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It has not been permitted by Providence, that Dr. Clarke 
should close with his own hand the series of Volumes con- 
taining the Narrative of his Travels. This estimable and 
gifted man expired, after an indisposition of some conti- 
nuance, but from which no fatal termination was at first 
apprehended, on the ninth of March 1822. 

The sorrow occasioned by this melancholy event, to those 
numerous friends to whom the kindness of his nature and 
the many excellent qualities of his heart had long endeared 
him, has been equalled by the regret universally expressed 
for the loss of one who had established so many and strong- 
claims on public esteem and admiration. Rut the confined 
space, which could be here allowed, would not admit of a 
complete delineation of the several features of his distinguished 
character: that task must be left to other hands; and, it is 

vol. vi. a 2 hoped, 



hoped, will be shortly accomplished, in a manner worthy of 
the subject, and satisfactory to the Public* 

The appearance of this concluding Volume was unavoid- 
ably delayed during the life-time of Dr. Clarke, by the 
necessity, under which he was placed, of attending to the 
duties of his public situation in the University of Cambridge ; 
and, latterly, by the increasing severity of his bodily in- 
disposition. After his decease, those of his friends, to 
whom his Journals and Papers were entrusted, examined 
them, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the materials 
they contained were of such a nature as to allow them to 
proceed in the continuation of the Work. On finding them 
sufficiently copious, they thought themselves justified in com- 
pleting the Volume. Twelve Chapters had been prepared for 
the press by the Author himself, and printed under his direc- 
tion: the rest have been composed from the observations con- 
tained in his Manuscript Journals, which have been strictly 
adhered to, with a few exceptions : and in the parts where 
they were deficient, some assistance has been derived from 
the remarks found also among his papers, which had been 
communicated to him by friends who had visited the North 
of Europe. 

It appears, from the documents found among his Manu- 
script Papers, that he intended, in the Preface to this 
concluding Volume, to refer to the numerous testimonies 


* See the annexed Proposals for publishing the Life and Remains of the Author. 


of Travellers who had confirmed the account of Russiati 
manners and character which he gave in his First Volume. 
It appears, too, that he had received a variety of private 
Letters from persons who had visited Russia, amply 
confirming the general truth of his statements. As the 
Author did not live to produce these testimonies himself, in 
the manner he had proposed, it has been thought most 
consistent with propriety to abstain here from all discussion of 
the subject. Already, the Public have full means before them 
of judging of the correctness of his representations: and no 
person who has the most remote knowledge of his character, 
will ever suppose that he was, on any occasion, or in the 
smallest circumstance, guilty of wilful misrepresentation, or 
that he wrote from any other feeling than a sincere convic- 
tion of the truth of what he affirmed. I 


In consequence of the general approbation bestowed on 
the First Volume, Dr. Clarke was encouraged to give his 
utmost attention to the succeeding Parts; in the hope of 
making them worthy of the favour with which his Work 
had been received. He was aware, that, in conformity with 
his original plan, it would be extended to some length: and 
therefore, in preparing the different Volumes for the Public, 
he remitted nothing of that care and research which he had 
employed in the composition of the First. By the new 
and interesting information which he had collected, he was 
enabled to throw great light on the Natural History, the 
state of Society, the habits and condition of the People of 
Countries which had not been recently visited : and in his 




remarks relating to other parts more frequently examined, 
he spared no labour to illustrate the narratives of those who 
had preceded him ; to supply their deficiencies ; and to 
suggest subjects of useful inquiry to the Travellers who may 
follow his steps. In the present Volume, there is the same 
endeavour to interest the Reader in the subject before 
him — the same power of description — the same life in the 
delineations of character and manners, which particularly 
distinguish the former Parts. In delivering it to the Public, 
the friends of Dr. Clarke beg leave to bespeak an indulgent 
consideration of those Chapters which were not prepared 
for publication by the Author's own hand. Respecting the 
rest, they feel no apprehension : they anticipate, with confi- 
dence, that it will be found to make an important addition 
to a Work which reflects the highest credit on its author ; 
whether it be considered with reference to the quantity and 
value of the materials collected,-7-the industry and care 
displayed in the arrangement of them,~or the spirit and 
animation which pervade the whole. 





In One Volume Quarto, Price d 3 3. 3 s. 

The MS. Remains of this eminent and lamented Individual consist of 
Journals, (wholly unconnected with those already published,) written during 
liis Travels to different Countries ; also of numerous Letters to his private 
Friends, and to Travellers and Learned Men ; of Discourses prepared for 
public and other occasions, and detached Papers on different subjects. 

A Selection of such of these Remains as may appear fit to meet the 
public eye, will be made by some of the intimate Friends of the Deceased. 
They will be incorporated with the Life, or printed in an Appendix to it, as 
may seem most expedient. 

The Profits of the Work will be exclusively applied to the purpose of 
educating and providing for his Family. 

— »©«— 

The following Friends of the Deceased have undertaken to form a Committee for the purpose 

of procuring Subscriptions. 

Hon. Berkeley Paget, 15, Portman Street- 
A r ery Rev. the Deax of Peterborough. 
Rev. Archdeacon Blomfield, Bishopsgate 

Rev. G. A. Browne, Trinity College, Cam- 


J. M. Cripps, Esq. Brighton. 
Rev. Dr. D'Oyly, Lambeth Rectory. 
Rev. Professor Maltiius, East-India Col- 
lege, Hertford. 
Rev. W. Otter, Rector of Chetwynd, Salop. 
Rev. Robert Wai.pole, Scole, Norfolk. 

Subscriptions received by T. Cadell, Strand ; and Messrs. Payne 6c Foss, 

Pall Mall. 





No. 1. View of the Great Copper-Mine, at Fahlun in Dalecarlia; from a 
Drawing by Martin of Stockholm. 

To face the Title, as the Frontispiece of the Folume. 

2. Christiania ; taken with a Camera Olscura, by an Officer of the 

Danish Army -------- To face page 2 

3. Map of the Southern Confines of Norway and Sweden ; shewing 

the Environs of Christiania ; and the whole of the Author's Route, from 
the Silver Mines of Kongsberg, in Norway, to the Iron Mines near 
Philipstad in Sweden --------- 47 

4. Map of the Author's Route, from Magnor on the Norwegian Frontier, 

to Carlstad; and thence through Philipstad, to Fahlun, Sala, Upsala, 
and Stockholm ; also from Stockholm to Grissehamn - - - 91 

5. View of the Interior of an Iron Mine, in Sweden ; with the Mode of Raising 

the Ore 5 from a Drawing by Martin of Stockholm - 103 

6. Student of Upsala, returning from Public Lectures - 200 

7. Portrait of Charles XII. from a Cast taken four hours after he was shot, 276 


8. General Chart of the whole Group of the Aland Isles, in the 

Mouth of the Gulf of BothniS, ; shewing the nature of the Passage from 
Sweden to Finland; also the Circuitous Route performed by the Author 
upon the Ice of the Frozen Sea, after returning from the Isle of 
Kumlinge to the Bomarsund - - - - - - - -310 

9. Seal-Hunter on the Frozen Sea - 345 

10. Mode of forcing a Passage through the Ice, when the Sea is not sufficiently 
frozen to sustain the weight of the human body; as practised by the 


Author among the Aland Isles: — the Thermometer of Fahrenheit being 

at that time 4Q° below freezing - - - - - - -350 

VOL. VI. b 




No. 11. Seal-Hunters, warning the Author and his Companions, when follow- 
ing the Ostero- Bothnia Mail, drawn upon a Sledge upon the. Frozen 
Sea, to halt and retire, in consequence of the dangerous state of the 
Ice - To face p. 362 


12. Russian with his Sledge, in the Streets of Ah - - - - - 435 

13. View of the Ice-Hills at Petersburg, during the Carnival - 48/ 

14. Ceremony of the Benediction of the Waters of the Neva - 503 

15. View of the Palace and Apartments at Robscha, in which Peter III. 

was murdered - - - - - - - - - -531 

10'. Plan of the great Copper-Mine at Fahlun, in Dalecarlia 








No. 1. /\ged Peasants of Norway ------- 

2. Specimen of Native Silver taken from the Kongsberg Mines ,• the Silver 

being disseminated in Laminae through Masses of Limestone Spar, with 
dark Veins of Schistus. The silver is here seen in native masses, pro- 
truding beyond the surface of the stone, as if it had been fused and 
drawn out into threads and capillary fibres - - - - - '66 

3. Geological Nature of the Mountains of Kongsberg, shewing the situation 

in which the Silver is found --------55 

4. Entrance to the Persberg Iron Mine - ' - - - - - -81 

5. General Manner of Enclosing Cultivated Land, over all Sweden, Lapland, 

Finla?td, and Norway, by sloping splinters of deal, fastened by withys 
against upright poles --------- 97 

0\ Curious Mechanical Contrivance for Working the Mine Pumps ; consisting 
of a most extensive combination of levers, working parallel to each other 
by means of water, being separated by transverse bars resting upon 
upright posts with pivots - - - - - - - -110 

f. Plan of the Fahlun Copper- Mine - - 128 

8. Heaps or Mounds in a Forest near Broddebo ; said to be the Graves of 
Robbers ; upon which the Natives, as they pass, deem it a duty to cast 
either a stone, a bough, or a little earth - - - - - • 166 

g. Tumuli or Mounds at Gamla Upsala ,• said to be the Sepulchres of Odin, 

Frigga, and Thor ; — from a Drawing by Dr. Fiott Lee - 172 

10. Fac-Simile of the Codex Argenteus, the celebrated MS. of the Four Go- 

spels in the Moeso-Gothic Language and Character ; now preserved in 
the University Library at Upsala - - - - - - -183 

11. Sketch of the Clipped Fir-Trees which form an Avenue to the Green- 

house in the Botanic Garden at Upsala ------ igs 



No.12. Curious Wheel-Lock Musket - ----211 

13. Specimen of Igneous Basalt, from the bottom of a Copper Furnace in 

Siberia - - - 258 

14. Perilous Situation of the Author and his Companions, in the Passage-Boat 


from Grissehamn to Aland - - 2Q6 

15. Ruins of Castleholm, in which Eric XIV. was confined - - - 316 

16. Manner and Difficulty of Conveying the Carriage, &c. on the Ice, over the 

Inlets of the Sea " 324 

17. Mode of Crossing the Frozen Sea in a small Sledge drawn by one Hcrse - 339 

18. Extraordinary and interesting Congregation, returning from Divine Service, 

in Sledges drawn by Horses - - - 36/ 

19. Representation of a Sledge, the common Vehicle for Travelling in Northern 

Countries of Europe, over the ice or snow : it is usually lined with furs, 
and drawn by one horse 33s 


20. Finlander of Savolax in the streets of Abo, with his Sledge ... 434 

21. Tomb of Count Ernsverd, the Engineer who planned the Works of the 

Fortress of Sweaborg - - - - - - - - -458 

22. Representation of the Stone Theatre at St. Petersburg, as it appeared in 

1801 ; with some of the Public Stoves 481 

23. Plan of St. Petersburg 507 



ADVERTISEMENT relative to the Concluding Volume of Dr. Clarke's 


CfeAP. I. 

p. i. 


Situation of Bergen with respect to the reft of Norway — Bernard and Peter Anker — 
Visit to the Governor — A Rout — Barbarisms — Army Regulations — Laws 
respecting Marriage — Climate — Nobility — Character of Prince Frederic — State 
of the Army — Danish Policy with regard to Norway — Domestic Economy 
at Christiania — Hospitable Entertainment — Anecdotes of Me Emperor Paul of 
Russia — Antient Teutonic Customs — Lamentable Conduct of Great Britain 
towards Norway — Ceremonies of retiring from Table — Magnificent Villa of 
Peter Anker — His Collection of Pictures — Vast Establishment — Prejudices of the 
Norwegians respecting Food — Courts of Judicature — Commerce of Christiania — 
Population — Manners of the Christianians — Comparison between the Inhabitants of 
Tronyem and Christiania — EfJ'ect of Foreign Intercourse — Institutions for the Poor 
— Character and Exemplary Examples of the two Ankers. 


P. sc. 

Want of Booksellers' Shops — General aspect and condition of the Streets — Cathedral 
— State of Literature — Public Library — Dr. MiillerV Collection of Minerals- 
Journey to Kongsberg — Marble Quarries of Gilljebeck — View from Paradise Hill 
— Drammen — Hogsund — River Louven — Kongsberg — Original Discovery of the 
Silver Ore — State of the Works — First Settlers — Remarkable Specimens of the 
Native Metal — Wages of the Miners — Present Establishment — Cause of the loss 
sustained by Government — The different Excavations — Approach to the Works — 
Geological, nature of the Mountains — Manner in which the Kongsberg Silver is 
deposited — Descent into the Mine — Native Mineral Carbon — Crystallized Native 
Silver — Erroneous notions entertained with regard to the Crystallization of Minerals 

VOL. VI. C —Metal- 


, — Metallurgical operations/or the treatment of the Kongsberg Ores — Public Seminary 
for Mineralogy — Professor Esmark — Collection of Minerals belonging to the 
Kongsherg Academy — Customs shewing the common origin of the Teutons and Greeks 
— Superiority of the Norwegian Women — Medical Properties of the Linnaea Borealis 
— Condition of the Peasants — Alum Works — Synthesis which takes place in the 
production of Alum — Return to Christiania — Public Balls — Rage for English 
Fashions — Further account of Bernard Anker — Timber Trade — State of Religion in 
Norway — Fortress of Christiania. 


P. 81. 

The Author again sets out for Sweden — Execrable state of the Roads before the snow 
falls — Holen — Change in the Roads in approaching Sweden — Spires of Norwegian 
Churches — Kiolstad — Haeberg — Cataract of Fon Fossen — Ous — Sindby — Appear- 
ance made by a Fair at Kongswinger — Money of the Country — Edsbroen — Magnor 
— Boundary between Norway and Sweden — Singular instance of honesty in a 
Peasant — Morast — Haga — Strand — Homeric Torches — Extraordinary Costume of 
the Natives of Wermeland — Aspect of the Country — Consequences of a recent 
Dearth — Hogsalla — Leerhol — Skamnas — Improved appearance of the land — 

Carlstad- — Exports and Imports — Population — River Clara — Brastegard 

Molkem — Change in the dress of the Peasants — Manner of keeping the Roads in 
repair — Brattefors — Boulders — Trees — Animals — Philipstad — Uniform appearance 
of the Swedish Towns — Dress of the Natives — Enclosures — Juniper-trees — 
Onshytta — Two species of Tetrao or Black-Cock — Persberg — Descent into the Iron- 
Mines — Catastrophe which befel a Female Miner — Bottom of the Persberg Mine 
— Striking scene in the Great Cavern — Imbedded state of the Ore— LlngbanshyUa 
— Machinery for the Mine Pumps — Saxan — Westmania — Halleforss — Nytorp 
— Nyakopparberg — Minerals — Laxbro — Beauty of the Lakes — diminution of their 
waters — Hcgforss — Hellsion — Ostanbo — Smedbacka — Blood Cakes — Entrance of 
Dalecarlia — Varieties and Luxuriance of the Fungi and Musci — Bommarsbo 
— Home Manufacture of Candles — Russ-Garden — Naglarby — General Features of 
Dalecarlia — Character of the Natives — Dialect — Antient Dance — Original use 
of the Runic Staves — Retreat of Gustavus Vasa — Approach to Fablun — External 
Aspect of its famous Copper- Mine. 


P. 128. 

Antiquity of the Fahlun Mine — Assessor Gahn — Copper-ore — Descent into the mine — 
Conflagration — Method of excavating the ore — Manner in which it is found 



deposited — Accident winch caused the present Crater — Tradition of the miners—- 
Appearance of the descent — Names of the different openings — Increase of tem- 
perature in the lower chambers — View of the bed of fire — Council-chamber — 
Subterraneous stables — Stalactites of green vitriol — Pumps — Mode of dividing the 
ore — Value of the Shares — Bergsmen — Valuation of the Lots — Produce of the 
TVorks — Present state of the Fahlun Aline — Works above ground — Vitriol 
manufactory — Remarkable form of precipitated copper — Process for concentrating 
the lye — Subsequent crystallization of the salt — Town of Fahlun — Wood impreg- 
nated with copper — Punishment of" Riding the great horse" — Public buildings — 
Geological features of Dalecarlia — Sater — Mines in its neighbourhood — Hedmora 

— Curious floating- bridge — Nuptial festivities — Annual return of Dalecarlian 
Peasants — Avestad — Character of the Swedish Peasants — Broddebo — Custom in 
passing a Robbers grave — Sala — Mine of Sal berg — Nature of the ore — Descent 
into the Salberg — Minerals — Town o/"Sala. 


P. 172. 

Journey from Sala to Upsala — Appearance o/Upsala — Present condition of the Univer- 
sity — Afzelius — Thunberg — Botanic Garden — Chemical Schools — Mineralogicat 
Collection — University Library — Typographical rarities — Manuscripts — Codex 
Argenteus — Cabinet of Queen Christina — Mysterious gift of Gustavus the Third 
Executive branch of the University — Degrees — Theses — Cathedral — Burial-place of 
Linnaeus — monument erected by the inhabitants — Image of Thor — Bloody coat of 
Eric — Shift of Margaret — New Botanic Garden — Lecture Room — Conflicting 
opinions respecting Gustavus the Third — Habits and manners of the Students — 
Public Cellars — Conduct of the Students towards the Professors — total want of 
discipline — neglected state of science — want of emulation — habits of intoxication 
— Character of the Swedes — Uniform aspect of the country andits inhabitants. 


P. 211. 

Specimens from the Herbarium of Linnaeus — Curious Wheel-lock Musket — Gamla Upsala 

— Skocloster — State of Stockholm upon the Author's Return — Character of the 
young King — Table-talk — Royal Fete at the Opera House — Evenings Adventure — 
Reflections on the Death of the former Monarch— Opening of the Sepulchre of 
Charles the Twelfth — Interruption of the amity between England and Sweden — 
Club called The Society — Resemblance to Italian Customs — Booksellers — Public 
Dinners — Interior of the Houses — Coffee prohibited — Anecdotes of the King — 





Probable Contents of the Chests at Upsala — State of Literature — Deplorable 
condition of the Country — Places of Public Amusement — Academies — Riots at 
Upsala — Royal Palace — Chapel — State Apartments — Picture Gallery — Private 
Cabinets of Gustavus the Third. 


P. 257. 

Public Women — Mildness of the Season — Vauxhall — Watchmen — Balls of the Society — 
Manners of the Inhabitants — Public Executions — Artists — Royal Palaces — Views 
of Stockholm — Description of Drottningholm — Lake Moelar — Sudden Change 
induced by the coming of Winter — Frozen Game — Population — Stale of Trade — 
Boot and Shoe Market — Cabinet of Models — College of Mines — Igneous Basalt 
— Apparel ivorn by Charles the Twelfth when he was .assassinated — Cast of that 
King's face after death — Royal Library — Codex Aureus — Codex Giganteus — 
Curious Manuscript Code of Medicine — Typographical Rarities — Collection of 
Original Designs — Royal Museum — Observations on the Literature of Sweden — 
Literary Productions — Establishments — Gymnasia — Committee for Public Education 
— Chirurgical and Medical Colleges — Remarks on the Swedish Poetry — List 
of Poetical Works — Operas — Dramas — Comedies — Works in the higher order of 


P. 295. 

Characteristical Swedish Exclamation — Departure from Stockholm — Commencement of 
the Winter season — Grissehamn — Telegraph — Passage-boat — Geographical No?nen- 
clature — Dangerous situation of the Author and his Companions — Providential 


escape — Aspect of affairs in landing upon Aland — Frebbenby — State Messenger of 
the Court of Russia — Ruins o/"Castelholm — History of that Fortress — Skarpans 
— Change in the Manners of the People — Bomarsund — -Vargatta Sound — Sledge- 
Travelling — Isle ofVavdo — The Party embark across the Delenybr Kumlinge — 
The Author induced to return to Skarpans — Festivities of Christmas Eve — Attempt 
to convey the carriage upon the ice — Sudden storm — Village of Vardo — Interior of 


an Aland Dwelling— Breakfast of the Natives — Extra Post — A turbulent sea 
frozen in one night — Cause of the rapid change — The Author recrosses the 

Bomarsund — Southern Passage to Kumlinge — State of the Delen — Geological 
features of Aland — Manners of the Alanders in Winter — Number of inhabitants — 

Means of subsistence — Clergy— Land-measurers — their destructive influence and 




P. 539. 

The Author determines to undertake, the Southern Circuitous Route— ^Introduces his 
Personal Narrative of that Expedition — Grundsunda — Bergo — Simplicity of the 
Natives — Increase of Wolves — Seal-hunters — Safety-pikes — The Author deserted 
by his Guides — arrives at Mushaga — Ravages of the Small-pox — Mode of forcing 
a passage through the Ice — Remarkable effect of Snow falling in Sea-?vater — 
Natural Cave of Ice — Sattunga — Description of the Inhabitants — Swedes of Aland 
— Finlanders — Remains of antient and pure Swedish — its resemblance to English 

— Seal-skin Sandals — Winter occupations of the Alanders — Preparations for a 
journey on the ice to Kumlinge — Description of the Procession on leaving Sattunga 
— Encounter with the Seal-hunters — Change of route— Scene exhibited at mid-day — 
Arrival at Kumlinge — The Author terminates his Personal Narrative. 


P. 367. 

The Parly leave Kumlinge — Brief account of that island — Bjorko — Brando — El Ira- 
ordinary Congregation for Divine Service — Vattuskiftel — Bursting of the Ice — 
Varssala — Revolting manners of the Natives — Valedictory remarks upon the Swedes 
Fahrenheit's Thermometer fifty-two degrees and a half below freezing — Turvesi 
Passage — Accidents from the frost — Helsing — Himois — Vinkela — Action of at- 
mospheric air upon vapour — State of travelling in Finland — Laitis — Tursanpare 

e a 

Niemenkyla — Nussis-Nummis — Arrival at Abo — Narrow escape from suffocation. 


P. 388. 
A CO. 


State of Abo — its situation with regard to other Seminaries of Learning — its Commerce 

— Visit to the different Professors — Frantzen — his genius for poetry — Specimen 
of one of his Odes — Porthan — Account of the University — Difficulties encountered 
by the Professors — Disasters to which Abo has been liable — Cathedral — Ludicrous 
mistake' — Effect of an Organ upon some. Natives of Savolax — Interesting Cippus 
in the Chorus Tottianus — Statues and Pictures — Inscription in memory q/Xatherine, 
Widow of Eric XIV. — Historical Documents concerning this remarkable woman 
— Swedish Legend upon her Daughter's coffin — Manuscripts preserved in a brazen 
coffer — Histories of Eric's Reign — Portraits of Luther and Melancthon — Image 
of Henry the Martyr — Chapel of Olaus, Bishop of Abo — Monument of a Scotch 
Officer — University Library — Manuscripts — Typographical Rarities — Theatrum 
Anatomicum — Auditory of Disputations — Professor Gadolin — Collection of 
Minerals — Professor Hellenius — Botanic Garden — Hellenius's private Collections 


— Comparative Estimate of the two Universities, Upsala and Abo — State of Society. 



P. 434. 

Concourse of the Natives from the neighbouring Districts — Manners of the Finns — their 
motives in visiting Abo — their dress — marvellous expedition which they undertake 
— anecdote of one of them — Streets of Abo — Booksellers — Price of articles — 


Language and People of Finland — Finnish Poetry — Merchants of Abo — Maritime 
Commerce of Sweden and Norway — Singular customs — Courts of Judicature — 
Distant Excursions of the trading Finlanders — Foundation of the University — 
Number of its Students and Professors — Importance of a travelling-carriage — 
State of the accommodations for Travellers — Cursory reflections previously to the 
departure for Russia. 


P. 458. 


Journey from Abo to Helsingfors — Description of Helsingfors — Fortress of Sweaborg 
— Tomb of Count Ernsverd — Strength, size, and importance of Sweaborg — Route 
from Helsingfors to Borgo and Louisa — approach to the Russian frontier — 
Boundaries of the Swedish and Russian Dominions — Contrast between the Natives 
of the two countries — Mode of recruiting the Russian Army — Iniquitous conduct of 
a Russian Inspector of the Customs — Difficulties that impede the Traveller — 
Arrival at Frederickshamm — Appearance of that place — Regulation relating to 
Posting in Russia — Description of the Post-houses in Russian Finland — Intense cold 
of the weather during the night — Arrival at Wibourg — Appearance of the Soldiers 
of the Garrison — Mode of inflicting punishment on Deserters — Inhabitants of 
Wibourg — Arrival at Petersburg. 


P. 482. 

General appearance of the City — Novelty of the Scene exhibited in the Dresses and 
Figures of the Inhabitants — Expense in the mode of living among the Higher 

Ranks — Collection of Art, in the possession of Individuals — Amusements of the 
different Classes of Society — Ice-Hills — Visit to some of the Public Institutions — 
Academy of Sciences — Library attached to it — Museum — Valuable Collections, in 
different branches of Natural History, preserved there — Peter the First — 
Academy of Fine Arts — nature of the Institution — Fortress — Tombs of the Impe- 
rial Family — Mint — Statue of Peter the First — defect of taste in the Artist — expense 
of the Work — Hermitage — Pictures — Hall of St. George — Palaces of Peterhof and 

Oranienbaum — Stale of the Peasantry — Mode of managing the Estates of the 

Russian Nobility — Checks to Population. 



P. 507. 

Benediction of the Waters of the Neva— Monastery of St. Alexander Nevsky— 
Religious Festival in honour of that Saint— Tombs— Church of St. Nicholas— 
Glass-house established by Potemkin — nature of the works carried on there — 
Foundling Hospital — description of it— stale of the Children — mortality which 
prevails amongst them— encouragement given to licentiousness by the Institution — 
Character, temper, and disposition of Paul, before his accession to the throne — 
Disrespect and insult shewn by him to the memory of Catherine, on his becoming 
Emperor — Anecdotes illustrating his extraordinary conduct — Remarks on the 
character of the Empress Catherine — Deposition and murder of Peter the 

Appendix, No. I. 

P. 535. 


Sixty-three Academic Dissertations of Abo; skewing the State of Science in that 
University for the last Twenty Years. 

No. IT. 

P. 540. 
Index Prcelectionum, quas, bono cum Deo, in Regid Academid Aboensi, omnium 
Facullatum Professores ceterique docentes, a die Octobris An. mdccxcix, ad idem 
tempus anni sequentis, publice et privatim habebunt. 

No. III. 

P. 546. 

Plan of the Situation of the Mines at the Great Copper Mountain at Fahlun 

in Dalecarlia. 

No. IV. 

P. 548. 

Temperature of the Atmosphere, according to Diurnal Observation ; with a Corresponding 
Statement of Temperature in England during the same period. 


P. 553. 

Names of Places visited in the Author's Route; with their Distances from each other s 

-, ot >,~ar^ 



Situation of Bergen with respect to the rest of Norway — Bernard and 
Peter Anker — Fish to the Governor— A Rout — Barbarisms — 
Army Regulations — Laws respecting Marriage — Climate — Nobility 
— Character of Prince Frederic — State of the Army — Danish 
Policy with regard to Norivay — Domestic Economy at Christiania 
— Hospitable Entertainment — Anecdotes of the Emperor Paul 
of Russia — Antient Teutonic Customs — Lamentable Conduct 
of Great Britain towards Norway — Ceremonies of retiring from 
Table — Magnificent Fill a of Peter Anker — His Collection of 
VOL. VI. B Pictures 



Pictures — Fast Establishment — Prejudices of the Norwegians 
respecting Food — Courts of Judicature — Commerce of Christiania— 
Population — Manners of the Christianians — Comparison between the 
Inhabitants of Tronyem and Christiania — Effect of Foreign 
Intercourse — Institutions for the Poor — Character and Exemplary 
Conduct of the two Ankers. 

w CH ^ P - L j We had now traversed nearly the whole of Norwat, from 
the North to the South ; but had seen nothing of its western 
province of Bergen, nor of the city of that name. Yet this 
being the most populous town of the whole country, we 
were desirous of obtaining from the inhabitants some infor- 
mation respecting its present state ; and for this purpose 
we introduced the subject in our first conversation with 
Mr. Anker ; telling him that the people of Tronyem seemed 
almost as ignorant as we were, of every thing relating to 
Bergen, " It is precisely the same with us in Christiania" 
said he : " Bergen is less known to the inhabitants of this 
place than London or Paris : in fact, we hardly consider it as 
forming: a part of our countrv : or as inhabited bv Nonce- 
gians. The people of Bergen are, for the most part, 
foreigners, principally from Holland; persons who have settled 
there for trade ; buying and selling the fish taken by the 
natives of the northern parts of Norway." We soon forgot 

situation of Bergen, and turned our inquiries towards Christiania, whose 

Bergen with ° 

respect to the representative we thought we beheld in this high-spirited 
and intelligent man. He had travelled much, and combined, 
in his manners, all the best characteristics of our own coun- 
trymen, with a good deal of French foppery, and that native 
heartiness of a Norwegian, which knows no bounds to its 
hospitality, but, as in Sweden, will carry its kind attention to 
strangers even to excess. It seemed, in this short interview, 


rest of Not 




































as if his whole property were to be at our disposal. 
" My carriages and horses, Gentlemen, are at your service 
so long as you choose to remain with us. Our good friends 
here, Mr. Kent and Mr. Jarret, will tell you, that our parties 
in Christiania are pretty well attended : there is nothing stiff 
or formal in them : we meet, chat, play at cards, smoke, 
sing, and drink Burgundy-bishop : every one comes and goes 
as he likes. You will be expected this evening at the 
Governor's : his Lady is a very pleasing woman. If you go 
to his house, I shall have the honour of introducing you to 
several families, and of taking you afterwards with me to 
a rout, where you may amuse yourselves after your fatigues. 
To-morrow, Mr. John Collet will expect you to dine at his 
house : there you will meet many of the inhabitants of 
this place ; and, among others, Dr. Miiller, a man of letters, 
who married an English Lady." Being Chamberlain to the 
King of Denmark, Bernard Anker wore the Danish court 
badge, — a large key and riband, fastened to the button of 
his coat behind. In his person, he was above the common 
size, of athletic form, and well-looking. His hair, decorated 
in the old Parisian taste, was highly frizzled and powdered : 
and, during the whole of his conversation, he stood opposite 
a large mirror, attentively surveying and adjusting the 
different articles of his dress : but in all this there was nothing 
of mere vanity, or of affectation ; it was evidently what, 
among the French, would have been once considered the 
ease and gaiety of a well-bred fashionable beau ; although, 
to English eyes, such an air and manner might have been 
considered as bordering upon those of the petit-maitre. 
However, we soon found, in the conduct of this exemplary 




CHAP. i. 

Bernard and 
Peter Anker. 


individual, a lesson against judging too hastily from outward 
appearances. His heart was possessed by the best qualifica- 
tions of human nature ; and his mind, well stored with 
intelligence, and full of resources, poured forth, in every 
conversation, such general knowledge of the world, and of 
the springs of human actions, whether in court cabinets or 
in private life, as made all who became acquainted with him 
eager to join his company 1 . His character is so intimately 
connected with the history of Christiania, and of Norway, 
that no traveller, who has published an account of the 
country, during his life-time, has neglected to attend to it. 
The noble use he made of his princely income, and of all his 
vast means of doing good, in the encouragement he gave to 
every measure likely to promote the interests of the nation ; 
the example he set to those around him, of domestic economy, 
and of social order ; the public donations he made, — in all of 
which he was aided by a corresponding disposition in the 
benevolent conduct of his brother, — have caused the names 
of Bernard and of Peter Anker to live in the recollection of 
the Norwegians, associated with all that is praise- worthy 
among them 2 ; — as " rich men, furnished with ability, living 


(1) " His talents were frequently exercised, and his great wealth employed, in acts of 
beneficence to his fellow-citizens. He presented the Military Institution at Christiania 
with a spacious house, and increased their funds by a donation of five thousand dollars. 
The needy never sIted to him in vain 5 and, as his liberality was unbounded, the- 
Inferior classes looked up to him with confidence for protection and support. * • * # 
Like the illustrious Lorenzo de Medicis, he was a great merchant, and capable of being 
a great statesman : he entertained an ambassador with as much ease as he would a 
factor." See Wolff's Northern Tour, pp. 99, 100. Land. 1814. 

(2) " It is highly gratifying to read, that when the Island of Zealand was invaded, and 
taken possession of by a British army in 180?, and a country-seat belonging to the 



peaceably in their habitations ; honoured in their generations ; chap. i. 
the glory of their times." When we find it written in 
Sacred Scripture, that " a merchant shall hardly keep him- 
self from doing wrong," be it always remembered, that the 
Ankers were of this class in society. *' In the waves of the 
sea, and in all the earth, and in every people and nation, 
they had gathered to themselves a possession;" — and the 
secret of their prosperity was divulged in the cheerful 
countenances of their tenants and dependants ; in the com- 
fort and the gladness which they so largely diffused ; but 
especially throughout all the dwellings of the poor. 

In the evening we visited the Governor, and found an visit to ti.c 

. r r Governor. 

assembly, consisting of some of the principal people of 
the city. The gentlemen were engaged playing whist, with 
enormous tobacco-pipes of Meerschaum in their mouths, Barbarisms 
smoking in the presence of the women, and spitting upon 
the floor. In this respect the inhabitants of Tronyem were 
more polite ; as they neither smoke nor spit when ladies are 
present. The Governor told us he usually smoked about 
twenty pipes a day. But there is another custom, pre- 
valent throughout Norway and Denmark, and some other 
parts of the continent, which in our country would be 
deemed almost too low for an alehouse : it is that of marking 
the points of a game at cards with chalk upon the table. 
A piece of chalk was laid for this purpose upon every card- 
table at the Governor's, and used both by ladies and 

gentlemen r 

Hon. Carsten Anker was entered by a detachment of the Guards, such was the respect 
shewn by our troops to its hospitable, owner, that Jiis mansion remained unmolested 
during the whole time they remained in its vicinity." Ibid. p. 1/5. 




A Rout. 


gentlemen : the same practice is said to exist even at the 
Danish Court. These are trifling barbarisms ; but they are 
nevertheless barbarous; and must be viewed, in any country, 
as among the marks of a want of refinement : they tell us, 
at a glance, of the state of the society in which these 
indications appear. A German lady spits upon the floor of her 
apartment, even when it is covered by an expensive carpet ; 
and may attempt to justify such a breach of good manners, 
by urging that it is a practice tolerated even at court. 
English Peers, and English dandies, aping foreign customs, 
have sometimes imitated such examples ; but nothing can 
reconcile them to the canons of civilization 1 . 

From the Governor's we went to a rout and supper, at 
which was convened all the beau-monde of Christiania. 
The rooms were crowded with a variety of company ; among 
which we observed several officers of the army and navy, 
and a number of beautiful women in elegant and fashionable 
dresses, exhibiting the latest modes of London, These 
evening parties, being held in routine at the different houses, 
had become so expensive, that Mr. Anker, and others, pre- 
vailed upon seventy of the principal inhabitants to consent 
to an agreement, which they all signed, that certain rules 
of economy should be observed ; — that no person should be 


(l) The habits of the French women are in this respect abominable. " Some of 
their habits," says Henry Matthews, in his most interesting Volume of Travels, " must 
be condemned as shockingly offensive. — What shall we say of the spitting about the 
floor, which is the common practice of women as well as men, at all times and seasons, 
not only in domestic life, but also upon the stage, in the characters of heroes and 
heroines, even in high imperial tragedy?" — See the Diary of an Invalid, &c. by Henry 
Matthews, Esq. A.M. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, p. 425. Lond. 1820. 
Second Edition. 


at liberty to exceed the stipulations made for every evening's 
entertainment ; — that only a certain number of lustres 
should be allowed in each apartment, and that the number 
of wax-candles should be limited for each lustre ; — that, 
instead of an expensive supper, a small collation should 
be prepared, to which the guests might go, without 
requiring any person to wait upon them. These new 
regulations explained to us the meaning of a sight which 
would otherwise have appeared remarkable ; namely, a 
number of large chandeliers and sconces, which, in the 
different apartments, were all filled with wax-candles, but 
not lighted. Our reception was, as usual, of the most 
hospitable nature : but in Christiania a welcome had been 
prepared for us, by the previous intercession of our two 
friends, Malthus and Otter, who had visited this place before 
our coming : and it was heightened by the kind offices of the 
two English travellers to whom we had been introduced 
in the moment of our arrival, Messrs. Kent and Jarret. 
With these gentlemen we soon became intimate : their 
amiable qualities had already rendered them popular among 
the inhabitants, and we found great advantage in their society. 
The dancing began with the waltz, soon after nine o'clock ; 
but the company had been coming in since six, and formed 
really a brilliant assemblage, particularly the ladies : there 
were full as many handsome women, in proportion to the 
number, as would be seen at an assembly in England. 
Indeed, to English eyes, there was nothing foreign in the 
appearance of the company : the manners, abating only the 
smoking and spitting, were those of our own country ; and 
we found the English language very generally understood. 





Army ltegu. 


From the Governor and Mr. Anker we learned that a 
change had just taken place in the laws relating to the 
enrolment of the peasants for the army. Every man in 
Denmark and Norway, born of a farmer or labourer, is a 
soldier. Those born of sailors, are sailors. Formerly, the 
officer of the district might take them at any age he pleased ; 
and he generally preferred a man from twenty-five to thirty, 
Laws respect, before those that were younger. After being thus taken, 

ing Marriage. ( , . 

the man could not marry without producing a certificate, 
signed by the minister of the parish, that he had substance 
enough to support a wife and family ; and even then it was 
at the will of the officer to let him marry, or not. This, 
and the uncertainty in respect to the time of being taken, had 
hitherto operated as a strong preventive check to population 
in Norway; and accounts for its increasing so slowly, 
although the people live so long. No man could consider 
himself as perfectly free to marry, unless he had solid 
possessions, till he had served his time; which, from being 
taken sometimes at thirty, might not happen until he 
was forty years old. We took some pains to inquire, 
whether the certificate of having enough to support a family 
were a civil or a military institution. From what we could 
learn, it appeared to be entirely military ; and to have arisen 
from the fear, that the children of soldiers might fall upon 
the public, or starve. It had however, without doubt, 
a very strong influence, in a civil point of view; and was, in 
fact, the cause why the lower classes of people in Norway 
were in a much better state than could be expected from the 
barrenness of the country. These laws were now at an 
end. The liberty of marriage was allowed, without any 


C H R I S T I A N I A. 


certificate or permission of the officer. All the young men chap. i. 
of twenty were taken first ; and if the number were not 
sufficient, all of twenty-two, and so on, were added; — it 
being no longer at the option of the officer to select the men 
at what age he might think proper. Formerly, any person 
under thirty-six might be taken ; and the older were generally 
taken first. One proof that the certificate was entirely a 
military institution, is this ; that a peasant, before he was 
taken, might marry without a certificate : but then he 
exposed his wife and family to the danger of being starved, 
if he were taken, unless he could leave behind him a 
sufficiency for their support ; and it was probable that parents 
would not allow their daughters to marry without some 
prospect of this kind. The Governor disapproved of the 
new regulations : he said that the peasants would now marry 
without any prospect of being able to maintain a family ; 
and the consequence would be, that more would be born 
than the country could support. He said that the old laws 
on the subject had lately been very loosely enforced : the effect 
of which was, an evident deterioration in the morals of the 
people. Many children died before they attained the fifth 
year of their age. He thought that the age of twenty, 
although well suited to such a country as France, was too 
young for a Nonvegian ; because the northern peasant is 
much later in attaining maturity. All males born in the 
districts along the coasts of Norway, and all in the inland 
towns who get their living by fishing, are enrolled as 
sailors; but all born in the inland districts of the country, 
who subsist by other pursuits, are soldiers. Those born of 
vol. vi. c trades- 





tradespeople in the towns are free ; except with regard to the 
services they are obliged to perform as burghers. 

Speaking of the climate, the Governor said, that they had 
" huit mois d'hiver, et quatre mois dc mauvais temps" We 
had heard the same observation made at Copenhagen ; but, 
judging from w T hat we had seen ourselves, we certainly 
should not have made the same remark. He said, that during 
the whole summer he had been only four days without his 
great coat. A reference to the account w T e have regularly 
kept of the state of the thermometer will best shew what 
the temperature of the climate really is. 
Nobility. With Mr. B. A7iher we had a long conversation on the 

subject of the nobility. He said, that some time ago a pro- 
clamation had been issued by the Court of Copenhagen, that 
all persons claiming the rank of nobility should prove their 
just title to that rank by regular descent. Mr. Anker proved 
his descent from a noble Swedish family ; but they made 
some difficulty in granting to him the arms of that family, 
as he had not himself a title, and the arms interfered with 
some of the Danish titles. However, he gained his point 
at last, and obtained the coat of arms. About three years 
since, without making any application, he received the key 
of Chamberlain, which gave him the highest rank in 
Norway, even above that of the Governor. His brother, 
Mr. Peter Anlter, had the rank of General, wore a General's 
uniform, and was Intendant General of the roads in Norway. 
There are but two titled estates in all Norway ; but there are 
many other estates that have privileges of nobility attached 
to them. Any person nobly born may purchase any of these 




estates, and possess all the privileges belonging to them ; but 
a person not nobly born cannot purchase them. A commis- 
sion from the King confers the same privilege as noble birth. 
An Ensign might purchase a nobleman's estate, and possess 
all the rights and honours attached to it. All civil offices, 
as in Russia, have a certain military rank. The title of Count 
gives a certain rank in the army ; but a simple Ensign 
takes the precedence of a nobleman born, with the largest 
possessions, if he have no title, and hold no civil office from 
the crown. In a scale of the different gradations of rank 
shewn to us, we observed that it consisted of six or seven 
different classes. The rank of Chamberlain was in the same 
class with that of the Major Generals of the army, but it 
was at the head of this class. In the class above this, were 
the Generals, Admirals, and Counts possessing estates 
annexed to their titles ; those without, being in the class 

During this conversation with Mr. Anker, the character 
of the Prince 1 was started. Mr. Anker observed, that his 
character w T as not well known, and seldom justly appreciated. 
He believed him to be the most moraLman that could well 
exist, and of the most strict and impartial justice. He was 
not indeed generous ; but this could hardly be attributed to 
him as a fault, arising, as it did, from the very small sum 
which he required for his own expenses; not more than 12,000 

dollars ; 

chap. 1. 

Character of 
Prince Fre- 

(l) Now Frederic VI. King of Denmark, born January ¥] , 1768 ; married in 1790 
to Princess Sophia Frederica of Hesse Cassel ; by whom he hath issue two daughters. 




chap. i. dollars ; a little above 2000/. a year. He never would confer 
the title of nobility, and was always extremely cautious in 
granting any office or favour of any kind. His fear of being 
partial sometimes carried him too far, and prevented his 
granting any thing, even to a person whom he might consider 
as worthy of his acquiescence. He was very silent in com- 
pany, and partly, as Mr. Anker believed, from the fear of 
having some proposition made to him, or some favour asked. 
If a man had once made a request of this nature, the 
Prince seldom spoke to him afterwards, although he might 
still consider him as an object of regard. At Copenhagen 
he is unpopular ; because the people about the court are 
all poor, and all beggars. Mr. Ariker seemed to think that 
he had good natural talents, and a good memory ; but that 
his education had been much neglected, of which he was 
fully sensible, and sometimes complained of it himself. 
Unfortunately, he was not fond of reading, which prevented 
him from repairing what was deficient. He has had no 
favourite whatsoever. Count Bernstoff, who had been 
erroneously considered as a favourite, possessed no particular 
influence. He was only Secretary of State, and not of the 
Grand Council; andoughtbyno means to have been considered 
as the Prime Minister. The liberality of the Prince in his 
administration of government, and his contempt for libels, 
proceeded from a right principle, and from a consciousness of 
the rectitude of his conduct; added, perhaps, to a sage foresight, 
which has always convinced him that the wisest and safest 
plan, in all such cases, is to let these things alone. A libel had 
been prosecuted by one of the courts but a short time before ; 




and the consequence was, that the book, which had been chap. i. 
before neglected, rose into notice, and sold in the most rapid 
manner ; three or four editions of it being successively 

A young officer entered into conversation with us, who state of the 


spoke English remarkably well. He seemed not much to 
like the army ; mentioned the brutality, and want of 
education in the greater part of his companions ; and 
expatiated with much feeling upon the starving condition 
of the inferior officers, and their forlorn hope of promotion. 
All officers, except for some particular merit during actual 
service, rise by seniority ; which makes promotion, during 
peace, extremely slow. An education during four years, 
at least, at the military academy either of Copenhagen or of 
Christianity, is requisite to the obtaining of a commission ; 
and afterwards, those who are not noble often serve for some 
years as non-commissioned officers, before they can hold a 
commission. He said there was hardly a captain in his 
regiment that was under sixty years old; and seemed to 
think that the Prince, with all his attention to the army, had 
not done much to increase the comforts of the soldiers and 

The next day, October the fifteenth, we called upon Mr. 
B. Anker, and saw his magnificent house. We found him 
in his morning-gown, sitting in his study, surrounded by 
books and papers. He related to us the difficulties he had 
encountered, during his applications to the Court of Denmark, 
to obtain a University for Norway ; and he began to be aware 
that it was a measure to which the Danish Government 


- ^ ^^^H **&*» 



chap. i. would never accede. He was not even allowed to purchase 

libraries for the public use of the Nonvegians in their own 

country. A Danish party exists in Christiania, which is also 

violent against the establishment of a University in Norivay. 

Danish Policy The Danish policy is, to compel all the young students 

with regard to *■ J A J ° 

Norway. j. Q res0 rt to Copenhagen, and there to spend their money ; 
whence they generally return injured in their principles and 
in their health 1 . Mr. Anker had visited almost all the more 
civilized parts of Europe, and spoke foreign languages with 
great fluency. He was well read in the fine arts, and had 
formed a valuable collection of books and pictures. Among 
the most valuable of the latter, we were shewn some designs 
by Le Brnn, and some remarkable proofs of the laborious 
exactness and minuteness of execution characteristic of the 
Flemish school, in a series of pen-drawings done by Orlacht 
of Anvers in 1761. In Mr. Ankers library, public lectures 
w T ere delivered to the young Norwegians by himself and others. 
The following words were inscribed in large letters over the 
door of this apartment: docendo discimus. Here we saw 
a complete apparatus for philosophical and mechanical 
purposes, the work of Nairne and Blunt of London; 
astronomical instruments, globes, and a museum of anti- 
quities, and of natural history, containing minerals, shells, &c. 
" I must send to England" said he, " for almost every 

thing : 

(1) " It was a line of policy which did not extend only to the students of JSorway : 
all persons who had money to spend were thus allured to the capital ; and although no 
one better understood, than Bernard Anker, the nature and ends of the decoy, yet he 
himself ended with falling into it." See Wolffs Northern Tour, p. 100, Lond. 1814. 



thing : all the linen of my family is sent annually to London chap. i. 
to be washed." And when we observed that the stock of 
linen must be very large to admit of such an arrangement, 
he added, " that it was absolutely necessary to have a large Domestic 

i r t • • tit ii i Economy at 

stock or every thing in Norway, and each man must keep it cnrutiania. 
within his own stores." " We cannot," said he, " go to 
market, or to shops, as you do in English towns : here, those 
who would live handsomely must collect into their own 
warehouses, from all parts of the world, whatsoever they 
may have occasion for, from the flour of which they make 
their bread, to the beef, the pork, the poultry, and all the 
stores necessary for a whole year's consumption." This 
makes living in Norway perhaps more expensive than in any 
other part of Europe. Mr. Anker told us, that he had thirty 
servants upon his own establishment, and that his brother 
kept sixty. The fuel consumed upon his premises, for the 
number of different stoves, amounted to above four times as 
much as a nobleman's family would consume in Copenhagen : 
and we were rather surprised to hear him say that fire-wood was 
an expensive article, in such a region of timber. But horses 
constitute the article of heaviest expenditure to a gentleman 
in Norway, owing to the general high price of hay, which 
had been particularly scarce during the last spring. The 
common price of hay averaged about five pounds a ton ; 
this year the price had been doubled ; and indeed it could 
hardly be had for money. Mr. Anker s stud amounted to 
twenty horses for pleasure, besides draught-horses ; and he 
had eight or ten carriages. The great preparation for the 
year's consumption in Christiania, as in all the rest of Norway, 







is made in the autumn. The season of slaughter, for the 
supply of the whole winter, takes place in the month of 
October ; and the number of cattle killed upon this occasion 
is astonishing. The smallest and most private families salt a 
certain quantity; but in the larger houses it is a work of 
peculiar exertion, especially for the mistress. To become 
good Norivegian wife, a lady must absolutely be educated in 
Norway. The mistress of each family presides over all the 
autumnal hoarding of provisions, and in person directs every 
operation. In one morning that we called upon Mr. Anker, 
eighteen bullocks had been slaughtered, and his stock was 
not by any means complete. Some of the meat is pickled ; 
the rest dried. The fat is melted into tallow, and nothing 
wasted. Even the blood is saved. 

We went, by invitation, to dine with another merchant, 
Mr. John Collet, at his country-seat ; having brought to him 
letters of recommendation : and in writing an account of 
Norway* however trivial the description of a dinner may be 
in general, we should indeed be guilty of an omission, if we 
neglected to describe the sort of reception which we 
experienced beneath his hospitable roof. He had a very 
extensive farm to manage ; holding nearly 400 acres of land 
in his own hands. He treated rye in the same manner that 
we do wheat ; preparing the land for it by two or three 
other crops successively, so as to get a good crop of rye on the 
same land once in three or four years. His cows were fed, in 
winter, on turnips and carrots, preserved in cellars. Potatoes 
thrive remarkably well : they were introduced into Norway 
about thirty years ago, and were daily coming more into 





use. The price of labour, he told us, was one shilling in 
summer, and ten shillings in winter, without victuals. His 
wife, a very agreeable woman, was reckoned a pattern for 
all the wives in Norway. We found a very large party 
already assembled at Mr. Collet's house, and, among them, 
Mr. Anker, and our friends Messrs. Kent and J arret. Here 
we were introduced to Dr. Mutter, a very intelligent 
physician, and a great mineralogist, who sate by us during 
dinner, and was very communicative upon all subjects 
relating to the country : he had married the sister of an 
English physician, and spoke the English language with great 
fluency. Such was the magnificence of the feast to which 
we had been invited, that it would hardly be possible for our 
own Sovereign to afford a more sumptuous entertainment. 
We had every delicacy of the country, and all the wines 
of Europe, together with every species of costly liqueur 
and confectionary ; — yet every article had been brought 
forth from the storehouses of the family. A favourite 
beverage, called Bishop, was served in copious bowls of rich 
porcelain : it consisted of Burgundy and claret, mixed with 
sugar, spices, and Seville oranges. But, besides this, large 
goblets were continually handed about, containing Champagne, 
hock, hermitage, Cape, tent, sack, cherry, and Madeira. 
Port-wine, which had been twenty-three years in bottle, 
and of excellent flavour, was circulated in decanters, with 
Burgundy and claret. According to the custom of the 
country, we remained many hours at table : but we did not 
wish to move ; for the most cheerful conviviality, and the 
liveliest conversation, was maintained the whole time, without 
vol. vi. d dispute 





CHAP. 1. 

Anecdotes of 
the Emperor 
Paul of 


dispute or intoxication. The only anxiety on the part of our 
host and hostess, arose from a fear lest their guests should 
not be as well fared, and as merry, as it was possible to make 
them. A considerable part of our mirth was caused by the 
anecdotes related of the Emperor Paul of Russia ; at this 
time the subject of general conversation in most parts of 
Europe; and who was, without exception, the veriest state 
buffoon that barbaric power had ever elevated to a station in 
which, unfortunately for those around him, he could not be 
considered as contemptible. He had the means of doing 
mischief, and he largely indulged in them. However, being 
here remote from the rod of his vicious tyranny, the antics 
and the fury of this insensate fool were considered only as 
subjects of laughter ; affording excellent amusement to those 
who merely heard of them : and we joined in the hearty 
merriment excited by the stories told of the Scythian despot, 
and of the creatures his favourites. The follies and absur- 
dities related of Paul were without number. We may give, 
as specimens, only two instances. Almost every one has 
heard of his famous ukase against different articles of 
wearing apparel. Nothing was more strictly prohibited in 
Russia, than the wearing of pantaloons, trowsers, and shoe- 
strings. At this time, a vessel, containing the Danish cadets, 
arrived at Cronstadt. The Emperor despatched a messenger 
with orders to invite the commanding officer of the ship, 
and all the young men, to his palace. The Danish officer 
replied, that, by the laws of Denmark, the youths under his 
care were compelled to wear trowsers, and shoe-strings 
instead of buckles ; consequently they could not presume to 




make their appearance at the Russian court in a dress pro- 
hibited by the Emperor. The next day an imperial ukase 
was issued, commanding all officers of the Russian navy to 
new-model their attire, and to appear dressed " like the 
Danish cadets at Cronstadt" — But a little before, a servant 
belonging to the Danish ambassador at Petersburg had been 
knocked down by a Russian sentinel, in one of the public 
streets of the city, for daring to appear in pantaloons ; and 
the new regulation took place while an explanation of this 
affair was actually pending between the two courts. But, 

of all things likely to irritate Paid, and to put his temper to the 
severest trial, there was nothing more effectual than a pair of 
black breeches. A foreigner being presented to him in a 
full suit of black clothes, the Emperor had much ado to 
refrain from kicking him out of the audience-chamber, and, 
making a motion with his foot to that effect, ordered the 
sable visitant to be instantly turned out of court. The 
Norwegians were among the objects of his aversion : but his 
dislike to them did not arise from their wearing black 
breeches, but from some indistinct rumours he had heard of 
their jovial clubs, and of the songs of freedom in which 
they indulged at their convivial meetings. The very word 
club was so connected, in his mind, with the club of the 
Jacobins at Paris, and other democratical associations, that he 
considered it as only applicable to revolutionary purposes ; 
and, therefore, that every member of a club, of whatsoever 
nature it might be, ought to be considered as a reprobate, 
and interdicted from all communion with the inhabitants of 
" all the Russias." 


CHA1\ I. 




Antient Teu- 
tonic Customs 

chap. i. The Norwegians drink toasts with the solemnities of a public 
ceremony, mingling with them songs, as did all the ancestors 
and collateral branches of the Teutonic tribes'. At Mr. 
Collet's table, we had the satisfaction of witnessing some of 
those old customs which one grieves to see laid aside, because 
they characterize historically the distinctions of nations. 
The master and mistress of the house, rising from their seats, 
perform a brief recitative, as a preliminary song to the toast 
which they are about to propose. In these solemn airs 
the whole company joined ; and they had a very fine effect ; 
not being rendered the less interesting to us when we found 
they were the preludes to sentiments which Englishmen hail 
with enthusiasm. In this manner we drank " the wooden 


Britannia" — " God save the King" — and, with what grief 
of heart is it called to mind, as it stands written in our 
journals, and was so often reiterated from one end of the 
country to the other — " a perpetual alliance between 
England and Norway." No one, at this period, had even 
to™r&f rUain dreamed of the probability of an event which was to 
separate the inhabitants of the two nations, perhaps for 
ever. The links by which they were united were " the 
very bonds of peace, and of all virtue." Every feeling 
which animates the heart, and is the boast of an Englishman ; 
which induced a native of Great Britain to sit down by a 
Norwegian as by his friend; were those which are most 


conduct of 


(1) Vid. Homer. Odyss: A. v. 152. Athen. Deipn. lib. I. p. 14. A. Ludg. 1657. 



congenial to the inhabitants of Norway ; — holy patriotism ; chap. i. 
manly courage ; unblemished integrity ; a sacred regard for 
all the duties which hold men together in society ; the father 
to his child ; the husband to his wife ; the subject to his 
King ; the creature to his Creator : and that Jesuitical policy, 
which, while it dissolves these ties, teaches that " it is lawful 
to accomplish a great good by doing a little wrong," is 
therefore disowned and scouted by every worthy inhabitant 
of these now divided countries. 

As soon as the company rise from table, it is customary to cerem 

onies of 

shake hands with the master and mistress of the house, and Table/ 
to make an obeisance ; or, being upon an intimate footing 
with the family, to salute the fair hand of the lady who has 
presided. All present then adjourn to another room, where 
coffee is served. There is no separation of the two 
sexes, as in England ; where a custom, more barbarous 
than any thing in Norway, enjoins that the ladies be expelled 
soon after dinner, and sent into a sort of solitary exile until 
midnight. In Norway, as in more polished circles of society 
upon the continent, both men and women retire together. 
The gentlemen then light their pipes. A clean pipe is 
seldom offered; and this want of cleanliness, connected with 
a custom in itself barbarous and uncleanly, is one of the 
few disagreeable things of which a stranger has to complain. 
The card-tables are never covered with cloth; and they are 
chalked all over, as at an ale-house. In playing cards, the 
game to which the better sort of Norwegians are most 
partial, is a species of whist, called Boston : it is in vogue 
all over Scandinavia, and is less simple and more hazardous 



A niter. 


chap. i. than our common game of ivhist, at which they also play c 
Whatever the game may be, the stakes are always low. 
Gambling seems to be almost unknown in Norway in polite 

Upon the following day, October the sixteenth, we had a 
Magnificent still more sumptuous entertainment provided for us, at the 

V ilk of Peter 

stately country-seat, not to call it a palace, of Mr. Peter Anker, 
distant only three English miles from Christiania. We went 
to dine with him, accompanied by his brother. He received 
us with as much magnificence as any foreign Prince, but 
with all the hearty welcome and hospitality of his country, 
added to the splendor of a King. The suite of apartments 
was quite princely, and they were fitted up in the most 
elegant style. His gardens were laid out in the English 
taste; and the situation of his mansion, upon the borders of a 
lake at the foot of a rocky mountain, gave to the whole an 
appearance of great grandeur. In the gardens we were 
shewn an old Norwegian dwelling, preserved as a specimen 
of what the Norwegian houses were two centuries before ; 
with all its furniture, and other appurtenances, as it then 
stood. Upon the walls of this building we observed the 
names of many travellers who had visited the spot, and, 
among others, that of the late Mrs. Godwin, thus inscribed, 
with a pencil, near the door — " Mary Wollstonecraft" 

In the manners of Mr. Peter Anker there was something 
remarkably distinguished from the generality of his coun- 
trymen. His appearance, in the midst of the splendid scene over 
which he presided, was altogether that of the most accomplished 
potentate. Every part of his vast establishment was in 




itself a curiosity, and merited particular attention. He chap. i. 
himself conducted us over it. " We shall pass through the 
kitchens," said he, " that English gentlemen, who are fond of 
neatness, may be convinced that what we have to set before 
them is dressed and served with cleanliness :" and certainly 
we never beheld any thing similar. The dinner was pre- 
paring in large airy apartments, where every thing was in the 
utmost order. Not a cloth was to be seen in the hands of 
any of the attendants, but what was perfectly white and 
clean, and of the finest linen. All the kettles and dishes and 
tables were polished, and without the smallest appearance of 
being soiled by use. One of the most pleasing sights in these 
lower apartments was the table spread for the poor : upon 
which, with the same degree of neatness as for his own 
family, all the pieces of broken victuals were collected, and 
set forth for distribution, into portions, according to the size 
of the different families for whose use they were appropriated. 
His stables and greenhouses were next exhibited, and every- 
where we observed the same display of decent order and 
superior arrangement. In the greenhouses were pines, 
apples, melons, and peaches. We saw also the cellars, as 
storehouses, for preserving meat and vegetables through the 
winter. Every housekeeper lays in his stock of provisions in 
October. Returning to the grand saloon, we began to 
examine his collection of pictures, made by himself, at a His collection 

of Pictures. 

great expense, during his travels in Italy. It filled several 
chambers, which, opening into each other, presented 
altogether such a series of apartments as one sees in the 
Italian palaces, and especially in those of Genoa and Naples. 




chap. i. One room was entirely filled with original drawings of the 
old Masters ; and these, instead of projecting from the walls, 
were let into them, and so glazed ; which had a novel and 
pleasing effect. Of the drawings, and of the paintings, we 
shall mention only the principal, in a Note ; it never having 
entered into our Scandinavian speculations to expect a depdt 
of the Fine Arts so far towards the north 1 . 


(l) Drawings. 

1. A Capucin Friar, with Children. — Paolo Veronese; perhaps 
by his son, Carletto Cagliari. 

1. St. Cecilia. A most exquisite and undoubted work of 
Raffaello Sanzio. In this curious work of Raffael, the saint 
is surrounded with figures, grouped with matchless skill and 
effect. She is singularly represented as holding in her 
hands the pipes of an organ. 


1 . Ulysses and Circe, by Pompeo Battoni, the rival of Mengs. 
A large picture, with great coldness in the colouring. 

2. Lot and his Daughters; (Michael Angelo da Caravaggio;) 
shewing the high degree of interest which this painter 
could give to the most vulgar forms, by his ideal tints of 
light and shade. 

3. A Crucifixion; said to be of the school of Guido; certainly 
by one of the Bolognese masters, and a most valuable 
picture, of small size. The effect of the chiaro oscuro is 
here scientifically set off, with all that magical power of 
colouring which the painters, who followed the Caracci, so 
marvellously displayed. 

4, 5, 6. Se- 



At dinner, Mr. P. Anker told us that he kept fifty cows, chap. i. 
and consumed the whole of their produce upon his own 
establishment. When he was in England, he said, he had 
to complain of the great scarcity of cream which prevailed 


4, 5, 6*. Select pieces by Le Nain, representing scenes of still 
life ; vegetables, green-stalls, &c. 

7, 8. Battle-pieces by Bourgononi. 

Q. Annunciation of the Nativity to the Shepherds of Judaea. 
Jacopo da Ponte. Painted with all the vigour of the older 
Bassano, but with that monotony, and meanness as to the 
objects, into which this fine painter degenerated in the latter 
part of his life. 

10. Some pictures attributed to Leonardo da Find; — a name 
easily bestowed upon, and often given to, paintings which have 
been highly finished with a dry and stiff outline, without 
any of the real excellence of Leonardo. 

11. Several works of Gherardo delta Notte, and of Sckalcken; 
representing, as usual, night-scenes by candle and torch- 

12. Portraits by Denner, purchased at very high prices : these 

were executed with all the laborious exactness and fac- 
simile touches which distinguish the highly-finished works of 
this master ; in whose pictures, as in those of his wife and 
himself, even the pores of the skin are said to be visible. 
In this list, only the most striking pictures have been noticed : 
nor would any such attention have been paid even to these, had 
they been found among the more frequented haunts of the Fine 
Arts. In the billiard-room we saw a complete set of Hogarth's 
engravings, and they were the very best impressions from his 

VOL. vi E 




Prejudices of 

the Norwe- 
gians respect- 
ing food. 

Courts of 


every- where, even in the best houses. In Norway, a great 
quantity of cream is consumed by the inhabitants ; but 
especially during the strawberry season, which lasts six weeks. 
They give the preference to the white alpine strawberry, and 
think their wild strawberries very superior in flavour to our 
garden strawberries in England. The horses of the country, 
though small, are remarkable for their strength and speed. 
He told us that a short time ago he possessed a horse capable 
of trotting a Norway mile, when harnessed to a sledge, 
within a quarter of an hour. The peasants and poor of 

Norway will not eat rabbits : they fancy them too much like 
cats. It is, moreover, difficult to make them cultivate the 
potatoe where that vegetable has not been yet introduced ; 
so bigoted are they to old habits in respect to food. This, 
however, is pretty much the case in all countries. Who could 
prevail upon an Englishman of ordinary circumstances to eat 
a rat', or a hedgehog? Yet these are acknowledged as 
affording delicious morsels in countries where the inhabitants 
are not liable to the same prejudices. 

We had some conversation on the mode by which justice is 
administered in Norway. There are four principal courts of 
judicature ; one in each government, in which the Grand 
Bailif or Governor presides. From these, however, an appeal 
lies to the Supreme Court at Copenhagen. In the trial of every 


(1) An officer of the navy once told the author, that rats, caught on board our ships of 
war and dressed as rabbits, are sometimes considered as good articles of food ; and he 
confessed that he had often relished a roasted rat. 



cause, a jury of six men assists, not chosen as with us, but 
for life. There is also, in every parish, a Commission of Con- 
ciliation, before which every cause must be stated, previous 
to its going into a court of justice : and it is the office of 
the commissioners to mediate between the parties, and, if 
possible, to compromise matters. The party refusing to 
abide by the opinion of the commissioners is condemned to 
all the costs, if it do not afterwards appear upon trial that he 
was in the right. 

Mr. Anker spoke of the connection of Noi^way with 
Denmark as most fatal to the interests of the former. He 
mentioned, at the same time, the great attachment borne by 
the Norwegians towards the English, and their hatred of the 
Sivedes. If Norivay were connected with England, and 
the trade left perfectly free, it is thought it would soon rise 
to a flourishing state. This project was once held by 
Mr. Pitt; and among the Norwegians,, with, whom Copenhagen 
is considered as the sink of all the wealth of their country, 
it would not fail to meet with encouragement. Indeed, 
such were their feelings at this time with regard to our own 
country, that we had every reason to be convinced, if 
Denmark, as it was expected, had entered into an offensive 
alliance with France, the people of Norivay were resolved to 
invite an invasion from Great Britain, and to have acted in 
concert with us against the Danes. 

Norivay imports annually 300,000 quarters of corn. Her 
principal exports are deals and iron. Mr. B. Anker possessed 
one hundred and fifty privileged saw-mills, situate chiefly in 
the Glommen, which runs to Frederickstad. Indeed, the port 


CHAP. 1. 



c 28 


niAV. i. 

Commerce of 
Christ iania. 

of Fredericks fad was, for the most part, possessed by two 
merchants; Mr. B. Anker, and Mr. de Roscncrantz: the 
former of whom considered it as being more advantageous 
to him than all his other possessions, on account of the 
facility with which all the timber is floated. Those who 
have forests up the country, are obliged to transport the 
timber on sledges in the winter, which makes a great 
difference in the expense, and, moreover, causes the delay of 
a year. A saw-mill cannot be erected without a privilege 
from the King. 

The commerce of Christiania consists in the exportation 
of timber, iron, copper, alum, glass, tar, and shins. The 
value of the exports amounts annually to the sum of 1 50,000/. 
sterling. The iron works of Mr. Peter Anker alone yielded 
annually ten thousand schippunds' of iron. The best iron 
which Norway produces comes from those works : they are 
at Bcerum, The deal planks from Christiania are in greater 
estimation than any other. This arises principally from the 
great improvements made in sawing them, and in cutting the 
timber for the sawing-mills. The Christiania planks have all 
neat marks upon them, by which they may be known. 
Patent saws are used in cutting them ; and no person is 
allowed to saw timber for exportation, unless the patent saws 
are used. The iron and copper works belonging to Bernard 
Anker are situate at the following places : — 


{1) Six and one-third schippunds of Norway are equal to one English ton. 

C H R I S T I A N I A. 


Moss. — Iron works, and a foundry for casting cannon, and for chap. i. 

the fabrication of bar and rod iron, nails, &c. '~ > ^~ 

Hakkedahls. — Iron work. Here there is a most complete fabric 

for amalgamation, and the richest copper ore found in Norway. 
Haddelands. — Copper work. 
Stukkenbrocks. — Mines, and copper-works, where there are 

very rich cobalt ores. These are situate eight miles from 

Kongsberg, in the parish of Nummedahl. 

The annual imports of Christiania are valued at 100,000/. 
sterling. They are principally from England, and consist of 
cloth, stockings, Norwich camlets, hard- ware, lead, coal, &c. 
Add to these 100,000 barrels of corn from Denmark and the 
Baltic, to the amount of 50, 000/. sterling annually. 

The population of Chrisliania, including that of the old town Population. 
of Opsloe, where the Bishop of Agger huus now resides, and the 
small suburbs Scberwiger, Gronland, and Fjerdingen, amounts 
to 9000 inhabitants. The Ring of Denmark receives annually 
two millions from Norway ; and of this sum he expends only 
300,000, of which 250,000 are lavished upon the unprofitable 
silver mines of Kongsberg. The population of all Norway, 
according to an estimate brought down to the present year, 
amounted to 970,000 inhabitants, in an extent of 322 Norway, 
or 2100 English miles, from the point of Lindcrnces to 
Wardoehuus. The corn required for the whole country 
amounted to 600,000 barrels, at 2i per barrel, or 1,500,000 
rix-dollars, equal to 300,000/. sterling. The exportation of 
all Norway was estimated at nine millions of rix-dollars, or 
1,800,000/. sterling, in addition to the profits she derived 
from the freights of a great number of ships. 





chap. i. When a stranger sees the magnificent dinners to which he 
is invited in this country, he naturally concludes that some 
rich market has been ransacked to procure for him an enter- 
tainment : yet not a single article has been purchased for the 
occasion. There is no part of Europe where more sumptuous 
or more varied banquets are exhibited, than in Christiania ; 
and yet the whole of every entertainment, as was before stated, 
is produced from the store-rooms belonging to each house. 
Manners of The mistress of the family superintends and presides over 

the Christi- . 

anions. the whole ; and when all is prepared, she comes forth, and 

receives her company with as much cheerfulness, and 
conducts herself with as much propriety and elegance, and as 
much seeming indifference respecting the economy of her 
table, as the most " high-born dames in rooms of state." 
It has been said, that the women of Norivay are domestic 
slaves, and their husbands domestic tyrants. Some truth, 
we are ready to allow, may be found in the former part of 
this sweeping assertion ; although there be none whatsoever 
in the latter. But the slavery of a Norivegian wife is 
voluntary ; she delights in her labour, because it is " the 
labour of love ;" and if this be " domestic slavery," it is 
well repaid by domestic happiness ; by a full measure of 
reciprocal regard and affection in the fidelity and increasing 
attachment of her husband : for " as the sun when it ariseth 
in the high heaven, so is the beauty of a good wife in the 
ordering of her house." An objection has also been made 
to the Norwegians, that they continue too long at table during 
their meals ; but the English waste more of their time in the 
same way * It is true that the meal is longer in Norivay; 




because a greater variety of dishes and wines are brought chap. i. 
round, one after the other : but no person is pressed to 
eat : every one takes or rejects what is presented to him, as 
he pleases : and the conversation not being general, he 
converses with his neighbour, or listens to others more 
disposed than himself to be communicative. At the same 
time, in describing the manners of the people of Christiania, 
it must be confessed that they are not so strictly Norwegian 
as those of Trbnyem. From the more frequent intercourse 
which here takes place with other countries, the ill effects of 
what is called refinement become daily visible, while the 
Christianians retain a number of barbarisms which might 
well be laid aside. The good old virtues of this country are 
making hourly sacrifices to the follies and caprices of other 
nations. To place this in the most striking point of view, comparison 

r o *? # t, etween tne 

nothing more is necessary than to compare the manners of inhabitants of 

D J * 7 ronyem and 

the people of Trbnyem with those of the inhabitants of c h ™ tianiu - 
Christiania. In the former of these two cities, the Norwe- 
gians appear as their best friends would wish to see them. 
The inhabitant of Trbnyem cannot be better described than 
in the language of one of our English Poets : — 

" An honest man, close button'd to the chin; 
Broad cloth without, and a warm heart within." 

The man of Christiania is more a man of the world, and 
more of a beau : the respectable old custom of his forefathers 
is laid aside, and with it many of the qualifications which 
render a man amiable and praise- worthy. His language is 
more complimentary, and consequently there is less of truth 



chap. i. in it. The native of Trdnyem gives you an invitation to Ins- 
table, and you find it well supplied ; but the supply is such, 
that you might find it there if you had not been invited : 
the stranger is therefore always welcomed, and with sincerity,, 
because his arrival causes neither interruotion nor incon- 
venience. On the other hand, the native of C/iristiania. 
prepares a feast so magnificent, that his guest perhaps 
regrets he was ever invited where every thing tells him he is 
to be considered as a stranger ; and even there an apology is 
made to him because he has not been provided with a more 
costly entertainment. The inhabitants of both the one 
and the other make their professions freely, and both are 
men of generous feelings ; but the profession on one side is 
sincere, and the proffered service marked by its obvious 
utility : — on the other, it has more in it of the mere fagon de 
parler of a polished people ; and the generosity shewn, 
however proper, is sometimes ostentatious. In venturing 
these remarks, from a due regard to correctness of delineation, 
no refi ,o are aimed at any individuals whose names have 

been y mentioned. The observations must be con- 

sidered as directed towards a whole people, and in the full 
belief that the same people would subscribe to their accuracy. 
Something beyond mere temporary impressions attaches 
the author of these remarks to Norway, and to its inha- 
bitants. Gratitude for the warmest hospitality, and the 
most generous kindness, might seem to call for nothing but 
expressions of acknowledgment and of praise ; but it is a 
duty owing to those whom we esteem, to point out the 
channels by which evil is communicated to them, and their 




social welfare endangered. This danger arises from foreign chap. i. 
corruption, foreign luxury, and foreign manners. May the Effect of 

* Foreign Tn- 

best friends of Norivay always find it peopled by true temmrse. 
Norwegians; by the descendants of a race of heroes who 
were never enervated by vices of foreign growth, — rank 
weeds, engendered in less healthful territories, and fostered 
by hotter suns ! To what other cause, than to the intercourse 
with foreigners, can be attributed the change which a 
traveller finds in Christiania, as to the honesty of the lower 
orders ? It has been already mentioned, as a remarkable 
fact, that we never saw a beggar in Sweden'; but Norway 
has many beggars, and Christiania is full of them. In the 
northern districts they are less numerous, but here they 
actually swarm. The very passages and chambers of the 
inn where we lodged were never free from mendicants * 
They would open the doors of our apartments without 
hesitation, and enter even into the bed-rooms. If they 
found any person within, they were clamorous for money : 
if not, they supplied themselves with whatever they could 
lay hold of as most portable*. Some of them had the 
audacity to steal stockings belonging to our servants, from 
their bed-rooms, before their faces. These, again, are traits 
in describing national manners, which will not be quite 


(1) " In passing through the country" (Sweden), "which has the character of being 
poor, one is surprised in never meeting with any beggars or miserable objects who 
demand or excite charity. The reason, as assigned by the Swedes, is, that there are 
hospitals for all such persons ; and the poor, who might be expected to sue for charity, 
are supported by their own parishes. The same plan is in existence in England; why 
does it not produce the same effect ?" Dr. Fiott Lee's MS. Journal. 


■ ■ 



for the Poor. 

C H R I S T I A N I A. 

acceptable in the sight of the Norwegians ; but they arise 
from that mixture with the inhabitants of other countries, to 
which, as a place of foreign commerce, Christiania is 
rendered liable. The genuine native Norwegian is neither a 
beggar nor a thief. The consequence, however, of so much 
indigence, mixed with so much wealth, is a constant call 
upon the rich to support and maintain the poor. Nothing 
conduces more to keep the latter in a state of indigence than 
the institution of public poor-houses, however benevolent 
the views of their founders. Bernard Anker, the pattern in 
his own example of benevolence towards the poor, supported 
two houses of this description at his own expense ; but then 
he wisely contrived that they should become houses of 
industry as well as of charity'. He eminently possessed 
that " voluntary and active charity which makes itself 
acquainted with the objects which it relieves ; which seems 
to feel, and to be proud of, the bond which unites the rich 
with the poor; which enters into their houses; informs 
itself not only of their wants, but of their habits and dis- 
positions; checks the hopes of clamorous and obtrusive 
poverty with no other recommendation but rags ; and 
encourages with adequate relief the silent and retiring 
sufferer, labouring under unmerited difficulties 2 ." If ever 


(1) There were two asylums for orphans ; one public, and the other private. Both 
were supported by Bernard Anker, and at his own cost. 

(2) See the valuable chapter upon " The direction of our Charity/' by Professor 
Malthus, in his admirable work on " The Principle of Population/' Book iv. p. 562. 
London, 1803. 

C H R I S T I A N I A. 


there were a man in whose individual character every chap. i. 
qualification had been combined, fitted to form the patriot, character ami 

. . Exemplary 

the statesman, the friend and guardian of society ; the conduct of 

the two 

deliverer of the needy ; the public benefactor ; the patron of inkers. 
genius, of literature, and the arts ; it was Bernard Anker. 
Nor let the tribute pass without rendering also a due regard 
to the distinguished virtues of his brother; who, retiring 
from the noise and dissipation of cities, upon the borders of his 
Norwegian lake, and in the solitude of his magnificent villa, 
dedicated all his hours to promote the good of his country 
and the general welfare of mankind. And let it be repeated, 
that these men were Merchants of Christiania. Excellent 
examples ! Europe has not had their parallel. Nor can the 
history of the world afford more striking instances of the 
national advantages to be derived from the exertions of 
private individuals so circumstanced ; — who directed the 
streams of their benevolence into channels where they might 
flow to the utmost possible public advantage ; who, while 
they " fed the hungry, and clothed the naked, and visited 
the fatherless and widows in their affliction, " were all the 
while engaged in active scenes of commerce ; and who 
encouraged industry, and rewarded merit, — taking the most 
especial care that the means for these great ends should 
neither be wasted by want of foresight, nor exhausted by 
indiscriminate profusion. 





Want of Booksellers Shops — General aspect and condition of the 
Streets — Cathedral — State of Literature — Public lAbrary — Dr. 
Muller\y Collection of Minerals — Journey to Kongsberg — Marble 
Quarries of Gilljebek — View from Paradise Hill — Drammen — 
Hogsund — River Louven — Kongsberg — Original Discovery of the 
Silver Ore — State of the Works — First Settlers — Remarkable Spe- 
cimens of the Native Metal — Wages of the Miners — Present 
Establishment — Cause of the loss sustained by Government — The 
different Excavations — approach to the IVorks — Geological nature 
of the Mountains — -Manner in which the Kongsberg Silver is 
deposited — Descent into the Mine — Native Mineral Carbon — 
Crystallized Native Silver — Erroneous notions entertained with regard 
■to the Crystallization of Minerals — Metallurgical operations for the 
treatment of the Kongsberg Ores — Public Seminary for Mineralogy — 
Professor Esmark — Collection of Minerals belonging to the 
Kongsberg Academy — Customs shewing the common origin of the 



Teutons and Greeks — Superiority of the Norwegian Women — Medical 
Properties of the Linnaea Borealis — Condition of the Peasants — 
Alum Works — Synthesis which takes place in the production of 
j4lum — Return to Christiania — Public Balls — Rage for English 
Fashions — Further account of Bernard Anker — Timber Trade — 
State of Religion in Norway — Fortress of Christiania. 

Xhere is not in all Norway one bookseller's shop. In chap. ii. 
Christiania and in Trbnijem there are, it is true, bookbinders w "»tof 

u Booksellers' 

and stationers, who sell a few Bibles, Prayer-books, and 8I,0 i )S - 
Almanacks ; but it is in vain to look for other publications. 
The chief articles in the shops are, grocery, Manchester- 
cottons, Birmingham and Sheffield wares of the cheapest 
and worst kind, woollen drapery, buckles and buttons, iron 
ware, hinges and locks, and such other common articles 
as may be observed in the shops of the poorest villages in 
England. The widest streets of Christiania are not so broad General 

aspect and 

as Bond Street ; and in these the shops, though numerous, condition of 
make no figure. The pavement, as in some of our old towns 
where improvement has not been attended to, slopes towards 
a filthy sewer in the mid-way. Into this middle channel, of 
course, is cast all the dirt and drainage of the houses, where 
it is left to stagnate. Towns in which such nuisances are 
tolerated cannot be wholesome ; yet of this nature were 
many of the cities of the Greeks and Romans 1 . The streets 


the Streets. 

(l) That the present state of Constantinople exhibits what the city was under the 
Roman Emperors, has been already shewn in that part of these Travels which relates to 
Turkey. In the plates of the magnificent edition of Banduri's Imperium Orientate, 
(Paris, 17H,) there is a series of engravings made from the bas-reliefs of the 
Historical Pillar, which exhibit the streets of Constantinople as they existed in the 


$w^^:-*fe>*-$ ^ 



chap, it. intersect at right angles, and in all other respects Ckristmnia 
has been built after a regular and uniform plan : at the 
intersections of the streets there are conduits for supplying 
the town with fresh water. The outsides of the houses are 
not so neat as those of Tronyem; neither has the town by 
any means so cleanly an aspect ; nor can it boast of so 
much picturesque beauty, although its situation among 
inlets of the sea give it a pleasing appearance. The 
approach to all the houses is by a flight of steps. The lower 
story seems to be half buried, like the offices for menials of 
the houses in London; and the windows of these subterraneous 
apartments are protected from the snow by a shed built of 
wood, which is made to cover and close over them. The 
cathedral is a plain building, remarkable only for the 
resemblance which is exhibited in its interior decoration to 
some of our old churches in England, where the pews of 
the principal families, like so many separate oratories, are 
surrounded by high clumsy partition sides, containing case- 
ment windows, glazed 2 . Such pews are suspended over the 



time of Arcadius: and in these engravings the Roman infantry is represented upon a 
high causeway, serving, as it does now, for the foot passengers ; while the cavalry occupy 
the deep midway channel, which, at present, is always filled with all the ordure and 
refuse cast from the houses. Here also the wretched captives, dragged in triumph after 
the chariots of the Roman army, were made to walk. 

(2) Many years, in all probability, will not elapse before every trace of these old 
Gothic pews will have disappeared from our churches. They were constructed in 
times of feudal splendour, when the persons of high-born dames were deemed too 
sacred to become the gaze of the profane vulgar. Even during the solemnities of 
public devotion, a certain degree of seclusion from the rest of the congregation was 
resorted to as a mark of their distinction j and their appearance in the church was like 



aisles in the church at Christiama. We visited this building chap. ii. 
during divine service, upon a Sunday, in the morning. It 
was a very fine day, yet there were not twenty persons 
assembled : and, judging from our casual visit upon this 
occasion, we concluded that the duties of the Sabbath are 
less regarded here than in any other town of equal size in 
Europe. Over the altar we observed a representation of the 
Last Supper, in very barbarous wooden sculpture. The figures 
were as large as life; and, among these, an image of 
St. John had been squeezed in between the table and the 
effigy of our Saviour, in a most ludicrous manner, as if about 
to be strangled. Being at a loss to reconcile this situation 
of the Evangelist with any thing related of him in the 
Gospels, we applied for information to others who were 
better informed ; who told us that it was necessary he 
should be so placed, that he might appear as in the bosom of 

The literature of Christiania. although an Episcopal See, is State ° f 

b r r ' Literature. 

at a low ebb. It cannot be otherwise, separated as this 
place is from the mother country, without a University, and 
without the common convenience even of a Bank for its 

commerce : 

that of Turkish ladies in a mosque, being shut up in cages fronted with trellis-work. 
Some of these cages yet exist in old English churches. There is one in the Church of 
Hothfield in Kent, belonging to the noble family of the Tuftons, Earls of Thanet. The 
remains of others may be seen in various parts of our island. Another mark of the 
striking similarity of manners between the inhabitants of the two countries, is the 
practice which exists in England and in Norway of dividing the lower orders of the 
congregations according to their sexes j making the men sit apart from the women, 
during divine service. 



chap.ii. commerce: consequently, it has produced no eminent literary 
characters. But Norway, in general, has produced many : 
as, for example, the celebrated Baron Ludivig Holberg, who 
founded the Academy of Soroe, and was the author of works 
in history and poetry ; Bishop Pontoppidan, who wrote the 
History of Norway, a very jejune performance, and unfor- 
tunately the only one that has been translated into English; 
Professor Schonning, who wrote the best history, and several 
dissertations upon the Antiquities of Norway; Bishop 
Gunnerus, who founded the Royal Society of Sciences at 
Tronyem, and wrote upon the Natural History of Norivay ; 
Professor Vahl, one of the best botanists in Europe: add to 
these, the old historians Tormadus Torfceus and Snorro 
Sturleson. But although Christiania may have been deficient in 
the higher walks of literature, it has not been without poets, 
as in the instance of Tullin; nor without men of eloquence, 
as in the examples of the Bishops Hersleb and Deichmann. In 
the rest of Norivay, poets have been numerous ; as in the 
examples afforded by Nordahl Brnnn, Hans Bull, Pram, 
Stockfletts, Vibe, Zellitz, Fasting, Rein, Schmidt, Vessel, 
Steenersen, Storm, &c. ; — names familiar among " old 
Duovre's Echoes," although hitherto unheard in Britain; and 
as little known in any other part of Europe, as the Songs ot : 
the Scalds, who accompanied the armies of their ancestors, 
and were as necessary to the prowess of a Norwegian, as 
either Druid, or Bard, among the Celts. Poetry has been 
long cultivated in Norway, and it was held in esteem among 
the inhabitants from the earliest periods of their history. 
" The Muse had broke the twilight gloom," long before 




they had any literary communication with more civilized 
nations. Their poetry, therefore, such as it is, must be 
regarded as their own : it may be compared indeed to the 
streams from their native mountains, rolling impetuously 
along their valleys, but unmixed with a single drop from any 
of the waters of Helicon. 

As connected with this subject, the literature of 
Christiania, we shall now mention its Public Library. It 
was the legacy of Mr. Deichmann, a native of Norway. The 
anti-room contains a curious painting by John de Mabeuse, 
well worth the notice of those who are interested in viewing 
the early productions of the art ; also a complete set of 
antient and valuable engravings from the Cartoons of 
Raphael. Within the library there are no classic authors : 
it consists chiefly of modern historians ; but there are some 
copies of more antient writers upon Denmark and Norway. 
We saw a very fine edition of the Latin translation of 
Snorro, which was printed, in folio, at Copenhagen, in the 
year 1/77: also a copy of the French folio Encyclopedic; 
and the superb Danish botanical work, entitled Flora Danica. 
Among the rest, amounting to some thousand volumes, there 
were few worth notice. They had no Icelandic manuscripts ; 
but we saw here a curious collection of medals, and many 
valuable minerals. In the mint ralogical series there were 
three hundred different specimens of silver from the works 
at Kongsberg and other Norwegian mines. But every thing 
of this kind, in Norivay, is eclipsed by the cabinet of 
minerals belonging to Dr. Mailer \ to which, as we had free 
access, during our stay here, we often resorted. We shall, 
vol. vi. g therefore, 


Public Li- 

Dr. Muller'a 
Collection of 



C H R I S T I A N I A. 

chap. ii. therefore, now add a few observations concerning this 
valuable collection, and its very worthy owner. 

Dr. Miiller is a native of Denmark. He was once well 
known in London, where he distinguished himself by his 
talents, as a physician, a chemist, and a mineralogist. In our 
country he was the friend and follower of Hunter ; and was 
the first person who publickly delivered lectures in Mineralogy 
in our metropolis. Dr. Babington, who has since composed 
a System of Mineralogy, was one of his pupils. Upon the 
continent he was successively the disciple of Lavoisier, 
Klaproth, and others : in Germany he studied under Werner ; 
and in Holland obtained the prize-medals for his compositions 
in Latin poetry. His collection of minerals at Christiania, 
which he has annually augmented, and kept with uncommon 
neatness and care, is the most beautiful, and, if we except 
that of Assessor EsmarJc, at Kongsberg, also the most 
geognostic of any in all the north of Europe. It 
amounted, at this time, to upwards of 4000 specimens. 
But what rendered it particularly valuable in our estimation, 
was, that it contained many specimens illustrating the 
mineralogy of our island, which cannot be seen in our own 
country, because they are not now found in Britain. The 
interesting varieties of tin oxide, in the form of stalactites, 
whether as wood-tin, or under any other trivial name, 
together with a copious series of crystals from the mines of 
Cornwall, were the finest specimens we had ever seen. To 
these were added a beautiful series of bituminous bodies, 
selected under circumstances of association, all of which 
were calculated to illustrate some fact in the natural history 




of the mineral, or to confute some prevailing error. Among chap. ii. 
the English minerals we also saw varieties of actynolite, and 
of asbestus, from the western coast of Scotland; extraneous 
fossils from our limestone quarries ; and varieties of granite, 
and other compound minerals, from the quarries of Aberdeen. 
Among the foreign minerals were specimens of the utmost 
rarity ; such as rubies and diamonds in their matrices ; 
together with an important series from the Sivedish and 
Nonuegian mines, identifying many substances which have 
been separated in all the most celebrated systems of 
mineralogy 1 . Add to these the most magnificent specimens 
of native gold, silver, antimony, iron, and copper, which any 
collection in Europe can boast ; and some idea may be formed 
of the importance and riches of this remarkable cabinet. 
Dr. Mutter has also an extensive knowledge of botany, and 
possesses a valuable Herbarium. 

It was in company with this gentleman, and our English Journey 


friends, Messrs. Kent and J arret, together with a little boy, 
the son of Dr. Mutter, that we set out for the Kongsberg 
mines. We left Christiania upon the twentieth of October, 
in a coach and four, followed by our phaeton drawn by a 
pair of horses. The roads were very bad, and at this season 
of the year rendered almost impassable by the depth of the 


(l) For the mineralogical reader it will be proper to mention a few instances of this 
nature ; tending to simplify the science of mineralogy, and to curtail it of many super- 
fluous names. Dr. Muller has succeeded in identifying amphibole with tremolite or 
grammatite ; also pyroxene with all the substances called kokkolite, sahlite, mussite, 
alalite, and diopside ; and again, Gabronite with Scapolile and Wernerile. 

W^Sri* jo-s 



Marble Quar 
ries of Gi//- 

chap. ii. mud which covered them. Our route lay along the coast 
upon the western side of the bay, affording beautiful views 
of the distant islands. We changed horses at Ravensborg 
and Gilljebek 1 . After passing Gilljebek, at the distance of 
about an English mile, we came to the marble quarries upon 
Paradise Hill. Here we halted ; and collected from the 
quarries a few very interesting minerals, for which this vein 
of transition marble 2 is remarkable ; namely, ashestiform 
tremolite, containing imbedded crystals of dodecahedral 
green garnets, and also dodecahedral crystals of green 
carbonated lime, which seem to have owed their form to 
cavities left by the garnets : they were not, however, hollow, 
as pseudomorphose crystals generally are ; and might easily 
be confounded with the garnets, from their resemblance in 
size, colour, and form. The geological features exhibited by 
the rocks at Gilljebek are indeed remarkable : the marble 


(1) These places are named as they appear in P on (oppidan* s large map. They are 
pronounced Ravensburg and Giellebeck. 

(2) All the rocks here have been described by Von Buck as belonging to the transition 
formation ; otherwise this marble is, to all appearance, of the kind called primitive 
marble. It has the same crystalline structure, and the same whiteness. Speaking of the 
rocks in the neighbourhood of Christiania, Von Buck says, " I found here stones 
which were never supposed to be in the transition mountains, but which were here seen 
with such a distinctness of stratification, that not a doubt could remain as to their relations 
in 'this respect : # * * # Porphyry in immense mountains reposing on limestone 
full of petrifactions ; a syenite over this porphyry, consisting almost entirely of coarse- 
granular feldspar ; and in the same manner, a granite not different throughout in its 
composition from the granite of the oldest mountains. Granite above transition 
limestone ! Granite as a member of the transition formation !" Von Buch's Travels 
through Norway, &c,p. 45. Lond. 1813. 



lies upon a stratum of granite, and beneath the granite occurs chap. ii. 
a schistose porphyry. This porphyry in several places rises 
to the surface ; the basaltic hills near Drammen, mentioned 
by Linnceus as a species of trap, being composed of it. 
Many varieties of porphyry are found upon Paradise Hill ; 
also red and grey granite ; green jasper, and ribbon-jasper ; 
and red and yellow feldspar. In the pavement of the streets 
of Christiania, there had been found, by Dr. M'dller, blocks 
of ribbon-jasper ; but in our own observations upon the 
jasper found here, and also near Christiania, we should, in 
some instances, almost hesitate to consider it as jasper; that 
is to say, as a pure hydrate of silica. It seemed rather a kind 
of rock flint, approaching in its degree of hardness to that 
of jasper, but having a more earthy fracture, and not being 
susceptible of so high a polish. The proportion of alumina 
in the stone seemed to be very considerable ; and so it is 
indeed in some of the varieties of jasper said to have been 
analyzed by Kirwan 3 and Rose 4 ; but the fact is, we have no 
good analysis of the substance commonly called jasper; 
and hence the ambiguity attached to all the descriptions of 
this mineral. The name is sometimes applied to veined 
agate, a compound mineral consisting of chalcedony and 
quartz; sometimes to striped chalcedony; and even in some 
instances to greenstone trap, where the paste is fine, and the 
particles of this aggregate too minute to be discerned by the 


(3) See Allan's Synoptic Tables, Tab. xxii. Edin. 1S14. 

(4) Ibid. 


»V^*-' V 



View from 
Paradise Hill 


chap. ii. naked eye. Still more frequently has the name been applied 
to hornstone; especially when the layers of hornstone are of 
different colours, so as to occasion the striped appearance 
which gives rise to the appellation of ribbon-jasper. 

From Paradise Hill we had a delightful view of the 
whole of Leer Valley, with the towns of Tangen, Stromsoe, 
and Bragernces; which go under one common name of 
Drammen, owing to the river Drammen, whereon these 
towns are situate. The descent upon Drammen, as it is 
thus called, may be reckoned among the finest things in 
Norway. To the right of the spectator rise mountains of 
basaltic porphyry ; towards the left and in front extends a 
magnificent valley, combining almost every thing that nature 
and art can contribute to render such a prospect pleasing to 
the eye ; upland and dale, and rocks and woods and water, 
decorating the smiling scenes of human industry, and 
appearing with an aspect of greater cheerfulness, because 
garnished with many picturesque buildings, denoting a 
numerous and thriving population l . The people of Drammen 
are said to be richer than those of Christiania; but they lead 
a more private and retired life. The principal resident 
foreigners are from Holland; and these Dutch families may 
be considered as holding a station at Drammen similar to 
that of the English in Christiania. There are also some 


(l) "So thickly peopled," says Mr. Coxe, " that every" fifty yards we observed a 
cottage, and for several miles together seemed to pass through a continued village." 
Travels into Norway, vol. V. p. 232. Lond. 1791. 

-J : : : : : i 


.'■ ' Wlflg 

and dbe, wa - 


. FMOWJMJll^Jt: 



// Million-, sculp 




Italians settled here, who are in a flourishing way. The chap. ii. 
timber of Drammen does not find a market in England; the 
deal planks being short and bad : but it goes to Holland, and 
is there sold. 

We changed horses at Bragernces, and came to Hogsund; Hogsund. 
having pursued our course through a populous and 
delightful valley, along the banks of the Drammen. The 
situation of Hogsund, on the river and near to a cataract 
which turns some saw-mills, gives it considerable beauty. 
The clouds were now low, and hung in various fantastic 
shapes upon the mountains. Hence the distance to Kongsberg 
is two Norwegian miles, over a very hilly road. Leaving 
Hogsund, we were ferried over the river, and continued our River Louve 
route to Kongsberg, upon the Louven*. We passed a small but 
pleasing lake upon our left. Towards Kongsberg the moun- 
tains became higher, and more denuded towards their 
summits. We descended a long and steep hill into the town 
of Kongsberg , entering it by a wooden bridge over a roaring 
cataract of the river Louven, which made a most tremendous 
appearance at this season ; perhaps owing to the late rains, 
which might have given a character of more terrific gran- 
deur to this fall of water than it usually possesses. 

A man must be indifferent indeed to natural history, who Kmgsierg. 
does not feel some degree of curiosity respecting Kongsberg, 
in whose mines a mass of native silver was found, in one 


(2) See the Map. 




Original dis- 
eovery of the 

silver ore. 

chap. ii. entire piece, weighing nearly six hundred pounds'. But, 
independently of its mineral celebrity, Kongshcrg, as a hand- 
some town, is a place of considerable distinction in Norway. 
The streets are wide, and many of the houses are neat and 
well-buiit. Its very existence, however, is owing to the exca- 
vations carried on here in search of precious ore ; for when 
this was first discovered, there was hardly a cottage near the 
spot. This event took place in the year l623, 2 by means of 
a boy, whose foot, in pursuing some cattle, was arrested and 
caught by a hook or thread of native silver projecting above 
the surface of the rock. Very different accounts are given 
respecting the profits which the Danish Government has 
derived from the Kongsberg mines : the general opinion, 
however, seems to be, that the undertaking is attem d with 
loss. It was stated to us upon authority which we were 
inclined to credit, because coming from those who had the 
principal management of the works, that the annual loss to 


(1) " Quid Norvegiae in fodinis Kongsbergensibus, ubi jam per seculum vix nisi 
argentum nativum et semel iterumque etiam aurum, tanquam aurae melioris progenies, 
in lucem et diem gelidissimum plenissimo saepe cornu prodierat, cujus annuum pro- 
ventum ab anno 1711, ad 1724, sistere volupe est, ut inde miranda naturae phaenomena 
in regno subterraneo existentia luculentius contemplari liceat." Svedenborg in prccfat. 
" Regni Subterranii." 

(2) Pontoppidan is agreed as to the date of the discovery, but differs as to the 
manner of its being made. He relates a somewhat improbable story of the herdsmen 
pelting each other with the ore. (See Nat. Hist, of Norway, vol. I. p. 183. Lond. 
1/55.) And the story of the boy, whose foot was caught by a thread of native silver, 
is too much of a piece with the circumstance related as to the origin of the famous 
Peruvian mine, not to suppose that the two narratives had, at the least, a common 
origin. — The discovery of the rich mine of Potosi is said to have happened on the 24th 
of April, 1545. 


Government amounted to 240,000 rix-dollars : and when we 
inquired, why, under such circumstances, the excavations 
were continued, we were told that the employment given to 
a great number of inhabitants, who would otherwise be 
without the means of subsistence, induced the Danish 
Government to persevere. But that an endeavour is making 
to contract the works, is plain from this circumstance, that 
every miner is encouraged to leave Kongsberg by a premium 
offered to him of a year's pay after his departure. The 
very nature of the mine must have given rise to extraordinary 
vicissitudes of hope and disappointment ; because, as the 
search is carried on in pursuit of imbedded masses of native 
metal, dispersed for the most part in capillary forms and 
unconnected lamina?, rather than in any regular veins, it 
must happen that the labour will frequently prove abortive 
for a considerable length of time, and, at intervals, be 
perhaps attended with sudden and unexpected success. 
Pontoppidan, whose account of the works here was written 
in 1751, calls it 3 " the present flourishing mine at Kongsberg." 
He says, that, to the best of his knowledge, it is " the most state of the 
considerable and of the greatest profit of any mine in 
Europe; and in respect of pure massy silver veins, quite 
inexhaustible." The first inhabitants of the new-built First Settlers, 

town of Kongsberg, when the works commenced under the 
auspices of Christian the Fourth, were miners from Germany ; 
and they were the ancestors of the many thousands now 


(3) Nat. Hist, of Norway, Vol. I. p. 183^ Lond. 1/55. 

£$q& sjgR 



chap. ii. living there. In process of time, the German settlers mixed 

with the other inhabitants; and now all of them are under the 

Remarkable direction and government of the College of Miners. The silver, 

Specimens of ° 

Metal" 11 ve as ^ was De f° re stated, occurs in lumps of native metal : but so 
unusual is this circumstance, that when the mine was first dis- 
covered, many refused to give credit to the fact of such masses 
being actually brought to light. We shall mention some of the 
most considerable. The first, is that preserved in the Royal 
Museum at Copenhagen 1 ; its weight being five hundred and 
sixty Danish pounds, and its value five thousand rix-dollars 2 . 
It is a mass of native silver nearly six feet in length, and in 
one part above eighteen inches in diameter. Similar masses 
were discovered in the year 1630, and in 171Q> and in 1/27, 
which severally weighed from two hundred and fifty, to two 
hundred and eighty, and three hundred pounds, each. In 
the shaft called St. Andrew, a piece of pure silver was found, 
in 1727, weighing two hundred and seventy-nine pounds; 
and, in the same year, another, weighing three hundred and 


(1) See the account of Copenhagen, Part III. Sect. I. of these Travels, p. 78. Land. 

(2) Pontoppidan says it is the same of which the measure in Danish feet, &c. is 
thus given by Olig. Jacobeus, in his Museum Regium, p. 3 1 . " Minera ingens argenti 
ex fudinis Norvegice, pedum quinque et pollicum sex longitudinem cequat, crassitiem 
verb in circumferentia pedum qautuor." And the dimensions, as here stated, seem to 
coincide with our own measurement of the specimen now preserved in the Royal 
Cabinet. " Anno 1666, d. 24. Augusti ex fodina Now. Regiomontana, quae Novce Spei 
appellator vulgb, extracta est 560 librarum pondere, et a prcefecto fodince mtmoratce, 
pretio 5000 Imperialium estimata. Huic non dissimilis massa, anno 1630, regnante in 
Dania divo Christiano Quarto, ex fodina Norvegica quce Benedictio Divina vulgb, eruta 
est, quce 3272 Imperialium pretio estimata." 



four pounds, was found in God 's- Blessing shaft. These 
occasional masses, occurring casually in the rock, and being 
soon interrupted in their passage through it, or dwindling 
gradually to nothing, the miner must continue to dig 
through the barren stone until he has the good fortune to 
meet with more of the same nature, which in one day may 
reward the fruitless labour of months, and perhaps of years. 
Pontoppidan says, that after the discouragements of a long 
and fruitless toil through the barren interstices of the mine, 
" it suddenly exhibits several thousand pounds weight of 
silver, and thus discharges all arrears and embarrassments, 
and animates to further prosecution." Such was the state- 
ment made by a writer in the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. According to the account given to us by the present 
Governor, 130,000 dollars are coined annually from the pro- 
duce of three mines. In general, 2300 men are employed, 
who earn each about a shilling a day of our money. This Wages of the 


seems very little ; but, in addition, the King always supplies 
the miners with corn at a fixed price, much below the 
average value. At this time, the price of rye, per ton, was 
six dollars and a half, and the miners were allowed rye at two 
dollars. The miners work from five to one o'clock, summer 
and winter. When they work in the afternoon, they are 
paid an extra allowance. There is generally employment 
for the children of the miners at twelve years of age. The 
principal bed of this mineral treasure is a mountain 
between two small rivers, the Kongsberg and the Jordal, 
which fall from the westward Blee-Field Alps into the 



chap. ii. Louven 1 . But the silver is not limited to this mountain ; it 
extends its deposits for some miles throughout all the 
adjacent districts : this is proved by the new mines which 
from time to time have been undertaken in several places. The 
mine, or shaft, called Old God's Blessing, one of the most 
antient and most rich, has sometimes within a week yielded 
some hundreds of pounds of pure native metal. It is nearly 
two hundred fathoms in depth, and the circumference at the 
bottom forms a clear space of several hundred fathoms 2 . 
When Pontoppidan drew up his account of the Kongsberg 
mines, the annual produce amounted in value to " a tun of 
gold and a half, and sometimes three quarters." The 

Present Esta- number of the officers of all ranks, the daily miners, 
labourers, and pensioners, exclusive of their children and 
families, who had their daily support here, according to the 
establishment, amounted to near five thousand persons 3 ; 
and the number of all the inhabitants of Kon&sbers. 

cause of the to between ten and eleven thousand souls. To the great 

loss sustained 

number of officers, under the names of Intendants and 
Assessors, possessing salaries from Government, is owing the 
vast expense of these works to the nation. These officers, 
in fact, engross a considerable part of the profits ; and if, as 
it is very possible, their number were to be reduced, the 



by Govern 


(1) See the Map. 

(2) Ponloppidan's Nat. Hist, of Norway, vol, I. chap. 8. sect. iv. Lond. 1/55. 

(3) Ibid. 



profits from the mines would be more sensibly felt. By dis- 
missing a number of such persons, half of whom can only be 
considered as drones, and augmenting the number of miners, the 
working bees, — that is to say, of those actually employed in 
useful labour, — the finances of the Kongsberg establishment 
would soon begin to wear a more promising appearance. 
From the lavish expenditure of the public money, the want 
of economy visible in every part of the establishment, and 
the want also of that vigilance which is necessary to prevent 
embezzlement where precious metal is brought to light in a 
state actually ready for the mint, it was easy to perceive, 
during our own examination of what was going on here, 
that the works were not the property of individuals ; but 
that, as they belonged to the crown, so they were open to 
all manner of peculation, no one feeling a sufficient degree 
of interest in their prosperity to prevent waste, or even 

The mountain on which the mines nearest to the town are 
situate is about 1295 French feet (l 498 Danish feet) above 
Ko7igsberg, which itself lies 926 feet above the level of the 
sea. Many of the neighbouring mountains are much 
higher. The base of those, in general, in which the silver 
is found, is chiefly hornblende and mica, but the veins of ore 
are contained in red transition granite. The deepest of the 
Kongsberg mines measures 375 fathoms perpendicular from 
the surface. The richest of them all now affords very little 
ore : its appellation is nevertheless curious — " God's help, in 
time of need;'* and it will become " a time of need" in reality 
to these pjor people, if the mines should altogether fail. 



The differenl 


&*jh a*, a 



Approach to 
the Works. 

chap. ii. No less than H,ooo families are either immediately dependent 
upon them for their support, or collaterally derive from the 
mines their means of subsistence. Of this number, 2300 are 
miners : but there are 7000 families in Kongsberg maintained 
entirely by the works ; and also an equal or greater number 
in the country, who, either by procuring fuel for the smelting- 
houses, or in some other way contributing by their industry 
to the maintenance of the mining establishment, are entirely 
indebted to it for a livelihood. 

We visited one of the mines which they were now 
working. Like the others, its situation is between the rivers 
we have mentioned in that Alpine barrier of mountains 
which separate the provinces of Christiansand and Agger huus. 
The approach to the works is by a continued ascent the 
whole way : and were it only for the striking view afforded, 
in this ascent, of the town of Kongsberg, the mountains, and 
the beautiful valley of the Louven, it would be worth the 

^ olo | ica h lna - journey required. All the mountains, among which the 
Kongsberg mines are situate, are stratified : the strata 
occur in regular beds extending from north to south, but 
having always a dipping inclination towards the east. These 
strata are moreover intersected by the veins of slate and 
calcareous spar, which serve as the matrices of the silver ore, 
in fissures bearing across the strata from east to west, and 
dipping towards the south. From all this, it would be evident 
that the whole formation belongs to the class of transition 
rocks which Von Buck has described as being so remarkable 
in this part of Norway ; namely, transition granite reposing 
on transition limestone, and being itself intersected by veins 





of slate and limestone. But Von Buck speaks of " the pri- chap. ir. 

mitive mountains which surround Kongsberg 1 :" and if we 

were to judge from detached specimens of the red granite, in 

which the veins of silver are found, we should be disposed 

to consider this kind of granite as belonging to the oldest 

class of primary rocks. We will endeavour to shew, by a Manner in 

rude cut, the manner in which the Kongsberg silver is found. Kongsberg 

silver is depo- 

The more antient or primitive fissures intersecting the 
strata are perpendicular ; but those which are now worked 
have an inclination towards the south. By the cut here 
afforded, it will be seen that the silver, as it generally lies, is 
found in a vein of calcareous spar, and that this again occurs 
in a vein of schifver of slate. But there is a remarkable 
leader to the ore, without the presence of which the miners 
have little hope ; namely, iron pyrites and iron oxide : when- 
ever the intersecting fissures contain these minerals, then 


(1) " The primitive mountains which surround Kongsberg stretch much less south- 
ward than we might well believe. Scarcely two English miles down, beyond the 
Dal-Elv, under the Church of Hedingstad, and before we come to Hellestad, the 
gneiss disappears under the dark bluish-grey fine granular limestone." Travels through 
Norway, &c. p. 41Q. Lond. 1813. 



chap. ii. silver is found ; but if the pyrites and the iron disappear, the 
silver also fails ; which is a very remarkable fact, as connected 
with the history of mining. Every thing indeed belonging 
to the nature of these mines is worth the most scrupulous 
attention; because mines of native silver, although not 
unfrequent in America, are the most rare in Europe : and 
among the very few instances in which such a deposit 
has been observed, this of Kongsberg is the most conspicuous. 
When we came to the mouth of the shaft, a basket filled 
with the ore had just then been raised, which we eagerly 
examined. It consisted of native silver, disseminated in 
lamince throughout masses of limestone spar, with dark veins 
of schistus ; containing, in some instances, sulphuretted silver, 
and sulphate of harytes: the specimens were poor in precious 
metal, but served to give some idea of the produce of the 
mine; which is now an ore almost too poor for the operation 
of stamping; and now so rich, that the silver, as if it had 
been fused and drawn out into threads and capillary fibres, 
is seen in native masses, protruding beyond the surface of the 
stone 1 . Sometimes the most beautiful arborisations, as they 

are called, of the native metal, are exhibited by contiguous 
crystals of native silver, in octahedral and in cubic forms. 
We descended into the mine by means of ladders, as into 
the Cornish mines ; being everywhere struck by the proofs of 
the same inconsiderate expenditure of the public money, and 


Descent into 
the Mine. 

(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter ; made from a specimen now in the author's 
collection, which he brought from the Kongsberg mines. 



the same waste among the works. There can be little doubt chap. ii. 
but that these mines would become very profitable, if they ^ * 
were in private hands : and perhaps the best thing the 
Government can do, is to farm them out to individuals. 

Besides native silvery these mines produce that very rare 
substance, the native electrum, or auriferous native silver. 
We found it a very difficult thing to procure any tolerable 
specimens of this curious native alloy of gold and silver. 
When it occurs, the metal has a brassy aspect. We had a 
specimen of it, which we analyzed, containing, besides silver, 
nearly thirty per cent, of gold. Like the native silver, it is 
found in laminary and capillary forms ; and sometimes, but 
very rarely indeed, it is crystallized in cubes. The other 
minerals found here are noticed below, in the note 8 : 
with the exception of the ores of copper, the specimens of 
which are exceedingly rich ; but they are not sufficiently 
abundant to make this metal an object of research, otherwise 
than for the silver with which it is combined 3 . 


(2) 1. Sulphuretof silver, massive and crystallized. 

2. Red antimonial sulphuret of silver, ditto. 

3. Argentiferous sulphuret of lead. 

4. Sulphurets of copper and iron. 

5. Sulphurets of zinc, brown and yellow. 

6. Fluate of lime, of various colours. 
y. Lime spar, in great variety of forms. 

8. Quartz, ditto. 

9. Sulphate of barytes. 

10. Comolite, or pot-stone. 

11. Asbestus, in the forms of mountain-leather and mountain-cork. 

12. Anthracite. 

13. Iron ores — magnetic iron — loadstones, &c. 

(3) It is nevertheless collected, after being separated, and in considerable quantities, 
from the basons in the smelting- works : the pure copper being made into cakes of the 
same size and form as are those of the silver. 


■ ; ij^ 





We descended into the mine by ladders nearly perpen- 
dicular; meeting with occasional landing-places, in our way 
down. At the depth of a few hundred feet, the veins of 
silver were occasionally pointed out to us ; but those which 
we saw were so poor that they could scarcely be discerned 
by any but a miner's eye. The richest veins are those 
which dip towards the south: and they are especially rich 
when they occur associated with the sulphuret of iron, or 
pyrites; called, by our Cornish miners, Mundic. The ore, 
and all the rubble of the mine, were drawn up by a water- 
wheel, at the distance of four or five hundred yards from 
the mouth of the shaft ; the communication being carried 
on the whole way by cumbrous machinery. From the spot 
where this shaft has been opened, we had a fine view of 
Kongsberg and of the surrounding country. 

After a most laborious investigation of the different parts of 
the mine, — which only served to convince us, as it often hap- 
pens to travellers, that as much knowledge of the real nature of 
these subterraneous deposits may be obtained by studying the 
ores above ground, — we were again conducted to the surface. 
It was here we saw, for the first time, a mineral, then rare 
in cabinets of mineralogy, but which has since become very 
Native Mine- common • namely, anthracite, or native mineral carbon, which 

ral Carbon. J " 

frequently occurs in the Kongsberg mines, associated with the 
silver ore. That a substance so nearly related to diamond, 
containing the same elementary body, almost in a state of 
equal purity, should externally resemble a piece of common 
pit-coal, will not appear so surprising as it might otherwise 
do, when we know that the diamond itself has been found to 




exhibit a similar appearance 1 : but it may serve, among many ^chaimi. 
other phenomena, to manifest the absurdity of ascribing the 
presence of carbon and its compounds, when in a mineral 
state, and in primary and transition rocks, to the decom- 
position of vegetable matter. It would be a much wiser 
way of reasoning upon the operations of nature, if we were 
rather to consider the vegetable produce of the earth as 
deriving its existence from the minerals which supply it 
with the alimentary principles of life. The only difference 
between anthracite and bituminous coal is, that, in the first, 
carbon is almost in an uncombined state 2 ; whereas, in the 
second, it has entered into combination with one of the 
constituents of water; in which state it may very possibly 
mineralize ivood, or any other organic body, just as they be- 
come mineralized by other native compounds ; — for example, 
by the hydrates of silica. But to infer from such accidental 
circumstances that the native compound has owed its origin 
to a change sustained by the vegetable body, is taking too 
narrow a view of the subject, and building a theory upon 


(1) Opake jet-black diamonds, although rare, are known to diamond-merchants ; 
and the black flaws or specks, which are sometimes seen in diamonds, are nearly allied 
in their nature to anthracite. 

(2) The following analysis of conchotdal anthracite will be found very nearly to agree 
with that of the native mineral carbon of Kongsberg : 

Carbon • - - - Q6 . 66 
Alumina - - - 2.0 

Silica and iron - - I . 33 

99 • 99 

^H fe**T--.^^»i 



chap. ii. fortuitous and partial phenomena 1 . We were surprised at 
the difficulty we experienced in procuring fine specimens of 
the native silver; but it seems they are sent, as soon as found, 
by the Assessors, who have the first selection, to the dealers 
and principal collectors in Copenhagen ; insomuch that the 
resident mineralogists at Christiania, and even at Ko?igsberg, 
are under the necessity of procuring their own specimens, 
at very advanced prices, from that capital. Our good friend 
Dr. Miiller, by his acquaintance with a widow of one of the 
Assessors, obtained for us permission to purchase a few 
varieties ; in some of which, the crystals of native silver 
were very perfect, and in the octahedral form. There are 
few things less obvious in the natural history of minerals, 
than the manner in which Nature conducts her operations 
for the developement of the native metals ; although there 
be evidences which tend, at least, to prove, that these 
phenomena result from the decomposition of ores by 
chemical affinities. Capillar!/ native silver is often a result 
of the decomposition of the sulphuret of silver ; and in the 
Hungarian mines it is found upon decomposing sulphurets. 


Native Silver 

(l) Among the absurdities urged in support of the vegetable origin of coal, is that 
of wood thus mineralized by the bituminous body. The author was once directed 
to a specimen of fossil timber, part of which was of coal and the rest of wood, 
as to a proof that the origin of pit-coal was thereby plainly demonstrated, and that it 
was owing to decayed vegetables. With just as much reason did the French Savans 
insist upon deriving all the aluminous rocks of the globe from decomposed plants, 
because the impressions of the leaves of ferns are seen in slate ; and all the limestone 
from the decomposition of animal bodies, because it contains the impressions of shells 
and other organic remains. 


a i 

Native silver is also developed in the Peruvian mines, by the chap. ii. 
action of iron and other metals upon the muriates of silver. 
The same may be said of the developement of native gold, 
which results from the decomposition of the sulphur ets ; as 
may be proved by the action of heat upon the auriferous 
ores of tellurium, and by the spontaneous decomposition of 
the auriferous sulphur ets of iron found in the mine of 
Berezow, in Siberia. But then the crystallization of these 
metals ! — the perfect crystalline forms assumed by both of 
them ! by the native silver at Kongsberg ! and by the native 
gold of Hungary and of the Brazils! — how are these pheno- 
mena to be explained ; without supposing that the two 
metals have been previously held in a state of solution, and 
that the crystals have been deposited from a liquid state ; 
being held in solution, either by the fluid matter of heat, or 
by some other fluid ? " The particles of bodies," it will be 
urged, " in order to crystallize, must be at liberty to move " — 
all of which is very easily said, and is, perhaps, after all, mere 
sophistry; it having been already proved, and beyond dispute, r * ga S ] f ) 2 
in another part of these Travels 9 , that the particles ofpreci- of Miner * ls 
pitated bodies, or sediments, do combine according to the laws 
of cohesion ; that is to say, do assume the utmost regularity 
of crystalline form and structure; the most perfect symme- 
trical arrangement ; and even change from a state of opacity, 
to a certain degree of transparency (as in the example of the 
crystallized alabaster of Antiparos), after the original deposit 


notions enter- 
tained with 


(2) See Part If. Sect. II. chap. x. p. 410. Lond. 1814. 



>perations lor 


from the fluid state has taken place, and in cases where the 
molecules were precluded from the possibility of motion. 
These are surprising facts : and they deserve the more 
attention, because, as they seem to militate against the 
theory which has been long established respecting a regu- 
larity of structure in minerals, so they may perhaps serve 
to explain, whenever they are satisfactorily accounted for, 
the hidden laws by which crystallization is effected. 

Upon our return to Kongsberg, we visited the smelting- 
^th^SZTt nouses > and inspected the metallurgical operations for the 
reduction of these remarkable ores. The process is very 
simple : it is that which the French writers call imbibition, 
by means of lead 1 . They melt together, in nearly equal 
parts, lead and native silver, divested as much as possible of 
its matrix ; and thereby obtain an alloy, consisting of lead, 
combined with from thirty to thirty- live per cent, of silver. 
The lead is afterwards separated, by the usual process of 
cupellation. We were amazed at the facility with which all 
manner of persons obtain admission to these works, when 
the rich ore brought from the mines is lying about in heaps, 
covering the floor. Persons disposed to pilfer, would find no 
difficulty in removing large portions of it. The ore is of 
four kinds ; which severally bear the following appellations : 

1. Gedieget Sblv. 

2. Meddel Ertz. 

3. Skeide Ertz. 

4. Slig. 


(1) See " Traite de Min. par Alexandre Brongniart" tome II. (Article Metallurgie), 
p. 337. Paris, I8O7. 



The first of these consists of pure native silver. 

The second of native silver , with a portion of stony matrix ; 
i. e. lying in laminae, which cannot be altogether separated 
from the mother-rock. 

The third of a poorer ore, in which only detached specks 
and minute grains of native silver are visible. 

The fourth, of the sand and rubble of the mines. 

The two first, that is to say, the richer ores, are smelted 
with the greatest facility, being only mixed with a propor- 
tionate quantity of lead ; but the two last, whose mani- 
pulation constitutes the principal work of the furnaces, 
requires a longer process, which we shall now describe. 
The slig is mixed with pyrites, and smelted ; when the 
latter enters into combination with the silver, forming a 
sulphuret : but the superfluous portion, during this process, 
becomes slag, and is separated. This mixture of silver with 
pyrites is called raasten. It is then calcined, by which 
process the volatile part is sublimed. After calcination, the 
raasten is mixed with skeide ertz, with a portion of the 
richest slig, and also with a small quantity of slag ; and these 
four ingredients are then smelted together. When in a state of 
fusion, the whole is suffered to run into a bason, where it is 
further mixed with lead, which combines with the silver. 
Afterwards, the alloy is removed to another furnace; in which, 
as the lead rises to the surface, it there floats, and is gradually 
drawn off. Then the silver undergoes the last process ; in 
which, by the degree of heat communicated to the mass, 
it becomes divested of any small portions, either of lead or 
of copper, which may remain. 


chap. ir. 


; »:■ •• va 



l'ublic Semi- 
nary for Mi- 

Professor £s~ 


The business of mining is confined to the same families : 
no strangers are allowed to work. There is generally employ- 
ment for the children of the miners, at an early age. They 
are now, however, increasing rather faster than the employ- 
ment for them. We saw many children in the streets, 
and much apparent distress and poverty ; many beggars, both 
of children and grown persons : but the houses were tolerably 

There is a Public Seminary at Kongsberg, in which Lectures 
on Mineralogy are delivered by Professor Esmark, who is 
also one of the Assessors, and the most scientific mineralogist, 
perhaps, in all Europe. This gentleman is well known in 
all Foreign Academies, for the works which he has published. 
He has done more towards the overthrow of the wild 
systems of the Plutonists than even Werner himself ; and this 
simply by his own personal observations in his travels ; by 
opposing the results of actual experience, and matters of 
fact, to mere visionary and speculative opinions. It was he 
who discovered pumice and obsidian regularly stratified in 
porphyritic rocks ; thereby refuting the notions that were 
entertained of the origin of such phenomena by means of 
volcanic fire; and as satisfactorily accounting for their 
formation by the humid process, as did the discovery of a 
cave in Iceland with dripping stalactites of obsidian pendent 
from the roof. Dr. Muller introduced us to this gentleman. 
His collection of minerals is one of the most geognostic we 


(1) See Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. No. X. p. 379. 



ever saw; and it is filled with specimens tending to illustrate 
the real origin of the substances which have been improperly 
termed volcanic. He exhibited to us masses of porphyry con- 
taining imbedded layers of obsidian; and this, again, contain- 
ing pumice; together with a regular series of transitions, 
shewing by what changes obsidian passes into the state of 
pumice. Considering trap as a generic name applied to a 
great variety of rocks, especially those of porphyry, the 
Professor comprehended under this genus, schist us, and all 
the rocks called schifver by the Germans, and many of the 
substances which, owing to their porous aspect, are often 
considered as lavas ; for example, mandelstein, or almond- 
stone, of which there are so many varieties in the islands of 
Rum and Skye, in the Hebrides, containing zeolotic nuclei; and 
all the basaltic porphyries of Drammen, with which mandelstein 
is found, as it is also in Hungary and Transylvania. Upon 
examining the basaltic porphyry of Drammen with a lens, we 
perceived that it was full of small spheroidal concretions, like 
those which appear in the basaltic rocks of Canna in the 
Hebrides, and which have been by some travellers ascribed to 
an igneous operation. Professor Esmark conducted us to the Collection of 

Minerals be- 

grand chamber of the Kongsberg Academy, where we saw a longing to the 


collection of minerals, in beautiful order, and most scien- Academy. 
tifically arranged. The very sight of such a collection affords 
of itself an edifying lesson for mineralogists ; but we were 
willing to forego some of the advantage which might be 
derived from its inspection, that we might enjoy the valuable 
conversation of the Professor. From him we learned, that 
the School of this Academy is a Royal Institution for the 
vol. vi. k instruction 


chap. ii. instruction of the children of the miners, in mineralogy, 
chemistry, physic, mathematics, and other branches of science. 
There are three Professors, among whom Professor Esmarh 
holds the mineralogical and geological department. Any of 
the miners, or children of the miners, may attend this institu- 
tion. Two days in every week, and two hours in each day, 
are dedicated to the instruction of the miners, and all other 
persons who choose to attend. For these lectures, no 
payment whatsoever is required. Of the advantages of 
such an institution, where there are profitable mines, it would 
be vain to attempt to speak. We felt, at the moment, an 
inward sense of shame for our own country, in which such 
studies have hitherto met with so little encouragement. We 
could but turn our thoughts homeward, and ask, what the 
Government of Great Britain had ever done towards the 
advancement of mineralogical knowledge. At this moment 
there was not a single Professor of Mineralogy in any of our 
Universities : and it will be long indeed before the eyes of 
pedants, who bear so much sway in our places of public 
education, will be open to the importance of establishing 
Schools of Mineralogy. The very science itself, and all that 
belongs to it, is to them as a sense which they never enjoyed: 
whence it follows, that to reason with such persons of its 
advantages, is like talking of the blessing of light to one 
who has the misfortune to be born blind 1 . 


(l) These reflections are given as they occur in the author's Journal. They will, he 
hopes, be read with a reference to the time in which they were written. A very 
considerable alteration is now beginning to take place with regard to the study of 




The appearances of squalid poverty which disgrace the chap. h. 
streets of Kongsberg were before alluded to : this place, 
like Christiania, swarms with beggars ; who beset the door 
of the inn at which travellers arrive, forming together a 
mob of most disgusting objects ; each endeavouring to extort 
money, as in France and Italy, and as it used to be in Ireland, 
especially in the streets of Dublin 2 , by exposing to view 
distorted limbs, and deformity, and open sores; thrusting 
these revolting sights in the very faces of every stranger 
they meet. We were glad to get away from them ; and set 
out again for Christiania ; returning by the same road that 
we came, and sleeping the first night at Drammen. 

In the church-yard at Drammen we observed that almost 
every grave was covered with a bed of flowers. Dr. 
Miiller told us, that, in the summer season, these flower- 
beds Upon the tombs have a very pleasing appearance ; 
and that it is also customary, during the summer months, 
to scatter flowers upon the tombs. There is every reason customs, 

x J shewing the 

to believe that the same customs prevailed among all the JJ^JJJjfj," 
ancient families of the Goths and Getce, and their descendants; and Greeks ' 
because they are so strictly Grecian. Offerings of flowers 
were among the honours paid to the dead in Greece; and we 
have before noticed a similarity of customs between the 
antient Greeks and the present Norwegians, in describing the 


mineralogy in Great Britain : but it is not too much to say, that the prodigious source 
of wealth which its due encouragement might open to our nation has not yet been 
adequately weighed by our Rulers. There is not one school established for the instruction 
of miners, in any of our mining districts. 

(2) This nuisance in Dublin has been lately put a stop to. 



chap. ii. marriage-ceremonies of the latter 1 . So, with regard to this 
practice of strewing the places of sepulture, we find that 
it was customary to strew the Grecian tombs with herbs and 
flowers; with amaranths 4 ; with roses 3 ; with myrtle 4 ; and 
most profusely with parsley 5 . Future travellers, pursuing 
this subject of the common origin of the Teutons and Greeks, 
will, in all probability, have to notice other more remarkable 
points of coincidence. 

There are many good houses in Drammen. The whole 
valley from Hogsund to this place is beautiful, and the 
soil seems very good. The mountains are covered with 

Superiority of fi rs# \y e met a great number of fine-looking country girls 

iheA'orwegian ° ° J D 

upon the road ; most of them above the ordinary stature, and 
very handsome. In Sweden, we had remarked that the men 
were much superior to the women ; but here we should make 
the contrary observation, and particularly among the higher 
classes. At Christiania we had met with many elegant- 
looking women ; but scarcely any among the men, ex- 
cepting the Ankers, who, being natives, had the air of 
gentlemen. The custom of smoking, so universally pre- 
valent, greatly contributes to their slovenly and dirty 
appearance. As we proceeded in our journey, we observed 
that most of the houses have little porches, which are 



(1) See Part III. Sect. I. ch. xvii. p. 643. Land. ISlp. 

(2) Philostrat. Heroic, cap. 19. p. /4l. 

(3) Anacreon. Od. liii. 25. Aristaenet. I. Ep. 36. p. 162. 

(4) Euripides, Electr. v. 323. 

(5) Polyan. Stratag. v. 12. sect. 1. Suidas, in voc. IfXiVoi/ orl<$>avo<;. 



generally ornamented with boughs of birch or of fir. 
The country women, when engaged in their labours, — and 
they work harder than the generality of the men in our 
country, — wear nothing upwards but their shifts, which 
however are made higher than in England. Sometimes a 
coloured handkerchief is thrown loosely over their shoulders ; 
but they have no stays, nor any other covering for the waist. 
The women, in many parts of Sweden, work in the same attire, 
and look exactly like men toiling in their shirts. 
Near Drammen, that elegant plant, the Linncea Borealis. mav Medical P ro - 

° x J perties of the 

be found in great plenty at an earlier season of the year. Its Linn<Ea ^°- 
flowers, at this time, were all gone, but we found the remains 
of its seed-vessels in sufficient abundance to testify its situation 
here. It flowers in Norivay in the months of June and July. 
Its medical properties are mentioned by Linnceus ; but 
according to Gunner, whose Flora Norvegica was printed at 
Tronyem in 1 766, the inhabitants of that city make use of an 
infusion of the Linncea Borealis as an antidote in fevers. 
The same author also speaks of it as affording a remedy 
in other disorders 6 . The Norwegians call it Norisle; 
Nor e tie; and Narisle- grass. 

The food of the labourers who work for gentlemen, or 


(6) " Nidrosienses infuso contra febrem scarlatinam, vernacula Narisle (Norisle, 
Noretle, vel NarildJ non sine salutari effectu utuntur. In Norvegia Australiori decoctum 
in usu est contra scabiem. Externe etiam vel fotu vel/umo febrem scarlatinam tollunt. 
Svecis foliorum infusum cum lacte specificum est in doloribus ischiadicis et rheumaticis, 
et fotu dolores pedum in ovibus tollunt." Flora Norvegica Gunneri, lxvii. p. 37. 
Nidrosice, 1/66. 

■ ■ to 



Condition of 
the Peasants. 


large farmers, in this country, consists of black rye-bread 
and salted butter or cheese, for breakfast ; and boiled 
barley and a herring, or some other fish, with beer, for 
dinner. Once in a week, and sometimes twice, they have 
fresh meat. The common people in general live nearly in 
the same way, only not quite so well. Instead of beer, they 
have sour milk. Some, who have large families, are often in 
great distress. The men who work for gentlemen, or 
farmers, have generally a house found for them, rent free ; for 
which they are always obliged to work for the master from 
whom they receive it, in preference to any other. These 
receive ten-pence a day in summer, and eight-pence in winter ; 
and, in harvest, a shilling, or fourteen-pence. Those who 
have no houses, are paid a shilling in summer, and ten- 
pence in winter. The state of the labouring poor is 
improving in Norway : they are not so dirty as they used to 
be ; and, consequently, there are not so many children who 
die young. 

There is not a pound of fresh butter to be bought in 
Christiania. All persons use what they make themselves, or 
they salt it for keeping. The farmers who live higher up 
the country, go for two months, from June to August, up 
the mountains, to pasture their cattle. They then live in 
little temporary wooden sheds ; and it is during these two 
months that they make the greatest part of their butter, 
which is salted, and brought to the fair at Christiania, in the 
winter, upon sledges. This butter is bought by the families 
in the neighbourhood, for the use of their servants ; but the 
better sort of people eat the butter imported from Holstein. 




So little has the custom of selling fresh butter prevailed, chap, il 
that if a person wished to dispose of any, he would hardly 
find purchasers. The cattle, during winter, besides hay 
and straw, where these may be had, are chiefly foddered 
with the leaves and small branches of a species of poplar, 
gathered at the end of the summer, and stored for winter 
provision. We were assured by persons who had most 
attended to the keeping of cattle, that these leaves, stripped 
from the branches, are excellent food for horses, and that 
this kind of fodder gives them a very fine coat. By all that 
we could hear or see, the lower orders appeared to live as 
well as those in England; with this difference, that they eat 
rye-bread instead of wheaten-bread : but they are so accus- 
tomed to rye-bread, that they prefer it to that which is made 
of wheat, and reckon it a heartier food. Wheat is sometimes 
cheaper than rye. A flat cake, much in use, which is made 
of rye, and sometimes of oatmeal, is called flad brie. In 
the neighbourhood of Christiania the house-men have seldom 
land to keep a cow. Among the higher orders, the business 
of housekeeping, from its peculiar nature, and the largeness 
of the establishments, takes up so much time, that the 
mistresses of families, after their marriage, have no leisure 
to attend to any thing else. The number of servants in these 
families is always great; and those servants are, for the most 
part, an idle set, never liking to do any thing out of their 
peculiar department ; which is, in fact, the principal reason 
why so many more servants are required than would be 
wanted in England for the same work. 

In our return to Christiania, we visited the Alum Works, Alum Works. 




which takes 
place in the 
production of 

chap. ii. which are near the town ; and their inspection only served 
to convince us of what we had often suspected, from the 
sight of alum-works in our own country ; namely, that 
alum is the result of a synthesis which takes place during 
the decomposition of the substance considered as its ore : 
that is to say, that alum does not exist ready formed in the 
schistus and other mineral aggregates from which it is 
supposed to be obtained ; but that these rocks being exposed 
to decomposition by the action of extraneous bodies, a new 
chemical combination takes place, which is exhibited in the 
salt called alum. As the subject is really curious, its illustra- 
tion, as applied to a description of these alum-works, will not 
be irrelevant. They belong to Mr. John Collet, whose hospi- 
tality we had lately occasion to notice. The sort of slate 
called the ore is a dark schistus, distinguished from clay-slate l 
by its streak always remaining unaltered in its colours. In 
its exfoliations, it separates with polished surfaces, having a 
higher degree of natural lustre. Its dark colour is entirely 
owing to the bitumen which it contains ; but it also contains 
embedded nuclei of iron-pyrites. The workmen affirm, 
that the ore is richest when these nuclei are most abundant ; 
and the reason why this pyritous slate is fitter for making 
alum, we shall presently shew. If a piece of this slate be 
submitted to analysis, when taken from its native bed, it 
will not be found to contain alum : hence it is evident, that 
the alum is, as to its formation, the result of a subsequent 


(I) See Jameson's Mineralogy, Vol. I. p. 433. Edln. 181 6. 



process, which takes place in the following manner ; some- chap. ii. 
thing of a similar nature being applicable to all other works 
carried on for the same purpose of extracting alum. The ore 
containing the elementary constituents of alum, when it 
has been taken from the alum-rocks where it occurs in 
veins, is disposed in heaps : here, being acted upon by air 
and moisture, a spontaneous decomposition begins, which 
is from time to time aided and accelerated by water, and 
also by urine cast upon the heaps. The iron- sulphur et, 
thus acted upon by moisture, also undergoes decomposition. 
As this decomposition commences, the pyrites becomes heated: 
the sulphur which it contains becomes sulphuric acid; 
and this acid entering into chemical union with the alumina 
of the decomposing slate, and the alkali of the urine, 
an alkaline sulphate of alumina is the result, which is, in 
fact, the alum. This salt then begins to appear, in 
white delicate fibres, between the exfoliating laminae 
of the slate. For its separation, and also to further 
the progress of decomposition requisite in effecting this 
synthesis, other operations are necessary : and wherever 
alum-works have been established, the process is nearly the 
same ; — that is to say, the ore is calcined ; and the particles 
of alumina, being reduced to a state of greater division, are 
the more readily acted upon by the acid. It is then lixiviated, 
or soaked, for a certain time : after this, the liquor, being 
separated, is boiled in leaden caldrons, and suffered to 
evaporate : the concentrated solution containing the salt 
being then collected into pans, deposits the alum, as it cools, 
in large and beautiful octahedral crystals, or two tetrahedral 
vol. vi. l crystals 


I - fV* 



Return to 


crystals applied base to base. Commonly, however, only 
one tetrahedral pyramid appears as the crystalline form ; 
the pyramids being constantly turned downwards towards 
the bottom of the vessel, especially those which fix them- 
selves to the rods which are put into the liquor to multiply 
the surfaces. Sometimes the angles of the crystals are 
truncated ; and these truncations take place most fre- 
quently when the lixivium is slightly acid. We had never 
seen such fine crystals of alum as those which we brought 
from this manufactory. To obtain a good crystallization, 
some precaution is necessary in attending to the degree of 
heat applied for the concentration of the lixivium. If the 
liquor be urged by a violent degree of heat, it loses part of its 
acid, becomes tasteless, and the residue is then no longer sus- 
ceptible of crystallization; but the alum is precipitated, in the 
form of a very fine adhesive powder, in proportion as the water 
is dispersed by evaporation. To ascertain this temperature, 
methods of greater or less accuracy have been adopted ; 
such as the immersion of an egg into the liquid ; the affusion 
of some drops of the lixivium upon a plate ; and some other 1 . 
We brought away many specimens, both of the ore and of the 
alum. The balls of iron-pyrites contained in the slate have 
a spheroidal form ; and, in some instances, these balls are as 
big as a man's head. 

After our return to Christiania, the same round of hospitable 
entertainments again took place which we have before 


(1) See Chaptal's Chemistry, Vol. II. p. 64. Lond. 1775. 



noticed. We were not a single day in the place without chap. ii. 
receiving invitations, either to some magnificent dinner or 
supper. There are public balls on a Sunday evening, once Public Balk. 
in every fortnight. These are held in a large room belonging 
to the principal inn ; and the ball is followed by a supper. 
Tickets are given to the different persons as they enter, to 
regulate their places in the dance ; a different set of tickets 
being distributed for a similar purpose at supper. The 
dances are, the waltz, which has always the preference, and 
the common English country-dance : but even in the 
country-dance the waltz is introduced : indeed it is so 
great a favourite, that our English dance would probably 
not be tolerated, but in compliment to the English who 
may happen to be present. Some of our popular dances 
were performed by the band, but in so slow and solemn a 
manner that the effect became truly ludicrous. The 
dresses of the women are entirely English, and of the latest R »ge for 


ton. At this time, the Governor's lady, and one or two fashions. 
more, made their appearance in curled crop perukes, 
imported from London; and by the buzz, which the display 
of the new fashion excited, the admiration and the envy it 
called forth, it was evident that a fresh importation would 
soon be the means of making these wigs a very general costume 
among the higher class of females. Any alteration that takes 
place in London, with regard to dress, is instantly trans- 
mitted to Christiania: and these changes are watched and 
adopted in Norway with a degree of avidity which is quite 
amusing to foreigners. Nothing would be easier than to 


H ^^ Mm** iiMi^i^^^'.^vy;' 



Further Ac- 
count of Ber- 
nard /Inker. 


practise the most extravagant hoax, by making it to be 
believed that some strange grotesque mode of attire had 
been introduced among the fashionable belles of London. 
If a lady arrive from England, she has hardly set foot in 
Christiania before her toilette is beset by all the principal 
women, anxious to inspect and to imitate every article of 
her apparel. 

Literary female characters are unknown : even the men 
rarely pretend to follow any scientific pursuit. The most 
learned of the inhabitants are foreigners. Bernard Anker 
was almost the only man who, as a native, engaged in and 
patronized literature. He was familiarly acquainted with 
the best English authors in almost every department of 
science, and not ill versed in the writings of other nations. 
He had, at the same time, some degree of knowledge of the 
antient classic authors. He was, indeed, in all respects, a 
very extraordinary man. Some travellers have spoken 
of his vanitv : to us, this foible, if it deserved so harsh a 
name, served only to render his company the more amusing : 
not that we were amused at his expense, but because we 
discerned, through all his supposed egotism, a playfulness of 
disposition, which seemed to say, " I will be any thing, from 
the loftiest statesman to the merriest member of a party at 
blind-man's buff, sooner than my guests shall suffer ennui 
for want of conversation or amusement!" — and we felt 
convinced, that the loss of such a man, in such a place as 
Christiania, could never be supplied. — Alas! before our 
tribute can be paid to his distinguished worth, and these 





acknowledgments of the kindness we received from him pub- 
lickly rendered, this loss has been sustained ! — Of the extent 
of his commercial speculations it is hardly possible to convey 
an idea, without making a complete statistical survey of the 
commerce of Norway. His ships went to sea in whole 
fleets ; and of the wealth of their freightage some notion may 
be entertained, by an account of his dealing in a single export ; 
namely, timber. He took us to see his deal-yards, which TimberTrade. 
were indeed prodigious. The present stock in them was 
worth 5 0,000/. From Christiania and Moss he exported 
deals to the amount, annually, of 180,ooo7. ; and of this sum, 
above 100,000/. must be placed to the amount of the deals 
from Christiania. The deals that are sold in one year are 
cut three years before ; and, as every thing is paid for in 
ready money, an immense capital is required to carry on 
this trade in deals alone ; which is, in fact, the reason that it 
is so profitable, and in such few hands. At Frederickstadt \ 
from the facility of floating the timber to the saw-mills, 
and from the saw-mills immediately to the port, a whole 
year is saved, and the clear profit is thereby made much 
greater. The timber that comes to Christiania is brought by 
sledges, in winter. The carrying timber on sledges forms 
one of the principal winter employments of the farmers and 
house-men. By this it will be seen what the out-goings 
must have been of a merchant, engaged as Mr. Anker was, in 
commerce. But, besides this, he had extensive iron-foundries, 
and three copper-mines. The number of his stewards, or clerks, 
amounted to forty ; each of whom, upon an average, enjoyed 

a yearly 





State of 
Religion in 

chap. n. a yearly salary of a thousand dollars. Yet, in the midst of 
his vast undertakings, he was so much of a philosopher, 
that if he could have found any other individual capable of 
superintending the whole, he would have consented to a loss 
of 50 per cent., that he might have been able to retire. 

Of the state of religion in Norivay we had not an oppor- 
tunity of making many observations. The morals of the 
people, especially of the lower orders, are good ; and thus 
judging of the tree by its fruits, we saw no reason for com- 
plaint. Formerly there were many different sects in the 
country ; and among these, some like our Methodists : but 
at present, all are united. There is nothing, therefore, of that 
sourness which is caused by dissent; and which, as it tends to 
separate the members of society from each other, tends also 
to sap the very foundations of Christianity ; — thereby proving 
the truth of an observation of Montesquieu 1 , that " the most 
true and holy doctrines may be attended with the very worst 
consequences, where they are not connected with the prin- 
ciples of society." One of the most essential objects of 
religion, when a State has many causes for hatred, is to pro- 
duce many ways of reconciliation. Perhaps we ought to 
assign as a reason for the religious unanimity of Norway, 
that the same degree of ardour in religious matters which is 
found in our own country, and which in Great Britain has of 
itself given birth to the schisms that divide the members of 


(1) Esprit des Lois, liv. xxiv. ch. 19. p. l6l. 



its Christian community, has not yet been excited here. chap. n. 
A great deal of what may be called in differ entism prevails on 
religious subjects among the Norwegians. 

Upon the 28th of October, after taking leave of many of 
the inhabitants, Mr. jB. Anker accompanied us in a boat round 
the Bay. We visited the fortress, and saw the slaves at Fortress of 


work. This fortress is almost impregnable by land. We 
were much delighted with the view of the river and the 
country from the ramparts. The water is so land-locked, 
that its appearance is that of a fine extensive lake, ornamented 
with islands, and surrounded by blue mountains in very 
pleasing shapes : but as far as we could judge of their 
elevation by the view of them, they have not the height of 
the mountains which surround the lakes of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland. The fortress seems to be strong ; and 
there are some fine brass cannon upon the ramparts. The 
garrison consisted of twelve hundred men, including some 
chasseurs; and there were, besides, four companies of artillery. 
Afterwards, having dined privately with Mr. Anker, we 
retired with him to another apartment, where an elegant 
dessert had been set forth in the English way, with decanters 
of wine and glasses. We conversed with our intelligent host 
respecting the mines we had so lately visited ; and he presented 
to us a specimen of native gold, found at a mine belonging to 
himself at Nummedalen, near Kongsberg. In the evening, to 
gratify our curiosity, he put on his magnificent winter-dress, 
consisting of a pelisse, collar, and boots, of the choicest black 
furs. The pelisse was made entirely of the skins of sables, 
and the collar and boots of bear's skin. We had examined 




chap. ir. the fur- shops, in the hope of finding the skins of the Cat- 
Gaab, or Norivegian Lynx ; but the animal, although some- 
times taken, is certainly very rare in the country ; and it is 
fortunate for the inhabitants that its visits are not more 
frequent. We spent the last evening of our stay in Christiania 
with this benevolent man ; and having supped with him in 
the presence of his family, bade them farewell. 



The author again sets out for Sweden — Execrable slate of the Roads 
before the snow falls — Holen — Change in the Roads in approaching 
Sweden — Spires of Norwegian Churches. — Kiolstad — Haeberg — 
Cataract of Fon Fossen — Ous — Sindby — appearance made by a 
Fair at Kongswinger — Money of the Country — Edsbroen — 
Magnor — Boundary between Norway and Sweden — Singular 
• instance of honesty in a Peasant — Morast — Haga — Strand — 
Homeric Torches — Extraordinary Costume of the Natives of 
We rm eland — Aspect of the Country — Consequences of a recent 
Dearth — Hogsalla — Leerhol — Skamnas — Improved appearance of 
the land — Carlstad — Exports and Imports— Population — River 
Clara — Brastegard — Molkem — Change in the dress of the Peasants 
— Manner of keeping the Roads in repair — Brattefors — Boulders — 
Trees — Animals — Philipstad — Uniform appearance of the Swedish 
Towns — Dress of the Natives — Enclosures — Juniper- trees — Onsbytta 
— Two species of Tetrao or Black-cock — Persberg — Descent into the 

i.- ,, 



Iron-Mines — Catastrophe which befell a Female Miner — Bottom of the 
Persberg Mine — Striking scene in the Great Cavern — Imbedded 
state of the Ore — Langbanshy tta — Machinery for the Mine Pumps — 
Saxan — Westmania — Halleforss— Nytorp — Nyakopparberg 
— Minerals — Laxbro — Beauty of the Lakes — diminution of their 
waters — Hogforss — Hellsion — Ostanbo — Smedbacka — Blood 
Cak es — Entrance of Dalecarlia — Varieties and Luxuriance of 
the Fungi and Musci — Bommarsbo — Home Manufacture of Candles 
— Russ-Garden — Naglarby — General Features of Dalecarlia — 
Character of the Natives — Dialect — Antient Dance — Original use 
of the Runic Staves — Retreat of Gustavus Vasa — Approach to 
Fahlun — External Aspect of its famous Copper-Mine. 

cHA P.iiL J n ^ morn j n g f tne 2 Qth of October, we left Christiania 

J^setTout in our phaeton, and once more began our journey towards 

Sweden. For this purpose, it was necessary that we should 

retrace our former steps as far as Moe, before we took a 

Execrable different route ; but the roads were so execrable, that we were 

state of the 

Roads before actually employed the whole day in getting to this place, 

the snow falls. 

although distant only three Danish miles and a half from 
Christiania. We passed through a beautiful valley between 
Romsaas and Schesmoe, as before. The inns were bad ; and 
this being added to the wretched state of the roads, and the 
little progress we were able to effect, made us think that we 
had acted perhaps unwisely in not waiting for the winter 
season, which is the best time for travelling in Scandinavia, 
especially when the country is not likely to offer any thing 
in its scenery remarkable either for its grandeur or picturesque 
beauty. When the snow has once fallen, and the sledge- 
way is open, a traveller, wrapped up in his furs, may pro- 
secute his journey in the open air, not only with the utmost 



expedition, but with comfort. But we intended to visit chap. in. 
mines ; and, in our search for minerals and plants, wished to 
see as much as possible of the uncovered earth before the 
woodlands of Norway and Sweden, their hills and their valleys, 
rocks, mountains, lakes, and rivers, were all shrouded in one 
vast sheet of ice and snow. 

The next morning, Oct. 30, after a stormy night, dawned 
most merrily ; the sun burst forth in splendour ; — even the 
feathered songsters, in this autumnal day, were still heard 
upon the dripping branches : — 

" And forth they passe, with pleasure forward led, 
Joying to heare the birds' sweet harmony, 
Which, whilom shrouded from the tempests dred, 
Seem'd in their song to scorne the cruell sky. 
Much can they praise the trees so straight and hie, 
The sayling pine, the cedar proud and tall, 
The vine-prop elme, the poplar never dry, 
The builder oake, sole king of forrests all, 
The aspine good for staues, the cypresse funeralL 

" The laurell, meed of mightie Conquerors 
And Poets sage, the firre that weepeth still, 
The willow, worne of forlorne paramours, 
The eugh, obedient to the benders will, 
The birch for shaftes, the sallow for the mill, 
The myrrhe sweet, bleeding in the bitter wound, 
The warlike beech, the ash for nothing ill, 
The fruitful olive, and the platane round, 
The carver holme, the maple sildom inward sound." 

In our first stage, this day, to a place called Holen, we turned Hoien. 
out of the Troriyem road, about half a mile from Moe, into 
another, upon our right, leading towards the frontier of 


*>v,«e* ^^^H fhi?'\j*i ittert^fMej&fl ^^^H *A*A ■ 



Change in the 
Roads in ap- 

Spires of 





Cataract of 
Fon Fossen. 


Sweden: and we could but remark, at the time, — as if any- 
thing which had a reference to that country should in some 
degree manifest a Swedish aspect, — that, from the moment 
this deviation occurred in our route, the roads began to 
improve; becoming better and better afterwards, as we drew 
nearer to the Swedish barrier. The country here is pretty 
well cultivated : although undulant, when compared with 
the rest of Norway it is of a level nature. The road lay 
partly through forests. In viewing the churches of this 
country, if we might judge from mere similarity of form 
and structure, it would seem that all our spires, commonly 
called Gothic, with the fashion and shape of their wooden 
shingles, were borrowed from Norway. In every part of this 
country through which we have passed, they reminded us of 

From Holen to Kiolstad, one Danish mile and a half, we 
journeyed over plains with good roads. The oats and pease 
were still standing. We observed near Holen several heaps, 
which we thought were antient tumuli; but could obtain no 
information, either from the tradition of the inhabitants, or 
from the history of the country, to confirm us in this belief. 
Before we reached Kiolstad, the prospect of an extensive 
rich level, highly cultivated, reminded us of parts of Surrey. 
From Kiolstad, where there is a good inn, we proceeded to 
Hceherg, through a level country, having crossed a ferry. 
Near Hceherg there is a Cataract, which we had every reason 
to believe would be well worth seeing: but the storm came 
on again ; the rain fell in torrents ; and the mud was so deep, 
that we did not attempt to gratify our curiosity. The people 




at Hceberg told us that it was about an English mile distant, chap. hi. 
and yet we heard distinctly the noise of its falling waters. 
This cataract is called Fon Fossen. They said that passengers 
seldom went to see it ; which is probable enough in a 
country where the grandest cataracts are things of common 
occurrence : but it is to be hoped that some future traveller, 
under more favourable circumstances, will not leave this 
water- fall unheeded. In going from Hceberg to Ous, we o U s. 
found the soil sandy. The inn at Ous was excellent, and the 
accommodations not inferior to those of Christiania; which 
is saying a great deal. We seemed to have escaped from the 
mud the moment we quitted Hceberg; for the road after- 
wards was very good. Here we observed some hardy urchins, 
with naked legs, amusing themselves by playing in a bog, 
totally regardless of being wet or cold. The distance from 
Ous to Sindby is only one Danish mile : we ran it in forty 
minutes. Near Sindby is a mountain containing iron ore, sindby. 
and also a foundry. The road was crowded with peasants, 
going to the fair at Kongsivinger. There was a fortress 
situate upon an eminence above Kongsivinger, which com- 
manded the village, the road, and the river. We were much Appearance 

made by a 

entertained at this place by the sight of the fair. A public Fair at 
fair, by collecting the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, 
and exhibiting them in the height of their gaiety and costume, 
cannot fail of being interesting to the curious traveller : it 
also serves to display the produce and commodities of the 
country. We bought here ptarmigans and moor-game, 
besides white bread and gingerbread. The dress of the men 
was singular, from its uniformity : they wore coats of white 



fc*v& ^m *<*&% .1W9* 



Money of the 

chap. in. cloth, faced with red, and red cuffs ; and red caps upon their 
heads. Many of the men were already more than " half 
seas over," though it was an early hour of the morning. 
There were many horses for sale, rode by rough-riders. For 
the rest, the appearance was pretty much that of an English 
fair ; — soldiers enlisting for recruits, and alluring the boors 
by a display of their martial accoutrements ; drunken loobies ; 
pretty village lasses; clamorous hawkers; and vagrant 
Italians, with cheap looking-glasses, and coloured prints. 

Payments are made in dollars, schillings, and stivers; but 
in Sweden and Norway the value of schillings and stivers is 
very different. In Norway, a schilling is the lowest coin, and 
answers to our halfpenny ; and stivers are a penny each. In 
Sweden, schillings answer to our pence, and stivers to our 
farthings. All small sums are reckoned in stivers; and instead 
of saying, for example, ' four schillings,' they would say 
' sixteen stivers.' A dollar, silver mint, equals eight-pence ; 
and there are six in a rix-dollar note. The general price of 
barley and rye, in this country, is from four and a half to five 
dollars the ton. Barley was now selling so high as nine dollars, 
and rye at ten dollars, per ton ; owing to the dearth which 
had happened, and the effects of which were still felt. The 
price of labour was twelve schillings a day, without victuals. 

After we left Kongswinger, the aspect of the country was 
more like the grand and striking scenes of the north of 
Norway; presenting a landscape perfectly picturesque, when 
viewed as a whole ; yet consisting of an amazing variety 
of parts, all of which, when examined in detail, were 
magnificent. There never was but one painter of sufficient 




capability, as the historian of Nature, for the representation of chap. hi. 
things so varied and vast in their combination ; — and this 
painter was Claude. But for the country here we would 
rather have called in the aid of Gaspar Poussin than of 
Claude Lorrain. It had more of the majesty and sudden 
transitions which mark the favourite subjects of Gaspares 
pencil, than of the long-drawn valleys, the never-ending 
richness and sweetness, of Claude. 

At Edsbroen, a single house, almost as wretched as the shed Edsbroen. 
at Malmagen where we passed the night upon coming from 
Sweden into Norway : we were however induced to halt for 
dinner, upon finding in the Post-book, in the hand-writing 
of our friend Professor Malthus, the words " good treatment." 
He had passed this way with Mr. Otter. The good woman 
of the house was moreover tidy in her appearance, and 
brought forth some excellent butter. To this we added our 
bread and cheese, and so made a hearty meal. From hence 
we had good roads to Magnor, a strange-looking place, con- Magnor. 
sisting of a parcel of wooden-houses, huddled together under 
a mountain. We found nobody at home: all the inhabitants 
were gone to Kongsiuinger fair. We therefore proceeded 
farther; and came to an inhabited dwelling, where we found 
an old woman in bed, who from the age of nine to sixty- 
nine had been always bed-ridden. Our host was her 
nephew, and had himself seven children ; but for many years, 
with a degree of tenderness amounting to a filial affection, 
he had attended upon and solaced the infirmities of this poor 
afflicted invalid. In the next stage, between Magnor and Boundary t*- 

° ° tween Nor- 

Morast, we passed from Norway into Sweden, at the distance »«y "«i 



i<i"fc45ft4i ^v ■ 



chap. in. of half a Danish mile from Magnor. An avenue cut through 
the forest marks the boundary between the two countries. 
singular j U3 {- before passing this boundary, hearing somebody calling 
Jpnesty ina behind us, we baited. It was the identical peasant at whose 
dwelling we had stopped, and whose charitable conduct we 
have noticed. He had galloped after us with a pocket-book, 
containing a considerable sum of money, which we had left 
upon his table ; having taken it out to bestow something 
upon his poor family. A very little more speed on our part, 
or less of diligence on his, and we should have been out of 
his reach : and if this had been the case, few readers would 
regret that such singular honesty, in the midst of such 
poverty and goodness, had met with a larger reward than 
we could then afford to bestow. It was not the first 
symptom which we have had to notice of our approximation 
to that land of honesty, Sweden: and whether the individual 
we have alluded to were a Norwegian or a Swede, we are 
well assured, that, beyond the limits of these two countries, 
similar instances of regard for the distinctions between 
* mine 1 and 'thine 1 will not be always so scrupulously 
regarded. At the place where the avenue has been cut, a 
stone is erected, which exhibits on one side of it the arms of 
Denmark'; and on the other, those of Sweden : and about a 
quarter of a Swedish mile farther on, before reaching the 
end of this stage, there is the Gate and Custom-house on 
entering the Sivedish territory. 

Finding po accommodation at Morast, the next relay, we 
proceeded, chiefly amidst woods of red fir, with a few 
openings of cultivation, through Hcga, to Strand ; where we 



Si rand. 



arrived at midnight ; being guided in the woods by peasants chap. in. 
on foot carrying flambeaus made of deal splinters. The Homeric 
inn at Strand was bad indeed ; but the truth is, that between 
Magnor and Carlstad there is no place of rest for travellers 
which can be called by the name of an inn : they are wretched 
hovels, tenanted by the poorest peasants. At Strand, a 
whole crop of cabbages was hanging from the roof, to dry. 

Upon the first of November, we left Strand, and set out for 
Prestbol. The dress of the natives exhibited a curious Extraordinary 

' Costume of 

change as we entered the province of Wermeland. The the Natives of 


peasants were all in black, as if for a general mourning ; 
and this costume, added to their poverty and the sterile aspect 
of their country, had a melancholy appearance. We hardly 
entered a house without seeing some lamentable object, 
either sick or deformed. The soil itself is of a nature to bid 
defiance to cultivation : it consists of loose masses of stone, 
which can neither be removed, nor rendered in any way pro- 
ductive. It seemed to be the very region of poverty and 
despair, denuded and smitten by the hand of Heaven. 
In perusing the manuscript journal of a friend who had 
travelled the same route only three months before, we found 
similar observations made as to the melancholy aspect of all Aspect of the 

J r Country. 

this district, and to the impressions made upon his mind 
upon seeing all the inhabitants dressed in black clothes. 
When we entered Sweden from Denmark, we were struck 
with the superior liveliness of the Swedes; but in entering it 
now from Norway, we received a very different impression. 
To add to the general wretchedness of the country, a greater ^ f °" 








chap. in. dearth had prevailed, during the former winter, than the 
oldest person ever remembered. Oats were six dollars a ton, 
which commonly sell for two or three. Barley and rye were 
scarcely to be had at any price. The people had saved them- 
selves from starving, by eating the bark bread, and a bread 
which they said they made of a kind of grass : this grass we 
afterwards found to be sorrel 1 . The fir-bread had given to 
many of the inhabitants an unhealthy appearance : they 
found the sorrel-bread, upon the whole, more salutary. The 
general effect of eating fir-bread is, to produce a yellow, pale, 
and unhealthy countenance. In every thing, the appearance 
of the people was strangely contrasted with that of the 
Norwegians. The latter wear red caps. The Swedes, in 
their broad-brimmed hats, without any buttons upon their 
black coats, looked like so many Quakers in mourning. 

Presently after leaving Strand, we had a fine view of a lake 
which discharges its waters into the Wener. We passed 
Hogvalla, Leerhol, and Skamnas. In the forests were juniper- 
trees, growing to a very great size. We were ferried over 
to Skamnas; the passage being nearly half a mile wide. The 
view of the lake from the post-house here was very fine. The 

improved ap- country was more open and cultivated in going to Hogboda 

pearance of 

the land. and Prestbol ; interspersed with smalt lakes, the shores of 
which were ornamented with fir, birch, and alder. Two 
sorts of alder are very common in Sweden, as well as in 

Norway ; 

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Norway; growing often in very dry ground. It was dark chap. nr. 
before we arrived at PrestboL We found here another 
miserable inn. 

The next morning, November the second, we descended 
into plains which reminded us of Norfolk and Suffolk. The 
appearance of the country was greatly improved. We 
changed horses at Ilberg; and reached Carlstad, the capital carutad. 
of Wermeland, upon the Wener Sea 1 , by eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon. The view in the approach to this city is very 
pleasing. We entered it by a bridge 2 . The houses are 
covered with turf, as in all the towns leading from Weners- 
borg to Stockholm, on the southern side of the lake. The inn 
here was very dirty ; yet Carlstad is a much finer town than 
Wenersborg : the streets are broad and long, and contain many 
good houses, and a general appearance of activity and business 
seems to denote a thriving place. The Episcopal Palace 


(1) See the Map, p. 12(5 of the last Volume. Lond. I8I9. " Equitum lustra- 
tionibus nundinisque festo D. Pauli et Luciae Celebris, quae etiamnum a Gothenburgen- 
sibus aliisque vicinis magno cum emolumento frequentantur." Descriptio Suecice, torn. I. 
p. 442. Lugd. Bat. 1706. 

(2) It is, in fact, built upon an island. (See the Map.) " The river Clara," says 
Thomson, in his account of this place, " runs through this province, and falls into the 
lake Verier. It is a large river, but, like the Dal, runs so slowly, that it has more the 
appearance of a lake than a river. Some miles before it falls into the Verier, it divides into 
two branches, enclosing the Island of Tingwalla. At the northern extremity, of this 
island stands the town of Carlstad; so called because it was built by Charles IX. This 
town is a Bishop's See. Like the other Swedish towns, it is built of wood. The streets 
are broad and straight, and the number of inhabitants about 1500. It carries on a 
commerce of wood and iron across the lake Vener." Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, ch. xx. 
p. 373. Lond. 1813. 




chap. in. is built of wood, as are all the other houses. The Governor 
of the province also resides here. Both Carlstad and Philip- 
stad were built by Charles the Ninth; the first being called after 
his own name, and the last after the name of his son Philip. 
The principal productions of the mines and forests of Werme- 

Exportsand land are here shipped for Gothenburg; and the exportation 

Imports. . . 1 'lii i 

of bar-iron and timber may be considered as the staple com- 
merce of Carlstad. The importations consist of provisions and 
other necessaries. Dirty inns are often the dearest : and this 
we found to be the case here. Every thing was charged at 
most exorbitant prices : but this is not a cheap place for any 
thing beyond common necessaries. Loaf-sugar sold in the 
shops as high as a rix-dollar the pound, being all of it im- 
ported from England '. The accounts given to us of the 

Population, population of Carlstad were so discordant, that we could place 
no reliance upon them ; some estimating it at 3000, and 
others at 1400 : we were disposed to credit the last, rather 
than the first ; and this number nearly coincides with the 
statement already cited in a note. There is a square here, as 
at JVeriersborg, surrounded by wooden houses, with a very 
neat appearance. 

We left Carlstad, on Sunday, November the third, passing 

Hirer ciara. the north-eastern branch of the Clara, by some called the Carls 

(1) See p. 18(5 of the last Volume, Quarto Edition, for an account of a manufactory 
for refining sugar at Gejle, belonging to Mr. Hennis; being the first of the kind 
established in Sweden. 



Elf 2 , by a large stone bridge with iron rails, erected in a light chap. hi. 
and elegant style of architecture. It was a very foggy 
morning, which prevented our having some fine views of the 
Lake Wener. The Governor had sent for us, demanding a 
sight of our passport : we therefore called at his house, as 
we were leaving this wooden city. The road leading to 
Brastegard lies, for the most part, by the side of lakes, 
\yhich discharge their waters into the Wener, by means of a 
small river. From Brastegard we came to Molkcm; near ^ r f k lf" rd 
which place there is a large lake, the village being prettily 
situate at the end of it. The church service had j ust ended ; and 
a vast throng of the peasants filled the post-house, impatient 
to get their drams, according to custom, as a morning-whet 
after prayers. We saw no symptoms of intoxication : but 
this is the Swedish custom. Many of them came from a great 
distance ; and a little brandy, as one of them jocularly told 
us, helped to digest the sermon, and to sharpen their 
appetites for dinner. The road was crowded with little 
carts, each drawn by one horse, conveying the different 
families to their several homes ; and with the youth of both 
sexes, who were pacing on foot, by the side of their parents. 
Here a change was again visible in the costume. In the north ^^^f 6 
of Wermeland, as we have described it, the dress of the Peasants - 
peasants was uniformly black. It was also very uniform 

here : 

(2) " Urbs hie unica Carolostadium, a Rege Carolo IX. denominata, occupat insulam, 
ab ingenti flumine Carls Elff, ubi lacui Wener miscetur, factam, in quo ipso Wermiae 
meditullio sitam." Amcenit. Regn. Suec. torn. I. p. 442. L.Bat. 1706. 




chap. in. here : but the colours were grey or blue ; all blue, or all grey, 
as the parties were from different districts. From Molkem to 
Brattefors, the distance is fourteen English, or two Sivedish 
miles ; the roads being of that incomparable nature which we 
have so often described in Sweden; but to which frequent 
allusion may be made, that the Reader may bear in his mind 
the actual state of the country, and the industry of its inha- 
bitants. Incessant rain had fallen for some time before, 
without effecting the smallest change in the excellent condi- 
tion of these roads. The material for making them is always 
the same; a fine gravel, covering the broad and flat way. 
We did not consider the perfect state of the Swedish high- 
ways as owing so much to the material used, as to the 
manner adopted in making them. There is nothing of 
promiscuous work carried on, by way of keeping them in 
order ; nor any thing like a proposal set on foot for mending 
them by contract ; enabling adventurers to enrich themselves, 
by jobbing, at the public expense. Each peasant has a por- 
tion of the road assigned, by measure, to his peculiar care : 
and these portions are marked out by little boards, bearing 
the names of the peasants to whose management they have 
been entrusted : by which means emulation is excited among 
them ; every peasant being stimulated, by a degree of pride, to 
surpass, if possible, in his allotment, the work of his neigh- 
bour. We have known them, when they have attended us with 
their horses, point with exultation to the condition of that part 
of the road which has been under their care. At Molkem 
we dined in a neat new-built house, upon the game we had 
brought with us, and, as usual, upon our bread and cheese. 


Manner of 
keeping the 
Roads in 



Near Brattefors, our fore-axle broke : we therefore left the chap. hi. 
servants behind, to take care of the phaeton, and to have it 
mended ; and went forward, in a peasant's cart, to the inn ; 
where we hired two more carts to convey us to Philip- 
stad. Brattefors is black with iron forges ; and the houses, Br/ute/ors. 
some of which are good, are painted red. The road to 
Philipstad from Brattefors 1 passes many iron-foundries, and 
leads the traveller through finer scenery than the south of 
Sweden usually exhibits. The soil, if it may bear the name 
of soil, is altogether incorrigible : it consists of enormous 
loose fragments of bare granite, piled together till they 
become mountains, and form steep precipices. Upon these 
boulders there appears hardly a trace of any vegetable earth, Boulders. 
or even of any kind of covering ; yet they are thickly planted 
with forests of tall pines, birch, and juniper trees, which, in Trees. 
a marvellous manner, have found nourishment for their roots 
in the interstices between the boulders. Wolves are very Animals. 
numerous here: bears not so frequent. But of all qua- 
drupeds, the most abundant is the beautiful grey squirrel, 
which is seen skipping in the trees, and continually crossing 
the road. Sometimes, regardless of the traveller, these 


(l) For the curious minerals produced in the whole of this mining district, but which 
did not occur in this route, the reader is particularly referred to Engestrom's Guide du 
Voyageur aux Carrier es et Mines de Svede; Stockholm, 17QQ. Also to Thomson's Travels 
in Sweden, c. 20. p. 374. Lond. 1813. According to Engestrom, Journee III. p. 48. 
there was found in Brattefors mine, about the middle of the eighteenth century, a 
small vein of ferruginous clay, crossing the vein of iron, very rich in native silver, partly 
massive globular and ramified, and partly mixed in fine grains in the clay ; which, more- 
over, contained a good deal of kupfer'nickel, and a little ore of cobalt. 

■ '.-//t-.f/ !«*«* ■ ■ 




Uniform ap- 
pearance of 
the Swedish 

Dress of the 



playful little animals, being perched upon a bough near the 
road, will tumble into all sorts of attitudes, as if purposely 
to invite his notice, and to entertain him with their gambols. 
It was nearly dark before we arrived at Philipstad. We 
could perceive some country-seats most delightfully situate 
upon the shores of the little lake, at the northern extremity 
of which the town is placed. Although not so large as 
Carlstad, it seemed neater in its appearance. The view of it 
across a part of the lake, in the approach to the town, 
affords a most pleasing prospect; and except in such cir- 
cumstances of situation, there is little variety in the aspect 
of any of the Swedish towns. Having once figured to the 
imagination a number of low red houses, of a single story, 
each covered with turf and weeds, a picture is presented to 
the mind which will serve to give a correct idea of all the 
oppidan scenery of Sweden. There is no other country in 
the world, excepting perhaps Russia, that exhibits, over an 
equal extent of territory, such unvaried uniformity; and this, 
not only in the appearance of its buildings, but also of its inha- 
bitants and landscapes. The dress of the women, from one 
extremity of the kingdom to the other, is nearly the same; — 
a "scull-cap, sitting close to the crown, edged with a little 
stiff lace, the hair being drawn as tight and straight as pos- 
sible beneath the cap, from all parts of the head, as if to 
start from the roots: add to this, a handkerchief, thrown 
over the cap only when they go out; a jacket ; short petti- 
coats; stockings of coloured or white woollen; and high- 
heeled shoes ; — this is the general costume of the Swedish 
women. Then, for the landscape — one unbroken boundless 

forest ; 



forest ; varied only in the uniformity of its aspect by little chap. hi. 
patches of cultivated land, enclosed by fences formed every- Enclosures# 
where in the same manner, by sloping splinters of deal 
fastened by withys against upright poles. In fact, there is 
no other kind of fence used for enclosures over all Sweden, 
Lapland, Finland, and Norway. 

Philipstad is supported entirely by the mines in its neigh- 
bourhood : its commerce is consequently the same as that 
of Carlstad. It has been often destroyed by fire. The 
Church is a handsome white building, and looks well in the 
approach to the town. The environs are well wooded with 
fir, birch, and alder. There are here some good houses, but 
they are all painted of a red colour. The streets are paved. 
Most of the houses are covered with masses of iron slag, 
laid on to keep down the birch-bark upon the roofs. 

The next day, Monday, Nov. 4, our servants arrived at 
twelve o'clock with the carriage, which had been well 
repaired, and, as they said, rendered fit for any journey : but 
they had lost our bundle of fine juniper -sticks, which we JuniperTrees. 
had cut in the woods as we passed, and prized very much, as 
curious memorials of our journey, on account of their 
straight tapering shape, and the beauty of the bark which 

vol. vi. o covered 

■ ^M ^M :^Mi *Mr* JJ& j*s*w-^ 


chap. in. covered them. Although this loss, it might seem, would be 
easily repaired amidst the Scandinavian forests, we never 
afterwards saw the juniper flourishing in such perfection as 
upon the frontiers dividing the south of Sweden from Norway ; 
where it rises, in a sandy soil, to the height of twelve, sixteen, 
and even eighteen feet. Its branches are more erect than those 
of the common juniper, the leaves narrower and in more 
acute points, and are placed farther asunder on the branches : 
the berries also are larger. This Swedish or Tree-juniper was 
considered by Miller as a distinct species from the Juniperus 
communis; but they are only varieties of the same species'. 
We left Philipstad about four o'clock p.m.; and pro- 

omhytia. ceeded one stage, to Onshytta. Near this place are the 
celebrated irorc-mines of Persberg, which it was our object 
to visit. For this purpose we waited on an officer of the 
mines, called the Bruhs Patron, or Intendant ; and also upon 
the Director of the works ; begging also to see any collection 
of the Persberg minerals which might be in the place. We 
were not surprised at being told that no one interested him- 
self in making collections ; but that we might collect them 
ourselves, if we thought proper, at the mines. Having 
obtained also permission to descend into the principal mine, 
and to inspect the works, we fixed upon nine o'clock of the 
following day for making this visit ; when the Intendant 
volunteered his services, and offered to accompany us. We 
then returned to the inn, where we found a very comfortable 
room ; and spent the rest of the evening in writing our 
journals from the notes we had made, and in making 


(l) Martyns Edit, of Millers Diet. Vol.1. Part 2. Lond. IS07. 


preparation for our subterraneous expedition. Here we saw chap. hi. 

that remarkable bird, which, in Norway, is called, by those 

who speak the English language, the Wild Turkey : being, 

however, not much like a turkey ; but properly ranking at 

the head of the whole genus Tetrao, which is seen in such 

perfection among all the forests of Sweden and Norway. It 

is the largest of the two kinds of Tetrao. commonly known Twospedesof 

° J Tetrao or 

by the name of Black-cock, and is called Tjader by the Biack^oeh. 
Sivedes. The male is called simply Tjader; but the female, 
Tjader hdna, or the Tjader Hen. This magnificent bird, of 
which we saw the cock in full feather, is the Tetrao Urogallus 
of Briinnichius*. The Norwegians call it Tiur, Tecr, and 
Tedder. We saw also with it the other kind of Black-cock 
found in Norway, which enabled us to compare the two 
together. This last is the common Black-cock. The male is 
called by the Norwegians, Orre, and Orr-fugl; and the female 
Orre hena. It is the Tetrao Tetrix of ornithologists 3 . Both 
one and the other are found in tolerable abundance in the 
woods. Of this beautiful genus Tetrao, so valuable as an 
article of food, and so much esteemed by epicures, no less 
than eight species are common upon the Scandinavian 

On Tuesday, Nov. 5, we visited Persberg, distant a quarter Persherg. 
of a Swedish mile from Onshytta. There are here not less than 
thirteen different mines, all worked for iron, which have no 


(2) Orniihologia Borealis, Brunnichii, p. 5g. Hafnice, l"jQA. 

(3) Ibid. The author has seen the Tetrao Tetrix served at a London dinner- table 
it had been sent as a present from Norway. 


chap. in. communication with each other. To inspect the whole of 
them would require at least three days of active exertion. 
The hill, or mountain, in which these mines are situate, is 
itself entirely composed of veins and beds of iron-ore. A 
careful examination of one of them may, therefore, serve 
to afford a tolerably accurate knowledge of the whole. The 
Intendant who had so politely offered his services upon this 
occasion, as politely withdrew from the appointment ; not 
being desirous to follow us into the depths of the mine which 
he saw we were resolved to explore. However, he left us 
some stout miners to be of the party ; men much better 
suited for the undertaking, and likely to be much more 
serviceable. For some time after our arrival, we were 
employed in collecting minerals from the vast heaps of exca- 
vated matter, and from the labourers in the works. The list 
of these will be found in a Note 1 ; being calculated only to 
interest the chemical or mineralogical reader. Afterwards, 
we set out to examine the oldest and the largest of these 
mines. They are all of them private property, divided into 

a great 

(l) Octahedral crystals of iron-oxide in chlorite. 
Foliated sulphuret of bismuth. 

Snlphuret of iron, crystallized in the octahedral and cubic form. 
Asbestus and amianthus, imbedded in green serpentine. 
Steatite and pot-stone. 
Crystallized carbonate of lime. 
Globular fibrous carbonate of lime. 
Dark-green foliated mica. 

Leelite — sometimes called flesh-coloured horn-stone. 
Crystallized quartz. 



a great many shares. The miners work by measure ; chap. in. 
earning daily a sum equal to about two shillings English; 
that is to say, half a rix-dollar. They are paid weekly. 

The author's visit to these mines was made after he had 
personally inspected many of the principal works of the 
same nature in other countries, and especially in his own. 
For the last ten years of his life, he had been much in the 
habit of seeing similar works : it is not therefore owing to 
any surprise at the novelty of the scene before him, that he 
has now to mention the astonishment he felt when he arrived 
at the mouth of one of the great Persberg mines; but 
he is fully prepared to say of it, and with truth, there 
is nothing like it in all that he has beheld elsewhere. 
For grandeur of effect, filling the mind of the spectator 
with a degree of wonder which amounts to awe, there 
is no place where human labour is exhibited under cir- 
cumstances more tremendously striking. As we drew 
near to the wide and open abyss, a vast and sudden 
prospect of yawning caverns and of prodigious machinery 
prepared us for the descent. We approached the edge 
of the dreadful gulph whence the ore is raised ; and ventured 
to look down ; standing upon the verge of a sort of 
platform, constructed over it in such a manner as to 
command a view into the great opening as far as the eye 
could penetrate amidst its gloomy depths : for, to the sight, 
it is bottomless 2 . Immense buckets, suspended by rattling 


(2) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 

i..i# *c »#**.'3» : '„ **J.*, 


chap. in. chains, were passing up and down : and w T e could perceive 
ladders scaling all the inward precipices; upon which the 
work-people, reduced by their distance to pigmies in size, were 
ascending and descending. Far below the utmost of these 
figures, a deep and gaping gulph, the mouth of the lowermost 
pits, was, by its darkness, rendered impervious to the view. 
From the spot where we stood, down to the place where 
the buckets are filled, the distance might be about 
seventy- five fathoms ; and as soon as any of these buckets 
emerged from the gloomy cavity we have mentioned, or 
until they entered into it in their descent, they were visible ; 
but below this point they were hid in darkness. The 
clanking of the chains, the groaning of the pumps, the 
hallooing of the miners, the creaking of the blocks and 
wheels, the trampling of horses, the beating of the hammers, 
and the loud and frequent subterraneous thunder from the 
blasting of the rocks by gunpowder, in the midst of all this 
scene of excavation and uproar, produced an effect which no 
stranger can behold unmoved. We descended with two of 
the miners, and our interpreter, into this abyss. The ladders, 
instead of being placed like those in our Cornish mines, upon 
a series of platforms as so many landing-places, are lashed 
together in one unbroken line, extending many fathoms ; and 
being warped to suit the inclination or curvature of the sides of 
the precipices, they are not always perpendicular, but hang over 
in such a manner, that even if a person held fast by his hands, 
and if his feet should happen to slip, they would fly off from the 
rock, and leave him suspended over the gulph. Yet such ladders 
are the only means of access to the works below : and as the 


Descent into 
the Iron 



labourers are not accustomed to receive strangers, they chap. hi. 
neither use the precautions, nor offer the assistance, usually 
afforded in more frequented mines. In the principal tin- 
mints of Cornwall, the staves of the ladders are alternate 
bars of wood and iron : here they were of wood only, 
and in some parts rotten and broken, making us often 
wish, during our descent, that we had never undertaken an 
exploit so hazardous. In addition to the danger to be appre- 
hended from the damaged state of the ladders, the staves 
were covered with ice or mud ; and thus rendered so cold 
and slippery, that we could have no dependence upon our 
benumbed fingers, if our feet failed us. Then, to complete 
our apprehensions, as we mentioned this to the miners, they 
said, — " Have a care ! It was just so, talking about the staves, Catastrophe 

which belli! a 

that one of our women 1 fell, about four years ago, as she iv 


was descending to her work." il Fell !" said our Swedish 
interpreter, rather simply ; " and pray what became of her ?" 
" Became of her!" continued the foremost of our guides, 
disengaging one of his hands from the ladder, and slapping 
it forcibly against his thigh, as if to illustrate the manner of 
the catastrophe, — " she became (patlfeafea) a pancaked 

As we descended farther from the surface, large masses 
of ice appeared, covering the sides of the precipices. Ice 
is raised in the buckets with the ore and rubble of the 
mine : it has also accumulated in such quantity in some of the 


(l) Females, as well as males, work in the Swedish mines. 



chap. in. lower chambers, that there are places where it is fifteen 
fathoms thick, and no change of temperature above prevents 
its increase. This seems to militate against a notion now 
becoming prevalent, that the temperature of the air in mines 
increases directly as the depth from the surface, owing to 
the increasing temperature of the earth under the same cir- 
cumstances and in the same ratio ; but it is explained by the 
width of this aperture at the mouth of the mine, which 
admits a free passage of atmospheric air. In our Cornish 
mines, ice would not be preserved in a solid state at any 
considerable depth from the surface. 

Bottom of the After much fatigue, and no small share of apprehension, 


Mine. we a t length reached the bottom of the mine. Here 

we had no sooner arrived, than our conductors, taking 
each of us by an arm, hurried us along, through regions of 
" thick-ribbed ice" and darkness, into a vaulted level, through 
which we were to pass into the principal chamber of the 
mine. The noise of countless hammers, all in vehement action, 
increased as we crept along this level ; until at length, 
subduing every other sound, we could no longer hear each 
other speak, notwithstanding our utmost efforts. At this 

striking scene moment we were ushered into a prodigious cavern, whence 

in the Great x ° 

the sounds proceeded; and here, amidst falling waters, 
tumbling rocks, steam, ice, and gunpowder, about fifty 
miners were in the very height of their employment. The 
magnitude of the cavern, over all parts of which their 
labours were going on, was alone sufficient to prove that the 
iron-ore is not deposited in veins, but in beds. Above, 
below, on every side, and in every nook of this fearful 





dungeon, glimmering tapers disclosed the grim and anxious chap. hi. 

countenances of the miners. They were now driving bolts 

of iron into the rocks, to bore cavities for the gunpowder, for 

blasting. Scarcely had we recovered from the stupefaction 

occasioned by our first introduction into this Pandcemonium, 

when we beheld, close to us, hags more horrible than perhaps 

it is possible for any other female figures to exhibit, holding 

their dim quivering tapers to our faces, and bellowing in our 

ears. One of the same sisterhood, snatching a lighted 

splinter of deal, darted to the spot where we stood, with 

eyes inflamed and distilling rheum, her hair clotted with 

mud, dugs naked and pendulous ; and such a face, and such 

hideous yells, as it is impossible to describe : — 

Black it stood, as Night — fierce as ten Furies — 
Terrible as Hell 

If we could have heard what she said, we should not have 
comprehended a syllable : but as several other Parcce, 
equally Gorgonian in their aspect, passed swiftly by us, 
hastening tumultuously towards the entrance, we began to 
perceive, that if we remained longer in our present situation, 
Atropos might indeed cut short the threads of our existence ; 
for the noise of the hammers had now ceased, and a 
tremendous blast was near the point of its explosion. We 
had scarcely retraced with all speed our steps along the 
level, and were beginning to ascend the ladders, when the 
full volume of the thunder reached us, as if roaring with 
greater vehemence because pent amongst the crashing rocks, 
whence, being reverberated over all the mine, it seemed 
to shake the earth itself with its terrible vibrations. 

vol. vi. p We 

asrt ^B 



state of the 


We were afterwards conducted into other cavities of the 
Persberg works. The whole hill of Persberg may be con- 
sidered as a vast deposit of iron-ore; the ore lying in separate 
beds. The miners work in spacious caverns, like those of 
our salt-mines, at Sandbach, in Cheshire; excepting that the 
interior of our salt-mines, containing neither glaciers nor 
cataracts, nor dreadful precipices to be scaled by means of 
rotten ladders 1 , nor filthy wretched females doomed to do 
the work of men, are rather pleasing than intimidating in 
their appearance. The ore of the Persberg mines consists 
of magnetic iron-oxide, either in fine or in coarse grains. 
Those mines which we saw, and in which, working with 
our own hands, we obtained specimens of the ore, exhibited 
this oxide in a state of very remarkable association with 
garnet; insomuch that garnet may be considered here, not 
only as a leader to the ore, but as the ore itself; many of 
the specimens wrought for the iron they contain being masses 
of garnet. The whole district is of primitive formation ; 
the rocks being of gneiss or of granite, containing more or 
less of hornblende, and, in some places, beds of primitive 


(1) The descent into the Cheshire salt-mines is by means of buckets, in which ladies 
may be conveyed into the mine, and back again, with the utmost safety and 

(2) Montana est " (observes the author of the Amoenitates Regnorum Suecice, with 
reference to this province,) " et sylvestris. Metalli fodinas, et nuper admodum ditis- 
simam cupri venam inventam habet." (Delicice, siveAmoen. Regn. Suec. torn. I. p. 442. 
L. Bat. 1706.) 




As soon as we had concluded our examination of the Persberg chap. hi. 
mines, we went to the Inspector's house, where we packed 
up our minerals. Afterwards, returning to the inn at 
Onshytta, we set off for Saxan. The whole of this part of 
Wermeland is throughout perforated by mines. 

About nine English miles from Onshytta, at a place called Lhngban- 


hangbanshytta, there is an exceeding rich mine of iron ore, of 
which the principal part is the per-oxide called hcematite: it lies 
to the north of the road leading towards Saxan ; but we could 
not bestow time enough for visiting this mine. The mineralo- 
gical traveller will however be wise, if he do not follow our 
example in this respect. He will find few mines richer in 
interesting minerals 3 . He should also be aware, that at the 


'* The whole of Fermeland," says Thomson, " with the exception of a small track 
on the borders of the Vener, is primitive, and may be said to consist entirely of gneiss 
rocks, similar to those which constitute the neighbourhood of Gotteburg. Here and 
there occur beds of mica-slate, limestone, primitive griinstone, &c. ; but none of them, 
as far as I could learn, are of any great extent. It is to the mines which abound in 
this province that it owes its chief value." Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 374. Lond. 

(3) It has been wrought upwards of three hundred years. It is near a lake called 
Langban. According to Dr. Thomson, (Trav. in Sweden, p. 378,) it lies in a limestone 
rock. The minerals found in this mine are : 

1. Sub-varieties of haematite. 

2. Magnetic iron-oxide, granular, fibrous, and crystallized. Also micaceous iron 

and specular iron ore, similar to that from Elba, yet attracted by the magnet. 

3. Sulphuret of iron. 

4. White manganese spar, globular and radiated. 

5. Iron spar. 

6. Ferruginous scintillating sulphate of lime. 

7. Sparry carbonate of lime. 

8. Red and brown jasper, according to Engestrbm. 'According to Thomson, this 

is iron flint. 

. Garnets, 



chap, in. distance of ten English miles and a half from Philipstad, 
there are the iro/z-mines of Normark, in which the minerals 
are neither so curious nor so varied and abundant as at 
Langba?ishytta ; but the mines themselves are very antient, 
and well worthy of his attention 1 . A little more than an 
English mile from Normark are also the iron-mines of Taberg ; 


9. Garnets, red and yellow j containing from 15 to 21 per cent, of iron. (Thomson.) — 
Dr. Thomson mentions a garnet found here, containing, besides 2(5 per cent of 
oxide of iron, above 8 per cent, of oxide of manganese, lime, carbonic acid, 
and soda : the silica amounting to 35.20. 

10. Pycnite. 

1 i. Tourmaline. 

12. Green and yellow serpentine. 

13. Mountain-leather, mountain-cork, and other varieties of asbestus and amianthus. 

14. White clay. 

15. Black massive hornblende. 

16. Epidote. 

17. Sahlite. 

18. Petroleum, and glance-coal. 

19. Red silicate of manganese. 

(l) It lies in mica-slate. Limestone, containing manganese and hornblende, occurs 
in this mine. (Thomson.) — Its other minerals are: 

1. Magnetic iron-oxide. 

2. Sulphuret of lead, crystallized. 

3. Varieties of crystallized carbonate of lime. 

4. Varieties of asbestus. Mountain-leather, mountain-cork. 

5. Dark foliated mica. 

6. Dark-green fibrous hornblende. 

7. Crystallized sahlite. 

8. Red garnet. 

Dr. Thomson, (Trav. in Sweden, p. 375,) mentions a peculiar mineral found in this 
mine, which has not yet been named. It was examined, he says, by Gahn, who found 
it to contain muriatic acid. It occurs crystallized in regular six-sided prisms : its colour 
is yellowish brown, passing into greenish : by transmitted light, it appears greenish 
yellow. Its specific gravity equals 3.081. 



and they are rendered remarkable for the singular varieties of chap. hi. 
asbestus, particularly the beautiful amianthus found there 2 . 
In returning to Philipstad, after visiting these mines, he will 
also find the iron-mine of Agegrufvan, which lies close to the 
road 3 . Leaving Onshytta, we were struck by the appearance 


(2) This iron mine lies also in mica-slate. The ore is magnetic iron-oxide. Its 
principal minerals, according to Engestrom and Thomson, are : 

1 . Black granular magnetic iron. 

2. Sulphuret of zinc. 

3. Cubic sulphuret of iron. 

4. Lime-spar. 

5. Micaceous steatite, and serpentine. 

6. Dark-green foliated mica. 

7. Varieties of amianthus and asbestus. 
S. Native bismuth. 

9. Sulphuret of copper. 

10. Magnesian carbonate of lime. (Bitter-spar.) Also light-blue litter-spar mixed 

with asbestus. 

11. Dark-green chlorite. 

12. Light-green asbestiform actinote. 

13. Light-green glassy tremolite. 

14. Silicate of magnesia, called greenish-grey steatite, consisting of 

Magnesia - - - 31 
Silica - --- 43 
Iron ----- 5 
Volatile matter - - 16 

100 Geijer. 
(3) The mines of Age, called Agegrujvan, are situate about seven miles from Philipstad. 
(Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 377-) Like the preceding, they consist of iron ore, 
which occurs in a rock of mica-slate. The minerals found here, are : 

1. Massive and granular magnetic iron-oxide. 6. Epidote, crystallized in quartz. 

2. Many varieties of lime-spar. 

3. Garnet, in regular dodecahedral crystals. 

4. Dark foliated mica. 

5. Black foliated hornblende. 

7. Massive epidote. 

8. Various forms of asbestus. 

9. Hydrates of silica, of various colours. 
10. Crystallized quartz. 




chap , in. of a most curious mechanical contrivance, which presented 

Machinery for itself in our road, for working the mine pumps. It consisted of 

Pumps. a most extensive combination of levers, all in motion, working 

parallel to each other by means of water, being separated 

by transverse bars resting upon upright posts with pivots. 

These bars were about eight or ten feet in length ; 
but the side levers extended to mines out of our sight. 
The stream and wheel for giving motion to these levers 
was on the left-hand side of the road ; under which, in 
one place, the levers passed, and, appearing again on our 
right, extended over the surface of the ground as far as we 
could see. Their appearance all in motion, without any 
person being visible near them, was very extraordinary ; for 
it is difficult to conceive how so much machinery, consisting 
of such numerous parts, can be preserved in free action and 
without injury, remote from all observation. We afterwards 
passed several of these water-works, affording astonishing 
proofs of the extensive mining operations here carried on. 
They all move alike, by a successive series of impulses. 


For an account of other mines and minerals in the Province of Wermeland, the 
Reader is referred to Enges tram's Guide aux Mines de Swede; Stockholm, 1 796 : but 
for much better, and more scientific information, to Thomson's Travels in Sweden, 
Lond. 1813. 



Our journey from Onshytta to Saxan was over a wild and chap. hi. 
mountainous district ; but the roads were excellent. Sax ^ 
Quantities of slag and scoriae, in our approach to Saxan, 
denoted the presence of iron-foundries, to which it owes its 
support. Part of the iron ore from Persberg is brought here 
to be smelted and forged : it is then conveyed, in the form 
of bar-iron, to Christinehamn, and thence, by the Lake Wener, 
to Trolhcetta and Gothenburg. This trade supports the village 
of Saxan, which consists of a rich and good inn, and a few 
respectable farm-houses. 

On Wednesday, Nov. 6, we left Saxan about seven a.m. 
The morning was very wet and cold. We had proceeded 
about half a Swedish mile in our day's journey to Laxbro, when 
we passed the boundary of the province of Wermeland, 
and entered into Westmanland, or, as it is sometimes called, 
Wesimania; the natives of which province speak the Swedish Westmania. 
language in greater purity, and with a better accent, than 
any other. Our road lay through forests. In going to 
Nytorp, our first relay, the appearance of beautiful lakes, 
like those in the north of Sweden, engaged our admiration. 
We often wished to halt, and make drawings of them. The 
timber in these forests runs to a prodigious height, but the 
trees are slender, and by no means equal in bulk to those we 
had seen in other provinces. We passed iron-foundries and 
sawing- mills. From Saxan, the whole way to the frontier 
of Dalarne, or Dalecarlia, in journeying through Westmanland ', 
the traveller constantly meets with mines or iron-foundries : 
and it is worthy of remark, that whenever these appearances 


)&£«ew^ $r**&£#x H^f^^js* ir&& 



chap. in. take place, there are also evident marks of the blessings of 

industry, in the neatness and comfort of the dwellings near 

them, and sometimes in the signs of wealth and of elegance 

which may be observed. These subterraneous treasures, and 

their consequences, in employing so many foundries, and in 

requiring so much aid of machinery for working the mines, 

are among the most profitable possessions of Sweden. Their 

evident importance in the prosperity to which they give rise, 

throughout districts that would otherwise be deserted, ought 

to serve as a lesson to the inhabitants of other countries to 

seek diligently for such sources of industry and opulence 

where the features of the country are unfavourable to 

agriculture ; since it is the same Providence which renders 

productive to human labour the most bleak and barren rock, 

and the most fertile vegetable soil. We had left Wermeland 

with feelings very different from those with which we 

entered it from Norway; where the barren aspect of the 

country seemed calculated to excite the murmur of its 

inhabitants. For even amidst these rocks we beheld 

" a land which the Lord had blessed;" — a land, it is true, 

where sluggards might starve, — as they may anywhere ; but 

where a sturdy and active race of men have already found 

all that is necessary for the comforts and even for the luxuries 



Hiiiuforss. About nine English miles from Saxan is Hdlleforss, a place 




long rendered remarkable for its silver-mines, but which are chap. hi. 
now nearly exhausted 1 . Three English miles and a half 
beyond Halleforss we arrived at Nytorp. Rain fell incessantly, Nytorp. 
and in torrents ; but the roads, as before, were so excellent, 
that it seemed to make no alteration in them. Leaving 
Nytorp, and going towards Hjulsio, we observed beautiful 
lakes on each side of the route. We had forest-scenery in 
our way from Hjulsio to the mines of Nya Kopparberg ; a NyaKoppar- 
name signifying the New Copper Hill ', or Copper Mountain ; 
in opposition to Gamla Kopparberg, or the Old Copper 
Mountain, the name usually given to the works at Falilun. 
The copper-mines of Nya Kopparberg were exceedingly rich 
when they were first discovered, but at present they are 
poor. The whole district is of primitive formation, and 
consists of schistose or foliated granite. Various specimens Minerals. 
of granite may be had from these mines; and several varieties 
of fluor-spar, which is not a common mineral in Siveden. 
We found here that interesting variety of fluor-spar, which, 
from its phosphorescing with a green light, is called 


(l) The minerals found at Halleforss are : 

1. Argentiferous sulphuret of lead. 

2. Sulphuret of lead, crystallized in cubes. 

3. Micaceous sulphuret of lead. 

4. Yellow sulphuret of copper, in acicular crystals. 

5. Sulphuret of iron, in various forms. 

6. Sulphuret of zinc. 
7« Lime-spar. 

8. Crystallized quartz. 

9. Hydrates. of silica, of various hues. 
10. Siliceous breccia. 




chap. in. Chlorophane : and it may be remarked, that fluor never 
exhibits phosphorescence in such a high degree of perfection, 
or with such beautiful hues, as when it is found in a state of 
association with the ores of copper 1 . The ore of Nya 
Kopparberg is the yellow sulphuret, called copper pyrites : it 
is found accompanied by the sulphurets of zinc and iron. 
Among the rarer minerals of this mine may be mentioned 
the remarkable substance to which D' Andrada gave the name 
of Petalite; since rendered so interesting to the mineralogist 
and the chemist by containing Lithina, the new alkali, disco- 
vered in this mineral by Arfacdson, the pupil of Berzelius*. 
The village near which the Nya- Kopparberg mines are 


(1) The minerals of Nya Kopparberg are : 

1. Grey sulphuret of copper. 

2. Yellow sulphuret of copper — peacock-ore of copper. ' 

3. Sulphuret of zinc. 

4. Sulphuret of lead. 

5. White, green, and violet fluor-spar. 

6. Fibrous hornblende. 

7. Actynolite. 

8. Pot-stone, 

9. Dark-red feldspar. 

10. Mica. 

11. Sulphuret of iron. 

12. Quartz. 

13. Petalite. (See Thomsons Travels in Sweden, for this locality of petalite.) The 

mines from which the specimens have been derived that have been usually 
sold in England, are those of Uto. 

(2) This discovery took place nearly at the same time that the analysis of petalite, by 
the author of these Travels, was published in Dr. Thomson's Annals of Philosophy. 
The author had transmitted to the celebrated Berzelius, through Mr. Swedenstierna of 
Stockholm, his doubts as to the presence of a new body in petalite, calculated to supply 
the loss sustained in his own examination of that mineral. In Mr. Swedenstierna' s 
answer, the discovery of lithina, by Arfvedson, was announced. Mr. Swedenstierna' $ 
letter is dated February 17th, 1818. It is now in the author's posssession. 



situate, is called Laxbro. The inn here was quite full, owing chap. hi. 
to a Sessions held by the principal Magistrate of the district: Laxbrt. 
but the master of the inn, with great kindness, had provided 
for us most excellent accommodations in a very splendid 
house, hard by, belonging to one of the proprietors of the 
mines. We found here a few books which convinced us that 
topographical works were beginning to make their appearance 
in Siveden. Among others, we saw a description of the 
town of Orebro, with plates tolerably well executed : it had 
been printed in Stockholm. The business of the Sessions had 
assembled some of the lawyers. We passed the evening 
with one of them, a very intelligent man, well read in the 
antiquities of his country, and well acquainted with the 
Finnish language. He told us, that this language is more 
difficult for a Swede to become acquainted with, than with 
English; which must be evident to an Englishman, from the 
resemblance his own language bears to the Swedish; and its 
total discrepancy, when compared with the language of 
Finland, which seems to bear no resemblance to any other 
language, if we except that of Lapland, to which, however, 
it is not nearly allied. A curious circumstance happened in 
former times, during a war between Sweden and Russia. 
A colony of Finns, disturbed in their settlements by the pre- 
datory incursions of the Russians, deserted their country, 
crossed the Gulph of Bothnia at the Quarchen, and established 
themselves in the forests of Herjeadalen, where their 
descendants, at this hour, speak the Finnish language in its 
original purity. 




lieauty of the 
] ,akes. 

chat\ in. If wc were to describe all the beautiful lakes which we 
saw in our next day's journey, Nov. 7, in going from Laxbro 
to Bommarsbo, the Reader might fancy himself transported, 
by the Fairy-led Muse of Spenser, amidst the scenes of some 
terrestrial paradise. So much is due to the picturesque 
beauty of the landscapes. A traveller, who is a draughts- 
man, might be tempted to halt almost at every instant, and 
endeavour to delineate some of these delightful views. 

Soon after leaving the house of the wealthyproprietor who 
had so politely and hospitably received and entertained us, 
we passed close to the mouth of one of the principal mines, 
which, with its yawning gulph and complicate machinery, 
occurred by the side of the road. There was not a living 
creature to be seen near it ; but we were told that a numerous 
body of miners were at their work below. No precaution is 
used in Sweden, either to close up, or to fence, the dangerous 
pits which have been made in working the mines ; neither is 
there anv sign bv which their situation mav be known. 
The consequences must be obvious, in the accidents which 
happen : for the benighted stranger who is travelling in this 
country, and the herds of cattle foddered in the forests, 
must be constantly liable to fall into them. We passed 
some of the lakes before mentioned. Near Hogforss we saw 
a smelting-house, once used for silver ore found near this 
place, in Christian s Mine, which is now exhausted. A con- 
tinued series of lakes was exhibited to us, in the midst of the 
most beautiful undulating forest scenery, during the journey 
from Hogforss, through Hellsion, to Ostanbo, which is situate 




upon one of those lakes. How numerous are these aqueous chap. hi. 

scenes in Sweden! May they not be considered as the reliques of 

that vast world of retiring waters, out of which rose the rocks 

and the forests of Scandinavia ; and of which the Wener and 

the Wetter Lakes, nay, even the Gulph of Bothnia, and all the 

Baltic Sea, are themselves only the vestiges ? " These lakes," 

says Thomson 1 , in his valuable account of Sweden, " consist 

of the purest and most transparent water ; and serve not only 

to beautify the country, but are a considerable resource to 

the inhabitants, on account of the numerous fish which they 

all contain." In very many instances, their banks are so 

covered with wood, that the trees grow luxuriantly quite 

down to the water's edge ; which remark particularly 

applies to the Wener, covered all round its shores with the 

most magnificent proves. Yet that these lakes are but the Diminution 

to ° of their 

remains of an overwhelming deluge, once as hostile to the Waters. 
prosperity of the human race as they now are beneficial, is 
evident from this circumstance, that their waters are 
gradually retiring. Judging therefore of the distant and the 
future by the present, we may fairly conclude, that, as a 
general flood once involved the whole of this watery region, 
out of which — realizing the antient fable of a Venus 
Anadyomene — has risen the whole of Scandinavia, so it is 
reasonable to infer that some portion of mankind, yet 
unborn, will hereafter people the mountains and the hills 


(1) Trav. in Sweden, p. 392. Lond. 1813. 

■ '«**"■'. I I ■ I I 



chap. in. and the valleys now covered by the waves. " There is 
great reason to believe," observes the author before cited 1 , 
" that the lakes in Siveden are diminishing in their size, and 
that many of them will at last dry up. I saw several striking 
instances of this diminution. Ii is attended with a corre- 
sponding diminution in the size of the Swedish rivers ; most, 
if not all, of which originate from lakes. This diminution 
has become so striking at Upsala, that apprehensions are 
entertained that the river running through the city will soon 
be incapable of driving a corn-mill, upon which the 
University depends for a considerable part of its revenue. 
A diminution in the size of the Baltic has ever been remarked 
by the Stvedish writers ; and demonstrated by evidence that, 
to me, at least, appears incontestable." 

smedbacka. From Ostanbo to SmedbacJca, the distance is only half a 

Stvedish mile. Here we found an iron-foundry, and several 
new buildings pleasantly situate upon a lake. We considered 
a dirty inn at SmedbacJca as by no means a common 

Blood cakes, occurrence in Sweden. In this country, cakes are made by 
mixing the blood of animals with rye-flour, which are after- 
wards fried in grease, and esteemed luxurious articles of food. 
Should any fastidious reader consider such a diet as the 
remains of barbarous Teutonic customs, let him be reminded, 
that where refinement is supposed to be exhibited in its most 
boasted state of advancement, it is no unusual thing to see a 
mixture of blood and fat stuffed into a swine's entrails, and 


(l) Trav. in Sweden, p. 394. Lond. 1813. 



served up at the tables of the great, under the name of chap. ii. 
black-puddings ; at which, perhaps, his own mouth has often 
watered. — Peace, therefore, to the poor Sivcde, who seasons 
his rye-cake with blood ! 

Between Smedbacka and Bommarsbo, we entered the pro- Entrance of 

r t\ 7 t~\7 .. . . Dalecarlia. 

vince of Dalarne, or Dalecarlia. Here a botanist might amuse 
himself, amidst the supreme court of the Cryptogamia, by 
selecting, in their best dresses, the most luxuriant specimens 
of Fungi and Musci which perhaps he will find in all Varieties and 

. Luxuriance of 

Europe. Every species of morel*, in the most grotesque the Fungi -and 


forms, like a very buffoon of plants, and of uncommon size, 
grows here : also various kinds of Lycopodium, especially 
the complanatum and the annotinum : — the former, called 
jcimna by the Swedes, and pronounced yemna, is the common 
tenant of all the sterile forests in Sweden : it is often used, 
by the natives, for giving a yellow dye to their wool. Of the 
morels, we observed, that in proportion as their growth was 
the more luxuriant, so much the more remarkable was the 
plant for its strange and misshapen appearance : it was 
hardly possibly to view some of them without laughing ; 
so uncouth and ridiculous was their appearance : we might 
almost fancy that there existed a spirit of fun and caricature 
in the lowest order of vegetable beings. At Bommarsbo Bommarsbo. 
we found only a single house. The owners were poor ; but 
the accommodations were clean and good, and much superior 
to those of Smedbacha. In Sweden, as in Norway, every 


(2) Phallus esculentus, Phallus impudicus, and Phallus caninus. 


CHAP. Ill- 

Home Manu- 
fkcture of 



General Fea- 
tures of Da- 


housekeeper manufactures his own candles; and some of 
these home-made candles were brought to us, as clear and 
white as if they had been composed of pure spermaceti. 
But what is more curious, they are often not made until 
after the traveller arrives. At Bommarsbo, they were made 
and sent in almost as quickly as they could have been 
procured at the great inns of Salt Hill or Marlborough, by 
an order given to a waiter. 

Upon the 8th of November we left Bommarsbo, at eight a.m. 
with a view of a lake towards our right, which continued 
for some distance: and when we left it, a more distant view 
of lakes and islands extended towards the south-east. We 
changed horses at Russ-garden, and proceeded to Naglarby ; 
passing, in our way, an extinct iron-mine, and also a place 
where there had been a foundry. As we drew near to 
Naglarby, the country was more open, well cultivated, and 
fully peopled. The general aspect of Dalecarlia is that of a 
level fertile plain, enclosed for agriculture, and surrounded 
by mountains. The village of Naglarby is situate in this 
plain, and surrounded by lakes and rivers. After we left it, 
we continued along this delightful plain for about two 
English miles, when we came to a ferry over the river Dal ; 
and, in our way to this ferry, saw several tributary streams, 
in which a sort of stake-fences were set in all directions, 
as enclosures to catch the numerous fishes wherewith 
these waters abound. Our road from Naglarby to Fahlun 
was long and dreary, chiefly by the side of the Dal. Upon 
the left of our route we were shewn the residence of the 
woman who was nurse to the young king, Gustavus the Fourth. 




The Court of Sweden chose for this purpose a Balarne chap. in. 

peasant; the females of this country being esteemed not only 

as the best nurses of Siveden, but as valuable servants in any character of 

the Natives. 

menial capacity in which they engage. Everything that a 

Dalarne man does, is thought better done than if executed 

by other hands : and, in their own opinion, the natives of 

this province believe that no people can compare with them. 

The number of births in Dalecarlia is surprisingly great : 

but as its produce is not equal to the support of one half of 

its population, the youth of both sexes are sent out to earn a 

livelihood in different parts of Siveden: afterwards they 

return home, as they do not choose to marry out of their 

own province. A Dalarne man always considers himself 

equal, in strength, prowess, and ability, to any two of the 

natives of the rest of Sweden. The antient language of the 

people, and their antient mode of dress, is still kept up among 

them. We were told that in the northern district of this Dialect. 

province a dialect is spoken closely resembling English; but 

the same may be said of other parts of Sweden: and more 

than once we had an opportunity of remarking, that when the 

Swedes offered examples of Swedish dialect which to them 

were almost unintelligible, either owing to their antiquity or 

to their provincial character, they were, on this account, the 

more intelligible to us ; and so like to our old English 

language, that they differed from it only as the sort of 

English used by Robert of Gloucester, exhibiting the transition 

from the Saxon to the English language 1 , or that which 


(1) See Dr. Johnson's History of the English Language, in the Preface to his Dictionary. 






chap. in. Bellenden adopted in his translation of Boethius 1 , differs 
from the English now in use 5 . The aspect of the country 
is not like that of Sweden in general, being more level and 
open : we thought it resembled Cambridgeshire. The old 
dance of the Dalecarlians is simple, and very pleasing: it is 


(1) Hector Boece, or Boethius, Canon of Aberdeen, wrote a History of Scotland in 
1546: its translation, or paraphrase, was written by Bellenden, Archdean of Murray ; 
and appeared in Edinburgh, in black letter, in 1541. 

"They use," says Dr. Thomson, " a dialect of their own, similar to that dialect of 
English which is spoken in the Lowlands of Scotland. It is reported, that a Dalecarlian 
who spoke this language, being landed wax Abrrdeen, was understood by the inhabitants." 
Trav. in Sweden, p. 202. 

(2) Holenius,oi Fahhin, in the Dissert ationes Academica> of Upsal, published a brief 
Vocabulary of the Dalarne dialect, shewing its relationship to the Gothic, Icelandic, 
Danish, Saxon, Teutonic, Vandalic, German, English, Greek, Spanish, Italian, Anglo- Saxon , 
Franco-Theotisc, and Mceso- Gothic. See the Section entitled " De Lingua Dalehar- 
lorum hodiernal in tlie Second Part of his Thesis " De Dalekarlia," printed at Upsal ; 
p. 139. — Many other instances mtght be addnced, more striking to an English ear than 
those which he has mentioned - but among them are the following: — 


Dret . 

#ron . 


frma . 

31s . . 

Is . . 

2au . . . Ericre 

Ivnaif . 

t?t . 

ftkti . 

an . 

. jentaculum apponere . TBratlD .... "S&tlXb. 
i E xcroTfi €v. tuTP . . . 5Drit ..... Oitt. 

. F; igere to .ftp. 

. Sr ; ges #rion .... <&rain. 

. Grameii . <£5r&xs. 

. CapUu legmen . . . tyattut .... i^at. 

. Ego ©g 31. 

. Glacies let. 

to QEtt. 

Cxtliei ........ fomjfTut . . . Knife. 

Hefjar %yz ..... Jliuer. 

Midtum Sptog .... Spurt). 

Lac Spioolfc .... Spilk. 

Sal @alt ©alt. 

Juris <£?ra €ax. 



performed by three persons, — a man with two women, one on 
each side of him, who alternately engage his attention, until 
the dance concludes by an allemande, in which, as by one 
accord, they all join. We have found occasion, in former 
parts of our journey in Sca?idinavia, to allude to the curious 
remains of customs which belonged equally to the Hyper- 
boreans and the Greeks. Whoever attends to the rites and 
ceremonies of a Dalecarlian wedding, will be struck with 
their resemblance to the manners of the antient Greeks. Of 
this the Sivedish writers have, in some instances, been them- 
selves aware 2 ; although sometimes it may have led them 
erroneously to suppose that one nation owed its origin to the 
other, rather than that both were the descendants of one 
common stock. That we may avoid repetition, we shall 
not again otherwise notice the curious Runic Staves, of which 
we met with more than one instance in the villages of 
Dalecarlia. That they are the same as the written rods men- 
tioned in the earliest part of Sacred Scripture, has been 
already shewn, in a former part of this work 3 . But the 
original use of them we found here sufficiently explained : 
for, like the staff of an Ataman among the Cossacks, they are 



Original use 
of the Runic 

(2) "Quod si comparatio accuratior instituenda foret Graecorum Romanorumque 
rituum circa nuptias, in muhisDalekarlorurnac veterum Hyperboreorum responderent." 
Ibid. p. 137- Conf. Heims Kringla Peringsk. torn. I. pp. 140, 557 } 655. torn, II. p. 425. 
Verelii Not. in Hist. Herv. c. 4. LL. Dal. Tit. de Matrim. sect. 1,^2. Sagan af 
Hcesna Thorir. c. 17, 18, 19. Alb.c.Q. Thorde Hredo, c.\7, 37. Liosvet. S.p.17. 
Gunlaug. Ormst. S. p. 18. JVilhelm Siodx, c. 68, &c. 01. Tryggw. c. 29, 42. Herraudz 
oc Bosc. S. c. 11, &c. Swarf dala, c. 17. Eigla, c. 11, & 56. Rod. hin Spaka, c. 1. 
Isjird, c. 34. Codd. MS. in Arch. Antiquit. Holmensi; Jac. Gronovii Thes.Antiq. Gr. 
torn. VII, & VIII. /. G. Greevii Thes. Antiq. Rom. torn. VIII, & XII. 

(3) See Scandinavia, Part I. Chap XV. p. 554. 

m& : ™ 



chap. in. still regarded as ensigns of office, and are borne in the hand, 
upon particular occasions, by the Elders of each village where 
they are found. The earliest Grecian annals seem also to 
allude to similar insignia, as the staves of the accredited 

agents of power 1 . 


(1) A passage in Dr. Fiott Lee's MS. Journal remarkably illustrates the use of these 
Runic Staves; which may have been alluded to by Homer, and are evidently the same 
as the sticks of the Tribes of Israel mentioned in Scripture :— 

" When Jupiter had occasion to despatch his courier, we are told by Homer that 
Mercury t'lXero to tttyoc rj> ftdydpuy ofifxara Qi\yu, ry <c. r. X. raprdpuv k. t. \. : and 
probably without this ensign of office which he took with him, he had no powers at 
all. His efficacy thence originated. He had no influence in his proper person. And, 
lo ! this wand was but a piece of ivory ! 

" When I was on the borders of Lapmark, in a peasant's house called Niemesele, 
on a lake side, I observed, hanging up, a square-sided stick about a foot long, with tine 
gilt-work and carving about it 3 and on one side were cut the following ten characters : 

I was much amused with it, and asked them to part with it ; intending to make them a 
small present, which, in my opinion, would be an equivalent,; when it turned out that 
I might as well have asked the Lord Mayor for the city-mace : and judge of my surprise, 
upon hearing that it was the ensign of office in the village ; that he who had it in 
possession, pro tempore, was the Chief, the Civil Governor of the village, which con- 
sisted of ten families, each of which had its own distinguishing mark 3 — that upon any 
very public and important emergency, which demanded the collected wisdom and 
experience of the heads of the families to decide upon, this stick was sent round to 
each family ; and every head of a house, upon seeing his family-mark, immediately 
repaired to the house of him in whose custody the stick had been consigned, and there 
they all held their deliberations. In case they do not attend the summons, they are 
severally fined. No money therefore could have purchased it : and that which I at 
first regarded as an object of amusement, I found to be held an object of veneration." 

Dr. Lee's MS. Journal. 



One mile and a quarter before we reached Fahlun, we chap. hi. 
turned a little out of the road, to visit the house in which Retreat of 
Gustavus Vasa remained concealed, and whence he afterwards 
effected his escape, by means of a privy. It is at a. place 
called Stora Ornas. This house is now the property of a 
Colonel in the Swedish service, who has been at great pains 
and expense to preserve, as much as possible in its pristine 
state, this asylum of the great father of the Swedish Kings. 
They shewed to us the chamber and bed in which he slept ; 
his clothes, weapons, coat of mail, and many other things, 
even to his watch and his Bible. His watch and coat of 
mail appeared to us to be the most curious reliques. The 
watch was of an oval shape, but the figures upon it were 
like those now in use. The coat of mail was like the armour 
used by the Circassians; and was perhaps manufactured in 
Mount Caucasus, where the natives still sell such articles of 
their manufacture to the Russians. It is a shirt of twisted 
mail, fitting close to the body, through which no common 
weapon could penetrate. We found the weight of it by no 
means insupportable for men of much less prowess than was 
the hero to whom it belonged. Upon a table in the room 
were laid several books illustrating the history of Gustavus 
Vasa and of the province of Dalecarlia. This chamber was 
ornamented with portraits, very indifferently executed, of the 
Kings and Queens of Sweden since the time of Gustavus Vasa. 
There was also an immense genealogical-tree, exhibiting their 
pedigree. In the same room were figures, as large as life, 
representing the Dalecarlians according to their antient mode 
of dress, with high-crowned hats, white woollen clothes, and 


.'tj^.r.^fc^'i-vX-t.^j ^H ^v-^fi^c S*.3i Jft^ 



chap. hi. trovvsers tied above the knee ; bearing in their hands cross- 
bows, and having each a knife and a grease-pot suspended 
from a belt. These they said were the images of the very 
peasants who assisted Gustavus Vasa in making his escape. 
They were represented with long beards, and reminded us 
of some of the natives of the Swedish Alps which we had 
seen in the province of Herjeadalen. Here there is also an 
effigy of Gustavus Vasa himself, placed beneath a canopy ; 
and also of his page or esquire, in complete armour. The 
bed and the canopy terminate upwards in a point, upon 
which is placed a coronet. The complete preservation of 
this building will shew to what a length of time the wooden 
houses of Siveden may be made to last, if they be kept dry 
and in good repair. 

From Stora Ornas to Fahlun, the roads, at this season of the 
year (November J , are not good ; owing, as we supposed, to 
the very considerable traffic which is carried on, in conse- 
quence of the mines, and the heavy burdens made to pass 
and repass. Upon our right appeared beautiful views of the 
Lake Runn. Just before we arrived at Fahlun, we had a 
prospect of the town, with all the buildings, machinery, and 
other works belonging to its antient mine ; but in the 
midst of such columns of smoke, and fumes of sulphur, 
that it seemed as if the great bed of the Solfaterra, near 
Naples, had taken night and settled in Sweden. As we 
descended towards the town, the houses appeared like so 
many tarred boxes, in the midst of a bleak and barren soil. 
We passed under the enormous moving levers which are 
employed in working the pumps. The wheels giving motion 


Approach to 


\ c 27 

to these levers are kept in covered buildings : they are 
moved by over-shot falls of water, brought from the Lake 
Rutin. The road leading into the town passes close to the 
edge of the stupendous crater which is now the mouth of its 
famous copper-mine. We shall say much more of it in the 
next chapter. Considered only as to its external aspect, it is 
one of the most surprising artificial excavations which exist 
in the world. Knowing of no other work of a similar 
nature with which to compare it, we shall call in the aid of 
the pencil to supply the deficiencies of verbal description : 
but the ingen : ous artist who has afforded to us the means of 
doing this, is himself unequal to the task of representing a 
scene of so much fearful grandeur. All the magnitude of 
this amazing result of human labour loses much of its effect 
by that minuteness of detail which is necessary to a faithful 
representation of the machinery belonging to the mine. 
While we are forced to acknowledge this striking defect in 
the best drawing we could procure of the Fahlun mine, we 
are consoled with the reflection, that even this will be 
deemed by our Readers much better than if no representation 
whatever were given of a work so renowned, and a scene 
so remarkable. 

chap. in. 

aspect of its 


A. Tbt o'reut Cmtw 
■ / n/iiii// 
C. King AtM '-j ivdfiics Sbafl 
D Lowest point of tbt Mint 




Antiquity of the Fahlun Mme — Assessor Gahn — Copper-ore — Descent 
into the mine — Conflagration — Method of excavating the ore — 
Manner in which it is found deposited — Accident which caused the 
present Crater — Tradition of the miners — Appearance of the descent 
— Names of the different openings — Increase of temperature in 
the lower chambers — Vieiv of the bed of fire — Council-chamber — 
Subterraneous stables — Stalactites of green vitriol — Pumps — Mode 
of dividing the ore — Value of the Shares — Bergsmen — Valuation 
of the Lots — Produce of the Works — Present state of the Fahlun 
Mine — Works above ground — Vitriol manufactory — Remarkable 
form of precipitated copper — Process for concentrating the lye — 
Subsequent crystallization of the salt — Town of Fahlun — Wood 
impregnated with copper — Punishment of " Riding the great horse'''' 
— Public buildings — Geological features of Dalecarlia — Sater — 
Mines in its neighbourhood — Hedmora — Curious floating-bridge 
— Nuptial festivities — Annual return of Dalecarlian Peasants — 
Avestad — Character of the Swedish Peasants — Broddebo — Custom 
in passing a Robbers grave — Sala — Mine of Salberg — Nature of 
the ore — Descent into the Salberg — Minerals — Town of Sala. 



The Mine of Fahlun" we are universally told, " was chap. iv. 
worked before the Christian asra :" but who can pretend to Antiquity of 
determine any thing of Siuedish history before the time of m^ Mun 
our Saviour ? Much of the confusion which bewilders every 
research into the earliest Scandinavian annals has been caused 
by those writers who have laboured to establish a notion 
that this country was the original habitation of the Goths; 
whereas there is great reason to believe, that, in the beginning 
of our sera, the colony of the Goths, from whom the Swedes 
are descended, had not yet penetrated so far towards the 
north of Europe. Of all the ridiculous fables ever imposed 
upon a credulous world, that which would make of 
Scandinavia " the storehouse of nations" is the most absurd : 
it is fitted only for the pages and the readers of such an 
author as Sebastian Munster 1 . The first sight which a 
traveller has of the country is sufficient to remove every 
doubt upon this subject. Its unbroken forests, and a slowly 
advancing population, making the first essays of agriculture 
upon a land where there is not a vestige of any former 
inhabitants — excepting perhaps in the southern parts of this 
wild region, where a solitary Celtic mound, here and there 2 , 


(1) " J^otDt populous foaja; tbtf Country ano other* tying about* it, mange great ano foi#e 
men doo foptne*, a* Spetfjooiu*, Spartir, Sloroanw, tfotbu*, ano Pauutf Diaconujs, the fo&ieb 
Stoetbor* do torgte that tbi* people Dgu jefoarme tyke T&ttjt* 3nn the? call tfte^e jflortbe Begion* 
the 3>torefoou*C or tfamar of j!3acion&"— North's Description of Swedland, Gotland, and 
Finland, gathered out sundry laten Authors, hut chiefiye out of Sebastian Mounster. 
Imprinted at London, Anno 1561, by John Awdely. 

(2) And of these, no traces exist farther towards the north. 

m ^m ; 



^hap. iv. marks the sepulchres of a race of men who were never 
settled in the country, and with whom the Goths had no 
connexion, — afford manifest proofs of the erroneous opinions 
which have been propagated, and which still prevail, 
respecting its antient history. There are no writers, says 
VertoV, that are either so credulous or partial as those who 
have published an entire body of the Swedish history : if we 
may give credit to their relations, that kingdom is the most 
antient monarchy in the world. And he afterwards adds, 
— without undertaking to decide the celebrated question, 
whether Siveden be the original habitation or only a colony 
of the antient Goths, — it is certain there is no fixed aera, in 
their annals, until about the middle of the twelfth century. 
This period commences with the accession of Eric the Ninth: 
all the preceding annals are embellished with fictitious 
wonders, extracted from old legends or antient songs. The 
heroes and princes of those remote ages are always repre- 
sented as giants and magicians. Force was the supreme law ; 
the power and violence of an oppressor entitled him to the 
respect and esteem of the people ; and it was deemed incon- 
sistent with the honour of a prince to marry a princess 
before he had commited violence upon her person 9 . A for- 
tunate murderer was not only admired as a hero during his 
life, but adored as a deity after death. In such a state of 


(1) Histoire des Revolutions de Suede, torn. II. p. 252. Paris, 1696. 

(2) " Un Prince auroit este dcshonore qui auroit epouse une Princesse qu'il n'auroit 
pas ravie." Ibid. p. 255. 



society, it is not very probable that the inhabitants of chap, i v. 
Dalecarlia were engaged in mining speculations ; or that 
any work was going on which required the aid of foreign 
commerce for its support. According to the authors of a late 
popular account of Sweden 3 , the oldest charter of the mine 
of Fahlun is that of Magnus Smeek*, in 1347 J from which 
it appears, that anterior documents existed among the 
archives of the crown. But these writers do not seem to have 
been aware, that, above a century before the time of Magnus 
Smeek, there was another King of Sweden, of the name of 
Magnus, namely Magnus Ladislas, renowned in the Swedish 
annals for wiser counsels and for better sway ; the same who 
caused the sovereignty of all the mines in the kingdom to be 
vested in the crown, and also accorded privileges to those 
mines, which seem to be the same they have alluded to. 
A record of the fact is mentioned by Loccenius, in his Anti- 
quities of Sweden 5 : and Messenius, in his learned and exact 


(3) Voyage de Deux Frangais dans le Nord de l'Europe, torn. II. p. 241. Paris, 1796. 

(4) Called, by the authors of the work above cited, Magnus Smek. He was the most 
unsteady, weak, voluptuous, and arbitrary monarch that ever wielded the Swedish 
sceptre; elected King of Sweden, A.D. 13 19, at three years of age 5 and died in 
Norway, A.D. 1371. According to Loccenius, (Hist. Svecana, p. 106. Franco/. 1676,) 
Magnus obtained the surname of Smeek, from his being duped by the specious promises 
of Waldemar king of Denmark. " Huic occasioni imminens Waldemarus, in Scaniam 
Magnum amicissimis Uteris illexit, et blandis verbis promissisque lactatum, unde Magno 
postea cognomen Smeek adhcerebat" &c. 

(5) " Vetustas tamen cceptae effossionis quodammodo colligi potest ex Rescripto MS. 
Magni LadilSs, regis Sveciae, Montanis Anno mcclxiv. Dicti Rescripti pars Latine' 
versa sic habet. Eb quod vestra privilegia et antiqua diplomata, quae habebatis a nostris 


WilC S£7$ES! £W'*v£;-- H 



chap. iv. work *, which enumerates, in chronological order, all the prin- 
cipal events of Swedish history to the beginning of the 17th 
century, notices the manner in which the sovereignty of the 
mines had been obtained. How long before that event this 
mine had been worked, or in what manner and in what age 
it was originally discovered, cannot now be ascertained*. 
If any credit might be given to the traditions extant con- 
cerning it, all the copper employed by Solomon, in building 
the Temple at Jerusalem, was derived from the Fahlun mine. 
The situation of the mine is close to the town: there are few 
sights of the kind which better repay the traveller : he will 


majoribus, nuper quum apud vos essemus, in curia illorum virorum, qui ea adservare 
deluissent, perierant, graviter errastis in eo jure, quo fodince metallicee erigendce ac 
staliliendce erant. Deinde novo privilegio illud firmat." — Johannis Loccenii Antiquit. 
Sveo-Goth. p. 82. lib. 2. cap.lj. De regni Sveo-Gothici fodinis metallicis. Franco/. 
& Lips. 1676. 

(1) Johannis Messenii Scondia Illustrata, torn. II. p. 60. Stockholmice ; Anno Christi, 

(2) The following extract from the Antiquities of Loccenius ought not, however, to 
be omitted : — 

" Certe illud vere affirmari potest, una cum religione omnium aliarum rerum copiam, 
atque adeo ipsam felicitatem ad Gothos Sveonesque pervenisse. Satis constat, turn 
primum auri, argenti, ferri, cupri, caeterorumque metallorum fodinas repertas : ut harnm 
rerum copia nulli caeterarum regionum cederent, cum antea nullam haberent. 
(Vastovius, in prce/atione Vilis Aquilonaris, apud Loccenium, Antiq. Sveo-Goth. p. BZ.) 
Ex hac verb ejus sententia ante dccc. circiter annos (quo tempore Christiana religio 
hue primum introducta est) inventas primb fuisse metallorum fodinas, statuendum 
foret. Sed eas antiquiores esse, constat ex K. Suerris Saga, ubi haec exstant verba : 
* Jarnber alander under Suia Kong, oc var tha en heidit.' h. e. Tractus aut 
terri ferri fodinarum Sveonice Regi subest, nee turn adhuc ad sacra Christiana conversa 
erat. Unde patet jam in pagana religione ante Christianam in usu certe notitia fuisse ; 
licet sub Christiana religione magis magisque efflorescere potuerint." J. Loccenii 
Antiquit. Sveo- Gothic, lib. 2. cap. 17. p. 82. Franco/, et Lips. 1676. 



seldom find a mine of equal celebrity which, under all the cir- chap. iv. 
cumstances of depth and magnitude, is so easy of investigation : 
and perhaps in no part of the world will he meet with superin- 
tendants so well informed as those who preside over the works 
here ; at the head of whom is the celebrated Gahn, whose acquire- Assessor 


ments, and the kindness he has always shewn to strangers, 
have entitled him to respect and consideration in all the 
Academical Institutions of Europe. We had letters of intro- 
duction to this gentleman, and therefore made it our first 
business to inquire for his place of residence, and to wait 
upon him. The reception which he gave us was of such a 
nature, that to pass it by without a grateful acknowledgment 
would be highly reprehensible. Hospitality in a Swede is 
what we may always expect ; but the attention paid to 
strangers by Mr. Gahn, especially if their visits had any view 
to science, was of a more exalted nature. He not only 
shewed a zeal, as if actuated by a religious duty, to satisfy 
scientific inquiries ; but he did more — he directed them ; 
and himself endeavoured to stimulate the ardour of those 
with whom he conversed, when he found them engaged in 
the pursuit of knowledge, by exciting and then gratifying 
their curiosity ; neither regarding the interruptions to which 
it rendered him liable, nor the fatigue he often encountered 
in being their guide, and himself descending with them 
during their examination of the mines. In the Fahlun Works, 
Mr. Gahn exercised the office of Assessor; under which title 
his name frequently occurs, in books of travels. The most 
interesting account of his character and abilities has been 
given by the celebrated chemist whose work we have before 

cited ; 



chap. iv. cited ; and whose visit to Fahlun was made subsequent to 
our own 1 . Speaking of him, he says: " Perhaps it would 
not be bestowing too high a compliment upon Mr. Gahn, if 
I were to say, that he possesses the greatest quantity of 
general information of any man in Sweden. Nor are the 
frankness and affability of his manners inferior to his know- 
ledge. I have seldom met with any person with whom I 
was more delighted." He was the intimate friend of Scheele 
and of Bergman; but his own discoveries have been very 
remarkable 2 : among which, the two principal were, l. The 
discovery of the constituents of the earth of bones, which 
he ascertained to consist chiefly of the phosphate of lime; 
and, 2. The reduction of the ore of manganese to the metallic 

Having obtained, from the Master of the Works, permission 
for our descent into the mine, Mr. Gahn appointed his own 
son to be our guide and companion upon this occasion. 
Accordingly, we were conducted to an office for the sorting 
of minerals ; before the door of which building we saw two 

copper-Ore. large masses of pyritous copper placed, as specimens of the 
best ore of the mine. The moment we saw them, we 
recognised the sort of ore dug at Paris Mountain in the 
Isle of Anglesea : but all the European ores of copper are 
in this respect nearly allied. The ore is almost always in the 


(1) See Travels in Sweden, during the Autumn of 1812, by Thomas Thomson, M.D.&c. 
p. 222. Lond. 1813. 

(2) Ibid. p. 223. 



state of a. sulphuret ; whether it be found in vertical veins chap. iv. 
amidst primary mountains, or stratified among secondary 
rocks, and accompanied by animal exuviae. The tertiary 
deposit, in which copper lies with the remains of vegetable 
bodies, is perhaps not known in Europe; although it con- 
stitute the principal, if not the only mode of formation 
which characterizes the mines of Asia. At the sorting- 
house, we were each accommodated with a suit of miner's Descent into 

the Mine. 

clothes, made of black cloth ; and immediately proceeded 
towards the place of descent, which is very carefully guarded. 
It consists of a small lodge ; where two aged miners, 
Invalids, are stationed as sentinels, to see that no improper 
persons gain access, to pilfer, as they formerly did, from the 
chests and cabins of the miners below : — a precaution now 
rendered doubly necessary, since the mine was set on fire. 
This event occurred but a few months previous to our conflagration. 
arrival. Some men attempting to steal a quantity of 
the sulphate of iron, with which the mine abounds, on 
being disturbed, fled, leaving their torches burning ; by 
which means combustion took place amongst the timber of 
the works, which communicated to the pyrites; and has con- 
tinued ever since, in spite of all the endeavours made for its 
extinction. At this time it was thought that the progress of 
the fire had been checked ; but the mine sent forth sul- 
phureous fumes, like a volcano ; and it was greatly to be 
feared that the conflagration might extend to the lower 
part of the works, when the mine would inevitably be 
destroyed. Mr. Gahn however surprised us, by stating, 
that, notwithstanding all the disadvantages consequent upon 



^m ^g^ 



chap, iv. this fire, if they can succeed in arresting its progress, and 
keeping it, as it were, under some kind of dominion, very 
considerable profit would arise from it, in the quantity of 
the sulphate of iron (green vitriol), which may be collected 
from the roasted pyrites. The mode which they have 
adopted for checking the fire, is by stopping up all the 
passages where it is found spreading, by means of a double 
wall ; leaving only as much air as may be necessary to sup- 
port combustion, in those chambers where its continuance 
may prove advantageous. In this lodge a small fire is kept 
for the use of the miners, who are here allowed to light their 
pipes, and to dry their clothes. 

We began our descent upon a Saturday, as early as eight 
o'clock a. m. Upon this day it is necessary to make the 
descent at an early hour ; because fires are kindled in 
different parts of the mine every Saturday, about noon ; 
which continue burning the whole of Saturday night, and 
all Sunday, with a view to soften the rocks, and facilitate 
their being wrought for the ore. Gunpowder was formerly 
used for blasting ; but this is now applied sparingly : it 
being the opinion of the most experienced men in Fahlun, 
that a judicious application of the two methods succeeds 
better than either of them alone : for, as the blasting by 
gunpowder always leaves a certain number of irregular pro- 
jections in the rocks, the subsequent process of applying fire 
to these inequalities tends to soften them, and to expedite 
the fall of the ore. The fires which are thus kindled 
every Saturday, are under the strictest regulations : the exact 
quantity of wood that shall be consumed is duly specified, 


Method of 
the Ore. 



and, moreover, the precise portion of the rocks to which the chap. iv. 
several fires are to be applied. We were four hours diligently 
employed in the examination of the principal excavations. To 
go over the whole of the Faldun mine, would, as Mr. Gahn 
assured us, require a fortnight. Before we endeavour to 
make the Reader further acquainted with what we saw, it 
will be therefore proper to give a general description of this 
vast bed of copper-ore, and of the manner in which it has 
hitherto been excavated. 

The mine of Fahlun is an enormous crater, shaped like a 
sugar-loaf, with its point downwards ; the same shape 
having been that of the natural deposit of the pyritous copper Manner in 
here found. The base of this enormous conical mass of ore, isfoundde- 

n posited 

lying upwards towards the surface, was the first part worked. 
As the galleries for its excavation were necessarily extensive, 
and the props for supporting the roofs of the different 
chambers, consisting often of valuable ore, were of course 
left as sparingly as possible, it happened, from the avidity 
and carelessness of the workmen, that there was not enough 
left to sustain the pressure of the superincumbent matter 
towards the surface; and consequently, in the year 1666, the Accident 

which caused 

whole of the upper part of the mine, that is to say, of the the present 
base of the inverted cone, fell in, and gave rise to the open 
crater we are now describing 1 . The sides of this crater 
being variously coloured by the exhalations from the mine 
and the action of the air upon its sides, added to the volumes 



(]) See A. of the Vignette to this Chapter. 

8$? sate :'*-:,.*- *a 

H ..■,-■' ,•>'. 



char iv, of smoke and vapour rising from the bottom, give it the 
resemblance of the Neapolitan solfaterra : but the depth 
of the Fahlun crater is much more considerable ; there is 
more of vastness in all that belongs to it; and the singular 
appearance caused by regular staircases, traversing its 
whole extent, from the lip of this immense bason to its 
lowermost point at the bottom, renders it altogether a 
sight in which we may vainly seek for points of similitude, 
in order to compare it with other works. At the bottom of 
this crater, at the depth of forty fathoms from the surface, 
various openings lead to the different levels and places of 
further descent into the mine ; which, according to the notion 
prevalent among the miners, were originally opened in imme- 
morial ages'. It would be very curious, certainly, if it were 


(l) Ogerius, who was also conducted, during his visit to this mine, by the Gahn of 
his day, has left us, in his Ephemerides, a lively picture of the impressions made upon his 
mind by the extraordinary nature of the spectacle. His work, according 10 Du Fresnoy, 
is rare ; but it is not possible to insert the whole even of the racy description he gives 
of his descent into the Fahlirn mine: the following extract will however serve to shew 
the manner in which he introduces it ; proving, beyond all doubt, that it was written by 
an AvrdTrrrjs. 

" Ipse provinciae Praefectus et prascipui municipes ad fodinam nos duxerunt. Obstu- 
puimus profectb, statim atque ad os praecipitii appulimus. O qualis facies, et quali 
digna tabella ! Patet ingens terras hiatus latissimus, profundissimus, quern in circuitum 
repagula lignea ambiunt, ne temere quisquam ad marginem fossae accedat, aspectuque 
profundicatis tantae terreatur, ac corruat. Licet tamen his rep3gulis innitaris, si oculos 
in imum demittas, continuo caligent, turbanturque : si illos tandem intendeiis, videbis 
homines euntes redeuntesque ima in fossa ; at illi avium, aut potius formicarum speciem, 
referunt, adeo pusilli apparent. Quocunque convertas oculos, contemplaris res tarn 
miras ex sese, quam inter se comparatas, ignes, glacies, splendorem, tenebras, permixta 
omnia : vetus illud esse Chaos diceres, adeo moles ilia indigesta est, ac indiscreta : 
si curiosius advertas, deprehendes illic omnis generis colores aeris, ferri, chalcanthi, sive 




possible, to ascertain in what period the works were begun ; chap. iv. 

and with what nation the Sivedes traded with their copper, 

after the mine became productive. Its original discovery is 

lost in obscurity and fable. The present inhabitants of Tradition of 

the Miners. 

Fahlun relate the old story common to many famous mines, 
about a buck caught in hunting, whose horns were covered 
with an ochreous incrustation ; and, in support of this, they 
allege the most prevalent names of parts of the Fahlun mine, 
all having reference to this animal ; as BucTts-Jnll; the 
Buck' s-shaft ; the Buck* s-horns ; the Buck s-hoof ' ; &c. But 
a similar story is told at Rordas in Norivay ; and also in 
other places where there are mines. 

From the small lodge, serving as a sentry, upon the brink of 
the crater now mentioned, and stationed upon the top of the 
uppermost flight of stairs, we began our descent into the 
mine. These stairs are formed by nailing bars of wood 
across inclined planes, which slope downwards; and are thus 
so contrived, as to prevent the feet of horses from slipping, in 


vitrioli, sulphuris ; pallet hoc, viret illud, rubescit aliud, flavet alterum : 
et utalia Deorum arma, aut insignia in jEolia insula conflata et procusa sint, hic certe 
fabricatus est, AssERVATURauE Iridis arcus. Satiabantur avide hoc spectaculo 
animi, oculique nostri ; cum ecce tibi de repente quidam ex his operariis demittit se per 
funem, quo lapides, metallici trochleis, rolisque ab ima fossa in altum trahuntur : labi 
ilium tarn intiepide, non sine horrore conspeximus : cumque illi inter labendum pileus 
excuteretur e capite, cubito ilium retinuit, adeo id secure agunt.'' 

" Ergo descendimus in fossam per excisos, abruptosque in rupe gradus, &c. &c. . . . 
Postquam ad ducentos profunditatis passus descendimus, putavimusque in imo esse, 
justulimus in altum oculos, eosque qui superius in margine fossae erant, quia hominibus 
esse sciebamus, homines credidimus ; caeterum corvorum, aut cornicum species, nobis 
videbantur." Caroli Ogerii, pp. 196, 197, 108. Lutet. Par. 1656. 



chap. iv. their passage up and down. The view in descending the 
Appearance of platforms is very striking ; the whole being open to day- 

the descent. t 

light, and the sides of the great crater being diversified, like 
those of Vesuvius after some of its eruptions, with a rich 
contrast of beautiful colours 1 . Above the brink of the sur- 
rounding precipices are seen immense superstructures of 
scaffolding, and other timber, impending over the abyss, for 
the purpose of working the buckets employed in raising the 
ore ; and, dispersed in different parts of the crater, and along 
the sides of the platforms, appear the little huts and chests of 
the miners ; serving as repositories for their clothes and 
working implements. When we had reached the bottom, 
we were met by two of the overseers of the mine, who came 
with lighted torches to conduct us into the principal level. 
Having entered into this opening, we found, after proceeding 
to a short distance from the mouth of it, some labourers who 
were employed in widening the passage. This was effected 
by means of gunpowder; and the force of the explosions, for 
blasting the rocks, shook every thing that was near to us. 
We afterwards visited many other parts of the mine. Every 
passage has its peculiar name ; the level through which we 
entered being called he bonnet rouge; another, The Jacobin; 
and a third, The Club of Hercules. The last, and deepest point 
of the work, towards the vertex of the inverted cone, or bed of 
the ore, they have denominated " Where noivf" The rest of 


Names of the 



(1) Sqe the powerful description of this particular appearance, as given by Ogerius, 
in the passage already cited from his Ephemerides. 



the appellations of the different divisions they have named 
after the Directors and principal officers, the members of the 
Royal Family of Sweden, or after any illustrious character 
or remarkable event which has occurred in the political 
world*. And when the different parcels of ore are raised, 
they preserve the respective denominations of the parts 
of the mine whence they were severally taken. Passing 
into the deeper chambers, we at last arrived at the depth 
of 170 fathoms from the surface: but there are much 
deeper excavations ; some of which have been carried 
on to the depth of two hundred fathoms. Here we found 
the heat very oppressive : the miners, with the exception of 
their drawers and shoes, were naked at their work. This high 
temperature, increasing always in, the direct proportion of the 
descent from the surface of the earth, and which may be 
observed in all mines, has never been satisfactorily explained. 
In the great mine of Poldice, near Truro in Cornwall, which 
has been worked, in granite, to the depth of 300 fathoms, 
the miners, as at Fahlun, carry on their labours naked ; and 
the heat is so great at the bottom of the mine, notwithstanding 



Increase of 
in the lower 

(2) It may amuse the Reader to be informed what some of these names are ; because 
they afford a sort of insight into the popular topics of interest among the miners or 
Fahlun at different periods. As specimens, we shall insert the following names ot 
different parts of the mine, in addition to those already given : 

Gustavus Adolphus. The Mountain Lily. 

The Frigate. The Beaver. 

Mars. Count Jacob. 

The Victory. The Wife. 

The Matron. The Guitar. 

The Repose. The Bishop. 

Terra Nova The Brazen Serpent ; &c. Sec. 

*aqws ■ m wv$ms3*&&s&y* 



chap. iv. the accumulating water, that it may be sensibly felt by any 
person placing his hand against the sides of the rock, 
as the author himself experienced. The heat of the Fahlun 
mine is so great, that it becomes intolerable to a stranger 
who has not undergone the proper degree of seasoning 
which enables a miner to sustain it. But then there are 
causes which tend greatly to increase the natural tem- 
perature : prodigious fires are frequently kindled, and at a 
very considerable depth in the mine, for the purpose of 
softening the rocks previously to the application of gun- 
powder : add to this, the terrible combustion which has 
taken place in the mine, threatening its destruction. We saw 
the walls which they had constructed for opposing its progress ; 
and the overseers, by opening some double doors placed in 
these walls, gave us a transient view of the fire itself, that was 
at this time menacing with its ravages the whole of these 
antient and valuable works. The sight we had of it was short ; 
because the fumes of sulphur were so powerful; that we found 
it impossible to remain many seconds within the apertures 1 . 


View of the 
bed of tire. 

(1) The mode which the author adopted, and which enabled him to remain long 
enough to obtain a view of the combustion as it was then going on, was the same which 
he had been formerly taught by the guides of Mount Vesuvius, as a means by which a 
person may brave the gaseous exhalations of the crater of that volcano, and perhaps of 
any mephitic vapour ; namely, that of covering the mouth and nostrils with a piece of 
cloth, such as the flap of a coat may afford, and inhaling the air, necessary for breathing, 
through its texture. In this manner, respiration may be carried on, for a short time, 
where any one would be otherwise liable to suffocation, and even in the midst of the 
most sulphureous exhalations : and as an attention to this simple precaution may be the 
means of saving the lives of those who are accidentally exposed to such situations of 
danger from suffocating or deleterious fumes, its introduction will not be deemed 



By rushing in for an instant, we saw enough to convince chap. iv. 
us what the fate of the mine would be, if the devouring 
element were not thus pent, and held in subjection by the 
smothering nature of its own exhalations. The moment 
any air was admitted from the doors, and the vapours were 
thereby partially dispersed, whole beds of pyritous matter 
appeared in a state of ignition ; the fire itself becoming 
visible: but our torches were extinguished almost instan- 
taneously, and it was only by holding a piece of cloth before 
the mouth and nostrils that we could venture beyond the 
second door. If this conflagration should extend to a 
greater depth, the mine would be destroyed by the fumes 
alone ; as it would become impossible to proceed with the 
works in the midst of its exhalations. A miner, lately, in 
advancing unguardedly and with too much precipitation 
towards the ignited matter, to ascertain the extent of it, fell 
dead ; being suffocated, as was the Elder Pliny, and in a 
similar way. It is this part of the mine, in which we 
approached nearest to the bed of burning pyrites, that bears 
the name of " the Club of Hercules." At the depth of 1 70 
fathoms we were conducted into a large open chamber, or 
cave, in which fifteen naked miners were actively engaged, 
carrying on their labours. The heat and suffocating nature 
of the fumes in this place were so powerful, that although 
the mine extends thirty fathoms lower, we found it necessary 
to begin our re-ascent, being very much exhausted. 

In the deepest recesses of the mine there are stables for Subterraneous 


horses, in w T hich these animals are kept in total darkness, 
and for months together, without ever seeing the sun's light. 





chap. iv. Near the stables are also repositories for their fodder. At 
the lowest point of our descent, or near to it, we were 
shewn the Council-chamber, as it is called, where the officers 
belonging to the mine, the engineers, and others engaged in 
the works, hold their assemblies, and take their refreshments, 
when they descend to inspect the operations. This chamber 
is a circular cave, wainscotted, and furnished with a table 
and benches. An iron chandelier hangs from the roof, over 
the table. Gloomy as this cavern appears, many of the 
Swedish monarchs have sate within it. An old custom has 
ordained, that every Swedish king should once, at least, 
during his reign, pay a visit to Fahlun, and descend 
into this mine: consequently their names appear inscribed 
upon the sides of the chamber. We noticed also the names 
of other distinguished individuals, either carved or written, 
both of natives and foreigners 1 , who had honoured this 
apartment with their presence, and left a memorial of their 
coming. After we quitted the Council- chamber, we visited 
the stables, in which several horses were then stationed, 
and quietly enjoying their fodder, at the depth of 160 
fathoms from their natural pastures. They seemed to be 
in as good condition, and as cheerful, although literally 
buried alive, as any of those which are kept above ground. 
Their loud neighing, echoing along the arched caverns, as 
we ascended from the lower parts of the mine, proved that 


(l) Among others, we read the name of Joseph Acerli, from Castelgoffredo in Italy ; 
and his companion, Signor Bernardo Bellotti, of Brescia. 



habit had quite reconciled them to their gloomy abode, chap. iv. 
Some of them were fat and sleek : and certainly the tempe- 
rature of the place where they are kept is as high as the 
most fastidious groom would require for giving to his steeds 
a shining coat. 

Among the other curiosities of the Fahlun mine, not the stalactites of 

. Green Vitriol. 

least curious are the stalactites of green vitriol, the sulphate 
of iron, which, in all parts of the works, may be observed in 
greater or less abundance, hanging either from the arched 
roofs of the levels, which are constructed in many places 
with brick-work, or upon the wooden ducts for carrying off 
the water. This is the substance which the workmen 
sometimes seek to convey away by stealth : in attempting 
which, as before mentioned, the mine was carelessly set on 
fire. It appears either crystallized, or as an incrustation, or 
in other stalactite forms, sometimes as big as a man's arm*. 

The whole of this vitriol, and all the vitriolic ivater of the 
mine, are the property of Assessor Gahn; and, of course, 
the removal of these stalactites, without his orders, is pro- 
hibited. The manner in which they are produced may 
be briefly stated : although it be now well known to all 
chemical readers ; a similar process for the precipitation of 
copper constituting a very profitable part of the works in 
our own mines, especially at Paris Mountain in the Isle of 
Anglcsea. As in that mine, the water of the mine at Fahlun 
is impregnated with sulphuric acid, holding copper in solution: 


(2) Specimens of it were brought away, which are still in the author's possession. 

•lVc*;- -,-*j >VT 




hap. iv. but in its passage through the works, whenever it comes into 
contact with iron, for which the sulphuric acid has a greater 
affinity, a portion of the iron is dissolved, and copper conse- 
quently is precipitated. The liquid sulphate of iron being 
then exposed to evaporation, is gradually concentrated ; and 
either crystallizes, or appears in beautiful transparent stalac- 
tites in different parts of the mine. But the product of this 
deposit is trifling, compared with the quantity of the same 
salt which is procured from the vitriol works on the outside 
of the mine ; to which the water of the mine is conveyed 
by pumps, as we shall afterwards describe. The working 
of pumps, in the profoundest cavities, at such remote 
distances from the power which maintains their action, 
is, in all mines, one of the chief objects of wonder to 
a stranger who descends merely to gratify his curiosity, and 
is unaccustomed to the view of mechanical contrivances, by 
which a moving force, so extraordinary in its nature, may 
be communicated. But in this part of the works, the Swedes 
are far behind the English : the vast powers of the steam- 
engine was as yet unknown to them ; nothing of the kind 
having been introduced into their mining establishments. 

Fahlun mine is divided into twelve hundred different 
shares, or, as they are here called, " Actions." The instant 
any ore is raised, a division takes place : but to give a full 
account of the manner in which the division is made, the 
mode also of defraying the expenses of the mine, together 
with all its bye-laws and regulations, would extend the 
description far beyond the limits prescribed by a volume of 
travels. Every thing is conducted upon the best and most 


Mode of di- 
viding the 
( >re. " 



effectual plans. A number of shares may belong to the chap. rv. 

same individual ; but their value varies so extremely, that it 

is not possible to form an average of the yearly value of any 

one of them. For example; the net profit of a single share Value of the 

• • • r 11 Shares. 

at the time of our visit, estimated for the whole year, 
was not more than sixty rix-dollars ; but there have been 
times when the annual value of a share has doubled that 
sum. It is not every possessor of shares or "actions" 
that is allowed to collect his own portion of the ore, or to 
estimate its value. There are a certain number of persons 
who are privileged : and these are called Bergsmdn; literally Bergmm. 
signifying "Mountaineers," but perhaps more properly trans- 
lated Miner alistSy or Miners 1 . Here, however, it has a higher 
import. The Bergsman must become qualified for his office, 
and for the privileges he enjoys : first, by having passed the 
ordeal of a regular examination ; secondly, by the possession of 
a certain portion of landed property. He must, moreover, have 
other qualifications, before he can be entitled to the rank of 
Bergsman. Those proprietors who are not Bergsmdn are 
obliged to let their shares to persons who are of this class, for a 
certain sum annually. Of the twelvehundred sharers, sixty only 
are Bergsman ; and the whole aggregate of twelve hundred 
shares is subdivided into seventy-five lots, for the convenience 
of dividing the ore ; each lot of the seventy-five containing 


(1) In the Dictionarium Anglo- Svethico Latinum of Serenius, printed at 
Hamburgh in 1734, a mine is called gpufto; a mineral, malm; and a mineralist, 
fcsrpman. In the same work, a mountain is expressed by btcg. 




Valuation of 
the Lots. 


sixteen shares 1 . When, therefore, any of the ore is raised, 
it is divided into twelve portions : and as it is necessary that 
four of these twelve portions should go to defray the 
expenses of the mine, the remaining eight portions allow 
for the sixteen shares, one half of each portion for every 
share. The next business is, to estimate the value of the 
ore ; which is done in the following manner. The y 2 ths which 
have been set aside for defraying the expenses of the mine 
are separately put up to auction. At these auctions, nobody 
but Bergsmiin is allowed to bid ; and whatever the first lot 
sells for, is the value of the rest of the -|ths. But should it so 
happen, that an inexperienced bidder appreciates too highly 
the first portion of the -^ths, every sharer possessing -^th may 
compel that person to buy his share likewise at the same 
price. In the public office belonging to the mine, a regular 
account is kept of every Bergsmans profits, and of the deduc- 
tions to which they have been liable ; and this fair statement 
is daily open to public inspection. Of the twelve hundred 
shares, into which the whole produce of the Fahlun mine is 
divided, three-fourths are distributed in the town of Fahlun 
and in the province of Dalecarlia. The remaining one- 
fourth belongs to proprietors who are dispersed in the 
kingdom at large, and in other countries ; insomuch, that 
there are persons residing in America who possess shares in 
this mine. The Company pay one-eighth of the whole pro- 
duce to the king. In the period of its greatest prosperity, 


(i) 75x16+75=1200. 



which was about the year 1651, the produce amounted to chap. iv. 
20,000 schippunds* in a single year ; but since that time it Produce of 

the Works, 

has constantly diminished, and now yields only from three to 
four thousand schippunds annually. As the produce of the 
mine has been diminished, so also has the number of 
workmen been lessened : the number of the miners now 
does not exceed four hundred persons ; and if we include 
all those who are employed in the foundries and other works, 
the number will not exceed one thousand. 

From the description already given of the form of this Present state 

ii • • i l /» i °f the t'alihoi 

bed or ore , as well as in surveying the products or the Mine. 
works during the last century, it must be evident that the 
Falilun mine approaches to its termination. They have 
already reached the lowest point of the inverted cone ; and 
have penetrated deeper than the ore, under a rather ludicrous 
notion, founded upon some visionary speculation, that if 
they persevere perpendicularly from the vertex, they will at 
last reach the top of another conical mass of ore, situate in 
an opposite direction ; and which gradually swelling out 
towards its base, instead of diminishing from it, as in the 
present instance, will amply repay them for all their trouble. 
These hopes appear to be altogether illusory. However, 


(2) The schippund of Slralsund equals twenty lispund, or 280 pounds. According 
to Dr. Thomson, (Trav. in Sweden, p. 221,) in the year 1600, the Mine of Fahlun yielded 
eight millions of pounds of copper. The same author also informs us (p. 222), that as 
much copper is obtained from the mines of Great Britain alone, as from all the rest> of 

(3) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 


chap. iv. much remains to be done, before the mine, even in its present 
state, can be exhausted. In working a mass of such mag- 
nitude, quantities of ore have been left in the sides and along 
the cavities of the mine : much, therefore, yet remains to 
be removed. The only difficulty will be, how to accomplish 
its removal, without causing a repetition of the catastrophe 
which gave birth to the present crater 1 . During the year 
before our arrival, a considerable portion of one of the sides 
gave way, and fell down, with a prodigious noise. This 
accident occurred upon a Sunday, when the workmen were 
absent from the mine ; and, providentially, no lives were 

After a subterraneous expedition of four hours, we 
returned again to the upper regions and to the light of the 
day ; and were conducted, as before, to the office, where we 
changed our clothes. Afterwards, we went to the house of 
an officer who is called the Mine Mechanician, to see some 

Works above drawings and plans of the works 9 . We then visited the Pump- 
ground . 

room, and saw the machinery for draining the mine : it is all 
worked by water-wheels ; yet there is no place better suited for 
the use of steam-engines. Mr. Gahn told us they had recently 
discovered a bed of pit-coal, but that they made no use of it. 
Formerly, when the mine was richer, they made no use of 
the iron pyrites, which is dug in considerable quantity ; but 


(1) See A, of the Vignette to this Chapter. 

(2) Here we procured those Designs which have been engraved for this Volume ; 
with the exception of the View by Martin, which was procured in Stockholm. 



now a work is established for roasting this mineral, and chap. i\> 
manufacturing red-ochre as a pigment. In this process, how- 
ever, they are not so economical as they might be : the sulphur, 
which might be collected, is allowed to escape 5 . The 
process for the peroxidation of the iron is extremely simple : 
it is obtained from heaps of decomposed sulphurcts, or, as they 
are commonly called, pyrites, which have been long exposed 
to the action of the atmosphere. Of these a lixivium is 
made ; in which a yellow mud subsiding, affords the ochre, 
which is submitted to the action of heat in a long furnace ; 
so contrived, as that the flame, drawn out to considerable 
length, may act upon the iron oxide, and thus convert it into 
red ochre. 

At some distance from the mouth of the mine, an immense 
apparatus, visible over all the environs of Fahlun, for the 
manufacture of copperas or green vitriol (sulphate of iron), 
is seen making a conspicuous figure among the other pro- 
digious works of the place. This machine was constructed 
by Assessor Gahn, to whom all the vitriolic water of the 
mine, after the precipitation of the copper, exclusively belongs. 
The method is said to have been originally devised in Germany, 
for the concentration of weak salt-brines 4 . The principle of 
it is very simple, and shall be fully explained ; although 
similar works, and perhaps upon a larger scale, may be found 

Vitriol Ma< 


(3) Assessor Gahn has since devised a very simple apparatus for obtaining the sulphur. 
See Thomson's Travels in Sweden, p. 21 9. 

(4) Ibid. 




chap. iv. in our own country. The vast profit derived from the che- 
mical changes which the water of the mine is made to 
undergo, after it has been drained by means of pumps from 
the works, has been owing entirely to the advancement 

Remarkable which chemistry has made of late years. First, copper is 

form of Pre- 
cipitated abundantly precipitated from it by means of iron: and this 

wash-copper, as it is called, of the Fahlun mine, has an 

appearance so extraordinary, that when it was shewn to the 

late Professor Tennant, he would not credit the fact of its 

being merely a precipitate of the native metal by means of 

iron. It consists of spheroidal particles of native copper, of 

such perfect forms, that they seem like so many minute 

beads of metal which have undergone fusion. After the 

copper has been thus precipitated, the water, holding sulphate 

of iron in solution, is conveyed to the reservoir for the 

manufacture of vitriol. The base of the immense apparatus 

used for this operation is a wooden stage or platform, 

shaped like the roof of a house, sloping, on either side, 

towards wooden troughs, like those used to catch rain-water 

from the houses in England. Above this platform a double 

wooden rack, resembling those used for drying the harvest in 

Norivay and Sweden 1 , is made to extend the whole length of the 

sloping platform ; which is covered with birch-boughs, thickly 

interwoven, and hanging over one another from the top to 

the bottom, so that a person walking between the two racks 

has a lofty wall of wicker-work on either side. The water 


Process for 
the Lye. 

(1) See Part III. of these Travels, Scandinavia, Sect. I. p. 16S. 



is pumped into a trough upon the top of these racks, chap. iv. 
extending the whole length of them ; and out of which it 
afterwards falls into a number of lesser channels, whose 
sides are notched, so as to let the water drop gently, in a 
continual shower, upon the wicker boughs. As it thus Subsequent 

r . . . ,. . n crystallization 

falls, presenting such a multiplicity of surfaces to the action of the salt. 
of the atmosphere, it becomes of course liable to considerable 
evaporation ; and the salt which it contains becomes, to a 
certain degree, concentrated before it reaches the bottom. 
An incrustation of sulphate of lime also forms upon the 
boughs, w hich thus become covered with gypsum, after the 
manner in which osteocolla is formed by the carbonate of 
lime near Tivoli and Terni in Italy. The concentrated fluid, 
containing sulphate of iron, at length reaches the bottom of 
the wicker-work, where it falls upon the sloping platform, 
which carries it off on either side into troughs, whence it is 
conveyed into a cistern : it is then raised by pumps again to 
the top of the machine ; the same operation being repeated 
seven times, — the quantity of fluid always diminishing during 
every descent over the boughs ; until at length it is in a fit 
state for the process of crystallization, which takes place in 
cisterns prepared for the purpose ; but it is further accelerated 
by the last process, which consists in boiling the fluid, when 
it becomes so highly concentrated, that by placing rods 
about two feet in length into the liquor, they become 
studded with large and transparent green crystals of the 
sulphate f iron, which are then collected into barrels for 
exportation, and chiefly sent into Russia; as almost all the 
other markets in Europe are supplied with this commodity 
vol. vi. x from 




Town of 

iv. from England, at a lower rate, and of a better quality. 
During the last process of boiling the liquor, a small portion 
of copper is again precipitated, notwithstanding the precipi- 
tation of the metal which had been previously effected by 
means of iron, which is the perquisite of the Assessor ; who 
always, as proprietor of the vitriol-works, obtains annually a 
small quantity of ivash-copper from this manufacture, how- 
ever carefully the process for the Company's precipitation of 
wash-copper may have been conducted. 

Fahlun is a dirty town ; and, except in the art of mining, is 
at least two centuries behind the rest of Europe in refinement. 
The inns are beyond description filthy ; and the Table d Hole 
abominable. We dined there but once : the soup was full 
of hairs ; and the smell of the meat was so offensive, that the 
guests were driven from table. The houses of the Assessors, 
and other officers of the mine, are, however, neat, and their 
owners polite and hospitable. We experienced the truth of 
this, in the highest degree, in the attentions and kindness 
shewn to us by Assessor Gahn and his son. The atmosphere 
of the town is almost intolerable to a stranger ; yet we were 
assured by the inhabitants that it is wholesome, and that 
the people of the place live to a very advanced age; — a state- 
ment that we could not easily credit, as there appeared to us 
hardly a single individual who could refrain from coughing 
and spitting ; and the effect of the air of this place was felt 
by us very sensibly for some days after we left it. In fact, it 
is not only sulphureous fumes that are inhaled in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Fahlun mine; the exhalations are almost as 
various as the products of the mine : and were it not for the 




convincing proofs afforded by Assessor Gahn, who obtained chap. iv. 
copper, by analysis, from the beams of the houses in Fahlun, w 00 dim. 
a traveller might be suspected of exaggeration who should 3™opL?r. 
affirm that the timbers of the buildings here, in the course 
of thirty years, are worth working for the quantity of this 
metal which they contain. One might almost fancy that the 
inhabitants, owing to their copper-coloured countenances, had 
become, in a certain degree, themselves cupreous; for they 
may be considered as actually eating, drinking, and breathing 
copper. They have copper above, below, and on every side 
of them ; and smoking heaps of iron pyrites impregnate 
every gale with their suffocating vapours ; as if the curses 
denounced against the disobedient Israelites had here been 
made the means of industry, and the instruments of wealth 
and happiness : — " Thy heaven that is over thy head shall 
be brass, and the earth that is under thee shall be 
iron. The Lord shall make the rain of thy land 
powder and dust i from heaven shall it come dowtf 
upon thee." 

Close to the great crater of the mine there is an Punishment 

of " Riding 

enormous wooden image of a horse, elevated twelve or the Great 


fifteen feet from the ground. Upon this image the miners 
who have been guilty of misconduct are placed, by way of 
punishment : and hence, perhaps, originated the old adage 
among our ancestors, which contains a caution against 
" riding the great horse." Besides copper and vitriol, the 
mine of Fahlun produces, in small quantities, both silver 
and gold. Its other minerals are many of them peculiar 
to the spot. We collected several ; and a list is 




chap. iv. subjoined, for the advantage of other travellers, of all the 
substances for which this mine and its neighbourhood are 
Public Build, remarkable 1 . 


Fahlun contains six thousand inhabitants. It has several 
public buildings ; and among these the following may be 
mentioned as the principal : — 
i. The Town Hall. 

ii. Two Churches. — One for the inhabitants of the town, 
and the other for the parish at large. The town church is 
covered with copper: but a more improper material can hardly 
be used ; for the sulphuric acid gas, with which the air is 
powerfully impregnated, is rapidly dissolving this copper 
covering. The same thing happened at the parish church, 
where copper had also been employed for the roof: it was 


(1) 1. t)odecahedral crystals of garnet. Engestrom says, " Plus gros que le poing :" 
but we obtained specimens that are double the size he mentions. 

2. Octahedral crystals of magnetic iron-oxide. 

3. Massive loadstone. 

4. Native sulphate of iron ; blue, green, and white. 

5. Sulphuret of copper in primary crystals. 

6. Precipitated native copper in spherical particles. 

7. Argentiferous and auriferous sulphuret of lead, crystallized. 

8. Pot-stone. 

9. Mineral pitch. 

10. Amianthus. 

11. Laminary sulphuret of zinc. 

12. Automalite, in octahedral crystals. 

13. Fahlunite, crystallized in hexahedral prisms. 

14. Pyrophysalite, a curious variety of topaz. 

15. Gadolinite. 

16. Leelite. 

In this list it has not been deemed necessary to specify all the varieties of the 
common sulphurets of copper and iron. They are of course abundant. 

FAHLUN. 157 

so speedily corroded, that its removal became necessary, and chap , iv. 
the copper was sold. 

Hi. The Free School. — This is open to all the children of 
the inhabitants. It contained, at this time, one hundred and 
thirty boys. These children are instructed in the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin languages : they are also taught history, 
geography, writing, and arithmetic. The mathematics are 
not taught ; because from this school the children generally 
proceed to the Gymnasium at Westerns; whence they are 
afterwards removed to Upsal, to finish their education. 

iv. The Lazaretto, or Hospital for wounded and invalid 
miners. This building, with several other public edifices, is 
situate near the mouth of the mine. 

v. The Public Granary. 

About a mile and a quarter from Fahlun is Gryhsbo Paper- 
manufactory. This work was begun in 1 740 : it affords 
employment to one master, six labourers, and four boys. 
There is also a cloth manufactory, under the direction of the 
same proprietor. 

The geological structure of Dalecarlia has been described £^J 
byHisinger; whose imperfect and unsatisfactory account of ^aucarua. 
it was compared by Professor Thomson with his own accurate 
and personal observations upon the spot*. The inference 
which the latter was thereby enabled to deduce, was this ; — 
that the basis of Dalecarlia consists of primitive rocks ; but 


(2) Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 215. Lond. 1813. 



chap. iv. that the greater part of the surface consists of Jloetz rocks, 
especially sandstone and limestone, containing the usual 
orgainic remains which distinguish Jloetz limestone. The por- 
phyry, which sometimes alternates with these rocks, belongs 
also to the Jloetz formation 1 . The whole surface of the 
plain on which the mine is situate, is thick strewed with 
immense boulders of granite, quartz, feldspar, hornblende, 
and chlorite- slat e ; but not a single rock is to be seen in situ 
in the whole plain, except two immense pyramids of quartz 
lying in the excavation at the great opening of the mine. 
The rock, however, which, after a good deal of laborious 
research, Professor Thomson found to environ Falilun, is a 
particular kind of feldspar, without quartz or mica, traversed 
by veins of hornblende, six feet in breadth 2 . He also observed 
that the rocks on the east side of the mine, at the distance of 
some miles, are gneiss; and, from the minerals which accom- 
pany the copper-ore, such as actinolitc, trcmolite, chlorite, and 
from other circumstances, he concluded that the mine follows 
a series of veins in mica-slate, the vein-stones appearing to him 
to consist chiefly of quartz 3 . In deference to his authority, 
it has been thought right to insert his observations. To us 
the appearance, as far as relates to the position of the ore, 
was somewhat different : it seemed to be deposited in 
detached beds, rather than in veins; as at Paris Mountain in 

Anglcsca : 

(1) Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 215. Lond. 1813. 

(2) Ibid. p. 220. 

(3) Ibid. 


Anglesea: and hence the spacious cavities of the chambers chap. iv. 
in which the ore is worked, resembling rather the caverns of 
a salt-mine, than the narrow galleries and passages worked 
in mines where copper-ore occurs in veins. 

We left Fahlun on Sunday, November 10, for Sdla; and in 
the evening reached the small town of Safer, remarkable sat*. 
only for the cataracts near which it is situate. At a poor 
and small inn in this place they demanded the extravagant 
price of seven rix-dollars and a half for our night's lodging. 
The master of the house brought us a few minerals from the 
neighbouring mines, which we bought of him. The valuable Mines in ita 


iron-mine of Bispberg is at a small distance from Safer: it hood. 

produces a rich granular and very friable magnetic iron-oxide. 

In the same mine is also found molybdena. There are also 

other mines in the neighbourhood of Safer 4 ; as one of silver 

and copper in the parish of Skedvi, which produces a small 

quantity of native silver; distant about six English miles: 

also the iron-mines of Garpenberg h and Grdngesberg 6 , which 

are more remote. 


(4) A deserted mine, called Sillerberg, near Siiter, now inundated with water, was 
worked with great success, in the reign of Queen Margaret, for the silver found there. 
The ore in the eastern part of the mine contained from 28 to 30 grains of gold for 
every pound of silver. If the pits could be drained, this mine might again prove very 

(5) At Garpenberg, the minerals consist of varieties of sulphuretted copper ; sulphuret 
of lead ; sulphuret of zinc; Jluate of lime ; pot-stone, containing garnets; actinote ; 
quartz, mica, &c. 

(6) At Grdngesberg may be had the following minerals : 
1. Black massive magnetic iron-oxide. 

1. Granular ditto. 

3. Micaceous 









Leaving Sater the next day, we set out for Avestad, where 
the copper of the Fahlun mine is smelted. The axle of our 
carriage had been broken ; and being obliged to leave it 
behind, under custody of our Swedish interpreter, we pro- 
ceeded from Sater in hired carts. After we had left this dull 
and dirty town, we saw in the forest the bodies of some 
criminals exposed upon wheels near the road, after the 
manner of the country, as represented in a former volume 9 . 
Our first stage was to Grado, by Hedmora. Corn, at this 
time (Nov. 11), was yet standing in the fields: the coun- 
try appeared to be much cultivated, and very populous. 
Hedmora is a dirty village, but beautiful in its situation, 
upon the side of the Dal, which here spreads out its waters 
so as to resemble a fine lake. Several houses are stationed 
upon little sand-banks in the midst of the water. We crossed 
the river near Grado, by a floating-bridge two hundred and 
eighty yards in length; not supported, like the floating- 
bridges in Germany, upon boats, but solely by the trunks 
of trees lashed together. Here, while we were changing 


3. Micaceous iron-oxide, of various beautiful hues ; blue, green, and yellow. 

4. Octahedral crystals of iron-oxide, imbedded in massive magnetic iron-ore. 

5. Mineral pitch. 

6. Comolite, or pot-stone. 

7. Hexagonal crystals of lime-spar, associated with quartz crystals. 

8. Feldspar in magnetic iron-oxide. 

9. Amianthus. 

10. Decomposed pyroxene, commonly called " green earth." 

1 1 . Quartz, mica, calcareous spar, &c. &c. 

(7) See Part III. Sect. I. p. 510. 




horses, we heard the sound of musical instruments, as if a char iv. 
band were approaching ; and presently two carts, bearing the Nuptial Fes- 
performers, and filled with other men and women, decorated 
with ribbands and a variety of gaudy trinkets, entered the 
yard of the inn. The appearance of these merry-makers 
was most grotesque. Each cart was conducted by a single 
horse, upon which sate the driver, more than " half-seas over," 
playing upon a fiddle, the most common musical instrument 
of Norway and Siveden. The carts were crammed with 
boors of both sexes, having their hats and clothes bedizened 
with nuptial favours, who, with the most ludicrous grimaces, 
some fiddling, others singing, were endeavouring to express 
their rude mirth by all sorts of gestures and noises. They 
had been to a wedding, celebrated at a great distance from 
Grad'6, the day before, Sunday. We asked them to dance ; 
and they consented, upon the condition of our treating each 
of them with a dram of their favourite beverage, Swedish 
brandy flavoured with aniseed. The whole party then 
prepared to exhibit their agility ; and we expected to be 
gratified with a sight of the curious old provincial dance of 
the Dalecarlians. But they began with Waltzes ; and after 
swinging each other in whirls, with a degree of violence 
that made an approach rather dangerous, ended in the 
graver measures and attitudes of the Minuet, which we 
found much better suited to the sort of doubtful equilibrium 
maintained by most of them : with the Minuets the dance 
ended. Of such a nature were the scenes that afforded to 
some of the best masters of the Flemish school subjects for 
their pictures ; nor were the objects very dissimilar which 
vol. vi. y called 

^^m h h 


Return of 


called from the pen of our matchless Goldsmith one of the 
most pleasing expressions of his humanity and benevolence 1 . 

Soon after leaving Grado, the country was again covered 
by forests, and our views bounded by the trees. In these 
woods we met several female Dalecarlian peasants, returning 
from their annual summer excursions, into the south of 
Sivcden, for employment ; but in their winter clothing, made 
of sheep's fleeces, with swathings of white linen round the 
head. We passed another floating-bridge about a quarter of a 
mile from Avestad, which was literally covered by Dalarne 
peasants, returning, as before mentioned, to pass the winter- 
season in their own country. The dress of the men is the 
same as it was in the time of Gustavus Vasa; — a suit of 
what our English wags would call dittos, like the dress worn 
by Quakers ; made wholly of white woollen ; — in which they 
appear clad from head to foot ; a leathern belt around their 
waists, and, upon their heads, low broad-brimmed hats. 

Besides the smelting-works for the Fahlun copper-ore, at 
jvatad. Avestad, here there is also a mint for the copper coinage of 
Sweden, some iron-foundries, and other works. The town is 
situate close to some striking cataracts of the River Dal, 
which at this season of the year were truly tremendous ; not 
from the height of the fall of water ; for this is compara- 
tively nothing ; but owing to the prodigious force and fury 


(]) " The poorer the guest, the better pleased he ever is with being treated : and as 
some men gaze with admiration at the colours of a tulip, or the wing of a butterfly, 
so I was by nature an admirer of happy human faces." Vicar of Wakefield, Ch. I. 



with which the torrent was impelled ; menacing with devas- chap. iv. 
tation and ruin every thing in its way. The works belonging 
to this place exhibit nothing which merits a very particular 
description ; nor are they worth a traveller's notice, unless 
he be curious to see the condition of the arts in a rude and 
unimproved state. The iron forges are such as were used in 
England some centuries ago ; when a single hammer, moved 
by an overshot-wheel, constituted the only machinery used 
in our iron-works. The copper, of course, requires a more 
elaborate process ; and here undergoes the several operations 
so well known in our country, by which the metal is 
extracted from its ore, and rendered fit for the purposes of 
the mint. But in all this the Swedes are far behind Great 
Britain*. The die, for example, is effected entirely by 
manual labour, without any aid of machinery : it is impressed 
by a blow given with a sledge-hammer ; a boy being 


(2) This opinion is perhaps at variance with the accounts given of the method of 
smelting copper in Sweden by other writers : it is here stated as the author entered it 
into his Journal, at the time, and upon the spot. In Great Britain alone, as much copper 
is obtained from its mines as from all the rest of Europe put together ; and more iron is 
raised, in one year, in the single principality of Wales, than in the whole kingdom of 
Sweden. But the copper-mine of Fahlun is the property of many individuals ; and there 
are various methods used in the operation of smelting the ore, as best suited to the 
circumstances of the different smelting-houses. Dr. Thomson considered the Swedish 
process as " very simple and economical, and as having the advantage over the 
methods employed to reduce the same kind of copper-ore in Anglesey." (See Trav. in 
Sweden, p. 222.) The ore is first roasted, for the evaporation of the sulphur; then 
mixed with charcoal, and melted in a blast furnace. The produce of this furnace is 
afterwards roasted four or five times successively ; then again melted, and the scoriae 
separated. Afterwards, it once more undergoes fusion, and is cast into bars. (Ibid.) 


A V E S T A D, 

chap. iv. stationed at the work, to shift the coin, and supply the 
unstamped pieces of copper. 

We were comfortably lodged at Avestad; the cleanly 
accommodations of the house, and the obliging behaviour of 
its owners, being alike praise- worthy : and when, on the fol- 
lowing morning, we called for our bill, they said they had no 
demand to make ; we might give them whatever little 

character of remuneration we thought proper. As the same circumstance 

the Swedish . , ,. i • O 7 1_ 

Peasants. often happened to us during our travels in Sweden, we have 
thought it right to mention it. Instances of exorbitant 
charges may sometimes occur ; we had recently experienced 
an example of this nature in the behaviour of the persons 
who kept the small inn at Safer; but such cases are not 
common in Sweden, especially in those parts of the country 
north of Stockholm; neither is it the characteristic of a Swede 
to conduct himself with dishonesty in his dealings with 
strangers. At the same time, it is not intended to be main- 
tained that rogues and thieves are never met with in this 
country, as in all others. Highway robberies have some- 
times been committed ; and we shall soon have occasion to 
notice proofs of this, which occurred in our journey to Sola: 
but such events are exceedingly rare, and may have been 
committed by foreigners employed among the multiplicity of 
persons engaged for labour in a mining district. Upon 
the whole, it is very different from what happens in Russia, 
where a stranger is obliged to be upon his guard against every 
one he meets, of whatsoever rank or condition ; and where 
"theft" may be considered as a sort of standing order of 

the day. 




Upon the 12th of November, leaving Avestad 1 , in our chap, iv. 
first stage to Broddebo we passed the boundary between Broddebo . 
Dalecarlia and Wcstmania or Westmanland. Here, in the custom in 

passing a 

forest, by the road side, we observed several heaps made ^^ rs 
with sticks and stones; upon which the natives, as they pass, 
cast either a stone, or a little earth, or the bough of a tree ; 
deeming it an uncharitable act to omit this tribute, in their 
journeys to and fro. As this custom appeared closely allied 
to the pious practice in the Highlands of Scotland, of casting 
a stone upon the cairn of a deceased person, we, of course, 
concluded that these heaps were places of sepulture ; which 
was so far correct, but they were not described to us as 
graves of very antient date. The peasants who accompanied 
us believed them to contain the bodies of banditti, who, 
according to their account, formerly plundered the merchants 
in this forest, when the copper-ore used to be carried, upon 
the backs of horses, from Fahlun to Westerns. As the whole 
band of robbers was gradually destroyed, so the individuals 
composing it were severally buried, where they fell, by the 
side of the public way. This is the tradition which the 
present inhabitants have concerning these heaps ; not to call 
them barrows, because they have neither the magnitude nor 
the appearance of an antient Celtic mound. If they may be 
compared to any tumuli of antiquity, they rather resemble 
those heaps which the Romans raised by the side of their 


(l) At a quarter of a Swedish mile from Avestad are the brass-works of Bjurforss, 
which we did not stop to examine. 




chap. iv. highways, as marks of distance. A little sketch which we 
made upon the spot will serve to give an idea of their 
appearance, and the manner in which they occur in the 


Mine of 

We had a new proof of the surprising superiority of the 
public roads in Sweden, soon after we left Broddcbo; a beau- 
tiful highway, as fine as the best kept gravel- walks in any 
nobleman's grounds, having been actually constructed 
through the waters of a lake. It was about four o'clock, 
p.m. when we arrived at Sala, The inn was full, but we 
hired lodgings in an adjoining house, and immediately set 
out for the famous silver mines, which are distant about an 
English mile ivest of the town. At this late hour, a descent 
into them was described to us as rather hazardous ; but our 
curiosity got the better of our fears, and we reasonably con- 
cluded that the want of day-light could be no serious 
obstacle in a subterraneous excursion. These mines have 
been so long worked, that there is no record of the time in 




which they were first opened. Every thing relating to the chap. iv. 
geological position of the great bed of ore has been most Nature of the 
accurately and scientifically described by Professor Thomson': 
it lies in a vein of primitive limestone, about half a mile in 
breadth, which occurs between granite and gneiss. In this 
vein lies the whole of the Sala excavations. The limestone 
itself is granular, with a shade of green, and possesses a good 
deal of beauty 2 . It is the common stone employed at Sala 
for building the walls of enclosures. The veins containing 
the silver ore are of galena, or sulphur et of lead, containing 
other metallic sulphur els, as those of zinc, iron, and copper : 
they traverse the limestone from north-west to south-east 9 . 
The name of a silver-mine has therefore been bestowed upon 
a lead-mine at Sala, as it often happens where the veins of 
argentiferous galena are worth working for the silver, they 
contain. The appearance of the richest of the Sala silver 
ore is not unlike the galena of Alston Moor in Cumberland : 
it has the same grey aspect, but is more granular ; that of 
Alston Moor having a fibrous structure, when it is amorphous 
and rich in silver. Few mines are so rich in beautiful and 
rare minerals. We arrived before it was too late to examine 
the heaps around it ; and were soon convinced that an 
interesting collection might be formed from the discarded 


(1) See Trav. in Sweden, p. 233. Lond. 1813. 

(2) Ibid. 

(3) Professor Thomson also notices a vein of lasalt, as a very remarkable and 
uncommon object in a primitive country, quite flat, with no remains of Jloetz trap in the 
neighbourhood. Ibid. p. 235. 

&15"- ^M 



Descent into 
the Salberg. 


materials which lie near to its mouth. Formerly, the quan- 
tity of silver found here was much more considerable than it 
is now 1 . We descended into the mine, which is called 
Salberg, by means of ladders ; but they were in such 
excellent order, and so strong, that we entertained no appre- 
hension of falling. The descent is easy ; but it is very 
curious, and unlike any other mine we ever visited. It 
exhibited to us a succession of circular caverns, the floor of 
one constituting also the roof of the other ; through which 
we passed downwards by a series of cylindrical apertures, 
each of which, like the chimney of the inferior chamber, 
conducted us into some new grotto of wonder and curiosity. 
At the depth only of forty fathoms, we arrived at one of the 
working-places. The ore seemed to be in small quantities ; 
a thin vein, entirely of galena. Sometimes, but \ery rarely, 
the miners have met with native silver, and then only in very 
small portions, which have been immediately bought up 
for more than it was worth, owing to its extreme raritv. 
as a curiosity. Much greater rarities have also been 
occasionally discovered in the Sala mine; namely, antimonial 
silver, of which the Assessor shewed us some fine speci- 
mens ; also native antimony; and the native amalgam of 
silver and mercury. The native amalgam has not been 
observed there since the termination of the seventeenth 


(1) " In the year 1506, the annual produce was 32,266 marks : at present, I am told, 
the quantity extracted does not exceed 2000." Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 235. 



century 2 . At this time they were working the ore from chap.iv. 
cavities of the mine that had been once abandoned ; which 
explains the reason why the veins appeared comparatively 
insignificant. The original excavations extend much 
lower, — to the depth of one hundred and fifty fathoms; 
but owing to an accident which happened here, as at Fahlun, 
of the falling-in of a considerable part of the works, the 
lower chambers have been rendered inaccessible. The 
torches used in all the Sivedish mines consist of deal splinters, 
formed into fagots about as thick as a man's arm. Our 


(2) The minerals found in the Salberg mine, near Sala, are enumerated by Engestrom, 
in his Guide aux Mines, p. 1?. Stockholm, 1796> But substances have since his time 
been discovered there which have rendered this mine remarkable ; and among these, in 
particular, the mineral called, from the place where it was first found, Salite. We shall 
insert a list of all of them. 

1. Native silver. 

2. Antimonial silver. 

3. Native amalgam. 

4. Native antimony, and sulphur et of antimony. 

5. Many varieties of sulphuret of lead, crystallized and amorphous. 

6. Sulphuret of zinc. 

7. Arsenical and common sulphurets of iron. 
8- Black granular iron-oxide. 

9. Salite. 

10. Chlorite, containing garnet $ and garnet in galena. 

11. Asbestus in all its varieties. 

12. Pot-stone. 

13. Ophites, and green serpentine. 

14. Mica. 

15. Many varieties of crystallized carbonate of lime. 

16. Trap, and basalt,. 

17. Quartz, and red hornstone. 

18. Hornblende; &c. 





chap. iv. guides took care to be provided with plenty of these, making 
a blazing illumination in the different chambers ; and having 
supplied us with their mining implements, we fell to work, 
and were engaged in digging the ore from its native bed, — 
to the great mirth of the workmen, who were much amused 
with the waste of labour shewn in our awkward manage- 
ment of their tools. The great heat of the mine is 
always most oppressive to persons unaccustomed to such 
places ; and of this the miners are themselves by no 
means insensible : but it was nothing to what we expe- 

Minerais. rienced in the Mine of Falilun. We soon afterwards 
ascended, and procured a very interesting series of specimens 
upon the spot. Others were also afterwards brought to our 
lodgings. We have already inserted a list of them in a note. 
The Assessor of the mine shewed to us his own magnificent 
collection ; containing not only all the minerals common or 
peculiar to Sola, but also many valuable specimens from 
foreign countries. He wished to dispose of the whole, 
for three hundred rix-dollars ; — a trifling sum, compared 
with the real value. 

Town of Saia. The town of Sala has been described as not inferior to 
Falilun in size and elegance. Like all the Swedish towns, it has 
an open square, from which the streets run, with the utmost 
regularity, in different directions 1 . To us it appeared both 
small and dirty ; which only shews how different the same 
place may appear to different travellers at different seasons. 


( 1 ) Thomson's Travels, p. 233. 



We partook of a meal at the table d'hote of the inn, where chap. iv. 
every thing was uncleanly and of bad quality : yet we had 
hunger for sauce, and therefore were not disposed to 
quarrel with our food. An apothecary, with well-meaning 
but overwhelming civility and volubility, sounded quite an 
alarum in our ears : he introduced to us an artist who carried 
about carved-work in ivory, executed with infinite minuteness 
of detail, and in the worst taste; from which engravings 
were made for sale, with portraits of the King and Queen. 
The arts are at a low ebb indeed, when works of this kind 
are in request : for their encouragement, they require the 
patronage of a Turkish Pasha, or a Chinese Mandarin. 




Journey from Sala to Upsala — appearance of Upsala — Present condi- 
tion of the University — Afzelius — Thunberg — Botanic Garden- — 
Chemical Schools — Miner alogical Collection — University Library — 
Typographical rarities — Manuscripts — Codex Argenteus — Cabinet 
of Queen Christina — Mysterious gift of Gustavus the Third — Execu- 
tive branch of the University — Degrees — Theses — Cathedral — Burial- 
place of Linnoeus — monument erected by the inhabitants — Image of 
Thor — Bloody coat of Eric — Shift of Margaret — New Botanic 
Garden — Lecture Room — Conflicting opinions respecting Gustavus the 
Third — Habits and manners of the Students — Public Cellars — Conduct 
of the Students toivards the Professors — total want of discipline — 
neglected state of science — want of emulation — Habits of intoxica- 
tion — Character of the Swedes — Uniform aspect of the country and 
its inhabitants. 

chap.v. In our journey from Sala to Upsala, upon the thirteenth of 

Journey from November, we passed through a cultivated country so much 

resembling Cambridgeshire, in its level corn land and the 

appearance of its villages, that we were often reminded of 




the approach to our own University, as we drew nigh to the cha p, v. 
most celebrated of the Swedish Seminaries. We met, as 
before, in our first stage to Tarnaby, numerous bands of Dale- 
carlians, returning, from their summer excursions for employ- 
ment, towards their own country. From Tarnahy we next 
came to Gastre, distant twenty-one English miles from Sala; 
and here passed the boundary between the provinces of 
Wastmanland and Upland. Afterwards we journeyed 
through Langtora and Sqfva ; the country being open, bleak, 
and level, with the very best roads. The land on all sides 
appeared to be in a high state of cultivation, having lost 
in picturesque beauty what it has gained by man's industry; 
for of those forests which almost universally cover the 
Swedish territories, not a vestige, nor even a solitary tree, was 
to be seen. After another stage of twelve English miles and 
a quarter, at the distance of fifty-two miles and a half from 
Sala, we arrived, just as it was growing dark, at Upsala. 
We had, however, a fine view of the Royal Chateau, upon an Appearance of 


eminence, as we entered the town : the Cathedral, also, 
presents a superb figure, and is visible, upon this road, a consi- 
derable distance from Upsala 1 . In a former Volume, the 


(l) The resemblance between Upland and Cambridgeshire was noticed in the pre- 
ceding Chapter: but another traveller, also of the University of Cambridge, affords, in 
his Manuscript Journal, a curious coincidence with the foregoing observations, by saying 
that there is a resemblance also in the external appearance of the two Universities. 

" The first appearance of Upsal may be compared to that of the situation and view of 
Cambridge from the Huntingdon road. The Palace of Upsal stands upon high ground, 
as does the county gaol at Cambridge. The town being below, you look over the latter, 


■'%<: VNv-.f- 

±<&mt^ *'-X&& gsjt^y*^ 


Present con- 
dition of the 

174 UPSALA. 

chap. v. appearance of Upsala, in the approach to it from Stockholm, 
has been described 1 . When we first arrived in this celebrated 
seat of northern literature, having our heads filled with 
extravagant notions of the splendour of a University which 
had produced so many illustrious men, we reserved for our 
second visit a diligent inquiry into its history and present 
state 2 . The high expectations we had formed, with regard 
to its flourishing condition, were not however realized. 
Every thing seemed to dwindle into insignificance, when 
the reality was opposed to our ideal picture. The 
morning after our arrival {November 14) we waited upon 
A/zeiim. Dr. Afzelius, in his apartments in the Palace. He had 
been during ten years engaged in foreign travel ; and 
was at this time unpacking his collection, which consisted 
of natural curiosities from Africa, and other distant regions 
which he had visited. We presented to him some specimens 
of rare plants entrusted to our care and conveyance by Dr. 
Mutter of Christiana. As Dr. Afzelius had been in England, 
and was in Cambridge but a short time before we set 


and see an extent of flat country around. By the original plan of the Palace, it was in- 
tended to occupy three sides of a square parallelogram j but one side was never finished. 
At one corner there is a tower: the other side is not completed in the same way. The 
Governor of the Province resides here, and a few other persons. It is intended for the 
residence of the Sovereign , when he visits Upsal. This establishment is quite inde- 
pendent of the University." Dr. Fiott Lee's MS. Journal. 

(1) Part III. Sect. I. p. 171. Lond. I8I9. 

(2) This has been in some measure anticipated, by the very ample account published 
by Dr. Thomson, in his Travels in Sweden. Lond. 1813. 



out upon this expedition, he seemed to be well aware of the 
striking contrast which a comparison of the two Universities 
must necessarily afford ; and said to us, " You must not 
expect to find every thing here upon the same footing as in 
England : we have neither the same funds, nor the means of 
exciting an equal degree of emulation among our students." 
Having expressed an earnest wish to be present at some of 
the public lectures, he told us that Professor Tfumbcrg, the 
successor of Linnceus in the Botanical chair, was at this 
moment delivering a lecture. We hastened to the spot; 
and found this venerable man, so well known for the account 
he has published of his Travels in Japan, in the old Botanic 
Garden, opposite the identical house, or cottage, where 
Linnceus once resided ; and in which Professor Thunberg now 
lived. The lecture was given in the Old Green-house, as it 
used to be by Linnceus, in the Sivedish language ; and with 
such animation of manner, that we much regretted our 
incapacity to keep pace with the Professor in his harangue. 
Some of it we understood : it was upon the interesting 
subject of the " superba Palmarum famil'ia." of Linnceus; and 
immediately brought to our recollection the observations with 
which he terminates the Prolegomena of his valuable Flora 
Lapponica 3 . But what was our surprise, to find the Professor 


chap. v. 



(3) " Calidissimos orbis partes regit superba Palmarum familia; terras calidas incolunt 
Frutescentes plantarum gentes ; australes Europce ptagas numerosa ornat Herbarum 
corona; Belgium, Daniamqae, Graminum occupant copiae ; Sueciam, Muscorum 
agmina; ultimam vero frigidissimamque Lapponiam pallidae Alg^e, praesertim albi 
Lichenes. En ultimum vegetationis gradum in terra ultima !" 

Flor. Lapp, in Jin. Proleg. p. 26. Amst. 1/37- 

176 UPSALA. 

ghap.V. with only half-a-dozen slovenly boys, standing around him, 
as his audience, — the eldest of whom could not be more 
than fourteen years of age, — whose whole interest in the 
lecture seemed to consist in watching for the moment when 
a palm-branch was cast among them by the Professor, for 
which they scrambled; being eager to cut these branches 
with their knives, for the purpose of making them serve as 
walking-staves. After the lecture was over, the boys 
scampered off with their palm-sticks, and the Professor 
kindly admitted us to see his cabinet of rarities. 

The account of his voyage to Japan was published in 
1791, and translated into German. An English edition of 
the same work has since appeared in our own country. 

His cabinet consisted of a large collection of objects 
of natural history, shells, birds, quadrupeds, insects, plants, 
and minerals. The last were not numerous ; and they 
were, in some instances, described under false names : for 
having presented to us a small quantity of what he considered 
as the granular tin of Japan, we found it, upon examination, 
to be an oxide of Titanium. Among the insects we noticed a 
magnificent butterfly, the Atlas of Ceylon, measuring nine 
inches across its extended wings : also a most beautiful 
little stag, from the island of Java, not more than twelve 
inches in height. His collection of plants contained twenty 
thousand specimens. We saw also specimens of the came'o 
work of the Chinese, which seem to prove that this curious 
branch of sculpture has been long known in that country ; 
whence, perhaps, the art of cutting cameos was originally 
derived by the antient and modern nations of the Western 




world. The Chinese cameos are executed in alabaster and in chap. v. 

trap, and sometimes exhibit layers of three distinct colours. 

One in the possession of Professor Thunberg, representing 

fruit, and flowers, executed in trap, was of three colours — 

red, green, and white ; and it measured twenty inches by 

sixteen. At this time, Professor Thunberg was preparing 

for the press a new edition of his Flora Japonica. 

Some of the students who had remained in the Green-house 
afterwards accompanied us in our examination of the Botanic Hotanir 

1 Garden. 

Garden. We found a head-gardener employed, with two 
assistants acting under his direction. The principal gardener 
obligingly presented to us a specimen of Lopezia racemosa, a 
very rare plant from Peru, with a delicate and beautiful red 
flower, belonging to the class Monandria Monogynia, of which 
so few are known. It is not noticed by Martyn, in his edition 
of Miller s Dictionary, although mentioned in the Catalogue 
of Green-house and Stove Plants prefixed to that work. We 
have since seen it in the Garden at Cambridge. Among the 
forced plants w r e were not a little surprised to find the 
common English yew-tree {Taxus baccata), growing in 
pots. It is native in one place only in all Sweden, where it 
appears dwindled to a small shrub. The green-houses 
were small, but neat, and kept in good order. It was 
said that the old garden would soon be destroyed : yet, as 
a spot sacred to the memory of Linnceus, this ought, surely, 
to be preserved. In the adjoining buildings there was a 
small menagerie, where a few live animals were preserved ; 
as an ape, a parroquet, &c; but there was nothing worth 
more particular notice. 

vol. vi. a a Afterwards 


178 UPS AIL A. 

chap. v. Afterwards we saw the Chemical Schools in the house 
chemical of Professor John Jfzelius, brother of Adam Afzelins the 
botanist, whom we had before visited. He was delivering a 
lecture, at the time of our arrival, to about twenty or thirty 
students; but in a voice so low and inaudible, as to be scarcely 
intelligible, even to those who were his constant hearers. 
We observed a few among them making notes ; but the chief 
part of the audience seemed to be very inattentive, and to be 
sitting rather as a matter of form than for any purpose of 
instruction. Their slovenly dress, and manner, were more- 
over so unlike that of the students in our English Universities, 
that it was impossible to consider them as gentlemen : they had 
rather the air and appearance of so many labouring artificers, 
and might have been mistaken for a company of workmen 
in a manufactory. Around this chemical lecture-room was 
Mineraiogicai arranged the Professor's collection of minerals, — perhaps more 
worthy of notice than any thing else in Upsala; for the 
Chemical Laboratory scarcely merits attention. It was 
classed according to the methodical distribution of Cronstedt, 
and has been in the possession of the University ever since 
the middle of the eighteenth century. The celebrated 
Bergmann added considerably to this collection, which may 
be considered as one of the most complete in Europe ; espe- 
cially in specimens from the Swedish mines, which have 
long produced the most remarkable minerals in the world. 
One cabinet alone contained three thousand specimens ; and 
the whole series occupied no less a number than forty. It 
is true, that, in this immense collection, there were many 
things denoting an earlier period in the history of mineralogy, 


U P S A L A. 


and which now belong rather to the study of geology chap. v. 
than of mineralogy. One small cabinet contained models of 
mining apparatus ; pumps, furnaces, &c. There is no 
country that has afforded better proofs of the importance of 
mineralogical studies to the welfare of a nation, than 
Sweden; but the Swedes have not maintained the pre- 
eminence in mineralogy which they so honourably acquired 1 . 
The mineralogy of Cronstedt laid the true foundation of the 
science, by making the chemical composition of minerals the 
foundation of the species into which they are divided 2 : and 
whenever an undue regard for the mere external characters of 
these bodies causes an attention to their chemical consti- 
tuents to be disregarded, it may be regretted, as an effectual 
bar to the progress of mineralogical knowledge. 

We next visited the University Library. — In ascending 
to it, we saw the Auditory, as it is called, where the Acade- 
mical disputations are held, and public lectures read; having 
very much the appearance of one of our English Town- 
Halls. This place is immediately under the Public 
Library. The President sits at the farther end of the 
apartment, immediately behind the Respondent. Upon 
a bench below the Respondent are placed the two 
Opponents, and behind them are several rows of seats for 
the spectators. Voluntary opponents frequently rise among 
the spectators, who discuss arguments with the Respondents. 


(1) Thomson's T7av. in Sweden, p. 1/3. Lund. 1S13. 

(2) Ibid. 


CHkV. V 



The degrees, or, as they are here called, promotions, are con- 
ferred once in three years. Neither the Professors nor the 
Students have any distinction of dress ; except upon these 
occasions, when the Professors wear a cloak, and coloured 
stockings: yet, surely, if ever in any country the dignity 
of its Academical institutions require a peculiarity of habit, 
to distinguish its members from the lower orders of the 
inhabitants, it is more particularly necessary in Upsala. In 
Cambridge and Oxford, if the students appear in the streets 
without their Academical dress, it is generally those only of 
the petit-maitres among the undergraduates who are tempted 
to commit this breach of University discipline, by a desire to 
imitate the habits of the young men of fashion in the metro- 
polis ; but their appearance is never such as to cause them to 
be confounded with the poorer class of artificers: whereas in 
Upsala, a student in the streets is not a whit better clad than 
any working coachmaker or carpenter in England. 

We ascended to the University Library. It contains fifty 
thousand volumes ; which are kept in very excellent order, 
and in a handsome room 1 . The Librarian, Peter Fabius 
Aurivillius, Professor of Humanity, to whom we delivered 


(1) Dr. Fiott Lee, in his MS. Journal, states the number of volumes at 65,000. The 
Persons who accompany strangers in their visits to public libraries are not likely to 
be very accurate in the accounts which they give in round numbers. The number 
of the volumes in the University Library of Cambridge has never been ascertained ; 
but Dr. Farmer, Master of Emmanuel College, when Librarian, counted the number of 
authors, and they amounted to 100,000. This number has since been greatly aug- 
mented ; and there are, besides, sixteen other Libraries in Cambridge belonging to the 
different Colleges. This comparative statement will serve to mark the striking dif- 
ference between the two establishments. 



our letters of introduction, told us that he had published a chap. v. 
complete catalogue of the whole collection, arranged alpha- 
betically, according to the names of the different authors. 
The alphabetical form is perhaps the most convenient which 
any catalogue can have, for the use of persons frequenting 
a public library ; provided only that it be made sufficiently 
comprehensive, and be extended not only to the names of 
the authors, but also to the subjects and titles of their several 
works. In viewing this collection, we endeavoured to 
ascertain to what particular branch of knowledge it was most 
indebted. The Professor, to whom we applied for infor- 
mation, told us that it was impossible to determine this 
point; affirming that the library was well provided in all 
branches of learning. We found here Mr. Turner employed 
as the amanuensis 2 , who formerly had the care of Sir 
Joseph Banks's Herbarium. The library is divided into 
three distinct parts : the first contains volumes of polite 
literature, history, and natural history ; the second, a collec- 
tion of various authors presented by Gustavus the Third, 
when he was Prince Royal: the third consists entirely of 
volumes of law, physic, and divinity. This library owes its 
origin to Gustavus Adolphus, or, as he is always called fami- 
liarly by the Swedes, Gustaf- Adolph. Like Buonaparte, it 
w r as customary with that monarch to reserve, for his share 
of the plunder, all the books which were found in places 


(2) The same gentleman is mentioned by Dr. Thomson, in his account of Upsala, as 
being the Librarian at the time of his visit; the name being written Tomer, after the 
Swedish manner. — See Trav. in Sweden, p. 174. Lond. 1813. 


:&W~ aSS*^ *>♦-'< 





chap. v. captured by his troops : and be afterwards presented them 
to this University. Several of bis successors have, by similar 
donations, imitated his munificent example. 

Here is preserved the first book printed in Sweden ; 
namely, Dialogus Creaturarum moralisatus. It bears the 
date 'Stockholm, mcccclxxxiii.' We saw also the only 
copy known of the Manuale Ecclesice Linkopensis, printed at 
Soeuderkceuping, in 1525. The first work printed at Upsala 
was a Latin Commentary upon the Psalms, of which there is 
a copy, dated 1515. The other rare typographical curiosities 
are, a work of Thomas Aquinas, printed in folio, at Mayence, 
in 1467 ; two editions of the Catholicon of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, without date; and a Latin Bible, in folio, printed at 
Nurembergm l <75. Also, the folio Roman editions of Pliny 
and Suetonius; the first, of 1473; the second, of 1470. 

Among the Manuscripts, which are very numerous, and 
kept in a room below the Library, there are several of great 
value; such as, the Diarium Wadstenense, upon vellum, in 
small quarto, written by various hands, from the year 1344 
to 1544; — an Icelandic copy of the Edda and Sccdda, upon 
vellum ; — and the Icelandic Laivs, written upon vellum ; a 
manuscript of great antiquity. But all these are eclipsed, 
in splendour and value, by the well-known and beautiful 
Codex Argenteus of the Four Gospels ; considered, and with 
reason, by all comers, as the most worthy notice of any thing 
in the whole collection. We had the satisfaction of carefully 
inspecting this precious manuscript, if manuscript it may be 
called. The characters seem rather painted than written ; 
every letter being executed in silver, with the exception of 



Codex Argen 



some of the initial letters, which are of gold : so that every chap. v. 
page of the manuscript exhibits one continued illumination. 
A brief extract from this manuscript will serve to gratify 
mere curiosity, by affording a fac-simile of the characters. 
It corresponds with our version of the eighteenth chapter of 
St. Luke's Gospel, at the seventeenth verse : " verily i say 


In the Codex Argenteus, the well-known old Saxon or Gothic 
word barn is used to signify the original roLiliov. The 
passage occurs thus : 

>. SA68 Nl 

AH6N OD<Mp!A Tte 
rjl^S SV6 KARN, Ml OMilp 

The history of this manuscript has been given by so many 
authors, and set forth with so much perspicuity by Mr. Care 1 , 
that we shall no further enter upon it, than by briefly stating, 
according to the information we received from the Librarian, 
that it was completed about the end of the fourth century, by 
a Bishop of Thrace, in the Gothic language used at that time 


(l) See Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, vol. IV. p. 151, &c. 
Mr. Coxe refers to the following works (ibid. p. 15J, Note) for the history of this 
manuscript. "The several editions of the Codex Argenteus, by Junius, Stiernheim, and 
Lye. Hickes Gramm. Mceso-Gothica, in his Thesaurus Ling. Sept. La Croze Diss. 
Philol. at the end of Chamberlayne's Orat. Dom. p. 136. IVetsteins Proleg. in Nov. 
Test. sect. 68 to 71. Bib. Up. Hist. p. 116 to 123. Le Long. Bib. Sac. vol. II. 
p. 140, & 538." 

^^I5^A'•S5' H 

M =;.).., M 

184 UPS A LA. 

chap. v. in Mcesia. In the year l648, when the city of Vrague was 
stormed by the Swedes, it was found among the literary 
spoils, by a Swedish Count 1 , who sent it as a present to his 
Queen, Christina. Three editions are extant of this valuable 
Code, of which the best is from the Clarendon Press of 
Oxford^ by Edward Lye, printed in 1750. It contains a 
Latin Version, and a Commentary upon the Text, by the 
learned Benzelius; together with Lye's own observations, and 
a Gothic Grammar. 

The leaves of the Codex Argentcus are of vellum, but 
prepared in a very particular manner, and of a violet hue : 
the cover and back of the volume are of silver, embossed. 
It is related, that the celebrated Isaac Vbssius stole this 
manuscript, during the confusion which preceded Queen 
Christinas abdication of the throne of Sweden; and that 
after his death it was purchased for 25 0/. by Count Magnus 
Gabriel de la Gardie, who presented it to the University of. 

There are in this collection but few manuscripts of the 
Classics ; and even these were evidently written after the 
invention of printing ; they are, however, estimable, owing 
to the uncommon beauty of the calligraphy, which, in 
some instances, can with difficulty be distinguished from 
printing. We saw a good manuscript copy of Horace; 
and one of Ovid's Metamorphoses, less perfect and less 
legible. All the volumes are inclosed in cases faced with 
wire. Instead of written certificates, as vouchers for the 
books borrowed by the members of the University, they 
make use of printed tickets. 



1 80 

The principal curiosity in this library has been mentioned chap, v 
by other authors, and sometimes inaccurately described. It is cabinet of 

J Queen 

a cabinet of the most curious and costly workmanship, adorned Christina. 
with paintings, mosaic, and gems, which was presented by 
the merchants of Hamburgh to Queen Christina. One of 
the doors is composed entirely of a single stone, said to be 
an agate; but, in fact, a slab of that species of stalactite 
carbonate of lime, which is vulgarly called " flowered 
alabaster." The natural veins, or zones, of this mineral, 
beautifully polished, have been ingeniously appropriated by 
a painter, so as to constitute parts of the picture which he 
has represented upon the stone. Upon one side is seen 
the destruction of Pharaoh and his Host in the Red 
Sea; and few persons would imagine that in a work of 
this kind, which must necessarily have so much of trick 
in it, the artist could have displayed the sublimity he 
has really afforded. The figure of Moses, and the ex- 
pression delineated in his countenance, are worthy of as great 
a master as Raphael. An Equestrian Soldier is also figured 
with great spirit and energy. In this curious piece, the 
perspective, as it might be expected, is altogether violated. 
Upon the other side of the slab is a representation of the 
Day of Judgment; but this has been evidently borrowed 
from the famous picture by Michael Jngelo, in the Sestina 
Chapel at Rome. It contains some of the same figures ; 
and has, moreover, the same characteristic portraits ; such, 
for example, as those of the Cardinal, and the Mistress of 
the painter. The artist, whose name we did not learn, has 
represented his own portrait among those of the blessed in 
vol. vi. b b heaven, 

l££U :<C^o!\V* 

1 86 UPSALA. 

chap. v. heaven, and has decorated his head with the Pope's tiara. 
Other parts of this cabinet are adorned with antique gems, 
paintings on precious stones, Florence mosaic-work, executed 
by inlaid pieces of antique marbles, and very curious painting 
by means of inlaid pieces of wood in mosaic, perhaps 
the workmanship of Albert Durer, and certainly of his time. 
Mysterious But the most singular deposit in this room is a donation of 

gift of Gusta- ° x 

vustheThird. Gustavus the Third: it consists of two chests of manu- 
scripts, double-locked, chained, and sealed, which are not to 
be opened until fifty years shall have elapsed from the time 
of his death. These chests are supposed to contain his 
foreign correspondence, many papers relating to the prin- 
cipal transactions in which he was engaged and the state of 
Europe at the time of his reign. An English traveller will 
hardly participate the feelings of curiosity which are 
betrayed by the Sivedes respecting these mysterious boxes. 
" What a misfortune for us," said one of the inhabitants of 
Upsala, " that this precious deposit will not be opened in 
our time." Great expectation is on foot with regard to the 
things that will come to light when these papers are 
examined ; but, for our own part, we could not help thinking 
that the moral of the old fable " Parturiunt montes" &c. 
will be found very applicable to the event of the opening of 
these chests, when the time arrives for their inspection. 

The number of the students in this University has 
sometimes exceeded one thousand : at the present time there 
were not above three hundred 1 . The whole population, 


(l) When Dr. Fiott Lee afterwards visited this University, the number was greatly 
increased. According to a note in his MS. Journal, there were about 800 students at 
that time. 



including the students and other inhabitants of Upsala and chap. v. 
its neighbourhood, did not amount to four thousand persons. 
The University consists of a Chancellor, a Sub-Chancellor, SS^tfthe 
who is always the Archbishop of Upsala, and a President, 
who is called Rector Magnijicus, answering to the office of 
Vice-Chancellor in our English Universities. There are also 
Professors of Divinity, Law, Physic, and Philosophy, besides 
extraordinary adjuncts, as assistants, to each of these Pro- 
fessorships, Magistri Docentes in the several faculties, and 
Teachers of Modern Languages and the Polite Arts. The 
principal studies of the place are divided into the four classes 
above mentioned. The lectures are both public and private, 
the former being delivered gratis. The annual salaries of the 
Professors do not exceed loo/. When a Professor has 
continued in office for thirty years, he is allowed to retire with 
the title of Emeritus, and enjoys his salary for life 1 . Students 
are sent toUpsala about the age of sixteen, or even earlier: they 
lodge in private houses in the town, there being no Colleges ; 
and they are divided into classes, according to the Provinces 
to which they belong. Lectures begin, as with us, in 
October; and continue for about eight months. The degrees Degrees, 
conferred, are those of Philosophies Candidatus, or Bachelor 
of Arts ; Philosophies Magister, or Master of Arts ; and in 
Divinity, Law, and Physic, the different gradations are styled 
Candidatus, Licenciatus, Doctor''. Before receiving any 


(1) This fact is stated by Mr. Coxe, from whom it is here borrowed. See Travels, 
vol. IV. p. 145. Lond.1787. 

(2) See Coxes Travels, ib. 

^H &MK J -;- 

■ -.IV 

188 UPS ALA. 

chap. v. degree, a student must undergo several examinations from 
Thesel"" various Professors, and must compose a Latin Thesis, which 
he is bound to defend in the Schools. Similar exercises are 
also necessary previous to taking the second degree ; and 
as the different Theses are printed, we were at considerable 
pains to collect all that could be obtained, thinking they would 
serve to give a good idea of the state of science in this 
seminary. We pursued, afterwards, the same plan with 


regard to the University of Abo; and a list of the subjects 
upon which the principal dissertations were written, will be 
found in the Appendix 1 . Considering the manner in which 
the lectures are given, the sort of people which attend as 
students, and the total want of all Academical discipline and 
all incitement to emulation in Upsala, it is quite wonderful 
that it has produced such a number of persons eminent in 
every branch of science. 
Cathedral. Soon after seeing the Library, we visited the Cathedral, 
which is hard by; the finest ecclesiastical structure in all 
Sweden*. The spire of the Cathedral of Waster as is said to 
be loftier, but in other respects there can be no comparison 


(1) The Amccnitates Acadcmicce published in 1749, in 8vo. under the auspices of 
Linneaus, contained a collection of these Theses, but not in their original state: they 
were selected and revised by that great man, and have therefore been regarded as of 
equal authority with his own writings. The collection alluded to in the Appendix, was 
formed with a view to shew simply what the subjects were of the Theses at Upsala and 
Abo, as they were severally printed in their original form in those Universities during 
nearly half a century. This collection, presented by the author of these Travels, is 
now in the University Library at Cambridge, in four volumes quarto. 

(2) " Cathedrale ornat templum, inter omnia Suecorum pulcherrimum." Delicti? 
Regn. Suecicc, torn. I. p. 380. L,Bat. 1706. 

U P S A L A. 


between the two edifices. This of Upsala is a brick building, chap, v 
in excellent order ; having been lately repaired, at a 
great expense. The architecture of the interior is purely 
Gothic ; but the outside of the building exhibits a strange 
mixture, with pillars of the Boric order, in consequence of 
work done in a later age, when additions were made to the 
original structure ; the cathedral having often suffered from 
fire, and as often been repaired. It is said to have been 
begun in the middle of the thirteenth century, under the 
direction of Stephen Bonneville, a French architect, who fol- 
lowed in its construction the model of the Church of Notre 
Dame, at Paris 5 ; but this date does not agree with the chro- 
nology of the accurate Messenius, who, in his "Epitome 
Scondice illustrates " assigns the year 1164 for the commence- 
ment of the cathedral 4 , which was not completed for above 
two hundred years afterwards, when its dedication took 
place with extraordinary pomp and solemnity 5 . As we 
entered this building, we were much struck by its elegance 
and neatness. The altar alone exhibited a barbarous style of 
ornament, being laden with heavy colossal figures, executed 
in the worst taste, and already hastening fast to destruction. 


(3) See Coxes Travels, vol. IV. p. 131. Lond. 1786. 

(4) " Carol us rex ibi prima basilicse jacit fundamenta ex marmore, et post annos 
cc. fuit opus consummatum." Messen. Scond. Illust. torn. XV. p. T] . Stockholm, 

(5) This happened in the year 1435, (ibid. p. 74.) and the event is recorded in the 
third volume of the same work. " Archimysta etiam Sueoniae Olaus, consummatam 
tandem Upsalensium basilicam, Thoma, Stregnensi episcopo, collega adhibito, insigni 
admodum festivitate, Deo Optimo, Maximo, Divisque, Lausentio, Olao, ac Erico, 
inauguraverat, dedicaveratque." Chronol. Scond. torn. III. p.5Q. Stockholm, 1700. 

; "- v I 



chap, v. At the western extremity is a magnificent organ, the largest 
in Sweden. Near the altar, inclosed in iron net-work, is the 
silver coffin containing the reliques of Saint Eric; not of 
Eric the Fourteenth, the eldest son of Gustavus Vasa, as has 
been erroneously supposed, but of Eric the Seventh, son of 
Jedvardus, who being captured in battle by the Danes, was 
beheaded, and afterwards canonized for his virtues. His 
remains were originally interred in Old Upsala, but after- 
wards transferred to this cathedral 1 . Eric the Seventh cuts a 
brilliant figure in the early annals of Sweden: it w T as this 
monarch who conquered Finland, and first established 
Christianity among the inhabitants of that country. He 
formed a regular Code of the Swedish Laws, which bore his 
name ; and he excluded from the benefit of those laws all 
persons who adhered to their antient heathen superstitions. 


(l) He was taken in battle in the field of Upsala, after contending with the greatest 
bravery against his rebellious subjects, who were aided by the Danes. (Scondice Illus- 
trates, torn. II. p. 5. Stockholm, 1/00.) The Swedes celebrate the Eighteenth of May 
as the day of his martyrdom. (Ibid.) His reliques were removed to New Upsala in the 
year 12/3. {Ibid. torn. XII. p. 126.) This monarch is spoken of in terms of high 
eulogy in the Swedish annals. " Commodis patriae sedulus invigilat ; non paucas Jundat 
ecclesias ; ipsas proventibus ornat ; Rempublicam quoque insigniter ordinal; cequissimas 
condit leges : impias abrogat ; perversas Sueonum consueludinis radicitus evellit ; inde 
Jlagitiosos, sine respectu personarum, animadvertit." (Ibid. torn. II. p. 5.) His virtues 
and severe discipline were not however suited to the views and temper of the Nobles 
under him, who had been accustomed to live by plunder and piracy ; consequently they 
conspired against his life, and were joined, in a revolt, by the Danes. There is nothing 
worth seeing at Old Upsala, or Gamla Upsala, now a village, distant above five English 
miles from the modern city, if we except the three tumuli, said to be the Sepulchres of 
Odin, Frigga, and Thor, which are near the village church. Dr. Fiott Lee visited 
Gamla Upsala in 1 807, and made a drawing of those tumuli, whence the Vignette to 
this Chapter is taken. Dr. Lee compares them, in size and appearance, to the Mounds 
near Bartlow in Essex. 



In a small chapel behind the altar is an oblong monument, the chap. v. 
tomb of the famous Gustavus Vasa. His effigy is represented 
in marble, between those of his two first wives, whose 
remains are interred in the same sepulchre. This interesting 
monument has sustained considerable injury, owing to a 
fire, which also did great damage to the cathedral. 

There are many other tombs which deserve notice, from their 
relationship to the Sivedish history 2 : but all our attention 
was taken up, and wholly engrossed, by one ; namely, the 
tomb, or rather grave, of Linnceus. A simple entablature of Buriai-piace 

. Linnceus. 

stone, let into the pavement at the western extremity of the 
cathedral, near the door, and under the organ gallery, now 
covers the mouldering reliques of this illustrious man. With 
what emotions of sacred enthusiasm will future generations 
approach the hallowed spot which has afforded a sepulchre 
to his remains ! — He, who was every thing that could be 
required, to give to the studies of Natural History, in the great 
scale of Science, their dignity and value 3 ! How powerful, in 
its effect upon the heart, will ever be the simple inscription 
which marks the place where he lies ! 



(2) For an account of which the Reader may be referred to the valuable information 
contained in the Travels of Mr. Core ; an author who has made History, as it were, his 
home ; and who is never so much at home as when he is among the tombs of illustrious 
persons. — See Travels into Poland, Russia, and Sweden, vol. IV. p. 132, &c. Lond. 17&7' 

(3) " He was early led to regret that natural history had not, by public institution, 
been more cultivated in Universities ; in many of which, logical disputations and meta- 
physical theorizing had too long prevailed, to the exclusion of more useful science." — See 
Pulteney's Linnceus, ly Maton, p. AQ6. Lond. 1S05. 


Who will read these words unmoved; or wish to read more : 
for of the title that has been added, every letter is superfluous 1 . 
" His name," as said his biographer 2 , " can never die. It 
will be cherished in the memory of every lover of 
Nature, and remain on the fair records of Science, to 
the end of time." Indeed time alone is wanted, to shew 
the extent of his researches, and the depth of his knowledge. 
He seems to have anticipated whole ages of investigation 3 : 
and in the goodness of his heart, and the tendency of all his 
writings and discourses to give glory to the great Author of 
the works of Nature, there was something not only to 
Monument admire, but to venerate 4 . In a small chapel near the place 

erected by the 

inhabitants, of his interment, the students and other inhabitants of 
Upsala have erected a plain but beautiful monument to his 


(l) This is the whole of the Inscription : 











(2) See Pulteney's Linnceus, ly Matcn, p. 506. Lond. 1S05. 

(3) Witness the extraordinary remark in his Diary, " that he had never seen rudera 
diluvii universalis, but successiva temporis." The most experienced geologist of the 
present day will know how to appreciate the value of this observation. 

(4) " The habit of scrutinizing and contemplating the wonderful energies and 
economy of Nature, had the effect of inspiring Linnceus with an unsophisticated sort of 
pious feeling, which breaks forth, in various parts of his writings, with a peculiar and 
most engaging eloquence." — See Pulteneys Linnceus, by Maton, p. 4g7^ 

U P S A L A. 


memory. It is executed in the fine porphyry of Elfsdal; chap. v. 
the letters of the inscription being of bronze, gilded, and 
placed in full relief upon the stone. As far as the workman- 
ship is concerned, nothing can surpass the effect. An 
objection may be made against the inscription itself, which 
has very generally been censured, on account of the words 
Botanicorum Principi: but it should be observed, that this 
title, and the very words of it, were those which Linnceas had 
chosen to appropriate to himself 5 : and although the inscrip- 
tion would have been much better without any such addition, 
yet this fact may always be urged in its justification. In its 
present state, this inscription appears as follows : 



The expense of this monument, plain and simple as it seems, 
amounted to two thousand rix-dollars; of which sum, four 
hundred were expended in supplying the bronze characters of 
the inscription. On the south side of the same aisle there is 
a Monument to the memory of Menander archbishop of 
Upsaldy erected by his son. This monument was executed 
in Italy; and it is adorned with sculptured figures in marble. 
A piece of sculptured alabaster also represents the prelate, 


(5) " He was styled, by all Botanists, Princeps Botanicorum." See Linnteus't 
Diary, p. 566. Pulteney's Linn, by Maton. Lond. 1805. 

,-, ■"„£».» "-.•>'*."". 

.■.Lr'^rX^-y^- S2^ "Si^yi. 

H * « 



1 mag? of 

Tl.oi . 


leaning upon his Biblia Fennica, receiving the homage of a 
Groupe of Figures, whom we supposed to represent the 
Muses, from the circumstance of their being preceded by a 
winged Apollo. 

Among the reliques preserved here, there are some so 
exceedingly curious, that we cannot omit the mention of 
them, although they have been noticed by many other tra- 
vellers. Foremost in the list of these, is the wooden image 
of the God Thor) who may justly be styled " the logger- 
head idol of the Northern nations." It is much such a 
representation of the human head in a log of wood, as 
Scheffer, in his work " De Diis Lapponum Paganicis," has 
figured, with a worshipper before it in the act of adoration 1 . 
According to Scheffer, the image of Thor was always of 
wood, and of this rude workmanship : it was an idol made 
out of a birch-tree, the head out of the root, and the body 
out of the trunk 2 . This is connected with the old worship 
of fire ; and, as a proof of it, the votaries of Thor used to 
drive an iron nail, with a small piece of flint, into the idol's 
head'. The image was perhaps borrowed from the upright 
center log, around which, as at the present day in the 
Northern forests, fuel was heaped, whenever a fire was kindled 
by the natives. All these antient superstitions, as they 
refer to the customs of mankind in its rudest state, so they 


(1) Joannis Schefferi Lapponia, p. 105. Franco/. 1673. 

(2) " Haec idola faciunt ex betula, et ex radice quidem caput, ex trunco seu caudice 
partem reliquam." Ibid. 

(3) " In capite infigunt clavum ferreum, cum silicis particula, ut si videatur, ignem 
Thor excutiat." Ibid. 

U P S A L A. 


may be still found, in their prototypes, among the simple chap, v 
observances, habits, and manners, of a savage people. The 
Yule Clog still retains a degree of reverence in the northern 
parts of Ejigland; the origin of which may have been of the 
same nature with that in which the Siucdish idol was held by 
its worshippers. The log itself, as a symbol of the lire for 
which it was used, became an object of worship 4 . What- 
ever opinion may prevail upon this subject, we shall find 
that a similar superstition respecting the same sort of idol 
has prevailed almost all over the world. Among the antient 
idols of Greece, the Palladium was of this description ; for it 
was nothing more than a piece of wood of an extraordinary 
form*. We considered, therefore, this image of Tlwr as one of 
the most curious antiquities that any country has preserved ; 
as connected not only with the early history of Sweden, but 
with the most antient mythology in the world 6 ; and as being 
worthy of a much more careful keeping than it seems to have 
here met with, where, from the disregard shewn to its 
preservation, it is not likely to remain for any considerable 
length of time. Another curiosity shewn here is more in 
unison with the taste of a people who preserve among their 
reliques many a sanguinary testimony of the deeds of murder 


(4) See Brand's Popular Antiquities, pp.155, 157- Newcastle uponTyne, 1777- 
Also Brady's Clavis Calendaria, vol. I. p. 124. Land. 1812. 

(5) See the observations of Heyne, in his Excursus, upon the Palladium and the 

(6) According to Mr. Coze, a correct delineation of this image occurs in the Monu- 
menta Ullarekarensia of Perinskiold. 

1 <,."V"2.''--- 

■**3 ^^^^^H 5ric , ^-:<.c^c 4 a^..~:^ v r 



chap. v. committed in this country ; namely, the coat worn by Eric 
Bloody Coat the son of Steno Sture, his shirt> silk breeches, and purse, 
when he was stabbed by Eric the Fourteenth; the place where 
the wound was inflicted being visible, owing to the marks of 
blood which flowed from the, unfortunate victim'. Here is 
also shewn a more singular standard than perhaps was ever 
used in any country to excite the valour of its troops : nor 
do the Swedes, in battle, stand in need of any artificial trophies 
to call their bravery into action ; being, by nature, warlike. 
It is nothing more than a dirty rag, fixed to a stafF, like a 
banner ; and called Margaret' 's Shift, or Shirt. The history 
of it does not seem to be very well known : all that we 
could gather respecting it, has been stated by our own 
countryman, Mr. Coxe ; who says of it, that it was found 
by the Swedes at Nuremberg, when they captured the place; 
and afterwards by them deposited here, in honour of the 
Semiramis of the North 5 . Lastly, we were shewn the 
magnificent robes worn by the Archbishop and other Clergy 
upon great festivals: they are principally of velvet, embroi- 
dered with gold. This collection is kept in a sacristy, up a 


Shift of 

(1) See Coxes Travels, vol. IV. p. 137. Lond. 1/86. for the description of the monu- 
ment of the illustrious family of the Stures, and for the interesting inscription upon 
their tomb, which is in a small chapel of this Cathedral. 

(2) Ibid. p. 141. — " How this shift," observes the same author, " was first procured 
by the inhabitants of Nuremberg, why it was there considered as a relic, and the exact 
period when it was imported into Sweden, I must leave to be ascertained by those who 
are disposed to trace its history and adventures. I did not learn, however, that it has 
ever had the honour of giving a name to any particular colour, like the shift of Isabella, 
Queen of Castile." 



small flight of stone steps, near the Gothic window of the chap. v. 
cathedral : the reliques are preserved in a chamber closed by 
double doors of massive iron, with ponderous rusty locks. 

After seeing the Cathedral, we went to the New Botanic New Botanic 


Garden and Green-houses ; in which latter are apartments 
for Professor Afzelhis, the Demonstrator of Botany, as he is 
here called, and also for Professor Thunberg. To this place 
all the collection formed by Professor Thunberg, in his exten- 
sive travels, was at this time about to be removed ; the 
Professor having presented it to the University, for public 
use. The plan was, to place the whole in one oblong room 
of very considerable grandeur, but certainly not sufficiently 
capacious to exhibit it to advantage. The Museum ought to 
have been of the same dimensions as the Green-house, which 
runs parallel to it, and will perhaps be the first Conservatory of 
the kind in Europe. They were already beginning to move the 
plants into this Green-house, from the Old Botanic Garden. 
In the front of the building is the new Lecture Room, with 
a magnificent dome and a sky-light. Immediately under this 
dome is placed the Professor's Chair; and behind the Cathedral 
is a bust of Linnams, to whose memory both this building 
and also the New Botanic Garden may be considered as 
sacred. As to the garden itself, when considered with 
reference to a University that has done so much for the 
science of Botany, it can hardly be deemed worthy of Upsala. 
It consists of six Swedish acres of ground, lying beneath the 
windows of the Palace, and on its western side. But it 
contains nothing remarkable ; and the wretched taste which 
has been shewn in laying it out may be conceived, when it is 


.■***• 4*r§> I : 


' I ". "k.^4\ 'AyifiS 

^*»W l -^ 



mentioned, that an avenue of clipped fir-trees, barbarously 
cut into more artificial and formal shapes than ever charac- 
terized a Dutchman's garden, lead from the entrance to the 

Setting aside the ugly formality of this appearance 1 , there is 
another reason for desiring the removal of such an avenue, in 
the injury done to the garden. The roots of so many fir-trees, 
occupying a considerable portion of the ground, must have a 
pernicious tendency in obstructing the growth of plants: and 
surely in Sweden, which is one vast region of firs, from Scania 
to Lapmark, an addition of this kind was not required for 
the Botanic garden of its principal University. The whole of 
this new establishment, including the Green-house, Museum, 
Lecture- Room, Garden, &c. may be considered as one of the 
splendid monuments of the reign of Gustavas the Third, to 
whom it is entirely due ; and of whom, in the present con- 
flicting state of party and opinion in Sweden, it is almost impos- 
conflicting sible to speak with truth and accuracy. According to one set 

opinions re- 

*pectin g Gw- of men, his memory should be held as deservedly glorious. 

lavus the 

Third. When his conduct in public affairs is censured, as having 

proved ruinous to the Sivedish finances, " let the works he 



(1) Which is nevertheless a relique of Roman taste, as appears from a passage of 
Pliny's Letters before cited. See Part HI. Sect. I. p. 47. Note (2.) Lond. IS 19. 



left behind him," say they, " at least be properly estimated, 
to prove that his lavish expenditure of the public money was 
always intended for the public good, and never idly nor vainly 
squandered." The same set of men affirm that Gustavus 
the Third was not calculated for the Swedes ; that his polished 
manners and enlightened mind were too refined for them; 
that not a single work exists in Siueden calculated to promote 
public honours, to give encouragement to the arts and 
sciences, to improve the manufactures, or to afford patronage 
to learning, but it may be referred to his reign. Equally 
endowed, they add, by every qualification that is requisite to 
form the character of a profound statesman and a great king, 
posterity will recall with gratitude the memory of this distin- 
guished monarch, will drop a tear in viewing the splendid 
monuments of his taste and patriotism, and will shudder in 
the recollection of his fate : and when the prejudices of party, 
the interests of selfish politicians, and the suggestions of 
private resentment, shall be done away, future generations will 
read his history, and place him with Augustus and Hadrian. 
Having heard this eulogium, as it is frequently pronounced in 
Sweden, the whole of it will be contradicted by an opposite 
statement, made by persons who spare no pains to execrate 
the very name of Gustavus the Third; and who, vilifying his 
character by the most odious of calumnies, speak of him 
only as an object of detestation. The time is not yet arrived 
when History will place him in his true light. In the mean 
time, to counteract in some degree the injurious designs of 
his adversaries, it may be added, from the representation made 
by those who resided with him while he was in France, and 


chap. v. 

ieae6£ ^H 



Habits and 
manners of 
the Students. 


were intimately acquainted with the man, that nothing can 
be more unjust than the aspersions cast upon his private cha- 
racter 1 . 

Having thus described whatever is worthy the notice of a 
traveller visiting the public buildings of this University, a 
few words may now be added upon the manners of the 
inhabitants. When an Englishman speaks of the Universities 
of Sweden, or when he is reading the different accounts that 
have been published of Upsala, it is not often that any right 
notions are entertained, either of the Seminary that bears this 
name, or of the habits and tact of the Students and Professors. 
If, for example, he forms his notion of a Swedish University 
from any thing he has seen of similar establishments in his 
own country, associating ideas of Cambridge and Oxford 
with his imaginary conceptions of Upsala, Lund, and Abo, 
he will be egregiously in error. It is not easy to conceive 
any thing more foreign to all our notions of the dignity and 
splendour of a national seminary for education, than in the 
real state of things in Upsala. Perhaps there may be some- 
thing to compare with it in the Universities of Scotland ; but 
even in the last there is nothing so low as in Siuedcn. Let 
the Reader figure to himself a few dirty-looking lackeys out 
of place, lounging about in slouched white hats 8 , with a loose 
surtout thrown over their shoulders, one arm of which hangs 
empty and dangling by their side, and long military boots 


(1) In this number was the late Professor Pallas, and other distinguished men or 
letters, with whom Gustavus associated. 

(2) See the Plate annexed. 

n ZWT o r I A i i ! ao h PD B L I C L ECT I'.K E§ 




rising above the knees ; their hair uncut, uncombed, and chap. v. 
undressed, hanging as long in front as in the rear, but 
parted over the middle of the forehead, so as to fall in long 
unsightly tresses about the eyes, cheeks, and ears ; giving to 
the whole figure an appearance not unlike the effigies which 
the rabble in England dress up to represent Guy Fawkes 
upon a Fifth of November. This description of their costume 
is no exaggeration ; it is peculiar to all of them, of whatever 
rank or situation in the University, boys or men ; but by 
much the greater part are boys. Then for their lodgings ; — 
for, as it was before stated, there is no such building as a 
College for the accommodation of any of them : they all 
dwell in hired lodgings, in the private houses of the trades- 
men and other inhabitants : — entering one of these lodgings, 
and comparing them with the justly reprehensible luxury and 
extravagance visible in the room of a student in our English 
Universities, the contrast is great indeed ! —a single gloomy 
chamber, with a bench or couch, by way of bed, in one 
corner ; a stove, and perhaps two chairs ; the naked walls 
hung with wretched prints or dingy- looking maps; and 
tobacco-pipes, and other lumber, littering about the chamber. 
We found here one of the identical party by whom we were 
formerly assailed in our journey from Umea to Malmagen, in 
the Norwegian Alps ; and whom we have mentioned in a 
former Volume 1 , as a student of Upsala, who presented to us 
some Runic Calendars. It is his portrait whom we have 



(1) See Part III. Sect. I. p. 552. Lond. I8I9. 
D D 



Public Cel- 

chap. v. represented as coming from the Lecture-room, with his book 
in his hand 1 . By his means we obtained an introduction to 
many of his fellow-students, and became acquainted with 
the internal policy of the place. Every one studies what, 
and when, he pleases : of course, very little real application to 
learning takes place among them. Soon after mid-day, they 
resort in numbers, " a la cave," as it is termed; that is to say, 
to a public cellar for drinking, of which there are two or 
three in Upsala, precisely answering to the tap-rooms in 
English alehouses. Here they smoke tobacco, and drink 
beer, or brandy, or wine. The beer is a composition manufac- 
tured at Stockholm, and very bad: although perhaps less 
unwholesome than the deleterious mixture now sold under 
the name of beer in England; which, by its baneful effects, 
has actually altered the character of the lower orders, and 
substituted a morbid and gloomy irascibility for jovial hila- 
rity; so that a merry drunkard is hardly ever seen. The 
wine, though called French wine, is also from the breweries 
of Stockholm; and the brandy is of the worst quality. 
Sivedish brandy, in whatever part of the country it is found, 
is everywhere alike ; a weak spirit, flavoured with aniseed, 
and, when diluted with water, causing a precipitation, as if 
milk had been added to the mixture. In these cellars they 
remain, not only the whole of the rest of the day, but until 
long after midnight, and sometimes all night. Their revels 
too, or rather brawls, are not unfrequently attended by 

blows ; 

(1) See the Plate annexed, facing p. 201. 



blows ; their disputes, especially when they are of a political chap. v. 
nature, ending often in pugilistic combats. 

We visited one of these cellars; and found about twenty of 
the students enveloped by thick fumes of tobacco-smoke; 
some of whom were sleeping upon chairs, and others lolling 
upon a bench. Our friend, who introduced us, announced 
that we were from the University of Cambridge: upon which 
the greater part did us the honour to rise ; forming a circle 
round us, and asking several questions relative to our 
journey, and motives for visiting Sweden. These we were 
preparing to answer ; when a votary of Bacchus, giving us a 
hearty slap between our shoulders, reminded us, that, as 
strangers, we ought to drink upon our coming among them. 
Some glasses being presented, filled with bad Malaga wine, 
we immediately drank " To the prosperity of the Univer- 
sity of Upsala y A young American student, who was one 
of the company present, did not seem to relish the sort of 
welcome they were disposed to give us: and at the same 
time being eager to make known the principles he had 
imbibed, he said we might have swallowed the Malaga 
without a ceremonious toast: — and then he added, 
" The students of Upsala, brought up in the school of 
Liberty, are not constrained, as in England, to interrupt 
their libations with the palaver of a toast." To this we 
made answer, that we were thankful for the information ; as 
it would enable us to avail ourselves of that freedom from 
restraint, which he boasted, to resign to our glasses ; having no 
other use for them than to testify our wishes for the success of 
aUniversity so celebrated as that of Upsala. However, having 




Conduct of 
the Students 
towards the 


set the example, the hearty Swedes were not deficient in 
courtesy towards the strangers ; but all filling bumpers, 
drank, with loud cheers, " Prosperity to the University of 
Cambridge!" — while the surly Yankee remained silent, and 
sat apart, puffing fumes from his pipe. 

The heat of one of these cellars is almost equal to that of 
a vapour-bath. Sometimes they all sally forth; and woe 
betide the unpopular Professor who may happen to be in 
their way, when the convives quit their sudatories ! They 
have two different watch-words ; one of which controls or 
animates their fury upon these occasions. If the Professor be 
a favourite, the cry of ' v'watV is heard, and he is suffered to 
proceed without molestation; but if otherwise, a shout of 
' pereatT is the signal for attack; when the Professor either 
makes his escape as rapidly as he can, or is very roughly 
Total want of handled. There is no account taken, as in our Universities, 

discipline . . -„ 

among the f the hours when they return to their lodgings, i^very 

Students. . . 

one acts as he thinks proper in this respect. Discipline, 
if ever any such regulation existed in Upsala, has long 
ceased; and in the total laxity of all wholesome restraint 
among a set of untamed youths let loose from their parents, 
it may be imagined what disorders must ensue. Indeed it 
was much to be feared at this time, and the event has in 
some degree justified the apprehension, that this famous 
University, called, by Stillingfleet , " that great and hitherto 
unrivalled School of Natural History," together with the 
Empire it no longer adorned, were hastening to their disso- 
lution. The number of students has been said to vary 
annually from six hundred to a thousand, which is a gross 




exaggeration of the truth : their number at this time, as was 
before stated, did not exceed three hundred ; and no instance 
occurs of more than thirty being present at the same time at 
any public lecture. It may be urged, and with truth, that 
public drinking-cellars are not the places in which to look 
for the reading class of the students : men seriously dis- 
posed towards studious employment are seldom those, in 
any University, who are seen in the streets or in taverns : 
but there was no such individual to be found in the place as 
a student distinguished by his talents and by his attention to 
University studies ; and for this plain reason, that there were 
none of those public examinations, and those trials of ability, 
with distribution of honours and rewards, which powerfully 
call emulation into action ; stimulating that love of fame 
inherent in every human breast, especially in youth ; and 
feeding the fire of genius, by agitating every latent spark, 
until it bursts into flame. It cannot be expected, that in a 
society like that of Upsala, destitute alike of discipline and 
of all the springs of mental energy, its students will ever 
become much distinguished. Among a number of young 
men so circumstanced, it is not at all marvellous to observe 
an indifference with regard to morals, and a striking disre- 
gard of all precept and admonition. The fault is not with 
them: under a better system, there can be no doubt of their 
becoming bright ornaments of their country; because a love 
of truth, strict honesty, goodness of heart, generosity, assi- 
duity, serenity of mind, firmness, constancy, courage, — all 
these, and many other qualifications, that become a man, 
and fit him to shine as a distinguished member of society, 


CHAr. v. 

state of Sci- 

"Want of 



Habits of in- 


are the natural characteristics of the generality of the Sivedes. 
There is one virtue, however, which we have been compelled 
to omit in the list : we may not add sobriety, when we are 
speaking of the students of Upsala; because their chief vice 
consists in habits of intoxication : and it is a vice not easily to 
be exterminated in a country where examples of sobriety are 
so much wanted. If parents consider it no degradation to be 
be seen by their children in a state of drunkenness, it is not to 
be expected that the rising generation should acquire more 
polished and rational habits. The consequence however, in 
Sweden, is deeply to be deplored. Young men, grown old 
before the period of their youth has expired, make their 
appearance before a traveller with sallow countenances, 
fallen cheeks, dim eyes, bending bodies, nostrils clotted with 
snuff, an enormous tobacco-pipe dangling from their lips, 
their teeth black and carious ; sitting in gloomy apartments 
filled with smoke and fetid air, the floors of which are 
covered with the filth of expectoration ; and at the age of 
five-and-twenty having anticipated, by their excesses, the 
decrepitude and infirmities of fourscore. Perhaps it will be 
said, that this picture is too highly coloured; and that a 
feeling of disgust, excited by the view of some rare instances 
where this description is applicable, may have led to too 
general a remark. Of this others may determine: the 
remark is made as it was written in the country to which it 
refers ; and if it be found afterwards less extensive in its 
application than was believed at the time, the author, who 
has not seen Sweden " with a jaundiced eye," may be 
acquitted of any intentional deviation from the truth. The 


UPSALA. 207 

passing traveller must see many things in haste, and perhaps chap. v. 

form many of his conclusions too rapidly. He may also, 

from the very circumstance of his transitory intercourse with 

the inhabitants, view some things in a more advantageous 

light that would be admitted by those who reside for a long 

time in the country. Sometimes, in conversing with those Character of 

the Swedes. 

of his own countrymen who have remained long in Sweden, 
where the author has extolled the hospitable and obliging 
disposition of the natives, he has been told that the novelty 
of seeing strangers makes them load the new-comer with 
all manner of caresses and favours; but that when this 
wears off, the disposition to confer acts of kindness ceases 
also. And surely, where a tendency to spunge upon the 
noble hospitality of a Swede has caused a stranger to 
exhaust the benevolent feeling extended in his behalf, he is 
rightly served if he experience the full effect of its dimi- 
nution. Some of the French emigrants, as it is well known, 
did make remarks of this nature ; and their natural peevish- 
ness of temper led them to vilify their benefactors. Siveden 
is not the only country where they evinced a similar dispo- 
sition, — cursing, rather than blessing the hand that fed them. 
De Latochnaye was an emigrant, and a writer of this de- 
scription; little disposed to acknowledge the extent of his 
obligation to those by whom he was so hospitably entertained, 
both in Sweden and Norway: and surely, if any one ever put 
the Swedish hospitality to its full trial, it was De Latochnaye; 
who, having met with a serious accident in the north of 
Sweden, took up his abode with a family of the name of 
Nordenfalk, with whom he remained until his recovery was 




chap. v. complete ; receiving the whole time a degree of attention 
and kindness which could not have been exceeded if he had 
been himself a member of that family : and for once he has 
permitted himself to acknowledge the hospitality he expe- 
rienced, during his long residence in the house of Nordenfalli y 
in terms of gratitude 1 . What becomes then of the obser- 
vation, that the Swedes only shew their hospitality to a 
stranger so long as he may be considered as a stranger ? At 
the same time, in describing the manners as well as the 
good qualities of the Swedes, there are some barbarous habits 
which cannot be overlooked. The elegancies, and even 
the comforts of polished life, are almost unknown in many 
parts of the country : hence it is that the middle class 
of females are not ashamed to use their fingers, instead of 
a pocket-handkerchief, in wiping their noses. De Latoch- 
naye, of course, did not allow this practice to escape his 
observation : accordingly, we read the following facetious 
remark upon the use to which a pocket-handkerchief is 
applied by the female peasants of Dalecarlia; and it is also 
applied to other female peasants throughout the country:- — • 
" Lemouchoir, en Suede, est diversement employ 6 par les gens de 
differ ens rangs: en se rendant a Vdglise, les paysannes, qui 
sont communement propremenl vctues, ont un livre et un 
mouchoir blanc a la main, ce qui ne les empeche pas cependant 
de se moucher avec les doigts*" Add to this the abominable 


(1) " Je quittai enfin la maison hospitaliere de Holm, le coeur penetre des attentions 
qu'on y avait eus pour moi." Promenade d'un Fran$ais en Suede, &c. torn. II. p. 47. 
a Brunswick, 1801. 

(2) Ibid. torn. I. p. 241. 

U P S A L A. 


practice, as in Germany, which is confined neither to rank chap. v. 
nor sex, of spitting upon the floors of all the apartments. 
The sooner such habits are banished, the better; even the 
subject being, to an English ear, very revolting. We may 
therefore pass to the mention of other characteristics, more 
pleasing to enumerate ; and bring this Chapter to a close. 
Nothing is more strikingly conspicuous in the disposition of 
a Swede, than simplicity of mind and sincerity of heart ; but 
these qualities will be found to degenerate sometimes into 
great credulity, and a too easy confidence in the honesty of 
strangers. The Siuedes are always open to imposition, and 
ready to follow the dictates of any leader, however sinister 
his designs may be. In the remotest provinces, upon the 
coming of a traveller who may want assistance, they advance 
their money without security; and rely implicitly upon 
the honour of perfect strangers to repay what necessity 
has demanded and hospitality has allowed without the 
smallest hesitation. These reflections occupied the author's 
mind, as he was preparing to leave Upsala, and to repair once 
more to Stockholm; while he ruminated upon the long tract 
of Sivedish territory over which he had journeyed, and called 
to mind the people he had seen. From the Arctic Circle to the uniform 
entrance into the Baltic Sea, the Siuedes are, with little varia- Sunny and 
tion, the same. A remarkable uniformity may be considered tants. 
as distinguishing not only the aspect of the country, but also 
the minds and persons of the inhabitants. A traveller 
who has been accustomed to remark the sudden change, in 
Italy, in passing the most insignificant natural or artificial 
boundary; who sees the people on one side of a bridge quite 
vol. vi. e e a different 






chap. v. a different race from those on the other ; is surprised, in such 
a country as Sweden, when he finds the natives of the most 
distant provinces appearing as though they were all members 
of the same family. 



Specimens from the Herbarium o/' Linnaeus — Curious Wheel-loch Musket 
— Gamla Upsala — Skoclostcr — State of Stockholm upon the 
Authors Return — Character of the young King — Table-talk — Royal 
Fhe at the Opera House — Evenings Adventure — Reflections on the 
Death of the former Monarch • — Opening of the Sepulchre of 
Charles the Twelfth — Interruption of the amity between England 
and Sweden — Club called The Society — Resemblance to Italian 
Customs — Booksellers — Public Dinners — Interior of the Houses — 
Coffee prohibited — Anecdotes of the King — Probable Contents of the 
Chests at Upsala — State of Literature — Deplorable condition of the 
Country — Places of Public Amusement — Academies — Riots at Upsala 
— Royal Palace — Chapel — State Apartments — Picture Gallery — 
Private Cabinets c/Gustavus the Third. 

The young Student, who, by his attentions here, had so chap. vi. 
amply made amends for his former rudeness to us in Helsing- 
land 1 , possessed, notwithstanding his Gothic manner and 


(1) See Part III. Sect. I. p. 550. Lond. I8I9. 

>i»j ;fi%pf 

:*.% >V--i^.^-i*Vv^>n' 

-,-4.\S- ,- -***h*''. H 


U F S A L A. 

chap. vi. appearance, a heart open and liberal, and somewhat of a 
taste for science, especially in forming collections of natural 
history and the antiquities of his country. We before 
noticed this circumstance 1 , when mention was made of his 
Herbarium and Runic Calendars. In the single chamber 
which he occupied at Upsala, and which constituted his 
whole set of lodgings for bed and board, the room was 
strewed with the harvest of his summer excursions, — boxes 
of insects, dried plants, and whatever curious old relique of 
antient customs in Siveden he could pick up. Among his 
plants, he had a few specimens that belonged to Linnceus, 
which that illustrious man had himself pasted upon papers, 
and, at the back of each specimen, had marked by his 
own autograph names : he presented no less than five of 
these to us 3 . With the exception only of the first, they 
are all described in the Flora Lapponica and Flora Svecica 3 . 


from the 
of I/mncPus 

(1) Ibid. p. 552. 

(2) They have been since presented to the Fitzwilliam Museum, in Cambridge, 
where they are now preserved. 

(3) The first, as the autograph states at the back of it, grew in the Botanic Garden at 

1. Biscutella Apuxa — a native of Italy, vulgarly called l< Spear-leaved Buckler - 
mustard" — The plant is too well known to need further description. 

2. Arabis Alpina. (Flor. Lapp. 25J. p. 213. Amst. 1737-) commonly called 

Alpine Wall-Cress. It is a native of the Alps, and other mountains of Europe ; 
being found on rocks, in caverns, and in woods. We found it often in the 
higher parts of Lapland. It was cultivated at Oxford in 1(558; and is now 
become very common in gardens*. 

3. Gnaphalium sylvaticum. (Flor. Svec. 6j5. p. 243. Stockh. 1745.) The 

" Wood Everlasting, or English upright Cudweed." — It grows in several parts of 

4. Lichen 
" See Miller's Diet, by Martyn, VoL I. (Arabis.) 



But the most singular rarity of his apartment was an old chap. vi. 
wheel-lock musket which stood in one corner of the room, Curious 


and which he told us one of his ancestors had formerly Musket, 
brought into Sweden from Pomerania. It was probably a 
part of the spoils of war : and as it seemed to us to be one of 
the most extraordinary works of art existing, and he wished 
to part with it, we bought it of him for the price at which 
he valued it. Once it must have cost an enormous sum; 
being in all respects fitted not merely to adorn, but to cut a 
splendid figure among the weapons of a regal armoury. To 
give a complete account of this curious relique, would re- 
quire an entire volume, illustrated with an hundred plates. 
The whole of the stock, from the lower extremity of the 
butt to the muzzle of the barrel, is of ivory inlaid with 
ebony; representing, in a series of masterly designs, the 
Bible History, from the Creation to the time of David. 
The style of these designs is like that which may be often 
observed in old illuminated manuscripts, and in the wood-cuts 
copied from such illuminations ; which seem as if they had 
been all borrowed from the works of the same master 4 . In 


4. Lichen physodes. (Flor.Svec.Q5l. p. 34(5. Stockh. 1745.) The well-known 

Moss of the Birch-tree. 

5. Lichen velleus. This was found by Linnceus upon the Lapland rocks. 

(Flor. Lapp. 454. p. 345. Amst. 1737.) In his Flora Svecica (vid. 968. 
p. 353. Stockh. 1745.) he says it is common near Upsala. 

(4) Beginnning from the muzzle of the musket, and proceeding from left to right 
towards the butt, and back again, the whole length of the opposite side of the stock, 
there are nearly one hundred pictures exhibited by means of exquisitely inlaid ivory. 
The first delineation represents the Animal Creation ; then follows the Creation and Fall 
of Man j the Expulsion of the Human Race from Paradise ; their Agricultural Labours j 


■=*.>."**.: %:*^rm,*^\to.x~k. 

I .Vi»V *~>L -*' 3f4**J* •.«.,■* .• /' -. -" 




chap. vi. the representation, for example, of the creation of mankind, 
the Deity is pourtrayed in the dress of the Pope, handing Eve 
out of Adam's side 1 : yet there are parts of the workmanship 
equal to the performances of Albert Dure?-, and which exhibit 
characteristic marks of the age in which he lived 2 . 

Before we left Upsala, we should have visited the village of 
Gamla Upsala, distant about five English miles north of the 
modern city, if there had been any remains of antiquity 
there worth the trouble of making an excursion on purpose 
to view them. In our former journey from Upsala to Gefle, 
we had before passed in sight of the village church ; near to 
which are the three remarkable tumuli represented in the 
Vignette to the preceding Chapter, and which tradition has 
assigned to the bodies of Odin, Frigga, and Thor. Nothing 
can be more obscure than the history of the first kings, or 
divinities as they are often called, of antient Scandinavia ; in 
which, the more we seek for information, the farther we seem 
to recede from all hope of coming at the truth. A great 
source of error has been caused bv confounding the Teutonic 
with the Celtic nations, which were, ah origine, two distinct 
people'. Conical heaps raised over the dead are generally 


the Death of Abel ; the History of Noah; the Deluge; &c. &c. — the whole being 
considered, in all probability, as a connected series of powerful amulets, calculated to 
protect the bearer of this musket from all dangers " ghostly and bodily." 

(1) See the account of a splendid MS. in the Mostyn Library in Flintshire, as com- 
municated by the Author to the celebrated Pennant, for his " History of the Parishes of 
Whiteford and Holywell" p. 74. Lond. 1 79G. 

(2) A Vignette prefixed to this Chapter will serve to shew the form of this curious 
weapon, and also one of the numerous representations upon the stock. 

(3) See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, Pref. to Vol. I. Edinl. I8O9. 



Celtic sepulchres; but in the rarity of Celtic monuments in chap. vi. 
Sweden and Norway, added to other circumstances conspi- 
cuous in the appearance of the ground about the supposed 
sepulchres of Gamla Upsala, which have never yet been 
opened, or in any way duly examined, there is reason to 
suspect that these will hereafter be found to be natural 
elevations, and not artificial heaps. A little time spent upon 
the spot may hereafter enable some curious traveller to 
ascertain the real nature of those tumuli. If they should be 
proved to be places of burial, there is little probability of 
their having been constructed by the ancestors of the present 
race of Swedes, who in the period when such mounds were 
raised over the dead in the north of Europe were not inha- 
bitants of Sweden. At a much later period in history, when 
Mithradates sought for refuge in those deserts of Russia 
now inhabited by the Don Cossacks, the followers of Odin, 
being obliged to withdraw themselves from the vengeance 
of the Romans, began to seek, at this distance from the 
field of Pompeys triumphs, that safety which they could not 
find in their own country 4 . 

We now took our last leave of Upsala, and set out again 
for Stockholm, through an open, flat, and fertile country. 
We passed Shocloster, as in our former journey, on the skocioster. 



(4) Mallet makes their principal city, at that time, Asgard, between the Black Sea 
and the Caspian ; considering them as the Ases, a race of Scythians; and thinks there is 
reason to believe that Azof, or, as he writes it, As-of, derived its name from this nation. 
But who will venture into an inquiry where, as he judiciously observes, " the most pro- 
found researches, the most ingenious conjectures, discover nothing to us but our own 



chap. vi. right, the seats of the Counts of Brake, one of the oldest 
families in Sweden, In the house there is a curious collection 
of antiquities and other rarities, which are esteemed worth 
seeing. It lies out of the main route. In this part of our jour- 
ney we observed, upon the eastern side of the road, a few 
reliques of the primeval inhabitants of the country; such as, 
rude upright masses of stone and tumuli, which seemed to be 
sepulchral mounds. 

The political events of the day, upon our return to the 
Capital, will have lost all interest, from the length of time 
that has elapsed before the publication of this part of 
our Travels ; but as they are intimately connected with 
the Sivedish history, we shall not entirely omit the men- 
tion of them. A number of express couriers, passing us 
upon the road, had already apprized us of the birth of 
the young Prince, which had just taken place ; messages 
being despatched with the intelligence to all parts of the 
kingdom. He was born on Friday, November 8th ; and 
afterwards christened by Troil archbishop of Upsala. We 
arrived upon the l6th. Some slight disturbances had taken 
place, which were very generally the subject of conversation. 
Upon the day appointed for the celebration of the birth 
of his Majesty Gustavus the Fourth, the shopkeepers of 
Stockholm had given a dinner to the French Consul. Among 
other ceremonies at this fete, two busts had been prepared, 
and publickly exhibited ; the one of Buonaparte, and the 
other of Field-Marshal General Suwarof. The company 
drank bumpers of wine to the health of Buonaparte, but 
filled their glasses with water when Suwarof 's health was 


State of 
Stockholm on 
the Author's 



proposed, and discharged their contents in the face of his bust. chap, vl 

At this the King had been so much displeased, as already to 

shew the most marked resentment towards some of the 

offenders. Dupuis, leader of the opera band of musicians, 

was banished the kingdom. One of the comedians was also 

ordered to quit the country ; together with Robi?ihof\ master 

of the tavern where the dinner was held. It is necessary to 

state these particulars, in order to explain what happened at 

the Theatre as soon as we returned. The King was present; 

when the comedian here alluded to, in the part he acted, held 

a dialogue with an actress as a chambermaid, who addressed 

him in the following manner : — 

" Begone! what are you doing here? You must be sent away." 

To which he answered: 

" It may be so : but I shall not stir. I am very well where I am, and intend 
to remain here." 

At the delivery of these words, a sudden and very vehement 
applause burst from the audience. The King, evidently 
ruffled, rose from his seat, waving his hand, and calling 
silence : but the applause became louder than ever, and his 
Majesty sate down disconcerted. The actor, it seems, had 
been ordered into exile ; but had not been banished, because 
the King owed him above a thousand dollars. After the 
piece concluded, the debt was paid, and the player was 
ordered to leave Stockholm within twenty-four hours. We 
had frequent opportunities of hearing the King's character character of 

,. i tt -i i .... the young 

discussed, rle was said not to have any private intimacies, King. 
nor to have been influenced by any of those creatures called 
vol. vi. f f favourites, 




chap. vi. favourites, because he never had one. He superintended 
and directed every thing himself; consequently every thing 
was mismanaged. The state of the public finances was 
becoming daily more and more deplorable : and this was to 
be expected, where so young a monarch presided over and 
governed all things, endeavouring, upon all occasions, only 
to shew how completely absolute he w T as. His Ministers, 
moreover, were men utterly incapable of rendering him any 
effectual counsel, if they had been consulted, — which was 
not the case. One day, the merchants of Stockholm waited 
upon him, to represent the ruin that would inevitably 
befal them, if the public credit were not retrieved : to which 
the young monarch replied, that " it was not for a set of 
commercial men to trouble their heads with such matters ; — 
that he had already considered their situation, and had 
taken proper measures to prevent the evil from taking 

When the Queen's accouchement drew nigh, according to 
the usual ceremony of etiquette observed more or less in 
many Courts, but rigidly adhered to in Siveden, the King, the 
Duchess of Sudermania, and other exalted personages, 
amounting in all to twenty persons (among whom were 
some unmarried men), were stationed about her person, to 
become the spectators of her pains and delivery. It was 
said, that, with a view to avoid the indecency of such an 
exposure, the late Queen kept the moment, when her throes 
were coming on, a secret; by which means she escaped a 
public accouchement. At this time, no persons in Stockholm, 
who affected to be versed in State secrets, or who, from their 




situation, might be supposed to possess accurate knowledge chap. vi. 
with regard to such matters, regarded the reigning sovereign 
as the son of his predecessor. The Courts of despotic Princes 
are generally the very hot-beds of every species of revolting 
slander ; and, in the list of these, the Court of Sweden l was 
peculiarly conspicuous for the foulness of the calumnies 
which were set on foot against every individual about the 
throne. We shall neither sully these pages, nor offend the 
Reader, by detailing the opprobrious anecdotes which were 
everywhere in circulation respecting these august personages: 
but as the similitude which the reigning monarch was sup- 
posed to bear to General Monk, a friend of the late King, 
who was banished from the Swedish Court during the 
Regency, was often urged, in table-talk, as a proof of the Table-talk, 
relationship in which he stood to this officer, it would not 
be consistent with that freedom of communication which 
has been shewn in conducting the whole of this narrative, if 
no allusion were made to the fact. We could neither confirm 
nor contradict the truth of the supposed resemblance, having 


(1) It may be said that the government of Sweden was not wholly despotic. Mr. 
Coxe considered the King of Sweden as a limited, but not a despotic sovereign. (See 
Travels, &c. vol. II. p. 372. Lond, 1784.) But the same author acknowledges (p. 36g) 
that " the whole of the executive power is virtually vested in the King: for though it 
is said to be entrusted to him conjointly with the Senate, yet, as his Majesty appoints 
and removes all the members of that council, and, in the administration of affairs, asks 
only their advice, without being bound to follow it, he is absolute master of the Senate." 
Sheridan (Hist, of the late Revolut. in Sweden, &c. p. 301) considered the King of 
Sweden, after the Revolution in 1772, as " no less absolute at Stockholm, than the 
Grand Signior at Constantinople." 







chap. vi. never seen the officer to whom allusion is made. The 
generality of the Siuedes considered the features of Gustavus 
the Fourth as a striking resemblance of the portraits of 
Charles the Twelfth : and, after examining the cast 1 made of 
the face of Charles, we were struck by an evident famijy 
likeness ; which, at least, goes to prove, that if such indica- 
tions of descent be worth attending to, there is as much to 
urge for, as against, his legitimacy. For the rest, in his figure, 
Gustavus the Fourth was thin, and apparently feeble, with a 
pale countenance. He looked most advantageously when 
dressed in regimentals ; and worst of all when he appeared in 
the efFeminate gala suit which the late King had introduced 
into the Swedish Court; — a style of dress better suited to 
mountebanks or stage-players, than for the representatives of 
the warlike Goths ! 

ltoyai Fete at Upon the 2lst of November, the entertainments of the 

the Opera . , ,~ TT . . , , Tr . 

House. evening at the Opera Mouse were given gratis by the King to 

the public. To gain admission, it was only necessary to go 
in full dress ; and we were present upon that occasion. The 
coup d'oeil, upon entering the theatre, was very brilliant. 
The boxes consisted of five tiers of seats ; the ladies being 
ranged in the front rows. The stage was lighted by two 


(1) This will be further described in the sequel. 

(2) Dr. Thomson, who has written a very interesting chapter on the Character and 
Conduct of Gustavus the Fourth, says that the likeness to Charles the Twelfth was not 
confined to his person, but that he possessed certain qualities which gave him a moral 
resemblance to that prince. (See Thomson's Travels in Sweden, p. 115. Lond. 1813.J 
See also the Portrait of Gustavus the Fourth, engraved for Dr. Thomson's work, which 
is a striking likeness of him. 



large cut-glass chandeliers, which were drawn up when the chap. vi. 
curtain rose. In the centre of the pit, upon a platform 
covered with green cloth, were placed two gilded chairs, 
for the reception of the King and Queen. Her Majesty 
being at this time in child-bed, the King alone made his 
appearance. Many of the State officers were stationed 
waiting for his arrival, when we entered the theatre. At 
each side of the entrance to the pit were placed the King's 
Guards, in pompous theatrical suits of blue cloth, with 
polished coats of mail, and enormous helmets surmounted 
by tall plumes; producing altogether the most grotesque 
effect, by combining somewhat of the manly chivalrous 
aspect of the warriors of antient days with the wretched 
effeminacy and scenic taste of the modern Court. It was 
enough to rouse the ghost of Gustavus Vasa, to view the 
heroes of Sweden in this deplorable disguise ; wanting only 
their cheeks painted, to fit them for a booth at Bartho- 
lomew Fair. While we were thus intent upon the motley Evening's 
figures of the soldiers, a bustle in the orchestra, and a 
general movement among the Guards, announced his Majesty's 
approach ; who entered, followed by the Duchess of Sader- 
mania, and several of his retinue, dressed in the absurd and 
fantastic manner which we have before alluded to, but 
strictly according to the regular costume of his Court ; wearing, 
beneath a cloak, a jacket of yellow silk, and large yellow 
roses in his shoes: and, as if to afford the most striking 
contrast possible to his own appearance, and to render it still 
more ludicrous in the eyes of the spectators, he was followed 
by a gigantic attendant in complete armour, the enormous 





plumes of whose helmet, towering aloft, threatened to bur} 
the diminutive and meagre figure of the King. The audience 
immediately rose, but the utmost silence was observed. His 
Majesty, advancing towards the regal chair, was for some 
minutes engaged in bowing to all present ; to the audience 
in general, and to all the foreign Ministers in particular. 
Then making, with his chapcau bras, a signal to the musicians 
in the orchestra, the band began to play; and he sate down. 
Between the acts of the opera, he was occupied chiefly in 
conversation with the Duchess his aunt, and the Russian 
Minister ; and his marked attention to the latter was noticed 
by the generality of those present, who were interested in 
the politics of the day. Having been accustomed to see him 
before only in his regimentals, we hardly recognised him in 
his Court dress. When he sate down, he wrapped his silk 
cloak about him, thus giving to this part of his attire the 
appearance of a petticoat, beneath which peeped his coloured 
shoes set off with large yellow rosettes ; so that his whole 
figure, truly feminine, might have been mistaken for a female. 
During this evening's entertainment, an adventure occurred 
which will afford a specimen of the national manners. 
Two Italian gentlemen, with whom we were intimately 
acquainted, Signor Acerbi, author of Travels in Sweden, Lap- 
land, and Finland, and his young companion, Signor Bellotti, 
were seated in the box of the Prussian Minister. These 
gentlemen, after the close of the first act of the opera, 
finding that no ladies had arrived to occupy the front seat, 
ventured, having first asked permission of the Minister to 
whom the box belonged, to place themselves in the front row, 




and thereby obtain a better view of the King and of the chap. vi. 
stage. They were habited in plain black suits, which, as it 
is well known, are often used abroad, by way of substitute 
for the full Court dress. It may be imagined what their 
uneasiness was, in finding that they had no sooner seated 
themselves in their new places, than they were become 
an object of uneasiness to the royal party stationed in 
the pit. The Duchess of Sudermania was observed to 
regard them for some time with apparent agitation ; and 
at length, speaking to the King, his Majesty was pleased to 
order that a corporal of the guard should be sent to remove 
them from their station. But the Director of the theatre, to 
whom this order was given, being well acquainted with 
them, went up, and represented to them his Majesty's 
disapprobation of their appearance in the front rank, with- 
out having on the full Court dress; desiring them, at the 
same time, not to retire from the theatre, but to sit back- 
ward, so as to escape further observation from below. 
Some of the audience, witnessing this transaction, thought 
proper to insinuate that his Majesty mistook the two 
Italian gentlemen for Englishmen ; — there being at this time 
a slight misunderstanding between our Court and that of 
Sweden, in consequence of the neglect which it was said 
his Britannic Majesty had shewn to a Letter written 
by the Swedish Sovereign respecting the capture of a 
Swedish convoy. This circumstance had rendered it difficult 
for our countrymen to obtain a presentation at the Siuedish 
Court ; as our Minister had ceased to make his appearance 
there, and had been omitted in the invitations recently sent 


** • * ^ r^o* z*??z 



Reflections on 
the death of 
the late mo. 


to the different foreign Ministers. Whether there were any 
truth in the supposed intention of the young King and of 
his aunt, to offer this indignity with any feeling of hostility 
towards our countrymen, we did not give ourselves the 
trouble to inquire. The affair served to afford a momentary 
topic of conversation in the different circles : meanwhile, we 
experienced everywhere the same kindness and hospitality 
which we had invariably met with since our first arrival in 
the country. 

Little needs be said of the style of the performance at a 
Swedish opera. The singers and dancers are equally below 
mediocrity. The band is generally good, and the music well 
given. The management also of the scenery, owing to the 
great pains bestowed upon the most trifling theatrical con- 
cerns during the reign of the late King, still reflects credit 
upon the mechanist who is employed. For our parts, during 
the whole of this evening's representation, neither the splen- 
dours of the Court gala, nor the presence of the Sovereign, 
nor the stage decoration, could abstract our thoughts from 
dwelling upon the horrible tragedy which was acted here. 
The assassination of the late king, with all its cruel atroci- 
ties, dwelt full upon our minds ; — and who could say how- 
soon, or how late, the same sanguinary scene might not be 
renewed ? The young Gusfavus, seated, in his silken vest, 
upon the very floor stained with his father's blood, and 
surrounded by the same courtiers, seemed, from all the 
circumstances of his situation and character, marked to 
become another victim of the plots and conspiracies that 
were going on : and wonderful to us appeared the calm and 




placid indifference with which the young monarch sate occu- chap. ti. 
pied in attention to the turn of an Italian Rondo, or busied in 
enforcing some trivial rule of Court etiquette, upon the 
identical spot yet almost reeking with the murder of his 
father. — But we had not yet visited Russia ! ! ! 

Desmaisons, the celebrated author of an Essay on the 
Revolutions of Sweden, in developing from national cha- 
racter and foreign political interests the true sources of 
those changes which have successively agitated the Sivedish 
dominions, has also unconsciously pointed out the steps 
which ultimately led to the death of the very Sovereign who 
accomplished the most remarkable of all the revolutions the 
country has sustained l . Can it be supposed that an event 
of such immense political importance, reflecting such a 
distinguished lustre on the character of Gustavus the Third*, 
and such dismay upon his adversaries, would be speedily for- 
gotten; or that the hatred towards him, increased by the anni- 
hilation of the self-interested projects of a party, ever slept, so 
long as any of that party continued to exist in Sweden, and 
to hold communication upon the subject of the loss they 
had sustained ? It only taught them to be more circumspect 
in carrying on their designs against the King's life than they 
had hitherto been in executing their former projects. In our 
long journey through Sweden, we often endeavoured to 


(1) See " Histoire de la dernier e Revolution de Suede," par Jacques Le Scene Des- 
maisons. Amst. 1782. 

(2) Gustavus the Third was twenty-five years old when he was proclaimed King, the 
year before the Revolution of 1772. 






chap. vi. procure accurate information relative to the real authors 
and abettors of the conspiracy which ended in his assassina- 
tion by the hand of Ankarstrom\ but the circumstances 
respecting it were either told with the most evident exag- 
geration, or with an air of studied and stupid mystery, 
which, bordering upon affectation, prevented further in- 
quiry. From all, however, that we could collect, notwith- 
standing the difficulty of coming at the truth, it seemed 
plain that the conspiracy had been going on for a long 
time before its object was accomplished in the death of 
the King, and that the inhabitants of the most distant 
provinces in the realm were engaged in its operation. The 
only wonder is, that where the number of the disaffected 
.was so numerous, a secret of such moment could so long 
remain concealed. Some of the Swedish gentry maintain 
that the number of the conspirators exceeded a thousand. 
Judging only from the facts which have transpired ; from the 
conduct of the enemies of the King, and of suspected persons 
before and after his death; there is good reason to believe 
that individuals the most distinguished by their rank, by 
their relationship to Gustavus, and also others who pretended 
to class among the number of his most intimate friends, 
were implicated in his murder. We could not help thinking, 
that in the crowded assembly we now beheld, and perhaps 
among those who were in immediate attendance upon his 
son, there were persons well qualified to dispel all doubts 
upon this subject. 
?h P e e sl n fukhre ^ ^ ew °* a y s a f ter this fete at the Opera House, we went to 
rJeim!' sthe R id d er holm Church, to see the sepulchre of Charles the 




Twelfth, which had been opened by order of the young 
King. In the uncertainty which has always prevailed 
respecting the death of this hero, his remains have more than 
once before been submitted to examination, with a view of 
ascertaining, from the appearance of the scull, whether the 
wound which caused his death were inflicted, or not, by the 
hand of an assassin. Perhaps it was this curiosity on the 
part of the Sovereign which caused the tomb to be again 
violated. We arrived in time to see the coffin, which had been 
also opened, but was now closed. In removing the principal 
slab of black marble placed over this coffin, the workmen 
had broken it near the corner, and masons were repairing it 
when we came to the spot. The coffin, meanwhile, was 
exposed to view : it was covered with crimson velvet, and 
adorned with gold fringe. We observed that it was still in 
as perfect preservation as when the burial took place; the 
fringe being so strong, that we had difficulty in pulling off a 
few threads to bear away as a memorial. Some of the party 
present complained of an unpleasant odour coming from this 
coffin ; but we considered it as imaginary, the sepulchre 
having been some time open, and the coffin carefully closed 
immediately after the King's visit. Ridderholm Church is the 
regal coemetery of the Kings of Sweden. All the Knights of 
the order of Seraphim are also buried here ; and many of the 
principal families of Stockholm have their vaults in this 

We waited upon our Minister soon after our return to the 
Capital, and received from him the intelligence of the un- 
pleasant state of affairs between our country and Siveden, 




of the Amity 
subsisting be- 
tween Eng- 
land and Swt- 


i * ■ I 



of course, 

Ciub called 
The Society. 

chap. vi. which seemed likely to end in a war. This, 

prevented our appearance at Court ; but, in lieu of a presen- 
tation to his Majesty, he proposed taking us to the Society, 
and introducing us there to the different ambassadors, nobles, 
and officers of distinction, which constitute its members. 
This Club is the greatest resource a stranger in this country 
can possibly enjoy : it is regulated upon the best principles, 
and kept in the most perfect order. Its meetings are held in 
one of the grandest edifices in Stockholm, fronting the water, 
and commanding a noble prospect of the principal buildings 
of the city. Being conducted thither, we entered a suite of 
magnificent apartments, elegantly furnished, and in all 
respects remarkable for the neatness and propriety every- 
where displayed. One room is appropriated to reading : and 
here all the principal Gazettes published in Europe, together 
with all sorts of periodical works, French, German, Danish, 
and Dutch Papers, are found lying upon the tables, for general 
use. There is, moreover, a secretaire, fitted up with all sorts 
of conveniences for writing. Every evening, all these apart- 
ments are lighted up with wax candles. In the reading room, 
the most perfect silence prevails ; and in a chamber adjoining, 
there are couches for repose. Beyond this is the ball-room; 
and farther on are separate rooms for billiards, cards, and for 
eating. In the ball-room are suspended the printed rules of 
the Society, in the French and Swedish languages. Strangers 
are permitted to enjoy all the privileges of the club during 
two months ; but if they remain longer in Stockholm, they must 
be presented a second time and become members, or be 
excluded. Every member subscribes twelve rix-dollars 




annually to the fund. The dinners and suppers here are chap. vi. 
excellent, every thing being cheap and good, and the expense 
small. A dinner, without wine, costs only sixteen-pence 
English; and until lately the price was lower. The servants 
of the Society speak French, German, and Swedish ; and are 
all clad in the livery of the club. There is, moreover, always 
in waiting a Directeur, or Maitrc d'hotel, who superintends all 
minor affairs, attends at and directs the order and serving of 
the dinners, and collects the payment due from the several 
guests. The apartments remain open during the whole day. 
We have seldom enjoyed a more pleasing relaxation, or met 
with more agreeable company than we found here. Having 
several friends with whom we used to associate at the Society*, 
we came daily to this place ; and, in fact, there is no place in 
Europe where foreigners engaged in travel will meet with 
better company, more polished manners, or less restraint. 
Add to this the luxury of being, for once at least in 
Scandinavia, in an assembly where smoking and spitting are 
not allowed. The most perfect order prevails in all the 
apartments ; every one being at liberty to enter, or retire 
without form, as he pleases 2 . Some persons belonging to the 
Court, who were proposed as members, had been rejected in 


(l) In this number were, the celebrated Brougham ; Acerli, the Lapland traveller ; Mr. 
now Sir Charles Stewart; the Rev. Mr. Kent, and Mr. Jarrett, whom we had before 
seen in Norway ; and Mr. Bellotti. 

(2) An establishment of this nature, under the name of " The United Service Club," 
has been lately founded in London, which seems to be conducted upon a similar 




to Italian 


the ballot ; at which the King was much displeased, and 
endeavoured, as it was said, to withdraw the courtiers from 
their attendance. If this were true, it had not produced the 
desired effect ; for the numbers, instead of being diminished, 
had lately been considerably increased ; the first families in 
Stockholm being the most regular visitants. 

As in all large cities, the traveller must expect to meet 
with less of the characteristic hospitality of the Swedes in 
Stockholm, than in other parts of the kingdom 1 ; and it is 
here, in particular, that his reception will a good deal 
depend upon the relative state of politics with regard to his 
own country. We found our situation somewhat altered, 
since our last visit, by the degree of coolness which had 
sprung up between the Court and our Minister. Neither is 
there much in the place itself to afford instruction or amuse- 
ment. Excepting the great square of Nordermalm, the 
streets, though of very considerable length, are neither broad 
nor handsome. There is no foot pavement ; and the shops 
are everywhere wretched. The houses are lofty, and they 
are all white- washed. The different families, as in Italy, 
reside upon separate floors, or stories, one above another; the 
ground-floor being appropriated to shops, and the upper 
stories to private families. There is, moreover, a resem- 
blance between the customs of the two countfies. If a 
stranger have any business to execute among the tradesmen, 
and be not careful to set about it before noon, the whole day 


(l) " Plus on s'approche de la capitale, moins on apercoit cettc respectable bonhomie, 
qui caracterise generalement le paysan Suedois des provinces." Promenade en Suede, 
par De Latochnaye, torn. I. p. 62. Brunswick, 1801. 



is lost. At mid-da}^, every body is at dinner : the merchants chap. vi. 
have then left their counters, and the shops are shut. After- 
wards they are all fast asleep ; which at this season of the 
year is the more inconvenient, because as soon as they awake 
it is dark. Two hours may be deemed the whole of the 
time allowed for daily affairs abroad, — from ten in the 
morning until twelve. Before ten it is not usual for families 
to make their appearance ; and if after this time a traveller 
remain in his lodgings, engaged as he is very likely to be with 
his own private affairs, it is in vain that he endeavours after- 
wards to get any thing done in the town. 

One of the first things it is natural to seek for, in arriv- 
ing at any place upon the Continent, is a bookseller's Booksellers. 
shop : but the booksellers here have no catalogues ; or if 
any thing of this kind be produced, it is written wholly 
in the Sivedish language. And with regard to the dealers 
themselves, never were persons of their profession so little 
likely to recommend their wares, as the booksellers of 
Stockholm. If a customer enter, they rise not from their 
seats to assist him in looking over the dusty lumber of 
their warehouses : and if they were disposed to shew him 
this civility, the search would be vain ; because the books, 
not being bound, but lying in quires, and confusedly mixed 
together, can only be regarded as so many reams of paper 
in a stationer's shop. 

When Englishmen are invited to dine with the inhabitants, Public 


it is a constant practice to prepare a quantity of what is 
called roast beef for their reception at table : and the opinion 


W— P 

.'"Y"'" . " -.■./.'.-. * 



:hap. vi. which all foreigners have, that we cannot dine without a 
copious allowance of animal food, especially of beef, is very 
diverting. The host gathers consequence to himself in 
having provided this kind of diet, and, smiling at his guests, 
calls out, in an emphatical tone, ' Rosbif!' (for so it is generally 
written and pronounced) as the mangled heap of flesh which 
bears this name is handed round ; not having the smallest 
resemblance to any thing so called in England, but con- 
sisting of lumps of meat piled upon a dish, tough, stringy, 
and covered with grease. Of this if you do not eat heartily, 
offence is sure to be given. In fact, if an Englishman wish 
to render himself agreeable to the Swedish gentry, he ought 
to prepare himself by fasting for at least two entire days 
before he visits them. If he do not devour every thing that 
they set before him, and with a degree of voraciousness 
proportioned to their good wishes for his making a hearty 
meal, he will never give satisfaction. We have before 
alluded to these remarkable traits of the national cha- 
racter: they carry us back, in imagination, to those Gothic 
festivals, when animals were roasted whole, and the guests 
were served with heaps of flesh by attendants in complete 
armour, who carved with their swords: and they serve also 
to remind us of those fables of the Edda, or antient' Icelandic 
Mythology, in which to eat voraciously is described as a 
qualification, worthy not only of a warrior, but of a God 1 . — 


(l) " Loke then said that his art consisted in eating more than any other man in the 
world, and that he would challenge any one at that kind of combat. — * It must indeed be 




We met with an instance of the dissatisfaction given by the chap. vi. 
want of this qualification, where we least expected it; 
namely, in the Directeur of the Society. We might have 
supposed that the less the company devoured at his table, the 
greater would have been his profit, and of course the higher 
his gratification. But even here, seeing the Author refuse to 
partake of a dish which one of the servants brought to him 
after he had completely dined, the Directeur exclaimed, as he 
retired, in a tone loud enough to be overheard, with true 
Swedish feeling and with a broad oath, " What, you are deter- 
mined not to touch a morsel ! Has it been usual with us to set 
before you despicable food ?" — The instances of offence given 
in this way were alluded to in a former volume 8 ; and the 
subject would be deemed too trivial for repetition, were it not 
essential to the due representation of the manners and 
customs of the inhabitants. The style of a Scandinavian 
dinner we have before described, in our account of Nonvay; 
for in this respect there is not much difference between the 
two countries. No person, on any account, is permitted to 


owned,' replied the King, ' that you are not wanting in dexterity, if you are able to per- 
form what you promise.' At the same time he ordered one of his courtiers who was 
sitting on a side-bench, and whose name was Loge (i.e. Flame), to come forward, and 
try his skill with Loke, in the art they were speaking of. Then he caused a great tub 
or trough full of provisions to be placed on the bar, and the two champions at each end 
of it ; who immediately fell to devour the victuals with so much eagerness, that they 
presently met in the middle of the trough, and were obliged to desist. But Loke had 
only eat the flesh of his portion ; whereas the other had devoured both flesh and bones. 
All the company therefore adjudged that Loke was vanquished." — Edda, or Antient 
Icelandic Mythology. See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, vol. II. p. 90. Edin. I8O9. 

(2) See Part III. Sect. I. Chap. XV. p. 341. Lond. I8I9. 




chap. vi. touch, or offer to his neighbour at table, the contents of the 
dishes that are placed before him. They are all removed, and 
brought round to the guests one after another in a regular 
order; consequently the business of dinner lasts two or three 
hours; — the longer, the more consistent with a splendid 
entertainment. Before sitting down, when the company are 
all stationed in their places at the board, a pause of total 
silence ensues; and this, after continuing for the space of a 
minute, is interrupted by a bow from the host, which is the 
signal for every one to become seated. The mistress of the 
house is conducted from the drawing-room by the person of 
the greatest rank present; the rest of the gentlemen each 
taking a lady, as with us. The ceremony of the whet before 
dinner, which is universally practised over all the North of 
Europe, takes place in an adjoining room, a few minutes before 
dinner is announced : there the company eat caviare, turnip- 
radish, raw turnip or carrot, or a bit of some salted fish, and 
take a dram of brandy, by way of provoking an appetite; and 
this they do as heartily as if they were making a meal; — like 
the inhabitants of some part of Scotland, who swallow a hot 
sea-gull, or kiddy-wake, full of fish-oil, for the same pur- 
pose. The master and mistress of a family have no parti- 
cular place assigned them at their own table, but mix with 
their guests, and generally sit at one of the sides. This 
custom, perhaps, is an imitation of French manners. When 
the company rise after dinner, the same pause and silence 
ensues as before; after which, the bow being again made, the 
gentlemen salute the hand or cheek of the mistress of the 
house, and shake hands with the master. These customs and 




ceremonies are the same everywhere, whether in the mansions 
of the nobles, or the dwellings of more private individuals. 

The principal article of furniture in every apartment is a 
stove, which is generally large, and covered with Dutch tiles. 
In the houses of the great, these stoves are sometimes formed 
so as to represent the pedestal of a column, and then they 
often support a statue; or if not so ornamented, they reach 
to the cieling of the room. Where the stove and flues are 
solely formed of iron, and not properly encased with stone, 
tiles, or stucco, a close disagreeable smell is caused in all the 
rooms: to obviate this, the inhabitants frequently burn per- 
fumes, or place a scented pot pourri upon the stoves. The most 
insignificant article of their furniture cuts a more imposing 
figure in English houses, — where, however, it is never publickly 
exhibited, — namely, the bed ; this is generally small, uncom- 
fortable, and more like a mere couch for a drawing-room than 
for a place of repose at night. In the lodgings of single men, 
it is always seen as a dirty and unpleasant spectacle ; not made 
up during the first half of the day, and offensive to more than 
one of the senses during the other. The windows of the 
rooms, in the best houses, are doubly glazed; and hung with 
long shreds of coarse gauze, by way of representing what 
they are not ; that is to say, curtains ; being about a quarter 
of a yard wide, and of course merely ornamental. The walls 
are hung with painted canvas, sometimes in imitation of 
India paper ; at others, in panels, after the French taste. The 
floors are also painted. 

The prohibition respecting the use of coffee was at this 
time so strictly observed in Stockholm, that in genteel families 



Interior of 
the Houses. 









Anecdotes of 
the King. 

ciiai\ vi. it was never presented : in some of the inns they offered it 
to strangers in a contraband way. We have seen even 
the most gay and dissipated of the young Swedes refuse 
to drink it, when invited by a company of foreigners who 
have had it before them. The use of tea had been substi- 
tuted in its place. This beverage the Swedes call Te-Watn, 
or Tea Water; a very appropriate name for the infusion, 
as they prepare it; for, in general, that which they offer 
under this name is nothing more than warm water served 
in small tea-cups. 

Soon after the prohibition respecting coffee had been 

issued, his Majesty's own valet de chambre, a man of tried 

fidelity and very amiable character, either through some 

inadvertence on the part of his servants, or a momentary 

thoughtlessness in himself, having invited a party to visit 

him at Drdtt?iingholm, was known to have violated the 

prohibition; coffee having been served upon that occasion. 

The next morning, one of the attendants, from a desire 

to supersede the valet in his place, and actuated by envy 

at the confidence reposed in him by his royal master, 

informed his Majesty of the transaction. The King took no 

notice of it at the time ; but when his valet came to undress 

him, he said, " Is it true that you gave coffee to a party which 

visited you from Stockholm, yesterday evening." " It is but 

too true, sire," said the valet, "and I saw the extent of my 

transgression in the moment it was committed." "Well," 

said his Majesty, " go now to the Intendant of the Police, and 

tell him what you have done, and pay the penalty 1 ; and then 


(l) One rix-clollar for every cup of coffee used. 



come back to me." — When the valet returned, and the King chap. vi. 
found that his orders had been obeyed, he sent for the 
informer, and thus addressed him. " My valet confesses 
he has been guilty of violating the prohibition with 
regard to coffee, as you told me he had done; and he has 
paid the penalty for so doing. It is therefore only necessary 
for me to add, that in future I shall have no further occasion 
for your services." 

Another circumstance also occurred, which placed the 
character of Gustavus the Fourth in a very amiable light; — 
and we can vouch for the truth of both of them. 

A Swedish Colonel, by an accidental fire which consumed 
his house, lost the whole of his property. Some time after, a 
lottery was set on foot by his friends, to reimburse him. In 
the opening of this business, a letter arrived from Pomerania, 
inclosing one hundred and fifty rix-dollars, without the name 
of any donor, but with a short note, requesting that the 
Colonel would remember the " broken punch-bowl" It was 
a long time before he could unravel this mystery; but at last 
he recollected that many years before, being in a tavern 
where there was a great concourse of people and much 
rejoicing, a female servant dropped from her hands a large 
China punch-bowl full of punch. Her mistress, in violent 
anger, threatened her with instant dismissal, and that she 
should be sent to prison if she did not make good the loss; 
upon which the Colonel interceded in behalf of the poor 
girl, and himself paid for the damage which had been 
sustained. This curious anecdote becoming the subject of 
conversation in Stockholm, at length reached the ears of the 


1 1 I 



chap. vi. King. Gust amis was much pleased with it, and sent a 
present of one thousand rix-dollars, with this message: " I am 
aware that the Colonel's friends have instituted a lottery 
upon his account. It is prohibited, by the laws, to under- 
take any lottery, without previous permission from the 
Master of the Police. Tell the Colonel I know that officer; 
that he is an humane and polite man, not likely to refuse a 
reasonable request: it is my wish that the Colonel should ask 
his permission for the lottery, that I may be enabled to bear 
a part in it." 

We have the more readily inserted these traits in the cha- 
racter of the reigning monarch, because the anecdotes related 
of him, in general, were neither numerous nor interesting. 
Having no favourite, and relying altogether upon his own 
judgment, which however was very incapable of guiding 
him, it was not easy to penetrate the reserve that shrouded 
his private life from observation. The few things that had 
transpired afforded a favourable view of his disposition. 
From his earliest boyhood he was little disposed to fami- 
liarity with any one. When only eight years of age, he 
attended Gustavus the Third to a grand Council. Upon 
this occasion, stepping before his father as he advanced 
to the regal chair, and placing himself upon it, he repeated, 
with affected gravity, a passage from one of the Swedish 
tragedies: — "Let us sit on the throne of our ancestors." 
The King, instead of being pleased with his son's humour, 
seemed rather piqued; and abruptly handing him down, 
said, " Come, come, young usurper! there will be a more 
proper season for these sentiments, when I am gone!" 




With regard to other stories circulated in Stockholm, respect- chap. vi. 
ing either the young Sovereign or his fair consort, as it was 
impossible to give credit to them, so it will not be necessary to 
relate them. The general tenor of all of them was to represent 
the King as a haughty, imperious, but benevolent man, desti- 
tute of sound judgment and literary talents; without any love 
of the Fine Arts, but desirous of enforcing strict obedience to 
the laws, both by precept and example : and the Queen as a 
giddy cheerful romp, more disposed towards laughter than 
serious reflection, who would prefer a game at blindman's 
buff to any State ceremony, however splendid the situation she 
might be called upon to fill. 

We met with a bookseller in Stockholm who assured us liable ex- 
tents of the 

— and we saw no reason to doubt the truth of what he said — Chests at u P - 


that he had often been employed by the late King, Gustavus 
the Third, as his amanuensis. He declared that he assisted 
that monarch in arranging and in copying many of the 
manuscripts now deposited at Upsala under such strict 
injunctions of their being kept secret until the time arrives 
for opening the chests containing them 1 . He seemed well 
acquainted with the nature of these manuscripts ; and, as his 
character is highly respectable, and the information he afforded 
was given without the least solicitation on our part, it may 
perhaps be worth attending to. The most important part of 
these papers, he said, as written by Gustavus the Third, 
contains the History of his own Times ; composed with a 
depth of political knowledge, and most profound reflection, 


1 ) See the former Chapter. 

■ ■ ■ 

State of Lite 


chap. vi. such as might be expected from his uncommon talents and 
observation. This History, together with the State Papers 
necessary for its illustration, probably make up the principal 
part of this mysterious deposit, which has excited so much 

The state of literature in Sweden has been less promising 
since the death of Linnceus than that of any other country in 
Europe. In the sciences, however, Chemistry, in spite of 
every obstacle to which it has been opposed, in a country 
wanting many of the conveniences necessary for its progress, 
and all the patronage essential to its encouragement, has 
made rapid advances 1 . The chemical discoveries of the 
Swedes, in all their Universities 2 , redound greatly to their 
honour. Yet the science of Mineralogy, connected as it is 
with Chemistry, is hardly anywhere at a lower ebb than in 
Sweden: and Geology may be considered as not having yet 
been introduced into that country ; since we cannot bestow 
the name of Geology upon those testimonies of its presence 
which the Swedes sometimes exhibit under the names of 
Geological Cabinets. Botany, moreover, seemed to us to be 
fast declining ; as if all its blossoms had drooped and died 
with its great master. Other branches of knowledge appeared 
to be involved in the same fate. History, Metaphysics, Laws, 


(1) Witness the surprising talents of Berxelius ; himself a host, filling all Europe 
with admiration of his great abilities, and gratitude for the importance and profundity of 
his researches. Witness also the discoveries made by his pupil, Arfvedson. Not to omit 
a tribute due to the names of Ekeberg of Upsala, Gahn of Fahlun, Hisinger, Hielm of 
Stockholm, and many others. 

(2) The name of the University of Abo would hardly have been known in the rest of 
Europe, but for the chemical discoveries of Gadolin. 


Languages, Music, the Belles Lettres, were only known as so chap. vi. 

many appellations to which there was nothing applicable. 

The Fine Arts, once nourishing in this metropolis, languished Deplorable 

" condition of 

for want of encouragement. Add to all this, a gloomy pro- the Countr y- 
spect in the State, seeming to foretell the bursting of a storm, 
which was gathering fast around the throne; public finances 
annihilated ; national credit extinct ; taxes accumulating ; 
agriculture neglected ; manufactures ruined ; insurrections 
ripe in every quarter; the poor oppressed and murmuring; 
the liberty of the press banished ; projects, the most absurd, 
bursting, like bubbles, as fast as they were formed ; — such was, 
at this moment, the abject and deplorable state of this land 
of heroism, honesty, and benevolence. It seemed to every 
reflecting mind as if Sweden awaited one of those tremendous 
moral revolutions which, by tearing to atoms the constitution 
of the country, offers, amidst its ruins, the materials of a 
more solid structure. The necessity of convoking the Diet 
was becoming every day more and more apparent; yet the 
courtiers, twelve or thirteen of whom surrounded the throne, 
being averse from such a measure, as justly alarmed at the 
consequences of an inquiry into the state of public affairs, 
were using all their influence to prevent it, by persuading 
the King to disregard the agitation which was evidently 
gathering force in every quarter of his kingdom. Such was 
the abject state of the paper currency, that Bank-notes 
were in circulation of the nominal value of eight-pence, 
English; but which were considered as literally worth 
nothing ; no one being willing to take them. The com- 
merce of the country, of course, experienced a lamentable 

vol. vi. n check; 




check ; and corn, of which the importation annually cost 
three millions of dollars, became woefully scarce. In this 
deplorable condition of things, the State candle was burning 
at both ends. The regulations made to prevent the consump- 
tion of coffee and of spirits were wholly ineffectual, and con- 
stantly evaded. There seemed to be no police whatever; 
nor any assize of bread ; the difference of one half prevailing 
in the price of the same article in different parts of the same 
town. One hundred rix-dollars had been paid in the course of 
the last year for a single load of hay ; peasants being actually 
compelled to kill their cattle, or to sell them for almost 
nothing, or to feed them with the straw from the tops of 
their houses. 

We often met the young King in his walks through the 
streets : it was a practice in which he frequently indulged ; 
going about in the most private manner, wrapped in a drab 
great coat, and attended only by a single officer, his Master 
of the Horse. It was understood to be his wish that he 
should pass without notice, as it would be troublesome to 
him to be continually bowing to all who might make their 
obeisance. But as Englishmen, who had experienced in 
every part of his kingdom the most unbounded hospitality, 
and were instigated only by a desire to testify the regard we 
felt for a country of which he was the Sovereign, we could 
not forego the satisfaction of taking off our hats, whenever 
he approached ; and, notwithstanding what was before urged 
with regard to his conduct towards our countrymen, it was 
pleasing to observe that upon these occasions he always 
returned our salute in the most gracious manner. 




The places of Public Amusement in this city are not chap. vi. 

numerous: the principal are, the Opera House, already Places of Pub- 
lic Amuse- 

noticed ; the Theatre, or, as it is here called, Dramatisha ; ment. 
and the Vauxhall, or Gardens of Promenade. The building 
of the Opera House took place between the years 1776 and 
1782. This edifice is two hundred and ten Siuedish feet in 
length, by one hundred and fifty in breadth ; and it is fifty- 
seven feet in height. The front is decorated with columns 
and pilasters of the Corinthian order. It constitutes the 
chief ornament of the Nordermalm Square, being oppo- 
site to the Palace of the Princess Royal. The Theatre is 
situate in the Old Arsenal: it was built in 1792, upon the 
demolition of the Theatre Francaise, which was taken 
down in the alterations made to lay open the front of the 
Royal Palace 1 . In this theatre are represented the Sivedish 
tragedies, comedies, and farces ; the best of which are quite 
below mediocrity. In comedy, however, the Sivedes have 
some excellent actors. We saw one, whose name we do 
not recollect, but he reminded us forcibly of our own 
matchless comedian, John Bannister, whose talents will 
never be forgotten, if unaffected simplicity of nature, joined 
with pathos and energy, be preferable to stage tricks, 
affectation, and caricatura. This actor was deservedly a 
great favourite with the Sivedes, whose stiff and serious 
features, habitually disposed to gravity, relaxed into continual 


(l) The old French theatre is now changed into a set of ante-rooms belonging to this 



chap. vi. laughter the whole time he remained upon the stage. Siveden 
is not destitute of eminent theatrical writers ; but the prin- 
cipal part of the dramatic works brought forward in this 
country are translations from the English and French lan- 
guages : this is always the case with their farces, if they 
possess the smallest degree of merit. The utmost order 
prevails in their theatres during the representations : no 
person moves from his seat, or enters into conversation with 
those about him : if the least sound of a voice be heard, 
except from the stage, a general hissing immediately puts 
the intruder to silence. 
Academies. Of the Societies instituted in Stockholm for the encourage- 

ment of Literature, there are five which bear the name of 
Academies, without including the Patriotic Society; viz. 
The Academy of Sciences ; that of the Belles Lettres, History, 
and Antiquities; the Sivedish Academy; the Academy of 
Painting and Sculpture ; and the Royal Academy of Music. 
Among these, the Academy of Sciences holds the highest 
rank. It was founded in 1739, by several learned patriots, 
among whom it is sufficient to mention the senator Count 
Hoepken, Linnceus, and Alstroemer. It has continually 
increased and prospered since its first establishment; having 
published more than one hundred volumes of Memoirs, 
Discourses, Eulogies, and Dissertations, all in the Swedish 
language. It was not until it had attained the summit of 
its reputation that it was received under the protection of 
Government; which has since allowed to it great advantages; 
among others, the exclusive right of publishing and dis- 
tributing almanacks throughout the kingdom, a privilege 
> from 



from which it derives a revenue annually of two thousand chap. vi. 
rix-dollars. The sciences which chiefly occupy this Academy 
are, Natural History, Physic, Anatomy, Chemistry, Astronomy, 
&c. It has a Library, aCabinet of Natural History, anObserva- 
tory, and a Botanic Garden bequeathed to it by Mr. Berguis, 
the direction of which is entrusted to Mr. Swartz. The 
Cabinet of Natural History is under the inspection of Mr. 
Sparrman, celebrated for his voyages in the South Seas with 
Captain Cook, and for his African Travels. This Academy 
has a President and two Secretaries. The President is 
renewed every three months : the two Secretaries are perpe- 
tual. The first, Mr. Melanderhielm, directs the Academy, and 
has the Library under his care: he also conducts the foreign 
correspondence, and publishes the Memoirs. He lives in the 
Hotel of the Academy, a large and beautiful building in the 
centre of the town. In the principal chamber is the bust 
of its founder, Count HoepJten. The other secretary is Astro- 
nomer to the Academy : he lives in the Observatory, situate 
north of the town. He is employed in the publication of 
almanacks. Since the establishment of the Academy of 

Sciences, it has experienced some severe losses in the deaths 
of Messrs. Vilas, De Geer, Wargentin, Baech, Berguis, Scheele, 
&c. : but it still possesses Mr. Acrel, chief physician ; its 
President, llosenadler, who has bequeathed to it all his Swedish 
books; Admiral Chapman; Baron A Istroemer; Mr. Engestroem; 
Baron Hermelin; Messrs. Geyer and Hjelm, excellent mine- 
ralogists and chemists, the latter of whom first obtained M?- 
lybdenum in the metallic state ; De Carlson, Payhdl, Oedmann, 
&c. Among the members of this Academy, it boasts of 






chap. vi. many celebrated foreigners: — in France, Lalande, Expilly, 
Monnet, Keralio, he Sage, De Morveau, Boirffters, &c. — in 
Spain, Mutis; — in Italy , Spallanzani, Verri, Morozzo, Fontana, 
&c. — in Germany, Kdstner, Kolpin, Richter, Forster, Mbller, 
Achard, Jacquin, Schreber, Weigel, &c. — in Russia, JEpinas, 
Euler, Rumoivski , Pallas, Kourahin, Razumowski, Gallitzin, 
&c. — in England, Banhs, Pennant, Kirivan, and Smith ; — 
in Denmark, Niebuhr, Suhm, and Vahl ; — in America, 
Priestley. The Memoirs of the Academy are translated at 
Venice into Latin, with the title Analecta Transalpina; and at 
Gottingen in Germany, into French, by Mr. Keralio. The 
principal part of the Library of this Academy was the 
gift of the President Rosenadler. Among the books are some 
typographical rarities; a Swedish Bible, with wood-cuts, 
printed at Upsala in 1541 ; the New Testament, in quarto, 
with wood-cuts, printed at Stockholm in I54g ; the first New 
Testament printed in Siveden, dated Stockholm 1521. Also 
a rare work (because prohibited), called " The Battles of 
Duke Charles," or Charles IX. That the proceedings of 
this Academy should be published only in the Sivedish 
language may be regretted as a real literary loss ; for, as it is 
observed by a late author who visited this country, " Si 
Linnde avoit ecrit dans sa langue, il auroit en, sans doute, 
autant de merite ; mais, a coup sur, pas aidant de ce'Ubritc 1 ." 
Sparmann added greatly to the Cabinet of this Academy. He 
classed it according to the system of Linncens ; giving to the 
Academy, at their sittings, his own descriptions of every thing 


(l) Voyage de Deux Francais, torn. II. p. 74 (Note). Paris, 17Q6. 



that was new. Notwithstanding these additions, there is not chap. vi. 
much in this cabinet which can be considered either as worth 
seeing or describing. We visited it ; and were quite struck 
with its insignificance, and the bad taste shewn in the selec- 
tion and manner of displaying the specimens. Generally, in 
the first view one has of a Museum of this kind, merely by 
casting a glance over it, a tolerable correct notion may be 
formed of the style and character of the exhibition. Under 
this impression, we did not expect to be very highly gratified, 
when we observed, upon entering the apartment, some 
miserable specimens of common Coral, placed in a row upon 
pedestals of wretched shell-work that would have degraded 
the China closet of an ignorant old woman. The eye is 
afterwards caught by a number of glass-cases, containing 
organic bodies preserved in alcohol, which are, for the most 
part, reptiles; serpents, lizards, toads, and frogs. Here, among 
the more remarkable rarities, we were shewn the generative 
organs of the Ostrich and Rhinoceros; the Draco-volans, 
not so large as a common Bat; the foetus of a Hottentot ; 
specimens of the Rana typhonia, and Rana paradoxa, from 
the embryo to the perfect state of the animal; Lacerta 
Amhoinensis, considered a great rarity; Venomous Serpents 
of America, the Indies, and South Seas, remarkable for the 
flatness of their heads ; Flying Fishes of the Red Sea; Worms, 
Scorpions, and other insects in great number; bones, teeth, &c. 
of Elephants; and weapons, dresses, and idols of the Islands 
of Australasia. Around the room are ranged specimens of 
greater magnitude; as, the heads of the Cape Buffalo; the 
Hippopotamus, believed to be the Behemoth of sacred 

Scripture ; 



chap. vi. Scripture ; the horns of various animals, some of astonishing 
size, of the Rein- deer, Elk, &c. 

The Academy of Belles Lettres was much patronized by 
Gustavus the Third; who not only endowed it with a fund 
for prizes, but also for allowing premiums to several of its 
members. Its province extends to Foreign Literature and 
Classical Antiquities. The number of its members is limited 
to fifty. It was founded in 1753, by Queen Louisa Ulrica. 
Within these few years, it has lost many men of great merit ; 
as, Dalin, Lagerbring, Ulhre, Potberg, and De Bcrch. Its 
secretary is Mr. Tileman, Royal Antiquarian. This Academy 
has published several volumes of Memoirs, in Swedish. It 
possesses a beautiful collection of medals. 

The third, the Swedish Academy, or the Academy of 
Eighteen, is so called from the number of its members. 
It was instituted for the cultivation of the Sivedish language, 
by Gustavus the Third, in 1786. Its particular aim is to 
cultivate, to purify, and to enrich the Swedish language. It 
composes the eulogies of Kings, noblemen, and private 
men who have been celebrated. It has published many 
volumes, on these and other subjects. Gustavus the Third 
neglected nothing that might conduce to its welfare. Since 
the year 1792, it has enjoyed the exclusive privilege of 
publishing the Swedish Gazette. Its secretary is Mr. 
Rosenstein, late preceptor of Gustavus the Fourth. It is 
usual, upon the death of one of its members, to deliver 
a funeral oration, illustrating his merits, enumerating his 
writings, and pronouncing his eulogium. This ceremony 
is always attended by the Academicians in their full dress, 




by the members of the Royal Family, the Nobles and chap. vi. 
Gentry of Stockholm, and Foreigners admitted with tickets 
distributed by the members of the Academy. We were 
present upon one of these occasions, Saturday, November 23, 
when the sitting was attended with a great degree of 
grandeur. It was upon the death of Mr. Stenhammar . We 
arrived in the evening, and found the chamber of the Aca- 
demy illuminated by a profusion of candles suspended in 
heavy chandeliers of cut glass. Upon the right hand, as we 
entered, in boxes affixed to the wall, sate the King and his 
Court ; his Majesty, with the male part of his suite of 
attendants, being in one of the boxes ; and the Duchess of 
Sudermania, with her maids of honour, in the other. The 
seats on the opposite side were filled with Noblemen, Ambas- 
sadors, Peeresses, and Foreigners of distinction. In the 
middle of the assembly, and below the King's box, was a 
long table, at which were placed the members of the 
Academy. The rest of the apartment was crowded by 
military officers and the sons of the principal families of 
Stockholm, all in full dress or in uniform. The busi- 
ness of the sitting opened with a Congratulatory Poem 
addressed to the King, by Mr. Leopold, the most cele- 
brated of the Swedish Poets, upon the birth of the young 
Prince; containing, as may be easily supposed, little 
more than the most extravagant adulation, disposed into 
metre and rhyme. After this had been read, a new 
member, Count Fleming, was introduced, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Stenhammar, and to 
vol. vi. k k pronounce 



chap. vi. pronounce the funeral oration 1 . This was read by the Count, 
from a manuscript, in the Sivedish language, written in a 
terse and elegant style, with great uniformity of diction, but 
highly polished; and it gave general satisfaction. The 
reading lasted a considerable time. When it was over, his 
Majesty advanced towards the Duchess of Sudermania, and 
kissed her before all the company present; a ceremony 
which, as was before remarked, very generally attends the 
breaking up of assemblies in Sweden. 

The Academy of Painting and Sculpture was founded 
in 1/35, by Count Tessin. It was particularly protected by 
Gustavus the Third, who, in 1783, enlarged and perfected the 
plan of its establishment by new regulations. It publishes 
every year an exposition of its works, and distributes prizes 
among its pupils. Of this Academy, Mr. Fredenheim is 
President, and Mr. Pasch Director ; the first, Intendant of the 
King's Buildings; the second, Keeper of the King's Pictures. 
Among its members, it boasts of the celebrated Sergell, one of 
the greatest sculptors in Europe. The other most distin- 
guished members of this Academy are, Mr. Breda, the 
portrait-painter; Mr. Templeman, the Secretary, and Architect 
to the King ; Mr. Masrelier, Painter to the King; the famous 


(l) Acerbi has mentioned a Swedish bon-mot, upon the occasion of Count Fleming's 
being introduced as the new member of the Academy of Eighteen ; which will shew the 
natural sprightliness and wit of the Swedes, notwithstanding the character of gravity 
often imputed to them. When the Count took his seat among the Academicians, a wag 
observed that their number now amounted exactly to 170. * How so?' it was asked. 
'Because,' replied he, 'when a cipher is added to the number seventeen, the amount is I/O.* 
— See Acer bis Travels, vol. I. p. I/O. Loud. 1S02. 




Despres, scene-painter, &c. ; the two Martins, one a land- chap. vi. 
scape painter, the other an engraver and painter in water- 
colours. It has lost Mr. Gillberg, who produced the medals 
which compose the medallic history of Gustavus the Third. 

The Royal Academy of Music was founded in 1772, by 
Gustavus the Third. The Opera is annexed to its establish- 
ment. It has produced works of great merit, in poetry, 
music, and scenery: for example, the famous opera of 
Gustavus Vasa, which was brought out with unequalled 
splendour and perfection. The music of its pieces is princi- 
pally composed by Uttini, an Italian; and by Vogler and 
Kraus, who are Germans. 

The Patriotic Society began to assemble in 1767? and is 
numerous as to its members. It is chiefly occupied in the 
science of Economy, as applied to the kingdom: it publishes 
annually works upon this subject. Its principal secretary 
is Mr. Modur, who may be considered as its founder. This 
society is truly useful to the Swedish nation. 

On Saturday, December 7th, the King left Stockholm, for 
Upsala, in consequence of a petition he received, as Chan- 
cellor of the University, from the Students, remonstrating 
against the conduct of the Rector Magnificus, and demanding 
a legal inquiry into the propriety of the measures he had 
thought proper to pursue. These young men had celebrated Riots at 
Buonaparte's return to Paris' 1 ; and exhibited an ideot, in 
solemn procession, dressed and decorated with the uniform, 
orders, and insignia of Suwarqf. The principal magistrate 


(2) After landing at Frejus, from his Egyptian expedition. 




chap. vi. of the University had therefore assembled the students, and 

publickly reproved them for their conduct. In consequence 

of this disgrace, which they conceived they had not merited, 

the appeal had been made to the King. Upon receiving this 

petition, his Majesty immediately repaired to Upsala ; and 

having satisfied himself of the irregular behaviour of a parcel 

of unruly boys, made it known to the members of the 

University that he did not deem them any longer worthy either 

of his patronage or protection, and accordingly resigned 

the Chancellorship. This was one of those measures, for 

which, having acted from the impulse of his own heart, and 

consulting the advice of no one able to guide him, he was 

universally blamed in Stockholm: it was said, that it might 

tend to the ruin of the University. To an impartial bystander, 

the King's only error seemed to be in having at all noticed an 

application of so puerile a nature, and one that he might so 

easily have dismissed, by referring the whole affair to the 

resident magistrate. But so determined was he to adopt his 

own judgment in all things, that if any of his Ministers 

had the reputation of influencing his actions, it was made a 

sufficient ground for their immediate dismissal. 

lioyai Palace. We availed ourselves of his absence, upon this occasion, 
to pay a visit to the Royal Palace ; strangers not being 
admitted, during his residence, into the State apartments. This 
magnificent structure is one of the finest modern edifices of 
the kind in Europe. It is not so spacious as the Royal 
Palace of Copenhagen, but it has a grander aspect, being upon 
an eminence which commands all parts of the city. It is of 
a square form, built four stories high, of brick-work, faced 




with stucco after the Italian manner 1 , and adorned with chap. vi. 
Grecian pillars and pilasters. The interior court measures 
about eighty-seven paces by seventy-five. A marble stair- 
case leads to the Chapel, which is surrounded by a gallery, 
and beautifully decorated. Opposite the Chapel is the 
Council-chamber, in which we saw two fine portraits by 
an unknown artist; one of Gust avus Vasa, executed in black 
drapery ; and another of Gustavus Adolphus. These are whole 
lengths; but they have been stretched upon new canvas 
since they were originally painted, by which means the 
back- ground has in each instance been enlarged, and the 
original design of the painter extended with marvellous suc- 
cess ; the harmony and due effect not being at all violated, 
which is very unusual in such cases. The State apartments 
consist of a suite of chambers, the first of which, of a square 
form, is ornamented with gilded columns. Here there are two 
statues as large as life, by the famous Sergell, who was at this 
time resident in Stockholm, afflicted, as it was said, with an 
incurable melancholy: the one is a statue of Apollo, the other 
of Venus; the head of the latter being a portrait of the 
Countess Hoepken*. Passing on, we entered another grand 
chamber, furnished with rich French velvet; in which were 
six marble busts, also by Sergell, representing the Family of 
Gustavus the Third. After this occurred a small Cabinet, 
serving as a kind of vestibule to thePicture Gallery, containing 
an antique marble bason, supported by a tripod of lion's 


(1) See the Plate facing p. 152, in the former Volume. 

(2) Voyage de Deux Francois, torn. II. p. 54. 





chap. vi. feet, and three antient marble statues — Juno, Pescennius Niger, 
and A Youth with a Swan holding in its beak a serpent. 
The Picture Gallery contains some fine pieces ; but in the 
examination of this collection, we thought that the number of 
copies exceeded the original pictures in the proportion of ten 
to one. It was principally formed by Gustavus the Third, 
during his travels in Italy ; and any one who has resided in 
that country will figure to himself the traffic that would be 
going on when a young Prince, passionately fond of the arts, 
and liberal in his disposition, arrived among the Ciceroni and 
dealers at Rome. It is not wonderful that he should have 
brought away with him more trash than most of our English 
nobility journeying as amateurs. In viewing this collection, 
it was easy to recognize the decisive marks of a system of 
imposition, and some articles of manufacture, which have 
continued for many years to exercise the ingenuity of the 
Italian artists, and to dupe the credulous foreigners by whom 
they are visited. — In this gallery is a picture of The death of 
Adonis, attributed to Vandyke, which is assuredly a copy 1 . 
Others, said to be by Bassano, which are also copies. One 
attributed to Leander da Ponte, seemed to be really by 
that master. A picture of Sigismund, king of Siveden and 
Poland, on horseback, ivith a dog, in the manner of 
Vandyke, is shewn as a picture painted by Rubens, Van- 
dyke, and Sneyders : it was bought at a common post- 
house, for a single ducat. Of this picture it is usually 


(l) The Authors of the Voyage de Deux Francais ascribe this picture to Le Moine. 
See torn. II. p. 55. 



said, that the figure of Sigismund is by Vandyke, the horse chap. vi. 
by Rubens, and the dog by Sneyders. Here are many 
pleasing and highly- finished Flemish pictures; and among 
others, some of Wouvermans : also a masterly picture by 
Rembrandt, of a Philosopher reading. A Butcher cutting up 
an ox; said to be by Teniers; doubtful. The Family of 
Rubens, by Vandyke. Besides these, are works attributed to 
Poussin, Berghem, Holbein, Titian, Lanfranc, and Simon da 
Pesaro, which it would be tedious to enumerate. In the same 
gallery, moreover, are thirteen antique marble statues, some of 
which may justly rank among the finest reliques of antient art. 
In other parts of this stately palace are many other pictures 
and statues ; among the latter, a small statue of A cumbent 
Fawn, one of the finest works of Sergell. We were conducted 
from this Gallery to the private apartments of the King, Private Cabi. 

. ... - nets of Gusia- 

and much interested in viewing the elegant suite of small vusthe Third. 
rooms in which Gustavus the Thir d exercised a taste of which 
he was vain, in shewing how much it was possible to contrive 
within a narrow compass. This was what he used to call his 
Multum in parvo. Master of a palace vast enough to accom- 
modate all the Sovereigns in Europe, he would creep into 
closets, in order to convince his friends how snug, con- 
venient, and withal how elegant, a room might be made, 
in which the head of a tall man would touch the cieling, and 
his arms, when extended, the side walls. It was with this view 
he used to retire to his little chambers in the Opera House, 
where he would frequently lodge ; quitting a palace like 
Hadrian s Villa, to dwell in Diogenes' tub. — At the end of a 
series of such small cabinets which were once occupied by 






chap. vi. him in this palace, we were shewn an elegant boudoir, or 
closet for writing ; the table being raised, and adapted to a 
rich couch surrounding the apartment. The doors of all the 
rooms leading to this boudoir being placed in a straight line, 
and glazed, enabled the King, as he sat, to view the whole 
extent of these chambers, • and the persons of all who might 
be in them, even when the doors were shut. 

IGNEOUS BASALT, from the. Bottom of a Copper Furnace in Siberia. 

The origiua'. Specimen in the possession of the King of Sadden. 



Public Women — Mildness of the Season — Vauxhall — Watchmen — Balls 
of the Society — Manners of the Inhabitants — Public Executions — 
Artists — Royal Palaces — Views of Stockholm — Description of 
Drottningholm — Lake Moelar — Sudden Change induced by the 
coming of Winter — Frozen Game — Population — State of Trade — 
Boot and Shoe Market — Cabinet of Models — College of Mines — 
Igjieous Basalt — Jpparel worn by Charles the Twelfth when he was 
assassinated — Cast of that King's face after death — Royal Library 
vol. vj. l l —Codex 

__■ ^B 


Mildness of 
the Season. 


— Codex Aureus — Codex Giganteus — Curious Manuscript Code 
of Medicine — Typographical Rarities — Collection of Original Designs 

— Royal Museum — Observations on the Literature of Sweden — 
Literary Productions — Establishments — Gymnasia — Committee for 
Public Education — Chirurgical and Medical Colleges — Remarks on 
the Swedish Poetry — List of Poetical Works — Operas — Dramas 

— Comedies — Works in the higher order of Literature. 

chap. til T HE streets of Stockholm are not paved for foot-passengers; 
neither do they swarm with prostitutes, like the public 
streets of London. Women of this description are, however, 
not the less numerous here, for being less public in their 
appearance, During the month of November we were 
surprised at the mildness of the temperature ; the ther- 
mometer of Fahrenheit, towards the latter end of the month, 
varying from 40 to 44 degrees, when we had expected that 
we should have been going about in sledges upon the snow. 
We went to what are called the Vauxhall Gardens, upon 
Sunday, November 1 7, after visiting the Theatre, which we 
found more than usually dull. These gardens have but 
little resemblance to those in England, whence their name 
has been borrowed : a few rows of trees, and a narrow room 
for walking or dancing, about eighty yards in length, make 
up the whole. This room is lighted by lustres of cut glass. 
In a gallery upon the left was a band of musicians, who 
played during the evening, from six to ten, when a trumpet 
sounded for the company to disperse. The principal part 
of the persons present were women of the class before 
mentioned: the company, consequently, with the exception 
of several officers of the army, being of the lower orders. 





We were a good deal amused by the grotesque appearance chap. vii. 
of the watchmen, in the streets at night. Their dress watchmen. 
consists entirely of the skins of animals; and they walk in 
pairs, carrying in their hands a curious instrument for seizing 
culprits who may endeavour to make their escape from 
them. It is so contrived as to shut fast about the neck, 
being applied below the back part of the head ; and becoming 
tighter, the more a person struggles to get free. When once, 
therefore, this instrument is fixed, the prisoner is sure to 
remain quiet, through fear of being choked: afterwards, 
it opens with a spring. Perhaps this portable trap, or 
thief-collar, might be made useful in our own country, to 
aid the apprehension of midnight robbers by the police of 
our metropolis : and we are quite sure, that it is more 
wanted in London than in Stockholm, where all the watch- 
men have to do, is, to carry about their rattle-spikes, with 
these instruments, calling the hour in the same dismal ditty 
which is heard all over Sweden 1 — ■ 

Klockan ar tie slagen! — 
Fran eld, och brand, 
Och fienden's hand, 
Bevara, O Gud ! den stad och land ! — 
Klockan ar tie slagen ! 

As a contrast to the scene exhibited by their Vauxhall, — 


( I ) The author finds this preserved in the MS. Journal of his friend Dr. Fiott Lee. 
It is thus, when literally translated : 

The clock has struck ten ! — 

From fire, and burning (fire-brandj, 
And from the enemies' hand, 
Save, God ! this town and land ! — 
The clock has struck ten ! 


S T O C K H L M. 

Balls of the 

chap. vii. where, however, there is nothing of rudeness or disorder, — 
a stranger finds in the balls of the Society the utmost degree 
of elegance and the most polished manners. We accom- 
panied Baron Oxenstierna, with Messrs. Acerbi and Bcllotti, 
and our friends Messrs. Kent and Jarrett, to one of those 
balls. The preceding day, November 25, had been a great 
day at Court, and most of the principal personages were 
present upon this occasion. We were much struck with 
the magnificence of the assembly. The dancing began 
with quadrilles ; after which the company joined in what 
they called the long dance ; that is to say, one of our 
English country-dances : the whole was then concluded 
with a waltz, when they all adjourned to the supper-rooms. 
There were three rooms for supper ; two ball-rooms ; and 
two other apartments for cards — a very favourite amuse- 
ment with all the Swedes. This entertainment lasted until 
near five o'clock in the following morning. 

From all that we had seen of Sweden we found much 
more to admire than to disapprove, and very little to censure : 
the generality of Englishmen visiting the country will pro- 
bably coincide in this opinion. The more we became 
acquainted with the inhabitants, the better we were pleased 
with them. There are few places where the traveller will 
find a greater facility of intimate intercourse with the 
different families than in Stockholm : for although the 
hospitality he may experience be not of that unbounded 
nature which distinguishes the natives at a distance from 
the capital, it is on this account less oppressive, and more 
according to the rules of refinement. The time of paying 


Manners of 
the Inhabi- 



and receiving visits is in the evening: it begins about five chap, vii. 
o'clock. Having been once introduced, no invitation is 
afterwards necessary. As no visits are made in a morning, 
every one makes his appearance dressed for the evening 
parties. They occur in several houses, at each of which 
it is usual to stay half or three quarters of an hour. At 
these parties the amusements are, music, singing, cards, 
and dancing. The conversation is always lively, and gene- 
rally remarkable for the good humour and mirth which is 


Public executions, always rare in the provinces, are not Public 

J Executions. 

common in the capital. During our residence in Stockholm 
an event of this kind took place. Two malefactors, con- 
demned for forging the paper money, were hanged. The 
concourse of people, to see these men executed, exceeded any 
we had ever observed elsewhere, upon a similar occasion. For 
some hours before the sentence of the law was enforced, the 
streets of the city leading to the place of execution were 
full of passengers, moving towards the spot. This is situate 
in a forest, about three English miles from Stockholm. The 
lower part of the gibbet was surrounded by a circular wall, 
concealing the executioners from view, and leaving only the 
top of the gallows visible. About nine o'clock in the 
morning the two culprits were conducted from their 
prison to this place. The rocks and hills around were 
covered with spectators, and the throng in the road was so 
great that carriages could not approach. The two malefactors, 
after being allowed to halt (as is usual in such cases) at a 
small cabaret, to drink a glass of wine, were brought to the 





chaf. vii. outside of the circular wall at the foot of the gibbet. Two 
ropes appeared above this wall, hanging from the beam. At 
the door which opened into the interior area, the secretary of 
the police read to the two criminals the sentence which had 
been pronounced against them ; after which they were ushered 
in. About five minutes had elapsed, after their entrance, 
when the ropes began to be in motion. The executioner 
at the same time made his appearance, having ascended a 
ladder placed against the beam of the gibbet. Immediately 
one of the criminals was drawn up by a rope fastened round 
his waist, and exposed to view, with his hands bound behind 
him, his eyes covered, and his head and legs hanging down. 
A short rope was fastened to his neck, with a loop, which 
the executioner attached to an iron hook in the beam ; and 
then, letting go the rope by which he had been drawn up, 
and placing his foot upon the criminal's head, his neck was 
instantly broken. The other malefactor suffered in the same 

These unfortunate men were remarkably well dressed, and 
seemed to have paid an attention to their persons which is 
very remarkable at such an awful moment. One of them had 
served as a Serjeant in the provincial cavalry, of which the 
Duke of Sudermania was colonel. His melancholy fate seemed 
to interest and affect the spectators, many of whom were in 
tears. As he was drawn up, his voice was heard uttering, 
several times, these words :•— 

u Gud bevara min sjal ! min sjal !" 

" God save my soul ! my soul /" 




We remained in Stockholm during a considerable part of chap. vii. 
the months of November and December, having no reason to 
complain either of the climate or of the inhabitants. Indeed, 
when we considered the latitude of the place, it seemed as 
if winter had postponed its annual visit. 

In a former volume we mentioned some of the artists Artis 
of this city. Towards the end of November we were 
occupied in renewing our visits to them, and also in 
inspecting the works of others. A painter, Mr. Breda, late 
pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds, was engaged in painting a whole- 
length portrait of the King, who sate to him every day. 
This portrait was a very fine one, and a striking likeness of 
his Majesty. Mr Breda had a valuable cabinet of pictures 
of the old Masters, which had been formed by his father. 
At an engraver's of the name of Martin, brother of the 
landscape-painter of that name, whom we before men- 
tioned, we procured many views of the mines and of the 
city, some of which have been engraved for this work. 
We visited that eccentric genius Desprds, a painter brought 
from Italy by the late King ; and saw several fine pictures, 
the works of his hand. Being admitted into the workshop 
of the celebrated Sergell, we saw the colossal bronze statue 
of Gustavus the Third, ordered by the citizens of Stockholm, 
for a pedestal of polished porphyry, which was already 
placed upon the Quay, a little to the east of the Palace. 
Sergell is considered as second only to Canova, in the art 
of sculpture. This bronze statue represents the King as 
a pedestrian figure, dressed in a long mantle, in the act of 
haranguing his troops. It is eleven feet high. The right 






hand is raised and extended, holding an olive-branch. The 
modelling cost 10,000 rix-dollars ; the casting and metal, 
20,000. We saw a valuable collection of designs, books, 
and casts, at the house of Masrelier, whose own drawings 
are deservedly in high estimation. Upon the 28th of 
November we were invited by Baron Oxemtierna to a dinner, 
at which we met all our English friends. In the evening, 
Signor Acerbi, who was present, amused the company by the 
exhibition of his musical talents ; performing upon the harpsi- 
chord a great variety of national airs, to which, with surprising 
facility, he adapted the most skilful and pleasing variations. 
Upon Friday the Oth of December, we set out to visit 
lioyai Places. Drottningholm, one of the royal palaces in the neighbour- 
hood. The name of this place, when translated, signifies 
The Queen 8 Island : it is situate in an island upon the borders 
of the Lake Moelar. about six English miles from Stockholm. 
As a place of summer residence, nothing can be more delight- 
ful. There are two other palaces belonging to the King in 
the environs — Gripsholm and Stromsholm ; but this by far 
exceeds the others in beauty, and has generally been 
preferred by the Royal Family. The view of Stockholm 
from the bridge, in going to Drottningholm, is the best : and if 
external appearance alone were to be relied on, this might 
be deemed the most magnificent city in the world. But 
the effect produced is not to be described in words : the aid 
of the painter is here wanted 1 . White edifices, consisting 


(l) There cannot be a better subject for a Panorama than a View of Stockholm, 
connected as the different objects are with many interesting events in History. If the 


Views of 



of public and private palaces, churches, and other build- chap. vii. 
ings, rising from an expanse of waters, produce an effect Description 

t of Drdltning - 

of incomparable grandeur. The approach to Drottmng- Mm. 
holm is by a floating-bridge, seven hundred feet in length. 
This bridge, they say, was finished in twenty-two days ; 
and cost five thousand rix-dollars : it is constructed 
entirely of wood. The palace is a handsome stuccoed 
building, roofed with copper, with side wings ; and has at 
either extremity a pavilion, surmounted by a dome, one of 
which is the chapel; The length of the whole building 
seemed to be about forty yards. We went first into the 
chapel, which is small, and perfectly simple. Then we took 
a walk round the gardens, which we found barbarously 
laid out, in the old style, with shorn trees and clipped hedges. 
We were conducted to a Theatre formed in this wretched 
taste, by means of avenues. We soon saw enough to 
convince us that nature had done every thing for Droit- 
ningholm, and man worse than nothing. In the reign of 
Gustavus the Third this place partook largely of the splen- 
dour that characterized his reign; the sum of money 
expended in its decorations was enormous. Its interior 
exhibits a very different aspect now, from its appearance 
then. The Library and some of the rooms are worth 


ingenious artist, to whom the public has been indebted for so many excellent pictures 
of this kind, should pursue the hint here suggested, he will probably select, for his 
point of view, the little hill upon which the Observatory stands, or else the tower of 
St. Catherines Church; whence the eye commands, not only the whole of this remarkable 
city, intersected with all its bays, creeks, and harbours, but also the numerous little 
islands, with all the principal squares, streets, palaces, churches, and country-seats. 





chap. vii. seeing ; but, upon the whole, there was nothing to detain 
us long. A noble statue of Neptune, in bronze, upon the 
border of the lake and in front of the Palace, has been 
disposed so as to produce a very striking effect. It is a 
common thing to decry works of this kind, as they 
are generally seen in public gardens — leaden Mercuries, 
spouting dolphins, and dancing Cupids ; but the appearance 
of this fine statue, extending its arm over waters con- 
nected with the ocean, and exhibiting a masterly style of 
sculpture, is truly majestic. All the bronze figures exhibited 
here were taken at Prague, in the Thirty-years' war. 
Upon a vase may be observed the cipher of Ferdinand the 
Second. These works are, for the most part, in the style 
of the Florentine school, in which the German artists used at 
that time to study. We now returned to the Palace itself, 
and were conducted to the Library. Upon the tables we 
saw a number of small specimens of sculpture, executed 
at Florence, in gypsous alabaster. Here are also a number 
of those beautiful terra-cottas commonly called Etruscan 
vases ; some of these were of great value : and a collection 
of medals of the highest price, containing those of antient 
Greece and Rome; together with a regular series of every 
thing rare and remarkable in the Szvedish coinage. This 
collection is contained in eight cabinets. Besides a well- 
chosen collection of books, there are, in this library, Flemish, 
Dutch, and Italian paintings ; and models, in cork, of the 
antiquities of Italy. There is, moreover, a curious Cabinet 
of Natural History, which belonged to the late Queen, and 
was described by Linnaeus. Here we saw, among many 




other curious animals preserved in alcohol, the embryo chap. vii. 

of an elephant ; together with apes, birds, amphibious 

animals, fishes, insects, and shells, many of the greatest 

rarity and beauty. There are few things in this palace 

more worth a stranger's notice than a View of Stockholm 

by Martin, one of the best works of that artist. The 

Audience-chamber is filled with allegorical pictures, alluding 

to the history of Sweden, principally in the time of Charles 

the Eleventh, painted by Ehrenstrale. The Gallery contains 

a series of large pictures, representing the battles of Charles 

the Tenth. The grand staircase is ornamented with marble 

statues, all of which are modern. We saw, above stairs, a 

most excellent portrait of Charles the Twelfth ; and some 

good pictures of his most celebrated Generals, by Raft. 

Opposite the palace is the Theatre ; and there are several 

adjoining houses, for the members of the Court in attendance 

upon the Royal Family. 

The Lake Moslar, with its irregular shores and numerous Lake M«iar. 
islands, has all the variety and beauty that rocks, woods, and 
verdant spots without great height can give ; and the views 
towards Stockholm, especially if seen from the water, are 
singularly pleasing. The immediate boundaries of the 
water are generally rocks of gneiss, and the shores conse- 
quently bold and denuded. The trees are chiefly firs ; but 
birch, alder, and oak, are not unfrequent. The approach to 
Stockholm was described in a former Volume, both from our 
own testimony, and also from the MS. Journal of the late 
Rev. E. V. Blomfield\ as affording no idea of the entrance 


(2) See p. 150, Chap. V. of the preceding Volume. 



chap. vij. to a great capital : but if it be approached from the side 
of Drbttningholm, or from the Glass-ivorks, no city in 
Europe can pretend to vie with it: — it seems a Cyclopean 
heap of the most noble structures; palaces and churches 
all piled one above another; and the whole floating, as 
it were, upon the broad bosom of the deep. This 
magnificent scene is further enlivened and rendered more 
enchanting by the appearance of vessels of all sizes; some 
sailing, others riding at their anchorage amidst the rocks 
and groves, or beneath the very windows of those lofty 
buildings. Nor does this prospect become less delightful 
when the lake and the sea is frozen ; because then they 
are covered by sledges of all kinds, and exhibit one of the 
gayest scenes imaginable. The coming of winter opens for 
the Swedes, as among the Norwegia?is, the heyday of the 
year. When the snow has fallen, every body is in motion, 
and the most lively intercourse prevails: business seems to 
awake as from a slumber, and all is cheerfulness and 
industry. The return of this winterly festival was first 
announced to us by a custom which reminded us of good old 
times in England : parties of boys, attended by bands of 
music, came to sing carols at our door. This began with 
the month of December. Fahrenheit's thermometer was at 
28° upon the second day of the month ; but it was not until 
the 8th that the mercury remained steadily below the 
freezing point. After the 12th, however, it was observed 
every day to fall gradually lower : the air was then clear 
and dry, and w r e felt none of that chilliness which arises from 
a damp atmosphere when freezing is about to take place 



As soon as the frost had fairly set in, Game of all sorts became chap. vii. 
abundant, and was seen upon stalls in the principal streets. Fro«mG*ne. 
This being frozen, the poulterers are under no apprehen- 
sion of its becoming stale. The heaps of curious birds, in 
their beautiful plumage, afforded to us a very interesting sight. 
As the frost had commenced earlier in the more northern 
districts, a short time only elapsed before we saw immense 
sledges arrive, bringing every species of wild fowl, and from the 
most distant provinces, piled in heaps, like so many stones. 
We sent the skins of many of them to England: and a visit 
to the Game-stalls, as to a cabinet of natural history, became 
to us a pleasing amusement. The prices in the beginning 
of December, for Game and other articles, were as follow : 

A Cock of the Wood (Tetrao UrogallusJ . . . 1 \ dollar. 

Grouse the brace Ik ditto. 

A bird called Hjarpe (Tetrao BonasiaJ . each 1$. Sd. English. 
The beautiful Snow-R'ntpa (Tetrao LagopusJ each 2s. ditto. 

Turkeys each 4 rixdollars. 

A Goose 2 ditto. 

Hares each 1.?. 4J. English. 

Pullets 2s. 8d. ditto. 

other wild-fowl, &c. in proportion. These prices appeared 
to us to be very high, considering the abundance of Game 
everywhere displayed ; and it was expected they would 
not be lowered during the present month. The inns in 
Stockholm are very dear, and very bad. The best plan is, 
to hire lodgings; but for these, if tolerably neat, a traveller 
will have to pay two dollars a day; besides one dollar a 
day for fuel, which till lately was never made an article 
of charge. For breakfast of tea and bread and butter, 


■ i'ff 

- V<? „ m s* ',. * >.:\<«. "i 





State of 

chap. vii. the price is half a dollar each person; and two dollars a 
head are demanded for the most common dinner, not 
including wine. 

In reading a list of all the tradesmen and artificers in 
Stockholm, a stranger might hastily conclude that a great 
deal of business and many manufactures were going on. 
The same opinion might be formed by visiting the 
Exchange, situate in the great market-place, south of 
the Palace, between one and two o'clock. Here the 
throng is so great, that it is difficult to force a way 
through the crowd. The number of inhabitants in the 
whole city is estimated at something less than the 
population of the city of Bristol: it amounts to 72,652.' 
In this number there were, at this time, thirty-six wig- 
makers, and only one cutler ! forty-seven vintners, and not 
a single chimney-sweeper ! nineteen coffee-roasters, although 
coffee had been prohibited ! and only nine copper-smiths ! 
seventy goldsmiths and jewellers, and only four braziers ! 
one hundred and thirteen keepers of ordinaries, and only one 
tool-grinder ! We could find nothing good that had 
been manufactured in the country, excepting iron, tar, and 
gloves. The gloves of Scania are the best in the world ; 
but all other articles were of inferior quality, unless they had 
been imported from England, in which case they were con- 
sidered as contraband, and were sold at immense prices, and 
in a clandestine manner. The glass-works were all bad : 
the same may be said of all the works of joiners and cabinet- 

(l) See also Thomson's Travels in Sweden, p. 94. Lond. 1813. 



makers; cloth, leather, &c. &c. : yet one of the most singular chap. vii. 
sights in Stockholm is the boot and shoe market: this is a Boot and shoe 

, Market. 

building near the Palace, to which there is an ascent by a 
flight of stairs, where ready-made boots and shoes are sold 
very cheap ; and were it not for the inferiority of the leather, 
and the negligence shewn in the work, boots are no where 
better made. The astonishing quantity exposed for sale in 
this market is really worth a visit to the place : it is a kind 
of gallery, filled with stalls, and attended by women. With 
regard to other articles of trade, the inferiority of the Swedish 
workmanship, and in many instances the total want of the 
article itself, is very striking. A whole day may be lost in 
inquiring for the most common necessaries. Of all things for 
which a traveller may have need, we thought that furs might 
be obtained here in the greatest perfection, and at the most 
reasonable prices; but even this branch of trade seemed to be 
almost a monopoly in the hands of the English. The best 
furs were all imported from England, and came, as it was 
said, originally from America ; consequently the prices were 
very high, and the articles rare. All optical instruments 
were the wares of those vagrant Italians from the Milanese 
territory, whom we have before described as wandering with 
the proofs of their industry and ingenuity in every part of 

It is difficult to reconcile this want of manufactures with 
the inventive genius shewn by the Sivedes in one of the 
most pleasing of the public exhibitions of their capital, — that 
of the Cabinet of Models. This cabinet is preserved in an cabinet of 

J r Models. 

antient palace, where the courts of justice are now held, near 


I I ' '-S~ : 




chap. vii. Kiddarliohn Church, As a repository of the models of all 
kinds of mechanical contrivances, it is the most complete 
collection that is known. We went several times to view 
it; and would gladly have brought to England specimens of 
the many useful inventions there shewn'. In this chamber, 
it is not only the number of the models that strikes the 
spectator, but their great beauty and the exquisite perfection 
of the workmanship, added to the neatness with which they 
are arranged and displayed. Every thing necessary to illus- 
trate the art of agriculture in Sivedcn may be here studied; — 
models of all the ploughs used in all the provinces from 
Smoland to Lapland; machines for chopping straw, for 
cutting turf to cover houses, for sawing timber, for tearing 
up the roots of trees in the forests, and for draining land; 
stoves for warming apartments, and for drying all sorts of 
fruit; machines for threshing corn; corn-racks; windmills; 
pumps; all sorts of mining apparatus; fishing-tackle; nets; 
fire-ladders; beds and chairs for the sick; in short, models 
of almost every mechanical aid requisite for the comforts and 
necessaries of life, within doors or without. — There can be 
no doubt but that patents would be required for some of 
them, if they were known in England : and possibly patents 
may have been granted for inventions that were borrowed 
from the models in this chamber. Among them are models 
for light-houses, telegraphs, and other methods of making 


T !pon 


(1) Mr. Cripps succeeded in purchasing copies of some of them; such as, a machine 
upon an improved plan for denchering land j and models of some of the Swedish stoves 
for heating apartments. 



Upon this our second visit to Stockholm, we again examined chap. vii. 
the collection of minerals belonging to the Crown ; and were College of 
much indebted to the celebrated chemist Hjelm, for the 
readiness he always shewed to gratify our curiosity; allowing 
us to inspect all the produce of the Swedish mines. The 
refractory nature of some of the richest iron ores of this 
country and of Lapland is owing to the presence of several 
remarkable extraneous bodies; among which may be men- 
tioned titanium, zircon, and phosphate of lime*. We had 
made a large collection of these ores, and the nature of them 
is now well ascertained. In the account we gave of our 
first visit to this collection, a specimen was slightly alluded 
to, exhibiting a remarkable prismatic configuration, taken 
from the bottom of a furnace in Siberia 3 . How it was 
brought to Stockholm we did not learn. Some of the Sivedish 
mineralogists attached more importance to this artificial 
appearance than we did ; considering it as a satisfactory 
elucidation of the origin of what is commonly called the 
basaltic formation by means of igneous fusion. We caused igneo 
an accurate drawing to be made of it, by Martin, which 
has been engraved as a Vignette to this Chapter 4 . By this 
it will appear, that the prismatic form which the mass 
assumed in cooling after fusion, can hardly be considered as 



(2) The last was discovered by Dr. Wollaston, in some of the iron ore which was 
brought from Lapland. Zircon was discovered in iron ore by Mr. Swedenstierna of 
Stockholm. fSee Thomson's Trav. in Sweden, p. 105. Lond. 1813.) In some of the 
specimens of the iron ore of Gellivara, crystals of zircon might be discerned. 

(3) See p. 165 of the former Volume. 

(4) See the Vignette. 





chap. vii. characterized by that, regularity of structure which belongs 
to basalt ; that is to say, to those rocks in which hornblende, 
forming a predominant ingredient, generally occasions a much 
nearer approach to crystallization : nor would the subject 
have been again introduced, were it not for the contending 
theories which prevail respecting the origin of rocks exhi- 
biting a prismatic structure, and the proofs urged to demon- 
strate that basalt has sustained the igneous fusion 1 . Persons 
who maintain this opinion, will find, in this solitary 
example, something calculated to support their favourite 
b P o£to«2 The hat and clothes worn b 7 Charles the Twelfth when he 
h^wfslssuS was snot m tne trenches before Frederichhall are preserved 
in the Arsenal, in the north suburb, precisely in the state in 
which they were taken from the King's body after his 
assassination. That he was really assassinated, seems so 
clear, that it is marvellous any doubt should be entertained 



(l) Some of these proofs, it must be owned, have been strangely defective. Avery 
principal one was this ; that coal, lying in contact with basalt, had, by the heat of the 
melted basalt, been converted into coak. It happened to the author to be permitted 
to examine a series of specimens of this supposed coak : they were preserved in a very 
celebrated collection, and arranged in a regular order, from the state of the natural and 
unaltered pit-coal, through all the changes which the mineral had been said to have 
sustained, of incipient and more perfect calcination, until it appeared as a scoriaceous 
body, deprived, it was maintained, of its bituminous and volatile ingredients, in which 
state it was denominated coak. To this last substance the author's attention was 
particularly directed. Being permitted to examine and to analyze it, he found that its 
scoriaceous and porous texture was entirely owing to a number of little cavities which 
had been occupied by a granular carbonate of lime ; a notable quantity of which was 
still disseminated throughout the mass, but which had undergone no calcination : it 
effervesced in acids, as usual ; and lime was precipitated from its solution. 



as to the fact; and yet, with a view to ascertain the truth chap. vii. 
as to the manner of his death, every succeeding sovereign 
has thought it right to open his sepulchre, and to inspect his 
embalmed remains. The other curiosities contained also in 
the arsenal are, the skin of a horse upon which Gustavus 
Adolphus rode at the battle of Lutzen ; a boat built by Peter 
the Great at Sardam in Holland, taken by the Swedes while 
on its way to Petersburgh; a number of trophies taken by 
Charles the Twelfth, from the Russians, the Poles, and the 
Danes ; also the dress worn by Gustavus the Third at the 
time of his assassination, and his image in wax, which we 
before noticed 2 . Our main object, upon this occasion, was 
to see once more the clothes worn by Charles the Twelfth at 
the time of his death, as connected with a few observations 
which we had made respecting that event, and which we shall 
presently state. The coat is a plain blue uniform, with large 
brass buttons, like that of a common soldier ; the gloves are 
of bufFleather, and reached almost up to the elbow; the right- 
hand glove is a good deal stained with blood 3 , and so is a buff 
belt which he wore round his body. The hat seems to have 
been slightly grazed by the ball in that part which im- 
mediately covered his temple ; but there was nothing in 
its appearance which could throw any light upon the nature 
of the wound that was inflicted ; that is to say, whether it 
had been thus grazed by a ball entering in, or going out. 


(2) See former Volume, p. 15/. 

(3) Mr. Coxe, who mentions this circumstance, considers it as probable that the King, 
'.' upon receiving the shot, instantly applied his right hand to the wound in his temple, 
and then to his sword." — See Trav. into Sweden, p. 352. Lond. 1/84. 

H H 



Cast of the 
face of 
Charles XII. 
after death. 


The appearance of the scull, after the King's death, satis- 
factorily proved that the wound in the temple was made by 
a ball going out. Was it to be believed that a ball from the 
enemies' works, at the distance the King stood, would have 
either taken the direction of that by which he was shot, or 
that it would have passed entirely through the scull on both 
sides ? Mr. Frcdejiheim, Knight of the Polar Star, President 
of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, distinguished by his 
travels and historical collections, and High Steward of all the 
Royal Cabinets, had, at this time, the care of the matrice 
moulded upon the King's face soon after he was killed. Owing 
to his kindness, and that of Mr. Breda, to whom Gustavus the 
Fourth came daily to sit for his portrait, permission was 
obtained for us to have a Cast taken from this matrice : it is 
now deposited in the University Library at Cambridge. From 
the appearance of this Cast, all dispute must cease as to the 
nature of the shot which caused the King's death ; which, in 
the account of that event published by order of the Sivcdish 
Government, was said to have been a ball from a falconet 1 . 
Voltaire, also, in his anxiety to do away the imputation that 
had fallen upon his countryman, Siquier, insists upon it that 
the ball was too large for the calibre of a pistol 2 ; whereas 


(1) See Coxes Travels into Sweden, p. 357- Land. 1784. — "A ball from a falconet 
usually weighs one pound and one eighth, at the least." Ibid. 

(2) "Que Ton considere que la balle qui frappa Charles XII. ne pouvait entrer dan» 
un pistolet, et que Siquier n'aurait pu faire ce coup detestable qu' avec un pistolet cache 
sous son habit." — Also, in giving the account of the King's death, Voltaire makes the 
weight of the ball equal to half a pound. " Une balle pesant une demi-livre l'avait 
atteint a la temple droit." CEuvres de Voltaire, tome VII. Histoire de Charles XII. pp. 280, 
283. Geneve, 1768. 




it is plain that the real shot was a pistol bullet. The chap. vn. 
appearance of the wound in the temple also shews that it 
was inflicted by a bullet going out, and slanting upwards, 
having entered into the lower part of the scull behind: and 
that the shot was directed hv a private hand from behind, 
and did not come from the enemies' works, is obvious from 
this circumstance, and from the fact of the King's having 
drawn his sword half out of its scabbard, in the agonies of 
death, to immolate his assassin 5 . Who can read the conver- 
sation which passed between Count Liewen, the King's Page, 
then upon the spot, and Mr. Wraxall, without being con- 
vinced that the King was assassinated 4 , even if this evidence 
were wanted : but as it is so nearly connected with a 
very important event in history, and serves to confirm 
Count Liewen s testimonv, we have caused an accurate 
drawing of this Cast to be engraved, in which the nature of 


(3) " I followed the Officers to the place where the King was killed. The Prince 
ordered the Generals and Officers who were present to place the body in a litter prepared 
to convey it to the head-quarters j one and twenty soldiers standing around with wax 
tapers in their hands. We observed that the King, in the agonies of death, had drawn 
his sword half out of the scabbard ; and that the hilt was so tightly grasped by the right 
hand, as not to be disengaged without difficulty." — See the Account taken from the 
Narrative of Philgren, a Page to the Prince of Hesse, who was that day in waiting. 
Coxe's Trav. into Sweden, p. 354. Lond. 1/84. 

(4) " There are now very few men alive who can speak with so much certainty as 
myself. I was in the camp before Frederickshall ; and had the honour to serve the King, 
in quality of Page, on that night when he was killed. I have no doubt that he 
was assassinated. The night was extremely dark ; and it was almost an impossibility 
that a ball from the fort could enter his head, at the distance, and on the spot where 
he stood. I saw the King's body, and am certain the wound in his temple 
was made bt a pistol bullet." — Count Liewen 's Conversation with Mr. WraxalU 
See Coie's Travels &c. p. 35?. 



chap. vii. the wound in the right temple may he as plainly discerned 
as if the original had heen exposed to view. The same 
engraving will also serve to exhibit the countenance of Charles 
the Twelfth with much greater accuracy than any other 
portrait can pretend to : it remained unaltered even in death ; 
and displays, in a very striking manner, the haughtiness 
of character for which this hero was so remarkably dis- 

We shall now close our account of Stockholm with some 
remarks upon the Royal or Public Library, and the actual 
state of literature in Sweden. For the substance of our 
information upon the latter subject, we are indebted to the 
communications made to us by the King's Librarian, Mr. 
GiorwelL We are the more anxious to oppose Mr. GibrwelPs 
statement to the observations we before introduced upon the 
state of Sweden and Swedish literature, because, coming 
from a Swede, it will shew what their opinions are respecting 
their own country. This gentleman drew up for us a 
Memoir upon the progress and state of Letters and of the 
Arts, during the reigns of Gust amis the Third and Gustavns 
the Fourth ; prefacing it, at the same time, with a few 
remarks upon the state of learning in Sweden at a much 
earlier period;— but, of course, we shall only extract from this 
memoir the principal facts. In his preface to it, the learned 
author dwells too much upon the importance of the historical 
ballads of the Scalds, and other of their records called Savor : 
as also upon the Latin Chronicles of the middle ages, and the 
code of laws extant about the same time in the language 
of the country, of which we have hardly now any 




remnant'. We shall therefore pass immediately to the rest chap. vii. 
of his observations; beginning with the Royal Library, from Royal 


a view of which, perhaps, a better estimate may be made of 
the encouragement given to literature, than from almost 
any other document ; because this collection is open to the 
public, and was formed under the brightest auspices Sweden 
has yet beheld. It consists of three long galleries in one of 
the angles of a small court belonging to the Palace, and is 
certainly the finest literary establishment in all Sivcden. It was 
first appropriated to public use during the reign of Gustavus 
Adolphus. This Library was plundered at the departure of 
Queen Christina in l654 , 2 and suffered from fire during the con- 
flagration of the Palace in 1 797. In the reign of Gustavus the 
Third, it was greatly enriched; and after his death augmented, 
by the addition of all his private library, which was very 


(1) " Entre autres ouvrages de cette periode," observes Mr. Giorwell, "nous en 
avons un qui a pour litre ' Le Miroir des Rois et des Regens.' C'est un vrai tresor de 
sagesse et politique. II a ete traduit en Latin, et publier par Jean Schejf'erus, a 
Stockholm, 1669, in folio." 

(2) It is very difficult to obtain any accurate account of the state of Sweden at this 
period, and of the opportunities of plunder to which the Queen's departure gave rise. 
Among the literary losses which the Royal Library then sustained, it is said that the 
Codex Argenleus, now at Upsala, was one; and that this valuable manuscript was 
embezzled and carried out of Sweden by Isaac Vossius. The manner of its restoration 
afterwards was before mentioned. The losses appear to have been owing to the 
disorder which arose in packing up the articles which the Queen took away with her at 
her departure j for it seems, from what Puff'endorfhas related, that the ornaments of the 
Coronation of Charles Gustavus were afterwards borrowed. " La Suede se trouvoit 
epuisee ; et la Reine avoit fait emballer et transporter en Allemagne la plus grande partie 
des meulles de la couronne, de sorte que presque tout ce qui parut dans cette ceremonie 
avoit ete emprunte." — Histoire de Suede par Pujfendorf, tome II. p. 420. Amst. 1743. 



chap. vn. select, and consisted of 14,000 volumes, forming a most 
valuable collection of works in history, politics, and general 
literature. His library was moreover rich in manuscripts : 
it contained all the Sagor, Chronicles, and Diplomas anterior 
to the reign of Gustavus Vasa, together with many beautiful 
manuscripts of antient authors and of the middle age. 
Among the last, the most remarkable is a copy of the Four 
Gospels in folio, with initial letters in gold ; thence called 

codex Aureus, the Codex Aureus* This manuscript seems to have belonged 
to some splendid ecclesiastical establishment in Spain : 
it was purchased in Madrid in 1690, by the learned 
Sparvenfeldt , Master of the Ceremonies to Charles XL who 
travelled, at the expence of that monarch, all over Europe, in 
search of manuscripts. His autograph appears upon this 
manuscript in the following words : " Pretiosissimum hunc 
Evangcliorum Codicem cmi ex famosd ilia Bibliothecd ill mi 
Marchionis de Liche Mantuce carpent. a. 1690. d. 8. Jan. 
Ego Joannes Gabriel Sparvenfeldt nob. Suecus." 

A very remarkable manuscript preserved in this library 
is the Codex Giganteus ; so called on account of its colossal 
size. It was taken, among other spoils, from a Benedictine 
monastery at Prague, during the Thirty-years' war, by Field- 
marshal Count Kbnigsmarh. It is two Swedish ells in 
height, and of proportionate breadth. This code is in fact a 
species of library in itself: it contains, besides the Vulgate, a 
collection of writings upon the Jewish Antiquities, by Josephns, 
Isidorus, &c. Also the Cosmce Pragensis Chronicon Bohemice. 
A learned Hungarian of the name of Dobrowshi made a 
journey to Sweden in 1792, expressly to examine this codex. 





Because the volume is terminated by a treatise on magic, chap, vn. 
ornamented with an illuminated figure of the Devil, several 
foreigners who have visited this Library, being struck with 
the enormous size of the volume, and with this singular 
illumination, have agreed in calling it " La Bible du 
Diable 1 and Codex Diaboli." There is also a most curious 
manuscript, entitled " Magistri Johannis Arderum de Slewark, 
de Arte Physicali et de Cirurgid, quas ego prcedictus Johannes 
ferventc pcstilentid, quae fait anno Domini millesimo cccxlix. 
usque annum Domini m.ccccxii. Morem (aut moram) egi 
apud Neiverh, in comitatu Slothingui, et ibidem quamplures de 
infirmitatibus subscriptis curavi." This manuscript is upon a 
vellum roll of considerable length, divided into columns. In 
these columns are represented the figures of the persons 
diseased ; and by the side of them a description of the dis- 
order, and the remedy prescribed. There are also anatomical 
figures for midwifery &c. Considering the date of this work, 
it is very curious to observe the words "Pro morbo qui 
dicitur" *********, followed by the French name of a 
disorder which is supposed not to have been known in 
Europe before the discovery of America. 

Among the typographical rarities of this Library, we saw 
one, in large quarto, with wood- cuts, which would hold a 


(l) This manuscript, for particular reasons, is not often shewn to strangers. The 
Authors of the Voyage de Deux Fran$ais were not allowed to examine it 5 yet if the 
account of it which they received from the Abbe Albertrandi, Librarian of the King of 
Poland, be correct, it may have received the name of " The Devil's Bible" from a very 
different cause : it may have been so called from the confession, " en lettres rouges sur 
un fond hrun " at the end of the manuscript, of its former diabolical owner. — See 
the work above cited, tome II. p. S4. Paris, 1/Q6. 


S T O C K H O L M. 

chap. vii. distinguished place in any collection: it has this title — 
Typographic " Speculum Humance Salvationis ;" being without date or 

Rarities. , 

printer s name, or any indication of the place where it was 
printed. Some have supposed that it proceeded from the 
press of Jo/in Coster, at Harlem, in 1 4-10 : others, that it was 
printed by John Faust, at Maycnce, in 1459. Also, Cicero de 
Officiis, upon vellum, by Faust and Schoeffer, at Mayence, 1466. 
The first edition of Homer, at Florence, 1-188, in the highest 
state of preservation, upon paper, with a wide margin. But 
more valuable than all these is the copy, here preserved, of 
the identical Vulgate which belonged to Luther — Biblia Vet* 
et Nov. Testamenti; the margin being covered, as well as all 
other spaces open to his pen, with his own autograph notes. 
This volume was printed in folio, at Lyons, in 1521. It was 
found by the Sivedcs at the capture of Wittenberg. The 
curious commentaries which Luther has here added, seem to 
make known the progress of his ideas upon subjects of divinity 
and ecclesiastical discipline. By trophies such as these, taken 
by the Swedes during the Thirty-years' war, in consequence 
of the victories won by Gusiavus Adolphus, and by Charles 
Gustavus, the libraries of Sweden became enriched, as those 
of Germany, Prussia, and Denmark became impoverished. 
But the most precious part of the whole collection is pre- 
served in a small chamber adjoining the Library; namely, 
Collection of fourteen large volumes, in folio, of Original Designs by the 

Original De- 
signs, old Masters, and of every School'. This collection was bought 


(l) This valuable collection contains 3025 Designs, distributed according to the 
different Schools, in the following order: 




bv the Senator Count Charles Gustavus de Tessin, during his chap. vii. 
embassy at Paris, and was presented by that nobleman to King 
Adolphus Frederic. After the death of his father, Gustavus 
the Third gave it to the Library, for the use of the State. To 
this collection is added an Historical Catalogue by the Grand 
Chancellor, Baron De Sparre, and in his own hand-writing. 
Almost all these designs are unique. The principal part of 
those belonging to the Roman School are by the hand of 

From this establishment we cannot separate the Museum, r^ 
founded by the Duke Regent, in 1702. It contains all the 
Greek, Roman, and Swedish antiquities which were formerly 
scattered over the kingdom. Some of the finest paintings 
belonging to the Royal Collection have been added to the 

Museum : 

Florentine School 183 

School of Sienna 43 

Roman School 400 

School of Lombardy 29 

Bologna .517 

Milan, Cremona, and other Italian Towns . . 19 

Venice . . 157 

Genoa, Naples, and Schools of Spain ... 75 

Designs of unknown Masters 234 

Flemish, Dutch, and German 470 

Swedish designs 105 

Portraits of celebrated Painters, of the Italian, 

German, and Flemish Schools .... 83 

Drawings of the French School .... 566 

Various designs of Antient Masters . . . 138 




chap. vii. Museum': it occupies two grand galleries below the Library. 
The immediate care of the Library was entrusted to Professor 
Malmstroem; and the management of the Museum to the 
Grand Chamberlain, or Intendant of theCourt, Mr. Fredenheim, 
Besides this library at Stockholm, and that of Droitnhigholm, 
there is also another, belonging to the Crown, at Haga, 
extremely select, and composed chiefly of scarce books, 
collected by Count De Creutz, when he was Minister in 
Spain and afterwards in France. The two libraries of 
Drottningholm and Haga are preserved exactly as they were 
under Gustavus the Third; and they are independent of the 
great libraries of the kingdom, of which we have now 

The first dawning of any national spirit of literature in 
Sweden does not date earlier than the reign of Gustavus 
Adolphus, in the beginning of the seventeenth century : for 
although Gustavus Vasa, in new modelling the State and the 
Church, had. burst the fetters of that libertv of opinion 
which is essential to the very being of know ledge, yet the 
religious controversies in which the State was involved 
arrested the progress of letters almost an entire century. 
To Gustavus Adolphus it w r as owing that the Swedes, as a 
people, first began to feel an emulation of being distinguished 
in the world of Letters. The examples set by this monarch, 


on the Lite- 
rature of 

(l) Among many other remarkable pictures in the Museum, there is one, a Portrait 
of a Woman, with a Negro; remarkable for this artifice of the painter, who, to hide 
the sallowness of complexion in the Lady who sate to him, has introduced the head of 
the Negro. She would have appeared as a Mulatto, but for the contrast thus afforded. 



in reserving, as his own share of plunder, all the literary chap, vil 

spoils taken in war, and afterwards presenting them to 

the literary establishments of his country , was followed 

by his successors : and it has greatly tended to add to 

the literary wealth and character of the nation. His 

extensive knowledge and patronage of learning have never 

been duly appreciated ; being lost in the splendour of his 

military achievements. The library at Upsala, according 

to Olaus Celsius, owes its origin to Gustavus Adolphus\ The 

plans devised by that monarch for the advancement of 

literature in Sweden were adopted and perfected by 

his daughter, a princess marvellously distinguished by 

her talents and love of letters. Christina had no sooner 

mounted the throne, than she invited to her Court men of 

genius and high literary character, from other countries. 

Descartes was one of these : he died at Stockholm. 

Among her own subjects, she encouraged and rewarded all 

those who rendered themselves conspicuous by their talents: 

and in this list was signalized one whom the Sivedcs consider 

as the greatest genius which their country has produced ; 

namely, Stiernliiclm ; known among them as a poet and 

philosopher of such eminence, that they have bestowed upon 

him the name of Polyhtstor. 

During the wars of Charles the Tenth, Eleventh, and 
Tiuelfth, learning made but little progress in Sweden. 


(2) " Ingentem auri argentique praedam militibus reliquisset rex ; sibi solos reservavit 
libros, quos sine mora in patriam mis'it, Upsaliensi Bibliothecre inserendos." — 01. Celsii, 
Hist. Bib. Upsal. p. 21. 

(3) Ibid. 




chap. vii. Gothenburg, founded in 1773. Sweden has also twelve 
colleges, called Gymnasia ; one in each episcopal city : and 
in all the towns there are Public Schools. Some of the 
Gymnasia have their own libraries : and in this number, the 
library of Linkoeping deserves to be particularly noticed, on 
account of its valuable manuscripts relating to the history of 
Sweden. A Military Academy, established in the Royal 
Palace at Carlberg, was founded by the Duke Regent in 1792. 
The youths admitted into this Academy are educated under 
excellent masters, and, moreover, instructed by Professors, 
chosen for this purpose, in all the arts and sciences. 

In the year 1770, a Royal Committee for the guardianship 
of Public Education was established : it was charged with 
the general and immediate inspection of all places and 
establishments for the instruction of youth. It continued in 
force for about twenty years, when, in 1 771, it was suppressed 
by order of Gust av us the Third. Great hopes of its revival, 
under the reigning monarch, were entertained at this time, by 
those who had the best interests of their country at heart. 
We were not made acquainted with the reasons for its 

In Stockholm, moreover, besides a Chirurgical Society, 
there is a Royal College of Medicine, to which are attached 
a Library, an Anatomical Theatre, and a Lying-in Hospital. 
The members of this College give public lectures, in 
Anatomy, Botany, and Pharmacy. In the limits of a work of 
this kind, it is impossible to enter fully into the detail of all 
the minor establishments affecting the general state of 
knowledge in Siveden. For this reason we have omitted to 




notice many private cabinets in different parts of the country, chap. vii. 
although some of them be of considerable importance ; as the 
collection belonging to Baron De Sparre, Senator Baron De 
Ridderstolfe, to the Count Brake, and General Count Horn; 
in ail of which there are valuable manuscripts. 

With the slight knowledge that we had of the Swedish J*™?* 8 * 

o o the Swedish 

language, we could nevertheless discern the beauty of the Poetr y- 
Sivedish poetry; and we shall add a short account of some 
poetical and other works: but the poetry is of a peculiar 
cast. The Swedish Poets are fond of rhyming in trochaic 
dissyllables, and of introducing Alexandrines into their 
compositions. The language is exceedingly soft and har- 
monious, although not equal in this respect to the language 
of Finland, which may be considered as a concentration of 
pleasing sounds, admirably adapted to poetry, and fuller 
of vowels than the Italian. That of Sweden is perhaps 
more dignified when in prose; but in verse, the measure 
being so frequently trochaic, is perhaps best suited to 
convivial songs and accompaniments of the dance. It is 
very easy to give an imitation of this trochaic or ballad- 
metre, with the double rhyme : — 


Let us drink and merry be, 

Laughing, singing, dancing: 
Who so blithe, so gay as we, 

Now the night 's advancing ? 

All our daily labour done, 

Set the cans a-clinking : 
Fill and swill, till morning sun 

Calls us from our drinking ! 


P P 




chap. vii. Some of our old English ballads were composed exactly in 
the same style. The old song of "Barbara Allen s Cruelty '.' 
is quite in the character of Sivedish poetry 1 : 

" In' Scarlet towne, where I was borne, 
There was a fair maid dwellin, 
Made every youth crye, Well-awaye ! 
Her name was Barbara Allen." 

But the Odes are sometimes written in a much more turgid 
and pompous manner, upon the most solemn, grave, and even 
melancholy subjects, with long stanzas and Alexandrine lines; 
and of this kind of metre there are many examples among 
the specimens of early English poetry. The following list 
will serve to shew the subjects of the mqst-admired native 
compositions in Sweden* 



cm I W 1 k m 

an heroic poem in twelve cantos, by Count De Gyllenborg : also author of 
" The Seasons (fetiberm)," and of a satire called " My Friends (2)?ina 
banner) ;" works of great merit. 

2. " The Harvest (@forbcmie)," by the nephew of the preceding, Count 
Oxemtierna ; a pastoral poem, in nine cantos. — This poem is much admired 
in Sweden. 

3. " Swedish 

(l) The Reader may compare with it the first stanza of a poem by Professor Franzen 
of Abo, given in the Appendix : 

Unga Flicka i din var 

Bind dig Myrtenkransen 
Dansa medan Du format 

Snart Lir Du ur dansen. 



3. " Swedish Liberty (6t>en3fct !jrifjeten) ;" an epic poem, by the late char vii. 
Mr. Dalin, author of the best History of Sweden. * 

4. " Atis and Camilla (^Itt^ octy lamina)," by the late Count Creutz.— 
The object of this poem is to represent love in the most delicate colours. 
It is a work of great energy, and full of pleasing but voluptuous descriptions. 

5. " The Legacy of a Father to his Children," by Mr. Liljestrule ; 
a didactic poem. 

6. a The Dalecarltans (X>alfartamc)," by the late Mr. Engzell; a political 
poem, in praise of the fidelity and courage of the Dalecarlians, ready to 
sacrifice themselves in defence of their Country and for their King. 


K " Dbetl" (founder of the kingdom of Sweden), by Mr. Leopold; — beyond Tragedies. 
all contradiction, the finest work of the kind which the Swedes have. — 
Leopold is called the Voltaire of Sweden. 

2. " @utie !jart," Grand-Mayor of the Kingdom ; by the Count De Gyllenborg. 

3. " 2n#talt> ifrdbe," King of Sweden; who burns, at a festival, the minor kings 
his vassals, to render himself despotic; — by Mr. Adlerleth. 


1. " (Sltftawtg %a$a," by the late Mr. Kellgren; considered, not only by the Operas. 
Swedes, but by all the Foreign Ministers resident in the Country, as surpassing, 
m magnificence and in the style of its composition, every theatrical work of 
the kind in Europe. 

2,. (i The Holiday of Sweden (@t}ca$ J5&#ttb) ;" composed upon the occasion 
of the erection of the statue of Gustavus Vasa in the Place des Nobles; by 
Count De Gyllenborg. 


1. "Opportunity makes the Thief" (Swedish proverb — Xilfaffc #tor 
Xjltfoen) ; by Baron D'Armfeldt, distinguished hy the high favour in which 
he was held by Gustavus the Third, and by the disgrace into which he fell 




CHAP. VII. when D\ike Charles became Regent. — His having enjoyed the confidence 
Y of the former, would sufficiently account for the hatred entertained towards 

him by the latter. 

2. " The Extravagant Musician (2)tU&&SlUWtt) j" a very popular piece; 
by Mr. Enwallson ; also author of another, which has had great success, called 


Dramas. 1. " girt 23mI)C;" by Gustavus the Third; who also composed another piece, 

called "SiatCilie SWavisfui." — These are much extolled by the Swedes, but have 
never been printed. 

2. "£)euilfdbt;" by Gustavus the Third. — Helmfeldt was son of a Burgomaster 
of Stockholm, who, after many extraordinary adventures, became one of the 
greatest Generals of Charles XL and in that state was recognised by his 
aged father, who believed him dishonoured and dead. 

3. " 59if#e? ^tlVl," Regent of the Kingdom ; by Count De Gyllenlorg. 

4. " The Father reconciled C2)en ^Ot^Otwbe $at>mi) f by Mr. Lindegren. 


I'ouieaies. \ t '■' The New Master (Sfya $<Xiifi(ipti) ;" by Count De Gyllenlorg. 

2. " The Officious (^tf a^f'cn) ;" by the late Mr. Schroederheim. 

3. " The Boaster" (Captain Puff, or ©tOfptatftren) ; by the late Mr. Kexel. 
— This is the best piece belonging to the Swedish Theatre, in the style of low 

These are the principal productions of the Swedish Muse, 
and they are all original compositions. To this list may be 
added an heroic Drama in prose, composed by Gustavus 
the Third, entitled " Gustavus Adolphus and Ebb a Brahe 
(©it&af-9l&otp& od) @-66a$vfll;e)." It was performed at Drottning- 
holm, the nth of September 1783, by the Duke Charles, the 




Princess Royal, and other persons of the highest distinction chap. yii. 
about the Court. The story upon which this piece turns is 
founded upon the love felt by the young King, Gustavus 
Adolphus, for the beautiful Ebba Brake, daughter of a Peer 
who ranks highest in the order of the Swedish Nobility ; 
a passion which he sacrificed for the honour of his august 
family and for the throne of Sweden, according to the 
haughty notions of his Court, especially of his mother 
the Queen Dowager. This piece, characterized by the 
genius and political talents of Gustavus the Third, was 
afterwards put into Sivedish verse by Mr. Kellgren, and 
performed for the first time in Stockholm upon the 24th of 
January 1788. It may be found printed in the collection 
of Mr. Kellgren 's works. 

In the higher walks of Literature we should now vainly Works in the 

higher order 

seek for works of much importance. Celsius, Bishop of Lund, of Literature, 
is the author of a History of Gustavus Vasa, and his son 
Eric XIV. The historical work of Mr. Dalin has been already 
noticed . Tacitus has been translated by Mr. Steenpiper. The 
master of the Cathedral School of Stockholm may be con- 
sidered as an historian of merit : his name is Murrberg : he 
wrote an account of Christian s residence in Stockholm in 
1520. Biography has also found an advocate in Mr. Nordin, 
who has written the Lives of Illustrious Swedes. There are 


some distinguished men at the University of Abo; but of 
these we may speak hereafter. Much may yet be expected 
from the Swedes ; and their literature may revive; but it must 
be owned the prospect is a bad one. The spirit of the people 
remains yet unbroken : but where the liberty of the press is 




chap. vii. annihilated. — and Russia, like one of those moving bogs, of 
which we read, in Ireland, comes slowly but surely on, 
threatening to overwhelm the country 1 , and to extinguish all 
that remains of genius and heroism in the land, — he must 
indeed be sanguine who can hope to see Sweden regenerated 
and her glory restored. 

(I) The University of Abo, together with all Finland, has already fallen under the 
dominion of Russia. 



Characteristical Swedish Exclamation — Departure from Stockholm — 
Commencement of the Winter season — Grisselhamn — Telegraph — 
Passage-boat — Geographical Nomenclature — Dangerous situation of 
the Author and his Companions — -Providential escape — Aspect of 
affairs in landing upon Aland — Frebbenby — State Messenger of the 
Court of Russia — Ruins q/'Castelholm — History of that Fortress — 
Skarpans — Change in the Manners of the People — Bomarsund — 
Vargatta Sound — Sledge-Travelling — Isle of Vardo — The Party 
embark across the Delen for Kumlinge — The Author induced to 



return to Skarpans — Festivities of Christmas Eve — Attempt to 
convey the carriage upon the ice — Sudden storm • — Village of 


Vardo — Interior of an Aland Dwelling — Breakfast of the Natives — 
Extra Post — A turbulent sea frozen in one night — Cause of the 
rapid change — The Auihor recrosses the Bomarsund — Southern 
Passage to Kumlinge — State of the Delen — Geological features of 

o o 

Aland — Manners of the Alandersm Winter — Number of inhabitants 
— Means of subsistence — Clergy — Land-measurers — their destruc- 
tive influence and depredations. 

^? AF ' VIII; Among the peculiarities of national habits which cannot 
fail to be remarked by a stranger in Sweden, is the universal 
prevalence of 'an expression constantly in use, although 
adapted to a great variety of feelings and circumstances. 

characteristi- This expression consists of two monosyllables, Ja sa ! 

cal Swedish m . 

exclamation, pronounced with a strong aspiration upon the first, and a 
lengthened tone upon the second ; varying, however, according 
to the passion that is to be expressed, — Yah so ! It is impos- 
sible to crive an idea of the innumerable significations to 
which Yah so I is applied : from the throne to the cottage it 
constitutes four-fifths of the remarks made by the Swedes 
upon all occasions. Sometimes, when a person is relating a 
story, it comes out slowly, as a kind of obliging assent to the 
credit of his narration, and an encouragement for him to 
proceed — Yah so ! Yah so ! And then it is given in a sub- 
dued and whining tone : at others, upon suddenly compre- 
hending what was before a paradox, it bursts forth with 
emphasis — Yah so! ! ! Again, at other times, it is used as 
a term of defiance, and with a more guttural sound, upon 
being menaced — Yach so ! And then it is accompanied by a 




corresponding swing of the head. Again in rejoinder; as chap.viii. 

for example : Quest. Who are they ? Answ. Englishmen. 

Rejoind. Yah so! If a Swede were told that his head 

would be struck off within the next half hour, he would say, 

beyond doubt, Yah so! This is not peculiar to the Capital, 

or to any one of the Provinces, but may be observed alike in 

all parts of the Country. Wherever a Swede is found, Yah so ! 

is sure to denote his presence. 

We felt sorry when the time arrived in which it was 

necessary to bid farewell, not only to Yah so ! under all its 

multiplied associations, but to the Swedes and to their 

Country. Being tempted by the hope of overtaking the 

friends with whom we entered Swede?! 1 , before they should 

have left Petersburg, we had waited only for the coming of 

the frost to set out for Russia. We left Stockholm, upon Departure 

from stock- 
wheels, before the snow had fallen, upon Saturday, Dec. 14. *«'«• 

The mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer fell this day, at 
noon, only four degrees below the freezing point, and it had 
not been so low during all the month of November. Soon 
afterwards, however, its descent was, with little variation, pro- 
gressive. At seven in the evening it fell 21° below freezing. 
We had bought of Signor Acerbi a very excellent German 
Bdtarde, which that traveller had caused to be constructed 
in Vienna according to his own directions, and it was pro- 
vided with many conveniences for travelling. We have 
given an account of such a vehicle in a former volume . 


(1) Professor Malthus and the Rev. W. Otier. 

(2) See Vol.1, p. 14. Camb. 1810. 



Q Q 



ra^f^-i 1 '. 


ment of the 
Winter Sea- 


We passed the first night at Kragsta. In our way thither, 
through Ensta, Osby, Hall, and Rilanda, the country was 
more open than usual, and much cultivated. The roads 
were rendered as perfect as possible by the frost. According 
to the custom in Sweden and Russia, our postillion drove 
four horses abreast. We passed several lakes, which were 
frozen. The next day we journeyed through Svanberga, 
Stabby or Staba, and Tresta, to Grissehamn. The cold was 
now become so piercing, that we could see little of the 
country. At Staba we estimated the temperature at noon : 
the mercury, by Fahrenheit's scale, fell fourteen degrees and 
a half below freezing. Afterwards it became much colder. 
We did not venture to open a window; but the vapour of 
our breath froze into a thick coat of ice upon the glass. The 
Winter had now evidently set in, with considerable severity ; 
but the atmosphere was clear and dry. The people were 
all rejoicing at the change; because this is to them the 
hevHav of the vear. The lakes were crowded with boys 
skaiting, or with peasants pushing before them sledges laden 
with different articles. Their winter dress is a sheep-skin 
coat, worn with the wool towards the body : it is white and 
clean, and has a neat appearance. Upon their heads they 
wear handsome caps of dark fur, with crowns of scarlet 
cloth. Every house that we entered was filled with pro- 
visions. The frost preserves all their meat, which is, 
therefore, much more wholesome than if it were salted. 
Even the poorest peasants have a share of luxurious diet 
at this season of the year. We said to some of them, that 
it was very cold; to which they replied, rubbing their 




hands, and with looks of joy, " Yes, bravely cold — beautiful chap.viii. 
weather! Now you may travel as fast as you please!" — 
Indeed the roads were rendered so smooth and hard, that 
they seemed like one mass of stone. To give an idea of the 
severity of the frost, before we arrived at Grissehamn, it is 
only necessary to state, that some Madeira wine, in bottles, 
in the well of the carriage, became solid : when we attempted 
to pour it out, the wine would not flow, but fell, at last, 
slowly, in successive drops. All our bread was frozen, and 
could not be cut. We broke it with a hammer, and it 
glittered, within, like loaf-sugar. We had some cold roasted 
game, and this cut like a snow-ball. All the furs we could 
use in the close carriage, with all the windows up, would 
not protect us ; we seemed to be sitting in the bleak and 
open air. Over our feet we had thick yarn stockings 
covered by stout leather boots, and over these again were 
boots made of the hides of rein-deer, with the hair on the 
outside, and doubly lined with sheep-skin covered with 
black wool. We had, moreover, fur caps upon our heads, 
and bear-skin pelisses over our bodies, besides several flannel 
waistcoats ; and upon our hands, gloves of sheep-skin, 
covered by double gloves of fur and wool. Yet all these 
precautions did not protect us from feeling the severity of 
the weather. The Swedes told us, and we had reason after- 
wards to believe the truth of what they said, that we should 
be less sensible of the action of the atmosphere if we 
travelled, as they did, in open carriages. We found the 
houses in a very different state from that in which we had 
been accustomed to see them, and carefully guarded from 


'. ■"•'.* I 


cHAP.vm. the admission of external air. The windows in all the rooms 
were nailed up, and paper had been pasted over the crevices; 
yet the natives laughed when we conversed with them 
about their climate, saying it was nothing to what we should 
soon experience. 

In the first stage this day, an iron bolt belonging to the 
carriage snapped like a piece of glass and was broken. This 
compelled us to proceed to an iron-foundry belonging to 
a Mr. Arfvedson of Stockholm, situate half-way between 
Svanberga and Staba. The superintendant of these works 
told us that a large quantity of bar-iron is manufactured 
here, which is sent to Stockholm for exportation. He also 
added, that they sometimes import sea-coal from Englcuid, 
for the use of the foundry. The same level country and 
richly- cultivated fields appeared the whole way to Tresta, 
where we crossed a ferry. Here the land wore a more sterile 
aspect, exhibiting a scene of hills and rocks the whole way 

Cris$ehan>m to Grissehamn. This place consists of nothing more than 
a single post-house, built by Government about twenty years 

Telegraph. ago ; near which is stationed a Telegraph. It serves also to 
travellers as an inn, although the worst in all Sweden. 
There is no situation better adapted for a house of accommo- 
dation ; but a place more poverty-struck, dirty, cold, or in all 
respects more wretched, can hardly be conceived. It stands 
upon a rock, close to the mouth of the Gulph of Bothnia. The 
country around it is low, barren, and full of rocks, with 
here and there a few stunted trees and shrubs. We were 
detained at this miserable place, owing to the violence of the 
wind, which was now stormy. The mariners who conduct 




passengers over to Ekero would not put off from the shore, chap.viii. 
During this delay our situation was rather awkward ; for while 
the excessive coldness of the weather drove us into the only 
room allowed for shelter, volumes of smoke from some green 
boughs piled beneath a large open chimney expelled us 
again into the open air. There was no other fuel to be had, 
and but little even of this. We set off, therefore, to visit 
the Telegraph erected near the spot. This machine is not 
Only used for Government despatches ; it gives notice, across 
the mouth of the Gulph, when travellers arrive — how many 
horses, and what other necessaries and accommodations they 
may require — what boats will be wanted. The Director, 
who is the Postmaster, was perfectly versed in the art of 
working it: he said he would bespeak a dinner for us on the 
other side of the water ; and regretted that he had no 
provisions himself to offer us. To make him easy, we told 
him that we were tolerably provided for the day, and that he 
should share with us a part of our stock. He then permitted 
us to examine the Telegraph tables; which, perhaps, are much 
the same everywhere ; but the simplicity of these struck us 
as being worth notice. He is able, according to his own 
statement, to work 1024 changes ; and conveys intelligence to 
the distance of five Swedish miles and a half — nearly forty 
English. He said that this 'Telegraph was constructed after an 
English model. We were quite surprised at the facility and 
speed with which intercourse is carried on. Any message 
whatever may be sent by it, and in a few seconds. His book 
contained the ranks and professions of all travellers likely to 




ciup.vni. arrive ; and among others, the lofty title of ''Paul, Emperor 
of all the Russias," whose coming we thought no Sivede would 
w r ish to announce. We sent an order by it, to have a dinner 
prepared in a warm room, and five horses ready for starting. 
The signs of communication were all figures, ranged beneath 
a letter, in this order: 











The letter A. shews to what table of words or sentences 
the several signs belong ; therefore, when the letter is 
changed, a new series is referred to: and there may be, of 
course, as many sets of changes as there are letters in the 
alphabet. The Director of the machine is placed in a small 
square room ; with a telescope. He amused us by holding a 
conversation w T ith his distant comrade. Sterile as was the 
appearance of the land about Grissehamn, it must wear a 
pleasing aspect in summer, from the number of the inlets 
of the Gulph intersecting the rocky shore. The opposite 
coast, when examined with a glass, was at this time glittering 
with masses of ice beginning to accumulate upon the 

We were detained the whole of Monday at Grissehamn. 
On Tuesday, December 1 7th, as soon as daylight appeared, we 
set sail. The wind had been gathering strength the whole 




of the preceding night ; and we endeavoured, but in vain, chap.viil 

to prevail upon our boatmen to take in a few reefs in the Passage-Boat. 

enormous sail with which they ventured forth in their small 

and rude bark. The carriage had been put on board soon 

after sunset ; and we seated ourselves within it, to avoid as 

much as possible the piercing nature of the blast. Scarcely 

had we cleared the rocks around the bay of Grissehanm, 

when the vessel — gunnelling on her lee-side from the pressure 

of so much canvas, neither proportioned to the boat nor to 

the weather — shipped a sea that threatened at once to sink 

her. The effect of this was rendered the more alarming, by 

the beginning of that horrid state of confusion, in which 

men lose all presence of mind : one pulled at the boom, 

another let slip a wrong rope, and all management of the 

boat seemed to be lost. We made our escape from the 

window of the carriage, by means of the main-stay, which 

was within reach ; and in another instant, those who could 

swim would have taken to the water, with a view to reach 

one of the rocks over which the sea was beating, and thence 

endeavour to gain the nearest shore. At this dreadful 

moment, when disorder and the tempest seemed to govern 

every thing, the man at the helm, by a daring but dextrous 

effort, put the vessel quite about, and saved us all. The 

management of the sail was then recovered, and, getting 

under a lee-shore, we rolled back to Grisseham?i. 

The tempest continued all that day, and throughout the 
entire night. On the following morning, December 18th, 
it was still more violent, with a contrary wind. The 


H H 



cHAP.vni. thermometer of Fahrenheit 1 was this morning sixteen degrees 
and a half below freezing. Upon our return, the poor man's 
fuel was all consumed. We sent for a load of wood ; and 
making a large fire, managed to keep his airy chamber heated 
about up to the freezing point ; living the whole time in a 
dense atmosphere of smoke, which we endeavoured to avoid 
by sitting on the floor. Our provisions were all expended, and 
there was literally nothing to be had upon the spot. We there- 
fore sent our Interpreter, Peter, upon a sledge, along the 
smaller bays, which were now covered with ice, to search 
for and purchase provisions, which were plentiful enough 
inland. He returned at the close of the day, bringing the 
side of a hog and about thirty eggs. We could not even 
procure a candle, to cheer the long night in our cold and 
suffocating apartment ; but by taking out these which were 
in the lanterns of our carriage, we obviated this inconveni- 
ence, and were able to amuse ourselves by writing, while 
the servants made a fry of the hog and the eggs, to which 
we invited our host. He told us that the boatmen upon this 
station are usually dextrous in the management of the 
wretched skiffs entrusted to their care, and that boats are 
rarely lost in making the passage. The last accident of this 
kind happened about a month before. A boat, overladen 
with forty tons of corn from Upsala, foundered in its passage 
to Aland, in a gale of wind ; and one of the richest farmers in 


A land, 

(l) We used a thermometer with the centigrade scale of Celsius ; but as Fahrenheit's 
scale, absurd and inconvenient as it is, still obtains a preference in England, we have 
always adapted our observations to Fahrenheit's scale. 




Aland, together with the rest of the crew, were lost. In the chap.viii. 
year 1791, a Grissehamn boat, returning from Ekero with 
the mail, but without passengers, was driven, by a strong 
westerly wind, into the Baltic, and never heard of afterwards. 
With these exceptions, he said, no similar accident had 
occurred for the last forty years. However this may be, no 
person, seeing the saucer-like boats in which they make the 
passage, ballasted only with a few large and loose stones, and 
reflecting upon the boisterous weather to which they must be 
liable in these straits, would think there was much proba- 
bility of their escape. Perhaps there is no part of the world 
where boats of the same size carry so much sail ; drawing at 
the same time so little water, that it is likely the smallest 
sudden squall will upset them. In the depth of winter, this 
passage may be made upon the ice ; but it seldom happens 
that the sea is here sufficiently frozen before the month of 
February ; as it requires many weeks of severe and uninter- 
rupted frost to render it practicable for sledges drawn by 
horses, or even for hand-sledges. The boats are supplied 
upon the same plan as the post-horses, by a tax upon the 
peasants. Every parish is bound to contribute for this 
purpose. There are eighteen boats belonging to the 
Grissehamn side, and the same number in the Isle of Aland, 

In the examination of the names of islands and places 
throughout the curious tract of land and water which 
intervenes between Sweden and Finland, it will be seen how 
necessary a knowledge of the language is to the illustration 
of the geography and natural history of this region, and 
to the explanation of some names in our own language. 

vol. vi. r r Among 



chap.viii. Among the innumerable islets with which the mouth of the 
Ge^Tphicai G-ulph of Bothnia is studded, appear as many names ter- 
minated by b, as in the north of the same Gulph are ter- 
minated by a, pronounced like our o ; yet these terminations 
have very different significations.- O, pronounced like the 
French u, is very difficult to an English tongue, and signifies 
in itself an island; whereas a, as it was before mentioned, 
answering to the French word eau, signifies water. Thus, in 
the names of the little islands in question, Aspb means the 
Isle of Asp-trees ; also Korp'6, the Croiv-island ; and Brando, 
either the Burnt-island, or the island whose shores repel the 
waves ; for brand has two significations, one of which is ' to 
repel' or 'drive back.' There are many other instances. Noto 
signifies the Isle of Cattle or Pasture. The Isle of Wardo, 
pronounced Vardo, means the Island of the Spri?ig; and Ut'6, 
the Out-island, or Insula ultima. The Ferro Isles in the North 
Sea would be written Faro by a Swede ; because the name 
implies Sheep Isles ; and with them, Far means a sheep, and 
o an island. Indeed, the name occurs thus written, Faro, in 


the Chart of a groupe of Isles south-west of Abo. In the 
north of Ireland, Fair Head has doubtless the same significa- 
tion, being so called from the sheep there pastured 1 . 


(1) A curious circumstance was mentioned to us in Norway, by Bernard Anker of 
Christiania, which is foreign to the present subject, but may be here noticed without 
interrupting the narrative. He told us that Great Britain holds the Orkney Islands 
only in pawn. Looking over some old deeds and records belonging to the Danish 
Crown at Copenhagen, Mr. Anker found that these islands were consigned to England 
in lieu of a dowry for a Danish Princess married to one of our English Kings, upon 
condition that these islands should be restored to Denmark whenever the debt, for which 
they were pledged, should be discharged. Therefore, as the price of land, and value 
of money, have undergone such considerable alteration since this happened, it is in the 
power of Denmark, for a very small sum, to claim possession of the Orkneys. 



Dec. 1Q. — This morning the Gulph was still impas- chap.viii. 
sable, from the violence of the gale, which was now 
contrary, the wind being north-east by east. Snow had 
fallen during the night. The mercury in Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer fell at noon 21° below freezing. Towards night 
the wind veered to the west. Many persons arrived at 
Grissehamn, also waiting for a passage. 

Friday, Dec. 20, proved an eventful day for all of us. It 
was the sixth day since our arrival at this wretched place ; 
all of which time we might have spent much more ad- 
vantageously in Stockholm, without delaying our progress. 
Early in the morning, before day-light appeared, our ma- 


riners, who belonged to Aland, and were impatient to return, 
came to summon us on board ; saying the weather was more 
mild and the wind somewhat favourable, and that they 
wished to sail with all possible expedition. After what we 
had before experienced, it was wrong in us to venture a second 
time, without a certainty of a more tranquil sea ; but it was 
much greater rashness to allow the carnage to be conveyed 
in the same boat. The Grissehamn and Aland boats are 
neither accustomed to the transportation of carriages, nor are 
they suited to their conveyance. The sight of our vessel, 
half filled with snow, in which the carriage, propped upon 
poles, yet rolled about with the slightest motion, reminded 
lis of an old distich, not inapplicable to our present folly 
in venturing on board: — 

" Seven men of Gotham 
Went to sea in a bowl," &c. 





chap. vin. We set sail. The morning was dark; and the shore here 
Dangerous is so formed, that the appearance of the horizon and of the 

situation of 

the Author sea cannot be discerned until the land has been cleared. 

and his 

companions. The sky looked fearfully red towards the cast, and as fear- 
fully black towards the west, in which quarter the wind was. 
We expressed our apprehensions to the boatmen; but they 
said that within four hours they could take us over, and that 
the wind would not increase within that time. Scarcely 
had we cleared the land, when we beheld a sea at which even 


our Alanders were appalled: at the same time it came on to 
blow with great violence, the gale gathering force at every 
instant. But the storm of wind was nothing, compared to 
the state of the sea ; which having been agitated for many 
days, presented to our astonished boatmen mountains of 
boiling water. Nothing could more effectually convince us 
of our serious situation, than seeing the consternation of the 
crew. We begged them to put back, as they had done before. 
This they confessed they would gladly accede to ; but that 
it was impossible : that all we could now do was, to bear up 


to windward, in the hope of making one of the Aland Isles, 
and avoid being driven into the Baltic. Within ten minutes 
after our danger became apparent, every hope seemed to 
vanish. Our Interpreter, as a seaman in the East-India 
service, had doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and often sailed 
in storms in the Atlantic Ocean, but he confessed he had never 
beheld such a sea as was here gathered in the Aland Haf. One 
of the Alanders, an experienced sailor, took the helm, and made 
his comrades lower the foresail. The mainsail could not be dis- 
pensed with, as we were falling fast to leeward; and without 




bearing to windward we must inevitably perish. We con- chap.viii. 
tinued to luff from time to time; but when " the rising world 
of waters," in mountain-breakers, threatened to overwhelm 
us, the yells of all our boatmen became a signal to the 
helmsman to oppose to it the stern of the vessel ; and thus, 
letting her drive before the sea, to fall off to leeward, being 
carried into a gulph of foam, which broke over both sides of 
our boat, and covered us with the waves 1 . Half drowned 
and gasping, we saw far behind us, when we were lifted 
upon the tops of the billows, another boat in equal distress ; 
and this occasionally disappeared so completely from our 
view, as to make us believe she had foundered : but when 
she hove again in sight, she was so far to windward of us 
that there was not the smallest chance of our being able to 
reach her by swimming, in case of our being upset : and we 
afterwards learned, that she had entirely given us over, and 
had enough to do in baling the water, which filled on her lee- 
side, to think of rendering us any assistance. The principal 
part of our distress was attributed, by the boatmen, to the 
having our carriage on board ; and they reproached us on this 
account. Every time the vessel heeled, the weight and 
swing of this vehicle, propped high in the boat, made her 
ship more water than she would have done otherwise. We 
soon came to the resolution of consigning it, with all we 
had, to the deep, and gave orders to the men to heave it 
overboard. This was attempted; but they assured us we 
should sink the vessel in so doing, ^nd abandoned the 


(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 




chap. viii. undertaking. By cutting away, however, the props upon 
which the carriage was supported, we contrived to lower it 
upon the ballast, and the vessel laboured less in consequence. 
Still, however, the storm increased ; and the sea washed over 
us continually. Huddled together near the stern, we could 
only trust to Providence, and, in the intervals when the sea 
left us, watch the countenance of our undaunted helmsman. 

Providential After all, we knew not how our escape was effected, being 
quite stupified and benumbed by our dreadful situation. All 
that the author could recollect of the first glimpse of hope 
was, that, after long struggling in endeavours to recover the 

vessel's lee-way, the island on which the Aland Telegraph is 
stationed appeared at a great distance to leeward, under the 
boom of the mainsail. Soon afterwards, getting another 
island to windward, the sea was thereby rendered somewhat 
more tranquil, and the boatmen set up a shout, saying, " Bra ! 
Bra! — Ingenfara! Det har ingen fara 1 !" After this we 
sailed through the Sound 2 , and close to the shore: but could 
not land on account of the surf. Having passed these 
islands, we steered for Ekero, the sea being much more 
calm ; and arrived there soon after mid-day. The crew of 
the other boat met us, and hailed our coming. It consisted 
of a party with the Ostero- Bothnia mail, and a Swedish naval- 
officer, who told us he had no expectation that we should 
have weathered the storm, seeing the manner in which 


(1) Bra! is an interjection answering to bravo! The literal meaning therefore is, 
" Bravo ! Bravo ! — No danger ! There is no danger '" 


(2) See the Chart of the J land Isles. 


t '/ '///i ' ll//< '/( ■///■<>///> f >/ '///, 

1'LAFB I -S ]L E § 

in l he Mout h of the 

s//<)\///</ ///(■ //(/////r <>/'///< '/'t/sstn/r //•/>/// 

vS «HE [; RIto F ( >' I,A v I); 

///.sv /A' r//y///'/r//s /•(>///<■ /></-/i'/-///,</ />v ///c 
ll'TiroLt .'//;>/, //,, TCEof&K&ROZEWSEA 
after cetnrning'from flie ksleof 
AV "MLUSTGE /, ■ ffu \ J U > .1 £ -11? SI 2 '. 











our vessel laboured. His own boat had encountered consi- chap. vm. 
derable danger ; but it was less burdened, and much more 
manageable, and had therefore been held in her course, 
without being driven, as was the case with ours, continually 
into the trough of the sea. 

We had no sooner landed in Aland than every thing Aspect of 

affairs in 

wore a new face. The winter had set in, and with great ijn di »g u P on 
rigour ; the ground was covered with snow, and sledges 
were already in general use. As our carriage was still upon 
wheels, we were compelled to take six horses, and with 
these we proceeded at a tolerable rate. We reached Frebbenby 
that night. The inhabitants are a stout and hardy race, 
better clothed, and in all appearance wealthier than the 
Swedes on the western side of the water. The inns are 
clean ; and we observed no symptoms of scarcity. It was, 
to be sure, the season in which provisions are most abundant, 
having been collected for the winter store ; and we were able 
to lay in a fresh stock for our own use. We found here 
Pontac wine and ale, with plenty of cold meat, which the 
frost preserves. The ferries were all frozen up. We crossed 
an inlet of the sea on foot, and our heavy carriage was drawn 
over it upon sledges. Of the state of agriculture, in a country 
entirely covered with snow, we could not well determine, 
from our own observations. This island produces but little 
corn; consequently, the natives depend chiefly for their 
means of subsistence upon their fishing excursions. They 
exchange a small species of herring, called Stromming, with 
the Swedes for corn : they also pasture a very considerable 
quantity of cattle. The land is level, and inclosed in many 




chap. tiii. parts. The trees are small and low, and, at this time., were 
almost buried in the snow, which covered every thing. In 

Frebbenby. the evening, our inn at Frebbenby was filled with travellers, 
wrapped in pelisses, and smoking tobacco. Among others, 

state Mes- there arrived from the Finland side a Russian, Colonel Rebinin, 

senger of 

the Court of w ith express despatches from the Emperor of Russia to 
the Court of Stockholm. He spent the evening with us, 
and gave us the first specimen of the lofty tone and swaggering 
airs which so strongly characterize all the agents of the 
despotic Government to which he belonged. " I bear," 
said he, " the commands of the Emperor, my Master, to the 
King of Sivcden" He seemed to consider obedience to 
those commands, of whatever nature they might be, as a 
matter of course. As we had not then undergone any 
Russian discipline, we were not yet tamed into an implicit 
assent to Russian notions and opinions ; and this minion of 
tyranny could not avoid noticing the freedom with which, 
in our conversation, we delivered our sentiments. He spoke 
much of the tranquillity and happiness of despotic Govern- 
ments ; and said that Great Britain would be ruined for 
want of rigour. Above all things that had tended to lower 
our country in the eyes of other nations, he considered the 
Expedition to Holland as the principal. He called it puerile 
and disgraceful ; and maintained (with a degree of warmth 
that shewed he was more interested in it than as a mere 
topic of discourse) that it had exposed England to the 
ridicule of the world. At last, it came out that he had served 
in person upon that occasion, when our allies, the Russians, 
were roughly handled; all of which he imputed (to use 




one of his mildest expressions, " to the imbecility of our chap.viii. 
Commander-in-chief." The only English officer of whom 
he spoke in terms of any approbation, was General 
Abercrombie. And as the anecdotes which he related pass 
current at the Court of Petersburg, we shall mention one ; 
omitting the terms of contumely in which, according to 
his account, persons of the highest distinction in our army 
are always spoken of at that Court. 

" The Russians" said he, " occupied the centre of the allied 
armies. Upon one occasion, they received orders from the 
English head-quarters to attack the French at nine o'clock on 
the following morning; and were told that the English in 
the right wing were to second this operation. The attack 
was made, and the French were repulsed ; the Russians after- 
wards waiting the promised aid of the English troops, which 
did not arrive. Couriers were accordingly despatched, right 
and left, to bring up the English army. At this juncture, the 
French, having received reinforcements, renewed the engage- 
ment, and repeatedly attacked the Russians with fresh troops. 
From nine in the morning until four in the afternoon the 
Russian army was thus exposed, and suffered severely. At 
four o'clock, General Abercrombie arrived with the troops 
under his command, fought with his wonted bravery, and 
repulsed the enemy : then going up to the Russian General, 
he burst into tears, saying, " You must think me a poltroon 
and a traitor; but, by my grey hairs and by these tears, 
I declare I was kept in ignorance of your intended attack, 
and had to assemble and to rally my men after your mes- 
sengers brought me the intelligence." 
vol. vi* s s We 



chap. viii. We have inserted this as a specimen, because it came fresh 
from the Russian Cabinet ; suppressing other equally/air and 
candid representations, which we also heard, and which were 
bandied about, to the disadvantage of our countrymen at the 
Court of Paul. The want of success in Holland was 
imputed by all the Russian staff, who were present, to the 
inefficiency of the English in military tactics. They affirmed 
that England had no land troops ; that the display of English 
infantry was a wretched farce ; and that the officers were 
worse than children. Colonel Rebinin, in whom this lan- 
guage and these sentiments were but the echoes of the 
Russian Government, considered the truth of his assertions as 
proved by the very different success of the Russians when in 
Italy. <f In Holland, 3 ' said he, " we had the best troops from 
the Emperor's dominions — the grenadiers ; all of whom were 
veterans, and every soldier was a hero. Those sent to Italy 
were the refuse of the army; and with these Suwarof almost 
wrought a miracle. Depend upon it, whenever Russia is 
called upon to act in concert with an English army, the 
remembrance of the treatment she experienced in Holland 
will, at least, make her cautious 1 !" 

The next day, Saturday, Dec. 21, after our carriage had 
passed the ice piece-meal, it was put together again ; and 
we set out with six horses from Frehhenby, about ten o'clock. 


(l) Russia has since shewn her caution, and redeemed this pledge. But it 
is grateful to reflect upon the lesson which the subsequent victories of Great Britain 
have taught to the caution of the Russians; who, in the triumphant march of our 
heroes to Paris, followed in the rear of our army, as mere lookers-on ; not having con- 
tributed, in the smallest degree, to the glorious issue of our contest with France. 



The roads were well tracked, but our wheels could hardly be chap.viii. 
made to turn round. We passed through forests and a 
level country to Enkarby, where we changed horses ; and 
proceeded to Haraldsby, passing a ferry about a quarter of a 
mile from the latter place. Here, finding the rooms clean, 
and comfortable in their accommodations, we halted. Our 
host brought some excellent Pontac wine, which he offered 
for sale ; but there were no bottles for its conveyance. 
Fahrenheit's thermometer this day, at noon, was twenty-two 
degrees and a half below freezing. 

We left Haraldsby on Sunday morning, Dec. 22, at ten 
o'clock, and soon after arrived at Castelholm ; so called from Ruins of 

r . Castelholm. 

the little insular rock whereon the ruins of a fortress are situate, 
in which Eric XIY. was confined. We approached it by a 
bridge. It is a building of considerable grandeur, and mar- 
vellous, considering the age in which it was erected, when even 
the palaces of Sweden were nothing more than log-houses. It 
was built with rude masses of a beautiful red granite ; but the 
remains of the windows and parts of the walls are of brick- 
work, which appear to be of later date than the original 
structure. The terra-cotta of the bricks is in itself a curiosity : 
the most beautiful baked clay of the vases of Nola in Italy do 
not surpass it, so pure and homogeneous is its texture. Its 
colour is of the brightest vermilion ; and the bricks, which 
were evidently shapen by the hand without moulds, seem as 
if they had been formed of the most plastic wax or butter. 
The people here are very superstitious : they speak of ghosts as 
frequently seen about this castle. Upon the top of the Ruins 
they shewed to us an apple-tree, which yielded fruit during 




cHAP.viiL the preceding summer; but the fruit was suffered to fall, 
because no one would venture to gather it, or even to touch 
it. They pretend to shew the room in which Eric was 
incarcerated : and strange tales of dungeons and mysterious 
passages, leading no one knows where, are of course con- 
nected with the narrative related to every stranger who visits 
these Ruins. 

Some Gentlemen, instigated by the curiosity thus excited, 
were at this time digging in the court of the castle ; 
and had discovered a subterraneous duct, somewhat like 
a passage, the course of which they were endeavouring 
to explore ; but hitherto it had led to nothing. This famous 
fortress has been several times consumed by fire, and as 
often rebuilt. Notwithstanding its importance in Sivedish 
History, it is seldom mentioned by any author; and it 




is now sinking fast into a state of oblivion. The granite chap.tiii. 
materials of its walls are those of the rocks and islands 
around it. The very rock on which it stands is of red 
granite. It is everywhere surrounded by water, save only a 
narrow tongue of land which connects this rock with an 
adjoining island. As it is not likely that it will ever be 
restored, we made the annexed sketch of its present appear- 
ance. It was built by Birger Jarl t father of Waldemar, in 
the thirteenth century. Afterwards it became the residence 
of the Governors of Aland, and continued their place of habi- 
tation until the year 1634. During the reign of Henry of 
Pomerania, called Eric, in compliment to the Swedes, by 
Queen Marguerita, this castle was inhabited by a foreign 
lady of the name of Yda\ Under Eric Pucke, it was, 
in consequence of his orders, reduced by John Folkensen. 
According to Puffendorf that prince laid siege to it when 


Otto Pogivisch was Governor of Aland, who yielded up the 
fortress upon the King's approach*. The year when this event 
happened (1434) was rendered memorable for the curious 
watch-words used by Englebert of Fahlun, in distinguishing 
foreigners from the natives, when able in other respects to 
pronounce the S^eJis/z language 3 . In 1505, Castelholm was 
given by the Regent, Suante- Nikon- Stare, to Eric, son of John 


(1) Acerbis Travels, vol. I. p. I89. Lond. 1802. 

(2) Hist, de Suede, torn. I. p. 186. Amst. 1743. 

(3) " Engelbrecht donna a ses gens deux mots pour pouvoir distinguer les etrangers, 
des originaires du Pals. Ces mots etoient, Huid-hest et Korngulft:" de sorte que 
Ton faisoit main-basse sans aucun quartier, sur ceux qui ne prononcoient pas distinctement 
ces mots-la." Ibid. p. I87. 

■'•^r '■■■■■ 



chap. viii. Vasa y and father of Gustavus the First ; and in this year it was 
burned by the Danes l : but being rebuilt, it became the prison 
of Eric XIV. in 1571. In 1556, it was granted, with all the 
Isles of Aland, in fief, to Duke John. Afterwards, in 1603, it 
devolved to Catherine, wife of Gustavus Vasa. In 1644, it 
was again desolated by fire. Then it became the property 
of Queen Ulrica Eleanora, the consort of Charles XI.; and, 
having subsequently undergone various fortunes, is reduced 
to its present state of ruin and decay. The only use now 
made of it, is as a magazine for containing corn belonging 


to Government ; for which a tax is levied upon the Alanders, 
and collected in kind. 

After we had gratified our curiosity by seeing these Ruins, 

skarpans. we continued our journey to Skarpans, distant only about 
nine English miles from Frebhdnhy, and proceeded no farther 
this day ; being compelled to leave our carriage, which was 
too heavy to be conveyed upon the ice in its present 
state across the passage of the Bomarsund : we therefore 
entrusted it to the care of the Commissary; and hired what is 
here called a Rack, viz. an open sledge with two seats. The 
inn at Skarpans, like almost all we have seen in Aland, was 

change in the clean and good ; but we were grieved to remark, that in 

Manners of O » to ' 

the People, proportion as we drew nearer towards Finland, we had fewer 
opportunities of observing that honesty for which the Swedes 
are so remarkably distinguished. The peasants in Aland all 


(l) "lis entrerent dans la Finland, ou ils brulerent Aboo : . ils lirent le meme 
traitement a, la Ville de Castelholm dans la Province d' Aland." Hist de Suede* 
p. 296. 



aim at imposition ; and the practice of cheating strangers is chap.viii. 
common to all the inns upon this route. We had no sooner 
reached Skarpans, than we began to notice this change in 
the manners of the people. The Commissary had been sent 
for, to attend the trial of a woman and her accomplice for 
murdering a pedlar. The poor man had been persuaded to 
accompany this female to her cottage; and there they 
murdered him, burying his body under the floor. A century 
would elapse in Sweden without any similar stain upon the 
annals of the country. The mode adopted in this country 
to extort confession from criminals — torture being never 
practised — is simply confinement upon a diet of bread and 
water for a certain length of time ; which is said to answer 
the purpose. 

Monday, Dec. 23, we left Skarpans, to cross the Bojnar- Bomarsund. 
sund in the Rack; being drawn across the ice by men, in 
the kind of sledge so called. As soon as we had passed, 
horses were ready for us, and we continued our gliding 
progress through the forests. Whenever the inlets of the 
sea occurred, as the ice was not yet strong enough to bear 
horses, the peasants harnessed themselves to our sledge, 
and drew us over the water. In this manner we at length 
reached the Vargatta Sound and the Isle of Vardo, and came vargatta 

° Sound. 

to a little village, consisting of wretched wooden huts, a 
number of small windmills, and a church. In passing the 
Vargatta Sound we had an amusing but very striking proof 
of the immense power and influence of the Russian name 
in these parts ; as testified in the marks left in the ice by the 
simple passage of its Courier, Colonel Rebinin, whom we had 


*4 '4 * 



chap.viii. seen at Frebbenby. Being told, upon his arrival at Vardo, 
that the Vargatta Sound was frozen up, and that he could 
not pass until the ice should become stronger, he reproved 
the peasants for presuming that any thing had power to stop 
an express Courier of the Russian Cabinet: and immediately 
ordered a passage to be opened; telling them to cut a 
way through the ice, large enough to admit the passage of 
a boat ; and this merely for the accommodation of a single 
individual. These men obeyed his orders : being well paid 
for their work, and well supplied with brandy, they actually 
effected the undertaking ; and the Colonel passed in his boat, 
by means of the channel thus laid open. We saw the marks 
of this undertaking, extending for many English miles through 
the ice, as through a solid rock, in this inlet of the sea. 

The first day of our sledge-travelling convinced us of the 
folly and inconvenience of being pent in close carriages, 
when performing a winter-journey in such a climate. Never 
was any mode of travelling more delightful than this 
of the open sledge. In the carriage, we were always 
complaining of the rigours of the temperature : in the 
sledge, although exposed to the open air, we found no 
inconvenience from the utmost severity of the frost. The 
atmosphere was so clear and dry, that, being well 
clothed, the effect of it was charming. An intensity of 
general cheerfulness seemed to keep pace with the intensity 
of the season. Brilliant skies ; horses neighing and prancing; 
peasants laughing, and singing — " Fine snow ! brave ice ! 
brave winter!" Merry-making in all the villages. Festi- 
val days, with unclouded suns; nights of inconceivable 





splendour and ineffable brightness ; the glorious firmament chap, viil 
displaying one uninterrupted flood of light, heightened by 
an Aurora Borealis, while boundless fields of snow reflected 
every ray. Add to this, the velocity with which the sledge- 
drawn traveller is made to fly over sea and over land ; over 
lakes and over plains; amidst islands and rocks; through snowy 
groves and forests bending with the weight of glittering icicles ; 
here winding through thick woods, there at large upon the 
solid main — " durum calcavimus ^quor;" — in the midst of 
scenery so novel, but withal so pleasing in the richness, the 
variety, and the beauty of the effect. The snow too, in 
itself, is not one of the least of the wonders ; for though it 
be not seen to fall, it gradually accumulates. It was now 
eight inches deep, and we had not observed a single instance 
of its descent. From the extreme diminution of temperature 
in the air, the condensed vapours were frozen into particles 
so minute, that, without adhering together and forming 
flakes, they passed imperceptibly through the clear serene 
atmosphere, in the state of an invisible sleet ; which, when 
agitated by wind, rose from the ground in the form of a 
fine powder and seemed as dry as the dust of the desert. 

When we arrived at Fargatta, in the Isle of Vdrdb, we were isic of Vmdo. 
informed that, at the distance of half a Sivedish mile from the 
village, there was a boat waiting to take us to Kumlinge; the 
sea being open on that side of the island; and that two 
Gentlemen, with whom we had shared our accommodations 
the preceding evening, were desirous to return our civility 
by providing for our passage thither. When we reached 
the spot, however, they were gone : and as there was no 

vol. vi. t t other 




chap. viii. other means for our conveyance, we were under the necessity 

S * ' of returning to Vargatta, where we put up for the night in 

a wretched and filthy hovel, the first of the kind we had 
seen since we left the Swedish coast. Nothing in Lapland 
could be worse: yet the poor owners of the hut called it a 
" Bra Kammare;" and we did not wish to make them believe 
that we were discontented with our accommodations. The 
evening of the following day, Dec. 24, being Christmas Eve, 
which in Aland ushers in a night of great festivity and 
rejoicing, our boatmen, who were to conduct us in the 
morning to Kumli?ige, came to beg that they might start 
before daylight, lest they should not be able to get back to 
Vardb, to share with their families in the Christmas revels. 
At four o'clock a.m. the shouts of these men summoned us, 
nothing lothe, to quit the miserable place where we had 
passed the night; and we hastened with them to the shore. 
The rarty To their disappointment, the wind was directly adverse ; and 
*£%££ they were forced to pull with oars the whole way, which 
Kumiinge. tlireatene( j to delay their return. About two Swedish miles, 
however, from Vardb, they descried, to their great joy, the 
Ostero-Bothnia post-boat, coming full sail towards them. Upon 
this they set up a great shout— " Ostero-Post ! Ostero-Post /'> 
and, waiting its coming with great eagerness, asked our 
permission to exchange cargoes. The men in the other boat 
were equally eager to get back to their own island, and for 
the same reason — to keep the festival of Christmas Eve. As 
soon, therefore, as the two parties met, the exchange was 
effected. But the author, hearing from the Kumlinge boat- 


men that the Lappvesi Channel, in the passage towards Abo, 




was open — which had been reported as frozen over, and the chap.viii. 
wind being fair for Vard'6, determined to leave his companion The author 

-n i- 7 i TV 7* i induced to 

with the English servant to proceed to Kumhnge, and return return to 


with the Vardo boatmen and the Swedish interpreter for the 
carriage which had been left, with almost all our effects, 
beyond the Bomarsund. With this view he set sail again for 
Vardo ; where, taking guides, he crossed again the Vargatta 
Sound, and the Bomarsund, upon the ice ; and arrived again 
at Skarpans at four o'clock in the afternoon; at which hour 
it was quite dark. The guides had expressed their fears, the 
whole way, of not being able to get back for the feast. 
Hearing this complaint so often repeated, the author asked 
what it was that they were to enjoy, which they deemed 
so desirable; and was answered, " A belly-full of brandy!" 
Christmas Eve, however, is kept all over Sweden and Finland Festivities of 

. . Christmas 

with peculiar circumstances of festivity. The people, even Eve. 
the lowest and poorest of the inhabitants, join in the general 
conviviality ; those who can best afford it, inviting the rest ; 
so that no one is omitted. 

The next morning, that of Christmas Day, having assembled 
twenty-five of the peasants, provided with poles, ropes, and 
axes, and having placed the carriage upon four sledges, we 
began our expedition across the Sounds. The difficulties we 
expected to encounter seemed to vanish as a dream : by half 
after ten, a.m. the carriage, followed by sledges bearing the 
axle, wheels, trunks, and baggage, together with the whole 
of our party, had safely passed the Bomarsund, and all the 
inlets of the sea before arriving at the Vargatta, the largest 
field of ice we had to go over. Here we diminished the 


■ -^ .*;?♦'*' 




chap. viii. number of peasants attending upon the body of the carriage, 
to four ; as the ice was more likely to give way in this 
passage : and we allotted the same number of men to the 
sledge conveying the axle ; suffering only one sledge to 
proceed at the same time; — all the rest following cautiously 
at a distance from each other, and all being drawn by men 
instead of horses. Then, by sending forward a single peasant 
with a large and heavy axe to try the strength of the ice in 
all places where there was danger to be apprehended, — and 
taking each of us a rope, to animate the men, — vve set out. 

Sometimes we were forced to deviate a little from the straight 
line of our route, in consequence of open places through which 
the sea appeared, and also when warned, by our pioneer, 
of thin ice giving way to the blows of his ponderous axe: but 
by half after eleven the entire train of our sledges had cleared 
all the passes. We then went up to the village of Vargatta, 
to hire horses for conveying our different burdens by land 
about five English miles beyond that village to the sea- shore 
of the passage to Kumlinge, where the water was open. By 




one o'clock the whole retinue had reached Vargatta; whence ciiap.viii. 
we set out again ; and, after crossing a small lake, continued 
our progress, through a forest, to the sea-side, where we 
found an inlet so frozen as to bear the passage of the carriage 
&c. to a rock, from which with little difficulty it might 
be put into one of the boats on the following morning. 
Having conveyed the carriage to this rock, it was supported 
upon the top of it by means of poles applied to the sides, 
together with the axle, wheels, the imperial, and several 
trunks. Night now came on ; and, as it was necessary that 
some one should remain to guard our effects, we hired 
a peasant for this purpose, and allowed him to remain 
sheltered by sitting within the carriage. No sooner had 
we closed the door upon this man, and consigned him to 
his post, than, as if at one explosion of a tempest, a strong- 
north-east wind, accompanied by the first snow we had 
seen falling, came on to blow with stormy violence. We 
felt very indifferent, little thinking that this gale would 
put a stop to our projects for the next day; and getting 
into a sledge, were conducted back to Vargatta, rejoicing in 
having, as we imagined, so completely secured the con- 
veyance of the carriage to Kumlinge ; whence we might 
proceed, without further interruption, to Abo, in Finland. 
— The sequel will shew how greatly we were deceived. 

In the morning, the wind, which had raged like a hurricane 
all night, blew with undiminished violence. Our mariners 
refused to stir towards the sea; alleging that the boats 
would fill and founder, even before they could get from 
the shore. An Extra-post arrived : and as the peasants 





chap. viii. conveying it also refused to put to sea, we became satisfied 
that nothing could be done. The whole of this day, Dec. 26, 
and the following night, the same tempest continued with 
unabated fury: but about six o'clock on the morning of 
Dec. 27, having continued for thirty-six hours, it ceased as 
suddenly as it came on. The interpreter had been sent, 
on the preceding day, to ascertain the safety of the carriage 
and other effects upon the rock, and also to report the state 
of the sea. He returned, saying that all was well ; that ice 
had accumulated along the coast, to the distance of about 
three boats' length from the place where it was proposed we 
should embark; but that if the storm did not remove it before 
morning, it would be no difficult matter to cut through it. 

Before daylight appeared we proceeded to the little 
village of Vard'6; whence the island so called is named, 
and where the Post-house is situate. As we entered the 
hovel called the Post-house, — for we can give it no better 
name, — we were told that the Extra-post messengers were not 
yet come : we therefore had to wait for their arrival : and 
this delay gave us an opportunity of seeing a little of the 
interior economy of one of these dwellings, in its most 
undisguised state. A more curious sight could hardly be 
imagined. At our entrance, nobody was up. The members 
of the family held a conversation with our boatmen, but we 
saw none of them. The floor of the only room they had, 
and of which we had taken possession, was covered with 
straw and sedge, according to the custom of the country 
at Christmas, and once a practice, even in Kings' houses, in 
England. Peeping from behind their hiding-places, as soon 


Village of 

Interior of 
an Aland 



as they perceived that strangers had entered this apartment, chap. Tin. 
they were all stirring: and presently there fell out from 
every side of the room the naked figures of men, women, 
boys, and girls, who had been piled in tiers one above 
another, as in a ship's cabin; being concealed from view 
by so many sheep-skins, which were suspended as curtains 
before their cots. This motley groupe, amounting in all to 
thirteen persons, without a rag to cover them, squatted 
themselves upon the floor in the middle of the chamber, 
and began altogether the business of their brief toilette. Trie 
women put on two pairs of woollen hose, and over these 
a pair of greasy boots. The toilette being ended, they all 
with one accord began to blow their noses into the palms 
of their hands, and to wipe them upon their clothes. Then 
the men kindled their tobacco-pipes ; and a universal hawking 
and spitting commenced. Nor were the women unoccupied ; 
for a large fire being lighted, the females of the family 
quietly took up their petticoats, and sate before it, very 
leisurely gartering their stockings. This being done, a girl Breakfast of 
now handed round their breakfast : it consisted of, first, a 
dram to each person, served in a small silver cup ; secondly, 
a portion of black biscuit, with about two ounces of fresh 
butter. At this meal they sate without ceremony or order, 
each where and with whom he pleased, chatting and laughing 
in groupes, apparently contented and happy. It was rather 
new, to see mothers with children at their breasts disengage 
their tender infants from the nipple, to pour down their 
little throats a portion of the dram which came to the 
mother's share ; but still more remarkable to see these young 


the Natives. 




chap. viii. dram-drinkers lick their lips, roll their eyes about, and 
stretch out their puny hands, as craving more ; shewing 
how accustomed they were to this beverage. Perhaps the 
practice may explain the frequency of dwarfs in the Northern 
countries of Europe; as in Poland, Russia, and Sweden. 
But the author, venturing a mild remonstrance upon seeing 
an affectionate mother pouring brandy down her child's 
throat, was told, <c It is good for them : our children are 
not troubled with wind or with rickets ; and our adults," 
giving one of the sturdy peasants a notable thump, "see 
how hardy and healthy they are!" There was no reply 

o t • , 

to such an appeal ; for of the Alanders, in general, it 
may be said, that a more vigorous race can hardly be 
found; and all of them have imbibed with their milk 
their morning drams of brandy. It is in scenes like that 
which the interior of this hut exhibited, the mind is forcibly 
struck with a conviction of the relative nature of human 
happiness ; that it belongs to no rank or situation in life 
as a peculiar possession; but that in all stations, gifted 
with health and virtue and just government, Providence 
has vouchsafed an equal portion of this blessing. As cer- 
tainly as the poor native of St. Kilda, torn from his bleak 
and barren rock in the Atlantic, would pine and die through 
languishing for his home 1 , although transported into a land 
of luxury and abundance ; so would every individual of the 


(l) "He longed to see his native country again." — Martin's (Account of a 
St.Kildian brought to Glasgow) Western Islands of Scotland, p. 298. Lond. 1703. 



groupe here assembled refuse to exchange his morning chap.viii. 
whet, of black biscuit and brandy, for the choicest dainties 
cities and towns might offer. 

The peasants appointed to convey the Extra-post now 
entered, and the little hut was full of company. " God 
dagen! God morgon ! *" being exchanged on all sides, we 
somewhat eagerly interrupted the etiquette, by asking if 
they were ready to put to sea ? " Ready enough !" was the 
answer, " if we can put to sea! But we have heard nothing 
of the sea, as we came along ; and therefore we think the 
sea is frozen." — " What!" said the author, " in one night ? 
Impossible!" — "Come along with us, Sir! we shall quickly 
learn the truth." And with this we all hastened out of the 
hut, got into our sledges, and made towards the shore. 
What was our dismay and astonishment, as our sledge cleared a turbulent 

_ . sea frozen in 

the forest through which we were driving, and the view one night. 
opened towards the east, to behold the sea, as far as the eye 
could reach, with its rough waves fixed, and all its rocks 
and distant isles locked in one wide field of ice ; while, 
at the same time, the chilling exclamations of all our boat- 
men, crying out, in equal amazement, " Gud bevara! Gud 
bevara! 3 " announced that every hope of getting to Kumlinge 
was at end for an indefinite length of time. The ice of the 
sea, when it first fixes, is so rotten, that no one dares to 
venture upon it, until a sufficient degree of hardness and 



(2) " Good day ! Good morning !' 

(3) " God save us ! God save us !" 

U U 



chap. viii. solidity has been given to it by a subsequent freezing of the 
water below the surface. This, of course, happens sooner 
or later, according to circumstances. In the passage between 
Grissehamn and Ekero, it sometimes does not occur during 
a whole winter, although the sea seem covered with ice. On 
venturing a little way from the shore, to try the strength 
of the ice, we found even the roughest parts of the surface 
yielding to our feet, like a soft sop. All this had been 
occasioned by the fall of snow upon the evening of our 
arrival with the carriage. From what we learned afterwards, 
and from the information the peasants gave us, it was evident 
that nothing tends so effectually towards the freezing of the 
sea as a fall of snow into the salt-water 1 . At this time of 
the year, when the temperature is nearly that required to 
effect the freezing up of these passages, a fall of snow is sure 
to bring this to pass; although an instance had seldom 
occurred in which the wide opening between Vardb and 
Kumlinge was thus suddenly rendered solid. Near the shore, 
it seemed to have been the work of an instant ; the waves 
being caught by the intensity of the frost, and fixed upon 
the surface in all their undulating forms. Further out, 
where there had been less of surf, the ice was more level ; 
and, perhaps, if we could have reached it, at this distance 
from the land, possessed much greater solidity and firmness. 
What the temperature had been this night, we did not 
ascertain; but the visible effect of such a frost, in the sudden 


(l) A more particular description of this effect, as produced by the mixture of 
snow with sea-water, will be given in the sequel. The well-known freezing mixture 
of snow with common salt acts upon the same principle. 



change it had wrought upon a turbulent sea, is sufficient chap.viii. 
to prove that the mercury must have fallen much below 
the zero of Fahrenheit's scale. At noon this day, it rested 
exactly at that point ; being thirty-two degrees and a half 
below freezing. 

In this dilemma, the only resource left, was to rely upon 
the exertions of the peasants conveying the Extra-post; — - 
men who have undertaken a charge of this nature being 
compelled to proceed at all hazards, if there be a possibility 
of their making way. They said they would attempt to cut a 
passage into the open sea, two miles more towards the south. 
We accompanied them in this undertaking : but after driving 
a sledge for fourteen English miles over ice and snow, the 
project was abandoned. 

The situation in which the author was thus placed 
was by no means enviable : and as he turned back once 
more to his wretched accommodations at Vargatta, the 
consciousness that his friend and companion was left, by 
his management, upon a bleak and inhospitable island — 
cut off from all connexion with any one who could converse 
with him. and procure for him the common necessaries 
of life — added to the bitterness of the disappointment. 
On the author's arrival, the people of the place, anxious 
to render every kind office which it was in their power 
to bestow, crowded about him, proffering their services in 
any way that might be useful. They assured him, that, 
if the frost held unbroken, it would not be long before 
they might all walk to Kumlinge : adding, that in the 
preceding winter the ice first began to spread over upon 

a Wednesday ', 




passage to 

a Wednesday, and that upon the following Saturday they 
made the passage in their sledges. In this solitary state, 
not knowing what course to pursue, the author determined 
to recross the Bomarsund, and take up his abode in the first 
place of lodging he could find, where he might wait the 
event. For this purpose, after again passing the ice, and 
landing upon the south-east part of the island, he went to a 
small inn about three English miles and a half from the 
shore, where he resolved to remain until a passage might 
be attempted to Kumlinge. 

There is what is called a south passage to Kumlinge, 

sometimes attempted when the ice is thin, although more 

than double the distance of the other. The islands in 

that route being more numerous, and the straits narrower, 

travellers are sometimes able to effect a passage here, when 

the other is impracticable. If they be able to accomplish 

it, they generally employ two days in the undertaking. Then 

they take a small boat with them ; dragging it along where 

the ice will bear, and forcing a way through where it yields. 

Three years ago some peasants attempted this passage, with 

a party of travellers going to Kumlinge; and they reached 

that island in safety, after very great fatigue : but these poor 

peasants, in returning, having laboured until they were quite 

exhausted, found their boat locked into the ice, at a great 

distance at sea ; and were unable to quit the vessel, the ice 

not being strong enough to bear them. Fortunately they 

had a frying-pan in the boat, in which they kindled a fire; 

consuming for fuel every thing combustible they could lay 

their hands upon, even to the oars of their boat. Despair 




and hunger at length emboldened them to venture forth, chap.viii. 
the frost becoming exceedingly severe; when, after many 
trials and hardships and hair-breadth escapes, they were 
fortunate enough to reach the shore. 

Upon Dec. 28, the author sent the Swedish interpreter to 
Vargatta, and to the eastern coast of Vardo, to examine the 
state of the sea. He returned in four hours, having ordered 
a sledge to be constructed in Vargatta for the better convey- 
ance of the carriage. He brought the welcome news, that 
the peasants having examined the state of the ice with a 
telescope, were convinced of its reaching, in one unbroken 
field, the whole way to Kumlinge ; distant from the Isle of 
Vardo twenty-one English miles. He also added, that, upon 
the following day, a peasant would endeavour to walk over 
the Delen, with a letter. This intelligence, although it 
proved delusive, excited considerable hope in the author's 
mind of being released from his present state of durance. 
A wolf had passed close to the house in the night, and had 
left very visible marks of the track he had pursued. The 
peasant to whom this dwelling belonged, sallied forth in 
pursuit of the wolf, armed with his gun ; and the author — 
as the man promised to shew the way to some rocks where he 
said crystals might be found — accompanied him upon this 
expedition. In the forest there was neither wolf, nor bird, 
nor living creature to be seen ; but the tracks of wolves and 
hares were visible in the snow. The rocks in some places 
under the trees were sufficiently bare to exhibit their 
geological nature : they consisted of a beautiful granite : Geological 

- features of 

but all the component parts of granite may be found in Aland. 


Aland ; 



chap. viii. Aland; either as simple minerals in a detached state, or 
combined in an aggregate rock : of this there are many 
examples. Detached masses of mica and of hornblende may 
be observed among the building materials in the Ruins of 
Castelholm. The beautiful clay of which the bricks in that 
fortress were manufactured, may have originated in decom- 
posed feldspar. Masses of pure quartz, of feldspar, and of 
hornblende, also present themselves ; together with every 
variety of association which these different minerals can 
exhibit. The crystals which the guide had mentioned were 
by him pointed out : they proved to be common hexagonal 
crystals of quartz, in a matrix of quartz and brick-red 
feldspar. The granite of Aland occurs in compact masses, 
lying perfectly horizontal, and without any appearance of 
dipping or inclination : it breaks readily, and near the 
surface exhibits the marks of decomposition ; sometimes 
shivering in its fracture, like trapp. 

Dec. 29. — Sent a peasant to examine the state of the sea ; 
who returned with the disagreeable news, that the Delen 
was not completely frozen over; and that the Extra-post still 
remained unable to proceed. — Determined therefore, at all 
events, to attempt a passage on the following day, by the 
circuitous southern route. 


The manners of the people in Aland, during the increasing 
severity of the winter season, shew what erroneous notions 
we are apt to entertain of the lives and customs of the 
natives of these northern regions ; where imagination pictures 
a dreary scene, with all its inhabitants close pent in their 
dwellings, like hibernating animals, sleeping throughout the 


Manners of 

the glanders 

in winter. 



winter, and anxious only to guard against the rigours of the chap.viii. 
frost. The fact is quite otherwise : they are all abroad, in a 
state of the most lively activity, and of easy revelry. They 
are not, it is true, engaged in labouring for their bread, but 
in consuming what they have acquired by their industry 
during the summer. It is, with them, the season of visiting 
and travelling to the most distant markets. The roads are 
full of passengers of all sorts and ranks, from the itinerant 
shoemaker and tailor, to the diplomatical agents and mes- 
sengers of Court Cabinets. The coming into a family circle 
of the wandering botchers of tailors and jobbing coblers, 
which always happens at this time of the year, is an event of 
great importance. These men travel from house to house ; 
staying as long as they find employment, and then sallying 
forth in search of more work : consequently they are the 
bearers of all the news and gossiping tales of the country — 
how folks live and thrive in the neighbouring isles ; what 
girls have found husbands ; with all the rest of their budget, 
of births, deaths, accidents by fire and water, tales of 
apparitions by land and sea, bankruptcies, jokes, and scandal. 
While they remain in a house, they become members of the 
family, who entertain a regard for them as friends always 
welcome, and generally dismiss them with regret. 

The inhabitants of the Aland Isles amount to between Number of 

. . in •!• inhabitants. 

five and six thousand. There are nine hundred families : 
and allowing, upon an average, six persons in each family, 
the number will about equal what has been stated. The 
agricultural produce of the land is trifling ; but they carry 
on a considerable trade in several kinds of fish, which are 






chap.viii. carried In well-vessels, and fatted in reservoirs at Stockholm. 
The first dish at table, in almost all Swedish families at 
Stockholm, is a small fish called stroemling, which is reckoned 
a great delicacy : it is eaten generally with vinegar. 


Abundance of the stroemling are taken by the A landers in 
their fisheries : they also take a great number of seals. 
Their fish they exchange for corn, both at Stockholm and 
Upsala. They are supplied from Stockholm with two sorts 
of beer : one of which is brewed in imitation of English 
porter, and is a most detestable and unwholesome com- 
position: the other, a more simple beverage, has a fault 
common to all the Swedish beer, that of not being boiled 


enough when it is brewed. The land in Aland presents 
to the eye a gently undulating surface, full of rocks, inter- 
sected by numerous bays, sounds, and inlets of the sea, 
which seem like large lakes, and covered in part with thin 
and low forests. Beggars, so rare in Sweden, are very 
common here. The best-conditioned inhabitants are the 
Clergy. The innkeeper at Skarpans possessed twenty cows, 
yet this man was nothing more than a peasant. The poorest 
of the peasants keep cows, because they have the free 
pasturage, or rather browsing, of the forests during summer; 
and in winter they are housed and fed upon such fodder as 
these islands very plentifully produce — hay, birch-boughs, 
and the leaves of other trees. In the winter, the cows are 
let out to be watered and fed; being fed three times a day — 
morning and evening in their stalls in the cow-house, and 
at noon out of doors. The joy of these poor animals, when 
the moment arrives for their being brought out into the 




open air, is so great, that they disregard even their food, for chap.viii. 
the delight of rubbing themselves against the rails, and 
butting against each other, during the half hour that they 
have their liberty. 

Among the better-conditioned inhabitants, besides the Land-mea- 

surer s — their 

Clergy, there are a set of men called Land-measurers, found destructive 

0,/ influence and 

all over Siveden, depriving the natives of their property, and depredations. 
creating more mischief among the people than twice the same 
number of Country Attorneys would do inEnglaJid. It will 
perhaps be difficult to give an accurate idea of the power and 
influence of these harpies in Sweden ; nor is it possible to 
conceive a class of men calculated to cause more real evil 
in any country, or to prove more oppressive. The land of 
the peasants, although inclosed, is frequently so divided, that 
a number of small strips or portions of, it, belonging to 
different individuals, may be contained within the same 
inclosure. As the only distinctive boundary in such 
cases is a land- mark — such, for example, as a small trench 
dug in the earth, or a stake driven into the ground — it 
w r ill often happen that these marks disappear; and encroach- 
ments being made, disputes begin among the farmers, as 
to the limits of their property. Upon these occasions, 
an appeal is immediately made to the Land- measurer, 
who takes care to fleece both parties before the business 
is settled. But the mischief does not end here. The 
rapacious Land-measurer is a man of luxury, of profligate 
and voluptuous manners, keeps a good table, invites 
his friends, drinks and sometimes plays deeply — and, to 
support the extravagance of his establishment, money is 
vol. vi. x x absolutely 



«*5*JUX*V J } W^^T. ^■.;'^V^'/-; I 



chap. vin. absolutely necessary. To obtain this, therefore, he hints 
to a peasant that his land has not been fairly laid out, and that 
it may be more profitably arranged for him; — at which his 
neighbour becomes irritated. A dispute ensues, which is 
artfully fomented; the Land-measurer receiving bribes from 
both parties. Each tries to injure the other, and is ready 
to lavish the half of his property to satisfy the vengeance thus 
excited ; — the property of the one being encroached upon 
exactly in the proportion that the other is able to feed the 
avarice of the pretended mediator; who carries on his 
schemes, until he has exhausted, and perhaps ruined, one or 
both of the disputants. In the interior provinces of Sweden, if 
a house be seen better than common, or a carriage or a horse 
cut a better figure than usual, it is generally the property 
of a Land-measurer. Prowling about, like wolves seeking 
whom they may devour, the very coming of these men 
among the Swedish farmers always prognosticates calamity : 
and it is surprising, that, in a country so prone to revolution 
and change of system, these injurious plunderers and 
disturbers of the public peace should have been so long 
allowed to carry on their depredations. 



The Author determines to undertake the Southern Circuitous Route — 
Introduces his Personal Narrative of that Expedition — Grundsunda 
— Bergo — Simplicity of the Natives — Increase of Wolves — Seal- 
hunters — Safety-pikes — The Author deserted by his Guides — arrives 
at Mushaga — Ravages of the Small-pox — Mode of forcing a passage 
through the Ice — Remarkable effect of Snow falling in Sea-water — 
Natural Cave of Ice — Sattunga — Description of the Inhabitants — 

o t 

Swedes of Aland — Finlanders — Remains of antient and pure 
Swedish — its resemblance to English — Seal-skin Sandals — Winter 
occupations of the Alanders — Preparations for a journey on the ice 
to Kumlinge — Description of the Procession on leaving Sattunga — 
Encounter with the Seal-hunters — Change of route — Scene exhibited 
at mid-day — Arrival at Kumlinge — The Author terminates his 
personal Narrative. 

After various inquiries among the peasants and messen- 
gers who had been sent to ascertain the state of the sea in 
what is called the Sjon Deleji, between the Isle of Vardo and 





chap. ix. Kumlinge, it was determined to attempt the southern passage 
The author by the circuitous route of Sattunga. As in this undertaking, 

determines to , . 

undertake the the most hazardous in which the author was ever engaged, 

southern cir- 
cuitous route, he was of necessity compelled to bear a very principal part, 

he makes no apology for the frequent allusions to himself 
which unavoidably occur. He was more than once deserted 
by his companions, and left to make his way over a frozen 
sea alone : the incidents he has to relate, therefore, become 
more than usually restricted in their reference ; for which 
reasons he proposes, in giving an account of this expedition, 
to alter the style of the narrative, and to make it per- 
sonal, by transcribing verbatim the description given of it 
as it occurs in his own manuscript journal. 

Dec. 30. — In the evening of this day, I sallied forth in a 
small sledge drawn by one horse, with Peter the Swedish 
interpreter, and a single peasant mounted behind, in the hope 
of getting the same night as far as Vargatta 1 . We passed 
the doubtful surface of the three Sounds which constitute the 
Bomarsunds Fjerd, upon the ice, by starlight ; and arrived 
safe at Vargatta' 1 , There was a dance in the village, at which 
Peter attended 3 : and upon his return, he brought me word 
that a farmer from the Isle of Sand'6 had been present at the 


(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 

(2) The last of these Sounds is sometimes called that of Vargatta, by which name 
it was distinguished in the former chapter. 

(3) The national Dances of Sweden axe ; the Waltz, with various modifications; the 
Polska, or Polish Dance, differing from that of Norway in having slower movements ; also 
Minuets, which are practised in Dalecarlia, and are frequent among the lower orders. 



dance, who had crossed the ice to Vargatta, and who gave it chap. ix. 
out that the Sjbn Delen was frozen over. Upon this intelli- 
gence, several sailors, and captains of merchantmen, whose 
vessels were all locked in by the ice, and who were waiting 
in the village for a passage to Finland, came to the resolution 
of venturing on foot by the northern passage, and asked me 
to accompany them. Fortunately, I refused their invitation : 
for although they attempted to reach Kumlinge by this route, 
they never arrived there : and I could not afterwards learn 
what became of them. In the morning, as soon as daylight 
appeared, I set out to explore the southern way ; and getting 
into a sledge, drove to the little village of Grundsunda, where Grundmnda. 
we were told that the ice might be safely passed to the Isle 
of Bergo : but as the people here are rarely able to give any 
accurate information with regard to places a Sivedish mile 
from their own homes, they could say nothing of the state of 
the ice beyond Bergo. 

My journey upon the sea to the Isle of Bergo presented 
one of the most novel and striking scenes I had ever 
beheld. The ice, instead of being rough and opake, as 
before, was smooth and glassy as a mirror ; and it is quite 
marvellous how the horses, although purposely shod for the 
undertaking, can find a footing upon such a surface. In some 
places, the transparencies being perfect, and a bright light 
permeating the abyss, towering rocks of granite were seen 
rising through the deep, towards the crystal plain over which 
we glided. To stop, and cast a glance below, would have 
made the boldest quake, who has been unaccustomed to sights 
like these. When we reached the midway of this fearful 







chap. ix. expanse, some degree of alarm was excited by the conduct of 
our guides; who, upon coming to a chasm which the settling 
of the surface had left in the ice, halted, positively declaring 
that they would venture no farther. Instances of superstition, 
and consequent timidity, among the natives of these islands, 
had occurred before, but they were too trivial to merit notice ; 
and upon the present occasion it was hoped that a little 
persuasion would get the better of their panic. They con- 
sidered the opening of this chasm as an unfavourable omen; 
and, declaring they should no longer be able to find a safe 
footing, determined to return ; and left us. I remained, with 
Peter, in the possession of a sledge, with one of their horses ; 
and having with little difficulty succeeded in getting over 
the chasm, we drove on, and arrived at Bergo without 
encountering any other obstacle. Over the whole of the wide 
waste we had passed, there was not an animal, nor any living 
creature to be seen, excepting wolves, crossing, among distant 
rocks, from isle to isle, in search of prey : and even these we 
should have mistaken for large dogs, if the peasants, before 
they deserted us, had not directed our attention towards 
them, and told us what they really were. 

At Bergo we had an example of the remarkable simplicity 
and ignorance of the natives of these islands, especially of 
those which lie out of the common route of passing travellers. 
Accustomed to see only the inhabitants of the neighbouring 
shores, our coming, without any of the guides, excited fear 
as well as wonder. The little village of the island consists 
of half-a-dozen wooden huts, perched, in a very irregular 
manner, amidst a cluster of naked rocks. The few male 


Simplicity of 
the Natives. 



inhabitants belonging to this settlement were out upon the chap. ix. 
sea, dragging their nets under the ice; which is their usual 
mode of fishing at this season of the year. In the dwelling 
that we entered, an old woman and her daughters were 
spinning ; and a boy was feeding a favourite hog, coaxing 
the animal, and calling it by all manner of endearing names. 
The sight of two strangers, who, for ought they could tell, 
might have dropped from the moon, for a few minutes 
interrupted their tranquillity. Peter, who addressed them 
in Swedish, was not on this account a whit better received: 
— " We might be any body, for any thing they could tell. 
Why did we not go away ?" At this moment, our former 
guides, whether afraid of losing their horse and sledge, or 
ashamed of what they had done, came dropping in ; and 
then immediately things wore a new face. Such a chattering 
ensued, that it might be compared to the noise of a rookery. 
The old woman and her daughters immediately fell to work, 
and prepared a dinner for these men, of bacon and blood- 
sausages, which are esteemed a great delicacy. One of the 
girls now stepped forward, offering to act as a guide in our 
way to Fogl'o; to which island, I learned with amazement, 
it was necessary that we should penetrate, although lying 
so far to the south l , before we should be able to alter our 
course, and bear up for Sattunga. They would not allow 
us a single horse to draw one of their sledges : not because 
the ice was unequal to its weight, but for this reason, which 
they assigned-— that, in returning, the wolves would infallibly 


(l) See the Chart annexed of the Aland Isles. 

Increase of 


chap. ix. take it from the girl and devour it. Five of these ferocious 
animals, they said, had prowled about their dwelling for two 
nights successively. The great increase of wolves among 
these islands, and in all Sweden and Finland, of late years, 
is one of the most remarkable events that have occurred in 
the history of the country. This change began in the time 
of Linnams; who, in his Fauna Suecica 1 , having mentioned 
the wolf as common in the Swedish woods, adds these words — 
" Ante 26 annos, rarius animal in Suecid" The ivolves have 
since become such a nuisance, as to call the attention of 
Government towards their destruction 2 . In the north of 
Sweden, they make their attacks in such formidable numbers, 
as to drive the inhabitants, especially the Laplanders, from 
their Settlements. The Swedish Missionaries settled in 
Lapland, ignorant of the true cause of their increase, which 
is unknown, attribute their coming to the war with Russia, 
which disturbed, they say, these animals in their haunts, 
and drove them from the extensive forests of Finland. 

The mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer did not descend 
lower at noon, this day, than eleven degrees and a half below 
freezing; but as the distance was great to Foglo, and that 
distance always doubled by the frequent circuitous deviations 


(1) Fauna Suecica, p. 5. L. Bat. 1746. 

(2) At the very moment in which this chapter was printing, Mr. Michaelson from 
Stockholm, visiting Cambridge, informed the author that a general hunt for the 
destruction of wolves is to take place next year, by order of the Swedish Government. 
In the provinces of Jemteland, Herjeadalen, and Gastrikeland, the number of wolves 
has amazingly increased : in one of these provinces they have devoured eight children 
within the last winter: and they have advanced from the northern provinces, southward, 
so as to make their incursions within the very neighbourhood of Stockholm. 


Land, ■ 



we had to make, owing to the chasms and open places in 
the ice, it was sufficient to deter me from attempting the 
task of drawing the sledge myself; and therefore, upon 
being refused a horse, we persuaded the men who had 
followed us from Vargatta to bear a hand in this undertaking, 
and proceed with us to Foglo. This island lies far to the 
south of Bergo 3 , quite in an opposite direction from that 
which I wished to pursue with a view of reaching Kumlinge. 
Having mustered our forces, and placed our baggage upon a 
single sledge drawn by the Vargatta peasants, we set out on 
foot, passing through a forest of much finer trees than 
I expected to see among these bleak little islands. Hence we 
descended towards the sea; and were soon once more upon its 
frozen surface, with the same wide and chilling prospect of 
the space we had to traverse. Presently our guides hailed 
some seal-hunters, whom they recognised Upon the dreary 
main, engaged in their usual occupation. These men 
answered the summons; and coming towards us, said that it 
might be possible to reach Mushaga 4 without making the 
long deviation towards Foglo; and that, at all events, as the 
distance would, in the event of our success, be greatly 
shortened, they advised our making the trial. As they best 
knew the state of the ice, and the course it would be necessary 
to pursue in order to reach Mushaga, we asked them to 
accompany us; to which they readily agreed. I mention 
these trivial circumstances, to shew how little reliance can 


Seal-hunt tr*. 



(3) See the Chart of the Aland Isles. 

(4) Ibid. 

Y Y 




chap. ix. be placed upon the very best guides among the Alanders, 
when the ice is in a doubtful state ; for these very men were 
the first to desert me afterwards, when their services were 
most wanted. The fact is, that the same persons who would 
venture through the most turbulent seas in the dangerous 
storms to which the mouth of the Gulf of Bothnia is liable, 
and in boats which are any thing but sea-worthy, are often 
cowards upon the ice ; and perhaps for this reason, that 
the skill and dexterity which enables them to encounter 
winds and waves are of no avail here. 

We now directed our icy pilgrimage towards Mushaga, 
by an eastern instead of a souther?! course ; our seal-hunters 
taking the lead with their iron-shod pikes, and often leading 
us a weary circuit, to avoid the openings and hazardous 
places of thin ice, by which we were compelled to deviate 

Safety-pikes, from the direct line of our march. The pikes used to ascer- 
tain the safety of a passenger are about six feet in length, 
having at the lower extremity an iron spike with a sharp 
and strong hook. The spike is used to try the thickness of 
the ice. If, after two or three stabs with this iron spike, the 
water do not spout up, the ice will bear a horse ; and if it 
do not rise after a single blow, but appears only after a 
second stroke, it is considered as fit to support a man. The 
hook attached to this spike is for the purpose of dragging out 
the bodies of those who are unfortunate enough to slip 
through the crevices, or fall into the holes, which are deceit- 
fully covered with a thin icy superficies. These accidents are 
generally owing to the snow, which, by covering such places, 
prevents a person from being aware of the sudden danger he 




may encounter from a neglect of sounding often with his chap. ix. 
pike. Every individual of our party was provided with one 
of these safety-pikes ; although the chief use of them is for 
those who precede and act as pioneers, who plunge their 
pikes into the ice incessantly, at every step, in order to make 
the way sure. If the foremost man give an alarm, the rest 
of the party fall back, and disperse as quickly as possible ; 
taking care not to collect together upon one spot. We had 
many of these alarms ; and our weary walk continued 
throughout the whole day a journey of painful suspense and 
apprehension, never free from danger; being often farthest 
from the land when we appeared to be the nearest to it, 
in consequence of the circuitous deviations we were com- 
pelled to make, in order to obtain a footing. About half after 
two o'clock p.m. we were within sight of Mushaga; but the 
difficulty of reaching the shore increased as we approached. 
Presently we could discern the figures of several of the natives, 
standing upon a high coast among the rocks, regarding our 
movements with an earnest attention. We soon found the 
reason of the interest we had excited : the ice, as we 
advanced, appeared almost everywhere open ; and became so 
thin, that our pikes brought up water at every stroke. It 
certainly was not a moment for much ceremony, and the 
guides used none; for the seal-hunters falling back with The Author 

deserted by 

precipitation, the Var gatta peasants dispersed also, followed his Guides, 
by the interpreter, who, in spite of all my remonstrances, 
left me in this terrible juncture, to shift for myself. In such 
a situation, the presence of any one, it is true, could only 
serve to increase the danger ; and for a moment I was 






•Arrival at 

Ravages of 
the Small-pox. 


almost bewildered. To turn back again, and retrace our 
former footsteps, at this late hour of the day, over fields of 
ice extending nearly thirty English miles, would require 
more strength than I could then muster, exhausted as I was 
already by fatigue. I saw no alternative but that of perse- 
vering, at all hazards, another quarter of a mile ; and slowly 
ventured on towards Mushaga y sometimes working my way 
nearly a mile in order to gain an approach of twenty yards. 
At every stroke of my pike, the water gushed through the 
orifice it made; until the ice beginning to bend with my 
weight, I was afraid to use it. By perseverance, however, 
I had gained a very near approach to the land, which gave me 
spirits and courage : the ice became stronger — then weaker : 
at last I reached the rocks — covered also with ice ; and, in 
my eagerness to climb their slippery surfaces, sustained many 
severe falls, one of which brought me headlong back again 
upon the sea. The people collected on the shore now 
descended to my assistance ; and the guides who had deserted 
me, ashamed of being left behind by a stranger, after various 
attempts, following my footsteps, arrived also at Mushaga. 
Here we found the sea quite open; the ice only extending an 
English mile from the shore : some other expedient, there- 
fore, to reach the open water with a boat was now become 

We entered a miserable cottage. The scene of human 
woe which was here presented, perhaps never had its equal. 
We found within, a wretched family ; amongst whom were 
seven children afflicted with the putrid small-pox, in one 
close hovel; — the eldest, a daughter, dead of the disorder; 




and the forlorn parents weeping for the inevitable fate of chap. ix. 
those, their little ones, who still survived. The diet of 
these poor creatures consisted of raw salted fish, first steeped 
in sea-water, and then frozen. To heighten the calamity 
of this heart-rending spectacle, not a ray of comfort or of 
hope could be administered ; nothing could be done for 
them, — nor did they ask for any thing. It was a sight to 
move the most obdurate ; and the impression made in 
viewing it will never be forgotten. 

Amongst a few other dwellings, at some distance from 
this scene of sorrow, we hired four peasants, who engaged 
to work out a boat that was lying fast locked in the ice 
among the rocks. A most curious undertaking ensued ; ™ od * °^ vc e ' 
that of forcing a passage for this boat through the mile of i C h e rough the 
ice, into the open sea. It seemed to require nothing less 
than the labours of Hercules to affect this ; but the promise 
of high reward, and the sight of two bottles of vile Swedish 
brandy, which the Interpreter took care to display to great 
advantage, wrought marvellously in our favour. The sail 
belonging to this boat, when produced, was found to be 
frozen into a solid sheet of ice ; but, after much labour, 
this was hoisted: and a plank being fastened with nails 
along the ribs of the boat, to prevent her staving, she was 
laid upon her side ; and we all got into her, except two of 
the men, who remained upon the ice, holding by her bows. 
In this manner she scudded before the wind upon the 
surface of the thin and rotten ice ; which soon giving way 
to the superincumbent weight, we sunk, boat and all, into 
the water ; the two peasants, without, remaining suspended, 





chap. ix. one at the prow, the other at the stern. Now began a part 
of the operation in which these men, accustomed to such 
trials, shew very considerable dexterity. By giving their 
vessel a swinging motion, alternately raising and depressing 
the prow as it was forced by the sail upon the ice, they 
continually succeeded in breaking a way through it ; and 
penetrated along the channel, thus formed, towards the 
open sea, by a tedious but sure progress of about 400 
yards in an hour. Fortunately, a fair wind blew with great 
violence ; which aided the undertaking more than any thing 
else ; the men being nearly exhausted before the passage 
was thoroughly effected. In more severe weather, they 
find this method of working through the ice impracticable, 
because it freezes together instantly as fast as it is broken, 
and they remain locked in ; by which means the party of 
peasants who had conducted some travellers to Kumlinge, 
three years before, as was related, were set fast in the ice 
at a great distance from the shore, and nearly starved to 
death. The ice, before we got clear of it, was nearly six 
inches thick ; and it was to our little stock of brandy" that 
we attributed our success. The poor men engaged in work- 
ing the boat were so overcome by their excessive labour, 
that without frequent draughts of their favourite liquor 
they would have given up the undertaking as hopeless'. 


(l) The novelty of a boat thus sailing upon afield of ice, from the singularity of its 
appearance, may serve to amuse those who sit by their fire-side, " hors de combat," and 
seek only for amusement in these pages. The annexed Engraving, shewing the author's, 
situation at this moment, is from a design by the celebrated Atkinson, taken by him, 
after the author's arrival at Petersburg, from a sketch made by the author upon the spot. 

5 r 












> S 

































































At last, we reached the open sea : and here a violent chap.ix. 
tempest of wind and snow came upon us : and the sudden Remarkable 

....... effect of snow 

effect or the snow mingling with the sea- water, now cooled failing in sea- 

. . water. 

nearly to the point of its congelation, was most striking. 
The water became turbid, like milk turning to curd : pieces 
of ice soon made their appearance, and were heard rattling 
against the prow and sides of the vessel. The old exclama- 
tion of " Gud bevaraf once more gave its warning, that things 
were not quite as could be wished by our Swedish steersman : 
we saw evidently, that if we did not quickly reach Sattunga, 
we should be in the situation, already related, of the poor 
mariners in their return from Kumlinge. The change was 
so rapid, as the snow continued falling, that when we were 
drawing near to the Sattunga shore, we found ourselves 
sailing through immense moving slabs of ice ; which were 
driven with such force against each other, that the noise of 
their striking together, all around us, was like the sound 
of a hundred drums beating : our boat was driven against 
them with a degree of violence that made us apprehensive 
of her splitting. At about two miles distance, we descried 
a boat, already beginning to be set fast, and working its way 
as we had done before, in a part of the sea where these 
floating masses had already fixed themselves into a compact 
state. The water itself seemed full of snow ; but this 
appearance always takes place whenever its particles are 
beginning to congeal. That the whole passage would 
speedily become frozen, was very evident ; and this change 
actually took place in the course of the night. An open 
channel admitted us within 250 yards of the Island of 

Sattunga : 



Natural cave 
of ice. 



chap. ix. Sattunga : and here the ice was strong enough to bear 
the weight of our boatmen, while they drew their vessel 
out of the water, and laid her up in a snug birth for the 
night. This birth, at any other time, would have been 
considered by mc as an object of great curiosity : it was 
a beautiful cave of ice, hung with pendent icicles and 
spangling crystal gems, — the palace of the seals, and temple 
of their amours : but, under the pressure of fatigue and 
cold and hunger, all its beauties could not detain me, even 
for an instant. The boatmen had already quitted it : and 
having cast my eye over the arched roof and sides of this 
natural wonder, I followed them, through a forest, to the 
Village of Sattunga ; which consists of a small church, and 
some better-conditioned cottages than it is usual to see in 
these islands. As soon as we arrived, we found here both 
the Eastern and Western Post, waiting for a passage ; also 
about fifty sailors, together with other persons whose ships 
had been frozen in, waiting to get to Finland upon the 
ice. A party of Russian Gentlemen set out, as soon as we 
arrived, in the hope of profiting by the passage we had 
forced through the ice on the Mushaga shore, to get to that 
island : what success they met with I did not learn : night 
was already set in, and it would require time to get our 
boat out again. One of them gave up his apartment to me, 
upon leaving Sattunga ; saying, he had found it cleanly and 
comfortable. The poor hostess, who conducted me into 
this chamber, was as proud of receiving strangers beneath 
her roof as if kings were come to visit her. Turning up her 
beds, she exclaimed, " Look here ! you shall sleep as well 




in my house as if you were in Stockholm : we have no such chap.ix. 
things as lice or bugs here." My last loaf of bread was 
frozen, and as hard as stone ; but this good woman boiled it 
in milk ; and I never tasted a more delicious meal than 
from the bowl containing the porridge which she thus 
prepared and placed before me. Intending to set out early 
in the morning, I wished to pay for my night's accommo- 
dation and excellent fare, and for this purpose offered 
money to the mistress of the house ; who, with great sim- 
plicity, but earnestness of manner, said, " Alas, Sir ! give 
me something better than money. I have had a pain in my 
head upwards of forty years, and sometimes it brings on 
fits : leave me but a charm to cure this disorder, and I shall 
bless you till I die !" Whether she believed that loaf- 
sugar would act as a cha?m or not, was uncertain ; but so 
completely unknown to her did this substance appear, that, 
having begged a lump of it, she stuck it up among her 
rarities, in a cupboard ; not to be used, but exhibited as 
a curiosity. 

The Island of Sattunga occupies a central point amidst the 
innumerable rocks and inlets which almost fill the mouth of 
the Gulph of Bothnia, It lies to the south of the Delen, or 
Delet, between Vardb and Kumlinge, and exactly midway 


between the coast of Sweden and Abo, in Finland 1 . The 

natives are fishermen and seal-hunters : they are the best- Description of 

J the Inhabi- 

looking, and most robust, of all the islanders. During the 



(1) See the Chart. See also Hermeiin's " Charta b'fver Abooch Bjbrneborgs Hbf' 
dingedbme." Stockholm) 1799' 



™*" : 



chap. ix. summer they carry on a trade with Stockholm in fish. My 
host and his son arrived late in the evening ; — men really of 
gigantic stature. " My boys and I," said the father, 
pointing to the athletic figures of these fine young men, 
" will accompany you to-morrow to Kumlinge : and you 
will not be deserted by us, upon the ice, as you were by a 
parcel of striplings from Vargatta and Bergo. We have 
heard of all your adventures in going to Mushaga: there will 
be an end of such risks now : trust only to our guidance, and 
we will take care of you." These men were Swedes; as are, 


properly speaking, the inhabitants of all the Aland Isles, and 
of the islands upon the coast of Finland. Formerly, these 
islands were inhabited by Finland corsairs ; to put an end to 
whose piratical depredations, the Swedes possessed them- 
selves not only of the Isles, but also of the Finland coast as 
far eastward as Petersburg, and northward as far as Gamba 
Carleby. The country at this moment, from Gamba Carleby 
to Bjorneborcr, was entirely inhabited by Swedes; speaking, of 
course, the Swedish language. From Bjorneborg, as far as 
Abo, the people are a mixed race of Swedes and Finlanders. 
We found the Swedish language in use as far as Varssala: but 
when we reached Varssala, it was no longer understood. 
The real Finlanders, that is to say, the genuine remnant of 
the original colony, which yet preserves its antient customs 
and language in their pure and unmixed state, dwell in the 
interior eastern district of Finland: they inhabit the pro- 
vince of Tavastehus and Savolax, a wild and watery region, 
covered with numberless lakes and most extensive forests, 
and peopled by a race of men who are considered by all 





their neighbours as the hardiest of all the Northern tribes, chap. rx. 
In the severest winters, these men perform astonishing jour- 
neys ; going about with their bosoms bare, exposed to all the 
inclemency of the weather. More barbarous even than the 
Laplanders, they hold in sovereign contempt all the comforts 
and luxuries of more refined nations. si Illis," said Tacitus, 
speaking of the Fenni, " ne voto quidem opus esset." 
Unaltered in all the ages that have elapsed since he gave that 
eloquent description 1 which no paraphrase can express, we 
may still say of them, "fennis mira feritas, foeda pau- 


vestitui pelles, cubile humus." For all that concerns 
their early history, and the origin of the Finns, we may in 
vain ransack the libraries of the world. The Scrictofinni, 
mentioned by Paulas Diaconus % are not, properly speaking, 
Finns, but their cousin-germans the Laplanders, to whom 
perhaps the account given of the Fenni, by Tacitus, may, 
from some of his observations 3 , be rather applicable. The 


(1) DeMor. Germ. torn. II. p. 592. Ed. Ernes H. Lips. 1801. 

(2) '* Huic loco Scrictofenni (sic enim gens ilia nominatur) vicini sunt. Qui etiam 
aestatis tempore nivibus non carent : nee aliter fieri potest, quam ut crudis agrestium 
animantium carnibus vescantur : de quorum etiam hirsutis pellibus sibi indumenta co- 
aptant. Ii a saliendo juxta linguam barbaram etymologiam ducunt. Saltibus enim 
utentes, arte quadam ligno incurvo ad arcus similitudinem feras assequuntur. Apud 
hos est animal cervo satis assimile," &c. — Paul. Diacon. de Gestis Langobardorum, 
lib. I c. 71. p. 354. Basil. Froben. 1532. 

(3) " Sola in sagittis spes, quas, inopia ferii, ossibus asperant. Idemque venatus viros 
pariter ac feminas alit. Passim enim comitantur, partemque ^praedae petunt. Nee aliud 
infantibus ferarum imbriumque suffugium, quam ut in aliquo ramosum nexu contegantur : 
hue redeunt juvenes, hoc senum receptaculum. Sed beatius arbitrantur, quam ingemere 




chap. ix. true Finns live in houses without chimneys, which are alwavg 
filled with smoke, and, from various other causes, are black 
and filthy beyond description. Fortunately, the very nature 
of this climate is hostile to the great increase of vermin ; but 
such reptiles and revolting insects as are able to withstand 
its rigours, find themselves as much domesticated among the 
Finlanders, as are their pigs, poultry, cattle, dogs, and cats ; 
all of which, together with men, women and children, find a 
lodging beneath the same roof. With regard to mosquitoes, 
they may almost be said to breathe these insects ; so com- 
pletely, during summer, is the atmosphere possessed by their 
Remains of Among these islands, the Swedish language is said to exist 

antient and 

pure Swedish, in its most antient and pure state : and it here approaches 
itsresem- so near to the English, that a servant of our own country, 

blance toEng- n i • i i i ■, 

ush. who travelled with us, was able to understand and some- 

times to converse with the natives. It is like the old Scottish- 
English ; the word myrfjm occurring for nm&Ie 1 , to signify 
much; tfjeft for ttnlUr, meaning the which; tuanDr for burnt; 
jjlagin for slain; glatrtrre for gladdened ; &c. &c. Persons at all 
accustomed to read old English books in the Gothic letter 
will have little difficulty in reading old and pure Swedish: 
they will readily translate the following lines of an old 


agris, inlaborare domibus, suas alienasque fortunas spe metuque versare." — Tacit, 
ubi supra. 

If the Roman historian had lived among the Laplanders, he could not more accu- 
r ately have described their tents made of boughs, their habits, and disposition. 

(l) " %%t king, tfjat Jjcarn all %i$ carping, 

tyt tbanfcen far in meikle tfjlng/* 

Barbour s Life of Robert Bruce, p. 85. Edin. 1758. 



Swedish ballad, as they are preserved by Professor Porthan of chap. ix. 
Abo, among the annotations to the "Chronicon Episcoporum 


Finlandensium" printed at Abo. 

©roericje fyabt mneljnn tvabt 
Of darctom, ocl? ^tccr onabe ; 
2#e fovo ofroer (jafwct oc& in i WIHm, 
2It rt)e 6vanbe opp ©iftuna: 
3oan Suf ie&i*fop watt tfjw gtagm, 
I(;ef glabbc» (Sarcla odj 9fygalan&* 


Sweden had much danger 

Of Carelians, and great disgrace ; 

They passed over the sea and into the Mcelar, 

And they burnt up Sigtuna: 

John Archbishop was there slain, 

The which gladdened Carelia and Rysland. 

The verb To eat, in the Aland Isles, is exactly the same as 
with us in English, and has the same pronunciation ; but in 
Stockholm, and in other parts of the country where a mix- 
ture of the German has intervened and occasioned modern 
corruptions in the language, gpcijen is substituted for ota. 
Again, a. bush is called busha; and a decoy-duck, a lure, as in 
England. The instances of similarity in the two languages 
which occur among the names of domestic utensils, as 
$ot, $an, jammer, and in the appellations bestowed upon the 
implements of husbandry, are too numerous to mention. 


The manners and customs of the Alanders bring to mind 
those of the natives of the isles of Scotland. Every man 
manufactures for himself. They pique themselves much 
upon their sandals of seal-skin, in which may be seen the seai-skin 



*J*Z, *.' 




chap. ix. first rudiments of a shoe. This kind of sandal is an oblong 
piece of skin, with a cord fixed round its edge, by which 
the sandal is made to close upon and cover the foot; 
the ends of the cord being afterwards fastened round the 
ankle. Similar sandals, though made of different mate- 
rials, are worn by the natives of the southern provinces in 
Italy, especially those of Abruzzo; also by the Laplanders 
and Russians*. I have seen them finely represented in 
marble, among the works of Greek sculptors. The thongs, or 
cords, which bound them to the feet, were by the Greeks 


called ifActvTsg*. Among the A landers, the hair of the seal is 
preserved on the outside, and within they put a little straw. 
These sandals, rude as they appear, are, when made of seal- 
skin, in such high estimation, that although common upon 
the feet of every one of the inhabitants, not one among 
them can be prevailed upon to sell a pair to a stranger. The 
great utility of them arises in their resistance to moisture : 
they prevent the melting snow from penetrating, and are at 
the same time exceedingly light and comfortable to the feet. 
During the winter, the Alanders are chiefly occupied in 
fishing, by dragging their nets under the ice, or in hunting 
for and killing seals by shooting them. Few people are such 
expert marksmen 3 . When the sea is frozen over, they creep 


Wiuter occu- 
pations of the 

(1) See Vignette to Chap. X. p. 173, of the First Part of these Travels, Vol. I. 
Cambridge, IS 10. 

(2) Mark i. 7. Luke hi. 16. Perixon. ad JElian. ix. 11. 

(3) The Norwegians are not less skilful than the Swedes in the use of the rifle. There 
is a passage upon this subject in Dr. Lee's MS. Journal:— 

" The Norway farmers are celebrated shots. I am credibly informed that they hit 




about among the rocks, with their rifle-barrelled guns, chaimx. 
watching for the appearance of a seal's head through an 
aperture in the ice. These animals are forced to come up 
for air; and the moment a seal-shoooter sees one of them 
thrusting his nose through one of the holes to breathe, he 
levels his gun and dispatches him. They seldom miss their 
aim ; for the loss of ammunition is a very serious concern. 
The manner in which the seals expose their young to all the 
rigour of the climate, is very extraordinary. They leave them 
upon the naked surface of the ice, in frozen caverns among 
the rocks, and sometimes in cavities of the ice itself. During 
the day-time, they dive through the holes and chasms into the 
abyss below for food; and at night, steal unperceived to the 
place where they have deposited their young, carrying with 
them the fish they have taken, and there feed them. If the 
seal-hunters find them at large upon the ice, or upon the 
shore, they dispatch them easily with the safety-pike before 
described. The appearance of the seal-hunters equipped for 
this singular species of chace is really curious. They gene- 
rally go in pairs, in search of their game. I met several of 
these intrepid sportsmen, braving the severity of the atmo- 
sphere, and watching for hours upon the same spot for the 
appearance of the seals. Their dress consisted of a sheep's- 
skin for a jacket, worn with the wool towards the body, 


their game with a single bullet ; and that were they to miss, they would be quite out of 
temper, as the loss of a charge is of much value to them. They often shoot game on 
the wing with a bullet; and a Norwegian has been known to assert that he would shoot 
his bird, in this manner, through the head; and has fulfilled his engagement." 

Dr. Fiott Lee's MS. Journal, 




for a journey 
on the ice to 

and fastened by a leathern belt about the waist ; seal-skin 
sandals ; and a fur cap. At their back they carry a rifle, 
sometimes inclosed in a case of seal-skin; and in their right- 
hand appears the safety-pike, which they use as a walking- 
staff 1 . 

As I was going to bed, a crowd of other travellers arrived, 
all adventurers, like myself; who, from some of the neigh- 
bouring isles, had effected a passage to Sattunga, and wished 
to get to Kumlinge. These were all mariners ; the masters 
and crews of merchant-ships locked in by the ice. Having 
left a few hands on board, merely to guard their vessels, they 
were all going to their respective homes in Finland. The 
little village of Sattunga had never seen so many strangers 
assembled there before: every cottage was full of them. As 
soon as daylight appeared on the following morning, the 
court-yard of the house where I had slept was crowded with 
persons who were to join company, and had made this their 
place of rendezvous. As every one of these persons had 
engaged his own party of peasants, almost every male inha- 
bitant of Sattunga was hired for the journey across the ice to 
Kumlinge. I had engaged my host, two of his athletic sons, 
and five other peasants. I found the whole body drawn up, 
as in military array. The dress of the Sattunga peasants 
was moreover uniform: they were all clad in the same simple 
and cleanly manner, wearing white sheep-skin jackets, dark 
fur caps, seal-skin sandals; and each person had his safety- 
pike in his hand. They amounted in all to thirty-seven 

persons ; 

(l) See the Plate annexed. 



persons ; and the proudest General in Europe might have chap. ix. 

rejoiced to number such men among his troops. We had 

some little distance to march by land, until we came to 

the sea- shore opposite Kumlinge ; when all of them were 

formed into a procession upon the ice, exhibiting a scene Description of 

the Procession 

altogether new to me. First went a party of scouts, as on leaving 

, Satlungn . 

pioneers, proving the ice with their safety-pikes. Then 
came the Swedish Post to Finland; the mail-bags, fastened 
upon a very small sledge, being drawn by a single man. 
Then followed another party of scouts, with their pikes as 
before; and, after these men, my own sledge, bearing what- 
ever clothes I had with me, and a small stock of provisions 
which I had purchased for my friend in Kumlinge, whom 
I expected to find in want of common necessaries. Next 
advanced a promiscuous multitude of travellers, without 
much order or caution, preceding their respective sledges, 
and attentive only to the preserving of a proper distance from 
each other, so as not to huddle together on any one spot : 
and, behind all these, another party of the peasants, ready for 
any work in which their assistance might be required. The 
whole retinue, when extended upon the ice, reached to the 
distance of two English miles ; and in those intervals when 
I could sufficiently abstract my mind from all sense of danger 
to survey this curious train, the effect produced by the 
appearance of such a numerous host marching over the abyss 
of water, was very pleasing. I had walked in this manner 
thirty-five miles on the preceding day, in a state of such 
constant alarm, that little leisure was allowed for calmly 
viewing the scene around us; and the guides were of opinion, 
vol. vi. 3 a that, 



with the Seal- 

Change of 


that, although the distance to Kumlinge in a direct line was 
not above twenty-one English miles, yet the number of 
circuits we should be compelled to make would make our 
journey quite equal to that of the preceding day. 

We had not long quitted the shore of Sattunga, and were 
advancing towards an island in front of our route, when two 
seal-hunters suddenly made their appearance from behind 
some rocks, raising their voices as loud as they could, and 
were seen with their lifted pikes, calling to the foremost of 
our scouts, and bidding them to halt and fall back as quick 
as possible. The cries of " Keep off I keep off!" in the 
Swedish language, were at first not heeded by our guides : 
but as we drew nearer, we could distinctly hear these men 
telling our pioneers that the ice was open in several places, 
and everywhere, according to their own expression, " too 
rotten to be trusted 1 ." Accordingly we fell back with as 
much caution as possible, retracing our former footsteps; and 
afterwards altered our course, proceeding about nine English 
miles to the south of Sattunga before we could bear up again 
towards the Island of Kumlinge. A variety of currents, 
prevalent among these islands, keep the sea in some places 
open, even during the hardest frosts ; but as there is always 
inconstancy in their operation, it is impossible to say 
when or where a route may be practicable upon the ice, 
without proving it. That so many open places were not 
owing to any want of rigour in the temperature, is evident 


(l) See the Plate annexed, as engraved by Pollard, from a sketch made by the author 
upon the spot. 

11 II ij , 




■:.■•: . 

5= N 

2 - 

s s - 


- tt > 
«4 @ % 


§ 5 3 

fc ^ X 

* * 1 

I - s 

£ - B 
. s . 





from this circumstance, — that when we were farther from chap. ix. 
land, we found the surface, which had been hitherto smooth 
and sometimes glassy, fixed in a variety of irregular and fan- 
tastic shapes, rough and indented, but hard as adamant, and 
evidently shewing to us those broken masses which appear 
only when the waves of the sea have been suddenly fixed 
and rendered solid during their turbulent state. One can 
hardly conceive any thing more extraordinary, than a fros* 
capable of causing such an effect ; nor would it have 
been produced without a heavy fall of snow, at the time, 
mingling with the salt-water. These slabs of ice form 
instantaneously : and, by the commotion of the waves, 
being thrust edgeways out of the water, become fixed, in all 
directions, into one solid bed. Our walking was, in conse- 
quence, rendered painful and tedious, — a work of difficulty, 
and often of alarm ; apertures and chasms among these huge 
masses shewing us the liquid abyss beneath our feet ; and 
frequently, when we thought ourselves the most secure, we 
were found to be in the greatest peril. Not a step could be 
taken without first proving, every one with his pike, where 
he should set his foot: nor was it at all safe to tread in the 
footsteps of those who had gone before ; since the same ice 
which had sustained the weight of one of our party, might, 
as indeed it happened more than once, give way with the 
next; and we had a narrow escape of losing two of our 
guides, who were saved by the dexterity, watchfulness, and 
courage of their comrades. An instance of a similar nature 
happened soon afterwards. The men, who had the charge 
of the Ostero- Bothnia Mail, upon a hand-sledge, actually 


I . **..-*- 




chap. ix. passed over an opening in the ice covered only by a 
thin surface of frozen snow. Presently our pikemen ap- 
proached the same spot; and were about to attempt the same 
dangerous passage, when, at the first plunge they made with 
their pikes, the water spouted up, and they scampered off in 
all directions. I had no idea of the extent of their danger, 
until, coming towards the same place, I perceived only 
a thin covering of snow, which nevertheless had been suffi- 
ciently frozen to support the weight of the peasant and 
sledge with the Ostero-Bothnia mail-bags, and of the guides 
who had gone before. 

As we continued to advance across the more open sea, the 
ice. became stronger: and being now at a considerable 
distance from any land, the prospect widened on all sides, 
and became at every instant more desolate and appalling. The 
wind had carried offevery particle of snow; and we journeyed 
for many miles over a surface clear and transparent as glass. 
It was the last day of the eighteenth century; which made 
me push forward with spirit and vigour, that, at least, I 
might terminate the most extraordinary adventure of my life, 
together with the most remarkable period of it, in some 
place where I could lay my head, and not remain benighted 
upon the frozen surface of an inhospitable sea. At mid-day, 
I halted to distribute some slight refreshment among our 
guides. As I served out to them their allowance of biscuit 
and Swedish brandy, they all stood bare-headed, and said 
grace. What a scene, for such solemnity ! While they were 
engaged in their brief and scanty meal, I surveyed the distant 
waste. Towards the East, all was bleak and open ; a vast 




region of " thick-ribbed ice," wherein hardly a single object chap. ix. 
relieved the wandering eye. The sun, scarce elevated above 
the horizon, put forth ungenial splendour; for although shining 
in cloudless majesty, his rays came across the chilling desert, 
rather reminding one of what he wanted than of what he 
gave. The thermometer, when exposed to his full beams, 
scarcely acknowledged his presence. The mercury, according 
to Fahrenheit's scale, in the morning, had fallen to ten 
degrees above zero; and now, at noon-day, it only rose one 
degree higher. Towards the West, the prospect was more 
varied ; the numberless rocks, islands, and islets, which 
fill the Aland Sea, being here collected into innumerable 

We set out once more: and presently the Island of Knm- 
linge was hailed by our party, as being visible at the distance 
of fourteen English miles towards the North. It was imme- 
diately pointed out to me by one of our guides; and the sight 
of it, at that moment, filled me with joy. We pressed 
forward with all the speed we could muster, and met with 
little to impede or oppose our progress. About three 
o'clock we entered into a small bay belonging to the island: 
and being very eager to land, I made the best of my way 
towards a low shore, with one of the most active and foremost 
of the guides : the rest of our retinue were a long way in the 
rear, some of them at the distance of five or six miles; being 
retarded by their burdens and sledges. Here the marks of 
footsteps and sledges from the village of Kumlinge to the 
«ea-side were very visible in the snow : and as these served 
me for excellent land-marks in tracing the road thither, I set 




chap. ix. out alone ; and had not proceeded above two English miles, 
before I distinguished, among a groupe of little wooden- 
boxes, which were so many dwellings belonging to the 
village, an upright pole, to which a vane was attached, — the 
well-known sign of the ©aStgifwctre^arb, or Inn, in Sweden. 
I hastened towards it; and entering, found my long-lost Friend 
and Companion, — as much rejoiced to see me as I was to 
see him, — sitting in a black and miserable dungeon, which he 
had used as his apartment; but in good health, after a week's 
confinement in a place where the combined action of fire and 
smoke could not prevent every thing around him from 

Thus terminated the year One Thousand Eight Hundred 
of our aera. And here I shall also terminate the account 
of this Expedition; — thankful to Providence for the dangers 
I have escaped ; and reserving for another Chapter, in the 
opening of a new century, the style of narrative which 5 
being less personal, I had before adopted. 



The Party leave Kumlinge — Brief account of that island — Bjorko — 
Brando — Extraordinary Congregation for Divine Service — Vattus- 
kiftel — Bursting of the Ice — Varssala — Revolting manners of the 
Natives ■ — Valedictory remarks upon the Swedes ■ — Fahrenheit's 
Thermometer fifty-two degrees and a half below freezing — Turvesi 
Passage — Accidents from the frost — Helsing — Himois — Vinkela — 
Action of atmospheric air upon vapour — State of travelling in 
Finland — Laitis — Tursanpare — Niemenkyla — Nussis-Nummis 


— Arrival at Abo — Narrow escape from suffocation. 

The next day, Wednesday, Jan.], 1800, we left Kumlinge, L CHAP - x - 
crossing part of the Lappvesi Passage with horses to our The rartT 
sledges; but we afterwards found that the ice would not bear KumUn s e - 
their weight the whole way : our guides therefore left these 





Account of 

poor animals exposed upon a bleak island, from which they 
said they would not attempt to stray; and themselves drew 
our sledge to Bjorlw, or the Birch Island. A painter would 
have found a curious subject for his pencil, in the figures of 
the two horses upon an ice-clad rock, when w r e abandoned 
them. Being heated by drawing the sledges, the drops of 
sweat had congealed into long icicles, sticking out, like 
bristles, all over their bodies, and hanging in such long and 
thick stalactites from the nostrils, that it seemed dangerous 
to attempt to break them off, for fear of tearing away the 
flesh with them : all their shaggy manes and tails and hair 
were thus covered by a white opake crust with pendent 
icicles, so that they seemed rather like some non-descript 
animals than horses. As soon as we quitted them, they 
turned their heads to leeward; and remained fixed, like 
marble statues, upon the rock ; closing their eyes, and scarce 
shewing signs of animal life. 

Of Kumlinge, sometimes written Kumlinga, the island we 
had now quitted, a very short description will suffice. It is 
larger than any of the neighbouring isles, and has a popula- 
tion of about 320 souls. The number of families amount to 
forty. The church, a rude Gothic structure of considerable 
antiquity, is built of granite, and roofed with wood. The 
inhabitants are an industrious race, and cultivate the small 
quantity of soil their island affords, so as to make it very 
productive. 1 Bjorkv 

(1) The following extracts from Mr. Cripps's MS. Journal, written during his 
solitary confinement in Kumlinge, will not be read without interest. He describes his 
lodging as a chamber about four yards square, with two beds in it ; one of which was 



BjorJi'6 has nothing more worth notice than its name. The 
inhabitants of the small village so called were gone to church, 
as they do every holiday in Sweden; the peasants being parti- 
cularly attentive to their religious duties. Here we observed 



occupied by his English servant ; and there was just room enough besides for our little 
dog to stretch himself before the fire, upon a floor covered with dirt an inch thick. 
The sides of this wretched chamber were covered with inscriptions, the lamenta- 
tions of former travellers detained here by adverse weather. These extracts will be 
transcribed verbatim, in the order observed in the Diary whence they are taken. 

"Kumlinge, Wednesday, Dec. 25.— The inhabitants of this village went to church this 
morning at six o'clock, by candle-light. After breakfast, I hired a horse and sledge, and 

set out, accompanied by my host, to examine the state of the island The village of 

Kumlinge is distant half a Swedish mile from the sea Bought three white hare-skins 

for which they asked about twelve pence of our money. Fox-skins sell for a much 
higher price. The people of this island do not grow rye enough for their own consump- 
tion ; but import it from Finland, paying for it in money which they obtain from the 

same country by the sale of their fish. They prefer the winter to the summer season. 

In winter, they make and repair their nets, and kill quantities of game, especially of Black 
Game, which is common here. In summer, they work hard, getting in their stock of 

hay, harvest, and fish Like all other Swedes, they cannot live without brandy ; but 

they seldom drink to intoxication. Even the gentry of Sweden are discontented, and quite 
out of their element, without brandy; especially if they have it not with their whet 
before dinner. All the peasants wear fur-caps ; and each man two pairs of gloves, one of 

worsted next the skin, and one of leather over the worsted While engaged in making 

these notes, the daughter of my host entered and presented me with a plate of nuts, 
which she said they gather in the summer to eat at Christmas. 

o " Thursday, Dec. 26. — My host and all his family are again gone to church. The 
Manders, in this respect, resemble the rest of their Swedish countrymen, being sincerely 
a religious people. My English servant has observed, that every night before they eat 
their supper they all kneel down and say their prayers most devoutly, and after supper 
sing a hymn of thanksgiving. The mannner in which they sleep is singular. They all 
live in one room ; their beds being stationed in cots, one above another. To these they 
ascend, naked, by ladders j stripping themselves, even before strangers, without appearing 
conscious of any indecency. 

" At nine this morning, Celsius's thermometer, in my room, was two degrees below O. 

Having placed it in the open air, it fell fourteen degrees below 0. I then exposed some 

Swedish brandy in the open air : it did not freeze ; but the bottle being brought into 

the room, was instantly covered with ice. The greatest heat that I could produce in my 

VOL. VI. 3 B miserable 




chap. x. the near resemblance between the names of things in these 

island and in our own country. The fire was low, and 

they said they would throw on a bush ($utf&) to raise it, and 

brought in some juniper boughs for that purpose. 


miserable chamber did not raise the mercury above the freezing-point. The sun rose 
this morning at about ten minutes after nine, and set about ten minutes before three. 
Finding that the brandy did not freeze in the bottle, I put out some in a pewter-plate, 
and it became solid. 

"Friday, Dec. 27. — In this village there are nearly as many windmills as houses ; each 

family having its own mill, which they call fiEUtant. Every article of the wearing 

apparel of the inhabitants is of their own manufacture. The main business of the year, 

with all of them, is that of taking fish. They sell only what they do not want for their 
own consumption ; and buy malt and rye, from which they make their brandy. They 
moreover sell tallow, and make their own candles : they also send butter, cheese, and pork, 

to Stockholm ; and brew a bad kind of beer. In their persons they are much neater 

than in their houses. Each family kills five or six seals in a year, and fourteen or 

fifteen sheep. My host pays about fourteen or fifteen dollars annually to the King, and 

as many Plats * to the Clergyman ; and two Plats annually towards the repairs of the 
church. He maintains one horse, eight cows, and fifteen sheep. 

' ' Saturday, Dec. 28. — This morning, my worthy host invited me to accompany him 
upon a shooting-excursion. He was dressed in the habit worn by all the peasants; — a sheep- 
skin jacket with the wool inwards, a fur-cap, woollen breeches, and worsted stockings ; 
shoes of seal-skin ; and over them rein-deer skins with the hair outwards, to prevent the 
snow from thawing and penetrating to the feet. One of the most entertaining sights is, 
to see one of these marksmen upon a shooting excursion in the forests, whither I 
followed my landlord. Upon coming into the wood, he placed himself upon a small 
eminence among the trees ; and here, laying down his gun, he, to my great amazement, 
drew out of his pocket a small opera-glass, and began to survey all the surrounding dis- 
trict. After a few minutes' attentive observation, "Ah !" said he, " there is an Orra" — 
the name they give to the Black Game. Then crawling upon his hands and knees to a 
convenient distance, he placed himself, at his whole length, upon the snow. After a 
considerable time spent in taking aim, he coolly opened the pan of the lock of his 
fowling-piece, took out a piece of tow, and, levelling the barrel once more, drew the 
trigger and shot the bird. They are particularly careful in cleansing the gun after every 
shot ; and are hardly ever known to miss their aim, if they draw the trigger : but this 
they never do, unless they be sure of their mark ; and they never attempt to shoot flying. 

• A Plat is sixteen shillings, or eight-pence sterling of our money. 



From Bjor^ko, we proceeded, chiefly by land, to Brando, or chap. x. 
the Burnt Island. Where we had to pass the inlets and passages Brands. 
of the sea, the ice was strong enough to bear our horses the 
whole way, which enabled us to perform this part of our 
journey very expeditiously. At Brando there is a wretched 
village of the same name ; and this name had excited our 
curiosity, because it signifies "The burnt island: 1 ' but we 


This was a cock-bird, and a very fine one, of the size of a pheasant. Afterwards, he 

shot a kind of wild-duck, which he called a Lure. The people here retire to rest as 

early as seven o'clock in the evening. 

" Sunday, Dec. 2Q. — Attended divine service in the church. The prayers and sermon 
were in the Swedish language. The men sit on one side, and the women on the other, as 
in all parts of Sweden. The Clergyman seemed to preach with great energy, and in a 

very loud tone of voice. He invited me afterwards to his house. The disposition to 

shew kindness to strangers prevails all over these islands ; but they speak of the Russians 
with strong marks of aversion. 

" Monday, Dec. 30. — A great deal of snow fell to-day, towards evening. 1 have 

before said, that the natives were all their own tailors, weavers, shoemakers, &c. ; but I now 
observe that they are also their own tanners and carpenters. They procure alder-bark, 
and chop it into very small pieces ; boiling it in water, in which they first put their skins ; 

and thus manufacture their own leather. A white hare was dressed for my dinner this 

day. It was first boiled, and afterwards fried; which I found to be no bad way of 
dressing a hare. Two young women came to the house, according to a very extraordi- 
nary custom, to beg, before their marriage. When any of the young girls of the island 
are about to marry, they are allowed to ask for gifts from all their friends, for some 
months before the knot is tied. These damsels were to be married in the ensuing 
spring. They brought with them each a bag of linen, as white as snow. Into these 
bags their neighbours threw their eleemosynary gifts; — a little money — a little corn — 
some feathers — a little household provision — a little wool — a little tow — any thing, in 
short, rather than nothing. 


" A pernicious and dangerous practice exists in all the Aland Isles, as in former times 
in England, although justly prohibited in Sweden, — that of covering their floors with straw 
during the Christmas season, by way of garniture. The sparks and blazing deal splinters 
from their fires, falling upon the floor, frequently kindle the straw, by which means not 
only houses, but whole villages, are burned.' 

Cripps's MS. Journal. 




chap. x. found nothing in the appearance of the rocks to explain the 
cause of the appellation. There is not a trace of any 
volcanic matter. The geological features here, as usual in 
all this district, were formed of granite; with veins of very 
coarse marble, which in some places rises to the surface, and 
forms the bed of the soil. As we left Brando, a sight was 
presented which we may vainly attempt to set before the 
reader in all its novel varieties and living colours. The 

Extraordinary church service had just ended : and at this season of the year 


tor Divine the congregations are so numerous, that one only wonders 
how so many people can be accommodated with a place for 
their devotions. Persons of all ages and sexes were coming 
from the sanctuary of this little island, and about to disperse 
to their distant homes. We met the Clergyman, in the midst 
of his numerous congregation, habited in a peasant's dress, 
like the rest of his flock. Upwards of an hundred sledges, 
to which wild and beautiful horses were harnessed, were 
seen presently in motion ; and they might be said, like so 
many vessels, to be literally "getting tinder weigh/' for they 
all took to the sea ; where, being extended upon the ice in a 
long line of procession, they formed a most singular sight 1 . 
If it had not been for the swiftness with which this vast 
retinue moved, it might have been compared to a caravan 
crossing the desert. To us the spectacle was particularly 
interesting ; because it exhibited, in one view, the population 
of almost all the different islands around Brando, the natives 
being all in their holiday attire. Their sledges, containing 


(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 



whole families, were drawn by those fleet and beautiful little chap. x. 
Finland horses, of which mention has been already made, in a 
former part of this work. We overtook them upon the ice, in 
full gallop; the peasants who drew our sledges being as anxious 
as any of the party to fall into the train, which now reached 
nearly three English miles. They had all taken their whet 
of brandy, as usual, after divine service ; and the coming of 
strangers among them, at this moment, adding to their 
hilarity, such racing commenced upon the frozen main, as 
reminded us of antient representations of scenes in the Circus 
and Hippodrome. Here were seen female charioteers con- 
testing speed against their male companions ; sledges 
overturned ; the young and old of both sexes tumbling out 
and sprawling upon the ice ; horses breaking loose from their 
trappings, scampering off in all directions ; other peasants, 
having gained the van, flying off as fast as their fiery, 
snorting steeds could fly with them, — laughing, shouting, 
and bidding defiance to those behind. In this manner 
we began the passage of the Vattuskiftel, a channel of Fattuski/ui. 
the sea as wide as that of the Delet, and in which there 
is always a strong current towards the Baltic. The 
distance across, in a direct line by water, is not more than 
eighteen English miles ; but, owing to this current, the ice 
was not passable in a straight course ; and we were compelled, 
as usual, to make a circuitous route, that nearly doubled the 
distance to Varssala (pronounced Vartsala). As we proceeded, 
the immense throng of sledges was gradually dispersed; 
and at length we found ourselves once more alone upon the 
wide surface of the frozen sea. About halfway over, we met 

a party 




Bursting of 
the Ice. 


a party coming from the Finland shore, loud in their murmurs 
about the state of the ice, which they said had opened upon 
them near the land. We presently found this to be true : 
upon coming to the part of the passage they alluded to, the 
water appeared gushing through a chasm two miles in length. 
This opening had taken place with an explosive noise, as of a 
cannon firing. One part of the ice, in settling, was now below 
the level of the other; and the continual vibratory motion of 
that upon which we travelled, yielding to the pressure of 
the horses' feet, convinced us that it was not frozen to any 
great depth. Whenever this is the case, and the least alarm 
prevails, the first caution a traveller ought to use is, to prevent, 
if possible, the affrighted peasants from huddling together 
in a mass, — which they are very apt to do, collecting their 
horses and sledges all upon one spot. It is very difficult to 
make a Finlander sensible that his own weight is of any 
importance upon such occasions. Fifty of them will crowd 
together, to consult upon the best method of getting out of 
the danger, and thereby render it more imminent. The 
consequences are obvious. In this manner it was that a 
gentleman, going towards Finland, was merged with his sledge 
and horse but a few days before our coming. His own life 
was saved, by the dexterity of the guides, — who shew great 
skill in rescuing persons when the ice has given way ; but the 
sledge and horse were lost. Even the day before, on the 
morning of the author's expedition to Satiunga, another 
traveller lost all his baggage, owing to the same imprudence 
and want of caution, when crossing the ice by the Lappvesi 
Passage : the peasants, finding the ice grow weaker and 




weaker, became alarmed, and crowded together round the chap.x. 
sledge containing all his effects, which presently fell through 
the surface, and sunk to the bottom of the sea. Fortunately, 
no lives were lost. 

It was dark when we arrived at Varssala, and entered a Varssaia. 
dirty wretched hovel, without any accommodation for travel- 
lers ; and yet this is almost the only place marked for their 


reception between Kumlinge and Abo. There are not more 
than twenty-five habitations in the whole island, which is a 
huge rock thinly covered with a meagre soil. The food of 
the inhabitants seemed to consist of nothing more than black 
bread, a nauseous kind of beer, and bad salted- fish. 

We read the lamentations of many who had left a memorial 
of their regret in being confined to this detestable spot, where 
there is nothing in the houses superior to what is found in 
the worst dwellings of the Laplanders 1 . The natives here 
began to speak to us only in the Finnish language. There 
was but one man who could converse with our Sivedish 
interpreter, or comprehend any thing of what he said. The 


(l) See the entertaining account given by Porter, of his long penance in this place. 
(Travelling Sketches in Russia and Sweden, vol.11, p. 89, &c. Lond. I8O9.) " I en- 
tered," says the author of that work, " a hovel, fitter to be the den of sea-monsters than 
a habitation of the human race." Yet in this wretched island Mr. Porter noticed a style 
of head-dress among the women, which may often be observed in the best Greek 
sculpture} and which he describes as peculiar to the women of Varssala; — "the hair 
being drawn up to the top of the head, and there rolled into a sort of knot : smoothed at 
the sides, and well plastered with beer, it not only receives a polish from the liquor, but is 
kept steady in its shape. Round this mass of hair, on the crown, is fixed a kind of 
diadem, composed of beads, bugles, &c. of various colours ; which ornament completes 
the coiffure ; the whole having the air of a Greek headdress, more like a nymph of 
Paphos than of IFarsala." Ibid. p. Q3. 





manners of 
the Natives 

cHAP.x. manners of the people were so revolting, that one hesitates in 
giving the description of any thing so disgusting. The glasses 
put on the table were dirty; and this being mentioned, they 
attempted to clean them with spittle. A woman, who entered 
the chamber with a saucer of butter, not only blew her nose 
upon her fingers, but into the palm of her hand; and then, 
wiping it upon her petticoat, proceeded to handle all the provi- 
sions that were set forth. If it were a question, Which is the 
more tolerable, the filth of Italy and the South of Fra?ice, or 
that to which a traveller is exposed in the North of Europe? 
an answer would not readily be made. In warm climates, 
it is as difficult to avoid vermin as it is to escape from villainy. 
In Northern regions, there is more of honesty, but sometimes 
the barbarous condition of the inhabitants causes them to 
betray the most disgusting manners : — and where is the 
Englishman who can fortify either his nerves or his stomach, 
so as to regard with indifference the most beastly propensities ? 
Neither the houses nor the persons of the natives in the North 
of Europe, if we except Russia, swarm with vermin as in Italy; 
although they be not destitute : but the climate is unfavour- 
able both to their increase and activity. These nameless 
insects, in Sweden and Finland, like the inhabitants themselves, 
are few in number, but heavy and gigantic in their size 1 . 


(1) At Varssala, however, they cannot be said to be " few in number." After the 
Author of the "Travelling Sketches," before cited, was driven back to this island, he thus 
writes of its filthy state: —"Here then I am again, with the happy prospect of passing, 
Heaven knows how many more days! in cold, filth, and famine. I wish the sea would, 
some time or other, do this island the favour of a thorough washing : and then I am 
sure more living creatures of the creeping and jumping species would be drowned in 
the flood, than ever filled the waters at the general deluge." Hid. p. Q2. 



Oh England ! decent abode of comfort, and cleanliness, and chap. x. 
decorum ! — Oh blessed asylum of all that is worth having 
upon earth ! — Oh sanctuary of Religion, and of Liberty, for 
the whole civilized world ! — It is only in viewing the state of 
other countries, that thy advantages can be duly estimated ! 
— May thy sons, who have " fought the good fight," but know 
and guard what they possess in thee! — Oh Land of happy 
fire-sides, and cleanly hearths, and domestic peace ; of filial 
piety, and parental love, and connubial joy; " the cradle of 
Heroes, the school of Sages, the temple of Law, the altar 
of Faith, the asylum of innocence, 1 " the bulwark of private 
security and of public honour ! 


In this miserable place, Varssala, we may be considered 
as having entered Finland once more ; and, what is worse, 
of bidding a final adieu to Sweden. In the course of our long valedictory 
account of the country and its inhabitants, it will be seen, that, thTswedJ*!*' 
with a strong predilection for the comforts and advantages of 
England, we have spoken favourably of the Swedes ; — and 
perhaps for this reason, that they so strongly resemble 
Englishmen in all they do and say. As for their natural 
rudeness of manner, we were soon taught, that what belonged 
to them as a characteristic of the whole nation, and is in 
itself harmless, might well be tolerated. We often heard 


(l) Sermon by H. V. Bay ley, A.M. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, p. 14. 
Manchester, 1803. 


3 c 




chap. x. foreigners, and especially the French, when speaking of the 
Swedes, complain of the impossibility of enduring the freedoms 
of which they are guilty towards strangers ; but we con- 
sidered this trivial fault as more than overbalanced by their 
many valuable virtues — by their love of truth, and honesty, and 
hospitality, and bravery. Some few things must be conceded 
to a Swede; and you make him your fast friend, and the most 
kind-hearted and generous of men. He must be allowed to 
enter into your apartment, unbidden, and unknown, upon the 
moment of your arrival, without any form of introduction or 
ceremony; to seat himself at your table; spit all over your 
floor ; fill your chamber with tobacco-smoke ; ask your name, 
your rank, your profession, your age, your country, your cha- 
racter, your business — all your present and future plans ; 
where you have been, what you are doing, and whither you 
are going ; — finally, what you think of Sweden. Having 
answered all these questions, sometimes without his caring 
at all about your replies or attending to them, you will find 
yourself upon even terms with him. His house, his horses, 
his equipage, his servants, his time, his company, his advice, 
and very often his purse also, all are at your service, and 
entirely at your command. He will make common stock 
with you, and freely share with you whatsoever he has. 
Thus, although, in viewing his character and manners, we may 
sometimes find a little ground of complaint, yet we cannot see 
any thing seriously to condemn. It is in tact, and not in 
morality, that the Swedes are deficient. Often, when they 
have travelled and learned more of what is called 'refinement/ 
they lose something of their more estimable qualities. 




Our journey from Varssala the next morning {January 2) chap. x. 
was one of extreme suffering ; and perhaps few English 
travellers ever encountered one of greater trial. The reports 
made by the peasants and by our servants, at starting, had 
prepared us to expect very severe cold ; and the mercury in 
Fahrenheit's thermometer, after being exposed only for a few 
minutes in a sheltered situation near the house, had fallen 
46° below the freezing-point ; and afterwards, when more Fahrenheit 
exposed to a north-east wind, which blew with violence, 52j° below 

v Freezing. 

to 52J° before sun-rise. Yet, as any thing was preferable to 
remaining in the wretched and unwholesome hovel where 
we had passed the night, we resolved to brave all the 
inclemency of the weather, and set out, at eight o'clock, in 
open sledges. We had used every possible precaution, as 
to additional clothing ; but it was all to no purpose. When 
for a moment exposed to the atmosphere, a sensation in 
our cheeks like that of being scorched immediately took 
place. We covered our faces with silk handkerchiefs, 
drawn over them in such a manner as to leave the smallest 
possible aperture for respiration : the consequence was, that 
the inside of the handkerchief became coated with a plate 
of ice, which, sticking to the skin and not melting, could 
not be removed without excoriation. We had to cross a 
frozen channel of the sea, called the Turvesi Passage ; a 
narrow strait ; but being open towards the north- east, we 
were exposed to all the fury of the blast. In a short time 
the author found that his left eye was so frozen that he could 
not by any effort separate the eyelids, and he began to be 
fearful that the right eye would also close. At this moment 







there came on a sudden squall of wind ; so piercing, that a 
languid stupor and sleepiness seized us all, and there was 
reason to apprehend the freezing of the blood in our veins. 
Accidents It was followed by a cry from our Swedish interpreter, that 

from the 

Frost. our English servant's face was frozen. We hastened to his 
assistance ; and found the poor man almost insensible, with 
two large spots upon one of his cheeks, as if patches of white 
paper had been stuck on. Our peasants knew very well what 
these spots were, and how to treat them. We began instantly 
the application of snow, which is always resorted to in 
such cases, — rubbing them with handfuls of snow, until 
they disappeared; but, to our dismay, new spots appeared, in 
fresh places, as fast as the old ones were removed. The 
interpreter's nose, during the operation, turned as white as 
the snow itself; and one of the peasants had a spot that 
covered his cheek and one side of his nose. The only 
danger, when these accidents occur, arises from being alone, 
and having; no companion to witness the snot and P-ive the 


alarm ; as the person attacked is insensible of what has taken 
place ; and if he should enter into a warm room with one of 
these spots, the white colour becomes livid, and an open sore 
instantly ensues, which sometimes mortifies, but always, 
even after it is healed, leaves a black scar behind 1 . Our 
poor little dog, that lay in the bottom of one of the sledges, 
wrapped up in woollen, and as carefully guarded from the 


(l) The drivers of sledges in Petersburg, from their carelessness in going with these 
spots upon their faces into warm drinking-rooms, are always liable to such sores ; and 
appear frequently with their faces disfigured by the black scars, for the rest of their lives- 



atmosphere as possible, had one of his hind-legs frozen so chap. x. 
stiff, that it stuck to his belly as if it had been glued, and we 
could not remove it. In this dilemma, we found that it would 
be madness to continue much longer thus exposed ; and we 
made all possible haste to reach the village of Leosari, 
which was hard by ; where we entered a house, the owner of 
which was known to our guides, and where the worthy 
family hospitably received us all. They first cautioned 
us against venturing into a warm room : notwithstanding 
which, our English servant found the temptation too strong 
to be resisted, and imprudently entered a chamber where 
there was a heated j stove. The consequence was, that 
his face almost instantly became blistered and very painful ; 
and in a few hours, a thin purulent ichor flowed from the 
wound. Every one of the party who had been attacked by 
the white spots had blisters upon the skin, although snow 
had been used as soon as the spots were visible ; and the 
mildest consequence was the peeling off of the skin. 

At ten o'clock a.m. this day, we placed our thermometer 
in the yard before the house, exposed to a north aspect. The 
mercury fell to 4Q° below the freezing-point; and we after- 
wards found that, at the same hour in Abo, it had fallen to 30° 
below o, of Celsius; which is equivalent to 22J° below zero 
of Fahrenheit, or 52^° below freezing. In that severe moment 
before our arrival at Leosari, when we all suffered so much, 
and were exposed upon an open field of ice, it was perhaps 
much colder, as the sun was then just rising. According 
to the Swedish calendar, it rises at this time of the year at 
ten minutes after nine, and sets forty minutes after two. 




v«*v*y.«; '•:^;- J »<#>? 





These delays prevented ail possibility of our reaching Abo 
before the next day ; but we continued our journey over the 
ice; and came to Helsing, which is upon terra Jirma ; where 
we were once more landed in Finland. Afterwards, we 
passed through Himois; and put up for the night in the village 


of Vinkila. Between Farssala and Abo there is nothing that 
may be called an inn ; nor, indeed, any place of rest and 
accommodation for travellers. At Vinkila, wanting a house 
of this kind, we prevailed upon a widow lady to receive us 
into her dwelling for the night, upon condition of our paying 
for every thing, as in a regular (Ba^ifwave^avb- 1 Having 
assented to our proposal, she provided us with a decent 
lodging, and treated us with great kindness. 

The frost had been this day so severe, that the horses, 

whenever we halted, began to bite off the icicles that were 

formed upon their knees in an extraordinary manner. When- 

Actionof at- ever the door of our apartment was opened, the rushing in of 

mospheric air 

uponvapour. the cold air caused a very remarkable phenomenon, by con- 
verting the warm vapour of the room into a whirling column 
or cloud of snow, which, being instantaneous in its formation, 
was turned round with great rapidity. We availed ourselves 
of this opportunity to examine the arrangement of the spicnlce 
in the particles of snow, — as likely to illustrate the crystalli- 
zation of water, — by placing sheets of dark-coloured paper, on 
which the snow, thus formed, might fall. The beautiful 
appearance of the ice, collected as it fell, resembled, although 
upon a smaller scale, that which is presented by a number of 


(l) The Swedish name for an inn. 




the seeds of the common carduus or thistle,when they are sur- 
rounded by diverging fibres of the egret or dotvn; — that is to 
say, a number of radii, diverging from a central point, were 
held there by a power of attraction exerted by crystalline 
forces in these particles of water passing from the fluid to 
the solid state. We had not then observed the more regular 
appearance of the snowy stars with six equal radii, which 
descend from the higher regions of the air when the atmosphere 
is calm 2 ; or we might have been convinced that we had in 
these less-perfect forms a decisive proof of the crystallization 
of ivater ; and that hydrogen oxide, which is only another 
name for water, obeys the same laws to which all other 
oxides are liable 5 . 


In this house we found a Mr. Elmer xen, from Abo, who state of . tra - 

o * veiling in 

agreed to accompany us, upon our journey thither on the Fl 
following day. From him we learned, what indeed we already 
found to be the case, that, in travelling this route, beds are a 
species of accommodation never found. The traveller must put 
together such things as he can collect ; and lie down upon a 
table, or a few boards put together to raise him a little above 
the floor, which is seldom in a state for him to make his bed 
upon. But there is no part of the world where a traveller 
will fare worse, in this respect, than in passing through the 
South of Finland to Petersburg. We had called at a Clergy- 
man's house near Himois, in our journey this day, to see if it 



(2) See Part I. (Vol.1.) p. 11. Cambridge, 1810. 

(3) See a complete confirmation of this truth, in the account given of regular rhombi 
subsequently exhibited by crystals of ice, in the " Transactions of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society," Part II. 



chap, x, were possible to find accommodation ; but the scene of 
wretchedness and dirt within his mansion was such, that we 
never even hinted at the cause of our visit. In the dwelling 
of our present hostess we had less reason to complain ; and her 
kind attentions would have made worse fare tolerable. We 
found that it was a part of the economy of the family to knit 
worsted stockings for sale ; and we bought some, at the rate of 
oneshiWingEnglish the pair, which were of an excellent quality. 


The next morning, January 3, we set out for Abo ; first 
estimating the state of the thermometer at nine o'clock a.m. 
The mercury, according to Fahrenheit's scale, had then fallen 
to sixteen degrees and a half below zero, or forty-eight 
degrees and a half below the freezing-point. Our first place 

Lauit. of relay was a village called Laitis, which we soon reached, 

as the distance was not more than three English miles and 

Tursanp&re. a half. Our next stage, to Tursanpare, was performed with 
difficulty, the road being blocked up by the snow; in 
consequence of which we were compelled to make a 
rambling circuitous expedition, pulling down hedges, and 
making our way through the fields. 

Tursanpare is rather a large village : and here we were 
agreeably surprised at seeing, as in England, a sign-post 
and sign to denote an inn. Our companion shewed us 
into a room, where he called for burnt-brandy with sugar 
and ginger in it ; a mode adopted in the country of making 
the abominable brandy everywhere met with rather more 
stomachic and palatable. From Tursanpare we continued 

xiemenkyui. our journey to Niemenhyla and Nussis-Nummis, distant only 
fourteen English miles from Abo. Our Swedish companion, 




who, in his sledge, was wrapped up in blankets, quilts, 
pelisses, all sorts of woollen and skins, and wore a fur 
cap upon his head covering his ears and cheeks, rallied 
us upon our disregard of the cold weather, seeing that we 
had less clothing, and sometimes cast off even our cloaks ; 
saying, " It was so like Englishmen, to go about naked." 
But the fact is, that when there is no wind, and the sky 
is perfectly clear, however diminished the temperature may 
be, the air is so dry, that a sensation of chilliness is rarely 
experienced while a person continues in motion, and does 
not render himself liable to the attacks which take place 
in going suddenly from a warm room into the cold air. 
At Nussis-Nummis we were detained a short time for horses. 


We afterwards set out once more; and proceeded to Abo, 
where we arrived as it was getting dark. Upon our entering 
this Town and University, the first thing that struck us was 
the unusual sound of bells, upon all the horses drawing 
sledges about the streets. The inhabitants pay their visits 
attended by this kind of music ; and generally in sledges, 
which are made to close up like our carriages. Upon our 
arrival, we went to an inn kept by a person of the name of 
Scippell, as being the largest and best in the place. Here 
being conducted into a very spacious and lofty chamber, used 
as a public card-room, adjoining to the ball-room, and finding 
that it was to be heated by means of two stoves, one at 
either extremity of this cold apartment, we ordered fires in 
both of them. When the wood, which had been used as fuel, 
was so far consumed that only the clear embers remained, 
according to the common custom in the country, we closed 
vol. vi. 3 d the 

chap. x. 


Arrival at 






chap. x. the chimneys by means of an iron slider there placed for this 
purpose. If the inhabitants close up their stoves that the 
embers may send out heated air into the room, they are always 
careful to watch lest any appearance of a blue lambent flame 
upon the wood coals should remain, in which state it would 

Narrow escape be dangerous to shut the sliders. Unfortunately, not being 

from suffo- 
cation, aware of this critical symptom, — which, in fact, denotes the 

formation and disengagement of carbonic acid gas, — and 
finding it difficult to warm so large a room at all, we stopped 
up the chimneys as soon as we could do so without filling 
the room with smoke ; and the m consequence was, that 
we very narrowly escaped being killed. The author first felt 
the attack: it came on with great coldness in the extremities, 
and a tendency to sneeze ; followed by a general sensation 
of shivering over the whole body, and violent head-ache. 
Presently, he fell senseless on the floor. His companion, 
being roused by the noise, and finding him in this situation, 
attempted to raise him ; but was by this time also similarly 
affected, and had barely strength enough left to call in the 
servants, who alarmed the people of the house. Luckily, 
there happened to be in the inn, as a lodger, a young man 
who was an itinerant Lecturer in Natural Philosophy : as 
soon as he came into the room, in which many were now 
assembled, he perceived the cause of the accident, and im- 
mediately drew back the iron sliders which had closed 
the chimneys, and opened the doors. Two persons had 
lost their lives in the same chamber but a short time before, 
and from the same cause. This young man told us that 
similar accidents occur frequently, in winter, among the 

peasants ; 



peasants ; the chimneys in all their houses being constructed chap. x. 
with a sliding-board, to close over the embers of burning 
wood : but as the severity of the climate always tempts 
them to shut their chimneys before the carbonic acid gas has 
completely effected its escape, the most fatal consequences 
ensue. Their mode of treating persons under these attacks 
is, to carry them out naked into the open air, and rub their 
bodies with snow until the vital functions are restored. We 
felt the bad effects of this accident in violent head-ache, 
which lasted during many days afterwards. 




State of Abo — its situation with regard to other Seminaries of Learning — 
its Commerce — Visit to the different Professors — Frantzen — his 
genius for poetry — Specimen of one of his Odes — Porthan — Account 
of the University — Difficulties encountered by the Professors — Disasters 


to which Abo has been liable — Cathedral — Ludicrous mistake — 
Effect of an Organ upon some Natives of Savolax — Interesting 
Cippus in the Chorus Tottianus — Statues and Pictures — Inscription 
in memory q/'Catharine, Widow of Eric XIV. — Historical Documents 
concerning this remarkable Woman — Swedish Legend upon her 
Daughter s coffin — Manuscripts preserved in a brazen coffer — Histories 
of Eric's Reign — Portraits of Luther and Melancthon —Image of 


Henry the Martyr — Chapel o/'Olaus, Bishop of Abo — Monument of 
a Scotch Officer — University Library — Manuscripts — Typographical 
Rarities — Theatrum Anatomicum — Auditory of Disputations — 




Professor Gadolin — Collection of Minerals — Professor Hellenius — 
Botanic Garden — Hellenius'* private Collections — Comparative 
Estimate of the tivo Universities, Upsala and Abo — State of Society. 


Abo ranks next to Stockholm and Gothenburg, in point of chap. xi. 
grandeur ; and, if we except the two last, is the largest town Stateof// % 
in all Scandinavia. It contains ten thousand inhabitants; 
whereas the city of Upsala has only three thousand. Its 
trade is very considerable ; and is carried on chiefly with the 
interior parts of Finland, of which country it has long been 
the metropolis. Cut off by its situation from any frequent 
intercourse either with the Academies or commercial cities of 
Europe, its very name, as a University, rarely reaches the 
literary circles of the world : yet it boasts of many distin- 
guished men, whose talents have fitted them to shine among 
the higher classes of polished society. Its men of letters 
would have done honour to any seat of science. All the towns 
on the Finland, or eastern, side of the Gulph of Bothnia, from 
Abo to Tornea, are magnificent, when compared with those 
on its western shore; although they enter into no comparison 
with the towns of England, France, Italy, Germany, and 
Holland: therefore the term magnificent can only be applied, to 
any of them, in the comparative manner here specified. The 
country on the Finland side of the Gulph is better cultivated, 
and more fertile; of course, the inhabitants are more numerous, 
and richer. It was always considered as the great granary 
of Siveden ; and of more consequence, as a possession to their 
kingdom, than the whole of Norivay. Its trade has generally 
been abundant and flourishing. The merchants of Abo, Wasa, 








chap. xi. Gamla Carlcby, and Uleaborg, are persons not only of local 
but of national importance and consideration : they carry 
on trade upon a very extensive scale, and to the most distant 
regions. But upon the western side of the Gulph, if we 
except Gefle, commonly pronounced Yavcly, there is hardly 
an individual who may be considered under the respectable 
title of a merchant. 

As it was probable that our stay in this place would be of 
some duration, — both on account of our being obliged to wait 
for the arrival of our carriage, and also from our curiosity to 


make ourselves well acquainted with the University of Abo, its 
Professors, discipline, and state of science, — we sent our inter- 
preter, the day after our arrival, to hire lodgings ; and were 
soon provided with a very neat set of apartments, having three 
rooms en suite, besides accommodation for the servants, at the 
price of two rix-doilars, or four shillings English, per day in- 
cluding fire and candles. Accordingly we moved from our inn ; 
and had scarcely taken up our abode in these comfortable cham- 
bers, when we received a visit from our former companion, Mr. 
Elmgreen; who told us that the different Professors, to whom 
we had letters of recommendation, were at their houses, and 
would be very glad to see us, and to shew us every attention in 
their power. This kind message convinced us that we were 
still within the limits of Swedish hospitality: and we set out to 
pay our respects to all of them ; beginning with the cele- 
brated Poet of Sweden and Finland, Professor Francis Michael 
Frantzcn; of whose beautiful Finnish Ode, called Pojkarne, 
both a Swedish and a Latin translation were given in a former 





volume'. Frantzen was Professor of History and the Belles chat\xi. 
Lettres. We had before seen him at Gamla Carleby, during 
our journey in the North of Finland, when he was in search of 
a wife, as we have before mentioned 5 . Upon the occasion of 
our present visit, we found him in his little study, surrounded 
by his books ; among which, to our surprise, we observed 
Addison 's Spectator, the works of our poet Gray, Cowflers 
Poems, and several other of our English Poets, all in their 
original language. Observing that we noticed his collection 
of English Authors, he said, " We Scandinavians are able to 
appreciate the beauties of English literature, because the 
thoughts and feelings of your writers are so nearly akin to our 
own." The truth of this remark will best be exemplified by 
an effusion of the Professor's own muse, taken from one of 
the public Newspapers, which he kindly presented to us, upon 
our asking him for a specimen of his poetry 5 . It has all the 
characteristic pathos of English poetry; being, in fact, com- 
posed in the style, and nearly in the metre, adopted by some 
of our own Poets ; such, for example, as Gray, in one of 
his Odes 4 ; also Merrick', Cotton' 1 , Burns 1 ; and also by Miss 


(1) See Vol. V. Chap. £IV. pp. 532—535. (2) Ibid. p. 517. 

(3) The " ©totf&OfalS $0ffat, (No. 214.)" for Thursday, Sept. \Q, 1793.— 
" S&orSfraaeil, &«1 19 (September, 1793." It had, for signature, the initial and ter- 
minal letters of his name, thus written : " F n." 

(4) See Grab's Ode, " 'Twas on a lofty vase's side," &c. Vol. I. p. 6. edit, by Mathias* 

(5) See his Paraphrase of the 122d Psalm — 

" The festal morn, my God, is come." 
Also on the 65th Psalm — 

" Ye works of God, on him alone," &c. 

(6) See his Fire-Side : " Dear Chloe, while the busy crowd," &c. 

(7) See his Ode on Despondency : " Oppress'd with grief," &c. 



chap. xi. Carter', and by Mrs. Barbautd", in their odes and hymns. 
Many other instances, and perhaps some of a higher cast, 
may occur to the Reader's memory ; but these happen to be 
here recollected, and will suffice to shew the analogy. One 
of the most striking beauties of the Swedish poetry wili not, 
however, be found in any of these examples; although occur- 
ring in Professor Frantzeiis Ode ; namely, the dissyllabic 
rhyme : of this we before introduced a striking instance in 
Pojharne ; where, for want of an analogous specimen in our 
own language, the author introduced his own imitation of it, in 
an Ode to Enterprise* , modelled after the Swedish taste. The 
subject of Professor Frantzeris ode, which we shall insert in 
the original language, accompanied by as literal a translation 
as possible, is this : — 2)?drmitFjan3 ^Inletc (" The Human Face or 
Countenance'). It is addressed to Selma; and consists of eleven 
stanzas, written in the manner already noticed, but with 
the dissyllabic rhyme at the end of every line, except where 
the rhythm alternates. A literal translation of it in analogous 


(1) See particularly Miss Carter's beautiful " Ode to Wisdom;" from which the 
following stanza may be selected as an instance : — 

" To me thy better gifts impart, 
Each moral beauty of the heart, 

By studious thought refin'd: 
For wealth, the smiles of glad content > 
For power, its amplest best extent, 

An empire o'er my mind." 

(2) See Mrs. Barbauld's "Hymn to Content :" 

" O Thou, the Nymph with placid eye \ 
O seldom found, yet ever nigh ! 

Receive my temperate vow !" &c. 

(3) See p. 53fi af the former Volume. 




English metre, would be difficult, if not impossible. We chap. xi. 
must therefore be contented with a correct translation in 
English prose ; being sensible, at the same time, of the utter 
impracticability of giving any idea of the poetry by such a 
version. The Ode, when converted into English prose, 
loses ail its beauty, and becomes almost as grotesque as the 
French prose translation of the Odes of Gray. The original, 
therefore, is inserted in a Note'. 



Specimen of 
one of Prof. 


" The sixth day of time had spread its purple veil over the 
cedar forests : the butterfly, on its golden wings, wafted over 
murmuring brooks, kissed the rose in its bower. 

ii. " Orient 



a^anmffjanc 9lnlcte. 
Dbe til (genua* 


9?eban l;ann, fin punMtrjToja 
ofwev @ebevff'oa.en tyoja, 

£iben» fjettc Sag. 
©ntMknnnaab, ofnxr bdcfen, 
ftjdritn fToc? tit vofenbdcfen, 

fyfte befj btfyaQ. 

3 E 

n. %\\xm 






" Orient pearls beamed in the watery mirror : the white sails 

of the swan shone in the shadowy strait : wine reddened in the 

grape : the dove, tender and innocent, wantoned in the groves of 



u But Nature's highest beauty was not yet : the crown of 
Creation was wanted ; until man, from the dust arose, lifted his 
countenance in the light of day, and his eyes were opened. 

[It is almost impossible to paraphrase the next stanza : to 
substitute the word Aurora for Frantzcns simple and expres- 
sive 3)?orgontobnan, would be forlorn indeed. So also the words 
©non pa fjdtleti are but feebly rendered by Alpine Snows ; the 
word §}di applying to those lofty ridges upon the summits of 
the highest mountains, where, as upon Lebanon, the unmelting 
snow exhibits a splendid whiteness, that can only be con- 
ceived in the mind of persons by whom it has actually been 

Adrian ffen i wattnetS fpc.qrt; 
$\vita, stdnfle ©tt>anen$ fe^cr, 

t et ff uggrift funb ; 
2Dinet gtobbc robt i bmfroan ; 
Dm cd) meni&g, fcftc bufroan , 

utt <£ben3 umb* 
3)?cn ben &&#ffa ffonfjet felted 
i natural— fronan felted 

dun i ff apelfen ; 
til bc£ 3J?anrnffjan ur gmfet 
nof fit antete t Ijufet, 

hof opp ogwtcm 





" The snow of the Fjals was outwhitened : the morning, out- 
reddened, sunk behind the mountains : the star of day hid its 
diminished lustre. 


" To that up-turned countenance which regarded the firmament, 
all the animal race paid homage ; to those eyes, where Loves and 
Graces smiled, and in which immortal Hope beamed through the 
tears of sorrow. 


" All the angelic choir saw with amazement the speaking 
beauty of the new creation, and looked at the Creator ; who im- 
pressed it with his own image, beheld his work, and * saw that it 
was good 1 .' 


©non pa fjtdttcn l)bft ej fatten : 
SWorgonrobnan fcafom fcet^en 

fonf f ovbunfrab ner : 
©tjevnan, font t fc>agen3 panna 
ffttt fa f f en , ej roitf e jlanna 

ofwcv jovben men 
© jurat typtfanbe fig bojbe 
for be bgon, font fie} Ijojbe 

ifvan ftoftet epp ; 
bcr hebaQ od; farter 5 ntnfte ; 
bev 6lanb forfeits tavav u;jte 

ct obbblujt fjopp. 


^foafaffawn ftar Betaken, 
fev be tafanbe Between , 

cdb pa ©f'aparn fcr. 
©f'aparn trpcfte fit infegel 
pa jit werf ; ocb i bef? fpc$ct 

fcr jin fctlb , ocfc let** 

(l) " And smiled" would be nearer to the original: but this slight deviation, as 
appropriated to the language of Scripture, without altering the sense, may perhaps be 


■ <v*- 






" Ye that consider all things but as results of chance ! hie ye to 
the fountain, and, having beheld your own visages reflected, blush, 
and retire. 


" Behold the countenance of the sage! view the image of all 
that is true, noble, and useful! Catch a glance from the eye of the 
hero ! mark the lineaments of courage, grandeur, and sublimity ! 


" Then look on the face of beauty, gentleness, benignity ! Lift 
my Selma's morning veil from her blooming cheek ! See the tender 
and bashful expression of her eyes! Behold the dark ringlets of 
her hair, flying careless in the wind. 


j font fl rifcn : " bet dr ingcn 
font gett ofbrihtgen at tinmen ; 

@funtpcn ftdlbe bent ;" 
§arat ! &iptt til t aflan fticien : 
feen ert antete, ocf) tigen, 

rppnen , odb gan (Kim 


6e ben satnte 2£ife3 panna i 
fe en tafia af bet farnta, 

dbla, m;tti^a* 
6e en 6Ucf m $jeftenO#ft t 
^e et elbbvag af bet t;oa,a, 

flora, brijfiga* 


Del) bet ffona, ntilba, ljufwa?— 
fyft win ©etaiaS morgpn&ufwa 

frdn beg pitvpurfinb* 
6e bef* ogon": omnia , 6193a ! 
£e be# morfa totfat fT^a, 

fprglofr, for en iviiib* 





" O master-piece of nature ! Link connecting angels with men ! 
Image of God ! art thou not, Garment of the Soul, destined to follow 
her into the regions of eternity ? 


"Yes! ah, yes ! angels shall themselves be moved by the regard 
of Selma, when they hear her voice amongst them. My Selma ! 
In the Hall of Heaven'— in the valleys of Eden— I shall look on 
thee!" _____ 

Many other poems of Professor Frantzen lie scattered among 
the almost- forgotten Newspapers of Abo and Stockholm: 
for the expense of printing in this country is such a bar 
to their being collected and published together, that no 
other printed copies of his works can be referred to. In 



$)?dffawevf utt natural, 
laitf fvavt 5fofltarne til bjuven, 

©ubafccldte ! 
©jdlcn3 forf t tofclt^eten ; 
gar tut cjt tit ewqlKten, 


s .1cb ! ja : 'foicjlardiiti ffal rova 
©clmas upfyn ; bd be fybxa 

^ctmcl r&ff fclanb ($♦ 
@elma ! dim i (jimlctic fatar 
iJlnn i (?ipfecn$ baiar, 

fdv jag fe pa ty ! 

S 11. 

(X) In the original, « i |)itttlCt1# falat* i" in which expression we may perhaps 
recognise as it were an involuntary allusion, on the part of a Scandinavian poet, to the 
old Gothic mythology of his ancestors, the Valhalla, or Hall of Odin, 



chap. xi. the Abo Gazette, called $60 XMty, published while we were 
in Abo, there appeared a long poem, which he also acknow- 
ledged as his composition 1 . Without a knowledge of the 
Swedish language, it is impossible to form any correct idea, 
either of their merit or demerit. But Professor Frantzen 
also wrote poetry in the language of Finland, being himself 
a native of that country : and among the Swedes he was 
always esteemed as the best poet they had. In a note to 
the latest of his poems, which we have now mentioned, he 
says, that Finland, in the Finska language, is called ©mmtt& 

After this visit to the Professor of History, we went to the 
house of the most learned scholar in the University, Henry 

Porthan. Gabriel Porthan, one of the Professors belonging to the 
Faculty of Philosophy, and styled, in the Index Prcelectionum 
of the University, the Regius Professor of Eloquence. The 

Acunnuofthe University of Abo consists of a Chancellor ; a Vice-Chancellor ; 
the Professors, and their adjuncts ; Magistri Docentes ; and 
teachers of modern languages, fencing, and music. The 
Chancellor, at this time, was the Count Charles Adam 
Wachtmeister ; its Vice-Chancellor, Doctor James Gadolin, 
Bishop of Abo : and the names and titles of all the Pro- 
fessors are given in the Appendix to this Volume 3 . It is 


(l)The^lbO XibllilK} made its appearance, for the first time, on Wednesday , Jan. S, 
1800: Nos. 1 and 2 being published together. It was in these first numbers that we 
saw this poem by Frantzen, entitled ^inlftllbS ltyoblillC)> in which, speaking of Finland, 
he says — 

D mina faber£ fcpgb ! o $itrtanb ! ffat omftber 
Su dfwen Infta big Blanb jovbcnS lanbcv epp. 

(2) See the Index Prcelectionum, in the Appendix. 



usual here, as in other Universities, for those who hold chap. xi. 
public disputations in the Schools, to read, in Latin, a 
written Thesis : which Thesis, however, in Abo, does not 
necessarily relate to the subject of their public exercise ; but 
being paid for by the Student who keeps the Act, and written 
by one of the Professors, and afterwards printed, enables the 
Professor, if he choose, thus to publish one of his own Disserta- 
tions. We found Professor Porthan engaged in carrying on a 
work of this kind: and the manner in which he accomplished 
it will serve to shew the nature of the obstacles which all the Difficulties 


Professors here have to encounter ; wanting those facilities of h y *• v 
communication with the literary world, which are found in 
Universities endowed with larger funds to defray the expenses 
of printing works of science. He had prepared a new edition 
of Bishop Juustens " Chronicon TpiscoporumYinlandensium" 
illustrated by his own valuable notes ; in which there are fre- 
quent allusions to the history and antiquities of Finland. This 
work he presented to us, in the form of a bundle of printed 
Theses, which he had thus prepared for the use of the Students': 
and it is,ow r ing to his kindness that the author was able to collect 
also a series of the Academic Dissertations of the University 



(3) This work is thus mentioned in a Note to the " Specimen Histories Litterarice 
Fennicce," one of the Theses printed at Abo, in 1/93. " Paulus Juusten auctor 
est Chronici Episcoporum Finlandensium, quod primus vulgavit ill s . Nettelbladt 
(in (5d)iVctHfclK Q?i&liottjef, @TstC$ ©tucf, No. 2. p. 62—90.) jam vero iterum cum 
Annotationibus uberrimis editum a eel. Prof. Porthan, cujus operis xxx Particular 
mcusque prodierunt." — This work being completed at the time of the author's arrival, 
Professor Porthan presented a copy of it to him; and the author has since transmitted 
t to Edinburgh, to be deposited in the Library of Advocates there. It is perhaps the 
inly copy of it extant in Great Britain. 




chap. xi. of Abo, for nearly half a century 1 . An examination of the 
principal subjects treated of in these Dissertations will enable 
the Reader to form for himself a tolerably correct estimate of 
the state of science in this seminary of education for the 
youth of Finland and Sweden, of which we shall have more to 
say in the sequel. The fate of such a scholar as Porthan is 
greatly to be regretted by the literary world ; because, 
being a native of Finland, and deeply versed in all that 
related to its history and antiquities, and himself an accom- 
plihsed scholar, well read in other branches of history and 
antiquities, he possessed the ability, if he had possessed the 
means, of giving information to the world upon a subject of all 
others the least known ; namely, the origin of the Finlanders* 
and Laplanders. He spoke the Latin language, as if it had been 
his mother-tongue ; but with that peculiarity of pronuncia- 
tion belonging to all foreigners, and with a degree of volu- 
bility which rendered it sometimes difficult to apprehend 
exactly his meaning. The few facts which were gathered 
from him, during the frequent conversations we had with 
him, will of course be stated ; but, from the little we thus 
gained, we could only be convinced of the extent of the loss 
sustained by the literary world, in not having better means 
or appreciating his various acquirements. Abo, interdicted 
from all communication with Petersburg, and having little 


(1) See the List of the principal Dissertations, given in the Appendix. 

(2) "Nulla enim illarum, aut in lapidibus, cippisque sepulcralibus, ant in aliis vestustatis 
monumentis, reperiri potuerunt vestigia." Porthan. Hist. Billioth. Acad. Abovnsis, p. 3. 



intercourse even with Stockholm, owing to the peculiar cir- chap. xi. 
cumstances of its situation, cannot be considered as a favour- 
able spot for the interests of literature ; yet such has been the 
merits of its Professors, that some of them, to whom we shall 
presently allude, have caused their names, in spite of every 
obstacle, to be heard in the more-favoured walks of science. 
The history of Abo is of considerable antiquity ; but few 
places have been more liable to vicissitudes, or exposed to 
greater devastations. During the wars of Sweden and Russia, Disaster 

s to 

it has often been sacked and laid waste : we are not, there- been liable/ 
fore, to wonder that few monuments of its antient state of 
dignity are now in existence. Even the bricks of which its 
buildings consisted were carried off by the Russians, and 
taken to Petersburg ; the first-built structures erected in that 
city being made of the materials taken from the houses in 
Abo. Its bridge, constructed over the small river Aeura 5 
(which flow T s through the city, and falls into the Gulph, at 
the distance of half a Swedish mile from the place), was 
once a single arch of stone : but this was destroyed by the 
Russians, from whose ravages Abo has so often suffered ; and 
it is now of wood. All the timber which the Russians found 
upon the spot, among the buildings and elsewhere, they 
employed in building the galleys with which they removed 
the spoils of the city. 

The earliest account of Abo is contained in the work of 


(3) We have written the name of this river correctly : it is pronounced Aura; and as 
jochi, pronounced yocky, signifies ' a small river,' it is called Aura-yochj. 

VOL. VI. 3 F 



chap. xi. Professor Porihan, before mentioned 1 ; which, however, it is 
almost useless to cite, as one copy only of the work exists in 
Great Britain. It is there stated, that, about the year 1 198 of 
our aera, during the episcopacy of Folqainius, the third in order 
of the Finland Bishops, Abo was consumed by fire, in conse- 
quence of the devastations made by the Rutheni, or Russians; 
whose practice it always has been, when instigated by the 
desire of plunder, to set fire to the cities, towns, or villages, 
liable to their predatory warfare 2 ; by this means forcing the 
inhabitants to quit their hiding-places, and come forth with 
their effects 5 . Notwithstanding its frequent losses, and the 
injuries to which it was continually exposed, it began to be 
considered among the chief cities of Sweden so early as the 
fifteenth century ; carrying on its commerce chiefly with the 
Germans*. But from the year 1198, down to this period, the 


(1) His edition of Juusten's " Chronicon Episcoporum Finlandensium" See a 
former Note. 

(2) " His jam allatis accedit, quod variae hostium, prcecipue Russorum crudeles in 
Fennia populationes, non modo multa quae a privatis hominibus in notitiam posterorum 
annotata fortassis essent, nobis sustulerint, sed varias etiam collectiones veterum docu- 
mentorum publicas dissipaverint ae destruxerint." 

Specimen Histories Litterarice Fennicce, p. 4. Aboce, Typis Frenckellianis. 

(3) In this manner they burnt the city of Moscoiv, in the moment of its capture by 
the French army: and it has afforded an amusing lesson of the wretched shifts of party 
in this country, in observing the eagerness with which, after accusing the French soldiers 
of this act of plunder, a few artful Politicians, who maintain any opinion for interested 
purposes, suddenly veered round, and endeavoured to establish a belief that the 
burning of Moscow was a sublime example of loyalty and patriotism on the part of 
the Russians. Loyalty and patriotism among slaves and thieves! !! Men- 
tion this act of Loyalty and Patriotism, Reader ! in Moscow, and see how the Russians 
themselves will laugh at thy credulity ! 

(4) Porthan, in Annotationibus ad Chronicon Juustinianuvi, p. 528. 



history of Abo is nothing more than a catalogue of disasters, chap. xi. 
conflagrations, and catastrophes of every description. Heaven 
and earth seemed to combine for its destruction ; for after 
being three times totally destroyed by common fire, it was in 
the year 1458 destroyed by lightning. After this, in 1473, 
it was again burned down. In 150Q, it was sacked and 
burned by the Danes*. Three successive conflagrations fol- 
lowed, in the years 1546, 154g, and 1552; and as often 
reduced the city to ashes. 

After such a series of calamities, we may in vain look for 
traces of the magnificent ornaments once lavished upon its 
Cathedral. These have entirely disappeared : but the structure Cathedral. 
itself, " per tot discrimina rerum," marvellously remains, 
and still constitutes the principal object of curiosity in the 
place. The style of architecture observed in the interior is 
Gothic, but the outside exhibits a pile of plain brickwork. 
The roof is of the most chaste Gothic ; that is to say, simple 
and unadorned, without the intricate combinations and traces 
of the florid Gothic; but plain, elegant, light, and lofty. The 
manner in which light is thrown in from side-windows 
among the arches produces a pleasing delusion. To a person 
standing at the altar, and regarding the whole length of the 
nave, not a window is visible; and yet strong masses of light 


(5) " Anno 1509, exercitus Regis Danorum Johannis I. 1 Aboam ex improviso 
occuparet, totamque urbem hostiliter dissiperet, Ecclesiam Cathedralem multis pretiosis 
rebus et clinodiis quam plurimis spoliando, et quod hie prsecipue nominandum, libros 
meliores auferrent Dani ; qua clade funesta, magnam quoque partem conquisitorum hinc 
hide litterariorum monimentorum res patrias illustrantium periisse, dubio caret." 

Specimen Hist. Litt. Fennicce, p. 4. Abooe, Typis Frenckellianis. 



chap. xi. and shadow, powerfully contrasted with each other, are 
displayed with wonderful art and effect, such as we had 
not seen in any similar fabric : which is the more remark- 
able, as the notion prevalent in Abo is, that this cathedral 
was built by an English architect 1 . The altar, the principal 
aisle, and various parts of the building, were crowded 
with wretched paintings ; most of them, it is true, of 
ancient date, but none of them of the smallest merit. 
They are placed after the usual mode of arrangement in 
Roman-Catholic churches. Over the altar is a large picture of 
the Crucifixion, a wretched piece of daubing. In different 
parts of the chancel, there are others of a like character : 
indeed, the whole internal appearance of this Cathedral would 
induce a stranger to believe that the Roman-Catholic religion 


was even now professed in A bo. Even the reliques once 
venerated here are still preserved in the Sacristy ; but they 
are shewn merely as curiosities to visitants. The organ is 
very large ; and its excellence is considered as equal in all 
respects to its external magnificence 4 : it stands at the 
western extremity of the nave opposite to the altar. 

A mistake of ours occasioned much mirth during the first 
visit that we paid to this Cathedral. As it was our wish to 
attend Divine Service, we repaired thither Sunday, January 5, 



(!) This was also afterwards noticed by another traveller, Mr. Robert Ker Porter, 
who visited Abo in December 1807. " The church is large, and of brick ; built, they 
tell me, by a Metropolitan, named Henry, who was an Englishman." Travelling Sketches, 
vol. II. p. 84. Lond. I8O9. 

(2) "The organ may be ranked amongst the best in Europe: its tones, indeed, equalled 
any I had ever heard." Ibid. 



the second day after our arrival, and found a very crowded chap. xi. 
congregation. Seeing an empty pew on the northern side of 
the nave, we entered, and took possession of the seats; but 
we had no sooner done this, than we discovered that we 
were the objects of universal derision among all who were 
present. The women tittered; and the men, laughing and 
whispering to each other, frequently regarded us, without its 
being possible for us to divine the cause of the amusement 
we had thus afforded. At last we observed the true reason: 
we had inadvertently seated ourselves on the female side of 
the aisle ; the women, as in all the northern churches of 
Europe, being separated from the male part of the congre- 
gation ; and the two sexes occupying different sides of the 
building. As soon as we found out what was the matter, we 
rose from our seats, and joined that part of the assembly 
which consisted only of men : but the laughter, which had 
before been subdued, and kept within bounds, now broke 
forth and became more general than ever, when it was per- 
ceived that we were conscious of the mistake we had made. 

After the Service ended, we repaired to the organ-loft, Effect of an 

Organ upon 

with a view of conducting thither some of the Finland pea.- some Natives 

of Savohtx. 

sants, whom we had observed expressing their astonishment, 
which amounted almost to fear, whenever the organ was 
heard. They were some of the wild race of the Finns of 
SavolaXy who had been attracted by curiosity into the Cathe- 
dral. Having conducted them into the organ-gallery, we 
prevailed upon the organist to allow them to touch the keys 
with their fingers ; but the moment any sounds were pro- 
duced, they started back and were evidently alarmed. The 






chap. xi. organist then played a voluntary, and introduced one of their 
own national airs : the effect it had upon them was singular 
enough ; it changed their apprehensions into immoderate 
mirth : roaring with laughter, like so many savages, they 
began to imitate the motions which the organist made with 
his arms and feet ; at the same time, being altogether unable 
to account for the sounds they heard, as these were varied, so 
their starting was renewed, being always followed afterwards 
by laughter, and seizing hold of each other as for protection. 
The shocks of an electrical apparatus could hardly have pro- 
duced greater agitation in persons who have not felt their 
influence, than did the solemn tones of this fine instrument 
among these simple Finlanders, who had evidently never 
before heard any thing similar ; although by no means utter 
strangers to all musical sounds, however striking to them the 
difference between the notes of an organ and their own rude 
musical instruments, to the sound of which their poetry has 
been sung for many ages 1 . This organ, together with many 


(l) " Atqui ut omnes fere antiqui populi, antequam artis scribendi notitiam sibi 
compararent, Poesin tamen, Musicamque cum ea conjunctam, excolueruntj ita sua 
Fenni quoque nostri semper habuerunt carmina, quae suo idiomate 9?lM00t adpellavere, 
ncque musicam variis instrumentis adhibitis, tractare neglexerunt : quae tamen nee 
fabricam valde artificiosam prodidisse, nee teretibus nostri aevi Musicorum auribus 
placuisse, facile intelligitur." Specimen Historice Litterarice Fennicce, p. Q. Aboce, 
Typis Frenckellianis. 

Acerbi speaks of the antient melody of the Finlanders, called Runa. " It consists of 
two periods," he says, " or bars of five crotchets each, which make two periods of 
eight notes." See Acerlis Travels, vol.1, p. 284. Lond. 1802. 

We have figured and described a kind of dulcimer, or lyre, with five strings, in a 
former Volume (p. 440), which the Finns make use of, and which they call Kendele, 
or Kentelet. " Nomina ejusmodi instrumentorum Fennis vernacula, nee a vicinis genti- 
bus mutata, hoc demonstrant : e. q. 9?anbelC, nablium, XcXVOl," &c. Annot. Specimen 
Hist. Litt. Fenn. p. g. 



other donations of more importance to the inhabitants of Abo, chap. xi. 
were the gifts of a Mr. Whitefoot, a native of LubecJc, once a 
wealthy merchant of this city. His portrait, at full length, 
in the old English dress, is placed in the centre of the organ. 
Two other pictures also, the heads of himself and his wife, 
appear, one on either side of the altar. These examples of 
public munificence do not seem to have met with much 
gratitude. Another public benefactor to the city died, as it 
is said, in such extreme poverty in Abo, that the sexton 
refused to toll the knell for his decease, because no one would 
engage to pay him for so doing. 

We repeated our visit to this Cathedral. There is no interesting 

! .-I <!• . 11 nr 7* • . m Cippus, in the 

building in all Scandinavia more worth seeing. The best chorusTom- 

. anus. 

view of its beautiful roof is from the altar. On the right 
hand, in the eastern part of the nave, close to the entrance of 
the Chancel, is a small sepulchral shrine belonging to the 
Tott family, called Chorus Tottianus ; which contains a 
monument of such singular interest, that we were surprised 
to find no mention made of it by any of the travellers who 
have preceded us in this route. It is nothing less than 
the tablet erected to the memory of Catharine, wife of 
Eric XIV., whose remarkable history we shall presently allude 
to. The mouldering reliques of her once beautiful form lie 
deposited in a vault below. This shrine, or chapel, is fenced 
with iron gates: within appears a magnificent marble monu- 
ment, erected to the memory of Count Achatius Tott, grand- 
son of Catharine, and his second wife Christina Brahe. 
Their effigies, of the size of life, marvellously well sculptured 
for the age in which they were executed, are placed upon a 

cenotaph ; 

m ■ 



Statues and 

chap. xi. cenotaph ; the bodies being in oak coffins covered with tin, in 
the vault beneath ; together with those of Catharine, and 
Sigrid her daughter by Eric XIV., the mother of Achatius 
Tott. Owing to their relationship to EricXIV., the ignorant 
verger had confounded their history, and shewed the two 
statues of Count Achatius and Christina as those of Eric and 
Catharine. There are, moreover, two pictures, whole lengths, 
of the same persons, placed above the monument, painted in 
Vandyke s manner. The face of Christina expresses a degree 
of mildness bordering upon melancholy. She was evidently 
one of the beauties of her day, rather below the middle 
stature, with delicate features, fair complexion, and light 
hair. In her hand she holds a plume of feathers. In viewing 
these statues and pictures, we seemed to be admitted into the 
midst of Erics family; and only wished we could have made 
them open their mouths, and tell us a little more truth than 
historians have done concerning this monarch and his family. 
The marble effigy of Achatius Tott represents him in complete 
armour : and the two figures of himself and Christina are 
evidently portraits, from the minute attention to accuracy 
which the sculptor has shewn in all that relates to their 
persons and habits. The monument was erected in ]688; 
and we found one of the four columns belonging to it thus 
inscribed with the artist's name : " Petrus Schultz, S.R. 
Sculptor, invenit et fecit." In the figure of Achatius Tott we 
recognised the genuine costume of the country ; a Scandi- 
navian custom of letting the hair grow so as almost to 
obscure the eyes on the two sides of the face, falling to the 
shoulders on either side, and lying quite flat upon the top of 




the head. This practice may be observed over all Sweden chap.xi. 
and Finland, There is a regiment of cavalry in the Swedish 
service, in which this costume is remarkably preserved ; the 
officers and men wearing their hair in two long braids, 
which hang like pig-tails, one on each side of the face, in 
front of the ears, fastened, at their extremities, with clasps 
of lead. This is a national observance, attended to with 
as much scrupulous devotion, as among the Tchernomorski 
Cossacks the preservation of a single braided lock of hair, 
which extends from the crown of the head, and is worn 
tucked behind the ear. Nothing can be conceived less 
becoming than the two side-locks of the Sivedes ; but they 
give a certain degree of martial fierceness to the countenance, 
which perhaps may explain the reason why the ancient 
Britons, and other barbarous tribes, adopted the same prac- 
tice. Over the cenotaph are placed the armorial ensigns of 
the two families of Tott and Brake ; and above all appears the 
image of our Saviour, with the cross, between the figures of 
two angels 1 . 

But that which possesses a greater degree of interest in 
this Choir, although a monument of much less splendour, is 
a plain marble tablet, placed against the wall, which appears 


(1) This is the Inscription upon the Monument of Achalius Tott : it is in capital 
gilded letters : — 

" Illustrissimi Herois ac Domini, D : ni Achatii Tott, Comitis de Carleborg, Liberi 
Baronis de Sjundeby, Domini in Ekholmsund, Lehals-Lahn, Liuxala, et Gerkenaes, 
Equitis aurati, Regni Sveciae Senatoris et Campi-Mareschalli ; natalis annus, a reddita 
salute m.d.xcviii. dies iv. mensis Junii, locus aula Gerkenaes Nylandiae fuit. 
Mortalitatemque rursus post vitam, rebus domi atque foris, in aula et bello praeclare gestis, 
Gustavo Magno, Regum exemplari, magna ex parte consecratam, A:o m.dc.xl. 
VOL. VI. 3 G dic 



chap. xi. upon the left, to one entering ; erected, as was before stated. 
i^cripuiThi to the memory of Catharine the Wife of Eric XIV. She 
SaJL, was the Grandmother of Achatius Tott, by his mother 
Ericxiv. Sigrid's side. It has this Inscription, in capital letters : — 



natalibus, virtute, fortuna quondam inclyt/e imprimis 
katharin.e, dominie de liuxala quam ericus xiv. suec. 
goth. que rex, thoiii regii societate dignam habuit ; 
eademque post viduitatem ad annum usque ietatis lxi1i. 
summa vit.e morumque pietate et innocentia transactam, 
placide in aula liuxala anno restaurat^ salutis mdcxii. 
obi1t. dehinc filije ejusdem ex thoro regio legitime 
concepts domine sigridis, quje conjunx peiullustris domini 
henrici tott, permagno heroi achat10 tott genitr1x ex- 
stitit: quem tabula ex adverso posita fusius demonstrat. 

anno domini m dc lxxv1ii. 
ILLUSTRISSIMUS r. s. drotzetus comes petrus braiie, curavit 


diexvJulii, aetatis ultra quadragesimum biennio in aula sua Lafwila Parochiae Eura- 
minne exuit. Facta non vicini solum, et quos arma Patriae attigere stupent, sed Italus 
pariter et Iberus atque Galli loquntur. Ita post annorum a prima astate complurium 
militiam in insigni Comitis Jacobi de la Gardie, Regni Marschi per Moscoviam 
expeditione incepta, et inde Regis contra Polonum in Borussia auspiciis continuatam, ac 
denique interjecta in castra exterorum peregre transcursione etiam sub Augusto Bello 
Sveco-Germanico probatam, dignus, cui primarium in militia Campi-Mareschalli munus, 




By this inscription, which really becomes a curious historical chap. xi. 
document, we learn some particulars respecting Catharine, Historical 


of which history is silent ; — That after the imprisonment of concerning 

this remark- 

her husband, and probably after his death, she withdrew, far ableffomiin - 
from the Sivedisk Court, to the tranquil solitudes of Finland, 
where she lived in unmolested retirement, and died after 
attaining an advanced age ; — That her daughter Sigrid, whom 
she had borne to Eric XIV., married Henry Tott, from which 
union descended Count Achatius Tott, whose monument we 
have described. Liuxala, mentioned as the place of her 
residence and death, is a large farm or manorial seat in the 
parish of Ka?igasala, in Tavasthus, where the remains of the 
house may still be seen in which Catharine ended her days : 
it was built by Count Tott, who was Governor of that 

A vault below this Choir, contains, as before mentioned, 
the simple coffin which enshrines the mouldering reliques 
of that once beautiful female whom Eric XIV. so pas- 
sionately loved. The ceremony of her marriage to the king 
took place upon the sixth day of July 1568, the year after his 


et cum exercitu delecto agendi plena daretur potestas, quam in Saxonia inferiori exerceret, 
a Maximo Rege habitus, in Pomeraniae Ducatibus, Gryphisvalda, Wismaria, et Rostochio, 
in Bremensi, Stada, et Boxtahuda, locis munitissimis occupatis, exercitum Caesareum eis 
partibus penitus profligavit. Haec inter Equitis aurati splendor ipsi a summo virtutum 
aestimatore tributus, hinc Senatoria in victrici Regno dignitas, et post fata quoque Comi- 
tatus honos additus. Genus ipsi Paternum ex familia Sveciae Daniaeque a multis retro 
saeculis, multo celeberrima, Regibusque cognata. Materno pariter Filia Erici XIV. 
Regis Sveciae legitima, Genetrice clarus. Bis maritus ; primas cum illustrissima Domina 
Sigride Bjelke, contraxit nuptias, atque ex ea filii, Comitis Claudii Tott, virtutibus, qua 
toga, qua sago inclyti parens ; secundis, illustrissimae Dominae, D: nae Christmce Brake, 
Comitissae de Wisingsborg &c. sese junxit, quae superstes hoc manibus piissimis vovit 



chap. xt. cruel murder of the whole family of the Stures; and that of 
her coronation, which was celebrated with the utmost pomp, 
followed the day afterwards : and from the inscription upon 
her memorial tablet, we learn that her death did not happen 
until forty-four years after her coronation : but the first part 
of this interval was to her a period of tempestuous trouble, 
for the very year of her coronation was that of her husband's 
dethronement. Beside her remains, there are also here, 
preserved in coffins of brass, oak, and wood faced with tin, 
the remains of other members of the Tott Family, with 
Swedish inscriptions ; which, however, are so nearly English, 
that any English reader, accustomed to Scottish-English, or 
Old English, might understand their meaning. For an 
example, we shall give the legend which appears in capital 
letters upon the coffin of Si grid, king Eric the Fourteenth's 
daughter, by Catharine, who also lies buried here. The 
coffin is of wood, faced with tin-plate. 


Mami8«ript8 \y e had some hope of discovering other historical infor- 

preeerved in a 

brazeu coffer. ma tion connected with the state of Sweden during the period 
of Eric s sufferings after his deposition, upon being permitted 
to examine the contents of a brazen chest which was shewn 
to us, within a wooden covering, and which contains several 
manuscripts written upon parchment. They consisted, 




however, of documents which perhaps will only interest the ^iap . xi. 
Swedish antiquaries. We shall briefly notice them in the 
order of their dates. — The first is an Epicedium upon the 
funeral of Catharine, wife of Eric XIV, in 1612. The second, 
an Epicedium upon the re-interment of her daughter Sigrid, 
written in i635, when her body was removed from the 

o ^^ 

church of Randamaltcnsi to the Cathedral at Abo. The third 
is an Epithalamium, in the German language, upon the 
marriage of Achatius Tott with Christina Brahe, the seventh of 
October, i638. The fourth gives an account of the heroic 
deeds of Achatius Tott; and the solemnities observed at his 
funeral, September 2Q, 1640. The fifth is the patent of 
nobility granted to his son Claudius Tott, by Queen Christina, 
March 20, ] 652. The sixth, with thirteen signets annexed to 
it, dated Ekholmsnnd, November 6, 1639, is nothing less than 
the dowry granted by Achatius Tott to his second wife, 
Christina Brahe. 

Few persons perhaps would have bestowed the same pains Histories of 

r i_ • Eric's reign- 
that we did, in ransacking the chambers of the dead for his- 
torical information connected with the history of such a 
gloomy superstitious tyrant as Eric XIV. ; for whose bad 
character some writers seem anxious to apologize, by point- 
ing out a few brilliant points that appeared amidst its dark 
shades ; and also by maintaining, that the charges brought 
against him were calumnies invented to justify the conduct 
of his brothers, by whom he was dethroned and imprisoned 1 . 


(l) " II y a neanmoins beaucoup d'Ecrivains qui font passer ces accusations pour des 
calomnies. lis pretendent qu'elles ont ete en partie inventees pour justifier la conduite 




chap. xi. It is just possible that his faults were extenuated by those 
writers who lived under his successors ; and perhaps crimes 
were attributed to him of which he was never guilty : as, in 
the history of om English Kings, we find a remarkable instance 
in the odium cast upon the character of Richard the Third, by the 
historians who endeavoured, by their calumnies, to gratify his 
mean successor, Henry the Seventh 1 , and the members of that 
family. But, in viewing the annals of Erics reign, a sensa- 
tion of indignant regret is always excited, when we read 
the story of those deeds of blood by which the whole race of 
the Stures were exterminated. It is impossible to exculpate 
Eric ; because one of these innocent victims was immolated, 
and in the most cowardly manner, by his own hand*. In 


des Dues ses freres, et en partie repandues par les parens de Joran Peerson, afin de 
rejetter sur la personne du Roi les crimes de ce Ministre." 

Hist, de Suede, par Pujfendorf, tome II. p. 3. Amst. 1843. 

(1) Shakspeare has not exempted himself from the list of these : and many of our 
erroneous notions of Richard the Third's character are owing to prejudices founded on 
the calumnies with which our great poet sought to gratify Henry the Seventh's grand- 
daughter, Elizabeth. Setting aside all the arguments adduced by Buck, whom Rapin 
charges with partiality, there is one observation concerning Richard the Third, which 
has escaped Bacon, in the beginning of his Life of Henry the Seventh ; speaking, as it 
were, volumes: — " Quanqua?n autem Princeps fuisset in militari virtute probatus, atque 
honoris Anglici assertor slrenuus, legislator item bonus, in levamen et solatium vulgi." 
Vid. Histcr. Regni Regis Henrici Sept. vol. V. p. 6. Amst. 1662. And with regard to 
the contrast exhibited in Richard's successor, how admirably is it displayed by Rapiiis 
delineation of the Royal Miser; the very personification of Avarice — tall, lank, with a long 
and thin face lean like the rest of his body, and a countenance exciting fear and distrust. 

(2) Seethe account of his vile stratagems for the extermination of the noble family of 
the Stures; one of whom, Nils Sture, he stabbed with a poignard, when rising from 
his bed in prison; who drawing the weapon from the wound, kissed it, and presented it 
to his murderer : — and all the rest were cruelly massacred. " Carcerera invadens Nicolai 
Sture, in lecto jacentem, et sibi reverenter assurgentem, proprio sauciavit pugione. 




his character, Eric XIV. seems most to have resembled Paul cha t, xi. 
of Russia — a wretched compound of superstition, perfidy, 
lust, and cruelty ; and, with all these vices, occasionally irri- 
tated by flights of insanity 3 . But the story of Erics career 
has never been either fully or fairly told 4 : and it is rather 
remarkable, that our knowledge should be so imperfect of the 
life of a sovereign Prince, the wooer at once both of Queen 
Elizabeth and of Mary Queen of Scots". Puffendorf has 
collected very little upon the subject ; and the more original 
sources, to which we have referred, do not supply the defi- 
ciency. At least a dozen romances might be written upon 
the subjects of Erics amorous adventures. His amours with 
Catharine, when related with a due attention to truth, have 
all the air of a romance. She was the daughter of a peasant 
of Medelpad, and gained a livelihood, when a child, by selling 
nuts in the market at Stockholm 6 . Here Eric first saw 


Quern Nicolaus ex gravi pectoris vulnere protinus extractum, et osculo humiliter tactum, 
parcussori obtulit, indeque furens Princeps nonnihil mitigatus abiit." Chronol. Scond. 
npud Messenium, torn. VI. p, 44. Stockholm, 1700. 

(3) " Non diffiteor regem Ericum quandoque parum sani fuisse cerebri j sed istud 
per intervalla delirium quidam alii, velut haereditariam a matre, simili mentis vitio 
nonnunquam laborante, contractam reputant labeculam." Ibid. p. 36. 

(4) There is a History of Eric XIV. by Olaf Celsius; and the works of Loccenius and 
Messcnius may be referred to : but the accounts of the Swedish history, at this period, 
are, for the most part, jejune. 

(5) Puffendorf ascribes the chief part of Eric's bad conduct to the evil counsels of one 
Peerson, his favourite. His secretary, Helsing, endeavouring to put himself upon his 
guard against following Peerson's advice, was stabbed by the king with his own hand. — 
Hist, de Suede, tome I. p. 438. Amst. J 743. 

(6) "Erat CATHARiNAhumili admodum genere propagata, utpote filia cujusdam Magni, 
agricolis nati parentibus, in Medelpadia, qui decurionis nactus officium, inter praesidiarios 




chap. xr. her ; and, being struck by her beauty, had her brought to the 
palace ; where she was taken into the service, and brought up 
under the auspices, of his sister, the Princess Elizabeth 1 . As 
she grew up, he fell so desperately in love with her, that she 
was suspected, by the people of that age, of having given to 
him a love-potion 1 . After his deposition, little is known 
either of her or of his history, except that his own sufferings 
were in some degree proportioned to his enormous offences. 
Among the different dungeons in which he was confined, he 
was for some time incarcerated in Abo-hus, a fortress at the 
mouth of the river upon which Abo is situate 3 : and there is 


a record of her death and burial at Abo, a.d. 1612, in the 
valuable works of Messenius* ; the only allusion, perhaps, 


castri Stocholmensis milites, e6 migravit, ubi filia tenuem parentum sustentationem 
quopiam simullucello alleviatura, in foro nucesescario habuit venales." — Chronol. Scond. 
aptid Messer.ium, torn. VI. p. 36. Siockk. IfOG. 

(1) " In Gynecaeo deinceps principis EUzabethcel'iberallter profecto educabatur." Ibid. 

(2) u Quamquam nonnulli existiment, quodam regem Ericum philtro a Catharind 
propinato, imprimis usque amantem ipsius evasisse, et posted redditum inde amentem." 

(3) tc The castle, in the language of the country called Abo-Ms, is situated at the 
north of the river Aura, upon a cape bounded on three sides by the water. This is one 
of the most antient fortresses of the land. It was well fortified under the kings Albrecht, 
Charles VIII., Knutson, and Gustavus Vasa. Besides four towers, which were destined 
to oppose the approach of an enemy to the harbour, it had on the south side a high 
wall, with a triple rampart of earth, and a double ditch. A new building has been 
added to the old structure, but in a different style of masonry. Abo-hus was the 
residence of Duke John, and the prison of Eric XIV. in the sixteenth century." — 
AcerMs Travels, vol.1, p. 214. Land. 1802. 

(4) " mdcxii. Catharina, regis Erici vidua, hoc tempore clausit vitae periodum, 
Abogi.k sepulta." — Epitome Chronol. Scond. apudMessen. ed. Peringskibld, torn. XV. 
p. 156. Stockholm, 1703. 



made to her in history, after her husband's dethronement, chap. xi. 
which happened forty-four years before, on the 28th of 
September 1568. 

In a room adjoining the Sacristy are huddled together all 
the images and symbols of superstitious mummery, which 
belonged to the Cathedral when it was a place of Roman- 
Catholic worship ; — doubtless, therefore, before the whole- 
length portraits of Luther and Melancthon adorned this Portraits of 

.i .. i • i «i i • i rrn Luther and 

building, which are now seen in the principal aisle. That Melancthon. 
of Luther has this inscription : 


Upon that of Melancthon are these words : 

ANNO 1684. 

Over one of the doors is a gilded wooden image of St. *™ a s e °f 
Henry the Martyr ; which the reforming Iconoclasts have Mart v r - 
suffered to remain in its original position, as being the 
effigy of the Patron Saint of Finland, the first preacher of the 
Gospel in this country. In former times, such was the reve- 
rence entertained with respect to this image, that it was only 
exhibited upon days of public festivity. The old shrine 
which inclosed it still remains, together with the doors once 

vol. vi. 3 h folded 


418 ABO. 

chap. xi. folded over it. Many things within this venerable pile serve 
to call to mind the desolating hand of war, which has so 
often ravaged this part of Finland. From its very situation, 
Abo will always be liable to commotion, so long as the pos- 
session of the rich corn territories, the forests, and lakes of 
Finland, may invite a struggle between the contending 
interests of Sweden and Russia. Accordingly, the memorials 
of those warriors who have fallen in these struggles are the 
first things to strike a spectator in his visit to the Cathedral. 
Swords, with crape-covered handles, are seen suspended 
from the walls ; and many a long wordy legend, upon the 
tombs by which he is surrounded, speak 

" Tales of iron wars ; 

Of sallies and retires ; of trenches, tents, 

Of palisadoes, frontiers, parapets ; 

Of basilisks, of cannon, culverin ; 

Of prisoners' ransom, and of soldiers slain, 

And all the currents of a heady fight." 

It would far exceed the limits of a traveller's journal to notice 
all the other monuments in this Cathedral, and to copy their 
inscriptions. Some of them, however, are well worthy of 
notice ; especially one of black marble, representing, upon a 
triclinium, the sculptured cumbent effigies of a warrior and 
chapei of his wife 1 . The most antient monument in the Cathedral 
o/awr, *hp P ^ ^ e g epulchral Chapel, erected, as the inscription tells, by 


(l) Thorsten Stahlhandsk, and Christina Horn. 



Olaus, a Bishop of Abo, in 1425 ; who lies buried here with chap. xj. 
the members of his family. This is the inscription : — 
9hmo ■£): m mcbr,ri> 3Jtogmt$ Clai e : pits fecit fieri 

The account of his death is also preserved in the following 
inscription, upon a brass plate : 


Then, upon the same plate, follows : 






Ail these had the addition Tavast to their names, as a 
surname ; the first being called Magnus Olaus Tavast; and 
the second, Olaus Henricus Tavast, who is mentioned in the 
Chronicle of Juustcnius as having instituted an altar and 


mass in the Cathedral of Abo, in honour of the Eleven Thou- 
sand Virgins. We were also shewn an inscription comme- 
morating a warrior of the same family, by the name simply 
of Olaus Tavast, who was also buried here: 4 



(2) This Inscription is no longer in the Cathedral. A copy of it was given to me by 
Professor Porthan. 




chap. xi. And formerly were seen here the marble effigy and cenotaph 
Monument of Samuel Cockburne, a Scotch officer in the Swedish service, who 

of a Scotch 

officer. fought under Charles the Ninth and Gust amis Adolphus ; the 
latter of whom honoured the funeral of this brave officer 
with his royal presence, being at that time in Finland. The 
place of this effigy was pointed out to us, as being now con- 
cealed by another tomb. The inscription however remains. 




We have now noticed whatever appeared to us to be the 
most remarkable objects of curiosity in this building. There 
are, it is true, various other sepulchres of bishops and war- 
riors, the former saints and heroes of the country ; men 
famous in their generations : but their names hardly now 
remain to swell the catalogue of the verger or sexton who 
conducts strangers visiting the structure. One thing more 
remains to be described. At the western extremity of the 
Cathedral, and within its walls, is the Library of the Uni- 
versity ; to which our attention will now be entirely directed. 
An account of it, written by Professor Porthan, was printed 
at Abo, in the form and manner we have before mentioned, 





as adopted by him for the publication of his works ■ . The chap. xi. 
collection is contained in three rooms, and the books are in 
excellent order. 

The establishment of this Library dates nearly with the 
foundation of the University*, in 1640, under the minority of 
Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, who succeeded to 
the throne of Sweden at the age of six years, upon the 
death of her father at the battle of Lutzen 3 . The whole 
collection of books amounts to 1 0,000 volumes, and the annual 
revenue of the Library does not exceed 120 rix-dollars. There 
are few things in this Library of any general importance : 


(1) " Historia Bibliotheca; R. Academics Aboensis, disputationibus publicis xxm. 
A. 1771—1787- proposita, ab Henrico Gabriele Porthan, Eloqu.Prof. R. & 0. Aboce, 
Typis Frenckellianis." This work the author has also deposited in the University Library 
at Cambridge. 

(2) Many writers, and, among others, the authors of the Voyage de Deux Francais, 
hare mentioned that the Library and University were founded at the same time : but 
this is not strictly true. " Condita hie An. Dn. 1640. felicibus auspiciis, favore Reginae, 
Litterarum amantissimae, &c. celebri Christinaea Academia {confer, ut cceteros multos 
taceam,Wexion\i Natales Academics Aboensis, et Bilmark, Hist. Acad. A°boensis 1. c. <S 3.) 
mox desiderabatur, Musis recens hue translatis, voluptatem, usum, suppetiasque praebi 
tura Bibliotheca bene instructa j" &c. observes Professor Porthan ; but he afterwards 
adds, " Tradunt viri de Historia Patriae summis meritis clarissimi, Reginam idcirco 
statim post conditam Academiam, Bibliothecam quoque hie fundasse regalique mactasse 
munificentia : sed haec verba stricte nimis non sunt interpretanda ; nihil enim primis sex 
annis nova Academia accepit, liberalitate Regiaj librorum," &c. Fide Hist. Biblioth 
Acad. &c. p. 10. 

(3) Upon the 26th of November, 1632. Puffendorf suspected that this great and good 
king was assassinated by Francois Albert, Duke of Saxe-Lauwenbourg ,- an opinion 
warmly contested by his French Editor (see torn. II. p. 259, Note{\), Amst. 1743). 
The words of Puffendorf are: " On parte fort diversement de la maniere dont il fut 
tue. Cependant, par les circonstances on peutjuger avec beaucoup de vraisemblance, que 
dans la confusion le meme Due de Saxe-Lauwenbourg lui donna le coup par derriere." 




chai\xl but when we consider the situation in which they are 
placed, we cannot pass by the notice of those Codices which 


the Abo Professors regard as its most valuable ornaments ; 
especially as the increasing power and obvious views of such 
dangerous neighbours as the Russians render it very doubtful 
whether any traces of them may long remain. A Catalogue 
raisonne of the Manuscripts will be found in Professor 
Porthans History of this Library 1 . We shall of course 
notice only the most remarkable. 

1 . The first is a Greek MS., in folio, of Aetius, a Greek 
physician 2 . — It is fairly written upon paper; and con- 
tains the 8th, gth, loth, nth, 12th, and 1 3th books of this 
author ; of whose writings only the eighth, and some chapters 
of the ninth book, have hitherto been published in the 
original Greek. 

2. A MS. of Seneca, elegantly written upon vellum, in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. 

3. A folio MS. o[ Ciceru etc Oraiure, elegantly but inaccu- 
rately written upon paper, at Bologna, in the year 1451. 

4. A folio MS. of Cicero y s Orations, negligently written 
upon vellum. 

5. A folio MS. upon vellum, elegantly written, of Petrarch 
and Boccaces Lives of Illustrious Men and Women. 

6. A fine folio MS., upon vellum, of Justinian, with 


(1) See Hist. Bildloth- Acad, /ibo'snsis, as before cited. 

(2) AETIOT 'AvTiov' : ct>s icnpov 7?'.*; outyveariatf xcti iipcfxiicH; rav vaa-^uxTivi/, Xoyot i£. 'Jcon 
tut {.i*} vrrn vtTSrvTFOumt. 



copious marginal annotations, beautifully written, and in 
high preservation. 

7. Peter Olaus, his Chronicle of the Kings of Sweden, a 
folio MS., fairly written, upon paper, in the Swedish 

There are, in all, eighty-six volumes of Manuscripts : but the 
list includes Missals, Bibles, Kordns, and a few other Oriental 
Manuscripts, together with many curious Codices which relate 
to Swedish and Russian history. There is also a Map of Japan, 
given to the Library by Count Alric Scheffer, which Porthan 
calls " varum Bibliothecce nostrce cimelium*" The authors 
of the Voyage de Deux Prancais, by whom none of these 
Codices were noticed, mention only one manuscript, in their 
short account of this Library : and although we give them 
full credit for their statement, it so happened that we did not 
see the work to which they allude 4 . 

Among the Typographical Rarities, we saw only the fol- 
lowing as worthy of the smallest notice : 

1. Terentius. Argent. 1496. folio, cum fig. 

2. Cicero, Quaest. Tuscul. cum comment. Phil. Beroaldi. 
Venet. fol. 1499. 

3. Horatii Placci Opera, cum annotat. imaginibusque. 
Argent, fol. 1498. 

4. Persius. 


cal llarities. 

(3) Hist. Bibliolh. p. 214. 

(4)" On nous y a montre un Manuscrit in folio, de 1341 pages ; intitule : Proces-verlal 
(Tune commission nominee in 1676, et sentences qui ont ete prononcees sur des malefices et 
des magiciennes, ecrit en Suedois, de la main d Andre Engman, notaire de la dile commis- 
sion: il manque quelques feuilles au commencement."— Voyage de Deux Franfais, dans 
le Nord de I' Europe. Tome II. p. 510. a Paris, 1796. 




4. Persius. Venet. fol. 14Q5. 

5. Juvenalis Satyr ce. Venet. fol. 1494. 

6. Seneca. Venet. fol. 1492. 

7. M. Fabii Ouintiliani Orat. Institut. LibriXIl. sine anno 
et loco editionis. Fol. Literae initiales adpictae sunt, et 
quaeidam auro ornatae. 

8. Julii Firmici Astronomicorum Libri XIII. &c. Venet. 
fol. in aedibus Aldi, 1499. 

9. Boethius. Colon, fol. 1482. 

10. Plotinus. Florent. fol. 1492. 

1 1 . Dialogus Creaturarum Moralizatus, 4to. ' 

12. Missale Obense. Lubeck, 1588, with wood-cuts. Of 
this work only two copies are extant. The other is at Upsala, 
and is not perfect. 

Besides these, there are some curious Latin Bibles, printed 
in the fifteenth century; and many others with dates prior to 
the year 1500, Among them we observed a copy of JEsop, 


(l) The first work printed in Sweden. They shew another copy of it at Upsala, as 
we before noticed*. Concerning this volume, Professor Porthan, in his History of the 
Library*, remarks : " Quoniam laesum est hoc exemplum (figuris rudissimis, coloribus 
etiam allinitis, ornare opus editor voluit), et ultima imprimis folia desunt, non possumus 
certo quidem hactenus definire, (quod alias editiones cum hac [comparandi non fuit 
potestas,) utrum editio sit Stockholmensis a Joh. Snell impressa, an ea antiquior Colo- 
niensis a. 1481, industria et impensis Conradi de Hombroch e prelo emissa: sed pro 
Stockholmensi tamen potius habendam putamus." At the end of the volume, however, 
we found this manuscript note : " In pagina ultima haec leguntur verba. Praes. 
(Praesens) liber. Dialogus Creaturarum appellatus jocundis fabulis plenus 5 impressus per 
Johannem Snell, artis impressoriae magistrum — in Stockholm inceptus, et munere Dei 
finitus est. Anno Domini Mensis Decembris." 

Hist. Biblioth. p. 226. Note (d). 



in large octavo, with the date 1490 ; but no mention made charxi. 
of the place where it was printed. We saw also some 
curious old books of Travels to the Holy Land and other 
Eastern Countries, from the Venetian Press, dated 1518, and 
151Q, and in the Italian language. This Library is well stocked 
with good editions of the Greek and Latin Classics, with 
the Writings of the Father, books of Jurisprudence, books 
of Natural History (including the famous Danish work on 
Shells, the Flora Danica, and most of our best Writers upon 
this subject), Medicine, the Mathematics, Geography, History, 
Antiquities, Voyages, and Books of Travels, &c.&c. A few other 
English Authors caught our attention, as almost tempting 
us to inquire by what accident they came there. Among 
them we saw Bacon s History of Henry VII. ; Camden s Queen 
Elizabeth ; Rapins History of England ; Carrington s Life 
and Death of Oliver Cromivell ; History of Charles the Second, 
by a person of quality ; Wallace s Account of the Orkney Isles ; 
Martin s Western Islands of Scotland ; &c. &c. A volume of 
Sacred Songs, prepared for the use of the Churches in 
Lapland, and printed in the Swedish language, in octavo, at 
Stockholm,in l6l9,will shew, by its title, how very nearly allied 
the languages are of England and Sweden, in many instances. 
It was called, " En liten Sangebok" — a little Song Book. 
With these few observations, perhaps, the Reader will have 
as much information as he may wish to possess, respecting 
the Public Library of this University : but if he should 
be anxious for more, it may be afforded him, by reference to 
a quarto volume, written upon this subject alone, by the 
vol. vi. 3 1 celebrated 






chap. xi. celebrated Professor who so kindly assisted us in our 
own researches 1 . 

The principal public edifices of the University are most 
curiously made a part of the Cathedral ; being situate within 
its walls. Besides the Library now described, pursuing the 
same wall, we came to the Anatomical Schools (Theatrum 
Anatomicum), and the Public Auditory, or Chamber, in which 

Disputations, the Disputations are held. It was intended that, in the 
ensuing spring, a handsome building should be erected, for 
the purpose of containing the Library, and all other Collec- 
tions belonging to the University. A plan for the form of 
this new structure was shewn to us : it was to consist of a 
front with two wings, disposed according to the three sides 
of a parallelogram, in this manner: 

l'rof. Gadolin, 

Front for the Library- 

in the side wings were to be Public Lecture rooms, and 
Repositories for Cabinets of Natural History, &c. 

Being afterwards introduced to the celebrated Professor of 
Chemistry, John Gadolin, he had the kindness to shew to 
us the collection of Minerals belonging to the University. 
We have before mentioned the neglect visible in other 
national collections of mineralogy belonging to Sweden; and 


(1) See Professor Portharia Work, as before cited. 




there is nothing in this to exempt it from the remarks we cHAr.xi. 
then made. The Professor who has the care of it, a man of collection »f 


great and renowned talents, has done all he could for its 
improvement ; but it is, after all, a wretched heap of trash. 
The most remarkable specimens which we saw in this col- 
lection, were, a mass of the famous Siberian Iron, supposed 
to be meteoric, discovered by Pallas near the banks of the 
river Jenisci ; and some fine examples of the curious mineral 
which bears Professor Gadolins own name, and in which 
he discovered the remarkable substance called Yttria. Some 
specimens of the Gadolimtc were said by him to contain 
as much as forty per cent, of Yttria*. Perhaps there may 
have been, in this collection, other minerals worth notice ; 
but the quantity of useless lumber with which we found it 
encumbered, and the want of a proper arrangement, pre- 
vented our further examination of its contents. 

The collection of Botany, under the care and superin- 
tendence of Professor Hellenius, was very differently charac- 
terized. It is by far the most perfect thing of its kind in 
S?veden, not excepting that at Upsala, both with regard to 
the rarity and number of the plants, and the beautiful and 
lucid order in which they are kept and arranged. In looking 
over the Catalogue, we w r ere surprised to find an addition 
made to every genus; containing, in some instances, twenty 
or thirty non-descript plants, hitherto undetermined, and 



(2) Professor Gadolin, at this time, estimated the proportion of Yttria as equal to 
two-fifths of the mass ; but, according to Eketerg's analysis of Gadolinite, some varieties 
of it contains 55.5 of Yttria, besides 4.5 ot'G/ucina. 




cmap. xi. therefore anonymous. The Professor himself conducted us 
Botanic (Jar- to the Botanic Garden, which we found to be small, but in 
the highest state of cultivation. In the green-houses, we saw 
some plants from the Cape of Good Hope, which were in 
flower, and as healthy as if they had been growing in their 
proper soil. A visit to this garden is sufficient to shew 
the lovers of botany what may be accomplished by economy 
and talents. The annual fund for its support did not exceed 
thirty pounds of our money ; but in its produce, and in 
all things necessary for the advancement of botanical studies, 


especially in the genius and abilities of its Professor, Abo, 
little as it is known in the world at large, may vie with the 
most celebrated Universities. One circumstance, mentioned 
to us by the Professor, seemed very unaccountable ; namely, 
the difficulty of rearing the Lapland plants. Very few 
plants brought from that country will flourish here ; and 
yet the climate and soil seem nearly allied to those of the 
Arctic regions. It is further remarkable, that with the 
Siberian plants they have no difficulty whatsoever. In 
England, we experienced the difficulty of rearing plants from 
seeds collected in Lapland; but the great difference of cli- 
mate and soil may explain the cause 1 . 


(l) All the attempts made to rear the different species of Lapland Pedicularis, in the 
Botanic Garden at Camvridge,weve without success. The seed of the Pedicularis Sceptrum 
Curolinum, which we collected in a mature state, and forwarded, for greater expedition, 
in letters to England, did not afterwards germinate. Yet we have seen this majestic 
plant, in the north of Sweden, bearing its exuberant blossoms, and flourishing, to the 
height of four feet and a half, in meadows far south of the Arctic Circle. In Norway, it 
never attains this altitude : it is there always in such a dwarfish state, as to make it 
appear like a different species. 



After this visit to the Botanic Garden, Professor Hellenius chap. xi. 
shewed to us his Library, and private collection of Natural HeiuZu^ 
History. His ornithological cabinet afforded us a very gra- kafons. ° 
tifying sight, as it contained all the rarer birds of Scandinavia, 
in excellent preservation ; and among these especially, the 
birds of Lapland, which are not common even in that 
country. The Turdus Rosens is of this number; it might 
be called the red-breasted Blackbird. The Swedish naturalists 
consider it as an American bird, which only occasionally 
visits Lapland and Finmark. The Corvus Lapponicus, resem- 
bling a small Magpie, is also a rare bird. There is an account 
of it by Thunberg, in the Transactions of the Academy of Stock- 
holm. Another very remarkable bird is the Scolopax Glottis, 
or great dark-coloured Woodcock, with a very long beak, the 
lower half of which is red : also the Fringilla Lapponica : and, 
beyond every other in the beauty of its plumage and sweetness 
and infinite variety of its notes, the Motacilla Suecica, called 
Hundred-tuner, or Saddan Kicllinen, by the Lapps, which is 
seen perching on the Betula nana, and making its nest 
among the moss, where it deposits five or six eggs of a 
greenish hue. Its brilliant plumage bids defiance to the 
pencil of the artist. We preserved one of them ; which, for 
this reason, we have not figured in this work, being dissatis- 
fied with the drawings made of it. Its feathers are of a 
lively Turquoise blue colour, bordered about the throat with 
black, which passes into a reddish grey. It feeds upon 
caterpillars, and other small insects and worms. There are 
above an hundred different species of birds found in the 

o o 

neighbourhood of Abo, and in the Aland Isles. Many of 




chap. xi. these, of course, are sea-fowl. They have four different 
kinds of Gulls, together with the Colymbus and the Pelican, 
the Eider-duck, and twelve or fourteen other species of Anas. 
In our frequent conversations with Hellenius, — and we saw 
him daily during the time of our short residence in Abo, — we 
knew not which to admire most ; his polished and friendly 
manners, open, generous, and hospitable; or the extent and 
variety of his mental accomplishments, which made us con- 
sider him as one of the best-informed scholars of his country. 
Indeed, we saw enough in this University to be convinced 
that Upsala, although more celebrated, could not justly be 
compared with it. But the opinion which foreigners enter- 
Comparative tain of the merits of the Swedish Universities, is generally 
tL two uni. formed from conversing with the Swedes in Stockholm, where 

versities, Up- 

tola and Jbo. Abo is almost as little known as it is in London. Consequently, 
if in the literary circles of Stockholm any mention is made of 
Abo, the Sivedes fancy that you are unmindful of the superior 
advantages of Upsala, whose pride and high-mindedness 
carries all before it ; yet this boasted superiority exists only in 
prejudice and imagination : in point of real science, Abo is as 
much superior to Upsala, as the latter is before the Univer- 
sity of Lund. But if this declaration were made among the 
Swedes of the metropolis, it would give rise to considerable 
opposition and warmth of debate ; because, in Stockholm, the 
same notions are entertained with regard to the Finland Uni- 
versity, that Englishmen entertain respecting the Univer- 
sities of Dublin and Edinburgh, when compared with Cain- 
bridge and Oxford: they will not suffer them to be weighed 
together in the same scale. Travellers, however, viewing 




with impartial eyes their comparative merits, soon learn chap. xi. 
to disregard local prejudices. Judging of the tree by its 
fruits, they will render to merit the just tribute which is due 
to merit : and in so doing, it must be confessed that, at this 
time, Abo had the superiority. At Upsala, science was 
made a matter of conversation ; at Abo, it was a subject of 
real and industrious research: but Upsala possessed the 
means of giving notoriety and celebrity to any the most 
trivial contribution which it made to the interests of science ; 
whereas the facilities of common communication with the lite- 
rary world were wholly denied to Abo. The former, it is true, 
boasted the names of Thunberg 1 , and of the two brothers 
Afzelius 2 ; to which has since been added that of an illustrious 


chemist, in Berzelius ; but Abo was at this time honoured by its 
historian Porthan, by its poet Frantzen, by its chemist 
Gadolin, and by its botanist Hellenius ; men who in any 
University would have made a distinguished figure, and 
would have been regarded among its brightest ornaments. 

The different state of public morals, too, was strikingly con- 

... ° 

spicuous in the two Universities of Upsala and Abo. In 

Upsala, drunkenness and riot pervadedher streets ; and licen- 
tiousness and Jacobinism bad found their way into her 
cellars, which were nightly the resort, and indeed the only 


public place of meeting, for her students. In Abo, although 
a town of greater magnitude, containing a more numerous 


(1) Author of Travels in Japan, &c. &c. ; successor of Linnceus. 

(2) John Afzelius, Professor of Chemistry; and his brother, Adam Afzelius, celebrated 
for his foreign travels and talents in Natural History, especally in Botany. 



chap. xi. population, peace and decent order everywhere prevailed. 
We saw no symptoms of that looseness of discipline and 
contempt of decorum which are so common in Upsala. 
Among its inhabitants, a milder disposition seemed to pre- 
vail ; chiefly, perhaps, owing to the absence of those French 
principles, which had been disseminated with fatal success, 
to poison and debase the minds both of Students and Pro- 
fessors in Upsala, as among persons of all ages in Stockholm. 
In Abo, the older Swedish manners and customs were pre- 
valent, not having been yet liable to such mischievous inno- 
vations : a love of truth, and a sincere ardour in the pursuit 
of science, seemed to be the natural growth of the place, 
where the force of good example was added to precept. 
Upsala, among the youth of the country, might be deemed, 
as doubtless it was, the most fashionable seminary of educa- 
tion ; but a parent, who had the opportunities of information 
and choice respecting both, would not long hesitate in which to 
place his son. Not, however,thal there is any thing of austerity 
in the manners of the inhabitants. The principal of them are 
merchants, living in a very elegant style. One of them, to 
whom we were introduced, a Mr. Bremer, had travelled over 
Europe, and visited our own country. This gentleman 
possessed an excellent library ; and had, moreover, a small but 
good collection of pictures and engravings. While, in the depth 
of their severe winter, the novel sight was presented to English 
travellers, of sledges attended by whole tribes of the wildest 
Finlanders from the interior of the country, now flocking 


into Abo, and passing and repassing amidst houses and public 
buildings half buried in snow, we had invitations to balls 




and routs, in which a very striking contrast was exhibited to chap.xi. 
such features of savage life. Judging from the appearance 
exhibited in the public streets, we might have imagined 
ourselves in some town of North America ; but in the evening, 
visiting their musical societies, of which they have two 
regularly established in this city, or joining in their dancing 
parties, we were rather reminded of what we had seen in 
the capital. 

vol, vr. 

3 K 

Finlamltr of Savolm in the Streets of Abo, with his Siedge. 



Concourse of 
the Natives 
from the 

Concourse of the Natives from the neighbouring Districts — Manners of 
the Finns — their motives in visiting Abo — their dress — marvellous 
expedition which they undertake — anecdote of one of them — Streets of 
Abo — Booksellers^— Price of articles — Language and People of Fin- 
land — Finnish Poetry — Merchants of Abo — Maritime Commerce of 
Sweden and Norway — Singular customs — Courts of Judicature — 
Distant excursions of the trading Finlanders — Foundation of the 
University — Number of its Students and Professors — Importance of 
a travelling-carriage — State of the accommodations for Travellers — 
Cursory reflections previously to the departure for Russia. 

We arrived in that season of the year which, of all other- 
is best suited to gratify a stranger's curiosity ; when the 
rigorous frost of the winter enables the natives of all the neigh- 
bouring districts to resort to Abo for merchandize. It wanted 
only a fortnight to the annual fair; but the inhabitants of 


•. :?} 






all the Finland, and even the more distant Lapland provinces, chap . - mi. 
began to pour in, with increasing numbers, every day. At 
length, the coming of these visitants constituted every morning 
a new throng, moving in regular procession through the 
streets. By this means, without the pains and privations 
that would attend a journey into the interior, we were 
enabled, leisurely, to see and converse with people from very 
remote regions ; to watch their mode of life, wants, luxuries, 
and trade; and to observe their dresses and manners. Among 
these, the Russian traders were remarkably distinguished, by 
their long bushy beards, naked necks, and dark lamb-skin 
caps of a peculiar kind of curled wool. They were con- 
stantly in the streets, dragging after them hand-sledges : — 
while the Finns t vr\\h their shorn features, long dark unbending 
hair, and sallow countenances ; eyes, extended length- 
ways, and half closed ; a peaked nose, frequently inclining 
upwards, but always pointed ; sharp and square chin ; elevated 
cheek-bones, and pinched mouth ; plainly shewed the life they 
led : add to this, large, high, and prominent ears ; a small 
head; thin scanty eye-brows, turned upwards at their extre- 
mities, like those of the Chinese ; high shoulders ; short and 
small fingers ; knees bent, and projecting forwards ; and you 
have the genuine portrait of a Finn, evidently allied to the 
Laplanders. But if it were asked whom else they resemble, 
it would be difficult to say. If in Great Britain there be a 
race at all resembling them, it is, perhaps, the wild Scotch, 
who speak the Gaelic language, and who have the same dark 
locks and swarthy complexion : but the red-haired and raw- 
feoned tribes of the Lowlands in Scotland are indisputably a 




i'hap.xii. Teutonic tribe, and perhaps originally Danes. It will be 
recollected, that, in former instances, we had been indebted to 
the annual fair for the insight w*e were enabled to obtain 
with regard to tribes inhabiting countries almost inaccessible 
to literary travellers. In this manner we became acquainted 
with the most distant colonies of Lapps, whose families visited 
the fairs of Kiemi and Trbnyem. To the same cause we 
were now indebted for a familiar acquaintance with the 
natives of Tavastehus and Savolax ; perhaps the only remaining 
branch of that antient race of Finns who succeeded to the 
Lapps in this part of Scandinavia, and drove the latter from 
their settlements among the Aland Isles, and upon the southern 
shores of the Gulph of Bothnia, into the more northern 
territories they now inhabit. The Finns of Savolax certainly 
resemble the Laplanders, as much as the children of any 
family ever resembled each other. They are not so diminu- 
tive in stature; which perhaps arises from the difference of 
their diet and mode of life. When first we saw what were 
called Finlanders in Ostro- Bothnia, we thought they differed 
materially from the Lapps, in having, besides their more 
athletic form, light yellow hair. But we had there seen a 
mixed race, produced by the intermarriages of Sivedish and 
Finland families ; producing a comely and healthy race, who 
are constantly engaged in the wholesome occupations and 
labours of an agricultural life, and differ materially from the 
true swarthy and smoke-dried Finn; whole families of whom 
continued at this time to pour into Abo, in such numbers 
that the streets were filled with them, so that it was wonderful 
to us where they could all find a place for lodging. We 




observed their sledges, with the horses yet standing in the shafts, chap, xn. 
filling the court-yards of all the shopkeepers and merchants, Mannersof 
during the entire day ; and where they went afterwards 
we could not learn. Upon their first coming, the appearance 
of all of them was the same ; all their sledges being 
similarly laden, and whole families walking by the side of 
them. These sledges contained provisions for themselves, 
and provender for their horses ; an old net being constantly 
drawn tight over the burden, to keep the hay, which lay 
uppermost, from being carried off by the wind. So many nets 
worn out with fishing occupation, bespoke the ways of life 
of their owners, who supply with frozen fishes all the towns 
upon the coast, even to the distant markets of Petersburg ; 
and are themselves Icihyophagites, inhabiting a vast region of 
lakes and rivers swarming with this valuable article of food. 
Over the net, upon these sledges, is always placed the little 
family-chest, containing the hoarded treasure produced by a 
year's labour, tobacco-pipes and tobacco, together with the 
household divinities and portable shrines of their country ; 
such as were of old among the Israelites — " the taberna- 

Their first business, after their arrival, is to swallow the 
drams with which they are freely supplied by the tradesmen 


in Abo who are to traffic with them, and with which they 
become immediately intoxicated : but no people upon earth 
are more harmless "in their cups" than these simple Finns ; 
their drunkenness being only manifested in the most ludi- 
crous grimaces, and in more than usual kindness and attention 
to their female companions, who can hardly be called by the 


438 ABO. 

chap. xii. name of " the fair sex," lovely as they may appear to a 
drunken Finn. Sometimes, in these moments of intoxication, 
the grinning and grimaces suddenly give way to gravity ; and 
then parties of them are seen together communicating, with 
an air of the utmost importance, the most trivial circum- 
stances ; as, what they intend to buy at the fair, and whom 
they shall buy it of; who gives away the most brandy, and 
promises to supply their wants at the lowest rate ; which, 
however, is a matter of importance to them. At these inter- 
views the dealers now and then contrive to be present, 
either in their own persons, or by means of their agents; 
because, while the drams, they have administered, do their 
work, the heart of a Finlander is open to all comers ; all their 
little secret plans and purposes are then[divulged ; and, as the 


trade with them, and with the Lapps who resort to Abo at 
this season of the year, constitutes a very principal part of 
the commerce of Abo, the native simplicity and unsuspecting 
disposition of both render them an easy prey to the more 
artful dealers. 

We have said that the trade carried on with these tribes 
from the interior of the country constitutes a very principal 
part of the commerce of Abo; and hence it follows that the chief 
part of the articles exposed for sale in the shops are things 
calculated for their use : in fact, the best trade which any 


dealer can exercise in Abo, is that of supplying the natives of 
the interior districts with the different commodities they may 
require. Of all their wants, the principal are constantly the 
same ; viz. tobacco and brandy, — drugs universally requisite, 
where mental resources are at a low ebb, for steeping in 

forge tfulness 

Their motives 




forgetfulness the tcedium vitce. The desire of obtaining them chap, xil 
is so great among the Finns and Lapps, as to supersede almost 
every other necessary article of life. From what we saw of 
the Finns, it was evident that both men and women would 
sooner eat their provisions raw, and even starve themselves, 
than be deprived of brandy and tobacco : therefore, if the 
price of an iron-kettle, for which a Finn has made a journey 


to Abo, astonishing both as to its extent and difficulty, 
should encroach too much upon his little fund for supplying 
him with these articles, he will spend all he has in brandy 
and tobacco, and return home again without the utensil for 
which he came. The author made an experiment here, which 
had often afforded him amusement among the Highlanders of 
Scotland (with whom the taste for these articles is much the 
same) ; namely, that of walking among the natives with about 
half a yard of what is called pig-tail tobacco, dangling from 
his pocket-hole : the consequence was the same in both 
countries ; — the natives, attracted by the sight, would follow 
him anywhere, and cheerfully do whatever he required of 
them ; wishing for no better payment for their labour than a 
cutting from the roll of tobacco. In one of the principal 


streets of Abo, we saw a porter passing through the market 
with a considerable burden of this rolled tobacco upon his 
shoulders ; and he was literally hunted by the Finns, who 
pursued him as hungry curs run after a dog when he is 
carrying off a bone. 


During this their annual visit to Abo, the dress of all the Their Dies*. 

Finns seemed to be universally the same : indeed, it is nearly the 

habit worn over all Finland, Lapland, and a considerable part 




chap. xii. of Russia. It consists of a jacket or coat made of white 
sheep-skin leather, which is dressed, and worn with the wool 
inwards, as a lining, towards the body : this is fastened always 
by a sash or girdle about the waist. Long trowsers or panta- 
loons reach below the calf of the leg, and are bound about 
the instep. The feet are covered either with fur boots, or 
socks made of skins ; over which are worn, what the Russians 
call Labkas, or sandals made of the bark of trees 1 . Upon 
their, heads they wear a cap of fur; but which differs from 
that commonly worn by the Russians, in having flaps let 
down, so as to cover and keep warm the cheeks and ears, 
which are the parts otherwise frequently frost-bitten. With 
all these precautions against the inclemency of their winter- 
season, it is very remarkable that all the three nations, Finns, 
Lapps, and Russians, appear with their necks, and often with 
their bosoms, bare, in the most severe weather. Among all 
the tribes distinguished by their hardihood in this respect, 
are particularly to be mentioned the natives of Carelia; many 


of whom were now in Abo, with their necks and bosoms 
open to the atmosphere, when the mercury in Fahrenheit's 
thermometer was forty-six degrees below the freezing point, 
or thirteen degrees and a half below Zero ; a degree of tem- 
perature that actually happened while we were there, at 
noon, upon the sixth of January. The fair begins upon 
January the twentieth, and continues but three days ; during 
which time it is almost impossible to penetrate through the 
square where the market is held, or any of the streets leading 


(1 ) See the Vignette to Chap. X. p. 172, of the First Part of these Travels, 4to edit. 
Oimb. 1810. 

«-r.*.,.*,- , <-i 



to it, owing to the many thousands of Finns, and other chap. xn. 
tribes, present upon the occasion; bringing frozen fishes and 
corn for sale ; and bartering these commodities against salt, 
brandy, tobacco, dopestic utensils, and sometimes silver 
vessels ; which, with trinkets and other trifles, they severally 
return back to the countries whence they came. What 
would be thought of it, if at a fair in England, in one of our 
southern counties, (as for example, the fair of Lewes in Sussex,) 
the natives of the Orkney Isles were to be seen annually 
present, buying up the principal commodities exposed for 
sale ? Yet distances of this kind, and much greater, are tra- Marvellous 

o expedition 

versed by the natives of Scandinavia, who visit the towns of „^ertak? 
Norway, Siveden, and Finland, journeying for a little tobacco, 
or brandy, or for an iron-pot, or any trifling articles of hard- 
ware, from one end of this extensive region to the other. In 
proof of this, one anecdote will be sufficient, which afforded Anecdote of 

*■ one of thera. 

us as much surprise as it can possibly excite in the 
Reader's mind. Being one day in the market-place of 


Abo, engaged in surveying the crowd of peasants from 
all parts that were there assembled, one of the Finns, 
whom we had noticed on account of the w r ildness of 
his aspect, his savage look, and uncouth appearance, 
suddenly sprang forward from the multitude, seizing us 
by turns by the hand, and evidently recognising us as old 
acquaintances and friends. After some time, we recollected 
having seen him somewhere before ; and, upon inquiring 
whence he came, he seemed to be hurt ; and addressing 
our interpreter in the Swedish language, said — " What, have 
the Gentlemen forgotten the poor Finn who ferried them to 
vol. vi. 3 l and 



J louse;; and 


Streets of Abo 


chap. xii. and fro, in their visits to Kiemi Fair ?" And now we recol- 
lected the boatman employed upon that occasion ; who had 
actually traversed, in his sledge, with a single horse, the 
whole extent of the Gulph of Bothnia, from Kiemi, on its 


northern, to Abo, on its southern extremity : and this amazing 
journey had been performed for the sole purpose of buying a 
little salt and tobacco, with which he was preparing to return. 
Abo chiefly consists of wooden houses, although there 
be many in the city both of stone and brick. The streets 
are of great length, some of them extending nearly an 
English mile. Being perfectly straight, they have a handsome 
appearance. A street leading from the former site of the old 


Monastery of Abo, towards Tavastehus, is as long as the Strada 
Toledo in Naples, or the Corso at Rome. There are three or four 
booksellers' shops, but they are worse than those of Stock- 
holm. The owners of these shops are only to be found in 
attendance during one hour in the day — from eleven till 
twelve : and if a stranger, calling at that hour, is desirous 
of examining the books, he is not allowed to touch one of 
them. A catalogue, written in the Sivedish language, is put 
into his hand, which is all he is permitted to see : and when 
he has been at the pains of examining the list, he finds it to 
consist entirely of Sivedish publications ; few of which are 
worthy of notice. There are, however, some which one is 
glad to meet with ; as, for example, the Dictionarium Anglo- 
Svethico Latinum of Bishop Serenius, with the curious 
preface of Eric Benzelius, printed at Hamburg, in 1734 ; also 
Widegren s Lexicon, Svenshtoch Engelsht, printed at Stockholm, 
in 1/88 ; which are almost essential to a travellers journey 




through the country. For the rest, it is hardly possible chap. xu. 

to conceive a greater quantity of trash than it is usual to 

meet with in such places. The works of the Siucdish 

historians are few in number; but even these it would be in 

vain to look for here, They are more likely to be met with 

in London or Paris, than in any of the Scandinavian cities, or 

even in Copenhagen. A person who is desirous of residing 

for any length of time in this University will of course avoid 

the inns, the very best of which is bad. The lodgings let to 


strangers visiting Abo are remarkably neat and clean : for 

a sum not exceeding four shillings English per week, a Pri «°* 

° ° ° * Article?. 

good set of apartments may be hired ; and no additional 
charge will be made for fire and candles. The only dear 
article is wine, which is supplied by the merchants of the 
city, who trade with Portugal and France ; and is of better 
quality than it is usual to meet with in Stockholm. One 
dozen of very good Champagne sold for about thirty 
shillings ; and the same quantity of good Port y for twenty- 
four shillings. Other Portuguese and French wines might 
be had in abundance ; especially the different sorts of Claret; 
one of which, La File, is always called Long-cork in Sivcden, 
and is the favourite wine in all company. They have also 
Hock and other wines from the Rhine and the Moselle. 

Our frequent intercourse with the respectable Professors 
of this University, especially with Professor Porthan, of 
whose historical talents we have already spoken, gave us 
reason to hope that we should be able to gain some insight 
into the antient history and origin of the Finnish tribes. — 
Professor Porthan was himself a native of Finland, and well 




chap. xii. read and experienced in all that related to his own country- 
men. He often visited us; and we passed whole evenings 
in conversing with him upon this subject. From all that we 

language and could collect, it was evident that the language of the Finns 

People of Fin- 

i***- is a dialect of that which is spoken by the Lapps ', by many 

° f 

(l) This opinion is combated by ihe Authors of the Universal Histoey, (see 
vol. xxxv. pp. 10, 11. Lond. 1/62.) and, as it should seem, upon the authority of 
Voltaire, who knew about as much of the Laplanders and Finns, as of the inhabitants 
of the Moon. " Olaus," (observe the writers before cited, speaking of the Lapps,) and 
others who have copied him, tell us, that these people were originally Finns,who retired 
into Lapland. But why, as M. de Voltaire observes (Hist, de Russie, torn. I. p. 16.), 
when they were moving, did they not choose a less northern land, where life would have 
been more comfortable to them ?" To which question of Voltaire there is this plain 
answer — That all the comforts of a Laplanders life depend upon the comforts of his 
rein-deer ; for which animal nothing can be better suited than the productions and 
climate of Lapland. If they had chosen "a less northern land," they would not have 
been provided, as they are, with the Lichen rangiferinus for their rein-deer, without 
which article of food, as it is well known, the animal degenerates and dies. The same 
authors maintain, that there is no similitude between the languages of the Finns and the 
Lapps : of the fallacy of which remark the Reader may judge from the following compa- 
rative Vocabulary. At the same time it should be stated, that there is some difference 
between the two languages : the appellations of the different parts of the human body 
are the same in both ; but the names of the Heathen Gods of the Finns and Lapps are 
not the same : 






















Suona ■ 

To hear. 


To mourn. 


To lament. 

















of the Russian nations ; and, what is much more remarkable, chap. xii. 
it has also been identified with the language of the 


































All these, and many more, are enumerated in the Appendix to a printed Thesis, " Be 


Bicarlis" written by Porlhan, for an Act kept in the Schools at Abo by Frantxin, upon 
the 20th of Dec. 1786, upon which occasion Porthart himself presided. 



To fear. 


To answer 


To travel. 

Man net. 

To drink. 

Jukket . 



To swallow. 


To freeze. 


To fly away. 


















































jhap.xii. Hungarians ', According to Professor Porthan, the Finns are 
the second colony of Tatars who settled in Scandinavia ; the 
old and original colony, or first-comers, being the Lapps. The 
Finns also peopled the north of Livonia, the south of which 
country was inhabited by a very different race of men. They 
once occupied all the western and southern parts of Russia, 
as far as the Caspian Sea : being compelled to emigrate, in 
consequence of the incursions of the Monguls, they settled in 
Finland. What branch of them it was, and at what time 
the event took place that occasioned their settlement in 


(l) The Reader will find this fact satisfactorily established by consulting the work of 
I. Sajnovics, " Demonstratio Idioma Ungurorum et Lapponum idem esse" 4to. Hafnicp, 
1770. Alsoan'other very curious treatise, printed at Gottingen, in 1799,entitled "Affinitas 
Linguae Hungaricos cum Linguis Fennicce originis, auctore S. Gyarmathi." But the 
principal confirmation of this curious circumstance was made by the discovery of 
Sajnovics -, who, going to Wardhuus, to witness a transit of Venus on the Sun's disk, 
first observed, and afterwards made known, the striking affinity between the languages 
of Lapland and Hungary. In Strallenberg's " Descriplio Imperii Iiussici," printed 
at Stockholm in 1730, p. 32. there is the following quotation from Sajnovics:-— 
'*■ Sciendum est, in Europa et Asia, qua septentrionem et orientem respiciunt, sex classes 
populorum inveniri, quos passim sub uno Tartarorum nomine complcctimur Sunt hi 



Omnes hi olim cum Finnis, Lapponibus, Esthiis, et Ungaris unum eundemque 
populum constituerunt. Atque ad sic dictos Hunnos, vel Unnos, qui non erant Tar- 
TARi per tinelant." — Nothing has ever puzzled philologists more than the extraordinary 
discrepancy of the Hungarian Ianguage,when compared with all others in its neigh- 
bourhood. Molnarius, a Hungarian, in the preface to his Hungarian Grammar, says, 
" Si quis e.v me qucerat, ad quam originalem linguum Ungarica referenda sit, vel cum 
quilus haleat cognationem, me nescire fatebor. Video enim eos, qui hoc tempore 
thesauros Polyglottos edunt, et linguas quasque in suas origines et classes referunt, 
Ungaricam semper in medio relinquere. Cum Europceis nullam connexionem habere 
hancnostram certum est. An vero in Scythicis Asias jinibus, supersint Gentes aliquce 
nostra lingua Hunnica utentes, juxta cum ignarissimis scio." 



Hungary, cannot now probably be determined. There is no 
other evidence of the fact than the similarity of the two 
languages: but surely such evidence is conclusive; for, as it 
is observed by the celebrated Ihre, in his Suio-Gothic Glossary, 
when speaking of the analogy between the two languages *, 
and the importance of such proofs, " non enim ut fungi, 


possess poetry and music; but they have no national dance, 
nor indeed any more ability or inclination for dancing than 
the bears which inhabit their forests. In this respect they 
may be said to resemble the Arabs, but differ from the whole 
race of Goths. In this poetry the Finns are what the 
Italians call Improvisatoris ; composing extempore rhapsodies. 
Their poetical productions are without rhyme, and consist 
almost entirely of trochees. All they seem to aim at, in 
these compositions, is alliteration ; of which they are so 
passionately fond, that the whole effect of a song or a poem 
is often owing to words which in the same line either begin 
entirely with the same letter, or in which a repetition of the 
same letter frequently recurs. Professor Frantzen gave us 
a specimen of Finnish poetry, which will illustrate what is 
now said. He called it "a Native Song of a Finnish Maiden" 
and we shall neither alter the title, nor make any change in 


CI I A I*. Xli. 

(2) This work was printed at Upsala in l/Og. After speaking of the Lap land and 
Finnish race, and attributing to them a common origin with the Hungarians, in his 
preface the author says — "Non enim arbitror alia ratione facile explicari posse, unde 
exstilerit insignis ilia, quce inter linguam Ungaricam et Fennicam olservatur nffinitas, 
qiiceque tanta est, ut eertajide relatum mihi sit, in nupero hello, quod in Germania 
gessimus, milites quosdam, Fennicce nationis, in Ungariam translator, intra pereriguum 
tempuscum regionis eius incolis collor/uia miscere potuisse." 


4 48 


li.M'. kit. the manner in which it is written ; although the form of the 
metre seems to be altogether irregular. For, understanding 
the mode of accentuation, it is only necessary that the Reader 
should observe the following order of the metre : 

The first word consists of a regular trochee ; the second, of 
one long syllable, followed by two short syllables, or a 
dactyl; the third, the same ; with which the line terminates. 
Every line, therefore, is made to consist of one trochee and 
two dactyls. We shall now insert the whole of it, accom- 
panied by a literal translation. 


Jos mun tuttuni tulisi, 
Enne ntihtyhd nnakysi : 
Sillen suuta ssuikajaisin, 
Jos olis sun suden veressa : 
Sillen katta kaapajaisin, 
Jos olis karme kammen puassa. 

Olisko tuuli mielelissuy 
Ahavainen kilelissa y 
Sanan toisi, sanan veisi, 
Kanden rakkahan v a! ilia. 

Ennensu heitan kerkurnat, 
Paistit pappilan unohdan, 
Ennerko heitan hertaiseni 
Kesan kestyteldyuni, 
Talven taivutelduani. 

Literal Translation. 

If my well-known should come, 
My often- beholded should appear ; 
I would snatch a kiss from his mouth, 
If it were tainted with wolf's blood ; 
I would seize and press his hand, 
If a serpent were at the end of it. 

If the wind had a mind, 
If the breeze had a tongue, 
To bear and bring back the vows 
Which two lovers exchange : 

All dainties would I disregard, 

Even the vicar's savoury meat j 

Rather than forsake the friend of my heart, 

The wild game of my summer's huntingj 

The darling of my winter's taming. 

This language is full of vowels, and perhaps better adapted 
to Poetry than any other language known. Their words 
never begin with two consonants : if a word begins with a 
vowel, it almost always ends with one ; at least, generally 




this happens; although there be, of course, exceptions, chap. xm. 
Acerbi, who was himself a skilful musician, has published, in 
the Appendix to the second volume of his Travels, the 
curious variations given by the Finlanders to the five notes of 
which alone all their music consists. He has preserved their 
famous Runa, beginning 

" Nuko, Nuko, pico Unto, 
Veni, Venu Vesterehi" 
as it is played upon the Harpu. He also mentions their 
dances; but this is an error, as they have no dance of their 
own. The dance to which he alludes, and which he 
witnessed on the banks of Leivaniemi, is not a Finnish dance, 
but one borrowed from their neighbours. 


The merchants of Abo have no regular place of Exchange; M c ercha ^*^ 
but they meet in the Square, and there transact their business. 
Indeed, the number of the wholesale dealers is very restricted. 
Mr. Bremer, a friend of ours, was one of this number : he 
had travelled over Europe, and possessed a good collection 
of paintings. We bought one of him, by Le Brim ; a very 
good picture, representing the Crucifixion; which he had 
procured in France during the troubles of the Revolution, 
and had destined for the altar of a small chapel erected by 
himself near some glass-works in the neighbourhood. The 


trade between Abo and England, at this time, was very much 
restricted ; and there was a report of its being entirely 
prohibited. Spain was the only country from which salt 
was allowed to be imported, consistently with a regulation 
which prevailed all over Sweden. A cursory survey of the Maritime 

A j j Commerce i»f 

foreign commerce of all the maritime towns of Sweden and 5Jw*»«a 



3 M 




chap. xii. Norway might be afforded in very few words. All the 
country, from Louisa, on the Gulph of Finland, to Abo, was 
occupied in commerce with Spain. Following the coast, 
along the eastern side of the Gulph of Bothnia, the inhabitants 
were engaged in trade with England. All the western side 
of the same gulph was employed in traffic with Stockholm, 
from whence the commerce is general over the world. 
Tornea, in the north of the gulph, trades with Stockholm 
and Copenhagen, and sometimes exports to England its 
commodities, of tar, deals, fish, and peltry. All the 
south of Siveden proper is engaged in trade with England 
and Holland. The ships of Gothenburg sail even to China. 
With regard to the Norwegian coast of Scandinavia, 
beginning from North Cape, westward, the inhabitants 
supply the ports of Denmark, Holland, and England, with 
Jish and peltry ; and also send the same commodities into 
Sweden, by the way of Tornea. Ships from Tronyem sail to 
Ireland, Scotland, and Holland. The trade of Bergen is 
confined chiefly to Holland; and that of Christiania, as we 
have before mentioned, to England: but the trade of the 
south of Norway, by the late abandonment of its interests on 
the part of England, and its cession to Sweden, has been 
entirely ruined 1 . 


In Abo there are some customs rather of a singular nature. 
They ring their church-bells at a funeral, as we do in 


(l) This remark of course applies to the political changes that have taken place since 
the period of these Travels. Norway remains as it was, and as it ever will be, — the most 
beautiful and fertile country in the world, full of the grandest scenery in Nature ; but its 
foreign commerce is annihilated, and its merchants are all ruined. 

Singular cus 

to his. 



England at a wedding. When a robbery has been com- chap.xii. 
mitted, a person, beating a drum, goes through all the 
streets, to make it known to the inhabitants. They have 
here a Town Hall and a Parliament House: petty offences Courts of j u . 

. ' dicature. 

being judged of at the former, and capital crimes at the 
latter. The President or Judge passes sentence ; but if 
the offender be condemned to death, his execution cannot 
take place without an order from the King. Both the 
Town Hall and the Parliament House are built of stone ; as 
are also the seat of the Courts of Justice, the Excise Office, 
the house of the Governor, and the houses of some of the 
merchants. A bo is surrounded on all sides by rocky hills, 
which have a very naked appearance, and consist, for the 
most part, of granite. 

In the questions which we put to the numerous fami- ^j-^^fhe 
lies of Finns who were now daily flocking into Abo, jj^* Hn ~ 
respecting the particular articles of commerce for which 
they had made such marvellous journeys, we were an- 
swered, that they came to buy salt and tobacco ; bringing 
at the same time, in exchange for these commodities, corn, 
peltry, Jish, butter, and cheese. Some of them were from 
parishes at the extremities of the two Gulphs of Bothnia and 
Finland; and of these we have already mentioned one 
individual from Kiemi. What would be thought, in England, 
of a labouring peasant, or the occupier of a small farm, 
making a journey of nearly 700 miles* to a fair, for the 


(2) The distance from Tornea to Abo, by the Swedish Vagvisare, Stockholm ,17/6, p. 41, 
is 97 Swedish miles ; which, at the rate of seven English miles to one Swedish, is 679 


miles : but many of the F'mlanders who resort to Abo fair perform journeys of far 
greater distance. 




the Univer 


articles of their home consumption ? Except in this annual 


journey to Abo, the true Finns have little intercourse with 
the inhabitants of the maritime district : they inhabit the 
eastern provinces of Savolax and Tavasthuus ; where they 
live in the midst of forests, by the borders of the lakes ; and 
lead a mode of life which exactly resembles that of the 
agricultural or settled Laplander ; in houses which have a 
hole at the top to let out the smoke, and in one large room 
which is occupied by the whole family. The natives upon 
the coast are either Swedes, or a mixed race of Swedes and 
Finns; of which nature are the inhabitants of the country 


from Abo to the north, as far as Bjorneborg. 
>t The Literary establishment of Abo, as a University, is of 
very recent date, compared with the origin of similar 
institutions in our own country. Gustavus Adolphus, in the 
year 1626, first founded here a Gymnasium, or School, for the 
use of the town only. Fourteen years afterwards, Queen 
Christina, or, as the Swedes call her, Stina 1 , converted the 
Gymnasium into a University, endowing it with the same 


(l) "In No. 135. the Spectator, upon the subject of the English language, observes, 
that proper names, familiarized in English, dwindle to monosyllables, but that in other 
languages they receive a softer tone by the addition of syllables. Thus Nicholas, in 
English Nic, becomes Nicolini in Italian ; John, alias Jack, becomes Janot in French ; 
&c. The Swedes in this case are our allies, for we both follow this dwindling system ; 
but with this difference,' that, as we cut at one end of our words, they dock at the other. 
Who would ever imagine, among the softening French or Italian linguists, that 
Nicholas was expressed by Nils, as in Nils Marelius ? Christina, by Stina ? And 
who would guess that Greta was the same as Marguerita ; Pehr, as Peter j or Jan, 
as Johan ? Yet I think that these alterations are improvements; and I am much 
delighted with my female acquaintance under the abbreviations of Maia, Karin, and 
Phia, for Mary, Catherine, and Sophia ■, and which appear to be preferable to the 
abbreviations which are used of Bet, Kate, or Sophy." — Dr. Fiott Lee's MS. Journal. 



nriviJeges as Upsala ; and she appointed the bishop of the 
diocese Vice-Chancellor. The number of resident Students 
did not, at the time of our visit, exceed 300; but including 
all who had their names upon the foundation list, there 
might be about 500. The number of the Professors was as 
follows : — in the faculty of Divinity, three, with me Adjunct: 
in Law, one: in the faculty of Medicine, two ordinary, and 
one extraordinary, as Profefisors ; together with an Adjunct : 
in Philosophy, nine Professors, besides two Adjuncts ordinary 
and one extraordinary. There was, moreover, a list of 
Teachers, as before stated, called Magistri docentes ; two for 
Divinity, and eleven for Philosophy: and one French Master; 
one Fencing Master ; and one Teacher of Music, who was 
Organist of the Cathedral. 

We had sent back our Swedish Interpreter the whole way 
from Abo to the village of Vargatta, near which place our 
travelling-carriage had been left upon a rock 2 . This man had 
a most dreary journey to perform, upon the ice, as it must 
appear from the account we have given of our own ; but the 
Swedes are used to such expeditions, and think nothing of 
them. He undertook it, in an open sledge, with the greatest 
readiness ; and returned as soon as the ice was strong enough 
to bear the weight of such a vehicle the whole way, and 
brought it safe to Abo. The mode of travelling in the 
common sledges of the country is certainly the best, as far 
as the mere business of the day is concerned : it is, therefore, 
that mode of journeying which every one would adopt who 
seeks only to perform a given distance with the greatest 

expedition : 


Number of 

(2) See p. 3 1 8 of this volume. 



chap. xir. expedition : but what is to become of a traveller in the night, 
importance of in such a country and climate, where there are not only no 

a travelling- . •nyi* n • 

carriage. inns, but where he will find it actually impossible to procure 
a place of rest ; nor even a stable, in which he may find clean 
straw for his couch, or a place where he may lie down ? It 

state of the seems as if the natives of the dreary district between Abo and 

tions for Tra- Petersburg had exerted their utmost ingenuity, and with fatal 


success, to banish from their dwellings every thing that bore 

any relationship to comfort and cleanliness. They lie down 

themselves upon dirty boards, filthy with grease and smoke ; in 

dark hovels, stinking of putrid fish : and these boards, which 

they use for their beds, are not put together horizontally, so 

that a traveller might cover them with skins, and thus contrive 

a resting-place ; but they are set up in a sloping position, like 

the roof of a house, with a foot-board to arrest the feet, 

and prevent the person sleeping upon them from slipping 

off; to which a stranger, unused to the practice of being 

extended like a carcase upon a butcher's shamble, is 

constantly liable. Our travelling- carriage, therefore, was 

for us a moveable home ; without which it would be folly, 

in this season of the year, to think of making any further 

progress. In the summer season the case would have been 

different ; because the traveller, well armed against mosquitoes, 

may then lie down in the open air, quite indifferent as to the 

state of the dwellings in his route'. 


(1) Such, too, is the expedition with which voyages among the Aland Isles are then 
performed, that Professor Malthus and the Rev. W. Otter, who passed this way, from 
Stockholm to Petersburg, in August, came in a boat from Skarpans to Abo, a distance 
equal to 1 1 7 miles, in a single day. In the course of this voyage, which they describe 
as resembling a passage across a beautiful lake sprinkled with islands, they were only 




As soon as the carriage arrived, we took leave of our ciur. xn. 
friends, and prepared for our journey into Russia. Knowing Cursory re- 

7 r *■ j j o fl ec tions pre- 

nothing; of that country, or of its inhabitants, we set out full vious t0 , de " 

fc> «' ' ' parture lor. 

of hope that our gratification would be at least equal to that Rm,ia - 
we had received in visiting Sweden, and little prepared for 
the grievous disappointment we afterwards experienced. 
Every thing tended to excite in us a curiosity to become 
acquainted with the Russians; — the great figure they were 
beginning to make in the political world ; and the memory of 
the illustrious names connected with the history of the 
country. There is something imposing in the mere name of 
such a mighty empire. Extending from the Caspian to the 
Icy Sea, and from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, it presents, 
under one Sovereign, a greater extent of territory than all the 
empires of antiquity. It is therefore with an aching heart, 
but with more of regret than indignation, that the writer of 
these pages purposes to make known to the English Reader, 

w T hat 

once out of sight of land ; namely, in sailing to Ekero. Their carriage had been taken to 
pieces, and put into their boat. They left Skarpans at a quarter past six in the morning of 


August 7, and reached the Custom-house at Abo a quarter before six in the evening. They 
had, therefore, performed their delightful voyage in eleven hours and a half, at the rate 
often miles an hour the whole way. They did not keep a direct course ; but sailed in and 
out among the islands, and passed a number of very narrow straits. They describe the 
appearance of the islands in summer as "sometimes exhibiting a prospect of bare rocks ; 
sometimes, rocks covered with firs 3 and sometimes, but not often, cultivated lands,with 
farms upon them." The villages and little towns are " built of small wooden houses, 
many of them projecting into the water." Upon the rocks near one village they counted 
nineteen windmills, all going. The whole had a very picturesque effect, and the scenery 
was charming. The rocks were no where very high. The woods were generally of fir- 
trees, but sometimes mixed with alders, birch, &c. The entrance of the river Aeura, 


in sailing up to Abo, possessed striking beauties, as the rocks were higher ; and nothing 
could be more agreeable than the voyage they had made. 



chap . Xii. what his fate will be, if hereafter, pursuing the same route, 
he should venture to traverse the Russian dominions, and 
especially Russian Finland, in his way to Petersburg. Every 
effort of a powerful people has hitherto been made to 
suppress the truth with regard to Russia. Large sums of 
money have been constantly paid, both in England and upon 
the continent of Europe, to buy up the public journals; and 
to engage writers who should answer all the views of the 
Russian Cabinet, by studiously concealing the truth with 
regard to that country, and by propagating false accounts of 
its inhabitants. It is not therefore to be subject of wonder 
that we fell so easily into the snare which was spread before 
us. As we did not expect to meet with refinement, we had 
no right to complain of the barbarism of the Russians ; but 
the rude and simple manners of unenlightened nations, 
however barbarous they may be, are sometimes joined to 
benevolence, if not to honesty : yet the very word honesty, 
if it exist in the Russian language, is unintelligible to 
Russians : they know not the virtue to which it applies. If 
any trace of it lie concealed throughout the wide extent of 
the Scythian dominion, it is, perhaps, buried in the breasts 
of those victims of tyranny who have been condemned, for 
their love of truth, to a life of labour in the mines of Siberia: 
or it may exist in some dungeon of the empire, the access to 
whose walls is carefully guarded by Despotism, that unnatural 
monster, who can only thrive where virtue is oppressed. 
At this time, Sweden had not lost her valuable possessions in 
Ostero- Bothnia; but the designs of Russia were well known 
to all the best-informed men of the country. From their 





account, therefore, of the people we were about to visit, chap. xii. 
founded on the bitter experience of the Finlanders with 
regard to Russia, we had some prescient view of the gathering 
storm that was about to burst upon the land : but we enter- 
tained a hope, that the Cabinets of Europe, much better 
aware of what was going on, would never allow the 
predatory designs of the Russians to be carried on unmolested. 
A great national animosity had always subsisted between 
Sweden and Russia; and we hoped that to this might be 
attributed something of the dark picture given to us of the 
latter. Sweden, boasting of her former victories, saw with 
fear and distrust the rising prosperity of her mighty adversary, 
and the indifference with which more distant nations 
regarded the encroachments the Russians were everywhere 
making upon the territories of their neighbours. Russia, 
with an appetite for dominion, that grows by what it feeds 
upon, witnesses every year, as it passes, some new district 
annexed to her empire. She was now viewing with longing 
eyes the rich fields of Finland, which intercepted the 
progress of her boundaries towards the Gulf of Bothnia : 
and Sweden and Norway will next become a prey to her 
devouring ambition and avarice ; as will the whole of Persia, 
India, and Turkey; — when it will be too late for other Powers 
to interfere, and to curb the ferocious system of oppression ; 
which in due season they might have restrained ! 


3 N 

Tomb of Count Ernsverd. 



•Journey from 

Abo to Hel- 


Journey from Abo to Helsingfors — Description of Helsingfors — For- 
tress of Sweaborg — Tomb of Count Ernsverd — Strength, size, and 
importance of Sweaborg — Route from Helsingfors to Borgo and 
Louisa — approach to the Russian frontier — Boundaries of the 
Swedish and Russian Dominions — Contrast betiveen the Natives of 
the two countries — Mode of recruiting the Russian Army — Iniquitous 
conduct of a Russian Inspector of the Customs — Difficulties that 
impede the Traveller — Arrival at Frederickshamm — Appearance of 
that place — Regulation relating to Posting in Russia — Description 
of the Post-houses in Russian Finland — Intense cold of the weather 
during the night — Arrival at Wibourg — Appearance of the Soldiers 
of the Garrison — Mode of inflicting punishment on Deserters — Inha- 
bitants of Wibourg — Arrival at Petersburg. 

The journey from Abo to Helsingfors, in the summer time, 
affords a series of prospects, which, in their character, cannot 
be equalled in the Swedish dominions ; but in the winter 
season, it is performed under circumstances of so much dreary 



uniformity, that the traveller is glad to pass over it with all 
possible expedition. In this long route, therefore, little will 
now be said respecting any particular part of it: the only 
objects attracting notice, being the houses of relay ; which 
are much the same everywhere, seldom rising to mediocrity 
as to the accommodations they offer, but situate in a country 
full of picturesque beauty. This part of Finland is much 
cultivated : the forests having been cleared, and enclosures 
made, of course the population is greater than in other 
places. The whole country appears decked with farm-houses 
and village-churches, rising to the view, or falling from it, 
over an undulating district, amidst woods, and water, and 
rocks, and large loose masses of granite : it may be called 
Norway in miniature : and the extraordinary novelty to an 
English traveller, of seeing vessels gliding out, as if from the 
woods, among which are so many bays, lakes, and little 
inland seas, in that season of the year when the ice has not 
locked up the waters, is as delightful as it is striking. Higher 
up the country, towards the north, there are scenes which 
were described to us as unrivalled in the world. Every charm 
which the effect of cultivation can give to the aspect of a 
region where Nature's wildest features — headlong cataracts, 
lakes, majestic rivers, and forests — are combined, may there 
be seen. 

The road from J bo to Peike, the first stage, one Sivedish 
mile and a half, is broader than the generality of roads in 
Sweden, and very good. Here we found the people speaking 
Finnish, of which we understood very little. Our next stage, 
to VisfUy was through a tract of land surrounded by hills 






chap.xiii. sprinkled with firs, caliing to our mind the scenery near 
Gothenburg in Sweden, where all the hills seemed formed 
into basins. As we proceeded, the country was broken with 
woods and forests of birch and fir ; and on our right we had, 
occasionally, views of inlets, or bays of the sea. From the 
information of some travellers who passed through the part 
of Swedish Finland that lies between Abo and Louisa, we 
found that nothing could be more incorrect than the account 
they had received at Stockholm respecting the face and nature 
of the country. They had been told, that they would see 
one continued black forest : instead of this, the tract, 
through which they passed, in the month of August, pre- 
sented, frequently, scenery of a most beautiful and pic- 
turesque nature. The soil, in some places, was extremely 
fertile ; the pasture lands very rich ; and the crops of corn, of 
which a great quantity is exported from this part of the 
country, abundant. 

By the friendship of Baron D \4rmfeldt, upon our arrival 
at Helsingfors, we were conducted to the famous fortress of 
Siveaborg ; perhaps, after Gibraltar, the strongest in Europe. 
It is very difficult to obtain admission : and we were told 
that even the Baron, who was second in command in the 
garrison, could not procure for us leave to enter. But when 
he presented us to the General, the latter, after being assured 
that we were not travelling in any military character, per- 
mitted the Baron, and a captain of marines, to conduct us 
over it. I must, however, first speak of Helsingfors, as it 
occurs first in order. 

Description of j t [ s a small but handsome town, containing many stone 





houses; and, considering the size of it, carries on a very chaf.xim. 
active trade : the shopkeepers deal with the neighbouring 


farmers, and, as at Abo, with the Finns, who descend in 
numbers in the winter. The town was crowded with them, 
when we were there. The foreign commerce, as well as 
that of all the south of Finland, is exclusively with Spain, 
to which country it conveys deal planks, and brings back 
salt ; the return with this article being considered of great 


importance. Helsingfors, like Abo and Louisa, is renowned 
for its deal planks ; some of which we found to be twelve 
feet in length and two inches in thickness, perfectly fair, 
and very free from knots. Twelve of them, when shipped, 
cost, including all expenses, two rix-dollars and a half of the 
paper currency ; about eight shillings English, according to 
the present state of exchange, which must render the profit 
very high. The expense of building vessels is not great 
here ; and it is still less in the Gulf of Bothnia. A ship of 
150 Swedish lasters may be purchased for six thousand rix- 
dollars ; and many well-constructed trading brigs do not cost 
more than two thousand. Of all the deals exported from the 
Gulf of Finland, those of Frederickshamm, a town in the 
Russian dominions, are preferred by the Spanish merchants. 

The houses have an appearance of comfort ; and the inha- 
bitants, we were informed, lived in perfect harmony and good- 
will among each other. We experienced great attention and 
politeness from many of them. Nothing can be more gay 
and pleasing than the scene, exhibited on the ice, from Hel- 
singfors to the fortress of Siveaborg, which is situate on an 
island, distant two English miles. The road is marked on 





fortress of 

chap.xiil the snow by trees, or large branches of the pine, planted in 
the ice. Sledges of all sizes and descriptions, open and 
covered, of business, burthen, or pleasure, plain or decorated, 
with beautiful little prancing Finland horses, are seen moving 
with the utmost rapidity, backwards and forwards, the whole 
way, from morning to night. Officers with their servants, 
ladies, soldiers, peasants, artificers, engineers, form a crowded 
promenade, more interesting and amusing than that of Hyde 
Park in London, or the Corso at Rome. 

The entrance to the fortress of Siveaborg is by a long and 
narrow arched way. Every thing around us — the massive 
walls, numerous batteries, intricate mazes, the prodigious 
quantity of cannon, and the swarms of soldiers, sentries, posts 
of guard — announced the strength and consequence of the 
place. Our passports and persons underwent, as we entered, 
a very rigid examination. The house of the Commandant 
and principal officers is a lofty white edifice, placed on an 
eminence, over the gateway. On an area immediately before 
it, stands the simple but characteristic Tomb of Count 
Ernsverd, the engineer who planned the works '. The 
chastity and purity of taste which are shewn in this tomb, 
at once bespeak the .Augustan age of Siveden, and the genius 
of Gustavus the Third. Whatever is elegant in art, what- 
ever is great and correct in design, whatever is magnificent, 
all came from him ; and to the same source the Tomb of 
Ernsverd owes its origin. It is worthy of the finest age of 
Greece ; and has, at the same time, an Etrurian character of 


Tomb of 



(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 




durability and massiveness. It is raised upon an ascending chap.xiii. 
scale of four tablets, perfectly simple and plain in all its parts ; 
except, that on each of its oblong sides, which are indented, 
there are short inscriptions in gilt letters : the snow which 
covered them had been hardened by the frost; and we were 
not able to remove it, in the few moments we had leisure to 
examine the tomb. 

Not being at all conversant with matters relating to fortifi- strength, »ze 

and import- 
Cation, we can give only an imperfect account of the interior anceof 

wonders of this admirable fortress. Its basins, and canals, 
and dry docks, have been cut, with infinite labour and art, out 
of the solid rock ; and works for its further improvement are 
still going on. The roofs and chimneys of all the store-houses 
and magazines are covered with copper. Strong ladders 
reach from the basins to the tops of the buildings, which, in 
case of fire, must be particularly serviceable ; for they are as 
stout and broad as staircases ; and every one of them would 
allow persons ascending and descending to pass each other. 
In different parts of the fortress are a great number of cannon 
taken from the Russians, which may be distinguished from 
those of Sweden by their shortness. 

Here are kept the Galleys, capable of being worked equally 
with sails or oars. The dry docks, large enough to receive 
the fleet, have a very narrow entrance : one vessel only can 
be admitted at a time. Batteries of various heights, ap- 
pearing like mountains of massive masonry, command every 
port and avenue of the works. Water is admitted by gates 
or locks ; and, when necessary, it is afterwards carried off by 
mill-pumps. Every vessel has its proper place : and the ships 



S W E A B R G. 

CHAP.X.III. are laid up in a manner so convenient and admirable, as to 
be ready at the shortest notice ; and are carefully preserved, 
when not in use. At the time of our visit, they were con- 
structing a dock sufficiently large to enable them to build a 
ship of one hundred guns in it'. 

The garrison, at present, consists of three regiments, one 
of marines and two of infantry. There are besides, in Hel- 
singfors and Siveaborg, twelve hundred artillery soldiers ; but 
only two hundred in the fortress. In time of war, the gar- 
rison contains ten thousand men, a number necessary to its 
proper defence. For these, every accommodation can be 
afforded within the walls. All the officers reside here with 
their families, in very comfortable apartments ; but we were 
informed, by those who had served in France, in the Regiment 
Royale de la Suede, that in Lisle, and other fortresses of that 
country, the accommodations were far superior ; a captain 


(l) As the Fortress of Sweaborg has been seldom visited or described, some additional 
information is here annexed, from Fortia's Travels in Sweden, in 17Q0 — 1/02. The 
fortress is composed of seven small islands, or rather rocks, three of which are joined 
to each other by bridges. It requires half an hour to pass over from Hebingj'ors to the 
principal island (Gustafholm),on which the Governor's house is situate. No communi- 
cation between the fortress and the town is practicable during the prevalence of a 
strong south-west wind. The construction of this place was begun in 1/48; and 
although it be not yet complete, it is in a perfectly defensible condition. The harbour is 
excellent, being capable of containing sixty sail of the line. Large vessels cannot enter, 
but by an extremely narrow channel, commanded by the guns of the fortress. We saw, 
exclusively of mortars, one hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, which point upon this 
passage ; and nearly one thousand pieces altogether, including the land batteries, in the 
different forts. Many of the works are cut out of the solid rock. There is an eighth 
island, contiguous to that in which the fortress is situated ; whence, in case of the enemy 
getting a station, it might be successfully attacked. — See Pinkertoris Voyages and 
Travels, vol. VI. 



being lodged better there, than a colonel in Siuedborg. The chap.xiii. 
inhabitants of the garrison live in the most pleasant and 
social manner : they have their assemblies and balls, at which 
more than forty ladies, many of them of great beauty, make 
their appearance. 

Sweaborg is much larger than Portsmouth ; and, according 
to the opinion of Sivedish officers who have seen both places, 
it is much stronger. They deem it impregnable : but whether 
it could be properly defended in the winter-time — when access 
to it is rendered so easy by the ice, and when, for want of water, 
which then becomes frozen in all the basins, a conflagration 
would produce the most dreadful effects — we shall leave to the 
decision of persons who are more competent than ourselves 
to speak on these matters. Notwithstanding the extent of the 
works which were at that time carrying on, there were not 
more than three hundred men employed when we were at 

From Helsingfors we came to Borgo y where we stopped at Route from 

Helsingfors to 

a good but extravagant inn. The town is small; though, for BorgoavA 
Finland, it is a considerable one. It has a Gymnasium, or 
School ; and possesses a Library, in which are preserved some 
of the earliest works of Linnceus. The houses are of wood, 
and painted red : the inhabitants are chiefly Swedes. As we 
proceeded to Forsby, the road became more rocky. We passed 
some woods of birch and fir ; and in the latter part of our 
route, before we arrived at Louisa, we perceived a lake on 
our right. As we entered this town, we were stopped by a 
Custom-house officer; who intended, as we supposed, that 
we should unpack all our baggage : but he at last observed, 
vol. vr. 3 o that 




chap.xiii. that if we would give him something, he would suffer us to 
pass. The manners of the people began to change ; and we 
found nothing here to remark, but dirt and drunkenness. 
The town is rather pretty, and the principal street is wide : 
in summer it may perhaps be entitled to more praise ; as, 
doubtless, all these maritime places, situate on bays, creeks, 
and among islands, must then have a beautiful appearance; 
for their shores are rarely destitute of trees. 

We could not quit Louisa so early as we wished ; being 
delayed by our pass, which, it should seem, was examined 
by many different persons ; for it was sent for, and brought 
back again, several times. It was necessary also to have our 
Swedish paper changed for Russian money, that we might be 
able to pay for our horses on the other side of the frontier. 
We here found that the Russian rouble was worth forty schil- 
lings Swedish. In going to Tesjo, we passed a forest of firs, 
growing in the interstices of large loose rocks of granite. 
We slept at this place, within half a mile of the Sivedish and 
Russian frontiers, in order that we might be ready to undergo 
the examination of the Custom-house officers early the next 

We know not how to paint the extreme contrast which 
appears in the short distance of an English mile,, — from the 
Swedish to the Russian guard. The country is still Finland , 
but it is Russian Finland ; and to heighten the difference 
between an union with Sweden, and a subjugation by Russia, 
the Russian Finns are not those who make their appearance 
at the guard, but soldiers from the interior of the empire ; 
the reason of which will soon appear. In a company 


Approach ta 
the Russian 




tllC Boundaries of 
the Swedish 

of the Tavasthuas militia, stationed at a small distance chap.xiii. 
from the Swedish Douane, on the east side of the western 
branch of the river, which separates the two countries, 
we had the last view of the benevolent and mild inha- 
bitants of Sweden. They were a sturdy and athletic troop : 
and as it gave us a melancholy satisfaction to prolong the few 
moments of our farewell, by conversation with them, the 
officer on duty politely accompanied us as far as the Russian 

In passing the little island which lies between 
Swedish and the Russian bridge, we expressed a curiosity to a " a ft**** 

ox J dominions. 

know what formed the precise boundary of the two countries. 
The Swedish officer shewed us a stone of about two tons 
weight, which is the only^ object that is supposed to break 
the neutrality of this interval between the respective posts. 
Higher to the north is the Tammijara, a small lake in the 
western branch of the Kymene river ; which river, with the 
more remote waters of the Pyha and Wuoka lakes, forms the 
line of demarcation 1 . 

When the mind has been accustomed to repose implicitly 
on the fidelity and virtues of those around us, it is difficult to 
submit it all at once to a system of suspicion and caution. 


(l) " Sweden is at present reduced to the narrow but long country situate between 
Norway on the one hand, and the Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia on the other. The 
loss of Finland is to be regretted, as a diminution of her population : the Finlanders 
were fully as warlike as the Swedes ; and they seem to have a superiority over them in 
industry. But these disadvantages are scarcely a balance to the additional security 
which Sweden has thence derived, and to the consequent diminution of their expenses, 
as far as it is necessary to provide for the security of their country." — Thomson's Travels 
in. Sweden, 1813. />. 417. 




chap. xiii. The confidence which had originated in the long-experienced 
honesty, goodness, and placid benignity of the inhabitants of 
Sweden did not entirely forsake us, as it ought to have done, 
on entering^ Russia. A few miles, nay, even a few yards, 
conduct you from aland of hospitality and virtue, to a den of 
thieves. We suffered for this want of caution, in the loss of 
the first moveables on which the Russians could lay their 
hands. We had, indeed, been forewarned of their pilfering 
disposition, but did not imagine that we should so soon expe- 
rience the truth of the information which we had received 
respecting this part of the Russian character. 

contrast be- We have alluded to the guard of soldiers who are sent from 

tween the . t 

Natives of the the interior of the country, to be stationed on the Russian 

two countries. 

frontier. In this, we see a remarkable contrast in the man- 
ners of the two nations. The Swedish frontier is guarded 
by the Tavasthuus militia, natives of the districts they are 
stationed to defend. Sweden carries on no war against its own 
subjects ; it transacts no deeds of darkness on its own fron- 
tier; the defence of them is entrusted to armed natives. 
Mode of But with Russia, the case is very different : her Government 

recruiting the , . , # 

Russian army, was employed, at the time we entered the country, in kidnap- 
ping, during the night, all the young men who could be found 
in their houses, to supply the armies. Their hands and legs 
were bound, and they were cast into sledges, like calves. 
As this naturally begets a desire in the Russians who inhabit 
the borders to migrate to the Swedish side, that they may 
experience the influence of a milder government, it is neces- 
sary to have piquets stationed along the line, and roving 




Cossacks, to prevent desertion. Strangers are evidently chap.xiii. 
wanted for this purpose ; as few of the natives would intercept 
a brother or a friend, in his flight from tyranny. 

Having crossed the Russian bridge, we were ordered to 
halt, by one of the sentinels, a dwarfish meagre figure with 
a sallow complexion and a long cloak, who, with scarcely 
strength enough to shoulder a musket, stood shivering 
before a large fire. A little above was the wretched hovel 
which serves as a guard-house. Notice being given of our 
arrival, we were ordered to approach ; and after a few neces- 
sary ceremonies, we passed to the Custom-house, a little 
higher up on the left hand. Here we were ushered into a 
tolerably neat little room, where sate an officer with a lame 
foot on a couch. He could neither talk French nor English, 
and very little Swedish ; so that we had no means of communi- 
cation, until at length he surprised us by asking if we spoke 
Latin. Our passports were then examined, and returned. 
We had reason to fear that our servants would be detained ; 
for although they had been included in the passports of the 
Danish amd Swedish Sovereigns, and expressly mentioned in 
that of our own Government, they had not been included in 
the Russian. Our passports were, however, signed and deli- 
vered to us, with an assurance that we were at liberty to 
proceed. As we advanced to the carriage, an inspector of iniquitous 

A conduct of a 

the Customs, a renegado Finn, informed us, in the Swedish RusHanin. 

7 o * spector of the 

language, that he had two handsome pipes to sell. We customs. 
thanked him, but informed him that we did not use tobacco. 
" Yah so I 1 " he replied ; " but you have some Swedish money, 



( 1 ) For the different import and meaning of this expression, see p. 296 of this volume. 



chap.xiii. which I will accept in exchange for Russian." He then 
produced two false notes, one for fifty, the other for five 
roubles, which, he said, was all the Russian money he possessed. 
As the imposition was too glaring to pass, and the Swedish 
officer openly pronounced the notes to be bad, we declined 
having any dealings with the Inspector. Upon this, he 
snatched from my hands one of our passports ; and opening it, 
declared, that as the names of the servants were not included, 
they might attempt to proceed at their peril ; calling, at the 
same time, to the soldiers to mind their duty, or to abide the 
consequences. We in vain entreated that they might be 
accompanied by a guard to Frederichshamm, where we might 
state our situation to the Commandant ; adding, that all 
expenses should be defrayed by us, and the soldiers liberally 
rewarded. We represented, that a journey of three hundred 
versts, to Petersburg, in so severe a season of the year, with 
so much baggage, and without a knowledge of the language, 
would subject us to the greatest hardships, and perhaps to the 
loss of all our trunks. But our attempts to persuade him 
were fruitless : his honour had been wounded by the detection 
of his villany; and therefore, making a virtue of revenge, he 
would for once fulfil his duty to his Sovereign, by exactions of 
the most vexatious and frivolous kind. He had also, without 
doubt, a hope that our servants would be left in his hands ; by 
which means a new demand might be made upon us, subject 
to the most flagrant imposition. The Sivedish officer, with 
the politeness and hospitality of his nation, and justly indig- 
nant at what he had witnessed, conducted them back to 
Louisa, assuring us that they should be taken care of, until we 

were able to send for them from Petersburg. 




The author has frequently avoided, in the course of the chap.xjil 
account of these Travels, the unnecessary insertion of circum- Difficulties 

that impede 

stances and adventures, the narrative of which might have the the traveller 

in Jiutsia. 

appearance of egotism. The statement of what occurred on 
first entering the Russian frontier will not, he trusts, expose 
him to this charge. An omission of that which serves to 
characterize a nation, or part of a nation, and which may 
prove a caution to travellers, would be, indeed, neglect. We 
might add, to the conduct of the inspector, a catalogue of 
difficulties which quickly succeeded each other, during our 
expedition to Petersburg, through a country more inhospitable 
than the deserts of Tahtary. Attempts were frequently made 
to impede our progress. In the small towns, there is generally 
found a miserable innkeeper, to whom the officers are fre- 
quently in debt : it is his interest, therefore, to detain the 
traveller: and the officer on guard, or even his superior, has 
little difficulty in discovering some method by which this 
object may be accomplished. 

The tract of land between Aberfors and Frederickshamm is 
the scene of the last glories in the life of Gustavus the Third 
of Sweden. He carried his conquests even to the walls of 
that fortress ; and, had it not been for the perfidy of his 
officers, would have received a more splendid crown of 
yictory within the city of Petersburg. The spot, where the 
contest between the armies was most severe, is about three 
Sivedish miles from Aberfors, at Anjala. In this route, wherever 
the Russians appeared, a striking difference was visible 
between their figure, features, manners and dress, and those 
of the Finns. The hair and complexion of the latter were 

lighter t 



Arrival at 
hamm . 

chap.xiii. lighter : the Russians wore long beards, with their necks bare. 
At a short distance before we arrived at Fredericksha?nm y 
we passed round a Russian station, the fortifications of which 
had been lately thrown up. We considered ourselves happy 
in not meeting with any further interruption. We saw few 
peasants ; and those whom we met had a very poor and 
wretched aspect. 

It is impossible to conceive a more desolate tract of country 
than the whole route from Louisa to Frederickshamm. Some 
white houses, particularly the Town-house, a large building 
in the centre, painted white and green, gave to Fredericks- 
hamm a lively appearance. The fortifications were very 
regular; and the street, by which we entered, was straight, and 
terminated in the Town-house. We were suffered to proceed 
through the exterior parts of the fortifications without inter- 
ruption ; but on coming to the interior gate, we were 
stopped, and our passes examined. While we were detained, 
a sudden shout was raised by all the soldiers on guard ; and 
they ran to arms. We found, on looking round, that the 
appearance of the Governor, in his carriage, was the cause of 
this bustle. The beating of the drums, and the noise of the 
muskets, made our horses rear and plunge ; and as we were in 
the gateway, the Governor was obliged to give orders to the 
soldiers to cease, that we might move on one side, and make 
room for him. When he had passed, some of the officers 
spoke to us in French, and asked how long we proposed 
staying in the town ; and said that our passports should be 
returned to us the next morning. We were informed, that it 
was necessary to obtain from the Governor a paper, called 


relating to 
Posting in 

B^B e^ 



poderosnoy, to shew at every post-house ; as without it we chap.xiii. 
could not procure horses. For this paper we were to pay 
one copeek a verst, for each horse. The Commandant of the 
garrison shewed us great civility : we attended his levee, with 
all the officers, whom he received in his robe de chambre, 
with his breast and bosom bare. Having received our pass- 
ports, which were signed and countersigned, and our permit 
for horses, we set out ; but were stopped for above half 
an hour on quitting the town, and our passports were again 

Frederickshamm had once a little trade ; but since the 
exportation of timber has been forbidden, and the town has 
been filled with soldiers, this has almost entirely ceased. We 
proceeded to Kouxis, distant sixteen versts, through a stony 
and rocky kind of country : the road during the next stage was 
varied with more hills. At every post-house, when we asked Regulation 

relating to 

for horses, twelve or fifteen peasants generally made their Posting in 
appearance. They were dressed chiefly in a kind of loose 
coarse linen coat and trowsers, and had a particularly clownish 
and boorish look. At each of these houses, a Russian soldier 
is placed, as the manager ; and to him we were directed to 
give ten copeeks, for what is called, in England, drink-money. 
He also receives the sum which is to be paid for the horses ; 
and demands it before the traveller leaves the place. This re- 
gulation was caused by the conduct of the Russian officers, who 
not unfrequently paid the poor peasants with the blows of 
their canes, instead of with copper. Many of the houses, in 
the villages we passed through, were without chimneys; and 
vol. vi. 3 p the 

Rmriii . 



cHAPXiii. the (houses themselves were of smaller size, and of a more 
miserable appearance than those we had remarked in Swedish 
Finland. The peasants whom we saw in this journey bore a 
strong resemblance to the Laplanders. It is almost impossible 

Description of for the Reader, from any thing he has either seen or heard, 


m Russian to form any idea of the inside of these post-houses. That at 


Ursala was nothing but a dark hole : a partition with some- 
thing like a bed in it was reserved for the Russian soldier, to 
whom the Finnish peasants seemed to pay great respect. 
The other part of the room had a broad bench round it, placed 
against the walls, on which the peasants slept. We were, 
upon the whole, much struck with the evident inferiority, 
both in looks and apparent condition, of the RussianFin- 
landerSy in comparison with the Swedish. 

The distance between Frederickshamm and Wibourg is one 

hundred and ten versts ; and there is not a single house in 

iHtensecoiduf which it is possible for a traveller to sleep. The thermo- 

the weather 

during the meter fell, during the night, to fifteen and twenty degrees 

night. ° 

below o of Celsius : and we were sometimes compelled to go 
into the post-houses for warmth. In the carriage, our breath 
froze into a coat of ice on an earthenware bottle, as we drank 
some wine ; and if we held it to our mouth, the skin stuck to 
it. All the furs we could apply to our bodies and feet were no 
defence against the frost. The poor peasants, who drove us, 
presented, at the end of every stage, faces as it were in 
armour with ice ; and their fur-caps and hair were covered 
with icicles. When we stepped into their houses, which 
are as hot as a vapour-bath, we found the air within, on 




opening the door, instantly converted to snow 1 , which is chai '. xiii. 
whirled round and round, so that every thing in the first 
moment is invisible, as if the room were filled with a thick 
smoke. When this has subsided, a scene presents itself, to 
which nothing in any part of Lapland has the least resem- 
blance. The only light is afforded by a deal splinter stuck 
horizontally within the wall. The roof and sides are as black 
as night. As the thick vapour disperses, a figure appears 
close to you, with a long dark beard, and hair eyes, distilling 
rheum ; and a face fixed in mute astonishment. Suddenly, 
from a sloping bench like a writing-desk, extending the 
whole length of the apartment, twelve or thirteen other 
similar spectres start up, with a Babel confusion of tongues— 
Finnish, Swedish, Russian. 

There is no country where horses are supplied with greater 
expedition : sixteen may be found waiting at every stage ; and 
in no part of Europe can accidents to your harness or sledge 
be more quickly repaired. Our traces broke ; and half-a-dozen 
peasants, in the midst of a crowd, which one would have 
imagined would have only confused them, formed a braided 
work of ropes in a few moments, which lasted the whole 
of the way from Frederickshamm to Wihourg. We travelled, 
during the night, without any moon ; frequently at the rate 
of ten versts in the hour. Ten copeeks, or five pence, for six 


(l) Maupertuis and the French Academicians, in their journey to Tornea to measure 
a degree for ascertaining the figure of the earth, made a similar remark ; " On opening 
the door of a warm room, the external air, rushing in, instantly converted the vapour 
into a fleece of snow." 



A nival at 

chap.xiii. horses, is the usual sum paid to the peasants ; but fifteen (or 
sevenpence-halfpenny), which I believe is generally given 
by English travellers to these poor men, is received by them 
with surprise and joy. 

When we arrived at the gates of Wibourg, our drivers 
suddenly withdrew ; and, huddling together under the gate, 
remained for two hours in a degree of cold that we thought 
would have killed the horses, without telling us the reason. 
The gates of the fortress were not yet opened ; and we 
waited until seven o'clock in that situation. As soon as we 
arrived, the Commandant and General-in-chief of the forces 
at Wibourg, General Von Vrangel, sent for us, by one of his 
officers ; received us with great politeness ; invited us to a 
masquerade, and to dinner; and requested us to attend 
him upon the parade at eleven o'clock. He said he had 
received orders to permit us to proceed on our journey to 
Petersburg, ever since the month of May. This was informa- 
tion of great importance to us ; for an officer soon discovered 
and remarked, that our passes were not from the Crown. 

Wibourg, in the time of the late Empress, was burnt 
down : it has been rebuilt upon a regular plan. The 
edifices are all of brick, none of wood being allowed ; 
and are large and grand : the square is very spacious. The 
town has a military appearance : drums are heard from 
morning to night : the troops are exercised every day, 
not excepting Sundays. We could not help admiring the 
extraordinary regularity and accuracy with which they per- 
formed all their manoeuvres. The soldiers, when collected 
together, seemed a fine set of men ; but when we examined 




them individually, we were disappointed in their appearance, chap.xiii. 
The officers, of whom there were many present, were, in 
general, ill-looking, small, badly made ; and very few of 
them had the air of Gentlemen. Once or twice during the 
exercise, every one present pulled off his hat : we observed 
this ceremony repeated frequently ; and there was much 
apparent servility on the part of the inferior officers towards 
the higher. With the leave of the Commandant, we walked 
round the ramparts, accompanied by the Major de Place, 
who was also a Lieutenant-colonel. He informed us, in 
French, that the troops commanded by General Von Vrangel 
consisted of four battalions, each of a thousand men ; and 
that there were in addition, in the town, two battalions, 
also of a thousand men each, under the command of General 
Kutusqf, the General- in-chief of the forces in Finland; and 
a corps of engineers. The town is generally provisioned for 
a year : it seemed to consist chiefly of the houses of the 
officers, barracks for the soldiers, magazines, and churches. 
To garrison the place in time of war, the Colonel informed 
us that sixteen thousand men would be necessary. The 
fortifications were strong and regular, but very little assisted 
by nature. From the top of the tower of the castle, which 
is of some height, we had a view of the surrounding country. 
The situation was flat, and the fauxbourgs had a poor 
and miserable appearance. The port will not admit ships 
that draw more than eight or ten feet water. Many 
of the merchants have become bankrupts, by the Empe- 
ror's prohibition of the exportation of timber, in which 
their trade principally consisted. Applications have been 





mode of in- 
flictinc; pu- 
nishment on 
1 deserters. 

ciiAr.xiii. made, to export what has been already cut ; but without 

The day after our arrival at Wibourg, our curiosity got the 
better of our feelings, and we went to see the mode in which 
the Russians inflict punishment on their soldiers, for desertion. 
Five hundred men were drawn up, in three lines, forming 
two alleys, through which the deserter was to pass six times. 
A drummer preceded him, to prevent his walking too fast ; 
and each soldier had a stick, with which he struck him. 
As soon as the punishment began, we turned another way ; 
but were informed, afterwards, that it was more severe than 
we should have expected from the size of the sticks. Many 
soldiers desert into Swedish Finland ; but they are frequently 
apprehended, in their attempts to reach the frontier, by the 
peasants ; who are exasperated against them, on account of 
the robberies which they commit in their flight, for the 
purpose of supporting themselves. Five silver roubles are 
the reward for taking a deserter. 

The inhabitants of Wibourg are partly Russians and partly 
Finns. The former are generally distinguished by their 
beards : in their dress, they have the appearance of Jews, a. 
long loose coat being tied round the waist with a sash. The 
Finland girls wear their hair drawn together, and fastened 
at the back of the head with a little circular roll, and a pin 
stuck through it. The principal articles in request in this 
town, as luxuries, are, French brandy, sugar, wine, and 
coffee, all of which are very dear. The Finns, who bring 
corn and planks to Wibourg, return with salt. Here, and at 
Frederickshamm, we found the finest bread we had ever 


Inhabitants of 



tasted. On inquiring the price of provisions, we were chap.xui. 
informed that a sack of rye of nine pouds cost seven roubles ; 
which is not higher than it was two or three years ago, 
though double or triple of what it was twenty or twenty- 
five years since. 

From IVibourg, we proceeded, through Konuta and Rorwer, 
to Pampola, a distance of sixty-two versts, over a flat country, 
passing through forests of fir and birch trees. Pampola is 
rather a large village : we observed the gable ends of the 
houses always turned towards the road : the only openings 
which were left for light were, one small window with glass, 
and two holes on each side without any ; all placed at the 
same end of the house. At Bulostrof, thirty-eight versts 
distant from Pampola, we entered one of the peasant's 
cottages, a wretched abode quite black with smoke ; the 
holes for light, on each side of the window, were not so 
much as a foot square. There appeared to be two families, 
consisting of two men, two women, and five or six children : 
the latter did not look so unhealthy as we might have 
expected from the extreme heat and dirt of the room. A 
bench, round two sides of the cottage, appeared to be the 
general sleeping-place. They expressed great surprise on 
our entering ; and one of the women, on my offering to her 
a five-copeek piece, stared, and refused to take it. I then 
placed it on the table, where was some bread ; of which they 
offered me a piece, in return for the money. The bread was 
of rye, dark-coloured, little baked, but had not a bad taste. 

In going to Drasnicqf, we passed through the same kind 
of country as before ; but the firs were of larger size. The 




chap.xiii. roads are made, in general, with small trees, thrown across, 
and covered with dirt and sand. When the trees are decayed, 
or recently laid down, the motion of the carriage is ex- 
tremely rough and unpleasant. 

The view of Petersburg presented itself to us at some 
distance before we arrived at the last barrier, where our 
passports were examined. We then entered a broad and 
perfectly straight avenue ; the further extremity being termi- 
nated by the domes and palaces of the city. 

Arrival at 



General appearance of the City — Novelty of the Scene exhibited in the 
Dresses and Figures of the Inhabitants — Expense in the mode of living 
among the Higher Ranks — Collections of Art, in the possession of 
Individuals — Amusements of the different Classes of Society — Ice- Hills 

— Visit to some of the Public Institutions — Academy of Sciences 
— Library attached to it — Museum — valuable Collections, in different 
branches of Natural History, preserved there— Peter the First — 
Academy of Fine Arts— nature of the Institution — Fortress — Tombs 
of the Imperial Family— Mint — Statue of Peter the First — defect 
of taste in the Artist— expense of the Work — Hermitage — Pictures 

— Hall of St. George — Palaces of P eterhof and Oranienbaum — State 
of the Peasantry — Mode of managing the Estates of the Russian 
Nobility — Checks to Population. 

W e reached the first gate of Petersburg about eleven o'clock; chap.xiv. 
and were ordered by the sentinel to stop, and descend 
from our carriage. Our passports were presented, as usual ; 
vol. vi. 3 q but 




General ap- 
pearance of 
the city. 

but he would not even lift up his arm to take them : it was 
contrary to order, he said, to receive them ; and we must 
go ourselves to the officer upon guard ; by whom we 
were detained half an hour, and then sent with a sentinel 
to the city. We approached it by its most beautiful quarter, 
crossing the Neva upon the ice, which was covered with 
sledges ; and landed again opposite to the Marble Palace. 

The united magnificence of all the cities of Europe could 
but equal Petersburg. There is nothing little or mean, to 
offend the eye; — all is grand, extensive, large, and open. The 
streets, which are wide and straight, seem to consist entirely 
of palaces : the edifices are white, lofty, and regular. At first 
sight, the whole city appears to be built with stone ; but on a 
nearer inspection, you find the walls are of brick, covered 
with plaister; yet every part is so clean and in such 
excellent order, and has an appearance so new, that the effect 
is as fine and striking as if they were formed of marble. 
The public structures, on whatever side you direct vour 
attention — quays, piers, ramparts — are all composed of masses 
of solid granite 1 , calculated to endure for ages. It seems as 
if the antient Etruscans or Egyptians — stimulated by emula- 
tion to surpass their prodigious works, aided by despotic 
power, and instructed by Grecifan taste — had arisen, to 
astonish the modern world. Such is the metropolis which 
Catherine has left ! Much had been done by her predecessors ; 


(l) " Les quais de la Neva et du magnifique Canal de Catherine sont construit9 de 
ce granit: les remparts de lafortresse en sont revetus." Patrin. Histoire Naturelle des 
Mineraux, tome I. p. q6. The granite he alludes to is called Granit de I'Ingrie, which 
he describes, p. 95. He there states, that a colonnade in the Summer Garden is com- 
posed of more than sixty pillars of granite ; each column being of one piece, twenty 
feet in length, and three feet in diameter. 




but her labours surpassed them all : and our admiration is chap.xiv. 
increased, while we behold the magnificence of the buildings, 
the breadth of the streets, the squares, and openings, and 
noble palaces, — and recollect that a century has not yet 
elapsed, since the first stone of the foundation of the city was 
laid by Peter the Great. 

We were told that we should find Petersburg like London, 
and that we should everywhere hear the language and see 
the manners of England; but nothing can be farther from 
the truth. This city presents to the stranger a sight as novel 
and interesting as any which he will meet with in Europe. 
In the general appearance of features and countenance, the 
Russians have nothing very characteristic; and when their 
beards are cut off*, as is the case with those who live as 
servants in the families of Gentlemen, thev could not be 
distinguished from Englishmen : but in the dresses of the 
people we are reminded of the inhabitants of some Asiatic 
towns ; though perhaps in summer, when the robes, pelisses, 
and caps are not worn, the impression may be different. 
The resemblance to Asiatic customs and manners, percepti- 
ble in Moscow and Petersburg, will probably decrease, in pro- 
portion to the intercourse of the Russians with other parts of 
Europe. The stile of dress in the seventeenth century was 
more Oriental than it is at present: a robe was then in use 
called Feredja, which is a Turkish word 2 . At this season, 
the streets are filled with sledges ; and with peasants in 
various costumes, having long beards, straight locks, bare 
necks, and their feet covered with shoes of v the matted bark 

of trees. 


(2) In parts of Petersburg, the shops which sell the same articles adjoin each other, 
as in the Bazars of Constantinople and other cities of the East. 




chap. xiv. With respect to magnificence, Petersburg is as much 

superior to London, as London is to any provincial city in 

Expense in England ; and the style and mode of living adopted by the 

the mode of * 

living among N ki es exceeds all belief. The most distant provinces of the 

the higher A 

empire are explored, to furnish some delicacy for their enter- 
tainments : two, three, or even four hundred roubles are 
expended on particular dishes. At no season of the year 
are their tables without fruits of the rarest and most exqui- 
site kind. Immense revenues are necessary, to support the 
prodigality and profusion exhibited by many of the Russians 
of the highest rank. The number of servants who are the 
vassals of the great land-owners amounts to two or three 
hundred ; who supply, in various ways, by their different 
occupations, the wants, tastes, and demands of their masters 1 . 
The love and admiration of what is foreign, encourage 
many strangers to settle here, whose talents and ingenuity 
are constantly employed in furnishing and ornamenting the 
palaces of the Noblemen in the most sumptuous and splendid 
collections of The collections of Art in the possession of individuals at 

Artinthepos- , ■ 

session of in- Petersburg, as well as in London, were enriched by very 
valuable works, which, in consequence of the revolutions in 
parts of Europe, were dispersed over the Continent. Some 
of these we were allowed, by the kindness and hospitality of 
their owners, to examine ; but they neither equal in extent 
or in real value those we have described, in another Part of 
this Work, as existing at Moscow. The Picture-gallery of 
Count Strogonqf is a long room terminated by an enormous 



(1) " I never put my hands into my purse for any thing," said a Russian Nobleman 
to a friend of the writer of this note, " but to purchase foreign wines, and articles for my 
'wife's dress." — He was provided with every thing he wanted from his estate and his 



mirror, which, sliding on one side, opens to the Library ; and chap.xiv. 
beyond that is the Museum. Among the most remarkable 
paintings, we shall mention ; 1. The Flight into Egypt, by 
Nicolas Poussin, the most brilliant work of that master. 
2. A Centaur righting with one of the Lapithae, by Luca 
Giordano. 3. Les Pecheurs, by Teniers, a work much 
esteemed by connoisseurs. 4. A Philosopher, or Hermit, by 
Rembrandt, of great effect. 5. A Holy Family, by Schedoni, 
from the collection of Monsieur de Calonne. 6. Abraham, 
Sarah, and Hagar, by Dietrici. 7. The famous Claude, 
originally belonging to the Duchess of Kingston. It is 
singular, that, in rubbing this picture, a figure has appeared, 
which the painter had concealed. 8. The finest Portrait by 
Vandyke that perhaps ever proceeded from his hand. Fernet, 
standing for some time opposite to it, at Paris, at length 
exclaimed, " Parle done!" There are also many good pictures 
by Spagnolet, Kuyp, and Berghami. In the Museum is a curious 
Plate of China porcelain ; the outer varnish of which having 
worn off, a representation is seen of the Crucifixion, with these 
letters over the cross, ' INRL' The Cabinet of Mineralogy 
contains very magnificent specimens, but without any order or 
classification. There is a whole cabinet of malachite : one 
piece, bought of Dr. Guthrie for a prodigious sum, is contained 
in a case by itself. The finest specimens are furnished by 
China and Siberia : the mine of Goumechefski formerly produced 
the best ; but this mineral is now no longer found there 2 . 


(2) " La mine de Goumechefski est a douze ou quinze lieues au sud-ouest 
d'Ekaterinbourg, dans la partie centrale de la chaine des Monts Oural ; e'est de toutes 
les mines connues celle qui a fourni les plus beaux morceaux en ce genre. Cette mine est 
<lans une espece de plaine, au bord d'un lac, et tout entouree de montagnes primitives." 

Patrin. Histoire Natureile des Miner aux, tome V. p. Q7* 


chap. xiv. Count Besberodko was engaged only four years in forming 
his collection; but spared no expense, during that time, to 
render it as complete as possible. We found there many 
pictures we had seen before in different parts of Europe. 
Among them is a most singular one, by Dietrici : — it is said 
there are others, at Dresden, executed in the same style : it 
possesses, instead of his laboured and finished manner, the 
wildness and boldness of Salvator Rosa. — ' Judith with the 
head of Holofernes/ I had seen at Venice: the drapery is 
green, but remarkably kept down. On approaching to examine 
the colours in detail, they will be found to consist of yellow, 
brown, black, white, and many other demi-tints. In addition 
to the excellent pictures by the Masters of the Lombard, 
Bolognese, and Venetian Schools, there is a whole cabinet of the 
best works of Vernet, containing views of the principal towns 
and harbours of Europe. The collection of antiquities is 
very great ; and there is a magnificent room, planned by 
(raarengrri, and finished under his direction, furnished in the 
most splendid and costly manner. The Library of Baron 
Strogonqf undoubtedly contains some valuable books ; but 
many of the editions are modern : they are very splendid ; 
and the owner seems in general to have paid more attention 
to finery and show than utility. We observed in it three 
different copies of the French Encyclopedic 

Notices attached to the advertisements and bills of the 
Play-houses mark in a striking manner the character of the 
climate. They state, that if the cold is below IJ degrees 
there will be no representation at the Theatre 1 . The 


(l) The Vignette to tfiis Chapter represents the Stone Theatre, ,as it appeared in 
J 801; with some of the Public Stoves, 



observations are made on the scale of Reaumur ; and there is chap.xiv. 
hardly a house, whatever be the rank of its owner, without a Amusement 

* >f the dif- 

thermometer. The masquerades form part of the amusements ferent classes 

* r of Society. 

at this season. The first took place on a Sunday, at ten in the 
morning. At night, the Empress came, followed by the wives 
of the Grand-dukes Alexander and Constantine, and by all 
the Court. The dances began soon after her arrival. Madame 
Chevalier, the mistress of Koutizof the Emperor's favourite, 
seemed to occupy as much attention as the Empress herself. 
Another masquerade, on the following Tuesday, was much 
crowded, and there were more persons in character than in 
dominoes. The most interesting were a set of costumes of 
the different provinces of the empire. 

While the higher orders partake of the diversions of the 
season, the lower ranks are not without their festivities and 
sports. The frozen Neva presents a crowded and busy scene. 
In one part, booths are erected on the ice, where brandy and 
drams of every kind are sold : in another direction are ped- 
lars, mountebanks, and jugglers, and the pastimes of Bartho- 
lomew Fair : in a different place are dramatic representations 
of a burlesque and ridiculous nature, to which the spectators 
are admitted for a few copeeks. The ice-hills afford an amuse- ice-hffls, 
ment to the populace, peculiar to the inhabitants of Russia. 
A scaffolding of wood is raised on the river, to the height of 
forty feet: from the summit, an inclined plane, having a steep 
descent, is covered with blocks of ice, firmly united together 
by water poured over them. The sides of the steps, or ladder, 
which lead by the back part of the scaffolding to the top, 
are decorated with fir-trees. The low sledge, resembling, in 




chap. xiv. shape, a butcher's tray, descends the hill with a rapidity 
sufficiently great to carry the person seated in it over a 
large tract of ice cleared of the snow, to an opposite scaf- 
folding, constructed in a similar manner. Here he takes his 
sledge on his back, mounts the steps, and proceeds as 
before. Those who do not wish to descend alone, have a 
guide, who seats himself in the sledge as far back as he can 
raising his legs at the same time : the other person is 
placed before him, and between his legs, in a similar position '. 
The sledges, horses, and carriages, moving about in various 
directions, and the crowds of spectators who assemble to 
behold this amusement, present a very striking and animated 

It is scarcely necessary to observe, that a city like 
Petersburg must possess many public Institutions — many 
monuments of art and industry, which afford to the 
stranger a constant subject of interest and instruction. No 
quarter of the Capital is without them. Some account will 
now be given of those we visited, during our residence here. 
The Academy of Sciences, founded by Peter the Great in 


Visit to some 
•f the Public 


Academy of 

(1) This mode of descending is very well described in the Voyage de Deux Francois. 
" Le traineau consiste en une petite planche plus longue que large, et peu elevee : une 
seule personne peut s'y tenir, encore n'est elle point a son aise. Le conducteur du 
traineau est assis, lesjambes ouvertes, entre lesquelles se place celui qui veut descendre. 
L'un et l'autre ont l'attention de tenir les jambes fort elevees, et le corps tres en 
arriere : ainsi places, et le traineau etant parfaitement droit, on le conduit au bord de la 
descente, et on le laisse aller : le conducteur le dirige. La rapidite de la course est 
prodigieuse: et le traineau arrive sur le terrain plat, parcourt uneassez grande etendue. 
Dans le premier moment la respiration est fort genee j il faut avoir l'attention de ne faire 
aucun mouvement d'un cote ou d'un autre ,• on seroit culbute." 



1724, has received donations and encouragement from all charxtv 
the succeeding Sovereigns, and particularly Catherine the 
Second. The present revenue is from seventy to eighty 
thousand roubles. The Academicians are called Professors, 
and have salaries varying from eight hundred to fifteen 
hundred roubles. Some of them derive an income, in addition 
to their stipends, from places or offices connected with the 
Government: there are, however, others, who are not so 
fortunate ; and, finding the salary, which was fixed at a time 
when the articles of life were at a lower price than they are 
now, insufficient to maintain them, become tutors and ushers 
in different seminaries. The four classes are those of Mathe- 
matics, Physics, Natural History, comprehending Chemistry 
and Anatomy, and Astronomy : and, on each of these subjects, 
lectures are given, at certain times of the year, in the Russian 
language. Among the distinguished members of the Academy, 
arc found the names of Bayer, Gmelin, Eider, M'dller, and Pallas. 

The books of the Library amount, in number, to fifty Library. 
thousamd. We cannot expect to find in it the literary 
treasurers which are the ornament of those of London, Paris, 
and Vienna: there are few Greek or Latin manuscripts; 
but there are many works, relating to the history of the 
country, of great value; and the collection of Chinese, 
Mongol, and Tangutian manuscripts is unique. In a gallery, 
were arranged the dresses of various nations ; and waxen 
figures of the inhabitants, in their proper costumes — Persian, 
Chinese, Siberian, and Samoyede. The human countenance 
is here seen modified according to every possible form : 
*' long and round heads, flat and snub noses, hogs* eyes and 

vol. vr. 3 r calves 




chap. xiv. calves' eyes, bearded and unbearded chins, succeed each 
other, in grotesque variety." 

The example of Peter the Great, who had expended large 
sums in procuring the most curious productions of nature 
and art to enrich the Museum, was followed by his suc- 
cessors, and by many of the nobles of the empire. Additions 
are constantly made to the Museum, by the Academicians 
who are travelling in the remote provinces of Russia, or in 
different parts of Europe. The treasures which it contains, 
relating to the mineral and vegetable kingdoms, are, perhaps, 
unrivalled. According to the account of Bachmeister, there 
are five hundred animals of different sizes, stuffed, or 
preserved in alcqhol : there are also twelve hundred birds, 
stuffed: and the classes of amphibia, fishes, and insects, 
are very numerous. The Collection of Ruysch, containing 
the anatomical preparations of that great naturalist, was 
purchased by Peter the Great, in Holland, for thirty thousand 

From the Library, we were introduced into a small 
chamber, which was the Workshop of Peter the First, filled 
with different carvings in ivory and copper, all executed by 
him, and generally representing sieges or battles. In the 
middle of the room was a large ivory lustre by the same 
hand ; a number of medals struck on different occasions ; 
and the battle of Pultowa in relief, on a large plate of 
copper. In a gilt box, at one end, is carefully preserved 
the Manuscript of Catherine, containing instructions for the 
new code of laws proposed by her : it is written in rather 
a large careless hand, partly in Russian, partly in French, and 


Workshop of 
Peter theFirst 

H P 



forms a thin folio. In a small chamber within, is a figure chap.xiv. 
of Peter the First in wax, in his habit of ceremony. He 
appears to have been a large tall man ; his height, marked 
against the door, being about six feet, six or seven inches. 
On each side of the figure are two cabinets filled with his 
clothes : in the first, is a blue coat lined with brown silk, 
and a hat with a hole made by a ball passing through it at 
Pultowa ; in the other, his leather working-dress, and a pair 
of shoes which he had mended himself. 

From this room we descended into two smaller ones, below 
stairs : in the first of which is a collection of fossils ; and, in 
the other, of minerals, placed over the sides and ceilings, in the 
form of a grotto. Here we saw the immense piece of native 
iron 1 found in Siberia by Professor Pallas, weighing forty ponds. 
There is also a curiously wrought cabinet, with an Apollo of 
solid gold on the top of it. In one of the rooms, we saw 
the idols, utensils, and weapons which had been discovered 
in the Tdhtarian sepulchres. 

In our visit to the Academy of the Fine Arts, we were Academy of 

Fine Arts. 

accompanied by one of the Sieves of the first class. He 
informed us, that the pupils are divided into five classes : in 
the three lowest, Reading, Writing, German, French, and 


(l) " Une masse de fer natif, pdsant environ 60 myriagrammes, aete trouvee en Siberie, 
pres des Monts Kemir,entre Krasnoiarsk et Abakansk : elle etoit entierement composee 
de fer metallique tres blanc et tres malleable, remplie de cavites spheriques, qui ren- 

fermoient une matiere vitreuse, jaunatre et transparente Les Tartares 

regardoient ce fer comme une pierre sacree et tombee du del."— Pallas. 

" Elle contient 0,98 j de fer sur 0, OH de nickel." — Klaproth. 



chaf.xiv. Geography, are taught ; and in the other two, in which they 
remain six years,the arts of Engraving, Painting,and Sculpture. 
Those whom we saw at work were dressed in grey coats, and 
had a very neat appearance : the lower classes wear red. 
The proper number of pupils, when complete, is three 
hundred, each class containing sixty : and the list is now 
nearly full. The first room we entered was a handsome 
rotunda with pillars, ornamented, in the niches, with casts of 
statues, from the antique. We were then led into a very 
spacious room, eighty or ninety feet long, and thirty broad ; 
in which, also, were some casts of statues, a few Italian 
paintings, and the portraits of the principal Patrons of the 
Society, and the most celebrated Academicians. In the centre 
was the portrait of the Emperor, and, on each side, his two 
sons. An allegorical picture, representing the late Empress, 
in the character of Minerva, had formerly been placed here, 
but was removed when Paul came to the throne. While he 
was Grand-dukc, he had learned to draw at the Academy ; 
and we were shewn the sketch of a head in chalk done by 
him ; and some heads in wax, and drawings, by the present 
Princesses, very well executed. The Italian paintings did not 
appear to possess very great merit : the best among them 
represented Mars and Venus entangled in the net by Vulcan ; 
but we could not learn the name of the artist. 

We next entered a long gallery, filled with casts from the 
most celebrated ancient statues; a collection very similar to one 
we had seen at Stockholm, The rooms that we afterwards 
saw were furnished with paintings of the different Italian 

Schools ; 

'*• «.'*?.; 



Schools ; with some which were the works of the Members of chap.xiv 
the Academy who had studied in Italy at the expense of the 
Society ; and with prize-pictures of the eUves, previous to 
their quitting the Institution. There was an excellent cartoon 
by Mengs, from a Holy Family of Raphael. In one of the 
rooms was a model, in granite, of the rock which forms the 
pedestal of the famous statue of Peter ; and a representation 
of the manner in which it was drawn to the water, rolling 
upon balls, in grooves. We saw many of the eleves at work, 
in painting and plaster. The building is extremely spacious, 
and all the rooms large and airy. We could not be admitted 
into the general dormitory, as it was locked ; but that of 
the highest class, which we entered, was very neat and 
clean : each pupil has a separate bed, and there were four 
beds in each room. The building is of a square form ; the 
front, towards the Neva, extremely handsome, with columns 
in the middle and at the two extremities ; but the upper part 
is disfigured by a green cupola. Notwithstanding the support 
which is so liberally given to this Institution by the 
Government, few artists have hitherto risen to any great 
eminence. A slight degree of reflection will explain the 
cause of this. A taste for works of art is not yet diffused 
through the provinces of the empire : in Moscow and 
Petersburg alone are found individuals possessing great 
wealth, and actuated by a desire of encouraging native talent. 
But it is impossible that the numbers who quit the Academy 
can all find sufficient employment in these capitals. It is 
not from want of genius that so little has been done ; but 






chap. xiv. the Russian painters, finding no motive to urge them to proceed 
in their profession, no stimulus to exertion, become indolent, 
and neglect the instructions which they have received. 
Many of the inferior artists are obliged to seek the means of 
a scanty livelihood by painting pictures 1 for the Churches. 

We visited the Fortress, one of the most ancient structures 
of the city, built on an island of the Neva, according to a 
plan drawn by Peter the First. It is of brick, faced with 
granite. Here we saw the Church where the Sovereigns of the 
Empire, from the time of Peter the Great to the present 
period, are buried. The spire is graceful and lofty, being 
two hundred and fifty feet in height ; but the inside of the 
church is distinguished by no peculiar architectural beauty. 
Nothing can be more simple, more devoid of all splendour, 
than the Tombs : they are of plain unornamented marble, with 
only an inscription containing the name of the person and 
the time of birth and death ; a mode of burial which we 
must allow to be more suited than any other to the dignity 
of the character of those whose bodies they contain. They 
were all covered with a velvet pall embroidered with silver. 
The Russians cross themselves before the tomb of Peter the 
First. Catherine herself lies not in greater state than any of 
her predecessors, nor in a manner different from that which 
belongs to any private gentleman in an English church-yard. 


(l) Some of the artists of France dispose of their works in a similar manner In visiting 
the public exhibition of paintings in the Louvre, in 1 822, the writer of this note, on asking 
what became of the pictures of ordinary merit, of which the subjects were of a religious 
nature, was informed, that many were bought for the Churches. 




The Tombs are on the right side of the altar, and arranged in chap.xiy. 
the following manner : 

6 5 4 

Tombs of 
the Imperial 




1. Peter the First. 
4. Anne. 

2. Catherine the First. 
5. Peter the Third. 

3. Elizabeth. 

6. Catherine the Second. 

The Mlnty established in part of the Fortress, is worked by Mi 
steam-engines. Ten thousand pouds of silver, and seventy- 
three of gold, in ducats, had been coined this year for the 
Emperor's private use. A piece of mechanism, worked by the 
steam-engine, counted the number which were struck. 

We have, in a former Part of these Travels, had occasion to 
mention circumstances illustrating the thievish and pilfering 
propensities of some of the Russian nobles. When they enter 
a shop, they carry away things in their muffs. A party having 
visited the Mint, had the meanness to purloin two ducats ; 
and the poor slaves were forced to make good the loss. 

The view of Petersburg, in descending from the Fortress, 
is one of the grandest and the most striking that can be 
conceived. We beheld a great part of the city extended 
before us ; a series of noble buildings, domes, houses, reaching 





House of 
Peter the First. 

His Statue. 

cha.p.xiv. to the distance of four miles ; the Admiralty, its Church, 
the Marble and Winter Palaces, and the Hermitage. 

In the quarter of St. Petersburg, we saw the House of Peter 
the First; a small wooden building, consisting only of three 
rooms ; one of which was about fifteen feet square; the other, 
fifteen by twelve ; and the third, not ten feet square. These, 
with a little passage as an entrance, made up the whole of the 
house, and formed a curious contrast to the magnificent 
palaces of the modern city. 

On recrossing the Neva, we arrived at the colossal Statue 
erected by Catherine to the memory of the Founder of 
the Russian Empire. The merit of transporting the enor- 
mous mass of granite which serves as the pedestal of it, 
from the forest of Carelia to the water-side, and thence to 
the city, is entirely due to Count Carburi. Being placed on 
balls of brass fifteen inches in circumference, which rolled on 
sledges over a causeway raised for the purpose, it was moved 
every day, by four hundred men, with the assistance of pulleys 
and a windlass, over a space of ground equal to about half a 
mile. From the coast, it was brought, on a raft of a peculiar 
construction, to the city. The original size of the rock was 
thirty-six feet in length, twenty in height, and as many in 
breadth ; but in forming it for the pedestal, a great part was 
cut off; and it was afterwards found necessary to add two 
pieces. The time of its erection is recorded by a simple 
inscription, in bronze, placed on one side : 








The Russian Inscription, on the side facing the Admiralty, chap.xiv. 
has the same meaning. The statue is a master-piece of art, 
and reflects the highest credit on the talents and genius of 
Falconet, the sculptor. The Tsar, dressed simply, according to 
the national costume, is seated on horseback : his left hand 
holds the reins ; the right is extended in a direction towards 
the Neva and the Fortress. The head, formed after a bust 
made by Mademoiselle de Collot, is crowned with a wreath of 
laurel. An appearance of stiffness in the right arm is the only 
defect in this admirable figure ; but the statue of the horse 
is faultless ; and nothing can exceed the fire and animation 
with which this noble animal is represented in the act of 
galloping towards the summit of the rock, and trampling 
on a serpent endeavouring to impede his course. The height 
is sixteen feet : that of the Tsar, ten feet. The model of 
the statue, in plaster, was exposed to public view for many 
years ; but the statue itself was not allowed to be seen 
during the progress of the work. In the year 1782, when 
the whole was complete, the day of exhibiting it was 
commemorated in a striking and solemn manner. The 
Empress, attended by her Court, assisted at the ceremony ; 
detachments of soldiers were drawn out, and placed round 
the statue ; discharges of cannon were the signal for the 
removal of the scaffolding; medals of gold and silver were 
distributed on the occasion ; and an ukase was issued, 
proclaiming pardon to all debtors of the Crown, under a certain 
sum. The rock having been diminished, and shaped according 
to the fancy and direction of the artist, has lost that bold and 
sublime appearance which it originally possessed. Cut and 
vol. vi. 3 s garnished, 


chap. xiv. garnished, what, in the present state, does the whole exhibit ?— 
a colossal figure of a man and horse, and a miniature 
representation of a mountain ! A contradiction of this kind is 
absurd : it is the greatest violation of proportion that" can 
exist. But the rock in its original state pretended to nothing : 
it was simply a rock, rude, and fashioned by the hand of 
Nature : and if it had been suffered to remain as Catherine 
certainly wished it should, untouched and unmutilated, 
nothing could have marked with more truth and propriety 
the character of the man in whose memory the work was 
raised, than a representation of the horse forcing its way and 
endeavouring to attain the summit. According to a calcu- 
lation made by the Office for superintending the buildings of 
the city, the sum expended on the erection of this monument 
— including the cost of transporting the rock from its original 
site, the allowance to the artist who was engaged eight 
years in his labour, to the person who cast the statue, and 
to others who assisted in the inferior departments of the 
work— amounted to 424,6oo roubles. 

Hermitage. Proceeding, in an easterly direction, from the spot where 
the statue is erected, we arrive at the Hermitage, a. large 
pile of building connected with the Winter Palace. We 
first passed through a small but elegant Theatre, in which 
some persons were rehearsing a play : it was rather dark, but 
the columns round the semicircular part, where the audience 
sate, appeared to us to be of fine marble. After passing 
through three rooms, two of which are filled with pictures, 
we entered a most beautiful Gallery, said to be an exact 
representation of the Vatican. The copies of the Cartoons of 






Raphael were well executed. From this gallery we were led chap.xiv, 
into various suites of apartments, almost all ornamented 
with pictures. Those which formed part of the Houghton 
Collection, purchased by Catherine, were not arranged during 
her life-time : since her death, they have been hung up in 
the rooms of this palace; and many have been injured by the 
process of cleaning and varnishing, through which they 
have passed : some have fortunately remained untouched, 
and retain all their original beauty and character : among 
these, we may mention the Prodigal Son by Salvator Rosa, 
and the Holy Doctors of the Church 1 , the celebrated work of 
Guido. Some pictures by Murillo are in one of the saloons : 
in another, are a few admirable pieces by the two Wouver- 
manns : the collection is also adorned by some works of 
Nicolas and Gaspar Poussin, Claude Lorraine, Tenters, and 
Rembrandt, and a few portraits by Vandyke, executed in his 
best manner. In one of the glass cabinets we observed an 
aigrette of diamonds, presented to the late Empress by the 
Grand Signior. 

The Hall of St, George, in a part of the palace adjoining Haiiofft. 
the Hermitage, is a very magnificent room, about one 


(l) "In this picture, which is by Guido, in his brightest manner, and perfectly pre- 
served, there are six old men as large as life ; the expression, drawing, design, and 
colouring, wonderfully fine. The Doctors of the Church are consulting on the imma- 
culateness of the Virgin, who is above in the clouds. After Sir Robert Walpole had 
bought this picture, and it was gone to Civita Vecchia to be shipped for England, 
Innocent XIII, then Pope, remanded it back, as being too fine to be suffered to go out 
of Rome j but on hearing who had bought it, he gave permission for its being sent 
away again." — Account of the Pictures at Houghton Hall, by Horace Walpole. 



Palace of 

iiiAr.xiv. hundred and thirty feet in length, and fifty in breadth. 
There are eighteen fluted Corinthian columns of fine marble, 
with gilded capitals, extending the length of the Hall ; and 
six in breadth, placed with greater intervals, between every 
two : pilasters on the wall correspond to them. At one 
end is the throne, of crimson velvet and gold ; the back and 
canopy ornamented with the Imperial arms : at the other end 
are two groupes of sculpture, by Falconet ; one represents 
" Pygmalion admiring his own work ;" the other, " Prometheus 
communicating fire to the image which he had formed." The 
figure of the woman in the first groupe, and the countenance 
and attitude of Pygmalion, are particularly excellent. 

On the southern shore of the Gulf of Cronstadt, and at 
twenty-five versts distance from the capital, stands, in a lofty 
and commanding situation, the Imperial Palace of Peterhof. 
It was built in the reign of Peter the First, and has received 
additions from different Sovereigns ; and, consequently, pre- 
sents various styles of architecture. We were shewn the 
Maison Hollandaise of that Emperor, a summer-house fitted 
up in the Dutch taste ; a favourite spot, as from it he could 
behold Cronstadt and his fleet. In another part of the garden 
is a wooden house, having externally the appearance of a 
cottage, but furnished inside with a number of mirrors, and 
in a style of great magnificence. In the palace itself were 
many suites of apartments ; some of them richly ornamented 
with gold. The bed-room of the Emperor was furnished in 
a very handsome manner : the bed was placed under a canopy; 
and near it, on a golden stand, was the glass-case for the 
crown, which the Emperor always takes with him. The 





first room into which we entered was fitted up with a chap.xiv. 

profusion of portraits of Russian Peasants, male and female, 

in their different costumes : many of them were exceedingly 

well executed, and represented some beautiful faces. Of the 

other apartments, those destined for the masquerades were 

the most remarkable for their size. 

The Palace of Oranienbaum, distant a few versts further, Palace of 


had been presented by Paul to the Grand-duke A lexander : 
workmen were now engaged in fitting it up, for his residence ; 
but it was not supposed that he would live much here. We 
were told that there was little worth seeing within. In the 
grounds adjoining, we were shewn a building of very elegant 
form, erected by Catherine the Second: some of the apartments 
were furnished with tables of beautiful work in mosaic, and 
good paintings in fresco. Many smaller buildings, that were 
formerly placed in different parts of the grounds, had been 
pulled down. Out of 4700 peasants attached to this place, 
two hundred and fifty were taken, in rotation, every week, to 
work about the grounds. The person who accompanied us. 
and who had the superintendence of them, informed us, that 
they were sometimes rather idle, and required a little beating. 
This he did not administer himself, but, when he thought it 
necessary, sent them to the soldiers. The peasants pay three 
roubles a-year, besides this contribution in kind : they also 
furnish horses and carts. 

The peasants are slaves 1 : these unfortunate people are sold, state of the 



(1) A peasant may obtain his liberty, either by manumission, as in the instance of 
domestics ; or by purchase ; or by serving in the army or navy, ( 



chap. xiv. like cattle in the market; and as much art and finesse are 
shewn by the nobles in disposing of them, as in the sale of 
their horses. If they are diseased, or infamous, or stupid, 
their faults and vices are concealed, They are often adver- 
tised in the Gazettes: and are let out on hire, or suffered to 
keep shops ; their masters receiving the principal part of 
their gains. The price of a slave varies, according to circum- 
stances : if he is a mechanic, an artisan, if he dresses hair — 
in short, if he knows how to procure a little money, the price 
rises in proportion to his abilities. The children of slaves 
are also slaves. The treatment which such persons must 
sometimes experience in Russia may be well conceived. We 
had once, in Petersburg, the pain to witness, in the public 
streets, the punishment which a meagre effeminate coward 
thought proper to bestow on a man who might have crushed 
him with a grasp : but he was a slave ! This contemptible 
tyrant, for no cause whatever that we could discover, was 
displaying his prowess, before a mob, by beating a peasant 
with a large bludgeon. The poor man bore the punishment 
without a groan or a tear, or even a word. His cowardly 
oppressor seemed to think he distinguished himself by the 
number of blows he gave ; and became exasperated, because 
the object of his torture refused to shew, in any manner, that 
he felt the severity of the punishment. Unable to endure a 
spectacle so repugnant to the common feelings of humanity, 
and yet sensible of the danger of interfering in a species of 
iniquity protected and encouraged by the laws, we ventured, 
with great deference, to remonstrate, and to petition for the 
release of the peasant. " You know little," said his chastiser 






to us, in French, " of this people : you have been so short a ghap.xiv. 
time in this country, that you have not learned how to manage 
a Russian : if you do not flea the skin from his body, you 
will never have him in any order whatever." 

There are, however, many proprietors in Russia whose 
general conduct to their peasants is directed by feelings of 
benevolence and kindness. The family of Prince Sheremetof 
have been remarkable, for some time, for the treatment of their 
slaves ; many of whom are very rich, and not afraid to 
shew their wealth : their condition is, indeed, better than 
that of the peasants of the Crown. The Prince has 150,000; 
and receives, from each, five roubles a-year, as Capitation- 
tax. As an illustration of the wealth possessed by many of 
this class of men, we were informed that the late Empress, 
wishing to obtain a supply, proposed to make a levy of one 
in five hundred ; which, with the population of that time, of 
nine millions, would amount to eighteen thousand ; declaring, 
however, that those who would pay five hundred roubles 
should be exempted. The levy was made in the usual manner ; 
and fourteen thousand, out of the eighteen thousand, paid 
four hundred roubles. It is customary, on the different estates, 
for the peasants to go as soldiers ; and a family generally knows 
when they will have to send a son. The only exception to 
this takes place when either the Seigneur or the neighbour- 
hood are desirous of ridding themselves of some man of bad 

The peasants on the estates of the Russian noblemen are Mode of ma. 

naging the 

allowed to manage the lands as they please, provided they pay Estates of the 
the Capitation-tax. This is different in different places ; as ut *' 




chap. xiv. much depends on the wants of the proprietor. The higher the 
rank, and the greater the wealth, the happier, for the most part, 
are his peasants. Few of the Russian noblemen farm their 
own estates : when they do, their lands produce more ; but the 
situation of their peasants is rendered at once miserable. This 
is the case in Livonia and Poland, where some of the noblemen 
suffer their slaves to work for themselves only on Sunday. 

There are some estates appropriated to particular branches 
of the Royal Family ; and the peasants attached to them are 
considered to be in a better condition than those belonging 
to individuals. There are peasants, but not many, who may- 
be said to possess land of their own ; and these are chiefly the 
families of noblemen reduced to poverty, who have been 
permitted to enter into the class of vassals, and have had 
lands given to them by the Crown, which they hold under a 
particular tenure. On every estate, whether it belongs to the 
Crown or to an individual, a new enumeration and a new 
division of lands takes place every ten or twelve years. A 
family that loses any male children during the interval pays 
for them until the next enumeration. Forty acres is the 
common portion of land allotted ; but the quantity depends 
on the size of the family, or what they are thought able to 
cultivate, and on the plenty or scarcity of land on the estate. 
The tax is like a rent ; and the Seigneur in general does not 
trouble himself in what manner it is earned, whether by 
cultivating the farm, or leaving it, and working in a town: 
for the latter, however, permission is required. Many of the 
arrangements, relating to the division of the lands and 
internal regulations, are settled by the peasants themselves, 





the Elders of the village. When an estate is overpeopled, chap .xiv. 

which, however, does not often happen, the peasants are 

sometimes transported to another place, and formed into a 

new colony. The brother of the Baroness Strogonqf had an 

estate where the population was too great for the quantity of 

land ; but no inconvenience arose from it, as he received a 

certain capitation-tax, and allowed his peasants to go and 

earn it where they pleased. This was the method he pursued 

in general ; and therefore never gave himself any trouble, 

whether they cultivated the land that was allotted to them, or 

not. " Cela mest e'gal : cela me fait ni bien, ni mal /" 

Early marriages are encouraged by the Seigneurs. The 
principal checks to population are, the recruiting service — the checks to 

r . „ Population. 

numbers lost before they join the army — the debauchery of 
the large villages — the custom of drinking great quantities of 
brandy 1 — the small-pox, and other epidemic diseases. Scar- 
cities do not often occur, though there have been partial ones. 
The price of labour was between eighty copeeks and a rouble 
a-day. Brandy was so cheap, that a man could completely 


(1) The result of the inquiries made relating to marriages, births, and deaths, is 
published occasionally by the Academicians, in their Memoirs. According to the obser- 
vations of Professor Kraft, the mortality between the ages of twenty and twenty-five is 
very great. From 1764 to 1780, out of 47,538 males, and 26,899 females, there died, 
between the ages of fifteen and twenty, 364 males, and 670 females; but between the 
ages of twenty-one and twenty-five, 14,752 men, and 973 women. — Storch states the 
mortality between the ages of twenty and sixty to be very great : " Neither by the 
bodily frame, nor the climate, is this to be explained; since both are favourable to life, as 
the periods till the fifteenth year sufficiently prove. Nothing, therefore, but the mode of 
living can account for this political calamity." He then mentions the cause, which was 
stated to us, among other circumstances, as affecting the population. " No other cause 
remains that we can accuse of this terrible effect, than brandy." p. 9*- — See also Tooke's 
Russian Empire, vol. II. p. 156. 






CHAPXiv. intoxicate himself for eight copeeks. The price of labour 
had been trebled during the last twenty or thirty years ; and 
that of brandy had not been raised more than a third. The 
population of the city, according to a recent census, amounted 
to 200,000 persons, including the strangers ; a calculation 
which places Petersburg after London, Paris, Vienna, and 
Naples. It was difficult, however, to obtain an accurate esti- 
mate ; as some thousand workmen — bricklayers, masons, and 
labourers of various classes — come to the city in spring and 
summer, and quit it in autumn. Of the foreigners resident 
here, the Germans are the most numerous. The trades 
which contribute to luxury, ornament, and fashion, as well 
as those of general use, are carried on by them. Next to 
these, we may place the French ; who follow, among other 
employments, those of cooks, hair-dressers, watch-makers, 
and milliners. 




Benediction of the Waters of the Neva — Monastery of St; Alexander 
Nevsky — Religious Festival in honour of that Saint — Tombs — 
Church of St. Nicholas — Glass-house established by Potemkin — 
nature of the works carried on there — Foundling Hospital — 
description of it — state of the Children — mortality which prevails 
amongst them — encouragement given to licentiousness by the Institu- 
tion — Character, temper, and disposition o/'Paul, before his accession 
to the throne — Disrespect and insult shewn by him to the memory 
of Catherine, on his becoming Emperor — Anecdotes illustrating 
his extraordinary conduct — Remarks on the character of the Empress 
Catherine — Deposition and murder of Peter the Third. 

bo much has been said in other works respecting the religious chap. xv. 
rites and usages of the Greek Church, that little need be 
introduced in this place on the subject. We shall only men- 
tion those objects worthy of attention, noticed by us in the 



chap. xv. course of our visits to some of the churches; and the annual 
Benediction ceremony of the Benediction of the waters of the Neva. 

of the waters _ _ _ _, 

otthe Neva. The last takes place on the sixth or January (U.b.), and was 

formerly celebrated, with great splendour and magnificence. 

on the river. At present, a small Temple, of an octagon form, 

made of wood, painted and adorned with crosses and pictures 

representing parts of the history of John the Baptist, is erected 

on the Admiralty Canal : an inclosure is formed around it, 

and within is a hole cut in the ice. A platform, covered 

with scarlet cloth, leads from the Palace to the Temple ; along 

which the procession advances, consisting of the Archbishop, 

accompanied by Bishops and Dignitaries of the Church, the 

Imperial Family, and persons attached to the Court. Having 

arrived at the Temple, different prayers are recited 1 : after 

which, the Archbishop descends a ladder placed within 

the octagon building, and dips the cross thrice in the water ; 

the benediction being pronounced at the same time. Some 

of the water is then taken up in a vessel, and sprinkled on 

the surrounding spectators. The military, with their 

standards, the religious orders in their different dresses, the 

presence of the Imperial Family, and the crowds of people 

assembled together, form a very striking scene. The last 

occasion on which Peter the Great appeared in public, 

at the celebration of this ceremony. He was previously 

indisposed ; a severe cold attacked him on the day of the 

Benediction of the waters, increased his disorder, and in a 

short time brought on his death. At the celebration of a 


(1) The prayers used on this occasion are given by Dr. King, in his account of the 
Greek Church, p. 384. 
























ceremony of the same kind, which was instituted in the\xv. 
early period of the empire, at Moscow, an image of the Holy 
Virgin was plunged into the river ; the water was blessed by 
the Patriarch ; and the Tsar, and the persons of the Court 
who were present, were sprinkled 2 with it. 

The Monastery of St. Alexander Nevshy is situate on the Monastery of 

f^t. Alexander 

left bank of the Neva, at the distance of four versts from the -v«w*jr. 
Admiralty, in a south-east direction : it was built by Peter 
the Great, in order to receive the remains of one of his 
ancestors which were brought from the Convent ofGodoretch 
in 1724. When we visited this monastery, the priests were 
performing the service in a small chapel, and not in the 
great church. After the singing, a sermon was read, in 
rather a fast and vulgar voice : at intervals, the people bowed 
and crossed themselves, some touching the ground with 
their foreheads. We observed, in general, that the women 
shewed the most, and the Monks the least devotion. The 
latter were dressed in black stuff or camlet, with a high cap, 
and a black crape veil over it. After the service, we went 
into the great Church; where we remarked three Monks 
before the Shrine of St. Alexander, saying a mass for a 
particular person who was standing near them. The prayers 
were read by one, in a singing tone ; and the two others joined 
at intervals, and made responses, taking a second or tenor at 
a particular part of the service. The head of the devotee 
was covered, for some time, with the mantle of the reader,, 
and the book placed upon it : the person then kissed the 


(2) " Toute la journee on se rendait alors sur la glace : on y faisait des trous : le Patriarche 
bcnissait l'eau pour toute 1'annee, y enfoncait l'image de la Sainte Vierge, et aspergeait 
le Tsar et les Courtisans." — Histoire de Russie, par Levesque, torn. IV. Note par Dipping, 
p. 130. 



chap. xv. book and the hand of the priest r paid his devotions to the 
shrine, gave a certain number of copeeks, and retired. We 
observed others, afterwards, apparently negotiating for a mass 
at a certain price, and sometimes unsuccessfully. A gentleman 
with a cockade, accompanied by a servant in a silver-laced hat, 
seemed to be more fortunate, and had a mass said, and some 
water blessed for him. The latter part of the ceremony was 
so long, that we did not stay to see the conclusion ; but were 
told, that he either carried the water home, or left it with the 
Monks, to be added to that which was already consecrated 
in the church. He did not appear to go through his 
part with much devotion ; and instead of bowing his fore- 
head to the earth, in general only touched it with his hand. 
He afterwards, however, knelt down once or twice, and 
kissed the shrine. While they were saying the masses, 
many people came and paid their devotions to the shrine ; 
always putting some money, at the same time, in a little 
box placed there for the purpose. The shrine is very 
handsome : religious emblems of various kinds, candelabra, 
reliques from Palestine, and a pail adorned with gold and 
jewels, form part of its decorations. The silver in it is said 

to weigh eighty pouds and eight pounds; or 3208 pounds 1 . 


(l) We were not in Petersburg at the time of the year when the great Festival occurs 
in honour of the Saint to whom the Monastery is dedicated. The author is indebted to 
a friend for permission to transcribe from his Journal the following ] account of what he 
observed on that occasion. 

" When we reached, with some difficulty, the Church, we found that the 
procession of Priests had arrived before us, and the service was begun. It was 
read in a chanting tone, and frequently interrupted by singing. All the people 
bowed, and crossed themselves, for some minutes. We were near the Shrine of the 
Saint, which was of massive silver, and very handsome. Many waxen tapers were burning 
before it : some were brought by the devotees themselves, who also handed op 
money, which, we understood, was for the purpose of contributing to the expense of 





We afterwards went into another church belonging to chap.xv. 
the Convent, in which were some fine monuments : we 
observed particularly those of Count Panin, Prince Galitzin, 
Count Besherodho ; and a very handsome one of Narishlin, 
Over the tomb of Besherodho, a lamp was to be kept always 
burning before a small figure of Christ ; and in an adjoining 
room was a rich crimson velvet and gold baldachin, under 
which was the body lying in state. In a room above stairs 
was a very good picture representing the Baptism of the 
Wife of the Grand-duke Alexander, previously to her 
marriage. It was the work of a slave who attended at 
the ceremony ; and was presented to the Empress, for the 
Hermitage. She purchased his freedom, and gave him one 
thousand roubles. The 

the lights. All that were able to approach the Shrine, kigsed it ; having made, pre- 
viously, several prostrations and bows. Every body around appeared very devout : I lost, 
notwithstanding, my pocket-handkerchief. After a short time, we met with a Russian 
Gentleman, who spoke English, and took us under his protection ; and by his assistance 
we obtained a much better situation. Before the Communion-table were folding-doors, 
having open work of gold, and ornamented with circular paintings : immediately behind 
was a veil or curtain, which, when the Priests retired to receive the Sacrament, was 
drawn across the open-work, and the place was kept sacred from the eyes and observa- 
tion of all. After the usual service was performed, as it was the name-day of the Grand- 
duke Alexander, the Bishops, six in number, with the Metropolitan at their head, 
walked to the Shrine, and prayers were offered up for all the Royal Family, and for the 
Grand-duke in particular. The Bible presented by the late Empress, the covers of 
which were of gold, and on one side most richly set with brilliants, amethysts, and other 
precious stones, was brought to the Shrine ; the Metropolitan, having taken his mitre 
from his head, read from it. As he was rather infirm, the Bishop ofCasan had performed 
the greatest part of the service. Six Bishops stood before the Shrine, most splendidly 
arrayed, their mitres covered with pearls and other ornaments : at the extremity of the 
line was the Greek Bishop, Eugenius, who appeared very old, and scarcely able to sup- 
port himself, The Abbots who assisted in the ceremonies were dressed in robes of 
crimson velvet embroidered with gold. When the service was over, the Metropolitan, 
followed by the other Bishops, returned to the Communion-table. He was supported 
by two of the Abbots and a page ; and, as he walked, all the people who were near, 





established by 

The style and manner of painting adopted in the pictures 
with which the Russian churches are frequently ornamented 
have heen described in the former part of this work. In the 
church of st. Church of St. Nicholas, called also UEglise des Matelots, are 
many pictures of Christ and the Virgin Mary, studded with 
real or false gems : the glories of gold have the appearance of 
gilded horse-shoes ; and when many of them are seen 
together, in the same piece, produce a singular effect. The 
inside of the building is roofed quite low ; and we were told 
that there was another church above. We observed the 
same arrangement in that of St. Vladimir ; where the lower 
church is used in winter, and the upper in summer. 

We afterwards went to the Glass-house established by 
Prince Potemkin ; where plate-glass of an extraordinary 
size is cast. The person who superintended the business 


among whom were some of the principal Nobility, crowded round him, to kiss his hands. 
The Bishop of Casan received the same mark of homage; but less respect was shewn 
to the rest j and Eugenius, the most venerable of all, from his great age, had no Abbot to 
support him in his tottering walk, nor did any persons offer to kiss his hand. When the 
Bishops had left the Shrine, the people crowded round it in great numbers, to pay their 
devotions, and kiss it. We were happy in having an opportunity of seeing all the country- 
people in their best apparel ; and were quite astonished at the rich dresses of some of the 
females, who, we were informed, were either peasants or bourgeoises. The head-dress 
was, in general, a kind of turban, with a deep gold lace round the forehead ; and a very 
large silk handkerchief, worked with gold and silver, falling from the top of the turban 
down to the waist behind, and sometimes brought round before, like a cloak. Under this 
was a silk vest, meeting over the breast, and reaching some way below the waist ; and 
under that, a petticoat. Many of the vests and petticoats were of the richest silk, worked 
with gold and silver. The upper part of the turban, when not covered by an handker- 
chief, was generally of velvet, flowered with gold. These dresses reminded me very 
much of some representations of those worn by Greek women, and were certainly not 
like any thing we had seen in the northern parts of Europe. The bourgeoises of the city 
appeared generally in old-fashioned silk jackets and petticoats, with high head-dresses of 
silk handkerchiefs tied in the shape of turbans. All the peasants, and lower classes of 
citizens, wore their beards." 




was sent by PotemMn to England, for some years, to learn cha p. xv\ 
the art. Having seen the different houses where the earlier 
parts of the process were going forwards, we were taken to 
that part of the building where the quicksilver is laid on, and 
there saw a glass supposed to be the largest that was ever 
made. The length was 165 inches ; the breadth, eighty-nine ; 
and intended for one of the rooms in the Winter-Palace. The 
breadth occasions the greatest difficulty to the workmen. 
The price of it was 1 5, 000 roubles. The immense copper- 
plate on which it was cast was made at Petersburg, for 20,000 
roubles. Prince Potemkin applied, at first, to the manufactory 
at Paris, and was asked 20,000 roubles for the work alone, 
without the expense of the copper. The weight is one 
thousand pouds, or 40, 000 pounds. At the death of the 
Prince, the manufactory was taken by the Crown, but is 
supposed now not to pay much more than the expenses. The 
workmen had all a clean and comfortable appearance : they 
are slaves attached to the manufactory, which is the case in 
many other establishments : they here, however, receive 
pay, in proportion to the quantity of work executed. We 
were informed that the Crown seldom takes the labour of its 
peasants in kind : hired labourers are engaged in most of the 

The Foundling Hospital, established by Catherine the £° u s ,,dli " 8 
Second, in the vicinity of the Convent of Voskrescnski, but 
removed afterwards to the first quarter of the Admiralty, is a 
branch of the great institution at Moscow, also founded by 
her. The house is a handsome extensive building by the 
Moika Canal, which had belonged to a nobleman. The 
. vol. vi. 3 u rooms 




«uai. xv. rooms are large, airy, and even elegant; and are kept 
apparently with great neatness and cleanliness. We were 
iirst introduced to that part where the boys were dining, in 
number, as we were told, about 180: they were dressed in 
red, blue, and brown, according to their classes. They were 
eating meat, with which they were constantly supplied, except 
on fast- days. The table-cloth was clean ; and each had a 
separate napkin : there was no disagreeable smell in the room ; 
and the provisions appeared to be so good, that we could have 
sate down, and partaken of their fare with pleasure. We 
then walked over different rooms, in which we saw much 
machinery ; but as it was a holiday, no one was at work. 
The boys are taught all kinds of trades : they learn to be 
tailors, to weave, to make shoes and stockings ; and each 
trade had a separate room appropriated to it. What is 
not used in the house, is sold ; but the profits do not go far in 
support of the establishment. In the magazine-rooms, there 
were some tolerable pieces of manufactured goods, but not 
much in quantity. We were next introduced to the Dormi- 
tory : the bedsteads are of iron ; the beds are composed of 
straw paillasses, but have no testers nor curtains : they are at 
four or five feet distance from each other ; and there was a 
separate one for each boy. We were then conducted to the 
apartments appropriated to the young children, where we 
observed the same neatness we had remarked in the dormi- 
tory. All women who present themselves to the Lying-in- 
Hospital connected with this institution, for the purpose of 
being taken into the house and delivered, are received, and 
no questions are asked ; but they cannot take their children 


rVC-, *Vj !^i"i^^0:. 




awav, when they quit it. An application was once made to piAK xr. 
the Empress in favour of a person of some quality, and 
granted. The children that are 1 brought to the door in 
baskets are, after three days, sent into the country, to the 
wives of Intrrian and Finnish peasants, at the rate of two 
roubles a month : they return when they are six or seven 
years old, and are then fit to be taught some trade. The 
number in the country belonging to the establishment is six 
or seven thousand. All the children that are brought are 
received, without any limit. The average number admitted in 
the day is about ten. We were there at noon-time, and saw 
four who had just been received : one of them appeared to be 
dying. We could not learn the average number of infants in 
the house ; but thought, from our conductor's information, 
that it was seven or eight hundred. W^e were surprised 
at the great mortality that takes place : one hundred deaths 
in a month form the common average of the whole house ; 
and in the preceding winter, there occurred, not unfrequently, 
eighteen in a day. The mortality chiefly occurs, it may be 
supposed, among very young children ; some of whom are 
brought when they are actually dying : but there is a consi- 
derable number of deaths among those who are older. 
Having quitted these apartments, we went over those allotted 


(l) Mr. Forsyth makes an ingenious and happy application of a passage in Juvenal to 
the Hospital at Florence, in which legitimate and illegitimate children are received. As 
they are admitted at night, he proposes that the following words should be written over 
the grate : 

" Stat Fortuna improba noctu 

Arridens nudis infantibus : hos fovet omnes, 

Involvitque sinu."- 

Remarks on Italy, p. 443. 



chap. xv. t the girls. The dormitories and work-rooms were kept in 
the same neat manner. There are five classes : the two 
highest make lace, and embroider very well : we saw a saddle- 
cloth of yellow velvet most richly embroidered in silver^ 
which was to be presented to the Emperor on his birth-day. 
The Empress interested herself particularly in the institution ; 
and, when she was in the city, seldom passed a week without 
coming twice or thrice, and looking into all the details of 
the management of it. We were told that the expenses 
of the establishment amounted to 100,000 roubles a month. 
The regular revenues belonging to it are not in any degree 
equal to that sum ; but the Government takes upon itself the 
direction of the whole, and consequently bears the additional 

The common hours of working are from six to twelve, 
and from two to four. There was a large garden, for the girls 
to walk in ; and a separate piece of ground for the boys, 
where they went after dinner to play, as it was a Jeter the 
girls amused themselves with sewing and embroidery. Not- 
withstanding the advantages possessed by the place, and the 
cleanliness that appeared to prevail in general, the children had 
not a healthy appearance ; and we were quite surprised at the 
very small number of good-looking boys and girls which wc 
saw. The greater part were absolutely ugly ; and all had sore 
eyes. This complaint arises, probably, from the strong light 
and white walls, added to the offensive heat of the rooms 
and the reflexion from the snow: it originally begins in the 
smoky cottages where the children are sent to be nursed. 
One of the governesses complained to us of the frequency of 





holidays, as a great interruption to the employments of the chap , xv. 
children. The girls leave the house at the age of eighteen, 
and the boys at that of twenty or twenty-one. Sometimes 
those children who were sent into the country did not return : 
this depended on the room there was in the house, and on the 
will of theEmpress. There is a large hall, with a railing, where 
the parents come and see their children ; to whom they affix 
a mark when they deliver them ; giving, at the same time, a 
note, stating whether the child has been baptized or not, 
and what is, or what should be, the name. Parents, in 
proving themselves able to support their children, and, we 
believe, on paying the past expenses, may demand them, and 
take them away, if they have not been born in the house. 
They may always find the children, by asking for the 
particular number, received on placing them in the insti- 

The greatest praise has been bestowed by some Writers 
on the institution of the Foundling Hospitals of Petersburg 
and Moscow. " The genius of Catherine made even the 
vices of a portion of her subjects contribute to the wisdom 
of her views. Those unfortunate children, whom their 
fathers disowned — whom their mothers did not dare to 
acknowledge — were abandoned to public compassion, and 
often to death. Equally rejected by nature and by the law, 
they have been adopted by the Sovereign. No establishment 
of the kind can be compared with the Hospital at Moscow. 
All who present themselves there, or are brought from the 
different depdts of the empire, are received. Their first 



ih.u'. xv. vrars are watched with the utmost attention; and this, if 

possible, is increased in the superintendence of their 

education. They are instructed, according to their incli- 
nations or natural dispositions, in different trades and 
different arts. When the term of their education has 
expired, they receive the greatest of all blessings — liberty, 
ilestored to their country, they are dependent only on the 
laws ; and in consecrating to their country the talents which 
she has bestowed upon them, they give back even more than 
they have received." Such is the eulogy pronounced on 
these institutions by one of the historians 1 of the Russian 
empire i nor can it be denied that many useful and indus- 
trious citizens have been formed in them. It may however be 
questioned, whether they really increase the population of 
the empire to the extent which some have supposed. No 
doubt can be entertained as to the encouragement of 
immorality and licentiousness which they afford ; since to 
have an illegitimate child, is considered as the least fault 
which a female-servant can commit 2 . 

The conduct of the Emperor was, at this time, the chief 
subject of conversation at all the tables to which we were 
invited, during our stay at Petersburg; both in the houses 


"(l) Histoire de Russie, par Levesque, tome VI. p. 55. 

(2) A female servant belonging to a mistress of rather strict character sent six children 
to the Foundling Hospital, without losing her place. Her accouchement, we were 
informed, seldom obliged her to absent herself more than three days. 




of strangers, and of the Russians themselves. We had not, 
indeed, been long in the city, before we heard, from 
undoubted authority, numerous examples, many of which 
were confirmed by our own observation, of the folly and 
inconsistency, cruelty and obstinacy, caprice and idiotism, 
not to say insanity, of Paul. Before his accession to the 
throne, he had frequently displayed great eccentricity and 
absurdity in his conduct. A mania for every thing military 
particularly possessed him : he would harass the soldiers of 
his regiment with the most vexatious discipline, the most 
minute and frivolous attention to every part of their dress, 
even to the shouldering of a musket, and to the buttoning of 
a coat. He once shut his wife up in a fortified place ; 
and ordered a mock-battle to be fought, pretending to take 
on himself the defence of it against the attack of the sup- 
posed enemy. Nothing offended him more than the refusal 
of Catherine to allow him to command the Russian army, in 
the campaign against the Porte in 1787. In visiting diffe- 
rent parts of the Continent in 1781, in company with the 
Grand-duchess, he was everywhere received with the 
greatest attention and honour ; but nothing could remove 
the gravity, silence, and reserve of his manner. lie 
frequently shewed great distrust and suspicion of those 
around him: this was particularly observable during a a 
illness with which he was attacked in Italy. His conduct 
on that occasion has been explained, by the circumstance of 
his being impressed with a notion that Catherine wished to 
make an attempt upon his life. On becoming Emperor, he 
was at liberty to indulge, to any excess, and in any manner 



Anecdotes of 
the Emperor 





he pleased, his military folly 1 . Every morning was devoted 
to reviews, to the parade, and to the practice of various 
manoeuvres. As Frederick the Great was the principal 
object of his admiration, he ordered the national dress 
of the Russians to be exchanged for the Prussian uni- 
form. He soon began to shew disrespect and aversion to 
the memory of his mother. The plans she had formed were 
altered; the ministers, whom she had selected for their 
talents, were disgraced ; the buildings she had commenced 
were completed in any manner but that which accorded 
with her ideas. The Church of St. Isaac had been raised to 
a considerable height: marble, jasper, porphyry, and granite, 
were the materials employed in the construction of it : Paul 
finished it with brick. The Taurida Palace was converted 
by him into barracks. Peter the Third, his father, had 
been buried in the Church of St. Alexander Nevshy : Paul 
ordered the body to be removed, and deposited in that of the 
Fortress, where all his ancestors are entombed. The assas- 
sins of Peter were dead, with the exception of two, — Orlqf 
and Boriatinsky : they were commanded to be present at the 
ceremony, to attend the body as chief-mourners, and to 
remain near it for the space of three weeks. This act of 


( I ) He ordered some models of tails to be made, which he intended should be 
worn by the officers and soldiers ; and despatched them to different corps of the army. 
Souwarof, on receiving a packet of these tails, shook his head, and exclaimed, 
" These tails are not bayonets; and no fire will come from this powder." A transla- 
tion cannot give the spirit of the original, which has a rhythm, and metrical cadence, 
often used by Souwarof in his conversation. " Kacoi nekalot, bouklai nepalit, poudrei 
ne streliat." — M. Depping quotes this, from an historical memoir relating to Souwarof. 




Paul was viewed in different lights: by some he was chap. xv. 
considered as influenced by motives of respect and affection to 
the memory of his father ; by others, the whole transaction 
was considered as a censure and reproach of the conduct of 
his mother. 

At the time of our residence in Petersburg, the chief 
favourite of Paul was Koutizqf 2 , originally a Greek slave, and 
latterly his valet de chambre. This man had a mistress, 


(2) Since the period when Dr. Clarke's Manuscript Journals were written, an 
edition of Levesques History of Russia has been published, with Notes by MM. Malte* 
Brun and Depping. The latter has added an account of the reign of Paul ; and has 
related in it many anecdotes, marking in a striking manner the absurdity and folly of 
his conduct, precisely of a similar nature to those which Dr. Clarke had already 
noted in his Journal. This coincidence confirms the accuracy of the statements both 
of the English Traveller and the French Historian. 

M. Depping says, that Koutizqf was originally a Turk : but the passage is suffered 
to stand in the text, as it occurs in Dr. Clarke's manuscript. M. Depping gives 
an anecdote very characteristic of Souwarof which illustrates at the same time the 
history of the rise of Koutizof. " From valet de chambre, he became the confidant 
and minister of Paul; and although he was detested by the nobles, they all sought 
his favour. Souwarof alone, more accustomed to the language of camps than to that 
of Courts, refused to bend the knee before the second master of the empire,- and 
humbled him, on one occasion, in the most marked manner. On his return from exile, 
Paw/sent his favourite to him. " Count Koutizof" was announced. "Koutizof!" cried 
the General : " I do not know any Russian family of that name." The Count answered, 
that he was from Turkey, and that the favour of the Emperor had raised him to his 
present dignity. — " You have then doubtless distinguished yourself in arms V " I have 
never served." — " Or in the ministry ?" " I have never been in any civil office. I 
have always been about the person of the Emperor." — " In what capacity?" — Koutizof 
wished to turn the conversation ; but Souwarof mercilessly pursued him with ques- 
tions ; until he confessed that he had been valet de chambre. Souivarof on this, 
turning to his servant, said : " You see, Ivan, what it is to conduct yourself well. 
This gentleman was, once, what you are : behold him Count now, with the blue 
ribband !" 


3 X 



chap. xv. Madame Chevalier, the wife of a hair-dresser, and principal 
actress at the French Theatre. Her uncommon beauty had 
subdued Koutizof ; and, as he governed Paul, Madame 
Chevalier & influence was unbounded. Whoever became the 
object of her hatred, or of that of the favourite, was imme- 
diately sent into exile. Within a few days after our 
arrival, not less than one hundred and fifty persons were 
banished, and not one under the smallest pretence of justice. 
We found, in consequence of the tyranny and caprice of the 
Emperor, that many noblemen were leaving the city, and 
retiring to Moscow. As Paul had a particular aversion to all 
strangers, every one who shewed them any kindness, or treated 
them with hospitality, became immediately offensive to him. 
The Emperor rose every morning at five : Koutizqf, whose 
apartments were under his, saw him first : the report of the 
head-officer of the Police was received shortly afterwards. 
Paul's chief vanity was, to shew his insensibility to cold: for 
this purpose, he drove about in an open sledge, or rode on 
horseback without a pelisse, parading before his soldiers, 
and through the streets, with his hat off, for twenty minutes 
together. When he passed, every person must stop, and 
stand bare-headed ; every one descended from his carriage, 
however thinly he might be clothed, and whatever might be the 
state of the weather. Ladies, old women, infirm and sickly 
persons, were obliged to suffer these indignities. The same 
marks of respect were shewn to every part of the Royal 
Family, even to the Infants ; but when the Grand-duke 
Alexander passed, he always hurried by, and waved his hand, 
to prevent this painful homage. His amiable character and 



ft -<i»J 

condescension rendered him the idol of the people; and he chap.xv 
was as much loved, as Paul was detested. 

We passed an evening at the hospitable and elegant man- 
sion of Baron Strogonof; who informed us, that his coachman, 
one morning, when the Emperor was riding through the 
streets, did not stop the horses so quickly as he ought to 
have done : on this, the attendant officer went up, demanded 
who was in the carriage, and took down the name of the 
servants. Fortunately, the Baron was going to his uncle, 
a favourite of the Emperor, and no more notice was taken 
of the matter; but he told us he passed a day of painful 
anxiety, The slightest punishment inflicted for neglecting 
to take off immediately your hat, great coat, cloak, gloves, 
or pelisse, as the Emperor passed by, or for not descending 
instantly from your carriage, in the snow, mud, or rain, was, 
that the servants were bound and sent to the army, the horses 
to the artillery, the carriage confiscated, and the master 
ordered into confinement. The attention of the police was 
directed to things of the most insignificant kind : if a man 
had his hair short on the top of his head, if it fell over his 
forehead, if he had any below his temples or on his cheeks, 
a soldier was sent to shave him, or cut his hair, according to 
the whim or taste of the police-officer. As every thing was 
regulated by the caprice and insolence of this class of persons, 
it was impossible in any way to escape their notice and inter- 
ference. Friends met with suspicious and fearful looks, 
asking for news, or mentioning the misfortunes which had 
happened to their relatives, who had been exiled 1 or ruined 

(1) La colere de Paul frappait indistinctement toutes les classes de lasociete; — les 
eourtisans, les gens de lettres, les militaires, les marchands, les femmes, tous encou- 




chap. xv. by the Emperor and his minion. While we were at Baron 
Strogonofs, a Princess came to take leave of her friends : — 
she was ordered to leave Petersburg by four o'clock in the 

An Englishman, accustomed from his infancy to the bless- 
ings of a free constitution, is in the practice of declaring his 
sentiments openly and loudly. In Petersburg, if he opened 
his mouth, though for the sake of asking a question of 
the most indifferent kind, his Russia??, friend trembled while 
he was addressed. — " What architect designed that palace ?'' 
" Speak lower, for God's sake !" — " What ! is it prohibited 
to ask questions relating to architecture ?" " Every thing is 
prohibited." — "Is it prohibited to speak, to breathe, to exist?" 
" It is dangerous to speak at all : whatever you say, may be 
misinterpreted ; and, surrounded as you are, the less consci- 
ousness you afford even of your respiration or existence, the 
better." — This is a real statement of a conversation which 
took place. It was an offence to be loud in talking, laughing, 
or singing. Peace and comfort, innocent mirth, and domes- 
tic happiness, were constantly interrupted ; and the effect of a 
baneful and malignant tyranny was everywhere experienced ; 
adempto per i??quisitio?ies, et loquendi audiendique commercio. 

The Emperor ordered a person to be flogged by the 
soldiers, because he wore his cravat a little too near his chin, 


raient la peine de l'exil, ou du knout, pour des fautes legeres Les exils et les 

arrestations continuaient toujours : on voyait sur les routes de nombreux kibitkas, qui 
transportaient les prisonniers en Siberie. Ces transports se faisaient avec la plus 
grande precipitation ; on ne laissait souvent a 1' exile qu'une heure pour arranger ses 
affaires ; et puis on l'envoyait sous le climat rigoureux de la Siberie, sans lui accorder 
les moyens de se premunir contre la rigueur du froid." 

Depping.—Histoirede Russie, par Levesoue. Tome VI. p. 1 14. 




and had not placed the cock of his hat straight over his fore- chapxv. 
head. The punishment was inflicted with severity. On one 
occasion he had the audacity to cane an officer : the unfortu- 
nate victim of his cowardice retired to his house, and shot him- 
self, leaving a note for the Emperor, containing these words : 
' ' He who has the courage to lose his own life for an insult, 
might take away the life of him who caused it. Let this be 
a warning to you." His conduct towards strangers was as 
extraordinary as that which he displayed towards his own sub- 
jects. The German ambassador, Count Cobentzel, applied 
for a passport to send a courier to his Court. The Emperor 
gave for answer, that he could have nothing to say to his 
Court, and that he should have , none. Paul had been 
induced to join the Coalition against France : he repented of 
the measure, and shewed his aversion to it, by ill-treating the 
Representatives of the Courts of England and Austria, and 
by ordering many French emigrants to quit his dominions. 
He had, however, a great horror of Revolutionary principles. 
Two servants, who had been discharged by two English 
gentlemen, laid an information against their masters, of being 
Jacobins : these gentlemen were obliged, in consequence, to 
leave Russia; and would have experienced harsher treatment, if 
Lord IVhitivorth had not discovered the plot, and the falsehood 
of the charge, and made himself responsible for their conduct. 
It is well known, that, among other instances of folly, he 
ordered, by a special Ukase, many of the buildings in the 
empire to be painted in a particular manner, according to 
his directions. A lady, whom he admired, appeared one 
evening at a ball with a pair of gloves of a red colour : the 
next morning, his palace was painted red. The absurdities, 




chap. xv. of which he was guilty every day, almost exceed belief. Some 
excellent paintings in the palace had been removed, by his 
orders, for the purpose of being varnished ; and a few com- 
mon sea-pieces, executed in the very worst manner, were 
hung, in the mean time, in room of them, to cover the wall : 
he noticed one, as he passed through the apartments, declared 
it to be the finest thing he had ever seen in his life, and 
angrily asked why such excellent paintings were placed so 
high, and out of sight. Presently, twenty soldiers entered 
with ladders, to take down the picture, that he might have 
it near him while he was at dinner, though it hung in the 
adjoining room. 

In the course of his morning ride, he observed, at a little 
distance, a person in a sledge, who did not take off his pelisse. 
When he reached the palace, he said to an officer, " In such 
a street I saw a man who did not take off his pelisse ; it was 
green, with dark fur : go, find out who he is." The officer 
was in utter despair of ever being able to execute such a 
mad commission ; but, from the situation of the street, he 
suspected that the person might, perhaps, be an Englishman. 
Hastening, therefore, to the English Club, where the mer- 
chants were at dinner, he examined all the pelisses ; and 
having found one which corresponded with the description 
given by the Emperor, he inquired to whom it belonged : 
the waiter mentioned the name of the owner, and the police- 
officer desired that he might be called out of the room. — " Is 
this pelisse yours?'* "Yes." — The officer departed, leaving 
the Englishman in doubt as to what steps he should take. 
His friends advised him to go home ; but when he left the 
room, the pelisse was not to be found : it had been taken to 





the Emperor, who, when he saw it, embraced the officer in a chap.xv. 
transport of joy, at the same time declaring his surprise that he 
returned with it so soon. — The pelisse was sent back to the 
owner, in about an hour's time. 

The truth of the following fact can be attested by the 
whole city of Petersburg. — A carriage, as the Emperor was 
passing through the streets, was observed not to stop quite so 
soon as was thought proper ; nor did any one descend when 
it stopped. The officers rode up, took the name of the owner, 
and again followed Paul. About noon, the lady, to whom it 
belonged, was informed that one of the police-officers 
desired to see her. The visits of these persons oc- 
casioned as much horror and alarm at Petersburg, as those 
of the agents of Robespierre produced at Paris, The lady, 
much distressed, was no sooner informed of the cause of his 
coming, than she burst into tears, clasping her hands 
together, and protesting that she had not been out of the house 
for three days. She ordered inquiry to be made, in order to 
know who had been in the carriage ; and was informed, that 
the person was a poor miserable cripple, deformed, an ideot 
from his birth, deprived of the use of his limbs, maintained in 
the family from charity, and allowed, by his humane protec- 
tress, the use of the carriage, for air, when the weather was 
fine. Will it be believed, that this wretched object was drag- 
ged before the Governor ; who, when he saw him, shuddered 
with horror? " I have orders," he said, " to feed you upon 
bread and water : but I will add a little butter to the one, and 
a little tea to the other ; and, in the mean time, go to the Em- 
peror." Paul, whether from a feeling of compassion not very 




chap. xy. common to him, or from not wishing to trouble himself any 
further in the business, ordered the ideot to be taken back to 
the house of the lady. But the carriage and servants were 
gone ; — the former was seized by the Government ; the latter 
were sent to the army. 

The melancholy effects of his short reign were perceptible in 
every thing. Science, art, and literature, withered under the 
blighting influence of his tyranny. Books of almost every 
description were prohibited. French works of the most costly 
and expensive kind, if they shewed, by their title-page, that they 
had been printed during the time of the Republic, were not 
allowed to be sold. We took up, in a bookseller's shop, 
a beautiful copy of Buffons Natural History, and the 
marks of the police w T ere visible in the title-page of every 
volume. Foreign Journals were reprinted with the alterations 
which the Government thought proper to introduce. Censors 
were appointed to superintend every publication, to open and 
read letters, to suppress and destroy whatever they did not 
approve or could not comprehend. In the scrutiny which took 
place, amidst this darkness of intellect and ignorance, we 
have no reason to wonder at the ludicrous and contemptible 
blunders that were daily committed 1 . 

The character and conduct of Paul are sufficiently illus- 
trated by the statements we have given : and more, if it 
were necessary, might be added, to mark his imbecility and 


(1) M. Depping gives the following instance. — The censors had no list of prohibited 
books : they, therefore, adopted the Index in use at Vienna. In this, there was a pro- 
hibition of books relating to the Greek Church : the same were also rejected by the 
Russian censors ! 


ideotcy. The strong feeling of hatred which he bore to the 
memory of Catherine led him to counteract and defeat, in 
every possible manner, the plans which she had formed for 
the improvement of the empire. The private and public 
life of this extraordinary woman formed the subject of 
conversation one evening, when we were present, at the 
house of Baroness Strogonof, who had been one of her 
Ladies of the Bedchamber : she related to us many anec- 
dotes respecting her ; speaking the whole time as one 
of her enthusiastic admirers, though discriminating parts of 
her conduct with penetration and shrewdness of remark. 
Certainly many traits, which were mentioned, shewed a 
great strength of intellect, and often a feeling heart. She 
had a power and command over herself, which enabled her 
to retire when in anger, and never to give a decision until her 
mind was calm and tranquil : she had the talent of rendering 
every one at ease, when in her presence ; and her clemency 
was shewn on various occasions. When the name of a person 
who was convicted of high-treason, of even plotting against her, 
was given in for condemnation, she would frequently desire 
i nquiry to be made, if he had not some cause of vexation ; if his 
mind had not been irritated by some fancied injury or neglect : 
— at last, the astonished culprit was presented with a sum of 
money, and ordered to retire to a distant province. Impressed, 
at first, with a favourable feeling occasioned by the enumera- 
tion of many good qualities which were attributed to her, we 
were disposed to join the list of her panegyrists : but it is im- 
possible, on reflection, to admit any apology for the crimes 
which tarnish all her glories, if they do not entirely obscure 
vol. vi. 3 y them. 

Remarks on 
the character 
of the Em- 
press Cathe- 



chap. xv. them. It will readily be allowed, that her reign has been 
marked by great events, and that her measures were often 
directed by sound wisdom and policy. Her apparent virtues 
also relieve the attention from the horrors and dark shades of 
infamy, with which they are surrounded ; but the mind soon 
turns from the contemplation of them, with suspicion and 
distrust : they seem to be more the result of an artful policy, 
than the offspring of beneficence : — so difficult is it to con- 
ceive, that a woman engaged during one part of her life in 
murder, and the other in lust and ambition, could be capable 
of any thing lovely or of good report — any thing noble or 
amiable — any thing which could adorn or dignify the human 
mind ! 

Deposition Whenever the circumstances attending the death of Peter 

and murder of 

Peter the THE Third are introduced, they are always accompanied with 
the assertions, that Catherine, by the murder of her husband, 
averted a similar fate, which would have speedily overtaken 
her. This plausible tale, easily related, as easily prevailed. 
The multitude, who seldom trouble themselves to reflect, 
when they find others ready to think for them, are hardly yet 
awakened from their delusion. It is wonderful that a repre- 
sentation so totally groundless should have met with such 
implicit belief! What reason have we for supposing that 
Peter intended the murder or the imprisonment of his wife ? 
He built, it is said, a set of apartments in the Fortress of 
Schlusscnburg ; they were erected with unusual expedition; 
he himself superintended the work ; — insinuations, which 
really prove nothing. As persons have not been wanting to 
defend the conduct of Catherine throughout the whole 





course of the events which occurred in the Revolution of chap.xv. 
1762, it is proper to advert to what has been urged by those 
who have advocated the cause of Peter. They state, that he 
was acquainted with the plans she had formed, in conjunc- 
tion with her favourite Orlqf, for taking possession of the 
reins of government ; — that when the consequences of her 
licentious conduct- and intimacy with that officer were too 
evident, Peter proposed to punish her in some public man- 
ner; — that, to avoid this disgrace, Catherine completed and 
hastened the conspiracy which ended in his dethronement 
and murder. That the indolence, and want of resolution, 
and pusillanimity of Pdcr contributed to his own ruin, 
cannot be doubted : there was a period, during the revolt, 
when the soldiers expressed their regret at having been so 
easily persuaded, by Or lof and Razoumofshj and others, to 
abjure their allegiance to him; and would have marched, 
under his command, against the rebels. The circumstances 
connected with the seizure and imprisonment of Peter at 
Robscha have been variously related 1 . Ismaelqf, whom he 
sent to express his readiness to enter into negotiation with 
the Empress, is supposed to have betrayed him to Orlqf, 
He was then conveyed to Robscha. But even after his confine- 
ment, the soldiers did not cease to express their disapprobation 
of what had taken place ; and a strong feeling of commi- 
seration for their deposed monarch was excited among 
various classes of the people. The conspirators found that 


(1) The annexed Plate represents a view of the Palace and Apartment at Robscha, in 
which Peter the Third was murdered. 



chap. xv. their only security was in his death. — The rest of the history 
of Peter the Third is well known. An unsuccessful attempt 
was made to administer poison to him : as this failed, he 
was, after a violent resistance, strangled, by Alexis Orlof 
Boriatinshy who was the officer on guard, and an obscure 
individual of the name of Tdpelhof 1 . His body was publickly 
exposed, habited in the Holstein uniform ; the collar of the 
dress being so arranged as to conceal the mode of his death, 
which, however, was very visible in the features of the face. 
The following night he was buried in the church of the 
Monastery of St. Alexander Nevshy. 

(1) The account in the text is confirmed by a remarkable extract from Mr. 
Gibbon's Common-Place Book, given in Lord Sheffield's late edition of the 
Miscellaneous Works of that writer ; which may be properly inserted in this place. 

" Peter III. was poisoned in a glass of brandy. On his refusing a second glass, 
'' he was forcibly thrown down, and strangled with a handkerchief, by Orlof, Tepelhof, 
" Potemkin, and the youngest of the Princes Boriatinski. When the body was ex- 
" posed, the marks of violence on the neck, &c. were evident. Orlof instantly 
" returned to Petersburg, and appeared at the Empress's dinner, in the disorder of a 
" murderer. She caught his eye, rose from the table, called him into her closet ; 
" sent for Count Punin, to whom she imparted the news ; and returned to dinner with 
" her usual ease and cheerfulness," 

" These particulars (Mr. Gibbon says) are taken from a History of the Revolution 
in 1762, composed by M. Rulhierc, a French Officer, who was an attentive spectator,, 
and who afterwards conversed with the principal actors. Prudence prevents him 
from publishing: but he reads his Narrative to large companies; and I have already 
heard it twice." Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, Vol.V. p. 528. 181k 

[For a Continuation of the Author s Narrative, of his departure 

from Petersburg to Moscow, of his interesting description of 

tJie latter city, and his journey to the Southern Provinces 

of the Russian Empire, tire. fyc. the Reader is referred to the 

First Volume of these Travels.— — Eoitor.] 




No. I. 


I collected, by favour of Professor Porthan, Seventy of the 
Academic Disputations of Abo. And, as a Catalogue of their 
subjects, with their respective dates, will afford a tolerable idea of 
the line of study pursued in that University, a time in 

which any particular study was the most favoured, sixty-one of 
them are here added. 

It will appear, that under the Presidency of Porthan themosl 
interesting topics were discussed. 


They form a complete History of Science in Abo, for tUe 
last twenty years of the eighteenth century. 

1782. Dissertatio Botanica, dc Calla. Praeside, C. N. Hellenic — 

J. F. Sacklen, Satacundensis. 
1785. Dissertatio Mathematica, de Quadratura Parabola 1 . — Praes. *. 'i. 

Lindquist. — J. J. Lagerstrom, Satacinulensis. 
178i>. Dissertatio Astronomica, Methodum sistens invenieruii Tempus Ve- 

rum, ex observatis a:qualibus diversarum Stellanmi Altitudiniblifi. 

— Praes. J.H. Lindquist. — A. J. Tammklandek, Tavdstensis. 

^;}(} APPENDIX, No I. 

1786. Specimen Academician, de invenienda Sectione Conica circa focum 

datum per data tria puncta transeunte. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. 

— J. Wegelius, Qstro-Botnicnsis. 
1786. Dissertatio Gradualis, Observationes quasdam circa Reductionem 

Angulorum ad Horizontem continens. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — 

J. Rikstrom. 

1786. Dissertatio Astronomica, de Parallaxi Annua PlanetarumPrimariorum 

ac Cometarum. Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — S. Castren, Ostro- 


1786. Diss. Botanica, de Evonymo. — Praes. C.N. Hellenio. — C.Ascholin, 

1786. Diss. Botanica, de Hippuride. — Praes. C. N. Hellenic — C. R. Bran- 
der, Satacundensis. 

1786. Specimen Calendarii Florae et Faunae Aboensis. — Praes. C. N. Hel- 
lenio. J. G. JUSTANDER. 

1 786. Dissertatio, de Origine Literarum Latinarum. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. 
— G. J. Cajander, Nylandus. 

1786. Dissertatio Academica, de Bircarlis.— Praes. H. G. Porthan. — F. M. 

Frantzen, Ostro-Botniensis. 

1 787. Prospectus Methodi Rem Pecuariam scientifice pertractandi. — Praes. 

G. Bonsdorff. — A. BoxstrOm, Nylandus. 

1788. in novam Nomenclaturae Chemicae Methodum. — 

Publico Examini subjicit J. Gapomn, — Respondents N, Avellan, 
1788. Diss. Academica, de Asparago. — Praes. C.N. Hellenius. — U. Pryss. 

1 788. Diss. Acad, de Observationibus Barometricis ope Thermometri corri- 

gendis. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — J. Wegelius, Ostro-Botniensis. 

1789. Meletema Academicum, de Favorino, Philosopho Academico. — Praes. 

H. G. Porthan. — Z. Forsman, Ostro-Boiniensis. 
1789. Diss. Astronomica, de invenienda apparente Lunas Diametro ex data 

ejus Parallaxi. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — A. Sander, Borea-Fenno. 
1789. Diss. Academica, de Interpolatione pro inveniendo loco Lunae ex 

Ephemeridibus. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — J. ./Ejmel^eus. 
1789. Diss. Academica, sistens Theoriam Linearum Parallelarum. — Praes. 

J. H. Lindquist.— E. Rosenback, Satacundensis. 
i 789. Diss. Botanica, de Tropaeolo.— Praes. C.N. Hellenio. — A. F. L aurell, 





1789. Diss. Acad, de FamaMagiae Fennis attributa. — Prae's. H. G. Porthan. 

— F.J. Rosen bom, Ostro-Botniensis. 
1789. Diss. Acad, de Hippophae. — Praes. C. N. Hellenic — P. Stenberg, 


1791. Animadvevsiones de Libris raris. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. P. J. 

Alop^eus, Wiburgensis. 

1791. De vario Usu Litteraturae Orientalis. Praes. P. Malmstrom.— 

G. Krogius, Wilurgensis. 

1792. Diss. Acad, sistens Specimina quaedam instinctus, quo Animalia sua* 

prospiciunt Soboli. — Praes. C. N. Hellenic — F. Juvelius, Ostro- 

1792. Diss. Botanica, de Cichoric— Praes. C. N. Hellenio. — H. Nelly, 


1792. Diss. Academica, de Imperio Hermanrici Ostro-Gothorum Regis.— 

Praes. H. G. Porthan. — C. Rein, Ostro-Botniensis. 
1792. Cogitationes de Poemate Prosaico. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. — A. Kel- 

lander, Satacundensis. 
1 792. Diss. Astronomica, de computando Effectu Aberrationis Luminis in 

Eclipsibus. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — M. J. Tolpo, Borea-Fenno. 
1792. Diss. Astronom. de Methodo inveniendi Latitudinem Loci ex obser- 

vatis duabus Solis vel Stellae cujusdam Altitudinibus. — Praes. J. H. 

Lindquist. — A.J. Mether, Tavastensis. 

1792. Diss. Gradualis, de Loxodromiis in Superficie Ellipsoidica. — Praes. 

J. H. Lindquist. — N. M. Tolpo, Borea-Fenno. 

1793. Diss. Acad, de invenienda Longitudine Loci ex observata Distantia 

Lunae a Stella quadam. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — M. Avellan. 

1794. Diss. Medica, sistens Casum Haemorrhoidum suppressarum. — Praes. 

G. E. Haartman. — S. Bjorklund. 
1794. Diss. Acad. Cogitationes sistens de Libertate Graecis callide a Roma- 

nis oblata. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. — M. JLxegrek ,Ostro-Botniensis. 
1794. Diss. Acad. Animadversiones sistens de Studio novitatis in Philosophia. 

— Praes. H. G. Porthan. — S. Bohm, Ostro-Botniensis. 

1794. Diss. Acad, de Imperio Hermanrici Ostro-Gothorum Regis. — Praes. 

H. G. Porthan. — E. Hildeen, Borea-Fenno. 

1795. Diss. Acad, sistens Cogitationes quasdam de Linguarum Usu Historico. 

— Praes. H. G. Porthan. — J. H. Avellan, Tavastensis. 
1795. Diss. Acad, de Libertate Philosophandi. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. 1 — 
P. Walllenius, Wiburgensis. 
vol. vi. 3 z 



1795. Diss. Acad, sistens Cogitationes quasdam de Pandora Hesiodea.- — 
Praes. H.G. Porthan. — J. H. Fattenborg, Nylandus. 

1795. Diss. Acad, de Theoria Solutionis Chemicae. — Praes. J. Gadolin. — 
M. Harfvelin, Aboensls. 

1795. De Natura SaliumSimplicium. — Praes. J. Gadolin. — J. G. Haartman. 

1795. De computando Effectu Convexitatis Superficiei in Arte Libellandi, 

posita Figura Telluris Ellipsoidica. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — 
C. G. Utter, Salacundensis. 

1796. De Invenienda Parallaxi Altitudinis, ex datis Parallaxi Sideris Hori- 

zontali, et vera ejus a Zenith Distantia.— Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — 
T. T. Kriander, Sataciaidensis. 

1797. De corrigendis Erroribus Instrumenti Culminatorii. — Praes. J. H. 

Lindquist. — G. Laurell. 
1797. De Declinatione Nominum in primis Fennicorum. — E. Hildeen et 

G. Laurell. 
1797. Animadversiones nonnullae circa Quasstionem, " Quid Moses de Diis 

Gentium senserit?" — Praes. G. Gadolin. — J. Avellan, Tavastensis. 
1797. Dissertatio Inauguralis Medica, sistens Toxicologiae primas Lineas. — 

Praes. G. E. Haartman. — B. Holmudd, Uleaburg. 
1797. De Tussilagine Commentarii Botanici. — J. G. Haartman, et A. J. 

Orrstrom, Aboensis. 

1797. De Speciebus Solutionis Chemicae. — Praes. J. Gadolin. — M. Sylvex, 


1798. Examen Methodi ^quationes Algebraicas resolvendi ; a C. L. Ben- 

david, nuper propositae. — Praes. J. H. Lindquist. — J. F. Aiilstedt, 

1798. De Natura Carbonis Vegetabilis. — Praes. J. Gadolin. — T. T. Krian- 
der, Satacunda-Fenno. 
1798. De Silica ex Solutione Alkalina per Calcem praecipitata. — Praes. J. 

Gadolin. — J. Holstius, Ostro-Botniensis. 
1798. De Variationibus Avium quoad ipsarum Colorem. — Praes. C. N. Hel- 

lenio. — A. Cajan, Ostro-Botniensis. 
1798. De Philosophia Populari complexa. Praes. H. G. Porthan. — 

G. Palander, Tavastensis. 
1798. De Pancratio Gymnici apud Veteres Graecos Ludi Genere. — Praes. 

G. Gadolin. — G. Domander, Tavastensis. 
1798. De Dignitate Jarlorum in Suecia. — Praes. H. G. Porthan. — E. J. 

Frostenes, Ostro-Butniensis. 


1798. Specimen Descriptionis Organicae Linearum Curvarum. — Auctor, 
G. G. Hallstrom ; et Respondens, C. II. Stranberg, Nylandus. 

1798. Specimina quaedam Geometriae Curvilineae. — Press. A. J. Mether, et 

N. J. Bergh^ell, Tavaslensis. 

1799. De Methodo Superficies Solidorum duplici Integratione investigandi. 

— Auctor, G. Palander ; et Respondens, C. Astrom, Tavastemis. 
1799. De Fide Revelationi Divinae habenda. — Praes. J. Tengstrom. — E.J. 

Frosterus, Oslro-Botniensis. 
1799. De inveniendis Lineis Curvis ex datis Radii Curvaturae Proprietati- 

bus, Problemata. — Auctore, G. G. Hallstrom ; et Respondente, 

C. H. Hollberg, Borea-Fenno. 


In the year 1766, Professor Porthan, then Student in the Uni- 
versity, produced his learned Dissertation De Poesi Fennica; one 
of the most erudite and interesting Essays that have appeared 


among the Academic Dissertations of Abo. 



No. II. 





















In Facilitate Theologica : 

Christianus Cavander, S.S. Theol. Prof. Prim, et Archi-Prcep. in iis Capi- 
tibus, quae ex Evangelio Lucae adhuc supersunt, publice interpretandis, 
primum b. c. D. versabitur, in Auditorio Majori h. a. m. IX, deinde Jo- 
hannis Evang. suscepturus. Privatim futuris Auditoribus, in primis S. 
Ministerii Candidatis, fidelia saltern consilia monitaque ad praxin muneris 
et vitae spectantia suppeditare studebit. 

Laurentius O. Lefren, S. S. Theol. Professor Reg. et Ordin. hoc anno Aca- 
demico Esaiae Prophetiam publice explicare constituit, idque h. III. post 
meridiem; privatas Scholas desideriis expetentium adcommodaturus. 

Jacobus Tengstrom, S.S. Theol. Prof. Reg. et Ord. nee non R. Acad. h.a. 
Rector. Doctrinam morum e Christianae Theologiae fontibus haustam, 
praeeunte Cel. J. C. Doderlein, publice legendo tradere et absolvere cona- 
bitur ; Dogmaticam non minus quam Homileticam Religionis proponendae 
rationem privatis lectionibus alternis persecuturus. 

In Facilitate Juridica : 

Matthias Calonius, Juris Prof. Reg. et Ord. Eques Ord. Reg. de Stella 
Polari, Supremi Reg. Tribunalis Revisorii p. t. Memhrum, Holmiae munere 
clementissime sibi delato detentus adhuc versatur. Partes vero ejus, 
donee ad nos redierit, R. Acad. Secretarius interim administrabit. 

In Facilitate Medica : 


Gabriel Ericus Haartman, M.D. Med. Pract. Prof Reg. et Ord. Com- 
mentaria in Pharmacopceam Svecanam proxime praeterlapso anno Acade- 
mico incepta continuabit; docebit autem publice h.a. m. XI. in Audito- 
rio Mathematico ; privatamque operam ad desiderium Alumnorum Medi- 
corum lubenter accommodabit. 

Gabriel Bonsdorff, Phil, et Med. Doct., Anat. Chirurg. et Art, Veter. Prof. Ord. Facult. Med. h.a. Dfcaw^, historiam Actionum corporis, quas 
Animales vocant, publicis lectionibus h. a. m. IX a in Audit. Anatom. 
habendis, succincte tradet ; Demonstrationibus et exercitiis anatomicis 
atque medico-legalibus privatis horis sedulo inserviturus. 




Josephus G. Pipping, M.D. Med. Prof. Reg. et Extraord. atque Membrum 
Fac. Med. Ordinarhim, absoluta morborum Oculorum expositione, mor- 
bos ossium corporis humani pertractabit, idque publice in Auditorio 
Anatomico bora decima antemeridiana. Exercitationes autem privatas 
desideriis Artis Sfudiosorum salutaris accommodabit. 

In Facilitate Philosophical 

Johannes Bilmark, Hisloriar. ac Philosoph. Pract. Professor Reg. et Ordin. 
Jurisprudential!! Naturalem et Politicam Septemtrionalium Europae Reg- 
norum Notitiam publicis Lectionibus, in Auditorio Majori hora XI. a.m. 
Deo Volente, habendis, alternis vicibus explicabit ; Privatam institutio- 
nem desiderio suorum Auditorum accommodaturus. 
Andreas Planman, Phy sices Prof. Reg. et Ord. Elementa Mecbanices, in 
Auditorio Superiori, bora II da pomeridiana, publice proponet ; privatim 
vero ea tradet, quae Honoratissimi Commilitones desideraverint. 
Henricus Gabriel Porthan, Eloquentice Professor Reg. et Ord. Orationes 
Ciceronis selectas et Virgilium, diebus alternis, in Auditorio Minori bora 
antemerid. X, publice interpretabitur. Privatam vero diligentiam exerci- 
tiis styli utriusque, more solito moderandis, aliisque muneris sui partibus, 
in quibus Auditores suam potissimum exposcere operam intellexerit, pro 
virili implendis, dicabit. 
Olavus Schalberg, Phil. Mag. nee non Metaplnjs. et Logices Profess. Reg. 
atque Ordin. Lectionibus publicis, Psycbologiam Empiricam, D.V., ex- 
plicabit, privatis ea traditurus, quae sui Auditores ipsi desideraverint. 
Publice leget bora a.m. octava. 
Carolus Nicolaus Hellenius, CEcon. Profess. Reg. et Ord. absolutis iis, 
quae ex cultura olerum proponenda restant, praecepta cultus arborum fru- 
giferarum tradet, idque publice in Auditorio Matbematico bora X ma 
antemeridiana. Privatim in omnibus, quae ad se pertineant, Juventutis 
Academicae commodis pro virili parte consulet. 
Johannes Gadolin, Chemice Prof. Reg. et Ord. praelectionibus publicis hoc 
anno Na/.uram Aquce et Salium, duce libro a se edito, explicabit, in Au- 
ditorio Mathematico hora p. m. III ,ia . Privatam operam ad desideria 
Auditorum lubens accommodabit. 
Gustavus Gadolin, Lingg. Orient, et Gr. Prof Reg. et Ord. nee non Fac. 
Philos. h.a. Decanus, publicis lectionibus hora a.m. IX. in Auditorio Ma- 
thematico habendis Iliados Homericce explicationem continuabit. Priva- 
tam operam literis Hebraeis tradendis impendet, neque ceteroquin Hono- 
rat. Commilitonum desideriis defuturus. 




Franciscus Michael Franzen, Hist. Litter. Prof, et Reg. Acad. Bibliothc- 
carius, lectiones quas semestri vcrnali proxime praeterlapso instituit, hoc 
anno Academico persecuturus, literarum humaniorum apiul Romanos 
aliasque et antiquas et hodiernas Europae Occidentals et Borealis gentes 
Historiam publice in Audit. Mathematico hora a. m. VIII. pertractabit. 
Ceterum ut ad R. Acad. Bibliothecam Academicis aditus diebus Mercu- 
rii et Saturni horis p. m. II. & III. pateat, curabit, etprivatim sedulam in 
iis, quas suae sunt interpretationis, partibus, operam studiosae juventuti 

Andreas Johannes Mether, Mathem. Prof. Reg. et Ord. Semestri autum- 
nali utramque Trigonometriam, sequente autem anni hujus Academici 
intervallo Doctrinam Sectionum Conicarum praelectionibus publicis, in 
Auditorio Minori h.a. m. XI. habendis, explicabit. Lectiones privatas 
desiderio Honor. Commilitonum accommodabit. 



In Facilitate Theologica : 

Jacobus Bonsdorff, S. S. Theol. Licent. et Adjunct. Ord'm. in praelegendis, 
quae restant ex Epitome Theol. Dogm. S. Vener. Mori, capitibus versa- 
bitur, cetera quoque et Hermeneutices et Pastoralis Doctrinae momenta 
haud neglecturus. 

In Facilitate Medica : 

Nicolaus Avelan, Medic. Doct. Anal. Prosector et Facult. Med. Adjunct. 
Ord., Dissectionibus Anatomicis publice inserviet ; privatim, quae de 
Lectionibus Osteologicis, feriis Academicis interrupts, explicanda re- 
stant, persecuturus. 

Botanices Demonstratoris munus vacat. 

In Facultate Philosophica : 
Henricus Alanus, Reg. Acad. Secrelarius, cceptam proxime praeterlapso se- 
mestri Tituli Codicis Fridericiani de Jure Hccreditatis interpretationem, 
per illud hujus Anni Academici spatium, quo Holmiae adhuc commorabi- 
tur Ordinarius Juris Professor, publicis Lectionibus ejus loco continua- 
bit, quam simulac absolverit, sequentem ejusdem Codicis Titulum pro 
ratione temporis adgredietur explicandum. Privatim Elementa trade t 
Jurisprudential Civilis. 


Johannes Sundwall, Fac. Philos. Adj. Ord. disciplinas morales Auditoribus 
suis explicare continuabit. 


Michael Holmberg, Professor, Adjunctus Chemxce Ext r aor dinar ius, Elementa 
Halurgiae et Pharmaceutices experiments instituendis Auditoribus de- 


In Facilitate Theologica : 

Nicolaus Gustavus Brander, S. Theologies Docens, desideriis Honoratissi- 

morum Dom. Commili