Gerad. We stayed at Gerowei twenty nights. Illalos were sent 
out, they went to the Mullah at Mudug. The illalos came back to us and 
said, "It is a dry place, and we shall get no water." Then we made 
east and reached Halin. We looted many animals from the Naleyah 
Ahmed. Then the Sirkal said, " We will go back." For twelve days we 
marched and then came to Gaulo. Then the Colonel said, " Let two officers 
with the spearmen and animals go back." Then the animals and spearmen 
and two British officers went back. The Colonel left 3000 camels behind. 
Then illalos were sent. They went to the Mullah, and then said, "The 
Mullah is staying at Mudug." Then we loaded up and marched for five 
nights. On the sixth day in the early morning we met the dervishes at 
Brigo. Then we halted somewhere. After that the dervishes made a 
move towards us. When there was a mile between us, the Colonel said, 
"They will not fight with us, load up the camels and move." Then we 



TRANSLATIONS OF THE STORIES 169 

moved. The country was thick with trees. Then every company was 
extended ; thus we moved, and all at once they sent a volley into us. 
Then we lay our bellies on the ground, and we fought. Four companies 
departed. They were frightened and ran away. We three companies 
fought, the rest ran away. The three companies that fought were mine 
and two others. We came into the zariba, then the dervishes came. 
Three companies went out and drove them away. 
Afterwards we came to Bohotle. 



SONGS. 



In the songs a distinctly poetical style is noticeable, also a 
number of words, not found in colloquial Somali, many of which 
are absolutely unintelligible by themselves to an unpoetical native. 
Many of these words are coined by the author, but many are pro- 
bably old words handed down from generation to generation. It is 
necessary therefore in many passages for the author himself, or a 
fellow poet (of whom there are many, both professional and amateur), 
to explain the real meaning. Several of those which I collected I 
have not published here, as I could get no satisfactory rendering or 
explanation even from interpreters. 

Those translations which I have given are necessarily free in 
many places and by no means literal. They are interesting as 
examples of style, rather than of grammar. 

Songs are divided into three classes, known as 
Gerar, Gabei, and Hes 1 . 

The Gerar is sung on horseback, and usually relates to raiding 
and fighting. 

The Gabei is a chant of a more peaceful nature, and is often a 
love song. It is usually sung round the fire in the evening. 

The Hes is the Dancing-song, and always accompanies a dance. 
It is often in parts for men and women, and is usually of an 
amorous nature. 

1 Paulitschke (n. Cap. 2) describes six kinds of songs, and gives numerous 
examples. 



SONGS 171 

All three seem to have a somewhat similar rhythm, which runs 
as follows : 

Halna wa | iga sa|lan, 
Halna wa | iga sa('abghad, 
Halna wa | Iga su|al. 

Hal wa | I sa'ab|ghad, 

wa | I sul|danka ajmanti, 

siradlki Berber | ad, 

lyti | wa hal|da subahh | joga, 

The length of the whole line may vary considerably. An essential 
point is the alliteration of one letter throughout the song, each line 
of which must contain a word which contains that letter. Thus one 
song may have g, another d, and so on ; in a "g" song this letter 
occurs in some word in every line. The songs usually consist of solo 
and chorus, often sung in parts. Besides these, there are certain 
well-known chants which are sung while watering or grazing animals, 
marching, loading or unloading. Many of these are very old indeed. 
The watering chants vary for the different animals ; camels, horses, 
and sheep have each their special chants sung to them, which again 
vary in different tribes, and are adapted to the nature of the well in 
order to suit the action of drawing the water. 

I. Gerar, in s. 

Greeting to Sultan Nur on his visit to the Habr Toljala. 
? 1885. 

Somali. English. 

Halna 1 wa iga 2 salan 3 , First we salute thee, 

Halna wa iga sa'abghad, then we shake thy hands, 

Halna wa iga sual. then we ask a question. 

Hal wa i sa'abghad, First is our handshake, 

wa i Suldanka amanti, is praise to our Sultan, 

siradki Berberad, the light of Berberah, 

iyo wa halda" subahh j6ga, who is as an ostrich standing in the 

morning, 

1 A poetical word meaning "one thing," " item," similar to kodl in prose. 

2 from me. The sing, pronoun is used for the plural. 

3 salaam. 



172 



SONGS 



balashi kala saide', 
wahh la sisto la wah 2 . 

Halna wa iga salan. 
Gela, Senyo 3 iyo Lan 3 , 
sangayasha ghar&stei, 
gabdaha surta la m6da 4 , 

iyo seyahhainu ku jifna. 
Sadada nabad ba leh. 

Halna wa iga sual. 
Suldanki bokhronado, 
hor mahhau so'oten, 
sedka ainu 'uneno 5 ? 
Rabi ya inna slyei, 
sadehhdeni Ishhak 6 , 
hadanan ku salughin, 
adiga Suldano, 
salo yanna ka ye din 7 . 



shaking out his wings, 
beyond compare. 

Again we salute thee. 
The camels, Senyo and Lan, 
(and) the stallions have become fat, 
the young girls are like straight 

sticks, 
and we lie in the dew. 
The tribute is one of peace. 

And again we have a question. 
The Sultan who reigns, 
why hast thou come forth, 
that we should eat the sinews ? 
God granted to us, 
us three (sons of) Ishhak, 
if we do not make trouble with thee, 
thee, Sultan, 

that thou shouldst not bring com- 
plaint against us. 



II. Gerar, in g. 

The singer's tribe has been severely looted, and he demands 
justice. 



Somali. 
Ma 8 sidi gel6ga, 
o guluf mel ku daremei, 
yan gam'i wai haben. 
Sidi arka iyo g5sha, 



English. 
Like the bustard, 

who has seen an enemy somewhere, 
I cannot sleep at night. 
Like the lion and lioness, 



1 The Potential tense is often used in songs for the Indicative. 

2 This literally means, "nothing can be found to be given for it," i.e. no 
price. 

3 names for camels. 

4 lit. " is thought," an idiom meaning " is like." Cf. la bida in Yibir, q.v. 
8 i.e. have the poor parts of the animal to eat. 

6 i.e. Habr Gerhajis, Habr Awal, Habr Toljala, the three Ishhak tribes. 

7 for lnanad salo naga yeain. 

8 appears to be frequently used in songs without necessarily asking a question, 
especially in introducing similes. 



SONGS 



173 



o gabnihi laga layei, 
gurhan ma igu bdte. 

Sidi G6dir irman, 
o elmihi ka ghalen, 
garti mau ulule. 

Sidi ganleh shisheyei, 
tollkei ma iss ugu gdftei. 

Ma sidi nin gabobei, 
o nagu, gunyo ka dibei, 

ku geshiyeya hhumatei, 
yan ugu hantameya. 

Web her gerida jdga, 
ma gel annu lahain, 
e gudub nogu maghana, 
haghi so gudbiya 1 . 

Nabsi 2 wa ma ghabdbei, 
herna 3 wa ma gtidan, 
Guli wa wahh ma mogi, 
g6bina 4 wa warranta. 

Gelan manta haino, 
henya godonkbda, 
iyo wag^rki wadana, 
hadano gudfdin 
labadiba an gdine, 
mia no garaten* ? 



whose young have been slain, 
I would make much clamour. 

Like Godir, when with milk, 
whose young have been slaughtered, 
I would groan for justice. 

Like enemies apart, 

my tribe is divided among itself. 

Like an old man, 

whose wives, for whom he paid 

much, 
have grown bad and lazy, 
I am angry at it. 

For the lives that were taken, 
camels that were ours, 
whose fine has not been paid us, 
bring out the "diya." 

Fortune has not grown old, 

and law is everlasting, 

God is all-knowing, 

and the high-born have the news. 

Let us have the camels to-day, 
their genitals, 
and heart, 

? 

let us cut both, 

do you decide for us ? 



1 The price of a man's life is 100 camels, whether it takes place in a tribal 
fight, or raid, or in a private affair : this is the Arabic " diya," or Somali 
" hagh." 

2 Nasib. 3 Somali custom. 

4 gentry, or well born, opposed to tribes of doubtful origin, Esa, Gadabursi, 
Hawiya, and outcasts. 

5 The general meaning of this stanza is clear, but 1. 27 I cannot translate. 



174 



SONGS 



III. Gerar, in gh and g. 
To my 
Somali. 
Hamar 0, ghorohhdado ! 
Hamar 0, garadado ! 
Hamar 0, guwidado ! 
Hamar 0, ghofalkago ! 
Hamar 0, gadankago ! 

Hamar 0, ghorohhdado ! 
ghaili ' dof laga k^nei, 
iyo ghanfirka Hfndi, 
gh labkan ku arkei, 
g^suhugu dfnta 2 . 

Hamar 0, guwidado ! 
gharidi Milmilad 3 
rati 4 ghaib ugu nahhai 
ghorigi Berberad 
markab, ghaid u sugaya, 
ghun u j6ga, miya 5 . 

Hamar 0, garadado ! 
ghalimali libahh, 
iyo saryen ghortu u ba'dei, 
iyo wlyil ghorah, miya. 

Hamar 0, ghofalkago ! 
suryadan kaga rabto, 
ghalbigu ka garta, 
gelafdidka hawen, 
iyo wayel haj u gh6btei, 
an iss ku gh6nsan, miya. 

Hamar 0, gadankagu ! 



Bay Pony. 

English. 
Hamar, your beauty ! 
Hamar, your strength ! 
Hamar, your size ! 
Hamar, your obedience ! 
Hamar, your price ! 

Hamar, your beauty ! 

a cloth brought from over the sea, 

and Indian raiment, 

things which I look at, 

(and) die of astonishment. 

Hamar, your size ! 

}as a camel which has grown very fat 
on the sand of Milmil, 
\ as a ship at the pier of Berberah, 
J waiting for orders, 
stands fast. 

Hamar, your strength ! 

as a black-maned lion, 

and a bull oryx with broad neck, 

and a bull rhinoceros. 

Hamar, your obedience ! 

the path which I desire 

your heart understands, 

as a dutiful wife, 

and an elder gone on a pilgrimage, 

without grumbling. 

Hamar, your price ! 



1 a bright tartan cloth, most worn by Dolbohantas. 

2 for gesana ugn flinta, lit. I die of astonishment at the thing I look at. 

3 Milmil, in S. W. Somaliland. 

4 Dolbohanta for "camel." 

8 This word like ma is often used in similes. Perhaps it is only " eh ? " 



SONGS 



175 



gholidan la halelo 
mama gas ka ma h6io'. 
Ma gasanad Sirkalku * 
ghaib u $6 ballagha ? 



(from) the tribe I fight with, 
never can enemy take (you) away. 
Can the Sirkal ! 
who scatters his money so lavishly? 



IV. Gerar, in d. 

The singer tries to persuade two tribes to make peace. 

English. 



Somali. 
Wa innagi dan wadagta 3 , 
iyo iss ku dolad ahain, 
jini yu idin diifsan. 
War, tollo, inna 4 daya! 

Mel e ghailo daluntei, 
ma nago urleh la d6hhai 5 , 
o guriihi dab la rubei, 
an dunyo so dakhdaghaghin, 
bal dugeda hissaba 6 , 
wahh ku daida halkasa. 
War, tollo, inna daya ! 

Wayelka ya dad aslahha, 

dalintase ka dida. 
Bal da'danahai, dai, 
bal ddrkan talinayo, 
iyo dawodeda hissabo, 
wahh ku daida halkana. 
war, tollo, inna daya ! 



We are all of one salt, 
and under one government, 
a spirit entices you to evil. 
Ye tribes, desist ! 

The place you raised your shout, 
like women with child ripped up, 
whose homes are burned with fire, 
who have no property to move, 
think how old it is, 
consider somewhat there. 
Ye tribes, desist ! 

The elders settle the affairs of a 

people, 
but the young men disobey. 
See then, how old am I, 
how fairly I will decide, 
and weigh the case, 
consider somewhat here too. 
ye tribes, desist ! 



1 Among the Somalia, a mare, a well and a woman belong to the tribe, 
and cannot be parted with without the consent of the tribe. Hence the singer 
here says " No one can take you from our tribe." 

2 refers to British Officer. 

3 la wadago take meat together. The 3rd sing, is used, just as the 3rd 
sing, of a verb is used after a pronoun with ba, e.g. idinka ba shakheineya. 

4 or naga, is often used in such expressions, without necessarily referring 
to " us." 

6 A custom fairly common among the Somalis until recently. The Mullah 
has often practised" it on his raids against the Ishhak. 
6 i.e. it is so long since it occurred. 



176 



SONGS 



Matani la dagughei 1 , 
iyo fardi ghad ku dulbelei, 
iyo debilihi la kahhayei, 
gashan kun 2 la dareyei, 
ma dim6ne wahhas, 
o tollimdno ka ddrne. 
o samir bannu 3 dedallei, 
wahh ku daida halkasna. 
war, tollo, naga daya ! 

Hadi tana la dido, 
o laga d6rto 'olladda, 
annana 3 wa dfrirra, 
'olio, ha inna dulin ! 

V. Gerar, in g. 

Somali. 
Nefka gadada weinleh 
amantis garan mayo 
Ma Haud 4 gedaleh ba? 
'Erku o galab hore 
gabdankisa, miya ? 
Libahh mel f6g ka guhha 
gabnihisi, miya? 
Gela,Gedo s iyoLan 5 
ganihisu, miya ? 
Ana, Ged 6 iyo Hohhad 7 , 
gerarkeigu, miya? 
Afartlsi gundod 
dulka ugu gara'a, 
ma sidi gabad wein, 
o geyaukeda 8 la slyei, 



The wells are shut down, 

and the horses are sore-backed, 

and the camels are driven off, 

milk is drawn on to shields, 

we must not forget that, 

and must choose to be of one tribe, 

and wish for peace, 

consider somewhat there too. 

ye tribes, desist ! 

If this is refused, 

and enmity preferred, 

we too must fight, 

ye armies, do not attack us ! 



To my Pony. 

English. 

My broad-chested beast, 

how to praise him I know not. 

Like grass-covered Haud ? 
"I Like the pattering 
J rain from last evening's sky ? 
\ Like«the cubs of a 
/lion roaring afar ? 
) Like the foals of the 
/camels, Gedo and Lan ? 
'I Like my own song 
/of Ged and Hohhad ? 

His four hoofs 

clatter over the ground, 

like a grown girl, 

who has been given her husband, 



1 lit. covered with stones. Wells out of use are shut up by their owners, 
by covering them with wood and stones. 

2 upon. This means that there is only enough to fill the hollow of a shield. 

3 refers to "we, the singer's people," and not to the others. The pronoun 
innagl in line 1 includes the people addressed. 

* The district S.W. of the Nogal Valley. 

8 Names of camels. 6 The spring winds. (Hagar.) 

7 The summer wind. (Karif.) 8 means the " betrothed." 



SONGS 



177 



o guyo 1 wein lagu dibei, 
darka ti gana'leh, 
iyo garbasarka haridah, 
iyo gashali huwatei, 
o gor ga lidka hadkeda, 
ninkiyo gama'san, 
gasinka u sita 
o kabihi gadda lo'ada', 
gara'^sa miya ? 

VI. Gerar, in s. 

Somali. 
Faraskeigu soyan, 
midabkagu ma s6 kan 'ad 
Sifahagu guy^dna 
ma sagal gu jir ba ? 
Ma sidi nin sirkalah ? 
Intan ku salahho, 
sankarkaga tura, 
golahan salebeya, 
o saharka ka idleya, 
an gedo kugu saya. 
Halki senyo ku s6fto, 
adigo wahh ku sema 3 , 
o sfema iga rid mahai, 
sunka ka de'b'in mayo. 
Wahhba ha i la sula'an, 
o salogiga ghunyar 4 . 



and has received great flocks, 

who, with most costly robe, 

and silken raiment, 

and dress, has clothed herself, 

and at the time of mid-day shadows, 

to her sleeping husband, 

brings his food, 

as with the shoes of cow's hide 

she clatters ? 

To my Pony. 

English. 

My fine horse, 
ba? your colour, is it not white ? 
Your manners and age 
are they not nine years ? 
Are you not like a gentleman ? 
As I groom you, 
I throw away the dirt, 
I clean the stable, 
and remove the dung, 
while I put down grass for you. 
Where camels graze, 
with you I must attack, 
and until I get my share, 
I will not loosen girths. 
Do not prance with me, 
and neigh softly. 



VII. Gerar, in h. 



A Raiding Song. 

English. 
Have ye, over plains and plains, 
over (countless) plains, 



Somali. 
Idinku baneyal 5 , 
banan idinku baneyal, 

1 i.e. the dowry. 

2 The women's shoes are not fastened by a strap at the heel, and, being just 
as heavy as the men's, make a great clatter in walking. The best shoes are of 
cow's hide. 

3 touch, but here the meaning is "loot." 

4 This is the meaning given me by the author, but I cannot explain it. 

5 An intensive form of the plural. 

K. 12 



178 



SONGS 



Illahh beididi hai'sta, 
dtilan mau btilaten ? 
Barbar ma iss ka gurten ? 
Bad 6 ' mau ghdbsoten ? 
Bustihi 2 iyo shalka 3 ma Bad6 

huwisen ? 
Rakabka birtaah sulka mau 

barkisen 4 ? 
Yassin 6 maugu bahhden ? 
Butlyihi 'ollku jehhai, 
iyo budulki ma h^shen ? 
Isago ka balawaya, 
banan maugu takten ? 
Wllal, Ebba badbadshei, 
dabka mau bilbfshen ? 
Sibrar 'anaha bokha 6 , 
iyo habenkana barurta, 
ma barura 'unten ? 



whose richness belongs to God, 

gone out to war ? 

Have ye assembled the young men ? 

Have ye caught Bado ? 

Have ye put on Bado the blanket 

and trappings ? 
Have ye put the toe in the stirrup 

iron ? 
Have ye made your prayers ? 
Where the enemy cut the ground, 
have ye found the tracks ? 
While he is talking, 
have ye taken to the plain ? 
Boys, enriched by God, 
have ye prepared the fire ? 
A skin of curdled milk, 
and fat for to-night, 
have ye eaten fat ? 



VIII. Gerar, in b. 

Cn the Raising of the Tribal Horse, 1903 7 . 



Somali. 
Gerar wa bogholal, 
wa badwein iyo m6jad, 
wa baburki sidisa. 
Ninki an badinahain 
berka wa ka ghalaha. 
Bablr mai makhashen ? 
Hadi gaso lo bilabo, 
o Burao lagu tont6mo 8 , 



English. 
Songs are in hundreds, 
like the great sea and waves, 
like the ships. 

The man who is not full of them, 
his bowels are cut out. 
Do ye hear my song ? 
If companies are collected, 
and hailed to Burao, 



1 Name of a horse. 

2 is the hairy skin placed over the saddle. 

8 is the woollen trappings on headstall and breast-plate (sita'). 

4 With the Somalis, as with other African horsemen, the stirrup iron is 
small, and only the big toe is inserted. 

5 The Prophet. 

8 Curdled milk and melted sheep's tail fat are the usual supplies taken by 
a Somali on a raid. 

7 This and the next two were made by my sais, or groom, on the occasion 
of the raising of mounted native levies for the operations against the Mullah, 
1902-4. 

8 from " tomtom " drum. 



SONGS 



179 



wilal berka Ishhakah, 
adunk6da badna, 
an ku berkadsadahain 1 , 
ayan Sirkal Basha ka ra'i. 

IX. Gerar, in b. 

Leaving 
Somali. 
Innagu Burao jogna, 
ma jawabta illalo 2 ? 
War, bulali 3 jader, 0, 
so'od beinnaga 4 j6ga. 
Jiryal affeyei, 
iyo sun b'e'id laga jehhai 5 , 
aya iss ku jidei bilawa. 
Wa jehhad 6 tegeya, 
aya jld ar6ryo, 
ilia 7 jidaneya. 
Anna 'ss ku jad 8 ndkhona. 



sons of Ishhak's loins, 

of great wealth, 

who are not weak-hearted, 

I will follow the Sirkal Pasha. 



Burao before Jidballi. 
English. 
We wait at Burao, 
has the scout brought answer ? 
Lo, wiry dun, 

the time to march is upon us. 
I have sharpened spears, 
and cut a thong from an oryx, 
I have tied on a dagger. 
I go on a crusade, 
and start in the early morning, 
in order to hasten. 
We are of the same mettle. 



X. Gerar, in b. 

The Object of Fighting is Loot 9 . 



Somali. 
In kastada bareiso, 
o ghasiradi bokhosho, 
la'agteidi bakshishleh, 
iyo hadan bur 10 na la sinin, 
ama gela Badwein bada leigu 
'eriyin, 



English. 
However many you kill, 
and cut their pay, 
my bakshish money, 
if it is not given us in heaps, 
or the camels at Badwein if they are 
not looted for me, 



1 I do not know the derivation or correct form of the word in this line, but 
the meaning was explained as I have given it. 

2 scout, spy. 3 dun-coloured pony. 4 foa innaga. 
B Oryx hide is the strongest in Somaliland. 

6 Being an ignorant man, he did not realise the meaning of this word, or he 
would not have used it in referring to a campaign against fellow Mohammedans. 

7 in la. 8 is the Hindustani word. 

9 The Somalis, even our so-called friendly and protected tribes, have no 
compunction in saying that they will not join our army unless we promise them 
loot, in the shape of camels. It is also implied here that money is of little 
consequence compared to camels — an important fact to remember in dealing 
with these people. 

10 mountain. Here equals " piles of money." 

12—2 



180 SONGS 

inan forska 1 u b6do, that I join the force, 

wa hal an bihhihainin, is a thing of no value, 

Sirkal berka u sheg. let the Sirkal remember in his heart. 

XL Gabei 2 , in d. 

Lament on the Invasion and Raids of the Mullah, 
Mohammed Abdallah, 1900—1904. 

Da'da 3 gabeiga watan 4 beriaha daba'ei digdya, 
Forget the holy song I formerly laid down, 

Hadba anigu o dayei ya dari tidahhai, 
Now I myself too have ceased from what people sang, 

An dubeyo wa ki beriaha igu dahhsonei. 
And from what came to me to sing before. 

An ku d'odo, Somali yan hadalka dei'nahain, 
Let me speak out, and if Somalis cease not their chatter, 

Dab61ki an ku rido, hedoda an daboka gud saro. 
Let me put on the lid, and cover up the dish. 

Digti halei dahhdiga ka ma gam'in, da'kirka an ka'ei, 
All last night my heart could not sleep, in the morning I arose, 

Derewfshtu wa ti ka timi degalodoiyo, 
There were the Dervishes come from their homes, 

Darudki 5 wagi hore yei dabin oghojen, 
Darud first had laid his snare, 

Dabadedna wa ti lei yimi dagahhan Idoro 6 , 
And afterwards he was come to the land of Idoro, 

Dareghada 7 iyo wa ti guben, dinti Ne'biga dab ku shiden, 
There were the priests' schools burned, the faith of the Prophet set fire to, 

1 Adopted from the English. 

2 I have given as literal a translation of these " Gabeis " as I can, but in 
some cases where I am not able to explain how the meaning is arrived at, I 
have given the meaning derived from a colloquial paraphrase by the author. 

3 1 — 5. Old songs do not suit the present days of strife, 

Now keep quiet unless you wish me to stop. 

4 And later 1. 7, wa ti, cf. § 289. 

6 Name of the Somali tribes, including Dolbohanta, Ogaden, etc., i.e. the 
tribes of the Mullah. 

6 A name for Ishhak. 

7 Daregho is a school where young men learn their religion, or are trained 
for priesthood. The chief schools are at u. Sheikh, Hargeisa ; the u. Sheikh 
one is that referred to here. 



SONGS 181 

Dabuna da'ei iyo dunida nafbdei, 
And he carried off loot and laid waste the earth, 

Dadku da'ei, ag6nti dulmiya 1 , derisadu layei, 
He robbed the people, injured the orphan, slew the neighbours. 

Dubki 2 iyo shaladki, arladdi lagu doafei, 
Their headcovering and chant, as they tramp over the ground, 

Sidi danab ku da'ei, rerihi digoda lo rebei. 
Fell like lightning and thunder, our homes were left as dung. 

Ebbo, adi ya dayenah, an duri ku moghene, 
Father, thou art everlasting, and all knowing, 

Dalki adaha laba nin 3 ya dasaddu tunei, 
Two sides have clamoured for portions of the land, 

Rabo, kala dabal eida madhar leiss la d6neya. 
God, separate the armies which seek one another. 

XII. Gabei, in m. 

My future Wife. 

An maleyo tan 4 mage wa madahhada Guledo. 
It is in my mind that she whom I would marry is the (daughter of) the 
head of the Guleds. 

Marrin 5 'as weiyei, o ga'amo wa majeno r6bah, 
She is pink, and her hands are like drops of rain, 

Kub malasan ba lehdahai, marodi wa sohhei, 
Her ankles are round, her skirt is pleated, 

Talaboda magug o ma rldei, wa miyirisei. 
Her steps are not those of a fool, she walks daintily. 

Malaek sameis an farsamo, lagu ma nagin 6 . 
She is after the fashion of an angel, a virgin full of skill, 

7 Weli melod jogtana maarag, ku maana moghene. 
Never yet have I seen the place of your abode, nor have I any knowledge 
of you. 

1 Orphans are ordered to be specially protected by the Koran. 

2 The white cloth they tie orer their heads as a badge. 
8 The Mullah's people and the British Government. 

* tian. 

B pink colour, or light copper, the favourite colour among Somalia. 

6 From nag woman. 

7 The singer now addresses the lady. 



182 SONGS 

Halun 1 ba mirtfdaha ghalbigu ka muradsidei, 
Last night, for half the night, in my heart I dreamed of you. 

Marrwein hoyoda wahhannu sin Mur 2 ai rerato 3 , 
We will give your aged mother a loading camel, 

Walalkana hamar maidan ban malin ho odane 4 . 
And to your brother one day I may present a pure bay pony. 

Mos ban u jebin abaha, Mura 5 iyo Hemaleh 6 , 
I will divide a host of camels with your father. 

An majalis wada ghaddnne, miday6da kali. 
Let us all take our places, come to my people. 

XIII. Gabei, in d. 

To Dahab. 

Dirahh h<5rte, Guban 6 o lei dilei, dukha la hayamei. 
In the spring time, Guban is dead, the people have taken the road. 

Ninki dano kahhayo banan dauga so ghdbeya, 
He who leads water-camels, takes the road to the plain. 

Dukhan 5 iyo Ogaz 6 6 dalei, derig la dansh6do, 
Dukhan and Ogaz have foaled, and are proud with repletion. 

Wa derejo labadeni o ghollad 'ss ku darei, 
Here is honour for both of us, who meet in one room, 

Unsiga ad nagu dadisida. Dahab 0, no kali ! 
While you sprinkle scent over us. Dahab, come ! 

Wahhad d6nto wa laga heleya, Dahab 0, no kali ! 
Whatever you wish will be given you, Dahab, come ! 

Dud 7 annu nahai la ma horeyo, Dahab 0, no kali ! 
Our tribe is second to none, Dahab, come ! 

Akhal dorah mod leiss ku darei, galmo daba joga, 
Our goods are laid together in a beautiful house, the camels wait behind, 

Durba holaha naga ghobo, Dahab 0, no kali ! 
Now take our flocks, Dahab, come ! 

1 Halei un. 2 Name of a camel. 

3 That she may load. 4 Ho take, hold. Oflo say. 

6 Names of camels. 

6 The maritime plain from which the tribes wander into the more fertile 
Ogo, or southern slopes of the Golis range, at this time of year. 

7 Forest. Here used for tribe. 



SONGS 183 

Wan lei dilei, barur laga dala'ei, 
A ram is slaughtered, fat is cooked, 

Aulalada diran, manfa'an wada d6nonne, Dahab 0, no kali ! 
The ribs are ready, let us all find food, O Dahab, come ! 

Sar dab61an x , hes 2 danoneiyo, weso darandera, 
Put on the shield-cloth, hang up spear and white flask, 

Tusbah d6rah, iyo watahhan 3 hore u si dadsha. 
Lovely rosary and prayer-mat lay in front. 

Kabo dalinka leisska diga e malmo lagu dalo, 
In weariness one lays aside shoes in which one toils by day, 

Iyo ga'anta ka ma dein karo jedal dubandabeyo. 
And the whip which the hand cannot cease from flicking. 

Daf hadan, la so yidi gogolaha darah gogoshuwa, 
Enter now then, the beds are ready spread, 

Dalaghdalagh 4 u so'odkad hubki dib u lo lafiyotei 5 . 
? ? ? ? 

XIV. Hes, in g. 

Dumar 0, kunka kabaha, kulliga damanta, 
Ye women, the thousand generations, all and everyone, 

Sikakaaga akhal gudi u garane. 
Of your ancestors within the house we may know. 

Illahed goisi u garane. Raga gelisi u garane. 
The partitions of a room we may know. We may know the men's camels. 

Gashan ma ghadan, ma ku gaban taghanin ? 
Do you carry a shield, do you know how to lower it? 

Marka rag iss u srt galo, ma gangani taghanin? 
When men compete, do you know how to draw a bow? 

G^ranka afki u badan iyo gojoda lugtaah m6yi. 
The great clamour from your lips, and the dancing of your feet, I know not 

Gembi kaleh ma garatan ? 
Is there any other art you understand? 

1 Somalia keep their shields white and new by covering them with a white 
cloth. 

2 Name of a particular kind of spear. 

3 Watann is the tree from which the bark is taken for tanning leather. 

4 Wagging of the head. 5 Walk. 



THE DIALECTS OF THE OUTCAST TRIBES, 
YIBIR AND MIDGAN. 



1. ACCOUNT OF THE TWO TRIBES. 

These two tribes are called by Somalis Sab, or outcast, being 
considered of low origin and not descended from Darud or Iskhak 
(cf. Appendix III). For this reason Somalis will not mix with them 
or intermarry. 

The Yibirs are said to be sorcerers, and to have prophetic 
powers and the power of cursing. They live by begging, but 
especially by the levy of a tax on Somalis, at a marriage or the 
birth of a child, according to an old tradition told in a story which 
is given here in Yibir dialect. 

The Midgans are by nature hunters or trappers, and live largely 
by the meat of game they can kill in the jungle. They are also 
employed by Somalis to work for them, in return for which they 
receive occasional payment, in food or otherwise, and protection, 
from their employer. This work consists in fetching wood, drawing 
water, and digging and cleaning wells. 

Both tribes also work in leather, tanning hides, and making 
leather ornaments, saddles, shoes, etc. 

They profess to be Mohammedans like pure Somalis, but the 
Midgans are very lax in their religion, being unclean in the matter 
of the meat they eat. Many, however, are comparatively civilised 
and are strict on this point. 

Neither Yibir nor Midgan have any definite tract of land, like 
the numerous tribes of Somali. They are scattered as wanderers 
over the whole country, the Midgans either attaching themselves 
to some Somali tribe as abban, or living upon them as robbers and 
thieves. 

Each tribe has its own dialect, which has hitherto been kept as 
a solemn secret from the rest of the world. They still insist upon 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 185 

secrecy from Somalis, and made me promise not to divulge to their 
hereditary enemies what they were quite willing to explain to the 
white man. 

I, therefore, rely upon any who may read this not to disclose to 
any Somali what I have been allowed to write down for the benefit 
of the Sirkal, but if any other officer of an enquiring disposition 
wishes to pursue the subject, he should be acquainted with the 
Somali language, which all the Sab know, and discuss these things 
with one of them. 



2. OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIALECTS. 

(Quoted by kind permission of the Editor of the Journal of the 
African Society 1 .) 

Yibirs and Midgans are both very jealous of their languages, 
and keep them a secret from other Somalis, although all speak the 
common language of the country, namely Somali. There are, 
I believe, no Somalis who know anything of either dialect, and 
while I was having my interviews with these people, they were very 
particular not to allow any Somali within hearing, our conversations 
having to be carried on in the latter's language. 

Here let me repeat that I was put on my word by both peoples 
not to divulge anything to a Somali, but was allowed to write it 
down for the use of British officers, their vanity being evidently 
touched by the idea of a white man wanting to study their 
language. 

Therefore I must ask any who may read this and who may 
sojourn in the country, not to repeat what I give here to any Somali, 
not of Yibir or Midgan birth. 

A. W. Schleicher is the only author who refers to an unknown 
language {Die Somali- Sprache, p. x) : 

"Unter den Somali leben mehrere Helotenvolker, von denen die 
Midgan, Tomal und Yibber die bekanntesten sind. Nur die Yibber scheinen 
eine eigene Sprache zu besitzen, die sie unter sich sprechen." 

"Bestimmte Angaben dariiber konnte ich nicht erhalten, dem Somali 
sind die Yibber ein Greuel. Nach Hussein versteht kein Somali ihre Sprache, 
doch verstehen die Yibber alle das Somali." 

1 Journal of the African Society, No. xni., October, 1904. 



186 YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 

The construction of the languages, I find, is the same as that of 
the Somali tongue, as spoken all over the country, and by all tribes ; 
that is to say, they are identical in, and the same rules apply in 

(1) Syntax, 

(2) Conjugation of Verbs, 

(3) Inflexions of Nouns and Adjectives, 

(4) Methods of forming Derivative Verbs, etc. 

In the matter of Vocabulary, the following parts of speech are 
practically altogether different from Somali and from one another, 
though a very few roots are common to all three : 

(1) Nouns, 

(2) Adjectives, 

(3) Verbs, 
and consequently, (4) Adverbs, 

(5) Conjunctions, 

(6) Prepositions. 

On the other hand such parts of speech as, 

(1) Definite Article, 

(2) Demonstrative Pronoun, 

(3) Possessive Pronoun, 

(4) all Particles, 

are common to all three, and have the same forms and constructions. 

The Yibir vocabulary is fairly complete, though poorer than 
Somali. The Midgan, on the other hand, is extremely deficient. 
A large number of words have therefore to do duty for several 
meanings each, according to the context. 

Examples, 

Yibir. 

dalanga any animal or bird (an appropriate epithet or descrip- 
tion being required for each individual kind). 

agar thing, stuff, food, etc. 

a "rer," family, home, flocks, belongings, baggage, 

property. 

awas any vegetable, tree, grass, wood. 

iftin light, sun (fern.), moon (masc), star, rupee, silver, 

money (as adjective = bright or white). 



NOTES ON THE DIALECTS 



187 



ilahh fire, gun (as adjective =hot). 

mid exist, be, stop, stand. 

tomala anything hard, hill, stone (adjective = hard). 

lawo water, rain, river, year. 

Midgan. 

hangaguri any wild beast (carnivore). 

nas thing, place, time, town, person, self. 

ghoribirro wood, and anything made of wood, tree, bow, shaft of 

spear, thorn, 

gosad iron, knife, any iron tool, 

iftimowa sun, light, day. 

gomosfmo water, rain, river, 

ghan good, large, heavy, far, white, hot, full, 

neghatal bad, small, light, near, black, cold, empty, 

makabur stone, hill, money, rupee (as adjective = hard). 

I could not find any other native words to translate the various 
meanings given opposite each of the above. 

Where special definition is required, some paraphrase is used. 
Yibirs have no special names for animals, but use such expressions 
as the following : 

dalangihi khabarki ghandldsan hyaena (lit. the animal with 

plenty of noise). 

dalangihi walahumo ku dashlya oryx (lit. the animal having 

spears). 

Midgans describe the lion and leopard as, hangaguri ghan, 
and hangaguri neghatal, respectively. 

The following are good examples of other paraphrases required 
by the languages : 

my father (Mid.) alowihi i so finfinshei. 

(Yib.) goriedki i jagh'idei, literally, the man who 
begat me. 
yesterday (Mid.) iftimowihi tegedei. 

(Yib.) iftinti tegedei, literally, the light that has 
gone, 
to-morrow (Mid.) iftimowihi so tegedeya, literally, the light 
that is coming. 



188 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 



I am hungry (Mid.) guratada wa neghatal, literally, my belly is 

small (or thin), 
look at (Mid.) ind6kholaha ku yef. 

(Yib.) ainta ku yef, literally, turn your eyes to. 
pray (Mid.) gomosfmo 'ss ku dahhdahhbi, literally, 

buy yourself with water. 
(N.B. Does this refer to the Mohammedan ablutions before 
praying, or has it any connexion with Christian baptism ?) 

evening (Mid.) iftimowihi neghatala himirki so 'idbeya, 

literally, the small light, as night comes on. 

Notice that these phrases are similar in each language. A 
number of words too are common to both : 

Examples, 



teged 


go 


shan 


go 


bakhrin 


head 


ganad 


hand 


yal 


foot 


ruf, rof 


dead 


yef 


turn 


ku dashi 


have 



On perusing a grammar of Galla, I found that no special 
connexion exists, as I had expected, between that language and 
either of these dialects. Where any similarity occurs, it pervades 
the Somali as well. 

Many Somali roots are found in these dialects, with additional 
syllables. 



Somali. 


Yibir. 


Midgan. 


English. 


if 


iftin 


iftimowa 


light 


indo (plur.) 


ain 


indokhol 


eye 


makhal 


makhalei 


makhashimei 


hear 


ghori 




ghoribirro 


wood 


af 




afjaghin 


mouth 


san 




saneg 


nose 


kol 


kulhi 




time 


laf 


lafil 


lafeiti 


bone 


lugh (voice) 


laghdan (tongue) 
lagh (talk) 


laghowa (throat) 





NOTES ON THE DIALECTS 



189 



The inflexions of Yibir and Midgan are the same as those of the 
Somali, and not of the Galla language, as, for instance, agreement of 
Adjectives, inflexions of Verbs, plurals of Nouns, and the Definite 
articles. 

Derivative words are formed in the same way as in Somali ; 

Examples, 

so Idib 



Idib 
shan 



go. 



so shan 



} 



fed (Y) wish 
feflo look for 

ind6khol (M) I 

ain (Y) J J ' 

makhali <Y) 1 
makhashin (M) J 

yifan (Y) j s 



kul 
kusho 



shamei J 
(M) give. 



take 



eat, or drink. 



inddkholei 
aimei 

makhalei 



} 



i 



hear. 



makhashimei J 

■ mi I make good, 
yifnei J 



so \ dbi . I bring, 
so snamei J 

'id (Y)give. 

'ido eat, or drink. 

indokoleisi| shew 

aimeisi J 

makhaleido ) listen 
makhashimeiso J to. 



ghamo 
yifno 



be good. 



The following Midgan root ragh, or raghahh, is interesting as 
regards its various derivatives and constructions, which are all 
purely Somali. 



raghahh 

raghahhi mayo 

'ss ka raghahh 

so raghahh 

ku raghahh 

faras ku raghahh 
raghahhi 

gosad ku raghahhi 
raghahho 
raghahhsan 

ku raghahhsan 
raghahhsanei 
raghahhsano 

ku raghahhsano 



act, do, fix 

I will not do it 

sit down (set yourself) 

wait 

catch, hold 

ride a horse 

set, place, make 

cut (with a knife) 

take to yourself, marry 

be, exist, He, live 

wish, have 

give 

look for 

like, love 



In an account, given me by a Midgan, of the traditional origin 
of his tribe, it was suggested that this language was invented 



190 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 



by the Midgans' ancestors in the jungle as a secret code. This may 
possibly be the case, judging from the following examples : 



Midgan. 






hand farolahato 


from Somali j 

Uaho 


fingers 

possess 


arrow degoyir 


fdego 

tyir 


ears 
small 


breast fddolahato 


fddo 


ribs 


Clarke's gazelle } diboder 
(Dibatag) J 


fdibo 

tder 


tail 
long 


oryx gesoder 


„ geso 


horns 


sheep yiryiro 


fyeryerplur. form 
I of yer small 


skin gadlahato 


gad 


beard 


liver madobiyo 


f madd 
tbiyo 


black 
water 



3. EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES AND CONVERSATION 
IN YIBIR AND MIDGAN. 



Midgan. 

higge ka so 'idibtei ? 

alowa ba so 'idbeya. 

naskas i kul. 

goriedki ghansana. 

awinti ghansaneid. 

higgan so duhur. 

'ss ka sir. 

higga 'ss ka raghahhsano. 

gararati shar bannu dagnei. 

gedgharomed ma ku raghahhsana ? 

raghahhi mayo. 

jalmihi gomosfmodi u 'idbi. 

hajiaha g6sad ku raghahhi. 

bulalki so shanshamei. 

gomosfmo ma raghahhsanid. 

makaburta u sharei. 

ma dukhanta ? 

ma sharodei ? 

ghoribirro ghan i kul. 

baghdankini i dagsi. 

nasina i kulin. 

guratada wa neghatal. 

wahhan kushodo i kul. 

iftim6wihi tegec'lei alowihi i so 

finfinshei la rufiyei. 
iftim6wihi neghatala bodowyashi 

higgar u shamei. 



English. 

where have you come from ? 

a Midgan is coming. 

give me that. 

the good man. 

the good woman. 

come here. 

go away. 

stay there. 

we saw many horses. 

are there trees there ? 

I will not do it. 

take the camels to water. 

cut the rope. 

light the fire. 

there is no water. 

give more money. 

are you sick ? 

are you well ? 

give me a big stick. 

teach me your language. 

give me nothing. 

my stomach is empty. 

give me something to eat. 

yesterday my father was killed. 

in the evening take the burden 
camels over there. 



192 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 



Midgan. 

iftim6waha ban Aji sukhodin ku 

dukhei. 
awintaida yag61ka raghahhsanta. 
moyodi higga erifogad iss dukhesa 

wa shar. 
wa mahai naskas bakhrinka ku 

raghahhsan ? 
yag51kaigi makaburta ghan ku 

raghahhsana. 
naskakan hangaguri shar ku 

midsha, hajia bannu ku ra- 

ghahhadna. 
hadad hangaguri ghan i indo- 

kholeisineso, makabur shar ban 

ku kuleya. 
himirki jalmahaiga laga la sirei. 

iftirnowihi tegedeya, kulhidi mo- 
yodi jalmihi higga erifogad u 
shameineso, an rufino moyoda, 
o jalmihi la sirno. 



English. 

to-day I shot a Somali with a 

bow. 
my wife is at home, 
the people fighting over there 

are many, 
what is that on your head ? 

my house is by the big hill. 

here are many animals, we catch 
them in traps. 

if you shew me a lion, I will 
give you much money. 

in the night my camels were 

looted, 
to-morrow, when the people take 

the camels over there, let us 

kill the people, and go off 

with the camels. 



Yibir. 

ma yafantahai ? 

ma yafnan ba ? so yafnan miya ? 

higge u bidbidefnesa ? 

higga dugageigu wa tegedeya. 

mahhad f^desa ? 

wahhan ka fedeya inad kalwein 

i 'ida. 
humaggi mahhad 'fdatan ? 
g6dibki ma 'idatan ? 
dugagagu weli ma awelisatei ? 
weli ma awelisan. 
ddrigas mahhad ku awelein ? 



English. 

are you well ? 

is it peace ? 

where are you going ? 

I myself am going there. 

what do you want ? 

I want you to give me a tobe. 

what do you eat at night ? 
do you drink milk ? 
are you married yet ? 
I am not married yet. 
what are you going to do with 
that? 



EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES AND CONVERSATION 



193 



Yibir. 

jalmo ma ku dashisa ? 

ku ma dashiyo. 

alkhailahagu wa inhima ? 

wa ghandid. 

awaski yafneisfya, dalanga wa so 

bidbideineya. 
anghagi ad yiftimeisei ma so 

ganiden ? 
g<5riedkas ain ba rufsan. 
derigi lagu anghaksodo "huwad" 

ba la bida. 
khabar ghandid ba lagu bida. 
mahha bakhrefneya ? ma la wo ? 
agarma ku midesa ? 
agar ku ma mideso. 
kulhimad bidbideinesa ? 
higge ka so tegedei ? 
alkhail ku tegedeya. 
mahliad u tegedi weida ? 
goriedki ma mideya ? 
higga darsad 'ss ka midi. 
ainta igu so yef. 
godib i so shimi. 
jalamada so shimiya. 
dalangaha bakhreineya agarma 

u fedeya? 
ada biggan midslya. 
jalamada kabarta ku midsiya. 
agartada la teged. 
higgisa ha mideyo. 
khabarma aweleinesa ? 
wa lei rufiyei. 
difadki iga bilehh. 
kalweinti humaksaneid yifnan 

iss ugu shimi. 
agarma aimeisei ? 
khabarma makhaleidanesei ? 
dengas ma ku duhuresa ? 
ku ma duhuro. 



English. 

have you any camels ? 

I have none. 

how many are your horses ? 

they are many. 

make the zariba strong, a wild 

beast will come, 
have you caught the Mullah 

you were fighting? 
that man is one-eyed, 
the thing one prays on is a 

"huwad." 
you are good at the language, 
what is that noise ? rain ? 
what is in there ? 
nothing is there, 
when are you going ? 
where have you come from ? 
I am riding a horse, 
why don't you go ? 
is the man here ? 
sit down at the back there, 
look this way. 
bring me some milk, 
bring the camels here, 
what does the animal making 

that noise want ? 
put the things down here, 
load up the camels, 
take your things away, 
(leave it alone.) let it be. 
what are you doing ? (abstract.) 
I am killed, 
cut the rope from me. 
fold up the blanket well. 

what did you see ? 
what did you hear ? 
do you understand that ? 
I do not understand. 

13 



194 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN DIALECTS 



Yibir. 
kulhida g<5riedka so tegeda, i so 

lagh. 
khabarkas 'ss ka ladishei. 
agarteidi wa ku midesa. 
saddehhi kulhiod wa ku laghei. 
watahhadi darsad galabfdi so 

tegeda. 
watahho walba kulhfdi iftinti so 

godista wa so tegedena. 
ani, yahafnyahh ba la bida. 
gamaghda, gamaghdis ba la bida. 
hegha yu lakheya. 
khabar lagu aweleya, ma ku 

duhuresa ? 
gorieddi yiftimeisa khabar yafan 

ma ka so tegedeya ? 
higga wa lagu oremei. 
khabarkas urshen ba la bida. 
gorieddi almanki fedatei agar ma 

aimeisei ? agar ghandid bei 

aimeisei. 
higgi lo gurei, almanki ma la ga 

bagheyei ? 
aihi darsad, awas ba aimeina 

yafan. 
ghorimada yafan dugagina awe- 

leyei, lawihi laga tegedo, deriihi 

urshena ma awelin. 
igu makhaleido, khabar an ku 

laghi. 
wa ku makhaleidaneya, khabarkas 

i lagh. 
higgas ugu orensanyahai. 
goried yafan ba lagu bida, kha- 

barkagi i lagh, bidbidsin mayo, 
ha bidin. 

waferka katowa ku ma dashlyo. 
hilaghamaha hadeidinan agar ka 

'idin, ma yafna khabarkas. 



English. 
when the man comes, tell me. 

never mind that, leave it alone, 
my things are there. 
I have told you three times, 
come back to-morrow evening. 

we will come every day at sunrise. 

it is big, small. 

you are right, he is right. 

he is telling a lie. 

do you understand what is said 

to you ? 
is there good news from the 

army? 
he was killed there, 
that is bad news, 
has the force found some stock ? 

they have found plenty. 

was the force frightened away 
from where they went to ? 

at the next village we find good 
grass. 

your people made the good boats 
to cross the sea on, the bad 
ones they didn't make. 

listen to me, I will tell you a 
story. 

I am listening, tell me that story. 

it is torn there. 

you are a good man, say your 

say, I will not go against it. 
no. it is not. 
that knife is blunt, 
if you do not give anything for 

the wives, it is not good. 



EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES AND CONVERSATION 



195 



Yibir. 
fil iftin wa so doi'yoneya. 
d^rigan asuwan bu ku dashfya. 
lawihi darsad yu awelisaneya. 
derigi asuwanti jagh'idei dado yu 

u 'ida iyo iftimo. 
altob yafan, tobanihi fftimod, iyo 

lfmihi ganadod o dado yu u 

'idei, kulhidan ya ka fedeya. 
jalmahaiga derigo ya ka almamei. 
jalanka inhfman kaga doiyoda ? 
hosi u bidbidei. 
Abiryaha walahumo aweleya. 
kabarti horyadedi kulhidi ad 

midesen, ya'unki ku la khab- 

reyei iyo dugagagu den yafan 

ba la bida. 
dugagisu u yafan. 
tomalaha aniga adayadau shantei, 

lawo iyo awas yu u fedatei. 
dugageigu u shameya, hadanan 

rufin. 
goriedki jalmihi iyo dadodi fedtei, 

ma so tegedeya ? 
deriihi anghaga ka daras tegedei. 

goried difada ya la gu bida. 
shanihi kulhiod wa anghaksona, 

saddebhi kulhiod wa humaggi, 

limihhi wa watahhadi. 
difadki jalanki u lagu awelein 

jira. 
dantashi seyadki lagu shimfn jira. 
deriihi yabar yifno o Anasioda 

'idin jirta, Hanfili ka so godisa. 
Anas ain rufsanei kulhina ma ku 

so godisei ? 
waferti humaksana lugu tegejiyo. 



English. 
I am going to buy some rice, 
this one has a wife, 
he will marry next year, 
to the girl's father he gives sheep 

and money, 
he gave a good shield, 10 rupees 

and 20 sheep, now he is 

engaged, 
that man looted my camels, 
how much do I pay for a camel 1 
put it down below, 
the Tomals make spears, 
the old man who spoke with you, 

when you went to the front of 

the house, and yourself are 

great men. 
he is the senior, 
my " rer " has gone to that hill, 

for water and grazing. 
I am going myself, in order not 

to die. 
is the man coming who fetched 

the camels and sheep ? 
those who followed after the 

Mullah, 
you are a gentleman, 
we pray five times, three times 

at night, and twice by day. 

the rope with which the camel 

is tied, 
the vessel one puts ghi into. 
Hanfili leaves alone people who 

give plenty to the Yibirs. 
has a blind Yibir ever come to 

you? 
the knife to cut the hair with. 



13—2 



196 



YIBIR 



A CONVERSATION, IN YIBIR. 



Anaski ya'imkaaha dadodisi 
inhfde ruftei? 

Aferi ganadod iyo limihi ganadod 
ya rtifei, huwadisi inhida aha. 

Khabarma u laghei ? 

Kalweinaleh bu u shimlyei. 

Iftimo yu ka fedtei, jalankisi 
anigaaha yu la tegedei. 

Inhima ku so shansaneyei ? 

Ya'un fila iyo ya'un asera, limihi 
kalweinod, iyo mado kushan iyo 
difad asuwanta kalweinta ku 
shansoto, yu ku so shansodei. 

Asuwantadi inhide iftimo u 'idei ? 

Aferi iftimod iyo aferi ganadod 

inhidas u 'idei. Kulhidiu 'idei 

bu i laghei, "higgaga midi, 

hadan iftimo darsad aimeisto 

wa ku so 'idahaya." 
Kulhidas dugageda na laghdei, 

" Gamagh." 
Anaskohadi asuwantadi u inhidas 

o iftimo u 'idei, asuwanteidi 

inhide ad u 'idei ? 
Limihi ganadod iyo limihi iftimod 

ban u 'idei. 
Hadad inhidas u 'idei, miad inhi 

ghandidah u 'idei ? 
Inhida o iftimo an ku dashiyei, 

inhi kelemad hadan ku dashiyo, 

ban u 'idi laha. 
Iftimo mad u maghurtei ? 
Maghurti aimein wai. 
An iftimo u maghure, ma u 

shimfnesa ? 
U shimin mayo, higgeigannu 

midinena. 



How many of the old man's 

sheep died? 
Thirty have died, that number 

of skins there were. 
What did he say ? 
He took them to Berbera. 
He wants to sell them, he went 

with his big camel. 
How much was he carrying ? 
One man's (?) rice and dates, two 

tobes, and an anna, and a 

sash to tie his wife's dress, he 

took. 
How much money did he give 

your wife ? 
Twenty-four rupees he gave. 

When he gave it, he said she 

was to stay where she was, 

and if he got more money, he 

would give it. 
Then she said to us, "All right." 

If that man gave that money to 
your wife, how much did you 
give mine ? 

I gave her twelve rupees. 

If you gave that, did you give 

much? 
So much I had, if I had had 

more, I would have given it. 

Did you borrow money ? 

I could get no loan. 

I may lend you some money, 

will you take it? 
I will not take it, we are staying 

where we are. 



MOHAMMED HANIF 197 



MOHAMMED HANIF (Ancestor of the Yibirs). 

Kulhfdi horimad anghag ba lagu bidei 1 . Hig bu mldsha 2 , 
The time before a priest there was. Where he lives 

goried la ma midfn jirin. Deri'ihini 3 horimad, iyo deri'ihi 
people with not to live used. Your people before, and the people 

anghaksodei dehhdodi u mldshei, limihi ya yfftimeyei. Deri 
(who) prayed (who) among them lived, both fought A man 

yabar ghandldsan ya la bidei. Deri'ihini horimad ya u so 

of property plenty he was. Your people before to (him) 

godisei. "Awas no c idbi," yei laghen. "Khabarkeku fedesan 4 ?" 
came. " A herb to us bring," they said. " What reason for do you want(it) ? " 

yu laghei. Kulhfdas yu laghei, "Deriahan anghaksoda yannu ku 
he said. Then they said, " These people (who) pray we with (it) 

rtifinena." Kulhfdas yu laghei, "Wa iftimo ghandidah, idinku 
will kill." Then he said, " It is money plenty you 

i 'idi mahai 5 , awaskeiga idin 'idin mayo." Kulhfdas yu 

to me give without, my herb to you give (I) will not." Then they 

goderdwi iftimo iyo goderdwi jalmo inhfdas awaski yei kaga 
a hundred rupees and a hundred camels so much the herb they for 

doiybden. Kulhf das yu awaski u sara 'idei 6 . Kulhfdas ya deriihi 
bought. Then he the herb to (them) gave. Then the people 

anghakstfneyei alman so fedten 7 . Kulhfdasa yei deri'ihini horimad 
(who) prayed a raid went for. ' Then they your people before 

yei alman u so fedten. Kulhfdas limihi godertfwi o lawod 8 yei 
they a raid on (them) went for. Then for two hundred years they 

hig midshei, o higgiu tegedei ya aimein waiyen. Kulhidasa 
a place lived, and where they went (they) find could not. Then 

1 Think, la bida it is thought. This is used for "is" (Somali wa). 
8 Aorist, from midso. 

3 Plur. derio. Here the narrator refers to the people of the person he was 
addressing (i.e. myself), whom he considers to be the same as the Gala, 
derllbi anghaksodei means Moslems. 

4 Somali : mahhad ku donesan ? 

6 Somali: idinku 1 sin mahai unless you give me. 

6 Hand over. Somali flib. 

7 Look for. (wan fedta.) Somali ddno. alman fe&o, Somali dul. 

8 Water, rains, i.e. year. 



198 TIBIR 

deri'ihi anghaks6neyei higga ku rufen. Kulhfdas yei anghagi 
the people (who) prayed there died, Then they the priest 

yabar yifmefyen 1 anghagi bu rufei. Adlsi ya la alman. Weled 
property fought the priest he died. His home was looted A boy 

yahafnyahh u u jagh'idei, ya higgi ka so godisei, weledki iyo 
small (whom) he begat, there from came, the boy and 

aferi kelemad hig midfn jirei. Weledki Mohammed Hanif ba 
four others a place live used to. The boy Mohammed Hanif 

la bidei. Weledku kulhfdas yu anghag nokhdei, asuwano yu 
was. The boy then he a priest became, women he 

difadfn* jirei. Dugaglsu 3 higga midsha o asuwano difadsha 2 , 
used to. (while) He there lives and women , 

anghagi yifna ya u s<5 shamei, Au-Bakhardli bu nokhdei. Kulhfdas 
the priest great to (him) came, Au-Bakhardli he was. Then 

yu u laghei, " Khabarma higgo u mldesa, o anghag lagugu bida ? " 
he said, " What there for do you live, and a priest for are ? " 

Kulhfdas bu laghei, " Dugagagu ma iga anghaksantahai ? " 
Then he said, " Yourself (are you) me than (more) holy ? " 

Kulhidasu laghei, "Ka anghaksanahai." Kulhfdas yu u laghei, 
Then he said, " Moge holy I am." Then he said, 

"Khabarka ad iga anghaks&ntahai igu aimidsi." Kulhfdasu 
" The reason you me than (more) holy are me to shew." Then he 

laghei, "Higgas an ka 4 godisaya, ka godis dugagagu." Kulhfdasu 
said, " There I will penetrate, through go yourself." Then 

tomalaha anigah yu hosidlsi ka godisei. Kulhfdas ka godisei, 
that hill great he beneath it through went Then (he) went through, 

o higgo u ku godisei, yu u laghei Au-Bakhardli, "Tomalaha 0, 
and there he in went, he to him said Au-Bakhardli, " O Hill, 

gan'id." Kulhfdas tomalihi 'ss ku godisei, kulhfdas yu hig u 
seize." Then the hill together went, then he where he 

ka so godiso aimein wai. Tomalaha dehhdlsi yu ku rufei 
out may come see could not. The hill in it he died 

1 This is not correctly given, but the sense is "They fought over the dead 
priest's property." 

2 Whether this means "marry," or "rape" is not clear, dlfad rope. 
There is one story that Mohammed Hanif was expelled by Sheik Ishhak because 
of his immorality. 

3 Self, person, dugagalga I myself. 

4 Through, across. 



MOHAMMED HANIF 199 

anghagi. Anghagi aihayaga higgas u ku rufei. Kulhfdas ya 
the priest The priest of our tribe there he died. Then 

weldihi 1 u jagh'idei yu u laghei, "Augayoada ruflyei, agar 

the boys he begat they said, " Our father you have killed, something 

no-ga* 'id." Anghagi ba ku laghei, khabarkan kulhfdasu 
to us for it give." The priest to (them) said, this word then he 

u laghei, " Ma watahhadan goder<5wi jalmo idin 'ida, mase 
said, u (Am I) to-day a hundred camels to you to give, or 

weledki goried u jagh'ido yan ilbir idin ka sara 'ida ? Sara- 
the son a Somali begets I a ewe to you for (him) am I to give ? The 

doshiski mian iftin idin ka sara Ida?" Kulhfdas ya weldihi 
marriage am I money to you for to give ? " Then the boys 

laghen, " Weledka ilbir noga sara 'id, saradostriska iftin, 
said, "The boy a ewe to us for (him) give, the marriage money, 

weldahana 3 ilbir. Inhfdi ka darseisa inhida khabarka 

and the boys a ewe. That (which) follows (hereafter) so much for that 

yannu agarta ku 'idtfnena." Khabarkas yannu agar ku 
we as the price for will receive." For that reason we a price 

shansonna, Anasyod&yadu. Kulhidi iftinta iyo ilbirta na lo 
take, we Yibirs. When the money and the ewe to us is 

'ido, awasyo yahafnyahh yannu u 'idna. Wannu u yabartfnna. 
given, sticks small we to them give. We ' thus earn our living. 

Awas kelemad o ghandldah wa ku duhurna. Derigi rufrufeya 
Herbs other many (we) understood. The man (who) is sick 

iyo derigi aim an fed6neya, iyo derigi lagheya, "an 
and the man (who) is going on a raid, and the man (who) says, "let me 

derigas ka ur behhensanado," inhfdas awas lo 'ido yannu 
than that man be better," for that a herb to be given we 

ku duhurna. Deriga, annu u 'idna, iftimo ghandidah yu, 
know. That man, (to whom) we give, money plenty he, 

kulhida u yifnado, no sara 'ida. 
when he is successful, to us hands. 

1 Plur. weldo-ni. 

2 na u ka. Cf. ka siso pay for. 

3 And. 



YIBIR-ENGLISH and MID&AN-ENGLISH 
VOCABULARY. 



The following is a list of Yibir and Midgan words not used by other 
Somalis. 

Words, such as Pronouns, Particles, etc., are not given, being common 
to all three dialects. 

Nouns are recognised by the Definite Article which follows each noun, 
separated by a hyphen. 

Examples, 

ain-ti eye bulal-ki fire 

In these examples, ain equals an eye, bulal equals a fire ; " the eye," 
" the fire," would be, ainti, bulalki. 

The suffixes, -ki, -gi, -hi, are masculine, -ti, -di, are feminine. 

Abbreviations : 

(Y) Yibir dialect. 

(M) Midgan dialect 

(Y), (M) common to both dialects. 

v.i. intransitive verb. 

v.t transitive verb. 

a. adjective. 

The Arabic letter ain (*) is represented by ', ghain is represented 
by gh, kh. ^ 

fl represents the " cerebral d," which at the beginning or end of a word 
sounds like d, but in the middle of a word is more like r. 

This letter in Yibir is pronounced usually like dh. 

a-di (pi. ao-hi) (Y), family, "rer," agar-ti (Y), thing, any concrete 

possessions object ; agarma ku midesa ? what 

ababo-di (M), Plateau Gazelle, is there ? 

" dero " aghtul v.t. (M), strike, hit 

Abir-ki (Y), Tomal (an outcast aimei v.t. (Y), see, find, understand 

tribe that work in iron) aimeisi v.t. (Y), shew, teach 

adeisfmo-di (M), milk ain-ti (Y), eye ; ainta ku ye/, turn 

aferi-hi (Y), four your eye (i.e. look) 

afjaghin-ti (M), mouth aintoli-hi (Y), lie, untruth 



VOCABULARY 



201 



Aiyifan-ti (Y), Gala 
Aji-gi (M), Somali 
alb&khar-ti (Y), cow 
aleliso-di (M), bird, bustard 
alkhail-ki, -shi (Y), horse 
alman v.t. (Y), rob, loot 
alman-ki (Y), army, enemy 
alowa-hi (M), man (esp. ref. to 
Midgan man), not used in referring 
to a Somali ; aloicihi i sofinjinshei, 
my father 
altob-ki (Y), shield 
amedo-di (Y), goats 
anaduhr-ki (M), elephant 
Anas-ki (Y), Yibir 
Anasnimeiso v.i., collect the " sa- 

manyo " 
Anasnimo-di, the " samanyo " paid 

to Yibirs 
anghag-gi (Y), priest, "mullah" 
anghakso v.i. (Y), pray 
ani-gi (Y), largeness ; ani ba la 

bi&a, it is large 
kniah a. (Y), great 
anisan a (Y), complete, correct, new 
asahan-ti (M), woman 
'aser-ti (Y), (M), dates ('asero-hi) 
'aserah a. (Y), red (sometimes ase- 

radh is used) 
'asero-hi (Y), blood 
'as6wa-hi (M), blood 
'assi (M), lynx 
asuwan-ti (Y) wife 
au-gi (Y), ancestor 
Awashona-hi (Y), God 
awas-ki (Y), vegetable, grass, tree, 

bush, zariba, grass mat ; aicaski 

aldibo, the sacred tree of the 

Yibirs, used as a charm, 
aweilei v.t. (Y), do, make, construct, 

cause 
aweiliso v.t. (Y). do for yourself, 

marry 
awin-ti (M), woman 

babato-di (M), cloth, dress 



baghdan, v.i. (M), talk, tell, say ; 
nasker bad baghdamesa? what 
are you saying ? 
baghdan-ki (M), talk, speech, lan- 
guage 
bagb v. (Y), (M), be in fear 
baghei v.t (Y), (M), frighten 
bagho v.i. (Y), (M), be afraid ; ka 

bagho, be afraid of 
bakhar-ti (M), cow 
bakhrei v.i. (Y), make a noise 

(? inverted "khabrei") 
bakhrin-ki (Y), (M), head 
balkhalo-bi (M), lesser bustard 
baneisin-ki (M), in front, before 
behhensan a (Y), useful 
bid v.t. (Y), think ; khabarma bi- 
desa ? what do you think ? 

The Passive, formed by "la," 
is used for the verb " be " — 

lei bida, I am ; lagu bida, thou 
art ; he, she is ; you, they are ; 
la na bida, we are — 

e.g. derigas ba la bida, that is ; 

Anas ba lei bida, I am a Yibir ; 

ha bidin (don't think) it is not. No 

bidbidei v. (Y), go 

bidbidsei v.t. (Y), make to go, send 

away, throw away 
bikho-di(M), "Dik-dik" 
bilehk v.t. (Y), cut 
bi'yuso v.t. (Y), like, be pleased 
boba'un v.t. (M), gulp down 
bod6wa-bi (M), camel 
buf-ki (M), donkey 
bulal-ki (M), fire, smoke, fire-arm 
bulalyei, v.t. (M), burn, heat, forge 
bulbul-ki (Y), stick 
bulbul-shi (Y), whip 
buskulohh-i (Y), butter 

dabo-'ad (M), Haartebeest 
dado-di (Y), sheep 
dag v.t. (M), see, understand 
dahir-ki (M), fat, ghi 
dahhbi v.t. (M), buy 



202 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN 



dalanga-hi (Y), animal 
damdmei v.t. (M), dig, excavate 
damomya-hi (M), inside 
dangharei v.t. (Y), refuse 
daras-ti (Y), behind, tail ; ka ddras 

teged, follow behind 
d'arowa-hi (Y), breast, udder 
darsad (Y), afterwards, subsequent ; 

watahhddi darsdd, to-morrow 
darsei v.i. (Y), be behind, be left ; 

kulhidi ka darseisa, afterwards 
dashi v.t. (Y) (M), have, possess 

(always used with "ku"); inhima 

ku dashisa ? how many have 

you? 
degayir (M), arrow 
degig-gi (M), donkey 
deri- -gi, -di (Y), finger; one 

person ; derigas, that one ; deri 

ba ku mideya, there is one 
derigab (Y), loins 
diboder (M), Clarke's Gazelle 
dibyalin-ki (M), behind, after, back, 

tail (of an animal) ; dibyalin u 

raghahh, stand back ; dibyalin- 

keigi, behind me 
dffad-ki (Y), rope, snare 
dikhxarin-ki (M), hide (of game), 

prayer-mat 
dilin-ti (M), " Dero " 
dolyo v.t. (Y), buy 
dubadyo hi (Y), jugular vessels 
dugag-gi (Y), person, people, self; 

dugaggeigu, I myself 
duhur v.i. (M), travel, go 
ku duhur v.t. (Y), understand; 

ku duhuri mayo, I don't under- 
stand 
dujo v.t. (M), leave ; 'ss ka dujo, let 

be, never mind 
duk v.t. (M), strike, kill 
dukhan v.i. (M), be sick, be afraid ; 

be empty, be broken 
dukhumei v. (M), ? fear 
dul-shi (Y), end of backbone 
dusar-ki (M), elephant 



dussi (M), leopard 

erifogad-ki (M), distance, in time 
or space, year, country ; higgar 
erifuydd, away over there ; erifo- 
gddkini, your country ; erifogddki 
tegedei, last year 

faled-di (M), rupee 
fardaho-hi (?M), finger 
farolahato-hi (M), hand, arm 
fed v.t. (Y), wish, want, mean ; 

mahhad fedesa ? what do you 

want? 
fedo v.t. (Y), look for 
fedolahato-di (M), breast 
fidsin-ki (Y), camel's hump 
fil-shi (Y), grain ; / tomdlaah, 

jowaree ; f. if tin, rice 
fin, or finfin v.t. (M), give birth to, 

beget 
finso v.i. (M), be born 

ga'alo v.t. (M), like 

gabar-ti (M), water-flask 

gabis-ki (M), shield 

gadlahato-di (M), camel-skin, shield 

galabi-di (Y), evening 

gamagh-i (Y), truth. Yes. All 

right 
gamagho v.i. (Y), be right, correct, 

true 
ganad-di (Y), (M), hand 

In counting, "ganad " refers to 

the five fingers and means five : 
limihi gdnadod, ten ; saddehhi 

gdnadod, fifteen ; aferi gdnadod, 

twenty 
gdnaddi yafneid, right hand ; 

g. yahainyahheid, left hand 
gana'id v.t. (Y), catch 
gararati-gi (M), horse 
gedgharom^d-ki (M), tree 
geryal-ki (M), Waller's Gazelle 

ge8 °?T* }(M),Oryx 
gesolahato-di J 



VOCABULARY 



203 



gir-ki (M), ostrich 

godanahh-i (M), chest 

goiierowi-gi (Y), rosary, hundred 

godib-ki (Y), milk 

godis v.i. (Y), come, arise, come up, 

begin ; kulhiddi iftinti so godista, 

at sunrise ; humaggi wa godisa, 

the night is coming on 
golof-ti (M), woman 
gomosfmo-di (M), water, river, rain 
gonya-hi (M), inside, within 
gorad-ki (M), cup 
gorbei v.t (Y), pray for, beg 
goried-di (Y), (M) (plur. ofgoriedki), 

people, men 
goried-ki (Y), (M), man, person 
gdsad-di (M), iron, metal, any metal 

article, knife ; gosadku raghahhi, 

cut (with a knife) 
gosin-ki (M), "Aoul," Soemering's 

Gazelle 
gujin-ki (Y), meat 
guratd-di(M), stomach, belly ; gura- 

iddi wa neghatal, I am hungry 
ghami v.t. (M), make good, im- 
prove 
ghamo v.i. (M), be good 
ghan a. (M), large, long, good (far, 

fat, hot, white) 
ghandid-ki (Y), plenty 
ghandldah a. (Y), many; jalmihi 

ghandidkadh, the many camels, 
ghandidei v.t. (Y), increase 
ghansan a. (M), good 
ghodahh-di (Y), tin for ghi 
ghoribfrro-di (M), wood, bush, thorn, 

branch of a tree, any article of 

wood, bow 
ghorin-ki (Y), plate, dish, ship 

hajla-hi (M), rope, string, trap 
haman-ti (Y), bird 
Hanan-ki (M), Yibir 
Handud-ki (M), Tomal 
Hanflli (Y), Hanfili, the Yibirs' 
ancestress, spirit 



hangaguri-gi (M), animal, any wild 

animal 
hainyalisan a. (Y), mad 
halyokho-di (Y), iron 
hawar-ti (Y), backbone 
hedig-gi (M), ostrich 
hekho-di (Y), lie, untruth 
big-gi (Y), (M), place; higgan, 

here; higgcb, there; higge? higma? 

where ? 
bilghan-ki (Y), see 'ilaghan 
himir-ki (M), night 
horimad (Y), before, (time) 
horyad-di ( Y), before, in front, (place) 
horyalin-ki (M), before, in front 
hosyad-di (Y), below, beneath 
hosyalin-ki (M), beneath, below 
humag-gi (Y), night 
humaksan a. (Y), black; humak- 

sano bakhrinka, hair 
humbur-ki (M), fox 
hur-ki (M), quiver (of arrows) 
huwad-ki (Y), prayer-mat 
huwiya-hi (M), sheep-skin 

'id v.t. (Y) (M), give 

'idbi v.t. (M), make to go, take, 
lead ; so Hdbi, bring 

Idib v.i. (M), go ; so l idib, come 

'ido v.t. (Y) (M), eat, drink 

idon v.i. (M), go away, run away 

iftimo-hi (Y), money (plur. of 
iftin) 

iftim6wa-bi (M), light, sun, day ; 
iftimoicaha, to-day; i. tegedei, 
yesterday ; i. so tegedeya, to- 
morrow ; i. neghatal, twilight ; 
i. n. himirki soHdbeya, evening 

iftin a. (Y), white, bright 

iftin-ki (Y), moon 

iftin-ti (Y), sun, light, rupee 

flaghan-ti or -ki (Y), child, daugh- 
ter, or son 

ilahh-hi (Y), fire, fire-arm ; ilahh 
awelei, light the fire 

ilan-ti (Y), leg 



204 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN 



ilbir-ki (M), limb 
ilbir-ti (Y), ewe 
ildighan-ti (Y), bow 
ilowa-M (Y), ram 
imil-ki (Y), male camel 
imitirahh-i (M), wing 
inddholeisi v.t. (M), point out, shew 
ind6khol-shi (M), eye ; indokholaha 

u yef, look 
ind6kholei v.t. (M), look at 
inhi-di (Y), (M), quantity: inhidas, 

so much; inhima? how much? 

how many ? 
irso v.i. (M), remain still 

jagaflaho-di (M), shoe, sandal (plur. 

jagafiahoin-ki) 
jagh'id v.t. (Y), give birth to, beget; 

goriedki ijaghHdei, my father 
jagha-bi (Y), child 
jalan-ti (Y), (M), she-camel (plur. 

jalmo-hi) 
jankho-hi (Y), kid, young goat 
jehhar-ki (M), buck-Aoul 
jimikb-hi (M), caracal-cat 
jindar-ki (Y), ox, bull 

kabar-ti (Y), house, loading-mat, 
load of a camel 

kalabed-ki (Y), half 

kalwein-ti (Y), cloth, clothing; k. 
hutnaksan, blanket 

kalweinaleh-di (Y), town, Berberah 

katowa-hi (Y), mouth, edge; wa- 
ferka katowa ku ma dashlyo, 
that knife has no edge 

kelemad a. (Y), other 

kbabar v.i. (Y), talk, speak 

khabar-ki (Y), speech, talk, lan- 
guage, news ; khdbarkas 'ss ka 
ladishei, stop that talk ; khabar- 
Jcas, like that ; khabarmad fedesa? 
what do you want 1 

khabrei v.i. (Y), talk, speak 

kub'en-ti (Y), tail, tail-fat. 

kul v.t. (M), give 



kul-ki (M), half 

kulhi-di (Y), time ; kulhidan, now ; 

kulhidas, then ; kulhima ? when ? 
saddehhi kulhiod, three times ; 

kulhidi horyad, before 
kulun, v.i. (M), be sick 
kunoli-hi (Y), heart 
kushan-ki (Y), ring 
kusbo, v.t. (M), eat, drink 

labodin-ki (Y), (M), body, belly 
ladishei (Y), leave ; 'ss ka ladishei, 

cease, let be 
lafeiti-di (M), bone 
lafil-shi (Y), breastbone 
lagh v.i. (Y), speak, tell, say 
laghdam-ki (Y), tongue 
lagbowa-hi (M), tongue, throat 
lamdi (see limdi) 
langharomid-ki (M), rice 
lawo-hi (Y), water, rain, river, year ; 

lawihi darsad, next year 
lawodaur-ki (Y), water-bottle 
(lawo-bi (M), milk) 
lig-gi (M), buck-Gerenuk 
limdi v.i. (Y), (M), sleep, lie down ; 

(infin. limdiyi) 
limi-hi (Y), two 
ludub-ki (M), penis 

mad6biyo-hi (M), liver 
maddkushan-ki (Y), anna 
madola-hi (M), tortoise 
maghur v.t. (Y), lend 
makabur a. (M), hard 
makabur-ti (M), hill, stone, pebble, 

money 
makabur-ti (Y), tortoise 
makbalei v.t. (Y), hear 
makhaleido v.t. (Y), listen 
makhali-di (Y), ear 
makbasbin-ti (M), ear 
makbashimei v.t (M), hear 
makhashimeiso v.i. (M), listen 
manabho-di (Y), food 
marubo-bi (M), plate, dish 



VOCABULARY 



205 



mid v.i. (Y), be, exist, be present, 
remain, be alive ; agarma ku 
midesa ? what is there ? 

mid (Y), (M). go ; 'ss ka mid, go 
away; so mid, come; la mid, go 
with, accompany 

midsan v.i. (M), sit down 

midsi v.t. (Y), bring 

midso v.i. (Y), remain, live; ya^unki 
ku jaghHdei ma midsha? is your 
father alive ? 

mirdolo-hi (Y), penis 

mirgin-ki (M), plant, vegetable 

moyo-di (M), people 

mukhtaren-ki (Y), needle, bodkin 

nafel-ki (Y), hunger 

nafelo v.i. (Y), be hungry 

nani-gi (Y), bag, satchel carried 

by Yibirs 
nas-ki (M), thing, place, time, self 
neghatal a. (M), small, bad, few 

(thin, near, black, light) 
nirokh-i (Y), loins 

omas-ki (M), bird 
oran-ki (M), guinea-fowl 
oremi v.t. (M), kill 
oren v.i. (M), die 

orensan v.i. (M), be sick; (Y), be 
spoilt, torn 

raghahh v.i. (M), act, do, catch; 
raghahhi mayo, I will not do it ; 
'ss ka raghahh, sit down ; so 
raghahh, come here, wait here ; 
ku raghahh, catch, hold ; gararati 
ku raghahh, ride a horse 

raghahhi v.t. (M), set, place, make ; 
gosad ku raghahhi, cut (with a 
knife) ; 'ss ka raghahhi, put it 
down there 

raghahho v.t. (M), take for your- 
self, marry 

raghahhsan v.i. (M), be, exist, lie, 



live, think; ku raghahftsdn, have, 

want 
raghahtsanei v.t. (M), give 
raghahhsano v.t. (M), look for ; ku 

raghahsdno, like 
remi v.t. (M), hit, strike 
rer-ki (M), feather 
rihin-ki (M), meat 
rish-ki (M), ostrich-feather 
robsahan-ki (Y), (M), loins 
r6f v.i. (M), die 
r6f-ki (M), corpse 
ruf v.i. (Y), die 
rufi v.t. (Y), (M), kill 
rufsail v.i. (M), be sick, be poor 

saddehh-hi (Y), three 

sakhsakh v.t. (Y), slay, cut the 

throat 
saneg-gi (Y), nose 
salolad-ki, -di (M), goat 
saradoshis-ki (Y), bridegroom, 

wedding 
sareyagh-i (M), ostrich 
saryen-ki (M), bull-Oryx 
sedah-hi (M), legs of ostrich 
seyad-di (Y), (M), oil, ghi 
shamei v.t. (Y), (M), take, lead ; so 

shamei, bring 
shan v.i. (Y), iW), go ; so shar, 

come 
shani-hi (Y), five 

shanshamei v.t. (M), kindle (a fire) 
shanso v.t. (Y), take for yourself, 

keep, put in, cany 
shar a. (M), many, plenty 
sharei v.t. (M), increase 
sharo v.i. (M) be well 
shashin-ki (M), things, property, 

belongings 
shimi v.t. (M), take ; u shimi, 

put in 
shirfei-di (Y), small quantity 
siftihh a. (Y), fat 
siftihh-di (Y), fat 



206 



YIBIR AND MIDGAN 



silsil-ki (M), hair (usu. plur. sil- 

silodi) 
simokh-i (Y), leg 
sir v.i.'(M), go 
so'oto-di (M), foot, track 
sukhodin-ti (M), bow 

tabantab v.i. (M), walk, pass, 

wander 
tagi v.t. (Y), fasten 
tahab v.i. (MX move, go ; mahhad 

u so tahdbtei 1 what have you 

come for? 
takhalamo-di (Y), song 
teged v.i. (Y), (M), go ; so teged, 

come ; alkhail ku teged, ride a 

horse; ka teged, cross 
tegeji v.t. (Y), send 
tingir-ki (M), Waller's Gazelle 
tiro-gi (Y), liver 
tobani-hi (Y), ten 
tomala a. (Y), hard 
tomala-bi (Y), stone, hill 

ukub-ki (M), ram 
ulud-di (M), upper arm 
'unimad6- (M), cheetah 
'unukh-bi (Y), throat 
uro-di or ur-ti (Y), stomach 
'urshen a. (Y), bad 
'urshen v.i. (M), smell 
'urshen-ti (M), nose 
'ursheni v.t. (M), smell 
'ursheni-gi v.t. (M), anything that 

smells, dung, etc. 
uskin-ki (M), leg 



wafer-ki (M), spear 

„ (Y), knife, tooth 

walabun-ki (Y), spear 

Waran-ti (Y), Midgan 

watahh6-di (Y), day ; watahhddan, 
to-day ; watahhddi darsad, to- 
morrow 

wawa'li-gi (M), dog 

weled-ki (Y), boy 

yabar-ki (Y), goods, wealth, pro- 
perty 

yabaro v.i. (Y), make your living, 
earn your living 

Yadur-ki (Y), Midgan 

yafan or yifan a. (Y), good, right 
hand 

yafnan-ti (Y), goodness, health, 
Peace 

yafneisi v.t. (Y), make good 

yafneisiso v.t. (Y), arrange for your- 
self 

yafno v.i. (Y), be good 

yag61-ki (M), "herio," camel-mat, 
hut 

yahafnyahh a. (Y), small, bad 

yaban-ti (Y), two annas 

yahbab-ti (M), herd of Oryx 

yal-sbi (Y), (M), leg 

yaliyifo-bi (Y), shoes 

ya'un-ki, -ti (Y), old man, woman ; 
ya'unti jaghHdei, mother 

yef v.t (Y), (M), turn 

yiftimei v.i. (Y), fight 

yihan-ki, ti (M), man, woman 

yiryiro-hi (M), sheep and goats 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF SOMALI, 
YIBIR, AND MIDGAN. 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


after 


dambe 


darsad 


dibyalin 


amulet 


ghordas-ki 


godahhed-ki 




animal 


bahal-ki 


dalanga-hi 


hangagiiri-gi 


anna 


gambo-di 


madokushan-ki 




2 annas 


antin-ti 


yahan-ti 




arm 


ga'an-ti 


ganad-di 


farolahato-di 


army 


'oU-ki 


alman-ki 


moyo-di 


arrow 


fallad-di 


wafero yahainyahh 


degoyir 


backbone 


adahh-hi 


hawar-ti 




bad 


hhun 


hirshen 


neghatal 


be 


aho 


la bid (be thought) 




bear (beget) 


dal 


jaghld 


finfin 


before 


hor 


horyad 


horyalin 


beg 


bari 


gorbei 




belly 


leg-gi 


labodin-ki 


labodin-ki 


beneath 


hds 


hosyad 


hosyalin 


bird 


shimbir-ti 


haman-ti . 


aleliso-di 


black 


inado 


humaksan 


neghatal 


blood 


dig-gi 


'asero-hi 


'asowa-hi 


bone 


laf-ti 


lafil-shi 


lafeiti-di 


bow 


ghanso-di 


ildighan-ti 


sukhodin-ti 


boy 


wil-ki 


weled-ki 


janakh-i 


bradawl 


muda'-i 


mukhtaren-ki 




breast 


lab-ti 


d'arowa-hi 


fedolahato-di 


bring 


j la kali 
( so kahhai 


so shimi 


so shamei 






so idbi 


burden (of camel) 


akhal-ki 


kabar-ti 


yagdl-ki 


bush 


tged-ki 
Idir-ti 


awas-ki 


ghoribirro-di 








buy 


Ibso 


doiyo 


dahhbi 


butter 


bur'ad-di 


buskulohh-i 





208 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


camel (female) 


hal-shi 


jalan-ti 


jalan-ti 


„ (male) 


aur-ki 


( imil-ki 
(jalan-ki 


bodowa-hi 


carry 


sido 


shanso 


raghahho 


catch 


ghobo 


ganaldo 


ku raghahho 


chest 


sakar-ki 




godanahh-i 


child 


inau 


ilaghan 


janakh 


cloth 


maro-di 


kalwein-ti 


babato-di 


come 


j imo 
fkali 


so teged (etc.) 


si idib (etc.) 




godis 




corpse 


miyid-di 


ruf-ki 


r6f-ki 


country 


bilad-ki 


hig-gi 


erifogad-ki 


cow 


( lo'-di 
( sa'-i 


albakhar-ti 


bakhar-ti 


cup 


dasad-di 




gorad-di 


cut 


goi 


bilehh 


gdsad ku raghahh 


dates 


timir-ti 


'aser-ti 


( 'assi-di 
{ nahhad-ki 


day 


malin-ti 


watahho-di 


iftimowa-hi 


die 


bakhti 


ruf 


r6f 


dig 


ghod 




damdmei 


do 


/fal 
•< ghobo 
I samei 


aweilei 


raghahh 


dog 


e'i-gi 


• 


wawa'li-gi 


donkey 


dabeir-ki 


himar-ki 


(buf-ki 
\ degig-gi 


drink 


«ab 


ido 


kusho 


dung 


har-ki 




'ursheni-gi 


ear 


deg-ti 


makhali-di 


makhashin-ti 


eat 


*un 


ido 


kusho 


evening 


galab-ti 


galabi-di 


iftimowihi negh- 
atala 


ewe 


sabein-ti 


ilbir-ti 




eye 


il-shi (pi. 


indo) ain-ti 


ind6khol-shi 


far 


fog 




erifogad-ki 


fat (n.) 


haid-di 


( sahol-shi 
\ siftihh-di 


dahir-ki 


tail-fat 


badi-di 


kubi'in-ti 




fear 


bagho 


bagho 


dukhun 


feather 


bal-ki 




rer-ki 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



209 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


fight 


dirir 


yiftimei 


iss duk 


finger 


far-ti 


deri-gi 




fire (and fire-arm) 


dab-M 


ilohh-i 


bulal-ki 


flask 


weiso-di 


lawodaur-ki 


gabar-ti 


food 


sor-ti 


manaho-di 




foot 


ag-ti 


ilan-ti 


so'oto-di 


forge (v.) 


tun 


awelei 


bulalyei 


frighten 


baji 


baghi 


dukhumei 


Gala 


Galo-hi 


Aiyifan-ti 


• 


ghi 


subukh-i 


seyad-di 


dahir-ki 


girl 


gabad-di 


ilaghan-ti 


janakh-di 


give 


si 


id 


kul 


go 


(tag 
\ so'o 


l teged 


( teged 




•< shan 


shan 






( bidbidei 


Idib 
tahab 
I sir 


goat (female) 


ri-di 


amed-di 


salolad-di 


„ (male) 


orgi-gi 


yahan-ki 


salolad-ki 


God 


Ilahh 


Awashona 




good 


wanaksan 


yafan, yifan 


ghknsan 


goodness 




yifnan-ti 




be good 


samo 


yifno 


ghamo 


make good 


(samei = make) 


yifneisi 


ghkmi 


grass 


aus-ki 


awas-ki 


aus-ki 


great 


wein 


aniah 


ghan 


greatness 


weinan-ti 


ani-gi 




gulp 


lukho 




bobahin 


hair 


timo-hi 


humaksano-hi 


silsilo-di 


half 


bad-ki 


kalahed-ki 


kul-ki 


hand 


ga'an-ti 


ganad-di J 


ganad-di 






farolahato-di 


hard 


adag 


tomklaah 


makabiir 


have 


( hai 
( laho 


ku dashi 


ku dashl 






ku raghahhsan 


head 


madah-hi 


bakhrin-ki 


bakhrin-ki 


hear 


makhal 


makhalei 


makhashimei 


heart 


wadna-hi 


kundli-hi 




hill 


bilr-ti 


tomala-hi 


makabtir-ti 


horse 


faras-ki 


alkhail-ki ( 


gararati-gi 






fuf-ki 


house 


akhal-ki 


kabkr-ti 


yagdl-ki 



14 



210 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


how many ? 


imisa ? 


inhima ? 


inhima ? 


hot 


kulul 


ilohh 




hump (of camel) 


kurus-ki 


fidsin-ki 




hunger 


gajo-di 


nafel-ki 




be hungry 


gajo 


nafelo 


guratadi wa negh 
atal 


improve 


wanaji 


yifneisi 


ghami 


increase 


(badi 
( kordi 


ghandidei 


sharei 








iron 


bir-ti 


halyokho-di 


gAsad-di 


jowaree 


harud-ki 


fil tomalah 




jugular vessels 


tuman-ki 


dubadyo-hi 




kid 


makhal-shi 


jagho-di 


janakh-di 


kill 


dil 


rufi 


(r6fi 
\ oremi 


kindle (fire) 


shid 


aweilei 


shanshamei 


knife 


bilawa-hi 


wafer-ki 


g6sad-di 


language 


( af-ki 
( hadal-ki 


khabar-ki 


afjaghin-ki 






baghdan-ki 


leave 


da 


ladishei 


dujo 


leg 


lug-ti 


yal-shi 


( yal-shi 
( uskin-ki 


lend 


amahho 


' maghilr 




lie (untruth) 


bein-ti 


I hekho-di 
\ aintoli-di 




lie down 


jif 


midi 


hmdi 


light (n.) 


if-ki 


iftin-ki 


iftimdwa-hi 


like (v.) 


ja'alaho 


ku bi'yuso 


ku raghahhsano 


limb 


lahhad-ki 




ilbir-ki 


listen 


degeiso 


makhaleido 


makhashimeiso 


liver 


b&r-ki 


tiro-gi 


mad6biyo-hi 


loins 


sarar-ki 


( robsahan-ki 
( nirokh-i 


robsahan-ki 


long 


der 


der 


ghan 


look 


eg 


ainta ku yef 


indokholei 


look for 


ddno 


fedo 


raghahhsano 


loot 


(da' 
) la tag 


alman 


la sir 


mad 


wallan 


hainyalisan 




madness 


wallo-di 


hainyali-di 




make 


samei 


aweilei 


raghhah 


man 


nin-ki 


goried-ki 


goried-ki 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



211 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


old man 


odei-gi 


ya'un-ki 


yahan-ki 


many 


badan 


ghandidah 


shar 


marriage 


aros-ki 


saradoshis-ki 




marry 


gurso 


aweiliso 


raghahho 


mat (prayer-mat) 


masala-hi 


huwad-ki 


dikhrarin-ki 


meat 


hilib-ki 


gujin-ki 


rihin-ki 


Midgan 


Midgan-ki 


( Yadur-ki 
( Waran-ti 


Alowa-hi 


milk 


'ano-hi 


godib-ki 


adeisfmo-di 


money 


la l ag-ti 


iftimo-hi 


makabur-ti 


moon 


dayah-hi 


iftin-ki 


iftimo\rihi himirka 


mouth 


af-ki 


katowa-hi 


afjaghin-ti 


near 


ag-ti 




gonia-hi 


new 


'usub 


anisan 




news 


war-ki 


khabar-ki 


baghdan-ki 


night 


haben-ki 


humag-gi 


himir-ki 


no 


maaha, maya 


ha bidin 




nose 


san-ki 


saneg-gi 


'urshen-ti 


other 


kaleh 


kelemad 




ox 


dibi-gi 


jindar-ki 




peace 


nabad 


yifnan-ti 




people 


( dad-ki 
I r5g-i 


moyo-di 


moyo-di 




goried-di 




person 


ghof-ki 


deri-gi 




penis 


gus-ki 


mirdolo-hi 


ludub-ki 


place 


hag-gi 


hig-gi 


| hig-gi 
\ nas-ki 


plant (n.) 


beir-ti 


awas-ki 


mirgin-ki 


plate 


hedo-di 


ghorin-ki 


maruba-hi 


plenty 


in badan 


ghandid-ki 


shar 


pluck 


rif 




rug 


pray 


tuko 


anghakso 




put down 


dig 


midsi 


raghahhi 


put in 


rid 


shanso 




quantity 


in-ti 


inhi-di 


inhi-di 


quiver 


gaboyo-di 




hur-ki 


rain 


rdb-ki 


lawo-hi 


gomosimo-di 


ram 


wan-ki 


ilowa-hi 


ukub-ki 


red 


'as 


'aserah 




refuse 


did 


dangharei 




remain 


j^g 


midi 


raghahhsan 


"rer" (family) 


rer-ki 


k-di (pi. ayo-hi) 


yagdl-ki 



212 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



English 

rice 

right hand 

ring 

rope 

rosary 

run 

rupee 

sandal 

satchel 

say 

see 

send 



sheep 
shew 

shield 



Somali 

baris-ki 

midig-ti 

katun-ki 

hadig-gi 

tusbah-hi 

orod 

rubiad 

kab-ti 

ghandi-gi 

odo 

arag 
|dir 
( kahhai 

adi-gi 
tus 

gashan-ki 



Yibir 

fil iftin 

yifan 

kushan-ki 

difad-ki 

goderowi-gi 

bidbid 

iftin-ti 

yaliyifo-hi 

nani-gi 

(see "speak") 

aimei 

shimi 

tegeji 

bidbidsei 

dado-di 

aimidsi 

altob-ki 



sheep skin 


harag-gi 




ship 


markab-ki 


ghorin-ki 


skin 


san-ti 


huwad-ki 


slaughter 


ghal 


sakhsakh 


sleep 


sehho 


limdi 


small 


yer 


yahainyahh 


smell (v. t.) 


'urso 




smell (v. i.) 


'ur 




Somali 


Somali-di 


Goried-ki 


song 


gabei-gi 


takalamo-di 


speak 


hadal 


( khabrei 
Uagh 






stick 


ul-shi 


bulbul-shi 


still (be) 


jdgso 




stomach 


aldl-shi 


uro-di 


stone 


dagahh-i 


tomala-hi 


strike 


ku dufo 




sun 


ghorahh-di 


iftin-ti 


tail 


dibo-di 


daras-ti 


take 


ghad 


shimi 


take to yourself 


ghado 


shanso 


then 


kolkas 


kulhidas 


there 


hagga 


higga 



Midgan 
langharomed-ki 

hajia-hi 
alel-ki 

faled-di 
jagaflaho-di 

dag 
shamei 



yeryero-hi 

indokholeisi 

dagsi 

gabis-ki 

gatilahato-di 

huwiya-hi 

gadlahato-di 

alemdi 

neghatal 

'ursheni 

hirshen 

Aji-gi 

baghdan 

ghoribirro-di 

irso 

gurato-di 

makabilr-ti 

aghtul 

duk 

iftimowa-hi 

dibyalin-ki 

shamei 

shanso 

naskas 

higga 

naska 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



213 



English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


thigh 


b6do-di 


derighab-ki 




thing 


wahh-i 


I deri-gi (indef.) 
J. agar-ti (concrete) 
(khabar-ki (abstract) 


nas-ki 


(possessions) ghalab-ki 


a-di 


shashin-ki 


think 


mdd 


bid 




throat 


hunguri-gi 


unukh-i 


lakhowa-hi 


time 


kol-ki (etc.) 


kulhi-di 


nas-ki (?) 


tobacco 


buri-gi 


mado-di 




to-day 


manta 


watahhadan 


iftimowaha 


Tomal 


Tomal-ki 


Abir-ki 


Handud-ki 


to-morrow 


berri 


watahhadi darsad 


iftimowihi so tege 
deya 


tongue 


arab-ti 


laghdam-ki 


laghowa-hi 


tooth 


ilig-gi 


wafer-ki 




town 


magalo-di 


kalweinaleh-di 


nas-ki (?) 


track 


rad-ki 




so'oto-di 


trap 


dabin-ti 




hajia-hi 


tree 


ged-ki 


awas-ki 


gedgharomed-ki 


truth 


run-ti 


ghamagh-di 


ghkn 


turn 


rug 


yef 


yef 


under 


hos 


hosyad 


hosyalin 


understand 


garo 


ku duhur 


dag 


useful 


fi'an 


behhensan 




water 


biyo-hi 


lawo-hi 


gomosimo-di 


when 


kolki 


kulhldi 




when ? 


gorma ? 


kulhima ? 




where 


haggi 


higgi 


, higgi 


where ? 


hagge? 


j higge ? 
\ higma ? 


j higge ? 
( higma ? 






white 


'ad 


iftin 




whip 


jedal-ki 


bulbul-ki 


ghorin-ki 


wing 


bal-ki 




imitirahh-i 


wish 


ddn 


fed 


ku raghahhsan 


woman 


nag-ti 


asuwan-ti 


i awin-ti 
| asahan-ti 




habar-ti 


yahin-ti 


< yihan-ti 
\ golof-ti 


wood 


ghori-gi 




ghoribirro-di 


word 


erei-gi 


deri-gi 




year 


gu-gi 


lawo-hi 


erifogad-ki 


yesterday 


shalei 


watahhadi horyad 


iftimowihi tegedei 


Yibir 


Yibir-ki 


Anas-ki 


Hanan-ki 



214 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 







Numbers. 




English 


Somali 


Yibir 


Midgan 


one 


mid 


deri (= finger) 




two 


laba 


limihi 




three 


sadehh 


sadehhi 




four 


afar 


aferi 




five 


shan 


ganad ( = hand) 




six 


lehh 


ganad iyo deri 




ten 


toban 


limihi ganadod, or 


tobanihi 


fifteen 


shanyo-toban 


sadehhi ganadod 




hundred 


boghol 


goderowi-gi ( = rosary of 100 beads) 


thousand 


kun 


tobanihi goderowiyod 


The Midgans 


use the Yibir numbers up to ten. 






Names or descriptions of wild animals. 


Caracal 


jambel 




jimikh 


Cheetah 


harimad 




'unimado 


Dikdik 


sagaro 


d * yahainyahha 
awaski ka godisa 


bikho 


Elephant 


marodi 




dusar 


Fox 


da'wo 


d. dado 'ita 


humbur 


Gazelle, Clarke's 


dibotag 


d. darasti tegeja 


diboder 


„ Soemmerin 


g's 'aul 


d. darasti 


gosinki 






iftimaleh 


(buck) jehhar 


„ Speke's 


dero 


d. amedo la hega 


ababo 


„ Waller's 


geren&k 


d. la bilehhoda 


tingir 
geryal 
(buck) lig 


Guinea-fowl 


digirin 




oran 


Haartebeest 


sig 


d. albakharki 


dabo'ad 


Hyaena 


waraba 


d. khabarki 
ghandidsanleh 


furat 


Koodoo 


aderyo 




godir 


Leopard 


shabel 


d. amedo Ita 


dussi 


Lion 


libahh 


d. jalmo 'ita 


hangagiiri ghan 


Oryx 


b'e'id 


d. walahumo ku 


\ gesodcr 






dashiya 


\ gesolahato 
(buck) saryen 


herd of Oryx 






yahhab-ki 


Ostrich 


gorei 




| hedig 




balda 




( sareyagh 


0. feather 


bal 




rish 


Rhinoceros 


wiyil 




aiuadur 


Tortoise 


din 


makabur 


madola 



Note, d (in Yibir) representa daianga animal. 



INDEX. 



The numbers refer to the sections. 



Ablative 159, 245 
Accents 3, 60, 214 
Accusative, see Object 
Adjective 69, 169 

Inflections 75 

Comparison 82, 172 

Derivative 73 

Adjective Nouns 15 

Demonstrative, Possessive and In- 
terrogative, see Suffixes 
Adverb 10, 44, 129, 130, 131, 137, see 

Particles 
Article 

Indefinite 149 

Definite (Suffix) 23, 28, 31, 32, 55, 
63, 75, 150, 197 



Gender 
Nouns 17 

Linking Consonant 25, 26 
Plurals 164, 165 

Interjections 134 
Interrogative 

Adjective 23, 33, 202 

Pronoun 65, 146, 202 

Adverbs 131, 146 

Sentences 145, 146 

Linking consonant 24, 31, 32, 34, 75 ; 

omission of, 27 ; with Plurals 164, 

165 
la 67, 118 



"be" 142 (b), 143, 147 
belli 201 



mahhan etc. 58, 131, 194, 202 
mayo 92 



Concord 75, 164-168 
Conjunctions 10, 133, see Particles 
Consonants 7 
Coordinate sentences 127 (b), 252 

Dative 157 
Demonstrative 

Adjective 23, 198 

Pronoun 63, 199 

Euphony 6, 20, 25 (iii), 35, 87, 95, 

97, 98, 104, 123, 186 
Existence 147 



Negative 

Conjugation 91, 145, 230 

of aho 112 

Indefinite Pronouns 210 

wah 195 

in Subordinate clauses 258 

see Particles 
Nominative, see Subject 
Nouns 10, 12 

Abstract 15 

Cases 43, 155 

Gender 17, 164 

Plural 34, 162 



216 



INDEX 



Nouns 

used Adjectivally 160, 170 
used Adverbially 29, 152, 158 

Numerals 10, 46, 163, 168, 170, 178 

Object 44, 136, 156 
o, Conjunctive Particle 127, 170, 254, 
261 

Particles 9, 124, 236 
wa, ba, ya 54, 138, 171, 185 

ba witb Negative 213 

wa Perfect Tense 220 

ma Negative 91, 145, 230 

ma Interrogative 93, 145 

Adverbial 236 

Prepositional 125, 236, 241 

Conjunctive 127, 144, 253 
Partitive Case 161, 208 
Passive 118 

Place 157, 158, see Adverbs 
Plural 

Nouns 34 

Pronouns 63 

Adjectives 76 

Gender and Concord of 164-168 
Possessive Case 45 

Adjective, see Suffixes 
Prepositions 10, 132, see Particles 
Pronouns 

Personal 10, 53, 183 

Demonstrative 63 

Empbatic 55, 229 

Indefinite 67, 204 

Interrogative 65, 146, 202 

Possessive 62, 198 

Beflexive 61, 196 

Relative 64, 259 

run 201 

Salutations 135 

Similarity 177 

Subject 44, 53, 136, 141, 156 

Subordinate sentences 257 



Substantives 10, 11 
Suffixes 10, 22, 197 

Combination of 31, 198 

with numerals 47 

as Pronouns 62, 63, 65, 199 

-ah 73, 160 

-ed 73 

-la 48, 73 

-leh 73, 116, 160, 203 

-ma 66, 131, 202 

-na 127, 210 

-se 127 
Superlative 176 

Time 48, 130, 265 

Verbs 83, 211 

Adjectives 72, 108, 113 

Attributive 103, 122, 171 

Auxiliary 86, 214 

Causative 123 

Conjugations 89, 95 

Continuative Tenses 5, 86, 92, 96, 
221, 222, 

Intensive 120 

Moods and Tenses 211 

Nouns 15 

Negative form 91, 112, 231 

Persons 88, 228 

Reflexive 121 

aho 111, 147 

fadi 109, 148 

j6g 148 

jir 85, 148, 214, 224 

imo 106 

laho 115, 148, 203, 214 

nokho 105, 148 

odo 106 

ogho 106 

oil 100, 148 

wah 117, 195, 274 (note) 
Vowels 3, 6 

wahhan etc. 57, 192, 264, 288 



CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY FRE8S. 



PJ Kirk, John William Carnegie 
2532 \ grammar of the Somali 

K57 language 
1905 



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