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HALL 

MARKS 

ON 

GOLD 

A N D 

SILVER 
PLATE 



Ja 



Mr. William Ctoffers^ Works 

C'haffcM-s' Works on Pottery and Porcelain, and on Gold and Silver Plato, 
ar(> the recognised authoritative works amongst all Collectors, Librarians, 
Auctioneers, Dealers. Kstate Agents and Valuers for Probate and in the Jiaw 
Courts. They are continually being brought up-to-date by their respective 
editors. 

Thk 'Xkw Chaitkks/' Rkskt, Enlauged and R?:vised Throughout. 

MAHKS AM) MONOORAMS ON EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL POTTERY 
AM) PORCELAIN. With over o,()00 Potters' Marks and Illustrations. 
IJy WiLLiA]\t Chai-fkks. Thirteenth Edition, Avith an Increased Number 
ot some L^()()() Potters' IMarks and a List of Sale Prices. Edited by' 
l'\ LriCHKiKLi), assisted by P. L. Hobson, of the British Museum (Majolica 
and Oriental Sections), and I)i?. Justus Brinckmann, Curator of the 
Hamburg Museum. Over 1,000 pages, thick imp. 8vo, ornamental cloth, 
gilt top, 50s. net. 1912 

THE KERAMIC GALLERY. Containing several Hundred Illustrations of 
ILire, Curious and Choice Examides of Pottery and Porcelain from the 
lOarliest Times to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century. With His- 
torical Notices and Descrintions. By W. Chaffers. Second Edition, 
llevised bv H. M. Cundall, LS.O., F.'S.A. Nearly 500 pages. Roy. 8vo, 
cloth. 

The New Collector's HANDBOOK OF MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON POT- 
TERY AND PORCELAIN of the Renaissance and Modern Periods. With 
upwards of 5,000 Marks (including 2,500 Marks now added. By William 
Chaffers. Chiefly selected from his Larger Work. With Historical No- 
tices of each Manufactory. Revised by Frederick Litchfield. Crown 
8vo, cloth, 10s. net. 

COLLECTOR S HANDBOOK TO KERAMICS OF THE RENAISSANCE AND 
MODERN PERIODS. Selected from the Larger Work entitkd "The 
Keramic Gallery." By W. Chaffers. AVith 350 Illustrations. Crown 
8vo, cloth, 6s. 6d. net. 

HANDBOOK TO HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. By W. 

Chaffers. With Revised Tables of Annual Date Letters Employed in the 
Assay Offices of England, Scotland and Ireland. Fourth Edition, Edited 
and Extended by C. A. Markham, F.S.A. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net. 

HANDBOOK TO FOREIGN HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE 

(except those on French Plate). By C. A. Markham, F.S.A. Contain- 
ing 163 Stamps. With Notes on the Variouis) Makers. Crown 8vo, cloth, 
6s. net. 

HANDBOOK TO FRENCH HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. 

By C. A. Markham. Notes on the Various Makt^rs, with Illustrations of 
their Marks. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net. 

HISTORY OF ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS (Gilda Aurifabrorum). Bv William 
Chaffers. With all the Makers' Marks. Roy. 8vo, cloth, 13s. 6d. net. 



LONDON: REEVES AND TURNER, 
83 CHARING CROSS ROAD, LONDON, ENGLAND. 




Silver Pilgrim Bottle. 
Date .70,-2. The Property of the Earl Spencer, K.G. 



^ HALL MARKS 



ON 



GOLD & SILVER PLATE 

ILLUSTRATED WITH RTVLSED TABLES OE 
ANNUAL DATE LETTERS 

FMrr.OVF.D IN 

win Issan (Biiias of ®naljtnb» %otlitub anb Irrlanb, 



BY 

WILLIAM CHAFFERS, 

AUTHOR OP "marks AND MONOGRAMS ON EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL POTTKRY AND PORCELAIN," 
"THK KKRAMIC GALLERY," ''HISTORY OP ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS (GILDA AURIPAP.RORUM)." 



€mt\} (Bbiiton, 

Extended and Enlarg:ed, and with the Addition of New Date Letters anid 

Marks, and a Bibliography. Also incorporating Makers' Marks 

from the **Qilda Aurifabrorum." 

EDITED BY MAJOR 

C. A. MARK HAM, F.S.A. 

AUTHOR OP "the CHURCH PLATE OP THE COUNTY OP NORTHAMPTON," ETC. 



0^-^ 
1>-^' 



LONDON: 

REEVES AND TURNER, 

83 CHARTXO CROSS ROAD, W.C, 

MCMXXIl r ■ '^^ ' ^ 



■ UN'V£llSIl^' O^ T0RO^ 
MASTER , NEGATIVE N' 






DEDICATED TO 

€ljt (J^olirsmitljs' Compnu of iontion, 

WITH THE PXPRESS PERMISSION OF THE 

WARDENS AND COURT OF ASSISTANTS. 



/'rififrd hi/ The Xeir, Temple ZV^ss, Nurhiiri/ Crexceiif, Lnmhii), -S'.ir./fi, 



•' Opus quale sit, ignis probabit." — 1 Coit, iii, 13. 

(Motto oj the Goldsmitlis' Comjxmy of liouen./ 



THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 



T 



HE following account of the Goldsmiths' Compan\' is from a 
plate of their arms m the clerk's office : 



"To the Master Warden & Wardens with tlie rest of the 
\\ orthy Members of the R' W'orship^^ Company of Goldsmiths. 

" T. B. Wishe^/i Evcril of all F elicit y & Jiinnhl y dedicates tJiis 
Plate. 

"The R* Worship'^ Company of Goldsmiths London, bear for 

tlieir Ensigne Armoriall : Quarterly, Gules and Azure; In the i'^ 

e 
and 4*'' a Eeopards head Or. In y 2^ & 3*^ a Cup covered between 

2 Buckles of the last : On a Helmet a Wreath of their Colours, a 

denty* Lady her Arms extended proper, in y Dexter hand a Pair of 

6 e 

Scales, & in y Sinister an Ingot as y 3^\ Supported by 2 Unicorns 

Gold Underneath on an Escrole for their Motto JUSTITA VIRTUTUAI 

REGINA. Patron, St. Dunstan. 

e 

"It is to y ver\' great Ilonour of this Compan)', that sevcrall 

Persons of Eminent worth in Antient & jMoclern times, have been 

e . e 

inrolled among them (particularly) in y Reigne of Hen : y first 

Leofstane Goldsmith, was Provost of this City. That lienry Fitz 

Alwin Fitz Leofstane Goldsmith was Maior of London: i"* of 

Rich: i^* 1 189. That Gregor}' Rokcsby Goldsmith continued Maior 

7 year together. That W" Farringdon Goldsmith was Sheriff 9*'' of 

Edw : i^* 1280. & his son Nicholas after him 4 times L"* jMajor in y 

Reigne of Edw** 2 1308. Besides King Prince Earle Lord and L"' 

" Dainty, an old word for -^nc or cleoduf, here nsed for an elegantly dressed 
ladv. 

I h - 



VI HALL :\L\RKS OX PLATE. 

Maiors. Thc\' were Incorporated i6'^' of Rich: 2^ 1392. W" Ston- 
dcn L*^ Maior. Gilbert ]\Iafielcl, Tho : Xewington Sheriffs. 

"Their Mansion Hall Scituate Foster Lane London. 

" London Frill ted for T . Bower Pahiter and are to be Sold at li'is 
Shop at the Kings head in Budge RoivT 

Their crest and supporters were granted in 1591. 



Frrfdce /o the' Te/ith Edition, 

THE present edition of tliis work has been thoroughly revised, 
and extended hy the inclusion of portions of the " Gilcla 
Aurifabrorum," and the addition of tables of maker's marks. 
The "History of L'Orfevrerie " has lunvever been omitted from this 
edition, as not being pertinent to a book on hall marks on English 
plate. 

Some new marks have been added to this edition, and of these, 
oome forty, comprising the leopards' heads, lions passant, sovereigns' 
heads and local assay office marks, have been drawn by Major T. 
Shepard, of the Heralds' Office, Dublin Castle; and the remainder 
of the new marks b\- the editor. The whole of these have been taken 
from various pieces of silver, w^ith the exception of the present date 
letters, which have been furnished by the assay masters, and the 
foreign marks, which have been taken, by permission, from " The 
London Gazette." 

Especial care has been taken with reference to the shape of the 
shield or other form enclosing the various marks and letters; and it 
is believed that these marks are accurate and reliable. It is hoped 
that this work will be useful to all those who require in a convenient, 
form, information respecting the marks on gold and silver for the 
purpose of readily fixing the date and office of assay of any piece 
of plate. 



PREFACE TO TENTH EDITION. vii 

Many of the letters included m the tables of London Assay 
Office letters were the copyright of the late Mr. W. J. Cripps, C.B.^ 
F S./\., author of " Old English Plate," and by the courtesy and ex- 
press permission of his representatives they are used in this book. 

Our thanks are due to the Assay Masters, who have so kindly 
furnished information, to enable us to complete the various 
alphabets. 

We are indebted to the courtesy of Earl Spencer, K.G., for per- 
mission to reproduce as our frontispiece one of a pair of silver Pil- 
grim Bottles, which is ver\^ massive and of beautiful workmanship. 
It bears the London hall marks for 170 1-2, and is twenty-four 
inches in height.* 

C. A. MARKFIA?.!, F.S.A. 



* Lord Spencer iiil\erited tliis clianning specimen of tlic silversmith's 
art from his ancestor, Jolui Cliiu chill, Duke of Marlborough, K.G., who was 
born June 24, 1650, and died June l(i, 1722. 

On the front of this bottle is engraved the aehievement of the duke, above 
crossed swords, pikes and cannon. His Grace, as a Prince of the Holy Roman 
Empire, so created November 14, 1705, bore his arms enclosed bj- the Garter, 
upon the Breast of the Roman Eagle, with two heads sable, armed or, and 
cnsigned with an imperial crown labelled proper. 

The arms are. Quarterly, First, Sahle, a lion rampant argent, on a canton 
of the second a cross rjules, for CiiuiiCHiLL. Second, Bendy of ten, 
argent and azure, icithin a hordure or, for Willyabd. Third, Argent] 
a. fess indented or and gules, for Tyle. Fourth, Per pale. Dexter. 
Gules a tree eradicated proper. Sinister, Azure, a lion rampant 
argent, for Winston, An escutcheon of pretence. Argent on a fess 
gules three bezants, for Jennings. 

The supporters are. Two wyverns, wings elevated gules. 

In a scroll the motto, '' Ftel pero desdicado." 



Pref(fce to the First Edition. 

T^IIE Tables of Assay Office Letters here given will be found 
more complete than any hitherto published. Of those which 
ha\c alrcad)- appeared, the first printed about thirty years since by a 
printer in St. Anne's I,anc was a short list of alphabetical letters 
from the }ear 1697; but they were badly formed, and printed with- 
out being compared with the actual marks on the 4) late itself. 

Wx. Octavius Morgan, 111 1853, produced an improved Table 
of the Annual Assay Office Letters of the Goldsmiths' Hall of 
London, tracing them back to the fifteenth century, and carefully 
comparing his lists with the marks on the plate, consulting* also 
the Records and Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company for confirma- 
tion. Ik^ tells us that from the year 1558 regularly formed 
escutcheons were used to enclose the letters, but unfortunately did 
not show us what their forms were, only giving the letters. 

I have endeavoured to supply this defect by placing each letter 
m its proper shield -a most important aid in determining the date 
of a piece of plate, where several alphabets of different dates are 
similar. 

.Some years since I also printed a small sheet of Assay Office 
Letters. All these are now out of print, and, at the request of 
numerous friends, I have been induced to publish one on a more 
extended scale, embracing the Marks used at the principal /Assay 
Offices of England, Scotland and L-eland. 

Although a great proportion of the plate made m England was 
si (imped in London, yet other towns, from an early period, had the 
like privilege. Scotland also had its Assay Office at Edinburgh, 
and 1 am enabled, through the perseverance and untiring zeal of AL*. 



PREFACE TO SIXTH EDITION. ix 

J. 11. Sanderson of that city (in carefully consulting the Records of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, and comparing them with pieces of old 
Scotch plate), to give a correct Table of the Assay Letters used there 
from the year 1681. I take this opportunity of thanking him for 
his trouble and kmcl assistance. 

In Ireland, the principal Assay Office was at Dublin, and the 
Corporation of Goldsmiths of that city, through their Master, 
Eclmond Johnston, Esq., liberally granted me permission to examine 
their Records, and, with the assistance of Mr. Thomas Ryves Met- 
calf, their Clerk (who furnished me with extracts from the local 
Acts by which they are governed), I am enabled to give a List of 
Assay Office Letters used there since 1646. 

Impressions in wax or gutta-percha of early stamps on ancient 
plate, especially those with engraved dates of presentation, will be 
very acceptable, that the blanks in the earlier cycles may be filled up 
satisfactorily. 

W. CHAFFERS. 



Preface to the Sixth Edition. 

T N offering the Sixth Edition of " HALL MARKS ON PLATE," a fciv 
* prefatory remarks are necessary to explain that numerous addi- 
tions have been made m the various sections. All the recent 
enactments have been consulted, and the important clauses embodied 
in the work. The whole has undergone careful revision, and as it 
is essentially a book of reference for Plate Collectors and Gold- 
smiths, due attention has been paid in giving facilities for that 
purpose. The new Act, abolishing the use of pennyweights and 
grains and dividing the Troy ounce into thousandths, has caused 
some difficulty to goldsmiths in weighing plate by the new weights, 



X HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

but tables of comparison are given to remedy the temporary in- 
convenience of the decimal system. The Report of the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons in 1879 on the Hall-marking 
of Gold and Silver will show what reforms were considered desir- 
able, although no action has yet been taken by the Government. In 
consequence of the importation of vast quantities of foreign plate 
of an inferior qualit}-, its sale has been prohibited in the United 
Kingdom by an Act of 1875, unless assayed and stamped at the 
Hall, with an additional mark denoting its foreign manufacture. 
The Tables of Date Letters of the London and Provincial Assay 
Offices have received especial attention, and a number of Hall-marks 
of the Provinces hitherto unappropriated are inserted under their 
respective cities and towns, with hints for the further elucidation 
of the subject, thereby preventing the destruction of many interest- 
ing pieces which from being unknown have hitherto been consigned 
to the crucible. 

So many additions having been made throughout, it is needless 
to do more than refer to the fact that nearly a hundred pages of neiv 
mat ley and five hundred fresh jnarl^s hav^e been introduced. But a 
pleasing duty remains to be performed, viz., to express our grateful 
thanks to several gentlemen who have given us important informa- 
tion, and have assisted us materially in elucidating many obscure 
portions of our History of Hall Marks on Plate. Their names will 
be found recorded in the body of the work, yet a few must be 
specially noticed in anticipation. The urbanity and great help 
accorded us on all occasions by the Wardens of the Goldsmiths' 
Company and their clerk, Mr. Walter Prideaux, aided by the 
obliging attention of the Deputy Warden, Mr. W. Robinson, merit 
our warmest thanks. Our inquiries and communications made to 
the Assay masters of Chester, Sheffield, and other provincial offices, 
have met with immediate attention. To Mr. Horatio Stewart, of the 
firm of Messrs. Hancocks and Co., cur especial thanks are due in 



PREFACE TO SIXTH EDITION. xi 

supplying us with careful drawings of Hall-marks, taken by their 
artist from all pieces of ancient plate which have come under their 
notice for the last twenty years. The reader will also perceive how 
much we are indebted to the assistance of the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Breadalbane in allowing us to copy the marks on examples of 
plate collected hy his Lordship m illustration of those of the Royal 
Burghs of Scotland, which have hitherto been involved in mystery. 
Our thanks are also due to [the late] Mr. W. J. Cripps for permis- 
sion to make some important additions and corrections in several of 
our Tables of London and provincial date letters contained in his 
interesting work, entitled "Old English Plate"; and to the same 
gentleman for permitting us to print certain other matter, including 
some authorities given by Mr. J. LI. Sanderson for the Tables of 
Edinburgh Llall Marks, which originally appeared in the Trans- 
actions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. These tables 
have appeared in our previous editions, and we rendered our thanks 
to Mr. J. H. Sanderson in the Preface to the first edition of 1863, 
but the property in Mr. Sanderson's work and notes passed to [the 
late] Mr. Cripps. 

W. CHAFFERS. 

1883. 



ADDENDA. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. John Crichton, Assay Master, at Edinburgh, 
for particulars ot the marks used at the Goldsmiths' Hall at that city. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PllEFACE TO THE TeNTH EdITION ... .. ... ... ... ... vi 

Pkeface to the First Edition ... ... ... ... ... ... viii 

Preface to the Sixth Edition ... ... ... ... ... ... ix 

i^DDENDA ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xi 

Contents ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xiii 

TiisT OF Illustrations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xix 

Ecclesiastical Plate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxx 

Coronation Plate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxxix 

Corporation Plate . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xlii 

Domestic Plate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xliii 

Standing Cups ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xlv 

Ewers and Basins ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... li 

Standing Salts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... liv 

Spoons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Iv 

Forks ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... Ivii 

Candlesticks ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Iviii 

English Goldsmiths ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Table of Statutes and Ordinances ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Extracts from Statutes, Ordinances, etc. ... ... ... ... 68 

Standards: Leopard's Head ... ... .. ... ... ... 68 

Groldsmiths' Charter 70 

The Goldsmiths' Ordinances ... ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Assay Marks 72 

Marks Appointed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Exports Forbidden ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Goldsmiths' Charter ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Gilding Inferior Metals Prohibited ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Cutlers and Goldsmiths ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Price of Gilt Silver Limited ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

Standard of Gold and Silver : Provincial Ofl&ces ... ... ... 76 

Exports ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Goldsmiths' Charter ^ 77 

Standard of 18-carat Gold ... ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Assay of Gold and Silver ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Goldsmiths' Charter 80 

Standards of Gold and Silver: 22-carat Gold Revived ... ... 81 

Standards and Price of Gold and Silver Ware, 22-carat Gold ... 81 

New Standard of Silver (of 11 oz. 10 dwts.) and Marks ... ... 85 

Provincial Offices Reappointed ... ... ... ... ... ... 87 

The Newcastle Act S9 

Old Standard Silver of 11 oz. 2 dwts. Revived — Duty of 6d. per 

oz. Imposed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90 

Makers to Destroy Existing Marks and Adopt Fresh Types ... 93 

Exemptions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 95 

Silver Wire ... 97 

Duty 97 

Licence of £2 in Lieu of Duty ... ... ... ... ... ... 97 

IC 



xiv HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Extracts from Statutes, Ordinances, etc. — continued. ^^^^ 

Licence Increased to £5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Birmingham and kSheffield ... ... ... ... ... ... 98 

Duty. Mark of the King's Head 98 

Duty Increased ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• •-. 100 

Duty on Watch Cases Repealed ... ... ... ... .-• •■• 100 

Drawback on Plate 101 

Foreign Plate to be Assayed and Stamped ... ... ... ... 101 

Criminal Law Consolidation, 22-carat Gold ... ... .. ... 103 

Reduced Standards of Gold of 15, 12 and 9-carats 106 

AVedding Rings ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .•• 107 

Drawback between Great Britain and Ireland ... ... ... 107 

Annual Licences ... ... ... ... ... ... ... •.• 107 

Foreign Plate — Notice by the Goldsmiths' Company ... ... 110 

Notice to the Trade Issued in August, 1878, by the Goldsmiths' 

Company ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 110 

Notice by the Goldsmiths' Company. £100 Reward 110 

The Duty on Gold and Silver Plate Abolished 115 

Allowance of Drawback on Silver Plate ... ... ... ... 115 

The Stand.4rd ... ... ... ... ... 118 

Weights 125 

Ass.\Y 131 

Directions for Assaying ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Assay by Means of the Spectroscope ... ... ... ... ... 137 

Waste and Sweep ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 137 

The Trial of the Pyx and Standard Trial Plates 138 

The Duty 142 

Enactments 147 

Notices to the Trade 147 

Extract from the Report of the Committee of the House of Com- 
mons ... ... ... ••• ••• •■■ ••• ••• •■• 148 

Plate Marked with False Punohes and Other Offences ... ... 150 

Table OP Marks ... ... ... 164 

Standards 166 

England ... ... ... 167 

T.— The Leopard's Head 167 

II.— The Maker's Mark 169 

III.— Date Mark 170 

TV.— The Standard Mark ... 171 

The Lion's Head Erased, and Figure of Britannia ... ... ... 173 

v.— Duty Mark 173 

VI.— The^ Mark for Foreign Plate 174 

London Assay Office Letters ... . . ... ... ... ... 179 

Chronological List OF English Plate ... ... ... ... ... 184 

London Gold and Silver Smiths ... ... ... ... ... ... 207 

Spoon Makers' Marks 269 

Provincial Assay Offices .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 275 

The Hall Marks of Assay Towns 275 

Barnstable ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 275 

Birmingham ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 27G 

Birmingham Assay Office Letters ... ... ... ... ... 280 

Bristol 
Chester 

Office Letters 288 

291 

293 

293 

Office Letters '" ... ... '■'.'■ ... '.'■'■ 300 



Chester Assay 

Examples 

Coventry 

Exeter 

Exeter Assay 

Examples 

Hull ... 

Example 

Lincoln 



303 
304 
304 
304 



Newcastle-upon-Tyne ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 305 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Assay Office Letters ... ... ... ... 308 

Examples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 310 

Norwich ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 311 

Examples 312 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



Provincial Assay Offices. — continued. page 

Salisbury 313 

Sheffield 313 

Sheffield Assay Office Letters ... ... ... ... ... ... 318 

Examples 320 

York 320 

Examples 322 

Scotland ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 323 

Goldsmiths. Marks Appointed ... ... ... 323 

Goldsmiths' Marks 324 

Penalties for Fraud ... ... ... ... ... 324 

Power of Search ... 324 

Charter of Incorporation ... ... ... ... ... ... 325 

Mark of the Thistle Introduced 326 

Sale of Plate Prohibited in Scotland unless Assayed and Marked 

at Edinburgh or Glasgow ... ... ... ... ... ... 327 

Gold 328 

Silver 328 

Gold and Silver Plate Duty, Scotland 329 

Licences ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 329 

Scotland ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 330 

Edinburgh 330 

I.—The Standard Mark 330 

II.— The Hall Mark 330 

III.— The Date Mark 331 

IV.— The Duty Mark 331 

v.— The Maker's Mark 331 

The Mark for Foreign Plate ... 332 

Edinburgh Assay Office Letters ... ... ... ... ... ... 334 

List of Plate from which the Annual Letters have been taken, 

many of them bearing dates ... ... ... ... ... 337 

Examples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 339 

Glasgow 340 

Glasgow Assay Office Letters ... ... ... ... ... ... 344 

Examples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 346 

Scottish Provincial Marks: ... ... ... ... ... ... 347 

Aberdeen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 347 

Arbroath ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 347 

Banff 347 

Examples 348 

Dundee (Angus) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 348 

Examples 348 

Elgin 348 

Greenock 349 

Inverness ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 349 

Examples 349 

Leith 349 

Examples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 350 

Montrose (Angus) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 350 

Perth 350 

Examples ... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... 350 

St. Andrews (Fife) 351 

Stirling 351 

Tain (Ross-shire) ... ... ... . . ... 352 

Uncertain Scottish Marks ... ... ... ... ... 362 

Ireland ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... • . ... 353 

Dublin. Charter of Incorporation ... ... ... .. ... 353 

Standards. — Legal Punches ... ... ... ... ... ... 353 

Duty Imposed and Mark of Hibernia ... 354 

Reduced Standards of Gold. —New Geneva ... 354 

Dublin Assay Office Marks ... ... ... 355 

Gold 355 

Silver 355 

Foreign Plate Assayed and Marked ... ... ... ... ... 356 

Reduc-ed Standards of Gold 356 

Drawback 356 



XVI 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Ireland . — con tinu ed 

Gold and Silver Plate Duty ... 
Plate Dealers' Licences in Ireland ... 
King's Head Duty-Mark.— Duty Increased 
Standard of Silver Improved 

I,_The Standard Mark 

II.— The Hall Mark 

III.— The Duty Mark 

IV.— The Maker's Mark 

v.— The Date Mark 

The Assay Mark for Foreign Plate 

Dublin Assay Office Letters 

Examples ••■ •• ••• 

Ohronological List of Specimens of Irish Plate 

BiBLioGRArHY •.•• ,;;' 

Authorities on Gold and Silver VVare ... 

Index 



PAGE 

35G 

357 

35& 

358- 

359 

359 

360 

360 

360 

361 

364 

367 

368 

373 

374 

385 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 







PAGE 


Silver Pilgrim Bottle 


Frontispiece 


Cup 




xxvii 


Communon Cup and Cover Paten ... 


. . 


xxxvi 


Commiunion Cup ... 




xxxvii 


Alms Dish, Peterborough Cathedral ... 


... ... ... 


xxxviii 


Communion Service 


To face p. 


xxxviii 


Silver Mounted Cocoanut 


... ... ... ... 


xlvi 


Silver Gilt Standing Cup ... 


To face 


p. xlvii 


Small Silver Beaker 




xlviii 


Cup or Porringer 




xlix 


Small Silver Jug 




1 


Small Silver Cup 


. . • . . ... • . • 


li 


Silver Gilt Flagon 




lii 


Silver Spoon— Silver Apostle Spoon — Silver 


Seal Head Spoon — Maid- 




enhead Spoon 




Ivi 


Silver Candlestick 




Iviii 


Seal of Sir George Heriot 




29 


Chester Assay Office 


To face 


p. 285 



INTRODUCTION. 

" Money spent in the purchase of well-designed plate, of preciojts 
engraved vases, cameos, or enamels, does good to htimamtyr 

— RuSKix, -'The Stones of Venice," II, vi, 18. 

WHAT more beautiful craft has been practised by mankind 
than the craft of gold and silver smith? From the earliest 
times of which we have any record, vessels of gold and 
vessels of silver, made " for pleasure and for state," have been objects 
of universal admiration. 

Great artists have expended their power in producing articles 
made from the precious metals. Dominico Ghirlandajo, who 
nourished towards the end of the fifteenth century, and who was 
the master of Michael Angelo, worked as a goldsmith; Verochio, 
the master of Leonardo da Vinci, worked as a goldsmith ; Ghiberti, 
the artist who designed and constructed those wonderful bronze 
gates of the Baptistry at Florence, which, as Michael Angelo said, 
might serve as the gates of Paradise, worked as a goldsmith ; 
Francia of Bologna, whose real name was Raibolini, and who often 
signed himself on his pictures Aiirifex, and on his jewellery Pictor, 
thus indicating the double craft, worked as a goldsmith; and Ben- 
venuto Cellini, of Florence, one of the most artistic men of his time, 
and a cunning workman, was the prince of goldsmiths and auto- 
biographers. 

Not only have great artists devoted themselves to the gold- 
smith's craft, but " true goldsmiths' work, when it exists, is generally 
the means of education of the greatest painters and sculptors 
of the day." 

No matter whether we go to the old Egyptian records graved 
or painted on stone, to the Bible, or to the classics, we everywhere 
meet the workers in gold and silver. 

Whenever we inquire into the origin of any art, we generally 
turn for information to the monuments in Egypt and to the volume 
of the Sacred Law. 

The Egyptians were exceedingly skilful in the use of metals of 
all kinds, and understood the mixing of various alloys. The paint- 
ings at Beni Hasan, drawn about 2500 years before Christ, show the 
whole process of converting gold dust into jewellery. We see the 
workmen washing the dust, weighing it in the scales, the clerk 
v.'riting down the weights on his tables, the use of the blowpipe to 
produce sufficient heat to melt the gold in the crucible, and the final 
working of the metal into vases and articles of jewellery. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

The paintings in the tombs at Thebes also, show the gold and 
silver smiths at their work, together with beautiful specimens of 
gold and silver ware.* 

We read of Pharaoh having taken Joseph out of prison arraying 
him in fine linen and putting "a gold chain about his neck"; he 
also placed his ring on Joseph's hand, thus delegating to him the 
power of sealing documents with the royal signet. t 

A few years later Joseph gave orders that his cup, "the silver 
cup," was to be placed in the sack's mouth of his youngest brother.^ 

When the Israelites had completed their term of bondage, they 
"borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver and jewels of gold,"ll 
proving that the Egyptians were at that time possessed of stores 
of earrings, bracelets, and all kinds of jewels. 

In the book of Job, one of the oldest, if not the oldest history 
in the world, there are numerous references to gold and silver. 
'' Surely there is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold where 
they fine it."§ The chapter commencing with these lines refers to 
the mining and working of precious metals. 

If we go to the ancient account of gold-mining in Egypt written 
by Agatharchides, who lived in the first century before Christ, we 
find a very full account of the process by which the gold ore was 
obtained from the mines, the manner in which it was broken up, the 
earthy portions washed away, the final smelting of the ore, and the 
production of the pure gold. We also find a very vivid picture of 
the terrible life led by the slaves who worked in the mines. 

At the Great Exhibition of 1867 a beautiful little Egyptian 
barque of solid gold was exhibited. It contained twelve oarsmen 
of silver, a figure in the bows in a sort of cabin, another in the 
centre of the boat holding the baton of command, and in the stern 
the helmsman steering with a large oar ; the last three figures are of 
gold. The boat is mounted on a wooden carriage with four bronze 
v/heels. The workmanship of the whole is very fine, and shows 
that the Egyptians were at that early period masters of the gold- 
smith's art. 

This beautiful little object is now in the Museum at Cairo, and 
it is probably the oldest piece of Egyptian jewellery now in exist- 
ence, having been discovered in the tomb of Aah-hotep, the wife 
of the last king of the sixteenth dynasty. 

The Israelites thoroughly understood the method of working 
in gold; they appreciated the malleability of it when "they did beat 
the gold into thin plates," and the ductility of it when they did 
" cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the 
scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work."1I 

The famous golden candelabrum or candlestick** of the Temple 
was no mean specimen of the smith's art. It was probably carried 
off by Titus when he conquered Jerusalem, and it is shown on the 

* Wilkinson's " Antient Egyptians,-' || Exodus xii^ 35. 

1854, Yol. TI, p. 136. § Job xxviii, 1. 

•*■ Genesis xli, 42. <j[ Exodus xxxix, 3. 

I Genesis xliv, 2. ** Id. xxv, 31. 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

well-known bas-relief sculptured on the Arch at Rome, which was 
erected by the conqueror. Indeed the vessels of the house of the 
Lord were all of the most beautiful and costly character, and are 
very fully described.* 

We read that " all king Solomon's drinking vessels were of 
gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were 
of pure gold; none were of silver: it was nothing accounted of in 
the days of Solomon." t 

The early Greeks were dexterous m working gold and silver, 
and their skill and refinement were very great, as early as six cen- 
turies before Christ. They were especially clever in using solder, 
or other metallic cement, by means of which they fixed on the level 
surface of the articles they made, excessively small pieces of gold, 
which enabled them to build up the tiny ornaments with which they 
decorated their work. 

The great age of Greek art did not, however, commence until 
about 330 B.C., and the highest stage in the history of all art was 
reached about a century later. 

Amongst the most remarkable of the Greek sculptures w^re 
those composed of ivory and gold, known as chryselephantines. 
There were many of these m Greece, the most famous being those 
of Zeus at Olympia, of Hera at Argos, and of Athene at Athens, 
which was executed by Phidias about 433 B.C., and were of immense 
size. The framework of these figures was of olive wood, the faces 
and all uncovered parts were of ivory, while the dress was of gold, 
with beautifully wrought borders. Both ivory and gold were very 
thin, and in the case of Athene, at any rate, the golden drapery 
could be taken entirely off.J 

The statue of Zeus was said to be from fifty to sixty feet high, 
without reckoning the pedestal. The god was seated in a chair, in 
his right hand he held a life-sized Victory, and in his left a tall 
sceptre with the eagle. 

The Athene of the Parthenon was somewhat smaller. The god- 
dess was standing, her helmet surmounted by a sphinx, and like 
the Zeus she held a life-sized Victory in her right, and a spear and 
shield in her left hand. 

These colossal figures were most perfectly finished in every 
respect, and were placed on pedestals, which were covered with 
figures in relief. 

The Greeks were also very skilful in making smaller articles, 
the enumeration of which would take us too far afield. Their 
golden shields, belts, helmets, and other pieces of armour were very 
celebrated. 

Diana, great of the Ephesians, was certainly a patroness of the 
silversmiths, for we read that " a man, Demetrie bi name a worcker 
in siluer makide siluer housis to Diane."II And Shakespeare speaks 
of "Celestial Dian, Goddess Argentine." § 

* I Kings vii, 48 et seq. f M. x, 21. 

t '' Jupiter Olympieu," by Quartermere de Ouincy. 

!| "Deeds of the Apostles," xix, 21, AVycliffe's Version. 

§ Pericles, v, i, 251. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

Passing- from the Greeks to the Romans, we leave a most artistic 
and highly trained people, for a people certainly not artistic in the 
higher sense of the word. The Romans were not great goldsmiths, 
but if they could not produce beautiful articles, they appreciated 
what was good, and they employed Greeks whose skill was well 
known. Many beautiful silver vases have been found at Pompeii, 
Rome, and other places, most of which were no doubt made by the 

Greeks. 

A number of silver vessels were some years ago unearthed near 
Hildesheim, in Hanover, and placed in the Museum at Berlin. They 
are of a good period, and comprise drinkmg-vessels, some being 
parcel gilt; dishes, ladles, pieces of tripods, and other articles. 
These vessels probably formed part of the camp equipage of some 
Roman commander, for it is known that the sets of silver plate 
carried by the Romans on their expeditions, were both large and 
costly. Copies of all these articles may now be seen m the South 
Kensington Museum.* 

The number of gold and silver vessels, each with its name, used 
by the Romans was very great. There was the crater, used for 
mixing the wine and water; the cylix, used for drinking; the cyathus 
or oenochoe, used as a ladle to fill the cylix; the carchesium, or goblet 
with or without handles; the pronchons, or jug; the patera, or saucer; 
and many others. Small silver tripods were also used for tables. 

The decline of classic art commenced after the close of the 
third century, and before many years, all traditions of good classic 
art had died out. 

After the decay of Roman art, the remains of the Roman power, 
and what was left of the traditions of their art, were transplanted 
to Constantinople, and formicd the foundation of the great art 
called Byzantine, which lasted from the fourth to the eleventh 
century. 

In this style architectural forms were much used; these were 
ornamented by scrolls and conventional foliage, interlaced with 
figures, animalc, fabulous creatures, and legends in most complicated 
patterns. " Human figures no longer represented gods and god- 
desses, the images of natural strength and beauty, the pride or the 
passions of mankind. As the old religion had inspired the earlier 
art, so did the solemnity of the Christian religion set its mark on the 
new. Its austerities, its strife with the world, its contempt of 
pleasure, its future hopes — all these found expression in the heads 
and bodies of prophets, apostles and martyrs. Instead of the 
smoothness of face and roundness of limb of the Greek artists, those 
of Byzantium represented the wasted shapes of hermits, the sorrows 
of the mother of the Redeemer, and the mystery of the Cross."*" 

The Gloucester candlestick, which is mentioned hereafter, is an 
excellent example of Byzantine ornamentation. 

During the early centuries of our era the barbarians from the 
north and from the east of Europe, and from the neighbouring con- 
tinent of Asia overran Great Britain, France, Spain and Italy. All 

* Pollen-s ''Gold and Siher Smiths' Work." 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

trace of the old art was blotted out and an entirely different and 
ruder style followed. 

Several specimens of the goldsmiths' skill of this period still 
remain. 

One of these is a diadem of pure gold which was found at Novo 
Tcherkask on the River Don, and is adorned with pearls, and a 
magnificent cameo; it is of fine workmanship, though of grotesque 
form. 

In 1858, a beautiful treasure, consisting of eight golden votive 
crowns, was found near Toledo. The most important of these 
crowns is an excellent specimen of the goldsmith's art of the seventh 
century. It is formed of a golden band suspended from a central 
ornament, by four chains, and set with sapphires, pearls, and car- 
buncles. From the lower edge of the band hang small letters of 
gold set with sapphires. These letters form the words RECCES- 
VINTHVS REX OFFERET. These crowns are now at the Cluny 
Museum at Paris. 

The Emperor Charlemagne, who was crowned in 800, did much 
to encourage the goldsmiths of that period, and many beautiful 
jewels and ornaments were made for his use. Amongst these was 
the imperial crown, which is still preserved at Vienna. This is 
formed of eight plates of gold rounded above and joined together, 
and ornamented with jewels and enamels. 

Somewhat later we meet with the name of Sa, nt Eloi, who was 
born at Simonsin in France at the end of the sixteenth century, and 
who became a celebrated goldsmith. Some beautiful crosses and 
chalices made by him still remain in the Cathedral at Limoges, and 
in a few of the churches at Pans. 

Ireland produced some early and very remarkable pieces of 
wrought silver, in the Byzantine style. 

Miss N. Stokes mentions that there is a beautiful silver chalice 
of Irish design at Kremsmiinster, in Lower Austria, eighteen miles 
South of Wels, near the Danube.* This appears, from the inscrip- 
tion it bears, to have been made in the middle of the eighth century; 
and, if it is really of Irish manufacture, it is the earliest v/crk in 
silver made in tHat country. 

The Tara brooch is a most delicate and charming work, orna- 
mented with a variety of designs, including various forms of inter- 
lacing pattern known as spiral knots The greater portion of this 
brooch, however, is of white bronze, only the chain being of silver. 
It was found in 1850- 

The Ardagh chalice is formed of several different metals. The 
upper rim is of brass; the bowl is of silver, adorned with plaques 
of gold ; the handles are composed of enamels ; the stem is of 
bronze metal gilt ; and the foot is of silver. It is ornamented with 
the interlacing pattern, and set with crystals, amber, and enamels. 

Passing on to a time nearer the present day, we find that the 
first working goldsmith of whom we hear in England was Dunstan, 

* Stokes's " Early Christian Art in Ireland," 1887, p. 67. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

who was born at Glastonbury, about the year 925, and of whom 
more hereafter. 

The Anglo-Saxons were, indeed, always reckoned skilful in the 
use of gold and silver. We are told that after the Conquest, when 
William returned to Normandy, he carried with him the choicest 
wealth of England, as gifts to St. Stephen's at Caen, and other 
churches which he visited. " Men gazed with wonder upon the rich 
spoils of the conquered island. In arts of skill and adornment 
England and other Teutonic lands were allowed to outdo the 
nations of the Romance speech. And if the women of England 
were renowned for the art which had wrought the Raven on the 
banner of Ragnar, and the Fighting Man on the banner of Harold, 
the men were no less renowned for the art which wrought the cups 
of gold, the cups of silver, and the many other articles which adorned 
the tables of the great." 

Theodoric, the goldsmith, was settled in England in King 
Eadward's time, and held lands in various shires both under that 
King and under Earl Harold. He was a man of unrecorded 
nationality, and was no doubt one of those craftsmen from the 
Teutonic land, whose presence in England had been encouraged by 
a constant tradition, probably going back to the days of Eadgar. 
Immediately after the Conquest, William granted to him estates in 
Berkshire. In Essex and Suffolk we find a tenant called " Otto 
aurifaber,'' or " Otho aurifexl' who must have been a clever workman, 
for he was employed on William's own tomb ; and in Wiltshire, also, 
'' GrimhaldiLs aurifaber" was one of the King's Thegns. 

In the eleventh century a great revival of art took place through- 
out Europe, the movement being to a large extent ecclesiastical in 
character. Most of the workers were monks, who founded their 
monasteries in all parts of the land, the most wonderful structures, 
adorned with images and sculpture, with altar fronts, crosses and 
candlesticks, with chalices and patens, and with reliquaries and 
lamps. 

In 1 1 80 a guild of goldsmiths existed in London, but it was 
simply an association of manufacturers working together as a trade 
union, probably using the leopard's head as a trade-mark, but un- 
recognised by the legislature, and having no charter or other 
privilege. 

The hrst Mayor of London was a goldsmith, Henry Fitz- 
Alweyn by name, who held this high ofiice from ii8g to 1213. 

The reputation of the gold-worker for honesty, does not, how- 
ever, appear to have been very high, for in 1238 the King issued 
a mandate commanding the Mayor and Aldermen to choose six of 
the more discreet goldsmiths to superintend the craft, to inquire as 
to the pureness of gold and silver used, and to prevent anyone from 
working in private. 

Neither does it appear that the gold-workers were a very peace- 
ful race, for, as the guild became powerful, it is recorded that in 
1268: 

"In this liii yere [of Henry III] in y^ moneth of Nouembre, 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

fyll a varyaunce atwene the felysshyppes of goldsmythes and 
taylloures of London, whiche grewe to makynge of parties, so that 
. . . . moche people nyghtly gaderyd in the stretes in harneys, and 
at length as it were prouyded, the th'rde nyght of the sayd parties 
mette vpon the nombre of v.c. men on both sydes, and ran togyder 
v/ith such vyolence that some were slayne and many wonded. Then 
outcry was made, so that y® shyreffes, with strengthe of other comons, 
came to the ryddynge of theym, and of theym tokc certayne per- 

scnes, and sent theym vnto dyuers prysons Then vpon the 

Fryday folowynge saynt Katheryns daye, sessyons were kepte at 
Newgate by the mayre and Laurence de Broke iustyce and other, 
where xxx. of the sayd persones were arregned of felony, and xiii. 
of theym caste and hanged."* 

Sir William Faryngdon, who gave his name to the City Ward, 
and who was Sheriff and Mayor of London in 1280, was a gold- 
smith as was also his son, Sir Nicholas Faringdon, who was four 
times Mayor of London. 

The first time any mark was officially mentioned as being im- 
pressed on articles of silver, was in 1300, when it was enacted that 
gold should be no worse than the touch of Paris., and silver should 
be of the sterling alloy, or in any case no worse than money. Silver 
ai tides were to be marked with a leopard's head by the wardens of 
the craft, but no mark was ordained for gold articles.! Gold of the 
touch of Paris and silver of the sterling of England, were both at 
that time, everywhere, the recognised standards for precious metals. 
Twenty years later the Goldsmiths' Company was incorporated 
by Edward III, by letters patent, in the first year of his reign, under 
the name of " The Wardens and Commonality of the Mystery of 
Goldsmiths of the City of London." This charter especially pro- 
vided for the protection of the home industry ; and after reciting 
that private merchants and strangers from foreign lands counter- 
feited sterling, kept shops in obscure streets, made jewellery in which 
they set glass of divers colours, covered tin with silver so subtilely 
and with such sleight that the same could not be separated, and 
otherwise misbehaved themselves, the King granted that only plate 
of fine silver should be imported, that men of the trade should only 
keep shops in Cheap, that honest and sufficient men should be chosen 
to reform defects, and punish offenders, and that in the trading 
cities of England the same ordinance should be observed, and that 
certain from such towns or cities should carry the wares to London, 
in order that, after the touch of gold had been ascertained, their 
works might be marked with the puncheon of the leopard's head, 
as it was anciently ordained. 

This charter speaks of the leopard's head as being even then 
an old mark, and only provides for the marking of gold articles, 
the marking of silver articles having been directed by the previous 
statute. 

* ''The Chronicles," by Robert Fabyan, 1811, p. 364. 
t 28th Edward I, cap. 20. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The earliest Court minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company are 
dated in 1334. 

In 1336 the ordinances of the Company speak of three marks, 
" the owner's and sayer's marks and the Liberdshede crowned " ; the 
first mark being the maker's, the second the assayer's, and the third 
that of the Goldsmiths' Hall, the crown being for the first time 
mentioned. 

Another statute in 1363 provided that every master goldsmith 
should have a mark for himself, which he was to set on his work, 
after it had been assayed and the surveyor had set on it the King's 
mark.* This is the first time the maker's mark is mentioned in any 
statute. 

In 1379 it was more specifically enacted that every goldsmith 
should have his own proper mark upon his work, and also that 
IMayors of cities and boroughs should assay the work; and that the 
same should bear the mark of the city or borough where it was as- 
sayed, and, after the assay, that the work should be stamped with 
another mark to be appointed by the King.t 

In 1392 the Goldsmiths' Company received their second charter, 
giving them license to be a community, and to choose out of their 
own number four wardens to govern the community. + 

At the commencement of the fifteenth century the Goldsmiths' 
Company assembled in their Hall in Foster's Lane. 

In 1403, in consequent of fraudulent artificers having daily 
made articles of copper and latten, gilt and silvered, it was enacted 
that no artificer should gild or silver any article made of copper or 
latten; but ornaments made for the church might be gilt or silvered, 
provided a piece of the foot were left plain, though chalices were 
always to be of pure metal. 

In 1407 the second Goldsmiths' Hall was probably built by Sir 
Drugo Barentyn, and endowed by him with fair lands. He was 
a goldsmith, and twice Mayor of London. 

In 1414, in consequence of the goldsmiths refusing to sell gilt 
wares for less than double the price of the weight of silver in the 
same, an Act was passed fixing the price of silver gilt of the English 
sterling, at 46s. 8d. for a pound troy.ll 

As the two last-mentioned Acts were not sufficient to prevent 
frauds, another Act was passed to forbid the gilding of any metal 
except silver, the only things excepted being church ornaments and 
knights' spurs. § 

In 1423 it was ordained that the gold or silver smiths sell no 
worked silver in the city of London, unless it be of the fineness of 
silver; and that no harness of silver be sold before it be touched with 
the touch of the leopard's head, if it may reasonably bear the same, 
and also be marked with the workman's mark. The cities of York, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Lincoln, Norwich, Bristol, Salisbury and 

* 37th Edward III, cap. 7. f 2nd Richard II. 

I 16th Richard II. !| 2nd He,nry V, Stat. 2, can. 4. 

§ Stli Henry V, cap. 3. 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

Coventry were each to have a distinct touch, to be fixed by the 
Mayor, bailiff, or governor of the same town.* 

In 1462 the Goldsmiths' Company received a third charter, 
constituting them a body corporate, with perpetual succession and a 
common seal, much enlarging their powers, and giving the wardens 
authority to search and try all sorts of gold and silver in the city 
of London, and in all other places throughout the kingdom of Eng- 
land, to punish and correct all defects, and to break all deceitful 
works and wares of gold and silver. This charter has since been 
many times confirmed and enlarged by later sovereigns. 

In 1477 it was enacted that gold should be of the fineness of 
18 carats, and silver as fine as sterling; and that all articles of silver 
sold within London, or within two leagues thereof, should be touched 
with the mark of the worker and the leopard's head crowned. 

Robert Amades in 15 18 was goldsmith to Cardinal Wolsey, and 
made a quantity of plate for him, including an image of Our Lady, 
and six great candlesticks made at Bruges with leopards' heads and 
cardinals' hats. The leopards' heads were no doubt the hall marks. 
Were the cardinals' hats also used as hall marks ? It will be re- 
membered that one of the indictments against this ambitious prelate 
was the charge of stamping his cardinal's hat on the coin of the 
realm. 

Many other Acts were passed in the reigns of Henry VII, 
Henry VIII, and Elizabeth, all of which aimed at keeping the stan- 
dard of gold and silver in a high state of fineness, and preventing 
frauds. 




Cup. 
Date 1671. 

There were constant difficulties during the seventeenth cen- 
tury, between the Goldsmiths' Company and the Pewterers* 
Company, by reason of the pewterers adopting marks resem- 
bling those used by the goldsmiths; and the following notes on the 
subject are taken from "Pewter Marks and Old Pewter Ware," by 
Christopher A. Markham. 

In the court minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company! there are 
the following entries relating to pewter marks. 

* 2ncl Henry III, caps. 13, 14. 

_ t " Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company," by Sir Walter Sherburne- 
Prideaux. Two vols. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

In 1 60 1, it is noted that there was a " Latten spoon stamped 
v/ith a mark nearly resembling the touch."* 

The complaints were not always from the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, for we read that in December, 161 5, one Round, a goldsmith, 
who worked as a spoon maker, had transgressed, and sold to free 
brothers of the Pewterers' Company, all of whom were forbidden 
to buy from him. 

A little later the Goldsmiths' Company again took exception 
to the proceedings of the Pewterers, and the following entry appears 
in the minutes of the former Company for 1635 : 

" Mention of pewter marked like silver. Petition to be sent to 
the Lords of the Council pointing out the impolicy of allowing 
pewterers to stamp pewter with marks in imitation of those placed 
upon goldsmiths' and silversmiths' work."t 

Next year another entry alluding to " Mention of pewter with 
silver marks thereon. "J 

The outcome of the petition to the Lords of the Council seems 
to have been that on March 17, 1636, an order from the Lord Mayor 
and the Court of Aldermen, concerning the striking of the marks 
proper to the goldsmith, was read to the Pewterers' Company and 
ordered to be observed. 

Although the Pewterers, as a Company, professed obedience 
to this, as to other orders, it does not appear that the Pewterers, as 
individuals, paid the slightest attention to them. 

At the Court of the Goldsmiths' Company, held on July 20, 
1638, it was recorded that : 

" The Wardens consider the abuse of a pewterer in Holborn, 
named Brockelsby, who places four marks on his pewter in resem- 
blance of this Com.pany's stamps upon silver. One of the Wardens 
of the Pewterers' Company is sent for, and the clerk reads to him 
the letter from the Lords of the Council to Sir Christopher Clith- 
erowe, late Lord Mayor, and the order of the Court of Aldermen in 
that behalf, and he acknowledges the act of Brockelsby to be a 
great abuse. 

" The Wardens desire the Warden of the Pewterers' Company 
to inform his brother Wardens of the facts of the case, and to put 
the Order into execution ; to which he immediately consents. 

" Subsequently the Master and Wardens of the Pewterers' Com- 
pany go with the Wardens of this Company to Brockelsby's shop in 
Holborn, but find there no pewter marked like silver; they discover, 
however, two pounsons which are struck double to resemble the 
silver stamps. In Brockelsby's absence from the shop, the Wardens 
of the Pewterers' Company take the pounsons, and give them to the 
Wardens of this Company, who bring them to the Hall ; and the 
Wardens of the Pewterers' Company promise to punish the offender 
at their next Court, and to endeavour a reformation in the general 
trade."l! 

* Ihid.. Vol. I, X). 100. 
t Ihid., Vol. I, p. 168. 

I Ibid., Vol. I, p. 169. 

II Ibid., Vol. I, p. 183. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

Again, at the Court of Assistants of the Goldsmiths' Company 
held on June 20, 1639, it is noted that : 

" Yaughan, the graver of Kerry Lane, is found to have pewter 
made in silver fashion with 4 marks resembling the silver touch, 
on which the owner had bidden him to engrave his Arms. The 
maker's mark is so defaced with the hammer, that it is scarcely dis- 
cernible. The pewter was made by Peter Brockelsby, from whom 
the Master and Wardens of the Pewterers' Company had taken simi- 
lar stamps. The Wardens take the pewter and the graver to the 
Wardens of the Pewterers' Company, by whom the former order of 
the Lord Mayor, and the letter from the Lords of the Council, are 
read to the graver. It is stated that the said order has been read 
at a general meeting of the Pewterers' Company, and that Brock- 
elsby had notice thereof; but the Wardens of the Pewterers' Com- 
pany promise to acquaint him therewith once more, and to help this 
Company in complaining to the Court of Aldermen if necessary."*" 

Once more at the Court of the Goldsmiths' Company, held on 
August 31, 1643, it is stated that: 

"Jackson, the Assayer, produces a pewter pot, made silver 
fashion, marked with 4 stamps like the Hall Touch. It appears to 
have been made by Butcher, the pewterer, in St. Ann's Lane. Jack- 
son IS ordered to buy another pewter pot and proceed against the 
offender." t 

In 1634-6 the third Llall of the Goldsmiths' Company was 
erected, and Inigo Jones, the King's architect, acted as consulting 
architect, for which service the Company gave him a gratuity. 

The last Charter granted to the Goldsmiths' Company was the 
Inspeximus Charter of the second James I, dated March 13. This 
recites and confirms all the previous charters and letters patent 
granted to the Company, and it is printed in the Memorial of the 
Goldsmiths' Company by Sir Walter S. Prideaux. 

In the Great Fire :n 1666, the Hall of the Goldsmiths' Company 
received much damage, and it was afterwards in great part rebuilt. 

In 1697 the standard for worked silver was raised above that of 
the coinage, which was sterling, in order to prevent the custom of 
melting silver coins. The hall marks were therefore changed to 
the lion's head erased, the hgure of Britannia, the date letter, and 
the maker's mark. J 

The higher standard introduced in 1697 did not last long, for 
in 1 7 19 the old standard was again made lawful and the old hall 
marks were revived, although the higher standard was and is still 
legal.ll 

In 1739 the maker's mark was altered from the first tvv^o letters 
of his surname, to the first letters of his Christian and surname. All 
gold and silver smiths, therefore, destroyed their punches and pro- 
cured new ones. 

* "Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company," Vol. I, p. 189. 

t Ihid., Vol. T, p. 214. 

I Sth and 9th William III, cap. S. 

II 6th George I. cap. 2. 

id 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

In 1 77 1 the Goldsmiths' Company was again insubordinate, and 
on June 5 in that year, at a Common Council held in London, the 
master and wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company were disfranchised 
for disobeying the Lord Mayor's precept.'^' 

In 1784 duties were made payable on all gold and silver plate, 
and the sovereign's head was impressed as a fifth mark, to denote 
the payment of the duty. 

In 1823 the mark of the leopard's head appears for the first 
time without the crown, and it is so stamped at the present day. 

In 1890 the duty on both gold and silver articles was abolished, 
and consequently the sovereign's head ceased to be impressed on 
assayed articles. 

Many other acts have been passed at various times regulating 
the working and sale of the precious metals, which are hereinafter 
more particularly specified; the effect of the more important only 
of these acts being given in this sketch. 



(Ecclesiastical l^kit 



''And he took the cuffe and dide thankyngis, and zaf to hem, 
and seide, Drynke ze alle herof!^ 

■ — Matt, xxvi, 27 (Wycliffe's Version). 

The only vesse'ls which are absolutely necessary for use in the com- 
munion service are chalices and patens, and we therefore propose 
to give a slight sketch of the change in the forms of these vessels 
during the last seven hundred years. 

Chalices and Patens. 

The earliest records we have of Communion plate, show the 
chalice similar in form to a classic drinking-cup, having a large 
bowl, round spreading foot, and two handles. About the beginning 
of the twelfth century the use of the handles came to an end, and 
chalices with smaller bowls were introduced ; although the cup was 
not absolutely forbidden to the laity until the order of the Council 
of Constantine in 141 4. 

The earliest chalices and patens now remaining are those which 
have been discovered in the coffms of bishops and priests who died 
during the twelfth and following centuries, it having been the cus- 
tom to bury silver vessels with the higher, and pewter vessels with 
the lower dignitaries of the Church, as symbols of their calling. 
These interesting vessels are now and then found during the restora- 
tion of an old church, or when the tomxh of an ecclesiastic is 
disturbed. When the church at Nassingfon, in Northamptonshire, 

* Allen's ''London," Vol. II, p. 81. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

was restored in 1885, a pewter paten and chalice of an early type 
were found.* 

The first type of chalice, which dates from 1200 to 1250, always 
has a circular foot. The oldest now remaining is quite plain, with a 
broad and shallow bowl, having a slight lip, a short stem with knop, 
and plain foot. Only three examples of this date remain; two of 
these are coffin chalices, and the third was, until recently, used at 
Berwick, St. James's, Wilts, and is now in the British Museum. The 
patens of the same date have two depressions, the first circular, the 
second quatrefoil, with a central device, the Manus Dei often being 
used. 

The next type of chalice has the stem and knop wrought separ- 
ately from the rest of the vessel, and either stem or knop, or both, 
lobed or polygonal. The patens belonging to this type have the 
lower depression, or single depression, octofoil or multiple, and 
some device in the centre. In York Minster there is a good chalice 
and paten of this period, which were found in the grave of an 
archbishop. 

The third type of chalice, which was made at the end of the 
thirteenth century, is similar to the last, except that the foot is orna- 
mented. At Dolgelly, a silver gilt chalice and paten were recently 
discovered. They are large and massive. The chalice has a wide 
and shallow bowl, with a slight lip; the knop is circular, and 
divided into twelve lobes by ribs ; the stem is ornamented with ver- 
tical leaves ; the foot is broad and circular, with twelve lobes ending 
in trefoils; between and below these are larger trefoils, beautifully 
engraved with early English foliage; and between these again is 
similar foliage. The paten is sunk in two depressions, the first cir- 
cular, the second sexfoil, with symbols of the evangelists in the 
spandrils, and the seated figure of Our Lord in the centre. Both 
chalice and paten were made by Nicholas of Hereford about i28o.t 

During the next half -century, the pattern changed but little, 
except that the bowl of the chalice became deeper and more conical. 
Only one chalice of this period is known, which was found in the 
grave of William de Melton, Archbishop of York. 

About the middle of the fourteenth century, chalices with six- 
pointed feet were first made. The reason for abandoning the round 
foot, was that the custom of laying down the chalice to drain was 
introduced, and the polygonal foot prevented the vessel from 
rolling. The earliest chalice of this fashion is that at Hamstal 
Ridware, Co. Stafford. This is of silver, parcel gilt, the bowl coni- 
cal, the stem short and thick, the knop formed of curved lobes, and 
the foot having six points. Its paten is also silver, parcel gilt, sunk 
in circle, and again in sexfoil, with plain cusps, and the Manus Dei 
in the centre. 

The next example was probably made about a hundred years 
later. It is silver, parcel gilt, the bowl quite plain and conical, the 

* Markham's "Charcli Plate of the County of Northampton," 1894, 
p. 195. 

t '' Arch^ologia," Vol. LIU, p. 575. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

stem hexagonal, the knop also quite plain and hexagonal, the foot 
mullet-shaped, having six points, and on the front is engraved the 
iljr and round the edge a double row of small-leaved flowers. 

From 1450 to 1520 the chalices became somewhat more ornate. 
Of this period several still remain, most of which have their patens. 
At this time the bowl becomes deeper, and is generally plani; the 
stem is much taller and hexagonal, also plain, but sometimes but- 
tressed at the angles; the knop is more beautiful, having on its six 
faces masks or roses ; the foot is either plain with six points, or the 
points are ornamented with loops, and on the front is usually 
engraved or enamelled the crucihx or the iljr. The patens at this 
time have a single circular depression, with iljC or iljs as the device 
in the centre. 

A little later the foot of the chalice becomes sexfoil in plan, 
instead of having six points. The best example of this type is the 
chalice of gold at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, which, with its 
paten, was given to the College by Bishop Fox, when it was founded 
in 1 5 16. 

The last type of chalice, made immediately before the Reform- 
ation, is still more elaborate. The bowl is flatter, more like the 
early Norman shape, and generally bears a legend; the stem is 
tall and hexagonal, sometimes being pierced with tracery; the knop 
has six sides, and is much like those before described ; where the 
stem joins the foot there is a kind of parapet, and the foot is formed 
into a wavy-sided hexagon, on the front of which is engraved the 
crucifix, and it generally also bears a legend. The patens belonging 
to this period have a single circular depression, with the Vernicle 
as a central device, surrounded by a glory of rays, and also having 
a legend engraved round the edge. 

Pre-Reformation chalices and patens have been classified by 
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope and Mr. T. N. Fallow, according to the 
following types* : 



CHALICES. 

Type A. circa 1200 to circa 1250. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 

and knot, and foot plain and circular. 
Type B. circa 1250 to circa 1275. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 

and knot wrought separately from the bowl and foot, and 

one or the other or both polygonal ; foot plain and circular. 
Type C. circa 1275 to circa 1300. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 

and knot as in type B ; foot circular, but with its spread 

worked into ornate lobes. 
Type D. circa 1300 to circa 13 50. Bowl deeper and more conical; 

stem, knot, and foot as before. 
Type E. circa 1350 to circa 1450. Bowl as in type D ; stem and knot 

uncertain ; six-sided foot. 

* "English Mediseval Chalices and Patens," by W. H. St. John Hope, 1887. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

Type F. circa 1450 to circa 15 10. Bowl deep and conical; stem 
hexagonal, with ornate knot; six-sided foot. In late in- 
stances the points of the latter terminate in knops. 

Type G. circa 15 10 to circa 1525. Bowl broader at base; stem and 
knot as in type F ; sexf oil foot. 

Type H. circa 1525 to circa 1540. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 
cabled or buttressed on edges, with knot as before, but some- 
what flattened ; foot sexfoil, or hexagonal with wavy sides, 
and with an open crown at its junction w'th the stem. 

PATENS. 

Type A. (Form I) circa 11 80 to circa 1260. Lower depression 

quatrefoil ; central device various. 
Type B. (Form I or II) circa 1260 to czrca 1300. Lower depression, 

or single depression, octof oil or multiple ; central device 

usually the Manns Dei. 

Type C. (Form I) circa 1300 to circa 1350, and later. Lower depres- 
sion sexfoil with plain spandrels; central device usually the 
Manns Dei. 

Type D. (Form I) circa 1430 to cina i 530. Lower depression sex- 

foil,but spandrels lilled with a rayed leaf ornament. Central 

device most frequently the Vernicle, with, in many cases, an 

encircling glory of short rays. Some of the later examples 

of this type have an engraved legend round the rim. 

Type E. (Form II) circa 1450 to circa 15 10. Single circular de- 
pression, with more generally iljc or i|)5 as the central 
device. 

Type F. (Form I) circa 1525. An elaboration of type D, which it 
resembles in general form, but the central device has a glory 
of long rays filling the field of the paten, and the rim bears 
an engraved legend. 

Type G. (Form II) circa 1520 to circa 1535. An elaboration of type 
E. Single circular depression, with central device sur- 
rounded by a glory of long rays. The rim bears an engraved 
legend. The only two examples of this type have the 
Vernicle as the central device. 

Form I comprises patens with plain circular depression, with an 
inner depression multifoil in outline : and Form II those with one ■ 
depression only, either circular or multifoil. 

From this sketch it will be seen that the amount of mediaeval 
Communion plate remaining is very limited. Throughout England 
there are not above forty chalices and about twice that number of 
patens now in existence. 

The display of gold and silver plate, much of it being orna- 
mented with jewels, in our cathedrals, abbeys and churches, previous 
to the Reformation, must have been wonderfully beautiful. The 
number of vessels possessed was considerable, and the value of the 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

same must have been great. As a typical example of the utensils 
of a great cathedral, even as late as the sixteenth century, a short 
summary of the inventory of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed 
Virgin at Lincoln, which was taken in 1536, is here given* : 

Chalices. — A chalice of gold with pearls and precious stones 
set in the foot and knop, and a paten with the figures of Our Lord 
and the Apostles. A great silver and gilt chalice with the Passion 
and Resurrection of Christ, and the salutation of the Virgin on the 
foot; and a paten with the coronation of the Virgin, weighing 74 
ounces. A silver and gilt chalice and paten, with gilt spoon; and 
three other large silver and gilt chalices and patens. 

FeretoriesA — A great silver and gilt feretory with steeple, 
twelve pinnacles, and images of the Virgin and St. Hugh. Four 
other feretories, silver and gilt and crystal. 

Phylacteries.X — A silver and gilt phylactery with red and blue 
stones, containing the bones of St. Stephen. A similar phylactery, 
containing the bones of St. Agnes. Another phylactery with a knop 
of beryl, containing the bones of St. Vincent. A phylactery of 
crystal and silver, containing a tooth of St. Hugh. 

AuipullcF with ReliqnesW — Six ampullae of crystal, with feet 
and covers of silver and gilt, containing relics of various saints. 

Tabernacles.% — Six tabernacles of ivory or wood, one containing 
relics. 

Images. — An image of Our Saviour, silver and gilt, with a cross 
in the hand. A great image of Our Lady, crowned, sitting in a 
chair, silver and gilt, with the Holy Child on her knee, also crowned. 
Relics of virgins m a silver and gilt vessel. 

Chests for Relics. — Twenty-four chests, some made of silver 
and gilt, some of crystal, and some covered with cloth of gold or 
needlework. 

Pyxes^ — A round pyx of crystal, ornamented with silver and 
gilt, containing the relics of saints. Four pyxes of ivory, bound 
with silver and gilt, or with copper. A pyx of crystal, with foot 
of silver and gilt. And a silver and gilt pyx. 

Crosses. — A cross of silver and gilt, with a crucifix in the centre, 
St. Mary and St. John on either hand, and the evangelists at the 
corners, weighing 57 ounces. Fifteen other crosses, of divers 
materials and sizes. A silver and gilt cross, similar to the first, but 
v/eighing 84 ounces. 

Candelabra. — Two great candlesticks of gold, for eight candles 
each, weighing 22 and 10 ounces respectively. Six other candle- 
sticks, silver and gilt. 

Thurible sT''' — A pair of great censers, silver and gilt, weighing 
88 ounces. Four other smaller pairs of censers. And a silver and 
gilt ship, having a spoon with a cross, weighing 34 ounces. 

Boivls, etc. — Two fair basins of silver and gilt, chased with 

* " Arcliseologia," Vol. LIU, p. 13. f A shrine. 

X A reliquary. ][ A covered vessel. § A receptacle for the Sacrament. 

If Vessels of precious metal to contain the Eucharist. 
** \'essels in which to burn ijicense. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

double roses and enamelled, one weighing 8i ounces, the other 79 
ounces. Three other pairs of basins of silver and gilt, of smaller 
size. A patte of silver for holy water. Two saucers of silver gilt. 
A sacring bell of silver. Two-squared sconce of silver and gilt. 
y-\ calefactory, silver and gilt. Two holes of silver and gilt. 

Staves.— A staff covered with silver and gilt, with an image of 
Our Lady at one end, and an image of St. Hugh at the other. Four 
other staves of silver and gilt. And four staves of wood, two of 
which have plates of silver. 

Pastoral Staves. — The head of a bishop's staff, silver and gilt, 
with a knop of pearls and stones, an image of Our Saviour on one 
side, and an image of St. John Baptist on the other, weighing 18 
ounces. The head of a staff, copper and gilt. Two staves for the 
same. 

Texts of the Evangelists. — A text after St. Matthew, covered 
with a plate, silver and gilt, and with divers stones. Six other 
similar texts. And three texts for Lent and the Passion. 

Chrismatory. — A chrismatory, silver and gilt, with sixteen 
images, enamelled, weighing 26 ounces. 

Ainptdlce for 6>i/.— Three ampullae, silver and gilt each with a 
cover, and a spoon with an acorn. 

Morses.^^' — Seventeen morses, silver and gilt, some set with 
stones and pearls, others enamelled. 

Serta. — Three garlands, silver and gilt, enriched with pearls 
and stones. 

Such were the holy vessels and utensils of a great church in the 
Middle Ages. 

After 1534. the work of spoliation commenced, and has been 
carried on more or less ever since. First came Henry VIII, who, in 
1539-40, suppressed all religious houses throughout the realm, and 
of course appropriated their possessions, including their vessels of 
gold and silver. 

In 1548 Edward VI sent his commissioners throughout the 
land, with orders to take all plate, except one, two, or more chalices, 
according to the size of the parish. And a few years later further 
orders were issued, that "monuments of feigned miracles, pilgrm- 
ages, idolatry and superstition" were to be entirely done away with 
and destroyed. Then it was that churchwardens and incumbents, 
feeling that all church property was insecure, sold a good deal of 
the Communion plate, and expended the proceeds in the repairs of 
their churches and other ways. 

Cups made in the time of Edward VI are as rare as pre- 
Reformation chalices. At St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 
there are two large silver gilt cups of this date.f At Clapton and 
Great Houghton, Co. Northampton, are two beautiful silver gilt 
cups, made in 1548 and 1553 respectively ;+ and a few others may 
be found throughout the country. 

* The motal fasteninpis of a cape. 
t Freshfield's " Communion Plate in the County of London." 
T Markham's "Church Plate of the Coiintv of Northampton," 1894, pp. 
70, 162. 



XXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



It is believed that about the }-ear 1562, some general order was 
issued in London, as to the shape of communion cups, for those 
made at this time are all of the same design, no matter in what part 
of England they are found. They are mostly of elegant form, but 
as different from the chalices, out of which they were probably 
made, as can well be imagined. 

A cup of this period has a conical bowl 
with slightly hollowed sides and some- 
what flat base, engraved with one or two 
belts of strap work enclosing foliage. 
The stem is always evenly balanced, with 
a circular knop m the centre, on a flat 
fillet, and it is joined to the bowl and 
foot by either horizontal or vertical 
mouldings. The foot is generally high 
and dome-shaped, resting on a flat flange, 
on which is sometimes engraved the egg 
and tongue pattern. The paten is made 
so as to serve as a cover for the cup, the 
foot forming a handle; sometimes the 
paten is engraved with strap ornamenta- 
tion like the cup, and sometimes the date 
is engraved on the foot or button. 

An enormous number of Elizabethan 
cups and patens still remain, but no two 
are alike, although the same type is used 
for all. 

During the reigns of James I and 
Charles I the type of cup and cover 
changes but little. The cups were, how- 
sver, often taller, slighter and less elegant, the engraved belt round 
the bowl being often omitted. Cover patens were also used. 
Another type of cup at this time was made with a bell-shaped bowl 
and baluster stem, and this form of cup does not appear ever to have 
been used with a cover paten. 

During the Commonwealth but little plate of any kind was 
made in England. Two patterns of cups were used at this time. 
One of these has a somewhat large bowl, with flat base, baluster 
stem, and flat foot. The other has a large bell-shaped or conical 
bowl, a thick stem with a flat flange or plate for knop, swelling 
gradually to form a plain foot, a cup of this type generally has a 
cover paten, with a single depression, made to fit it face upwards. 
During the reigns of Charles II and James II some magnificent 
cups and patens will be found, and also some which are very plain 
and ugly. 

The same pattern of cup before described, continued to be 
manufactured, and at the same time a new form was introduced. 




Communion Cur and 
Cover Paten. 

Date 1569-70, Great Dod- 
dington Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

The bowl of this cup is cylindrical, deep, and of great capacity; 

the stem short and thick, and swelling out to rest on a flat flange 

and form the foot ; the whole is large and clumsy. The paten cor- 
responding with the cup, but not used as a cover, is also clumsy, 

being of large size, sunk in a single depression on short thick 
fo(5t. 




Communion Cup. 
Date 1601. 

In the eighteenth century the form of the cups and patens still 
further degenerated. The cup at this time has a large bell-shaped 
bowl ; an evenly balanced stem, generally with a circular knop in 
the centre; and the foot is formed of horizontal mouldings. The 
paten is large, with a broad edge and one circular depression; the 
foot is quite plain, and generally large and high. Sometimes the 
paten fits the cup foot upward. Frequently the knop and foot of 
the cup, and the foot of the paten are ornamented with rope or 
rolled moulding. 

In the present century the same kind of vessels are made, and 
the earlier of these are not very beautiful. But now the pre-Re- 
formation types are being again introduced, and some of the 
Communion sets manufactured are of excellent design and work- 
manship. 

FLAGONS. 

The earliest flagons at present existing are those made during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These are generally of "the round- 
bellied type." At Cirencester Church; St. Margaret's Church, West- 
minster; St. George's Chapel, Windsor; and a few other places, are 
flagons which have high feet, round bulbous bodies, straight necks, 



XXXVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



domed lids, and curved handles. Flagons of this shape are far 
from elegant in appearance. 

This type of flagon was only made for a few years, for the 
tankard type came into fashion about 1600, and has ever smce been 
used. A tankard-shaped flagon is generally handsome and mas- 
sive, though quite plain. It has straight sides, dome-shaped lid, 
high, straight purchase, rather large curved handle, and broad 
spreading foot; the handle often ending in a heart-shaped plate. 




Alms Dish, Peterborough Cathedr.\l. 
Date c. 1650, scale one-sixth full size. 

The Communion service at Easton Mauduit, Northamptonshire, 
is here represented. The paten and cup were made of silver gilt 
in 1630, and are marked with the initials of the donor, the Right 
Reverend Thomas Morton, who was successively Bishop of Chester, 
Lichfield and Coventry, and Durham. The flagon is a very beau- 
tiful vessel, made in 1672, of silver gilt repousse work. The alms- 
dishes are quite plain, and are also silver gilt. In the parish register 
there is an entry relating to this silver, signed by the Rev. Thomas 
Percy, author of " The Reliques of Ancient English Poetry," who 
was once vicar of the parish. 

ALMS DISHES. 

There are throughout the country a good number of silver alms 
dishes, most of which are quite plain, though a few are most beauti- 
fully ornamented with leaves and fruit in repousse work, and others 
are engraved. 






OJ 




M 




• I-H 




^ 




CO 




G 


w 


o 


u 


Cli 


1— 1 

> 


a 


p^ 


rt 


w 


^ 


CO 


■4-> 




O 


o 


^ 


1— I 


^ 


^ 


~t-> 


p 


B 


^ 
^ 


T3 


o 
u 


^ 




G 




o 




4-> 




CO 




nj 




W 



IXTRODUCTIOX. xxxix 



CHRISTENING BOWLS. 

Occasionally a christening bowl is found at a church, but it is 
usually quite plain. 

SPOONS. 

Strainer spoons are sometimes used in churches, but probably 
in most cases they are of domestic origin, having the bowl after- 
wards pierced for use :n removing anything from the wine. 

The greater part of the Communion plate now m use was given 
by individuals, and such gifts are frequently recorded in mediaeval 
wills. Thus, in 1246, King Henry III gave a chalice to the Church 
of All Saints, and smaller \'essels to the other parish churches m 
the town of Northampton.* 



Coronatiott IMtt. 



*' A croui7i of pure gold on his head." 

— P.SAL3I xxi, 3. 

The English Regalia was generally kept in Westminster Abbey, 
though m tunes of danger it was sometimes removed to the Tower 
of London. During the reign of Henry VIII, the Crown jewels were 
taken to the Tower, where they are now permanently housed. 

The present regalia is but a small portion of what it used to be, 
both Kings and Parliaments having helped to disperse it.+ 

In 1625 King Charles I pawned a great number of the Crown 
jewels to Holland, in order to raise mone}- for his wars with Spain. 
These included "A greate riche 'Jewell of goulde' called the 
* Mirroiir of Greate Brittaine '" : a gold cup with " The Dreame of 
Paris," weighing 1 20 ounces : the gold cup with " The ^lorris 
Dance," weighing 147 ounces: "The Constable's Cup": and many 
more celebrated articles. :J: There is no record of these jewels ever 
having been redeemed. 

Again m 1643 ^^e King melted the crown and sceptre; and the 
following }-ear the House of Commons issued an order that the 
King's plate, then in the Tower, was to be melted down and coined. 
The House of Lords remonstrated, alleging that the beautiful work- 
manship of the plate rendered it very valuable, but this was without 
effect, and a few years later these beautiful works of art v.-ere con- 
signed to the crucible. Thus unique jewels and plate were de- 
stroyed Avithout mere}-, and " the produce employed to buy horses."|| 

* Bridge's •' Xorthamptoiishire."" Vol. I, p. 426. 

T Eynier's ''• Foedera." Vol. XVIII. p. 236. 

T Chaffers's '"Gilda Aiirifabrorum.'- 

!| ChafEers's •• Gilda Aurifabronim."' p. 200. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

In consequence of this, some difficulty was experienced in pro- 
viding regalia for the coronation of Charles II, and new crowns, 
sceptres, a globe, staves, maces, and other things, were provided by 
Sir Robert Vyner at the cost of some thirty-two thousand pounds. 

The present regalia consists of the following articles : 

Queen Victoria's State crown was made in 1838, and is adorned 
with jewels from other crowns. It has a crimson velvet cap, with 
ermine border lined with white silk, and weighs 39 oz. 5 dwt. On 
the cross patee above the mound m the centre is the inestimable 
sapphire which is supposed to have been taken from the ring of 
Edward the Confessor. In front is the heart-shaped ruby said to 
have belonged to the Black Prince. 

St. Edward's crown is the great state crown of England, and 
is the diadem which is set upon the brows of each of England's 
monarchs ever since the pious Confessor relinquished it. The name, 
however, and not the thing itself, is all that survives; for the ori- 
ginal crown, which is traditionally supposed to have been worn 
by King Edward, was " broken and defaced " by the bigots of the 
Commonwealth. The present crown was made by Sir Robert Vyner 
in 1662, from the old designs; and was slightly altered and en- 
larged for the coronation of our late King Edward VII. It con- 
sists of a cap of crimson velvet, which is turned up with ermine, and 
round which is a gold circlet, bordered at both edges with rows of 
pearls, and studded with large rubies, emeralds and sapphires, en- 
compassed with brilliants. From the circlet rise in alternation four 
crosses patee and fleur de lys of gold, each set with precious stones. 
From the crosses spring arches of gold bordered with pearls and 
set with precious stones, which meet at the centre to support an orb 
filleted v/ith rows of pearls. Above the orb is a cross patee richly 
studded with gems, among which the three large pear-shaped pearls 
which adorn the upper arms of the cross are specially conspicuous. 

Mary of Modena's circlet, which was used at her coronation, 
and which she first wore. It consists of a golden circlet set with 
magnificent pearls, and a large diamond in front. 

Mary of Modena's crown, which was worn by the Queen after 
her coronation. This has arches, surmounted by a cross patee, and 
is ornamented by large diamonds and pearls. 

The Prince of Wales's coronet is of gold, with a single arch 
carrying a cross patee, and it is adorned with jewels. 

St. Edward's staff of pure gold, 4 feet j\ inches long, with 
mound and cross patee at the top. This staff formed part of the 
regalia made by Sir Robert Vyner in 1662. 

There are five sceptres. 

The Royal sceptre with the cross, is made of gold, it is 2 feet 
Qi inches long, and the shaft is enriched with rubies, em.eralds and 
diamonds. At the top there is a magnificent amethyst, from which 
there springs a cross patee, thickly set with brilliants and other 
gems. 

The Royal sceptre with the dove is similar to the other royal 
sceptre, except that it is slightly longer, less ornate, and it bears a 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

dove on a cross above the mound instead of a cross patec. The 
dove with wings expanded is enamelled white. 

The Queen's sceptre with the cross is also made of gold, it is 
2 feet lo inches long, and is ornamented with diamonds. 

The Queen's sceptre with the dove is somewhat smaller, but 
more highly ornamented than the royal sceptre. 

The Queen's ivory rod is 3 feet i^ inches long, the mound has 
a cross patee on which is an enamelled dove. This sceptre was 
made for Mary of Modena. 

The Queen's crown, which was designed and manufactured for 
the coronation of Queen Alexandra, is composed entirely of dia- 
monds, all of which are mounted in silver settings, this being the 
only metal completely displaying the beauty and brilliance of the 
stones. The circlet is entirely encrusted with brilliants of the finest 
water, which are placed as closely as possible throughout. This 
strikingly rich band supports four large crosses patee, and four 
large fleur de lys, which, placed alternately, enclose the purple silk 
velvet cap. The centre of the largest cross patee displays the price- 
less Koh-i-noor, the unique feature of the crown. From the crosses 
and fleurs de lys spring eight graceful arches, curving inwards, also 
set with diamonds. The arches converge in the centre, and support 
an orb, encrusted with diamonds, which is surmounted by a cross 
patee of large diamonds. 

The total number of stones used is 3,688, and the crown only 
weighs 22 oz. 15 dwt. 

There are two orbs. 

The larger orb is a golden globe 6 inches in d:ameter. It has 
a fillet round the centre, from which springs an arch, both fillet and 
arch being ornamented with pearls and precious stones. On the 
top is a large amethyst surmounted by a cross, composed of dia- 
monds and other stones. It was made by Sir Robert Vyner. 

The smaller orb is very similar, and was made for the corona- 
tion of Queen Mary, the consort of King William. 

The ampulla is a golden eagle, with expanded wings, the 
height of which with the pedestal is 9 inches, and the diameter of 
the pedestal 3^ inches. The body of the eagle is filled with oil, by 
unscrewing the head, and the oil is poured out through the beak at 
the coronation. This is undoubtedly an ancient piece of plate, and 
probably older than the time of Charles II. 

In addition, there are the following : the King's ring, having 
a splendid sapphire in which is set the cross of St. George in rubies, 
with which the Sovereign weds his people at the coronation; the 
Queen's ring, a table ruby, the hoop of which is encrusted with 
rubies; the bracelets; Queen Elizabeth's salt-cellar, and the cor- 
onation spoon, of which more hereafter. These articles are illus- 
trated in Mr. Cyril Davenport's beautiful work.* 

* " The English Regalia," by Cyril Davenport, 1897. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 



CorpratiDit ^late. 



"Jack Cade. Strike off- their heads, and bring them both upon 
two poles .... for ivith these borne before us instead of maces, 
will we ride through the streets^ 

— »Sh-\kespeare, 2nd Pt. " Henry VI," Act iv, sc. 7. 

The only articles used by corporate towns that we need consider 
now are maces; for, although such towns often possess lovmg-cups 
and other vessels, they are not, like maces, used officially. 

Maces were once used as weapons of warfare. Thus, at the 
Conquest of England, Duke William and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, 
fought with maces ; and it is said that Odo carried this terrible and 
crushing instrument m lieu of a sword, because the canons of the 
Church forbade a priest to shed blood.* 

Afterwards maces were used as symbols of authority, and are 
found in almost every borough in England. 

And first as to sergeants' maces. The earliest of these is of the 
fifteenth century; this is silver parcel gilt and 25 inches long, with 
an iron grip, and a later crown at the top. It is now at Hedon, in 
Yorkshire. At Stratford-on-Avon and a few other places there are 
maces of about the same date, none of which has a crown. In the 
sixteenth century the heads of the maces became more bowl-shaped, 
and the lower end lost its mace-like character, and appeared with 
small brackets at the base. In the course of the seventeenth century 
the head was enlarged to give room for various symbols, such as 
the royal arms, or the initials of the sovereign, and a crown was 
added above the bowl, surmounted by a globe and cross. The 
small brackets also were carried upward; first they were placed at 
the lower end, then half-way up the handle, and finally immedi- 
ately beneath the bowl. About 1650, sergeants' maces ceased to be 
manufactured; at least hardly any were made after that time. 

Secondly, as to great maces which were borne before the Mayor 
as a sign of authority. The earliest of these now in existence, is the 
fine one at Chichester, which is of the early part of the seventeenth 
century. The maces at Stafford, Grimsby and York are only a little 
later in date. These maces, though somewhat more ornate, are 
made on the same lines as the sergeants' maces before noticed. The 
mace of the House of Commons, which was made in 1649-60, is a 
good example of maces of that date. In the eighteenth century 
many of the maces were made with baluster stems, the other parts 
remaining unaltered. 

Maces of exceptional form are sometimes found. Thus, maces 
shaped like oars are now at Dover and other seaport towns. That 
at Dover is a plain silver oar, and is a symbol of the Admiralty 

* Freeman's " History of the Norman Conquest." 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

jurisdiction, being held by the town clerk of Dover as registrar; it is 
probably of the time of Queen Elizabeth. The mace of the Tower 
Ward in London is also uncommon. It was made in 1671, and is 
surmounted by a model of the Tower, with small turrets at the 
corners, each having a weather-vane, with the letters C.R. 

A few societies, such as the Royal Society and the Society of 
Antiquaries, also have the privilege of using a mace. 

Further information about maces will be found in " The Cor- 
poration Plate," by Llewellyn jewitt and W. H. St. John Hope, 
1895. 



iBomestic ^latt. 



In all houses of the better class a court cupboard, or livery cup- 
board, was essential This was, according to Nares, a movable 
closet or buffet in which plate and other articles of luxury were 
displayed. He gives the following quotations from " Comenius's 
Janua," printed in 1659: 

" Golden and gilded beakers, cruzes, great cups, crystal glasses, 
cans, tankards, and two-ear'd pots are brought forth out of the 
cup-board, and glass case, and being rinsed and rub'd with a pot- 
brush, are set on the livery-cupboard."* 

Shakespeare alludes to this m " Romeo and Juliet," where the 
serving-man exclaims : " Away with the join-stools, remove the 
court-cup-board, look to the plate."t 

MAZERS. 

■' A bowl or mazer curiously carved^ 

— Dryden's "Virgil." 

Mazers are ancient wooden clrinking-vessels, on which much has 
been written and learning expended. Even the meaning of the word 
IS disputed, although the general opinion obtains that it was de- 
rived from " maserle," or maple wood. For in early times platters 
and bowls, and other articles for the table, were frequently made 
of beech or maple wood, often having silver mountings. 

The Bishop of Chichester, in his will in 1253, speaks of his 
great cup of mazera; and such mazers are mentioned for a little 
ewer three hundred years from this date, in all kinds of inventories 
and wills, the spelling of the name, of course, varying very much. 
After 1590 no more mazers were made. 

Simon the goldsmith, who lived in 1369, and who was a bene- 
factor to the Goldsmiths' Company, was called Simon le Maserer, 
from his skill in making silver-mounted mazers. 

* Nares's "Glossary," 1822. f "Romeo and Juliet," I, v. 7. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

Early mazers had a rim above, and a small rim for foot below, 
being- wide and shallow, and generally having an inscription round 
the upper rim. The later ones are generally deeper, and often 
mounted on high feet. Inside, in the centre, there is usually a flat 
pJate called the print, or boss, often ornamented with a shield of 
arms or other design. The object of this was, no doubt, to cover 
the flaws made in completing the turning of the bowl. 

The earliest mazer now known is at Harbledown Hospital, near 
Canterbury, and has a plain gilt foot or stem, a plain rim, a silver 
gilt medallion, with the figure of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and an 
inscription. This vessel is of the time of Edward II After this 
comes the " Scrope Mazer," which is now at York ; it has a long 
inscription on the rim, which fixes the date of it as being about 
1400. It stands on feet made of sm^all heads, and is altogether a 
most interesting specimen. 

At All Soul's College, Oxford, there is a set of mazers, one of 
which, made in the middle of the fifteenth century, is a very fine 
SDCcimen of such a cup. This is mounted on a high circular foot, 
and has a deep rim round the edge, both being silver gilt and some- 
what plain. On the bottom, hiside, there is a boss, or print, bearing 
the arms and initials of the donor, Thomas Ballard. A cup made 
of polished maple, in the collection of the late Mr. E. P. Shirley, 
of Eatington, bore the legend on the rim : 

" In the name of the Tirnite 
Fille tlie kiip and drinke to me." 

At the Armourers' Hall, London, there is a large deep bowl 
nearly a foot in diameter. The silver gilt foot and rim of this 
bowl are united by bands in the same manner as are those of cocoa- 
nut cups. Oriel College, Oxford, is the possessor of a very fine 
mazer, made about 1470. This has a low, circular foot, ornamented 
with stiff lea\es, points downwards. The upper rim is deep, and 
also ornamented with similar leaves, points upward, and the legend 
in black letter : 

'' Miv vationt bibas itoit quoJb pdit aha iroluptas 
sic raro casta iainv lis liugut^ siipp^bitatnr/'* 

A vessel called the Narford mazer, formerly in the collection of 
Sir A. W. Franks, P.S.A., bears the London hall marks for 1532 on 
the silver gilt rim, on which are the words : 

"CIPHUS REFECTOKII ROFENSIS PER FRATREM 
ROBERTUM PECHAM." 

in Tudor capitals, black letters having ceased to be used after the 
end of the fifteenth century.f 

* Cripps's " Old English Plate," 1891, p. 243. 
t " Archseologia," Vol. XIII, p. 392. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

Another of Sir A. \V. Franks's mazers has a very low rim for 
foot, and a somewhat deep rim above, ornamented with small pen- 
dant leaves and the text in large letters : 

"MISEREMINI: MP:i : MISEREMINI: MEI: 
SALTEM: VOS : AMICI: MEI." 

At All Souls' College, Oxford, is a deep but somewhat small 
bowl, which is mounted on a tall foot and stem composed of clus- 
tered shafts, so that the whole forms a standing cup; it was made 
m 1529. With the Inquest plate at St. Giles's, Cripplegate With- 
out, London, there is a mazer bowl of maple wood, mounted with 
s. broad silver gilt rim and foot, round the stem of which is a scroll 
ornament, above which is inscribed : " Ihon Birde Mead This In 
Anno Domine 1 568 ; " the foot is engraved with various ornaments, 
and on the print inside is a merchant's mark.* 

Nothing more remains to be said about mazers, as the manu- 
facture of them entirely ceased towards the end of the sixteenth 
century. 



Stantfing Cups. 



^' And guf hem echone 
Coiiffes of dene gold and coppes of silver" 

— " Piers Ploughman," p. 39. 

The State cups possessed by the great men of the land in the 
Middle Ages were often of great value and beauty. Sometimes 
these cups were made of solid gold or silver, and sometimes of 
cocoa-nuts or ostrich eggs mounted with silver. 

Some of these are of early date, for at the end of the thirteenth 
century we find the Bishop of Durham bequeathing a cocoa-nut cup 
with a foot and mountings of silver; and such cups are very fre- 
quently mentioned in old wills and inventories. Many of the City 
companies have specimens of these cups. The Ironmongers possess 
a good cocoa-nut cup, made at the commencement of the sixteenth 
century. t The Armourers and Vintners also possess such cups, that 
of the latter having been ma.de in 15 18; and the late Mr. E. P. 
Monckton had a good cocoa-nut cup which was made in London 
in 1856-7.4: 

At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there are the remains of 
what is probably the oldest cup formed by an ostrich Ggg in the 
world. It dates from the fourteenth century, although the present 
silver mounts are not older than 1592. The well-known ostrich ^gg 
cup at Exeter College, Oxford, is somewhat later in date, having 

* " Archseologia," Vol. L, p. 1G7. f Cripps's " Old English Plate." 

X See next page. 

\e 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



been made in 1610, but it is a fine example of this particular form. 
The foot is of the shape usual at that time; the stem is formed of 
three ostrich legs, supporting the egg, which is held in position by 
three bands, and on the cover an ostrich stands on a plume of 
feathers.* The Earl of Ducie has a unique silver gilt cup which 








Silver-mounted Cocoa-nut. 

Two-thirds natural size, date 1586-7, 
belonging to Mr. E. P. Monckton. 

was made in London in 1584, shaped as an ostrich egg, with hinged 
straps and a foot surmounted by four dolphins. 

" Cups made of the horn of the wild bull of the English woods, 
and tipped at either end with gold or silver," were likewise used in 
very early times. At Queen's College, there is a cup, the horn of 
which it is made being twenty-five inches long; the end is tipped 

* Cripps's " Old English Plate." 




Silver Gilt Standing Cup. 
Date 1609. The Property of the Marquis of Exeter. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

by metal formed into an animal's head, and is supported by two 
claw-shaped feet attached to bands, and round the upper end of the 
horn is also an inscribed band. The lid, surmounted by an eagle, 
is of later date. At Christ's Hospital, London, there is a somewhat 
similar horn, but in this case the two claw-shaped feet are attached 
to a single band, and are side by side instead of being in front of 
each other. The Cawdor horn is also celebrated, although it is not 
the original one, but was made in the time of Henry VII. The horn 
is borne by the royal supporters, and is highly ornamented. 

Of standing cups made entirely of the precious metals there 
are many notable examples still remaining. The cup at Lynn is 
supposed to have been given to that town by King John ; it is silver 
gilt, richly ornamented with enamelled figures, the stem is slender, 
the foot circular, the height 15 inches, and it is of the fourteenth 
century.* The Foundress's Cup at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
of the fifteenth century, is a quaint, if not altogether pleasing, piece 
of work; the stem, bowl and cover are ornamented with broad 
twisted bands composed of conventional foliage in repousse work. 
At Pembroke College, Cambridge, there is a fine specimen known as 
the Anathema Cup, bearing the London hall marks for 1481, and 
it is one of the earliest dated vessels in existence. The second 
earliest cup with a date mark is the " Leigh Cup," now at the 
Mercers' Hall, London. This is of silver gilt, richly ornamented 
by raised ropes, which form lozenges, containing alternately heads 
of maidens and flasks; round the bowl and lid is a record of the 
gift of this cup, on the foot and bowl is an open cresting, and the 
lid is surmounted by a virgin with an unicorn. At Christ's College, 
Cambridge, there is a handsome standing cup or stoup, covered with 
diaper work enclosing double roses, fleur de lis, and portcullis in 
the centre of each lozenge, and a daisy at each intersection, which 
was made early in the sixteenth century. 

The Richmond Cup, now at Armourers' Llall, made about the 
same time, is of a different type, having raised ribs, which form the 
bowl, cover, and stem. The silver gilt hanap or standing cup at 
Portsmouth was made in 1590, and presented by Robert Lee to the 
Corporation. At Corby Church, Co. Northampton, there is a beauti- 
ful silver gilt covered cup that was made in 1601. The bowl and 
cover form a perfect oval, entirely covered with repousse work of 
bands of leaves ; on the cover is a pyramid, with three sides ; the stem 
is baluster in form, with a high foot.f This cup was evidently made 
for secular purposes, though now used in the church. A somewhat 
similar cup will be found at Braunstone Church, Co. Leicester.! 

A very fine standing cup with cover, made of silver gilt, 
repousse, with fruit and foliage, strap work and dolphins, with the 
London hall marks for 1604-5, bears the legend : 

* " Examples of Art Workmanship." 

t Markham's " Church Plate of the County of Northampton," p. 77. 

I Trollope's " Church Plate of Leicestershire," p. 321. 



xlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



" This Cupp "svas Made of the Greate Seale of 
Ireland© In Anno Domini 1604 After the 
Deathe of The Blessed Queen e Elizabethe 
The Moste Blessed Prince That Eiier raigned 
Adam loftus lord Archbisshopp of Dublin was then 
And Is Now lorde Ghaunceller of Irelande and was 
Three Tymes lorde lustice and Gouernor of the same realme." 

This cup belongs to Mr. J. Dunn Gardner, and is now in the 
South Kensington Museum. A highly enriched gourd-shaped cup, 
called " The Berry Cup," forms part of the Corporation plate of 
the town of Portsmouth; it is silver gilt, and was made in 1608-9. 
At the Clothworkers' Hall there is a large and well-worked cup, 
which was given by Samuel Pepys in 1678. The bowl of this is 
formed of two parts, the inner being plain, and the outer one, which 
is removable, is ornamented with flowers and scrolls of elaborate 




CAJ^ H,l. 



Small Silver Beaker. 

Stamped in Norwich, 1697, belonging 
to J. H. Walter, Esq. 

form. The designs in the eighteenth century were somewhat dif- 
ferent, being more urn-shaped, and having two, or sometimes three, 
handles. A fine example of such a two-handled covered cup, 
made in 1739 by the celebrated Paul cle Lamerie, is now at the Gold- 
smiths' Hall in London. This is simple in outline, but richly decor- 
ated with masks and flowers in lepousse work. Many of the 
standing cups made at this period are of the same pattern as the 
Wedgwood ware designed by Flaxman; indeed, some of the silver 
vessels made at this time might almost as well have been in chma 
as in silver. 



INTRODUCTION, 



xiix 



TANKARDS. 

These are large vessels, with a handle and cover, used for 
drinking. The earliest were made m the middle of the sixteenth 
century, and many excellent examples are still in existence. At 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there is a very old silver tankard 
which is used as a flagon. And at the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford there is a fine tankard which was made in 1574; this has 
straight sides, partly ornamented with the incised patterns used on 
early Communion cups, and partly with the egg and tongue pattern, 
and heads in medallions, in the Renaissance style. At Clare Col- 
lege, Cambridge, there is the celebrated Poison Cup, which is made 
of glass, enclosed in silver filagree casing, of about the same date. 




Cup or Porringer. 
Date 1G71, Lodington, scale two-thirds full size. 



A little later the tankards are made somewhat taller and nar- 
rower; and in the middle of the seventeenth century they assume 
a tall cylmdrical shape, often adorned with strap work or semi- 
classical ornamentation. Still later the tankards were made shorter, 
and of much larger diameter, often being quite plain. Such tan-, 
kards were almost always used m churches as flagons immediately 
after the Restoration, and until fiagons made of the round-bodied 
shape came into fashion. 

Other smaller cups are known by special names, such as Tazze, 
Beakers, Porringers and Caudle Cups. 

A Tazza is a small but elegant cup, with a wide but shallow 
bowl, a tall, slender baluster-shaped stem, and circular foot, similar 
to the ordinary shallow champagne glasses of the present day. A 
very curious silver gilt tazza, called a loving-cup, made in London 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 



in 1525-6, was given to the Corporation of Portsmouth by Mrs. 
Bodkin; it is low, with a large foot, and on the bowl, which has a 
straight side, is inscribed, " Si Deus nobiscum qvis contra nos." 
There is also an elegant little tazza made in 1582-3 belonging to 
the same Corporation. 

A Beaker is a small cup without handles, like a little tumbler, 
and only slightly ornamented. These came into use at the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, and were more commonly 
made in Holland or Germany than in England. At the Mercers' 
Hall in London there is a gilt beaker which was made in 1604, orna- 
mented with three maidens' heads on the side. At Upton Church, 
Co. Northampton, there is an elegant little beaker of about the same 
date, which was probably made in Germany ; the upper part is plain, 
and the lower is covered with an engraved ornament, and in three 
m.edal lions are as many heads, apparently of Dutch or German 
folk. At the neighbouring church of Sutton there is also a little 
beaker-shaped cup; it is rude, and has no hall marks, and was 
probably made in the locality.* 




C.A.M.«A«l.i 



Sm.\ll Silver Jug. 



Stamped in Norwich, c, 1700, belonging to 
J. H. Walter, Esq. 

A Porringer is a little vessel shaped like a modern sugar-basin, 
with a wide mouth, two handles, and often a loose lid. 

A Caudle Cup commonly has a small mouth, swelling out 
below into a bowl form. At Loddington Church, Co. Northampton, 
there is a pretty little silver porringer or caudle cup with two 
handles, covered with leaves and flowers in repousse work, that was 
made m 1671.! 

* Markham's "Church Plate of the County of Northampton," pp. 276, 291. 

t Ihid., p. 179. 



INTRODUCTION. H 

Both porringers and candle cups were used for drinking posset; 
they were mostly made in the seventeenth or in the early part of the 
eighteenth centuries, and are often of most elegant form and orna- 
mentation. 

Various other small cups and jugs were made, two of which we 
illustrate. 




CVl.>T,<ae(. 

Small Silver Cur. 

Date 1649-50, belonging to 
A. C. Fletcher, Esq. 



(0bjtrs aiib Basins, 

"As you know, my house ivithin the city 
Is richly furnished with plate and gold; 
Basins and ewers to lave her dainty handsT 

— Shakesi'eare, '■' Taming of the Shrew," II, i, 348. 

In the Middle Ages ewers and basins were much used at meals, for 
^A/hen people ate more or less with their fingers, it was essential that 
these vessels should be carried round after each course, in order that 
the guests might wash their hands. 

The introduction of forks m the seventeenth century rendered 
the use. of the ewer and basin, to a large extent, unnecessary, and 
they therefore ceased to be made for that purpose. 

At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there is an early ewer 
and salver of the year 1545. The ewer has eight sides, somewhat 
like a large coffee-pot, with spout, handle and lid, and ornamented 
with engraved arabesques. The salver is also ornamented with 



ll 



11 



INTRODUCTION. 



arabesque work round the edge, the centre being raised with a coat- 
c£-arms on a boss. 

The Duke of Rutland has a fine silver gilt ewer and basin of 
the dates 1579 and 1581, which were exhibited at South Kensington 
in 1862. 




SiLVEB Gilt Flagon. 

Easton Nestoii Church. Northamptonshire. 
Paul de Lamerie in 1735. 



Made by 



The Corporation of Bristol possess a good ewer and salver, 
ornamented with engraving and repousse work, which were made 
mi 595. 

The Corporation of Norwich also possess a fine set, made in 
16 1 7. The ewer is vase-shaped, with a high foot, spout, and high 
handle, and is covered with classic figures in repousse work. The 
salver also is covered with similar figures in repousse, having an 
elegantly ornamented border, and a high boss or print in the centre. 

At Peterborough Cathedral there is a very beautiful silver gilt 



INTRODUCTION. li 



111 



dish*, 19J inches in diameter, which was made about 1650. The 
broad border of this is ornamented with fruit and flowers in high 
relief. This was probably made for a domestic salver, though it 
is now used as an alms-dish. 

At Towcester Church, Co. Northampton, there is a large and 
handsome, but plain, ewer and basm,* which were made in 1691, 
and given to the church in 1755 by Thomas Farmor, Earl of 
Pomfret. 

At Easton Neston, in the same county, there is an ewert which 
is an excellent specimen of Paul de Lamerie's work, and was made 
in 1735. It IS beaker-shaped, without stem, the foot formed by a 
double-rolled ornament, the lower portion enriched by a raised 
Romanesque pattern, the upper portion quite plain; the spout is 
curved, and also enriched with a raised pattern; the handle is partly 
formed of foliage. The lid is large and very ornate, formed of 
double-rolled mouldings, which curve up to a centre-piece; this is 
high, formed of several members, and is clasped by three little 
brackets, above which is an ornate shield bearing the arms of Termor 
and Jeffreys, and surmounted by an earl's coronet. It was given 
by the Earl of Pomfret. 

Another beautiful ewer belonging to the Goldsmiths' Company, 
made by Lamerie in 1741, was exhibited in 1862 at South Kensing- 
ton. It is helmet-shaped. " On the lower part of the vase is a 
winged mermaid with two tails, accompanied by two boy-tritons 
blowing conches. The foot consists of marine flowers, shells, and 
reptiles. On the upper part of the vase are festoons of flowers, and 
the company's badges, the leopards' heads. The handle has a very 
bold half-lenglh figure of a sea-god, terminating in foliage." The 
Company also own a salver to correspond, which is ornamented with 
Louis Quatorze scrolls and figures of boys. 

After this time the work becomes plainer, engraving being used 
instead of repousse work. 

In the time of Queen Anne these vessels were also engraved and 
chased. The salvers often had the edges shaped, and were mounted 
on small feet. A little later they took the form of elliptical trays 
with handles. 



* Markham's "Church Plate of the County of Northampton," pp 112, 
232, 287. i . 1 1 . . 

t See previous page. 



liv INTRODUCTION. 



Staitbiitg Salts, 

''Y'\lhere is the salt; where are the hospitable tables?'^ 

— PoTTEK, " Antiquities of Greece," B. iii, c. 21. 

Vessels to contain salt played an important part in the economy 
of the house in the Middle Ages, the great standing salt marking the 
line between the higher and lower guests at the table. 

The earliest salts are shaped like hour-glasses, and are some- 
times with and sometimes without covers. At Corpus Christi Col- 
lege and New College, Oxford, and a few other places, there are 
specimens of this type, which were all made towards the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

In the sixteenth century the type changed to a cylindrical form, 
richly ornamented with repousse work, and covered with a lid. Of 
this pattern is the fine standing salt at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, which was made in 1554. There is also a good standing 
salt belonging to the Corporation of Norwich. It is of silver gilt, 
15 J inches high, cylindrical in shape, and the cover is surmounted 
by a statuette resting on a spear, with a shield bearing the city arms ; 
the date of it is 1567-8. At Portsmouth there is, with the Corpora- 
tion plate, another fine standing salt, made in 161 5-6, with 
cylindrical body, having a bowl for salt at the top, then three 
brackets supporting a second bowl, and three more brackets sup- 
porting a cover, which is surmounted by a three-cornered ornamental 
spike.* Standing salts of this period are also found of square 
form, and in appearance more like caskets than salts. Such a salt 
is that belonging to the Vintners' Hall, London, which is of silver 
gilt, and a most beautiful specimen. Somewhat later the salt 
assumed a bell shape, and it was sometimes divided into several 
compartments, fitting one above another, in order to contain salt 
and spices. 

In the seventeenth century salts of more simple form came into 
use, which were low and plain, sometimes circular, sometimes square, 
and sometimes octagonal. Small trencher salts were also used; 
these were circular or triangular, with a small depression in the 
centre to contain the salt. 

A very remarkable silver salt, made about 1698, is the exact 
model of the original Eddystone lighthouse. This is made in 
stories. The lower is large and empty, and appears to be made of 
piles bound together ; the next has a lid perforated for pepper, and 
appears as if made of masonry ; the upper story is also made of 
masonry, having a depression above to contain the salt ; this is sur- 
rounded by a gallery and surmounted by the lantern, which is 
perforated for pounded sugar; above this again is scroll work, ter- 

* "Corporation Plate," by LI. Jewitt and W. H. St. Jolm Hope. 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

minating in a weather-vane. Outside there is a little ladder from 
the base to the first story, where it joins a little winding staircase 
leading to the gallery. 

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries small open salts, 
standing on feet, and often being simply a cage or frame to contain 
a small glass vessel holding the salt, came into use. 



spoons. 

" Theyfore behoveth him a ful long spone 
That shal ete with a fend!* 

^Chaucer, "The Squiere's Tale," 1. 10,916. 

Some elegant specimens of Anglo-Saxon spoons have been found in 
different parts of England. Two of these are figured m " Archaeo- 
logia."* The first made of silver jewelled with garnets, was found 
at Chatham, and is an interesting example; the second was found 
at Desborough, Co. Northampton, and is also probably Anglo- 
Saxon; the bowl is large and oval, the stem plain, tied in at intervals 
by small bands; the handle also is oval and fiat, and ornamented 
with an incised pattern. 

Silver spoons appear to be first mentioned in the will of Martin 
de S. Cross in 1259,! and from that time they are frequently re- 
ferred to in medieval wills. 

One of the most beautiful spoons now in existence is that known 
as the Coronation spoon. Although the date of this cannot be 
accurately determined, it is supposed to be of the twelfth or thir- 
teenth century. It is made of silver gilt, with four pearls on the 
lower part of the handle ; the bowl is elegantly ornamented with an 
engraved arabesque pattern, and the handle also is well moulded. + 
This spoon is used, to hold the oil for anointing the sovereign at the 
Coronation, and is now kept with the regalia in the Tower of 
London. 

A very early domestic silver spoon, of slender make, with fig- 
shaped bowl, " six-sided stele," and gilt " dyamond poynte," is 
mentioned by Mr. C. J. Jackson. || In the bowl is stamped the 
leopard's head, uncrowned, but surrounded by a circle of dots , and 
the spoon probably belongs to the early part of the fourteenth 
century. 

Spoons terminating with the head and shoulders of the Virgin 
Mary are known as " Maidenhead spoons," and such spoons are 
recorded in an inventory of Durham Priory made in I446;§ and 
several, good examples of these spoons are still in existence. 

* Vol. LIII, pp. 116, 117. 

t " Wills and Inventories " (Siirtees Society, 2), i, 9. 

I " Archseologia," Vol. LlIT, p. 118. 

II Ibid, Vol. LIII, p. 130. 

§ " AVills and Inventories " (Snrtees Society, 2), i, 91. 



Iv 



n 



INTRODUCTION. 



Other examples have knops shaped as acorns, diamond points, 
animals, birds, or other terminations. Sometimes the handle was 




rN 



«^c^(n. ^ 



.^ 






Silver Spoox, 
Stamped in Barnstable, c. 16b0, belonging to J. H. Walter, Esq. 





Silver Apostle Spoon. 
St. Matthias, date 1C56, belonging to J. H. Walter, Esq. 




oon 



Silver Seal Head Spoon. 
Stamped in Norwich, 1610, belonging to J. H. Walter, Esq. 




Maidenhead Spoon. 
c. 1650, belonging to J. H. Walter, Esq. 

simply cut off, and such a spoon was said to be "slipped in the 
stalk," and, being almost painfully plain, obtained favour with the 
Puritans. 

An apostle spoon made in 1 490-1 appears to be the earliest still 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

remaining", though there are many of later date. The most perfect 
set is probably that made in 1626-7, now belonging to the Gold- 
smiths' Company. This set consists of thirteen pieces, one being the 
"Master spoon," bearing the figure of Christ; the others bearing the 
figures of the twelve apostles, each with his symbol. At Dallington, 
Co. Northampton, there is a pretty little spoon with St. Andrew 
bearing the cross saltier, which was made m York in 1 599-1600, and 
which is now used as a strainer spoon in the church.* 

In the seventeenth century the form of the stem changed, be- 
coming flatter and wider at the top, and often turned up ; and a 
little later the stem was continued at the back of the bowl, forming 
the rat-tail type. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century the "Onslow" pattern 
of spoon was introduced; the handle of this is curved like an Ionic 
volute, only downwards instead of upward, as had previously been 
the case. 

Then followed the many varieties of the "King" and "Fiddle 
pattern " spoon, which are in use at the present day. 



jTorks. 



" Then must you learn the use, and handling of your silver forke 

at meales." 

—Ben Joxson, "The Fox," iv, 1. 

Silver forks did not come into general use until comparatively 
modern times, though the quotation g-iven above shows that they 
were used in 1605 when "Rare Old Ben Jonson" wrote his Volpone. 
The earlier forks no doubt were made of steel. The oldest now 
known are probably the set of twelve which were made in 1667, and 
are now at Cotehele, Co. Cornwall. These have three prongs, with 
plain fiat handle, cleft at the top. Another three-pronged fork, 
made during the reign of Charles II, was dug up in Covent Garden. 
This has a flat round handle, nicked at the top, on which is engraved 
a coat-of-arms.f Four-pronged forks were first made in 1726, 
although there is one with the Musgrave crest that was made in 1683, 
but it is possible that this was fashioned out of a spoon. All modern 
forks are made with four prongs, the handles generally matching 
the spoons with which they are used. 

* Markham's ''Church Plate of the County of Northampton," p. 89. 
t Cripps's "Old English Plate," 1891, p. 313. 



Ivii 



"111 



INTRODUCTION. 



Canblcstttks. 

"A candlestick all of gold'' 



-Zec. iv. 2. 



The celebrated candlestick made in the twelfth century at 
Gloucester, of white metal gilt, is the earliest, as well as one of the 
finest, in the country. It has a large head with pricket, a straight 




C./V.M.J<.l. 

SiLA'ER Candlestick. 
Date 1791-2, belonging to J. H. Walter, Esq. 

stem with three bosses, interlaced bands, knots, monsters, and other 
objects, on a tripod of dragon's claws, and is of Byzantine char- 
acter. It was given by Abbot Peter of Gloucester to the Church 
of St. Peter at that city, and is now in the South Kensington 
Museum.* 



Pollen's " Gold and Silver Smiths' AVork." 



INTRODUCTION. lix 



After this solitary specimen there is nothing to be noticed until 
the reign of Charles II. We then meet with candlesticks having 
square bases, stems composed of clustered columns, and a square 
rim. In the seventeenth century baluster stems of simple form came 
into fashion, and a little later more ornate patterns were employed. 
In the eighteenth century the Corinthian column was introduced for 
candlesticks, movable candle sockets being then first used. About 
the same time baluster stems were used. The candlesticks were then 
enriched with festoons of iiowers looped to bosses or masks in high 
relief, the whole being very ornate and often of great beauty. During 
■the present century all the old designs have been reproduced for 
candlesticks. 



It is sad to think of the multitude of beautiful articles which 
have been made for pleasure and for state, and destroyed. Indeed 
the very costliness of the materials in which the great goldsmiths 
of all ages have wrought, has ensured the ruin of their beautiful 
works. At various times religious houses, sovereigns and nobles, 
have sold their treasures, which have found their way into the melt- 
ing pot, and applied the proceeds for their immediate needs. 

In this sketch it has not been possible to do more than give an 
outline of the history of the workings of the precious metals, of the 
makers, of the various vessels wrought, and of the changes of form 
that have obtained at different times. Still, it is hoped that these 
notes may not be without interest to those who appreciate old, 
curious, or beautiful workmanship. 

C. A. MARKHAM, F.S.A. 



ENGLISH GOLD AND SILVER SMITHS. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS, 

THE following interesting notes relating to celebrated gold and 
silver smiths, are taken from the " Gilda Aurifabrorum/' 
written by the late Mr. William Chaffers, and first published 
in 1883 by Messrs. Reeves and Turner. 

Among the celebrated goldsmiths of a remote period* — who, 
it will be remembered, were frequently artists and designers of 
architecture, as well as sculptors, painters, and workers in the 
precious metals, and excelling in one or more of the fine arts — we 
shall include in our list several of foreign extraction, but who must 
have resided for a lengthened period in England, judging from 
the beautiful examples extant, and their elaborate workmanship, 
many of which are still preserved in this country. 

We give a probably imperfect record of their names and the 
well-known specimens of their art which have rendered them famous 
all over Europe, confining ourselves as much as possible to those of 
our own country. 

Saint Dunstan (Patron of English Goldsmiths). 

Tenth century. — Dunstan of Glastonbury, where he was born 
A.D. 924. His father's name was Herstan; his mother's, Cynedrida. 
He entered a monastery when young, and probably learned there 
the goldsmith's art. When he left, he erected a cell in which was a 
forge as well as an oratory, adjacent to the Church of Glastonbury; 
employing his time partly in devotional austerities and partly in 
the exercise of making ecclesiastical vessels and ornaments for the 
church, such as crosses, censers and chalices, as well as goldsmith's 
work in general, both for the clergy and laity. He instituted the 
Order of Benedictine Friars, one of its rules being the prohibition 
of marriage, which, it is said, originated from a disappointment in 
love he m,et with in early life. 

While working at his forge and anvil on one occasion, a mys- 
terious person entered his cell to give an extensive order for plate, 

* Mr. F. G. Hilton Price has kindly furnished ns with his pamphlet of 
"Notes on the Early Goldsmiths and Bankers, to the Close of the XVII Cen- 
tury," to which we have made frequent reference. (Proceedings of the Lon- 
don and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Vol. V.) 



2 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

but Dunstan discovered that his visitor was no less a person than 
the devil himself in disguise, on which he immediately took the 
red-hot tongs from the hre and seized His Infernal Majesty by the 
nose; the unexpected application made him roar and bellow so as 
to disturb the whole neighbourhood. So runs the tradition. 
Dunstan at length attracted the notice of the Saxon king, Athelstan, 
and he was made Abbot of Glastonbury in the year 942 by his suc- 
cessor. King Edmund, who supplied him with money to restore the 
Abbey. He continued in favour with Edred and Edwy, and was 
raised by them to the dignities of Bishop of Worcester, subsequently 
Bishop of London, and m 961 he became Archbishop of Canterbury. 
On the accession of Ethelred H m 978, his influence with that 
monarch declined, and he was deposed; but although shortly rein- 
stated, he was so mortified that he died of grief and vexation in 
A.D. 988, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. 

He was canonised as saint, and from his high appointments in 
the State, combined with his previous employment as goldsmith and 
worker in the precious metals, he was chosen patron of the gold- 
smiths of England, and especially by the Goldsmiths' Company of 
London, who paid to his memory honours without end. Their records 
abound with notices of ceremonials and observances to their patron 
saint on special occasions. Their gorgeous hall was adorned with 
his image of silver-gilt set with gemxS and precious stones of fabu- 
lous price. Much of their plate bore his effigy. They had " St. 
Dunstan's Light" kept constantly burning in St. John Zachary's 
Church, the cost of maintaining which formed an annual item in 
their Wardens' accounts. They had a chapel also in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

In 1460, "On St. Dunstan's Eve all the hoole companye of the 
Lyverye shall assemble at the Hall in their second lyverye and shall 
have iiij chapeleynes to wayte and goo before them to Pawls " (St. 
Paul's). On its being debated whether St. Dunstan's day should be 
kept by shutting up their shops and keeping holiday, the Company 
agreed to do so. He is designated in their books *' Seynt Dunstan, 
our blessed Patron, Protector, and Founder," and on their feast days 
they drank to his memory from a great and costly cup, surmounted 
by a statuette of the saint, called "St. Dunstan's Cup." He was 
considered as having been a brother of the craft; indeed, some of 
his handicraft was extant in 1280, for in the wardrobe accounts of 
Edward I is noted : " A gold ring with a sapphire of the workman- 
ship of St. Dunstan." However, all these observances ceased at the 
Reformation. Under aate 1550, the Company changed their elec- 
tion day, and discarded the religious ceremonies from St. Dunstan's 
day to that of the Ploly Trinity; but still their festivities were con- 
tinued. A few years earlier (in 1 547, October 4), we read : " At the 
assembly on this day Mr. Wardens desired to know the pleasure of 
the assistants for the ymage of Seint Dunstan, because of the In- 
junctions," and they agreed that " Mr. Alderman Bowes (Sir Martin), 
and the Wardens with iiij other, soche as they sholde appoynte, 
sholde take the same ymage and breake yt, and turn yt to the moste 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 3 

profett of the house. Also that the grct standyng cuppe with Seynt 
Dunston on the topp, sholde be lykewyse by them bee broken and 
turned into other plate." 

To Dunstan has been attributed the placing- of pegs in tankards. 
Finding that quarrels very frequently arose in taverns from disputes 
about the proper share of the liquor when they drank out of the same 
cup, he advised Edgar to order gold or silver pegs to be fastened 
at regulated distances in the pots, that every man should know his 
just allowance. The space betv/een each peg contained half a pint. 

We must not leave unnoticed the splendid tapestry used for 
the decoration of Goldsmiths' Hall, made at a great expense in 
Flanders, illustrating events in the history of St. Dunstan; the entire 
expense of which work was ^,550. The Wardens' accounts contain 
some interesting items : " Paid Mr. Gerard Flughes for the rich arras 
for the hanging of the Hall; for devising the story; for making the 
stories m black and white; to four masters, every one of them six- 
teen days at a shilling a day; for a boy to sharpen their colours 
(chalks) ; for the translation of the story out of English into Dutch, 
that the foreign workmen might understand it : to Mr. Hughes for 
costs and charges, lying in Flanders, and for canvas, &c." 

A.D. 600. — 5/. Eloi, Bishop of Noyon, was born in 588 at Catalac 
in Limoges, and received the name Eligius (chosen by God), as a 
prognostic of his great destiny. He was chosen Patron of French 
Goldsmiths, having succeeded St. Martial, or Marcel. He was ap- 
prenticed to a goldsmith named Abbo, and when he was perfected 
in his art he went to Neustria, and made acquaintance with the treas- 
urer of King Clothaire, named Bobbo, who introduced him, and he 
was entrusted by the King with a mass of gold to make a fauteuil, 
to be incrusted with precious stones. With the quantity of gold he 
had received he made two fauteuils, instead of one, as ordered. The 
King was astonished to see two instead of one, and exclaimed : " One 
can judge from this act of the confidence which may be placed in 
the conduct of more important things." He advanced speedily in his 
art, and made a great number of gold vases set with precious stones 
and other jewels, assisted by his apprentice, Thillon. King Dago- 
bcrt placed the same confidence in Eloi; he was the founder of the 
monastery of Solignac, which, like others of the same time, were 
schools of the liberal arts, especially that of goldsmith. Thillon 
was made abbot. Numerous vessels of gold and silver were made 
by him for the churches, especially for St. Denis. The chair above 
alluded to is preserved in the Cabinet des Antiques at Pans — tradi- 
tionally attributed to Eloi — as well as an altar-cross, set with " 
precious stones, made by order of King Dagobert, at St. Denis. 
Saint Eloi, Bishop of Noyons, died in 659. His name is here intro- 
duced, being chosen as Patron of the Guild of "Hammermen" of 
Scotland,' or smiths, among which goldsmiths were anciently in- 
cluded, until those of Edinburgh obtained a separate charter in 1586, 
confirmed in 1687. 

600.— Thillcn, pupil of St. Eloi, before-mentioned, was of 
Saxon or English origin. 



4 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

A.D. 849-901. — Alfred the Great, although not actually a prac- 
tical goldsmith, greatly encouraged, and probably superintended, 
the working of the precious metals into jewellery and plate. 

The business of a goldsmith was held in great repute by the 
Anglo-Saxons, and a poem in that language, speaking of the various 
conditions of men, contains lines which may be thus translated : 

"For one a wondrous skill 
In goldsmith's art 
Is provided. 
Full oft he decorates 
And well adorns 
A powerful King's noble, 
And he to him gives broad 
Lands in recompence." 

Among the many skilful artificers collected by Alfred the Great 
were many workers in gold and silver, who, acting under his instruc- 
tions, executed with incomparable skill many articles in these metals. 
In striking corroboration of this account, a most beautiful and inter- 
esting example is preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, 
called the Alfred Jewel ; this golden brooch, or locket, is of oval 
shape, richly wrought, and decorated with an enamel portrait out- 
lined with gold cloisons on a piece of rock-crystal; around the bust, 
in Saxon characters, are the words Aelfred me haet gewercan (Alfred 
had me wrought). It was discovered in 1693 in the Isle of Athelney 
(near the Abbey), where Alfred retreated in A.D. 878, and fortified it 
against the Danes; the portrait may not improbably be that of the 
King himself. 

1090. — Otto the Elder, goldsmith in the reign of William II, 
was appointed Engraver to the Mint. 

Eleventh century. — Theofhiliis, a monk of the middle of the 
eleventh century, was a practical goldsmith, or he could not have 
described so minutely the technical details of the goldsmith's trade. 
His work entitled "Diversarum Artium Schedula" ("Essay on 
Various Arts ") treats of miniature-paintmg, glass-making, enamel, 
and the goldsmith's art so accurately that his instructions can be 
followed at the present day. His nationality is disputed; he has 
been claimed by Germany, Italy and France as a native, or denizen, 
but it is a moot question, and why may not England put in a claim ? 
for we have shown that these arts were practised in this country 
successfully in convents at that early period. Lie describes the 
methods of working gold and silver — the necessary tools, the in- 
gredients of the alloy, etc. He was, at the same time, aurifabriim 
77tirahilem pic tor em doc turn et Yitrear'ium sagacem, or three artists 
in one. 

Eleventh century. — Yidfu'm, or YulfinuSy a monk of Chichester, 
who was a goldsmith in the eleventh century, is mentioned by Ordor- 
icus Vitalis. From the similarity of the name of the goldsmith, 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 5 

Wolvinus, who made the Paliotto of Milan, in 835, some confusion 
has arisen. 

1 100. — Leofstane, goldsmith, flourished in the reign of Henry I. 
He was made, by the King, Provost of London, a title antecedent to 
that of Mayor. 

mo. — The celebrated Gloucester candlestick, preserved in the 
South Kensington Museum, must be noticed as an example of Eng- 
lish monkish workmanship, made at Gloucester, a fine example of 
the transition period between the Romanesque, or Celtic, and the 
Gothic. It is of alloyed silver, and has a straight stem, with three 
bosses, and interlaced bands, knots, and pierced foliage supporting 
men, monsters, dragons, birds, etc., on a tripod of dragons' claws. 
It bears several Latin inscriptions, one of which records its gift by 
Abbot Peter of Gloucester to the Church of St. Peter, at Gloucester. 
It is twenty-three inches high. These pricket candlesticks were fre- 
quently of large size. The most complete example is the seven- 
branched candlestick at Milan Cathedral, of gilt bronze, of about 
the same date, above fourteen feet high. 

1 1 30. — Otlo, the Younger y and William Fitz Otto were gold- 
smiths m the reign of Henry I, and were severally engravers to the 
Mint. 

Twelfth century. — Bnthnodus, Abbot of Ely, was a worker in 
gold and silver. Four images made by him, covered with silver gilt 
and precious stones, were stripped to appease the resentment of 
William the Conqueror. 

Twelfth century. — Leo, a contemporary of Brithnodus, was by 
him instructed in the goldsmith's art. 

Twelfth century. — Elsimis, his successor, made a reliquary for 
the bones of St. Kindreda. The Abbey was able to offer William 
the Conqueror a thousand marks by the sacrifice of gold and silver 
ornaments, after the resistance made in the island by the Saxons. 

Twelfth century. — Baldwin, a goldsmith (probably a monk of 
the Abbey of St. Albans), is mentioned by Matthew Paris as the 
maker of a large cup of gold for Robert, Abbot of St. Albans, 
" which was adorned with flowers and foliages of the most delicate 
workmanship, and set with precious stones in the most elegant man- 
ner." His Latinised name was Bauduinus. 

Twelfth century. — Robert, Abbot of St. Albans, is noticed by 
Mathew Paris as being a skilful goldsmith. He made two remark- 
able reliquaries, covered with golden images, and other choice works 
in gold and silver. He was a great promoter of the goldsmith's art, 
and under his supervision many artistic and sumptuous objects were 
fabricated. 

Twelfth century. — Ralph Flael, in the reign of Henry II, was a 
goldsmith and Alderman of London; he held in demesne the ward 
of Aldersgate. He is mentioned in the amerciaments of the guilds 
for being adulterine, that is, set up without special license. " Gilda 
aurifabrorum unde Radulfus Flael est Aldermanus." 

Twelfth century. — Anketil was a celebrated goldsmith. He 
was a monk of St. Albans, and acquired such a reputation for his 



6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

works in the precious metals that he was invited by the King of 
Denmark to superintend his goldsmiths' works, and be his banker 
and money-changer. A pair of candlesticks, made of silver and 
gold, and presented by Robert, Abbot of St. Albans, to Pope Adrian 
(our countryman), were so much esteemed for their exquisite work- 
mianship that they were consecrated to the basilica of St. Peter at Rome. 

Twelfth century. — Solomon of Ely was a pupil of Anketil of 
St. Albans, and assisted him in his works at the monastery. 

1 1 89. — Henry Fiiz Alwyji, goldsmith. King Richard I, Coeur 
de Lion, in order to maintain the expenses incurred in the Crusades, 
levied large subsidies upon the city, and in return granted to the 
citizens the privilege of electing their own chief magistrate, who 
was designated " Maior," a title taken from the Norman Maire. The 
first elected to this high office was Henry Fitz Alwyn, whose ancestor 
Alwyn, cousin of King Edgar, was styled "Alderman of all Eng- 
land." Henry Fitz Alwyn was mayor for twenty-four years 
(1189-1213). 

1 1 92-3. — Henry de Cornhill was Warden of the Mint, fourth 
and fifth Richard I. In the third year of Richard I he accounted for 
the profits of the Cambium of all England, except Winchester. 

12 1 2. — William Fitzwilliam, a goldsmith, about this time 
founded at St. Helen's, in Bishopsgate, a priory of Benedictine Nuns, 
and probably built a church for them, against that of St. Helen's, 
which afterwards came into their possession; the ruins of the nun- 
nery were pulled down in 1799.* 

Thirteenth century. — William Fitz Otho, or OttOy in the sixth 
of King John (1204) made the dies for the Mint at Chichester, being 
Engraver to the Mint. 

1222. — Hger, goldsmith, was Master of the Mint in this year. 

1224. — Everardy a goldsmith of London, was Warden of the 
King's Exchange at the Mint, ninth Henry III. 

1242. — Ralph Envy, goldsmith, was one of the Sheriffs in 1242. 
"In 1243 he was again chosen Mayor and presented to his Lord- 
ship the King at Westminster." (Riley, " Mayors and Sheriffs of 
London.") 

1243. — Hugh Bland, goldsmith, was one of the Sheriffs in 1243. 

1243. — Richard Abel, goldsmith, succeeded William Fitz Otho 
as Engraver to the Mint (twenty-seventh Henry III). 

1243. — William Fits Otho, probably the same mentioned above, 
was goldsmith to King Henry III, and made many rich ornaments 
for the use and adornment of the Lady Chapel in Westminster 
Abbey. In the twenty-eighth year of this king's reign (1243) he 
directed Fitz Otho to make " a dragon in manner of a standard or 
ensign, of red samit, to be embroidered with gold, and his tongue to 
appear as continually moving, his eyes of sapphires, to be placed in 

* He was the son of " William the Goldsmith.'' Sir William FitzWilliam, 
Merchant Taylor, servant to Cardinal Wolsey, Alderman of Bread Street Ward, 
1506, was a lineal descendant, from whom is descended the present Earl Fitz- 
William. ("Annals of St. Helens," by Rev. J. E. Cox, D.D.) 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. / 

the church against the King's coming thither." Two years later he 
ordered the Keeper of the Exchequer to " buy as precious a mitre 
as could be found in the city of London, for the Archbishop's use, 
and also one great coronal of silver to set wax candles upon m the 
said church." 

1255. — William of Glouceste/, "the King's Goldsmith," was 
Keeper" of the Dies, Master of the Mint in 1258. In the forty-hrst 
Henry III (1256) "This King, as a further ornament for St. Peter's 
(Westminster Abbey), ordered a sumptuous monument to be erected 
there, for his daughter Catharine, deceased, giving order to his treas- 
urer and his chamberlain of the treasury to deliver to Simon de 
Welles, hve marks and a half for his expenses in going to London 
for a certain brass image to be set upon her tomb, and returning 
home again. And upon the same tomb there was also set a silver 
image; for the making of wh^'.ch W^illiam of Gloucester, the King's 
goldsmith, was paid sixty and ten marks." 

1262. — In this year there was a quarrel between the goldsmiths 
and the tailors, who met in great bodies, fully armed, with loss on 
both sides. The riot was quelled by the Mayor and Aldermen, and 
thirteen of the ringleaders executed. 

T269. — Among the fifty-eight adherents of Simon de Montfort, 
who was defeated and slain at the battle of Evesham, when 
Henry III was released from prison, wex^- -Conrad, the goldsmith; 
John Fitzpatricky goldsmith; and Hubert, the goldsmith: they were 
banished the kingdom with the rest. On the submission of the 
Barons, they were heavily fined, and the City of London was obliged 
to pay 20,000 marks. (Riley.) 

13th century. — Edward Fits Otho, Engraver to the Mint, and Master. 
1265. — Thomas Fits Otho, do. do. 

1280. — Hugh Fits Otho, do. do. 

1290. — Thomas Fits Otho, do, do. 

1294. — William Fits Otho^'' do. do. 

1275. — Ralph le Blount, or Le Blund, goldsmith, and one of 
the wardens of the Company, was Alderman of Bassishaw Ward. 
He was Engraver to the Mint m 1267, having succeeded Richard 
Abel in that capacity. 

In 1275. — Michael Thovy, goldsmith, for holding with the 
Rarons, was imprisoned with others, and, by reason of murders and 
robberies imputed to him by the Aldermen, was hangred in 127;. 
(Riley.) 

1275. — Gregory de Rokesley, a celebrated goldsmith, lived in 
the Old Change; he was Keeper of the King's Exchange and Chief 
Assay Master of all the King's mints in England. Sheriff in 1271. 
He was eight times Mayor, between 1275 and 1285, when, for re- 
fusing to appear at the Tower as Lord Mayor before the King's 

* No less than three tenaiits-in-chief under the Conqueror are entered in 
Domesday, nnder the appelhition of " Anrifaber." One of these. Otto .Vnri- 
faber, hekl in Essex ; and his descendants, under the surname of Fitz Otho, 
appear to have been ahnost liereditary Mint Masters to the Crown for two 
centuries, becoming extinct about 1300. 



8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

justices — asserting his privilege by throwing off his civic robes at 
the Church of AUhallows, Barking, and then obeying the mandate 
as a private individual — he had his office seized, together with the 
liberties of the city, by John de Kirkeby, the King's treasurer ; and 
Ralph Sandwith (not a goldsmith) was appointed " Gustos " m lieu 
of the Mayor, which office he held from 1286 to 1289. In 129; the 
liberties v/ere restored, and the office of Mayor revived. 

In the eighth Edward I (1279), the value of the coins had 
become so deteriorated by clipping, that a new standard of value 
was established, and a new coinage issued, which was conducted by 
an agreement with William de, Turnemire, of Marseilles ; groats and 
half groats were made as well as sterlings or pennies. The pounvd 
of Easterling money was to contain twelve ounces, to wit, fine silver, 
such as was then made into foil, and commonly called " Silver of 
Guthurons Lane,"* viz., 1 1 oz. 2\ dwt. The dies for this new money 
were delivered to Gregory de Rokesley on May 27, 1280. Gregory 
de Rokesley was buried in Christ's Church, Newgate Street. 

1276. — Jocee, the goldsmith, was Keeper of the Dies and Master 
of the Mint m this year. 

1279. — Sir Thomas de Frowick, Alderman of Cheap Ward and 
Mayor, was a warden of the Goldsmiths' Company. He is named 
in the Parliamentary rolls as the maker of the golden crown for the 
coronation of Edward's second Queen, Margaret. 

1280.- — Sir William Faryngdon, goldsmith. Sheriff, 1281, and 
Mayor, who gave his name to the City Ward of Faringdon. 

Stow says that Faryngdon was purchased of Ralph le Feure : 
"All the Aldermanrie, with the appurtenances within the Citie of 
London, and the Suburbs of the /ame between Liidgate and IS! ew- 
gate, and al/o without the /ame gates. Which Aldermanrie, An- 
kerinus de Averne held, during his life by the Grant of Thomas de 
Arderne, to have and to hold to the /aid Ralph, and to his heires, 
freely without all challenge, yeelding therefore yeerely to the /aid 
Tho7nas and his heires, one Clove or Slip of Gilliflowers, at the 
Fea/t of Fafter ... in con/ideration of 20. marks." 

i2%\.^Laurence Ducket, goldsmith, who had taken shelter in 
the tower of Old Bow Church after wounding one Ralph Crepin, 
was murdered therein in 1284, for which, says Stow, sixteen persons 
were hung, a woman, named Alice, burnt, and many rich persons 
"hanged by the purse." The church was interdicted, the doors and 
windows filled with thorns, till it was purified again. 

Thirteenth century. — ] ohii of Limoges probably resided many 
years in England, and executed the beautiful tomb, enriched with 
coloured champ leve enamels, of Walter de Merton, Bishop of Col- 
chester, still existing in Westminster Abbey. t 

* Guthurons Lane led out of Cheapside. east of Foster Lane, and took its 
name from a former resident and owner thereof, it was inhabited principally 
by gold-beaters. It is now called Gutter Lane. 

t It was very mueli the practice in the Middle Ages, especially in monas- 
teries, to call not only the monks, but people who were instructed therein, by 
their Christian names, adding thereto the city or place from whence they 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 9 

1290. — William Tor el, goldsmith and citizen of London. It 
has been attempted to prove that he was an ItaUan of the family 
of Torelli, but the name of Torel occurs in documents from the time 
of the Confessor down to the said William Torel. He is celebrated 
for the beautiful recumbent statue of Eleanore of Castile, Queen of 
Edward I, ob. 1290, in Westminster Abbey, on the altar tomb at the 
east end of Edward the Confessor's chapel, which has been thus 
described : *' Her image, most curiously done in brass, gilt with gold, 
her hair dishevelled and falling very handsomely about her 
shoulders, on her head a crown, under a fine canopy supported by 
two cherubim, all of brass gilt." It is well preserved, and uninjured 
as when originally placed there. The stone work of the Queen's 
tomb was constructed by Master Richard de Crundale, mason. Torel 
built the furnace in which the statue was cast in St. Margaret's 
Churchyard. Torel also executed the effigy of gilt bronze on the 
tomb of Henry III (1291), in the Confessor's chapel. The shrine 
of Edward the Confessor, erected by Henry III, when the church was 
rebuilt, was decorated with mosaics, the work of Peter, the Roman 
Citizen. The pavement before the altar was executed by Roman 
workmen, with materials brought from Rome. The name of the 
artist was Odoricus (1267-8). 

1300. — Ade, the King's goldsmith in the reign of Edward I, 
made many of the gold and silver vessels for the sideboard of that 
monarch. In the wardrobe accounts of Edward I his name fre- 
cjuently occurs; from which we select the following: "Duo disci 
argenti pro interferculis facti per hlium Ade Aurifabri Regis de 
proprio vesselo ipsius Regis pond vj7i. vijj". iijW." 

1307. — John de Louthe and William de Berkinge, goldsmiths 
of London, were the principal jewellers of Queen Isabella, consort 
of King Edward II. In a Cottonian MS. communicated to the 
Society of Antiquaries by Mr. E. A. Bond, is noticed some jewellery 
purchased of them by the Queen for ^^421. Among these were : " A 
chaplet of gold, set with balays, sapphires, emeralds, diamonds and 
pearls, price £10^; a crown of gold, set wdth sapphires and rubies 
of Alexandria, price £"80; a circlet of gold, price ;^6o," etc. 

1308. — Sir Nicholas Faringdon (son of Sir William), of 
" Chepe," goldsmith, was four times Mayor, 1308, 131 3, 1320 and 
1323. Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company. He was buried at 
St. Peter's le Chepe, a church that, before the great fire, stood where 
the tree still stands in the churchyard at the corner of Wood Street. 

1323. — Walter de Lincoln, goldsmith, is spoken of as having a 
tenement adjoining the eastern site purchased for the Goldsmiths' 
Hall, in 1323, in the way called St. Vedast, in the parish of St. John 
Zachary, London. In the deed of sale by the executors of Sir 

came. These establishments were frequently schools for teaching the various 
arts and the teclmicalities of trades, among* which was that of the goldsmith; 
by which custom the actual surname in many instances became altogether for- 
gotten. This was the case, more or less, all over Europe. Hence we have John 
of Limoges, William de Gloucester, Solomon of Ely, Walter de Merton, John 
de Chichester, Jan Van Delft, Roger of Elv, etc. 



10 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Nicholas de Segrave to Sir William de Swift, Clerk, on behalf of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, the witnesses are John de Granthain and 
Roger de Ely, Sheriffs of London, Henry de Lecheford, Alderman 
of the Ward (Aldersgate), Richard de Wyhall, Robert Box and 
Thomas de Lincoln, goldsmiths. Dated May 19, 1323. Of this 
first erection of the Hal] little is known. The second Hall is sup- 
posed to have been built by Sir Dru Barentme, in 1407. 

Lincoln, a goldsmith in the reign of Richard II, 1 381, probably 
Thomas de Lincoln, before-mentioned, was summoned, with others, 
to give advice as to the best steps to be taken for the preservation 
of the com in England, which had been exported to foreign coun- 
tries in large quantities. 

11^2^.— Roger of Ely, goldsmith, was Sheriff of London during 
the mayoralty of Sir Nicholas Farmgdon. In 1323, the site of the 
first Goldsmiths' Llall was purchased. His name is appended as 
witness to the deed of sale before referred to. 

1 324-1 404. — William of Wykehain, consecrated. Bishop of Win- 
chester m 1367, IS said to have designed the celebrated Gothic crozier 
which he left by will, with other plate, to New College, Oxford, of 
v/hich he was the founder. His own image is m the volute, kneeling 
before the Virgin, which last has been removed since the change of 
religion. 

His great and useful talents, especially his skill in architecture, 
appear to have recommended him to the favour of Edward III. He 
persuaded that monarch to pull down a great part of Windsor Castle, 
and rebuild it from his plan, in that plain magnificence in which it 
now appears ; and many other buildings were restored or rebuilt 
under his directions. He died on September 27, 1404. 

1326. — Sir Richard Betane, or Briiaine, goldsmith, was Mayor 
in this year. 

1332. — Henry de Gloucester, citizen and goldsmith of Lon- 
don. His will, originally in Latin, is given in Weever's " Funeral 
Monuments," page 421. He was buried at St. Helens. London. He 
bequeaths to his daughter, Elizabeth, vj shillings, being a nun in 
the said convent of St. Helen's, etc. 

1334. — The four wardens of the Company were Thomas de 
Berkel'e, Richard L^onerye, Jo hit de Makenhened, Simon de Berking. 

1337.^ — -The four wardens of the Company : Thojnas de Rokes- 
ley, Richard Loner eye, John de Kingeston, and another name 
illegible. 

1339. — The four wardens of the Company: Nicholas de 
Walyngiuick, William D'Espagne, Robert de Shordich, jun., Nich- 
olas de Farndon. 

In 1339 three London goldsmiths were retained for a year by 
the Chapter of St. Paul's in consequence of a bequest of gold and 
jewels to the shrine of St. Erkenwald. 

1340. — The four wardens of the Company: Richard Denys, 
Robert de Shordich, sen., Robert le Marechal, John de Kyngeston. 

1349. — John Walpole, goldsmith, was buried in Allhallows 
Church, Bread Street, 1349. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. u 

i^4Q. — Simon de Berking, "Aurifaber, London; liberavit unum 
caput de auro, Sancti Mathei, cum una mitr' (mitre) garniat' cum 
perr' et perlis, et unum ped' de argento cum duobus angelis" (Kal. 
Exch.). The golden chef and the silver foot were reliquaries. 

1350. — Robert de Shordich, senr., Adam de Wcdpole, John de 
Lincoln, and Rafe Comins, goldsmiths, were wardens of the Gold- 
smiths' Company in this year. In the records, under the head of 
expenses : " Because all the wardens here mentioned were dead, ex- 
pended on the poor " (sum obliterated). The occasion of their sud- 
den death was the great plague which desolated the greater part of 
England, and was especially fatal to the city of London; the nature 
of the above entry, and the absence of all entries for the succeeding 
year, are appalling proofs. 

1357. — Sir John de Chichester w^as an eminent goldsmith, Master 
of the Mint, fortieth Edward III (1365), Sheriff, 1359, Mayor, 
1369-70, in which year William Walworth was Sheriff. His shop 
was at the corner of Friday Street, in the Chepe. He made the 
King's privy seal, and the wedding jewellery for the King's son and 
the Lady Blanche. 

In Riley's "Memorials of London," we hnd the particulars of 
a present of plate from the City of London to Edward the Black 
Prince, on his return from Gascony in 1371, from which we quote 
two Items as an example of the manner of expressing weight and 
value in the fourteenth century by the Tower pound, which was given 
at the Mint in coined money in exchange for the bullion received 
by the Mint in Troy pounds, a profit thereby accruing of three- 
quarters of an ounce in the exchange of each pound weight con- 
verted into money, which was the King's prerogative until the Tower 
pound was abolished in 1527 : *' Bought of John de Chichestre, Gold- 
smith, 48 esqueles (ecuelles) and 24 salt-cellars, by Goldsmiths' 
weight, £j^ 5s. od., adding six shillings in the pound with the 
making, total ^^109 os. 9d. ; also 6 chargers' weight, £\/\. i8s. 9d., 
which amounts, with the making, to £21 7s. 2d.," etc. Goldsmiths' 
weight (poids d'orfevres) was the same as the Tower weight. 

1360. — Thomas Raynham, goldsmith. His name occurs in the 
Royal W^ardrobe Accounts as one of Edward Ill's goldsmiths. 

Fourteenth century. — Godfrey, of Wood Street. 

1360. — John Hyltoft. In 1369 (forty-second Edward III) an 
agreement, still extant, was entered into between the Goldsmiths' 
Company and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, for maintaining 
a chantry in the Chapel of St. Dunstan in that cathedral for the soul 
of John Hyltoft, goldsmith of London. The date at which the 
goldsmiths founded this chapel we know not, but that they main- 
tained its altar m great splendour is evident, from mention in the 
account of items of expenditure connected therewith. There is an 
inventory of silver vessels extant, bought of the executors of John 
Hiltoft, goldsmith, forty-second Edward III (1369). 

1366. — Thomas Hessey, goldsmith to Edward III, for whom he 
furnished a quantity of table plate; also "plate bought of Thomas 



12 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Hessey, goldsmith of London, and presented to the Constable of 
Flanders and others, as gifts from the King." Thirty-ninth 
Edward III. 

135Q. — Simon le Maserer, goldsmith, is mentioned among the 
benefactors to the Goldsmiths' Company. He also left money for 
his obit at St. Dunstan's Chapel, in St. Paul's. Simon was so called 
from being a maker of silver-momited masers, as bowls and cups 
were formerly called, and were in general use at that period, made 
of maple or other hard wood, mounted in silver, with broad bands, 
frequently inscribed and chased. 

135Q. — John Standiilph, goldsmith, his name occurs in a docu- 
ment of this year. He was Master of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
and was buried in the Church of St. Foster, Foster Lane 

1^5^. — Haivkin, of Liege, a Flemish artist, executed the figure 
of Queen Philippa, which lies upon her tomb m Westminster Abbey, 
remarkable for its cushioned head-dress, which is said to be the first 
attempt to portray the features of the face or an actual likeness. 
Queen Philippa, wife of Edward IH, was the founder of Queen's 
College, Oxford. Around the tomb were placed the statuettes of 
thirty royal personages, to whom she was related, the niches only in 
which they were placed being in existence. The magnificence of the 
work may be imagined from the fact that it contained, when perfect, 
miore than seventy statuettes besides several brass figures on the sur- 
rounding railing. The tomb of Edward HI (13;/), by the same 
hand, has been somewhat better preserved, six of the statuettes still 
remaining on one side of the monument* 

1370. — John Walsh, goldsmith of London. Edward IV bought 
of him a silver gilt cup, decorated with enamel. 

1382. — John Frensshe, goldsmith. In Riley's "London Life," 
we read, under this date : " One mazer cup, bound with silver gilt, 
value x^ another value v^ stolen from John Frensshe, goldsmith." 

1380. — The four wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company in this 
year were Robert Lucas, John Cramb, Herre Bajne, and Herre Mal- 
layne. 

1388. — Sir 'Nicholas Twyford was goldsmith to Edward III. 
Sheriff in 1377. Mayor in 1388. He is mentioned in the accounts 
of the Company of 1379. He was knighted, with Sir William Wal- 
worth, in 1388. He was buried in the Church of St. John Zachary 
in 1390, which church he had rebuilt. 

1389. — John Ed^nund, goldsmith, Engraver to the Mint, ap- 
pointed by Richard 11. 

1 390-1. — Sir Adam Bamme, goldsmith. Sheriff, 1382, Mayor in 
1 391 and 1396-7. "In a great dearth, he procured corn from parts 
beyond the sea, in sufficient abundance to serve the city and the 
countries near adjoining; to the furtherance of which good work he 
took out of the orphans' chest in the Guildhall two thousand marks 

* The features of the effigj'^ which lies on the tomb are believed to have 
been cast from the King's face as he lay in death, and, as Lord Lindsay says 
("Christian Art," iii) : "The head is almost ideal in its beauty." 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 13 

to buy the said corn, and each alderman laid out twenty pounds to 
the like purpose." Lie was buried in the Church of St. George, 
Botolph Lane, Vv'here his son, Richard Bamme, of Gillingham, Kent, 
also lies, ob. 1452. 

1395. — Thomas Pole, goldsmith, was buried in the Church of 
St. Matthew, Friday Street, in 1395. 

139^. — Adam Broivne, goldsmith, was Lord Mayor in 1397. 

1399, — ] ohn May hew. "Paid for a stone of adamant, orna- 
mented and set in gold, xl /i." First Henry IV. (Devon's " Pell 
Records.") The stone of adamant was a loadstone — frequently 
worn about the person as an amulet against maladies — set in metal. 

1400. — Walter Prest and Nicholas Broker executed in gilt metal 
the effigies of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia, in the Confessor's 
Chapel, Westminster Abbey, in the beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. In the Kalendar of the Exchequer, eighteenth Richard II, is 
a copy of the indenture for the construction of the tomb of Richard II 
and his Queen, in Westminster Abbey, between the King and Master 
Yevele and Stephen Lote, stonemasons (latomos), for a marble tomb 
for Anna, recently Queen of England, and the said Lord King; also 
an indenture between the King and Nicholas Broker ?nd Walter 
Prest y "coppersmiths" of London, to make two statues (ymagines) 
in the likeness of the King and Queen, of brass and laton gilt upon 
the said marble tomb; with other clauses contained in the indenture; 
also a design or model (patron) of the likenesses of the King and 
Queen, from which model the said work was to be completed. This 
tomb was placed in the Abbey before the King's death, his body 
being subsequently removed from Pontefract Castle and placed 
under his effigy by Henry V, the son of his murderer. 

1400. — Sir DrzigOy or Dru, Barentyne, goldsmith, was twice 
Mayor, 1398, 1408, Sheriff in 1393, M.P. for the City of London, 
1394. He lived in Foster Lane. He built the second Goldsmiths' 
Hall in 1407. In 1395 a singular grant was issued to Margaret, 
Countess of Norfolk, and Drugo Barentyne, goldsmith of London, 
licensing them to melt down groats, half -groats, and sterlings, or 
pennies, to the amount of ;^ioo, and to make thereof a silver vessel 
for the use of the said Margaret, notwithstanding the Statute. It is 
not easy to ascertain the object of this grant, for it is scarcely pos- 
sible that there was not a sufficiency of bullion in another form to 
be readily obtained. " He gave fair lands to the goldsmiths," ac- 
cording to Stow, " and dwelled right against the Goldsmiths' Hall^ 
betweene the which Hall and his dwelling-house he builded a gal- 
lory thwarting the streete, whereby he might go from one to the 
other." He was buried in the Church of St. John Zachary, on 
December 15, 141 5. 

1 400- 1. — Sir John Frances, goldsmith, was Mayor in this year, 
1400- 1. Sheriff, 1390 He was buried in the Church of St. John 
Zachary. "Johannes Frances, civis et aurifaber et quondam Maior 
London, qui obiit, 13 December 1405." 



14 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1403. — The four wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company were 
'William Grantham, Salomon Oxeneye, Tho7nas Lenyde, Robert 
Hall. 

1405. — Thomas Atte Hay was a benevolent goldsmith; he be- 
queathed the "Horn Tavern" in 1405, now known as " Anderton's 
Hotel," Fleet Street, to the Goldsmiths' Company, for the better 
support and sustentation of the mhrm members of the Company. 
The estimated value of his bequest was formerly ^^760 per annum. 

1409. — Williajn Chicheley, goldsmith, was Sheriff in this year. 

141 5. — William Fitzhugh, goldsmith, was Comptroller of the 
Mint from 1400 down to 141 8. 

I4IQ_ — Solo7non Oxney was one of the Members of Parliament 

for the City in 1419. 

1422. — Gilbert Van Brandeberg, goldsmith. Engraver to the 

Mint. 

1422. — Bartholomew Seman, gold-beater, usually called "Bar- 
tholomew Goldbeter," was Master of the King's Mints, tenth of 
Henry V, and first and second Henry VI, within the Tower of Lon- 
don and the town of Calais. He died in 1430, and was buried in 
the Church of St. John Zachary. 

1422. — In first Henry VI, John B ernes, of London, goldsmith, 
was appointed by the King to make the money weights for the noble, 
the half and quarter, and to stamp them, according to the form of 
the statute of the ninth year of the late King. 

1429. — William Russe, goldsmith. Sheriff, 1429, Master of the 
Mints of London, Calais, Bristol and York, tenth and eleventh 
Henry VI (143 1-2), and Warden of the Exchange, tenth Henry VI. 
(Stow spells his name Rous.) He was buried in St. Peter's Church, 
in Chepe. 

1432. — ] ohn Oreivell, goldsmith, Engraver to the Mint, 1432-40. 

1437. — .... Rejnonde, a goldsmith. In the privy purse ex- 
penses of Henry VII (1437): "Item delivered by your said com- 
mandment to send that same day to my Lady of Gloucestre a nouche 
maad in manner of a man, garnized with a faire gret balay, v gret 
perles, i gret diamand pointed, with three gret hangers garnized with 
rubies and perles, bought of Remonde, the goldsmyth, for the some 

of xi ur 

1439. — William Austin, of London. Flaxman, speaking of 
the monument of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, at War- 
wick, describes the figures as being natural and graceful, the archi- 
tecture rich and delicate, and that they are excelled by nothing done 
in Italy of the same kind at this time, although Donatello and 
Ghiberti were living when this tomb was erected in 1439. He says, 
" The artist was William Austin, of London." We insert his name 
among the goldsmiths, although we have no positive record that 
he was actually a worker m the precious metals ; but the arts were 
so nearly allied, the sculptor having so frequently received instruc- 
tion in the workshop of the goldsmith, as in the case of Ghiberti, to 
whom we have just alluded, that we may be excused in thus record- 
ing his name in the list as an English artist and goldsmith. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 15 

1 440- 1. — Si/ ] ohn Pattesley, or Paddesley, goldsmith, Master 
of the Mint, 1434 and 1483, Sheriff, 1432, Mayor in 1 440-1, son of 
Simon Pattcsley, of Bury St. Edmunds. In the privy purse ex- 
penses of Llenry VII (1437): *' Fyrste delivered by your gracious 
commandment and appointment to send to Queen Katerine for her 
yerisgifte on New Year's Day, she being at Bermondsey, j tablett 
of golde with a crucifixe garnized with sapphires and perles weyng 
aboute xiiij unc' of golde, and was bought of John Patteslee, golde- 
smyth, for the some of xl /i." He was buried in St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane. 

1443. — In this year the following wardens of the craft of the 
Goldsmiths' Company were chosen : William Walton, William 
Basenire, or Bismere, William Porter, and William, Rakeley, or 
Rockley. 

They were re-elected in 1444, but their names were differently 
spelt, as is frequently the case in early MSS. 

1450. — John Sutton, goldsmith, was one of the Sheriffs in 1440. 
Among the epitaphs in St. John Zachary's Church,* Stow gives the 
following : " Here lieth the body of John Sutton, citizen, goldsmith, 
and Alderman of London, who' died 6th July, 1450. This brave 
and worthy alderman was killed in the defence of the city, in the 
bloody nocturnal battle on London Bridge, against the infamous 
J2ck Cade and his army of Kentish rebels." 

1450. — German Lyas, a foreigner, was admitted into the fran- 
chise of Goldsmiths of London, to use the same craft as a freeman, 
for which privilege he paid to the Almesse of St. Dunstan £% 6s. 8d. 
In 1452 this same German Lyas was brought before the Wardens for 
various offences, and particularly for selling a "tablet of gold" 
which was dishonourably wrought, being two parts of silver. On 
deliberation it was awarded that he should give to the fraternity a 
gilt cup of 24 oz. weight, and " lowley obey himself on his knees." 
This he did, bringing into the Hall a "cuppe chased with a sonne" 
(sun), weighing 26 oz., and was pardoned. 

1450. — William Breakspeare, goldsmith, died 1461, buried in St. 
John's Zachary, where he is styled "sometime merchant, goldsmith 
and alderman, the Commonweale attendant." 

1452. — Thomas Harrison, goldsmith, is thus lauded in the Com- 
pany's books in 1452: "Considering how much the Company was 
indebted and their livelihood ruinous and in decline, great part of 
which could not be helped without great and notable cost, had of 
his blessed dispocition given twenty pounds towards making a par- 
lour in one of the Company's houses in Wood Street." 

1452. — Thomas Baby, Chaplain to the Goldsmiths' Company, 
was buried in St. Foster's, Foster Lane, thus recorded : " Dominus 
Thomas Baby quondam capellanus aurifabrorum London, qui obiit 
3 die Novembri 1452" (Stow). 

* The old church of St. John Zachary, Maiden Lane, near Goldsmiths' 
Hall, was destroyed in the great fire and not rebuilt. The parish is annexed 
to that of St. Anne. 



i6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

14^2. — Sir Humphrey Hayford, goldsmith, Comptroller to the 
Mint and King's Assay Master, 1452-9, Mayor in 1477-8; son of 
Roger Hayford, of Stratford-le-Bow. He was buried in the church 
of St. Edmond, Lombard Street. 

1455. — William Wodewardy goldsmith, Engraver to the Mint. 

i^c^6. — William Hede, goldsmith, being liveryman of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, and his wife, both made complaint to the wardens 
of their apprentice, William Bowden, "who irreverently, shamefully, 
and of f rowwinesse " had beaten his said mistress. His punishment, 
ordered by the wardens, was that he should be " had into the kechyn 
of the Hall and there stripped naked, and by the hand of his master 
beaten until such time as he raised blood upon his body, in likewise 
as he did upon his mistress, and that he should there be made to ask 
his master and mistress of grace and mercy, naked as he was betyn." 
— Herbert's " History of the Goldsmiths' Company." 

1458. — Edward Razvdon, a goldsmith, circa 1458. 

1460. — John Adys, civis et aurifaber, London, qui cbiit ultimo 
die Februarii 1461. Buried in St. John Zachary's Church. 

1 46 1. — German Lynche, of London, goldsmith. Warden of the 
Mint, was elected Graver of the Puncheons for life (1460-83); Master 
and Warden of the King's Mint in his realm of Ireland, within his 
castle of Dybeln (Dublin), and he was authorised to strike money 
for currency in Ireland, and was to make all manner of puncheons, 
irons, gravers, etc., within the city of London, or elsewhere, as should 
to him seem most needful. 

1463. — Thomas Muschamf, goldsmith, was Sheriff in 1463, in 
the mayoralty of Sir Matthew Philip, and was buried in the Church 
of St. Mary Magdalen, Milk Street. 

1463-4. — Sir Mat hew Philip, goldsmith. Mayor of London in 
1463-4, made Knight of the Bath by Edward IV with other alder- 
men, for bravery on the battlefield, on the occasion of the routing 
of Falconbridge and. the Kentish rebels in their attempt to force the 
city. He was warden of the Company in 1474, and subscribed 
6s. 8d. towards St. Dunstan's feast, which altogether amounted to 
^15 5s. 2d. 

1465. — ''Item, my master bout of Thomas Cartelage, goldsmith, 
of Chepe, v chargers of sylver,.xvj dysshes, and vij saussers, weyinge 
Ixix^^ xix^ vj'^, after iij^ the unnce." (Expenses of Sir John 
Howard.) 

1465. — "Item, the yeare aforesaid and the xxviij day of 
Marche, my master bout of Umfrey the Goldsmythe, a chaffer of 
sylver weyinge xviij unces and a quarter, and my master payd hym 
therefor of old grotez i^ and in new grotez i'f vj*^ paid for every 
unnce iij^" (Expenses of Sir John Howard.) 

1474. — Oliver Davy, goldsmith, bequeathed to the Company, in 
trust, certain property, of the present estimated value of ;^36 8s. per 
annum, for poor pensioners. 

1478. — Mylys Adys, goldsmith, was warden of the Company in 
1478, successor of John Adys before mentioned, who died in 1461. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 17 

14^8. — The ordinances or statutes of the Goldsmiths' Company 
contained in a MS. book, written on vellum with illuminated initial 
letters, commences thus : 

" Thys Boke was made and ordeynyd by — 
Hugh Brice, Alt her man. 
Henry Coote, 
Mylys Adys, and 
William Palmer^ Wardens. 

" The XX day of September, in the yere of our Lorde God 
MCCCCLXXVIIJ, and in the xviij yere of the Reigne of King Edward 
the Fourth. 

'' Humfrey Hay ford, then Mayre of the Cyte of London, John 
Stokker and Henry Colett, Sheryffs of the same Cyte." 

1480.— "To Selys, goldesmyUhe, for Mlij (1,052) ageletts of 
silver and gilt, weying CClxxj (271) unces iij quarters, and for Civ 
(155) unces grete and small spanges of silver and gilt, cont' in all 
CCCCxxvj unc' and iij quarters, price of every unce vj^ = Cxxviij^^ 
\'-f. These were afterwards given out to Martyne Jumbard for em- 
browdering and setting of them in the garnysshing of vj coursour 
barneys, and a hoby barneys of grene velvet." (Wardrobe Accounts 
of King Edward IV.) 

1480. — Matthew Shore, goldsmith of Lombard Street, husband 
of the notorious Jane Shore. His shop was called the Grasshopper. 
Concerning his wife, we find in the Pepys collection an old black- 
letter ballad, entitled, "The woful lamentation of Jane Shore,* a 
goldsmith's wife in London, sometime concubine of King 
Edward IV." 

In the reprint of Heywood's " Edward IV," by the Shakespeare 
Society (first part, pp. 16, 23, 58, Ed. Lond., 1842), Falconbridge 
having raised a rebellion, marched on to London, encouraging his 
forces to restore King Henry (who had lately been deposed) from 
the Tower. On arriving at the gates of London Bridge, entrance 
to the city is refused by the Lord Mayor and citizens, together with 
the city apprentices. Matthew Shore, the goldsmith, is also of the 
party, and, having answered Falconbridge's appeal, is asked his 
name, and Falconbridge replies, " What ! not that Shore that hath 
the dainty wife — the flower of London for her beauty ?" In the 
second act, at the Mayor's house, Jane Shore is represented as offici- 
ating as the Lady Mayoress, whereby the King first becomes ac- 
quainted with her. This cannot be a fact, as Shore never was Lord 
Mayor. 

1482. — Sir Edmund Shaa, or Shaw, son of John Shaa, of Dron- 
kenfeld, Chester, was a goldsmith and Engraver to the Mint in 
1462. He was chosen Sheriff in 14/4, and Lord Mayor, 1482-3, 
Warden of the Company in 1474. At the coronation of King 
Richard III, which took place during his mayoralty, he attended as 
cup-bearer with great pomp, and his claim to this honour was form- 

* Jane Shore died, at an advanced age, in the reign of King Henry VIII. 



1 8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

ally allowed and put on record (Lib. 1., fol. 19, a and b, Town Clerk's 
office). This Sir Edmund Shaa was goldsmith to the King, and on 
December i, in the first year of his reign, sold him the following 
pieces of plate, viz. : " 4 pots of silver, parcel gilt, weighing 28 
pounds 6 ounces; 3 pots and 5 Bowes, 35 pounds; 12 dishes, 11 
saucers, silver, with gilt borders, weighing 44 pounds 1 1 ounces ; 2 
chargers, 10 saucers, an ewer parcel gilt, and 8 other chargers. The 
v/eight of the said plate was 275 pounds 4 ounces of troy weight, and 
came to i^550 13s. 4d." 

Stow records that at his decease he appointed, by testament, his 
executors, with the cost of 400 marks, and the stuff of the old gate 
called Cripplegate, to build the same gate of new, which was per- 
formed and done in the year 1491. He founded and endowed a 
free school at Stockport, in Cheshire, in the year 1487. The will of 
Sir Edmund Shaw contains a bequest to the Goldsmiths to support 
this school. He also directs " 16 rings of fine gold to be graven 
with the well of pitie, the well of mercie, and the well of everlasting 
life," and to be given to his friends. 

1483. — Henry Cole, goldsmith, must have been a leading man 
in the trade, for at the coronation of Richard III he was elected by 
the Common Council, among the heads of the Livery Companies, to 
attend the Mayor to Westminster as cup-bearer at the coronation, 
and they all went in great state. 

1483. — The index of the same volume commences thus : 

" Thys Kalendar was made and ordeynyd for this Boke by— 

Henry Coote, 

Stephyn Kelke, 

John Ernest, and 

Allan Newman, Wardens. 

*' The last day of August in the yere of our Lord God 
MCCCCLXXXiij, and in the ffurst yere of the Reygne of King Richard 
the thyrd." 

''Sir Edmond Shaa, Knyght, then Mayre of the Cyte of Lon- 
don. William Whyte and John Mathew, Sheryffys of the same 
Cyte." 

1485. — Sir Hugh Bryce, son of Richard Bryce, of Dublin, gold- 
smith. Mayor in 1485, Sheriff, 1475, Governor of the Mint in the 
Tower, and Keeper of the King's Exchange. The Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, like many others, had a rich pall, or herse-cloth, which is thus 
alluded to in the minutes : " The Wardens shewed the Company the 
goodly and rich hersecloth which was made with the goods of Sir 
Hugh Bryce, Dame Elizabeth, his wife, and Dame Elizabeth Terrell. 
It was agreed that the said cloth should not be lent to any other 
person than a goldsmith, or a goldsmith's wife; that whenever it 
was used, the company assembled should pray for the said two 
donors' souls, as well as the soul of the said Dame Elizabeth Ter- 
rell, and that the beadle should have for his safeguard and attend- 
ance twelve pence at the least." 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 19 

1485. — Robert Harding, goldsmith and Alderman, Sheriff in 
1478, ob. 1485. He gave, in money, £\o to the new work of the 
steeple of Bow Church, Gheapside, in which church he was buried. 

1 49 1. — Thomas W ood, Sheriff in this year, was an opulent gold- 
smith, and built Goldsmiths' Row, in Gheapside, where most of the 
goldsmiths resided. Stow states : " It containeth in number, ten 
faire dwelling hou/es and fourteene /hops, all in one frame, uni- 
formly built foure /tories high, beautified towards the /treete with 
the Goldsmiths' Arms, and the likene//e of Woodmen, in memory of 
his name, riding on mon/trous bea/ts all ca/t in lead, richly painted 
and gilt; the/e he gave to the Goldsmiths, with /tockes of money, to 
bee lent to young men having the/e /hops," etc. Wood Street was 
named after him. 

1497. — John V and elf, or JoJin of Delft, goldsmith. In the privy 
purse expenses of Henry VII (1497) : " To John Vandelf for a collar 
of gold for the King xxx /i." Also : " For garnyshing a salett 
xxxviij li. i sh. iiij d!' 

1500. — Christopher Eliot, goldsmith, died 1505, was buried in 
the church of St. John Zachary. 

1 501-2. — Sir Bartholomew Reade, goldsmith, Alderman and 
Mayor, 150 1-2, Sheriff, 1497. He was Master of the Mint in 1481, 
1492 and 1493. To have a house large and important enough to 
maintain the dignity of Lord Mayor, and befitting the splendour 
which he had determined should signalise his mayoralty, he pur- 
chased Grosby Place. It was here he received the ambassadors of 
the Emperor Maximilian during their stay, who had been sent to 
sympathise with Henry VII on the death of his Queen, Elizabeth 
of York, and his son, Prince Arthur, which events happened within 
a few months of each other; and it was at Grosby Hall he gave his 
grand inauguration dinner recorded by Stow, at which were present 
more than one hundred persons of great estate, m which hall was 
"a paled park furnished with fruitful trees, beasts of venery," etc. 

Bartholomew Reade was a great benefactor to the Goldsmiths' 
Company. He founded a grammar school at Cromer, in Norfolk. 
He was buried in the Charterhouse, and gave i^ioo to the church of 
St. John Zachary, where his wife was buried. 

1508. — Sir John Shaiv, goldsmith. Warden to the Mint, 1492-7, 
of Wood Street, Gheapside, Engraver to the Mint in 1483, was Mayor 
in 1 05 1 -2, probably the son of Sir Edmond. In the privy purse 
expenses of Henry VII (1497) we find: "To Master Shaa for a 
George of Diamants iiij li. liij sh!' Also "To John Shaa for iij 
rings of gold viij /i." Sir John Shaw was knighted on the field at 
Bosworth. The first Lord Mayor's feast in the present Guildhall 
was given by Sir John Shaw. He was the first Mayor who caused 
the Aldermen to accompany him on horseback to the water side, to 
take barge for Westminster. 

1509. — Henry Coste, goldsmith, one of the Sheriffs; deceased, 
1509; buried in the church of St. Foster's, Foster Lane. He built 
St. Dunstan's Chapel there. 



20 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1^09. — Pietro Torrigiano. In the centre of the apsis or east end 
of Henry VH's chapel, Westminster Abbey, is the tomb of the royal 
founder and his queen, EHzabeth of York. The effigies, which are 
undoubtedly likenesses, were originally crowned, they are recumbent 
on a pedestal adorned with pilasters, relievos of rose branches and 
images m copper gilt of the King's patron saints and preceding 
sovereigns ; at the angles were seated angels. It is enclosed by rich 
and massive gates of brass. This costly tomb was made by Tor- 
rigiano, a Florentine artist, and occupied his time for six years, for 
which he received the comparatively large sumi of i^ 1,500. Tor- 
rigiano, it will be remembered, was the fellow-student of Michael 
Angelo, who, in a quarrel, broke the nose of his great rival. He 
came to England purposely to erect this tomb, which Bacon calls 
"the stateliest and daintiest in Europe." The brass screen, origin- 
ally adorned with no less than thirty-six statues (now reduced to 
six), is of brass, resembling a Gothic palace, was designed and made 
by an English artist (date 15 12). Torrigiano also executed the 
beautiful effigy of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of 
Henry YII, in Westminster Abbey (date about 1509). 

151 1. — John Barrett, goldsmith, bequeathed about £^ 5s. per 
annum, former value, to supply coals to the poor of the Goldsmiths' 
Company. 

1 5 12. — -Robert F enrhuther, or F enr other, Alderman, Master of 
the Mint with Bartholomew Reade in 1493, goldsmith. Sheriff in 
1 5 12, was buried in the church of St. John Zachary. He was Prime 
Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 15 16 and 15 17. He wa-s 
Master of the Mint, ninth Henry VIII. 

1 5 16. — The four Wardens of the Company in this year were: 
Alderman Fenr other, Mr. Ashley, Mr. Wattell and Mr. Reed. 

1 5 17. — The four Wardens in this year were: Alderman Fen- 
7 other, Mr. Lowth, Mr. Udall and Mr. Twyssilton. 

John Twistleton, goldsmith and Alderman, was buried in St. 
Matthew's Church, Friday Street, 152c;. 

1 5 17-8. — Sir Thomas Exmewe, Knight, goldsmith. Mayor in 
this year. Sheriff, 1 508. He made the water conduit in London Wall, 
by Moor Gate. He was buried in the church of St. Mary Magdalen, 
Milk Street, in 1528. 

1 5 18. — Robert Amades, goldsmith to Cardinal Wolsey, Keeper 
of the Jewels to King Henry VIII, gives an account of his treasures 
with the weight and cost annexed, such as : "An image of our lady, 
300 ounces of sterling silver; six great candlesticks made at Bruges, 
with leopards' heads and cardinals' hats, chased and gilt, weighing 
298 ounces; three ' chargeours,' 197 ounces; twenty-five plates, 968 
ounces; twenty-two dishes, 451 ounces; a cup of 'corone' gold, 64 
ounces." According to Cavendish, the Cardinal's biographer : 
" There was at great banquets a cupboard as long as the chamber 
was in breadth, with six deskes in height, garnyshed with guilt 
plate, and the nethermost deske was garnyshed all with gold plate, 
having with lights one paire of candlesticks of silver and guilt, 
being curiously wrought, which cost 300 marks. This cupboard was 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. , 21 

barred round about that no man might come nigh it, for there was 
none of this plate touched — there was sufficient besides." Robert 
Amades was buried in the church of St. Mary Wolnoth. 

1518. — The four wardens of the Company in this year were — 
Sir Thomas Exniew, knight, Roger Mundy, Henry Calion, and 
Robert Oxendly. Their names are attached to a bill of expenses 
for " a drynkmg and dinner on St. Dunstan's day " ; amount, 
£2^ 9s. 6d. 

1 5 19. — Ralph Lathom, goldsmith. In the will of Rawf Lathom, 
citizen and goldsmith, 15 19, is mentioned: "Duos pelves argenti 
cum lavat's m medio unius est una Rosa in alio scutum armor 
'meor.'" — C. P. C. Ayloffe. A goldsmith of the same name, pro- 
bably his son, is in the list of Freeman Householders of the Gold- 
smiths' Company in 1553. 

1 5 19. — Sir John Tihurston, goldsmith and embroiderer, also 
Sheriff and Alderman. Stow informs us that he erected, at his own 
cost, on the bank of the river Thames, extensive granaries for stor- 
ing up corn for the consumption of the city in times of scarcity, also 
SIX very large and four smaller public ovens. He gave £/\o towards 
rebuilding Imbroiderers' Hall, in Guthurons Lane (now Gutter 
Lane), and i^ioo towards rebuilding St. Foster's Church, wherein he 
was buried in 15 19. At an assembly of the Company in 1 521, it is 
recorded : " Forsomuch as Sir J. Thurston, Upper Warden, was de- 
parted to Almighty God (on whose soul have mercy), the felliship 
named and chose to be Tapper Warden in his roome Sir Thos. Ex- 
mewe, Knt." 

1522-3. — Sir John Mundy, goldsmith, Mayor, 1522-3, was son 
of William Mundy, of Wycombe, Bucks. He was buried in the 
church of St. Peter in Cheape; ob. 1537. The name of Roger Mundy 
(his son) is signed to a bill of expenses at St. Dunstan's feast as 
Warden of the Company in 1518. 

1526. — At St. Mary Overie, Soiithwark, between 1548 and 1550, 
they parted with four chalices, v/eighing fifty-four ounces, to one 
Calton, at the sign of the " Purse" in Chepe, of which the said Calton 
made two communion cups weighing but fifty-two ounces, the 
balance due being 17s. 8d. ("Surrey Church Notes," by J. R. D. 
Tyssen.) 

1526. — Hans Holbein, artist, born at Augsburg, 1494, died in 
London in 1543. He was introduced by Erasmus to Sir Thomas 
More in 1526, when he came to England. He entered the service of 
Henry VIII in 1537, and remained in England until his death. He 
designed numerous pieces of goldsmith's work, cups, jewellery, etc.,- 
during this reign. A drawing by him, for a cup for Queen Jane 
Seymour, is in the print-room of the British Museum, as well as 
designs for jewels. Other drawings are preserved at Basle, etc. 
He was buried in St. Catherine Cree Church. 

1530- — Thomas Calton, goldsmith at the " Purse in Chepe." His 
name is signed to a bill of expenses as Warden of the Com.pany in 
1526. At St. ]\Iary Overie, Southwark, between 1548 and 1550, they 
parted with four chalices, weighing fifty-four ounces, to one Calton, 



22 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

at the sign of the " Purse " in Chepe, of which the said Calton made 
two communion cups weighing but fifty-two ounces, the balance due 
being 17s. 8d. ("Surrey Church Notes," by J. R. D. Tyssen.) 

1 53 J. — William Symson, goldsmith. In the records we find 
that there were certain chains of a censor, weighing 6\ ounces, which 
were attached by him, brought to be set by one Richard A Hen, which 
chains belonged to the Abbot of Reading, in Berkshire; Robert 
Trappes and JoJtn Patterson being then wardens of the Company. 

1540. — At an assembly of the Goldsmiths' Company, "the fol- 
lowing six goldsmiths were appointed to ride to fetch the Queen : 
Mr. Spendley, Mr. Aldewyn, Mr. Chaundeler, Mr. Draper, Mr. Mor- 
ion, and Mr. Hatwoodel' to ride in black velvet coats with chains of 
gold about their necks, and velvet caps with broches of gold, and 
their servants to ride with them in russet coats of good cloth." 

1540. — Sir Martial Bowes, goldsmith. Sheriff, 1540, Mayor in 
1545-6, Master of the Mint in 1542 and 1546, M.P. for London four 
times from 1546 to 1555. Lie was Mayor five times, and lent Henry 
VIII, whose purse was a cullender, the sum of ^^300. Sir Martin 
was butler at Queen Elizabeth's coronation, and left his gold fee 
cup, out of which the Queen drank to the Goldsmiths' Company.* 
His portrait, attributed to Holbein, hangs in the Hall. He pre- 
sented a state sword to the Corporation of York, inscribed on the 
blade, " Syr Martyn Bowes, knight, borne within this citie of Yorke, 
and Maior of the citie of London 1545. For a remembrance gave 
this sword to the maior and communaltie of this honorable citie." 
Many of the coins of Henry VIII and Edward VI, struck while he 
was Master of the Mint, bear the Mint marks of a swan, rose, arrow, 
or a bow, coined at the mint in Durham House, Strand. The bow 
and the swan form part of his armorial bearings. The shield of 
Sir Martin Bowes has in chief a swan between two leopards' heads, 
and below three bows, the ground semee with ermine. Stowe, in 
speaking of the illustrious personages buried in the old church of 
Grey Friars, in Newgate Street, says, while naming many : " All 
these and five times as many more monuments, seven score marble 
grave-stones, alabaster tombs, etc., were all sold for ^^50 by Sir Mar- 
tin Bowes, goldsmith and alderman." Even the name of Grey Friars 
became extinct when Christ's Llospital was founded. He died 
August 4, 1566, and was buried in the church of St. Mary Wolnoth. 
Sir Martin Bowes founded almshouses at Woolwich, in Kent, by a 
bequest to the Goldsmiths' Company. 

1541. — Sir John Williams. He was styled the King's Gold- 
smith and Master of the King's Jewels; he dwelt in Elsing Spital. 
"In 1 541, on Christmas even about 7 o'clock, a great fire began in 
the gallery thereof, which burned so sore that the flame, firing the 

* The elegant cup presented by him to ihe Company, and which is still 
preserved among their plate, could not be given him in right of his office, at 
the coronation of Queen Elizabeth, as chief butler, because Sir William 
Hewett, citizen and clothworker, was Lord Mayor that year, and had the 
cup in his own right. Probably the above cup was a royal gift upon another 
occasion. . ' ; , 1 , ' ' ' "I* I ! 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 23 

whole house and consuming it, was scene all the city over, whereby 
many of the Kuig's jewels were burned and more imbeselled (as was 
said)."— (Stow.) 

1545. — Laivrence Warren^ goldsmith. Assay Master to the Mint 
in this year. " Cambii, Cunagii et monete, Canterbury." He must 
have been accused of some malpractices in his office, having received 
a general pardon under the great seal for offences against the Mint 
in the time of Henry VIII, in which he is styled " late Assay 
Master." 

1548-50. — Sir William Sharrington, of Durham House, Master 
of the Mint, third, fourth, and fifth Edward VI, and Vice-Treasurer 
of the Mint at Bristol, was indicted before the Lord Mayor, and 
convicted on his own confession of having counterfeited, in the Mint 
at Bristol. 12,000 pounds of coins resembling the Testons, without 
any warrant from the King, and against his Royal prohibition ; also 
of having defrauded the King in clippings and shearing of the 
coins, making the same thereby too light, and converting the same 
to his own profit, to the amount of ^^4,000 at the least ; and for falsi- 
fying the indentures and books. He was attainted of treason, and 
all his lands, etc., forfeited. This counterfeiting of the money was 
supposed to have been done at the instigation of the King's uncle, 
the Protector, Sir Thomas Seymour, the Lord Admiral, to enable 
him to carry on his treacherous designs. Sharrington received a 
pardon under the great seal in third Edward VI, and was after- 
wards restored in blood by an Act passed third and fourth Edward 
VI. His house in Mark Lane, a stately mansion, was bestowed by 
the King on Henry, Earl of Arundel, who made it his residence. 

1550. — Sir Thomas Gresham^ a merchant and goldsmith of 
great renown, son of Sir Richard Gresham, who was King's Ex- 
changer in the reign of Henry VIII. He carried on business at the 
sign of the Grasshopper, No. 68, Lombard Street, the site of Messrs. 
Martins' banking-house; the original sign was m existence so late 
as 1795, but disappeared on the erection of the present building. 
He founded the Royal Exchange, opened by Queen Elizabeth Janu- 
ary 23, 1 57 1. He also founded Gresham College, which he endowed 
with six professorships with ^^50 a year to each. This great gold- 
smith died in 1579, and was buried in St. Helens' Church, Bishops- 
gate. The bulk of his wealth was found to consist of gold chains. 
Gresham was present at the first council held by Queen Elizabeth at 
Hatfield, and was received with marked favour; she promised him, 
if he did her none other service than he had done to King Edward, 
her late brother, and Queen Mary, her late sister, she would give 
him as much land as ever they both did. The characteristic reply 
was an exposition of his fi.nancial views : " An it please your Majesty 
to restore this your realm into sych estate as heretofore it hath been ; 
first, Your Highness hath none other ways, but when time and oppor- 
tunity serveth, to bring your base money into fine, of eleven ounces 
fine, and so gold after the rate; secondly, not to restore the steel 
yard to their usurped privilege; thirdly, to grant as few licenses as 
you can; fourthly, to come in as small debt as you can beyond seas; 



24 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

fifthly, to keep your credit, and specially with your own merchants, 
for it is they who must stand by you, at all events, in your neces- 
sity." It is worth noting how implicitly the advice appears to have 
been followed, with the exception of the matter of licenses. 

1550. — Margery Her kins carried on the goldsmith's business 
about this time. Her shop was in Lombard Street. 

1550. — Robert Wygge, goldsmith, of London, in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. The names of Wigge and Dickson are mentioned 
in an inventory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

In the churchwarden's accounts of Wimbledon, Surrey, is re- 
corded the following : 

1552.— "Receivede for thre chalisses waying xxx*^ and v ounces, 
at v^ the ounce, w^hereof went to the Communyon Cuppe xxj ounces 
and a quartern, which cometh to v'^ vj^ iij^. And so remaineth xii] 
ounces and thre quarters, which commythe to iij^^ viij^ ix'^ whereof 
paide to Robert Wygge, goldesmythe of London, for the making 
and gilding of the Communyon Cuppe, after xx^ an ounce, which 
cometh to xxxv^ v'^." (" Surrey Church Notes," by J. R. D. Tyssen.) 

The following occur in "A Register of Scholars at Merchant 
Taylors'," by Rev. C. J. Robinson, London, 1882 : 

1550. — -Henry Neiuhall, goldsm.ith. His son educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' in 1564. 

1550. — Robert Harrison, goldsmith. His son, Edward, was at 
Merchant Taylors' School in 157c. 

1555. — John Hzdson, goldsmith. His son, Edward, at Merchant 
Taylors' School in 1571. 

1560. — Robert, son of Johit Hilly ard, "gold-finder," was at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School in 1572. 

1560. — -William Carter, goldsmith, died about 1570. A son, 
Thomas, was a scholar at Merchant Taylors', 1573. 

1560. — Thomas Greene, goldsmith. His son, Anthony, was ad- 
mitted at Merchant Taylors' School in 1574. 

1560. — Roger Hynt, goldsmith. His son, Richard, admitted at 
Merchant Taylors' School, 1574. 

1560. — Edward Rankyn, goldsmith. His son, William, ad- 
mitted at Merchant Taylors' School in 1575. 

1560. — Simon Brooke, goldsmith. His son, Edward, admitted 
at Merchant Taylors' School, 1576. 

1570. — -Edward Delves, goldsmith. His sons, Robert and Eel- 
ward, admitted at Merchant Taylors' School, 1 599. 

1600. — John Hoare, goldsmith. His son, John, admitted at 
Merchant Taylors' School, 1607. 

1600. — John Love joy, goldsmith. His son, Rowland, admitted 
at Merchant Taylors' School, 1609. 

1600. — William Keale, goldsmith. His son, Robert, admitted 
at Merchant Taylors' School, 161 1. > 

1600. — Giles Sijnpson, goldsmith. His son, Jeremy, admitted 
at Merchant Taylors' School, 161 1. 



ENGLISH GO'LDSMITHS. 



25 



1553. — A list of Freeman Householders of the Goldsmiths' 
Company, in the Chapter House, contains the following hfty-two 
names : 



Henry Averell 
Nicholas Aldewyn 
Robert Alleyn 
Martin Bowes, Alderman 
Nicholas Bull 
Thomas Baven 
John Bolter 
John Bardolph 
Thomas Browne 
John Barons 
Thomas Calton 
John Chaundeler 
William Chambers 
Rasel Cornyshe 
Robert Draper 
John Dale 
John Frende 
John Freeman 
Henry Goldeville 
Rogier Horton 
Thomas Hays 
Edmond Hatcombe 
Robert Hortopp 
Cornelis Hayes 
Nicholas Johnson 
William Keylway 



Rafe Latham 
Walter Lambert 
Edmond Lee 
Robert Lawerd 
John Lewes 
William Lymson 
Rogier Mundye 
Wyncent Mundye 
Nicholas Molde 
Anthony Neale 
Lymond Palmer 
Rafe Rowlett 
Thomas Rede 
Robert Spendeley 
Thomas Sponer 
William Southwood 
Thomas Stevyns 
Robert Trappis 
Thomas Trappis 
Silvester Todd 
Rogier Taylour 
William Tylsworth 
Thomas Wastell 
Morgan Wolff 
Fabiant Wydder 
George Webbe 



Some other goldsmiths are mentioned about this date — Mr. 
Warke, Palterton, John Waberley, Thomas Metcalfe, John Daniel, 
Robert Reynes and Robert Wygge. 

1557. — William Walker, goldsmith, bequeathed to the Gold- 
smiths' Company, for charities, the sum of ;^ioo in money. 

1558. — Affabel Partridge was the principal goldsmith to QueCxi 
Elizabeth, who ordered payments to be made as follow : "To Robert 
Branden and Affabel Partridge, for 3,098 oz. of gilt plate, at 
7s. 6d. the oz., which was given away in New Year's gifts, 
^^1,161 17s. 9jd.," etc. 

1559. — John Wheeler. We find by the books of the Gold- 
smiths' Company that he was established in that craft in Chepe. 
The earliest date in which his name occurs is in 1559 (second Eliza- 
beth). 

His son John removed to Fleet Street at the decease of his 
father, where he carried on his trade. He died about the year 160G, 
and was succeeded by his son, William Wheeler, who took the pre- 
mises called the " Marygold," after they were vacated by Richard 
Crompton, who kept an ordinary there, in the reign of James T. 
W. Wheeler was Comptroller of the Mint in 1627 and 1639. 



26 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

In the Goldsmiths' books, April 27, 1666, is the following 
entry : " William 'Wheeler, the son of William Wheeler, goldsmith, 
deceased, upon the testimony of William Rawson and John 
Marryott, goldsmiths, was sworn and made free by patrimony on 
payment of the usual fees." William Wheeler, junior, Franci^s 
Cliild's uncle and father-in-law, continued as goldsmith. In 1676, 
the name of William Wheeler is no more seen ; his two apprentices, 
Robert Blanchard and Francis Child, succeeded to the business in 
partnership, (yide "Blanchard and Child.") 

100. — Thomas Muschamp, goldsmith, at the sign of the "Ring 
with the Rubye" in Lombard Street. He was one of Queen Eliza- 
beth's goldsmiths. His name occurs in the visitation of the Heralds 
in 1568 among others m the trade. A predecessor of the same name 
is mentioned a century earlier as Goldsmith and Sheriff of London. 

In the Churchwardens' accounts of Chelmsford, in 1560: 

" Receyved of Mr. Mustchampe, goldsmyth, at the syne of the 
Ryng with the rube in Lumbarde Street, for a gylt challys with a 
paten gylt, waying xxiij oz. and a quarter, at v^ iiij^ the ounce, Som. 

is VJ^^ lllj^. 

" Paid to Mr. Muschamp in Lombard Street, at the sygne of the 
Ring with the rube for a coupe of gylt, weyinge xix oz. iij quarters, 
vj^ vhj^ the oz., Som. is vj^^ xj« vii^V ("Old EngHsh Plate," by 
W. J. Cripps.) 

1560-80. — Mr. Anthony Dericke, of the "Queen's Arms," in 
Cheapside, was one of the Queen's goldsmiths in the early part of 
her reign. He was also Engraver to the Mint in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI and Elizabeth, and the last goldsmith appointed to that 
important office. He was a promoter of lotteries. The first of 
which we have any record was drawn before the western door of 
St. Paul's Cathedral in 1569. It included 10,000 lots, at ten shil- 
lings each lot, the prizes consisting of plate. It lasted from January 
1 1 till May 6. The profits of this lottery were applied in repairing 
the havens of England. In 1586 there w^as another lottery, the 
prizes consisting of rich and beautiful e^rmour. 

1568. — John Burde, or Bird, goldsmith. Among the Inquest 
Plate of St. Giles, Cripplegate Without, is an interesting drinking 
vessel, called a Mazer bowl, the cup being of maple-wood mounted 
with a broad silver-gilt rim and foot, round the stem is a finely- 
chased scroll ornament, above which is inscribed " IHON BURDE 
Mead This In Anno Domine 1568"; on the spread of the foot are 
engraved an eagle and other birds, stag, unicorn, etc., with his mono- 
gram I. B., a true-lovers' knot between, enclosed in a lozenge, twice 
repeated. Inside is a gilt metal boss with a merchant's mark. 

Thomas Turpin, goldsmith in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
In the Leverton Churchwardens' accounts of 1570 is paid to 
" Thomas Turpyn, the goldsmith, for f acyonenge of the Com- 
munyon Cupp, weynge xij oz., x^ Item., He putt to the same cuppe 
a quarter and a halfe of an oz. of his own silver, ii^" (W. J. Cripps.) 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 27 

In 1570 several ornaments were stolen from the monument of 
King Henry VII, among which were some of the gilt images here 
spoken of. The thief, one Raymond, was prosecuted by the Church. 

Torrigiano must have resided many years in this country, and 
designed and executed other monumental tombs and effigies. In the 
dingy Chapel of the Rolls, Chancery Lane, is the tomb of Dr. 
Young, Master of the Rolls m the time of Henry VIII. The aged 
master reposes, in the sublime serenity of death, upon a marble sar- 
cophagus, shaped like a Florentine cassons or marriage chest. In 
the panel of the pedestal beneath the inscription is the date MDXVI. 
The whole is the work of the immortal Torrigiano. He also designed 
candelabra and other decorative objects belonging tO' the goldsmith's 
craft, for Henry VIII and the nobility. 

The ancient altar of the restored tomb of Edward VI, West- 
minster Abbey, a splendid work of Torrigiano, was destroyed m 
the civil wars; but part of the frieze was found in 1869 in the young 
King's grave, and has been let into the modern altar. It is an ad- 
mirable carving of the Renaissance, and shows the Tudor roses and 
the lilies of France interwoven with a scroll-work pattern. 

1570. — Robert Taylebois was a goldsmith in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. Two of his sons, Ralph and Thomas, were scholars at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School in 1563; the former became prebendary of 
Canterbury. 

1570. — Nicholas Hillyard, born at Exeter, 1547, died, 1619, 
brought up as a goldsmith and jeweller, also a celebrated miniature 
painter. He was "goldsmith, carver, and portrait painter" to Queen 
Elizabeth, and continued in favour by James I and appointed sole 
painter of "the Royal image." Round his portrait, painted by him- 
self, is written, " Nic^ Flillyard, aurifaber, sculptor, et Celebris illum- 
inator serenissimae Elisabethas." (In the collection of Lord De 
L'Isle and Dudley.) 

1571- — John Lonyson, goldsmith, was Master of the Mint, 
1571-6. He died in 1583, a^tat fifty-nine, and was buried in the 
church of St. Vedast, alias St. Foster, in Foster Lane. 

1577- — Richard Robinson was celebrated for his misdeeds. He 
was in this year, according to Holinshed, drawn from the Tower to 
Tyborne, and there hanged for clipping of gold coins. 

1577- — 'S'ir John Langley, goldsmith, was Mayor in this year, 
1576-7, Sheriff in 1566. 

1579- — Alderman Heydon bequeathed to the Goldsmiths' Com-, 
pany the sum of i^ioo for the poor. 

1583- — John Speilman, goldsmith, afterwards knighted by 
James I, erected a paper-mill at Dartford. In the State records of 
the year 1597: "July 4. Grant to John Speilman, Queen's gold- 
smith, for fourteen years, on surrender of a former patent, of the 
sole license of collecting old rags and stuff for paper-making"; pro- 
hibiting any others to erect paper-mills without his license. His fi.rst 
patent was taken out in 1583. 



28 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1588-9 and 1593.— Sir Richard Martin, knight, goldsmith, Mas- 
ter and Warden of the Mint from 1580 to his death in 161 7, Sheriff 
in 1 58 1, was Lord Mayor in 1589, and kept his mayoralty in one 
of the houses in Goldsmiths' P.ow, Cheapside. Sir Richard and 
his son, Richard Martin, citizen and goldsmith, held the appoint- 
m^ent of Master of the Mint, together and singly, from 1580 to 1604. 
Sir Richard died in 1617. 

1588. — ] okn Morley, goldsmith, bequeathed £^ per annum to 
the poor per the Company of Goldsmiths. 

1589. — Robert Trapps, or Tripps, goldsmith. He was buried 
in St. Leonards', St. Martins le Grand. 

1589. — Isaac Sutton, goldsmith, obiit May 2, 1589; he was 
buried in the church of St. iVndrew, Undershaft. 

1594. — Hugh Kayle was in partnership with Sir Richard Martin, 
and several grants for payment of money for jewels and plate, for 
New Year's gifts and presents to ambassadors, are recorded to them. 
In J 594, i;2,365 los. 8d.; 159;, ;^2,236 14s. lod.; 1599, £2,1^^ i8s. 3d. 

1597. — John Fox, citizen and goldsmith of London. He was 
founder of the Free School of Deane, co. Cumberland. He gave 
by will, eighteenpence weekly for ever to an almsman belonging to 
Goldsmiths' Hall; also money to poor prisoners and to several hos- 
pitals. " The said John Fox, being of the age of 78, fell on sleepe 
the 8th day of June 1597." He was buried in the church of St. 
Lawrence in the Jewry. 

1599. — Peter Blundell, goldsmith, left by legacy to the Com- 
pany the sum of ^^150 for the poor. 

1600. — Sir Hugh Myddelton was a goldsmith by trade and had 
a shop m Basinghall Street, much frequented by Sir Walter Raleigh 
and other scientific people. During the mayoralty of his brother, 
Sir Thomas Myddelton, he completed the supply of wholesome 
water by means of the New River. His portrait, by Janssen, hangs 
in Goldsmiths' Hall. 

Flugh Myddelton was of Welsh parentage, the sixth son of 
Richard Myddelton, who had been Governor of Denbigh Castle 
during the reigns of Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth. He was born 
on his father's estate at Galch Hill, close to Denbigh, in the year 
1555. He was sent to London when old enough, where his elder 
brother, Thomas, was established as a grocer, and under his care he 
commenced his career, and was entered as an apprentice of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, and subsequently became a goldsmith and 
jeweller on his own account in Basinghall Street. On the accession 
of James I he was appeinted one of the Royal Jewellers. Water 
was first let into the New River head at Islington in 161 3, on which 
occasion Myddelton was knighted. King James I afterwards 
created him a baronet and remitted the fee, which amounted to up- 
v/ards of ;^ 1,000, a large sum at that time. 

Sir Hugh Myddelton died an eminently prosperous man at the 
age of seventy-six, leaving an ample provision for his widow, and 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 29 

numerous bequests to his relatives and friends, and gifts to the poor. 
The story of his dying in poverty is only one of the numerous fables 
which have been related of his history (Smiles). He died in 1631, 
and was buried in the churchyard of St. Matthew, Friday Street. 
The Welsh silver mines in Cardiganshire were discovered, in the 
reio-n of James I, by Sir Hugh Myddelton, which have ever since 
been worked with success. 

Sir Hugh bequeathed to the Goldsmiths' Company, in trust for 
the poor, a share in the New River Company, which they modestly 
valued to the Commissioners at about ;£^200 per annum on an 
average. 

i5oo. — George Heriot, jeweller to King James VI of Scotland, 
and subsequently to James I of England. He was born June, 1563, 
eldest son of George Heriot, goldsmith, of Edinburgh; the elder 
Heriot died in 161 o. The goldsmiths of Edinburgh were formerly 
classed with the "hammermen," or common smiths. They were 
separated by an Act of the Town Council on August 29, 1581, which 
conferred on the goldsmiths a monopoly of their trade, confirmed 
by a charter of incorporation from James VI in i 586, investing the 
goldsmiths with the power of searching, inspecting, and trying all 
jewels set in gold, as well as plate, in every part of the kingdom, 
and power to punish aggressors by imprisonment or fine, and to 
seize the working tools of all unfree goldsmiths within the city. 

George Heriot was evidently instrumental in obtaining the 
charter of incorporation in 1586, as well as the Act in favour of the 
Goldsmiths' Company in 1591, Irom which we quote the preamble: 
"The samin day the Provost, baillies, and counsell, and A dame 
Newtoune, Baxter \ Cudbert Cranstoun, furrour\ William Blythman, 
fiescheoicr] Thomas Weir, niasoiin\ Robert Meid, wohster\ William 
Cowts, walker \ Thomas Brown, honetmaker^ of the remanent dey- 
kins of crafts being convenit in counsall anent the supplicatioun 
gevin m before thame be George Heriott, deykin of the goldsmythis, 
for himselff and in name and on behalff of the remanent brether of 
the said craft." 

Heriot became a member of the Goldsmiths' Company, and in 
1597 he was employed by the Court; and Anne of Denmark, the 

reigning Queen, made him her goldsmith, and 
he was so declared " at the crosse, be opin pro- 
clamatione and sound of trumpet." Shortly 
afterwards he was appointed goldsmith to the 
King. He soon rose to opulence, and on the 
accession of James to the throne of England he 
followed the Court to London. He died on 
February 12, 1624, setatis sixty, and vvas buried 
Seal of George Heriot. at St. Martin's in the Fields. He obtained 

Ta Heriot's Hospital. . i iii i i r, i r 

("Laiug's Ancient Seals."} eminence and wealth, and left upwards of 

£ 50,000. 




30 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1600. — Dame Mary Ramsay bequeathed to the Goldsmiths' 
Company the sum of i^200 for the poor. 

1602. — Richard Rogers, Comptroller of His Majesty's Mint in 
t6o2, presented a circular salt and cover, inscribed " To the Wardens 
and Commonaltie of y® mystery of Goldsmiths of London, desiring 
the same to be used at their solemn meeting's and to bee remem- 
bered as a good benefactor, A.D. 1632." 

1603. — Sir James P ember ton, goldsmith, Sheriff, 1602, Mayor in 
t6i 1-2. The Goldsmiths' pageant in this year was entitled " Chryso- 
thriambos, or the Triumph of Gold," devised and written by A. M. 
(Anthony Munday). He died September 8, 161 3, aet. sixty -eight, 
and was buried in the church of St. John Zachary. 

1603. — Philip Shelley, goldsmith of London, left by his will 
forty shillings a year for ever for the poor of his parish of St. John 
Zachary, where he was buried, to be paid by the Warden and Ren- 
tour of the Goldsmiths' Company, as appears by his will dated 
September, 1603, "though his monument was erected but in 1630." 
He also bequeathed to the Goldsmiths' Company, in trust, moneys 
for placing out apprentices, university exhibitions to scholars, £10 
per annum to maimed soldiers, £^ yearly to working gold- 
smiths, etc. 

1603. — Maximilian Poultraine and John de Critz erected the 
noble monument of Queen Elizabeth, in Westminster Abbey, in 1603. 

1605. — Wase (Christopher), goldsmith. He was buried in St. 
Vedast, alias Fosters', obiit September 22, 1605, aetatis sixty-six 
years. 

1609. — John Reynolds was Assay-master to the Mint in this 
year. He calculated tables to cast up silver and gold. It does not 
appear when they were published, but they are printed at the end 
of the second edition of the " New Touchstone for Gold and Silver 
Wares," London, 1679. 

Caius Newman, goldsmith, gave to Christ's Hospital £^ ; St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, £6 13s. 4d.; and to Bridewell Hospital, £^', 
and the sum of ;£^I40 to the Goldsmiths' Company for their poor 
brethren. He died March 3, 161 3, and was buried in St. Matthew's 
Church, Friday Street, astat. sixty-six, leaving seven sons and five 
daughters. 

1612.— Robert Shirley, the Elder, presented a silver cup and 
cover, weighing 93^ ozs., to the Company in this year, which was 
melted down in 1667 to meet the requirements of ready money to 
repair the Hall after the Great Fire. 

161 5. — Robert Brocklesbury, goldsmith, bequeathed to the Gold- 
smiths' Company the sum of ^^340 for the poor. 

161 5. — George Smithes, or Smithies, goldsmith and Alderman, 
was buried at St. Mary Staining Church; ob. July 11, 161 5. His 
son, Thomas Smithies, was chosen one of the Pyx Jurymen in 1649. 
He was Sheriff in the mayoralty of Sir James Pemberton, 1 601. 

1621. — Richard Croshaw, goldsmith, "sometime Master of the 
Goldsmiths' Company. By his will he left ;^4,ooo to the Company 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 31 

in trust for the maintenance of lectures, relief of the poor, and other 
pious uses." Obiit. June 2, 1621, and was buried at St. Bartholomew 
Exchange, aetatis seventy. 

1622. — Henry Banister, goldsmith, bequeathed to the Company 
for the use of the poor, in money, £160. 

1625. — Richard Cheney^ goldsmith, bequeathed ;^4 a.nnually to 
four poor goldsmiths. 

Thomas Violet carried on the business of goldsmith in London. 
The practice, so ruinous to the coinage, of culling out the more 
weighty coins for the purpose of reducing them, to bullion, was about 
this time (1627) carried to an alarming extent, so as not only to 
produce a scarcity of money, but also to render that which remained 
too feeble, and to raise the price of silver above that allowed by 
the mints. 

To check these abuses, the King issued a proclamation in this 
year that all persons were forbidden to exchange or buy any bullion 
in any part of His Majesty's dominions, or should give or receive 
for the exchanging of any current coins more than the said coins 
should be current for, and that no coin should be exported, and no 
goldsmith melt any current coins, or give more than the price 
allowed at the mint, under heavy penalties. 

In 1637, Violet was instrumental, with others, in melting down 
the heaviest coins of the King into bullion, and giving a higher price 
than was allowed by the mints for gold and silver, and exporting 
the same, for which complicity he was informed against in the Star 
Chamber, and imprisoned for above twenty weeks for refusing to 
answer interrogatories, but was pardoned on condition of dis- 
covering his accomplices and paying a fine of ;^2,ooo in gold. The 
others were Henry Futter, Henry Sweeting, Peter Hern, John Terry, 
Arnold Brames, Isaac Gold, Timothy Eman, Randall Crew, Francis 
Brogden, Luke Lee, John Perryn. They were sentenced to be com- 
mitted to the Fleet. Hern, Terry and Eman were fined £'2,000 each, 
Brames i^i,ooo, Futter and Sweeting ;£'500 each, and Perryn i^ioo; 
the others were discharged. They were, doubtless, all goldsmiths 
in a considerable way of business. Futter, Perryn and Terry have 
been herein noticed. Perryn was one of the Jury m 1649 to make 
trial pieces for the Commonwealth. 

Violet boasts in one of his publications — "A true Discovery 
how the Commons of England had been cheated of almost all the 
iGold and Silver Coin of this Nation," London, 1653 — that the per- 
sons who were accused and convicted in the Star Chamber, were 
informed against by him. He afterwards wrote also "An Appeal 
to Caesar," endeavouring to inculpate the goldsmiths of Lombard 
Street, "who lay up gold and silver for the merchants to transport, 
some goldsmilths keeping great merchants of London's cashes and 
some noblemen's cash. By this credit of several men's moneys the 
goldsmiths in Lombard Street are in the nature of bankers, and 
have a great stock of treasure by them always of gold, foreign coins, 
and silver. The goldsmith is your merchants' jackall, as the jackal! 
is to the lion, they hunt for the lion's prey," etc. 

4 



32 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

William Jackson, goldsmith, deceased 1644. His son, Joseph, 
born in the parish of St. Leonard's, Foster Lane, entered Merchant 
Taylors' School, 1632. (Rev. C J. Robinson, "Register of 
Scholars.") 

Edward Edmunds, goldsmith, in Allhallows parish. His son, 
James, a scholar at Merchant Taylors' in 1643. (Ibid.) 

John Mackarnes, goldsmith. His son, John, at Merchant Tay- 
lors' School in 1643. i^bid.) 

Richard Marsh, goldsmith. His sons, William and James, were 
at Merchant Taylors' School in 1643. (Ibid.) 

1630. — Thomas Leadham, goldsmith, Master or Prime Warden 
of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1630. He bequeathed for their use 
a silver cup and cover, which was melted with some other pieces of 
plate to raise money for the repair of the Hall after the Great Fire 
m 1667. 

1630. — Sir Willia77t Ward was a wealthy goldsmith in London 
and jeweller to the Queen of Charles I. Having an ample fortune, 
he resided at Heal in Staffordshire. He was sixth son of Edward 
Ward, of Bixley, in Norfolk. He married the daughter of Mr. 
Humble, leather-seller a great benefactor to that Company. Mr. 
Humble's sister, Honor, married Sir Thomas Viner, goldsmith, 
Mayor in 1653, ^tnd created Baronet with Sir William Humble on 
the Restoration in 1660. Mr. Ward's son and heir, Humble Ward, 
married the daughter and heiress of Lord Dudley, who became 
Baroness Dudley. Humble Ward was knighted, and on March 23, 
1644, was elevated to the peerage as Baron Ward of Birmingham. 
Edward, the second Baron Ward, at the demise of his mother suc- 
ceeded to the Barony of Dudley in 1701, and became Lord Dudley 
and Ward. The viscounty and earldom was created en February 
13, i860. 

1630. — John Acton, goldsmith to Charles L On July 13 in this 
year the King issued his sign manual to pay "John Acton, His 
Majesty's goldsmith, for gilt plate, chains and medals of gold, 
£Sy777 15^- 9^- given away in New Year's gifts, and at christenings 
and to ambassadors; and also to pay £ig 7s. 6d. to His Majesty's 
cutler and the almsmen, beadles of Goldsmiths' Hall, as has been 
accustomed." 

From Harl. MS. 1 566 it appears that Thomas Acton, of Elmley 
Lovett (a cadet of an ancient Worcestershire family) had issue three 
sons, Charles, Anthony and John, who was a goldsmith in London 
(vide also Grazebrook's "Heraldry of Worcestershire," sub voce). 
William Acton, third son of John Acton, goldsmith, was admitted 
a scholar at Merchant Taylors' in 1658; he was born at Bewdley 
in 1645. 

1632. — William Feake, goldsmith. His daughter, Sarah, 
married a certain William Smith, who died in 1632 and was buried 
in St. Saviours', Southwark, set. sixty-eight. 

1632. — Simon Gibbon, goldsmith, presented to the same Com- 
pany a handsome salt-cellar, which fortunately escaped the fate 
of many others, and is still preserved. Given in 1632. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 33 

1 5^5 — ] ohn Par git er was a goldsmith in Fleet Street, next door 
but one to Sergeants' Inn Gate. He filled many parish offices ni 
St. Dunstan's m 1636. In his "Diary" Pepys gives this estimate 
of him : " I took up in the coach Mr. Pargiter, the goldsmith, who is 
the man of the world I do most know and believe to be a cheating 
rogue." His premises were destroyed in the Great Fire, and not 
rebuilt until three years after. One of his sons opened a shop m 
St. Clement's parish, where he was buried in 1688. 

1637-56. — ] ohn Perryn, goldsmith, who resided at East Acton, 
founded almshouses at Acton by a bequest to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany dated 1656. He was also appointed one of the Jury of Gold- 
smiths by the Commonwealth, in 1649, to superintend the making 
of standard trial pieces for the coinage. In 1637 he was impris- 
oned and fined with others, on the information of Thomas Violet, 
for melting the heaviest coins into ingots and exporting the same 
into foreign countries. 

1640. — George Snell, of the "Fox," in Lombard Street, gold- 
smith, lost ;^ 1 0,800 by the closing of the Exchequer in 1672. He 
was chosen one of the jury to superintend the making of the stan- 
dard trial pieces for the Commonwealth in 1649. I^ ^^77 he is 
mentioned in the Little London Directory as a banker or keeper of 
running cashes at the same house. Four sons of George Snell were 
at Merchant Taylors' School — William in 1638 and George in 1643. 
The latter died young, s.p., according to Burke ("Landed Gentry"), 
and William died in 1705. Robert, third son, born at Allhallow's, 
Lombard Street, in 1642, Merchant Taylors' School, 1650, died 1666. 
John, fourth son, born 165 1, Merchant Taylors' SchooJ, 1660, suc- 
ceeded his father in the business. (C. J. Robinson, ^^o-^.diL)^'^ 

1640. — Sir Thomas Viner, goldsmith. Sheriff in 1648, Lord 
IMayor, 1653-4. He was chosen one of the jury\o superintend the 
making of gold and silver trial pieces for the Commonwealth in 
1649. He was knighted by Cromvv^ell dtn-mg- his mayoralty, and 
created baronet by Charles II in /I660. Having been chosen Mayor 
during the usurpation, he was, ^vlthnc)t]aer.^ld-ermen, displaced at 
the Restoration, and the former Aldermen were reappointed who 
had been set aside. He married Honor, the daughter of George 
Humble, Esq., ancestor of Lord Dudley and Ward (the present Earl 
Dudley). He died May 11, 1665, ^"d was buried in St. Mary Wol- 
noth's, opposite his shop in Lombard Street. He bequeathed ;^200 
for the poor brethren of the Goldsmiths' Company. His son. Sir 
Robert, erected a monument to his memory in 1672; also another 
monument in the same church to his brother, Thomas Vyner, Esq., 
Clerk of the Patents, who died in 1667, thus recorded :' "Thomas 
Vyner, Esq., son of Sir Thomas Vyner by his second wife, Honour, 
daughter of George Humble, Esq., of this parish." An ancestor, 
Sir William Viner, grocer, was Mayor in 1389. 

1640. — Mr. Wakefield, goldsmith, is alluded to in the will of 
Rowland Backhouse, formerly Sheriff, dated 1647, in which he leaves 
his chain of office to his daughter, Doddinge, weighing about thirty 
ounces, set with a diamond, bought of Mr Wakefield, the goldsmith. 



34 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1640. — Robert Paine, goldsmith, gave to the Company the sum 
of i^300 for the poor. 

1640. — Ralph Robinson, goldsmith, also gave in money ;^200 for 
the poor of the Company. 

Extracts from a Register of Scholars at Merchant Taylors'. 

(By the Rev, C. J. Robinson.) 

Henry F utter, goldsmith. His son, Henry, born St. Mary Wol- 
noth, 1640, entered 1650. 

'William Johnson, goldsmith. His only son, William, born at 
St. Sepulchre's, 1639, entered 1652. 

Edward Michell, goldsmith. His only son, James, born 1640, 
m St. Andrew's Wardrobe, entered 1652. 

Tobias Coleman, goldsmith. His eldest son, Tobias, born 1643, 
St. Leonard's, Foster Lane, entered 1653. 

] ohn Feak, goldsmith. His fourth son, Richard, born 1640, St. 
Mary Wolnoth, entered 1653. 

Gabriel Marriott, goldsmith. His eldest son, Simeon, born 
1645, St. Dionis Backchurch, entered 1655. 

William Hough, goldsmith. His two sons, Thomas and John, 
born 1645 and 1647, All Hallows', Lombard Street, entered 1655. 

Edward South, goldsmith. His fourth son, Edward, born 1644, 
St. John Zachary, entered 1655. 

Henry Whit tin gham, goldsmith. His only son, Henry, born 
1644, St. Olaves', Silver Street, entered 1656. 

George Bullen, goldsmith. His eldest son, John, born 1649, St. 
Leonard's, Foster Lane, entered 1657. 

Hugh Lewis, goldsmith. His eldest son, Charles, born 1643, 
St. Botolph, Aldersgate Street, entered 1657. 

Henry Baggs, goldsmith. His second son, Francis, born 165 1, 
St. Martin's, Vintry, entered 1658. 

William Wayne, goldsmith. His son, William, born 1647, St. 
Catherine Cree Church, entered 1658 

William Sankey, goldsmith. His second son, George, born 
1647, St. Mary Wolnoth, entered 1659. 

Tho7nas Bonny, goldsmith. His second son, Thomas, born 
1647, entered 1659. 

Edward Abel, goldsmith. His third son, Samuel, born 1650, 
St. Peter's, Cornhill, entered 1660. 

1644. — Sir John Wollaston, Knight, Alderman, Sheriff, 1638. 
Mayor, 1644. Sir Robert Harley, Master of the Mint for many 
years, having refused to stamp any of the proposed coins for the 
Commonwealth, except with the King's head as formerly, he was 
dismissed from that office. On the subject being referred to the 
Council of State, the members strongly recommended Sir John Wol- 
laston as a fit and proper person for Master Worker of the Mint for 
1648-9, but notwithstanding this repeated recommendation, the 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 35 

House appointed Aaron Gucrdain, Doctor of Physic, as Master of 
the Mint in Harley's place. Sir John Wollaston was selected as 
foreman of the jury to superintend the making of gold and silver 
trial pieces for the Commonwealth. By his will he bequeathed to 
the Goldsmiths' Company, in trust, property, as valued by the Com- 
missioners, £2^ per annum to Bethlehem Hospital and other chari- 
ties, amounting to £\A,o per annum. 

1648. — Robert Jenner, goldsmith, bequeathed to the Company 
property in trust to poor goldsmiths, of the estimated value of i^200 
per annum. 

1649. — Richard Morrell, goldsmith. His name occurs as one of 
the Jury of Goldsmiths elected by the Commonwealth in 1649 to 
superintend the making of standard trial pieces of gold and silver 
for the coins. He presented a silver cup to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, and by his will, dated 1703, bequeathed a sum of money to 
found almshouses at Hackney, besides an annuity of fifty-two shil- 
lings for the poor. 

1649, November 22. — The Jury of Goldsmiths elected and sworn 
by the Commonwealth to make two standard trial pieces for the 
coins, one piece in gold commixed in proportion of 22 carats of 
fine gold and 2 carats of alloy in the pound weight troy of Eng- 
land, and one piece of silver of 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine and 18 dwts. of 
copper in the pound weight troy, were the following : 

Sir John Wollaston^ Knight and Alderman. 

Thomas Viner, Alderman. 

Thomas Noel, Alderman. 

Francis Ash. 

Thomas Smithie. 

Francis Hall. 

George Courthope. 

John Perryn. 

Richard Morrell. 

Samuel Moore. 

George Sncll. 

Richard Gibbes. 

Matthew Mason. 

Alexander Jackson. 

1650. — Alderman Edward Backwell was a goldsmith, and one 
of the largest bankers in the early part of the reign of Charles I. 
He carried on his trade at the " Unicorn " in Lombard Street, between 
the "Grasshopper" and the "White Horse," about sixty-eight or 
sixty-nine of the present numbering. He is frequently mentioned 
by Pepys in his "Diary." December 24, 1660 : "I went to choose 
a payre of Candlesticks, to be made ready for me at Alderman Back- 
well's." He made a large fortune; but in the reign of Charles 11 
when, as Granger says, " the laws were overborne by perfidy, violence 
and rapacity," he lost, on the closing of the Exchequer in 1672, as 



36 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

much as ;;^295,994. After his bankruptcy m 1672 he retired to HoL 
land, and died in 1679. 

i5c;o. — Henry Pmckney, goldsmith, at the sign of the "Three 
Squirrels" m Fleet Street, over against St. Dunstan's Church, was 
established about this time. Boyne quotes a farthing token issued 
by him at the "Three Squirrels" in 1650. In 1666 his house was 
burned down. Mr. Noble, in his " Memorials of Temple Bar," states 
that the terms of rebuilding were settled by the Commissioners in 
April, 1667, and in marking out it appears that Major Pinckney's 
property consisted of four houses leading, on the south frontage, 
" to the Temple Garden." In Pepys's " Diary," under date Decem- 
ber I, 1660, we read: "Mr. Shepley and I went into London, and, 
calling on Mr. Pinckney, the goldsmith, he took us to the tavern, and 
gave us a pint of wine." This business was carried on by Chambers 
and Usborne in 1693, ^.nd towards the end of the eighteenth century 
it was taken by Messrs. Gosling. 

1652. — -Francis Ash, goldsmith, bequeathed property to the Com- 
pany for the poor; value, i^ioo per annum. 

1658. — Sir George Yiner, son of Sir Thomas, was born in the 
parish of St. Mary Wolnoth in 1638, admitted as scholar in Merchant 
Taylors' School in 1644, " o^ St. John's College, Cambridge, B.A., 
citizen and goldsmith of London, banker to King Charles 11. 
Knighted and succeeded his father. Sir Thomas, in the baronetcy in 
1665. He died in 1673." — (Burke's "Extinct Baronetage.") 

1660. — Alderman Francis Meynell was a goldsmith and banker, 
Sheriff in 1662. He is mentioned by Pepys in his "Diary," date 
September 18, 1662: "At noon Sir George Carteret, Mr. Coventry 
and I, by invitation to dinner to Sheriff Meynell's, the great money 
man. He and Alderman Backwell, and much more noble and brave 
company, with the privilege of their rare discourse, which is great 
content to me, above all other things in the world." And again, on 
January 19, 1662-3: "Singled out Mr. Coventry into the matted 
gallery, and there I told him the complaints I meet every day about 
our Treasurer's, or his people's, paying no money but at the gold- 
smiths' shops, where they are forced to pay 15 or sometimes 20 per 
cent, for their money, which is a most horrid shame, and that which 
must not be suffered. Nor is it likely that the Treasurer, at least 
his people, will suffer Maynell, the goldsmith, to go away with 
;^ 1 0,000 per annum, as he do now get, by making people pay after 
this manner for their money." 

1660. — Sir Jeremiah Snow was a goldsmith and banker in Lom- 
bard Street. He was a considerable loser by the closing of the 
Exchequer by Charles II m 1672, having i^6o,ooo deposited there. 
He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, which he entered in 
1641. His two brothers entered the same school — Edward in 1639 
and Nathaniel in 1641. "Sir Jeremiah was knighted in 1678, and 
created a baronet m 1679. He died in 1702." — (Le Neve.) As his 
name does not appear m the "Little London Directory" of 1677, he 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 37 

had probably retired previously, and was succeeded by Thomas 
Snow, at the "Golden Anchor" in the Strand. 

i55o. — Humphrey Stocks, or Stokes, Pepys's "own little gold- 
smith," lived first in Paternoster Row; in 1677 he removed to the 
"Black Horse," in Lombard Street. In 1740, John Bland and Son 
were established there, the predecessors of Messrs. Barnett, Hoare 

and Co. 

1 552. — Daniel Bellingham, goldsmith. His name occurs as 
patentee with Sir Thomas Vyner and Robert Vyner in the establish- 
ment of a mint for coining silver in Dublin in 1662. An office with 
all the usual appomtments were prepared. A patent was granted 
for twenty-one years to coin small silver moneys; but the under- 
taking was dropped, the terms not being sufficiently remunerative 
to the projectors. 

1662. — Charles Everard, goldsmith, lived at the "Star," near 
Exchange Alley, in Lombard Street, in 1662, afterwards occupied 
by John Wassen, and subsequently by Joseph Hornby. 

William Pinckney, of the " Green Dragon," Inner Temple Gate, 
is spoken of about 1663. The "Green Dragon" was next door to 
the "Three Squirrels" in Fleet Street, and both became the property 
of the Pinckneys. Being destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, they 
were rebuilt as one house, and the sign of the "Squirrels" adopted. 
Being great losers by the closing of the Exchequer in 1672, the 
Pinckneys, like many other sufferers, were probably compelled to 
relinquish their business. 

1663. — Sir James Drax gave to the Goldsmiths' Company a 
donation of i^ioo for the poor. 

1663. — John Hinde, goldsmith. In this year (166^) his name 
appears in Alderman Backwell's ledgers as having an account with 
him. In 1677 the "Little London Directory" shows that John 
Hmde and Thomas Garwood kept running cashes over against the 
Exchange in Cornhill. 

1664. — Anthony Walter, goldsmith, gave to the Company i^ioo 
for the poor. 

1665. — John Colvill, of Lombard Street, noticed by Pepys, June 
29, 1665 : "After dinner to my little new goldsmith's, whose wife, 
indeed, is one of the prettiest, modest black women that I ever saw. 
1 paid for a dozen of silver salts, £^ 14s. 6d." Colvill had no less 
than i^8 5,000 in the Exchequer when Charles II closed it. 

1666. — Sir Robert Viner, of Lombard Street, was a celebrated 
goldsmith; Sheriff in 1666, Mayor, 1675. He made the Crown jewels 
for Charles II's coronation at a cost of upwards of ;^30,ooo, and . 
entertained His Majesty at Guildhall during his mayoralty in 1675. 
Pepys says: " 1st February, 1666. — Thence to Sir Robert Viner's, 
leaving clear in his hands ^,'2,000 of my owne money, to call for 
when I pleased." A short time after, Pepys adds that he went to 
Lombard Street and brought it away, being much surprised to find 
he received £-^^ for the use of it for a quarter of a year. When the 
Exchequer closed in 1672, Viner had in it no less than ^^4 16,724. 
This, however, does not appear to have ruined him or shaken his 



38 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

credit, as he was elected Mayor a few years after. Evelyn, in his 
" Diary," June 19, 1679, says : " I dined at Sir Robert Clayton's with 
Sir Robert Viner, the great banquerT 

" Sir Robert Viner erected at his own charge at Stocks Market 
Conduit, upon a pedestal eighteen feet high, an equestrian statue 
of Charles II trampling on an enemy with his horse's feet. On the 
pedestal was his coat of arms within a compartment of fishes." 

The great civil war, though it ruined thousands, was neverthe- 
less the cause of many large fortunes being acquired. Viner was 
one of these lucky men. In one transaction, recorded by Pepys, he 
cleared i^ 10,000 by a timely loan to Charles II. The statue alluded 
to above has a curious history. Sir Robert, wishing to show his 
loyalty and gratitude at as cheap a rate as possible, obtained through 
his agent at Leghorn, a white marble group which was to have been 
erected in honour of John Sobieski, King of Poland, commemor- 
ating his conquest of the Turks, representing that hero on horse- 
back, the animal trampling upon a prostrate Mussulman. A little 
alteration, not by any means an improvement, was made in the faces 
of the figures. Sobieski was converted into a very indifferent like- 
ness of Charles II and the prostrate foe into that of Oliver Crom- 
well ; but the artist omitting to erase the turban on the Mussulman's 
head, ludicrously revealed the imposture. This group was unveiled 
on the day the King attended the mayoral banquet at Guildhall. 
It was taken down in 1736 (having remained in situ for sixty-one 
years), to make room for the Mansion House, built on the site of 
the old Stocks Market. For many years it lay neglected in a 
builder's shed, till an enterprising innkeeper set it up in his back- 
yard. At last, in 1779, the Corporation presented it to Robert Viner, 
Esq., a descendant of the loyal Lord Mayor, who forthwith removed 
it to decorate his country seat. 

Sir Robert contributed largely towards the rebuilding of St. 
Mary Wolnoth, "a memorial whereof," says Strype, "are the Vines 
that adorn and spread about that part of the church that fronts his 
house and the Street (Lombard Street), insomuch that the church 
was used to be called Sir Robert Viner's church." His house was 
on the spot where the Post Office now stands in Lombard Street. 

1666. — Sir Charles Doe, goldsmith. For preserving the Gold- 
smiths' Company's plate and writings, and other their concerns, dur- 
ing the Great Fire, and placing them in a place of security at 
Edmonton : " For this careful and prudent act of the said Sir 
Charles Doe, the thanks of the Wardens and Assistants present were 
given him." 

1666. — Robert South, John Terry, William Symonds, Mr. 
Maninge, and William Daniel were goldsmiths, and donors of plate 
to the Goldsmiths' Company previous to the Great Fire of 1666, at 
which time their gifts were melted down into coin to supply funds 
for rebuilding the Hall, etc. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 39 

1667. — Anthony Bradshaw, goldsmith, presented a cup to the 
Goldsmiths' Company in a previous year, which was melted in 1667 
to provide funds for repairing the llall. 

1 55^. — James Feake While, goldsmith, is recorded as having 
presented a cup to the Goldsmiths' Company, which was melted 
with several other pieces of plate, to provide ready money to repair 
the Hall after the Great Fire. Date unknown. 

i5pro. — Sir Thomas Cook, Knight, goldsmith. In the "Little 
London Directory," 1677, we hnd that Thomas Cook and Nicholas 
Gary were goldsmiths and bankers at the " Griffin," in Exchange 
Alley. John Cook, described as son of a knight (viz.. Sir Thomas), 
was at Merchant Taylors' vSchool in 1686, and of St. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1693. (C. J. Robinson, op. ciL). 

1670-90. — Sir John Brattle was King's Assay Master at the 
Mint from 1670 to 1690. A Mr. Brattle was in 1666 Deputy Assayer 
at Goldsmiths' Hall. '"'Sir John Brattle, a worthy person, and who 
hath long enjoyed a considerable ofhce in the Royal Mint." (Dr. 
Walker's account of ^tx^ov Baa-iXtKy], 4to, London, 1691.) 

Charles Brattle was King's Assayer at the Mint from 1690 to 
1 7 16, also a Daniel Brattle was Assayer at the Mint about the same 
time. 

1670. — William Gosling, one of the Sheriffs in 1684, who was 
knighted and became Alderman of Farringdon Without, was pro- 
bably the founder of the well-known hrm of goldsmiths and 
bankers; they were originally plate-workers as well as goldsmiths. 
We first meet with the name in the account of the secret service 
moneys of Charles II; "On the 22nd May, 1674. — To Richard 
Bokenham, in full, for several parcels of gold and silver lace, bought 
of William Gosling and Partners by the Duchess of Cleveland, for 
the wedding clothes of Lady Sussex and Lichfield, ;^640 8s." 

On the copper plate at Goldsmiths' Hall, struck by the makers 
with their punches between 1675 ^-^d 1697, the letter G surmounted 
by a crown represents this firm. The next time we find the name is 
in the Goldsmiths' books, when, on June 28, 1739, Richard Gosling 
enters his name as plate-worker, residing in Barbican. On July 7, 
1743, he removed to Cornhill. From 1750 to 1757 the firm was 
Gosling and Bennett, and in the Parliamentary Return of 1773 they 
are described as Richard and 1 osefh Gosling, spoon makers. Corn- 
hill. 

1670. — John Lindsay, goldsmith, circa 1670. He subsequently 
married Dorothy, the widow of John Colvill, of Lombard Street. 

The following goldsmiths were also severe losers by the closing 
of the Exchequer in 1672, which caused the utter ruin of several of 
them : 

1666. — William Raw son and John Marriott. 

166%.— Francis Kenton, "King's Arms," Fleet Street. He re- 
covered his position and is found in the list of those who kept 
" running cashes " five years later. 

1668. — John Mawson and Co., the "Golden Hind," Fleet Street. 
They kept "running cashes" at the same house in 1677. 



40 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1670. — Joseph Horneby, goldsmith, at the "Star," in Lombard 
Street. He took a lease of these premises in 1666, which were burned 
down shortly after. He lost ;^22,500 by the closing of the Ex- 
chequer in 1672, but still continued his business, being mentioned in 
the "Little London Directory" of 1677 ^s keeping "running cashes" 
at the same house. 

1672. — John Fortman lost by the same iniquitous proceeding 
i;76,ooo. 

\^'J2.— Thomas Rowe, of the "George," in Lombard Street, lost 
;^ 1 7,000. Thomas Rowe and George Green were at the same house 
as bankers in 1677, being included ni the list in the "Little London 
Directory." 

1672. — Bernard Turner, of the "Fleece," Lombard Street, lost 
i^ 1 6,000. In 1777 the firm was Turner and Tookie, keeping "run- 
ning cashes." 

1672. — Robert Welstead lost upwards of £11,000. 

1672. — Gilbert Whitehall lost as much as ^^248,000. 

1674. — John Saunders, goldsmith, presented to the Goldsmiths' 
Company two silver cups and covers. We have not met with any 
other notice of him. 

1676. — Blanc hard and Child. After William Wheeler's death, 
Robert Blanchard, who was considerably senior to Francis Child, 
appears to have carried on the business by himself. Blanchard 
having married Child's mother, he took him into partnership a few 
years after. 

In the "Little London Directory" (1677) the firm is styled 
Blanchard and Child, keeping "running cashes," or actually bankers. 
Robert Blanchard died June 5, 1681, when the firm was Francis Child 
and John Rogers, the latter being manager, a custom which has ex- 
isted in that bank, and which is still continued; subsequently a Mr. 
Jackson was taken in as a junior partner. 

At Blanchard's death, Francis Child, the industrious apprentice, 
in 1 68 1, became possessed of the whole fortune of the Wheelers and 
Blanchards, having married Elizabeth, his cousin, only daughter 
and heiress of his uncle, William Wheeler, junior. 

Robert Blanchard bequeathed i^200 to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany for the poor. 

Late in Charles IPs reign. Alderman Backwell, who was ruined 
by the iniquitous closing of the Exchequer, became bankrupt in 1672, 
and his business was transferred to the firm with all the books and 
accounts, which are still preserved; but it does not appear, as has 
been stated, that he had any further interest as a partner, Backwell 
having fled to Holland, where he died in 1679 Among the accounts 
thus transferred were those of Nell Gwynne, Prince Rupert, and 
many of the nobility. 

Alderman Backwell's son, Tyringham, married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of the first Sir Francis Child, by whom he had two sons, 
Barnaby and William, who both went into the bank and subse- 
quently became partners. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 41 

1677. — John Snelly fourth son of George Snell, succeeded his 
father as goldsmith and banker, at the sign of the " Fox," in Lom- 
bard Street; born 1651. He is mentioned in the "Little London 
Directory" as keeping "running cashes" in 1677 at the same house. 
1677. — Thomas Willidins, goldsmith, at the " Crown," in Lom- 
bard Street, kept "running cashes" in this year; he was the prede- 
cessor of Messrs. Willis, Percival and Co., bankers. 

1677. — ] ohn Coggs was a goldsmith keeping "running cashes" 
at the " King's Head," m the Strand, in this year, who had appar- 
ently a very good connection as a banker. 

1677. — John Temple, goldsm.ith. Sir Robert Viner's manager, 
carried on his business after Sir Robert's great loss compelled him 
to relinquish it. Pepys styles him, " the fat blade. Sir Robert Viner's 
chief man." In 1777 we hnd him at the "Three Tuns," in Lombard 
Street, in partnership with John Scale. 

In the "Little London Directory" of 1677 we find a list of 
goldsmiths who w^ere also bankers or kept "running cashes"; plate- 
workers, not keeping shops for the sale of plate, are excluded from 
this list. " Hereunto is an addition of all the goldsmiths that keep 
running cashes." 

] ohn Addis and Company, at the Sun in Lumbard Street. 

John Bolitho and Mr. Wilson, at the Golden Lion in Lumbard 
Street. 

J ohn Ballard, at the Unicorn, Lumbard Street. 

Job Bolton, at the Bolt and Tun in Lumbard Street. 

Robert Blanchard and Child, at the Marygold in Fleet Street. 

Thomas Cook and Nicholas Cary, at the Griffin in Exchange 
Alley. 

Mr. Citthbert, in Cheapside. 

Mr. Coggs, at the King's Head in the Strand. 

Mr. Churchill, in the Strand. 

Charles Duncomb and Richard Kent, at the Grasshopper in 
Lumbard Street. 

J ohn Ewing and Benjamin, Norrington, at the Angel and Crown 
in Lumbard Street. 

Mr. East, in the Strand. 

Thomas Fowles, at the Black Lion in Fleet Street. 

Joseph and Nathainel Hornboy, of the Star in Lumbard Street. 

John Hind and Thomas Carwood, over against the Exchange in 
Cornhill. 

Benjamin Hint on, at the Flower de Luce in Lumbard Street. 

James Herriot, at the Naked Boy in Fleet Street. 

James Hore, at the Golden Bottle m Cheapside. 

James Johnson, at the Three Flower de Luces in Cheapside. 

Thomas Kilbornc and Capill, at the King's Head in Lumbard 
Street. 

Mr. Kenton, at the King's Arms in Fleet Street. 

Mr. Ketch, at the Black Horse in the Strand. 

Henry Lamb, at the Grapes in Lumbard Street. 

James Lapley, at the Three Cocks in Cheapside. 



42 HALL }.L\RKS ON PLATE. 

]ohn Mawson and Comfany, at the Golden Hind, in Fleet 
Street. 

Henry Nelthorpe, at the Rose in Lumbard Street. 

Thomas Price, at the Goat m Lumbard Street. 

Peier Percefull and Stephen Evans, at the Black Boy in Lum- 
bard Street. 

Thomas Pardee, at the Golden Anchor m Lumbard Street. 

Thomas Rowe and Thomas Green, at the George in Lumbard 
Street. 

Humphrey Stocks, at the Black Horse in Lumbard Street. 

John Sweetaple, at the Black Moor's Head in Lumbard Street. 

John Snell, at the Fox in Lumbard Street. 

Michael Schrimpshaiv, at the Golden Lion in Fleet Street. 

Richard Staley, in Covent Garden. 

John Temple and John Seale, at the Three Tuns in Lumbard 

Street. 

John Thursby, at the Ball in Lumbard Street. 

Bar Turner and Samuel Tookie. 

Major John Wallis, at the Angell in Lumbard Street. 

Peter Wade, at the Mermaid in Lumbard Street. 

Peter White and Churchill, at the Plough in Lumbard Street. 

Thomas White, at the Blew Anchor in Lombard Street 

Tho7nas Williams, at the Crown in Lumbard Street. 

Robert Ward and John Townley, at the Ram in Lumbard Street. 

1677. — Charles Buncombe and Richard Kent were goldsmiths at 
the " Grasshopper " in Lombard Street. Buncombe was an appren- 
tice of Alderman Backwell, and on his retirement and bankruptcy, 
occasioned by the closing of the Exchequer, started on his own ac- 
count in partnership with Mr. Kent. Charles Buncombe was Master 
or Warden oi the Mint with James Hore 1678-81. He was very suc- 
cessful and acquired an immense fortune. About 1696 he purchased 
the Buke of Buckingham's estate at Helmsley in Yorkshire, for 
i^90,ooo; it was afterwards called Buncombe Park.. Sir Charles 
Buncombe was Sheriff in 1699 and Mayor in 1708-9. He left his 
estates to his sister Mrs. Brown, who, taking her brother's name, be- 
came the founder of the present family of Earl Feversham. When 
Buncombe retired, the business passed to a Mr. Smyth, and subse- 
quently to Messrs. Stone and Martin, the well-known bankers. 

1677. — James Hore or Hoare, Warden of the Mint with Charles 
Buncombe 1678-81, ancestor of the well-known bankers, is described 
in the foregoing list as keeping " running cashes " at the " Golden 
Bottle" in Cheapside, but his goldsmith's trade was established 
earlier than 1677. He was Comptroller of the Mint in 1661, Sur- 
veyor of the Meltings and Clerk of the Coins in 1665, and from 1679 
to 1682 Warden of the Mint. About 1692 he removed to Fleet Street 
where, under the sign of " The Golden Bottle," his descendants still 
flourish. The old sign may be seen over the doorway; it is the form 
of the old leathern bottle in which ale was carried by the labourers, 
haymakers and others in the seventeenth century. The popular ver- 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 43 

sion is that it represented the identical bottle carried by the founder 
of the firm when he came to London to seek his fortune. 

Sir Richard Colt Lloare, the celebrated Wiltshire antiquary, 
attempts to destroy this romance in his family history ; he says the 
bottle is merely a sign adopted by James Hoare, the founder of the 
bank, from his father having been citizen and cooper of the city of 
London, but, in fact, coopers did not make leathern bottles or any 
wooden vessels of that shape. 

1649. — Thomas Jameson, goldsmith, gave £100 for the poor of 
the Company. 

1680. — Mr. Fells, goldsmith, "The Bunch of Grapes," Strand. 
The following advertisement appears in a newspaper of October 
29th, 1680 : " There was dropt out of a balcony in Cheapside a very 
large watch case studded with gold; if any person hath taken it 
away and will bring it to Mr. Fells, goldsmith, at the sign of ' The 
Bunch of Grapes ' in the Strand, he shall have a guinney reward." 

1 680- 1 702. — Matot (Daniel), a Huguenot artificer and designer, 
was originally an architect. He was brought to this country by Wil- 
liam III from Holland, where he had taken refuge. His works have 
been described as " an inexhaustible treasury of models for gold and 
silver." The candlesticks, in the form of corinthian columns 
(prompted by his early pursuits), were probably designed by him, 
although popularly ascribed to the period of Queen Anne. Lie 
doubtless was the cause of a great improvement in the style of plate 
of the Anne era now so much appreciated. 

1680. — Pierre Harache, an eminent goldsmith and plateworker, 
of Suffolk Street, Charing Cross, emigrated from France after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The first time w^e meet with his 
mark is on the copper plate at Goldsmiths' Hall between 1675 ^.nd 
1697. The first record of his name is of the latter year. The earliest 
pieces of plate we have seen are an old standard two-handled cup of 
the year 1691, and a fine helmet-shaped ewer of the New Standard of 
1697, engraved with the arms of William III, presented by the King 
to the Duke of Devonshire, weighing seventy ounces. He died in 
1700, and was succeeded by his son Peier Harache, junior, then resid- 
ing in Compton Street, Soho. The father's mark was his initials with 
two ermines above, surmounted by a crown, and a crescent under, to 
which the son added a fleur-de-lis between the letters. The latest 
pieces we have met with are of 1705-6, probably the date of his 
death. The important and massive plate made for the Duke of. 
Marlborough, with several others, will be found noted in the Appen- 
dix, being all of the new standard. 

1 68 1. — Heneage Price, goldsmith, took the lease of a house on 
the south side of the Strand, without Temple Bar, in the parish of 
St. Clement's Danes in 1681. 

In a. minute of the vestry book of Hadley, dated April 11, 
1687, "it was agreed that Mr. Tayler, W. Dale and Daniel Hudson, 
churchwardens, and George Baron, overseer for the poor, shall go to 



44 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

London upon the parish charge to receive the legacy of the late R. 
Hble. Henry Coventry, Esq., one hundred founds to the poor of 
Hadley, to put the said hundred pounds into the hands of Mr. 
Heneage Price, goldsmith, nigh Temple Bar, to ly there till it be 
called for by the parish." (" Monken Hadley," by F. C. Cass, M.A.) 

1 68 1. — Sir Francis Child., on the death of Robert Blanchard, 
succeeded to the business, taking his manager, John Rogers, as a 
partner : he lived at Parson's Green, and was buried in the parish 
church of Fulham. We derive the following authentic information 
from the inscription on his tomb : " Sir Francis Child, Knight and 
Alderman, and President of Christ's Church Hospital in London, 
who departed this life October the 4th, 1713, aetatis 71. He was 
Sheriff 1690, and Lord Mayor m the year 1699, and in the year 1702 
he was chosen one of the four citizens to serve for the said city in the 
first Parliament of the reign of Queen Anne. He married Elizabeth, the 
only daughter and heiress of William Wheeler, goldsmith, by whom 
he had twelve sons and three daughters. The bodies of his sons 
James and William, and of his daughter Martha, wife of Anthony 
Collins, Esqre., are removed from the church into this vault." Of the 
twelve sons, we have been able to trace only Sir Robert, Sir Francis, 
Sir John, and Samuel, who succeeded him as goldsmiths and bankers 
in Fleet Street; Sir Josiah,* an East India director; another who was 
Governor of Bombay ; Stephen, who in partnership with Mr. Tud- 
man, was a goldsmith at the Crown in Lombard Street, now the 
house of Willis, Percival and Co.; and James and William, who 
probably died in their infancy. He had three brothers — Daniel lived 
with him at Parson's Green, Edward living at Burghley in 1686, and 
John who lived at Devizes. 

Prince Rupert, son of the Queen of Bohemia (daughter of James 
I), who died at his house in Barbican in 1682, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, left a collection of jewels valued at ;;^20,ooo, 
which were disposed of by lottery under the management of Mr. 
Francis Child in the following year. An advertisement in " The 
London Gazette" of October, 1683, announced that ''the jewels had 
been valued by Mr. Isaac Legouch, Mr. Christopher Rosse, and Mr. 
Richard Beauvoir, jewellers, and will be sold by lottery, each lot to 
be ^^"5. The biggest prize will be a pearl necklace valued at ^^3,000, 
and none less than ;^ioo. The money to be paid to Mr. Child, who 
will stand obliged to all the adventurers, and that they shall receive 
their money back if the drawing does not take place on the ist 
February next. The drawing will take place in the presence of Flis 
Majesty, who will himself see that all the prizes are put in among 
the blanks, and that the whole will be managed with equity and fair- 

* Rebecca, third daughter of Sir Josiah Child, of Wansted, was married to 
Charles, Marquis of Worcester, eon of the Duke of Beaufort, in 1683. This 
lady was also grandmother of the Duke of Grafton. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 45 

ness " The drawing took phice at Whitehall, the King counting the 
tickets among all the lords and ladies who flocked to take part in the 

adventure. 

The name of Sarah, the celebrated Duchess of Marlborough, the 
friend of Queen Anne, must ever be remembered with reference to 
Child's bank. On one occasion when a rumour was afloat that a run 
was about to be made, she collected as much gold as she could and 
brought it down herself to the bank at Temple Bar on the very morn- 
ing the run was to be made, thus enabling the hrm to meet all de- 
mands. 

1585. — Anthony Ficketts, goldsmith, bequeathed ;^ioo to the 
poor of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

1 588. — Sir John Shorter, Knight, goldsmith,* was appointed 
Mayor of the City of London by James H for year 1688. Lie met his 
death in a singular manner. He was on his way to open Bartholo- 
mew Fair by reading the proclamation at the entrance to Cloth Fair, 
Smithfield. It was the custom for the Mayor on his way to call on 
the Keeper of Newgate, and there partake of a cool tankard of wine 
spiced and sweetened. In receiving the tankard. Sir John let the lid 
suddenly fall down ; the noise frightening the horse he was upon, it 
started, and he was thrown violently, and died the following day, in 
the sixty-fourth year of his age. 

In Strype's Stow, opposite the name of Sir John Shorter, Mayor in 
1688, are placed these significant words : "Never served Sheriff, nor 
a freeinan of the City ; appointed by King James II." This must, 
however, be incorrect, for John Shorter was one of the sheriffs in 
1675, in the mayoralty of Sir Thomas Viner. 

Sir John Shorter was buried in St. Saviour's Church (formerly St 
Mary Overie) in 1688, and his wife in 1703. He was the grandfather 
of Lady Walpole, wife of Sir Robert and mother of Horace 
Walpole. 

1689. — William Pier son, goldsmith, bequeathed ^^50 for the 
poor goldsmiths. 

1690. — Messrs. Hankey, goldsmiths and bankers, were estab- 
lished about this time at the sign of the " Three Golden Balls " in 
Fenchurch Street ;tthey were also pawnbrokers, as most of the gold- 
smiths embraced that profitable business. The sign of " the three 
balls " (two to one) having been adopted by pawnbrokers, and the 
I Messrs. Hankey having dropped that particular line of business, 
changed their sign to "The Golden Ball," and continued there many 
years. 

* He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, which he entered in 164]. 

t The old goldsmiths and bankers advanced money upon pledges just as 
pawnbrokers do now, choosing, of course, the most valuable articles as security. 
In the early ledgers of Aldei-man Backwell and Blanchard and Childs's accounts 
may be seen a separate heading of " Pawnes," to which all interest and profits 
arising from ''money lent" on pledges, or more marketable security, was 
placed. In the days of Charles II the bankers charged as much as twenty or 
thirty per cent for money, while they never appear to have allowed more than 
six per cent on deposit. 



46 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1690. — George Middleion was goldsmith at the " Three Crowns '' 
in St. Martin's Lane, City, about this time. The business was re- 
moved to Durham Yard in the Strand, and continued by Messrs. 
Middleton and Campbell. 

1690. — Sir Thomas Fowles, goldsmith and banker, dwelt about 
this time at the "Black Lion" in Fleet Street. He left by will, in 
1 69 1, an annuity of ten pounds for the poor of the Company of 
Goldsmiths. 

1690. — James Heriot, a descendant of the celebrated George 
Heriot of Edinburgh, " kept running cashes " at the sign of the 
"Naked Boy" in Fleet Street. In 1756, Joseph Heriot, of Great St. 
Andrew's Street, Seven Dials, entered his name at Goldsmiths' Hall 
as plateworker, also a descendant. 

1692. — Mr. James Coutts succeeded Messrs. Middleton and 
Campbell at the " Three Crowns" in 1692. His cheques bore a circu- 
lar stamp of three crowns and the letters J. C. reversed and inter- 
laced, around which was his address, " At the Three Crowns in the 
Strand, next door to the Globe tavern, A.D. 1692." He was the origin- 
ator of the widely-known banking house of Messrs. Coutts and Co. 

It is stated that when James Coutts came up tO' London on a 
visit to his brothers, he happened to meet a Miss Polly Peagrim, the 
niece of George Campbell, the goldsmith of St. Martin's Lane, that 
he fell in love and was married to her. Shortly after, Mr. Campbell 
took him into partnership, Coutts having given up his connection 
with his brothers in an old-established business at Edinburgh, and 
the style of the firm was Campbell and Coutts. George Campbell 
died in 1761, when James Coutts took his brother Thomas into part- 
nership, who gave up his business in St. Mary Axe, when it became 
Coutts and Coutts. Mr. James Coutts died in 1778. His brother 
Thomas long survived him, and became one of the first bankers in 
London. 

Mr. Thomas Coutts, who had lived as a bachelor for many years, 
married Elizabeth Starkey, a superior domestic servant in his 
brother's service, and by her he had three daughters who were called 
" the three Graces." The eldest, Susan, married the Earl of Guild- 
ford ; the second, Frances, married the Marquis of Bute; and Sophia, 
his third and youngest daughter, married Sir Francis Burdett, Bart. 

After Mrs. Coutts's death, who had been an invalid for many 
years, he married (in 1813) Miss Mellon, the actress, he being then 
eighty years of age. He died on February 22, 1822, at the age of 
eighty-seven, leaving his widow the whole of his property amounting, 
it is said, ;^900,ooo. 

Mrs. Coutts afterwards married the Duke of St. Albans ; she, 
however, reserved to herself by marriage settlement, the sole control 
of her property, and at her death she left the whole of her great 
wealth to Angela Burdett, the favourite granddaughter of Mr. 
Thomas Coutts. This lady then assumed the additional name of 
Coutts, and was subsequently created a peeress with the title of 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 



47 



The royal family formerly banked with Messrs. Coutts; but 
George III, hearing that Mr. Coutts had supported Sir Francis Bur- 
dett at the Westminster election by the loan of a large sum of money 
(i^ 100,000 as reported), immediately withdrew his account from the 
house, and afterwards banked with Messrs. Drummond; but at the 
desire of His Majesty that his son should be refused any further 
loans, the prince withdrew and placed his account at Coutts's, where 
he was amply supplied with funds, and the royal family still bank 
there. 

1693. — Thomas Seymour, goldsmith, presented, in 1693, to the 
company a silver salt with a crystal cylinder; height 10^ inches. 
The foot ornamented with cherub heads and fleur de lis, etc., resting 
upon eight lions. We have met with no other notice of this donor. 

1694. — In this year the Goldsmiths met with a serious rival by 
the foundation of the Bank of England, which was mainly instituted 
through the exertions of William Pater son, a Scotchman. 

1695. — Peter Floyer, goldsmith, of Love Lane, was in a very ex- 
tensive way of business as a refiner. His son, was Prime Warden of 
the Goldsmiths' Company in 1773. 

An act was passed in the -reign of Charles II and revived fourth 
Tames II : as a means of supplying the Mint with bullion, it was en- 
acted therein that every person who should bring bullion of gold or 
silver to the Mint to be coined should receive weight for weight in 
standard coins. This permission was discontinued in 1695, and was 
highly necessary that it should be put a stop to, for in an account 
delivered to the committee of the whole House in February, 1695, by 
Mr. Neale, Master of the Mint, he stated that from Lady Day im- 
mediately preceding, 721,800 guineas had been coined in the Tower 
for divers persons, among whom were : 



Peter Floyer 
John Mousley ... 
Royal African Company 
Lord Lucas 


• 139.752 guineas 

3 
. 21,389 

115 


Countess of Northampton 
Sir Francis Child 


21 „ 
41,819 


Richard Howe ... 


18,181 



Commons Journals, Vol. XI, pp. 447-53. 

1697. — Benjamin Pyne was a goldsmith and celebrated plate- 
worker. His name was entered in 1697, living in St. Martin's le 
Grand. Numerous line examples are preserved, made between 1697 
and 1 72 1. His m.ark was PY, with a fleur-de-lis surmounted by a 
crown. 

1697. — Anthony Nelme, goldsmith and plateworker living in 
" Avie Mary Lane," entered his name and mark at the Hall in 1697. 
He seems to have been extensively patronised, judging from the 
numerous pieces of plate which have come under our notice. He died 

5 



48 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

in 1722, and was succeeded by Francis Nelme in that year, who 
adopted the same monogram and re-entered his name at the same 
house in 1739. 

1697. — John Bodington, goldsmith and plate-worker, at the 
" Mitre " in Foster Lane, entered his name at the Hall in 1697. There 
are several examples of his plate extant. His mark had a mitre 
above his initials. Edmund Bodington succeeded in 1727 at the 
same house. 

1697. — William Gamble was a celebrated goldsmith and plate- 
worker living in Foster Lane. He entered his name at the Hall in 
April, 1697, but his mark for the old standard, WG crowned in a 
circle, is found on the copper plate at Goldsmiths' Hall struck be- 
tween 1675 and 1696. His Britannia mark of GA crowned in a circle 
is frequently met with in the latter part of the seventeenth and com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century, and many fine examples of 
his plate have come under our notice — Monteiths, cups, tankards, 
etc. He was succeeded by his son, Ellis Gamble, who removed to 
the " Golden Angel, Cranbourn Alley, Lester Fields," who doubtless 
adopted the same mark, as it was only obligatory to use the first two 
letters of the surname, so there was no occasion of a re-entry, a notice 
of the change being sent to the Hall. Hogarth was apprenticed to 
Mr. Ellis Gamble, silversmith, in 17 12, when he was fifteen years 
of age, and remained with him for six years, his time having expired. 
It was there he learned the art of plate-engraving. Shop bills of 
Gamble's engraved by his famous apprentice, are much sought after 
by collectors of engravings.* Hogarth died 1764. 

1697. — David Willainne came to England about 1686, and com- 
menced business as a goldsmith and plate-worker m Pall Mall. His 
mark is found on the copper plate previous to 1697, and he entered 
his name at the Hall for the New Standard in April, 1697. In 1720 
he removed to the " Golden Ball," in St. James's Street, where he 
had "running cashes," or, in other words, became a banker. In 1739 
he again entered his name at the Hall. He was one of the Pro- 
testants who fled from Metz after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, declared October 24, 1685. 

1699. — Pierre Plat el, goldsmith and plate-worker, entered his 
name at the Hall in 1699, living in the "Pell Mell." He was one 
of the Huguenots who escaped to England after the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. He was much patronised, and produced some 
artistic pieces of plate, among which may be specially noted the 
standard gold ewer and salver, of elegant form and workmanship, 
in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire, made in 1701 ; many 
ether pieces in silver are extant. The mark he adopted was PL with 
a crown above and fleur-de-lis below (the two first letters of his 
name), very similar to that of Paul de Lamerie, which he adopted 

* One of these bills has an engravinp; of an angel holding a palm, with an 
inscription in French and English: "Ellis Gamble at the ' Golden Angel,' in 
Cranbourne Street, Leicester Fields, makes, buys, and sells all sorts of 
plate, etc." 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 49 

in 1732; but they cannot be confounded, as Platel's mark only occurs 
on the New Standard, and he probably died about 1720, the last 
piece we have met with being made m 1719- The gold ewer above 
mentioned was made many years before Paul de Lamerie entered 
his name and mark of LA in 17 12. 

1^00. — Stephen Child (son of the first Sir Francis) joined Mr. 
Tudman, a goldsmith, "at y^ Crown in Lumbard St.," about this 
date, and the representatives of that firm are now Messrs. Willis, 
Percival and Co. 

1700. — Thomas Snow was a goldsmith at the " Golden Anchor," 
in the Strand. He was a very careful man of business. Lie suc- 
ceeded Sir Jeremiah Snow, of Lombard Street. The following story 
is told by Mr. Frederick Martin, in his stories of "Banks and 
Bankers." " Sampson Gideon, a great Jew broker, had occasion to 
borrow i^20,ooo of Mr. Snow, the banker. Very shortly afterwards 
a panic occurred, and Mr. Snow, alarmed for the safety of his loan, 
addressed a piteous epistle to the Jew, entreating him to pay the 
money at once, and thereby save him from bankruptcy and utter 
ruin. Gideon knew his man well and determined to give him back 
his coveted property, but to punish him at the same time for his 
want of confidence. Accordingly he sent for a phial of hartshorn, 
and wrapping it in twenty notes of ;^ 1,000 each, returned the loan 
in that form to Mr. Thomas Snow, goldsmith, near Temple Bar." 
Thomas Snow, profiting by the experience of his predecessor, Sir 
Jeremiah, was sagacious enough to avoid ruin in the fatal bubble 
year of 1720. Mr. Gay celebrates his good fortune in an "Epistle 
to Thomas Snow, goldsmith, near Temple Bar": 

" O Thou ! whose penetrative wisdom found 

The South-sea rocks and shelves, where thousands drown' d, 
When credit sunk, and commerce gasping lay, 

Thou stood'st, nor sent'st one bill unpaid away; 
When not a guinea chink'd on Martin's boards, 

And Attwell's self was drain'd of all his hoards." 

The firm was subsequently Snow and Walton, goldsmiths and 
pawnbrokers, like many other goldsmiths and bankers. About 1730 
it was Snow and Paltock. In 1736 the firm was Snow and Co. 
From 1754 to 1768, Snow and Denne. In 1768, William Sandby, 1 
bookseller in Fleet Street, was associated with the firm. In 1798, 
Mr. J. Dean Paul was admitted, and it became the bank of Paul, 
Strahan, and Bates. In 1856 the house failed through the un- 
scrupulous conduct of some of the partners, who misappropriated 
the securities left in their charge, and they were transported. 

1700. — Atwell and Co., goldsmiths and bankers, from about 
1680 to 1720, when they failed. Their names are mentioned by Gay 
in his poem addressed to Thomas Snow in 1720, the fatal South Sea 
Bubble year, "And Atwell's self was drained of all his hoards." 

1701. — Simon Pantin, goldsmith and plate-worker, of the "Pea- 
cock," St Martin's Lane, City, entered his name at the Hall in June, 



50 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1 70 1. In 1 7 17 he removed to Castle Street, Leicester Fields. He 
died in 1728, and was succeeded by his son, Sijnoit Pantin, jmiior^ 
who entered his name in February, 1829, and removed m 1731 to 
Green Street, Leicester Fields. Dymg m 1733, the busmess was 
carried on by his widow, Mary Pantin. Numerous examples of the 
Pantins's make are preserved, bearmg the well-known mark of a 
peacock with his tail outspread over the initials. On old Simon Pan- 
tin's death, Lewis Pantin remained in Castle Street, but adopted 
for his mark a globe above his initials, entered in 1733 and 1739. 
In 1773 he w^as located at 45 Fleet Street. 

1 701. — Humphrey Payne, goldsmith and plate-worker, at the 
" Golden Cup," Gutter Lane (formerly Guthuron's Lane), entered 
his name at the Hall in December, 1701. In 1720 he was in Cheap- 
side. He re-entered his mark in 1739 at the same house, but died 
shortly after, as underneath is written " dead." He was succeeded 
by his son, John Payne, who entered his mark in 1751 and was gold- 
smith there in 1773. This old-established firm was much patron- 
ised; and numerous fine examples are preserved in collections. 

1703. — John Smith, goldsmith, of Holborn, was entered for the 
New Standard at the Hall, in 1697. By his will, dated 1703, he 
gave the sum of ^^420 to the Goldsmiths for the poor of the Com- 
pany. 

1705. — John Croker, born at Dresden in 1670, was originally a 
jeweller, came to England, and was employed at the Mint. In 
1705 he was appointed Chief Engraver, subsequently Mint Master 
by Queen Anne until his death in 1740, when he was succeeded by 
Dassier. Queen Anne's farthings, about which some absurd rumours 
have been in circulation as to their value, were designed by him, but, 
owing to the Queen's death, they were never circulated, hence their 
comparative rarity. There are six varieties of these pattern 
farthings, struck in gold, silver, copper and tin. The prices of them 
vary, of course, with the material. Those in copper, frequently met 
with, may be obtained from ten shillings to twenty shillings each; 
but some types are more scarce, say forty shillings to fifty shillings. 

1705. — Charles Boii, born at Stockholm, the son of a French- 
man, was a jeweller, and came to England to follow that trade. He 
afterwards painted portraits in enamel so successfully that he was 
much patronised in the reign of Queen Anne. He died in 1726. 

1706. — Gabriel Heath, goldsmith and plate-worker of Gutter 
Lane, entered his name at the Hall in March, 1706, New Standard, 
and for the Old Standard in 1720, and re-entered in 1739. In 
1753 the firm was Gabriel Heath and Francis Cnmi-pe at the same 
house. 

Sir Richard Ho are, goldsmith. Sheriff, 1709, Lord Mayor, 171 3, 
M.P. for the City of London. He died in 17 18, and by his will he 
left the sum of ;^200 for the poor of the Goldsmiths' Company, and 
was buried at St. Dunstan's in the West; the monument was erected 
by his son, Henry. 

1708-73. — Augustin Courtatdd, goldsmith and plateworker, 
living in Church Street, St. Martin's Lane, City, entered his name 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 51 

at the Hall in December, 1708. In 1729 he removed to " Shandois 
(Chandos) Street." In 1746, Samuel Courtauld was still at the 
same house, removing to Cornhill in 175 1. Louisa Courtauld, his 
widow, succeeded to the business m Cornhill, m partnership with 
George Cowles, in 1773. 

1 7 10. — William Handy a goldsmith, carried on his trade in 
Russell Street, Covent Garden, in 17 10. 

171 2. — Richard Wright, goldsmith, probably earlier. In 1729 
Anthony Wright was a goldsmith living in Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden; and in 1754, Anthony Wright was at the "Golden 
Cup," " Common (sic) Garden." Afterwards Wright & Co., 
bankers. 

17 12. — Faul de Lanierie dwelt at the "Golden Ball," in Wind- 
mill Street, near the Haymarket. He first entered his name at Gold- 
smiths' Hall on February 5, 17 12. In or about 1739 we find he had 
removed to Gerard Street, Soho. After carrying on business for 
forty years, he died at an advanced age in 175 1, leaving no one to 
succeed him. 

This celebrated silversmith, whose name is so well known to 
collectors, and whose works are still so highly appreciated, was 
greatly patronised by the nobility and gentry as the first silversmith 
of his time; and there is no doubt he was an artist and designer as 
well as a plate-worker. 

It is not known when De Lamerie was appointed Royal Gold- 
smith, but his mark has always borne a crown over his initials from 
the date of his first entry at the Hall in 17 12. He was of foreign 
extraction, and probably learned his art in France. It may be here 
observed that he, and many others who acquired celebrity about 
that time in England, had probably quitted Paris towards the end 
of the reign of Louis XIV, when the trade had declined to such an 
extent that they Avere compelled to find employment in other coun- 
tries : the Grand Monarque, to pay the expense of his wars, having 
sent his plate to the Mint, in 1688, to be melted; an example which 
was followed by all his Court, but not before careful drawings had 
been made by the goldsmith Delaunay and others. 

Notwithstanding the alteration of the standard in 1720, De 
Lamerie still continued making plate of the New or Britannia Stan- 
dard down to 1732, both qualities being allowed by the Act of Par- 
liament. All the principal silversmiths disapproved of the altera- 
tion; and a remonstrance was submitted to the House of Commons, 
entitled " The Case of the Working Goldsmiths against the New 
Act" (Guildhall Library.) 

They considered that the new standard was not only a better 
colour and more brilliant, but that it would be impossible to produce 
so high a finish and such elaborate chasing or curious work on the 
old standard. It continues : " Foreign courts, where a coarser alloy 
is used, give frequent commissions for their most valuable plate to 
be made in London; but it would be impossible for the fi-nest artist 
to finish so complete a work in silver of the old standard as it is now 
performed in the new standard ; and that the former, of 1 1 oz. 



52 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

2 dwt., would not stand the (ire to receive proper ornaments." They 
also objected the duty of sixpence per ounce which was proposed, 
and urged that the old standard with the duty would be threepence 
dearer than the new standard. It was in consequence of this asser- 
tion that Section 41 of the new act was added to it, giving the 
workers an opportunity of working either of the qualities. 

1/12. — Andrew Dnnmnond, a goldsmith, was established about 
this time; son of Sir John Drummond, of Machany. In 1754 the 
firm was still styled Andrew Drummond and Co.; in 1770 John 
Drummond; and m 1775 Robert Drummond and Co.; 1805 Andrew 
Drummond was head partner; and since then the firm has always 
been Drum^mond and Co. When George III became displeased with 
his bankers Messrs. Coutts, he withdrew his balance, and banked 
afterwards with Messrs. Drummond. George, Prince of Wales, like- 
wise kept an account with them for some years, but he was probably 
too extravagant, and the king desired Messrs. Drummond not to 
make any further advances to his son. They were placed in an awk- 
ward position. If they disobeyed the king's commands, they would 
lose the accounts and gam the favours of the prince On the other 
hand, they would offend the prince and lose the royal accounts on 
the king's death. The Drummonds, however, obeyed His Majesty's 
command, and refused any further advances to the Prince of Wales, 
who' then went to Messrs. Coutts and obtained whatever he required, 
and the royal family have banked there ever since. 

1716-40. — William Bellassyse, goldsmith and plateworker at 
the " Mitre," in Monkwell Street, first entered his name at the Hall in 
March, 17 16. In 1723 he removed to Holborn. His mark was a 
mitre over his initials. His son Charles succeeded him at the same 
sign, having- removed to Eagle Street, Red Lion Square, 1740. 

17 18. — Henry Hoare succeeded his father Sir Richard; a book 
plate in the possession of Captain Hoare, bears his arms and date 
1705. The old canting motto of the family, " Datur HORA AMORI," 
is susceptible of various free translations. He bequeathed in 1722, 
;^200 for the poor of the Goldsmith's Company. 

1718-73. — John Hugh Le Sage, plateworker of St. Martin's 
Lane, Long Acre, first entered his name in October, 17 18. In 1722 
he had removed to Great Suffolk Street, Charing Cross : in 1739 he 
was still at the same house. He was succeeded by Simon Le Sage in 
the same year, who re-entered his name in 1754. Augustus Le Sage 
of Great Suffolk Street is mentioned in the parliamentary list of 
1773. This old-established business produced some fine pieces, 
many of which are still extant. 

1718. — Madding, goldsmith, in 171 8 kept the "Golden Bottle" 
in Cheapside, then recently vacated by Messrs. Hoare. 

1722. — The second Sir Richard Hoare, principal of the firm, 
succeeded Sir F. Child as alderman of the ward of Farringdon 
Without. Sheriff in 1 740-1, in which year there were three lord 
mayors. He died October 12, 1754, and was buried in St. Dunstan's; 
his monument records that he was Lord Mayor in the memorable 



ENGLISPI GOLDSMITHS. 53 

year 1/45, in which alarming crisis he discharged the great trust re- 
posed in hnn with honour and integrity, to the approbation of his 
sovereign and of his fellow citizens. 

17 1 8-3 1. — William Darkerait, goldsmith and plateworker, at 
the "Acorn" m Foster Lane, entered his name m January, 17 18. 
He was succeeded by his son William in 1724, who removed to the 
"Rose," St. Martins Lane, m the Strand; still there m 1731. 

1720-39. — George Boothby, goldsmith and plateworker at the 
" Parrot," m the Strand, near Temple Bar. He entered his name at 
the Hall in March, 1720, both for old and new standard silver, and 
again m 1739. His mark bore a parrot over his initials. 

Sir Francis Child (second son of the first Sir Francis), gold- 
smith, succeeded his brother. He was elected alderman of his ward 
in 1721; sheriff, 1722; lord mayor and knighted m 1732; president 
of Christ's Hospital between 1727 and 1740; he was also member of 
Parliament and director of the East India Company. After the 
first Sir Francis's death m 17 13 the firm, became Robert Child, Fran- 
cis Child, Henry Rogers (nephew of John), and Morse, styled " Sir 
Robert Child and Co."; after the death of Sir Robert m 1721, "Sir 
Francis Child and Co." 

1 72 1. — Sir Francis Child (the second knight) died in 1740, 
when Samuel Child, his younger brother, became head of the firm in 
partnership with Backwell, styled " Samuel Child and Co."* It so 
remained until Samuel Child's death in 1752, when it became Messrs. 
Child and Backivell, Mrs. Samuel Child and her children, Francis 
and Robert, being heads of the hrm ; she had also one daughter. 

In 1763, Mrs. Child and her son Francis both died, and Robert 
Child, Esq., became head of the firm, styled " Robert Child and 
Co.'' He purchased a house in Berkeley Square from the Duke of 
Manchester for i^ 10,500, which is still the residence of the Earl of 
Jersey. Robert Child, Esq., married Sarah, daughter of Paul Jod- 
drell, Esq., by whom he had a daughter, Sarah Anne, who married. 
May 20, 1782, John, tenth Earl of Westmorland. 

A romantic story is told, that Lord Westmorland was dining 
with Mr. Robert Child one afternoon, and, among other subjects 
upon which they conversed, Lord Westmorland said : "Child, I wish 
for your opinion on the following case. Suppose that you were in 
love with a girl, and her father refused his consent to the union, 
what should you do?" "W^hy ! run away with her, to be sure," was 
Mr. Child's prompt reply, little thinking at the time that it was his 
daughter that the querist was in love with. That night, or a few 
days after. Lord Westmorland eloped with Miss Sarah Child in a 
postchaise and four from the Berkeley Square house northwards. 
Mr. Child promptly gave chase in a similar conveyance, and was on 
the point of overtaking the runaways, when Lord Westmorland, 
leaning out of the window, shot one of the leaders, which overturned 
the carriage and caused a delay, giving the pair time to reach 
Gretna, and be married without further hindrance. During the 

* He was Member of Parliament. 



54 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

short interval between the runaway marriage and his death in 1782, 
Mr. Robert Child never forgave Lord and Lady Westmorland. He 
died in the course of the same year, and by his will he left the whole 
of his immense fortune to the first daughter of the union, Lady 
Sarah Sophia Fane, who married, on May 23, 1804, George Villiers, 
Earl of Jersey. After Robert Child, Esq.'s, death in July, 1782, the 
firm was Mrs. Sarah Child and partners, styled " Child and Co." 
In 1791 Mrs. Sarah Child married Lord Ducie; Lady Ducie died in 
1793. In 1806 the Right Hon. Sarah Sophia Child, Countess of 
Jersey, participated in the profits of the house as head partner; she 
died in 1867, after a reign of sixty-one years. Her son, Victor Albert, 
Earl of Jersey, is the present leader of the firm. 

The last of the Childs died early in this century 

The banking house was known by the sign of the " Marygold " 
with the motto "Ainsi mon ame." The original sign is still to be 
seen in the office, and a marigold in full bloom still blossoms on the 
bank cheques, as well as in the water mark. " The Marygold " was 
in King James I's reign a public ordinary kept by Richard Compton 
(Beaufoy tokens). 

In Pennant's time (1790) the original goldsmith's shop seems to 
have still existed in Fleet Street in connection with this bank. As a 
banker. Pennant calls Sir Francis Child " father of the profession," 
having laid aside the legitimate goldsmith's trade and confined him- 
self entirely to banking. 

In 1788 the firm of Child's purchased the renowned "Devil 
Tavern" where the Apollo Club held its merry meetings presided 
over by Ben Jonson. The old sign of Saint Dunstan tweaking the 
devil by his nose hung outside formerly in Fleet Street; he was pat- 
ron of the goldsmiths. Adjoining was the old church of St. Dun- 
stan, where the two clubmen struck the hours and quarters on a bell 
suspended between them. The tavern was pulled down to erect the 
houses now called Child's Place. 

Sir Robert Child, Sir Francis Child's eldest son, goldsmith, 
named after his stepfather Robert Blanchard, went into partnership 
with his father. He was elected alderman of Farringdon Ward 
Without in 17 13, and was knighted in 17 14. He died without issue 
in 1 72 1. Sir Robert Child was the first of the family who resided at 
Osterley Park; the mansion was built by Robert Adam, architect of 
the Adelphi. 

1720. — -John Law, goldsmith, of Edinburgh, born 1681. Vari- 
ous schemes were projected about this time for paying off the 
National Debt. The South Sea Company's proposals were accepted, 
and the royal assent was given to an act enabling the company to 
raise money for the purpose. Bubbles of every description were 
floated in the air. The Prince of Wales is said to have cleared 
i^40,ooo by his speculations. Law, among others, projected the es- 
tablishment of a bank with paper issues for the purpose of remedy- 
ing the deficiency of a circulating medium, to the amount of the 
value of all the lands in the kingdom; but this scheme was rejected 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 55 

in England. In 17 16, having gained the patronage of the Duke of 
Orleans, he opened a bank by royal authority at Paris. To this was 
joined the Mississippi scheme for paying off the National Debt and 
enriching the subscribers, and people flocked with the object of con- 
verting their gold and silver into paper. The bubble, however, burst 
about June, 1720, when its amount was .-^100,000,000 sterling, and 
Law was exiled to Pontoise. He died in 1729. 

1^20. — Paul C res pin, or Crispine (as spelt in one entry), gold- 
smith, lived at the " Golden Ball," Compton Street, Soho. We first 
find his name entered, both for the old and new standard, in 1720, 
and again at the same hooise in 1739 and in 1757. We have met with 
numerous examples, which prove their merit, having been treasured 
up for more than one hundred and fifty years. A beautiful ink- 
stand, shell-shaped with shells, coral, etc., modelled in high relief, 
is in the Duke of Devonshire's collection; an epergne and portions 
of a dinner service, in that of Lord Hotham, show the character of 
his work, both ornamental and useful. 

1720. — Joseph Fremne, in 1728, is described as a citizen and 
goldsmith in partnership with Thos. Gould. In 1736 the latter died, 
and was succeeded by fas. Barclay. In 1768 Silvanus Bevan joined 
the firm, Freame died in 1770, and in 1786 John Heitton Tritton be- 
came a partner. The sign of the banking house in 1728 was the 
" Black Spread Eagle." 

1720- so. — Peter Archamho, goldsmith and plateworker. In 
1720 he dwelt at the "Golden Cup," in Green Street, Leicester 
Square, but removed to Hemings Row in 1722. We next find him 
located at the same sign in Coventry Street in 1739, and in 1749 he 
was associated with Peter Meure. Judging from his mark, he was 
patronised by the aristocracy, bearing a crown above his initials and 
a two-handled cup below. He worked both in the new and old 
standard. 

1721-39. — John Tuite, goldsmith and plateworker, entered his 
name at the Hall in September, 1721, living in Ireland's Yard, 
Blackfriars; he afterwards removed to Litchfield Street, Soho. His 
next entry is in 1739. His mark was a large helmet-shaped ewer be- 
tween his initials. He died in 1740, and the business was continued 
by his widow in York Buildings, George Street, using a similar mark 
but altering the initials. 

1722. — Hu77iphrey Hetherington, goldsmith, left a sum of £100 
for the poor of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

1725. — VJilliam Atkinson, goldsmith and plateworker, at the 
" Golden Cup," New Fish Street Hill. He first entered his name at 
the Hall in May, 1725. His mark has a two-handled cup above his 
initials. He worked both in the new and old standard. 

In the small workers' book at Goldsmiths' Hall we find an entry 
of Jean Harache, "a foriner residing in Rider's Corte, Soho," on 
June 22, 1726. His mark was I H, a crown above and a lion rampant 
beneath the letters. Also Francis Harache, silversmith, at "ye 
Blackmoor's head," Great St. Andrew Street, St. Giles's, on February 
16, 1738; his mark was simply F LI in a square. These entries prove 



56 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

that the family continued working in the same trade in the interim 
between the demise of Pierre and the advent of Thomas Harache, of 
whomx we shall presently speak. 

1734. — Henry ] eriiingham^ goldsmith, about this time. 

The project of building a new bridge at Westminster was set on 
foot in the year 1734- The finances were to be obtained by means of 
a lottery, for which an Act of Parliament was passed authorising 
the raising of a fund, from which amount, after paying the prizes, 
it was estimated there would be a residue of ;^ 100,000 for the new 
work. In connection with this lottery a curious incident may be 
m.entioned. On March 2, 1735, whilst the bill was in progress, Henry 
Jerningham, goldsmith, petitioned the House, stating that he had 
made a silver cistern that had been acknowledged, by all persons of 
skill who had seen the same, to excel whatever of the kind had been 
attempted in this kingdom; that, after an expense of several thou- 
sand pounds on the workmanship alone, exclusive of the weight in 
silver, and after great hazards m the furnace, and four years of 
application to the raising and adorning the model, the cistern now 
remained on his hands. 

The House not only thought the proposition reasonable, but 
actually voted an instruction to the committee on the bill to make 
provision m it for the petitioner, by directing the disposal of the 
cistern by lottery. 

Henry Jerningham, goldsmith, died in 1761, and was buried in 
the churchyard of St. Paul's, Covcnt Garden. 

These massive cisterns were in fashion in noble families to- 
wards the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth 
century. One in the Duke of Rutland's possession weighs two thou- 
sand ounces. Another, six feet high, together with a fountain, be- 
longing to the Earl of Chesterfield, weighs 3,546 ounces. Most of 
these cisterns were melted clown subsequently to be remade into 
dinner services or more useful and less cumbrous pieces of plate. 

1734. — Richard Gurney entered his name as plateworker at 
Goldsmiths' Hall on December 23, 1734, in partnership with Thomas 
Cook at the "Golden Cup" in Foster Lane. The next entry is 
Richard Gurney and Co. with new marks, June 28, 1739, and again 
at the same house in 1748 and 1750; but their names are not in the 
list of plateworkers in the parliamentary return of 1773, wherein, it 
must be observed, many goldsmnths who kept shops are not noticed. 

His ancestor. Sir Richard Gurney, knight and baronet, cloth- 
worker, was mayor m 1642. He was discharged by the Parliament 
and succeeded by Sir Isaac Pennington, fishmonger, who was, with 
other aldermen, committed to the Tower and convicted of high trea- 
son for the murder of King Charles I, and died in the Tower. 

1735. — William Garrard, plateworker, of Staining Lane, entered 
his name at the Hall in April, 1735. Removed to Noble Street in 
1739. In 1773 his name occurs m the parliamentary list. He ap- 
pears also to have had another house in Short's Buildings, Clerken- 
well, which in 1755 was removed to Noble Street. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 57 

1739-47. — Marmadiike Daintrey, goldsmith and plateworker, of 
Noble Street, entered his name in 1739. In 1747 he removed to the 
" Crown," ni Old Street. The name of Marmaduke Daintrey occurs 
in the parliamentary list of 1773, probably his son, a spoonmaker, 
living at Hartley Row, Hants. 

Thomas Gilpin, goldsmith, of Lincoln's Inn Gate, entered his 
name at the Hall July 2, 1739. "The grand service of plate which 
graced the royal table, at the banquet given by Sir Samuel Fludyer 
at the Mansion House on Lord Mayor's Day, 1761, which the king 
and queen honoured with their presence, was made new for the occa- 
sion by I\Ir. Gilpm, with whom the city exchanged a quantity of old 
plate for the new." ("Old English Plate," by W. I. Cripps.) 

1740. — John Z?^;'/^^??', .goldsmith, at the "Morocco Ambassador's 
Head " in Lombard Street. His name is revealed to us by a shop 
bill, engraved by Hogarth, having a Turk's head at the top. 

1740. — Benjamin Gurden, goldsmith, of Noble Street, first en- 
tered his name at the Hall as plateworker in 1740. His name also 
occurs m the list of 1773 at the same house. He died m 1804, hav- 
ing been m business upwards of sixty years. He bequeathed three 
hundred pounds to the Goldsmiths for the use of the poor. 

1740. — G. M. Moser, goldsmith and artist, born at Schaffhausen 
in 1707; died in London 1783. He was a celebrated chaser on gold, 
especially on the watch cases with emblematical figures in relief— 
m.uch in vogue about the middle of the century— jewellery, etc. He 
wrote some works on the goldsmith's art and on painting. He was 
the founder of the Academy of Painters in 1768, of which Sir 
Joshua Reynolds was the first president. His daughter Mary, born 
1744, was also an artist. 

1742. — Nicholas Sprimont, of Compton Street, Soho, entered his 
name at Goldsmiths' Hall as plateworker in January, 1742. He 
carried the modelling of shells, coral, insects, shell fish and rock- 
work to great perfection in silver. A specimen of his plate, viz., a 
pair of oval dishes, eleven inches in diameter by nine inches, beauti- 
fully modelled in this manner, is preserved in the Royal Collection 
at Windsor made in 1743. The same character of work was mod- 
elled by his contemporary Paul Crespin, of Compton Street. Spri- 
mont is also celebrated as being the founder of the Chelsea porce- 
lain factory in 1750, under the patronage of the Duke of Cumber- 
land and Sir Edward Fawkener, of which, in 1755, he became sole 
proprietor. The same taste was carried out by him in porcelain in 
the well-known centrepieces of Chelsea china of the early period of 
its existence. He was the writer of the memorial found in the Lans- 
down MSS. without name or date, neither of which have until now 
been discovered. He styles himself "undertaker of the Chelsea 
manufacture of porcelain, a silversmith by profession, in which one 
hundred persons are employed, and a nursery of thirty lads from 
the parishes and charity schools who are bred to designing and 
painting." (Chaffers's "Marks and Monograms on Pottery and 
Porcelain," page 915.) 



58 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1747. — Sir William Benn, goldsmith, mayor 1747. A painting 
with his portrait and other members of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
hangs in the ballroom at the Hall. This picture by Hudson repre- 
sents six members of a jovial society called "Benn's Club." He was 
a staunch old Jacobite, and induced the party to ^o io his house in 
the Isle of Wight, and drink success to Prince Charlie. His portrait 
also hangs in Bridewell Hospital, of which he was president in 1746. 

1750. — foliii Blackford, goldsmith, mayor in 1750. His portrait 
is in the same group of members of Benn's Club previously men- 
tioned. In 1755, in a trial of the Pyx, "a jury of freemen of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, of which Alderman Blachford was foreman, 
met at Goldsmiths' Hall to make an assay, or trial of the pix or 
standard of the coin of the realm, coined between 1750 and that 
year, and went to the Lord Chancellor at Whitehall, to make their 
report," etc. 

The other members of " Benn's Club " whose portraits are in the 
same group, are : 

Sir Henry Marshall, mayor, 1745. 

Sir Robert Alsop, mayor, 1752. 

Sir Edward Ironside, mayor, 1753. 

Sir Thomas Rawlinson, mayor, 1754. 

1755. — Sir Richard Glyri, baronet and banker, lord mayor, was 
president of Bridewell Hospital in 1755, his portrait hangs in that 
Hall. 

Sir Francis Gosling, knight, " a gentleman of the most amiable 
character in public and private life. He was elected alderman in 
1756, and served the office of sheriff in 1758, having twice declined 
that of lord mayor on account of ill health. He died December 23, 
1768, and was succeeded as alderman of Farringdcn Without by 
John W^ilkes, Esq." (Hughson.) 

It was probably about 1780 when the Goslings took the house 
in Fleet Street with the sign of the "Three Squirrels," where it still 
remains over the centre window, and where they still flourish at the 
same house. In 1796 the firm was Francis Gosling, William Gosling 
and Benjamin Sharpe, and it is still styled " Goslings and Sharpe." 
The original sign, in solid silver, is preserved, and can be seen in the 
front shop ; it is about two feet high, made to lock and unlock, and 
was discovered in the house in 1858, having probably been taken 
down on the general removal of street signs, and forgotten. This 
house in Fleet Street is stated to have belonged to Henry Pinckney, 
a goldsmith, about the year 1650. Boyne mentions a farthing token 
issued by him at the "Three Squirrels," over against St. Dunstan's 
Church in 1650. (See Pinckney.) 

1756. — The name of Backivell rose again, in partnership with 
Darel, Hart and Croft, who, with great reputation, opened their shop 
m Pall Mall. (Hughson.) 

1758. — Thomas Harache, one of the successors of Pierre Har- 
ache, obtained the distinction of royal goldsmith, dwelling in Pall 
Mall. His name is not found in the Goldsmiths' books : the second 
volume of makers' marks, which is said to contain the names from 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 59 

1739 to 1769, actually finishes in 1757, and no subsequent entries 
occur at the Hall until 1773, leaving a hiatus of sixteen years. In 
that year a committee of the House of Commons was instituted to 
inquire into the various Acts of Parliament which regulated the 
goldsmiths' trade. The committee required the names and places of 
abode of all the goldsmiths and plateworkers then living who had 
entered their names and marks m the Assay Office. This list was 
published, but, unfortunately, the original volume was never re- 
turned to Goldsmiths' Hall, or has been mislaid. This list reveals 
the name of " Thomas Harache, goldsmith, Pall Mall." The first 
time we have met with his m^ark on plate is in 1758, in which year 
it was doubtless entered at the Hall in the volume now missing. He 
arrived at the same distinction for the production of artistic plate 
as his predecessors. 

1777. — Robert Makepeace, goldsmith, first entered his name as 
plate-worker m partnership with Richard Carter in 1777. In 1794 
he was m partnership with Thomas Makepeace, in Serle Street, Lin- 
coln's Inn, and alone at the same house in 1795. He died 1801, 
leaving in money to the Goldsmiths' Company ;^I77 us. od. 
(consols). 

1780. — Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A. Born at Edinburgh in 1756, 
he was apprenticed to a goldsmith in that city. He afterwards took 
to miniature painting, and succeeded so well that he abandoned his 
trade and became a portrait painter, subsequently practising in oil 
upon the life size. He died in 1823. 

" Garrards!' — This old-established firm of goldsmiths and 
plate -workers, appears for more than a century and a half to have 
been favoured with Royal patronage, and through successive pro- 
prietors has deservedly retained celebrity in the production of 
choice examples of the goldsmiths' art. The original founder, 
George Wickes, of Threadneedle Street, was George I's goldsmith, 
and his mark bore the distinctive badge of the plume of feathers, 
being designated " Goldsmith to the Prince of Wales," afterwards 
George II. In 1735 the f].rm was removed to Panton Street, the 
corner of the Haymarket, where it still flourishes. A chronological 
list of the names of proprietors, with dates of entry at the Gold- 
smiths' Hall, will suffice in this section. 

1 72 1, February 3. — George Wickes, Threadneedle Street. 

1735, June 30. — George Wickes or Weekes, removed to Panton 
Street. 

1739, July 6. — George Weekes, Panton Street. 

1747, November 17. — Edward Wakelin, Panton Street. 

1759. — Johit Parker and Ediuard Wakelin, Panton Street. 

1776, September 25. — John Wakelin and Williarn Taylor, Pan- 
ton Street. 

1792, October 20. — John Wakelin and Robert Garrard, Panton 
Street. 

1802, August II. — Robert Garrard, Panton Street. 

18 18, April 18. — R. J. and S. Garrard, Panton Street 

1 82 1, July 17. — Robert Garrard, Panton Street. 



6o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1780. — Rundell and Bridge, Royal Goldsmiths, Ludgate Hill. 
This celebrated firm appears to have been established about 1780. 
They were not actual plate-workers themselves, but some of the 
partners, whose names did not prominently appear, had shares only 
m the manufacturing department, the sale shop m Ludgate Hill 
being a distinct branch of the business. Mr. Paul Storr, m giving 
evidence at the Sessions m 181 1, says : " I am a partner m the hrm 
of the manufactory in Dean Street. The partners are Paul Storr, 
Philip Rundell, Jno. Bridge, Edmund Waller Rundell and William 
Theed." 

John Bridge, from about 1780 to 1790 stamped his name on 
their plate as actual maker. From 1792 to about 1820 Paul Storr 
was their chief plate-worker with a share in that department ; during 
his time the most important pieces of plate were made. They en- 
gaged the services of several distinguished artists. Among other 
pieces of plate at Windsor are : a salver, chased with the Banquet 
of the Gods; a vase with classical design by Flaxman; and a salver 
with the Triumph of Ariadne by Stothard, made to the order of 
George, Prince of Wales. The goldsmith's business in Ludgate 
Hill was discontinued about 1840. 

1798. — Sir Richard Carr Glyn, Baronet snd Alderman, was also 
President of Bridewell Hospital in 1798, where his portrait hangs. 

1787. — Arthur W orboyes, goldsmith and jeweller in Fleet Street 
near Bride Lane. On July 21, 1787, a dreadful fire broke out at his 
house, in which he was, unhappily, burnt to death. His name occurs 
in the list of 1773, residing in Wine Office Court, Fleet Street. 

In an inquiry made by the Committee of the House of Commons, 
in 1773, 3-S to "the names and trades of the Wardens and Assayers 
of the Goldsmiths' Company, London, and when, at what times, and 
by whom they were respectively elected," the answer put in was as 
follows. 

March 8, 1773 — 

Peter Floyer, Esq., refiner. Love Lane, Prime Warden. 
Samuel Smith, Esq., banker, \ 

Mr. Thomas Parr, goldsmith, [> Wardens. 

Mr. Matthew Perchard, goldsmith, J 
Fendall Rushforth, plate-worker, ) . 
Richard Hughes, plate-worker. j s ay r . 

Successors to Alderman Richardson. 

The Wardens were elected at a Court of Assistants hoi den at 
Goldsmiths' Hall, May 13, 1772, by the following Wardens and As- 
sistants of the Company then and there present, to wit — 

Mr. Thomas Whipham, 

John Wickenden Esq., Wardens. 

vSamuei Smith, Lsq., 

Mr. Thomas Parr, 

Thomas Hallifax. Esq., Alderman. 

John Bird, Esq., Alderman. 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 6i 

Francis Flower, Esq. 

Mr. Sandilands Drinkwater. 

Mr. Samuel Wood. 

Mr, John Payne. 

Peter Floyer, Esq. 

Mr. Edward Cooke, 

Mr Matthew Perchard. 

Mr. Henry Boldero. 

Mr. Arthur Sadler. 

Mr. Thomas Thorne. 

Mr. Joseph Rose. 

Mr. Wade Holton. 

Mr. John White. 

Mr. George Cooper. 

Mr. Robert Thorne. 

Storr and Morthnery succeeded by Hunt and Roskell. These 
well-known goldsmiths and jewellers of Bond Street have received 
the share of Royal and aristocratic patronage they so well deserved, 
and still retain the distinction of being one of the leading firms in 
the metropolis. Their origin may be said to have commenced with 
the celebrated plate-worker, Paul Storr, partner in the manufacturing 
department of Messrs. Rundell and Bridge from 1792 down to 1820. 
He first entered his name at Goldsmiths' Hall in 1792, then living 
in Church Street, Soho. In 1796 he removed to Air Street, Picca- 
dilly, and in 1807 to Dean Street, Soho In Kent's Directory for 
1819 he was still located there, styled "Storr and Co." 

In 1 82 1 Mr. Paul Storr went into partnership with Mr. John 
Mortimer (who had been established for many years in partnership 
wath Mr. Gray), the firm being styled " Storr and Mortimer," with 
which Mr. John Samuel Hunt, Mr. Storr's nephew, was subsequently 
associated. 

On the retirement of Mr. Storr, in 1839, the firm was John Mor- 
timer and John Samuel Hunt, with his son, John Hunt, as junior 
partner — styled " Mortimer and Hunt." 

Mr. Mortimer retired in 1842, when John Samuel Hunt, and his 
son, John Plunt, entered into partnership with Mr. Robert Roskell, 
the firm being styled " Hunt and Roskell," which title is still re- 
tained.. Mr. John Samuel Hunt died in 1865, and Mr. John Hunt in 
1879. It is now conducted by the surviving partners, Robert Ros- 
kell, his son, Allan Roskell, and the son of John Hunt, viz., John 
Mortimer Hunt. 

Various 7narks entered at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

PS Paul Storr, for Rundell and Bridge. 1792 to 1821. 

PS Paul Storr and John Mortimer. 1821 to 1839. 

IM Crowned. John Mortimer and John Samuel LIunt, and his 

ISH son, John Hunt. 1839 to 1842. 



62 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

ISH Crowned. John Samuel Hunt and his son, John Hunt. 1842 
to 1865. The former retired in 1863. 

^ Crowned. John Hunt and Robert Roskell. 1865 to 1882. 

^^ Crow^ned. Robert Roskell, Allan Roskell, and John Mor- 
TMH timer Hunt. 

Messrs. Lambert, Coventry Street. — The founder of this busi- 
ness was Francis Lambert, son of an army accoutrement maker in 
the Strand; born 1778. He was apprenticed to Wesley, a silver- 
smith in the Strand. Leaving Wesley, he entered the service of Mr. 
Clark, of Exeter Change, who dealt in cutlery, bronzes, clocks, 
watches, jewellery and silver goods. Thomas Hamlet, the natural 
son of Sir Francis Dashwood (ob. 1781) was also an assistant. 

About 1800, Hamlet took a shop on his own account, together 
v/ith Lambert, in St. Martin's Court (where Prout, the comb-maker, 
afterwards lived). Here they sold jewellery, second-hand plate, 
fishing-tackle, etc. 

Hamlet subsequently opened a silversmith's and jeweller's shop 
at the corner of Sydney Alley, facing Coventry Street, with a pro- 
mise to take Lambert in as a partner, which was never fulfilled. 
Lambert left on account of ill-health, and went to Lisbon, where he 
opened a sort of bazaar, which was not successful ; he then returned 
to England, and opened a shop for the sale of jewellery, and was 
also a manufacturer of silver plate, at Nos. 11 and 12, Coventry 
Street, in 1803. William Rawlings, who had lived with Hamlet, was 
taken as his manager, with a share of the profits, and the style of the 
firm became " Lambert and Rawlings." Mr. Lambert manufactured 
all silver goods, except spoons and forks; his foreman, John Wrang- 
ham, and his assistant, William Moulson, entering; their names at 

Goldsmiths' Hall — w]\/[' After the death of the former, about 1835, 

the initials WM w^ere used. 

Mr. Lambert died in 1841, and was succeeded by his youngest 
son, George, who took up his freedom in 1849, and entered his name 
at the Hall, using the monogram GL (the L traversed by a small G). 
He manufactured his choicest goods, as a rule, in fine or Britannia 
silver, following the most approved forms of English plate of the 
time of William HI and Queen Anne, in flagons, tankards and gob- 
lets, not disdaining, however, to follow occasionally the later style 
of the Adams period of decorative art. His collection of old Eng- 
lish plate was very extensive. W^ Rawlings died in 1862. 

To revert to Thomas Hamlet, who was patronised by the 
nobility and gentry. He had an extensive connection, and carried 
on the business successfully for forty years; but in consequence of 
his speculations in pearl fisheries at Bussorah — the building of the 
Princess's Theatre, which proved a failure — and other ruinous ad- 



ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS. 63 

ventures, he became bankrupt in 1842, and his stock was sold by 
auction. He was at last a pensioner at the Charterhouse, and died 
there about the year 1849. 

1806. — Fcter Per chard bequeathed to the Company ^^250 stock 
for the use of the poor. 

1808. — George Hall, probably a goldsmith, but we cannot trace 
his name in the books, bequeathed to the Company a munificent 
donation of ;6^i,ooo (consols) for charitable purposes. 

1 81 3. — Rachel Farmer, of Jewin Street, bequeathed to the Gold- 
smiths' Company the liberal donation of ;^ 1,000 stock for charitable 
purposes. 

Messrs. Hancock, goldsmiths and jewellers. Bond Street (corner 
of Bruton Street). Established in 1849 by C. F, Hancock, who 
having partly retired in 1866, the hrm was styled Hancock, Son and 
Co. Mr. Hancock retired entirely in 1870, the style being Hancocks 
and Co., at present. The actual partners were Messrs. Martin Han- 
cock, Horatio Stewart and Henry John Dore. The mark adopted 
by them as a plate-mark consists of the letters C F H with a crown 
above. The manufactory is in Little Bruton Street. 

This well-known firm was established for the manufacture and 
sale of plate and jewellery of a superior class, and is extensively 
patronised by the nobility and gentry, being noted for the taste and 
quality of its productions. Artists of celebrity are engaged as 
modellers of groups and designs for surtouts de table and the dres- 
soir, presentation pieces, racing prizes for Epsom and Ascot, etc. 
Among the modellers may be noted especially H. H. Armstead, 
R.A. ; C. B. Birch, A.R.A. ; Signor Raffaele Monti; Eugene Lauri and 
Marshall Wood. 



lall Marks on ^latt 

AND 

TAXATION OF GOLD AND SILVER GOODS, ETC 

IN ORDER OF DATE. 

from iln ^imlith to tht thirntirtlj OLniluriT. 



The Statutes now in force relating to the Duties and to the Hall-marking of 
gold and silver plate are very numerous. There are certainly not less than 
twenty-five different Statutes which are more or less in force, and it seems 
most desirable that they should be consolidated into one Act of Parliament. 
The Parliamentary Committee of 1856 strongly recommended that the law 
should be consolidated, but the suggestion Avas not carried out. 

In the following table those which are not repealed are marked n.r. 



TABLE OF STATUTES AND ORDINANCES. 

REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK. 

1 1 80. 26 Henry II Goldsmith's Company amerced 

for being adulterine. 

1238. 22 Henry III, close rolls m. Assay of Gold and Silver. 
6 

1300. 28 Edward I, Stat. 3, c. 20 Leopard's head. Assay. 

1327. I Edward III First Charter to Goldsmith's Com- 
pany. 

1335. 9 Edward III, Stat. 2, c. 2 Stirling Silver not to be carried 

out of England, or molton to 
make vessels. 
I. Leopard's head crowned. 2. 

1336. Ordinance of the Gold- I Owners' or goldsmiths' mark. 

smiths' Company j 3. Assayer's mark, or variable 

J date letter. 

1363. 37 Edward III, c. 7 Assay: marks. 

n6Q. 43 Edward III, close) -r, 1 .- i. 4.1, /- ij -^-u » 4-^ ^^ 
-^ ^ ^^ ' ' Relatmg: to the Goldsmiths trade, 

rolls, m. 35 J ^ 

64 



1402 

1403 
1403 
I4I4 

1420 

1423 



TABLE OF STATUTES AND ORDINANCES. 65 

1379. 2 Richard II, Rolls of Par- i. Goldsmith's, "his own proper 
liament mark." 2. "Mark of the city or 

borough." 3. Assayer's mark, 
" appomted by the King." 

1 38 1. 5 Richard II, c. 2 Exports forbidden. 

1392. 16 Richard II Second Charter to Goldsmith's 

Company. 

4 Henry IV, c. 16 Exports again forbidden. 

5 Henry IV, c. 4 Multiplication of gold or silver 

prohibited. 

5 Henry IV, c. 13 Gilding and plating inferior met- 
als prohibited. 

2 Henry V, c. 4 Regulating the prices of gold, 

gilding silver, etc. 
8 Henry V, c. 3 Gilding inferiors metals prohibi- 
ted. 

2 Henry VI, c. 14 Provincial offices, standard of 

gold and silver. " Touch of the 
Leopard's head," and "mark or 
touch of the workman." 

1432.-1 Henry VI, c. 14 Exports forbidden. 

1457. James II (Scots) Appoints deacons, marks. 

1462. 2 Edward IV Another Charter to Goldsmiths' 

Company. 

1473. James III (Scots) Places appointed to mark gold. 

1477. 17 Edward IV, Stat, i, c. i "Leopard's head crowned," and 

"Mark of the Worker." Stan- 
dard of 18 carats. 

1483. James III ;Scots) Marks on Goldsmiths' work. 

1487. 4 Henry VII, Pari. 3, c. 2 ... Relates to the Assays. Sale re- 
stricted. 

1504. 20 Henry VII Charter to Goldsmiths' Company. 

1555. Mary (Scots) Standard and marks. 

1573. 15 Elizabeth Standard of gold and silver and 

marks : 22 carat revived. 

1576. 18 Elizabeth, c. 15 I. "The goldsmith to set his mark 

thereon." 2. " Touch of the leo- 
pard's head crowned," and 
" marked by the wardens." 

1586. James VI (Scots) Search for inferior gold and sil- 
ver. 

1597. Goldsmiths' Company Re- Marks: lion, leopard's head, and 
cords alphabetical mark. 

1638. Charles I (Irish) Charter to the Dublin Goldsmiths' 

Company. 

1675. Goldsmiths' Order Marks of the lion and leopard's 

head. 
.1687. James VII (Scots) Charter to the Edinburgh Gold- 
smiths' Hall. 

1696. 7 and 8 William III, c. 19 ... Exports forbidden. 



66 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1696. 8 and 9 William III, c. 8 .. 



1698. 9 and 10 William III, c. 28 
1698. 9 and 10 William III, c. 39 

1 700- 1. 12 and 13 William III, c. 

4 
1701. I Anne, Stat, i, c. 9 

1719. 6 George I, c. 11, s. i, 2, 3, 
41 



and silver 



reappointed. 



New standard of silver of 1 1 oz. 
10 dwt. : Hall marks. N.R. 

Exports permitted. 

Concerning gold 
thread. 

Provincial offices 
Assays, marks. N.R. 

Newcastle x\ct. N.R. 

Old silver standard of 11 oz. 2 
dwt. revived. Duty imposed. 
The lion, leopard's head, ma- 
ker's mark and date mark. 
Both old and new standards al- 
lowed by this Act. N.R. 
729. 3 George II (Irish), c. 3, s. Ireland : Standards. N.R. 

739. 12 George II, c 26 Standards of gold and silver. 

New makers' marks. " The ini- 
tials of his christian and sur- 
name." N.R. 

742. 15 George II, c. 20 Silver wire. 

756. 29 George II, c. 14 Annual duty — -5s. for every 100 

oz. 

757. 31 George II, c. 32 Licence in lieu of duty. 

758. 32 George II, c. 24 Licence duty increased. 

773. 13 George III, c. 52 Birmingham and Sheffield. N.R. 

784. 24 George III, Sess. 2, c. 53 Plated goods : Duty increased 

and exemptions. King's Head 
mark. 

785. 25 George III, c. 64 Duty. Drawback. Watch cases. 

797- 37 George III, c. 90 Duty — gold at 8s., silver is. Re- 
pealed. 

798. 38 George III, c. 24 Duty on watch cases. REPEALED. 

798. 38 George III, c. 69 Gold standard lowered to 18 

carat. Mark a crown and 18. 
N.R. 

803. 43 George III, c. 69 ......... Licences. Drawback on plate. 

Repealed. 

803. 44 George III, c. 98 Duty — i6s. on gold, is. 3d. on sil- 
ver. Repealed. 

807. 47 George III, Sess. 2, c. 15 Ireland. N.R. 

812. 52 George III, c. 59 Duty. Drawback. N.R. 

815. 55 George III, c. 185 Duty — 17s. on gold and is. 6d. on 

silver. Repealed as regards sil- 
ver plate 1890. 

819. 59 George III, c. 28 Glasgow. N.R. 

820. I George IV, c. 14 Duty. Drawback. N.R. 

824. 5 George IV, c. 52 Birmingham Act. N.R. 

825. 6 George IV, c. 118 Irish. 

836. 6 William IV, c. 69 Scotland. N.R. 



TABLE OF STATUTES AND ORDINANCES. 6/ 

1842. 5 and 6 Victoria, c. 47 and Foreign plate to be assayed and 
56 stamped. N.R. 

1844. 7 and 8 Victoria, c. 22 Criminal Law Consolidation Act, 

distinctive mark on 22 carat 
eold. Mark a crown and 22 in- 
stead of the lion passant. N.R. 

1849. 12 and 13 Victoria Duty. N.R. 

1854. 17 and 18 Victoria, c. 96... Reduced standards of gold — 15, 

12 and 9 carats. Mark 15.625 — 
12.5 — 9-375, without crown or 
King's head. N.R. 

1855. 18 and 19 Victoria, c. 60 ... Wedding rings. N.R. 

1856 Parliamentary Commission Re- 
port on Gold and Silver Wares. 

1866. 29 and 30 Victoria, c. 64 ... Duty. Drawback. N.R. 

1867. 30 and 31 Victoria, c. 90 ... Duty. N.R. 

1870. 33 and 34 Victoria Licence and watch cases. N.R. 

1876. 39 and 40 Victoria, c. 36 ... Counterfeit. English marks on 

foreign plate, and letter F in 
oval escutcheon. 

1876 and 1878 Notices by the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany. 

1878 Parliamentary Commission Re- 

1879 Parliamentary Commission Re- 

port. 

1883. 46 and 47 Victoria, c. 55 ... Assay and marking of imported 

gold and silver plate. RE- 
PEALED. 

1890. 53 and 54 Victoria, c. 8 ... The duty of is. 6d. per ounce on 

silver plate abolished, and the 
stamp of the Queen's head, duty 
mark, discontinued. N.R. 

1897 Parliamentary Commission Re- 
port. 4 volumes. 

1903. 3 Edward VII, c. 255 Sheffield authorised to assay gold 

ware. 

1904. 4 Edward VII, 6 Foreign silver to be marked as or- 

dered. 
1904 October 24, Order in Coun- Determining marks. 

cil 
1906 May II Order in Council ... Determining marks. 



(Extracts from Statutes, (DrMitantts, ttc, 

REGULATING THE 

MANUFACTURE AND STAMPING OF PLATE IN 

ENGLAND. 

WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES. 

A.D. 1 1 80. 26 Henry IL A fraternity or Guild of Goldsmiths 
was in existence at this early period, although no Charter of Incor- 
poration had been granted; for in the year above named the Com- 
pany was, amongst other guilds, amerced for being adulterine^ i.e., 
set up without the King's licence. The leopard's head, taken from 
their arms, was probably used by them to denote the proper standard, 
for in their first charter it is spoken of as being anciently ordained. 

A.D. 1238. In the Close Rolls of 22 HENRY III. M. 6. A man- 
date was issued entitled " De auro f abricando in Civitate Londonia- 
rum." This recited that in consequence of the frauds which had been 
practised by the gold and silver smiths, it became necessary to pre- 
scribe some regulations for their trade, because the mixing too much 
alloy in the composition of these wares naturally tended to encour- 
age the melting down of coin of the realm. It was therefore ordained 
that no one should use any gold of which the mark was not worth 
one hundred shillings at the least, nor any silver worse than the 
standard of the coins ("quod non valeat in se, quantum valeat 
moneta Regis "). 

STANDARDS : LEOPARD'S HEAD. 

The assaying of the precious metals was a privilege conferred 
upon the Goldsmiths' Company of London by the following 
statute : 

A.D. 1300 28 Edward I, stat. 3., c. 20, commonly called Artiadi 
super cartas. " It is ordained : That no Gold/mith of England, 
nor none otherwhere within the King's Dominion, /hall from hence- 

68 



STANDARDS : LEOPARD'S HEAD. 69 

forth make, or cau/e to be made, any Manner of Ve//el, Jewel, or 
any other Thing of Gold or Silver, except it be of good and true 
Allay, that is to say. Gold of a certain Touch, and Silver of the 
Sterlmg Allay, or of better, at the Plea/ure of him to whom the 
Work belongeth [argent del alay de e/terling ou de meilur], and 
that none work wor/e Silver than Money, (2) And that no Manner of 
Ve//el of Silver depart out of the Hands of the Workers, until it be 
e//ayed by the Wardens of the Craft; and further, that it be marked 
with the Leopard's head [e qe ele /oit signee de une te/te de leo- 
part]; (3) and that they work no wor/e Gold than of the Touch of 
Paris [tuche de Parys]. (4) And that the Wardens of the Craft shall 
go from Shop to Shop among the Gold/miths, to e//ay, if their Gold 
be of the /ame Touch that is /poken of before; (5) and if they find 
any other than of the Touch afore/aid, the Gold /hall be forfeit to 
the King*: (And that none shall make Rings, Cro//es, nor Locks); 

(6) and that none /hall /et any Stone in Gold except it be natural. 

(7) And that Gravers or Cutters of Stones, and of Seals, /hall give to 
each their Weight of Silver and Gold (as near as they can) upon 
their Fidelity, (8) and the Jewels of ba/e Gold which they have m 
their Hands, they /hall utter as fa/t as they can, (9) and from 
thenceforth, if they buy any of the /ame Work, they /hall buy it 
to work upon, and not to /ell again, (10) and that all the good Towns 
of England where any Gold/mith be dwelling, /hall be ordered 
according to this E/tatute as they of Londojz be, (11) and that one 
/hall come from every good Town for all the Re/idue that be dwell- 
ing in the /ame, unto London for to be a/certained of their Touch. 
(12) And if any Gold/mith be attainted hereafter, becau/e that he 
has done otherwi/e than before is ordained, he /hall be puni/hed by 
Impri/onment, and by Ran/om at the King's Plea/ure, (13) And 
notwith/tanding all the/e Things before-mentioned, or any Point of 
them, both the King and his Council, and all they that were pre/ent 
at the making of this Ordinance, will and intend that the Right and 
Prerogative of his Crown /hall be /aved to him in all Things."! 
Repealed. 

The toiLch of Paris was referred to in this statute, because there 
were no English gold corns which could be made a standard for the 
goldsmiths' work. The French coins of that time were of fine gold. 
The touch of Paris therefore was as celebrated over Europe as the 
sterling of England. 

This statute is prior to the first charter granted to the Gold- 
smiths' Company, and shows that the company was then a corpora- 
tion, and that all plate then made in the Knig's dominions w^as 
assayed by them. 

* The portion between brackets repealed 21 Jac. c. 28. 

t ''The Statutes at Large," by Owen Ruffhead, 1763, Vol. I, page 146. 



;o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

1327. I Edward HI. The first Charter was granted by Letters 
Patent from Edward III to "the Wardens and Commonalty of the 
Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London." It is quoted at 
length in Herbert's " History of the London Livery Companies/' both 
in French and English. The following are the principal provisions 
of this Charter : That the Goldsmiths had by their petition ex- 
hibited to the King and Council in Parliament holden at Westminster 
shown that theretofore no private merchants or strangers were wont 
to bring into this land any money coined, but plate and silver to ex- 
change for our coin ; that it had been ordained that all of the trade of 
Goldsmiths were to sit in their shops in the High Street of Cheap, 
and that no silver or gold plate ought to be sold in the City of 
London except in the King's Exchange or in Cheap, among the Gold- 
smiths, and that publicly, to the end that persons in the trade might 
inform themselves whether the seller came lawfully by it; but that of 
late both private merchants and strangers bring from foreign lands 
counterfeit sterling whereof the pound is not worth sixteen sols of the 
right sterling, and of this money none can know the right value but 
by melting it down; and that many of the trade of Goldsmiths do 
keep shops in obscure streets, and do buy vessels of gold and silver 
secretly without inquiring whether such vessels were stolen or come 
lawfully by, and immediately melting them down, make them into 
plate, and sell it to merchants trading beyond the sea, and so make 
false work of gold, silver and jewels, in which they set glass of 
divers colours, counterfeiting right stones, and Dut more alloy in 
their silver than they ought, which they sell to such as have no skill 
in such things ; that the cutlers cover tin with silver so subtilely and 
with such sleight that the same cannot be discerned nor separated, 
and so sell the tin for fine silver; to the great damage and deceit 
of the King and his people : The King, with the assent of the lords 
spiritual and temporal and the commons of the realm, willed and 
granted for him and his heirs that henceforth no one shall bring 
into this land any sort of money but only plate of fine silver, and 
that no plate of gold or silver be sold to sell again, or be carried 
out of the kingdom, but shall be sold openly for private use : That 
none of the trade shall keep any shop except in Cheap, that it may 
be seen that their work be good : that those of the trade may by 
virtue of these presents elect honest and sufficient men, best skilled 
in the trade, to inquire of the matters aforesaid, and that those who 
are so chosen reform what defects they shall find, and inflict punish- 
ment on the offenders, and that by the help of the mayor and 
sheriffs, if need be; that in all trading cities in England, where Gold- 
smiths reside, the same ordinance be observed as in London, and 
that one or two of every such city or town for the rest of the trade 
shall come to London to be ascertained of their touch of gold, and 
to have their works 7narkeci with the funcheoit of the leopard^s head 
as it was anciently ordained. 



THE GOLDSMITHS' ORDINANCES. 71 

A.D. 1335. 9 Edward III, Stat. 2, C. 2. By the statute of 
money, it was ordered : " Fir/t it is provided that from henceforth 
no Rehgious Man, nor other, /hall carry any Sterling out of Eng- 
land, nor Silver in Plate, nor Ve//el of Gold, nor of Silver, upon 
Pain of Forfeiture of the Money, Plate, or Ve//el that he /hall so 
carry, without our e/pecial Licence." "Item, That no Stirling Half- 
peny nor Farthing be molten for to make Ve//el, or any other Thing 
by Gold/miths, nor other, upon Forfeiture of the Money /o molton; 
(2) and that the Gold/mith, or other, which hath /o molton /uch 
Money, /hall be committed to Pri/on there to remain till he hath 
yielded unto us the one half of that that he hath so molton, notwith- 
/tanding any Charter or Franchi/e granted or u/ed to the contrary."* 
Repealed. 



THE GOLDSMITHS' ORDINANCES. 

The Company's Ordinance of the year 1336 enjoin, that none 
do work gold unless it be as good as the assay of the mystery, or in 
silver, unless as good or better than the King's coin or sterling, and 
that when done it shall be brought tO' the Hall to be assayed, and 
that such as will bear the touch shall be marked "with the owners 
and sayers marks, and afterwards be touched with the Liberdshede 
crowned." It will be observed here that three distinct marks are 
spoken of — (i) the goldsmith's mark, viz., his initials; (2) the assay 
mark, probably a letter of the alphabet; and (3) the mark of the 
Goldsmiths' Hall, a leopard's head crowned. 

The earliest records of the Goldsmiths' Company commence in 
1334, with the Wardens' Accounts and Court Minutes; and these 
books are continued in an almost unbroken sequence until 1636, when 
the records of the Court of Assistants begin. 

The following notes are taken by the kind permission of Sir 
Walter S. Prideaux, from his " Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany." 

In these minutes the following information is generally given : 

The names of the wardens for the year. 
The payments given to the increase. 
The names of the Poor of the Mystery. 
The names of the Apprentices. 
The Amerciaments for bad practices. 

Amongst the most common frauds in the fourteenth century was 
debasing gold by mixing it with glass, and silver by adding lead or 
fine sand; and gilding and silvering latten and brass vessels and 
passing them off as pure silver ; false stones also were set in gold and 
real stones in copper or latten gilt. Amicrciaments surely followed 
these practices whenever they were detected; and frequently the 
offender was adjudged to the pillory. 

* "The Statutes at Large," Vol. I, page 216. 



/2 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

In 1359 one of the members of the fellowship was found guilty 
of rnals outrages, and he was adjudged to forfeit his livery. He 
prayed mercy of the company, and offered them ten tons of wine; 
and he was forgiven on paying for a pipe of wine, and twelvepence 
a week for one year to a poor man of the company. 

It seems to have been a usual practice at this time for defaulters 
to make their peace with the company by presenting them with a 
pipe of wine; or sometimes with a dinner. 



ASSAY MARKS. 

A.D. 1363. 37 Edward III, c. 7. Item, it is ordered that gold- 
smiths as well in London as elsewhere within the realm, shall make 
all manner of vessels and other works of silver, well and lawfully of 
the allay of good sterling; and every master goldsmith shall have a 
mark by himself, and the same mark shall be known by them who 
shall be assigned by the King to survey their work and allay; and 
that the said goldsmiths set not their marks upon their works, till the 
said surveyors have made their assay, as shall be ordained by the 
king and his council : and after the assay made, the surveyor shall 
set the king's mark, and after the goldsmith his mark, for which he 
will answer; and that no goldsmith take for vessel white and full for 
the weight of a pound (that is to say) of the price of two marks of 
Pans weight, but eighteen pence as they do in Paris ;* [and that no 
goldsmith making white vessel shall meddle with gilding, nor they 
that do gild shall meddle to make white vessel:] and they which 
shall be so assigned in every town shall make their searches as often- 
times as shall be ordained ; and for that which shall be in the gold- 
smiths' default they shall incur the pain of forfeiture to the King, 
the value of the metal which shall be found in default. t REPEALED. 

In 1370 the first recorded ordinances are entered in the minutes, 
and the statutes are sworn to by the good men, and also entered in 
full. These statutes give minute direction, not only as to the manner 
of the assay; as to workings of ouches, buckles, and what not; as to 
the apprentices ; but also as to praying for the souls of the departed 
members of the brotherhood. 

In Riley's "Memorials of London" we also find that several 
charges were brought before the notice of the mayors and aldermen 
of London for counterfeiting silver ciippebonds of mazer or wooden 
cups and bowls. These mazers were usually mounted with silver 
circlets which ran round the foot and mouth of the vessel connected 
by vertical bands which enclosed the bowl. 

" In 1372, Thomas Lauleye, contriving to deceive the common peo- 
ple, had circlets of latone gilded, and with them bound divers cups, 
which he afterwards sold and exposed others for sale, as well in the 

* The clause in brackets relating to gilding was repealed 21 Jac. 18. 

t This Act is printed in Norman-French, in "The Statutes at Large," 
Vol. I, page 315. 



MARKS APPOINTED. ;3 

c'Uye as without, asserting that the same circlets were made of silver 
gilt and paid for accordingly. And in like manner for that he had 
pledged two cups so bound with circlets of gilded latoune to one 
William de Stoke, taillour, for xxxij. shillings, asserting that the 
same were of silver gilt. He was sentenced to stand in the pillory on 
several days with the cups hung round his neck. 

"In 1376, one Peter Randolfe, a lattener, was charged with ex- 
posing for sale two circlets for mazers which were of mixed silver, 
and not good or pure, in deceit of the people." He was let off mildly, 
however, on promising not to interfere again with the Goldsmiths' 
trade. 

"In 1376, Edward Bor was attached to make answer to the 
mayor and aldermen for that he silvered 240 buttons of latone and 
thirty-four circlets of latone for purses called gibesers (gipsieres) 
and had maliciously purposed and imagined to sell the same for 
pure silver in deceit of the people; whereupon he said that he, 
Michael Hakeneye, had given him the said buttons and circlets to 
silver." Both were committed to prison in Newgate, the former for 
one week, the latter for three weeks.* 

The laws which regulated the goldsmiths' trade were rigorously 
enforced, and we read (43 Edw. Ill, close rolls, m. 35) that William 
de Mulsho and John de Newenham, in 1 369, were commanded to ex- 
amine by the touch, or by other methods, certain vessels of silver and 
belts of gold which William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, had 
caused to be made by goldsmiths of London of less fineness than 
the ordinance required, and to report the assay to the king in 
chancery. 



MARKS APPOINTED. 

A.D. 1379. 2 Richard II, Rolls of Parliament, No. 30. It was 
enacted by Parliament that whereas the gold and silver worked by 
English goldsmiths was oftentimes less fine than it oug-ht to be, be- 
cause the goldsmiths were their own assayers, from that time every 
goldsmith should have Ms oivn proper 7nark upon his work, and that 
the assay of touch should belong to the mayors and governors of 
cities and boroughs, with the assistance of the Master of the Mint, if 
thei'e should be occasion; and that the work should bear the mark of 
the city or borough where it was assayed. And also that the king 
should assign such persons as he should please to make the said 
assay, as well in London as elsewhere, as often as should be neces- 
sary; and after the assay should be made to stamp the work with 
another mark, to be appointed by the king. And it was agreed that 
the ordinance should commence from the said feast of St. John, and 
continue until the next Parliament, to try whether it would be advan- 
tageous or not. Repealed. 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



74 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

EXPORTS FORBIDDEN. 

A.D. 1 38 1. 5 Richard II, Stat, i, c. 2 The export of gold and 
silver in any shape is forbidden ("or et argent si bien monoie vessell 
plate et joialx ").* REPEALED. 

GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1392. 16 Richard II. Another charter to the Goldsmiths' 
Company bearing date February 6 of this year, granted and gave 
licence to the men of the said craft of goldsmiths of the City of 
London to be a perpetual community or society of themselves, and 
elect yearly out of themselves four wardens to oversee, rule and duly 
govern the said craft and community, and every member of the same. 

A.D. 1402. 4 Henry IV, c. 16. This statute further forbids any 
person to carry gold or silver in money, vessel or plate out of the 
kingdom without the especial licence of the king.t REPEALED. 

A.D. 1403. 5 FIenry IV, c. 4. Item, it was ordained and estab- 
lished that no person should use the craft of the multiplication of 
gold or silver, and if they did so they should be guilty of felony. 
Repealed, t 

GILDING INFERIOR METALS PROHIBITED. 

A.D. 1403. 5 Henry IV, c. 13. Recites, That many fraudulent 
artificers do daily make locks, rings, candlesticks, etc., of copper and 
latten, and the same do overgild and silver like to gold and silver, to 
the great deceit, loss and hindrance of the common people, and the 
wasting of gold and silver; and ordains, That no artificer, nor other 
man, shall gild nor silver any such locks, rings, beads, candlestick, 
harness for girdles (buckles), chalices, hilts nor pommels of swords, 
powder boxes, nor covers for cups, made of copper or latten, upon 
pain to forfeit to the king one hundred shillings every time, and to 
make satisfaction to the party grieved for his damages; but that 
(chalices always excepted) the said artificers may work ornaments 
for the Church of copper and latten, and the same gild or silver, so 
that always in the foot or some other part of such ornament the cop- 
per and latten shall be plain, that a man may see whereof the thing 
is made, for to eschevr the deceit aforesaid. § REPEALED. 

* "The Statutes at Large," Vol. I, page 349. 
t This Act is printed in Norman-French in "The Statutes at Large," 
VoL I. page 451. 

\ " The Statutes at Large." VoL I, page 457. 

§ Louis XI, King of France, in an ordinance to the goldsmiths of Tours, 
January, 1470, authorises them to employ only for ecclesiastical utensils, such 
as reliquaries, etc., gold and silver of base alloy, which pieces were to be in- 
scribed " non renvndeftir," to certify that they were not destined for com- 
merce. " The Statutes at Large," Vol. I, page 460. 



PRICE OF GILT SILVER LIMITED. 75 

"In 14 1 4, one John of Rochester, was taken by the master of the 
trade of goldsmiths there for counterfeiting mazer bonds in copper 
and brass plated over with silver, or gilded, and brought up to Lon- 
don, having sold them within the City." 

These cases show that the Goldsmiths' Company then had juris- 
diction not only in the Metropolis, but elsewhere within the kingdom 
of England.* 



CUTLERS AND GOLDSMITHS. 

A.D. 1405. A contest happened between the companies of the 
goldsmiths and cutlers, with regard to certain privileges, claimed by 
the former, of inspecting all the gold and silver work made by the 
latter. At length the goldsmiths appealed to the Parliament, and by 
the authority of the king, the affair was referred to the Lord Mayor 
of London, who, having carefully examined into the same, reported, 
that according to the ancient immunities of ihe City, the cutlers had 
a right to work in gold and silver; but that all things made by them 
were to be assayed by the goldsmiths ; whereupon the Goldsmiths' 
Charter was confirmed by Parliament, and additional privileges were 
granted. 



PRICE OF GILT SILVER LIMITED. 

A.D. 141 4. 2 Henry V, s. 2, c. 4. " Item, for that the Gold/miths 
of England, of their Covin and Ordinances, will not /ell the Wares 
of their My/tery gilt, but at the double Price of the Weight of the 
Silver of the /ame, which /eemeth to the King very outrageous and 
too exce//ive a Price, (2) the King, for the Ea/e of his People, willing 
to remedy the /ame, hath ordained and e/tabli/hed. That all the 
Goldsmiths of England /hall gild no Silver wor/e than of the Allay 
of the Englijh Sterling, and that they take for a Pound of Troy 
gilt but Forty-/ix /hillings and eightpence at the mo/t, (3) and of 
greater Weight, and le//, according to the Quantity and Rate of the 
/ame Sum : and that which /hall be by them gilt from henceforth 
shall be of rea/onable Price, and not exce//ive, (4) and if any Gold- 
/mith do contrary to this statute, he /hall forfeit to the King the 
Value of the Thing so /old."t REPEALED. 

A.D. 1420. 8 Henry V, c. 3. "Item, that none from henceforth 
/hall gild any Sheaths, nor Metal, but Silver, and the Ornaments of 
holy Church; (2) nor /hall /ilver no Metal but Knights Spurs, and 
all the Apparel that pertaineth to a Baron, and above that E/tate : 
upon Pain of Forfeiture to the King ten Times as much as the 
Thing /o gilt is of Value, and /hall have al/o one Year's Imprison- 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 
t "The Statutes at Large," Vol. I, page 499. 



;6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

ment (3) And the Ju/tices of Peace /hall have Power to inquire 
thereof, and that to determine. (4) And he that will /ue for the 
King in this Behalf, /hall have the third Part of the /aid pecuniary 
Pain. 

" II. Provided, That this la/t Ordinance /hall begin to hold 
Place at the Fea/t of Eajter next coming."* REPEALED. 



STANDARD OF GOLD AND SILVER : PROVINCIAL 

OFFICES. 

A.D. 1423. 2 Henry VI, c. 14. ''Item, That no Gold/mith, nor 
Worker of Silver within the City of London, /ell any Workman- 
/hip of Silver, unle/s it be as fine as the Sterling, except the same 
need Souder in the making, which /hall be allowed according as 
the Souder is nece//ary to be wrought in the /ame. (2) And that 
no Gold/mith nor jeweller, nor any other that worketh Harne/s of 
Silver, /hall /et any of the /ame to /ell within the City, before it be 
touched with the Touch of the Leopard's Head, if it may rea/onably 
bear the /ame Touch and al/o with the Mark or Sign of the Work- 
man of the /ame, upon Pain of Forfeiture of the Double, as afore is 
/aid; and that the Mark or Sign of every Gold/mith be known to 
the Wardens of the /ame Craft. (3) And if it be found, that the 
/aid Keeper of the Touch touch any /uch Harne/s with the Leo- 
pard's Head, except it be as Fine in Allay as the Sterling, that then 
the Keeper of the Touch, for every Thing /o proved not as good in 
Allay as the /aid Sterling, /hall forfeit the double Value to the 
King and to the Party, as is above recited. (4) And al/o it is like- 
wi/e ordained in the City of York, Newcaftle upon Tine, Norwich, 
Lincoln, Brijtow, Salifbury, and Coventry, that every one /hall have 
divers Touches, according to the Ordinance of the Mayors, Bailiffs, 
or Governors of the /ame Towns; (5) and that no Gold/mith, nor 
other Workers of Silver, nor Keeper of the /aid Touches within the 
/ame Towns, /hall /et to Sale, or touch any Silver in other Manner 
than is ordained before within the City of London, upon Pain of the 
/aid Forfeiture. (6) And moreover that no Gold/mith, or other 
Worker of Silver within the Realm of Englaiid, where no Touch is 
ordained as afore is /aid, /hall work any Silver, except it be as fine 
in Allay as the Sterling, and that the Gold/mith or Worker of the 
/ame Silver /et upon the /ame his Mark or Sign before he /et it to 
Sale; (7) and if it be found, that it is not as fine as the Sterling, 
that then the Worker of the /ame /hall forfeit the double Value, in 
Manner and Form as before is recited within the City of London. 
(8) And the Ju/tices of Peace, Mayors and Bailiffs, and all other 
having Power as ju/tices of Peace, /hall hear, inquire, and deter- 
mine, by Bill, Plaint, or in other Manner, of all that is contrary to 
the /aid Ordinances, and thereof to make due Execution by their 
Di/cretions. (9) Provided always, That if the Ma/ter of the Mint 

* Idem, page 512. 



GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. ;; 

which now is, or which for the rime /hall be, offend, or have offended 
in his Office of the /aid Mint, that then he be puni/hed and ju/tified 
according" to the Form of the /aid Indentures."* 

Repealed as to Master of Mint. 

It appears that before this Statute was passed, all the gold and 
silver plate made in England was assayed and marked at Gold- 
smiths' Hall in London. 



EXPORTS. 

A.D. 1432. 1 1 Henry VI, c. 14. In this year the laws which pro- 
hibited the exportation of money and plate were partially sus- 
pended. The Pope's Ambassador had licence to pass out of the 
kingdom with gold, money and jewels to the amount of one hun- 
dred pounds. And the Bishop of Worcester, being about to attend 
the General Council at Basle, had permission to carry with him 
goods, jewels, and vessels of silver to the value of one thousand 
pounds. The Bishop of Winchester had licence to carry out of the 
realm money and plate to the amount of i^20,ooo of sterling's. And 
about the same time a certain Spaniard had permission to take his 
horses, silver, plate and money out of the kingdom. REPEALED. 

GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1462. The most important charter ever given to the Com- 
pany of Goldsmiths in London bears date the 30th of May, 2 Edw. 4, 
and grants (inter alia) as follows : " And for the credit of the men 
of the said craft, dwelling and residing m the said city, for the 
time being, and for the preventing and avoiding of the damage and 
loss, which do or may daily happen or arise, as well to us as to any 
of our liege people, for want of a due and provident care in regu- 
lating certain of our subjects and others using and exercising the 
said trade, without any regard to the credit of the said company ; 
and also for the preventing and taking avv^ay the subtilties and 
deceits practised in the said trade. We have further granted, and 
by these presents do grant to the said now wardens and commonalty, 
and their successors for ever, that the wardens of the said mystery 
for the time being shall and may for ever have the search, inspec- 
tion, trial and regulation of all sorts of gold and silver, wrought 
or to be wrought, and to be exposed to sale within the City of Lon- 
don, and the suburbs thereof, and m all fairs and markets, and 
all cities, towns, and boroughs , and all other places whatsoever 
throughout our kingdom of England, and also shall and may have 
power to punish and correct all defects that shall be found in the 
working of gold and silver; . . . and also by themselves, or any 
of them, to break all such deceitful works and wares of gold and 

* '' The Statutes at Large," VoL I, page 529. 



/8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

silver, of what sort soever, if any such they shall End, to be made, 
wrought, and exposed to sale, m deceit of our people." 

This privilege has been since so materially enlarged, that they 
have the power of inspecting all gold and silver wares in the follow- 
ing particular places, viz., Chester, Newcastle, Norwich, Exeter, 
Birmingham and Sheffield, with the power of punishing all offenders 
concerned m working adulterated gold and silver, and of making 
bye-laws for their better government. 



STANDARD OF 18-CARAT GOLD. 

A.D. 1477. 17 Edward IV, Stat, i, c i, directs (inter alia), that 
no goldsmith, or worker of gold or silver, shall work, or put to sale, 
any gold under the fineness of 18 carats, nor silver, unless it be as 
fine as sterling, except such thing as requireth solder; also, that no 
goldsmith work, or set to sale, harness of silver plate, or jewel of 
silver, from the feast of Easter, within the City of London, or within 
two leagues [" leukey "] of London, before it be touched with the 
leopard's head, such as may bear the said touch, and also with a 
mark or sign of the worker of the same so wrought, upon pain of 
forfeiture of the double value of such silver wrought and sold to 
the contrary ; that the mark or sign of every goldsmith be committed 
to the wardens of the same mystery, and if it be found that the 
keeper of the touch of the leopard's head, do mark or touch any 
harness with the leopard's head, if it be not as fine in alloy as ster- 
ling, he shall forfeit double the value of the silver, and that the 
craft of goldsmiths of London shall be answerable for the non- 
sufficiency of the warden.* 

This statute was enacted for seven years, and was afterwards 
re-enacted for twenty years in 1489, and again for twenty years in 
1552 by 7 Edw. VI, c. 6. REPEALED. 



ASSAY OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

A.D. 1487. 4 Henry VII, parl. 3, c. 2. Item, "Whereas it was 
of old Time u/ed, and continued till now of late Years, that there 
w^as for the Weal of the King and the Realm, Finers and Parters of 
Gold and Silver by Fire and Water, under a Rule and Order belong- 
ing unto the Mints of London, Calais, Canterbury, York, and 
Durham, and in other Places where Mints been holden, and at the 
Gold/miths' Hall in London, to fine and part all Gold and Silver 
belonging and needful for the /aid Mints and Fellow/hip of Gold- 
/miths. for the Amendment of Money and Plate of the Realm, that 
every Thin^ might be reformed to the right Standard, as well in 
Money as Plate, to the lea/t Co/t for the Weal of the King's Noble- 



■* This Statute is Norman-French, and is printed in '' 
Large," Vol. II, page 40. 



The Statutes at 



ASSAY OF GOLD AND SILVER. ;9 

men of the Land, and Common People : (2) But /o it is now, that 
/uch Finers and Parters of Gold and Silver by Fire and Water, 
dwelling- Abroad in every Place of this Realm out of the Rules 
afore/aid, and buy gilt silver from the Mints, Changes, and Gold- 
smiths, and part and fine it as is afore /aid, and for the mo/t Part 
of the Silver /o fined, they do allay it in divers Manners, and /ell it 
at their Plea/ures to every Man of what E/tate or Degree, /oever he 
be, that will buy of them', to make /uch Works as plea/eth the 
Buyers; (3) therefore Men can get no fine Silver when they need it 
for their Money, for the Amendment of Money, and Plate, as hath 
been in Times pa/t; wherefore it cau/eth Money and Plate in divers 
Places of the Realm to be made worse in Finene/s than it should 
be, as it appeareth evidently in divers Places, to the great Hurt of 
the King's Noblemen of the Land, and common People : (4) Where- 
fore the King our Sovereign Lord, by the A//ent of the Lords Spiri- 
tual and Temporal, and of the Commons, in the /aid Parliament 
a//embled, and by Authority of the /ame, hath ordained, enacted, 
and e/tabli/hed. That no Finer of Gold and Silver, nor Parter of 
the /ame by Fire or Water, from henceforth allay any fine Silver 
or Gold, ne none /ell in any other wi/e, ne to any Per/on or Per/ons, 
but only to the Officers of Mints, Changes, and Gold/miths within 
this Realm, for Augmentation and amending of Coin and Plate as 
IS afore/aid; (5) and that the Ma/ters of Mints, Changes, and Gold- 
/miths, for all /uch fine Gold or Silver coming" to them, to an/wer 
the Value as it is worth, according as it is now and hath been in 
ancient Time accu/tomed after the Rate of Finene/s : (6) Ne that no 
Finer nor Finers, Parter nor Parters, sell to no Per /on, neither to one 
nor to other any Manner of Silver into Ma/s molten and allayed, 
upon Pain of Forfeiture of the /ame, the King thereof to have one 
Half, and the Finder that can prove, and will /ue for it in the King's 
Exchequer, the other Half. (7) And if any Finer or Finers, Parter 
or Parters of Gold and Silver, either by Fire or Water, allay or /ell 
any Manner fine Gold or Silver, otherwi/e than it is ordained in this 
Act, he or they to lo/e the Value of the /ame Gold or Silver /o 
allayed or /old ; the King to have the one Half, and the Finder that 
can prove it, and will /ue for it in the King's Exchequer, the other 
Half. (8) Al/o all such fine Silver as /hall be parted and fined as 
is afore/aid, that it be made /o fine that it may bear Twelve Penny 
Weight of Allay in a Pound Weig^ht, and yet it be as good as Ster- 
ling, and rather better than wor/e; (9) and that every Finer put his 
/everal Mark upon /uch fine Silver, to bear witne/s of the /ame to be 
true, as is afore /aid, upon the Pain of the Value found contrary to 
be forfeit; the King thereof to have the one Half, and the Finder 
that can prove it, and will /ue for it in the Exchequer, the other 
Half. (10) And that no Gold/mith nor Gold/miths within this 
Realm melt or allay any fine Silver, tO' be for any Works or other 
Intent, but only for making" of Amels, for divers Works of Gold- 
/liiithry, and for amending of Plate to make it as g-ood as Stirling, 
or better, for the common Weal of this Realm. 

7 



8o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

" 11. Nor that they /ell no fine Silver, nor other Silver allayed, 
molten into Ma/s, to any Per/on or Per/ons what/oever they be, nor 
one Gold/mith to another. (2) This Ordinance to be kept by the 
Gold/miths in every Point, upon Pain of Forfeiture of the /ame 
Silver, or the Value thereof ; the King thereof to have the one Half, 
and the Finder that can prove it, and will /ue for it in the King';, 
Exchequer, the other Half. 

" ni. Al/o it is ordained by the /ame Authority, That all 
Letters Patents and Grants of Offices belonging or pertaining to the 
Mint of our Sovereign Lord the King, or exercised in the /ame, with 
Fees and Wages thereto belonging, be from henceforth void and of 
none effect."* REPEALED. 

As this Act makes no mention of any country Assay Offices, it 
is probable that all or most of them were then discontinued. 



GOLSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1504. Another Charter granted to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany of London, bearing date 3rd February, 20 Henry VII, men- 
tions "that divers persons in divers parts of this Kingdom do work 
and expose to sale gold and silver wrought worse than standard, 
and neither fear nor doubt to be punished; as due search, or due 
punishment, is seldom executed out of London. And that the 
common standard, or assize of gold and silver (according to the 
ordinances in that behalf made), is kept in Goldsmiths' Hall, in 
London; and that all works and wares in gold and silver there tried 
and assayed, and affirmed for good, shall be stamped with their 
marks, which they use for that purpose; and all defective works 
utterly condemned." 

In 1547, the Court of the Goldsmiths' Company passed resolu- 
tions, in accordance with the King's injunctions, for breaking up 
the image of St. Dunstan. These were shortly afterwards carried 
out, and the weight of the image, and of St. Dunstan's standing 
cup, with the number of the stones set therein, are entered in the 
proceedings. 

At this time the year began at the Feast of the Holy and 
Blessed Trinity [Sunday after Whit Sunday] instead of at the Feast 
of St. Dunstan [May 19] as formerly. 

Four years later an almswoman was committed to ward for 
setting an Apostle on a spoon. 

Soon after Queen Mary commenced her reign, the old style of 
St. Dunstan was restored.! 

* ''The Statutes at Large," Vol. II, page 73. 
t Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER. 8i 

STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER: 22-CARAT 

GOLD REVIVED. 

A.D. 1573. 15 Elizabeth. Commissioners were appointed to 
inquire into the standard of gold and silver, which had not been 
attended to, in consequence of the disgraceful state of the coinage, 
and the low degree of baseness to which that and goldsmiths' work 
generally had then recently fallen, but which had then reached again 
to its former purity. The Commissioners called before them the Mas- 
ter and Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company, to see how far they 
had complied with the standard; and they were compelled to give 
security that in future no gold wares should be of less fineness than 
22 carats, and silver wares 11 oz. 2 dwts. in the pound. 

STANDARDS AND PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER WARE. 

22-CARAT GOLD. 

A.D. 1576. 18 Elizabeth, c. 15. "Whereas certain evil-di/- 
posed Gold/miths deceitfully do make and /ell Plate, and other 
Gold and Silver Wares, to the great defrauding of her Maje/ty, and 
her good Subjects : (2) For Remedy whereof, be it enacted by the 
Authority of this pre/ent Parliament, That no Gold/mith from the 
twentieth Day of Afril next coming /hall work, /ell, exchange or 
cau/e to be wrought, /old or exchanged, any Plate or other Gold- 
/miths Wares of Gold, le/s in Finene/s than that of two and twenty 
Carrects [carats], and that he u/e no Sother, Amell or other Stuffings 
what/oever, in any of their Works, more than is nece//ary for the 
fini/hing of the /ame; (3) and that they take not above the Rate oi 
Twelve-pence for the Ounce of Gold, be/ides the Fa/hion (more 
than the Buyer /hall or may be allowed for the /ame at the Queen's 
Exchange or Mint) upon Pain to forfeit the Value of the Thing /o 
y^old or exchanged : (4) And that from the /aid twentieth Day of 
April no Gold/mith /hall make, /ell or exchange in any Place within 
this Realm, any Plate or Gold/miths Wares of Silver, le/s in Fine- 
ne/s than that of eleven Ounces twopeny Weight; (5) nor take above 
the Rate of Twelve-pence for every Pound Weight of Plate or Wares 
of Silver, besides the Fashion, more than the Buyer /hall or may be 
allowed for the /ame at the Queen's Exchange or Mint ; (6) nor put 
to Sale, exchange or /ell any Plate or Gold/mith's Work of Silver, 
before he hath /et his own Mark to /o much thereof as conveniently 
may bear the /ame; (7) upon Pain to forfeit the Value of the Thing 
/o fold or exchanged. (8) x'-\nd if any Gold/mith /hall make any 
Gold/mith's Work or Plate, and the /ame after the /aid twentieth 
Day of April /hall be touched, marked and allowed for good, by 
the Wardens or Ma/ters of that My/tery, and if in the /ame there 
/hall be found any Fal/hood or Deceit; then the Wardens and Cor- 
poration of that My/tery for the Time being, /hall forfeit and pay 
the Value of the Thing /o exchanged or /old ; (9) the one Moiety of 



82 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

all which Forfeitures /hall be to the U/e of the Queen's Maje/ty, 
and the other Moiety to the U/e of /uch Party grieved and /u/tain- 
ing Lo/s thereby, as will /ue for the /ame in any Court of Record, 
by Action, Bill, Plaint, Information or otherwise, wherein no E//oin, 
Protection or Wager of Law /hall be admitted for the Defendant."* 

Repealed, except from " and if any goldsmith." 

Again, by this Act the Goldsmiths' Company of London is the 
only Authority for assaying Gold and Silver Ware, and no Country 
Offices are mentioned. 

In 1630 new gowns were purchased for the almsmen of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, and it was ordered that " The badge of the 
Leopard's Head is to be set upon each gown." 

When Mr. Harrison, a goldsmith, was Sheriff, in 1633, the Com- 
pany lent him a quantity of plate. The list of this shows that 
the Company possessed a very valuable collection prior to the loss 
of the greater portion of it during the Civil War. The vessels lent 
to Mr. Harrison weighed between 2,000 and 3,000 ounces, and were 
mostly gilt. They included eleven standing cups and covers, many 
basins and ewers, greater and lesser salts, Livery pots, trencher 
plates, etc. 

At the Court of Assistants, held 23rd May, 1638, it was re- 
ported that : 

" The alphabet of small Roman letters has been used down to 
'V.' It being the custom of the Company not to go beyond 'V,' it 
is resolved that the alphabet of great letters of the Court hand- 
writing shall now be used." 

At the Court held two years later it was resolved that " In con- 
sequence of the devices of workmen to entrap the Assay Master, 
namely, by clogging their work with unnecessary solder; making 
pieces of plate of many parts of silver of different qualities ; putting 
new feet to the bodies of old bowls which have passed the touch, 
and adding potkins of coarse silver; and in consequence of the 
leniency of the wardens by which many offenders escape punish- 
ment, it is ordered that Alderman Wollaston shall make relation 
of the aforesaid practices in the Hall, and warn offenders that they 
will in future be visited with condigne punishment." 

In 1650, a complaint was made against Thomas Maundy, 
because he had printed and published an order of the Common- 
wealth whereby he was appointed to make the great maces, thus de- 
terring others from providing maces. Mr. Maundy was sent for, and 
explained that he had no desire of monopolising the making of 
maces, and that he conceived that the order was only to extend to the 
making of the great maces, namely : for the Parliament, for the 
Council of State, for the City of London, and for Ireland. The 
Wardens therefore resolved to publish something showing that the 
members of the Company might make any maces, which should be 
bespoken of them. 

* ''The Statutes at Large," Vol. II, page 622. 



STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER. 83 

On June 12, 1652, the new Wardens took their places at 
the Court of Assistants, and the new pounsons were brought in by 
the graver. The letter for the ensuing year was to be the great O in 
the Court character in an escutcheon. 

At the Court held June 4, 1658, there was an order made for 
the new letter to be used, " the Company having run through the 
alphabet of the character of the Courte hand letter." 

A complaint was made to the Court of Assistants on June 2, 
1663, that the spoons had then lately not been wrought for length 
and wideness of the bowls as they ought to be, but were shorter in 
the handles and less in the bowls than theretofore. 

It was therefore ordered that the form and pattern of a spoon 
should be made and hung up in the Assay Office; and if spoons 
were brought to be assayed otherwise made, the Deputy Assayer 
was to return them to be new wrought again. 

The Company, in 1664, ^^ conformity with the request of one 
of the Secretaries of State, made a return of the quantity and value 
of the plate made during the previous ten years. This shows that 
the total weight of silver plate was 309,728 lbs. 6 oz. 6 dwts., and 
the value thereof ^^929,185 us. 6d. (5s. an ounce). That gold plate 
was very seldom made, and that gilt plate was included in the total 
amount named.* 

Eleven years later the Company made the following order : 

London, Goldsmiths' Hall, February 23, 1675. 

Whereas complaints have been made to the Wardens of the 
Company of Goldsmiths, London, that divers small works, as 
buckles for belts, silver hilts, and the pieces thereto belonging, with 
divers other small wares, both of gold and silver, are frequently 
wrought and put to sale by divers goldsmiths and others, worse than 
standard, to the great abuse of his Majesty's good subjects, and 
great discredit of that manufacture, and reproach in foreign 
parts to the English goldsmiths; and that there are also divers 
pieces of silver plate sold, not being assayed at Goldsmiths' Hall, 
and so not marked with the leopard^ s head crowned, or lyon, as by 
law the same ought to be : And whereas the Wardens of the said 
(Company, to prevent the said frauds, have formerly required all 
persons to forbear putting to sale any adulterate wares, either of 
gold or silver : but that they cause the same forthwith to be defaced : 
And that as well plate workers as small workers shall cause their 
respective marks to be brought to Goldsmiths' Hall, and there strike 
the same in a table kept in the Assay Office; and likewise enter their 
names and places of habitations in a book there kept for that pur- 
pose, whereby the persons and their marks might be known unto 
the Wardens of the said Company; which having not hitherto been 
duly observed, and many of the offenders seem to be incorrigible; 
these are therefore to give notice to, and to require again all those 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



84 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

who exercise the said art or mystery of goldsmith in or about the 
cities of London and Westminster and the suburbs of the same, that 
they forthwith repair to Goldsmiths' Hall and there strike their 
marks, first approved by the Wardens in Court, in a table appointed 
for that purpose, and likewise enter their names with the places 
of their respective dwellings in a book remaining in the Assay Office 
there.* And that as well the worker as shopkeeper, and all cutlers 
and girdlers and all others working or trading in gold or silver 
wares of what kmd soever or quality they be, forbear putting to 
sale any of the said works, not being agreeable to standard, that is 
to say, gold not less in fineness than 22 carats, and silver not less 
in fineness than 11 oz. 2 dwts. ; and that no person or persons do 
from henceforth put to sale any of the said wares, either small or 
great, before the workman's mark be struck clear and visible thereon, 
and upon every part thereof, that is wrought asunder, and after- 
wards soldered or made fast thereto, in finishing the same, unless it 
be such sort of work adjudged by the wardens, that it will not con- 
veniently bear the worker's mark. And that all manner of silver 
vessels, and all manner of silver hilts for swords, and all manner 
of silver buckles for belts and girdles, and other harness of silver, 
be assayed at Goldsmiths' Hall, and there approved for standard, 
by striking thereon the li07i and leopard's head crozunedy or one of 
them, before they be exposed to sale. And hereof all persons con- 
cerned are required to take notice, and demean themselves accord- 
ingly ; otherwise the wardens resolve to make it their care to procure 
them to be proceeded against according to law. And will reward 
every person for their pains in discovering before them (in court) 
the matter of fact of any transgressor (in the premises) upon the 
conviction of the offender. 

A.D. 1696. 7 & 8 William HI, c. 19. It was enacted by this 
Statute, that no person keeping an inn, tavern, or alehouse, or selling 
liquors, should publicly use or expose in his house any wrought or 
manufactured plate (except spoons), under the penalty of forfeiting 
the same or the full value thereof. 

It was also enacted that after March 31, 1696, no person should 
ship any molten silver or bullion either in bars, ingots, or any other 
forms, unless a certificate on oath had been obtained that the same 
molten silver or bullion was not coin of the Realm, nor plate wrought 
within the Kingdom. 

Heavy penalties are laid down in the Act for any breach of 
these regulations.! REPEALED. 

* The table here aUuded to Avas a copper plate of nine columns, vrhich is 
.still preserved at the Hall. It contains punches of the makers' marks from 
the date of this order, 1675, up to the passing of the Act altering the standard 
in 1697 ; but the book in which their names and places of abode were entered 
is unfortunately lost. A copy of the first five columns of this plate is printed 
in this volume ; the remaining marks ar^ of the second size for small pieces 
of i^late. 

t "The Statutes at Large," Vol. Ill, page 605. 



NEW STANDARD OF SILVER AND MARKS. 85 

NEW STANDARD OF SILVER (OF 11 oz. 10 dwts.). 

AND MARKS. 

A.D. 1696. 8 & 9 William III, c. 8, s. i. Enacts that any per- 
sons that shall bring any sort of wrought plate, between January i, 
1696, and November 4, 1697, into any of his Majesty's mints, etc., 
shall be paid 5s. 4.6.. per ounce for the same; and that the master 
and worker of the mints shall receive all such wrought plate, which 
shall plainly appear to have thereon the mark commonly used at 
the Hall, belonging to the Company of Goldsmiths in London, 
besides the workman's mark, as sterling silver, without tarrying till 
it be melted and assayed. And where the wrought plate so brought, 
shall not have the said marks thereon, then the party bringing such 
plate shall have the same forthwith melted and assayed, and shall 
be allowed 5s. 4d. per ounce for every ounce of sterling silver found 
therein. 

Cap. 8, Sect. 9. " And whereas it may rea/onably be /u/pected, 
that Part of the Silver Coins of this Realm hath been, by Persons 
regarding their own private Gain more than the publick Good, 
molten and converted into Ve//els of Silver or other manufactured 
Plate, which Crime hath been the more ea/ily perpetrated by them, 
m regard the Goldsmiths or others. Workers of Plate, by the former 
Laws and Statutes of this Realm, are not obliged to make their 
Plate of Finer Silver than the Sterling or Standard ordained for 
the Monies of this Realm. Be it therefore enacted by the Authority 
afore/aid, That from and after the five and twentieth Day of March 
one thou/and /ix hundred ninety-/even, no Gold/mith, Silver- 
/mith, or other per/on whatsoever, /hall work or make, or cau/e to 
be wrought or made, any Silver Ve/y^'el, Plate, or Manufacture of 
Silver, le/s in Finene/s than that of eleven Ounces and ten Peny 
Weight of fine Silver in every Pound Troy, nor put to /ale, exchange, 
or /ell, any Silver ^/e//els, Plate, or Manufacture of Silver made 
after the /aid five and twentieth Day of March (unle/s it be Silver 
Wire, or /uch Things as in respect of their Smallne/s are not capable 
of receiving a Mark) until /uch Time as /uch Ve//el, Plate or Manu- 
factured Silver, /hall be marked as followeth (that is to /ay) with 
the Worker's Mark, to be expre//ed by the two fir/t Letters of his 
Surname, the Marks of the My/tery or Craft of the Gold/miths, 
which, m/tead of the Leopard's Head and the Lion, /hall for this 
Plate be the Figure of a Lion's Head era/ed, and the Figure of a 
Woman, commonly called Britannia, and a di/tinct variable Mark 
to be u/ed by the Warden of the /aid My/tery, to denote the Year 
in which /uch Plate is made; upon Pain that all /uch Silver Ve//els, 
Plate, or other manufactured Silver, which /hall be made, exposed 
to /ale, /old, or exchanged, contrary to this Act, or the Value thereof, 
/hall be forfeited, the one Half thereof to the King, and the other 
Half thereof, to such Per /on or Persons that will /eize or /ue for 
the /ame, to be recovered by Action, Bill, Suit, or Information, in 
any Court of Record, wherein no E//oin, Protection, Wager of Law, 



86 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

or more than one Imparlance /hall be admitted : And if any Silver- 
/mith, Gold/mith, or other Per/on, /hall after the /aid hve and 
twentieth Day of March, make any Silver Ve//els, Plate, or manu- 
factured Silver, contrary to this Act, and the /ame /hall be touched, 
marked, or allowed for good by the Wardens or Ma/ters of the /aid 
My/tery, or tho/e authorized or employed by them for the e//aying 
and marking of Plate, and if m the /ame there /hall be found any 
Fal/hood or Deceit; then the Wardens and Corporation of that 
My/tery, for the time being, /hall forfeit and pay the Value of the 
Plate /o deceitfully marked, the one Half thereof to the King, and 
the other Half to any Per/on or Per/ons that /hall buy the /ame, 
and be grieved thereby, to be recovered as af ore/aid; any thing in 
this or any former Act or Acts of Parliament contained, or by any 
other Order or Provision heretofore made, to the contrary notwith- 
/tandmg."* REPEALED, except section eight. 

This higher standard was compulsory for all silver from this 
time until 1720, and it is still a legal standard. 

Wrought plate not marked with the Hall mark of the Gold- 
smiths' Company of London was not to be received by the officers 
of his Majesty's mints as sterling, but as uncertain silver. 

This enactment was made m consequence of the practice of 
melting the coin of the realm by silversmiths to convert it into plate, 
being the readiest way of obtaining silver " as good as sterling," 
both the coinage and the standard of plate being sterling, that is, 
II oz. 2 dwts. ; and in consequence of the immense quantities of 
plate that had been sacrificed in the preceding reign for the use of 
the King and Parliament by converting it into money or siege pieces 
of equal value; the opulent gentry were desirous of replenishing 
their tables and sideboards with plate, as they were before the 
Civil War, so they set about turning the tables, by converting money 
back again into plate. This was carried to such an extent that the 
King had recourse to legislation to remedy the inconvenience, and 
the plan was carried out of raising the standard of plate above the 
sterling of the coinage, rendering the latter less available to the 
silversmith. The inducement held out by the same Act to bring 
wrought plate to the mint was the offer of purchasing any which 
bore the mark of the Goldsmiths' Hall at 5s. 4d. the ounce, which 
doubtless led to a still further destruction of ancient plate. In this 
Act the Assay offices of the provinces were not mentioned ; and they 
appear, therefore, to have been deprived of the power of marking 
silver plate, because they were not empowered to use the marks for 
the new standard, and to work the old was illegal ; hence from April, 
1697, until May, 1701, plate was only assayed and marked at the 
Goldsmiths' Hall, London, to the entire exclusion of the provincial 
assay offices during that period. 

A.D. 1698. 9 & 10 William III, c. 28. This Statute recites that 
by the Act of 7 & 8 William III, c. IQ, after March 31, 1696, no 
home-wrought plate could be shipped though never so beneficial to 

* "The Statutes at Large/' VoL III, page 639. 



PROVINCIAL OFFICES REAPPOINTED. 8; 

the artificers of the Kingdom, and it also recites that by the Act of 
8 & 9 William III, c. 8, after March 25, 1897, no Goldsmith or Silver- 
smith should work any silver vessel or plate less in fineness than 
eleven ounces and ten pennyweight in every pound Troy or put the 
same to sale until it should be duly marked. And that a great 
benefit may accrue to many artificers and to the kingdom in gen- 
eral, by giving liberty to export watches, sword hilts, wrought plate, 
and several other manufactures, made within this kingdom, being 
of the fineness prescribed in the last recited Act, it is enacted that 
after June 24, 1698, it shall be lawful to export such watches, plate, 
etc., according to the rules prescribed in the said last recited Act, as 
shall be yearly allowed by the Commissioners of the Customs.* 
Repealed. 

A.D. 1698. 9 & 10 William III, c. 39. This Act settled and 
adjusted the proportion of fine silver and silk, for the better making 
of silver and gold thread; and it enacted that no gilt wire should be 
covered with verdigrise, and that six ounces of plate should be used 
to four ounces of silk.t REPEALED. 



PROVINCIAL OFFICES REAPPOINTED. 

A.D. i;oo. 12 & 13 William, c. 4. "Whereas the Gold/miths, 
Silver/miths, and Plateworkers of this Kingdom, remote from the 
City of London, are under great Difficulties and Hard/hips m the 
Exerci/e of their Trades, for want of Af [dL-ycr?, in covenient Places 
to a//ay and touch their Wrought Plate : For Remedy whereof, and 
for preventing all Frauds and Corruptions therein, be it enacted by 
the King's mo/t excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and 
Con/ent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this 
pre/ent Parliament a//embled, and by the Authority of the /ame. 
That the /everal Cities within this Kingdom (viz.), York, Exeter, 
Brijtol, Chefter, and Norzvich, /hall be, and are hereby appointed 
for the a//aying and marking of Wrought Plate, and for executing 
the Powers, Authorities and Directions given by this Act." 

Sect. 2. Incorporates the goldsmiths, silversmiths and plate- 
workers, freemen of, and inhabiting within, any of the said cities, 
and having served an apprenticeship to the said trade, as a Com- 
pany, to be known by the name of the Company of Goldsmiths of 
such city respectively, and enables them annually to choose two 
wardens, who shall continue for one year, and no longer, unless re- 
elected. 

Sect. 3. Enacts that no goldsmith, silversmith, or plate worker 
in the said cities, shall vvork any silver vessels or plate less in fine- 
ness than the standard, nor put to sale, exchange, or sell after Sep- 
tember 29, 1 70 1, until the same shall be marked as follows : The 

* "The Statutes at Large," Vol. Ill, page 713. 
t Idem, Vol. Ill, page 717. 



88 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

first two letters of the surname of the maker; the lion's head, erased; 
the fio-ure of the woman called Britannia; the Arms of the Citv 
aforesaid ; and a variable yearly letter m Roman character. 

Sect. 4. Enacts, that each of the said companies shall elect an 
able and skilful man, experienced m assaying of gold and silver, 
who may detain eight grains per pound troy of silver he shall assay, 
four grains whereof shall be put into the diet-box, and the other 
four grains shall be allowed him for his waste and spillings in 
making the said assays; and appoints the oath he shall take. 

Sect. 5. Direct that such oath shall be administered by the 
Mayor of the Cities aforesaid. 

Sect. 6. Enacts, that the diet-box shall be locked up with three 
keys, kept by the wardens and assayer, and shall be at the company's 
charge conveyed annually (if required by the Lord Chancellor or 
Keeper) to the Mint at the Tower of London, and the diet therein 
tried as the pix of the coin is tried ; and if any falsehood or deceit 
therein, the company shall forfeit £^0, to be recovered against such 
company, or any member thereof in his private capacity : and if 
any plate shall be touched, marked, or allowed for good by the 
assayer, and any deceit found therein, he shall forfeit double the 
value of the plate so marked. 

Sect. 7. Enacts, theit every goldsmith, silversmith, or plate 
worker, inhabiting the cities aforesaid or elsewhere, shall first enter 
his name, mark, and abode with the wardens of such company of that 
city or place where an assayer is or shall be appointed, which shall 
be done without fee. And if such goldsmith shall not enter his 
mark, or shall strike any unentered mark on plate, he shall forfeit 
double the value thereof. This section is REPEALED. 

Sect. 8. Enacts, that if any person shall counterfeit any of the 
stamps appointed by this Act to be used by the said wardens or 
assayers for marking WTOught plate, or any of the stamps used by 
the wardens of the Company of Goldsmiths of the City of London, 
such person shall for every such offence forfeit the sum of £soo, to 
be recovered and disposed as aforesaid. 

Sect. 9. Recites, that it is not the intent or meaning of this Act 
to hinder any goldsmith, silversmith, or plate worker, not inhabiting 
within any of the cities aforesaid, from exercising his trade; yet for 
preventing of abuse or corruption therein, it enacts that every such 
goldsmith, silversmith, or plate worker, shall first fix his mark upon 
his plate, and then shall send the same to some city or place where 
an assayer is or shall be appointed who shall assay and mark the 
same as he is by this Act required to mark the plate of his company, 
and he shall be paid towards his charge and trouble in making such 
assays a sum not exceeding sixpence per pound troy. And if any 
goldsmith, silversmith, or plate worker, sell any such plate before 
it shall be assayed and marked, he shall forfeit such plate.* 

Nearly all these cities, it will be seen, were chosen for the same 
purpose, as early as 2 Henry VI, A.D 1424, but many had probably 

* "The Statutes at Laroe." Vol. IV, na?e 64. 



THE NEWCASTLE ACT. 89 

never availed themselves of the privilege, or had long since discon- 
tinued it, or it would have been unnecessary to reappoint them ex- 
pressly by this statute. 

As the King's subjects had, in the year 1697, sold most of their 
wrought plate to the mints to be coined into money, and the said 
Act William III, c. 8, had abolished the old standard of 1 1 oz. 
2 dwts. and established the new standard of 11 oz. 10 clwts. for 
wrought silver plate, and had only entrusted the said Company of 
Goldsmiths in London with assaying and marking all the new stan- 
dard plate of the kingdom; and as a large demand now arose for 
wrought plate, and the goldsmiths in the remote parts of the king- 
dom were under great difficulties to supply their customers, therefore 
the goldsmiths, etc., in the above cities (where mints were lately 
erected) obtained the above Act, which conferred the same privileges 
upon the cities therein named, but from 1696 to 1701 no plate had 
been assayed or stamped anywhere but in London. 

In the parts of England distant from the metropolis it was the 
custom, as enacted by 2 Richard II, 1379, "that every goldsmith 
should have his own proper mark set upon his work," and also that 
"the work should bear the mark of the city or borough where it was 
assayed." 

In the Acts of 1423 and 1462, York, Norwich, Lincoln, New- 
castle, and other cities were appointed to assay gold and silver, and 
were directed to use " divers touches according to the ordinance of 
the Mayor, Bailiff, or 'Governor of the said towns ; " hence it seems 
they could adopt any mark they thought proper; but in 1700, when 
these assay towns were re-established. Sect. 3 expressly defined the 
five marks to be : (1) the arms of their cities, (2) the maker's mark, 
(3) a variable Roinan letter to show the year in which the plate was 
made, (4) the lion's head erased, and (5) Britannia. 



THE NEWCASTLE ACT. 

A.D. 1 70 1. I Anne, Stat. I, c. 9, Sect. 3. This section recites 
the Act of 12 W^illiam III, c. 4; and proceeds that, "Whereas m the 
Town of Newcaftle upon Tyne there is, and Time out of Mind hath 
been, an ancient Company of Gold/miths, which, with their Families, 
by the /aid Trade utterly lo/t in the /aid Town : And whereas by 
the Statute of the /econd of Henry the /ixth, the Town of New- 
caftle upon Tyne is one of the Places appointed to have Touches 
for Wrought Silver Plate; Be it therefore enacted by the Authority 
afore/aid, that the Town of Newcaftle upon Tyne be and is hereby 
appointed for the a//aying and marking of Wrought Plate, and for 
executing the /everal Powers, Authorities, and Directions mentioned 
and contained in and by the /aid Act of the twelfth Year of our 
/aid late Sovereign Lord King WILLIAM, as fully and amply, to all 
Intents, Con/tructions and Purpo/es, as if the /aid Town had been 
expre/ly named in the /aid Act." 



90 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Sect. 4. This provides that the Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, and 
plate workers freemen of and inhabiting the Town of Newcastle, 
should be incorporated by the name of The Company of the Town 
of Newcastle upon Tyne, and were authorised to choose annually 
two persons as Wardens of the Company. 

Sect. 5. All silver plate to be marked with the Arms of the 
said Town and the other marks mentioned m the previous Act ; and 
that an Assay Master shouki be chosen, who should take the oath 
before specified. And further that the Orders, Rules, pains and 
penalties should be observed and enforced as before mentioned.* 



OLD STANDARD SILVER OF 1 1 OZ. 2 DWTS. REVIVED— 
DUTY OF 6d. per OZ. IMPOSED. 

A.D. 17 19. Stat. 6 George I, c. ii, Sect. i. Recites, that it is 
found by experience that the manufactures of silver which were 
made according to the old standard are more serviceable 2.nd durable 
than those which have been made according to the new standard; 
and therefore enacts, that the said old standard of silver plate, made 
after June i, 1720, shall be restored, revived, and take place instead 
of the said new standard. 

Sect. 2. Enacts, that after the said June i, 1790, no goldsmith, 
silversmith or plateworker, shall be obliged to make silver plate ac- 
cording to the said new standard. 

Sect. 3. Enacts, that no person shall make any silver plate 
less in fineness than 1 1 ounces 2 pennyweights per pound troy, or 
put to sale, exchange, or sell any silver plate (unless wire, or 
things by smallness not capable of a mark) until touched, assayed, 
and marked in manner prescribed by the laws, for marking the new 
standard of 11 ounces 10 pennyweights fine in case the same stan- 
dard had continued; and that all former laws for preserving the 
said new standard shall be put in execution for preserving the old 
standard. 

Sect. 4. Grants to his Majesty a duty of sixpence per ounce on 
all silver plate imported into and made in Great Britain, to be paid 
by the importer and makers respectively ; and subsequent sections 
provide for the levying of it. 

Sect. 41. Recites, that it may be requisite, for encouraging the 
several manufactures of wrought plate, to continue both the new 
and the old standards, for the better accommodating all buyers 
of plate, and the workers and dealers therein : and therefore enacts, 
that all wrought plate shall not be made less in fineness than 
II ounces 10 pennyweights, or 11 ounces 2 pennyweights; which 
two different standards of wrought plate shall be severally marked 
with distinguishing marks, viz., plate of 11 ounces 10 pennyweights, 
with the workman's mark, the warden's mark, the lion's head erased, 
and the Britannia; and plate of 11 ounces 2 pennyweights, with the 

* "The Statutes at Large," Vo]. TV, page 91. 



OLD STANDARD SILVER REVIVED. 91 

workman's mark, the warden's mark, a lion passant, and a leopard's 
head. And that it shall not be lawful to make silver plate of a 
coarser allay, under the penalties by any of the laws in being con- 
cerning wrought plate. REPEALED, except Sections i, 2, 3 and 41. 

The contemplated alteration of the standard, in 17 19, from the 
new one of 11 ounces 10 pennyweights to the old one of 11 ounces 
2 pennyweights was not generally approved of by the goldsmiths; 
for although the quality of the silver was reduced, yet the price 
was raised to the public by reason of the additional duty of sixpence 
per ounce. The goldsmiths therefore memorialised the House of 
Commons, as shown m the following case. 

It was probably in consideration of their alleged grievances 
that Sect. 41 was added to the Bill, giving the workers an oppor- 
tunity of choosing the new or old standard; but they do not appear 
to have availed themselves of adhering to the new standard to any 
great extent after 1720. 

"Case of the Workng Goldsmiths. In relation to a Bill 
row depending in the Honourable House of Commons for reducing 
the standard of wrought silver plate and laying a duty thereon. 

" 1st. It must be acknowledged by all who are workers of silver 
plate that the new standard of 1 1 ounces 10 pennyweights is of much 
finer colour and better adapted for curious work than the old stan- 
dard of 1 1 ounces 2 pennyweights, which will not stand the fire to 
receive proper ornaments. So that foreign courts (where a coarser 
allay is used) give frequent commissions for their most valuable 
plate to be m,ade in London, to the great profit of this kingdom. But 
should the standard be altered, as by the Bill is intended, it would 
be impossible for the finest artist to finish so compleat a work in 
silver of the old standard as it is now performed in the new stan- 
dard. Besides that, there are some instances where plate of the old 
standard wall require more silver than the same piece of plate were 
it made of the new standard. 

"2nd. That the laying a duty will ruin the goldsmiths' trade 
is apparent; for where a duty is laid on any manufacture, the con- 
sumption of which is not absolutely necessary, the consequence must 
be the sinking or destroying that trade, because every person is at 
liberty to use or refuse it. i\nd if 6d. per oz. be laid on plate, the 
manufacturer must, for all weighty plate, pay as much, or more, 
than he receives for the fashion (besides the loss to the buyer at 
evei^y time of exchanging such plate). And it must further be ob- 
served that the old standard, with the duty, will be 3d. per oz. 
dearer than the new standard now is; whereby so great decrease will 
be made in the trade that not only the duty will fall short of what 
is expected from it, but many numerous families will be deprived 
of their subsistence. 

" 3rd. The liberty of search by officers by night or day ob- 
jected to. 

"4th. Complains of the delay of getting their work assayed 
and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

"5th. Objects to the duty on small plate such as snuff boxes. 



92 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

watch cases, sword hilts, shoe buckles, and other small toys, as well 
as the annoyance of search by night or day, etc. 

"6th. That Government will be deprived of the advantage re- 
ceived by wrought plate when bullion was wanting should the 
manufacture of silver decay in this kingdom, ' as certainly it will, 
should this Bill pass.' " — Giiildhall Library. 

At the Committee meeting of the Goldsmiths' Company, held 
on February 23, 1725, "The Workmen's remonstrances is read, com- 
plaining, first, against the practice of platemg of brass, iron, cop- 
per, and other metalls with silver. 

Secondly, against admitting any but freemen of the Company 
to have the benefit of the assay and touch, and saying that there 
IS an Act of ye 3rd King William to forbid it. 

Thirdly, complaining of the number of apprentices. 

The Committee order the first paragraph to be read again, and 
then resolve to give for answer thereto that the Company have 
already applied to the Government against the evil complained of, 
and have bought several pieces of the said brass wares to lay before 
them; and will use their further endeavours to prevent the same. 

The second paragraph is read a second time, and it is resolved 
yt the Act of King William III enacts yt no plate shall be wrought 
or sold before it is markt at Goldsmiths' Hall ; and that the At- 
torney-General, in his report for the Treasury, says the Company 
cannot refuse to mark plate wrought by unfreemen; as has been 
also the opinion of all the councel) the company have consulted 
thereupon, as particularly the late Common Sergeant, Mr. Dee, 
Mr. Sergeant Darnell, and Mr. Fazakerly, and hath not been con- 
tradicted by the counsell of the late prosecutors. Sergeant Cheshire, 
Knot, and Probyn. 

The third paragraph is read a second time, and it is resolved 

that the company cannot prevent goldsmiths ffree of other 

companies from binding many apprentices, but will consider of the 
best method they can to remedy it, and will recommend it to the 
consideration of the next Court of Assistants." 

At the Court of Wardens, January 8, 1730: 

" Then Mr. Wardens took into consideration how to remedy 
an antient evil practice, amongst ill-disposed goldsmiths, of cutting 
out the Company's marks from old pieces of plate, and soldering 
the same into new pieces, which have never been tryed at the Hall, 
and may possibly be very coarse, and the fraud equal to the coun- 
terfeiting of the Comnany's marks, for vv^hich there is a penalty of 
;^500 set by Act of Parliament. Now in order to prevent the said 
evil practice of cutting out the marks from one piece of plate, and 
soldering the same into another piece, Mr. Wardens ordered that the 
officers in the Assay Office, who usually strike the marks on plate, 
do strike the marks on every piece of plate as far distant from each 
ether as the same conveniently may be struck, so that they may 
not be cutt out together."* 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



MARKS rO BE DESTROYED. 93 

Mi\KERS TO DESTROY EXISTING MARKS AND ADOPT 

FRESH TYPES. 

A.D. 1739. 12 George II, c. 26. Recites the Acts of 28 
Edward I, c. 20; 2 Henry VI, c. 14; 18 Elizabeth, c. 15; 12 William 
III, c. 4; recites also, that "the Wardens and Commonalty of the 
My/tery of Goldjmiths of the City of London are, and have been, 
a Guild or Corporation Time out of Mind, with divers Privileges, 
confirmed and enlarged from time to time by /everal Charters from 
his'Maje/ty's Royal Predece//ors, Kings and Queens of this Realm 
(among/t other Things) for the /earching, a//aying, /upervi/mg, 
marking, and regulating Wrought Plate, m order to a/certain the 
Standard thereof, for the Good and Safety of the Publick;" recites 
also the Charter of i8th of Charles II; and recites, that "the Stan- 
dards of the Plate of this Kingdom are both for the Honour and 
Riches of the Realm, and /o highly concern his Majesty's Subjects, 
that the /ame ought to be mo/t carefully ob/erved, and all Deceits 
therein to be prevented as much as po//ible; but, notwath/tandmg 
the afore/aid /everal Acts of Parliament and Charters, great Frauds 
are daily committed in the manufacturing of Gold and Silver Wares 
for want of /ufficient Power effectually to prevent the /ame." 

Sect. I. Enacts that in England after May 28, 1739, no ware 
of gold shall be made, sold, or exported less in fineness than 22 
carats of fine gold in every pound weight troy, and no ware of silver 
less m fineness than 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine silver in every pound 
weight troy, under a penalty of ;^io for ev^ery offence. 

Sect. 2. Provides that the Act shall not extend to jewellers* 
work, except mourning rings. 

Sect. 3. Provides how shopkeepers may be exempted from 
prosecutions. 

Sect. 4. Provides that there shall be no trial against them, 
unless within four terms. 

Sect. 5. " And be it further enacted by the Authority afore/aid, 
That from and after the /aid twenty-eighth Day of May, one thou- 
/and /even hundred and thirty-nine, no Gold/mith, Silver/mith, or 
other Person what/oever, making, or /elling, trading or dealing in 
Gold or Silver Wares, /hall /ell, exchange, or expo/e to Sale within 
that Part of Great Britain called England^ any Gold or Silver Ve/- 
/el, Plate, or manufacture of Gold or Silver, what/oever, made after 
the /aid twenty-eighth Day of May, one thousand /even hundred 
and thirty-nine, or export the /ame out of this Kingdom, until /uch 
time as /uch Ve//el, Plate or Manufacture of Gold (being of the 
Standard of twenty-two Carrats of fine Gold fer Pound Troy), and 
/uch V^ff^\, Plate or Manufacture of Silver (being of the Standard 
of eleven oz. two pennyw^eights of fine Silver per Pound Troy) /hall 
be marked as followeth; that is to y'^ay, with the Mark of the Worker 
or Maker thereof, which /hall be the fir/t Letters of his Chri/tian 
and /urname, and with the/e Marks of the /aid Company of Gold- 
/miths in London, viz., the Leopard's Head, the Lion Pa/ /ant, and 
a distinct variable Mark or Letter to denote the Year in w^hich /uch 



94 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Plate shall be made; or with the Mark of the Worker or Maker, and 
with the Marks appointed to be u/ed by the A//ayers at York, Ex- 
eter, Briftoly Chefter, Norwichy or Newcaftle upon Tyne; or Plate 
(being of the Standard of eleven Ounces Ten pennyweights of fine 
Silver fer Pound Weight Troy) with the Mark of the Worker or 
Maker thereof, which shall be the fir/t Letters of his Chri/tian and 
Surname as afore/aid, and with the/se Marks of the /aid Company, 
viz., the Lion's head era/eel, the Figure of a Woman, commonly 
called Britannia, and the /aid Mark or Letter to denote the Year as 
afore/aid ; or with the Mark of the Worker or Maker, and the Marks 
of one of the /aid Cities or Towns; upon Pain that every such Gold- 
/mith, Silver/mith, or other Person, for every such Offence /hall for- 
feit and pay the Sum of ten Pounds, to be recovered and di/posed 
of as herein after is mentioned ; and for Default of Payment /hall 
be committed by the Court in which Judgment /hall be given 
thereon, to the House of Correction for the County, City, or Liberty, 
where convicted, there to remain and be kept to hard Labour for 
any Time not exceeding the Space of six Months, or until Payment 
be made of the /aid Forfeiture." 

Sect. 6. This section exempts rings, buttons, and many other 
small articles from the operation of this Act. 

Sect. 7. Recites and repeals the clause in 12 William HI, c. 4 
which provides that any person counterfeiting the stamps shall be 
liable to a penalty of ;^500. 

Sect. 8. Imposes a penalty of i^ioo on any person who shall 
forge the marks of the said Company of Goldsmiths of London, or 
the marks appointed for York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, Norwich, or 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, or sell any gold or silver wares having such 
forged marks impressed thereon. 

Sect. 9. Recites the clause in 6 George I, c. 11, imposing duty 
on wrought plate, and provides that goldsmiths and silversmiths 
should send a note with any wares sent for assay to the Wardens of 
the Company assaying the same, who were to transmit such notes 
to the Commissioners of Excise. 

Sect. 10. Provides that there shall be no drawback of duty on 
the exportation of silver plate above seven years old. 

Sect. 1 1 of this Act states the great frauds in the trade, and 
particularly in using too much solder, and entrusts the wardens, etc., 
with determining what solder is necessary, and whether wrought 
plate is forward enough in workmanship, and has all the pieces 
affixed together or not. 

Sect. 12. Contains provisions as to appeals. 

Sects. 13, 14, 15 and 16 enumerates the prices to be paid for 
assaying wrought plate. 

Sects. 17 and 18. Provides penalties for not paying assay 
charges. 

Sect. 19. States how surplus of fees paid over expenses of 
assay should be disposed of. 



EXEMPTIONS. 



95 



Sect. 20. Empowers the wardens, after three assays, to break 
any parcel of plate reported to be of a coarser allay than the said 
respective standards. 

Sect. 21. Enacts that every person who shall make, or cause to 
be made, any manufacture of gold or silver, shall first enter his 
name, mark, and place of abode, in the assay office of the Gold- 
smiths' Company of London, or in the assay office at York, etc., on 
pain to forfeit ;^io, and iJ"io more for using any other mark. It 
was ordered that the makers were to destroy their existing marks, 
which were the two first letters of their surname, and substitute the 
initials of their Christian and surnames on both standards in a dif- 
ferent type or character to that previously used. 

Sects. 22, 23 and 24. Contain provisions as to the recovery of 
forfeitures, and the limitation of actions.* 

Repealed, as to Section 6 in part, and as to Sections 7, 8, 9, 10, 
23 and 24 entirely. 



EXEMPTIONS. 

(12 George II, c. 26.) 

All gold and silver wares are required to be assayed, marked, 
and duty paid except the under-mentioned wares, which are speci- 
ally exempted, being printed in italics : 



Gold. 

Jewellers' Work, wherein any Jewels or 
other Stones are set (other than 
M ur n i n g B in gs). 

Rings (Wedding Bings and Mourning 
Bings excepted). 

Collets, for Rings or other Jewels. 

Chains. 

Necklace Beads. 

Lockets. 

Buttons, Hollow or Raised. 

Sleeve Buttons. 

Thimbles. 

Coral Sockets and Bells 

Ferules. 

Pipe Lighters. 

Cranes for Bottles. 

Very Small Book Clasps 

Stock or Garter Clasps, Jointed. 

Very Small Nutmeg Graters 

Rims of Snuff Boxes, whereof Tops or 
Bottoms are made of Shell or Stone. 

Sliding Pencils. 

Tootlipick Cases. 

Tweezer Cases. 

Pencil Cases. 

Needle Cases. 

Filigree Work. 

Tippings or Swages on Stone, or Ivory 
Cases, Mounts, Screws, or Stoppers 
to. Stone or Glass Bottles, or Phials. 



Silver. 

Chains. 

Necklace Beads. 

Ijockets. 

Filigree Work. 

Shirt Buckles or Brooches. 

Stami^ed Medals. 

Spouts to China, Stone, or Earthen- 
ware Tea Pots. 

Tippings, Swages, or Mounts not 
AVeighing ten pennyweights each 
except Necks and Collars for Cas- 
tors, Cruets, or Glasses, and apper- 
taining to any sort of stands or 
Frames. 

Silver Wares not weighing five penny- 
weights each, except the following 
articles : Neck collars and tops for 
castors, cruets, or glasses, apper- 
taining to any sort of Stands or 
Frames. 

Buttons for Wearing Apparel. 

Solid Sleeve Buttons and Solid Studs, 
not having a hezilled edge soldered 
on. 

Wrought Seals. 

Blank Seals. 

Bottle Tickets. 

Shoe Clasps. 

Patch Boxes. 

Salt Spoons. 



"The Statutes at Large," Vol. VI, page 352. 



96 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Small or Slight Ornaments, put to Am- Salt Shovels. 

ber or other Eggs or Urns, Salt Ladles. 

Wrought Seals, or Seals with Cornelian Tea Spoons. 

or other Stones set therein. Tea Strainers. 

Watch Rings. Caddy Ladles. 

Watch Keys. Buckles (Shirt Buckles or Brooches be- 

Watch Hooks. fore mentioned excepted). 

Ear Rings. Pieces to Garnish Cabinets or Knife 

Necklaces. Cases, or Tea Chests, or Bridles, or 

Eyeglasses. Stands or Frames. 
Spectacles. 
Shirt Pins. 

Shirt Studs. Note.— AW these Wares printed in 

S^^^j^^ , italics are excepted out of the exemp- 

^Tr®"^ .^""^^iT tion, and are liable to be Assayed and 

Waist Buckles. Marked 

Any Gold or Silver Vessel, or Manu- ^ ^^^ g^'^^^ ^^^ ^-^^^^^^ ^y^^^^ j.^^j^ ^^ 
facture of Gold or Si ver, so richly En- j^^ Assayed and Marked are charge- 
graved, Carved, or Chased, or set with , i -.i -p. , .^,t i. -i r-^ i 
«? 1 ' ,1 '(Vl +4- .1,.,^+ able with Duty (Watch Cases only ex- 
Jewels or other Stones, as not to admit ,. -^ ^ -^ 

of any Assay being taken of, or a Mark ceptea). 

to be struck thereon, without damag- Gold AVares, not required to be As- 

ing, prejudicing, or defacing the same, sayed and Marked, may, nevertheless, 

Things which, by reason of their be Assayed and Marked, and are not 

smallness or thinness, are not capable thereby liable to the Duty, but this 

of receiving the Marks, and not weigh- does not extend to Silver Wares, 
ing ten j)enny weights each. 

Notwithstanding- that in this Act of George II a penalty of 
;^io for every offence against any infraction relating to the stan- 
dards and the proper marking of wares, it does not altogether in- 
validate the penalties which may be inflicted under the ancient Acts 
here recited which were not actually repealed, and since the passing 
of this Act prisoners have been sentenced to imprisonment and fine 
under the old Acts of Parliament for making silver plate worse than 
standard. 

In 1 74 1, the Court of Assistants of the Goldsmiths' Company 
received a petition from Drew Drury, who stated that he had in- 
advertently been concerned in causing a stamp to be made resem- 
bling the " Lion Passant," and thereby incurred the displeasure of 
the Company, and the penalty of i, lOO, but that he had never made 
any use of the stamp, had caused the same to be broken, and that, 
being sensible of his guilt, he was willing to pay any penalty im- 
posed on him, with the charges incurred. The petition was, however, 
rejected, and the Clerk was ordered to proceed against the peti- 
tioner. 

The Wardens of the Company, on December 3, 1741, caused 
all the new plate belonging to the Company to be weighed, and 
full particulars of both old and new plate are entered in the inven- 
tory of that date. The total weight of the old and new gilt and 
white plate amounted to 3,134 ounces.* 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



LICENCES. 9; 

SILVER WIRE. 

A.D. 1742. 15 George II, c. 20, s. i. All metal inferior to silver 
to be spun on thread, yard, or incle, only, under a penalty of five 
shillings for every ounce. 

Sect. 2. Silver thread to hold 11 oz. 15 dwts. of hne silver upon 
the pound weight troy ; and gilt silver thread 11 oz. 8 dwts. and 4 
dwts. 4 grs. of fine gold, en penalty of five shillings for every 
ounce.* Repealed as to Sections i, 5, 10, 12, 13 and 15. 

DUTY. 

A.D. 1756. 29 George II, c. 14. Grants an annual duty to his 
Majesty for all silver plate in Great Britain, from 100 to 4,000 
ounces, of five shillings for every hundred ounces from July 5, i756-t 
Repealed. 

LICENCE OF £2 IN LIEU OF DUTY. 

A.D. 1757. 31 George II, c. 32. An Act to repeal the statute of 
the sixth of George I, c. u, by which a duty of sixpence had been 
imposed upon every ounce troy of silver plate imported into, or 
made in, Great Britain; and a duty of forty shillings for a licence, 
to be taken out by every person trading in, selling, or vending gold 
or silver plate, was granted in lieu of it; to take place from and 
after June 5, 1758, and the licence to be taken out annually, on for- 
feiture of twenty pounds for neglecting so to do, and for discontinu- 
ing all drawbacks upon silver plate exported. By the same Act, 
the clause in the Act of 12 George II, c. 26, for the better preventing 
frauds and abuses in gold and silver wares, was likewise repealed, 
because the punishment which was enacted by it against counterfeit- 
ing stamps and marks upon gold and silver plate was not sufficiently 
severe to prevent that practice, and the said crime was now made 
felony, and any person lawfully convicted should be adjudged 
guilty of felony, and suffer death as a felon, without benefit of 
clergy. J REPEALED. The penalty provided by this Act was, in 
1773, commuted to transportation for fourteen years. 

LICENCE INCREASED TO £^. 

A.D. 1758. 32 George II, c. 24, s. i. Exempts persons trading 
in gold not exceeding two pennyweights, or in silver not exceeding 
five pennyweights, in one piece of goods, from taking out a licence ; 
and Sect. 3 grants an annual duty of £^ (instead of 40s.) to his 
Majesty for every licence by each person trading in gold plate of 

* "The Statutes at Large," VoL VI, page 456. 
t Idem, Vol. VII, page 661. 
1 "The Statutes at Large," Vol. VIII, page 278. 



98 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

two ounces or upwards, or in silver plate of thirty ounces or up- 
wards.* Repealed. 

BIRMINGHAM AND SHEFFIELD. 

A.D. 1773. 13 George III, c. 52. This Act was passed for the 
incorporation of certain noblemen, gentlemen and workers as com- 
panies in Birmingham and Sheffield; to be known by the name of 
"The Guardians of the Standard of Wrought Plate." The Com- 
panies were authorised to appoint wardens and assay masters for 
assaying and stamping wrought silver plate, in the towns of Shef- 
field and Birmingham. Silver goods " /hall be marked as f ollow- 
eth; that is to /ay, with the Mark of the Worker or Maker thereof, 
which /hall be the Fir/t Letters of his Christian and Surname; and 
al/o with the Lion Pa//ant, and with the Mark of the Company 
within whose A//ay Office /uch Plate shall be a//ayed and marked, 
to denote the Goodne// thereof, and the Place where the /ame was 
a//ayed and marked ; and al/o with a di/tinct variable Mark or 
Letter, which Letter or Mark /hall be annually changed upon the 
Election of new Wardens for each Company, to denote the Year in 
which such Plate is marked." 

Sect. 5. " And be it further enacted by the Authority afore/aid, 
That the peculiar Marks of the /aid Companies, directed to be u/ed 
as afore/aid, /hall be as follows ; that is to /ay, For the Birmingham 
Company, an Anchor; and for the Shejfield Company, a Crown."t 

Repealed as to Birmingham, and amended as to Sheffield. 

DUTY. MARK OF THE KING'S HEAD. 

A.D. 1784. 24 George III, Sess. 2, c. 53. From December i, 
1784, the following duties upon gold and silver plate are to be paid 
to his Majesty : — 

Sect. I. For gold plate imported into or made in Great Britain, 
an additional duty of eight shillings per ounce troy, over and above 
all other duties already imposed thereon. 

For silver plate imported into or made in Great Britain, an 
additional duty of sixpence per ounce. 

Sect. 4. From December i, 1784, all goldsmiths and manufac- 
turers shall send to the Assay Offices of the Goldsmiths' Companies 
in London or Edinburgh, or to the Birmingham and Sheffield Com- 
panies, or to the Wardens and Assayers of York, Exeter, Bristol, 
Chester, Norwich and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with every parcel of 
gold or silver, a note or memorandum, fairly written, containing the 
clay of the month and year, the christian and surname of the worker 
or maker, and place of abode, and the species, number and weight, 
etc., of each parcel, and the sum payable for duty upon the total 
weight. 

* "The Statutes at Large," Vol. YIII, page 359. 
t Idem, Vol. XI, page 781. 



MARK OF THE KING'S HEAD. 99 

Sect. 5. Enacts that the Wardens or Assay Master shall mark 
with the following new mark, that is to say, with the mark of the 
King's head, over and besides the other marks directed by law, all 
and every parcel or parcels of gold or silver plate so sent to be 
touched, marked and assayed, etc. 

Sect. 7. An allowance of part of the duty to be made for goods 
sent to be assayed in a rough state, of one-hfth in weight and duty. 

Sect. 8. Gold or silver plate, made after December i, 1784, not to 
be sold, exchanged or exported until marked as hereby directed, on 
penalty of fifty pounds and forfeiture of the goods. 

Sect. 9. This Act not to extend to any jewellers' work (that is to 
say) any gold or silver wherein any jewels or other stones are set 
(other than mourning rings), nor any jointed earrings of gold, springs 
of lockets, etc. 

Sect. II. The new duties paid for plate shall be drawn back on 
exportation thereon. 

Sect. 12. From December i, 1784, and the better to prevent the 
fraudulent relanding of any plate m this kingdom after the draw- 
back has been paid, it is hereby enacted that all wrought plate of 
gold and silver, which shall be intended to be exported from this 
kingdom, shall be brought by the owner to the Assay Office, and 
shall be there stamped or marked with the figure of a Britannia^ in 
order to denote that such plate is entered and intended for exporta- 
tion, and to be allowed the drawback thereon. 

Sect. 16. From December i, 1784, any person who shall counter- 
feit any stamp to be used in pursuance of this Act, or shall stamp 
any wrought plate, etc., with any counterfeit stamp, or shall remove 
from any one piece of wrought plate, etc., to another any stamp to be 
used by the said companies or assayers, etc., or shall sell or export 
any plate with such counterfei'c stamps thereon, etc., shall suffer 
death as a felon, without benefit of clergy.* REPEALED. 

A.D. 1785. 25 George III, c. 64. Recites and repeals the two 
clauses in the Act of Twenty-fourth Geo. Ill, c. 53, relating tO' the 
stamping of the drawback mark on plate. " And whereas by the 
y^aid recited Act it was al/o further enacted, That all wrought Gold 
p.nd Silver Plate, which should be intended to be exported from this 
Kingdom into any foreign Parts, /hould, before the /ame was 
y^hipped, be brought to the Assay Office, and should there be 
stamped with the Figure of a Bntannia^ in order to denote that such 
Plate was intended for Exportation, and to be allowed the Draw- 
back thereon; And whereas the /triking of the Britannia Mark on 
many Articles of wrought Gold and Silver Plate, in their fini/hed 
State, can in no Way be practi/ed without doing material Damage to 
such wrought Plate; be it therefore enacted. That from and after the 
twenty-fourth day of July One thou/and /even hundred and eighty- 
five, the /aid two last recited Clau/es in the /aid Act contained, and 
each of them, /hall be, and the /ame are hereby re/pectively 
repealed. 

* •'•'The Statutes at Large," Vol. XIV, page 577. 



100 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

By the same it was enacted, tliat from and after July 24, 1785, 
the person appointed to receive the duties payable for marking of 
plate may make an allowance of one-sixth part of the duty for all 
plate brought in an unfinished state, instead of one-fifth, as directed 
by the previous Act (24 George III). By the same Act — the ex- 
porters of gold and silver watches shall mark or engrave in the in- 
side of every case or box of each watch enclosing the works thereof, 
the same numbers and figures which shall be respectively marked or 
engraved on the works of the watch.* REPEALED. 

This appears to have been the law until 1871, when the pro- 
vision was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act of that year. 

DUTY INCREASED. 

A.D. 1797. 37 George III, c. 90. By this Act the duty on gold 
was placed at eight shillings per ounce, and silver at one shilling. 
Repealed. 



DUTY ON WATCH CASES REPEALED. 

A.D. 1798. 38 George HI, c. 24. Repealed. 

A.D. 1798. 38 George III, c. 69. This Act recites that, "Where- 
as it would be for the Advantage of the Manufacturers of Gold in 
this Kingdom, that Gold of an inferior Standard to what is now 
allowed by Law /hould be permitted to be u/ed for the /ame." And 
enacts that after October i, 1798, it should be lawful for a gold- 
smith to make or work any gold vessel or plate of the standard of 
eighteen carats of fine gold in every pound weight troy. 

Sect. 2. Enacts that after October i, 1798, no person should 
sell or export any gold vessel or plate of such standard until it had 
been marked with the new mark of a crown and the figures 18, in- 
stead of the lion passant, under a penalty of ten pounds. 

Sect. 3. Enacts that it should be lawful for the respective com- 
panies of goldsmiths in London, Edinburgh, Birmingham and Shef- 
field, and the wardens and assayers of gold at York, Exeter, Bristol, 
Chester, Norwich and Nev/castle-upon-Tyne to touch and assay such 
gold plate and mark it as before mentioned. 

Sect. 4. Provided that gold vessels and plate of twenty-two 
carats might still be made. 

Sect. 5. That this Act did not authorise the assaying with the 
mark previously used of gold vessels or plate of a lower standard 
than twenty-two carats. 

Sect. 6. Imposed a penalty of fifty pounds for each offence 
against this Act. 

Sect. 7. This provides that any person counterfeiting any such 
marks to be guilty of felony and liable to transportation for seven 
years. 

* "The Statutes at Large," VoL XIV, page 698. 



FOREIGN PLATE. loi 

Sect. 8. This further provides that gold vessels or plate of the 
new standard should be assayed and marked under the same regula- 
tions as applied to the higher standard. 

Repealed in part. 

A.D. 1803. 43 George III, c. 69. The former Act of 24 George 
III, c. 53, as regards the licence, was repealed, and new licences ap- 
pointed, viz. — For trading in gold more than two pennyweights and 
under two ounces in weight, and in silver over fi-ve pennyweights and 
under thirty ounces in weight, £2 6s. per annum ; for trading in gold 
of two ounces in weight and upwards, and in silver of thirty ounces 
and upwards, £^ 15s. per annum. REPEALED. 

DRAWBACK ON PLATE. 

A.D. 1803. 44 George HI, c. 98. Schedule referred to in Sect 
2 of this Act. Drawback for or in respect of gold plate and silver 
plate, wrought or manufactured in Great Britain, which shall be 
duly exported by way of merchandise to Ireland or any foreign 
parts, the whole duties which shall have been paid for the same. 
The duty was increased, on gold to sixteen shillings per ounce, and 
on silver to one shilling and threepence per ounce. REPEALED. 

A.D. 18 1 2. 52 George III, c. 59. This Act was passed to allows 
on the exportation of manufactured plate, for the private use of per- 
sons residing abroad, the same drawback as was then allowed on the 
exportation of such plate by way of merchandise. 

A.D. 181 5. 55 George III, c. 185. By this Act the duties were 
raised, on manufactured gold to seventeen shillings per ounce, on 
manufactured silver to eighteenpence per ounce, subject to certain 
exceptions. 

Sect. 7. Makes the counterfeiting of the King's head duty mark 
a felony, punishable by death. 

This duty is paid to the assay officers at the time of handing 
the articles for assay, but if they are cut at the Hall and sent back as 
being worse than standard, the duty is returned with the articles. 
Repealed. 

A.D. 1820. I George IV, c. 14. An Act to repeal the drawback 
on certain gold articles exported. 

A.D. 1824. 5 George IV, c. 52 (Local and Personal Act). This 
Act authorised the Birmingham Assay Office to assay and stamp 
gold, as well as silver ware, the marks being the same as those used 
ni London, except that the anchor is substituted for the leopard's 
bead. This Act contained a number of provisions as to the manage- 
ment of the Birmingham Assay Office. 

FOREIGN PLATE TO BE ASSAYED AND STAMPED. 

A.D. 1842. 5 and 6 ViCT., c. 47, Sect. 59. "And be it enacted, 
That all Gold and Silver plate, not being battered, which shall be 
imported from Foreign Parts after the Commencement of this Act, 
and sold, exchanged or exposed to Sale, within the United Kingdom 



102 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

of Great Britain and Ireland, shall be of the respective Standards 
now required for any Ware, Vessel, Plate or Manufacture of Gold or 
Silver, wrought or made in England; and that no Gold or Silver 
Plate so to be imported as aforesaid, not being battered, shall be 
sold, exchanged or exposed to Sale within the said United Kingdom 
until the same shall have been assayed, stamped and marked, either 
in England, Scotland or Ireland, in the same manner as any Ware, 
Vessel, Plate or Manufacture of Gold and Silver wrought or made 
in England, Scotland or Ireland respectively is or are now by Law 
required to be assayed, stamped and marked; and that every Gold- 
smith, Silversmith or other Person whatsoever, who shall sell or ex- 
pose to Sale in England, Scotland or Ireland any Gold or Silver 
Plate so to be imported as aforesaid, and not being battered, before 
the same shall have been so assayed, stamped and marked, as afore- 
said, shall be subject and liable to the like Penalties and Forfeitures 
in all respects, and to be recoverable in the same Manner as the Pen- 
alties and Forfeitures now by Law imposed upon Goldsmiths and 
Silversmiths selling, exchanging or exposing to Sale in England, 
Scotland or Ireland respectiveh^, any Ware or Manufacture of Gold 
or Silver Plate made or wrought in England, Scotland or Ireland 
respectively, and not assayed, stamped and marked, as required by 
Law : Provided always that no Article or Ware of Gold or Silver so 
to be imported as aforesaid shall be liable to be assayed, stamped or 
marked as aforesaid which would not be liable to be assayed, 
stamped or marked if it had been wrought or made in England!' 

Sect. 60. And be it enacted, That in order that Gold and Silver 
Plate so imported as aforesaid may be assayed, stamped and 
marked, it shall and may be lawful for any Person to send the same 
to any Assay Office in the United Kingdom at which Gold and Sil- 
ver Plate is now by Law required to be assayed, and when so sent it 
shall be assayed, tested, stamped and marked in such and the same 
Manner, and be subject to such and the same Charges, other than 
Stamp Duty, as if the same were British Plate by Law assayable in 
such Office; and the Wardens and Officers in each such Assay 
Offices, and the Persons employed by them, shall have such and the 
same Powers of assaying, touching, testing, marking, cutting, break- 
ing or defacing such Gold or Silver Plate so sent to be assayed, as 
are now by Law exercisable by such Wardens, Officers and other 
Persons in respect of Gold and Silver Plate now by Law required to 
be assayed in such Assay Offices. REPEALED, except Sections 59 and 
60. 

A.D. 1842. 5 and 6 ViCT., c. 56, Sect. 6. Provides that ornamen- 
tal plate made prior to the year 1800 may be sold without being as- 
sayed and marked. {Vide also 30 and 31 Vict., c. 82, sect. 24.) RE- 
PEALED, except Section 6. 

It IS to be observed that these enactments did not oblige the 
importer to send foreign plate to be assayed and marked at the time 
of its importation, nor indeed at any time. 



FRAUDS AND ABUSES. 103 

CRIMINAL LAW CONSOLIDATION. MARK FOR 
TWENTY-TWO CARAT GOLD. 

A.D. 1844. Abstract of the Act of the seventh and eighth VIC- 
TORIA, cap. 22, entitled "An Act to amend the Laws now m force, for 
preventing Frauds and Abuses m the Marking of Gold and Silver 
Wares m England!' 

By Sect i, the Act of the 13 Geo. Ill, c. 59, and that part of the 
38 George III, c. 69, which relates to the punishment of offenders, 
are repealed. 

By Sect. 2, the forging or counterfeiting any die used by the 
Company of Goldsmiths ot London, or by the Companies of Gold- 
smiths m the Cities of York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, Norwich, or 
the Town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, or the Companies of Guardians 
of the Standard of wrought plate m the Towns of Sheffield or Bir- 
mingham, for marking gold or silver wares, or knowingly uttering 
the sam.e; the marking wares with forged dies, or knowingly uttering 
any such ware; the forging any mark of any such die used as afore- 
said, or knowingly uttering the same; the transposing or removing 
any mark of any die used as aforesaid, or knoivingly uttering any 
such transposed mark; the having m possession any such forged or 
counterfeit die as aforesaid, or any ware of gold or silver, or any 
ware of base metal, having thereupon the mark of any such forged 
or counterfeit die as aforesaid, or any such forged or counterfeit 
mark, or imitation of a mark as aforesaid, or any mark transposed 
or removed as aforesaid, knoiving the same respectively to have been 
forged, counterfeited, imitated, marked, transposed, or removed ; the 
cutting or severing any mark, with intent to join or affix the same to 
any other ware; the joining or affixing to any ware, any cut or sev- 
ered mark ; and the fraudulently using any genuine die, are respec- 
tively made felony, punishable by transportation for any term not 
exceeding fourteen nor less than seven years, or by imprisonmnent 
with or luithoiit hard labour for any term not exceeding three years. 

By Sect. 3, every dealer who shall sell, exchange, expose for sale, 
export, import or attempt to export or import, or who shall have in 
his possession without lawful excuse (the proof whereof shall lie 
upon him) any ware of gold or silver, or base metal, having there- 
upon any forged or counterfeit mark, or any mark which shall have 
been transposed or removed, is made liable for every such ivare to a 
penalty of 'ten poiinds^^ 

By Sect. 4, dealers are exempted from the penalty of discover- 
ing and making known the actual manufacturer of any such ware, or 
the person for whom the same was bought, had, or received. 

By Sect. 5, it is enacted, that if any ware which shall have been 
duly assayed and marked, shall be altered, by any addition being 
made thereto, or otherwise, so that its character or use shall be 

* In the cases provided for by this section, it will be seen that it is not 
necessary for the Company of Goldsmiths, suing for the penalty, to prove a 
guilty knowledge. 



104 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

changed, or if any addition shall be made thereto (although its 
character or use shall not be changed), the weight of which addition 
shall bear a greater -proportion of the original weight than four 
ounces to every pound troy weight, every such ware shall be assayed 
and marked again as a new ware, and the duty shall be paid upon 
the whole weight. 

But if the weight of such addition shall not bear a greater pro- 
portion to the origmal weight than four ounces to every pound troy, 
and the character or use of such ware shall not be changed, the addi- 
tion only may be assayed and marked, and the duty paid on the 
weight of such addition only; but before any such addition shall be 
made, the ware shall be brought to the Assay Office for inspection, 
and the nature and extent of the additions explained, and the assent 
of the Company to the making of such addition signified : 

And every dealer who shall alter, or add to, any ware which 
shall have been before assayed and marked, so that its character or 
use shall be changed, or so that the addition shall bear a greater 
proportion to the original weight than four ounces to every pound 
troy, without bringing the same to be assayed and marked as a new 
ware; or if its character or use shall not be changed, or the addition 
shall not bear a greater proportion to the original weight than afore- 
said, without hrst bringing such ware to the Assay Office, and ex- 
plaining the nature and extent of the intended addition to the Com- 
pany, and obtaining their consent thereto' : and every dealer who 
shall sell, exchange, expose for sale, export, import or attempt to 
export or import, or who shall have in his possession any such ware 
so altered, changed or added to as aforesaid, is made liable for every 
such ware to a penalty of ten pounds ; and every such ware may be 
seized. 

By Sect. 6, dealers are exempted from the penalty on discover- 
ing and making known the actual manufacturer of any such ware, or 
the person from whom the same was bought, had, or received. 

By Sect. 7, every officer of the several Halls who shall mark as 
standard any ware worse than standard is made liable to a penalty 
of twenty pounds ; every such officer shall be dismissed ; and every 
such ware may be seized. 

By Sect. 8, it is enacted, that every dealer who shall enter, or has 
already entered, his private mark, under the existing laws, with any 
of the Companies, shall give them the particulars of every place 
where he carries on his business, or keeps wares, and his place of 
abode, and so from time to time, under a penalty for every offence 
of five pounds. 

By Sect. 9, a penalty of five pounds for every offence is im- 
posed on every dealer who shall fraudulently erase, obliterate or 
deface any mark of the several Companies of Goldsmiths from any 
ware. 

By Sect. 10, the recovery and application of penalties is pro- 
vided for. 

By Sect. 1 1, Justices of the Peace are required, upon information 
by any of the several Companies of Goldsmiths, to grant such war- 



CRIMINAT. LAW CONSOLIDATION. 105 

rants to search for forged or counterfeit dies and false or illegal 
wares ; and every such die and ware may be seized, but not any wares 
which by existing laws are not required to be marked, nor any of the 
wares following, viz. : Watcli rings, watch Jzeys, watch hooks, ear- 
rings, necklaces, eye-glasses, spectacles of gold, shirt fins or stnds, 
bracelets, head ornaments, ivaist buddies. 

By Sect. 12, the disposal of false dies and wares seized is pro- 
vided for. 

Sect. 13 regulates the proceedings in actions and prosecutions 
against any person acting m pursuance or under the authority of 
this A_ct. 

Sect. 14 defines the meaning and interpretation of the words and 
terms used m the Act. 

Sect. 15 provides that after October i, 1844, gold ivares of the 
standard of tiventy-two carats of fine gold in every -pound troy shall 
be marked with a crown and the figure 22, instead of the lion pas- 
sant, by the Goldsmiths' Companies in the Cities of London, York, 
Exeter, Bristol, Chester and Norvv^ich and the towns of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and Birmingham. 

Sect. 16 extends the powers, penalties and provisions concerning 
the lion passant to the mark directed to be used instead thereof, by 
this Act. 

Sect. 17 declares that this Act shall not extend to Scotland or 
Ireland. 

Sect. 18 declares that it shall come into operation on October i, 
1844.^ 

Sect. 19 declares that it may be amended or repealed in the 
then present session. Sections i, 13, 18 and 19 REPEALED, Sections 
5 and 10 Repealed in part, and Section 10 Amended. 

It will be observed that throughout this Act the word "dealer" 
has been substituted for " maker," as in former Acts, which enables 
the Goldsmiths' Company to sue any person who deals in plate, or 
has any ware of base gold, silver, or other metal, in his possession, 
having any forged or counterfeit mark, without lawful excuse (the 
proof of which lies with the dealer). 

The interpretation clause defines a dealer to be " one who deals 
in gold or silver wares, including every goldsmith and silversmith, 
and every worker, maker, and manufacturer of and trader and dealer 
in gold and silver wares, or shall sell such wares." 

This is the most recent statute, and must be taken as the guide 
and authority m all cases of forgery of the dies and marks used at 
the Assay Offices, and penalties for selling spurious plate, or having 
any such in possession, etc. 

A.D. 1849 12 & 13 Victoria, c. 80. This Statute repeals the 
Act of 44 George III, c. 98, and enacts that for receiving the duty in 
respect of gold or silver plate wrought 111 Great Britain or Ireland 
paying in the same and making out the account the sum of £\ 
should be allowed for every ^100 so received and so in proportion. 



io6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD OF 15, 12, AND 

9 CARATS. 

A.D. 1854. 17 & 18 Victoria, c. 96. An Act was passed allow- 
ing gold wares to be manufactured at a lower standard than before 
allowed by law, and to amend the law relating to the assaying of 
gold and silver wares. The first section recites that Her Majesty 
may, by Order in Council, allow any standard of gold wB.res not 
less than one-third pari in the whole of fine gold, to be marked with 
such mark or marks for distinguishing the actual fineness, to be 
declared m such order; and also to approve thereby of the instru- 
ment with which gold vessels, etc., shall be marked or stamped, 
setting forth m figures the fineness accordmg to the standard de- 
clared. 

Sect. 2 provides that workers and dealers may have their wares 
assayed and marked at any established Assay Office which they may 
select. 

Sect. 3 provides that if any of the gold wares which are not 
liable to be assayed and marked, shall nevertheless be assayed and 
marked, such wares shall not be chargeable with the duty. 

Sect. 4 extends the provisions of existing Acts to the new 
standards. 

Sect. 5 imposes a penalty of £20 on any assayer or other officer 
who shall mark a gold ware of a lower standard with the mark ap- 
propriated tO' a higher standard. PARTLY REPEALED. Section 3 
repealed and Section 5 amended. 

In pursuance of this Act, an Order of Council of iith Decem- 
ber, 1854, fixes the new standards of 15, 12 and 9 carats, and pro- 
vides that they shall be marked as follows, viz. : 

The first with the figures 15 and the decimal mark .625. 

The second with the figures 12 and the decimal mark .5 (500). 

The third with the figure 9 and the decimal mark .375. 

Note. — The Goldsmiths' Company of London advised against 
the introduction of these lower standards. The plain and intelligible 
manner in which it was ordered that wares of 15, 12, and 9 carats 
should be marked, has been, it is believed, the chief cause of the 
comparatively small quantity of gold of these standards which is 
manufactured. In the year ending May 27 (1878), at Goldsmiths' 
Hall, London, gold wares weighing 7,084 lbs. were marked, and the 
articles made of the higher standards (viz., 22 and 18 carats) 
weighed 6,607 lbs. 7 oz. 14 dwts. 14 grains. — (Prideaux's evidence.) 

N.B. — All gold wares, whether manufactured of 22, 18, 15, 12, 
or 9 carats, are liable to the usual duty of 17s. per oz. as levied on 
gold plate; except watch-cases and certain wares mentioned in 12 
Geo. II, c. 26, s. 6, and a few enumerated 7 & 8 Vict., c. 22, s. 11. 

These standards, especially that of 9 carats, are almost univer- 
sally disapproved of by the trade. It has been suggested that the 
law was made to accommodate the Birmingham manufacturers; but 
when they discovered that the Government did not allow the crown 
to be placed on these lower standards they said they did not care a 



LICENCES. lo; 

button about it. They doubtless desired the alteration for the pur- 
pose of forwarding Enghsh-manufactured goods abroad with the 
crown mark upon them, that the public should imagine they were of 
a higher quality than they really were. — Evidence before the Parlia- 
mentary Committee, 1878. 

A.D. 1854. 17 & 18 Victoria, c. 82, s. 24. Foreign plate of an 
ornamental character made before the year 1800 is exempt. 

Partly Repealed. 

WEDDING RINGS. 

A.D. 1855. 18 & 19 Victoria, c. 60. This Statute recites the Act 
of 18 Victoria, c. 96, authorising the lower standard for gold wares, 
whereby it was enacted that gold wares not then previously liable to 
be assayed and marked, should be assayed and marked as therein 
mentioned, and that rings were exempt ; and that it is expedient that 
gold wedding rings should be assayed and marked. 

Sect. I Enacts that gold wedding rings should be assayed and 
marked, in like manner as other gold plate; and that the provisions 
of the statutes relating to the manufacture or sale of gold plate 
should apply to gold wedding rings. 

Sect. 2. This repeals Sect. 3 of the Act of 1 7 & 18 Victoria, c. 96. 

Sect. 3. This section authorises certain companies to assay and 
mark gold wares, and collect the duties on the same. 

Sections 2 and 3 REPEALED. 

IS! ote. — Gold wedding rings must not be sold without being duly 
assayed and marked. They can be made of any of the authorised 
standards, and are liable to the duty of 17s, per oz., of whatever 
standard they are. 

DRxWVBACK BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN x\ND IRELAND. 

A.D. 1866 29 & 30 Victoria, c. 64, s. 15, provides for allowing 
drawback on plate made in Great Britain exported from Ireland, 
and on Irish plate exported from Great Britain. 

ANNUAL LICENCES. 

A.D. 1867. 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 90, s. i. Annual Licences are 
to be taken out by every dealer in gold and silver articles in respect 
of any shop, and by every hawker or pedlar.* 

If gold is above 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., or if 

silver is above 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., at . 

If gold is 2 oz. or more, or silver 30 oz. or 

more, at . 
Every pawnbroker taking in gold or silver, in 
respect of every shop ..... 
Every refiner, in respect of every shop 
*** No licence required for dealing in gold or silver wire, or 
thread lace. PARTLY REPEALED. 

* A penalty of £50 is imposed for dealing without licence. 



£2 6 





£s 15 





£s 15 
£s 15 







io8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

A.D. i8;o. 33 & 34 Victoria, c. 32, s. 4. This provides that 
after July 6, 1870, it should not be necessary for makers of watches 
to take out a licence as a dealer in plate. 

Repealed, except Sections i, 4, and 5. 

A.D. 1876. 39 & 40 Victoria, c. 35. Section 2 enacts that all 
gold and silver plate imported from foreign parts should be sent to 
an Assay Office in the United Kingdom to be assayed and stamped, 
and that such plate should be marked in addition to the marks used 
at such Assay Office, with marks of the letter F m an oval es- 
cutcheon. 




This mark continued to be used on foreign plate until 1904, 
when the Act of 4 Edward VII, c. 6, was passed. 

This Act made it compulsory on gold and silver smiths, etc., 
to have all foreign plate assayed at the Hall, and if not of the stan- 
dard allowed by law, shall be dealt with in every respect as made 
in the United Kingdom, the sale or exchange of such foreign plate 
being prohibited unless so assayed. Upon pain that every such gold 
or Sliver smith, etc., shall forfeit and pay the sum of ten pounds for 
every offence, and in default of payment shall be committed by the 
Court to the House of Correction, and kept to hard labour for any 
time not exceeding six months, or until payment be made of the said 
forfeiture. 

This important addition to our hall-marks with regard to 
foreign silver was rendered necessary in consequence of the quantity 
of spurious silver from abroad which had found its way into this 
country, and notwithstanding an Act had been passed m 1841 pro- 
hibiting its sale unless of the proper standard, no notice had been 
taken until 1875, when procedings were instituted by the Goldsmiths' 
Company to recover penalties. In this respect the English Govern- 
ment tardily followed the example of the French, who for more than 
a hundred years had ordered all such silver from foreign parts to 
have a separate mark of E (etrange). 

The opportunities of importing plate without having it assayed 
and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall are extremely easy, and no steps 
are taken by the Customs when it arrives in this country to test its 
quality. The officer takes the duty of is. 6d. per oz. on whatever 
stuff it may be, if it bears any resemblance to silver, and it is re- 
leased without any mark being placed upon it. Although the traffic 
m unmarked plate is prohibited by law, the Customs take no cog- 
nisance of the prohibition, and are not in co-operation with the 
department who have the control of the standard, and whose duty it 
is to detect this base silver, and who would break it up when below 



LICENCES. 109 

the authorised standard, or if equal to it, after an assay, to place the 
marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall, with the additional stamp of the 
letter F, denoting its foreign origin. 

A strong objection is raised to the system of placing the same 
marks upon foreign standard plate as upon English, for although 
the additional letter F is added, it can easily be obliterated and 
passed off as English, or even if left, few people would notice it, but 
look only to the lion and Queen's head — the usual guarantee of 
British standard plate. 

One hardship m connection with the assay and stamping of 
foreign plate at Goldsmiths' Hall is, that although the duty of 
IS. 6d. per oz. may have been paid when imported to the Customs, 
unless the person sending the plate for that purpose can produce the 
certificate of its payment he will have to pay the duty over again, at 
the Hall, and in many cases, where the plate had been in the owner's 
possession for twenty or thirty years and could not produce proof, 
he would be liable to pay it a second time. 

Mr. (now Sir Walter) Prideaux, in his examination before the 
Committee on Gold and Silver Hall-Marking in 1878, gave the fol- 
lowing replies to the chairman on the subject of sales by auctions : 

Is a large quantity of foreign plate sold by auction at the pre- 
sent time? — I have heard that a good deal has been sold. 

How is it that you do not put a stop to this ; you have the power, 
have you not, by Act of Parliament ? — No power whatever, but by 
proceeding for the penalties. 

That is very severe, is it not?— ;^ 10 upon each article. 

Supposing there were a dozen spoons, the penalty would come 
to a large sum ? — Yes. 

Supposing that I have a set of foreign silver, and I send it to 
an auction room, and I sell it by the lot and not by the ounce, does 
not that get over the difficulty ? — I have not had occasion maturely 
to consider the question, but I should think not. 

Supposing that the auctioneer is not liable by the existing law, 
do not you think that he ought to be ? — Certainly ; and my opinion 
is that he is liable — he is the seller. 

With regard to licences, we may refer to a case which was de- 
cided in 1877 in the Court of Exchequer. It was on an appeal from 
the decision of a metropolitan police magistrate with reference to 
the licence duty imposed by 30 & 31 Vict., c. 90, s. i. It was con- 
tended that the weight of pure gold in a chain that had been sold 
was less than two ounces, and consequently that the lower rate of 
duty only was sufficient ; but the Inland Revenue contended that 
there was nothing as to pure gold in the statute, that the weight of 
the article sold as gold must be taken as the weight which regulates 
the rate of duty. The magistrate upheld the contention of the de- 
fendant in this case, and dismissed the information ; but on appeal 
to the Court of Exchequer they took the view of the Revenue against 
that of the magistrate, namely, that the higher duty attached to it, 
and it was held that the weight of the article sold as gold is the 
weight which regulates the rate of duty. 



no HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

A.D. 1876. By the Act 39 & 40 VICTORIA, c. 36, s. 42, clocks, 
watches, and other articles bearing a counterfeited British mark, or 
purporting to be the manufacture of the United Kingdom, may not 
be imported, and if imported may be seized and forfeited. PARTLY 
Repealed. 

FOREIGN PLATE.— NOTICE BY THE GOLDSMITHS' 

COMPANY. 

A.D. 1876. It having been brought to the notice of the Gold- 
smiths' Company that articles of silver plate in considerable quan- 
tities have been for some time past imported into this country from 
foreign countries and sold without having been assayed and marked 
as required by law, the wardens of the Company consider it their 
duty to remind dealers in gold and silver plate of the laws which 
prohibit the sale of foreign plate of gold and silver imported into 
this country, unless it be of one of the authorised standards, and 
shall have been assayed and marked ; and the wardens, at the same 
time, notify that they will consider it their duty to institute proceed- 
ings at law against offenders in every case of an offence committed 
in breach of the law which shall be brought to their notice and 
capable of proof. 

NOTICE TO THE TRADE ISSUED IN AUGUST, 1878, BY 
THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 

In which the clauses from Acts of Parliament relating to 
foreign plate were reprinted, and attention was drawn to the 12 Geo. 
II and to the list of exemptions from compulsory marking. Also 
that in consequence of information given them of infringements of 
the laws, the wardens had been compelled to institute proceedings 
against several persons, the result of which had been the recovery of 
penalties in every case, and warning the trade and dealers generally 
that the wardens will not hesitate to put in force the powers vested 
in them to take such steps as will prevent all irregular and illegal 
practices. 

NOTICE BY THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 
i;ioo REWARD. 

"Whereas extensive frauds have been committed by counter- 
feiting the marks used by the Goldsmiths' Company of London, and 
by the transposition of such marks. And whereas the wardens of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, with a view to the prevention of fraud 
and the detection of offenders, have determined to offer such reward 
as is hereinafter mentioned. Now I, the undersigned. Walter 
Prideaux, Clerk of the said Company of Goldsmiths, for and on 
behalf of the said wardens, do hereby promise to pay the sum of 
£100 to every person who shall give such information and evidence 



SELECT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. iii 

as shall lead to the conviction of any person who shall have forged 
or counterfeited any die or other instrument which is, or has been 
used by the said Company of Goldsmiths for the marking of gold 
or silver wares, or who shall have marked with any such forged or 
counterfeit die any such ware, or who shall have uttered any such 
ware knowing the same to be marked as aforesaid, or who shall by 
any means whatever have produced an imitation of any such mark as 
aforesaid upon any ware of gold or silver, or who shall have trans- 
posed or removed or shall have uttered knowing the same to be 
transposed or removed, any such mark from any ware of gold or 
silver, or any other ware, or shall have in his possession any such 
ware of gold or silver having thereupon the mark of any such forged 
or counterfeit die, or having thereupon any such imitation of a mark 
as aforesaid, or any mark which shall have been so transposed as 
aforesaid, knowing the same to have been forged, imitated, marked, 
or transposed. 

" Witness my hand this 4th day of June, 1880. 

(Signed) WALTER Prideaux, Clerks 



The Report of the Select Committee of the House of Com- 
mons ON the Hall-Marking of Gold and Silver Plate, etc., 
ISSUED IN May, 1879. 

The Committee have examined numerous witnesses upon the 
matter before them; and the Report of a Select Committee of this 
Honourable House that was appointed in the year 1856 "to inquire 
into the offices for assaying silver and gold wares in the United 
Kingdom," and the evidence taken by that Committee, have been 
considered by them. 

The inquiry before your Committee was directed to three dis- 
tinct topics; the first being the incidence and effect of the duties at 
present levied upon articles of gold and silver manufacture; the 
second, the effect of the existing system of compulsory assay and 
hall-marking; and the third, certain complaints against the opera- 
tion of the present law. 

It is in these days an accepted truism that every duty must 
operate as a fetter upon the manufacture on which it is imposed. 
To this the duties on gold and silver ware are no exception. It is 
true that the feeling of the trade is generally in favour of the reten- 
tion of the duty. The close connection between the duty and the 
hall-marking system has been prominently put forward as a reason 
why the tax is willingly borne by the trade. Probably, too, this 
feeling is, to some extent, due to an apprehension as to the effect of 
a remission of duty upon stocks in hand. 

The evidence establishes that the manufacture of gold and 
silver plate is not growing. It seems rather to be declining. But 

9 



112 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

your Committee do not adept the suggestion that this is entirely or 
even chiefly due to the duty. In England and Scotland duties were 
reimposed (in place of licences) in 1784, at the rate of 8s. per oz. on 
gold, and 6d. per oz. on silver. They continued at that rate till 
1798, when the duty on gold was raised to i6s. per oz., and on silver 
to IS. per oz. In 1805 the duty on silver was again raised to is. 3d. per 
oz. The late duty (17s. per oz. on gold and is. 6d. per oz. on silver) 
was imposed in 1 8 1 7. In Ireland, from 1 730 down to 1 806, the duty was 
6d. per oz. on gold and silver alike, from 1807 till 1842 it was is. 
per oz. on gold and silver aUke. Since 1842 it has been levied at 
the same rate as in England and Scotland. The returns of the 
amount of duty paid during these periods do not suggest that the 
successive increases of duty had any depressing effect on the manu- 
facture. On the contrary, the maximum return (i^ 123, 128) was in 
1825, nine years after the imposition of the existing duty. For the 
year ending 1878 the total amount of duty was ;^78,6io only. This 
decline is to some extent due to change in fashion ; tO' some extent, 
also, to the durability of plate, which results in a large trade in 
second-hand silver; but in all probability is chiefly due to the de- 
velopment of the electro-plate manufacture, which seems to have 
become fully established in or about 1846, from which date a marked 
diminution in the yield of the plate duties is to be observed. 

That the trade in gold and silver articles (as distingushed from 
the manufacture of plate) is not diminishing is suggested by the 
returns of the licences granted to plate dealers, the proceeds of which 
have steadily increased from ;^ 16,898 8s. 6d. in the year ending 
1846, to i^44,2i6 15s. 9d. in the year ending 1878. 

One evident objection to the duties on plate is to be found in 
the inequality of their incidence. The list of articles exempted 
from duty is long and apparently capricious. It seems to be based 
on no principle, except that of the necessity of collecting the duty 
by means of the Assay Offices, and consequently of exempting from 
duty all articles which cannot be assayed without " damaging, pre- 
judicing, or defacing the same," or which are "too small to be safely 
marked." In consequence, a large number of articles in common use, 
such as chains and bracelets, escape payment of the duty, not because 
their material is different from similar articles which are liable to 
duty, but simply because as the goods cannot be Hall-marked, the 
duty cannot be collected. Again, electro-plate pays no duty, though 
it is evident that a large amount of silver bullion is used every year 
in this manufacture. The imposition of a duty bearing so great a 
proportion to the intrinsic value of the raw material has a tendency 
to diminish the use of silver as an article of manufacture. Con- 
sidering all the circumstances connected with this trade, and the 
importance of promoting the use of silver as an article of manufac- 
ture, the Committee recommend the abolition, of this duty, both cus- 
toms and inland, whenever the condition of the revenue will permit. 

To the principle of compulsorily assaying and marking articles 
of gold and silver manufacture there are no doubt some objections. 
It is possible that if the matter were new, and it were for the first 



SELECT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 113 

time in contemplation to establish an c'ssay under the control of 
Government, these objections might prevail. But in this country 
the system has existed substantially in its present form since the 
reign of Edward I. 

Without speculating on its origin, and while making due allow- 
ance for its defects, it is established that it has resulted in the crea- 
tion and the maintenance of a high standard of excellence for all 
British assayed wares, which has not only raised the reputation of 
British workmanship at home and abroad, but has also created a 
large amount of private wealth readily convertible by reason of the 
guarantees of value which the Hall-marks afford. 

As far as can be ascertained, every British manufacturer, and 
by far the largest number of the dealers, clmg to the maintenance 
of the system with marked tenacity. The public do not complain 
of it. That the foreigner appreciates it, is shown by the fact that, 
rejecting the theoretical advantage of private marks and personal 
reputation, foreign watch-cases are sent to this country to be Hall- 
marked in yearly increasing numbers. Nor should tbe antiquarian 
or sentimental aspect of the question be altogether disregarded. At 
any rate this should prevail to the extent of throwing the entire 
burthen of proof on those who propose the abolition of a system 
which has worked well for five hundred years. 

The Committee do not consider that a voluntary or optional 
system of Hall-marking would be satisfactory. So long as the in- 
land duty on plate is retained, no better means of collecting it than 
through the assay authorities has been suggested. But the Com- 
mittee are of opinion that the abolition of the duty need not entail 
the abolition of compulsory Hall-marking. Watch-cases have been 
free from duty since 1798, but no difficulty has been experienced in 
enforcing the Hall-marking laws with regard to them. Assuming 
that the system of compulsory Hall-marking, with or without the 
duty, is to be maintained, the Committee proceed to consider the 
operation of the Acts under which that system is carried on. 

Since the report of the Committee of 1856 the Assay Office at 
York has ceased to exist. In other respects the condition of the 
offices described in that report seems to have continued unaltered. 

The chief complaint against the operation of the existing law 
comes from the manufacturers of watches and watch-cases. They 
have established by evidence that within the last few years a prac- 
tice has sprung up, and is rapidly increasing, under which foreign- 
made watch-cases are sent to this country to be Hall-marked with 
the British Hall-mark, and are afterwards fitted with foreign move- 
ments, and are not then unfrequently sold and dealt in as British 
mxade watches; and they assert that this not only injures their own 
reputation and lowers the credit of British workmanship, but is con- 
trary to the spirit and intention of our legislation. The Assay 
Offices are unable legally to refuse to Hall-mark these foreign watch- 
cases when brought for assay by registered dealers, though their 
officials are practically able to distinguish them from cases of 
British manufacture. 



114 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

That Parliament has recognised the distinction between foreign 
and British plate is shown by the provisions of an Act 30 & 31 Vict, 
c. 82, s. 24, which requires all imported plate to be marked before 
sale with the letter F in an oval escutcheon, " in order to denote that 
such gold or silver plate was imported from foreign parts, and was 
not wrought or made in England, Scotland, or Ireland." 

Until the practice of Hall-marking foreign watch-cases sprang 
up, the British Hall-marks were taken to mdicate British workman- 
ship, and your Committee cannot doubt that foreign watches in 
watch-cases so Hall-marked are frequently sold as of British manu- 
facture. The Committee are therefore of opinion that all foreign- 
made watch-cases assayed in this country ought to be impressed with 
an additional distinctive mark (the letter F, by reason of its resem- 
blance to existing marks, is not sufficiently distinctive) indicative of 
foreign manufacture, and that the law ought to be altered accord- 
ingly. 

The Committee are further of opinion that the Acts now in 
force require to be amended in regard to the following matters • 
(a) The assaying authorities should be allowed to return imported 
articles which are found below standard, instead of breaking them 
up, as at present, (b) A dome made of base metal should not ex- 
clude watch-cases from being Hall-marked, (c) The assay authori- 
ties should have power to mark articles which, though standard, 
have enamel or other metals or substances added for the purposes 
of ornament only, (d) The lower standards of gold, viz., 15, 12, 
and 9 carats (equal respectively to ||ths, ||ths and ^ths of 
pure metal), should be discontinued. A composition containing less 
than two-thirds of pure metal ought not to be called by the name 
of that metal, (e) The whole of the Assay Offices should be placed 
under the direct supervision of the Mint, so that uniform standard 
of quality shall be guaranteed, (f) So long as a licence duty is 
maintained it should be levied at a uniform rate. 

It appears that in 1857 a Bill was prepared by the Commis- 
sioners of the Inland Revenue for giving effect to the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee of 1856, that the Acts relating to the assay- 
ing of plate should be consolidated into one Act; but this Bill was 
never laid before Parliament. This is to be legretted. There seems 
to be a considerable uncertainty in the application of the law in con- 
sequence of the number of statutes in which it is found, and the 
Committee now express their opinion that the consolidation and 
amendment of the law should be carried out as proposed without 
further delay. 

A.D. 1883, 46 & 47 Victoria, c. 55. 

Section 10 provides for the assaying and stamping of gold and 
silver plate imported into Great Britain or Ireland, by an assay office 
in the United Kingdom, and that the same shall be assayed and 
marked in the same manner as British plate, but with the addition 
of the letter F. And this section provides that if the plate is not 
of the standard quality, it shall be returned to the Customs authority 



ALLOWANCE OF DRAWBACK 115 

and may be exported by the importer; but, if he does not desire to 
do so, the plate shall be cut, broken and defaced. 

THE DUTY ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE ABOLISHED. 

A.D. 1890. 53 & 54 Victoria, cap. 8. The Select Committee 
of the House of Commons, in their report on the Hall-marking of 
gold and silver in 1879, remarked that the imposition of a duty 
bearing so great a proportion to the intrinsic value of the raw 
material had a tendency to diminish the use of such metals as 
articles of manufacture. Considering all the circumstances con- 
nected with this trade, and the importance of promoting the use of 
gold and silver as mediums of manufacture, the Committee strongly 
recommended the abolition of this duty whenever the condition of 
the revenue would permit. That time having arrived, the Govern- 
ment, by the Customs and Inland Revenue Act, 1890, Part II, pro- 
vided that on and after the first day of May, 1890, the stamp duties 
and duties of Customs on plate of gold and plate of silver should 
cease to be payable. 

ALLOWANCE OF DRAWBACK ON SILVER PLATE. 

The following notice was issued by the Inland Revenue to 
silversmiths with regard to the drawback of duty : 

" Regulations as to claiming drawback of duty on silver plate 
which is as to every part thereof new and unused, manufactured m 
the United Kingdom, and which has never left the stock of a 
licensed dealer. 

" Plate will be received by the collectors of Inland Revenue for 
examination at the various Assay Offices on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th June, 
1890. 

" The claimant must produce his current licence dated prior to 
the 17th April, 1890: also his stock-book or some other satisfactory 
evidence to prove the date of purchase or manufacture of each ar- 
ticle, and prove to the officer's satisfaction that it has never left the 
stock of a manufacturer or licensed dealer. 

" Care must be taken that only those articles which have actu- 
ally paid duty and bear the impression of the duty mark (the sover- 
eign's head) are included in the claim. 

" Foreign manufactured plate is not included in the claim." 

Then follows a penalty of ^^500 for making any false state- 
ment, etc. 

A.D. 1904. 4 Edward VII, c. 6. It was enacted by this Statute 
that when any plate or article imported from a foreign part is 
brought to an assay office in the United Kingdom to be assayed or 
stamped, the same shall be stamped in such manner as the King by 
an order in Council may determine. The person bringing such plate 
or' article to be assayed or stamped shall state in writing whether 
the same was wrought in the United Kingdom or Ireland or im- 
ported from abroad. If it is not known where the plate or article 



ii6 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



was wrought, it shall be stamped as if it were imported. Any per- 
son making a false declaration shall be liable to a fine. 

This Act came into force on November i, 1904. jj. 

October 24, 1904. Order in Council. 

This Order was published in the "London Gazette" of October 
28, 1904, and by it further regulations were made for the assaying 
of foreign gold and silver, and illustrations were given of such 
hall-marks as should be particular to each assay office. The stan- 
dard marks to be used in all offices are as follows : 

On foreign gold plate, the carat value of the gold, together 
with the carat value for the six standard : 




•9 16 



o 



•833 



00 



75 




^ 




g^>-37 5 



On foreign silver plate for the two standards 




HALL MARKS FOR FOREIGN PLATE. 117 

Different stamps were to be used by each assay authority, so 
that it might be known at which office foreign plate was assayed. 
These marks are mentioned and illustrated in the notes relatmg to 
each Assay Office. 

Probably a less artistic or worse-drawn series of hall-marks 
have never been produced, than the series for foreign plate, as pro- 
mulgated by these two orders, and here redrawn 

May II, 1906. Order in Council. 

Under this Order, which was published in the " London 
Gazette" of May 15, 1906, further regulations were made in relation 
to the assaying of foreign wrought plate. It was also found ex- 
pedient to vary the marks to be used by the Assay authorities of 
London, Sheffield, Glasgow and Dublin. The marks for Birming- 
ham, Chester and Edmburgh were not altered ; nor were the stan- 
dard marks changed. 

These new marks are noted and illustrated in their proper 
places. 



I 



€\)t 5tauiiiu-t(. 



The English sterling, or silver standard, which term first occurs 
in the reign of Henry II, was of the fineness of 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. in the 
pound troy, and 18 dwts. of alloy, and it has remained so, almost 
without interruption, for mere than six hundred years, with the ex- 
ception of a period of twenty years, from the latter end of the reign 
of Henry VIII to the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, when at 
one time it was so debased that nine ounces of alloy were actually 
employed with only three ounces of silver. In the earliest accounts 
in which the standard of fineness is mentioned, it is always spoken 
of as the " old standard of England," or " esterling." The Saxon 
pennies were of the same standard. 

In computing the standard of gold, it will be observed that the 
word karal is employed. This term is used by refiners, whereby 
they certify a certain composition of weights used in assaying and 
computing of standard gold, and this karat contains either the 
twenty-fourth part of a pound or the twenty-fourth part of an ounce 
troy.* 

The standard of gold, when first introduced into the coinage, 
w?s of 24 karats, that is, pure gold, and from Henry III to Edward 
III remained so; it was subsequently 23 karats 3^ grains fine, and 
half a grain only of alloy. The gold was debased by Henry VIII 
to 20 karats, but it was raised to 22 karats, which Charles II made 
standard, and which still continues to be so for coins of the realm. 
In the reign of Edward IV, A.D. 1477, an Act was passed which 
ordained that, as the Act had been daily broken in the manufacture 
of gold wares, the fineness of gold should be fixed at 18 karats, 
but it was raised again to the standard. 

One pound or one ounce of standard gold must contain 22 
karats of fine gold, i karat of silver, and i karat of fine copper, 
which together make 24 karats, or one pound or one ounce troy 
weight. 

* The karat is a bean, the fruit of an Abyssinian tree called Kuara. This 
bean, from the time of its being gathered, varies very little in weight, and 
seems to have been a Aveight for gold in Africa. In India it is nsed as a weight 
for diamonds, as well as in Europe. It contains four grains. The ortho- 
graphy of this word is varied, and we have, for the sake of uniformity, adopted 
the way it is spelt on the Continent : karat for carat. The term karat or 
carat appears to have been first used early in the sixteenth century. 

In France the term denier was used to denote the fineness of silver, in tlie 
same manner as we use the word karat for gold. It indeed agrees with the 
English ounce. The pound is divided into twelve parts, or deniers, and each 
denier or twelfth part into two ohoJes, or twenty-four grains, 

118 



THE STANDARD. iig 

Sterling or standard silver contains f f/f of pure silver and ^5% 
of alloy. Silver coins are usually alloyed with copper in the above 
proportions, but gold coins, being sometimes alloyed with silver 
alone, sometimes with silver and copper together, no two sovereigns 
are of exactly the same colour, the former being of a pale gold, the 
latter more red. So long as the bars of gold sent to the Mint to be 
coined contam the correct proportion of pure gold, the nature of the 
alloy is not a matter of importance to the moneyer. 

Pure gold and silver are invariable in their qualities, from what- 
ever mines they are produced. 

The marks for gold of 22 karats and for silver of 1 1 oz. 2 dwts., 
were, up to the year 1844, the same; hence a great facility was af- 
forded to fraud, and, consequently, many instances occurred. An 
article of silver of the standard above named, being duly assayed 
and marked, had only to be gilt, and who but those more skilled 
than ordinary purchasers could say it was not gold ? 

This was changed by 7 & 8 Vict., c. 22, s. 15, which required 
that all wares of 22 karat gold should be marked with a "crown 
and the figures 22, instead of the mark of the lion passant," but the 
operation of this Act did not extend to Scotland or Ireland. 

A lower standard of gold was allowed by an Act, 38 Geo. Ill, 
c. 69, 1798, which was marked with a crown and the figures 18, in- 
stead of the lion passant. 

In 1854, 17 & 18 Victoria, still lower qualities of gold wares 
were allowed to be made, of 15, 12, and 9 karats pure gold in 24: 
stamped with the figures denoting the fineness, without the crozvn 
and Queen s head, but not without payment of duty. 

Gold and silver wares may be assayed at any lawful Assay 
Office wherever manufactured, without being liable to any forfeiture 
or penalty imposed by any previous Act. 

(No particular standard named in this Act, but tO' be directed 
by an order from the Privy Council.) This Act is in force through- 
out the United Kingdom. 

The Goldsmiths' Company have unfortunately no jurisdiction 
over the manufacture of jewellery, hence the spurious nature of a 
great proportion of the jewellery sold in England; and there is no 
real security to the public unless the articles have the Hall-mark; 
or wanting this, purchasers should insist on having the quality of 
the gold written plainly on the invoice as a guarantee of its genuine- 
ness, not only whether it is gold, for this admits of a wide interpre- 
tation, but the quality of it is expressed in numerals, as equal to 
22, 18, 15, 12, or 9 karats. Provided with such an invoice, they have 
always their remedy against the jeweller.* 

* From the following passage in the "Comedy of Errors" (Act 'w, Sc. I, 
1. 27) Ave find that it was the custom in England, in Shakespeare's time, for 
the goldsmith to place on his inA'oice the ivei<iht, the sfntKlanl, and the charge 
for fashion. Angelo the Goldsmith says: 

"' Here's the note 
How much your chain AA'eighs to the utmost carat, 
The fineness of the gold, and chargeful fashion." 
We quote this passage as given in most of the editions, which as it stands 



I20 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



The value per ounce of the different qualities of gold permitted 
to be manufactured into plate jewellery, watches, etc., by the various 
Acts of Parliament, and stamped accordingly, calculated at the 



highest Mint price,* 



is as follows 



24 karat or pure gold 
22 karat (first standard and currencj^) 
20 karat (Ireland only) 
18 karat (second standard) 
15 karat] 

12 karat [since 1854 .... 
9 karat] 



£ s. d. 

4 4 in 

3 17 lOi 

3 10 9i 

3 3 

(2 13 

2 2 



11 11 



8i 
1 

51 
10* 



ALLOY 

None. 
2 karat. 
4 „ 
6 „ 
9 „ 

12 „ 

15 



If these variations in the value of the different qualities of gold 
were better known or attended to, the public would not so frequently 
be duped by hishonest tradesmen. Mr. Watherston, in his pamph- 
let " On the Art of Assaying," observes : " Advertisements are some- 
times thus ingeniously contrived : ' Fine gold chains weighing five 
sovereigns for £^ each,' by which it is meant to be inferred that the 
gold in the chains is of the same fineness as the sovereigns, while it 
IS no such thing; and an accurate knowledge of this subject would 
enable the purchaser to detect the imposition by showing the vendor 
that five sovereigns would weigh i oz. 5 dwts. 12J grs., and that 
sovereigns being standard or 22 karats, the weight of such gold at 
the Mint price of 77s. lO^d. per oz. would be worth £^, whereas the 
gold in the chain might be only half the fineness, say, 1 1 karats, or 
T oz. 5 dwts. 12\ grs. at 38s. ii^d. per oz. = £2 los. Thus £2 los. 
would be obtained for the workmanship of the chain, which charge 
it was the object of the vendor wholly to conceal." 

The Bank of England is bound to buy all gold at ^^3 17s. lojd. 
per ounce. 

The parliamentary price of gold is only an equivalent denomin- 
ation; ;^3 17s. lO^d. is not the price of an ounce of gold, but is ac- 

is evidently an incorrect reading. W q\(]]\\\\(] a cliniti to its ufmoH karat is 
impossible, and the clung eful fashion incomprehensible. By placing the com- 
mas aright we arrive at the poet's meaning, and find that three separate items 
are alluded to in the Goldsmith's note. 1st. Knw much your chain weighs, 
that is always expressed in troy ounces, pennyweights and grains. 2nd. To 
the utmost karat the fineness of the gold, the standard or fineness is always 
computed by refiners in karats or imaginary weights. 3rd. The charge for 
fashion, that is the cost of making. Shakespeare's meaning is clearly ex- 
pressed in another i^lay, where the Prince says : 

" Therefore, thou best of gold art worst of gold: 
Other, less fine in carat, is moie precious^ 
Preserving life in medicine i)otable." 

Second Part of " King Henry IT " (Act iv, Sc. 5, 1. 161). 

* A purchaser, in estimating the probable cost of a piece of plate or jewel- 
lery, must add to the intrinsic value of the gold, the duty paid by the goldsmith 
of seventeen shillings per ounce on all the standards, of 22 down to 9 karats, 
if above 10 dwts. (the small articles, and those which cannot be stamped with- 
out injuring them, and watch-cases being exempted), the Assay Office fees, and 
the charge for fasJiion or manufacture, A^iiich, of course, varies according to the 
artistic labour bestowed upon the material by the designer, the chaser, and 
the engraver. 



THE STANDARD. 121 

cording" to the number of gold coins that can be made out of an 
ounce of gold. This simple fact has not been generally observed. 

There are five standards for gold, and two for silver. The 
manufacturer may use either at his option, informing the authorities 
at the Assay Office which he has adopted, in each parcel of goods 
sent to be assayed. The Higher Standards for Gold are 22 and 
18 karats of pure metal in every ounce, the ounce containing 24 
karats : so that in each ounce there may be 2 or 6 karats (one-twelfth 
or a quarter of the weight of alloy. The coinage of England is 
of the higher standard, 22 karats. The lower standard is used for 
all manufacturing purposes, except in the case of wedding rings, 
which are usually made of 22 karat gold. Since 1854, debased gold 
standards of 15, 12, and 9 karats in the ounce of 24 karats have 
been legalised. The Standards for Silver are 11 oz. 10 dwts. and 
1 1 oz. 2 dwts. of pure metal in every pound troy. The higher stan- 
dard is seldom or never used. The silver coinage is of the lower 
standard. 

It has been seen that in the year 1697 there was an alteration 
in the standard of fineness of silver, which was increased from 1 1 oz. 
2 dwts. to II oz. 10 dwts. in the pound troy. This better standard 
was denoted by a change of stamps as follows : (i) The marks of 
the workers to be expressed by the two first letters of their surnames. 
(2) The mark of the mystery or craft of the goldsmith which instead 
of the leopard's head was to be a lion's head erased. (3) Instead 
of the lion, the figure of a woman, commonly called Britannia, was 
to be substituted; and (4) A distinct variable mark to be used by 
the warden of the said mystery to denote the year in which such 
plate was made. Both these marks were, after 1700, used by the 
provincial Assay Offices, but the lion's head erased was omitted on 
silver of the new standard at Sheffield and Birmingham. 

On referring to the minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company, we 
find that, "on the 29th day of May, 1695, new puncheons were re- 
ceived, the letter for the year being t in an escutcheon." And on 
"the 27th March, 1697, the puncheons for the remaining part of 
this year (viz., up to the 30th May) were received, being, according 
to Act of Parliament, a lyon's head erased, a Britannia, and for the 
letter, the great court A in an escutcheon." 





122 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 








, 




Table 


showing the alterations English coins 


and plate have , 




undergone 


with respect to weight and fineness, from the 


t reign of 




William the Conqueror to that of Victoria : 










MONEY. 


PLATE. 


DATE. 


REIGN. 


GOLD. 


SILVER. 


GOLD. 


SILVER. j 

1 


Fineness 
of Gold 


Pound Troy 
of such gold 


Fineness 
of Silver 


Pound Troy 
of such Sil- 
ver coined 
into 

£ s. d. 


REIGN. 


Karats. 


REIGN. 


z. dwt 






Coins. 


coiued into Coins 














kar. gis 


£ s. d, oz. dwt. 










1066 


Will. I . . 


... 


... 


11 2 


1 1 4 




... 




^ 


1280 


8 Ed. I . . 








1 I 4 


28 EdV I . 


19i 


Ed!'l. 


ll"2 ''• 


1344 


18 Ed. Ill . 


1 23'"3i 


14 "o 10 i ... 


1 1 6 




... 






1349 


23 „ 


... 


14 18 8 i ... 


1 3 












1356 


30 „ 


... 


16 


1 6 8 












1421 


9 Hen. V 




17 16 


1 12 










., 


1464 


4 Ed. IV. . 




22 4 6 


2 












1465 


5 M . . 




24 


2 




• •• 








1470 


49 Hen. VI . 




24 


2 












1482 


22 hid. IV . 




24 


2 


17 Ed.' IV . 


18 








1509 


1 Hen. VIII . 




24 


2 




■ •• 








1527 


18 ., 


22""0 


24 1 


2 2 8 




• • • 








1543 


34 ., 


23 


28 16 10 


2 8 






... 






1545 


36 ., 


22 


30 6 


2 8 




• •• 


... 






1546 


37 


20 


30 4 


2 8 






... 






1547 


1 Ed. VI 


20 


30 4 


2 8 




• •• 








1549 


3 


22 


34 ; 6 


3 12 












1551 


5 


23 31 


34 5 


3 12 












1552 


6 


22 


36 <» 11 1 


3 






... 






1553 


1 Marv . . 


23 3i 


36 11 


3 






... 






1560 


2 Elizabeth . 


22 0" 


36 11 2 


3 


15 Eiiz. . 


22 








1600 


43 „ 


23 3h 


36 lO 1 ... 


3 2 






... 






1604 


2 James I 


22 0" 


33 10 


3 2 




... 








1626 


2 Charles I . 




41 ! ... 


3 2 




. . , 








16H6 


18 Charles 11. 




44 10 




3 2 






9 Will". III. 


11 10 


1717 
1816 


3 George I . 
56 Geo. Ill . 




46 14 6 
46 14 6 




3 2 
3 6 


38 Geo. III. 


r22 

118 


6 Geo. I . 


11 2 


""^"^ 


1821 


2 Geo. IV . 




46 14 6 


3 6 




r22 

18 
1 12 


These two Stand- 


to 












18 Vict. . 


ards have both 


1881 


Victoria 








remained legal 






22 karats, at which 


Sterling Standard 


5 standards 


from 1720 to the 






it has remained as at present. 


legalised. 


I 9 


present day. 






ever since. 

1 











It is a curious coincidence, if not actually premeditated, that the 
two great changes m the debasement of the coinage and its restora- 
tion to the ancient purity of the standard should be notified in the 
arrangement of the Hall-marks on plate. In 1543 the fineness of 
silver coins was reduced by Henry VUI from 1 1 dwts. 2 grs. to ten 
parts out of the twelve; in 1545 to half, and in 1546 to one-third 
part only of pure silver. It has been suggested that between 1543 
and 1545 the stamp of the lion passant was introduced to notify 
that the plate still remained as good as the old standard, and was 
not debased like the coins of that period. We have not met with 
any plate of the years 1543 or 1544, but in 1545 we find ''Her 



THE STANDARD. 123 

Majesty's lion" for the first time added as a standard mark. The 
second change occurred in 1 560. Up to that date the escutcheon or 
encircling line had taken the form of the date letter; but in the 
second year of the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the 
purity of the coinage was restored to the old standard, for gold of 
22 karats, and for silver 11 oz. 2 dwts., a change was made by the 
Goldsmiths' Company, and the letters were henceforward enclosed 
in a regular heraldic shield, commencing on Old Christmas Day, 
VIZ., January 6, 1561, with the letter D, as shown in our tables. 

The system of both gold and silver being standard measures of 
value, which they were m virtue of each being a legal tender to any 
amount, was the source of much disorder; for, as their market prices 
were always subject to variation, one kind of coin had a constant 
tendency to drive the other out of circulation. To remedy this great 
inconvenience, our present monetary system was established fixing 
gold as the standard. 

By "The Coinage Act, 1870" (33 Victoria, Chapter 10), it was 
enacted that, a tender of payment of money, shall be a legal 
tender — 

In the case of gold coins for a payment of any amount. 

In the case of silver coins for a payment not exceeding 
forty shillings, but for no greater amount. 

In the case of bronze coins for a payment of an amount not 
exceeding one shilling, but for no greater amount. 

Besides this standard fineness of coins, there is also a legal 
weight, fixed according to the Mint regulation, or rate of coinage 
of each country. Thus in England twenty pound's weight troy of 
standard gold is coined into 934 sovereigns, and one ten shilling 
piece, and a pound of standard silver into 66 shillings, with divi- 
sions and multiples in proportion; and hence the Mint price of 
standard gold is £^ 17s. io\d. per ounce, and that of standard silver 
66 pence per ounce. 

The silver coins in circulation are considered only as tokens 
payable by the Government, and pass for more than their metallic 
value as compared with gold. Precaution is taken that it shall not 
be worth while to melt the silver coin into bullion, and it is so nearly 
worth its current value that imitation would not be ventured, on so 
small a profit. The Government will always receive back its tokens, 
however worn they may be, provided they be not wilfully defaced 
or fraudulently reduced. But gold, being the sole standard meas- 
ure of value, and legal tender of payment, circulates as a com- 
modity; and hence the necessity of Government receiving it at value 
on its return to the Mint, and making a deduction for loss of weight 
when the same exceeds the remedy of the Mint. The wear and tear 
of the gold coinage is such, that very nearly three per cent of the 
whole circulation goes out annually ; and the quantity which will 
suffice to throw a sovereign out of circulation is louu^-^^ parts, or 
about one-fourth of a grain. — (W oolhouse.) 



124 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Mr. Freemantle, Deputy Master of the Mint, in his report for 
the year 1874, states that "the amount of gold coined during the 
year, i^ 1,460,000, has again been below the average (which may be 
reckoned at i^5,ooo,ooo), notwithstanding that in 1873 the amount 
coined was only ^^3, 300,000, as against i^i 5,000,000 m 1872, and 
i^i 0,000,000 in 1 87 1. This diminution in the demand for gold coin 
is in a great measure to be accounted for by the magnitude of the 
coinages just referred to; but it should also be mentioned that the 
importations into the Bank of England during the year of Aus- 
tralian sovereigns and half-sovereigns, which are now somewhat of 
the same design as those issued from the Mint in London, are 
equally legal tender in the United Kingdom, and have been consid- 
erable, having amounted to ;^ 1,972,000, and have contributed in a 
sensible degree towards maintaining the supply of gold coin re- 
quired for circulation in this country." 

It may be here remarked, while speaking of Bank operations, 
that the Bank of England weighs about 20,000,000 pieces separ- 
ately and singly in each year, and if each had to be examined to 
see the date the labour would be trebled. 

" The natural colour of pure gold is a deep rich orange yellow. 
If, however, gold is beaten into thin leaves, and placed between the 
eye and the light, it appears of a green colour. Gold is also green 
in a molten state at a high temperature. When precipitated from 
its solutions it assumes a dark brown colour. If the brown precipi- 
tate is boiled in concentrated sulphuric acid, it cakes together, and 
becomes red. If gold is precipitated as a very fine powder it is 
black; if finely diffused in transparent glass it is violet; and it has 
been surmised that the colour of rose-quartz is due to a very fine 
diffusion of gold in that substance." — (Luischaiinig.) 

There are six different ways of giving gold the various shades 
of colour by means of alloy with other metals. These six colours 
may be combined and produce all the possible variations, i. Yel- 
low gold, or pure. 2. Red gold, composed of three parts fine gold 
and one of purified copper. 3. Grass green gold, three parts of 
pure gold and one of silver. 4. Dead leaf green, half gold and 
half silver. 5. Sea green, fourteen parts of fine gold, and ten of 
fine silver. 6. Blueish gold, fine gold melted, in which is thrown a 
small quantity of iron. 

Coloured gold (of which cheap jewellery is made) means that 
the article contains a very small proportion of gold, less frequently 
than 9 karat gold, or nine parts pure and fifteen alloy out of the 
twenty-four, which is intrinsically worth about 30s. per ounce. As 
this debased gold is of a bad colour and wanting in brilliancy, the 
following operation is adopted, called colouring : from the immedi- 
ate surface of the article the copper is removed, exposing the pure 
gold only, but this coating of pure gold is not thicker than the looth 
part of the breadth of a hair. It is the same as if the article were 
gilt or electro-plated, only that in the one instance the alloy is taken 
from the gold on the surface, leaving the pure gold, and that in the 



WEIGHTS. 125 

other the pure gold is put on. Any bad gold over 9 karats can be 
coloured by boiling in nitric acid, or other preparation acting in the 
same manner. 

" The bleaching of silver is an analogous operation to the col- 
ouring of gold. If an article of silver alloyed with copper be 
heated to a dull red heat, and then quickly dipped in water con- 
taining a small proportion of sulphuric acid, the copper will be 
taken away, leaving the pure silver on the surface as white as snow." 
— (L iitschaiinig.) 

To convert gold or silver into grains or granular pieces requires 
the assistance of two persons. The one procures a pan of cold water 
and keeps it in movement by stirring it round with a stick, while 
the other pours the molten metal into it. This sudden transition 
from heat to cold, and the circular motion of the water, naturally 
converts the metal into irregularly shaped grains. 

Filagree is composed of two round threads, so twisted together 
by means of a tourniquet that they form but one thread. 

The Loupe or magnifying-glass is a sort of microscope of a 
simple glass, convex on both sides, or a pair of lenses (convexo con- 
vexes) fixed at a certain distance from each other in a frame, with 
a handle attached. The latter is used by goldsmiths and employes 
of the Assay Offices to verify the Hall-marks upon gold and silver 
plate. It is more to be depended upon in a careful investigation, 
as the whole field within the radius is magnified equally, while the 
single glass distorts that portion of the object seen towards the 
edge. For this reason it is preferred by engravers. It is also very 
useful for examining coins and medals to ascertain whether they are 
genuine. 

The choice of a glass to verify the marks on plate, etc, is very 
important, but it is impossible to establish any positive general rule, 
since every person must consult his own eyesight. In every case the 
glass ought to be mounted or set in a deep flat border or diaphragm, 
to concentrate the rays of light in the centre of the lens. The light 
should be thrown direct on to the object to render the whole surface 
distinctly visible at one view without shadow. The closing of one 
eye during inspection should be avoided as much as possible, as this 
involuntary habit fatigues the eye without producing any better 
effect. The glass should be brought near to the eye, or at the most, 
only two inches from it. 



WEIGHTS. 

The weight used by the Saxons was the Colonia or Cologne 
pound of 16 ounces, containing 7,680 grains. This pound was 
divided into two marks of 8 ounces each, being equal to two-thirds 
of the Tower pound, still used in Germany. In the time of William 
the Conqueror the found Troy was introduced of 5,760 grains, as at 
present used for gold and silver, so called, it is supposed, from 
being used at Troyes, in France; but this idea is incompatible with 



126 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

its French name, which denotes a more remote origin, being called 
" Poids Romain." There was another weight in use at the same time 
called the Tower or money er's found ( pois cVorfevres), by which 
gold and silver coins were weighed, so called in consequence of the 
principal Mint being in the Tower. This Tower pound, which had 
12 ounces of its own, consisted of 5,400 grains, being less than the 
Troy pound by 15 pennyweights or three-quarters of an ounce. It 
IS still occasionally referred to on the subject of coins, and in the 
early inventories of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, such as the Exchequer and Wardrobe accounts, etc., the weight 
of silver and gold is expressed by pounds, shillings and pence, the 
pound being subdivided into 20 shillings and 12 pence or penny- 
weights. The shilling represents three-fifths of an ounce.* This 
ceased to be a legal Mint weight in the eighteenth year of the reign 
of Henry VIII, when in 1526-7 the Tower pound was abolished by 
Royal proclamation and the Troy pound substituted. 

As an example of the manner of expressing weight and Mint 
value in the fourteenth century, Vv^e quote two items from the par- 
ticulars of a present of plate from the City of London to Edward 
the Black Prince, on his return from Gascony in 1371 : 

''Bought of John de Chicestre, Goldsmith (Mayor in 1369), 48 
Esqueles and 24 Salt-cellars, weighing by goldsmith's weight, 
£'/6 5s. od., adding six shillings in the pound with the making; 
total, £iog os. gd. Also, 6 Chargers, weight £1^ i8s. gd., which 
amounts with the making to £21 ys. 2d.," etc. — (Riley s Memorials 
of London,) 

These imaginary coins had no exact representation in the coin- 
age of Great Britain until long after the period when they were used 
merely as moneys of account. The term shilling was used by the 
Saxon as equivalent to four pennies, but William the Conqueror 
established the Norman shilling at twelve pennies, yet no positive 
coin of that denomination was made current until the reign of Henry 
VII. The 7nark was a Danish mode of computation introduced in 
the reign of Alfred, then valued at one hundred pennies, but Wil- 
liam the Conqueror valued it at one hundred and sixty pennies, or 
13s. 4d., being two-thirds of a pound. The pound referred princi- 
pally to weight; the pound of gold or silver meant the value in 
money, according to the current coins which could be made out of 
the pound weight of either mictal. At the time we are speaking of, 
silver pennies were the only coins used in England. In the reign 
of Edward III (1327-77) coins of various denominations were intro- 

* This Avas a source of .Q;reat revenue, and is thus stated in a MR. relating 
to Mint affairs which is preserved in the Collection of the Society of Anti- 
quaries : " There is a veight wliich hath been used in England from the begin- 
ning in the King's Mints, till of late years, and derived from the Troy weights : 
for by the T\0]) weight of twelve ounces the merchant bought his gold and 
silver abroad, and by the same delivered it into the King's Mint, receiving in 
counteri)oise by Tmrer ^reifiht, which Avas the King's pierogative, Avho gained 
thereby three-quarters of an ounce in the exchange of each pound weight con- 
veited into mone\\ beside the gain of coining, which did rise to a great revenue, 
making for every 30 lbs. Troy, being a journey of coined money, 32 lbs. Tower.'" 



WEIGHTS. 127 

duced —groats, half -groats, pennies, half -pennies, and farthings, as 
well as the gold noble passing at 6s. 8d., its half and quarter. The 
first sovereign or double rial, coined by Henry VII, passed for 
22s. 6d. Then succeeded, in the time of the Stuarts, the unit or 
pound sovereign of twenty shillings. 

There was a method of paying and receiving moneys so as to 
avoid the necessity of counting and weighing each piece separately, 
thereby avoiding the loss of time necessarily occupied in dealing 
with large sums of money. This was termed "payments ad scalaml' 
and would be completely answered by the plan, provided the coins 
were of just weight and undiminished in the course of currency, 
each being weighed separately on receipt, as at the Bank of Eng- 
land, where the practice is still in use. In -paying large sums in gold 
the first thousand is counted and placed in one of the scales, the 
additional thousands being estimated by weighing them successively 
in the other scale against it. This is sometimes adopted at banking 
houses in the present day. In a general way the gold coins are 
taken indiscriminately from the mass, but instances are recorded 
by which deception has in former times been practised. A certain 
monk of St. Augustine's in Canterbury, in the fourteenth century, 
contrived to defraud those who made payments to that abbey, of 
whose rents he was tJie receiver, by taking advantage of the unequal 
manner in which coins were then formed, selecting the heaviest, 
against which he weighed all the money he received, gaining thereby 
sometimes five shillings and never less than three shillings and four- 
pence in every twenty shillings. On discovery of the fraud, how- 
ever, the abbot and convent were severely fined. 

Troy weights are now exclusively used in the gold and silver 
trade, the weights being stated in ounces, and until recently in 
pennyweights and grains. The troy pound is not used ; the troy 
ounce being the present unit of weight, which in 1879 was divided 
into decimals. 

Silver plate is always sold at per ounce. 

The old series of cup weights or nest set of ounce weights, estab- 
lished in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, are still in use in the City of 
London, for which there is no standard above 12 ounces, and they 
are usually made of brass. 

The Founders' Company claim the right to stamp and verify 
bra^s weights after they are made, but they have no power to enforce 
it. The right is based on a Royal Charter of James II, and a clause 
in the Weights and Measures Act reserves such, which, however, has 
frequently been disputed, but no legal decision has been taken 
upon it. 

Troy weights marked by the Founders' Company should be 
stamped at Goldsmiths' Hall, but it is not done now. The legal 
provisions for stamping troy weights are practically inoperative. 
A set of old troy standards still exists at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

The standard brass weight of one pound troy made in the year 
1758 is now in the custody of the Clerk of the House of Commons, 
and is by 5 Geo. IV, c. 74, the established standard, and called 

10 



128 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



*The Imperial Troy Pound." Very few troy weights are stamped 
at all, and till recently they never were. They are sold unstamped; 
but if the Goldsmiths' Company have not the power to enforce the 
supervision, a clause in some Act of Parliament should forthwith 
enable them to exercise it legally. It would be a better guarantee 
to the public. Troy weights are not subject to inspection like the 
avoirdupois, but although inaccuracy and fraud are seldom met 
with, yet goldsmiths' weights are frequently in an unsatisfactory 
condition, and require official supervision. 

It seems to us that the more scientific system adopted in France 
might be carried out advantageously in England. The French regu- 
lation requires weights to be marked with the name of the maker 
and stamped by the appointed inspector; not only this, for every 
part of a balance is made to a gauge like a watch, and the beams 
and scales stamped accordingly. Balances are also subject to vari- 
ation through changes in the humidity of the atmosphere. 

A decimal series of troy ounces are used for bullion, legalised 
in 1853 ; but they have not been adopted by the general public, and 
are not used in the gold and silver trade. At that time the Bank 
abolished the system of weighing in pounds and ounces, and substi- 
tuted weighing in ounces and decimals of ounces — a more scientific 
method; but no one in the trade has adopted the system, except in 
his relations with the Bank. 

By troy weight, gold, silver, jewels, and precious stones are 
weighed. Diamonds and pearls are the exception. They are 
weighed by the karat, which contains 4 grains ; but 5 diamond grains 
are only equal to 4 troy grains, the ounce troy containing 150 dia- 
mond karats. 



TROY WEIGHT. 



14 ounces 8 pennyweights 

12 ounces 

20 pennyweights 

24 grains 

20 mites 

24 droits 

20 periots 

24 blanks 



m 



ake 



1 lb., avoirdupois weight (7000 grains). 

1 pound, troy Aveight (5760 grains). 

1 ounce (480 grains). 

1 pennyweight (24 grains). 

1 grain.* 

1 mite. 

1 droit. 

1 periot. 



The above subdivisions of troy weight are appended to an Act 
relating to a new coinage passed by the Long Parliament, and it 
was probably copied from earlier records; but how these infinitesi- 
mal fractions were to be used is a mystery, and this Act does not 
furnish us with the information — a blank being about the thirteen 
hundred and twenty-seventh millionth of a pound troy. 

These divisions of the grain are in reality only imaginary ; but 
there are real weights of decimal divisions to the thousandth part 
of a grain. 



The grains in avoirdupois and troy weight are identical. 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS. 



129 



REFINERS' WEIGHTS. 



A rOUND WEIGHT KARAT. 

12 ounces • . make 24 karats. 

4 grains . , 

4 quarters . . , 
lOdwts.troy . • , 

2 dwts. 12 grains troy , 
15 grains troy . , 



1 karat. 
1 grain. 
1 karat. 
1 grain, 
i grain. 



AN OUNCE KARAT. 

1 ounce troy . makes 24 karats. 



4 grains 

4 quarters 
20 grains troy 

5 grains troy 



,, 1 karat. 

,, 1 grain. 

,, 1 karat, 

make 1 karat grain. 



COMPARATIVE 


TABLE OF 


TROY 


AND 


AVOIRDUPOIS 


WEIGHTS. 


Avdps. 
oz. 


Troy. 




Avdps. 


Troy. 


Avdps, 


Troy. 


oz 


dwt. 


grs. 


oz. 


oz. 


dwts 


grs. 


rz. 


oz. 


dwt. 


grs. 


.1 




4 


131 


15 


13 


13 


10^ 


31 28 


5 


01 

-2 


A 








one 


lb. 






two 


lb. 






1 
1 




9 

18 


-4 
5i 


1(5 


14 


11 


16 


32 


29 


3 

1 


8 

m 


17 


15 


9 


2U 


33 1 30 


2 


1 


16 


11 


18 


16 


8 


3 


1 
34 30 


19 


19 


3 





14 


16A 


19 


17 


6 


^■j 


35 1 31 


18 


Oi 


4 


3 


12 


22 


20 


18 


4 


14 


36 32 


16 


6 


5 


4 


11 


3i 


21 


19 


2 


m 


37 i 33 


14 


11 J 


6 


5 


9 


9 


22 


20 


1 


1 


38 1 34 

1 


12 


17 


7 


6 


7 


11^ 


23 


20 


19 


^ 


39 i 35 


10 


22.1 


8 


7 


5 


20 


24 


21 


17 


12 


40 


36 


9 


4 


9 


8 


4 


I2 


25 


22 


15 


17i 


50 


45 


11 


11 


10 


9 


2 


7 


26 


23 


13 


23 


60 


54 


13 


18 


U 


10 





121 


27 


2i 


12 


H 


70 ; 63 

1 


16 


1 


12 


10 


18 


IS 


28 


25 


10 


10 


80 ; 72 


18 


8 


13 


11 


1(5 


231 


29 


20 


8 


15i 


90 i 82 





15 


14 


12 


15 


5 


30 


27 


6 


21 


ICO 91 


2 


00 



This table will be found useful when weighing gold or silver, 
if troy weights are not at hand. A pound troy of gold in England 
is coined into 46fg sovereigns, or £46 14s. 6d. ; a pound troy of ster- 
ling silver into 66 shillings. Therefore, new silver coins to the 
amount of 5s. 6d. will weigh an ounce troy, and could be used as a 
substitute on an emergency. 

Note. — The weight of silver is always given in ounces and 
pennyweights, omitting the grains and pounds. Thus, 6 lbs. 10 oz. 
10 dwts. 12 grains is called 82 oz. 10 dwts. 

A new Act came into operation on January i, 1879* (^^'^^ ^i^ 
months were allowed to become accustomed to the alterations). It 
abolishes the use of pennyweights and grains in troy weight. The 



41 & 42 Victoria, c. 49. 



I30 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



ounce troy remains the same, containing 480 grains, but is now 
divided decimally into tenths, hundredths and thousandths, so that 
the thousandth part of an ounce troy is exactly equal to .48 grain, 
or nearly one-half. It will be seen from this that the exact equiva- 
lents in the new bullion and old weights cannot be shown without 
using decimals or complicated fractions, which being of no practical 
utility, are omitted in the following table, and only the nearest 
quarter-fraction inserted, the difference being always less than ^ of 
a gram. For weighing precious stones, the karat is abolished, and 
"decimal grain weights" (or the grain troy divided decimally) sub- 
stituted; 3.17 grains being nearly equal to one karat, and the equiva- 
lents being calculated to ^j th of a karat, as now used. 

The small sets of troy weights sanctioned by the Act of 1879 
are sold in nests of ten, fitting into each other, the divisions being 
marked thus : 



oz. 
20 



oz, oz. 

10. 5 



3.2.1. -f^, equal to 10 dwts. -fjp; = 6 dwts. 
■^0=4 dwts. ^^ = 2 dwts. 



With loose square weights, marked thus : 
.05-24 grs. .04 = 191 grs. .03-i4igrs. .02 = Qjgrs. .01 = 4! grs. 

.oo5 = 24grs. .oo4 = 2grs. .003 = i;Tgrs. .002 = igr. .ooi—^a gr. 



Table showing the corresponding value of the Old Troy 
weights lately in common use, and the Nezv Decimals legalised in 
1879, omitting the fractional parts of grains and dwts. 



PENNYWEIGHTS. 



GRAINS 



New 
Weights. 


Old 

Weights. 


New 
Weights. 


Old 

Weights. 


Decimals. 
1.000 


Dwts. 
1 oz. = 20 


Decimals. 
.500 


Dwts. 
10 


.950 


19 


.4.50 


9 


.900 


18 


.400 


8 


.850 


17 


.350 


/ 


.800 


16 


.300 


6 


.750 


15 


.250 


5 


.700 


14 


.200 


4 


.050 


13 


.150 


3 


.(iOO 


12 


i .100 


2 


.550 


11 


.050 


1 



New 
Weights. 


Old 
Weights 


1 

New 
Weights 


Old 
Weights 


Detnmals. 
.001 


Grains. 
I 


■ 
Decimals, 
i .026 


Grains. 
12.] 


.002 


1 


.028 


13i 


.004 


2 


; .029 


14 


.006 


3 


i .031 


15 


.008 


32 


.034 


16-t 


.010 


n 


.036 


17i 


.012 


n 


.038 


18i 


.014 


H 


.0:10 


19:1 


.016 


n 


.042 


20} 


.018 


8i 


.044 


21 


.020 


9^ 


1 .046 


22 


.022 


10| 


! .048 


23 


.024 


lU 


i .050 


24 



^lanufacturers of gold and silver are required to register their 
names and marks which indicate the same (usually their initials) at 
the Assay Office of their district, and all articles sent in by them to 
be assayed must be impressed with this maker's mark. 

If they are then found to have been made in conformity with 
the appointed regulations, a small quantity, not exceeding eight troy 
grains in the pound, is to be cut or scraped from them for trial of 
their purity, according to the standard for which they are required 
to be stamped. One moiety of the scrapings, or diet, as it is called, 
to be reserved for the assay, and the other, if the purity prove to be 
.correct, is to be put into that compartment of what is called the diet 
box which appertains to its standard. 

The diet boxes from the Assay Offices of Birmingham and 
Sheffield are proved twice a year at the Royal Mint by the Queen's 
Assay Master in the presence of an officer appointed by the Lords 
of the Treasury, and the; fineness of the gold and silver must equal 
the standard trial plates which are kept in the custody of the War- 
den of the Standards at the Royal Mint. The other provincial 
Assay Offices are only compelled to do so when required. 

The method of ascertaining the quantity of pure gold in a given 
alloy is usually effected by adding to a weighed piece of gold three 
times its weight of fine silver, called inquartation, i.e., three parts 
silver to one part of alloyed gold : these are wrapped all together 
in a piece of sheet lead and cupelled, or melted in a crucible called 
a cupel. All the impurities are thus got rid of, and the button taken 
from the cupel consists solely of the mixed gold and silver. This 
button is then flattened on an anvil, and twisted into a screw called 
a cornet. It is then placed in a bottle with aquafortis, in which it 
remains for a certain time, muriatic acid being subsequently added 
to make it stronger. This operation dissolves all the silver, leaving 
only the pure gold, which after being dried and shrunk, is carefully 
weighed, and the difference between that and its original weight 
before cupellation shows the exact quantity of alloy. 

The assay of silver is more simple. Weigh accurately the piece 
of silver to be assayed, wrap it in about twelve times its weight of 
sheet lead, melt the whole in a cupel, w^hich expels all the alloy with 
the. lead, leaving a bead of pure silver. It is again weighed in a 
very sensitive balance, and the allov calculated from the loss in 



weight. 



131 



132 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The assay marks used at the Goldsmiths' Hall of London were 
ordered to be the letters of the alphabet, changing every year. We 
do not know with certainty when this plan was first adopted, but it 
was probably as early as the time when the Goldsmiths' Company 
were empowered to assay the precious metals, which, according to 
their Statute, was in the year 1300 We can trace these letters 
back with a degree of certainty to the fifteenth century. This 
method of denoting the year in which any piece of plate was made 
and assayed, by placing upon it a letter of the alphabet, enables 
us at the present day to ascertain the date of its manufacture, if 
assayed at the Goldsmiths' Hall of London. 

Different arrangements of the letters were adopted by the Cor- 
porations of other towns, who subsequently had the privilege of 
assaying granted them. The marks of the principal towns — Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Exeter, Chester, Newcastle, Sheffield and 
Birmingham, we have succeeded in establishing, and they are given 
in a tabular form through the kindness of the local authorities, who 
readily accorded leave to examine the records. 

The Goldsmiths' Hall of London employs the letters A to U 
inclusive (omitting J), forming a cycle of twenty years, the char- 
acter of the alphabet being varied every succeeding cycle. These 
letters are changed on May 30 in every year, the office suspending 
business on the two days preceding, and the diet box being proved 
on May 29. Each letter is therefore used during the moieties of 
two calendar years. 

If an Assay Master divulge any design, or pattern, or secret of 
the workman whose plate is sent to the Hall to be assayed and 
stamped, he is liable to a penalty of ;/^200, and to be discharged ; 
or if he mark any plate knowingly not of the required fineness. 

In a work published in 1678, entitled " News from the Gold- 
smiths, or a Tryal of Gold and Silver Wares," by W. T., a gold- 
smith, we are told that : 

" There is a certain standard for gold and silver, according to 
which standard the coins of this kingdom (both gold and silver) are 
made : and as good as that standard, all plate and small wares in 
gold and silver are to be made, and that there may be no defraud 
used by making any gold and silver work worse than the standard, 
there is a very easy and sure way appointed by law for the regu- 
lating those wares, the understanding of which may be of signal 
benefit to all who buy and wear any sorts of gold and silver ware 
whatsoever. 

" As to London and the places adjacent, the Company of Gold- 
smiths hath the oversight of those wares, and the tryal of them com- 
mitted to them : and therefore, three days in the week, there is a trial 
made of any workman's wares (whose name and mark is inroullcd 
iR their Assay Office), and whatsoever works they try and find stan- 
dard are marked with these marks following : first, the workman's 
mark who made the wares (which is usually the two first letters of 
his Christian and surname, and every workman's mark differs from 
other) ; the second is a leopard's head crowned ; the third is a lion ; 



ASSAY. 133 

the fourth is a single letter (the letter which is used this present year 
being JJ. (1677-8); and whatsoever plate or small wares have these 
marks upon them, it is not to be questioned but that they are sterling 
or standard, that is, as good as money. 

" But there being several sorts of small wares, both in gold and 
silver, which cannot be assayed and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall, 
after they are finished : they are therefore sold with the private 
workman's mark; and to prevent defrauds in this, all workers in 
gold and silver, in London and its suburbs, are required by law to 
make known their marks to the wardens of the Company of Gold- 
smiths, at their Hall in Foster Lane, that one workman may not 
strike a mark that is like another workman's ; and that any persons 
who have wares marked with the workman's mark only, may, by 
addressing themselves to the Company of Goldsmiths, find out the 
makers of their wares; and if the wares which they have marked be 
found worse than standard, the Company of Goldsmiths will pro- 
cure the aggrieved party recompense and punish the workman. 

" The reader cannot but be satisfied of the excellency of this 
v/ay of warranting silver; but I shall show you how it's neglected to 
the publick's great wrong. Although the wardens have power to 
search any goldsmiths' shops and houses, and carry away any works 
which they shall make choice, to try them, whether they be standard 
or not, and to fine the owners if they find them worse than standard ; 
yet the workers and sellers of gold and silver wares being so numer- 
ous and dispersed in their dwellings to all parts of the city and 
suburbs, it is not easy that all their small wares can be found out by 
the wardens of the Company, to be tryed; they being sold therefore 
upon the bare workman's or shopkeeper's credit, and they having the 
marking of these wares themselves ; there are these evils that do fol- 
low it. 

" I. Some of their wares are not marked at all, though they may 
very well bear marking (whereby they are forfeited, though they be 
standard). 

" 2, Some of their wares are marked with private marks, whicli 
are not inroulled at Goldsmiths' Hall : For some of them who have 
a mark inroulled at Goldsmiths' Hall will have another mark not 
inroulled; which mark they will set upon adulterated wares: and 
this counterfeit mark shall be so like the inroulled mark, that it will 
not be known to be the unlawful mark by any that doth not know 
what marks are inroulled and what are not; for there is only this 
difference : as if ^ (one over the other) is the mark inroulled at Gold- 
smiths' Hall, then " P.B." (one by the other) may be the counterfeit 
mark : or if " s." be the inroulled mark, then " I.S." may be the coun- 
terfeit, or any other way, according to the workman's device," etc. 

The following extract from the " Touchstone for Gold and Sil- 
ver Wares " will show what marks were in use in 1677, and the views 
of the writer, himself a goldsmith, on the subject of marks : 

"The Company of Goldsmiths have caused to be made (accord- 
ing to the aforesaid statutes and their Charter) puncheons of steel 
and marks at the end of them, both great and small, of these several 



134 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

sorts of following-, that is, the leopard's head crowned, the lyon; and 
a letter, which letter is changed alphabetically every year. The 
reason of changing- thereof is (as I conceive) for that by the afore- 
said recited statutes it is provided, That if any silver work that is 
worse than sterling be marked with the Company's mark, the War- 
dens and Corporation for the time being shall make recompence to 
the party grieved, so that if any such default should happen, they 
can tell by the letter on the work in what year it was assayed and 
marked, and thereby know which of their own officers deceived them, 
and from them obtain a recompence. These marks are every year 
made new for the use of the new wardens ; and although the assay- 
ing is referred to the Assay Master, yet the Touch Wardens look to 
the striking of the marks. 

"They have also made in a part of their Hall, a place called by 
them the Assay Office, wherein is a sworn weigher. His duty is to 
weisfh all silver work into the office, and enter the same into a book 
kept for that purpose, and also to weigh it out again to the owner; 
only four grams out of every twelve ounces that are marked arc, 
according to their ancient custom, to be retained and kept for a re- 
assaying once in every year, before the Lords of the Council, in the 
Star Chamber at Westminster, and before a jury of twenty-four able 
Goldsmiths, all the silver works they have passed for good the year 
foregoing. 

" In this office is kept for public view a Table or Tables, arti- 
ficially made m columns, that is to say, one column of hardened 
lead, another of parchment or velom, and several of the same sorts. 
In the lead column are struck or entered the workers' marks (which 
are generally the first two letters of their Christian and surnames), 
and right against them in the parchment columns are writ and en- 
tered the owners' names, according to the intent of the words in the 
statute (2 Henry VI, 14), to wit, 'And that the sign of every Gold- 
sj7t:th be knoivn to the Wardens of the Craft,^ which said wardens' 
duty is to see that the marks be plain and of a fit size, and not one 
like another, and to require the thus entering the said marks, and 
also the setting them clear and visible on all gold and silver work, 
not only on every work, but also on every part thereof that is 
wroug^ht apart, and afterwards soldered and made fast thereto, in 
finishing the same." 

The same work gives an engraving of the marks used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company for the year 1676, viz., the Leopard's Head 
crowned, the Lion passant, and the Old English Letter T of a pecu- 
liar form, being like an L, but evidently intended for the former, 
as the same is used at the head of each page in the word " Touch- 
stone." 

The letter is enclosed in a pointed shield. (See Cycle 10.) 

Hence we observe that tables were kept in public view in the 
Assay Office of the stamps of all the gold and silver plate makers ; 
their signs being struck or punched on a strip of hardened lead, 
their names being written at length on parchment columns immedi- 
ately opposite ; and this plan of striking the signs appears to have 



ASSAY 135 

been adopted and continued since 1423. Unfortunately none of 
these tables has been preserved; but one very interesting relic of 
the custom is in existence, namely, a large sheet of copper closely 
stamped with makers' signs only of large and small sizes, but 
nothing is known of the names of the workers who used them. 

The size of this copper plate is twenty-four by eighteen inches, 
and the inscription on a tablet underneath is as follows : 

" On the above PLATE are the MARKS from WORKMEN taken at 
this OFFICE Prior to the Fifteenth of April, A.D. 169;, of which not 
any other Entry is to be found." 

With the permission kindly given by the Master, Wardens, and 
Court of Assistants of the Goldsmiths' Company, we are enabled to 
give, in this work, a copy of this important tablet. It will be remem- 
bered that 1697 was the date of the Act of Parliament ordering the 
new standard of 11 oz. 10 dwts., and altering the marks from the 
lion and leopard's head to a figure of Britanaia and the lion's head 
erased, and that the makers' marks were ordered to be the two first 
letters of their surnames. Before that period the mark or sign of 
the workman was left to his own fancy, using a device or monogram 
of his own choice; and that the sign of every goldsmith should be 
known to the Wardens of the craft, it was struck upon a copper plate 
which hung in the Assay Office. By a comparison of the makers' 
marks to the plate with pieces of silver bearing corresponding 
stamps and the letter denoting the year, we may safely assume that 
it was first used on February 23, 1675, the date of the Goldsmiths' 
Order (see p. 83), and is the identical table therein referred to for 
the plate-workers to strike their marks upon, and continued to be 
used for that purpose until April 15, 1697, when the new standard 
was adopted. 

From April 15, 1697, the stamps were regularly placed against 
the makers' names and date of entry; and these records are fairly 
preserved in volumes, bound in parchment, in the Goldsmiths' Hall, 
London. 

A clause in the Act 17 & 18 Victoria, cap. 96, directs that "Gold 
and Silver Wares may be assayed at any lawful Assay Office, ivher- 
ever manufactured, without being liable to any forfeiture or penalty 
imposed by any previous Act." 



DIRECTIONS FOR ASSAYING. 

Assaying is the only method by which the real value of bullion 
can be ascertained; and about twelve grains of gold and one penny- 
weight of silver in cuttings or scrapings are sufficient for either. 
These must be rolled up in a piece of paper, about six inches long 
and three broad, turning in the corners to prevent the pieces drop- 
ping out, and the owner's name written upon the top. This paper 
must then be carried to an Assay Master, who will make his report 
in some of the underwritten characters, which compared with the 
scale will give the exact value per ounce. 



136 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Assayers' marks are j £ 3 iiij ol. f \ with W^ and B^ 

meaning Worse or Better than Standard. The first stands for i 
ounce, the second 10 dwts., the third 5 dwts., those with the dots 
I dwt. each, ob (^obulus) half-pennyweight, the others for quarters 
as usual. 

Gold assays are reported in karats, three-quarter grains, half 
grains, and quarter grains, and are thus expressed : i kar. i gr. f. 
Thus gold found to be 23 karats 2 grains fine is reported *' Better 
I karat 2 grains"; and gold of 20 karats 2 grains is reported 
" Worse I karat 2 grains." 

Silver assays are reported in ounces, pennyweights, and half- 
pennyweights, and are thus expressed : i oz. ( i:^ ?^ 00 (Ede.) 

The standard for silver means 222 parts or pennyweights of 
fine silver to 18 parts or pennywe^.ghts of copper, weighing together 
240 parts or pennyweights, equal to one pound troy : thus if silver 
has 19 parts of copper to 221 of fine silver, the Assayer reports i dwt. 
worse. If the silver alloy, on the other hand, contains only 17 parts 
of copper to 223 of fine silver, the report says, i dwt. better. 

The more rational way of reporting the quality of silver is in 
millims or thousandth parts of a unit. So, for instance, an alloy of 
9 parts silver to i part copper would be 900 millims, 10%%, and our 
English standard of ||-^- would be equal to 925 millims. 

The assay report for gold is also generally made with refer- 
ence to standard, or ■^, that is 22 parts or karats of gold to 2 parts 
or karats of alloy (silver, copper, or of both), stating the number of 
karats under or above standard as so much worse or better. As, 
however, the goldsmith always turns the report into fine, that is, so 
many karats of pure gold out of the 24, it seems the most rational 
to report in the manner most comprehensible, and to say, for exam- 
ple, instead of 4 karats worse, 18 karats fine. Gold is also reported 
in millims (milliemes), in the same way as silver. 

Parting Assays are reported m ounces of fi.ne gold or silver 
in I pound troy. For example : 

oz dwt. gr. 

Gold . . . 8 s 10) . , , 

SILVER. . . 2 12 op^ ^ pound troy. 

This means, that of 12 oz. which make i pound troy of the 
alloy, 8 oz. 3 dwts. 10 grs. are gold and 2 oz. 12 dwts. silver, the 
remaining i oz. 4 dwts. 14 grs. being base metal. (Lutschaunig.) 

The decimal assay is always noted in the assay report as a mem- 
orandum, but never enters into the calculations of the value. It is 
not used as between the Bank and the public. 

The millieme system of reporting assays in France goes to the 
ten-thousandth part, but experience shows that accuracy cannot 
practically be attained to that nicety. Assays may be relied upon 
to the millieme; but beyond that it is hardly safe, in consequence 
of difference between the different assayers; it is barely possible to 
assay closer than -^^ of the millieme. 



ASSAY. WASTE AND SWEEP. 13/ 

ASSAY BY MEANS OF THE SPECTROSCOPE. 

Before concluding our account of the Assay Offices of the 
United Kingdom, we may here briefly notice the new system of 
assay of the precious metals by means of the spectroscope, recently 
proposed by Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. Experiments have 
been conducted at the Mint to ascertain the practicability of the 
scheme and determine whether it would be possible to adopt it. Mr. 
Roberts, Chemist of the Mint, expresses an opinion that by the aid 
of the spectroscope differences of composition more minute than the 
Toion^h part might be readily distinguished. 

The Deputy Master of the Mint (Mr. C. W. Fremantle), in his 
report for the year 1873, states that he had requested Mr. Roberts 
to render every assistance to Mr. Lockyer in developing a process 
of quantitative spectrum analysis, which might with advantage re- 
place the methods of assay, or at any rate of verification, in use at 
the Mint. Experiments conducted by Mr. I^ockyer and Mr. Roberts 
were continued throughout the early part of the year, and the results 
were communicated m a paper to the Royal Society, who have dir- 
ected their publication in the " Philosophical Transactions." As, 
however, these researches were of the nature of laboratory experi- 
ments merely, it became necessary to conduct a series under condi- 
tions more nearly approaching those which would occur in actual 
practice, and instructions were given that such experiments should 
be conducted in the Mint itself. Instruments have been obtained, 
and arrangements have now been completed for this branch of the 
work. 

WASTE AND SWEEP. 

The siueep is composed of cinders or dust from the forge, the 
sweepings of the workshop, broken crucibles, the dross which ad- 
heres to the ingots of metal after fusion, and of every waste which 
can possibly contain minute particles of gold and silver, which had 
escaped the notice of the workman, or had become dispersed and 
lost m the manipulation of the metals. 

This siveep is washed over a fine hair sieve, and the more per- 
ceptible portions of metal separated and refined ; but the remainder 
15 called by the French Ics regrets, yet contain impalpable particles, 
and IS usually sold to persons who have the necessary utensils and 
appliances, and who, by means of mercury mills, about the size of a 
coffee mill, burning it in the crucible, and by the employment of 
fluxes of saltpetre, etc., are able to extract whatever metal may re- 
main. It is then cupelled to determine the proportions of gold and 
silver eliminated in the process. 

In large establishments the waste and siveep form a consider- 
able item. We may especially notice the coinage operations at the 
London Mint. The large gold coinage which commenced in 1871, 
and was finished in June, 1873, amounted to .-^24,500,000 sterling. 
The value of the metal actually deficient during the operation was 



138 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

^^3,826 7s. lod., or ^^156 3s. /d. per million. The sweep, Vv^eighing 
more than twenty-six tons, was sold for ^^2,4 1 4 los. The loss, there* 
fore, was i^i,4ii 17s. lod., or i^57 12s. 5d. per million. It was con- 
sidered by the authorities at the Mint that if the operation had been 
conducted there, the sum realised would not compensate them for 
the loss of time and labour necessary for the purpose. 



THE TRIAL OF THE PYX AND STANDARD 
TRIAL PLATES. 

The origin of the custom of the Trial of the Pyx is lost in ob- 
iscurity.* The first statutory mention of it is in the Act of the first 
year of the reign of Edward III. The examination was then de- 
creed, as of old time ordained. The pyx (^rrjis) is a box or chest, 
like an iron safe, divided into three compartments, two for silver 
coins and one for gold, secured by three intricate locks, each opened 
by different keys, which are entrusted to distinct officials of differ- 
ent departments. In the lid are three carefully protected apertures, 
through which the coins are dropped, and when full, the fact is noti- 
fied by the Master of the Mint to the Privy Council, and it is then 
examined in the presence of the Lord Chancellort and other high 
functionaries of the State, the Master and Wardens of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, and a jury of freemen goldsmiths selected by 
them. No stated times are appointed, but usually the trial takes 
place every five or six years. 

Each milling of gold or silver, and its subsequent coinage, is 
termed a "journey" or day's work. These journeys formerly were 
supposed to mean the melting of 15 lbs. of gold, or 60 lbs. of silver, 
but now they vary in amount ; and from each batch, whether large 
or small, specimen coins of every denomination that have been made 
from it are deposited in the pyx, marked with the date and value of 
the journey from which they are selected. The oath being admin- 
istered to the Jury by the King's Remembrancer, they are addressed 
by the Lord Chancellor upon the importance of their functions, and 
the officers of the Mint are virtually given into their custody, until 
by finding the correctness of the com submitted to their assay, both 
in weight and fineness, they should deliver their verdict of acquittal, 
and give the officers their quietus. The assay formerly took place 
in a room at the Exchequer, fi.tted up with furnaces, crucibles, tests, 
etc., but now it is done at Goldsmiths' Hall. The actual process is 
as follows : the whole mass of gold and silver coin in the pyx is 

* The first known writ for a Trial of the Pvx dates from the time of 
Edward I, 1281. 

t Several royal and distinguished personages have in former times presided 
at the Trials of the Pyx. In 1611, .James I, attended bv Henrv, Prince of 
Wales ; in 1669, Charles IJ, attended by the Duke of York and Prince Rupert ; 
and four years later, Prince Rupert, himself a scientific chemist, presided. 
From 1717 to 1870 the Lord Chancellor always presided, except in 1787, when 
the Right Honourable William Pitt was the president. 



TRIAL OF THE PYX. i39 

rolled under enormous pressure into two distinct ingots; a piece is 
then cut off the end of each, and rolled into a long and narrow plate, 
about the thickness of a shilling; a number of small pieces are then 
cut off each plate, and after being weighed with the strictest accur- 
acy, are assayed in the usual manner, and the results compared with 
the standard trial pieces brought from the Exchequer, where they 
are always preserved. 

In the Annual Report of the Deputy Master of the Mint (C. W. 
Fremantle, Esq.), he observes : " The Annual Trial of the Pyx was 
held at Goldsmiths' Plall on the 17th July, 1873, when the gold and 
silver coins struck at the Mint during the preceding twelve months 
were subjected to the rigid examination rendered necessary by the 
passing of the Coinage Act of 1870, which, by prescribing the stan- 
dard weight and fineness of each coin, makes it necessary for the 
jury of the Goldsmiths' Company to pronounce their verdict, not 
only upon the correctness of the coins as weighed and assayed in 
bulk, but also upon the weight and fineness of any individual coin 
which they may select for trial. The amount of coinage under ex- 
amination was i^i 1,235,000 of gold coin, and ;^i, 597,000 of silver 
coin; and of the six sovereigns and three half-sovereigns examined, 
five coins were found to be of the exact standard of fineness, 916.6, 
etc., the greatest variation from standard being only jQ^Q^th part. 
The result of the examination as regarded the weight of the gold 
coins and the weight and fineness of the silver coins was equally 
satisfactory." He continues : 

" There are few points connected with the operations of coinage 
of greater importance than the maintenance of accurate standards, 
by reference to which the fineness of coin may be determined and 
the integrity of a metallic currency guaranteed. From the first in- 
troduction of a gold coinage into this country in the reign of Henry 
III, whose coins were 24 karats fine, or pure gold, there have always 
been ' fiducial ' pieces with which the coin could be compared ; and 
the changes which have been from time to time made in the fine- 
ness of the coinage have always been accompanied by the establish- 
ment of standards intended to contain the exact proportion of 
precious metal prescribed by law. Fragments of ancient trial plates 
representing the various changes made, are still preserved in the 
Mint, and have been examined under my directions. 

" Having pointed out in my First Annual Report that the gold 
standard trial plate prepared in 1829, and then in use, was below 
the exact standard of fineness, and further, that it might be well to 
supplement it with a plate of fine gold, the Board of Trade took 
the necessary steps for the preparation of new standard plates both 
of fine gold and silver, and for supplementing them with plates of 
fine metal, and the preparation of them was undertaken at the Mint, 
and verified by the Goldsmiths' Company. The bar of standard 
gold was rolled into a plate and assayed carefully at different parts. 
It weighed 72 ounces. The silver trial plate weighed 104 ounces. 
It should be borne in mind that, as portions of the plate are dis- 
tributed to the provincial Assay Offices in the country, and to the 



140 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Indian and Colonial Mints, both their preparation and verification 
are matters of the highest importance." 

W. C. Roberts, Esq., Chemist of the Mint, in his report for the 
year 1873, has given in a tabular form a statement of the results of 
assays which he had made to ascertain the composition of the an- 
cient trial plates, with some remarks as to their history. The earliest 
gold trial plate of which there is any record was made in 17 Ed- 
ward IV, 1477. Its fineness is 23 karats 3 J grains, and only }j a 
karat alloy, which was principally silver. When gold coins were 
first introduced into England by Henry III, in 1257, they were 24 
karats fine; that is, pure gold. Edward III, in 1345, was the first to 
use the standard of this plate. The next is of 22 karats, issued by 
Henry VIII. A trial plate of 1553 of 23 karats 10^ grains bears the 
following inscription : STAN . OF . XXIII . KARE . X . GRE . DEMI . FYNE 
PRYVE . MARKE ^. It has no date, but the " pry ve marke " (a pome- 
granate) is the same as that borne by the sovereigns and angels 
issued by Mary in this year. There are three of Elizabeth of 22 
karats and 23 karats 3^ grains; one of James I, 1605, of 23 karats 
3^ grains; the first year of the Commonwealth, 1649, 22 karats; 
Charles II, 1660, of 22 karats. Since this date 22 karats has con- 
tinued standard. The other trial plates are of 1688, 1707, 1728 and 
1829, and the new trial plates made in 1873, one of 22 karats, the 
other of pure gold. 

Silver trial pieces of the same dates are preserved, which, with 
two exceptions as " standards for Ireland " much debased, were of 
the present standard, 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. These trial plates are in charge 
of the Warden of the Standards at the Royal Mint. 

Mr. Roberts says : " It is evident that, although the standards 
of fineness were always prescribed by law, the trial plates have 
nevertheless at times been very inaccurate. The imperfections of 
the gold plates are mainly due to sources of error, which had been 
recognised, but which were ignored when the last plates were made ; 
and it is well to explain, therefore, that plates were in former times 
authoritatively pronounced to be ' standard ' simply with reference 
to the results of an inaccurate process of assay. The process now 
consists in submitting an accurately weighed portion of the alloy to 
a rapid method of chemical analysis, whereby impurities are elimin- 
ated, and the precious metal, thus purified, is again weighed; but 
the method is complicated, and the accuracy of the result may be 
affected by the retention of impurities, or by an actual loss of metal 
during the process. The weight of gold as indicated by the balance 
will, in consequence, not represent the amount originally present in 
the alloy, and it is therefore necessary to control the 'standards' 
or check pieces, the composition of which is known. As, however, 
any error in the composition of these checks will be reflected in the 
result of the assay, it is preferable to use pieces of pure metal cor- 
responding in weight to the amount which the alloys to be tested 
are anticipated to contain. Formerly such checks of pure metal 
were not employed, and a small amount of silver, varying from 
ToSoo^^ ^o laoo^h P^^^ of the initial v^eight of the assay piece which 



AMOUNT OF PLATE ASSAYED 



141 



remained in association with the gold was consequently reckoned as 
gold in the assay report. It follows, therefore, that even the more 
recent plates, when accurately assayed, are usually found to be 
sensibly below the exact standards which they were intended to 
represent." 

The amount of gold and silver plate assayed and marked at 
the Assay Offices for seven years ending May 29, 1872 : 



London . 

Chester . 
Exeter . 
Newcastle 



Gold, 392(3 lbs. 2 oz. 8 dwts. 8 grs. 
Silver, (392,528 lbs. 3 oz. 11 dwts. 
Total, 715 lbs. Aveio;lit of silver plate. 
Total, 2800 lbs. weight of silver plate. 
Total, 7266 lbs. weight of silver plate. 



€\)t ©utg. 



A.D. 1 7 19. 6 George L A duty of sixpence per ounce troy 
was imposed on all silver plate which should be imported or made 
in Great Britain. Goldsmiths to keep scales and weights. 

A.D. 1756. 29 George II. Owners of plate to pay a duty of 
5s. annually for 100 ounces; los. for 200 ounces; and so on — to be 
entered at the Office of Excise. 

Plate belonging to the Church, or stock in trade of goldsmiths, 
exempt. 

A.D. 1757. 31 George II, c. 32. The previous Act was re- 
pealed, and in lieu thereof a licence of forty shillings substituted, 
to be taken out by every person trading in, selling, or vending gold 
or silver plate, and the licence to be renewed annually. 

A.D. 1758. 32 George II, c. 14. The licence was increased to 
£^ per annum for every person trading in gold plate of two ounces, 
and silver of thirty ounces and upwards. Persons dealing in gold 
and silver, of less weight than two pennyweights of gold, or in silver 
not exceeding five pennyweights, in one piece of goods, exempted. 

A.D. 1784. 24 George III. An Act was passed imposing an 
additional duty of eight shillings per ounce on gold plate, and six- 
pence per ounce on silver plate. It was also enacted that the war- 
dens or their assay masters should mark the pieces with a new mark, 
viz., the King's head, over and above the several other marks directed 
by law. The expression, " The King's Head," is understood to mean 
the representation of the head of the reigning sovereign. 

After the passing of this Act, which came into operation on 
December i, 1784, a duty stamp of the King's head incuse was used 
for a short period. We find it in conjunction with the letter i of 
1784, and also with the letter k of 1785. There were several pieces 
of plate in the late Dr. and Mrs. Ashford's possession of the latter 
year, k and head incuse^ viz., a cake-basket, pepper-box, and some 
spoons. 

The Duty Act of 1784 (24 Geo. Ill, c. 53) directs that all gold 
and silver plate intended for exportation shall be stamped at the 
Assay Office, when the drawback is allowed, with a punch of the 
figure of Britannia; and to distinguish it from the similar mark 
used for the new standard, it was stamped incuse. It was of short 
duration, for the manufacturers objecting to the number of stamps 
and consequent disfigurement of the plate, that part of the Act re- 



142 



THE DUTY. 



143 



lating to the drawback stamp was repealed in the following- year, 
1785 (25 Geo. Ill, c. 64), and took effect on July 24 of that year; 
so that the incuse Britannia denoting the drawback was only in use 
about seven months. 

Upon the exportation of plate (except gold rings and wares 
under two ounces) a drawback of the whole duty is allowed if the 
plate be new and has never been used, and the same has been 
wrought in the United Kingdom. 

In 1797 the duty on gold was 8s. per ounce, and silver is. 

In 1803 the former Act of 1784, as regards the licence, was re- 
pealed, and new licences appointed. For trading in gold more than 
2 pennyweights and under 2 ounces, and in silver over 5 ounces and 
under 30 ounces, £2 6s. per annum; for 2 ounces and above, and for 
30 ounces and upwards, £^ 15s. per annum. The same year the 
duty was increased on gold to i6s. and silver is. 3d. per ounce. 

In 1 81 5 the duties were raised on manufactured gold to 17s. 
per ounce, and silver is. 6d. per ounce, allowing one-sixth of the 
weight for waste in finishing, called the rebate \ watch-cases being 
exempt by 38 Geo. Ill, c. 24. 

In this year (18 15) the licences for dealing in gold and silver 
were raised to double the amount specified by the Act of 1803, viz., 
;^ii, los. for gold above 2 ounces and silver above 30 ounces, and 
£\ I2S. for the minor trading. 

The deduction from the actual weight of the silver of one-sixth 
was equal to a rebate of 3d. per ounce on unfinished plate, reducing 
the duty tO' is. 3d. instead of is. 6d. per ounce, as an allowance for 
v/aste in finishing. On some articles, such as flat dishes, or waiters, 
the rebate scarcely covered the loss in finishing. On other articles 
the manufacturer realised a small profit, amounting to between a 
penny and twopence per ounce, which ought, perhaps, to be looked 
upon as a sort of discount, as the maker paid the duty long before, 
m many instances, he recouped it again when the article is sold. The 
rebate of one-sixth in gold articles reduced the actual duty paid 
to 14s. 3d. instead of 17s. per ounce, so that on wedding rings, allow- 
ing for waste in finishing, there would, perhaps, be a profit of 2s. 
per ounce. 

Plate in an unfinished state when sent to the Hall to be assayed 
was subject to the full duty of is. 6d. per ounce, no rebate being 
allowed. 

By the 12 and 13 Victoria, c. 80, the allowance to the Hall for 
collection of the duty is fixed at one per cent. 

All gold, so called, whether of 22 and 18 karats fine, or the 
debased gold of 15, 12, or 9 karats in the 24, must pay the full duty, 
and be stamped accordingly. Wedding rings pay duty of whatever 
weight and quality they may be. Gold plate of any weight must 
pay duty. The weight of an article does not determine whether it 
is liable, and only articles specially exempted may be assayed and 
marked duty free. Artxles not weighing 10 dwts. each are only 
exempted when they are too small or too thin to bear the marks. 

In 1890 the duty of is. 6d. per ounce on silver plate was abol- 

II 



144 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



ished, but the duty of 17s. per ounce on gold was retained, and 
marked as before with the stamp of the sovereign's head to denote 
payment thereof. For particulars of the abolition of the duty on 
silver the reader is referred to page 115 ante. 

The fashion for large and heavy masses of plate has entirely 
gone out since the commencement of this century, such as dinner 
services, etc., although the number of plate-workers has not de- 
creased, the articles manufactured being usually of comparatively 
small character. The introduction of electro-plating has had con- 
siderable influence in diminishing the employment of silver in plate. 
Mr. Prideaux, Secretary of the Goldsmiths' Company, in his exam- 
ination before the Committee on the Gold and Silver Hall-Marking, 
in the year 1878, handed in the following return of the duty on 
manufactured plate at Goldsmiths' Hall for seven decennial periods 
from 1808 to i8;8. 

He stated that it proved that the falling-off of the trade was 
greatly attributable to the use of electro-plate, which was introduced 
about 1843 or 1845, and got in full swing about 1848, when it will 
be observed that the duty on silver had decreased from ^^72 1,949 
sterling in 1828 down to ;^487,633 in 1858, still dropping down to 
the present time. 

AMOUNT OF DITTY RECEIVED AT GOLDSMITHS' HALL, LONDON, 
FROM APRIL 1, 1808, TO MARCH 31, 1878. 





1808 

to 

1818 


1818 

to 

1828 


1828 

to 

1838 


1838 
to 

1848 


1848 
to 

1858 


1858 

to 

1868 


1868 
to 

1878 


Gold . . . 

Silver . . . 
Total . . 


£ 

52,229 

656,259 


£ 
51,152 

721,949 


£ 

42,032 

673,380 


£ 

40,308 

674,673 


£ 

45,558 

487,633 


£ 
47,765 

454,073 


£ 

59,223 

428,425 


708,488 


773,101 


715,412 


714,981 


533,191 


501,838 


487,648 



It will be observed that gold has not been in the least affected 
by electro-plating, because the duty which is derived may in point 
of fact be said to be entirely derived from wedding rings, which 
has also been subject to fluctuation. No large works in gold are 
now made, even snuff-boxes have gone out of date, but wedding 
rings increase with the population. 

In the Report of the Committee on the Depreciation of Silver 
in 1876, one witness (Mr. Se3^d), who appeared to be conversant with 
the subject, showed in his evidence that the amount of silver bullion 
used in electro-plating in one year was a million ounces, which was 
only about a hundred thousand ounces less than the entire amount 
used in the manufacture of silver plate. This large amount of silver 
employed in electro-plating paid no duty, raw silver being exempt. 



LICENCES. 145 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATE— DUTY AND DEALERS' LICENCES FROM 1720 TO 1882. 



ENGLAND. 



Duty. 



'29 

I 
'56 

•58 

:'83 

foS 
,'59 



Silver I Gold 
per oz. per oz, 



6d. 



— i i Uuty 



repealed 



Licences. 



SCOTLAND. 



IREiLAND. 



Duty. 



On silv^er only 



5s. for every 100 oz 



78 
^'79 

80 

'81 



^il... 

114 I J 

84 ] 
:— ' [ 6d. 

97 J 

98 ] 
,103 I J 



04 h 

do! I 

■23 
15 

■82 



Is. Gd 



26 
82 



Ms. 6d. 



8s. 



16s. 



17s. 



40s. i)er annum 

I 

[ I £5 above 2 oz. | 
j gold and 30 oz. I 
[ silver, £2 below j 

[£550] 
I and 

I £2 2 J 

f £5 10 1 

\ and ! 

i £2 4 j 

r £5 15 1 

\ and ! 

I £2 6 j 



Date. 

1720 
1757 

1758 
1783 



Silver Gold 
per oz. per oz. 



Licences 



I 6d. 



Dutv 



repealed 



1784 j ] 
1803 J 



6d. 



f £11 10 ] 
\ and [ 

I £4 12 



f £5 15 ] 
\ and \ 

[£2601 



1804 



1816 



1817 
1882 



- Is. 3d 



8s. 



16s. 



1 

Ms.Bd. 
J 



17s. 



On 

silver 
only. 



03 

'bb 



Duty. 



Date. 



173 



1806 



Silver 
per oz. 



6d.per 

gold 

silver 



Gold 
per oz. 



ounce 
and 
alike 



Licences. 



1785 
1804 



1805 
1806 
18071 
1842 j 
1807 
1811 
1812 
1841 
1842 
1880 
1843 
1882 I 



Is. per 

sold 

silver 



ounce 

and 

alike 



Is. 



17s, 



20s. per ann. 



40s. per ann. 



1 King's head 
\ first used 
J 1807. 

i£5 on cities 
£2 other 
places. 

£5 5s. Dub- 
lin; £2 2s. 
J other i^laces. 

) £5 15s. and 
1- £2 6s. as in 
J England, 



Note. — In 1890 the duty on silver was abolished in the United Kingdom. 



146 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 






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ENACTMENTS AND NOTICES. 14; 



ENACTMENTS. 

13 George III, c. 52; 24 George III, c 20. Makers of plated 
goods in Sheffield must not put letters on them unless they have first 
been approved by and registered with the Company. 

6 & 7 William IV, c. 69. Makers of plated goods in Scotland 
must not put letters upon them. 

NOTICES TO THE TRADE. 

The following Notices to the Trade have been issued from the 
Assay Office, Goldsmiths' Hall, signed by Mr. William Robinson, 
the Deputy Warden : 

London, October 11, 1880. 

" Sir, — I beg to refer you to the following extract from a letter 
received from the Secretary of the Board of Inland Revenue, in 
reference to the payment of duty on plain gold rings : 'As regards 
plain gold rings, not intended for chasing or engraving, the Board 
adhere to their determination, that they must be regarded as wed- 
ding rings and duty paid accordingly.' " 

"Assay Office, Goldsmiths' Hall, 

'' December y 1881. 

"All plain gold rings, irrespective of weight, not intended to 
be set with stones, or to be chased or engraved, will be regarded as 
wedding rings for the purposes of duty. — By order of the Board of 
Inland Revenue." 

"Assay Office, Goldsmiths' Hall, 

''August, 1882. 

"Referring to the Notice issued from this Office in December, 
1881, notice is hereby further given that all plain gold rings, irre- 
spective of weight, not intended to be set with stones, or to be chased 
or engraved, will be regarded as wedding rings for the purposes of 
duty, and must be sent to Goldsmiths' Hall to be assayed and 
marJzed before sale. — By order of the Board of Inland Revenue. 

"Wm. Robinson, Deputy V/arden" 

We may likewise mention that the duty is no longer levied on 
mourning rings when sent to be assayed and marked. It was dis- 
continued to be charged in October, 1878, by an order from the 
Board of Inland Revenue. So that now all rings (other than plain 
gold rings irrespective of weight) are exempted from duty and com- 
pulsory Hall-marking. 



148 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 
OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

Appointed to inquire into the manner of conducting the several 

Assay Offices in London, York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, 

Norwich, and Isl ewcastle-upon-Tyne, ordered to be 

priiited in 1773. 

The Report commences, that " in order to discover in what man- 
ner the several Assay Offices in London, Chester, Exeter, and New- 
castle-upon-Tyne (bemg the only Assay Offices which they find are 
now kept up in this kingdom) have been conducted, ordered the 
Assay Masters to attend them, and produce an account of the num- 
ber of Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, and Plate-Workers, etc. — the names 
and places of abode of those now living that have entered their 
marks, also an account of the weight of all the gold and silver plate 
r.ssayed and marked at each office for seven years last past." 

From this it appears that the offices at York, Bristol and Nor- 
wich were not then in operation. 

As to the Goldsmiths' Hall, London, Mr. David Hennell, De- 
puty Warden, stated that there are at the said office two weighers, 
four drawers, and two assayers ; and described what their duties 
were. Mr. Fendall Rushworth, Senior Assay Master; Mr. George 
Fair, Clerk to the Company; and Mr. Richard Collins, Fireman and 
Drawer, were also examined as to the annual diet tried on May 28, 
the modes of assay, etc. 

Mr. W. Hancock, a silversmith of Sheffield, said that his work 
had been injured by scraping; and he went to the Hall, and gave 
some drink to the Assay Master and scraper, since which time his 
plate had been less damaged. Mr. Spilsbury said that drawers or 
scrapers, if inclined, had opportunities of delivering to the assayer 
better silver than they scrape from the work; that the assayer had 
an opportunity of wrapping in lead what scrapings he pleased, to 
put upon the cupels which he delivered to the fireman ; and as the 
standard mark is put upon the silver by the report of the assayer 
alone, he had opportunities of favouring any silversmith he 
pleased ; that he had several times treated the workmen with drink ; 
and thought it of consequence to be on good terms with the scrapers, 
as they had the power of showing favour; for when his plate had 
been objected to, he had known those difficulties removed by giving 
liquor at the Hall. 

As to the office at Chester, Mr. John Scasebrick, the Assay Mas- 
ter, described the mode of operating : if pieces came from which he 
could cut bits, he did so; if not, he scraped off sufficient for the assay 
and wrapped it in lead, and when the furnace and cupels were hot 
enough he refined the assay, but no fiux was used, because the lead 
refined it. If it came out 1 1 ounces 2 dwts. fine silver, it was marked 
with the lion, the leopards head, the city arms (being three lions and 
a wheatsheaf), and the letter for the year, the letter for the present 
official year (1772-3) being U. Sometimes it is passed at 11 oz., but 



COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 149 

then the owners are written to to be more cautious for the future. 
He had no fixed salary — his profit never amounted tO' £10 in any 
one year ; the diet was never sent to the Tower to be assayed. When 
asked how he knew when silver was sufficiently assayed, he an- 
swered : *' We know by the assay : it first has a cap over it, then that 
works off in various colours; and after that it grows quite bright, 
and then we know all the lead is worked away." 

Mr. Matthew Skinner, Assay Master at Exeter, described the 
mode of work. When asked to describe his method of assaying 
silver, he said : " I take a small quantity of silver from each piece 
(the quantity allowed by Act of Parliament is eight grains from 
every pound troy weight), which I weigh by the assay pound weight ; 
I wrap it up in a thin sheet of lead, and when the furnace is properly 
heated, the assays are put in and fired off; they are taken out when 
cool, and then weighed, and from the waste we ascertain the good- 
ness. That the standard for plate is 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. of fi.ne silver, 
and 18 dwts. of alloy, but they allow a remedy of 2 dwts. in the 
pound. That the marks he strikes upon wrought plate are the lion, 
the leopard's head, the Exeter mark (which is a castle), and the letter 
for the year; that the letter for the present official year (1772-3) is Z, 
m Roman character; that the letter is appointed annually, at the first 
Hall meeting after the 7th August, and goes through the whole 
alphabet; and that A will be the letter for next year." 

Mr. Matthew Prior, Assay Master of the Goldsmiths' Company 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, described his mode of assaying : " That 
of silver by fine lead ; and his flux for gold was aquafortis, fine 
silver and lead. That he puts four marks upon the plate, viz., the 
lion, the leopard's head, the three castles, and the letter for the year ; 
and that the letter for the present official year (1772-3) is D." 

Mr. David Hennell described a fraud which was sometimes 
attempted by dishonest workers, oalled a convoy, to deceive the as- 
say er. He said: "K scrapings or cuttings are taken from: different 
pieces of the same sorts of plate, the whole mass so cut or scraped 
may prove standard, but several of these pieces may not be stan- 
dard; and that it is common to put good pieces in spoons, etc., to 
the amount of 10, 12, or 15 dwts. above standard amongst the bad 
ones, as a kind of convoy for the rest ; but if that is suspected, they 
separate it, and make different assays of all the parts, and if they 
find one part worse than standard they break the whole." 

Another fraud spoken of by several witnesses was inserting 
iron, brass, etc., in the handles of snuffers, tankards, sauce-boats, etc., 
which had escaped detection at Goldsmiths' Hall, and had been 
marked accordingly. 

An appendix to this report contains the names and places of 
abode of all the goldsmiths, silversmiths, and plate-workers then 
living, that have entered their marks in the Assay Office in Gold- 
smiths' Hall, in the City of London, March 8, 1773. 

The names and trades of the then present wardens and assayers 
of the Goldsmiths' Company, and when, at what times, and by whom 
they were respectively elected. 



150 Hx^LL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The oath taken by the Assayer at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

The Appendix also contains an account of the prosecutions 
which had been commenced and carried on by the Company of 
Goldsmiths of the City of London, against any person or persons 
for frauds or abuses, m gold or silver plate, within seven years then 
last past : 

"In 1767 William C, working silversmith, was prosecuted by 
indictment upon Stat. 28 Edw. I, and Stat. 6 George I, c. 11, for sol- 
dering bits of standard silver to tea-tongs and shoe-buckles which 
were worse than standard, and sending the same to the said Com- 
pany's Assay Office, in order fraudulently to obtain their marks to 
the same. 

" In 1768 William K., of London, working silversmith, was pros- 
ecuted by indictment upon the said statutes for making two salt 
cellars worse than standard, and selling them for standard. 

"In 1770 James M. E. and partners were severally prosecuted 
by actions on Stat. 12 George II for making gold chains worse than 
standard; and Roger S. and others were prosecuted for selling 
gold watch-chains worse than standard. 

"In 1778 John G. and William V., watchmakers, were prose- 
cuted for selling two silver watch-cases without being marked, and 
which on that account were stopped at the Custom House in Lon- 
don, on their being found in a cask of hardware, in which action 
they suffered judgment to go by default." 



PLATE MARKED WITH FALSE PUNCHES AND 
OTHER OFFENCES 

A consideration of this subject by the Government is of the 
highest importance, and the perpetrators of forged Hall-marks 
should be sought for with diligence and visited with condign pun- 
ishment. Not only is it an evasion of payment of the duty and a 
deception towards the public, but it throws suspicion upon plate 
bearing the genuine stamps, and public confidence is destroyed. 

At the present day the sale of antique plate with forged Hall- 
marks is carried on to a great extent, especially in England, where, 
in consequence of the publication of tables of date-marks, its 
precise age may be ascertained, and the value of old plate having 
thereby increased enormously, forgers are busy counterfeiting the 
ancient marks not only in England but on the Continent. In many 
cases unprincipled dealers are cognisant of the fact, and assist in 
spreading the falsifications throughout the country It is incum- 
bent upon the authorities to use their best endeavours to put a stop 
to such practices, and seize all spurious plate wherever it may be 
found, and the dealer (who is bound to know from whom he pur- 
chases plate) be made amenable and subject to penalties as in 
France. 

We subjoin some of the cases of fraud which have been adjudi- 
cated upon. 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC. 151 

In the records of the Goldsmiths' Company is an entry, dated 
May 4, 1 597 : " The Attorney-General filed an information against 
John Moore and Robert Thomas, 'That whereas it had been hereto- 
fore of long time provided by divers laws and statutes for the avoid- 
ing deceit and fraud m the making of plate, that every goldsmith 
should, before the sale of any plate by him, made, bring the same to 
Goldsmiths' Hall for trial by assay, to be touched or marked and 
allowed by the wardens of the said Company of Goldsmiths; the 
which wardens by their indenture, m their search, find out the afore- 
said deceitful workmanship and counterfeit, also of plate and 
puncheons; yet the said I. M. and R. T., being lately made free of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, did about three months past make divers 
parcels of counterfeit plate, debased and worse than Her Majesty's 
standard twelve pence and more in the ounce, and to give appear- 
ance to the said counterfeit plate being good and lawful, did thereto 
put and counterfeit the marks of Her Majesty s lion, the leopard's 
heady limited by statute, and the alphabetical 7nark approved by or- 
dinance amongst themselves, which are the private marks of the 
Goldsmiths' Hall, and be and remain in the custody of the said war- 
dens, and puncheons to be worked and imprinted thereon, and the 
said J. M. did afterwards sell the same for good and sufficient plate, 
to the defrauding of Her Majesty's subjects,'" etc. They were con- 
victed, and sentenced to stand in the pillory at Westminster, with 
their ears nailed thereto, and with papers above their heads stating 
their offence to be *' For making false plate and counterfeiting Her 
Majesty's touch." They were then put in the pillory at Cheapside, 
had one ear cut off, and were taken through Foster Lane to Fleet 
Prison, and had to pay a fine of ten marks.* Although this is the 
first mention of Her Majesty' s lion, or lion passant, and the alpha- 
betical mark, yet they were both used long before this date. The 
lion passant is first found on plate of the year 1545, and the alpha- 
betical mark was doubtless used since the first Charter was granted 
to the Goldsmiths' Company in 1327, and is alluded to in an ordin- 
ance of 1336 as the '' assay ers mark!* 

A case under the Statute of 7 & 8 Victoria, c. 22 (1844), w^as 
tried before Lord Denman at the Taunton Assizes in 1849. Two 
silversmiths were indicted for having in their possession a silver 
spoon having thereon a mark of a die used by the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, which had been transposed from a silver skewer; and also a 
similar charge in respect to a silver soup ladle. The prosecution 
was instituted by the Goldsmiths' Company of London. The spoon 
and ladle were of modern make, but bore the mark of the year 1774. 
An officer of the Goldsmiths' Company proved that on clearing off 
the gilding and using a blow-pipe, he found that the spoon and 
ladle were not made in one piece, which would be the ordinary mode 

* This was the usual punishment for similar offences. In Belgium it was 
slightly varied ; the goldsmith convicted of having fabricated base gold or silver 
was led to the market place, and there had his ear nailed to a pillar, Avhere he 
remained thus fixed, until he released himself by leaving a j)iece of his ear be- 
hind him. 



152 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

of manufacture, but that the parts bearing the marks were "in- 
serted" or "brought on." A working silversmith proved that by 
direction of the prisoners he had made and sent to them two silver 
bowls for spoons; that they were afterwards returned to him with 
handles attached to be gilt, and when he burnished them he per- 
ceived the old Hall-marks; that the bowls and stems or handles 
were generally made together. The defence was that the facts 
proved did not amount to a transposition, but were an addition, and 
as such were not a felony, but came under the fifth section of the 
Act, which imposed a pecuniary penalty for the offence. 

It was suggested that the spoon and ladle were made by using 
old silver skewers, with the old Llall-mark, for the stems, and add- 
ing to them bowls and figures at the top called " apostles," in order 
to give them the appearance of old plate, and that this was an addi- 
tion. It was admitted by the prisoners' counsel to be a fraud in 
contravention of the Act, but not a felony under the second section. 
The jury found that it was not a trans -position but an addition, and 
the prisoners were discharged. The judge remarked however: "It 
appears to me very much to be questioned, at least, whether the de- 
scription of transposition in the one section is not precisely the same 
as the description of addition in the other section." 

1876. D. L. G., a dealer carrying on business in London, was 
convicted at the Central Crim'nal Court m August, 1876, of feloni- 
ously altering and transferring a certain mark of a die used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company under the following circumstances. A cus- 
tomer found displayed m the prisoner's shop a coffee-pot. Hall- 
marked and bearing the fetter m of the year 1747, there being ap- 
pended to it a label with the words " 120 years old." This he pur- 
chased for £\o. He also purchased a small silver ewer bearing the 
Goldsmiths' letter for 1744. 

It being discovered that these articles were of recent manufac- 
ture, the Goldsmiths' Company issued a writ against the prisoner to 
recover penalties under sect. 3 of the Act 7 & 8 Victoria (1844); in 
regard tO' which, under another section, a dealer could, however, be 
protected if within twenty-one days he gave up the name of the per- 
son from whom he bought the article. He at first stated that he 
had bought it in the way of trade, and did not know from whom, 
but he afterwards gave the name of a working electro-plater, who 
was thereupon arrested, and on the prisoner's evidence, being com- 
mitted for trial, pleaded guilty. Judgment was postponed, and his 
evidence taken against the principal offender, from which it ap- 
peared that he had transferred to the coffee-pot and ewer certain 
old marks from pieces of silver brought to him by the prisoner for 
that purpose, the prisoner agreeing to purchase those articles if the 
witness would put the old marks upon them. The offenders were 
thereupon sentenced, the dealer to six months' and the electro-plater 
to two months' imprisonment, in both cases with hard labour. 

A few hints may be acceptable to the collector in his investiga- 
tion of antique plate. 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC. 153 

By the electrotype process, an ancient vase, cup, or any piece 
of plate, may be moulded with the greatest exactness, showmg the 
minutest chasing and engraving and even the hammer-marks of the 
original, as well as the Hall-mark itself. These reproductions are 
difficult of detection to the uninitiated, but an expert will at a glance 
discover the spurious copy, although the means by which he arrives 
at such a conclusion are not so easily explained. An experienced 
numismatist will, by the feel as well as the sight, distinguish 
between a true and false coin ; so a perceptible difference will be 
observed between a genuine piece of old chased silver and its 
modern prototype. There is about the latter a greasy, unsatisfac- 
tory appearance, which a practised hand and eye will at once detect. 
Of course in these electrotype copies the reverse would show the 
crystals formed in the process ; but these are inside the cup or vase, 
and if in sight are tooled over to prevent detection. 

Sometimes English Hall-marks are cut from a spoon or small 
article and transferred to a large and more important piece of plate, 
such as a cup or vase, perhaps of old German manufacture. This 
might be detected by an assay, to ascertain if the quality correspond 
with the English standard, foreign plate being usually inferior, 
which could be done with little trouble and at a trifling cost at an 
Assay Office, by scraping a few grains from the piece. On close 
examination with a magnifier, the transposed fragment containing 
the Hall-mark may be traced by the line round the edge, which is 
generally inserted with solder; or, if highly polished, the junction 
may be observed by applying the fumes of sulphur, or by the blow- 
Pipe- 

In examining pieces with supposed counterfeit or forged Hall- 
marks several indicia must be specially considered. We must first 
try and divine the motive of falsification; whether it be to pass off 
inferior or base metal as standard, or whether the object be to de- 
ceive by making the piece appear of a more ancient date than it 
really is, by placing the counterfeit of the old die upon good silv^er 
and taking advantage of the increased value between antique and 
modern plate. In the first case we easily arrive at a safe conclusion 
by an assay ; in the second we mu.st to a great extent be guided by 
the style and fashion of the vessel, and judge whether they corres- 
pond with the date assigned to it by the stamps, which, if copied 
accurately from trie English Plall-marks, can be easily ascertained. 
Again, the methods of manufacturing plate, ancient and modern, 
are essentially different, as indicated by the presence of hammer- 
marks, etc. The style of ornamentation in repousse, engraving and 
chasing differs materially ; the colour and tint of old gilding is also 
difficult to imitate. Moreover, we must not be misled or taken off 
our guard by abrasions, marks of wear and tear, or rough usage, as 
these are easily counterfeited. 

Another method of detecting spurious plate is by a close ob- 
servation of the position of the Hall-marks on the piece of plate 
under examination. The stamping of plate at the Assay Offices is 
not done at random, but is subject to official orders and regulations, 



154 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

and rules are issued instructing the stamping clerk on which par- 
ticular part of each piece the punch is to be applied. This estab- 
lished practice dates from an early period, and was so constant that 
any deviation will, to a connoisseur, raise in his mind doubts of the 
genuineness of the piece under inspection. From habit, any person 
accustomed to examine ancient Hall-marks knows exactly the posi- 
tion in which they ought to be placed, and an inexperienced person 
will do well to compare a doubtful piece with an undoubted speci- 
men, and form his judgment accordingly. 

Spoons are sometimes found metamorphosed into ''Pasties'' by 
the addition of a modern statuette of a saint cut from a German 
spoon. 

In Holland and in Germany spoons are still made in the style 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and recently large quanti- 
ties have come into the English market ; but by the Hall-marks they 
are easily recognised, and if not equal to English standard are now 
prohibited for sale unless previously stamped at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

In genuine apostle spoons, the statuette is frequently affixed to 
the end of the stem by means of solder, but in a particular manner, 
e.g., the end of the stem is filed downwards to a point like the let- 
ter V, and the pedestal of the hgure is wedge-shaped to ht closely 
into the opening and fastened with solder. Modern additions are 
cut straight off and soldered on, usually in a very clumsy and un- 
satisfactory manner. 

We may here remark that the old-fashioned French pattern 
spoons which have been superseded by the modern fiddle-head, in- 
stead of being consigned to the crucible, are purchased by silver- 
smiths at the melting price, the bowls being chased with fruit and 
gilt, and form very elegant spoons for dessert; but of course the 
chasing is modern, and not of the date indicated by the Hall-mark. 
The large old-fashioned plain tea-kettles, teapots and milk-jugs of 
the last one hundred and fifty years are in like manner elaborately 
chased or engraved by modern artists. 

Deception is practised m many other ways. For instance, an 
antique silver bas-relief with its Hall-mark is soldered into the 
centre of a salver, the border being modern and very heavy, the 
former weighing perhaps no more than five or six ounces, and worth 
40s. to 50s. per oz., the latter twenty or thirty ounces, made at a cost 
of about 8s. per oz. The new Hall-mark is erased, leaving only the 
old one visible, and the purchaser is deceived, thinking the whole 
salver is antique. 

In old times the Beef-eaters (as they are termed) of the Tower, 
when in their pride of office, with the old Stuart costume, wore on 
their left arm a large silver badge or cognisance, having the arms of 
the ordnance (three mounted cannons) in a handsome scroll border, 
measuring about ten inches by eight, of oval form. From motives 
of economy the late administration ordered these emblems to be 
sold for their intrinsic value. The purchaser having about twenty 
of these silver medallions conceived the idea, in preference to melt- 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC. 155 

ing them down into ingots, of converting them into articles of gen- 
eral use; so by adding silver branches with nozzles for candles on 
the lower parts of the badges, transmogrified them into very hand- 
some sconces to hang upon the walls; the old Hall-marks upon the 
medallions proving incontestably to an unwary purchaser the an- 
tiquity of these cleverly adapted articles. 

The duty mark of the sovereign's head, denoting payment of 
the impost, was first used in 1784. This additional stamp at once 
proclaims the comparatively recent date of a piece of plate. To 
remedy this, the intrusive stamp is frequently erased, leaving only 
four marks, as previously used, instead of fivCy which, if it does not 
convince every collector, at any rate puzzles him, and in many in- 
stances the deception is successful. 

Even the experienced collector may occasionally be deceived, 
and it requires somewhat more than a hasty glance to arrive at a 
satisfactory conclusion on the merits or demerits of a piece of plate, 
e.g., an isolated spoon, with cleverly imitated Hall-marks, might 
pass muster, but when a whole set is produced suspicion is naturally 
aroused, and a more scrutinising investigation with the magnifying 
glass becomes necessary. We shall perchance discover that the three 
or four Hall-marks exactly correspond on each spoon, and all are 
precisely in the same relative position or distance from each other, 
the same angle of inclination of each punch, in fact, the exact 
counterpart in the minutest particular. Now a little reasoning on 
this coincidence will prove that such a close resemblance of one set 
of stamps to another amounts to an impossibility on genuine spoons, 
when we consider the method of stamping at the Hall, the marks 
being punched with several punches at different times, the maker 
placing his registered stamp upon the article before he sends it to 
be assayed, and after the assay is completed the Hall-marks are 
placed by its side. 

Transformations are common, and old-fashioned articles of 
plate "are frequently beaten out, added to, or ornamented in such a 
manner as to render them serviceable and attractive, still retaining 
the ancient Hall-mark, although it appears in a wrong position on 
the piece. Old saucepans of Queen Anne's time having become un- 
saleable, are converted into tankards and mugs ; dishes originally 
plain are turned into chased waiters or baskets ; old decanter stands 
(now out of date) are, by trilling additions, turned into soy 
frames, etc. 

These transformations have been dealt with to a certain extent 
by 7 & 8 Victoria, cap. 22, sect. 5. Manufacturers are allowed by 
this Act to add to any piece of silver a quantity not exceeding one- 
third of the whole, which additional piece may be sent to the Gold- 
smi'.ths' Hall and stamped, but these additions must be made in such 
a manner as not to alter the original use for which it was intended ; 
thus, a piece may have a foot, handle, spout, or stand affixed; an 
old tankard may have a lip attached for pouring out liquids, but 



156 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

it must not have a spout added so as to serve as a coffee-pot. In 
fact, no piece whatever may be diverted from its original use by 
any addition or alteration. Pieces of Hall-marked plate which have 
been added to beyond the limit of one-third proportion to the weight 
of the article are subject to a duty upon the whole, and must be 
stamped accordingly. The old Hall-marks, in this case, are not 
obliterated, but a new series of Hall-marks are placed under the 
original marks ; hence the occurrence of these two sets of Hall-marks 
reveals the alterations and additions made by the manufacturer. 

The Hall-marks were formerly placed on plate by rule and not 
by chance, according to the form of the piece. Before the year 1700 
the marks were placed upon cups and bowls outside, on the margin, 
near the mouth. On tankards they will be found on the margin 
to the right of the handle, and if a flat lid, straight across in a line 
with the purchase-knob or sometimes upon the flange; dishes and 
salvers, upon the faces. At and after Queen Anne's period, these 
rules were altered, and instead of being so conspicuously situated, 
the marks were placed on the backs, and upon cups and bowls were 
stamped underneath or inside the hollow stem of the foot, and in- 
side the lids of the tankards. Any variation from these rules will 
naturally give rise to suspicion, and a careful examination will be 
necessary to ascertain whether the piece of plate has been altered 
from its original shape as before mentioned. 

In early spoons the leopards' head, crowned, was placed inside 
the bowl close to the stem, the maker's mark, date letter, and lion 
on the back of the stem; but on rat-tail spoons of the latter half of 
the seventeenth century all the four marks were placed on the back 
of the stems. The books of the Goldsmiths' Company of London 
having perished in the great fire of 1666. the orders for the applica- 
tion of stamps in their relative positions on articles of plate are 
unknown, but there was evidently a regular system adopted, as in 
France. The application of the punches in that country was en- 
trusted to the comptrollers of the bureaux, and in this operation to 
ensure uniformity a catalogue was published previous to the pro- 
hibition of massive plate in 1679, and again, in 18 19, giving instruc- 
tions for placing the stamps in the exact positions indicated on each 
piece of plate. A new catalogue was issued in 1838. 

A case of considerable importance came under the immediate 
notice of the late Mr. Chaffers. This case was afterwards tried before 
the Court of Queen's Bench and the Court of i\ppeal. In the years 
1872 and 1873 a silversmith sold to a collector a large service of 
Queen Anne plate, consisting of spoons, forks, knives, etc., of all 
sizes, suitable for dinner and dessert, numbering upwards of six 
hundred pieces. Half the articles had on the ends of each of the 
stems a bust of Queen Anne, the other half a bust of her husband, 
Prince George of Denmark. The very magnitude of this service 
naturally caused a suspicion of its genuineness, and on close inspec- 
tion it was discovered that all the stamps were forgeries. 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC. 157 

The service consisted of the following : 

326 table, dessert, and tea spoons. 

17 gravy spoons, fish slices, ladles, and butter knives. 
180 silver-handled knives and forks. 
120 gilt dessert knives, forks, and spoons. 

643 

It may be desirable to give a more minute description of these 
particular articles as a caution to future collectors, especially as 
many most imposing pieces of plate of the time of William and 
Mary and Anne have come under our notice bearing, in some cases, 
identical marks, and being evidently from the same source; and 
although of different periods, bearing- makers' initials which were 
never entered at Goldsmiths' Hall, or if imitated, were not in exist- 
ence at the date falsely indicated. 

Those pieces with the bust of Queen Anne bear four Hall-marks 
all cast in the same mould as the stem itself. These were: (i) 
Britannia; (2) lion's head erased; ^3) date letter H, of the year 1703 ; 
and (4) the maker's initials, PE, crowned. The pieces with the bust 
of Prince George of Denmark have three marks cast, but on several 
the fourth, indicating the date, is struck with a false punch of the 
Court hand R, of 171 2-3. The maker's initials are // m italics, no 
such letters being entered in the book at Goldsmiths' Hall of that 
date. Other pieces of an equally suspicious character, bear the same 
struck letter R, of 17 12, the other three being cast, and the maker's 
initials, H. B., not found at the Hall of that date. 

We may also add that on an assay being made, the quality of 
the silver was far below the Britannia or New Standard. The fraud 
having been brought to the notice of the House of Commons, ap- 
plication was made to the Goldsmiths' Hall for information, and 
their clerk, Mr. Walter Prideaux, reported on June 22, 1880, as 
follows : 

"In the years 1872 and 1873 a silversmith in London, in an 
extensive way of business, sold a large quantity of silver plate to 
a customer. Last autumn a gentleman who is well acquainted with 
plate-marks saw this plate, and informed the owner that it was 
spurious. 

" Hereupon the Goldsmiths' Company were communicated with. 
Their officers were sent to examine the plate, and over six hundred 
pieces were found to bear counterfeit marks. 

" Application was then made tO' the seller, and he was informed 
that the Goldsmiths' Company would sue for the penalties, unless 
he could relieve himself under the statute by making known the 
person, and the place of abode of the person, from whom he received 
it. After having seen the invoices he admitted the sale, and, after 
some time, during which he had the plate examined by several per- 
sons in the trade, gave the name and residence of a person who, he 
said, supplied him with all the articles in question. This person is 
a working silversmith in a small way of business. 



158 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

" The Goldsmiths' Company thereupon applied to the last-men- 
tioned person, who examined some of the plate in a cursory way, 
and after some time, replied through his solicitor that he was not 
prepared to admit that he sold the plate, or that he had ever had 
the plate in his possession ; but that if the wares in question had been 
sold by him, they must be some of certain wares which in 1872 he 
either bought or received in exchange from a person whose name he 
mentioned, who is dead. 

"The solicitor of the first person applied to was then asked by 
letter whether he was prepared by production of his books, or m 
some other manner, to substantiate his statement. 

" Whereupon he produced invoices which covered about six hun- 
dred pieces of plate answering the descriptions of the plate which 
ib the subject of inquiry, and cheques to order for payments made 
for it, all of which cheques appear to have passed through a bank, 
and are duly endorsed. 

" The circumstances bore a very suspicious appearance, but the 
Goldsmiths' Company were advised that the evidence was not such 
as would be deemed sufficient in a court of law, and that they would 
not be doing right to continue the proceedings against the person 
who apparently had cleared himself under the provisions of the Act 
of Parliament 

"They thereupon commenced proceedings against the person 
from whom he asserts that he bought the plate in question, and these 
proceedings are now pending. 

" The defendant has raised a point of law under the Statute of 
Limitations, which is set down for argument on demurrer. 

" The articles in question purport to be of the time of Queen 
Anne, before the duty was imposed, and therefore do not bear the 
duty mark." 

This case came before the Court oi Queen's Bench on November 
12, 1880; Robinson, a deputy warden of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
being the plaintiff, and Currey the defendant. 

This action was brought by the plaintiff to recover penalties 
amounting in the aggregate to ^^6,430, from the defendant, a silver- 
smith, of Great Sutton Street, Clerkenwell for having sold 643 
articles of silver bearing a spurious mark, the penalty, for each 
offence being ;^io. The defendant pleaded — first, that he had 
bought the articles from a well-known dealer in Islington, and had 
resold them in ignorance that the marks were forged; and secondly, 
that the plaintiffs could not maintain the action, as it had not been 
brought within the period specified by law — 7 & 8 Vict., c. 22, to 
amend the laws then in force on the marking of gold and silver 
wares in England. The offence was clearly proved, but a point of 
law was raised as the cause of action did not arise within two years 
before the action was brought. On November 17, the Court, con- 
sisting of Justice Field and Justice Manisty, gave judgment for the 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC 159 

defendant on the ground that the action had not been brought within 
two }'ears of the time of the offence.* 

The Goldsmiths' Company, however, were not satisfied with this 
decision, and appealed. The case came before the Court of Appeal, 
consisting of the Lords Justice Bramwell, Baggallay, and Lush, on 
April 2, 1881. Mr. A. Wills, O.C, and Mr. Webster, Q.C., and Mr. 
Coxon were Counsel for the Goldsmiths' Company ; Sir John Holker, 
O.C, Mr. Crump, and Mr. Jones, represented the defendant (the then 
respondent). 

The Court of Appeal reversed the judgment of the Divisional 
Court, as they were unanimously of opinion that the statutes did 
not apply in this case, as the plaintiffs were neither " common in- 
formers" nor "aggrieved persons," who could only bring actions 
respectively within one and two years. The Company were not 
restricted as to the periods in which they could bring actions for 
penalties against persons infringing the law. The judgment of the 
Court below was, therefore, reversed, with the costs of the demurrer 
and also of the appeal. t 

The following paragraph in the "City Press" of December 23, 
1 88 1, announces the termination of the action by a verdict for the 
plaintiff and full amount of penalties, amounting to ;^6,430 : 

" The proceedings by the Goldsmiths' Company for the recovery 
of 643 penalties of £10 each in respect of the sale by a well-known 
dealer in Oxford Street of a large quantity of spurious Queen Anne 
plate have been terminated by the defendant abandoning his de- 
fence. Judgment has been signed by the Goldsmiths' Company for 
the whole of the penalties in question. We understand, however, 
that the amount of the penalties may probably be reduced by the 
Company." 

The Criminal Law Consolidation Act of 7 & 8 Victoria, which 
we have quoted (page 103), " for preventing frauds and abuses in the 
marking of gold and silver wares or possessing such without lawful 
excuse," imposes a penalty of ;^io for each article. This compara- 
tively trifling penalty (which formerly was death, or at least trans- 
portation for a lengthened term), when a number of forged articles 
are detected, increases proportionately, £s we have seen, to a large 
amount; but with larger and more massive pieces of plate, each of 
which would weigh fifty to a hundred ounces, requiring only one 
Llall-mark, if that be forged, the penalty of ;^io is cheerfully paid, 
and the forger, for this trivial compounding of felony gets off scot 
free. Hence whether a piece weighs half an ounce at the cost of a 
few shillings, or a hundred ounces at the cost of as many pounds, 
the penalty is the same. At the present moment we know of several 
most imposing silver vases of the time of Queen Anne bearing 
forged Hall-marks, for which great prices have been paid. If a 

* Law Reports, Q. B. D., Vol. VI, page 21 
t Law Reports, Q. B. D., Vol. VIT, page 465. 

12 



i6o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

limit were put to the weight, corresponding to the penalty, the law 
might prove effective. As it is now, a premium is held out for 
placing the forged marks on large and important pieces of plate. 

Before the introduction of milling the edges of coins, in the 
reie^n of Oueen Elizabeth, the dishonest were accustomed to clip 
small pieces carefully from the edges, which bemg struck, were not 
always in a true circle when they were issued from the Mint. 
Although the weight was diminished, the fraud was not easily de- 
tected. This system of peculation was, it was thought, put a stop to 
by the milled edges being placed upon the coins in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. But although baffled by this invention, the in- 
genious thieves discovered another system of fraud, professionally 
called '' sweating^ They placed a large number of sovereigns loose 
in a coarse linen bag; this being violently shaken, rubbed off por- 
tions of gold which adhered to the sides of the bag, which was then 
burnt in an iron vessel, and the particles collected together. The 
coins after this operation had the appearance of being worn by cir- 
culation, until about thirty years ago the whole coinage was called 
into the Mint and allowed for by weight instead of being taken as 
currency. The public, upon whom the loss fell to a great extent, 
became more careful, and rejected the gold unless of full weight, 
and sovereign scales came into general use. This habit of weighing 
sovereigns was in time discontinued, and people judged from the 
appearance of the coin only. A more wholesome system of disin- 
tegration was then conceived, viz., filing off the edges of the gold 
coin and afterwards milling them afresh, the size and weight being 
thus considerably reduced, but the fresh appearance of the surface 
preserved. At the Liverpool Sessions in 1879, a man was sentenced 
to twelve months' imprisonment for " sweating " sovereigns and re- 
ducing them in size by one twenty-fourth. The Recorder said hun- 
dreds of sovereigns, which had a new milling substituted for the 
genuine one, had in a short time found their way into the bank. The 
case had been waiting the judgment of a Court of Criminal Appeal, 
which, by a majority of the judges, was against the prisoner. 

A somewhat curious case was tried at the Assizes held at Man- 
chester, on May i, 1905, before Mr. Justice Bray; when Joseph Adel- 
man pleaded guilty to an indictment under the Gold and Silver 
Wares Act, 1844, charging him with transposing the Hall-marks 
stamped upon nineteen rough strips of gold by the Goldsmiths' 
Company of Chester to the corresponding number of half-hoop rings 
and with uttering the same. 

The prisoner, who was a working jeweller in Manchester, had 
been accustomed to send rough strips of 18 carat gold to the Gold- 
smiths' Company of Chester to be assayed and stamped. The Hall- 
mark was impressed at the end of each of these strips, and the pris- 
oner had cut off those portions of the strips, and welded each of 
them on to a finished half-hoop ring. These rings were not all of 
the same standard. One was above the standard, four of the full 



FALSE PUNCHES, ETC. i6i 

1 8 carat standard, five within half a gram of the standard, seven 
over 17 carats, and two of 16 and 15 carats respectively. 

The reason given for the offence was that an urgent order for 
half-hoop rings had come to the prisoner when he had none in stock 
which had been assayed and Hall-marked, and that it would have 
taken too long to complete the rings m stock and have them assayed. 

The judge said he would believe that there had been no actual 
fraud in the case, but that he must pass such a sentence as would 
serve as a deterrent, and he therefore sentenced the prisoner to one 
month's imprisonment, without hard labour, and to pay twenty 
guineas towards the cost of the prosecution. 



I 



I 



TABLE OF MARKS. 



Table of Marks used in 1Q20 dt ihe Assay Offices in Enghutd, Scotland, and Ireland 



Assay Town. 


Descrii)tion. 


1. 

Quality. 


2. 

Standard. 


3, 

Assay Town. 


4. 

Date. 


5. 

Make: 

Initia; 




Cokl 22 karat. 


22 


Crown 


Leopard's head 


Letter 










without a, crown 








» 1« „ 


18 


Crown 


Leopard's head 


Letter 


Jniticil 


London. 


M !•') ,. 


15.625 


Nil 


Leopard's liead 


Letter 


iiiitiiill 


Established 


1'^ 


12.5 


Nil 


Leopard's head 


Letter 


Triitiat 


14th Ceutiirv. 


I* » 


J>.o75 


Nil 


Leopard's liead 


Letter 


Initial 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Lion passant 


Ijeopard's liead 


Letter 


Initial 




„ N.S. 


Nil 


Britannia 


Lion's head erased 


Letter 


Initial 




Gold 22 Ivarat. 


22 


Crown 


Anchor 


Letter- 


Tniti,, 




„ 1« 


IS 


Crown 


Anchor 


Letter 


Initial 1 


BiRMTNGIIA.NJ. 

Established 1773. 




1.5.625 
12.5 
l).:i75 


Nil 

Nil 
Nil 


Anchor 
Anchor 
Anchor 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initial | 

Initial 

Initial 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Lion ijassant 


Anchor 


Letter 


Initial 




„ N.S. 


Nil 


Britannia 


Anchor 


Letter 


Initial 




Ciold 22 karat. 


oo 


Crown 


Sword and ?* sheaves 


Letter 


Triitiiil 




,. 1« „ 


18 


Crown 


Sword and '.\ sheaves 


lietter 


Initial- 


Chester. 


,. I'> » 


1.5.(525 


Nil 


Sword and 3 sheaves 


Letter 


Initial- 


Re-established 


12 


12.5 


Nil 


Sword and ?» sheaves 


Letter 


Initial- 


1701. 


5> ,. 


l».:i75 


Nil 


Swoid and 3 sheaves 


Letter 


lnitial< 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Lion passant 


Sword and '.\ sheaves 


Letter 


Initiah' 




,. N.S. 


Nil 


Britanuici 


Sword and 3 sheaves 


Letter 


Initials 1 

1 


Shkitfiki-o. 


Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Lion passant 


Crown 


Letter 


Initials 1 


Established 1773. 


„ N.S. 


Nil 


Britannia 


(.!rown 


Letter 


initials! 




Gold 22 karat. 


O'J 


Thistle 


Castle 


Letter 


Initia U 






18 


Thistle 


Castle 


Letter 


Initials 




1 \ 


15 


Nil 


Castle 


Letter 


Initials 


EoiNlilRGII. 

Establisiied 14r)7. 


„ 12 „ 


12 


Nil 
Nil 


Castle 
Castle 


Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initiids 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Thistle 


Castle 


Letter 


Initials 




„ N.S. 


Britannia 


Thistle 


Castle 


Letter 


Initials 

• f 




Gold 22 kai-at. 


Of) 


liion rampant 


Tree, fish, and bell 


Letter 


Initials 


/-< 


,. IH 


18 


Lion rampant 


Tree, fish, and bell 


Letter 


Initials 


Of iVSCOW ."^ 
Established 1810. 


„ 1 2 „ 


15 
12 


Nil 
Nil 


Tree, fish, and bell 
Tree, fish, and bell 


lietter 
liCtter 


Tiufials 
Initials 




'•> 


t) 


Nil 


Tree, fish, and l)ell 


TiCtter 


Initrals 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Lion rampant 


Tree, fish, and bell 


Letter- 


hutials 




,. N.S. 


i>ritanni«- 


liion rampant 


Tree, fish, and bell 


Letter 


Initials 




1 

' C;tdd 22 karat. 


')•) 


Harp crowned 


Tlibernia 


liCtter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Dcr.i.iN. 


„ -f V 


20 


Pliniie feathers 


Ilil»ernia 


Letter 


Established U;3K. 


» ■»« .» 


18 


Unicorn's head 


Hibernia 


lietter 


No Now StftTidanl 
silver tnarked here. 


12 


15.625 
12.5 


Nil 
Nil 


Ililternia. 
lTil)ernia 


liCtter 
Letter 


liMtials 
Initials 
Initials 
1 nitials 




«.) „ 


ll.?»75 


Nil 


ITi hernia. 


Letter 




Silver O.S. 


Nil 


Harp crowned 


Hibernia 


Letter 


* 'I'lio fllHs<'fivv Ass 


TV ()ffic<' lias used 


llic Hiistlr as an additi 


»iif)1 optional mark s 


incc 1914. on ailvor and gold o 


f ciylitccn ! 


Tid twenty 



tw,! karats. 



Table of Marks used in 1 701-2 at the Assay Offices in England^ Scotland, and Ireland. 



! 

Assay Town j Description. 


1. 

Quality. 


2. 
Standard. 


3. 

Assay Town. 


4. 

Date. 


5. 

Maker. 


London. 

Established 

1 Ittli Century. 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 




Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


Leopard's head crowned 

Leopard's head crowned 

Lion's head erased 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 

~ 

Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 

Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


ExKTEK. ! Cold 22 karat 
Re-established ; Silver O.S. 
1701. „ N.S. 


Leopard's head 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Lion passant 

liion passant 

Britainiia 


Castle 
Castle 
Castle 


! Chi-.ster. 
Ke-established 
; 1701, 

i 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 


Leopard's head 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


3 demi lions and wheatsheaf 
ditto 
ditto 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Ni;\\ ( Asii.K. 
established 1702. 

YoKK. 

Re-esta!dislied 
1701. 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 

Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 


Leopard's head 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 

T^eopard's head 

Leo])ard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Lion passant 

Lioti passajit 

Britannia 

Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


3 castles 
3 castles 
3 castles 

it lions 

5 lions 

T) lions on a cross 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 

Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 

Initials 
luittals 
Initials 

Initials 
Initials 
Initials 

Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


NoKwicn. 

Re-established 

1701. 

i 

Kdinburgh. 

iUe-established 

1031. 

(- 

Dublin. 

lie-established 
1G3S. 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 


Leopard's head 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Ijion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


Castle and lion 
Castle and lion 
Castle and lion 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 


Assay mark 

Assay mark 

Britannia 


(Thistle in 1759) 


Castle 
Castle 
Castle 


Ijetter 
Letter 
Letter 


Gold 22 karat 
Silver O.S. 


... 


Harp crowned 
Harp crowned 


{Hibcrnia in 1730) 


Ijetter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 



i66 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



STANDARDS. 



There are six legal standards for gold and two for silver, as 
follows : 









Gold. 


22 karats 


= 91; 


millims. 


20 „ 




=.834 


„ (Dublin only). 


18 „ 




-750 


>) 


15 » 




= 625 


» 


12 „ 




= 500 


>» 


9 >. 




- 375 


Silver. 


II 


oz 


2 dwts. = 925 millims. 



II oz. 10 dwts. = 959 „ 

For gold of the old standard of 22 karats, and sterling 
silver of 11 oz. 2 dwts., the mark was a lion passant. Previous to 
1845 there was no distinctive .mark between standard gold and ster- 
ling silver. But in that year, for gold, the lion was omitted, and 
the quality in karats and a crown substituted. 

For gold of 18 karats, a crown and the figures 18, instead of 
the lion passant (38 Geo. Ill, 1798). 

For gold of 22 karats (or the old standard), a crown and the 
figures 22, instead of the lion passant (7 & 8 Vict., 1844). 

For gold manufactures of the reduced standard (17 & iS 
Vict., 1854), the leopard's head and date letter and the numerals. 

15 karats 
12 „ 

9 » 



15 and .625 on separate stamps. 
12 and .5 
9 and .375 



The numerals on these punches are to express, decimally, the 
quantity of pure gold in the article so marked, thus : pure gold being 
24 karats. 

15 karats i^ = f = 625 parts or millims in 1,000. 

9 >» 2? " « — 375 w j> 

For silver of the new standard of i i oz. 10 dwts. the 
marks are a figure of Britannia and the lion's head erased, instead 
of the lion passant and leopard's head (8 Will. Ill, 1697). 



(0ttglautr. 



By far the most important of the English Hall-marks are those 
impressed in London. Probably out of every hundred pieces of 
silver plate in this country, ninety-nine were assayed at Goldsmiths' 
Hall. These marks are therefore first considered. 

The marks on English silver stamped in London have never 
been more than five, and are reduced to four, although an additional 
mark is now placed on foreign silver assayed in England. 

If we consider these marks in the order in which they were 
adopted, we find them in the following sequence: 

The Leopard's Head. I The Lion's Head erased, and 

The Maker's Mark. j Britannia. 

The Annual Letter. i The Sovereign's Head. 

The Lion Passant. ! The Mark for Foreign Silver. 

L— THE LEOPARD'S HEAD. 

Taking first the London mark of the leopard's head, which was 
the earliest assay mark impressed on vessels of gold and silver, we 
give the forms of this stamp for the last six centuries. 

This mark used to be called sometimes the " Liberdes Hede," 
sometimes the " Liberd Heed," and sometimes the "Catte's Face.' 
The stamp itself was known as the " punson," and it was most zeal- 
ously guarded. 

It is mentioned in the statute of 1300 as "une te/te de leopart"; 
and in the charter granted in 1327 to the Goldsmiths' Company, the 
puncheon of the leopard's head was then said to have been of an- 
cient use. At all events, it is always found on assayed silver, from 
the middle of the fifteenth century. 

The form of the head has changed at various times. At first 
the leopard's or lion's head crowned within a circle was used, and 
this form continued in use until early in the sixteenth century. 




i68 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



In 1 5 19 the leopard's head appears with a different crown, and 
within a shaped outhne. 




From that time until the end of the seventeenth century, the 
crowned leopard's head was placed within a line following- the shape 
of the head and crown. The appearance of the lion at this time is 
noble, and he appears as the crowned king of beasts. 




In 1678 the head was once again and for the last time placed in 
a circle. 




In 1697 the Britannia standard was introduced, and the lion's 
head erased was used instead of the leopard's head. 




^li 
*' 



The form of this stamp has never been altered, and is still used 
in the same shaped outline, for the higher standard, at the present 
time. 

The old standard was revived in 1720, and the leopard's head 
crowned was again used, but the shields at this tune were of very 
uncertain shape. 




In 1739 the shield was altered to a shape similar to that of the 
date letter. 




THE LEOPARD'S HEAD. 



169 



After 1763 the head was made smaller and plaeed in a plain 
shield. 




In 1822 the leopard's head was deprived of its crown, and de- 
nuded of its mane and beard —a great change from the bold front 
presented in the old punches ; and it has ever since looked more like 
a half-starved cat than a lion. 




Indeed, from the earliest times until 1896, this mark has been 
constantly changed, and each change has been for the worse. 

The leopard's head of the last cycle, adopted in 1896, however, 
certainly is a great improvement, though the shield may not meet 
with universal approbation. 




The form of the leopard's head and shield is at the present 
time : 




II.--THE MAKER'S MARK. 

This mark was first made compulsory in 1363, although it was 
no doubt used before that time. Ihe early workers almost invari- 
ably employed a symbol or emblem, such as an animal, fish, crown, 
star, or rose. It was ordered to be " a mark of the goldsmith known 
by the surveyor." In 1379, "Every goldsmith shall have his own 
proper mark upon the work." In 1433, "The mark or sign of the 
worker." This mark was frequently a single letter, and frequently 
two letters for the Christian or surname of the maker. In 1675, the 
Goldsmiths' order enjoins that "the plate workers shall bring their 
marks to Goldsmiths' Hall, and there strike the same in a table kept 
in the Assay Office, and likewise enter their names and places of 



i;o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

habitation in a book tliere kept for that purpose, whereby the per- 
sons and their marks may be known unto tlie wardens of the said 
company." 

In accordance with the Act of 1697-8 the maker used the first 
two letters of his surname in lieu of his initials. This enactment 
compelled a great number of makers to obtain new punches; but in 
1/20, when this Act was repealed, many makers returned to their 
former marks. The matter was settled once and for all by the 
statute of 1739, which directed the makers to destroy their existing 
punches, and substitute the initials of their Christian and surnames, 
of entirely different types from those before used. 

Sometimes a small mark, such as a cross, star, etc., is found near 
the maker's mark; it is that of the workman, for the purpose of 
tracing the work to the actual maker thereof; in large manufactories 
some such check is indispensable. 

IIL— DATE MARK. 

A letter of the alphabet. This was the assaycr's mark, and was 
introduced in 1478, and since that time a date letter has been regu- 
larly used, at the London Assay Office. The various alphabets, each 
composed of twenty letters, have constantly succeeded each other, 
different characters having been used at different times. The letters 
used are from A to U or V inclusive ; the letters J, W, X, Y, and Z, 
were, however, always omitted. 

At first the letter was enclosed in a shaped outline following its 
form, but since 1560 the letter has been enclosed in an heraldic 
shield, the design of which has constantly varied. 

Each Assay Office has its peculiar alphabetical mark, indicating 
the year in which the plate was assayed and stamped ; and, there- 
fore, plate that was stamped in any other place than London had to 
be, when entered for drawback, accompanied by a certificate of the 
date from the office in which it was assayed and stamped. 

In London, previous to the Restoration, the annual letter was 
changed on St. Dunstan's Day (May 19), w^hen the new wardens were 
elected. Since 1660 the assay year commences on May 30, and the 
new wardens were appointed on the same day in each and every year. 

The debased standards of the coinage of the previous twenty 
or thirty years were raised by Queen Elizabeth to their former purity, 
and in February, 1 560-1 all the base money was called in by pro- 
clamation. The minutes of the Goldsmiths* Company record that 
on June 18, 1561, "the first dyett of the new standard w^as tried" — 
that IS, the trial of the quality of gold and silver of the new stan- 
dard of the year ending in June, 1561. The restoration of what 
should be more properly styled the old sterling standard by the 
Queen, was commemorated by an alteration in the style of the date 
letters, or rather, their enclosures. This change is notified in a 
minute of the Goldsmiths' Company, dated June 16, 1560, and is 
indicated by the use of a regular shield instead of an escutcheon 
taking the form of a letter. 



THE STANDARD MARK. i;i 

Cycles 14 and 16 being both in small Roman letters, and in sim- 
ilar shields, it is at first sight difficult to distinguish the dates of 
1776-95 from those of 1816-35. The following remadvs will assist 
us in doing so. The former alphabet up to i of 1784-5 is not accom- 
panied by the duty mark of the King's head, there being only four 
marks. After that date down to the g of 1822-3 there will be no 
difficulty, as there is an additional mark; but from 1824 down to 1835 
there would be nothing but the King's head (the portrait of Geo. Ill 
being changed for Geo. IV) to depend upon, except that in that very 
year, 1823, the crown was taken from the leopard's head, and it re- 
mains uncovered to the present day. 

It will be noticed that in the various alphabets the sovereign's 
name appears at different times ; the explanation being that the date 
of the commencement of the reign may be before or after the date 
of the change of the annual assay letter. 



IV.— THE STANDARD MARK. 

The standard mark of the lion passant has been used on all 
standard gold and sterling silver, from 1545 until the present time, 
except from 1696 to 1720. The fi.rst mention of the lion passant is 
in the records of the Goldsmiths' Company in May, 1597, where it 
is called " Her Majesty's Eion." It is not referred to in any statute 
until 1675. The earliest piece we have met with bearing the mark 
of the lion passant is the silver gilt rose water dish and ewer, bear- 
ing the London Hall-marks for 1545-6, now at Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. The lion passant may, however, have been used 
in one of the intervening years between 1540 and 1545, but no pieces 
have come under our immediate notice. 

The following representations of the lion passant are of those 
used by the Goldsmiths' Company, the provincial marks vary 
slightly from those employed in London. 

The lion was always represented as passant guardant, and 
during the first few years was life-like, crowned, and enclosed m a 
shaped outline. The lion used at the present time is not guardant. 

The form of the crowned lion from 1545 until 1548 was : 




In 1548 the lion appears uncrowned in a rectangle, and so con^ 
tinued for ten years : 




T72 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



In 1558 the lion is enclosed ni an irregularly shaped outline, 
and so appears until 1678 : 




In 1678 the lion was placed in an arched outline, which was used 
until 1697 : 




The standard of silver was raised, and the mark of the lion 
passant was changed to that of " the figure of a woman commonly 
called Britannia," on March 25, 1697. 




This form of stamp is still used at the present time for the 
higher standard. 

In 1720 the old standard was again allowed and the lion pas- 
sant was again used. Between 1720 and 1739 the lion was placed 



in a rectangle : 




From 1739 until 1756 the shaped outline was again used 




The marks at this period are somewhat uncertain in form. 
From 1756 until 1896 the lion was placed in a regular shield : 




DUTY MARK 



173 



In 1896 a new form of shield was introduced, having three lobes 
above and the same number below, which was used until 1916: 




On the introduction of the new cycle of date letters ni 1916, the 
lion ceased to be guardant, and was placed in an oblong outline, 



having three lobes below : 




THE LION'S HEAD ERASED, AND FIGURE OF 

BRITANNIA. 

When the standard for silver was raised in 1697, it was enacted 
that in lieu of the leopard's head and lion passant, the assay marks 
should be the figure of a lion's head erased, and the figure of a 
woman commonly called Britannia. This higher standard with 
these marks continued to be compulsory until 1720; when the old 
standard was again allowe-l, with the old marks. The higher stan- 
dard is still perfectly legal, and when used is denoted by the lion's 
head erased, and figure of Britannia. These are illustrated above. 



v.— DUTY !^IARK. 

The head in profile of the reigning sovereign. This mark was 
introduced in 1784. (24 George III.) It indicated the payment of 
the duty, and was impressed at the Assay Offices on every manufac- 
tured article of standard gold and silver that was liable to the duty 
after payment to the officers of the Goldsmiths' Company who were 
the appointed receivers. 

After the passing of the Duty Act, which took effect on St. Dun- 
stan's Day (May 19), 1784, the duty stamp of the King's head incuse 
was used for a short period. We find it m conjunction with the 
letter i of 1784, and also with the letter k of 1785. 

The head of George III is in an ellipse and is turned to the 
right : 




1/4 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The reign of King George III ended January 23, 1820. 
George the Fourth's is also turned to the right for the silver 
mark, though he is turned to the left on his coins : 




January 29. 1820, to June 26, 1831. 

The next sovereign, William the Fourth, was turned to the right 
in a similar manner : 




June 2C. 1830, to June 20, 1837. 
The head of Oueen Victoria was turned to the left 




June 20, 1837, to 1890. 

Both the crown and duty mark of the sovereign's head were 
omitted on the three lower standards, and although they paid the 
same duty as the higher standards, there was no indication of it on 
the stamps. 

The duty on silver was abolished in 1890, and the sovereign's 
head consequently omitted. 



VI.— THE MARK FOR FOREIGN PLATE. 
The Letter F. 

In 1876 it was enacted by 39 & 40 Victoria, cap. 35, that all 
gold and silver plate imported from foreign parts, which should be 
sent to an assay office in the United Kingdom to be assayed and 
stamped, should be marked in addition to the marks used at such 
assa\- office, with the mark of the letter F in an oval escutcheon. 



MARK FOR FOREIGN PLATE. 



i;5 



Under the Order in Council of 1904 the London office mark for 
gold plate was : 

(Phoebus.) 



And for silver 





Under the Order in Council of 1906 the London office mark for 
foreign plate for gold is : 

(Sign of Constellation Leo.) 



And for silver 





13 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



LONDON ASSAY OFFKl^ LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 

I^OMBAHDIO 





EDWARD IV., RICH, III. & HENRY VII. 

1478-!) 
U79-S() 

uso-i 

14Sl-'.> 

Edward \'. 

LLS:i-4 

Richard III. 

14S4-5 
14X5-0 

Henry N'll. 

1480-7 

14S7-S 
14SS-!) 
14S{)-1U) 

1490-1 
1491-2 

L19.Vi 
1494-") 
14!)r,-0 
149(;-7 . 

14!)7-S 



m 






CYCLE 2. 

Buck Ijttih S.mai.i.. 



HENRY VII. & VIII. 



i 
f 




Thiuk Mauks. 

1. I.copanl's Head, crownofl 

2. Dhtf Lrtror. [ in 1477. 
[,| a. Mnkcr's -Mark. 

w N*) lioji passant. 

M Xo r< JLTiilar shield. 







m 
I 



1498-5) 

1499-00 

L')00-1 

L")()l-'2 

150'2-:i 

L")(M-4 

L304-r) 

L50r)-0 

L"')0(;-7 

1507-8 

L'')()8-9 

Henry Vm, 

L')09-10 
L^lO-l 

1511 -'J 

15LJ-.--{ 
151:^-4 
1514-5 

15L")-0 

1510-7 

1517-8 



CVC'LK 3. 

l,OMiJ\ni)i( Cu'i r\i s. 

HliNRY Vlll. 







o 

W 

1^, 




Thkii. Mabks. 
1. T/< f>l):ii(l'3 Htad, crowiK d. 
■2. I):it«' l.ctt.r. 
a. .Makers .Mark. 

Nd lion ])assaiit. 

No rt'i/ular sliii'ld. 




^1^ 











1518-9 
1519-'J0 

15'20-1 

LV.>1-'.^ 

1522-:3 

LVJ;i-4 

1524-5 

i525-(; 



152( 



)" » 



1527-8 

1528-9 
1529-.30 

15:K)-1 

1531-2 
15:r2-:^ 

15.Ti-4 

l5;U-5 

15.'^5-(J 

15:^(i-7 

1537-8 



CYCLE 4. 

UOMW" (AriTAI.S. 

HHNRY VIII. MARY. 



® 

6 



TuuKi; Makks. 
1. T.ropard's Head, crowned. 
•2. J)nt.' Letter. 
3. -Maker's .Mark. 

-No lion passant. 

No escutclieons. 






1 

1^ 



m 











1538-9 

1 539-40 

1540-1 

1541-2 

1542-3 

1543-4 

1544-5 

1545-0 

1540-7 

Edward VI. 

1547-8 
1548-9 

1549-50 

1550-1 

1551-2 

1552-3 

1553-4 

Mary. 

1554-5 

*1 555-0 
1550-7 
1557-8 



P'OIK Mahks. 

1. Leopard's Head. crown(>d. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Mark, faljo'it, ^'>^^). 

4. Tlie lion passant lirst used 

Xo escutclieons. 



* This letter being aecuuipajiied liy tlie lion jassaiit on jdate may he (li):tiii','\iii<liexl Horn tlie S of l;)3o. wlien there were only three marks. 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 




ForR ,Makk.s. 

1. T-oopard'g Hond. <r. 

2. liion jiassaiit. 

3. Dfttf ].<tt<T. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

Tho date It'ttcr first put 
a sliicld. 



Font MAitKs. Font .Makks. 

1 T.copard's Head, <t. 1. Leopard's Head. or. 

2. Lion passaiiT. -*• l'H>n jtassaiit. 

3. Date Letter. -i- •>">'■ l'<'tter. 

4. Mr.ker's Mark. -*• Mnker's Mark. 

Tlie letter in a reg-ular The l<'tter put in a shield 



shield. 



FOI'K ^L\l(KS. 

1. [.eopard's Head, cr. 

2. Lion j)assant. 
:{. Date lictter. 

4. ^Maker's ]\lark. 

Letter ill a shield, as 
uliove. 



Fouit Makk.s. 

1. Leopard's Head, er. 

2. l-ion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. ^laker's Mark. 

[,etter in a s'lield. as 
iiJiove. 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 10. 

1{|.UK I>KTTK.H C'AIMTAIS. 

COMMONWEALTH & CHAS. II. 



CYCLE 11. 

HlACK I.KTTF.ll S\m,I, 



CYCLE 12. 

CouHT Hand. 




T^ouR :\Iarks. 

1. Loopard's Head, cr. 

2. Lion passniit. 

3. Dato Lpttor. 

4. >Iakor'8 Mark. 



Four Marks. 

1. Leopard's Head. or. 

2. Lifin passant. 

3. D:)t(> LctttT. 

4. :\rakor's Mark. 

The leopard's lipad was 
large up to 1690; in 
aft(-r years it was 
smaller. 



Four Marks. 
1. Britannia. 
-. Lion's head erased. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

The two first letters 
ot tile maker's surname. 



FoxH Makks. 

1. Leopard's Head, or. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. ^faker's ^fark. 

The old standard re- 
vived in 1720, !)nt botl. 
the old and new were 
allowed simultaneously 

The leopard's head 
smaller after 1721 than 
before. 



^-^^i:£i;^!^^]^.^,^ 



Four Marks. 
L Leopard's Head, cr. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. :\faker's Mark. 

Alter 173!) tlie initials 
of maker's Christian 
and surname. 



line following,' the design : aft( 
oblong with a few 



.^i^n: after that time the leopard's lu^d w^s 'pa Jc^T ;Vm;^effi:<;7 shield 
e.xeept.ons; from and after 17.50 both punehes had regular l.Sieshield> ' 



also seen quite perfect. 
gulf!,r shields, the border 
!ind the lion in a distinct 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 15. 

Bl ACK LVTTK.R CAPITALS. 

GEORGE II. & III. 










D 







m 




m 



1T5T-S 

iTr)S-{) 

I7r)f)-(i() 

1T()()-] 

George III. 

lT()l-2 

lT(>-{-4 
lT()i-5 
lT()5--(] 
1T()G-T 

lTGT-8 
17G8-9 

17G9-70 
1770-1 
1771-2 
1772-:^ 

177:^-4 
1774-5 

177.j-(; 



FoTB Mapk.s. 

1. I.popard's Head, or. 

2. Lion j)asKant. 
:i. Date l^.'ttcr. 

I. Maker's Mark. 



CYC L 10 16. 

IJoMAX Small. 



GEORGE III. 



ai ! i"0-; 



lb) 
© 

m 
I 

m 
® 



SI 



177T-S 
177S-1) 
1779-80 
1780-1 

1781-2 
1782-::i 
178;^-4 

*l784-5 
1785-G 
1T8G-T 

1787-8 
1T88-9 
1789-90 
1790-1 

1791-2 
17!)2-;5 
179:^4 

1794-5 
1795-(; 



1. r.popard's Hoad. or. 

2. liioii passant, 
a. Date l-ettor. 

4. Makor's Mark. 
."). Kiiiy:'8 Head. 

Aftor 17Rt tho duty 
murk of the Kini^'s lioacj. 



CYCLK 17. 

Roman Capitals. 



GEORGE III. 








m 
m 
m 

(51 
I 

E 
E 

S 
T 






U 



1T9G-7 

179T-8 

1T98-9 



D ^ 



'99-00 



1800-1 
1801-2 
1802-;^ 
180;i-4 
1804-5 
1805-G 
1800-7 

1807- 8 
1 808-9 

1809-1( 

1810-1 
1811-2 

1812-a 
181:^-4 
1814-5 

1815-G 



FiVK .Makks. 

1. I.«<opard's Hoad <r 

2. I^ion passant. 
;f. Dato I.ottor. 

4. Makers Mark. 
."». Kinj^'s ifoad. 

.Mtrr irttS <,M)ld of IS 
oar. was marked ^vitli a 
crown and 18. 



CYCLE 18. 

]{OMAN Small. 



GEO. III., GEO. IV. & WILL. IV, 



(e) 



ij 

i 

1 

1 
m 



181G-7 

1817-8 
1818-9 
1819-20 

George IV. 

1820-1 

1821-2 

1822-:^ 
182:3-4 

1824-5 
1825-G 
182G-7 

1827-8 
1 828-9 
1829-;30 

1830-1 

William IV. 

18:U-2 
18)52-:^ 

183:3-4 
18:U-5 
18:i5-(; 



FivK Mauks. 

1. Leopard's Head. 

2. Ijion passant. 
:i. Dato Letter. 

4. Maker's :yiark. 

5. Kinf^'s Head. 

After 1823 the leo- 
pard's liead ivitlioiit a 
crotrn. 



m 

m 







CYCLE 19. 

Black Llttkr Capitu.s. 
WILL. IV. & VICT\ 



183G-7 

1837-S 

Victoria. 

1838-9 
1839-4(1 

1840-1 
1841-2 
1842-:^ 

184:3-4 
1844-5 
1845-0 

184G-7 



ply ' 1847-8 




1 
1 




SJ 
"Si 



1848-9 

1849-50 

1850-1 

1851-2 
1852-3 

1853-4 
1854-5 

1855-G 



FiVK :\lAI(KS. 

L Leopard's Head. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. ^laker's Mark. 

5. Queen's TTead from 

1838. 

Aftpr 1845 the Rold 
standard whs marked 
with 22 and a crown 



• Bv the Dutj' Aot of Maroli. 17S4, tlio payment of duty was drnoted by a stamp of the King-'s head, which at first was iiiru^ir :h- 
wmpanied liv the dato letter i, and was oonti'nuod in 1785-6 with the letter k; for the drawback of duty on exportation, a stamp <>r 
Britannia initise was adr)pted. but it was dibooiitinued in the following- year; the King's head was subsequently in relief. 



com 
B 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CVCLK 20. 

lii \i K Lkt'h.i! Smai.i,. 



i 

IE 

SI 



VICTORIA. 

185(L7 

I 
! 

i 1857-8 

I I808-9 

I 1859-60 

I 18G0~1 

1861-2 

1862-3 

1863-4 

! 1864-5 

I 1865-6 

I 1866-7 

1867-8 

1868-9 

1869-70 

1870-1 

1871-2 

1872-3 

1873-4 

1874-5 

1875-6 . 



rivK Mahks. 

1. I.onpard's Fond. 

2. Lion passant tor silver. 
:i. Dutt! Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 
■">. QiK-en's Head. 

For gold a crown and 22 or 18, 
ae<-ordin''- to standard. 








B 

i 

E 

■ ■IP* 

5 

B 

I 



CYC\A<] 21. 

KOMAN CaIMTAIS. 

VICTORIA. 



1876-7 

1877-8 

1878-9 

1879-80 

1880-1 

1881-2 

1 882-3 

1883-4 

1884-5 

1885-6 

1886-7 

1887-8 

1888-9 

1889-90 

1890-1 

1891-2 

1892-3 

1893-4 

1894-5 

1895-6 



Fivi; :\Ukks. 

1. Leo])ard's Head. 

2. liion ])assa,nt. 
:{ I)!it(> Letter. 

.4. Maker's :\lark. 
."). Quien's Head. 

Duty abolislied oh silver, ISOO. 
and (Jikm'm's bead omitted. 





CYC LI] 2 2. 

Ko.ma.v Smail 
VICT . EDVV. VII & QfcO. V. 



m 



IS 

3 

e 
f 









(n) 

q 
I 

-^ ■' 

u 




1896-7 

1897-8 

1898-9 

1899-00 

1900-1 

1901-2 

Edward VII. 

1902-3 
1903-4 
1904-5 
1905-6 
1906-7 
1907-8 
1908-9 
1909-10 

Oeorgfe V, 

1910-1 
1911-2 
1912-3 
1913-4 
1914-5 
1915-6 



Four ^1 Arks. 
1. l.eoj.'ard's Head. 
'A Jjion passant. 
:{. Date Letter. 
4. .Maker's Mark. 



® 

la 



IB 



CYCJLK 2 3. 

r.i \i k Lcttkr Small. 
(IKORGE V. 



1916-7 

1917-8 

1918-9 

1919-20 

1920-1 



Four 31arks. 
L Leojjard's Head. 
•i, Jiion passant. 
:{. Date Letter. 
4. Maker's Mark. 



Noii:. — Lars'o and small sized punelies are used +0 suit the plate to l>e stamped; so that from 17.'>(i to tiie present day. the 
larjre stam])s liear the letter in a shicdd as here indieated the smaller on(>s have the letter in a square escutcheon, 
tiu> base slightly convc.v but not pointed, and the upper corners cut off. 



CIjrottDlDgical list of (C>ugl{sl} ^latc. 

The following list of English plate contains examples of almost 
all the date letters used by the Goldsmiths' Company of London, 
between the year 1481 and the end of the eigliteenth century. The 
list is founded on that compiled by the late Mr. William Chaffers 
when cataloguing- the " Special Exhibition of Works of Art on 
Loan," at the South Kensington Museum in 1862, which included a 
magnificent collection of plate. Whenever a number appears after 
the date letter it refers to the Catalogue of the I^oan Exhibition. 

Other examples of date letters are taken, by the kind permis- 
sion of the authors, from the four privately printed books on " The 
Communion Plate of the Churches in the City of London," "The 
Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County of London," 
" The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County of 
Middlesex," and " The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in 
the County of Essex," by Edwin Freshheld, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., and 
"The Church Plate of the County of Northampton," by C. A. Mark- 
ham, F.S.A., and " The Illustrated Catalogue of the Loan Collec- 
tion of Plate Exhibited in the Fitzwilliam ]\Iuseum, May, 1895," by 
permission of the publishers, Messrs Deighton Bell and Co., and 
Messrs. Bowes and Bowes. 

In many cases no doubt the vessels here mentioned are not in 
the same possession as when these notes were made. 



Cycle L— May, 1478, to May, 1498. (Henry VH.) 

DATE. 

1 48 1. D. Silver gilt Cup, known as the "Anathema Cup," inscribed 
w'ith the name of the donor, Langton, Bishop of Winches- 
ter, the date 1497, and the words, "Qui alienaverit anath- 
ema sit." — Pembroke College^ Cainbriclge. 

1481. D. 5725. Silver gilt low Bowl, fluted stem, inscribed "Bene, 
dictus. Deus. Im. Dona. suis. ame," in Lombardic letters. 
— -/. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

1487. K. Silver gilt Salt Cellar. — Chrisfs College, Cambridge. 
1493- Q- Apostle Spoon with full-length figure of a saint, the earli- 
est spoon known with an Apostle. The date letter O is 

184 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 185 



P.VTE. 



cuspcd inwards and outwards; maker S. — The Rev. T. 
StamfortJi. 

1497. \'. Three small Spoons, with slender stems. — Rev. T. Siani- 
forth. 

Cycle II.— May, 1498, to May, 1518. (Henry VII and VIII.) 

1499. It. 5455- Crace Cup and Cover ornamented with crossed 

bands, and in the panels are maidens' heads and flagons, 
the badges of the Company ; on the cover a maiden seated 
with a unicorn, with blue enamel bands, etc., presented by 
Sir Thomas \^q^. -Mercers' Company, London. 

1500. t. Old English .Spoon. — Painter Stainers' Company ^ Lon- 

don. 

1506. i. Bishop Fox's Spoons, with owls at the ends of the 

handles. — Corpus CJiristi College, Oxon. 

1507. k. Silver gilt Beaker and Cover in form of a Tudor rose, 

battlemcnted, engraved with roses, portcullises and daisies 
(marguerites), given by the foundress, Margaret, Countess 
of Richmond. — CJirisfs College, Cambridge. 

1507. k. Pair of silver gilt Salt Cellars, of hour-glass form, orna- 
mented with Tudor roses, etc., presented by tlie foundress, 
the Countess of Richmond. — Christ's College, Cambridge. 

1 5 10. 11, The mounting of a Mazer Bowl. — The late Sir A. W. 
Franks. 

1 5 12. p. Small silver Cup. — W ymsivold Church, Leicestershire. 

1 5 12. tj. Spoon. — Rev. T. Sianifonh. 

15 14. g/ Gothic silver Paten; within a tressure of six spandrils is 

the head of our Saviour and radiating borders. — Heivorth 
Church, Kezi'castle-upon-Tyne. 

ISIS- S. Apostle Spoon, with the maker's mark of an S. — Dr. and 
Mrs. Ash/ord. 

151 5. S^ 3207. Silver gilt Tazza C'up and Cover, ornamented with 

stamped pattern of roses and fleurs de lis. — Corpus Chris ti 
College, Oxford. 

1515. S. Apostle Spoon (St. Paul), one of a set of thirteen given by 
Archbishop Parker. — -Corpus CJiristi College, Ca^nbridge. 

1 5 16. t. Bishop Fox's Spoons, with balls at the ends of the stems 
— Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

1517- It. Gothic silver Paten, parcel gilt, sunk centre; within a 
tressure of six arches is the head of our Saviour, a nimbus 
round His head and radiating borders, engraved and gilt. 
— Rev. T. Staniforth. 



1 86 HALL ^L\RKS ON PLATE. 

Cycle III.— May, 151S, to ^lay, 1538. (Henry VHL) 

DATi:. 

1 5 18. A. 5448. Salt Cellar, of hour-glass form. — Ironmongers' 

Company, London. 

1 5 19. B. Set of twelve Apostle Spoons, from the Bcrnal Collection: 

maker S. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

I S20. C. Silver i\\\).- -Clirisf s College, Camhrid gc. 

1 521. D. 5726. Old English Spoon, with fluted knob on the stem. 

■ — /. Rainey, Esq. 

1522. E. S44^^- Salt Cellar, of hour-glass {ox\\\. -Ironmongers' 

Company, London. 

1522. E. Spoon, with seal top, m the possession of Dr. and Mrs. 
As/i/ord, Torquay. 

152^. F. 5402. Henry VlII's Caip, repousse with scrolls, fleur de 
lis and rose, with bells on the bottom of the cup. — Barber 
Siirgeo]is' Company, L.ondon. 

1^23. F. S497- Cocoa-nut (-^up, silver mounted. — Vintners' Com- 
pany, London. 

1524. G. Alms Dish. -5/. Mary Y\ oohiotJi CJiureh, City of L^ondon. 

1525. LI. 7767. The Grace (\ip of St. Thomas-a-Recket ; the cup 

and cover of ivory, mounted m silver gilt, inscribed 
" Vinvm . tvvm . bibe . cvm . gavdio " ; the ornamented 
borders are of a later period.- — Philip H. Hoiuard, Esq., of 
Corby. 

1525. H. 7753. The silver Spoon given by Henry \T to Sir Ralph 
Pudsey in 1463, together with his boots and gloves, at 
Bolton Hall, after the battle of Hexham, now preserved 
at Hornby Castle, Lancashire. — C^apt. Pudsey Dawson. 

1527. K. Chalice and Paten, given by Plenry \T11 to Sir Thomas 

Pope. — Trinity College, Oxford. 

1528. L. Spoon, with statuette of St. Nicholas, and three children 

m a tub, of good early work; the stem is inscribed SYNT. 
NYCOLAS . PRAY . FOR . \\\S. This spoon is sup- 
posed to have been formerly used m the Abbey of St. 
Nicholas, Abingdon, founded by Edward \T. — /. Dunn 
Gardner, Esq. 

1529. ]\I. 3202. Mazer Bowl, silver gilt mounting. -T// Souls' Col- 

lege, Oxfod. 

1530. N. Two Apostle Spoons; maker S. -Rev. T. Slanzforth. 

1 531. O. Siher gilt Cover for cw\^. —Corpus Christ i College, Cam- 

bridge. 

LS33- Q- 3204. Silver gilt Cup and Cover, double handled and urn 
shaped, repousse with scrolls. — Christ's Colic gey Oxford. 

1537. Y. Apostle Spoon, with dots on the date letter as shown on 
the table. --/^/. and Mrs. Ashford. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 1S7 

Cycle IV.— May, 1538, to May, 1558. (Henry VllI, Edward \'I 

and Mar)-.) 

DATE, 

1539. B. Apostle Spoon.— I JtJi/io Id ers' Conpauy. 

1545. H. Silver gilt rose water Dish and Ewer. — Corpus Christi Col- 
ic gL\ Camhrid go. 

1545. LI. Spoon, with lion passant on the stem and leopard's head 
crowned m the bowl. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, of Torquay. 

1548. L. Beautiful silver gilt Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — 

Clapton Churchy N orthamptonsJiirc. 

1549. M. Silver gilt C'ommunion Cup. -5/. James s Church, Garlick- 

hit he y London. 

1550. N. Two silver gilt Communion Cups. -St. MichacVs Churchy 

Cornhilly London. 

1 55 1. O. Two silver gilt Communion Cups. -5/. Margaret's Church, 

W est minster, London. 

1552. P. Silver gilt Communion Qxs.p.—St. James's Churchy Garlick- 

hitliCy L.ondon. 

1553. Q. Silver gilt Communion Qvip.— Great Houghton Churchy 

Northamptonshire. 

1554. R. Sir Martin Bowes's Cup, presented (according to the Min- 

utes) is6i. — Goldsmiths' Company, London. 
^557- ^'- Communion Cup and Cover. — Waterbeach Church, Cam- 
bridgeshire 

Cycle V.— Meiy, 1558, to May, 1578. (Elizabeth.) 

1558. a. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, mullet and crescent. 

— Re7'. T. Staniforth. 
1558. a. Stone Jug, silver mounted, repousse with scrolls, fruit, 
satyrs, and masks, the cover surmounted by St. George 
and the Dragon ; on the handle a bifrons maiden's head 
and quaint head-dress. — /. Dumi Gardner, Esq. 

Silver mounted Stoneware Jug and Cover, wdth date of 
presentation, 1560; maker S. K.— i?. Temple FrerCy Esq. 

Two silver gilt Communion Cups. — St. Peter ad Yinc2da, 
the Toiver of London. 

Spoon, with stem cut off obliquely. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 
Two Spoons, with seal tops ; maker's mark, a rose. — -Rev. 
T. Staniforth. 

Apostle Spoon.— Lnnh aiders' Company, London. 

5500. Delft Tankard, silver mounted, given by David 
Gitting in i'^6^.—Vi7it72ers' Co^npanyy L^ondon. 
1 562. t. Apostle Spoon ; maker's mark, a trefoil leaf. — Rev. T . 
Staniforth. 



1559- 


It. 


1559. 


b. 


1 560. 


r. 


1 56 1 . 


i. 


1562. 


t. 



88 



562. 


C, 


563. 


f. 


564. 


9- 


564. 


9- 


564. 


9- 


565. 


\h 


S66. 
566. 
560. 


t. 
i. 
i. 


567. 


k. 


56;. 


k. 


S68. 
568. 


l. 
I 


569. 


in 


569- 


m 


569. 


MX 



569. 


in 


569. 


nt 


5/0. 


n. 


570. 


n. 


570. 


n. 


5/1- 


0. 


5/J- 


0. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Silver gilt Circular Salt and Cover, given by Archbishop 
Parker in i^/0.~-Corpiis CJiristi College^ Cambridge. 
5505. Large Cup and Cover, engraved with subjects re- 
lating- to the manufacture of wax, the gift of Richard 
Normansell. — Vvax Chandlers' Company, London. 
Silver gilt Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — St. Luke's 
Church, W ellingborough, N orthainptonshire. 

Apostle vSpoon ; maker's mark, a trefoil Icd^i.—Rev. T. 
Staniforth. 

5412. Square Salt, given by Roger Dunster in 1641. — 
Clothworkers' Company, I^ondon. 

The Cockayne C-ups; maker Cj. -Skinners' Company, 
London. 

5727. Silver gilt Communion Cup. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

Plateau; maker R. V. — Skinners' Company, Lojidon. 

Set of eleven silver gilt Apostle Spoons, given by Arch- 
bishop Parker m 1570. — Corpus CJiristi College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Silver (Aip and Cover Paten. — -Kimcote Church, L^eicester- 
shire. 

Silver gilt C'ommunion Cup and Cover Paten. — Christ's 
College, Cambridge. 

Silver gilt Cup. — Welford Church, N orthamptonshire. 

Silver gilt Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. 

Silver Cup and Clover Paten. — Barnack Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Silver gilt Standing Cup and Cover. — Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

3234. Cup and Cover, richly ornamented with masks, 
fruit and iiowers, and female heads in relief, surmounted 
b}^ a nude male figure, given by Archbishop Parker in 
1569. — Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

5729. Brown Stoneware Jug^ silver mounted; maker 
L R. — E. A. Sanford, Esq. 

5729. vStoneware Jug, silver mounted. — /. Toovey, Esq. 

Silver Cup and Cover Paten. — Pits ford Church, 'North- 
amptonshire. 

Silver seal top Spoon. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Silver gilt Tankard, used as a Flagon. — Gonville and 
Cains College, Cambridge. 

Silver gilt Tankard, repousse with arabesques, given by 
Archbishop Parker in 1571. — Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

^J^o. Brown Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker 
N. S. interlaced. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 



189 



5/1- 

5/2. 

5/2. 

5/ :)■ 

5/3 
5/4 
5/4 

5/6 
5/6, 

5;; 

5/7 
577 



U- 573^- ^'Up and Paten, with engraved belt, dated 1576. 
— /. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

p» 5733- Earthenware Jug, silver mounted. — H. Magniac^ 
Esq. 

n. Silver gilt Tazza, with punched ornaments. — -Christ' s C al- 
lege, Cambridge. 

Ij. 5734. Silver Tankard engraved with strap work and 
medallions of female heads; maker's mark, a crab. — - 
L. Hnthy Esq. 

n« 5735- ^^^^P 3^id Paten, with engraved belt of running 
pattern. — /. Rainey, Esq. 

r* 573^- Silver Tankard; maker's initials, C. L., a halberd 
between. — Ashniolean Museum, Oxford. 

r. Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a shell. — Rev T. Stani- 
forth. 

t. 5739 Silver Cup and Paten. — /. Rainey, Esq. 

t. 5423. Simon Gibbons' square Salt. — Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, London. 

ll. 5741. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker's initials 
C. C. — /. D. Gardner, Esq. 

il. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

il. Handsome silver gilt cocoa nut Cup, bearing the makers 
mark L LL — Baron Rothschild. 



Cycle VL— May, 15/8, to May, 1598. (Elizabeth, 



1578. r\. Gilt Apostle Spoon, inscribed "A. H. Nata Ano Dm 1578 

Octob. 10. Inter. Ilor. 12 et Pri. m Aurora Susceptorc Gual 

Moyse." — Rev. T Staniforth. 
1578. A. 5742. Silver gilt Tankard, repousse with fruit and 

flowers; on the purchase is a mermaid; maker's initials 

E. ^.— Baron de Rothschild. 

1578. A. Silver gilt Salt Cellar, cylindrical, with high cov^er, sur- 

mounted by a soldier, elaborately ornamented with strap 
work and repousse masks, lions' heads, fruit, etc. ; maker's 
mark, a bird with wings expanded. — Sir Richard Wallace. 

1579. B. 5744. Silver gilt Tazza, chased with cartouches and re- 

pousse helmeted head; maker H. C, a hammer and vice. — 
H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge. 

1579. B. 5745- Silver Cup, in form of a "Pelican in her piety,'* 

the stem ornamented with masks and scrolls, the foot with 
hunting scenes; maker's mark, a bird. — Sir Stephen 
Glynne, Bart. 

1580. C. Antique Spoon, with terminal female bust. — Dr. and Mrs. 

Ashford. 



go HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 



58 



580. C. 5748. Silver gilt Cup and Cover; maker's mark, LI. C, a 

hammer and vice. — L. Huth, Esq. 

581. D. 5746. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver, beautifully chased, 

set with Oriental agates : one of the finest examples of 
English plate known; maker's mark, a trefoil. — -The Ditke 
of Rutland. 

581. D. 5750. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted. — -L. Hiith^ Esq. 
582 E. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — Fawsley Church, 

Isl orthaniptonshire. 

582. E. Spoon with baluster knob; maker's mark, a '^^\\.~Rcv. 

T. Stan'ifortli. 
F. Two silver gilt Flagons.— S/. Margaret's Church, ^X cst- 
niinster, London. 

F. 575 f. Square Salt Cellar. — Baron Lionel de Rothschild. 

G. 5752. Mounted stoneware Jug; maker's mark, B., a pellet 
in each space. — A. IF. Franks, Esq. 

^I- 5753- Porcelain Vase, silver mounted; maker's mark, 

three trefoil leaves.—//. Farrer, Esq. 
\. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, mullet and ring under. 

•^Rev. T. StanifortJi. 
I. Silver mounted cocoa-nut Cup. — The late E. P. Monckton, 

Esq. 
K. Silver gilt Communion Paten. — St. Mary at Hill Church, 

London. 
K. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — -Radston Church, 

Isl orthaniptonshire. 
L. 5754. Ostrich Egg Cup; maker's mark, a flower. — -Earl 

of Home. 
L. Silver Paten; maker H. C. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
M. Silver Cup; maker's mark, a trefoil. — Messrs. Garrard. 
AI. Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a mullet and crescent. — 

Rev. T. Staniforth. 
590. N. 5465. Rose-water Dish, chased with dolphins and flowers, 

lions' heads, etc., the gift of William Offley. — Merchant 

Taylors' Company. 

590. N. Spoon with seal top ; maker, I^. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

591. O. Communion Cup and Cover V^.i(^n.~Ne%vbottle Church, 

N orthampto7tshire. 

591. O. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted. — Robert Napier, Esq. 

592. P. Ostrich Egg Cup, with silver mountings. — Corpus Christi 

College, Cambridge. 

592. P. 5755. Silver gilt Cup, baluster stem. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

593- Q- 5756- Silver Tazza. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

593- Q- Seal top Spoon; maker's mark, a mullet. — Rev. T. Stani- 
forth. 
1594. R. 3206. Gilt Salt Cellar and Cover, ornamented with re- 
pousse scrolls, etc., surmounted by an 7i.YiiOX\xio.—C or pus 
Christi College, Oxford. 



583 
584 

585 
586 
586 
58; 
58; 
588 

588 
589 
589 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. iQi 

UATB. 

1594. R. 5757. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker C. V>.—Hugh 

Ozuen, Esq. 

1595. S. 5651. Ewer and Salver, the gift of Robert Kitchen, 

broken up during the Bristol Riots; maker I. B. and a 
rose above. — Corporation of Bristol. 

1595. S. Silver gilt Communion Paten. — From St. Faith's Church, 

now at St. Augustine's Church, City of London. 

1596. T. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, a mullet. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1 596. T. Apostle Spoon, St. Peter ; maker WC or W in a crescent. — 

R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1597. V. 5678. Silver Ewer and Salver of very fine work, with sea 

deities and monsters, Neptune and Amphritrite, etc., the 
gift of Henry Howard; maker I. N. and a rose below. — 
Corporation of Norwich. 

1597. V. Cup, "the gyfte of John Stuart, A.D. 1600." — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

Cycle VII. — May, 1598, to May, 161 8. (Elizabeth and James I.) 

1 598. A. Spoon with seal top ; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1598. A. Parcel gilt Salt Cellar. — Octavius Morgan, Esq. 

1599. B. Spice Box, in three compartments. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
1599. B. 5445. Silver Cup, the gift of Grace Gwalter. — Innholders' 

Company, London. 

1599. B. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1600. C. Communion Cup. — Pickwell Church, Leicestershire. 

1600. C. Silver gilt Candlestick. — Pembrof^e College, Cambridge. 

1 60 1. D. Silver gilt Communion Cup. — Maxey Church, Northamp- 

tonshire. 

160 1. D. 5771. Silver gilt Cup, engraved with fruit and flowers. — 
Earl of Derby. 

1601. D. 5422. Circular Salt, the gift of Richard Rogers, ''Comp- 
troller of His Majesty's Mint," given in 1632 to the Gold- 
smiths' Company. 

1 60 1. D. Communion Cup. — Aynho Church, N orthamptonshire. 

1602. E. Spoon with seal top; maker T. in a crescent. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1602. E. Spoon with seal top. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1603. F. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver. — Lord Willoughby de 

Eresby. 

1603. F. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — Courteenhall Church, 

• N orthamptonshire. 

1604. G. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — Stanford Church, 

N orthamptonshire. 
1604. G. 5774. Silver covered Cup, engraved flowers; maker's 
mark, I. H. and a bear. — L^ord Willoughby de Eresby. 

14 



192 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 



1604. G. Silver gilt Tankard, engraved scrolls.— Z. Huth, Esq. 

1605. H. 5481. The "Cockayne" Loving Cups in the form of 

cocks. — The Skinners' Company, London. 

1605. H. 5414. Salver, the gift of John Burnell. — Clothworkers' 

Comfany, London. 

1606. L S777- Silver gilt Salt Cellar, in form of a temple. — R. 

Neville Grenville^ Esq. 

1606. I. 5776. Silver Cup, with punched ornaments. — Sir T. W. 

Holbnrney Bart. 

1607. K. Broad and shallow two-handled Cup. — Baron de Roths- 

child. 
1607. K. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver, with square escutcheons of 
repousse flowers and engraved interlaced designs between. 
— Louis Hiith, Esq. 

1607. K. Apostle Spoon; maker W. C.—Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1008. L. Old English Spoon; maker D. enclosing C.^ — R. Temple 
Frere, Esq. 

1608. I^. Silver gilt Standing Cup and Coy ex.— Trinity Hall, Cani- 

bridge. 

1609. M. Handsome silver gilt Standing Cup. — The Marquis of 

Exeter. 
1609. M. Silver gilt Tazza, on baluster stem. — Christ's College, 
Cambridge. 

1609. M. Spoon with lion sejant top; maker, W. C. — Rev. T. Stani- 

forth. 

1 6 10. N. Old English Spoon. — Octavius Morgan. Esq. 

1610. N. Old English Spoon; maker's mark, a pair of compasses. — 

Rev. T . Staniforth. 

161 1. O. 5406. lall standing Cup and Cover. — Broderers' Com- 

pany, London. 

161 1. O. 5407. vStanding Cup, the gift of John 'Reeves.— Carpen- 

ters' Company, London. 

161 2. P. Small Paten in Derry Cathedral. — Connminicated by Mrs. 

Dorothea Alexander, of Blacfziiill, Coleraine. 

1613. Q. 5778. Silver gilt Spice Box; maker's mark, a bow between 

L T. — Sir T. W . Holburne, Bart. 

161 3. O. Spoon with seal top; maker T. in a crescent. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

16 1 4. R. 5440. Silver gilt Circular Salt, given by John Sweete, 

1635. — Innholders' Company, London. 

1614. R. Two Apostle Spoons; maker M. H. joined. — Liev. T. 

Staniforth. 

161 5. S. 3244. Tall Cup and Cover, surmounted by a statuette of 

Hercules. — St. John's College, Ca^nbridge. 

1616. T. 5779. Salver, repousse, subject of Alexander and Darius; 

maker's mark, a trefoil leaf. — Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 193 



BATE. 



1616. T. Dish, inscribed "The dishes of the Arch Duke gotten at 

the battle of Newporte," and "Taken by the Lord Vis- 
count Wimbaldon in the year 1600." — C. Winn, Esq. 

1 61 7. V. 5780. Silver Beaker, engraved with roses, thistles, and 

pomegranates. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

1617. V. Apostle Spoon; maker I. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

Cycle VIII.— May, 1618, to May, 1638. (James I and Charles I.) 

161 8. a. 5580. Tall silver gilt Tankard, repousse with strap work 

and medallions of sea monsters and the arms of Norwich, 
of fine \Noxk.— Corporation of Noriuich. 

161 8. a. Lofty silver Beaker and Cover, engraved with imbricated 

pattern, surmounted by a female figure, inscribed "The 
gyfte of Sir William Cockayne, sonne of Roger Cockayne, 
of Baddesley, Warwickshire, 1619." — E. C. Baring, Esq. 

1 6 19. b. Apostle Spoon; maker R. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1619. b. Silver Communion Plates. — All Sonls* College, Oxford. 

1620. c. Salt Cellar, with double receptacles and open covers, sur- 

mounted by an obelisk. — Dr. G. W. Dasent. 

1620. c. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1 62 1, d. 5782. Pair of silver gilt Tankards, given by Richard 

Wyatt, citizen and carpenter ; maker I. C. — W. Cozier, Esq. 

1621. d. Spoon, seal top; maker I. F. Another of the same date, 

with maker's mark, B. Y., over a three-barred gate. — R. 
Temple Frere, Esq. 

1622. e. Apostle Spoon.— Si;- W. Stirling, of Keir. 
1622. e. Apostle Spoon. — Innholders" Company, London. 

1622. e. Communion Cup and Paten. — St. Antholin's Church, City 

of London. 

1623. /- 5407. The Camden Cup and Cover, repousse with leaves 

and inscription. — Painter Stainers^ CoinpaJiy, London. 

1624. g. Three Apostle Spoons; maker S. V. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1624. g. Silver Paten at Mark, Somersetshire. 

1625. h. 5784. Silver gilt Cup, the gift of Richard Chester to the 

Corporation; maker T. F. — Yiscoitnt Clifden. 

1626. i. 5482. Rose-water Dish, the gift of Francis Couell. — Skin- 

ners' Company, London. 
1626 i. 5439. Two Salts, given by John Wetterwcrth. — Skinners' 
Company, Loitdon. 

1627. k. Six Silver Apostle Spoons, given in the same year. — Inn- 

holders' Company, London. 

1628. /. Spoon, seal top; maker R. I. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1628. /. Apostle Spoon; maker D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1629. 7n. The Ivatt Cup, given in the same year. — Haberdashers' 

Company. 

1629. m. Spoon with seal top; maker R. G. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1630. ;/. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1630. n. Silver Communion Cup. — Qiceen's College, Oxford. 



194 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1 63 1, o. Apostle Spoon; maker D. — Rev T. Staniforth. 

163 1. o. Silver Communion C\xp.—BroomfLeld Cfmrch, Kent. 

1632. p. Silver Communion Cup and Paten. — -St. James's Church, 

Dover. 

1633. q. Large Silver Flagon. — Corporation of Bristol. 

1633. q. Two-handled Cup. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1634. r. 5650. Pair of Tankards; given by John Dodridge. — Cor- 

poration of Bristol. 

1634. 7. Apostle Spoon; maker C. D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1635. s. 5433. Circular Salt, the gift of Sir Hugh Hammersley, 

Knight. — Haberdashers^ Company, Londoji. 

1635. s. Apostle Spoon, inscribed with date of presentation, 1635; 

maker C. D. — Rev. T . Staniforth. 

1636. /. Apostle Spoon. — G. H. Head, Esq. 

1636. /. Apostle Spoon, inscribed with date of presentation, 1637; 

maker C. D. — Rev. T . Staniforth. 

1637. V. Apostle Spoon, 1637; maker R. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1637. v. 5438. Loving Cup, repousse work, inscribed "Fides ex 

Charitate agens valet." — Haberdashers' Company, London. 

Cycle IX. — May, 1638, to May, 1658. (Charles I and Common- 
wealth.) 

1638. A. Two-handled Cup and Cover, embossed with flowers. — 

South Kensington Miiseitm. 

1638. A. 5458. Circular Salt, of hour-glass form. — Mercers' Com- 

pany, London. 

1639. B. 5493. I^oving Cup, the gift of Robert Bateman, Chamber- 

lain, of London. — Skinners' Company, London. 

1639. B. 5785. Two Wine Cups, the gift of John Harris to the 

Company of Taylors, Oxford, in 1639. — /. Dnn7i Gard- 
ner, Esq. 

1640. C. Communion Paten. — St. Albayi's Church, Wood Street , City 

of London. 

1640. C. 5452. Four Cups, the gift of George Humble, in 1640. — 

Leathersellers' Company, London. 

1 64 1. D. Two seal top Spoons, with date of presentation. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1641. D. 5787. Cup and Cover; maker R. \L—Yisconnt Clifden. 

1642. E. Two-handled Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1645. ^- Communion Paten. — St. Vedasl's Church, City of London. 

1646. /. Silver Spoon; maker C. D. — Rev. T. Staitiforth. 

1646. /. Spoon, with seal top; maker T. FL in monogram. — R. 

Temple Frere, Esq. 

1647. K. Silver Paten. — Willisham Church, Suffolk. 

1648. L. Silver gilt Communion Cover Paten. — St. James's Church, 

City of London. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 195 



B.VTE. 



1648. L. Spoon, seal top; maker T. LI. joined. — A'. Tcni-ple Frcre, 

Esq. 

1649. M. 5417. Tankard, the gift of W. Clissworth, 1661. — 

Coopers' Company, Loudon. 

1650. xV. 5491- Cup, the gift of George Breton. — Skinners' Com- 

pany, London. 

165 1. 0. 5667. Four Apostle Spoons. — Corporation of Hedon. 
1^52. P. 5788. Covered C'up, said to hav-e been given by Oliver 

(Tomwell to his daughter, Lady Fauconberg; maker E. S. 
— The late Paul Butler, Esq. 
1653. Q. 5504. Cup and Cover, the gift of Thomas Bloodworth, 
in 1682. — \intners' Company, L^ondon. 

1653. Q. 5789. Silver Ladle. — Sir T. IF. Holbiirne, Bart. 

1654. R. Apostle Spoon; maker S. V. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1655. 5. 5791. Silver Cup, given by Christopher Pirn to the Black- 

smiths' Company, inscribed " B3/ hammer and hand all 
arts do stand " ; maker I. W. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

1655. S. 5790. Tankard. — /. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

1656. T. Old English Spoon; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1657. V. Apostle Spoon. — Innholders' Company, London. 

1657. 1 . Cup and Cosher. — Pcterhonse College, Cambridge. 

Cycle X.— :\Iay, 1658, to :\Ia)', 1678. (Commonwealth and Chas. II.) 

1658. ^. *'5444- Silver gilt ('up, the gift of Edward Osborne.— 

JnnJiolders'' Company, L^ondon. 

1659. IS. 5665. Large Mace, the gift of Henry Guy. — Corporation 

of Hedon. 

1659. 18- Spoon with seal top; maker S. V. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1660. (ft. 5655. Silver ^IdiCG.— Corporation of Doncaster. 

1661. iB. Three Apostle Spoons. — Innholders' Company, T^ondon. 

1662. (E. 5794. Silver Salver, repousse with the labours of Her- 

cules and trophies of arms. — Baron LJonel de Rothschild. 

1662. C5. 5901. Large Salver. — Earl Spencer, K.G. 

1663. 3F. Silver Grace Cup. — Goldsmiths' Company, London. 

1664. dl. 5795- Silver (\ip. — TJie late Paul Butler, Esq. 

1665. 1|. Spoon, flat stem; maker I. I., a bird, and fleur de lis. — ■ 

Rev. T. Staniforth. 
166^. U- Gup given by Charles II to the Corporation of Oxford. 

1666. J. Embossed Silver Cup. — Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. 

1667. Ik* Old English Spoon. — 0. Morgan, Esq. 

1668. 1&. Rose-water Dish. — Queen's College, Oxford. 

1669. fH. Two-handled Bowl and Cover. — Sir C. Morgan, Bart. 

* The stamjj of the cluircli-text A on some of tliese pieces, towards the end 
of the official .year, appears to have been injured. 



196 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1669. ^. Cup and Cover, engraved with die royal arms and the 

arms of Robertus Creyghtonus; on the cover is inscribed 
"Ex donis Caroli Secundi Regis." — Dr. and Mrs. Ash- 
ford. 

1670. |J. Porringer, inscribed 1670. — Queen's College, Oxford. 

1670. JS. Rat-tailed Spoon. — Major C. A. Markhani. 

1 67 1. ®. Communion plate. — Westminster Abbey. 

1672. p. 5683. Two Tankards, the gift of Thomas Bawtrey, 

Lord Mayor of the City of York in 1673. — Corporation of 
Y ork. 

1672. ip, Two-handled Cup; maker M. G. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1673. C§. 5796- ( overed Cup; maker I. N. ; in fine gold, plain with 

scroll handles, coiled serpent on the cover. (Hall marks 
the same as on silver.) — /. W . Walrond, Esq. 

1674. 11. 5799- Two-handled Cup, the gift of Sir John Cutler to 

Charles Lush; maker I. N. — The late Paid Biitler, Esq. 

1674. Jl. 5797- Two Cups fitting into each other, matted surface. 

— ir. 5. Stopford, Esq. 

1675. ^. 5800. Set of three Casters; maker R. A. — /. Rainey, Esq. 

1676. ST. Cup and Cover with two handles. — 5. K. Museum. 

1676. ST. Silver Tankard. — -Corporation of Oxford. 

1677. ®. 8103. Cup. — Messrs. Hunt and Roskell. 

1^77- H- P^ir of Candlesticks. — Earl of CJiarlemont. 

i^77. Wi' Spoon, flat stem, triple rat-tail ornament; maker A. K. — 
Rev. T. Staniforth. 



Cycle XI. — May, 1678, to March, 1697. (Charles II, James II, 
William & Mary, and William III.) 

1678. a» 5803. Two-handled Cup, chased with leaves. — /. P 
Dexter, Esq. 

i67g. b* 5804. Silver Ladle. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

5461. The "Brett" Loving Cup and Cover. — Merchant 
Taylors' Company, London. 

5806. Large silver Cistern, the handles in form of pea- 
cocks, resting on four lions' claws, weighing 2,000 oz. ; 
maker R. \.:'" —Dnke of Riitland. 

5807. Tankard. — Sir T. TT. Holbnrne, Bart. 

Two Spoons, with heart-shaped ends ; maker E. LI. and 
crown. --7'^^z'. T. Staniforth. 

* It hokls 00 gallons, and is said to have been filled wiili caudle when the 
father of the late Duke was born, and with launch at the christening of the 
Marquis of Granby in .laiiuary, 1814, the Prince Regent being sponsor. 



1680. 


r» 


I68I. 


i- 


1682. 


t* 


1682. 


t* 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 



19; 



1683. f* 5808. Silver Tazza, with figures in the centre of Jupiter, 
Diana, etc. ; maker W. F. — Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart. 

1683. f* Oval Casket and Cover, engraved with Chinese figures, 
birds, etc. — South Kensington Miiseimi. 

1683. f* Basin engraved with Chinese figures, trees, fountains and 

birds. — /. Dunn Gardner^ Esq. 

1684. g» 5809. Covered Bowl, pounced with Chinese figures; 

maker I. I. and lis. — Sir T. W. Holbiirne, Bart. 

1684. g* Spoon, flat stem, heart-shaped end; maker L. C. crowned. 

— Brett Collection, 

1685. Ij* Silver Tankard. — Messrs. Garrard. 

1686. !♦ Communion Plate; maker's initials I. S. in monogram. — 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1686. t* 5945- Tankard, the gift of James Langdon Reynolds; 

maker I. R. crowned. — Skinners^ Company ^ London. 

1687. k* Mace with the arms of James II. — Mayor and Corpora- 

tion of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

1688. !♦ 5810. Circular Salver, engraved with Chinese figures. — 

/. P. Dexter, Esq. 

1688. !♦ 581 1. Pair of Candlesticks, in form of architectural 

columns. — -W . Maskell, Esq. 

1689. m* Spoon with heart-shaped end. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1690. It* 5813. Silver Tankard, the cover in form of a helmet 

repousse with trophies, etc. ; maker G. G. — Baron Lionel 
de Rothschild. 

1691. 0* Embossed Altar Candlesticks. — Westminster Abbey. 

1692. tt» Silver Cup. — Jesus College, Oxford. 

1693. 4^ P^^^ o^ Wine Cups.—/. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

1693. ^* Two Spoons; maker L. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1694. r* Silver Loving Cup. — Mercers' Company, London. 

1695. s» 5815. Silver Cup of Richard Deeble, 1724. — P. W. 

Doyle, Esq. 

1696. \* 5816. Pair of Fire Dogs at Hampton Court; maker 

M. A. — His Majesty the King. 



Cycle XII. — March, 1697, to May, 17 16. (William III, Anne, and 

George I.) 

1697. A. 5817. Teapot of rock-work, vine-leaves and grapes. — Sir 
T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

1697. B. 5818. Silver-gilt Cup with Cover, on the top the royal 

arms and W. R. Ill ; and a pair of large pricket Candle- 
sticks on tripod stems, with the royal arms of W. Ill ; 

E 

maker d . — The Duke of Manchester. 

A 

1698. C. 5894. Pair of silver gilt Candlesticks. — Rev. G. Jepson. 



1 98 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1699. D. Silver Candlesticks.^ — C. H. Leigh, Esq. 

1700. E. 5902. Helmet-shaped Ewer, engraved with the royal arms 

of William III; maker H. A. — Lord Willoughby de 
Eresby. 

1700. E. 5898. Large silver Fountain, engraved with the Marl- 

borough arms; maker PL h..—Earl Spencer, K.G. 

1 70 1. F. 5894. Two Ewers and Salvers, engraved with the Marl- 

borough arms; and large Cistern weighing 1,920 oz., Marl- 
borough plate; maker H. A. — Earl Spencer, K.G. 

1 70 1. F. Pair of massive Flagons, Marlborough plate; maker G. O. 

crowned.^ — Earl Spencer, K.G. 
1701 F. 5907. Ewer and Salver; maker W. L, two stars above and 
lis below. — Marqtiis of Abercorn. 

1702. G. 5910. Helmet-shaped Ewer, with female bust handle, en- 

graved with the royal arms and motto, " Semper eadem " ; 
maker M. E. — Lord Willoughby de Eresby. 

1703. H. 591 1. Tureen; maker Ne. — Lord Bateman. 

1703. H. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1704. /. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1704. /. Spoon, flat stem, heart-shaped end; maker L. A. and crown. 

■ — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1705. K. 5912. Two-handled Cup and Cover, with the royal arms, 

presented by Queen Anne to Sir John Leake. — The late 
Paul Butler, Esq. 

1705. K. Two-handled Cup; maker's mark, an anchor dividing the 

letters W. A. — Captain North's C ollection. 

1706. L. 5913. Gilt Communion Service, the salver engraved with 

the Descent from the Cross. — Earl of Stamford and War- 
rington. 

I/06. L. Tankard. — Sidjiey Sussex College, Cambridge. 

1706. L. 5449. Loving Cup, given by William Humphreys. — Iron- 
mongers' Coiupany, London. 

ijoj. M. Old English Spoon. — 0. Morgan, Esq. 
1708. A^. The Goldsmiths' Company's Minutes. 

1708. A^. Silver Porringer; maker B. E. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1709. O. Silver Porringer.- — R. Tejnple Frere, Esq. 

1 7 10. P. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

171 1. Q. 5914. Four circular Salt Cellars; maker P. A. under a 

rose. — W . Maskell, Esq. 

17 1 2. R. 5450. Loving Cup, the gift of Randulph Lane, in the 

same year. — Ironmongers' Company, L^ondon. 

171 2. R. Salver, engraved with the royal arms and motto, "Semper 

eadem," 15^ in. diam. ; maker F. A., lis above, pellet below. 
— Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

171 3. S. Silver Tankard. — /. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 199 



17 1 3. 5. Two Cups and Cover Patens, Flagon, Bread Holder, and 

Alms Dish, all silver gilt, and made by Paul de Lamerie.* 
— Castle Ashby Churchy Isl orthamptonshire. 
1^14. T. Snuffers' Tray. — Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

1 7 14. T. 5432. Loving Cup, the gift of Plugh Radcliffe. — Haber- 

dashers' Company, London. 
1 7 14. T. Pepper Caster; maker V. \.—R. Temple Frere, Esq. 
171 5. V. Six Spoons; maker vSc. — Rev. T. Stuniforth. 



Cycle XIII. — May, 1716, to May. 1736. (George I and II.) 

17 16. A. Two-handled Porringer; maker F. L. — R. Temple Frere,, 

Esq. 

17 1 7. B. Silver Monteith or Punch-Bowl, with a detached escallop 

rim. — /. G. Fanshaive, Esq. 

1 7 17. B. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

17 18. C. 5919. Silver Waiter. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

1718. C. 5920. Silver Basin and Cover; maker W. I., two stars 

and lis. — Sir W. Stirling of Keir. 

1719. D. 5921. Pair of covered Cups, chased with scrolls and head 

of Bacchus. — Earl of Stamford and \Y arrington. 

1720. E. 5657. Sugar Tongs. — Corporation of Done aster. 

172 1. F. 5677. Cup, the gift of John Kilpatrick. — -Corporation of 

Norzuich. 

1722. G. Silver Paten. — Croivhurst Chnrch. 

1723. FI. Communion Cup, Paten, Flagon and Alms Dish. — Lowick 

Chnrch, Northamptonshire. 

1724. I. Two-handled. Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1725. K. 6005. Silver gilt Oar, a copy of a more ancient one of 

the time of Queen Elizabeth, 3 ft. 3 in. long, inscribed, 
" This oar, a badge of authority, used by the ancient Cor- 
poration of Boston, was sold by the modern Town Coun- 
cil in 1832, and purchased by Francis Thurkill, Esq., an 
Alderman of that Borough, by whose widow it was pre- 
sented in 1840 to the Earl Brownlow." — Earl Broivnloiu. 

1726. L. Two-handled Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1727. M. Paten; the date letter M m a square (second size punch), 

the larger one being in the form of a shield. — Dr. and 

Mrs. Ashford. 
1/2/. M. 5923. Helmet-shaped Ewer, engraved with the arms of 

George l.—rf. P- Dexter, Esq. 
1727. M. Handsome silver gilt helmet-shaped Ewer. — The Marquis 
■ of Exeter. 

* The first entry of Paul de Lanierie in tlie mark-book of the Goldsmiths' 
Hall occurs in 1712, Avhen lie resided at the Golden Ball, in AVindmill Street, 
in the Haymarket. In 1739 he removed to Gariard Street or Gerard Street, 
Soho. His mark u]) to 1732 Avas L. A. crowned. In 1733 it was altered to 
P. L. crowned for the Old Standard. 



200 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 



1728. M. Alms Dish. — 5/. Helen's Churchy Bishops gate, City of 
London. 

1728. N. 5928. Gilt Toilet Service; maker L L. — Earl of Stamford 

and Warrington. 

1729. O. 5929. Silver Basin, scrolls and flowers. — Lord Bateman. 

1730. P. Six Sconces; maker P. A. crowned. — Earl of Stamford and 

Warrington. 

1730. P. Dish, with gilt centre boss. — Holy Trinity Chnrch, M.in- 
orieSy City of London. 

1731- Q- Silver Paten. — Saint foltn's Chiirch, Peterborough. 

1732. R. 5934. Pair of gilt Tankards; maker P. L. (Paul de 
Lamerie), star and crown above, lis below. — Earl of Stam- 
ford and Warrington. 

1732. R. Two-handled Cup. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1733. S. 5938. Bread Basket of wicker pattern; maker P. L. (Paul 

de Lamerie), crown and star above, lis below. — /. Dunn 

Gardner, Esq. 
S. YoxV.^f esus College, Cambridge. 
T. Silver gilt Cup, Cover Paten, Flagon and Alms Dish. — 

Private Chapel in Btirghley House, N orthamptonshire. 
T. 5671. The Walpole Mace; maker T. R. — -Corporation of 

Nonvich. 
T. Beautiful silver gilt ¥\digon.—P aul de Lamerie, Easton 

Neslo7i Church, N orthamptonshire. 
V. Teapot, melon-shaped, chased with shells and flowers. — 

/. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 



1733 
1734 

1734 

1735 
1735 



Cycle XIV.— May, 1736, to May, 1756. (George II. 



1736. a. Sacramental YldLgon.— Crow hurst Church. 

1737. b. 5939. Cup and Paten. — Messrs. Hunt and Roskell. 
^7?)7- t>. Cup and Cover Paten. — Harpole Church, Northajnpton- 

shire. 

1738. c. Silver Cup and Cover Paten and ¥\-d.gon.—AbtJiorp, 1^1 orth- 

amptonshire. 

1739. d. Spoon, the stem surmounted by a group representing 

Charity. — -Hon. G. Mostyn. 

1740. e. 5426. Pair of Vases and Covers, chased with deities and 

emblems of the arts and sciences, scroll handles of ter- 
minal figures; maker's initials T. T. — Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, L 072 do 71. 

1741. f. 5424. Large Ewer and Salver, handsomely chased with 

heathen deities, Minerva holding a scroll inscribed, " By 
prudence and good management I am restored " ; maker 
Paul de Lamerie. — Golds77?iths' Cojnpany, Lionel 07i. 

1742. g. 5940. Silver Cup and Cover, elaborately chased; maker 

P. L. (Paul de Lamerie), and star, crown above, lis below. 
— Messrs. H?int a7id Roskell. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 201 



743. h. 5941. Pair of Silver Dishes; maker N. S., star above.— 

His Majesty the King. 

744. i. Cake Basket, with mermaid handles; maker H. \i.—Dr 

and Mrs. Askford. 
744. i. Small silver \iu^.^Major C. A. Markham. 

744. 1. Communion Paten. — Norton Church, Northamptonshire. 

745. k. Silver gilt Tankard. — Froin St. Antholin's Church, noiv at 

St. Marfs Ch?irch, Aldermary, City of London. 

745. k. Standing- Cup and Cover. — Clare College, Cambridge. 

746. 1. Two silver gilt Flagons. — St. Martin in the FielcVs Church, 

London. 

747. m. 5943. Pair of tortoiseshell Caddies, silver mounted, orna- 

mented with repousse work in figures, scrolls, etc. ; maker 
P. L. (Paul de Lamerie), crown and star above, lis below. 
— /. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

748. n. Pair of Vases and Covers, with acanthus-leaf ornament. — 

Jos. Bond, Esq. 

748. m. Communion Paten, Flagon, and Alms Dish. — Eyden 

Church, Northamptonshire. 

749. o Communion Cup. — Great Warley Church, Essex. 

750. p. Communion Cup. — Upper Boddington Chtirch, Northamp- 

tonshire. 

750. p. 5944. Cruet Stand by Paul de Lamerie. — /. Dunn Gard- 

ner, Esq. 

751. q. Communion Cup and Flagon. — King's Cliff e Church, 

Northamptonshire. 

751. q. Silver Cruet. — /. H. Walter, Esq. 

752. r. Communion Cup and Paten. — Middleton Cheney Church, 

N orthamptonshire. 
752. r. Small Tea Caddy. — /. H. Walter, Esq. 

752. r. 5649. State Sword. — -Corporation of Bristol. 

753. s. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. — Daventry Church, 

Northamptonshire. 

753. s. 5945. Set of Casters. — Sir W. Stirling, of Keir. 

754. t. Jug with repousse foliage. — Jesus College, Cambridge. 

754. t. 5948. Two Tea Caddies ; maker M. F. — Earl of Stamford 

and Warrington. 

755. u. 5950. Milk-pot, repousse, with vine-leaves and grapes; 

maker P. B. — Sir T. W . Holburjte, Bart. 

755. u. Flagon — Dragenham Church, Essex. 

Cycle XV. — May, 1756, to May, 1776. (Gecrge II and George III.) 

756. ^. 5951. Tea-kettle, gourd-shaped, engraved with land- 

scapes and figures; on a stand. — /. D. Gardner, Esq. 

756. JC- Communion Flagon. — Kettering Church, N orthainpton- 

shire. 

757. IB* Two silver gilt Communion Patens. — St. Edmund's 

Church, King and Martyr, City of London. 



-02 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

DATE. 

1758. ®. Communion Cup and Cover Paten. -\Y errington CImrch, 
N orthamptonshire. 

1758. C. 5952. Ewer; maker T. YL.^ 0. E. Coope, Esq. 

1759. S. Two-handled Vase; and a Coffee-pot.— 5. K. Museum. 

1759. i3' Bread Basket of pierced repousse work; maker W. P.— 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1759- B- Tobacco Box. — Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1760. 05 Small Taper Candlestick. — Clare College, Cambridge. 

1760. (K. Communion Flagon.— TIV// 6- /-^Z Church, Northampton- 
shire. 

1760. (B. Jug, plain with ribbed neck. — /. D. Gardner, Esq. 

1 76 1. Jf. 5953- Bread Basket, of pierced work and arms of 

George III. — His Majesty the King. 

1 76 1. 3F- Alms Dish. — Arthingivorth Church, Northamptonshire. 

1 76 1. 3F- Candlestick. — Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

1762. CS- Spoon.-— 2^^^^^^'-^' College, Cambridge. 

1762. (5- Stoop.— T/2<? 7'^^7,'. 5. .4. Thompson-Y ates. 

1763. '^. Taper Candlestick. — St. John's College, Cambridge 

1763. ||, Pair of Coronation Salvers; maker T. H. — Lord Wil- 
loughby. 

1763. ^. Large Tankard, with battle scenes, m repousse work. — 

Major C. A. Mark ham. 

1764. 31. Communion Cup. — Bray brook Church, N ortha^npton- 

shire. 

1764. 3f. Bread Basket and a Caddy. — Sir J. Esmonde. 

1765. Ift. 5961. Tea Kettle and Milk Pot; maker I K. crowned. — 

Lord Bateman. 

1765. IR- Silver Tankard. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1766. K- Pepper Caster; maker R. P. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1767. jK- 5963. Two small Waiters. — Lord Bateman. 

1767. ^. Coffee Pot, handsomely chased; maker W. G. — Brett Col- 

lection. 

1768. |S- Coffee-pot, repousse with iiowers and love-knots. — /. D. 

Gardner, Esq. 

1768. ^' Four Salt Cellars, — Sir /. Esmonde. 

1768. 4J. Boat-shaped Salt. — Ennnamicl College, Cambridge. 

1769. ®. Candlestick, given by John Darcll. — Queen's College, 

Cambridge. 

1770. p. 5965. Gilt Ewer and Cover; maker's mark S. C. : L C. — 

Sir T. ^y . Holburne, Bart 
1770. ^. Cup engraved with Tcniers subjects; maker L M. — 

George Moffatt, Esq. 
lyji. (1^. 5966. Tankard. — Sir IF. Stirling of Keir. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST. 



203 



772. 


Jt. 


772. 


K 


772. 


n. 


773- 


»• 


773- 


^. 



773- 

774- 
774- 
774- 

774- 

77S- 

775- 



a:. 
a;. 

a;. 



5967. Pair of pillar Candlesticks. — Lord Bateman. 
Fluted Vase and Cover, satyr-head handles, festoons, etc., 
fluted body, square foot. — South Kejisington Miisetim. 
Gold Cup and Cover. — Peterhottse, Cainbridge. 
Handsome silver Fire Irons. — The Marquis of Exeter. 
Corinthian column Candlestick. — Clare College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Tea Kettle and Stand, chased with foliage, by Paul de 
Lameric. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Candlestick. Brett Collection. — TF. Meyrick, Esq. 
Two-handled Cup; maker W. C.—R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

Silver gilt Spoon.— 5/. Bartholomeiv the Great Church, 
City of London. 

Cup and Cover. — Queen^s College, Cambridge. 

Communion Cup. — Harlington Chnrch, Middlesex. 

Four Salt Cellars; maker S. M. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Cycle XVL — May, 1776, to May, 1796. (George III.) 

1776. a. Silver Cup and Cover Paten. — Northborough Church, 

Isl orthamptonsliire. 
1776. a. Coffee-pot; maker's mark W. G. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1776. a. Pair of Candlesticks, in form of figures holding flowers. — 

Messrs. Hancock. 

1777. b. Silver Cup. — Easton on the Hill Church, Northamptoit- 

shire. 
1777. b. Milk Jug; maker S. I. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
17 7^^. c. Set of three Vases, designed by hdd^ms.^Percy Doyle, Esq. 

1779. d. Silver Cup, Cover Paten, Flagon and Alms Dish. — Whil- 

ton Church, N orthanDptonshire. 
17 7g. d. 5969. Pair of Vases, open-work body, with rams' heads 
and festoons ; maker W. G. R. — /. W. Brett, Esq. 

1780. e. Cream Jug, repousse with flowers and scrolls, stalk handle. 

1 78 1. f. Two Communion Patens. — Hanwell Church, Middlesex. 

1782. g. Two Communion Tankards, Cup and Cover Paten. — St. 

Bartholomew the Less Chnrch, London. 

1783. h. Muffineer. — Jesns College, Cambridge. 

1783. h. Cream Jug; maker H. B. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1784. i. Small two-handled Cup, stamped at the Hall between De- 

cember I, 1784, and July 24, 1785, with these four marks : 
1st, the drawback mark of Britannia incuse f' 2nd, the 
duty mark of the King's head incuse; 3rd, the Hall mark 
of a leopard's head in relief ; 4th, the maker's initials ; the 
date letter being omitted. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



This refers to the drawback. 



>04 HALL .\L^RKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 



I/85. 


k. 


1/86. 


1. 


i;86. 


1. 


1/8;. 


m. 


1/88. 


n. 


i;88. 


n. 


1 789. 


0. 


1 791. 


q- 


I/92. 


r. 


I/92. 


r. 


V~93- 


s. 



Pair of Salts, open ribs, festoons and lions' heads.—/. D. 

Gardner, Esq. 
5971. Pair of Cups, with ivory plaques; maker L B. — His 

Majesty the Kintj. 
Gravy Holder. — Major C. A. Markhani. 

Silver Alms Dish. — Moreton Pinkncy Church, Northajnp- 

tonshire. 

Long silver Gravy Spoon. — Major C. A. Markhani. 
5676. Silver gilt Salt Cellars ; maker's mark M. N., R. G. 

— Lord Bateinan. 
Two silver Cups. — Spratton Church, N orthamptonshire. 
Communion Flagon. — -Quenibur gJi Church, Leicestershire. 
Snuffers Tray. — Pembroke College, Cambridge. 
5978. Silver globe Inkstand. — /. IL. Brett, Esq. 
Communion Cup, Paten, Flagon and Alms Dish. — Blakes- 

ley Church, IS orthamptonshire. 

1793. s. Urn and Tea Pot with Stand. — Queen's College, Cam- 

bridge. 

1794. t. Flagon. — Ley ton Church, Essex. 

1794. t. Fish Slice. — Queen's College, Cambridge. 

1795. u. Handsome silver Fire iron. — The Marquis of Exeter. 

Cycle XVH. — May, 1796, to May, 1799. (George HI.) 

1796. A. Silver gilt Spoon. — St. Bride's Church, London. 

1797. B. Two Communion Patens. — Great Bealings Church, Suffolk. 

1798. C. Communion Paten. — Nether Br ought on Church, Leicester- 

shire. 

1799. D. Small silver Taper Holder. — -The Marquis of Exeter. 
1799. D. Communion Cup. — Sapcote CJiurcJi, Leicestershire. 
1799. D. Four Spoons. — T. R. Matthew, Esq. 



LONDON GOLD AND SILVER SMITHS. 



iouboit 0o\ii anil Sil&ti' Smitljs. 

The following list of marks or touches used by London gold 
and silver smiths, between the middle of the fourteenth and the end 
of the eighteenth century, has been principally compiled from " The 
Communion Plate of the Churches in the City ot London," " The 
Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County of Lon- 
don," " The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County 
of Middlesex," " The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in 
the County of Essex" and "The Church Plate of the County of 
Northampton," by permission of the authors of these works, and 
"An Illustrated Catalogue of the Loan Collection of Plate exhibited 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, May, 1895," by permission of the pub- 
lishers of this work. 



maker's mark. 



DATE. 



Within an oval shield 
tlie folio wing charges: 
in base a lion trans- 
fixed, in dexter chief 
two keys in saltire, 
and in sinister two es- 
callops. 

Maiden's head, with- 
out shield. 

A fish. 



A heart. 



Capital D without 
shield. 



A crescent and star. 

A ragged staff. 

A mark like tlie figure 
8, without shield. 

A cross on orb. 



I C orb and cross be- 
tween letters. 

Maiden's head crowned, 
in outline. 



ctrca 
1350 



1507 
1507 
1515 
1518 

1520 
1521 
1521 
1524 
1531 
1543 



ARTICLE. 



Silver gilt Beaker and 
Cover. 



Silver parcel gilt Chal- 
ice. 

Silver gilt Beaker and 
Cover. 

Silver gilt Apostle 
Spoon. 

Silver parcel gilt Dish, 



Silver gilt Standing 
Cup and Cover. 

A Mazer, wdtli silver 
gilt mounts. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 

Communion Alms Dish. 



Silver gilt Cover of 
Standing Cup. 

Silver gilt Rose Water 
Dish and Ewer. 

207 



OWNER, 



Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 



West Drayton Church, 
Middlesex. 

Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

St. Mary Woohioth 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

Great Waltham Church, 
Essex. 

St. Magnus Church, 
City of London. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 



15 



208 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's makk. 



W above curved line. 



DATE. 



1548 



Covered cup in shaped; 1548 
shield. 



R D in monogram in 
plain shield. 



1549 



F B in shaped shield. : 1549 



T L in monogram in 
plain shield. 



1552 



.\RTICLE. 



OW^ER. 



R M above some mark., 1553 



W 



A bird in shaped shield. 



1557 



1559 



A cone shaped mark,! 1559 
above two semicircles 



H W pellet above and 1559 
below in shaped out- 
line. 

Fleur de lys, in shaped 1559 
shield. 



SK in heart shaped 1559 
shield. 

A mullet, without shield. 1559 ! 



C C linked in rectangle. 1559 



A stag's head, in shaped! 1561 
shield. i 

R B linked, in shaped 1561 
shield. 

A six-pointed star in 1561 
ellipse. 



Silver gilt Communioji, Clapton Church, North- 
Cup and Cover Paten. \ amptonshire. 

Silver gilt Communion St. Lawrence Jewry 
Cup. ' Church, City of Lon- 

I don. 

Silver gilt Communion St. Peter upon Cornhill 
Cup. Church, City of Lon- 

I don. 

Silver gilt Communion St. James's Church, 
Cup. j Garlickhithe, Citj- of 

I London. 

j 

Silver gilt Communion St. James's Church, 
Cup. i Garlickhithe, City of 

j liondon. 

Silver gilt Communion Great Houghton Church, 



Cup, 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup). 



Northamptonshire. 

AVaterbeach Church, 
Cambridgeshire. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 



Silver gilt Communion! St. Mary-le-Bow Church, 
Cup and Cover Paten. City of London. 



Communion Cup. 



St. Vedast's Church, 
Citv of London. 



Silver gilt Communion! St. Stephen's Church, 
Cup and Cover Paten,' Walbrook, City of 

I London 

Stone ware Jug, with R. Temple Frere, Esq. 
silver mounts. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Communion Cup. 

Communion Cup. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



St. Dunstan's Church, 
Stepney, County of 
London. 

St. Peter ad Vincula 
Church, Tower of 
London. 

Harefield Church, 

County of Middlesex. 

North Ockendoii Church, 

Essex. 

St. Lawrence Jewry 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



209 



MAKER S MARK. 



I C, an animal's head 
between letters, in 
plain shield. 

A hand, holding a cross 
crosslet, in shaped out- 
line, 

R D linked letters. 



A holly leaf, without 
shield. 



F G above star, in 
shaped shield. 

A cart wheel. 

An acanthus leaf. 



W Avithin sun in splen- 
dour. 

R D in monogram in 
plain shield. 

I P in shaped shield. 



Dexter hand open be- 
neath crown. 



I C in a shield with es- 
ca Hoped top. 

G in plain shield. 



Caj^ital A in shaped 
shield. 



Ry above heart. 



A stag. 



A demi lion sejant hold- 
ing a flag. 



T B in monogram. 



DATE, 



1562 



ARTICLE. 



Parcel gilt Communion 
Cup. 



OWNER. 



1562 { Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



1562 1 Silver gilt Salt and 
Cover. 

1562 I Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Hadley Monken Church, 
Middlesex. 



Christchurch Church. 



Citv of London. 



Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

St. Stephen's Church, 
Walbrook, City of 
London. 



circa 
1562 



;!ommunion Cup. 



1562 1 Silver gilt Communion St. Margaret's Church, 
Cover Paten, Lothbury, City of 

London. 

Clipston Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Hey don Church, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

East Ham Church, Es- 
sex. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover. 



1563 

1563 i Communion Cup 



1563 I Silver gilt Communion Hornchurcli Church, 



1563 
1564 

1564 
1565 
1566 

1566 

1566 
1567 

1567 



Cup. 

Communion Cover 
Paten. 



Essex. 

Rainham Church, Es- 
sex. 



Silver gilt Communion 1 St, Luke's Church, Wel- 
Cup. 1 lingborough, North- 

I amptonshire. 

Communion Cup. j Little Warley Church, 

Essex. 



The Cockayne Cups. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 



Plateau. 



Set of silver gilt Apos- 
tle Spoons. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



The Skinners' Company, 
London. 

St. ^ Alban's Church, 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

St. Alban's Church, 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

Corpus Christi College,. 
Cambridge. 

St, Stephen's Church, 
Walbrook, City of 
London. 

Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



210 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 



A dexter hand grasping 
a hammer, in shaped 
stamp. 

R F in monogram in 
shaped shield. 

A hand holding a branch 
•with flowers and 
leaves. 

A stag's head in shaped 
shield. 

I R not croAvned. 



Biinoh of grapes in plain 
shield. 

H S interlaced. 



Trefoil in shaped out- 
line. 

Small black letter O in 
circle. 



An animal's head in 
Ilia in shield. 

I H above trefoil in 
plain shield. 

Flenr de lys Avithout 
shield. 

A fish in ellipse. 



DATE. 

1568 

1568 
1568 

1568 
1569 
1569 
1569 
1569 
1569 

1569 
1569 
1569 
1569 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



R S with pellet between | 1569 
letters in plain shield. | : 

S L in shaped shield. \ 1569 



Leaf with bifurcated | 1569 

stalk. i 

1 

Italic X in shaped j 1569 
shield. 



Leaf inverted in plain 
shield. 



1569 



Bull's liead erased in, 1570 j 
shaped shield. } | 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 

Stone ware Jug wit'i 
silver mounts. 

Communion Cuj). 



Communion Cup. 
Communion Cup. 
Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cover Pa- 
ten. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paton. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cover Pa- 
ten. 

Communion Paten. 



Harrow Church, Middle- 
sex. 



St. Mary-le-Bow Church, 
City of London. 

Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 



Welford Church, North 
amptonshire. 

E. A. Stanford, Esq. 



Barnaek Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Brigstock Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

CosgroveChurch, North- 
amptonshire. 

Great Doddington 
Church, Northampton- 
shire. 

Alwalton Church, Hunt, 
ingdonshire. 

Ecton Church, Nortli- 
amptonshire. 

Pitsford Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Little Harrowden 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Kings Sutton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Little Oakley Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Peterborough Cathedral 



Stanion Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Wnnsford Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Pytchley Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



211 



MAKER S MARK. 



Fleur de lys in shaped 
outline. 

Cross pommee in plain 
shield. 

A L linked in shaped 
shield. 

A flower or thistle in 
shaped shield. 

H S above pellet in 
plain shield. 

H E linked in plain 
shield. 

I H in oblons. 



W H above annulet in 
plain shield. 

Capital M in plain 
shield. 

F R in monojsrram. 



T F linked in shaped 
shield. 

I P in shaped shield. 



I C with pellet between 
letters in shaped 
shield. 

F R in monogram. 



I G in monogram. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cuj) and Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup. 



OWNER. 



1570 Communion Cup. 



1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 
1570 

1570 
1571 



N S interlaced. I 1571 



A dove in shaped shield. 



A trefoil. 



I C in plain shield. 



No in shaped shield. 



1571 



1571 



1572 



Communion Cujd. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Tankard. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Stone ware Jug with 
silver mounts. 

Silver gilt Tankard. 



Silver gilt Tazza. 



Communion Cup, 



1573 I Horn Beaker with silver 
gilt mounts. 



Dodford Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Ashley Church, North- 
amptonshire, 

Denton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Braddon Church, North, 
amptonshire. 

Green's Norton Church 
Northamptonshire, 

Lutton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Whittlebury Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Crougliton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Augustine's Church, 
City of London. 

Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

Alderton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Holdenby Church, 
Northamj)tonshire. 

Rothersthorp Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Mildred's C h u r c h. 
Bread Street, City of 
London. 

J, P. Dexter. 



Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Wootton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

St. Giles' Church, Crip- 
plegate, City of Lon- 
don. 



212 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 


DATE. 


ARTICLE. 


OWNER. 


A crah. 


1573 


Tankard. 


Colonel North. 


C L a talbert between 
letters. 


1573 


Tankard. 


Ashmolean Museum. 


H C a hammer between 
letters grasped by a 
hand beneath in plain 
shield. 


1575 


Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover. 


All Hallows the Great 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 


C C interlaced. 


1577 


Stone ware Jug with 
silver mounts. 


H. Durlacher, Esq. 


A P in plain shield. 


1578 


Communion Cup. 


Evenley Church, North- 
amptonshire. 


ES 


1578 


Tankard. 


Baron de Rothschild. 


A spread eagle. 


1578 


Salt Cellar 


Sir Richard Wallace. 


A bird. 


1579 


Pelican Cup. 


The late Rt. Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. 


Three trefoil leaves. 


1579 


Ewer and Salver. 


Duke of Rutland. 


H C with a hammer and 
vice. 


1579 


Tazza. 


H.R.H. The Duke of 
Cambridge. 


SB. 


1580 


Chapman Cui^. 


Armourers' Company, 
London. 


F M in shaped shield. 


1580 


Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 


Towcester Church, 
Northamptonshire. 


W R above two curved 
lines. 


1580 


Communion Cup. 


St. James's Church, 
Brackley, Northamp- 
tonshire. 


RM. 


1581 


Salt Cellar 


Baron de Rothschild. 


B a pellet in each space. 


1581 


Stone ware Jug with 
silver mounts. 


T. M. Whitehead, Esq. 


S E interlaced in shaped 
shield. 


1582 


Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 


Fawsley Church, North- 
amptonshire. 


A tree. 


1583 


Salt Cellar 


Baron de Rothschild. 


A flag in bend in shaped 
shield. 


1583 


Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons. 


St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, County 
of London. 


A rose in pentagon. 


1586 


Silver gilt Tazza Com- 
munion Paten. 


St. Giles's Church, Crip- 
plegate, City of Lon- 
don. 


Capital D in plain 
shield. 


1586 


Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 


St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, County 
of London. 


A bird, like an owl, in 
plain shield. 


1587 

i 


Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 


Radston Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



213 



MAKER S MAKK. 



T S above a double 
headed eagle dis- 
played, ill plain shield. 

H C a cross between let- 
ters. 

A flower. 

A crescent and star in 
circle. 

I A above quatrefoil in 
plain shield. 

S S line between and 
mullet above letters 
in plain shield. 

N R above four pellets 
in plain shield. 



R W below pellet in 
shield. 

I G in monogram in 
shaped shield. 

T H with rose and two 
pellets above and the 
same below in shaped 
shield. 

CK. 

I B above rose. 

C B in monogram in 
plain shield. 

G S above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

C B in monogram in 
plain shield, 

H B linked in sliaped 
shield. 



D above stag couch ant 
in plain shield. 



DATE. 



1587 

1588 

1588 
1589 

1591 

1591 

1591 

1591 



ARTICLE. 



Communion Flagon. 

Paten. 

Ostrich egg Cup. 
Seal headed Spoon. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Silver gilt Beaker. 



Ostrich egg Cup with 
silver mounts. 



OWXEJl. 



1593 i Communion Cup and 
I Cover 

1594 < Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



1595 
1595 
1595 



Ewer and Salver. 
Ewer and Salver. 
Communion Cup. 



1595 Silver parcel gilt Com- 
i munion Cup. 

1595 Communion Cup. 



1597 I Silver gilt Communion 
I Paten. 



1597 



Communion Beaker i 

with handle and| 
cover. ! 



H above bear passant. j 1597 

IN above rose. 1 1597 I Ewer and Salver. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



St. Mary Woolnoth 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Earl of Home. 

Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 

Ecton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Newbottle Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



St. Giles's Church, Crip- 
plegate, City of Lon- 
don. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

Christchurch Church, 
Citj^ of London. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 



S. Addington, Esq. 
Corporation of Bristol. 

Chingford Church, Es- 
sex. 

Ruislip Church, Middle- 
sex. 

Barking Church, Essex, 



All Hallows' Church, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

St. Giles's Church, Crip- 
plegate, City of Lon- 
don. 

Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Corporation of Norwich. 



214 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKEB S MAKK. 



R P separated by sprig 
with five leaves, in 
shaped shield. 

A cross in heart shaped 
stamp. 

ER. 

RC. 



A plant or tree in plain 
shield. 



A squirrel sejant, hold- 
ing a nut with his fore 
j)aws, in i^lain shield. 

A cock in plain shield. 



BR or R B linked let- 
ters in shaped shield. 

W J the head of an ani- 
mal, perhaps a fox, 
between letters, in 
plain shield. 

T C ahove pellet in 
shaped shield. 

A B. 



A double headed s])read- 
ing eagle in shaped 
shield. 

H D above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

I H above a bear pas- 
sant. 

AB linked in shaped i 
shield. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



1598 j Silver gilt Communion 
Cover Paten. 



1598 Silver gilt seal head 

vSpoon. 

15991 Spice Box. 

1599 Standing Cup. 



1599 

1599 

1600 

1601 
1601 

1601 
1602 

1602 

1602 
1601 
1605 



I A in scalloped shield. 1605 



H M linked, beneath 1605 
two pellets and above j 
another, in shaped j 
shield. 

RW above pellet in | 1606 

shaped stamp. ! 



OWNEll. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Silver gilt Cover to 
Communion Cuj). 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover. 

Silver gilt standing Cup 
and Cover. 

Parcel gilt Beaker. 



Communion Cup. 



Cm:) and Cover 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Pateu. 



Silver gilt Ewer and 
Salver. 



St. Dunstan in the West 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Ealing Church, Middle- 
sex. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Innholders' Company, 
London. 

St. Dunstan in the Wesi 
Church, City of Lon- 
don . 

St. Mary Abbots' 
Church, County of 
London . 

St. Margaret Patten's 
Churcli, City of JiOn- 
don. 

Maxey Cliurch, North- 
amptonshire. 

Furtho Church, North- 
ami^tonshire. 



Corby Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

St. Giles's Church, Crip- 
plegate. City of Lon- 
don. 

Aynhoe Church, North- 
amiDtonshire. 

Lord Willoughby de 
Eresby. 

Duddington Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

All Hallows' Church 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

St. James's Church, Gar- 
lickhithe. City of Lon 
don. 



Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



215 



MAKER S MAlUv. 



M. 



DATE. 



1606 



S O above nnillet in 1606 
shaped shield. 



A cross poniinelle on 
oi-b, without shield. 

T W in inonoy;raiii in 
shaped siiield. 



1006 

1607 

R W above pellet. j 1607 

1607 



R M above pellet in 
shape<l shield. 



A fetter lock above at 

row head in shaped! 

shield. I 

I 
S O beneath one pellet 

and above three in 

shaped shield. 

T C beneath three pel- 
lets and above one in 
shield. 

I S above cre'-cent in 
shaped shield. 

T F in monogram in 
plain shield. 



T A in monogram 
above mullet in 
shaped shield. 



1607 



ARTICLE. 



■OWN EH 



Salt Cellar 

Communion Cup. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 

Silver gilt standing Cup 
and Cover. 



R. Neville Grenville, 
Esq. 

Great Houghton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

AVillesdcn Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 



Silver gilt Communion Trinity College, Cam 



Flagon. 



bridge. 



Silver gilt Communion St. P e t e r - 1 e - P o o r 
Flagon. I Church, City of Lon- 

I don. 

Silver gilt Communion; Hendon Church, Middle- 
Cup and Cover Paten. ; sex. 



1608 i Communion Flagon. St. Alban's C h u r c h. 

I Wood Street, City of 
I London. 



1608 

1608 
1608 

1608 



J M abov(> some mark 1608 
in plain shield. j 



Silver gilt standing Cupj Trinity Hall, Cam- 
and Cover. i bridge. 



Silver gilt standing Cupi Corpus Christi College, 
and Cover. } Cambridge. 

Silver gilt Communion All Hallows the Great 
Cuj) and Cover. Church, City of Lon- 

don. 

All Hallows the Great 
Church, City of Lon- 
don . 

Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



R IVI beneath harp in j 1609 ! Silver gilt Communion Hadley Monken Church, 
.shaped shield. ! Flagon. Aliddlesex. 



S O in quatiefoil. 
I A in shaped sliield. 



S F in monogram in 
shaped shield. 



1609 I Silver gilt Communion; Burghley House, North- 
Cup. I amptonshire. 

16091 Silver gilt Communion | St, Andrew Undershaft 
Cup. j Church, City of Lon- 

I don. 

16091 Silver gilt Communion; St. Botolph's Church, 
Cup. I Aldgate, City of Lon- 

don. 



Capital letter W in 1 1609 Silver gilt Communion 



plain shield. 



St. Antholin's Church, 



Cup and Cover Paten. City of London. 



2l6 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



R C above fleiir de lys 1610 
in plain shield. 

R W oA-er rainbow. , 1610 



TC three pellets above | 1610 
and one beloAv in] 
shaped shield. i 

N R above rose and; 1612 
four i^ellets in plain 
shield. 



AR. 

I T a bow betAveen let- 
ters. 

R B linked letters 
above pellet in shaped 
shield. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



Communion Cup and West Haddon Church, 
Cover Paten. ! Northamptonshire. 

Silver gilt standing Cup' Sidney Sussex College, 
and Cover. Cambridge. 

Silver gilt Communion! Hadley Monken Church 



Cup 



Middlesex. 



1613 
1613 

1613 



Capital letter N above 1613 
pellet in shaped 
shield. 



A in shaped shield. 



1614 



AB linked letters in 1615 

shaped shield. i 

T F Avith SAA'an or fish iuj 1616 
shaped shield. 



A trefoil in irregular' 1616 
oval. ' 

I 

TF in monogram in! 1616 
plain shield. ' 



LA. 



1616 



C B linked in plain 1616 
shield. j 

I P above boll in shaped' 1616 

shield. I 

Capital letter R be-i 1616 
tAAcen tAvo pellets and 
aboA'e W. j 

RS aboA-e heart in | 1617 
shaped shield. 

RP above mullet- in 1617 
shaped shield. , 



Tavo Communion Cups. \ St. Giles's Church, Crip- 

I plegate, City of Lon- 
i don. 



Cup and CoA-er. 
Spice Box. 

Communion Flagon. 



Tavo Communion 
Flagons. 



Tavo Communion 
Flagons. 



Standing Cup knoAvn as 
the Nevile Cup. 

Tavo Communion 
Patens. 



Silvor gilt standing Cupj 
and CoA^er. i 

Cup. I 



Dish. 
Communion Cup. 

Tavo Communion Pa- 
tens. 

Silver gilt standing 
Cup. 



Tavo Communion 
Flagons. 



Lord Londesborough. 
Sir T. W. Hoi bur ne. 



All Hallow's Church, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

St. Mary Wooln oth 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 

Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Stephen's Church, 
Walbrook, City of 
London.. 

St. John's College Cam- 
bridge. 

Skinners' Comi^any, 
I>ondon. 

C. Winn, Esq. 

Christchurch Church, 
City of London. 

Christchurch Church, 
City of London. 

Corpus Christi College. 
Cambridge. 



Christchurch Church, 
City of London. 



Communion Paten. Christchurch Church, 

Citv of London. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



217 



MAKER S MAKK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



Capital letter N above 1617 
])ollet in shaped 
shield. 



T H linked letters 
above pellet in shaped 
shield. 



1617 



CC two pellets above, 1017 
and tree between let-] 
ters in plain shield, i 

TF lombardie letters 1 1618 
linked in plain shield. 



I S above pellet in 
shaped shield. 



R C above mullet in 
plain shield. 



1618 



1618 



W C arrow between let-| 1618 
ters i^oint to base inj 
plain shield. 

Small italic P in orna- 1619 
mental shield. I 



W R above curved line 
in shaped shield. 

A B above pellet in 
plain shield. 



1619 



1619 



I C above mullet in 1620 
plain shield. 



A I 
WT 

in square stamp. 



1620 



T F in monogram in 1620 
plain shield. 



IC 
W 

wc 
J 

in shaped shield. 

T E in monogram in es- 
calloped shield. 

T F in a shield. 



1621 
1621 

1622 
1622 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons 



Communion Cup. 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt standing Cup 
and Cover, knoAvn as 
the Mildmay Fane 
Cup. 

Two Tankards. 



Silver gilt Communion 1 
Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion! 
Cup and Cover Paten, j 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Communion Cup. 



Tankard. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



OWNER. 



St. Edmund the King 
and Martyr Church, 
City of London. 

St. Giles's Church, Crip- 
plegate, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Mildred's Church, 
Bread Street, City of 
London. 

Cransley Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge. 



St. Andrew by the Ward- 
robe Church, City of 
London. 

Hadley Monken Church, 
Middlesex. 



Ufford Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

St. Antholin's Church, 
City of London. 

St. Mary Abbot's 
Church, Kensington, 
County of London. 

Aveley Church, Essex. 



St. Helen's C h u r c h, 
Bishopsgate, City of 
London. 

Chelmsford Church, Es- 
sex. 

W. Cozier, Esq. 

Marston St. Lawrence 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 



Silver gilt Communion St. Antholin's Church. 
Cup and Cover. ' City of London. 

Silver gilt Cup and! Holy Trinity Church, 
Cover Paten. Cambridge. 



2l8 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



B B ill shield. 



R S above heart in ii- 
rejiular shield. 



F 
W 

in shaped shield. 

G O sickle between let- 
ter in plain shield. 

I Ml above mullet in 
plain shield. 

H S above mullet in 
shaped shield. 



A I 
WT 

beneath arrow in 
shaped shield. 

R S above heart be- 
t\\een two pellets in 
plain shield. 

Capital letter A in dia- 
mond stamp. 



I F crowned above fleur 
de lys in shaped 
shield. 

W C an arrow between 
letters point to base 
in plain shield. 

T F in monogram in 
plain shield. 



1G22 ! Communion Cup. 

i 

i 

1C22 S^ilver gilt Communion 
I Cup. 

16221 Communion Flagon. 



1G22 
1623 
1623 

1623 



Cup with legend. 



OWNEJl. 



St. Giles's Church, Cam 
bridge. 

St. Augustin with St 
Faith's Church, City 
of London. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 

G. Munday, Esq. 



Communion Cup audi Hayes Church, Middle 
Paten. I sex.. 



Communion Paten 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



1623 1 Two silver gilt Com- 
I munion Flagons 



1624 Communion Paten 



1624 



Piece of Plate. 



1624 I Communion Flagon. 



1624 j Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



RC above arrow head j 1624 1 Three silver gilt Com- 
in heart shaped { munion Cups, 

shield. I 

H S above sun in splen-j 1625 i Communion Flagon. 

dour. ! 



T B above some markj 1625 
in shaped shield. 



S 

w 

in shaped shield. 



1625 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



St. James's Church 
Brackley, Northamp 
tonshire. 

Adston Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



St. Swithin's Church, 
Citj' of London. 



All Hallow's Churcli, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

Messrs. Hancock. 



St. Alban's Church, 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

St. Mary's Church, Bow 
County of London. 



St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, County 
of London. 

St. Alban's Church, 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

St. Alban's Church. 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

St, Magnus's Church, 
City of London. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



219 



maker's mark. 



R B above mullet in 
iieart shaped shield. 



H B linked letters 
above pellet in shaped 
shield. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER, 



1626 



1626 



Four silver gilt Com- St. Katharine Cree 
munion Cups. | church Church, City 

of London. 



WS in an elliptical 1627 
stamp. I 

i 

CC above trefoil in i 1627 
plain shield. 

F 
W 

in shaped stamj). 

W S above cinquefoil in 
plain shield. First 
mark of Walter 
Shiite. 

R S above heart in 
shaped shield. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups. 



St. Mary Wool n o t h 
Church, City of Lon- 
don . 



T B above rose in plain 
shield. 

R C above arrow head 
in heart shaped 
shield. 

I I above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

T C linked letters in 
shaped shield. 



1627 



1627 



Communion Cup. | St. Edward's ChurcJi, 

Cambridge. 

Communion Cup. Newbottle Church, 

j Northamptonshire. 

Silver gilt Communion Great Haddow Church, 
J^lagon. , Essex. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flaeon. 



All Hallow's Clun-ch, 
liarking, City of Lon- 
don. 



1627 ^^il^er gilt Communion St. Andrew Undersliaft 
Paten. j Church, City of Lon- 

don. 



1627 
1627 

1627 
1628 



Apostle Spoons. 



Messrs. Hancock. 



Two Communion Cups • St. Andrew by the Ward- 
and Cover Patens. robe Church, City of 

London. 

Silver gilt Communion. St. Clement's Church, 
Flagon. i City of London. 



Communion Cup and 
Paten. 



Strixton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



T F in monogram in 16281 Silver gilt standing Cup | Christ's College, Cam 



plain shield 

C B linked letters in 
plain shield. 



and Cover 



bridge. 



1628 



Communion Cup and ' St. Andrew by the Ward- 
Cover robe Church, City of 

London. 

S W in shaped shield. 1628 Two silver gilt Com- St. Danstan in the East 

munion Flagons. Church, City of Lon- 

i don. 



A winged lion passant; 1628 
in plain shield. 



W S bow below from 
which an arroAv is ris- 
ing between letters in 
circle. Second mark 
of Walter Shnte. 



1628 



Silver gilt Communion St. Mary A b c h u r c h 

Cup. Church, City of I;on- 

don. 

Silver gilt Communion : St. Mary A b c h u r c h 



Paten. 



Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



220 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's MAliK. 



R A above fleur de lys 
ill shield. 

R B above mullet in 
shaped shield. 



A lance head erect in 
obU)ng stamp. 



I A above mullet in 
plain shield. 



DATE. 



1629 



1629 



1630 



ARTICLE. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten, 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup) and Cover. 



Communion Cup. 



1630 j Two Communion 
Flagons. 



H W pellet above and 1(530 
below in lobed stamp. 



W C above mullet in | 
shaped shield. 

R M above curved lines 
in plain shield. 

W R beneath curved 
line and line and 
above annulet in 
plain shield. 



1630 



1630 

circa 
1631 



I H two pellets above ! iq^i 
and two below in, 
plain shield. 



C C A\ith arrow be- 
tween letters point to 
base in circle. 



1631 



I IVI above a pig passant; 1631 
in plain shield. | 



J B in monogram in 
plain shield. 



1631 



WS above pellet in | 1631 

plain shield. } 

H M above cinquefoilj 1631 
ill sliaped shield. 



DG an anchor between 
letters in plain shield. 

G B in shield. 



Capital letter D enclos- 
ing C in plain shield. 



1631 
1631 
1631 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Pat^n. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Communion Plate. 



Communion Cuji and 
Cover Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and CoA^er. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Alms Dish. 



Two silver gilt Spoons. 



OWKER. 



St. Benedict's Church, 
Cambridge. 

St. John's Church, 
Hampstead, County 
of London. 

St. Alban's Church, 
Wood Street, City ot 
London. 

St. Stephen's Church, 
Walbrook, City of 
London . 

St. Vedast's Church, 
City of London. 

St. Vedast's Church, 
City of London. 

Easton Mauduit Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Augustine's Church. 
Citv of London. 



Messrs. Garrard. 



Brampton Ash Church. 
Northamptonshire. 



All Hallow's Church. 
Barking, City of Lon 
don. 

St. Dunstan's Church, 
Stepney, County of 
London. 

Sywell Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

St. Antholin's Church, 
City of London. 

Arthingworth Church, 
Northamptonshire . 

Holy Trinity Church, 
Cambridge. 

St. Swithin's Church, 
City of London. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



221 



MAKEll S MAKK. 



R W above annulet in 
shaped shield. 



T F in monogram in 
plain shield. 



I S in circular stamp. 
Joseph Smitli. 



DATE, 



1632 



1632 



1632 



P B crescent above and 1632 
below and three pel- 
lets on each side, in 
square stamp with 
corners cut off. 

P B Avith pellet above 1632 
and below in plain 
shield. 

fG above pellet in i 1632 

xdain shield. , 

R A above cinquefoil inj 1632 
plain shield. 

I F in shaped shield. I 1633 



CF above mullet in | 1633 
l)lain shield. 

circa 
W C in shaped shield. 1633 



I B above buckle and 1633 
two pellets in shaped 
shield. ? J. Buckle.^ 

H B linked letters be-| 1633 
neath a demi sun inj 
splendour, in shaped , 
shield. 

E S in dotted circle. : 1633 



W S in shield. ; 1634 



ARTICLE. 



Two Communion Cups. 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



Silver gilt Spoon. 



Communion Paten 



P G above rose in tre- 
foil. 



1634 



An escallope shell inj 1634 
stamp of the same 
shape. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups. 

Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Paten, 



Two Monteiths. 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Communion Flagon. 
Two Cups. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



OWNER. 



St. Anne and St. Agnes 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Helen's Church, 
Bishopsgate, City of 
London. 

St. Mary's C h u r c h, 
Strand, County of 
London. 

St. Pancras Old Church, 
County of London. 



Church Brampton 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Great Waltham Church, 
Essex. 

Clipston Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

East Farndon Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Gret worth Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Haberdashers' C o m - 
pany, London. 

St. Lawrence J e w r y 
Church, City of Lon- 
don , 

St. Stephen's Church, 
Wal brook, City of 
London. 



Harrow Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Haberdashers' C o m - 
pany, London. 

St.Dunstan in the West 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



Silver gilt Communion! St. Helen's Church, 



Cup and Cover Paten. 



Bishopsgate, City of 
London. 



HALL AL^RKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 



F 
W 

in sliaiDed sliield. 

R C in shaped shield. 



A nuillet in plain shield 



C C a tree between let- 
ters and two pellets 
above, in plain 
shield. 

R S above heart and 
two pellets in plain 
shield. 

D F in shaped shield. 



F C in dotted circle. 



I B in square. 



Italic caiiital B in plain 
shield. 



R C above arrow head 
in heart shaped 
shield. 

R W mullet above and 
below in lozenge. 

PG above rose in tre- 
foil stamp. 



R W in shaped shield. 



R 
W 

witli ]iellet on each side 
of the R. 

R W above mullet in 
sha])ed shield. 



DATE, 



1634 

1634 
1634 

1634 

1635 

1635 
1635 

1635 
1635 

1636 

1636 
1636 



ARTICLE. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 

Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten and Two 
Flagons, all silver 
gilt. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Paten, 

Communion Flagon. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup audi 
silver gilt Paten. 



Two Communion Pa- 
tens. 

Two Communion 
Flagons. 



OWNER. 



1636 

1636 1 Standing Cup 



Communioii Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



1636 



B F al)OAv trefoil in 1636 
plain shield. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Disli. 



St. Peter-le-Poor 
(yhurcli. City of Lon- 
don. 

Petei'boiougli Cathe- 
dral. 

St. Luke's Church, Wel- 
lingborough, North- 
amx^tonshire. 



All Hallow's the Great 
Church, City of Lon 
don. 



South AVeald Church, 

Essex. 



Cottesbrook Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Matthew's Church, 
B e t h n a 1 Green, 
County of London. 

Pitsford Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Formerly at St. Giles's 
Church, Northamj)- 
ton. 

St. Michael's Church, 
Wood Street, City of 
London. 

St. Mary's Church, Is- 
lington. 

St. Anne and St. Agnes 
Church; City of Lon- 
don. 

Bozeat Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



Hillingdon Church, 
Middlesex. 

Barnwell St. A n d r e w 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



223 



MAKER'S MAKK. 



R M above rose in 
shaped stamp. 



I M above ])ig passant 
in plain shield. 



C C a oolnmn between 
and two pellets above 
letters in plain shield, 

RR 
V 

T M linked letters in 
plain shield. 

I P above bell in shaped 
shield. 

R A in plain shield. 



R W above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

W IVI beneath two pel- 
lets and above three 
])ellets and annulet in 
heart shaped shield. 

G D above cinquefoil 
and four pellets in 
heart shaped shield. 

A mvdlet above escallop 
and between six pel- 
lets in plain shield. 

R B above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

R F above i^ellet in 
plain shield. 



DATE. 



1(33(3 



AUTICLB. 



Communion Flason, 



1(33U Two Communion 
Flagons. 



1C36 

1G37 
1(337 



Communion Flagon. 



Cup. 



OWNER. 



St. Andrew Undershaft 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

kSt. James's Church, 
Garlickhitlie, City of 
JiOndon. 

Towcester Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Haberdashers' Com- 
pany, London. 



Communion Alms Dish.' Lichborough Church, 

I Northamptonshire. 



I W above 
shield. 



star in 



R C above three pellets 
in plain shield. 

R S mullet above and 
below in shaped 
shield. 

F with bar across letter 
in shaped shield. 



1(337 i Communion Paten. j Lutton Church, North- 

I ani])tonsliire. 



1637 
1637 
1637 

1637 

1637 

1637 

1638 
1638 
1638 
1638 

1638 



Comnuinion Paten. \ Stanford Church, 

Northamptonshire. 



Silver gilt Cover Paten, 
Silver gilt Flagon. 



Stanmore Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

St. Augustine's Church, 
City of London. 



Two Communion Cups Holy Trinity Church 
and Covers. Minories, City of Lon- 

don. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons 



Two silver gilt Cups and 
Cover Patens. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



St. Mary at Hill Church 
City of London. 



St. John of Jerusalem 
C h u r c h, Hackney, 
County of London. 

East Carlton Church, 
Northamx)tonshire. 

Little Shelf ord Church, 
Cambridgeshire. 



Communion Paten. I Brigstock Church, 

! Northamptonshire, 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Bread Holder. 



Gretton Cluirch, North- 
amptonshire, 



Gretton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

16 



224 



HALT. MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKEK S MAUK. 



G G a coliinin between 
letters in shaped 
shield. 

W S above tinquefoil in 
plain shield. 



I P in plain shield. 



W M above tliree ])ol- 
lets in i^lain shield. 

I G above mnllet in 
heart shaped shield. 

J B in monogram in 
plain shield. 

R C beneath three pel- 
lets and above mnllet 
in i)lain shield. 

B Y above pellet in 
plain shield. 



T B in monogi'am, n 
X)ellet and mnllet on 
each side and a bird 
beneath letters, in 
plain shield. 

A rose in shaped shield. 



D W above mnllet and 
fonr pellets in heart 
shaped shield. 

I W above some object 
in plain shield. 

R W beneath mnllet in 
hexagonal stami:». 



R S above heart in 
shaped shield. 

A mnllet above escallo]) 
and between six ])el- 
lets, in plain shield. 

W C above three pellets 
in heart shaped 
shield. 

HI B linked letters in 
kidney shaped stamp. 



DATE. 



1C38 
1(538 

1(338 

1638 
1639 
1639 
1639 



Circa 

1639 



1639 



ARTICLE. 



OAVXEIl. 



Commnnion Cnp and Newnham Chnrch, 
Cover Paten. Northamptonshire. 



1639 
1639 

1640 
1640 

1640 
1()40 

1640 
1640 



Silver gilt Commnnion 
Cnp. 



Commnnion Q\\\} Cover 
Paten and two Flag- 
ons, all silver gilt. 

Commnnion Cnp and 
Paten. 

Silver gilt Cnp and 
Cover Paten. 

Commnnion Cup. 



Silver gilt seal head 
Si:)oon. 

Silver gilt Spoon. 



Commnnion Flagon, 

Cnp, Paten and Ci- 
borinm, all silver gilt. 



Communion Paten. 



Cup. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Flagon, 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover Paten. 

Two Commnnion 
Flagons. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



St. James's Church, 
Garlickhithe, City of 
London. 

Peterborough Cathe- 
dral. 



Great Greenford 
Church, Middlesex. 

Cranford Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

North Ockendon 
Church, Essex, 

St. Lawrence Jewry 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Peter upon Cornhill 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Mary's Chnrch, Ac- 
ton, Middlesex. 



Cold Ashby Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Skinners' Company, 
liondon. 



Fotheringhay Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Augustine with St. 
Faith's Church, City 
of London. 

Luddington Church, 
Northamptonshire, 

Romford Church, Es- 
sex. 

St. John's C h u r c h, 
Hampstead, County 
of London. 

Great Greenford 
Church, Middlesex. I 



LIST OF MARKS. 



225 



MAKEU S MARK. 



R M above cinquefoil in 
shaped shield. 

I I above iiuiUet in 
l)lain shield. 

I R beneath croAvn and 
leopard's head. 

H G midlets and pellets 
above and below in 
shaped shield. 

R F in heart shaped 
ahield. 

W M on sliield with 
Moor's head. 

T C in circle. 



DATE. 



ARTICI.K. 



0WXK1{, 



1G41 Three Comnumiofii 
Fl a irons. 



Ht. Yedast's Church, 
City of J>ondon. 



1641:Sih-er gilt seal head St. John of Jerusalem 

Church, Hacknej 
County of London. 



M M in monogram in 
square stamp. 

R D in plain shield. 



A rose in plain shield. 
? II. Nethoviie. 

D R an anchor in plain 
shield. 

ES 

R S with mullet in 
plain shield. 



N W above mullet in 
shaped shield. 

C S an arrow between 
letters in plain shield 

W H beneath mullet 
and above annulet in 
cross shaped stamp. 

H G above pellet in 
plain shield. 



164G 
1648 

1649 
1650 
1650 
1650 

circa 

1650 

1651 

1652 

1652 
1652 

1653 



Spoon. 

Tankard 
Communion Paten. 

Communion Cup. 
Cup. 



Skinners' Company, 
London. 

Hutton Church, Essex 



Weedon Beck Ciiurch, 
Northamptonshire. 

Skinners' Company, 
London. 



Silver gilt Cup andj Bainton Church, North- 
Cover Paten. | amptonshire. 

Two silver Dishes. St. Vedast's Church, 

I City of London. 

! 

Silver gilt Alms Dish. \ Peterborough Cathe- 

i dral. 



Communion Cup. 

Communion Cup. 

Fauconberg Cup. 

Communion Cup and 
Flagon. 



Cold Ashby Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Rainham Church, Es- 
sex. 

Paul Butler, Esq. 

St. Clement Dane's 
Church, County of 
London . 



Two Communion Cups j H i g h a m Ferrers 
and Cover Patens. j Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

1653 I Communion Cup andj Lamport Church, North- 
i Cover Paten. amptonshire. 

! 1 

1653 Four silver gilt Com-} St. Magnus's Church, 

City of London. 



1654 



Four roses in plain] 1655 
shield. 

F W in circular stamp. 1655 



munion Patens. 
Communion Flagon. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups. 



St. Margaret's Church, 
New Fish Street, City 
of London. 

Grendon Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, County 
of London. 



226 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MAUK. 



DATE. 



AKTICLE. 



OWNER. 



JB in monogram in 1G55 ' Communion Flagon and Friern Barnet Churcli 

Middlesex. 



plain shield. 
I W 



1655 



I G in shaped shield. 165G 



F L above bird in 1 1656 
shaped shield. 

F C 1656 

I H pellet above and be-i 1656 
loAV in plain shield. 

C S a dagger between 1656 
letters hilt to base, in 
plain shield. 



W M above rose and 
three pellets in plain 
shield. 

W M beneath two ])el- 
lets and above cinqne- 
foil and three pellets, 
in heart shaped shield. 

I I above mullet in 
shaped shield. 



A F in irregular shield, 



H N above dove hold- 
ing olive branch in 
her beak. 

I W script letters with- 
out shield. 

G B above j^ellet in 
shaped shield. 



H I linked above R L in 
shaped shield. 

O S above x^^^^^t in 
plain shield. 

A F with a pellet above 
cinquefoil and two 
pellets, in plainshield. 

H T above orescent in 
plain shield. 



1656 
1657 

1657 

1657 
1657 

1658 
1658 

1658 
1658 
1658 

1659 



Paten. 
Blacksmith's Cup. 
Communion Paten. 

Communion Alms Dish, 

Two-handled Cup. 
Communion Flagon. 



J. P. Dexter, Esq. 

Clay Coton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Xewton B r o m s w o 1 d 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Southwick Cliurcli, 
Northamptonshire. 



Silver gilt Communio:i St. Vedast's Church, 
Cup. City of London. 

Communion Cup. Laindon Church, Essex. 



Communion Flagon. I St. Margaret's ('hurch, 

New Fisli Street, City 
I of London. 



Seal head Spoon. 



Cup and Cover 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Communion Paten, 



St. Ma ry Abbot's 
Cliurcli, Kensington, 
County of London. 

P e t e r h o u s e, Cam- 
bridge. 

Braunston C h u r c h, 
Northamptonshire. 



Ma id well Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Two silver gilt Com-' St. Peter-le-Pooi 



munion Patens. 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 

Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Dodford C h u r c h, 
Northami^tonshire. 

Hinton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Springfield Church, Es- 
iSex. 



Silver gilt Salver on^ The Marquis of Exeter, 
foot. i 



LIST OF MARKS. 



227 



MAKER S MARK. 



m G with three pellets 
above and mullet be- 
low ill i^laiii shield. 



A M in monogram 
square stamp. 



m 



1 S linked 
ellipse. 



in dotted 



F R pellet between let- 
ters in shaped shield. 

T A above star and two 
pellets in shield. 

R A above rose and two 
pellets in heart 
shaped shield. 

G D above rose and two 
pellets in heart 
shaped shield. 

R A above mullet in 
heart shaped shield, 

W M above mullet in 
plain shield. 

T K two coronets above 
and mullet beloAV, in 
shaped shield. 

P B crescent above and 
below and three pel- 
lets, in square, Avith 
corners cut off. 

R F pellet between let- 
ters in shaped shield. 

G D above rose and 
two pellets in heart 
shaped shield. 

R M mullet above and 
below in plain shield. 

T D above fleur de lys 
in shaped shield. 



R S mullet above pellet 
between and fleur de 
lys below letters in 
plain shield. 

— - 1 in shaped shield. 



DATE. 



1659 



1659 



1660 



1660 



1660 



1660 



1660 



Circa 
1660 



1661 



1661 



1661 



1661 



1661 



1661 



1661 



1662 



Circa 

1662 



ARTICLE. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Communion Flagon. 
Commuiuion Salver. 
Communion Flagon. 



Silver gilt Caudle Cup 
and Cover. 



OWNER. 



Blatherwyck Church, 
"l^orthamptonshire. 



St. Benedict's Church, 
Cambridge. 

Dallington Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Winwick Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. 



Communion Cup and| Christchurch Church, 
Cover City of London. 



Communion Flagon. | St. Vedast's Church, 

Cit3^ of London. 



Communion Cup andi Badby Church, North- 
Cover Paten. | amptonshire. 

Silver gilt Alms Dish. ; Easton Mauduit Church 

Northamptonshire, 



Communion Dish. 



M a r s t o n Trussell 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 



Silver gilt Communion | St. James's Church, 
Paten. Garlickliithe, City of 

London. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Fla^2;on. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Two silver gilt Cups and 
Covers, 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Paten. 



Ravensthorp Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Augustine's with St. 
Faith's Church, City 
of London. 

St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, County 
of London. 

St. Margaret's Church, 
AVestminster, County 
of liOndon. 

Brockhall Church, 
Northamptonshire, 



Whiston Church, North- 
amptonsliire. 



228 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



F W mullet between 
two pellets above and 
two below letters, in 
shaped shield. 

WH 

T C linked in shaped 
shield. 



T K above fleur de lys 
in plain shield. 



DATE. 



1662 



1662 
1662 



1663 



1663 



H N above dove with 
olive branch in her 
beak, in plain shield. 

Circa 

IC with pellet between i 1663 
letters in plain shield.! 

IG above mullet in; 1663 
heart shaped shield. { 

I 

Italic capital letter A in; 1664 
plain .shield. 

IG above mullet in' 1664 
heart shaped shield 



W H above chernb's; 1664 
head in i^lain shield, j 

D F in shaped shield. 1665 



P P above pellet in 
heart shaped shield. 



1665 



SV in irrej^ular stamp. j 1665 



H R three pellets above! iQQo 
and three below let-| 
ters in plain shield, j 

G S a crozier between! \qq5 
letters. i 

i circa 
MG in shaped shield.! 166() 



W M linked letters 
crowned in shaped 
shield. 



1666 



ARTICLE. 



Communion Flagon. 

Large Salver. 
Communion Cup. 



C o m m union Paten, 
l^lagon and Bread 
Holder. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Two Communion Cups. 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Bread Holder. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 

Communion Bread 
Holder. 

Communion Flagon. 



Communion Spoon. 



Silver gilt Communion i 
Paten. 



Two-handled Cup. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Flagon. 



OWNER. 



Corby Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Earl Spencer, K.G. 

E a s t o n on the Hill 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Rushton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



St. John of Jerusalem 
Church, Hackney, 

County of London. 

Kettering Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

All Hallow's Church, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

Castle Ashby Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Augustine's with St. 
Faith's Church, City 
of London. 

St. Vedast's Church, 
City of London. 

Cottesbrook Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Margaret's Church. 
Westminster, County 
of London. 

R. T, Frere, Esq. 



Stoke Bruern Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Anne and St. Agnes 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



22g 



MAKEH S MARK. 



I B beneath three pel- 
lets and above cre.s- 
cent and two pellets 
in plain shield. 

R S beneatli nmllet in 
X)lain shield. 

M A in monogram 
crowned in shaped 
stamp. 

T K above flenr de lys 
in plain shield. 



DATE. 



1668 



ARTICLE. 



Silver gilt Alms Dish. 



IOCS I Two silver gilt Com- 
I munion Flagons, 

1668 i Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



OWNER. 



1669 



Communion Flagon. 



TC with fish above and 1669 j Communion Dish. 
]:)ellet below in shaped 



shield. 



N 



1669 : The '' Greyghton " Cup. 



DR crowned in shaped j 1669 | Communion Cup, Pa- 
shield, ten and Flagon. 



T IVI above coronet. 



1669 



FW with three pellets. 1669 



I I pellet between let- 
ters and mullet below 
in i^lain shield. 

RN 



T H anchor between Tet- 
ters in plain shield. 



I C above mullet in 
heart shaped shield. 



Bowl. 
Communion Cup. 



1670 i Silver gilt seal head 
Spoon. 



1670 

circa 
1670 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover and 
silver Flagon. 



1670 1 Two silver gilt Com- 
i munion Flagons 



EC within two circles i 1670 1 Two silver gilt Com- 
joined. Jolui EcJ:-\ 
fourd. I 



I R pellet between let- ! 1670 
ters and cinquefoil 
above and beneatli in 
elliptical stamp. 

G R in shaped shield, i 1670 



O S pellet above and 1670 
fleur de lys below in! 
plain shield. j 



munion Flagons. 
Communion Flagon. 



Communion Cui), Cover 
Paten and Flagon. 

Communion Cuji and 
Paten. : 



King's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



St. Sepulchre's Church, 
City of London. 

St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, County 
of London. 

St. Botolph's Church, 
Aldgate, City of Lon- 
don. 

Flore Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Thoi])e .Vclnirch Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Magdalene College, 
Cambridge. 

St. Clement Dane's 
Cliurcli, County of 
London. 

St. Mary A b c h u r c h 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Sepulchre's Church, 
City of London. 

St. Paul's Church, 
Shadwell, County of 
London. 

St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, County 
of London. 

St. Mary's Church, 
Strand, County of 
London. 

Sunbury Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



Ticlmiarsh Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Faxton Church, North, 
amptonshire. 



2^0 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



T H above star. 



DATE. 



AllTICLE. 



OWNER. 



Circa ; 

1C70 Porringer and Cover. 



I D pellet between let-i 1671 j Communion Cup and 
ters in shaped shield, i | Cover Paten. 



T F two pellets above 1671 
and mullet below in 
heart shaped shield, j 

R H above einquefoil 1671 

and two pellets in 
plain shield. 

D R crowned in shaped 1071 
shield. 



Communion Flagon. 



Silver ^ilt Communion 
Dish.^ 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 



Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Dionis's C h u r c h, 
Parsons Green, Ful- 
ham, County of Lon- 
don. 

CollevAveston Church, 
Northami)tonshire. 



St. John of Jerusalem 
Church, Hackney, 
County of London. 

NcAvbottle Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



FG above mullet in 1671 j Two Communion Pa-I St. Dunstan in the West 
shaped shield. | i tens. Church, City of Lon- 

don 



RS mullet above and; 1671; Communion Plate, 
below in shaped sliield. ; 



Great G r e e n f o r d 
Church, Middlesex. 



C M above three pellets 1G71 Communion Cup and St. Dionis's Church, 
in shaped stamp. j Cover Paten. \ Parson's Green, Ful- 

j ham, County of lion- 
don. 



GG above fleur de lysj 1071 
in shaped sliield. 

I 

I K above einquefoil and 1071 
two pellets in plaiji 
shield. I 



Communion Cup and Wal(2;rave Church, 
Cover Paten, Flagon, Northamptonshire, 
and Bread Holder. 



Spoon. 



St. Dionis's Church, 
Parson'.s Green, Ful- 
ham, County of Lon 
don. 



W G in shaped outline. 1072 Communion Flagon. Ashton Church, North- 

j ; amptonshire. 

i I 

RP above nnillct iiv 1072 Con^munion Paten. T.aindon Cliurch, Essex, 
shaped shield. 



I R 



1672 



Communion Disli. St. Andrew Undershaft 

I Church, City of Lon- 
i don. 



MG above fleur de lys,i 1072 ^ Two-handled Cup. 
two pellets and a vic-| 
tory, 

F S in plain shield. 1072 Communion Cup. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



Newton in tlie "Willows 
1 Church, Northamp- 
! tonshire. 



PP above pellet in, 1072, Silver gilt Communion i St. Sepulchre's Church, 
heart shaped shield, i i Paten. ; Citv of London. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



231 



maker's mauk. 



DATE. 



Capital letter D 
plain shield. 



ARTICLE. 



OWKER. 



in 



O S beneath three pel-' 
lets and above ti-ian-l 
ftle, in Dlaiji shield. 



1G71- \ Silver gilt Communion E a s t o n M a u d n i t 
j l^^liigon. ; Church, Northamp- 

! tonshire. 

1672 Silver gilt Communion St. Bride's Church, City 
i'^-^mni. i of London. 



I H in plain shield, i 1673 

HF in shaped outline. 1(J71 

R D above mullet in 1(J74 
plain shield. : 



Two silver gilt Com-; Castor Cl)urclK Xorth 
munion Bread amptonshire. 

Holders. I 

I t 

|Communion Cup and Tichmareh Church 
! Cover Paten. Northamptonshire. 



S R above T)ellet in, 

plain shield. i 

T M linked in shaped 
shield. Tlios. Maumhj. 

I H with fleur de h's be-j 
tween two pellets be-' 
low, in shaijed shield.! 

! F in dotted ellipse. 1 



T L above pellet in 
plain shield. 



T M linked above pellet 
in square stamp. 

D i beneath crescent, 
moon in plain shield. ' 



1674 

1674 

circa 

1674 



circa 

1674 



1(374 

1675 
1673 



Saucer 



Communion Flagon. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Alms Dish. \ 

Communion Cup and 
Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Paten. 

Dish. 



;Two-handled Porringer 
j and Cover. 

Communion Flagon, 
Bread Holder and 
Spoon. 



St. PancrasOld Church, 
County of London. 



Paulerspury Church, 
Northami)torxshire. 

Stanford Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Weston Favell Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Weston Fa^■ell Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Dionis's C h u r c Ji, 
Parson's Green, Ful- 
ham, County of Lon- 
don. 

H. A. Attenborough, 
Esq. 

St. .John's Church, Pet 
erborouoh. 



Ti with mullet above 
and beloWj in i)lain 

shield. t 

! 

E G in rectangular 1075 

stamp. 

Capital letter M with 
fleur de lys and two 
pellets in shaped 
shield. 

j 

IS above crescent and 1075 
two pellets in octa- 
gonal stamj). 



107o ! Communion Flagon. 



Hornchurch Church, 

Essex. 



Communion Alms Dish. | Great Haddow Church, 

Essex. 



1075 Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



St. Bride's Church. City 
of London. 



Silver gilt CommunionI St. Bride's Church. City 
Paten. of Tiondon. 



232 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



Capital letter S crowned | 1675 
ill plain shield. i 



P P above pellet in i 1675 
heart shaDcd shield, i 



R A ' 1675 

I B in nlain shield. ! 1676 



AH a star above and, 1676 

below. I 

F S in plain shield. 1676 



PP 



1676 



IS above i^ellet in; 1677 
shield. ; 



I A between six pellets 1677 
in shaped shield. ; 

S I Avith vertical line' 1677 
between letters in \ 
shaped shield. 

R L above flenr de lys in 1677 
plain shield. Balpli 
Leeke. 



W M beneatli a star 1678 
and two pellets andi 
aboA'e one iicllet, in a' 

shield . i 

j 

S R above rose in plain | 1678 
shield. 



I S in monogram in cir- 1678 
cular stamp. 

! circa 
Iv above annnlet in 1678 
plain shield. 

FG above mullet in | 1679 
shaped shield. Fran-\ 
CIS Garthorn. 



OWNER. 



Silver gilt Spoon. 



Communion Flagon. 



Three Sugar Castors. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Alms Dish. 



Porringer used a Com- 
munion Cup. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Rosewatcr Dish, 



Two Communion Cups 
and Cover Patens, 
two Bread Holders i 
and two Flagons. ! 

Two Communion 
Flagons. 

Communion Paten. 



St. Dunstan in the AVest 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Dunst all's Church, 
Steiniey. County of 
TiOndon. 

J. Rainey, Esq. 

E a s t o n M a u d u i t 
Cliurch, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Litlington Church, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

St. TiUke New Church, 
Chelsea, County of 
London, 

Fishmongers' Company, 
London. 

All Saints' Church, 
Northampton. 



All Saints' Church, 
Northamptovi. 

Aynhoe Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Two Communion Cups, Castle Ashby Church, 
and Cover Patens and Northamptonshire, 
two Flagons, all silver i 
gilt. ! 

Porringer Cover. Litlington Church, Cani- 

\ bridgeshire. 



Two Communion 
Flaszons. 



St. Bartholomew the 
Less Church, City of 
TiOndon. 



Silver gilt Communion l St. Micliael's Church, 
Pateii. Cornhill, City of Lon- 

1 don. 

Silver gilt rat tail Willesden Church, Mid- 
Spoon, dlesex. 

Silver gilt Communion , Diiigley Church, North- 
Cup and Paten. amptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



233 



MAKER S MARK. 



S V above jDellet in 
plain shield. 



T C beneath dolphin 
and above fleur de lys 
in shaped shield. 

C K above three pellets 
in plain shield. 



T A three pellets above 
and three below in 
circular stamp. 
? Thomas Allen. 

R T with mullet and 
ftellets. 

I C above mullet in 
sha^Ded shield. 

I H above fleur de lys 
and two pellets in 
shaped shield. 

I h three i^ellets above 
one between and two 
and a crescent be- 
neath letters, in [>lain 
shield. 

R H crowned above 
crescent in plain 
shield. 

A goose in circular 
stamp. 



S O linked in shaped 
shield. 

P R in shar)ed shield. 



I H with coronet above 
and trefoil below in 
plain shield. 

I B beneath three x^el- 
lets and above cres- 
cent and two iDcllets 
in plain shield. 

RL 

R C three pellets above 
and three below in 
dotted circle. 



DATE. 



1679 



1679 



ARTICLE. 



OM'NER. 



Silver gilt Spoon. St. Dunstan in the West 

Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



1679 j Two Communion Pa- 

i tens. 



1679; Pair of Candlesticks. 



1679 



Two-handled Cup. 



1679 Mug with handle. 



1680 



1680 



St. Edmund the King 
and Martyr Church, 
City of London. 

St. Mary A b c h u r c h 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St, Anne's Churcli, So- 
ho, County of Lon- 
don. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



Silver gilt Communion St. Mary's Churcli, Al- 



1680 



1680 



1680 

circa 

1680 

circa 
1680 



1680 



1681 



Cup. 



Communion Cup and 
Flagon. 



Communion Cup and Great Leigh Church. 
Cover Paten. Essex. 



derma ry, City of Lon- 
don. 

Barking Church, Essex 



SiWer gilt Communion St. James's Church, 

I Garlickhithe, City of 
London. 



Paten. 
Communion Paten. 
Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons. 



Large Cistern. 



1681 ! Two Communion 
j Flagons. 



Upton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Cosgrove C h u r c li, 
Northamptonshire. 

Isham Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



St. Luke's New Church, 
Chelsea, County of 
London. 



Duke of Rutland. 

St. Michael's Church, 
Paternoster R o y a I, 
City of London. 



234 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



I M in dotted circle. | 1681 : Communion Cover Pa- St. Matthew's Church, 

Bethna 1 Green, 
County of London. 



ten. 



C above mullet in tre-j 1681 Communion Flagon, 
foil. 



S H linked letters in 
circular stamp. 



IVi K beneath fleur de 
lys. 

E G in oblong. 



1681 Silver gilt Dish. 

1681 Two-handled Cup. 

i 

168] I Communion Cup. 



St. Dunstan's Church, 
Stepney, County of 
London. 

St. Mary's C h u r c h, 
Strand, County of 
London. 

R. T. Lrere, Esq. 



Cul worth C h u r c h, 
Northami^tonshire. 



^S above einquefoil ini iGSli Communion Cover Pa- Stow Nine Churches 



shaped shield. 



P M mullet above and 1682 
fleur de lys below in ai 
qua trefoil. 

T C with fisli above and [ 1682 
])ellet beneath in or- 
namental shield. 



ten. 



Tankard. 



Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Queen's College, Cam 
bridge. 



F S in plain shield. 



I N above pellet in 
heart shaped shield. 



Communion Cup and| Ashton Church, North- 

amj)tonshire. 



1682 
1682 



Cover Paten, 
Communion Cup. 
Communion Cup. 



Aston-le-Walls Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Little Billing Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



EG mullet above and ^682 Communion Cup and Thornby C h u r c h. 



beneath in shaped 
shield 



Cover Paten, 



Northamptonshire, 



S crowned in plain' 1682 Communion Flagon and Ickenham Church, Mid- 
shield. ! Paten. ; dlesex. 

II I 

I C above mullet or tre- X682 Communion Paten. ; Wappenham Churcli, 
foil in shaped shield, j | Northamptonshire. 

IS above einquefoil in' ] 682 Silver gilt Communion St. Bride's Church, 
shaped sliield. Cup and Cover Paten. | City of London. 

FW above einquefoil i(j82 - Silver gilt Communion Church of St. Peter ad 
and two pellets in | Paten, Vincula, Tower of 

])lain shield. I 1 | London. 



I C above mullet in tre- 
foil stamj). 



1682 



E C crowned pellet be-i 1682 
tween letters and \ 
above crescent in I 

plain shield. 



Silver gilt Communion St. Martin in the 
Paten. ! Fields Church, 

} County of London. 

Rat tailed Spoon. j H. A. Attcnborougli, 

Esq. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



235 



MAKER S MARK. 



R S above mullet. 



DATE. 



1C83 



M K cinqucfoil above! 1683 
and below in qiuitre 
foil stamp. 



R L above fleur de l^^s in 
scalloped shield. 
ItaipJi Leeke. 



C K beneatli pellet and 
above quatret'oil in 
quatrefoil stamp. 

WF 

A H beneath star and 
above crescent in 
shield. 

H T beneatli pellet in 
shaped shield. 

M K mullet above and 
beloAV in lozenge. 

F L above bird in 
shaped shield. 

R H in irregular ob- 
long. 

P K in shaped shield. 



I M between six pellets 
in ellipse. 



Capital letter 
plain shield. 



H 



in 



E V crowned above pel- 
let in lobed shield. 



1083 

1683 

1683 
1683 

1683 
1683 
1683 
1683 
1683 
1683 
1683 
1683 



ARTICL]?. 



OWNER. 



Script capital letter R* 1683 
above pellet in shaped j 
shield. 

LC crowned above 1 1683 
crescent and two pel- 1 
lets in shaped shield 



T C dolphin above and 
fleur de lyS' in shaped 
shield. 

S H above mullet in 
plain shield. 

I P crowned above 
small shield. 



1683 



1684 



1684 



Two-handled Cup. ; 
I 
Communion Cup and! 
Cover 



Three Communion Fla 
gons, four Cups, four! 
Patens and Alms 
Dish, all silver gilt, i 

Silvei- gilt Communion! 
Cup and Cover Paten.' 



Tazza. 1 

Silver gilt standing Cup[ 
and Cover. i 



Communion Alms Dish. 



Sih-er gilt Communion 
Alms Dish. 

Rose water Dish. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion i 
Cup and Cover Paten. | 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Cup. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Alms Dish. 



Two Communion Cups. 

Rat tailed Spoon. 
Plain Cup. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

St. Martin in the 
Fields Church, 
County of London. 

St. James's Church, Pic- 
c a d i 1 1 y. County of 
London. 



St. James's Church, Pic 
c a d i 1 1 y. County of 
London. 

Sir W. C. Trevclyan. 

St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



Barnack Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Finedon Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

The Marquis of Exeter. 



Haselbech Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Naseby Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Grafton Regis Church, 
Northamptonsh i i-e . 

St. Mary's Church, 
Peterborough. 

Broughton Church, 
Northamptonshi re . 

St. Clement's Church. 
Eastcheap, City of 
London. 

St. Antholin's Church, 
City of London. 

St. Mary Abbot's 
Church, Kensington, 
County of Londo'n. 

H. A. Attenborough, 
Esq. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



236 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER, 



Tl escallop shell above! 16841 Two silver gilt Com-! St. Lawrence JeAvrv 
and below in cross i j muiiion Puteiis. j Church, Citv of Loii- 

shaped stamp. I i don. 

IH three pellets above' 1684 1 Two silver gilt Dishes. St. Lawrence Jewrv 
and one below in, I Church, Citv of Lon- 

s(iuare stamp. | don. 



I Y an animal of some 1684 
kind between letters! 
in ellipse. | 



I S crowned in plain 
shield. 



Silver gilt Commnnion' St. Marv A b c h u r c h 
Cup. 



1684 ' Silver gilt seal head 



W M beneath pellet or! 1684 
crown in i)lain shield.! 

S H linked letters in! 1684 
circular stamii. 



Capital letter P crown- 
ed in shaiied shield. 
Ben jdtnin Pijne. 

I S interlaced. 



Spoon. 
Silver gilt Spoon. 

Communion Flagon. 



Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Mary at Hill Church, 
City of London. 

St. Pete r-1 e-P o o r 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Mary Abbot ' s 
Churcii, Kensington, 
County of London. 

1684 _ Communion Flagon and Ealing Church, Middle- 



1684 



H T beneath fleur de 1684 

lys and above pellet. I 

j 

S O with pellets in 1684 
plain shield. 



I K above cinquefoilj 1684 
and two pellets in{ 
pUn'n shield. 



C K aboA'e mullet. 



1684 



I I pellet between letters j 1684 
and fleur de lys below! 
in shaped shield. I 



two Dishes. 

Tankard. 
Two-handled Cup. 

Communion Flagon, 

Spoon. 
Two-handled Cup. 



sex. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 



St. Clement Dane's 
Church, County of 
London. 

St. Clement Dane's 
Church, County of 
London. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



Communion Cup and Little Bowden Church, 



Paten. 



I R crowned above pel-i 1684 j Communion Bread 
let in circle. Johril | Holder. 

liuden. I 



I C above pellet in! 1684 
shaped shield. 



Communion Cup, 



Northamptonshire. 



St. Giles's Church, 
Northampton. 



Plumpton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



S H in monogram in 
circle. 

H P beneath three pel- 
lets and above two 
and a rose in plain 
shield. 



1684 I Communion Alms Dish, j Walthamstow Church, 
I Essex. 



1685 



Communion Dish. 



S t. Bartholomew the 
Less Church, City of 
TiOndon. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



23; 



MAKER S MARK. 



Y a liart between let- 
ters ill OA'al stamp. 



DATE. I 



ARTICLE. 



1G85 Two Communion 
Flagons. 



E C in shaped shield. 1 1C83 



I S crowned in plain 1685 
shield. 



T E crowned pellet be- , 1685 
tween and another be- 1 
neath letters, in j 

shaped shield. 

Italic capital letter A in| 1685 
plain shield. I 

E C above iimllet in 1685 
shaped shield. 

F P pellet between let- 1685 
ters in irregular 
stamp . 

I I pellet between and 1685 
another beneath let- 
ters in shaped shield.! 

R G beneatli mullet, j 1685 

P R crowned above 1685 
cinquef oil and tliiee ; 
pellets in plain shield.; 

FG above mullet in 
shaped shield. 



Communion Paten. 



Silver gilt Spoon, 



Communion Alms Dish, 



Communion Cover Pa- 
ten. 



Communion Cup. 



Tankard. 



Silver gilt Dish. 



Two-handled Cup, 

Two Communion Cups, 
two Patens and 
Flagon. 



OWNER. 



St. Bartholomew the 
Less Church, City of 
TiOndon. 

Helmdon Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

St. Andrew Undershaft 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Mears Asliby Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Weedon P i n k n e y 
Church, Xorthamp- 
tonsliire. 

Weedon P i n k n e y 
Church, Xorthamp- 
tonshire. 

Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



All Hallow's Church, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

P. T. Frere, Esq. 

St. Katharine Coleman 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



1685 I Silver gilt Communion, St. T/awrence Je w r y 
Cup. Church, City of Lon- 

don. 



Three mullets in shaped 1685 
shield. 

G G in shaped shield, t 1685 



Cup. 

Tazza Paten. 



Monteith and Tankard. 



T i and two escallop 
shells in quatrefoil. 



D B beneath sun in 
splendour and above! 
inverted crescent in! 
quatrefoil stamp. 

P M beneath mullet 
and above fleur de lys 
in lobed stamp. 

YT pellet betAveen let-j 
ters, two ])ellets above! 
and cinquefoil below 
in shaped shield. ' 



1685 Communion Flagon. 

1686 Communion Paten. 



1686 Two Communion Pa- 
tens. 



1686 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



Heston Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Skinners' Company, 
liOndon. 

St. Clement Dan e's 
Church, County of 
London. 

St. Dunstan's Churcli, 
Stepney, County of 
London . 



Christchurch Church, 
City of London. 



St. Mary A h c h u r c h 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 



238 



HALL MARKS OX PLATE. 



MAKER S MAKJK. DATE. 



AUllCLE. 



OWNER. 



R I in dotted circle. 



C K above pellet in 
licart .shaped shield, i 

B K above c-resceiit. 

R S ill heart shaped 
sliield. 

i R crowned. 



I S above cinquefoil in 
shaiK^d sliield. 

I D between six ])(>llets> 
ill shaped shield. ; 

S D pellet between and 
another beneath let- 
ter's in shaped sliield. 

T I an escallop above 
and below in outline. 
Thos. Is.'sod. 

I C above cinquefoil 
and tAvo pellets inj 
plain shield. 

W H beneath mullet 
and above iiellet iui 
cross shaped stamx). j 

R C three pellets abovei 
and three below in cir-i 
cle. I 

i 

I D dap;ger between let-' 
ters handle to base inj 
plain shield. 1 

RC between six i^elletsj 
in dotted circle. 

R T pellet between let- 
ters in ellipse. 



T A beneath fleur de lys 
and above three pel- 
lets in circle. 

W M beneath fleur de 
lys and two iiellets. 

I C beneath crown and 
above pellet. 



168G Communion Flagon. Hillin<2;don Church, 
I Middlesex. 

1C86 I Communion Cup. Uxbridj^e Church, Mid- 

dlesex. 



168G 



Two-handled Cnp. 



1686 I Two-handled Cup. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 



1686 



Reynold's Cup and Tan-| Skinners' Company, 
kard. t London. 



1688! Communion Firead 
' Holder. 



I*'aA\sley Criiui-ch, North- 
amptonshire. 



1688 1 Communion Flagon. l^^irthiiir>;hoe Church, 

Xorthainiitonshire. 



1688 



1688 



Communion Flagon. ! St. ]\[ary's Church. .\1 

' dermary, City of Lon- 
' don. 

Communion Plate. Wa])penham Church, 

Northamptonshire. 



16881 Communion Spoon. ' St. Pancras Old Church, 

, County of London. 



1689 Communion Beaker. [ St. Michael's Church, 

Paternoster R o v a 1 



City of London. 



1689 Communion Cup and Bientford Church, Mid- 
I two Patens. dlesex. 



1689 1 Communion Cup and! Tifheld Church, North- 
I Cover Paten. I amptonshire. 



1689 
1690 

1690 

1G90 
1690 



Communion Bread O v e r s t o n Church, 

Holder. | Northamptonshire. 

Communion Alms Dish. ' Grafton Underwood 

; Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 



Candlestick. 



Two-handled Cup. 



Communion Cnp and 
Cover Paten. 



Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, 



Pv. T. Frere, Esq. 



I'en Ditton Church, 
Cambridgeshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



239 



MAKER S MARK. 



E V crowned above pel- 
let in lobed shield. 

Capital letter P in 
shaped shield. 



S above mullet. 



PH 

M H crowned in shaped 
shield. 

N L 

E G above pellet in 
lobed shield. 



Capital scn'ijt letter D 
in jilain shield. 



A K in plain shield. 

R C between six pellets 
in beaded ellipse. 

C T linked letters in 
plain shield. 

I IVI in dotted circle. 



S H in monogram in 
circle. 

R T a cinquefoil and 
two T:)ellets above and 
tlie same below in cir- 
cular stamp. 

H R above three pellets 
in shaped shield. 

I W crowned ahove mul- 
let in quatrefoil 
stamp. 

F A in monogram in 
plain shield, 

R L above ileur de lys 
in scallor>ed shield, 

F G above pellet in 
shaped shield. Fran- 
cis Garthorne. 



DATE. 



1690 



ARTICLE. 



Communion Alms Dish. 



1690 I Communion Dish. 



OAVXER, 



1690 



Tankard. 



1691 I Two-handled Cup. 
1691 Communion Cup, 



1691 
1691 

1691 

1691 
1691 

1691 

1691 

1691 
1692 

1692 

1692 

1692 
1693 

1693 



Two-handled Cup. 
Silver gilt Dish. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Spoon. 



Two-handled Cup. 
Punch Bowl and Cover 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 

Communion Alms Dish. 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 

Communion Cup and 
two Patens, all silver 
gilt. 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Spoon. 

Cojumunion Dish. 

Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagons. 

Communion Flagon and 
two Patens. 



St. Stephen's Church, 
City of London. 

St.^ Ma ry Abbot's 
Chu re h , Ke nsin gt on , 
County of London. 

King's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

P. T. Frere, Esq. 

l^'ricrn Barnet Church, 
Middlesex. 

P. T. Frere Esq. 

St. ^Margaret's Church, 
AVestminster, County 
of London. 

St. Martin in the Fields 
Church, County of 
London. 

P. T. Frere, Esq. 

Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Everdon Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

S t. Clement Dane's 
Church, County of 
London. 

King's Cliffe Church, 
Northa m ptonshire . 

St. Olave's Church, 
Hart Street, Citj^ of 
London. 



King's Cliffe Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

St. Duustan's Church, 
Stepney, City of Lon- 
don. 

Twickenham Church, 
Middlesex. 

St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, County 
of London. 

West Ham Church, Es- 
sex. 



i; 



240 



HALL ]^[ARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S ]\1AI;k. 



DATK. 



AimC'LE. 



OW^•ER. 



I S in monogram in dot- 1693 
ted circle. 



D A crowned in siiaped 
s tarn J). 



1()93 



RC three pellets ahoyej 1G93 
and three below in| 
dotted circle. ! 



HC two pellets abovej 1693 
and mullet and tAVoj 
])ellets below in | 

shaped shield. j 

R F linked letters above I 1694 
pellet in x)lain shield. | 

AL pellet above aiidj i694 
flenr de lys below in; 
X)lain shield. I 

J C crowned in plain; 1694 

shield. i 

S ! 1694 

W 
pellet on each side, 
the S and another be- 
low the W in plain 
shield. 

AR in nlain shield. 1C94 



H B above nuiilet in 1694 
plain shield. 

i 
I K crowned annnlet be-j 1694 

tween lettejs. ' 



Communion Cup. ! West M;nn Church, Es- 
; sex. 

Oval Bad<i;e or Plaque, i St. Giles's Church, Crip- 

I plegate, City of Lon- 
i don. 

Two Communion Cups St. James's Church, 
and Cover Patens and' Piccadilly, County of 
two Patens, all silver London, 
gilt. i 

Communion Alms Dish. Mayes Church, Middle- 

I sex. 



D B in irregular ellipse. 



1695 



! H crowned ])ellet be-j 1695 
tween letters and an- 
other below in shaped 
shield. 



R C in oblong. 



1695 



Communion Paten. 



Comnuinion Bread 
Holder. 



Communion Cup. 
Pat tailed Spoon. 



St. Ethelburga's 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Bram])ton Ash Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Laxton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

11. A. Attenborough, 
Esq. 



Communion Cup. ! Plumpton Church, 

' Northamptonshire. 

Silver gilt Alms Dish. I St. Mary's Church, Al- 

deiniary. City of Lon- 
I don. 



Two-handled Cup. 



Pv. T. Frere, Esq. 



f I pellet between and 1695 
fleiir de lys below let-' 
ters in lobed shield. 

P H crowned i)ellet be- 1695 
tween letters above 
crescent in shaped! 
shield. 



Cgmm union Paten. .Great Harrowden 

j Chuich, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Two Communion Cupsj St. .John's Church, 
and Covers. | AVaiJjnng, City of 

London. 



Communion Paten. \ Lichborongh Church, 

j Northamptonshire. 

Communion Cup and! St. Margaret's Church, 
C'over, and two AVestminster, County 

14ago!is, all silver gilt, t of London, 

Silver gilt octagonal Tea, The Marquis of Exeter. 
Kettle. I 



LIST OF MARKS. 



241 



^lAlCEK S MAltlv. 



DATK 



Airiici.i:. 



OWNKl!, 



N K in ni()ii()(i;raiii be- 1()9<) Two-liaiidled Cup. 

iieatli tlireL' pellets. 



l\. T. I' re re, l']s(i. 



GG above iiinllet, in l^y(i Communion Cup and K e I m a r s h Clinrcli, 



sha])ed shield. 



Cover Paten. 
W S in shaped siiield. lOOC Communion Cu]). 



M A 



1()96 



File Dogs. 



Xoitham})tonshire. 



Great Oxendon CMuircli, 
Northami)tonshire. 

Ham])ton Court. 

Jiittle fJowden C'hurch, 
Northamptonshire. 



LE pellet between let- KiDi) , C'oinnuinion Bread 
ters, rose abo\e and Holdei' 

below and three pel- 
lets on each side, in 

circle. Tiniotln/ Lee. ' 1 

' ! 

RW above mullet in 1()9() ! Comnuinion Paten. MyHeld Church. North- 



shaped shield. 



! ami)tonsliire. 



RG above pellet in el- 1()9() Conuuunion Cup and Charwelton Chur(;li, 

lipse. j two Patens. Nortinunptonshii'e. 

SD above pellet in l<i96 Communion Paten. Hariin.ij;ton C'hurch, 

plain shield. Samuel Northam])t()nshire. 
DeU. 



From 1697 until about 1720 the plate workers used the first two 

letters of their surnames 



Gi in dotted rectanslt?.i 1097 ' Two Conuuunion 

i Flayions. 



Chelm.sford Churcii, Es- 
sex. 



D E 
B A 



1697 



Conuuunion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



P E in plain shield. 1G97 ; Connuuniou Paten. St. Botol])h's Church, 

Ald<i;ate, City of Lon- 
don. 

S t. M a ry Abbot's 
Church, Kensin<>;ton, 
County of London. 

S t. M a r y Abbot's 
Church, Kensington, 
County of London. 

Duke of Manchester. 



CH crowned in shaped! 1097 | Connuuniou Paten, 
shield. J, Cliartier. 



E 1G97 

DB 

A 

Tr}7//am Denny cO 
Joltn Backe. 

G A crowned in circle. 1 1(397 
William Gamble. 



A Ne in monogram. 

Anthony NeJme. 



1097 



Cui) and Candlestick 
with arms of William 
III. 



Communion Cup. 
Monteith. 



Steane Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 



242 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



BO with mitre above j 1697; Communion Flagon, 
and fienr de lys be- 
low, in shaped shield. 
John Boddington. 



OWNER. 



Great Billing Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



V n in shaped shield, j 1697 I Communion Bread I Upper B o d d i n g t o u 

Holder. | Church, Northamp- 

j tonshire. 

RO iu heart shaped; 1697 Communion Cup andj B3'field Church, North- 
shield. UiKih lioherfs. i | Paten. ; amptonshire. 



J a. above fleur de lys 
in shaped shield. 
Henry Jay. 



1697 ; Communion Cup, Cover 
Paten, h'lagon and 
i Bread Holder. 



Oundle Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



IC in shaped shield. | 1697 | Communion Cup. • Raunds Church, North- 

I i i amptonshii'e. 

! ! 

GA crowned above i 1698 ' Communion Alms Dish.' St. Michael's Churcli, 

crescent in shaped: , Cornhill, ('ity of l.on- 

shield. i i don. ' 



PA llumpluey ZVf)y/<p. 1698' Plain Tumbler. 



P. T. l<']-ei-e, |]sq. 



FA in ellipse. 



1698, Communion Flagon. Kelmarsh C h u ]• c h, 
j I Nortluimptonshije. 



B I crowned above bird.' 1698 Pair of Candlesticks. 

Jush. liiid' \ 



ST 

Josh. Stokes, 

G I in dotted rectangu- 
lar stamp Avith cor- 
ners cut off. 

K E hencatli two pellets 
and above star in 
shield. ]VilJiani Keott. 

M I beneath tAvo pel- 
lets. 

W A an anchor between 
letters in shaped 
shield. Joseph Ward. 



1698 j Two-haudled Cup. 



1699 i Silver gilt Dish, 



1699 



Tankaid. 



16991 Two-handlod Cup 
1699 



S O in oval. ! 1699 

j 
J a. in plain shield. I 1699 

L E pellet between let- 1699 
ters, a rose above and 
below and three pel- 
lets on each side in 
circle. Timothy Lee. 



P. T. Frere, ]^]sq. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 



St. Mai'tin's in the 
F i e 1 d s Church, 
County of London. 

Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 



R. T. Frere, Esq, 



Communion Paten. Hemington Church, 

Northaniptousliire. 



Snuff Box. 
Communion Flagon. 



Communion Cup, Cover 
Paten and Bread 
Holder. 



St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Hemington Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Preston Capes Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



243 



MAKER S MARK. 



A R ill plain shield. 



T r script letters above 
])ellet in shai^ed 
shield. 



DATE. 



1G99 



ARTICLE. 



Spoon. 



OWNER. 



St. E t h e 1 b u r g a ' s 
Chnrch. 



1G99 Four silver gilt Com-! St. Margaret's Church, 
munion Patens. ' Westminster, County 



ST ill heart shaped! 1699, Two-handled Cup. 
shield. I i 

i I 

HS pellet above and i 1700 ! Communion Bread 
below in shaped ! Holder, 

shield. 

D H in irregular ob- 
long. 



circa ' 

1700. Communion Paten. 



of London. 
11. T. Frere, Esq. 



Ashton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Welton Chiirch, North- 
amiitonshire. 



WG with pellet below I 1700 i Silver gilt Alms Dish. Barking Church, Essex, 
in heart shaped shield.} I 

' '■ i 

LE crowned in outline,! 1700; Two Communion Pa-! Croughton Church, 



Geoifje Leicis. 



tens 



Northamptonshire. 

Dallington Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



CO three pellets above; 1700; Communion Flagon, 
and rose between two I 
annulets below, inj 
shaped shield. I 

Bohert Cooper. i 

HO pellet above and i 1700 j Communion Flagon, Milton Ciiurch, North- 



below in ellipse. 



amptonshire. 



W I above pellet in: 1700: Commuuion Cover Pa-' Great Oakley Church, 
shaped shield. j 1 ten. j Northamptonshire. 

I circa ! 



Steane Church. North- 
amptonshiie. 

Great AVarley Church, 
Essex. 



DC between six pelletsi 1700^ Communion Paten, 
in plain shield. i 

le with pellet above 1700. Communion Cup. 
and below in shaped! ! 

shield. I [ ! 

GA in monogram in | 1700 Communion Alms Dish.! Chelmsford Church, Es- 
shaped shield, Fran- j sex. 

cis Garihorne. j j 

Lu above pellet inj 1700: Two Communion Alms] St. Andrew by theWard- 
shaped siiield. j ; Dishes. ! robe Church, City of 

i ! London 



L e in square stamp 
with corners cut off. 
Fetley Leij. 



1700, Two CVnnmunion Pa- St. Marv's Church, 



tens. 



Hornsey, County 01 
London. 



LI pellet between let- 1700 Silver gilt Spoon. | St. James's Church 

ters. three pellets 
above and fleur de lys 
below, in plain shield. 



' Piccadilly. County of 
London 



circa 



WA beneath bird vol-: 1700! Two Communion Pa-. Southgate Church. Mid- 
ant in shaped stamp. tens. dlesex. 
,S'. WusteU. 



244 



HALT. :\IARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's aiark. datk. 



AUTICLE. 



OWNER. 



I N 

G O crowned. 

HA 

Peter Ilainchc. 



1700 Pair of Chocolate Ciip^; 
and Covers. i 



Lord Crewe. 



1701 1 Pair of large Flagons. l^arl Spencer, K.G 
1701 



L E 1701 

S I above some object. 1701 



RO trefoil above and 1701 
below. 



Pair of Fiwers and Sal- F^arl Spencer, K.G. 
vers. 



Vn 



1701 



W I beneath two mnl-i 1701 
lets and above Hem- j 
de lys. 

D O flenr de lys above 1702 
and below. Joltn 
Downes. 

Lo key above and flenr i 1702 
de lys below in shaped 
shield, yutluuiiel 
Lock. 

J a. above flenr de lys| 1702 
in shaped shield. 
Jlenrij Jay. 



Tankard. 
Dish. 

Two-handled Cnp. 

Two-handled Cup. 
Ewer and Salver. 

Two-handled Cnp. 



King's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Mary's C h n r c h, 
Bromley S t. T> e o n- 
ards. County of Lon- 
don 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



H. T. Frere, Esq. 
Marquis of Abercorn. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



M E 



1702 



Communion Flagon, i Mears Ashby Church, 

Northamptonshire. 



Communion Cup and i Bulwick Church, North- 
Cover Paten, two amptonshire. 
Flagons and Bread 
Holder. 

Helmet shaped Ewei- Lord "Willoughby de 
Avith royal arms, and Eresby. 
motto " Sempre I 

eadem." j 



BF script letters. | 1702 1 Two-handled Cup. Dr. and Mrs. Ashby. 



L A above fleur de lys in 1702 
shaped shield. 

CH crowned in plain 1702 

shield. j 

C R in a woolsack. i 1702 



GA beneath mitre in' 17()2 
trefoil stamp. 



A K beneath pellet ir 1703 
shaped shield. 



Communion Cu]). Sibertoft Church, 

Northamptonshire. 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 



1'owcester Church 
Northamptonshire. 



Silver gilt Cover to St. James's Church, 
Communion Cup. Clarlickhithe, City ot" 

] London. 

Two Communion Alms St. Margaret Patten's 
Dishes. Church, City of I/on- 

don. 

Bat tailed Spoon, H. A. Attenborough, 

Esq. 



LIST OF ^lARKS. 



245 



MAKER S MARK. DATIi. 



D W beneath two and 
above three i)ellets 
and rose in heart 
hhaped stamp. 

C O beneath a bird. 

T ho nuts (U)rh('t, 

B O beneatli mitre and 
above Heur do ]ys in 
shaped sbiekl. .lofin 
Boddingfon. 

P a. beneath some ob- 
ject and above pellet 
in shaped shield. 
IlampJiicjj Pdjjne. 

Co 

A N e in monogram in 
shaped shield. An- 
thonij yd inc. 

L E crowned in lobed 
stamp, (rrorfie Leiris. 

T I AA'itli mullet above 
and below in plain 
shield. 

R above cnrved line in 
shai)ed shield. 

E A in oblong stamp. 



D E beneath mnllet and 
above cin(piet'oil in 
quatrefoil stamp. 

SI 

! 

L A script letters 
crowned above pellet | 
in shaped stamp. | 

Fa crowned in circnhir 
stamp. 



LO in nionogram iii 
oval stamp. 

F A in ellipse. W'dliani 
Fawderii. 



W A anclior between 
lettei's in shajDcd 

shield. 



1703 

1703 
1703 

1703 

1703 
1703 



Ain ICl.K 



OWNER. 



Connniinioii Cnp and 
Cover Paten. 



Communion Flagon. 



Communion J3read 
Holder. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 



Two-handled Cup. 
T.arge Tureen. 



1704 I Comnnmion Cup. 



1704 ; Communion Paten. 



1704 i Communion Alms Dish. 



1704 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



17041 Communion Cup and 
! Cover Paten. 



1704; Two-handled Cup. 
1704' Rat tailed Spoon. 



1705 j Connnuniou Cnp and 
! Cover Paten and 
Flagon, all silver gilt. 

1700 Communion Flagon. 



1705 1 Communion Cu]). Pa- 
ten, two Flagons and 
Bread Holder. 



1705 



Communion Paten. 



St. Bartholomew the 
liCss Church, City of 
TiOndon. 



13ra.vbrook Church, 
Noithamptonshire. 

Great Hilling Church , 
Noi'thamiitonshire. 



St. Nicholas Cole Abbey 
Chui-ch, City of Lon- 
don. 



P. T. Frere, Esq. 
Ford Bateman. 



Hinnptou Cinirch, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Monntmessing Church, 
Fssex. 

(\)Sgrove Church, North- 
am])t()nshire. 

St. Autholiii's Church, 
City of London. 

Kingsbury Church, 
Middlesex. 



P. T. Frere, Esq. 

H. A. Attonhorough, 
Fs(| 



Mounslow Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

CMiingford Church, Es- 
sex. 

Harringworth Church. 
Xoithamptonshire. 

Stanwick Ch u r ch, 
Northamptonshire. 



?46 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MAKK. DATE 



J Si ill shaped shield. 



W A beneath bird in 
rectangidar s t a m ]) 
with lobe above. 
SarnueJ ]VitsfcJI. 

S p in plain shield. 



AiniCLE. 



1705 



1703 



170o 



P a. beneath some ob-j 1705 
ject and above jiellet 
in shaped sliield. 
IIu ntp]i li')/ l\iyiu'. 



H V italic letters. 

Ad 

S V in ciicle. 



1705 
1705 
170G 



OWNEIl, 



Two Commnnion Pa-j St. Stephen's Clinrch, 
tens. I Coleman Street, City 

of London. 

j 
Three Communion Fa-! St. George the Martyr 
tens, t^^•o h'lagons and (Mmrch, H o 1 b o r n, 
two Dishes, all silver Count v of London. 
gilt. 

Silver gilt Sjioon. St. George the Martyr 
i Church, H o 1 b o r n. 
j County of liOndon. 

Silver gilt Comnuuiion St. ^Martin's in the 



LA script 1 e 1 1 e r SI i7()(j 
crowned above pellet 
in scjuare stamp with 
lobe below. 

S P with pellet above 1706 
and below. 

G L two pellets above I70r) 
and one below in 
shield. I 

L E an object above and 1706 
below and seven dots 
in circular stamp. 
Timoiliii Lcc_ 

M A beneath crown and 1706 
aboAe mullet. Saniiiel 
Marias. 

PY beneatli rose and 1706 
crown in sliaped 
stamp. 

EA above fleur do lys| 1706 
in shaped shield. i 



Dl above tbree pellets 1706 
in plain shield. I 

PE beneath three pel- 1706 
lets in sha])ed shield. , 

D E beneath mullet and; 1706 
above ciufpiefoil in! 
quatrefoil stani]). ' 



Flagon. 

Two-handled Cup. 

Sugar Caster. 

Two-handled Cup. 

Spoon. 

Tankard. 
Rat tailed S^Kion, 



Fields Church, 
C'Ounty of liOndon. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

St. Steplien's Church. 
AValbrook, City of 
London. 

Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge. 

Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 



Two Communion Alms All Hallow's Church. 



Dishes. 



Ewer 



Communion Bread Dish 



Siher gilt Communion 
Paten. 



Comnumion Paten. 
Comjuunion Cup. 
Tankard. 



lA)nd)ard Street, City 
of liOndon. 



Pembioke College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Romford (lunch, Es- 
sex. 



St. Rotolph's Church, 
.Mdersgate, City of 
London. 

Sywell Cliurcli, North- 
ani])tonshire. 

Haselbe-ich Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Mr. Robinson. 



LISl" OF MARKS. 



24; 



MAKER S MAltK. DATE. 



T i with mullet above; 1706 
and below iu plain 
shield. Robert Tiiii-\ 

hrelL i 

1 

C O beneath three pel-i 1706 
lets and rose and 
above two annulets,! 
in shaped shield. 
Hubert Cooper. j 

YO beneath pellet in 1706 
shaped shield. Ed- 
ward Yorkc. } 

W E with three pellets. 170G 

J a, above fleui- do ]ys in 1707 
shaped shield. Ilrini/^ 
Jay. 

Capital letter G enclos-' 1707 
ing A in shaj^ed; 
shield. Fronci.s (ior-l 
thorne. 

B u cinque and two ])el- 1707 
lets above and one' 
pellet below in shaped 
shield. 

AO above flenr de lys 1707 ■ 
in circle. j 

GA crowned between; 1707! 
three pellets in circle.; 
Wdtiani Gamble. \ 

Capital letter G enclos- 1 1708 
ing R. 

A T beneath three ])el-; 1708 
lets and abo^•e coveied; 
cup between tAvo ])el-; 
lets, in shaT)ed shield., 
Charles Atlc'nisoii. \ 

i 
R o croAvned above! 1708 
fleur de lys in shaped 
shield. 

M E Avith tAvo sickles; 1708 
above and oA'er these 1 
a sheaf of corn. 

BO Avith mitre above 170S 
and fleur de lys bo-, 
loAv, in shai)ed shield. 
JoJin Boddington. 



Airnc'i.K. 



Connnunion ]}read 
Holder. 



OAV.NKU. 



Lichborough Church. 
Northamptonshire. 



Connnunion Paten. Sutton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Tavo Communion Cups. ^ St. M a r y - 1 e - B o w 

j Church, City of l.on- 
I don. 



Two-haudled Cup. 

Connnunion Bread 
Holder. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Gayton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Communion Cup and Eotlnvell Church, 
Cover Paten and Northamptonshire. 
Bread Holder, all sil-; 
ver gilt. t 

Tavo rat tail Sj^oons. St. Margaret's Church. 

I Westnrnster, County 
i of London. 



Communion Alms Dish. Steane Ciiurch, North- 

I amptonshire. 

Communion Flagon. ! Whitfield C h u r c h, 

Northamptonshire. 



TAvo-handled Cup. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



Cojumunion Cup and| Whitfield C h u r c h. 
Cover Paten. Northamptonshire. 



Silver gilt Communion All HalloAv's the Great 
Alms Dish. C'hurch, City of Lon- 

don. 



Spoon. 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



Clare College, Cam- 
bridge. 



St. Mary's Church, 
Bromley St. Ti e o n- 
ard. County of J^on- 
don. 



24S 



HALL MARKS OX PLATE 



^aJi.KEti s M^kik.. 



S L beneath globe in 
rectan;nilar stamp 

Avith lobe above. G<i- 
hriel Sfeath. 

B E 

W I beneath ttro stars 
and above fieur de ly*; 
in irregular shield. 
iMi rid Wifla m me. 



M A 



(fOS. 



crofrned 

et in 
.'J. Jacoh 



above 
shafted 



DAlh. 

17(»B 

1709 
1709 
1709 



AlJllCLE. 



OWNE£. 



P a. beneath some mark 
above pellet in 

a shield- 



L o :ej above and fleur 17(fl^» 
de lys below in sha]>ed 
'shield. XathanU'1 
Loch. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Flagon?. 



Two-handled Cnji. 
Conimnnion Flajion 



Two Communion 
Flaiions. 



.Silver jdlt Dish. 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 



L O >ellet above and 
~ in i^lain shield. 
rt LorcU. 

G R 'feneath two ]>ellets 
and above crescent in 
shaped shield. 

S t alx»ve P e in 
shaped shield. John 
Sfocler ii' Eilvrard 
Pcacoci. 

C O beneath two pel- 
lets. 

W I nbove fleur de lys 
in shai>ed shield. John 
Wisdome. 



17<)3 Communion Paten. 



1709 Rat tailed Spoon, 



etrc* 

1709 



Conimnnion Bread 
Holder. 



1709 Two-handled Cup. 



R O in ellipse. 



S H -;rith i>ellet above 
. below in lozenge. 

DA :wo ]>ellets above 
and one beneath 



Jnmrs 1710 

1710 
1710 
1710 



St. Paul's Church. Ham- 
mersmith. County of 
l>»ndon. 



R. T. Frere. Esq. 

"i. l^wrenc-e's Cliurch. 
Brentford. Middle- 



Maidwell Church. 
Xortham jjtonshire . 



-\11 Hallow's Church. 
Txuiibard Street. City 
of l»ndon. 

Da vent ry C h u r c h. 
Xortliamptonsh're . 



•t. Peter's Church. 
Northampton. 

Mr. Munsev. 



Whitfield Church 
Northamptonshire . 



R. T. Frere. Escj 



P T beneath rose and 
crown in irregular 
shield. Beniamin 



Communion Cup. 



Mug. 



Rat tailed Spoon. 



Great silver gilt Mac^ 
and Rest. 



Peakirk Church. North- 
amptonshire. 

Pembroke CoDege. Cam- 
bridge. 

3klr. Munsev. 



Corporation of Cam- 
bridge. 



I.IST OF MARKS 



249 



MAKER S MA1:K. 



DATE. 



Aim CLE 



OWNER. 



SL beneath ^lobe in 
square stamp with 
lobe abovt.'. <4nhritl 
Slojth. 

P A above fleiir de ly>. 



P E beueatli mullet in 
rectangular s t a m p 
with lobe above. E<i- 
ninnd Pea ice. 

E A above ])ellet in 

l)lain shield. John 
East. 

Capital letter G enclos- 
iniE; A in .>liai)ed 
shield. 

R e crowned above 
fleur de lys in shaped 
shield. J'jJm Head. 



1710: Silver gilt Communion St. Michael's Church. 
Paten. Higiigate. County of 

London. 



J 710 Two-handled Cup and ]{. T. Frere, Escj. 

Cover 

1711 Communion Cup and St. Michael's Church, 
Paten. Ashford. Middlesex. 



1711 Silver gilt Communion St. John's Church. Pet- 
Paten, erborough. 



1711 Two silver gilt Cui>s and St. ."^w-thin's Church 
Covers and a Paten. Citv of London. 



1711 Silver gilt Communion ."-it. [Mary's Church 
Cup Strand, County of 

Tyondon. 



PA beneath large rose. 1711 Four circular Stands. "\V. Maskell. F-q. 



S 3L in shajjed shield. 

liicJi.ard B'lyley^ 

R a in shai)ed stamp. 



F A >eript letters hc- 
neath fleur de lys and 
above pellet. 

L O key above and fleur 
de lys below in shaped 
shield, yathaniel 
Loci. 

Capital roman letter B 
in shaped shield. 

S L above })ellet in 
shaped shield. 



I 

TB 
o 

in quatrefoil. JRoherf 
TimhrelJ, 

A N e in monogram in 
shaped shield. An- 
thony XeJnie. 



1712 Communion Plate. Stanford Church. Xorth- 

amiJton.shire. 

1712 Two Communion Cups. St. Michael's Church. 

Paternoster E o y a 1. 
City of London. 

171:2 Salver with roval arm>. Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



1712 Two-handled Cup. 



R. T. Frere. Esq. 



1713 Communion Alms Di-h. Thorp Achurch Church. 

Xorthamptonsh're. 

1713 Silver gilt Communion St. Dunstan's Church. 
Paten. Stepney. County of 

I^ondon. 

1713 Communion Paten. Rainham Church, Es- 
sex. 



1713 Communion Paten. 



Astou-le-Walls Cliurch. 
Xorthamptonshire. 



250 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



P L crowned above 
fleiir de lys in shaped 
shield. Faiil dc La- 
me rie. 

L E a pellet between let- 
ters, rose above and 
below and three pel-, 
lets on each side with- 
in circle. Timothy 
Lee. 

W I beneath urn in 
shaped outline. Itich-i 
aid Williams. | 

F L crowned. ! 

P O an anchor between; 

letters in sliield. i 

I 

Vi 

P a in shaped shield.. 
Thomas Parr. 1 

W I beneath vase in 
shaped stamp. 



1713 



1713 



Two Cui)s and Cover! 
Patens, Flagon, Bread' 
Holder, and Almsj 
Dish, all silver gilt. | 

Communion Bread ' 

Holder. 



1713 i Communion Flagon. 



1713 i 
1714; 

1714 I 

]714| 

1714' 



Lo 



1714 



K d beneath hart or 171-5 
goat in lobed stamp. 

Wl beneath two stars 1715 
and above fleur de Ijs 
in irregular shield. 
David WiUaume. 

LO beneath two pel- 17 Lo 
lets. 

S L above annulet in 1715 
lobed shield. 



Two-handled Cui). 
Communion Paten. 

Pepper Caster. 
Communion Cup. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 



Two-handled Cup. 
Communion Paten. 

Cup and Cover. 



Two-handled Cup. 



Communion Paten. 



PY below a rose and 1715 Communion Cup and 
ducal coronet in Cover Paten, 

shaped shield. Beri-\ 
jamin Pyiie. ' 



P L in ellipse. 



1715 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cui)s. 



CO three pellets above 1715 Two Communion Flag-; 



and rose between two 
annulets below in ; 
shaped shield. Bohert' 
Cooper. 



ons, two Cups and Pa- 
tens and three Dishes, 
all silver gilt. 



Castle x\sliby Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



St. Peter's Church, 
Northami)ton. 



Fawsiey Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

East Haddon Chiirch, 
Northamptonshire . 

E. T. Frere, Esq. 

AVood Newton Church, 
Northamiitonshire. 

St. Bartholomew by the 
Royal E x c h a n g e 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Ashford Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



St. Andrew ITndershaft 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

Brington C h u r c h, 
Northami^tonshire. 



St. Clement's Church, 
Eastcheap, City of 
London. 

St. Nicholas Cole Ab- 
bey Church, City of 
TiOndon. 



TJST OF MARKS. 



251 



MAKKHS MAUK, 



DATK 



AlMICl.K. 



OWNER. 



ANe in iiioiioo-rain inl 3.715 i Set of silver gilt Com- Wliitchiireh Church, 



shaped shield. .l/(- 
thony Nelme. 



M E with two sickles! 1715 
iiibove and over these i 
a sheaf of corn. j 

W I beneath tAvo mul-j 1716 
lets and above flour j 
de lys. ! 

G R beneath crown. 1716 

I 

P L in ellipse. ; 1716 



munion Plate. 
Tea Caddy. 

Two-handled Cup. 

Candlestick, 



Middlesex. 

H. A. Attenborougli, 
Esq. 

II. T. Frere, Esq. 



Queen's College, Cain- 
bridge. 



Silver gilt Comnninion Mornchurch Chuich, Es- 
Alms Dish. sex. 



P a. in irregular 1716 | Set of Communion 
square. Tlwnias P«v. Plate. 



Kettering C h u r c h, 
Xortliamptonshire. 



C L in heart shaped] 1716 
shield. 



W a in oblong stamp. 1717 

B i in gothic letters be- 3717 
neath trefoil and 
above bird. I 



Silver gilt Communion St. Paul's Church, Shad- 



Cup and Cover. 

Teapot. 
Salt. 



well, County of ] Lon- 
don. 

Mrs. Gray. 

Gonville and Cains Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 



CL above pellet in 3717 I Communion Cup and Weekley Church, North- 
heart shaped shield. Cover Paten. amptonshire. 
Joseph Clare, \ 

L E Avith seven dots and 1717 Four sih-er gilt Com- St.Dunstanin the East 



two pellets in circle. 



munion Cups. 



BO Avith mitre above 1717 Communion Paten, 
and fleur de lys beloAv j 

in shaped shield. 
John Bodingfou. j 



Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Pancras Old Church, 
County of London. 



L O in monogram. 



1717 TAVO-handled Cup. 
Ciborium. 

Paten on foot. 



F r aboA'e pellet in 1717 

jilain shield. 

S I above pellet in cir- ]717 

cle. 1 

FA croAA-ned in circle. 1718! Communion Flagon. St. Mary's Church, Bow 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Ealing Church, Middle- 
sex. 

Major C. A. Markham. 



circa 

1718 



WUlia m Faudcvy. 

RG 
TC 

Avith pellet in quatre 
foil stamp. liichard 
Gurney cO Co. 



C D in plain shield. \ 1718 



Communion Cup. 



County of London, 

West Ham Church, Es- 
sex. 



Communion Cup. All Saints' Church. 

Northampton. 



2 c 2 



HALL ALXRKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MAHK. 



DATE. 



AiniCl-K. 



OWNKU. 



LO ill inono<j;iain in 3718 
ellii)sc'. 

G I crowned in plain^ 1718 
shield. 



LA beneath a srey- 1719 
liound sejant in lobed 
stamp. TItoiiKis Ijuhj-' 

W I abf)ve flenr-de-lys 1719 

in shaped shield. j 

W I above ])ellet in 1719 
sua])ed shiekL 



Conmmnion Paten. 1 C/orbv (-hnrch. North 



aniptonshire. 



C A Clowned in ellipse. 



1719 



M A above pellet in, 1719 
shaped shield. , 



A L in recta ngnla r 
stamp. 



1719 



Communion Dish. St. Clement D a n e ' s 

j Chinch. (' o n n t y of 

I London. 

I 

I 
Communion Cui) and St. ^fary's C'hnreh, Bel- 
C'over Paten. : tort, iMiddlesex. 



Comnumion Cup. Hulton Church, l*]sscx. 



Communion I'aten. ]M;arst()n Trussell 

C'hurch. Northam]"*- 

: tonshire. 

1 

Silver gilt Communion St. Luke's Church. AVel- 
Paten. hn<>;b()i'on£*;h. Xorth- 

I amptonshire. 

Two Commnnion Pa-; Holv Trinity Church, 
tens. I Afinor'es. City of Lon- 

I don. 

Straining Spoon. St. ]\tai-r!;aret's C'hurch. 

j Westmin.ster, County 
of London. 



B A in quatrefoil. i 1719 : Two-handled Cup. K. T. Lrere. Esq. 



S L above pellet in 
lobed stamp, (riihricl 
SI rath. 

L o beneath two pel- 

h'ts. 

A V black letter. 

L O above mullet in 
plain siiield, 

F A above mullet. 



F I lieneath crown. 
]Villi(iin FlemiiKj. 

E C above ])ellet in 
heart shaped shield. 

PA in shaped stani]). 
.•' Hinu plirey Faync. 

A O beneath fleur de 
Ivs in circle. 



1719 



Mug. 



1719 Two-handled Cup. 

i 
1719 Two-handled Cup. 

1720 



Pembroke College. Cam- 
bridge. 



Px. T. l-'rere, Esq. 
R. T. Erere, Esq. 



Communion Cup. 1 Braunston C h u r c h, 
j Northamptonshire. 



1720 Communion Cup and 
Elagon. 

1720. Salt. 

1720 I Communion Elagon. 



1720 I Two silver gilt Cups and 
; Patens. 

17201 Communion Elagon. 



Clay Coton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Holdenhy Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Writtle Church, Essex, 



Steane Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



253 



iVlAKKll S .MAI5K. 



DATK. 



AIMICLK 



o\vm;i?, 



J £i ill shapod shield. 
Hi' II It/ J a 11. 

I S above tAVO pellets. 

E D old Kno:lisli letters 
beneath tno pellets 
and ab()\e one, in 
lobed shield. JdIih 
E die aids. 

F A in ellipse. IT/V- 
//(//// Fail dn If. 

G B beneath bird in 
shaped shield. 

R e erowned above Heur 
de lys in shajied 
shield. JoJi n I'nid. 

I S in shaped shield. 
i* James Srahruol'. 



T F in outline. T ho tin is 
FoII:in(ili(iiii . 



B N above fleiir de lys 
in heart shaped shield. 



A 

H M 

P 

in shaix'd shield. 

! G in nionoy;rani in 
heart shaped shield. 

Py beneath crown and 
rose in irrejiulai- 
stamp, lien jiini ill 
]*!fii('. 

T F beneath Heiir de 
lys and alioAe iiiiillet 
in (luatrefoil. 

NG in lozenge, yafh- 
(iiiirJ (>iiIHrer. 

M A beneath two mul- 
lets and aboAe fleur 
de lys in shapiHl 
shield. SatniicJ ^f(^r- 
ijas. 

I B with mullet above 
and below in lobed 
shield. J aim B'uimdl. 



172U Coninmnioii C 



up. 



1720 - Two-handled Cup. 
1720 Communion Flagon, 



Friern 1 Jar net Church. 
JNliddlesex. 

U. T. Frere, I'Isq. 

I'xbridge Church, ]\rid- 
dlesex. 



Cup. 



Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 



1721 

1721 Communion Cup and l^iast Carlton Church, 

1722 



Cover Paten, 
Silver gilt Spoon. 



Northamiitonshire. 



1722 C'Om ill union Cup. 



1722 



Two Communion 
Flagons. 



1722! Communion Dish. 



1722 



TAvo-handled Cu^). 



St. Paul's Cjiurch, Cov- 
ent Gar<len, CVmnty 
of liondon. 

St. Martin's Church. 
S t a m f o r d Jiaron, 
Northam])tonsh're. 

St. IMartin's C-hurch, 
S t a m f o r d l^aron, 
TMortham[)tonsh're. 

St. Margaret'.s Church. 
Westminster, County 
of London. 

W. T. Fiere, F.sq. 



1723 Snuffers and Tray. \ Clare College, Cam- 
i bridge. 

1723 i l^\)ur small silver gilt; Cor])oration of C'am- 
Maces. bridge. 



1723 Silver gilt Communion South AVeald Church 
Alms T)i«b I Essex. 



1793: Communion Bread 
Holder. 

1723 Communion Paten. 



1723 Communion Bi'ead 
Holder. 



Cransley Church. North- 
ami)t()nshire. 

Cowley Church, Middle, 
sex. 



Greens Noi'ton Church 
Northamptonshire. 



254 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MAKK. 



P E ill r)lain shield, 



i DATE. 



1723 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



Tavo Communion Almsj Hadley Monken Church, 
Dishes. ' Middlesex. 



IE ahove mullet ini 1723 1 Commiinion Cup. Pa-j Lowiok Church, North- 
heart shaped shield. i ten, Flagon and Alms' amptonshire. 

! I Dish. 

GB beneath bird in | 1724 j Communion Flagon, j East Carlton Church, 

Northamptonshire. 

Evenley C'hurch, North- 
amptonshire. 



Communion Paten. 



sliaped shield. 

A 1724 

H H 
P 

in shaped shield. 

P H beneath a corn' 1725 
sheaf in lobed stamp. 
Fdiil Ilaniiet. j 

I A in shaped outline. : 1725 
CJuirJcs Jac]:son 



circa 
F G ahove mullet in 1725 j Two Communion 
shajied shield. Fran-\ Flagons. 

c'l.s (jiurfliorne. 



Silver gilt Spoon. 



Christenino: BoavI. 



H S beneath fleur de 
lys and above cinque- 
toil in hexagonal 
stamp. 

P G in heart shaped 
sliield. 

T B in oval. 



1725 'Two Communion Flag- 
' ons and Alms Dish. 



! St. John the Evangelist 
i Church, Westminster, 
! C'ounty of London. 

I Private Chapel, Althorp 
House, Northami^ton- 
sliire. 

St. .John's Church, 
Wa]i])ing, County of 
London . 

Ruislip Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



1726 
1726 



Communion Paten. 
Muffineer. 



Fxb ridge Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Tjaxton CMiurch, North- 
amptonshire. 

P P l)eneath rose and 1726 Silver gilt Communion St. Clement's Church, 
crown in shaped j j Alms Dish. Eastcheap. City of 

stamp. ! i London. 

W D beneath trefoil in; 1726 j Two silver gilt Com- St. Martin in the Fields 
shaped stamp. WiI-\ I munion Flagons. Church, County of 

Jianh Darl-er. I London. 



I M in shaped shield. 1726 j Communion Paten. 

.^ Jolin MiJlington. 



P L script letters 

crowned above pellet 
in shaped stamp. Paul 
(le Lnmeric. 



1726 i Two silver gilt Com-' St. Martin in the Fields 

Church, County of 
London. 



munion Flagons. 



AV l)eneath pellet in i 1726 1 Communion Flagon, 
irregular stamp. i i 

i I 

P ci-owned in shaped; 1727 j Silver gilt helmet- 
stamp, i i shaped Jug. 

To ))etween five x^ellets 1727 | Communion Flagon. ' Haselbeach Church, 
in ellipse. Northamptonshire. 



Littleton Ciiurch, Mid- 
dlesex. 

The Marquis of Exeter. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



255 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



M &C. 



1728 



A N e linked in shaped 1 1728 
shield. Francis 



ARTICLE. 



Taper Candlestick. 



Two Communion Cups, 
two Patens and 
Flagon, 



D W in oblong. David, 1728 Communion Cup, Paten, 



]yillaume. 



Flagon and Bread 
Holder 



WD beneath trefoil in 1728 i Communion Alms Dish 
trefoil stamp. 



G S. 1728 



I L and trefoil. 1728 



Capital letter G enclos- 1728 
ing W in square 
stamp. 

R Z script letters be- 1729 
neath mullet in irre- 
gular stamp with lobe 
above. Bichard 
Zouch. 

TW beneath cinquefoil 1729 
in lobed stami). 

R above heart in shaped i 1729 
shield. 

ch'ca 

I A 1729 

MF 

in i:)laiii shield. 
Joseph Alien & Mor- 
decai Fox. 

T K beneath fleur de 1729 
lys and above mullet, 
pellet between letters, 
in four-lobed stamp. 



Cup. 



Toilet Set. 



Small Coffee Pot. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Communion Flagon. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Flagon. 



T 

R C 

C 

pellet between letters in 
quatrefoil. 

T I pellet between and 
cinquefoil below let- 
ters in plain shield. 

W P crowned. 



1729 



1729 



1730 



Two Communion Cups, 
two Patens and two 
Flagons. 



Tankard. 



Communion Cover Pa- 
ten. 



Spoon. 



OWNER. 



St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Ecton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



Potterspury C h u r c h. 
Northamptonshire. 



St. Helen's Church, 
Bishopsgate, City of 
London. 

Corporation of Doncas- 
ter. 

Earl of Stamford and 
Warrington. 

Mrs. Gray. 



St. John the Evangelist 
Church, Westminster, 
County of London. 



Great Leighs Church, 

Essex. 

Norton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

Aynhoe Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



St. George in the East 
Church, County of 
London. 



J. H. Walter, Esq. 



St. Pancras Old Church, 
County of London. 



St. Magnus C h u r c h, 
City of London. 



256 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



R B beneath annulet in 
rectangular stamp 
with lobe above. liich- 
arcl Bayley. 

P A crowned. 



R W above star. 



E V pellet above and be- 
low in elliiDse. ? Ed- 
ward Vincent . 

E Y above pellet in 
plain shield. 



C K above pellet in 
shaped shield. 

L C crown and fleur de 

lys. 

AC. 

P H beneath acorn. 

I C. Isaac Coohson. 



I S above cinquefoil in 
rectangular stamp 
with lobe above. 

M or W in plain shield. 



R I pellet between let- 
ters in ellipse. 

G S above in shaped 
shield. Gabriel Slcath. 

TR. 



C H a pellet above and 
some mark beneath in 
shaped outline. 
Charles Hatfield. 

D W in plain oblong. 
David Willaume. 



P L beneath crown and 
mullet and above fleur 
de lys in shaped 
shield. Faiil de Lam- 
erie. 



DATE 



1730 

1730 
1731 
1731 

1731 

1732 

1732 

1732 
1733 

1733 

1733 

1734 

1734 
1734 
1734 
1734 

1735 
1735 



ARTICLE. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



Six Sconces. 

Salt. 

Two Communion Pa- 
tens. 



OWNER. 



Hendon Church, Mid 
dlesex. 



Earl of Stamford and 
AVarrington. 

Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. 

Oundle Church, North 
amptonshire. 



Two Communion Cups; St. .John the Evangel.^'st 
and Cover Patens audi Church, Westminster, 
two Flagons, all silver County of London 
gilt. 



Candle Cup and Cover. 

Tea Kettle. 

Milk Pot and Cover. 
Fork. 

Candlestick. 



Two Cohimunion 
Flagons. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten, Flagon 
and Alms Dish. 

Communion Cup. 



Communion Alms Dish. 



Walpole Mace. 



Communion Cuji and 
Cover Paten, Flagon 
and two Dishes. 



Communion Cuj) and 
Cover Paten, Flagon 
and two Dishes. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



H. A. Attenborougli, 
Esq. 

Windsor Castle. 



Earl of Home. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St.^ Luke's Church, Old 
Street, County of 
London. 

Private Chapel, Burgh- 
ley House, N o r t li- 
amptonshire. 

Lilbourne Church, 
Northamptonslr.re. 

Stan wick Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Corporation of Nor- 
wich. 

Stoke Doyle Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Apethorp Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Easton Neston Church 
Northamptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



25; 



maker's mark. 



R B in oblong. Hichard 
Bayley. 

I F pellet between let- 
ters in oblong. 

i F in oblong. 



T 

R G 

C 

in qnatrefoil. Bichard 
Gurneij tl- Co. 

C C in oblong with cor- 
ners cut off. Claris 
Christian. 

T F beneath fleur de 
lys and above mullet, 
in shaped stamp. 
Thomas ffarer. 

S S crowned with line 
between letters in 
shaped shield. 

I S pellet between let- 
ters in dotted ellipse. 



T F mullet above and 
below^ in shaped shield. 



E F pellet between let- 
ters in oblong stamp. 

I R beneath sun in splen- 
dour, pellet between 
letters in shaped 
stamp. 

D W above pellet in 
shaped shield. 



W G script letters in ir- 
regular outline. 

T W script letters in ir- 
regular outline. 
Thomas Whipham. 

I S in circular stamp. 



RA pellet between let- 
ters in circles joined, 
Bohert Ahercromhy. 



DATE. I 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



1735 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 



1735 Communion Cup, Paten 
i and Flagon. 

173(5 Communion Paten and 
Cover for Cup. 



1736 



173- 



1737 



1737 



1737 



1737 



Communion Flagon. 



Openwork Sugar Bowl. 
Salt Cellar and De- 
canter Stand. 

Three Communion Alms 
Dishes. 



Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 



Two Communion Cups, 
three Patens, tw^o 
Flagons and SjDoon. 

Communion Cup and 
two Patens, silver 
silt. 



Moulton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 

O';erston Church, 
Northami^tonshire. 

Kelmarsh Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Warmington Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



J. H. Walter, Esq. 



AVest Ham Church, Es- 
sex. 



Harpole Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



St. Giles'.s Church, Crip- 
]ilegate. City of Lon- 
don . 

St. Olave's Church, 
Hart Street, City of 
London. 



1737 i Large silver gilt Salt. The Marquis of Exeter 

1738 Silver gilt Communion Little Baddow Church, 
Paten. Essex. 



1738 

1739 
1739 

1739 

1740 



Silver gilt Communion 
Paten and Alms Dish. 



Communion Cup. 



Communion Flagon. 



Communion Paten. 



Communion Paten. 



St. Margaret Pattens' 
Church, City of Lon- 
don . 

Great Warley Church, 
Essex. 

Little Baddow Church, 
Essex. 



CoAvley Church, Middle- 
sex. 

Great Houghton Church, 
Northamptonshire, 



358 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKEB S MARK. 



R B script letters in 
quatrefoil. 

TT. 



R G script letters 
crowned. 

R L in rectangular 
stamp. 

J F. 



H P beneath triangle 
and above cinquefoil 
in cross shaped stamp 

I R beneath mullet, 

I S script letters in 
shaped shield. 



TW 
WW 



D C beneath fleur de 
lys in plain shield. 
Daniel Cliartier. 

C H beneath crown and 
pellet in shaped stamp. 

W W a cinquefoil above 
and another below in 
ellipse. 

T W script letters in 
irregular oblong. 
Thomas Whipham. 

N S beneath mullet. 

H B script letters in 
quatrefoil. ? Henry 
Brind. 

S P script letters in ir- 
regular outline. 



BP 

I S script letters in 
shaped shield. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



1740 
1740 

1740 
1741 
1741 

1741 

1741 

1742 

1742 

1742 

1742 
1743 

1743 

1743 
1743 

1743 

1743 
1743 



Communion Cup. 



Pair of Vases and 
Covers. 

Tankard. 



Communion Flagon. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon. 



Communion Paten. 

Salver. 
Communion Paten. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups and 
Covers. 

Two Communion Flag- 
ons and two Alms 
Dishes. 

Large Tray. 



Communion Flagon. 

Beaker. 

Pair of Dishes. 
Communion Flagon. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Cup and Cover. 



Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Patens. 

Communion Cut) and 
Paten. 



All Saints' Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Goldsmiths' Company, 
London. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford 



Little Waltham Church, 
Essex. 

St. ^ Michael's Church, 
AVood Street, City of 
London. 

St. Mildred's Church, 
Bread Street, City of 
London, 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Chipping Warden 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

St. Sepulchre's Church, 
City of London. 



Daventry C h u r c h, 
Northamptonshire. 



H. A. Attenborough, 
Esq. 

Childerditch Church, 
Essex. 



Magdalene College, 
Cambridge. 



AYindsor Castle. 

Cogenhoe Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



St. Margaret Pattens' 
Church, City of Lon- 
don. 

St. Sepulchre's Church, 
City of London. 

Heston Church, Middle- 
sex. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



259 



MAKEH S MARK. 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNEH. 



I R script letters in; 1744 
shaped shield, i John\ 
Bohinson. 

H M script letters. 1744 

P L script letters ! 1744 

crowned above pellet. 



H P above mullet in 
shaped shield. .^ Hum- 
phrey Payne. 



1745 



W W cinquefoil above 1746 
and another below inj 
elliptical stamp, I 

PT beneath a cup in; 1748 
shaped outline. Peter 
Taylor. 

EG pellet above and' 1749 
below in lozenge. Eliz-\ 
aheth Godfrey. I 

I circa 
A column between two 1750 
pellets in plain shield. | 

j circa 

J B in iilain shield. 1750 



Dh beneath fleur de 1751 

lys. I 

I 

F W in irregular ob- 1751 

long. Fuller White. \ 

S W script letters with! 1751 
pellet between in irre-j 
gular outline. | 

Capital letter W be- 1752 
peath some object in 
circle. [ 

EC in irregular stamp.! 1752 
Ebenezer Coker. 1 

I P script letters, i 1752 

E F script letters be-j 1752 
neath iiellet in sliaped 
shield. Edward Fe- 
line. 

WC in oblong. Wil- 1753 

liani Cripps. \ 

T W script letters in ir- 1754 
regular oblong. 



Communion Paten. 

Cake Basket. 
Tea Caddy. 

Communion Flagon. 



Communion Paten and 
Flagon. 



Norton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

H. A. Attenborough, 
Esq. 

Norton C h u r c h, 
Northamptonshire. 



Sunbury Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



C o m m u n i o n Paten, 1 Eydon Church, North- 
Flagon and Alms' amptonshire. 
Dish. 



Candlestick. 



Communion Flagon, 



Six Beadle's Staves. 



Salt. 



Communion Cup, Cover 
Paten and Flagon. 

Cruet. 



Communion Cup and 
Paten. 



Spoon . 

Two-handled Cup. 
Oval Dish. 



St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



Mar ham Church, North- 
amptonshire, 

St. James's Church, 
Piccadilly, County of 
TiOndon. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

King's ClifiPe Church, 
Northamptonshire . 

J, H. Walter, Esq. 



M i d d 1 e t o n Cheney 
Church, Northamp 
tonshire. 

Brentford Church, Mid- 
dlesex, 

R. T, Frere, Esq. 

Sunbury Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



Communion Cup and Daventry C h u r c h, 

Northamptonshire. 



Cover Paten 
Two-handled Porringer 



Mr. Whitmore. 



26o 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S MARK. 



H H linked letters in 
plain shield. 

J R beneath mullet. 

M F 

W G script letters. 
W 

w s 
p 

in qnatrefoil. Willkiin 

Priest. 

P B 

T 
S I 

s 

with cross in centre in 
qnatrefoil. 

W W in monogram in 
plain stamp. 

RT 

T 

R G 

G 

F G in rectangular 
stamp. 

RC in oblong stamp. 



D.\TE. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



1754} Silver gilt Pineapple The Marquis of Exeter 
Cup. 



1754 
1754 



Jug. 

Two Caddies. 

Plain Tumbler. 



Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Earl of Stamford and 
Warrington. 



1754 

circa I { 

1755 Communion basin. , Sudborough Church 



1755 

1756 

circa 



Milk Pot. 
Tankard. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

Iborough Church, 
Northamptonshire. 



Sir T. W. Holburne. 
INIr. Ivobinson. 



1756 j Communion Paten, j St. Mary's Church, Bed- 
fort, Middlesex. 

J. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 



1756 
1756 

1757 
1757 



Engraved Tea Kettle. 



Pair Butter Boats. ': Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Silver gilt Communion] Chelmsford Church, Es. 
Cup. j sex. 



Tavo silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups. 



St. Edmund the King 
and Martyr Church, 
Citv of London. 



N S beneath pellet in. 1757 Communion Flagon. , Gayton Church, North- 

I amptonshire. 



plain shield. 
C G in oblong stamp. 

R I in oblong. 

W C in rectangular 
stamp. 

T H crowned. 

I P script letters in out- 
line. 



1757 



Communion Cup. St. George's Church, 

Botolph Lane, City of 
i London. 



1757 j Communion Cup and Dallington Church, 
j Covei- Paten. i Northamptonshire. 

i 

1758: Four Beadles' Staves. St. Margaret's Church, 

Westminster, County 
of London. 



1758 



Ewer 



O. P]. Coope, Esq. 



1758 I Communion Cup and Wold Church, North- 
! Cover Paten. I amptonshire. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



261 



MAKER S MARK. 



S C script letters be- 
neath sun. 

IT 



W P script letters, 

P P beneath star. Pez(i 
Pillean. 

W C gothic letters be- 
neath pellet. William 
Cafe. 

B R pellet between let- 
ters in square stamp. 
lUchard Bugg. 

T H crowned. 



B B pellet between let- 
ters in oblong with 
corners cut off. 

IS script letters in ob- 
long. 

W T in an engrailed 
border. 

I C. John Carter. 



J S in oval stamp. Jolin 
Swift. 

F G in oblong. 



Pierre Gillois. 



J S. Jolm SmitJi. 



W M interwoven. Wil- 
I'lam Mackenzie. 



C 

T W 

W 

in ellipse. WJiipliam d: 
Wright. 



DATE. 



1758 

1759 

1759 
1760 

1760 

1760 

1761 
1761 

1761 
1762 
1762 
1762 
1762 
1763 
1763 
1763 



ARTICLE. 



Coffee Pot. 

Spoon. 

Bread Basket. 
Cream Jug. 

Candlestick. 
Communion Paten. 



Pair of Coronation Sal- 
vers. 

Large Tankard. 



Communion Alms Dish. 

Spoon. 

Candlestick. 

Beaker. 

Communion Flagon. 

Three Tea Caddies. 

Stouii. 



OAVNER. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, 



Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Clare College, Cam- 
bridge. 



St. John's Church, 
Wapping, County of 
London. 

Lady Willoughby de 
Eresby. 

Prof. Clifford AUbut. 



Arthingworth Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

The late Mr. Alderman 
Cockerill. 

Great Oakley Church, 
Northamptonshire. 

Clare College, Cam- 
bridge. 

J. E. L. Whitehead, 
Esq. 



Silver gilt Communion Private Chapel, Althorp 
Cup and Cover Paten. House, Northampton- 
shire. 



1763 Two silver gilt Com- St. Dunstan in the West 
munion Cups. , Ciiurch, City of Lon 

don. 



W S in ellipse. Wil- 1763 Communion Flagon. 
Ham Shaw. 



By field Church, North- 
amptonshire. 



262 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 


DATE. 


ARTICLE. 


OWNER. 


R 

D H 

H 


1764 


Four Salts. 


J. E. L. Whitehead, 
Esq. 


Da v'ul A- Bohert He n nelL 








R R pellet between let- 
ters in oblong. Bicli- 
anl BiKjg. 


1764 


Communion Paten. 


Thorp Malsor Church, 
Northamptonshire. 


W G script letters in ir- 
regular outline. ^Yil- 
Vmm Grundy. 


1764 


Beadle's Staff. 


St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, Countj'^ of 
London. 


1 K crowned. 


1765 


Tea Kettle. 


Lord Bateman. 


1 P script letters in out- 
line. 


1765 


Tavo Communion Cups 
and Cover Patens. 


Paulerspury Church, 
Northamptonshire. 


S A script letters. 


1765 


Tankard. 


Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 


RP 


1766 


PejDper Caster. 


Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 


F N black letters in ob- 
long stamp. 


1766 


Two-handled Cup. 


Mrs. Brown. 


W G script letters. 


1767 


Coffee Pot. 


Brett Collection. 


A R linked letters in 
shaped stamp. 


1767 


Silver gilt standing 
Clip. 


The Marquis of Exeter. 


W K script letters. 


1768 


Milk Jug. 


Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 


C W in rectangular 
stamp. 


1769 


Two Communion Cups 
and Cover Patens. 


St. Dionis's Church, 
Parson' s Green, 
Fulham, County of 
London, 


1 L pellet between and 
annulet above letters 
in shaped stamp. 


1769 


Communion Cup. 


Upton Church, North- 
amptonshire. 


LC 
GC 


1769 


Candlestick. 


Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 


E G in rectangular 
stamp. 


1769 


Communion Flagon. 


St. Ann e's Church, 
Limehouse, County of 
London. 


C W in oblong. Charles 
Wright 


1770 


Communion Flagon. 


Broughton Church, 
Northamptonshire. 


1 M 


1770 


Cup. 


G. Moffatt, Esq. 


J G script letters in el- 
lipse. Jolin Gorham. 


1770 


Communion Cup and 
Cover Paten. 


AVicken Church, North- 
amptonshire. 


BG pellet between let-l 1770 
ters and beneath four 
heaits ill lobed stamp,! 


Two silver gilt Com- 
munion Cups. 


St. John's Church, 
Hampstead, County 
of London. 


SC 
1 c 

mullet between letters 


1770 


Dish. 


All Saints' Church, Ful- 
ham, County of Lon- 
don. 


in square stamp. 









LIST OF MARKS. 



263 



MAKER S MARK. 



DATE. 



W G in cblong stamp. I 1771 



I K pellet between in 1771 
plain shield. 

R R pellet between let- 1771 
ters in rectangular 
stamp. 

W P. Williani Phim- 1772 

mer. \ 

W G script letters in ir-l 1772 
regular outline. Wil- 
liam Grundy. 



ARTICLE. 



OWNER. 



Four Plates. 

Communion Flagon, 

Communion Salver Pa- 
ten. 

Fish Slice. 



All Hallow's Church, 
Lombard Street, City 
of London. 

Helmdon C h u r c h, 
Northamptonshire. 

Feltham Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 



1 Y. James Young. 

T A script letters 
crowned in lobed 
stamp. 

CC 



1772 



Communion Alms Dish.l E a s to n-on-the-Hill 

Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Peterhouse, Cambridge 

Ealing Church, Middle- 



Cup and Cover. 



1773 Two silver gilt Alms 
Dishes. 



1773 



T P script letters in 1773 
plain oblong. Thomas 
Powell. 



L V in rectangular 
stamp. 



R 

D S 

S 

in quatrefoil. Daniel 
Smith <£• Bohert 
Sharp. 

AB 
LD 

in square stamp. Abra- 
ham Barrier & Louis 
Dumcommier. 

RR 



sex. 



Pair of Sugar Baskets. I Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Communion Bread 
Holder, 



1773! Communion Paten. 



1773 



1773 



1773 



Communion Bread 
Holder. 



I R pellet above and be-| 1773 
low in diamond shaped j 
stamp. 

C W 1774 



I C in rectangular \ 1774 

stamp. 



I W 1774 



Silver gilt Spoon. 

Salver. 
Silver Fire Irons. 

Cup and Cover. 
Silver gilt Spoon. 

Plain Tumbler. 



Cottingham Church, 
Northamptonshire . 



St. Anne's C h u r c h, 
Limehouse, County of 
London. 

Syresham C h u r c h , 
Northamptonshire . 



St. Michael's Church, 
H'ghgate, County of 
London. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
The Marquis of Exeter. 



Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. George's Church, 
Bloomsbury, County 
of London. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



264 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAKER S AfARK. DATE 



I P 

FW 

beneath feathers in 
shaped "stamp. 

I C beneath pellet in 
circle. 

W F pellet between let- 
ters in rectangular 
stamp. Walter 
Tircedie. 

R I in qnatrefoil. 



S M 

1 W 
WT 

John Wal-Plin cD Wil- 
liam Taylor. 

F W in oblong. Thoman 
Wright. 



J S mullet between let- 
ters in lobed stamp. 

H S in rectangular 
stamp. 

I C in rectangular 
stamp. John Carter. 

I S script letters. 

W G script letters. 

Rl 
I S 

in plain shield. 

WH 



E F script letters be- 
neath pellet. 

J A in rectangular 
stamp. 

RM 
RC 

in square stamp. Itoherf 
Make ijcaee dL- Bichard 
Carter. 



1775 



AirncLE. 



Silver gilt Communion 
(;up and Cover. 



OWNER. 



Leyton Church, Essex. 



1775 Communion Alms Dish, j Great Brington Church, 

Northamptonshire. 



1775 



Communion Paten. Harlington Church, 

Middlesex. 



1775 Communion Paten. 



1775' Four Salt Cellars. 



Stow-nine-Churches 
Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford 



1776 Standing Cup and St. John's College, Cam- 
Cover i bridge 



1776 



area 

1776 



1776 



1776 



Communion Cover Pa -I E a s t o n-on-the-Hill 
ten. Church, Northamp- 



Beadle's Staff. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon and Paten. 

Silver gilt Communion 
Paten. 



17761 Pair of Butter Boats. 



1776 
1777 

1777 
1777 
1777 
1777 



Coffee Pot. 
Bedroom Candlestick. 

Urn. 

Candlestick. 
Communion Paten. 



Silver gilt Communion 
Flagon and Paten. 



tonshire. 

St. Anne's Church, 
Limehouse, County of 
London. 

St. Mary's Church, 
Marylebone, County 
of London. 

St. Ma ry's Church, 
Marylebone, County 
of London. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
The Marquis of Exeter. 



St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Catharine's College, 
Cambridge. 

Little Baddow Church, 
Essex. 

St. M a ry's Church, 
Marylebone, County 
of London. 



i 



LIST OF MARKS 



26 s 



MAKER S MARK. 



S I script letters. 

AC 

W E pellet between let- 
ters ill rectangular 
stamp. 

W S in rectangular 
stamp. 



IVI F 
RC 

I S in oblong. James 

Stum J). 

WGR 



TP 
RP 

in sqnare stamp. Thomas 
tO Bichard Fayne. 

W E script letters. 

B M script leters. 

C W in oval stamp. 
Charles Wrirjhf. 

RE 
E B 

in qnatrefoil stamp. 

J D in lozenge. 

IC 
TH 

in shaped stamp. 

C H in oblong stamp. 

W B in rectangular 
stamp. 

T D in oval. 



E F pellet between let- 
ters in irregular 
stamp. 

T W in oblong stamp. 

I K 



DATE. 



ARTICLE. 



1777 

1777 



Milk Jug. 
Sugar Basin. 



OWNER. 



1778' Communion Flagon. 



1778 



1779 



Beadle's Staff. 



Candlestick. 



1779 \ Communion Bread 
Holder. 



1779 
1779 

1780 
1780 
1781 

1781 

1781 
1781 

1782 
1782 

1783 

1783 

1784 
1784 



Pair of Vases with rams' 
heads. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Leyton5;tone Church, 

Essex. 



Church of St. Peter ad 
Vincula, T o av e r of 
London. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Harpole Church, North, 
amptonshire. 

Brett Collection. 



Communion Cup, Cover Whilton Church, North- 
Paten, Flagon and amptonshire. 
Alms Dish. 



Cream Jug. 
Cream Jug. 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



Communion Flagon, twoj HauAvell Church, Mid- 
Cups and Cover Pa-j dlesex. 
tens. 

Silver gilt Communion Church of St. John of 



Paten, 
Communion Flagon. 



Two Communion Pa- 
tens. 



Two Spoons. 
Communion Cup. 

Muffineer. 

Two Dishes. 

Two-handled Cup. 
Sugar Caster. 



Jerusalem, Hackney 
County of London. 

Hampton Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 

Hanwoll Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 



Major C. A. Markham 

Tckenham Church, Mid 
dlesex. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 

St. Mary's Church, Is- 
lington, County of 
London. 

Mrs. C. A. Markham. 

Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 



266 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's mark. 


DATE. 


ARTICLE. 


OWNER. 


H B script letters in 
shaped stamp. Hester 
Bateman. 


1784 


Two silver gilt Dishes. 


St. John the Evangelist 
Church, Westminster, 
County of London. 


1 D 


1784 


Two-handled Cup. 


Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 


R G script letters in 
shaped stamp. 


1784 


Small Mug. 


Major C. A. Markham. 


R H in oval, llobert 
Hennell. 


1785 


Snuffer's Tray. 


Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 


1 W 
WT 

above three ostrich 
feathers in shaped 
stamp. John Wakclin 
and William Taylor. 


1785 


Communion Cup. 


ChiswickChurch, County 
of Middlesex. 


B L dot between letters 
in rectangular stamp. 
Benjamin Laver. 


1785 


Four Communion 
Dishes. 


ChiswickChurch, County 
of Middlesex. 


R C dot between letters 
in rectangular stamp. 
Bichard Crossley. 


1785 


Spoon. 


ChiswickChurch, County 
of Middlesex. 


1 P & Co. 


1786 


Candlestick. 


St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 


H C in ellipse. Henry 
Chawner. 


1786 


Communion Bread 
Holder. 


Harpole Church, North- 
amptonshire. 


1 B 

Bundell cb Bridge. 


1786 


Pair of Cups with Ivory 
Plaques. 


Windsor Castle. 


1 C pellet between let- 
ters. 


1786 


Wine Strainer Funnel. 


Major C. A. Markham. 


W F script letters in ob- 
long William Elcy. 


1787 


Communion Alms Dish. 


Morton Pinkney Church, 
Northamptonshire. 


S M in rectangular 
stamp. 


1787 


Two Communion Cups. 


Feltham Church, Mkl- 
dlesex. 


M A crowned above 
cinquefoil. 


1787 


Water Jug. 


The Marquis of Exeter. 


W S in oval. 


1788 


Sugar Sifter. 


Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 


H C in oblong. 


1788 


Vase and Cover. 


Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 


1 K in oblong. John 
King. 


1788 


Communion Flagon. 


Syrcsham C h u r c h, 
Northamptonshire. 


M N 
RG 


1788 


Four Salt Cellars. 


Lord Bateman. 


PB 


1788 


Teapot. 


Dr. and Mrs, Ashford. 



LIST OF MARKS. 



267 



maker's mark. 


DATE, 


ARTICLE. 


OWNER. 


i 
T B 

e 
ill quatrefoil. Bohert 
Timhrell. 


circa 
1789 


Beadle's Staff. 


St. John's Church, Wap- 
ping, County of Lon- 
don. 


H B script letters in 
shaped stamp. Hester 
Bateman. 


1789 


Silver gilt Communion 
Cup. 


St. Paul's Church, Cov- 
ent Garden, County oi 
London. 


H G in rectangular 
stamp. 


1789 


Four Beadles' Staves. 


St. C 1 e m e n t D a n e's 
Church, County of 
London. 


TP 
ER 

in square stamp. 


1790 


Communion Flagon and 
two Cups. 


Wanstead Church, Es- 
sex. 


1 S in kidney shaped 
stamp. John S CO field. 


1790 


Two Communion Pa- 
tens. 


WaiLstead Church, Es- 
sex. 


GS 
WF 

in rectangular stamp. 


1790 


Communion Spoon. 


Wanstead Church, Es- 
sex. 


R H in circular stamp. 


1790 


Oval Tray for Spoon. 


Wanstead Church, Es- 
sex. 


AP 


1791 


Salt. 


Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. 


D D in rectangular 
stamp. 


1791 


Two Beadles' Staves. 


St. Mary Abbot's 
Church, Kensington, 
County of London. 


WP 
J P 

in plain stamp. William 
Plaits cD Joseph 
Freed]). 


1791 


Oval Tray. 


Feltham Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 


H C in elliptical stamp. 


1792 


Baptismal Bowl. 


St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, County 
of London. 


TR 


1792 


Candlestick. 


Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 


H C in oblong stamp. 


1793 


Snuffer's Tray. 


Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. 


1 S. John Scho field. 


1793 


Candlestick. 


Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 


W T pellet between let- 
ters in rectangular 
stamp. 


1793 


Spoon. 


St. Paul's Church, Hani- 
mersmith, County of 
London. 


M P 


1794 


Fish Slice. 


Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



268 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



i 

maker's mark. 
E F pellet between let- 


DATE. 


ARTICLE. 


OWNER. 


1794 


Silver gilt Communion 


Ley ton Church, Essex. 


ters in sqnare stamp. 
Edward FenuelL 




Flagon. 




E T in rectangular 


1795 


Communion Dish. 


Christchurch C h u r c h, 


stamp. 






Stepney, County of 
JiOndon. 


R M in rectangular 


1795 


Communion Cup. 


Brentford Church, Mid- 


stamp. 






dlesex. 


P S pellet between let- 


1795 


Silver Fire Iron, 


The Marquis of Exeter. 


ters in kidney shaped 








stamp. 








IT in rectangular 


1797 


Beadle's Staff. 


St. Luke's New Church, 


stamp. 






Chelsea , County of 
Tyondon. 


R G in rectangular 


1798 


Communion Paten. 


Staines Church, Middle- 


stamp. Bohcrt Gar- 






sex. 


rard. 






" 


1 B in rectangular 
stamp. 


1798 


Silver gilt Spoon. 


St. Mary's Church, 
Marylebone, County 
of London. 


WE 
WF 

]Yil]'mm Eulcij d: Wil- 


1798 


Spoon. 


Hanwell Church, Mid- 
dlesex. 


liam Fearn. 








AH 
D H 


1799 


Taper Holder. 


The Marquis of Exeter. 


in square stamp. 








J E in quatrefoil. John 


1799 


Communion Cup. 


Great Oakley Church, 


Ernes. 






Northamptonshire. 



SPOON MAKERS' MARKS. 



269 



SPOON MAKERS' MARKS. 

On Spoons in the Collections of the Rev. T. Staniforth, 
Dr. Ashford, and R. Templi: Frere, Esq. 

S Staniforth; A Ashford; F Frere. 



MAKKR S 
MAKK. 



L 

N S 



With dotted edges . . . . . 

A bunch of grapes 

A leaflet 

Lombardic letter iu a s.quai'e . 

Interlaced 

A mullet within a crescent . . . . 

3 leaves on a stalk 

A rosette ..... 

A cross ..... 

In a square border 

A shell in a round border . . . . 

With small crescent below 

An annulet and a mullet in a shield . 

A trefoil leaf in a circle 

I within the C on a shield . . . . 



I F 



R A 



I.C 
W 

T 
CD 

R.C. 
W.L 
B.N 
X 
M H 



Enclosed in a crescent or the letter C 
with W enclosed 

An anchor 

Within a crescent ....... 

C enclosed in a large D in a shield . 

A pair of compasses 

In a square shield ....... 

In monogram on a shield . . . . 

In monogram on a shield . . . . 

Or a cross in a heart-shaped shield . 
In a monogram on a shield . . . . 





DATES ACCORDING TO THE LETTEllS. 


s 
s 


1493, 1515, 1519 

1537, 1562. 
1519. 


, 1530; 


A 1515, 


A 


1522. 










s 


1530, 


1590. 








A 


1545. 










s 


1558, 

v. 

1562, 


1578, 
1619. 
J 564; 


1589, 
A 157 


1618; . 

0. 


\. 1605; 


s 


1561. 










F 


1572. 










s 


1573. 










S 1574, 


1578, 


1582. 






A 


1580. 










S 


1581, 


1586, 


1596; 


F 1586 




S 


1589. 










S 


1599, 


1611, 


1616, 


1617. 




s 


1598, 1601, 1604-5-6-7-8-9 
1596, 1609; A 1610. 


F 1589. 


A 


1602. 










s 


1602, 


1613. 








A 1605; F 1608, 1629; 

1617, 1621, 1627, 163 

1636-7-8, 1646. 
S 1610. 


S 1614, 
2, 1634, 


S 
F 


1617, 1619, 

F 1634. 
1613. 


1633, 


1637; 


A 1632; 


F 


1609. 










S 


1609. 


1631. 








s 


1614, 


1615; 


F 1614. 





2/0 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



maker's 

MARK. 


REMARKS. 


DATES ACCORDIXG TO THE LETTERS. 


w 


In a shield 


S 1614. 


W F 


In a shield 


S 1618. 


B.Y 


Above a three-barred gate in a 
shield 


F 1621, 1638. 


LI 
C 


With dots and lis variously r)laced . 
With mullet enclosed 


S 1623, 1638, 1639, 1640, 1651, 1654, 

1663, 1665. 
S 1624. 


\\^ S In a shield 


S 1624 : A 1624. 


I F Three clots under in a shield . 


r 1621 : S 1641. 


S V 
R.I 


In an ornamental shield .... 
A mullet below in a shield .... 


S1624, 1652, 1654, 1655, 1671, 1676: 

F 1653, 1659. 
A 1626, 1628; F 1628. 


I E 




A 1620. 


LP 




A 1621. 


X B 


Xot in a shield 


S 1627. 


D 


In a shield 


S 1628, 1631 ; F 1628, 1629. 


R G 


In a square ... 


S 1629, 1633. 




A dolphin ... 


A 1631. 


I D 


In a shield 


S 1634. 


E H 


CroAvned, crescent and x^^ll^^^s 
below 


F 1631 ; A 1663 : S 1682 ; B 1684. 


w c 


Mullet below and pellets round . 


A 1633; S 1641, 1656, 1660, 1662. 


F 


In a shield ......... 


S 1636. 


T F 


Three pellets under 


A 1637. 


H.L. 


Joined in a shield 


S 1639. 


H I 


Two small crosses between . : . . 


A 1639. 


E.I. 




A 1'640. 


T.H 


.Joined in a shield 


F 1646-1648. 


^£fS\ 


Scrip 


A 1646. 


I s. 


Crowned 


S 1669. 


I. T. 


Star below 


A 1671. 


L O 


Crowned, crescent below . . . . 


S 1674.* 


A.K 


Rose and pellets 


S 1677, 1683. 


S O 


Crowned, mullet below 


S 1679. 



* The maker's initials on these two lists, between 1675 and 1697, will be 
found stamped on the copper plate at Goldsmiths' Hall. f*See 'plate.) 



SPOON MAKERS' MARKS. 



271 



MAKER S 
MA UK. 



D\Tr.:> ACCORDING TO THK LETTIKS. 



T.M \ 

H.S i 

1 

E.C 
W M 

D.A I 

R.M 
W C 

L.C 

s.w; 

W S 
D.G 

S c i 

S A 
S A 



in monogram . . . . . . . 

Crowned, crescent and pellets below 
Crowned 



In a square 

One above 

Crowned, crescent and pellets . 

S above W 

W above S . . . . .... 

In a lozenge ... .... 

Scrip, crowned, ornamejital shield 

In Roman letters jS 1699, 1702, 1704. 1713, 1715. 

Scrip, crowned, on oval escutcheon .IS 1701. 



S 1683. 

A 1683. 

S 1684. 

S 1683, 1G88. 

S 1686. 

S 1691. 

S 1691. 

S 1693. 

S 1695, 1696. 

S 1696. 

S 1696. 

S 1697, 1704. 



Alone .... 
Demi lion above 



I.S 
^eg Scrip 

G S 
C H 

c9"/ Scrip 
Scrip 



A 


1706. 


S 1712. 


A 


1734. 


A 


1764. 


A 


1781. 


A 


1781. 


A 


1784. 


A 


1785. 



19 



I 



PROVINCIAL ASSAY OFFICES. 



^ro&iucial Bissau ©fficts. 

The seven towns appointed by the Act 2 Henry YI (1423) were 
York, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Norwich, Lincoln, Bristol, Coventry 
and Salisbury, where mints had already been established, and most 
of them had guilds or fraternities previously existing. The town 
marks of the hrst three have been identified, but as nothing is known 
of the "touches" or town marks of any of the remaining four, they 
probably did not avail themselves of the privilege of assaying and 
marking plate, or if they did, few or no traces have been discovered 
of their doings or the marks they adopted. 

By the Act 12 & 13 William III (i/Oo), York, Bristol and Nor- 
wich, and in 170 1-2 Newcastle-upon-Tyne, were reappointed, with 
the addition of Exeter and Chester, m which two last-named towns 
mints had then lately been appointed for coining the silver monies 
of the kingdom — Coventry, Salisbury and Lincoln having then evi- 
dently ceased \\'orking. Bristol and Norwich, if they ever did exer- 
cise the privilege, must have ceased shortly after as we have no evi- 
dence of their having assayed plate since 1700. 

THE HALL MARKS OF ASSAY TOWNS. 

1. London. A leopard's head crowned (the ordinances of the 
Goldsmiths' Company of 1336, and subsequent Acts of Parliament). 
Since 1823 the leopard's head not crowned. 

2. York. Five lions on a cross (discontinued). 

3. Exeter. A castle with three towers (discontinued). 

4. Chester. Now the mark is a dagger between three wheat 
sheaves, but before 1779 ^he shield of the city arms was three demi- 
lions and a wheat sheaf on a shield, and a small quartering above 
the sheaf. 

5. Norwich. A castle and lion passant (discontinued). 

6. Newcastle. Three castles (discontinued). 

7. Sheffield. A crown. 

8. Birmingham. An anchor. 

BARNSTABLE. 

A maker, using the initials I. P., manufactured a little plate at 
this town in the middle of the seventeenth century. 



2;6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



BIRMINGHAM. 

It appears that previous to the middle of the eighteenth century, 
the silversmiths of Birmingham were in the habit of sending their 
wares to London and Chester to be assayed. This method of deal- 
ing with articles for assay, proving very unsatisfactory, the Birming- 
ham plateworkers in February, 1773, presented a petition to the 
House of Commons, for leave to bring in a Bill to establish an As- 
say Office at Birmingham. A similar petition was also presented by 
the silversmiths of Sheffield, at the same time. The result of the 
petitions was that, during the same year, the Statute of 13 George 
III, cap. 52, was passed. 

This Act commences : 

" Whereas the Silver /miths and Plate-workers in and about the 
Town of Binninghani, in the County of W arwick, and in and about 
the Town of Sheifield, m the County of Y ork, are under great Diffi- 
culties and Hard/hips in the Exerci/e of their Trades, for want of 
A//ayers in convenient Places to a//ay and touch their Wrought 
Plate." 

Therefore this Act was passed for the appointment of W^ardens 
and Assay Masters for assaying and stamping wrought silver plate, 
in the Towns of Birmingham and Sheffield; and for appointing for 
each of these Towns a number of Noblemen, Gentlemen and workers, 
to be known by the names of "The Guardians of the Standard of 
Wrought Plate," within such towns. The Act provides that silver 
goods "/hall be marked as followeth; that is to /ay, with the mark 
of the Worker or Maker thereof, which shall be the Fir/t Letters of 
his Chri/tian and Surname; and al/o with the Lion Pa//ant, and 
with the Mark of the Company within who/e A//ay Office /uch 
Plate /hall be a//ayed and marked, to denote the goodne/s thereof, 
and the Place where the /ame was a//ayed and marked ; and al/o 
with a di/tinct variable Mark or Letter; which Letter or Mark /hall 
be annually changed upon the Election of new Wardens of each 
Company, to denote the Year in which /uch Plate is marked." And it 
was further enacted "That the peculiar Marks of the /aid Com- 
panies, directed to be u/ed as above/aid, /hall be as follows; that is 
to /ay, for the Binningham Company, an Anchor; and for the 
Sheffield Company, a Crown." The Chief Officer of the Company is 
known as the Assay Master and is responsible to two authorities ; 
fi.rst to the Guardians of the Company, by whom he is appointed; 
and secondly to the Master of His Majesty's Mint, before whom he 
is bound, with two sureties, under the penalty of five hundred 
pounds for the faithful execution of his office, and for the payment 
of any fines inflicted on him for negligence or fraud, and also for ap- 
pearing at the Mint annually and verifying his proceeding and diet 
box. This verification does not apply to the Assay Offices of Ches- 
ter, Edinburgh, Glasgow or Dublin. The Act assigns to the Guar- 
dians the duty of providing a suitable place for assaying and 
stamping the silver ware; of appointing an able and skilful person 



BIRMINGHAM. 



2;/ 



as Assay Master; of electing annually four persons as wardens; and 
of making by-laws, rules and orders for the management of the 
Assay Office. The duties and obligations of the Assay Master and 
Wardens are set out in the Act, and in the Oaths, which they are 
oblieed to take before entcrinj^" on their duties. 

In the Parliamentary inquiry on the subject of Hall Marks and 
Plate in 1856, it appeared that no other offices but Birmingham and 
Sheffield had ever within living memory sent up their diet boxes to 
be tested, being only liable when required to do so. 

In the Parliamentary inquiry of 1879, it was expressly urged 
that the whole of the Assay Offices should be placed under the direct 
supervision of the Mint, so that uniform standard of quality should 
be guaranteed. 

At Birmingham the selection of the variable letter, which is 
directed to be changed with the annual election of the wardens in 
Jtdyy is not confided to any officers, but the custom has been to take 
the letters in alphabetical order 

A.D. 1824. 5 George IV', c. 52. Power was given to the Com- 
pany at Birmingham to assay gold as well as silver, and their marks 
are the same as London, except that the anchor is substituted for the 
leopard's head. (Local and Personal Act.) 

By the above-named Act of 1773, both the officers of Birming- 
ham and Sheffield had jurisdiction to assay and mark all plate 
made within twenty miles of those towns. By the 17 and 18 Vic- 
toria, cap. 96, all workers or dealers in plate were authorised to 
register their marks at any assay office legally established which 
they might select. 

The following is the present form of the anchor and of the lion 
passant, which is not guardant : 





The Birmingham assay mark under the Orders in Council of 
1904 and 1906 for foreign plate is for gold: 

(Equilateral Triangle.) 




-7^ HALL .MARKS ON PLATE. 

And for silver : 




We are indebted to Mr. Arthur Westwood, the Assay Master of 
Che Birmmg-ham Company, for kindly furnishing us with i^e/ 
sions of the date letters and standard marks now used at thTs ail 
and for much other helpful information. ' 



BIRMINGHAM ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



BIRMINGHAM ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 3. 


CYCLE 4. 


CYCLK 5. 


l^OMAX (APITAI.S. 


]{OMAN SMAI,!,. 


Black Li:tti.r (;AriTAi,s. 


KoMAx Capitals. 


Black I.kttib Smai.i.. 


UEORUE III. 


GEO. in. & IV. 


GEORGE IV., WILL. IV. & 
VICTORIA. 


VICTORIA. 


VICTORIA. 


A 1773-4 


a 


1798-9 


(A) 


1824-5 


A 


1849-50 


a 


1875-6 


B 


1774-5 


b 


1799-00 


B 


1825-G 


B 


1850-1 


® 


1876-7 


^) 


1 775-6 


C 
(I 


1800-1 
1801-2 


C 
f 

[(5j 


182G-7 


C 


1851-2 


c 


1877-8 


E 

G 

T W~ 


177(1-7 
1777-S 
177S-1) 

1770-80 


e 
f 

g 
h 


1802-8 
1803-4 

1804-5 
1805-0 


1827-8 
1828-9 

1829-30 

William IV. 

1830-1 


D 
E 
1' 
CI 


1852-3 
1853-4 
1854-5 

1855-6 


r 

f 


1878-9 

1879-80 

1880-1 

1881-2 


H 
I 


17S()-1 
17S1-2 


-1 L 


L. ^-J yy \y yj 

1806-7 


1 

it 


1831-2 
1832-3 


H 
I 


185(;-7 

1857-8 


i 


1882-3 
1883-4 


K 


17S2-:3 


• 

,1 


1807-8 


1833-4 


J 


1858-9 


k 


1884-5 


Ti 


17S;^-4 


k 


1808-9 


1 


1834-5 


K 


1859 -GO 


I 


1885-6 


:m 


1784-5 


1 


1809-10 




1835-G 


Ti 


18G0-1 


m 


1886-7 


N 


1T85-G 


111 


1810-1 


183G-7 


M 


18G1-2 


It 


1887-8 










Victoria. 












n 


1811-2 


(B 


1837-8 


N 


18G2-3 





1888-9 





178G-7 





1812-a 


f 


1838-9 


1 


18G3-4 


V 


1889-90 


P 


1787-8 


P 


1813-4 


(I^ 


1839-40 


P i 


1864-5 


q 


1890-1 


Q 


1788-9 


q 


1814-5 




1840-1 


Q 


1865-6 


r 


1891-2 


R 


1789-90 


r 


1815-G 


1841-2 




1866-7 


s 

t 


1892-3 


s 

T 


1790-1 


s 


181G-7 


(9V 




1 <i 1 


1867-8 


1893-4 


1T91-2 


t 


1817-8 




1842-3 
1843-4 




1868-9 


u 


1894-5 


u 

V 


1792-3 
179:^-4 


u 

V 


1818-9 
1819-20 


1844-5 


U 
V 


1869-70 
1870-1 


1895-6 
1896-7 






George IV. 




1845-G 




/^M 




w 


: 1794-5 


w 


1820-1 


184G-7 


w 


1871-2 


S 


1897-8 


X 


1795-G 


X 


1821-2 


1847-8 


X 


1872-3 


1898-9 


Y 


l7{)(;-7 


y 


1822-3 


I 1848-9 


Y 


1873-4 


I 


1899-00 


Z 


1797-8 


z 


1823-4 


1 


Z 


1S74-5 






FivK ;Makks. 


Five Marks. 


Fivi 


'. Marks. 


FivK Marks. 


FiAK :Mabks. 


1. Anchor. 


1. .Vnchor. 


1. Anel 


or. 


1. Anchor. 


1. Anchor. 


2. T.ioii passant. 


2. I.ion passant. 


2. Lion 


passant. 


2. liion passant. 


2. liion passant 


;i Date r.cttcr. 


3. Date Letter. 


3. Date 


Letter. 


.i. Date Letter. 


3. Date Letter. 


4. Sovoreig'ti's Head, 


4. Sovereign's Head. 


4. Sove 


reign's Head. 


4. Qtieen's Head. 


4. Queen's Hend. 


from ]:H4. 


5. Maker's Initials. 


'). Mak 


'r's Initials. 


5. Maker's Initials. 


5. ]\Laker's Initials. 


5. ^faktrs Initials. 










Dutv abolished «ncl 










Queen's Head omittpd 


1 








from 18!)U. 



NoTK. For the New Standard of 11 oz. 10 dwts. a stamp of Britannia is used instead of the Lion passu nt. 



BIRMINGHAM ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 











CYCLE 6. 












Roman S>t\i.L._ 










VICTORIA, 


EDWARD VII & GEORCiE V. 




@ 


1900-1 




190r)-G 


iX} 


George V 

1910-1 


Si 


1915-6 


® 


1920-1 


Cb) 


Edward VII 

1901-2 


[^ 


1906^7 


(Hi] 


1911-2 


B 


1916-7 


5y) 


1921-2 


(c] 


1902-8 


(hj 


1907-8 


fn 


1912-8 


[s] 


1917-8 






[d] 


1908-4 


(" • "^ 
liJ 


1908-9 


(0] 


1918-4 


[t] 


1918 9 






(e) 


1901-5 


K 


1909-10 




1914-5 


L- — ' 


1919-20 








1. Aiich( 

2. Lion] 


lassant. 


Four Makks. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 





282 HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



BRLSTOL. 

Bristol may, perhaps, have had an office, for there were several 
silversmiths there, who afterwards sent then- goods to Exeter to be 
assayed. 

It is not, however, by any means certain that the right of assay- 
was ever exercised at this city ; although it was appointed as an as- 
say office in 1423, and reappointed in 1700. Indeed though we have 
inquired from a leading silversmith at Bristol, we have failed to 
trace any local silver. 

There is a cup on a stem, ornamented with punched diamond 
pattern, which from the inscription appears to have been made in 
this town, although it bears no hall mark. It is late sixteenth century 
work : 

[ ■' From Mendep I Avas brought, 
111 the possession of j Out of a leden mine ; 

Sir A. H. Elton, Bart. \ In Bristol I was wrought 



And now am silver fine." 



There are some interesting pieces of plate preserved by the Cor- 
poration of Bristol, especially a pair of gilt tankards richly decor- 
ated, the gift of John Dodridge, Recorder of Bristol, 1658, and a 
gilt ewer and salver, the gift of Robert Kitchen. These were both 
assayed and marked in London. The salver made in 1595 was 
stolen during the Bristol riots in October. 1831, and was cut up into 
one hundred and sixty-seven pieces, in which state it was offered for 
sale to a silversmith of the town, who apprehended the thief, and he 
was sentenced to fourteen years' transportation. The pieces were 
riveted together on a silver plate by the same silversmith, in which 
state it now remains, its history being recorded on the back. A State 
sword, bearing date 1483, ornamented and enamelled, is also pre- 
served ; on one of the mounts are the arms of Bristol. These are : 
Gales, on a mount in the sinister base vert o?i the sinister side a castle 
with two towers dovded on each a pennon all argent, the dexter base 
barry ivavy of six argent and azure, thereon a ship with three masts 
sailing from behind the castle or the fore and main jnasts in sight 
sable on each two sails of tite second. Also two unicorns as sup- 
porters, and the crest on a wreath two arms, one holding a serpent 
and the other a pair of scales, as on the seal of the corporation. 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE. 283 



CHESTER. 

It appears by the record of Domesday, that in the reign of Ed- 
ward the Confessor there were seven Mint Masters in Chester. In 
the reign of Charles 1 much of the silver was coined here, and in 
that of William III it was one of the six cities in which mints were 
established for recoining the silver of the kingdom. The mint-mark 
of Chester on the half-crowns of Charles I struck in 1645 is three 
gerbes or wheat sheaves. 

We have no record of the time when Chester first commenced 
assaying plate; it is not mentioned in the statute of the 2nd Henry 
IV (A.D. 1423), but an office must have been established early in the 
sixteenth century. . An old minute-book contains an entry some time 
prior to 1573, directing "that noe brother shall delevre noe plate by 
him wrought unles his touche be marked and set upon the same 
before deliverie thereof, upon paine of forfeiture of everie diffalt 
to be levied out of his goods iij^ hij'V W^e also quote the follow- 
ing, which may interest some of our readers : 

" Md. the viij day of March in Anno 1603^ Yt is concluded 
and agreyed by the whole Compeney of the Gouldsmyths y* this 
Order shall be houlden and kept amongst us all, that the brood 
Arrowes agaynst ShroivfticV'' shall way everie one vj^^ stalling and 
everie on of the Compeney shall not sell vnder ix^^ and for everie 
on that selles vnder ix^^ shall fforfyt xij^l And yt is ffourther agreyed 
that the Steward for y* time shall come and sey them wayd and 
touchte. And to hav^e ffor his paynes ij'^ a duzen, and for the 
perfformance of thise order we have subscribed our names. At that 
time beinge Alderman and Steward of y*" said Compeney of the 
Gouldsmyths. 

" It is agreed by the consent of the Aldermen and Steward of 
the Gouldsmiths that who soe ever shall make the bell that shalbe 

* This allusion to the "broad arrows against Shrovetide" refers to an 
ancient custom at Chester of holding shooting and running matches for prizes 
of silver broad arrows every Shrove Tuesday. These arrows (in sheaves of 
six in each quiver) were given by the Shoemakers' Company, and by all newly 
married couples, as homages to the Drapers' Company. The homage of the 
Saddlers' Company was a silver bell, to be given to the owner of the swiftest 
horse in a race on the same day. In the Collection of the Corporation of Car- 
lisle are a pair of silver racing bells. One bears the date 1599; the other has 
a band inscribed with this rude distich : 

" THE SWEl'TES HORSE THIS BELL TO TAKE 
FOR MY LADE DAKEK SAKE." 

IVells were frequently given as racing prizes; hence the phrase, "to bear away 
the bell." Camden, under the head of Yorkshire, mentions "a solemne horse 
running, in' which the horse that outrunneth the rest hath for his prize a 
little golden bell." That was in the days of James I. The well-known nursery 
rhyme also alludes to the custom, when children are being started for 
a race : 

" Bell horses. Bell horses, what time o' day. 
One o'clock, two o'clock, three and aAvay." 

At the word " away " they commence the start. 



284 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

made against Shrovetide ffor the Sadlers shall have for his paines 
iij^ iiij^ and yf any of the Compeney shall offend in the premisses, 
he shall pay unto the Alderman and Steward and the reste of the 
Compeney being-, iij^ liij^^ 

"And y* all the oulde bells shalbe broke and not any of the 
Compeney to by any to be new burnished or sould to the peneltie 
aforesaid iij^ iiij^." 

The arms of Chester, granted ni 1580, were, party per pale, com- 
posed of the dexter half of the coat of England, Gitles^ three lions 
passant gitardant in pale, or^ dimidiating, azure, three garbs or, 
for Blundeville, Earl of Chester. The crest is, on a wreath or, gules, 
and azure, over a royal helmet, a sword of State erect with the point 
upwards. The supporters are on the dexter side, a lion rampant or, 
dncally gorged argent; on the sinister side, a wolf argent dncally 
gorged or. The grant mentions the antiquity of the city, and that 
the ancient arms were nearly lost by time and negligence, and that 
the coat which the citizens claimed was deficient in crest and sup- 
porters. The hall marks on plate were the arms of the city, a sword 
erect between three wheat-sheaves, down to 1697. In 1701, the 
shield adopted was three demi-lions with three wheatsheaves also 
dimidiated, wh'ch was again changed about 1775 to the more simple 
shield above described, without the demi-lions, etc., still in use. 

The following extracts from the books of the Chester Gold- 
smiths' Company are all we can find relating tO' the Hall marks, 
commencing in the year following the date of the Charter from King 
James W in 1685. 

1686. Feb. 1st. And it is further concluded that the 

Warden's marks shall oe the Coat and Crest of 
the Citty of Chester on two punsons with a let- 
ter for the year. 

1687. Paid for ye tuches engraving .... £0 12 o 
Paid for ye three punsons . . . . . o 00 6 

1690. June 2nd. On the same day the letter was 

changed from A to B, and so to continue for 

one year 
1692. April. Paid for a punson and engraving 

letter C . . . . . 
1692. Novr. Paid Mr. Bullen for copperplate 

punson ....... 

1694. Paid Mr. Buller for a new letter punson . 
1697. Paid for the punson and carriage 

These extracts prove that the Goldsmiths' Company at Chester 
assayed and stamped plate with three marks — the arms of the city, 
the crest, and the date letter — before 1701 ; the maker's mark being 
set upon the plate before it was delivered into the Assay Office, upon 
pain of forfeiture, as ordained. 

There is no plate preserved by the Corporation of Chester of an 
earlier date than the latter half of the seventeenth century. The 
three tankards, two flagons, ewer and tobacco-box which we have 



the 













01 


6 


and 













04 










01 










05 


8 




Chester Assay Office. 
Old Copper Plate Register of Makers' Marks. Circa i;oi to 1726. 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE. 285 

examined were all presented and made between the years 1668 and 
1685, being all previous to the Charter of James II granted in 
1685-6, which took effect m the year following. These were all 
assayed and stamped in London. The city mace, " given by the 
Earl of Derby, Lord of Man and the Isles, Maior 1668," bears two 
stamps nearly effaced, of a maker's mark and the city arms. At the 
same time the Earl presented a very handsome state sword. 

A writer, describing the ruinous state of Chester immediately 
after the siege, says : " Thus of the most anchante and famous Citie 
of Chester m times past; mark the ruins of it at present, viz. : within 
these three years, 1643, i644» ^645, the particular demolitions of it 
now most grievous to the spectator and more woeful to the inhabi- 
tants thereoff." After describing the devastations he continues : 
" The drawing dry of the Cittie stockes, plate, rentes and collections, 
all which losses will amount to two hundred thousand pounds at 
the least." (MS. volume at Stowe, quoted by Lysons.) After read- 
ing this graphic account, we need not be surprised at the absence of 
ancient plate at Chester. 

An interesting copperplate is preserved in the office, and is per- 
haps that mentioned m the cash-book of November, 1692 : "Paid ]\Ir. 
Bullen for a copperplate and punson 4^" It contains principally 
the maker's marks, which consisted of the first two letters of the 
surname, and on and after 1720 the initials of Christian and sur- 
name. It has also the Roman capital date letters on square stamps 
used in the cycle commencing 1701, and those of other cycles of a 
later date, but not arranged in order The other stamps are struck 
promiscuously on the plate, for the purpose of proving them, as well 
as for reference. 

In 1773, the Members of the Company of Goldsmiths and 
W^atchmakers of the City of Chester were : 

Mr. Joseph Duke, Silversmith. 

George Walker, do. 

John Scascbrick, Jeweller, Assayer. 

Gabriel Smith, Watchmaker. 

Thomas Brown, do. 

Robert Cowley, do. 

lohn Richardson ] a ^.- j 4. c-i -^i 1 ^ 

Thomas Duke Apprenticed to Silversmiths, but 

James Conway j °"' °^ business. 

The names and places of abode of goldsmiths, silversmiths and 
plate-workers then living, 1773), who had entered their names and 
marks in the Assay Office at Chester, were Messrs. 

George Walker, Chester. John Gimlet, Birmingham. 

William Pem.berton, do. Ralph Wakefield, Liverpool. 

Richard Richardson, do. Joseph Walley, do. 

Jas. Dixon, do. "Christian Thyme, do. 

William Hardwick, Manchester. Ralph Walker, do. 

T. Prichard, Shrewsbury. Fisher, do. 

Geo. Smith, Warrington. J. Wyke & T. Green, do. 

Gimble & Vale, Birmingham. Bolton & Fothergill. 



286 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Chester was reappointed by the Act 12th William III (1700), 
and IS regulated by that Act and the Act of 12th George II. 

The variable letter was changed annually on July 5, from 1701 
until 1839; it was then changed on August 5 until 1890; since which 
time the change has been made annually on July i. 

Chester has, since 1889, voluntarily submitted its diet for assay 
at the IMmt, at the same time as the Birmingham and Sheffield diets 
are verified. 

The following is the present form of the Chester mark : 




The Chester assay marks under the Orders in Council of 1904 
and 1906 for foreign plate is for gold: 

(Acorn and two leaves.) 

/' 



and for silver : 





\\> must here express our thanks to the late Assay Master, Mr. 
Jas. Foulkes Lowe, B.A., for his persevering kindness, not only in 
searching the records and furnishing extracts, but in obtaining im- 
pressions of ancient plate and affording much valuable information 
on the subject, which has enabled us to give a Table of the Assay 
Letters used at Chester from 1701 to the present time. In this task 
he was ably assisted by Mr. Thos. Hughes, F.S.A., the indefatigable 
Secretary of the Chester Archaeological Society. 

Mr.' W. F. Lowe, the present Assay Master, has been good 
enough to enable us to complete the notes relating to Chester. 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



20 



CYCLE 1. 

Buck Lf.ttkr Capitals. 
CHAS. II.&TAsTlir 
^ j Charles 717 

^ 1664-5 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 2. 

LoaiBARDic Capitals. 
WILL. & MARY, & WILL. III. 



CYCLE 3. 

Roman Capitals. 



CYCLE 4. 

Script Lkttkrs. 




1678-9 
1679-80 

1680-1 

1681-2 

1682-3 
1683-4 

1684-5 

James If. 

CC2I I 1685-6 
^ j 1686-7 

1687-8 



^ 



1688-9 



Four 

1. City A 

f,''crljo8. 

2. ( r.-8t, a 

3. Date Ls 

4. Maker's 



Masks. 

rms, of 
between 



sword ercot. 
•tter. 

Mark. 



I Will. & Mary 

1689-90 



1696-T 



In a minute of 1686 
three Hall marks are 
mentioned. that of 
the Maker making 
four. 

From 1697 to 1701 
the New Standard 
was only stamped in 
London ; the Old 
Standard being ille- 
gal, the Provincial 
Offices could not 
assay or stamp plate. 



Four Marks. 

1. City Arms, as be- 
fore. 

2. Crest, fleur-de-lis, 
or sword erect. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



WILL. IIL, ANNE & GEO. L 

^ 1701-2 

Anne. 

1702-3 



B 



GEORGE I. & II 



[H] ni3-4 




1T14-5 

George I. 

1T15-6 



[Qj ni6-7 

(g] 1718-9 
(T) I l~19-20 



Five Marks. 

1. City Arms, changed 
about 1720 to 3 
demi-lions and 3 
half gerbes. 

2. Britannia. 

3. Leopard's Head or. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 

After 1720, Old Standard. 



•JULY 

1726-7 

Oeorge II. 

1727-8 



CYCLE 5. 

Roman Capitals 

GEORGElir&TlI 




Five Marks. 

1. City Arms, as the 
preceding, after 
1720. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Leopard's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 



A 


JULY~ 

1752-3 


B 


1753-4 


C 


1754-5 


D 


1755-6 


E 


1756-7 


F 


1757-8 


G 


1758-9 


H 


1759-60 


I 
J 


1760-1 

Qeorg-e III. 

1761-2 


K 


1762-3 


L 


1763-4 


M 


1764-5 


N 


1765-6 



X 1774-5 



Five JIarks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Lc-opard's Head. 

3. City Arms, as the 
preceding. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Malier, as before. 



Roman oap.ta... and an .„™i„e of R. Uichlr",iS"^;^.\°^tta!"ml/e' iu1r6?-8 L^^^^^^J^^Slo^, '' '° 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 6. 

Roman Small. 

GEORGE III. 



b 



c 
(1 
e 
f 



a* 



k 
1 

m 
n 

o 

P 

q 

r 

s 
t 



1777-S 

1778-9 

1779-80 

1780-1 

1781-2 

1782-3 

1783-4 
1784-5 
1785-6 
1786-7 
1787-8 
1788-9 
1789-90 

1790-1 

1791-2 

1792-3 

1798-4 

1794-5 

1795-6 

1796-7 



Tho Stamp of the City 
Ai'ms of 3 demi-lions 
and gei'be, changed 
to the Old Stamp 
of a sword between 
three gerbes, about 
1775. 



Six Marks. 

1. Tyion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. City Arms. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Duty Mark in 1784. 

6. Maker's Mark. 

These letters are not 
facsimiles. 



CYCLE 7. 

Roman C'ai'ital. 



GEORGE III 



' — > 




1797-8 



1798-9 



c 


1799-00 


D 


1800-1 


E 


1801-2 


Jb' 


1802-3 


G 


1803-4 


H 


1804-5 


I 


1805-6 


K 


1806-7 


Ti 


1807-8 


M 


1808-9 


N 


1809-10 





1810-1 


P 


1811-2 


Q 


1812-3 


R 


1813-4 


S 


1814-5 


T 


1815-6 


U 


1816-7 


V 


1817-8 



CYCLE 8. 

Roman Capitals. 

GEO. Ill & IV, WILL. IV & 
VICTORIA. 



ffl 




Six Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. City Arms. 

4. Duty Mark. 

5. Date Letter. 

6. Maker. 



c 

D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 
K 
L 
M 
N 

P 

Q 

R 
S 
T 
U 
V 



1818-9 
1819-20 

George IV. 

1820-1 

1821-2 

! 

I 1822-3 
1823-4 
1824-5 
1825-6 

1826-7 
1827-8 

1828-9 
1829-30 

William IV. 

1830-1 
1831-2 

1832-3 
1833-4 

1834-5 
1835-6 
1836-7 

Victoria. 

1837-8 
1838-9 



CYCLE 9. 

Black Li;tt;;k Cai'itals. 
VICT0RI4. 



m 



m. 



m 



Six Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. City Arms. 

4. Duty Jlark. 

5. Date Letter. 

6. Maker. 



I 1839-40 

! 1840-1 

i 1841-2 

! 1842-3 

j 1843-4 

I 1844-5 

1845-6 

1846-7 

1847-8 

1848-9 

1849-50 

1850-1 

1851-2 

1852-3 

1853-4 

1854-5 

1855-6 

1856-7 

1857-8 

1858-9 

1859-60 

1860-1 

1861-2 
1862-3 
1863-4 



CYCLE 10. 

Black Letter Small. 
VICTORIA. 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Duty Mark. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. aiaker. 

(The Leopard's Head 
discontinued 1839.) 



® 

® 
® 
® 

SI 



m 



® 
® 

m 



00 

® 



1864-5 
1865-6 
1866-7 
1867-8 
1868-9 
1869-70 

1870-1 
1871-2 
1872-3 
1873-4 
1874-5 
1875-6 

1876-7 

1877-8 

1878-9 

1879-80 

1880-1 

1881-2 

1882-3 

1883-4 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Dutv Mark. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker. 



290 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 11. 

Roman Capitals. 



VICTORIA. 





G 




1884-5 



1885-6 



® 

m 

(W) I 1889-90 
1890-1 



1886-7 



1887-8 



1888-9 



IT I 1891-2 

nn ! 1892-3 

® 



1893-4 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 
.3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

5. Queen's Head. 



CYCLE 11. 

Roman Capitals. 



VICTORIA. 




L 



® 



N 









Q 




1894-5 



1895-6 



1896-7 



1897-8 



1898-9 



1899-00 



1900-1 



Four Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



CYCLE 12. 

Script Letters. 



EDWARD VII. 




t/T 





@ 
© 






Edward VII 

1901-2 
1902-8 
1903-4 

1904-5 

1905-6 

1906-7 

1907-8 

1908-9 

1909-10 



Four Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



CYCLE 12. 

Script Letters. 



GEORGE V. 



K 




X 

® 





fP 

s ■ 

® 

/ ^ 




George V 

1910 1 



1911-2 

1912-3 
1913-4 
1914-5 

1915-6 
1916-7 
1917-8 
1918-9 



Four Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



CYCLE 12. 

Script Letters. 
GEORcFv^r 




s ^ 

® 



1919-20 
1920 1 



Four Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. City Arms. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's .Mark 



Dury abolished on silver, and Queen's Head omitted. 



CHESTER MARKS. 



291 





City Crest. 

Still used by the Assay Office aa 8 
heading to letters and correspondence 



EXAMPLES. 

Chester, 1665. The following four marks occur on a por- 
ringer or two-handled cup and cover, lately in the possession of 
Messrs. Lewis and Son, Brighton. It is the earliest authentic piece 
of Chester plate we have hitherto met with, enabling us to ascertain 
the type of letter used in the cycle commencing 1664. 

1. The Chester City Arms, a sword be- 

tween three wheat-sheaves or gerbes. 

2. The City Crest, adopted by the 
Assay Office as their Hall mark 
formerly, viz., a sword with a ban- 
delet, which is still used by the 
officials on their printed documents, 
issuing from an earl's coronet, the 
live pellets underneath indicating 
the balls of the coronet. 

3. A German text B, denoting the year 
1665. 

4. The maker's initials crowned, prob- 
ably one of the Pembertons, who 
were silversmiths at Chester and 
members of the Guild about that 
date. Mr. Lowe, the Assay Master, 
informs us that the signature of 
Peter Pemberton occurs very regu- 
larly in the minute-book from 1677 
until 1702. 

Date, 1689. These marks are on a 
spoon with flat stem, leaf-shaped 
end, rat-tail bowl, clearly of this 
date. In the possession of the Earl 
of Brcadalbane. 

1. The Chester City Arms of a sword between three gerbes or 
wheat-sheaves. 

2. The crest of the Assay Office at Chester. 

3. Court-hand A, denoting the year 1689, according to the min- 
utes of the year 1690. 

4. The maker's initials, Alexander Pulford, silversmith, who 
was admitted in that year as a member of the guild, whose 
name occurs frequently in the minutes. 

The assay mark of a fleur-de-lis somewhat similar to the sword 
and bandelet requires some explanation; and Mr. Lowe, the Assay 
Master, remarks as a strange coincidence, that in the same old 
m.inute-book there is a sketch of a fleur-de-lis, as above shown, from 
which we may infer that this stamp was an old Chester mark, and 




292 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



we may with some degree of certainty attribute the stamp of a fleur- 
de-lis within a circle, so frequently found on plate of the early part 
of the seventeenth century, to Chester, when some such distinctive 
mark must have been used, and the lis has never hitherto been ac- 
counted for. 

These two examples prove that the sword between three gerbes, 
erroneously called the new arms, to distinguish the shield from 
another styled the old arms of three demi-lions and gerbes, was used 
as a punch on silver long before the last-named : and Mr. Lowe 
informs us that it is found on public documents in the time of the 
Commonwealth, and is frequently met with in the reign of 
Charles IL 

Hence the coat of a sword between three wheat-sheaves was used 
as a stamp previous to 1701, and was altered in that year to that of 
three demi-lions fer pale with three wheat-sheaves also dimidiated, 
wnich was again changed about 1784 for the sword erect between 
three wheat-sheaves, which still remains in use. 

The date letters on the above examples, taken in conjunction 
with the initials of silversmiths whose names are recorded in the 
mmute-book, show the character of the alphabets adopted at the 
Chester Assay Office, viz., 1664 to 1688 inclusive, a German text 
alphabet, and 1689 to 1697 a court-hand or church text alphabet 
brought to a premature end by the Act altering the standard, recom- 
mencing in 1701 ; by which Act "a variable Roman letter" was ex- 
pressly stated for the succeeding hrst cycle. 



Chester Marks. 




Circa 1660. A rat-tail spoon in the pos- 
session of the Rev. T. Staniforth. 

A piece of plate of the seventeenth cen- 
tury in Messrs. Hancock's possession. 

Date, 1 7 16. Table spoon, made by 
Thomas Robinson. — The Goldsmiths' 
Company^ Chester. 



EXETER. 293 



COVENTRY. 

Although this city is mentioned in the Statute of 2nd Henry 
YI, as being entitled to assay plate, it is not probable that plate was 
ever stamped here. 



EXETER. 

There are no records at the Hall previous to 1701, when this city 
v/as first appointed an assay town. 

The early mark used at Exeter previous to this date was a let- 
ter X crowned, subsequently altered to a castle of three towers. The 
Act passed m 1700, reappointing this city for assaying plate, did 
not come into operation until September 29, 1701. On August 7 
the Company of Goldsmiths met, and on September 17 Wardens 
w^ere appointed, and they resolved, with all convenient speed and 
safety, to put the Act in execution ; and the first wardens and assayer 
were sworn in before the Mayor on November 19, 1701. The letters 
commenced with a Roman capital A for that year, as ordered by the 
statute, which characters, large and small, they used throughout the 
alphabet until 1837, when they adopted old English capitals for 
that cycle. A Table of Letters for each year will be found annexed. 

We have given below the probable dates of some early pieces 
bearing date-letters, according to the London Tables, in a paren- 
thesis, which, from the style of workmanship, are approximate, if 
not actually correct. It is a curious fact that from 1797 they re- 
duced the number of letters in each cycle from twenty-four to twenty 
to correspond with those of London, adopting the same alphabets 
down to 1856. The extensive collection of old English spoons in 
the possession of Dr. and ]\Irs. Ashford, of Torquay, especially rich 
in those manufactured at Exeter, has been of great service in veri- 
fying the Table of Date ]\larks, and Dr. Ashford's careful investiga- 
tion of the subject has greatly assisted our research. 

Air. Morgan speaks of a mark he had occasionally met with on 
old plate, resembling the letter X, surmounted by a crown, wdiich he 
conjectured m'ght be St. Andrew's cross, therefore of Scotch origin-. 
We have met with several specimens, and on all the mark is invari- 
ably the Roman letter X, not a cross saltire or St. Andrew's cross. 

Another peculiarity relating to this mark is, when it occurs on 
spoons, it is always placed withm the bowl, m the same position as 
the leopard's head on spoons struck in London, a proof that it de- 
notes the stamp of a town. 

In order, therefore, that we may endeavour to trace this mark 
to its proper locality, we will briefly notice some of the specimens 
which have come under our notice, being all evidently of English 
manufacture. 



294 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

A brown mottled stoneware jug, in silver gilt mounting of the 
sixteenth century, has the letter X crowned, the word E ASTON, 
and a small old English date letter r on a shield (London, 1560). 
The date engraved on the handle is 1586. 

A brown stoneware jug, mounted in silver, has — first, the letter 
X, surmounted by a crown and two pellets; second, the word ES- 
TON; third, C on a shield; fourth, a small old English date letter 
fl on a shield (London, LS64)- On the handle is engraved the date 
1595. — W. Cozier, Esq. 

A silver apostle spoon has three marks — first, the letter X 
crowned, and two fleur-de-lis, within the bowl ; second, the word 
EASTON ; third, a small old English date letter r on a pointed 
shield (London, i 560). On the back are some letters pounced and 
the date 1634 of a later period. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, Torquay. 

These three pieces are from families in Devonshire, and we 
have traced several others to the same county. A silversmith resid- 
ing in Exeter assures us that he has frequently met with similar 
marks, and has always considered them to be old Exeter stamps, 
in which opinion he is corroborated by other residents of the 
vicin't)'. 

A silver spoon bears an oblong stamp of a castle of three towers, 
with the word EXON (Exoniensis), EX on one side and ON on the 
other. It has on the handle the date 1692 pounced or pricked, but 
the make is probably earlier. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

There are in Exeter parish churches several communion cups 
of the sixteenth century, mostly 1570 to 1580, bearing the stamp 
IONS, with or without the crowned X, which may be part of a 
maker's name, Jonson or Johnson. 

A stoneware jug of the sixteenth century, mounted in silver, 
bears the marks of the letter X crowned and the word YEDS. — • 
Sonth Kensington Mnsetnn. 

A spoon with a maiden's head on the stem, of old Exeter make, 
has the X crowned and the name of the maker, OSBORN, im- 
pressed. Date of presentation, I. H., 161 2. — Dr. ai2d Mrs. Ashford. 

Dr. Ashford informs us he has met with an old Exeter seal-top 
spoon with the maker's name, BENTLY. 

A silver apostle spoon has in the bowl — first, the letter X 
crowned; second, on the stem the name RADCLIFF; and third, the 
letters I.R. and a flower. It also bears the pounced or pricked let- 
ters and date of presentation, 1637. — Rev. T. Staniforth, Storr^\ 
Windermere. 

A brown stoneware jug of the sixteenth century, mounted in 
silver handsomely chased, has the marks of an X crowned, with two 
pellets in the side angles and the word HORWOD stamped.— /?? 
t/ie possession of Mar/in Tucker Smith, Esq. 

There are two sih'er apostle spoons marked with the letter X 
crowned in a dotted circle, and a goldsmith's mark, ET, repeated 



EXETER. 295 

thrice,* with pounced letters and date 1659. — In the Salforcl Royal 
Miiseinn, Feci Park. 

A siher apostle spoon has the letter X crowned, as before, and 
a goldsmith's mark, and is pounced with letters and date of pre- 
sentation, 1635. — Rev. T. Staniforth^ Stons, Windermere. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford possess several apostle spoons, with the 
crowned X inscribed with the following dates, which in many in- 
stances are much later than the periods of their manufacture : 

1634 and 1646. The crowned X has a small cross in each lat- 
eral angle, on a round shield. 

1649. The crowned X has a triangular pellet in each lateral 
angle, ditto. 

1660. The crowned X is on an escutcheon shaped to the letter. 

1675. Crowned X with round pellets in each lateral angle, on a 
round shield. 

1678. Crowned X with two pellets and round beaded es- 
cutcheon. 

1682. Crowned X with two stars of five points at the sides and 
a small jt under. 

By reference to the date of presentation on the pieces of plate 
here described, it will be observed they range from 1586 to 1700; 
and doubtless at Exeter most of the plate made in the West of Eng- 
land, especially at Plymouth, was sent to be stamped. Indeed, so 
much was an Assay Office required, that in the year 1700 Exeter was 
included in the statute, and after that date the shield of arms of 
the town (a castle with three towers) was adopted ; and although 
Bristol was empowered to assay plate, both by 2 Henry VI (1424}, 
and also by 12 William III (1700), it never availed itself of the 
powers thereby conferred. On the other hand, Exeter, as soon as 
the i\ct came into operation, appointed its wardens and assayer with 
all convenient speed and safety. 

The first page of the register-book, in which the plate-workers 
entered their names and marks, being lost, we can only commence 
with " Peeter Eliot of Dartmouth," who entered on November 13, 
1703, stamping the two first letters of his surname, E.L., m old Eng- 
lish capitals, m compliance with the Act for the New Standard, a 
specimen of which will be seen in the examples (page 203) occurring 
on a rat-tail spoon of the year 1703. This was the twenty-fourth 
worker who had entered his mark. Other marks of gfoldsmiths fol- 
low, who resided principally at Plymouth, a few at Exeter, and 
other places : 

* Eepetitious of the maker's mark frequently occur in close proximity 
on the same piece, when other stamps are wanting, on provincial silver. This 
double or treble stamp may perhaps denote the quality of the silver, 
a system adopted in other countries; e.g., at G-eneva, in the time of the old 
Republic, the stamp for silver of the first quality was the City Arms ; for the 
second, the double punch of the maker : for the third, the maker's single punch. 



296 HALL :\L\RKS ON PLATE. 

]\Iay 8, 1704. Richard Wilcocks, Plymouth — Wj. 
„ „ Richard Holin, Truro — HO crowned. 

„ „ Edward Sweet, Dunster — SW. 

„ „ Richard Vavasour, Tottness — VA. 

etc., etc. 

In the early register-book the workers stamped their marks on 
the margin of the page, opposite to their names. 

On May 6, 1708, Robert Palmer was appointed Assay blaster. 

In 1773 the names of the members of the Goldsmiths' Company 
at Exeter were Mr. Thos. Coffin, Mr. Richard Sams, yir. David Jones 
and Mr. Richard Jenkins ; and Mr. Matthew Skinner was the xA^ssay 
^Master. 

The names and places of abode of all the goldsmiths, silver- 
smiths and plate-workers then living (1773), who had entered their 
names and marks in the Assay Office at Exeter, were Messrs. 

Edward Broadhurst, Plymouth. John Brown, Plymouth. 

Roger Berryman Symons, do. Thomas Strong, do. 

Welch, do. William Harvey, do. 

Jason Rolt, do. Thomas Beer, do. 

James Jenkins, do. Richard Bidlake, do. 

Thomas Thorne, do. W^illiam Evelcigh, Dartmouth. 

Benjamin Symons Nathan, do. Richard Jenkins, Exeter. 

John Tingcombe, do. W^illiam Coffin, do. 
David Hawkins, do. 

At this Office only one standard of gold was assayed, which was 
the highest, being 22 karats. 

Since 1701 the date letter has always been changed on August 7 
in each year. 

The Office at this city continued to do useful work, until thirty- 
eight years ago, when it was closed. A great part of the silver as- 
sayed at Exeter was manufactured in Bristol. 

Ultimately the amount of business decreased to so large an 
extent, that on June 26, 1883, a special Court was held at the Gold- 
smiths' Hall. At this Court there were present Mr. Josiah Williams, 
Mr. John Ellett Lake, Mr. Ross, Mr. Henry Lake, Mr. Maynard, 
Assay Master, and Mr. Henry Wilcocks Hooper, Solicitor to the 
Company. The Company resolved, having regard to the small quan- 
tity of silver recently marked, that it was not desirable to obtain 
new punches; and that the premises used for the business should 
be given up; and that no' fresh premises should be taken until suffi- 
cient applications were received to render it desirable to reopen the 
Hall. The old punches were surrendered to the Inland Revenue 
Office, and the books and paper deposited with Mr. Hooper, the Soli- 
citor to the Company. 

The early minute books and other documents of the Company 
were placed m the custody of Mr. Hooper; and six copper plates, on 
which many of the date letters and makers' marks have been struck, 
in that of i\Ir. J. Jerman, of Exeter. 



EXETER. 



297 



The form of the castle used at Exeter has varied at different 
times. At first the mark appeared of the following form : 




About 17 10 the form was slightly varied: 




In 1823 the three towers are detached and placed in an oblong : 




A few years later the castles were again joined, and that form 
was retained until the ofhce was closed : 




The lion passant was very similar to that used at Birmingham : 




The arms of the city of Exeter are : 

Per -pale gules and sable, a triangular castle with three toivers 
or. The crest is a demi-lion rampant gides, crowned or, holding 
between his paws a bezant, surmounted by a cross botonnee or. 
Supporters :■ Two pegasi argent, zvings endorsed maned and crined. 
or, on the wings three bars ivavy azure. Motto, Semper Fidelis. 

For much of the information relating to the Exeter Assay Office 
we are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Percy H. Hooper, the last 
Deputy Assayer, and also Mr. J. Jerman. 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 

Roman Capitals. 



WILL. IIL. ANNE & GEO. L 



A I lTOl-2 

C-^^^^ Anne. 

lBj lT02-a 



E 
F 
G 

m 
I 

Kl 








N 
O 
P 

Q 
R 

S 

T 

V 

W 

X 

Y 

Z 



1T03-4 
1T04-5 

1T05-6 
1T06-7 

lTOT-8 

J T08-9 
1709-10 

ITlO-l 

lTll-2 
1T12-3 

1713-4 

George I. 

1T14-5 
1715-6 

171G-7 
1717-8 
1718-9 

1719-20 
1720-1 

1721-2 
1722-3 
] 723-4 
1724-5 



CYCLE 2. 

EoMAN Small. 



FlVK ^Iakks. 

1. Lion's Head erased. 

2. Britannia. 

3. Castle. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 

[In 1720 the marks of 



GEORGE 1. & II. 



a 
b 
c 
d 
e 




h 

1 

k 
1 
111 

n 
o 

P 

q 

r 
f 
t 

V 

w 

X 

y 

z 



1T25-6 
1T2G-7 

George II. 

1727-8 
1728-9 
1729-30 
1730-1 

1731-2 

1732-3 

1733-4 
1734-5 
1735-G 

173G-7 

1737-8 

1738-9 

1739-40 

1740-1 

1741-2 
1742-3 

1743-4 

1744-5 
1745-G 
174G-7 
1747-8 
1748-9 



FiYE Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. Castle. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 

old Standard resumed.] 



CYCLE 3. 

KoMAN Capitals. 



GEORGE II. & III. 



A 
B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

K 

L 

M 



Z 



1749-50 

1750-1 

1751-2 

1752-3 

1753-4 

1754-5 
1755-G 
175G-7 

1757-8 
1758-9 
1759-GO 
17G0-1 



N 


George HI. 

17G1-2 





1762-3 


P 


1763-4 


Q 


1764-5 


R 


1765-G 


S 


1766-7 


1^ 


1767-8 


V 


1768-9 


w 


1769-70 


X 


1770-1 


Y 


1771-2 



1772_3 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. Castle. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 



CYCLE 4. 

Roman Small. 



GEORGE III. 



a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 



h 
1 

k 
1 

111 

n 

o 

P 

a) 

r 

t 

V 

w 



y 

z 



1773-4 
1774-5 

1775-6 
1776-7 

1777-8 
1778-9 

1779-80 
1780-1 

1781-2 
1782-3 
1783-4 

1784-5 

1785-6 

1786-7 

1787-8 

1788-9 
1789-90 

1790-1 
1791-2 
1792-3 
1793-4 
1794-5 
1795-6 
1796-7 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Castle. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. IMaker's Initials. 

5. Duty Mark of King: s 

Head in 1784. 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 5. 

Roman Capitals. 


CYCLE 6. 

Roman Small. 


CYCLE 7. 

Black Letter Capitals. 


CYCLE 8. 

Roman Capitals. 


GEORGE in. 


GEO. in. & IV. & WILL. IV. 


WILL. IV. & VICT. 


VICTORIA. 


K) 


1797-8 


/ s 1 

a 


1817-8 


m 


Victoria. 

1837-8 


® 


1857-8 


H 


1798-9 


b 


1818-9 


M 


1838-9 


B 


1858-9 


C 
1) 


1799-00 
1800-1 


c 
d 


1819-20 

George iV. 

1820-1 




1839-40 
1840-1 


C 
1) 


1859-60 
1860-1 


E 


1801-2 


e 


1821-2 


e 


1841-2 


hi 


1861-2 


F 


1802-3 


f 


1822-3 


df 


1842-3 


i^' 


1862-3 


G 


1803-4 




1823-4 


# 


1843-4 


G 


1863-4 


H 


1804-5 


h 


1824-5 


^ 


1844-5 


H 


1864-5 


I 


1805-6 


• 

1 


1825-6 


3 


1845-6 


I 


1865-6 


K 


180G-7 


k 


1 1826-7 


m 


1846-7 


K 


1866-7 


Ti 


1807-8 


I j 1827-8 


%. 


1847-8 

1 


Ti 


1867-8 


M 


1808-9 


m 


1828-9 


pij 


1848-9 


M 


1868-9 


N 


1809-10 


n 


1829-30 





1849-50 


N 


1869-70 





1810-1 


o 


William IV. 

1830-1 


# 


1850-1 





1870-1 


P 


1811-2 


P 


1831-2 


^ 


1851-2 


P 


1871-2 


Q 


1812-3 


q 


1832-3 


e 


1852-3 


Q 


1872-3 


R 


1813-4 


r 


1833-4 


E 


1853-4 


K 


1873-4 


S 


1814-5 


s 


1834-5 


(s>) 


1854-5 


S 


1874-5 


T ' 


1815-0 


t 


1835-6 


c 


1855-6 


T 


1875-6 


U 


181G-T 


u 


1836-7 


m 


1856-7 


U 


1876-7 


Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Castlo. 

3. King's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

.5. IMakor's Initials. 


Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Castle. 

3. Kind's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 


Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Castle. 

3. Queen's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 


Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Castle. 

3. Queen's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 9. 

Egtptian Letters. 



VICTORIA, 



(Aj 


18T7-8 


® 


18T8-9 


(cj 


1879-80 


(bj 


1880-1 


it) 


T) 


1882-3 

















1881-2 



1. Lion passant. 
4. Date Letter. 



Five ^Iarks. 

2. Castle. 

5. ]\Iaker's Initials. 



3. Queen 't> Head. 



EXETER MARKS. 



303 




ESTON 




B] [i] Iions 




RADCLIFF 




EXAAIPLES. 

Apostle spoon, date about 1576. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 

A spoon of the sixteenth centur}^, 
with hexagonal stem, pear-shaped 
bowl, button top. Date of pre- 
sentation, 1620. — Earl of Breadal- 
bane. 

Apostle spoon, 1637. — ^^^- ^- Stani- 
forth. 

A spoon of about 1670, flat stem and 
oval bowl, bears this stamp with 
monogram and maker's initials W.F. 
— Earl of Breadalbane. 




Split head spoon, pricked ^n 1689. 
Circa 1689. — Messrs. Elicit Lake & 
Son. 




'-. 



^ 






\b^ 





Handsome tankard. Date 
Messrs. Ellett Lake & Son. 



1703.— 



Date 1703. These new standard marks 
are on a three-pint tankard. (Britan- 
nia holds in her hand a flower or 
sprig, not a cross as here given m the 
cut.) — Messrs. Hancock. 

Salver, circa 17 10. The City mark of 
a castle has a thin line rising from 
the pointed base of the shield to the 
central tower, indicating the partition 
per pale, like the City arms. — Messrs. 
Ellett Lake & Son. 



21 



304 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 




u 




Split head spoon. Date 171 1. — Messrs. 
Ellett Lake & Son. 





A ImI -^^^^ 171 2. On a rat-tail spoon, given 
<Jj^ ^-^ in 1713. — Messrs. Hancock. 



HULL. 

A little plate was marked here with the town arms during the 
seventeenth century, though there was never a proper assay office at 
this place. 

The arms of the town of Hull are : 

Azure, three crowns in pale or. 

The mark on the following example is evidently intended to 
represent the town arms. 

EXAMPLE. 




Spoon. Date circa 1660. — /. H. 
Walter, Esq. 



LINCOLN. 



This city was mentioned as an assay town in 1423, but it does 
not appear that plate was ever Hall marked here, or indeed manu- 
factured to any large amount. 

The arms of the city of Lincoln are : 
Argent, on a cross gules, a fleiir cle lis or. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE ASSAY OFFICE. 305 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

The arms of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne are : Giiles^ 
three towers triple-towered argent. 

At Newcastle-upon-Tyne as early as 1249, Henry III com- 
manded the bailiffs and good men to choose four of the most pru- 
dent and trusty men of their town for the office of moneyers there, 
and other four like persons for keeping- the King's Mint in that town ; 
also two fit and prudent goldsmiths to^ be assayers of the money 
to be made there. 

By the Act of 1423 this town was appointed one of the seven 
provincial assay towns in England. In 1536, the goldsmiths were 
by an ordinary, incorporated with the plumbers and glaziers, and 
the united company required to go together, on the feast of Corpus 
Christi, and maintain their play of the "Three Kings of Coleyn." 
They were to have four wardens, viz., one goldsmith, one plumber, 
one glazier, and one pewterer or painter, and it is quaintly added 
that no Scotchman born should be taken apprentice or suffered to 
work in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They had their hall in "Maden 
Tower" granted them in the mayoralty of Sir Peter Riddell in 1619, 
and the association of the goldsmiths with the other tradesmen 
seems to have lasted till 1702.* 

This town was reappointed as an assay town by the Act of 1701. 

The annual letter appears to have been used from 1702. Mr. 
Thomas Sewell, one of the Wardens of the Assay Office, has kindly 
furnished us with a Table of Date Letters, chronologically ar- 
ranged, compiled from the Assay Office books and the copperplate 
on which the maker strikes his initials, as well as from pieces of old 
plate which have from time to time come under his notice. From 
careful examination of various examples of Newcastle plate, we 
have altered some of the characters, making the table more com- 
plete. The change of letter took place on May 3 in each year. 

In 1773 the members of the Goldsmiths' Company at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne were : Mr. John Langlands and Mr. John Kirkup, Gold- 
smiths and Silversmiths, W^ardens; and Mr. Matthew Prior, As- 
sayer. 

The names and places of abode of all the goldsmiths, silver- 
smiths and plate-workers then living, who had entered their names 
and marks, were : Mr. John Langlands, Mr. John Kirkup, Mr. 
Samuel James, Mr. James Crawford, Mr. John Jobson, Mr. James 
Hetherington (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Mr. John Fearney (Sunder- 
land), and Mr. Samuel Thomson (Durham). 

The Assay Office at Newcastle was closed in May, 1884, in con- 
sequence of there being insufficient work to make it worth keeping 
open. The Assay Master of the Office before 1854 ^^s Mr. F. Som- 

* From an ''Impartial History of the Town and County of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne," published in 1801, page 429. 



3o6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

erville. He was succeeded by Mr. James Robson, who entered the 
office as a stamper in 1836, became Assay Master in 1854, and re- 
tained that post until the office was finally closed. The last two 
w^ardens were Mr. T. A. Reid and Mr J. W. Wakinshaw. A curious 
incident occurred when Mr. Robson commenced his duties. By some 
means he obtained the wrong punches, and marked some plate which 
afterwards went to Carlisle. This almost led to an action against 
a silversmith at that city, who was accused of forging the Hail 
marks. 

When the office was closed the stamping punches were obliter- 
ated or defaced by an Inland Revenue Officer. The name punch 
plate and the old books of the Goldsmiths' Company were placed 
m the Black Gate Museum of the Old Castle in the city. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



,.^,„.,.^..T.pnxT.TVNR ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS 



CYCLE 1. 

Roman Capitals. 



CYCLE 2. 

Black Lktteb, Capitals. 



CYCLE 3. 

Roman c;apitals. 



GEORGE II. & in. 



CYCLE 4. 

Script Capitals. 



GEORGE III. 

iA\ I 1TG9-70 




' . n-oQ 4 i\v\ in Alossrs GarrarcVs possossion. TTouse of Commons, says expressly 

''The letter Jor the present oflictal year (17.2-3) i^ 0. 





NEWC ASTl .E-UPON-TYNE 


ASSAY 


OFFICE LETTERS. 


CYCLE 5. 


CYCLE 6. 


CYCLE 7. 


CYCLK. 8. 


Roman Capitals. 


Woman Small. 


l?oMAN Capitals. 


HOMAN S.MALL. 


GEORGE III. 


GEO. III. & IV., WILL. IV. & VICT. 


VICTORIA. 


VICTORIA. 


P) 


1791-2 


(a) 


1,S15-G 


W 


1839-40 


@ 


1864-5 


H 


1792-3 


b 


ISIG-T 


B 


1840-1 


b 


1865-6 


C 


1793-4 


c 


1817-8 


C 


1841-2 


c 


1800-7 


1) 


1794-5 


d 


1818-9 


1) 


1842-3 
1843-4 


d 


1867-8 


h: 


1795-6 


e 


1819-20 

George IV. 




1844-5 


e 


1868-9 


h' 


1796-7 


f 


1820-1 


1845-6 


f 


1869-70 


G 


1797-8 


g 


1821-2 


H 


1846-7 


g 


1870-1 


H 


1798-9 


h 


1822-3 


I 


1847-8 


h 


1871-2 


I 


1799-00 


• 

1 


1823-4 


J 


1848-9 


• 

1 


1872-3 


K 


1800-1 


k 


1824-5 


K 


1849-50 


k 


1873-4 


Ti 


1801-2 


1 


1825-6 


L 


1850-1 


1 


1874-5 


M 


1802-3 


111 


1826-7 


M 


1851-2 


in 


1875-6 


N 


1803-4 


n 


1827-8 


N 


1852-3 


11 


1876-7 





1804-5 


o 


1828-9 





1853-4 


o 


1877-8 


P 


1805-6 


P 


1829-30 


P 


1854-5 


P 


1878-9 


Q 


1806-7 


q 


1830-1 

William IV- 


Q 


1855-6 


q 


1879-80 


E 


1807-8 


r 


1831-2 


E 


1856-7 


r 


1880-1 


S 


1808-9 


s 


1832-3 


S 


1857-8 


s 


1881-2 


T 


1809-10 


t 


1833-4 


r 


1858-9 


t 


1882-3 


U 


1810-1 


V 


1834-5 


u 


1859-60 


u 


< 1883-4 


w 


1811-2 


w 


1835-6 


w 


1860-1 






X 


1812-3 


X 


1836-7 


X 


1861-2 






Y 


1813-4 


y 


1837-8 


Y 


1862-3 






Z 


1814-5 


z 


Victoria. 

1838-9 


/ 


1863-4 







NoTi;.— Tho ueufil marks found upon plato nssaved at Newcastle are:-— 1. The Mon passant. 2. The Leopard's Head orownecT. 
3 The Town Mark of Three Castles. 4. The Letter or Date Mark; and 5. The .Maker's Initials. After 1784 the Duty Mark of 
the Sovereign's Heal is added. 



310 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXAMPLES. 




^3\ f^ 



•^ 



®m 



TH 




A porringer with two handles, 
fluted base and gadroon border 
at top. Date about 1680. — The 
Earl of Breadalbane. 

Large gravy ladle. Date 1725. — 
H. A. Attenbo rough, Esq. 



M) Ditto. 1740. — Messrs. Hancock. 








Small beaker. Date 1740. — The 
Marquis of Exeter. 



Do. 


1746.- 


-Messrs 


. Hancock 


Do. 


.1752. 




do. 


Do. 


1764. 




do. 


Do. 


1765. 




do. 


Do. 


1769. 




do. 


Do. 


1/70. 




do. 


Do. 


1771. 




do. 


Do. 


I//4- 




do. 



CITY OF NORWICH. 311 



NORWICH. 



The arms of the city of Norwich are : 

Gules, a castle surmounted ivith a toiver argent, in base a lion 
passant guardant or. 

Tn Norwich, plate was assayed and marked at an early period, 
and some specmiens are existing among the Corporation plate of the 
date 1567. An annual letter seems to have been used, for we find 
on a gilt cylindrical salt and cover, elaborately chased with strap- 
work and elegant borders, this inscription: "The Gyfte of Peter 
Reade, Esquiar.'' The plate-marks are: i. The Arms of Norwich, 
viz., a castle surmounted with a tower, in base a lion passant guard- 
ant; 2. A Roman capital D; and 3. Cross-mound (or orb and cross) 
within a lozenge. It was therefore made and stamped at Norwich 
in 1568, for Peter Reade died in that year. 

Among the records of the Corporation of Norwich we see that 
in 1624 the mark of a castle and lion was delivered by the Mayor 
and Corporation to the Wardens and Searcher of the trade of gold- 
smiths; the city was reappointed an assay town in 1700; and in 
July I, 1702, Mr. Robert Harstonge was sworn assayer of gold and 
silver to the Company, although we have never met with any plate 
with marks of Norwich after that date. 

A cocoa-nut cup, mounted in silver, bears the city arms of castle 
and lion and a rose crowned, with the date mark, a Roman capital 
S. — Messrs. Himt and Roskell. 

The stamp of a rose is frequently found on plate of the six- 
teenth century, and is thought to denote the Norwich Assay Office, 
being, as in the piece just alluded to, found by the side of the city 
arms. A silver-mounted cocoa-nut cup in the South Kensington 
Museum bears the impress of a rose crowned, a date letter R, and the 
maker's mark, a star. It has the date of presentation, 1576, engraved 
upon it. 

Among the Corporation plate is a gilt tazza cup on a short 
baluster stem. Engraved round the edged in cusped letters is the 
following inscription : " THE MOST HERE OF IS DVNE BY Peter 
Peterson." He was an eminent goldsmith at Norwich in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. In the bottom of the bowl are engraved, 
within a circle, the arms of the city of Norwich, viz., gules a castle 
surmounted with a tower argent, m base a lion passant guardant or. 
Two plate-marks have existed on the edge of the bowl. One of these 
seems to bear the arms of the city in an escutcheon, which was used 
to distingu'sh the plate made and assayed at Norwich, and the other 
a cross-mound. English work, the latter half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. There are two other cups of similar character belonging to 
the Corporation, on one of which are the following assay marks, the 
lion, leopard's face, a covered cup, and letter. All three were pro- 
bably the gift of John Blenerhasset, whose arms are engraved within 
one of them. He was steward of the city in 1563, and one of the 



31^ 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



burgesses m Parliament, 13 Elizabeth. — Proceedings Arch. Inst., 
1847. 

A silver mace-head of the Company of St. George, m form of 
a capital of a column, enriched with acanthus leaves, and sur- 
mounted by a statuette of St. George and the Dragon. Round the 
collar has been engraved, but now partly obliterated by the inser- 
tion of four sockets, the following inscription : 

" £.r Dono Hororabil : Fraternitat'is 5^'. Georgij in Norwico 

An<^ Do'" 1705." 

On the top is engraved the shield of St. George and the fol- 
lowing : 

"DIE III. MAEII, MDCCLXXXVI. BENE ET FELICITER MVNICIPIO 

NORVICENSI OAINIA VT EVENIANT PRECATVR ROBERTVS 

PARTRIDGE PRAETER." 

The plate-mark, a court-hand h in an escutcheon on the mace- 
head, is of the year 1697. The initial H occurs on one of the marks, 
the remainder of which is illegible. Height, I2f in. — -Ibid, 

The Walpole mace, presented in 1733, ^^^^ assayed and stamped 
in London. 

A finely ornamented repousse ewer and salver, with Neptune 
and Amphitrite, "The gift of the Hon. Henry Howard, June 16, 
1663," was stamped in London m 1597. A tall gilt tankard, repousse 
with strap-work, flowers and fruit, and engraved with the arms of 
Norwich, was stamped in London in 161 8. 

EXAMPLES. 

A chalice dated 1567, stamped with the letter C and a cross- 
mound within a lozenge. — North Creake Church, Norfolk. 

' >^ \C* I ^ piece of plate, date about 1567. 

t#^ LVd —Messrs. Hancock. 

Communion cup of the same date. 
- — Messrs. Hancock. 



<^ ii t? 



Silver gilt salt. Date 1568. — The 

Corporation of Norwich. 



Mount of a cocoa-nut cup, with date 
of presentation, 1576. — South 

Kensington Museum. 



A cocoa-nut cup, stamped with a rose, and the letter S., date 
about 1580. — Messrs. Hunt & RoskelL. 



SHEFFIELD. 



313 



'^ m 



^ 

M 



Seal-top spoon. Date circa 1637.- 
/. H. Walter, Esq. 




Split head spoon. Date circa 1662. 
— /. H. Walter, Esq. 




Tankard, date 1691. — James Reeve, 
Esq. 



Button top spoon, pounced date 
1 7 17, date of make about 1693. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 




Beaker, date 1697. — -/. H. Walter, 
Esq. 



The rose crowned is the standard mark ; the castle and lion that 
of the town; the cross-mound and star being the mark of the famous 
Peter Peterson. All the silver bearing this symbol having been made 
by him. 

SALISBURY. 

This city was appointed as an assay town in 1423, but it is not 
known if plate was ever assayed here; in any case nothing was done 
in 1700, when several other places were re-appointed as assay towns, 
but these did not include Salisbury. 

The arms of the city are : Azure, four bars or. 



SHEFFIELD. 

The trade of the silversmith in the city of Sheffield is of con- 
siderable importance as is evidenced by the fact that Sheffield is one 
of the four cities in England where an office now exists for assay- 
ing and stamping gold and silver articles. 

The manufacture of the famous Sheffield plate commenced 
about the year 1742; and the tankards, coffee-pots, candlesticks, and 
other articles known as Sheffield plate are very beautiful and dur- 



314 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

able, and are still much sought after, and command high prices. The 
process consisted in taking a plate of copper alloyed with brass, 
fusing on to it a thick plate of silver on each side, and then working 
up the plate into the article desired. 

Horace Walpole, m a letter to Mr. Montagu, dated September i, 
1760, writes : "As I went to Lord Strafford's I passed through Shef- 
field, which is one of the foulest towns in England, in the most 
charming situat'on; there are 22,000 inhabitants making knives and 
scissors. They remit eleven thousand pounds a week to London. 
One man there has discovered the art of plating copper with silver. 
I bought a pair of candlesticks for two guineas, that are quite pretty." 

The process was afterwards changed, and the article to be sil- 
vered was first completely made of German or nickel silver, and 
then covered with silver by means of an electric current. 

The fundamental difference between the methods of manufac- 
ture being that whereas, in the genuine Sheffield plate the base metal 
was coated with silver before it was wrought, in the electro-plate 
the base metal was completely wrought and finished before it was 
coated with silver. 

The silversmiths' trade at Sheffield was established about the 
}Tar 1760, when Henry Tudor and Thomas Leader, who had been 
apprenticed in London, came to Sheffield, where they made snuff- 
boxes and other small silver articles. 

At first the Sheffield silversmiths appear to have considered 
themselves under the Act of George H, and they sent their plate to 
London for assay by the Goldsmiths' Company; and they do not 
seem to have availed themselves of the Assay Office at Chester, as 
most of the Birmingham silver workers did at that time. 

The Sheffield plate workers, however, found it very inconvenient 
to be obliged to send their ware one hundred and fifty miles to be 
assayed and stamped, at a time when the transport thereof was not 
only costly, but also very slow and hazardous. The artificers of 
silver in Sheffield therefore presented a petition to the House of 
Commons on February i, 1773, calling attention to these facts and 
praying leave to bring in a Bill for establishing an Assay Office at 
Sheffield. At the same time a similar petition was presented by the 
Birmingham plate workers. Ultimately the Statute of 13 George 
in, cap. 52, was passed. 

By this Act, as before mentioned, the peculiar mark appointed 
for the Sheffield Company is a crown. 

As the Birmingham Assay Office was also appointed by this Act, 
it is more particularly referred to in the notes relating to that city. 

Under the Act of 3 Edward VH, c. 255, the Guardians of the 
Standard of Wrought Plate within the city of Sheffield are author- 
ised to assay and stamp gold ware. 

The change of the date letter takes place on the first Monday 
in July each year. The plan adopted at Sheffield differs from all 
the other offices, for instead of taking the alphabet in regular suc- 
cession, the special letter for each year is selected apparently at 



SHEFFIELD. 



315 



random, until 1824, after which the letters follow in their proper 
crder. 

The first letter used, on opening the Office in 1773, was an Old 
Text capital letter E, followed by F, then N, and other letters 
irregularly until 1799; when another cycle, commencing with the 
Roman capital E, followed by N, and other letters irregularly, until 
1824, when the third cycle commenced with the letter a, and con- 
tinued regularly through the alphabet, a practice which has always 
since been followed. 

There is no record explaining this curious sequence of letters in 
the first two cycles. Mr. Arnold T. Watson, however, conjectures 
that, as the Earls of Effingham took a very deep and active interest 
in the business of the Sheffield Office during the early years of its 
existence, the letter E was adopted as a compliment to this family 
in the first and second cycle, especially as an Earl of Effingham 
occupied the chair on each occasion. 

The Effingham interest in the Office ceased after the death of 
Richard Howard, Earl of Effingham, on December 11, 1816, and the 
irregular lettering ceased very soon after this time. 

The marks used at this office are the same as at London, except 
that the crown is substituted for the leopard's head, and variation 
of the date-mark. Sometimes we find the crown and date letter 
combined in one stamp, probably on small pieces of plate, but they 
are generally separate on square punches. When practicable, the 
four marks are placed in order and struck from one punch, but they 
are struck separately when that cannot be done. The marks are so 
combined for the convenience of the wardens in marking the goods, 
but the letter only is used to denote the year in which the article was 
made. 

The date letters are invariably placed in square escutcheons. 

The form of the lion and crown now used is: 





The Sheffield assay mark under the Order in Council of 1904 
for foreign plate for gold was : 

(Crossed arrows.) 




And for silver 



^ 
^ 



3i6 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



The assay mark of this Office was altered as follows, by the 
before-mentioned Order in Council of 1906, and is now for foreign 
plate for gold : 

(Libra.) 



And for silver 




St 



Mr. John Watson and Mr. Arnold T. Watson, former Assay 
^Masters, most courteously furnished us with the variable letter for 
each year, from the commencement in 1773, taken from references in 
the Minute Books, wherein are recorded the meetings for the election 
of new Wardens. The present Assay Master, Mr. B. W. Watson, 
has also sfiven us other valuable information. 



SHEFFIELD ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



SHEFFIELD ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 

Black Letter Capitals. 



GEORGE III. 



M 



3 

(5 

31 

a 

i 

(B 

z 

IT 



1T73-4 
1TT4-5 

iTTo-G 

ITTG-T 

lTTT-8 

lTTS-9 
1TT9-80 

1780-1 
1781-2 
1782-3 
L78-]-4 

1784-5 

1785-G 

178G-7 
1787-8 

1788-9 
1789-90 

1790-1 

1791-2 

1792-3 
1793-4 

1794-0 
1795-G 

179o-7 

1797-8 

1798-9 



Five Marks. 
\. Lion passant. 
2. Crown. 
•S. Date Letter. 
4. Duty, Kiiij:>'8 Head. 
."). ALiker's .\Lark. 



CYCLE 2. 

Roman Capitals. 



GEO. in. & IV. 



1799-00 

]^ 1800-1 

H 1801-2 
M 1802-3 

F 1803-4 
G- 1804-5 

B 1805-G 
A 180(;-7 

S 1807-8 
P 1808-9 
I^ 1809-10 

L 1810-1 

C 1811-2 

D 1812-3 
R 1813-4 
W ! 1814-5 

i 1815-G 

I 

I 181G-7 
1817-8 

1818-9 



T 
X 
I 
V 

Q 

Y 
Z 

U 



[^al 1824-5 



CYCLE 3. 

Roman Small. 



GEO. IV., WILL. IV. & VICT. 



b 
c 



e 
f 



Hh 



1819-20 

Georg-e IV. 

1820-1 
1821-2 
1822-3 

1823-4 



FoiR ^Iarks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Crown and Date 
Letter in one stamp. 

3. Dutv. 

4. .^[aker. 



k 

1 

m 

P 

q. 

r 
s 
t 
u 

V 
X 

z 



1825-G 

1826-7 

1827-8 

1828-9 
1829-30 

William IV- 

1830-1 
1831-2 

1832-3 

1833-4 

1834-5 

1835-G 

183G-7 

Victoria. 

1837-8 



CYCLE 4. 

Roman Capitals. 



VICTORIA. 



k^ 



1838-9 

1839-40 

1840-1 

1841-2 
1842-3 
1843-4 



Four ^IapivS. 
L Lion passant. 

2. Crown and Date 

Letter. 

3. Duty. 

4. Maker. 



B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 
K 
L 
M 
N 


P 
R 
S 
T 
U 
V 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 



1844-5 
1845-G 

184G-7 

1847-8 

1848-9 

1849-50 

1850-1 

1851-2 

1852-3 
1853-4 

1854-5 

1855-G 

185G-7 

1857-8 

1858-9 

1859-GO 

18G0-1 

18G1-2 
18G2-3 
18G3-4 

18G4-5 
18G5-G 
18GG-7 

18G7-8 



CYCLE 5. 

Block Letters. 



Four ^VFarks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Crown and Date 

Letter. 

3. Duty. 

4. Maker. 

The crown sometimes 
on a seoarafe stamp 



VICTORIA. 



B 
C 
D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 



18G8-9 

1869-70 

1870-1 

1871-2 

1872-3 

1873-4 

1874-5 

1875-G 

187G-7 
1877-8 

1878-9 
1879-80 

1880-1 






1881-2 


p 


1882-3 


Q 


1883-4 


R 


1884-5 


8 


1885-6 


T 


1886-7 


U 


1887-8 


V 


1888-9 


w 


1889-90 


X 


1890-1 


Y 


1891-2 


z 


1892-3 


Fivi 


: MAfiKS. 


L Lion F 
'}.. Crown 
J. Date I 
4 Dntv 
5. :\raker. 


assant. 

..etter. 
rntil 1S!X). 



For the New Standard, Britannia instead of Lion passant. 



SHEFFIELD ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 6. 

Bi-ACK Lkttkh Smaii, 



VICTORIA, EDWARD VII & GEORGE V. 



a 



t) 




© 





k 





n 



1893-4 

1894-5 

1895-6 

1896-7 

1897-8 

1898-9 

1899-00 

1900-1 

Edward VII 

1901-2 

1902-3 

1903-4 

1904-5 
1905-6 



m 





9 




U 



s — ^ 

i 

I— I— 

r — — ■ ■ 




1906-7 
1907-8 
1908-9 

1909-10 

Gsorge V 

1910-1 
1911-2 

1912-3 
1913-4 
1914-5 
1915-6 
1916-7 
1917-8 



CYCLE 7. 

Small 1?oman 



GEORGE V. 







1918-9 



1919-20 



1920-1 



1921-2 



Four Marks. 



1. Lion passant. 

2. Crown. 



3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker. 



22 



320 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXAMPLES. 




r 




IP&C) 



Candle stick. Date 179 1-2. — /. H. 
Walter^ Esq. 



KG 


«. d'h 




Salver. Date 183 1-2. — W. Shoo- 
smith, Esq. 



YORK. 

York was one of the most ancient places of assay, and it was 
mentioned in the Act of 1423. The operations at this place appear 
to have been discontinued, and it was re-appointed as an assay office 
m 1700. It does not seem, however, that much business was ever 
done here. 

It will be seen that in 1772, when a return was made to Parlia- 
ment, the Assay Office was not in existence; but after that it appears 
to have recommenced. In 1848 we find it mentioned as an assa}^ 
town, but doing- very little business.* 

The Corporation of the City of York possesses some interesting 
pieces of plate. A State sword with velvet scabbard, mounted in 
silver, the arms of the city, emblazoned, the arms of Bowes, etc., of 
the time of Henry VIII. On the blade is this inscription : " Syr 
Martyn Bowes Knyght, borne within this Citie of York and 
Major of the Citie of London, 1545. For a remembrance" 
(continued on the other side) " GAVE THIS S .... TO THE Maior 
and Communaltie of this said honorable Citie." 

Two tankards, the gift of Thomas Bawtrey in 1673, engraved 
with the arms of York, were made at York, and stamped with the 
York mark and the italic capital P. The gold cup and other pieces 
were made elsewhere. 

A silver chalice and paten in the Church of Chapel- Allerton, 
Leeds, has three marks : a half fleur de lis a,nd half rose, crowned; 
an italic b, similar to the London date letters of 1619; and maker's 
initials R.H. On the rim is the date of presentation, 1633. 

A stoneware jug has in relief the royal arms of England and 
the date 1576. It is mounted in silver, and bears three stamps : that 

* The last duty paid at the Inland Revenue Office was in July, 1809. The 
officer who formerly acted as assayer for the city of York died many years ago, 
and no successor has been appointed. 



YORK. 321 

of the maker, a half rose and half llciir de lis conjoined, and th3 
date letter R; it is in Mr. Addmgton's collection. 

A spoon of the end of the sixteenth century, in the Rev. T. 
Staniforth's possession, has also the half rose and half fleur de lis, 
and the date letter h. 

The stamp used at York previous to i/OO was probably that 
of the half rose and half fleur de lis conjoined, which is frequently 
met with on plate of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The junction of the lis and rose is probably in allusion to the 
union of the rival houses of York and Lancaster by the marriage 
of Henry the Seventh to the Princess Margaret, daughter of Edward 
IV, in i486; the lis being a favourite badge of the Lancastrians, as 
the rose was that of York. As a mint mark we find occasionally 
the fleur de lis on the coins of the Lancastrian kings, in allusion to 
their French conquests; but upon some of the coins of Henry VII 
we find as mint mark the lis and rose conjoined — sometimes half 
rose and half lis, as on the York punch on plate, on others a lis 
stamped upon a rose, and sometimes a lis issuing from, a rose {vide 
Hawkins, figs. 362, 364, 368). 

The York mark here given, being found on plate of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, is frequently much worn and parti- 
ally obliterated. The half fleur de lis is easily distinguished, but 
the corresponding half is not so easily discerned. In some instances 
it looks like a dimidiated leopard's head crowned; in others like 
the half of a seeded rose, with portion of the crown over it, for which 
it is probably intended. There is a great similarity, however, m 
all the punches we have examined, as if struck from one die, which, 
having been, a long time in use, may have got damaged. It may 
be remarked as a curious coincidence, that two diminutive letters 
can be traced — YO, the two first of the word York. 

In our previous editions we suggested that this punch origin- 
ated at York, but our data are not yet sufficient to form a satisfac- 
tory table. 

In alluding to the plate preserved at York, we must not omit 
to notice the ancient bowl called " The Scrope Mazer," from the Arch- 
bishop whose name is engraved upon it. 

This bowl is preserved at the Minster, in charge of the Dean 
and Chapter. Drake, in his History of York, thus describes it : " In 
the Shoemakers' Company, at York, is kept a bowl called a Mazer 
bowl, edged about with silver, double gilt, with three silver feet, and 
cherub's head to it. Round the rim on one side is this inscription 
(in old English characters) : ' B^Ijartt arrlj^ijfSCljOp^ Srropf 

grants on U all lira that brinkts of tl)is rnp^ j61^^ 
iagis to pardon ' J on the other side is, * Hobart Oiubaon 
b^sclj0p£ mesm nrauts in sam£ farm^ afon»aaibr HH^^ i^apis 

in partron Jlobart ^ti^nsall/ I take these last two to be 
suffragan bishops of the See. Every feast day, after dinner, the 
Company have this bowl filled with spiced ale, and according to 



322 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



ancient custom the bowl is drunk round amongst them. It has since 
had an additional lining of silver, and the Company's arms put 
upon it in 1669." Archbishop Scrope died m 1405. On the dis- 
solution of the Cordwamers' Company in 1808, it passed into the 
possession of the Dean and Chapter, and is now kept in the vestry 
room at York iMinster. The silver mounts have been frequently 
repaired at subsequent dates, and some local hall marks have been 
detected on close inspection. 

The arms of the city are : Argent, on a cross gules, five lions 
passant giiardant or. 

EXAMPLES. 









i ® ii«i 




IP ® 

1] cw 




Apostle spoon of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The stamp is a half lis and 
half rose crowned. Date 1626. — 
Rev. T. Sianifortli. 



Apostle spoon. Date 1645. D ailing- 
ton Chitrch, N orthainptoitshire. 

A piece of plate, seventeenth century. 

— Messrs. Hancock. 

Ditto. 

On a spoon with flat stem, leaf- 
shaped end and oval bow^l, date 
about 1680 to 1690. — Earl of 
Breaclalbane. (This has also the 
stamp of a half lis and rose, here 
omitted by mistake.) 

On an oval engraved teapot. This 
mark proves that J was used as a 
date letter previous to 1784, having 
no duty mark. It may belong to 
the year 1736, for J of 17 10 would 
have the Britannia mark of the new 
standard. — Messrs. Hancock. 



Scotlanii. 

EXTRACTS FROM STATUTES AND 
ORDINANCES, 

WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES, 

OF THE DEACON AND MARKING PLATE. 

A.D. 1457. In the reign of James II (Scots), a Statute was 
passed for " the reformation of gold and silver wrought by Gold- 
smiths, and to eschew the deceivmg done to the King's lieges, there 
shall be ordained in each Burgh where Goldsmiths work, one under- 
standing and cunning man of good conscience, who shall be deacon 
of the craft; and when work is brought to the Goldsmith and it be 
gold, he shall give it forth again m work no worse than twenty 
grains, and silver eleven grains hne, and he shall take his work to 
the deacon of the craft that he may examine that it be fine as above 
written, and the said deacon shall set his mdrk and token thereto, 
together with the said Goldsmith's; and where there is no Goldsmith 
but one in a town he shall show that work, tokened with his own 
mark, to the head officials of the town which shall have a mark in 
like manner ordained therefor, and shall be set to the said work." 

In 1473 it was enacted that places were to be appointed in Scot- 
land wherein goldsmiths should examine the gold, and when suffi- 
cient " set their marks thereto." 

GOLDSMITHS. .MARKS APPOINTED. 

A.D. 1483. James III. In the records of the Town Council of 
the year 1483, we read that the goldsmiths, with other trades, under 
the general title of hammermen, presented a petition complaining 
of certa'n irregularities : 

" In the first thair complaint bure and specifyit that thay war 
rycht havely hurt and put to great poverty throw the douncumming 
of the blak money, walking, warding and in the payment of yeldis 
and extentis quhilkis thay war compellit to do be use. 



324 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

" And in lykwyis that thai were havely hurt be the dayly mercat 
maid throw the hie street in cramis and on the baksyde the toun m 
haichhng and hammermennis werk pertaining to thame of thair 
craft in greit dishonour to the burgh and in braking of the auld 
gude rule and statutis of thair craft and upon uther skathis that 
thay sustenit in defauh of reformatioun." 

Whereupon it was ordered there should be no "oppin mercat 
usit of ony of the saidis craftis upon the hie streittis nor in cramis 
upon buirdis," etc. " That upon ilk Settirday eftir none tua or thrie 
of the worthiest maisters and maist of knowledge of the said craftis, 
quhilk sail haif powar with ane officiar with thame to pas serch and 
se all mennis work gif it be sufficient in stuff and workmanschip, 
gude worth and hable work to serve the Kingis liegis with and quahir 
it beis fundin faultive to forbid the samyn to be sauld under the 
pame of escheitt." Also it is advised and concluded by the Lords 
of the Articles, " That henceforth there be in each burgh of the realm 
where goldsmiths are, one deacon and one searcher of the craft, and 
that each goldsmith's work be marked with his oivn mark, the 
deacon's mark, and the mark of the town, silver of the fineness of 
eleven penny fine, and gold of twenty-two karats fi.ne." 

GOLDSMITHS' MARKS. 

A.D. 1489. Another statute to the same effect was ordained. By 
this each goldsmith was to have one special mark, sign, and token. 
His works were to be of the fi.neness of the new works of silver of 
Bruges, and there was to be a deacon of the craft, who was to ex- 
amine and mark the works. 



PENALTIES FOR FRAUD. 

A.D. 1555. "Forasmuch as there is great fraud, etc., it is or- 
dained that no goldsmith make m work nor set forth either his own 
or other men's silver under the just fineness of eleven penny fine 
under the pain of death and confiscation of all their goods and 
movables; and that every goldsmith mark the silver work with his 
own mark, and with the town's mark; also that no goldsmith set 
forth either his own or other men's gold, under the just fineness of 
22 karats fine, under the pains aforesaid.'' 

POWER OF SEARCH. 

A.D. 1586. Letters under the Privy Seal by King James VI in 
favour of "the Deacon and Maisteris of the Goldsmyth Craft in 
Edinburgh," Jany. 3, 1586, which empowered them to search for gold 
and silver, and to try whether it were of the fineness required by 
former Acts of Parliament, and seize such as should be deficient. 
"That it shall not be lawful for any, except the masters of the craft, 



SCOTLAND. 325 

to melt any gold or silver work unless it be first shown to them to 
see whether it has been stolen (the libertie of our Soveraine Lordis 
cunyiehous alwyis exceptit)." This gave them the entire regulation 
of the trade, separating them finally from all association with the 
"hammermen" or common smiths. 

Ac^ and Statute of the Town Council of Edinburgh in favour of the 
Corporation of Goldsmyths, August 20, 1591. 

" The samin day the Provost bailies and counsell, and Adame 
NewtO'Une, Baxter y Cudbert Cranstoun, furrour, William Blythman, 
fie sc he our, Thomas Weir, niasoun, Robert Meid, wohster, William 
Cowts, walker, Thomas Brown, bonetmaker, of the remanent deykins 
of crafts being convenit in counsall anent the supplicatioun gevin 
in before thame be George Heriott, deykin of the goldsmythis, for 
himselff and in name and behalff of the remannet brether of the said 
craft." 

The tenor of these articles, which were agreed to, referred to 
the taking of apprentices for a term of seven years, that every master 
shall have served his apprenticeship, and three years over and above, 
to make himself more perfect therein, and have given proof to the 
deacon of the craft of his experience both in workmanship and 
knowledge of the fineness of the metals, etc. 

Only those admitted by the deacon and masters were to work, 
melt, or break down, or sell any gold or silver work, under penalty 
of twenty pounds, or imprisonment. 

That no goldsmith melt any work without first showing it to 
the deacon to see whether it was stolen, nor gild any lattoun or 
copper work. 

By the foregoing enactments it will be seen that only three 
marks are referred to, namely, the goldsmith's mark, the deacon's 
mark, and the town mark — the first was the initials of the maker's 
name, the second the initials of the deacon's name, and the third 
the castle, indicating the city of Edinburgh — and nothing is said 
about a variable letter. The first mention of it we find in the 
Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company is in September, 1681, when 
a small black letter a was ordered to be the letter for the ensuing 
year. After this the letter is ordered annually in alphabetical order, 
from A to Z, in cycles of twenty-five years, omitting the letter J. 
In many cases the letter is stamped at the top of the page with the 
identical punch used for the plate. 

CHARTER OF INCORPORATION. 

A.D 1687. James VII. This Charter, incorporating the Society 
of Goldsmiths of Edinburgh, dated November 10, 1687, ratifies the 
letters patent of James VI, of January 3, 1586, in every respect, and 
amplifies their power in many instances, such as granting them the 
privilege of an Incorporated Society, with power to acquire, pur- 
chase, possess lands, etc., enact statutes and laws for the regulation 
of the trade, etc. 



326 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

"And because the art and science of goldsmiths, for the most 
part, IS exercised in the City of Edinburgh, to which our subjects 
frequently resort, because it is the seat of our supreme parliament, 
and of the other supreme courts, and there are few goldsmiths in 
other cities; Therefore we by these presents give and grant to the 
said deacon and masters, full power, faculty and authority to in- 
vestigate, inquire into and examine the gold or silver work, and all 
gems and stones set in gold or silver, or made and wrought in any 
other city, royal burgh, or barony, market or fair, or exposed to sale 
any where withm our said kingdom," etc. 

The Charter of 1687 did not prevent silversmiths m other towns 
of Scotland from manufacturing plate and placing their own marks 
by the side of the attesting stamps of the various towns, so placed 
officially by competent assayers appointed by the Edinburgh Gold- 
smiths' Company, and it was not imperative to have it assayed at 
Edinburgh, or even at Glasgow, until the Act of 18^6. The sale 
of plate thus marked in the provincial towns was evidently legal, as 
the Charter did not prohibit it. Hence we find that at Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, Montrose, Inverness, Perth, Dundee, Stirling, St. Andrews, 
and other towns of less note, as Banff, Tain, Leith, etc., plate was 
assayed and marked although, from the imperfect knowledge of 
the town marks, their punches could not be identified, and they have 
been usually set down as foreign and sold as old silver, being con- 
signed to the crucible. 

It is with the view of appropriating these hitherto unknown 
marks to the places of their adoption that we give short notices of 
the insignia of the Royal Burghs of Scotland, for at many of these 
places plate continued to be marked until the Act of Parliament 
relating solely to Scotland, of 6 and 7 William IV (1836) expressly 
prohibited the sale of newly manufactured plate in Scotland, unless 
assayed and stamped at Edinburgh or Glasgow. 

In our endeavours to trace these Scottish provincial marks to 
their source, we have to acknowledge the kind assistance of the Earl 
of Breadalbane, whose name will be found appended to many inter- 
esting examples. 

MARK OF THE THISTLE INTRODUCED. 

A.D. 1759. The first entry in the books of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany of Edinburgh where THE THISTLE is noticed is m the year 1759; 
and after that date, for about twenty years, the minutes year by 
year particularly name the thistle to be used (instead of the Assay 
.Master's initials) along with the letter for the year. 



SCOTLAND. 32; 

SALE OF PLATE PROHIBITED IN SCOTLAND UNLESS 
ASSAYED AND MARKED AT EDINBURGH OR 

GLASGOW. 

A.D. 1836. 6 & ; William IV. Entitled, "An Act to fix the 
standard qualities of gold and silver plate m Scotland, and to pro- 
vide for the assaying- and marking thereof. 

" Section 2. And be it enacted that on or before the ist day of 
October, 1836, every goldsmith, silversmith, or plate-worker, or 
person carrying on any of the said trades in Scotland, and also every 
person who at any time after the ist day of October, 1836, shall 
follow the trade of goldsmith, silversmith, or plate-worker before 
he shall exercise the same, shall send or deliver either to the War- 
dens of the Incorporation of the City of Edinburgh or to the 
W^ardens of the Glasgow Company a written statement of his 
Christian and surname, place of abode, etc. 

" Section 3. Every such goldsmith, silversmith, and plate- 
worker, or person carrying on any of the said trades in Scotland, 
shall first stamp or strike his mark upon all gold or silver plate 
(except such as are hereinafter excepted)* which he shall make or 
cause to be made after the ist October, 1836, and bring or send it 
to the A.ssay Office of the Incorporation to which he shall have 
delivered his name and address and mark aforesaid, together with 
a note of the weight, quality, etc.; and such gold plate as shall be 
ascertained to be not less in fineness than 22 karats of fine gold in 
every pound weight Troy, and such silver plate as shall be ascer- 
tained to be not less in fineness than 1 1 ounces and 2 pennyweights 
of fine silver in every pound weight Troy, shall be marked at such 
Assay Office as follows— that is to say, with the mark of the th'stle 
and such a distinct variable letter, denoting the year in which such 
plate shall be marked, and also with the mark or marks used by 
the Incorporation at whose Assay Office the same shall be assayed; 
and such gold plate as shall be ascertained to be not less in fineness 
than 18 karats of fine gold in every pound weight Troy shall be 
marked with the figures 18 in addition to the said several marks 
therein before required; and such silver plate as shall not be less 
in fineness than 11 oz. to dwts. of fine silver in every pound Troy 
shall be marked with the figure of Britannia in addition to the sev- 
eral other marks hereinbefore required.'' 

A more recent Act of 1842, 5 & 6 Vict., relating to the stamping 
of foreign plate, and the prohibition of its sale in the United King- 
dom unless assayed and stamped at the appointed Assay Offices as 
being of the legal standard, under certain penalties, extends to 
Scotland. 

The Act of 7 & 8 Vict., 1844, "Criminal Law Consolidation," 
does not extend to Scotland or Ireland. 

* The exemptions are the same as in England (see page 95). 



328. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



The Act of 1/ and i8 Vict, 1854, legalising the lower standards 
of 15, 12 and 9 karats, however, applies to Scotland. 

The Act of 30 & 31 Vict., 1867, stating that, in addition to the 
usual hall marks, the letter F shall be stamped on foreign plate, as 
well as the sections relating to licenses also extends to Scotland. 

Total of Marks now required to be stamped on gold and 
silver plate in Scotland : 

GOLD. 



Standard 
Gold. 

(5 marks.) 



3 Lower 

Qualities. 

(4 marks.) 



1. Quality in karats (22 or 18). 

2. The thistle for Edinburgh or the lion rampant 

for Glasgow. 

3. Mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, fi.sh, and 

bell. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Maker's mark. 

1. Mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, fish, and 

bell. 

2. Quality marked in karats (15, 12, or 9). 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Maker's mark. 



Although paying duty as well as the higher standards, these 
debased qualities are not honoured with the duty-mark of the 
Queen's head. 



SILVER. 



Silver 

New Standard, 

.11 oz. 10 dwt. 

(5 marks.) 



Old Standard, 

II. oz. 2 dwt. 

(4 marks.) 



1. The standard mark of the thistle for Edin- 
burgh, the lion rampant for Glasgow. 

2. The mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, 
fish, and bell. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Britannia. 

5. Maker's mark. 

1. The standard mark of the thistle for Edin- 
burgh, or lion rampant for Glasgow. 

2. Mark of assay town, castle, or tree, fish, and 
bell. 

3. Date-letter 

4. Maker's mark. 



The Glasgow Assay Office has used the thistle as an additional 
optional mark since 1914, on silver, and gold of 18 and 22 karats. 



VIZ. 



SCOTLAND. 329 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATE DUTY, SCOTLAND. 



1720 
I/58 

I/84 
1 80s 
181; 
1890 



Duty on silver, 6d. per oz. 

Duty repealed and licence substituted. 

Duty on gold 83., and silver 6d. per oz. 

i6s. „ IS. 3d. 

i/s. „ IS. 6d. 
Duty on silver plate abolished. 



LICENCES. 
The licences to deal in plate are also the same as in England, 

For gold exceeding 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., and 
for silver exceeding 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., per 
annum ......... £2 6 o 

For gold 2 oz. and upwards, and silver 30 oz., and 

upwards per annum ;^5 15 o 



^cotlmib. 



EDLNBURGH. 

The arms of the city of Edinburgh are: Argent, on a rock 
f roper, a castle triple towered, embattled sable, masoned of the first 
end topped with three fans gides, windows and portcullis closed, of 
the last. The crest is : An anchor, wreathed about with a cable, both 
proper. The supporters: Dexter; a maid richly attired, hair hang- 
ing dozvn over her shoulders proper. Sinister; a doe also proper. 
^Motto, Nisi Dominus Frustra. 



L- 



For Edmburgh- 



-THE STANDARD MARK 

-A Thistle (after I/59); before that, the As- 



say [Master's initials. 

For gold of 22 karats, a thistle and 22. 

For gold of 18 karats, a thistle and 18. 

For silver of 11 oz. 2 dwt., a thistle. 

The standard mark was the Deacon's initials from 1457 to 1759. 

The present mark is : 




IL— THE HALL MARK. 

For Edinburgh— A Castle with three towers, introduced in the 
fifteenth century (145;). It is referred to m the before-quoted Act, 
and again in 1483 and 1555; before that the Assay Master's initials. 

1 he three towered castle now used is : 




EDINBURGH. 331 



III.— THE DATE MARK. 

A Letter of the Alphabet. The custom has been to use the 
letters alphabetically from A to Z, omitting J, thus making a cycle 
of twenty-five years (with some exceptions); introduced 1681, and 
changed on the first Hall day in October every year, by Minute of 
Incorporation. 

A chronological List of Edinburgh Date Letters from 1882-3 
to 2082-3, has been printed by the Incorporation of Goldsmiths of 
Edinburgh. 

The following table is arranged from the Minutes of the Gold- 
smiths' Company of Edinburgh, where the date letters appear noted 
almost every year from 1681, verified by pieces of plate bearing 
dates. The goldsmiths' year is from Michaelmas to Michaelmas 
(September 29). 

Previous to 168 1, when our table commences, no date-mark ap- 
pears to have been used. On a piece of plate said to be of the 
sixteenth century, exhibited at Edinburgh in 1856, in the Museum of 
the Archaeological Institute, we find a castle (the middle tower 
higher than the two others, as usual), and two other stamps of the 
letter E. These are, perhaps, the town mark. Assay Master's, and 
maker's mark. The silver mace belonging to the City of Edinburgh, 
and known from the town records to have been made by George 
Robertson in 161 7, has three marks, viz., the castle, the cipher G. R., 
and the letter G. 

The Lligh Church plate, dated 1643, ^^id the Newbattle Church 
plate, dated 1646, and several others of the same date, have only 
the town mark, the Assay Master's mark, and that of the maker. 

IV.— THE DUTY MARK. 

The Head of the Sovereign, indicating payment of the duty. 
It was omitted on the debased standards of 15, 12 and 9 karats on 
gold, although subject to the same duty as the higher standards. It 
was introduced on December i, 1784, and remained in use until April. 
30, 1 890, when it was discontinued on the abolition of the duty. 

v.— THE MAKER'S MARK. 

The maker's mark was introduced about 1457, and was formerly 
some device, with or without the maker's initials : afterwards the 
initials of his Christian and surname were used, accompanied by the 
Assay Master's initials only. 



332 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



THE MARK FOR FOREIGN PLATE. 

The assay mark under the before -mentioned Orders in Council 
of 1904 and 1906 for foreign plate is for gold: 

(St. Andrew's Cross.) 



And for silver 





The late Assay Master, Mr. Alexander Keir, kindly gave us 
copies of the marks used at the Edinburgh Office, and Mr. L. D. 
Corson, the joint Clerk of this Assay Office, has been good enough 
to give us further particulars. 

Our thanks are due here again to the representatives of the late 
Mr. W. J. Cripps, C.B., for permitting us to include some authorities 
given by the late Mr. J. H. Sanderson for the Tables of Edinburgh 
hall marks, the property in which had passed to that gentleman. 



EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 





EDINBURGH ASSAY 


OFFICE LETTERS. 




CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 3. 


CYCLE 4. 


Black Lkttkb Smam,. 


Roman Capitals. 


Italic Capitals. 


OiD English Cai'itais. 


CHAS. II., JAS. II., WILL. & MARY, 
WILL. III. & ANNE. 


ANNE, GEO. I. & II. 


GEORGE II. 


GEORGE II. & III. 


^ 


Charles II. 

1681-2 


® 


1705-6 


m 


1730-1 


(1 


1755-6 


b 


1G82-3 


B 


1706-7 


M 


1731-2 


BS 


1756-7 


c 


1683-4 


C 


1707-8 





1732-3 




y 


1757-8 


n 


1684-5 


D 


1708-9 


2) 


1733-4 


^ 


1758-9 


t 


James 11. 

1685-6 


E 


1709-10 


# 


1734-5 


€ 


1759-60 


Z 


1686-T 


Jb' 


1710-1 


^ 


1735-6 


if 


George III. 

1760-1 


<j 


1687-8 


G 


1711-2 


^ 


1736-7 


(© 


1761-2 


I) 


1688-9 


H 


1712-3 


M' 


1737-8 


^ 


1762-3 


t 


William «& Mary. 

1689-90 


(1) 


1713-4 


cJ' 


1738-9 


3 


1763-4 


& 


1690-1 


K 


1714-5 


M 


1739-40 


M 


1764-5 


I 


1691-2 


Ti 


George 1. 

1715-6 


J^ 


1740-1 


IL 


1765-6 


m 


1692-3 


M 


1716-T 


^l 


1741-2 




99 


1766-7 


n 


1693-4 


N 


1717-8 


c/f 


1742-3 


515 


1767-8 





1694-5 





1718-9 


& 


1743-4 


€) 


1768-9 


P 


William 111. 

1695-6 


P 


1719-20 


ap 


1744-5 


^ 


1769-70 


r 




1696-7 
1697-8 
1698-9 


Q 

E 

S 


1720-1 
1721-2 

1722-3 


3 


1745-6 
1746-7 
1747-8 




1770-1 
1771-2 

1772-3 


t 
to 


1699-00 

1700-1 
1701-2 


T 


1723-4 


sr 


1748-9 


c 


1773-4 


U 
V 


1724-5 
1725-6 


U 


1749-50 
1750-1 





1774-5 
1775-6 


01^ 


X 

V 

3 


Anne. 

1702-3 
1703-4 

1704-5 


W 
X 
Y 
Z 


1726-7 

George 11. 

1727-8 

1728-9 
1729-30 


w 
#" 
^ 
^ 


1751-2 
1752-3 

1753-4 
1754-5 




1776-7 

1777-8 
1778-9 
1779-80 


Four Marks. 


Four Marks. 


FotiR Marks. 


Four Marks. 


1. The Castlo. 

2. TJie Assay Master's 

Initials. 

3. The -Maker's Initials. 

4. The I)at(> I.etter in a 

pointed shield. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Assay Mark. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in a 

pointed shield. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Assay Mark. 

.3. The Maker's Initials. 
4. The Date Letter in a 
square shield. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle in 1750. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in a 

square shield. 



From 1700 to 1720 Britannia wa 
* The standard mark of a thistle was used in- 



a added for the New Standard. 

dead of the Assay Master's iiiitiala in 1759. 



EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 5. 


CYCLE 6. 


CYCLE 7. 


CYCLE 8. 


l^OMA.V CaPITU-S. 


KoMAN Small. 


Old English Capitals. 


Egyptian Capitals. 


GEORGE III. 


GEORGE II 


I. & IV., & WILL. IV. 


WILL. IV. & VICTORIA. 


VICTORIA. 


^ 


1780-1 


la] 


180G-7 


m 


1832-3 


® 


1857-8 


B 


1781-2 


b 


; 1807-8 


3S 


1833-4 


B 


1858-9 


C 


1782-a 


c 


1808-9 


C 


1834-5 


C 


1859-60 


D 


1783-4 


d 


1809-10 


33 


1835-6 


D 


1860-1 


E* 


1784-5 


e 


1810-1 


e 


1836-7 


E 


1861-2 


G 

G^ 


1785-G 
1786-7 

1787-8 


f 

g 
h 


1811-2 

1812-3 
; 1813-4 




Victoria. 

1837-8 
1838-9 


F 
G 


1862-3 
1863-4 


H 


1788-9 


• 
1 


1814-5 


m 


1839-40 


H 


1864-5 


I 


1789-90 


• 

J 


1815-G 


3 


1840-1 


1 


1865-6 


K 


1790-1 


k 


181G-7 


n 


1841-2 


K 


1866-7 


Tj 


1791-2 


1 


1817-8 


^ 


1842-3 


L 


1867-8 


M 


1792-3 


m 


1818-9 


m 


1843-4 


M 


1868-9 


N 


1793-4 


n 


1819-20 





1844-5 


N 


1869-70 





1794-5 





Georgfe iV. 

1820-1 


d^ 


1845-6 





1870-1 


P 1 


1795-G 


P 


1821-2 


^ 


1846-T 


P 


1871-2 


Q 


179G-7 


q 


1822-3 


a 


1847-8 


Q 


1872-3 


R 


1797-8 


1 

r 


1823-4 


<a 


1848-9 


R 


1873-4 


S 


1798-9 


s 


1824-5 


^ 


1849-50 


S 


1874-5 


T 


1799-00 


t 


1825-G 


c 


1850-1 


T 


1875-6 


U 


1800-1 


u 


1826-7 


m 


1851-2 


U 


187G-7 


V 


1801-2 


V 


1827-8 


w 


1852-3 


V 


1877-8 


W 1 


1802-3 


w 


1828-9 


om 


1853-4 


w 


1878-9 


X 


1803-4 


X 


1829-30 


f 


1854-5 


X 


1879-80 


Y 


1804-5 


y 


William IV. 

1830-1 


1855-6 


Y 


1880-1 


Z 


1805-G 


z 


1831-2 


z 


1856-7 


Z 


1881-2 


Five Mares. 


Fi 


VE Marks. 


Five Marks 


Five Marks. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in a 

pointed shield. 

5. The King's Head from 

178i. 


1. The Ca 

2. The Til 

3. The 31. 

4. The D 

squf 

5. Soverei 


stle. 
istle. 

iker's Initials, 
ate Letter in a 
ire shield, 
gn's Head. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in a 

shield, concave sides. 

5. Sovereign's Head. 


1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in an 

oval. 

5. Sovereign's Head. 



In 1784 the Duty Mark of the Sovereign's Head v^'as added. t The G is repeated according to the Minutes. 

23 



EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 9. 

Black Lettkr Small. 



® 

® 
® 

® 

(D 





d) 
(D 



VICTORIA. 



1882-8 



1883-4 



1881-5 



1885-6 



1886-7 



1887-8 



1888-9 



1889-90 



1890-1 



1891-2 



1892-3 



1893-4 



Five Marks. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Mark. 

4. The Date Letter. 

5. Sovereign's Head until 

1890. 



® 
® 

(D 
® 





® 
(® 






1894- 



1895-6 



1896-7 



1897-8 



1898-9 



1899-00 



1900-1 



Kdward VII 

1901-2 



1902-3 



1903-4 



1904- 



1905-6 



Four Marks. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Mark 

4. The Date Letter. 



CYCLE 10. 

Roman Capitals. 



EDWARD VII & GEORGE V. 













@ 



1906-7 



1907-8 



1908-9 



1909-10 



George V 

1910-1 



1911-2 



1912-3 



1913-4 



1914 



1915-6 



L( 1916-7 



1917-8 



Four Marks. 
i. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The I\rakcr's :Mark. 

4. The Date Letter. 



® 
@ 
^ 




1918-9 



1919-20 



1920-1 



1921-2 



Four Marks. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The ]\raker's ]\rarlc. 

4. The Date Letter. 



EDINBURGH. 33/ 

The preceding Table of Assay Office Letters and the following- 
List of Plate are taken from a communication by the late Mr. J. H. 
Sanderson to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, published in 
Vol. IV of their "Transactions" m 1862, page 544, and plate xx, 
Vol. IV, and we have to acknowledge with thanks the kind permis- 
sion accorded to us by the Council to reprint any portions of the 
paper bearing upon the subject. Our indebtedness to the late Mr. 
J. H. Sanderson for his valuable assistance was duly acknowledged 
in the preface to our first edition of 1863, which we have reprinted 
in this edition. 



LIST OF PLATE FROM WHICIi THE ANNUAL LETTERS 
HAVE BEEN TAKEN, MANY OF THEM BEARING 

DATES. 

CYCLE L 

Most of the letters in this cycle are taken from the Minutes of 
the Goldsmiths' Corporation, in many cases from an impression of 
the actual punch given on the paper. Those from plate are : 

B. 1682-3. A Jug, the property of the late Lord Murray. 

There seems to have been another form of B. used this 
year, as on the Duddingston Communion Cups, dated 
1682. 

E. 1685-6. Auchtermuchtie Communion Cups, "gifted by Janet 
Ross," bearing date 1686. 

N. 1693-4. Trinity College Communion Cups, "the gift of 
George Stirling," the arms of Edinburgh engraved in- 
side, and bearing date 1693. 

R. 1697-8. A Cup at Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

S. 1698-9. Trinity College Communion Cups, a gift, arms of 
Edinburgh inside, and dated 1698. 

\V. 1701-2. New North Kirk Communion Cups, "the gift of 
Mr. William Archibald," i;02. 

Y. 1703-4. New North Kirk Communion Cups, "the gift of 
John Cunningham of Bandales," 1704. 

CYCLE II. 

C. 1707-8. Lady Yester's Communion Cups, "presented by 

Thomas Wilkie," 1708. Another C. New North Kirk 
Baptism Laver, "gifted by Mary Ereskin," 1708. 

D. 1708-9. Eddleston Communion Cups, bearing date 1709. 
H. 17 1 2-3. A pair of Candlesticks, at Messrs. C. R. & Son. 
P. 17 19-0. Punch Bowl, Royal Company of Archers, bearing 

date 1720. 



338 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

CYCLE IIL 

B. 1/3 1-2. Sugar Basin, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

O. 1743-4- Silver Club, the Edinburgh Golfers, bearing date 

1744- 
T. 1748-9- Dinner Spoon, Mr. Munro. 
U. 1749-0. The Old Church, St. Giles's, Communion Cups, 

bearing date 1750. 
Y. 1753-4- Dinner Spoon, Mr. Stewart. 

CYCLE IV. 

B. 17S6-7. Teapot, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

H. 1762-3. Old Chapel of Ease Communion Cups, St. Cuth- 
bert's Parish, 1763. 

L 1763-4. Baptismal Laver, ditto, ditto, 1763. 

M. 1766-7. Cake Basket, Messrs Mackay & Chisholm. 

N. 1767-8. Snuffer Tray, late Lord Murray. 

P. 1769-0. Sugar Basket, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

Q. 1770-1. Spoon, Captain Gordon of Cluny. 

R. 1 77 1 -2. Salt Cellar, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

S. 1772-3. Spoon, Captain Gordon of Cluny. 

Y. 1777-8. Salver, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

V. 1779-0. Spoon, Mr. IMunro. 

CYCLE V. 

E. 1784-5. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 1785. 

K. 1 790- 1. Cup, Messrs. C. R. &- Son. 

L. 1 791 -2. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 1792. 

R. 1797-8. Spoon, Mr. Sanderson. 

W. 1802-3. Spoon, Mrs. Aitchison. 

CYCLE VL 

A. 1806-7. Salver, Mr. Nisbet. 

D. 1809-0 Pepper-Box, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

E. 1 8 10- 1. Salver, Mr. Nisbet. 
G. 1 81 2-3. Basm, ditto, 18 12. 

H. 18 1 3-4. Spoon, Mrs. Aitchison. 

h. 1 8 17-8. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 18 18. 

T. 1825-6. Mr. Sanderson. 

Cycles Vn, VIII and IX require no proof. 



EDINBURGH MARKS. 



339 



EXAMPLES. 



^« 




[Q 





G 




\iijb 



(p 



wn\ s HGi [n 



George Robertson, maker of the mace 
of the city in 1617.— Mr. /. H. San- 
derson's Paper, Transactions of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Scotland, 
Vol. IV, p. 543, and plate xx. 

" On the Dalkeith Church plate there 
IS no date, but it is known from the 
records to be older than that of 
Newbattle" (dated i6/[6).—Ibid. 

From the plate belonging to Trinity 
College Church, Edinburgh, bearing 
date 1633. — Ibid. (The castle is 
omitted by mistake in the cut.) 

On a Quaigh, hemispherical bowl 
with flat projecting hollow handles, 
on one A C, on the other I M^L; 
engraved outside with full-blown 
roses and lilies. The initials I M«L 
are found as a maker on the Glas- 
gow Sugar Castor (p. 346). Date 
i/\2)- — Earl of Breadalbane. 

On a Table Spoon, French pattern, 
rat's tail. On back of spoon are 
four marks: (i) maker's unknown; 
(2) castle; (3) deacon's mark; (4) 
date-letter U. Date 1749. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. 



\W[ • 



€{ 




On a Dessert Spoon, French pattern. 
The date-letter is the old English 
(ft of i/S?^ showing that the thistle 
was used in this year, as before 
stated. Maker unknown. Date 
1757. — Earl of Breadalbane. 

Maker's name unknown. Date 1766. 
— Earl of Breadalbane. 



Spoon. Date ^^Z7'—]' P- 5/f^//, Esq. 



340 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



GLASGOW. 

The arms of the city of Glasgow are: Argent, on a mojtnt in 
base vert, an oak tree proper, the stem at the base thereof surmounted 
by a salmon on its back also proper, with a signet nng in its mouth 
or; on the top of the tree a redbreast, and in the sinister fess point 
an ancient hand-bell, both also proper. The crest is : The half- 
length figure of St. Kentigcrn affrontce vested and mitred, his right 
hand raised in the act of benediction, and in his left a crosier, all 
proper. The supporters : Two salmon proper, each holding in its 
mouth a signet ring proper. Motto, LET GLASGOW FLOURISH. 

The bearings of the western metropolis are to commemorate the 
well-known miracle of St. Kentigern (also called St. Mungo), the 
patron saint of the city, with reference to the recovery in the fish's 
mouth of the lost ring of the frail Queen of Caidyow. 

An ancient seal attached to a deed of the sixteenth century bears 
a full-faced head of the saint, mitred, between an ancient square 
bell, fish and ring on the dexter, and a bird on a tree on the sinister 
side, inscribed " Sigillum comune de Glasgu." (Laing's Ancient 
Seals.) 

The ancient marks on plate made at Glasgow previous to the 
Act of 1 8 19 were : i. The city arms, a tree with a hand-bell on one 
side, and sometimes a letter G on the other, a bird on the top branch, 
and a fish across the trunk, holding a ring in its mouth enclosed in a 
very small oval escutcheon. 2. The maker's initials, frequently re- 
peated ; and 3. A date letter ; but it is at present useless to attempt to 
assign correct dates of manufacture before 18 19. 

The parliamentary inquiry of 1773 did not extend to Scotland. 

Glasgow was made an assa\' town by. the 59 George III (May, 
1 8 19). The district comprised Glasgow and forty miles round, and 
it was directed that all plate made m the district should be assayed 
at that office. The peculiar mark of the company is a tree growing 
cut of a mount, with a bell pendant on the sinister branch, and a bird 
on the top branch, across the trunk of the tree a salmon holding in its 
mouth a signet ring. 

The marks used on the silver plate stamped at Glasgow are — • 
since the Act of 1819 : 

I. The Standard, a lion rampant. The present form of which 
is : 




bell. 



GLASGOW. 341 

2. The Hall Mark, being the arms of the city, a tree, fish and 




3. The Thistle, has been used as an additional optional mark on 
gold of eighteen and twenty-two carats, and on silver. 

4. The Maker s Mark, viz., his initials. 

5. The Date Mark, or variable letter, changed on July i in every 
year. 

6. The Duty Mark of the sovereign's head. Abolished 1890. 
For gold of twenty-two and eighteen carats the figures 22 or 18 

are added, and for silver of the New Standard Britannia is added. 

The Scottish Act of 6 and 9 Wm. IV (1836-7) in some respects 
extended to Glasgow, although it is generally regulated by the 59 
of George III ; but they have not adopted the marks prescribed by 
this statute of 1836, and continue those previously in use. The only 
difference, however, is that the lion rampant takes the place of the 
thistle. 

The lower gold standards of fifteen, twelve and nine carats 
bears the marks of .025, 15 ; .5, 12; and .375, 9, respectively, together 
with the tree, fish and bell, and the date letter. 

The Mark for Foreign Plate under the Order in Council of 1904 
was for gold : 

(Bishop's Mitre.) 




And for silver : 




The assay mark of this office is now, by the be fore -mentioned 
Order of 1906, for foreign plate for gold : 



(Double block letter F inverted, 




342 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



And for silver : 




j;'--«'?i';;.s="..rx^oiS°crsi'° 



let us have copies o 



GLASGOW ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



GI.ASGOW ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLK 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 3. 


l{oiiAN Capitals. 


Bi.ACK Lkttir Capitals. 


Egyptian' Lkttir Capitals. 


GEO. III., 


WILL. IV. & VICT. 


VICTORIA. 


VICTORIA. 


A 


1819-20 


^ 


1845-G 


A 


1871-2 


B 


George IV. 

1820-1 


B 


1840-7 


B 


1872-3 


£ 


1821-2 


€ 


1847-8 


C 


1873-4 


D 


1822-3 


m 


1848-9 


D 


1874-5 


E 


1823-4 


(B 


1849-50 


E 


1875-6 


1' 


1824-5 


f 


1850-1 


F 


1876-7 


a 


1820-G 


(B 


1851-2 


Q 


1877-8 


H 


1820-7 


'M 


1852-3 


H 


1878-9 


I 


182T-8 


1 


1853-4 


1 


1879-80 


J 


1828-9 


3 


1854-5 


J 


1880-1 


K 


1829-30 

William IV. 


it 


1855-6 


K 


1881-2 


Ti 


1830-1 


IL 


1856-7 


L 


1882-3 


M 


1831-2 


n 


1857-8 


M 


1883-4 


N 


1832-3 





1858-9 


N 


1884-5 





1833-1 


(B 


1859-60 





1885-6 


P 


1834-5 


^ 


1860-1 


P 


1886-7 


Q 


1835-6 


(^ 


1861-2 


^ 


1887-8 


R 


183G-T 

Victoria. 


1 


1862-3 


1888-9 


S 


1837-8 


S 


1863-4 


S 


1889-90 


T 


1838-9 


c 


1864-5 


T 


1890-1 


U 


1839-40 


m 


1865-6 


u 


1891-2 


V 


1840-1 


w 


1866-7 


V 


1892-3 


w 


1841-2 


m 


1867-8 


w 


1893-4 


X 


1842-3 


% 


1868-9 


X 


1894-5 


Y 


1843-4 


w 


1869-70 


Y 


1895-6 


Z 


1844-5 


z 


1870-1 


z 


1896-7 


1 


?iVE Marks. 


Five Marks. 


FiVK Marks. 


1. Li( 


n rampant. 


1. Lion rampant. 


1. Lion rampant. 


2. Trr 


0. Fisli and Boll. 


2. Tree, Fiah and Bell. 


2. Tree, Fish, and Bell. 


3. So' 


v^orci^^n's Head. 


;i SiweireiKH h Head. 


3. Rover«ign'.<« Head until 1890. 


4. Dat 


(■ Letter. 


4. Date Letter. 


4. Date Letter. 


5. Mn 


-ccr's Initials. 


5. .Maker's Initials. 


5. Maker's Initials. 



GLASGOW ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 4. 

Sciui'T Capitals. 



VICTORIA, EDWARD VII & GEORGE V. 



S 



® 



1897-H 



1898-9 




1899-00 



Si 



1900-1 




1901-2 




Edward VII 

1902-1-5 



1908-1 



0\) 



1904-5 




1905-G 







J 



K 



1907-8 



1908-9 



1909-00 



/ \ I *J^ 



Qeorgfe V 

910-1 




1912-H 



a 



W\ 



1918-4 



1914-5 



^ N 



1917-8 



1918-9 



1919-00 



1920-1 



190G-7 




1911-2 




w> 



1915-6 



191G-7 



Fori? Makes. 



1. Lion rampant. 

2. Tree, Fish, and Bell. 

3. Thistle. 



4. Date Letter. 

5. ^Maker's Mark. 



346 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXAMPLES. 



® 





ImSo 




MSfOl 



]M ^ 



These marks are on the narrow rim of 
the foot of an elegant silver Tazza, 
chased in centre with bold leaf 
scrolls, bordered with engrailed 
lines. The work is evidently of the 
time of Charles II, 1670-80. — Messrs 
Hancock. 

These four stamps are found on an 
oval silver box, originally made to 
contain the wax seal appended to a 
diploma granted by the University. 
The cover is finely engraved, having 
m the centre the University mace 
and an open Bible above. On each 
side are represented the objects com- 
posing the coat-of-arms of Glasgow, 
viz., to the right a tree, with a bird 
perched on the top branch, to the left 
a hand-bell, and at the base a sal- 
mon on its back holding a signet 
ring in its mouth. Surmounted by 
the motto of the University, " Yia 
Veritas Vita,^' instead of that of the 
city, " Let Glasgow flourish." 

The usual case to contain the dip- 
loma is made of tin; but this, being 
of sterling silver, was probably pre- 
sented to some person of great dis- 
tinction. 

Dated about i/OO. — In the posses- 
sion of the Earl of Breaclalbane. 

On a sugar castor, chased with fes- 
toons of roses. This maker's initials 
are also found engraved on the han- 
dle of a Ouaigh of Edinburgh make 
of 17 1 3. — The Earl of Breaclalbane. 



SCOTTISH MARKS. 



347 



SCOTTISH PROVINCIAL MARKS. 



ABERDEEN. 

The arms of this city are: Gules, three towers triple towered, 
ivithm a double tressiire flowered and counter-flowered argent. The 
supporters are : Two leopards proper. Motto, BON ACCORD. 

The town arms of three towers, triple towered, sometimes two 
and one, and sometimes one and two, was also used in the eighteenth 
century. 

The Town Assay Office mark adopted at Aberdeen consisted of 
two or more of the letters in the word, thus the letters A B D, with 
a mark of contraction above, and later A B D N, as in the following 
example : 

Aberdeen. On a Table Spoon, handle 
turned up, and ridges in front of stem, 
elongated oval bowl, date about 1780. — 
Earl of Breadalbane. 



c^v: vMBw 



i&i] ^iji 



Aberdeen. On a small Caddy Spoon, 
Circa 1880. — IT. K. Macdonald, Esq. 



ARBROATH. 

The arms of this burgh are : A portcidlis beneath a wreath of 
laurel. 

These arms were used as a hall mark on the silver worked at 
this place. 

Arbroath. On Fork, with shell pattern. Circa 
1880.— ir. /v. Macdonald, Esq. 



BANFF. 

A matrix in the office of the Town Clerk of Banff bears an oval- 
shaped seal of a boar passant, " Insignia Urbis Banfiensis." — Laing's 
Seals. 

The arms of the town of Banff are : Gtdes, the virgin standing 
and holding the infant Christ. 

The mark used in this burgh varied very much, but it generally 
consisted of the name BANFF, or a contraction thereof. 



348 



HALL :\L\RKS ON PLATE. 
EXAMPLES. 



BAl [IaI 



111 rBANFl (D I 

HOI ® El 



Banff. Dessert Spoon, French pattern. 

— Earl of Breaaalbanc. 
Banff. Dessert Spoon, French pattern, 
^ with king's \-\Q:A<\.-'-Earl of Breadal- 
^^ bane. 

Banff. Table Spoon. French pattern. 

— Earl of Brcadalhane. 
Banff. Table Spoon, French pattern, 
with king's head. — EarlofBveadalbane. 

DUNDEE (Angus). 



The arms are : Azure, a -pot of lilies argent. Crest : A lily ar- 
gent. Supporters : Tzvo dragons vert, tails knotted together below 
shield. Motto, " Dei Donum '' 

The town mark adopted by the Dundee Assay Offices is a pot 
with two handles containing three lilies, as shown in the following 

EXAMPLES. 

Dundee. Ona pair of Sugar Tongs, shell 
and fiddle pattern, about 1880. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. 

Dundee. On a Table Spoon, oval bowl, 
rat's tail, flat stem, leaf-shaped end, date, 
circa 1660. — F.arl of Breadalbane. 

SVl m ISee^I Dundee. Tea Spoon, fiddle head, last 
century. — Earl of Breadalbane. 

Dundee. Small Spoon, nineteenth century. 
— ir. A'. Macdonald, Esq. 




m m m (S) 



ELGIN. 

The arms of the burgh of Elgin are : A bishop standing, hold- 
ing in his dexter hand an open book, and in his sinister a bishop's 
crosier. 

The assay towns of Aberdeen, Inverness and Banff in the ad- 
joining counties adopted abbreviations of their names, usually the 
lirst two or three and the last letters, thus: ABDN, INS, and BA ; 
hence, on the same prhiciple, Elgin used ELN. 

The annexed marks are on a Table 
Spoon, wdth oval bowl, the end of 
the handle or stem turned upwards 
|ELN! i^l^ /-^ K with a ridge down the centre : a 

form in use from about 1730 to 
I /60.— In the Earl of Breadalbane' s 
Collection. 



^ 



LEITH. 
GREENOCK. 



349 



Several marks were used in this burgh. Sometimes a ship in 
full sail, sometimes an anchor, and sometimes a green oak. The 
whole of these marks are occasionally found on a single article. 

The arms are : A three-masted ship in full sail, in base on a 
quay, two men rolling casks, all proper. 



INVERNESS. 

There have been goldsmiths 'n this town since the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The mark generally used was INS, as a short 
form of the name of the town. A dromedary or camel, and a cornu- 
copia, were also sometimes employed. 

The arms of this royal burgh are : G tiles, on a cross Calvary 
the Saviour proper. But on the seal of the burgh there appears : A 
clromeclary turned to 'the sinister. 



IE fiNS f^^ 



CJ INS 




EXAMPEES. 



Inverness. On a Tea Spoon, fiddle 
head, date about 1820, with a corn- 
ucopia, the crest of the town of In- 
verness. — -Earl of Breadalbane. 

Inverness. The camel, one of the 
supporters of the city arms. On 
a large annular Scottish Brooch, 
flat, with engraved Vandykes, and 
a cluster of fine small annulets 
between each. Maker's mark, and 
another of the same, larger, as 
Deacon. Attributed to Chas. Jami- 
son, circa 18 10. — Earl of Breadal- 
bane. 



LEITH. 

From the fact of several pieces of plate having been bought 
here bearing the stamp of an anchor, which indicates its position as 
a harbour for shipping, we are inclined to attribute this mark to 
Leith. The circular object with rays, which accompanies it, yet 
remains to be explained, but in another example here adduced it is 
placed by the side of the thistle the standard mark of Scotland. 
The crest of Edinburgh is an anchor wreathed about with a cable; 
but in this instance the cable is omitted. 

The arms of this port are : A twO-masted galley, bearing a taber- 
nacle containing the Virgin, seated holding the infant Christ. 



350 



(Jollfl® 



[n^a iwi 



S g> iS ® ^ 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 
EXAMPLES. 



Leith. Five Tea Spoons, French pat- 
tern. Eighteenth century. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. 

Leith. Tea Spoon and Tongs, French 
pattern. Eighteenth century. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. 

Leith. Caddy Spoon, shell shaped 
bowl, fiddle head, with Scottish stan- 
dard mark and that of a provincial 
town ; no duty letter, but made about 
1820, judging from the fashion. — Earl 
of Breadalbane. 

Leith. A Scottish Brooch of conven- 
tional form, with circular broad band, 
plain surface, short pin at back with 
hinge and clasp; stamped behind with 
five marks. — Earl of Breadalbane. 



MONTROSE (xAngus). 

A Burgh Royal, as relative to the name, carries roses. Thus, in 
the Lyon Register, the arms are given as : Argent, a double rose 
gides, zvith helmet, mantling, and zureath suitable thereto. 

The town mark, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was 
therefore a rose or double rose, in a shield or circle. 

PERTH. 

The arms of the city of Perth {alias St. John's Town) so called 
since the Reformation are: An eagle displayed with two heads or, 
sitrmonnted on the breast with an escutcheon gides, c/iarged zvitJi the 
holy Lamb, -passant regardant, carrying the banner of St. Andrew, 
zvithin a double tressure, flozvered and counter-flozuered argent, with 
the hackneyed motto, " PRO Rege LEGE ET GREGE." 

Goldsmiths have been established in this city from early times. 

In the middle of the seventeenth century the town mark was the 
lamb bearing the banner of St. Andrew. Somewhat later the double- 
headed eagle displayed had come into use, and continued to be used 
until the beginning of the present century. 

EXAMPLES. 



On a small quaigh, or cup with two 
handles, date about 1660, with these 
two marks only. The lamb and flag, 
emblem of St. John, being the arms 
of St. John's Town, as Perth was 
formerly called. — C. A. North, Esq. 



RG 



STIRLING. 



351 




[icl iMIcj isi 




RKl 



m m 



m 



Split head Spoon. Date circa 1675. — 
/. H. WdUcrs, Esq. 

On a set of Table Spoons, French pat- 
tern, with rat tail on back of bowl, 
date about 1760. Some have four 
marks of spread eagles onl)', without 
the shield on the breast, as used re- 
cently. — Earl of Brcadalbanc. 

On a Dessert Spoon, fiddle head, date 
circa 1820. The spread eagle part 
of the City arms, on its breast a 
shield with the lamb and flag of St. 
John; made by Robert Kay, silver- 
smith, at Perth, in 181 5. — Ditto. 

On a set of four Salt-Cellars, gadroon 
edge on three legs and claws — the 
seven marks arranged in a circle un- 
derneath, with the town mark in the 
centre, three maker's initials, and 
three town marks round — -date circa 
1 8 10. — Ditto. 



ST. ANDREWS (Fife). 

On a matrix of a privy seal in custody of the Town Clerk of 
St. Andrews is a wild boar passant, secured by a rope to a rugged 
staff. " Sigillum Sccretu Civitatis Sancti Andree Aposti." 

Another seal, affixed to a deed dated 1453, bears a full-length 
figure of a bishop holding a crosier, etc. The counter seal has a 
figure of St. Andrew extended on his cross. In the lower part of the 
seal is a wild boar passant, in front of a tree, inscribed around, '' CUR- 
SUS ^Apri) Regalis." — Laing's Ancient Seals. 

The arms of this city are : Gules, on a saltire the figure of St. 
Andrew y in base a wild boar passant, and tree, within belt inscribed 
DuM Spiro Spero. 



STIRLING. 

The seal is a lamb couchant on the top of a rock, inscribed with 
the motto, '/ OPPIDUM Sterlini." 

The ancient seal of the Corporation bears: "A bridge wrlth a 
crucifix in the centre of it; men armed with bows on one side of the 
bridge, and men with spears on the other, and the legend, 'Hie 
Armis Bruti, Scoti stant hac cruce tuti.' " 

On the reverse, a fortalice surrounded with trees, inscribed 
" Continent hoc in se nemus et castrum Strivilense.'' 

24 



352 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

" Burke's General Armoury " gives the arms of the town, as at 
present used : Azttre, on a mount, a castle triple towered zvithoiit 
ivindows argent, masoned sable, the gate closed gides, surrounded 
by four oak sprigs disposed in orle of the second, the interstices of 
the field being semee of stars of six points each of the last, and motto 
as above. 

The only mark found on silver that can be assigned to this town 
is a castle triple towered m irregular shield. 

Stirling. On an oblong Tobacco-Box engraved on 
the cover with two coats of arms surmounted by a 
ducal coronet. The town mark is a castle, triple 
towered, as described above, having beneath the 
letter S to distinguish it from a similar mark at 
Edinburgh. The maker's (?) mark, a mermaid 
and star, and his initials G B. — Earl of Breadal- 
bane. 

TAIN (Ross-shire). 
■acI I T^A T A TI (^\\ Tain. On a pair of Toddy Ladles, date about 




1800. — Earl of Breadalbane. 



UNCERTAIN SCOTTISH MARKS. 




(Xd) 



\\km 


^ 



Unknown. These three stamps are on the 
inside of a silver lid of a shell Snuff-Box. 
Date about 1800. — /;/ the possession of the 
Earl of Breadalbane. 

Unknown. On a fiddle head Toddy Ladle, 
provincial mark of some town in Scotland. 
[licGHl IMade circa 18 10. Representing an otter or 

badger on a wheat ear (?) and the letters I. 
& G. H. — Earl of Breadalbaite. 

Unknown. On a seal top Spoon, of English 

or Scottish make, of the seventeenth cen- 

r=:^ -^^jv tur)-, the baluster end well finished. The 

U-^~^J \1\7 monogram inside the bowl, the animal on 

the back of the stem. Letters on the bot- 
tom, )^-^- — Lady Du Cane. . 

1624. 

Uncertain. (Query Edinburgh.) These four 

marks are on the bottom of a Mug with one 

^^ scroll handle, broad moutli, repousse pyri- 

^Y^ ^:® Y^\ form ornament round the lower part. The 

small mark is that of the maker, the other 
two those of the Deacon, probably the same 
silversmith. Date about 1680. — Messrs. 
Mackay & Chisholni. 






_'2^^ 



RBi 



Krtlaui!. 



DUBLIN. 

CHARTER OF INCORPORATION. 

The Goldsmiths' Company of DubHn has the exclusive manage- 
ment of the assaying and marking of wrought gold and silver plate 
in Ireland. 

The harp, and subsequently, A.D. 1638, the harp crowned, was 
the original hall or district mark for all Irish manufactured plate 
assayed in Dublin and found to be standard, and was used long 
previous to the charter granted by Charles I, December 22, in the 
year 1638, in the thirteenth year of his reign, to the Corporation of 
Goldsmiths of Dublin, Ireland. This charter adopted for Ireland 
the standards then in use in England, viz — 22 karats for gold, and 
II oz. 2 dwts. for silver. " The harp crowned now appomted by his 
Majesty " has been continued in use ever since, in pursuance of a 
clause contained in that charter, and also by the Act 23 & 24 Geo. 
Ill, c. 23, s. 3 (1784). 

The Journals of the Goldsmiths' Company from 1637 until the 
present time are still in existence, and a complete list of the Masters 
and Wardens of the Company from that date until 1800 has been 
printed by Mr. H. F. Berry, M.A., together with the list of Appren- 
tices from 1653 to 1752. 

A date mark was used in Dublin from a very early period, as 
it appears to have been in use previous to the year 1638. 

STANDx\RDS.— LEGAL PUNCHES. 

A.D. 1729. 3 George II. The Irish Parliament enacted that all 
articles of gold and silver should be assayed at Dublin by the Assay 
Master appointed by the Company of Goldsmiths, the standard of 
gold being fixed at 22 karats and silver at 11 oz. 2 dwts., and or- 
dered that the articles should be marked with the marks then used, 
viz., the harp crowned^ a date-letter, and the maker's initials. 



354 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

DUTY IMPOSED AND MARK OF HIBERNIA. 

A.D. 1730. The figure of HiBERNIA was used by order of the 
Commissioners of Excise in the year 1730, when a duty was first 
imposed, to denote the payment of the same, viz., sixpence per ounce 
on manufactures of gold and silver plate, which has been used ever 
since on every standard of Irish plate. 

REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD.— NEW GENEVA. 

A.D. 1783-4. 23 & 24 George III, c. 23. In this year a Com- 
pany of Geneva Watchmakers came to Ireland, and commenced 
an establishment near Waterford, and the place or locality of this 
establishment was called NEW GENEVA. An Assay Office and a 
Deputy Assay Master or Assayer were granted to them at that place. 
This Act came into operation on June i, 1784, and repeals so much 
of the 3rd of Geo. II as respects the assaying of gold, or regulating 
the manufacture, assaying, or exchange or sale of gold, or the duty 
on any manufacture of gold m Ireland. The watch manufactory 
at New Geneva was discontinued about 1790, having only lasted six 
years. 

The only standard of gold allowed by the Act 3rd George II 
was that of 22 karats fine ; this was altered by the above Act, whereby 
three standards are provided of 22, 20 and 18 karats fine respec- 
tively. These standards were authorised to facilitate and encourage 
the manufacture of gold and silver wares and watch-cases, etc., in 
Ireland, and especially at New Geneva. 

This establishment and Assay Office did not continue to work 
over five or six years, and with this exception the Assay Office in 
Dublin has been and is the only one m Ireland, and has power and 
jurisdiction in all parts of Ireland. 

By the i ith section of this Act it is enacted, " That on and after 
the 1st June, 1784, every person making, or causing to be made, any 
manufactures of gold, are to enter an impression of his or her neiv 
marks or punches made as aforesaid, with his or her name and place 
of abode, in either of the said Assay Offices, upon paying the sum 
of five shillings to the Assayer or Wardens, who are hereby required 
to make, on a plate of pewter or copper, impressions of such marks 
or punches; and also entries of such marks or punches, with the 
names and places of abode of the owners thereof, in a book or books 
to be carefully kept for that purpose, if such owners be resident in 
Dublin or at New Geneva. And that no person or persons shall be 
entitled to have any. manufactures of gold made, or caused to be 
made by him or her, assayed or stamped at either of the said Assay 
Offices, until after same have been stamped by the maker, and until 
after such impression and entry have been made at such office of 
the mark or punch of said person or persons, which denotes the par- 
ticular standard of such manufactures of gold; and that no manu- 
facture of gold shall be assayed or stamped at the said Assay 
Offices, if marked with any other mark or punch but such as is duly 



IRELAND. 



355 



entered; and that no manufacture of gold shall ^e assayed or 
stamped at such Assay Offices unless such gold work be marked 
with the mark which denotes the true standard of same. 

DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE MARKS. 
1638 to I/29. 3 marks : harp crowned, date letter, and maker's 

mark. 1 1 > 

1 806 to 1 80;. 4 marks : harp, date letter, Flibernia, and maker s 

initials. . , 

1807 to 1882. 5 7;iarks : harp, date lett.-r, Hibernia, sovereigns 
head for duty, and the maker's initials. 

Total of Marks now required to be stamped on gold and silver 
plate in Ireland : 

GOLD. 



Standard ist, 
22 karats 
(6 marks). 



Standard 2nd, 
20 karats, 
(6 marks). 



Standard 3rd, 
18 karats 
(6 marks). 



3 Lower 
Standards 



i 



(4 marks 



Old Standard, 

II oz. 2 dwts. 

(5 marks). 



( I. Quality m karats (22). 
2. Harp crowned. 
^. Hibernia (Dublin assay mark, first used i/ 30;- 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark (first used m 180;). 
^ 6. Maker's mark. 

' I. Quality m karats (20). 
2. Plume of three feathers. 
^. Hibernia. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark. 

6. Maker's m.ark. 

' I Quality m karats (18). 

2. Unicorn's head. 

3. Hibernia. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark, sovereign's head. 
^ 6. Maker's mark. 

' I. Quality, karats and thousandths in one stamp- 

2. Hibernia. 

3. Date-letter. 

^ 4. Maker's mark. 

SILVER. 

1. Harp crowned. 

2. Hibernia. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Duty-mark. Discontinued 1890. 
c;. Maker's mark. 



No Nezu Standard silver is marked in Ireland. 



356 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



FOREIGN PLATE ASSAYED AND MARKED. 

A.D. 1842. 5 & 6 Victoria, c. 47, ss. 59, 60. The several Assay 
Offices in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland are 
directed and empowered to assay and mark foreign manufactured 
gold and silver plate; and also to assay and mark, at any of the 
said Assay Offices, gold and silver plate manufactured in any part 
of the said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Previous to the passing of this Act, each of the Assay Offices 
had power only to assay and mark gold and silver plate manu- 
factured within their own districts. 

N.B. — The mark punch of the resident shopkeeper, or importer 
•of plate, is required to be registered, in respect of assaying and 
marking foreign plate, or plate manufactured out of the district 
of the Assay Office that it is sent to be assayed at; but the maker's 
marks are not required unless he is resident in the city or town or 
district of the assay. 

The variable letter of the year is the date-mark, and is im- 
pressed on all manufactured gold and silver plate that is stamped 
at the Assay Office in Dublin, in accordance with the practice of the 
Goldsmiths' Hall in London; but the letter, and also the character 
of the letter, used in Dublin in each year is not the same as is used 
in London in each corresponding year. 



REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD. 

A.D. 1854. 17 & 18 Victoria. It was enacted that from and 
after December 22, i8t54, three lower standards for gold wares were 
allowed in addition to the standards of 22, 20 and 18 karats, fixed 
by the Act 23 & 24 Geo. Ill (1784). The figures 15, 12 and 9, and 
thousandths parts to be stamped denoting the true qualit}/ of the 
same. The marks of the harp crowned and the sovereign's head 
are omitted, although subject to the same duty as the higher 
standards. 

There are six legal standards for gold in Ireland and only 
one for silver. 

DRAWBACK. 

A.D. 1866. 29 & 30 Victoria, c. 64. An Act to amend the laws 
relating to the Inland Revenue. Section 15 provides for allowing 
drawback on plate made in Great Britain exported from Ireland, 
and on Irish plate exported from Great Britain. 



GOLD AND SILVER PLATE DUTY. 

The duties were first imposed in 1730 at 6d. per ounce both 
on gold and silver. The rates were doubled in 1807 by the Act of 



IRELAND. • 35/ 

47 Geo. Ill (Sess. I), c. i8, which was repealed by Statute Law 
Revision Act, 1872 (No. 2). 

The receipt of the duties was committed to the Excise Depart- 
ment, until by the Act of 6 Geo. IV, c. 118, it was transferred to the 
Department of Stamps. 

1807. 47 Geo. Ill, Sess. 2, c. 15. "An Act to provide for the 
regulating and securing the Collection of the Duty on Gold and 
Silver Plate wrought or manufactured in Ireland." 

This Act IS still in force, except Sects, i, 2 and 12, repealed by 
Statute Law Revision Act, 1872 (No. 2). 

Sects. 3 and 4 relate to the assaying and marking by the Assay 
Master, etc. 

Sect. 5 provides for a written note to be delivered of certain par- 
ticulars, and of the weight of every parcel of gold or silver, and for 
payment of the duty. 

Sect. 6. As to accounting for the duty. 

Sect. 7. Allowance of one-sixth of duty on goods sent to be 
assayed in a rough state. 

Sect. 8. As to filing of notes and accounts of duties to be 
kept in books. 

Sect. 9 provides for books being lodged by Assay Master with 
Goldsmiths' Company, and for inspection of such books. 

Sect. 10. As to payment of the duties. 

Sect. II. As to any Deputy Assay IMasters in the country 
paying the duty and accounting. 

Sects. 13 to 17. Penalties for various offences and mode of 
recovery. 

1842. 5 & 6 Yict., c. 82. "An Act to assimilate the Stamp 
Duties m Great Britain and Ireland, and to make Regulations for 
collecting and managing the same until the Tenth day of October, 
1845." (Partly repealed by 8 & 9 Vict., c. 76, s. i, and 33 & 34 
Vict., c. 99.) 

Sect. 1. Repeal of duties on gold and silver plate granted by 
47 Geo. Ill, s. I, c. 18. 

Sect. 2. Duties on gold and silver plate to be the same as by 
53 Geo. Ill, c. 185. 



PLATE DEALERS' LICENCES IN IRELAND. 

From 1785 to 1804 were /, i per annum. 

In 1805-6, £2 per annum. 

In 1807, in the City of Dublin and in any city or town sending 
one or more members to Parliament, £^. In any other part of Ire- 
land, £2. 

In 1 81 2 it was raised to 5 and 2 guineas. 

In 1842. Act 5 & 6 Vict. The licences w^ere the same as in 
England, viz., for 2 dwts. and under 2 oz. of gold and under 30 oz. 
of silver, £2 6s.; above that quantity, ^,'5 15s. 



358 • HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The maker's marks were in use, and were also registered, at the 
time of the passing of this Act and for many years previously, in 
accordance with other Acts of Parliament and the practice of the 
London Hall. The manufacturers were required to stamp and 
register their mark punches in the Assay Office in Dublin, previous 
to the year 1694, and this practice has been continued to the present 
time. 

These three standards of 22, 20 and 18 karats, directed by this 
Act, were continued by another Act, subsequently passed, namely, 
the 4/ Geo. Ill, sess. 2, c. 15, s. 3, August 10, 1807, and are still 
in use. 

By the same Act, c. 23, s. 29 (Ireland), no refiner may sell gold 
without alloy, or less fine than v>ith one grain per ounce. 



KING'S HEAD DUTY-^MARK.— DUTY INCREASED. 

A.D. 1807. 47 George III, sess. 2, c. 15, s. 3 (Ireland). The 
marks for silver in Ireland, do not seem to be determined by the 
Statute, but were those which were m use in 1807, or as settled by 
the Commissioners of Taxes. 

By Section 6 of this x'\ct, the stamp of the King's head, or head 
of the reigning sovereign, was now for the first time added to the 
others to denote payment of the duty, but no notice was taken of 
the former mark of Hibernia, and both marks were used. The duty 
was raised to one shilling per ounce on gold and silver plate. (The 
duty on silver plate abolished 1890.) 

By the same Act, sect. 15, both buyer and seller are liable to a 
penalt}' for plate without the required marks. 



STx\NDARD OF SILVER IMPROVED. 

A.D. 1825. 6 George IV, c. 118. A small Roman letter e is 
found for the date towards the end of this year, succeeding the 
capital letter E. This was done in compliance with the order of the 
Commissioners of Stamps, to denote the transfer of the duty from 
the Commissioners and Collectors of Excise to the Commissioners of 
Stamps ; and also to mark the change of the standard of silver made 
in Ireland at that time, by having to adopt the practice of the 
London Hall in marking silver plate, at an allowance of only one 
pennyweight and a half below the standard — this was also by order 
of the Commissioners of Stamps, and according to the 47 Geo. Ill, 
sess. 2, c. 15. Previous to this order, Irish manufactured silver plate 
used to be marked in Dublin, at some periods, as standard, at an 
allowance of from two and a half to tliree and a half pennyweight 
worse than the standard ; consequently Irish sterling, manufactured 
previous to that date, was inferior to English sterling, and to the 
Irish sterling subsequently manufactured. 



IRELAND. 

The standard, as ordered by the Act of 1784. 



359 



For Dublin. — Gold of 22 karats; a harp crowned and the 

numerals 22. 
Gold of 20 karats; a plume of three feathers 

and 20. 
Gold of 18 karats; a unicorn's head and 18. 
Silver of 11 oz. 2 dwt. ; a harp crowned. 

Three Lower Standards, under the Act 17 & 18 Vict, c. 96, 1854. 

For Dublin. — On these the mark of the standard proper (a harp 
crozvned) is omittedy and although subject to 
the same ditty, the mark of the Sovereign's head 
was also zvithheld, but Hibernia is nsed as a hall- 
mark. 

Gold of 1 5 karats ; a stamp of 1 5.625 (thousandths). 
Gold of 1 2 karats ; a stamp of 1 2.500 „ 

Gold of 9 karats; a stamp of 9-375 „ 

For Neiv Geneva. — Gold of 22 karats; a harp crowned zvith a 
bar across the strings and 22. 
Gold of 20 karats; a plume of tivo feathers 

and 20. 
Gold of 18 karats; a unicorn's head with collar 
on the ?zeck and 18. 

L— THE STANDARD MARK. 

The harp now used is placed m an upright oblong, with the 
corners cut off : 




IL--THE HALL MARK. 

For D?iblin. — A figure of HiBERNIA, used since 1730, on gold 
or silver of every standard. 

The figure of Hibernia is also now placed in a similar outline : 




36o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

III.— THE DUTY MARK. 

The Sovereign's Head, j&rst used in 1807 to denote the pay- 
ment of duty on silver and on the higher standards of gold of 22, 
20 and 18 karats; but not on the lower gold of 15, 12 and g karats, 
although paying the same duty. Discontinued on silver in 1890. 

IV.— THE AIAKER'S iMARK. 

Formerly some device, with or without the initials of the gold- 
smith; later the initials of his Christian and surname. 

v.— THE DATE AIARK. 

The time appointed for the letter to be changed, and the new 
punches put in commission, is May 29 or 30 in every year; but this 
date has not been strictly adhered to, the changes having been made 
at various later periods in some years. 

From 1638, the year in which the Communion flagon was given 
by Moses Hill to Trinity College, Dublin, the fact is clearly estab- 
lished, confirmed also by the Charter granted by Charles I on 
December 22, 1638, that a Roman letter for that year was adopted, 
commencing with A. No other examples between 1638 and 1679 
have come under our notice, but in the latter year we have a chalice 
with the Old English ?B, followed m 1680 by the tankard preserved 
in the Merchant Taylors' Company, bearing an Old English (§, 
Following the order of the alphabet, plate was doubtless stamped 
down to 1686, finishing with J. 

The unsettled state of Ireland during the next six years will 
account for the cessation of work at the Dublin Assay Office. In 
1693 the letter 3R (next in succession) was adopted, and continued 
alphabetically down to Jl m 1700. At this time the Act of William 
III, m 1700, reappointing the provincial offices for adopting the 
new or Britannia standard, and making it imperative on all the 
provincial offices to discontinue the old, may have operated in Dub- 
lin, where the 7tezu standard was never made, so that a few years 
may have elapsed before work was resumed. It appears, from no 
examples having been discovered during this period, that in 17 10 
the Hall recommenced stamping old standard plate with the letter 
^, next in succession (the top of the shield being escal loped), down 
to ^ in 17 17, thus completing the Old English alphabet. 

In 1718 a new alphabet was commenced, and as we have met 
with two court-hand letters A and C, whilst Mr. W. J. Cripps (" Old 
English Plate," edition 1878, page 419) gives a letter B in the same 
hand (although no authority is quoted in his list of specimens), we 
have adopted his suggestion, which is probably correct, viz., that 
they represented the years 17 18, 17 19 and 1720. 



IRELAND. 361 

In 1/21 Old English letters were used, and continued with 
uninterrupted succession (omitting J) from A to Z, in all twenty-five 
letters. In 1746 Roman capitals commence, and we have to acknow- 
ledge with thanks the permission of the representatives of the late 
Mr. Cripps to introduce his arrangement of Roman capitals from 
1 77 1 to 1820. It seems unaccountable and contrary to the practice 
of every other Assay Office to repeat the same character of letter in 
four successive cycles — the custom has always been to vary the style 
of alphabet in succession; but at Dublin we have Roman capitals 
from 1746 to 1845, just a century, the only variations in the hall 
marks being the introduction of the king's head duty-mark in 1807, 
and apparently a distinctive form, of shield, which, however, was 
not strictly adhered to throughout each cycle. The arrangement of 
the tables is still unsatisfactory, and it is to be hoped the promised 
assistance of the Royal Irish Academy will enable us to clear up the 
existing discrepancies. Mr. Thomas Ryves Metcalf more than 
twenty years ago furnished us with extracts from the local Acts of 
Parliament and extracts from the Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany recording the Assay Office letters and dates ; but he could not 
do more than give us Roman capitals without any variation of type, 
hence the present uncertainty, and I am compelled to add, the in- 
completeness of our Dublin Tables. 

We frequently meet on silver plate of the seventeenth century 

the stamp | STERLING | and the punch of the maker's initials; 



sometimes in two lines, thus 



STER 
LING 



or 



I Ster / 
/ Hng \ 



These marks are attributed by Irish silversmiths and collectors 
to Cork, at which city there v^- as no Government Assay Office ; but in 
conjunction with that of the maker, it was considered a sufficient 
guarantee in the South of Ireland, without the trouble and expense 
of sending all the plate to Dublin to be hall marked. 

The Dublin Goldsmiths' Company may appoint assaycrs for 
any part of Ireland. 

THE ASSAY MARK FOR FOREIGN PLATE. 

The assay mark under the Order in Council of 1904 for foreign 
plate was for gold : 

(Shamrock.) 




And for silver 




s62 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



The assay mark of this office was altered as follows, by the 
before-mentioned Order of 1906, and is now for foreign plate for 
gold : 

(Boujet.) 



And for silver 





Mr. S. W. Le Bass, the late Assay Master of the Goldsmiths' 
Company, kindly gave us valuable information for previous editions 
of this work, and Mr. A. Le Bas, the present Assay Master of the 
Company, has most courteously given us copies of the present marks 
used at Dublin. 



DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 5. 


CYCLE 6. 


CYCLE 7. 


CYCLE 8. 




Black Lvttir Capitals. 


Roman Capitals. 


Roman Capitals. 


Roman Capitals. 




GEORGE I. & II. 


GEORGE II. & III. 


GEORGE III. 


( 


jEORGE III. & IV. 


m 


1721-2 


® 


1740-T 


(A) 


1771-2 




g] 


1790-7 


B 


1722-:^ 


B 


1747-8 


B 


1772-3 


B 


1797-8 




C 


172:^-4 


C 


! 1748-9 


C 


1773-4 


C 


1798-9 




2D 


1724-5 


D 


1749-50 


D 


1774-5 


D 


1799-00 




W 


1725-0 


E 


1750-1 


E 


1775-0 


V\ 


1800-1 






172()-7 




1751-2 


J^' 


1770-7 


h' 


1801-2 






1727-S 


1752-3 


G 


1777-8 


G 


1802-3 




® 


George II. 

172S-1) 


H 


1753-4 


H 


1778-9 


H 


1803-4 




3 


1720-:iO 


I 


1754-5 


I 


1779-80 


I 


1804-5 




u 


17:^0-1 


K 


1755-G 


K 


1780-1 


K 


1805-0 




it 


17:n-2 


Ti 


1750-7 


Ti 


1781-2 


Ti 


1800-7 




^ 


1 17:i2-:5 


M 


1757-8 


M 


1782-3 


M 


1807-8 


51? 


1783-4 


N 


1758-9 


N 


1783-4 


N 


1808-9 


€> 


1734-5 





1759-00 





1784-5 





1809-10 






1735-6 


P 


1700-1 


1785-6 


P 


1810-1 




^ 


1730-T 


Q 


George III. 

1701-2 


Q 


1780-7 


Q 


1811-2 




m 1 


1737-8 


R 


1702-3 


R 


1787-8 


R 


1812-3 




^ 


1738-9 


S 


1703-4 


s 


1788-9 


S 


1813-4 




(gj 


1739-40 


T 


1704-5 


T 


1789-90 


T 


1814-5 




M 


1740-1 


U 


1705-0 


U 


1790-1 


U 


1815-0 




^ 


1741-2 


V 


1700-7 


T 


1791-2 


V 


1810-7 




am 


1742-3 


w 


1707-8 


W 


1792-3 


w 


1817-8 




1 


1743-4 


X 


1708-9 


X 


1793-4 


X 


1818-9 




^ 


1744-5 
1745-(; 


Y 
Z 


1709-70 
1770-1 


Y 
Z 


1794-5 
1795-0 


Y 

z 


1819-20 

George IV. 

1820-1 




Fo 


rR .Marks. 


Four IMarks. 


Four ]\1arks. 


Fivi: Marks. 




1. Harp 

2. Date 

3. -Alake 

4. Hibc 


frowned. 
Letter, 
r's Initials, 
rnia in 1730. 


1. Harp crowned. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Initials. 

4. Hibernia. 


1. Harp crowned, Plume, 

or Unicorn. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Initials 

4. Hibernia. 

The three Standards of 
22, 20 and 18 carats, directed 
to be used after 1784, are the 
Harp, Plume, or Unicorn. 


1. Harp crowned, Plume, 

or Unicorn. 

2. Maker's Mark. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Hibernia. 

5. The King's Head from 

1807. 







DUBLIN ASSAY 


OFFICE LETTERS. 




CYCLE 9. 

KoMAX Capitals. 
GEO. IV., WILL. IV. & VICT. 


CYCLE 10. 

IJOMAN SAIAI.I,. 


C 

He 
\ 

B 


YCLE 11. 

)MA.\ Capitals. 


VICTORIA. 


ICTORIA. 


® 
B 


1 

1821-2 

lS22-:5 


a 
b 


1840-7 

1847-8 


1871-2 
1872-3 


C 
D 


1828-4 
1824-5 

1825-(j 

182G-T 


c 
d 
e 
f 


1848-9 
1849-50 

1850-1 
1851-2 


C 
D 
E 


1873-4 
1874-5 

1875-0 
1870-7 


G 
H 


182T-8 
1828-9 


h 


1852-3 
1853-4 


G 
H 


1877-8 
1878-9 


I 


1829-30 


1 


1854-5 


I 


1879-80 


K 
L 


1830-1 

William IV. 

1831-2 


k 
1 


1855-0 

1850-7 


K 
L 


1880-1 
1881-2 


M 


1832-3 


m 


1857-8 


M 


1882-3 


N 


1833-4 


n 


1858-9 


N 


1883-4 





1834-5 




1 


1859-00 





1884-5 


P 


1835-0 


p 


1800-1 


P 


1885-0 




1830-7 


q 


1801-2 


Q 


1880-7 


R 

S 


1837-8 

Victoria. 

1838-9 


r 

s 


1802-3 
1803-4 


s 


1887-8 
1888-9 


T 


1839-40 


t 


1804-5 


T 


1889-90 


U 


1840-1 


u 


1805-0 


U 


1890-1 


V 


1841-2 


V 


1800-7 


V 


1891-2 


w 


1842-3 


w 


1807-8 


w 


1892-3 


X 


1843-4 


X 


1808-9 


X 


1893-4 


Y 


1844-5 


y 


1S09-70 


Y 


1894-5 


Z 


1845-0 


z 


1870-1 


Z 


1895-0 


Five JMakks. 

1. Harp crowned, Plume, or Unicorn. 

2. Maker's j\lark. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Hibernia. 

5. Sovereign's Head. 


FiVF. :\Iakks. 

1. Harp crowned, Plume, or Unicorn. 

2. :\li.ker'8 Mark. 
A. Date Letter. 

4. Hibernia. 

5. Queen's Head. 


Fi 

1. Harp crowi 

2. :\Iaker's Mf 

3. Date Lettei 

4. Hibernia. 

5. Queen's He 


VK ]\1arks. 

led, Plume, or Unicorn. 

irk. 

ad, until 1890 



DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 








1 
1 




CYCLE 12. 

Black Letter Capitals. 



VICTORIA, EDWARD VII. ct GEORGE V. 



189G-7 

1S97-8 

1H98-9 

1899-00 

1900-1 

Edward VII 

1901-2 
1902-8 

1908-4 



1904 



-0 






U 



OD 









1905-6 
1906-7 
1907-8 

1908-9 
1909-10 

Qeorge V. 

1910-1 
1911-2 
1912-3 
1918-4 



il 



FoTJR ;\Jakks. 
1. Harp crowned, Plume, or Unicorn. 
■2. .Maker's .Mark. 



CYCLE 13. 



1914-5 
01) ' 191^-G 



GEORGE V. 




a 

■ — •^- 

. ^^_ 

e 





3. Date Letter. 

4. Hibernia. 



1916-7 
1917-8 
1918-9 
1919-20 

1920-1 



DUBLIN MARKS. 



56; 



EXAMPLES. 



Two Tankards presented ni 1680 
to the Guild of St. John. Date 
1 680- 1. — Merchant Taylors' 
Company. And a Box with 
scroll feet. — -Dttblin Exhibition. 




ITSJ 



^^ 



Piece of Plate. Date 1725-6. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 

Mace, dated 1728. The top em- 
bossed with the royal arms. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 



Two-handled Cup. Date 1739-0. 
— Messrs. Hancock. 




Silver gilt Sugar Sifter. Date 
1785-6. — /. H. Walter, Esq. 




[^V^«^^ Spoon. Date 1803-4.—/. P. Stott, 



25 



djvmiological iist of Spttimtus of hi%\) ^Mit 



DATE. 


MAKER. 


ARTICLE. 


1638-9 


VB 


Communion Flagon; given by Moses Hill in 
1638. — Trinity Coll., Dublin. 


1679-0 


ES 


Chalice, with IHS engraved. — Messrs. Water- 
house. 


1 680- 1 


AG 


Great T3.nkRrds.-^M erckant Taylors' Com- 
pany, London. 


1 680- 1 


IS 


Box, with scroll feet. — T. G. Willes Sand ford, 
Esq. 


1682-3 


IS 


Tazza Bowl. — -Mrs. Bischoffsheiin. 


J 693-4 


^ S 


(7non.) Octagonal Casket, with Chinese Figures. 
— T. G. Willes Sandfordy Esq. 


>j 


:■> 


Cup; given in 1696. — Mansion House, Dublin. 


M 


55 


Cup, ex dono Buncombe. — Trinity Coll., 
Dublin. 


1694-5 


S ^ 


Cup and Cover. — Sir Jno. Esmonde. 


1695-6 


DK 


Monteith and CoxomX.— Earl of Charlemont. 


» 


/f> 


Flagon, dated 1700. — Trinity Coll., Dublin. 


1696-7 


DK 


A Cup exhibited in the Dublin Exhibition. 


1697-8 


Pk 


A Cup exhibited in the Dublin Exhibition. 


» 


)j 


Pair of Taper Candlesticks, with Law's name, 
iJlf stamped subsequently. — Dublin Ex- 
hibition. 



LIST OF IRISH PLATE. 



369 



DATE. 



1699-0 
7700-1 
171O-I 



1714-5 

i;i5-6 
1716-7 
i;i7-8 
1718-9 



1720-1 

1724-5 
1725-6 



1726-7 



1727-8 



MAKER. 



DK 



DK 

MW 
LO 






IH 
TS 

WA 



J> 


W0 


»> 


RG 


1728-9 


WW 


>J 


TW 


1729-0 


illeg. 


I730-I 


S M 


I73I-2 


DK 



ARTICLE. 



Punch Bowl, "Plunket," i';/ 02. —Trinity Coll, 
Dublin. 

(mon.) A piece exhibited at the Dublin Ex- 
hibition. 

Two-handled Cup. — Sir Jno. Esmonde. 

Cup, "Pattens"; given 1705. — Trinity Coll., 
Dziblin. 

Tazza Bowl. — Mrs. Bischoffsheiin. 

Tazza Bowl. — Mrs. Bischoffsheim. 

Cup with two handles. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Two-handled Cup. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Corporation Mace. — Dtcblin. 

(mon.) Basin. — Mr. Jos. Johnson, Dublin. 

(lion rampant between letters) Cup. — Messrs. 
Hancock. 

Bowl Plate, fluted, escalloped edge. — Dublin 
Exhibition. 

Two-handled Cup.— Z^;'^ John Butler. 

(letters crowned) Alms Dish; given in 1725 to 
St. Michan's, Dublin. 

(letters crowned) Bowl Plate. — Mrs. Bischoff- 
sheim. 

Chalice and Paten; given in 1725 by Mrs. 
Dorothy Ormsby of Rookewood to Athleage 
Church. 

Two-handled Cup. — Hon. Eric Barrington. 

Two-handled Cup. — -Messrs. Hancock. 

Piece of Plate. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Mace, dated 1728. — Goldsmiths' Company, 
London. 

Mace, dated 1728, top embossed with royal 
arms. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Sugar Basin, repousse flowers. — Earl of Breadal- 
bane. 

Cup and Cover; the gift of W. Duncombe. — 
Trinity Coll., Dublin. 

Pair of Tazze. — Earl of Breadalbane. 



3/0 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE 




ARTICLE. 



1736-7 i I w 

,, ! R G 

RG 

i;39-o • AG 

I 

" j - 

1743-4 I L E T 

1748 I WW 



1750 



1/54 



175; 

i;59 

1762 



1769 

J) 

1770 

» 

1778 
1785-6 

1790 
1792 

1793 
1803 

1817 



M W 
CS 



1755 RW 



TJ 
CS 



IC 
CT 
RB 

WW 

10 
MW 



WW 

TLB 



Pair of Square Waiters. — Earl of Breadalhane. 

Plate, won by " Cheshire Tom," Mullingar 
Races, in 1737. — Sir C. Doniojille. 

Three Table Spoons and a Mug. — Messrs. 
Water house. 

Two-handled Cup. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Cup; presented by P. Routledge in 1741 to 
H. Blake. 

Gilt Plateau ; given by Dr. Gilbert to Trinity 
Co 11.^ Dublin. 

Six Spoons, leaf-shaped ends. — Sir ]no. Es- 
monde. 

Five two-handled Cups, in sizes, with festoons. 
— Sir J no. Esmonde. 

Gravy Spoon with curved end. — -Messrs. Water- 
house. 

Soup Ladle, scroll end, fluted bowl. — Sir Jno. 
Es7nonde. 

Sugar Basin, on three feet. — Sir ]no. Esmonde. 

Table Spoons. — Messrs. Water house. 

Two-handled Cup, chased with scrolls. — C. M. 
Lcngfield, Esq. 

Soup Ladle. — Sir J no. Es7nonde. 

Epergne. — Dublin Exhibition. 

Two-handled Cup. — C. M. Long field, Esq. 

Large silver Cruet Frame, with branches and 
fourteen bottles. — Mr. Harris, of Dublin. 

Six Spoons. — Sir fno. Esmonde. 

Plate, with Hibernia. — Dublin Exhibition. 

Silver gilt Sugar Sifter. — /. H. W alter, Esq. 

Sugar Basin. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

Cup, with Yiihe.mi2..^Diiblin Exhibition. 

Cup. — Dublin Exhibition. 

Cup; presented in i/QQ. — Lady Loftus. 

Spoon. Date 1803. — /. P. Stoit, Esq. 

Sugar Bowl, Cover and Stand, and Waiter^ 
made by L Le Bas.^5i/ ]no. Esmonde. 



LIST OF IRISH PLATE. 



371 



DATE. 


MAKER. 

EP 


ARTICLE. 


1824 


Teapot, chased with flowers, made by E. Power. 
— Sir ]no. Esvioncle. 


1825 


J5 


Bread Basket, chased with flowers. — Sir Jno. 
Esmond e. 


1830 




Mount of a Bog Oak Cup, presented to King 
William IV. ^ HM. the King. 


1832 


^ c^' 


Two-handled Cup, made by G. Bryden. — Sir 
Jno. Esnionde. 


183; 


RS 


Waiter; presented in 1837, made by R. Sayer. — • 
Sir }ito. Esnioitdc. 


1864 


SL'B 


Trowel, presented to Sir Jno. Esinonde. 



X.B. — The dates in the first column are placed according to the arrange- 
ment of date letters in the late Mr. W. J. Cripps's tables ('• Old English Plate," 
pp. 419-21), which that gentleman gave ns permission to adopt in the follow- 
ing list. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



374 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



AUTHORITIES ON GOLD AND SILVER WARE. 

The following list may be useful to those who wish for further 
information about the Goldsmiths' art. It is founded on the Cata- 
logue of the Books in the Library at the Assay Office, Birmingham. 
Our acknowledgments are due to the Guardians of the Standard 
of Wrought Plate in Birmingham, for the use of this catalogue. 

Aldridge, W. J. The Goldsmiths' Repository, 8vo. London, 1789. 

American Silver. The Work of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
tury Silversmiths, exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, 1906. 
With an introduction by R. T. H. Halsey, and a technical de- 
scription of the various pieces, by J. LI. Buck. Illustrated, la. 
Svo. Boston, 1906. 

Ansted, David T. The Gold-Seeker's Manual, Svo. London, 
1849. 

Arundel Society's Publication. Designs for Goldsmiths, Jewel- 
lers, etc., by Hans Holbein. Illustrated, la. fol. London, 1869. 

Ashbee, C. R. Modern English Silverwork : an Assay, by C. R. 
Ashbee. Illustrated, fol. London, 1908. 

Also see Cellini, Benvenuto. 

Atkinson, T. D., see Foster, J. E. 

Ball, T. Stanley. Church Plate of the City of Chester. Illus- 
trated, la. 8vo. ' London, 1907. 

Bergau, R. Wentzel Jamitzers Entwurfe zu Pracht-gefassen in 
Silber und Gold, facsimiles of the original engravings [1S51]. 
Second Edition, la. 8vo. Berlin, 1881. 

Berry, H. F. The Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin, la. 8vo. 
Privately printed. 

Birmingham. A Catalogue of the Books in the Library at the 
Assay Office, Birmingham, 4to. Birmingham, 1900. 

4to, Birmingham, 1914. 

BOILEAU, Etienne. Livre des Metiers, thirteenth century. 

Bone Placide. Traite d'Orfevrerie, Bijouterie et Joaillerie, 2 vols. 
Paris, 1832. 

Boyle, J. R. The Goldsmiths of Newcastle, Svo. 1887. 

Bradbury, Frederick. History of Old Sheffield Plate; being an 
account of the origin, growth, and decay of the industry, and 
of the antique silver and white, or Britannia metal, trade ; with 
chronological lists of makers' marks and numerous illustrations 
of specimens, 4to. London, 191 2. 

Braithwaite, p. R. p. The Church Plate of Hampshire. Illus- 
trated, 4to. London, 1909. 

Brook, Alexander J. S. Old Scottish Hall-marks on Plate (from 
" Old Scottish Communion Plate," by the Rev. Thomas Burns). 
Illustrated, la. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1892. 

Old Scottish Plate (from "Scottish History and Life.") 

Illustrated, fol. Glasgow, 1902. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 3/5 

BUCHHOLZ, A. Goldschmiedearbeitcn in Livland, Estland und 

Kurland. Illustrated, la. 4to. Lubeck, 1892. 
Buck, J. H. Illustrated Old Plate, Ecclesiastical, Decorative, and 

Domestic: its Makers and Marks. Illustrated, 8vo. New 

York, 1888. 

ditto. New Edition, illustrated, 8vo. New York, 1903. 

Loving Cups, illustrated, 4to New York, 1898. 

BURCKHARDT, C, and RiGGENBACH, C. De Kirchenschat/. des Miin- 

sters in Basel, 4to. Basel, 1862 
Burns, Thomas. Old Scottish Communion Plate. Illustrated, 8vo. 

Edinburgh, 1892. 

CaldicotT, J. W. The Values of Old English Silver and Sheffield 
Plate, from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries. Edited 
by J. Starkie Gardner. Illustrated, fol. London, 1906. 

Castellani, M. a. a Memoir on the Jewellery of the Ancients. 
4to, N.D. 

Cellini, Benvenuto. Treatises on Goldsmithing and Sculpture. 
Translated by C. R. Ashbee. Illustrated, imp. 8vo. London, 
1898. 

Chaffers, W. Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate. First Edi- 
tion, la. 8vo. London, 1863. 

Second Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1865. 

Third Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1868. 

Fourth Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1872. 

— - Fifth Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1875. 

Sixth Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1888. 

Seventh Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1891. 

— - Edited by C. A. Markham. Eighth Edition, la. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1896. 

Edited by C. A. Markham. Ninth Edition, illustrated, la. 

8vo. London, 1905. 

Handbook to Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate. Edited 

by C. A. Markham, 8vo. London, 1897. 

Reprint, 8vo. London, 1902. 

Second Edition, 8vo. London, 1907. 

Third Edition, 8vo. London, 191 3. 

Fourth Edition, 8vo. London, 191 3. 

Gilda Aurifabrorum, a History of English Goldsmiths and 



Plateworkers, la. 8vo. London, 1883. 
— New Edition, la. 8vo. London, N.D. 
New Edition, la. 8vo. London, 1899. 



Collins, James E. The Private Book of useful Alloys and Mem- 
oranda for Goldsmiths, Jewellers, etc., 8vo. London [1871]. 

Cooper, Rev. T. S. The Church Plate of Surrey, 8vo. 1902. 

Crichton, Lionel and Philip. The Antique Church Plate of St. 
Mary Abbot's, Kensington, 8vo. London, 1893. 

The Antique Church Plate of the Chapel Royal, Kensington 

Palace, 8vo. London, 1894. 



3/6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

CRIPPS, W. J. Old English Plate, Ecclesiastical, Decorative, and 
Domestic; its Makers and Marks. Illustrated, 8vo. London, 
i8;8. 

Second Edition, 8vo. London, 1881. 

■ Third Edition, 8vo. London, 1886. 

— Fourth Edition, 8vo. London, 1891. 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 377 

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26 



GENEEAL INDEX. 



A, mark, 209, 218, 228, 237. 
A B, mark, 214, 216, 217. 
Abel, E., goldsmith, 34. 
; Jr., goldsmith, 6. 

^^, mark, 263. 

Abercromby, R., goldsmith, 257. 

Aberdeen, 347. 

AC, mark, 256, 265. 

Acton, J., goldsmith, 32. 

Acts of Parliament -. 

28 Edward I, stat. 3, c. 20, G8. 
9 Edward III, stat. 2, c. 2, 71. 
37 Edward III, c. 7, 72. 

5 Richard II, c. 2, 74. 

4 Henry IV, c. 16, 74. 

5 Henry IV, c. 4, 74. 

Henr'y IV, c. 13, 74. 
2 Henry V, c. 4, 75. 

8 Henry V, c. 3, 75. 

2 Henry VI, c. 14, 76. 

11 Henry VI, c. 14, 77. 
James 11 (Scots), 322. 
James III (Scots), 322. 

17 Edward IV, stat. 1, c. ], 78. 
James III (Scots), 324. 

4 Henry VII, Pari. 3, c. 2, 78. 
Marv (Scots), 324. 

18 Elizabeth, c. 15, 81. 
James VI (Scots). 

7 & 8 William III, c. 19 ; 84. 

8 & 9 AVilliam III, c. 8; 85. 

9 & 10 William III, c. 28; 86. 
9 & 10 William III, c. 39 ; 87. 

12 & 13 William HI, c. 4 ; 87. 

1 Anne, stat. 1, c. 9 ; 89. 

6 George I, e. 11 ; 90. 

3 George II (Irish), c. 3; 352. 

12 George II, c. 26 ; 93. 
15 George II, c. 20 ; 97. 

29 George II, c. 14 ; 97. 

31 George II, c. 32 ; 97. 

32 George II, c. 24 ; 97. 

13 George III, c. 52 ; 98. 

23 & 24 George III, c. 23 ; 354. 

24 George III, Sess. 2, c. 53; 98. 

25 George III, c. 64 ; 99. 

37 George III, c. 90 ; 100. 

38 George III, c. 24 ; 100. 



Acts of Parliament — continued. 

38 George HI, c. 69 ; 100. 

43 George III, c. 69 ; 101. 

44 George III, c. 98 ; 101. 

47 George III. Sess. 2, c. 15; 358. 

52 George III, c. 59; 101. 
55 George IJI. c. 185; 101. 
59 George III, c. 28 ; 

1 George IV, c. 14; 101. 

5 George IV, c. 52; 101. 

6 George IV, c. 118. 
6 William IV, c. 69; 

6 & 7 William IV, 327. 

5 & 6 Victoria, c. 47 ; 101, 356. 
5 & 6 Victoria, c. 56 ; 102. 

7 & 8 Victoria, c. 22 ; 103. 
12 & 13 Victoria, c. 80 ; 105. 
17 & 18 Victoria, c. 96; 106. 

17 & 18 Victoria, c. 82 ; 107. 

18 & 19 Victoria, c. 60 ; 107, 356. 

29 & 30 Victoria, c. 64 ; 107, 356. 

30 & 31 VictoTia, c. 90 ; 107. 
33 & 34 Victoria, c. 32 ; 108. 

39 & 40 Victoria, c. 35 ; 108. 
39 & 40 Victoria, c. 36; 110. 
46 & 47 Victoria, c. 55; 114. 

53 & 54 Victoria, c. 8; 115. 

3 Edward VII, c. 255 ; 

4 Edward VII, c. 6 ; 115. 
Acanthus leaf, mark, 209. 
AD, mark, 347, 352. 

, mark, 246. 

Addis, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Ade, — , goldsmith, 9. 
Adys, J., goldsmith, 16. 

-, M., goldsmith, 16. 

A F, mark, 22G. 

AG, mark, 367-8, 370. 
A H, mark, 232, 235, 313. 

^ jj, mark, 268. 

A 

H M, mark, 253-4. 
P 

^^j\, mark, 217-8. 

AK, mark, 239, 270. 
A K, mark, 244. 
AL. mark, 211, 224, 252. 
Aldridge, AV. J., 274. 



385 



386 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Alfred the Great, 4. 
Allen, J., goldsmith, 255. 

, T., goldsmith, 233. 

Alms dishes, xxxviii. 

AM,, mark, 227. 

American silver, 374. 

Amades, R., goldsmith, 20. 

Anchor, mark, 2(39. 

ANe, mark, 241, 245, 249, 251, 255. 

Animal's head, mark, 210. 

Anketil, — , goldsmith, 5. 

Annulet, mark, 269. 

Ansted, D. T., 374. 

A O, mark, 247, 252. 

AP, mark, 212, 267, 291. 

AR, mark, 240, 243, 262. 

Arbroath, 347. 

Archambo, P., goldsmith, 55. 

Arundel Society's Publications, 374, 

A S, mark, 352. 

Ash, F., goldsmith, 36. 

Ashbee, C. R., 374. 

Assay, 135. 

• , Directions for, 135. 

towns, Marks of, 275. 

A T, mark, 247, 347. 
Atkinson, C, goldsmith, 247. 

, T. D., 347. 

, AV., goldsmith, 55. 

Atwell and Co., goldsmiths, 49. 
Austin, W., goldsmith, 14. 
A V, mark, 254, 348. 
A V, mark, 252. 



B, mark, 212, 222, 249, 369. 

B A, mark, 252. 

B a, mark. 249. 

Baby, T., goldsmith, 15. 

Backe, J., goldsmith, 241. 

Baggs, H., goldsmith, 34. 

Baldwin, goldsmith, 5. 

Ball, T. S., 374. 

Ballard, J., goldsmith, 41. 

Bamme, Sir A., goldsmith, 12. 

Banff, 347. 

Banister, H., goldsmith, 31. 

Barckwell. E., goldsmith, 35. 

Barclay, J., goldsmith, 55. 

Barentyne, Sir D., goldsmith, 13. 

Barker, J., goldsmith, 57. 

Barrett, J., goldsmith, 20. 

Barrier, A., goldsmith, 263. 

Basins, li. 

Bateman, H., goldsmith, 266-7. 

Bavley, R., goldsmith, 249, 256-7 

BB, mark, 218, 261. 

B E, mark, 248. 

Bellassyse, W., goldsmith, 52. 

Bellingham, D., goldsmith, 37. 

Benn, Sir W., goldsmith. 58. 

Bergau, R.. 374. 

Berking, S. de, goldsmith. 11. 

, W. de, goldsmith, 9. 

Bernes, J., goldsmith, 14. 

Berry, H. T.. 374. 

Betane, Sir R., goldsmith, 10. 



Bevan, S., goldsmith, 55. 

BE, mark, 222. 

BG, mark, 262. 

B I, mark, 242, 245. 

Bi, mark, 251. 

Bignell, J., goldsmith, 253. 

Bird, mark, 208, 212. 

, J., goldsmith, 242. 

Birmingham, 274. 

Assay Office, 276. 

Assa.y Office Letters, 279. 

B L, mark, 566. 

Blackford, J., goldsmith, 58. 

Blackwell, Darel, Hart and Croft, 

goldsmiths, 58. 
Blanchard, R., goldsmith, 40. 
Bland, H., goldsmith, 6. 
Blount, R. le, goldsmith, 7. 
Blundell, R., goldsmith, 28. 
B M, mark, 265. 
B N, mark, 253, 269. 
BO, mark, 242, 247, 251. 
Boileau, E., 274. 
Boit, C, jeweller, 50. 
Bolitho, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Bolton, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Bonny, T., goldsmith, 34. 
Bone, P., 374. 

Boothby, G., goldsmith, 53. 
Bowes, Sir M., goldsmith, 22, 
Boyle, J. R., 274. 
BP, mark, 258. 
BR, mark, 214. 
Bradbury, E., 274. 
Bradshaw, A., goldsmith, 39. 
Braithwaite, P. R. P., 274. 
Brandeburg, G. V., goldsmith, 14. 
Brattle, Sir J., goldsmith, 39. 
Breakspeare, W. C, goldsmith, 15. 
Bridge, — , goldsmith, 266. 

, J., goldsmith, 60. 

Brind, IL, goldsmith, 258. 
Bristol Assay Office, 282, 
Brithmodus. — , goldsmith, 5. 
Brocklesbury, R., goldsmith, 30. 
Broker, N., goldsmith, 13. 
Brook, A. J. S., 274, 382. 
Brooke, S., goldsmith, 24. 
Browne, A., goldsmith, 13. 
Bryce, Sir H., goldsmith, 19. 
B u, mark, 247. 
Buchholz, A., 375. 
Buck, J. H., 375. 
Buckle, J., goldsmith, 221. 
Bullen, G., goldsmith, 34. 
Bull's head, mark 210. 
Burckhardt, C, 375. 
Burde, J., goldsmith, 26. 
Burns, T., 375. 
B Y, mark, 224, 270. 



C, mark, 270. 

CA, mark, 252. 

Cafe, W., goldsmith, 261. 

Caldioott, J. W., 375. 

Calton, T., goldsmith, 21, 



INDEX. 



387 



Cameron, — , goldsmith, 348. 
Campbell, — , banker, 46. 
Candlesticks, Iviii. 
Capill, — , goldsmith, 41. 
Carter, J., goldsmith, 261, 264. 

, R., goldsmith, 264. 

, W., goldsmith, 24, 

Cartelage, Sir T., 16. 
Cartwheel, mark, 209. 
Carwood, T., goldsmith, 41. 
Cary, N., goldsmith, 41. 
Castellani, M. A., 375. 

CB, mark, 213, 219, 347. 

CC, mark, 208, 212, 217, 219, 220-3, 
257 263. 

CD, mark, 251, 269. 
Cellini, B., 375. 
CF, mark, 221. 

C G, mark, 260. 

CH, mark, 241, 244, 256, 258, 265, 

271. 
Chaffers, W., 375. 
Chalices, xxxii. 
Charters to Goldsmiths' Company : 

1327, 70. 

1392, 74. 

1462, 77. 

1504, 80. 
Charter to Dublin Company, 352. 

to Edinburgh Company, 325. 

Chartier, D., goldsmith, 258. 

, J., goldsmith, 241, 

Chawner, H., goldsmith, 266. 
Cheney, R., go'dsmith, 31. 
Chester Assay Office, 283. 

Assay Office Letters, 287. 

Chicheley, W., goldsmith, 14. 
Chichester, Sir J. de, goldsmith, 11. 
Child, F., goldsmith, 53. 

, Sir F., goldsmith, 44, 53. 

— , R., goldsmith, 53. 

, Sir R:., goldsmith, 54. 

, S., goldsmith, 49, 53. 

Christening boAvls, xxxix. 
Christian, C, goldsmith, 257. 
Chronological List of Plate, 184. 
Churchill, — , goldsmith, 41, 42, 
C J, mark, 349. 
CK, mark, 213, 233-236, 238, 256, 

350. 
CL, mark, 212, 251, 
Clare, J., goldsmith, 251. 
C M, mark, 230. 

CO, mark, 243, 245, 247, 248, 250. 
Cock, mark, 214, 
Coggs, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Coker, E., goldsmith, 259. 
Cole, H., goldsmith, 18. 
Coleman, T., goldsmith, 34. 
Collins, J. E., goldsmith, 375. 
Column, mark, 259. 
Colvill, J., goldsmith, 37. 
Comins, R., goldsmith, 11. 
CompaSses, pair of, mark, 2G9, 
Cone, mark, 208. 
Conrad, — , goldsmith, 7. 



Cook, T., goldsmith, 41, 56. 

, Sir T., goldsmith, 39. 

Cookson, I., goldsmith, 256. 

Cooper, R., goldsmith, 243, 247, 250, 

, Rev, T, S., 375. 

Cornhill, H. de, goldsmith, 6. 
Coronation plate, xxxix. 
Corporation plate, xlii. 
Coste, H., goldsmith, 19. 
Courstauld, A., goldsmith, 50. 
Coutts, J., banker, 46. 

, T., banker, 46. 

Coventry, 293. 

Covered cud, mark, 208. 

CR, mark,' 339. 

C E, mark, 244. 

Crab, mark, 212. 

Crescent and star, mark, 207, 213. 

Crichton, L. & P., 375, 

Crespin, P., goldsmith, 55. 

Cripps, W., goldsmith, 259. 

— , W. J., 276. 

Critz, J. de, 30. 

Croker, J., mintmaster, 50. 

Cross, mark, 207, 211, 214, 215, 269. 

Crossley, R., goldsmith, 266. 

CrowshaAv, R., goldsmith, 30. 

Crump F., goldsmith, 50. 

C S, mark, 225, 226, 370. 

CT, mark, 239, 370. 

C 
T W, mark, 261. 

W 
Cuthbert, Mr., goldsmith, 41. 
C W, mark, 262, 263, 265, 322. 



D, mark, 207, 212, 231. 239, 270. 

DA, mark, 240, 248, 271. 
D enclosing C, mark, 220. 
Daintry, M., a goldsmith, 57. 
Daniel, W., goldsmith, 38. 
Darkeratt, W., goldsmith, 53. 
Date mark, 170. 
DaveniDort, C, 376. 

Daw, A., goldsmith, 16. 
Dawson, N., 376. 

DB, mark, 237, 240. 
D C, mark, 243, 258. 
D D, mark, 267. 

D E, mark, 245, 246. 
Crossley, R., goldsmith, 266. 

^ I , mark, 241. 

Dealers' Licences, 145. 
Delamotte, P. H., 383. 
Dell, S., goldsmith. 241. 
Delves, E., goldsmith, 24. 
Denny, W., goldsmith, 241. 
Dericke, A., goldsmith, 26. 
D F, mark, 222, 228. 
DG, mark, 220, 271. 
DH, mark, 243. 
Dh, mark, 259. 
DI, mark, 231, 246. 
D K, mark, 368, 369. 
Do, mark, 244. 



^88 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



Doc, Sir C, goldsmith, 38. 

Domestic plate, xliii. 

Dolphin, mark, 270. 

Dove, mark, 211. 

Downes, J., goldsmith, 244. 

D R, mark, 225, 228, 230. 

Drach, C. A. von, 376. 

Drax, Sir J., goldsmith, 37. 

Driimmond, A., goldsmith, 52. 

Dublin, 353. 

Assay Office, 355, 

hall marks, 359-62. 

■ Assay Office letters, 363. 

Ducket, L., goldsmith, 8. 
Dummier, L., goldsmith., 263. 
Duncombe. C, goldsmith, 41, 42. 
Dundee, 348. 
Dunn-Gardner, 376. 
Dunstan, Saint, 1. 
Duty, The, 142. 

licences, 145. 

mark, 173. 

D AV, mark, 224, 245, 255-257. 



E A, mark, 245, 246, 249, 251-253, 271. 
Eagle, mark, 212, 214. 
Ealey, W., goldsmith, 268. 
East, J., goldsmith, 249. 
, Mr., goldsmith. 41. 

EC. mark, 229, 234, 237, 252. 259, 
271. 

Ecclesiastical plate, xxx. 
Eckfourd. J., goldsmith, 229. 

ED, mark, 253. 
E 

DB, mark, 241. 

A 
Edinburgh Assav Office. 330. 

■ ■ hall marks, 330-2. 

— Assay Office Letters, 333. 

Edmunds, E., goldsmith, 32. 

, J., goldsmith, 12. 

Edwards, J., goldsmith, 253. 

EF, mark, 259, 264-5, 268. 

EG, mark, 231. 234, 239, 259. 262. 
EI, mark, 270. 

EH, mark, 270, 313. 

EL, mark, 303-4. 

Elev. W., goldsmith, 266. 

Elgin, 248. 

Eliot, C, goldsmitli, 19. 

Ellis, H. D.. 376. 

Eloi, Saint, 3. 

Elsinus, — , goldsmith, 5. 

Elv. R. of, goldsmith, 10. 

EM, mark, 304. 

Emes, J., goldsmith, 268. 

Endel, P., 376. 

EP, mark, 371. 

ER, mark, 214. 

ES, mark, 212, 221, 225, 3GS. 

Escallope shell, mark, 221. 

Esrov, R., goldsmith, 6. 

ET,*'mark, 268. 

EV, mark, 235, 239, 256. 



Evans, J. T., 376. 

• — , S.J goldsmith, 42. 

Everard, ■ — , goldsmith, G. 

-, C, goldsmith, 37. 

EW, mark, 350. 
Ewers, li. 

Ewing, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Exeter, 293. 

Assay Office Letters, 

Exmewe, Sir T., goldsmith, 
EY, mark, 256. 
F, mark, 223, 270. 



299. 
20-1. 



FA, mark, 239, 242, 245, 249, 251, 
253. 

F A, mark, 245. 
Fairholt, F. W., 377. 
Fallow, T. M., 377. 
Farmer, R., goldsmith, 63. 
ffarren, T., goldsmith, 257. 
Faryngdon, Sir W., goldsmith, 8-9. 
FawderA', "W., goldsmith, 245, 251, 
253. 

FB, mark, 208. 

FC, mark, 222, 226. 
Feak, J., goldsmith, 34. 

■ -, W., goldsmith, 32. 

Fearn, W., goldsmith, 268. 
Feline, F., goldsmith, 259. 
Fells, Mr., goldsmith, 43. 
Feguson. R. S., 377. 
Fennell, E., goldsmith, 268. 
Fetterlock, mark, 215. 
Feurlmther, R., goldsmith, 20. 
FG, mark, 209, 230, 232, 237, 239, 

254, 260-1. 
F I, mark, 252. 
Ficketts, A., goldsmith, 45. 
Figure 8, mark, 207. 
Fish, mark, 207, 210. 
Fitz Alwyn, H., goldsmitli, 6. 
1^'itzhugh, W., goldsmith, 14. 
Fitz Otho, E., goldsmith, 7. 

Otho, H., goldsmith, 7. 

Otho, T., goldsmith, 7. 

Otho, W., goldsmith, 6-7. 

Fitzpatrick, J., goldsmith, 7. 
Fitzwilliam, W., goldsmith, 6. 
FL, mark, 235, 239. 

F L, mark, 226, 250. 

Flael, R., goldsmitli, 5. 

Flag, mark, 212. 

Flagons, xxxvii. 

Fleming, W., goldsmith, 252. 

Fleur de Ivs, mark, 208, 210-1. 

Flidt, P., 377. 

Flower, mark, 211-2. 

Flover, P., goldsmith, 47. 

1'^ M, mark, 212. 

FN, mark, 2(2. 

Folkingham, T., goldsmith, 253. 

Foreign plate, Mark for, 174. 

Forks, Ivii. 

Foster, J. E., 377. 

Fowles, Sir F., goldsmith, 41, 46. 



INDEX. 



389 



Fox, J., goldsmith, 28. 

, M., goldsmith, 255. 

F P, mark, 237. 

F R, mark, 227. 

Fr, mark, 251. 

Frances, Sir J., goldsmith, 13. 

Freame, J., goldsmith, 55. 

Frensshe, J., goldsmith, 12. 

Freshfield, E., goldsmith, 377. 

Frowick, Sir T. de, goldsmith, 8. 

F S, mark, 230, 232, 234. 

Flitter, H., goldsmith, 34. 

F AV, mark, 225, 228-9, 234, 259, 264. 

^y, mark, 218-9, 222. 



G, mark, 209. 

GA, mark, 241-4, 247. 

G enclosing A, mark, 247, 249. 
Gamble, W., goldsmith, 48, 241, 247. 
Gardiner, Rev. E. R., 277. 
Gardner, J. S., 277. 
Garrard, W., plateworker, 56. 

, Messrs., goldsmiths, 59. 

, R., goldsmith, 59, 268. 

Garthorn, 1^'., goldsmith, 232, 239, 

243, 247. 
, G., goldsmith, 241. 

GB, mark, 220, 226, 253-4, 271. 
GD, mark, 223, 227. 

Gee, G. E., 378. 

Germain, P., 378. 

G G, mark, 224, 230, 237, 241. 

GI, mark, 251. 

G i, mark, 241. 

Gibbon, S., goldsmith, 32. 

Gillois, P., goldsmith, 261. 

Gilpin, T., goldsmith, 57. 

GL, mark, 242, 246. 

Glasgow Assay Office, 340. 

hall marks, 340-1. 

Assay Office Letters, 343. 

Gloucester candlestick, 5. 

— ■, H. de, goldsmith, 10. 

, William of, goldsmith 7. 

Glyn, Sir R. , banker, 58. 

— ^ , Sir R. C, goldsmith, CO. 

G O, mark, 218, 244. 
Godfrej^, — , goldsmith, 11. 

, E., goldsmith, 259. 

Goldsmiths, English, 1. 

Company, 378. 

Hall, 3. 

Goose, mark, 233. 
Gorham, J., goldsmith, 262. 
Gosling, Sir F., goldsmith, 58. 

_ ^ J., goldsmith, 39. 

— ^ , R., goldsmith, 39. 

, W., goldsmith. 39. 

Gould, T., goldsmith, 55. 

GR, mark, 229, 248 

G R, mark, 251. 

G enclosing R, mark, 247. 

Grapes, mark, 210, 269. 

Green, T., goldsmith, 24, 42. 

Greenock, 349. 



Gresham, Sir T., goldsmith, 23. 
Grundy, W., goldsmith, 262-3. 
GS, mark, 213, 228, 255-6, 271. 

^|, mark, 267. 

Guibert, L., 378. 

Guiffrey, J. J., 378. 

Gulliver, N., goldsmith, 253. 

Gurden, B., goldsmith, 57. 

Gurney, R., goldsmith, 56, 251, 257. 

G enclosing W, mark, 255. 



H, mark, 235. 

H A, mark, 244. 

Halliday, G. E., goldsmith, 378. 

Hall, G., goldsmith, 63. 

Hancock, C. F., goldsmith, 63. 

, M., goldsmith, 63. 

Hand, mark, 209-10. 

, W., goldsmith, 51, 

Hankey, Messrs., goldsmiths, 45. 
Harache, F., goldsmith, 55. 

, J., goldsmith, 55. 

, P., goldsmith, 43, 244. 

, T., goldsmith, 58. 

Harding, R., goldsmith, 19. 
Harrison, R., goldsmith, 24. 

■ , T., goldsmith, 15. 

Haslewood, Rev. F., 378. 
Hatfield, C, goldsmith, 256. 
Havard, H., 378. 
Hawkins of Liege, goldsmith, 12. 
Hay, T. A., goldsmith, 14. 
Hayjford, Sir H., goldsmith, 16. 

, H., goldsmith, 17. 

HB, mark, 213, 218, 221, 224, 240, 

258, 266, 267. 
H C, mark, 212-3, 240, 266, 267. 
HD, mark, 214. 
HE, mark, 211. 
Heart, mark, 207. 
Heath, G., goldsmith, 50. 
Hede, W., goldsmith, 16. 
Hennell, D., goldsmith, 262. 

, R., goldsmith, 262, 266. 

Hcrkins, M., goldsmith, 24. 
He riot, G., goldsmith, 29. 
Hessey, T., goldsmith, 11. 
Hetherington, H., goldsmith, 55. 
Hevdon, Alderman, goldsmith, 27. 
H F, mark, 231. 
HG, mark, 225, 227, 267. 
H H, mark, 260. 

^^ , mark, 226. 

H I, mark, 270. 

Hillyard, J., gold-finder, 24. 

, N., goldsmith, 27. 

Hinde. J., goldsmith, 37, 41. 

Hinton, B., goldsmith, 41. 

H L, mark, 270. 

HM, mark, 214, 220, 259. 

H N, mark, 226, 228. 

HO, mark, 243. 

Holbein, Hans, goldsmith, 21. 

Holbrook, J. S., 378. 



390 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Hollvleaf, mark, 209. 
Hope, R. C, 378. 

, W. H., 8t. John, 378. 

Hore, H., 52. 

, or Hoare, H., goldsmith, 52. 

■ — , or Hoare, J., goldsmith, 24, 

41-2. 

, Sir R., goldsmith, 50, 52. 

Hornboy, J., goldsmith, 41. 

, 'N., goldsmith, 41, 50, 52., 

Horneby, J., goldsmith, 40. 

Hough, AV., goldsmith, 34. 

Howard, C. J., 378. 

HP, mark, 258-9. 

HR, mark, 228, 239. 

H S, mark, 210-1, 218, 243, 254, 264, 

271. 
HT, mark, 226, 235. 
Hubert, — , goldsmith, 7. 
Hull, 304. 

Hulson, J., goldsmith, 24. 
Hunt, J., goldsmith, 61 -2. 

, J. M., goldsmith, 61-2. 

, J. S., goldsmith, 61-2. 

HV, mark, 246. 
RW, mark, 208, 220. 
Hyltoft, J., goldsmith, 11. 
Hynt, R., goldsmith, 24. 



— I, mark, 227. 

I A, mark, 213-6, 220, 232, 254, 348. 

M>' mark, 255. 

i B, mark, 213, 221-2, 226, 229, 232-3, 

253, 266, 268. 
IC, mark, 207, 209, 211, 217, 228-9, 

233-4, 236, 238, 242, 256, 261, 263-4, 

266, 269, 351, 370. 

Ty XT , mark, 265. 

ID, mark, 213, 232, 238, 266, 270. 

I E, mark, 254, 257, 270. 

I e, mark, 243. 

IF, mark, 218, 221, 231, 257, 269-70. 

IG, mark, 211, 213, 221, 224, 226, 
99g 253 

I&'g'h, mark, 352. 

1 1, mark, 219, 225-6, 229, 236-7, 239, 

270. 
IH, mark, 210-214, 220, 226, 231, 

233-4, 240. 248, 269. 
Ih, mark, 233. 

\^ , mark, 322. 

IK, mark, 230, 236, 238-9, 262-3, 

265-6, 348. 
I L, mark, 255, 262. 
Ilger, — , goldsmith, 6. 
IM, mark, 218, 220, 223-5, 239, 254, 

262. 
I N, mark, 213, 229, 234, 244. 
Introduction, xix. 
Inverness, 349. 
10, mark, 350, 367, 370. 
IP, mark, 209, 211, 216, 223, 224, 

235, 236, 259, 260, 262, 270. 



l,\^ mark, 264. 

IP&Co., mark, 260, 320. 

IR, mark, 210, 225, 229, 230, 236, 

238, 257-9, 263. 
I S, mark, 215, 217, 221, 227, 231-4, 
237-40, 253, 256-8, 261, 264-5, 267, 
270-1, 348, 369. 
Issod, T., goldsmith, 238. 
IT, mark, 216, 236, 261, 268, 270. 

i 
T B, mark, 267. 
e 
I 
TB, mark, 249. 

O 
I V, mark, 232. 

IW, mark, 223-4, 226. 239, 263, 369, 
370. 

^y^ , mark, 264, 266. 

I Y, mark, 236-7, 263. 



.1 A, mark, 264, 339. 

J a, mark, 242, 244, 246-7, 253. 

Jackson, C J., 378. 

, W., goldsmith, 32. 

Jameson, T., goldsmith, 43. 

Jav, H., goldsmith, 242, 244, 247, 

253. 

JB, mark, 220, 224, 259. 

J C, mark, 240. 

J D, mark, 265. 

J E, mark, 268. 

Jenner, R., goldsmith, 35. 

Jerningham, H., a goldsmith, 56. 

Jewett, H., 378. 

J F, mark, 258. 

JG, mark, 262. 

J ' L B, mark, 370. 

JM, mark, 215. 

J M L c, mark, 345. 

Jocee, — , goldsmith, 8. 

Johnson, J., goldsmith, 41. 

, W., goldsmith, 34. 

Jones, E. A., 379. 
j^ 379 

JR, m'ark",' 260. * 

J S, mark, 261, 264. 



Kayle, H., goldsmith, 28. 
K&D., mark, 339. 
Kd, mark, 250. 
KE. mark, 242. 
Keale, VV., goldsmith, 24. 
Keatt, J., goldsmith, 242. 
Kent, R., goldsmith, 41-2. 
Kenton, F., goldismith, 39. 
— — , Mr., goldsmith, 42. 
Ketch, Mr., goldsmith, 41. 
KG&Co., mark, 320. 
Kilborn, T., goldsmith, 41. 
King, J., goldsmith, 266. 
, T. H., goldsmith, 379. 



INDEX. 



391 



L, mark, 269. 

LA, mark, 244-6, 252, 271. 

Labarte, J., 379. 

Lacroix, P., 379. 

Lamb, H., goldsmith, 41. 

Lambert, F., goldsmith, 62. 

, G., goldsmith, 62, 379. 

Lamerie, P. de, goldsmith, 51, 250, 

254, 256. 
Lancehead, mark, 220. 
Langford, T., goldsmith, 252. 
Langley, Sir J., goldsmith, 27. 
Lapley, J., goldsmith, 41. 
Lasteyrie, F. de, 379. 
Latham, R., goldsmith, 21. 
Laver, B., goldsmith, 266. 
Law, J., goldsmith, 54. 
LC, mark, 235, 256, 271. 

p p' , mark, 262. 

LE, mark, 241-6, 250-1. 

L e, mark, 243. 

LET, mark, 270. 

Lea, W., 379. 

Leadham, T., goldsmith, 32. 

Leaf, mark, 210, 269. 

Lee, T., goldsmith, 241-2, 246, 250. 

Leeke, R., goldsmith, 232. 235. 

Leithe, 349. 

Leo, — , goldsmith, 5. 

Leofstane, — , goldsmith, 5. 

Leopard's head, 167. 

Le Roy, P., 379. 

Le Sage, J. H., plateworker, 52. 

Lewis, G., goldsmith, 243, 245. 

, H., goldsmith, 34. 

Ley, P., goldsmith, 243. 
Limoges, J., of, goldsmith, 8. 
Lincoln, 304. 

, — , goldsmith, 10. 

• , J. de, goldsmith, 11. 

, W., goldsmith, 9. 

Lindberg, C. F., 379. 
Lindsay, J., goldsmith, 39. 
Lion passant, 171. 

, mark, 207, 209, 219. 

LL, mark, 243. 

LO, mark, 245, 248, 250-2, 270, 369 

Lo, mark, 244, 248-50. 

Lock, N., goldsmith, 244, 248-9. 

London Assay Office Leters, 177. 

Londesborough, Lord, 379. 

Lonyson, J., goldsmith, 27. 

Louthe, J. de, goldsmith, 9. 

Lovejoy, J., goldsmith, 24. 

Lovell, R., goldsmith, 248. 

Lowes, E. L., 379. 

Lu, mark, 243. 

Luthmer, F., 380. 

Lutschaunig, A., 380. 

LV, mark, 263. 

Lyas, G., goldsmith, 15. 

Lynche, G., goldsmith, 16. 

M, mark, 211, 231, 256. 
A A, mark, 229, 241, 246, 248, 253, 
266, 369. 



M&Co., mark, 255 346. 
Mackarnes, J., goidsmith, 32. 
Mackenzie, W., goldsmith, 261. 
Madding, — , goldsmith, 52. 
Maiden's head, mark, 207. 
Makepeace, R., goldsmith, 59, 264. 
Maker's mark, 169. 
Maninge, Mr., goldsmith, 38. 
Mansion House, 380. 
Margas, J., goldsmith, 248. 

, S., goldsmith, 246, 253. 

Markham, C. A., 380. 
Marks, Table of, 164. 
Marot, Dr., goldsmith, 43. 
Marriott, G., goldsmith, 34. 

, J., goldsmith, 39. 

M^arsh, R., goldsmith, 32. 
Martin, Sir R., goldsmith, 28. 
Maserer, S. le, goldsmith, 12. 
Maundy, T., goldsmith, 231. 
Mawson, J. and Co., goldsmith, 39, 

42. 
Mayhew, J., goldsmith, 13. 
Mazers, xliii. 

M E, mark, 244, 247, 251-2. 
Meynell, F., goldsmith, 36. 
MF, mark, 260. 

V> p , mark, 265. 

MG, mark, 228, 230. 
M H, mark, 239, 269. 
Michell, E., goldsmith, 34. 
Middleton, G., goldsmith, 46. 
Millington, J., goldsmith, 254. 
M K, mark, 234-5. 
ML, mark, 242. 
M M, mark, 225. 

^^, mark, 266. 

Moffat, H. C, 380. 

Molinier, E., 280. 

Montrose, 350. 

Morgan, 0., 380, 382. 

Morley, J., goldsmith, 28. 

Morrell, R., goldsmith, 35. 

Mortimer, J., goldsmith, 61. 

Moser, G. M., goldsmith, 57. 

MP, mark, 267. 

Mu, mark, 303. 

Mullet, mark, 208, 222-4, 237. 

Mundy, Sir J., goldsmith, 21. 

Muschamp, T., goldsmith, 16, 26. 

M W, mark, 269-70. 

Myddleton, Sir H., goldsmith, 28. 

Myers, J. L., 380. 



N, mark, 216-7. 

Nelme, A., goldsmith, 47, 241, 245, 

249 251 255 
Nelth'orpe,' H.,* goldsmith, 42, 225. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 305. 

— Assay Letters, 307. 

Newhall, H., goldsmith, 24. 
Newman, C, goldsmith, 30. 
Nightingale, J. E., 380. 
N K, mark, 241. 



392 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



N L, mark, 239. 
Norrington, B., goldsmith, 41. 
N o, mark, 211. 
Norwich, 380. 

Assay Office, 311.^ 

Notices to the trade, 147. 
NR, mark, 213, 216. 
N S, mark, 211, 258, 260, 269. 
N W, mark, 225. 



O, mark, 219. 
Orders in Council : 

October 24, 1904, 116. 

May 11, 1906, 117. 
Ordinance of Goldsmiths' Company, 

1336, 71. 

Order of 1675, 83. 

Order of 1876, 110. 

Order of 1878, 110. 
Orewell, J., goldsmith 14. 
S, mark, 226, 229, 231. 
Otto the Elder, goldsmith, 4. 

■ the Younger, goldsmith, 5. 

, W. Fritz, goldsmith, 5. 

Oxney, S., goldsmith, 14. 



P, mark, 217, 236, 239, 254. 
PA, mark, 242, 249, 252, 256. 
Pa, mark, 245-6, 248, 250-1. 
Paine, R., goldsmith, 34. 
Pantin, M., goldsmith, 50. 

, S., goldsmith, 49. 

Pardoe, T., goldsmith, 42. 
Pargiter, J., goldsmith, 33. 
Paris, Goldsmiths of, 381. 
Parker, J., goldsmith, 59. 
Parliamentary Commission Reports : 
1773, 148. 

1878, 381. 

1879, 111, 381. 
1887, 381. 

Parr, T., goldsmith, 250-1. 
Partridge, A., goldsmith, 25. 
Pasin, A., goldsmith, 381. 
Patens, xxxiii. 

Pattesley, Sir J., goldsmith, 15. 
Pavne, H., goldsmith, 50, 242, 245-6, 
252, 259. 

, R., goldsmith, 265. 

• , T., goldsmith, 265. 

PB, mark, 221, 227, 239, 260. 266. 

PE, mark, 241, 246, 249. 254, 271. 

Peacock, E., goldsmith, 248. 

Pearce, E , goldsmith, 249. 

Peet, H., 381. 

Peg tankards, 3. 

Pemberton, Sir J., goldsmitji, 30. 

Percefnll, P., goldsmith, 42. 

Perchard, P., goldsmith, 63. 

Perryn, J., goldsmith, 33. 

Perth, 350. 

P G, mark, 221-2, 254. 

P H, mark, 239-40, 254, 256. 

Philip, Sir M., goldsmith, 10. 

Phillips, J. A., 381. 



Pichon, M. le B. J., 381. 
Peirson, W., goldsmith, 45. 
Pillean, P., goldsmith, 261. 
Pinckney, H., goldsmith, 36. 

, W., goldsmith, 37. 

P K, mark, 235, 368. 

P L, mark, 250-1, 254, 256, 259. 

Plant, mark, 214. 

Platel, P., goldsmith, 48. 

Platts, W., goldsmith, 267. 

Plumner, W., goldsmith, 263. 

PM, mark, 234, 237. 

Pole, T., goldsmith, 13. 

Pollen, J. H., 381. 

Poole, J. U., 381. 

Portman, J., goldsmith, 40. 

Poulbraine, M., goldsmith, 30. 

Powell, T., goldsmith, 263. 

PP, mark, 228, 230, 232, 254, 261, 

291. 
P R, mark, 233, 237, 239. 
P reedy, J., goldsmith, 267. 
Prest, W., goldsmith, 13. 
Price, F. G. H., 381. 

, H., goldsmith, 43. 

-, T., goldsmith, 42. 

Prideaux, Sir W. S., 381. 

Priest, W., goldsmith, 260. 

P S, mark, 268. 

P T, mark, 259. 

Pugin, H. W., 381. 

Pulford, A., goldsmith, 291. 

Punches, False, 150. 

P Y, mark, 246, 248, 250, 253. 

P Y, mark, 248. 

Pyne, B., goldsmith, 47, 236, 248, 

250, 253. 



R, mark, 235, 245, 255. 

RA, mark, 220-1, 223, 227, 232, 257, 

269. 
Ra mark, 249. 

Raeburn, Sir H., goldsmith, 59. 
Ragged staff, mark, 207. 
Raibaud, B. L., 381. 
Ramsay. Dame M., goldsmith, 30. 
Rankyn, E., goldsmith, 24. 
Rathborne, R. L. B., 281. 
Rawdon, E., goldsmith, 16. 
Rawson, W., goldsmith, 39. 
Raynham, T., goldsmith, 11- 
RB, mark, 208, 216, 219-20, 223, 

256-8, 352, 370. 
RC, mark, 214, 216-9, 222-4, 233, 

238-40, 260, 266, 269, 292. 
RD, mark, 208-9, 225, 231. 

R 
DH, mark, 262. 

H 

R 
D S, mark, 263. 

S 
Re, mark, 247, 249, 253. 
RE 



EB 



mark, 265. 



INDEX. 



393 



Reado, Sir B., goldsmith, 19, 

, J., goldsmith, 249, 253. 

Records : 

20 Henry II, 68. 

22 Henry III, 68. 

43 Edward III, 73. 

2 Richard II, 73. 

15 Elizabeth, 81. 
Redman, W., 382. 
Reid, J. J., 382. 
Remonde, ■ — , goldsmith, 14. 
Reynolds, J., goldsmith, 30. 
RF, mark, 210-1, 223, 225, 240. 
RG, mark, 237, 241, 258, 266, 268, 

270, 350, 369-70. 

^^, mark, 251. 

RH, mark, 230, 233, 235, 266-7. 
R I, mark, 256, 260, 264, 270, 339. 
R i, mark, 303. 

f^ , mark, 264. 

R/iggenbach, C, 382. 
Ris-Paquot, 328. 
RK, mark, 351, 369. 
RL, mark, 232-3, 235, 258. 
RM, mark, 208, 212, 215, 220, 223, 
225, 227, 268, 271. 

^^, mark, 264. 

RN, mark, 229, 349. 
RO, mark, 242, 244, 248. 
Robert, goldsmith, 5. 
Roberts, H., goldsmith, 242. 
Robertson, AV. A. S., 382. 
Robinson, J., goldsmith, 259. 

, R., goldsmith, 27, 34. 

Roger, R., goldsmith, 30. 
Rokesley, G. de, goldsmith, 7. 

, T. de, goldsmith, 17. 

Rood, J., goldsmith, 248. 
Rose, mark, 212, 224-5. 
Rosette, mark, 269. 
Rosenberg, Dr. M., 382. 
Roskell, A., goldsmith, CI -2. 

, R., goldsmith, 61-2. 

Rosnel, P. de, 382. 

R P, mark, 23, 214, 216, 262. 

R R, mark, 261-3. 

^, mark, 223. 

Rowe, T., goldsmith, 40, 42. 

R S, mark, 210, 216, 218 9, 222-5, 227, 

229-30, 235, 238, 371. 
Riigg, R., goldsmith, 261-2. 
Rundell. — , goldsmith. 266. 

• , E. W., goldsmith, 60. 

, P., goldsmith, 60. 

Ruslen, J., goldsmith, 236. 

Russe, W., goldsmith, 14. 

RT, mark. 233, 238-9, 260, 352. 

RW, mark, 213-6, 221-4, 241, 256, 

370. 

^: , mark, 216, 222. 



R Y, mark, 229. 
Ryland, A., 382. 
RZ, mark, 255. 



S, mark, 232, 234, 269. 
S A, mark, 262, 271. 
St. Andrews, 351. 
Sage, M., 382. 
Salisbury, 313. 
Sanderson, J. H., 382. 
Sankey, W., goldsmith, 34. 
Saunders, J., goldsmith, 40. 
SC. mark, 261, 271. 

f g , mark, 262. 

Schofield, J., goldsmith, 267. 

Schrimpshaw, M., goldsmith, 42. 

Scotland, 323. 

SD, mark, 238, 241. 

SE, mark, 212. 

Seabrook, J., goldsmith, 253. 

Scale, J., goldsmith, 42. 

Selys, ■ — , goldsmith, 17. 

Soman, B., goldsmith, 14. 

Sere, F., 379. 

Seymour, T., goldsmith, 47. 

SF, mark, 215. 

SH, mark, 234-6, 239, 248. 

Shaa, Sir E., goldsmith, 17-8. 

Sharrington, Sir AV., goldsmith, 23, 

Shaw, Sir J., goldsmith, 19. 

, \V., goldsmith, 260-1. 

Sheffield Assay Office, 313. 

Assay Letters, 317. 

Shelley, P.,' goldsmith, 30, 

Shell, 'mark, 269. 

Shirley, R., goldsmith, 30. 

Shore, M., goldsmith, 17. 

Shoredich, R. de, goldsmith, 11. 

Shorter, Sir J., goldsmith, 45. 

Shute, AA^, goldsmith, 219. 

SI, mark, 232, 244-5, 251, 265. 

Sick, J. F., 282. 

Simi^Hon, G., goldsmith, 24. 

S K, mark, 208. 

SL, mark, 210, 248-50, 252. 

SL' B, mark, 371. 

Sleath, G., goldsmith, 248-9, 252, 256. 

SM, mark, 264, 266. 

Smith, D., goldsmith, 263. 

; J., goldsmith, 50, 221, 261. 

Smithes, G., goldsmith, 30. 
Snell, G., goldsmith, 34, 41. 

, J,, goldsmith, 41-2. 

Snow, Sir J., aoldsmith, 36. 

, T., goldismith, 49. 

SO, mark. 215, 233, 236, 242, 270. 
Solis. v., 382. 

Solomon, of Ely. goldsmith, 6. 
South, E., goldsmith, 34. 

, R., goldsmith, 38. 

SP, mark, 246, 258. 

Specimens of ancient church plate, 

382. 
Speilman, J., goldsmith, 27. 
Spoons, xxxix, ]y. 



394 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Sprimont, N., plate worker, 57. 
Squirrel, mark, 214. 
SR, mark, 231-2. 
S S, mark, 213, 257. 
ST, mark, 242-3. 

1^ , mark, 248. 

Stag, mark, 209. 
Stag's head, mark, 208, 210. 
Staley, R., goldsmith, 42. 
Stamp, J., goldsmith, 265. 
Stanhope, Hon. B. S., 382. 
Standard, The, 118. 

• mark, 171. 

Standing cups, xlv. 

• salts, liv. 

Standulph, J., goldsmith, 12. 
Star, mark, 208. 
Stirling, 351. 

Stocker, J., goldsmith, 248. 
Stocks, H., goldsmith, 37, 42. 
Stokes, J., goldsmith, 242. 
Storr, P., goldsmith, 60-1. 
Streeter, E. W., 382. 
Suffolk church plate, 382. 
Sutton, J., goldsmith, 15, 28. 
SV, mark, 228, 233, 270. 
SW, mark, 219, 259, 271. 

^. , mark, 218, 240. 

Sweetaple, J., goldsmith, 42. 
Swift, J., goldsmith, 261. 
Symons, W., goldsmith, 38. 
Symson, AV., goldsmith, 22. 



T, mark, 269. 

TA, mark, 215, 227, 233, 238, 263. 

Table of Statutes and Ordinances, 64. 

Tain, 352. 

Tankards, xlix. 

Taylebois, R., goldsmith, 27. 

Taylor, P., goldsmith, 259. 

, W., goldsmith, 59, 264, 266. 

T B, mark, 209, 218-9, 224, 254, 368-9. 
TC, mark, 214-6, 219, 225, 228-9, 

233-5 
TD, mark, 227, 255, 265. 
TE, mark, 217, 237, 271, 304. 
Temple, J., goldsmith, 41-2. 
Terry, J., goldsmith, 38. 
TF, mark, 211, 215-9, 221, 230, 253, 

257, 270. 
TH, mark, 213, 217, 229-30, 260-1, 

270, 313, 322. 
Theophilus, ■ — , goldsmith, 4. 
Thillon, ■ — , goldsmith, 3. 
Thorpe, C, 383. 

, M., 383. 

Thovy, M., goldsmith, 7. 

Thursby, J., goldsmith, 42. 

Thurston, Sir J., goldsmith, 21. 

TI, mark, 236-8, 245, 255. 

T i, mark, 247. 

Timbrell, R., goldsmith, 247, 249, 

267. 



TJ, mark, 370. 

T K, mark, 227-9, 255, 339. 

TL, mark, 208, 231. 

TM, mark, 223, 229, 231, 271. 

To, mark, 254. 

Tookie, S., goldsmith, 42. 

Torel, W., goldsmith, 9. 

Tcrrigiano, P., goldsmith, 20, 27. 

Touchstone, A., 383. 

Townley, J., goldsmith, 42. 

T P, mark, 263. 

■jj, -D , mark, 267. 

T P 

-n p , mark, 265. 

T R, mark, 256, 267. 
Tr, mark, 243. 

T 
R G, mark, 255, 257, 260. 

G 
Trappis, R., goldsmith, 28. 
Trefoil, mark, 210-2, 216, 269. 
Tritton, J. H., goldsmith, 55. 
Trollop, Rev. A., 383. 
Troy weight, 128-9. 
T S, mark, 213, 367, 369. 

T 
S I, mark, 260. 

S _ 

Tuite, J., goldsmith, 55. 
Turner, B., goldsmith, 40, 42. 
Turpin, T., goldsmith, 26. 
T V, mark, 368. 

TAV, mark, 215, 255, 257-9, 265, 367, 
369. 

^^^^, mark, 258. 

Tweodie, W., goldsmith, 264. 
TAvistleton, J., goldsmith, 20. 
TwyfoTd, Sir N., goldsmith, 12. 



Vandelf, J., goldsmith, 19. 
Vieville, P. de, 383. 
Vine, Sir G., goldsmith, 36, 
Viner, Sir R., goldsmith, 37. 

, Sir T., goldsmith, 33. 

Vincent, E., goldsmith, 256. 
V n, mark, 242, 244. 
Violet, T., goldsmith, 31. 
Vulfine, — , goldsmith, 4. 



W. mark, 208-9, 215, 259, 269-70. 

WA, mark, 242-3, 245-6. 

Wa, mark, 251. 

Wade, P., goldsmith, 42. 

Wakefield, Mr., goldsmith, 33. 

Wakelin, E., goldsmith, 59. 

— , J., goldsmith, 59, 264, 266. 

Walker, W., goldsmith, 25. 
Wallis, M. J., goldsmith, 42. 
Walpole, A. de, goldsmith, 11. 

, J., goldsmith, 10. 

Walsh, J., goldsmith, 12. 
Walter, A., goldsmith, 37. 



INDEX. 



395 



AVard, J., goldsmith, 242. 

, R., goldsmith, 42. 

, Sir W., goldsmith, 32. 

Warren, L., goldsmith, 23. 

Wase, C., goldsmith, 30. 

Waste and Sweep, 137. 

Wastell, S., goldsmith, 243, 246. 

Watherston, J. H., 383. 

Watson, B. W., 383. 

Wayne, W., goldsmith, 34. 

WB, mark, 205. 

WC, mark, 217-8, 220, 224, 250. 

259-Gl, 270-1. 
WD, mark, 254, 292, 339. 
WE, mark, 247, 265. 

^|, mark, 269. 

Webster, A., 383. 

Weekes, J., goldsmith, 59. 

Weights, 125. 

Welstead, R., goldsmith, 40. 

Westwood, A., 383. 

WF, mark, 211, 235, 264, 266, 270. 

W G, mark, 230, 245, 257, 260, 262-4. 

WGR, mark, 265. 

WH, mark, 211, 222, 238, 264, 351. 

Wheatley, H. B., 383. 

Wheeler, J., goldsmith, 25. 

■ , W., goldsmith, 26. 

W^hipham, T., goldsmith, 257-8, 261. 
White, r., goldsmith, 259. 

■ ; J. W., goldsmith, 39. 

, P., goldsmith, 42. 

Whitehall, G., goldsmith, 40. 
Whittingham, H., goldsmith, 34. 
WI, mark, 243-4, 248, 250-2. 
Widey, A. B., 383. 
Willaume, D., goldsmith, 48, 248, 

250, 255-6. 
Williams, R., goldsmith, 250. 
Williams, T., goldsmith, 41-2. 
, Sir J., goldsmith, 22. 



Wilson, Mr., goldsmith, 41. 

Wisdome, J., goldsmith, 248, 252. 

WJ, mark, 214. 

WK, mark, 262. 

WL, mark, 269, 349. 

WM, mark, 223-8, 232, 236, 238, 261, 

271. 
Wodeward, W., goldsmith, 16. 
Wollaston, Sir J., goldsmith, 34. 
Wood, T., goldsmith, 19. 
Worboyes, A., goldsmith, 60. 
W P, mark, 255, 261, 263. 

Yp , mark, 267. 

WR, mark, 212, 217, 220. 
Wright, C, goldsmith, 262, 265. 

, R., goldsmith, 51. 

• — , T., goldsmith, 261, 264. 

WS, mark, 219-21, 241, 261, 265-6, 

270-1. 
WT, mark, 261, 267. 
W W, mark, 258-60, 267, 370. 

W 
WC, mark, 217. 

J 

W 
W S, mark, 260. 

P 
Wj^ge, R., goldsmith, 24-5. 
Wykeham, W., of, goldsmith, 10. 

Yap, G. W., 383. 

YO, mark, 247. 

York Assay Office, 320. 

Yorke, E., goldsmith, 247. 

Young, J., goldsmith, 263. 

Y T, mark, 237. 

X, mark, 210, 269. 
X B, mark, 270. 

Zouch, R., goldsmith, 255. 



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